(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Proceedings of the Indiana Academy of Science"

Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2012 with funding from 

LYRASIS Members and Sloan Foundation 



http://archive.org/details/proceedingsofindv86indi 



PROCEEDINGS 

of the 

Indiana Academy 
of Science 

Founded December 29, 1885 

• 

Volume 86 
1976 



Benjamin Moulton, Editor 

Indiana State University 

Terre Haute, Indiana 



Spring Meeting- 
April 23, 1976 
New Harmony Inn 
New Harmony, Indiana 

Fall Meeting 

November 4, 1976 

Valparaiso University, Valparaiso, Indiana 

Published at Indianapolis, Indiana 
1977 



1. The permanent address of the Academy is the Indiana State Library, 140 N. 
Senate Ave., Indianapolis, Indiana 46204. 

2. Instructions for Contributors appear at the end of this volume, p. 485-486. 

3. Exchanges. Items sent in exchange for the Proceedings and correspondence con- 
cerning exchange arrangements should be addressed: 

John Shepard Wright Memorial Library of the Indiana Academy of Science 
c/o Indiana State Library 
Indianapolis, Indiana 46204 

4. Proceedings may be purchased through the State Library at $7.00 per volume. 

5. Reprints of technical papers can often be secured from the authors. They cannot 
be supplied by the State Library nor by the officers of the Academy. 

6. The Constitution and By-Laws reprinted from Vol. 74 are available to members 
upon application to the Secretary. Necrologies reprinted from the various volumes can 
be supplied to relatives and friends of deceased members by the Secretary. 

7. Officers whose names and addresses are not known to correspondents may be 
addressed care of the State Library. Papers published in the Proceedings of the Academy 
of Science are abstracted or indexed in appropriate services listed here: 

Annotated Bibliography of Economy Geology 

Bibliography of North American Geology 

Biological Abstracts 

Chemical Abstracts 

Chemischer Informationsdienst 

Current Geographical Publications 

Geological Abstracts 

Metals Abstracts 

Pesticides Documentation Bulletin 

Review of Applied Entomology 

The Torrey Bulletin 

Zoological Record 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

Page 

Officers and Committees for 1976 3 

Minutes of the Spring Meeting (Executive Committee) 15 

Minutes of the Spring Meeting (General Session) 18 

Minutes of the Fall Meeting (Executive Committee) 19 

Minutes of the Fall Meeting (General Session) 25 

Annual Financial Report 28 

Annual Report, Indiana Junior Academy of Science 34 

Biological Survey Committee Report 36 

Necrology 46 

New Members for 1976 67 

Energy Report — Science and Society Committee 71 

ADDRESSES AND CONTRIBUTED PAPERS 

Presidential Address 

Chemistry, Science, and Culture — Dr. Donald J. Cook 89 

Anthropology 

Russell E. Lewis — Preliminary Comments on an Historic Miami 

Site in the Mississinewa River Valley* 99 

Gary A. Apfelstadt — The Chert Assemblage of the Daugherty- 

Monroe Site, A Circo 400 A.D. Village* 100 

B. K. Swartz, Jr. — A History of East-Central Indiana Archaeol- 
ogical Study* 100 

B. K. Swartz, Jr. — An Incised Mortuary Head Rest Stone From 

Madison County, Indiana 101 

Charles P. Warren — Field Forensic Anthropology: The Exca- 
vation of Human Remains Under Adverse Conditions 104 

Botany 

Larry R. Yoder — Origin and Development of Non-Articulated 

Laticifers in Leaves of Catharanthus roseus* Ill 

John L. Roth and David L. Dilcher — Stipulate Leaves from 

the Middle Eocene Claiborne Formation of Tennessee* . Ill 

Larry R. Yoder — Occurrence of Lycopod Fossils in The Path 

Fork Coal Zone of Harlan Co., Kentucky* Ill 

Gary E. Dolph and David L. Dilcher — The Accuracy of Paleo- 

climatic Estimates Based on Foliar Physiognomy* 112 

Theodore J. Crovello — Botanical Data Banking* 112 



* Abstract or Note only. 

iii 



iv Table of Contents 

Page 
Larry R. Yoder — Development of Non-Articulated Laticifers in 

Embryos of Carissa grandiflora* 113 

Marilyn K. Gilbreath and Gary E. Dolph — Macroscopic Vari- 
ation in Fossil and Modern Oak Leaves* 113 

Beecher A. Waters and Gary E. Dolph — Microscopic Variation 

in Fossil and Modern Oak Leaves* 114 

Steven R. Shafer and Larry R. Yoder — Occurrence of Jeffrey 
Reagent, Neutral Red, IKI, Dragendorff's Reagent, and PAS 
Reactions in Stems and Leaves of Carissa grandiflora* .... 114 

William J. Dayton and Betty D. Allamong — A Study as to 
Whether The Variability Illustrated by Melilotus Alba and 
Melilotus Officinalis Specimens is Due to Polymorphism or 
Speciation* 115 

Robert J. Lamoreaux and William R. Chaney — Some effects of 

cadmium on Water Relations of Silver Maple Seedlings* .... 115 

Belinda A. Shenk and William J. Brett — An Interesting Pat- 
tern of Chlorosis in a Pin Oak, Quercus palustris* 115 

Steven Senger and S. N. Postlethwait — Vascular Patterns in 

Euphorbia Pteroneura* 116 

R. Barr and F. L. Crane — The Effect of Prostaglandins on Photo- 
synthesis 117 

Gail E. Shew and Leland L. Hardman — Some Algae of Lake 

Galatia, Grant County, Indiana (exclusive of diatoms) 123 

James Willut, Gayton Marks, and Garland Hicks — Naturally 
Occurring Mature American Chestnut Trees (Castanea dentata) 
in Northwest Indiana 127 

Daniel B. Ward — Gaultheria procumbens at Pine Hills, Indiana — 

its Measured Decline, 1951-1971 131 

Cell Biology 

James E. Bryan and Betty D. Allamong — Purification of S-Methyl- 
L-Methionine: Homocysteine Methyltransf erase in Triticum 
aestivum (Gramineae)* 141 

R. J. Boyd, C. W. Godzeski, and V. C. Spurling — Endogenous Virus 

from Mouse L-Cells* 141 

Gloria M. K. Raines and Alice S. Bennett — Fatty Acid Compo- 
sition of Microsomal and Soluble Fractions of Mammary 
Adenocarcinomas in Mice* 141 

W. J. Adam and R. J. Vetter — A Study of the Ultrastructural 
Changes in Two Irradiated Tissues of Differing Radio- 
sensitivities 143 



Abstract or Note only. 



Table of Contents v 

Page 
Mark Eppler and D. James Morre — The Oligosaccharides of Serum 
Lipoproteins: A Brief Review and Localization of an Apoprotein 
Sialyl Transferase in Golgi Apparatus and Partial Purification 
of the Enzyme 154 

Chemistry 

Robert E. Van Atta — Numerical Coding as a Teaching Aid for 

Infrared Spectroscopy* 161 

Stephen M. Kelner and Kenneth G. Migliorese — Snythesis and 

Reactions of Tetraethynylethylene Glycols* 161 

John J. McTigue and Robert L. Van Etten— Chemical Modifica- 
tion of Human Prostatic Acid Phosphatase* 161 

J. Zachary, P. F. MA, and J. M. Coers— A Study of the Inter- 
conversion of Human Adenosine Deaminases in Cancerous and 
Normal Tissues* 162 

Stephen R. Wilson — Environmental Co-carcinogens* 162 

J. A. Mosbo — Isomeric 2-Substituted-l,3,2-diazaphosphorinanes* . . 162 

David A. Blinn and Bruce N. Storhoff — Organonitrile Complexes 

of Platinum* 163 

Bruce N. Storhoff — The Snythesis and Some Reactions of 1- 

Bromo-2 ( phenyl ethenyl) Benzene* 163 

Terry L. Kruger and Frederick K. Ault — Chemical Education 

for Artists, Philosophers, Economists, and Politicians* 163 

T. L. Kruger, J. A. Mosbo and R. G. Cooks — Stereoisomer^ Studies 

in the Gas Phase on the MIKES* 164 

T. C. Schwan and Curtis R. Wille— The Reaction of Methyl 

Vinyl Ether with Chlorine* 164 

Philip L. Burkholder and James T. Streator — A study of an 

Oscillating Chemical Reaction* 165 

Grant Kraft and A. Gilbert Cook — The Photolytic Rearrangement 

of 1-Adamantyl Azide* 165 

Barth H. Ragatz and Panayotis G. Iatridis — Inhibitor Effects of 
Three Adenosine Analogs on ADP Induced Platelet Aggrega- 
tion 166 

Ecology 

Raymond A. Schlueter — Occurrence of the Protozoan parasite, 

Henneguya exilis Kudo, on channel catfish in Indiana* 171 

Robert Priddy — Black Locust as a Winter Food for Bobwhite 

Quail* 171 

J. K. Eichenberger and G. R. Parker — Changes Over a Half Cen- 
tury in the Davis-Purdue Natural Forest* 172 



* Abstract or Note only. 



vi Table of Contents 

Page 
William B. Crankshaw — A Comparison of Presettlement and 

Extant Forest Vegetation of Indiana* 172 

Victor L. Riemenschneider — Preliminary Report on the Flora, 
Fauna and Habitats of the Swamp Rose Nature Preserve, St. 

Joseph County, Indiana* 172 

David M. Sever and Clarence F. Dineen — Preliminary Observa- 
tions on Reproductive Ecology of Ambystoma tigrinum (Am- 
phibia: Urodela) in Northern Indiana* 172 

Larry J. Miles and George R. Parker — Viability and Growth 
Effects of Soil Applied Heavy Metals on Several Herbs Native 
to Northwestern Indiana* 173 

John C. Inman and George R. Parker — The Effects of Heavy 
Metal Contamination on Litter Decomposition in Northwestern 
Indiana* 173 

Lawrence L. Garber and Michael J. Jeter — Impact of Phosphorus 

Removal on the St. Joseph River* 174 

Donald E. Miller — Further Observations on the Seasonal Distribu- 
tion of Brown Hydras* 174 

Daniel M. Levine and Orland J. Blanchard, Jr. — Aspects of the 
Symbiotic Behavior of Periclimenes rathbunae Schmitt and 
Thor amboinensis (De Man) with Their Host Tropical Sea 
Anemone, Stoichactis helianthus (Ellis), from Jamaica* 175 

H. H. Hobbs III — Studies of the Cave Crayfish, Orconectes Inermis 

Inermis Cope (Decapoda, Cambaridae)* 175 

Marion T. Jackson and D. Brian Abrell — Volume Changes in an 

Old-growth Beech-Maple Forest over a 10-year Period 177 

David S. White and James R. Gammon — The Effect of Suspended 

Solids on Macroinvertebrate Drift in an Indiana Creek 182 

James T. Streator and Susan W. Burkholder — Analysis of Fluo- 
ride in Vegetation in the Vicinity of Wabash Smelting, Wabash, 
Indiana 189 

John 0. Whitaker, Jr. — Food and External Parasites of the Nor- 
way Rat, Rattus norvegicus, in Indiana 193 

John B. Bailey and P. C. MacMillan — A Tree Census of Pre- and 
Post-Tornado Forest Conditions of Happy Valley, Jefferson 
County, Indiana 199 

R03ERT O. Yager and Thomas S. McComish — Food Habits of the 

Spottail Shiner in Indiana Waters of Lake Michigan in 1973 . . 203 

J. R. Gammon — The Status of Indiana Streams and Fish from 1800 

to 1900 209 

B. O. Blair, C. L, Rhykerd, R. E. Mullen, W. O. Jones, and J. J. 
Vorst — Ecological Adaptation of Certain Forage Species on 
Shallow Muck Soils 217 



Abstract or Note only. 



Table of Contents vii 

Engineering p age 

Prasanta Das — New Direction in Environmental Systems Planning: 

Experience of the Maumee River Basin Level-B Planning* . . . 225 

A. Ramachandra Rao — Bose-Einstein Statistics and Short Time- 
Increment Rainfall Process* 225 

Donald D. Gray — The Laminar Two-Dimensional Plume in a Hori- 
zontal Magnetic Field* 225 

Aldo Giorgini — From Ferris Wheel to Bridge* 226 

Entomology 

John J. Favinger — Cereal Leaf Beetle Parasite Program in Indi- 
ana* 227 

William Tozer and Steven Newhouse — A Distributional Survey 

of the Trichoptera Fauna of Delaware County, Indiana* 227 

David Thomas and R. B. Schoenbohm — Studies on the Reproduc- 
tive Biology of Meteorus leviventris (Wesmael) (Hymenoptera: 
Braconidae ) * 227 

R. B. Schoenbohm and F. T. Turpin — A Rearing Procedure for 
Meteorus leviventris (Wesmael) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), 
a Parasite of the Black Cutworm* 227 

C. Barry Knisley — A Population Study of Cicindela sex guttata, 

the Six-spotted Tiger Beetle (Coleoptera: Cicindelidae) * 228 

B. Elwood Montgomery — The Life and Work of Thomas Say* .... 228 

David M. Leva — Evaluation of Insecticides for Adult Western Corn 

Rootworm Control* 229 

Gordon VanWoerkom — Seasonal Patterns of Adult Emergence and 

Flight of the Western Corn Rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera* . . 230 

R. B. Cummings — Horned Oak Gall, Callirhytis punctata (O.S.) on 

Pin Oak in LaPorte Co., Indiana* 230 

Robert W. Meyer — Insects and Other Arthropods of Economic Im- 
portance in Indiana During 1976 231 

D. A. Shroyer, R. F. Beach, L. Munstermann. J. Peloquin, J. L. 

Petersen, R. P. Smith and D. B. Taylor — Mosquito Diversity 

in St. Joseph County, Indiana (Diptera: Culicidae) 238 

Virgil R. Knapp — New Indiana Records of Aphids (Homoptera: 

Aphididae) 242 

Frank N. Young and Ross B. Zimmerman — Observations on Pe- 
riodical Cicadas (Brood XXIII) in Indiana in 1976 244 

Leonard E. Munstermann and George B. Craig, Jr. — Culex Mos- 
quito Populations in the Catch Basins of Northern St. Joseph 
County, Indiana 246 

Jack R. Munsee — Smithistruma filitalpa W. L. Brown, an Indiana 

Dacetine Ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) 253 



* Abstract or Note only. 



viii Table of Contents 

Geology and Geography Page 

Neil V. Weber — Modeling Predictive Indices for Indiana Corn Pro- 
duction : 1960-1969* 257 

Charles Stanberry — Climatic Change in Southern Indiana 1898- 

1975* 257 

Robert D. Hall and Shannon L. Hall — Migration of a Meander 

of White River Near Worthington, Indiana* 258 

Robert Templeton and John E. Oliver — Horton's Laws Related 
to the Quantitative Fluvial Geomorphology of Three Parke 
County Watersheds* 258 

Patricia A. Boaz and Robert D. Hall — Hydrology and Water Qual- 
ity of the Crooked Creek Watershed, Indianapolis, Indiana* . . 258 

Robert B. Jessen — Images of Downtown* 259 

Grover C. Worcester and Benjamin Moulton — A Descriptive 
Study of Indiana State University Faculty Settlement Patterns 
Over 55 Years* 259 

B. D. Kwon, R. F. Blakely, and A. J. Rudman — An Approach to 

Automatic Well-Log Correlation* 260 

James F. Stratton and Alan S Horowitz — Variability in Seven 

Devonian Species of Polypora M'Coy* 260 

Paul J. Hafer and Robert F. Blakely — Type III — Statistics of 
Extremes Analysis of Modified Mercalli Earthquake Intensities 
for the Eastern United States* 260 

John B. Patton — Historically Authentic Masonry Materials in the 

Renovation of Christ Church Cathedral* 261 

Richard L. Powell and Stephen D. Maegerlein — Classifications 

of Springs in South-Central Indiana* 261 

Donald W. Ash and Thomas Fernalld — Surface Morphology of 
Fly and Bottom Ash as Seen with the Scanning Electron Micro- 
scope 263 

Roger F. Boneham and Keith Burton — Environmental Geology of 

Carroll County, Indiana 269 

Ralph W. Knapp, Judson Mead and Robert F. Blakely — A Study 
of the Geologic Section at Bloomington, Indiana, Using Ray- 
leigh Wave Displacement Amplitude Ratios 277 

James R. Welch and N. Gary Lane — A New Crinoid Fauna From 
the Harrodsburg Limestone (Mississippian) of Southern Indi- 
ana 285 

James F. Stratton and Alan S. Horowitz — Astogenetic Variabil- 
ity in a Frond of Polypora laevinodata (Hall) (Bryozoa) 290 

Steven Alan Volz — -Preliminary Report on a Late Pleistocene 

Death-trap Fauna from Monroe County, Indiana 293 

Lois E. Nelson and Gary W. Barrett — A Socio-Economic Impact 

Analysis of the Brookville Reservoir in Southeastern Indiana . . 308 



* Abstract or Note only. 



Table of Contents ix 

Page 
G. T. Richardson and T. F. West — Post-Glacial Deltas in the Region 

of the Great Bend of the Wabash River 317 

S. N. Goward and J. E. Oliver — The Application of Remote Sensing 

Techniques in Microscale Climatology 326 

John S. Moore and Paul F. Pedone— The Sedimentation of Morris 

Pond, Posey County, Indiana 338 

History of Science 

Gertrude L. Ward — Rafinesque Revisited" 347 

William R. Eberly — Further Studies in the History of the Phos- 
phate Detergent Ban* 347 

Alton A. Lindsey — Was Theodore Roosevelt the Last to See Wild 

Passenger Pigeons? 349 

A History of the Biological Survey Committee of the Indiana Acad- 
emy of Science 1891-1976. Part I: 1891-1935 357 

Microbiology and Molecular Biology 

David C. Madsen, Bernard S. Wostmann and Margaret Beaver — 
Searching for Intestinal Flora Involved in Secondary Bile Acid 
Production in the Rat* 377 

Harold L. Eddleman — Selection of Mutants of Bacteriophage T4D 

Defective in Tail Fiber Morphogenesis* 377 

D. M. Huber and A. L. Andersen — Microbial Interactions in Soil 

Cropped to Beans* 378 

Jill Ashley and Alice Bennett — The Elongation of Palmitic Acid 

by Cell-Free Extracts of Penicillium Chrysogenum* 378 

D. A. Komm, D. H. Scott, W. R. Stevenson, and P. C. Pecknold — 

Plant Diseases and Disorders in Indiana — 1976 378 

DE3RA P. Gayda, F. L. Crane, D. J. Morre and H. Low — Hormone 
Effects on NADH-oxidizing Enzymes of Plasma Membranes of 
Rat Liver 385 

J. Michael Gould and W. A. Cramer — Colicin El Induced Depolari- 
zation of the Bacterial Inner Membrane 391 

Physics 

Gerald J. Shea — The Whistler Phenomenon Used as a Tornado 

Warning Mechanism* 405 

Gregory Peterson — Low Level Liquid Scintillation Spectroscopy* . . 405 

P. Miller and G. P. Thomas — A Computer Based Comparison of 
Geometric and Analytical Algorithms for Elasticity Validity 
Testing of Stopping Kaon Beam Interactions with Free Pro- 
tons in Nuclear Emulsion* 405 



Abstract or Note only. 



x Table of Contents 

Page 
Malcolm E. Hults, Daniel A. Mitchell and Duane W. Warn — 
Shadow Band, Radio Frequency and Optical Observations at the 
23 October 1976 Solar Eclipse in Australia* . ' 406 

Plant Taxonomy 

Andreas R. Richter and Orland J. Blanchard, Jr. — Pollination 
Biology of the Blue Mahoe, Hibiscus elatus Swartz (Malvaceae), 
in Jamaica* 407 

Theodore J. Crovello — Computerized Comparison Of Parts Of Fifty 

Herbaria* 407 

Orland J. Blanchard, Jr. — Cytology, Hybridization and Evolution 

in Kosteletzkya (Malvaceae) * 407 

Clifton Keller — Changes in Indiana's Vascular Flora Since 

1940* 408 

Stephen G. Pennington and Walter F. Beineke — A New Leaf 

Mutation in Black Walnut (Juglans nigra L.) 409 

Science Education 

Thomas R. Mertens and Patricia S. Barnes — Myths about Human 
Inheritance That Are Perpetuated in the Biology Classroom Lab- 
oratory* 413 

Harold H. Jaus — Changing Elementary Teachers Attitudes Toward 

Environmental Education* 413 

Jon R. Hendrix — A Survey of Bioethics Courses in United States 

Colleges and Universities* 414 

Claudia B. Douglass — Increasing High School Biology Achieve- 
ment by Differentially Sequenced Instructional Materials* .... 414 

George T. Asteriadis — Contractual Learning: A Viable Approach 

to Education in the Sciences* 415 

Patricia Zeck — Seminar Procedures for High School Advanced Bi- 
ology Classes* 416 

H. Marvin Bratt — The Basics of Elementary School Science* 416 

Stanley S. Shimer — How To Individualize Your Science Class By 

Developing Folder Carrels* 416 

Frederick K. Ault — Helping to Conceptualize Large Numbers* . . 417 

James Mitchell Smith — Farm Equipment Use Costs* 417 

Soil and Atmospheric Sciences 

J. M. Davis — An Agroclimatological Grid System: A Preliminary 

Report* 419 

Russell K. Stivers — Regionalizing Purdue's Soil Testing Proce- 
dures* 419 

* Abstract or Note only. 



Table of Contents xi 

Page 

Robert F. Dale and Patrick R. Clare — Have The Mississinewa and 
Salamonie Reservoirs Changed the Climate at Marion and Hunt- 
ington, Indiana?* 420 

S. A. Schroeder, J. V. Mannering, and C. B. Johnson — Soil Aggre- 
gates (> 210 /j.) Transported in Runoff From Northeastern In- 
diana Cropland* 420 

Karl H. Langlois, Jr., Larry C. Osterholz and Frank R. Kirsch- 
ner — Use of LANDSAT Imagery as a Base Map for Making 
a General Soils Map* . 420 

Frank R. Kirschner, Sue A. Kaminsky, and Donna K. Scholz — 
Mapping Unit Composition As Defined by Digital Analyses of 
LANDSAT Multispectral Data* 421 

S. J. Kristof, F. R. Kirschner, R. A. Weismiller, and S. A. 
Kaminsky — Inventory of a Nature Preserve Area in Lake Coun- 
ty, Indiana Using Satellite MSS Data 422 

Russell Boulding — Glacial Lake Patoka: A Geomorphic Reinter- 

pretation Using Soil Survey 428 

D. W. Nelson, C. B. Roth and L. E. Sommers — Chemical and Min- 

eralogical Characteristics of Selected Indiana Soils 435 

David R. Maxwell — An Analysis of Worst Case Meteorological 
Days Versus Poor Dispersion Days During Emergency Epi- 
sodes 445 

C. L. Rhykerd, B. 0. Blair, C. H. Noller, R. E. Mullen, J. M. 
Hertel and J. J. Vorst — Effect of Nitrogen Fertilization on 
Tiller Population of Cool-Season Grasses 448 

Zoology 

James Fernandez, Joseph Mather and Theodore Crovello — Nu- 
mercial Taxonomic Studies of 336 Human Diseases, Using 82 
Symptoms* 453 

Bryan Flueckiger and Don R. Taves — Locomotor Activity Re- 
sponse of Peromyscus leucopus to Accelerated Days* 453 

Betty I. Tarnowski — The Effects of Chlorine on the Development 

of Rana pipiens Eggs: Preliminary Results* 453 

Steven W. Stoner and Lee Engstrom — Cytology of an Agametic 

Gonad Condition in Drosophila melanogaster* 454 

William P. Shofner and Timothy A. Stabler — Influence of Go- 
nadal Hormones on RNA Population Found in the Adrenal 
Gland of White Mice* 454 

Thomas A. Lesh and Anthony R. Dowell — Stabilization of Lung- 
Compliance in Rabbits During Natural and Artificial Respira- 
tion* 455 

W. J. Eversole — Blood Pressure Studies Following Unilateral 

Ureteral Ligation In Rats* 455 



Abstract or Note only. 



xii Table of Contents 

Page 

C. L. DeMaio and W. J. Eversole — Effects Of An Unknown Factor 
On The Development Of Adrenal Regeneration Hyperten- 
sion* 455 

Mervin C. Yoder and William J. Brett — Effect of Aminoglutethi- 

mide on Autonomic Regulation of the Rabbit Heart* 456 

Vicky M. Wells and William J. Brett — Evidence for Acetylation 

of Aminoglutethimide by the Rat Liver* 456 

Gregory E. Caplinger, Pete Ridlon and Larry Ganion — Mestranol 
Receptor-Sites As A Relationship to Altered Cell Free Pro- 
teins* 457 

Gregory E. Caplinger and Larry Ganion — Localization of 

Menstranol Receptor-Sites in the Ovary* 457 

Larry R. Ganion — An Electron Microscope and Autoradiographic 
Study on the Formation of the Zona Pellucida in the Prepuber- 
tal Mouse Ovary* 458 

Rebecca J. Goff and John O. Whitaker, Jr. — A Scanning Electron 
Microscope Study of Female Adrolaelaps fahrenholzi (Acarina: 
Laelapidae) from the Woodchuck, Marmota monax* 458 

James C. Wilson and J. L. Albright— The Social Behavior of a 

Group of Holstein-Friesian Milking Cows* 459 

George M. Labanick and Raymond A. Schlueter — Diets of Sym- 
patric Acris crepitans and Juvenile Bufo woodhousei fowleri 
in Western Indiana* 460 

Fred D. Morgan — Nesting Studies of the Indigo Bunting (Passerina 

cyanea) at Thornhill, Indiana 461 

Anne M. Cartwright and Ralph D. Kirkpatrick — A Range Exten- 
sion of Peropteryx Kappleri (Family Emballonuridae) In Cen- 
tral America 466 

James D. Haddock and N. David Schmidt — Seasonal Changes in 
Soil Arthropod Species Diversity as Affected by Perturbation 
in Three Successional Communities in Northeastern Indiana . 467 

N. David Schmidt, Gerald E. Bendixen and James D. Haddock — 
Soil Environment and Respiration as Influenced by Secondary 
Succession and Chlordane on Three Northeast Indiana Sites . . . 474 

Stephanie Jo DeNeff and David M. Sever — Ontogenetic Changes 
in Phototactic Behavior of Ambystoma tigrinum tigrinum 
(Amphibia: Urodela) 478 

T. H. Gieske — Effects of Prolactin on Active Sodium Transport 

Through The Skin of Hypophysectomized Newts 482 

Walter R. Rathkamp — Pineal Gland Prothyroid Stimulating Sub- 
stance in White Leghorn Cockerels 490 

Michael Eoff — The Influence on Hybridization Between Drosophila 
melanog aster Females and D. simulans Males of Early Exposure 
to the Other Species 496 

John 0. Whitaker, Jr., Gwilym S. Jones and Rebecca J. Goff — 
Ectoparasites and Food Habits of the Opossum, Didelphis vir- 
giniana, in Indiana 501 



Abstract or Note only. 



Proceedings 

of the 

Indiana Academy 

of Science 



INDIANA ACADEMY OF SCIENCE 
Officers and Committees for 1976 

OFFICERS 



President Donald J. Cook, Department of Chemistry 

(1976) DePauw University, Greencastle, IN 46135 

President-Elect Clarence F. Dineen, Department of Biology 

(1976) St. Mary's College, Notre Dame, IN 46556 

Secretary Robert E. Van Atta, Department of Chemistry 

(1975-1977) Ball State University, Muncie, IN 47306 

Treasurer Stanley L. Burden, Department of Chemistry 

(1976-1978) Taylor University, Upland, IN 46989 

Editor Benjamin Moulton, Department of Geography and 

(1976) Geology 

Indiana State University, Terre Haute, IN 47809 
Director of 

Public Relations Walter A. Cory, Jr., School Science 

(Temporary, 1975) Coordinators Office 

Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47401 
Chairman Program 

Committee Gayton C. Marks, Department of Biology 

(1976) Valparaiso University, Valparaiso, IN 46383 

DIVISIONAL CHAIRMEN AND CHAIRMEN-ELECT FOR 1976 

Anthropology 

Chairman Benjamin K. Swartz, Jr., Department of 

Anthropology 
Ball State University, Muncie, IN 47306 

Chairman-Elect Edward M. Dolan, DePauw University 

Greencastle, IN 46135 
Botany 

Chairman Roger F. Boneham, Department of Geology 

Indiana University-Kokomo, Kokomo, IN 46901 

Chairman-Elect Gary E. Dolph, Indiana University-Kokomo 

Kokomo, IN 46901 
Cell Biology 

Chairman Lee F. Ellis, Department of Biological Pharmacy 

Research Division, Eli Lilly Research Laboratory, 
Indianapolis, IN 46206 

Chairman-elect Ralph Jersild, Jr., Department of Anatomy, 

Indiana University Medical Center, 
Indianapolis, IN 46202 



4 Indiana Academy of Science 

Chemistry- 
Chairman John H. Meiser, Department of Chemistry, 

Ball State University, Muncie, IN 47306 

Chairman-elect Pang-Fai Ma, Department of Chemistry, 

Ball State University, Muncie, IN 47306 
Ecology 

Chairman . . John 0. Whitaker, Jr., Department of Life Sciences, 
Indiana State University, Terre Haute, IN 47809 

Chairman-elect Thomas S. McComish, Department of Biology, 

Ball State University, Muncie, IN 47306 
Engineering 

Chairman Aldo Giorgini, School of Civil Engineering, 

Purdue University, Lafayette, IN 47907 

Chairman-elect Milton E. Harr, School of Civil Engineering, 

Purdue University, Lafayette, IN 47907 
Entomology 

Chairman Virgil R. Knapp, Indiana Department of 

Natural Resources, Room 613, State Office 
Building, Indianapolis, IN 46204 

Chairman-elect Jack R. Munsee, Department of Life Sciences, 

Indiana State University, Terre Haute, IN 47809 
Geology and Geography 

Chairman Neil V. Weber, Department of Earth Science, 

Indiana University-South Bend, South Bend, IN 46614 

Chairman-elect Mark Reshkin, Indiana University Northwest, 

Department of Public and Environmental Affairs, 
Indiana University Northwest, Gary, IN 46408 
History of Science 

Chairman William R. Eberly, Manchester College, 

Manchester, IN 46962 

Chairman-elect Gertrude L. Ward, Earlham College, 

Richmond, IN 47374 
Microbiology and Molecular Biology 

Chairman Harold Eddleman, Box 378, Route 1, 

Palmyra, IN 47164 

Chairman-elect David C. Madsen, Lobund Laboratory, 

University of Notre Dame, 
Notre Dame, IN 46556 

Physics 

Chairman Robert E. Hale, Physics Department, 

Huntington College, Huntington, IN 46750 

Chairman-elect Elmer Nussbaum, Physics Department, 

Taylor University, Upland, IN 46989 

Plant Taxonomy 

Chairman Orland J. Blanchard, Department of Biology, 

Earlham College, Richmond, IN 47374 

Chairman-elect Victor Riemanschneider, Department of 

Biology, Indiana University-South Bend, 
South Bend, IN 46614 



Officers and Committees 5 

Science Education 

Chairman Harold H. Jaus, Department of Education, 

Purdue University, Lafayette, IN 47907 
Chairman-elect Jon R. Hendrix, Department of Biology, 

Ball State University, Muncie, IN 47306 

Soil and Atmospheric Sciences 

Chairman Harry M. Galloway, Department of Agronomy, 

Purdue University, Lafayette, IN 47907 
Chairman-elect. . . Lawrence A. Schaal, Department of Agronomy, 

Purdue University, Lafayette, IN 47907 

Zoology 

Chairman Thomas Joseph, Department of Biology, 

Indiana University-South Bend, 
South Bend, IN 46615 

Chairman-elect John O. Whitaker, Jr., Department of Life 

Sciences, Indiana State University, 
Terre Haute, IN 47807 

COMMITTEES APPOINTED BY THE PRESIDENT 

(The President and President-Elect are ex officio members of all 
committees.) 

ACADEMY FOUNDATION 
William A. Daily, Chairman . . . The Lilly Research Labs. 

(1976) Eli Lilly and Company 

Indianapolis, IN 46206 

Clyde R. Metz Department of Chemistry 

(1977) Indiana Univ.-Purdue Univ. 

1125 East 38th Street 
Indianapolis, IN 46205 

BONDING COMMITTEE 
Earl A. Holmes, Chairman. . . . Department of Biology 
(1976) St. Mary's College 

Notre Dame, IN 46556 

Robert M. Brooker Department of Chemistry 

(1976) Indiana Central College 

Indianapolis, IN 46227 

RESEARCH GRANTS COMMITTEE 
Kenneth E. Nichols, Chairman Valparaiso University 

(1976) Valparaiso, IN 46383 
Robert M. Brooker Indiana Central College 

(1977 ) Indianapolis, IN 46227 
Charles M. Kirkpatrick Department of Forestry and 

(1978) • Conservation 

Purdue University 

West Lafayette, IN 47907 



6 Indiana Academy of Science 

Donald R. Brannon Lilly Research Labs. 

(1979) Eli Lilly and Company 

Indianapolis, IN 46206 

Ralph A. Llewellyn Department of Physics 

(1980) Indiana State University 

Terre Haute, IN 47809 



Barnes, W. B. 
*Behrens, O. K. 
Blanchard, O. J. 
Boneham, R. F. 
Burden, S. L. 

BURKHOLDER, T. J. 

Burton, L. 

Cook, D. J. 

Cooper, R. H. 

Cory, W. A. 

Crovello, T. 

Daily, F. K. 
*Daily, W. A. 
*Day, H. G. 

DlNEEN, C. F. 

Eberly, W. R. 
Eddleman, H. 
*Edington, W. 
Ellis, L. F. 
Galloway, H. M. 
Giorgini, A. 



EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 



*Girton, R. E. 

* Guard, A. T. 

*GUTHRIE, F. A. 

*Haenisch, E. L. 

Hale, R. E. 

Holmes, E. A. 
*Hopp, W. B. 

Jackson, M. T. 

Jaus, H. H. 

*JOHNSON, W. H. 

Joseph, T. 
Kaufman, K. 
Knapp, V. R. 

* Lilly, E. 
*Lindsey, A. A. 
*Markle, C. A. 

Marks, G. C. 

Meiser, J. H. 

*Mellon, M. G. 

* Meyer, A. H. 



*Michaud, H. H. 
^Morgan, W. P. 

Moulton, B. 

Munsee, J. R. 

Nichols, K. E. 
*Patton, J. B. 

*POSTLETHWAITE, S. N. 

* Powell, H. M. 
Rivers, R. H. 

*Schmelz, D. V. 
Swartz, B. K. 
St. John, P. A. 
Van Atta, R. E. 

* Wayne, W. J. 
*Weaterwax, P. 

Weber, N. V. 
*Welch, W. H. 

Whitaker, J. O. 

Winslow, D. R. 
*Youse, H. R. 



*Past President of Academy 



BUDGET COMMITTEE 
President — Donald J. Cook 
President-Elect — Clarence F. Dineen 
Retiring President — John B. Patton 
Secretary — Robert E. Van Atta 
Treasurer — Stanley L. Burden 
Editor — Benjamin Moulton 

Director of Public Relations — Walter A. Cory, Jr. 
Chairman, Library Committee — Lois Burton 
Chairman, Program Committee — Gayton C. Marks 
Director, Youth Academy — Robert H. Rivers 
Chairman, Youth Activities Com. — Donald R. Winslow 
Chairman, Science & Soc. Com. — Otto K. Behrens 
Chairman, Academy Foundation — W. A. Daily 
Research Grant Committee — Kenneth E. Nichols 



Officers and Committees 

Academy Representative to A.A.A.S. 
Section and Delegate to A.A.S. 

Willis H. Johnson (1974-77) .... Department of Biology 

Wabash College 
Crawfordsville, IN 47933 

Auditing Committee 

Timothy J. Burkholder, Biology Department 

Chairman Taylor University 

Upland, IN 46989 

A. Gilbert Cook Department of Chemistry 

Valparaiso University 
Valparaiso, IN 46383 

Youth Activities Committee 

Donald R. Winslow, School of Education 

Chairman Indiana University 

Bloomington, IN 47401 

Karl L. Kaufman, Coordinator Butler University 
of Science Fairs Indianapolis, IN 46208 

Robert H. Rivers, Director Department of Education 

Junior Academy of Science . . . Purdue University 

Calumet Campus 
Hammond, IN 46323 

Walter A. Cory, Jr., Director School Science Coordinators Office 
Indiana Science Talent Search . Morrison Hall 103 

Indiana University 
Bloomington, IN 47401 

F. Keith Ault Department of Chemistry 

Ball State University 
Muncie, IN 47306 

Jerry M. Colglazier Office of State Superintendent 

of Public Instruction 
120 West Market Street 
Indianapolis, IN 46204 

Floyd Conard Westside High School 

Ninth and Gerry Streets 
Gary, IN 46402 

Keith Hunnings New Haven High School 

900 Prospect Avenue 
New Haven, IN 46774 

Gerald Kirkman North High School 

2319 Stringtown Road 
Evansville, IN 47711 

William Lumbley Bloomington High School-South 

1965 South Walnut 
Bloomington, IN 47401 



8 Indiana Academy of Science 

John C. Moody Division of Education 

Indiana University Southeast 

P. O. Box 679 

New Albany, IN 47150 

Mary J. Pettersen Oliver P. Morton High School 

6915 Grand Avenue 
Hammond, IN 46323 

Virginia Rhodes East Noble High School 

Kendallville, IN 46755 

Library Committee 

Lois Burton, Chairman Indiana State Library 

Indianapolis, IN 46204 
Phone: 317-633-6425 

Nellie M. Coats Indiana State Library 

Indianapolis, IN 46204 

W. R. Eberly Department of Zoology 

Manchester College 

North Manchester, IN 46926 

Eli Lilly 5807 Sunset Lane 

Indianapolis, IN 46208 

Program Committee — Chairman 

Gayton C. Marks Department of Biology 

Valparaiso University 
Valparaiso, IN 46383 

Publications Committee 

Marion T. Jackson, Chairman . . Department of Life Sciences 

Indiana State University 
Terre Haute, IN 47809 

Wm. B. Bunger Department of Chemistry 

Indiana State University 
Terre Haute, IN 47809 

Lois Burton Indiana State Library 

Indianapolis, IN 46204 

Gale M. Craig Guide Lamp Division 

Anderson, IN 46011 

Walter A. Cory, Jr School Science Coordinators Office 

Morrison Hall 103 
Indiana University 
Bloomington, IN 47401 

Wm. R. Eberly Department of Zoology 

Manchester College 

North Manchester, IN 46962 

Virginia R. Ferris Department of Entomology 

Purdue University 

West Lafayette, IN 47907 



Officers and Committees 9 

Wendell F. McBurney Office of Sponsored Prog-rams 

Indiana-Purdue University 
355 North Lansing' Street 
Indianapolis, IN 46202 

Wilton N. Melhorn Department of Geosciences 

Purdue University 

West Lafayette, IN 47907 

Benjamin Moulton Department of Geography and Geology 

Indiana State University 
Terre Haute, IN 47809 

John F. Pelton Department of Botany 

Butler University 
Indianapolis, IN 46208 

Fellows Committee 

Benjamin Moulton (1976), 

Chairman Department of Geography and Geology 

Indiana State University 
Terre Haute, IN 47809 

Thomas R. Mertens (1976) Department of Biology 

Ball State University 
Muncie, IN 47306 

John A. Ricketts (1976) Department of Chemistry 

DePauw University 
Greencastle, IN 46135 

Russell K. Stivers (1976) Department of Agronomy 

Purdue University 

West Lafayette, IN 47907 

Charles E. Wier (1976) Indiana Geological Survey 

611 North Walnut Grove 
Bloomington, IN 47401 

Richard L. Conklin (1977) ... Department of Physics 

Hanover College 
Hanover, IN 47243 

James B. Cope (1977) J. Moore Museum 

Earlham College 
Richmond, IN 47374 

Paul H. Gebhard (1977) Institute for Sex Research 

Indiana University 
Bloomington, IN 47401 

W. H. Headlee (1977) Department of Preventive Medicine 

I. U. Medical Center 

1100 West Michigan Street 

Indianapolis, IN 46202 

Wm. R. Eberly (1978) Department of Zoology 

Manchester College 

North Manchester, IN 46962 



10 Indiana Academy of Science 

Robert E. Gordon (1978) Office of Advanced Studies 

Notre Dame University 
Notre Dame, IN 46556 

Robert D. Miles (1978) School of Civil Engineering 

Purdue University 

West Lafayette, IN 47907 

B. Elwood Montgomery (1978) .. Department of Entomology 

Purdue University 
West Lafayette, IN 47907 

John F. Pelton (1978) Department of Botany 

Butler University 
Indianapolis, IN 46208 

Resolutions Committee 

Wm. A. Daily, Chairman Eli Lilly and Company 

Indianapolis, IN 46206 

Howard R. Youse Department of Botany 

DePauw University 
Greencastle, IN 46135 

William G. Kessel Department of Chemistry 

Indiana State University 
Terre Haute, IN 47809 

Invitations Committee 

Philip A. St. John, Chairman . Department of Zoology 

Butler University 
Indianapolis, IN 46208 

Paul R. Quinney Department of Chemistry 

Butler University 
Indianapolis, IN 46208 

Necrologist 

Fay K. Daily 5884 Compton Street 

Indianapolis, IN 46220 

Parliamentarian 

Howard R. Youse Department of Botany 

DePauw University 
Greencastle, IN 46135 

Science and Society Committee 

Otto K. Behrens (1978), 

Chairman 4225 Sunrise Road 

Indianapolis, IN 46208 

Austin W. Fergusson (1976) .... Merry Lea Environmental Center 

P.O. Box 263 
Wolf Lake, IN 46796 

Geraldine M. Huitink (1976) .. Department of Chemistry 

Indiana University-South Bend 
South Bend, IN 46615 



Officers and Committees 11 

Willis H. Johnson (1976) Department of Biology 

Wabash College 
Crawfordsville, IN 47933 

Jerry J. Nisbet (1976) Office of University Evaluations 

Ball State University 
Muncie, IN 47306 

Harry G. Day (1977) Department of Chemistry 

Indiana University 
Bloomington, IN 47401 

Robert E. Henderson (1977) . . Indianapolis Center for Advanced 

Research, 1300 West Michigan St. 
Indianapolis, IN 46202 

Ralph A. Llewellyn (1977) .... Department of Physics 

Indiana State University 
Terre Haute, IN 47809 

Howard R. Youse (1977) Department of Botany 

DePauw University 
Greencastle, IN 46135 

Robert Menke (1978) St. Henry Road 

Huntingburg, IN 47542 

Clyde R. Metz (1978) Department of Chemistry 

Indiana Univ. -Purdue Univ. 
1125 East 38th Street 
Indianapolis, IN 46205 

Robert D. Miles (1978) Department of Civil Engineering 

Purdue University 

West Lafayette, IN 47907 

John B. Patton (1978) Indiana Geological Survey 

611 North Walnut Grove 
Bloomington, IN 47401 

Membership Committee 

Clarence F. Dineen, Chairman. . Department of Biology 

St. Mary's College 
Notre Dame, IN 46556 

Corporation Membership: 

Otto K. Behrens, Ad Hoc Dir. . . 4225 Sunrise Road 

Indianapolis, IN 46208 
Walter A. Cory, Jr School Science Coordinators Office 

Morrison Hall 103 

Indiana University 

Bloomington, IN 47401 

Institutional Membership: 

Wm. B. Hopp, Ad Hoc Dir Indiana State University 

Terre Haute, IN 47809 
Frank A. Guthrie Rose Hulman Institute 

Terre Haute, IN 47803 



12 Indiana Academy of Science 

Emeritus Membership: 

Robert H. Cooper R. R. 9, Box 242 

Muncie, IN 47302 

Club Membership: 

Donald R. Winslow, Dir. Indiana University 

Bloomington, IN 47401 

SPECIAL COMMITTEES APPOINTED BY THE PRESIDENT 

Biological Survey Committee 

Jack R. Munsee, Chairman .... Department of Life Sciences 

Indiana State University 
Terre Haute, IN 47809 

Gayton C. Marks Valparaiso University 

Valparaiso, IN 46383 

David S. Woodruff Lilly Hall of Life Sciences 

Purdue University 

West Lafayette, IN 47907 

Johnny W. Reising Indiana State University-Evansville 

1413 Ewing Street 
Evansville, IN 47712 

James R. Gammon Department of Zoology 

DePauw University 
Greencastle, IN 46135 

Willard F. Yates Department of Botany 

Butler University 
Indianapolis, IN 46208 

Frank N. Young, Jr Department of Zoology 

Indiana University 
Bloomington, IN 47401 

Victor Riemenschneider Department of Biology 

Indiana University-South Bend 
South Bend, IN 46615 

Theodore Crovello Department of Biology 

University of Notre Dame 
Notre Dame, IN 46556 

Emeritus Member Selection Committee 

Robert H. Cooper, Chairman . . . . R. R. 9 — Box 242 

Muncie, IN 47302 

Winona H. Welch DePauw University 

Greencastle, IN 46135 

Edward L. Haenisch Department of Chemistry 

Wabash College 
Crawfordsville, IN 47933 

Howard H. Michaud 301 East Stadium Drive 

Lafayette, IN 47906 



Officers and Committees 13 

Preservation of Natural Areas Committee 

Wm. B. Barnes (1978), Department of Natural Resources 

Chairman 616 State Office Building- 
Indianapolis, IN 46204 

Damian V. Schmelz (1976) Department of Biology 

St. Meinrad College 
St. Meinrad, IN 47577 

Robert C. Weber (1976) 3649 Algonquin Pass 

Fort Wayne, IN 46809 

J. Dan Webster (1976) Department of Zoology 

Hanover College 
Hanover, IN 47243 

George R. Parker (1977) Department of Forestry and 

Conservation, Purdue University 
West Lafayette, IN 47907 

Robert 0. Petty (1977) Department of Biology 

Wabash College 
Crawfordsville, IN 47933 

Richard L. Powell (1977) Indiana Geological Survey 

611 North Walnut Grove 
Bloomington, IN 47401 

Marion T. Jackson (1978) Department of Life Sciences 

Indiana State University 
Terre Haute, IN 47809 

Carl H. Krekeler (1978) 360 Mclntyre Court 

Valparaiso, IN 46383 

Victor Riemenschneider 

(1978) Department of Biology 

Indiana University-South Bend 
South Bend, IN 46615 

Winona H. Welch (Honorary) . . DePauw University 

Greencastle, IN 46135 

Carrolle Markle (Honorary) . . Ashfield, MASS 01330 

School Science Coordinators Office 

Newsletter 

Walter A. Cory, Jr Morrison Hall 103 

Indiana University 
Bloomington, IN 47401 

"Speaker of the Year" Selection Committee 

Frank A. Guthrie (1976), 

Chairman Department of Chemistry 

Rose Hulman Institute 
Terre Haute, IN 47803 

Harry G. Day (1977) Department of Chemistry 

Indiana University 
Bloomington, IN 47401 



14 Indiana Academy of Science 

Damian V. Schmelz (1977) Department of Biology 

St. Meinrad College 
St. Meinrad, IN 47577 

John A. Ricketts (1978) Department of Chemistry 

DePauw University 
Greencastle, IN 46135 

Academy Representative on Indiana Natural Resources Commission 

Damian V. Schmelz Department of Biology 

St. Meinrad College 
St. Meinrad, IN 47577 



SPRING MEETING 

MINUTES OF THE EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE MEETING 

April 23, 1976 

The meeting was called to order by President Donald J. Cook 
at 5:15 p.m. in the Game Room of the Entry House, New Harmony 
Inn, New Harmony, Indiana. The minutes of the Executive Committee 
and of the General Session of the Fall 1975 meeting were approved. 

TREASURER'S REPORT 
Treasurer Stanley L. Burden presented a financial report for the 
period January 1 through April 19, 1976, a summary of which follows: 





Academy 
Accounts 


Administered 
Accounts 


Total 


Balance: January 1, 1976 


$6,666.36 


$15,171.59 
2,978.00 
2,156.53 


$21,837.95 




4,628.87 


7,606.87 


1976 Expenditures 


4,050.67 


6,207.20 


Balance: April 19, 1976 


$7,244.56 


$15,993.06 


$23,237.62 









The Treasurer also reported that approximately one-half of the 1976 
membership dues have been received. He also presented a numerical 
analysis of the current membership categories. The Treasurer's report 
was accepted. 



STANDING COMMITTEE REPORTS 
Academy Foundation Committee: William A. Daily, Chairman, 
reported that the John S. Wright Invested Income Account held $7,000 
as of March 31, 1976. He also reported that the market value of the 
Foundation Account was $20,432 and that of the John S. Wright Fund 
was $565,070, up 20.3 and 11.9%, respectively, since September 30, 1975. 

Research Grants Committee: Kenneth E. Nicho\s, Chairman, re- 
ported that $2817 has been granted for nine individual research projects 
this year. 

Representative to Association of Academies of Science (AAS) : 
Willis H. Johnson presented a report including statements of Principles 
and Objectives of Affiliation with AAAS and a review of the AAAS- 
AAS Workshop held at the Boston Annual Meeting in response to a 
request initiated by the Academy Budget Committee at its December 
meeting. He also summarized the Section X meeting and presented 
suggestions concerning selection of the Academy representative to AAS 
and Section X. 

Youth Activities Committee: Walter A. Cory reported that 22 
finalists in the Indiana Science Talent Search were introduced at 
Indianapolis on March 12; the eleven winners were awarded Scientific 

15 



16 Indiana Academy of Science 

American subscriptions. He also reported that, of the top 300 entrants 
in the Westinghouse Science Talent Search, ten were from Indiana. 

Newsletter: Walter A. Cory, Director of Public Relations, reported 
that Newsletter 14 was sent to over 1200 members. He presented the 
results of the questionnaire on proposed newsletter contents and noted 
that a second such request will appear in Newsletter 15. 

Membership Committee: Clarence F. Dineen, Chairman, presented 
brief comments on suggestions to maintain and increase Academy 
membership. 

Science and Society Committee: Donald J. Cook, reporting for 
Chairman Otto Behrens, stated that the Academy provided $380 in 
support of the report "Indiana Natural Gas: Accommodation to 
Reality." Two further requests for reports have been received from 
state agencies. 

Biological Survey Committee: Jack R. Munsee, Chairman, stated 
the formal report of the committee will appear in Volume 85 of 
Proceedings and that the committee is preparing a history of the 
Biological Survey Committee. 

SPECIAL COMMITTEE REPORTS 
Emeritus Member Selection Committee: Robert H. Cooper, Chair- 
man, presented the following persons for Emeritus Membership (initial 
membership year shown in parentheses) : 

Flora A. Haas, Crawfordsville, Indiana (1927) 
Mildred Campbell, Indianapolis, Indiana (1931) 
Esther K. Jordan, Kerrville, Texas (1931) 
Hubert M. James, West Lafayette, Indiana (1936) 
Kenneth N. Campbell, Indianapolis, Indiana (1938) 
Ernest H. Gerkin, South Bend, Indiana (1951) 

Motion: That the persons presented be elected to Emeritus Mem- 
bership. Seconded and carried. 

Preservation of Natural Areas Committee: William B. Barnes, 
Chairman, reported that three state nature preserves have been dedi- 
cated by action of the Natural Resources Commission, bringing the 
total to 40 preserves containing 6,384 acres. Newly dedicated areas 
are the Olin Lake, Donaldson Cave, and Virginia Pine-Chestnut Oak 
Nature Preserves. The dedication of the Dunes Nature Preserve and 
the Indiana Dunes State Park as National Natural Landmarks in June 
1976 was announced. 

Representative to Natural Resources Commission: Damian V. 
Schmelz reported on Commission meetings to examine legislation on 
flood control and related topics. 

Motion: That all Standing and Special Committee reports be 
accepted. Seconded and carried. 



Minutes of the Executive Committee 17 

NEW BUSINESS 
H. E. McReynolds, President of the Indiana Chapter of the 
American Fisheries Society, discussed a preliminary research proposal 
dealing with endangered species. James Gammon supported the proposal 
by outlining activities in other states with regard to Endangered 
Species Programs. After considerable discussion, the Executive Com- 
mittee supported the suggestion that the proposal be formally pre- 
pared and submitted to the Research Committee for consideration. 

The question of the number and type of copies of Proceedings to 
be published was discussed at length. 

Motion: That the order be for 600 paper-bound copies of Proceedings 
for exchange and no fewer than 800 hard-bound copies for 
members and others entitled to receive copies. Seconded. 

Amendyvient: That the number of hard-bound copies to be published 
be changed to 700. Seconded and carried. 

The amended motion carried. 

The meeting was adjourned at 7:40 p.m. 

Respectfully submitted, 
Robert E. Van Atta, Secretary 



SPRING MEETING 

MINUTES OF THE GENERAL SESSION 
April 23, 1976 

The meeting was called to order by President Donald J. Cook at 
10:15 PM in the Entry House of New Harmony Inn, New Harmony, 
Indiana. 

The Secretary of the Academy presented a brief summary of com- 
mittee reports received by the Executive Committee on April 23, 1976. 

President Cook made several announcements concerning the Saturday 
morning walking tour of New Harmony, the ecology tour of Hovey Lake 
and Gray's Woods, and the ornithology field trip. He also introduced 
Program Chairman Gayton C. Marks and the tour and field trip guides. 

President Cook recognized John Favinger, Bicentennial Committee 
Chairman, who introduced the speaker of the evening, Dr. B. Elwood 
Montgomery, Professor Emeritus of Entomology, Purdue University. 
Dr. Montgomery presented an extremely informative illustrated lecture 
entitled "The Life and Times of Thomas Say." The lecture detailed 
important events in the life of Say, called the Father of American 
Zoology, and included much of the historical background of New 
Harmony. 

Following Dr. Montgomery's lecture, a short motion picture on 
New Harmony was shown. 

President Cook announced that there would be a brief meeting of 
the Division Chairmen with the Secretary immediately following the 
business meeting. 

The meeting was adjourned at 11:45 PM. 

Respectfully Submitted, 
Robert E. Van Atta, Secretary 



18 



FALL MEETING 

MINUTES OF THE EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE MEETING 

November 4, 1976 

The meeting was called to order by President Donald J. Cook at 
7:15 p.m. in Room 224 of Neils Science Center at Valparaiso University, 
Valparaiso, Indiana. The minutes of the Executive Committee and of 
the General Session of the Spring 1976 meeting were approved. 

TREASURER'S REPORT 
Treasurer Stanley L. Burden presented a financial report for the 
period January 1, 1976 through October 26, 1976, summarized as follows: 





Academy 
Accounts 


Administered 
Accounts 


Total 




$6,666.36 


$15,171.59 
6,181.60 
5,175.72 


$21,837.95 


1976 Income 


8,608.79 


14,790.39 


1976 Expenditures 


5,520.47 


10,696.19 








Balance: October 26. 1976 


$9,754.68 


$16,177.47 


$25,932.15 









The Treasurer's report also indicated that there are 963 paid-up mem- 
bers, including 265 senior members, and 163 unpaid members on file. 
Applications were received from 80 new members in 1976, while 130 
members were dropped for nonpayment of dues. The Treasurer's report 
was approved. 

ELECTED COMMITTEE REPORTS 
Academy Foundation Committee. William A. Daily, Chairman, pre- 
sented the following summary report: 

I. Foundation Account 

Balance as of September 30, 1975 $ 853.59 

Income as of September 30, 1976 1,006.35 

Disbursements to Academy 300.00 

Transferred to Principal 1,000.00 

Cash Balance 559.94 

II. John S. Wright Fund 

Balance as of September 30, 1975 $ 12,000.00 

Income as of September 30, 1976 16,763.57 

Cash Balances as of September 30, 1976 3,972.18 

Disbursements from Invested Income Account: 

Research Grants 4,317.00 

Publication of Proceedings, Volume 84 11,000.00 

Indiana National Bank Fee 2,494.00 

Cash Balance 924.75 

Balance in Invested Income Account 14,000.00 

III. Market Value of All Securities $580,102.00 

19 



20 Indiana Academy of Science 

Bonding Committee. No report. 

Research Grants Committee. Kenneth E. Nichols, Chairman, re- 
ported that 3 research grants totaling $2,060 have been awarded in addi- 
tion to the 9 proposals totaling $2,817 which were approved at the spring 
meeting. 

The reports of elected committees were approved. 

PRESIDENTIAL APPOINTIVE COMMITTEES 
Science and Society Committee. Otto K. Behrens, Chairman, briefly 
reviewed the current activities of the committee. He then introduced Ralph 
A. Llewellyn, chairman of the ad hoc panel appointed to prepare the 
First Annual Report to the Academy. Mr. Llewellyn presented the 31- 
page report entitled "Indiana Energy 1977 — A Status Report with Sug- 
gestions for Policy Action" and briefly summarized the document, which 
is the result of discussions among the panelists, their review of perti- 
nent literature, and their collective scientific judgments. The report 
includes discussion on electricity, solar energy, natural and liquefied 
petroleum gases, crude oil, and coal; it also includes suggestions for 
policy considerations by the State of Indiana. 

In approving this report, a truly significant development in the 
activities of the Indiana Academy of Science, the Executive Committee 
reaffirmed the recommendations of the Science and Society Committee 
with regard to the distribution and dissemination of this and future 
reports of the committee (see Minutes of the Executive Committee 
Meeting, October 30, 1975). 

Representative to AAAS and AAS. No report. 
Auditing Committee. No report. 

Youth Activities Committee. Walter A. Cory, reporting for Chair- 
man Donald R. Winslow, presented a status report on the activities of 
the three youth activity programs sponsored by the Academy: the 
Science Fair Program, the Science Talent Search, and the Indiana 
Junior Academy of Science. 

Eleven Regional Science Fairs were held last year; 22 state finalists 
and their sponsoring teachers made the trip to Denver to participate in 
the International Science and Engineering Fair; over 200 organizations 
contributed financial support for this trip. The 22 student representa- 
tives received a total of 38 awards — a record for any state delegation 
in any year! 

The 29th Annual Indiana Science Talent Search produced 57 par- 
ticipants, 22 of which were chosen to appear in the honors program; 
8 of these won national honors in the Westinghouse National Science 
Talent Search and one, Stephen J. Budak of Marquette High School, 
Michigan City, was declared a national winner (one of the top 40 in 
the country). Eleven of the 22 state finalists were designated as winners. 

Robert H. Rivers, Purdue University, Hammond, has succeeded 
Lawrence Poorman as Director of the Junior Academy, which meets in 
Christ College of Valparaiso University this year. 



Minutes of the Executive Committee 21 

The Youth Activities Committee strongly supports the request to 
the Academy, to be presented subsequently, for support of annual 
scholarships. 

Library Committee. Donald J. Cook, presenting the report of Lois 
Burton, Chairwoman, reported that Volume 85 of Proceedings will be in 
the mail very soon, and that exchange arrangements have been made 
with five additional organizations in Argentina, Brazil, Germany, and 
Spain. Seventy-nine new journals, received in exchange, have been 
added to the collection. The Academy library's bibliographic records is 
now a part of the Ohio College Library Center (OCLC) computer-based 
network for furnishing on-line union catalog information to more than 
700 libraries. The building expansion program of the State Library 
provides for relocation of the Academy library and greatly increases 
space available to it. 

Publications Committee. Marion Jackson, Chairman, reported that 
700 bound copies are included in the Volume 85 printing run. He also 
reported that Natural Features of Indiana has been reprinted by the 
University of Notre Dame Press, from which it may be ordered. Manu- 
scripts for Monograph IV are being considered. 

Program Committee. Gayton Marks, Chairman, made several an- 
nouncements pertinent to operations during the current meeting. 

Newsletter and Public Relations. Walter A. Cory, Director, an- 
nounced that the next edition of the Newsletter would be completed in 
mid-November. He requested that information on address changes be 
passed on to the Secretary, the Treasurer, or the Newsletter editor. He 
also announced that a questionnaire on Newsletter and other Academy 
functions would be available at the registration desk during the 
meeting. 

Membership Committee. Clarence F. Dineen, Chairman, made sev- 
eral comments on the annual gain and loss of members and suggested 
that the committee analyze membership trends during the coming year. 

Fellows Committee. Benjamin Moulton, editor of Proceedings, pre- 
sented the first copy of Volume 85 to President Cook. As Chairman of 
the Fellows Committee, Mr. Moulton made the following motion : 

Motion: That the following persons, recommended by the Fellows 
Committee, be elected as Fellows of the Academy: 

Torsten K. E. Alvager Marion Jackson 

Thomas A. Cole Ralph A. Llewellyn 

NORVILLE M. DOWNIE LAWRENCE E. POORMAN 

Harry M. Galloway Carl C. Sartain 

M. E. Hodes Robert E. Van Atta 

Malcom E. Hults John O. Whitaker, Jr. 

Seconded and carried. 

Resolutions Committee. No report. 

Invitations Committee. Philip A. St. John, Chairman, reported that 
the sites for the next two fall Academy meetings are: 1977 — Indiana 



22 Indiana Academy of Science 

University-Purdue University-Indianapolis, 1978 — Anderson College. An 
invitation was extended to the Academy to meet at Manchester College 
in 1979. The Academy will entertain invitations for 1980 and 1981. 

Necrologist. No report. 

Parliamentarian. No report. 

The reports of presidential appointive committees were approved. 

SPECIAL COMMITTEE REPORTS 
Biological Survey Committee. Jack R. Munsee, Chairman, reported 
that the committee report for Volume 85 of Proceedings includes 55 titles 
representing 14 biotic groups for the period 1974-75. The committee is 
preparing a historical review of the committee from 1891 through 1976. 
Theodore Crovello presented brief reports of the two sub-committees: 
Flora Indiana and Endangered Plant Species. 

Emeritus Member Selection Committee. Robert H. Cooper, Chair- 
man, reported that no applications for Emeritus status were received 
since the spring meeting. 

Preservation of Natural Areas Committee. William B. Barnes, 
Chairman, reported that one more nature preserve — Scout Mountain 
Nature Preserve, a 40-acre tract located in Harrison County — has been 
dedicated by the Natural Resources Commission. The total is now 41 
nature preserves containing 6,430 acres. Two other areas are in various 
stages of acquisition or dedication. 

Speaker-of-the-Y ear Committee. Damian V. Schmelz, reporting for 
Frank A. Guthrie, Chairman, announced that Dr. Derek A. Davenport, 
Professor of Chemistry at Purdue University, had been selected as 
Speaker-of-the-Year and and would deliver the lecture at the General 
Session of the Academy. 

Representative on Natural Resources Commission. Damian V. 
Schmelz reported on the Commission's activities for the year, including 
the following: The 1977-79 Budget request for the Department of 
Natural Resources is the largest ever submitted; the Indiana State Park 
System has shown a 14% attendance increase during the past year com- 
pared with a national average of 3.2%; monthly meetings of the Com- 
mission involve discussion and decision on about 75 individual items 
dealing with the use of the State's natural resources: land, water, 
minerals, forests, wildlife, and State properties. He also briefly reviewed 
legislative recommendations of the Commission. 

The reports of the special committees were approved. 

The Nominations Committee, John B. Patton, Chairman, submitted 
the following slate of nominees for presentation before the General 
Session of the Academy: 

President: Clarence F. Dineen — 1977 

President-Elect : . Jerry J. Nisbet — 1977 

Director of Public Relations: Walter A. Cory, Jr. — 1977-78 



Minutes of the Executive Committee 23 

Academy Foundation: William A. Daily — 1977-78 

Bonding Committee: Robert M. Brooker — 1977 

Earl A. Holmes — 1977 
Research Grants Committee: .... Mark Reshkin — 1977-81 

The slate of nominees was approved by the Executive Committee. 

President Cook acknowledged the efforts of the outgoing Chairman 
of the Research Grants Committee, Kenneth E. Nichols. 

NEW BUSINESS 
Harry M. Galloway presented a discussion of current problems asso- 
ciated with publication of papers in Proceedings dealing primarily with 
the need for more publication space with higher costs. He also pre- 
sented several suggestions for alleviation of these problems. After some 
discussion, the following was presented: 

Motion: That all suggestions and recommendations for alleviation 
of problems associated with the publication of papers in 
Proceedings be transmitted to the Publications Committee 
for its consideration and appropriate recommendations at 
the earliest feasible time. 
Seconded and carried. 

Walter A. Cory presented the recommendations of the Youth Activi- 
ties Committee with regard to the establishment of Academy-financed 
annual scholarships. By general consensus, the Executive Committee 
suggested that the Budget Committee address itself to the prospects for 
financing such a worthy endeavor with the hope that positive accom- 
plishment might be achieved prior to the 1977-78 academic year. 

Robert E. Van Atta presented the following constitutional amend- 
ment: 

M0U071: That the Academy amend the constitution, Article VII. 
MEETINGS. Sec. 1 so as to designate the annual meeting as 
the spring meeting, replacing the word fall with spring and 
the words spring with fall where they appear. 
That the Academy further amend the constitution by chang- 
ing the last sentence in Article VI. EXECUTIVE COM- 
MITTEE, COUNCIL, AND BUDGET COMMITTEE. Sec. 
4 to read as follows: 

"The Budget Committee shall meet during the regular fall 
meeting of the Academy." 
Seconded. 

After considerable discussion, the motion to amend was tabled 
until the spring meeting of the Executive Committee in order that 
Academy officers and Division Chairman might receive input from 
Academy members on their opinions on this matter. The Secretary 
was directed to mention this desire in the General Session meeting 
and to implement an appropriate survey of the membership in a 
feasible manner. 



24 Indiana Academy of Science 

Theodore Crovello presented a discussion with regard to public 
responsibilities of biologists and recommendations relative to a second 
Academy resolution concerning mosquito control in Indiana. After con- 
siderable discussion, the matter was referred by common consent to the 
Resolutions Committee for an appropriate recommendation. 

The meeting was adjourned at 11:00 p.m. 

Respectfully submitted, 
Robert E. Van Atta, Secretary 




FALL MEETING 

MINUTES OF THE GENERAL SESSION 
November 5, 1976 

The Business Session of the 92d Annual Meeting of the Academy 
was called to order by President Donald J. Cook at 3:15 p.m. in Room 
234, Neils Science Center, Valparaiso University, Valparaiso, Indiana. 

Professor Fred Kruger, Vice President of Business Affairs, Val- 
paraiso University, welcomed the Academy on behalf of Valparaiso 
University. 

The Secretary of the Academy presented a summary of committee 
reports and informed the membership of official actions taken by the 
Executive Committee on April 23, 1976 and on November 4, 1976. 

The names of individuals who were elected 1977 Divisional Chairmen 
and Chairmen-Elect includes: 



ANTHROPOLOGY 

Chairman: 
Chairman-Elect: 



Edward M. Dolan 
Russell E. Lewis 



BOTANY 



Chairman: 
Chairman-Elect : 



Gary E. Dolph 
Larry R. Yoder 



CELL BIOLOGY 

Chairman: 
Chairman-Elect: 



Ralph Jersild, Jr. 
Betty D. Allamong 



CHEMISTRY 

Chairman: 



Chairman-Elect: 



Pang-Fai Ma 
Clyde R. Metz 



ECOLOGY 



Chairman: 
Chairman-Elect: 



Thomas S. McComish 
Robert B. Priddy 



ENGINEERING 

Chairman: 
Chairman-Elect: 



Milton E. Harr 
Ramachandra A. 



Rao 



ENTOMOLOGY 

Chairman: 
Chairman-Elect : 



Jack R. Munsee 
Richard F. Wilkey 



GEOLOGY AND GEOGRAPHY 

Chairman: 
Chairman-Elect: 



Mark Reshkin 
Gerald R. Showalter 



HISTORY OF SCIENCE 

Chairman: 
Chairman-Elect: 



Gertrude L. Ward 
William W. Bloom 



25 



26 Indiana Academy of Science 

MICROBIOLOGY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY 

Chairman: Ralph L. Nicholson 

Chairman-Elect: Debbie Gayda 

PHYSICS 

Chairman: Elmer Nussbaum 

Chairman-Elect: Carl C. Sartain 

PLANT TAXONOMY 

Chairman: Victor Riemenschneider 

Chairman-Elect: Theodore J. Crovello 

SCIENCE EDUCATION 

Chairman: Jon R. Hendrix 

Chairman-Elect: Stanley S. Shimer 

SOIL AND ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES 

Chairman: Lawrence A. Schaal 

Chairman-Elect: Stephen A. Justham 

ZOOLOGY 

Chairman: John 0. Whitaker, Jr. 

Chairman-Elect: Jackson L. Marr 

The Secretary then presented the following motions: 

Motion: That the individuals who have applied for membership in 
the Academy be elected to the types of membership for 
which they have applied. Seconded and carried. 

Motion: That the individuals recommended by the Emeritus Mem- 
ber Selection Committee and approved by the Executive 
Committee be elected to Emeritus Membership. Carried. 

Motion: That the individuals recommended by the Fellows Commit- 
tee and approved by the Executive Committee be elected 
as Fellows of the Academy. Carried. 

President Cook introduced Ralph A. Llewellyn, Chairman of the 
ad hoc panel of the Science and Society Committee, who summarized the 
first annual report of that committee entitled "Indiana Energy 1977 — A 
Status Report with Suggestions for Policy Action". Mr. Llewellyn indi- 
cated that copies of this report are available to Academy members on 
request. 

Faye Kenoyer Daily presented the Necrologist's report which in- 
cluded the names of ten members: 

Edna Banta Jacob Richard Schramm 

Thomas M. Bushnell Russell E. Siverly 

Ansel Gooding Ned Myron Smith 

William P. Morgan Elmer G. Sulzer 

Marion A. Rector Paul Weatherwax 

John B. Patton, Chairman of the Nominating Committee, placed the 
following slate, previously approved by the Executive Committee, in 
nomination: 



Minutes of the General Session 27 

President: Clarence F. Dineen — 1977 

President-Elect: Jerry J. Nisbet— 1977 

Director of Public 

Relations: Walter A. Cory, Jr.— 1977-78 

Academy Foundation: William A. Daily — 1977-78 

Bonding Committee: Robert M. Brooker — 1977 

Earl A. Holmes — 1977 
Research Grants Committee: .... Mark Reshkin — 1977-81 

The slate was accepted; no nominations were made from the floor. 

Motion: That the Secretary cast a unanimous ballot for the slate. 
Seconded and carried. 

President Donald J. Cook introduced the Academy Speaker-of-the- 
Year, Dr. Derek A. Davenport, Department of Chemistry, Purdue Uni- 
versity, who presented a superbly entertaining and interesting lecture 
entitled "From Genesis to the Book of Revelations: 200 Years of Gen- 
eral Chemistry Texts Written in America (n)." 

The Chairman of the Resolutions Committee, William A. Daily, pre- 
sented the following resolution which was adopted by the assemblage: 

BE IT RESOLVED: 

Members of the Indiana Academy of Science here assembled 
wish to express our sincere thanks to the president, vice-presi- 
dent and faculty of Valparaiso University for providing us with 
functional and delightful meeting facilities. 

We also thank our program chairman, Dr. Gayton C. Marks, the 
divisional chairpersons and students for the careful planning of 
their instructive meetings. 

Our Academy "Speaker of the Year", Dr. D. A. Davenport, de- 
serves special recognition for his extremely interesting slide lec- 
ture concerning a history of chemical texts and books during the 
past 200 years. 

The meeting was recessed at 5:20 p.m. and was reconvened at 6:30 
p.m. with President-Elect Clarence F. Dineen presiding at the annual 
banquet held in the Great Hall of the Student Union. 

Following introduction of the Academy officers and guests at the 
speakers' table, Dr. Dineen introduced President Donald J. Cook who 
presented the annual Presidential Address entitled "Chemistry and Cul- 
ture," an interesting and thought-provoking discussion. 

The meeting was adjourned at 9:00 p.m. 

Respectfully submitted, 
Robert E. Van Atta, Secretary 



FINANCIAL REPORT 

JANUARY 1-DECEMBER 31, 1976 

I. ACADEMY ACCOUNTS 



Dues 

Reprints: Vol. 84 

85 

Interest 

Miscellaneous 

Secretary 

Treasurer 

General Office 

Travel, AAS Dues, etc. 

Membership Committee 

Transfer to Administered Accounts _ 
Junior Academy ($300.00) 
Science and Society ($1,000.00) 
Natural Areas (—$500.00) 
Library Binding ($1,000.03) 
Proceedings: Publication ($750.00) 
Proceedings: Mailing ($220.00) 
Publications: Clerical ($0.00) 

President's Fund 

Newsletter 

Speaker of the Year Honorarium 

Program Committee 

Publications Editor's Expenses 

Youth Activities 

Biological Surveys Committee 

Representative to AAAS Meeting 

Public Relations 

Section Chairman Expenses 

CPA Fees for Tax Return Preparation 
Lawyer's Fees 

Miscellaneous 



Income 


Budgeted 


Expenditure 


Budgeted 


$6,585.00 


$ 5,950.00 






1,691.53 


. 







40.10 


3,300.00 


$ 2,660.25 


$ 3,000.00 


995.16 


1,100.00 






10.25 





__ . 








465.80 


500.00 






361.71 


400.00 






142.40 


250.00 






169.90 


225.00 






0.00 


200.00 






2,750.00 


2,750.00 






1G0.00 


100.00 






5C0.00 


500.00 







500.00 


500.00 







616.41 


1,000.00 








518.67 


500.00 






71.70 


50.00 


_rn___ 




4. CO 


150.00 







260.73 


300.00 






57.15 


100.00 







0.00 


150.00 






400.00 


500.00 






50.10 


100.00 


$9,322.04 


$10,350.00 


$ 9,628.82 


$11,525.00 



28 



Financial Report 



21) 



II. ADMINISTERED ACCOUNTS 



January 1 


1976 


1976 


December 31 


Balance 


Income 


Expenditures 


Balance 


$ 212.92 


$ 300.00 


$ 457.14 


$ 55.78 


2,315.38 


124.10 


1,713.93 


725.55 


1,572.62 


1,000.00 


647.29 


1,925.33 


286.60 


4,845.00 


4,877.00 


254.60 


1,026.50 


-500.00 


0.00 


526.50 


134.28 


0.00 


0.00 


134.28 


2,632.76 


COO 


0.00 


2,632.76 


4,513.20 


0.00 


0.00 


4,513.20 


—4.45 


1,000.00 


0.00 


995.55 


0.00 


0.00 


0.00 


0.00 


148.83 


4,764.00 


4,866.56 


46.27 


579.43 


200.00 


0.00 


779.43 


1,253.52 


248.50 


5.50 


1,496.52 


0.00 


0.00 


0.00 


0.00 


50C.00 


0.00 


0.00 


500.00 


$15,171.59 


$11,981.60 


$12,567.42 


$14,585.77 


III. SUMMARY 







Junior Academy 

Science Talent Search __. 

Science and Society 

Research 

Natural Areas 

J. S. Wright Library __. 

Lilly III Library 

Lilly V Library 

Library Binding 

Science Fairs 

Publications : 

Proceedings 

Mailing of Proceedings 

Monographs 

Natural Features 

Clerical 



Academy Administered 
Accounts Accounts Total 



Balance: January 1, 1976 $6,666.36 $15,171.59 $21,837.95 

1976 Income 9,322.04 11,981.60 21,303.64 

1976 Expenditures 9,628.82 12,567.42 22,196.24 

Balance : December 31, 1976 6,359.58 14,585.77 20,945.35 



IV. BANK BALANCES 

Upland United Bank, Upland, Indiana $ 5,967.47 

Great Western Savings and Loan, Los Angeles, California 5,626.91 

First Western Savings and Loan, Las Vegas, Nevada 9,350.97 



$20,945.35 



V. SUMMARY OF TRUST FUNDS 

Foundation Account (00430-00-0) 

Income cash balance (1/1/76) 

Total dividends and interest for 1976 

Disbursements for 1976 

Research grants $ 300.00 

Transfer to principal cash 1,000.00 

$ 1,300.00 

Income cash balance (12/31/76) 

Principal cash balance (1/1/76) 

Total receipts for 1976 

Total disbursements for 1976 

Principal cash balance (12/31/76) 

Market value of investments (12/31/76) 

Total value of account (12/31/76) 

♦Carrying value is $23,206.53 



809.55 
1,009.13 



-1,300.00 

$ 518.68 

485.94 

1,000.00 

-1,000.00 



485.94 



518.68 



$ 485.94 
$ 21,882.00 



$ 22,886.62* 



30 



Indiana Academy of Science 



B. John S. Wright Fund (00430-01-9) 

Income cash balance (1/1/76) 

Total dividends, interest, and other income 

for 1976 

Disbursements for 1976 

INB fee $ 2,494.00 

Transfer to 00430-02-8 16,400.00 

Transfer to Principal Cash 0.00 

$18,894.00 

Income cash balance (12/31/76) 

Principal cash balance (1/1/76) 

Total receipts for 1976 

Total disbursements for 1976 

Principal cash balance (12/31/76) 

Market value of investments (12/31/76) ___ 

Total value of account (12/31/76) 

*Carrying value is $334,253.01 

C. John S. Wright Invested Income Account (00430-02-8) 
Income cash balance (1/1/76) 

Total interest for 1976 

Disbursements for 1976 

Transfers to principal $ 0.00 

$ 0.00 

Income cash balance (12/31/76) 

Principal cash balance (1/1/76) 

Total receipts for 1976 

Disbursements for 1976 

Purchase of investments $22,000.00 

Research grants 4,317.00 

Proceedings, Vol. 85 4,000.00 

$30,317.00 

Principal cash balance (12/31/76) 

Market value of investments 

Total value of account 



$ 687.51 
18,989.47 



-18,894.00 



782.98 $ 

831.77 
39,287.81 
-39,909.25 



0.00 



782. 



$ 210.33 210.33 

$536,937.80 
$537,931.11=1 



$ 190.36 
489.48 



$ 679.84 $ 679.84 
472.18 
30,400.00 



-30,317.00 



$ 555.18 $ 555.18 
$ 12,000.00 



$ 13,235.02 



VI. NOTES 
Membership Dues: 

According to the Treasurer's records, the current status may be summarized as 
follows : 

1019 paid (524 member, 288 senior member, 63 student, 20 family, 15 senior family 
member, 7 sustaining member, 1 family sustaining, 1 student family member, 
life (4), honorary (4), emeritus (74), and 19 club members. 
Ill on file from 1975, but not yet paid for 1976 
85 new members for 1976 (included in above totals) 
3 previous members reinstated during 1976 (included in above totals) 
130 members and clubs dropped for nonpayment of 1975 dues 



Dues Structure for 1976: 

$ 2.00 for student memberships 

5.00 for memberships and club memberships 
10.00 for senior memberships 
25.00 for sustaining memberships 
2.00 additional for family memberships 
300.00 for life memberships 



Financial Report 31 

150.00-500.00 corporate memberships 
50.00-100.00 institutional memberships 
1.00 initiation/reinstatement fee ($2.00 for family membership) 

Savings: 

The treasurer, from the total assets of both Academy and Administered accounts, 
has maintained sufficient funds in the checking account to pay current bills through- 
out the year; the remaining funds have been invested in savings certificates. 

Certificates redeemed in 1976 
NONE 

Certificates current 

1. (GWSL) $5,000.00 invested at 6.75$ April 1975; 31 December value $5,626.91 
Maturity at October 1977. 

2. (FWSL) $3,000.00 invested at 6.75% October 1976; 31 December value $3,053.46 
Maturity at April 1978. 

3. (FWSL) $2,000.00 invested at 6.50% April 1976; 31 December value $2,100.47 
Maturity at April 1977. 

4. (FWSL) $1,000.00 invested at 6.50% June 1976; 31 December value $1,049.26 
Maturity at June 1977. 

5. (FWSL) $1,000.00 invested at 6.50% June 1976; 31 December value $1,049.26 
Maturity at June 1977. 

6. (FWSL) $1,000.00 invested at 6.50% June 1976; 31 December value $1,049.26 
Maturity at June 1977. 

7. (FWSL) $1,000.00 invested at 6.50%, June 1976; 31 December value $1,049.26 
Maturity at June 1977. 



Total $14,977.88 

Reprints: 

Reprint charges to authors for Vol. 83 are being collected with 1 billing outstanding 
for $61.55 giving a net profit to the Academy of $123.13 in excess of printing costs. 
Reprint charges to authors for Vol. 84 are being collected with 2 billings outstanding 
for a total of $252.12 and will give a net profit to the Academy (1975 and 1976) of 
$223.81 in excess of printing costs when all bills have been collected. Reprint charges 
to authors for Vol. 85 are being collected with $2,620.15 outstanding and will give 
a net profit to the Academy of $225.93 when all bills have been collected. 

Attorney Fees: 

Ice, Miller, Donadio & Ryan of Indianapolis have been advising the Academy in 
matters concerning the reprinting and roles of various publications. The executive 
committee voted at the Fall Meeting of 1973 to delay the transferring of $4,226.87 for 
attorney fees concerning the tax classification problems to the Academy operating 
funds from the J. S. Wright fund until these funds are needed for operating expenses. 

Publications: 

Sales to date during 1976 have been $14.00 for the Proceedings, Vol. 84 and $248.50 
for Monographs. The total cost of publishing Vol. 85 of the Proceedings was 
$12,866.25 of which the State of Indiana paid $8,000 leaving a balance of $4,866.25 
to be paid from Academy funds. 

Research Grants: 

Funds totaling $4,877.00 have been awarded to: Betty I. Tarnowski (Butler), Anne 
A. Susalla (St. Mary's), Cindy B. Patterson (I.U.), Lawrence M. Grocki (Ball State), 
Harold Eddleman (Indiana Biolab), Peter Calengas (I.U.), David F. Brakke (I.U.), 
Douglas Bauer (DePauw), Scot C. Adams (Purdue), Andreas R. Richter (Earlham), 
Dona Thampson-Jacob (I.U.), John O. Whitaker (Indiana State), James R. Gammon 
(DePauw). 

VII. BUDGET FOR 1977 
The following budget was approved by the Budget Committee at their meeting at 
the Indiana State Library, Indianapolis, on December 13, 1975: 



32 



Indiana Academy of Science 



Academy Accounts 

Anticipated Income 

Dues, Initiation and Reinstatement Fees 

(70 @$2, 600 @$5, 300 @$10, 100 @$0) 

Interest on Savings 

Reprint Charges to Authors 

Budgeted Expenditures 

Secretary 

Treasurer 

General Office 

Officer Travel, AAAS Dues 

Membership Committee 

President's Contingency Fund 

Newsletter 

Speaker of the Year Honorarium 

Program Committee 

Publication Editor's Expenses 

Youth Activities Committee 

Biological Surveys Committee (including 
Endangered Plant Species and Flora In- 
diana Project Committees) 

Representative to AAAS Meeting 

Reprint Charges to Academy 

Public Relations 

Section Chairmen Expenses 

CPA Fees for Tax Return Preparation 

Lawyer's Fees 

Miscellaneous 

Transfers to Administered Accounts 

Junior Academy $1,000.00 

Science and Society Committee 500.00 

Natural Areas Committee -526.50 

Library Binding 1,200.00 

Proceedings: Publication 750.00 

Proceedings : Mailing 0.00 



$ 6,140.00 
1,300.00 
2,886.00 

$10,326.00 



5C0.00 
400.00 
250.00 
225.00 
200.00 
100.00 
500.00 
500.00 
1,000.00 
500.00 
50.00 



150.00 
300.00 

2,700.00 
100.00 
150.00 
500.00 
250.00 
100.00 

2,923.50 



$11,398.50 



Endowment Funds 

Anticipated Income 

IAS Foundation 

J. S. Wright Investment Income 

Budgeted Expenditures 

Bank Fee 

Research Grants ($6,000-$350 AAAS) 

Publications 

Proceedings, Vol. 86 ($13,750-$8,000 Ind. 
—$750 transfer) 

Monograph #4 ($12,000-$1,500 Wright 
balance from 1975-$1,200 sales) ___ 

♦Suggest waiting until later for more Wright balance, 
sales, etc. to justify this. 

Restricted Accounts 

Anticipated Income 

Research Grants Committee (AAAS) 

Science Talent Search (Tri Kappa) 



$ 300.00 
15,500.00 



$15,800.00 



$ 2,700.00 
5,650.00 



5,000.00 
(9,300.00)* 
$13,350.00 



$ 350.00 (part', 
2,000.00 



Financial Report 33 



Publications 

Proceedings $ 50.00 

Monographs and Nat. Feat. 250.00 



$ 2,650.00 



Budgeted Expenditures 

Research Grants Committee $ 350.00 (part) 

Science Talent Search 2,000.00 

Publications 300.00 

Proceedings $ 50.00 (part) 

Monographs 250. CO (part) 



$ 2,650.00 



Respectfully submitted, 
Stanley Burden, Treasurer 

We, the undersigned, have audited the Treasurer's records for the Indiana Academy of 
Science for the year 1976 and have found them to be accurate and in order. 

March 1, 1977 Timothy J. Burkholder 

A. Gilbert Cook 



THE INDIANA JUNIOR ACADEMY OF SCIENCE 

44th Annual Meeting, November 5, 1976 

The 44th annual meeting of the Junior Academy began with a wel- 
come from George Jones, President and Dr. Robert Rivers, Director. At 
9:15, students, teachers and sponsors were dismissed to hear paper 
presentations. This year was the first for a division between papers 
dealing with the Physical Sciences and papers dealing with the Biological 
Sciences. This year was also the first for paper presentations in the 
Junior High Division. At 11:30, everyone adjourned to Dau Hall for 
lunch and the Junior Academy Meeting. After the meal, George Jones 
informally asked the clubs to consider nominees for President and Sec- 
retary-Elect. At 12:20, George called the Junior Academy Meeting to 
order. He listed the qualifications for President-Elect and Secretary- 
Elect as listed in the Constitution of the Indiana Junior Academy of 
Science. The nominations were then open for the offices of President 
and Secretary. 

PRESIDENT-ELECT 

Lori Ellen Rhodes— East Noble High School (Tom Ault— East Noble 
High) ; Greg Rondot — Bishop Luers High School (Jamie Oxley — Bishop 
Luers High) ; Craig Warner — Morton High School (Mick Maslar — Mor- 
ton High). 

SECRETARY-ELECT 

Stacy Fox— East Noble High School (Tom Ault— East Noble High); 

Jamie Sibbit — Paoli High School (Ann Pfauth — Marquette High). 

A motion was made to close the nominations, the motion was sec- 
onded. Dr. Rivers then introduced Mr. Dean Christakis from Marquette 
High School, who was to show a slide presentation of his trip to Sweden 
for the Nobel Prize Presentations. When he had finished the presenta- 
tion, Mr. Christakis turned the meeting back to George. George then 
called the nominators to the podium to list the qualifications of his can- 
didate. The nominators were given a few minutes to write down the 
candidate's qualifications, as they had not prepared a list before this 
time. During this time, Dr. Mary Pettersen made an announcement re- 
garding the lunch fee. A few minutes after her announcement, the nomi- 
nators came to the podium to list the qualifications of the candidates — 
first for President, then for Secretary. George then called for a 
representative of the Science Clubs who had paid their Academy dues 
to cast their delegate vote, when called upon. 

RESULTS OF VOTING (President) 

Morton — Craig Warner East Noble — Lori Rhodes 

Paoli — Greg Rondot Yorktown — Lori Rhodes 

Madison — Lori Rhodes Floyd Central — abstain 

Marquette — Craig Warner Floyd County — abstain 

New Haven — Greg Rondot Bishop Luers — Greg Rondot 

Bishop Dwenger — Greg Rondot 

34 



Junior Academy Report 35 

RESULTS OP VOTING (Secretary) 

Morton — Jamie Sibbitt East Noble — Stacy Fox 

Paoli — Jamie Sibbitt Yorktown — Stacy Fox 

Madison — Stacy Fox Floyd County — Jamie Sibbitt 

Marquette — Jamie Sibbitt Floyd Central — Jamie Sibbitt 

New Haven — Stacy Fox Bishop Luers — Stacy Fox 
Bishop Dwenger — Stacy Fox 

George turned the meeting over to Dr. Rivers for award presenta- 
tions, while he and Secretary Cheryl Pauer tallied the votes. 

AWARD PRESENTATIONS 
Junior Division 
First Place 

Bradford Beaver — Yorktown Middle School 

Wendy Rhodes — East Noble High School 
Second Place 

Greg Gesler — Madison Junior High 

Jamie Sibbitt — Paoli Junior-Senior High 
Third Place 

Kurt Ehrman — St. John the Baptist (Fort Wayne) 

David Johnson — Daltz High School (Muncie) 

Tammi Hedges — St. John the Baptist (Fort Wayne) 

SENIOR DIVISION— PHYSICAL SCIENCES 
First Place 

Greg Rondot — Bishop Luers 

Patty Wolfe — New Albany 
Second Place 

John Stark — East Noble 

Mike Patterson — East Noble 
Third Place 

Jamie Oxley — Bishop Luers 

SENIOR DIVISION— BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES 
First Place 

Lori Rhodes — East Noble 

Paul Kmak — Marquette 
Second Place 

Mary Wombles — Floyd Central 

John Evans — Floyd Central 
Third Place 

Bradford Stephens — New Haven 

George Jones then announced President-Elect and Secretary-Elect. 
President — Greg Rondot; Secretary — Stacy Fox. Dr. Rivers offered a 
closing statement, and Dr. Pettersen then introduced Mr. Davis of the 
admissions office of Valparaiso University who discussed the qualities 
of the school. George then declared the meeting adjourned; everyone 
was free to choose one of the following: A tour of Valparaiso Uni- 
versity, either with a guide or on his own; Working with Science 
computers; Attending the Senior Academy Paper Presentations. 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY COMMITTEE REPORT— 1975-76 



Jack R. Munsee, Chairman, Indiana State University 



Theodore Crovello 
University of Notre Dame 
James R. Gammon 
DePauw University 
Morris Levy 
Purdue University 
Gayton C. Marks 
Valparaiso University 



Victor Riemenschneider 
Indiana University, South Bend 
David S. Woodruff 
Purdue University 
Willard F. Yates, Jr. 
Butler University 
Frank N. Young 
Indiana University 



(A, B, or C accompanying title refers to: Publication; Thesis on File; or 
Work in Progress, respectively.) 



Biota : 



: 1. Haag, B. 1974. Biological magnification of DDT in plants and 
animals in Jefferson County. B.A. Thesis. Hanover Coll. (B). 

2. Helms, Ronald L., and Marion T. Jackson. 1976. A biotic inven- 
tory of Dobbs Park Natural Area. Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 
85:208-216. (A). 



Fungi 



Fahey, T., and J. D. Schoknecht. Indiana State Univ. Develop- 
mental studies of Coprinus and its ozanium and oidium states. (C). 
Hasselbring, T. S., Tansey, M. R., and M. A. Jack. 1975. 
Fungi associated with growing stalactites. Mycologia 67:171-172. 
(A). 

Huber, D. M., and G. R. Anderson. 1976. Effect of organic 
amendment on snowmold of winter wheat. Phytopathology 66:1028- 
1032. (A). 

Huber, D. M., and B. J. Hankins. 1974. Effect of fall clipping 
on snowmold of winter wheat. Plant Dis. Rept. 58:432-434. (A). 

Laviolette, F. A., and K. L. Athow. Purdue Univ. Three new 
physiologic races of Phytophthora megasperma var. sojae. Phyto- 
pathology. (In Press). 

Schoknecht, J. D. Indiana State Univ. Myxomycetes of Indiana: 
Macrofungi of the Wabash Valley. (C). 

Tansey, M. R., and M. A. Jack. Indiana Univ. Thermophilic 
fungi in sun-heated soils. Mycologia 68: (In Press). 



Algae : 



Brooks, Austin E., and William N. Doemel. Wabash Coll. Fluores- 
cent whitening agents: Effects on selected algae. Proc. Indiana 
Acad. Sci. (In Press). 



Tracheophyta: 



*4. 



Abrell, D. Brian, and Marion T. Jackson. Indiana State Univ. 
A decade of change in an old-growth beech-maple forest in In- 
diana. Amer. Midland Natur. (In Press). 

Burgette, Daniel L. 1975. Vegetational analysis of Portland 
Arch Nature Preserve, Fountain County, Indiana; comparing the 
Ohmann-Ream method with stratum ranking. M.S. Thesis, Purdue 
Univ. 204 pp. (B). 

Burgette, Daniel L., and Douglas M. Knudson. 1976. Plants of 
Portland Arch Nature Preserve. Purdue Ag. Exp. Sta., Sta. Bull. 
No. 141. 23 pp. (A). 

Dilcher, D. L., and R. N. Pheifer. 1974. Stump casts of arbores- 
cent lycopods. Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 84:114-121. (A). 



36 



Biological Survey Committee Report 37 

5. Hollett, Byron P., and M. T. Jackson. 1976. Quantitative aspects 
of the association of Cenococcum graniforme with Fagus grandi- 
folia in Indiana. Forest Sci. 22:127-130. (A). 

6. Jackson, Marion T., Ronald L. Helms, and John O. Whitaker, 
Jr. 1976. Additions to the flora of Vigo County, Indiana. I. Proc. 
Indiana Acad. Sci. 85:354-359. (A). 

7. Levy, M. 1976. Phenetic:genetic correlations and reproductive out- 
put among local populations of Oenothera biennis. Amer. J. Bot., 
A.I.B.S. Abstracts: 57. ( Abstr. ) . 

8. Levy, M., and P. L. Winternheimer. Purdue Univ. Allozyme link- 
age disequilibria among chromosome complexes in the permanent 
translocation heterozygote Oenothera biennis. Evolution. (In 
Press). 

9. Shifley, S. R., and K. M. Brown. Purdue Univ. A bibliography of 

th3 elm-ash-cottonwood forest type. (C). 

10. Stivers, R. K., and M. L. Swearingin. Purdue Univ. Soybean 
yield compensation with different populations and missing plant 
patterns. (C). 

11. Willut, J., G. Marks, and G. Hicks. Valparaiso Univ. Natur- 
ally occurring mature American chestnut trees (Castanea dentata) 
in northwest Indiana. (C). 

12. Wilson, Kathryn J. 1976. Developmental anatomy of the non- 
articulated branched laticifer system of Asclepias syriaca L. Ph.D. 
Thesis. Indiana Univ. (B). 

13. Wilson, Kathryn J. Indiana Univ.-Purdue Univ. Indianapolis. 
Ultrastructure of Asclepias syriaca L. laticifers and tissue culture 
of this species. (C) . 

14. Wilson, Kathryn J., and P. G. Mahlberg. 1975. Ultrastructure 
of the non-articulated laticifer in embryos and seedlings of the 
common milkweed, Asclepias syriaca. Amer. J. Bot. 62 (Supple- 
ment) :48-49. Abstr. (A). 

15. Wilson, Kathryn J., and P. G. Mahlberg. Indiana Univ.-Purdue 
Univ. Indianapolis. Investigations of laticifer differentiation in 
tissue cultures derived from Asclepias syriaca L. Ann. of Bot. (In 
Press) . 

16. Wilson, Kathryn J., and P. G. Mahlberg. Indiana Univ.-Purdue 
Univ. Indianapolis. Ultrastructure of non-articulated branched 
laticifers in mature embryos of Asclepias syriaca L. (C). 

17. Wilson, Kathryn J., C. L. Nessler, and P. G. Mahlberg. 1976. 
Pectinase in Asclepias latex and its possible role in laticifer growth 
and development. Amer. J. Bot. 63:1140-1144. (A). 

18. Wilson, Kenneth S. 1976. The antccology of Spiranthes cernua 
in a grassland community. Symposium on the scientific aspects of 
orchids. Detroit, Mich. (Southfield). Oct. 25, 1974. Univ. of 
Detroit. Published Proc. (Abstr.). 

Protozoa: 1. Albright, J. F., and D. G. Dusanic. 1976. Splenomegaly and 

suppression of humoral immunity in mice infected with Try- 
panosoma musculi. Fed. Proc, 35:250. (A). 

2. Albright, J. F., J. W. Albright, and D. G. Dusanic. Indiana 
State Univ. Trypanosome-inrluced splenomegaly and suppression 
of mouse spleen cell responses to antigens and mitogens. J. Ret. 
Soc. (In Press). 

3. Cherian, P. V., and D. G. Dusanic. 1975. Electron microscopic 
localization of surface antigens of Trypanosoma leivisi with 
ferritin labeled antibody. J. Parasitol., 61:98. (A). 

4. Cherian, P. V., and D. G. Dusanic. Indiana State Univ. Studies 
on the surface antJgens of trypanosomes. I. Electron microscopic 
localization of ant-gens of Trypanosoma leivisi with direct and 
indirect immunoferritin techniques. Exp. Parasitol. (In Press). 



38 



Indiana Academy of Science 



Dusanic, D. G. 1975. Immunosuppression and ablastin. Exp. 
Parasitol. 38:322. (A). 

Dusanic, D. G. vtge. Trypanooma muculi infection in com. 
plement deficient mice. Exp. Parasitol. 37:205. (A). 
Dusanic, D. G. 1974. The effects of homologous and heterologous 
ablastic antisera on the in vitro growth of Trypanosoma musculi. 
J. Protozool. 21:43. (A). 

Long, G. and D. G. Dusanic. Indiana State Univ. Precipitation 
and agglutination reactions of Trypanosoma lewisi isolated from 
untreated and immunosuppressed hosts. Exp. Parasitol. (In 
Press) . 

Soria, C. A., and D. G. Dusanic. 1975. Comparative studies on 
Trypanosoma dionisii and Trypanosoma vespertilionis. J. Proto- 
zool. 22:509. (A). 

Soria, C. A., and D. G. Dusanic. 1974. Morphologic, physiologic, 
and serologic studies of Trypanosoma vespertilionis and Try- 
panosoma dionisii. J. Parasitol. 60:30. (A). 

Tamar, Henry. 1975. Movements of saltatory ciliates. J. Protozool. 
22(3) :45A. (A). 



Nematoda : 



Callahan, Clarence A. 1976. An evaluation of nematode com- 
munity structure as a method for quantifying and interpreting 
ecological changes in water resource environments. Ph.D. Thesis. 
Purdue Univ. (B). 

Goseco, Celso G. 1974. Review of the superfamily Leptonchoidea 
(Nematoda: Dorylaimida) . Ph.D. Thesis. Purdue Univ. (B). 
Johnson, Stephen R. 1971. Nematode community structure of 
selected deciduous woodlots. Ph.D. Thesis. Purdue Univ. (B). 
Tjepkema, James P. 1971. Revision of the genus Aporcelaimellus 
Heyns, 1965 and six species groups of the genus Eudorylaimus 
Andrassy, 1959 (Nematoda: Dorylaimida). Ph.D. Thesis. Purdue 
Univ. (B). 



Arthropoda: 



1. Fain, A., and John O. Whitaker, Jr. 1976. Notes on the genus 
Acanthopthirius Perkins (Acarina: Myobiidae) in North America. 
Bull, de la Soc. Beige. Entom. 112:127-143. (A). 

2. Stanley, Alesa L. 1975. Invertebrates of three southern Indiana 
streams. B.A. Thesis. Hanover Coll. (B). 



Crustacea: 



Whitaker, John O., Jr., and R. A. Schlueter. 1975. Occurrence of 
the crustacean parasite, Lemaea cyprinacea, on fishes from the 
White River at Petersburg, Indiana. Amer. Midland Natur. 93:446- 
450. (A). 



Insecta: 



c l. Anderson, Michael J. 1972. A pitfall trapping study of the adult 
carabid beetles found in two different corn tillage-planting sys- 
tems. M.S. Thesis. Purdue Univ. (B). 

2. Ballard, Thomas O. 1975. The biology and control of the eastern 
pine-shoot moth, Eucosma gloriola Heinrich, in Christmas tree 
plantings in northern Indiana. M.S. Thesis. Purdue Univ. (B). 

: 3. Burgess, J. W. 1974. Review of findings on the taxonomic 
status of Culex pipiens L. and Culex fatigans Wiedemann in the 
United States. Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 83:214. (A). 

4. Busching, Milan K. 1975. Field vegetation affecting the potential 
for black cutworm damage to corn in Indiana. M.S. Thesis. Purdue 
Univ. (B). 

5. Caldwell, Douglas L. 1975. The life cycle and description of the 
three forms of Phylloxera caryaccaulis (Fitch) (Phylloxeridae: 
Homoptera) on shagbark hickory, Carya ovata (Mill.) K. Koch. 
M.S. Thesis. Purdue Univ. (B). 



Biological Survey Committee Report 39 

*6. Carlson, Norman P. 1970. Aldrin susceptibility in Indiana popu- 
lations of the northern corn rootworm, Diabrotica longicornis 

(Say). M.S. Thesis. Purdue Univ. (B). 
*7. Chandler, Leland. 1971. Parasitic Lepidoptera in Indiana. Proc. 

Indiana Acad. Sci. 80:245. Abstr. (A). 
*8. Chandler, Leland. 1971. Underground nests of Augochlora pura 

(Say) (Hymenoptera: Halictidae. 2 Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 

80:245. (A). 
*9. Chandler, Leland. 1971. Vespa crabro L. and Polistes hunteri 

Bequaert in Indiana (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) . Proc. Indiana 

Acad. Sci. 80:245-246. (A). 
10. Chandler, Leland. 1975. Eusociality in Ceratina calcarata Robt. 

(Hymenoptera: Anthophoridae) . Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 84:283- 

284. (A). 
*11. Chandler, Thomas L. 1973. The effect of synthetic juvenile hor- 
mones on selected species of Diptera and Coleoptera in bovine 

feces. M.S. Thesis. Purdue Univ. (B). 
*12. Christensen, Christian M. 1970. A biological study of Aphodius 

fimetarius (Linne) and A. distinctus (Mueller) in central Indiana. 

(Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) M.S. Thesis. Purdue Univ. (B). 
13. Coyle, Cathy. 1975. Transport of fungi by Reticulitermes 

flavipes (Kollar) (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) . Proc. Indiana 

Acad. Sci. 84:284-285. (A). 
*14. Crovello, Theodore J. 1973. Modabund: the computerized mosquito 

data bank at the University of Notre Dame. Proc. Indiana Acad. 

Sci. 82:229. (A). 
*15. Cummins, Robert B. 1973. Cereal leaf beetle parasitoid release 

program. Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 82:229. (A). 
*16. Dolphin, R. E., M. L. Cleveland, and T. E. Mouzin. 1971. Tricho- 

gramma minutum relationship to codling moth and red-banded leaf 

roller eggs. Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 80:305-309. (A). 
*17. Dolphin, Robert E. 1972. Observations of Halictus confusus Smith 

(Hymenoptera: Halictidae) on woodland and field flowers. Proc. 

Indiana Acad. Sci. 81:182-185. (A). 
*18. Favinger, John J., and Claude F. Wade. 1973. Telephone cable 

penetration by Xylobiops basilaris (Say) (Coleoptera: Bostrichi- 

dae). Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 82:230-231. (A). 

*19. Finni, Gary R. 1969. Developmental patterns in winter stonefly 
species. (Insecta: Plecopteia: AUoeapnia, Taeniopteryx) . M.S. 
Thesis. Purdue Univ. (B). 

*20. FlNNl, Gary R. 1972. Ecological separation of coexisting species 
of winter stonefiies, AUoeapnia spp. (Plecoptera: Capniidae). (In- 
diana populations). Ph.D. Thesis. Purdue Univ. (B). 

*21. Finni, Gary R. 1973. The winter stonefly genus AUoeapnia in 
Indiana. Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 82:229-230. (A). 

♦22. Frazee, James R. 1974. Population dynamics of the green peach 
aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer), on the oilseed crop, Crambe. 
Ph.D. Thesis. Purdue Univ. (B). 

23. Dersch, Louis H., Jr. 1976. Comparative biology and ecology 
of Ephoron albxim (Say) and E. leukon Williamson cohabiting the 
Tippecanoe River, Indiana. ( Ephemeroptera: Polymitarcidae) . M.S. 
Thesis. Purdue Univ. (B). 

*24. Gould, George E. 1971. The corn rootworm problem in Indiana. 
Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 80:267-274. (A). 

25. Hallman, Guy J. 1976. Mexican bean beetle-soybean cultivar re- 
lationships in southern Indiana. M.S. Thesis. Purdue Univ. (B). 

26. Harris, Todd. Purdue Univ. Trichoptera fauna of Indiana. (C). 



40 Indiana Academy of Science 

*27. Hart, John W. 1971. New records of Indiana Collembola. Proc. 

Indiana Acad. Sci. 80:246. (A). 
*28. Hart, John W. 1973. New Records of Indiana Collembola. Proc. 

Indiana Acad. Sci. 82:231. (A). 
*29. Hart, John W. 1974. Preliminary studies of Collembola at the 

Brookville Ecological Research Center, including new records of 

Indiana springtails. Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 83:224-229. (A). 

30. Hart, John W. 1975. New records of Indiana Collembola. Proc. 
Indiana Acad. Sci. 84:283. (A). 

31. Heath, B. L. and W. P. McCafferty. 1975. Aquatic and semi- 
aquatic Diptera of Indiana. Purdue Univ. Agr. Exp. Sta. Res. Bull. 
No. 930:18p. (A). 

*32. Hinz, Thomas R. 1972. The influence of physical factors on alfalfa 
weevil, Hypera postica (Gyll.), oviposition and egg development 
with an interpretation for determination of adult density and 
mortality. M.S. Thesis. Purdue Univ. (B). 

*33. Hogg, David B. 1974. Overwintering success of a field population 
of the European corn borer. M.S. Thesis. Purdue Univ. (B). 

34. Huff, Bernard L., Jr. 1975. Biological studies of heptageniid 
mayflies and their systematic implication. Ph.D. Thesis. Purdue 
Univ. (B). 

*35. Jacques, Richard L. 1972. Taxonomic revision of the genus 
Leptinotarsa (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) of North America. 
Ph.D. Thesis. Purdue Univ. (B). 

*36. Knapp, Virgil R. 1973. Preliminary annotated list of Indiana 
Aphididae. Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 82:242-263. (A). 

*37. Lawson, H. Randolph. 1972. The Planipennia ( Neuroptera ) in 
Indiana. Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 81:173-174. (A). 

*38. Lawson, H. Randolph. 1974. An analysis of ordination as a tool 
in animal synecology, with especial reference to ant ( Hymenop- 
tera: Formicoidea) populations in a woodland ravine. (List of 
Indiana ants, etc.) Ph.D. Thesis. Purdue Univ. (B). 

*39. Levine, Eli. 1974. Biology of Bellura gortijnoides Walker (=vul- 
nifica (Grote)), the yellow water-lily borer (Lepidoptera: Noc- 
tuidae). Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 83:214-215. (A). 

*40. Lindstrom, Bruce M., and Sarah C. Strawn. 1971. Nest mortality 
in two species of mud-daubers in eastern Indiana. Proc. Indiana 
Acad. Sci. 80:245. (A). 

*41. Lube, Bruce M. 1972. The winter ecology of stem nesting bees 
and wasps. (Hymenoptera) . M.S. Thesis. Purdue Univ. (B). 

42. Lund, Rea D. 1975. The field activity and feeding habits of 
Carabidae associated with Indiana cornfields. M.S. Thesis. Purdue 
Univ. (B). 

*43. MATTESON, Lyle E., Jr. 1972. A quantitative study of the vertical 
distribution of the alfalfa weevil, Hypera postica (Gyllenhal) and 
Bathyplcctes curculionis (Thomson) on alfalfa. M.S. Thesis. Pur- 
due Univ. (B). 

44. McCafferty, W. P. 1975. Institutional insect collections in In- 
diana. Pioc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 84:294-306. (A). 

45. McCafferty, W. P. 1975. The burrowing mayflies (Ephemerop- 
tera: Ephemeroidea) of the United States. Trans. Amer. Entomol. 
Soc. 101:447-504. (A). 

46. McCafferty, W. P. 1976. A coordinate indexing system for 
ecosystematic data. Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 85:251-257. (A). 

47. McCafferty, W. P., and J. L. Stein. 1976. Indiana Ensifera 

(Orthoptera). Gr. Lakes Entomol. 9:25-56. (A). 



Biological Survey Committee Report 41 

*48. Meyer, R. W., and J. V. Osmund. 1971. Insects and other arthro- 
pods of economic importance in Indiana during 1970. Proc. Indiana 
Acad. Sci. 80:286-298. (A). 

*49. Meyer, R. W., and J. V. Osmund. 1972. Insects and other arthro- 
pods of economic importance in Indiana during 1971. Proc. Indiana 
Acad. Sci. 81:171. (A). 

*50. Meyer, Robert W. 1974. Insects and other arthropods of economic 
importance in Indiana during 1973. Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 
83:230-238. (A). 
51. Meyer, Robert W. 1975. Insects and other arthropods of economic 
importance in Indiana during 1974. Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 
84:313-321. (A). 

*52. Mignot, Edward C. 1970. Taxonomic revision of the tribes 
Aspicelini and Disonychini (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae, Alticinae) 
north of Mexico. (Distribution of Indiana species). Ph.D. Thesis. 
Purdue Univ. (B). 

*53. Montgomery, B. Elwood. 1971. Records and observations of In- 
diana Odonata. Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 80:253-263. (A). 

*54. Montgomery, B. Elwood. 1972. Survival of Odonata naiads 
through drought and freezing. Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 81:171. 
(A). 

*55. Montgomery, B. Elwood. 1973. Why snakefeeder: Why dragonfly? 
Some random observations on etymological entomology. Proc. 
Indiana Acacl. Sci. 82:235-241. (A). 

56. Munsee, Jack R. Indiana State Univ. Smithistruma filitalpa. 
Brown, an Indiana dacetine ant. (C). 

57. Oliveria, Forrest L. 1975. Interpretation of regional population 
data and effects of dynamic climatology on density fluctuations of 
tha Columbian timber beetle, Corthylus columbianus Hopkins 
(Coleoptera: Scolytidae). Ph.D. Thesis. Purdue Univ. (B). 

58. Sanders, Darryl P., and John L. Peterson. 1975. The occurrence 
of the pigeon fly, Pseudolynchia canariensis (Macquart) in In- 
diana. Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 84:287-288. (A). 

59. Schoenbohm, Richard B. 1976. The biology of Meteorus leviventris 
(Wesmael) (Hymenoptsra: Braconidae) and the effect of parasit- 
ism on the feeding activity of its black cutworm host. M.S. Thesis. 
Purdue Univ. (B). 

60. Schoenbohm, Richard B. Purdue Univ. Parasites of the black 
cutworm (Agrotis ipsilon Hufnagel) in Indiana. (C). 

*61. Schuder, Donald L. 1974. A new barberry pest found in Indiana. 
Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 83:216-217. (A). 

*62. Schroyer, Donald A., and R. W. Meyer. 1974. New distribution 
records of mosquitoes in Indiana, 1973 (Diptera: Culicidae). Proc. 
Indiana Acad. Sci. 83:218-219. (A). 

*63. Shroyer, Donald A. 1974. The influence of carbohydrats-feeding 
and insemination on oviposition of an Indiana strain of Acdcs 
vexans (Meigen). M.S. Thesis. Purdue Univ. (B). 

*64. Shull, Ernest M. 1972. Indiana state records and notes on some 
rare butterflies and skippers in the state. Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 
81:175-176. (A). 

*65. Sillings, John O. 1971. A survey of the parasites of the tarnished 
plant bug. Lygus lincolaris ( Palisot de Beauvois) (Hemiptera: 
Miridae) in Indiana. M.S. Thesis. Purdue Univ. (B). 

06.- Siverly, Russell E. 1975. Blood meal identifications of Culex 
pipiens (northern house mosquito) collected during 1972 and 1973 
in Delaware and Henry counties, Indiana. Proc. Indiana Acad. 
Sci. 84:284. (A). 



42 Indiana Academy of Science 

*67. Smith, Eric H. 1970. Taxonomic revision of the genus 'Systena 
Chev. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae, Altincinae) of America north 
of Mexico. M.S. Thesis. Purdue Univ. (B). 

68. Smith, Eric H. 1976. Systena bimarginata Smith, new name, to 
replace Systena plicata Blake (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae, Al- 
tincinae). Coleopterists' Bull. 30(4) :342. (A). 

69. Stein, J. L., and W. P. McCafferty. 1975. The Ensifera (Or- 
thoptera) of Indiana. Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 84:283. (A). 

*70. Ward, Gertrude L. 1970. The comparative ethology of coexisting 
mud-dauber species. (Hymenoptera: Sphecidae) . Ph.D. Thesis. 
Purdue Univ. (B). 

*71. Ward, Gertrude L. 1971. Nest site preference of Chalybion zim- 
mermanni Dahlbom (Hymenopteraly: Sphecidae). Proc. Indiana 
Acad. Sci. 80:264-266. (A). 

*72. Ward, Gertrude L. 1972. Aggregations of Chalybion calif ornicum 
(Saussure) (Hymenoptera: Sphecidae) near Centerville, Wayne 
County, Indiana. Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 81:177-181. (A). 

*73. Ward, Gertrude L. 1973. Growth of Chalybion zimmermanni 
Dalhlbom in captivity (Hymenoptera: Sphecidae). Proc. Indiana 
Acad. Sci. 83:231-233. (A). 

*74. Ward, Gertrude L. 1973. Melittobia chalybii Ashmead (Hymenop- 
tera: Eulophidae) as a parasite of Chalybion zimmermanni Dahl- 
bom (Hymenoptera: Sphecidae). Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 82:233- 
234. (A). 

*75. Ward, Gertrude L. 1974. Prey-taking among some Indiana solitary 
wasps. Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 83:220-223. (A). 
76. Ward, Gertrude L., and Katherine J. Cole. 1975. Additions to 
the life history of Chalybion zimmermanni Dahlbom (Hymenop- 
tera: Sphecidae). Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 84:284. (A). 

*77. Ware, Mildred G., and Harold L. Zimmack. 1970. The use of 
heartbeat as a potential screening technique for insect pathogens. 
Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 79:227. (A). 

*78. Young, Frank N. 1970. Further studies on the interbreeding of 
an insular form of Tropisternus collaris (Castelnau) with main- 
land forms. Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 79:227. (A). 

*79. Young, Frank N. 1971. Observations on periodical cicadas (Brood 
X) in Indiana in 1970 (Homoptera: Cicadidae). Proc. Indiana 
Acad. Sci. 80:247-252. (A). 

80. Young, Frank N. 1975. Observations on periodical cicadas (Brood 
XIV) in Indiana in 1974 (Homoptera: Cicadidae). Proc Indiana 
Acad. Sci. 84:289-293. (A). 

81. Zimmerman, Ross. Indiana Univ. Bloomington. Oncopeltus (Ly- 
gaeidae) : Unpalatable prey, and the source of their invertebrate 
unpalatability. (C). 

82. Zimmerman, Ross. Indiana Univ. Bloomington. Tenodera (Man- 
tidae) : Social and defensive behavior, and predatory behavior when 
presented with unpalatable, aposematically colored prey. (C). 

Pieces: 1. Forsyth, William J., and C. D. Baker. Indiana Univ. S.E. New 

Albany. Fishes of southern Indiana. (C). 

2. French, Donald. Indiana Univ. Bloomington. Centrarchidae: Be- 
havior and ecology, primarily analysis of aggressive displays and 
effects of ecological parameters on territoriality. (C). 

3. Whitaker, John O., Jr. 1975. Foods of some fishes from the 
White River at Petersburg, Indiana. Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 
84:491-499. (A). 

4. Whitaker, John O., Jr. 1976. Fish community changes at one 
Vigo County locality over a twelve year period. Proc. Indiana 
Acad. Sci. 85:191-207. (A). 



Biological Survey Committee Report 43 

5. Whitaker, John O., Jr. Indiana State Univ. Food habits of fishes 
from the White River at Petersburg, Indiana. Amer. Midland Natur. 
(In Press). 

1. Barnard, W. Indiana Univ. Bloomington. Site fidelity and the 
role of experience in reproductive success of red-winged black- 
birds. (C). 

2. Carey, Michael, and Val Noland, Jr. 1975. Polygyny in indigo 
buntings: a hypothesis tested. Science 190:1296-1297. (A). 

3. Carey, Michael. 1976. Mating systems in indigo buntings. Ph.D. 
Thesis. Indiana Univ. (B). 

4. Crooke, R., and J. D. Webster. 1975. Breeding bird census #40. 
Mixed deciduous forest A. Amer. Birds 28 (6) : 1007-1008. (A). 

5. Crooke, R., and J. D. Webster. 1975. Breeding bird census #41. 
Mixed deciduous forest B. Amer. Birds 28 (6) : 1007-1008. (A). 

6. Crooke, R. 1975. Breeding bird census in mixed deciduous forests. 
B. A. Thesis. Hanover Coll. (B). 

7. Eisenhauer, David I. 1976. Ecology and behavior of the emperor 
goose (Anser canagicus Sewastianov) in Alaska. M.S. Thesis. 
Purdue Univ. (B). 

8. Gough, Mary R. 1976. Breeding bird census #36. Beech maple 
forest. Amer. Birds 29(6): 1096. (A). 

9. Hopkins, E. M. 1975. Breeding bird census #42. Poorly drained 
mixed oak forest. Amer. Birds 28(6): 1008. (A). 

10. Hopkins, E. M. 1975. Breeding bird census #104. Maintained in- 
vaded grassland. Amer. Birds 28 (6) : 1033-1034. (A). 

11. Ketterson, Ellen D., and Val Noland, Jr. 1976. Geographic vari- 
ation and its climatic correlates in the sex ratio of eastern-winter- 
ing dark-eyed juncos (Junto hyemalis hy emails) . Ecol. 57:679-706. 

(A). 

12. Madding, R. 1976. Breeding bird census #38. Swamp Forest. Amer. 
Birds 29(6) :1096. (A). 

13. Madding, R. 1975. Winter bird population study #68. Swamp 
forest. Amer. Birds 29(3) :781. (A). 

14. Madding, R. 1975. Winter bird population study #78. Abandoned 
field. Amer. Birds 29(3) :786. (A). 

15. Melchiors, M. A. 1976. Migration and feeding behavior of non- 
hunted and hunted geese on the Jasper-Pulaski Goose Management 
Zone. M.S. Thesis. Purdue Univ. (B). 

*16. McGroarty, Dennis L. 1971. Population dynamics of the ectopara- 
site fauna of the house sparrow, Passer domestlcus (L. ) in In- 
diana. M.S. Thesis. Purdue Univ. (B). 

17. Monahan, M. Indiana Univ. Bloomington. Mating success in red- 
winged blackbirds. (C). 

18. Morrison-Parker, C. 1976. Experimental study of field sparrow 
vocalizations. Ph.D. Thesis. Indiana Univ. (B). 

19. Mumford R. E., and C. E. Keller. 1975. An annotated check list 
of Indiana birds. Indiana Aud. Quart. 53:28-63. (A). 

20. Mumford, R. E. 1976. Nesting of the long-eared owl in Indiana. 
Indiana Aud. Quart. 54:95-97. (A). 

21. Mumford, Russell E., and Harmon P. Weeks, Jr. Purdue Univ. 
Black rail records in Indiana. Ind. Aud. Quart. (In Press). 

22. Noland, Val, Jr. 1975. External differences between newly hatched 
cuckoos (Coccyzus amerlcanus and C. erythropthalmus) . Condor 
77:341. (A). 



44 Indiana Academy of Science 

23. Noland, Val, Jr., and C. F. Thompson. 1975. The occurrence and 
significance of anomalous reproductive activities in two North 
American non-parasitic cuckoos, Coccyzus spp. Ibis 117:496-503. 

(A). 

24. Noland, Val, Jr. Indiana Univ. Bloomington. Ecology and be- 
havior of the prairie warbler (Dsndroica discolor). Ornith. Mono. 

(In Press). 

25. Parker, C. 1977. Parental behavior of male red-winged blackbirds 
and its role in reproductive success. Ph.D. Thesis. Indiana Univ 
Bloomington. ( B ) . 

26. Pitcher, Emma B. 1976. Breeding bird census #37. Black oak- 
sassafras woods. Amer. Birds 29(6):1096. (A). 

27. Pitcher, Emma B. 1975. Breeding bird census #39. Black oak and 
sassafras woods. Amer. Birds 28(6):1007. (A). 

28. Richmond, A. Indiana Univ. Bloomington. The importance of male 
parental behavior in the cardinal's monogamous mating system. 

(C). 

29. STRANG, Carla A. 1976. Feeding behavior and ecology of glaucous 
gulls in western Alaska. Ph.D. Thesis. Purdue Univ. (B). 

*30. Webster, J. D., and B. Haag. 1974. Winter bird population study 
#36. Grassland: Abandoned airport. Amer. Birds 28(3) :711. (A). 

31. Webster, J. D. 1975. Winter bird population study #24. Old growth 
beech-tuliptree-black gum forest. Amer. Birds 29(3): 761. (A). 

32. Webster, J. D., and R. Crooke. 1975. Breeding bird census #78. 
Brushland: Abandoned farm. Amer. Birds 28 (6) : 1024-1025. (A). 

33. Webster, J. D., and R. Crooke. 1975. Breeding bird census #79. 
Brushland: 8-year old clearcut. Amer. Birds 28(6): 1025. (A). 

*34. Weeks, Harmon P., Jr. 1970. Courtship and territorial behavior 
of some Indiana woodcocks. Proc. Indiana Acad, Sci. 79:162-171. 
(A). 

*35. Weeks, Harmon P., Jr. 1970. Eastern phoebe nesting in old barn 
swallow nest. Wilson Bull. 82(4) : 463-464. (A). 

36. Weeks, Harmon P., Jr. 1976. Breeding of the yellow-crowned night 
heron in Indiana. Indiana Aud. Quart. 54(3): 83-86. (A). 

37. Weeks, Harmon P., Jr. Abnormal nest building in the eastern 
phoebe. Auk: 94. (In Press). 

38. Yasukawa, K. Indiana Univ. Bloomington. Male quality and re- 
productive success in red-winged blackbirds. (C). 

Mammalk: *1. Gloman, Nancy J. 1973. The fall behavior and habits of the East- 

ern chipmunk, Tamias striatus. B.A. Thesis. Hanover Coll. (B). 

2. Kirkpatrick, Charles M., Charley M. White, Thomas W. Hoek- 
stra, Fred A. Stormer, and Harmon P. Weeks, Jr. 1976. White- 
tailed deer of U.S. Naval Ammunition Depot Crane. Purdue Agr. 
Expt. Stat. Res. Bull. 932. (A). 

3. McCrocklin, Sara M. 1976. The role of wildlife in the occurrence 
of pseudorabies among swine in Carroll County, Indiana. M.S. 
Thesis. Purdue Univ. (B). 

