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Full text of "Proceedings of the Indiana Academy of Science"

Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2012 with funding from 

LYRASIS Members and Sloan Foundation 



http://archive.org/details/proceedingsofindv87indi 



PROCEEDINGS 

of the 



Indiana Academy 
of Science 

Founded December 29, 1885 



Volume 87 
1977 



Benjamin Moulton, Editor 

Indiana State University 

Terre Haute, Indiana 



Spring Meeting 

April 22, 1977 

Indiana University — 

Purdue University at Indianapolis 

Indianapolis, Indiana 

Fall Meeting 
October 27, 1977 
Indiana University- 
Purdue University at Indianapolis 
Indianapolis, Indiana 



Published at Indianapolis, Indiana 
1978 



1. The permanent address of the Academy is the Indiana State Library, 140 N. Senate Ave., 
Indianapolis, Indiana 46204. 

2. Instructions for Contributors appear at the end of this volume. 

3. Exchanges. Items sent in exchange for the Proceedings and correspondence concerning 
exchange arrangements should be addressed: 

John Shepard Wright Memorial Library of the Indiana Academy of Science 
c/o Indiana State Library 
Indianapolis, Indiana 46204 

4. Proceedings may be purchased through the State Library at $7.00 per volume. 

5. Reprints of technical papers can often be secured from the authors. They cannot be supplied 
by the State Library nor by the officers of the Academy. 

6. The Constitution and By-Laws reprinted from Vol. 74 are available to members upon appli- 
cation to the Secretary. Necrologies reprinted from the various volumes can be supplied to relatives 
and friends of deceased members by the Secretary. 

7. Officers whose names and addresses are not known to correspondents may be addressed care 
of the State Library. Papers published in the Proceedings of the Academy of Science are abstracted 
or indexed in appropriate services listed here: 

Annotated Bibliography of Economy Geology 

Bibliography of North American Geology 

Biological Abstracts 

Chemischer Informationsdienst 

Current Geographical Publications 

Geological Abstracts 

Metals Abstracts 

Pesticides Documentation Bulletin 

Review of Applied Entomology 

The Torry Bulletin 

Zoological Record 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

Page 

Officers and Committees for 1977 3 

Minutes of the Spring Meeting (Executive Committee) 16 

Minutes of the Spring Meeting (General Session) 19 

Minutes of the Fall Meeting (Executive Committee) 20 

Minutes of the Fall Meeting (General Session) 24 

Annual Financial Report 29 

Annual Report, Indiana Junior Academy of Science 35 

Biological Survey Committee Report 37 

Necrology 46 

New Members for 1977 70 

ADDRESSES AND CONTRIBUTED PAPERS 

Presidential Address 

Chemistry, Science, and Culture — Dr. Donald J. Cook 72 

Anthropology 

Robert E. Pace and Steve Coffing— A Riverton Culture Gathering 

Site in Parke County* 81 

Gary A. Apfelstadt and Robert E. Pace — Settlement Patterns Along 

the White River* 81 

Emory C. Whipple — "Continuity and Change in the Political System of 

the Caribs of Central America"* 81 

Mark Wolfal, Phil McCLUREand Robert E. Pace— A Riverton Culture 

Base Camp in Bartholomew County, Indiana* 81 

Alan R. Sandstrom — "Preliminary Analysis of Religious Iconograph in 

Nahua, Otomi, and Tepehua Paper Cuttings"* 82 

Robert E. Pace and Charles M. Anslinger — The Wilson Site: A Havana 

Burial Mound in Southwest Vigo County* 82 

Francis X. Grollig — Costumbre in the Cuchimatani Mountains 

Guatemala* 82 

Charles P. Warren — Forensic Anthropology — Theory and Practice . . 83 

Curtis H. Tomak and Norma J. O'Connor — An Early Woodland Burial 

from Greene County, Indiana 90 



♦Abstract 



in 



i v Indiana Academy of Science 

Page 
Botany 

N. P. Maxon, C. L. Rhykerd and C. L. Rhykerd Jr. — Plant Cell and 

Tissue Culture for In Vitro Manipulation with Agronomic Species* 99 

William W. Bloom and Gayton C. Marks — Quantitative Experiments 

with Plant Catalase for the Beginning Botany Laboratory* 99 

Theodore J. Crovello — Use of Computers to Enhance Education in 

Plants and Human Affairs* 99 

Philip A. Orpurt — The Trees of the Manchester College Campus after 

Sixty Years* 100 

Robert J. Lamoreaux, William R. Chaney and Richard C. 
Strickland — Some Effects of Cadmium on Carbon Dioxide and 
Water Vapor Transfer in Leaves of Acer saccharinum L.* 100 

W. J. Hurkman and G. S. Kennedy — Ultrastructural Changes of 
Chloroplasts in Attached and Detached, Aging, Primary Wheat 
Leaves* 100 

W. S. Courtis — Storing Orchid Pollinia for Future Use in Hybridization: 

A Preliminary Report* 101 

Byron O. Blair, V. L. Anderson, and C. L. Rhykerd — Predicting 

Crop Yields by Use of Multiple Species Phenology Observations* . 101 

Paul C. MacMillan, K. Cromack, Jr. and J. E. Means — Nutrient 
Capital and Substrate Quality of Logs in an Old-Growth Douglas- 
fir Forest* 101 

Richard C. Strickland, William R. Chaney, and Robert J. 
Lamoreaux — Effects of Low Levels of Available Cadmium on Height 
Growth, Dry Matter Accumulation and Tissue Cadmium Levels 
in Soybeans* 102 

Richard C. Strickland, William R. Chaney, and Robert J. 
Lamoreaux — Organix matter Influences Availability, Uptake and 
Distribution of Cadmium in Soybeans* 102 

Susannah Nelson, Mary Jo Donovan and Anne Susalla — Greening 
in Albino Plants of a Green: Albino Strain of Tobacco without the 
Addition of an Amino Acid to the Culture Medium* 103 

Jay H. Jones — Possible Disadvantages of Isolating Plant Cuticles by 

the ZnCh-HCl Method* ,. 103 

John L. Roth — The Foliar Physiognomy of an Indiana Lake Bottom and 

its Paleoclimatic Implication* 103 

R. C. Ploetz and R. J. Green, Jr.— The Root Rot of Black Walnut 

Seedlings Caused by Phytophthora critricola 105-1 12 

C. L. Rhykerd, B. O. Blair, N. P. Maxon, R. E. Mullen and J. J. Vorst 

— Seeding Orchardgrass in an Established Stand of Alfalfa .... 113-115 



: Abstract 



Table of Contents v 

Page 

Robert D. Williams and David T. Funk — Eighteen-Year Performance 
of an Eastern White Pine Genetic Test Plantation in Southern 
Indiana 116-119 

Gary E. Dolph — Notes on the Construction of Leaf Size Distribu- 
tions 1 20- 125 

Cell Biology 

Edward A. Kimble — Light-Induced Changes in Photoreceptor 

Metabolism, A New Clue to Visual Function* 127 

Ralph A. Jersild, Jr. and R. W. Crawford — The Distribution and 
Mobility of Anionic Sites on Intestinal Absorptive Cell Brush 
Borders* 1 27 

William K. Stephenson and R. Scott Vander Wall— The Structure of 
Small Molecule Permeation Channels in Human Red Blood Cell 
Membranes* 1 27 

Kathleen L. King, Daniel C. Williams, George B. Boder and 
Richard J. Harley — Morphological and Functional Interaction of 
Dissociated Rat Superior Cervical Ganglion Neurons and Heart 
Ventricular Cells in Co-culture* 128 

Kim E. Creek, D. James Morre and C. L. Richardson — Effect 
of Retinol Ralmitate on Glycolipid and Glycoprotein Galactosyl 
transferase activities of rat liver plasma Membrane* 128 

Zafar Iqbal — Fast Axoplasmic Transport of Calcium is Associated with 

the Transport of a Protein in the Mammalian Nerve* 129 

Meg Durkin and Charles W. Goff— The Effects of Isoproterenol on 

Mitosis and Cell Ultrastructure* 129 

W. S. Courtis — Increased amounts of ATP related to cellular activation 

of onion leaf base tissue* 1 29 

Thomas M. Kloppel, Dorien Sarles, Linda B. Jacobson and D. James 

Morre — Sialic Acid Elevated in Experimental Liver Cancer 131 

L. Leonard, R. Barr and F. L. Crane — Extraction and Purification of a 
Factor which Stimulates Silicomolybdate Reduction by Photosystem 
II of Spinach Chloroplasts 138 

Mary F. Asterita — Electrophysiological Characterization of the Ionic 

Selectivity of Necturus Proximal Tubule 143 

Chemistry 

Stephen R. Wilson and Lawrence R. Phillips— A General Synthesis of 

Cyclobut- 1-Enecarboxylates* 157 

Richard Mulford, John H. Meiser, and David E. Koltenbah— Recent 

Progress in Radiocarbon Dating at Ball State University* 157 

♦Abstract 



v j Indiana Academy of Science 



Ivan Saval, Jonathan Worstell, and Bruce N. Storhoff — The 

Synthesis and Characterization of Phosphine — Nitrile Systems* ... 158 

Horeb Trujillo and Bruce N. Storhoff — Palladium(II) Complexes of 

Potentially Bidentate Phosphine — Nitrile Ligands* 158 

Paul L. Bock — Stereochemical Probes: A Test to Distinguish Erythro 

and Threo Diastereomers* 158 

John R. Ricketts and Paul A. Lang — The Behavior of the Bismuth- 
Bismuth Oxide Electrode in pH Determinations* 158 

Joseph R. Siefker and Jonathan O. Brooks — Wabash River Water 
Analysis in the Vicinity of Sugar and Coal Creeks, Vigo County, 
Indiana* 159 

J. A. Mosbo — Reaction Rates and Equilibria at Tricoordinate 

Phosphorus* 159 

E. H. Appellm^n, K. G. Migliorese and M. N. Tsangaris — Reactions 

of Hypofluorous Acid with Organic Compounds* 159 

F. O. Rice — A Research Chemist's Formula For Retirement* 160 

Eugene P. Schwartz — Dielectric Properties of Bromanil (2, 3, 5, 

6-tetrabromo-\, 4-benzoquinone)* 160 

Michael Whalon and Terry L. Kruger — New Methods of Analysis of 

Isomeric Diols* 160 

Philip A. Kinsey and Richard E. Rutledge — Determination of Iron 

in Breakfast Cereals by X-Ray Fluorescence* 161 

Catherine A. Dick, Terry L. Kruger, and Bruce N. Storhoff— 
Identification of the cis and trans Isomers of 4-t-Butylcyclohexane- 
carbonitrile* 161 

Terry L. Kruger — Applications of Transactional Analysis to the 

Laboratory Situation* 161 

Douglas Grinstead, Joseph Wu, Terry Kruger, and Bruce 
STORHOFF-Michael-Like Reactions: The Reaction of Diphenyl- 
phosphine with 1-Cycloalkene Carbonitriles* 161 

R. Segal, D. J. Reuland and W. A. Trinler — An Investigation of the 
Feasibility of Classifying and Identifying Soil Samples of Forensic 
Interest on the Basis of Elemental Composition by X-Ray 
Fluorescence Spectrometry* 162 

Barth H. Ragatz and Gina Modrak — Optimization of reaction 
Conditions for the Preparation of Subunits from Variant 
Hemoglobins 163 



♦Abstract 



Table of Contents vii 

Page 
Ecology 

Louis H. Ehinger and George R. Parker — Growth of Andropogon 
gerardii as Affected by Seed Source, Heavy metals, and Nutrients in 
two Northwestern Indiana Soils* 167 

Larry J. Miles and George R. Parker — Effects of Zinc addition to two 
northwestern Indiana Soils on growth of Andropogon scoparius and 
availability of Cd, Pb and Cu* 167 

Paul C. MacMillan, J. E. Means and K. Cromack, Jr.— Log Input 

and Decomposition in and Old-Growth Douglas-fir Forest* 168 

Edwin R. Squiers — Trends in the structural organization of an early 

successional system: The Devon Project* 168 

Richard W. Greene, David F. Spencer, Quentin E. Ross, and 
Thomas L. Theis — Restoration of Eutrophic — Evaluation of Fly Ash 
as a Botton Sealant* 1 69 

Craig Caupp, Eva Liu, and Toufiq A. Siddiqi — Determination of 
Trace Elements in Indiana Air and Sludge Samples, Using Neutron 
Activation Analysis* 1 69 

Byron G. Torke and Bradley J. Hall — Determination of Primary 

Production in Four Borrow Pit Lakes in West-central Indiana* ... 169 

Thcmas S. McComish and Richard O. Anderson— Frozen Chrinomid 

Larvae as Food in Feeding Experiments with Bluegills* 169 

Anne Spacie — A Study of Periphyton Production in the Wabash River* 170 

David W. Morgan and Leo D. Cline— Impingement at the NIPSCO 
Michigan City Generating Station: . A Comparison of Analysis 
Methods* 170 

Cody D. Best and David W. Morgan — Factors Affecting Density of 
Ichthyoplankton Entrainment in Condenser Cooling Water at the 
NIPSCO Michigan City Generating Station* 170 

Dolores M. Dawis and David W. Morgan — Fish Communities in the 
Vicinity of the Michigan City Generating Station: Preliminary 
Results* 171 

Donald E. Miller — Seasonal Distribution of Bythinia tentaculata in 

Hamlin Lake, Mason County, Michigan* 171 

J. R. Gammon — The Fish Community as an Indicator of Water Quality* 172 

Alton A. Lindsey— Success of the Holdridge Life Zone Model in Yielding 

Potential Evapotranspiration Estimates for U.S. Weather Stations* 172 

Sean T. Kelly and Charles M. Kirkpatrick— Evaluation of a Ruffed 

Grouse Reintroduction in Northern Indiana* 173 

Thomas E. Lauer and Kenneth A. Frato — Primary Productivity and 

Chlorophyll a of Selected Northern Indiana Lakes 174 

*Abstract 



viii Indiana Academy of Science 

Page 

Kevin D. Curry and Anne Spacie — Distribution of Stream Fishes in 

Tippecanoe County, Indiana 182 

David M. Sever and Clarence F. Dineen— Reproductive Ecology of the 

Tiger Salamander, Ambystoma tigrinum, in Northern Indiana .... 189 

David F. Spencer, Richard W. Greene, Thomas L. Theis, Hung Yiu 
Yeung, Quentin E. Ross and Elizabeth E. Dodge — A Study of the 
Relationship between Phytoplankton Abundance and Trace Metal 
Concentrations in Eutrophic Lake Charles East, Using Correlation 
Techniques 204 

William Chang — Factors Controlling Eutrophication in Lake Monroe 213 

Carl E. Warnes — Bacterial Examination of Four Borrow Pit Lakes in 

East Central Indiana 217 

Elizabeth S. Maxwell and Ralph D. Kirkpatrick — Terrestrial 
Flora and Vertebrate Fauna of Four East-central Indiana Borrow 
Pit Lakes 222 

Kathleen L. Horwath and David W. Morgan — Possible Physiological 
Clock Associated with the Feeding Habits of the Central Mudminnow 
( Umbra limi) Kirtland 230 

H. E. McReynolds and Joseph L. Janisch — Recent Fish Collections 

from Blue River, Washington County, Indiana 238 

Entomology 

Alan C. York — Organic Insect "Control" in Indiana Vegetables* 243 

Randall T. Baum and James D. Haddock — Studies on the Predation 

of Mosquito Larvae, by Pleid Bugs* 243 

Richard B. Schoenbohm and F. T. Turpin — Parasites Reared from 
Black Cutwork Larvae (Argrotis ispsilon Hufnagel) (Lepidoptera: 
Noctuidae) Collected in Indiana Corn Fields from 1974 to 1977* . . 243 