4. Montague, F. H., Jr. 1975. The ecology and recreational value of 
the red fox in Indiana. Ph.D. Thesis. Purdue Univ. (B). 

5. Mumford, R. E., and J. O. Whitaker, Jr. 1975. Seasonal activity 
of bats at an Indiana cave. Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 84:500-507. 

(A). 

*6. Weeks, Harmon P., Jr., Fred A. Stormer, Thomas W. Hoekstra, 
and Charley M. White. 1974. Unrecovered losses of white-tailed 
deer of U.S. Naval Ammunition Depot Crane. 36th Midw. Fish 
and Wildl. Conf. (A). 



Biological Survey Committee Report 45 

7. Weeks, Harmon P., Jr. and Charles M. Kirkpatrick. 1976. 
Adaptations of white-tailed deer to naturally occurring sodium 
deficiencies. J. Wildl. Mgmt. 40. (In Press). 

8. Weeks, Harmon P., JR. Purdue University. Nest reciprocity in 
eastern phoebes and barn swallows. Wilson Bull. 89. (In Press). 

9. Weeks, Harmon P., Jr., and Charles M. Kirkpatrick. Purdue 
Univ. Salt preferences and sodium drive phenology in fox squirrels 
and woodchucks. (C). 

10. Weeks, Harmon P., Jr., and Charles M. Kirkpatrick. Purdue 
Univ. Role of mineral licks in the ecology of white-tailed deer in 
southern Indiana. (C). 

11. Whitaker, John O., Jr., E. J. Spicka, and L. L. Schmeltz. 1976. 
Ectoparasites of squirrels of the genus Sciurus in Indiana. Proc. 
Indiana Acad. Sci. 85:431-436. (A). 

12. Whitaker, John O., Jr. Indiana State Univ. Foods of jumping 
mice, Zapodidae. In: Hbk. of Nutr. and Food. Chem. Rubber Co., 
Cleveland, OH. (In Press). 

13. Whitaker, John O., Jr., and L. L. Schmeltz. Indiana State Univ. 
Terre Haute. Use of woodchuck (Marmota monax) burrows by 
woodchucks and other mammals. Trans. Ky. Acad. Sci. (In Press). 

* Off-year publication. 



NECROLOGY 



Fay Kenoyer Daily, Butler University 



Edna Banta 



Switzerland County, Indiana Near Nashville, Indiana 

July 19, 1889 April 21, 1975 

Edna Banta, teacher and naturalist, was born July 19, 1889, near 
Vevay, Indiana. She grew up near Madison, Indiana, where her interest 
in nature developed under the influence of the beautiful countryside. 

Her undergraduate college training was obtained at Hanover 
College and graduate work was done at Indiana University where she 
earned a Master's degree and did work toward a Ph. D. degree. 

Miss Banta began teaching in Indiana at Jefferson County grade 
schools. She taught also at Madison and Spencer high schools. She 
went to New Castle in 1947 where she stayed until 1952. There she 
developed an elementary science program and was science consultant 
to elementary schools. Her effective teaching methods were the subject 
of an article in The Indiana Teacher (V. 92, p. 216, March, 1948). Of 
considerable value in this program was the collection of about 900 
slides of natural objects. Some of her photographs were accepted for 
exhibition at the International Salon of Nature Photography in Chicago. 
She also had a "live library" consisting of a squirrel, rabbit and other 
pets on loan to classes for study. Nature study trips were also con- 
ducted by the teachers to cultivate the ability and accuracy of ob- 
servation. Miss Banta was a valuable consultant for identification of 
specimens. She also gave slide talks to garden and civic clubs. One of 
the most famous topics was the Great Smokies, where she visited. She 
also walked about 120 miles in Yosemite National Park one summer 
looking for specimens. 

In 1948, Miss Banta went to Santiago, Chile, to teach science in 
a girl's school for a year. She also served as Park Naturalist at Clifty 
Falls State Park and McCormick's Creek State Park in Indiana. Her 
gentleness with animals and care of injured birds and beasts produced 
a number of charming pets, well-remembered by park visitors and 
friends. 

46 



Necrology 47 

When the Mary Gray Bird Sanctuary was obtained by the Indiana 
Audubon Society, Miss Banta became the Resident Naturalist there. 
The Tulip Popular Trail was laid out and developed by Miss Banta 
and she made many of the permanent plantings. 

In 1962, she left the sanctuary and moved to a home near Nashville, 
Indiana, where she lived until her death, there, April 21, 1975. She 
was the subject of an article in the Indianapolis Times (December 21, 
1962) which mentioned the beautiful decorations which she fashioned 
from natural materials collected from her property. The wreaths 
and other objects were on consignment at two shops. 

Miss Banta joined the Indiana Academy of Science in 1931 and 
became an emeritus member in 1967. She served on the Junior Academy 
Committee in 1951. She presented a paper on the plants of Jefferson 
County, new or rare, at a paper session in 1935. Representative speci- 
mens were sent to the Deam Herbarium and her work is cited in Deam's 
Flora of Indiana. 

Unforgettable Miss Banta shared her love of nature with others 
and enriched their lives by it, a legacy which will benefit many. 



48 Indiana Academy of Science 

Thomas M(ark) Bushnell 

Monticello, Indiana Lafayette, Indiana 

April 5, 1889 January 20, 1976 

Dr. Thomas M. Bushnell was a retired professor of Agronomy 
at Purdue University and died at Lafayette, Indiana, January 20, 
1976. He was born in Monticello, Indiana, April 5, 1889. He received 
a B.S. in Agronomy from Purdue in 1912. 

His career began as Soil Surveyor, Bureau of Soils, U.S. Depart- 
ment of Agriculture from 1912 to 1918. In 1917 to 1919, while serving 
in the aviation section of the U.S. Army Signal Corps, he realized 
that air photography could be applied to soil survey. He returned to 
be with the agricultural experiment station at Texas Agriculture and 
Mechanical College from 1919 to 1921, but came back to Indiana in 
1921 to be in charge of soil survey at Purdue's Experimental Station 
until 1953. He became Emeritus Professor of Agronomy in 1959. He 
used air photos for mapping Jennings County in 1929, the first entire 
county survey in the U.S. to be made on air photos. 

Prof. Bushnell was head of a land classification unit of the Re- 
settlement Administration from 1935 to 1937. He also supervised land 
classification units in 1946 to 1947 in Japan and was with the Cornell 
Air Photo team from 1954 to 1956 in Rangoon, Burma. He did soil 
surveys in the Dominican Republic in 1951. 

Purdue's soil exhibit at the Indiana State Fair promoted soil 
knowledge by innovations provided by Dr. Bushnell. He developed a 
simple means of sampling soils, easily stored and preserved, and called 
the resulting products "micromonoliths". He made available in a 
kit the cutters, preservatives, glues and cards needed for their prepara- 
tion. He prepared an electronic board where visitors to the fair could 
find answers to the soil questions by flashing lights or buzzers. The 
idea was adapted by state park naturalists for identification of wildlife 
by visitors. 

Dr. Bushnell wrote a Story of Indiana Soils published in 1944 
by the Purdue Experiment Station. It was so popular that the demand, 
long after it was out of print, prompted Dr. Bushnell to publish it 
privately in 1958 and market it by his own company, Peda Products, 
under the title, A Story of Hoosier Soils. He also offered the kits for 
micromonolith sampling. These were used in 4H projects. Several 
years ago, the remaining books and kits were presented to Purdue's 
Agronomy Club for distribution. 

Dr. Bushnell joined the Indiana Academy of Science in 1922 and 
was honored as a Fellow in 1935. He became an emeritus member in 
1975. He was a frequent contributor to paper sessions and published 
papers in the Proceedings Indiana Academy of Science on soil survey, 
aerial photography applied to soil survey, taxonomy, outline of classi- 
fication of Indiana soils, soil maps, a mystery mound in Lake county, 



Necrology 49 

the history of soil science in Indiana 1816 to 1966, etc. He was chairman 
of the Geology and Geography Division in 1939. 

Dr. Bushnell was also a member of the A.A.A.S., Soil Science 
Society, Soil Survey Association, International Society of Soil Science 
and Fellow of the Agronomy Society. 

Dr. Thomas M. Bushnell died at age 86 after a two-week illness. 
He had been one of the leaders of thought among an early generation 
of soil surveyors, and tried to make pedology important and under- 
standable to two generations of Indiana citizens. 



50 Indiana Academy of Science 

Ansel Miller Gooding 

Seymour, Iowa Richmond, Indiana 

July 12, 1924 March 24, 1976 

Dr. Ansel M. Gooding died suddenly at Richmond, Indiana, March 
24, 1976. Apparently, he suffered a heart attack after having two earlier 
attacks. He was 51 years old and was a professor of geology at 
Earlham College. He was recognized as an authority on the glacial 
geology of southeastern Indiana and southwestern Ohio. He is credited 
with 23 publications in an Earlham faculty " Memorial Minute". These 
include The Glacial Geology of Southeastern Indiana, Guidebook for 
Field Conference G, Great Lakes and Ohio River Valley (1965). 

Dr. Gooding was born at Seymour, Iowa, July 12, 1924. His A.B. 
degree was obtained from Augustana College, Rock Island, Illinois 
in 1949 where geology was given under the able direction of Dr. 
Fritioff Fryxell. He served in the U.S. Navy from 1944 to 1946, was 
summer field assistant on the U.S. Geological Survey in 1948 and 
geologist with the Missouri Geological Survey in 1950 and 1952. His 
graduate work was done at Iowa State University where he received 
an M.S. degree in 1951 under the guidance of Prof. A.C. Trowbridge 
and a Ph.D. in 1957. When he came to Earlham in 1951 as an as- 
sistant professor, much of the work on a doctorate had been com- 
pleted. It was finished later during a leave of absence. 

During work on his dissertation, Dr. Gooding received a grant 
from the National Science Foundation to help with student assistant 
expenses. The success of the project led to further N.S.F. grants of 
hundreds of thousands of dollars for research in geology, soils, chem- 
istry, physics and biology over a period of 20 years benefitting faculty 
and students in all Science Division Departments. 

Dr. Gooding became full professor at Earlham in 1964. He was 
Chairman of the Geology Department from 1961 to 1973, and clerk of 
the faculty in 1973. He was an excellent and stimulating teacher and 
his field trips are recalled by students with pleasure. In 1974, he at- 
tended a meeting of the Society of Soil Science in Russia and visited 
the interesting Alma Ata region in southeastern Russia. 

He was also active in community affairs and geological and 
environmental problems. He was also an active member of the local 
SPUR group and in 1973 was appointed to the Indiana Senate Com- 
mittee to investigate environmental quality in Indiana in conjunction 
with the Indiana State Senate Environment and Ecology Committee. 

Dr. Gooding joined the Indiana Academy of Science in 1966. He 
was a member of the Research Grants Committee from 1973 until 
death. He was also a member of several other professional societies: 
Geological Society of America; Fellow, National Association of Geology 
Teachers; International Association for Quaternary Research; American 
Quaternary Association; Ohio Academy of Science, Honorary Research 
Society of Sigma Xi and the informal field excursion group, "Friends 



Necrology 51 

of the Pleistocene". He was organizer for some of the field trips for 
the latter society. 

At Dr. Ansel Miller Gooding's unexpected death, Earlham President 
Franklin Wallen remembered Dr. Gooding as "a man who gave un- 
stintingly of himself to his students, to the study of geology, to the 
community and his family. His many accomplishments, his firm 
commitment and warm friendship will be deeply missed by all of 
Earlham". 



52 Indiana Academy of Science 

David T(racy) Jones 

Near Mount Auburn, Iowa Vinton, Iowa 

January 9, 1900 December 15, 1974 

Dr. David T. Jones was born on a farm near Mt. Auburn, Iowa, 
January 9, 1900. It is a farm that has been in his family for 122 years, 
bought in 1854 from the government. In 1906, his father became 
County Superintendent of Schools for Benton County and took his 
family to live in Vinton, Iowa. It was there that David received his 
early education until his senior year in high school when he attended 
Iowa State Teacher's College (now Northern Iowa University) because 
he had already decided to be a teacher. His interest in natural science 
and teaching developed early. His father allowed him to attend a 
summer teacher's institute which he held at Vinton High School. There 
the boy showed talent in geography and especially enjoyed drawing. 
Dr. Jones received an A.B. degree in 1923 and an M.S. degree in 1925 
from Iowa State University and a Ph. D. degree in 1933 from Indiana 
University. 

His professional career was varied. He was a zoology instructor 
at Utah State University from 1926 to 1927; director of laboratories 
at Oregon State University from 1927 to 1928; instructor of biology 
at Marietta College from 1928 to 1931; associate professor at Utah 
State University from 1933 to 1945; instructor in a summer institute 
in Kansas the summer of 1945; professor of physical science and 
department chairman at Huntington College from 1945 to 1946; as- 
sistant professor of physiology at Miami University (Ohio) from 
1946 to 1948, associate professor from 1949 to 1957; teacher in the 
Biology Department of Olivet Nazarene College (Kankakee, Illinois) 
from 1957 to 1963, professor from 1963 to 1969; and then did independent 
research after that. He was a scholar and a kind and religious man. 
He helped young people through school after he became a teacher 
and began tithing for churches at an early age. 

Dr. Jones joined the Indiana Academy of Science in 1931 listing 
his interests as Zoology, Entomology and Cell Biology. He gave a paper 
at the 1932 fall Academy meeting on anatomical features of the tiger 
snail Anguispira alternata. The snails were collected at Bloomington, 
Indiana, and the study was made at the Indiana University Zoology 
Department. He was an emeritus member at death. 

Dr. Jones was also a Fellow of the American Association for the 
Advancement of Science; member of Iowa, Ohio, and Kansas Academies 
of Science; Fellow, Utah Academy of Science, Arts and Letters; His- 
torical Society of Iowa and the American Malacological Union. He was 
honored by election to Phi Beta Kappa and Sigma Xi. He contributed 
articles to various scientific journals and was co-author of Mollusca 
of Utah, 1929 ; author of Practical Exercises in Basic Animal Histology, 
1939 and 1944; and also was author of The Spinal Cord of Amphioxis, 
1944. 



Necrology 53 

Although Dr. Jones taught out of state most of the years after 
joining the Indiana Academy of Science, he remained loyal to the 
society and maintained membership for 45 years. He died of hardening 
of the arteries December 15, 1974, in Vinton, Iowa, at 74 years of age. 



54 



Indiana Academy of Science 




William P(itt) Morgan 



Indianapolis, Indiana 
November 17, 1893 



Indianapolis, Indiana 
January 21, 1976 



Dr. William P. Morgan was born in Indianapolis, Indiana, Novem- 
ber 17, 1893, spent most of his life in this city and died here January 
21, 1976. He was Emeritus Professor of Biology from Indiana Central 
College and was well known for a successful teaching career and 
research in hybridization of plants. 

His education began in Perry Township grade school and secondary 
school, Manual Training High School of Indianapolis. Material for 
botany classes was obtained from the Lenia Elder and Brothers Green- 
house on the southside of Indianapolis where a fascination with the 
variation in gladioli, roses and freezias grown there led Dr. Morgan 
to his later research in this field. 

Dr. Morgan obtained an A.B. degree from Indiana Central College 
in 1919. He received an M.A. from Indiana University in 1922, was a 
Fellow there 1925 to 1926 and received a Ph. D. in Zoology in 1926. 



Necrology 55 

His professional career began as Art Supervisor in the Perry 
Township Schools, Marion County, Indiana, from 1914 to 1919, and 
he was part-time instructor of art at Indiana Central College. He 
became Associate Professor of Biology at Indiana Central College from 
1919 to 1926 and was a professor from 1926 to 1959, serving as 
Head of the Biology Department. He became emeritus professor in 
1959, but finally retired in 1965. He was also a lecturer at Indiana 
University, Indianapolis Extension, from 1927 to 1967. He was honored 
by receiving an L.L.D. degree from Indiana Central College in 1955 
for his excellent teaching and he was also an honored alumnus of 
Indiana University. 

Dr. Morgan joined the Indiana Academy of Science in 1920, and 
was honored as a fellow in 1930. He presented papers at the fall 
meetings as early as 1922 and for a number of years on insect 
cytology and on the variation and hybridization of freezias and 
gladioli. He gave generously of his time in serving the society in 
many capacities — especially an all time record of 15 years as treasurer 
from 1935 to 1950. The state of the economy during these years 
produced financial difficulties for the Indiana Academy of Science which 
could have meant the end of the society. However, through the suc- 
cessful efforts of Dr. Morgan to obtain funds and manage them wisely, 
it survived. He became president in 1951 and also served as assistant 
secretary in 1926 and for several years thereafter. He served on a 
number of committees: the committee to arrange A.A.A.S. meetings in 
Indianapolis for 1937; Fifty Year Index Committee 1945 to 1950; 
Chairman of the Auditing committee 1952 to 1960; Bonding of the 
Trustee Committee 1954 to 1958; Trustees of the Academy Foundation 
Chairman 1964 to 1969 and member 1970 to 1972; Invitations Committee 
1963 and 1964 and Nominations Committee in 1952. Dr. Morgan also 
belonged to the Zoological Society of America and Genetics Society 
of America. 

Dr. Morgan's property on the southside of Indianapolis was a 
showplace in the spring for the great variety of Narcissus blooms 
and other flowers. He had a greenhouse there where much of his 
hybridization studies were carried on. He perfected several hybrid 
roses, one of which, "Swingtime" was patented. During his declining 
years, he suffered several strokes. After having one in 1971, he no 
longer could work in the greenhouse, but was nursed and aided in 
finishing some research by his wife, Ada. His sudden death due to a 
heart attack ended the career of this fine teacher and valued friend. 



56 Indiana Academy of Science 

Marion A. Rector 

Cass Lake, Minnesota Chicago, Illinois 

December 23, 1907 November 13, 1974 

Mrs. Marion A. Rector was born December 23, 1907, at Cass 
Lake, Minnesota, but came to Indiana early in life. Her early education 
was obtained at a grade and high school in Montmorenci, Indiana. She 
graduated from Ball State University where she also received a 
Master's degree. She was a science instructor there from 1946 to 
1964. She was an efficient and well-liked teacher who particularly en- 
joyed giving the courses in the local flora. Mrs. Rector joined the 
Indiana Academy of Science in 1946 and was an emeritus member when 
she died. She presented a paper at a meeting on the herbaceous plants 
and shrubs of Christy Woods at Ball State University. Her work is 
cited in Natural Areas in Indiana by Lindsey, Schmelz and Nichols. 
Mrs. Rector served on the Youth Activities Committee for 1964 and 
1966 and was state representative on the committee for the Kappa 
Kappa Kappa Sorority. She was also a member of the University Club; 
Sigma Zeta, science honorary; Sewing Club; Alpha Association Chapter 
of Kappa Kappa Kappa and had been on the board of the Muncie 
Mission. 

After becoming blind and suffering a long illness, Mrs. Rector died 
at 66 years of age in Chicago, Illinois, November 13, 1974. She had 
been living there with her daughter. 



Necrology 57 

Jacob Richard Schramm 

Hancock County, Indiana Indianapolis, Indiana 

February 6, 1885 January 13, 1976 

Dr. Jacob R. Schramm was 90 years old when he died January 13, 
1976, at Indianapolis, Indiana. He was former Head of the Botany 
Department of the University of Pennsylvania and Research Scholar 
in Plant Sciences at Indiana University. He is probably best known 
for his excellent teaching and the founding of Botanical Abstracts 
later broadened to become Biological Abstracts, also for his research 
on the ecology of black mining wastes and physiology of the algae 
which earned for him an international reputation. 

Dr. Schramm was born in Hancock County near Cumberland, 
Indiana, February 6, 1885. His education at home by his German parents 
was invaluable to him in later years. He was bilingual and his father 
had imparted a knowledge of the trees and wild flowers of his native 
county. He was well-disciplined and led to appreciate music, literature 
and art. He attended Shortridge High School at Indianapolis, Indiana, 
when David Starr Jordan was on the faculty. Young Schramm worked 
several years to earn money for his further education and entered 
Wabash College in 1907. His life was influenced very much by the 
teaching and personality of his botany professor, Mason B. Thomas, 
whose example was held in esteem. By taking summer courses and 
extra course work in regular sessions, he was able to obtain an A.B. 
degree by 1910. He became a Lackland Fellow at Washington University, 
St. Louis, from 1910 to 1912 and received a Ph. D. in Botany in 1913. 

Dr. Schramm's professional career began as an assistant to 
George T. Moore, director of the Missouri Botanical Garden from 1912 
to 1915. From 1913 to 1915, he was also an Instructor of Botany at 
the Shaw School of Botany, Washington University. From 1915 to 
1925, Dr. Schramm taught Botany at Cornell University. While there, 
he founded Botanical Abstracts and was editor from 1921 to 1926. He 
also served as Executive Secretary of the Division of Biology and 
Agriculture of the National Research Council from 1922 to 1924. He 
left Cornell to become editor when Botanical Abstracts expanded to 
become Biological Abstracts and served from 1926 to 1937. He then 
became Professor of Botany at the University of Pennsylvania 1937 to 
1955 when he became emeritus professor. During this time (1939 to 
1954), he was also Director of the Morris Arboretum. He was then a 
research scholar at Indiana University in 1956 until death. While 
there in 1966, his volume on the ecology of black mining wastes was 
published by the American Philosophical Society. He wrote many 
botanical papers. 

Dr. Schramm joined the Indiana Academy of Science while at 
Wabash College in 1908 and was a member until 1911 when he moved 
to St. Louis. His membership was renewed in 1956 when he returned 
to Indiana University as a research scholar. A paper on endophytic 



58 Indiana Academy of Science 

algae was read by title at the 1908 meeting. Dr. Schramm collected 
algae at Woods Hole Marine Biological Laboratory accompanied by 
Dr. Thomas of Wabash in the summer of 1909. It was there that he 
met Dr. George T. Moore, a former Wabash student, with whom 
he later worked at the Missouri Botanical Garden. 

Dr. Schramm belonged to and served several other societies: 
American Association for the Advancement of Science; Botanical 
Society of America (secretary, 1918 to 1922; vice president, 1923; 
president, 1925; recipient of Merit Award, 1969); Philosophical Society 
(secretary, 1947 to 1953; vice president, 1959; recipient of Franklin 
Medal, 1952). He was also honored by election to Phi Beta Kappa 
and Sigma Xi, by receiving the G. Miles Conrad Award in 1967 and 
the Honorary Degree of Doctor of Science at Wabash University in 
1959. 

Dr. Schramm was married in 1913 and his wife, Mildred, also 
obtained a Ph. D. degree at Shaw's Garden. She was active in cancer 
research and helped found the Little Red Door. The lives of the 
Schramms were exemplary. 



Necrology 59 

R(ussell) E(mmett) Siverly 

Louisa County, Iowa Muncie, Indiana 

December 3, 1913 February 21, 1976 

Dr. Russell E. Siverly was born in Louisa County, Iowa, on 
December 3, 1913. His undergraduate work was taken at Iowa State 
Teacher's College where he received a B.A. degree in 1939. He ob- 
tained an M.S. degree from the University of Wyoming in 1946 and 
a Ph. D. degree from Oregon State College in 1956. 

His professional career began as a teacher in public schools in 
Iowa, and he served in the U.S. Army Air Corps from 1942 to 1945. 
He was an entomologist with the U.S. Public Health Service from 
1948 to 1953. He spent summers with the U.S. Public Health Service 
Technical Development Laboratory at Savannah, Georgia, from 1957 
to 1959. He received the rank of Scientist (Reserve) in 1961 and con- 
tinued as a consultant with the laboratory. He became a member of 
the Ball State University faculty in 1956 as a professor of health 
science and was also a member of the Muncie Board of Health for 
two years. He was honored in 1974 by Ball State University at an 
awards dinner for the faculty because of his outstanding contributions 
to the university. 

Dr. Siverly's chief research interest was the identification, dis- 
tribution and control of mosquitos. He had grants from the Indiana 
State Board of Health, National Science Foundation and Ball State 
University for his work. He wrote many articles and the books: 
Mosquitoes of Indiana and Rearing Insects in Schools. He was working 
with officials at the Indiana State Board of Health to help prevent 
an outbreak of encephalitis this last summer. At his death, he was 
preparing short courses for sanitarians to identify mosquito species, 
their breeding grounds and methods of control. 

Dr. Siverly joined the Indiana Academy of Science in 1956 and was 
elected fellow in 1961. He was chairman of the Entomology Division 
for 1961 and was Invitations Committee Chairman for 1962. He pre- 
sented a study of the life cycle of the mosquito illustrated with color 
slides at the dinner meeting of the Academy on May 18, 1962. He 
also presented numerous papers, mostly on mosquito populations, 
habitat, and as disease vectors at other meetings. He also was a 
member of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, 
Entomology Society of America, American Mosquito Control Associ- 
ation; Sigma Zeta and Sigma Xi, science honorary societies; Society 
of Systematic Zoology and American Public Health Association. 

Dr. Siverly was a nationally recognized authority on mosquitoes 
and control at his death. He died February 21, 1976 in Muncie, Indiana, 
after a brief illness. 



60 Indiana Academy of Science 

Ned M(yron) Smith 

Indianapolis, Indiana Lafayette, Indiana 

September 9, 1923 January 23, 1976 

Dr. Ned M. Smith was a lifelong Hoosier. He was born in 
Indianapolis, Indiana, September 9, 1923. Following- high school, he 
served during World War II with the U.S. Army Airforce in Europe 
and Africa from 1942 to 1945. He became a Sergeant and received the 
Air Medal with Cluster. He retained his interest in aircraft and 
devotion to country in later years. 

His college education was obtained at Indiana University, where 
he received a B.A. degree in 1949, an M.A. degree in 1955 and a 
Ph. D. degree in 1962. 

He was a geologist with the Industrial Minerals Section of the 
Indiana Geological Survey from 1950 to 1963. He was visiting faculty 
member in the Department of Geology, Fresno State College, Cali- 
fornia, in 1963. He also joined the Purdue faculty that year as an 
associate geology professor in the School of Civil Engineering. In 
1967, he transferred to the new Department of Geosciences, School of 
Science. 

Dr. Smith was essentially a field geologist and was Director of 
Purdue Summer Geology Field Camp in North Park, Colorado, which 
he helped locate, organize and operate. His enthusiastic guidance and 
teaching were appreciated by his students, some of whom suggested 
establishing the Ned Smith Field Camp Fund which has been done 
in his memory. 

Dr. Smith joined the Academy in 1950 when he was with the 
Indiana Geological Survey. He reported to the society on a "fossil" cave 
filling in St. Louis limestone in Putnam County, Indiana. He was a 
fellow of the Geological Society of America, a member of the Amer- 
ican Institute of Professional Geologists, National Association of 
Geology Teachers, Society of Economic Paleontologists and Minerol- 
ogists, American Association of Petroleum Geologists and was a 
Certified Professional Geologist and Geological Consultant. 

He wrote numerous publications and file reports on Indiana geol- 
ogy and many confidential consulting reports for the dimension stone 
and quarry industry. 

Dr. Ned M. Smith, 52 years of age, died from a rapidly pro- 
gressing cancer. The end came January 23, 1976, in Lafayette, Indiana. 
He taught classes up until a week before his death, so that hi 3 passing 
came with shock and sorrow to his students and colleagues at Purdue. 



Necrology 61 

Elmer Griffith Sulzer 

Madison, Indiana Sarasota, Florida 

July 29, 1903 February 14, 1976 

Born a stone's throw away from the famous "Madison, Indiana, 
cut" producing the 5.89 per cent railroad grade there, Mr. Elmer G. 
Sulzer found a natural interest in railroads at an early age. Later, 
this was expressed in his numerous books and articles on early rail- 
roading and the history of abandoned railroads. He attended Indiana 
University and DePauw University receiving an A.B. degree from 
DePauw in journalism and music in 1925. He was in business with the 
Sulzer Brothers in Madison from 1925 to 1926. He served at the 
University of Kentucky from 1926 to 1952 as band director, public re- 
lations director and head of the Department of Radio and Arts. He 
had also been director of the Kentucky University marching band. In 
1949, he earned an M.A. degree in communication research from the 
University of Illinois while also serving as production director of 
station WILL in Champaign-Urbana. 

While at Kentucky University, he took education to the mountain 
country of Kentucky by use of battery operated radios in communities 
with otherwise poor communication systems. He built the first uni- 
versity FM station in the United States. 

In 1952, Mr. Sulzer came to Indiana University to organize a de- 
partment of radio and television of which he became chairman. While 
there, he fostered a fine radio-television facility and the training 
center became one of the finest in the United States. He became a 
leading broadcast educator. He retired from the chairmanship in 1964 
and returned full time to research and teaching and became co- 
ordinator of Industrial Relations. He established the first broadcast 
institute for high school students and was a consultant to Australian 
broadcasters and educators to implement broadcast education in 
Australian Universities. He became professor emeritus in 1969. He 
received numerous awards for his broadcasting. One of them is the 
very distinguished George Foster Peabody Award for an educational 
series on venereal disease. He was also a Kentucky Colonel, Sagamore 
of the Wabash, honorary chief of the Lexington, Kentucky, fire de- 
partment, and was honorary member of the Brotherhood of Railway 
Trainmen. He was an honorary citizen of Louisville, Kentucky, and one 
of a small group, Broadcast Pioneers. His biography is included in 
Indiana Lives, Indiana Authors and Their Books 1917 to 1966 
(written by Donald E. Thompson), Ghost Railroads of Indiana dust 
jacket and Indiana Alumni Magazine articles. 

Mr. Sulzer was also vice president and chairman of the board of 
Electronics Laboratories, Inc. Louisville, Kentucky; and part owner 
of radio stations in Jeffersonville and Madison, Indiana. 

Mr. Sulzer joined the Indiana Academy of Science in 1918 and 
was an emeritus member when he died. He had presented papers in 



62 Indiana Academy of Science 

the Geology-Geography Section on "erosional freaks" of Saluda lime- 
stone, remnant monuments near Madison and a paper on railroad 
history and abandonment in Indiana. He was also active in the National 
Association of Educational Broadcasters, American Colleges Public 
Relations Association, Association of Professional Broadcasting Edu- 
cation, Kentucky and Indiana Broadcaster's Associations and a member 
of other fraternal and professional societies. 

Mr. Sulzer became a world-wide authority on abandoned railroads 
and the causes. He wrote: Ghost Railroads of Kentucky, Ghost Rail- 
roads of Indiana and Ghost Railroads of Tennessee. Manuscripts and 
notes are already with the Indianapolis publisher, Vane A. Jones 
(personal communication), for Ghost Electric Railroads of Kentucky 
and Tennessee, tentatively scheduled for next year. It is also planned 
to update the books on abandoned railroads in Kentucky and Indiana. 
Some of his articles appeared in Trains, The Bulletin of the Railway 
and Locomotive Historical Society, The Kentucky Engineer and other 
journals. 

Mr. Sulzer was a jazz enthusiast and played the piano in the 
Indiana University Dixieland Combo. He also played the calliope on 
Ohio River excursion boats. 

This talented, colorful, versatile man died in Sarasota, Florida, 
February 14, 1976, where he lived after retirement. 



Necrology 



63 




Paul Weatherwax 



Worthington, Indiana 
April 4, 1888 



Bloomington, Indiana 
October 18, 1976 



Dr. Paul Weatherwax was born near Worthington, Indiana, April 
4, 1888, and grew up on a farm. At death, he was a world traveler, 
the foremost international authority on the botanical and ethnological 
history of the corn plant, specialist in the grasses, morphologist, 
anatomist and was an emeritus professor from Indiana University. 

His A.B. degree was earned at Indiana University in 1914, an 
A.M. in 1915 and Ph.D. in Botany in 1918. He was an assistant in 
Botany there from 1913 to 1915 and an instructor from 1915 to 1919. 
He was an associate professor at the University of Georgia from 1919 
to 1921 but came back to Indiana University in 1921. He became a 
full professor at Indiana University in 1935 and taught there until 
1959 when he became professor emeritus. 

Dr. Weatherwax was a quiet man disguising his dynamic per- 
sonality. His scholarship was rewarded many times by grants and 
awards. He was a Waterman Fellow at Indiana University from 1925 



64 Indiana Academy of Science 

to 1930 and Guggenheim Traveling Fellow from 1944 to 1945 when 
he went to South and Central America to do research on corn. He 
was technical assistant in science education on an Indiana University 
contract when he went to Bangkok, Thailand, from 1957 to 1959. On that 
trip, he planned to study corn in the hills of Burma in his spare 
time. Just as recently as last June, he received a merit award for 
outstanding botanical contributions from the Botanical Society of 
America. 

He traveled more than 150,000 miles seeking the wild ancestor 
of Indian domesticated corn. He concluded that the original ancestor 
was extinct, but primitive characteristics were present in several 
extant varieties. In order to preserve these varieties, a national 
committee was formed under the auspices of the National Research 
Council for supervision of the task. According to a news item in 
1952, Dr. Weatherwax belonged to this committee. The purpose of 
the preservation of various corn characteristics was to be able to 
develop corn adapted to the specific needs of the future, redevelop a 
resistant corn if blight developed, or redevelop domestic stock if 
wiped out in a disaster of any kind. 

His adventures in the isolated areas of the Andes Mountains in 
Peru, Equador and Bolivia took him to native corn fields to search 
for varieties new to science. He was escorted to jails three times during 
his trips to Central and South America before he could explain his 
activities to the natives. He also temporarily lost a precious notebook 
in New Mexico when it was grabbed while he was watching a Pueblo 
Indian harvest dance. It took much persuasion to recover it. Many 
trips were taken to Arizona and New Mexico in his quest. He was the 
author of a hundred or more papers and Charles demon Deam: Hoosier 
Botanist in Indiana, Magazine of History (1971), Indian Corn in 
Old America (MacMillan Press, 1954), The Story of the Maize Plant 
and Plant Biology, a textbook which has been widely used. His draw- 
ings attracted particular interest and there is a permanent collection 
displayed at the Hunt Botanical Library, Carnegie-Mellon University, 
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 

He was also well known for his advocacy of conservation before its 
present popularity. Following the precedent at the campus, he helped 
in planning the preservation and renewal of Dunn Woods, site of the 
Indiana University Bloomington Campus during the building program. 
He named and mapped the trees of the campus in The Wildwood Campus 
of Indiana University first issued in 1963 at the urging of Herman B 
Wells. Dr. Weatherwax was honored June, 1974, at an Indiana Univer- 
sity Arbor Day when a marker was dedicated in his honor on the 100th 
anniversary of the 1874 Arbor Day at I.U. 

After Dr. Weatherwax became professor emeritus at Indiana Univer- 
sity in 1959, he continued teaching at Franklin College from 1960 to 
1963 and at Hanover College in 1966. He also continued research on 
grass plants. He had access to a section of the Jordan Hall greenhouse 
at Indiana University, Bloomington campus, for this purpose. 



Necrology 65 

Dr. Weatherwax was a member of the Indiana Academy of Science 
63 years, having joined in 1913. He became a fellow in 1922, was Divi- 
sional Chairman of the History of Science Division in 1949 and Botanical 
Division in 1962, treasurer in 1933 and 1934, editor from 1935 to 1940, 
president in 1941, parliamentarian from 1965 to 1974 and he was a repre- 
sentative on the Council of the A.A.A.S. in 1949. He served on many com- 
mittees: membership, program, biological survey, resolutions, nominations, 
publication of the Proceedings of the Indiana Academy of Science, re- 
search grants, 50-year index, index, Indiana Scientists and the special 
constitution revision committee. His many papers given at Academy 
meetings reflected a wide range of interests. His early study of micro- 
biology yielded two papers in 1913, the year he joined the Academy, 
on a parasite of Spirogyra dubia and ecological notes on some White 
River algae. These were notes gathered while he served as an assistant 
in a sanitary survey done by the Indiana State Board of Health Water 
Laboratory. In addition, he gave two papers in 1914 on aerating culture 
collections and some peculiarities of Spirogyra dubia. He was an author- 
ity on grasses and gave a number of papers at Academy meetings in this 
field. Many of his papers were on various aspects of his research on 
corn : morphology, variation and inheritance, origins and some anthro- 
pological observations related to corn study. He gave an after dinner 
speech at an Academy spring meeting in 1932 on his then recent Central 
American trip. His presidential address was on the Indian as a corn 
breeder. He gave the invited paper, Indiana Botany in Retrospect as 
part of the Academy participation in the Indiana Sesquicentennial cele- 
bration. He gave papers on botanical teaching techniques and one in 
1971 on "liquid" endosperm of grasses. 

Dr. Weatherwax was a member of several other societies: American 
Association for the Advancement of Science, Society of American Nat- 
uralists, Botanical Society of America (treasurer, vice president), Ge- 
netics Society of America, Indiana Historical Society, Phi Beta Kappa, 
Sigma Xi, New England Botany Club and Society for the Study of 
Evolution. Numerous biographical sketches and newspaper articles were 
written about Dr. Weatherwax. The latest was published a few weeks 
after his death based on an interview obtained in September. This ap- 
peared in the Indiana Alumni Magazine (November, 1976). In it, it is 
mentioned that he and his wife had a son, Charles, employee at R.C.A.; 
Robert, a bacteriologist; and daughter, Helen, first woman editor of the 
Indiana Daily Student. 

Dr. Weatherwax died at 88 years of age in Bloomington, Indiana, 
October 18, 1976. Death came after a prolonged fight with cancer. His 
wisdom, friendship, long association and service in the Indiana Academy 
of Science will be sincerely missed. 



NEW MEMBERS INDIANA ACADEMY 
OF SCIENCE— 1976 

Dr. T. Scott Abney, Dept. Botany & Plant Pathology, Purdue University, West Lafayette, 

IN 47907 
Mr. William James Adam, Bionucleonics Dept., Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 

47907 
MRS. Mary C. Ailor, Dept. of Entomology, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 
MR. Gary A. Apfelstadt, Anthropology Laboratory, Indiana State University, Terre 

Haute, IN 47809 
Mr. John B. Bailey, 328 Potomac, Terre Haute, IN 47803 
MR. John E. Bassett, Dept. Biological Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 

47907 
Mr. David D. Biesboer, Plant Sciences Dept., Jordan Hall, Indiana University, Blooming- 
ton, IN 47401 
Dr. Sylvia P. Brehm, Dept. of Life Sciences, Indiana State University, Terre Haute, IN 

47809 
Mr. Warren A. Bruns, Agronomy Dept., Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47905 
MR. William Chang, 611 N. Fess St., Apt. E-l, Bloomington, IN 47401 
Ms. Sara A. Clavin, Eli Lilly & Co., Indianapolis, IN 46202 

Mr. Kenneth J. Collier, Dept. of Chemistry, Ball State University, Muncie, IN 47306 
Ms. Cynthia S. Cordera, Dept. Microbiology, I.U. Medical Center, Indianapolis, IN 46202 
Dr. Jerry Mallory Davis, Dept. of Geography, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47401 
MR. Robert D. Feldt, 607 State Office Bldg., Indianapolis, IN 46204 

Miss Laura S. Fisher, Dept. of Geosciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 
Mr. Steven D. Ford, Jasper Polaski Fish & Wildlife Area, Medaryville, IN 47957 
Dr. John E. Foster, Dept. of Entomology, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 
Mr. Tom French, Dept. of Life Sciences, Indiana State University, Terre Haute, IN 47809 
Dr. Dorothy Gabel, School of Education, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47401 
Mr. John A. Gansfuss, Dept. of Geosciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 

47907 
Dr. Garland F. Hicks, Jr., Biology Dept., Valparaiso University, Valparaiso, IN 46383 
Dr. David Holtz, Holcomb Research Institute, Butler University, Indianapolis, IN 46208 
Mr. Russell R. Hyer, 607 State Office Building, Indianapolis, IN 46204 

Dr. & Mrs. Zafar Iqbal, Dept. of Physiology, I.U. Medical Center, Indianapolis, IN 46202 
Mr. Steven D. Jansen, Energy Resources Center, University of Illinois, Chicago, IL 60680 
Mr. Alfred F. Johnson, 3737 South 7th St., Terre South Vigo H.S., Terre Haute, IN 47802 
Dr. Stephen A. Justham, Dept. of Geog. & Geol., Ball State University, Muncie, IN 47306 

Dr. Kevin R. Kazacos, Dept. Veterinary Microbiol., Pathology & Pub. Health, Purdue 
University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 

Dr. James H. Kellar, 9th & Fess Sts., Bloomington, IN 47401 

Mr. Matthew Kelty, Box 369, Dept. of Biology, Notre Dame, IN 46556 

Dr. Duncan T. Kennedy, Center for Medical Education, Ball State University, Muncie, IN 
47306 

Mr. George A. Kinias, 1440 E. 35th Ave., Indiana Vocational Tech. College, Gary, IN 
46409 

Mr. Gerald W. Kline, Dept. of Anthropology, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 
37916 

Dr. N. Gary Lane, Dept. of Geology, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47401 

Mr. Karl H. Langlois, Jr., P.O. Box 723, Monticello, IN 47960 

67 



68 Indiana Academy of Science 

Mr. Thomas Edward Lauer, 1330 W. Michigan. Indiana State Board of Health, Indian- 
apolis, IN 46206 
Dr. Morris Levy, Dept. of Biological Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 

47907 
Miss Mary Lou Lyons, 10101 E. 38th St., John Marshall High School, Indianapolis, IN 

46236 
Mr. Bradford R. McClarnon, I.U. Student Health #344, Bloomington, IN 47401 
Dr. MacLean, Dept. of Biology, Youngstown State Univei*sity, Youngstown, OH 44555 
Mr. Ralph A. Matacale, c/o Lloyd Egler, R.R. 2, Box 156B, Ferdinand, IN 47523 
Mr. David Maxwell, 1330 West Michigan St., Indianapolis, IN 46206 
Mr. C Edward Meadows, Dept. of Natural Resources, Ball State University, Muncie, IN 

47306 
Dr. Kenneth G. Migliorese, 3400 Broadway, Indiana University Northwest, Gary, IN 



Mr. John S. Moore, Kendalls Apts. #3, Paoli, IN 47454 

Dr. Charles O. Mortensen, Dept. Natural Resources, Ball State University, Muncie, IN 

47306 
Miss Lucinda Morton, Science Teaching Center, Indiana State University, Terre Haute, 

IN 47809 
Mr. Leonard E. Munstermann, Dept. of Biology, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, 

IN 46556 
Mr. Loran S. O'Bannon, Fairway Drive, R.R. 1, Greencastle, IN 46135 
Mr. Larry W. Oiler, Wabash College, Crawfordsville, IN 47933 
Mr. Paul F. Pedone, Soil Conservation Service, 5610 Crawfordsville Rd., Indianapolis, IN 

46224 
Mr. Robert R. Priddy, Dept. of Natural Resources, Huntington College, Huntington, IN 

46750 
Dr. David K. Reed, Fruit & Veg. Insect Res. Lab., USDA-ARS/Box 944, Vincennes, IN 

47591 
Mrs. Ruth M. Reichmann, R.R. 2, Box 272, Nashville, IN 47448 
John L. and Ina C. Ridgeway, 1315 N. Cecil Ave., Greenfield, IN 46219 
MR. David W. Ring, P.O. Box 1918, Harrison Hall, West Lafayette, IN 47906 
Mr. John L. Roth, Jr., Dept. of Plant Science, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47401 
Mr. and Mrs. Garry L. Scholz, Western Materials Co., Box 150, Lafayette, IN 47902 
Dr. T. C. Schwan, Dept. of Chemistry, Valparaiso University, Valparaiso, IN 46383 
Dr. Donald H. Scott, Dept Botany & Plant Path., Purdue University, West Lafayette, 

IN 47907 

Ms. Janet K. Shaw, 6 N. Chauncey, West Lafayette, IN 47906 

Mrs. Gail E. Shew, Dept. of Biology, Ball State University, Muncie, IN 47306 

Dr. Toufiq A. Siddiqi, 400 E. 7th St., Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47401 

Ms. Daidee E. Springer, 220 N. Union St., Kokomo Public Library, Kokomo, IN 46901 

Mr. Steven W. Stoner, Biology Dept., Ball State University, Muncie, IN 47306 

Mr. William E. Tozer, Jr., Biology Dept., Ball State University, Muncie, IN 47306 

Mrs. Laura C. Trout, 202 Education Bldg., Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47401 

Dr. Gilbert R. Turpin, 120 East Walnut, Indianapolis Public Schools, Indianapolis, IN 

46204 
Mr. Mark Alan Verble, David St., Medora, IN 47260 

Dr. Carl E. Warnes, Biology Dept., Ball State University, Muncie, IN 47306 
Dr. Peter Waser, Dept. of Biology, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 

Mrs. Margaret R. Watanabe, Dept. of Microbiology, I.U. Medical Center, Indianapolis, 

IN 46202 
Dr. & Mrs. James Watson, Jr., Physics Dept., Ball State University, Muncie, IN 47906 
Mr. John M. Wiehe, Zoology Dept., North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND 58102 
Mr. James Willut, 835 Laport, Valparaiso, IN 46383 



New Members 69 

Ms. Sue Winder, Dept. of Anthropology, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47401 

Mr. Dennis Wolkoff, Rt. 1, Box 115, The Nature Conservancy, Nashville, IN 47448 

Mr. Robert O. Yager, Heritage High School, Monroeville, IN 46773 

Dr. Alan C. York, Entomology Hall, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 

Mr. Hanson L. Young, 2929 Engle Road, Kekionga Jr. High School, Fort Wayne, IN 

46809 
Mr. Ross B. Zimmerman, Dept. of Zoology, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47401 
Science Club, Bishop Luers High School, Fort Wayne, IN 46798 
Lew Wallace Biology Club, Lew Wallace High School, Gary, IN 46407 
Madison High School Science Club, c/o Virgil Imel, Madison Consolidated High School, 

Madison, IN 47250 
Madison Jr. High Science Club, Madison Jr. High School, c/o Dennis J. Paul, Madison, 

IN 47250 
Brown County Chapter of the Indiana Junior Academy of Science, Brown County 

High School, Nashville, IN 47448 
Floyd Central High School, c/o Ray Weatherholt, R.R. 2, Box 445A, New Albany, IN 

47150 
New Albany High School Science Club, c/o David J. Hines, New Albany High School, 

New Albany, IN 47150 
Science Club, c/o Larry Holler, Yorktown Middle School, Yorktown, IN 47396 



INDIANA ENERGY 1977 

A STATUS REPORT WITH SUGGESTIONS FOR POLICY ACTION 

Committee on Science and Society, Indiana Academy of Science 

PREAMBLE 
Among the actions taken by the Executive Committee of the Indiana 
Academy of Sciences at the fall 1975 meeting was the authorization 
of the Committee on Science and Society to prepare annually, on behalf 
of the Academy, a report setting forth the status of some aspect of 
science with significant current societal ramifications, pointing where 
appropriate to any areas in need of special awareness or action. 

Following a review of a number of scientifically-related problems 
currently the focus of national attention, including several for which 
the Committee had already initiated activity, the Committee selected 
Energy as the central theme of this, its first, Annual Report to the 
Academy. In particular, it was decided to review the condition of 
Indiana's indigenous energy resources, the current energy consumption 
within the State, and current thinking regarding future trends against 
the background of established and de facto State policies. Where appro- 
priate, suggestions were to be made for additions to or modifications of 
policies that concern energy. 

During the summer of 1976 the Committee appointed an ad hoc 
panel to prepare the report. This document is the result of discussions 
among the panelists, their review of pertinent literature, and their col- 
lective scientific judgments. 

I — Introduction 

In 1969, the Bureau of Natural Gas of the Federal Power Com- 
mission (FPC) released a report warning of impending supply difficul- 
ties with natural gas in the 1970's. This was followed by a second report 
in 1972 which projected supply and demand for this fuel through 1990 
and predicted that domestic production would peak in the nineteen seven- 
ties, an event which actually occurred in 1974. The statistical data for 
the decline of proven reserves were sufficiently compelling that, in 1970, 
the FPC initiated a round of meetings with national wholesalers of 
natural gas that led to a series of agreements to curtail deliveries of 
interstate gas. The major repercussions of these agreements had impact 
on the large volume sales of gas in the rate category of interruptible 
contracts with industry. In succeeding years, the curtailment agreements 
became more stringent, and in the summer of 1975 the FPC and the 
interstate gas companies announced curtailments in deliveries for the 
1975-76 heating season ranging up to 36 percent of anticipated demand. 
Varying percentages of curtailments, differing geographic areas with 
regard to proximity to interstate pipelines, and differing mixes of 
priority users led to projections of grossly inequitable shortages among 
the states and within individual states. The projected impacts, while 

71 



72 Indiana Academy of Science 

widely publicized, turned out for a combination of reasons to be sig- 
nificantly overstated. 

The overestimates of natural gas shortages for the 1975-76 heating 
season tended to obscure in the minds of the public the important fact 
that the shortage which did occur was very close to that predicted by 
the FPC Staff Study of 1974 which warned of declines in natural gas 
supplies of about 5% per year through at least 1980. A similar decline 
in supplies may well be expected for the 1976-77 heating season. 

The public was made dramatically aware of the corresponding situ- 
ation with regard to crude oil with the embargo initiated by Arab-nation 
members of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries in Oc- 
tober 1973 and the subsequent shortages and rapid escalation of prices 
for refinery products such as gasoline, heating oils, and diesel fuels. The 
current adequate, indeed surplus, supplies of petroleum products have 
led to relaxation of public concern for what is in reality a most serious 
situation. Even in the presence of surpluses, world crude oil prices have 
not declined markedly as would be expected if petroleum were traded 
in a free market. In addition, the proportion of U.S. petroleum consump- 
tion that is imported at these higher world prices has risen from about 
23% in 1970 to approximately 40% currently, a consequence of steadily 
declining domestic production. Unfortunately, this falling production 
will be offset only briefly by the arrival of Alaskan oil, expected to begin 
late in 1977. 

The United States and Indiana are well endowed with coal reserves, 
but the changing availability of petroleum and natural gas has affected 
this resource, too. Contract sales at $25 per ton have recently been 
announced, a figure more than double that of just four years ago. Part 
of the increase is certainly due to environmental constraints on sulfur 
emissions, with a resultant shift in demand to low-sulfur coals, but 
the apportionment is complex, as are the future prospects for utilization 
of the nation's high-sulfur coal reserves. Economic and technological 
delays in the implementation of new methods for meeting national air 
quality standards by the electric utilities, by far the largest single users 
of Indiana coal, contribute to this uncertainty. 

Parallel uncertainties also continue to plague the nuclear power 
component of the electrical industry which has, in addition, its own 
unique set of issues. Referenda designed to restrict the development of 
nuclear energy systems in various ways have recently appeared on the 
ballot in several states reflecting public uneasiness regarding recurring 
questions associated with weapons proliferation, radioactive wastes, con- 
trol of nuclear fuel, and the potential for reactor accidents. 

Amidst all this there seems to be an urgent need for us to know 
where we stand and to decide what our positions on these complex 
matters will be, both as a nation and particularly as a State. To be 
sure, in some cases national policies are pre-emptive, but in other areas 
the stance taken by the State of Indiana will be the most important to 
the welfare of her citizens and could well play a shaping or even determi- 
nant role in the formulation of national energy policies. 



Energy Report 73 

The State of Indiana has taken a number of positive positions on 
energy-related matters. Important among these are the legislatively 
established policies in the areas of surface mine reclamation and property 
tax reductions for home solar heating installations. In addition, various 
State agencies and offices have jurisdiction over, or at least give consider- 
ation to, single aspects of the energy situation. They include several 
divisions of the Department of Natural Resources, the Public Service 
Commission, the State Board of Health and the related Stream Pollu- 
tion Control Board and Air Pollution Control Board, the Department of 
Commerce, and others. Indiana has also taken a leading role in the 
regional analysis of energy matters in the forum of the Midwest Gov- 
ernors' Conference. However, at this writing Indiana lacks a mechanism 
for considering total energy needs, methods of filling those needs in the 
face of reduced supplies in some categories, and development of in- 
ternal energy sources. Nowhere in the State is there any organization 
or body that considers the various needs and problems as they relate to 
one another. 

Indiana as a State appears to be doing very little to stimulate devel- 
opment of known or suspected alternate energy sources. In contrast, 
Kentucky, a major importer of Indiana coal, is supporting major coal 
gasification and liquefaction projects. Illinois has authorized a $75 million 
bond issue to fund special efforts at the State level to cope with future 
energy requirements. In Indiana, however, such matters as whether elec- 
trical generating capacity will be increased through expansion at exist- 
ing sites or installation of entirely new facilities and the siting of pro- 
posed nuclear generating facilities are determined solely by the utilities. 
The State of Indiana takes no official position in such matters or in 
other energy consumption and development issues. 

With the intent of addressing these issues, the two chapters that 
follow present a brief account of the Indiana energy situation, emphasiz- 
ing the prospects as they presently exist for various energy alternatives 
and outlining some suggestions for State policies that, in our judgment, 
deserve prompt attention. 

II — Indiana Energy 

Rather than restating energy consumption by consuming sector and 
fuel or reviewing widely publicized data on declining reserves, the thrust 
of this chapter is to describe the present situation for the major com- 
ponents of Indiana's energy system, noting in particular the status and 
future prospects of potential alternatives to those fuels now in common 
usage.* While our time frame is deliberately vague, the situation will 
be much as we describe through at least 1980 because the lead times 
necessary to affect major alterations are typically long. Beyond that 
time the situation as viewed from the present is progressively less clear. 



* In this section the panel made considerable use of the report "Indiana Natural das: 
Accommodation to Reality" and acknowledges with appreciation the contributions of the 
task force members who prepared that document. A listing of the task force membership 
appears in Appendix D. 



74 Indiana Academy of Science 

Energy Conservation 

Energy conservation measures offer immediate possibilities to allevi- 
ate near-term shortages of domestic fossil fuels. It is generally recog- 
nized that the only other means of offsetting such shortfalls is with 
imported oil, a strategy with obvious problems in view of the nation's 
current import rate. 

Energy conservation, while it is equivalent to a once-only reduction 
in consumption, offers the potential for substantial fuel savings, dollar 
economies, and environmental benefits. Unlike other alternatives, the 
conservation option offers the opportunity for broad public participation 
and direct, highly visible action on the part of governmental units at all 
levels with some benefits accruing directly to consumers. On balance, 
it must also be noted that certain conservation measures might be imple- 
mented via price manipulation, a strategy that would increase energy 
unit costs for consumers. Among the areas where substantial savings can 
be realized are transportation (e.g., enforced speed limits, tax incentives 
for smaller engines), residential and commercial uses (e.g., more efficient 
appliances, improved insulation), and recycling (particularly energy- 
intensive and petroleum-based materials). 

Electricity: Generation Capability and Nuclear Projections 

The electric utilities in Indiana are included within the East Central 
Area Reliability Coordination Agreement (ECAR), one of nine regional 
reliability councils encompassing nearly all of the power systems of the 
U.S. and a large fraction of those in Canada. (See Figure 1.) Intercon- 
nections between regions are available, so that the future adequacy of 
electric power in Indiana is likely to depend strongly on the adequacy of 
regional and national generating capacity. Nevertheless, Indiana policies 
relative to the construction of new generating capacity will influence the 
extent to which Indiana can supply its own share of electricity in the 
future. For example, pioneering State policy regarding the consumptive 
use of water will have the effect of restricting most new capacity to the 
Ohio and lower Wabash Rivers. 

On a national basis, and therefore on a State basis as well, there is 
so much uncertainty regarding generation capacity additions and future 
loads that there can be no assurance that shortages may not begin to 
develop in the late '70's and early '80's. Current plans for power plant 
construction during the next decade are expected to result in an annual 
capacity increase averaging about 5.3% for the 48 contiguous states of 
the U.S. and about 4.7% for ECAR. But the current load projections for 
summer load peaks, including the conservatism resulting from the reces- 
sion, increase at an average rate of about 6.4% , both for the nation and 
as a whole and for ECAR. Therefore, if these numbers should turn out to 
be correct, a gradual reduction in reserve capacity will occur from the 
current 32.5% to 14.7% by 1985. This reduction would inevitably be 
accompanied by an increasing lack of system reliability and by elec- 
trical energy deficiencies with potentially serious economic and social 
consequences. 



Energy Report 



75 



Most of the new electric generating capacity that is planned for 
the next decade is for coal-fired and nuclear plants. Oil-fired capacity is 
expected to increase slightly and then level off; natural gas-fired gen- 
eration, primarily in Texas and neighboring states, is projected to 
decline. The increase in coal capacity averages about 5.8% per year 
nationally compared with only about 3.3 % for ECAR. Projected in- 
creases in nuclear capacity average about 17% per year nationally 
compared with more than 23% for ECAR. 

The planned expansion of both coal-fired and nuclear plants should 
be regarded as lower limits. It would be prudent to increase both, if 
possible. An excess of capacity would be far less risky to Indiana resi- 
dents and much easier to correct. Both nuclear and coal-fired capacity 
expansions are subject to such constraints that a policy of dropping 
back on one by increasing the other would in all likelihood increase the 
threat of brown-outs and serious deficiencies of electric power. Accom- 
panying the capacity expansion, consideration should also be given to 
the introduction of new energy storage technologies and rate structure 
changes as means of reducing projected increases in peak capacity 
requirements. 




REGIONAL ELECTRIC RELIABILITY COUNCILS 



nkx: - 

Coordinating Council 
SERC - South.«»t.m Btctrlc 

R.IUMlity Council 
SWFP ■ Southwwt Pom 



Council of Turn 
WSCC - W«t*m iyntm Co- 
ordluanf Council 
OCTOBER IT. 197B 



Solar Energy 

Indiana's solar flux is sufficiently large to justify continued active 
development of this resource, especially for use in space heating and 
air conditioning and in domestic hot water heating. However, the vari- 
ability of the flux is such that this application will require storage 
and backup systems. Large scale solar electric power generation will not 



70 



Indiana Academy of Science 



be attractive in Indiana without major advances in conversion and 
storage technologies. Table 1 illustrates the average solar flux in 
Indiana by month. 

Table 1. Average Solar Flux on Collector Surface Which is 50° from the Horizontal 

(BTU/sq ft/day) 



January 1067 

February 1224 

March 1438 

April 1392 

May 1439 

June 1493 



July 1581 

August 1625 

September 1823 

October 1682 

November 1296 

December 1084 



Solar energy in Indiana may not only replace some nonrenewable 
fuels but, because of the requirement for storage systems, it also has 
the potential to help alleviate the peak load situation facing the electric 
utilities. For example, thermal storage systems can be used to "store" 
air conditioning during the peak demand periods in the summer. Thus, 
air conditioners in solar homes could be run at night and operated at 
reduced levels or even turned off during the day when the heaviest 
electricity demand usually occurs. A similar procedure could be fol- 
lowed for heating systems in the colder months. The procedure in the 
latter case would be to keep a high percentage of thermal storage 
capacity in place during the day, even if the solar system is not fully 
operational. In this manner the solar energy system's storage unit 
assists in reducing the electrical system's required peak generating 
capacity. 

Because of the high solar flux and the required emphasis on thermal 
storage, Indiana and neighboring states have the potential to become 
leaders in solar heating and air conditioning demonstration projects, 
technology development, and applications. Among the more important 
areas in which technological development will be important are low- 
temperature air conditioner systems, solar space heating and domestic 
hot water systems suitable for retrofitting existing structures, thermal 
storage systems, auxiliary systems for solar applications such as con- 
trols, insulated ducting and low-cost valves, and lower solar collector 
costs through simpler design, mass production, and on-site construction. 

Natural Gas Production in Indiana 

Unless major new reserves of natural gas are discovered in Indiana, 
the State must continue to rely upon gas brought in by long-distance 
pipelines from the South and Southwest. Present in-state reserves 
amount to only about 1 percent of the State's annual consumption. Pro- 
duction from Indiana wells last year would have satisfied the State's 
consumption for 5 hours. 

Access to Natural Gas from Out-of-State Sources 

Indiana is favorably situated to receive gas from the principal pro- 
ducing regions in the United States, as trunklines from the south and 
west cross or pass near the State enroute to major consuming regions 



Energy Report 77 

farther north and east. Proposals now under active review to bring 
Alaskan gas to the lower 48 states may well result in additional service 
to the Midwest, including Indiana, from that source. The reduced 
availability of gas that has been experienced in the past three years and 
which may be expected to become progressively more acute for the 
foreseeable future results primarily from declining production at the 
sources rather than from any inadequacy in the interstate distribution 
system. A complicating factor, however, is federal price control at the 
wellhead of gas sold in the interstate market. Some effects of price reg- 
ulation have been to restrict the availability of gas outside the principal 
producing states, to encourage use of gas in place of other fuels, and to 
reduce production. A further complicating factor for Indiana is the vary- 
ing curtailment levels and differing mixes of priority users across the 
State leading to inequitable distribution resulting in gas surpluses in 
some areas and shortages in others. The average 5% annual decline in 
deliveries to Indiana over the next several years may be expected to 
amplify those inequalities in the absence of mitigating action by the 
State or federal government. 

Underground Storage of Natural Gas 

Large volumes of natural gas stored in porous and permeable sand- 
stone and limestone reservoirs were originally developed to serve as a 
cushion against fluctuating demand and to permit the local warehousing 
of gas at times when it was available and the price was low. Indiana 
has more than 30 such storage reservoirs, and they have performed a 
valuable service both in making gas more available during periods of 
high use and in reducing the cost to the consumer. They are based, 
however, on the concept of gas available in large volume and at low 
cost. This situation no longer exists, and the storage facilities, which 
have never been filled to their capacity, are no longer utilized as fully 
as in previous years. Storage is only effective when there is something 
to store. 

Liquefied Petroleum Gases 

Propane and butane (mostly the former) recovered in refining oper- 
ations are shipped and stored under pressure in liquid form. To a con- 
siderable extent they are interchangeable as fuels with natural gas, and 
they have been the standby fuel for many consumers who have inter- 
ruptible contracts for natural gas. The liquid form makes them readily 
transportable, and for this reason they are used extensively for mobile 
installations, seasonal spot uses (e.g., grain drying), and isolated facili- 
ties (cabins, rural residences). Their cost per Btu is high relative to 
natural gas, and in time of other fuel shortages local supplies may be 
exhausted. 

Underground storage in pressurized excavated space exists at four 
localities in Indiana and provides some cushion against both high 
seasonal demand and restricted shipment from refining centers. Product 
pipelines deliver LPG to the underground reservoirs and surface storage, 
thus improving delivery capacity in some parts of the state. 



78 Indiana Academy of Science 

Crude Oil Production in Indiana 

Indiana's crude oil production is only a small proportion of the 
State's crude oil consumption (in terms of refinery products), although 
the exact percentage is difficult to assess because Indiana has a large 
refining industry, and very large volumes of crude oil are shipped into 
the State to yield refinery products most of which again go out-of-state. 
Whatever this ratio may be, Indiana's total known crude oil reserves 
of 22 million barrels can have little impact on the availability of refinery 
products within the State. Only significant new oil discoveries can alter 
this balance, and the discovery rate of recent years does not offer great 
hope for a change. 

Indiana's Access to Crude Oil from Out-of-State 

High prices and shortages due to restricted imports would appear 
to be the only limitations on the availability of crude oil to Indiana's 
refining industry. Oil enters the State principally via cross-country pipe- 
lines and a major and increasing part of the oil is from foreign sources. 
The crude oil supply to Indiana's largest refinery is nearly 40 % foreign, 
closely paralleling the national situation. This supply is, of course, vul- 
nerable to embargo. Much of the State is not dependent upon Indiana 
refineries for access to refinery products. 

Indiana Coal 

Indiana has large reserves of coal (17 billion tons) and substantial 
annual production (about 25 million tons in 1974 and 1975), but nearly 
twice as much coal is consumed annually as is produced in the State. 
Table 2 contains information regarding Indiana coal reserves. The State's 
consumption profile is contained in Appendix A for both 1974 and 1975. 
Approximately 5 million tons of Indiana coal are shipped out-of-state 
annually, which means that over half of the coal consumed is imported. 
The reasons, in addition to the fact that the State's annual consump- 
tion exceeds the annual capacity, are that 1) Indiana ranked 2nd na- 
tionally in 1975 in steel production and all metallurgical coking coal 
must be imported, and 2) the sulfur content in much of Indiana's coals 
currently requires that they be blended with lower sulfur coals for use 
in electrical generation. Indiana coal production could be increased 
about 1 million tons annually for a number of years, a rate already 
planned by producers for the next 3 to 5 years. 

Conjectural Sources of Additional Fuels 

Gas from shale and from coal, oil from oil shale, and uranium have 
received some attention as possible future supplements to Indiana's 
energy supply. 

Natural gas has been produced in modest amounts at a few localities 
in Indiana from the rock unit called the New Albany Shale, which 
underlies extensive areas. The Indiana Geological Survey is participating 
in a broad, multi-state investigation of the shale gas possibilities, sup- 
ported by the Energy Research and Development Administration. Shale 
gas wells, if favorable conditions for production are found, will have 



Energy Report 



79 



relatively low individual yield, although the total volume ultimately 
recovered could be appreciable. 

Methane can be removed from bituminous coal in advance of under- 
ground mining as a safety measure. The shortage of natural gas combined 
with increasing prices suggests that demethanization could reach the 
level of commercial gas production in some regions. The Indiana Geo- 
logical Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Bureau of Mines, is testing 
Indiana coals for methane yield. Early results suggest that the expect- 
able gain in gas supply will be modest even if such development 
materializes. 

Table 2. Recoverable Coal Reserves in Indiana by County, January 1 197b 1 



County Strippable 

Clay 312,770,247 

Daviess 137,005,877 

Dubois 4,803,000 

f" Untain I 32,446,705 

Warren \ 

Gibson 

Greene 193,619,319 

Knox 142,285,000 

Martin 82,771,000 

Owen 49,533,774 

Parke 9,526,877 

Perry 

Pike 215,199,514 

Posey — : 

Spencer 52,140,749 

Sullivan 290,478,626 

Vanderburgh 

Vermillion 37,157,280 

Vigo 253,918,457 

Warrick 257,942,501 

TOTAL 2,071,598,926 



Non-Strippable 



TOTAL 



252,366,000 


565,136,247 


119,502,000 


256,507,877 


3,981,000 


8,784,000 


3,603,000 


36,049,705 


2,230,905,992 


2,230,905,992 


228,181,472 


421,800,791 


2,241,335,016 


2,383,620,016 


11,000 


82,782,000 




49,533,774 


29,402,000 


38,928,877 


28,200,000 


28,200,000 


370,015,945 


585,215,459 


2,870,391,000 


2,870,391,000 




52,140,749 


3,482,373,446 


3,772,852,072 


1,083,454,000 


1,083,454,000 


295,399,205 


332,556,485 


1,448,483,408 


1,702,401,865 


517,134,269 


775,076,770 


L5, 205, 738, 753 


17,276,337,679 



1 Modified from Table 6, Page 33, Coal Resources of Indiana, Bulletin 42-1, Indiana 
Geological Survey (thru Jan. 1, 1965) with Annual Reports of Indiana Bureau of Mines 
and U.S. Bureau of Mines, 1965 through 1973. Based on recovery by current technology. 



The same New Albany Shale that is a possible source for additional 
natural gas is also classified as a low-grade oil shale and, in addition, 
contains some uranium. The oil yield in gallons per ton is substantially 
below the level that is now considered commercial, only 8 to 14 gallons 
per ton from the richest parts of the formation compared with the 
minimum yield for economic operation for the Coloado Shales of about 
25 gallons per ton. The most radioactive part of the New Albany Shale 
tested to date is about 0.01 percent U g 8 equivalent, in comparison with 
about 0.2 percent for the current minimum commercial grades. Even 
this disparity does not tell the whole story, however, as much of the 
"U. } 8 equivalent" reflects potassium in the clay minerals, rather than 
uranium or even thorium. Evaluation of both shale oil and nuclear fuel 
possibilities must consider, however, the enormous tonnages of New 
Albany shale that underlie Indiana and other parts of the Midwest. 



80 Indiana Academy of Science 

Coal Conversion 

Both gaseous and liquid products that would be satisfactory substi- 
tutes for natural gas and certain refinery products can be produced from 
coal of the type that constitutes Indiana's principal reserves. These meth- 
ods of utilizing coal have the advantage that sulfur removal from the 
products is more readily accomplished than from the coal itself, making 
possible more environmentally sound utilization of Indiana's high-sulfur 
coals. Processing plants of commercial size are very costly, and only 
pilot or experimental installations are in operation or under construction 
at this time, none in Indiana. Both processes entail huge water con- 
sumption, and acceptable sites in Indiana would be largely restricted to 
the Ohio River region. Despite the high costs and other handicaps, coal 
conversion is probably the best means for the United States to attain 
a satisfactory level of domestic security in liquid and gaseous fuels. 
Some research on coal conversion, federally supported, is currently 
underway within the State. 

Low-BTU Gas 

Gas that has a BTU content considerably lower than that of pipe- 
line gas (300 to 400 BTU per cubic foot as compared with pipeline 
natural gas at 1,000 to 1,100 BTU per cubic foot) can be manufactured 
readily from coal and was indeed the gaseous fuel of the Midwest in 
the years between the depletion of the early natural gas fields and the 
coming of the long-distance interstate pipelines from the western and 
southwestern states and the Gulf of Mexico. The technology is known, 
and suitable coal is available, for production of low-BTU gas in sig- 
nificant volume, although major production capacity is not in place at 
this time. Such substitute gas is considered less desirable than natural 
gas and is less suited to pipeline delivery except over short distances. 
This lower desirability factor may be expected to prevail until the first 
cold day after the natural gas supplies become inadequate. 

Ill — Suggestions for Policy 

No single answer exists to the problems associated with the impend- 
ing and projected shortages of energy, whether these be the immediate 
shortfalls in natural gas or those that will certainly occur among some 
of the other energy resources consumed in our economy. The potential 
contributions from many alternative sources must be explored with no 
guarantees of success. Our situation is such that no possible contributor, 
the small and improbable as well as the large and apparently obvious, 
can be ignored without peril. It is also critically important to realize 
that many potentially significant solutions should receive action now in 
order to have effects on our State's energy supplies beyond 1980. With 
these points in mind, the panel makes the following suggestions for 
policy consideration. These suggestions represent a consensus on each 
point; being different individuals with differing priority concerns, not 
all members subscribed to all suggestions. 



Energy Report 81 

1. Energy Conservation 

While it is not certain to what extent energy consumption may be 
decoupled from gross national product, good energy conservation prac- 
tices appear to offer an excellent economical immediate method of coun- 
teracting projected shortages of natural gas and petroleum without 
markedly affecting lifestyles. A considerable relaxation of the con- 
servation efforts of 1973-74 has apparently occurred, and indications 
are that much of the expected near-term energy shortages and economic 
impacts could be offset by a renewed and continuing program to educate 
the public regarding the wisdom of saving energy. A very recent analy- 
sis by the International Energy Agency (IEA) shows the U.S. energy 
conservation effort to be among the worst in the IEA countries. Recog- 
nizing that implementation of conservation strategies must be monitored 
carefully to avoid adverse economic impacts, the State of Indiana could 
be among the nation's leaders in this area by adoption of the following: 

(i) Provide authoritative energy conservation information and 
an active state-wide program for disseminating it. 

(ii) Consider a program of tax incentives to encourage conserva- 
tion including, but not limited to, rebates for retrofitting 
existing structures with high efficiency insulation, property 
tax allowance for similar installations in new structures, and 
reduced assessments for passenger cars with smaller engines. 

(iii) Encouragement of energy-conserving new construction, set- 
ting an example by moving to maximize the energy efficiency 
of State-owned buildings and by requiring that new buildings 
funded entirely or in part by State funds utilize the best 
available energy-conserving designs and technologies includ- 
ing solar energy supplementation. Introduction of new build- 
ing codes such as ASHRAE 90-75 is recommended. 

(iv) Development of a technology transfer network throughout 
Indiana to facilitate the transfer of energy conservation knowl- 
edge to end users. 

(v) Strict enforcement of the 55-mile-per-hour speed limit on 
Indiana highways. 

(vi) Implementation of appropriate incentive programs to en- 
courage recycling of energy-intensive and petroleum-based 
materials. 

(vii) Thorough consideration of the phase-out of one-way bever- 
age containers as an energy conservation action. 

(viii) Analysis of alternative electricity rate structures to deter- 
mine their conservation impacts. 

2. Solar Energy 

The potential cited earlier for solar energy utilization within Indiana 
supports the following recommendations : 

(i) Indiana's pioneering solar energy property tax reduction law 
should be widely publicized in the State. 



82 Indiana Academy of Science 

(ii) The State of Indiana should determine and establish a real- 
istic goal for the percentage of new construction to involve 
solar heating and air conditioning by 1980, with a similarly 
developed objective set for the percentage of all space heat- 
ing and cooling that should be provided by solar means by 
1985. 

(iii) Solar energy information centers should be developed (per- 
haps a part of the network suggested in 1. (iv) above). These 
centers would provide architects, builders, savings and loan 
associations, banks, industrial and residential consumers, 
trade unions, and others with technical information on solar 
energy applications. 

(iv) The State should play an active role in attracting demonstra- 
tion funds for solar energy from ERDA and HUD to Indiana. 
(v) Indiana should develop further the existing network of solar 
monitoring stations for data collections. 

(vi) An active State-wide program should be implemented to edu- 
cate the public on solar energy. This program would include 
the production of authoritative literature whose major pur- 
pose would be to inform the consumer on the following: (a) 
give consumers enough understanding to permit them to rec- 
ognize accuracy of performance claims of solar equipment 
manufacturers; (b) give consumers enough background to 
make personal decisions in regard to their own best use of 
solar energy; (c) provide technical information that will make 
it possible for "do it yourself" individuals to go ahead on 
their own and build solar collecting equipment. 

3. Electrical Power 

Announced generating capacity expansion plans within ECAR over 
the next ten years prompts the following suggestions for policy consider- 
ation: 

(i) A prudent policy for both Indiana and the nation is to recog- 
nize the constraints to building additional coal-fired and 
nuclear capacity, and to make every effort to resolve the 
many problems involved in order that the utility companies 
may find it possible to install more capacity than is currently 
planned, and to do so with minimal environmental impact, 
(ii) Utilities should be encouraged to explore the potential for 
lower facility construction costs through energy storage in- 
stallations, e.g., pumped storage, underground compressed 
air, or thermal storage. 

4. Coal 

Following completion of the large interstate gas pipelines in the 
1950's, Indiana consumers along with those in most of the midwestern 
and northeastern states responded to economic incentives and shifted a 
significant portion of their energy consumption to natural gas produced 
in the South and Southwest. As supplies from those areas begin to 



Energy Report 



83 



decline, it appears that a most important alternative available to the 
State is its large coal reserves. Gasification to produce both high and 
low Btu gas from coal offers direct substitution for natural gas. Addi- 
tional means of utilizing coal efficiently with due recognition of environ- 
mental constraints need active study. These points support the follow- 
ing policy recommendations: 

(i) The State should make immediate, vigorous efforts to develop 
gasification projects for both high and low Btu gas at scales 
sufficient to relieve impending pressures that will surely 
result as future interstate natural gas curtailments spread 
more deeply into the Indiana economy. 

(ii) The State should carefully consider the advisability of a State 
tax on all future coal mined. The returns should be applied, 
under legislative authority, to a trust fund for research, devel- 
opment, and demonstration of gasification, liquefaction, and 
desulfurization of Indiana coals for use in Indiana homes, 
businesses, and industries. A one percent tax on Indiana's 
1975 coal production of 25,269,000 tons with an average mine- 
head value of $11.25 per ton would raise $2,840,000 for this 
purpose. 



Appendix A 

Indiana Coal Consumption — 1975 

(tons) 



17,222,000 



416,000 
2,735,000 



20,373,000 



In-State Consumer Use of State Coal Production: 

Electric Utilities 

Coke & Gas Plants 

Retail Dealers 

All Others 

Sub- total 

Coal Shipped Out-of-State to: 

Michigan 132,000 

Ohio 72,000 

Illinois 386,000 

Wisconsin 871,000 

Minnesota 88,000 

Missouri 402,000 

Georgia 482,000 

Kentucky 1,689,000 

Tennessee 509,000 

Alabama 25,000 

Not Revealable 15,000 

4,671,000 

Total State Production 



4,671,000 



84 Indiana Academy of Science 

Appendix A — Continued 

Coal Shipped Into State From: 

Pennsylvania 2,040,000 

West Virginia : 9,819,000 

W. Kentucky 4,267,000 

Illinois 6,273,000 

Ala., Ga., Tenn. L__r_ 4-- 164,000 

Colorado 2,000 

Wyoming 3,019,000 

Utah 131,000 

Montana, Wash. 840,000 

26,555,000 26,555,000 

State Production Used in State 20,373,000 

Total Coal Consumption Used 46,928,000 

Consumer Us2 In State 
(Grand Total) 

Electric Utilities 28,715,000 

Coke & Gas Plants 14,072,000 

Retail Dealers 596,000 

All Others 3,545,000 

GRAND TOTAL 46,928,000 

SOURCE: Bituminous Coal and Lignite Distribution Calendar Year 1975, Div. of Fossil 
Fuels, Ap. 12, 1976, U.S. Dept. of The Interior, U.S. Bureau of Mines 

Indiana Coal Consumption — 1974 

(tons) 

In-State Consumer Use of State Coal Production: 

Electric Utilities 15,741,000 

Coke & Gas Plants 

1 Retail Dealers 153,000 

2 All Others 3,246,000 



Sub-total 19,150,000 

Coal Shipped Out-of-State to: 

Ohio 347,000 

Illinois 493,000 

Wisconsin 404,000 

Minnesota __ 106,000 

Missouri 68,000 

Georgia 1,255,000 

Kentucky 1,656,000 

Tennessee 262,000 

Not Revealable 35,000 4,626,000 



Total State Production 23,766,000 



1 "Retail Dealers." Any person (including the retail outlet, branch or department of 
one who is also a producer, wholesaler, or dock operator), to the extent that he acts in 
the capacity of a supplier, shipper, or seller of bituminous coal and lignite in any trans- 
action involving a shipment, sale, or sale and delivery to a consumer of broken-bulk 
bituminous coal and lignite physically handled in a truck, wagon, or other less-than-car- 
load facility, without regard to type of consumer or to the quantity or frequency of de- 
livery. Also, all railroad carload shipments that are delivered to a retail dealer's facilities 
are to be reported in this category (not including, however, carload shipments that are 
shipped for his account but not to his plant or facilities.) 

- "All Others." All consumers of bituminous coal and lignite other than electric 
utilities, coke and gas plants, retail dealers, railroads, coal mines, and mine employees. 



Energy Report 85 

Appendix A — Continued 

Coal Shipped Into State From: 

Pennsylvania 1,721,000 

Ohio 31,000 

3 District 7 3,272,000 

4 Districts 3-6 160,000 

• r> D:strict 8 6,226,000 

W. Kentucky ___" 3,506,000 

Illinois 6,922,000 

u D. strict 13 43,000 

Colorado 13,000 

Wyoming 2,255,000 

Utah 29,000 

•Districts 22-23 603,000 24,781,000 

State Production Used in State 19,140,000 

Total Coal Consumption Used 43,921,000 

Consumer Use In State 
(Grand Total) 

Electric Utilities 25,313,000 

Coke & Gas Plants 13,609,000 

Retail Dealers 396,000 

All Others 4,603,000 



GRAND TOTAL 43,921,0: 

SOURCE : Bituminous Coal and Lignite Distribution Calendar Year 1974, Division of 
Fossil Fuels, April 18, 1975, U.S. Department of The Interior, U.S. Bureau of 
Mines 



3 Specified counties in West Virginia and Virginia. 

4 Specified counties in northern West Virginia and the panhandle of W. Va. 

5 Specified counties in West Virginia, Virginia, Kentucky and Tennessee. 

6 All of Alabama and specified counties in Georgia and Tennessee. 

7 Montana, Washington, Oregon and Alaska. 



Appendix B 

SCIENCE AND SOCIETY COMMITTEE 

Dr. Otto K. Behrens (Chairman) Dr. Clarence F. Dineen 

4225 Sunrise Road Department of Biology 

Indianapolis, IN 46208 St. Mary's College 

Dr. Stanley L. Burden Notre Dame, IN 46556 

Box 528 Dr. Austin W. Fergusson 

Taylor University 326 Federal Building 

Upland, IN 46989 Ft. Wayne, IN 96802 

Dr. Donald J. Cook Dr. Robert E. Henderson 

625 E. Washington Street Indianapolis Center for Advanced 

Greencastle, IN 46135 Research 

Dr. Harry G. Day 1219 West Michigan Street 

Department of Chemistry Indianapolis, IN 46202 
Indiana University 
Bloomington, IN 47401 



86 



Indiana Academy of Science 



Appendix B — Continued 



Dr. Geraldine Huitink 
Department of Chemistry 
Indiana University-South Bend 
South Bend, IN 46615 
Dr. Willis Johnson 
Department of Biology 
Wabash College 
Crawfordsville, IN 46933 
Dr. Ralph A. Llewellyn 
Department of Physics 
Indiana State University 
Terre Haute, IN 47809 
Dr. Robert Menke 
St. Henry Road 
Huntingburg, IN 47542 
Dr. Clyde R. Metz 
Department of Chemistry 
I.U.P.U.I. 
Indianapolis, IN 46205 



Prof. Robert D. Miles 
Dept. of Civil Engineering 
Purdue University 
Lafayette, IN 47907 
Dr. Jerry J. Nisbet 
Institute for Environmental 

Studies 
Ball State University 
Muncie, IN 47306 
Dr. John B. Patton 
State Geologist 
Indiana Geological Survey 
611 North Walnut Grove 
Bloomington, IN 47901 
Dr. Howard Youse 
P. O. Box 253 
Greencastle, IN 46135 



Appendix C 

MEMBERS OF THE AD HOC PANEL TO 
PREPARE THE ANNUAL REPORT 



Dr. John J. Corrigan 

Associate Dean 

College of Arts and Sciences 

Indiana State University 

Terre Haute, IN 47809 

Dr. John Patton 

State Geologist 

Geological Survey 

Indiana Department of Natural 

Resources 
611 North Walnut Grove 
Bloomington, IN 47401 
Dr. Robert Henderson 
Director 
Indianapolis Center for Advanced 

Research 
1219 West Michigan 
Indianapolis, IN 46202 



Dr. Phillip Powers 

Director 

Energy Engineering Center 

Energy Administration 

Purdue University 

West Lafayette, IN 47907 

Dr. Ralph A. Llewellyn (Chm.) 

Chairman 

Department of Physics 

Indiana State University 

Terre Haute, IN 47809 



Energy Report 



S7 



Appendix D 

INDIANA NATURAL GAS: ACCOMMODATION TO REALITY 
A Report to the Lt. Governor's Science Advisory Committee 

TASK FORCE MEMBERS 



Mr. Duane Amundson 

Vice President 

Indiana Gas Corporation 

Mr. William Beeman 
Executive Vice President 
Indiana Coal Association 

Dr. William Beranek 
Holcomb Institute 
Butler University 

Mr. Robert Berlin 
Indiana Energy Office 
State Office Building 

Mr. Burt Calkins 

Manager 

Operations Research Division 

Applied Sciences Department 

Naval Weapons Support Center 

Dr. Donald T. Carr 
Geological Survey 
Indiana Department of Natural 
Resources 

Dr. James Coughlin 
Public Service Indiana 

Mr. Robert Cravens 
(Executive Secretary) 
Linton, Indiana 

Mr. David Davis 
Executive Secretary 
Indiana Petroleum Council 

Dr. Robert Henderson 
Director 

Indianapolis Center for Advanced 
Research 

Mr. Harold Hutchison 
Geological Survey 
Indiana Department of Natural 
Resources 

Dr. Frank Incropera 

School of Mechanical Engineering 

Purdue University 



Mr. Stanley Keller 
Geological Survey 
Indiana Department of Natural 
Resources 

Dr. Charles Killpack 
Holcomb Institute 
Butler University 

Dr. James Kohn 
Department of Chemical 

Engineering 
Notre Dame University 

Dr. Norman Laurendeau 

School of Mechanical Engineering 

Purdue University 

Dr. Donald Levandowski 
School of Geoscience 
Purdue University 

Dr. Ralph Llewellyn (Chm.) 
Chairman 

Department of Physics 
Indiana State University 

Mr. Robert Longardner 

President 

Longardner and Associates 

Dr. Kraemer Luks 
Department of Chemical 

Engineering 
Notre Dame University 

Dr. Stuart McComas 
Department of Chemical 

Engineering 
Notre Dame University 

Dr. Bruce McKenzie 
Department of Agricultural 

Engineering 
Purdue University 

Dr. James Patterson 
Business Administration 
Pennsylvania State University 



Indiana Academy of Science 



Appendix D — Continued 



Dr. John Patton 
State Geologist 
Geological Survey 
Indiana Department of Natural 
Resources 

Dr. Robert Peart 
Department of Agricultural 

Engineering 
Purdue University 



Dr. Phil Powers, Director 
Energy Engineering Center 
Energy Administration 
Purdue University 
Mr. William Roe 
Chief Metallurgist 
Bethlehem Steel Corporation 
Mr. Wendall Tahler 
Indiana Gas Corporation 



PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS 



CHEMISTRY, SCIENCE, AND CULTURE 

Donald J. Cook, DePauw University 

I wish to address you this evening on the broad subject CHEM- 
ISTRY—SCIENCE—AND CULTURE. 

When I use the term WESTERN CULTURE each of you here has 
an instinctive understanding- of what I mean; for most of you are 
scientists, and we are all heirs to the same great tradition of Western 
Culture. In specific language, we understand well the dictionary's 
sociological definition that "Culture is the sum total of a way of 
living — built up by a group of human beings — which is transmitted 
from one generation to another." 

Another, and more specific meaning, defines culture as "The 
training and refinement of mind, tastes, and manners." It implies 
a quality of living — a constantly improving and growing way of living — 
through learning. And — most importantly — it also implies that Western 
Culture can continue as a stable culture only if its members are of a 
certain intellectual attainment; and — further — if the benefits of this, 
our culture, are to be transmitted to future generations there must 
be a greater appreciation of a broad spectrum of comprehension of all 
knowledge. 

But is knowledge (in Latin known as Scientia) the only in- 
gredient of our present culture? Are the best and wisest decisions 
for solving our many social problems always those which derive from 
the scientifically elite group of experts? During the time period from 
the end of the Second World War and into the mid-sixties science 
attained a high peak of influence. Society benefited greatly from the 
many new consumer products which resulted from wartime research. 
Television, the jet airplane, the computer, and even the conquest of 
space became a real part of our culture. Scientists in government, 
management, and academic life made vital decisions which non-scientists 
could not deter because science was king. This scientific influence even 
spread to the humanities and religion and attempts were made to 
make them "appear more scientific". 

But in the short span of ten years we have become abruptly 
aware that in the total culture of a society there is no knowledge 
that is in itself king. In fact, we know that the ingredients of a true 
culture are not merely the "scientia" of the sciences (either physical 
or social); but that they also include our religious faith, our philosophy, 
our arts, and our humanities. For beyond all of knowledge there exists 
an even greater quality if we are to hope for an enduring culture. 
This quality has always been recognized by mankind. Robert Sin- 
sheimer, Chairman of the Biology Division of Cal Tech, in a talk 
last June reaffirmed that quality which scientists must seek. He said 



90 Indiana Academy of Science 

in part, "We begin to see that truth is not enough — that truth is 
necessary but not sufficient — that scientific inquiry — the revealer of 
truth — needs to be coupled with wisdom if our object is to advance the 
human condition." 

We cannot dismiss the acquisition of new knowledge or by law 
provide for a moratorium on all new research. We trust that the 
continued discovery of nature's laws will provide us with new technol- 
ogies which can offer a higher cultural potential to all human beings. 
Although wisdom is not mere knowledge, wisdom as it is needed in 
our modern world is not possible without knowledge. Wisdom cannot 
be attained by meditation alone, and unlike other disciplines, wisdom 
is not a subject which can be taught as a part of our educational 
system. Wisdom in man is not infallible in the individual. The best source 
of wisdom derives from individuals who are possessors of great breadth 
of knowledge regarding the various components of a problem which 
exists or which is expected to exist at some future date. 

If a society can become knowledgeable, in some degree, of the 
various facets of science, politics, economics, and sociology which 
are inevitably entwined — then possibly that society can find among its 
members those individuals who can pool their best wisdom in solving 
our problems. I firmly believe that scientists have a responsibility to 
speak of the role of science in our culture. Tonight I wish to speak 
as a chemist on the role which I believe chemistry has played in the 
shaping of our present culture. I am sure that each of you could also 
illustrate how physics, biology, engineering, geology, or any of our 
scientific disciplines have added their own unique contribution to 
our developing culture. And so I will speak of a few of the historical 
landmarks of chemistry. 

It is believed that the practical knowledge that would eventually 
give birth to alchemy first originated in the predynastic period of 
Egypt (before 3400 B.C.). It is known that the early Egyptians 
worked with gold and silver. Their ability to produce glass on a large 
scale was well established by 1400 B.C. Some Chinese literature indi- 
cates that as early as the Third Century B.C. ideas characteristic 
of the beginnings of early alchemy were being employed there as well. 
But in Ancient Egypt, out of the land of Khem, came the knowledge 
Arabs would later identify as alchemy. Most of the discoveries in 
metallurgy, as well as those which lent themselves to the making of 
various kinds of materials, were obtained by chance. Those noble metals, 
gold and silver, which were found in the native state, were highly 
prized by the ancients because they could be worked so easily. The 
gold mines of Nubia were mined extensively by the Egyptians. One 
historian, writing in 1890, estimated that the gold mined in just one 
year in the Nubians would be valued at 125,000,000 pounds sterling, 
or approximately a billion dollars a year. The accidental discovery of 
glass in Egypt has been suggested as the result of adding soda to sand 
which acted as a flux in melting the sands which contained traces of 
gold. This early striving for gold would continue on into the Alchemical 
Period and lend its impetus to the search for the Philosopher's Stone. 



Presidential Address 91 

The Greeks and Romans inherited the knowledge of matter which 
had originated in the Egyptian civilization. They improved upon these 
ancient metallurgical processes and developed new products. Bronze, 
which was probably first produced about 2500 B.C., was probably made 
from copper and tin oxide ore even before free tin was identified. 
This early knowledge of matter was of an empirical nature. There 
were no planned experiments such as are designed today and which 
are the heart of modern scientific study. It is difficult to understand 
why the gifted Greeks, who had made so many advances in mathe- 
matics and philosophy, did not organize into groups the many careful 
observations which had been made over the previous centuries and 
develop theories from these facts. Their disdain for physical work, and 
their fixed belief that the methods of thought and discourse were the only 
methods suited to study nature resulted in a philosophy — but not a 
science. 

Even though Democritus proposed an atomic theory as early as 
the Fifth Century B.C., in which he imagined that all matter was 
composed of different types of atoms according to the nature of the 
substance, he had no other scientific bases for its acceptance but 
that it was a philosophical idea. It was not the result of experimen- 
tation. The concept of atoms as a valid scientific theory would not be 
introduced until the early Nineteenth Century by the chemist John 
Dalton. One might well pause to reflect that if the methods of philosophy 
and the dogmas of the many mystery religions (including the Christian 
faith) had continued as the dominant voices in man's intellectual 
development, it would have been impossible for modern Western 
Culture to develop as we know it. The use of an inductive method by a 
later generation of scientists produced the natural sciences and changed 
the direction of our culture. 

As the Greek and then the Roman influence declined politically, 
and the devastation of barbarian conquest spread throughout Europe, 
a group of individuals centered around Alexandria managed somehow 
to preserve some of the ancient knowledge of matter. It is believed 
that in some of the writings of these Alexandrians (dating from the 
Third to the Seventh Century, A.D.) there is evidence of the first 
beginnings of alchemy. When the Moslems conquered Egypt in the 
Seventh Century and destroyed the priceless treasures of the great 
library at Alexandria, few could foresee that these people would be 
the successors to the learned Greeks. 

But alchemy did become the province of the Arabs, and they 
continued the study of matter and its properties. The erroneous doctrine 
of transmutation of base metals to gold became entrenched in their 
thinking. Even so they left behind many valuable descriptions of 
chemical processes and introduced new methods of separation and the 
purification of various substances. But why — over the entire Alchemical 
Period — did no one recognize that the transformation of different 
substances into new ones was related to an ancient atomic theory? 
It is hard for us, who have been trained in the inductive methods of 
science, to understand that at one time the practicing alchemist had 



92 Indiana Academy of Science 

the ingrained belief that a substance would be transformed into a 
new substance only with the complete annihilation of the old substance. 

But as the Sixteenth Century approached, alchemy was in the 
decline. The long-sought-after Philosopher's Stone would become more a 
matter of faith. Charlatans, in an attempt to maintain their favor in 
the courts of Europe, claimed that they had Divine assistance in their 
work. But many among the intellectual class began to distrust the 
alchemists. In the 1600's an event happened which would change the 
character of alchemy to that of chemistry. The introduction of printing 
made possible the dissemination of studies which would now be subject 
to broader criticism. A new spirit of freedom began to develop and 
emerge with the geographical discoveries of the New World and the 
exploration and colonization of these lands. As the century moved on 
scientific societies were organized in Europe and science began to 
achieve academic acceptance. 

But — most important — some men were beginning to investigate 
the mysteries of nature, and they possessed new ideas as to how 
this should be done. Robert Boyle, born in 1626, settled in Oxford in 
1654 where he carried on his studies until 1688, when he moved to 
London. He became the first President of The Royal Society in 1680 
and guided its activities until his death in 1691. Boyle turned his 
thoughts to the concept of the atom of the element. He discarded the 
old Aristotelian idea of four elements and maintained that these 
"Certain primitive and simple or perfectly unmingled bodies; which 
not being made of any other bodies or of one another, are the ingredients 
of which all those so-called perfectly mixed bodies are immediately 
compounded." 

But even as this new scientific spirit, based upon an inductive 
method, began to appear, there was also being proclaimed a concept 
of combustion which became widely accepted by most scientists — but 
which was entirely incorrect. The burning of matter — combustion — 
had been the focus of study for many years when Johann Becher set 
forth his view in 1669 that whenever a substance burned or was calcined, 
the combustible constituents of that substance — the terra pinguis- 
escaped. It was the escape of this material which gave the evidences of 
burning. Later, George Stahl built his similar idea of phlogiston. Each 
combustible material, including the metals, contained a substance — 
phlogiston — which escaped when the substance burned away; or, as 
in the case of a metal, became calcined to a powder. Since coal would 
burn until almost nothing remained, it was almost pure phlogiston. 
If a metal was heated, it too lost phlogiston, until its calx alone re- 
mained. To prove this had happened, if the metal calx was heated with 
coal, the phlogiston would again enter the calx and the metal would 
again reappear. He assumed that sulfur consisted of sulfuric acid and 
phlogiston, for upon burning sulfur, the phlogiston escaped and sulfuric 
acid was left. 

Why he, or chemists who followed after him, would not question 
the difference in odor of the phlogiston from carbon as compared to 
the phlogiston from sulfur; or the fact that the calx of iron, which 



Presidential Address 93 

had lost phlogiston, now weighed more than the original iron, illustrates 
the hold a theory can have on the minds of knowledgeable individuals 
even though the theory is erroneous. Chemists such as Joseph Black, 
Carl Sheele, Henry Cavendish, and Joseph Priestley were phlogistonists 
in the full sense of the word. This doctrine, which did not completely 
disappear until the early 1800's, did have the positive effect of proposing 
an interpretation of many different observations from one common 
point of view. It was a beginning in the use of theory in the inductive 
method of reasoning. 

It is natural now to turn briefly to Joseph Priestly, and to relate 
his contribution to the chemical and cultural development of our society. 
Priestley was born in 1733 in Yorkshire, near Leeds, England. His 
early training and study was in theology, and he became a Unitarian 
minister — a dissenter from the established Church of England. He was a 
free-thinker and prone to oppose his own government in the conflict 
between England and her American Colonies, and he sympathized 
with the Revolutionaries during the French Revolution. He was a 
friend of Benjamin Franklin; and he would heed his advice and that 
of his intellectual friends who lived in the community of Birmingham 
and the Severn Valley to embark upon scientific studies. His interests 
were broad, his natural instincts were to learn all he could about 
anything and everything. 

In 1767, in Leeds, where he lived next door to a brewery, he found 
a ready source of 'fixed air', and began his studies which would 
culminate in his publication in 1772 on "Directions for Impregnating 
Water with Fixed Air." Dr. Joseph Black had obtained "fixed air" 
from heating limestone in 1754, and Henry Cavendish had produced 
"inflammable air" in 1766. These gases, it was believed at the time, 
were mere modifications of ordinary air. There was an excitement in 
Priestley to learn all he could about these "modifications". He 
designed a "pneumatic trough" to collect various gases; and he synthe- 
sized and collected sulfur dioxide, ammonia, and hydrogen chloride. 

Possibly he decided to begin a study of heating various solids 
to find if they contained a gas, since Black had demonstrated the 
possibility of obtaining fixed air by heating limestone. It is to be 
remembered (although few historians record the date) that a memorable 
occasion in the history of civilization occurred on August 1, 1774, in 
Wiltshire, England, when Priestley focused his twelve-inch burning 
lens on a sample of red calx of mercury confined in one of his pneumatic 
tubes and produced his first sample of "dephlogisticated air". He had 
discovered, as he reasoned, a new modification of air which he found 
could support combustion much better than ordinary air and which 
must therefore contain no contamination of phlogiston since it could 
accept a much greater quantity of this element of fire more readily. Later 
in that year, he would visit Antoine Lavoisier in Paris and advise 
Lavoisier of his work. He subsequently published this study in March, 
1775. These were all links in the chain when Lavoisier would report 
in 1777 on his theory of combustion and the identification of Priestley's 
gas (which was indeed the life-saving oxygen) as a component of air. 



94 Indiana Academy of Science 

Priestley's outspoken sympathy for the colonists during our 
Revolution and his support of the French Revolution in 1791 led to the 
destruction of his home and laboratory in Birmingham by a mob. In 
1794 he came to Northumberland, Pennsylvania where he lived out the 
remainder of his days. He died in 1804 shortly after his 70th year. The 
famous Priestley Award of the American Chemical Society recognizes 
Priestley the man and his distinguished work. 

Priestley's contemporary in France, Antoine Lavoisier, was ten 
years younger. From an early age his career was that of a scientist, 
and he was soon recognized by the French Academy of Science. His 
work encompassed not only the discovery of new scientific information; 
but he also served France on many Boards and Commissions solving 
problems of administration on taxation, banking, scientific agriculture, 
and many other areas. His chemical research was directed to the 
quantitative study of reactions and it was not the common type of 
research prevalent in his day. It was his ability to measure and to 
weigh reactants and products of reactions which made it possible 
for him to bring order to the uncertainty which existed in the study 
of combustion. 

In addition to his own detailed experimental work, he took the 
results of other's work, and wove their findings into a new chemistry. 
He helped organize a new nomenclature, and he wrote a new textbook 
on "Elements of Chemistry" which provided a systematic approach to 
the study of chemistry. His early recognition of oxygen as a constituent 
of many acids resulted in one forgivable error — when he forgot his 
own principle "Never to advance but from what is known to what is 
unknown", by his mistaken insistence that all acids contained oxygen. 
Lavoisier initiated a revolution in chemistry — but would himself be- 
come a victim of another Revolution. In May of 1794, the year Priestley 
came to America, Antoine Lavoisier was sent to the guillotine. Many 
would whisper "Only a moment to cut off that head and a hundred 
years may not give us another like it." Lavoisier well deserves his 
title of "The Father of Modern Chemistry". 

Today we encounter the general belief of many that the influence 
of chemistry on our culture is the influence which chemical technology 
provides through the many beneficial, and sometimes not so bene- 
ficial, products it provides. But the intellectual contributions of chem- 
istry are not recognized in many cases. The organization of new methods 
to solve the mysteries of nature — the incitement of a new spirit of intel- 
lectual inquiry were a vital part of the same spirit of freedom which 
burst upon the Western World in the late Eighteenth Century. This 
new cultural spirit was evidenced in the changes in religion, politics, 
literature, and the new science which Priestley, Lavoisier, and others 
helped bring about. 

We might briefly retrace our steps and review one great technical 
development which was occurring at the same time as the sweeping 
changes in chemistry took place. In 1709, in the small village of Coal- 
brookdale, Shropshire, England, Abraham Darby I purchased an old 
iron forge and began to produce cast iron for the making of pots 



Presidential Address 95 

and kettles. In this year he found that in place of the widely used 
charcoal to reduce the iron ore, he could use — as a replacement for 
charcoal — coal which had been coked. Others had attempted to use 
coal for this purpose, but had been unsuccessful. It was Darby's use 
of sulfur-free coal to make his coke which made the reduction of 
iron ore possible. 

Here was a potentially great industry which had been limited 
in its capability to produce iron by the lack of sufficient wood to 
produce charcoal, for the great forests of England and Europe had 
been dwindling away. Now this bottleneck had been overcome, and 
the way was open for the production of unlimited quantities of iron. 
And so in this year of 1709 the great Industrial Revolution was born 
in a tiny town in England and would spread throughout the world. By 
1760 it would greatly influence our cultural direction. In this rural 
region of England — in the beautiful Severn Gorge — iron forges produced 
the iron to manufacture steam engines, iron rails and (yes) the cast 
iron stoves and cooking utensils which revolutionized the housewife's 
kitchen. The Darby Plant continued to grow — and in 1775 earned 
lasting claim to fame by building of cast iron the first iron bridge 
in the world. Completed in 1779, the ribs and beams, which had been 
cast at Coalbrookdale, were set to span the Severn Gorge, a distance 
of 120 feet. This structure, the ancestor of our massive bridges of 
today, still stands across the gorge at what is now known as the town 
of Ironbridge, England; and a great outdoor industrial museum is 
developing at this historic site. 

This region of the Severn Valley and its outer-lying area was to 
breed an unusual quality of men. Josiah Wedgewood, the potter who 
raised his craft to a fine art and who was also a scientist in his own 
field, became — together with Erasmus Darwin — the grandfather of the 
great scientist Charles Darwin. They, along with Darby, Matthew 
Boulten, James Watt, and John Wilkinson, with his brother-in-law 
Joseph Priestley, were all members of the famous intellectual Lunar 
Society which had its meeting place in Birmingham and met at the 
time of the full moon — the better to travel. Their lives, their work, 
and their intellectual activities opened a new and wonderful door to 
our present cultural heritage. 

One could continue to enumerate the work of chemists such as 
Dalton, Gay-Lussac, Berzelius, Wohler, Liebig, Pasteur, and a great 
many others who lived in the Nineteenth Century; but we must limit 
our selection since so many of the discoveries of this generation of 
men were so significant. But I wish to pause briefly to consider some 
chemical technical developments. At the meeting of The British As- 
sociation for the Advancement of Science in 1898, Sir William Crooks, 
in his presidential address, gave emphatic utterance in a warning of 
the world's future food problems. He stated that there was not enough 
fixed nitrogen available in the nitrate beds of Chile to supply the 
nitrogen nutrient for the growth of wheat and other grains to supply 
the world's needs in the near future. His disquieting message of ap- 
proaching nitrogen starvation did not cause much worry among the 



96 Indiana Academy of Science 

world's politicians; but men of science understood well the danger to the 
human race. The control of the seas determined what nations would 
maintain a lifeline to the great Chilean deposits. In the early 1900's 
Britain, the United States, and France held that control. The Central 
Powers of Europe, under the leadership of Germany, were unable to 
undertake any massive military venture since their lack of nitrate 
kept them from producing the quantities of TNT and nitrocellulose 
necessary to conduct a long war. 

Then in 1912 Professor H. A. Bernthesen announced at the New 
York meeting of the International Congress of Applied Chemistry 
that Fritz Haber and his associates in the Badische Anilin and Soda- 
Fabric located at Oppau, Germany, had at last discovered the method 
of converting nitrogen and hydrogen to ammonia. Since ammonia can 
be oxidized in the presence of platinum gauze to nitric oxide, it be- 
came possible to synthesize the needed oxide necessary to produce 
nitric acid. This freedom from the sea blockade of the importation of 
sodium nitrate from Chile guaranteed Germany a continued production 
of explosives; and in a brief two years the volatile political situation 
in Europe erupted into the destructive First World War. The long- 
sought-for chemical discovery to fertilize the fields of the world with 
fixed nitrogen did not result in an immediate blessing to mankind — 
but instead made possible World War I — which in another twenty-five 
years was followed by World War II. Today, with the blessings of 
lessened world tension, we are enjoying the benefits of fixed ammonia 
as we produce bountiful harvests of grain to feed the world. 

We simply cannot evade or escape science and technology. The 
Haber process could not have been withheld from society because it 
also held within it the potential for devastating war. It was not 
necessarily the year of 1914 that brought forth the first paradox of 
the good and the evil in technology. The iron that armed the ancient 
Greeks came from the same process that ultimately produced the 
Industrial Revolution and the great modern steel industry. As we 
know, the potential for both good and evil becomes even greater with 
each new scientific advance — while, sadly enough, the paradox remains 
unanswered and unsolved. 

Just as we can point to the positive intellectual impact which 
the study of pure chemistry has had upon the deepest roots of our 
culture; so too we also recognize that the less fundamental (but more 
dangerous) technical application of these intellectual discoveries have 
introduced a sometimes fearful but inescapable impact upon our daily 
culture. One cannot breathe, nor eat, nor live one's daily life without 
coming in contact with the potential dangers of modern technology. 

Lastly, we should end this historical review of chemistry and 
science in our culture by joining chemistry with its sister science 
physics for a brief review of today's most miraculous technical advances. 
Who in 1780 would have suggested to Luigi Galvani and Allessandro 
Volta that their discoveries in current electricity would endanger the 
culture of the Western World? Would one want the work of Faraday 
stricken from the understanding of the chemical compound ? Was Crooks' 



Presidential Address 97 

work in the cathode ray to be classified by a paternal government 

because it might become dangerous knowledge ? And should Roentgen 

and Becquerel and Marie Curie not have recognized their accidental 

discoveries as a starting point in our understanding of X-rays and 

radioactive disintegrations? When Thompson and Chadwick identified 

the electron, the proton, and the neutron; could society or even the 

knowledgeable scientists of that day recognize that "When the sun 

sets, shadows that showed at noon but small, appear most long and 

terrible"? The shadows had appeared most long and terrible indeed 

when in August, 1939 Albert Einstein, with the prodding of physicist 

Leo Szilard, wrote to President Franklin D. Roosevelt; 

Sir: Some recent work by E. Fermi and L. Szilard, which has been 

communicated to me in manuscript, leads me to expect that the 

element uranium may be turned into a new and important source 

of energy in the near future. Certain aspects of the situation 

seem to call for watchfulness, and, if necessary, quick action on 

the part of the Administration. 

We all know the results of 'quick action' by President Roosevelt and 
his Administration during the war years. And so the atomic age was 
not only born — but was in fact thrust upon us during the travail of 
a great global war. It came at a faster pace than if the world had 
been at peace — but perhaps no sooner than was necessary to counter- 
act the then unforeseeable demands on our energy supplies which was 
to develop within the next thirty-five years. 

And now we are concerned with another completely different 
chemical development with the elucidation of DNA by James Watson 
and Francis Crick. The potential of this purely scientific excursion into 
the realm of understanding life itself has been likened to the potential 
of nuclear energy. We cannot discard the fact that knowledge is 
power — and power is always dangerous. But any culture which con- 
tinues to grow through the intellectual ability and creative talent of 
its philosophers, its theologians, its artists, its writers, and its scientists 
will always have to exist within the blessings and the dangers which 
the technologies derived from the intellect will always produce. 

As an Academy of Science, with a membership of persons who 
are more knowledgeable of the good and of the bad which science — ■ 
through its technology — brings to society, we must accept our responsi- 
bility to advise and to educate those possessing a lesser understanding 
of science. We must also be prepared to work with those who make 
the decisions for the uses of science so that, to our best ability, the 
gift of wisdom will continue to bring the blessings of science into our 
culture. 

Literature Cited 

1. Cook, Donald J., Elements of Chemistry, D. Van Nostrand, New York, 1974. 

2. Von Meyer, Ernst, A History of Chemistry, Macmillan & Co., London, 1891. 

3. Wade, Nicholas, "Recombinant DNA", Science, Vol. 194, 303 (1976) quoting Robert 
L. Sinsheimer (sic). 

4. Sophocles, Oedijms (Translated by Nathaniel Lee) (sic). 

5. Cushman, Allerton S., Chemistry and Civilization, The Gorham Press, Boston, (1920), 



ANTHROPOLOGY 

Chairman: Benjamin K. Swartz, Jr., Department of Anthropology 
Ball State University, Muncie, IN 47306 

Chairman-Elect: Edward M. Dolan 
DePauw University, Greencastle, IN 46135 

ABSTRACTS 

Preliminary Comments on an Historic Miami Site in the Mississinewa 
River Valley. Russell E. Lewis, Department of Sociology, University 

of Evansville, Evansville, Indiana 47702. During the summer of 1976, 

Ball State University conducted excavations in Wabash County, Indiana 
in an attempt to locate the site of the Battle of Mississinewa (Decem- 
ber 17 and 18, 1812) and associated Miami village sites. 

Excavations were concentrated in an area thought to be the 
former village site of Miami leaders Metosinia and his son Meshingo- 
mesia. Dr. B.K. Swartz, Jr., B.S.U., was project director; Dr. Elizabeth 
Glenn, B.S.U., served as the project ethnohistorian; and, the author 
served as field director for the excavations and is responsible for the 
analysis of the fieldwork and artifact assemblage. 

Archaeological and archival data indicated the presence of a cabin 
which could have been occupied from circa 1813 to 1874. The dimensions 
of the cabin were approximately 10 feet wide by 20 feet long with end 
posts spaced 4 feet apart and side posts spaced 5 feet apart. The cabin 
had a fieldstone foundation, dirt floor, a door on each of the long sides, 
and a pit hearth 15 inches in diameter. Window glass was also present 
in the cabin floor area. Archival data indicates that such cabins were 
being constructed on the Miami Reserve at least as early as 1827. 

The artifact assemblage has been compared with the artifact assem- 
blages of sites from roughly the same time period, including sites 
located in California, Georgia, Illinois, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, 
New York, and Ontario. The assemblage includes most of the items 
which one would expect to find in a Late Historic (1780-1820) through 
Civil War era Indian village site. Most of the artifacts were trade 
items of European manufacture. Some American materials and a limited 
amount of native Miami materials were also recovered. 1 

Included in the artifact assemblage are the following: a variety of 
glass and shell trade beads; Dutch, French and English gunflints; gun 
parts, musket balls, and percussion caps; trade silver including brooches 
and a tinkling cone; forged and cut nails; iron, brass, copper, lead, and 
pewter artifacts consisting of kettle and knife fragments, tinkling cones, 
bells, Jew's harps, etc.; worked bone and antler; glass and ceramic frag- 



1 In addition to the artifactual material discussed here, there were also 420 non- 
human bone and tooth fragments recovered. E. Joseph Fabyan, B.S.U. Graduate Student 
in Anthropology was responsible for the faunal analysis. 

99 



100 Indiana Academy of Science 

ments; shell, bone, metal, porcelain, and glass buttons; and English 
and American kaolin pipe fragments. 

The majority of the material indicates that the cabin was probably- 
occupied circa 1830 to 1870, although there is a limited amount of earlier 
material in the assemblage. For more information and a preliminary 
site report contact the author. 

The Chert Assemblage of the Daugherty-Monroe Site, A Circa 400 A.D. 
Village. Gary A. Apfelstadt, Department of Anthropology, University 
of Illinois-Urbana, Urbana, Illinois 61801. Excavations have been con- 
ducted at 12-Su-13 for several years to mitigate the impact of proposed 
levee construction. This report summarized the analysis of the chert 
remains that were recovered during the 1975 season. Based upon earlier 
studies, this analysis employed an imposed categorization. It was con- 
ducted without microscopic wear-damage analysis, and it was under- 
taken to determine the patterns of chert utilization and on-site activity. 
The items are attributed to tool use, flint knapping, firing activity, or 
unidentified. The artifacts with characteristic firing attributes result from 
at least two sets of heating conditions. Behavioral correlates of these 
may be stone boiling, stone hearth, and heat treatment methods of use 
and preparation. The waste from flint knapping activity was segregated 
among four categories (i.e., cores, decortication flakes, preparation 
flakes, bifacial flakes) with the latter three representing successive units 
of lithic reduction. The chert tool categories include stemmed bifaces, 
stemless bifaces, core unifaces, flake unifaces, and blades; they were 
tentatively grouped into cutting, scraping, perforating, or projectile type 
functions. From the observation of material type, it is evident that the 
inhabitants practiced differential use of materials. Non-local materials 
predominate in the categories of blades, stemmed bifaces, and bifacial 
flakes, while local materials account for all of the stemless bifaces, 
unifacial flake and core tools, and for most of the cores, preparation 
flakes, and decortication flakes. On this basis, it is likely that: a) chert 
was a multi-purpose resource; b) local materials were used in the range 
of activities; c) non-local materials were used in a restricted set of 
activities; d) local materials were transported to the site before reduc- 
tion to tool forms; e) non-local materials were transported to the site 
after reduction to tool forms; and, f) tools of both materials were re- 
worked at the site. 

A History of East-Central Indiana Archaeological Study. B. K. Swartz, 
Jr., Department of Anthropology, Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana 

47306. Four periods of scholarly prehistoric study in East-Central 

Indiana are identified and described: (1) Pioneer Speculative Period 
(1800-1847), (2) Pioneer Descriptive Period (1847-1937), (3) Professional 
Excavation Period (1930-1964), and (4) Professional Classificatory 
Period (1964- ). 



An Incised Mortuary Head Rest Stone from 
Madison County, Indiana. 

B. K. Swartz, Jr. 

Department of Anthropology, Ball State University 

Muncie, Indiana 47306 

In response to a call received by the Department of Anthropology, 
Ball State University, on October 24, 1975, a team of archaeology 
graduate students was dispatched to the Gillespie farm, eight miles 
north of Chesterfield, Madison County, Indiana, to record the exposure 
of a disturbed human skeleton. The site of this recovery was designated 
M-65 (IAS-BSU). When the bones (many relocated by local resident 
youths) were collected the cranium was removed, revealing in situ 
a stone with inscribed lines (Figures 1 and 2) directly below. The 
idea of a mortuary head rest recurs in this area. There is a question- 
able report of a head rest stone from Delaware County (Dl-2? IAS-BSU) 
about 1889 by "Bunt" Swearington. "The head resting on a piece of 
material about the size of a saucer" (3). At the Middle Woodland New 
Castle site, Henry County, Indiana, a skull may have been placed on a 
sheet of untrimmed mica (4, p. 5). 



v.e^- 




^^hiLhi^^ 



Figure 1. 

It should be noted that lineal depressions on soft stone surfaces can 
easily be formed by natural processes such as differential weathering of 
alterations made by root growth, water erosion, soil movement, etc. 
Though the find is on the glacial Tipton till plain the marks are not 
glacial striations,' nor are they made from earth altering devices such 
as plows. To the writer the rock is unusual. It could be a manuport 
(i.e. also unusual to a prehistoric observer, hence suitable as an offering 

101 



102 



Indiana Academy of Science 



to the dead). Though no specific tool markings are detectable, due to 
the soft rock surface, prehistoric inscribing seem likely. 

The stone was oriented so that the incised design was against the 
cranium, with the lines radiating in a posterior direction. On June 8, 
1976 Mr. LaVan Martineau, who was visiting the writer, examined the 
stone and interpreted the incised design on the basis of ideas expressed 
in (5). He termed the central line a ''bird track" with a slight off-set at 
the point of bifurcation. Such a marking refers to a person of im- 
portance; inversion of the element to dying or death; the off-setting of 
the line to failure, i.e. an important person who failed has died. This 
idea is compatible with the archaeological context, though the author 
realizes that the relating of accounts from prehistoric pictography is a 
controversial activity. 





Figure 2. 



The Madison County stone was composed of dense solidified silt. 
Due to the context of the discovery and the density of the stone it was 
thought that possibly the stone might have been aboriginally "manufac- 
tured" by coating a heavy rock with hardened silt. Radiography (Figure 
3) disproved this idea. 

No parietal rock markings, i.e. petroglyphs, have been professionally 
recorded from Indiana (2, pp. 17). There was a cave at Mounds State 
Park, Madison County (1) in which persistent local rumors of aboriginal 
habitational evidence (smoke blackened ceilings) and occasional mention 
of "wall markings" were recounted. Former rock markings representing 
three turtles, have been reported at Totem Rock or Salt Peter Cave, 
DuBois County (6). 

The markings on the Gillespie stone, especially because of its con- 
text, can possibly be regarded as an example of "inscription mobilier" 
from Indiana. 



Anthropology 



103 



Acknowledgements 

The Ball State University graduate students who conducted the 
salvage operation were Raphael L. Schwartz, E. Joseph Fabyan and 
Daniel L. Plamann. Radiography (Figure 3) was done by Betty Allen, 
Ball Memorial Hospital. 




Figure 3. 



Literature Cited 

1. ANONYMOUS. 1961. Abrams Recalls Cave Experience of Father. Anderson Bulletin, 
February 28, 1961. 

2. Grant, Campbell. 1967. Rock Art of the American Indian. Crowell (Apollo), N. Y. 
178 p. 

3. Greene, Dick. 1969. Seen and Heard in Our Neighborhood. Muncie Star, September 
24, 1969. 

4. McCrumb, Eleanor. 1966. Mound One. In "Field Reports: First Annual Ball State 
University Summer Field School." Archaeological Reports, edited by B. K. Swartz, 
Jr. 1 :3-6. 

5. Martineau, LaVan. 1973. The Rocks Begin to Speak. KC Publications, Las Vegas. 
210 p. 

6. Wilson, George R. 1910. A History of DuBois County, from Primitive Days to 1910. 
Joseph Rath, Jasper. 47 p. 



Field Forensic Anthropology: 
The Excavation of Human Remains under Adverse Conditions 

Charles P. Warren 
Department of Anthropology- 
University of Illinois at Chicago Circle, Chicago, Illinois 60680 

Abstract 

Field Forensic Anthropology: The Excavation of Human Remains under Adverse 
Conditions. Charles P. Warren, Department of Anthropology, University of Illinois at 
Chicago Circle, Chicago, Illinois 60680. Tha recovery of war casualties from former 
combat zones was an activity routinely performed by U.S. Army search and recovery 
teams in Southeast Asia. This is an account of one such recovery and its associated 
hazards as reported by a physical anthropologist who accompanied the team during a 
recovery in Hue, Republic of Viet Nam. 

Introduction 

An awareness of the applicability of modern archaeological tech- 
niques in the search and recovery of contemporary human remains and 
as an aid in forensic investigations has been reported recently in the 
literature (3, 4). These prescribed techniques have an even wider func- 
tion in the exhumation of the buried remains of battle casualties by 
military recovery teams. 

Planning Military Recovery Procedures — An Example 

Early in September, 1974, an American official working in Da Nang, 
Republic of Viet Nam, received information from local sources in Hue, 
Republic of Viet Nam, concerning the burial of two Americans in Hue 
City during Tet, 1968. Hue, the ancient capital of Viet Nam, lies on 
both sides of the Perfume River, 685 miles north of Saigon and 60 miles 
south of the 17th parallel, which, at the time of this report, was the 
line of demarcation between North Viet Nam and South Viet Nam. 

Reportedly, fifteen Vienamese and two Americans were buried in a 
mass grave inside the walls of the citadel of Hue City. Further investi- 
gation of the report revealed that an eye-witness informant was avail- 
able to point out the exact site and to give an account of the events of 
the burial. According to the informant, he, a resident of Hue City, 
returned to his house in the citadel a few days after the withdrawal 
of the Viet Cong troops, sometime in late February, 1968. He and his 
neighbors had received orders from the local authorities to help pick up 
all of the dead bodies which had been left lying around their living 
areas for burial along the walls of the citadel. The informant stated 
that he and some of his neighbors recovered the bodies of fifteen Viet- 
namese and two American soldiers, and all were then buried in a single 
bomb crater which was located behind the wall of the citadel on Nguyen 
Thanh Street. The informant further stated that the two American re- 
mains had been found at the intersection of Nguyen Thanh and Dinh 
Cong Trang Streets, about 100 meters from the gravesite. Both 
Americans reportedly had red hair and white skin. The tall one was 

104 



Anthropology 105 

described as wearing green jungle trousers and a tee shirt and had 
been wounded in the stomach; the smaller one was described as wearing 
a green jungle shirt and undershorts and had been wounded in the 
neck. According to the informant, no parts of the bodies were lost after 
they were wounded, and the informant did not remember having found 
anything in the pockets of the clothing or having seen any dogtags or 
nametags. 

This information was passed on through channels, and subsequently 
plans were made to send a team of U.S. Army search and recovery 
personnel to the site. The personnel of the search and recovery team 
were all based in southeastern Thailand at the U.S. Army Central Identi- 
fication Laboratory, and the mission required six military recovery 
specialists and one civilian physical anthropologist to conduct the pro- 
posed search and recovery operation in Hue City. Since there had been 
recent political unrest and demonstrations in Hue, and since the Viet 
Cong and North Vietnamese troops had infiltrated the area, the planners 
of the operation constantly stressed the importance of tight security 
throughout the entire operation. The local authorities agreed to provide 
the security forces, composed of police, and these police would be on 
site prior to the arrival of the Central Identification Laboratory per- 
sonnel. A complete sweep of the area would be made, and the road next 
to the site would be blocked off and the traffic redirected. Police would 
be stationed around the area and at the site itself, and at least three 
policemen would be left at the site during the night to provide twenty- 
four-hour security. Each day there was to be another sweep of the area, 
a blocking of the road, and the posting of police prior to the beginning 
of any activity by the American personnel. Radio communications would 
also be established. This plan was acceptable to the American officials 
in charge of the planning, so the search and recovery mission was 
activated. 

The members of the search and recovery team departed from their 
base in Thailand and, after plane flights to Saigon and then Da Nang 
and a helicopter flight to Hue, arrived at the base of operations in Hue 
City early in the morning of September 16, 1974. Soon after their 
arrival, the search and recovery team was briefed on the evacuation 
plan and what to do if there was an attack. The team members were 
also briefed on how to respond to the members of the press who would 
most likely be at the site. Because of the danger, the entire city of 
Hue was declared off-limits to the team personnel and the accompanying 
American officials, and all activities were thus confined to the hotel 
for billeting and meals, the base of operations, and the site of the pro- 
posed excavation. 

The Recovery and Problems Encountered 

The remainder of this report will be confined to the anthropological 
and archaeological aspects of the recovery of human remains in Hue, 
Republic of Viet Nam, on 16 and 17 September 1974. The site, at Grid 
Coordinates YD 765 229, inside the citadel of Hue City, was observed to 
be a mound of grass-covered earth lying between an all-weather road 



106 Indiana Academy of Science 

(Nguyen Thanh Street) and a brick wall which paralleled the road. 
Similar mounds were apparent along the length of the wall. The excava- 
tion and attempted recovery of human remains began at 0915, with in- 
digenous labor moving most of the clay and brick aggregate which was 
encountered as the digging proceeded. The workmen were instructed to 
dig two trenches, parallel to one another and flanking the mound. This 
kept the mound intact until a level three feet below the surface was 
reached. At this level the workmen were instructed to slowly remove 
the aggregate from the exposed surfaces of the mound and to gradually 
work downward, keeping the areas underfoot clear of dirt and rocks as 
the mound was dismantled. The first remains were uncovered at 1045; 
a left scapula and several rib fragments were thrown loose by the 
workmen. At this time the members of the team took over the exhuma- 
tion; the procedure described above was continued, and several incom- 
plete and fragmentary remains were recovered and bagged. At 1150 
the work was stopped for a lunch break. 

After a check by the recovery team for booby traps, the work was 
resumed at 1400, with the systematic excavation of the mound being 
periodically slowed by the recovery of remains. The indigenous laborers 
had to be restrained continually, for their prime interest was in digging 
and completing the job, whereas the recovery team wanted the remains 
as undamaged as possible. At least three incomplete individuals were 
recovered by 1515, but the burials had not been systematic, so com- 
mingling was inevitable. As could best be reconstructed from the meager 
evidence, the individuals had been collected and haphazardly tossed 
into the open grave. The unsystematic distribution of remains made it 
extremely difficult to ascertain the positioning of the individuals and to 
complete the subsequent diagramming of the contents of the site. 

As the work progressed throughout the afternoon, several bones not 
associated with the recoveries were sifted from the dirt which had been 
removed from the top of the mound. These bones were of a different 
texture from the more deeply buried remains and may have been later 
intrusions. The results of the work of the afternoon could best be sum- 
marized as four commingled recoveries of incomplete and fragmentary 
remains found in odd positions, plus several bones which may have come 
from other sources. Work was discontinued at 1630. 

The next morning at 0750 the area was again checked for booby 
traps and mines, and the workmen were then instructed to remove 
the remaining portions of the mound and to continue to excavate the 
entire floor of the site down about six inches more to the clay surface 
which marked the bottom of the pit. During this activity, the first 
grenade was uncovered at 0840, and it was disposed of by one of the 
team members, who threw it over the wall behind the gravesite. The 
second grenade was uncovered at 0850, and the task of ridding the site 
of this danger was assumed by enlisted personnel of the army of the 
Republic of Viet Nam. Both grenades were old ordnance and, as a con- 
sequence, were very dangerous for the excavators and spectators alike. 

At 0915 two remains were uncovered which had heavy ropes tying 
the leg and ankle bones. This evidence suggested possible atrocities, 



Anthropology 107 

and the apparent lack of clothing- on or with all of the remains recov- 
ered further suggested that the individuals had been stripped and tied, 
then killed and buried. At 1135 the morning work ended. 

The recovery team and the Vietnamese workmen returned to the 
site at 1400 and resumed the excavation after clearing the area. By 
this time a pit 4.5 X 3 X 2 meters had been dug, and the bottom of the 
pit was floored with a yellow clay which had not been penetrated by the 
original excavation. All remains were removed by 1450, and, after scrap- 
ing the surface of the pit floor to verify the maximum depth of the 
original pit, the excavation was declared complete, and the workmen 
were instructed to refill the pit. This was partially completed by 1630, 
at which time the recovery team left the site and the remainder of the 
work to the indigenous workers. An inventory at this time totaled seven 
fragmentary and incomplete recoveries, extensively commingled, plus an 
assortment of tentatively nonassociable portions. All recoveries were 
packaged in bags and boxes marked to reflect the above findings. 

Evaluation of Personnel Training and Procedures 

This site was an extremely difficult site to excavate and exhume, due 
to the limitations set by time and the lack of precise information. Fur- 
thermore, the procedures for performing this type of task are not 
described in the field manuals which discuss the handling of human 
remains in military field situations (1, 2, 5). Consequently, military 
recovery teams are not trained for this type of recovery, and the suc- 
cess of this particular recovery was due primarily to the ingenuity and 
perseverance of the recovery team members as they surmounted an 
unfamiliar task. Obviously, the recovery team was pressed for time, 
since a similar enterprise under strict archaeological conditions would 
have occupied at least a week of slow, painstaking excavation. 

At this point it might be of interest to discuss the conditions of 
the soil at the site. These remains were reportedly buried in February, 
1968, thus giving a burial span of about five to six years. As previously 
stressed, the remains were incomplete and fragmentary, and this sparse- 
ness of the remains was due to the actual disappearance of the bones 
as a result of dissolution and absorption by the surrounding soils of 
high acidity. Given additional time, no bones, and only some of the 
teeth, would have been found. The recovered remains consisted mainly 
of skulls and teeth, shafts of the long bones of the arms and legs, 
fragments of pelvi, and minor scraps of vertebral columns. Hand and 
foot bones had largely disappeared, as had the proximal and distal ends 
of the long bones. Under other conditions of burial, e.g., dry, sandy 
alkaline loam, complete, undissolved skeletons may have been present 
for recovery. 

Bioanthropological and Bioarchaeological Recommendations 

As a result of the experiences and insights gained during the two 
days of work at the site in Hue City, Republic of Viet Nam, the follow- 
ing recommendations were offered: 



108 Indiana Academy of Science 

a. Provide more accurate detail as to the exact location of the site. 
Better intelligence as to the location of the site of the remains being 
sought is imperative, since this type of recovery, in contrast to surface 
recoveries of aircrash sites, requires excavation of the alleged burial 
'site to completion, even though doubts may arise as to the accuracy of 
the location of the site at any point in time during the excavation. 
It may be added that when the recovered remains were processed in 
the laboratory in Thailand, all of the individuals were Southeast Asian 
Mongoloids. 

b. Provide special training for search and recovery teams in the 
techniques of disinterment of commingled human remains. In contrast 
to the removal of burials in temporary military cemeteries — techniques 
which are described in the appropriate field manuals (1, 2, 5) — this 
type of disinterment requires special tools and special techniques, and 
the uses of these special tools and techniques are given as part of the 
training at all archaeological field schools; such training should be part 
of the training of military search and recovery teams. 

c. Provide better security at the site. The tedious task of carefully 
excavating human remains is difficult under the best of circumstances, 
but when the team workers are fully aware that they are in danger 
of ambush or attack, then the levels of concentration and attention to 
the task at hand are reduced correspondingly. Fortunately, no incidents 
occurred at this particlular site, but this good fortune cannot be at- 
tributed to the quality of the security provided at the site. 

d. Provide special training for some members of the recovery team 
in the handling of ordnance uncovered as sites are being worked. Mass 
burials after combat inevitably include inadvertent burials of explosives 
of a variety of types. Unless specialists from appropriate branches of 
service are on call during excavations of this type, all work must stop 
at the site whenever such ordnance is uncovered. The task of the recov- 
ery team is to recover remains, not produce them. 

e. Inform the appropriate authorities of the changes in buried bone 
through time. Correct decisions as to whether sites should be excavated 
can best be made if there is a broader dissemination of technical and 
scientific information regarding the responses of human bone to varying 
soil conditions (6). There must be a full awareness on the part of the 
authorities that, under the proper conditions, bones originally buried 
in a site can disappear completely, and nothing other than the artifacts 
of the burial will be found at the site. In the recovery of human remains, 
this should be a normal expectation, and the disappointment at finding 
fragmentary portions or no remains can be eased by the realization 
that the result was due to natural causes — rather than the lack of 
capability of the excavators of the site. 



Anthropology 109 

Literature Cited 

Field Manual. 1959. Handling of deceased personnel in theaters of operations. FM 
10-63. Departments of the Army, the Navy, and the Air Force, Washington, D.C. 
128 p. 

Field Manual. 1976. Identification of deceased personnel. FM 10-286. Headquarters, 
Department of the Army, Washington, D.C. 108 p. 

Morse, D., D. Crusoe and H. G. Smith. 1976. Forensic archaeology. Journal of 
Forensic Sciences. 21 (2) :323-332. 

Morse, D., J. Stoutamire and J. Duncan. 1976. A unique course in anthropology. 
American Journal of Physical Anthropology 45 (3) :743-747. 

Technical Manual. 1964. Identification of deceased personnel. TM 10-286. Head- 
quarters, Department of the Amy, Washington, D.C. 128 p. 

Warren, C. P. 1976. Plants as decomposition vectors of skeletal human remains. Pro- 
ceedings of the Indiana Academy of Science 85:65 (Abstract). 



BOTANY 

Chairman: Roger F. Boneham, Department of Geology 
Indiana University-Kokomo, Kokomo, Indiana 46901 

Chairman-Elect: Gary E. Dolph, Indiana University-Kokomo 
Kokomo, Indiana 46901 

ABSTRACTS 

Origin and Development of Non- Articulated Laticifers in Leaves of 
Catharanthus roseus. Larry R. Yoder, Botany Department, The Ohio State 

University, Marion, Ohio 43302. Sectioned leaves and whole mounts 

treated with Jeffrey reagent show a laticifer system that arises from 
initials that first appear when primordia are about 500 /mm long. Addi- 
tional initials differentiate behind the marginal meristem where they 
form a system of subdermal and vasculature-related laticifers oriented 
parallel with or at right angles to the longitudinal axis. Longitudinally- 
oriented laticifers were present just beneath the lower epidermis across 
the entire abaxial surface and in association with the phloem on the 
adaxial and abaxial sides of the bicollateral bundles in the petiole and 
midrib. Subdermal laticifers were present around the outer circumference 
of the petiole. Laticifers oriented at right angles to the midrib were 
associated with the xylem in minor veins. Earlier investigations failed 
to recognize laticifers associated with the minor veins and those along 
the margin and lower epidermis. Laticifers present beneath the epidermis 
of the blade and petiole are derived from ground tissue; those associated 
with the vasculature are presumably derived from the procambium. 
Occurrence of laticifers next to xylary elements in the minor veins is 
unique among laticifer systems that have been studied. 

Stipulate Leaves from the Middle Eocene Claiborne Formation of Tennes- 
see. John L. Roth and David L. Dilcher, Department of Plant Sciences, 
Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 47401. Fossil leaves pre- 
viously identified as Leitneria eocenica, Diospyros wilcoxiana, Ana- 
car elites marshal I ensis, Schefflera? elliptica and Carapa eolignitica were 
examined and found to have persistent adnate stipules. The stipules are 
unique to a single leaf type in the Eocene flora of Tennessee and exclude 
these leaves from the previously identified taxa. Cleared leaves from sev- 
eral modern genera and cuticular preparations for light microscopy and 
S.E.M. of both the fossil and modern material were used in comparing 
the fossil leaves with extant taxa. The gross morphology, venation and 
cuticular features of the fossil leaves appear to circumscribe a new leaf 
form. No extant taxon has been found with the same combination of 
features observed in the fossils. 

Occurrence of Lycopod Fossils in The Path Fork Coal Zone of Harlan 
County, Kentucky! Larry R. Yoder, Botany Department, The Ohio State 

University, Marion, Ohio 43302. Plant fossils were collected at a site 

adjacent to the Harlan Airport runway south of U.S. Rt. 119 in Harlan 

111 



112 Indiana Academy of Science 

County, Kentucky. Fossils exposed during runway construction occurred 
in soft shale, sandstone and clay of The Path Fork coal zone, Hance 
formation in the middle Pennsylvanian. Clay above the coal seam con- 
tained abundant Pecopteris and Calamites. Two negative stump casts 
of Lepidodendron 30 cm in diameter and a 3 m section of Lepidodendron 
trunk 35 cm in diameter were observed in the sandstone. One small cast 
of Sigillaria was also observed. Frequent examples of Stigmaria ficoides 
occur in the soft shale above the sandstone. Many roots lie parallel with 
the plane of the sandstone and are easily followed for several meters. A 
7 m section with a uniform diameter of 8 cm was the longest root col- 
lected. Erosion had scattered the remaining parts of this specimen and 
no bifurcations were recovered. Rootlets y 2 -l cm in diameter were intact 
where the specimen was still buried. Numerous fragments have been 
washed down at this location, and erosion in the soft shale will eventu- 
ally destroy the continuity of remaining specimens. 

The Accuracy of Paleoclimatic Estimates Based on Foliar Physiognomy. 

Gary E. Dolph and David L. Dilcher, Division of Natural and Physi- 
cal Sciences, Indiana University at Kokomo, Kokomo 46901 and Depart- 
ment of Plant Sciences, Indiana University, Bloomington 47401. Data 

collected from modern regional floras have been interpreted to indicate 
that leaf form and climate are correlated. Leaf margin type, as measured 
by the percentage of woody dicotyledons in a flora having leaves with 
entire margins, has been correlated with mean annual temperature; 
leaf size distribution, one estimate of which is the percentage of woody 
dicotyledons in a flora having large leaves (greater than 20.25 sq. cm. 
in area), with mean annual rainfall. Angiosperm paleobotanists have 
used these two correlations to estimate paleoclimate. To test the accu- 
racy of paleoclimatic estimates, the mean annual temperature and mean 
annual rainfall patterns for North and South Carolina were estimated 
using leaf form. The estimates were compared with the patterns ac- 
tually observed. Because the majority of data on modern leaf size dis- 
tribution comes from the tropical life zones of the western hemisphere, 
insufficient data were available to estimate the mean annual rainfall 
of the Carolinas. Using the percentage of woody dicotyledons having 
entire-margined leaves in each county of North and South Carolina, the 
variation in mean annual temperature was estimated. The mean annual 
temperature on the coastal plain was estimated to be greater than 22° C 
with the mean temperature of the coldest month being between 15 to 18° 
C. For the remainder of the Carolinas, the mean annual temperature was 
estimated to range between 15 to 19° C with the mean temperature of 
the coldest month being between 6 to 10° C. These predictions overesti- 
mate the temperatures actually observed in the Carolinas. Therefore, 
paleoclimatic predictions based on broad regional correlations between 
leaf form in modern floras and climate can be inaccurate. 

Botanical Data Banking. Theodore J. Crovello, Biology Department, 
University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556. Computer- 
ized data banking in botany today is experiencing rapid but uneven 
growth. Its history and current growth rate depend on the type of data 



Botany 113 

being- banked, the area of botany in question, and whether the data 
bank is to serve basic or applied research needs. Botanical information 
input to a data bank may consist of: a) literature citations or more 
complete descriptions of printed work; b) information from botanical 
specimens (living- or dead); c) information about the environment in 
which the specimens are found; or d) information based on experiments 
performed in the laboratory or in more natural environments. Banking 
of botanical literature has had the longest history, and covers all areas 
of botanical study. However, data banking of information in botany 
other than literature has been most intensively undertaken in the areas 
of ecology and systematics. Sometimes this has occurred under the 
aegis of a large project (e.g., The International Biological Program), 
but data banks of single workers or of single institutions also are very 
common. Botanical data banking has progressed far enough, and uncon- 
trolled enough such that compatibility of data banks and of networking 
are most timely topics. 

Development of Non- Articulated Laticifers in Embryos of Carissa grandi- 
flora. Larry R. Yoder, Botany Department, The Ohio State University, 

Marion, Ohio 43302. Non-articulated laticifers arise at the outer 

margin of the procambium in the cotyledonary node and form an exten- 
sive system consisting of an estimated 18-30 branched cells in the mature 
embryo. These acuminately-tipped cells appear to grow intrusively and 
they contain one or more spindle-shaped nuclei with prominent nucleoli. 
Most branching and ramification occurs in the cotyledonary node where 
laticifers penetrate to the periphery of the cortex but not inwardly 
through the procambium. Laticifer growth away from the cotyledonary 
node generally follows the margin of the procambium. Those in the 
hypocotyl extend % of the distance to the root meristem and exhibit few 
branches in their distal portions. They do not penetrate the root meristem. 
Laticifers also extend into the cotyledons where they are associated 
with the procambial strands. C. grandiflora is considered a primitive 
member of the Apocynaceae, subfamily Plumerioideae, and the occur- 
rence of branching laticifers associated with the procambium supports 
the hypothesis that branching represents a primitive condition in laticifer 
evolution within this family. 

Macroscopic Variation in Fossil and Modern Oak Leaves. Marilyn K. 
Gilbreath and Gary E. Dolph, Division of Natural and Physical 

Sciences, Indiana University at Kokomo, Kokomo 46901. Thirty-nine 

lobed red oak leaves were collected from the Upper Miocene Sardine 
Formation in western Oregon. These fossil leaves were compared with 
leaves from 22 modern species of lobed red and white oaks. The fossil 
and modern oak leaves studied were very similar in gross morphology, 
except for differences in the shape of the lobes and the presence or 
absence of bristle tips. The oak leaves studied had the following gross 
morphological features in common. Lobules were present on the ma- 
jority of leaves. The secondary venation was craspedodromous. The 
tertiary veins joined together in a series of prominent arches in each 
lobe except for an occasional tertiary vein which would terminate at 



114 Indiana Academy of Science 

the tip of a lobule. Below each sinus, a tertiary vein arising from 
the midrib branched and joined the arching tertiary veins in the lobes 
above and below the sinus. A fimbrial vein was present just inside 
the margin of each leaf. The higher order venation was random 
reticulate. The areolae were triangular to pentagonal in shape. Finally, 
the veinlets terminating in the areolae were branched. The similarity 
noted in the gross morphology of the fossil and modern oak leaves 
studied raises the question of the validity of the more than 150 species 
of fossil oaks that have been identified. Many species are undoubtedly 
synonomous with others. Identification of fossil oaks are particularly 
tenuous when more than one species occurs at the same locality. 

Microscopic Variation in Fossil and Modern Oak Leaves. Beecher A. 
Waters and Gary E. Dolph, Division of Natural and Physical Sciences, 

Indiana University at Kokomo, Kokomo 46901. Many investigators 

consider cuticular morphology as superior to gross morphology for 
identifying species. The species of fossil and modern oaks having lobed 
leaves are difficult to identify using venation characters. Therefore, 
an attempt was made to distinguish between 39 fossil lobed red oak 
leaves collected from the Upper Miocene Sardine Formation in western 
Oregon and 22 modern species of lobed red and white oaks using 
cuticular morphology. The leaves were compared using 206 cuticular 
characters. The leaves of Quercus alba could be distinguished from 
those of the other species by the presence of two-celled glandular hairs 
on the lower epidermis. No diagnostic differences were found between 
the remaining modern and fossil oak leaves, although environmentally 
induced differences in characters such as cuticular thickness (Q. 
albocincta) , lower epidermal cell shape (Q. Kelloggii and Q. nitescens) , 
and lower epidermal trichome density (Q. oleoides) were present. The 
modern and fossil oak leaves had the following cuticular characteristics 
in common. The leaf cuticle was thin and unornamented. The cells of 
the upper and lower epidermis were isodiametric with straight to 
undulate anticlinal walls. Unicellular, pointed trichomes appearing 
either singly or in tuffs were present on both leaf surfaces. The 
trichomes were more numerous on the lower epidermis. Anomocytic 
stomates with T-pieces of thickened cutin at the poles of the guard 
cells were confined to the lower epidermis. The cuticular morphology 
of the oak leaves studied was sufficiently constant to allow the genus 
to be identified with assurance. However, cuticular morphology does 
not offer a mechanism by which the majority of lobed oak species, 
either fossil or modern, can be identified. 

Occurrence of Jeffrey Reagent, Neutral Red, IKI, Dragendorff's Reagent, 
and PAS Reactions in Stems and Leaves of Carissa grandiflora. Steven 
R. Shafer and Larry R. Yoder, Botany Department, The Ohio State Uni- 
versity, Marion, Ohio 43302. Freehand stem and leaf sections of 

Carissa grandiflora were treated with Jeffrey reagent, neutral red, 
IKI, Dragendorff's reagent and periodic acid-Schiff reagent. Carissa, 
unlike several other members of the Apocynaceae, is reported to con- 
tain no alkaloids. However, Jeffrey reagent, which has been used as an 



Botany 115 

alkaloid indicator, reacted with certain cells in Carissa grandiflora. 
In stems, Jeffrey-reactive cells occurred beneath the epidermis, as 
linear series in the cortex, and as cortical isolates. Jeffrey-positive 
cells occurred in the palisade mesophyll, along the foliar midrib, and 
adjacent to the lower epidermis. Neutral red and the alkaloid indicators 
IKI and Dragendorff's reagent stained neither Jeffrey-positive cells nor 
the branched, non-articulated laticifers located near the vasculature 
of stems and leaves. The PAS test in the Jeffrey-positive cells revealed 
dense, granular material which is interpreted to be an insoluble polysac- 
charide other than starch. Jeffrey reagent can be used as an alkaloid 
indicator, but this study indicates that Jeffrey reactions must be in- 
terpreted cautiously because of possible false-positive reactions. 

A Study as to Whether the Variability Illustrated by Melilotus alba 
and Melilotus officinalis Specimens is Due to Polymorphism or Speciation. 

William J. Dayton and Betty D. Allamong, Department of Biology, 

Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana 47306. The major purposes 

of this study were to see whether or not Melilotus alba and Melilotus 
officinalis specimens in the area were, in fact, species specific and to 
illustrate the methods by which they have, or might have, been sep- 
arated as competitor species. Melilotus plants were studied at area 
sites and in the laboratory. This study used a variety of techniques to 
illustrate characteristics of the two species. A comparison of the 
percentage of seeds that are viable with the percentage of seeds that 
germinate was completed. The rate of plant growth was illustrated, as 
were the roles of light and temperature stimuli. Chromatography and 
electrophoresis were used for comparative analyses of plant biochem- 
istry. In this study, the chronology of maturation and the sites where 
the Melilotus species were located were postulated to be major factors 
in the processes of speciation. These time and space properties were 
associated with the rare reports of spontaneous hybrids. 

Some Effects of Cadmium on Water Relations of Silver Maple Seedlings. 

Robert J. Lamoreaux and William R. Chaney, Department Forestry 
and Natural Resources, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 

47907. Effect of CdCl 2 on water movement in stems of eight-week-old 

silver maple (Acer saccharivum L.) seedlings grown in sand amended 
with 0, 5, 10, and 20 ppm CdCl., ° 2 l / 2 H.,0 was determined. Cadmium 
treatment significantly reduced relative conductivity of excised stem 
sections. The reduction was shown to be caused by a progressive decrease 
in differentiation of water conducting xylem tissue, a reduction in di- 
ameter of vessel and tracheid elements, and partial occlusion of xylem 
elements by cellular debris or gums. The results of this study suggest 
that cadmium affects silver maple seedlings, and perhaps many other 
plant species, by increasing resistance to water movement in stems, 
and thereby imposing a water deficit in the shoot system. This study 
represents the first application of the parameter of relative con- 
ductivity in research on environmental pollutants. 

An Interesting Pattern of Chlorosis in a Pin Oak, Quercus palustris. 
Belinda A. Shenk and William J. Brett, Indiana State University, 



116 Indiana Academy of Science 

Terre Haute, Indiana 47809. A pin oak tree 40 feet tall and 15 

inches d.b.h. located on the campus of I.S.U. was found to exhibit a 
specific pattern of chlorosis for the past two years. The branches 
bearing chlorotic leaves extend out from an 80° section of the main 
trunk. Analysis of the chlorophyll content of the "normal" and chlorotic 
leaves over a two year period shows a consistent difference between 
the two types of leaves (x = 3.34 mg/gr wet we normal leaves versus 
x = 1.33 mg/gr wet we for chlorotic leaves). The relationship of the 
tree to surface features, cement covered soil as opposed to grass 
covered soil, suggests several possible explanations for the chlorosis. 
Analyses of sap content and of soil borings will be run to determine 
possible deficiencies. 

Vascular Patterns in Euphorbia Pteroneura. Steven Senger and S. N. 
Postlethwait, Department of Biological Sciences, Purdue University, 

West Lafayette, Indiana 47907. The pattern in which vascular tissue 

branches from the vascular cylinder to a leaf and the accompanying 
axillary bud was investigated by serial sectioning. The cylinder is 
a 6-8 sided polygon with the vascular tissue at the vertices organized 
into a pointed bundle, corresponding to the ribs on the stem. Three 
of these point bundles emerge from the cylinder and extend into 
the leaf. The tissues which formed the two sides of this polygon 
connecting the three points then come together to form a new cylinder 
which enters the axillary bud just above the leaf. Before this cylinder 
penetrates the bud, however, it has already taken on the form of a 
polygon with distinct point bundles. The same pattern is again found 
in the flower in the vascular branching to the stamens. 



The Effect of Prostaglandins on Photosynthesis 

R. Barr and F. L. Crane 

Department of Biological Sciences 

Purdue University 

West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 

The lipid composition of chloroplasts is well known (1,3,5,10,14, 
16,17). Chloroplast lipids consist mainly of mono- and dig'lycerides 
(5,16) fatty acids (1,11) and a sulfolipid (5), but very little phos- 
pholipid. Fatty acids, particularly unsaturated ones like linoleic and 
linolenic acids inhibit the Hill reaction in isolated chloroplasts (7, 
12,13). This inhibition has been associated with dark- or light-induced 
chloroplast volume and pH changes in photosystem II (18,19) or 
chloroplast aging (8,9,10,15). Its effects are concentration-dependent 
(13,19). This inhibition can be reversed by manganese (20). Higher 
concentrations of fatty acids are required for PS I than for PS II 
inhibition in chloroplasts (7,8,19). 

Neutral lipids are necessary for the maintenance of membrane 
integrity because upon heptane extraction, which removes various lipids 
from chloroplast membranes, PS I is inactive unless triglycerides 
containing C 18 fatty acids and plastocyanin are added to extracted 
chloroplasts (6). 

The purpose of the present study was to explore the effects of 4 
different prostaglandins PG A 2 , PG B 2 PG E 2 and PG F 2 a, on 
chloroplast activity, on the assumption that since prostaglandins elicit 
such opposite reactions as constriction or relaxation in muscle tissues, 
more specific responses might be obtained in chloroplasts than a non- 
specific lipid effect. As the following data show, such proved to be 
the case. 

Materials and Methods 

Chloroplasts were made from market spinach in 0.4 M sucrose 
and 0.05 M NaCl as previously described (4). Oxygen evolution or 
uptake in the various photosystem I and II assays was measured 
with a Yellow Springs Instrument oxygen monitor equipped with a 
Clark-type electrode as previously described (4). Reaction mixtures 
for the various assays are indicated in figure legends. Prostaglandins 
were added to the water- jacketed cell in ethanol not to exceed 5% by 
volume. All reaction mixes were incubated 2 min. before irradiation 
with light. 

Prostaglandins were the gift of Dr. John Pike of Upjohn Pharma- 
ceutical Co. of Kalamazoo, Michigan. 

Results and Discussion 

The basic structures of the 4 types prostaglandins used in this 
study are shown in Fig. 1. In animal tissue prostaglandins arise from 
the unsaturated fatty acids, such as linoleic acid, through oxygenation 

117 



118 



Indiana Academy of Science 






PGA 



PGB 



80 160 240 

Prostaglandin (iiq/ml) 




160 240 

Prostaglandin (Mg/mD 



160 240 

Prostaglandin ( >ig Anl ) 



Figure 1. The basic chemical structures of the prostaglandin A, B. E and F types 

according to Andersen (2). 
Figure 2. The effect of prostaglandins As, Bt, E% and F*a on the ascorbate plus 
DADymethulviologen reaction in photosystem I of spinach chloroplasts. The reaction 
mixture contained in 1.5 ml total volume: chloroplasts (50 ng chlorophyll). Tns-Mes, 
25 umoles, pH 8. 0.3 umoles MV, 1.2 umole DCMU, 1.5 umoles Na ascorbate and 0.1 mg 

DAD. 
Figure 3. The effect of prostaglandins A,. Bt, Et and F*a on the ascorbate plus 
TMPD^mcthylviologcn reaction in photosystem I of spinach chloroplasts. Reaction con- 
ditions as in Fig. 2 except 10 ug TMPD in place of DAD. 
Figure 4. The effect of prostaglandins At, Bz, E* and F>a on the ascorbate plus 
fcrrocijanide^methylviologen reaction in photosystem I of spinach chloroplasts. Reaction 
conditions as in Fig. 2 except 0.1*5 mmole ferrocyanide added in place of DAD. 



Botany 









5 


♦ 100 

! 


• FeCy 

♦ SM 
A MV 

■ DM BO 






TJ 








1*50 








9 

m 






«J 








"8 








I o 

1 

6 


— "** ^^ 






c 
o 

1-50 










33 066 


099 


1 32 1.65 



i 

1-25 



Linoieic acid (Mg/ml) 



7 



• FeCy 

♦ SM 

AMV 
■ DMBO 




33 



066 099 132 

Polmitic ocid ( gg/ml ) 



165 



loo 




0.33 066 099 132 

Lmolcic ocid methyl ester ( ug/ml) 



• FeCy 

♦ SM 
AMV 

■ DMBO 



8 




0.33 066 099 132 

Polmitic ocid methyl ester ( ug/mi) 



Figure 5. The effect of various concentrations of linoieic acid on k different photosys- 
tem II reactions in spinach chloroplasts. The reaction mixture (1.5 ml total volume) for 
the HjO^mcthylviologen reaction contained: chloroplasts (50 up chlorophyll), Tris-Mcs, 
37.5 umolcs, pH 7; NH,CI, 2 umoles; MgCli, 2 nmolcs; MV 0.3 umoles. The reaction 
mixture for the ferricyanide reduction-associatrd 0> evolution contained the above in- 
gredients except 2.5 umoles ferricyanide in place of MV and 0.6 umoles DBMIB. The 
reaction mixture for the dimethylbcnzoquinone reduction by PS II contained all the 
ingredients as for the ferricyanide reaction mixture except 5 umolcs DMBQ in place of 
ferricyanide. The reaction mixture for the silicomolybdic acid reduction contained chloro- 
plasts and buffer as above but 0.2 mg SiMo in place of ferricyanide or DMBQ and 1.2 

umole DCMU in place of DBMIB. 
Figure 6. The effect of various concentrations on linoieic acid methyl ester on h differ- 
ent photosystem II reactions in spinach chloroplasts. Reaction conditions as in Fig. 5. 
Figure 7. The effect of various concentrations of palmitic acid on It different photo- 

system II reactions in spinach chloroplasts. Reaction conditions as in Fig. 5. 
Figure 8. The effect of various concentrations of palmitic acid methyl ester on J, dif- 
ferent photosystem II reactions in spinach chloroplasts. Reaction conditions as in Fig. 5, 



120 Indiana Academy of Science 

of arachidonic acid, cyclization and various minor transformations into 
the different types of prostaglandins (2). They are basically lipophilic 
in exerting their effect upon PS I in spinach chloroplasts (Fig. 2-4). 
Prostaglandins E 2 and F 2 a inhibit the successive PS I reactions from 
plastoquinone through P700 to the methylviologen acceptance site in 
the electron transport chain. 

In the 3 PS I reactions tested — ascorbate plus DA1»MV, 
ascorbate plus TMPD->-MV, and ascorbate plus ferrocyanide->MV — 
5-45% inhibition by prostaglandins was noted in concentrations higher 
than those reported previously for linoleic or palmitic acid (19). 
Prostaglandins A 2 and B 2 , on the other hand, stimulate the 3 reactions 
tested by 5-55%. It is interesting to note that specific prostaglandin 
structure can be associated with stimulation or inhibition of the 
ascorbate + DAD-^MV, ascorbate + TMPD->MV and the ascorbate + 
ferrocyanide-^MV pathways: those prostaglandins (A 2 and B 2 ) which 
have an unsaturated bond in the cyclopentane ring with no hydroxyl 
groups attached to the ring can stimulate these reactions while PG E 2 
and F 2 a which have no unsaturations in their ring structures but have 
hydroxyl groups attached to the ring are inhibitory. Linoleic acid and its 
methyl ester (Fig. 5,6) and palmitic acid with its methyl ester (Fig. 
7,8) generally show stimulation of PS II reactions, except inhibition 
is seen in the DCMU-insensitive pathway of silicomolybdate reduction. 
The H 2 0->*MV pathway which encompasses both photosystems is also 
stimulated. Ferricyanide reduction by PS II can be stimulated by the 
addition of palmitic acid methyl ester or inhibited by the other com- 
pounds. 

The prostaglandin effect on PS II activity is shown in Fig. 9-12. 
Here again, as in PS I, PG A 2 and PG B 2 stimulate the overall H 2 0-^ 
MV reaction over its combined PS II and PS I pathway. So does PG 
E 2 in low concentrations (0.33-1.65 /xg/ml), but higher concentrations 
(80-32 fjig /ml) inhibit the reducing side of PS II (Fig. 2-4). Dimethyl- 
benzoquinone reduction by PS II is inhibited by all prostaglandins in 
the low concentrations. Ferricyanide reduction by PS II in presence 
of DBMIB to stop electron flow through PS I can be stimulated by 
low concentrations of the various prostaglandins, except PG F 2 a and 
PG B, but it is inhibited to varying degrees when the prostaglandin 
concentration reaches 1.65 //g/ml. 

Silicomolybdate reduction by PS II in presence of DCMU, when 
silicomolybdic acid accepts electrons from Q, the primary electron ac- 
ceptor in PS II, is inhibited by all but PG F 2 a. 

The data reported in this communication can be explained if cyclic 
electron flow around PS II is inhibited. Since prostaglandins A 2 , B 2 
and E 2 inhibit silicomolybdate reduction by PS II in presence of 
DCMU, this implies inhibition of a postulated PS II cycle. When cyclic 
electron flow in PS II is inhibited, there is a faster transfer of 
electrons in the forward direction toward PS I; hence stimulation of 
PS I rates can be expected, unless specific inhibition sites occur on the 
pathway, as shown by the action of PG E 2 in PS I reactions. Ac- 
cording to the hypothesis, a converse effect takes place when a com- 



Botany 



121 



pound stimulates silicomolybdate reduction by PS II. In this case a 
slowdown of all forward photosynthetic reactions would be expected, 
as demonstrated by the addition of PG F 2 a to PS I reactions. Thus 
prostaglandins may provide evidence that the rate of photosynthesis is 
regulated by internal chloroplast control mechanisms. 




66 099 



33 



066 099 132 

PG F 2 a ( Mg/ml ) 



Figure 9. 

Figure 10. 

Figure 11. 

Figure 12. 



The effect of prostaglandin A> on h different photosystcm II reactions in 

spinach chloroplasts. Reaction conditions as in Fig. 5. 
The effect of prostaglandin B> on h different photosystcm II reactions in 

spinach chloroplasts. Reaction conditions as in Fig. 5. 
The effect 'of prostaglandin E> on k different photosystcm II reactions to 

spinach chloroplasts. Reaction conditions as in Fig. 5. 
The effect of prostaglandin Fta on U different photosystem II reactions in 

spinach chloroplasts. Reaction conditions as in Fig. 5. 



122 Indiana Academy of Science 

Abbreviations used: 

DAD-diaminodurene; DBMIB-2,5-dibromo-3-methyl-6-isopropyl-p-benzo- 
quinone; DCMU-3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-l,l-dimethylurea; DMBQ-2,5-di- 
methylbenzoquinone; MV-methylviologen; SM-silicomolybdic acid; PS 
I-photosystem I; PS II-photosystem II; TMPD-N,N,N,N'-tetramethyl- 
p-phenylene diamine. 

Literature Cited 

1. Allen, C. F., P. Good, H. F. Davis, P. Chisum and S. D. Fowler. 1966. Methodology 
for the separation of plant lipids and application to spinach leaf and chloroplast 
lamellae. J. Amer. Oil Chem. Soc. 43 :222-231. 

2. Andersen, N. 1971. Program notes on structures and nomenclature. In Prostag- 
landins. P. Ramwell and J. E. Shaw, eds. Annals New York Acad. Sci. 180:14-23. 

3. Bahl, J., B. Francke and R. Moneger. 1976. Lipid composition of envelopes, 
pi'olammellar bodies and other plastid membranes in etiolated, green and greening 
wheat leaves. Planta (Berl.) 129:193-201. 

4. Barr, R., D. Rosen and F. L. Crane. 1975. New ionic redox agents for the study of 
photosynthesis. Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 84 :147-159. 

5. Benson, A. A. 1971. Lipids of chloroplasts. In Structure and Function of Chloro- 
plasts. M. Gibbs, ed. Springer- Verlag. New York. pp. 129-148. 

6. Brand, J., D. W. Krogmann and F. L. Crane. 1971. A lipid requirement for photo- 
system I activity in heptane-extracted spinach chloroplasts. Plant Physiol. 47:135-138. 

7. Brody, S. S., M. Brody, and G. Doring. 1970. Effects of linolenic acid on system II 
and system I-associated light-induced changes in absorption of chloroplasts. Z. 
Naturforsch. 258:367-372. 

8. Cohen, W. S., B. Nathanson, J. E. White and M. Brody. 1969. Fatty acids as 
model systems for the action of Ricinus leaf extract on higher plant chloroplasts and 
algae. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 135:21-27. 

9. Constantopoulos, G. and C. N. Kenyon. 1968. Release of free fatty acids and loss 
of Hill activity by aging spinach chloroplasts. Plant Physiol. 43 :531-536. 

10. Heath, R. L. and L. Packer. 1968. Photoperoxidation in isolated chloroplasts. I. 
Kinetics and stoichiometry of fatty acid peroxidation. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 
125:189-198. 

11. James, A. T. and B. W. Nichols. 1966. Lipids of photosynthetic systems. Nature 
210:372-375. 

12. Katoh, S. and A. San Pietro. 1968. A comparative study of the inhibitory action 
on the oxygen-evolution system of various chemical and physical treatments of 
Euglena chloroplasts. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 128:378-386. 

13. Krogmann, D. W. and A. T. Jagendorf. 1959. Inhibition of the Hill reaction by 
fatty acids and metal chelating agents. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 80 :421-430. 

14. Mackender, R. O. and R. M. Leech. The isolation and characterization of plastid 
envelope membranes. In Proc. 2nd International Congress Photosyn. Research., Vol. II. 
G. Forti, M. Avron and A. Melandri, eds. W. Junk. The Hague. 1972. pp. 1431-1440. 

15. McCarty, R. E. and A. T. Jagendorf. 1965. Chloroplast damage due to enzymatic 
hydrolysis of endogenous lipids. Plant Physiol. 40 :725-735. 

16. Roughan, P. G. and N. K. Boardman. 1972. Lipid composition of pea and bean 
leaves during chloroplast development. Plant Physiol. 50 :31-34. 

17. Sellden, G. and E. Selstam. 1976. Changes in chloroplast lipids during the develop- 
ment of photosynthetic activity in barley etiochloroplasts. Physiol. Plant 37:35-41. 

18. Siegenthaler, P. A. 1970. Chloroplast aging in vitro and relationships to fatty acids 
and polyphenoloxidase activity. Experientia 26:1308-1310. 

19. Siegenthaler, P. A. 1973. Change in pH dependence and sequential inhibition of 
photosynthetic activity in chloroplasts by unsaturated fatty acids. Biochim. Biophys. 
Acta 305:153-162. 

20. Siegenthaler, P. A. 1974. Inhibition of photosystem II electron transport in 
chloroplasts by fatty acids and restoration of its activity by Mn 2 +. FEBS Lett. 
39 :337-340. 



Some Algae of Lake Galatia, Grant County, 
Indiana (exclusive of diatoms) 

Gail E. Shew 1 and Leland L. Hardman- 
Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana 

Abstract 

A qualitative algal survey of an 18 acre lake in central Indiana was conducted from 
July 23, 1975 through January 28, 1976. Eighty-seven algal species in 39 genera were 
collected and identified. Sixteen of the algae encountered are thought to be new reports 
for the state of Indiana. These new reports will be added to A Check List of Algae 
from Indiana, 1929 to 1971 (inclusive) compiled by F. K. Daily, 1972. 

Introduction 

An extensive review of the existing literature has failed to locate 
any detailed studies or appropriate species lists of the algal flora of 
Lake Galatia, Grant County, Indiana. Daily (3) did report a bloom of 
Oscillatoria curviceps Agardh 1824 on this lake. Drouet (4) in his 
Revision of the Classification of the Oscillatoreaceae cited an additional 
species, Porphyrosiphon notarissii (Meneghini) Kuetzing collected by 
Daily in 1939 but not previously reported by him. 

The primary goal of this research was to qualitatively study the 
algae of Lake Galatia during a six month period and to compile a 
species list of the encountered algae. 

Study Area 

Lake Galatia is an 18 acre (1) body of water located at the 
intersection of County Roads 800 S/ 500 E (NE % NE % Section 23 
Township 25 N R8E) in Grant County, Indiana. The lake measures 266 
meters wide at its widest point and 500 meters long. The soil of the 
area is dark-colored Carlisle Muck (5) having a high moisture holding 
capacity which contributes to the boggy nature of the lake. 

Methods and Materials 

The survey was conducted over a six month period between July 
23, 1975 and January 28, 1976. Sampling was done on a bi-weekly 
(every two weeks) basis during the first four months, with monthly 
samples collected during December and January. 

In an effort to adequately sample all the niches of the lake, five 
stations were established as permanent collecting sites for the study. 
These stations were chosen to represent the various observed physical 
characteristics of the lake. Four of these stations were located in 
open water ranging in depths from 1.5 to 2.5 meters. The fifth station 
was located in the extreme northeast end of the lake, where a 



1 Present address: 22 High St., Milford, Ohio 45150. 

2 Present address: Depaitment of Agronomy an 1 Plant Genetics, University of Min- 
nesota, St. Paul, Minnesota 55108. 

123 



124 Indiana Academy of Science 

number of dead trees remain in the water along with several sub- 
merged and partially submerged logs. The maximum depth at this 
station was 1.0 meter. 

The four open water stations were regularly sampled using a 
standard #20 or #25 plankton net. Grab samples, substrate scrap- 
ings and concentrated bulk water samples were the primary methods 
of collection at the fifth station. 

All samples were collected in duplicate and preserved in Transeau's 
solution. Identifications were accomplished using both fresh and pre- 
served materials. Laboratory identifications were carried out to the 
most specific taxon possible using existing taxonomic keys and follow- 
ing Prescott's (10) nomenclature. Portions of all samples were re- 
tained in 10 ml. vials and placed in the Herbarium at Ball State Uni- 
versity, Muncie, Indiana. 

Results and Discussion 

During the study 87 algal species, varieties and forms in 39 
genera 3 were identified from samples collected during the six month 
period (July 23, 1975 through January 28, 1976). These species rep- 
resent four phyla, four classes, 11 orders, and 22 families. The largest 
number of species encountered belonged to the phyla Chlorophyta, 
Cyanophyta, Pyrrophyta and Euglenophyta, respectively. 

Seven families — Scenedesmaceae, Oocystaceae, Oscillatoreaceae, 
Desmidiaceae, Hydrodictyaceae, Chroococcaceae and Nostocaceae pre- 
dominate in the flora of the lake and sixty-five of the total species 
encountered are in these seven families. The remaining twenty-two spe- 
cies are scattered in the remaining fifteen families. This illustrates 
the diversity of algae present in Lake Galatia but also illustrates that 
the flora is dominated by a few families. 

Sixteen of the algae encountered are believed to be new reports 
for the state of Indiana, since they do not appear in the check lists 
provided by CM. Palmer (6,7,8,9), the Check List of Algae Recorded 
from Indiana, 1929 to 1971 (inclusive) (2) or in any later literature. 
A qualified list of these algae appear in Table 1. In some instances it is 
the variety rather than the species which is new to the state. The 
author recognizes the fact that by using the nomenclature of other 
authorities in the field, certain algae would not be included in this 
list. For instance, Drouet (4) includes Oscillatoria limnetica Lemmer- 
man and Phormidium foveolarum (Montagne) Gomont in the species 
Schizothrix calcicola (Ag.) Gomont which has been reported in the 
state. 

A significant aspect of the algal flora of Lake Galatia is the 
periodic and intense blooms which occur. A series of fourteen algal 
blooms were noted during the study. Fifty percent of these blooms 
were blue-green species and generally occurred early in the summer 
while the greens appeared to proliferate in the fall and winter. When 



3 A complete list of all taxa encountered may be obtained, upon request, from the 
uithor. 



Botany 125 

Table 1. Algae encountered in Lake Galatia, Grant County, Indiana (from July 23, 
1975 through January 28, 1976) which are considered to be netv reports for Indiana. 

Species 

Blue-greens: 

Chroococcus minor (Kuetz.) Naegeli 

Chroococcus limneticus var. carneus (Chod. ) Lemmerman 

Nostoc paludosum Kuetzing 

Oscillatoria limnetica Lemmerman 

Oscillatoria subbrevis Schmidle 

Phormidium foveolarum (Montagne) Gomont 

Desmids: 

Staurastrum chaetocerus (Schroeder) G. M. Smith 

Greens: 

Characium obtusum A. Braun 

Franceia Droesheri (Lemm.) G. M. Smith 

Glenodinium Gymnodinium Penard 

Glenodinium pulviscidus (Ehrenb. ) Stein 

Lagerheimia quadriseta (Lemm.) G. M. Smith 

Pediastrum duplex var. reticulatum Lagerheim 

Scenedesmus abundans var. brevicauda G. M. Smith 

Tetraedron muticum (A. Braun) Hansgirg 

Tetraedron regulare var. torsum (Turner) Brunnthaler 



the sampling began on July 23, 1975 a bloom of Coelosphaerimn 
Naegelianum Unger was in progress and continued without noticeable 
decline through August 20, 1975. The longest sustained blooms were 
those of Tetraedron minimum and T. muticum (A. Braun) Hansgirg 
which were first recorded on September 3, 1975 and continued through 
the November 25, 1975 sampling date. 

The species list resulting from this study is typical of that 
which one might find in a lake of this nature in central Indiana. It 
should not be considered a complete or exhaustive list as the study 
was only conducted over a six month period of time. The species list 
does, however, reflect the eutrophic nature of the lake. 

Acknowledgements 

Thanks are extended to Mr. Ben Lewis for permission to study 
Lake Galatia and for the use of his boats and dock during the study. 
Sincere appreciation is also expressed to Terry D. Willis for as- 
sistance in collecting samples. 



Literature Cited 

Anonymous. 1969. Comprehensive recreation plan, Grant County, Indiana. Com- 
piled by Shellie Associates, Inc., Indianapolis, Indiana. 155 p. 

DAILY, F. K. 1972. A check list of algae recorded from Indiana, 1929 to 1971 (in- 
clusive). Mimeograph. 67 p. 

Daily, W. A. 1945. Additions to the filamentous Myxophyceae of Indiana, Kentucky 
and Ohio. Butler Univ. Stud. 7:132-139. 

Drouet, F. 1968. Revision of the classification of the Oscillatoreaceae. Mongr. 15. 
Acad. Nat. Sci. of Philadelphia. 370 p. 



126 Indiana Academy of Science 

5. McGRiFF, D. L. District Conservationist, District 4, Soil Conservation Service, 
Marion, Indiana. Personal communication. 

6. Palmer, C. M. 1929. Algae of Indiana. A classified check list of those published 
between 1875 and 1928. Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. 38:109-121. 

7. . 1931. Algae of Indiana. Additions to the 1875-1928 check list. Proc. Ind. 

Acad. Sci. 40:107-109. 

8. . 1933. Algae of Indiana. Second list of additions to the 1875-1928 check 

list. Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci: 42:90-92. 

9. . 1936. Algae of Indiana. Third list of additions to the 1875-1928 check 



list. Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. 45 :99-101. 
10. Prescott, G. W. 1962. Algae of the western Great Lakes area. (5th edition, 1973), 
W. C. Brown, Dubuque. 977 p. 



Naturally Occurring Mature American 

Chestnut Trees (Castanea dentata) 

in Northwest Indiana 

James Willut, Gayton Marks, and Garland Hicks 

Department of Biology 

Valparaiso University 

Valparaiso, Indiana 46383 

Abstract 

Three mature (14-17 m, 38-56 cm DBH) and several smaller American chestnuts 
were located within 200 m of one another on a farm woodland in Union Township, Porter 
County, Indiana. Two of the larger trees are heavily infected with the blight fungus 
Endothia parasitiea. E. parasitica isolated from these trees is similar in appearance 
and invasiveness to highly pathogenic strains. The third mature tree shows no sign of 
infection. 

Introduction 

Three mature American chestnuts (Castanea dentata Borkh.), 
recently discovered five miles west of Valparaiso, Indiana, in Union 
Township (R6W T35N Sect. 19 NW quarter) are on wooded sites 
bordered by cultivated fields. Two are infected by the chestnut blight 
fungus, whereas the third shows no signs nor symptoms of the disease. 

Endothia parasitica (Murr.), the causative agent of the chestnut 
canker disease, was first described in New York City in 1904. The 
fungus came to North America from Asia and by 1940 the disease had 
spread through the entire range of the chestnut. Uncultivated, mature 
trees are very rare today though small trees are quite common, par- 
ticularly in the Appalachian region (e.g. 4). 

These most unusual trees constitute an in situ laboratory for 
diverse studies of both host and pathogen. Initially, investigations 
were restricted to positive identification of tree and fungus, to re- 
cording the progress of the infections and to obtaining presumptive 
information about possible disease resistance of host or degree of 
virulence of the E. parasitica. 

Methods 

The trees were identified as American chestnuts through use of 
keys and by comparison to herbarium specimens. Tree A, arbitrarily 
designated, is about 17 m high and has a DBH of 44 cm (17.5 in); B 
is 14 m, DBH 56 cm (22 in); C is 17 m, DBH 38 cm (15 in). Four 
smaller trees, 6-11 m, DBH 5-13 cm (2-5 in), were located within 16 
m of C. The trees were observed regularly from March through October 
to determine characteristics of the infection through one full growing 
season. 

E. parasitica was isolated from a canker on A. Potato dextrose 
agar (PDA), Sabouraud's agar and host tissue were used to culture 
the fungus. Identification was made by analysis of morphology in the 
various media and confirmed by comparison to a known culture. 

127 



128 Indiana Academy of Science 

Invasiveness of this isolate in freshly cut host twigs was com- 
pared with that of a known virulent strain of E. parasitica. Sets of 
twigs from each of trees A, B and C were inoculated with both fungus 
strains by the methods of Clapper (3). PDA plugs about 7 mm in 
diameter containing mycelium and spores were inserted aseptically, 
surface side down, in cuts in the twigs. The inoculation points then were 
sealed with Parafilm and the cut ends of the twigs were maintained 
in water. The experimental infections were observed for several weeks 
to discern similarities in growth rate or growth characteristics. 

Results 

The mature trees are situated within 200 m of one another in a 
roughly triangular formation with A and B at the peripheries of 
wooded areas and C in the center of a small bottomland wooded tract. 
A and B are heavily infected with E. parasitica and each has several 
cankers. C apparently is uninfected, as are the smaller trees. The 
predominant trees of the area are black oak, black cherry, small- 
fruited hickory, black walnut and sugar maple. Three secondary hosts 
of E. parasitica, shagbark hickory, red maple and staghorn sumac, 
are also common. 

There are two large infections on the trunk of A. One, 3 m 
from the ground, measures 53 x 86 cm at a trunk circumference of 
124 cm. This infection extends to a lateral branch which has been 
girdled and killed. The tissues at the center of the canker are well 
decomposed and some bark has fallen from it. Much of the canker 
is covered with Endothia pustules which contain pycnidia and char- 
acteristic spore horns. A second infection, 51 x 46 cm, is 5.8 m from 
the ground at a trunk circumference of 114 cm. This canker appears 
younger than the first and consists of a slightly raised area with in- 
termittent pustules. The bark here is not severely decomposed or split. 

The one large infection on the trunk of B is 3.7 m from the 
ground and measures 33 x 25 cm at a trunk circumference of 124 cm. 
It consists of intermittent patches of pustules and is less developed 
than the two cankers on A. A second canker girdled and killed this 
year a lateral branch which joins the trunk at a height of 3.4 m. 
Wilt, chlorosis or similar manifestations are inapparent on all chest- 
nuts; the trees outwardly appear to be thriving. 

Our isolate of E. parasitica was morphologically indistinguishable 
on host tissue or on artificial media from known virulent strains of 
E. parasitica. The characteristics of the experimental infections pro- 
duced by both strains of E. parasitica were identical on all twigs from 
all three trees, which suggests that our isolate and the known virulent 
strain of the fungus possess similar invasive capabilities. 

Discussion 

These chestnuts may have survived because they were isolated 
for a number of years at the fringe of the former chestnut range (5) 
and have only recently become diseased. However, the infections are 



Botany 



129 



well established and are progressing, albeit slowly, on trees A and B. 
The rotted condition of the canker on A is indicative of a much 
older infection than one that would hypothetically result from the 16 cm 
annual growth rate reported by Anderson (1) in 1914. The apparently 
uninfected state of tree C in an area of high and sustained Endothia 
inoculum is particularly intriguing. Indeed, this tree may have sig- 
nificant natural resistance to the blight, though the growth of Endothia 
in the cut twigs would not suggest this. 

It is most unlikely that these chestnuts are hybrids with the 
disease resistant Chinese chestnut (C. moUissima) or Japanese chest- 
nut (C. crenata) . Their character is solely that of the American 
species. Furthermore, the trees are located in a random pattern in a 
small but fairly wild area which is a good distance from dwellings 
or roads. This suggests strongly that they were free from man's horti- 
cultural influence and occurred naturally. 











: , : W 






* 




Tree B, Ze/£ photograph, is typical in size of all three mature chestnuts. Note root sprout 
at base, common to such diseased chestnuts. The apparently uninfected tree is shown 

at right. 



130 Indiana Academy of Science 

Tentative future work will include attempts to propagate the un- 
infected tree, to study the influence that Endothia toxins (2) may have 
in these infections and to conduct further tests for fungal virulence. 
These trees lie in prime development land; chain saws may terminate 
this research rather abruptly. 

Acknowledgments 

We thank John and Tom Peabody who, at the suggestion of Marion 
T. Jackson, brought the location of these trees to our attention. We 
also thank Richard Jaynes for providing E. parasitica cultures. 



Literature Cited 

1. Anderson, P. J. 1914. The morphology and life history of the chestnut blight fungus. 
Pa. Chestnut Blight Bull. No. 7. 

2. Bazzigher, G. 1953. Beitrag zur kenntnis der Endothia parasitica (Murr. ) And., der 
erreger des kastaniensterbens. Phytopath. Zeits. 21 :105-132. 

3. Clapper, R. B. 1944. Improved cork borer method for inoculating trees. Phytopath. 
34:761-762, 

4. Mackey, H. E., and N. Sivec. 1973. The present composition of a former oak- 
chestnut forest in the Allegheny Mountains of western Pennsylvania. Ecol. 54 :915-919. 

5. Swink, Floyd. 1974. Plants of the Chicago Region. Morton Arboretum, Lisle, 111. 
474 p. 



Gaultheria procumbens at Pine Hills, Indiana 
—Its Measured Decline, 1951-1971 

Daniel B. Ward 

Department of Botany, University of Florida 

Gainesville, Florida 32611 

Abstract 

Perimeters of Gaultheria procumbens L. ( Wintergreen) populations in Pine Hills 
Natural Area, Montgomery County, Indiana, were mapped at decade intervals from 
1951 to 1971. Associated dominant trees were measured, and their date of "zero diameter" 
was calculated. Gaultheria densely covered an area of 204 m- in 1951, continued healthy 
with an area of 307 m 3 in 1961, and declined precipitously to 26.3 m- plus 23 separate 
plants in 1971. Suggestions are made that survival of Gaultheria at Pine Hills is associated 
with the formation of acid soils weathered from Borden sandstones and protected from 
calcareous leaching by a deeply meandered stream system, and that its near-disappearance 
by 1971 is accompanied by re-establishment of hemlock and pine. Cornus rugosa Lam. 
(Roundleaf Dogwood) on the adjacent cliffs of Borden sandstone remained nearly con- 
stant, with a population of 147. 

Introduction 

Gaultheria procumbens L., or Wintergreen, is a northern plant that 
ranges from Newfoundland to Manitoba and extends south in the Appa- 
lachians to northern Georgia and Alabama. In Indiana it is largely a 
post-glacial relict (3), known only in five countries south of the north- 
ern third of the state (2). In the first discovered (1) and perhaps the 
best known of these stations, a population in the Pine Hills Natural 
Area, Montgomery County, the species was observed, during a recent 
20-year period, to be undergoing a rapid decline in numbers and vigor, 
suggesting that local extinction may be imminent. 

The Pine Hills Natural Area, in southwestern Montgomery County, 
Indiana, is a region of steep cliffs, cool north-facing slopes, and well- 
leached acid ridges. The physiography has been described by Smith (8), 
the vegetation has been mapped by Friesner and Potzger (4), and the 
flora has been carefully inventoried by McCormick (6). Pine Hills is 
most noted for an impressive series of incised meanders of Indian 
Creek and the subsidiary Clifty Creek, tributaries of Sugar Creek, the 
principal drainage channel of the region. Pleistocene meltwaters deeply 
entrenched Sugar Creek in the glacial deposits and the underlying bed- 
rock, and these tributary streams cut down to the same level, while 
still conforming to the meandering course that they had established in 
the mature pre-glacial topography. At seven places in the Pine Hills 
area these streams bend back upon themselves, or upon each other, to 
form steep sided ridges or "backbones" up to 70 m long and 33 m 
above the stream beds. In 1960 The Nature Conservancy completed pur- 
chase of Pine Hills, then presented it to the State of Indiana for mainte- 
nance in perpetuity as a wilderness (6). It was appropriately given a 
rating of "1" by Lindsey et al. (5), indicating the highest evaluation 
as a natural area. 

131 



132 Indiana Academy of Science 

Description of Mill Cut Backbone 

The backbone known as "Mill Cut" is formed by a looping bend of 
Clifty Creek (Fig. 1). Clifty Creek, in its headwaters flowing generally 
northward, abruptly changes direction to the west, circles widely to 
the north and east, and approaches the course of its westward channel 
before again turning northward. The westward and eastward legs of 
the creek thus flow in opposite directions but in close proximity. They 
are separated by a ridge or wall of Borden sandstone (8) closely ap- 
proached on the southern exposure by the west-flowing channel and 
somewhat less closely on the north by the east-flowing lower course of 
the stream. This wall has been formed by the progressive and relatively 
rapid erosion of the sandstone by the flowing stream, aided by the 
winter freeze-and-thaw spalling of large stone plates parallel to the 
exposed surface, a distinctive property of the Borden formation. This 
erosion, no doubt much accentuated in times of glacial run-off, has pro- 
duced a channel that varies in depth from about 9 or 10 m at the lowest 
point of the backbone to over 20 m at the east and where the backbone 
merges with the adjacent upland. 

The millcut, a man-made square notch through the narrowest and 
lowest portion of the backbone, is about 6 m deep and 3 m wide. It lacks 
3 m of reaching the bed of the west-flowing channel (Fig. 1). The cut 
was made in 1868 to supply water power to a small woolen mill on the 
terrace of Clifty Creek just north of the Mill Cut Backbone (6). A 
crib dam of hemlock logs, filled with rock rubble, was built across Clifty 
Creek on its westward leg just downstream from the cut; a low mound 
outlining this dam was still discernible in 1971. Water impounded by 
this dam passed through the cut, along a wooden flume, to an overshot 
wheel in the mill. The mill was discontinued and the equipment removed 
in 1873. Except for the millcut, traces of the dam, and a remnant of 
the access road up the slope to the south of the backbone, the only 
present indications of human disturbance are in subtle features of plant 
distribution. 

The Gaultheria Population 

The only Gaultheria in the Pine Hills region grows in the loop 
formed by the circling Clifty Creek, just west of the millcut. As the 
creek entrenched itself in the Borden formation it swung ever wider 
in the westward portion of its bend. It left a knoll at the west end of 
the backbone, the north side of which was continuous with the back- 
bone's north face, although less sheer and more vegetation covered, with 
the south side sloping gradually to a low bench just above. the west- 
flowing leg of the stream. It is on this gradual south-facing slope that 
the Gaultheria has survived. 

FIGURE 1. Map, showing Mill Cut Backbone, Pine Hills, and associated stands of 
Ciaultheria in 1951. Clifty Creek flows from the upper right, downward along the 
south face of the Backbone, then circles widely (off the plate) to reappear on the north 
face of tlie Backbone. Within tJiis loop of Clifty Creek a knoll (indicated by hatch lines) 
extends eastward to a cut where a millrace was once located. The Gaulthsria occurs 
in four separate colonies (represented by the solid lines). Major trees are indicated 

by dots. 



Botany 



133 




1. 




10 METERS 



134 Indiana Academy of Science 

The slope is sparsely covered with mature but somewhat stunted 
trees. Toward the crest, northern red oak (Quercus borealis), black oak 
(Q. velutina), and a few large hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) predomi- 
nate, while lower down white oak (Q. alba) and white pine (Pinus 
strobus) appear. Beech (Fagus grandifolia) and sugar maple (Acer 
saccharum) are on the bench near the stream. Linden (Tilia ameri- 
cana), tulip-tree (Liriodendron tulipifera) , redbud (Cercis canadensis), 
and blue-beech (Carpinus caroliniana) occur only at the stream edge, 
below the Gaultheria population. The crest of the slope bears a rich 
understory, containing black gum (Nyssa sylvatica) , flowering dogwood 
(Cornus florida) , red cedar (Juniperus virginiana) , witchhazel 
(Hamamelis virginiana) , and wild hydrangea (Hydrangea arborescens) . 
These are replaced lower on the slope by shadblow (Amelanchier ar- 
bor ea) , ironwood (Ostrya virginiana) , red maple (Acer rubrum) , maple- 
leaf viburnum (Viburnum aceri folium) , sassafras (Sassafras albidum) , 
partridgeberry (Mitchella repens) , and running euonymus (Euonymus 
obovatus). Wintergreen (Gaultheria procumbens) occurs only on this 
slope, below the crest and extending to the stream bench. 

Circumference measurements of the larger trees of the Gaultheria 
slope give a degree of insight to the earlier appearance of the area. 
Sixteen individuals were measured for the entire 20-year period, several 
others dying in the interim. Perhaps the most meaningful statistic 
derived from these measurements, in light of the need to understand 
the earlier vegetational history of the slope, is the date of "zero di- 
ameter," a calendar date obtained by extrapolating backward the tree's 
growth in diameter as measured over the last 20 years. This figure is 
understandably problematical, but places less stress on the specimen 
trees than increment borings, and is the only approach available in a pro- 
tected forest. 

The only measured hemlock in the area of the Gaultheria popula- 
tion, of several large individuals along the crest of the knoll, gave a zero 
diameter date of 1671, a compelling statement of its presence through- 
out historic times. Four white pines gave less conclusive dates of 1812, 
1838, 1895, and 1927. The two black oaks with full data gave dates of 
1854 and 1858; larger individuals present in 1951 died before 1971. Six 
white oaks yielded 1704, 1815, 1821, 1832, 1887, and 1901. A solitary 
beech and a sugar maple showed little growth during the study period. 

The aspect of the Gaultheria slope changed markedly during the 
20 years it was under observation. It was first sunny and open, with 
Gaultheria forming dense green mats that were vigorous and sharply 
delimited. The slope became progressively more thickly covered with 
sapling hemlocks (most of them becoming 2-4 m tall with 1-3 cm basal 
diameters) plus a smaller number of young white pines. At the final 
survey no more than 5-15% of the soil surface was exposed to the 
noonday sun. The surviving Gaultheria plants were scattered in this 
dense thicket. 

In June, 1951, in 1961, and in 1971, the Gaultheria population was 
carefully mapped. Larger trees served as reference points, and their 
diameters were measured on each occasion. The perimeters of the 



Botany 135 

Gaultheria colonies were recorded, a simple task on the open slope of 
1951, but less easily achieved in the young hemlock and pine thicket 
of 1961. By 1971 the colonies had fragmented, with a meaningful 
perimeter no longer persisting; in this situation individual plants were 
located and marked only with difficulty. 

The 1951 observations recorded Gaultheria in four wholly distinct 
and sharply demarked colonies (Fig. 1). These ranged in area from 
130 m-, to 16 m- and together covered 204 m 2 . The horizontal stems 
were closely entangled, with numerous forkings and abundant evergreen 
foliage. They were estimated to have the capability of extending the 
colony about 10 cm in a single year, a figure smaller than that indicated 
by later measurement. 

The 1961 observation yielded a similar pattern (Fig. 2). Each of the 
four colonies was slightly enlarged, two of them having met and become 
one. The total area covered was 307 m 2 . The maximum distance Gaul- 
theria was found outside the 1951 perimeter was approximately 
150 cm, suggesting an annual rate of spread of 15 cm. The colonies 
remained dense, in some locations very much so, but a future decline 
was adumbrated by the disappearance of Gaultheria from part of the 
easternmost portion of the population. 

By 1971 the situation had changed markedly (Fig. 3). The Gaul- 
theria colonies had lost their discrete outlines, and in most of the area 
the plants had disappeared. No Gaultheria was found on the site of 
the previously smallest colony and only two plants survived of the other 
smaller colony. The formerly extensive merged colony was reduced to 
a small area of 16.3 m-, containing no more than 5 to 10 leaf-bearing 
stems /m-, plus some 21 scattered plants. No plants were found more 
than insignificant distances outside the 1961 perimeter. 

Discussion 

Speculation as to the causes of disappearance of a plant species is 
usually difficult because of the absence of time-coupled quantitative 
records. In this instance, with population data spanning 20 years, some 
degree of credibility may perhaps be attached to suppositions drawn 
from historic events, although the full causative factors remain elusive. 

It may be assumed, from the absence of Gaultheria procumbens 
elsewhere in the Pine Hills region, that this boreal species has 
persisted on the south-facing slope at the west end of the Mill Cut 
Backbone since the glacial recession. With decomposition, the Borden 
sandstones yield an acid soil which appears a necessary factor for the 
persistence of white pine, hemlock, and very possibly Gaultheria. Hem- 
lock and pine seedlings are known to prefer soil of high acidity. At Pine 
Hills, Potzger and Friesner (7) found hemlock reproduction to be most 
vigorous on soils with pH near 4.5. The predominance of hemlock and 
pine on the slopes of the various backbones of the Pine Hills, and par- 
ticularly on the knolls which rise at the ends of these backbones within 
the loop of the encircling stream, a distribution which has been ex- 
cellently mapped and portrayed by Friesner and Potzger (4), may be ac- 
centuated by the absence of calcareous seepage from the overlying soils 



136 



Indiana Academy of Science 




Botany 137 

of glacial origin on the surrounding uplands. The meandering streams 
with their deeply entrenched channels effectively isolate these backbones 
and their knolls from sources of non-acid influence. 

The presence of Gaultheria, a northern plant, on a south-facing 
slope is thus not an anomaly of distribution. The species may have a 
requirement for acid soil that is more critical for its survival than is 
the coolness and moisture of other sites in the Pine Hills area. 

Almost surely the slope where the Gaultheria now grows was until 
historic times forested predominantly with hemlock, as presently are 
similar sites near the other backbones. In pioneer days the low worth 
of hemlock timber and the difficult terrain, and in more recent times a 
series of protective landowners, have preserved the forest cover of the 
Pine Hills. The absence of mature hemlock from the Gaultheria slope 
at the west end of Mill Cut Backbone seems associated with the com- 
mercial exploitation of the site during construction of the woolen mill 
in 1868. Although the millcut did not disturb the Gaultheria and the 
mill itself was on the opposite side of the backbone from the slope on 
which it grows, the construction of the log crib dam must have had 
significant impact. 

Beyond the statement that the dam was once about 4.6 m tall (6), 
there is no basis for calculation of the volume of timber required for 
an effective barrier to the flow of Clifty Creek. Nor is there an estimate 
for the quantity of hemlock that once stood on the slope just downstream 
from the dam site. But there seems little reason to doubt that the most 
convenient source of materials for the dam would have been the immedi- 
ately available easily-worked softwoods on the Gaultheria slope. It is a 
comfortable speculation that this slope was shorn of its hemlock and 
pine in 1868, with the task completed before reaching the few large 
hemlocks now standing on the crest. The age of the other trees sug- 
gest that some individuals were a minor component of the original 
hemlock forest, while others, and perhaps all of the black oak, came in 
at or soon after the time of disturbance. 

A possibility exists that removal of the hemlock from the slope at 
the west end of the millcut, rather than accelerating the decline of the 
Gaultheria, may indeed have been the agent that prolonged its survival 
into the present century. When first measured in 1951, the Gaultheria 
was growing vigorously in sharply delimited colonies, scarcely the pat- 
tern to be anticipated in a static or declining situation. Nor could such 
a vigorous condition be of long duration, for with the plants capable 
of spreading at the rate of 10 to 15 cm per year, no more than one or 
two centuries would have been required for it to become an omnipresent 
groundcover on the Mill Cut knoll. Since no point in the 1951 colonies 
was more than 4.9 m from the periphery, by the smaller estimate of 



Figure 2. Map, showing status of Gaultheria population in 1961. The previous colonics 
have now expanded someivhat over the 1951 perimeters (represented by dashed lines). 

Trees dead since 1951 are indicated by hollow dots. 

Figure 3. Map, showing status of Gaultheria population in 1971. The stand remains 

dense in only one area (enclosed by solid line); elsewhere, solitary surviving plants are 

represented by crosses ( + ). 



138 Indiana Academy of Science 

10 cm per year, approximately 50 years would have been sufficient for 
development of the largest colony. This figure may be within permissible 
limits of error of the 83 years that had elapsed since construction of the 
dam and probable logging of the Gaultheria slope. 

If the Gaultheria on the Mill Cut knoll in 1868 was in a condition 
of decline, or at the verge of extinction, for reasons that were associ- 
ated with the hemlock overstory, the removal of this timber may have 
been a reprive in its population trend. The Gaultheria plants surviving 
in 1868 would have undergone a resurgence that led to the vital colonies 
observed in 1951. Although these colonies may have been formed by the 
merger of smaller clones, it may be that in 1868 Gaultheria in the 
Pine Hills was reduced to as few as four surviving plants. Had the 
millcut not been built, and the hemlock timber removed, the present 
century might well have never known Gaultheria from Montgomery 
County, Indiana. 

The re-establishment in the last quarter century of a vigorous 
young hemlock and pine forest on the slope of the Mill Cut knoll has 
reversed, once again, the population trends of the Gaultheria. Although 
the Wintergreen colonies were clearly vigorous in 1951, and appeared 
to continue so until 1961, the following decade saw an abrupt crash that 
coincided with the development of the conifer thicket. A continuation 
of this most recent trend for no more than a few years must result 
in the extinction of Gaultheria in the Pine Hills. 

A Second Relict, Camus rugosa 

An additional plant of the Mill Cut Backbone, similarly a relict of 
cooler post-glacial climates, is Cornus rugosa Lam., the Roundleaf Dog- 
wood. Deam (2) recorded this shrub in Indiana only in five counties 
along the northern edge of the state, and in Montgomery County at the 
Pine Hills station. It is thus even rarer in Indiana than Gaultheria, and 
proportionately more precarious in retaining its place among the sub- 
boreal vegetation of central Indiana. 

At Pine Hills this Cornus is known only on the bare rock cliffs and 
dry crest of the Mill Cut Backbone, just east of the wooded slope on 
which the Gaultheria occurs. In June, 1951, an approximate tally was 
made of the number of plants to be seen on this limited habitat, east 
and west of the millcut itself, as follows: west, on north side — 61 plants; 
on south side — 38 plants; east, on north side — 26 plants; on south side — 
plants. An additional 22 plants were seen on top of the backbone, 
yielding a total population number of 147. A count in September, 1971, 
gave somewhat smaller but perhaps not significantly different results, 
implying that Cornus rugosa during the two intervening decades has 
resisted the downward population trend of its northern associate, the 
Gaultheria. 

The exposed rocks of the Mill Cut backbone are all shaley sand- 
stones of the Borden formation (8). The southern exposure, other than 
for the bisection provided by the millcut, appears uniform; yet, while 
Cornus is frequent west of the cut, it is wholly absent east. A tentative 
explanation may lie in the location of the mill dam, just west of the 



Botany 139 

cut, which would have flooded the lower portion of the cliff upstream, 
with capillary seepage changing the habitat of the bluff immediately 
above. Although the mill was removed in 1873 (6), and doubtless mainte- 
nance of the dam terminated at that time, the century since elapsed 
has not seen re-establishment of Cornus on the denuded cliff face. 

Acknowledgments 

I wish to express my special gratitude to Dr. Albert R. Bechtel of 
Wabash College who pointed out to me prior to 1951 many of the 
features described here, to Charles M. Lytle, now of North Carolina 
State University, for his assistance with the 1951 survey, to my wife 
Suzanne for help in 1961, and to my sons Forrest and Gordon who 
facilitated the mapping task of 1971. 



Literature Cited 

1. Coulter, S. 1900. A catalogue of the flowering plants and of the ferns and their 
allies indigenous to Indiana. Ind. Dept. Geol. and Natur. Resources Annu. Rep. 
24:533-1074. 

2. Deam, C. C. 1940. Flora of Indiana. Indiana Dept. Conserv., Indianapolis. 1236. p. 

3. Friesner, R. C. 1937. Indiana as a critical botanical area. Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 
46:28-45. 

4. Friesner, R. C, and J. E. Potzger. 1934. Climax conditions and ecological status of 
Pinua atrobua. Taxu8 canaden8ia and Tauga canadenaia in the Pine Hills region of 
Indiana. Butler Univ. Bot. Stud. 3 :65-83. 

5. Lindsey, A. A., D. V. Schmelz and S. A. Nichols. 1969. Natural areas in Indiana 
and their preservation. Dept. Biol. Sci., Purdue Univ., Lafayette, Ind. 594 p. 

6. McCormick, J. 1962. Vascular flora of Shades State Park and Pine Hills Natural 
Area, Indiana. Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 123 :353-422. 

7. Potzger, J. E., and R. C. Friesner. 1937. Soil acidity and hemlock reproduction in 
relic colonies in Indiana. Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 46 :93-99. 

8. Smith, E. R. 1933. The physiographic features of Pine Hills Nature Study Park, 
Montgomery County, Indiana. Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 42:152-161. 



CELL BIOLOGY 

Chairman: Lee F. Ellis, Department of Biological Pharmacy 
Research Division, Eli Lilly Research Laboratory, Indianapolis, IN 46206 

Chairman-Elect: Ralph Jersild, Jr., Department of Anatomy 
Indiana University Medical Center, Indianapolis, IN 46202 

Purification of S-Methyl-L-Methionine:Homocysteine Methyltransferase 
in Triticum aestivum (Gramineae). James E. Bryan and BETTY D. 
Allamong, Department of Biology, Ball State University, Muncie, Indi- 
ana 47306. Purification procedures for S-methyl-L-methionine homo- 
cysteine methyltransferase (EC 2.1.1.10) were investigated. Centrifuga- 
tion studies at varying speeds, up to 105,000 xg, were performed and the 
majority of the activity was determined to be in the soluble fraction. 
Ammonium sulfate fractionation and gel filtration were employed to 
obtain a final 88-fold purification. The purity of the enzyme was 
checked using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The molecular weight 
of the enzyme, was determined by gel nitration to be in the range of 
35,000-42,000. 

Endogenous Virus from Mouse L-Cells. R. J. Boyd, C. W. Godzeski, 
and V. C. Spurling, The Lilly Research Laboratories, Indianapolis, Indi- 
ana 46206. The fact that mouse cells and tissues all carry tumor virus 

potential has been well publicized since 1958, but researchers do not 
seem to heed the implicit warnings. Mouse cell lines may express virus 
and/or virus-like particles as a result of relatively minor environmental 
changes. Our laboratory has found that mouse L-cells contain intra- 
cisternal type A particles and intracytoplasmic type A particles (pos- 
sible precursor to the type B virus) when the serum content of the 199 
medium was lowered to 2% from 5% or when NaHCO ;5 was increased 
from 1.68 gms/L to 2.2 gms/L. Published reports imply that more drastic 
measures, e.g., halogenated pyrimidines, high serum levels, radiation, or 
cytotoxic agents, were required to induce endogenous virus release. This 
may not be so. Cautious handling of mouse cells and tissues is empha- 
sized and the routine ultrastructural examination of such cells highly 
recommended. 

Fatty Acid Composition of Microsomal and Soluble Fractions of Mam- 
mary Adenocarcinomas in Mice. Gloria M. K. Raines and Alice S. 

Bennett, Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana 47306. It has been 

suggested that membrane characteristics associated with carcinomas 
could be related to an altered molecular structure of lipids in the plasma 
membrane. The microsomal and soluble fractions of the cell are major 
sites of de novo synthesis and elongation/desaturation of fatty acids. 
It was the purpose of this study to compare the fatty acid composition 
of microsomal and soluble fractions isolated from mammary adeno- 
carcinomas with that of normal mammary tissue and to determine if 
deviations found in the plasma membrane isolated from tumors could 
be observed at these subcellular levels. Electron micrographs of tumor 

141 



142 Indiana Academy of Science 

cells were compared to those of normal. Microsomal and soluble fractions 
were isolated by differential centrifugation from mammary adenocar- 
cinomas and from normal mammary tissue of Strain A female mice. 
Activities of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, reduced (NADH) de- 
pendent cytochrome C reductase and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide 
phosphate, reduced (NADPH) dependent cytochrome C reductase in 
these fractions were determined. The fatty acids were extracted, meth- 
ylated, and methyl esters identified and quantified using gas liquid 
chromatography. Polar and nonpolar GLC columns, silver nitrate thin- 
layer chromatography, hydrogenation, and spiking were used to con- 
firm the identity of some fatty acids. Electron micrographs revealed 
that the endoplasmic reticulum of neoplastic cells was more discontinu- 
ous and fragmented than that of normal cells. The fatty acid composi- 
tion of the microsomal fraction did not reflect the altered characteristics 
evident in the plasma membrane. Generally, the fatty acid compo- 
sition of the microsomal and soluble fractions was similar in tumor 
and normal tissue, but there was a greater percentage of C and 

C fatty acids in tumors. An increase in the level of palmitic acid 
and of long chain fatty acids, as reported in studies on the plasma 
membrane isolated from tumors, was not evident in either of the 
microsomal or soluble fractions. There was evidence of greater utiliza- 
tion of NADPH in the reduction of cytochrome C reductase in tumors. 
This may result in a decreased availability of NADPH for fatty acid 
synthetase and lipogenesis. 



A Study of the Ultrastructural Changes in Two Irradiated Tissues of 
Differing Radiosensitivities 

W. J. Adam and R. J. Vetter, Department of Bionucleonics 

School of Pharmacy and Pharmacal Sciences 

Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 

Abstract 

A micromorphological study of two different tissues was made in which the only 
experimental variable was inherent tissue radiosensitivity. Mouse hepatocytes and 
duodenal epithelial cells were exposed to 1350 R of Co-60 gamma radiation. Tissues were 
collected 24 hours post-irradiation and prepared for electron microscopy. It was found 
that while changes in nuclear shape and dilation of nuclear envelopes and endoplasmic 
reticulum were common to both cell types, these changes were much more exaggerated in 
the duodenal cells. The duodenal cells also showed nuclear alterations and a type of sec- 
ondary lysosome which were lacking in the hepatocytes. Fatty degeneration appeared 
solely in .the hepatocytes. 

Introduction 

Accurate ultrastructural characterizations of cells, including irradi- 
ated cells, began in the mid 1950's (18). Since then, numerous accounts 
have described changes in a wide variety of irradiated tissues under just 
as wide a variety of irradiation conditions. As a result of these studies, 
it is clear that the nucleus is the focal point of a cell's reaction to 
ionizing radiation. However, to say that its reaction represents the 
full story is a gross oversimplification. 

There has, as yet, been no study performed in which a radiosensitive 
cell's reaction has been compared to a radioresistant cell's reaction at 
the ultrastructural level with the only variable being cell type. The 
question that this study attempts to answer is: given that the only 
intended difference between two populations of cells is their radiosensi- 
tivity, will one cell type show significantly different micromorphological 
alterations than the other after irradiation ? 

Materials and Methods 

Conditions of Irradiation 

Male mice of the Cox (Swiss) strain weighing 30 to 36 grams were 
irradiated singly with a U.S. Nuclear 7500 Ci (3-15-66) Co-60 source. 
An exposure rate of 178 R/min was used to achieve a total exposure of 
1355 R. The source was calibrated with the Victoreen R-meter. A total 
of seven mice were irradiated, and seven were used as controls. Animals 
were sacrificed by etherization 24 hours after irradiation. Tissues were 
fixed with glutaraldehyde which had been redistilled from a 25% stock 
solution in accordance with Fahimi and Drochmans (5). 

The primary lobe of the liver and the first centimeter of the 
duodenum from irradiated and control mice were fixed immediately 
after sacrifice. The surface of the liver was rinsed with the primary 
fixative (3% glutaraldehyde in a 0.05 M phosphate buffer, pH 6.8) 
before being excised. The duodenum was intraluminally perfused with 

143 



144 Indiana Academy of Science 

the fixative before being excised. Liver and duodenum were minced and 
immersed in fixative at room temperature for 60 to 90 min. After pri- 
mary fixation, the tissues were rinsed three times with a 0.05 M phos- 
phate buffer followed by postfixation for 2 hours in 2% osmium tetrox- 
ide in a 0.05 M phosphate buffer, pH 6.8 at room temperature. The tissues 
were stained en bloc in a 2% aqueous uranyl acetate solution overnight 
at 4°C. This was followed by dehydration in a graded ethanol series and 
infiltration with a low viscosity plastic (26). Tissues were sectioned with 
diamond knives on a Sorvall MT-2B ultramicrotome at a thickness of 
600 A. The sections were placed on 300 or 400-mesh bare copper grids, 
stained with lead citrate (23) and examined on a Hitachi HU-11A elec- 
tron microscope using an accelerating voltage of 50 KV. 

Results 
Morphology of Control Tissues 

No obvious distortion of the ultrastructure of the mouse hepatocyte 
was observed in control tissues (Fig. 1). The nuclei were either spherical 
or near spherical and possessed one or two distinct centrally located 
nucleoli. The nuclear envelope exhibited no swelling or distension. The 
heterochromatin appeared as a very thin and consistent border around 
the inner aspect of the nuclear envelope, avoiding the nuclear pores. 
Mitochondria were neither swollen nor distorted and cristae appeared 
linear and unbroken. Rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) was very 
abundant and was most often found as rather long, double-membrane 
units encircling mitochondria or lipid droplets or as a cytoplasmic parallel 
array of several double-membrane units. The two unit membranes of 
the RER maintained a strict parallel arrangement. Ribosomes were found 
either as small, unbound clusters (polyribosomes) or as part of the RER. 
A small natant population of lipid droplets, primary and secondary 
lyosomes, and peroxisomes was common. 

Control fixations of the duodenal epithelial cells yielded similar 
morphological results (Fig. 2). Duodenal nuclei often appeared more 
elipsoidal than hepatocyte nuclei. The RER of the duodenal cells did 
not maintain the same parallelism between the two unit membranes 
that was shown in the hepatocytes but, instead, took on a more circular 
or vesical-like configuration. There was a great deal of variability in 
the appearance of the mitochondria. They were apparently still unstable 
after the primary fixation process and, consequently, showed some 
swelling and dissolution of the matrix. Ribosomes were predominantly 
attached to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) or were found free in the 
cytoplasm as polyribosome clusters. An occasional primary or secondary 
lysosome was also found. The apical ends of the cells were covered with 
a dense population of microvilli. 

Figure 1. Control hepatocyte. N, nucleus; Nu, nucleolus; ER, endoplasmic reticulum; 

Be, bile canal; Li, lipid; Ly, Lysosome; Mag.=:J417X. 

FIGURE 2. Control intestinal epithelial cells. Mv, microvilli; Ly, lysosome; RBC, red 

blood cell; Jc, junctional complex; Maf7.=5576X. 



Cell Biology 









146 Indiana Academy of Science 

The Irradiated Hepatocyte 

One of the more striking features of the irradiated hepatocyte was 
the appearance of the reticular network (Fig. 3). The cells had ER 
that was very dilated sometimes to very exaggerated extremes. When 
this characteristic appeared at all, it was universal throughout the 
affected cell. The voids caused by this dilation of the ER did not contain 
any electron dense debris. Along with the dilation of the ER, there oc- 
curred a similar dilation of the nuclear envelope which was in some 
cases quite exaggerated, appearing only between the nuclear pores. 
Lobing or "blebing" of the nucleus was frequently observed. The nucleus 
became more or less amorphous in shape, possessing tabs or lobes which 
extended into the cytoplasm. Changes in shape of the nucleus and ER 
occurred together in almost every case. The exceptions were a few 
instances where swelling of the ER occurred without any nuclear altera- 
tions. Increased cytolytic activity was evidenced by an increase in size, 
complexity and number of secondary lysosomes (Fig. 4). These cytolytic 
bodies often possessed various sizes of lipid droplets, membrane frag- 
ments, and osmiophillic plaques and tended to cluster in small groups. 
Mitochondrial changes were limited to a slight to moderate loss of 
density of the matrix or a disruption of the internal membrane system 
(Fig. 5). No alterations were noticed in the distribution of the 
ribosomes. 

The Irradiated Duodenal Epithelial Cell 

As with the hepatocyte, the most obvious changes in the duodenal 
cells involved the nucleus and the endomembrane system. The ER was 
very vesiculated (Fig. 6), often so extensively that the cytoplasm ap- 
peared somewhat frothy. The nuclear envelope took on a swollen or 
distended character, and the nucleus became amorphous. 

The main difference between the irradiated hepatocyte and the 
irradiated duodenal epithelial cell was one of degree. While nuclear 
alterations in the hepatocyte were confined to changes in outline, 
nuclear changes in duodenal cells were much more elaborate and, on 
occasion, so extreme as to give the appearance of isolated islands of 
chromatin, cytoplasmic pockets, or pseudopodia-like extensions of the 
nucleus (Fig. 7). In some cases, the duodenal nuclear envelopes would 
swell to the extent of becoming balloon-like. Figure 7 shows one case 
in which the nuclear envelope had partially dissolved and cytoplasmic 
and nuclear contents had become mixed. Changes within the nucleus 
were also more pronounced in the duodenal cells. There were instances 
of nuclear caps (Fig. 8) and pycnotic nuclei (Fig. 9), neither of 
which was found in the irradiated hepatocyte. 

Figurk 3. Irradiated hepatocyte. ER, endoplasmic reticulum; Np, nuclear pore; Ne, 

nuclear envelope; Mag.=5495X. 
Figure 3A. Irradiated hepatocjte. ER, endoplasmic reticulum; M, mitochondria; Mc, 

microbody ; Mag.=24,074X. 
Figure 4. Lysosome aggregate of irradiated hepatocyte. Lyi, primary lysosome; Ly2, 

secondary lysosome; Mag.=4t!8!)X. 

F'GURE 5. Mitochondria of irradiated hepatocyte. M, mitochondria with a loir density 

matrix; Mir, membrane whorl; Mc, microbody; Mag. =1.9, 42 8 X. 



Cell Biology 



14? 




148 Indiana Academy of Science 

The lysosomal systems of the two cell types behaved similarly. The 
hepatocyte lysosomes rarely became more elaborate than those shown 
in Fig. 4. However, the duodenal lysosomes were more numerous, 
considerably larger, and more complex. There was a great heterogeneity 
of contents within the duodenal lysosomes v/hich included whole areas 
of cytoplasm, extensive collections of membranes, mylenated figures, 
lipid droplets of various sizes and densities, and occasionally an entire 
organelle (Fig. 10). Some of the duodenal lysosomes were considerably 
larger than their hepatic counterparts and in several instances, oc- 
cupied approximately one-third of the volume of an epithelial cell. 
Other variants of the lysosomal system present only in the irradiated 
duodenal epithelial cell were the multivesicular body, residual bodies, 
and membrane whorls. As with the irradiated hepatocytes, there was 
no perceptible change in ribosomal distribution; however, the Golgi 
complex did exhibit isolated incidences of hypertrophy. 

Discussion 

Cell Population Kinetics 

Unless hepatic cells are stimulated by artificial means, such as 
partial hepatectomy, they will divide rarely, if at all (19). The duodenal 
epithelial cells, however, divide very rapidly and are known to be 
very radiosensitive (16). Like many radiosensitive systems, the in- 
testinal epithelium is a cell renewal system (15). The majority of the 
epithelium consists of crypt cells which move in a coherent sheet up the 
villi where they are extruded at the tip (21,27). The generation time of 
proliferating crypt cells is about 12 hours. 

Light microscope studies have shown that mitotic activity is 
abolished in stem cells shortly after a supralethal dose of x-rays (27). 
X-irradiation with 1 krad leads to depletion of the intestinal epithelium, 
"anenterocytosis", through aplasia combined with continued loss of 
mature cells (16). Movement of the entire epithelial sheet and ex- 
trusion of cells from the tips of the villi seems to be blocked for 
about 0.5 day after irradiation (10). It would seem unlikely then, that 
ultrastructural changes found in this study were due to any mag- 
nification effects resulting from differences in cell cycle times, since 
mitosis is blocked by the magnitude of exposure that was used. 

Nuclear Alterations 

In both the hepatocyte and the duodenal epithelial cells, nuclear 
alterations of two main types were found. First, as in several other 
studies, the nuclear envelope exhibited slight to severe swelling (2,6,7, 
11,25). The severity of this alteration was always greater in the 
duodenal cells. A second alteration which had taken place in the nuclei 

Figure 6. Irradiated intestinal epithelium. ER, endoplasmic reticulum (dilated); Gc, 

goblet cell; N, nucleus; Mw, membrane whorl; Mag.=2728X. 
Figure 7. Transverse section of intestinal epithelial cell. Nuclear contents have par- 
tially spilled into cytoplasm (arrow); Mag.=4986X. 
Figure 7 A. Extremely lobed nucleus of irradiated intestinal epithelial cell. Cytoplasmic 
packet (arrow); Ch, isolated island of chromatin; Mag.=1740X. 



Cell Biology 



149 







150 Indiana Academy of Science 

of both cell types was a change in the outline of the nucleus. This 
"blebing" or lobing was, again, more exaggerated in the duodenal 
cells than in the hepatocytes. Both swelling of the nuclear envelope 
and nuclear blebing are not uncommon to irradiated tissues (2,3,11). 
Within 1 hour after a 3-krad dose, irregularly shaped nuclei were 
found to be commonplace in the epithelium of the irradiated intestine 
along with an increase in the size of the nuclei (20). Nuclear en- 
velopes of irradiated epithelial duodenal cells were "tremendously 
swollen" as early as 2 hours after an exposure of 1350 R (10). Ir- 
regularities in nuclear shape were found as early as 90 min after a 
1350 R exposure along with "chromatin-like areas" dispersed within 
the cytoplasm or bulging from the nuclear surface (13). It is in- 
teresting to note that the irregular shape of the nucleus after irradiation 
is also observed in transformed cells. 

Endoplasmic Reticulum 

Distention and dilation of the ER was also a very common charac- 
teristic of both cell types used. Dilated ER is not uncommon in 
irradiated tissue (1,6,11,14). In hepatic parenchymal cells ER was 
observed in varying degrees of dilation at all post irradiation intervals 
greater than 4 hours after a 3-krad dose of Co-60 gamma rays (8) 
and was found as early as 2 hours post irradiation in the epithelium 
of the duodenal crypts in x-irradiated mice (10). Along with the 
distention and dilation of the ER, an apparent loss of ribosomes was 
observed in several studies (13,17,20,12). No obvious reduction in the 
number of ribosomes was found in either of the tissues used here. 

Lysosomes 

One of the more dramatic changes observed in this study was the 
change in the lysosomal component of irradiated cells. There was an 
increase in the number and internal complexity of these organelles in 
both cell types along with an increase in the number of primary and 
secondary lysosomes. However, in duodenal cells the size and com- 
plexity of secondary lysosomes was far greater than in hepatocytes. 

Changes in the lysosome population of hepatic parenchymal cells 
have been observed as early as 2 min post irradiation (8). These changes 
were referred to as "membranous annuli" enclosing a variety of 
cytoplasmic components. Such structures are identical, by definition, 
to autophagosomes. Rene et al. (22) found a simultaneous increase in 
both the number of lysosomes and the activity of acid phosphatase in 
hepatocytes of rats 2 hours after a 2-krad dose. Changes in the lysosomal 

Figure 8. Irradiated intestinal epithelial cell. Nucleolar cap, Nc; Mag.=2250X. 

Figure 9. Pycnotic nucleus, irradiated intestinal epithelial cell. Mag.=293lX. 

Figure 10. Large cytolysosome in irradiated intestinal epithelial cell. Mv, microvilli; Cy, 

cytolysosome; Mag.=3960X. 
Figure 10 A. Irradiated intestinal epithelial cell, cytolysosome with osmiophilic plaque, 

Op; Mag.=20,833X. 

Figure 10B. Irradiated intestinal epithelial cell. Mv, multivessicular body; Mag.=ll,505X. 

Figure IOC. Irradiated intestinal epithelial cell, cytolysosome. Me, membranes; Li, lipid 

droplet; Cy, cytoplasmic inclusion; Mag. = 10,500X. 



Cell Biology 



151 
















/) 



152 Indiana Academy of Science 

content of irradiated duodenal epithelial cells is considerably more 
elaborate than in irradiated hepatocytes. An increase in the number 
of multivesicular and dense bodies was observed in these cells as 
early as 90 min after a 1350-rad dose of x-rays (9,10,12,13). The 
number of cytolysosomes was also increased beginning at 3 hours 
post irradiation. These cytolysosomes were found to contain mito- 
chondria, ER ribosomes and nuclear fragments. 

Other Cellular Components 

In the irradiated hepatocyte, fatty degeneration has been demon- 
strated (8,19). In this study, it appeared as the deposition of numerous 
clear vacuoles from which the lipid component was leached out during 
processing. Hendee and Alders (8) found these lipid vacuoles as early 
as 4 hours after exposure of rats to 3 or 16 krad. 

No obvious changes in the morphology of the Golgi complex was 
found in this study. Hugon et al. (10) reported a reduction of the 
Golgi area to a few cysternae. This finding was predominant at 2 hours 
post irradiation. It is conceivable that what was seen in Hugon's study 
may have been the result of unusual sectional geometry, or what may 
have been seen was small clusters of smooth ER. 

The significance of the present study lies in the experimental 
design. If one wishes to consult the literature and compare ultra- 
structural characteristics of two different irradiated tissue types, one 
would undoubtedly find the two particular tissues of interest. However, 
the exposure, exposure rate, the post irradiation time at which the 
tissue was collected and the species from which the tissue came would 
all very probably be at variance with one another. In this study the 
only variables are those inherent in the two different tissues. Even 
more significant are the differences seen when all the above-mentioned 
variables are kept constant, for it is these differences that are the 
net result of how two different cell types cope with exposure to 
ionizing radiation. 



Literature Cited 

1. Abdel-Bari, W. and G. D. Sorenson. 1965. Ultrastructural alterations in the 
x-irradiated spleen. II. Regenerative stage. Int. J. Radiat. Biol. 9:11. 

2. Aoyama, T., Y. Karamoto, I. Furuta, and T. Kondo. 1972. Early morphological 
changes in cortical medulary thymocytes of the rat after whole body irradiation. I. 
Electron microscope observations. Int. J. Radiat. Biol. 21 :545. 

3. Bari, W. A. and G. D. Sorenson. 1964. Ultrastructural alterations in x-irradiated 
spleen. Path. Microbiol. 27 :257. 

4. Bauer, R. D. f E. E. Oliphant, and J. R. Reeve. 1975. Effect of in vitro x-irradiation 
on DNA and Histones of rat thymus nuclei. Radiat. Res. 63 :119-129. 

5. Fahimi, H. D. and P. Drochmans. 1965. Essai de standardisation de la fixation au 
glutaraldehyde. J. Micro. 4 :725. 

6. Goldfetter, A. and L. A. Miller. 1963. Radiosensitivity and biological properties of 
two tumor types indigenous to the same host. VI. The effects of x-irradiation on 
subcellular units. Int. J. Radiat. Biol. 6 :575. 

7. Helander, H. F. 1965. Early effects of x-irradiation on the ultrastructure of gastric 
fundus glands. Radiat. Res. 26 :244. 



Cell Biology 153 

8. Hendee, W. R. and M. A. Alders. 1968. Ultrastructural development of radiation 
injury in hepatic parenchymal cells of gamma irradiated mice. Lab. Invest. 18:151. 

9. Hugon, J. and M. Borgers. 1966. Fine structural changes and localization of phos- 
phatases in the epithelium of the duodenal crypt of x-irradiated mice. Histochemie 
6:209. 

10. Hugon, M. and M. Borgers. 1966. Ultrastructural and cytochemical studies on 
karyolytic bodies in the epithelium of the duodenal crypts of whole body x-irradiated 
mice. Lab. Invest. 15 :1528. 

11. Hugon, J. and M. Borgers. 1968. Fine structure of the nucleus of the duodenal crypt 
cells after x-irradiation. Am. J. Pathol. 52 :701. 

12. Hugon, J., J. R. Maisin and M. Borgers. 1965. Delayed ultrastructural changes in 
duodenal crypts of x-irradiated mice. Int. J. Radiat. Biol. 10:113. 

13. Hugon, J., J. R. Maisin, and M. Borgers. 1965. Changes in the ultrastructure of 
duodenal crypts in x-irradiated mice. Radiat. Res. 25 :489. 

14. Kahn, M. Y. and M. Ohanian. 1974. Radiation induced cardiomyopathy. II. An 
electron microscopic study of myocardial microvasculature. Am. J. Path. 74:125. 

15. Leblond, C. P. and C. E. Stevens. 1948. Continual renewal in the intestinal 
epithelium in the albino rat. Anat. Rec. 100 :357. 

16. Leblond, C. P. and B. E. Walker. 1956. Renewal of cell populations. Physiol. 
Revs. 36 :255. 

17. Parsons, D. F. 1962. An electron microscope study of radiation damage in the 
mouse oocyte. Cell Biol. 14 :31. 

18. McQuade, H. A., W. B. Seaman, and A. A. Poporis. 1956. Electron microscopy of 
irradiated cells of the folicular epithelium of the rat thyroid. Radiat. Res. 4 :532. 

19. Quastler, H. 1956. The nature of intestinal radiation death. Radiat. Res. 4 :303. 

20. Quastler, H. and J. C. Hampton. 1962. Effects of ionizing radiation on the fine 
structure and function of the intestinal epithelium of the mouse. I. Villus epithelium. 
Radiat. Res. 17:914. 

21. Quastler, H. and F. C. Sherman. 1959. Cell population kinetics in the intestinal 
epithelium of the mouse. Exp. Cell Res. 17 :420. 

22. Rene, A. A., J. H. Darden, and J. L. Parker. 1971. Radiation-induced ultrastruc- 
tural and biochemical changes in lysosomes. Lab. Invest. 25 :230. 

23. Reynolds, E. S. 1963. The use of lead citrate at a high pH as an electron opaque 
strain in electron microscopy. J. Cell Biol. 17:208. 

24. Reynolds, R. C, P. O'B. Montgomery, and D. H. Karney. 1963. Nucleolar "caps"— 
a morphologic entity produced by the carcinogen 4-nitroquinoline N-oxide. Cancer 
Res. 23 :535. 

23. Smith, E. B., D. C. White, R. J. Hartsock, and A. C. Dixon. 1967. Acute ultra- 
structural effects of 500 roentgens on the lymph node of the mouse. Am. J. Path. 
50:159. 

26. Spurr, A. R. 1969. A low viscosity epoxy resin embedding medium for electron 
microscopy. J. Ultrastruct. Res. 26 :31. 

27. Williams, R. B., J. N. Toal, J. White, and H. M. Carpenter. 1958. The effect of 
total body x-irradiation from near threshold to near tissue lethal doses on small 
bowel epithelium of the rat. J. Nat. Cancer Inst. 21:17. 



The Oligosaccharides of Serum Lipoproteins: A Brief Review and Local- 
ization of an Apoprotein Sialyl Transferase in Golgi Apparatus and 
Partial Purification of the Enzyme 1 

Mark Eppler 2 and D. James Morre 3 

Department of Biological Sciences 

Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 

Abstract 

Many of the apoprotein subunits of the serum lipoproteins of humans and other 
species contain covalently-bound carbohydrates in the form of oligosaccharides attached 
to specific amino acid residues. Glycosylation of the apoproteins occurs in specific cell 
organelles organized into two linear routes of synthesis and secretion. Early glycosylation 
may determine which route is followed or glycosylation may vaiy depending on which 
route is followed. Since bound oligosaccharides appear to be involved in recognition by 
both hepatic and extrahepatic receptors, the synthesis-secretion route may ultimately 
control the behavior of lipoproteins in blood. Both abnormal recognition and abnormal 
glycosylation of serum lipoproteins are encountered with atherosclsrotic and/or dis- 
lipoproteinemic patients. An apoprotein sialyltransferase which terminally glycosylates 
circulating lipoproteins is localized in Golgi apparatus, where it is strongly bound to the 
membranes. This activity of the Golgi apparatus has been solubilized using detergents 
and purified 150-fold. 

Serum lipoproteins may be divided into three classes based on 
flotation density in the ultracentrifuge (3). These are very low 
density lipoproteins (VLDL) (d<1.006), low density lipoproteins (LDL) 
(d = 1.006-1.063) and high density lipoproteins (HDL) (d = 1.063-1.210). 
Lipoproteins of all species studied, including man, have great similarity 
in the protein subunits (apoproteins) of these circulating lipoproteins. 
VLDL contains apoproteins B, C-l, C-2, and C-3 in addition to an 
arginine-rich protein. LDL contains primarily apoprotein B and some- 
times the arginine-rich protein. HDL contains A-l, A-2 and the arginine- 
rich and C peptides. Many of these peptides contain covalently-bound 
carbohydrate (Table 1) so that these circulating lipoproteins are 
actually glycolipoproteins. 

Oligosaccharides of glycoproteins in general have been implicated 
as controlling factors in their secretion. Eylar (4) observed that all of 
a group of secreted proteins were glycoproteins and that most intracel- 
lular proteins were not. He interpreted this as evidence for a glycosyla- 
tion-dependency of glycoprotein secretion. Knopf et al. (10) found 
that addition of fucose to light chains of immunoglobulin secreted by 
murine myeloma cells only occurs immediately before their secretion 
as if the terminal fucose of the oligosaccharides allowed the last step 
in secretion to occur. Finally, Pottenger et al. (18) demonstrated that 
apoproteins which accumulate in rough endoplasmic reticulum vesicles 
of orotic acid-induced fatty livers were deficient in N-acetylglucosamine, 
galactose, and sialic acid. 



Supported in part by a grant from the American Heart Association. 
Predoctoral Fellow of the American Heart Association, Indiana Affiliate. 
Appointed jointly with the Department of Medicinal Chemistry. 

154 



Cell Biology 155 



Table 1. Comparison of the carbohydrate composition of human and rat 


apolipoproteins. 


Carbohydrate Composition 


Apoprotein Human Ref. Rat 


Ref. 



B Man, GalNAc, Gal, NAN 26 

A-I Hexose, hexosamine 20 

C-3 GalNAc, Gal, NAN 1 GalNAc, NAN 5 

Arg-rich Binds to ConA-sepharose 24 Man, Gal, Glu, NAN 18 

N-acetylhexosamine 

Abbreviations: Gal = Galactose; GalNAc == N-acetylgalactosamine; Glu = Glucose; 
Man = Mannose; NAN = N-acetylneuraminic acid (sialic acid). 

Contrary to Eylar's (4) expectations, more recent studies have 
shown that human serum, bovine milk, and bovine pancreatic juice, all 
secreted fluids, contain from 40 to 95% non-glycosylated proteins; non- 
glycosylated collagen is also secreted in certain disease states (23). 
Pottenger et al. (18) prefer the interpretation that lipoproteins were 
abnormally glycosylated because they had not passed through Golgi 
apparatus where the terminal glycosyl transferases are concentrated. 
A reasonable model of synthesis-secretion of glycoproteins has been 
constructed which may explain these seemingly disparate observations 
(16). Lipoproteins may exit the cell via secretory vesicles derived from 
either the Golgi apparatus or, more directly, via vesicles derived from 
smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER). Presumably, proteins secreted 
by SER vesicles are less glycosylated than those secreted by Golgi 
apparatus-derived vesicles, paralleling the subcellular distribution of 
the glycosyl transferases that catalyze sugar additions. Sugars are 
added to glycoproteins in specific sequence, the product of one reaction 
becoming the substrate of the next transferase in the pathway (8). 
Also certain glycosylations near the core region of the glycoprotein 
oligosaccharide can preclude the possibility of more terminal glycosyla- 
tions (8). Non-glycosylated collagen and other non-glycosylated serum 
proteins might be secreted by the SER route, thus bypassing certain 
terminal glycosylation steps. Glycosyl transferases catalyzing additions 
of mannose and internal N-acetylglucosamines are found in endoplasmic 
reticulum as well as Golgi apparatus (22). The observed increased levels 
of internal sugars such as mannose in lipoproteins of orotic acid- 
induced fatty livers may reflect such activities. That alterations of 
normal intracellular flow of lipoproteins can occur has been demon- 
strated by Werderitsh et al. (27). Hyperlipoproteinemic rabbits had 
disoriented Golgi apparatus with large accumulations of lipid in smooth 
endoplasmic reticulum in the apical cytoplasm. 

The potential importance of terminal sialic acids in determining 
the clearance of glycoproteins from blood has been shown by Morrell 
et al. (14) in that removal of sialic acid from a variety of glycoproteins 
caused their rapid accumulation in the liver through interactions with 
a specific receptor (7). Although the role of sialic acid in determining 
lipoprotein clearance is not certain, oligosaccharides in general are 
involved in a wide range of effector-receptor interactions (2). There- 



156 Indiana Academy of Science 

fore it is to be expected that the secretory route will profoundly in- 
fluence the behavior of secreted lipoproteins in the circulation. The 
abnormal occurrence of lipoproteins in arterial intima during athero- 
genesis (25) and some forms of hyperlipoproteinemia, may be a re- 
flection of altered lipoprotein-receptor interactions. 

An understanding of the characteristics of the glycosyl trans- 
ferases plus clarification of the mechanisms of their incorporation into 
a specific biosynthesis-secretory pathway will contribute much toward 
completing the conceptual framework of lipoprotein synthesis and as- 
sembly. Munro et al. (17) have shown an apolipoprotein sialyltransf erase 
to be concentrated 45-fold in rat liver Golgi apparatus. Yet, no work has 
been directed toward isolation, purification and detailed characterization 
of these enzymes. 

As part of a study to isolate and characterize the glycosyl trans- 
ferases of lipoprotein glycosylation, Golgi apparatus were isolated from 
rat liver as described (15). The isolated Golgi apparatus were treated 
with ultrasound for 1 minute (Branson sonifier, micro tip, amplitude 
setting of 1) in 0.05 M KC1 containing 0.1 M Tris-maleate, pH 6.6 and 
14 mM 2-mercaptoethanol. Membranes were collected by centrifugation 
(85,000 X g for 1 hr), resuspended in the same buffer and Triton 
X-100 was added to 0.6% at a protein concentration of about 1 
mg/ml of final solution. This solution was treated with ultrasound 
for 1 min, amplitude setting of 1. Following a 3.5 hr incubation at 4°, 
insoluble residue was removed by centrifugation (1 hr, 100,000 X g). 
This treatment completely solubilized the sialyltransferase in a form 
satisfactory for further purification and characterization. The re- 
covery was 68% of that in the original Golgi apparatus. 

To assay the sialyltransferase, VLDL were isolated from whole 
rat blood by the method of Koga et al. (9), delipidated according to 
Scanu et al. (21) and desialated using neuraminidase from Clostridium 
perif ring ens (Sigma Chemical Co., St. Louis, 0.14 enzyme units /mg 
protein) (28). Incubations were for 10-20 min at 37°. The reaction 
mixture contained, in a final volume of 0.05 ml, the following: 0.15 M 
sodium cacodylate, 0.5% Triton X-100, 0.5% Triton CF-54, 10 mM 
MgCl 2 , 14 mM 2-mercaptoethanol, 18 nmoles 14 C-CMP-sialic acid (6.6 
mCi/mmole), 7-10 /xg asialoVLDL, and 15-60 fig enzyme protein, final 
pH 6.4. The reaction was terminated by addition of chloroform-methanol 
(2:1, by volume) to precipitate protein and extract lipids. The pre- 
cipitated protein was washed twice each with acetone-water (1:1, by 
volume) and water, and radioactivity was determined by liquid scintil- 
lation counting. Enzyme specific activities were calculated from the 
counts per min of radioactive sialic acid transferred to the desialylated 
VLDL. Proteins were estimated by the Lowry et al. (13) method fol- 
lowing extraction to remove excess Triton X-100 (7). 

The sialyltransferase of VLDL sialylation was concentrated 79-fold 
in Golgi apparatus relative to the starting homogenate (Table 2). The 
enzyme was tightly bound to the membrane; treatment with KC1 to 
release secretory and extrinsic membrane proteins resulted in a further 
purification of the sialyltransferase of 1.5. The final purification of the 



Cell Biology 157 

Table 2. Purification of CMP-NAN: desialylated apoVLDL sialyl transferase from 
Golgi apparatus of rat liver. 









Total Activity 




Specific Activity 




(nanomoles sialic 




(nanomoles sialic 


Relative Specific 


acid/hr/10 g 


Enzyme Source 


acid/hr/mg protein) 


Activity 


rat liver) 


Total Homogenate 


0.32 


1 


390 


Golgi Apparatusa 


25 


79 


150 


Golgi Apparatus Membranes 








Low Salt Extractedb 


38 


121 


1 05 


Triton X-100 Extractc __ 


47 


150 


100 



a Recovery of Golgi apparatus determined from other criteria (15) was about 40%. 
This means that (150 X 100/40) /390 = 96% of the activity was probably Golgi ap- 
paratus-associated in the original homogenate. 

b Low salt extraction solubilized 150 - 105/150 X 100 = 30% of the activity. The re- 
mainder was associated with the Golgi apparatus membranes. 

c Triton X-100 solubilized 100/105 X 100 = 96% of the activity remaining with the low 
salt extracted membranes. 

Triton X-100 solubulized enzyme was 150-fold. This partially purified 
sialyltransferase had an absolute requirement for detergent or lipids. 
Recent findings from several laboratories implicate a disfunction 
in sialyltransferase in atherogenesis. Lee and Breckenridge (11) report 
lower quantities of both mannose and sialic acid in apoproteins from 
type II hyperlipoproteinemic subjects while galactose and N-acetyl- 
glucosamine were unchanged. In a second paper, these authors could 
find no differences in carbohydrate chains of individually isolated 
glycopeptides of LDL, suggesting that the lesion was the result of 
change in proportion of sialylated glycopeptides, i.e., due to decreased 
amount of glycopeptides of similar composition to those found in 
normal subjects (12). This contrasts with studies of the abnormal 
lipoproteins in abetalipoproteinemia, where an oversialylated form of 
HDL predominates (19). A recent report (6) provides evidence that 
a structurally defective LDL may not bind properly to surface receptors. 
Cholesterol synthesis in leukocytes from the affected subjects was not 
suppressed by the subject's own LDLs but was suppressed by LDLs from 
control subjects. Conversely, LDLs from the diseased subjects failed to 
suppress cholesterol synthesis in control leukocytes. Thus the complex 
carbohydrate array of the oligosaccharide chains of circulating lipopro- 
teins may provide surface characteristics that are important to 
recognition processes. Knowledge of how sialyltransferases of the Golgi 
apparatus and the operation of alternate secretory routes interact to 
generate specific carbohydrate sequences may be important to under- 
standing and treatment of various forms of hyperlipoproteinemia and 
atherogenesis. 



158 Indiana Academy of Science 

Literature Cited 

1. Albers, J. J., and A. M. Scanu. 1971. Isoelectric fractionation and characterization 
of polypeptides from human serum very low density lipoproteins. Biochim. Biophys. 
Acta 236:29-37. 

2. Cuatrecasas, P. 1974. Membrane receptors. Ann. Rev. Biochem. 43:169-214. 

3. ElSENBERG, S., and R. I. Levy. 1975. Lipoprotein metabolism. Adv. Lipid Res. 13 :l-89. 

4. Eylar, E. H. 1965. On the biological role of glycoproteins J. Theoret. Biol. 10:89-113. 

5. Herbert, P. N., H. G. Windmueller, T. P. Bersot, and R. S. Shulman. 1974. Char- 
acterization of the rat apolipoproteins. I. The low molecular weight proteins of rat 
plasma high density lipoproteins. J. Biol. Chem. 249 :5718-5724. 

6. Higgins, M. J. P., D. S. Lecamwasam, and D. J. Galton. 1975. A new type of 
familial hypercholesterolaemia. Lancet 2 :737-740. 

7. Hudgin, R. L., W. E. Pricer, Jr., and G. Ashwell. 1974. The isolation and prop- 
erties of a rabbit liver binding protein specific for asialoglycoproteins. J. Biol. Chem. 
249 :5536-5543. 

8. Jentoft, N., P., W. Cheng and D. M. Carlson. 1976. Glycosyltransferases and 
glycoprotein biosynthesis, p. 343-383. In A. Martonosi (ed.). Enzymes of Biological 
Membranes. Vol. 2. Plenum Press, New York. 

9. Koga, S., D. L. Horwitz and A. M. Scanu. 1969. Isolation and properties of 
lipoproteins from normal rat serum. J. Lipid Res. 10:577-588. 

10. Knopf, P. M., E. Sasso, A. Destree, and F. Melchers. 1975. Polysaccharide inter- 
mediates formed during intracellular transport of a carbohydrate containing secreted 
immunoglobulin light chain. Biochem. 14:4136-4143. 

11. Lee, P., and W. C. Breckenridge. 1976. The carbohydrate composition of human apo 
low density lipoprotein from normal and type II hyperlipoproteinemic subjects. Can. 
J. Biochem. 54 :42-49. 

12. and . 1976. Isolation and carbohydrate composition of glyco- 

peptides of human apo low-density lipoprotein from normal and type II hyper- 
lipoproteinemic subjects. Can. J. Biochem. 54 :829-833. 

13. Lowry, O. H., N. J. Rosebrough, A. L. Farr, and R. J. Randall. 1951. Protein 
measurement with the folin phenol reagent. J. Biol. Chem. 193 :265-275. 

14. Morell, A. G., G. Gregoriadis, I. H. Scheinberg, J. Hickman, and G. Ashwell. 
1971. The role of sialic acid in determining the survival of glycopioteins in the 
circulation. J. Biol. Chem. 246:1461-1467. 

15. MORRE, D. J., R. D. Cheetham, S. E. Nyquist, and L. Ovtracht. 1972. A simplified 
procedure for isolation of Golgi apparatus from rat liver. Prep. Biochem. 2 :61-69. 

16. , T. W. Keenan, and C. M. Huang. 1974. Membrane flow and differentia- 
tion: Origin of Golgi apparatus membranes from endoplasmic reticulum. Adv. 
Cytopharmacol. 2 :107-125. 

17. Munro, J. R., S. Narasimhan, S. Wetmore, J. R. Riordan, and H. Schachter. 
1975. Intracellular localization of GDP-L-fucose: Glycoprotein and CMP-sialic acid: 
apolipoprotein glycosyltransferases in rat and pork livers. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 
169:269-277. 

18. Pottenger, L. A., L. E. Frazier, L. H. Dubein, G. S. Getz, and R. W. Wissler. 
1973. Carbohydrate composition of lipoprotein apoproteins isolated from rat plasma 
and from the livers of rats fed orotic acid. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 54 :770- 
776. 

19. Scanu, A. M., L. P. Aggerbeck, A. W. Kruski, C. T. Lim, and H. J. Kayden. 1974. 
A study of the abnormal lipoproteins in abetalipoproteinemia J. Clin. Invest. 
53 :440-453. 

20. , L. A. Lewis, and F. M. Bumpus. 1958. Separation and characterization 

of the protein moiety of human ^-lipoprotein. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 74 :390-397. 

21. , H. Pollard, and W. Reader. 1968. Properties of human serum low 

density lipoproteins after modification by succinic anhydride. J. Lipid Res. 9 :342-349. 

22. Schachter, H. 1974. The subcellular sites of glycosylation. Biochem. Soc. Symp. 
40:57-71. 

23. Sharon, N. 1975. Complex Carbohydrates. Their Chemistry, Biosynthesis and Func- 
tions. Addison Wesley, Reading, Massachusetts. 



Cell Biology 159 

24. Shore, V. G., and B. Shore. 1973. Heterogeneity of human plasma very low density 
lipoproteins. Separation of species differing in protein components. Biochemistry. 
12 :502-507. 

25. Smith, E. B. 1974. The relationship between plasma and tissue lipids in human 
atherosclerosis. Adv. Lipid Res. 12 :l-49. 

26. Swaminathan, N., and F. Aladjem. 1976. The monosaccharide composition and 
sequence of the carbohydrate moiety of human serum low density lipoproteins. Bio- 
chemistry. 15:1516-1522. 

27. Werderitsh, D. A., K. Hess, D. Sanford, K. R. Safranski, and D. J. Morre. 1976. 
Effect of dietary magnesium on secretion of serum lipoproteins in hyperlipopro- 
teinemic rats. Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 85:113-119. 

28. Wetmore, S., R. W. Mahley, W. V. Brown, and H. Schachter. 1974. Incorporation 
of sialic acid into sialidase-treated apolipoprotein of human, very low density 
lipoprotein by a pork liver sialyltransferase. Can. J. Biochem. 52 :655-664. 



CHEMISTRY 

Chairman: John H. Meiser, Department of Chemistry 
Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana 47306 

Chairman-Elect: Pang-Fai Ma, Department of Chemistry 
Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana 47306 

ABSTRACTS 

Numerical Coding as a Teaching Aid for Infrared Spectroscopy. Robert 
E. Van Atta, Department of Chemistry, Ball State University, Muncie, 

Indiana 47306. A numerical coding system for describing, filing, and 

retrieving infrared spectra is presented which permits systematic organi- 
zation of a spectrum library for instructional use. The system, which 
may also be used for rapid coding of commercially available spectra, 
involves selection of principal absorption bands at three levels of in- 
tensity in characteristic spectral regions. The nature of the spectrum 
may be deduced from the numerical code, thus simplifying retrieval 
for qualitative comparisons. Retrieval may be accomplished via index 
card, rolodex systems, punched card, or computerization. 

Snythesis and Reactions of Tetraethynylethylene Glycols. Stephen M. 
Kelner and Kenneth G. Migliorese, Department of Chemistry, Indiana 

University Northwest, Gary, Indiana 46408. In an attempt to devise 

an unambiguous synthetic route to tetraethynylethylenes, compounds of 
the general type (RC=C)oC C(C=CR).„ (R = CH 3 , t-C 4 H 9 ) were 

II 
OH OH 
prepared by reacting the appropriate acetylenic Grignard reagent with 
diethyl oxalate. To date, all attempts to convert these tetraethynyl glycols 
to the corresponding tetraethynylethylenes has been unsuccessful. The 
glycols themselves do, however, exhibit some interesting chemistry which 
will be reported. 

Chemical Modification of Human Prostatic Acid Phosphatase. John J. 
McTigue and Robert L. Van Etten, Department of Chemistry, Purdue 

University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907. Human prostatic acid 

phosphatase (HPAP) catalyzes the hydrolysis of the monoanionic form 
of a wide range of phosphomonoesters. We considered it likely that a 
positively charged group at the active center of HPAP accounted for 
this specificity for the monoanionic form of the substrate. Since no metal 
ion has been found to be associated with this enzyme, we examined the 
possibility that a positively-charged residue such as lysine or arginine 
was essential for the binding of substrate. Experiments with trinitro- 
benzenesulfonic acid and pyridoxal 5-phosphate have excluded an active- 
site lysyl residue from the binding function, while treatment of the 
enzyme with either of the arginine-specific modifiers 2,3-butanedione or 
1,2-cyclohexanedione in borate buffer at pH 8.1 leads to the loss of activ- 
ity. The rate of inactivation is decreased markedly in the presence of the 

161 



162 Indiana Academy of Science 

competitive inhibitors L-( + ) -tartrate or inorganic phosphate but not in 
the presence of the non-inhibitor D-(-) -tartrate. 

Several reports have indicated that a phosphoenzyme intermediate 
is involved in the mechanism of acid phosphatases. To ascertain the 
identity of the amino acid residue involved in the formation of this 
intermediate, further chemical modification studies were undertaken. 
Reaction of HPAP with diethyl pyrocarbonate in succinate buffer at pH 
6.0 leads to inactivation of the enzyme. Under these conditions histidine 
and lysine residues are modified. In the presence of competitive inhibitors 
the rate of inactivation is decreased. These results suggest an essential 
role for arginyl and histidyl residues in the mechanism of HPAP, prob- 
ably with arginine in a binding site for the negatively charged phosphate 
group of the substrate and with histidine acting as a nucleophile in the 
catalytic mechanism. 

A Study of the Interconversion of Human Adenosine Deaminases in 
Cancerous and Normal Tissues. J. Zachary, P. F. Ma, and J. M. Coers, 
Department of Chemistry, Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana 47306. 

Two different molecular forms of adenosine deaminase have been 

found in various human tissues: The high molecular weight enzyme 
(A form) and the low molecular weight enzyme (C form). The two 
forms of the enzyme are present in various proportions in different 
tissues and are interconvertible. There is an indication that a conversion 
factor is involved in this interconversion. To study this interconversion 
phenomena in cancerous and normal tissues, a series of incubation 
experiments have been attempted. A purified tissue extract containing 
only one of the isozymes is incubated separately with two crude tissue 
extracts, one normal and one cancerous. The samples, along with the 
appropriate controls, are subjected to thin-layer gel filtration to separate 
and identify the isozymes. Isozyme location on the plate is detected by 
measuring the enzyme activity spectrophotometrically, in eluted fractions. 