Spencer E. Reames* and Harold L. Zimmack — Hemocytes of the Fifth 

Instar European Corn Borer, Ostrinia nubilalis Hubner* 244 

R. F. Wilkey — Some Techniques for Collecting, Preserving and the 

Slidemounting of Arthropods* 244 

Ronald A. Hellenthal, Edwin F. Cook, and Theodore J. Crovello— 
Considerations of Variability and Taxonomic Methodology in the 
Systematics of the Orthocladiinae (Diptera: Chrionomidae)* 245 

John L. Mauszak* and Harold L. Zimmack — The Effect of a Pathogen, 
Nosema necatrix on the European Corn Borer, Ostrinia nubilalis 
Hubner* 245 

Jack R. Munsee — A Gynadromorph of Smithistruma (Hymenoptera: 

Formicidae) 246 

*Abstract 



Table of Contents ix 

Page 

David B. MacLean — Seasonal and Spatial Variation of Species Diversity 
in Collections of Sacrabaeidae, Elateridae, and Cerambycidae from 
West Central Indiana 252 

D. K. Reed, G. L. Reed, and D. W. Hamilton— The 13-year Cicada- 
Conclusion of an Experiment Started in 1963 259 

James A. Burnside and Thomas E. Mouzin — Intergeneric Attraction of 

Ramosia rileyana and Synanthedon pictipes 262 

Robert W. Meyer — Insects and Other Arthropods of Economic 

Importance in Indiana During 1977 265 

Geography and Geology 

Gary Westerman — An Assessment of Methodologies for Climate-Corn 

Yield Research* 273 

Mauri Sommer — Land vs. Space in the Middle East: Territorial 

Experience as a Source of Conflict* 273 

Robert D. Hall and Thomas L. Greenawalt— Thickness and 

Geographic Boundary of the Terra Rossa in South-Central Indiana* 273 

Rolla M. Dyer, Warren R. Abbey and Robert Soaper— A 
Characterization Study of Crude Oils From Certain Reservoirs In 
the Phillipstown Field, White County, Illinois* 274 

Jeffery Ehrenzeller, Ben Dailey, Diane Lane, Tim O'Neil, Jay 
Franklin, Lynn Recker, and Donald Ash— Aromatic Hydro- 
carbon Contamination of the Aquifer Supplying West Terre Haute, 
IN* 274 

Arthur Mirsky — Introductory Geology Field Trip Using Indianapolis 

Building Materials* 274 

Robert B. Votaw— Conodonts from the Black River Limestone, 

Subsurface of Indiana 276 

Curtis H. Ault and Donald Carr — Thick High-Purity Limestone and 

Dolomite in Carroll County, Indiana 283 

Peter L. Calengas — Mineral Resource Considerations in a Regional 

Management Plan 292 

Ellen E. Otto and Terry R. West— Application of Geology to land 

use Planning, Clinton County, Indiana 299 

Jack Barnes— The Effect of Strip Mine Blasting on Residential 
Structures Ayrshine Mine Warrick and Vanderburgh Counties, 
Indiana 311 

Steven D. Jansen— Bankfull Discharge of Indiana Streams 321 

L. Michael Trapasso — The Effects of Lake Monroe on the Flow of 

Salt Creek, South Central Indiana 329 

*Abstract 



x Indiana Academy of Science 

Page 

Robert D. Hall and Patricia A. Boaz— Hydrology and Water Quality 

of the Crooked Creek Watershed, Indianapolis, Indiana 334 

History of Science 

S. Mrozowski — The Story of Carbon Mesophase and Carbon Fibers* 341 

B. El wood Montgomery — The Cumberland Road* 342 

Gertrude L. Ward and Joseph Moore Museum— The National 

Road: An Introduction* 342 

Patrick H. Steele — The National Road: A Summary* 343 

Microbiology and Molecular Biology 

Jean Dickey and Morris Levy — Development of Erysiphe polygoni on 

susceptible and resistant races of Oenothera biennis* 345 

Clyde G. Culbertson, M. D. — Pathogenic Soil Amebas* 345 

G. C. Bergstrom and R. L. Nicholson — The Effect of the 
Collectotrichum graminicola Condial Matrix on Anthracnose 
Development in Maize* 345 

D. Madsen, M. Beaver, E. Bruckner, and B. Wostmann— Role of 

the Cecum in Bile Acid Metabolism in Germfree Rats* 346 

N. P. Maxon, E. M. Jones, R. L. Nicholson, and C. L. Rhykerd— In 

Vitro Selection of Somatic Callus Sectors in Regeneration Capacity* 347 

S. G. Newman and C. E. Warnes— Enumberation and Identification of 
Bacterial Chitinoclasts in Selected Indiana Waters with Emphasis on 
the Actinomycetes* 347 

C. Y. Lin, W. R. Stevenson, and R. L. Nicholson— The Hypersensitive 

Response of Tomato to the Bacterial Wilt Pathogen, Pseudomonas 
solanacearum* 347 

W. W. Baldwin and M. F. Asterita— Magnetic Effects on the Bacterium 

Escherichia coli 349 

Physics 

Ralph L. Place — A Proposed Technique for the Computer — Aided 

Measurement of Loudspeaker Driver Parameters* 355 

Ying Guey Fuh and Uwe J. Hansen — Computer Analysis of Alfven 

Wave Data* 355 

John A. Wisler and F. R. Steldt — The Economical Development of a 

Practical Holography Table* 355 

Gary W. Erwin and Uwe J. Hansen — Pressurization Technique for 

Alfven Wave Studies in Bismuth* 355 



'Abstract 



Table of Contents xi 

Page 

Vincent A. DiNoto, Jr. — Initial Experimentation of the Thermal 

Pollution of the Middle Wabash River* 356 

John Stromseth, Gary Stern and Stanley Burden— A Low-Cost, 
Student-Built Communications Interface Project for an 8080A Based 
Microcomputer and a PDP 1 1 /40 Minicomputer* 356 

Kent W. Bullis and Stanley L. Burden — A Low-Cost, Student-Built 
Digital Integrator for Computerized Logging of Solar Insolation 
Data* 357 

Malcom E. Hults and Ralph L. Place — Computer Assisted Instruction 

Modules for Physical Science* 357 

Kevin E. Gardner — Construction of a Molecular Nitrogen Laser and a 

Tunable Dye Laser for Lifetime Studies* 357 

Elmer Nussbaum — A Summary of Solar Energy Activities in Indiana* 357 

Gregory Peterson — An Innovative Approach to Environmental Physics 

Education* 357 

Carl C. Sartian — A Brief Report of "History of Physics in Great 

Britian", The Professor's View* 357 

D. J. Fehringer, R. J. Vetter, and P. L. Ziemer— Factors Affecting 

the Operation of a TSEE Proportional Counter 358 

Torsten Alvager and Mark Branham — Time Resolved Fluorescence 

Spectroscopy for in Situ Measurements 365 

Plant Taxonomy 

Dennis E. Grossnickle and Marion T. Jackson — Vascular Plant 

Inventory of Fall Creek Nature Preserve* 369 

Susan Rivar Kephart — The Effectiveness of External Factors in Isolating 

Sympatric Species of Milkweek (Asclepias)* 369 

Theodore J. Crovello and Douglas Miller — Computerized 
Information Retrieval and Graphics to Study The Mustard Flora of 
the Soviet Union* 370 

Peter K. Bretting — Artificial Interspecific Hybrids in Proboscidea 

(Martyniaceae)* 370 

Science Education 

James Mitchell Smith — Column in Agriculture Magazine as 

Educational text* 373 

Matthew Kelty — A Videotape Method for Testing of Anatomy Course 

Material* 373 



♦Abstract 



xii Indiana Academy of Science 



Charles L. Gehring — Utilizing Resource Individuals for TV Instruction 

in Biology Teaching Strategies* 373 

Marshall E. Parks — Bird Studies and Environmental Education* .... 374 

H. Marvin Bratt — Development of Spatial Abilities in School Age 

Children* 374 

Jon R. Hendrix — Development and Implementation of a Bioethical 

Decision-Making Course at Ball State University* 375 

Robert B. Votaw — Piaget and Geology* 375 

Soil and Atmospheric Sciences 

Russell K. Stivers — Comparison of Methods for Determining 

Exchangeable Bases in Soils* 377 

S. J. Kristof and R. A. Weismiller— Application of Satellite Remote 

Sensing Data for Mapping Vegetation* 377 

James Mitchell Smith — Soil Science Atmospheric Science, Teaching 

Devices for Solar Heater and Methane Generator* 378 

Stephen A. Justham — The Status of Tornado Preparedness Planning in 

Indiana's Institutions of Higher Education* 378 

E. D. Orme and D. W. Nelson — Phosphate Chemistry of Indiana Lake 

and Reservoir Sediments* 378 

Paul E. Ciesielski and Phillip J. Smith — The Influence of a Synoptic 
Scale Cyclone on Boundary Layer Winds Over Lake Michigan in 
Early Summer, 1976* 379 

Dennis A. Keyser, Ernest M. Agee and Christopher R. Church — The 

Modern Climatology of Indiana Tornadoes 380 

Frederick E. Brennan and Phillip J. Smith — The Climatology of 
Cyclones and Anticyclones in the Upper Mississippi and Ohio 
River Valleys and Great Lakes Region, 1950-74 391 

Byron O. Blair and M. F. Baumgardner and B. E. Dethier — Landsat 
Data From Two Forest Sites in Indiana Reflect Impact of Summer 
Drought 403 

D. W. Nelson — Transformations of Hydroxylamine in Soils 409 

J. L. Lefton and J. L. Ahlrichs — Cadmium Levels of Golf Green Soils 414 

G. C. Steinhardt and L. D. Norton — Comparison of Soil Structure 

Resulting From Permanent Pasture and Continuous Row Crop ... 421 

Zoology 

Clive W. Arave and Jack L. Albright — The Influence of Space 
Reduction and Behavioral Stress upon Plasma Corticoids 
Concentration in Dairy Cows* 429 

♦Abstract 



Table of Contents xiii 

Page 

Duvall A. Jones — Models for Gas Diffusion into Red Blood Cells* . . 429 

William J. Brett — Circadian Rhythm of Movement in the Mexican 

Jumping-Bean Moth, Lspeyresia saltitans ( Westwood)* 429 

Raymond A. Schlueter — Reproduction of Notropis spilopterus and 
Pimephales vigilax in the lower White River, Pike County, 
Indiana* 430 

Larry R. Ganion — A Preliminary Study on the Effect of Vasectomy 

on the Biology of the Mouse Epididymis* 430 

Belinda A. Shenk and William J. Brett— Localization of Amino- 

glutethimide at the Cellular Level* 431 

Mohinder S. Jarial and Ling S. Jen — The Fine Structure of the 
Nictitans Gland of the Dog with Particular Reference to the 
Formation and Release of its Secretory Product* 43 1 

H. E. McReynolds — A Distribution Study of the Blacktail Shiner 

{Notropis venustus) in the Clear Creek Basin* 432 

Gary L. Tieben and John S. Halter — Food Habits of the Barn Owl 

Tyto Alba Clinton County, Ohio* 432 

John O. Whitaker, Jr. and Rebecca J. Goff — Mallophaga of Wild 

Mammals of Indiana* 432 

W. J. Eversole — Effects of Age on Blood Pressure in Female Rats* . . . 432 

Wayne C. Houtcooper — Distribution and Abundance of Rodents in 

Cultivated Ecosystems 434 

Sherman A. Minton, Jr. — Serological Relationships among some 

Midwestern Snakes 438 

Mary E. Wassel, Gary L. Tieben, and John O. Whitaker, Jr. — The 
ectoparasites of the southern bog lemming, Synaptomys cooperi, 
in Indiana 446 

J. Dan Webster and Steven G. Goff — Variation in the Vertebral Column 

and Ribs of Songbirds 450 

R. J. Vetter, W. V. Kessler, M. P. Plumlee, and R. B. Harrington— 
Effect of Dietary Selenium Level on Feed Intake and Weight Gain of 
Rats 460 

Raymond A. Schleuter — Appearance and summer growth of young-of- 
the-year Morone chrysops and Ictalurus punctatus in the lower 
White River, Pike Co., Indiana 467 



♦Abstract 



Proceedings 

of the 

Indiana Academy 

of Science 



Officers and Committees 15 

Robert O. Petty (1977) Department of Biology 

Wabash College 
Crawfordsville, IN 47933 

Richard L. Powell (1977) Indiana Geological Survey 

611 North Walnut Grove 
Bloomington, IN 47401 

Marion T. Jackson (1978) Department of Life Sciences 

Indiana State University 
Terre Haute, IN 47809 

Carl H. Krekeler (1978) 360 Mclntyre Court 

Valparaiso, IN 46383 

Victor Riemenschneider (1978). . . Department of Biology 

Indiana University — South Bend 
South Bend, IN 46615 

Winona H. Welch (Honorary) DePauw University 

Greencastle, IN 46135 

Carrolle Markle (Honorary) Ashfield, MA 01330 

Newsletter 

Walter A. Cory, Jr School Science Coordinators Office 

Morrison Hall 103 
Indiana University 
Bloomington, IN 47401 
Phone: 812/337-9785 

"Speaker of the Year" Selection Committee 

John A. Ricketts (1978), ChairmanDepartment of Chemistry 

DePauw University 
Greencastle, IN 46135 

Harry G. Day (1977) Department of Chemistry 

Indiana University 
Bloomington, IN 47401 

Damian V. Schmelz (1977) Department of Biology 

St. Meinrad College 
St. Meinrad, IN 47577 

Neil V. Weber (1979) Department of Earth Sciences 

Indiana University — South Bend 
South Bend, IN 46615 

Academy Representative on Indiana Natural Resources Commission 

Damian V. Schmelz Department of Biology 

St. Meinrad College 
St. Meinrad, IN 47577 
Phone: 812/357-6580 



SPRING MEETING 

MINUTES OF THE EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE MEETING 

April 22, 1977 

The meeting was called to order by President Clarence F. Dineen at 4:10 
p.m. in the Roof Lounge of the Union Building, Indiana University-Purdue 
University at Indianapolis. The minutes of the Executive Committee and of the 
General Session of the Fall 1976 meeting were approved as corrected. 

TREASURER'S REPORT 

Treasurer Stanley L. Burden presented a financial report for the period 
January 1 through April 16, 1977, a summary of which follows: 



Academy Administered 

Accounts Accounts Total 

Balance: January 1, 1977 $6,359.58 $14,585.77 $20,945.35 

1977 Income 3,486.07 5,302.70 8,788.77 

1977 Expenditure 4,879.67 8,041.58 12,921.25 

Balance: April 16, 1977 $4,965.98 $11,846.89 $16,812.87 

The Treasurer also reported that more than one-half of the 1977 membership 
dues have been received and that the new check-off format dues cards appear to 
be effective. The treasurer's report was accepted. 



STANDING COMMITTEE REPORTS 

Academy Foundation Committee. William A. Daily, Chairman, 
reported that the John S. Wright Invested Income Account held $14,000 as of 
March 31, 1977. He also reported that the market value of the Foundation 
Account had increased by 13.3% to $23,148, while that of the John S. Wright 
Fund had declined by 13.1% to $490,987. 

Research Grants Committee. Robert M. Brooker, Chairman, reported 
that $4,244 has been granted for eleven individual research projects this year. 