Environmental Co-carcinogens. Stephen R. Wilson, Department of 

Chemistry, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 47401. Phorbol 

esters, the most potent co-carcinogens known, have been isolated from 
a wide variety of plant sources. Co-carcinogens such as phorbol esters 
lower the threshold response to carcinogens at 10~ 9 molar concentra- 
tions. Since exposure of man to environmental chemical contaminants 
with carcinogenic potential usually involves frequent or continuous con- 
tact with minute quantities of these compounds, co-carcinogens play a 
decisive role in determining the carcinogenic potency of a mixture. The 
importance of the concentration of the carcinogen may be relatively 
minor even though its presence in minute amounts is obligatory. The 
theory of carcinogenesis and some aspects of the chemistry of phorbol 
will be discussed. 

Isomeric 2-Substituted-l,3,2-diazaphosphorinanes. J. A. Mosbo, Depart- 
ment of Chemistry, Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana 47306. 

Isomeric 2-methoxy- (1) and 2-dimethylamino-l,3,4-trimethyl-l,3,2-diaza- 
phosphorinanes {2) have been prepared and their equilibrium con- 



Chemistry 163 

centrations determined. The distributions of 56:44 for 1 and 60:40 for 2 
indicate substantially different behavior between these and the dioxa 
analogues. Although phosphorus stereochemistries and cis-trans geome- 
tries could not be identified unambiguously, 31 P chemical shifts and 
infrared phosphoryl stretching frequency data for 1 and 2 and their 
2-oxo derivatives led to the speculative assignments of the more abundant 
isomer of 1 being cis and that of 2 being trans. 

Organonitrile Complexes of Platinum. David A. Blinn and Bruce N. 
Storhoff, Department of Chemistry, Ball State University, Muncie, Indi- 
ana 47306. 2-Cyanoethyldiphenylphosphine, 2-cyanocyclopentyldiphen- 

ylphosphine, and 2-cyanocyclohexyldiphenylphosphine (L) react with 1,5- 
C 8 H 12 Pt(CH 3 ) 2 and l,5-C 8 H 12 Pt(CH 3 )Cl to displace the cyclooctadiene 
and yield monomeric complexes of the stoichiometrics L.,Pt(CH. { )o and 
L L ,Pt(CH ;i )Cl. Spectroscopic evidence strongly suggests that in these 
complexes the cyanophosphine ligands function as monodentate phos- 
phines. 

Reactions of the L 2 Pt(CH 3 )Cl complexes with AgBF 4 or AgPF G 
in acetone yield immediate precipitates along with colorless complexes 
of the stoichiometry [L 2 PtCH :s ] n n +. Spectroscopic evidence suggests 
that in these complexes one of the ligands functions as a monodentate 
phosphine while the other serves as a bridging group. One of the nitrile 
groups in each of these cationic complexes is particularly reactive and 
is readily attacked by alcohols. 

The Synthesis and Some Reactions of l-Bromo-2(phenylethenyl)benzene. 

Bruce N. Storhoff, Department of Chemistry, Ball State University, 

Muncie, Indiana 47306. The title compound has been synthesized in 

good yield from readily available starting materials by utilizing Wittig 
reagents. The synthetic procedures are based on the reaction of benzalde- 
hyde with a Wittig reagent prepared from o-bromobenzyl bromide and 
either triphenylphosphine or triethylphosphite, which yields the corre- 
sponding stilbene. The desired product is obtained by dehydrohalogena- 
tion of the previously brominated stilbene. 

The bromine in the title compound is metalated by n-butyllithium at 
low temperature. Some reactions of the metalated product were in- 
vestigated. 

Chemical Education for Artists, Philosophers, Economists, and Politi- 
cians. Terry L. Kruger and Frederick K. Ault, Department of Chem- 
istry, Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana 47306. Trends in chemi- 
cal education for nonscience majors from Sputnik to the present were 
discussed. During the past ten years, two widely different chemical edu- 
cation philosophies have evolved and now seem to dominate courses 
designed for nonscience majors. The two philosophies differ primarily 
on the issue of principles and relevance versus relevance without sub- 
stance. The emphasis on relevance can result in a serious neglect of 
fundamental chemical concepts. The authors expressed a preference for 
course organization that makes basic chemical concepts the heart of 
the course with excursions into relevance at a depth to illustrate the 
application of concepts. 



164 Indiana Academy of Science 

Understanding the pedagogical issues involved in course design re- 
quires consideration of psychological, philosophical, and economic fac- 
tors which affect our lives. The alienation of modern man from his tech- 
nological surroundings has been enhanced through misunderstanding of 
scientific concepts and as a result of advertising promises on products 
which fail to deliver as claimed. The modern citizen reacts predictably 
when faced with devices of limited lifetime and utility while experienc- 
ing decreasing economic power. The reaction has been an expression of 
resentment and hatred toward the scientific-technological community. 

The authors proposed to offer relevance in the nonscience major 
course through a nonmathematical treatment of basic chemical concepts 
using many examples illustrating the utility of the concepts. Concepts 
treated in the course include elemental organization, structure and func- 
tion, temperature and disorder, stoichiometry related to resource utiliza- 
tion, properties of solutions, and thermodynamics. 

Stereoisomeric Studies in the Gas Phase on the MIKES. T. L. Kruger 
and J. A. Mosbo, Department of Chemistry, Ball State University, 
Muncie, Indiana 47306, and R. G. Cooks, Department of Chemistry, 

Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907. Mass Analyzed 

Ion Kinetic Energy Spectrometry (MIKES) has been developed for 
studying the behavior of Ions in the gas phase. Extension of the tech- 
nique has been made to organic analysis and to the determination of 
gas phase equilibrium constants. Isomers of the functional group posi- 
tion type have shown large differences in gas phase ion fragmentations 
(Anal. Letters, 1976). We will discuss the application of the method to 
the determination of the stereochemistry of ions in the gas phase. The 
systems studied thus far are the 2,4-disubstituted pentanes, where the 
substituent is hydroxy-, amino-, and N-methylamino-. The decompositions 
(metastable) of the dihydroxy are loss of one and two water molecules. 
The tneso compound loses the second water with three times the fre- 
quency in comparison with the first (water loss) and the d,l pair. The 
initial conclusion is that MIKES will prove useful in stereochemical 
studies in at least some cases. 



H-C+ H-C 

H.,0 I -H.,0 || 




> CH., -> H-C (1) 

I " " I 

H-C-OH H-C + 

i i 

! I 

CH, CH, CH, 



The Reaction of Methyl Vinyl Ether with Chlorine. T. C. Schwan and 
Curtis R. Wille, Department of Chemistry, Valparaiso University, Val- 



Chemistry 165 

paraiso, Indiana 46383. The reaction of chlorine with methyl vinyl 

ether would be expected to be a simple and straightforward addition. 
However, in addition to the expected product, 1,2-dichloromethoxyethane, 
appreciable quantities of 2-chloro-l-methoxyethene are produced as well 
as minor amounts of at least eleven by-products. A few of these by- 
products, acetaldehyde, methyl acetate, 1,1-dimethoxyethane, 1,1-dimeth- 
oxy-2-chloroethane and 3-chloropropanal have been identified tentatively 
by GC-MS analysis. Mechanisms by which these minor by-products form 
remain to be elucidated; they should prove interesting. 

A Study of an Oscillating Chemical Reaction. Philip L. Burkholder, 
143 Littleton St., West Lafayette, Indiana and James T. Streator, De- 
partment of Chemistry, Manchester College. An acidic solution of 

potassium iodate, malonic acid, hydrogen peroxide, and manganese II 
sulfate will oscillate at 25° as the system approaches an equilibrium state. 
The period of the oscillations can be varied over a considerable range by 
varying the concentrations of the reactants. The presence of an iodine 
intermediate can be made quite visible by the addition of starch. A study 
of this reaction was made to devise procedures for measuring tempera- 
ture and spectral changes that occur during the oscillations. These pro- 
cedures were used in an attempt to unravel some of the kinetic and 
thermodynamic properties of the system. 

The Photolytic Rearrangement of 1-Adamantyl Azide. Grant Kraft and 
A. Gilbert Cook, Department of Chemistry, Valparaiso University, Val- 
paraiso, Indiana 46383. The photolytic rearrangement of 1-adamantyl 

azide has been studied in several solvent systems. The photolysis of the 
azide in methanol, ethanol and isopropanol produced l-methoxy-2- 
azahomoadamantane, l-ethoxy-2-azahomoadamantane and 1-isopropoxy- 
2-azahomoadamantane, respectively, in yields of 90-95%. Photolysis of 
the azide in cyclohexane and w-heptane gave a dimeric compound, and 
photolysis in furan solvent yielded primarily the dimer with some 
furan adduct. Several possible mechanisms for the rearrangements are 
discussed. 



Inhibitor Effects of Three Adenosine Analogs on 
ADP Induced Platelet Aggregation 

Barth H. Ragatz and Panayotis G. Iatridis 

Northwest Center for Medical Education 

Indiana University School of Medicine, Gary, Indiana 46408 

Abstract 

Adenosine and certain C-2 analogs are known to be potent in vitro inhibitors of 
platelet aggregation. Three synthetic nucleosides have been investigated and compared 
as inhibitors to adenosine. One of these three compounds, 1, N ,! -ethenoadenosine (E-Ad) 
contains an additional ring fused to the adenine nucleus and is a poor inhibitor of 
adenosine 5-diphosphate (ADP) induced platlet aggregation even though the coi*- 
responding ADP analog is a stimulator of platelet aggregation. Two of these compounds 
2'-0-methyladenosine (MeAd) and adenine arabinoside (A»Ara) are pentose modifica- 
tions at position C-2' and are also poor inhibitors of ADP induced platelet aggregation 
although A»Ara exhibits a time dependent improvement as an inhibitor. The effects of 
these compounds emphasize both the importance of structural integrity of the ribo- 
furanosyl ring in adenosine and of the purine nucleus as the upper limit for size of a 
fused ring system in maintaining adenosine-like inhibitor functionality. 

Introduction 

Born (4) observed that adenosine is a potent inhibitor of ADP in- 
duced platelet aggregation in vitro. Mills et al. (8) reviewed the effects 
of various purine modified adenosine analogs and reported several 
of them with substituents at position C-2 to be even more potent inhib- 
itors of ADP induced platelet aggregation than adenosine. Mester and 
Mester (7) found 2'-deoxyadenosine to be a weak inhibitor, and the 
2',3'-dialdehyde derived from adenosine by periodate cleavage to be 
devoid of inhibitor effect on ADP induced platelet aggregation. 

The present investigation has been undertaken to study the correla- 
tion of the purine nucleoside chemical structure to inhibitor potency on 
ADP induced platelet aggregation. 

Materials and Methods 

Freshly collected whole blood from normal human subjects of both 
sexes was rapidly mixed with one-tenth volume of 3.2% sodium citrate. 
Blood donors were free of any medication for at least ten previous days. 
Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) was prepared by differential centrifugation 
(3) and platelet count (5) was adjusted to approximately 400,000/mm 3 
by saline dilution. All nucleoside compounds used were obtained from 
P-L Biochemicals, Inc., Milwaukee, Wisconsin, and were dissolved in 
0.155 M sodium chloride and adjusted to pH 7.0. The two compounds 
modified in the pentose moiety permit evaluation of the effects of adding 
a bulky substituent at position C-2' in 2'-0-methyladenosine (MeAd) or of 
epimerization at this asymmetric center is adenine arabinoside (A»Ara). 
The purine modified compound, 1, N 6 -ethenoadenosine (E-Ad) contains 
an additional fused heterocyclic ring which alters electronic charge dis- 
tribution and hydrogen bonding potentials at nitrogen atoms N 1 and 
amino N ,; . Platelet aggregation was studied by the turbidimetric 

166 



Chemistry 



167 



method of Born (2). Samples of PRP (0.5 ml.) were preincubated either 
with isotonic sodium chloride solution (0.05 ml.) or with test com- 
pound (0.05 ml.) for 30 seconds in the Payton Aggregometer and then 
stimulated with ADP (0.05 ml.) at a fixed concentration. In another 
series of experiments, 0.5 ml. PRP samples were treated with 0.05 ml. 
isotonic NaCl, followed by either 0.05 ml isotonic NaCl or compound 
after 30 seconds and by a fixed dose of ADP (0.05 ml.) after 5 minutes. 
Results were obtained using PRP from at least three donors for each 
compound and relative inhibitor potency was compared to adenosine 
over the same concentration interval. 

Results 

None of the three compounds examined (E-Ad, MeAd, A*Ara) 
showed any tendency to induce platelet aggregation when incubated alone 
with PRP and even in very high concentrations (100 fold above the 
effective dose of ADP which induced aggregation). Typical results 
are illustrated in Fig. 1 featuring the A»Ara system specifically. 

When PRP was incubated for 30 seconds with any of the three 
compounds and then stimulated by a fixed dose of ADP, complete 
aggregation without significant time lag or diminution of magnitude 
occurred. There was no notable distinction among the three compounds 
and again, there was no dose dependent effect for any of these com- 
pounds over a 100-fold concentration range. Results for A*Ara are 
shown as a representative example in Fig. 2 along with the potent dose 
dependent inhibition produced within 30 seconds by adenosine for 
comparison. 

With some adenosine analogs, potency of inhibition will change 
upon prolonged incubation with PRP (1). When PRP was preincubated 
with either E-Ad or MeAd for five minutes, no change in inhibitor 



A CONTROL 

B VARIABLE A-Ara (H.U * IO* 8 to K.:» * K) G m) 



z 














o 














8 • 














3 














z 5< 














< 














GC 














H , 














1- 
I 












K 


<2 ■ 












A 


—J 
















6 ' 


2 


4 
MINUTES 


6 


8 





Figure 1. Time dependent changes in light transmission through PRP suspensions after 
A»Ara is added. Curve A: control obtained by adding 0.05 ml. of 0.155M NaCl to PRP. 
Curve B: family of superimposed curves obtained by adding 0.05 ml. of A»Ara solutions; 
stock concentrations of A»Ara ranged from 1 x 10~ s M to 1 x 10-" M. 



168 



Indiana Academy of Science 



potency was observed when the platelets were stimulated by ADP. In 
contrast, a dose dependent improvement of inhibitor properties can 
be seen in Fig. 3 when PRP is preincubated with A e Ara for five 
minutes before ADP is added. 



C Ad(8.3*K)- 6 M)&ADP 
D A-Ara (83x10-^) ft ADP 
E A-Ara(8^x|Q- e M)&ADP 




2 



I ' 8 

MINUTES 



Figure 2. Time dependent changes in light transmission through PRP suspensions pre- 
incubated with 0.05 ml. of variable concentrations of an inhibitor for 30 seconds. Zero 
minutes mark indicates the point at which the fixed (aggregation inducing) dose of ADP 
is added. Curve A: 0.05 ml. 0.155 M NaCl + 0.05 ml. 1 x 10- 3 M ADP. Curve B: Lorv 
dose of adenosine challenged by aggregation inducing dose of ADP. Curve C: High dose 
of adenosine challenged by ADP. Curve D: Low dose of A'Ara + ADP. Curve E: High 

dose of A»Ara + ADP. 



0) 

1 

cc 



A ADP (7.7xW 6 m) 5 

B A-Ara (83 x KT 8 m) & 

C A-Ara (8.3 xKT 7 m) ft 

I) A-Ara (8-3 x K)" 6 m) ft 



ADP (7.7xIO' 6 m) 5 

ADP 

ADP 




4 6 

MINUTES 



10 



Figure 3. Time dependent changes in light transmission through PRP suspensions pre- 
incubated with 0.05 ml. of 0.155 M NaCl, followed by 0.05 ml. of NaCl or A'Ara at 30 
seconds (zero minute mark). A fixed ADP dose (0.05 ml.) is ultimately added at five 
minute mark. Curve A: Control; NaCl + NaCl (30") + ADP (5'). Curve B: NaCl + Low 
dose A*Ara (SO") + ADP (5'). Curve C: NaCl + Mid-range dose A'Ara + ADP. Curve 
D: NaCl + High dose A»Ara + ADP. 



Chemistry 169 

Discussion 

It is unusual to find an adenosine analog with platelet aggregation 
stimulating activity; even the nucleoside phosphates, adenosine 5' 
monophosphate and adenosine 5' triphosphate, are inactive in this 
respect. Mester and Mester (7) postulate that the 5' aldehyde product 
formed by chemical oxidation of adenosine is capable of inducing a 
mild and reversible aggregation since it possesses a partial negative 
charge at this essential molecular site. It is a necessary control in the 
screening of new compounds for platelet functionality to check for any 
aggregating properties, and the three reported compounds are devoid 
of this effect as shown in Fig. 1 with A*Ara as an example. 

Other pentose variants of adenosine have been shown to be 
weak inhibitors of ADP induced platelet aggregation. The naturally 
occurring nucleoside, 2' deoxyadenosine, is a very weak inhibitor as is 
3' deoxyadenosine (1). The 2'3' dialdehyde product obtained from the 
periodate cleavage of adenosine has been shown to be devoid of inhibitor 
effect when incubated up to three minutes with PRP before ADP is 
added (7). It remains to be determined if loss of inhibitor effect in 
the dialdehyde compound is caused by loss of hydroxyls in a critical 
molecular region necessary for interaction with the platelet receptor 
or if loss of the rigid pentose ring conformation is the important 
structural determinant. In any case, the present pentose variants 
(A°Ara, Me Ad) are shown to be poor inhibitors of ADP induced 
platelet aggregation when preincubated for 30 seconds with PRP. 

Adenosine analogs which bear some similarity to E-Ad are reported 
by Kikugawa et al. (6) to be almost as inhibitory as is adenosine. 
Included in this series are compounds with bulky rings attached to 
the adenosine amino group (N°-cyclohexyladenosine, N G -phenyladenosine) 
(6). The present N c compound, E-Ad, is not completely analogous since 
the amino group is now part of an additional fused imidazole ring 
system rather than representing only the attachment of a bulky substi- 
tuent at N 6 which is subject to relatively unhindered rotation. To 
account for the observation that E-Ad is not inhibitory while the 
compounds of Kikugawa et al. (6) are, it may be necessary to con- 
sider differences in pK of the amino group or differences in electronic 
charge at the various purine ring atoms in addition to substituent 
bulkiness. 

Finally, it can be noted in Fig. 3 that only A # Ara improves as an 
inhibitor of the ADP induced platelet aggregation in experiments when 
the test compound is preincubated with PRP for five minutes before 
ADP is added. This is supported also by published A # Ara results of 
Agarwal and Parks (1) which report 20% inhibition of maximum 
aggregation for preincubation intervals of ten to sixty minutes. The 
time dependent change of inhibitor magnitude of an adenosine analog 
may be explained by slow conformational changes at the platelet mem- 
brane or by penetration of a compound and its entry into the metabolic 
or stored nucleoside phosphate pools within the platelet. 

The present experiments suggest that the conformation of both the 
purine ring and the pentose moiety of adenosine are important de- 



170 Indiana Academy of Science 

terminants of inhibitor properties. Further investigation of structure- 
function relationships with nucleoside analogs may be of some value 
in the future design of antithrombotic drugs. 

Acknowledgements 

The authors wish to acknowledge the technical assistance of Miss 
Georgina Modrak and Mrs. Sarah Stoehr in the present project. 

Literature Cited 

1. Agarwal, K. C. and R. E. Parks, Jr. 1975. Adenosine Analogs and Human Platelets: 
Effects on Nucleotide Pools and the Aggregation Phenomenon. Biochemical Pharma- 
cology. 24 :2239-2248. 

2. Born, G. V. R. 1962. Aggregation of Blood Platelets by Adenosine Diphosphate and 
Its Reversal. Nature. 194 :927. 

3. Born, G. V. R. and M. J. Cross. 1963. The Aggregation of Blood Platelets. J. Physiol. 
168:178. 

4. Born, G. V. R. 1965. Uptake of Adenosine and of Adenosine Diphosphate by Human 
Blood Platelets. Nature. 206:1121-1122. 

5. Hellem, A. J. 1960. The Adhesiveness of Human Blood Platelets in vitro. Scand. J. 
Clin. Lab. Invest. 20:Suppl. 12. 

6. Kikugawa, K., K. Iizuka and M. Ichino. 1973. Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors. 4. 
N 6 -Substituted Adenosines. J. Med. Chem. 16 :358-364. 

7. Mester, M. and L. Mester. 1972. Mode of Action of Some Oxidized Sugar Derivatives 
of Adenine on Platelet Aggregation. Pathologie-Biologie 20:11-13. 

8. Mills, D. C. B., J. B. Smith and G. V. R. Born. 1970. Pharmacology of Platelet 
Aggregation Inhibition. Thromb. Diath. Haemorr. Suppl. 42:175-184. 



ECOLOGY 

Chairman: John O. Whitaker, Jr., Department of Life Sciences 
Indiana State University, Terre Haute, IN 47809 

Chairman-Elect: Thomas S. McComish, Department of Biology 
Ball State University, Muncie, IN 47306 

ABSTRACTS 

Occurrence of the Protozoan parasite, Henneguya exilis Kudo, on channel 
catfish in Indiana. Raymond A. Schlueter, Division of Science and 

Mathematics, University of Tampa, Tampa, Florida 33606. The Genus 

Henneguya belongs to a large and well-known group (Order Myxospo- 
ridia) of Protozoa which are typically parasitic on fish. Henneguya 
exilis is characterized by the spore being ovoidal, two polar capsules 
at anterior end, each shell-valve prolonged posteriorly into a long 
process, sporoplasm with an iodinophilous vacuole. H. exilis is found 
in gills and integument of Ictalurus punctatus, the channel catfish, 
forming conspicuous cysts up to 3 mm in diameter. 

H. exilis has been reported in Illinois and in Iowa. 

From June 1973 to August 1974, channel catfish were collected 
on a monthly basis from the White River near Petersburg, Pike Co., 
Indiana. Twelve out of 123 catfish had cysts containing the spores of 
H. exilis. These whitish pustules were found in the integument along 
the sides and caudal peduncle areas of the body. Only one fish (15 cm 
in Standard Length) was moderately infected. Most catfish had just a 
few cysts. The infection was only observed during the summer months 
(June through September). 

It is not surprising to find H. exilis in the White River because 
Kudo (1934) states that H. exilis probably infects channel catfish living 
in major rivers of the Mississippi River drainage. 

Black Locust as a winter food for Bobwhite Quail. Robert Priddy, 

Huntington College, Huntington, Indiana. Black locust seeds ranked 

fourth in volumetric content and fifth by frequency of occurrence in 
crop content analysis of 398 bobwhite quail collected on the Salamonie 
Reservoir, northeastern Indiana, during the months of November 
through March, 1971-1975. Black locust was a major bobwhite food 
during January through March, and the availability of black locust 
seeds in periods of snow cover made this food source an important item 
in bobwhite winter diets. 

Black locust seeds were fed to 20 pen-reared bobwhites during an 
eight-week period, March-May, 1976. A commercial flight conditioner was 
fed to 14 control birds during the same period. Males fed black locust 
seeds had the same change in weight as males fed commercial flight 
conditioner. Females fed black locust seeds and those fed commercial 
flight conditioner gained more weight than the males of both groups, 
however, females fed commercial flight conditioner gained significantly 

171 



172 Indiana Academy of Science 

more than females fed black locust seeds. Birds that were fed black 
locust seeds consumed 37 percent more water than control birds and 
they defecated loose feces. 

Changes Over a Half-Century in the Davis-Purdue Natural Forest. 

J. K. Eichenberger and G. R. Parker, Department of Forestry and 
Natural Resources, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907. 

The Davis-Purdue Natural Forest, located in Randolph County, is 

one of the finest wet-site, oak-hickory stands in Indiana. The 20.6 
hectare (51 acre) woods is among the largest old-growth remnants on 
the intensively farmed Tipton Till Plain. Since its acquisition in 1917 
by Purdue University, the forest has been essentially undisturbed. The 
National Park Service has designated the forest a registered National 
Landmark. 

An unpublished Purdue study was made of the tract in 1926. Each 
tree greater than 10 cm (4 inches) dbh was numbered, tagged, described 
in detail, and located on a large-scale map. Indiana forests offer few, 
if any, instances for which such complete prior data can be obtained. 
The present (1976) study re-examines the center 8.5 hectares (21 
acres) with similar scrutiny. Changes in species composition, basal area, 
density, size-class relationships, and spatial pattern are being investi- 
gated. 

A Comparison of Presettlement and Extant Forest Vegetation of 
Indiana. William B. Crankshaw, Ball State University, Muncie, 

Indiana 47306. A three-dimensional ordination of forests located on 

forty major southern Indiana soil types was constructed using absolute 
basal area. Derived from the original land survey data a second ordina- 
tion using current basal area values was constructed for 18 stands, 
each of which occurred basically on one soil type. The comparison was 
made between the two ordinations for indications of temporal trends. 

Preliminary Report on the Flora, Fauna and Habitats of the Swamp 
Rose Nature Preserve, St. Joseph County, Indiana. Victor L. Riemen- 
schneider, Department of Biological Sciences, Indiana University at 

South Bend, South Bend, Indiana 46615. The Swamp Rose Nature 

Preserve, about 40 ha in size, is located in the northeast corner of the 
new Potato Creek State Recreation Area. During 1975-76, 256 species 
and varieties of vascular plants have been identified in the three major 
habitat types, forest, upland old field and wetland, within the preserve. 
In addition, 62 species of birds have been observed within the preserve 
along with a few other species of amphibians, reptiles and mammals. 
The purpose of this study is to provide park personnel with base line 
data to determine management and use of the preserve. Complete 
species lists are on file with the Division of Nature Preserves and 
property manager of Potato Creek State Recreation Area. Plant 
specimens are presently located in the Department of Biological Sci- 
ences, Indiana University at South Bend. 

Preliminary Observations on Reproductive Ecology of Ambystoma tigrinum 
(Amphibia: Urodela) in Northern Indiana. David M. Sever and 



Ecology 173 

Clarence F. Dineen, Department of Biology, Saint Mary's College, 
Notre Dame, Indiana 46556. — —A long-term study began in 1976 on 
reproductive ecology of Ambystoma tigrinum breeding in a temporary 
pond in northern Indiana. A. tigrinum is the only salamander in the 
pond which at maximum size is .25 ha and 60 cm deep. Between 28 
February-22 March, 172 adult specimens (125 <5 <$ , 47 9$) were 
captured by seining. Also, 14 specimens (7 $$, 7 9 9) were caught 
from 29 February-14 March in 12 pit traps with drift fences set so 
that about 17% of the pond circumference was sampled. Schnabel and 
Schumacher population estimates based on mark-recapture of seined 
individuals predict 769-917 adults. Traps were turned 23 March so 
emigrating salamanders could be sampled, and 12 specimens were 
caught 29 March. Seining the pond 2 April produced no results. First 
egg masses were found 2 March and first hatching larvae 2 April. Larvae 
were unselective predators of any animals small enough to swallow. 
Bufo tadpoles were most frequent food items in May. Between 6 July- 
29 July, 158 newly metamorphosed A. tigrinum were caught in traps, 
58% in the NEN-ESE directions. The pond dried completely 20 July, 
and many larvae were found desiccated, but heavy rains on 21 July 
refilled the pond and resulted in 35 trapped specimens after which 
no more larvae were found in the pond. 

Viability and Growth Effects of Soil Applied Heavy Metals on Several 
Herbs Native to Northwestern Indiana. Larry J. Miles and George R. 
Parker, Department of Forestry, Purdue University, West Lafayette, 
Indiana 47907. Preliminary results of greenhouse experiments indi- 
cate that soil applied heavy metal concentrations comparable to those 
encountered in the urban-industrial region of northwestern Indiana 
can affect the viability and growth of several native herbs. Viability 
appears to be more severely affected than growth. Plants grown on 
heavy metal impacted soil collected from an intensive study site in 
East Chicago do not show these effects. On the impacted soil, growth, 
at least for some species, was stunted, whereas viability was un- 
affected. These results indicate that some soil factor is limiting plant 
growth on the impacted site soil. This factor does not appear to be 
cadmium and may not be any of the heavy metals. 

The Effects of Heavy Metal Contamination on Litter Decomposition in 
Northwestern Indiana. John C. Inman and George R. Parker, De- 
partment of Forestry, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 

47907. The decomposition rate of three plant species, black oak 

(Quercus velutina Lam.), starry false Solomon's-seal (Smilicina stellata 
L.) and quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) was monitored 
using nylon litter bags at a heavy metal polluted site and an unpol- 
luted site. All three species of plant litter lost weight more slowly at 
the polluted site than at the unpolluted site. 

Initial concentrations of all four heavy metals were greater at the 
polluted site than at the unpolluted site for all species of litter. As 
decomposition progressed, metal concentrations increased more rapidly 



174 Indiana Academy of Science 

in litter from the polluted site than the unpolluted site except for 
ZN and Cd in quaking aspen litter. 

Microcosm laboratory studies were made on microfungal populations 
of contaminated and uncontaminated site litter using a leaf washing 
technique and the dilution plate method. There was no consistent differ- 
ence in fungal populations on litter of Solomon's-seal and black oak 
from the two sites. The addition of CdCL to uncontaminated litter had 
little effect on microfungal populations except for one species (Aureo- 
basidium sp.). Counts also indicated a succession of fungi on the leaves, 
with Willow Slough treated and control litters being similar in succes- 
sion but different from that of EC litter. 

Impact of Phosphorus Removal on the St. Joseph River. Lawrence L. 
Garber, Department of Chemistry, Indiana University at South Bend, 
South Bend, Indiana 46615, and Michael J. Jeter, Analytical Labora- 
tory, Bureau of Sewers and Waste Water, South Bend, Indiana 46616. 

The installation of tertiary phosphorus treatment, which utilizes 

iron (III) chloride as a precipitant, at the South Bend Waste Treatment 
Plant has reduced the discharge of phosphorus into the St. Joseph 
River from approximately 2.1 g/sec to 0.7 g/sec. The total phosphorus 
removal at the plant is approximately 85 percent. Before phosphorus 
removal the effluent from the South Bend Waste Treatment Plant in- 
creased ortho-phosphate phosphorus concentration by about 88 percent. 
After phosphorus removal orthophosphate phosphorus concentrations in- 
creased by about 11 percent. The effluent had minimal impact on poly- 
phosphate phosphorus and organic phosphorus concentrations for both 
before and after phosphorus removal. 

Before phosphorus removal the range /mean for upstream ortho- 
phosphate phosphorus and polyphosphate phosphorus levels were 17-135 
ppb/49 ppb and 8-53 ppb/22 ppb, respectively. The corresponding down- 
stream parameters are for ortho-phosphate phosphorus 37-139 ppb/92 
ppb, for polyphosphate phosphorus 9-65 ppb/25 ppb. After phosphorus 
removal the range /mean for upstream ortho-phosphate phosphorus, 
polyphosphate phosphorus and organic phosphorus were 44-162 ppb/ 68 
ppb, 10-60 ppb/29 ppb, 21-118 ppb/50 ppb, respectively. The correspond- 
ing downstream values are for ortho-phosphate phosphorus 50-169 
ppb/76 ppb, for polyphosphate phosphorus 10-84 ppb/28 ppb, for organic 
phosphorus 25-102 ppb/53 ppb. 

Further Observations on the Seasonal Distribution of Brown Hydras. 

Donald E. Miller, Department of Biology, Ball State University, 

Muncie, Indiana 47306. Observations, similar to those made from late 

June, 1972, to late March, 1974, and reported to the Ecology Section in 
1974, were made from April 1, 1974 to March 31, 1976. All observations 
were made in Hamlin Lake, Mason County, Michigan. 

Hydras were observed on natural and artificial supports. Most 
observations were made at shallow water situations. However, from 
April 25 to August 16, 1975, a float was anchored where the water was 
10.5 m. in depth. Observations were made on artificial supports at- 
tached to this float about 0.5 m. below the water surface. 



Ecology 175 

Observations at all stations, particularly on artificial supports, 
reaffirmed those made before and reported in 1974. Seasonal distribution 
was about the same. Accumulations of other organisms and detritus on 
supports did not seem to be important in excluding hydras from the 
supports or in determining the abundance of hydras on the supports. 

The reason for the reduced population of hydras during July and 
August remains uncertain. Studies of hydras in other lakes, par- 
ticularly during the period June through August, are recommended. 

Those interested in more detail with regard to this problem are 
referred to the following: Trans. Amer. Micro. Soc, Vol. LV, No. 2, 
p. 123-193, April, 1936. 

Aspects of the Symbiotic Behavior of Periclimenes rathbunae Schmitt and 
Thor amboinensis (De Man) with Their Host Tropical Sea Anemone, 
Stoichactis helianthus (Ellis), from Jamaica. Daniel M. Levine and 
Orland J. Blanchard, Jr., Department of Biology, Earlham College, 

Richmond, Indiana 47374. Periclimenes rathbunae Schmitt and Thor 

amboinensis (De Man) are commonly found in association with the sea 
anemone, Stoichactis helianthus (Ellis) in depths of 1 to 6 feet. Neither 
shrimp species is ever found free-living. Specimens of P. rathbunae 
are usually found in pairs, with ovigerous females occupying the 
center of the oral disc near the mouth cavity, while males are re- 
stricted to the periphery. Specimens of T. amboinensis are usually 
found in groups of 3 or more in the immediate vicinity of an anemone, 
very often an anemone occupied by P. rathbunae. Behavioral studies 
indicate that P. rathbunae must acclimate to the stinging tentacles of 
its anemone host after a 24 hour period of isolation. In addition to 
this behavior, P. rathbunae exhibits many behaviors that parallel those 
of pomacentrid fishes in relation to their anemone hosts. These in- 
clude territoriality, the storing of food on the host, agonistic behavior, 
grooming and cleaning the host and preference for specific hosts, as 
well as others. The anemone benefits from the presence of P. rathbunae 
by receiving scraps of food and by being constantly cleaned of dead 
cells and debris. The shrimp in return receives protection from predators 
and has an ever present food source in the form of material con- 
sumed duing the cleaning service it renders to the anemone. P. 
rathbunae and S. helianthus are therefore classified as mutual symbionts. 
T. amboinensis performs no services for the anemone and only seeks its 
protection when in danger. It is adapted for standing high above the 
stinging tentacles, and has an upright posture that also tends to 
minimize contact with the tentacles. T. amboinensis is classified as a 
commensal symbiont of S. helianthus. 

Studies of the Cave Crayfish, Orconectes Inermis Inermis Cope (Decapoda, 
Cambaridae). Part I: Home Range. H. H. Hobbs III, Department of 

Biology, Wittenburg University, Springfield, Ohio 45501. Two-hundred 

and eleven individuals of the obligate cave crayfish Orconectes inermis 
inermis (Cope) were externally and internally tagged in Pless Cave, 
Lawrence County, Indiana. During the two-year study period, 96 
tagged individuals were recaptured at least once, a 46% recapture 



176 Indiana Academy of Science 

rate. The population size was estimated to be 1586 ± 79 over the 540 m 
study area. The size of the population remained relatively stable during 
the time of study. 

Use of total range of movements indicates that the home range of 
male O. i. inermis is as large as 20 m and up to 23 m for females, 
although the maximum distances moved for both sexes greatly exceeds 
these values. Ranges of individuals overlap, suggesting direct competi- 
tion among crayfish for food, space, mates, etc. Smaller individuals 
(male and female) are displaced greater distances downstream and 
larger crayfish show a significant upstream movement, however by 
pooling all the movement data, both sexes exhibit a net downstream 
movement. This downstream movement of individuals is greatly in- 
fluenced by numerous and extensive spates which occur during the 
winter and spring months. 



Volume Changes in an Old-growth Beech-Maple Forest over a 
10-year Period 

Marion T. Jackson and D. Brian Abrell 

Department of Life Sciences 
Indiana State University, Terre Haute 47809 

Abstract 

A tree-by-tree comparison of volume changes in an old-growth beech-maple forest 
over a decade revealed a 2.9% volume increase to 3,730 ft 3 per acre, and a 3.2% 
density reduction. American beech declined in volume, with yellow poplar, sugar maple 
and ash experiencing volume increases. 

Introduction 

Precise determinations of standing timber volume on a tree-by-tree 
basis over extended time periods are usually not made because of 
the difficulties in relocating specific individual trees, plus the excessive 
amount of labor required for such study. 

This paper reports on a tree-by-tree comparison of a 10.87-acre 
(4.40-ha) portion of Hoot Woods, a 64-acre (25.9 ha) old-growth 
beech-maple dominated forest in Owen County, Indiana. Our study is a 
decade interval resurvey of the tract mapped at a 1:33 scale in 1965 
(Jackson and Allen, 1967). Stand attributes and ecological changes 
during the decade were summarized by Abrell and Jackson (1977). 

Methods 

All trees above 8 inches (20 cm) dbh were measured to the nearest 
0.1 inch with diameter tapes. Clear lengths of tree boles were measured 
to the nearest 1 foot (0.3 m) with a Spiegel Relaskop from a 1-foot 
stump to the upper limit of merchantability. Upper bole limit was 
delimited by branching, deformity or minimum diameter (8.0 inches, 
including bark). 

Volume was computed separately for each tree on a Monroe 
Programmable Calculator Model 1860 based on the following rough 
(including bark) cubic foot volume formula of Beers (1964): 



92 r Di (D + 190) 



10 



"I 1 r H(168-H) + 32 I 

J * IP" [ ~" 64 IT J 



where V = volume in rough cubic feet; 

D = dbh in inches (to 0.1 inch) ; 

H = clear length in feet 
This formula was used as a composite calculation for all 17 
species contained in the stand. The near-virgin stand (Petty and Lindsey, 
1961) is high-canopied (ca. 120 ft or 37 m) with all species having 
little taper. Total volume was computed for all trees above the 8-inch 
threshold, including those dying during the decade, with no allowance 
made for hollow or low quality stems. 

Tree nomenclature follows Little (1953). 

Results 

Volume data for 579 living and 40 dead stems are summarized by 
species by 8-inch size classes in Table 1. Overall, the stand volume 

177 



178 



Indiana Academy of Science 





> 


cj 


5, 


CON 115 O 


U 

c 


h 


(N O O CO 


\x 


*-' 


rH 



X J w 



2 $ en 

5 ^ 



2o> 



(73 O 



«C -<1< © 00 

N ■<* lO 'f 



N (C ■* M 

cc »-! in © 



I I 



W ■>* OS © 



oo to qo 

M 0> ffi 



GO © 05 5£> CO 
t- kO CO 00 00 



M N O H « 
O) 00 OJ l> ^ 



HO OV O 

w ed os 



os co oo oo 



W N 00 



Ecology 



179 



,_) m 



£C 



g £ 



© © © © 



93 ~ -1- 



K g to 



00 t- CO o 



H N H IN 



» « » « 



I I 



T CO 


s 


X 


£ 


C8 -S 




s £ 


J 


8 

2 § 


e 
v. 

■2 1 


a -3 


s 


-c o 




« S» 


2 


a » 




a 05 


c 






2 


"». 



o, X 



!£> co <f> 



"s a 



CO 09 C- CM 



i-l H I US 



£ 5 £ 






<N O GO «£> 
r-i 0* N CO 



• t- 

10 oo ~ 

. C8 

I! ph o 

» C QJ 



• 55 .E 

B .2 

« jj.s 

S g « 



« S w £ 



■2 S 'S 



180 Indiana Academy of Science 

increased during the decade from 3,624 to 3,730 ft 3 /acre (Table 1). 
The 391 ft 3 /acre growth increment during the decade offset mortality 
of 285 ft 3 /acre, for a net gain of 106 ft 3 or a 2.9% increase. Only 21 
trees grew past the 8-inch lower diameter threshold during the decade, 
as opposed to 40 tree deaths, for a net decline of 19 stems (1.7 per 
acre). 

American beech, the leading species, declined 2.4% due to 26 
deaths exceeding the collective growth of 260 remaining trees by 47 
ft 3 /acre. The co-dominant in basal area, sugar maple (Abrell and 
Jackson, 1977) increased by 6% to 623 ft 3 /acre, largely by new ac- 
cessions and growth in the 12-inch size class, offsetting a 2.2% decrease 
in the 20-inch size class. The 69 living yellow poplars increased an 
average of 16 ft 3 per tree for a net per acre gain of 78 ft 3 , or a 12.1% 
increase to 725 ft 3 /acre. White and green ash sustained no mortality 
and rapid growth for a 19.7% gain. Twelve minor species (55 living 
individuals) increased 33 ft 3 /acre from growth, but had a net gain of 
only 1.7% due to the loss of a 31.7-inch wild cherry with 82 feet 
clear length. 

Overall, the stems averaged 40 feet clear with yellow poplar the 
tallest at a mean clear bole of 55 ft. Seven poplars in the 28-inch size 
class added an average of 29.5 ft 3 of wood per tree (Table 1). Fastest 
growth rates were 20-inch size class yellow poplars and ashes at 0.25- 
inch average diameter increments per year (Table 1). Collectively, the 
stand averaged only 1.26 inch diameter growth for the decade. Beech, 
as expected grew most slowly. 

Discussion 

As old-growth forests mature, the average tree size typically 
increases, with corresponding declines in stem density. Hoot Woods 
followed this pattern during the past decade. Overall density declined 
from 598 stems (55 per acre) to 579, for a 3.2% density reduction. 
The corresponding overall volume increase was 2.9%. Such density- 
volume shifts obviously do not continue indefinitely. A point is 
reached at which the "over-maturity" of the stand creates instability 
within canopy individuals, as vulnerability of veteran trees to disease, 
insects and windthrow increases. Light gaps created by such processes 
provide invasion sites for more valuable (economically) species, such as 
yellow poplar and wild cherry. 

Also interesting are the volume shifts for the co-dominants, beech 
and sugar maple. Although a decline in beech volume would be favored 
by foresters because of its low economic value, beech is a species of key 
importance in a research natural area such as Hoot Woods. Beech is 
considered to be the climax species for much of Indiana (possibly 
even over sugar maple), and as such has great value as a species for 
ecological research on forest equilibrium. Changes in the relative im- 
portance of both co-dominant species will be watched with keen in- 
terest during the coming decades. Such study should help clarify the 
nature of long-term stabilization toward the end of forest succession. 



Ecology 181 

Literature Cited 

Abrell, D. Brian, and Marion T. Jackson. 1977. A decade of change in an old-growth 

beech-maple forest in Indiana. Amer. Midland Natur. 97:(In press). 
Beers, T. W. 1964. Composite hardwood volume tables. Res. Bull. No. 787. Purdue Univ 

Agric. Expt. Stat., W. Lafayette, Ind. 12 p. 
Jackson, M. T., and P. R. Allen. 1967. Use of large scale forest maps for teaching 

forest sampling methodology. Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 76 :243-250. 
Little, E. L., Jr. 1953. Check list of the native and naturalized trees of the United 

States. U.S. For. Serv., Agric. Handb. 41. 472 p. 
Petty, Robert O., and Alton A. Lindsey. 1961. Hoot Woods: A remnant of virgin tim- 
ber, Owen County, Indiana. Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 74 :320-326. 



The Effect of Suspended Solids 
on Macroinvertebrate Drift in an Indiana Creek 

David S. White, University of Oklahoma Biological Station, 

Kingston, Oklahoma 73439 and James R. Gammon, 

Zoology Department, DePauw University 

Greencastle, Indiana 46135 

Abstract 

The addition of small amounts of suspended solids to a normally clear stream 
produced a marked change in the macroinvertebrate drift rate. As suspended solids were 
increased, the number of drifting organisms showed corresponding increases to more 
than double the normal rates. 

Introduction 

Sediment is a pervasive, ubiquitous pollutant reaching water 
courses in the United States in quantities estimated at three billion m 3 
annually. Poor farming, logging, and mining practices were the major 
contributors in the past, but now these have been joined by road and 
bridge building, and the proportion of sediment from urban con- 
struction may overtake that from agriculture in the near future 
( Wolman and Schick, 1967). 

Large amounts of silt and sediment can cause drastic reductions 
in the lotic invertebrate populations when introduced into normally 
clear waters. Tebo (1955) found benthos reduced up to 75% with silt 
loads of 261 to 390 mg/1. Herbert et al. (1961) recorded decreases 
greater than 90% in streams receiving 1,000 to 6,000 mg/1 suspended 
solids. Bartsch (1960) noted almost no organisms present when turbidity 
from a glass manufacturing plant exceeded 5,000 mg/1. Gammon (1970) 
and White (1970), however, found that a 60% reduction in the macro- 
invertebrate fauna could be caused by as little as a sustained 50 to 
80 mg/1 increase in suspended solids. Suspended solids causing sedi- 
ment buildup may eliminate benthic populations by covering them 
over or destroying favorable habitats (Cordone and Kelly, 1961), but 
even light amounts of sediment not causing buildup may have pro- 
found effects on the benthos and fishes (Gammon, 1970; Reis, 1969). 

Studies in the past 20 years have proven the downstream drift 
of invertebrates to be a good indicator of environmental conditions 
and changes occurring in flowing waters. Pearson and Franklin (1968) 
analyzed eight factors affecting the rate of benthic drift. Among these 
was the effect of turbidity. In one sample, they noted a sudden increase 
in turbidity from 20 to 700 mg/1 was coupled with an immediate rise 
in the drift rate of a baetid mayfly. In other invertebrate drift studies 
by Reisen and Prins (1972) and those summarized by Bishop and 
Hynes (1969) and Waters (1972), little more is known of the effect 
of suspended solids on drift. From this, a series of experiments was 
designed to measure the effect of varying concentrations of suspended 
solids upon the drift rate of macroinvertebrates. 

182 



Ecology 183 

Study Area 

Deer Creek is a small stream in Putnam County, Indiana, draining 
approximately 233 km 2 . Arising on the southern edge of the Tipton 
Till Plain, it flows southwesterly for most of its 40-km length. The 
middle third of the stream is situated on the Mitchell Plain which 
produces renowned building limestone, and the lower third cuts 
through the more deeply dissected Crawford Upland. The section used 
for this study lies within the Upland at T 1- N, R 5 W, Sections 23, 24, 
and 26 near the town of Manhattan, Indiana. 

The waters of Deer Creek are enriched by runoff from agricultural 
lands and treated domestic wastes. Chemical characteristics are typical 
for most east-central Indiana streams. Normal suspended solids usually 
are less than 100 mg/1. Discharge ranges from 125 m 3 /sec to nrVsec 
and averages 1.8 nvVsec; but stable flows from July through November 
average less than 0.2 m 3 /sec. 

Along the study section of the stream is a limestone quarry pro- 
ducing rock used mainly in road construction. In its operation, the 
quarry draws water from Deer Creek to be used in washing and sorting 
the crushed rock. The rock /water slurry containing the finer particles 
of limestone is then pumped to a series of two settling basins after 
which the waste water re-enters Deer Creek. The effects of the quarry 
washings on the stream biota have been presented by Gammon (1970) 
and White (1970). 

A riffle above the quarry outfall was chosen for this experiment to 
eliminate any bias from previous sediment inputs. The riffle was charac- 
teristic of the stream, consisting of a mixture of large and small 
rubble on a bed of sand with a limestone base. Two large stands of 
water willow (Justicia americana) flanked the head of the riffle 
which was 25 m long, 8 m wide, and averaged 18 cm in depth. Previous 
studies have shown that this riffle had greater density and diversity of 
benthic forms than other riffles located directly above the quarry 
outfall (White, 1970). 

Methods 

To minimize other factors affecting drift rates, all tests were 
conducted during the early afternoon on clear days when the dis- 
charge of Deer Creek was less than 1.5 m 8 /sec and the natural suspend- 
ed solids load was less than 30 mg/1. 

Placed at the foot of the riffle was a nylon drift net 1.83 m long 
with mouth dimensions of 30.5 cm x 61 cm and a mesh size of 253 n. 
Metal stakes were driven into the substrate and fixed such that the 
net and frame could be removed quickly at the end of each timed 
period. A modified garbage can, which proved to be an adequate sedi- 
ment dispenser, was placed near the head of the riffle. A large, square 
hole was cut on one side of the can near the bottom with a smaller hole 
being cut on the opposite side so that both openings would be below 
the waterline of the stream. A vertical baffle placed perpendicular to 
the direction of flow was then soldered to the bottom. When mixed 
thoroughly with the incoming water, sediment measured into the 



184 Indiana Academy of Science 

upstream chamber maintained a fairly constant load of suspended 
solids. The suspended solids could be regulated by increasing or de- 
creasing the rate at which sediment was placed in the dispenser. Be- 
tween the can and the net, the area of the riffle subjected to suspended 
solids was approximately 6 m 2 . Prior to the first experimental runs, 
tests were conducted to determine if the operation of the dispenser 
caused any mechanical dislodgment of the benthos. Four 15-min sim- 
ulated test periods were run without introducing sediment and each 
resulted in no increases to the normally occurring drift rate. 

Material to be used as suspended solids was taken directly from 
the limestone quarry's settling basins. Particle sizes, determined by 
bottom withdrawal tube (Subcommittee on Sedimentation 1943, 1953), 
were generally less than 30 /x in diameter, with the garbage can being 
efficient in trapping most larger particles. 

Experiments consisted of collecting benthic drift at the down- 
stream end of the riffle for 15-min as a control followed by a 15-min 
collection during which solids were added continually at a given rate. 
The first control run was used to establish the naturally occurring drift 
rate before the riffle was disturbed. The alternation of conditions was 
repeated through several cycles with an attempt to maintain the same 
concentration of suspended solids in any day's test runs. The cycle 
was stopped at the first sign of sediment beginning to accumulate in 
the riffle; thus, the riffle usually was subjected to test runs for less 
than an hour on any particular day. The examination of higher or 
lower concentrations usually was separated by a period of days or 
weeks to prevent any cumulative reactions to the suspended solids. 

Water samples were taken half way between the dispenser and 
net during each control and test. Suspended solids were measured 
using the methods of Banse et al. (1963) and Wyckoff (1964). Aliquots 
of 100 ml were filtered through tared Gelman Type-A glass fiber filters 
and oven dried at 105 °C for 24 hours. The dried niters were then 
desiccated for 24 hours and weighed on a Cenco No. 1581 balance to the 
nearest 0.1 mg. 

At the end of each drift period, the net was changed, and all ma- 
terial including debris was preserved in 70% ethanol. In the laboratory, 
macroinvertebrates were separated, identified, and counted. Identifica- 
tions were made using the keys of Edmondson (1959) and Usinger 
(1963). To determine if the test and control runs were statistically 
significant, t-tests for paired comparisons were calculated following 
the methods of Sokal and Rohlf (1969). 

Benthic collections, taken with a Surber square-foot sampler (0.3 
m x 0.3 m), were used to compare the actual macroinvertebrate compo- 
sition with the drift. The bottom samples were not taken on the same 
days as the drift; therefore, they are presented for comparison only. 

Results 

Table 1 summarizes the results of the drift experiments. The 
average amount of added suspended solids ranged from 18.6 to 271.3 



Ecology 



185 



95 8 






s 



+1 .2 



6) 

8 -a 

•S 8 

e e 



S s 

s % 



O O O US o o o 

O O O (M US US US 

US iH US O o o o 

o o © © © ©' ©' 



CO 00 00 CO 00 
00 TC CO 00 o 

O t^ 1" N M 



"* o oo us i-h to co 




+i +i +i +i +i +i li 


CO O t- US US US CO 



S ■< &o 



co eg eg ■<* © © us 

■* w 10 »' n o5 eg 

+ 1 +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 

© © t- © © © © 



CO CO CO t~ US US CO 



eg t- © © CO (M us 

N O) M ■* N 00 tfi 

+ 1 +1+1+1+1+1+1 

CO CO CO o o US US 



-T ■>* CO Cg CO ■«* CO 

t> 00 (M CO CO O CD 

+ 1 t\ +1 +1 +1 +1 +i 

t> © © CO t~ O (M 

OS i-4 iji C> t- OS © 

iH eg (M CM rH (M 



<<MOQHhO 



186 Indiana Academy of Science 

mg/1 with corresponding increases in drift from 25.9 to 118.5%. The 
drift rate increased roughly linearly with the increasing suspended solids 
up to 135.5 mg/1 added. Beyond this point, greater concentrations of 
suspended solids did not increase the drift to higher rates. 

In those tests where the mean added solids were less than 100 
mg/1, the increase in drift, although higher than in control runs, was 
not statistically different when t-tests were applied (Table 1). The 
four runs with greatest amounts of added solids did produce a sig- 
nificantly greater drift rate at least at the P=0.05 level. 

All runs were made without stops between the cycles, control- 
test-control-test-etc. In each control that followed a test, the drift rate 
returned to the level of the first control, even during the runs with the 
greatest inputs of solids. Correspondingly, the drift response was 
immediate to the addition of suspended solids; and, at least at lower 
levels of input, did not proportionately increase throughout most runs. 
During the two series in which the greatest quantities of solids were 
added, there was a rather slow initial increase in drift and then a 
steady increase during subsequent test periods. 

In order of abundance (Table 2), Chironomidae, Simulium, Cheuma- 
topsyche, Baetis, Caenis, and Stenelmis comprised more than 95% 
of the drifting organisms. When compared with square-foot bottom 
samples, Chironomidae and Simulium were relatively more numerous in 
the drift than in the riffle while the other groups were either the same 
or less abundant in the drift. As the drift rate increased through 
higher concentrations of suspended solids, the numbers of Chironomidae, 
Cheumatopsyche, Baetis, and Caenis increased proportionally. The genus 
Simulium (mainly Simulium vittatum Zetterstedt) showed a decrease 
in drift during test runs until more than 100 mg/1 of suspended solids 
were added, with higher concentrations more than doubling the drift 
rate over the control periods. The riffle beetle (Stenelmis sexlineata 
Sanderson) showed no reaction to the suspended solids either as adults 
or larvae. 



Table 2. Percentage composition of macroinvertebrates from ft 2 bottom samples and 
from control and test drift trials. 

Ft 2 Samples All Control Runs All Test Runs 

Range Median Range Median Range Median 

Chironomidae 10-89 43 44-91 77 55-92 74 

Cheumatopsyche 0-47 20 0-9 5 3-13 7 

Baetis 1-10 8 

Stenelmis 1-8 4 

Simulium 1-17 3 

Caenis 1-10 1 

Others 1-30 4 



Discussion 

In previous drift studies, such as that by Pearson and Franklin 
(1968), the effect of suspended solids could not be separated from 



0-14 


4 


0-15 


6 


0-3 


1 


0-8 


1 


0-28 


6 


0-16 


7 


0-8 


1 


0-9 


2 


0-9 


1 


0-9 


1 



Ecology 187 

the effect of flow. Data from our experiments show that an increase in 
daytime drift rates can be related to increases in suspended solids 
without corresponding increases in flow. Up to a certain point, greater 
amounts of suspended solids produce a proportionate rise in drift rates. 
Waters (1965, 1972) suggests that drift may be divided into the 
categories of constant, behavioral, and catastrophic. Drift also may 
be classified as active or passive (Muller, 1963). From our data, we 
cannot be sure how suspended solids influences the drift rate; but, at 
first glance, it seems to be an active-behavioral response. Additionally, 
it is difficult to state if the changes in drift rates are a reaction solely 
to the suspended solids or to other factors, such as light penetration, 
etc., that may change with the amount of solids added. 

Most invertebrate taxa reacted similarly in relation to the in- 
creased suspended solids. The most notable exception was Stenelmis 
sexlineata. Even though this elmid is subject to distinct periods of 
diurnal drift (observations of the authors), it seems quite tolerant of 
suspended solids. S. sexlineata previously has been found to be indif- 
ferent to both turbidity and siltation (Sinclair, 1964; White, 1970); 
therefore, it would have been surprising to observe any reaction to the 
suspended solids. 

Although repopulation occurs quite quickly through the natural 
drift from upstream riffles (Waters, 1972), high levels of suspended 
solids that increase drift rates over long periods could greatly affect the 
benthic fauna of a stream. In turn, this may reduce drastically the food 
supply available for stream fishes (Waters, 1969; Gammon, 1970). 

Acknowledgments 

We wish to thank all the members of the Zoology Department, 
DePauw University, for their help in this project and especially to 
Dr. Michael Baaske who aided in the drift collections. The research was 
supported through grant 18050 DWC from the Water Quality Office of 
the Environmental Protection Agency. 



Literature Cited 

Banse, D., C. P. Falls, and L. A. Hobson. 1963. A gravimetric method for determining 
suspended matter in sea water using Millipore niters. Deep Sea Res. 10 :639-642. 

Bishop, J. E., and H. B. N. Hynes. 1969. Downstream drift of the invertebrate fauna 
in a stream ecosystem. Arch. Hydrobiol. 66 :56-90. 

Cordone, A. J., and D. W. Kelly. 1961. The influences of inorganic sediment on the 
aquatic life of streams. Calif. Fish Game. 47:189-228. 

Edmondson, W. T. ed. 1959. Fresh-water biology. 2nd ed. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New 
York, New York. 1248 p. 

Gammon, J. R. 1970. The effect of inorganic seJiment on stream biota. Water Poll. Cont. 
Res. Ser. 18050 DWC. 12/70 :1-141. 

Herbert, D. W. M., J. S. Alabaster, M. C. Dart, and R. Lloyd. 1961. The effect of china- 
clay wastes on trout streams. Int. J. Air Watsr Poll. 5 :56-74. 

MUller, K. 1963. Diurnal rhythm in "organic drift" of (iammarus pulex. Nature 
198:806-807. 



18 g Indiana Academy of Science 

Pearson, W. D.. and D. R. Franklin. 1968. Some factors affecting drift rates of Baetis 

and Simuliidae in a large river. Ecology. 49 -.75-81. 
Reis, P. A. 1969. Effects of inorganic limestone sediment and suspension on .the ^ eggs and 

fry of Brachyodanio rerio. Masters Thesis, DePauw U., Greencastle, Ind. 58 p. 
Reisen, W. K., and R. Pkins. 1972. Some ecological relationships of the .invertebrate 

drift in Braters Creek, Pickens County, South Carolina. Ecology. 53 .876-884. 
Sinclair, R. M. 1964. Water quality requirements for elmid beetles. Tenn. Dept. Pub. 

Health. 14 p. 
Sokal, R. R-, and F. J. Rohlf. 1969. Biometry. W. H. Freeman and Co., San Fran- 
cisco, Calif. 776 p. 
Subcommittee OF Sedimentation, Federal Inter-Agency Basin Committee. 1943. _A study 

of new methods for size analysis of suspended sediment samples. Kept. No. 7 .1-10/. 
Subcommittee ON Sedimentation, Federal Inter-Agency Basin Cornrnittee 1953. Accuracy 
of sediment size analysis made by the bottom withdrawal tube method. Rept. No. 
10:1-115. 
Tebo L. B., JR. 1955. Effects of siltation, resulting from improper logging, on the 
bottom fauna of a small trout stream in the southern Appalachians. Prog. Fish Cult. 
17:4-70. 
UsiNGER, R. L. ed. 1963. Aquatic insects of California. U. Calif. Press. 508 p. 
Waters, T. F. 1965. Interpretation of invertebrate drift in streams. Ecology. 46 :327-334. 
Waters' T F 1969. Invertebrate drift-ecology and significance to stream fishes, p. 
121-134. In: T. G. Northcote ed. Symposium of salmon and trout in streams. H. R. 
MacMallian Lectures in Fisheries, U. Brit. Columbia. 
Waters, T. F. 1972. The drift of stream insects. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 17:253-272. 
White, D. S. 1970. The effect of inorganic limestone sediment on the macroinvertebrates 

of Deer Creek. Masters thesis, DePauw U., Greencastle, Ind. 135 p. 
Wolman, M. G., and A. P. Schick. 1967. Effects of construction on fluvial sediment, 

urban and suburban areas of Maryland. Water Resour. Res. 3 :451-464. 
WYCKOFF, B. M. 1964. Rapid solids determination using glass fiber filters. Water Sewage 
Wastes. 1964:349-352. 



Analysis of Fluoride in Vegetation in the Vicinity of 
Wabash Smelting, Wabash, Indiana 

James T. Streator, Department of Chemistry Manchester College 
Susan W. Burkholder, I. U. Medical Center Purdue University 

Abstract 

Wabash Smelting Corp., Wabash, Indiana, processes scrap and used aluminum for 
reuse. In a number of court actions Wabash Smelting has been accused of contaminating 
vegetation and gaseous fluorides emitted from their plant. Analyses run in 1969 showed 
high fluoride levels in both annuals and perennials near the plant. Our study was designed 
to test for current levels of fluoride in selected vegetation within a two mile radius of 
the plant. Analyses were carried out using ashing techniques and determination of fluoride 
was done using a fluoride ion electrode. Results of the analyses are given and conclusions 
are drawn. 

Introduction 

Wabash Smelting Corp., Wabash, Indiana, is a secondary aluminum 
processor for the reclamation of aluminum from scrap. During this 
process, fluxing agents are added to scavenge impurities from the alumi- 
num and remove dissolved gases. Also added are agents for reduction 
of magnesium (demagging agents) in the molten aluminum. A1F 3 is 
a common fluxing and demagging agent. The chemical reactions leading 
to purification of the aluminum also lead to the formation of solids such 
as MgF 2 and of gaseous products such as HF. Precipitators and scrub- 
bers are used to remove the solids and gases. However, the possibility 
for environmental damage from poorly operating safeguards exists. 

Wabash Smelting has been involved in a number of court actions 
dealing with exhausts from the plant. Fluoride analysis of vegetation 
collected around the plant were reported in late 1969 by J.E. Newman, 
Assoc. Prof, of Agronomy at Purdue University in a memorandum to 
the State Board of Health. All the samples tested showed fluoride levels 
ranging from 20-104 ppm. Of particular interest were high levels in 
sweet clover and alfalfa since these would reflect recent fluoride intake. 

Sampling Sites 

To see if there was evidence of recent fluoride contamination, it 
was decided to sample plants within a two-mile radius of Wabash 
Smelting at half-mile intervals as shown on the map in Figure 1. Plants 
chosen were plantain (Plantago major), red clover, and annual grasses. 
Not all three were found at every site. Since much of the land around 
Wabash Smelting is crop land, sampling sites had to be somewhat scat- 
tered, especially to the southwest. To the north, a new highway was 
being constructed and samples were not taken near the new road as 
considerable dust was raised by the construction. It was thought that 
this might produce spurious results. Samples were taken from public 
access sites or permission was obtained from farm residents to take 
samples from their property. If samples were taken near roads, care 
was taken to find samples protected from the effects of passing traffic, 
although this would be an uncontrollable variable. 

189 



190 



Indiana Academy of Science 




Figure 1. Collection sites surrounding Wabash Smelting (WS). 

Only the leaves of the samples were tested. No attempt was made 
to wash off surface contamination so the results reflect both fluoride 
included in and on the plant tissue. It had rained lightly three days 
prior to sampling and the spring and summer weather prior to the time 
of sampling had not been unusually dry or wet. It was thought that 
wind patterns would be the most significant factor in determining 
fluoride concentrations although drainage patterns would probably also 
play a role. 



Fluoride Analysis 

The analysis used was a modification of procedures reported in 
references (1) and (2). 

Vegetation was refrigerated as soon as possible. Samples were cut 
up and dried at 110°C for 24 hours. One gram samples were weighed 
into Pt crucibles and fused with base over a Fisher burner. The 



Ecology 



191 



charred material was then placed in a muffle furnace at 520 °C for 
45 minutes. The crucibles were removed from the oven and the residue 
was dissolved in 8.5M acetic acid to produce a solution of pH 5.5-6.5. 
An appropriate amount of ionic strength adjustment buffer (Hach 2589- 
01) was added and the fluoride level was determined using an Orion 
fluoride electrode. 

No standard samples for fluoride analyses in vegetation were avail- 
able at either NBS or EPA. Our method of testing the procedures was 
to add a known amount of fluoride to vegetation of supposedly low 
fluoride content and perform the analysis. Over 90% of the added fluoride 
was found in the final analyses. Duplicate analyses run on samples from 
the same plant indicated that our analyses were at least accurate to 
±25% for the lowest level fluoride and ±15% for the highest level. 

Results 

The results of the analyses are shown in Table I. As can be seen, 
only four of the readings were above 10 ppm of dry weight and three 
of the four were in samples of plantain. Clover samples all contained 
less than 5 ppm which is considerably less than the 90 and 24 ppm 
reported by Dr. Newman in 1969. Levels reported in Table I more 
nearly compare with the control sample of Dr. Newman although direct 
comparison is difficult. Dr. Newman dried samples in the air at 45% 
relative humidity and 76 °F and it is not clear what parts of the plant 
were used in his samples. The present work used only the leaves dried 
at 110°C and stored in a dessicator over CaCl 2 . However, given reason- 

Table I. Results of analyses of the indicated plants— All results are reported in ppm 
dry weight. indicates that no samples of a particular plant were found at that site. 



Site 




Number 


Grass 


1 


2.5 


2 


4.6 


3 


8.0 


5 


2.5 


<; 


1.6 


9 


i.t; 


10 


2.5 


11 


2.1 


1-2 





13 


2.(1 


14 


10.2 


15 


3.5 


16 


1.8 


17 


2.8 


18 





19 


2.1 


20 


5.0 


24 


3.5 


26 


2.8 


27 


2.2 


29 


2.5 





Red 


Plantain 


Clover 






1.6 





2.1 


2.5 


2.5 





1.3 


1.8 


1.2 




2.0 





3.0 





20.5 


0.6 


1.7 


:{.l 


— 


4.2 


14.5 


2.5 


1.6 





2.2 


___ 


3.8 


3.2 


15.0 





1.2 






4.6 



192 Indiana Academy of Science 

able errors for both analyses, the 9 ppm reported by Dr. Newman 
might roughly compare with our results. 

It would seem reasonable to conclude that no significant pattern of 
fluoride levels was found and, with only one exception (plantain site 
13), levels of fluoride would have to be considered as typical (3, 4). 
No evidence of fluoride pollution at ground level caused by emissions 
from the Wabash Smelting was found. 



Literature Cited 

Baker, R. L., Determination of Fluoride in Vegetation Using the Specific Ion Elec- 
trode, Analytical Chem. 194:7 1327 (June 1972). 

Buck, M., and Reusmann, G., A new semi-automatic Method for Fluoride Determina- 
tion in Plant and Air Samples, Fluoride 4:5-15 (Jan. 1971). 
National Academy of Science, 1971 Fluoride N.A.S., Wash. 
Suttie, J. W., J. Agr. Food Chem. 17:350 (Nov. 1969). 



Food and External Parasites of the Norway Rat, Rattus norvegicus, 

in Indiana 

John 0. Whitaker, Jr. 

Department of Life Sciences 

Indiana State University 

Abstract 

Major ectoparasites of the Norway Rat in Indiana are the sucking louse, Polyplax 
spinulosa, the laelapid mites, Androlaelaps fahrenholzi and A. casalis, and the myobiid 
mite Radfordia ensifera. A number of other species were found in the fur, some of them 
parasitic, some not. Grain seeds (primarily wheat) and corn were the most important 
foods. These, plus other cultivated foods (Sorghum and Soybeans) totaled 62.1% of the 
volume of food in stomachs. It was estimated that Rattus norvegicus, in Indiana, eats a 
total of about 7000 tons of harvested crop foods on farms and at grain elevators per pear. 

Introduction 

The Norway Rat, Rattus norvegicus, is a very common animal, and 
often a major pest, but there is relatively little information on the food 
and external parasites of this species in Indiana. Wilson (14) examined 
69 rats of this species for fleas, ticks and sucking lice. He reported 
292 lice, Polyplax spinulosa (Burmeister) on this species from Lagrange, 
Marion and Tippecanoe Counties, Indiana, two ticks, Dermacentor 
variabilis, and four fleas, one Ctenopthalmus pseudagyrtes, one 
Orchopeas howardii and two O. leucopus from R. norvegicus from 
Indiana. However, 44 of the lice were from laboratory rats, rather 
than wild individuals. There are three earlier records of fleas from 
R. norvegicus in Indiana, the cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis (1), 
Xenopsylla cheopis (1, 13) and Nosopsyllus fasciatus from Marion 
County (13). Xenopsylla cheopis and Nosopsyllus fasciatus are both 
typically found on rats, but Wilson (16) found neither. There are 
apparently no records of mites from R. norvegicus from Indiana, al- 
though there are a number of records of mites from this species from 
elsewhere. Mite records for this species have been summarized by 
Whitaker and Wilson (15), and only a few of the more comprehensive 
reports will be specifically cited here. 

The most pertinent paper geographically, would be that of Goode 
and Kocher (4). Those authors examined 392 live trapped Norway Rats 
from Louisville, Kentucky and recorded 3473 ectoparasites. Major forms 
included were 2512 lice, Polyplax spinulosa (6.41 per rat) on 281 rats 
(71.7% of them), 187 fleas, Nosopsyllus fasciatus (0.48) on 63 rats 
(16.1%), 167 mites, Ornithonyssus bacoti (0.43) on 41 rats (10.5%), 
135 fleas, Xenopsylla cheopis (0.34) on 55 rats (14.0%), 69 mites, 
Laelaps echidnina (0.18) on 24 rats (6.1%). Sixty-three rats (16.1%) 
were entirely free of parasites. 

A total of 8082 Norway Rats from Georgia was examined (10). 
Numbers of hosts parasitized, and numbers of individuals of major para- 
sites are given below. ANOPLURA: Polyplax spinulosa (5440, 76,913). 

193 



194 Indiana Academy of Science 

SIPHON APTER A: Xenopsylla cheopis (3056, 22,797) ; Echidnophaga 
gallinacea (1620, 18,324); Leptopsylla segnis (1680, 10,648); Cteno- 
cephalides felis (238, 413) ; Polygenis gwyni (19, 23) ; Orchopeas 
howardii (4, 4) ; Nosopsyllus fasciatus (2, 3) ; and Ctenophthalmus 
pseudagyrtes (2, 2). ACARINA (Mites): Ornithonyssus bacoti (1365, 
14,978) ; Laelaps echidnina (180, 1788) ; Androlaelaps fahrenholzi (90, 
229); A. casalis (100, 175); Hypoaspis lubrica (29, 104); Eulaelaps 
stabularis (18, 71) ; Macrocheles sp. (5, 5) ; Androlaelaps morlani (1, 
2) ; Cheyletus eruditus (46, 123) ; C. malaccensis (4, 4) ; Radfordia 
ensifera (1, 1). ACARINA (Chigger Mites) : Eutrombicula alreddugesi 
(1, 1). ACARINA (Ticks): Dermacentor variabilis (52, 241); Hae- 
maphysalis leporis-palustris (5, 5) ; Ambly omnia maculatum (4, 6) ; 
A. americanum (2, 2). 

Mellot and Connell (9) reported the mites Echinolaelaps echidnina, 
Androlaelaps fahrenholzi, Ornithonyssus bacoti and Radfordia ensifera, 
and the tick Dermacentor variabilis from R. norvegicus from New Jersey, 
but did not indicate abundance. 

It is well known that Norway Rats are adaptable and will eat a 
large variety of items, and of course they are a major pest causing 
millions of dollars of damage in consumed or contaminated foods, espe- 
cially stored grain. However, very few (if any) studies are available 
in which the food habits of this form have been studied via stomach 
analysis, either in Indiana or elsewhere. There are statements in the 
literature which refer to the food habits of the species, "Rats are 
omnivorous in their diet, eating any plant and animal foods that are 
available (8), and the rat is omnivorous. It is fond of garbage and 
food refuse, and is always attracted to a low open garbage pail. It 
feeds upon food stores wherever they may be found near the ground. 
It often visits a poultry house, and may destroy eggs in nests accessible 
to it. It will catch and kill baby chicks. In fact, it eats almost any- 
thing" (5). 

Lantz (65) states The Norway Rat . . . "is the worst mammal 
pest in the United States, the losses from its depredations amounting 
to many millions of dollars yearly — to more, indeed, than the losses 
from all other injurious mammals combined. ... It destroys grains 
when newly planted, while growing, and in the shock, stack, mow, crib, 
granary, mill, elevator, or ship's hold, and also in the bin and feed 
trough. It invades store and warehouse, and destroys fur, laces, silks, 
carpets, leather goods and groceries. It attacks fruits, vegetables and 
meats in the markets, and destroys by pollution ten times as much as 
it eats. It carries disease germs from house to house and bubonic plague 
from city to city. It causes disastrous conflagrations; floods houses by 
gnawing lead water pipes; ruins artificial ponds and embankments 
by burrowing; destroys the farmer's pigs, eggs and young poultry; 
eats the eggs and young of song and game birds; and damages founda- 
tions, floors, doors and furnishings of dwellings." 

The purpose of this paper is to present information on the food 
and external parasites of the Norway Rat, Rattus norvegicus, in Indiana. 



Ecology 



195 



Results and Discussion 

The major ectoparasites or other associates of the Norway Rat in 
Indiana (Table 1) are the sucking- louse, Polyplax spinulosa, Androlae- 
laps fahrenholzi (Laelapidae) , Radfordia ensifera (Myobiidae), An- 
drolaelaps casalis (Laelapidae) and Trichouropoda sp. nr. orbicularis. 
No fleas, one chigger and only two ticks were taken, indicating these 
forms are not common parasites of R. norvegicus in Indiana. Indeed, 
other than for sucking lice, Norway Rats are surprisingly clean of 
ectoparasites. Of the 146 examined, only 86 or 58.9% were found to 
harbor parasites or other associates of any kind. Some of the forms 
taken on R. norvegicus in other parts of the country, were not taken 
or were taken in low numbers. Such forms among the mites were 
Alliea laruei, Liponyssoides sanguineus, Eulaelaps stabularis, Laelaps 
echidnina and L. nuttalli. The latter two species are very common para- 
sites of Rattus norvegicus in many localities, yet none at all were 
found in Indiana. Laelaps echidnina was recorded in 25 separate papers 



Table 1. Ectoparasites (and other associates) from the fur of H6 Norway Rats, Rattus 
norvegicus, from Indiana. Asterisk denotes probable parasitic form. 



Number of Parasites 
Total Mean 



Hosts Parasitized 
Number Percent 



LICE 

*Polyplax spinulosa 

MITES 

* Androlaelaps fahrenholzi 

*Radfordia ensifera 

Trichouropoda sp. nr. orbicularis 

Proctolaelaps hypudaei 

Pygmephorus whitakeri 

*Hypoaspis sp. 

Anoetidae 

* Androlaelaps casalis 

Chortoglyphidae 

Oribatid mites 

Tyroglyphidae 

*Ornithonyssus bacoti 

Macrocheles merdarius 

Pygmephorus designatus 

*Ornithonyssus sylviarum 

*Zibethacarus ondatrae 

Euryparasitus sp. 

Macrocheles mammifer 

Phytoseiidae 

*Hypoaspis lubrica 

* Androlaelaps morlani 

* Hirst ion yssus butantanensis 

*Androlaelaelaps sp. 

Glycyphagidae (adult) 

Pygmephorus scalopi 

*Cheyletus cruditus 

Macrocheles sp. i_. 

CHIGGER MITES 

*Euirombicida alfreddugesi 

TICKS 

Dermaccntor variabilis 



2056 

212 
69 
40 
28 
22 
21 
18 
IS 
11 
10 
18 

8 

6 
5 



14.08 

1.45 
0.47 
0.27 
0. 1 6 
0.15 
0.15 
0.12 
0.12 
0.08 
0.07 
0.00 

0.05 

0.04 
0.03 
0.03 
0.03 
0.08 
0.02 
0.02 
0.02 
0.01 
0.01 
0.01 
0.01 
0.01 
0.01 
0.01 

0.01 

0.01 



47.0 

30.1 
11.6 
11.0 

4.1 
0.7 
4.1 
6.7 
10.3 
5.6 
2.7 
3.4 
2.7 
2.1 
0.7 
2.7 
0.7 
2.1 
2.1 
2.1 
1.4 
0.7 
0.7 
0.7 
0.7 
0.7 
0.7 
0.7 

0.7 

0.7 



196 Indiana Academy of Science 

from North American localities (15), although most of these records 
were from southern states, with a few from seacoast states of the 
northeast. However, L. echidnina is found on R. norvegicus in Ohio 
(7) and Quebec (3). Rats from Providence, R.I. were examined (11) 
and 21% were found to be infested with L. echidnina. Large numbers 
of this species were found on Rattus norvegicus from New Jersey (12). 
No difference was discerned in abundance on old versus young rats 
but average numbers per rat were much higher in warmer months 
than in colder months. Sixty-nine mites of this species were included 
among 3473 ectoparasites from 392 live trapped Norway Rats from 
Louisville, Kentucky (4). All of the 12 reports of L. nuttalli are for 
southern states (15). 

Data from Indiana rats (mostly from central Indiana) can be com- 
pared to those from Louisville (4), just to the south and across the 
Ohio River from southern Indiana. The louse, Polyplax spinulosa, was 
the most common parasite taken during both studies. The percentage 
of hosts parasitized was lower in Indiana, but the overall average num- 
ber per host was higher. However, there the similarity ended, as none 
of the other four more abundant parasites of rats from Louisville, 2 
mites and 2 fleas, were abundant on Indiana rats, and three of them, 
including the two fleas and the mite L. echidnina, were not found at 
all. The other mite, O. bacoti, was found in low numbers (rate of 0.05 
per rat, and on 2.7% of the rats). This is a common mite on the house 
mouse, Mus musculus in Indiana (2, 14) ; but is much less common on 
Rattus in Indiana or Louisville (0.43 per rat, and on 10.5% of the 
rats). It is not clear why rat fleas were not found on Indiana rats, 
but perhaps they are more common in the south. It would be interesting 
to examine rats from extreme southern Indiana. Possibly, rat fleas 
tend to move off the dead host faster than other fleas, but this seems 
unlikely; some fleas would have been taken if they were very common 
on central Indiana rats. 

The two most common species of mites on rats from Indiana were 
Androlaelaps fahrenholzi and Radfordia ensifera. A. fahrenholzia is 
a common mite on many species of mammals. It seems peculiar that it 
was not taken in numbers on Louisville rats, since it is large and easily 
seen. Radfordia ensifera, a myobiid mite, is small and easily over- 
looked. One needs to use a dissecting microscope to examine the fur 
and skin of the rats while brushing the hair back with dissecting 
needles to find many mites of this species. I suspect that it was simply 
overlooked in the Louisville studies, especially since few other small 
mites were taken in numbers in that study either. 

A fairly large number of forms was taken, at least 31, although 
not all have been identified to species. Also, not all of these were para- 
sitic. Parasitic forms consisted of 1 species of louse, 12 species of mites 
and one species of tick. Many of the forms taken in low numbers must 
be considered as stragglers or accidentals, presumably having wandered 
onto the rats either before or after death. A few forms, Trichouropoda 
sp. and the species of Macrocheles, and Pygmephorus appear to be 
regular, though not abundant associates. Some of these may form 
phoretic relationships with the rats. 



Ecology 



197 



Table 2. Foods eaten by 115 rats, Rattus norvegicus, from Indiana. 



Item 



Percent 


Percent 


Volume 


Frequency 


39.7 


46.1 


20.2 


27.8 


6.3 


10.4 


5.3 


12.2 


5.0 


6.1 


5.0 


2.6 


4.S 


12.2 


3.9 


8.7 


3.2 


5.2 


2.1 


3.5 


1.2 


1.7 


1.1 


1.7 


1.1 


1.7 


0.6 


1.7 


0.2 


3.5 


0.1 


2.6 


0.1 


2.6 


0.1 


0.9 


0.1 


3.5 


0.1 


2.6 


0.1 


O.'J 



Grain seeds (mostly wheat) 

Corn 

Flesh 1 

Green Vegetation 

Mast 

Unidentified matsrial 

Miscellaneous vegetation 

Clover flowers (Trijolium sp.) 

Garbage 

Grass seeds 

Unidentified seeds 

Sorghum seeds 

Soybean seeds 

Muscoidea 

Dipterous larvae 

Coleoptera 

Formicidae (ant) 

Earthworm 

Unidentified insect 

Coleopterous larvae 

Adult Lepidoptera 



100.3 



Food Habits 

Most of the rats examined during this study were taken in and 
around farms and grain storage areas, and this is reflected in the food 
habits data. The two top foods were grain seeds (mostly wheat) and 
corn, these two items totalling 59.9% of the volume of food in stomachs. 
These foods, plus the sorghum and soybean seeds in stomachs brings to 
62.1% the total amount of cultivated crop foods in the sample. This 
was not grain left in the fields after harvesting; it was processed grain. 
If one considers that the amount of food per stomach might average 
5 grams, that the stomach might be filled at least 3 times per day, and 
that approximately 60% of the food is of grain then it can be estimated 
that each rat might consume 9 grams of harvested grain per day x 365 
days = 3285 grams per year. Assuming 25 rats per farm and 80 per 
grain elevator (probably low estimates), one can arrive at a rough 
estimate of the yearly amount of cultivated grains consumed per year 
by rats in Indiana. There are approximately 75,000 major farms in 
Indiana and approximately 770 granaries. Using the figures of 25 and 
80 times these numbers the rat population of farms and grain elevators 
of the state was estimated at 1,936,600. Each rat destroys 3285 grams 
(7.2 lbs) per year. This calculates to 13,943,520 pounds (about 7000 
tons) per year. 

Other items were eaten, but most were of plant origin. Total 
animal material included 7.7% of the volume, mostly of flesh. Garbage 
comprised 3.2% of the total volume, but some of the other materials 
particularly flesh and unidentified material may have been of garbage. 



198 Indiana Academy of Science 

In addition trace amounts of the following foods were found, 
each in one stomach: Unidentified insert larvae, Lepidopterous pupae, 
Hemiptera, Chenopodium seeds, Feathers, Cicadellidae, Phalangida, 
Cryptophagidae, Diptera. 



Literature Cited 

1. Cable, R. M. 1943. The Indian Rat flea, Xenopsylla cheopis. Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. for 
1942. 52:201-202. 

2. Clark, D. E. 1961. Parasites of Mus musculus taken from an inhabited building in 
Terre Haute, Vigo County, Indiana. Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. for 1970. 80 :495-500. 

3. Firlotte, W. R. 1948. A survey of the parasites of the brown Norway Rat. Can. J. 
Comp. Med. Vet. Sci. 12 :187-191. 

4. Goode, N. E. and E. Kotcher. 1949. Murine typhus fever in Louisville, Ky. Publ. 
Health Repts. 64 :229-237. 

5. Jackson, H. H. T. 1961. Mammals of Wisconsin. Univ. Wise. Press. Madison. 504 p. 

6. Lantz, D. E. 1907. Methods of destroying rats. Farmers Bulletin No. 297 USDA. 
Washington. 8 p. 

7. Masters, C. O. 1960. Arthropods of medical importance in Ohio. Ohio J. Sci. 
60:332-334. 

8. Martin, A. C, H. S. Zim and A. L. Nelson. 1951. American Wildlife and Plants. 
A guide to Wildlife food habits: The use of trees, shrubs, weeds and herbs by birds 
and mammals of the United States. Dover. N. Y. 500 p. 

9. Mellot, J. L. and W. A. Connell. 1965. A preliminary list of Delaware Acarina 
Trans. Amer. Entomol. Soc. 91 :85-94. 

10. Morlan, H. B. 1952. Host relationships and seasonal abundance of some southwest 
Georgia ectoparasites. Amer. Midi. Natur. 48 : 74-93. 

11. Robinson, G. H. 1913. The rats of Providence and their parasites. Amer. J. Public 
Health. 3 :773-776. 

12. Thomas, H. A. 1956. The abundance and habits of Laelaps cchidninus on rats in 
New Jersey. Proc. N. Y. Entomol. Soc. 64:149-156. 

13. Wallace, F. N. 1925. Report of the division of entomology. Ann. Rept. Yearbook 
Indiana for 1924. pp. 206-228. 

14. Whitaker, J. O. JR. 1970. Parasites of feral housemice, Mxis musculus, in Vigo 
County, Indiana. Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. for 1969. 79 :441-448. 

15. Whitaker, J. O. Jr. and N. Wilson. 1974. Host and distribution lists of mites 
(Acari), parasitic and phoretic, in the hair of wild mammals of North America, 
North of Mexico. Amer. Midi. Natur. 91 :l-67. 

16. Wilson, N. 1961. The ectoparasites (Ixodides, Anoplura, and Siphonaptera) of 
Indiana mammals, Unpubl. Ph.D. thesis. Purdue Univ. 527 p. 



A Tree Census of Pre and Post-Tornado Forest Conditions of 
Happy Valley, Jefferson County, Kentucky 

John B. Bailey and P. C. MacMillan 

Department of Biology, Hanover College 

Hanover, Indiana 47243 

Abstract 

A tree census was taken in a wooded valley which was struck by a tornado in April, 
1974. Px-e-tornado data indicated this was a near mature, second growth, sugar maple- 
buckeye community. Post-tornado analysis shows a loss of about one-third of the trees 
and a change to a sugar maple-white ash-swamp white oak community. This study 
affords baseline data to follow secondary succession within the forest. 

Introduction 

A tornado struck the Hanover College campus on April 3, 1974, 
and damaged a wooded valley, Happy Valley, northeast of campus. 
The partial destruction of the forest initiated secondary succession in 
the valley. The study site was the tornado blow-down area known as 
Happy Valley, which is located in the WV 2 Sec. 7 T3N R10E, Madison 
West Quadrangle, Jefferson County, Indiana (Fig. 1). The valley was 
a secondary growth sub-climax, mixed deciduous forest with good 
drainage from the uplands which surround the valley. The purpose of 
this study was to document the extent of forest destruction in the valley 
and to ascertain the immediate post-tornado condition of the woods so 
that future studies can evaluate the nature of forest recovery. 

Pre-tornado data were obtained from class projects dating from 
the mid-1960's to the fall of 1973. The most useful was a project done 
in 1973 in which the class (Davis) transect paralleled the No. 2 transect 
in this study about 61 m to the south. Data from initial post-tornado 
study made in May 1974 was expanded into this report. 

Methods 

Point-quarter sampling (Cottam and Curtis, 1956) at 15.2 m inter- 
vals along three line transects, yielded phyto-sociological data. Nomen- 
clature of tree species follows Gleason (1952). 

Data analysis involved computations of relative values of density, 
frequency, and basal area which were averaged to yield percent impor- 
tance (Cottam & Curtis, 1956). The tree data were divided into four 
diameter size classes as follows : 

Class 1: 5.1 to 10.2 cm in diameter 
Class 2: 10.2 to 20.4 cm in diameter 
Class 3 : 20.4 to 30.6 cm in diameter 
Class 4: Greater than 30.6 cm in diameter. 

A Hewlett-Packard 9820A was used for the statistical calculations. 
A program was written to calculate relative dominance and relative 
basal area per class size. 

199 



200 



Indiana Academy of Science 





Figure 1. Topographic map of Happy Valley study site. 

Numbers 1, 2 and 3 designate origins of each transect. 

Contour interval: 50 ft (15.2 m). 



Results 

Transect No. 2 was used as representative post-tornado data (Table 
1) as it closely parallels the pre-tornado (Davis) transect. Relative 
dominance and importance values could not be compared for lack of 
pre-tornado data. For an overall view of the blow-down area transect 
Nos. 1 and 2 are combined (Table 1). Transect No. 3 is not applicable 
here for an estimated one-half of it is outside the blow-down area. 

A summary of the relative importance values from transect No. 2 
is offered in Table 2. A comparison of percent importance by class size 
characterizes the species composition at different stages of growth, which 
in turn may represent a shift in species composition of the forest. 



Ecology 



201 



Table 1. A comparison of pre and post tornado data of the forest stand. The following 
symbols are used in Tables 1 and 2: RD= relative density; RF= relative frequency; 
ft/V= relative importance value; MD=-- mean distance; MA = mean area; T/H = trees 

per hectare. 



Davis transect 

Species RD 

Acer saccharum 45 

Aesculus glabra 18 

Prunus virginiana 7 

Ostrya virginiana 5 

Quercus prinus 5 

Ulmus sp. 5 

Fraxinus americana 2 

Miscellaneous sp. 17 

Totals 100 



Transect No. 2 

Species RD 

Acer saccharum 64 

Ulmus sp. 8 

Fraxinus americana 5 

Aesculus glabra 4 

Quercus bicolor 4 

Miscellaneous sp. 15 

100 



RF 



RF 



100 



Summary of pre and post-tornado tree census data. 

Transect MD(m) MA(m-) 

Davis 4.42 19.56 

No. 1 5.06 25.64 

No. 2 4.66 21.78 

Woods* 4.85 23.70 

* Woods summarizes data from Nos. 1 and 2. 



T/H 



511.7 
390.7 
459.8 
425.3 



Discussion 

In analyzing the summary data it is evident that pre-tornado con- 
ditions include greater numbers of trees per hectare along with a 
decreased mean area and mean distance per tree (Table 1). Post-tornado 
conditions indicate an increase in relative density and dominance in 
Acer saccharum, Ulmus sp. and Fraxinus americana, accompanied with 
a decrease of those values in Aesculus glabra (Table 1). 

When the composition of the forest considers species percentage of 
importance by class size, the direction of succession becomes evident. 
In all four class sizes A. saccharum has a far greater relative impor- 
tance value (Table 2). U. sp. has the second largest relative importance 
value in classes 1 and 3, third largest in class 2 and it is not represented 
in class 4. 

The forest was previously an Acer saccharum- Aesculus glabra com- 
munity. Analysis combining transect Nos. 1 and 2 using relative impor- 
tance values indicates A. saccharum strongly established while A. glabra 
has been reduced greatly. Increasing dominance of F. americana and 
Quercus bicolor along with A. saccharum appear to characterize the 
beginning of secondary succession within the forest. 



202 



Indiana Academy of Science 



Table 2. Species percent importance by size class using transect No. 



Class 1 



Class 2 



Species 



RIV 



Species 



RIV 



Acer saccharum 210.6 

Ulmus sp. 26.8 

Cercis canadensis 18.3 

Fraxinus americana 16.2 

Aesculus glabra 16.2 

Celtis occidentalis 8.5 

Tilia americana 8.5 

Totals 305.1 



Acer saccharum 181.4 

Quercus bicolor 25.3 

Ulmus sp. 20.9 

Fraxinus americana 20.2 

Celtis occidentalis 11.6 

Carya cordiformis 11.0 

Juglans nigra 10.4 

Quercus borealis 10.4 

Fagus grandifolia 8.4 



299.6 



Class 3 

Species RIV 

Acer saccharum 157.1 

Ulmus sp. 45.4 

Carya cordiformis 36.5 

Aesculus glabra 35.3 

Celtis occidentalis 25.7 

Totals 300.0 



Class 4 

Species RIV 

Acer saccharum 79.0 

Juglans nigra 55.0 

Quercus bicolor 51.8 

Platanus occidentalis 43.5 

Quercus prinus 37.2 

Fraxinus americana 33.4 



299.9 



Acknowledgments 

We thank Dr. Darryl Steinert and Ms. Lynn Coburn for their 
advice and assistance. Financial support by Hanover College Research 
Committee is acknowledged. 



Literature Cited 

Cottam, G., and J. T. Curtis. 1956. The use of distance measures in phytosociological 

sampling. Ecology. 37 :451-460. 
Cox, G. W. 1972. Laboratory manual of general ecology. Wm. C. Brown Company 

Publishers, Dubuque, Iowa. pp. 40-44. 
Deam, C. C. 1921. Trees of Indiana. Fort Wayne Printing Company, Fort Wayne, Indiana. 
Gleason, H. A. 1952. The new Britton and Brown Illustrated Flora of the northeastern 

United States and adjacent Canada. Lancaster Press, Inc., Lancaster, Pennsylvania. 
Shaw, T. E. 1968. Fifty Common Trees of Indiana. Division of Forestry, Department 

of Natural Resources, Indiana. 
Smith, R. L. 1966. Ecology and field biology. Harper and Row, New York, N. Y. pp. 

610-622. 



Food Habits of the Spottail Shiner in Indiana Waters of 
Lake Michigan in 1973 

Robert O. Yager and Thomas S. McComish 

Department of Biology, Ball State University 

Muncie, Indiana 47306 

Abstract 

Food habits of the spottail shiner, Notropis hudsonius, in Indiana waters of Lake 
Michigan were examined from June to October, 1973. Chironomid larvae, mainly 
Chironomus spp., and pupae were the major items consumed over the period on a 
volumetric basis (50%) followed by the epibenthic cladoceran, Eurycercus lamellatus 

(24%) and eggs of the alewife, Alosa pseudoharengus, (13'/). Dominant food volumes 
consumed by month included: June, alewife eggs (47%); July, chironomid larvae and 
pupae (63%); August, Eurycercus lamellatus (48%); September, chironomid larvae 

(53%); and October, chironmid larvae (86^). 

Introduction 

The purpose of this study was to determine the food habits of the 
spottail shiner (Notropis hudsonius Clinton) in Indiana waters of 
Lake Michigan from June to October 1973. The food habit data collected 
were used to evaluate the trophic role of this species in the changing 
Lake Michigan environment. 

No prior analysis of food habits of the spottail shiner has been 
undertaken in Indiana waters of Lake Michigan and only a few studies 
deal with this species in the lake. Willis (10) studied monthly and daily 
abundance of fish, including the spottail shiner, along several transects 
in Indiana waters in 1973. Wells and House (9) described aspects of 
the life history of the spottail shiner in southeastern Lake Michigan 
and Basch (1) presented information on food habits and age and growth 
in Little Bay de Noc. 

Methods and Materials 

Spottail shiners were collected along three Lake Michigan transects 
near Michigan City, Indiana, described in detail by Yager (11). One 
transect was established at Michigan City (M) with sample stations at 
depths of 1, 5, and 15 m. The other two transects were located west 
of Michigan City in the Dunes area (D) and at the mouth of Kintzele 
Ditch (K). Both D and K transects had sample stations at depths of 
1 and 5 m. 

Fish were collected twice monthly from June to October in 1973 by 
trawling and seining. Trawling at all transects and stations, except at the 
1 m stations, was accomplished with a standard 5 m bottom trawl. 
Three tows were made at each station at both noon (11 am to 3 pm) 
and midnight (11 pm to 3 am) periods. A 12 m by 1.2 m nylon bag 
seine (3.2 mm square mesh) was used to seine at each 1 m station at 
the noon and midnight periods. 

Fish were quickly removed from nets and preserved intact in about 
10 % formalin. Later, in the laboratory, a subsample of three fish per 

203 



204 Indiana Academy of Science 

5 mm length interval, when available, was taken for every day of col- 
lection and change in location or depth. Each fish was measured in 
total length and the stomach removed. The portion of the digestive 
tract used for stomach content analysis was composed of the first two 
turns of the tract. Stomach contents were then washed into a plexiglass 
counting cell and surveyed in strips under a binocular microscope using 
magnification from 40 to lOOx. Organisms were identified to species 
when possible and counted to allow estimation of volumetric components. 
The volume of each food item was determined by measuring 30 repre- 
sentative intace organisms with the aid of an ocular micrometer and 
applying measurements to an appropriate figure as described by Mc- 
Comish (4). Volumes for organisms in an advanced stage of digestion 
were not determined because of the small amount of volume involved. 
When a volume estimation for a species was similar to data presented 
by Webb (8) , his values were used. 

Results and Discussion 
General Food Habits 

The primary food item groups consumed by spottail shiners rang- 
ing in length from 33-147 mm during 1973 (Table 1) were: insects, 
with a volume of 57%; zooplankton, 28%; and alewife (Alosa pseudo- 
harengus) eggs 13%. Specific organisms in their order of importance 
in the diet were: Chironomus spp., which made up 25% of the volume 

Table 1. Yearly percent volume and percent frequency of occurrence of items in the 
stomach contents of 476 spottail shiners collected in Lake Michigan near Michigan City, 

Indiana in 1973. 



Organisms 

Zooplankton 

Cladocera 

Alona affinis 

Bosmina lonairostris 

Chydorus spaericus 

Eurycercus lamellatus 

Copepoda 

Cyclops bicuspidatus 

Insecta 

Diptera 

Chironomidae larvae 

Chironomus spp. 

Others 

Chironomidae pupae 

Other adult insecta 

Fish 

Alosa pscudoharengus eggs 

Miscellaneous organisms 

Sand 

Fish length range (mm) 33-147 

Mean length (mm) 101 

P z= present but volume not calculated 



Percent 


Volume 


Frequency 


28 


(67) 


27 


(66) 


2 


(36) 


T 


(23) 


1 

24 


(24) 
(55) 


1 


(15) 


1 


(15) 


57 


(77) 


50 


(74) 


27 


(60) 


25 
2 


(56) 
(7) 


23 

7 

13 

13 


(38) 
(10) 
(20) 
(20) 


2 


(6) 


P 


(29) 



Ecology 205 

and occurred in 56% of the stomachs; the cladoceran Eurycercus lamel- 
latus, at a volume of 24% and occurrence of 55%; chironomid pupae, 
with a volume of 23% and an occurrence of 38%; and alewife eggs, 
at a volume of 13 % and occurrence of 20%. Other items having limited 
volumetric importance (2% or less) but which were consumed fre- 
quently included the cladocerans: Alona affinis (36% occurrence), 
Chydorus sphaericus (24%), and Bosmina longirostris (23%); and a 
copepod: Cyclops bicuspidatus (15%). 

The food items eaten by spottail shiners in this study have also been 
reported by other researchers. McCann (3) and Price (5) reported 
spottail shiners feeding on chironomid larvae, and McCann (3), Price 
(5), Smith and Kramer (7), and Basch (1) all report high amounts 
of cladocerans consumed. Spottail shiners feeding on fish eggs have 
also been reported previously (1, 6, and 7) and Edsall (2) has observed 
them feeding on eggs of spawning alewives. 

The variety of food items consumed indicates spottail shiners fed 
on organisms at different levels in the water column. It appears, how- 
ever, that major feeding activity was at or near the bottom since 
the epibenthic cladoceran Eurycercus lamellatus, chironomids, and ale- 
wife eggs were major food items. Further evidence for major near- 
bottom feeding activity comes from the relatively high frequency of 
occurrence for sand found in stomachs (29%). 

Monthly Food Habits 

Chironomids (larvae and pupae) were the major food items eaten 
by spottail shiners in all months of the study except June and August 
(Table 2; Fig. 1). Chironomus spp. accounted for at least 90% of 
the chironomid volume in all months and was the primary food con- 
sumed in September and October. Chironomid pupae were an impor- 
tant item in the diet from June through September and the major item 
consumed by spottails in July, which probably corresponds to a peak 
emergence period. Of the zooplankton consumed, only Eurycercus lamel- 
latus was significant in volume and frequency of occurrence in more 
than one month. This cladoceran was the major food item consumed 
by spottail shiners during the month of August. Although Alona affinis, 
Bosmina longirostris, Chydorus sphaericus and Cyclops bicuspidatus 
were not volumetrically significant, they reached their peak in occur- 
rence in the diet in August. Alewife eggs were consumed in large 
quantities as the major item in June and were a significant item in 
July. Sand was present in the stomachs during all months except Sep- 
tember, indicating the spottails were feeding mainly near the bottom. 

Summary 

General food items of spottail shiners in Indiana waters of Lake 
Michigan for five combined months of 1973, in order of volumetric 
importance were: insects, including chironomid larvae (mainly Chi- 
ronomus spp.) and pupae, the epibenthic cladoceran Eurycercus lamel- 
latus, and alewife' eggs. Fish were probably feeding mostly at or near 
the bottom as indicated by food consumed and occurrence of sand in 
stomachs. 



206 



Indiana Academy of Science 



Table 2. Monthly percent volum eand personal frequncy of occurrence (parentheses) of 

items in stomach contents of spottail shiners collected at the 1 and 5m Lake Michigan 

stations near Michigan City, Indiana in 1973. 



Organisms June 

Zooplankton 10 

(55) 

Cladocera 10 

(53) 

Alona affinis T 

(18) 

Bosmina longirostris T 

(8) 

Chydorus sphaericus T 

(23) 

Euryarcus lamellatus 10 

(40) 

Copepoda T 

(14) 

Cyclops bicuspidatus T 

(10) 

Insecta 42 

(53) 

Diptera 30 

(47) 

Chironomidae larvae 13 

(24) 

Chironomus spp. 13 

(24) 

Others T 

(1) 

Chironomidae pupae 17 

(24) 

Other adult insecta 12 

(21) 

Fish 47 

(59) 

Alosa pseudoharengus eggs 47 

(59) 

Miscellaneous organisms 1 

(4) 

Sand P 

(31) 

_ 37- 
P = present but volume not calculated 



July 



August 



Sept. 



Oct. 



22 


52 


23 


3 


(65) 


(86) 


(57) 


(36) 


22 


52 


21 


3 


(65) 


(86) 


(57) 


(33) 


T 


4 


8 


1 


(25) 


(65) 


(41) 


(6) 


1 


T 


T 


T 


(21) 


(42) 


(10) 


(6) 


T 


T 


2 




(19) 


(36) 


(29) 




21 


48 


11 


2 


(57) 


(78) 


(24) 


(27) 


T 


T 


2 


T 


(13) 


(21) 


(17) 


(3) 


T 


T 


2 


T 


(10) 


(20) 


(16) 


(3) 


67 


43 


76 


92 


(85) 


(78) 


(88) 


(97) 


63 


38 


71 


86 


(81) 


(78) 


(88) 


(88) 


26 


16 


53 


86 


(73) 


(59) 


(86) 


(88) 


26 


14 


45 


81 


(70) 


(53) 


(75) 


(85) 


T 


2 


8 


5 


(11) 


(27) 


(22) 


(12) 


37 


22 


18 




(58) 


(36) 


(29) 




4 


5 


5 


6 


(12) 


(6) 


(10) 


(18) 


11 








(24) 








11 








(24) 








T 


5 


1 


5 


(2) 


(8) 


(6) 


(18) 


P 


P 




P 


(43) 


(28) 




(3) 



Stomachs examined 


102 


144 


148 


49 


33 


Fish length range (mm) 


37-145 


64-147 


37-141 


33-140 


42-136 


Mean length (mm) 


104 


112 


91 


103 


79 



On a monthly basis between June and October, chironomids were 
the major food consumed except in June and August. Alewife eggs 
were the major item consumed in June while Eurycercus lamellatus 
was the dominant August food. 



Acknowledgments 

The authors thank the Indiana Department of Natural Resources 
for contracted Federal Aid funds provided by the U.S. Dep. Comm., 



Ecology 



207 



Nat. Marine Fish. Serv. (Project 3-150-R). The matching funds and 
support of the project by Ball State University is also greatly appre- 
ciated. Mr. Robert Koch, Indiana Dep. Natur. Resources, Michigan 
City, deserves special thanks for support during collection of data. 



100 


- 






JUNE 
(N = 102) 




" 


75 


- 










" 


50 


- 














- 


25 



- 




— 


n , - 


1 




- 


100 








JULY 
(N = 144) 




- 


75 


- 












- 


50 




— 










- 


25 







I 




1 




, - n " 


100 








AUGUST 
(N = 148) 






75 




—— 








. 


z 

UJ 








I — | 






O 50 


^_ 












- 


cc 


■ 














UJ 

o- 25 


1 




. ■ 




■ 


] 


, 


100 








SEPTEMBER 
(N = 49) 




- 


75 


- 












- 


50 






■ 








. 


25 






■ 













- 


1 


, 1 




, ■ 1 






100 








OCTOBER 
(N = 33) 




- 


75 






■ 








. 




VOL 


Dh 


IE FREQUENCY 


50 






1 




KEY 1 


1 


D ■ 









1 




1 




l 



EURYCERCUS 
LAMELLATUS 



CHIRONOMID 
LARVAE 



CHIRONOMID 
PUPAE 



ALEWIFE 
EGGS 



Figure 1. Monthly percent volume and percent frequency of occurrence of the four 
major food items consumed by spottail shiners at the 1 and 5 m Lake Michigan stations 
near Michigan City, Indiana in 1973. 



208 Indiana Academy of Science 

Literature Cited 

1. Basch, R. E. Age, growth and food habits of the spottail shiners, Notropis hudsonius 
(Clinton), in Little Bay de Noc, Lake Michigan. Unpubl. M.S. Thesis, Mich. State 
Univ., East Lansing, 53 p. 

2. Edsall, T. A. 1964. Feeding by three species of fishes on the eggs of spawning 
alewives. Copeia, 1964 (1) :226-227. 

3. McCann, J. A. 1959. Life history studies of the spottail shiner of clear lake, Iowa, 
with particular reference to some sampling problems. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 
88:336-343. 

4. McComish, T. S. 1967. Food habits of bigmouth and smallmouth buffalo in Lewis 
and Clark Lake and the Missouri River. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 96:70-74. 

5. Price, J. W. 1963. A study of the food habits of some Lake Erie fish. Bull. Ohio 
Biol. Surv. 2 (1) :l-89. 

6. Sibley, C. K. 1929. The food of certain fishes of the Lake Erie drainage basin. Suppl. 
Ann. Rept. N. Y. Conservation Dep. No. 18, p. 180-188. 

7. Smith, L. L., Jr. and R. H. Kramer. 1964. The spottail shiner in lower Red Lake, 
Minnesota. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 93 :35-45. 

8. Webb, D. A. 1973. Daily and seasonal movements and food habits of the alewife in 
Indiana waters of Lake Michigan near Michigan City, Indiana, in 1971 and 1972. 
Unpubl. M.S. Thesis, Ball State Univ., Muncie, Ind. 104 p. 

9. Wells, L. and R. House. 1974. Life history of the spottail shiner (Notropis 
hudsonius) in southeastern Lake Michigan, the Kalamazoo River, and Western Lake 
Erie. U.S. Bur. Sport Fish. Wildl. Res. Report. 78 :1-10. 

10. Willis, T. B. 1975. Monthly and daily abundance of fish at sites in Indiana waters 
of Lake Michigan near Michigan City, Indiana in 1973. Unpubl. M.S. Thesis, Ball 
State Univ., Muncie, Ind. 133 p. 

11. Yager, R. O. 1976. Food habits of the spottail shiner in Indiana waters of Lake 
Michigan in 1973. Unpubl. M. S. Thesis, Ball State Univ., Muncie, Ind. 103 p. 



The Status of Indiana Streams and Fish from 1800 to 1900 

J. R. Gammon 

Department of Zoology 

DePauw University 

Abstract 

Early accounts of settlers remark about the clarity and beauty of Indiana 
streams and the abundance of fish. In the second quarter of the 1800's ext2nsive changes 
occurred, changes resulting from clearing of land for agriculture and an ill-fated state 
program of canal building which was to facilitate transport of agricultural products 
to the Eastern states. 

It is appropriate, if somewhat belated, in 1976 to look into the 
past and ask ourselves ''What were the rivers and streams like way 
back before settlers from the south and east came to what is now 
Indiana?" Actually, this question has become a familiar one to those 
working in the area of aquatic ecology during the past decade, a 
period of unparalleled environmental soul-searching. We would like to, 
if we could, be transported back in time to observe first hand with 
our modern background the river primeval and examine the changes 
which accompanied the settling of Indiana. 

Unfortunately, the first reliable scientific records about the nature 
of the fish populations as a whole date only from the 1870's when 
David Starr Jordan was just beginning in Indianapolis what was to 
become a distinguished career in higher education. While teaching 
at Shortridge High School and Butler University, Jordan and a colleague 
Herbert E. Copeland avidly collected fish from the White River and 
began studies of the life history of certain darters. They also col- 
lected at the Falls of the Ohio River near Jeffersonville, attempting 
to make sense out of the much earlier, hasty work of Rafinesque (1820). 
Jordan's first paper (1875) (subsequently republished in the Biennial 
Report of State Fish Commission, 1892) described the various species 
he had personally examined from the White River, the Wabash River, 
and the Ohio River. Taxonomic uncertainty abounded. The list was 
updated and clarified by Jordan (1877) and ultimately appeared with 
altered terminology in the excellent summary of Eigenmann and Beeson 
(1894). 

This early scientific period was dominated by scientists who relent- 
lessly sought to collect and catalogue new species of fish wherever they 
could be found, but few records remain as to abundance except in the 
most general terms. However, it was evident that the river at that 
time was not pristine, for Jordan noted in an address to the State 
Fish and Game Convention on December 19, 1899 ". . . That there never 
were such (smallmouth) bass streams as in Indiana, and that White 
River is the best bass stream they have ever known. I think probably 
nothing better could be done — if we could devise a way- — than to bring 
the bass back, and where there are now a dozen scattering fish put 
two or three thousand." The seeds of an extensive stocking program were 
thus already sown prior to 1900. A few years earlier, the First Annual 

209 



210 Indiana Academy of Science 

Report of the Commission of Fisheries of Indiana (1883) carried 
Jordan's "Catalogue of the Fishes of Indiana" in an Appendix, but 
mostly discussed the coming availability of a great new species which 
would put fish back into Indiana lakes and streams — the carp. The 
Commissioners also discussed a recent fish-kill extending 20 miles 
downstream from Kokomo on Wildcat Creek, the result of pollution 
from a straw-board factory. If a new straw-board factory being con- 
structed then at Anderson were to run its refuse into White River, 
they continued, "then it is "goodby fish" from Anderson to the Ohio 
River." 

These few remarks are quite enough to convince one that extensive 
changes in the aquatic community had already occurred by the last 
quarter of the 1800's. In order to obtain a glimpse of what the rivers 
and fish were like before Jordan's time it is necessary to delve into 
diaries, travel notes, and historic papers. In 1800 there were perhaps 
5000 whites in what was to become the state of Indiana, most in scat- 
tered small communities near rivers. Until 1815 few written accounts 
of the rivers and streams are available, although French fur-traders 
had lived in harmony with the Indians for at least a century previ- 
ously. Indian opposition to settlers moving north of the Ohio River had 
been dealt with by that date and settlers entered in increasing numbers 
because of the rich agricultural lands. 

Caleb Lownes in a letter to Oliver Wolcott (Sec. Treas. under 
Presidents Washington and Adams) wrote in 1815 (see McCord, 
1970) . . . "The first rate lands lie on the Wabash all the way to the 
lakes on the most beautiful stream in my recollection — it is about 250 
yards wide at this place (Vincennes) and preserves its width very 
nearly for 400 miles. ... It is a beautiful and valuable stream — the 
water generally perfectly clear and transparent — exhibiting a clean 
gravelly bottom — It abounds with fish of various kinds — Bass-Pickerel, 
Pike-Perch-Catfish &c. The Catfish are of every size up to 122 V2 lb. 
one of this size was caught (at Fort Harrison 80 miles above this) — 
The perch (probably smallmouth bass) are from 12 to 20 in length-this 
appears to be dealing in the marvelous but it is nevertheless correct — 
a large White fish about 2% feet long with very little bone was yesterday 
caught by a gentlemen on a party said to be excellent." 

Most of these early accounts focused on the fertility of the land 
and the rivers were examined mostly from their ability to provide sites 
for mills and water for floating boats loaded with future produce. Thus, 
Enoch Honeywell writes in his diary (see McCord, 1970); "Apr (May) 
1816. saw ft Harrison, there is about 12 families living in and near 
the fort and 10 to 12 more at 6 miles distance southeast 2 at 8 miles 
south, which are all of 25 miles. The river here is 50 to 60 rods wide, 
very deep, clayey banks, always navigable for keel-boats except over 
the grand rapid below Vincennes in low water. In freshes it inundates 
its banks very bad; on the west side the river here it floods about a 
mile, but the soil being light the water soon drains of or soaks in." 

By far the finest early account of the area is that of David Thomas 
(1819). Had his interest in rivers and lakes been half that of his 



Ecology 211 

interest in vegetation and wild life we would have a very detailed, 
clear account of aquatic life, indeed. Nevertheless, some illuminating 1 
comments about the Wabash River as far north as Otter Creek were 
made. 

"The water of the Wabash forms a good lather with soap, At 
Pittsburgh, for washing, the river water was good, but it becomes 
harder in its descent. At Cincinnati an increase of lime was evident; 
and near the mouth of the Wabash, the water of the Ohio was hard" . . . 

"The Wabash has a gentle current, except at the Rapids, twenty- 
three miles below Vincennes" . . . 

"The Wabash is four hundred yards wide at its mouth, three hun- 
dred at Vincennes, and two hundred at Fort Harrison. It is fordable in 
many places." 

"Whenever a high piece of land appears on one side of the River, 
the opposite shore is low and sunken; and from Raccoon Creek, fifteen 
miles above Fort Harrison to the mouth of the river, I believe there 
is no exception to this remark. 

There is one inconvenience attending this country, exclusive of the 
overflowing of the Wabash. All its tributary streams after a heavy 
shower of rain, rise above the banks; and overflow the low land adjoin- 
ing, which on all, is of considerable extent. In time of high water, it 
is one of the most difficult countries to travel through, I ever saw. 
I have known it for more than four weeks at one time, that no person 
could get away from Union Prairie without swimming his horse, or 
going in a boat." 

"The Wabash abounds with fish of many kinds; which, in the 
months of April, May and June, may be readily caught with the hook 
and line." 

"The Gar or Bill fish is more than two feet in length. It is quite 
slim. The bill is about six inches long, tapering to a point. Its scales 
are very close, thick, and hard." 

"The strength of this fish is great. In a small creek which flows 
into the Wabash, I discovered a considerable number, and caught sev- 
eral in my hands; but was absolutely unable to hold one." 

There are three kinds of Cat-fish: the Mississippi cat, the mud cat, 
and the bull head. Some of the first have weighed one hundred and 
twenty pounds. The mud cat is covered with clouded spots and is a very 
homely fish. The head is very wide and flat. Some have weighed one 
hundred pounds. 

"The real sturgeon is found in the Wabash, though the size is not 
large. These have been taken from twenty to sixty pounds weight. 

"The shovel fish or flat nose is another species of sturgeon. It 
weighs about twenty pounds. 

"The pond pike is taken in ponds from one to three feet long, but 
very slim. It is an excellent fish. (Northern pike) 

"The river pike is large and highly esteemed, but scarce. (Muskel- 
lunge) 



212 Indiana Academy of Science 

"The drum or white perch weighs from one to thirty pounds. It is 
shaped like the sunfish. 

"The black perch or bass is excellent, and weighs from one to 
seven pounds. (Smallmouth bass) 

"The streaked bass is scarce. (White bass) 

"The Buffalo fish is of the sucker kind, and very common. Weight 
from two to thirty pounds. 

"The rock Mullett is sometimes seen three feet long. It is slim and 
weighs from 10 to 15 pounds. (Smallmouth buffalofish?) 

"The red horse is also of the sucker kind. It is large and bony, weigh- 
ing from five to fifteen pounds. 

"The Jack pike or pickerel is an excellent fish, and weighs from six 
to twenty pounds." (Walleye pike) 

In another communication, I found the silver-sides noticed without 
any description. "It weighs from three to six pounds." 

The eel is frequently taken in the Wabash, and weighs from one 
to three pounds. I was told that no fish was found in these waters of a 
good quality for pickling; and the facts, that mackerel are brought 
over the mountains from Philadelphia, and white fish from Detroit, tend 
to confirm that statement. 

"The fresh water clam or muscle is so plenty, as to be gathered and 
burnt for lime. Twenty years ago, I am told, no other kind of lime was 
procured." 

"Craw fish, which resembles the lobster, is very common in the low 
lands of this country. It is a size larger than the common crab. It 
works in the ground, and throws up heaps of earth about six inches high, 
and hollow within. These little mounds are very numerous, and the sur- 
face of the ground resembles a honey comb." 

Thomas commented also upon the frequency of sick people, many 
of them newcomers, and gives some recommendations to the traveler 
and new settler, among which: "Let no temptation prevail on the emi- 
grant to go fishing in warm weather. Of the smell of the shores I 
have spoken. To be wet is imprudent; and to be exposed to the chill- 
ing damps of the night, greatly increases the danger. But fresh fish 
are unwholesome, except for a slight change of diet. We know of no 
new settlement that has been healthy, where the inhabitants live chiefly 
on fresh fish. If, however, fish must be eaten, buy them; any price is 
cheaper than health; and if fishing must be done, do it in cloudy weather; 
but at night be comfortably sheltered." 

The great clarity of water was remarked upon by more than one 
observer. 

". . . This beautiful little river (the Whitewater) waters nearly 
one million of acres of fine land, and owes its name to the unusual trans- 
parency of its water. A fish or a pebble can be seen at the depth of 
twenty feet." (Brown, 1817 in McCord, 1970). 

General John Tipton, one of the men charged with selecting a site 
for the new state capitol crossed Fall Creek where he "saw plenty of 



Ecology 213 

fine fish . . ." (Tipton, 1820), and described an oxbow lake near what 
is now the Marion County line as "... a beautiful clier pond or lake 
about 60 yards wide seeming nearly from n to s the water clier the 
Bottom gravley a plenty of fish" as well as Spring Lake near Martins- 
ville . . . "Saw a beautiful lake, 1 mile long and 100 yds. wide, clier 
water, sandy bottom ... I am told the river in a high stage runs 
into it." 

"It was in the month of April (1825) when I first saw the Wabash 
River . . . Schools of fishes — salmon, bass, redhorse, and pike — swam 
close along the shore, catching at the blossoms of the red-bud and plum 
that floated on the surface of the water, which was so clear that myriads 
of the finny tribe could be seen darting hither and thither amidst the 
limpid element, turning up their silvery sides as they sped out into 
deeper water." (Cox, 1860). 

Fish were plentiful and easy to obtain at this time. 

"At John Stitt's mill below town (Crawfordsville), on Sugar river, 
there is a fish-trap, and in one night we caught nine hundred fish, the 
first Spring we were in the country (1825), most of them pike, salmon, 
bass, and perch. Some of the largest pike and salmon (Walleye) 
measured from two to four feet in length, and weighed from twelve 
to twenty-five pounds." (Cox, 1860). 

Rafinesque (1820) stated "Fishes are very abundant in the Ohio, 
and are taken sometimes by the thousands with the seines. . . . The 
most usual manners of catching fish . . . are, with seines or harpoons 
at night and in shallow water, with boats carrying a light, or with the 
hooks and line, and even with baskets." 

Species of fish which Rafinesque regarded as abundant or common in 
the Ohio River included: drum, the three species of black bass, big- 
mouth buffalo, shovelnose sturgeon, channel catfish, yellow bullhead, 
goldeye, mooneye, emerald shiner, golden shiner, log perch, greenside 
darter, and fantail darter. Hook and line fishing was too slow for the 
settler and, in addition to seining, spearing and gigging were popular 
in clear water streams containing an abundance of fish. 

Dunn (1910) records the abundance of fish in the White River ac- 
cording to early residents of Indianapolis as follows: 

"George W. Pitts commented "There was no end of fish in the 
streams in those days. I went up to McCormick's dam (just above the 
Country Club) four miles above town on the river one day and sat down 
at a chute that had broken out and where fish were running through. 
There were wagon loads of fish, and I threw out with my hands eighty- 
seven bass, ranging in size from one pound up to five." 

"Amos Hanway says there were 'bass, salmon (walleye and/or 
sauger), redhorse, ordinary suckers, quillbacks, or as they were some- 
times called spearbacks, perch, pike, catfish, etc. The biggest salmon 
I ever caught weighed sixteen pounds. I once caught a pike that 
measured four feet and two inches (Muskellunge) ; at another time a 
gar-fish that measured over three feet, and a blue catfish that 
weighed sixteen and a quarter pounds. The finest rock bass (large- 



214 Indiana Academy of Science 

mouth bass) I ever took was one which weighed eight and a quarter 
pounds, and that was near Waverly; while the biggest river bass 
(smallmouth bass) I ever lifted from the water weighed six and one- 
fourth pounds.' " He went on to say that once in Morgan County, above 
the Cox dam, when the fish were running, he and his brother Sam 
"at one haul seined twelve barrels of fish, and there were thirty fish 
that averaged, undressed, ten pounds each. They were mostly bass 
and salmon, but there were also large redhorse, white perch, quill- 
backs and ordinary suckers." 

The importance of an abundance of excellent fish is stressed. 
Flint (1826, in Lindley, 1916): 

"The streams, and especially those that communicate with lake 
Michigan, are abundant in fish of the best qualities. The number 
and excellence of the fish, and the ease, with which they are taken, 
are circumstances of real importance and advantage to the first set- 
tlers, and help to sustain them, until they are enabled to subsist by 
the vails of cultivation." 

Great changes were to occur between 1830 and 1845, as Cox 
(1860) poignantly writes: 

"I can well recollect when we used to wonder if the youngest 
of us would ever live to see the day when the whole of the Wea plain 
would be purchased and cultivated; and our neighbors on the Shawnee, 
Wild Cat, and Nine Mile prairies were as shortsighted as we were, 
for they talked of the everlasting range they would have for their 
cattle and horses on those prairies — of the wild game and fish that 
would be sufficient for them, and their sons, and their sons' sons. But 
those prairies, for more than fifteen years past, have been like so 
many cultivated gardens, and as for venison, wild turkies and fish, 
they are now mostly brought from the Kankakee and the lakes." 

The changes, of course, came about as the direct and indirect 
result of a rapidly increasing population and establishment of ex- 
tensive agriculture which led, in turn, to the exportation of surplus 
agricultural goods. In 1800 the population of Indiana was only 5,641 
(Melish, 1822 in Lindley, 1916). In 1810 it was 24,520; in 1815, 68,784; 
and in 1820 it was 147,178 including whites, free blacks, and slaves, but 
not counting indians. These early residents found a ready market 
for their surplus agricultural products in New Orleans and floated 
them on flatboats down the Wabash and White Rivers to the Ohio 
and then on to New Orleans during the spring floods. However, by 
1827 the New Orleans market became saturated and ways were 
sought to transport the goods to and from the eastern markets (Esarey, 
1912). By this time, steamboats were regularly plying Wabash waters 
up to Terre Haute and, sometimes, Ouiatanon south of Lafayette. 

An effort began to create navigable waters throughout the state, 
but the physical clearing of the land itself acted against this need. 

"Unquestionably White River is not so easily navigable now as 
it was ninety years ago, though probably as much water passes out 
through its channel in the course of a year as there did then. The 



Ecology 215 

flow is not so steady because of the clearing of the land and improved 
drainage make the surface water pass off more rapidly. And this has 
increased the obstructions in the streams, for the soil, sand, and gravel 
wash much more easily from cleared land. Moreover, in the natural state, 
most of the timber that got into the river came from the undermining 
of banks on which it stood, and this usually did not float away but 
hung by the roots where it fell. But after the axmen got to work, 
every freshet brought down logs and rails which formed drifts at 
some places. Some logs stranded as the water went down, decayed, 
became waterlogged, and made bases for sand and gravel bars." 
(Dunn, 1910) 

Erosional pollution as an important altering factor soon had a 
powerful ally when the state began an extensive, but unrealistic 
program of canal building from 1828 to the mid 1850's. Beginning at 
Fort Wayne in 1828, the Wabash and Erie Canal crept steadily west- 
ward toward the mouth of the Tippecanoe River, which was considered 
the head of navigation for the Wabash. By 1834 about one thousand 
Irishmen were at work when they weren't drinking or fighting. By 
this time the entire state clamored for canals. An appropriation was 
asked to open almost every stream in the state large enough to float 
a canoe (Esarey, 1912). 

The upper portion of the Wabash and Erie Canal was in op- 
eration by July 4, 1835, but the tolls were inadequate to keep it in 
repair. The wooden aqueducts were already rotten. In 1836 construction 
was begun on the Whitewater canal and when completed in 1839 it 
included two large dams. Also in 1836, several sections of canal were 
constructed on the White River and a 19 mile section on Pigeon 
Creek near Evansville which, when completed, went completely dry. 

Meanwhile, the Wabash and Erie Canal crept southward, reaching 
Lafayette in 1843 and Terre Haute in 1847. As originally planned, the 
canal was to connect with the Wabash River at Terre Haute. However, 
it was decided to extend it on to the Ohio River via the lower portion 
of the Central Canal which was to be constructed to Indianapolis. 
Thus, the canal proceeded southeast to the Eel River, on past Worth- 
ington and Bloomfield, and to Maysville just west of Washington. It 
continued on south through Petersburg, crossed the Patoka and finally 
linked up with the canal at Pigeon Creek. 

Throughout the 1840's difficulties were encountered in supplying 
sufficient water to that part of the canal south of Lafayette and, as a 
result, so-called "feeders" were developed from tributaries all along 
the canal. The problem was particularly aggravating below Terre 
Haute and dams were constructed across Splunge Creek, Adams 
Creek near Monrovia, and Birch Creek at Saline City. The six square 
mile reservoir at the latter site was subject to frequent acts of sabotage 
because it was believed to be the cause of a malaria outbreak and 
finally was drained completely. 

The aggregate damage to stream habitat during this period can 
only be inferred since few descriptive records exist, but it must have 
been significant, and, as it soon turned out, completely for naught. 



216 Indiana Academy of Science 

Navigation was abandoned south of Terre Haute in 1860 and by 1870 
little more than a succession of stagnant pools marked the site of 
the canal (Esarey, 1912), a casualty of gross fiscal mismanagement 
and competition from railroads. 

Thus by the time Jordan arrived in Indiana in 1874, extensive 
alterations in the native fish populations had already occurred, alter- 
ations at first resulting from clearing land for fields and building 
dams for grist mills and a bit later the wholesale destruction of 
habitat in a gigantic state effort to provide better commercial links 
between the fledgling state of Indiana and the eastern seaboard. 
Jordan was in time, however, to witness the first side effects of 
industrial development in Indiana, a development which would super- 
impose an additional heavy burden on the waters of Indiana. 



Literature Cited 

Cox, S. C. 1860. Recollections of the Early Settlement of the Wabash Valley. Courier 

Steam Book & Job Print. House, Lafayette. 160 pp. 
Dunn, J. P. 1910. Greater Indianapolis — the History, the Industries, the Institutions, and 

the People of a City of Homes. Lewis Publ. Co., Chicago. Vol. 1:1-641. 
Eigenmann, C. H. and C. H. Beeson. 1894. The Fishes of Indiana. Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. 

1893. 9:76-108. 
Esarey, L. 1912. Internal Improvements in Early Indiana. Indiana Historical Soc. Publ. 

Vol. V, No. 2:158 pp. 
Jordon, D. S. 1878. Catalogue of the Fishes of Indiana. Appendix A in First Annual 

Report of the Commission of Fisheries of Indiana. 1883 : 9 6-1 03. 
Jordan, D. S. 1889. Address to State Fish. & Game Convention on Dec. 19, 1889. In 

Report of the Commission of Fish. 1891 -.62-69. 
Lindley, H. (ed.). 1916. Indiana as seen by early travelers. Indiana Historical Comm., 

Indianapolis. 596 pp. 
McCord, S. S. 1970. Travel Accounts of Indiana 1679-1961. Indiana Historical Collections, 

Vol. XLVII, Ind. Hist. Bureau. 331 pp. 
Rafinesque, C. 1820. Ichthyologia Ohiensis or Natural History of the Fishes Inhabiting 

the River Ohio and Its Tributary Streams. Reprint Edition 1970 by Arno Press 

Inc. 90 pp. 
Tipton, J. 1820. Journal of Tour in 1820 to Fix Seat of Government, pp. 195-210 in 

The John Tipton Papers, Robertson, N. A. and D. Riker, editors. Vol. 1:1809-1827. 

Ind. Hist. Bureau. 1942. 



Ecological Adaptation of Certain Forage 
Species on Shallow Muck Soils 

B.O. Blair, C.L. Rhykerd, R.E. Mullen, W.O. Jones, and J.J. Vorst 

Department of Agronomy, Purdue University 

West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 

Summary 

Most of the million plus acres of muck soils in Indiana suitable 
for agriculture are used for corn, soybean or vegetable crop production. 
Continued production of these crops have, in many cases, introduced 
severe weed problems. Field operations necessary in culturing these 
crops in poorly drained fields often cannot be accomplished at the proper 
time and returns are marginal. Cold air drainage into these areas in 
early fall frequently results in killing forests which shorten the season 
as much as three weeks. In many cases it is necessary to harvest corn 
as silage and soybean yields are appreciably reduced. 

These problems prompted an investigation at the Pinney Purdue 
Agricultural Center at Wanatah, Indiana, relative to utilizing these 
areas more profitable by seeding to forage grasses and legumes. The 
experimental area is shallow, due to a long history of wind erosion. The 
muck soil in this area varies from 45 to 100 cm in depth. A small plot 
study demonstrated that the water table at 70-85 cm prohibited the 
production of many commonly grown perennial forage species. Bromus 
and Medicago species, however, grow satisfactorily in surrounding 
areas. 

This article reports on the successful conversion of a 50 ha muck 
area from warm-season annual crop production to a permanent pasture 
composed of Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis) a cool-season peren- 
nial grass and birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus) , a warm- 
season legume with a shallow root system. In addition, it was found 
that a Kentucky bluegrass-birdsfoot trefoil mixture can be a highly 
productive alternative to corn or soybeans on shallow muck soils where 
adequate animal units are available for utilizing the early spring 
growth of Kentucky bluegrass and the later growth of birdsfoot trefoil. 

Introduction 

In Indiana, muck soils are estimated to occupy .5-. 6 million ha 
most of which are in the northern third of the state. These soils 
were formed in low lying areas subject to frequent overflow or areas 
with perched water tables which supported Car ex, Juncus, swamp 
grasses, and willow species, and vary from a meter to several meters 
in depth. The areas vary in size from a few hectares to as much as 
1000 ha. The larger areas, when drained, are cultured to high income 
per/ha crops requiring special equipment and management techniques. 
Smaller areas are usually integrated into conventional cultural pat- 
terns common to the area. Although many areas are tile drained, 

217 



218 Indiana Academy of Science 

they are too wet in the spring for wheat production so they are 
usually planted to soybeans or corn. Weeds become a serious problem 
when corn and soybeans are grown continuously under these conditions. 
Yields of grain crops are often below average due to weed competition, 
late planting due to wet conditions, and early frosts resulting from cold 
air drainage. The growing season is shortened as much as three weeks 
compared to adjacent well drained areas which are only a few meters 
higher. 

Owners and operators of smaller areas of muck continue to use 
these areas for production of corn and soybeans. However, forages 
may be a more profitable alternative on these muck soils if adapted 
grasses and legumes are selected. Establishment of legumes on such 
soils pose problems due to excess water, wind erosion during establish- 
ment, and frost heaving. 

Preliminary small plot test trials in 1968-69 with 16 grasses and 
legumes at the Pinney Purdue Agricultural Center at Wanatah dem- 
onstrated that several cool-season grasses but only one legume, 
birdsfoot trefoil {Lotus corniculatus L.) are productive under these 
conditions. 

Literature Review 

Birdsfoot trefoil, (Lotus corniculatus L.), a low growing warm- 
season legume with a semi-branching taproot, has been found to be very 
competitive with grass species of comparable height. Test trials over 
several years at the Miller Purdue Agricultural Center at Upland 
showed it to be compatible with Kentucky bluegrass, (Poa pratensis 
L.), where it provides forage in the warm part of the season and also 
provides nitrogen for the bluegrass during the cool spring and late 
reported to grow in wet soils, after successful establishment, in many 
dairy producing areas in the Northeast (1). Although not as high 
yielding as alfalfa, it is very palatable, high in protein, and thus a 
very desirable species to include in a forage mixture (2). 

Birdsfoot trefoil is a difficult species to establish since the seed 
is small, germination is slow, and seedlings are weak. Very often com- 
petition from other species prevents its successful establishment. 
Therefore it cannot become established unless competition is reduced 
or eliminated by frequently clipping or use of herbicide (4). This 
species will establish and thrive on droughty soils, when protected by 
clipping. Thick stands have established along many roadsides in 
southern Indiana. Birdsfoot trefoil is a prolific seed producer under 
proper management and will reseed itself and spread to adjacent areas. 

Methods and Materials 

The continued struggle with weed competition, late planting and 
low grain yields on a 48 ha area along with a need for more forage 
for the cow herd at Pinney Purdue Agricultural Center prompted the 
authors to suggest an alternative program for this muck area. 



Journal Paper No. 6535. Purdue Univ. Agricultural Experiment Station. 



Ecology 219 

The results of a grass-legume test plot trial in the muck area 
showed that birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus comiculatus L.), is the only 
legume that can survive where the water table averages 1 m below 
the soil surface and its temperature year-round is 15-17 °C. Several 
grass species including: orchardgrass (Dactyl is glomerata L.), tall 
fescue (Festuca arimdenacea Schreb.), reed canarygrass (Phalaris 
arundinacea L.), and Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.), also 
show promise. 

In the spring of 1971 birdsfoot trefoil was seeded at a rate of 
4 kg/ha in early May on a 4 ha area on a better drained portion of the 
field. A very good stand of 75-200 plants per square meter emerged by 
mid-May. However, it was obvious that these tiny seedlings 2-4 cm tall 
would be shaded out by rapidly growing broad-leaved weed species 
which had attained a height of 10 cm. Therefore, the area was sprayed 
with 2,4-DB which successfully eliminated most of the broad-leaved 
weeds. A 5-week dry period followed which eliminated about half of 
the trefoil seedlings and another weed population emerged. During 
the remainder of that season, the area was clipped frequently to keep 
the weed stubble to 10 cm. In mid-August the area was overseeded with 
12 kg/ha of Kentucky bluegrass which emerged by mid-September. 

The weed stubble and trefoil stand prevented any surface wind 
erosion which is frequent on open muck areas during winter months. 
In fact, over the past 20 years, 30-40 cm of soil has been lost from this 
fall when birdsfoot trefoil is dormant (3). Birdsfoot trefoil has been 
area. These losses were most severe following soybeans. 

By the spring of 1973 the original seeding of trefoil and bluegrass 
was established with trefoil roots penetrating to depths of 20 cm (Figure 
1). Moderate grazing was encouraged during the spring; however, the 
area remained idle through that summer. By fall, bluegrass competition 
and lodging of larger trefoil plants further reduced the trefoil stand. 
This could have been prevented by clipping or grazing during the 
summer. Thus, overprotection during establishing can be detrimental. 

In the spring of 1972, a second area of 4 ha was seeded with 4 kg 
trefoil and 10 kg of bluegrass per ha. However, this stand was lost due 
to a dry spring and subsequent wind erosion. In late August, a 12 
ha area was seeded with bluegrass and trefoil at 8 and 4 kg/ha 
respectively and overseeded with 9 kg/ha of annual ryegrass (Lolium 
multiflorum Lam.). The ryegrass was needed for establishing a quick 
cover to reduce the probability of wind erosion. In the spring of 1973 
the second seeded area lost the year before was again seeded with trefoil 
and bluegrass in the residue of weed stubble left from the previous 
years. In only the first seeding of 1971 was birdsfoot trefoil seeded 
first and independent of later grass seedings. 

The success of these establishments will be reported in the results. 
The remaining 20 ha in the muck area was seeded to trefoil and 
bluegrass in late summer of 1973. Thus the entire muck area once 
subject to many weed problems, wind erosion, low cash crop yields, 
along with planting and harvesting problems in spring and fall now is 



220 



Indiana Academy of Science 



a lush meadow of bluegrass and trefoil. It now provides more spring 
forage than can be effectively managed with the present animal numbers 
available. 

Results and Discussion 

Only preliminary evaluations were made of the first planting in 
1971 since it was an exploratory study. The vigor of two year old 
trefoil plants is shown in Figure 1 and illustrates the adaptation 
of this species in muck soils in competition with bluegrass. 



v " ■ ■ i. 










M 



, H, fb 



WWW, 

i \ 'S 




..:^m.M0S : : m: :: i:S^ i ft? 



' ^f^ffl^H 



Figure 1. A two year old birdsfoot trefoil plant taken from 

a dense stand of bluegrass. Both top and root development 

in these muck soils demonstrate capability to establish and 

compete successfully. 



The trefoil-bluegrass seedling population of the 12 ha area seeded 
in the fall of 1972 was extremely variable. Three m 2 quadrats were 
located in a line from the spoil bank ridge of a drainage ditch in 
this area, extending into the field at 30 m intervals and designated as 
replication 1, 2 and 3. In June 1973, seedling population on the well- 
drained spoil bank numbered 16. Over the summer, six seedlings were 
lost. Replications 2 and 3 extended into a more poorly drained area 



Ecology 221 

with severe competition from ryegrass had only 1 and 3 trefoil plants 
per m 2 , respectively. By September, all of these seedlings were lost 
from shading competition. However, a good stand of Kentucky bluegrass 
with scattered trefoil plants was established over the area on better 
drained areas of this field. 

The second 4 ha area reseeded the second time in the spring of 
1973 was studied in more detail. This area from north to south in 
general decreases in desirability for seedling establishment due to 
wetness. Six areas 20 x 50 cm. (.1 m 2 ) were located north to south 
in the area. Seedling counts were initiated in July and made monthly 
through November (Table 1). 

The trefoil stand on the better drained area to the north sup- 
ported a greater number of seedlings. The vegetation was clipped as 
needed during the summer to 10 cm to eliminate weed competition and 
reduce shading by the grass stand. 

Birdsfoot trefoil seedlings in replication 5, a depressional area to 
the south, were lost early and stands in all replications were reduced 
except in replication 6 which increased. Replication 6, the farthest 
south, was located on a slight rise near the first field seeded in 
1971. Total population dropped from 55 to 21 over the summer which 
shows that by November there still was an average 120 plants per m 2 . 
This represents good establishment in view of competition from blue- 
grass, a vigorous competitor on muck, and weeds. 

Due to excessive moisture, very little grazing was possible the 
following spring except on the first 4 ha area seeded in 1971. As 
a result, bluegrass in all areas grew to a height of 25 cm before it 
could be grazed or clipped. Shading competition resulted in a further 
reduction in birdsfoot trefoil population. In the last area seeded during 
the late summer of 1973, trefoil seedlings were sparse but they did 
establish in better drained areas of that field. 

All fields were observed again in August 1976, (5, 4, and 3 years 
after seeding) and in all fields a solid stand of bluegrass was present, 
except in two small areas where ponding was frequent. Birdsfoot 
trefoil populations varied but flowering plants were present in all 
fields and plants in ungrazed areas produced seed. Non-grazed areas 
over all fields occurred on dung deposits and Juncus culms in ponded 
areas. Heavy seed production of birdsfoot trefoil was noted in these 
culms of Juncus which invaded and now thrive in depressions where 
water frequently stands, (Figure 2). 

The greatest enemy for increasing trefoil population after estab- 
lishment appears to be competition from bluegrass which results from 
lack of aggressive management practices. Low grazing pressure early 
in. the spring due to lack of numbers of animals or wet field conditions 
prevented grazing bluegrass to a height of 10 cm which is necessary to 
maintain good stands. This past season the area was heavily grazed 
during late April and early May due to unusually dry conditions and 
consequently 3-4 trefoil plants were present per m 2 in the first three 
areas seeded, (Figure 3). 



222 



Indiana Academy of Science 




Figure 2. Healthy birdsfoot trefoil plants surviving among 
culms of unpalatable juncus which protects them from graz- 
ing in ponded areas. These protested plants provide a con- 
tinuous seed source for these areas. 



Increasing animal numbers and subdividing the entire muck area 
into paddocks of 4 to 5 ha will permit heavier grazing and the excess 
forage in ungrazed paddocks can be harvested as hay or silage. This 
will have a beneficial effect on increasing trefoil population. 

The change of this muck area cultural practices from cash crops 
to a grass-legume mixture has been well accepted by the farm man- 
ager. If a problem now exists it is an over supply of forage in the 
spring which tends to decrease the birdsfoot trefoil population in the 
pastures. Further studies, to include intensive clipping of bluegrass 
in early spring and summer, should be initiative to determine if birds- 
foot population could be appreciably increased. 



Ecology 



22:: 




Figure 3. Heavy gi 



especially in early spring, is a benefit for successful competi- 
tion of birdsfoot jjlants. 



Conclusion 

A Kentucky bluegrass-birdsfoot trefoil mixture can be successfully 
established on muck soils with a capability of providing forage or hay 
equivalent to 12 tons per ha where root systems of both species reach 
a permanent water table. 

This study shows that birdsfoot trefoil will persist in association 
with bluegrass on muck soils if properly grazed. Numerous trefoil 
plants appear to survive among the non-palatable J uncus culms and in 
isolated ungrazed clumps of bluegrass resulting from dung or urine 
deposits. These trefoil plants are able to mature, producing seed to 
continuously re-establish the birdsfoot trefoil. 

The shift from cash grain crops to a birdsfoot trefoil-bluegrass 
mixture on these muck soils eliminates many weed problems, concern 
for soil tillage at planting, wind erosion, harvesting in wet conditions, 
and low crop yields due to early frosts in these low lying muck areas. 
In addition, the high yields of high quality forage can be very profitably 
utilized to feed sheep, beef or dairy cattle. 



Literature Cited 

1. MacDonald, H. A. 1963. Birdsfoot trefoil in New York, N. Y. Ag. Exp. Sta. Bull. 
1110. 

2. McCloud, D. E. and G. O. Mott. 1953. Influence of association on forage yield of 
legume-grass mixtures. Agron. J. 45 :61-65. 

3. Mott, G. O. 1955. Bluegrass pasture for beef cattle, Miller-Purdue Farm. Mimeo, AY 
146, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana, pp. 2. 

4. Scholl, J. M. and R. E. Brunk. 1962. Birdsfoot trefoil stand establishment as in- 
fluenced by control of vegetative competition. Agron. J. 54 :142-44. 



ENGINEERING 

Chairman: Aldo Giorgini, School of Civil Engineering- 
Purdue University, Lafayette, IN 47907 

Chairman-Elect: Milton E. Harr, School of Civil Engineering- 
Purdue University, Lafayette, IN 47907 

ABSTRACTS 

New Direction in Environmental Systems Planning: Experience of the 
Maumee River Basin Level-B Planning. Prasanta Das, School of 

Civil Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN. 47907. 

The ''principles and standards" for water and related land resources 
planning prepared by Water Resources Council and adopted by Congress 
on September 10, 1973, identify two major objectives in such planning: 
(i) enhancement of national economic development by increasing the 
value of the nation's output of goods and services, and improving 
national economic efficiency; (ii) enhancement of the quality of the 
environment by the management, conservation, preservation, creation, 
restoration, or improvement of the quality of certain natural re- 
sources and ecological systems. The Maumee River Basin Level-B 
study is structured under this new approach in order to identify and 
evaluate all the major water and related land resources problems. A 
systems methodology is utilized in formulating and evaluating the 
impact of this planning on to the economic development and environ- 
mental qualities of the Basin. In particular, multiple objectives re- 
lated to the above two goals are treated in noncommensurable terms 
for trade-off analysis between economic efficiency and environmental 
qualities. 

Bose-Einstein Statistics and Short Time-Increment Rainfall Process. 

A. Ramachandra Rao, School of Civil Engineering, Purdue University, 

West Lafayette, IN. 47907. Models of short time-increment rainfall 

process are needed in urban drainage design. Rainfall depths measured 
at time intervals of an hour or less constitute the short time-increment 
rainfall process. Although several models exist for characterizing the 
total rainfall, very few of these deal with the statistics of the rainfall 
distribution within the storm. The present paper deals with a model 
for the distribution of rainfall within the storm as well as the total 
rainfall. 

The model is applied to the 5 min. rainfall data from Chicago. 
Rainfall data from 194 storms measured during the period 1913-1947 
were used in the analysis. The parameter estimation and the validation 
of the model are discussed. The model is demonstrated to be a valid 
and accurate model to characterize the statistics of short time increment 
rainfall process. 

The Laminar Two-Dimensional Plume in a Horizontal Magnetic Field. 

Donald D. Gray, School of Civil Engineering, Purdue University, West 

225 



226 Indiana Academy of Science 

Lafayette, IN. 47907. The dynamics of a buoyant plume rising 

above a horizontal line heat source in a transverse, horizontal magnetic 
field is investigated. Similarity is shown to occur when the magnetic 
field strength varies as the -2/5 power of vertical distance from the 
source. The plume depends on two parameters — the Prandtl number 
(Pr) and the Lykoudis number (Z L ). Families of exact closed form 
solutions are derived for Pr = 5/9 and Pr ^ 2. A family of numerical 
integrations for Pr = 0.01 (typical of liquid metals) is also reported. 
An approximate closed form solution valid for low Pr and high Z h is 
presented. Possible experimental tests of the theory are proposed. 

From Ferris Wheel to Bridge. Aldo Giorgini, Purdue University, 

West Lafayette, IN. 47907. The 1893 World's Columbian Exhibition 

in Chicago, commemorating the fourth centenary of the discovery of 
America, should have featured a "proctor steel tower" which should 
have stood 111 feet taller than the Eiffel Tower in Paris. Mainly for 
political reasons, the tower was never built, but in its place its de- 
signer, the young American engineer George W. Gale Ferris (1859- 
1896) built the first Ferris Wheel, a 250 feet diameter wheel with 36 
cars of 60 people capacity per car. The Ferris Wheel was featured again 
in the 1904 World's Exhibition in St. Louis. After that it was sold as 
scrap metal. Mr. Dunn, of Dunnville (now Dunns), Indiana, bought the 
metal to build a bridge (now Dunns Bridge) across the Kankakee 
River. The bridge is still extant, in sound shape, but no longer in use. 



ENTOMOLOGY 

Chairman: Virgil R. Knapp, Indiana Department of Natural Resources, 
Room 613, State Office Building, Indianapolis, IN 46204 

Chairman-Elect: Jack R. Munsee, Department of Life Sciences 
Indiana State University, Terre Haute, IN 47809 

ABSTRACTS 
Cereal Leaf Beetle Parasite Program in Indiana. John J. Favinger, 
Indiana Department of Natural Resources, Indianapolis, Indiana 46204. 

Four hymenopterous parasites of cereal leaf beetle have been 

released in most Indiana counties where sufficient C.L.B. populations 
exist to warrant the introduction of biological controls. A mymarid 
egg parasite Anaphes flavipes (Forester) has since been recovered from 
fifteen counties. Two ichneumonid egg parasites, Diaparsis n. sp. and 
Lemophagus curtus (Fomes) have been recovered from two and three 
counties respectively. A eulophid egg parasite Tetrastichus julis (Walk- 
er) had been recovered in six counties previous to 1976 but in eighteen 
additional counties during June 1976. 

A Distributional Survey of the Trichoptera Fauna of Delaware County, 
Indiana. William Tozer and Steven Newhouse, Department of Biol- 
ogy, Ball State University, Muncie, IN 47306. A faunal survey 

representing eleven families, twenty-eight genera of Trichoptera (cad- 
disflies) of Delaware County, Indiana during 1974-1976 is presented. 
Twenty-nine of fifty-five species of caddisflies collected during this 
study are new distributional records for Indiana. Most of the species 
presented belong to the families Hydropsychidae, Leptoceridae and 
Hydroptilidae. This list is not an exhaustively complete survey of the 
Delaware County region; rather, it is intended to provide stimulation 
for additional work of this nature. 

Studies on the Reproductive Biology of Meteorus leviventris (Wesmael) 
(Hymenoptera: Braconidae). David Thomas, 464 5th Street, Madras, 
Oregon 97741, and R. B. Schoenbohm, Department of Entomology, 
Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907.— The black cutworm 
parasite, Meteorus leviventris, exhibits arrhenotokous parthenogenesis; 
that is, females are produced from fertilized eggs, while males develop 
from unfertilized eggs. The daily and total egg deposition in black 
cutworm hosts was compared between virgin and mated parasites. It 
was thought that insemination might alter the females rate of oviposi- 
tion; however, no significant difference was found in the daily and 
total egg deposition of the two female groups. Combined results of the 
two groups averaged 15.5 eggs oviposited per day, and 97.4 oviposited 
in a life time. Reproductive morphology was also studied. 

A Rearing Procedure for Meteorus leviventris (Wesmael) (Hymenoptera: 
Braconidae), a Parasite of the Black Cutworm. R. B. Schoenbohm, 
and F. T. Turpin, Department of Entomology, Purdue University', 

227 



228 Indiana Academy of Science 

West Lafayette, IN 47907. Meteorus leviventris was the most com- 
mon parasite found infesting black cutworm larvae collected in Indi- 
ana in 1974, 1975, and 1976. Parasite adults reared from black cutworm 
larvae collected in 1975 were used to establish a colony which is now 15 
months old, or ca. 30 generations from wild. Laboratory reared black 
cutworm larvae are used for colony hosts. An average of ca. 200 adult 
female parasites are produced per day by the colony. 

A Population Study of Cicindela sexguttata, the six-spotted tiger beetle 
(Coleoptera: Cicindelidae). C. Barry Knisley, Dept. of Biology, Frank- 
lin College, Franklin, Indiana 46131. A population of C. sexguttata 

was studied during the spring and early summer of 1975 and 1976 in 
an oak-hickory forest in Johnson County, Indiana. Census, mark-recap- 
ture, and observation were used to determine the effects of season, 
temperature, sunlight, and other factors on abundance, activity, and 
distribution of adult beetles. Most of the studies were restricted to a 
dirt road which ran through the woods since preliminary studies 
showed that beetles were most numerous here. Adults first appeared in 
early April, were most abundant from late April to early June, and 
began to disappear in mid June. Activity and numbers collected were 
significantly correlated with ground and air temperatures. Beetles were 
present in a variety of microhabitats of the forest, but were usually 
restricted to sunny areas. Changes in their distribution pattern within 
the habitat were correlated with changes in sunlight distribution. 
Through early May beetles were scattered somewhat evenly along the 
dirt road as were the patches of sunlight, but, as trees leafed out 
the beetles became aggregated and restricted to the limited sun patches. 
Other factors, such as topography, soil characteristics, and prey distribu- 
tion seemed of little significance in influencing distribution. Recapture 
data indicated that movement of beetles along the trail was typically 
limited to distances of less than 100 meters. Observations on feeding 
habits revealed that ants were the predominate prey although a wide 
variety of other insects were taken. Mating was observed frequently 
and was most common during late May. 

The Life and Work of Thomas Say. B. Elwood Montgomery, 906 North 

Chauncey Avenue, West Lafayette, Indiana 47906. Adapted from an 

address, "The Life and Times of Thomas Say" presented at the Spring 
meeting of the Academy, New Harmony, Indiana, April 23, 1976. 

In 1976 we may celebrate the Sesquicentennial of Science in Indiana 
as well as the National Bicentennial. The Sesquicentennial commemor- 
ates the arrival of Thomas Say and other scientists at the Owen 
Community at New Harmony in January, 1826. Although not immedi- 
ately evident all of the scientists who came to New Harmony in 1826 
contributed to the attainment of American Independence. 

It should be evident to everyone that 1776 marked only the begin- 
ning of the struggle for independence and that this struggle continued 
for many years. In fact, The War of 1812 is frequently called the 
Second War of Independence and the contest for control in the western 



Entomology 229 

areas — the upper Mississippi Valley and the far Northwest Territory 
— entended into the 1820's. 

The colonial status was, perhaps, more slowly removed in the 
cultural fields, especially in the Natural Sciences, than in the political 
area. Geological and Biological exploration and study was long carried 
on in this country by visiting European students, or the studies were 
made and published in Europe based upon materials sent from 
America. 

Of course, some study of Natural Science was started fairly early 
in America and a limited amount of publication had taken place by 
the time of the Revolution. This indigenous study continued to develop 
and had reached at least a moderate bloom at the time of the migration 
of the scientists to New Harmony. Much of the development had taken 
place in Philadelphia; all of the scientists who came in 1826 from 
Philadelphia to Indiana had been very active in scientific research and 
publication. The departure of so many of the most active workers 
(Maclure, Say, Lesueur, Troost) appeared to deprive Philadelphia of its 
leadership as a center of scientific work in this country. 

No one contributed to the final attainment of independence in 
more areas than Thomas Say. He served in the Pennsylvania Militia 
in the War of 1812, and was the naturalist in two expeditions made 
by the army into the West — one to the Rocky Mountains and the other 
to the Dakota-Minnesota-Canada area, in 1819-1820 and 1823 re- 
spectively. Previous to these expeditions he had explored extensively 
in the Atlantic coastal areas — from Philadelphia through New Jersey 
to Egg Harbor (more than once), to the outer shore of Maryland and 
to Georgia and Florida. After coming to New Harmony he made one 
collecting trip of several months (chiefly for shells?) through Ohio and 
Kentucky and went to Mexico over one winter. 

As the fauna was almost unknown the most important work in 
Biology at that time was the discovery and description of new species. 
This Say did on a very extensive scale. He published the first paper in 
America on fossil invertebrates. He seems to have studied almost 
every group of animals, describing thousands of insects of almost all 
orders, hundreds of Mollusca, many Crustacea, and a few to many 
species in each of several other groups — jellyfish, earthworms, leeches, 
frogs, snakes, birds and mammals. 

On the two western expeditions he studied the Indians; he compiled 
vocabularies of some of the western tribes and described their habits 
and life; most of the accounts of parleys with the Indian groups in- 
cluded in the Reports of these Expeditions appear to have either been 
written by Say or based upon his notes. 

Evaluation of Insecticides for Adult Western Corn Rootworm Control. 

David M. Leva, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47906. 

Insecticides were evaluated as potential population suppression 

agents in a Western Corn Rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera (LeConte), 
control program. The insecticides were applied to field corn with a 
self propelled high-boy applicator. Insecticide treated leaves were 



230 Indiana Academy of Science 

randomly selected from treated plots, and used in a bio-assay with 
Western corn rootworm adults. Contact mortality data were recorded 
and the time period the various insecticides maintained at least 50% 
mortality were calculated. Results indicate that Sevin-4-Oil provided more 
than 80% mortality for 4 weeks, other compounds had an effective life 
of 4 to 7 days. This time interval of 4 to 7 days may be long enough 
for protection during corn silking and pollination. However, much longer 
control is needed if an adulticide is to be an effective Western Corn 
Rootworm population suppression agent. 

Seasonal patterns of adult emergence and flight of the western corn 
rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera. GORDON VanWoerkom. Seasonal pat- 
terns of adult emergence were determined by placing 6 ft x 6 ft x 5 ft 
screen cages over corn planted at four different planting dates. Seasonal 
flight patterns were determined using two types of sticky traps: one 
quart cylindrical cartons placed at ear level and gallon cylindrical 
cartons placed at heights of 10, 15, 20, and 25 feet. Beetles emerging 
in cages and caught on sticky traps were counted and sexed every 48 
hours. Differences in numbers emerging among planting dates were 
noted, and sex ratios of emerging beetles were compared to sex ratios 
of beetles caught on sticky traps. Results showed that 80% of the 
beetles caught throughout the season on sticky traps 10 feet and higher 
were females while at ear level 80% of the beetles captured were males. 
Adult emergence began on July 8 with a high prcentage of males. 
After the first two weeks the number of females emerging increased 
significantly. 

Horned oak gall, Callirhytis punctata (O.S.) on pin oak in LaPorte Co., 

Ind. R. B. Cummings, Department of Natural Resources, Indiana. 

Most insect galls on plants are innocuous. Gouty & Horned oak galls 
caused by this genus of Cynipid wasps are considered to be economically 
important. 

Fourteen pin oaks planted along one mile of Indiana two were 
studied in 1975 and 1976. 

Based on the age of branches at the site of galls, the first in- 
festation of these trees was about ten years ago. 

Six trees without galls averaged 16.9 inches diameter at breast 
height. Three trees which were heavily infested by horned oak gall 
averaged 14.7 inches D.B.H. The heavy infestations caused a 13% loss of 
diameter growth within a period of ten years. 



Insects and Other Arthropods of Economic Importance in Indiana 
During 1976.1 

Robert W. Meyer, Department of Entomology, Purdue University 
West Lafayette, Indiana 47906 

Abstract 

The abundance and economic impact of selected arthropods responsible for crop 
losses, annoyance to man and animals, destruction of food and fiber products as well as 
the abundance and activity of selected entomological parasites and predators of im- 
portance in their control in Indiana during 1976 are discussed. 

Introduction 

As a prelude to the discussion of insect activity, the more important 
meteorological influence on both invertebrate and plant life are re- 
viewed. January was a cold month, February and March averaged 7° F. 
above normal, and temperatures fell through April to below average 
levels where they remained through much of the summer. The early 
warm months were interrupted by frosts, including a low of 9° on 
17 March, 17° on 8 April and 28° on 8 May. These damaged some 
wheat, apples and peaches, but had little effect on corn and soybeans. 
The northern counties had good snow cover until 8 February, and 
snow fell over much of the state near the Ides of March, in advance 
of the 17 March freeze. There were a few local frosts early in October, 
but the big freeze of the fall occurred on 18 October. 

Rainfall was short through most of the first 9 months of the year, 
especially in the southern third of the state. This facilitated planting, 
and by 28 May, 97% of the corn was planted, in contrast to 70% 
during average years. By the same time 80% of the soybeans were 
planted; in normal years that figure is 35%. In spite of the early 
planting, however, the cool summer so slowed development that harvest- 
ing was little earlier than usual. And though the rainfall was short, 
enough fell at the right time to produce excellent yields of both corn 
and soybeans. 

Corn and Small Grains 

Three criteria indicate that the western corn rootworm (Diabrotica 
virgifera LeConte) was more abundant this year than last. In a survey 



1 Purdue University Agricultural Experiment Station. The following includes those who 
have made identifiable contributions to this summary: James Clark (Ornamentals, Jap- 
anese Beetles, parasite release and recovery data), C. Richard Edwards (Alfalfa and soy- 
bean insects), John Favinger (Ornamentals, forest insects), Philip T. Marshall (Forest 
insects), David L. Matthew (Extension data), James Palmer (Mexican bean beetle), 
Lawrence Porter (Japanese beetle), David Reed (Pheromone trap data), Richard Shade 
(Corn leaf aphid), Richard Schoenbohm (Black cutworm and its parasites), Donald 
Schuder (Ornamentals), John Sillings (Extension data), Michael Sinsko (Encephalitis), 
Omelio Sosa (Hessian fly), F. Tom Turpin (Corn insects), Gordon VanWoerkom (West- 
ern Corn rootworm, Coleomegilla maculata) , M. Curt Wilson (Alfalfa insects), Alan C. 
York (Vegetable insects). 

231 



232 



Indiana Academy of Science 



conducted in July adults were seen in 77% of the fields visited (1975:- 
59%) in the northern fourth of the state, in 22% of the remainder 
of the northern half (1975:14%). Secondly, it outnumbered the northern 
corn rootworm in almost all of the area north of Indianapolis. Lastly, 
the species invaded 15 new counties between last year and this (See 
Table 1 for new county records). (Table 2 contains all of the available 
developmental data.) 

Table 1. New State and County Records for 1976. New county records which are also 
new state records are followed by an asterisk. 



Organism 



County 



Anaphes flavipes (Forst. ) 
Ascosphaera apis 
Bathyplectes anurus (Thomson) 
B. curculionis (Thomson) 

Diabrotica virgifera LeConte 



Eriococcus azaleae Comstock 
Microctonus aethiopoides Loan 
Popillia japonica Newman 
Scaphoideus opalinus Osborn 
Tetrastichus julis (Walker) 



Tourney ella pini (King) 



Dearborn, Huntington 

Carroll* 

Spencer, Dubois, Daviess 

Noble, Clay, Warren, Grant, Jay, Blackford Fayette, 
Clark 

Putnam, Vigo, Clay, Owen, Hendricks, Marion, Han- 
cock, Morgan, Johnson, Shelby, Rush, Henry, Sulli- 
van, Greene, Jackson 

Marion 

LaPorte* 

Decatur, Scott, Union 

Marion* 

Pulaski, White, Huntington, Montgomery, Tippecanoe, 
Bartholomew, Boone, Hendricks, Johnson, Morgan, 
Harrison, Washington, Jackson, Lawrence, Orange, 
Dearborn, Franklin, Jennings 

Marion* 



Northern corn rootworm (D. longicornis (Say)) apparently declined 
in numbers. At least adults were found in fewer fields during the July 
survey than last year. From north to south, by quarters of the state, 
they were found in 9% (1975:20%), 27 (19), 27 (27), 8 (41) of the 
fields. Likewise the southern corn rootworm (D. undecimpunctata 
howardi Barber) populations were depressed; they were found in only 
2% (only in the southern fourth) as compared with 16% of the fields 
in 1975. 

Pupation of overwintering larvae of the European corn borer 
(Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner)) was virtually complete by 12 May in 
upright stalks in Daviess Co., and adults appeared in BL traps by mid- 
May over much of the state. First flight peaked between 28 May and 
17 June and the second flight remained heavy over much of the state 
from 23 July to 19 August. There was an average of 3.1 larvae/ 100 
stalks in mid-July, up from 1975 (0.9/100). The northeastern and 
southwestern corners of the state had the highest populations. The 
fall survey, with a similar population distribution, averaged 40 borers/ 
100 plants, 4 fewer than average. 

Damage by the corn earworm (Heliothis zeae (Boddie)) was ob- 
served in only 4 fields (of 189) all in the southern quarter of the 
state and all in late-planted corn. The corn leaf aphid (Rhopalosiphum 



Entomology 



233 



maidis (Fitch)) according to the fall corn survey infested only 7.5% 
of the corn, mostly lightly and about the same as in 1975. A field of 
susceptible (Kentucky 27) corn of appropriate age averaged 581 /stalk 
in 1976, as compared with 934 in 1975. Although several fields of sorghum 
in Vermillion Co. were noticeably infested by this species, most fields 
were free of them, an uncommon occurrence. The greenbug (Schizaphis 
graminum (Rondani)) was also rarely observed on this crop. 

Table 2. Date of first observation and/or peak population of several pest species. 







Occurrence 




Data 


Organism 


Stage 


First 


Peak(s) 


County 


Source 


Agrotis ipsilon (Hufn.) 


Adult 


16 Apr 


2-8 Jul 


Tippecan. 


BL Trap 


Aphis pomi DeGeer 


1st instar 


4 Mar 


— 


Vigo 


Observed 


Argyrotaenia velutinana 


Adult 


6 Jun 


mid-Jun 


Knox 


Pheromone 


(Walker) 












Choristoneura rosaceana 


Adult 




15 Sep 


Knox 


Pheromone 


(Harris) 












Diabrotica longicornis 


Adult 


5 Jul 


— 


Parke 


Observed 


(Say) 












D. virgifera LeConte 


Larva 


11 Jun 


— 


Porter 


Observed 




Adult 


1 Jul 


— 


LaPorte 


Observed 




Adult 


— 


27 Jul 


Tippecan. 


Sticky tr. 


Epilachna varivestis 


O/wntr adult 


26 May 


14-21 Jun 


Lawrence 


Research 


Mulsant 


Gen. 1 egg 


8 Jun 


5 Jul 


Lawrence 


Research 




Gen. 1 adult 


15 Jul 


2 Aug 


Lawrence 


Research 




Gen. 2 egg 


19 Jul 


5-12 Aug 


Lawrence 


Research 




Gen. 2 adult 


19 Aug 


7-12 Sep 


Lawrence 


Research 


Grapholitha molesta 


Adult 


— 


22 Apr 


Knox 


Pheromone 


(Busck) 












Heliothis zeae (Boddie) 


Adult 


6 Aug 


— 


Porter 


BL Trap 


Laspeyresia pomonella 


Adult 


10 Jun 


30 Aug 


Knox 


Pheromone 


(Linnaeus) 












Ostrinia nubilalis (Hbn. ) 


Gen. 1 adult 


16 May 


31 May 


Randolph 


BL Trap 




Gen. 2 adult 


— 


4 Aug 


Randolph 


BL Trap 


Oulemma melanopus 


1st instar 


10 May 


— 


Huntingt. 


Research 


(Linnaeus) 


2nd instar 


19 May 


— 


Huntingt. 


Research 




3rd instar 


25 May 


— 


Huntingt. 


Research 


Pcridroma saucia (Hbn.) 


Adult 


19 Apr 


9 Jul 


Tippecan. 


BL Trap 


Philaenus spumarius (L.) 


1st instar 


12 Mar 


— 


Dubois 


Observed 


Pseudaletia unipuncta 


Adult 


30 Mar 


24 Apr. 


Tippecan. 


BL Trap 


(Haworth) 






3 Jul 






Pyrrhalta luteola (Muller) 


Egg 


22 May 


— 


Tippecan. 


Observed 




1st instar 


24 May 


— 


Tippecan. 


Observed 


Reticulitermcs flavipes 


1st swarm 


8 Mar 


— 


Vigo 


Observed 


(Kollar) 












Rhagoletis pomonella 


Adult 


30 Jun 


mid-Jul 


Knox 


Pheromone 


(Walsh) 


Adult 


25 Jun 


— 


Tippecan. 


N. J. Trap 


Synanthedon pictipes 


Adult 




10 Jun, 


Knox 


Pheromone 


(Grote & Robinson) 






9 Sep 







Larvae of the black cutworm (Agrotis ipsilon (Hufnagel)) were 
observed in more fields than usual. Nevertheless, although growers 
were encouraged to report problem fields, no more than 400 acres in 
the state had economic infestations. In fact, the common stalk borer 
(Papaipema nebris (Guenee)) probably occasioned more inquiries than 



234 Indiana Academy of Science 

the black cutworm. Minor but uncommon pests of corn in 1976 include: 
a billbug (Sphenophorus zeae Walsh), reported to have destroyed 20 
acres in Decatur Co., a sod webworm, (probably Crambus ?nutabilis 
Clemens) destroyed patches of corn in Adams, Warren, Decatur and 
Washington counties; wireworms (unidentified), which necessitated 
replanting 180 acres of popcorn; and a grass thrips (Anaphothrips 
obscurus (Miiller)), which seriously damaged about 3 acres of corn in 
Gibson Co. 

The army worm (Pseudaletia unipuncta (Haworth) ) was the source 
of more telephone calls to Purdue Extension Service workers than any 
other insect in 1976. As many as 250 adults/week/BL trap were collected 
by 27 April, and by 12 May larvae had reached a half-inch in southern 
Indiana roadsides. By 28 May there were reported from wheat in the 
same area and were cutting wheat heads a week later in Sullivan Co. 
A 30-acre field of corn planted on turned-down rye was severely dam- 
aged in Rush Co. Calls from north-central Indiana began about 4 June, 
and continued through the middle of June. Most populations did not 
exceed 2-3 larvae/linear foot of wheat row, and didn't require treatment 
unless the larvae began cutting heads, which occasionally happened. 
BL trap collections peaked at about 1600 adults/trap/week. 

Two species of aphids, the oat bird-cherry (Rhopalosiphum padi 
(Linnaeus)) and the English grain (Macrosiphum avenae (Fabricius)) 
which normally are abundant only in the southwest corner of the 
state, were numerous enough in small grains to attract attention as 
far north as the central and even northern districts. The infestations 
were too late in the season to do damage to the crops. 

Hessian fly (Mayetiola destructor (Say)) remained at low levels. 
Of 260 fields in 48 counties surveyed, 13% were infested, only 3 of 
which had 10% of higher levels of infestation. The mean number of 
puparia/100 stems for all surveyed wheat was 0.9, the mean for cultivars 
resistant to Race B Hessian fly was 0.2, the mean for cultivars not 
resistant was 4.0. 

Late instar nymphs of the chinch bug (Blissus leucopterus (Say)) 
were reported from 4 locations in Adams Co. about 15 July from 
corn fields next to wheat. None was economic, nor did any economic 
numbers show up in the fall, 1975, preferred host survey. The cereal 
leaf beetle (Oulema melanopus (Linnaeus)) rarely reached economic 
levels, but populations increased over 1975. 

Forage Legumes and Soybeans 

The number of larvae resulting from the hatch of overwintering 
eggs of the alfalfa weevil (Hypera postica (Gyllenhal)) are customarily 
a problem only along the Ohio River. In 1976 these eggs survived in 
such numbers and hatched so early that overwhelming numbers were 
present on very short alfalfa as far north as US 50. Insecticides were 
necessary so early that they were no longer effective when spring-laid 
eggs hatched, and a second treatment, or at least a stubble-spray, was 
often advised in that area. 



Entomology 235 

Egg deposition started as usual in the fall of 1975. By 10 December 
eggs/square foot averaged 80 in the northern districts, 48 in the west 
central, 100 in the east central and 260 in the southern. Or, in a good 
stand in the southern districts, enough if all survived to supply each 
stem with 5 larvae. By 25 February egg counts in the southern districts 
had dropped to 120/square foot, indicating hatch. By 12 March the 
southwest corner of the state had 2.5 larvae/infested stem in alfalfa that 
averaged only 2.8". A comparison over several years is instructive. In 
south-central Indiana, at about the level of 300 heat units (base 48 °F.), 
the following prevailed: (year, height, larvae per infested stem); 1973, 
7", 1.7; 1974, 4.4", 0.9; 1975, 5", 5.7; 1976, 3.1", 3.4. By 24 March 10% of 
the stems in Harrison Co. had clutches of eggs. By 2 April untreated 
alfalfa at 4.9" had 5.6 larvae, and with an average of 1.5 eggs /stem, 
more larvae were still to come. When they hatched, even the most 
persistent pesticides applied to control overwintering larvae were no 
longer effective. And growth was insufficient to permit harvesting, so a 
second treatment was the only alternative. 

Overwintering eggs appear to have survived in sufficient numbers 
as well in northern Indiana for the first time to be of importance. Treat- 
ment was necessary in most instances north of US 30. In the rest of 
Indiana north of Indianapolis economic infestations were uncommon 
although feeding was usually evident. South of Indianapolis damage was 
usually economic; a minimum of one treatment was necessary and 2 were 
needed south of US 50. 

The potato leafhopper (Empoasca fabae (Harris) ) is always a 
serious problem in Indiana alfalfa. However, it reached damaging pro- 
portions later than usual so that in 1976 its full impact was not felt 
until late August. 

The Mexican bean beetle (Epilachna varivestis Mulsant) was more 
numerous on a state-wide basis in soybeans than in previous years, but 
peak populations usually occurred after the point at which greatest 
damage could have been inflicted. Except for Parke Co., this insect 
attacks soybeans only south of Indianapolis (One light infestation was 
observed in Tippecanoe Co. this year). There were reports of some dam- 
age in late June in Clay and Owen counties. Later in the year the 
heaviest infestations occurred in Ripley Co., with smaller areas in 
Daviess Co., and treated fields were observed in Morgan Co. 

Fruits and Vegetables 

The Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say)) was 
much more abundant than it has been for some years, both in potatoes 
and occasionally in tomatoes. Both crops were attacked this year also by 
the potato flea beetle (Epitrix cucumeris (Harris)). 

The imported cabbage worm (Pieris rapae (Linnaeus)) was more 
common in cole crops this year than the cabbage looper (Trichoplusia ni 
(Hiibner)). 

The striped cucumber beetle {Acalymma vittata (Fabricius)) was 
present in cold frames in Knox Co. by 30 April, and by 4 June was 



236 Indiana Academy of Science 

present both in Knox and Tippecanoe counties at the rate of 8- 
10/cucumber plant. In early September they were observed at the rate 
of 30-40/blossom on butternut squash in Shelby Co. 

Ornamentals, Forest and Shade Trees 

Gypsy moth (Porthetria dispar (Linnaeus)) surveys recovered no 
moths in 1976. As a precautionary measure, a gypsy moth parasite 
release program was begun this year, and the following parasites were 
released in the following counties: Brachymeria intermedia Nees — Lake, 
Porter, LaPorte, Starke, St. Joseph, Steuben, Martin, Lawrence. 
Palexorista inconspicua (Meigen) — Lake, Porter, LaPorte, Starke, 
Marshall, Elkhart, St. Joseph, Steuben, LaGrange, Martin, Lawrence. 
Both species are capable of establishing on species other than the 
gypsy moth. 

The forest tent caterpillar (Malacosoma disstria (Hubner)) was 
again present in numbers along the Lawrence (SC) -Martin (SW) county 
line, and some mortality has occurred especially among oak trees. From 
6000 acres in 1975, the area this year was extended to about 15000 
acres, including an area in Owen Co. near Cuba. A reduction in the 
severity of the attack appears likely for 1977, except for smaller areas. 

Fall webworm (Hyphantria cunea (Drury)) attacks were light 
through the state except for an area along the Porter-LaPorte Co. 
line, and some trees in Shakamak State Park. 

Japanese beetle (Popillia japonica Newman) adults were first ob- 
served 18 June in Elkhart Co., earlier than usual. Adults were con- 
spicuous in some Newton Co. soybean fields, which has not happened in 
some years, and they were reported destroying ornamentals in Tippe- 
canoe Co. and other places. 

Man and Animals 

The following is a review of the inquiries received by Purdue Exten- 
sion staff concerning household arthropod problems. For convenience 
synanthropic arthropods are here grouped according to their intimacy 
with their hosts. Of the arthropods that only accidentally invade the 
home spiders were still the most commonly reported, followed closely 
this year by Collembola, the latter at twice their usual number. Moth 
flies (Psychodidae) were much less frequently reported than average. 
Among commensals the Indian meal moth (Plodia interpunctella 
(Hubner) ) was reported more often than at any time in 10 years. A 
cabinet beetle, Trogoderma ornatum (Say), occupied second place and 
was reported more this year than in the previous 9 years together. Of the 
insects that feed upon so-called non-edible properties the black carpet 
beetle (Attagenus megatoma (Fabricius)) was most often reported, 
followed immediately by the carpet beetle (Anthrenus scrophulariae 
(Linnaeus)). Both of these were at 10-year highs. Termites were 
reported an average number of times, but the carpenter ant (Camponotus 
sp.) was reported only half as frequently as usual. Among the arthropods 
that invade our person the clover mite (Bryobia praetiosa Koch) was the 
most frequently reported. 



Entomology 237 

Of the arboviruses, 18 cases of St. Louis encephalitis and 3 of Cali- 
fornia encephalitis were recorded by mid-November, as compared with 
323 cases of the St. Louis strain alone in 1975. 

Beneficial Insects 

An attempt was made to estimate the rate of parasitization of the 
alfalfa weevil by 2 species of Bathyplectes. During the month of May 
collections of alfalfa weevil larvae from all districts yielded the follow- 
ing rates (mean %) of parasitization by Bathyplectes curculionis 
(Thompson): the lowest rate — 4% — was in the northwest district. The 
west central had 48, the south central had the highest — 57, the south- 
west had 28 (one-field sample) while the rest of the state ranged between 
17 and 20. 

Bathyplectes anurus (Thompson) is confined to south central and 
southwest Indiana. In the former, in April, it occurred in 8.3% of the 
alfalfa weevil larvae held for rearing; in May, 1.3%. In the south- 
west, where it has only recently arrived, it appeared in April in 0.19%, 
in May in 0.4% of the hosts. 

The alfalfa weevil egg parasitoid Patasson luna (Girault) was 
present in 3.5% of 801 alfalfa weevil eggs collected from the northern 
half of Indiana on 10-11 December 1975. 

Only 23.8% of the 421 field-collected black cutworm larvae held for 
rearing were parasitized this year, as compared with about 60% in 
1975. Of this percentage 14.3% were parasitized by Meteorus leviventris 
(Wesmael), 5.2% by the tachinid fly Bonnetia compta (Fallen), the 
remainder by other species. 

Cereal leaf beetle larvae parasitized at the rate of 28% by T. julis, 
20% by Diaparsis spp. and 2% by Lemophagus curtus Townes were re- 
leased at 3 sites in each of the counties between Morgan Co. east to 
Union Co. inclusive and as far south as Perry Co. 

The sarcophagid parsite Sarcophaga aldrichi Parker parasitized 
30% of the forest tent caterpillar (Malacosoma disstria Hubner) larvae 
collected in the outbreak area in Lawrence Co. (SC) as of 20 July. 

Adult lady beetles, Coleomegilla maculata DeGeer were present in 
most southern alfalfa fields by mid-April, and larvae were approaching 
maturity by mid-May. The numbers of this species observed on corn 
during the annual summer (July) corn survey were much higher than 
in previous years, 294 on 2400 stalks (96 fields), as compared with 192 
in 1975, 87 in 1974. The increase was more than likely due to the large 
numbers of aphids that occurred earlier in the year on small grains. Of 
the 294, 16 were parasitized by Perilitus coccinellae Schrank and 3 were 
dead of unknown causes. A flight of this beetle was detected by sticky 
traps in Tippecanoe Co. between 2-4 October. A similar flight, detected 
by rotary trap, occurred between 27 September and 1 October in 1975. 



Mosquito Diversity in St. Joseph County, Indiana (Diptera: Culicidae) 1 

D. A. Shroyer, R. F. Beach, L. Munstermann, J. Peloquin, 

J. L. Petersen, R. P. Smith and D. B. Taylor 

Vector Biology Laboratory, Department of Biology 

University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 

Abstract 

An intensive mosquito survey of St. Joseph County, Indiana, was undertaken in 
1976 to provide information on mosquito diversity, distribution, and abundance within 
the area. Location of larval breeding sites was emphasized, supplemented by a New 
Jersey light-trap program and man-bait collections. Over 2000 larval sites were identified 
in the 500 square-mile area. 

Of the 52 species of mosquito known to occur in Indiana, 35 (8 genera) are endemic 
to St. Joseph County. Larval sites for most species were identified within the county, 
and 31 species were represented in the light-trap collections. 

Introduction 

Until recently, all serious study of the native mosquito fauna of 
Indiana could be attributed to two men, the late Dr. Russell E. Siverly 
of Ball State University and John Hart of the Hayes Arboretum in 
Richmond. Siverly 's publication, Mosquitoes of Indiana (1), is the most 
comprehensive source of information on the distribution of species within 
the state. However, only Delaware County (2) has been studied inten- 
sively enough to reveal the full complement of disease vector and non- 
vector species which occur in the area. 

In the wake of the 1975 epidemic of St. Louis Encephalitis (SLE), 
many county health departments in Indiana sought to initiate mosquito 
control programs. Most counties began their programs with no knowledge 
of the potential vector species occurring in their areas. This critical 
information gap was generated by long-standing lack of public interest 
in mosquito control, apart from the individual efforts of Siverly and 
Hart. In Indiana, the "species sanitation" approach to mosquito control 
is advocated, in which only suspected vector species or major pest species 
are actively attacked. This is, of course, impossible unless (a) the 
target species are known, and (b) the larval breeding sites of the 
offending species are located. 

In order to implement the species sanitation concept in St. Joseph 
County, the Vector Biology Laboratory of the University of Notre Dame 
undertook a large-scale mosquito survey in cooperation with the St. 
Joseph County Health Department. The objectives of the survey were 
(a) to locate every major larval breeding site in the county's approxi- 
mately 500 square miles, and (b) through larval and adult sampling, 
obtain as much information as possible on mosquito diversity, distribu- 
tion, and abundance within the county. 



: This investigation was supported by the St. Joseph County, Indiana, Health De- 
partment, and by NIH Research Grant No. Al-02753. 

238 



Entomology 



239 



Materials and Methods 

Using- relatively large numbers of locally trained personnel, each 
square-mile section of the county was systematically and intensively 
surveyed for even the smallest breeding sites (e.g., tires, cans, tire ruts, 
catch basins etc). During May-August, 1976, each section was com- 
pletely surveyed twice, which often permitted collecting both "spring" 
and "summer" species at the same sites. Over 2000 breeding sites were 
thus identified. 

Aquatic populations were sampled with long-handled pint dippers or 
turkey-baster syringes. Late-instar larvae were identified, and, when 
possible, early instars in each collection were reared to identifiable age 
as well. Pupae were allowed to complete development and were identified 
as adults. Also, egg rafts were allowed to hatch, and the larvae pro- 
duced were identified. 

Adult mosquito populations were also sampled. Man-bait collections 
were made at the larval production sites. In addition, New Jersey light 
trap stations were established in diverse parts of the county, and daily 
trap samples were identified. 

Results and Discussion 

As a result of the intensive survey of St. Joseph County during the 
summer of 1976, 35 species of mosquito were found (Table 1). Larval 
breeding sites within the county have been identified for most of these 
species. 

On the basis of their ubiquity and human biting activity, Aedes 
vexans (Meigen), Aedes trivittatus (Coquillett) , Aedes triseriatus 
(Say), Aedes stimulans (Walker) and Aedes canadensis canadensis 

Table 1. The mosquitoes of St. Joseph County, Indiana — 1976. 



Aedes 

abscrratus (Felt and Young) 

aurifer (Coquillett) 

canadensis canadensis (Theobald) 

cinereus Meigen 

dorsalis (Meigen) 

excrucians (Walker) 

fitchii (Felt and Young) 

hendersoni Cockerell 

sticticus (Meigen) 

stimulans (Walker) 

triseriatus (Say) 

trivittatus (Coquillett) 

vexans (Meigen) 
Anopheles 
. barberi Coquillett 

crucians Weidemann 

punctipennis (Say) 

quadrimaculatus Say. 

walkeri Theobald 



Coquillettidia perturbans (Walker) 
Culex 

erraticus (Dyar and Knab) 

pipiens pipiens Linnaeus 

restuans Theobald 

salinarius Coquillett 

tarsalis (Coquillett) 

territans Walker 
Culiseta 

inornata ( Williston ) 

melanura (Coquillett) 

morsitans dyari Coquillett 

silvestris minnesotae (Barr) 
O rt fiopodom y ia 

alba Baker 

signifera (Coquillett) 
Psorophora 

ciliata (Fabricius) 

columbiae (Dyar and Knab) 1 

ferox (Humboldt) 
Uranotaenia sapphirina ( Osten-Sacken) 



Psorophora columbiae (Dyar and Knab) =Ps. confinnis ( Lynch- Arribalzaga) (4,5) . 



240 Indiana Academy of Science 

(Theobald) are of considerable importance in St. Joseph County. Anoph- 
eles punctipennis (Say), Anopheles quadrimaculatus Say and Culiseta 
inornata (Williston) were commonly encountered, the latter species 
being very abundant in May. 

Culex restuans Theobald and Culex territans Walker were 
exceedingly common and often locally abundant throughout 1976. Culex 
pipiens pipiens Linnaeus was not prevalent until the latter half of 
the mosquito season. There was no evidence of man-biting by any 
Culex species in our area, despite the status of Cx. p. pipiens as the pre- 
sumed vector of human SLE in Indiana. Over a period of several years, 
Shroyer and Siverly (unpublished observations) failed to observe man- 
biting by Cx. p. pipiens in the state. 

Though larval sampling was emphasized, 31 species and 8 genera 
were represented in 19,468 mosquitoes identified in the light trap pro- 
gram. As shown in Table 2, Ae. vexans was the most commonly captured 
species. While larval survey indicated that Ae. vexans and the Culex 
species were abundant, relative abundance of the species listed cannot 
be extrapolated from light-trap data due to the highly biased nature 
of this sampling method. 

Of all adults captured in New Jersey light traps, 74% were females. 
The impracticality of routine preparation of male genitalia for identi- 
fication accounts for part of the excess of females. Yet some common 
species with readily and reliably identifiable males (e.g. Ae. vexans, An. 



Table 2. 


Summary of New Jersey light trap collections, 1976. 




Species 


No. of 
females 


No. of 
males 


Total no. 
collected 


% of 
total 


Aedes vexans 


6,888 


2,492 


9,380 


48.2 



Culex salinarius 940 65 1,005 

Culex restuans 239 87 326 

Culex pipiens pipiens 215 195 410 

32.1 

Mixed Cx. restuans /pipiens 2,585 198 2,783 

Unidentifiable Culex 106 1,613 1,719 

Aedes sticticus 1,554 38 1,592 8.2 

Anopheles punctipennis . 428 41 469 2.4 

Anopheles quadrimaculatus 292 38 330 1.7 

Culex territans 245 61 306 1.6 

Coquillettidia perturbans 266 18 284 1.5 

Aedes stimulans 271 271 1.4 

Uranotaenia sapphirina 86 117 203 1.0 

Anopheles walkeri 108 108 0.6 

Infrequently collected species 1 198 84 282 1.4 

TOTAL 14,421 5,047 19,468 

1 Aedes triseriatus, Psorophora ciliata, Aedes excrucians, Orthopodomyia signifera/ 
alba, Aedes trivittatus, Aedes hendersoni, Aedes canadensis canadensis, Culiseta inornata, 
Culex tarsalis, Aedes abserratus, Aedes dorsalis, Anopheles crucians, Culex erraticus, Aedes 

cincreus. Anopheles barberi, Cidiseta melanura, Culiseta morsitans dyari, Psorophora 
ferox, Psorophora rolnmbiae. 



Entomology 241 

punctipennis, Cx. territans, and Coquillettidia perturbans (Walker)) 
also show a real paucity of males. This phenomenon could have several 
biological explanations, all of which remain unexamined. Bidlingmayer 
(3) reported similar data from New Jersey light traps in Florida. 

During his two-decade study of the mosquito fauna of Delaware 
County, Indiana, Siverly (1, 2) identified a total of 32 species in the 
400-square-mile area. The number of species in Delaware County com- 
pares favorably with the number found in the somewhat larger St. 
Joseph County. Prior to the present study, the mosquito fauna of St. 
Joseph County had not been seriously studied and Aedes hendersoni 
Cockerell (1) was the only resident species reported in the literature. 
Possibly, a few additional species will be discovered in St. Joseph 
County in the future. 



Literature Cited 

1. Siverly, R. E. 1972. Mosquitoes of Indiana. Indiana State Board of Health, Indianap- 
olis. 126 p. 

2. Siverly, R. E. 1972. Mosquitoes of Delaware County, Indiana. Mosquito News. 
26(2) :221-229. 

3. Bidlingmayer, W. L. 1967. A comparison of trapping methods for adult mosquitoss: 
species response and environmental influence. J. Med. Entomol. 4(2) :200-220. 

4. Belkin, J. N., S. J. Heinemann and W. A. Page. 1970. Mosquito studies (Diptera: 
Culicidae) XXI. The Culicidae of Jamaica. Contr. Amer. Entomol. Inst. 6(1) :l-458. 

5. Anonymous. 1976. The Psorophora confinnis complex. Editorial note. Mosquito News. 
36(3) :376. 



New Indiana Records of Aphids (Homoptera: Aphididae) 

Virgil R. Knapp 

Indiana Department of Natural Resources 

Indianapolis, Indiana 46204 

Abstract 

Sixteen new records of aphids from the state are listed with annotations and hosts. 
Many of these species, it is believed, have been referred to previously in the literature by 
other investigators under general nomenclature but not by their scientific names. At least 
they are not suspected of being new introductions to the state. 

New Indiana Records of Aphids 

Unless noted, all collections were made by the author. 

Amphorophora crataegi (Monell). The Four-spotted Hawthorn Aphid 

Siphonophora crataegi Monell 

Macrosiphum crataegi Patch 

Hawthorn, Madison Co., Aug. 28, 1975 
Amphorophora rhododendronia Mason 

Rhododendron, Marion Co., June 11, 1976 
Aphis rubi folia (Thomas) 

Sipha rubifolia Thomas 

Cerosipha rubifolii Winter 

Raspberry, DeKalb Co., June 28, 1972 
Cepegillettea betulifoliae Granovsky 

Riverbirch, Marion Co., June 22, 1972 
Cinara piceicola (Cholodkovsky) 

Lachnus piceicola Cholodkovsky 

Cinara piceicola Palmer 

Tilia sp., Marion Co., Oct. 15, 1975 
Drepanaphis keshenae Granovsky Hottes & Frison 

Acer saccharum, Marion Co., Sept. 7, 1976 
Drepanaphis sabrinae Miller 

Acer saccharum, Marion Co., Sept. 7, 1976 
Dactynotus gravicornis Patch 

Crabapple Crataegus sp., Marion Co., June 22, 1976 
Macrosiphum coweni (Hunter) 

Nectarophora artemisiae Cowen 

Nectarophora coweni Hunter 

Macrosiphum coweni Gillette & Palmer 

Radiant Crab, Gibson Co., 1974 
Macrosiphum gravicornis Patch 

Brachen Fern, Pulaski Co., Sept. 25, 1976 
N eosymydybius annulatus (Koch) 

Chaitophorus annulatus Koch 

Calaphis annulata Gillette & Palmer 

Birch, Allen Co., July 22, 1971 

242 



Entomology 243 

Pemphigus populi-caulis Fitch 

Coll. in Yellow Pan Trap Survey in June & July (1) 
Rhopalosiphum padi (L.) (Kaltenbach) 

Aphis padi L. 

Rhopalosiphum prunifoliae (Fitch) 

Coll. in Yellow Pan Trap Survey in June & July 1975 (1) 

R. N. Meyer, 1974 (2) 
Pterocomma populifoliae (Fitch) 

Aphis populifoliae Fitch 

Pterocomma populifoliae Baker 

Black Willow, White Co., May 18, 1976 
Shenahweun minatus (Davis) 

Drepanaphis minutus Davis 

Acer saccharum, Sept. 7, 1976 



Literature Cited 

1. Medler, J. T. and A. K. Ghosh. 1969. Keys to species of alate aphids collected by 
suction, wind, and yellow-pan water traps in the North Central States, Oklahoma and 
Texas. Res. Div., Coll. Agr. and Life Sci., Univ. Wise. Cen. Reg. Publ. No. 192. Res. 
Bui. 277. 99 p. 

2. Meyer, R. N. 1974. Ind. Insect Survey Record, Coop Ext. Ser. No. 29, Nov. 1974. 



Observations on Periodical Cicadas (Brood XXIII) in Indiana in 1976 

Frank N. Young and Ross B. Zimmerman 
Department of Zoology- 
Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 47401 

Brood XXIII of 13-year cicadas emerged in late May and early June, 
1976 in the lower Wabash and White River valleys. Light emergences 
occurred before May 17, but all emergence seemed delayed by cool, rainy 
weather. Cicadas did not begin to call until late in May. 

Twelve stations established in 1963 were checked for emergence 
on May 17. Cicada exuviae were found on that date only at Thomas 
Say's grave in New Harmony. On May 22-24 all except 2 of the 12 
stations showed positive evidence of cicada emergence and adults or 
exuviae were collected. On June 4 all 12 stations were positive and 
specimens were collected or choruses recorded. 

The twelve stations established are as follows: Knox County, West 
Fork White River, at U.S. Hgw. 150; Daviess County, West Fork of 
White River at U.S. 150; Gibson County, S. edge West Fork White 
River at U.S. 41; Gibson County, 1 mi. N. Patoka on U.S. 41; Posey 
County, 3 mi. N.E. New Harmony on Ind. Hgw. 68; Posey County, New 
Harmony, Thomas Say memorial and grave; Warrick County, 0.5 mi. west 
Vanada on Ind. 66-662; Warrick County, Yankeetown on Ind. 66-662; 
Spencer County, Richland, on Ind. 161; Warrick County, 2 mi. E. DeGonia 
Springs on U.S. 460; Spencer County, Little Pigeon River at U.S. 460. 
Additional collections were made in Sullivan and Vanderburgh Counties. 
Cicadas were also collected in Posey County by Gene Kritsky (Univ. of 
Illinois). 

All of the stations listed above were checked during the emergences 
of Brood X (1970) and Brood XIV (1974), but no signs of cicada emer- 
gence were found at the time of emergence. In July, 1970, evidence of 
oviposition (flagging) was observed in Knox and Spencer Counties and 
emergency of Brood X was reported from Vanderburgh and Knox Coun- 
ties (Young, 1971). These indications and emergences were not, how- 
ever, in the immediate area of the stations indicated for Brood XXIII. 
Brood XIV did not overlap in any area with Brood XXIII. 

A general impression from our work in 1976 is that the emergence 
was not as heavy as in 1963. Large choruses were not found and emer- 
gence was not in any areas as heavy as that of Brood X in many places 
in 1970. 

Marlatt (1923) reported that periodical cicadas of Brood XXIII 
emerged in 1911 in Bartholomew, Daviess, Fayette, Floyd, Gibson, Jack- 
son, Jennings, Knox, Montgomtery, Owen, Posey, Putnam, Ripley, 
Spencer, Sullivan, Vanderburgh, Vigo, and Warrick Counties. The 
counties italicized were reconfirmed in both 1963 and 1976, but no 
indications could be found in the other counties in 1963 or 1976, despite 
several searches. No reports of emergence were received from other 
entomologists. 

244 



Entomology 245 

In the collections made Magicicada tredecim (Walsh and Ripley) and 
M. trecassini (Alexander and Moore) predominated. Both were present 
at all the stations, but M. tredecula (Alexander and Moore) was not 
taken or observed, but probably occurred in the area. It was recorded 
in 1963 by Hamilton and Cleveland (1964). 

Voucher specimens for the collections are in the Field Museum, 
Chicago. 



References Cited 

Hamilton, D. W. and M. L. Cleveland. 1964. Periodical cicadas in 1963, Brood 23. Proc. 
Indiana Acad. Sci. 73:167-170. 

Young, F. N. 1971. Observations on periodical cicadas (Brood X) in Indiana in 1970 
(Homoptera: Cicadidae). Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 80:247-252, map. 

1975. Observations on periodical cicadas (Brood XIV) in Indiana in 1974 (Homoptera: 
Cicadidae). Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 84:289-293. 



Culex Mosquito Populations in the Catch Basins of Northern 
St. Joseph County, Indiana 1 

Leonard E. Munstermann and George B. Craig, Jr. 

Vector Biology Laboratory, Department of Biology 
University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 

Abstract 

In the St. Joseph County Mosquito Abatement Program larval survey of 1976, 
numerous Culex encephalitis mosquitoes were discovered in the catch basins beneath 
street storm drains. Subsequently, a systematic inspection of catch basins was conducted 
in the communities of South Bend, Mishawaka, Notre Dame, Roseland, and Osceola. 
Presence of catch basins was found dependent on city sewerage construction policy, e.g., 
South Bend did not construct them (following modern sewerage practice), while Misha- 
waka maintained one to four catch basins at nearly every street intersection. 

Collection and identification of 2200 larvae from 150 positive sites demonstrated two 
points. 1) Larval populations occurred in 37 to 66 percent of the catch basins, depending 
on previous rainfall patterns. 2) Early in the season, Culex restuans was the only species 
usually found, but by midsummer, Culex pipiens pipiens constituted approximately half 
of the collections. Proposed control measures were insecticide treatment or elimination 
of catch basins. 

Introduction 

Extensive mosquito development in catch basins, usually located 
beneath the storm drains at street intersections, has been recognized as 
a problem for many years. As early as 1915, the 5000 catch basins of 
Washington, D. C, were flushed and treated with mosquito oil (8). More 
recently, routine treatment of catch basins with insecticides has become 
a common practice in established mosquito abatement programs in 
Illinois (5, 14), New Jersey (10), Kentucky (2), Georgia (7) and 
California (4, 6, 13). 

In response to the Indiana encephalitis epidemic in 1975, the St. 
Joseph County Mosquito Abatement Program was organized under the 
auspices of the County Department of Public Health by the Vector 
Biology Laboratory at the University of Notre Dame. In the first year 
of operation (1976), the primary objective was to locate larval sites 
and determine mosquito species diversity in the county. Details of 
the program and findings are published in these proceedings (12). Early 
in the survey, a significant amount of Culex production in catch basins 
was noted; consequently, a more intensive effort was made to assess 
them as major breeding sites. 

Methods 

The initial survey indicated that production potential was dependent 
on the construction of the system used for disposal of storm run-off. To 
aid in identifying the construction types, each is described below. The 
general term "storm drain" will be used to include any underground 



1 This investigation was supported by the St. Joseph County, Indiana, Health De- 
partment, and by NIH Research Grant No. AI-02753. 

246 



Entomology 



247 



system for removal of rainwater from the surface. Storm drains were 
manifested on the surface by rectangular or circular metal gratings at 
street intersections, depressions in grassed areas, and in larger paved 
surfaces. 

A. Storm drains, direct drainage. These drains were concrete funnels 
connected to pipes, 15-20 cm diam, which led 1) directly to the sewer 
mains located beneath the street center, or 2) to a catch basin located 
in the same intersection (Fig. 1). 

B. Catch basin, type I. These were large brick basins which widened 
to a diameter of a meter and were one to two meters deep. An over- 
flow pipe led to the sewer mains (Fig. 2) (7). 

C. Catch basin, type II. These are typically concrete, cylindrical basins, 
0.6 m diam, connected in series by a pipeline. Each basin had an 
inlet and outflow pipe, with water standing below the level of the 
outflow pipe (Fig. 3). 

D. Catch basin, type III. These basins had no overflow pipes but relied 
on seepage through a stone or gravel base for water removal. They 
were usually small, 0.6 m diam, and 0.6 to 1.0 m deep (Fig. 4). 

E. Dry well. The principle of construction was the same as the catch 
basin, type III, but much wider (2-3 m diam) and deeper (2-3 m). 
This type was built to contain run-off from parking lots and other 
paved areas. 

Five communities in northern St. Joseph County were surveyed: 
Mishawaka, Notre Dame, Osceola, Roseland and South Bend. The data 
gathered were a) storm drain construction types, b) presence of stand- 
ing water and larvae, and c) species of larvae. 



Curb 



n 



Drain Grate 



; : v vVsZ 



I . II II II I I f 




Figure 1. 



Direct drainage storm drain, typical of South Bend storm drainagt 



248 



Indiana Academy of Science 



Curb 



Drain Grate 



t=D I I II -ii-rJ street Level 

1.0 m 



k Standing Water ,%& 
f£ .05-0.8 m ^-€ 



• Mud, Sand, Debris 'a 




Sand, DeDris a" 



Figure 2. Catc/i &asm, type /, typical of those found below the storm drains of 

Mishatvaka. 

Straight line, north-south (N-S) and east-west (E-W) transects 
were taken at the widest limits of Mishawaka and South Bend. The 
streets that the transects followed were 

Mishawaka (N-S)— Normandy, Division, Union, and Main streets; 

(E-W) — 10th and 6th streets; 
South Bend (N-S)— St. Louis and Fellows streets; 
(E-W)— Randolf, Dubail, Indiana, and Ford streets. 



Dram Grofe 

rirnxnEzix^r 



Surface 



0.6 m 



Inlet Pipe 



Outflow Pipe 



Standing Water 
Mud, Sand, Debris >•£.; 



\ [ 



Figure 3. Catch basin, type II, used on the Notre Dame campus. 



Entomology 



249 



Drain Grate 



Surface 




^J!?!*' 1 * Wa^r 




■ • -° * no ©■»••«. 












Figure 4. 



Cafc/i 6asm, type ///, / OMnd atonfir tfc e streets of Osceola and Roseland. 



The transects in Mishawaka were repeated to detect possible seasonal 
and rainfall effects on population numbers. In the communities of Notre 
Dame, Osceola, and Roseland, nearly all of the storm drains were 
examined. 

Whenever standing water was detected in a storm drain catch basin 
the cast iron grating was removed and 6 to 10 dips were taken with 
a standard 0.45 liter enamel dipper. Larvae were collected into poly- 
ethylene bottles for later identification in the laboratory. Samples from 
dry wells and sewer mains were taken with a one-liter tin can attached 
to a long nylon cord. 

The number of larvae found was probably underestimated for two 
reasons. Firstly, when the storm drain covers were lifted, debris dropping 
into the water caused the larvae to descend to the bottom of the basin, 
making collection difficult. Secondly, some catch basins were found sealed 
shut due to street resurfacing or were too deep to be effectively 
sampled. J 

Results and Discussion 

Construction of storm drainage systems determined to a large decree 
the amount of standing water available for mosquito development? In 
South Bend, where storm run-off flowed directly into the sewer mains 
I;? 0811 ; 6 °* P0tential sites were found. In the other communities,' 
where catch basins were utilized (Table 1), most contained standing 



250 



Indiana Academy of Science 



TABLE 1. Percent of storm drains with catch basins in five northern Indiana com- 
munities, St. Joseph County. 



Storm 
Community drains 

South Bend 13,600a 

Mishawaka 2,860b 

Notre Dame 120 

Osceola 12 

Roseland 10 

a Estimates provided by community officials, 
b Extrapolated from transect counts. 



No. with catch 
basins (%) 



27b 
1,300a 
92 
12 
10 



(0.2) 
(46) 
(77) 
(100) 
(100) 



Catch basin 
type 



I 

I 

II 
II 
III 



ROSELAND 
HI 7/ 23 31% 

30/91 NOTRE DAME 




FIGURE 5 Number of street drains and percent found with standing water and positive 
for Culex mosquito larvae in five communities of St. Joseph County, Indiana. 

water and provided excellent habitats for Culex mosquitoes. In Figure 
5, the non-producing, direct drainage drains were included in calculating 
the percent positive for Culex larvae. However, if catch basins only 
were considered, 37 to 66 percent contained larvae. 

In addition to catch basins, type II and III, dry wells were com- 
monly used in Osceola and Roseland parking lots and in other payed 
properties. Although 19 of 25 examined contained standing water low 
density larval populations were found in only two of them. Though dif- 
ficulty in sampling can account for this, accumulation of oils and poisons 
may also prevent larval growth there. 

Over 2200 larvae from 150 positive sites were collected in the five 
communities. All larvae were identified as Culex pipiens pipiens or Cx. 
restuans, with only one exception. Two Aedes trisenatus were taken 



Entomology 251 

from a catch basin on the east-west transect of Mishawaka. This 
probably represented an accidental introduction from an overflow of this 
species normal treehole habitat. 

In the six-week period of collecting, a distinct trend of an increas- 
ing number of Cx. pipiens was noted (Table 2). When the east-west 
and north-south transects of Mishawaka were repeated later in July, 
Cx. pipiens had increased from 11 to 46 percent and 29 to 66 percent of 
the totals, respectively. This trend was noted for other larval sites 
of these Culex as well (12). In the catch basin study by Covell and 
Resh (3) in Louisville, Kentucky, the increase of Cx. pipiens began at 
mid-June and reached nearly 100 percent by the first week in July. If 
the species shift was due to a temperature threshold as they contended, 
then possibly the cooler seasonal temperature accounted for the later 
appearance of Cx. pipiens in St. Joseph County. 

Table 2. Seasonal changes in relative numbers of Culex restuans and Culex p. pipiens 
in catch basins in two Indiana communities, St. Joseph County, summer, 1976. 



Date 


Collection 


No. 


No. 


Culex 




Culex 




Collected 


Area 


Sites 


Larvae 


restuans 


(%) 


pipiens 


(%) 


14 June 


Mishawaka (south) 


9 


140 


137 


(98) 


3 


( 2) 


6 July 


Mishawaka (E-W) 


24 


218 


1 93 


(89) 


25 


(11) 


12 July 


Mishawaka (N-S) 


26 


464 


331 


(71) 


133 


(29) 


20 July 


Notre Dame campus 


30 


704 


311 


(44) 


393 


(56) 


22 Julya.lb 


Mishawaka (N-S) 


15 


89 


30 


(34) 


59 


(66) 


28 Julya 


Mishawaka (E-W) 


31 


401 


216 


(54) 


185 


(46) 



a Exact repeat of earlier transect, 
b Sampled after a 8.1 cm rainfall. 

The impact of heavy rains on larval populations was considerable. 
In the repeat of the Mishawaka (N-S) transect (Table 2), the rains 
reduced the positive sites from 26 to 15. The average number of larvae 
per positive site was reduced by 67 percent. However, because of the 
flushing action of run-off in the catch basins, the survival of even this 
number of larvae was surprising. In Savannah, Georgia, continued 
heavy rains virtually eliminated larval Cx. pipiens quinquefasciatiis 
from catch basins, but these populations reappeared within a week after 
the rains stopped (1, 7). 

Significance for Control Programs 

Catch basins of Mishawaka and Notre Dame are major sources of 
Culex restuans and Culex pipiens pipiens mosquitoes. Because of the 
role of these species in the transmission of Eastern Equine Encephalitis 
anl St. Louis Encephalitis, catch basin mosquito production must be an 
important consideration in a control program. Two control alternatives 
to be considered are 1) elimination of the site, and 2) treatment with 
chemical insecticides, 

Elimination of catch basins by conversion to a direct drainage 
system (Fig. 1) is a permanent solution. Many years ago, catch basins 
were designed solely for preventing grit and debris from entering and 



252 Indiana Academy of Science 

clogging sewerage systems. For more than 40 years, however, building 
of catch basins has been discouraged by sewerage engineers. This is 
because the more modern sewers are built to move sewage at "self- 
cleaning velocities" of 0.6 m per second in pipes of 30 cm or greater in 
diameter (9), obviating the need for catch basins. 

The use of insecticides is a temporary and less satisfactory solu- 
tion. Until banned, residual insecticides such as DDT had been used 
with success (2, 5, 6). Recently, organophosphorus compounds such as 
Abate (American Cyanamid, Princeton, NJ) and Dursban (Dow Chemi- 
cal, Midland, MI) (11) and pyrethrin Toss-Its (WYCO International, 
Cleveland, OH) (2) have proved effective in catch basin larval control. 
These insecticides do not remain effective over longer periods and must 
be reapplied after every rainfall. The use of dichlorvos (DDVP, Vapona) 
(Shell Chemical, Fresno, CA) impregnated resin plastic strips has 
been successfully used against both larval and adult mosquitoes for an 
entire season (1, 13), though this method is much more expensive than 
others. In addition, special spray nozzles and vehicles have been devel- 
oped and deployed for insecticide application in catch basins by several 
abatement districts (2, 10, 14). 



Literature Cited 

1. Brooks, G. D. and H. F. Schoof. 1964. Field evaluation of five types of dichlorvos 
dispensers against Culex pipiens quinquej asciatus in catch basins. Mosquito News. 
24(2) :144-148. 

2. Covell, C. V. 1968. Mosquito control and survey in Jefferson County, Kentucky. 
Mosquito News. 28(4) -.526-529. 

3. Covell, C. V. and V. H. Resh. 1971. Relative abundance of Culex pipiens and Culex 
restuans in catch basins in Jefferson County, Kentucky. Mosquito News. 31(1) :73-76. 

4. Gray, H. F. 1946. The control of mosquito breeding in street inlets (catch basins), 
underground utility vaults and similar structures, by DDT residual sprays. Calif. 
Mosquito Control Assoc, 14th Ann. Conf. Proc. and Papers: 61-63. 

5. Hedeen, A. A. 1963. The use of DDVP for the control of mosquitoes breeding in 
catch basins. Mosquito News. 21(3) :255. 

6. Lauret, T. H. 1953. Problems in the treatment of residential catch basins. Calif. 
Mosquito Control Assoc. Proc. 22 :73-74. 

7. Maddock, D. R., C. M. Elmore, Jr. and H. F. Schoof. 1963. Preliminary tests with 
DDVP vapor for the control of Culex pipiens quinquej asciatus in catch basins. 
Mosquito News. 23(2) :69-74. 

8. Metcalf, L. and H. P. Eddy. 1915. American sewerage practice. II. Construction of 
sewers. McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York. 564 p. 

9. Metcalf, L. and H. P. Eddy. 1930. Sewerage and sewage disposal. McGraw-Hill 
Book Co., New York. 783 p. 

10. Nelson, C. and R. E. Dorer. 1964. A scooter equipped for catch basin spraying. 
N. J. Mosquito Extermin. Assoc. Proc. 51 :103-104. 

11. Self, L. S. and M. M. Tun. 1968. Evaluation of organophosphorus oil sprays against 
Culex pipiens fatigans in polluted drains and septic tanks. WHO/VBC/68.81. 7 p. 

12. Shroyer, D. A., R. F. Beach, L. Munstermann, J. Peloquin, R. P. Smith and D. B. 
Taylor. 1976. Mosquito diversity in St. Joseph County, Indiana (Diptera: Culicidae). 
Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. In press. 

13. Silveira, S. M., G. W. Force and D. J. Womeldorf. 1964. Field test of dichlorvos- 
resin strips for controlling mosquito larvae in catch basins in Turlock, California. 
Calif. Vector Views. 11(10) :57-59. 

14. Wray, F. C. 1954. Catch basin spraying. Mosquito News. 14(3) :119-120. 



Smithi struma filitalpa W. L. Brown, an Indiana Dacetine Ant 
(Hymenoptera: Formicidae) 

Jack R. Munsee, Indiana State University 
Terre Haute, Indiana 47809 

Abstract 

Smithistruma filitalpa is a dacetine ant found in Indiana, although related forms 
are old world and tropical. Strumigenys is believed to be the ancestral genus of Smith- 
istruma with the latter including forms with short mandibles, while the former have 
long mandibles. Small size, small nest populations, and slow movement of the ant 
are among factors that have caused S. filitalpa to be largely overlooked. Berlese 
funnel collections have shown that this species is not as uncommon as previously 
thought. Thirty-three specimens of Smithistruma were taken by pitfall trapping in 
an abandoned suiface mine. On the basis of 6 workers from from these ants, 
which were determined by the author of the species to be S. filitalpa, eight additional 
workers were considered as belonging to the same species. Although not determined to 
species, 15 sexual forms and four other workers are also believed to belong to the genus 
Smithistruma. It was determined that 75-80 percent of the areas from which the ants 
were taken represented open or bareground situations. These findings support the supposi- 
tion that S. filitalpa is an ant of open areas; also, its presence is probably related to the 
presence of collembolans upon which it feeds. The 6 specimens of Smithistruma filitalpa 
submitted for determination have been included in the Museum of Comparative Zoology 
collection of dacetine ants, Cornell University. 

Introduction 

Smithistruma filitalpa is a species of the Dacetini, a large tribe of 
unusual appearing ants of the subfamily Myrmicinae. The subfamily 
is characterized by those ants having a pedicel of two segments 
between the thorax and abdomen; also, they possess a sting. Dacetine 
ants, according to Brown (2) may be recognized as having: 1) less than 
six segments in the antennal funiculus; white spongy-like appendages 
or thin-layered lateral wings on one or both sides of the pedicel; or 
2) having a flattened pear-shaped head which is narrowed anteriorly 
with a broad, deep occipital cleft; mandibles linear, each with two or 
three large apical teeth, as well as an oblique, often hidden tooth or 
spine at the inner basal border; or 3) having a combination of the 
characteristics noted in 1) and 2). 

The Dacetini are widely distributed throughout the world and con- 
stitute generic complexes in Neotropical, Australasian, Ethiopian, as 
well as Nearctic regions (2). According to Wilson (6) the distribution 
of the genus Smithistruma includes Asia, Australia, and the New 
World Tropics; however, it is represented in Nearctic regions as well 
(2). The subgenus Smithistruma is almost cosmopolitan (4). 

. The ancestral genus of Smithistruma W. L. Brown, is thought to be 
Strumigenys F. Smith, which is the largest genus of the Dacetini. The 
Strumigenys complex includes 16 genera (2) one of which, Smithistruma, 
was erected by Brown in 1949. Ants of this genus are recognized as 
"short mandibulate" forms in contrast to the "long mandibulate" forms 
which are more typical of Strumigeyiys. 

253 



254 



Indiana Academy of Science 



Morris (3) listed four species of Strumigenys as probably occur- 
ring in Indiana. Since these were "short mandibulate" ants they right- 
fully belong to Smithistruma. Brown (2) has recorded 15 species of this 
genus among the states of Indiana, Kentucky, Illinois, and Ohio. Except 
for one, all of the species belong to the subgenus Smithistruma. Illinois 
and Ohio are each represented by 13 of the 15 species; one was reported 
from Kentucky and 6 from Indiana. Smithistruma filitalpa was reported 
only from Indiana (2). The four species noted by Morris are included 
in the 15 recorded by Brown. Although S. filitalpa was cited in 1967 as one 
of nine ants recently recorded in the state, no reference to habitus was 
made (5). Figure 1 shows some of the characteristics of dacetine ants 
as represented by this species. Shown are the mandibles with apical 
teeth; pyriform head; 5-segmented antenna; and spongiform processes on 
the declivity of the epinotum, petiole, and postpetiole. Part of the head 
sculpture is shown in its upper left region. 




FlGUKE 1. Smithistruma (S.) filitalpa Brown showing some characteristics of dacetine 
ants. Partial sculpturing of head, upper left. 



Some of the biology of ants of Smithistruma is known, but much 
needs to be learned about their ecology, including that of S. filitalpa, 
according to Brown (personal communication). It has been established 
that S. filitalpa and the majority of higher dacetines are predaceous 
and feed chiefly upon collembolans and other soft-bodied anthropods, as 
noted in Brown (2) and Wilson (6). With increased collecting of species 
of Smithistruma, habitat preferences have likewise become better known. 
Thus, Brown notes that some species are found in open country and have 
been taken in the berlestates of Andropogon clumps. In southern Indiana 
he found the closely related species, S. talpa mainly in duff under red 
cedar in clearings and in old fields (personal communication). 

Various factors are related to previous dearth of information about 
Smithistruma filitalpa and related species. They are small ants which 
move very slowly. Also, because of being light ferruginous color and 
tendency to feign death, they are not easily seen; in addition, colonies 



Entomology 255 

are small and usually well concealed (2). It was not until berlesates 
of habitat materials were studied that the more common occurrence of 
these ants was recognized. Brown's revision of the dacetine ants is 
the only comprehensive work on this tribe, and is therefore the primary 
reference of this report. 

Methods 

Ants belonging to Smithistruma referred to here were taken in 
pitfall traps in the spoil banks of a defunct stripmine located near 
Centenary, Indiana. The specimens appeared in collections made in 
connection with a related study on ant ecology. Originally, a worker, 
dealate female, and alate male were submitted to D. R. Smith, Agricul- 
tural Research Service, U.S.D.A., for identification. In the return com- 
munication, a qualified determination of Smithistruma filitalpa Brown 
was received. Closer examination of similar appearing ants showed a 
total of 30 additional specimens which included 17 workers, 11 females, 
1 male and 1 bilateral gynandromorph. Only the workers are reported 
here. To firmly establish identity, six workers believed to be Smithistruma 
filitalpa were sent to Brown, after obtaining data on measurements 
following the method given in his revisionary work (2). Brown's reply 
confirmed the identification. Among the remaining workers were three 
that clearly were not this species; also, two unidentified workers were 
received from Jack Hart, Earlham College, which he had taken during 
studies on the Collembola, near Connersville, Indiana. One of these, 
along with three workers, were measured and tentatively identified before 
being submitted to Brown for determination. Brown noted that because of 
the poor condition of the ants no positive identity could be made (personal 
communication). Presence, arrangement, and form of clypeal and body 
hairs are very important diagnostic factors. The hairs are easily dis- 
lodged or matted and for this reason, Brown recommends mounting speci- 
mens on points, rather than storing in alcohol. 

Generally, the method of measuring ants followed that of Brown 
(2), except that a stage micrometer rather than a squared ocular disc 
was used. Also, Brown's specimens were dry-mounted, while in this 
study ants were examined in alcohol or methylcellulose, the latter not 
recommended if specimens are to be pinned. A total of eight basic 
measurements were made on each of 14 worker specimens. 

Results 

Five of the eight measurements pertinent to this paper are given 
in Table 1. The five correspond to those for species of Smithistruma in 
Brown's revision (2). They represent averages compared with measure- 
ments given for Brown's holotype worker (1). 

The differences for each corresponding value are small from which 
it may be determined, along with the description of the Brown's speci- 
men, that the workers are the same species as the holotype. 

Brown (2) suggests that £. filitalpa is an ant of open areas which 
characteristic is typical of the spoil banks from which ants in this study 
were taken. Vegetation consists chiefly of weeds in addition to scattered 



2.25 


2.06 


0.55 


0.54 


0.53 


0.52 


65.00 


66.00 


16.70 


17.00 



256 Indiana Academy of Science 

Table 1. Comparison of average measurements of Ik workers of Smithistruma (S.) 
filitalpa with corresponding measurements of the holotype. 

Workers Holotype 

Total Length — mm 

Head Length — mm 

Alitrunk (WL)-mm 

Cephalic Index (CI) 

Mandibular Index (MI) 

CI — Maximum head width/Head length X 100 
MI — Mandibular length/Head length X 100 

small trees. Of the four separate sites from which the specimens were 
taken, 75-80 percent of their areas was determined to be open or bare- 
ground. (Unpublished doctoral thesis.) 

Like other species of the genus, £. filitalpa is likely to be found 
where collembolans are abundant. In this study, trap catches included 
many of these insects. Since they are a principal food source, their pres- 
ence is thought to assure the presence of the ants (2). 

The six specimens of Smithistruma filitalpa submitted for determi- 
nation have been included in the Museum of Comparative Zoology col- 
lection, Cornell University, and according to Brown, "are useful towards 
establishing that 5. filitalpa is a good species with its own distribution 
and variation" (personal communication). 



References Cited 

Brown, W. L., Jr. 1950. Preliminary descriptions of seven new species of dacetine 

ants, genus Smithistruma Brown. Trans. Amer. Entom. Soc. 76 :39-40. 

BROWN, W. L., Jr. 1953. Revisionary studies of the ant tribe Dacetini. Amer. Midland 

Nat. 50:1-137. 

Morris, R. L. 1943. An annotated list of the ants of Indiana. Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 

52:203-224. 

Muesebeck, C. F. W., K. V. Krombein, H. K. Townes, et al. 1951. Hymenoptera of 

America north Mexico. Synop. Cat. USDA Agr. Monogr. no. 2, Supt. of Doc, U.S. 

Gov't. Print. Office, Washington, D.C. 

Munsee, Jack R. 1968. Nine species of ants (Formicidae) recently recorded from 

Indiana. Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 77 :222-227. 

Wilson, Edward O. 1971. The Insect Societies. Belknap Press of Harvard Univ. 

Cambridge, Mass. 548 p. 



GEOLOGY AND GEOGRAPHY 

Chairman : Neil V. Weber, Department of Earth Science 
Indiana University-South Bend, South Bend, Indiana 46614 

Chairman-Elect: Mark Reshkin, Department of Public and 

Environmental Affairs 

Indiana University Northwest, Gary, Indiana 46408 

ABSTRACTS 

Modeling Predictive Indices for Indiana Corn Production: 1960-1969. 

Neil V. Weber, Indiana University at South Bend. The purpose of 

this study was to quantitatively analyze the relationship (linear and 
quadratic) between fifteen independent variables (physical and socio- 
economic) and corn production in Indiana during the decade of the 
1960's. 

Preliminary analysis utilizing stepwise regression supported earlier 
research purporting that climate variables alone (i.e., motnhly growing 
degree days and monthly precipitation during the growing season of 
Indiana dent corn) explain very little of the variance in corn yield during 
the period in question. 

Subsequent analysis adding additional variables to the regression 
equation (i.e., two mechanization terms, two socio-economic terms, and a 
slope variability term) significantly improved the predictive ability of 
the model. 

Although the complex model described in this study is a marked 
improvement over the simpler climatic model, the regular pattern of 
residuals suggests a need for additional testing and refinement. Some 
of the questions to be investigated are as follows: Might some of the 
variables be governed by subtler areal specific terms ? Will the model 
hold across larger time intervals? Can the slope variability term be 
improved and/or replaced' 



? 



Climatic Change in Southern Indiana 1898-1975. Charles Stanberry, 

Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 47401. Regression analysis 

is used to examine the monthly and annual temperature and precipitation 
data of six stations in southern Indiana for evidence of trends. Tempera- 
tures are found to increase in the period 1898-1939 and to decrease from 
1940 onward. The temperature increase is greatest in the months 
December-February. Temperature decrease is greatest in January and 
February. A quadratic equation is fit to confirm the date of the onset 
of the downward trend. The analysis applied to precipitation data yields 
no clear cut trends. Some evidence is advanced to indicate a change in 
precipitation trends concomitant with the change in temperature trends. 
Spectral analysis of the data yields few significant periodicities or 
quasi-periodicities in the data. The analysis does indicate the presence of 
persistence in the temperature data. 

257 



258 Indiana Academy of Science 

Cross spectral analysis shows that precipitation and temperature 
do not vary together periodically over any wavelengths. 

Migration of a Meander of White River Near Worthington, Indiana. 

Robert D. Hall and Shannon L. Hall, Indiana University-Purdue 
University, Indianapolis, Indiana 46247. An analysis of aerial photo- 
graphs, topographic maps, and plane table surveys from 1937 through 
1968 shows that a former meander of White River south of Worthington, 
Indiana, extended and expanded at erosion rates as high as 30 ft/yr (9 
m/yr) prior to cutoff in 1968. 

Maximum rates of erosion lie along radii from the meander center 
that are approximately normal to former flow lines of maximum velocity. 
A downstream shift in the location of maximum erosive power along 
the meander's outer bend resulted in a rapid southwesterly migration 
of the meander until 1966. Rates of erosion and meander migration 
decreased substantially from 1966 to 1968 suggesting that some of the 
discharge had assumed a flow path through the cutoff chute. Cutoff seems 
to have occurred as the meander radius to the point of impingement of 
the line of maximum velocity moved close to a parallelism with the 
trend of the chute. The former meander is now an oxbow lake. 

Horton's Laws Related to the Quantitative Fluvial Geomorphology of 
Three Parke County Watersheds. Robert Templeton and John E. 
Oliver, Department of Geography and Geology, Indiana State University, 

Terre Haute, Indiana 47809. Data derived from three small Parke 

County watersheds are analyzed using various methods of quantitative 
geomorphology. The derived results are examined in relation to Horton's 
Laws of stream numbers, stream lengths and stream area. In each case 
the quantitative relationships closely correspond to the theoretical 
models. Although the hypsometric curves derived from observed data 
indicate that a graded profile has not yet been attained, the drainage 
density of the three areas shows that the derived patterns fit well within 
the hypothesized range. 

Hydrology and Water Quality of the Crooked Creek Watershed, Indian- 
apolis, Indiana. Patricia A. Boaz and Robert D. Hall, Indiana Univer- 
sity-Purdue University, Indianapolis, Indiana 46247. A study of the 

hydrologic and chemical parameters of the Crooked Creek Watershed, 
located in the northwestern Indianapolis, Indiana, reveals the effects of 
rapid urbanization on this fifth-order basin. The physical characteristics 
of the watershed favor rapid runoff and high sediment yield in response 
to precipitation, particularly from the upper part of the watershed 
where most of the drainage net is concentrated and most of the urban 
development is taking place. 

Hydrologic data indicate that the amount of yearly runoff has 
increased at an average rate of 22% since 1969. The number and magni- 
tude of peak discharges have also increased. Monthly chemical data for 
the summers of 1975 and 1976 support hydrologic indications of urbani- 
zation by showing marked increases in those constituents which result 
from increased population. Chemical studies have also located the 



Geology and Geography 259 

sources, nature, and extent of point pollution, and assessment of non- 
point pollution is currently underway in one subwatershed. 

Images of Downtown. Robert B. Jessen, Indiana University, South 

Bend, Indiana 46614. As part of a study of citizen attitudes toward 

the downtown area of South Bend, Indiana, 1310 randomly selected re- 
spondents were asked to indicate by drawing on a map, the boundaries 
of what they identified as the downtown area. It was hypothesized that 
respondent's ability to draw the map as well as the size and boundaries 
of the downtown area should vary according to such factors as the 
respondent's age, sex, income, educational level, place of residence 
within the city, and uses of the downtown area. Over ninety percent of 
the sample were able to draw boundaries for the downtown area on the 
map provided. It was found that statistically significant, as well as 
practically significant, variations in size and boundaries of the down- 
town area were found for all of the aforementioned variables, except 
income. The greatest differences were found among persons of different 
educational levels and among persons who used the downtown for dif- 
fering purposes. 

Additionally, size and boundary variations were tested against atti- 
tudes toward the downtown. Significant differences were observed on at- 
titudes toward security, traffic conditions and sewage provided by the 
downtown area, depending on the size and specific boundaries selected. 

It was concluded that the term "downtown" as used in many studies 
is an ambiguous one. "Downtown" means different things to different 
persons in a spatial sense; and in turn, these spatial perceptions influ- 
ence attitudes and behavior toward downtown. 

A Descriptive Study of Indiana State University Faculty Settlement 
Patterns Over 55 Years. Grover C. Worcester and Benjamin Moulton, 
Department of Geography and Geology, Indiana State University, Terre 
Haute, Indiana 47809. Between 1920 and 1975, an accelerated out- 
ward migration from Terre Haute by an expanding Indiana State Uni- 
versity faculty was quite apparent from the interpretation of the data 
collected. The data consisted of addresses taken from telephone books 
for each of the sample years and illustrated on maps of Terre Haute. 
The figures were used to make percentage graphs with the two main 
categories being urban and rural population. 

The maps showed three dominant clusters of settlement during the 
fifty-five-year period. Some fluctuation occurred within these clusters 
but their dominance remained. 

The northeast quarter of Terre Haute was and still is apparently 
undesirable for settlement by professors. 

Most significant was the increased outmigration of professors to 
the rural areas around Terre Haute as the years went by. The rate of 
outmigration is accelerated. 

Except for the established areas, political Terre Haute is no longer 
an area generally chosen to live in by the faculty at Indiana State 
University. 



260 Indiana Academy of Science 

An Approach to Automatic Well-Log Correlation. B. D. Kwon, R. F. 
Blakely and A. J. Rudman, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 

47401. Automatic (computer) correlation of well logs include how 

parameters of relative displacements and thickness of geologic strata 
affect correlation processes. These parameters are studied by operational 
properties of the discrete Fourier transform (DFT). It is shown that 
cross-correlation of power spectra can predict the thickening between two 
logs (stretch factor) and the cross-correlation of such stretched logs 
gives a relative displacement. Stretching is accomplished by interpolation. 
Empirical results show that most geophysical logs are rich in low 
frequency components that are a source of difficulty in correlation. 
Hence, original data are first filtered by taking their first differences to 
attenuate low frequencies and smoothly enhance high frequencies. Cor- 
relation of model studies are highly effective; however, field data often 
need additional filtering to achieve improved results. Automatic window- 
ing with high cut filters and statistical zonation techniques may properly 
select portions of the log for effective correlation. 

Variability in Seven Devonian Species of Polypora M'Coy. James F. 
Stratton, Eastern Illinois University, Charleston, Illinois 61920 and 

Alan S. Horowitz, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 47401. 

Evaluation of 14 measurable characters indicates that seven (number of 
apertures in 5 mm, branch width, number of branches in 10 mm, dis- 
sepiment width, fenestrule length, fenestrule width, number of fe- 
nestrules in 10 mm) are useful for differentiating seven species of 
Polypora that occur in the Speed Member of the North Vernon Forma- 
tion and the underlying Jeffersonville Limestone of southern Indiana. 
Meshwork formulae are presented for the following species and sub- 
species: Polypora aculeata (Hall), P. adnata (Hall), P. celsipora minima 
(Hall), P. laevinodata (Hall), P. quadrangular is (Hall), P. shumardii 
Prout, and P. transversa (Hall). Five species are considered synonyms: 
P. submutans (Hall) and P. blandida Ulrich [= P. aculeata (Hall)], 
P. laevistriata (Hall) and P. striatopora (Hall) [= P. quadrangular is 
(Hall)], and P. cultellata (Hall) [= P. shumardii Prout]. P. intermedia 
Prout is considered unrecognizable. Univariate and multivariate analyses 
of measurements generally yield consistent results with respect to tax- 
onomic assignments. The coefficients of variation for these polyporans 
are comparable to those found in other bryozoan studies. 

Type III — Statistics of Extremes Analysis of Modified Mercalli Earth- 
quake Intensities for the Eastern United States. Paul J. Hafer and 

Robert F. Blakely, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 47401. 

The return periods of earthquakes in the Eastern United States were 
predicted using Type III statistics of extremes. Three sites were chosen 
for study. One, Anna, Ohio is a midwest location of moderate activity. 
The second, New Madrid, Missouri is a very active area. The third, 
Bloomington, Indiana is between the first two locations. 

Type III statistics indicate that the most probable intensities for 
Anna, Bloomington, and New Madrid are, respectively, II + , III-, and III + . 
Application of the method also predicts return periods for intensity VI 
for the same sites of 40, 250, and 16 years, respectively. 



Geology and Geography 261 

Historically Authentic Masonry Materials in the Renovation of Christ 
Church Cathedral. John B. Patton, Indiana Geological Survey, Bloom- 

ington, Indiana 47401. The original part of the "little church on the 

Circle" in Indianapolis, Christ Church Cathedral, was built between 
1857 and 1859. Renovation now in progress has required identification 
and matching of masonry materials for authentic restoration and pre- 
ventive maintenance. 

Bearing walls consist mainly of Laurel Limestone (middle Silurian), 
which was formerly quarried extensively in various southeastern Indiana 
counties. Quoins, buttresses, and some trim are from a thinly laminated 
zone in the middle part of the Jeffersonville Limestone (middle De- 
vonian), probably from northwestern Jennings County. Steps and most 
trim, including belt course, lintels, sills, and surrounds for door and 
window embrasures, are Salem Limestone (middle Mississippian) from 
the famed "Indiana Limestone" district in the Bedford-Bloomington 
region. Careful work has thus far avoided the necessity of replacing 
any stone. 

The masonry joints are being routed by hand to a minimum depth 
of nearly an inch where the old mortar is sound and to firm mortar 
elsewhere. Interior voids and the deep parts of routed joints are filled. 
After this first-stage mortar has set, the mortar is brought forward 
to less than an inch from the face and again given time to harden, after 
which final pointing is done with mortar that closely approximates the 
original in appearance. The binding agent is two-thirds lime and one- 
third natural-cement mortar (the original was entirely lime). The 
aggregate for both the original mortar and the present pointing is 
more coarse than modern masonry sands. Joints are raked shallowly and 
brushed, retaining the outlines of the individual stones by shadow and 
light. 

Classifications of Springs in South-Central Indiana. Richard L. Powell, 
Consulting Geologist, Bloomington, Indiana 47401 and Stephen D. 
Maegerlein, Analytical Chemist, Naval Weapons Support Center, Crane, 

Indiana 47522. Spring waters issuing from carbonate bedrock of 

Mississippian Age in south-central Indiana may be classified according 
to their chemical characteristics. The springs may be ranked by size 
according to their discharge. The spring orifices may be classified ac- 
cording to their physical characteristics. The subterranean water sys- 
tems may be defined accordingly. 

Spring discharges range from seeps to hundreds of cubic feet per 
second. Seventeen springs in Indiana are estimated to exceed one cfs min- 
imum flow. 

Spring waters are generally cool and clear with an increasing car- 
bonate content during low flow stages, and are warmer and turbid with 
a decreasing carbonate content during flood flow stages. Mineral springs 
with a high sulfate content are fed by deep ground water flow systems, 
but some shallow cavern flow systems have a higher than expectable sul- 
fate content that indicates some transmissivity of deeper groundwater. 



262 Indiana Academy of Science 

Numerous examples of several types of subterranean water sys- 
tems are present: bedrock interstices systems; systems within bedrock 
joints and fractures; gravity flow systems within integrated, solution 
widened joints and solution channels; integrated, partly inundated, grav- 
ity flow and shallow artesian systems through cavernous channels; deep 
artesian systems, probably within cavernous openings; and combinations 
of the above. 

Eight springs larger than one cfs are gravity flow cave springs. 
Six large springs are partly inundated or combined artesian and gravity 
flow cavern systems. The three largest springs are associated with deep 
artesian systems. 



Surface Morphology of Fly and Bottom Ash as Seen with the Scanning 
Electron Microscope 

Donald W. Ash, Department of Geography and Geology 
Indiana State University, Terre Haute, Indiana 47809 

Thomas Fernalld, Department of Geological Sciences 
SUNY-Binghamton, Binghamton, New York 13901 

Introduction 

While studying the gound water flow system underlying a fly ash 
landfill site near Dunkirk, New York, it became apparent that because 
particle size and shape play an important role in the determination 
of porosity, permeability, and other ground water flow characteristics, 
the study should include a characterization of the physical appearance of 
both fly and bottom ash. In addition, the identification of these materials 
is essential in determining the amount of fly and bottom ash within 
the nearby stream and Lake Erie sediments. This initial morphological 
description was carried out with the use of the scanning electron 
microscope (SEM). This report describes our findings to date of 
cenospheres (hollow spheres), plerospheres (filled spheres), omphalo- 
spheres (bellybutton spheres; omphalos, from Greek for bellybutton), 
glass, scoriaceous material (full of vesicles or small bubbles), and 
crystalline overgrowths. 

The fly ash consisted of two samples: 1) new fly ash collected in 
May 1976 from a dump truck which had just been filled from the 
electrostatic precipitator hopper at the Niagara Mohawk Power 
Company at Dunkirk, New York and, 2) old fly ash collected from the 
Fredonia Airpark, Fredonia, New York in late May of 1975. The air- 
field was constructed in 1966; thus, the airpark fly ash was nine years 
old at the time of collection. The bottom ash examined was all new 
bottom ash collected in May of 1976. 

Results 

Micrograph 1 shows typical fly ash morphology; it tends to form 
into many very smooth surfaced spheres (cenospheres) of different 
sizes. Also, note the scoriaceous (spongelike) material in the center of 
the micrograph. Although this material is more common in bottom ash, 
it is also found in abundance within the fly ash as well. Note that 
nearly all the vesicles and bubbles within the scoriaceous material are 
filled with small cenospheres (micrograph 2). Micrographs 1 and 2 
are new fly ash samples. Even though the older fly ash has been in 
the environment nine years, its surface textures and morphology are 
little changed from that shown in micrographs 1 and 2. Perhaps the 
only notable difference is that apparently some of the cenospheres are 
missing or not as abundant in the vesicles of the scoriaceous ma- 
terial of the fly ash (micrograph 3). 

263 



264 Indiana Academy of Science 

Micrograph 4 (new ash) shows a closeup view of the center of 
micrograph 1. Note that the scoriaceous material is coated with ceno- 
spheres. And, the surfaces of these cenospheres are in turn coated 
with smaller adhering spheres. Higher magnification shows that these 
small adhering spheres have even smaller adhering spheres on their 
surfaces. However, the higher magnification does not allow reproducable 
micrographs to be made and thus they are not shown here. 

It has been reported in the literature that crystalline overgrowths 
on new fly ash are quite common and apparently form gradually as the 
spheres cool after development (1). In examining several hundred sam- 
ples of both old and new fly ash, no crystalline overgrowths were found. 
This apparent discrepancy may indicate that crystalline overgrowths are 
a function of coal source rather than being common to all fly ash. 

According to Fisher et al (2), the occurrence of certain fly ash 
morphologies is indicative of the sulphur content of the coal burned. 
The most indicative of these morphologies is the occurrence of plero- 
spheres in the ash content of high sulphur coal. Since the coal burned at 
Niagara Mohawk Power Company's Dunkirk plant is eastern high sulphur 
coal and plerospheres were found within the ash, this study supports 
their conclusions (micrograph 5). In addition, as another possible indi- 
cator of high sulphur coal this study has noted characteristic surface 
indentations on the surfaces of a large number of cenospheres (micro- 
graphs 6 and 7). These surface indentations have the appearance of a 
navel and thus we named spheres having this indentation omphalospheres 
from the Greek "omphalos" for bellybutton. A careful search of the 
literature has failed to yield a description of this feature. Since most 
of the literature we reviewed deals with low sulphur coal and we dealt 

Micrograph 1 : This micrograph shows typical fly ash morphology. There are many 
smooth shaped cenospheres of different sizes and the scoria mass in the center of the 
micrograph has its vesicles filled with cenospheres. The tvidth of the field of view is 220 

micrometers. 
Micrograph 2: This micrograph shows a closeup view of a fly ash scoria block. It should 
be noted that the vesicles are completely filled with cenospheres. The width of the field 

of view is 22 micrometers. 
Micrograph 3: This micrograph shows the morphology of some of the older fly ash. 
Note that there is little difference in the morphologies displayed among micrographs 1, 2, 

and 3. The width of the field of view is 220 micrometers. 
Micrograph 4: This micrograph is a closeup view of the center of micrograph 1. Note 
that the scoriaceous material is coated with cenospheres and that the cenospheres have 
even smaller cenospheres attached to their surfaces. The tvidth of the field of view is 55 

micrometers. 

Micrograph 5: Micrograph 5 shows a good example of a plcrosphere. Note that the large 

sphere near the top center of the micrograph is filled with smaller cenospheres. If these 

smaller spheres are in turn broken open, they would be seen to also be filled with spheres. 

The tvidth of the field of view is 110 micrometers. 

Micrograph 6: This micrograph shows several cenospheres which have one or several 
indetitations on their surfaces. We have named these omphalospheres and believe they 
are indicators of a high sulphur coal source. The width of the field of view is 55 

micrometers. 

Micrograph 7: This micrograph is a closeup view of the omphalosphere in the center of 
micrograph 6. It shows detail of the surface indentation. The width of the field of view 

is 11 micrometers. 



Geology and Geography 



205 




266 Indiana Academy of Science 

with coal having high sulphur content, we believe omphalospheres are 
either indicative of high sulphur coals or a certain coal source. The 
only article we reviewed dealing with low sulphur coal (2) has several 
micrographs showing what appear to be omphalospheres. It is difficult 
to be sure because the loss in quality from print to reproduction in 
the article obscures the detail. On this basis, it is felt that omphalo- 
spheres are indicators of a high sulphur coal source. 

Bottom ash tends to be somewhat more coarse than fly ash ap- 
proaching sand size and consists mainly of scoriaceous material (micro- 
graph 8) in which the vesicles are nearly always empty (micrograph 9). 
As shown in micrograph 9, there are some spherical bodies associated 
with bottom ash. These spherical bodies tend to be 3 to 10 times larger 
than fly ash and are less regular in shape. As shown in micrographs 
10 and 11, these bottom ash spheres come in two morphologies. The least 
common of the two types is the scoria pseudosphere (micrograph 10). 
It consists of scoriaceous material in the shape of a sphere. It is very 
easy to distinguish from true fly ash spheres. The second and more 
common type is shown in micrograph 11. At lower magnifications these 
spheres look very much like fly ash spheres. However, at higher 
magnifications all resemblance between the two ceases (micrograph 
12). Compare micrograph 12 with micrographs 6 and 7. It can be easily 
seen that the surface texture of the fly ash spheres are much smoother. 
Thus, the spheres of bottom ash characteristically have rougher surfaces 
and larger sizes. 

In addition to the previously described morphologies, there is 
common to old and new fly and bottom ash an amount of amorphous 
material. This glass material is shown in Micrograph 13. Also, in bottom 
ash, clinkers are found in some abundance (micrograph 14). 

Micrograph 8: This micrograph shotv typical bottom ash morphology. Note that it is 
more coarse thari fly ash and that the vesicles do not appear to be filled with cenospheres. 

The width of the field of view is 550 micrometers. 
Micrograph 9: This micrograph shoivs a closeup view of the surface of bottom ash 
scoriaceous material. Note that the vesicles are empty. The width of the field of view is 

55 micrometers. 
Micrograph 10: This micrograph shows a scoria pseudosphere from bottom ash. This is 
one type of sphere common to bottom ash. Comparing micrograph 10 with micrograph 6, 
one can see that it does not resemble fly ash. The width of the field of view is 110 

micrometers. 
Micrograph 11: This micrograph shows the more common form of sphere common to 
bottom ash. Note that they are larger than most fly ash spheres. The width of the 

field of view is 550 micrometers. 
Micrograph 12: This micrograph shoivs a closeup view of the bottom ash sphere in 
the center of micrograph 11. Note that at this higher magnification the surface of the 
sphere is much rougher than that of fly ash (compare with micrographs 5 and 6). The 

width of the field of view is 55 micrometers. 
Micrograph 13: This micrograph shows an amount of glass material tvhich is common 
to both fly and bottom ash. This sample is from fly ash as can be determined from the 
abundance of cenospheres within the micrograph. The width of the field of view is 22 

micrometers. 

Micrograph 14: This micrograph shows a bottom ash clinker. These clinkers are not 
common in fly ash. The width of the field of view is 550 micrometers. 



Geology and Geography 



267 




■ 


8 


9 




10 


11 




12 


13 




14 


KEY 









268 Indiana Academy of Science 

Conclusions 

Fly and bottom ash morphologies and surface textures as seen with 
the SEM are quite indicative and can be distinguished from each other. 
In addition, certain morphologies (plerospheres and omphalospheres) 
may indicate a high sulphur coal source. The lack of crystalline over- 
growths on our samples may indicate that crystalline overgrowths are 
a function of coal source rather than being common to all fly ash. 

The morphologies found are enough different from those of stream 
and lake sediments that the SEM will be a useful tool in examination of 
stream and lake sediments for fly and bottom ash pollution. 



References 

W. S. Smith and C. W. Gruber, Atmospheric Emissions from Coal Combustion — An 
Inventory Guide: U.S. Public Health Service Publ. 999-AP-24 (1966). p. 58-62. 
G. L. Fisher, D. P. Y. Chang, and M. Brummer, Fly Ash Collected from Electrostatic 
Precipators: Macrocrystalline Structures and the Mystery of the Spheres: Science, V. 
192, No. 4239, (1976), p. 553-555. 



Environmental Geology of Carroll County, Indiana 

Roger F. Boneham 

Department of Geology 

Indiana University at Kokomo 

Kokomo, Indiana 46901 

and 

Keith Burton 

Maconaquah High School 

RR 1, Bunker Hill, Indiana 46914 

This report was compiled from information available in a recent 
soil survey of the county and from 705 water well logs in the files of 
the Water Resources Division, Indiana Department of Natural Resources. 

The post-glacial drainage pattern in Carroll County is similar to 
the pre-glacial drainage. Soil cover is generally thick enough to present 
few construction problems from excavations reaching bedrock. Ground- 
water is of satisfactory quality except for hardness and, in some 
wells, high iron content. There are many areas which are suitable for 
housing developments. However, developers should heed the soil type 
carefully. Not all areas are suitable for septic systems. Carroll County 
has a number of sites which appear to be acceptable for sanitary land- 
fills. 

Purpose and Scope 

The purpose of this report was to document the geologic factors 
in Carroll County which will have an impact on future development of 
the land. The information we used has been from published records or 
from the open files of the Water Resources Divison in Indianapolis. The 
most frequently used published records for this paper were Ulrich (4) 
and Wayne et. al. (6). The Water Resources Division of the Indiana 
Department of Conservation allowed us to copy information from the 
water well logs in their files. A similar study was done for adjacent 
Howard County earlier by the senior author (1). 

Setting 

Carroll County is located in the north-central portion of Indiana. 
The county seat is Delphi which is approximately sixty-five miles 
northwest of Indianapolis. The population of the county is approxi- 
mately 18,200 (3) and there are approximately 374 square miles 
of land within the county. 

The land is nearly level to gently rolling over much of the county. 
Stream valleys are seldom more than thirty feet deep. The major 
exceptions to this are the valleys of the Tippecanoe and Wabash Rivers 
in the northwestern part of the county. Local relief in their valleys 
is one hundred feet or more at a number of points. 

269 



270 



Indiana Academy of Science 



Geology 

The whole county was covered by the Wisconsin-age glaciers (5). 
Most of the material deposited by the melt-waters of these huge ice 
masses is still covering the bedrock of the area. This debris of sand, 
gravel, and clay has completely buried the old, pre-glacial drainage ways. 
In only a few places along the valley walls of the Tippecanoe and 
Wabash Rivers, have these large rivers succeeded in washing away 
the mantle of glacial material to expose the bedrock. 

The post-glacial drainage system is not significantly different 
from the pre-glacial drainage. The flow is still to the south and west 
as it was before the coming of the Wisconsin ice sheet. The pre-glacial 
drainage can easily be traced on the bedrock surface map (Figure 1). 
This cover is not of a uniform thickness. There are a few areas where 
it is quite thin (Figure 2). The only present rock quarries are just 
west of Delphi where the limestone is within a few feet of the surface. 
There are numerous small gravel pits mainly in river valleys. These 
appear to be isolated pockets and our study has not located any sig- 
nificant new sources of gravel. 

The underlying bedrock ranges in age from the Upper Devonian 
New Albany Shale to the Middle Silurian Niagaran Series composed of 
carbonate rocks (limestones and dolomites) and siltstones. Figure 3 
is the geological map we have made from the water well logs and from 




Fic.ure 1. Bedrock surface in Carroll County. The elevations are in feet 
above sea level. 



Geology and Geography 



271 




Figure 2. Thickness, in feet, of glacial drift covering Carroll County. 



Wayne et. at. (6). Numerous wells have been drilled into the carbonate 
rocks with varying success. Some have produced water in excess of 100 
gallons per minute. While others have flows of five or six gallons per 
minute. There seems to be no overall pattern to the groundwater flow 
in the limestones and dolomites. Undoubtedly, this is due to the 
characteristically tortuous nature of their joint patterns. There are no 
wells producing water from the New Albany Shale. This is a fissle, 
black shale which has limited permeability. Therefore, a water well 
must be drilled through the shale to the underlying carbonate rocks in 
order to obtain water. Generally the New Albany Shale is less than 
twenty feet thick in the county so the expense of drilling through it is 
not excessive. Many wells are drawing water from the sand and gravel 
layers located at irregular intervals within the mantle of glacial ma- 
terial overlying the bedrock. These wells have widely differing flow 
rates. Water quality generally is good. Table 1 illustrates hardness is 
a problem and iron is present in undesirable quantities in some wells. 

We suggest that the most dependable water supply in the county 
is the larger rivers which flow through the area. A city seeking to 
increase its water delivery system or a company considering an ex- 
pansion of its operations could obtain large amounts of water from the 
Wabash or Tippecanoe Rivers. Even Wildcat Creek or Deer Creek 
would supply more than enough water for any reasonable use. 



272 



Indiana Academy of Science 




mnziAjL 



Figure 3. Geological map of Carroll County. 