Membership Committee. Jerry J. Nisbet, Chairman, presented an 
analysis of Academy membership which indicated that the total membership 
had declined from 1,095 in 1975 to 1,059 in 1976; principal source of this 
decrease was a loss of 9 senior and 34 regular members during the period 
surveyed. The Executive Committee was asked to review the impact of the 
recently created Senior membership category on the financial status of the 
Academy. The consensus of the Executive Committee was that no further action 
on membership categories should be considered until the effectiveness of the 
check-off dues cards could be fully evaluated. 

16 



Minutes of the Executive Committee 17 

Publications Committee. Editor Benjamin Moulton, reporting for the 
committee, raised several questions concerning available space and costs of 
publishing Proceedings. He requested that suggestions for greater economy and 
efficiency be passed on to the committee. After some discussion concerning 
probable cost of publishing the next volume of Proceedings and the number of 
volumes required, the following action was taken: 

Motion: That the Academy publish 525 paperback and 600 hardback 
volumes of Volume 86 of Proceedings. Seconded and carried. 

Library Committee. Lois Burton, Chairman, reported on the status of the 
expansion of the State Library into the recently completed facilities and invited 
the Academy to visit, use, and hold committee meetings in the new facilities. 

Representative to Association of Academies of Science (AAAS). Presi- 
dent Dineen reported that the Academy representative, Willis H. Johnson, had 
attended the Denver meeting of the Association. 

Youth Activities Committee. Although no formal report was presented, 
Chairman Donald R. Winslow informed the Executive Committee of 
forthcoming scheduled events which will lead to the awarding of two $1,000 
scholarships in the name of the Academy. 

Science and Society Committee. Robert E. Henderson, Chairman, 
reported that support for the Science Advisory Bill will be actively sought at the 
next session of the State Legislature. He reported that the wide circulation of 
"Indiana Energy 1977" has resulted in the introduction of legislation in the 
General Assembly. The committee has received an interim report from Dr. Jerry 
Hamelink on PCB contamination in Indiana and has approved a major effort 
for 1977 tentatively entitled "Environmental Policy Decisions; A Case Study of 
PCB's in Indiana," with Dr. William Beranek as study committee chairman. 



SPECIAL COMMITTEE REPORTS 

Biological Survey Committee. Theodore Crovello, Chairman, presented 
a review of the goals, activities, and membership of the committee, including an 
analysis of the four existing subcommittees: Literature, Endangered Species, 
Flora Indiana Projects (FLIP), and People Power. He also urged interested 
Academy members to become actively involved in the various projects of the 
Biological Survey Committee. Dr. Crovello also distributed copies of the first 
bulletin of the Indiana Public Responsibilities Network of the American 
Institute of Biological Sciences (I-AIBS). 

Emeritus Member Selection Committee. Robert H. Cooper, Chairman, 
reviewed the requirements for eligibility for Emeritus status and presented the 
following persons (initial membership year in parentheses) for election: 

George F. Hennion, South Bend, Indiana (1928) 
Theodore Kallas, Beech Grove, Indiana (1946) 
William J. Tinkle, North Manchester, Indiana (1936) 

Motion: That the persons presented be elected to Emeritus Membership. 
Seconded and carried. 



18 Indiana Academy of Science 

Preservation of Natural Areas Committee. William B. Barnes, 
Chairman, presented a complete listing of the 45 Indiana Nature Preserves, 
totalling 6,630 acres. Included are the four dedications and one addition since 
the last report. These new preserves are the Cedar Bluffs, Wawasee Wetlands, 
Hemlock Bluff, Hayswood, and Olin Lake Nature Preserves. Mr. Barnes also 
distributed copies of "Indiana Nature Preserves," a profusely illustrated reprint 
from Outdoor Indiana, which describes the first 36 nature preserves in the state- 
wide system. This publication is available, free of charge, from the Indiana 
Department of Natural Resources, Division of Nature Preserves. 

Speaker-of-the- Year Selection Committee. Chairman Frank A. Guthrie 
submitted a report for the 1976-77 committee, which included a brief summary 
of the committee's activities and a complete listing of Speaker-of-the- Year 
Visitations since the inception of the program in 1971. Damian V. Schmelz, 
reporting for the 1977-78 committee, stated that seven nominations are under 
consideration for the next Speaker-of-the-Year. 

Academy Representative to Natural Resources Commission. Damian V. 
Schmelz reviewed the functions and current activities of the Commission. 

Newsletter. Walter A. Cory, Director of Public Relations, announced 
that Newsletter # 1 7 had been unavoidably delayed, but should be sent out soon. 
He reviewed the Newsletter program and summarized information which will 
appear in the next issue. 

OLD BUSINESS 

The constitutional amendments regarding Article VII. Meetings, which 
was tabled during the Fall 1976 meeting was briefly discussed. By Executive 
Committee consensus, further consideration of this amendment will be delayed 
until an appropriate survey of the membership, conducted by the Secretary 
during the 1977 Fall meeting, can be completed. 

President Dineen solicited suggestions on locations for future meetings; the 
1978 and 1979 Fall meetings are scheduled for Anderson College and 
Manchester College, respectively. Of particular concern is the location of the 
Centennial Year meeting in 1985. 

Following brief announcements concerning the General Session meeting 
and the Saturday morning field trip, the meeting was adjourned at 5:15 p.m. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Robert E. Van Atta, Secretary 



SPRING MEETING 

MINUTES OF THE GENERAL SESSION 

April 22, 1977 

The meeting was called to order by Program Chairman Arthur Mirsky at 
7:30 p.m. 

Dr. Mirsky presented Dean William Neville, who introduced the speaker of 
the evening, Dr. John M. Vaughan, Vice President, Engineering and 
Environmental Affairs, Inland Container Corporation, Indianapolis. Dr. 
Vaughan delivered an extremely interesting and thought-provoking address 
entitled "Industry and the Environment — A Dichotomy That Can Work," 
which generated many questions and lively discussions. 

After a brief recess, President Dineen called the Business Meeting to order. 

The Secretary of the Academy presented a brief summary of committee 
reports received and action taken by the Executive Committee on April 22, 1977. 

Brief instructions regarding Saturday morning field activities were given by 
President Dineen and Program Chairman Arthur Mirsky. 

William Daily, Chairman of the Resolutions Committee, moved the 
adoption of the following resolutions: 

The Academy members and guests here assembled wish to express 
their sincere appreciation to the officers and especially Dr. Arthur 
Mirsky, Chairman of the Program Committee, for the fine program he 
has arranged. 

We are grateful to the Indiana University-Purdue University here in 
Indianapolis for providing us with their splendid facilities. 

Our thanks also go to Dr. John M. Vaughan who presented a timely 
and interesting address this evening. 

Our appreciation is extended to the leaders of tomorrow's field trips, 
which are so important to our spring meetings. 

The resolutions were approved. 

President Dineen announced that a brief meeting of Division Chairmen 
with the Program Chairman and the Secretary would follow the Business 
Meeting. 

The meeting was adjourned at 8:50 p.m. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Robert E. Van Atta, Secretary 



19 



FALL MEETING 

MINUTES OF THE EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE MEETING 

October 27, 1977 

The meeting was called to order by President Clarence F. Dineen at 7:05 
p.m. in the Roof Lounge of the Union Building at Indiana University-Purdue 
University at Indianapolis. The minutes of the Executive Committee and of the 
General Session of the Spring 1977 meeting were approved. 

TREASURER'S REPORT 

Treasurer Stanley L. Burden presented a financial report for the period 
January 1, 1977 through October 20, 1977, summarized as follows: 





Academy 
Accounts 


Administered 
Accounts 


Totals 


Balance: January 1, 1977 

1977 Income 


$6,359.58 

9,873.82 


$14,585.77 
5,811.02 
8,753.56 


$20,945.35 
15,684.84 




6 866 97 


15 620 53 








Balance: October 20, 1977 


$9,366.43 


$11,643.33 


$21,009.66 



The Treasurer's report listed 803 currently paid-up members, including 370 
senior members, with 52 new member applications; 96 members were dropped 
for non-payment of dues. 

ELECTED COMMITTEE REPORTS 

Academy Foundation Committee. William A. Daily, Chairman, 
presented the following summary report: 

I. Foundation Account 

Balance as of September 30, 1976 $ 559.94 

Income as of September 30, 1977 1,060.42 

Disbursements to Academy 300.00 

Transferred to Principal 1,000.00 

Cash Balance 320.36 



II. 



John S. Wright Fund 

Balance as of September 30, 1976 $ 14,000.00 

Income as of September 30, 1977 19,930.65 

Cash balance as of September 30, 1977 

Disbursements from Invested Income Account: 

Research Grants and Proceedings, Vol. 85 ... . 

Indiana National Bank fee 

Cash balance 

Balance in Invested Income Account: 



924.75 

5,500.00 

2,432.00 

6,923.40 

. . 20,000.00 

III. Market Value of all Securities $442,243.00 



20 



Minutes of the Executive Committee 21 

Bonding Committee. No report. 

Research Grants Committee. Robert M. Brooker, Chairman, reported 
that one research grant in the amount of $320 has been awarded since the Spring 
1977 meeting. After some discussion the Executive Committee agreed that 
future Academy meeting programs should carry appropriate identification of 
those papers resulting from research supported by the Academy. 

Editor's Report. Benjamin Moulton, Editor, reported that Volume 86 
(507 pages, plus index and table of contents) is nearing completion. A 
breakdown of contents by divisions was included. 

Director of Public Relations. Walter A. Cory, Director, commented that 
media coverage of Academy activities remains a problem. He solicited 
suggestions and assistance in this area. 

The reports of elected committees were approved. 

PRESIDENTIAL APPOINTIVE COMMITTEES 

Academy Representative to A A AS and A AS. Willis H. Johnson 
submitted a report summarizing the activities of Section X and the AAS, 
including changes in AAS operations for 1978. 

Auditing Committee. No report. 

Youth Activities Committee. Donald R. Winslow, Chairman presented a 
status report on the activities of the three youth activity programs sponsored by 
the Academy: the Science Fair Program, the Science Talent Search, and the 
Indiana Junior Academy of Science. 

Twelve Regional Science Fairs were held last year; 24 state finalists and 
their sponsoring teachers made the trip to Cleveland to participate in the 
International Science and Engineering Fair. The Indiana Science Education 
Fund, Inc., and over 200 other organizations contributed financial support for 
this trip. 

The 30th Annual Science Talent Search produced 43 participants from 26 
high schools throughout the state; 24 finalists were selected, of whom 1 3 winners 
were selected to receive one-year subscriptions to Scientific American. 

The chairman's report included a listing of the assets and liabilities of the 
Junior Academy and contained a recommendation for increased growth and 
service. 

The most significant accomplishment of the year for the Youth Activities 
Committee was the award of two $1,000 scholarships, created by the Board of 
Directors of the Indiana Science Education Fund, Inc. These awards were as 
follows: 

Karl F. Kaufman Scholarship: Mike Miller, Lawrence Central High 
School, Indianapolis. 

L. A. PVillig Scholarship: Mike Forrest, John Adams High School, 
South Bend. 

Library Committee. Lois Burton, Chairman, reported that Volume 85 of 
Proceedings was sent to 344 members and clubs. The library presently receives 



22 Indiana Academy of Science 

materials from most states and 72 foreign countries; 67 new titles were received 
in exchange during the past year. Academy members were invited to visit the 
expanded facilities of the Academy Library. 

Program Committee. Arthur Mirsky, Chairman, made several 
announcements pertaining to operations during the current meeting. 

Publications Committee. William R. Eberly, Chairman, reported that the 
demand for monographs has been very heavy; Natural Features of Indiana has 
been taken over by the University of Notre Dame Press. Monographs and other 
Academy publications are available for purchase by members. 

Fellows Committee. Richard L. Conklin, Chairman, made the following 
motion: 

Motion: That the following persons, recommended by the Fellows 
Committee, be elected as Fellows of the Academy: 

Karl L. Kaufman Carl H. Krekeler 

William G. Kessel Dan Wiersma 

Virgil R. Knapp Donald R. Winslow 

Seconded and carried. 

Resolutions Committee. No report. 

Invitations Committee. Philip A. St. John, Chairman, announced that 
meetings are scheduled for Anderson College in 1978 and Manchester College in 
1979. He requested invitations for 1980 and subsequent years. Brief discussion 
led to the suggestion that a possible site be sought in the Brookville area for the 
Centennial Meeting in 1985. 

Necrologist. No report. 

Parliamentarian. No report. 

Science and Society Committee. Jerry J. Nisbet, reporting for Robert E. 
Henderson, Chairman, made the following motion: 

Motion: That the Resolutions Committee be asked to draft a resolution to 
the Governor of the State of Indiana requesting that the Governor 
meet with a representative group of the Indiana Academy of 
Science to discuss appropriate mechanisms to provide assistance 
to state government on matters related to science and technology. 

Seconded and carried. 

Membership Committee. Jerry J. Nisbet, Chairman, reported that a new 
membership brochure is now available. 

The reports of Presidential Appointive Committees were approved. 

SPECIAL COMMITTEE REPORTS 

Biological Survey Committee. Theodore J. Crovello, Chairman, 
presented a report detailing the activities of the four subcommittees on 
Literature, Endangered Species, Flora Indiana, and People Power. The 
function and progress of each was outlined and current tasks of the committee 
were reviewed. 



Minutes of the Executive Committee 23 

Emehtis Member Selection Committee. Robert H. Cooper, Chairman, 
presented the following persons for Emeritus Membership (initial membership 
year shown in parentheses): 

William G. Kessel (1946) 

Motion: That the person presented be elected to Emeritus Membership. 

Seconded and carried. 

Preservation of Natural Areas Committee. William B. Barnes, 
Chairman, reported that although no nature preserves have been dedicated since 
the 1977 Spring meeting, the state-wide system now contains 45 areas with a 
total of 6,733 acres. He also reported on litigation involving the Bittern ut Nature 
Preserve. 

Speaker-of-the- Year Committee. John A. Ricketts, Chairman, reported 
that with the current Speaker, Dr. John B. Patton, the list of Indiana college 
visits has been completed. He also requested that names of suggested speakers be 
submitted in order that a catalog of speakers may be accumulated. 

Academy Representative on Indiana Natural Resources Commission. 
Damian V. Schmelz reported on current and proposed activities of the 
Commission, including the forthcoming publication of all administrative laws. 
A long-range program for the Design for the Future of Indiana's Natural 
Resources is being initiated. He also briefly discussed the unfortunate outcome 
of the litigation involving the Bitternut Preserve, in which a small portion of that 
reserve will be lost in order to enlarge a road and construct a new bridge. 

OLD BUSINESS 

The Secretary of the Academy briefly reviewed the status of the 
constitutional amendment proposal originally presented at the November 4, 
1976 Executive Committee meeting. The purpose of the straw vote to be taken of 
the membership during the Divisional Business Meetings on October 28, 1977 
was described and possible further action of the Executive Committee following 
the straw vote was discussed. No action was taken. 

The meeting was adjourned at 8:30 p.m. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Robert E. Van Atta, Secretary 



FALL MEETING 

MINUTES OF THE GENERAL SESSION 

October 28, 1977 

The Business Session of the 93rd Annual Meeting of the Academy was 
called to order by President Clarence F. Dineen at 11:05 a.m. in Room 101, 
Lecture Hall, Indiana University-Purdue University of Indianapolis. 

Dr. Glen W. Irwin, Jr., Vice President of Indiana University 
(Indianapolis), welcomed the Academy on behalf of the university. 