The flow of the groundwater is to the west and south (Figure 4) 
as is the surface water flow. An exception to this is an area southwest 
of Flora. There is a pocket toward which groundwater flows from all 
directions. We cannot account for this behavior since it does not 

Table 1. Ratv water quality in Carroll County. 1 

Camden Delphi Delphi Flora 

(2 wells) (7 springs) (2 wells) (1 well) 



pH 7.2-7.5 

Color s.u. <5 

Turbidity s.u. 0.4-10 

Hardness as CaCO.3 330-347 

Calcium as Ca 83 

Magnesium as Mg 31-34 

Sodium as Na 11-15 

Potassium as K 2 

Iron as Fe 1.2-2.4 

Manganese as Mn <0.05 

Alkalinity as CaCOs 342-348 

Chlorides as CI 4-7 

Sulfates as SOt 6 

Nitrates as N 0.1 

Fluorides as F 0.4 



7.6 


7.2 


7.4 





0-<5 


5 





0.1-0.2 


5 


350 


414-447 


346 


95 


89-108 


94 


28 


43-47 


27 


4 


10-13 


4 


2 


2-5 


1 





<0.03-0.6 


1.8 





0.01 


0.1 


278 


313-342 


290 


5 


10-14 


8 


50 


70-100 


57 


3.0 


0.8-3.6 


0.1 





0-0.4 


0.1 



1 Data from Indiana State Board of Health (2). All columns in milligrams per 
liter (mg/1) except pH, color, and turbidity. 



Geology and Geography 



273 



appear to be a buried sinkhole. This type of map is particularly useful 
if any wells should become contaminated in the future. It will provide 
a reference as to the general direction from which the pollutants most 
likely came. 




Figure 4. Elevation, 



feet above sea level, of groundwater pressure 
surface in Carroll County. 



We classified the soils in Carroll County into three main groups 
as to their suitability for septic system drainage fields (Figure 5). 
The good soils have no restrictions on the ability to absorb effluents from 
septic tanks. These soils are Fox (0-12% slope), Longlois, Meta, Miami 
(0-12% slope), Monitor, Ockley, Ross, and Russell (0-12% slopes). 
The fair soils have limitations on their capacity to absorb large amounts 
of water. Developers planning subdivisions on these soil types should 
consider a central waste treatment facility rather than individual septic 
systems. These fair soils are Abington, Brookston, Cope, Crosby, Fin- 
castle, Homer, Kokomo, Sleeth, Sloan, Washtenaw, and Westland. Areas 
with soils classified as poor should not be used for tract housing. 
These soils have been placed in this category for a number of reasons. 
Soils having excessive slopes are: Fox (12%+ slope), Hennepin, Miami 
(12%+ slope), Rodman, and Russell (12%+ slope). Building structures 
on these soils will be difficult and septic systems are unlikely to be 
effective on such grades. The effluent is dispersed downslope too rapidly 
for the soil bacteria to destroy the wastes. Soils which are excessively 



274 




Figure 5. Suitability of soils in Carroll County for septic tank filter fields. 



drained are Nineveh and Oaktown. These contain large amounts of sand 
and some gravel. Here again, the soil bacteria cannot detoxify the 
wastes of septic tanks due to their high rate of movement. The Carlisle, 
Edwards, Linwood, and Lyles are soils which have developed in de- 
pressional areas. Drainage is toward rather than away from these 
tracts and often there is a very high content of organic matter in the 
soil. Drainage is not the only problem for these soils. They also provide 
an unstable base for building foundations due to their high muck 
content. The Eel and Genesee soils have reasonably good drainage. But 
they are soils which develop on flood plains of rivers and are subjected 
to occasional flooding. We do not recommend that houses be built 
on flood plains. The Farmington, Millsdale, and Milton soils are very 
thin and developed in areas where bedrock is close to the surface. The 
excavations for building foundations would likely uncover bedrock. 
This would make housing development more costly; particularly if 
trenches had to be blasted in the bedrock for utility lines. Septic 
systems should not be used in these soils due to the likelihood of 
contaminating the groundwater by leakage into the neighboring bed- 
rock. 

There are a number of potential sites for sanitary landfills within 
the county. The areas shown in Figure 6 are the most likely sites due 
to their clay content. It is assumed that the trench method would be 
used in any landfill operation in Carroll County. The waste should 



Geology and Geography 



275 




Figure 6. 



Areas in Carroll County which are potential sites for sanitary 
landfills. 



be sealed as well as possible from any leakages into the groundwater. 
The best sites are those with fifty feet of clay measured from the 
surface downwards. Less desirable sites, but still acceptable, are those 
with a depth of thirty feet of clay. The Indiana State Board of Health 
recommends a minimum bottom seal of five feet of clay. However, ten 
feet of clay would be better since this standard may be revised upward 
at sometime in the future. 

These are suggested localities based upon the clay content of the 
area. It would be necessary to do much more field work at a specific 
site before making a final decision on a sanitary landfill site. The 
depth of the watertable must be accurately measured and the direction 
of groundwater flow should be determined. Also, the contour of the land 
is critical since surface drainage should be carefully protected from 
contamination. 



276 Indiana Academy of Science 

Literature Cited 

1. Boneham, R. F. 1974. Environmental study of Howard County, Indiana: Geologic 
Aspects. Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 83 :278-283. 

2. Indiana State Board of Health. 1968. Data on Indiana public water supplies. Sani- 
tary Eng. Bull. 10 (revised). 98 p. 

3. Marcus, M. J. 1975. Indiana population update. Indiana Business Rev. 50 (July- 
Aug.) : 13-16. 

4. Ulrich, H. P. 1958. Soil survey of Carroll County, Indiana. U.S. Dep. Agr. Soil 
Conserv. Serv., Washington, D.C. 67 p. 

5. Wayne, W. G. 1956. Thickness of drift and bedrock physiography of Indiana north 
of the Wisconsin glacial boundary. Indiana Geol. Surv. Rep. Prog. 7. 70 p. 

6. , G. H. Johnson, and S. J. Keller. 1966. Geologic map of the 1° x 2° 

Danville quadrangle, Indiana and Illinois, showing bedrock and unconsolidated de- 
posits. Indiana Geol. Surv. Reg. Geol. Map 2, Danville Sheet. 



A Study of the Geologic Section at Bloomington, Indiana, 
Using Rayleigh Wave Displacement Amplitude Ratios 

Ralph W. Knapp 

Judson Mead 

Robert F. Blakely 

Department of Geology 

Indiana University 

Bloomington, Indiana 47401 

Abstract 

The elliptic particle trajectories of Rayleigh waves in the frequency of range 0.5 to 
2.0 hertz produced by coal mine explosions and recorded at Bloomington, Indiana, were 
studied to determine whether the particle motion conformed to the theoretical prediction 
for Rayleigh waves propagating on an elastic, horizontally layered half space and could, 
therefore, be used to determine the elastic parameters of layers within the sedimentary 
section beneath the receiver. 

Surface waves from two hundred mine blasts were digitized at a sampling rate of 
10 points per second and recorded on magnetic tape. The results of analysis show that 
the phase difference of the horizontal and vertical components is statistically scattered 
about the value of ^/l, the theoretically predicted value, and that values of the displace- 
ment amplitude ratio, denned as the ratio of the magnitude of the horizontal component 
to the magnitude of the vertical component, can be fitted to values calculated from an 
elastic parameter model of the geologic section at Bloomington. 

It is concluded that structural irregularities have had little noticeable effect on the 
results and that the observation of displacement amplitude ratios may be a useful means of 
determining the gross structure of sedimentary basins. 

Introduction 

Rayleigh waves are seismic waves which propagate on the surface 
of the earth with a particle displacement contained by the vertical-radial 
plane such that the particle trajectory is elliptical and retrograde. 

The eccentricity (displacement ratio) of the ellipse of motion is a 
function of the medium in which the Rayleigh wave is travelling. Layer- 
ing introduces a frequency dependence. The displacement ratio value 
is measured as the ratio of the radical to the vertical spectral amplitude 
of the Rayleigh wave. 

E(nf) = |A r (nf)|/|A v (nf)| ( 1) 

The spectral dispersion of the displacement ratio depends almost 
solely on the seismic section beneath the recording station and is 
independent of the travel path or source. The dispersion is a function 
of density, layer thickness, and compressional (P) wave velocity; and 
is particularly sensitive to shear (S) wave velocity. The particular 
attractions of the use of displacement ratios to the study of the structure 
of geologic layering are that an interpretation is derived from a single 
point of observation and that the study provides knowledge of S wave 
velocity, the least accurately determinable body wave. 

The use of displacement ratios to study the structure of geologic 
layering was first done by Lee in the 1930's (6,7); hindered by the 
burden of the calculation, he was limited to a two layer interpretation. 
The method has recently been applied to the study of the lower crust- 
upper mantle of the continental United States (2,10,11) and to the 

277 



278 Indiana Academy of Science 

determination of the shear velocity structure at Apollo sites 12, 14, and 
15 on the moon (9). 

This study is an application to the interpretation of the sedimentary 
structure of the west flank of the Cincinnatti Arch under Bloomington, 
Indiana. 

Assumptions 

Spectral dispersion for a theoretical model, calculated using the 
Thompson-Haskell matrix method (4), requires that the model be an 
infinite half space with perfectly horizontal and planar layers. The west 
flank of the Cincinnatti Arch has a gentle slope of about 0.5 percent; 
the interfaces are not planar; and the layers wedge out on the surface 
of the earth. To apply a modelling method to the inversion of displace- 
ment ratio data, the discrepancies between the geologic section and the 
model requirements must be negligible. 

Experiments with the propagation of Rayleigh waves on wedges 
(5) have demonstrated that the effect of a 5 percent wedge is negligible; 
however, the presence of surface irregularities is likely to cause compli- 
cations by the regeneration of seismic energy by the incidence of the 
original seismic signal on a surface or interface topographic feature. 
The effect of interfering noise on amplitude and phase modulation has 
been found to be quite dramatic (2). If the noise is random with respect 
to the signal, the effect can be diminished statistically, but if the noise 
correlates with the signal, such as regeneration, the effect may result 
in irrecoverably altered data. 

Geologic Setting 

Because the spectral dispersion of displacement ratios depends 
only on the strata beneath the receiver, the section immediately be- 
neath Bloomington is of interest. For this study both the geologic 
and the P velocity control were provided by studies of the Luther 
Brown test well in Lawrence County. This well is stratigraphically down 
strike from Bloomington; it is one of only a few wells drilled to the 
Precambrian in Indiana; and it is the only well with a continuous velocity 
log from the New Albany Shale to the basement (1,3). The depth to 
strata surfaces is slightly greater at Bloomington than at the test well; 
this is reflected in the models which were developed. 

Of the parameters other than P velocity and layer thickness needed 
to calculate the dispersion properties of a model, the average Poisson's 
ratio is estimated to be 0.33 for sedimentary basins and density was 
assigned the value 2.5. The modelling process refined the initial esti- 
mates somewhat. Shear velocity for a Poisson's ratio of 0.33 is half the 
P velocity. 

Procedure 

Seismic signals are continually recorded digitally onto magnetic 
tape at the seismic station at Bloomington. The sampling rate is 10 
points per second with a resolution of 12 bits for all three components. 
The signal is amplified and converted from long period Sprengnether 
seismometers. 



Geology and Geography 



279 



The signals analyzed in this study mostly originated from surface 
coal mines located 45 to 140 kilometers west and southwest of Bloom- 
ington (figure 1). The signals are dispersed in the frequency range 0.4 



ACTIVE COAL 
MINES IN 
INDIA NA 

APRIL 1976 



index 



IV 




25 miles 



Figure 1. Distribution of coal mine activity in Indiana as of April 1976. The rose dia- 
gram is the azimuthal distribution of the signals studied, 1 inch = 5 events per 2 degree 

wedge. 



280 



Indiana Academy of Science 



Depth 
(km.) 



I • 



.2 



.3 ■ 



Kilometer /Second 

1.0 2,0 3.0 4.0 5.0 
1 



.5 - 



.6 



Poisson's Ratio 

0.2 0.4 0.6 

1 ' i i • ■ 



VELOCITY 



oo 






POISSON S. 
RATIO 



1 

! VELOCITY 
j 








— -- -i 







DENSITY- 



■ 500 



Depth 
(feet) 



1000 



oo 



oo 



i 

oo 



5000 

Feet/Second 



15,000 



\ i i i i 
1.0 2.0 

Density 



1500 



-2000 



MODEL 6AI024 

Figure 2. Model 6A1024, a model of the elastic structure of the upper 1.5 kilometers of 
the geologic section beneath Bloomington, Indiana, which provides a reasonable fit to 

the data. 



to 2.0 hertz. It is in this frequency range that surface waves are most 
greatly influenced by the sedimentary section. 

Because of the pronounced effect of noise modulation on the signal 
it was necessary to look at a large number of events so that random 



Geology and Geography 281 

noise could be statistically removed. Two hundred events were used. To 
process the data in a reasonable length of time expedient methods were 
developed. The desired events are transcribed from a continually re- 
corded tape to a condensed archive tape. Each event is filtered and in- 
spected for acceptance; the source direction is established by correlating 
the phase shift filtered vertical component with the horizontal com- 
ponent; and the displacement ratio and the phase difference are calculated 
as functions of frequency for each event. Coalescing all events, the aver- 
age values of displacement ratio, phase difference, and the vector length 
are determined. The data is discriminated according to the value of the 
mean vector length, a measure of data coherence (8). Once the data is 
evaluated a geologically reasonable model is determined by a trial- 
and-error process which compares the data with mathematical models. 

Results 

A good tentative model for the geologic section is model 6A1024 
(figure 2), which fits the data as shown in figure 3. The larger devi- 
ations in the data (e.g., at 0.95 hz., 1.05 hz., 1.2 hz.) are due to the inter- 
ference of correlational noise and cannot be removed statistically. The 
poorness of the fit above 1.6 hertz has two possible explanations: 
either the model is not a correct representation, or the data is erroneous 
at the higher frequencies. Perturbation curves and the trends of the 
models developed suggests that the first explanation may not be correct. 

DISPLACEMENT RATIO 

DATA and MODEL 6AI024 
COMPARED 




1.2 
FREQUENCY (HZ) 

Figure 3. The comparison of the model and the data. The data points are the result of 
the statistical reduction of over 5000 observations. 



282 



120 



90 



60 



30- 



Indiana Academy of Science 
MEAN PHASE DIFFERENCE (DEGREES) 



o" o 



°o o ° o ° o ° °° ° o 



.4 



.8 



1.6 



1.0 1.2 1.4 

FREQUENCY 

Figure 4. Mean phase difference of the vertical and radial components. 



1.8 



The scatter at the higher frequencies of the mean phase difference (figure 
4) suggests that the Rayleigh wave is not well behaved theoretically 
above 1.6 hertz, and the low values at the higher frequencies of the 
mean vector length (figure 5) indicate that the signal is not very co- 
herent above 1.6 hertz. This supports the second explanation. 

The randomness and lack of theoretical behavior may be due to the 
departure of the seismic station geometry from the requirements of the 
theoretical calculation. The required presence of twenty feet of over- 
burden may be a partial compensation of the effect of the seismic 
station pier rather than indicating the presence of 20 feet of alluvium 
in Bloomington. 

Conclusions 

The use of displacement ratios is an interesting and novel means 
of studying the seismic properties of the geologic section in a horizontal- 
ly layered region. With a systematic method of analysis the derived 
information is broader than the information derived solely from P wave 
studies because S velocity, Poisson's ratio, and density information is 
derived as well as P velocity and layer depths. The method is cheaper 
than reflection methods, and, in areas with low velocity layers, is more 
accurate than refraction methods. 

The method would be most advantageously used in conjunction with 
a surface wave velocity analysis technique because the observations 
are independent and results would have a greater resolution. A tri- 
partite station arrangement with stations 2-5 kilometers apart is sug- 



Geology and Geography 



283 



gested. It appears that the observations in this study exceeded the upper 
frequency limit of the Bloomington seismic station and that the 
seismometers should be set at bedrock level to study high frequency 
Rayleigh waves. 

It is felt that the effect of correlational noise while quite noticeable 
in the data had a rather minimal effect on the interpretation of the 
data. 



80 



.60- 



.40 



.20- 



o 



MEAN RADIUS 



o o o o 



o 
o 



o oo 



o o 

o 



O O o 

o 



o o 

o o 



o o 



O o 

o 



o _o 



.4 



.6 



.8 



1.6 



1.0 1.2 1.4 

FREQUENCY (HZ) 

Figure 5. Mean vector length (radius) of the phase vector. 



Literature Cited 



1. BIGGS, M. E., R. F. Blakely, and A. J. Rudman. 1960. Seismic velocities and syn- 
thetic seismogram computed from a continuous velocity log of a test well to the 
basement complex in Lawrence County, Indiana. Report of Progress No. 21, Indiana 
Geological Survey. 15 p. 

2. Boore, D. M., and N. Toksov. 1969. Rayleigh wave particle motion and crustal 
structure. Bull. Seis. Soc. Am. 59 :331-346. 

3. Dawson, T. A. 1960. Deep test well in Lawrence County, Indiana: drilling tech- 
niques and stratigraphic interpretations. Report of Progress No. 22, Indiana Geo- 
logical Survey. 36 p. 

4 " srr c :LVl™u The dispersion of surface waves on multi - la - ed — *■ »* 

5 " LTphyst. a 2 :: 7 15: 72 S 3 PENCE - ^ ^^ ™ *"«**>* °" — ~<«- 

6 ' Montht K V 1932 W T ^ e / ffeC l ° f ge ° l0giCal StrUCtUre UP ° n ™-roseismic disturbance. 
Monthly Notices, R. Astron. Soc, Geophy. Sup. 3 :83-102. 

7. Lee, AW 1934. Further investigation of the effect of geologic structure upon micro- 
seismic disturbance. Monthly Notices, R. Astron. Soc, Geophy. Sup. 3:238-252. 



284 Indiana Academy of Science 

8. Mardia, K. V. 1972. Statistics of directional data. Academic Press, New York. 357 p. 

9. Mark, N., and G. H. Sutton. 1975. Lunar shear velocity structure at Apollo 12, 14, 
and 15. J. Geophy. Res. 80 :4932-4938. 

10. Newton, Carl Adams. 1973. An investigation of Rayleigh wave ellipticity with 
applications to earth structure, unpub. Ph.D. thesis, The Penn. State Univ. 201 p. 

11. Sexton, John L. 1973. Ellipticity of Rayleigh waves recorded in the midwest, unpub. 
Ph.D. thesis, Indiana Univ. 381 p. 



A New Crinoid Fauna from the Harrodsburg Limestone 
(Mississippian) of Southern Indiana 

James R. Welch and N. Gary Lane 
Department of Geology- 
Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 47401 

Abstract 

A recently discovered crinoid fauna from the lower three meters of the Harrodsburg 
Limestone (Osagian; Mississippian) along Judah Branch, southern Monroe County, 
Indiana, provides new evidence for the age relations of the Bono and Canton crinoid 
faunas in Indiana. Fossils from Bono, Lawrence County, and Canton, Washington 
County, were collected in the 19th century and these localities and their stratigraphic 
positions are not now known. The new site has yielded 15 species of crinoids, nine of 
which have been reported from Canton and three from Bono. Other species found include 
one known from the Ramp Creek Formation below the Harrodsburg and one also found 
in the Salem Limestone above. This new locality thus supports the hypothesis of Lane 
(1972) that the Canton fauna is of early Harrodsburg age and that the Bono fauna is 
slightly younger, but also of Harrodsburg age. The Judah Branch fauna is almost equally 
divided between inadunate crinoids (8 species) and camerates (6 species) with one 
flexible crinoid. The fauna is thus intermediate in terms of community evolution between 
the Canton fossils, dominated by inadunates, and the Bono crinoids, in which camerates 
are predominant. 

Introduction 

During the latter part of the 19th century a series of Mississippian 
age crinoid faunas were described from Indiana that were typically 
attributed to what was called a "Keokuk" age. This meant that these 
Indiana rocks and fossils were judged to be of the same age as the 
Keokuk Limestone, the uppermost formation of the Osagian series of 
the Mississippian, which crops out along the west side of the Illinois 
Basin. This crude correlation included rocks that were limestones as 
well as siltstones and shales and there was little attempt to relate these 
various Indiana faunas to each other. One such attempt resulted in 
placement of these crinoid faunas in an upside-down sequence (1). 

Two of these important crinoid faunas were described from Canton 
and Bono, Washington and Lawrence counties, Indiana. These localities 
have been lost for many years and attempts to rediscover the levels 
from which crinoids were collected have so far been unsuccessful. This 
paper reports for the first time the definite occurrence of elements of 
both of these older faunas in the lower part of the Harrodsburg Lime- 
stone, thus providing firm evidence that it was at or near this strati- 
graphic position from which both of the older faunas were obtained. 

Although much of the Harrodsburg Limestone is crinoidal lime- 
stone, occurrences of articulated, well-preserved crinoids are rare. This 
is unfortunate because the Harrodsburg marks a major environmental 
and depositional change from deltaic sedimentation (Borden Group) to 
a shallow-water carbonate bank (Salem Ls.), and important changes in 
the composition of crinoid faunas occur within this interval (2). 

285 



286 Indiana Academy of Science 

Stratigraphy 

The Harrodsburg Limestone is the middle unit of the Sanders Group 
(4) and grades into the overlying Salem Limestone and underlying 
Ramp Creek Formation, which together make up the Sanders Group. 
The new crinoid fauna (Table 1) was found 2.5 m above the Ramp 
Creek Fm. (fig. 1), which is commonly called part of the lower Har- 
rodsburg in older literature. This fauna, along with fossil crinoids from 
Canton and Bono, constitute the youngest crinoids known from the 
Osagian Series of the Mississippian. The Osage-Meramec boundary oc- 
curs someplace in the middle of the Harrodsburg Limestone. Crinoids 
from the Ramp Creek on Indian Creek, Montgomery Co., Indiana, and 
from the lower Harrodsburg record youngest occurrences of Osagian 
crinoids known. Several genera and families of crinoids become extinct 
after final appearances in the Ramp Creek or lower Harrodsburg. One 
suborder, the dicyclic camerate crinoids Diplobathrida, is also last rep- 
resented in these faunas. The upper Harrodsburg Limestone contains a 



Table 1. Fauna from the Harrodsburg Limestone at Judah Branch Creek roadcut, 

Monroe County, Indiana. 

Crinoids 

Abrotocrinus orestes (Worthen) 

Abrotocrinus sp. 

Barycrinus cf. B. stellifer Miller 

Cribanocrinus benedicti (Miller) 

Cyathocrinites gurleyi (Miller) 

Cyathocrinites harrodi (Wachsmuth & Springer) 

Cyathocrinites nodosus (Wachsmuth & Sprinter) 

Decadocrinus bellus (Miller & Gurley) 

Dichocrinus simplex (Shumard) 

Dichocrinus ulrichi Miller & Gurley 

Dizygocrinus cantonensis (Wachsmuth & Springer) 

Dizygocrinus facetus (Miller & Gurley) 

Forbesiocrinus cf. F. washingtonensis Miller & Gurley 

Histocrinus sp. 

Hylodecrinus asper Kirk 

Hypselocrinus hoveyi (Worthen) 

Platycrinites bonoensis (White) 

Other Echinoderms 

Cryptoblastus sp. 

Onychaster sp. 

Postibulla legrandensis (Miller & Gurley) 

Other Invertebrates 

Cladochonus beecheri (Grabau) 

Cleiothyridina hirsuta (Hall) 

Echinoconchus alternatus (Norwood & Pratten) 

Fenestrate bryozoans 

Fistulipora compressa Rominger 

Fistulipora spergenensis Rominger 

Ovatia ovatus (Hall) 

Phillipsiid sp. 

Platyceras (Orthonychia) sp. 

Spirifer tenuicostatus Hall 

Spirifer washingtonensis Weller 

Sulcoretepora sp. 

Zaphrentoides sp. 



Geology and Geography 



:ix- 



crinoid fauna that is Meramecian in aspect and is closely similar to 
that of the overlying Salem Limestone. 

The Osagian-Meramecian boundary is one of the most important 
boundaries for change in fossil crinoids in the entire Paleozoic sequence. 
These two series names are commonly grouped together into the Val- 
meyeran Series, or Middle Mississippian, but because of the paleontol- 
ogical significance of this boundary Osagian and Meramecian are pre- 
ferred here to Valmeyeran. 



STT.I 



EH 




CRINOIDS 




ra 



s 



Figure 1. Measured section on Bypass SR 37 at 
Judah Branch Creek showing the stratigraphic lo- 
cation of the Harrodsburg crinoid fauna (at arrow). 
Section starts in the bed of Judah Branch Creek 
and extends south up the hill to the top of the 
roadcut. Contact between the Harrodsburg and 
overlying Salem Ls. is not exposed. Exact position 
of the Osagian-Meramecian boundary is uncertain. 



Locality Description 

This fauna comes from a roadcut on the SR 37 bypass where it 
ascends the hill on the south side of Judah Branch Creek, in the NE^-i, 
SE 1 ^ sec. 32, T. 7 N., R. 1 W.: Monroe County, Indiana, Indiana Uni- 
versity Locality No. 13395. The locality was originally discovered by 
Alan S. Horowitz (Indiana University) and Donald B. Macurda (Uni- 
versity of Michigan) in the summer of 1974; subsequent quarrying at 
the site produced much additional material. 

Crinoids were collected from two different "pockets" at the same 
horizon on opposite sides of the highway. On the east side of the road, 
the fossils occur on the upper surface of a discontinuous limestone bed 
overlain by 6 cm of shale. The edrioasteroid, Postibulla legrandensis 






288 Indiana Academy of Science 

(Miller and Gurley, 1894), was found in this "pocket" only where 
specimens were attached to the inside of brachial valves of Echinocon- 
chus alternatus that were lying upside-down on the limestone surface. 
The blastoid, ICryptoblastus, was also only found in this "pocket". 

Crinoids from the west side of the road were in the lowermost 0.5 
cm of a silty shale bed overlying a bioclastic limestone bed; all within 
an area of 1.5 sq. m. As many of the crowns still have long segments of 
stem attached and occur at one thin level, they were probably killed 
and buried by a single influx of silt and clay that formed the shale bed. 

Curiously, the blastoid, Pentremites, was not present within either 
"pocket", although common both above and below this horizon. The 
echinoid, Melonechinus, was also collected at this outcrop but not from 
either "pocket". Many other invertebrates were associated with the 
crinoids; an incomplete listing is given in Table 1. 

Significance of the Crinoid Fauna 

This new crinoid fauna shows closest resemblance, at the species 
level, to the fauna that was collected near Canton, Indiana. The following 
species found at the new locality have been reported in the literature, 
or are present in the Springer collection of the U.S. National Museum, 
from Canton: Barycrinus stellifer, Cyathocrinites gurleyi, C. harrodi, 
Hypselocrinus hoveyi, Decadocrinus bellus, Forbesiocrinus washing- 
tonensis, Dizygocrinus cantonensis, D. facetus and Platycrinites bonoen- 
sis. This represents 9 of the 15 crinoid species that could be identified 
to the species level found at the new site. Of these nine species two, C. 
harrodi and C. nodosus, are also found at the old Indian Creek locality 
and one, P. bonoensis, is also found at Bono, Indiana, where it was the 
most abundant crinoid. Two species, D. ulrichi and C. benedicti, have 
been found at Bono but not reported elsewhere from the eastern side 
of the Illinois Basin. One species, D. simplex, is known from the over- 
lying Salem Limestone but has not been reported previously from the 
Harrodsburg or older rocks. Finally, Abrotocrinus orestes was described 
from the Keokuk Limestone but has not been reported previously from 
Indiana. 

These species relationships suggest that the crinoids from the new 
site are similar in faunal composition to the Canton fauna. However, 
the three most abundant crinoids at Canton, Actinocrinites, Scytalocrinus, 
and Synbathocrinus, are not present in the new fauna. The Judah 
Branch fauna is seemingly intermediate in relationship to the Indian 
Creek fauna from the Ramp Creek and to the Bono fauna. 

The differences and similarities among these several closely related 
crinoid faunas may be ascribed to slight differences in ages of the rocks 
that contain the fossils, or to differing environmental conditions that 
controlled the presence or absence of crinoid species. A strong case for 
overall environmental control on gross taxonomic composition of crinoids 
in communities of this age has been made by Lane (3), who showed 
that in passing from deltaic to carbonate bank conditions there was a 
progressive diminution in proportion of inadunate crinoids and an 
enhancement of camerate crinoids. The new Judah Branch fauna fur- 



Geology and Geography 289 

nishes additional evidence for such sequential changes in these com- 
munities. Details of age relations among these crinoid communities are 
poorly known and await further study. Two outstanding questions 
concern whether or not the Ramp Creek Formation is equivalent to the 
upper part of the Borden Group or to the lower Harrodsburg in those 
areas where the former unit is absent or very thin, and whether the 
Harrodsburg may not be time-transgressive as carbonate sedimentation 
gradually encroached over the Borden delta. If such time relations 
were to be demonstrated then the Indian Creek crinoids of the Ramp 
Creek, situated north of other faunas, may be equivalent in age to the 
Canton or Bono faunas farther south. The differences among these 
faunas would then be due to differing environmental controls across 
central and southern Indiana during early Mississippian time. 



Literature Cited 

1. Beachler, C. S. 1892. Keokuk group of the Mississippi Valley. Amer. Geologist, v. 
10, p. 88-96. 

2. Lane, N. G. 1971. Crinoids and reefs. Proc. N. Amer. Paleont. Convention, Pt. J. 
p. 1430-1443. 

3. . 1972. Synecology of Middle Mississippian (Carboniferous) crinoid com- 
munities in Indiana. Inter. Geol. Cong. 24, Sec. 7, p. 89-94. 

4. Nicoll, R. W. and C. B. Rexroad. 1975. Stratigraphy and conodont paleontology of 
the Sanders Group (Mississippian) in Indiana and adjacent Kentucky. Ind. Geol- 
Surv. Bull. 51, 36 p. 



Astogenetic Variability in a Frond of Polypora laevinodata 
(Hall) (Bryozoa) 

James F. Stratton, Eastern Illinois University, Charleston, Illinois 61920 
Alan S. Horowitz, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 47401 

Abstract 

Evaluation of seven characters does not reveal any systematic differences between 
the oldest and the youngest parts of a large frond of Polypora laevinodata (Hall) from 
the Middle Devonian Speed Member of the North Vernon Formation. Consequently, 
studies of fragments of fronds will not necessarily produce biased zoarial measurements 
or provide the basis for excessive taxonomic splitting. Future work should test the 
hypothesis of rhythmic banding in large fronds of fenestrate bryozoans. 

Fragments of fenestrate bryozoans are much more common in the 
fossil record than complete fronds and fragments commonly are the 
subject of taxonomic descriptions in the paleontological literature. 
Quantitative studies of the variability within individual fenestrate 
fronds are almost lacking. Consequently the availability of a nearly 
complete frond of Polypora laevinodata (Hall) provided the stimulus 
for a study in astogenetic variability. 

Cumings (1, p. 70-74) discussed the earliest development of colonies 
of Polypora M'Coy, but discussions of the later stages of colonial 
growth in Polypora or other fenestellid genera do not appear generally 
in the literature. Cumings (1, p. 66) noted that in Fenestella Lonsdale 
little or no change in characters could be observed in early to later 
stages of colonial growth. 

Elias (2) prepared a color scheme for illustrating the changes 
from early to late stages of growth in a single character (fenestrule 
length) in large fronds of Fenestella. The colors generally displayed a 
banded pattern related to stages of growth in a colony as discussed 
by Elias. However, no tests were made to determine the significance 
of the differences nor were any special edge features described to indicate 
the criteria for late versus early growth stages. Elias (2, p. 375) sug- 
gested that some of the concentric banding in the pattern of fenestrule 
length was seasonal. We have not examined our data from the stand- 
point of rhythmic banding because it requires a different experimental 
approach than reported herein. However, future studies should be 
designed to test this hypothesis in other fenestrate bryozoan fronds. 

An exceptional specimen of P. laevinodata (Hall) (IU15106-200) 
from the Speed Member of the North Vernon Limestone exhibited a 
nearly complete frond displaying lateral edge features and a distal 
growth margin and lacked only the earliest basal portion of the frond. 
The specimen, which is 12 cm high and 10 cm wide, was divided into 
seven 15 mm intervals perpendicular to growth. The proximal level 
represents, most probably, a part of the colony just above the basal 
structure as inferred from the width and general geometry of the 
flabellate frond. The distalmost level contains edge features and also 
the growing edge, which confirms that this is the position of the youngest 
part of the colony. 

290 



Geology and Geography 291 

Seven external characters (number of apertures in 5 mm, branch 
width, number of branches in 10 mm, dissepiment width, fenestrule 
length, fenestrule width, number of fenestrules in 10 mm) used for 
differentiating species of Polypora within the Speed Member and 
Jeffersonville Limestone (4) were used in the astogenetic study. No 
internal sections were made because of some alteration and surface 
silicification; however, chamber shape was observed on partially weath- 
ered areas of the frond and was consistently box-like (quadrangular) 
wherever observed. 

Although the data sets of most measured characters of Polypora 
from the Speed Member and the type suites of the polyporans from 
the Jeffersonville Limestone were not normally distributed (4), the 
data sets for each measured character from the different levels of the 
specimen chosen for the astogeny study approached normality more 
closely than other sets of measurements from the population. The 
reason for this is probably due to the small number of measurements 
involved in the analysis, which decreases the power of the test (i.e. the 
test results are affected by the small sample size). The different 
measured intervals on the specimen used in the astogeny study were 
tested with nonparametric and parametric methods. 

A Mann-Whitney U test, a nonparametric test using rank order of 
the original data, was used to test for association between levels of the 
specimen. Because of the large number of ranking ties between various 
levels on each measured character the results of this test suggested no 
difference between levels, proximally to distally on the frond. All 
characters tested nonsignificant at a probability level of 0.05. Because 
the failure of this test to show differences between levels might be 
caused by the large number of ties between data sets, a parametric 
test was also performed by applying the central limit theorem to the 
means of each measured character from each of the intervals. Sokal 
and Rohlf (3, p. 130) suggest in a discussion of the distribution and 
variance of means that means of samples drawn from any distribution 
will approach the normal distribution; this is known as the central 
limit theorem. A Kolmogorov-Smirnov test (3, p. 571) on the means 
from composite data of fenestrule width of the astogenetic specimen 
P. laevinodata revealed that the means were normally distributed; the 
null hypothesis was accepted a probability level of 0.05. 

A one-way analysis of variance, using the Student-Newman-Keuls 
(SNK) test, repeated t-tests, and Tukey's test, tested the associations 
between all characters for all levels in all combinations of levels; the 
rejection level for the null hypothesis was set at p=0.05. These tests of 
analysis of variance revealed little difference between the proximal and 
distal intervals of the frond. Dissepiment width changed significantly but 
this is not considered the best diagnostic character in discriminating 
taxa and it did not change systematically within the frond, e.g. smaller 
to larger as the frond matured or vice-versa. In most cases involving 
comparisons of the same character between levels, the repeated t-test 
was more powerful in showing lack of association. Even this test 
revealed lack of association between intervals in only a few cases, i.e. 



292 Indiana Academy of Science 

discounting dissepiment width, only 25 out of 126 comparisons were 
significantly different. Complete tables of results can be found in 
Stratton (4). 

The variation observed in the astogenetic study was similar to that 
observed within other populations of P. laevinodata to which this 
specimen was taxonomically assigned. This suggests that the differentia- 
tion of taxa within the polyporans based on the measured characters 
from zoarial fragments is valid because of the demonstrated minor 
variation within characters as the colony grows. 

At the distal extremities of the astogenetically studied specimen 
and in other specimens showing a lateral margin, the overall characters 
change within 5 to 10 mm of the edge of the frond, excluding the 
growing tip. These changes are due to the secretion of additional calcite 
at the lateral distal edge, which is presumably involved in structural 
support of the frond. At the lateral extremities of the colony, excluding 
the growing tip, the fenestrule length and fenestrule width decrease 
rapidly and a correspondingly significant increase in branch width and 
dissepiment width is present; ultimately the dissepiments fuse into a 
massive structural support along the edge that extends from near the 
base to an area near the growing tip to the proximal part of the 
colony. This structural support appears to migrate toward the growing 
tip as the colony increases the size. When this marginal thickening 
spreads across the growing edge, it signals the end of growth for the 
colony. 

We conclude that fragments of fronds will not necessarily yield 
biased measures of characters provided the fragments are sufficiently 
large (not less than 1 cm square) to permit complete meshwork 
measurements. 



Literature Cited 

Cumings, E. R. 1904. Development of some Paleozoic Bryozoa: Amer. Jour. Sci., ser. 

4, 17:49-78, 83 figs. 

Elias, M. K. 1964. Stratigraphy and paleoecology of some Carboniferous bryozoans: 

Cinquieme Congres International de Stratigraphic et de Geologie du Carbonifere, 

1 :375-381, 5 pis. 

Sokal, R. R. and F. J. Rohlf. 1969. Biometry the principals and practice of statistics 

in biological research: San Francisco, W. H. Freeman and Company, 776 p. 

Stratton, J. F. 1975. Studies of Polypora from the Speed Member, North Vernon 

Limestone (Eifelian, Middle Devonian) in southern Indiana: Unpublished Ph.D. thesis, 

Indiana University, 237 p., 4 pis., 16 figs., 13 tables. 



Preliminary report on a Late Pleistocene death-trap fauna from 
Monroe County, Indiana 

Steven Alan Volz, Department of Geology, Indiana University, 
Blooming-ton, Indiana 47401 

Abstract 

Fragmented remains of numerous Late Pleistocene mammals have been collected from 
a gryke in the Salem Limestone of Monroe County, Indiana. This gryke, which was exposed 
during construction on State Highway 37, has yielded remains of Platygonus vetus, 
Smilodon fatalis, Canis dirus, Canis lupus, Canis cf. latrans, Ursus americanus and 
Neotoma sp. 

Of the remains collected the most abundant are from Platygonus vetus and from 
carnivores, particularly Canis dirus. This evidence suggests that the accumulation resulted 
from entrapment of susceptible animals in a natural cavity from which escape was not 
possible, although some remains may have been imported by activities of the wood rat. 
The high degree of fragmentation of the preserved material is interpreted as the result 
of slow burial and periodic disturbance by rodents and newly entrapped animals. 

Acknowledgments 

This writer wishes to thank William Turnbull of the Chicago 
Museum of Natural History for his generosity in allowing access to 
the vertebrate collections and willingness in answering questions. Also, 
thanks are given to Phillip Gingerich of the University of Michigan 
Museum of Paleontology for allowing similar access to the vertebrate 
paleontology collections of that institution and for his help with several 
questions. Further, the writer acknowledges the Department of Geology 
at Indiana University for financial support of the museum trips and 
for defraying costs of the radiocarbon dating that was done by 
Geochron Laboratories. Finally, this writer acknowledges and thanks 
Donald Hattin of the Department of Geology at Indiana University for 
his review and editing of this manuscript. 

Introduction 

In April of 1974 the writer participated in a sedimentation and 
stratigraphy field trip led by William Pullen and the late Ned Smith 
of Purdue University. The party discovered a few scattered teeth and 
skeletal remains of some Late Pleistocene animals in a road cut 
situated south of Bloomington, Indiana. The remains were preserved in 
clayey deposits of a large gryke which occurs within a hill underlain 
by Salem Limestone. The fissure had been transected by the then 
recently completed State Highway 37. The site lies about nine tenths 
of a mile south of Zikes Road on the east side of the highway (see 
Plate 1). 

This paper is the result of two subsequent collecting expeditions in 
the winters of 1974-1975 and 1975-1976 during which a portion of this 
deposit was removed for study. 

293 



294 Indiana Academy of Science 

Description of Deposit 

The fossiliferous deposit lies within one of numerous grykes 
which occur along this stretch of highway. Before construction of the 
road, the grykes were completely filled by detritus consisting primarily 
of clay. These fissures are now being eroded. They may extend several 
meters laterally into the hillside and range in width from a few centi- 
meters to a few meters. 

The cavity from which the studied material came is about 1.5 
meters wide and extends back 1.7 meters into the hillside from the edge 
of the road cut. Original dimensions of the fossiliferous gryke cannot 
be estimated; part of its length was destroyed by road building and the 
full depth can be determined only by further excavation. The top of 
the fossiliferous clayey deposit lies about 3.0 meters beneath the ad- 
jacent upland surface. Approximately 0.7 meters of fossiliferous clay has 
been removed from the gryke. 

The sides of the gryke are nearly vertical and consist of well- 
weathered surfaces which have solution pits and secondary cave-type 
calcareous deposits. These sides extend to the upland surface with little 
overhang or beveling. 

The fossiliferous deposit is more or less chaotic with only the 
clay fill having any semblance of stratigraphic order. Clay nearest to 
the upland surface is comprised of red to purple terra rosa. The terra 
rosa is underlain by brown clay, which is replaced laterally by terra 
rosa directly adjacent to the limestone walls. Beyond this no stratifica- 
tion is apparent. 

The clay contains considerable numbers of much-fragmented mam- 
mal bones and teeth. No other macroscopic organic remains have been 
identified. The skeletal remains are jumbled haphazardly and usually 
are so fragmented as to be unidentifiable. Most often, the bone fractures 
have sharp edges although a few specimens appear to show wear by 
abrasion. Several specimens have been crushed. The best-preserved 
material consists of teeth most of which have been separated from the 
respective jaws. No complete bones more than 4 or 5 centimeters in 
length have been recovered. The extent of disarray of the deposit can 
be summarized best by the description of one block of collected ma- 
terial. This block, which was about the size of a man's fist, contained 
the posterior left portion of a dire-wolf palate, the hoof of a peccary 
and a large, unidentified, fragmented incisor. The block also contained 
countless splintered and unidentifiable bone fragments. 

The most dense occurrence of these skeletal remains is in the brown 
clay although bones occur also in the lower part of the terra rosa 
mantle and in the terra rosa that lies against the limestone walls. 
Skeletal material occurs in abundance to the deepest level excavated 
and considerable amounts probably remain. 

In addition to the mammal remains, the clay deposit contains a 
large number of scattered angular limestone fragments. These range 
in size from pebbles to boulders. These blocks were derived almost 
exclusively from the St. Louis Limestone which lies above the Salem 



Geology and Geography 295 

Limestone. The St. Louis no longer crops out in the immediate vicinity 
of the gryke; however, in the road cuts directly across the highway, a 
thin layer of St. Louis is recognizable at the top of the section. 

In addition to the primary detrital fill, a considerable amount of 
secondary calcite occurs in the deposit. Usually the calcite nucleated 
around limestone or fossil fragments. Consequently, large masses of 
limestone fragments, fossil fragments and clay have been cemented 
together into irregular masses of material. 

Recovery and Preparation of the Fossil Material 

The fossiliferous clay was removed in bulk with a shovel, although 
especially well-preserved specimens were removed carefully by hand 
whenever possible. Good specimens were recovered from the secondary 
calcite masses and from clay that was free of calcite cement. Generally, 
better specimens were recovered from the calcite masses. 

Owing to the frailty of the material, preparation of the vertebrate 
material was difficult and time consuming. Generally, a needle probe 
was used to pick away the calcite and clay. Some specimens disinte- 
grated during this process, although many were saved by progressive 
application of coats of alvar during picking, and by immediate gluing 
of specimens broken during the cleaning process. Some specimens were 
sufficiently durable to be worked free without special treatment. These 
were later coated with shellac. 

Despite a considerable amount of primary fragmentation, parts of 
the same specimen usually were located in close proximity, and many 
teeth or jaw fragments were reassembled from parts that unquestionably 
had been separated before final burial. 

In addition to the picking and cleaning, some of the sediment was 
sifted. Several rodent incisors were recovered in this way. 

Recovered Fauna 

The following list includes species that are represented by fossils 
from the clay-filled gryke. 
Platygonus vetus 
Smilodon fatalis 
Canis dirus 
Canis lupus 
Canis cf . latrans 
Ursus americanus 
Neotoma sp. 

The assignment of specific names to these specimens and other 
points germane to them are discussed below. 

Platygonus vetus 

The most abundant material collected from the site consists of 
juvenile and mature teeth of the extinct genus Platygonus, a Late 
Pleistocene peccary (see Plate 1). Of particular note is the fact that 
many of these specimens are unusually large, larger than any Plata- 



290 



Indiana Academy of Science 




Figure 1. Fossilifcrous gryke locality. 

Figure 2. Platygonus vetus Lcidy Ci IU U627-U X 2/3 

Figure 3. Platygonus vetus Lcidy Deciduous P>, IU 11,627-1*0 x 1 

Figure 4. Platygonus vetus Leidy P~ IU 14627-11 x 1 

Figure 5. Platygonus vetus Leidy P, IU 14-627-8 x 1 

Figure 6. Platygonus vetus Leidy Mandible with Ma, M>, and Mi IU 11,627-1 X 2/3 



Geology and Geography 297 

gonus material reported previously. In addition to numerous teeth, 
proximal, medial and distal phalanxes have been identified. (Indiana 
University 14627-45, 14627-46, 14627-47, 14627-48). 

Presently, two or three species of Platygonus are recognized from 
the Late Pleistocene of North America. In order to understand the 
assignment of this material to Platygonus vetus, a brief review of 
these Late Pleistocene species is pertinent (for a more comprehensive 
review see Slaughter (20)). 

In 1848, Dr. John L. LeConte described Platygonus compressus, a 
moderate-sized, Late Pleistocene peccary from near Galena, Illinois 
(11). Later, several Late Pleistocene species were assigned to this genus 
by various authors. Most of these subsequent species were based on 
material which differed from P. compressus in minor characters of 
the skull and/or in the size of the skull or dentition. With the discovery 
of a cave in St. Louis that contained numerous remains from Platygonus 
compressus (G. G. Simpson (18)), it became apparent that a single 
population of P. compressus could be composed of a wide range of 
individuals that varied both in size and in relative proportions of 
dentition and skull. The Simpson paper extended the size range upward 
for the dentition and skull of Platygonus compressus, while at the 
same time showing that several earlier-named species of Platygonus 
should be considered synonyms of P. compressus. 

The size range for P. compressus was extended still further by 
Slaughter (20), following study of a population from Laubach Cave, 
Texas. Slaughter showed that the size range in this population overlaps 
that of the St. Louis specimens and in some cases that of the Kansas 
specimens. Taken together, he showed the three populations formed a 
continuous series of size range. Based on his specimens Slaughter also 
reassigned one other Platygonus species (P. alemanii) to P. com- 
pressus. 

Both Slaughter and Simpson recognized that a second main species 
of Platygonus existed in the Late Pleistocene, Platygoyius cumber- 
landensis, which was first found in Cumberland Cave, Pennsylvania 
(Gidley (4)). P. cumberlandensis cannot be differentiated from P. 
compressus by tooth measurements (the first species falls within the 
upper size range now recognized for the latter). Rather, P. cumber- 
landensis is recognized by extreme development of the zygoma, which 
is about one and one-third times the size of the vertical diameter of the 
orbit in females and two or more times the diameter of the orbit in 
males. P. compressus shows not much more than normal development of 
the zygoma. 

A third Late Pleistocene species, Platygonus vetus, is also tentatively 
recognized. This species was proposed by Leidy (12) for fragments of 
an upper and a lower jaw from Pennsylvania. Today, this species 
remains separate because of its somewhat larger size than the other 
two Late Pleistocene peccaries and also because a skull has not been 
found with which to examine the zygoma and other characteristics. 
A single specimen from Cumberland Cave (a portion of the palate 
from a young individual) has teeth of about the same size and pro- 



-98 Indiana Academy of Science 

portion as in P. vetus. Gidley (12) originally referred this specimen to 
Platygonus vetus. Later, Gidley and Gazin (5) considered that it might 
simply be a size variant of the other Cumberland Cave material but 
retained the original assignment, tentatively. 

This brings up the possible synonomy of P. cumberlandensis and 
P. vetus. If P. vetus also showed an extreme development of the zygoma 
(i.e. if a skull with large dentition could be found with this zygoma), 
then P. cumberlandensis would be incorporated into P. vetus. If, how- 
ever, this P. vetus skull showed no unusual development of the zygoma, 
then (assuming no other characters were found different enough to 
cause specific separation) P. vetus would become a synonym of P. 
compressus, and simply extend the size range of the latter species 
still further. Until a skull is found the relationship of P. vetus to the 
other two species will remain uncertain. 

In the material I studied many Platygonus teeth are comparable 
in size to or even larger than the material reported for P. vetus. A few 
specimens, however, are in the upper size range of P. compressus (i.e. 
they are roughly the same size as P. cumberlandensis) . Because no skull 
has been found, my assignment of the Monroe County material is made 
solely on the basis of tooth size. Consequently, this material is referred 
to the largest species known, P. vetus. This is not the first large Late 
Pleistocene peccary to be discovered in Indiana. Hay (8) reported an 
M 3 from Lawrence County which is comparable in size to material from 
my study site and which he referred to P. vetus. 

Assignment of my specimens to P. vetus is done with the reserva- 
tion that any one of five possible conditions could be true. 

1. P. cumberlandensis is the same as P. vetus. 

If this is true, and it is supported by the fact that several 
of the specimens reported here are comparable in size to P. 
cumberlandensis, then P. vetus would be the appropriate name 
for these specimens. 

2. P. vetus is the same as P. coynpressus. 

In this case, the upper limit of size range of P. compressus 
would be extended considerably and all P. vetus material would 
be referred to the species P. compressus. 

3. P. vetus is a distinct species. 

4. Two species are represented at the Monroe County site, P. vetus 
and either P. compressus or P. cumberlandensis. 

5. Specific differentiation between the Late Pleistocene peccaries 
of the genus Platygonus should not be made on the basis of 
zygoma development. 

The trend defined by discovery of new populations of Late 
Pleistocene Platygonus has been toward simplification of the 
number of recognized species. This trend is owing primarily 
to the fact that individual populations demonstrate that these 
peccaries were highly variable not only in size but also in charac- 
ters of dentition and skull. (Even Gidley (4) admitted that a 



Geology and Geography 299 

wide variation of zygomatic development occurred in his Cumber- 
land Cave material.) Consequently, the ultimate end product of 
this trend would be to classify all present species herein dis- 
cussed as subspecies of Platygonus compressus. 

Smilodon fatalis 

Remains of saber-toothed cats are rare in the Midwest, this being 
the first report of material from Indiana. Included in this material 
are a right and a left P 4 (Indiana University 14627-51 and 14627-50) plus 
a right and left P 3 (Indiana Unuiversity 14627-54 and 14627-55) (see 
Plate 2). 

Several Late Pleistocene species of the genus Smilodon have been 
proposed based on characters of skull and dentition. Merriam and Stock 
(14) showed that several of these characters could vary widely within 
a single population, based upon a large sample from the La Brea site. 
Consequently, later authors have reassigned several species which had 
been classified originally on characters that the La Brea material sug- 
gests are of subspecific rank. 

Slaughter (19) recognized three well-defined species of Smilodoyi 
in North America, based upon dental indices constructed from lower 
dentition plus some supporting skull data. These three species are 
Smilodon fatalis (=S. troglodytes, S. conardi, S. nebraskensis, S. 
trinitiensis ) , S. floridanus (=S. calif ornicus), and S. gracilis. Recent dis- 
coveries in Florida (Webb (24) ) have tended to confirm Slaughter's 
view. Unfortunately, the Indiana material does not contain any part 
of the lower dentition that could be compared with Slaughter's results. 
Consequently, this material was assigned to Smilodon fatalis by other 
criteria. 

First, measurements of the Indiana Smilodon teeth are consistently 
smaller than any of the material reported from La Brea and assigned 
originally to S. calif ornicus by Merriam and Stock (14). These authors 
stated that ". . . it is questionable whether there are any upper fourth 
premolars of sabre-tooth in the large collection from California asphalt 
deposits which approach closely the size or at least the anterior-posterior 
diameter of the type of S. fatalis." 

Second, both Indiana P 4 's show evidence that they had well devel- 
oped protocones. On both specimens in the place where the protocone 
would normally be developed there is a conspicuous hole through the 
enamel. Both holes show that enamel at the marginal edges is well 
worn as if by use by the animal during mastication. Because a domi- 
nant proportion of Smilodon P 4 's from La Brea contain no protocone 
and because the overall size of their P 4 's is uniformly larger than 
many 5. fatalis specimens, S. floridanus (-S. Calif ornicus) can be ef- 
fectively eliminated from consideration. 

Based on the material from my study site, Smilodon gracilis cannot 
be separated easily from S. fatalis. The Indana material falls approxi- 
mately at the upper end of the size range for S. gracilis. The main cri- 
terion that can be used to separate S. gracilis from my material is 
the greater age of S. gracilis. Hibbard (9) considered the deposit which 



300 Indiana Academy of Science 

yielded the original specimen of S. gracilis to be Yarmouthian in age. 
S. gracilis has not been reported from the Late Pleistocene which, as 
will be seen in a later section, is the age assignment of the Monroe 
County material based on the rest of the faunal association. 

From the above I conclude that S. gracilis is not the best assignment 
for the species represented here. By elimination this leaves S. fatalis 
as the most likely species to which the Monroe County specimens should 
be assigned. 

Canis dirus 

The type specimen of Canis dirus Leidy was obtained originally from 
Pleistocene beds on the Ohio River near Evansville, Indiana. Within the 
Monroe County deposit, the second most abundant material obtained 
consists of teeth from this same great wolf (see Plate 2). The material 
matches so closely the La Brea dire wolf specimens in the Chicago 
Museum of Natural History that I have no doubt the Indiana material 
belongs to this species. 

Canis lupus 

Canis lupus Linne is represented in this deposit by a single, some- 
what worn P 4 (Indiana University 14627-65) (see Plate 2). Its dimensions 
fall well within the range of modern subspecies of the grey wolf as pre- 
sented by Goldman (7). It is not surprising to find Canis lupus pre- 
served in fossil deposits because it was an indigenous species in Indiana 
at the time the first European settlers arrived. 

Canis cf . latrans 

A third species of Canis is represented in this material by approxi- 
mately the anterior one third of a right M 1 (Indiana University 14627- 
66). Its size and shape compares favorably with Canis latrans Say. The 
coyote is presently an indigenous species in Indiana. 

Ursus americanus 

The collection contains several teeth referable to the modern species 
of black bear, Ursus americanus Pallas. (See Plate 2.) These teeth 
corresponded closely in proportion and morphological characteristics 
with those in the collection of recent black bear skulls in the Univer- 
sity of Michigan Museum of Paleontology. However, the Indiana fossils 
are somewhat larger, about the size of grizzly bear (Ursus horribilis) 
specimens in the same collection. This is to be expected. Presently, 
Ursus americanus shows considerable size differentiation over its geo- 
graphic range and in most fossil reports, according to Kurten (10), 
U. americanus is described as being larger than the living animals. 
Black bear, like Canis lupus, became extinct in Indiana with the arrival 
of white settlers. 

Neotoma sp. 

The rodent material from Monroe County includes several incisors 
and one right M 1 (Indiana University 14627-49). The right M 1 can be 



Geology and Geography 



301 










Figure 1. Canis dims Leidy Maxilla with P'>, M', and M J IU 14627-88 X 2/3 

Figure 2. Canis lupus Li tine P'> IU 14627-65 X 1 

Figure 3. Ursus americanus Pallas Mi IU 14627-64 X 1 

Figure 4. Smilodon fatalis (Leidy) P : IU 14627-54 X 1 ' 

FIGURE 5. Smilodon fatalis (Leidy) Pi IU 14627-50 X 1 

Figure 6. Canis dirus Leidy Mandible with Pi, P„ Mi and Mi IU 14627-69 X 2 



13 



302 Indiana Academy of Science 

assigned to the wood rat, Neoto?na Say and Ord. Neotoma fioridana 
is today indigenous to extreme southern Indiana. 

Age and Environment 

The fauna recovered from the Monroe County site indicates an early 
Late Pleistocene origin. Of the species recovered, Ursus americanus, 
Canis lupus, and Canis latrans are extant. Of the extinct animals of this 
fauna, Canis dirus is considered by Schultz (17) to be of Late Pleistocene 
age. Slaughter (20) gave the range of Smilodon fatalis as Middle 
Pleistocene to earliest Wisconsinan. The overlap in age ranges of ele- 
ments in this fauna, plus the decidedly modern aspect of the fauna, 
leads me to conclude that the age must lie within the Sangamonian to 
Early Wisconsinan interval (i.e. early Late Pleistocene). This age as- 
signment is supported in part by radiocarbon dating performed by 
Geochron Laboratories. Geochron reported no radiocarbon activity above 
the level of their counter background for carbon obtained from the 
apatite fraction of my material. This places the age of the deposit as 
earlier than 34,460 radiocarbon years before present. According to Flint 
(3), this dates the material as Middle Wisconsinan or older. 

The enivronment represented by this assemblage is of considerable 
interest because the site lies close to the southern boundary of Late 
Pleistocene glacial activity in Indiana. Determination of the environ- 
ment in which the gryke deposit was laid down should give clues to 
whether we are dealing with deposits of a glacial or interglacial stage. 

The environment is interpreted herein as a grassy upland with scat- 
tered stands of trees. Canis dirus is believed by various workers, Schultz 
(17), to have been an inhabitant of open plains country. Similarly, many 
Smilodon remains (e.g. at La Brea) are interpreted as having inhabited 
open grassland environments. Ray, Denny, and Rubin (16); Slaughter 
(20); Lundelius (13); and Brown (1) believe that Platygonus occupied 
a similar environment to that of Canis dirus and Smilodon. Ray, Denny 
and Rubin (16) support this by referring to Platygonus ". . . faunal 
associations, wide distribution in the United States including the Plains 
and Far West, occurrence in loess, relative abundance, and apparently 
gregarious habits (frequent occurrence of multiple individuals)." In con- 
trast, they point out that during the Late Pleistocene the solitary 
peccary Mylohyus probably occupied the woodland niche. In addition, 
the modern examples of Canis latrans and Canis lupus also inhabit open 
plains territory (Burt and Grossenheider, 1964), although not to the 
exclusion of other environments. Also, Neotoma may be found in grassy 
environments although Burt and Grossenheider (2) state that Neotoma 
is relatively tolerant of a wide range of climates and vegetation types 
and that this genus is fond of bluff ledges and crevices. 

One member of this fauna, however, was probably not a typical 
inhabitant of plains. Ursus americanus is reported by Burt and Grossen- 
heider (2) as presently inhabiting forests, swamps and mountains. 

The preponderance of animals interpreted as inhabitants of open 
plains country, and the abundance of Platygonus, which almost certainly 
was restricted to such an environment, leads one to conclude the prob- 



Geology and Geography 303 

able existence of such an environment surrounding the Monroe County 
site. Broken tree cover probably explains the existence of Ursus ameri- 
canus. Guilday (6) gave a similar interpretation for a Late Wisconsin 
fauna from central Kentucky. This fauna contained, among other ele- 
ments, Platygonus compressus, Canis dirus and Ursus horribilis. He in- 
terpreted the total association as boreal semi-prairie or parkland. 

The temperature of the environment was probably warmer than at 
present. The best temperature indicator in the fauna is Platygonus. 
Most researchers have held that Platygonus is a warm-climate indicator. 
This is supported by present distributions of peccaries and faunal asso- 
ciations of fossil finds. However, Ray, Denny and Rubin (16) reported 
Platygonus compressus in drift of Wisconsinan age which they believed 
indicated that the animal had died within a few miles of the margin 
of a wasting Late Wisconsinan glacier. They believed that the presence 
of P. compressus indicated expansion of an open-country habitat at the 
expense of woodland rather than the presence of a warm climate. The 
suggestion that P. compressus ranged from a non-glacial warm climate 
to a periglacial cold climate is supported by a possible northward clinal 
size decrease (a negative Bergmann's response) in Wisconsinan age 
P. compressus. If this clinal size decrease is real, and if P. vetus was 
governed by similar environmental parameters as P. compressus, then 
the Indiana site may record a very warm environment, indeed, owing to 
the large size of the Platygonus specimens from the Monroe County 
site. No other good climatic indicators are present in the fauna. 

The sum of the faunal evidence indicates that the Monroe County 
site records existence of an open grassy plains environment in southern 
Indiana. This environment would correspond to a dry period which could 
be either glacial or interglacial. Evidence for the latter has been stated 
above. Unfortunately, the evidence for a warmer climate is not conclu- 
sive. Until further evidence comes to light, delimitation of the Monroe 
County site as either Sangamonian or Early Wisconsinan must remain 
indeterminate. Palynological study of this deposit might help to answer 
this question and also verify my conclusion that the site was in a pre- 
dominantly open grassland. 

Origin of Fossil Deposit 

The concentration of vertebrate remains within this deposit most 
probably represents accumulation in a natural death trap, although 
activities of wood rats probably added material to the assemblage. 

The proclivity of wood rats for the acquisition of bones and teeth 
is well documented. For example, Olsen (15) described a fossil site 
which most probably represents the personal collections of many genera- 
tions of wood rats. In most ways, however, the Monroe County site does 
not compare at all favorably with the Olsen site. For example, fossils 
at the former site are strongly biased towards carnivores and peccaries. 
Presumably, wood rats were not selective in their acquisitions. Conse- 
quently, one would not expect to see any bias in the record of a fossil 
site that was the result of wood rat activity and this interpretation is 
ruled out. Nonetheless, at this site one might expect to see a few skeletal 



304 Indiana Academy of Science 

remains of animals which were probably not susceptible to entrapment 
within a death trap of this kind and which can best be interpreted as 
resulting from wood rat importation. 

Many animals, however, probably were susceptible to such entrap- 
ment. It is well known that Platygonus had an affinity for holes or 
fissures exposed to the surface. Other workers have postulated that 
similar concentrations of groups of Platygonus individuals found in 
circumstances similar to that of the gryke represent entrapment within 
a natural prison (e.g. Simpson (18), Gidley and Gazin (5)). 

For several reasons a death-trap interpretation is very attractive 
for the Monroe County deposit. Such an interpretation helps to explain 
the unusual concentration of carnivores. It is not difficult to imagine a 
saber-tooth cat or one or two wolves from a pack being enticed into such 
a trap by the distressed squeals of a doomed peccary. Such an entrapped 
animal would seem to represent an easy meal. And even if the trap was 
ineffective for such an animal as a great, leaping saber-tooth, the cat 
might have found itself in grave straits when confronted by a seemingly 
unhealthy, but in reality very healthy and very large, peccary. Such a 
peccary could unquestionably inflict a wound that could doom the great 
predator to the same grave as its victim. 

In order to be viable, the death-trap interpretation for the Monroe 
County site needs only a mechanism of allurement. Animals could have 
been enticed to enter the trap in several ways. First, some species 
might have been lured into the trap in the quest of shelter or water 
(assuming pools formed occasionally within the gryke). Secondly, some 
of the carnivores might also have been carrion feeders and have been 
trapped during their quest for earlier victims of this death pit. Young 
and Goldman (22) stated that wolves are well known as carrion feeders, 
which is true of most of the larger North American carnivores. 

The question of carrion feeding also brings up one possible explana- 
tion for the common occurrence of Platygonus in such traps. If P. vetus 
and other Platygonus species were at least part-time carrion feeders, they 
may have been drawn to such death traps in the quest of food. The 
possibility of carrion feeding provides a ready explanation for the con- 
centration through time of a large group of individuals at one locality 
by perpetuation of the mechanism of entrapment. Such a mechanism 
would yield a biased sample which would be weighted toward susceptible 
carrion feeders and carnivores, with the occasional or rare entrapment 
of other species that were seeking water or shelter. 

The death-trap interpretation also helps to explain the intense dis- 
array of bones in the deposit. Sedimentation here was sufficiently slow 
to permit complete decay of carcasses. Bones probably lay within the 
gryke and became brittle during extended periods of exposure. Periodic 
entry of more carrion feeders, including rodents, could have contributed 
to disarticulation of the skeletons and breakage of individual bones. 

Whether carrion feeders could be totally responsible for the dis- 
array of the deposit is indeterminate. Periodic flooding by heavy rains 
might have agitated the remains to some extent. However, there is no 



Geology and Geography 305 

evidence that a stream ever flowed into or through the fissure. Sediments 
or stratigraphic features indicative of streams or the fauna associated 
with them (e.g. turtle or mollusc remains) are not present. In addition, 
few specimens show evidence of transport. Those that appear abraded 
may be the result of rodent gnawing. 

Other explanations for bone concentration at the Monroe County site 
are not as attractive as the death-trap hypothesis. The only other plaus- 
ible interpretation involves use of the gryke as a natural shelter for 
carnivores. The problem with this interpretation is the numerical bias 
among the fossils recovered. The unusual concentration of carnivores 
could be explained by this concept but the lack of remains of any suit- 
able prey, other than Platygonus vetus, cannot. If large carnivores were 
using this site as living and eating quarters, a greater variety of large 
prey animals would be expected. Because my report is based only on 
partial excavation of the total deposit, the possibility that remains of 
other large prey animals are present cannot be excluded. Nonetheless, 
a considerable amount of material has been recovered and searched dur- 
ing the preparation of this report. Based on the results of this work, 
interpretation of the site as a carnivore shelter is rejected tentatively. 

Another possible interpretation for the remains at the Monroe 
County site is that this gryke did not act as a prison for all animals 
which entered it, but only for some. According to this hypothesis, some 
animals might have frequented the cavity as a place of shelter. Such an 
hypothesis is difficult to evaluate because the exact nature of the 
gryke entrance or size is indeterminate owing to partial destruction 
during highway construction. 

It seems clear, however, that the fissure was of somewhat different 
size or shape in the past. This conclusion is based on the preponderance 
of St. Louis Limestone detritus within this Salem Limestone gryke. It 
should be recalled that at present the St. Louis Limestone is not pre- 
served directly adjacent to the gryke although St. Louis beds do overlie 
the Salem Limestone in the cuts on the far side of the new highway. 
The St. Louis detritus indicates that a mass of St. Louis Limestone must 
at one time have bordered directly the edge of the cavity. Significant 
lateral transport of St. Louis clasts is precluded because none of the 
fragments show much evidence of such transport. Furthermore, large 
boulders of the St. Louis that have been recovered from the gryke deposit 
could not have been transported far. The lack of Salem Limestone 
fragments in the deposit suggests that this unit was protected from any 
surficial weathering that would have produced large Salem clasts. 

It is possible that the presence here of St. Louis clasts resulted 
from collapse into the gryke of deposits formed earlier in a topograph- 
ically higher cavern within the St. Louis. This appealing hypothesis 
helps to explain the intensely jumbled character of the bone-bearing 
deposit. It seems clear, however, that such a considerable amount of 
required overlying rocks units could not have been removed so com- 
pletely by erosion' in the time that has elapsed since deposition of the 
bone-bearing material. For this reason, I reject the hypothesis of 
redeposition by collapse of a St. Louis Limestone cave .system. 



306 Indiana Academy of Science 

I conclude, therefore that we are dealing here with the preserved 
portion of the original site of bone accumulation. Further, at this site 
the Salem Limestone lay under a protective mantle of St. Louis Lime- 
stone. This view would require a somewhat different climate than is pres- 
ent at the site today. A mantling layer of St. Louis Limestone along the 
border of the fissure could protect the Salem from mechanical weather- 
ing but not from chemical weathering unless a somewhat drier climate 
prevailed than is present at the site today. 

Summary and Conclusions 

On the basis of the present study I envision for the bone-bearing 
deposit the following scenario. Sometime within the early Late Pleisto- 
cene a parkland environment prevailed in southern Indiana. Across this 
open grassy country, typical carnivores of the period hunted among 
other animals, notably large peccaries. Peccary herds periodically fell 
victim to a natural death trap in the form of a cavity that afforded no 
escape. In doing so, they enticed carnivores and carrion feeders to a 
similar doom. Living within the cavity, woodrats periodically carried in 
additional material from surrounding areas. Eventually the cavity was 
filled with clayey deposits and preserved as seen today. 

Other clay-filled fissures are exposed along this stretch of Indiana 
Highway 37 and hold promise for similar fossil discoveries. Even if 
these other fissures did not serve as death traps during exposure to the 
surface, they may have accumulated remains of animals which used the 
fissures for shelter or which were washed or carried in after death. 
Whether these other fissures were open to the surface concommitantly or 
at different times is indeterminate. None of the adjacent fissures have 
been excavated but all have been given cursory examination, with no 
positive results to date. 



Literature Cited 

1. Brown, B. 1908. The Conard Fissure, A Pleistocene bone deposit in Northern 
Arkansas: With descriptions of two genera and twenty new species of mammals. 
Mem. Amer. Mus. Nat. His. Vol. 9, No. 4, p. 155-208. 

2. Burt, W. H., and R. P. Grossenheider. 1964. A Field Guide to the Mammals. 
Houghton Mifflin Company. Boston, Mass. xxiii + 284 pp. 

3. Flint, R. F. 1971. Glacial and Quaternary Geology. John Wiley and Sons, Inc. New 
York, N.Y. 892 pp. 

4. Gidley, J. W. 1920. Pleistocene peccaries from the Cumberland cave deposit. Proc. 
U.S. Natl. Mus. Vol. 57, p. 83-146. 

5. , and C. L. Gazin, 1938. The Pleistocene vertebrate fauna from Cumberland 

Cave, Maryland. Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus. No. 171, p. 1-93. 

6. Guilday, J. E., H. W. Hamilton, and A. W. McCrady. 1971. The Welsh Cave 
peccaries (Platygonus) and associated fauna, Kentucky Pleistocene. Carnegie Mus., 
Ann. Vol. 43, No. 9, p. 249-320. 

7. Goldman, E. A. 1937. The wolves of North America. Jour. Mamm. Vol. 18, p. 37-45. 

8. Hay, O. P. 1912. Th Pleistocene period and its Vertebrata. Indiana Dept. Geol. and 
Nat. Res., Ann. Rept. 36, p. 541-784. 

9. Hibbard, C. W. 1958. Summary of North American mammalian local faunas. Papers 
Mich. Acad. Sci.. 1957 meeting. Vol. 43, p. 3-32. 



Geology and Geography 307 

10. Kurten, B. 1966. Pleistocene bears of North America. Acta Zool. Fennica. Vol. 115, 
120 pp. 

11. LeConte, J. L. 1848. On Platygonua compreaaua; a new fossil pachyderm. Mem. 
Amer. Acad. Arts, Sci. Vol. 3, p. 257-274. 

12. Leidy, J. 1882. On an extinct peccary. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia. Vol. 34, 
p. 301. 

13. Lundelius, E. L. 1960. Mylohyua naautua, long-nosed peccary of the Texas Pleisto- 
cene. Bull. Texas Memorial Mus. No. 1, 40 pp. 

14. Merriam, J. C, and C. Stock. 1932. The Felidae of Rancho La Brea. Carnegie Inst. 
Pub. No. 422, xvi + 231 pp. 

15. Olsen, E. C. 1940. A late Pleistocene fauna from Herculaneum, Missouri. Jour. Geol. 
Vol. 48, p. 32-57. 

16. Ray, C. E., C. S. Denny, and M. Rubin. 1970. A peccary, Platygonua compreaaua 
LeConte, from drift of Wisconsinan age in northern Pennsylvania. Amer. J. Sci. Vol. 
268, No. 1, p. 78-94. 

17. ScHULTZ, G. E. 1969. Geology and paleontology of a late Pleistocene basin in south- 
west Kansas. Geol. Soc. Amer., Spec. Pap. No. 105, vii + 85 pp. 

18. Simpson, G. G. 1949. A fossil deposit in a cave in St. Louis. Amer. Mus. Novit. No. 
1408, 46 pp. 

19. Slaughter, B. H. 1963. Some observations concerning the genus Smilodon, with 
special reference reference to Smilodon fatalia. Texas Jour. Sci. Vol. 15, p. 68-81. 

20. . 1966. Platygonua compreaaua and associated fauna from the Laubach 

Cave of Texas. Amer. Mid. Nat. Vol. 75, p. 475-494. 

21. Webb, S. D. 1974. The status of Smilodon in the Florida Pleistocene. In: Pleistocene 
Mammals of Florida. S. D. Webb, Ed. University of Florida Press. Gainesvelle, 
Florida, p. 149-153. 

22. Young, S. P., and E. A. Goldman. 1964. The Wolves of North America, Part 1. 
Dover Publications, Inc. New York, N. Y. xvi + 385 pp. 



A Socio-Economic Impact Analysis of the Brookville Reservoir in 
Southeastern Indiana 

Lois E. Nelson and Gary W. Barrett 

Institute of Environmental Sciences 

Miami University, Oxford, Ohio 45056 



Abstract 



The impact of the newly created Brookville Reservoir on the residents of Franklin 
County, Indiana, was investigated. In order to analyze community values, attitudes, and 
expectations, 600 questionnaires were hand-delivered to 12% of the households in the 
county. The rate of return was 33%. Findings indicated that automobile traffic problems 
ranked first among the public's concerns, while quality of roads and bridges ranked 
second. The preservation of farmlands and open space, the maintenance of natural beauty 
and wildlife areas, and the retention of noise and air quality ranked third, fourth, and 
fifth, respectively. 

In order to evaluate the needs and expectations of visitors attracted to the 
Reservoir, 560 card questionnaires were distributed at the Mounds Recreation Site (con- 
taining beach, camping, and boating facilities) on a typical four-day summer weekend 
(17-20 August 1975). The rate of return was 82%. Sixty-eight percent of the visitors 
rated the roads in the vicinity of the Reservoir "good"; 61% indicated that they were 
there for one day only. Preferred activities were as follows: swimming — 67%,, picnick- 
ing — 46%, and sightseeing — 44%. Residents of Ohio and Indiana constituted 55% and 
40% of the visitors, respectively. These data are important as a planning tool for the 
residents of Franklin County and the Indiana Department of Natural Resources. 

Introduction 
The Study Site 

The Brookville Reservoir is a sixteen-mile-long, 7,790-acre (3,167 
ha) reservoir located in Franklin and Union Counties in southeastern 
Indiana. It was constructed by the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers be- 
tween 1965 and 1974 for the purposes of flood control, water storage, 
and recreation (7). Filling of the reservoir began on 1 January 1974; 
therefore, the summer of 1975 was the first recreational season that peo- 
ple began to use the facilities in significant numbers. The dam is 1.5 
miles (2.4 km) north of Brookville, Indiana (population 3000). Brook- 
ville is the county seat of Franklin County (population 17,000) and the 
largest community in the immediate vicinity of the Reservoir (Fig. 1). 

Franklin County is one of eight counties that make up the Historic 
Hoosier Hills Area of Southeastern Indiana. The Hoosier Hills Execu- 
tive Council is interested in resource conservation and development and is 
highly aware of the four million people that are concentrated in nearby 
metropolitan areas such as Indianapolis, Louisville, and Cincinnati (Fig. 
1). Their basic study (4) provided background data (e.g., soils, water- 
sheds, and population distribution) for the present investigation. 

Research Objectives 

This study focused upon the socio-economic impact of the Reservoir 
upon the residents of Franklin County. Much data about conditions prior 
to 1965 were lost during the decade of construction. Thus, we felt that 
it was important to gather accurate data regarding people's values, 

308 



Geology and Geography 



309 



attitudes, and expectations as the Reservoir began to produce impact 
on the various publics within the area (1). 

Although several studies have been concerned with the impact of 
a reservoir on a denned geographical region (3) (6), most investigations 
have failed to focus on the socio-economic factors of such a facility 
and their effect on the populace of a rural area. Such was the maior 
objective of this study. 




1 



North 



Scale of Miles 



r — l 




Figure 1. Map of the Brookville Reservoir and environs. 



310 Indiana Academy of Science 

Further, few studies have attempted to reconcile tourist needs and 
wants with those of the host community (5). Another objective of the 
study, therefore, was to assist the residents of Franklin County in com- 
municating their collective desires for the area so that effective coordi- 
nation can result in the satisfaction of both groups. 

Methodology 

The present investigation was conducted from 1 June to 31 Decem- 
ber 1975. Specific objectives that guided the study were: (a) to analyze 
community values and expectations (via a questionnaire); (b) to identify 
and discuss relevant alternatives open to residents and special interest 
groups (via workshops); (c) to determine the needs and expectations 
of visitors to the Reservoir (via a questionnaire); (d) to identify areas 
of agreement and of disagreement between county residents and the 
tourists; and (e) to make recommendations that will attempt to coordi- 
nate or to make compatible the needs and desires of both publics. 
Objectives a and b were carried out as part of a group project (2). 

The Community Survey 

A public opinion survey was employed to obtain county-wide infor- 
mation concerning opportunities the Reservoir might provide and con- 
ditions which could evolve due to its presence. A six-page questionnaire 
was randomly hand-distributed in an effort to increase the rate of 
return by introducing ourselves to the respondents and by briefly ex- 
plaining the reasons for conducting the survey. Three days (13-15 July 
1975) were spent distributing 600 questionnaires to approximately 12% 
of the households in Franklin County. Responses were returned in busi- 
ness reply envelopes. Details regarding questionnaire format and sam- 
pling technique have been previously described (2). 

Sections 1 through 5 of the questionnaire were classification ques- 
tions designed for response stratification according to place of residence 
or age class. These were followed by a "semantic differential" section 
designed to determine how residents perceived the area. The next two 
queries were designed to learn how many Franklin County residents 
were using the Reservoir, what activities they engaged in, and which 
Reservoir sites they frequented (a map was included to assist them in 
locating these sites). Sections 9 and 10 focused upon the ranking of 
factors that characterize the area and of possible environmental and 
socio-economic changes that the presence of the Reservoir might pro- 
duce. Comments and suggestions were also requested. The questionnaire 
was color-coded for each classification in order that differences of opin- 
ion relating to proximity to the Reservoir site could also be detected. 

The Tourist Survey 

The Army Corps of Engineers has a policy of taking a "visitors 
survey" at each of its facilities every three years (Mr. Mike Graham, 
Head Ranger. U. S. Corps of Engineers, Louisville District, personal com- 
munication). From 8 a.m. to 8 p.m. on a non-holiday weekend (Thurs- 
day through Sunday), each vehicle that enters representative sites is 



Geology and Geography 311 

stopped for survey purposes. The Indiana Department of Natural Re- 
sources granted us permission to hand out the tourist questionnaire 
during the same weekend (17-20 August 1975). Five hundred sixty (560) 
questionnaires were distributed at the entrance to the Fairfield beach, 
the Templeton Creek boat ramp, and the Mounds camping site, collec- 
tively known as the Mounds Recreation Site (Fig. 1). The Mounds 
Recreation Site represented the best locale for a survey because: (a) it 
is the entrance to the only public beach, the main public camping area, 
and one of the nine boat ramps (i.e., the sample population represented 
a good cross-section of visitors); (b) it is the location of a gatehouse 
where all vehicles had to stop to pay an entrance fee and could be 
handed the questionnaire; and (c) it was one of the Corps survey sites, 
allowing for comparison of data. 

The tourist questionnaire was designed to sample the needs and 
expectations of visitors to the Reservoir. An adult in each vehicle was 
asked to answer the questions and to deposit the card in a marked con- 
tainer as they exited the facility. Questions dealt with the following 
matters: opinion of the roads in the vicinity of the Reservoir; money 
spent each day while in the Reservoir area; reason for visiting the Res- 
ervoir; activities engaged in; what additional facilities might be desired; 
and point of origin. The tourist questionnaire was constructed to pro- 
vide information that could be related to the community questionnaire. 

The weather during the survey period was partly cloudy with light 
showers on Friday and Sunday. The temperature range was a consistent 
18° Clow and 31° C high. 

The Corps surveyed 3749 vehicles during the four-day period, involv- 
ing approximately 10,000 people (Mr. C. Hardison, District Engineer, 
U. S. Corps of Engineers, Louisville District, personal communication). 
As a basis for comparison, the peak day of the Fourth of July weekend 
saw 12,631 vehicles at the Reservoir and the totals for the month of 
August 1975 were 54,876 vehicles and 191,203 people (Mr. Graham, 
personal communication). 

Computer facilities at Miami University were used for statistical 
analysis. The Statistical Analysis System (SAS) was utilized which 
provided frequency and percentage analyses for each question. 

Results and Discussion 
Community Response 

The rate of return for the community questionnaire was 33 r /r 
(i.e., 200 out of 600 distributed). Community questionnaire data revealed 
that the automobile traffic problems were the major concern (Table 1). 
"Traffic safety" and "quality of roads and bridges" were ranked 1 and 2, 
respectively, in the county totals. In the breakdowns these concerns 
were amplified: 7 out of 10 categories ranked "traffic safety" first, with 
high averages in Brookville and Brookville Township. This locale bears 
the brunt of the traffic bound for the Reservoir. All classifications ranked 
"traffic safety" 1, 2, or 3 except those under 20 years of age who ranked 
it 6. The same pattern held true for "quality of roads and bridges." The 



312 



Indiana Academy of Science 



OS -^AQ 



02-0? 



Ofr-08 



os-oz 



OS 
aapun 



lU.IBJ-UO^J 



ui.ib^ 



UM.OJ, 



diqsuAvoj, 
ailiA^oo.xg 



3l[lA>lOO.ia 



a^uuoq 



H 00 <M C- 






to OS 
id 



M •< 



M <J 



C bo 
(S > 



C bfi 

& < 



te t- o a> 



tf <! 



rt «! 



c3 > 
« < 



Geology and Geography 313 

fifth ranked item — "noise and air quality" — was also related to the traf- 
fic situation and indicates the concern of a rural populace when sud- 
denly inundated with urban traffic problems. 

Table 2 summarizes how Franklin County residents regard certain 
developments that might occur as the tourist trade accelerates. These 
data indicate that county residents are eager for the economic oppor- 
tunities that the Reservoir might attract to their area. Interestingly, 
unemployment stands at 8.8 % (a 3-month average) and there is a scarc- 
ity of job openings for young people (2). However, the Reservoir has 
mostly seasonal employment to offer, and much of that is at the low-skill 
level (e.g., lifeguards, boat ramp attendants, and fee collectors). Real 
economic progress for the area depends on long-range planning. The 
data in Table 2 provide significant guidelines for all local and regional 
planning bodies involved with Franklin County as well as for state 
agencies (e.g., Indiana Department of Natural Resources) interested 
in impact analysis within a rural environment. 



Table 2. Franklin County community response to possible growth and development 
associated with, the Brookville Reservoir (2). 

No Un- 

Desirable Opinion desirable 

Community growth and development 73.1% 

Industrial development 68.5% 

Shopping center 63.7% 

Development of commercial businesses along Route 101 _ 56.8%, 

Lakeside resort facility 55.1% 

Summer home development 36. S r / ( 

Increased traffic along access routes 14.7% 

Construction of billboards and signs 10.0% 



Tourist Response 

The rate of return for the tourist questionnaire was 82% (i.e., 457 
out of 560 distributed). The tourist questionnaire asked visitors to rate 
"the roads you traveled on in the vicinity of the Reservoir" with these 
results: Poor — 12%; Fair — 20%; Good — 68%. This opposite perspective 
was interesting and may be attributed to several causes. First, the phrase 
"in the vicinity of the Reservoir" was used in an attempt to get an 
assessment of county roads by visitors to match up with the assess- 
ment of local residents. The discrepancy may have arisen because 
visitors defined "in the vicinity of" too narrowly and only evaluated 
the new Route 101 (see Fig. 1) which is a new two-lane highway running 
up the east side of the lake between Brookville and Liberty, ignoring 
the old and narrow roads that brought them into the area. Second, since 
the survey site was on the east side of the lake, a preponderance of those 
sampled may have been unfamiliar with the old, rural roads that char- 
acterize most of the. county. More importantly, it may be that tourists 
enjoy scenic, rural (county) roads and fail to recognize traffic patterns 
as congested in such an environmentally attractive setting. 



17.4% 


9.5% 


13.7% 


17.8% 


17.9% 


18.4% 


29.6% 


13.6% 


32.6% 


12.3% 


37.8% 


25.4% 


23.7% 


61.6% 


20.2% 


69.8%, 



314 Indiana Academy of Science 

The rationale for asking three specific tourist questions (i.e., length 
of stay, amount of money spent, and accommodations utilized by Reser- 
voir visitors) was a desire to define the type of tourist which the Reser- 
voir was attracting. These data are helpful to business people in Frank- 
lin County and to the various publics within the state. 

In answer to the question "which best describes the main reason 
for your visit to Brookville Lake?," the answers were: one-day outing — 
62%; weekend vacation — 17%; visiting in area as recommended by 
friend — 9%; annual vacation — 5%; and passing through area — 5%. The 
assumption here was that those coming for only one day probably weren't 
driving more than 50 miles each way, while the small number who are 
taking their annual vacation represent those who conceive of the Res- 
ervoir as a place to come and stay for an extended time period. 

Another question, "how much money do you estimate you spend 
each day when visiting the Brookville Lake area?" elicited these re- 
sponses: under $10—70%; $10-$20— 22%; $20-$30— 4%; $30-40—1%; 
and over $40 — 3%. These figures bear a positive correlation to those 
from the question just discussed: i.e., the visitor-for-a-day (62%) 
spends under $10 (70%) and the few on annual vacation (5%) spend 
more than $30 (4%). Therefore, we recommend that future recreational 
plans be based on the short-term visitor. 

In response to "what type of accommodations would you patronize?," 
tourists gave positive replies to: lodge on the lakefront — 63%; restau- 
rant along access routes — 35%; shopping center — 26%; restaurants in 
Brookville — 21%; motels along access routes — 12%; and hotel/motel in 
Brookville — 4%. 

The composite tourist is further defined by adding some data from 
the Army Corps survey (Mr. Hardison, personal communication). Vis- 
itors surveyed at several Reservoir entrances listed sightseeing as the 
most popular activity (45%) and boating as the second choice (21%). 
These two groups represent a majority of Reservoir users. Add to them 
the fishermen (14%) and the campers (10%) and the result is a large 
proportion of visitors who fail to patronize restaurants or motels. At 
a workshop held for area merchants, the difficulty of attracting tourists 
into town was stressed. These figures corroborate this opinion and are 
supported by new business activities evident along State Route 101 
(e.g., camping supply stores, bait and tackle shops, and marine sales 
and service stores). 

In summary, data from our tourist questionnaire and the Corps' 
survey describe the people currently visiting the reservoir as follows: 
62% come for one day, 70% spend under $10 per carload, and 35% 
prefer to patronize businesses located out of town and along the access 
routes. These data suggest that the business peoples' apprehensions 
regarding the potential economic benefits from reservoir visitors are 
well founded. 

The strong response to the "lodge on the lakefront" item (63%) 
merits further comment. A lodge is part of the state's long-range plan 
and this indication of client support for such a facility suggests that 
it should be moved to the forefront of the Department of Natural 



Geology and Geography 315 

Resources' plans for the Brookville Reservoir. A lodge would attract 
visitors with a different socio-economic basis than those currently vis- 
iting the lake and might have a positive impact on the business com- 
munity within the county. The lodge is projected for the west side of 
the lake, close to Brookville, and should create a better balance of usage 
among the 13 entrances since only three are located on the west side. 
Reservoir activities found to be most popular with visitors were as 
follows, based on 445 responses: swimming (67%), picknicking (46%), 
sightseeing (44%), motorboating (24%), camping (24%), fishing (23%), 
waterskiing (17%), hiking (9%), sailing (2%), and visiting the Treaty 
Line Museum (1%). When asked "what additional facilities would you 
like to see developed?," visitors responded: nature center — 35%, ex- 
panded boat rental — 27%, and marina — 20%. These data suggest that the 
present reservoir facilities are too heavily weighted toward users who 
can afford to own the expensive equipment required for many of the 
popular activities (e.g., motorboating and waterskiing). The picnickers 
and sightseers might patronize a boat rental and nature center. These 
data can be utilized by the Indiana Department of Natural Resources 
in planning a well-balanced facility that offers recreational opportuni- 
ties to all economic levels of the population. 

Concluding Remarks 

When the Corps and Department of Natural Resources personnel 
were interviewed early in the summer of 1975, they remarked that a 
great majority of Reservoir visitors were coming from Ohio. Mr. Dave 
Turner, Reservoir manager, said: "about 75% to 80% of the cars enter- 
ing the facility carry Ohio license plates" and that "Indiana state officials 
had anticipated such high usage by people from Ohio." Questionnaire 
data revealed a somewhat different picture, however. In response to 
"where is your home?," respondents indicated: Ohio — 55%, Indiana — 
40%, Kentucky — 1%, and other — 4%. People from Ohio were still in 
the majority, but not to the extent suggested by Reservoir personnel. 

These findings demonstrate the need for planning along other than 
political boundaries (e.g., state lines). When a facility like the Brook- 
ville Reservoir is constructed, backed by a federal agency and using 
federal funds, planning needs to be conducted on a regional (e.g., OKI) 
or ecological (e.g., watershed) basis. When the regional or eco- 
logical concept is ignored, problems may arise that could have been 
prevented by taking a more comprehensive viewpoint. 

Acknowledgments 

This study was supported by a National Science Foundation Student- 
Originated Studies grant awarded to Miami University, Oxford, Ohio. We 
would like to thank Douglas Greger, Roger Wood, Mark Ernst, and 
Duncan Howland for their aid in all aspects of the study. We are also 
grateful to Mr. Dave Turner, property manager of the Brookville Res- 
ervoir, and to Mr. Mike Graham, head ranger for the Corps of Engineers, 
for their advice arid assistance. We extend our sincere thanks to all 
the people in Franklin County who assisted and encouraged us during 
the summer months of 1975. 



316 Indiana Academy of Science 

Literature Cited 

1. Barton, T. F. 1968. Lack of planning or failures in preconstruction planning of the 
Monroe Reservoir. Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 77 :312-320. 

2. Brookville Lake Impact Study. 1975. Analysis of community values and goals 
through a participatory process. Miami Univ. Institute of Environmental Sciences, 
Information Center. 

3. Gray, H. H., R. S. Howe, J. C. Randolph, M. C. Roberts, and N. L. White. 
1975. Lake Monroe land suitability study: a technical report on a selected portion 
of the Lake Monroe watershed. Indiana Univ. School of Public and Environmental 
Affairs. Center for Urban and Regional Analysis. 

4. Historic Hoosier Hills Executive Council. 1972. Plan of action for the Historic 
Hoosier Hills Resource conservation and development project. 

5. Saitta, W. W., and R. L. Burg. 1973. Local economic stimulation from reservoir 
development: a case study of selected impacts. J. Soil and Water Conservation. 
Mar-Apr. 

6. Tureck, H. Undated. Social impact of the Libby Dam, Lincoln County, the case of 
absentee or extra-local influence. Montana Univ. Joint Water Resources Research 
Center Report. 

7. U. S. Army Corps of Engineers. 1974. Final environmental impact statement for 
Brookville Lake project: East Fork Whitewater River, Indiana. U. S. Army Engineer 
District, Louisville, Ky. 



Post-Glacial Deltas in the Region of the Great Bend of the Wabash River 

G. T. Richardson and T. R. West, Department of Geosciences 
Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 

Abstract 

Short-length, steep-gradient intermittent streams from three small drainage basins 
terminate in sand and gravel deltas in the Wabash River near Lafayette and West 
Lafayette, Indiana. The cause and effect of each delta was examined, as well as its influence 
on the environmental geology of the area. The small streams originate in ground-moraine 
uplands and flow across outwash into the Wabash River. The deltas were formed in two 
phases: the first accumulated slowly with little change in the river, and the second 
developed rapidly after urbanization of the area and resulted in an offset of the river 
channel. These deltas are part of a zone of similar landforms in the region of the "Great 
Bend of the Wabash." Environmental impact ranges from negligible to potentially harm- 
ful. The most severe instances involve loss of farmland and possible erosion of an aban- 
doned landfill. 

Introduction 

This paper describes three deltaic accumulations in the Wabash River 
and their influence on the environmental geology of Lafayette and West 
Lafayette, Tippecanoe County, Indiana. Each delta is located where a 
short-length, steep-gradient tributary reaches local base level at the 
Wabash River. These dendritic tributaries have incised into Wisconsinan- 
age outwash terraces and ground moraine by normal erosional processes 
after cessation of glacial and glacio-fluvial deposition about 10,000 
years ago. 

The three deltas, their drainage basins, and the generalized surficial 
geology of the two-city area are depicted in Figure 1. Two drainage 
basins are located inside or adjacent to city limits, whereas the third 
appears located well beyond those political boundaries. However, this is 
not the case as urbanization has now encroached onto the headwaters 
of that drainage basin. 

The overall view of the surficial geology for the study area (Fig. 1) 
shows a broad, evenly-undulating ground moraine dissected by a valley 
of large dimensions, now filled in part with great quantities of outwash 
sand and gravel. This valley is occupied by the Wabash River. The 
floodplain alluvium is a thin veneer of sand-silt-clay deposits of Holocene 
age. 

This paper presents for the first time, specific physiographic place 
names that allow more descriptive detail for landscape features than 
was previously available in the Greater Lafayette area (Fig. 1). These 
designators were developed during an environmental geology analysis 
which considered, among other environmental concerns, the relation- 
ships of the three delta areas (4). These place names are particularly 
useful in delineating irregularly shaped landforms within the rectilinear 
Congressional Land Survey. Although topography is not shown in Figure 
1, two distinct levels of partly-dissected outwash deposits represent 
former stages of the stream that drained the melting ice sheets. The 
upper level (Purdue Terrace and Wea Outwash Plain) and lower level 

317 



318 



Indiana Academy of Science 



R. 5 y. R. 4 W 




I MILE 



EXPLANATION 



PHYSIOGRAPHIC 
DIVISIONS 



SURFICIAL 
GEOLOGY 



1 Wabash River Floodplain 

2 Wea Creek Floodplain 



Modern Alluvium 
Sand, silt, and clay 



3 Wea Outwash Plain 

4 Purdue Terrace 

5 Sand Ridge Terrace 

6 Lafayette Terrace 



Glacial Outwash 
Sand and gravel 



7 Tipton Till Plain 



Ground Moraine 
Unsorted till 



City Limits 



Sand and Gravel 
Operations 



Drainage Basin Limits 



Abandoned Landfill Sewage Treatment Plant 

1. Map showing physiographic areas, surficial geology, and limits of the drainage 

basins. 



Geology and Geography 



319 



(Lafayette Terrace and Sand Ridge Terrace) correspond to the Shelby- 
ville and Maumee Terrace levels, respectively, as discussed by Thornbury 
(5). 

Discussion of the Problem 

Located along a six-mile reach of the Wabash River, the Happy 
Hollow, Durkee Run, and Fort Ouiatenon Deltas are terminal features 
of small-size tributaries whose long profiles, drainage basin size and 
average gradient are shown in Figure 2. These small drainageways 
originate on the Tipton Till Plain and have downcut through two levels 
of outwash materials bordering the Wabash River. For comparison, Wea 
Creek, whose long profile and statistics are also shown in Figure 2, 
flows across a landscape with identical physiographic conditions and 
terminates in a similar delta, yet affects the Wabash River to a much 
lesser degree than do the other streams. The significance of this dif- 
ference will be discussed subsequently. 



800 



_, 700 



600 



500 - 
25 



w 



HAPPY HOLLOW CREEK 
(0.7 sq mi, 136 feet/mi) 

DURKEE RUN 
(3.7 sq mi, 55 feet/mi) 

FORT OUIATENON CREEK 
(3.2 sq mi, 52 feet/mi) 



_ 84. 5X Vertical Exaggeration 



V- 



_L^J. 



I-...I 




~-^<*<* 



Figure 2. 



24 23 22\^ 3 2 I 

MILES UPSTREAM FROM TERMINUS IN WABASH RIVER 

Long profiles and drainage basin statistics for the streams terminating in 
deltas. 



During low water stages of the Wabash River, the deltas are seen 
to consist of two parts. The main body of each appears as a smooth, 
arcuate deposit of sand and gravel, covered with typical floodplain 
forest vegetation (willows, cottonwoods, and silver maples) and rising 
2 to 5 feet above the river's surface. Near the upstream end of each 
main accumulation, an irregularly shaped secondary delta juts outward 
into the channel. These portions of the deltas consist also of sand and 
gravel (perhaps of somewhat coarser grain size than the main delta), 



320 Indiana Academy of Science 

but are devoid of vegetation except for pioneer species which take hold 
on the "new land" during extended low water stages. These secondary 
deltas are less than two feet above the lowest seasonal water levels 
and are easily inundated by minor fluctuations in the river. Figure 3 
shows the outlines of the two portions of each delta and the channel 
contours opposite the delta. The secondary part of the Fort Ouiatenon 
Delta is not shown because it was submerged by a 1.7-foot rise of the 
Wabash River just prior to stream channel mapping. 1 However, some 
indication of its extent is shown by the channel contours. For each 
delta the bathymetric contours demonstrate the constriction of the 
upstream cross-section owing to the progradation of the secondary delta 
and development of a scour pool on the outside of the delta-influenced 
bend. Also shown in Figure 3 is the interpreted position of the Wabash 
River channel prior to offset by delta construction. 

Channel contours downstream from the Happy Hollow Delta show 
a channel bar, in consequence of which a quarter-mile section of the 
Wabash River appears almost braided at low flow stages. This decrease 
in the river's ability to transport sediment is also observed downstream 
of the Durkee Run Delta. This is interpreted as an increase in bed load 
as a result of bank erosion and scour opposite the deltas. An additional 
change in sediment transport characteristics is represented by the fine 
sand and silt that covers the upper surface of each main delta. This 
change from the coarse, granular texture of the underlying materials 
suggests that the bulk of the main delta acts as a point bar (i.e., reduces 
velocity on the inside of a river bend) at high water stages, a condition 
reinforced by the presence of vegetation which further reduces stream 
velocity and promotes rapid deposition. 

A review of the historical airphoto coverage (1929-1975) shows simi- 
larities and differences concerning the three deltas and the attendant 
offset of the Wabash River. For all sites, the tree-covered main delta 
is visible on the earliest photographic record, and little or no change in 
outline has occurred to the present. At each location, the secondary 
delta apparently was already established at the time of the earliest 
photos. However, the extent and rate of river offset opposite delta 
progradation varies considerably for the sites as a function of time. 
Across from the Happy Hollow Delta, bank offset has been noticeable 
only since the early 1950's, whereas there has been little or no measure- 
able change in the channel outline opposite Durkee Run Delta since the 
time of the first photographic record. Lateral migration opposite the 
Fort Ouiatenon Delta, although observable on the earliest photos, has 
been accelerating since the 1950's. 

In the Happy Hollow and Durkee Run drainage basins, the photo 
record displays the dramatic shift from agricultural to urban condi- 
tions with the passing years. The increase in sediment yield into the 
streams during this land use change has been counteracted, to a minor 
degree, by an increase in forest cover in these two drainage basins. 
The present extent of forest in these areas is the greatest since the first 



1 Drainage of an artificial lake for inspection purposes raised the river level above 
its previous low flow. 



Geology and Geography 



321 



HAPPY HOLLOW DELTA 



-r- z 



9-7-T6 
RIVER STAGE • 1.3 FEET 



— tc-^^-^s-S" 




Direction 
of Flow 



Contour Interval = 2 Feet 



200 FEET 



DURKEE RUN DELTA 



9-7-76 




Lafayette Sewage 
Plant Outfall 



FORT OUIATENON DELTA 




Figure 3. Channel contours opposite the deltas. Dashed line separates main and 
secondary deltas. Bold arrow indicates position of outlet for the tributary streams. Tinted 
area approximates the interpreted river channel prior to delta accumulation and offset. 



days of white settlement. Dos Santos and Miles (1) reported that urban- 
ization within the Happy Hollow drainage basin has reached its maxi- 
mum extent and future sediment yields are expected to significantly 
decrease. Within the Fort Ouiatenon Delta drainage basin, the actual 
area converted from agricultural to residential /commercial usage has 



322 Indiana Academy of Science 

been rather minimal; however, building has occurred on the steep 
slopes marking the transition from the Purdue Terrace to the Tipton 
Till Plain uplands. Thus this sloping land, which represents a minor 
portion of the drainage basin, has had a proportionately greater effect 
on erosion and stream deposition. 

Environmental impact adjacent to the deltas is as varied as is their 
recent erosional history. Across the river and slightly downstream from 
the Happy Hollow Delta, a sanitary landfill was previously operated near 
the base of the Lafayette Terrace (see Fig. 1). Although operation 
ceased in early 1972, materials placed in the landfill are subject to ex- 
posure and removal during high water stages of the Wabash River. 
This is a consequence of the river offset opposite the Happy Hollow 
Delta which has removed a portion of the natural levee, allowing access 
to the landfill site and the adjacent floodplain. In contrast, no adverse 
impact has occurred opposite the Durkee Run Delta because this area 
is devoted to minor agriculture or vacant, fallow land. In fact, there 
is a harmonious land use on the main portion of the Durkee Run Delta, 
which is the site of the Lafayette sewage treatment plant. Surrounded 
by man-made levees, this site is well removed from the erosion on the 
opposite bank. At the Fort Ouiatenon Delta the Wabash River offset 
has resulted in the loss of some five or six acres of regularly-tilled 
farmland. An additional expense to the landowners at this site involved 
the excavation of a new drainage ditch. This was done to prevent severe 
erosion along a natural waterway ending at that portion of the river 
bank suffering rapid offset. If uncontrolled, such erosion would have 
denied access to an additional 20 or more acres of land and rendered 
them useless for crop production. 

Based on field observations and historical airphotos, the following 
general account is offered as a history of formation for each of the 
deltas. After 1) the last glacial stage had deposited the local ground 
moraine, 2) meltwaters of the northward-receding ice mass had accumu- 
lated, reworked, and then dissected outwash sand and gravel into two 
major terrace levels, and 3) the climate began a trend towards present- 
day conditions, normal stream erosion commenced on the escarpments 
of the local terraces and the Tipton Till Plain. Rapid runoff from the 
small-size, steep-gradient drainages was thus established, leading to 
delta formation in the present-day Wabash River. Because of minimal 
sediment yields from vegetated slopes under pristine environmental 
conditions, the normal flow of the Wabash was able to accommodate 
the deltaic input and remove the excess. Thus no significant deflection 
of the river channel would have occurred. During this period, delta sedi- 
ments shifted downstream from the initial outlet site and formed the 
large crescent-shaped areas visible today (main delta formation). 

Since the coming of the white man to the area, there has been a 
shift in land use, climaxed by maximum agricultural tillage about 
1920 (although decreasing steadily ever since) and a tremendous resi- 
dential/urban expansion, starting in the 1940's and continuing to the 
present. These terrain disturbances sufficiently increased runoff volumes 
and erosion, resulting in deposition of the smaller, secondary deltas now 



Geology and Geography 323 

seen prograding into the Wabash River channel. With establishment of 
these newer sedimentary deposits, the river was unable to transport 
the sediments and began to deflect around them. The redirected river 
current began to erode the alluvial banks opposite the secondary deltas, 
culminating in the present offsets across from the Happy Hollow and 
Fort Ouiatenon Deltas. In contrast, the progradation of the secondary 
Durkee Run Delta appears to have had little or no effect in initiating 
further erosion because the present offset at that site is nearly identical 
to that observed in the earliest photo record. Hence it can be predicted 
that a more-or-less naturally stabilized channel will develop. Periodical- 
ly it may be subjected to new bank-caving and lateral migration, ac- 
companied by rapid attenuation of the sinuosity of the induced offsets. 
The Wabash River seems unable to establish free meanders in response 
to the offsets. 

From this interpretation of the local deltaic history, a question 
arises about how these features relate to the regional landscape. An 
initial check on such deltas in adjacent areas led to an examination of 
topographic maps of the Wabash River area along a reach of about 150 
river miles upstream and downstream from the Greater Lafayette area. 
Based strictly on map evidence, Figure 4 shows the distribution of 
deltas relative to the varying geomorphic conditions of the Wabash 
River valley. Morisawa (3) presented a summary of factors resulting 
in soil erosion; these were climate, rainfall, soil character, vegetation, 
geologic materials, and topography. Applying Morisawa's generalized 
interactions to the specific conditions of this reach of the Wabash 
River, it is concluded that each factor has been more or less constant 
for the past few centuries. However, geologic materials and topography, 
combined with pronounced local changes in vegetation and land use, have 
produced a stream reach of delta formation within the region of the 
"Great Bend of the Wabash" described by McBeth (2). 2 This stream 
reach is characterized by local relief of 150 to 200 feet and juncture 
with short-length, steep-gradient tributaries which head on the glacial 
till uplands and intermittently discharge across the locally wide outwash 
terraces. Upstream from this reach, available relief diminishes to gen- 
erally less than 100 feet and the Wabash River tends to follow or par- 
allel its pre-glacial channel in bedrock; there is also less outwash 
material. Downstream from the "bend," where the total amount of out- 
wash is greater, the old-age characteristics of the Wabash River valley 
(by Davisian standards) tend towards enlargement of the drainage 
basins of tributary streams, thereby reducing erosion because of greater 
basin storage and delayed runoff. Thus the resultant diminished flow is 
similar to that of Wea Creek in the Greater Lafayette area. Wea 
Creek (see Fig. 1) drains 163 mi 2 (44 to 233 times larger than the 
three drainage basins studied in this report) with a rather gentle aver- 
age gradient (Fig. 2). It has, since glacial times, deposited a delta at its 



2 McBeth's "Great Bend" is where the Wabash River starts to flow due south near 
the city of Covington, Indiana. The stream reach of delta formation for this report is 
that portion of the river flowing as a nearly straight line from northeast to southwest, 
from Logansport to Covington, although the specific physiographic conditions of this 
reach are typically found from Delphi to Williamsport. 



324 



Indiana Academy of Science 











II 


Greal 


Be 


id 





f 
























the Wabash" 






Old Age 


Exhumed 








River Appearance 




Teays Valley 


. 






< > 








4- 




— 


Lafayette 








^_ 


3- 








■ 








o 






l" 




10 

*2 


2- 

1 _ 










f 












Eq 
























O- 






























.,.,.. 














15 


IC 











50 

















50 




100 


150 



Miles Downstream Miles Upstream 

Figure 4. Histogram showing the number of deltas upstream and downstream from 
Lafayette and the varying geomorphic conditions of the Wabash River valley. 



terminus in the Wabash River, but at a pace that has produced only a 
minor offset on the opposite river bank. This offset has remained nearly 
constant throughout the period of historical airphoto coverage. 

Concluding Statement 

Surface runoff is dependent not only on the quantity and rate of 
precipitation, but on other aspects, including topographic relief and infil- 
tration rate of the surface layers. Stream discharge also is a function 
of the physical size of the drainage basin, with smaller areas showing 
a faster response to the same amount of precipitation. Smaller areas 
can also experience localized higher intensity storms. This yields, by 
comparison, a more delayed response for larger drainage basins. Particle 
size and volume of erodible material further determine the load a stream 
will transport as stream competence varies directly with discharge. 

In this report three small drainage basins, ranging in size from 
0.7 to 3.7 mi 2 (1.8 to 9.6 km-), were examined in the Lafayette-West 
Lafayette area. Each drainage basin has as local base level the 
Wabash River, where a sand and gravel delta has been built into the 
channel of the larger river. These deltas are the result of intermittent, 
torrential streams originating on partly-urbanized, relatively-imper- 
meable ground moraine and then flowing across abundant deposits of 
unconsolidated outwash sands and gravels. Each delta has two parts: 
a higher, vegetated area which is the main bulk of the sedimentary ac- 
cumulation and a lower, non-vegetated secondary progradation extend- 
ing farther into the river. In two cases, the secondary delta has initiated 
erosion of the opposite river bank by deflecting the current; there have 
also been changes in the channel characteristics. Negative environ- 
mental impact has ranged from negligible to potentially harmful, de- 
pending on prior land use. 

One purpose of this report is to focus attention on the significance 
of landform features relative to environmental impact. In the examples 



Geology and Geography 325 

cited, the relation and consequence of small deltas and land use has 
been examined. Each delta is the product of natural processes, intensified 
in part by man's influence; the cumulative effect is negligible where there 
is no interference with man's activities. In the past, only through hind- 
sight have land use problems associated with such features been recog- 
nized. Realization of the potential effects of urbanization, increased 
runoff, erosion, sedimentation, landfill location, etc., in connection with 
geologic features such as these deltas, could lead to a better under- 
standing of our physical world, allowing for management towards a 
better local environment in the future. 



Literature Cited 

1. Dos Santos, R. and R. D. Miles. 1976. Land use change and impacts on flood plains. 
Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. In press. 

2. McBeth, W. A. 1900. The physical geography of the region of the great bend of the 
Wabash. Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. 9 :157-161. 

3. Moris A wa, M. 1968. Streams, their dynamics and morphology. McGraw-Hill. New 
York. p. 78. 

4. Richardson, G. T. 1976. Environmental geology applied to highway site selection, 
West Lafayette, Indiana. M.S. thesis. Purdue University. West Lafayette, Indiana. 
Ill p. 

5. Thornbury, W. D. 1958. The geomorphic history of the upper Wabash valley. Amer. 
Jour. Sci. 256 :449-469. 



The Application of Remote Sensing Techniques in Microscale Climatology 

S. N. Goward and J. E. Oliver, Department of Geography and Geology 
Indiana State University, Terre Haute, Indiana 47809 

Abstract 

The climatological study of heat and energy budgets in urban areas has long proved 
problematic because of incomplete data sources. To meet this contingency this paper 
illustrates how the use of remotely sensed multispectral data allows evaluation of selected 
components of the energy budget. Using an area of Indianapolis as a sample region, 
instantaneous maps of surface albedo and infrared radiant characteristics are derived. 
Generation of representative cross-sectional energy profiles in selected electromagnetic 
bands point to the highly variable inteiface characteristics of the surface. It is concluded 
that microclimatic analysis using multispectral data holds great promise for quantitative 
evaluation of the urban energy balance. 

One of the fundamental concepts of climatology concerns the energy 
and heat budget of the earth-atmosphere system. The absorption of solar 
energy by the earth system is fundamental to the form and function 
of the earth's climate. While the significance of the sun's role in clima- 
tology has been recognized since ancient Greek times, it was only dur- 
ing the last century that the basic physics of radiant energy and its 
interaction with material substances of the earth were identified (Budyko, 
2). It has been shown that the physical properties of the materials pres- 
ent at the interface between the atmosphere and the hydro-lithosphere 
play a key role in determining amount of energy absorbed and the type 
of energy conversion from radiation to other forms of energy. 

The simplest description of the heat budget is a symbolic expression 
which identifies the component energy conversions at the interface. This 
is given by: 

G = (Q + q)(l-a)+It-IA-H-LE-F where: 
G = the energy change at any point of the interface 
(Q_|_q) = the sum of direct and diffuse solar radiation 
(1 — a) — the percent of shortwave radiation absorbed (a = albedo) 
I y — the longwave radiation emitted from the atmosphere 

toward the surface 
I A = the longwave outgoing radiation 

H = sensible heat 
LE =z latent heat 
F = advected heat 

Note that terms in the equation which add energy to the interface are 
positive whereas terms that remove energy are negative. The object 
of this paper is to show how remotely sensed data can be used to quan- 
tify selected components of the energy flows indicated in the equation. 

Quantifying Energy Flows 

Measurement of energy flows has only slowly become technically 
feasible. The earliest measurement devices were simple glass lenses 

326 



Geology and Geography 327 

that burnt a paper chart to indicate the duration of intense sunlight. 
Recently, a variety of electrical and photochemical devices have been 
developed (Kondratyev, 3). The pyranometer and various radiometers 
have come into relatively common use in the United States since 
World War II (Miller, 4). The majority of energy budget studies have 
been conducted under the methodology developed for other meteorological 
observations (WMO, 5). A stand of instruments is set up at a selected 
location under the assumption that the measurements from this location 
are representative of a larger adjacent region. Unfortunately, this 
assumption is not strictly valid for heat budget measurements due to 
the varied nature of earth surface materials. In particular the complex 
pattern of surface materials in urban areas results in the impossibility 
of selecting a representative site from which to make such observations. 

The most obvious solution to the problem of measuring the heat 
budget over differential surfaces is to make simultaneous observations 
over a representative sample area for each surface type (Bach & Patter- 
son, 6). The cost of such a field network of observation stands is 
extremely high and cross calibration between instruments is never 
totally successful. Experimental research using aircraft mounted pyra- 
nometers and radiometers showed that such airborne measurements could 
be carried out (Kung, et al., 7; Lenschow and Dutton, 8). These early 
successes in airborne measurements and contemporary developments in 
space satellite technology led to the TIROS-NIMBUS-ATS meteorologi- 
cal satellite program (Barrett, 9). The sensors on these satellites measure 
the reflectance or albedo of the earth and longwave radiant emissions 
from the earth's surface and atmosphere. The spatial ground resolution 
of the early aircraft observation and current meteorological satellite 
observation is too gross (1 to 5 KM) to be used in microclimatic research. 
However, the spatial perspective of the data provide major insights into 
the global and regional variations of the energy budget of the earth 
(Lorenz, 10) and is suggestive of the methodology for energy budget 
measurements in microscale studies. 

Multispectral Scanning 

The measuring device that provides the answer to the need for 
microscale spatial quantification of the heat budget was not developed 
primarily for climatic research, but for the technical field of remote sens- 
ing. In recent years, under the stimulus of military surveillance, tech- 
nology has advanced to the point that the camera and film are not 
required to produce an image. Light sensitive sensors are scanned 
across a scene to measure the variation of radiation flow across the 
scene. The scanner is calibrated to known light and thermal sources 
so that the data may be directly converted to physical measures of 
radiant intensity. The image is produced by sequentially viewing strips 
of the scene. The width of the strip determines the ground resolution of 
the scanner. 

The majority of scanning sensors used in remote sensing research 
are multispectral which refers to the ability of the scanners to measure 
two or more different segments of the electromagnetic radiation spec- 



328 Indiana Academy of Science 

trum simultaneously. The advantage in separating the radiation into 
spectral segments is that certain earth surface features can be easily- 
identified by their response in certain segments of the electromagnetic 
spectrum. For example, healthy green vegetation reflects intensely in the 
near infrared (.7m/i-1.5m/i) due to the molecular structure of the vege- 
tation. This spectral separation is a major advantage for climatic re- 
search. The shortwave radiation measured covers the wavelength range 
of the radiant energy emitted from the sun. The longwave radiation 
is generally measured in one or both of the two longwave radiation 
"windows" in the atmosphere 4.0m^-5.0m,u and 7.0m,u-14.0m ( u, the latter 
of which is centered on the peak intensity of radiation emitted by the 
earth's surface. Since there is little spectral overlap between these 
shortwave and longwave fluxes the sophisticated multispectral scanner 
with full spectral response capability provides simultaneous high reso- 
lution independent measurements of the reflectance of incoming solar 
radiation and of outgoing radiant emissions from the earth's surface. 
These radiant flows are the key factors in heat budget investigations. 
The synoptic view provided by the scanner allows investigation of micro- 
scale spatial variations in these key factors of the heat budget. 

Available Sensing Platforms 

There are a number of multispectral scanners in use today. The 
sensors on the TIROS-NIMBUS and LANDSAT satellites are types of 
multispectral scanners. As noted earlier the TIROS-NIMBUS data reso- 
lution is too gross for meso and microscale studies. The resolution of 
the LANDSAT data (80 meters) v/ould be applicable to regional climatic 
analysis; however, the spectral range of the current satellites is too 
narrow (.Sm^-l.lm^) to provide sufficient information about the surface 
energy budget. The sensors on future LANDSAT satellites will have 
increased spectral range including thermal infrared and may be well 
suited to mesoscale climatic analysis (NASA, 10). Other future satellite 
projects including the "Heat Capacity Mapping Satellite" show potential 
in climatic research. 

Of more immediate interest are the multispectral scanners mounted 
in aircraft. One of the most sophisticated of these is the M-7 multispec- 
tral scanner developed and operated by the Willow Run Laboratories 
at the Environmental Research Institute of Michigan (ERIM). The 
ERIM M-7 multispectral scanner is a 12 channel instrument (12 spec- 
tral segments can be measured simultaneously, the spectral segments 
recorded may be determined by the researcher). The range of spectral 
sensitivity is from the ultraviolet (Amu) to the thermal infrared (14.0 
rn.fi). There are 5 radiation calibration sources. Three for the visible 
and near infrared radiation range, two for the thermal infrared. When 
the sensing aircraft is flown at 600 meters (2000'), the ground resolution 
of the scanner is approximately 2 meters. For each square kilometer of 
the earth's surface observed from 600 meters, 250,000 independent con- 
tiguous measures of the radiation flux are collected. This detailed synop- 
tic view of the radiation flux is ideally suited to the analysis of the 
microscale spatial variation of the heat budget of the earth's surface. 



Geology and Geography 329 

A Research Approach 

Research is currently being pursued at the Remote Sensing Lab- 
oratory, Department of Geography and Geology, Indiana State Univer- 
sity to further develop the application of ERIM M-7 multispectral scan- 
ner to heat budget studies. The ISU Remote Sensing Laboratory 
(ISURSL) is a research and applications facility which works in close 
cooperation with The Laboratory for Application of Remote Sensing 
(LARS) at Purdue University. ISURSL maintains a remote computer 
terminal to the LARS digital computer system. This facility provides 
ISU access to a wide range of aircraft and satellite multispectral data 
and numerous computer programs for processing and analyzing the data. 

The study area for this research is a % by 5 mile section of the 
Indianapolis, Indiana urban region. The long axis of the area follows 
the course of the White River where it passes through the western side 
of Indianapolis (Fig. 1). A wide range of urban land use is present in 
this region including commercial, industrial, residential and recreational 
activities. The ERIM M-7 scanner data collected from 600 meters on 
August 10, 1972 and on January 1, 1973 for this region are being utilized 
in this research. 

In order to graphically demonstrate the measurement capability of 
the multispectral scanner and its applicability to climatic research 
calibrated data samples from a subregion of the research area for 
the data collected in August are presented (See Fig. 1). 

Figures 2 and 3 are alphanumeric line printer maps of the sub- 
region selected. Each alphanumeric symbol represents one picture ele- 
ment or pixel of the data. Each pixel represents an approximately 5x5 
meter (15x15 feet) surface area from which radiant flows are measured. 
The total number of such measurements made in this approximately 
s Ax% mile area is 44,622. The scanner simultaneously measured 12 spec- 
tral components of the radiant flux for each pixel. Two of the spectral 
components are presented here. Note that in order to reduce the size 
of figures 2 and 3 every other line and column of pixels has not been dis- 
played. For comparative purposes figure 4 provides an aerial photograph 
of the study area. 

The data displayed in figure 2 are measurements of reflected solar 
radiation in the 0.55-0.60,tan spectral region. They have been calibrated 
against known internal light sources to produce a simulated display of 
the percent reflectance of solar radiation from the surface in this spectral 
region. These data should not be viewed as accurate absolute measure- 
ments of percent reflectance or albedo of the surface. Research is still 
in progress to identify the relation between measured reflectance, incom- 
ing solar radiation and the calibration light sources in order to produce 
accurate percent reflectance-maps. The data in figure 2 have been quali- 
tatively accessed as being accurate to ±10%. The data, however, well 
demonstrates the magnitude of the relative variance in surface re- 
flectance. Man-made surfaces in general reflect a higher percent of inci- 
dent solar radiation than natural surfaces. Exceptions are the roof of 
the ball park grandstand and the parking lot adjacent to the ball park. 



330 



Indiana Academy of Science 



• • ' . 



7C 
Mb 









¥ 



** 



pNP 



It', ^ 



: M 



ht } 



Figure 1. A LAJiS digital (television) image of th study area in Indianapolis. 

0.55-0.60um spectral data. Subregion displayed in Figures 2 and 3 and k delineated by the 

rectangle near the top of the image. 



Geology and Geography 



331 



THE CHARACTER SET USED FOR OlSPLAY IS 



BELOW 
PROM 


2.2 

2.2 


TO 


OISPLAYEO AS 
7.9 OISPLAYEO AS 


FROM 


7.9 


TO 


10.2 OISPIAYED AS 


FROM 


10.2 


Tn 


11.* DISPLAYED AS 


FROM 


11.* 


TO 


13.6 DISPLAYED AS 


FROM 
FROM 
FROM 
FROM 


13.6 
15.9 
19. * 

?7.* 


TO 

TO 
TO 
TO 


15.9 DISPLAYED AS 
19.* DISPLAYED AS 
27.* OISPLAYEO AS 
67.7 DISPLAYED AS 



HISTOGRAM BLOCKISI 

RUN NUMBER 7 2002600 

LINES I 1150, 1350, II 

COLUMNS ( 1, 222, 1) 

CALl NATION CODE * 



67.7 DISPLAYED AS 



00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 111111111111111111 



...111111111111111111111111122222222222 

00000 11111 , .556666677777888889999900000111112222233333*****555556666677777888889999900000111112 

135 791357913 57913579135 79135 7913 579135 7913579135 7913 5791357913 579 135 79135 79135 7913579135 7913 5791357913579135 791 



176 
178 
180 
1182 



238 
2*0 
2*2 
2** 
12*6 
2*8 
-250 
1252 
125* 

III 

1260 
1262 



1268 
1270 
1272 



1282 
28* 
286 



1320 

Hi* 




<M*nMnM« 



//DfMMOOHO 
/♦/□MMMMD 
0//HMMM/DO. 
n»MM . .Mn+n/nHonnHH/o#MMMMDHni 
l«»MM/f 
,MM-»M*/n 
'.M* »MD 

,DODHHMaaoanaoaai 

//oof 

.□MMa/DHIdDHHaaHoaaaoD»D 
HiM*a/DH*oaaHnnHa#i»HnHao//D/aMMat 
-Hjo/HnHaMa////naMM 
~//oHHHno/////MM 



ai II I II I 
altin*i 

tni in/au* i 



HMMMff •••••«••••□.» 

/a/o////on»#»t«#if i*#ffH*fMD« 
///HD/aMHHf •• 1 «•••••••«• lIMno 

///M/D//MA IKIII!! IIIIHIINn. 
//l/anoHI*)HlllllHIIMIIn» 
//□//naataMa#i##ftf«iff«fffMf 
#ff*t»lMffff«»MM 

/fHDIlllHDW/|||l|lllllllllll> 



'///M/«aMl/H«IM*«M«*i«f«»M 
'/D/miDtlOlHKIIIII KM 

HHODOan///M»M*i »#*/**•* ***!**• 
HMHna/aD///*«>««»HK«OM*f ItMMf 

l/»W«"K Illlllll 

Hfa //□□□a/oa///pM/anH«»M#*»»#»«»»#»» 

JMitMflMMflMMft 

/oan/// /a MIH/HHM •••••*•»••• 

..♦///////♦MHMD»#*f«f#i»#if# 

IIHIIIIOHO*. .111111 MM /of* ••••••*•*•• 

////♦/♦♦♦//••O* 

t III***** lannatl.. ///doom*** mimiiii 
t ll*ia.i** intanai .. i i i loot »»**»***»** 
,* I l»**ai //**«»*!* .1 1 1 1 /H*ff«ffftf*#* 

■ ' .//MMHf ///.a///»»#««»f<ff»«« 

/fMf///*/onf///»oMNf //./// //ffffftftffff 

/•«»♦///♦ //MMf //MMMMMn/.a///ffff#ifMiff 

oaQnMMo*////n#M«n//M#«MH/.////H#ff»tif«tm 

ouu/HMt //////Man* ,'/«««'*♦♦■►♦/♦/ fffffffffMf 

' l*l*HHMI*ll*nlll..*~*l§M»ln§l§tlt* 

►♦//HMHM///HM*n/. /»Mf ffffffff M 

*-n- + OMMH//////*/.*/Hf*#*Mfffff 

/♦♦ /MNMMH// '/a/a». .'Illl !• 

vtniaiiiiati** .*in***»n* t #«• 



I.K///»aoHMM» 



'IKdtD/ 



Jfftflfffff 



Figure 2. An alphanumeric line printer map of simulated percent reflectance in tfn 
0.55-0G0um spectral region. 