President Dineen introduced the Academy Speaker-of-the-Year, Dr. John 
B. Patton, State Geologist and Director of the Indiana Geological Survey, and 
three panelists: Dr. Mark Reshkin, Dr. Robert Henderson, and Mr. George W. 
Lands. Dr. Patton presented a timely illustrated lecture entitled "The Invisible 
Crisis: Implications for Indiana of Federal Energy Policy." Following his 
presentation, each panel member made brief remarks, to which Dr. Patton 
responded. A question-and-answer session produced numerous questions, 
directed to Dr. Patton and the panelists. 

The Business Meeting was recessed at 12:05 a.m. and reconvened at 1:30 
p.m. in Room 100, Lecture Hall. 

The Secretary of the Academy presented a summary of committee reports 
and informed the membership of official actions taken by the Executive 
Committee on October 27, 1977. 

The names of individuals who were elected 1978 Divisional Chairmen and 
Chairmen-Elect include: 

ANTHROPOLOGY 

Chairman: Russell E. Lewis 

Chairman-Elect: Charles P. Warren 



BOTANY 



Chairman: Larry R. Yoder 

Chairman-Elect: Anne Susalla 



CELL BIOLOGY 

Chairman: Betty D. Allamong 

Chairman-Elect: Mary F. Asterita 

CHEMISTRY 

Chairman: Clyde R. Metz 

Chairman-Elect: John R. Ricketts 

ECOLOGY 

Chairman: Robert Priddy 

Chairman-Elect: Harold McReynolds 

24 



Minutes of the General Session 



25 



ENGINEERING 

Chairman: 
Chairman-Elect: 
(No 1977 election held: 

ENTOMOLOGY 

Chairman: 
Chairman-Elect: 

GEOLOGY & GEOGRAPHY 

Chairman: 
Chairman-Elect: 

HISTORY OF SCIENCE 

Chairman: 
Chairman-Elect: 



Milton E. Harr 
Ramachandra A. Rao 
1977 officers carry over to 1978.) 

Harold L. Zimmack 
Alan C. York 

Gerald R. Showalter 
John H. Cleveland 

William Bloom 
Patrick H. Steele 



MICROBIOLOGY & MOLECULAR BIOLOGY 



Chairman: 
Chairman-Elect: 



William W. Baldwin 
Carl E. Warnes 



PHYSICS 



Chairman: 
Chairman-Elect: 

PLANT TAXONOMY 

Chairman: 
Chairman-Elect: 

SCIENCE EDUCATION 

Chairman: 
Chairman-Elect: 

SOIL & ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES 

Chairman: Stephen A. Justham 

Chairman-Elect: Gary C. Steinhardt 

ZOOLOGY 

Chairman: Jackson L. Marr 

Chairman-Elect: Richard McCracken 



Carl Sartain 
Ralph Llewellyn 

Theodore Crovello 
Donald L. Burton 

Stanley S. Shimer 
H. Marvin Bratt 



The straw vote on the matter of a constitutional change of Academy Meeting 
dates was: Favorable, 67; Unfavorable, 95; Recorded abstentions, 35. 

The Secretary then presented the following motions: 

Motion: That the individuals who have applied for membership in the 
Academy be elected to the types of membership for which they 
have applied. 

Seconded and carried. 

Motion: That the individual recommended by the Emeritus Member 
Selection Committee and approved by the Executive Committee 
be elected to Emeritus Membership. 

Seconded and carried. 

Motion: That the individuals recommended by the Fellows Committee 



26 Indiana Academy of Science 

and approved by the Executive Committee be elected as Fellows 
of the Academy. 
Seconded and carried. 

Fa ye Kenoyer Daily presented the Necrologist's report, which included the 
names of eight members: 

Terzo P. Amidei Eli Lilly 

Nellie M. Coats Armin Manning 

William E. Edington Dorsey P. Marting 

David T. Jones Fernandus Payne 

Damian Schmelz, Chairman of the Nominating Committee, placed the 
following slate in nomination: 

President: Jerry J. Nisbet, 1978 

President-Elect: J. Dan Webster, 1978 

Secretary: Robert E. Van Atta, 1978-80 

Editor: Benjamin Moulton, 1978-80 

Academy Foundation: Clyde R. Metz, 1978-79 

Bonding Committee: Robert M. Brooker, 1978 

C. Barry Knisley, 1978 
Research Grants Committee Gary E. Dolph, 1978-82 

No nominations were made from the floor. 

Motion: That the slate presented by the Nominating Committee be 

declared elected. 
Seconded and carried. 

William A. Daily, Chairman of the Resolutions Committee, presented the 
following: 

RESOLUTION: 

WHEREAS: State government needs scientific counsel in dealing with 
many of the problems facing government and society 
today; and 

WHEREAS: Many members of the Indiana Academy of Science have 
expressed an interest in assisting the Governor in matters 
that involve their particular competence, be it therefore 

RESOLVED: That the President of the Academy be empowered to 
arrange a meeting with the Governor and selected 
members of the Academy to discuss ways in which 
members of the Academy might be of greatest assistance in 
solving such scientific problems, and be it further 

RESOLVED: That the Secretary of the Academy be instructed to 
transmit this resolution to the Governor of the State. 

RESOLUTION: 

WHEREAS: The Indiana Academy of Science is deeply grateful to 
Indiana University-Purdue University at Indianapolis for 
their invitation to hold its 93rd annual meeting on their 
campus; and 



Minutes of the General Session 



27 



WHEREAS: Administration, faculty and students alike have 
cooperated in providing us these many splendid rooms 
and facilities, be it 

RESOLVED: That the Academy members here assembled express their 
sincere appreciation to IUPUI through Vice-President G. 
W. Irwin. 

We express our sincere thanks to Dr. John B. Patton for 
his "Speaker of the Year" very informative and timely 
address. 

We are grateful to Dr. Arthur Mirsky and his committee 
for the arrangements of the entire program and the 
comforts and conveniences provided the membership. 

Motion: That the resolutions presented by the Resolutions Committee be 

approved. 
Seconded and carried. 

The meeting was recessed at 4:15 p.m. and reconvened at 6:00 p.m. with 
President-Elect Jerry J. Nisbet presiding at the annual banquet held in the 
Hoosier Room of the Student Union. 

Following introduction of Academy Officers at the speakers' table, Dr. 
Nisbet introduced President Clarence F. Dineen, who presented the annual 
Presidential Address, entitled "History of a River," an interesting and thought- 
provoking discussion of the Michigan-Indiana watershed of the St. Joseph 
River. 



The meeting was adjourned at 7:45 p.m. 



Respectfully submitted, 
Robert E. Van Atta, Secretary 



28 



Indiana Academy of Science 



Lilly Research Laboratories 

Division of Eli Lilly Company 

Indianapolis, Indiana 46206 

Telephone (317) 636-2211 

October 28, 1977 

WHEREAS: The Indiana Academy of Science is deeply grateful to 
Indiana University-Purdue University at Indianapolis for 
their invitation to hold its 93rd annual meeting on their 
campus: and 

WHEREAS: Administration, faculty and students alike have 
cooperated in providing us these many splendid rooms 
and facilities, be it 

RESOLVED: That the Academy members here assembled express their 
sincere appreciation to IUPUI through Vice-President G. 
W. Irwin. 

We express our sincere thanks to Dr. John B. Patton for 
his "Speaker of the Year" very informative and timely 
address. 

We are grateful to Dr. Arthur Mirsky and his committee 
for the arrangements of the entire program and the 
comforts and conveniences provided the membership. 

Submitted by the Resolutions Committee 

William A. Daily, Chairman 
Howard R. Youse 



DePauw University 
Greencastle, Indiana 46135 

October 28, 1977 
WHEREAS: State government needs scientific counsel in dealing with 

many of the problems facing government and society 

today; and 
WHEREAS: Many members of the Indiana Academy of Science have 

expressed an interest in assisting the Governor in matters 

that involve their particular competence, be it therefore 

RESOLVED: That the President of the Academy be empowered to 
arrange a meeting with the Governor and selected 
members of the Academy to discuss ways in which 
members of the Academy might be of greatest assistance in 
solving such scientific problems, and be it further 

RESOLVED: That the Secretary of the Academy be instructed to 
transmit this resolution to the Governor of the State. 



FINANCIAL REPORT 

JANUARY 1-DECEMBER 31, 1977 
I. ACADEMY ACCOUNTS 



Income Budgeted Expenditure Budgeted 



Dues 

Reprints: Vol. 83 

84 

85 

86 

Interest 

Miscellaneous 

Secretary 

Treasurer 

General Office 

Travel, AAAS Dues, etc 

Membership Committee 

Transfer to Adminstered Accounts 

Junior Academy ($1,000.00) 

Science and Society ($500.00) 

Natural Areas (-$526.50) 

Library Binding ($1,200.00) 

Proceedings: Publication ($750.00) . . 

Proceedings: Mailing ($0.00) 

Publications: Clerical ($0.00) 

President's Fund 

Newsletter 

Speaker of the Year Honorarium 

Program Committee 

Publications Editor's Expenses 

Youth Activities 

Biological Surveys Committee 

Representative to AAAS Meeting 

Public Relations 

Section Chairman Expenses 

CPA Fees for Tax Return Preparation. 

Lawyer's Fees 

Miscellaneous 



$7,123.20 
61.55 


$6,140.00 


101.64 




2 661.31 




0.00 

1,000.87 

4.00 


2,886.00 
1,300.00 



$10,952.57 
* Includes a $324.00 late billing from 1976 expense. 



$2,911.70 $2,700.00 



486.91 


500.00 


354.71 


400.00 


109.00 


250.00 


170.95 


225.00 


200.00 


200.00 


2,923.50 


2,923.50 



0.00 


100.00 


500.00 


500.00 


500.00 


500.00 


* 1,644.45 


1,000.00 


500.00 


500.00 


0.00 


50.00 


150.00 


150.00 


294.70 


300.00 


17.00 


100.00 


0.00 


150.00 


400.00 


500.00 


0.00 


250.00 


85.00 


100.00 



$10,326.00 $11,229.92 $11,398.50 



29 



30 Indiana Academy of Science 



II. administered accounts 



January 1 1977 1977 December 31 

Balance Income Expenditures Balance 



Junior Academy $ 55.78 $ 1,000.00 $ 553.29 $ 502.49 

Science Talent Search 725.55 2, 127.32 2,580.07 272.80 

Science and Society 1,925.33 879.20 328.24 2,476.29 

Research 254.60 660.00 4,574.00 (-3,649.40) 

Natural Areas 526.50 -526.50 0.00 0.00 

J. S. Wright Library 134.28 0.00 0.00 134.28 

Lilly III Library 2,632.76 0.00 0.00 2,632.76 

Lilly V Library 4,513.20 0.00 0.00 4,513.20 

Library Binding 995.55 1,200.00 998.70 1,196.85 

Science Fairs 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 

Publications: 

Proceedings 46.27 6,250.00 5,495.38 800.89 

Mailing of Proceedings 779.43 0.00 0.00 779.43 

Monographs 1,496.52 34.00 0.00 1,530.52 

Natural Features 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 

Clerical 500.00 0.00 0.00 500.00 



$14,585.77 $11,624.02 $14,519.68 $11,690.11 

III. SUMMARY 

Academy Admistered 

Accounts Accounts Total 



Balance: January 1, 1977 $ 6,359.58 $14,585.77 $20,945.35 

1977 Income 10,952.57 1 1,624.02 22,576.59 

1977 Expenditures 1 1,229.92 14,519.68 25,749.60 

Balance: December 31, 1977 6,082.23 11,690.11 17,772,34 

IV. BANK BALANCES 

Upland United Bank, Upland, Indiana $ 2,272.36 

Great Western Savings and Loan, Los Angeles, California 6,019.83 

First Western Savings and Loan, Las Vegas, Nevada 9,480.15 



$17,772.34 



V. SUMMARY OF TRUST FUNDS 

A. Foundation Account (00430-00-0) 

Income cash balance (1/1/77) $ 518.68 

Total dividends and interest for 1977 1,041.98 

Disbursements for 1977 

Research grants $ 300.00 

Transfer to principal cash 1,300.00 

$ 1,600.00 -1,600.00 

Income cash balance (12/31/77) $ -39.34 $ -39.34 

Principal cash balance (1/1/77) 485.94 

Total receipts for 1977 1 1,544.02 

Total disbursements for 1977 -1 1,976.56 

Principal cash balance (12/31/77) 53.40 $ 53.40 

Market value of investments (12/31/77) $23,248.50 

Total value of account (12/31/77) $23,262.56* 

""Carrying value is $24,192.53 



Financial Report 



31 



B. John S. Wright Fund (00430-01-9) 

Income cash balance (1/1/77) 

Total dividends, interest, and other income 
for 1977 

Disbursements for 1977 

INB fee $ 2,432.00 

Transfer to 00430-02-8 13,983.73 

Transfer to Principal Cash 0.00 

$16,415.73 

Income cash balance (12/31/77) 

Principal cash balance (1/1/77) 

Total receipts for 1977 

Total disbursements for 1977 

Principal cash balance (12/31/77) 

Market value of investments (12/31/77) 

Total value of account (12/31/77) 

♦Carrying value is $337,431.53 

C. John S. Wright Invested Income Account (00430-02-8) 

Income cash balance ( 1 / 1 / 77) 

Total interest for 1977 

Disbursements for 1977 

Transfers to principal $ -1,500.00 

$-1,500.00 

Income cash balance (12/31/77) 

Principal cash balance (1/1/77) 

Total receipts for 1977 

Disbursements for 1977 

Purchase of investments $16,000.00 

Research grants 0.00 

Proceedings, Vol. 85 5,500.00 

$21,500.00 

Principal cash balance (12/31/77) 

Market value of investments 

Total value of account 



782.98 



19,594.25 



$-16,415.73 




3,961.50 


$ 3,961.50 


210.33 




0.00 




0.00 




$ 210.33 


$ 210.33 




$466,671.50 




470,843.33* 



694.84 
999.85 



$-1,500.00 

$ 179.69 $ 

555.18 

1,483.73 



-21,500.00 



179.69 



538.91 $ 538.91 
$ 22,000.00 



$ 22,718.00 



VI. NOTES 

Membership Dues: 

According to the Treasurer's records, the current status may be summarized as follows: 
945 paid (299 member, 436 senior member, 54 student, 13 family, 32 senior family member, 14 
sustaining member, 1 family sustaining, (4) life, (1) honorary, (79) emeritus, and 14 club 
members. 
152 on file from 1976 but not paid for 1977 
70 new members for 1977 (included in above totals) 

3 previous members reinstated during 1977 (included in above totals) 
96 members and clubs dropped for nonpayment of 1976 dues 

Dues Structure for 1977: 

$ 2.00 for student memberships 

5.00 for memberships and club memberships 
10.00 for senior memberships 



32 Indiana Academy of Science 

25.00 for sustaining memberships 
2.00 additional for family memberships 
300.00 for life memberships 
150.00-500.00 corporate memberships 
50.00-100.00 institutional memberships 

1.00 initiation/ reinstatement fee ($2.00 for family membership) 

Savings 

The treasurer, from the total assets of both Academy and Administered accounts, has maintained 
sufficient funds in the checking account to pay current bills throughout the year; the remaining 
funds have been invested in savings certificates. 

Certificates redeemed in 1977 

1. (FWSL #32-002495-4) $2,000 invested at 6.50% April 26, 1976; April 26, 1977 redemption 
value $2,143.01. $2,000 reinvested as certificate #11-32010279. 

Certificates current 

1. (GWSL) $5,919.10 invested at 6.75% October 1977; 31 December value $6,019.83; 
Maturity at April, 1980. 

2. (FWSL) $3,000.00 invested at 6.75% October 1976; 31 December value $3,266.70; 
Maturity at April 1979. 

3. (FWSL) $2,000.00 invested at 6.50% April 1977; 31 December value $2,081.25; 
Maturity at April 1978. 

4. (FWSL) $1,000.00 invested at 6.50% June 1977; 31 December value $1,033.05; 
Maturity at June 1978. 

5. (FWSL) $1,000.00 invested at 6.50% June 1977; 31 December value $1,033.05; 
Maturity at June 1978. 

6. (FWSL) $1,000 invested at 6.50% June 1977; 31 December value $1,033.05; 
Maturity at June 1978. 

7. (FWSL) $1,000.00 invested at 6.50% June 1977; 31 December value $1,033.05; 
Maturity at June 1978. 






Total $15,499.98 

Reprints: 

Reprint charges to authors for Vol. 82 have been collected giving a net profit to the Academy of 
$100.83 in excess of printing costs. Reprint charges to authors for Vol. 83 have been collected 
giving a net profit to the Academy of $ 1 23. 1 3 in excess of printing costs. Reprint charges to authors 
for Vol. 84 are being collected with 1 billing outstanding for a total of $150.48 (William R. Eberly) 
and will give a net profit to the Academy (1975, 1976 and 1977) of $223.81 in excess of printing 
costs when all bills have been collected. Reprint charges to authors for Vol. 85 are being collected 
with 4 billings outstanding for a total of $416.08 and will give a net profit to the Academy of 
$225.93 when all bills have been collected. 

Attorney Fees: 

Ice, Miller, Donadio & Ryan of Indianapolis have been advising the Academy in matters 
concerning the reprinting and roles of various publications. The executive committee voted at the 
Fall Meeting of 1973 to delay the transferring of $4,226.87 for attorney fees concerning the tax 
classification problems to the Academy operating funds from the J.S. Wright fund until these 
funds are needed for operating expenses. 

Publications: 

Sales to date during 1 977 have been $34.00 for Mongraphs. The total cost of publishing Vol. 85 of 
the Proceedings was $13,495.38 of which the State of Indiana paid $8,000 leaving a balance of 
$5,495.38 to be paid from Academy funds. 

Research Grants: 

Funds totaling $4,564.00 have been awarded to: Greg Patterson (Indiana State), Charles D. 
Lawrence (I.U.), James Haddock (IUPU-Ft. Wayne), Larry R. Yoder (Ohio State- Marion 
Campus), William Chang (I.U.), L.R. Ganion (Ball State), J. Dan Webster (Hanover), Diana J. 
Einselen (Butler), Michael R. Hudson (I.U.), Deborah A. Champagne (I.U.), Neil Warren 
Stillman (Purdue), and Daniel Lee Krisher (I.U.). 



Financial Report 



33 



VII. BUDGET FOR 1978 

The following budget was approved by the Budget Committee in a telephone conference call meetinj 
on December 14, 1977: 

Academy Accounts 

Anticipated Income 

Dues, Initiation and Reinstatement Fees 

(70@$2, 500@$5, 400@$10, 100@$0) $ 6,640.00 

Interest on Savings 1,000.00 

Reprint Charges to Authors 3,100.00 

$10,740.00 
Budgeted Expenditures 

Secretary $ 500.00 

Treasurer 400.00 

General Office 250.00 

Officer Travel, AA AS Dues 225.00 

Membership Committee 200.00 

President's Contingency Fund 100.00 

Newsletter 500.00 

Speaker of the Year Honorarium 500.00 

Program Committee 1,000.00 

Publication Editor's Expenses 500,00 

Youth Activities Committee 50.00 

Biological Surveys Committee (including Endangered 
Plant Species and Flora Indiana Project Com- 
mittees) 1,000.00 

Representative to AAAS Meeting 300.00 

Reprint Charges to Academy 3,000.00 

Public Relations 100.00 

Section Chairmen Expenses 50.00 

CPA Fees for Tax Return Preparation 400.00 

Lawyer's Fees 150.00 

Miscellaneous (Including $110 for library books) 210.00 

Transfers to Administered Accounts 3,450.00 

Junior Academy $ 1 ,000.00 

Science and Society Committee 500.00 

Natural Areas Committee 0.00 

Library Binding 1,200.00 

Proceedings: Publication 750.00 

Proceedings: Mailing 0.00 

Proceedings: Clerical 0.00 

$12,885.00 

Endowment Funds 

Anticipated Income 

IAS Foundation $ 300.00 

J.S. Wright Investment Income 15,500.00 

$15,800.00 

Budgeted Expenditures 

Bank Fee $ 2,700.00 

Research Grants ($7,000— $350 AAAS) 6,650.00 

Publications 

Proceedings, Vol. 87 ($14,250— $8,000 Ind.— 
$750 transfer) 5,500.00 



$14,850.00 



34 Indiana Academy of Science 

Restricted Accounts 

Anticipated Income 

Research Grants Committee (AAAS) $ 350.00 (part) 

Science Talent Search (Tri Kappa) 2,000.00 

Publications 300.00 

Proceedings $ 50.00 

Monographs and Nat. Feat 250.00 

$ 2,650.00 

Budgeted Expenditures 

Research Grants Committee $ 350.00 (part) 

Science Talent Search 2,000.00 

Publications 300.00 

Proceedings $ 50.00 (part) 

Monographs 250.00 (part) 

$ 2,650.00 
Respectfully submitted, 

Stanley Burden, Treasurer 

We, the undersigned, have audited the Treasurer's records for the Indiana Academy of Science for 
the year 1977 and have found them to be accurate and in order. 

February 20, 1978 Timothy J. Burkholder 

A. Gilbert Cook 



THE INDIANA JUNIOR ACADEMY OF SCIENCE 

45th Annual Meeting, October 28, 1977 

The 45th annual meeting of the Indiana Junior Academy of Science was 
called to order at 1:35 p.m. on October 28, 1977 by the president, Greg Rondot. 

Qualifications for president and secretary were read and nominations were 
opened to the floor. Nominations for president were Brian Stephens, Highland 
High School and Terry Weigand, Marquette High School. Nominations for 
secretary were Cheryl Barbati, Highland High School and Julie Cadle, Paoli 
High School. 

Candidates gave a brief explanation of why they felt they deserved the 
office. The ballots were distributed, marked and collected. They were then 
counted. The results were announced. The president-elect was Brian Stephens 
and secretary-elect was Cheryl Barbati. Seven clubs were represented at the 
meeting. 

Dr. Robert Rivers, Junior Academy Director, announced the winners of 
the research paper competition. They were as follows: 

JUNIOR SCIENCE DIVISION 

First Place 

Jamie Sibbitt, Paoli Jr.-Sr. High School 

Second Place 

Julie Calarek, St. John the Baptist, Fort Wayne 
Tammi Hedges, Bishop Luers High School, Fort Wayne 

LIFE SCIENCE— SENIOR DIVISION 
First Place 

Anne Celeste Pfauth, Marquette High School, Michigan City 
Second Place 

Margaret T Bruner, Paoli Jr.-Sr. High School 

Lynda S. Rhodes, East Noble High School, Kendallville 
Third Place 

Debra S. Benham, Paoli Jr.-Sr. High School 

Ron Doris, Highland High School 

Debbie S. Ferree, Paoli Jr.-Sr. High School 

PHYSICAL SCIENCE— SENIOR DIVISION 

First Place 

Michael J. Patterson, East Noble High School, Kendallville 

John A. Stark, East Noble High School 
Second Place 

Pamela Jo Barnett, Paoli Jr.-Sr. High School 

Gregory A. Rondot, Bishop Luers High School, Fort Wayne 
Third Place 

Terry Wiegand, Marquette High School, Michigan City 

35 



36 Indiana Academy of Science 

Outstanding Paper Awards went to John Stark and Anne Pfauth. 
Outstanding Junior Scientists selected by the Junior Academy Council were 
Greg Rondot, Teresa Bruner and Mike Patterson. The new President and 
Secretary's address is: The G.R.A.M.S., Highland High School, Highland, 
Indiana 46322. 

A movie was presented by the admissions office, IUPUI. Total attendance 
of the days' sessions was about 75 persons. The meeting was adjourned at 2:30 
p.m. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Stacy Fox, Secretary IJAS 1976-77 



BIOLOGY SURVEY COMMITTEE 

Report to Executive Committee 
October 27, 1977, IUPUI, Indianapolis 

BSC's Purposes And Organization 

The Biology Survey Committee (BSC) has experienced a busy and 
productive year. Much thought and discussion has been given to how the BSC 
may best serve biology, the Academy, our government, and the people of 
Indiana. 

Historically, the BSC is almost as old as the Academy itself. Its original 
purpose was extremely broad: to accumulate and make available information 
on the biota of the State. In a recent BSC history project coordinated by Jack 
Munsee, we discovered that originally the BSC's goal included an actual survey 
of the State, county by county. In subsequent decades the major BSC activity 
centered on the creation of an index to the literature of the State's biota. In the 
last few years, however, the need for diverse and detailed information on the 
biota of the State has become evident. But potential users of such information 
on the biota of the State has become evident. But potential users of such 
information no longer are restricted to academic biologists, and now also 
include such diverse people as environmental impact statement writers, workers 
in various agencies of both State and Federal government, teachers at all levels, 
area planners, and individuals with private interests. More importantly, at least 
federal legislation (e.g., the 1973 Endangered Species Act) now requires 
developers to demonstrate that their activity will not endanger species, etc. This 
and other legislation requires a basic, detailed knowledge of the biota of 
Indiana. Furthermore, not only is it essential that such knowledge be 
accumulated, but also that the small parts of it relevant to a specific task be made 
available in a meaningful and efficient way. 

Thus we now see the current goal of BSC to be the same as when the 
Academy was founded: to accumulate, store, and make available in useful 
forms, information on the biota of the State. Given the magnitude of the data 
base of interest, and the need for fast retrieval of selected pieces of it, we also 
considered how computers might help the BSC achieve its goals of accumulating 
and disseminating information. 

Consequently, given its purposes and building on previous activities of the 
BSC (for which we must thank its past Chairman, Jack Munsee), and of several 
more recently created subcommittees, the BSC is organized into the following 
subcommittees: 

A. BSC Literature Subcommittee — Its purpose is to maintain and to 
accumulate published references on the biota of the State. While in the past the 
BSC Literature Project has presented its findings in conventional printed form, 
we also wish to explore the simultaneous creation of an accumulative computer 
data bank. It would provide updated, integrated bibliographies of particular 

37 



38 Indiana Academy of Science 

topics in response to specific requests. A recent poll on the value of this 
bibliographic service indicate it is of value, but its methods of dissemination 
should be reviewed. 

B. BSC Endangered Species Subcommittee — Its purpose is to develop 
and maintain information on the status of species that might be threatened or 
endangered. Progress is being made in studying several large taxa, including 
mammals, fish, and vascular plants. This year two summary lists of rare species 
were produced from a computer data base, and await dissemination. 

C. BSC Flora Indiana Project (FLIP) Subcommittee — Currently 
information is available on the presence or absence of each of 2,500 vascular 
plants in each of Indiana's 92 counties. Based on Deam's ( 1 940) Flora of Indiana 
plus new records as verified by herbarium species this computerized information 
will be available as a byproduct of a Ph.D. thesis by Clifton Keller, a student of 
Crovello's at Notre Dame. While these data deal only with plants, the hope is 
that the computer programs and other techniques developed also will be of use 
to a Fauna Indiana Project. 

D. BSC People Power Subcommittee — The purpose of this 
subcommittee is to develop and maintain information on persons interested in 
any or all aspects of the biota of the State, including the accumulation and use of 
such data. People with interests in the biota of one geographic area immediately 
come to mind, as do people with interests in one taxon, one group of species, etc. 
But people of value to the goals of the BSC are not restricted to biologists. The 
expertise of geographers, geologists and archeologists to name a few, is of great 
value to the BSC. 

Larger Benefits of BSC Activity 
A partial list of broad benefits of BSC activity include: 

1. Provision of data and their evaluation to State agencies, educational 
institutions, businesses, and private citizens. 

2. Enhancement of education at all levels. 

3. Enhancement of good citizenship by increased awareness and 
involvement in the study of our biological natural resources (and introduced 
resources, e.g., crops, weeds, diseases, ornamentals). 

4. Increased appreciation among Indiana citizens, young and old, for the 
beneficial effects of science. 

5. Increased prestige and participation for the Indiana Academy of 
Sciences. 

Current Tasks of the BSC. 

1. Determine interest about the biota of the State, and in BSC activities, 
among individuals in Indiana, and in such organizations as Audubon, 
Isaac Walton, Nature Conservancy, etc. 

2. Continue the work of the BSC Literature Subcommittee. 

3. Integrate the works of several people on the status of endangered biota. 
Request a grant from the Indiana Academy to describe and summarize 



Biology Survey Committee Report 39 

their findings in a modest publication, much like that already done in 
states like Michigan and Wisconsin. 

4. Investigate sources of funding (outside of the Indiana Academy) for BSC 
activities. An attractive feature of BSC activities, and thus funding, is that 
its activities are geographically oriented, thus opening the possibility and 
need for funding to be distributed among people and institutions around 
the state. Also, most computerized data banks developed by the BSC can 
be duplicated for use at colleges, etc., around the State. 

5. Continue and expand work on the Flora Indiana Program. 

6. Determine how the activities of the BSC Committee can enhance those of 
the Natural Areas Committee, and vice cersa. 

7. Develop background information and suggestions to help the State to 
draft endangered species or similar legislation, with cooperation of the 
Academy's Science and Society Committee, the AIBS's Public 
Responsibilities Network, etc. 

8. Investigate whether the re-creation (?) of the post of State Botanist (plus ?) 
is necessary, given our increasingly-limited natural resources, etc. If 
deemed so, then provide sound recommendations and reasons to the 
proper people. 

9. Explore the possibilities of making BSC data locally available via 
Indiana's IHETS, INDIRS, or other computer networks. 

10. Maintain high levels of communication at the national level (e.g., with the 
federal Office of Endangered Species, EPA) to assure our awareness of 
new information affecting Indiana, and to assure that the BSC can 
contribute to the solution of relevant national problems. 

October 27, 1977 Prepared and Submitted By, 

Theodore J. Crovello, Chairman 
Biology Survey Committee 

Current BSC Members: 

William B. Crankshaw Department of Biology 

Ball State University 
Muncie Indiana 47306 

Theodore Crovello, BSC Chairman Department of Biology 

University of Notre Dame 
Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 
Phone: (219) 283-7496 

James R. Gammon Department of Zoology 

DePauw University 
Greencastle, Indiana 46135 

Jack R. Munsee Department of Life Sciences 

Indiana State University 
Terre Haute, Indiana 47809 



40 



Indiana Academy of Science 



Victor Riemenschneider 



David S. Woodruff 



Frank N. Young, Jr 



Department of Biology 
Indiana University — South Bend 
South Bend, Indiana 46615 



Department of Biological Sciences 

Purdue University 

West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 

Department of Zoology 
Indiana University 
Bloomington, Indiana 47401 

HELP US TO HELP INDIANA! 



BIOLOGY SURVEY COMMITTEE 

LITERATURE SUBCOMMITTEE REPORT 1976-1977 

Theodore J. Crovello, Chairman, University of Notre Dame 

William B. Crankshaw Victor Riemenschneider 

Ball State University Indiana University, South Bend 

James R. Gammon David S. Woodruff 

DePauw University Purdue University 

Jack R. Munsee Frank N. Young, Jr. 