Figure 3 shows the radiant flux measured in the 9.30-11.7Aim thermal 
infrared region. These data have been calibrated against the two thermal 
plates in the scanner and converted into radiant surface apparent 
temperatures. The conversion to surface temperatures is carried out by 
a non linear calibration function newly developed and implemented in 
the LARS computer system by the authors as an ongoing step in 
applying multispectral scanner data to climatological research. The 



332 



Indiana Academy of Science 



HE CH/ 


RACTER SET 


USED 


FOR DISPLAY IS 


BELOW 
FRO* 


2.6 
2.6 TO 


21.8 


DISPLAYED »S M 
DI SPLAYED AS M 


FROM 


?1.8 TO 


25.5 


DISPLAYED AS * 


FROM 


25.5 TO 


29.1 


DISPLAYED AS H 


F ROM 


29.1 TO 


30.9 


DISPLAYED AS n 


FROM 

f k 1 IH 

FROM 

FROM 
ABOVE 


30.9 TO 
31.8 TO 
3<..h TO 
38. 2 TO 


31.8 

34.6 
38.2 
55.6 
55.6 


Dl SPLAYED AS / 
DISPLAYED AS ♦ 
DISPLAYED AS . 
DISPLAYED AS 
OISPLAYEO AS 



HISTOGRAM BLOCK IS) 

RUN NUMBER 72002600 

LINES I 1150, 1350, 1) 

COLUMNS I 1, 222, 1) 

CALIBRATION CODE 4 



000000000000000000 0000000000000 00000000000000000001 111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111122222222222 
0000011111< *,f.666777778888899999000001 1 I I I ', ! ' ' - <■ • 5 5 556666677 7 7788 8889 999900000 1 1 1 11 2 

13579135 79135 79135 79135 79135 79135 7913579135 7913579135 7913579135791357913579135791357913579135 79135 7913579135791 




Figure 3. 



An alphanumeric line printer map of calibrated apparent surface radiant 
temperatures (°C) in the 9.3-11.7um spectral region. 



form of the nonlinear calibration function follows suggestions put 
forth in Bartolucci et al. (11). The accuracy of the measurement is 
within ±0.2 °C. The highest temperatures are from man made surfaces 
with the exception of the metal roof to the left of the ball park. This 
is the result of the low emissivity of the material which markedly re- 
duces the radiant emissions and therefore the surface apparent tempera- 
ture. In general, the emissivity of the surface materials in the region 
is between .90 - .98 and does not significantly alter the relation between 
apparent radiant temperatures and actual kinetic temperatures. 



Geology and Geography 



333 








Figure 4. A panchromatic aerial photograph of the region displayed in Figures 2 and 3. 



GOWARD INDIANA STATE UNIVERSITY 

OLIVER REMOTE SENSING LABORATORY 

SIMULATED PERCENT REFLECTANCE 0.55-0.60 MICROMETERS 



UK 11,1976 
R 33 13 PM 

.ARSYS VFRSION 3 



«*«*** HISTOGRAM GRAPH FOR CHANNEL 6 **«**» 
SPECTRAL BAND 0.55 TO 0.60 MICROMETERS 
.. 72002600 CALIBRATION CODE... A LINES... I 1150, 1350, II COLUMNS... ( 1, 222, 1) 

EACH * REPRESENTS... 171 SAMPLES. TOTAL NUMBER OF SAMPLES... 4<r622 



2907 I 
2736 I 
2565 I 



>$$$**$$$ St SPEGA7G4A84XP 



Figure 5. A histogram of the distribution of simulated percent reflectance in figure 2. 
0.55-0.G0um spectral region. 



334 Indiana Academy of Science 



ppw&RD INDIANA lll'f UNIVERSITY AUG 11-1 "?& 



CALIBRATFO RADIANT APPARENT SURFACE T EMPER ATUR E 51 CE NT IGRAOE ) 



5YS VERSION 3 



•'•<■< HISTOGRAM GRAPH FOR CHANNEL 12 •»»»«• 
SPECTRAL BANO 9.30 TO 11.70 MICROMETERS 

RUN... 72002600 CALIBRATION COOE... 4 LINES.,, ( 1150, 1350, II COLUMNS... I 1, 22 
EACH * REPRESENTS... 203 SAMPLES. TOTAL NUMBcR OF SAMPLES. 

A 8 72 I 1 

4669 1 . 

A466 I • 

4263 I • 

4060 1 • 

3857 I * 

lit] i : 

32-8 ! * " 

nxi \ j 

mi \ sj 

2233 1 *< 

2030 1 *« 

1827 I .. 

162', 1 »< 

1421 I -•< 

f i :•• 

609 1 »< 

406 I $.1 

203 I 25213332434345342IS»*< 



Figure 6. A histogram of the distribution of calibrated apparent surface temperatures 
(°C) in figure 3. 9.3-11.7um spectral region. 



Figures 5 and 6 are histograms of the distribution of radiant flux 
intensity of data displayed in figures 2 and 3 respectively. The range 
of percent reflectance (Fig. 5) is from 2% to over 60% with the 
majority of the surface reflecting between 10% -20% coincident with the 
river and vegetated surfaces. The long tail of responses between 20% 
and 60% is coincident with the majority of man made surfaces in the 
region. The temperature range (Fig. 6) is between 4°C and 56 °C. The 
low end of the distribution, between 4°C and 20 °C, is primarily from the 
metal roof building. The marked peak at 20 °C is the river water and 
trees. The second peak between 25 °C and 35 °C is short grass vegetation 
in the parks and a golf course. The tail from 35°C-56°C are all responses 
from man made surfaces in the region. 

A further view of differences in energy flows across the surface is 
seen in cross-sectional profiles. Figures 7 and 8 are graphs of line 
1222 of the reflectance and emissive data respectively. These graphs 
represent a typical line of data as viewed by the scanning element of 
the instrument. Line 1222 is about % the way down from the top of the 
alphanumeric displays in figures 4 and 5. Note the low reflectance of the 
ball park roof in columns 47-53 and the high reflectance of the road 
surface in columns 91-93 of figure 7. The river channel is in columns 147 
to 183. It shows low reflectance with the exception of the waterfall in 
columns 165-167. Figure 8 is a line graph of the temperature variation 
across the scene. Note the high temperature of the ball park roof in 
columns 47-51 and low river temperatures in columns 147-183. 

Conclusions 

The presented graphics demonstrate the qualitative and quantita- 
tive nature of the data. The high resolution of the data provides a 
unique answer to the problem of investigating synoptic variations in 
the surface components of the heat or energy budget. The information 
presented here is a progress report on research which is currently well 
under way to investigate the impact of urban land use on modifying the 
energy budget of the earth's surface. Preliminary observations drawn 



Geology and Geography 



335 



1222 



RUN NUMBER 72002600 

FLIGHT LINE... WABASH BASIN 2B 
DATA TAPE/FILE NUMBER.. 1020/ 1 
REFORMATTING DATE. SEPT 21,1972 



OATE DATA TAKEN... AUG 10,1972 

TIME DATA TAKEN 1612 HOURS 

PLATFORM ALTITUDE.. 2000 FEET 
GROUND HEAOING 345 DEGRFFS 



SPECTRAL BANO 




U1BRATI0N FOR LINE 1222 

CI 
MEAN VARIANCE MEAN 
25.0 0.0 15.8 

AS NOT CALCULATED FOR THIS DATA. 



Figure 7. A graph of simulated percent reflectance in line 1222 of figure 2. 0.55-0.C>0um 

spectral region. 



336 



Indiana Academy of Science 



\727 



RUN NUMBER 72002600 

FLIGHT LINE... WABASH BASIN 26 
DATA TAPE/FILE NUMBER.. 1020/ 1 
REFORMATTING DATE. SEPT 21,1972 



DATE DATA TAKEN... AUG 10,1972 

TIME DATA TAKEN 1612 HOURS 

PLATFORM ALTITUDE.. 2000 FEET 

GROUND HEADING 345 DEGREES 



SPECTRAL BAND 



.70 MICROMETERS 



fA MAGNITUDE 



,' i 5 

l\l 

221 
COLUMN 
NUMBER 
0.1 




Figure 8. 



A graph of calibrated apparent surface temperatures (°C) 
figure 3. 9.3-1 1.7um spectral region. 



in line 1222 of 



Geology and Geography 337 

from August, 1972 data are that urban land use alters surface albedo 
through increasing the variance of albedo by a factor of 2 to 3 when 
compared with vegetated surfaces. Man made surfaces on a mid summer 
afternoon have temperatures which are 2 to 3 times higher than ad- 
jacent vegetated areas. 

Although a variety of questions related to the temporal variations 
of the heat budget remain to be answered, the basic methodology by 
which the detailed synoptic or spatial variations of the energy budget 
may be identified has been developed by this research conducted at the 
Indiana State University Remote Sensing Laboratory. The proposed 
extension of current research is to carry out a coordinated ground and 
air observation program of a diurnal sequence to investigate the impact 
of urban land use on the regional climate in detail. It is anticipated 
that with the LANDSAT C satellite, to be launched in September, 1977, 
that mesoscale regional studies may also be conducted due to the 
inclusion of a thermal infrared scanner for the first time in the ERTS- 
LANDSAT program. Ideally a coordinated research effort relating 
ground, aircraft and satellite observations will be carried out to make 
full use of these new multispectral scanners in climatic research. 



Literature Cited 

1. Research contained in this paper was supported by a grant from the Indiana Academy 
of Science. 

2. Budyko, M. I. 1974. Climate and life: International Geophysics Series, v. 18. Aca- 
demic Press, N. Y. 508 p. 

3. Kondratyev, K. Ya. 1969. Radiation in the atmosphere: International Geophysics 
Series, v. 12. Academic Press, N. Y. 912 p. 

4. Miller, D. H. 1968. Development of the heat budget concept: Yearbook, Association 
of Pacific Geographers, v. 30, p. 123-144. 

5. World Meteorological Organization. 1965. Meteorological instruments and observing 
practices: WMO-No. 8 TP3, Suppl. No. 5. W.M.O. Geneva. 

6. Bach, W., and W. Patterson. 1969. Heat budget studies in greater Cincinnati: Pro- 
ceedings, Association of American Geographers, v. 1, p. 7-11. 

7. Kung, E. C, et al. 1964. Study of continental surface albedo on the basis of flight 
measurements: Monthly Weather Review, v. 92, p. 543-564. 

8. Lenschow, D. H., and J. A. Dutton. 1964. Surface temperature variations measured 
from an airplane over several surface types: J. Appl. Meteorol., v. 3, p. 65-69. 

9. Barrett, E. C. 1974. Climatology from satellites: Methuen & Co., Ltd., London. 418 p. 

10. LoRENZ, E. C. 1967. The nature and theory of the general circulation of the atmos- 
phere: World Meteorological Organization, Geneva. 161 p. 

11. Bartolucci-Castedo, R. S., R. M. Hoffer and T. R. West. 1973. Computer aided 
processing of remotely sensed data for temperature mapping of surface water from 
aircraft altitudes: LARS-Purdue University, LARS Info Note 042373, West Lafayette, 
Indiana. 142 p. 



The Sedimentation of Morris Pond, 
Posey County, Indiana 

John S. Moore, Geologist 

Soil Conservation Service, USDA 

Watershed Planning Staff, No. 1 

Paoli, Indiana 47454 

and 

Paul F. Pedone, Geologist 

Soil Conservation Service. USDA 

Watershed Planning Staff, No. 2 

Indianapolis, Indiana 46224 

The earthfill dam which impounds 3.82-acre Morris Pond was built 
in 1949 in an 88-acre watershed in southwestern Indiana. The field sur- 
vey of the pond indicated its original capacity was 24.94 acre-feet at 
normal pool elevation, 406.5 feet above sea level. Sedimentation has 
reduced its capacity 6.53 acre-feet. 

The sediment is predominantly silt derived from very erosive, 
steep upland soils that formed from eolian materials. Fifteen percent of 
the sediment is seasonally aerated and has a dry density of 90 pounds 
per cubic foot. Dry density of perennially submerged sediment averages 
75 pounds per cubic foot. The trap efficiency of the pond is considered 
to be 95 percent. Based on these determinations an average of 428 tons, 
or 4.86 tons per watershed acre, is delivered annually to Morris Pond. 
The gross erosion rate in the watershed may be two and a half times 
higher. 

General Information 

The Soil Conservation Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture 
has authorization (Public Law 566) to develop a watershed plan for 
the Gresham Creek Watershed in Posey County, Indiana (4). The plan 
may include reservoirs to serve as sediment control structures. The 
reservoir sites would be located at the base of bluffs forming the margin 
of the Wabash River Valley near New Harmony, Indiana. 

This study was undertaken to determine the average sedimentation 
rate of an existing pond. The results of the investigation will be used to 
estimate the sedimentation rates of the planned sediment control 
structures in the Gresham Creek Watershed. The measurement of ac- 
cumulated sediment in reservoirs is considered the most reliable source 
of data for establishing watershed sediment yields (2). Morris Ponr> 
was chosen for study because watershed conditions that influence the 
sediment yield are similar to most sites under consideration. 

The pond investigated is owned by Mr. Robert Morris of New 
Harmony. For the purpose of this study, it is referred to as Morris 
Pond. The pond is located two miles east of New Harmony, Posey 
County, Indiana, in sec. 6, T. 5 S, R. 13 W. 

338 



Geology and Geography 339 

The earthfill dam was constructed in 1949 on a minor unnamed 
tributary of Harmony Creek. The structure has a drop inlet spillway 
of corrugated metal pipe with a propped outlet, and no emergency spill- 
way. It measures 300 feet long and 16 feet high, and is oriented 15 
degrees west of true north. At normal pool elevation, 406.5 feet above 
sea level, the pond area was 3.82 acres. After 27 years of operation there 
has been no significant change in water surface area due to sedimenta- 
tion. The longest axis of the pond is 950 feet, the width averages 160 
feet, the maximum observed depth is 13 feet, and the average depth is 
4.8 feet. 

Character of Watershed 

The 88-acre (0.14-square-mile) watershed is situated on deeply 
dissected bluffs that rise more than 100 feet above a broad, flat terrace 
of the Wabash River (Figure 1). During the Wisconsinan glaciation, the 
Wabash River Valley served as a sluiceway for meltwater and became 
deeply alluviated with glaciofiuvial material. On the rolling upland 
southeast of the bluffs, surface features of the Illinoian till plain have 
been obscured by a thick loess cap (1). 

The bluffs consist mainly of eolian sand and loess over gray Illinoian 
till. The wind-deposited sand occurs close to the riverward side of the 
bluffs and thins rapidly toward the south and east away from the 
Wabash River Valley. Twenty-foot thick exposures of loess are not un- 
common, and sections up to 50 feet thick have been measured outside the 
watershed. 

Although no bedrock crops out in the watershed, drilling logs from 
local wells indicate shales of Pennsylvanian age at depths of about 
100 feet. 

Soils in the watershed are mainly Sylvan silt loam, Alford silt 
loam, and Bloomfield loamy fine sand, with minor distributions of Prince- 
ton loam. The soil textures clearly reflect the eolian nature of the 
parent materials. All of the soils are inherently susceptible to severe 
erosion. Table 1 lists soils data. 

Elevations in the watershed range from 406.5 feet above sea level 
to about 515 feet in the southwest corner of the drainage area. Slopes 
range from 2 to 50 percent, with more than half the watershed 
having slopes greater than 18 percent. The streams are either ephemeral 
or intermittent and are tributary to Harmony Creek. 

According to aerial photographs (1953 and 1972 flights), the land use 
is more than 80 percent unmanaged forest land. The more gently sloping 
areas near the topographic divides are either pasture and idle-land or 
cropland. 

Precipitation at the New Harmony Station varied from 26.1 to 55.7 
inches per year, and averaged 41.8 inches in the period 1955 through 
1975 (3). Big Creek near Wadesville, Posey County, is the nearest 
gaged stream. It has a drainage area of 104 square miles and averages 
15.28 inches of runoff per year (8). Based on this information, the 
mean annual inflow to Morris Pond is about 112 acre-feet of water. 



340 



Indiana Academy of Science 





LOCATION IN INDIANA 
SOURCE 



FIGURE 1 — LOCATION MAP 



SCALE IN MILES 



ATLAS OF COUNTY DRAINAGE MAPS 
POSEY COUNTY. INDIANA 



Figure 1. 



Geology and Geography 



341 



Table 1. Soils Data for Morris Pond Watershed. 



Soil Loss 
Percentage of Capability Percent Toleiance (6) 

Soil Name Drainage Area Class Slope (Tn/Ac-Yr) 

Sylvan silt loam 38.4 Vile 18-50 3 

Alford silt loam 28.7 He 2-6 3 

Alford silt loam 14.9 Hie 6-12 3 

Bloomfield loamy fine sand __ 14.1 Vie 18-35 5 

Princeton loam 2.7 Hie 6-12 3 

Alford silt loam 1.2 IVe 6-12 3 

Source: Unpublished soil survey field sheets for Posey County, Indiana, Soil Conservation 
Service, U.S.D.A. 

Theoretically, the pond can recycle its present storage capacity six 
times per year. 

Method of Survey 

At the time of the field survey the pond level was at normal pool 
elevation. A transit and range pole were used to establish a base map 
with a scale of 80 feet to the inch. Eight ranges were fixed about 100 
feet apart and transverse (east-west) to the long axis of the pond. Two 
other ranges paralleled the dam. 

A 10-foot aluminum boat was used as a working platform. A 
steel tape was used to measure the depth to the sediment-water interface 
at each station. A soil auger with necessary extensions was pressed into 
the sediment to the original bottom. The original (1949) bottom was 
distinguished by an abrupt increase in density whereupon no further 
penetration was possible without turning the auger. The east-west 
ranges were probed at 20-foot intervals and the north-south ranges at 
40-foot intervals. A total of 65 stations were probed (Figure 2). 



80 






ICO 


FIGURE 2 

MORRIS 

SEDIMENT SAMPLE 






Z- 








• • 

Poi 
nt 


us 
Samples 




• 


• 




\ • 




• 

Probe 
Seel i me 


POND 

LOCATION 


MAP 




SCALE IN 


FEET 





Figure 2. 



342 



Indiana Academy of Science 



Five sediment samples were taken to determine dry density, water 
content, grain size distribution, and organic content. A piston sampler 
with a core barrel 1.5 inches by 36 inches was used to collect the 
samples. Samples were taken from the seasonally aerated delta and the 
perennially submerged area in the south side of the pond, and in the 
northwest arm (Figure 2). 

Storage Capacity 

The depths to present bottom and to original bottom were plotted 
and contoured on a 2-foot interval (Figures 3 and 4). Each contour line 
was planimetered for area and its value was plotted on stage-storage and 




MORRIS POND 

1949 CONFIGURATION 



Depth of water shown by 2 foot contour lines 



Figure 3. 




MORRIS POND 
1976 CONFIGURATION 



SCALE IN FEET 



Depth of water shown by 2 foot contour lines 



Figure 4. 



Geology and Geography 



343 



stage-area curves for both the 1949 and 1976 configurations. The original 
(1949) pond volume at normal pool level was 24.94 acre-feet. The 
present pond capacity is 18.41 acre-feet. The difference of 6.53 acre-feet 
represents the sediment volume. 

Sediment Deposits 

The isopachous map (Figure 5) shows the distribution and thickness 
of sediment in 2-foot contour intervals. Sedimentation is greatest 
in the south end of the pond where two tributary channels have filled 
with deltaic deposits up to six feet in thickness. Two to four feet of 
sediment have accumulated along the central axis of the pond where 
the water is deepest, and in the northwest arm. Directly behind the dam 
the contours encircle a depression which probably represents the borrow 
area for the dam construction materials. Most of the nearshore sediments 
are less than two feet thick. The sediment of Morris Pond averages 1.71 
feet in thickness. 




MORRIS POND 
ISOPACHOUS MAP 



2-4 tZZ! 

4-6 HH 



SCALE IN FEET 



Figure 5. 



Approximately 15 percent (0.98 acre-foot) of the pond's sediment is 
seasonally aerated and occurs mainly in the south end of the pond. 
The aerated sediment dry density averages about 90 pounds per cubic 
foot (1.44 specific gravity), and the submerged sediment about 75 
pounds per cubic foot (1.20 specific gravity). The water content averages 
25 percent and 30 percent, respectively. 

The texture of the sediment in the south delta is predominantly 
silt or silt loam. Clay content ranged from 9 to 10 percent, silt 76 to 91 
percent, sand 2 to 15 percent, and organic matter 4.9 to 5.7 percent. 
In the northwest delta the sediment texture is sandy loam, with 6 
percent clay, 42 percent silt, 52 percent fine sand, and 6.0 percent 
organic material. Grain size was determined by mechanical analysis. 
Organic matter content was measured by loss upon ignition. 



344 Indiana Academy of Science 

Sources and Rates of Sedimentation 

Most of the sediment in Morris Pond appears to be derived from 
the two southern sub-watersheds that drain 77 percent of the total 
drainage area. The soils are mainly erosion-prone Sylvan and Alford silt 
loams with slopes up to 50 percent. 

The northwest delta is the only area where sand is accumulating 
in appreciable quantity. Drainage to this part of the pond is mainly 
from an area of Bloomfield loamy fine sand. 

The sedimentation rate over the 27-year depositional history of 
the pond averaged 407 tons per year. Based on determinations of sedi- 
ment mean grain size and the ratio of pond capacity to average annual 
inflow, the trap efficiency is considered to be approximately 95 percent 
(7). Therefore, an average of 428 tons, or 4.86 tons per watershed acre, 
is delivered annually to the pond. 

If the 0.14-square mile drainage area is considered to deliver 40 
percent of all eroded material (5), then the gross erosion rate would 
average 12.15 tons per acre per year. Thus, the gross erosion rate may 
be 2.5 times higher than the delivery rate. Table 1 shows that the soil 
loss tolerances of the watershed soils range from 3 to 5 tons per acre 
per year (6). Although most of the drainage area is in forest land, 
grazing and cropping on the steep uplands have, over the years, greatly 
contributed to the high erosion rates. 

Summary 

The 3.82-acre Morris Pond was built in 1949 in an 88-acre water- 
shed. This watershed is located on the bluffs above the Wabash River 
Valley near New Harmony, Indiana. A survey of the pond indicated 
that the original storage capacity at normal pool level was 24.94 acre- 
feet. In April, 1976, the capacity was 18.41 acre-feet. Sedimentation has 
reduced the original volume by 6.53 acre-feet. 

Sediment is up to six feet thick in the south delta where the junction 
of two subaqueous tributary channels has been buried by progradation. 
Sediment has accumulated in the thalweg of the pond in thicknesses 
up to four feet. Sediment near the shoreline is generally less than two 
feet thick. 

The sediment is predominantly silt with 5 to 6 percent organic 
matter. Eighty-five percent of the sediment is submerged with a dry 
density of about 75 pounds per cubic foot. Aerated sediment averages 
90 pounds per cubic foot. The sedimentation rate has averaged 407 tons 
per year. Assuming the trap efficiency of the pond is 95 percent, an 
average of 428 tons, or 4.86 tons per watershed acre, is delivered an- 
nually to the pond. The gross erosion rate may be two and a half times 
higher. 

The results of this investigation will be used to estimate the sedi- 
mentation rates behind sediment control structures and to recommend 
conservation land treatment measures in the Gresham Creek Watershed 
as planned by the Soil Conservation Service. 



Geology and Geography 345 

Acknowledgments 

The authors thank Robert and David Morris for permission to 
conduct the field investigations on April 5-8, 1976. A. Keith Gilmore, 
planning engineer, SCS Watershed Planning Staff, Paoli, Indiana, as- 
sisted with the surveying. Donald Weaver, District Conservationist, 
Posey County made necessary arrangements. 

Other members of the Watershed Planning Staff deserving recogni- 
tion are Vincent Crowder, engineering technician, who drafted the illus- 
trations, and Evelyn Gregory, secretary, who typed the manuscript. 

Sediment grain size and organic content analyses were conducted by 
the Soil Mechanics Laboratory, Midwest Technical Service Center, Soil 
Conservation Service, Lincoln, Nebraska. 

This report is published with the permission of the Indiana State 
Conservationist, Soil Conservation Service. USDA. 



Literature Cited 

1. Fidlar, M. M. 1948. Physiography of the lower Wabash Valley. Indiana Dept Conserv 
Bull 2. 112 p. 

2. Holeman, J. N. 1975. Procedures used in the Soil Conservation Service to estimate 
sediment yields. In: Present and Prospective Technology for Predicting Sediment 
Yields and Sources. Agricultural Research Service. ARS-S-40 :5-9. 

3. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, U.S. Dept. of Commerce. 
1955 through 1975. Climatological Data. Indiana Annual Summaries. 

4. Soil Conservation Service, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture. 1966. Work plan for watershed 
protection and flood prevention, Gresham Creek Watershed, Posey County, Indiana 

(Draft). 60 p. 

5- • 1971 - Sediment sources, yields, and delivery ratios. National Engineering 
Handbook. Section 3. Chapter 6 :1-17. 

6- "" ■ Jan -> 1972 - Universal soil loss equation. Technical Notes. Agronomy No. 
17. 21 p. 

7 * ~ • 1975 - Sediment storage requirements for reservoirs. Technical Release 

No. 12. 33 p. 

8. U.S. Geological Survey, Dept. of Interior. 1976. Water resources data for Indiana 
water year 1975. USGS Water-Data Report, In-75-1 :273. 



HISTORY OF SCIENCE 

Chairman: William R. Eberly 
Manchester College, Manchester, IN 46962 

Chairman-Elect: Gertrude L. Ward 
Earlham College, Richmond, IN 47374 

ABSTRACTS 
Rafinesque Revisited. Gertrude L. Ward, Joseph Moore Museum, Earl- 
ham College, Richmond, Indiana 47374. The life of Constantine S. 

Rafinesque (1783-1840) was reviewed with comments on his employ- 
ment as a teacher for the family of Edward Livingston at Germantown, 
N. Y., his walking tour to Indiana and Kentucky in 1818, and his meeting 
with John J. Audubon. Several genera, species and subspecies of plants 
that he described were illustrated. His comments on speciation in 
plants, predating Darwin and Wallace's, were included. 

Further Studies in the History of the Phosphate Detergent Ban. William 

R. Eberly, Manchester College, North Manchester, Indiana 46962. 

In 1971 the Soap and Detergent Association and/or its affiliated member 
companies filed suits challenging the constitutionality of bans on phos- 
phates in detergents enacted in Indiana, Dade County (Fla.), Erie 
County (NY.) and Chicago (111.). In the first 3 cases, the courts found 
the laws not unconstitutional. In the Chicago case, the regulation was 
ruled unconstitutional. That case was appealed and on January 15, 
1975, the U.S. Court of Appeals reversed the decision of the lower 
court. When the Supreme Court refused to hear an appeal by the Soap 
and Detergent Association, the Appeals court decision became final. All 
court action has now found such laws restricting phosphorus in de- 
tergents to be legal and appropriate action. 

Indiana was the first state to ban phosphates in detergents on 
January 1, 1973, with New York following in July, 1973. In 1975 the 
Minnesota Pollution Control Agency held hearings on a proposed regu- 
lation banning phosphorus detergents in Minnesota. The ruling (WPC 
37) was adopted on April 27, 1976 and becomes effective January 1, 
1977. The Senate Natural Resources Committee of the Vermont State 
Legislature held hearings on a bill to restrict phosphates in Vermont 
(S.128). The bill was narrowly defeated in the 1976 legislative session. 
The bill will be considered again by the 1977 legislature. The Michigan 
Department of Natural Resources held hearings on a regulation to ban 
the sale of phosphate detergents in Michigan. They are scheduled to 
act on this proposal in December, 1976. 

In a report issued in December, 1975, the International Joint 
Commission (IJC) analyzed the phosphorus output from 12 municipal 
sewage treatment plants which collectively contributed more than 80S 
of all the municipal sewage flowing into Lake Erie. Most of the plants 
had supplemental phosphorus removal operations. Only Fort Wayne 

347 



348 Indiana Academy of Science 

(Indiana) and London (Ontario) had achieved the goal of 1 ppm P in 
the sewage effluent in 1974. The report strongly suggests that phos- 
phorus removal treatment by itself is not adequate to reach the de- 
sired concentration of P in the effluent and that restrictions of P in 
detergents is necessary also. In their annual report (July, 1976) the 
IJC repeated their recommendation that "all the Great Lakes states 
that have not already done so should seriously consider the imposition 
of phosphorus limitations in detergents marketed in the Great Lakes 
Basin." 

In August, 1976, for the first time the United States Environmental 
Protection Agency adopted a position urging all the Great Lakes states 
to restrict the use of phosphorus in detergents. An official position 
paper is in preparation by the EPA. 



Was Theodore Roosevelt the Last to See Wild Passenger Pigeons? 

Alton A. Lindsey 

Department of Biological Sciences 

Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 

The State Legislature of Ohio declared in 1857, "The passenger 
pigeon needs no protection. Wonderfully prolific, ... no ordinary 
destruction can lessen them from the myriads that are yearly pro- 
duced." The last individual of this species, once the world's most 
abundant bird, died in that same state. A female named Martha, the 
last of a line started with four pairs captured near Petosky, Michigan, 
in 1878 (Pers. Comm. E.J. Maruska, 1976), died at age 29 in the 
Cincinnati zoo on September 1, 1914. The mounted skin is now in the 
U.S. National Museum. But of far more interest is what happened to 
the species in Nature. 

The most informative contemporary account for the Midwest after 
Audubon's time was published by Chief Simon Pokagon in 1895. His 
article was reprinted in Mershon's supposedly definitive 1907 book (8) 
on the passenger pigeon and its extinction in the wild. 

Of the latest four records Mershon cited for Indiana, three were 
from English Lake, a great spread of the Kankakee River now perpet- 
uated only in the name of a village. One male pigeon was shot there 
in 1887, and the specimen preserved by Ruthven Deane. The latter 
shot a young female on Yellow River, Stark County, in September, 
1888. In both cases the birds were alone. John Hazen shot eight indi- 
viduals from a small flock at English Lake in 1887. The last Indiana 
record was in 1893, when C. B. Brown of Chicago collected a nest and 
two eggs, very close to the Hazen site at English Lake. He secured 
both parent birds, but preserved only the eggs. Governor Chase S. 
Osborn saw six birds in Michigan in 1890, and one in 1897. 

Observations at Pine Knot, Virginia 

From 1905 for the rest of his life, Theodore and Edith Roosevelt 
had a week-end cottage called "Pine Knot," now-forgotten although 
still standing, on ninety acres of woods near Charlottesville, Virginia. 
This simple hideaway (Fig. 1) was the locale of most of his natural 
history observing (except that done with Muir at Yosemite and with 
Burroughs at Yellowstone) during his 7.5 years in the White House. 
In late May of 1907 the president wrote the following letter to his 
friend C. Hart Merriam, director of the U.S. Biological Survey. (The 
paragraphs are lettered for ease of subsequent reference.) 

(a) On May 18th near Keene, Albemarle County, Virginia, I saw 
a flock of a dozen .passenger pigeons. I have not seen any for twenty- 
five years and never dreamed I should see any again; but I could not 
have been mistaken (tho I did not kill any for I did not have a gun, 
and in any event nothing could have persuaded me to shoot them.) 

349 



350 



Indiana Academy of Science 



I saw them flying to and fro a couple of times and then they all lit 
in a tall dead pine by an old field. There were mourning doves in the 
field for me to compare them with, and I do not see how I could have 
been mistaken. 






^■fe| > ii 
MHh«h^^ 



\>m\ 






!■■■■■■ 



HP 



■■■■■■■■■■■■■ 



■ 



UW-- 




HnnHH 
HHHHHBflHn 

HHbP 



»-•: 



Figure 1. Pine Knot in April, 1976; basically unchanged since 1905. "When I was 
president, we owned a little house in western Virginia; a delightful house, to us at least, 
although only a shell of rough boards." (11). The cottage and fifteen acres with a spring 
were given to Mrs. Roosevelt by family friends, and TR had two chimneys and fireplaces 
added. Later, Mrs. Roosevelt obtained 75 additional acres and owned it all until 1941. 
It is now privately owned, unoccupied, and unmarked. 



(b) In replying to a similar letter from TR, John Burroughs 
(2) wrote that he had been checking for several years on reports of the 
species, stressed how rare the bird had become, if indeed it still existed 
in the wild, and added, "I hope you are sure about those pigeons." 

(c) Roosevelt wrote Burroughs on June 2 (9), "Dear Oom John: 
I have written down to see if I can get information about those pas- 
senger pigeons. It doesn't seem to me possible that I was mistaken. 
Nevertheless, I have had one or two curious experiences of the falli- 
bility of human vision." He went on to tell an incident when he and a 
cowboy had mistaken the color of prairie dogs because of "the peculiar 
angle at which the sunlight struck them." He invited Burroughs to be 
their guest at Pine Knot (1), holding out some possibility of seeing 
the pigeons; meanwhile, he would follow up a remark that the colored 
foreman at a neighbor's farm had made (11) about seeing "wild carrier 
pigeons." That neighbor and friend, Wilmer, questioned Dick McDaniel 
and wrote Roosevelt what the latter considered confirmation, since 
TR believed that Dick's practical knowledge of birds was absolutely 
trustworthy. 



History of Science 351 

(d) On May 12th last Dick saw a flock of about thirty wild 
pigeons, followed at a short distance by about half as many, flying in 
a circle very rapidly, between the Plain Dealing house and the woods, 
where they disappeared. They had pointed tails and resembled some- 
what large doves — the breasts and sides rather a brownish red. He had 
seen them before, but many years ago. I think it is unquestionably the 
passenger pigeon — Ectopistes migratoria — described on page 25 of the 
5th volume of Audubon. I remember the pigeon roosts as he describes 
them, on a smaller scale. . . . 

In his lead article in the next October's Scribners, in which TR 
discussed the bird life at Pine Knot in some detail, the first printed 
account of his pigeon sighting is worded as follows. 

(e) On May 18th, 1907, I saw a small party of a dozen or so 
passenger pigeons, birds I had not seen for a quarter of a century and 
never expected to see again. I saw them two or three times flying 
hither and thither with great rapidity, and once they perched in a 
tall dead pine on the edge of an old field. They were unmistakable; yet the 
sight was so unexpected that I almost doubted my eyes, and I welcomed 
a bit of corroborative evidence coming from Dick, the colored foreman 
at Plain Dealing. Dick is a frequent companion of mine in rambles 
around the country, and he is an unusually close and accurate observer 
of birds, and of wild things generally. Dick had mentioned to me having 
seen some "wild carrier pigeons," as he called them; and, thinking over 
this remark of his, after I had returned to Washington, I began to 
wonder whether he too might not have seen passenger pigeons. 

(f) John Burroughs was a guest at Pine Knot (1) for four days 
in late May, 1907. The two naturalists on excursions together identified 
75 species of birds, Burroughs pointing out two that were new to TR, 
and the latter teaching John O'Birds two species new to him and showing 
him another that the old essayist had not seen for thirty years (3). 
Burroughs wrote after TR's death that the president had known the 
warblers in the trees overhead that spring as well as he did himself. 
No pigeons were seen this time, but the two men questioned Dick 
McDaniel face to face about all aspects of his sighting. In Burroughs 
1921 book, he wrote (3), "His description agreed with Roosevelt's, 
and he had seen wild pigeons in his youth; still I had my doubts." 
But Burroughs (2) had reported very differently in print on July 13, 
1907 — "He [TR] would have the matter looked into by a friend at Pine 
Knot upon whom he could depend. He did so, and convinced himself 
and me also (emphasis added) that he had really seen wild pigeons. 

(g) Also, in his 1921 chapter on the Pine Knot visit, Burroughs (3) 
wrote the following. 

In the course of that walk he showed me a place where he had 
seen what he had thought at the time to be a flock of wild pigeons. 
He described how . they flew, the swoop of their circling movements, 
and the tree where they alighted. I was skeptical, for it had long been 
thought that wild pigeons were extinct (emphasis added), but that 
thought had not impressed itself upon his mind. 



352 Indiana Academy of Science 

Behavioral Evidence for the Identification 

The only other birds with pointed tails that a bird student of 
Roosevelt's high capability might conceivably have confused with 
passenger pigeons are mourning (Carolina) doves. McDaniel stressed 
the size element; TR implied it by his comparison with nearby doves 
since size is the most obvious difference. Eaton (5) wrote, "The 
mourning dove is much smaller than the wild pigeon." He gave lengths 
as 11-13" versus 15-17.5" and wingspread, the distinction most ap- 
parent in flight, as 17-19" for the dove and 23-25.5 for the pigeon. The 
latter has a much longer tail. 

Roberts (10) wrote, "The whistling of the wings of the dove in 
flight, a sound never heard from the wild pigeons, is a safe and easily 
noted distinction." Neither observer reported this, even though a person 
close enough to have seen the red breasts would probably have heard 
this sound had it been made. Sound or song was what most interested 
Roosevelt about birds, as stressed in his writings; he was considered an 
expert on bird sounds, and if he had heard the distinctive whistling 
he would not have been likely to have believed the birds were pas- 
senger pigeons. 

Almost as strong a point of difference was flocking behavior; the 
passenger pigeon was probably the most gregarious of all birds. Until 
it reached its last extremity, this species was always seen in flocks. 
It fed, roosted, wintered, migrated, mated, nested and stayed in flocks. 
In contrast, mourning doves are primarily oriented to the pair-bond. 
Reports of flocks are unusual, and they are for fall and winter. Even in 
an abnormally cool year, doves are paired and nesting in Virginia 
long before mid-May. The only imaginable flock of mourning doves on 
May 18 might be young of the year, but they lack the red breasts, and 
would be unlikely in such numbers as seen by McDaniel, about forty-five. 
It is also very questionable that they would be such skillful fliers by 
mid-May as to go as rapidly as reported. 

Forbush (6) wrote of passenger pigeons, "In searching for food in a 
country where it was plentiful, the birds flew low, and, upon reaching 
good feeding ground, swung in large circles while examining the place." 
Circling or swooping, flying back and forth, was the most striking be- 
havioral feature in both men's descriptions. They were in the open, their 
views unobstructed by trees. On my visit to Pine Knot (finally located 
by a search of early deed records at the County seat) in April of 1976, 
I found woods completely surrounds the Roosevelt's cottage, now 
unoccupied but in fair condition. But a photograph taken by TR from 
the front porch in 1907 (11) enables us to see far off over sloping terrain 
rather recently cut over and being invaded by very scattered young 
pines. Perhaps this open ground was the "field" he referred to. 

Reports and Records in and near 1907 

Mershon's book (8), in press in 1907, reported that a passenger 
pigeon was shot in 1900, in Wisconsin. A later authority on this species 
records was J. H. Fleming, a vice-president of the American Ornithol- 
ogists Union. The last collected specimen for which he determined 



History of Science 353 

the date was authentic was a single bird shot in August of 1906 in 
Fairfield County, Connecticut (14) and now a mounted specimen in 
the Museum of History, Science and Art at Los Angeles. 

During roughly the last twenty years of the bird's wild existence, 
ornithologists discounted the plethora of sightings claimed by untrained 
persons and unsubstantiated by a specimen, because so many laymen's 
reports were obviously based on mourning doves, or on distant flocks 
of other birds, e.g., curlews. In New York state (5), two claims of flocks 
were made in 1904, and two in 1905. Another 1905 claim, for a sighting 
of six birds, was from Michigan (7). John Burroughs, who never made 
a museum skin and was a literary naturalist rather than a scientific 
one, started about 1905 to check some of the popular announcements 
in newspapers (2, 5). He reported (5) that someone claimed a large 
flock at Prattsburgh, New York, in mid-April, 1906, and one a mile long 
at Kingston, N. Y., on May 15, 1906. Finally, Burroughs interviewed a 
farmer in Sullivan County, N. Y., who claimed to have seen a flock of 
1,000 pigeons on May 23, 1907, or five days after Roosevelt's sighting. 
Burroughs indicated in Forest and Stream and in letters (8) that he 
was convinced of the validity of these three sightings. 

Unreliability of Burroughs Last Account 

John Burroughs essay on the Pine Knot visit (3) was published 
after his death at age 84, or 14 years after the event. "Wild pigeons" 
were clearly extinct by that time, and Burroughs' tone had completely 
changed from that in the 1907 letters and publications (f). This seems 
to reflect either carelessness, senility, or disingenuousness. How could he, 
in 1907, have "long thought the bird extinct" while he himself was 
still publishing (2, 8) and crediting reports of purported flocks by laymen 
in 1906 and 1907? 

Burroughs was clearly wrong in two incidental statements in his 
1921 chapter (3), which suggests faulty memory — the events of the 
White House dinner the night before the Pine Knot visit (they hap- 
pened in 1903 instead), and his stating that the party left the train at 
Charlottesville, instead of North Garden. 

It appears that a more important 1921 comment was likewise 
untrue — "Subsequently Roosevelt wrote me that he had come to the 
conclusion that they had been mistaken about their being pigeons." 
The closest TR came to retracting his pigeon report was his letter 
(c) saying, in effect, that while he was still certain in his own mind, 
of course he did not think himself infallible. This letter was written 
before receiving the corroborating letter from Wilmer (d). In response 
to Burroughs stringent cautionings, TR volunteered that certain lighting 
conditions make perception of colors difficult. But, so far as he wrote, 
his own identification was not based on color, but on size, the pointed 
tails, the circling behavior, speed of flight, and best, on direct com- 
parison with mourning doves. 

That Burroughs was wrong in claiming that TR had changed his 
mind (3) is clear from TR's having published his passenger pigeon 
sighting in Scribners Magazine in October, 1907, and having allowed 



354 Indiana Academy of Science 

this claim to be reprinted in the various editions of his book Outdoor 
Pastimes of an American Hunter, of which the last edition came out 
in 1926 (12). 

Burroughs' tardiness in printing the essay was not for lack of 
encouragement from Roosevelt, for he wrote (3), ". . . in fact, for years 
after the visit, whenever we would meet, almost the first thing he 
would say was, 'Have you written up our Pine Knot trip yet, Oom 
John?' And his disappointment at my failure to do so was always 
unmistakable." The evidence shows that TR held to his original state- 
ments, of which the weakest expression was "I do not see how I could 
have been mistaken." In contrast, Burroughs' writings (f,g) about 
Roosevelt's sighting were clearly inconsistent. 

Credibility of Observer Roosevelt 

At age 13 or younger, Theodore Roosevelt (13) took lessons in 
taxidermy from an old Mr. Bell who had traveled as Audubon's as- 
sistant, and the boy began a collection of bird skins that Cutright (4) 
judged to be the best of any young naturalist in North America. At 
age 14, TR went on a 1,200 mile houseboat trip on the Nile, and 
reported (13) that intensive bird collecting was the most interesting 
thing he did there and in Palestine. A couple of hundred of his boyhood 
museum skins are still in museums; 46 were given to his friend David 
Starr Jordan for Indiana University. TR's phenominal memory enabled 
him to name the Nile birds on sight in the field 37 years later, when he 
spent a year in Africa collecting thousands of bird and big game 
specimens for the two great eastern museums. 

Young Roosevelt majored in biology at Harvard (13), fully in- 
tending to go into a career as a field naturalist. His first printed work 
was a study of Adirondacks bird life, done during undergraduate days 
with a fellow student, Minot. The first letter he wrote in his life, and 
the last one, dealt with birds. C. Hart Merriam stated in Science in 
1932 that TR was ". . . a writer of the best accounts we have ever had 
of the habits of our larger mammals." He wrote the most reasonable 
early account on the theory of protective resemblance. With a Smith- 
sonian naturalist, he authored the then-definitive book on African mam- 
mals, writing the life history and behavioral parts himself. He was 
the first to suggest the idea of naturalists living with their subjects 
for long periods, a method that has proved so fruitful in Africa re- 
cently, beginning with Shaller's work with the mountain gorilla. Theo- 
dore Roosevelt was a naturalist from first to last. Rather than being a 
dilettante, he was an amateur of high professional caliber as a field 
naturalist. As a literary naturalist however, the success of his western 
nature and hunting books made him a part-time professional. 

After birding with TR at the White House Grounds, Pine Knot, 
Yellowstone Park, and Sagamore Hill, Burroughs (2) wrote: 

I refer to his keenness and enthusiasm as a student of animal life, 
and his extraordinary powers of observation. He sees quickly and surely, 
not less so with the corporeal eye than with the mental. . . . The chief 
qualification of a born observer is an alert, sensitive, objective type of 



History of Science 355 

mind and this he has in preeminent degree. . . . His mind moves with 
wonderful celerity, and yet as an observer he is very cautious, jumps 
to no hasty conclusions. 

Roosevelt's wide experience in hunting and collecting brought him 
a reputation as one of the best marksmen of his day. His first wild 
turkey was brought down cleanly from the air, a forty-yards side-shot, 
on the third day of a strenuous hunt at Pine Knot with Dick McDaniel. 
No one is as well qualified as a crack wing-shot to estimate the rapidity 
of bird flight. Both TR and Dick McDaniel reported the wild pigeons 
were flying rapidly. 

Ornithologists at the American Museum of Natural History, 
because they were familiar with his expertise on birds and since he had 
seen mourning doves for comparison, accepted his passenger pigeon 
sighting as authentic. 

Conclusions 

Roosevelt did not claim to have seen the last wild passenger pigeons; 
he was too busy in 1907 to be following what others were doing on the 
question, and did not push Burroughs or others to accept his sighting. 
He wrote (9) that he could not afford to get into a natural history con- 
troversy at that time. He meant another controversy, for he was under 
press attack for allowing the presidency to become embroiled in the 
"Nature faker" controversy. Still, he stuck to his story in every 
published reference to it afterward. 

"Was Theodore Roosevelt the last person to see wild passenger 
pigeons?" The question in that form can never be answered with as- 
surance. He may have been, but we will never know whether any farmers 
or hunters saw some after his sighting without getting it into print. 

What I have investigated was whether TR was the last trained, 
qualified naturalist to see a flock of wild passenger pigeons. This is an 
answerable question because naturalists report their observations. The 
evidence strongly indicates that he identified his flock correctly. Granting 
that, a president of the United States, on his own property, was definitely 
the last naturalist to see the species in nature. Roosevelt's distaste for 
going back for his shotgun and killing any of them should not deprive 
him of his most dramatic bird record. 



Literature Cited 

1. Bishop, J. B. (Ed.) 1919. Theodore Roosevelt's letters to his children. Scribners. 
New York. 240 p. 

2. Burroughs, J. 1907. President Roosevelt as a nature lover and observer. Outlook. 
86 :547-553. 

3. . 1921. Under the maples. Houghton Mifflin. New York. 223 p. 

4. Cutright, P. R. 1956. Theodore Roosevelt the naturalist. Harpers. New York. 297 p. 

5. Eaton, E. H. 1910. Birds of New York. New York State Museum Memoir 12. Albany. 
390 p. 

6. Forbusii, E. H. 1917. Passenger pigeon. In Pearson, T. G. Birds of America. Garden 
City Publ. Co. Garden City, N. Y. 833 p. 



356 Indiana Academy of Science 



1927. Birds of Massachusetts and other New England states. Pt. II. 



Comm. of Mass. 461 p. 

8. Mershon, W. B. 1907. The passenger pigeon. Outing Publ. Co. Deposit, N. Y. 225 p. 

9. Morison, E. E. 1952. The letters of Theodore Roosevelt. Harvard Univ. Press. 
Cambridge. 8 vols. 

10. Roberts, T. S. 1932. The birds of Minnesota. Vol. I. Univ. Minn. Press. Minne- 
apolis. 621 p. 

11. Roosevelt, T. 1907. Small country neighbors. Scribners Magazine. 42:385-395. 

12. . 1926. Outdoor pastimes of an American Hunter II. A book-lovers holidays 

in the open. Works of Theodore Roosevelt, National Edition. Vol. III. Scribners. 
New York. 473 p. (Written before #13) 

13. . 1925. Theodore Roosevelt: An autobiography. Scribners. New York. 597 p. 

14. Wyman, L. E. 1921. A very late record of the passenger pigeon (Ectopistes 
migratorius). The Auk. 38:274. 



A History of the Biological Survey Committee 
of The Indiana Academy of Science 

1891-1976 
Parti: 1891-1935 1 

Introduction 

This history of the Biological Survey Committee was prepared by 
the members of the Committee, 1976, in response to a request made by 
John S. Patton, President of the Academy, 1975-76. At the annual 
meeting of the Academy, October 31, 1975, Butler University, he pro- 
posed that, "an office entitled Historian-Archivist be established in the 
Indiana Academy of Science in order that we may have a formal method 
of assembling archival material and compiling historic information 
about the Academy and its activities." The Academy accepted President 
Patton's proposal, and information relative to it was received by Jack 
R. Munsee, Chairman of the Biological Survey Committee, in a form 
letter from Patton dated December 30, 1975. The request was for 
archival items relative to the history of the Committee; such items to 
be forwarded to the John Shepard Memorial Library at Indianapolis. 

Because of the paucity of records of past activities, the attempt 
has been made to assemble a history of the Committee using information 
obtained chiefly from the Proceedings of the Academy. (The first meet- 
ing of the Academy was in 1885; however, the first volume of the Pro- 
ceedings was not published until 1891. Therefore, the titles of all papers 
prior to 1891 were included in Volume 1.) Each of the nine members 
of the present committee was asked to prepare a document based on 
information concerning the Committee as given in the Proceedings. 
Each document covered a nine-year segment as represented by the 
dates of publication of the Proceedings. The chairman prepared the 
document covering the last five years of the Committee's history. 

The members of the Committee and the years reported by each 
were: Theodore J. Crovello, University of Notre Dame (1891-1899); 
James R. Gammon, DePauw University (1900-1908); Morris Levy, 
Purdue University (1909-1917); Gayton C. Marks, Valparaiso University 
(1918-1926); Victor Riemenschneider, Indiana University, South Bend 
(1936-1944); David S. Woodruff, Purdue University (1945-1953); Wil- 
lard F. Yates, Jr., Butler University (1954-1962); Frank N. Young, Jr., 
Indiana University (1963-1971); and Jack R. Munsee, Chairman, Indi- 
ana State University (1972-1976). The period 1927-1935 was reported by 
Irene Horner, student at Indiana State University, since J. W. Reising, 
committee member, was unable to prepare this segment of the history. 



1 Published in two Parts. Part II: Volume 87, Proceedings of the Indiana Academy of 
Science for 1977. 

Report prepared by the Biological Survey Committee under the direction of Jack R. 
Munsee. 

357 



358 Indiana Academy of Science 

A committee was formed early in the history of the Academy, 
whose functions have apparently always dealt with aspects of the flora 
and the fauna of Indiana. Reports prepared by the Committee appear in 
most issues of the Proceedings, however, no reports were forthcoming 
in some years. Occasionally, the need for such a committee has been 
questioned by members of the Academy; nevertheless, it has survived as 
evidenced by the account of its history which follows. Among the names 
of many who have served on the Committee will be recognized those of 
well-known Indiana biologists whose works laid the foundation for 
understanding and appreciating the wealth of diversity of living things to 
be found in Indiana. 

1891-1899 (T. J. Crovello)i 

(Major dates, e.g., 1891, refer to information obtained from the Proceed- 
ings with that date on its cover, although it might not have been 
published until a subsequent year.) 

1891 

The closest committee to the Biological Survey Committee was that 
on the Legislation for the Restriction of Weeds. It consisted of J. C. 
Arthur, J. M. Coulter, and W. H. Evans and was in effect in 1890-91. 
Also related to the Biological Survey Committee was the Committee on 
Legislation for the Protection of Native Birds (1887-91). It consisted of 
A. W. Butler, D. S. Jordan, and B. W. Evermann. 

1892 

In the published summary of the spring meeting of the Academy 
held at Terre Haute, May 12-19, 1895 [sic], is included a report from 
"the Committee on State Biological Survey," by its only member, L. M. 
Underwood. He was charged "to appoint two other members to serve 
on the committee with him and to present plans at this meeting for 
carrying on the work." Later in the meeting, three "directors" were 
approved: L. M. Underwood, C. M. Eigenmann, and V. F. Marsters. 

Of interest is the listing of Curators (of the Academy?) along with 
the Academy's officers. The Curators were: 

Botany John M. Coulter 

Icthyology Carl H. Eigenmann 

Ornithology Amos W. Butler 

Herpetology 0. P. Hay 

Entomology F. M. Webster 

Mammalogy E. R. Quick 

While they may have been Curators of the Academy, they were not 
all located in one city. For example, Coulter's address is given as Lake 
Forest, Illinois. [Also, the first sentence on page 14 of the 1893 Proceed- 
ings indicates certain collections were to serve as official depositories.] 



1 Although the entire substance of each committee member's report is used, where 
necessary, minimum editing was done in order to effect cohesion among the separate 
reports. 



History of Science 359 

Papers read at the Winter Meeting at Indianapolis (Dec. 28-29, 1892) 
include one given (title only) by L. M. Underwood (page 48), "A State 
Biological Survey — A Suggestion for Our Spring Meeting." 

1893 

Almost 200 pages of the approximately 275 pages of the 1893 Pro- 
ceedings (published in August, 1894) are devoted to the Biological 
Survey. In addition, the list of Committees for 1893-94 record two rele- 
vant entries: 

1. Biological Survey (BSC): L. M. Underwood, A. W. Butler, J. M. 
Coulter. 

2. Directors of Biological Survey: L. M. Underwood, C. H. Eigen- 
mann, V. F. Marsters. 

Nowhere is it clearly stated what the different functions of these two 
might be. However, on page 13, Lucien M. Underwood, Director of the 
State Biological Survey, does provide this glimpse of purpose of the two: 

"The Indiana Academy of Science at its spring meeting originated 
the State Biological Survey by the appointment of three directors who 
were instructed to organize the survey and prepare for the winter meet- 
ing a Bibliography that would show the present status of the knowledge 
of the state flora and fauna, recording in accessible form what had been 
already written concerning them. It was further thought desirable to 
outline certain features of new work that could be reasonably attempted 
during the season of 1893. In order to make known the purposes of the 
survey the following general statement was published and somewhat 
widely distributed through the state in July last:" 

Biological Survey of Indiana 

Circular No. 1 

"At the last meeting of the Indiana Academy of Science, at Terre 
Haute, a Biological Survey was established for the State of Indiana, and 
the undersigned were appointed Directors to organize the survey and 
outline the preliminary work ordered by the Academy." 

"It is the purpose of the survey: (1) To ascertain what has already 
been accomplished in the direction of making known the character and 
extent of the life of the state, and to this end to prepare a complete 
bibliography of materials bearing on the botany, zoology, and palaeontol- 
ogy of Indiana, to be published by the Academy. (2) To associate the 
various workers throughout the state, and so correlate their labors that 
all will work together towards a definite end, and ultimately accomplish 
the main purpose of the survey, namely, the making known of the entire 
fauna and flora of Indiana, its extent, its distribution, its biological rela- 
tions, and its economic importance. (3) To stimulate the teachers of 
biology throughout the state to encourage in their pupils the accumula- 
tion of material, which shall make known the local extent and distribu- 
tion of life-forms, and thus contribute facts that will be useful in the 
survey and at the same time develop acute observers for continuing the 



360 Indiana Academy of Science 

study of the natural resources of the state. It is thus intended that the 
colleges and secondary schools will form with the survey a mutually 
helpful relation. (4) Ultimately to secure for the Academy a collection 
that will illustrate the biology of the state. Until such collection can be 
otherwise provided for, the Academy will designate certain public or 
private collections where accumulated material may be deposited tempo- 
rarily. Material sent to the directors will be thus held for the future 
disposition of the Academy." 

"It is earnestly requested that all persons interested in any depart- 
ment of biological work will place themselves in relation with the 
directors of the survey at once, in order that their work may be made 
to contribute the most effectively to the public good, and in order that 
the directors may know on whom they may depend for gaining informa- 
tion from various portions of the state. All contributions from persons 
interested will be properly credited in the reports of the survey. Corre- 
spondence is solicited with the director of the particular branch in 
which any one is interested, and such directions in regard to collecting 
and sending material will be given on application. By the assistance of 
the Smithsonian Institution, the directors are able to send printed direc- 
tions for collecting to such as apply for them. (In ordering these it will 
be necessary to specify in what particular branch information is 
desired.)" 

Lucien M. Underwood, Greencastle, Ind. 

Division of Botany 
Carl H. Eigenmann, Bloomington, Ind. 

Division of Zoology 
Vernon F. Marsters, Bloomington, Ind. 

Division of Palaeontology 
Directors of the Biological Survey of 

Indiana 

1 July 1893. 

So perhaps the Directors of the Survey were the formal, administra- 
tive organizers, and the BSC were the people who really knew the Biota 
of the State, or would do the fieldwork. 

Pages 13-204 relate to the Biological Survey. Its major sections were 
as follows (numbers in parentheses are Proceedings' page numbers), and 
in the exact order of the Proceedings' pages: 

1. Botany (14-19) — provides background information for the fol- 
lowing plant sections. 

2. Bibliography of Indiana Botany (20-30) — also includes informa- 
tion on early collectors, the stimulus provided by the publica- 
tion of the Botanical Bulletin in 1875, later changed to the 
Botanical Gazette. 

3. List of Plants (30-67) 

a. Cryptogams (30-64) — includes host information. 

b. Bryophyta (64-67) 



History of Science 361 

4. Zoology (67-70) — provides background information on the fol- 
lowing zoological sections. 

5. Bibliography of Indiana Fishes (71-76) 

6. The Fishes of Indiana (76-108) 

7. Bibliography of Indiana Ornithology (108-116) 

8. Notes on Indiana Birds (116-120) 

9. Bibliography of Indiana Mammals (120-124) 

10. Preliminary List of Indiana Mammals (124-139) 

11. Mollusca (140-142) 

12. Bibliography of Mollusca (142-145) 

13. Species [of Mollusca] Described from Indiana (145-147) 

14. General List of Mollusca (148-156) 

15. Geology: Bibliography (156-191) 

16. Suggestions for the Biological Survey (191-193) — Abstract [of 
a talk?] by John M. Coulter. It deals specifically with Phaner- 
ogams, but is also of general value. He recognized the existence 
of two categories of plants: indigenous and introduced. He sug- 
gests that each has its own unique collecting problems. He 
suggested that collectors be trained, and that their work be of 
two types: to collect all species growing in their district; and 
to carry out detailed studies of those most interesting plants. 
He stated that, "in work of this kind the following points must 
be made out: 

1. Mass distribution [abundance] . . . 

2. Topographical distribution . . . 

3. Geological distribution . . . 

4. The effect of man's presence . . ." 

17. The Phanerogamic Flora of Indiana (193-199) — An article by 
Stanley Coulter about the form and content that a phanerogamic 
flora of Indiana might take. 

18. Relation of Indiana High Schools to the Biological Survey — A 
stimulating article by W. S. Blatchley, parts of which are still 
germane today. 

1894 

The two committees and members remained unchanged from last 
year. 

Papers read at the meeting (pages 27-143) included many that deal 
with the biological survey of Indiana. 

The Biological Survey's Report (pages 144-178) was restricted only 
to plants. It was divided as follows (page numbers in parentheses): 

Botany (144-147) 

Appendix A: List of additions to State Flora (147-153) 

Appendix B: Host plants of fungi (153-154) 

Appendix C: Notes on the species reported previously (154) 

Appendix D: List of Parasitic Fungi (154-156) 

Flora of Hamilton and Marion Counties, Indiana (156-176). 



362 Indiana Academy of Science 

1895 

The Proceedings included publication of a two-page Act for the Pro- 
tection of Birds, Their Nests and Eggs. Approved March 5, 1891 [but by 
what body?]. 

A plea for State support for publishing the Proceedings was made. 
While the list of Committees for 1895-96 retains the, "Directors of Bio- 
logical Survey" (consisting of Eigenmann, Marsters, and Arthur), no 
listing is given for the earlier, separate committee, "Biological Survey." 

A relevant paper read by John S. Wright at the winter meeting was, 
"Botanical Literature of the State Library." 

The State Biological Survey Report actually consisted of 29 papers 
(pages 135-296), four of which are presented in title only. Eighteen dealt 
only with Turkey Lake (or Lake Wawasee), Kosciusko County, the site 
of Indiana University's Biological Station. 

1896 

Membership of the committee of Directors of Biological Survey 
remained unchanged. Thirty-four papers on botanical or zoological sub- 
jects were read, many of which related to the State's biota. In addition, 
11 papers were separated as the second report of the Biological Station 
on Turkey Lake. 

No meeting reports, in which the Biological Survey Committee was 
discussed, were included in these and the Proceedings of the last few 
years. 

1897 

Membership of the committee of Directors of Biological Survey 
remained unchanged. 

Thirty-three papers were read on botanical or zoological subjects, 
many of which concerned the State's biota. 

No mention or contribution concerned the Biological Survey Com- 
mittee specifically. 

1898 and 1899 

Membership of the committee of Directors of Biological Survey 
remained unchanged. 

Papers were read on botanical or zoological subjects, many of 
which concerned the State's Biota. 

No mention or contribution concerned the Biological Survey Com- 
mittee specifically. 

Comments by the Author on the Beginning of Biological Surveys by the 
Indiana Academy of Science: 1891-1899 

As we obtain a feeling for the multifaceted purposes and accomplish- 
ments of the first nine years of the Biological Survey Committee, one 
cannot help being struck by the great similarity with needs of our 



History of Science 363 

society today, and the resurgence of interest in the Biological Survey 
Committee today. In recent decades the Committee concentrated on as- 
sembling- a bibliography of articles on the biota of the State. But in the 
last few years, spurred on by increased concern for the environment 
(and laws to enforce this concern!) and by projects such as Flora North 
America, the need for a Biological Survey that does more than keep 
track of relevant literature has become more apparent. In fact, inter- 
estingly enough, what is needed is nothing more than the original set 
of purposes of the Committee, as stated in the 1893 Report (see its repro- 
duction above, under 1893)! The proposal for a computerized Flora 
Indiana Project adopted in the fall, 1975, by the Academy really is a 
step towards satisfying the original goals of the Committee, even down 
to involving high school teachers and students in it! 

1900-1909 (James R. Gammon) 

In none of the documents were there any reports of this committee. 
In each volume of the Proceedings there were papers that seemed to be 
pertinent to the Biological Survey, and those thought appropriate for 
the activities of the committee are listed. 

1900 

Directors of the 1900 Biological Survey were: C. H. Eigenmann, 
D. Bodine, V. F. Marsters, M. B. Thomas, J. C. Arthur, and S. Coulter. 

J. T. Scovell — The Flora of Lake Maxinkuckee. A very good descrip- 
tion of the lake at that time, the various kinds of plants and 
the abundance and location of these plants. 

S. Coulter — Addition to the Flora of Indiana. There seemed to be at 
that time a lot of notes on this; it was a period when the cor- 
ners were being filled in as to what was in the state of Indiana. 

T. Large — The Methods and Extent of the Illinois Icthyological 
Survey. This paper discussed what was to become a rather 
extensive and ambitious work over in our neighboring state. 
This did not have anything to do with Indiana, but it was pre- 
sented in the Proceedings. 

1901 

Directors of the Biological Survey were: C. H. Eigenmann, D. Bodine, 
M. B. Thomas, J. C. Arthur, and S. Coulter. 

Listed are papers that were written from reports at the Biological 
Station at Winona Lake, a Series of, "Reports from the Biological Sta- 
tion" under the direction of C. H. Eigenmann. 

A. A. Norris wrote two of the reports — Maps of Winona, Pike, and 
Center Lakes and The Mollusca of Winona Lake. 

E. B. Williamson — The Dragonflies of Winona Lake. 

H. W. Clark— The Flora of Eagle Lake and Vicinity. 

Lucy Youse — Plant Ecology of the Winona Lake Region. 

These were extensive papers with many photographs of the area. 



364 Indiana Academy op Science 

1902 

C. H. Eigenmann, D. Bodine, M. B. Thomas, J. C. Arthur, and S. 
Coulter served as Directors of the Biological Survey. 

Amos Butler reported some rare birds, including some that we do not 
think of as ever having been in Indiana: the White Pelican on the 
White River in Knox County; Wood Ibis at Montezuma; Little Blue 
Heron found near Bainbridge; and the Passenger Pigeon near Larrel, 
Indiana. These were few in number and were shot by various hunters. 
There seemed to be much shooting in those days and there were no 
game laws. Birds that were shot were brought to the attention of Amos 
Butler himself. 

Reports from the Indiana University Biological Station at Winona 
Lake under the direction of Dr. Eigenmann follow: 

W. J. Moenkhaus reported a new species of darter. 

F. Mutchler — The Myxomycetes of Lake Winona. 

Chancey Juday — The Plankton of Winona Lake. (The author is 
now familiar with Juday's work and suspects that, 'The Plankton of 
Winona Lake" may have been his first paper. Further, he did a great 
deal more work in Indiana before joining Dr. E. A. Birge at Wisconsin. 
The two of them working with others laid the foundation of modern 
limnology in this country.) 

C. H. Kennedy provided a list of the dragonflies of Winona Lake. 

1903 

Directors of the Biological Survey were: C. H. Eigenmann, S. Coulter, 
M. B. Thomas, C. R. Dryer, and M. T. Cook. 

The President's Address was presented by W. S. Blatchley, who 
has an honored place in Indiana. The address was entitled, "The Indiana 
of Nature; Its Evolution." In this paper he went from practically the 
formation of the earth in very broad strokes to a look at Indiana through 
the ages up to the present time. He referred more than once to man as 
that "prince of parasites." He described man as, "the greatest devastator 
that nature has ever known." At the end he described white man's 
devastation of the biota and decried what he regarded as a greedy 
waste of limited natural resources such as oil and natural gas. 

The year's papers included: 

Herman B. Dorner — Additions to the Flora of Indiana. 

Charles Piper Smith — Bird Notes from the Indiana State Forester 
Reservation. (The author believes he was a student at Purdue 
at this time and that he provided notes and brief descriptions 
for several years after. Not all of his notes and brief descrip- 
tions got into print, but he did report them at meetings.) 

T. J. Headlee and J. Simonton — Ecological Notes on the Mussels of 
Winona Lake. There were very good photographs of the species 
collected and a map of the lake showing where the species were 
found. This paper was well done and could be referred to today. 



History of Science 365 

Amos W. Butler — Conditions Effecting the Distribution of Birds in 
Indiana. He mentioned the disappearance of the Ivory-billed 
woodpeckers and a great scarcity of many other species which 
were formerly abundant. 

1904 

Directors of the Biological Survey were C. H. Eigenmann, S. Coulter, 
C. R. Dryer, M. B. Thomas, and J. C. Arthur. 

Most of this volume consisted of Waldo Lee McAtee's paper entitled, 
"Ecological Notes on the Birds Occurring within a Radius of 5 Miles of 
the Indiana University Campus." This included migratory records and 
photos of nests and of birds found in the Bloomington area at that time. 

The only other paper that would have been of interest to the 
Biological Survey was Mr. S. Coulter's list, "The Poisonous Plants of 
Indiana." This paper did not provide any information on distribution 
but, nevertheless, might be of interest. 

1905 

The Directors of the Biological Survey remained unchanged. 

Four papers contributed information about distributions, flora, and 
fauna. 

C. P. Smith — Notes upon some little known members of the Indiana 
Flora. (There were a lot of notes published in those days.) 

G. W. Wilson — Notes on some new or little known members of the 
Indiana Flora. 

Charles Deam — Additions to Indiana Flora. (Mr. Deam was a sci- 
entist of some regard at that time.) 

Will Scott — The Leesburg Swamp. (Scott would later go on to become 
a member of the Indiana University Zoology Department and 
work on fish and aquatics.) 

1906 

C. H. Eigenmann, S. Coulter, C. R. Dryer, M. B. Thomas, and J. C. 
Arthur continued to serve as Directors of the Biological Survey. 

Papers of interest follow: 

F. D. Kern — Parasitic Plant Diseases Reported for Indiana. 

Charles C. Deam — Additions to Indiana Flora No. 3. 

Amos W. Butler — Some notes on Indiana Birds. Most of this paper 
consisted of records of Snowy Owls, which during the previous 
year had been found with considerable abundance through 
much of Indiana. It may have been a cold winter. These and 
all the other birds he reported on, or at least a great deal of 
them, were brought to the attention of scientific people by 
hunters. Apparently, at that time, there was much random 
shooting of anything that moved. 



366 Indiana Academy of Science 

1907 

The same Directors continued their work in Biological Survey. 

Two papers qualify for inclusion as topics of interest to the Survey, 
which do not have personal appeal. 

G. W. Wilson — The Peronosphorales of Indiana. These are fungi par- 
asitic on higher plants. 

M. T. Cook — The Insect Galls of Indiana. At the time, apparently 
not much work on insects was being done. 

1908 

C. H. Eigenmann, S. Coulter, C. R. Dryer, M. R. Thomas, and J. C. 
Arthur were the Directors of the Biological Survey. 

There were only two papers given, which seems to indicate a distinct 
drop in activity. 

A. G. Johnson — On the Heteroecious Plant Rusts of Indiana. 

Robert Hessler — Notes on the Flora of Cass County. 

1909-1917 (Morris Levy) 

During the period 1909-1917, the Biological Survey Committee was 
composed of many of the historically most eminent biologists that Indiana 
has nurtured. The chairmanship saw the consecutive four-year tenures of 
Stanley F. Coulter and Charles C. Deam, and the initial year of service 
by Herbert S. Jackson. Coulter, Deam, and Jackson were joined by Carl 
H. Eigenmann, Joseph C. Arthur, and James M. Van Hook to form the 
nucleus of monographers on the committee. Ecosystem analysts, Charles 
Dryer and Will Scott; systematists, Mason B. Thomas, Ulysses 0. Cox, 
J. A. Nieuwland, H. W. Anderson, George N. Hoffer, Richard N. Holman; 
and an ecologist, M. S. Markle, comprised the balance of the membership. 
The majority of members were botanically oriented. 

While the Academy members published voluminous reports in cele- 
bration of the twenty-fifth anniversary of the Academy (held in 1909) 
and the Century of Science in Indiana (1916), the Biological Survey 
Committee published only one official report during the period, in 1916. 
In this report, Chairman Deam presented the list of monographs of 
Indiana biota previously published by Indiana biologists. The list, which 
included new compendia for mammals, coleopterans, scale insects, fungi, 
and trees, was completed during 1909-1916. Deam emphasized that 
previous survey work on Indiana biota was exceedingly fragmentary. 
Faunistic surveys had concentrated on the conspicuous vertebrates (espe- 
cially fish, reptiles, birds, and mammals), molluscs and selected insect 
groups (dragonflies, butterflies, orthopterans, coleopterans, and coccids). 
Surveys of herpetofauna and several economically important insect 
groups (especially moths, dipterans, and- hymenopterans) had been con- 
spicuously absent. Similarly, floristic surveys had concentrated on trees, 
ferns, shrubs, herbs, and various fungal groups and had largely ignored 
aquatic plants, bryophytes, lichens and mosses. 



History of Science 367 

Papers published in the Proceedings by members of the Committee 
during 1909-1917 exhibit the flavor of most of the biological survey 
research conducted to this time, i.e., domination by biogeographic and 
taxonomic perspectives. The autecology, life history, and economic fea- 
tures of the biota were generally ignored or treated in anecdotal, 
empirical fashion; albeit with some notable exceptions in commercially 
important taxa. Chairmen Coulter and Deam pointed up the need for 
holistic approaches to the biological survey; but, pessimistically con- 
cluded that such an approach would be possible only when active support, 
both financial and professional, was forthcoming from the Indiana Leg- 
islature and State departments. The Committee recommended that a res- 
olution be adopted by the Academy to present the rationale and organi- 
zation which would achieve the desired goals of a state-wide biological 
survey to the Legislature and the Governor. There is no record that 
such a resolution or action was undertaken. 

1918-1926 (Gayton C. Marks) 

1918 

The year was an unusual year for the Academy. The spring meeting 
was held jointly with the Illinois Academy of Science in the new state 
park at Turkey Run on May 24 and at the Shades on May 25. At this 
meeting, Professor S. H. [sic] Jackson reported on species of rusts 
found (in Indiana) and made a special appeal for the eradication of the 
barberry. This was now a war-time measure undertaken by every state 
in the Union. 

Professor Herbert Spencer Jackson (1883-1956), Chief of Botany at 
the Agricultural Experiment Station of Purdue, was chairman of the 
Biological Survey Committee. Other members of the Committee were 
Richard M. Holman of Wabash (1886-1935), professor of botany; Millard 
S. Markle (1883-1968), professor of botany at Earlham; and Will Scott 
(1877-1937), assistant professor of zoology at Indiana University. 

The 1918 fall meeting was canceled because of the influenza epidemic. 
The business meeting was conducted in early December in the Claypool 
Hotel in Indianapolis. The president of the Academy that year was 
Edward Bruce Williamson (1877-1933), cashier, and then president of 
the Wells County Bank of Bluffton. Williamson was later to serve on 
many committees, including the Biological Survey Committee. He had 
served as assistant secretary to the Academy 1910-1912 and again in 
1915-1916. Among his other talents, he served as associate curator of 
Odonata at the University of Michigan from 1916-1928. A symposium was 
held on important contributions of science to military efficiency. Pro- 
fessor Holman was the leader for botany. The Committee on Biological 
Survey reported that, "a number of investigations are in progress." In 
the regular business meeting a motion was made and passed to appoint 
a committee to confer with a senator and a representative appointed 
by the governor to frame a bill for the naming of a state conservation 
commission. Among papers submitted that year were those of Paul 
Weatherwax, Charles Deam, and M. S. Markle. 



368 Indiana Academy of Science 



1919 



Members of the Committee on Biological Survey remained the same 
for 1919. The spring meeting was held at the State Forestry Reserve 
in Henryville. E. B. Williamson again served as President of the Acad- 
emy. The bill establishing the State Conservation Committee went into 
effect April 1, 1919. The winter meeting was held on December 5 at the 
Claypool Hotel, Indianapolis. The Committee on Biological Survey re- 
ported through Chairman Jackson that its work throughout the year 
was chiefly to stimulate activity on the part of the persons engaged in 
work of the state biota. It had thus secured the promise of two papers 
for this meeting. 

Two interesting resolutions were the product of the winter meeting 
of 1919. The first resolution was that the Academy go on record as favor- 
ing the blossom of the tulip tree as the state flower, rather than the 
carnation, which was made state flower by a state law enacted in 1913. 
The second resolution placed the Academy on record as "favoring and 
urging the compulsory use of the metric system in the United States at 
once and that the Secretary of the Academy be instructed to send a copy 
of these resolutions to the President of the United States." 

The State Legislature at its 1919 session failed to appropriate any- 
thing for publication of the Proceedings for 1919 and 1920. Earlier law 
(1895) provided $600 annually for the Proceedings to be published in 
the quantity of not less than 1,500 nor more than 3,000 copies. Later 
the amount of support was doubled with the State providing $1,200 
annually for the publication of the Proceedings. Among papers presented 
that year were those of Scott, Jackson, and Deam. 

1920 

Colonel Richard Lieber of the State Conservation Commission re- 
placed M. S. Markle on the Biological Survey Committee in 1920. Lieber 
(1869-1944), known as the father of the Indiana State Parks, died at 
McCormick's Creek. Richard M. Holman served as Assistant Secretary 
of the Academy in this year. E. B. Williamson served on two committees, 
Nominating and Auditing. The spring meeting was held in the vicinity of 
Spencer with business session convening in the Christian Church. 

At the winter meeting held in the Claypool Hotel, Indianapolis, the 
secretary reported for Chairman H. S. Jackson of the Biological Survey 
Committee that "no specific steps have been made to gain the cooperation 
of the State Conservation Commission in a systematic survey." A paper 
was presented by Charles Deam on plants new to Indiana, and some 
notes on termites were given by Harry F. Dietz (1890-1954). The latter 
was to serve as Assistant Secretary in 1921 and on many committees 
thereafter, including the Biological Survey. Dietz was an entomologist, 
first with the U.S. government, then later, Assistant State Entomologist. 
Three papers were delivered by H. S. Jackson at this meeting. 

1921 

In 1921, John J. Davis (1885-1965) of the Agricultural Experiment 
Station of Purdue replaced Holman on the Biological Survey Committee. 



History of Science 369 

He was also to serve as Editor for the years 1922, 1923, 1924, 1925, and 
1926. The May 27 and 28 Spring Meeting of the Academy was held 
jointly with the Indiana Audubon Society and the Nature Study Club of 
Indiana, in Fairview and Holiday Parks, Indianapolis. Fort Benjamin 
Harrison was visited on the second day. The business session was con- 
ducted at Ma-Lo Place in Indianapolis. After the business session, E. B. 
Williamson entertained with a large number of lantern slides of the 
country in South America where he had been collecting dragonflies. 

In the Winter Executive Committee Meeting at the Claypool Hotel, 
Chairman Jackson of the Biological Survey Committee revised his 
previous announcement concerning the relationship of the Committee to 
the Conservation Commission. He announced that Mr. Lieber of the Com- 
mission had been made part of the Biological Survey Committee. Ap- 
parently after some discussion, the desirability of making a State Biolog- 
ical Survey prompted an effort by the Academy to obtain a special 
appropriation for this work. Jackson urged that a committee of more 
influential members should be selected to go before the State Legislature 
for this purpose. The following were members selected to represent the 
Biological Survey: Robert W. McBride (1842-1926), a former member 
of Lincoln's personal body guard; Frank B. Wynn (1860-1922), an active 
member of the Academy and an officer of the AM A; Amos William 
Butler (1860-1937), founder and Past President of the Academy and 
seven years its secretary; and M. S. Stanley Coulter, born in China and 
later known as " Stanley." He was Past President and Acting Assistant 
Secretary in 1892-1893. Stanley Coulter, the last remaining charter mem- 
ber of the Academy, died in 1943. His maternal grandfather was the 
founder of Hanover College. His older brother, John is well known for 
his botanical work at the University of Chicago. Both brothers served 
for many years on the Executive Committee of the Indiana Academy 
of Science. 

Past, present, or future members of the Biological Survey Com- 
mittee to hold executive posts of the Academy or to serve on other 
committees were: Harry F. Dietz, Assistant Secretary and Membership 
Committee; and E. B. Williamson, Nominating, Auditing, and Interstate 
Meetings Committees. Judge McBride announced that, at the request of 
the Academy, the tulip tree became the state flower. Papers submitted 
at the winter meeting of the Academy included those by Deam, Jackson, 
Scott, and John J. Davis. At the regular business session Mr. Lieber 
called the attention of the Academy to the very poor facilities of the 
State Museum. It was resolved that a portion of the proposed Soldier's 
Memorial should be devoted to the State Museum. 

1922 

The membership of the Biological Survey Committee remained the 
same for 1922. The spring meeting was held at French Lick in mid-May 
and the winter meeting at the Lincoln Hotel, Indianapolis. There was no 
report of the Biological Survey Committee that year. 

Editor of the Proceedings was John J. Davis; Assistant Secretary 
was Harry F. Dietz. Dietz also served on the Membership and Publica- 



370 Indiana Academy of Science 

tions Committees. Among those to submit papers that year were Markle, 
Deam, Jackson, and Marcus W. Lyon, Jr., Frank Barbour Wynn, M.D., 
long active in much of the work of the Academy, died on July 22. 

1923 

While the membership of the Biological Survey Committee remained 
the same in 1923, Will Scott replaced H. S. Jackson as Chairman. The 
spring meeting in May was held in Brookville, Indiana, the birthplace 
of the Academy. At this meeting a special committee was appointed to 
investigate and propose means most feasible for the preservation of wild 
flowers of the State. The committee consisted of David Myers Mottier 
(1864-1940), M. W. Lyon, Jr., H. S. Jackson, and C. C. Deam. 

The 39th Annual Winter Meeting was held at DePauw University, 
December 6-8. The Biological Survey Committee had no report. Chair- 
man D. M. Mottier reported for the committee appointed to investigate 
feasible methods for protection of wild flowers of the state that it was 
the concensus of the Committee that certain wild plants should be 
conserved and protected. Laws of Illinois and Vermont were cited and 
a law was proposed for Indiana. It was decided to read the report at 
the business session the next day. When presented to the general session, 
it was moved and carried that this special committee be empowered to 
call in such aid as it saw fit. 

Papers submitted that year included the work of Deam, Weather- 
wax, Lyon, J. J. Davis, and Will Scott. 

1924 

Charles Clemon Deam (1865-1953) became President of the Academy 
in 1924. His Presidential address dealt with the flora of Indiana. He was 
also State Forester and had been Program Chairman for the Academy. 
Editor of the Proceedings was John J. Davis. Press Secretary Dietz 
served on the State Library and Membership Committees. M. S. Markle 
also served on the Membership Committee. On the Advisory Council was 
E. B. Williamson. 

The new Biological Survey Committee was composed of Harry Dietz, 
Chairman, of Indianapolis; C. C. Deam, and E. B. Williamson, both of 
Bluffton. The spring meeting was held at the Opera House in Marengo, 
Indiana, in mid-May. The weather was ideal and Secretary Flora Ander- 
son reports, "this is the best spring meeting the Academy ever had." 

The 1924 winter meeting of the Academy was held at Purdue Uni- 
versity December 4-6. 

Chairman Dietz of the Biological Survey Committee reported on a 
meeting of that Committee on November 6, in Bluffton, and a list of 
projects drawn up at that time. An effort was to be made to secure 
companion volumes to Deam's Trees of Indiana, Shrubs of Indiana and 
Evermann and Clark's Fishes of Lake Maxinkuckee. 

One of the most desirable projects was to replace Butler's Birds of 
Indiana, which had been out of print for 15 years. Mr. Mannfield of the 
Division of Fish and Game of the Department of Conservation was aware 



History of Science 371 

of the need for such a publication and in a report to the Director of the 
Department urged that steps be taken to secure it. 

Richard Lieber, formerly of the Biological Survey Committee and 
now Director of the Department of Conservation, informed the Chairman 
that negotiations were under way to secure the help of Dr. Butler in 
preparing this publication. For this purpose $1,500 a year for two years 
would be allowed by his department. A need for other publications was 
expressed. This included The Mammals of Indiana, and Batrachlans and 
Reptiles of Indiana. Two thousand dollars for each publication was to 
be set aside. The problem seemed to be in securing a qualified Indiana 
scientist for each of these tasks. 'The one thing the Biological Survey 
Committee [needs] more than anything else is some real manuscripts 
that are ready for the press." 

A paper of general interest was presented on, "City 'Smogs' in 
Periods of General Fair Weather" by J. H. Armington of the U.S. 
Weather Bureau at Indianapolis. It is worthwhile to include two short 
quotes from this paper: "Smoke and fog combinations, recently called 
'smog' ", and "At Indianapolis, however, smog of the most aggravated 
type occurred, beginning in the latter part of the night as smoke which 
later combined with fog and became so dense by the early morning 
hours as to necessitate the full complement of electric lights in the 
down-town office buildings." Papers delivered at the divisional meetings 
included those by Jackson, Weatherwax, and B. Elwood Montgomery. 

1925 

The 1925 Biological Survey Committee was changed only in that 
it included a fourth member, Marcus Ward Lyon, Jr. (1875-1942), a 
naturalist and pathologist of South Bend. Lyon served as treasurer of 
the Academy from 1927-1932 and President in 1933. Chairman Dietz also 
served on the State Library Committee; Markle on the Membership 
Committee; and Williamson on the Research Committee. 

The spring meeting was held in Madison, Indiana at the Clifty 
Inn on May 14-16. C. C. Deam was unable to attend because of illness. 
Telegrams were sent to both Deam and E. B. Williamson. At the Execu- 
tive Committee Meeting that winter, held at Hotel Deming at Terre 
Haute, Chairman Dietz stated that, "although the Biological Survey 
Committee had been active during the year, there was little to add to 
the report of last year." 

J. J. Davis moved that the Committee determine through ques- 
tionnaires to members of the Academy, the survey work being done in 
the state, and that a complete report be presented at the next meeting. 
This motion was carried. The divisional meetings were held at the 
Indiana State Normal School and the Rose Polytechnic Institute. Papers 
given were by Charles Deam, Winona Welch, J. J. Davis, M. W. Lyon, 
Jr., and Will Scott. 

1926 

The 1926 spring meeting was held at the Hotel Spaulding, Dunes 
Park, Michigan City, May 20 and 21. Professor Henry Chandler Cowles 



372 Indiana Academy of Science 

(1869-1939) and Dr. M. W. Lyon gave interesting talks on the physio- 
graphic features and the biota of the dunes. 

Harry Dietz served as Press Secretary and as a member of the 
Membership and State Library Committees. J. J. Davis, Editor of the 
Proceedings, also served on the Program Committee as did M. W. Lyon, 
Jr. C. C. Deam was a member of the Research Committee that year. 
The Biological Survey Committee remained unchanged. 

At the winter meeting held at Ball State Teacher's College, Decem- 
ber 2-4, Chairman Dietz reported a number of survey papers recently 
published and others in the process of publication by members of the 
Academy, including Blatchley's Heteroptera of the Eastern United States, 
Montgomery's Studies of Indiana Dragonflies, Deam's Grasses and Sedges 
of Indiana, and Myer's Reptiles of Indiana. 

The Committee was asked to take action on the survey questionnaire 
requested in the previous annual meeting. 

Papers given that year were authored by Lyon, J. J. Davis, and 
Scott. 

Judge Robert Wesley McBride, soldier, attorney, naturalist, and 
taxidermist, died on May 15, 1926. He became a member of the Academy 
at its founding in 1885. He remained active as an Academy member and 
helped to found the Indiana Audubon Society. 

1927-1935 (Irene Horner) 

1927 

The Committee membership totaled four: Harry F. Dietz, chairman; 
Charles C. Deam; E. B. Williamson; and M. W. Lyon, Jr. Their main 
concern was promoting survey studies of biological taxa. Chairman Dietz 
noted with satisfaction that much survey work was being conducted in 
the state; among them were those reported in the Proceedings: Amos 
W. Butler on birds; Stewart Springer on reptiles and amphibians; Albert 
A. Hanson on weeds; Charles C. Deam on rare plants; F. M. Andrews 
on lichens and flowering plants; J. M. Van Hook on fungi; Otto Behrens 
on ferns; K. D. Doak on insects; J. J. Davis on insects; Samuel E. 
Perkins, III, on birds; and F. H. Test on birds. Dietz urged other mem- 
bers of the Academy to prepare articles in the following areas: Mam- 
mals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, fishes, insects, and molluscs of the 
state, similar to the articles by Deam on the trees and shrubs of Indiana 
and by Evermann and Clark on the fishes of Lake Maxinkuckee. The 
Committee recommended that Deam continue the study of flowering 
plants and ferns. They also stressed the need to study mosses, liverworts, 
and the larger fungi. 

Two articles appeared in the 1927 Proceedings that proved to be 
prophetic. Louis A. Test and Frederick H. Test reported sighting the 
starling in Indiana, which was introduced to the United States in 1890 
when 80 birds were freed in Central Park, New York. The Tests observed: 
"It will be interesting to note what effect they have upon the native wild 
birds. ... So far, they seem to be confined to the open country and to 
avoid the town." 



History of Science 373 

In the second article Mrs. Louise S. Swain reported her sightings of 
starlings, then quoted Mrs. Mable Osgood Wright of Connecticut: 

"Here in Connecticut starlings were not conspicuous until 1900, but 
now they are a serious menace both to the summer resident birds, whose 
nesting sites they appropriate and to the winter food supply of our most 
beneficial resident birds. . . . 

"Connecticut has done wisely in placing the starling on the list of 
unprotected birds, side by side with the English sparrow, but a con- 
centrated country-wide effort must be made if the starling is to be kept 
in check. . . . 

"If starlings were but few in number, their melodious spring whistle 
. . . would make them interesting guests, but as conditions are they 
are another warning of the foolishness of importing birds to another 
habitat than their own. Nature resents this meddling and the innocents 
pay for the mistakes of the rash." 

At the spring session at New Harmony the Academy adopted 
a resolution presented by Dr. Lyon. The resolution was against chang- 
ing the International Rules of Zoological Nomenclature, unless the 
Zoological Commission unanimously recommended the change to the 
International Zoological Congress. 

In their report to the Academy, the Biological Survey Committee 
recommended the establishment of an Academy-supported collection of 
specimens for research and study of the state's biota. Such a collection 
would be housed at a state university or at Indianapolis. They also be- 
lieved that the high schools should maintain labelled collections of local 
biota. 

Plans for the coming year included mailing out a questionnaire to 
the Academy members to determine what fields of biology were being 
studied and the relation of such studies to the biological survey. 

1928 

Membership in the Biological Survey Committee included the four 
from the previous year, in addition to Sidney R. Esten. Under the direc- 
tion of Chairman Dietz, the questionnaire had been mailed, and results 
were to be compiled in a report at a later date. 

Survey papers published in the Proceedings included ones by Winona 
Welch, C. Mervin Palmer, J. M. Van Hook, J. J. Davis, and B. E. 
Montgomery. 

1929 

No changes occurred in the membership of the Committee. Because 
of the absence of Chairman Dietz, no report was submitted. The Academy 
appointed Stanley A. Cain, Editor, to tabulate the results of the survey 
for publication in the 1929 Proceedings. 

Pages 15-17 presented the results of the questionnaire, listing the 
Academy membership under the following divisions: Conservation; pop- 
ular science writing; botany; bacteriology (as related to public health); 
zoology; and paleontology. The members indicated whether they: 1) 



374 Indiana Academy of Science 

keep a bibliography of papers on the special fields listed, with references 
to the Indiana biological survey; 2) maintain a collection open for in- 
spection; or 3) have published on the subject. 

Survey papers presented included those by: F. M. Andrews; Winona 
H. Welch and Glady Price; J. M. Van Hook; F. H. Test; R. F. Daubenure; 
H. J. Lee; E. R. Cumings; J. J. Davis; and B. E. Montgomery. 

1930 

Chairman Dietz's resignation from the committee brought Charles 
C. Deam in as chairman. He headed a committee composed of E. B. 
Williamson; M. W. Lyon, Jr.; S. R. Esten; plus new members, J. J. Davis 
and J. M. Van Hook. Under the enlarged group's direction, new policies 
and emphases emerged. 

In line with their interest in Indiana flora and fauna, the Biological 
Survey Committee urged the State Conservation Department to continue 
its commendable policy of preserving original tracts of land, which 
would maintain important ecological habitats. They also approved the 
Department's establishment of a museum of local natural history and 
geology at Turkey Run Park. 

Among their other concerns was the use of common names in the 
nomenclature. One case noted concerned the common name of Quercus 
muhlenbergi. Since "Pigeon oak" was in use in the literature and since 
Q. muhlenbergi was the preferred food of the extinct passenger pigeon, 
the Committee recommended official recognition of "Pigeon oak" as the 
common name for this species to the Botanical Society of America and 
to the American Forestry Association. 

Because most of the material representing the flora and fauna of 
Indiana was privately owned or in out-of-state museums, the Committee 
volunteered to prepare a bibliography of publications dealing with the 
taxonomy and distribution of the past and present flora and fauna of 
Indiana. In view of this situation, they reiterated their previous rec- 
ommendations for establishing a research museum supported by the 
state for the preservation of specimens. 

The Committee considered sending out a new questionnaire to the 
members of the Academy to be reported on at the next annual meeting. 
This questionnaire apparently intended to update the information re- 
ceived in the one sent out in 1928. 

Surveys published in the Proceedings included ones by F. M. 
Andrews, Rexford F. Daubenure, C. C. Deam, C. Mervin Palmer, Winona 
Welch, Helene L. White, Willard Berry, F. M. Baumgartner, J. J. 
Davis, S. R. Esten, B. H. Grave, B. E. Montgomery, and Jean Piatt. 

1931 

In view of the Biological Survey Committee's interest in promoting 
student participation in biology, 1931 was a notable year. A committee 
was formed to organize a junior academy of science, drawing partici- 
pants from high school science clubs. 



History of Science 375 

This year was an active year for the Committee, with a sizable 
turnover in membership. The chief work of the Committee was pre- 
paring the bibliography of the state's flora and fauna. M. W. Lyon, Jr., 
presided as chairman. Sidney R. Esten was in charge of compiling a bib- 
liography of vertebrates and invertebrates, except arthropods; Paul 
Weatherwax, the flora; and B. E. Montgomery, the arthropods. T. C. 
Yunker and C. F. Adams also served on the Committee. The Academy 
allowed the Committee $200 for clerical aid to assemble the work. Titles 
followed the form used in Biological Abstracts and were listed with 
notations by the compiler. The plan was to publish the bibliography in 
taxonomic sequence and give each compiler authorship credit. 

In addition to work on the bibliography, the Committee re-endorsed 
the State Conservation Department's policy of habitat preservation and 
urged the state universities to provide adequate facilities for organizing 
and permanently housing specimens of Indiana habitats. This latter pro- 
posal marked a departure from endorsing an Academy-supported col- 
lection. 

1932 

B. Elwood Montgomery replaced Dr. Lyon as chairman, but the 
membership remained essentially unchanged. The Committee appeared 
to be occupied wholly with the bibliography and requested an additional 
$100 for its compilation costs. 

Again, the Biological Survey Committee urged the state universities 
to provide facilities to preserve specimens of the state's flora and fauna. 

Survey papers published in the Proceedings were authored by: M. E. 
Britton and B. H. Smith, C. C. Deam, Louise M. Lover, Robert L. Rogers, 
J. E. Potzger, John M. Amos, J. J. Davis, Howard O. Deay, and L. A. 
Test and F. H. Test. 

1933 

M. W. Lyon, B. E. Montgomery, S. R. Esten, and P. Weatherwax 
remained on the Committee, in addition to C. F. Adams and Clyde 
Malott. Dr. Lyons again became chairman. The bibliographical work had 
progressed as follows: The Arthropoda was completed except for two 
orders of the Insecta; the Mammalia, Reptilia, and Amphibia were com- 
pleted with Aves and Pisces partly done; the Algae, Bryophyta, Pteri- 
dophyta, and Spermatophyta were completed, but no work was done on 
the Fungi. 

The Biological Survey Committee recommended to the Academy 
that its influence be used to insure publication of manuscripts dealing 
with Indiana biota. The Committee also wanted the Academy to encour- 
age younger students in their pursuit of research and scientific writing. 

Among the survey studies published in the Proceedings were those 
by G. C. Deam, J. E. Potzger, J. J. Davis, B. E. Montgomery, and L. A. 
Test and F. H. Test. 

1934 

Emphasis continued on compiling the bibliography of Indiana flora 
and fauna. The Committee consisted of B. E. Montgomery, Winona 



376 Indiana Academy of Science 

Welch, and C. M. Palmer, chaired by M. W. Lyon. They reported little 
work having been completed. However, Dr. Malott had nearly finished 
a bibliography of fossil biota, while Dr. Montgomery was the only 
"collaborator" to make progress in the work on the Arthropods. 

The morale of the committee for their work appeared to be waning, 
as attested by these statements included in their annual report: 

"The different members of the committee and the collaborators, not 
seeing any immediate outlet for publication, are not very enthusiastic 
about doing work which must remain unprinted for an indefinite period 
of time. Bibliographic work is of such a nature that additions have to 
be made from time to time as new titles appear." 

Regarding the final deposition of the work, the Committee suggested 
that arrangements be made with the state library to house the bibliog- 
raphy and to keep an account of those who would retain parts of it. 

In a more positive vein, the Academy authorized publication of the 
bibliography by Barton W. Everman, assisted by Dr. W. S. Blatchley. 
The work appeared in the forty-fourth volume of the Proceedings on 
pages 39-42. A botanical section contributed by M. S. Markle followed 
on pages 43-44. 

The Committee recommended that a fireproof museum be built to 
store specimens collected in the state, noting that that would prevent loss 
of specimens currently being sent to out-of-state museums. 

C. C. Deam, J. M. Van Hook, M. E. Britton and B. H. Smith, A. R. 
Bechtel, J. E. Potzger, J. J. Davis, Will Scott, L. A. Test and F. H. Test, 
B. E. Montgomery, Howard Deay, and George E. Gould contributed sur- 
vey studies to the Proceedings. 

1935 

The same four members remained on the Committee. The tone of 
their report remained essentially the same as that of 1934. The bright 
spots were that a report of Indiana mammals with a complete bibliog- 
raphy was in press for the American Midland Naturalist, Volume 17, 
No. 1, 1936; and that Deam's flora of Indiana was near completion. There 
was still emphasis on the survey role of the Committee, as evidenced by 
the above report. 

The Committee reported that the most complete and up-dated bibli- 
ography was on insects, which was maintained by Dr. Montgomery. Dr. 
Welch was keeping the bibliography of the bryophytes. Plans were being 
considered to keep the work in the state library and to keep an account 
of those who retain parts of it. 

This recurring cry of the nine-year period seems to be a fitting end 
to this part of the Biological Survey Committee's history: "A great 
deal of valuable material has been sent out of the state to other museums 
for lack of a suitable place for its preservation here. Some of our sister 
states, notably Illinois and Michigan, have excellent facilities for the 
care of scientific specimens." 



MICROBIOLOGY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY 

Chairman: Harold Eddleman, Box 378, Route 1, Palmyra, Indiana 47164 

Chairman-Elect: David C. Madsen, Lobund Laboratory 
University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 

ABSTRACTS 

Searching for Intestinal Flora Involved in Secondary Bile Acid Produc- 
tion in the Rat. David C. Madsen, Bernard S. Wostmann, and Mar- 
garet Beaver, Lobund Laboratory, University of Notre Dame, Notre 

Dame, Indiana 46556. The secondary bile acids hyodeoxycholate 

(HDC) and 0,-muricholate ( W -MC) are present in conventional (CV) but 
not germfree (GF) rats and mice. HDC has been shown to be a pre- 
cursor of o)-MC, formed by hepatic action. As these two bile acids con- 
stitute a major fraction of excreted bile acids, we have been searching 
for the bacterial species involved in HDC formation. We have examined 
denned combinations of common intestinal flora consisting of from 1-8 
species: none of these have resulted in appearance of HDC or W -MC. 
We were thus potentially facing a search involving innumerable permu- 
tations of combinations of intestinal species. If the responsible species 
were not a known or a common one, the task would be even more formid- 
able. Bile acids of the gerbil are dissimilar to those of the rat. We used 
flora from the large intestines of gerbils to conventionalize GF rats. 
The subsequent appearance of HDC and o-MC in feces would indicate 
that the species or capability involved was ubiquitous, and that the 
murine gut was favorable to HDC production. In fact, we have detected 
only oj-MC in feces from "gerbilized" rats. This is surprising, in view 
of the role of HDC in formation of W -MC. Several possible explanations 
are discussed. 

Selection of Mutants of Bacteriophage T4D Defective in Tail Fiber 
Morphogenesis. Harold L. Eddleman, Indiana Biolab, Palmyra, Indiana 

47164. In vitro complementation was used to select mutants of phage 

T4D having tail fiber defects. Mutagenized wild type phage were grown 
at low multiplicity of infection (moi = .01) on Escherichia coli B. Cells 
infected by the desired mutants produced fiberless particles. Wild type 
phages were removed by low-speed centrifugation following their ad- 
sorption on bacteria. 

Particles remaining in suspension were purified and concentrated 
by differential centrifugation. Fibers were attached to them by incubat- 
ing the particles in a mixture containing fibers and any enzymes needed 
for their attachment. The product was plated on E. coli CR63 which 
permits growth of amber nonsense mutants. 

Amber mutants were found in 7% of the plaques tested. Of 243 
amber mutants isolated, 214 could be assigned to previously known 
genes. The remaining 29 strains appear to be defective in fiber synthesis 
but differ from previously described mutants and may represent muta- 
tions in one or more new genes. 

377 



378 Indiana Academy of Science 

Microbial Interactions in Soil Cropped to Beans. D. M. Huber and 
A. L. Andersen, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907, 

Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48823. The most 

common association of microorganisms in the soil was one of compati- 
bility, although mycoparasitism, necrosis, and lysis were observed. An 
apparent symbiotic association of Fusarium sp. with a bacterium was 
also observed. The intimate and compatible association of bacteria 
with most fungi may be an indication of a mycosphere phenomenon. 
Antibiosis of Fusarium was not demonstrated since most of the re- 
ported antagonists were either compatible with the Fusarium species 
encountered or not actively growing in the soil. Streptomyces sp. were 
the least compatible of all isolated organisms. These associations may 
influence the active growth, pathogenicity, germination, or survival 
of a specific organism in the soil. 

The Elongation of Palmitic Acid by Cell-Free Extracts of Penicillium 
Chrysogenum. Jill Ashley and Alice Bennett. Results of previous 
research on whole-cell cultures of Penicillium chrysogenum have sug- 
gested that acetyl CoA, without being converted to malonyl CoA, sup- 
plies the two carbon units for the elongation of palmitic acid. The 
purpose of this study was to determine the mode of elongation of 1- 14 C 
palmityl CoA by a 20,000 x g mitochondrial pellet from P. chrysogenum. 

Acetyl CoA or malonyl CoA was incubated with radioactively- 
labeled palmityl CoA for 20 minutes. Avidin was added to some ex- 
perimental reaction mixtures. The resulting fatty acids were saponified, 
extracted with hexane, methylated with diazomethane, and purified by 
thin layer chromatography. The methyl esters were separated and 
identified by gas-liquid chromatography. The radioactivity of each 
methyl ester was determined by liquid scintillation spectrometry. 

Elongation of palmityl CoA was observed in the presence of acetyl 
CoA, but not in the presence of malonyl CoA. The addition of avidin 
produced a greater proportion of short-chained fatty acids at the ex- 
pense of palmitic acid, but did not decrease the percentage of long- 
chained fatty acids produced. 

A high proportion of label was recovered in the C fatty acid, 
linolenic acid. This suggested that two pathways of linolenic acid 
synthesis may be operating in this organism. 



Plant Diseases and Disorders in Indiana — 1976 

D. A. Komm, D. H. Scott, W. R. Stevenson, and P. C. Pecknold 
Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 

Abstract 

This is a report of the plant diseases and disorders diagnosed in Indiana from 
September 1, 1975 to August 31, 1976. Anthracnose leaf blight, common rust, and 
Gibberella and Fusarium stalk rots were widespread corn diseases in the state during 
1976. Brown spot, bacterial blight, and downy mildew were common soybean foliar dis- 
eases. Phytophthora and Rhizoctonia root rots of soybeans were common, but less severe 
in 1976 than in 1975. Barley yellow dwarf virus damaged barley, oats, and wheat. 
Take-all of wheat was widespread with yield losses in some fields of 30% or more. 
Phytophthora root rot, Fusarium root rot, crown rot complex, and bacterial wilt 
caused some losses to alfalfa. 

A severe outbreak of leaf anthracnose on white oak and sycamore was the prominent 
disease of shade trees. Various root stress factors resulted in a decline of many common 
landscape trees. A frequent disorder of yew (Taxus) was root rot, due to poorly-drained 
planting sites and/or heavy, clay-type soil. The prevalence of fire blight on apple and 
pear increased over the previous two years. Numerous late spring freezes caused severe 
damage to both tree fruit and small fruit. 

Severe losses from insect transmitted diseases such as bacterial wilt of cucurbits and 
virus diseases of muskmelon, greenbeans, and sweet corn were reported. Soil borne 
diseases included Fusarium wilt of eggplant, muskmelon, okra, spinach, tomato, and 
watermelon, charcoal rot and scurf of sweet potato, southern blight of tomato, and black 
dot root rot of potato. Prevalent tomato foliar and fruit diseases included anthracnose, 
bacterial leaf spot, early blight, late blight, and Septoria leaf spot. Common foliar 
diseases of cucurbits included anthracnose, Alternaria leaf spot, downy mildew, and 
powdery mildew. 

Introduction 

Plant diseases and disorders are diagnosed at the Purdue Plant 
Disease Diagnostic Clinic and throughout Indiana as a service to 
county extension agents, growers, homeowners, and others. This service 
provides a quick, accurate diagnosis along with suggestions for ef- 
fective control methods and serves a vital role in a productive agricul- 
tural system. This paper is a record of plant diseases and disorders 
diagnosed in Indiana from September 1, 1975 to August 31, 1976. When 
this report is compared with others (1, 3, 4) it is possible to determine 
general trends in the increase, decrease, or stability of Indiana plant 
diseases and disorders. With this information, agricultural research, 
extension, grower, and consultant personnel can direct research activi- 
ties, plan control programs, and choose plant varieties best suitable to 
resist prevalent diseases. Previously, plant diseases and disorders diag- 
nosed in the Purdue Plant Disease Diagnostic Clinic appeared in the 
form of a compilation (1, 3, 4). A compilation will not be included with 
this paper, but is available from the authors upon request. 

Methods 

Plant specimens were submitted to the Plant Disease Diagnostic 
Clinic by county agents, homeowners, growers, and others, or were 
collected from Indiana fields by the authors. Diagnosis of each speci- 

379 



380 Indiana Academy of Science 

men was made on the basis of signs and symptoms or by isolation of 
the pathogen. Appropriate control measures were suggested upon 
completion of diagnostic studies. 

Results 
Agronomic Crops 

Corn 

Diseases: Fusarium ear rot was prevalent throughout the state 
while Gibberella ear rot was most prevalent in the northern half during 
the 1975 harvest. Gibberella ear rot was responsible for swine refusal of 
corn or feed made from corn grown in localized areas of northern 
Indiana. Howard and Cass counties had the most reported cases of swine 
refusal. 

Most corn was planted early in 1976 and in relatively dry, cold 
soils. Consequently, seedling blights were common and more severe 
than in recent years. A relatively small percentage of early planted 
fields were re-planted due to poor stands which resulted from a 
combination of unfavorable environmental conditions and seedling 
blight. Anthracnose leaf blight was widespread in the southwestern, 
northwestern, and northeastern counties of the state in May and 
early June. The disease was severe in individual fields, especially where 
corn followed corn and reduced tillage practices were used. One seed 
production field of the inbred C-123 in Benton county was severely dam- 
aged by anthracnose leaf blight and suffered a total loss for seed 
production. Dry weather in July and August prevented the development 
of the stalk rot phase of anthracnose. Had sufficient rainfall occurred 
during this time, similar to that of 1975, this disease possibly would 
have been severe. Maize dwarf mosaic and /or maize chlorotic dwarf 
symptoms were prevalent on corn in the river bottom areas of southern 
Indiana; however, losses were minimal except in those fields planted 
to susceptible varieties. Common rust was epiphytotic throughout the 
state. Severe disease development did not occur until August, thus 
yield losses were negligible, except in a few seed production fields 
planted to highly susceptible inbreds. Stewart's disease was prevalent 
in southern Indiana but disease severity was light in spite of a mild 
1975-76 winter and high flea beetle populations. Gibberella and Fusarium 
stalk rots were widespread during the fall 1976. Good harvest weather 
prevented severe lodging. 

Disorders: Eratic germination, uneven early growth, and purple 
discoloration were common disorders directly related to cold, dry soils at 
and shortly after planting. 

Soybeans 

Diseases: Brown spot and bacterial blight were common early 
season diseases, but yield losses were negligible. Downy mildew was 
widespread in Indiana fields. The incidence of downy mildew and bacterial 
blight was 23 and 4 percent, respectively, higher in 1976 than 1975 
(2). Phytophthora root rot was widespread, especially in northern 
Indiana, but damage was less severe in 1976 than in 1975 due to lack 



Microbiology and Molecular Biology 381 

of adequate moisture during the growing season. Rhizoctonia root rot 
was a common early season disease, but losses appeared to be minimal. 
Soybean mosaic and/or yellow mosaic virus symptoms were observed on 
individual scattered plants in many fields throughout the state. While 
these virus diseases were common, disease severity was low and no 
significant yield losses were reported. Sclerotinia stem rot was found 
in three widely separated fields in Wabash county. This is the first 
report of this disease in Indiana for several years. Brown stem rot and 
stem canker were two additional diseases observed in several fields 
scattered over the state, but neither disease caused apparent significant 
yield losses. Due to the dry late summer and early fall, pod and stem 
blight was light, and soybean seed quality was very good. 

Disorders: Early season chemical damage was widespread in 1976, 
but not as severe as in 1975. 

Small Grains 

Diseases: Barley yellow dwarf virus was widespread and damaging 
to barley, oats, and wheat throughout the state. Take-all of wheat was 
observed throughout the state and was severe in many individual fields, 
with yield losses being 30% or more. Patches of blackened heads, vary- 
ing in size from several feet in diameter to nearly entire fields, were 
visible in over half of all Indiana wheat fields at harvest time. The 
blackened heads resulted from saprophytic fungi, Alternaria spp., 
Cladosporium spp., and Epicoccum spp., attacking the glumes of plants 
prematurely killed by take-all, barley yellow dwarf virus and/or 
frost. Epicoccum was the most common fungus associated with the 
discolored heads. 

Loose smut, powdery mildew, and leaf rust diseases were found 
scattered, but light, throughout the state. The most important aspect 
of these diseases is that new races of each pathogen have developed, 
and all Arthur types of wheat are susceptible to the new races. Arthur 
types represent 93 percent of all wheat acreage in Indiana and over 70 
percent of all soft red winter wheat acreage in the U.S. 

Alfalfa 

Diseases: Phytophthora root rot, Fusarium root rot, crown rot 
complex and bacterial wilt continued to cause problems in isolated 
fields throughout the state, but damage from these diseases was not 
nearly as severe as in 1975. 

Shade and Ornamental Trees 

Diseases: Leaf anthracnose was the most frequently recorded 
disease of landscape trees. Sudden cool, wet weather in early May 
caused a severe outbreak of anthracnose on white oak and sycamore; 
maple and ash were affected to a lesser degree. The incidence and 
severity of anthracnose was greatest in northern Indiana with only 
slight injury occurring in the middle and southern areas of the state. 
An increase in recorded and observed occurrence of Diplodia tip 
blight of pine was noted as compared to 1974 and 1975 (1, 3). Disease 
occurrence was most prevalent on well established plantings of Austrian 



382 Indiana Academy of Science 

and Scotch pine. An apparent increase in Dutch elm disease was seen 
in several northern counties during early summer. Stem canker diseases 
were most prevalent on Russian olive, willow, and oak. Unusually dry 
spring weather resulted in an overall decrease in the incidence and 
severity of many common leaf and stem diseases as compared with the 
past two years (1, 3). 

Disorders: An early spring followed by numerous late spring 
freezes caused extensive injury to young expanding foliage and /or 
buds of many ornamentals. Maple, tulip tree, spruce, and pine were 
hardest hit judging by the number of recorded samples. Decline was 
the most frequently diagnosed disorder affecting landscape trees; as in 
past years, maple decline was most prevalent (1, 3). White pine, ash, oak, 
birch, dogwood, and mountain ash were other tree species frequently 
suffering from decline. Various urban stress factors along with 
spring and/or summer drought periods over the past few years appear 
to be responsible for much of the decline. Summer leaf scorch was 
severe during July and August; maple, dogwood, and mountain ash 
were most severely affected. Iron chlorosis was common on oak, espe- 
cially pin oak, and sweet gum. 

Ornamentals 

Diseases: Dry weather during spring and summer resulted in 
fewer ornamental diseases than in past years. Most noticeable of the 
early spring diseases was rust on juniper. Cedar-apple, cedar-hawthorn 
and cedar-quince rust all were prevalent. Other diseases commonly 
diagnosed were Phomopsis tip blight of juniper, powdery mildew on 
Euonymous and lilac, bacterial blight of geranium, Fusarium basal 
dry-rot of Gladiolus, and Pyracantha scab. 

Disorders: The most frequently received ornamental was Taxus. In 
most cases, plants showed yellow foliage and poor growth as the 
result of root rot. The cause of Taxus root rot was most frequently 
related to poorly drained planting sites and/or heavy, clay-type soil. 
This proclivity for root rot to occur on Taxus strongly indicates the 
need to plant this particular plant species in only well drained, light- 
textured soils. An early spring dieback of rose was prevalent in most 
areas of Indiana. The excessive amount of dieback was largely related 
to a long spell of warm growing weather in autumn which did not allow 
plants to become sufficiently hardened. Unusually warm periods in 
February followed by freezing weather in March also contributed to 
the dieback. Winter desiccation was prominent on holly, juniper, and 
arbor-vita. 

Fruit Trees 

Diseases: Numerous late spring freezes resulted in a reduced fruit 
crop throughout the state and consequently less noticeable disease 
problems. The most prevalent disease of apple and pear was fire blight. 
Black knot was the most common disease of plum. Occurrence of both 
fire blight and black knot showed an increase over the previous two 
years. Apple scab, cherry leaf spot, and peach leaf curl were other 



Microbiology and Molecular Biology 383 

diseases of frequent record, however, field occurrence was light. No 
fruit rot of any consequence was noted as of September 15, 1976. 

Disorders: All fruit disorders of importance were weather related. 
Frost rings, russetting, and fruit malformations, especially on apple, 
were common due to the many late freezes in spring. Hail damage 
was frequently diagnosed as causing moderate damage in various 
orchards throughout the state. There were a few isolated cases of herbi- 
cide injury on apple and peach caused by improper application of 
material. 

Small Fruits 

Diseases: Black root rot of strawberry was the most frequently 
recorded small fruit disease. Disease occurrence was usually associated 
with older strawberry plantings (3 to 5 years) in heavy soil; however, 
exact cause of the disease is not yet known. Black rot of grape was 
moderate to severe in various vineyards in southern Indiana. Rasp- 
berry anthracnose was lighter than that reported in the previous two 
years (1, 3). In general, there were no small fruit diseases of major 
importance during the 1976 growing season. 

Vegetables 

Diseases: Several insect transmitted diseases were common on 
vegetable crops throughout the state. In some cases, these diseases 
were responsible for severe losses. The unusually high frequency of 
insect borne diseases appeared to be related to weather conditions which 
favored winter survival or high seasonal populations of insect vectors. 
The most serious disease was bacterial wilt of muskmelon and cu- 
cumber caused by Erwinia tracheiphila and transmitted by the striped 
and spotted cucumber beetles. Plant losses of 10-20% in commercial 
muskmelon fields were not uncommon. Troublesome aphid borne diseases 
included cucumber mosaic virus on muskmelon, bean yellow mosaic virus 
on pole and bush green beans, and maize dwarf mosaic virus on sweet 
corn. 

Soil borne diseases included Fusarium crown rot of asparagus, 
clubroot and yellows of cabbage, Fusarium wilt of eggplant, musk- 
melon, okra, spinach, tomato, and watermelon, charcoal rot and scurf 
of sweet potato, southern blight of tomato, and black dot root rot of 
potato. The latter disease caused by Colletotrichum coccodes has now 
been identified in all major potato production areas of Indiana and 
constitutes a major threat to the continued cultivation of susceptible 
potato cultivars. Fusarium wilt of muskmelon and watermelon was 
observed most frequently in southwest Indiana where hot dry weather 
accentuated symptom development. 

Prevalent tomato foliar and fruit diseases included anthracnose, 
bacterial leaf spot, early blight, late blight, and Septoria leaf spot. An 
early season outbreak of tomato bacterial spot was favored by high 
winds and wind blown rain. Overall losses to tomato diseases were 
considered much less severe during the 1976 growing season than 
during the preceding year. Common foliar diseases of cucurbits in- 



384 Indiana Academy of Science 

eluded anthracnose, Alternaria leaf spot, downy mildew, and powdery 
mildew. 

Disorders: Chemical injury, the most common disorder identified 
on several vegetable crops, was generally related to herbicide drift 
or improper pesticide application. The total number of vegetable speci- 
mens with chemical injury symptoms in many cases represented a 
reduction from the previous year. 



Literature Cited 

1. Pecknold, P. C, W. R. Stevenson, and D. H. Scott. 1975. A Compilation of Plant 
Diseases and Disorders in Indiana — 1974. Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 84 :71-84. 

2. Laviolette, F. A., T. S. Abney, K. L. Athow, J. R. Wilcox, T. L. Richards, W. T. 
Schapaugh, and A. M. Simpson, Jr. 1976. Indiana Soybean Diseases and Crop Condi- 
tion Survey— 1976. Purdue University Ag. Exp. Sta. Bull. No. 139. 6 pp. 

3. Stevenson, W. R., P. C. Pecknold, and D. H. Scott. 1976. A Compilation of Plant 
Diseases and Disorders in Indiana — 1975. Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 85:96-108. 

4. Wolf, S. C. 1972. Plant Diseases in Indiana in 1972. Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 
82:101-108. 



Hormone Effects on NADH-Oxidizing Enzymes 
of Plasma Membranes of Rat Liver 

Debra P. Gayda, F. L. Crane, D. J. Morre and H. Low 

Department of Biological Sciences 

Purdue University 

West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 

and 

Department of Endocrinology 

Karolinska Hospital 

Stockholm, Sweden 

Abstract 

Hormone binding influences both oxidase activity and adenylate cyclase activity in 
the plasma membrane of rat liver. The findings suggest a coupling between redox func- 
tion and adenylate cyclase. Furthermore, since NADH inhibits adenylate cyclase of PM, 
whereas NAD has no effect, the NADH dehydrogenase may act as a sensor for the 
oxidation-reduction state of the cell. 

Introduction 

Polypeptide hormones, growth hormones, and catecholamines bind 
with receptors localized on the outer surface of the plasma membrane. 
This binding of hormones has been correlated with the activation in 
adenylate cyclase of the inner membrane surface. Recently, Crane and 
Low have shown that a distinct NADH dehydrogenase exists in plasma 
membranes (2) and that it, too, is stimulated by hormones (4). The 
NADH dehydrogenase activity in the plasma membranes is influenced 
by glucagon, ACTH, fluoride, atebrin, and azide at concentrations which 
stimulate or inhibit the activity of adenylate cyclase (4). 

The catecholamines (epinephrine, norepinephrine, isoproterenol) and 
azide activate adenylate cyclase activity (9,10) whereas the flavin 
antagonist, atebrin, inhibits adenylate cyclase activity (5). In this 
report, these known stimulators or inhibitors of the adenylate cyclase 
activity were tested for their effect on the oxidation of NADH with 
oxygen or juglone as electron acceptors. Membrane sources were plasma 
membrane from rat liver (PM), milk fat globular membranes (MFGM), 
smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER), rough endoplasmic reticulum 
(RER), Golgi apparatus (GA), and mitochondria (MITO). Only in 
PM, did the effects of the stimulators and the inhibitor on NADH de- 
hydrogenase correlate with their effects on adenylate cyclase. The other 
membrane preparations showed differences from PM with respect to 
stimulation or inhibition. 

Materials and Methods 

Membranes were prepared from rat liver as described: PM (11), 
GA (7), SER(7), RER(7), and MITO (7). MFGM (6) were prepared 
from cows milk. 

385 



386 



Indiana Academy of Science 



Both NADH oxidase and NADH juglone reductase assays were 
based on oxygen uptake at 37 °C monitored with an oxygen electrode. 
The reaction mixture contained in a final volume of 1.5 ml, membrane 
preparation, sodium phosphate buffer (0.03 M; pH 7), and an appropri- 
ate amount of test substance. Incubations were for 3 min. NADH 
(260 /xg), with or without juglone (60 /xg), was added to measure 
NADH oxidase or NADH juglone reductase, respectively. 

Isoproterenol, epinephrine, 3,5,3'-triidothyronine, propranolol, NADH 
and juglone were from Sigma Chemical Company. Norepinephrine and 
atebrin were from Aldrich Chemical Company. 

Results 

Atebrin (10 _3 M) is a flavin antagonist that inhibits adenylate 
cyclase activity (3). When NADH oxidase activity in various membrane 
preparations was measured as a function of atebrin concentration (Fig. 
1), NADH oxidase activity was inhibited in PM and MFGM. No inhibi- 
tion of NADH oxidase was observed with GA, SER, or MITO. With GA, 
NADH oxidase was stimulated. Similar results were obtained with 
atebrin when NADH juglone reductase was measured (Fig. 2). Azide 
stimulated both NADH oxidase and NADH juglone reductase activity 
in PM (Fig. 3 and Fig. 4). Again the effect of azide on NADH oxidase 
and NADH juglone activity in the other membrane preparations was 
insignificant, except for MFGM. MFGM was inhibited by azide which 
may be due to higher amounts of xanthine oxidase contained in this 
type of plasma membrane (1). 

A selected hormone, 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T 3 ) was tested for stim- 
ulation of NADH dehydrogenase with MFGM, PM, GA, RER, and MITO. 



200 r 




Figure 1. The inhibition or stimulation of 
NADH oxidase activity with various mem- 
brane preparations when treated with 
atebrin. Control activity of membranes 
(nmoles/min/mg protein): P-plasma mem- 
brane, Ik: F-milk fat globular membrane, 
2U; M-mitochondria, 13; G-Golgi apparatus, 
10; S-smooth endoplasmic reticulum, 59. 



2 4 

Atebrin ( mM ) 



Microbiology and Molecular Biology 



387 




Figure 2. The inhibition or stimulation of 
NADH juglone reductase activity with var- 
ious membrane preparations when treated 
with atebrin. Control activity of membranes, 
(nmoles/min/mg protein): P-plasma mem- 
brane, 37; F-milk fat globular membrane, 
290; M-mitochondria, 290; G-Golgi appa- 
ratus, 132; S-smooth endoplasmic reticu- 
lum, 720. 



2 4 

Atebrin (mM) 



NADH oxidase of T 3 ( 10" r >M) -treated PM was stimulated 250%, while 
that of T 3 (10-«M) -treated MFGM was stimulated 80%. In contrast, no 
stimulation of NADH oxidase was measured in T^-treated GA, MITO, 
or RER. 