Indiana State University Indiana University, Bloomington 

The goal of the Literature Subcommittee of the Academy's Biological 
Survey Committee is to accumulate and maintain published and unpublished 
references on the biota of the State. While in the past the BSC Literature Project 
has presented its findings in conventional printed form, we now also are engaged 
in the simultaneous creation of a current and retrospective computer data bank. 
It will provide updated, integrated bibliographies on particular topics in 
response to specific requests. A recent poll on the value of this new bibliographic 
service indicated both its value and need. Contact Crovello for further 
information, or to submit project information to the data bank. The data bank 
includes much more information about each reference than is included in this 
printed summary. 

The works reported below are arranged first by major taxonomic category, 
and then alphabetically by author. The letter in parentheses at the end of each 
reference stands for one of the following: P= Publication; I = In press; T= Thesis; 
W = Work in progress. For theses and for work in progress, the worker's 
affiliation is indicated if it was supplied to the Committee. 

Biota: 1. Dineen, C. F. 1977. The history of a river. St. Mary's College. (I). 

2. Goodman, J. D. 1977. Vertebrates, molluscs, flatworms, parasites, and flower- 
ing plants of Delaware and Madison counties, Indiana. Anderson College. (W). 

Nonvascular Plants: 1. Fahey, T., and J. D. Schoknecht. 1977. Coprinus, Oidium and Ozonium: 
Development and ultrastructural investigations. Indiana State University. (T). 

2. Jack M. A., and M. R. Tansey. 1977. Growth, sporulation, and germination of 
spores of thermophilic fungi incubated in sun-heated soil. Mycologia 69: 109- 
117. (P). 

3. Konopka, A. 1978. Physiological ecology of planktonic blue -green algae. 
Purdue University. (W). 

4. Samson, R. A., and M. J. Crisman, and M. R. Tansey. 1977. Observations on 
the thermophilic ascomycete Thielavia terrestris. Trans. Brit. Mycol. Soc. 69: 
69: 417-423. (P). 

5. Sclokneclt, J. Myxomycetes of Indiana and Illinois. Indiana State 
University (W). 

6. Tansey, M. R., and M. A. Jack. 1977. Growth of thermophilic fungi in soil 
in situ and in vitro. Mycologia 69: 563-578. (P). 

7. Tansey, M. R., and M. A. Jack. 1976. Thermophilic fungi in sun-heated 
soils. Mycologia 68: 1061-1075. (P). 

41 



42 Indiana Academy of Science 

Vascular Plants: 1. Crovello, T. J. and C. Keller. 1977. Rare plants of Indiana (W). 

2. Crovello, T. J. and C. Keller. 1977. The Flora Indiana Project. (W). 

3. Crovello, T. J., B. Hellenthal, and C. Keller. 1977. 1-Trees, A Manual Of 
The Trees of Indiana. (W). 

4. Crovello, T. J. et al. 1977. An Atlas Of The Flora Of Indiana. (W). 

5. Enderle, K. 1977. Mosses of the Saint Mary's College Nature Area. (W). 

6. Gastony, G. J. 1977. Chromosomes of the independently reproducing Appala- 
chian gametophyte: a new source of taxonomic evidence. Systematic Botany 2: 
43-48. (P). 

7. Gastony, G. J. and D. E. Soltis. 1977. Chromosome studies of Pamassia and 
Lepuropetalon (Saxifragaceae) from the eastern United States. A new base 
number for Pamassia. Rhodora 79: 573-578. (P). 

8. Kephart, S. R. Reproductive isolating mechanisms in Asclepias sp. Indiana 
University, Bloomington. (T). 

9. Levy, M. and P. L. Winternheimer. 1977. Allozyme linkage disequilibira 
among chromosome complexes in the permanent translocation Oenothera 
biennis. Evolution 31: (I). 

10. Maxwell, R. H. 1978. Indiana Plant Distribution Records, Clark County. 
Indiana University Southeast. (W). 

11. Mertens, R. 1977. Determination of the taxonomic position of Polygonum 
tenue in genus Polygonum. Ball State University. (W). 

12. Rietveld, W. J. and R. D. Williams. 1977. Development of lifting and storage 
guidelines for optimun physiological condition of black walnut planting stock. 
U.S. Forest Service, Bedford, Indiana. (W). 

13. Reitveld, W. J. and R. D. Williams. 1977. Detection of dormancy in black 
walnut seedlings with the Shigometer and an Oscilloscope technique. (I). 

14. Schilling, E. E. Systematics of the Solanum nigrum comples in North America. 
Indiana University, Bloomington. (W). 

15. Smith, A. W. and J. J. Tobolski. 1977. Isozyme polymorphism in white ash and 
blue ash. (W). 

16. Soltis, D. E. 1977. Biosystematic study of Sullivantia (Saxifragaceae). Indiana 
University, Bloomington. (W). 

17. Tobolski, J. J. 1977. An isozyme survey of several Indiana oak species. (W). 

18. Williams, R. D. and D. T. Funk. 1977. Eighteen-year performance on an 
eastern white pine genetic test plantation in southern Indiana. (I). 

19. Williams, R. D., D. T Fund and R. Nielsen. 1977. Squirrels, direct seeding 
walnuts, repellents. Southern Lumberman. 89-91. (P). 

20. Williams, R. D. and D. T. Funk. 1977. The effects of genotype and nursery 
environment on the survival and growth of black walnut plantations. (W). 

21. West, L G., J. L. McLaughlin, and G. K. Eisenbeiss. 1977. Saponins and 
Triterpenes from flex opaca. Phytochemistry 16, 1846-1847. (P). 

Insects: 1. Ailor, M. C. R. 1977. A study of the factors affecting body size and of fertility 

in the Hessian fly, Mayetiola destructor (Say). M. S. Thesis, Purdue University. 
106p. (T). 

2. Akey, R. J. 1977. A survey of the mosquito breeding sites in Wayne County, 
Indiana. Indiana University East. (W). 

3. Ballard, T and D. L. Schuder. 1977. Life history and control of eastern pine 
shoot borer. Annals Entom. Soc. Amer. (W). 

4. Belicek, J. 1976. Coccinellidae of Western Canada and Alaska with analyses of 
the transmontane zoo-geographic relationships between the fauna of British 
Columbia and Alberta. (Insecta; Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). Quaestiones 
Entomologicae 12: 283-409. (P). 

5. Bennett, G. W. and R. D. Lund. 1976. Evaluation of insecticide baits for cock- 
roach control, 1976. Insecticide and Acaricide Tests, Vol. 3. (1978). (I). 

6. Bennett, G. W. and R. D. Lund. 1977. Evaluation of encapsulated Pyrethrins 
(Sectrol™) for German cockroach and cat flea control. Pest Control 45 (9): 44, 
46, 48-50. (P). 



Biology Survey Committee Report 43 



7. Bennett, G. W., and S. H. Robertson. 1977. Field testing of Ficam W for flea 
control. (I). 

8. Caldwell, D. L. ana D. L. Schuder. 1977. Life cycle and descriptions of forms 
of Phylloxera caryaecaulis (Filch). Annals Entom. Soc. Amer. (W). 

9. Foster, J. E. 1976. Current status of genetic control of Hessian fly populations 
with the dominant Great Plains Race. Proc. XV Internatl. Congress of Entomol. 
157-163. (P). 

10. Foster, J. E. 1977. Suppression of a field population of the Hessian fly by 
release of the dominant avirulent Great Plains biotype. Jour. Econ. Entomol. 
70: (I). 

1 1. Haddock, J. D. 1977. The biosystematics of the Caddis Fly genus Nectopsyche in 
North America with emphasis on the aquatic stages. The American Midland 
Naturalist 98: 382-421. (P). 

12. Haddock, J. D. and N. D. Schmidt. 1977. Seasonal changes in soil arthropod 
species diversity as affected by perturbation in three successional communities 
in Northeastern Indiana. Proc. lnd. Acad. Sci. 86: 467-473. (P). 

13. Hallman, G. J., and C. R. Edwards and J. E. Foster. 1977. Soybeans cultivars 
evaluated for resistance to Mexican bean beetle in southern Indiana. Jour. 
Econ. Ent. 70: 316-318. (P). 

14. Harris, T. L. and W. P. McCafferty. 1977. Assessing aquatic insect flight 
behavior with sticky traps. The Great Lakes Entomologist Vol. 10 (4): 233- 
239. (P). 

15. Jacobs, M. E. 1974. Beta-Alanine and Adaptation in Drosophila. J. Insect 
Physiol. 20: 859-866. (P). 

16. Johnson, M. D. 1976. Survey of the bees in Putnam Co. (includes nesting 
biology). DePauw University. (W). 

17. Knisley, C B. 1977. The Cicindelidae of Indiana (tiger bettles). (W). 

18. Lund, R. D. and G. W. Bennett. 1977. Evaluation of Bolt Roach Bait, 1977. 
Insecticide and Acaricide Tests, Vol. 3. (1978). (I). 

19. Lund, R. D. and G. W. Bennett. 1977. Comparison of three kinds of cockroach 
traps. Insecticide and Acaricide Tests, Vol. 3. (1978). (1). 

20. Lund, R. D. and F. T. Turpin. 1977. Carabid damage to weed seeds found in 
Indiana cornfields. Environ. Entomol. 6 (5): 695-698. (P). 

21. Lund, R. D. and F. T. Turpin. 1977. Serological investigation of black cutworm 
larval consumption by ground beetles. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 70 (3): 322- 
324. (P). 

22. McNeal, C. D., Jr. and G. W. Bennett. 1976. Utilization of ultra-low volume 
aerosols for the control of German cockroaches. J. Econ. Entomol. 69 (4): 506-8. 
(P). 

23. Meyer, R. W. 1976. Insects and other arthropods of economic importance in 
Indiana during 1975. Proc. lnd. Acad. Sci. 85: 262-270. (P). 

24. Meyer, R. W. 1977. Insects and other arthropods of economic importance in 
Indiana during 1976. Proc. lnd. Acad. Sci. 86: (I). 

25. Meyer, R. W. and D. P. Sanders. 1976. New locality records in the genus 
Chrysops (Diptera: Tabanidae) in Indiana. Proc. lnd. Acad. Sci. 85: 271-273. 
(P). 

26. Munsee, J. R. 1977. Smithistruma jilitalpa W. L. Brown, and Indiana Dacetine 
ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Proceedings of the Indiana Academy of 
Science. (P). 

27. Munsee, J. R. 1977. A gynandromorph of Smithistruma Symenoptera: Formi- 
cidae). Indiana State University. (W). 

28. Munstermann, L. E. and G. B. Craig. 1976. Culex mosquito populations in the 
catch basins of northern St. Joseph County, In. Proc. lnd. Acad. Sci. 86: 246- 

'z252. (P). 

29. Owens, Hohn M. 1977. Ultra-low volume particle-size distribution in green- 
house whitefly control on poinsettia. Purdue University. (T). 

30. Owens, J. M. and G. W. Bennett. 1978. Ultra-low volume particle-size deposi- 
tion on immature greenhouse whiteflies. J. Econ. Ento. (I). 



44 Indiana Academy of Science 



31. Owens, J. M and G. W. Bennett. 1978. Ultra-low volume particle-size distri- 
bution in greenhouse whitefly control on poinsettia. Purdue University. (T). 

32. Russo, R. 1977. Effect of quantity of blood on ovarian development in Culex 
pipiens. IUPUI, Indianapolis. (W). 

33. Russo, R. 1977. Information retrieval in mosquito control. IUPUI, Indiana- 

polis. (W). 

34. Sabath, M. D., R. C. Richmond, and R. M. Torrella. 1973. Temperature- 
mediated seasonal color changes in Drosophila putrida. Amer. Midi. Natur. 
90: 509-521. (P). 

35. Santos, J. P. A Brazilian corn germplasm screened for resistance to Sitophilus 
zeamaise Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Sitotroga Cerealella 
(Oliver). (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). M. S. Thesis Purdue University 182 p. 
1977. (T). 

36. Shade, R. E., M. J. DosKOCiLand N. P. Maxon. 1978. Potato leafhopper resis- 
tance detected in glandular-haired Medicago species. J. Econ. Entomol. (I). 

37. Shade, R. E., T. E. Thompson and M. J. Busching. 1978. Evaluation of the 
Genus Medicago for alfalfa weevil resistance. (W). 

38. Shade, R. E., T. E. Thompson and W. R. Campbell. 1975. An alfalfa weevil 
larval resistance mechanism detected in Medicago. J. Econ. Entomol. 68 (3): 
399-404. (P). 

39. Shroyer, D. A., et. al. 1976. Mosquito diversity in St. Joseph Co., In. (Diptera: 
Culicidae). Proc. In. Acad. Sci. 86: 238-241. (P). 

40. Sosa, O., Jr, and J. E. Foster. 1976. Temperature and the expression of resis- 
tance in wheat to the Hessian fly. Environmental Entomol. 5: 333-336. (P). 

41. Thompson, T. E., R. E. Shade and J. D. Axtell. 1977. Alfalfa resistance to 
Hypera postica larvae. Corp Science. (I). 

42. White, D. S. 1978. A revision of the neartic Optioservus (coleoptera: Elmidae) 
with descriptions of new species. Systematic Entomology, 3: 59-74. (P). 

43. York, A. C. 1976. (reports on control of eight crop insect pests). Insecticide and 
Acaricide Tests. 1: 38, 39, 43, 49, 52, 77. (P). 

44. York, A. C. 1977. Corn earworm and European corn borer control on sweet 
corn. Insecticide and Acaracide Tests. 2: 52-53. (P). 

Other Invertebrates: 1. Dineen, C. F. 1977. Annual production of zooplankton and benthic organisms 
in Spicer Lake. St. Mary's College. (W). 

2. Fain, A. and J. O. Whitaker, Jr. 1976. Notes on the genus Acanthophthirius 
Perkins in North America (Acarina: Myobiidae). Bull. Ann. Soc. Beige Entomol. 
112: 127-143. (P). 

3. Frey, D. C. Geography of reproduction among the Cladocera. (W). 

4. Goseco, C. G., V. R. Ferris and J. M. Ferris. 1976. Revisions in Leptonchoidea 
(Nematoda: Dorylaimida). Dorylaimoides in Dorylaimoididae, Dorylaimoi- 
dinoe; Caiolaimus and Timmus n. gen. in Dorylnimoididae, Calolaiminae; and 
Miranema in Miranemtidae. Purdue University Research Bulletin No. 942. (P). 

5. Knisley, C. B. 1974. Phytoseiid mites of Pease Woods, Johnson County, Indiana 
— a preliminary study. Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. 84: 477 (abstract only). (P). 

6. Whitaker, J. O. Jr. 1976. Ectoparasites of squirrels of the genus Sciurus in 
Indiana. Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. For 1975. (I). 

7. Whitaker, J. O. Jr., G. J. James and R. J. Goff. 1977. Ectoparasites and food 
habits of the opossum, Didelphis virginiana, in Indiana. Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. 
86: 501-507. (P). 

Fish: 1. McReynolds, H. E. and J. L. Janisch. 1977. Recent fish collections from Blue 

River, Washington County, Indiana. U.S. Forest Service, Bedford, Indiana. (I). 

2. Whitaker, J. O. Jr. Fish community changes at one Vigo County locality over 
a twelve year period. Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. For 1975. 85: 191-207. (P). 

3. Whitaker, J. O. Jr. 1977. Seasonal changes in food habits of some cyprinid 
fishes from the White River at Petersburg, Indiana. Amer. Midi. Natur. 97: 
411-418. (P). 