The /3-adrenergic catecholamines stimulate the enzyme adenylate 
cyclase in virtually all tissue (10). The catecholamine, isoproterenol, 
(10-5M) also stimulated NADH oxidase in PM and MFGM (Fig. 5). 
Isoproterenol gave successively less stimulation of oxidase with other 
membranes in the order GA, SER, RER and MITO. Furthermore, the 




Figure 3. The inhibition or stimulation of 
NADH oxidase activity ivith various mem- 
brane preparations when treated with 
azide. Control activity of membranes 
(nmoles/min/mg protein): P-plasma mem- 
brane, 25; F-milk fat globular membrane, 
32; G-Golgi apparatus, 18; S-smooth endo- 
plasmic reticulum, 38. 



100 200 

Azide ( mM ) 



388 



Indiana Academy of Science 



5 40 
o 




Figure 4. The inhibition or stimulation of 
NADH judglone reductase activity with 
various membrane preparations when treat- 
ed with azide. Control activity of mem- 
branes (nmoles/min/mg protein): P-plasma 
membrane, 390; F-milk fat globular mem- 
brane, 275; G-Golgi apparatus, 175; S- 
smooth endoplasmic reticulum, 1075. 



100 200 

Azide ( mM ) 



isoproterenol stimulating effect on PM and MFGM was inhibited by 
propranolol (1(HM), a /3-adrenergic antagonist. 

The effect of two other /3-adrenergic catecholamine agonists on 
NADH oxidase activity was measured with MFGM (Table 1). Epine- 
phrine stimulated NADH oxidase 130%, whereas, norepinephrine stimu- 
lated NADH oxidase only 50%. Murad et al. (8) found stimulation of 
adenylate cyclase by the catecholamines in broken cell preparations. 

The effect of an a-adrenergic agonist, phenylephrine on NADH 
oxidase was also tested with MFGM (Table 1). No inhibition or stim- 
ulation on NADH oxidase was found upon treatment with phenylephrine 
(10«M) or ephedrine, (10 «M). 




Figure 5. The inhibition or stimulation of 
NADH oxidase activity with various mem- 
brane preparations when treated with 3,5, 
3' -triiodothyronine. Control activity of 
membranes (nmoles/min/mg protein): P- 
plasma membrane, 16; F-milk fat globular 
membrane, 2 k; M-mitochondria, 19; G-Golgi 
apparatus, 18; R-rough endoplasmic retic- 
ulum, 33. 



3,5,3 - Triiodothyronine (|iM) 



Microbiology and Molecular Biology 



389 




Figure 6. The inhibition or stimulation of 
NADH oxidase activity with various mem- 
brane preparation when treated with iso- 
proterenol. Control activity of membranes 
(nmoles/min/mg protein): P-plasma mem- 
brane, 22; F-milk fat globular membrane, 
23; M-mitochondria, 19; G-Golgi apparatus, 
18; S-smooth endoplasmic reticulum, 96; R- 
rough endoplasmic reticulum, 40. 



200 300 

Isoproterenol ( [iM ) 



Studies on NADH dehydrogenase by Crane and Low showed effects 
of atebrin, azide, and T 3 on cytochrome C reductase activity and indo- 
phenol reductase activity (2). Atebrin inhibits cytochrome C reductase 
activity and indophenol reductase activity in PM, so it inhibits all 
NADH dehydrogenase activity. Azide and T 3 , however, differ in their 
effects depending on the redox acceptor used. NADH cytochrome C 
reductase activity and NADH indophenol reductase activity are both 
inhibited whereas the NADH oxidase is stimulated by both T 3 and 
azide and NADH juglone reductase activity is stimulated by azide and 
not affected by T 3 . Thus, PM has been shown to contain a distinct 
NADH dehydrogenase (2). It appears now that a connection between 
NADH dehydrogenase of PM and adenylate cyclase activity exists as 
well. A redox function in the coupling of hormone binding with the 
activation of adenylate cyclase is suggested. Since NADH inhibits 
adenylate cyclase of PM, whereas NAD has no effect (5), the NADH 
dehydrogenase may act as a sensor for the oxidation-reduction state of 
the cell and thereby function as part of a more complicated homeo- 
static control mechanism. 



Table 1. Stimulation or inhibition of NADH oxidase activity with adrenergic agonistt 

on MFGM 



Adrenergic agonist 



Stimulation ( c / ( of control) 



isoproterenol 

epinephrine 

norepinephrine 

phenylephrine 

ephedrin 



-M50 

+ 130 

+ 50 



(» 



Control activity of MFGM is 23 nmoles/min/mg. 



390 Indiana Academy of Science 

Acknowledgments 

Supported by grants from the National Institutes of Health, the 
National Science Foundation, and the American Heart Association. 
Liver fractions were prepared by Keri Safranski. Milk fat globule mem- 
branes were kindly provided by Prof. T. W. Keenan, Department of 
Animal Sciences Purdue University. 



Literature Cited 

1. Briley, M. S. and R. Eisenthal. 1975. Association of xanthine oxidase with the 
bovine milk fat globule membrane (Nature of the enzyme-membrane association). 
Biochem. J. 147:417-423. 

2. Crane, F. L. and H. Low. 1976. NADH oxidation in liver and fat cell plasma 
membrane. FEBS Lett. 68 :153-156. 

3. Low, H. 1959. On the participation of flavin in mitochondrial adenosine triphosphate, 
reactions. Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 32:1-10. 

4. Low, H. and F. L. Crane. 1976. Hormone regulated redox function in plasma mem- 
branes. FEBS Lett. 68:157-159. 

5. Low, H. and S. Werner. 1976. Effects of reducing and oxidizing agents on the 
adenylate cyclase activity in adipocyte plasma membrane. FEBS Lett. 65 :96-98. 

6. Mather, I. H. and T. W. Keenan. 1975. Studies on the structure of milk fat globule 
membrane. J. Memb. Biol. 21 :65-85. 

7. Morre, D. J. 1973. Isolation and purification of organelles and endomembrane com- 
ponents from rat liver, p. 1-27. in Chrispeels, M. J. (ed. ) Molecular techniques and 
approaches in developmental biology. John Wiley, New York. 306 p. 

8. Murad, F., Y.-M. Chi, T. W. Rall, and E. W. Sutherland. 1962. Effect of 
catecholamines and choline esters on the formation of adenosine 3',5'-phosphate by 
preps from cardiac muscle and liver. J. Biol. Chem. 337:1233-1238. 

9. Rahmanian, M. and L. Jasett. 1974. Activation of rat adipocyte plasma membrane 
adenylate cyclase by sodium azide. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Comm. 61 :1051-1056. 

10. Robinson, G. A., R. W. Butcher, and E. W. Sutherland. 1971. Cyclic AMP. p. 
150-151. Academic Press, New York. 531 p. 

11. Yunghans, W. N. and D. J. Morre. 1973. A rapid and reproducible homogenization 
procedure for the isolation of plasma membrane from rat liver. Prep. Biochem. 
3:301-312. 



Colicin El Induced Depolarization of the Bacterial 
Inner Membrane 

J. Michael Gould and W. A. Cramer 

Department of Biological Sciences 

Purdue University 

West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 

Summary 

When a small pulse of oxygen is added to an anaerobic suspension 
of logarithmic phase Escherichia coli cells, the subsequent acidification 
of the medium which is observed in the absence of permeant charged 
ions is slow (t, =10 sec) as is its relaxation (t = at least several 

72 72 

minutes). The number of protons extruded for each oxygen atom 
added (H+/0) is small, varying from about 0.4 to about 1.0 depending 
upon the carbon source used for growth and the growth phase of the 
cells. Treatment of the cells with colicin El causes a large increase 
in the amplitude of the proton extrusion elicited by an oxygen pulse, 
so that the H+/0 ratio attains values > 2.0 regardless of the cell 
growth conditions. In addition, the rate of proton efflux (t <1 sec) 

and its relaxation (t = 10-20 sec) are greatly accelerated in colicin- 

treated cells. After addition of colicin El, the increase in the H+/0 
ratio has a time course which is very similar to the El-induced loss 
of K+ (t =3 min). Furthermore, the effect of colicin El on the 

kinetics and extent of H+ efflux is dependent upon the presence of K+, 
in the medium, with an apparent "K m " for potassium of about 0.5mM. 
The properties of the proton pulses measured in the presence of 
colicin El plus K+ are very much like those measured in cells 
treated with the permeant anion SCN-. rhus, these experiments 
provide direct evidence for a rapid, colicin El-induced depolarization of 
the bacterial membrane. 

Introduction 

Jacob et al (1) reported that colicin El inhibited growth and nucleic 
acid synthesis in a sensitive Escherichia coli strain while not inhibiting 
respiration. It was also found that this colicin inhibits a range of 
active transport systems (2). These observations, and that of an oxygen 
requirement for the action of this colicin, led to the hypothesis that 
colicin El is an uncoupler of oxidative phosphorylation [Levinthal and 
Levinthal, quoted in (2)]. This hypothesis was consistent with further 
studies on colicin inhibition of active transport (3,4) and with the ob- 
servation of a rapid decrease in intracellular ATP levels caused by 
colicin (5). 

However, it was also found that the efficiency of colicins El and K 
is not markedly decreased in anaerobic samples, as measured by the 
inhibition of active transport (5) and the colicin El-induced increase 

391 



392 Indiana Academy of Science 

in fluorescence intensity of a lipophilic probe (6). These observations, 
together with the report that the effectiveness of colicins K and El was 
not changed in hemin-less mutants (5) implied that the action of 
these colicins does not necessarily require respiratory activity. An ener- 
gized membrane, however, may be required for the action of all colicins 
(7,8), although the actual degree of required energization may be small 
(9), and this energization may be achieved through either ATP hydrolysis 
or respiration. 

It has been proposed that the energy level of energy transducing 
membranes is controlled by the free energy stored in an electrochemical 
potential consisting of a proton gradient and /or an electrical potential 
across the membrane (10,11). According to this chemiosmotic hypoth- 
esis, charge separation generated through electron transport can 
generate a transmembrane potential, which can subsequently be re- 
laxed by the movement of a proton through an energy transducing 
complex (e.g., ATP synthetase, transport proteins). At present there 
is disagreement with aspects of this model relating to the precise 
significance of the ion movements observed between the bulk aqueous 
phases separated by the membrane (12,13), and some of these problems 
are discussed elsewhere (14). However, the data presented here is not 
inconsistent with the existence of a local or transmembrane potential 
in the energized membrane of E. coli. In intact E. coli it appears that the 
dominant component of the electro-chemical potential at pH 7 is the 
membrane electrical potential (15,16). It is reasonable to expect, there- 
fore, that the deenergization of the membrane by colicin would involve 
dissipation of this potential. In a system in which energy is stored 
primarily as an electrical potential, the appropriate movement of any 
charged species, not just protons, can serve to deenergize the mem- 
brane. Indeed, an event which appears to be closely related in time to 
the first biochemical events caused by colicin is an increase in K + 
permeability of the cell resulting in the leakage of intracellular K+ 
into the medium (17-19,6,33). 

Fluorescence studies with the probe 3,3'-dihexyloxycarbocyanine 
indicated that colicin K partially depolarized the cytoplasmic membrane 
(20). However, very similar fluorescence changes induced by colicin 
El (6), K (21), or la (22) have been reported for the lipophilic probe 
N-phenyl-1-naphthylamine (PhNap), although this probe will not re- 
spond directly to a membrane potential, and much of it is localized in 
the cellular envelope outside of the inner membrane prior to colicin 
addition (21). Thus, it is important to study the effect of colicin on the 
cellular membrane potential by an independent technique. 

Mitchell and Moyle (23,24) observed that addition of an oxygen 
pulse to an anaerobic suspension of mitochondria causes an increase 
in the acidity of the suspension. In those experiments, and in similar 
experiments done with anaerobic bacterial suspensions (25-27) the 
amplitude and rate of the proton efflux after an oxygen pulse was 
increased in the presence of mobile, charge compensating counterions 
(e.g., SCN , K> plus valinomycin). According to Scholes and Mitchell 
(27), these counterions allow a larger and faster proton movement by 



Microbiology and Molecular Biology 393 

dissipating- the membrane electrical potential which is formed by the 
charge separation accompanying respiration-catalyzed proton efflux. 
In this paper we report that colicin El, in the presence of K+, 
causes an increase in the rate and extent of proton efflux after 
an oxygen pulse in a manner similar to SCN~, and that this effect 
closely parallels in time the loss of K+ by the cells. 

Experimental Methods 

Bacteria. For most experiments reported in this paper, cells of 
the Escherichia coll strain B/1,5 were used. These cells were grown on 
a minimal medium (pH 7.0) containing (per liter): 1 g (NH 4 ).,S0 4 , 
0.5 g sodium citrate, 0.1 g MgS0 4 «7PL,0, 7 g K 2 HP0 4 , 3 g KH 2 P0 4 " and 
trace metals according to Anraku (29). The carbon source was either 
1% succinic acid or 1% glycerol (w/v). The growth media for the other 
E. coli strains used in this study were (per liter): strain JC411 {col El), 
8 g casamino acids, 5 g yeast extract, 1 g glucose, 5 g NaCl (pH 7.0) ; 
strain A 586 (tol VIII), 1 g NH 4 S0 4 , 10.5 g K 2 HP0 4 , 4.5 g KH 2 P0 4 , 0.1 g 
MgS0 4 «7H 2 0, 1 mg thiamine, 20 mg proline, 20 mg histidine, 20 mg 
leucine, 20 mg threonine, 4 g glucose (pH 7.1) (ref.30); strain K12 1100 
and strain ML 308-225, same as B/1,5 above. 

Sterile 250 ml Erlenmeyer flasks containing 50-60 ml minimal 
medium and the desired carbon source were innoculated from overnight 
cultures, and incubated at 37° with vigorous shaking for 4.5-5.5 hrs 
(mid-logarithmic phase growth) or 14-17 hrs (stationary phase growth). 
Cells were harvested by centrifugation at 4°, washed twice in 150 
mM KC1, 0.5 mM MOPS-KOH (pH 7.0) and resuspended in this medium 
to a final concentration of about 3 x 10 9 cells/ml. For experiments 
using the permeant anion SCN - , the cells were washed twice and re- 
suspended in a medium containing 100 mM KC1, 50 mM KSCN, 0.5 
mM MOPS-KOH (pH 7.0). 

For experiments involving colicin El treatment of cells, the colicin 
was added to the cell suspension in a small volume (2 /xl) to a final 
concentration of 1 /xg protein/ml. When cells grown with succinate as 
carbon source were used, it was necessary to add the colicins 5 min. 
before the initiation of anaerobiosis, presumably because of an energy 
requirement for colicin action. When cells grown with glycerol as 
carbon source were used, colicin could be added either before or after 
anaerobiosis with no difference in its effects. Cell survival after colicin 
El treatment was < 0.1%. 

pH Measurements . A 2 ml aliquot of the final cell suspension was 
placed in a water-jacketed, glass reaction vessel (3 ml capacity) which 
contained a small magnetic stirring bar. The top of the reaction 
chamber was sealed with a rubber stopper through which passed a 
Sargent miniature combination pH electrode. Small Teflon tubes also 
passing through the. stopper allowed a continuous stream of water- 
saturated nitrogen gas to be passed across the surface of the cell 
suspension. Another small hole in the stopper permitted the insertion 
of the needle of a microliter syringe, which was used to make additions 



394 Indiana Academy of Science 

to the sample. The temperature of the reaction chamber was maintained 
at 33 °C by a constant temperature circulating water bath. 

The output from the pH electrode was amplified by a Corning Model 
14 pH meter operated on the expanded scale. The electrometer output 
was recorded on a strip chart recorder with a scale expansion sufficient 
to give 0.01 pH units full scale (6 in). At this level of amplification, the 
noise level of the pH measuring system was ^ 2 X 10~ 4 pH units. The 
overall half-response time for the system was on the order of 1 sec as 
measured by the recorded response to a rapid injection of HC1. 

After the cell suspension had become anaerobic (approximately 15 
min), small pulses of oxygen were added by the rapid injection of a 
small volume (usually 5-10 /x\) of air-saturated, double distilled water. 
The time required to inject a 10 fA pulse was 0.1 sec or less. After an 
experiment the chart paper was calibrated in H+-ion equivalents by 
titrating the sample with small aliquots of 0.001 M HC1. The H+/0 ratio 
was calculated from the maximum extent of the pH change after an 
oxygen pulse, assuming a concentration of 275 /xmoles 2 /l for distilled 
water at 23 °C. No correction was made for any decay of the pH 
change which may have occurred during the proton efflux. 

Changes in the concentration of K+ in the suspending medium 
were monitored similarly using a glass Beckman cation electrode. The 
reference portion of the Sargent miniature combination pH electrode 
served as the reference electrode, except that the saturated KC1 solution 
within the reference electrode was replaced with saturated NaCl. 
The cation electrode potential (in mV) was calibrated against known 
concentrations of KC1. The response was completely linear for K+ 
concentrations > 2.5 X 10 5 M, with a slope of 56 mV (33°C) per 
decade change in K+ concentration. 

Miscellaneous. Colicin El was prepared from the colicinogenic E. 
coli strain JC411 according to the methods of Schwartz and Helinski 
(31) except that the last CM-cellulose step was omitted. The lyophilized 
El was dissolved in M-9 salt medium and had a specific activity of 
approximately 1:50 on a protein basis. FCCP (p-trifluoromethoxy- 
carbonylcyanide-phenylhydrazone), kindly supplied by Dr. P. G. Heytler, 
was dissolved in ethanol. The cell strains used in this study were the 
generous gifts of Drs. D. Helinski (JC411 {col El)), H. R. Kaback (ML 
308-225), S. E. Luria (A 58G tol VIII), P. W. Postma K12 1000, and S. 
Silver (B/1,5). 

Results 

Effects of colicin El and FCCP on oxygen-pulse dependent pH changes. 

The addition of a small pulse of oxygen to an anaerobic suspension 
of E. coli B/1,5 cells results in a brief period of electron transport 
which is accompanied by an acidification of the medium. The efficiency 
of coupling between this proton efflux into the external medium and 
the reduction of oxygen (H + /0) ratio) is low in the absence of any 
additions to the resuspension medium, and is dependent upon both 
the growth phase of the cells and the carbon source used for growth 
[Fig. 1 and ref. (14)]. Cells grown on succinate and harvested in mid- 



Microbiology and Molecular Biology 



395 



Figure 1. The effect of col- 
icin El on the rate and 
extent of proton efflux in 

E. coli following <m oxygen 
}>ulsc. Cells of E. coli strain 
B/1,5 grown on 1'/, suc- 
cinate (a,b) or l</, glycerol 
(c,d) were harvested during 
mid-lo a aritli m i c p h a s e 
growth. Colicin El (l jug/ 
ml), sufficient to allow 
■< 0.1'', survival, was added 
to (b) (Did (d) 5 minutes 
before the initiation of 
anaerob iosis . The oxygen 
))ulses (upward arrows) con- 
tained 5.5 nu atoms O. An 
upward deflection of the pH 
trace represents an acidifi- 
cation of the medium. 



5 nequiv H < 
1 



0002 pH 
_L 



30 sec. 

I H 



H + /0 = 0.42 



H + /0=0.90 



b) .j 



d) 




FIGURE 2. Inhibition of net 
proton efflux by FCCP. Left. 
Cells of E. coli strain B/1,5 
were grown on 1'/, gh/cerol 
to mid-logarithmic phase be- 
fore harvest in g . Upper 
trace, control; lower trace, 
with 5 jllM FCCP. Right. 
Cells of E. coli strain B/1,5 
were grown on l'/ ( succinate 
to m id-l o g a r ithm i c ph ase. 
Colicin El (1 jj.g/ml) was 
added 5 minutes before the 
initiation of anacrobiosis. 
Conditions otficricisc as de- 
scribed in Fi</. 1. 



5 nequiv. H* 
1 



30 sec. 
I H 



T 

0.002 pH 



5" v 



2 4 6 

FCCP (y/M) 



30 sec 



t 



Figure 3. Effect of the per- 
meant anion SCN- on pro- 
ton efflux and the H + /0 
ratio in E. coli. Cells of E. 
coli strain B/1,5 were grown 
on 1% succinate to sta- 
tionary phase. Conditions 
otherwise as described in 
Fig. 1. 



T 



0.002 pH 
5 nequiv. i 



i 



V0= 1.2 




control 



SCN 



396 Indiana Academy of Science 

logarithmic phase growth typically exhibit H + /0 ratios of 0.5 or less, 
whereas succinate-grown cells harvested in stationary phase or glycerol- 
grown cells harvested in either log phase or stationary phase exhibit 
H + /0 ratios around 1.0 (Fig. 1). In all cases the kinetics of proton 
efflux are rather slow (^ = 5-15 sec). The pH change decays very 
slowly, with only a small fraction of the change reversed in 10 minutes. 
West and Mitchell (25) have previously observed similar small H + /0 
ratios for E. coli cells grown with glucose as carbon source and re- 
suspended in a buffer-salts medium. 

Treatment of the cells with colicin El before addition of the 0., 
pulse results in a large change in the properties of the proton ex- 
trusion (Figure lb). The rate of proton efflux is greatly stimulated, 
the pH change reaching a maximum (AH+) in about 4-6 seconds. The 
halftime for the pH change (t = 1 sec) is very close to the half- 
response time of the electrode system determined by the addition of 
calibrated acid pulses to the medium. The rate of decay of the o - 
induced increase in medium acidity is also much faster after the cells 
have been treated with colicin El (t = 10-20 sec). The apparent 
H+/0 ratio is increased to values > 2.0 after colicin addition, and 
this high H + /0 ratio is no longer dependent upon either the growth 
phase of the cells or on the carbon source used for growth (Fig. 1). 
Furthermore, these effects of colicin El are only observed when colicin- 
sensitive cell strains are used (Table I). The H+/0 ratios obtained 
with cells of the colicin-tolerant strain A 586 and the colicinogenic strain 
JC411 are unaffected by 1 /ig/ml colicin El, whereas cells of the colicin 
sensitive strains B/1,5 and K12 1100 (cell survival < 0.1%) show the 
effects described above and shown in Figure 1. Strain ML 308-225, 



Table 1. The effect of colicin El on proton extrusion (AH + )and the H + /O ratio in 

various E. coli strains. 

Cells were harvested from either mid-logarithmic phase growth (ML 
308-225, K12 1100, B/1,5, A 586 ) or stationary phase growth (JC411). 
The carbon sources used for growth were 1% succinate (ML 308-225, 
K12 1100, B/1,5), 0.4% glucose (A 586 ) or 0.1% glucose (JC411). The 
concentration of colicin El was 1 ^g/ml, which was sufficient to allow 
0.1% survival of susceptible strains. The oxygen pulse contained 5.5 ng 
atoms O. Note that colicin does not cause any marked increase in the 
H+/0 ratio in cells of the colicinogenic strain JC411 or the colicin 
tolerant strain A 586 , and only a small effect in cells of strain ML 308- 
225, where survival was ~50% after treatment with 1 /ug/ml El. 

E. coli AH+ (nequiv.) H + /O 

strain 

Absa (tol VIII) 

JC411 (col El) 

B/l, 5 

K12 1100 

ML 308-225 



-El 


+ E1 


-El 


+ E1 


3.85 


4.02 


0.70 


0.73 


2.10 


2.24 


0.38 


0.41 


2.30 


12.20 


0.42 


2.22 


5.25 


12.90 


0.95 


2.35 


1.95 


5.60 


0.35 


1.02 



Microbiology and Molecular Biology 



397 



which is relatively insensitive to colicin El (survival = 50%) also 
showed an increase in the H+/0 ratio in the presence of 1 /xg/ml 
colicin El, although the increase was not as large as that seen with 
the colicin sensitive strains and is predictable on the basis of a 50% 
survival level in this experiment. 

The effects of the uncoupler FCCP on the oxygen-dependent proton 
pulse are very different from those described above for colicin El. 
With concentrations of FCCP in the minimal range needed to inhibit 
active transport under aerobic conditions (2-5 /xM) (21), the proton 
extrusion following an oxygen pulse is almost completely eliminated 
by FCCP in both normal cells and in cells treated with colicin El 
(Fig. 2). At concentrations of FCCP which give a partial inhibition of 
the extent of the proton extrusion, FCCP causes a marked increase in 
the decay of the pH change, due to the reentry of extruded protons 
into the cell (Table II). Thus, FCCP appears to act by increasing the 
permeability of the membrane to H+ ions — a conclusion consistent with 
much data already in the literature [e.g., ref. (32)]. Colicin El, over 
a multiplicity range of 1-100 causes an increase in the extent of the 




o 



time after El addition (min.) 

FIGURE 4. (a) Time course of the increase in proton efflux 
(SH+) and the H-r/O ratio by colicin El. Cells of E. coli strain 
B/1,5 were grown on l''< glycerol to mid-logarithmic phase he- 
fore harvesting. After the cell snsi>oision liad become anaerobic, 
colicin El was added (upivard urroic) to a final concentration 
of J jx<i ml. Oxygen pulses containing 5.5 tig atoms <> i>er pulse 
wire added at the initialled times after the addition of coli- 
cin El. 



Indiana Academy of Science 



Table 2. The effect of FCCP on proton efflux (AH+), proton influx, and the H + /0 
ratio in colicin treated E. coli 



Cells of E. coli strain B/1,5 were grown on 1% succinate to mid- 
logarithmic phase before harvesting. The cells were treated with 1 
Mg/ml colicin El before the initiation of anaerobiosis. The indicated con- 
centration of FCCP was added approximately one minute before the 
addition of any oxygen pulse containing 5.5 ng atoms 0. Note that 
FCCP decreases the extent of the observed proton efflux while increas- 
ing the rate of subsequent proton influx. 



FCCP 



AH+ (efflux) 



(uM) 


(nequiv. ) 





12.05 


1.25 


7.87 


2.5 


4.07 


5.0 


1.71 



H + /0 



AH+ (influx) 
(t in sec) 



2.19 
1.43 
0.74 
0.31 



10 
6.6 
5 
2 



proton efflux even though it also causes an increase in the rate at which 
extruded protons reenter the cell (Fig. 1) (28). These findings are there- 
fore consistent with the idea that colicin El causes an increase in the 



0.12 




time after El addition (min.) 



FIGURE 4. (h) Time course of colicin El-induced K± efflux from E. coli cells. 
Tin veils were washed twice and resuspended in a medium containing 150 mM 
choline chloride, 0.5 mM MOPS- Iris (hydroxymethyl)aminom ethane <}>H 7.0). 
Colicin El (dissolved in distilled H:0) was added (upirard arrow) to a final 
concentration of i fig/ml. No difference in the rate or extent of K\ efflux 
was observed between aerobic or anaerobic cell suspensions. Conditions other- 
wise described as in Fig. 1. 



Microbiology and Molecular Biology 399 

permeability of the bacterial membranes to charge-compensating- coun- 
ter-ion (s). This notion is further supported by the finding that the 
effects of colicin El on the proton pulse can be mimicked by including 
the permeant anion SCN^ in the reaction medium. In the presence of 
SCN- the kinetics of H+ efflux, H+ influx, and the H + /0 ratio are 
all increased (Fig. 3), much as they are in the presence of colicin El 
(Fig. 1). 

Time Course of the Increase in H + /0 Ratio. The time-course for 
the colicin El-induced increase in the H + /0 ratio for a suspension of 
cells grown in glycerol and resuspended in 150 mM KC1 is shown in 
Figure 4a. The initial H>/0 ratio in the glycerol-grown cells is 
~ 1.0 as in Fig. 1. After an initial lag of about 1 minute, the H+/0 
ratio increases over a period of about 5-6 minutes (t ~ 3 min.) to 
a value approximately twice that measured before colicin addition. This 
time course is similar to that observed previously under anaerobic con- 
ditions for the colicin-induced change in the fluorescence intensity of 
the probe N-phenyl-1-naphthylamine (6). More importantly, the time 
course of the change in the H+/O ratio is very similar to the time- 
course for K+ efflux after colicin addition, measured under identical 
conditions (Fig. 4b). 

Counterion requirement for the colicin El dependent increase in 
the H+/O ratio. If the cells are treated with colicin in a choline 
chloride medium which is free of metal cations (K+, Na+, etc.) a 
similar time-course for the effects of colicin is observed, except (a) 
the H+/O ratio prior to the addition of colicin is lower and (b) the 
H+/O ratio does not attain the same high level (>2.0) seen in the 
KC1 medium (Figure 5). Addition of KC1 to a final concentration of 
7.5 mM results in an immediate and abrupt increase in the H + /O ratio 
to the maximum value observed in the KC1 medium. This same effect 
of KC1 is shown in a different way in Figure 6, where it is clear that 
in order to observe the effects of colicin El on the kinetics of proton 
efflux, proton influx, and on the H+/O ratio, K+ ion must be present 
in the medium. The smaller increases in the H + /O ratio observed in 
Figures 5 and 6 before the addition of potassium can be attributed to 
the colicin El-induced loss of K+ from the cells (see below) which 
results in a final K+ concentration in the medium of approximately 
0.3-0.5 mM. This concentration of K+ increases the H+/O ratio to 
approximately one-half of the maximum value which can be obtained 
at higher external K+ concentrations, indicating that the "K m " for 
potassium required for colicin El effects is approximately 0.3-0.5 mM. 

Discussion 

The increase in H + /O ratio caused by colicin El has been shown 
previously to occur at colicin multiplicities as low as one (28) and to 
require the presence of potassium ion. The time course for the increase 
in the H+/O ratio (t =3 min., Fig. 4a) is very similar to the time 

course for other early biochemical events initiated by colicin El, such 
as the leakage of intracellular K+ (Fig. 4b), the decrease in intra- 
cellular ATP levels, and the structural changes in the cell envelope 



400 



Indiana Academy of Science 



14 



12- 



10- 



'§■ 8 

Q) 

+ 6 

x 

< 4 



1 1 1 


i I 


— 


^---t~- 




/ - 


y 


i 

i 
i 




i 




^-— •-' 


_ / 


*>^^ 




• t 


/ X 


K + 


• 


— 


- / 




■ -^H 




"I 




El 
1 1 1 


1 " 



-2 



+ 



8 



time after El addition (min.) 




10 



Figure 5. Time-course of the increase in )>roton efflux (AH + ) 
and the H + /G ratio in the a}>scncc of external K+ ions. Rcac~ 
Hon conditions were as described in the legend to Figure J,b. 
After the cell susjxnsion had become anaerobic, colicin El 
(dissolved in distilled water) was added to a final concentration 
of 1 jug/ml. Oxygen pulses containing 5.5 tigm atoms O were 
given at the indicated times. Afttr the apparent H + /O ratio had 
reached a maximum, about 8 minutes after the additio)i of El, 
oxugen-frce HCl was added in a small volume to give a final 
concentration of 7.5 mM. The thin dashed line (taken from 
Figure Ua) represents tJic time course and extent observed in 
the presence of 150 mM K + . Conditions otherwise as described 
in Fig. 1. 



monitored by fluorescence probes (6). In colicin-treated cells, the time- 
course of the change in H + /0 ratio (Fig. 4a), the dependence of the 
amplitude of the H+/0 ratio on externally added monovalent cations 
(Figs. 5, 6), and the similarity of the proton pulses obtained in the 
presence of colicin El to those obtained in the presence of SCN~ 
(Fig. 3) or valinomycin plus potassium (25), imply that the larger 
H+/0 ratios measured in these colicin-treated cells results from the 
fact that the efflux of H+, which would normally generate a membrane 
electrical potential, can now be balanced by a counter flow of potassium 
or other ions. That is, the cell membrane seems to be freely permeable 
to potassium movement in either direction in the presence of colicin 
El. We know little at this time about the mechanism of this increase in 
ionic conductance across the membrane, whether it is due to (a) an 
ionic channel created by the colicin itself or (b) induced in the inner 



Microbiology and Molecular Biology 



401 



T T 

.- ' - 0.002 pH 
5 nequiv. r H 

1 



30 sec 

I H 



HVO= 1.45 



H + /0=0.59 



HV0 2.33 




no K + 



FIGURE 6. K + requirement for the increase in the rates of H + efflux, H+ influx and 
in the H + /0 ratio by eolicin El. Reaction conditions were as in Figure 5. (a) Control, 
(b) Cells were incubated for 8 minutes with 1 fig/ml eolicin El. (c) Same as b except 
7.5 mM K+ teas added prior to the oxygen pulse. Conditions otherwise as in Fig. 5. 

membrane through structural changes. While the former possibility- 
seems somewhat easier to visualize, it has been inferred from experi- 
ments with eolicin immobilized on sephadex beads that eolicin El may 
not need to move from the neighborhood of its surface receptor in 
order to exert its effects (36). In any case, the consequence of free 
potassium movement and entry of other monovalent cations is that the 
cell should no longer be able to maintain a state of charge separation 
across the inner membrane. In other words, eolicin El, in the presence 
of potassium or other monovalent cations should cause a cellular mem- 
brane potential to be dissipated [but see (41)]. 

In previous work from this laboratory dealing with the mechanism 
of action of eolicin El we have considered the nature of structural 
changes in the cell envelope (inner and outer membrane) associated with 
the primary process of membrane deenergization (37). This work has 
shown that deenergization of the cell by eolicin El, or by the uncoupler 
FCCP, causes a change in the rotational motion of the amphiphilic 
fluorescence probe ANS and the hydrophobic probe PhNap. An effective 
permeability barrier in the outer membrane to the hydrophobic probe 
is decreased upon deenergization of the envelope by eolicin El and FCCP, 
resulting in some increased binding of the probe to the cells (21). The 
increase in the binding of PhNap after eolicin treatment was first 
reported by Nivea-Gomez et al. (22) for cells treated with eolicin la. 
The time course of these structural changes for eolicin El (6) and 
eolicin la (22) is very similar to that of the earliest biochemical 
changes, and raised the question as to whether such structural changes 
caused by eolicin El could in fact be a primary event in the transmission 
of the lethal effect of this eolicin (37). This hypothesis has the con- 
ceptual problem of explaining how a single protein added to the cell 



402 Indiana Academy of Science 

envelope can cause such an extensive structural change in the cell 
envelope. Degradative enzyme activity associated with early biochemical 
events following colicin El addition has not yet been detected (38). 
Since changes in the H + /0 ratio and dissipation of the membrane poten- 
tial do occur as rapidly as the first detectable biochemical changes, it 
would seem that the structural changes and the change in the effective 
permeability barrier of the outer membrane could be an immediate con- 
sequence of the decrease in cytoplasmic membrane potential. One 
cannot specify at this time how a collapse in electrical potential 
across the inner membrane could cause immediate structural changes 
in the envelope other than to say that the local electric field density 
across the membrane is, of course, very high. There is precedent for 
electro-strictive effects on membranes (39), and it is clear from struc- 
tural studies on the E. coli envelope that there are specific connections 
between the peptido-glycan layer and outer membrane (40). 

There are a variety of other colicins which seem to have a mode of 
action similar to that of El. These include colicin K, mentioned above, 
colicin la (42), colicin A (43, 44) and possibly S8 (45). Bacteriocins 
JF246 from S. marcescens and bacteriocin 1580 acting on gram-positive 
bacteria (44) also seem to resemble El. These conclusions reached in 
this paper about the mode of action of El have been shown to apply 
to colicin K (28), and possibly apply as well to the above listed colicins 
and bacteriocins. 

Acknowledgments 

The authors would like to thank Ms. Julie Mukula and Ms. Suzanne 
Middendorf for capable technical assistance and Mrs. Mona Imler and 
Ms. Betty Gustin for typing the manuscript. Supported by NIH grant 
GM 18457 (W.A.C.) and by National Research Service Award (#1F32GM 
00913) from the National Institute of General Medical Sciences to 
JMG. 



References 

1. Jacob. F., Simonovitch, L. and Wollman, E. (1952) Ann. Inst. Pasteur 83, 295-315. 

2. Luria, S. E. (1964) Ann. Inst. Pasteur 107 (Supplement), 67. 

3. Fields, K .L. and Luria, S. E. (1969) J. Bacterid 97, 57-63. 

4. Plate, C, Suit, J. L., Jetten, A. M. and Luria, S. E. (1974) J. Biol. Chem. 249, 
6138-6143. 

5. Fields, K. L. and Luria, S. E. (1969) J. Bacteriol. 97, 64-77. 

6. Phillips, S. K. and Cramer, W. A. (1973) Biochemistry 12, 1170-1176. 

7. Reynolds, B. L. and Reeves, P. R. (1963) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Comm. 11, 140-145. 

8. Jetten, A. M. and Jetten, M. E. R. (1975) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 387, 12-22. 

9. Cramer, W. A., Postma, P. W. and Helgerson, S. L. (1976) Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 
449, 401-411. 

10. Mitchell, P. (1961) Nature 191, 144-148. 

11. Mitchell, P. (1966), Biol. Revs. 41, 445-502. 

12. Williams, R. J. P. (1961) J. Theor. Biol. 1, 1-17. 

13. Williams, R. J. P. (1969) Curr. Topics Bioenersr. 3, 79-156. 

14. Could. J. M. and Cramer, W. A. (1976). J. Biol. Chem.. in press. 



Microbiology and Molecular Biology 403 

15. Padan, E., Zilbirstein, D. and Rottenberg, H. (1976) Eur. J. Biochem. 63, 533-541. 

16. Ramos, S., Schuldiner, S. and Kaback, H. R. (1976) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., U.S.A. 
73, 1892-1896. 

17. Nomura, M. and Maeda, A. (1965) Zentralblatt fur Bakteriologie, Parasitennude, 
Infectionskrankheiten und Hygiene (Abt. I) 196, 216-239. 

18. Wendt, L. (1970) J. Bacterid. 104, 1236-1241. 

19. Feingold, D. (1970) J. Mem. Biol. 3, 372-386. 

20. Brewer, G. (1976) Biochemistry 15, 1387-1392. 

21. Helgerson, S. L. and Cramer, W. A. (1976) J. Supramolec. Struct., 5, 291-308. 

22. Nivea-Gomez, D., Konisky, J. and Gennis, R. B. (1976) Biochemistry 15, 2747-2753. 

23. Mitchell, P. and Moyle, J. (1965) Nature 208, 147-151. 

24. Mitchell, P. and Moyle, J. (1967) Biochem. J. 105, 1147-1162. 

25. West, I. and Mitchell, P. (1972) J. Bioenergetics 3, 445-462. 

26. Lawford, H. G. and Haddock, B. A. (1973) Biochem. J. 136, 217-220. 

27. Scholes, P. and Mitchell, P. (1970) J. Bioenergetics 1, 309-323. 

28. Gould, J. M., Cramer, W. A. and van Thienen, G. (1976) Biochem. Biophys. Res. 
Comm. 72, 1519-1525. 

29. Anraku, Y. (1967) J. Biol. Chem. 242, 793-800. 

30. Nagel de Zwaig, R. and Luria, S. E. (1967) J. Bacteriol. 94, 1112-1123. 

31. Schwartz, S. A. and Helinski, D. R. (1971) J. Biol. Chem. 246, 6318-6329. 

32. Liberman, E. A. and Topaly, V. P. (1968) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 163, 125-136. 

33. Hirata, H., Fukui, S. and Ishikawa, S. (1969) J. Biochem. 65, 843-847. 

34. Lang, G. and Michal, G. (1974) in Methods of Enzymatic Analysis (Bergmeyer, H. U., 
ed.) Vol. 3, pp. 1238-1242, Academic Press, New York. 

35. Passonneau, J. V. and Lowry, O. H. (1974) in Methods of Enzymatic Analysis 
(Bergmeyer, H. U., ed.) Vol. 3, pp. 1452-1456, Academic Press, New York. 

36. Lau, C. and Richards, F. M. (1976) Biochemistry 15, 666-671. 

37. Helgerson, S. L., Cramer, W. A., Harris, J. M. and Lytle, F. E. (1974) Biochemistry 
13, 3057-3061. 

38. Cramer, W. A. and Keenan, T. W. (1974) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Comm. 56, 60-67. 

39. White, S. H. (1970) Biochem. Biophys. Acta 196, 354-357. 

40. Braun, V. (1975) Biochem. Biophys. Acta 415, 335-377. 

41. Kopecky, A. L., Copeland, D. P. and Lusk, J. E. (1975) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., 
U.S.A. 72, 4631-4634. 

42. Levinsohn, R., Konisky, J. and Nomura, H. (1976) J. Bacteriol. 96, 811-821. 

43. Nagel de Zwaig, R. (1969) J. Bacteriol. 99, 913-914. 

44. Jetten, A. M. and Vogels, I. G. D. (1973) Biochem. Biophys. Acta 311, 483-495. 

45. Nagel de Zwaig, R. and Vitelli-Flores, J. (1973) FEBS Letts. 29, 318-322. 



PHYSICS 

Chairman: Robert E. Hale, Physics Department 
Huntington College, Huntington, Indiana 46750 

Chairman-Elect: Elmer Nussbaum, Physics Department 
Taylor University, Upland, Indiana 46989 

ABSTRACTS 

The Whistler Phenomenon Used as a Tornado Warning Mechanism. 

Gerald J. Shea, Indiana State University, Terre Haute, Indiana 47809. 
For over sixty years scientists have investigated the whistler phe- 
nomenon. Discovered by accident during World War I it had to wait 
until the space age for a logical explanation. It is now believed the 
Van Allen belts trap energy released by thunderstorms to produce the 
phenomenon. 

Whistlers may be detected by simple devices which can be built by 
anyone. A slightly modified audio amplifier provided with some form of 
antenna, a variable resistance coupled ground, and a recording instru- 
ment complete the apparatus. 

Tornado-producing thunderstorms have been monitored on two 
occasions in 1976, one at 4:15 A.M. on February 21 and the other at 
4:40 P.M. on March 20. 

Results seem to show that whistlers increase in number as storm 
cells intensify. To observers in the path of the storm the phenomenon 
varies as to the approach and departure of the storm cell. However, only 
storms monitored at dawn and dusk so far have produced records of 
Whistler phenomenon. It remains obvious much more research remains 
to be done in this very interesting and relatively unexplored field of 
science. 

Low Level Liquid Scintillation Spectroscopy. Gregory Peterson, De- 
partment of Physics, Indiana State University, Terre Haute, Indiana 

47809. A low level counting system is desired for alpha and beta 

emitting radionuclides solubilized in liquid scintillation fluid. A major 
problem in absolute counting of low energy radioisotopes (such as 
tritium or carbon 14) is that of energy quenching. Determination of 
quenching amounts of radioisotopes with liquid scintillation systems 
is laborious and time consuming. This paper reports on the modular 
interfacing of a liquid scintillation detecting system to a Northern ND180 
multi-channel analyzer. The data from such a system shows that low level 
beta spectroscopy with energy quenched radionuclides is practical. 

A Computer Based Comparison of Geometric and Analytical Algorithms 
for Elasticity Validity Testing of Stopping Kaon Beam Interactions with 
Free Protons in Nuclear Emulsion. P. Miller and G. P. Thomas, Ball 
State University. — —A special computer program was devised to per- 
form various operations on data collected from fifty-two suspected nega- 
tive Kaon-Proton elastic interactions in nuclear emulsion. Collision 

405 



406 Indiana Academy of Science 

fragment energies are interpolated from stored range-energy graphs. 
Then energies along with angle measurement data are used in the pro- 
gram to compute kinematical variables used in a comparison of geometric 
elasticity algorithms and more complete analytic elasticity algorithms. 

Shadow Band, Radio Frequency and Optical Observations at the 23 
October 1976 Solar Eclipse in Australia. Malcom E. Hults, Daniel A. 
Mitchell and Duane W. Warn, Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana 

47306. Visual, photographic and photoelectric experimental systems 

to detect and measure shadow bands before and after totality were set 
up near the center line of the eclipse path north of Melbourne, Australia. 
Detectors to measure the predicted increase in rf noise during totality 
were also set up as well as equipment to photograph the corona of 
the sun. 

Results are presented and compared with previous results from 
eclipses in 1966, 1970, 1972, and 1973. 



PLANT TAXONOMY 

Chairman: Orland J. Blanchard, Department of Biology 
Earlham College, Richmond, Indiana 47374 

Chairman-Elect: Victor Riemanschneider, Department of Biology 
Indiana University-South Bend, South Bend, Indiana 46614 

Pollination Biology of the Blue Mahoe, Hibiscus elatus Swartz (Mal- 
vaceae), in Jamaica. Andreas R. Richter and Orland J. Blanchard, 
Jr., Department of Biology, Earlham College, Richmond, Indiana 47374. 

No detailed description of the pollination biology of Hibiscus elatus 

Swartz is known from the literature. In this study it was found that 
in H. elatus 1) flowers open just before sunset, 2) nectar flow is highest 
before 2000 hr., and ends by mid-morning the next day, 3) nectar sugar 
concentration levels drop from 12% at sunset to 5% at sunrise during 
the first night, 4) pollinated as well as unpollinated flowers are open 
for two days before dropping, but produce no nectar the second night 
or day, and 5) Monophyllus redmani (Chiroptera) is the effective polli- 
nating agent. The original range of H. elatus in Jamaica and Cuba is 
wholly within the range of M. redmani. 

The closely related Hibiscus tiliaceus Linnaeus, considered conspe- 
cific with H. elatus by some authors, is pollinated by insects (ento- 
mophily). The difference in pollination biology between H. elatus and 
H. tiliaceus may help to solve the taxonomic question of whether they 
are separate species or not. Moreover the few suspected cases of hybridi- 
zation between the two Hibiscus may now be considered accidental, and 
not a regular occurrence. 

Computerized Comparison of Parts of Fifty Herbaria. Theodore J. 
Crovello, Biology Department, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, 

Indiana 46556. A valuable byproduct of the use of computers in a 

monographic study of Cardamine (including Dentaria) and Streptanthus 
(Brassicaceae) is information about the collections of the more than 
fifty herbaria and museums from which 45,000 specimens were borrowed. 
At least for these genera, involving close to 100 species, accurate 
estimates of their representation in herbaria now can be made. These 
genera were particularly suitable for such an analysis because they 
include both widespread species and very confined endemics; because 
they include xeric and mesic taxa; and because they include weeds and 
nonweeds. Questions of particular interest that are now answered 
include: How regional are the holdings of a given herbarium? If I 
study specimens from the largest five or ten herbaria, how many 
additional county records, over time, will I find by studying the next 
largest five or ten ? This study is believed to be the first large mono- 
graph to capture data from many herbaria by computer. 

Cytology, Hybridization and Evolution in Kosteletzkya (Malvaceae). 

Orland J. Blanchard Jr., Department of Biology, Earlham College, 
Richmond, Indiana 47374. Kosteletzkya is a genus of about fourteen 

407 



408 Indiana Academy of Science 

species centered mainly in Africa and the circum-Caribbean region. 
Seven species, K. buettneri and K. adoensis from Africa, and K. virgin- 
ica, K. paniculata, K. pentasperma, K. coulteri and K. sp. nov. from the 
New World, have been grown in the greenhouse. All have haploid 
chromosome numbers of n = 19. Experimental cross pollinations have 
produced fifteen of the 21 possible hybrid combinations among these 
seven species. Pollen stainability and fertility of hybrids suggest a strong 
affinity among the New World species and a less strong an affinity 
of these species with the African K. buettneri. The two African species 
fail to cross with one another, and K. adoensis only crosses with K. 
pentasperma. All New World hybrids show nearly normal meiotic meta- 
phase I (average number of bivalents is 18.2-19.0), and all crosses 
with K. buettneri likewise have near normal meiosis (18.9-19.0). The 
K. adoensis-K. pentasperma hybrid, on the other hand, shows very poor 
pairing (1.1 bivalents). The existence of two clearly differentiated 
genomes in Africa, one of which is shared with the New World species, 
suggests that the African species have experienced a longer evolution- 
ary history. This interpretation is supported by the fact that these and 
other major African species are largely sympatric while the New World 
ones are almost entirely allopatric. 

Changes in Indiana's Vascular Flora Since 1940. Clifton Keller, 
University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556, and Andrews 
University, Berrien Springs, Michigan 49104. Charles Deam sum- 
marized the known distribution of each of the 2243 vascular plant 
species in his 1940 Flora of Indiana. Since then, 8000 new county 
records have been added. Deam's data base was compared with the addi- 
tions. It appears that: 1) the new records conform to previously estab- 
lished floristic patterns; 2) collection intensity over the state has not 
been uniform; 3) a considerable amount of collection still needs to be 
done in Indiana if administrators are to make intelligent environmental 
decisions. Mark sense cards designed to accumulate information from 
herbarium specimens or from personal collections were described. These 
would provide an economical way to bring new specimens of potential 
importance to the attention of the scientific community. 



A New Leaf Mutation in Black Walnut Qunglans nigra L.) 

Stephen G. Pennington, State Tree Improvement Forester 
Indiana Division of Forestry, Vallonia, Indiana 47281 

Walter F. Beineke, Department of Forestry and Natural Resources 
Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 

Abstract 

A new leaf mutation in black walnut (Juglans nigra L.) has been discovered. The 
new form has a large, round terminal leaflet with 2-4 very small lateral leaflets. Seedlings 
with the new form were produced by one parent tree and 19 percent of the seedlings 
from that tree have the peculiar form. The remainder of seedlings from that parent have 
normal leaves. 

The cause is suspected to be a single-gene recessive mutation. Studies are planned to 
determine the exact genetic cause. 

A new mutation in black walnut (Junglans nigra L.) has been found 
(Fig. 1). The new form is unique, has not been reported before, and 
differs from the normal black walnut in the following characteristics: 

1. The new leaf form has a large round terminal leaflet (approxi- 
mately 7.0 cm diameter) with an indented apex and 2, 3, or 4 very small 
lateral leaflets (approximately 2.5 x 2.0 cm) (Fig. 2). The normal black 
walnut leaf has 9-23 lanceolate leaflets approximately 10 cm x 4 cm. 

2. Total leaf length of the new type was approximately 12.5 cm 
while the normal is approximately 50 cm (Fig. 2). 




Figure 1. Mutated leaves of black walnut in the nursery bed at Vallonia State Tree 

Nursery. 

409 



410 



Indiana Academy of Science 



3. In some mutated leaves the first lateral leaflet is fused to the 
terminal leaflet giving a lobed appearance. 

4. The buds of the mutant were smaller and more rounded than a 
typical bud. This is probably due to the small leaf size of the new type. 

5. First year height of the mutated seedlings averaged 27.4 percent 
taller than normal seedlings in the same family (seed collected from one 
parent tree) (Table 1). However, when compared to seedlings from 
the other sources, this family was shorter than average. Thus, even 
the taller mutated seedlings were not superior in growth to other sources. 

6. The mutated seedlings appeared to be very susceptible to anthrac- 
nose {Gnomonia leptostyla Fr.) which caused defoliation to begin in 
mid-August. Seedlings were essentially leafless by September 7, 1976. 

The only similar mutations reported in the literature involved 
California black walnut (Juglans calif omica S. Wats.) and Hinds 
walnut (Junglans hindsii Jeps.) (1). Researchers have no reports of 
similar mutations in Junglans nigra. 1 

This mutation was found in the course of the annual progeny test- 
ing phase of the genetic improvement program for black walnut con- 
ducted by the Indiana Division of Forestry and Purdue University. 
Progeny tests annually consist of 1000 to 4000 seedlings from approxi- 
mately 80 different parent trees. The tests are planted in a randomized 
complete block design using five replications. The mutated seedlings 
were observed in the 1976 progeny test in the nursery beds. Nineteen 




Figure 2. Mutated leaves on the left versus a normal leaf from a seedling in the same 

family on the right. 



Personal communication — Dr. David Funk, U.S. Forest Service, Carbondale, Illinois 



62901. 



Plant Taxonomy 



411 



Table 1. Height growth of mutated vs. normal black walnut seedlings in family H3. 











Height Increase 




Mean Height 




Mean Height 


of Mutated 




Normal Seedlings 


M 


utaterl Seedlings 


Over Normal 


Block 


(em) 




(cm) 


(%) 


1 


24.9 




28.5 


14.5 


2 


23.6 




35.2 


49.2 


3 


26.0 




32.3 


24.2 


4 


26.7 




33.7 


26.2 


5 


22.9 




28.3 


23.6 


Mean 


24.8 




31.6 


27.4 



percent of the seedlings from a single family showed the new leaf trait 
(Table 2). The remainer of the seedlings from that family were normal. 

Speculation as to the genetic origin of the new type has centered 
on a single gene recessive trait in the parent tree. Two possible explana- 
tions for the ratio of mutated to normal plants have been considered: 

1) The mutated seedlings could be the result of self-pollination in the 
heterozygous parent tree. Black walnut is known to self pollinate pro- 
vided weather conditions are favorable and dichogamy is lacking (2). 

2) Another tree in the vicinity of the parent tree may also be hetero- 
zygous for the mutation (sib or progeny) and has cross pollinated 
to produce the nearly 3:1 ratio. 

Inspection of the parent tree and neighboring trees in northern 
Indiana, and grafts from the parent tree in the clone banks at Purdue 
University-Martell Forest show no indications of the mutation (3). 

This discovery may prove to be extremely important in the breed- 
ing of black walnut in that for some studies a "marker gene" is required. 
This mutation is readily identifiable, occurs in one-year-old seedlings, 
and unlike most chlorophyll deficiencies is not fatal, thus making it an 
ideal marker gene in selfing, and controlled pollination studies. 

Future tests to define the real genetic causes include grafting of 
scions to mature walnut trees for future controlled pollination studies, 
seed collection from trees in the vicinity of the parent tree, and observa- 
tion of flowering times in the parent and surrounding walnut trees. 



Table 2. Occurrence of leaf mutations in family 1U3 in a black walnut progeny test. 





Seed 


Total 


Mutated 


Mutated 






Planted 


Seedlings 


Seedlings 


Seedlings 


Germination 


Block 


(No.) 


(No.) 


(No.) 


(%) 


(%) 


1 


40 


23 


4 


17 


58 


. 2 


40 


34 


7 


21 


85 


3 


40 


11 


4 


36 


28 


4 


40 


29 


3 


10 


73 


5 


40 


31 


6 


19 


78 


Mean 












& 












Totals 


200 


128 


24 


19 


64 



412 Indiana Academy of Science 

Literature Cited 

1. Babcock, E. B. 1915. A new walnut. Journal of Heredity. 6:40-45. 

2. Beineke, W. F. 1972. Recent changes in the population structure of black walnut. 8th 
Central States Forest Tree Improvement Conference, Columbia, MO. pp. 43-45. 

3. Beineke, W. F. 1974. Inheritance of several traits in black walnut clones. Purdue 
Univ. Agric. Exp. Sta., Station Bulletin No. 38. 12 pp. 



SCIENCE EDUCATION 

Chairman: Harold H. Jaus, Department of Education 
Purdue University, Lafayette, Indiana 47907 

Chairman-Elect: Jon R. Hendrix, Department of Biology 
Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana 47306 

ABSTRACTS 

Myths about Human Inheritance That Are Perpetuated in the Biology 
Classroom Laboratory. Thomas R. Mertens and Patricia S. Barnes, 

Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana 47306. Twenty-six selected 

introductory biology and genetics laboratory manuals were examined and 
were found to include 57 human "inherited" traits as examples for 
classroom study. Forty-three of these 57 traits are included in McKusick's 
catalog of human inherited characteristics, Mendelian Inheritance in 
Man (1975). Of these 43 traits, 26 are annotated to indicate that their 
modes of inheritance are well documented, while 17 traits are not so 
annotated, suggesting uncertain mechanisms of inheritance. Fourteen 
of the 57 traits are not found in McKusick's catalog, implying that 
they may not be inherited traits or that their modes of inheritance may 
be polygenic. 

Current literature also suggests that certain traits included in the 
McKusick catalog may not, in fact, have a genetic basis. Notable 
examples of such questionable traits are handedness, hand clasping, and 
tongue rolling. 

Clearly, a need exists for reliable morphological and easily detected 
biochemical human genetic traits for use in classroom instruction. 
Authors preparing instructional manuals for introductory classroom 
laboratory studies should carefully select the traits with which they 
illustrate human inheritance. A first requisite for selection must be 
conclusive evidence that the trait does, indeed, have an established 
genetic basis. 

Changing Elementary Teachers' Attitudes toward Environmental Edu- 
cation. Harold H. Jaus, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 

47907. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effects 

of environmental education instruction on the attitudes of inservice ele- 
mentary teachers toward environmental education. Two groups of ele- 
mentary teachers were randomly assigned to two graduate level science 
methods classes. Both groups were provided the same science methods 
instruction via self-instructional handouts. Upon completion of this 
instruction, the experimental group (n = 26) received content and 
methodology training in environmental education. The topics covered in 
this environmental education instruction included: ecology, pollution, 
overpopulation, resource allocation and depletion, conservation, and 
urban and rural planning. The control group (n = 25) did not receive 
this environmental education instruction, but carried out activities from 
the various national science curricula. 

Following treatment, both groups were given an instrument designed 
to measure their attitudes toward teaching environmental education 

413 



414 Indiana Academy of Science 

in the elementary classroom. This attitude measure consisted of 30 state- 
ments which the subjects responded to on a Likert-type scale consisting 
of five categories. The reliability of the measure was determined on a 
test-retest basis using a group of teachers not involved in the study. 
The resultant reliability value was .86. 

A t-test for independent samples was used to analyze the scores 
of the attitude measure. The mean score difference between the two 
groups was 40.16. The resultant t-value of 9.25 with 49 degrees of 
freedom was significant at the .001 level. 

Based on the results of this study, it would appear that elementary 
teachers who have received instruction in environmental education 
have significantly more positive attitudes toward teaching environmental 
education in their classrooms than teachers who have not received this 
instruction. 

A Survey of Bioethics Courses in United States Colleges and Universi- 
ties. Jon R. Hendrix, Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana 47306. 

In order to facilitate the development of a meaningful bioethics course 
for Ball State University students, a survey instrument designed to 
ascertain the nature and number of bioethics courses currently taught 
in major United States universities and colleges was developed and 
sent to 360 colleges and/ or universities. The 197U-75 Educational Direc- 
tory of Higher Education was used to identify every college and univer- 
sity in the United States that had an enrollment of 5,000 or more stu- 
dents and offered a minimum of a baccalaureate degree. Two hundred 
twenty-three returns (62%) were received and tallied. The data col- 
lected in this survey indicate that 26% of 223 responding colleges or 
universities have a bioethics course. The biology department most fre- 
quently houses the bioethics course; however, many other disciplinary 
as well as interdisciplinary departments also house the course. Medical- 
paramedical students are the most frequent majors taking bioethics 
courses in 36% of the reporting institutions; they are closely followed 
by humanities majors, 26% of the reporting institutions and non- 
teaching biology majors, 26% of the reporting institutions. Few, 9%, 
of the institutions reported that bioethics courses consisted largely 
of biology teaching majors. The teachers of bioethics courses most 
frequently have either a bioethics or ethics/philosophy background. A 
variety of teaching methodologies is used in bioethics courses. The 
most frequently employed methods were lecture and readings with 
reports. Consensus was reached on three major goals of bioethics 
courses; however, no consensus was noted on the curricular materials 
used to teach a bioethics course. 

Increasing High School Biology Achievement by Differentially Sequenced 
Instructional Materials. Claudia B. Douglass, Central Michigan Uni- 
versity, Mount Pleasant, Michigan 48859. The primary purpose of 

this research was to identify a possible interaction between the cognitive 
style of the students and the instructional sequence of the materials. 

The students were ranked and classified according to cognitive style 
on the basis of their performance on the Group Embedded Figures 



Science Education 415 

Test. They were then assigned to one of three treatment groups. Two 
treatment groups were experimental groups following carefully se- 
quenced sets of biology materials on the topics of genetics and prob- 
ability; while the third group served as a control group following a set 
of related units. The instructional materials for all students were of 
an audio-tutorial, self-paced, mastery format. A comprehensive post- 
test measured achievement, and a measure of general intelligence was 
obtained for all students to be used as a covariant. This pretest-posttest 
control group design was conducted in the biology classes of six mid- 
western high schools. 

Two levels of cognitive style (field-dependence and field-inde- 
pendence) and three levels of instructional materials (deductive, in- 
ductive, and control) were combined factorially in a 2x3 design. De- 
scriptive statistics and correlation coefficients were calculated to provide 
an overview of the data. Two-way analysis of variance and covariance 
were performed to investigate all possible main effects and interac- 
tions. A stepwise multiple regression was performed to determine the 
predictive powers of IQ and field-dependence-independence on the de- 
pendent measure of genetics and probability achievement. 

The major conclusion of the study was the cognitive style and in- 
structional sequence interacted in such a way that the field-independent 
subjects experienced a higher level of achievement with inductively- 
sequenced materials and the field-dependent subjects experienced a 
higher level of success with deductively-sequenced materials. 

Contractual Learning: A Viable Approach to Education in the Sciences. 

George A. Asteriadis, Purdue University-North Central Campus, West- 

ville, Indiana 46391. The traditional role of the educator has been 

that of an authoritarian who dictates to, rather than guides, his stu- 
dents. I believe an educator can better serve his students by adopting 
the role of a facilitator. A climate of mutual respect and trust should be 
established allowing both the student and educator to accept their re- 
spective responsibilities in the educational process. The student should be 
given the responsibility to develop and complete his educational goals and 
objectives, and thus the opportunity to achieve a personally meaningful 
education. The educator should attempt to understand and accept his 
students, become a flexible resource willing to share his views rather 
than dictating his opinions, and assume the role of a co-learner. 

When an educator adopts the role of a facilitator, then considera- 
tion of the concepts of individualization within the learning process 
becomes necessary. I have chosen the concept of contractual learning 
as a means of individualization. This educational alternative requires 
the student to develop a three part contract which contains: 

(1) his learning goal(s) — a statement of the overall learning expe- 
rience^) to be obtained from the course, 

(2) his learning objectives — a statement of how the student is to 
accomplish his goal(s) (specific activities, types of resources 
to be used, etc.), and 

(3) the criteria and procedures to be used in evaluating the level 
of performance on each objective must be specified. 



416 Indiana Academy of Science 

This alternative can be used in situations where you want to facili- 
tate students' total freedom in the learning process (e.g., elective courses, 
seminars) or, be somewhat modified for use in required courses where 
exams are considered necessary by the instructor. 

Seminar Procedures for High School Advanced Biology Classes. Patricia 

Zeck, Northwestern High School, Kokomo, Indiana 46901. As a 

bridge between ecology and genetics units in her advanced biology 
classes, the author invited her students to participate in any subdivi- 
sional topic of ecology and genetics. Each group of 3-6 students plans 
over 2-3 weeks a seminar to last 2 or 3 days. Library research, group 
conferences, ordering supplies, and inviting speakers are preliminary 
tasks. Sample seminar activities are field trips, skits, dances, guest 
speakers, movies, video tapes, songs, games, and worksheet handouts. 
After all groups are done, oral and written evaluations are made by 
the students. Teacher evaluation is based on knowledge of subject, 
variety of media used, preliminary agenda, originality, time budget, 
overall effectiveness, and amenities. 

The Basics of Elementary School Science. H. Marvin Bratt, The Ohio 

State University, Marion, Ohio 43302. In October, 1974, Newsweek 

magazine carried a rather incisive article which compared two schools 
in Pasadena, California. The title of the article was "Back to Basics 
in the Schools." Since then, all one hears at school board meetings, 
teachers' meetings and the P.T.A. is "Let's get back to basics." The 
first question one might ask is "What are the basics?" 

In this paper I should like to describe what might be called "the 
basics" for children of elementary school age in terms of science edu- 
cation. An examination of the basics should include some discussion 
of the content of science, the process or method of science, and certain 
skills which should be developed in young children as they prepare for 
additional educational experiences and for life itself. 

Some educators behind the back to basics movement feel that read- 
ing, writing, and arithmetic should be the only subjects taught in the 
elementary school. I believe that if the truth were known, schools are 
spending more money on these three subjects than anything else except 
law enforcement and school busses. The suggestion is, therefore, that we 
not forget what we have learned during the past several years, but re- 
view it thoroughly. In addition, it would help if students would learn 
basic thinking skills which seem to be lacking upon graduation from 
school. 

How to Individualize Your Science Class by Developing Folder Carrels. 

Stanley S. Shimer, Indiana State University, Terre Haute, Indiana 

47809. A folder carrel is an activity, skill or game that can be put 

into a manila folder so that the student can read the directions for 
performing the tasks, checking his answers, returning carrel to its 
original condition and place, and completing follow-up assignments. The 
advantage of the folder carrels is that they provide immediate feed- 
back to students, can be interesting and fun, and are easy to store 
when space is at a premium. 



Science Education 417 

The proposed items and procedures have evolved over the past 
seven years as a result of working' with university students and in- 
service teachers as they developed carrels for their classes. For stu- 
dent use the four indicated items are all that are needed. However, 
when a teacher plans a folder carrel or when a fellow teacher wishes 
to use or duplicate a carrel, additional information is required. Before 
developing and/or duplicating folder carrels, the teacher must make 
decisions regarding the subject area (life, physical or earth); classifica- 
tion (skill, activity or game); grade level range; concept or perform- 
ance objective; specific outcomes expected; title; materials needed; pro- 
cedures; and sources. 

Creative teachers can select materials for the folder carrels that 
are attractive and challenging; thus, folder carrels are excellent self- 
contained teaching aids. 

Helping to Conceptualize Large Numbers. Frederick K. Ault, Ball State 

University, Muncie, Indiana 47306. Using numbers for describing 

chemical phenomena is an extremely frustrating experience for many 
students taking introductory chemistry courses. Numbers such as the 
mole (6.02 x 10 23 ), Planck's constant (6.6 x 10~ 27 erg»sec), and the 
speed of light (3 x 10 10 cm/sec) are typical of numbers used in 
chemical communication. These numbers represent quantities well beyond 
our experience and consequently are highly abstract. These numbers 
become more abstract when used in conjunction with other measurement 
units. 

Appropriate analogies with demonstrations have been used effec- 
tively in the classroom for treating chemical concepts involving numeri- 
cal components. A demonstration involving an analogy for treating 
the mole concept was presented. Other analogies were suggested. 

Farm Equipment Use Costs. James Mitchell Smith, New Castle Area 

Vocational School, New Castle, Indiana 47362. To establish significant 

figures for several farm operations, this writer developed work sheets 
which are used with "Purdue University Bulletin EC-130 (Rev) Indiana 
Custom Rates for power operated farm machines 1974." 

Adult men, all military veterans, take part in vocational classes 
in agriculture in this Vocational School. The educational background 
of these men vary and projects relating to them must give immediate 
results which are easily understood. 

Class discussion of each phase of the operation was encouraged. 
Several men developed the project on the basis of least cost, others 
determined time needed for each operation as well as cost. Several men 
questioned older practices with numerous trips across a field and use 
of many different kinds of equipment. As a result of these sheets, 
students examined the estimated cost of crop production relation to 
return from the crop. 

The sheets can be used in their present form for any part of 
Indiana. The sheets together with EC-130 (Rev) may serve as a format 
for expansion of other existing bulletins and existing resource material 
and their adaption for specific uses. 



SOIL AND ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES 

Chairman: Harry M. Galloway, Department of Agronomy 
Purdue University, Lafayette, Indiana 47907 

Chairman-Elect: Lawrence A. Schaal, Department of Agronomy 
Purdue University, Lafayette, Indiana 47907 

ABSTRACTS 

An Agroclimatological Grid System: A Preliminary Report. J. M. Davis, 

Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 47401. Significant advances 

have been made in modeling the physiological aspects of plant growth 
and the plant's microclimatological environment. To make operational 
use of these models on a day-to-day areal basis, microclimatological 
data must be collected and processed more efficiently. To that end, this 
paper describes the establishment of an 800-point agroclimatological 
grid data system for the southeastern United States. Grid point data 
consists of two main types: that data which is collected each day (e.g., 
air and soil temperatures, rainfall, soil moisture, etc.) and data that 
generally remains constant over time (e.g., grid point climatological 
data, soil horizon data, "major crop" grid data, etc.). A 3-D grid array 
is needed for some data sets. The grid is resolved by means of a varia- 
tional analysis method. Analysis of the observed rainfall and tempera- 
ture data is compared with the analysis of the grid data generated by 
the variational analysis procedure. Flow charts are provided which 
show how a complete system of plant models, microclimatological models, 
and grid data could be organized for efficient operational use. Consid- 
eration is also given to problems associated with areally sparse data. 

Regionalizing Purdue's Soil Testing Procedures. Russell K. Stivers, 
Department of Agronomy, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 

47907. Recommended chemical soil testing procedures for phosphorus 

and for potassium for the North Central Region were compared to 
Purdue procedures for these plant nutrients. Soils were weighed rather 
than scooped in all experiments. In two experiments, each with six 
different soils and three replications per soil, there were no significant 
(probability < .05) differences in phosphorus test values between the 
Purdue procedure for Bray-1 phosphorus and the Regional procedure, 
both of which used aminonaphthol-sulfonic acid, sodium sufite, and sodium 
pyrosulfite in the reducing agent to develop the ammonium phospho- 
molybdate blue color. The main differences were in volumes and con- 
centrations of reagents used in color development, resulting in differ- 
ent standard curves for percent light transmittance (660nm) versus 
concentration of phosphorus. The neutral normal ammonium acetate pro- 
cedures used both by Purdue and by the Region to extract soil potassium 
differed from each other in (a) soil to extracting solution ratio, (b) 
in length of shaking time, and (c) in type of extraction vessel. These 
differences were made the basis for four treatments each with three 
replications in two different experiments, one with six soils and one 

419 



420 Indiana Academy of Science 

with eight other soils. These treatments resulted in significantly differ- 
ent soil test values for potassium with only one of the six silt loam or 
heavier soils, in none of the four sands or loams, and in three of the 
four organic soils. 

Have the Mississinewa and Salamonie Reservoirs Changed the Climate 
at Marion and Huntington, Indiana? Robert F. Dale and Patrick R. 

Clare, Department of Agronomy, Purdue University, West Lafayette, 
Indiana 47907. The effect of the Mississinewa and Salamonie reser- 
voirs on modifying air temperatures at Huntington and Marion, Indiana, 
is small. Since these mesoclimatic anomalies are likely to be smaller than 
those induced by any changes in weather station location, instruments, 
or time of observation, it is mandatory that only homogeneous station 
records be used to identify reservoir effects. Under prevailing south- 
westerly flow, there is some evidence that the August daily mean 
maximum temperatures at Huntington, 13 km "downwind" from the 
Salamonie Reservoir, were decreased about 0.5 °F by the reservoirs. Two 
techniques were used to investigate the temperature change, and recom- 
mendations are made for future work. 

Soil Aggregates (> 210 ix) Transported in Runoff from Northeastern 
Indiana Cropland. S. A. Schroeder, J. V. Mannering, C. B. Johnson, 

Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47401. To determine 

the percentage of soil loss as aggregates larger than 210 microns, 
samples of runoff were taken throughout three simulated rainfall tests 
on four soil types. The soils used were level Hoytville silty clay loam, 
Nappanee loam, and Haskins loam and gently sloping Morley loam. 
Work was conducted in the Black Creek Study Area of the Maumee 
basin in Allen County, Indiana. 

Values ranged from approximately 3% to 29% depending upon the 
treatment and soil under consideration. It was concluded that the low 
velocity of runoff was the limiting factor in the transport of aggre- 
gates larger than 210 microns on the three soils with level (< 2%) 
slopes. On the Morley soil (4% slope) the factor limiting soil loss in 
aggregate form appeared to be the poor structure of the soil in situ. 

Therefore, these results indicated that effective measures for reduc- 
ing erosion of aggregates larger than 210 microns on nearly level 
slopes must be based on prevention of detachment and dispersion of 
naturally-occurring aggregates by raindrop impact rather than on con- 
trol measures designed to reduce runoff velocity. 

Additional key words: erosion, aggregates. 

Use of LANDSAT Imagery as a Base Map for Making a General Soils 
Map. Karl H. Langlois, Jr., United States Department of Agriculture, 
Soil Conservation Service, Monticello, Indiana 47960, Larry C. Oster- 
holz, Indiana Department of Natural Resources, Monticello, Indiana 
47960 and Frank R. Kirschner, Laboratory for Applications of Remote 

Sensing, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907. General 

soil maps provide important resource data for a wide range of uses. 
Previously, detailed soil maps were used with a county road map as a 



Soil and Atmospheric Sciences 421 

base map to develop a general soil map. In White County, Indiana, 
LANDSAT imagery was used as a base map. LANDSAT imagery 
shows, in color, many patterns that depict soil landscape units. A major 
benefit of LANDSAT imagery is that it permits an evaluation of the 
soil landscape independent of the soil maps. Use of LANDSAT imagery 
also improves the accuracy of placing boundaries on a general soil 
map, and the ease in which it is made. 

Mapping Unit Composition as Denned by Digital Analyses of LANDSAT 
Multispectral Data. Frank R. Kirschner, Sue A. Kaminsky, and 
Donna K. Scholz, Laboratory for Applications of Remote Sensing, 

Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47906. Multispectral data 

obtained from LANDSAT and analyzed by digital computer was used 
to develop a classification (soils map) of a four-square-mile area of 
Clinton County, Indiana. Using spectral data, three distinctly different 
soil mapping units were investigated to determine the nature and 
extent of the inclusions in each. Fifteen spectrally different patterns 
were recognized based on their spectral response statistics. These spec- 
tral classes were placed into four soil groups and one vegetative group 
based upon the magnitude of their reflectance and the ratio between 
the visible and near infrared reflectance. The four soils groups can be 
related to four distinct soil drainage classes. These classes were used 
to characterize the inclusions within the mapping units. Results indicate 
that the composition of the soil mapping units can be quantified and 
characterized using multispectral digital data. 



Inventory of a Nature Preserve Area in Lake County, Indiana 
Using Satellite MSS Data* 

S. J. Kristof, F. R. Kirschner, R. A. Weismiller, and S. A. Kaminsky2 
Laboratory for Applications of Remote Sensing, Purdue University 

Abstract 

Computer-aided techniques were used to classify Landsat data in order to distinguish 
terrestrial features within the Hoosier Prairie tract near the city of Griffith, Lake 
County, Indiana. Data within the study area were divided into distinct spectral classes 
by a clustering procedure. A statistics algorithm was ussd to compute the mean and 
covariance for each cluster class. Terrestrial ecosystems were classified using a maximum 
likelihood algorithm. The output consisted of a spectral map with each class represented 
by a different alphanumeric symbol. The descriptions of the spectral classes were based 
upon their mean vector ratios and data collected at the ground site. 

Computer-aided analysis of Landsat data was successful in distinguishing eight 
informational classes within the highly complex plant regime of the Hoosier Prairie 
Nature Preserve Area. 

Introduction 

The objective of this research was to investigate the application 
of computer-implemented analysis (2, 5) of Landsat data to recognize 
major vegetative cover and important physiognomic characteristics of 
species in a 121 hectare area of Lake County, Indiana. This area is 
characterized by a mixture of wetland prairie, dry prairie and oak 
savannas with over 300 different plant species (4). 

Description of the Area 

The study area, known as the Hoosier Prairie Nature Preserve, is 
a part of the remaining prairie in the northwestern part of Lake 
County, Indiana. It is situated in the former glacial Lake Chicago and 
the soil parent materials are primarily glacial till, lacustrine deposits, 
beach sands and gravels. Most of the soils are poorly drained with a 
relatively high water table such as Maumee fine sand or moderately 
well drained such as Brems fine sand. There are also some excessively 
drained soils such as the Plainfield fine sand with to 6 slopes. 

Data Analysis Procedure 

September 7, 1975 Landsat multispectral scanner (MSS) data ob- 
tained over the Hoosier Prairie tract located in the Griffith-Highland- 
Schererville area was used for analysis. 

A nonsupervised clustering algorithm was used to analyze and 
group individual remote sensing units or pixels into clusters of similar 



1 This work was supported by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 
Office of University Affairs under Grant No. NGL 15-005-186. Purdue University, Agri- 
cultural Experiment Station, Journal Paper No. 6573. 

2 Research Agronomist, Agronomy Department; Soil Scientist, USDA/Soil Conserva- 
tion Service; Research Agronomist, Agronomy Department; Graduate Student, Agronomy 
Department, respectively. Purdue University /Laboratory for Applications of Remote 
Sensing. 

422 



Soil and Atmospheric Sciences 423 

spectral response. Although the Hoosier Prairie tract consists of only 
121 hectares, a much larger area, 2172 hectares, was used for clustering 
to increase the spectral contrast so as to represent adequately all of the 
spectrally distinct features in the Hoosier Prairie tract. A statistics 
processor calculated the mean vector and covariance matrices for each 
cluster class in each of four wavelength bands. Using the statistics devel- 
oped, a nonsupervised maximum likelihood classification algorithm was 
used to classify the area into 17 spectrally separable classes. Cover 
types were identified using a mean vector ratioing technique. This is a 
heuristic ratio: 

IR 

where V is the relative intensity of the visible wavelengths [(0.5 to 
0.6/xm) + (0.6 to 0.7/xm)] and IR is the relative intensity of the 
reflective infrared wavelengths [(0.7 to 0.8/Am) -f (0.8 to l.l/*m)]. 
By summing the relative intensity values of all four bands the 
magnitude of relative spectral responses can be obtained as shown in 
the following equation: 

Summed response = (0.50 to 0.60/*m) + (0.60 to 0.70/mi) + 
(0.70 to 0.80^m) + (0.80 to 1.10/*m). 
By observing the ratio A and the summed response, the analyst 
delineated major vegetation and land use categories within the Hoosier 
Prairie tract. Topographic, soil survey and geologic maps, aerial 
photography and limited ground observations also aided in determining 
the associations existing between spectral classes and ground features. 

A hierarchical land use classification scheme similar to that developed 
by the U.S. Geological Survey (1) was followed (Table 1). Two broad 

Table 1. Classification Hierarchy 

Level I Level II Level III Level IV 




^__^— -Old residential with trees of high density 
^^^- — Old residential with trees of low density 
Residential ^-____^ New resldential wlth yourlg trees 

**"~ New residential 



Grasses of well drained areas 
Grasses of poorly drained areas 



Hoosier Prairie Mixed 



Cattails/herbs 
Woody /herbs 



Brush 

Scattered trees 
Dense trees 



-Residential 

Industrial 

Transportation 
■ Borrow Pits 



Table 1. Classification Hierarchy. 



424 Indiana Academy of Science 

Level I categories, vegetated and nonvegetated, were separated solely 
on the basis of their spectral responses. The mean vector ratios of the 
vegetated and non-vegetated areas were 1.00 or less and 1.10 to 1.30, 
respectively. The mean vector ratio statistics in conjunction with con- 
ventional photointerpretation of aerial photography were used to de- 
termine the Level II categories. At this stage the vegetated category 
was divided into vegetated residential, open land and Hoosier Prairie 
while the non-vegetated category was split into non-vegetated resi- 
dential, industrial, and borrow pits. 

Ground observations were used to further differentiate the Hoosier 
Prairie area into the Level III land cover categories of (a) herbaceous, 
(b) mixed herbaceous with woody plants and (c) woods and Level IV 
categories of (a) grasses on well drained areas, (b) grasses on poorly 
drained areas, (c) marsh-cattails and herbs, (d) marsh-shrubs and 
herbs, (e) brush, (f) scattered trees, (g) dense trees and (h) other. 

Results and Discussion 

The main effort of this study involved an assessment of the utility 
of the Landsat data to detect, identify, locate and measure features of 
the area of approximately 121 hectares known as the Hoosier Prairie 
Nature Preserve which has remained relatively undisturbed. Because 
of the complexity of the location and in order to obtain greater spectral 
contrast within the area the investigation was expanded to include 
the metropolitan area of Griffith and open land to the north and 
cultivated land to the west of the Hoosier Prairie. 

Within the entire study area two broad classes, vegetated and 
non-vegetated, were classified, their identification based upon their 
mean vector ratios. Non-vegetated terrestrial features exhibited 
high ratios due to high responses in the visible and much lower re- 
sponses in the reflective infrared portion of the spectrum. Green vege- 
tation exhibited lower ratio values due to high responses in the re- 
flective infrared and low responses in the visible region of the spectrum. 

Since the vegetative cover of the Hoosier Prairie represents a 
highly complex regime of native herbaceous, annual and perennial plants 
situated in colonies many times smaller than 0.5 hectare, the spectral 
resolution of Landsat, it is readily apparent that it would not be pos- 
sible to delineate individual plant species using Landsat data. However, 
it was possible to classify the Hoosier Prairie area into 9 spectrally 
separable classes (Figure 1). These classes were separable due to 
differences in the type of vegetative cover, the density of vegetation 
and the wetness in the terrestrial ecosystems. By comparing the 
spectral classification to aerial photographs and field observations 
these nine spectral classes were interpreted to represent eight in- 
formational classes (Table 2). Figure 2 shows the relative spectral 
responses of the seven vegetative covers identified within the Hoosier 
Prairie tract. As the density of the vegetation increases (i.e., scattered 
trees vs. dense trees) the ratios decrease in value. Also it can be shown 
that vegetation on wet terrestrial ecosystems exhibit lower relative 
magnitude values than vegetation on dry ecosystems. 



Soil and Atmospheric Sciences 



425 



1 11 1 1 t 1 1 1 1 1 l 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 U 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 l 1 1 1 1 1 1 II ". 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 l 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 l 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 

66666666677777777778S88fl8888R9)999999990OOO000000llllllllll222222222233333?33334444444444 
12 34 5 6 7890 12 345673 90 12 34 5678901 2 34 56739012345678 90 12345673901234 C -6789C 1234567890123456789 



1364 
1365 
1366 
1367 
1368 
1369 
1370 
1371 
1372 
1373 
1374 
1375 
1376 
1377 
1378 
1379 
1380 
1381 
1382 
1383 
1384 
1385 
1386 
138 7 
1388 
1389 
1390 
1391 
1392 
1393 
1394 
1395 
1396 
1397 
1398 
!. 399 
1400 
1401 
1402 
1403 
1404 
1405 
1406 
1407 
1408 
1409 
1410 
1411 
1412 
1413 
1414 
1415 
1416 
1417 
1418 
1419 
1420 
1421 
1422 
"142 3 
1424 
1425 
1.426 
1427 
1428 
1429 
1430 
1431 
1432 
1433 
1434 
1435 
1436 
1437 
1438 
1439 
1440 



. - ♦ J I 7= I ■♦♦♦♦L+J IJ+Z22Z0Z I 
.-.J=70ZZ+7+LLLZZZIIZ2AZOZ 
+.+ZCOZ22222LLL+L+.I0==C0Z 
2ZJJIZ2AA22Z*ZZ*+Z.++ 17 770 

Z+JIIZZ2AI I=ZI+ZI J 17777 

[...♦2lf.EEZ = + ZZZI J .II I I 

Z+.+22ZZ27ZJJ==OZI I 

AZ..Z02LALZI I I I I Z ♦ Z J J J I I Ul. . . „ 
M2ZL££l£7Z=JJJJI+ZJIJJIJJJIIJl 
AM2.-J22AA2Z0OZ+IIZOJIIII-JIIII 
= IZ.-JA7ZAAj7ALLZ+II 771 I- MM I I 
♦ZZ2/*2LZZ27ZZZZA0CIIC7*77IJIII 
. I 



HOOSIER PRAIRIE 



ll ASSIl'K'A'I ION l:F';i'l IS 



20LA7AA2LLLLL++IIIZ0JJJJJIJJJJJJJJJIIJ ^ 
2L..I2AA77AA+LLLLL+*LZAAC=IIIIJJJJJJJJJIII.Z=Nl'IIJJJ 

/IZAJ— IZ22AAA2Z2LL2LZZ22Z0JJJIIJJJJ — I I - <a - Z Z 7 7 

.IZZZ..ZAZA2ZZ222A47ZH=CA2*IJI = l = JI-JIIZZZZ + ZZZi%=JJI 

-.- JI4ZO2222LOCZ + + Z = 0Z2ZIJ- T 7Z Z AAAA ADOCOUC I I- x'U 

ZA72£22ZZ=IZI I J.Z l + I J.. s> ♦ L 22 AAA 707CuC 77 Z I <?' 

I.//.. I. + ZCALZ1 Z*I JOOAZZ02COJJ ^ , I I L 2 A A7 A7 7 7 7 7 C7C0 J- % 

Z...I2 + JOJI J77777AAA2AOZOZ.' £• I I = L L 2L 2MMA 7 ** 7 70 77ZZ ^ 

ZIII 1=1 I--07070J2AC0Z70O V I IJ J Z 2L 22 A62 6 £E £EA = 70 + Z 

7ZZ + .. — JI I ZZZZ00ZZ00Z70r 4? . JI JJZ2222££EfM£LLLJ — 17 

70+ZC777I.-II-/+AAAAAAZZA77* if I I I I I C££££E£M£t.l +♦+ I I I I A 

**AZZ77II- -♦+22E2EA2C07" # I J I I I I = ♦L£t£2 L ♦ + / II ++L2££ 

**7ZL2I I+22A7A220=I I JJJI IJZ L + L + // ///++LEEMMM 

**7ZL2LLLL. J222A7777= 1 1 1 i . J II I=J J J I ££L/++LLL+LAMM£MM 

IZAE£M£AOI J-I I I JIJJJ ZM2L+++++L£EM£££M 



vm& 



CHICAGO 



'A£2ZZ 
GRAND* 
++++77C++++/+Zz6c6A2Aa 
+ 0000. 1 1 1 1 1 1 . ZOO 22 222L 
+ZOZO. //+///+ 00 ZZ++Z2Z 
++OU7I+2+*/.. IC0ZZZ22A 
7ZZ7*=IZ++**Z==0CZ++L2 
A7CZ770+ZZ2222ZO77Z22Z 
Z£LLMMAMAAA2AAZ.C7Z07A 
L£MMM£2222A2££2ZCAZZZ2 
Z£LL2£LLLZZ?222IC0n' ' 
7A2ZZLLL2ZL2220' ^ati 
72222Z+LLZ+LUJJ *^ .«.«. 
* 7 Z Z Z ♦ . I±**^CU- .. - J22 A2 
ZjJ>A+r»7> + + + + tLZ I+Z77 7 
iTF?A77 + // + + + + + L7 7 + Z0 
Z+Z 0AOZ+2277ZZ277Z.+ZZ 
♦+C777 72 27 70ZZ+2CZZOI- 
+077A2L++22I0C77**ZJ — 
C0Z0A*ZZ2ZZ77777A " 
AAAAM£MMMM£M*******700Z 
2AMMMMM7*77****7 7 77A0Z+ 
MMAAMA77777MMM£MMMMA0A£ 
7 77M Z 2 77 7 7MM ££ £M A AMA 22 £ 
7MMA2ZnAAMEf, ££I_££££E + LL 
f MA A22A772A7 ML LLLLL2 2 12 
MEM7AZA****7AE22ZJ 
PMfMAAA7*****7ZC 
£MMAZ22£7*****7ZZ=IJ-- 
^MA22 2LA2A7***7AZZZ0.. 
M ACZ ZZ2Z 22 Z A 7AMAZZZ+ ZZ+ 
AA0OOZOZZZOZ22EMM26O2A2 
COCOO=ZOIZOZAAMMM£AA 
==77700ZC222AAAAA222 
CZZZZZZ+ZZZ222£ 
♦♦♦ZZ70==7A££E2 
ZtZJ-=770022ZZZAa4*1»T£££AA 

Z Z Z ZOO AA22-teC077 7M£ £ EMM AZ 

ZZC2Z^TtT77>77AAMMA 7AMMM 

70C4A4AMEMM0JJI-IL2AEA22Z+ I.+AE2A£A£A* 

2£22Z2£L?*7 77 77 7 7*77MMMM7CI — .++2Z0=I=ZZZ. .2 22 ££££2 7 

2Z222Ur7AAAA*******7A7AAZ2I-. I+22A2AAMMAZI++ZI.+AA22 2MA7 
2222>t£EAAAA*******77GAAAZI-.-IAMAAAAAMAAZZZZ+++ZAAAA77A 
.L22£££££AA7*»* 777MAZZ III I . + Z = MMA AMEEEt, E2A A2L + + + Z A££M 

_LLL+LAAM2AAA777*77*7++++/++OAUCAAAAA2AAAAL2Z+Z+IZ++7AA 
MLLL£A7A77A2£EM77**7*7L//////ZAA7772AA££222ZZ2ZZZ2+.+++A 
M2tLL£AMM7AL22 7M7**777L/////+IZAII ..0A22Z+LZIZ2+ZZ2...Z+ 
777EA2+L+Z7LLL£777*7£2Z++++LAZJJ— .-ZA2E2L22ZZ22ZZ0I — J + 
7 A7 7 A2 + + + Z 7 ZLLEEMM 77 E ££2ZZ C077 I 2 Z + Z 2Z02£££ A AC = G2 AAA I- I ZL 
*A777A2Z+++2LL2AAA0£££MCZZ22A0II I 0M£ 2 A AM£MA2 Z Z ll ll = I- 1 £2 
*A7**A++LAA2 7Z772LEM£+LOO77 777==MAAMMA2££ZO0C=JI I J I = I JZ I 
7AA7*7+/+A2+.ZAA£2££EA2077 77M7=ZEAAAAAAEEMAACI I I II J++LEZ 



=7 JJJJJ=0=JJJJJJJJ 

«M7P = = 7= = jj I = = = = = I J JJ 
77M7= I Z I = = I 77 I JI I IJ I I 

J77rz*07***7r = ZZ I I I JI 

zoaoozi i = = j=o=j 1 1 1 1 1 = 
==orooo====i = = i 1 1 1 1 zi 

ZAA777077JJ==C=JZ= I + = 
TH.i.fZA2A7II==IJ = = =IJJ=I+0 
I0*=.Z07* = J = =7JJJJ MJJ=J I [ 
IZ=I-=7IJ*72Z===JI=JJJJJJZ 
= !-. — JJf = 77I. I [ I !♦+— =1 l- 

j + i iz+..ziin»- 

.- +.+AG=CA2+- 

J.+ZIIZ+L20-" xrS ,i\&' 
= 0ZIIZZIL7. o«,St D ' £S - J = 
JJIIIZZZ12? ** ...Z2ZI77 
JJJI I++Z+Z I .U+LCZZIZZ 17 
JJJJ.I+++L=77AC2IL2==Z2ZLL 
.•I-..J++++ZOOOZZ II J7 7M202I 
^. — -I+L++LZZLLAO+ J7*AA7 I [ 
C%. "'=I+ + LLLL2ZZZ + + + + L2Z+l 
CZ* J + LI LL2L++L+LLLILZZL2 
A2+. f<++l ++ZLL2L+ILLLLL+IZ 
AA£ZZzXz++LL2LLZ I I- + LL22CI 
AAM£2AC2X.++LLLLI7I+LLZLAI 
AOOI JJ=Z+i^LL+LL2I-.+L+L2Z 
70 I Z II=Z7.>VL++++.-.+ZI+LC 
£Z IZZI+L+L+ 



I J=OAAE 
=l=CA2M 
JI==Z22 
Z 1 1 = I ♦ 2 

= I = = I I Z 

JI I J = = + 
IJ=JI JZ 



= I J = 7= I 
71 I IZZ J 
— II+Z + 
0I=ZZ22 
I IZI+LL 
I I+LLLL 
Z ILLLL2 
Z+LL+ZZ 
LLLLLA 



zz « 




£MAA2 
££AM7 
7A7* 



7< 

M 

£^ 

7M£MMM7I> 
AAMMMMAA2ZA 
ZAAM77A77I J 



20ZZ- 
+ Z I., 
I++I. 
♦ III- 



MMM7MMMM&22AM 
MMM£MMMMM2£££ 
£M77**UAA2£M£ 
*******7A£PMM 
********7MMM£ 
**7L7***7AAA£ 
**A/A****A£M£ 
***+! =777AMMA 
MMAC — 7ALL+/+ 
MMM0--I220+++ 
M77I"M£0 + + L20 + 
7MAAM7777770A 
M£MM77ACZL£L2 
=££0=+LL££MMM 
IZZ2ZZ222MM7A 
ZZ===I22M22A£ 
I=0OZ=000Z22£ 
==7=IZZ2Z+L2M 
7»7CZ=ZAALLL£ 



£M£MMAZ22 
££MM202L2 
£MAZ77AM£ 
MACC77LLL 
£M077Z+LL 
£2+07ALLL 
£A7==2LL£ 
+=0ZCO2M£ 
LA7AZ2£L+ 
ZA7AZ2££L 
//70AAU2£ 
AACC=ZIZ2 
II I I JI = = 7 

= IZJ77 

= — I JJJJA 
CI=I ZZ=JZ 
22£0=I-J7 
EAA77I JI = 
MA I I I 



Figure 1. Spectral classification of the terrestrial environment of the Hoosier Prairie 

and surrounding area. 



Table 2. Distribution of informational classes as determined from Landsat data. 



Grass well drained areas 

Grass of poorly drained areas 

Marsh-shrubs/herbs 

Marsh-cattails/herbs 

Brush 

Scattered tree groups 

Dense trees • 

Other 

TOTAL 



Spectral 








Symbols 


Pixels 


Peicent 


Hectare 


M 


77 


25.91 


31.46 


A 


77 


2,5.91 


31.46 


& 


66 


22.24 


27.00 


Z 


7 


2.36 


2.86 


7 


9 


3.03 


3.68 


2 


■11 


13.80 


16.76 


L 


11 


3.72 


4.50 


o,+ 


9 


3.03 


3.68 



297 



426 



Indiana Academy of Science 




8 .9 'to 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 

Wavefersgth (um) 

Figure 2. Relative spectral response obtained from seven different vegetative covers. 



Conclusions 

Nonsupervised computer-aided classification techniques employed to 
classify the Hoosier Prairie features with Landsat MSS data showed: 

(1) Level I land use categories could be readily identified from 
Landsat data without the aid of supplemental reference material. 

(2) All Level II categories could also be readily identified from 
Landsat data without the aid of reference material except for the 
residential classes occurring in vegetated areas. Photointerpretation 
of aerial photography was required to distinguish this class accurately. 

(3) Identification of Level III and IV categories was possible by 
using ground observations to facilitate interpretation of the classi- 
fication derived from Landsat data. 



Acknowledgment 

The authors would like to express their appreciation to Mr. 
William B. Barnes and Mr. James Keith of the Division of Nature 
Preserves of the State of Indiana for their assistance in obtaining 
ground observations. 



Soil and Atmospheric Sciences 427 

Literature Cited 

1. Anderson, J. R., E. E. Hardy and J. T. Roach. 1972. A land use classification system 
for use with remote-sensor data. Geological Survey Circular 671. U.S. Dept. of the 
Interior, pp. 1-16. 

2. Anuta, P. E. 1975. Computer-aided analysis techniques for remote sensing data 
interpretation. LARS Information Note 100675, Purdue University. 

3. GATES, D. M. 1965. Radiant energy, its receipt and disposal. Meteorological Mono- 
graphs 6:28:1-26. 

4. Subcommittee for Hoosier Prairie. 1969. Hoosier Prairie. 

5. Tarnocai, C. and S. J. Kristof. 1976. Computer-aided classification of land and 
water bodies using Landsat data, MacKenzie Delta area, N.W.T. Canada. Arctic and 
Alpine Research 8:2:151-159. 



Glacial Lake Patoka : A Geomorphic Reinterpretation 
Using Soil Survey 

Russell Boulding 

4725 E. Bethel Lane 

Bloomington IN 47401 

Abstract 

Soil maps were used to examine the relationship between the Illinoian age lacustrine 
facies of the Atherton Formation in northwestern Dubois County (Glacial Lake Patoka) 
and the Prospect Formation in the upper Patoka River basin. Most of the areas mapped 
Prospect Formation are remnants of two distinct topographic surfaces. One, at 550 feet, 
correlates with a possibly pre-Illinoian stage of Glacial Lake Patoka and the other, at 500 
feet, correlates with the Illinoian stage of Glacial Lake Patoka. The 550 foot lake stage 
has not previously been recognized in the geologic literature. Late Illinoian terraces below 
the 500 foot lake stage exist along the Patoka River in the vicinity of Jasper in Dubois 
County. The Sangamon paleosol is formed on all three terrace surfaces, thus the present 
topography of the lake plain was shaped well before the end of Sangamon time. 

Caution is necessary when using soil maps for geological interpretation because soils 
do not always reflect correctly the underlying parent material. When this limitation is 
recognized, soil survey can be a valuable aid in reconstructing the Quaternary history of 
an area. 

Introduction 

The genesis and morphology of Indiana's soils are closely related 
to the geological and climatic events surrounding the advance and 
retreat of continental ice sheets during the Pleistocene. With the 
exception of residual soils, all soil series in the State can be correlated 
with one or more of the Pleistocene formations recognized by geologists 
(2). As a consequence, a detailed soil map can be a valuable tool in 
reconstructing the Quaternary history of a region. This paper presents 
the results of using soil survey for this purpose in the upper Patoka 
River basin in southern Indiana and discusses some of the limitations 
inherent in relying on published soil maps for geological interpretation. 
The lacustrine facies of the Atherton Formation and the Prospect 
Formation were a special focus of this study because the relationship 
between these two formations is not well understood. 

Geomorphic Background 

Geologists working in southwestern Indiana around the turn of the 
century concluded that the flat plain that exists at an average elevation 
of about 490 feet in the northeastern corner of Pike County and the 
northwest quarter of Dubois County was created by ponding of the 
Patoka River at the margin of the Illinoian ice sheet (3,7). The ice sheet 
also deflected three important tributaries of the East Fork of the White 
River, which, in combination with a minor tributary of the Wabash 
River, became integrated into the present Patoka drainage basin. All 
subsequent discussions of the geomorphology of the Patoka River 
basin have accepted this interpretation (5,8,10). 

The sediments deposited in Glacial Lake Patoka have been mapped 
as the lacustrine facies of the Atherton Formation on the Geologic 

428 



Soil and Atmospheric Sciences 



429 



r\T 



Jr1 , 



o 



•' c: 



p •, 




•vc:rj p 



%_ I ORA NG E CO 

p) | p 



y p 

•P. 

x* • • •.^ 






( / 



Boundary of Lacustrine facies 
Atherton Formation 

Wisconsinin- Lacustrine deposits 

1 1 1 inoian glacial boundary 

Prospect terraces 

Spillways for 550 foot lake stage 

Early Pleistocene drainage of 
Patoka River 

Present location of Patoka River 
and tributaries 



Glacial Lake Patoka, 



Figure 1. Pleistocene geology of Glacial Lake Patoka, southwestern Indiana. 

Map of the Vincennes Quadrangle (6). This map unit also includes 
small areas of Wisconsinan lacustrine slackwater clays that lie at a 
lower terrace level (about 450 feet at Mill Creek) along the East Fork 
of the White River (1,10). Illinoian glacial till (Jessup Formation) lies 
at the northwestern margin of Glacial Lake Patoka. Terraces along the 
upper reaches of the Patoka River, beginning at the town of Dubois 
in Dubois County and extending well into Orange County, are mapped 
Prospect Formation (Fig. 1). The Prospect Formation consists of silts, 
sands and gravels and is found throughout the unglaciated uplands of 
southern Indiana capping eroded terraces 20 to 50 feet above the 
present floodplain (12). The relationship of this formation to other 
unconsolidated deposits is poorly understood because it is rarely well 
exposed. In the Patoka River basin it predates the deposits of Illinoian 
Glacial Lake Patoka (5), but the dividing line between the Prospect 
terraces and the lacustrine Atherton terraces is not clearly denned 
(Henry Gray, personal communication, October 1976). 



Study Methods 

Several sources of soils and geologic information were used in 
this study: 

1. Direct field observations during the course of mapping soils 
in Dubois and Orange Counties. 

2. Field sheets completed by other soil scientists working in the 



430 Indiana Academy of Science 

two counties (Robert Wingard and John Bernard, Soil Conservation 
Service, and Jack Coulter and Gary Hudson, Department of Natural 
Resources). 

3. Published soil and geologic maps of the area (3,4,9,11). 

4. Copies of the 7% minute field sheets for the Geologic Map 
of the Vincennes Quadrangle (6). 

Soil series from the different sources were correlated with the 
different Pleistocene formations in the study area (Table 1). The 
relationship of the lacustrine and river terraces in the vicinity of 
Jasper in Dubois County and upstream into Orange County was ex- 
amined by transferring areas mapped as terrace soils from soil field 
sheets to 7% minute topographic maps. Maximum elevations of indi- 
vidual terraces as determined on the topographic map were plotted on 
a longitudinal transect of the Patoka River upstream from Jasper 
(Fig. 2). 

Certain limitations should be recognized before making geologic 
interpretations from soil maps. Soils may not reflect correctly the 
underlying parent material. This is particularly true of soils with similar 
taxonomic classification. For example, Otwell (lacustrine), Pekin (river 
terrace), Tilsit and Zanesville (residual) all appear similar in the field 
and where terrace material is thin over bedrock or has colluvial 
material mixed in, it is often difficult to judge whether a soil is formed 
in terrace material or bedrock residuum. Such errors are not critical 
in most uses of soil maps because similar soils have similar interpreta- 
tions for management, but they can be misleading to a geologist trying 
to interpret the nature of the underlying material. 

Soils that would be of great interest to the geologist may not be 
included in the published soil map of a county because they are of 
minor extent. A small area of glacial till exists in northwestern Dubois 
County, but acreages of the applicable soil series are so small that 
they have been mapped as inclusions with deep loess soils. 

Correlations between soil series and tthe Pleistocene formations 
in Indiana may not always be accurate because similar soil profiles 
can sometimes develop from differing geologic processes. In Monroe 
County, for example, Markland, A Wisconsinan lacustrine soil which 
has carbonates near the surface has been mapped on Illinoian lacustrine 
materials where the normally leached surface material has been stripped 
off by erosion (Henry Gray, personal communication, October 1976). 

Results 

In the vicinity of Jasper there are three distinct terrace levels. 
The highest terrace exists as eroded remnants ranging in elevation 
from 500 to 580 feet and is recognized on the basis of soil properties, 
such as course textures and stratification in the substratum, rather 
than as a topographic surface. Most occurrences of this terrace are 
below the 550 foot level, but two remnants at 570 and 580 feet stand 
within a mile of each other on both sides of Bison Branch of Buffalo 
Creek, which was the pre-Illinoian outlet of the Upper Patoka River 
into the White River. This terrace has not previously been recognized 



Soil and Atmospheric Sciences 



431 



O 

8 JJ « S 

. £ I B 

K 8 3 .S 

■a ,q n 

£ i 2 m 

— ' " to M 

1 «r 3 1 
I £ 5 3 

O PM W W 



£ 02 

(3 +j 
3 C 



S § 



3 .S 
Q S3 

M 



W tf 



o 



Q S Q 



432 



Indiana Academy of Science 



in the geologic literature. The second, intermediate, terrace ranges 
between 480 and 500 feet and corresponds to the deposits of Glacial 
Lake Patoka mapped by Fuller and Ashley (3). It is at an elevation 
of about 500 feet near the White River and slopes gradually to 480 
feet at the Patoka River near Jasper. A third terrace lies below the 
intermediate lake plain and about ten feet above the present flood 
plain of the Patoka River. Several miles south of Jasper this terrace 
is about 460 feet in elevation. 

All three terraces can be traced along the Patoka River upstream 
from Jasper (Fig. 2). Only a few remnants of the high terrace exist 
between Jasper and the Orange County line. Part of the town of Dubois, 
near Poison Creek, is built on remnants of this terrace which has a 
maximum elevation of about 550 feet. Another remnant with the same 
elevation is near the spillway of the Patoka Dam. Terrace elevations 
range between 540 and 560 feet for about 25 river miles into Orange 
County about which point the gradient slopes abruptly upward to a 
gradient of about 10 feet per mile. 

The 500 foot terrace is the most extensively developed terrace 
between Jasper and the Patoka Dam. The maximum elevation of 
individual terrace remnants is consistently between 500 and 510 feet 
for a distance of about 30 miles where the lacustrine plain merges 
with the present floodplain somewhere around the Orange County line. 
The low terrace seems to follow the gradient of the Patoka River and 
merges with the 500 foot terrace somewhere in the vicinity of the town 
of Dubois. 




DILLARD CR. 



TERRACE REMNANTS MAPPED AS 
LACUSTRINE FACIES OF ATHERTON 
FORMATION 



30 40 50 

DISTANCE (MILES) 



Figure 2. Maximum elevations of terraces along the mainstem Patoka River upstream 
of Jasper, Dubois County, Indiana. 



Soil and Atmospheric Sciences 433 

The Sangamon paleosol is a ubiquitous feature throughout the 
lake plain. It is most easily recognized in the well drained lacustrine 
soils (Pike, Parke and Negley) where a clay loam or sandy clay loam 
B horizon with hues of 5 or 2.5 YR is covered by a few inches to four 
or more feet of Peoria loess. The paleosol is developed on all three 
terrace levels, and seems to follow the present topography of the lake 
plain very closely. Thus the present topography of the lake plain was 
shaped well before the end of Sangamon time. The relief of this surface 
is at least 130 feet in the vicinity of Jasper. 

The existence of a lake stage at 550 feet or higher raises the 
possibility that Glacial Lake Patoka drained through one or more 
outlets before, or in addition to, the spillway at Velpen that joined the 
Middle and Lower Patoka Rivers. The hills that surround the lake 
plains mostly exceed 550 feet in elevation with one notable exception. 
About a mile southwest of the town of Johnsburg in Dubois County 
is a drainage divide at an elevation of 510 feet. Several other drainage 
divides in the same area lie between 540 and 550 feet (Fig. 1). 

Interpretation 

Most of the areas mapped as Prospect Formation in the Upper 
Patoka River basin seem to be remnants of two distinct topographic 
surfaces that are related to two major stages of Glacial Lake Patoka. 
Thus most of the Prospect terraces along the Patoka River correlate 
with the lacustrine deposits of the Glacial Lake. More detailed field 
work needs to be done, but I would like to tentatively propose the fol- 
lowing interpretation that I believe fits the presently available data: 

1. The high terrace of Glacial Lake Patoka is the result of 
damming of the early Pleistocene Upper and Middle Patoka River by a 
pre-Illinoian ice sheet. Maximum elevation of the lake was at least 
580 feet, but a relatively stable lake level probably existed at 550 
feet. The lake probably had a number of outlets, but the major ones 
were south into the Ohio River through Little Pigeon Creek and 
possibly west into the Lower Patoka River near Velpen. The Prospect 
terraces mapped in the upper reaches of Little Pigeon Creek may be 
related to this event. The 550 foot Prospect terrace in the Upper 
Patoka River was either deposited at this time and /or eroded to this 
level from material deposited during an earlier high base level. If 
more detailed investigations should prove that the lacustrine soils 
mapped above 500 feet are not actually water laid, another explanation 
will have to be found for the 550 foot Prospect terrace. 

2. The intermediate terrace of Glacial Lake Patoka is the Illinoian 
lake stage. The 500 foot Prospect terrace near the Patoka Dam is 
probably the result of lateral planation of the pre-Illinoian terrace 
because there is stratigraphic evidence that the material of these 
terrace remnants is the same age as the 550 foot terrace remnants in 
the same area (Henry Gray, personal communication, October 1976). 
Some of the terrace remnants downstream may be depositional rather 
than erosional. 

3. The low terrace is probably related to a late Illinoian stabiliza- 
tion of base level, perhaps due to a readvance of the ice sheet. 



434 Indiana Academy of Science 

Conclusions 

The possibility of a pre-Illinoian glacial lake and additional de- 
rangement of the Patoka River raises as many questions as it answers. 
The geomorphic history of the Patoka River is certainly more complex 
than previously recognized. Careful use of soil maps combined with 
geological information should increase our understanding of the Patoka's 
Pleistocene history when more of the River basin is mapped in the 
course of Indiana's accelerated soil survey program. 

Acknowledgments 

I thank Henry Gray of the Indiana Geological Survey and Dr. 
D. P. Franzmeier, Purdue University for constructive criticism during 
the course of preparation of this paper. 



Literature Cited 

1. Fidlar, M. M. 1948. Physiography of the Lower Wabash Valley. Indiana Div. Geol. 
Bull. 2. 112 p. 

2. Franzmeier, D. P., Sanders, F. W., and Zachary, A. L. 1975. Key to the Soils 
of Indiana, mimeo. 

3. Fuller, M. L. and Ashley, F. G. 1902. Ditney Folio. U.S. Geol. Surv. Geol. Atlas 
Folio No. 84. 

4. Fuller, M. L. and Clapp, F. G. 1904. Patoka Folio. U.S. Geol. Surv. Geol. Atlas 
Folio No. 105. 

5. Gray, H. H. 1963. Geology of the Upper Patoka Drainage Basin. Indiana Dept. of 
Cons. Geol. Surv. Special Report No. 2. 23 p. 

6. , Wayne, W. J. and Wier, C. E. 1970. Regional Geologic Map No. 3 

Vincennes Sheet. Indiana Geol. Surv. 

7. Leverett, F. 1899. The Illinois Glacial Lobe. U.S. Geol. Surv. Monograph 38. 817 p. 

8. Malott, C. A. 1922. The Physiography of Indiana. Handbook of Indiana Geology, 
Indiana Dept. Cons. Pub. No. 21. pp. 59-256. 

9. Simmons, C. S., Burke, R. T. A., Bushnell, T. M., Adams, J. E. and Ulrich, H. P. 
1937. Soil Survey of Dubois County, Indiana. U.S. Dept. of Ag. Bur. of Chem. and 
Soils Series 1930 No. 47. 68 p. 

10. Thornbury, W. D. 1950. Glacial Sluiceways and Lacustrine Plains of Southern 
Indiana. Indiana Dept. Cons. Div. of Geol. Bull. No. 4. 21 p. 

11. Ulrich, H. P., Bushnell, T. M., Kunkel, D. R., Miller, J. T. and Fitzpatrick, 
E. G. 1938. Soil Survey of Pike County, Indiana. U.S. Dept. of Ag. Bur. of Chem. 
and Soils Series 1930 No. 47. 68 p. 

12. Wayne, W. J. 1963. Pleistocene Formations in Indiana. Indiana Geol. Surv. Bull. No. 
25. 85 p. 



Chemical and Mineralogical Characteristics of Selected Indiana Soils 1 

D. W. Nelson, C. B. Roth and L. E. Sommers 

Agronomy Department 

Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 

Abstract 

Chemical and mineralogical characteristics of 48 selected Indiana soils representative 
of many of the major soil series in the state were determined. Data for soils were grouped 
into 7 textural classes and average values for the classes were obtained for each parameter 
measured. The amount of organic C, total N, ammonium fixing capacity, total P, total S, 
and cation exchange capacity in soils tended to decrease as soil texture became coarser. 
The proportion of quartz, vermiculite, and amorphous material in the clay fraction, the 
proportion of organic C extractable with pyrophosphate and hot water, and the propor- 
tion of total P present as inorganic P in soils increased as soil texture became coarser. 
The clay fraction of the Indiana soils studied contained higher proportions of micaceous 
(illite) and chlorite-like minerals than other constituents. A substantial proportion of the 
total N in soils is fixed NH-i-N with the heavier-textured soils possessing relatively high 
NH4 fixing capacities, i.e. 100 ug NHi-N/g. The organic C:N:S:P ratio is very 
constant in Indiana soils averaging 11:1:1.5:0.15. There were close relationships between 
clay content and organic C, total N, total P, and total S in soils. The mica content of 
soils was closely related to fixed ammonium content, cation exchange capacity, and 
ammonium fixing capacity. 

Agronomists are often asked to make recommendations on nitro- 
gen, phosphorus, and potassium fertilizer application rates for Indiana 
soils. They are often asked specific questions concerning various 
fertilizer management practices and, in recent times, they are asked 
to calculate application rates for animal, municipal and industrial 
wastes which may be effectively applied to various soils in the state. 
Arriving at suitable recommendations requires detailed knowledge of 
the characteristics of the soil involved. Typically, to make an accurate 
recommendation, it is necessary for the agronomist to travel to the 
site, take soil samples, and have the samples characterized. In many 
cases, the time required for sample collection and analysis is lengthy, 
and thus, a general knowledge of the mineralogical and chemical 
properties of Indiana soils would allow rapid evaluation of manage- 
ment alternatives. 

Some relevant data on Indiana soils are contained in the soil 
survey reports developed for each county; however, many of the 
characteristics of the soil which are needed for use in making man- 
agement recommendations are not available in soil survey bulletins. 
Therefore, our research group initiated a study of the chemical and 
mineralogical characteristics of Indiana soils representing many of the 
major soil series within the state. The objectives of this study were: 
(1) to obtain detailed information on the chemical and mineralogical 
composition of many of the major soil series in Indiana, (2) to group the 
soils studied into seven textural classes and attempt to generalize 
some of the observed characteristics of each class, and (3) to determine 



1 Journal Paper No. 6537, Purdue University Agricultural Experiment Station. 

435 



436 Indiana Academy of Science 

the interrelationships between various soil components. The latter 
objective is important because in the case of a soil where limited data 
is available, it may be appropriate to relate what is known about the 
composition to other parameters for which we have no information. 
The authors realize that it is difficult to group data for soil properties 
because of the inherent variability in soils belonging to a given 
textural class. However, to make the data obtained suitable for publi- 
cation grouping of soils by textural classes was necessary. Data for 
individual soils studied may be obtained directly from the authors. 

Materials and Methods 

The surface soils (0-20 cm) used in this investigation were col- 
lected by Wischmeier and Mannering (10) during studies to evaluate 
the erodibility of Indiana soils. These studies involved determination 
of soil physical properties, but relatively little data was obtained on 
chemical and mineralogical properties. To expand the textural range 
and soil slope conditions covered in this study, additional soils were 
collected from throughout Indiana to supplement those used by Wisch- 
meier and Mannering. All samples were obtained from sites which 
had been cropped for many years and identification relative to soil 
series was provided by soil survey personnel. All soils were air-dried, 
ground to pass an 80-mesh sieve, and stored in sealed plastic bags until 
use. 

Twenty two chemical and mineralogical properties were determined 
for each of the soils included in this study. Clay, silt, and sand were 
measured by the pipet method outlined by Kilmer and Alexander (4). 
Kaolinite, inorganic amorphous material, montmorillonite, mica, quartz, 
chlorite, vermiculite, pyrophosphate extractable C and hot water ex- 
tractable C were determined by procedures outlined by Roth, Nelson, 
and Romkens (8). Organic C was determined by the method of Mebius 
(5). Total N was estimated by the method of Nelson and Sommers (7). 
Fixed ammonium N was measured by the method of Silva and Bremner 
(9). Organic N was calculated as the difference between total N and 
fixed ammonium N. Total P was determined by the method of Sommers 
and Nelson (10). Organic P was estimated by the method of Mehta 
et at. (6). Inorganic P was calculated as the difference between total 
P and organic P. Total S was determined by procedures outlined by 
Bardsley and Lancaster (1). Cation exchange capacity was measured by 
the method of Edwards (2). Ammonium fixing capacity was determined 
by the difference in fixed ammonium N before and after treating 1 gram 
of soil with 1000 /ng of ammonium N for a period of 24 hours at 22C. 

Results and Discussion 

Table 1 presents data on the average particle size distribution in 
Indiana soils belonging to seven textural classes. Since the basic 
criteria for grouping soils was particle size distribution, the data 
obtained are characteristic for the textural classes included in the 
study. 



Soil and Atmospheric Sciences 



437 



Table 1. Particle size distribution in Indiana soils as related to textural classification. 





No. of soils 


Particle size distribution 


* 


Textural class 


Clay 


Silt 


Sand 




4 


% 
36.5±1.9 
24.5±0.7 
16.1±3.2 
17.2±2.4 
9.3±2.5 
4.0±1.0 


% 
49.8±5.6 
34.5±7.8 
66.4±7.1 
43.2±5.3 
25.5±6.0 
9.3±1.2 


8.0-'-5.5 




2 


28.5-+-0.7 


Silt loam 

Loam 

Sandy loam 

Loamy sands 


24 

9 

6 

3 


13.3±8.8 
36.1±5.9 
61.7±5.0 
85.3±1.2 



* Values given are averages and standard deviations for the soils making up each 
textural class. 

The average distribution of inorganic materials present in the 
clay fraction of Indiana soils belonging to seven textural classes 
is presented in Table 2. Surprisingly, the clay fraction of Indiana 
soils is rich in micaceous and chlorite-like minerals relative to 
kaolinite and montmorillonite. These findings are somewhat different 
from those of White et al. (12) who observed that Indiana surface 
soils contain substantial proportions of quartz and kaolinite in addition 
to mica, and different from those of Fehrenbacher et al. (3) who 
reported that loess soils from southwestern Indiana contain considerable 
montmorillonite. Other clay materials make up substantial proportions 
of the clay minerals in the soils studied, with the exception of 
vermiculite (< 10% of the total clay minerals). It is interesting to 
note that the proportions of inorganic amorphous material, quartz, 
and vermiculite tended to increase as the clay content of the soils 
studied decreased. The proportion of mica present in the clay fraction 
of Indiana soils tended to decrease as the sand content of the soils 
increased. The proportion of kaolinite, montmorillonite and chlorite- 
like minerals present in the clay fractions of Indiana soils studied was 
not related to soil textural class. 

Table 3 presents data on the average organic C content and forms 
of organic C in Indiana soils belonging to seven textural classes. The 
average organic C concentration for the soils in each textural class 
and the standard deviation of C contents for soils within classes are 
presented. It is interesting to note that the coefficient of variation 



Table 2. Distribution of inorganic materials in the clay fraction of Indiana soils as 

related to textural class. 





No. of 




Koal- 


Amorp. 


Montmor- 






Vermic- 


Textural class 


soils 


Mica 


inite 


material 




illonite 


Quartz 


Chlorite 


ulite 


Silty clay loam 


4 


45.8 


9.2 


r /( of clay 
6.1 


fraction 
6.7 


7.5 


19.4 


5.3 


Clay loam 


2 


37.1 


8.2 


6.5 




13.9 


9.0 


22.4 


2.9 


Silt loam 


24 


21.1 


16.1 


14.3 




14.9 


10.6 


19.3 


3.7 


Loam 


9 


' 34.5 


9.9 


12.3 




12.3 


11.7 


15.8 


3.5 


Sandy loam __ 


6 


28.0 


12.9 


12.9 




8.6 


12.9 


15.1 


9.6 


Loamy sand __ 


3 


20.0 


15.0 


15.0 




10.0 


17.5 


15.0 


7.5 



438 



Indiana Academy of Science 



Table 3. Organic C content and forms of organic C in Indiana soils as related to 

textural class. 





No. of 
soils 


Organic 
C* 


Org C forms 


Textural class 


Pyrosphos- 

phate ext. Hot water ext. 


Silty clay loam 

Clay loam 

Silt loam 

Loam 

Sandy loam 

Loamy sand 


4 
2 
___ 24 
9 
6 
3 


% 
2.260±1.012 

1.375±0.488 
1.103±0.269 
1.492±0.570 
1.197±0.637 
0.573±0.240 


% of org C 

22.6 3.7 
20.0 3.3 
27.6 4.1 
26.9 4.1 
39.4 7.0 
34.0 4.5 



* Values given are averages and standard deviations for the soils making up each 
textural class. 



for data on organic C content varied from 30 to 50 ( / f . This finding 
suggests that organic C contents of soils within a given textural 
class is not extremely variable because differences in organic C 
contents were greater between soils of varying textural classes than 
for soils within a given textural class. The amount of organic carbon 
present in the Indiana soils studied tended to decrease as the texture 
of the soils becomes coarser. However, some poorly-drained, coarse 
textured soils contained substantial organic C. 

The proportion of organic C extractable with sodium pyrophosphate 
varied from 20 to 39% for the soils studied. The proportion of organic 
C in soils extractable with pyrophosphate tended to increase as soils 
become coarser in texture. This finding suggests that even though 
coarser-textured soils tend to have low amounts of C, the organic C 
present in these soils may be effective in promoting aggregation and 
may be readily available for decomposition by microorganisms. The 
latter point is important because decomposition of soil organic matter 
releases significant amounts of N, P, and S for plant growth. The 
fraction of soil organic matter extractable with pyrophosphate appears 
to be more active in binding inorganic materials into aggregates 
than other soil organic matter fractions. The proportion of organic C 
extractable with hot water varied from 3.3 to 1% within the textural 
classes studied. There was a tendency for the proportion of organic C 
extracted by hot water to increase as soil texture became coarser. 

Hot water extracts polysaccharides, an organic C fraction which 
has been implicated in promoting aggregation and improving soil 
structure. These findings would suggest that coarser-textured Indiana 
soils may have the potential to be well aggregated due to pyrophosphate- 
extractable and water-soluble organic materials even though the ab- 
solute amount of organic carbon in these soils is relatively low. 

+ 

The average total N contents, NH 4 fixing capacities, and forms of 
N in soils studied belonging to seven textural classes is given in 
Table 4. Within a given textural class, the coefficient of variation 
for total N content varied from 20 to 407r. The total N contents 
of Indiana soils tended to decrease as soils became coarser in texture. 



Soil and Atmospheric Sciences 439 

Table 4. Total N content, ammonium fixing capacity, and forms of N in Indiana soils 
as related to textural class. 

N forms in soil 

No. of NHi+ -fixing 

Textural class soils Total N capacity* + Fixed NHt-N Org N 

ppm ug NIL + -N/g soil — </ ( of total N — 

Silty clay loam __ 4 2297±883 160(439) 13.6(854) 86.4 

Clay loam 2 1420±424 108(441) 17.7(1024) 82.3 

Silt loam 24 1205±254 24(149) 10.5(783) 89.5 

Loam 9 1360±436 25(145) 11.2(884) 88.8 

Sandy loam 6 1168±490 16(172) 6.2(774) 93.8 

Loamy sand 3 563±154 2(50) 4.6(650) 95.4 

* Values in parenthesis are ug NFL + -N fixed per gram of clay. 
+ Values in parenthesis are ug fixed ammonium N per gram of clay. 

+ 

Likewise, the NH 4 fixing capacity of silty clay loam soils was much 

+ 
higher than that of silt loams or sandy soils. In fact, the NH 4 fixing 
capacity of silt loams, loams, sandy loams and loamy sands was 

+ 
extremely low (i.e., less than 25 fig NH 4 -N fixed/g soil). It is interesting 

+ + 

that the NH 4 fixing capacity, when expressed as fig of NH 4 -N 
fixed per g of clay, is much higher in silty clay loams and clay loam 
soils than in coarser-textured soils. The ammonium fixing capacity 

+ 
of the clay fraction of loamy sand soils is only 50 fig of NH 4 -N/g clay. 

+ 
Data on forms of N in soils studied indicate that fixed NH 4 -N 
constitutes a substantia