Biology Survey Committee Report 



45 



Mammals: 



Other Vertebrates: 



10. 



II. 



Whitaker, J. O. Jr., R. A. ScHLUETERand G. L. Tieben. 1977. Effects of heated 
water on fish and of White River at Petersburg, Indiana. Ind. Univ. Water 
Resources Res. Center. Rept. Invest. #8. 198 p. (P). 

Kirkpatrick, C. M., C. M. White, T. W. Hoekstra, F. A. Stormer, and H. P. 
Weeks, Jr. 1976. White-tailed deer of U.S. Naval Ammunition Depot Crane. 
Purdue U. Ag. Exp. Sta. Res. Bull. No. 932 42 pp. (P). 

McCrocklin, S. M. 1976. Studies in the role of wild mammals in the spread 
of pseudorabies among swine. Master's thesis, Purdue U., West Lafayette, In. 
90 pp. (T). 

Pascal, D. D. Jr., G. S. Jones and J. O. Whitaker, Jr. 1976. Mammals in the 
Indiana State University Vertebrate Collections. Publ. #1. ISU Vertebrate 
Collections. (P). 

L. L. Schmeltz and J. O. Whitaker, Jr. 1977. Use of woodchuck burrows by 
woodchucks and other mammals. Trans. Ky. Acad. Sci. 38: 79-82. (P). 
Stormer, F. A., T. W. Hockstra, and C. M. Kirkpatrick. 1977. Hunter- 
inflicted wounding of white-tailed deer. Wildlife Society Bulletin. (I). 
Stormer, F. A., C. M. White, and C. M. Kirkpatrick. 1977. Frequency dis- 
tribution of deer pellets in southern Indiana. J. Wildl. Manage 41 (4). (I). 
Weeks, H. P., Jr., and C. M. Kirkpatrick. 1976. Adaptations of white-tailed 
deer to naturally occurring sodium deficiencies. J. Wildl. Manage. 40 (4): 610- 
625. (P). 

Whitaker, J. O. Jr. 1977. Food and external parasites of the Norway Rat, 
Rattus moruagicus, in Indiana. Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. 86: 193-198. (P). 

Branham, A. and J. C. List. 1977. Development of the urostyle during meta- 
morphosis in five species of Anurans. Journal of Morphology. (T). 
Couture, M., and D. M. Server. Egg mortality in Ambystoma tigrinum. St. 
Mary's College. (W). 

Deneff, S., and D. M. Sever. 1977. Ontogenetic changes in phototactic behavior 
of Ambystoma tigrinum tigrinum (Amphibia-Urodea). Proc. In. Acad. Sci. 86: 
478-481. (P). 

Eisenhauer, D. T. 1976. Ecology and behavior of the emperior goose in Alaska. 
Master's Thesis, Purdue U., West Lafayette, In. 255 pp. (T). 
Eisenhauer, D. T. and C. M. Kirkpatrick. 1977. Ecology of the emperior goose 
in Alaska. Wildlife Monographs No. 57. 62 pp. (P). 

Kelly, S. T. 1977. Evaluation of a ruffed grouse reintroduction into northern 
Indiana. Master's thesis, Purdue U., West Lafayette, In. 70 pp. (T). 
Melchiors, M. A. 1976. Migration and feeding behavior of non-hunted and 
hunted geese on the Jasper-Pulaski goose management zone. Master's thesis, 
Purdue U., West Lafayette, In. 70 pp (T). 

Sever, D. M. 1978. Male cloacal glands of Plethodon cinereus and Plethodon 
dorsalis (Amphibia, Pletho dontidae). Herpetologica. (I). 
Sever, D. M. 1978. Female cloacal anatomy of Plethodon cinereus and Plethodon 
dorsalis (Amphibia, Plethodontidae). Journal of Herpetology. (I). 
Sever, D. M., and C. F. Dineen. 1978. Reproductive ecology of the tiger sala- 
mander, Ambystoma tigrinum, in northern Indiana. Proc. In. Acad. Sci. (I). 
Strange, C. A. 1976. Feeding behavior and ecology of glaucous gulls in Alaska. 
Doctoral Thesis, Purdue U., 146 pp. (T). 



NECROLOGY 



Fay Kenoyer Daily, Butler University 



Terzo P. Amidei 



Fanano, Italy Gary, Indiana 

July 23, 1907 January 17, 1977 

Mr. Terzo P. Amidei came to the United States with his parents when he 
was three years old. His birthplace was a village, Fanano, Italy, where he was 
born July 23, 1907. He went to grade and high school in Gary, Indiana, 
graduating from Froebel High School in 1925. He attended Indiana University 
where he obtained a B.A. degree in 1929 and a Master's degree majoring in 
Botany in 1931. His education was financed by working in the Gary steel mills 
for several years and in the school cafeteria and other odd jobs while on campus. 

His interest in botany was nurtured at an early age by his mother whom he 
helped in growing flowers and vegetables at their home. This interest was 
recognized and stimulated by Mr. A. M. Wheeler, a science teacher at the high 
school which Mr. Amidei attended. When Mr. Wheeler retired, he gave Mr. 
Amidei books and special reference material which he had used in his own 
teaching. Mr. Amidei built up a fine library and subscribed to a number of 
scientific publications which he read avidly. 

Mr. Amidei was a teacher in various public schools in East Chicago during 
his career. He taught elementary science, physics and biology. He was head of 
the science department at Roosevelt High School for about ten years before his 
retirement in 1973. 

Mr. Amidei was the first naturalist at the Dunes State Park at Tremont 
working for the Indiana Department of Conservation for over twenty years. He 
would teach school during the week and serve as naturalist from Friday evening 
to Sunday evening. He was considered an authority on plants, animal tracks and 
birds. His nature hikes and visual aid programs were very successful and were 
praised by many participants. He had hoped to write a book on the origin of the 
Dunes, its characteristics, flora and fauna, but did not realize this 
accomplishment. He was also a Boy Scout leader for many years in East 

46 



Necrology 47 

Chicago, creating an interest in nature and ecology among youngsters in his 
troop. He spent two summers in Rochester, Indiana, with Scout troops on a 
reforestation project. He was also a volunteer in the Red Cross. He served two 
years. as an X-ray technician in the United States 5th Army in France during 
World War II with the 132nd Evacuation Hospital. 

Mr. Amidei joined the Indiana Academy of Science in 1926 while a student 
at Indiana University. He was also affiliated with the First United Prebysterian 
Church in which he was an elder. He was also a member of the Sons of Italy; 
Dante Allghieri Lodge No. 1220 of Gary; National Retired Teacher's 
Association; Indiana University Alumni Association of Gary, Indiana; and the 
Lake County Retired Teachers Association. 

Mr. Amidei died January 17, 1977, in Gary after a successful teaching 
career. He had been praised by supervisors and principals for his dedication, 
quality of teaching and creativity. He was kind, gentle and noted for helping 
those in need. 



48 Indiana Academy of Science 

Glenn G(ardner) Bartle 

Borden, Indiana Johnson City, New York 

February 7, 1899 September 14, 1977 

Dr. Glenn Gardner Bartle was the founder of Triple Cities College of 
Syracuse University in 1946 at Endicott, New York. The 200 students of the 
college, mostly returning servicemen on the GI bill, went to classes held in 
Quonset huts. In 1950, Triple Cities College was incorporated into the State 
University system and Dr. Bartle became the first president. The university was 
soon renamed Harpur College which was headed by Dr. Bartle until his 
retirement in 1964. He arranged the move in 1961 to the Vestal Parkway campus 
west of Binghamton. It has developed into a sprawling $200 million university 
center with around 9,000 students. Dr. Bartle pressed for the incorporation of 
the college into the state university system with the aid of a committee of 
community leaders and friends with connections in banking and political fields. 
Their united efforts against the opposition fulfilled his dreams of a fine 
university. The story of Dr. Bartle's years at the college is told in a book, Harpur 
College in the Bartle Era (1975, available on campus). 

Dr. Bartle was born in an Indiana farmhouse near Borden February 7, 
1899. His father was a teacher and later a minister and was a descendent of 
Palatine Germans. He studied at Indiana University where he received an A.B. 
degree in 1921, M.A. in 1923 and Ph.D. degree majoring in stratigraphy and 
economic geology in 1932. He also attended Chicago University from 1924 to 
1925 where he was an assistant. 

His professional career began as a school superintendent in Illinois from 
1 922 to 1 924. He became an instructor in Geology at Kansas City Junior College 
from 1925 to 1933. He was also a consulting geologist with Panhandle East Pipe 
Line Company from 1929 to 1942. He was Chairman of the Geology and 
Geography Department of the University of Kansas City from 1933 to 1938, 
professor of geology and dean of liberal arts from 1938 to 1942. He was with the 
United States Army in 1918 and served the United States Navy as lieutenant 
commander from 1942 to 1945 commanding an officer's training school at 
Swarthmore College in Pennsylvania. When he returned from the navy, the saga 
of the Triple Cities College of Syracuse University began in 1946 as he became 
dean and professor of geology. He was also a consulting geologist with the 
Australian Oil and Gas Company in 1957 and after. After leaving Harpur in 
1964, he continued with his usual energy and enthusiasm to another assignment 
as full-time consultant to the Agency for International Development for the 
U.S. Department of State at Washington, D.C. Later with some partners, he 
was active in gas and oil well explorations, chiefly in Texas. 

Dr. Bartle joined the Indiana Academy of Science in 1923, the year he 
received his M.A. degree at Indiana University. The next year while in Illinois he 
presented a paper at the Indiana Academy of Science fall meeting on the change 
of drainage of Raccoon Creek, Indiana. He was at Mateno, Illinois, then. He 
was honored as fellow in 1931 and was a senior member at death. His research 
interests covered stratigraphy and natural gas reserves. Dr. Bartle was also a 



Necrology 49 

member of the American Association for the Advancement of Science; 
Association of Petroleum Geologists; Institute of Mining, Metal and Petroleum 
Engineers; Association of Economic Geologists and Phi Beta Kappa. He was on 
the board of directors of the Binghamton Savings Bank, Roberson Center for 
the Arts, Endicott Rotary Club and Broome County Council on Anti- 
Discrimination. 

When Dr. Bartle died September 14, 1977, at Johnson City, New York, 
after a short illness, many memorials were written. His founding of Harpur was 
viewed as a great legacy for posterity, achieved by his dedication, great energy, 
tirelessness, wisdom and humor. The fondness for the man was evident all 
through the many tributes. 



50 



Indiana Academy of Science 




V 




Nellie Mae Coats 



Lafayette, Indiana 
October 26, 1888 



Indianapolis, Indiana 
January 11, 1977 



Miss Nellie M. Coats was born on a farm in Tippecanoe County near 
Lafayette, Indiana, October 26, 1888. She was of Scottish and French Huguenot 
ancestry. She graduated from the red brick Battle Ground High School and 
continued education at Purdue University receiving a B.S. degree in 1915. She 
pursued a course in home economics at first but became interested in library 
work. She was an apprentice in the Purdue library from 1916 to 1917. In 1918, 
she worked briefly as a government clerk in Washington, then returned to 
Purdue as librarian for the Purdue Agricultural Experiment Station. She did 
post-graduate work at the University of Illinois Library School from 1919 to 
1920 and worked there as Serials Librarian. She was Assistant Reference 
Librarian for the Indiana State Library from 1923 to 1929 and Chief of the 
Catalog Division 1930 to 1959 when she retired. She then continued as Librarian 
of the John Shepard Wright Memorial Library at the Indiana State Library for 
the Indiana Academy of Science which she had done since 1934. For her 



An Indianapolis Star photo reprinted by permission of Indianapolis 
Newspapers, Inc. 



Necrology 51 

outstanding performance in this capacity, she was made Honorary Member of 
the Indiana Academy of Science in 1937 and was the only honorary member of 
the society for many years. She was made a fellow in 1948. 

This was one professional side of Nelle Coats, but another was her great 
interest in history, especially of Indianapolis and Indiana; but in general, human 
kind. In an excellent sketch of her activities by Lotys Benning Stewart (They 
Achieve, Indianapolis Star, October 12, 1947) her study of libraries in England, 
Scotland and France was discussed and the article concluded with a quote from 
Miss Coats, "Working with many people, seeing books covering the history of 
the race since records began, I am made extremely conscious of the continuity of 
man's effort, the universality of human experience." This combination of 
interest in history and humanity by Miss Coats resulted in some great benefits 
for Indianapolis. She conducted sightseeing tours of the city for visitors covering 
sites of historical interest and helped compile the Riley trail map setting up a 
scenic tour route of the city. She also briefed tour guides and received high praise 
for training new hostesses. She was the second woman to serve on the board of 
directors of Greater Indianapolis Information Incorporated and was vice 
president of the board. She received a Certificate of Achievement from former 
Mayor Richard G. Lugar for her efforts on behalf of the city. Her research 
efforts also established some "forgotten facts" (League's Tribute to Nell Coats, 
Indianapolis Star, February 13, 1971) about Woodruff Place in Indianapolis 
helping obtain the listing as a national landmark. She was dedicated to its 
restoration and stimulated community pride when she disclosed interesting 
historical facts gleaned from correspondence with relatives of the founder, Mr. 
James Woodruff, and interviews with former and present prominent members 
of the community. 

After retirement, she was distinguished as "Woman of the Year" in 1962 by 
the Hoosier Chapter of American Women in Radio and Television. This was in 
recognition of her successful production of the popular and enlightening half- 
hour radio interviews with local personalities first on station WAIV and then 
WFMS. The programs were entitled "Indianapolis Now and Then" and "Our 
Community". 

As mentioned at the beginning of this article, Miss Coats was made an 
honorary member of the Indiana Academy of Science for her work on the John 
Shepard Wright Library. She was on the Academy Library Committee 
beginning in 1938 and chairman from about 1949 to 1970. She often brought an 
exhibit of new materials from the Academy library to the fall meetings and 
displayed stamps taken from materials received showing the geographical scope 
of exchanges. During these years she also served on the Budget Committee and 
Executive Committee. Other committees upon which she served, were 
Sesquicentennial, Publicity and Membership. She suggested preparation of the 
valuable cumulative index for the Proceedings of the Indiana Academy of 
Science and gave valuable advice on format and subject matter. She served on 
the 50 year Index Committee and then the Index Committee for almost twenty 
years. She was chairman of the History of Science Section in 1965. In 1953, Miss 
Coats gave a paper before the History of Science Section on the history of the 



52 Indiana Academy of Science 

Academy's John Shepard Wright Memorial Library and work of the librarian 
(Proc. I.A.S. 63: 248-252). 

Miss Coats was equally as active in other organizations. She was program 
chairman of the 1962 international Zonta meeting; president in 1926 of the 
Indiana Library Association and honorary member publishing various check 
lists in the Library Occurrent. She was twice chairman of the Ohio Valley 
Regional Group of Cataloguers, member of the National Association of State 
Libraries, life member of the American Library Association and headed the 
Committee on State Author Headings. She was a member (life) of the Children's 
Museum, Alpha Xi Delta, Indiana Historical Society, Marion County 
Historical Society, director and member of Historic Landmarks Foundation, 
International Center, Indianapolis Museum of Art, Tippecanoe County 
Historical Society, Hoosier Folklore Society (president 1949 to 1950). 
Biographies can be found in Who's Who of American Women and Indiana 
Lives. 

Miss Nellie M. Coats died January 1 1, 1977, in Indianapolis at 88 years of 
age. Her friendship, service, dedication, integrity, sense of propriety and 
background in Indiana Academy of Science history made her a reliable aid and 
source of advice to members of the society. This was sincerely appreciated and 
esteemed. 



Necrology 



53 




Will(iam) E(dmund) Edington 



Rantoul, Illinois 
December 8, 188 



New Castle, Indiana 
March 12, 1977 



Dr. Will E. Edington was retired from head of DePauw University 
Mathematics and Astronomy Department since 1 953. He was a past president of 
the Indiana Academy of Science and wrote memorials for the society over 35 
years. He also supplied considerable material to Indiana Scientists (Visher, 
1951) and was a frequent contributor of papers in the History of Science Section 
of our society so that he has written more probably than anyone else about the 
history of the Academy, scientists of Indiana and other Indiana scientific 
societies. 

He was the son of a Rantoul, Illinois, barber and was born December 8, 
1886. He was considered in some ways a self educated man. There was a spread 
of twelve years between an A. B. degree received at Indiana State Normal School 
at Terre Haute in 1909 and his Ph.D. degree in 1921 from the University of 
Illinois. The necessity for earning money to finance his education and the 
increasing necessity for academic credits in teaching positions led to continuing 
education mixed with several teaching assignments and service to his country. 
He first taught mathematics and physics at an early age at a Brazil, Indiana, high 



54 Indiana Academy of Science 

school. Then he was a mathematics instructor at Indiana State Normal School 
from 1911 to 1912. He then went to the University of Colorado from 1913 to 
1914 where he was also an assistant. Subsequently, he was a professor and head 
of the department of mathematics at the University of New Mexico from 19 14 to 
1917. He went to the University of Illinois and was a graduate assistant in 
mathematics in 1917. His education was interrupted in 1918 by World War I 
service to the United States Army Signal Corps in which he was a Sergeant 1st 
Class. After the war, he resumed education at the University of Illinois and 
received an M.A. degree in 1919 and a Ph.D. degree in mathematics in 1921. He 
taught briefly at Pennsylvania State University from 1921 to 1922 and then at 
Purdue University from 1922 to 1930. He moved to DePauw University as 
professor and head of the Mathematics and Astronomy Department in 1930 
where he taught until 1953. During World War II, he was Captain and 
Commanding Officer of the Civil Air Patrol in 1945. He became Emeritus 
Professor but continued to teach at DePauw from 1953 to 1955 and was visiting 
professor at Coe College from 1955 to 1957 He returned to teach at DePauw 
from 1957 to 1959. 

Dr. Edington received a number of honors for his excellent teaching and 
service to organizations or universities. He was selected "Best Teacher" by the 
students of DePauw in 1952, and in 1960 Indiana State University (formerly 
Indiana State Normal School) bestowed on him the distinguished alumni service 
award. He also received the Silver Beaver Award from the Boy Scouts of 
America in 1 94 1 and the Veterans of Foreign Wars Medal for Service to Colored 
People in 1946 and received the twenty-five year service plaque from Pi Kappa 
Phi in 1951. He is listed in Who's Who of America, Who's Who in Indiana, 
Indiana Scientists and American Men of Science. 

Dr. Edington joined the Indiana Academy of Science in 1924 and was very 
active in the society from the beginning of his membership. He was soon made 
fellow in 1927. He submitted a paper the same year asjoining giving suggestions 
for research in mathematics. All but a few volumes of the Indiana Academy of 
Science Proceedings after that until 1965 contained articles by him on 
mathematics, mathematics education, biographical sketches, memorials or 
more than one of these subjects. One of the most famous of his writings is There 
Were Giants in Those Days. His mathematical research interests included group 
theory, high voltage transmission, elementary differential equations, 
mathematical physics and corona losses in high voltage transmission lines. His 
service on committees and in the offices of the Academy began soon after joining 
the society, too. He was chairman of the Auditing Committee 1928 to 1930; press 
secretary 1930 to 1934; Anniversary Publicity and Research Committee in 1933; 
Library Committee and Research Committee in 1934; vice president. Library 
Committee and Research Committee in 1935; Library Committee and Research 
Committee in 1936; and president in 1937. His presidential address was entitled 
Science and Modern Thought. With the exception, then, of 1936, he was on the 
Executive Committee, by virtue of his assignments and past presidency, from 
1928 until death. He missed very few executive committee meetings and was 
often vocal in his convictions helping mold our society through the years. Even 
after serving as press secretary once, he served again from 1938 to 1941. He was 



Necrology 55 

chairman of the Mathematics Division in 1941 and 1943 and chairman of the 
History of Science Division in 1 946. He served on several other committees not 
already mentioned as Indiana Scientists, Nominating, Resolutions, Correlation 
of the Duties of Officers and in 1 938 a special committee to promote attendance 
by secondary school teachers. The committee sent letters to principals all over 
the state recommending that teachers be excused so that they could attend 
Academy meetings. The response was disappointing. 

Dr. Edington was also active in several other societies. He was former 
president of the Rotary Club of Greencastle and was awarded a lifetime 
membership, charter member of the Mathematics Association of America and 
American Association of University Professors. He was national scholarship 
chairman of Pi Kappa Phi Fraternity; fellow of the American Association of 
Science; member of the American Mathematics Society, Phi Beta Kappa, Sigma 
Xi, Alpha Phi Omega, Gold Key; Deacon, financial secretary and elder in the 
Greencastle Presbyterian Church. 

Dr. William E. Edington was ninety years old when he died after a brief 
illness in New Castle, Indiana, on March 12, 1977. His dedication to the 
Academy, teaching, mathematical research and history of science was 
outstanding. There were giants in our day, too! 



56 Indiana Academy of Science 

Waldemar C(arl) Gunther 

Grand Rapids, Michigan Valparaiso, Indiana 

May 25, 1918 March 22, 1977 

Dr. Waldemar C. Gunther was a biology professor at Valparaiso University 
when he died March 22, 1977. He had received recognition for his research in sex 
endocrinology, general embryology, vertebrate anatomy and mental 
retardation. 

Dr. Gunther was born in Grand Rapids, Michigan, May 25, 1918. He 
served in the United States Army from 1942 to 1945 and then pursued his higher 
education at the University of Chicago receiving a B.S. degree in 1949, and an 
M.S. and Ph.D. Degree with a Zoology major in 1955. He was an associate 
zoologist at the University of California, Davis, California, from 1949 to 1954. 
He then came to Indiana and progressed from instructor to associate professor 
from 1954 to 1961. He was made professor in biology from 1961 on at 
Valparaiso University. He served as director of research there for many years. In 
addition to these positions, he was: a visiting lecturer; research biologist on an 
NSF grant to study sex endocrinology; was a member of the Institute of 
Developmental Biology at Williams College; was an instructor of desert ecology 
at the University of Wyoming; was a fellow in the mental retardation section of 
the Institute of Mental Health, U.S. Department of Health, Education and 
Welfare; was an intern in the United States Office of Education at the University 
of Minnesota; and received a Grass Foundation grant for the study of mental 
retardation. 

Dr. Gunther joined the Indiana Academy of Science in 1954 and was a 
senior member at death. He was the author or co-author of a number of papers 
given before the Zoology Division at Academy meetings. They dealt with the 
effects of high incubator temperatures and environmental stress on the blood 
chemistry, behavior and variability of chick embryos and chicks. Other papers 
were on a study of the effects of rodent diet and other subjects. Dr. Gunther was 
also a member of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and 
American Society of Mammalogists. He is listed in American Men of Science 
and American Men and Women of Science. 

Dr. Gunther was only 58 when he died, but as one can see his 
accomplishments were many. 



Necrology 




Edward L(auth) Haenisch 



Chicago, Illinois 
August 9, 1911 



Crawfordsville, Indiana 
December 28, 1977 



Dr. Edward L. Haenisch was retired from teaching at Wabash College 
when he died in his home December 28, 1977. He had been chairman of the 
chemistry department and chairman of the science division. He was born in 
Chicago, Illinois, August 9, 1911, and took his advanced education at Chicago 
University receiving a B.S. degree in 1930 and a Ph.D. degree in 1935. 



Dr. Haenisch began his professional career also at Chicago University as an 
instructor in chemistry from 1932 to 1934. He taught at Montana State College 
from 1934 to 1936. He was an assistant professor at Villanova College from 1936 
to 1938, associate professor 1938 to 1943, professor and head of the department 
from 1943 to 1949. He then came to Wabash College at Crawfordsville, Indiana, 
in 1949 as professor and chairman of the chemistry department retiring in the 
spring of 1976. He continued to teach general chemistry courses on a part-time 
basis after that. He had been a lecturer at Rosemount College from 1946 to 1949 
and in the summer of 1957 at Columbia University. He was also the summer 
institute director of the National Science Foundation in Washington, D.C. from 



58 Indiana Academy of Science 

1958 to 1959 and was head of the institutes division. He had been chairman of 
the College Entrance Examination Board's chemistry examination committee. 

Dr. Haenisch had a distinguished teaching career and was widely 
recognized for his innovations. He received an award in chemical education 
from the American Chemical Society in 1963, the first McClain-McTurnan 
Award for distinguished teaching at Wabash in 1965, the James Flack Norris 
Award in chemical education from the Northeastern Section of the American 
Chemical Society in 1967, and the Manufacturing Chemists Association college 
chemistry teaching award in 1975. In 1971, he was made an honorary alumnus of 
Wabash College, and in 1975 an honorary doctor of humane letters at Villanova 
College. 

Dr. Haenisch was a seventeen year member and chairman of the American 
Chemical Society's accreditation division and often traveled as much as 70,000 
to 100,000 miles a year in this capacity. He also worked about ten years in the 
society's visiting scientist program. He was a consultant for the DuPont 
Corporation and was a leader of the Chemical Educational Material (CHEM) 
study program which was adopted in many schools of the United States and 
Canada. For this program he contributed material to the book, Chemistry An 
Experimental Science. He was a co-author of nine textbooks and contributor to 
six others including Quantitative Analysis in its fourth edition and Fundamental 
Principles of Physics and Chemistry, a new direction in that disciplines are 
integrated. 

Dr. Haenisch was particularly proud of the achievements of his former 
chemistry majors and corresponded with over two hundred of them. Over one 
hundred became professors or research chemists with a Ph.D. degree and over 
fifty become medical doctors. 

Dr. Haenisch joined the Indiana Academy of Science in 1949 when he came 
to Wabash College and was made a fellow in 1954. He was chairman of the 
Chemistry Division in 1952 and then served on the Invitations and Resolutions 
committees. In 1963, he was elected vice president and was president in 1964. His 
presidential address was entitled "Johnny and Relativity". It described some 
experimental methods which have been used for teaching relativity and other 
scientific subjects to school children. A number of organizations and individuals 
are mentioned as pressing for new methods. He presented other papers at 
Academy meetings on chemistry education. He also served on the Special 
Constitution Revision Committee and a special committee on finance in 1964. 
He further served on the Youth Activities Committee a couple of years and on 
the Emeritus Member Selection Committee from 1968 on. His research interests 
included physical and analytical chemistry, spectrographic analysis and 
absorption spectrum of samarium tungstate and samarium molybdate at low 
temperature. 

Dr. Haenisch was also a member of the American Association for the 
Advancement of Science, was founder and former president of the Midwestern 
Association of Chemistry Teachers in Liberal Arts Colleges, member of the 
American Chemical Society, Electrochemical Society and fellow of the Institute 
of Chemists. 



Necrology 59 

Dr. Haenisch was sixty-six years old at his death. Just the year before at his 
retirement from Wabash College, he had reflected on his past twenty seven years 
there. He said, "The sciences have always been a strong aspect of the college, and 
I am pleased to have had a part in planning, staffing, equipping and teaching in 
the science department, which will continue to insure a strong future at 
Wabash." 



60 



Indiana Academy of Science 




Eli Lilly 



Indianapolis, Indiana 
April 1, 1885 



Indianapolis, Indiana 
January 24, 1977 



Mr. Eli Lilly was born in Indianapolis, Indiana April 1 , 1 885, where he died 
January 24, 1977. However, his influence encompasses the world. His profession 
was manufacturing chemist in the family owned business where he worked over 
eighty years. The eulogies poured out from friends in all walks of life after his 
death and their words tell more about him in a much better way than can be 
covered here in this short space. A book is needed to cover his life adequately. 
Tributes from Indiana leaders, including Governor Bowen and Mayor Hudnut, 
appeared in the Indianapolis News, January 25, 1977. Mr. Lilly's basic 
goodness, modesty, kindness, generosity and genuine interest in other human 
beings as well as his great business leadership were recognized. Some of the 
eulogies were found in the Lilly News (a special edition), college publications, 
etc. Newspapers articles covered his business ability, civic service, a book 
collection made in his honor by Orchard School children, a party of nine 
hundred youngsters at Conner Prairie farm near Fishers in honor of Mr. Lilly 
for his generosity to Conner Prairie. Eulogies came also from publications and 
letters to the members in organizations to which he contributed generously with 
time and money. 



Necrology 61 

The wealth that he inherited and had earned was used for the benefit of 
mankind in generous amounts strengthening values which he considered of 
great importance. One of the latest articles expressed sadness that Mr. Lilly did 
not live to see the complete renovation of the historical 150-year old 
Indianapolis City Market dedicated last September (1977) and financed for $4.7 
million by Lilly Endowment (Lilly family foundation). Mr. Lilly initiated the 
establishment of Lilly Endowment Incorporated in 1937. It has contributed over 
$300 million to charitable causes. Colleges and universities throughout the 
nation, historical projects such as the restoration of the pioneer village at 
Conner Prairie farm, religiously oriented programs, etc. have received support 
from the foundation. 

Mr. Eli Lilly was the elder son of Josiah K. Lilly and namesake of Col. Eli 
Lilly who founded the family business in 1876. He was educated in Indianapolis 
public schools graduating from Shortridge High School in 1904 where he 
received a letter in track and was president of the junior class. He received a 
pharmaceutical chemist degree in 1907 from the Philadelphia College of 
Pharmacy and Science. 

Mr. Lilly formally joined Eli Lilly and Company June, 1907. However, he 
had worked for the company since he was about ten years old on Saturdays and 
summers before becoming permanently employed. He was an efficiency expert 
at the company until becoming superintendant of the manufacturing division 
from 1909 to 1915, general superintendant from 1915 to 1920, vice president 
from 1920 to 1932, president from 1932 to 1948, chairman of the board 1948 to 
1961 and again from 1966 to 1969. He then became honorary chairman of the 
board until death. 

Mr. Lilly was instrumental in transforming Eli Lilly and Company into a 
world enterprise making significant contributions to medicine and agriculture. 
Some major drugs were developed during his administration including insulin, 
liver extract for anemia, barbiturates, penicillin and other antibiotics and salk 
polio vaccine. Agricultural products for weed control and animal health were 
also developed. He had a sincere interest in Lilly employees. He stated, "the first 
responsibility of our supervisors is to build men then medicines." He was very 
proud that during the depression years of the 1930's none was fired because of 
the depression and no salaries were cut at Lilly's. His striving for excellence and 
his sense of integrity made for fair and stable management. He instituted the 
bonus system and suggestion awards which reward employees for innovative 
ideas with cash amounts. A key to his business success is found in his own words, 
"Foolish indeed is the business organization that measures its success solely with 
the profit yardstick and ignores its most valuable assets: the faith and good will 
of those whom it seeks to serve and the faith and loyalty of those who are 
dependent on it for happiness." 

Indiana University named Mr. Lilly author of the year in 1961. He was the 
author of Prehistoric Antiquities of Indiana, 1937; The Little Church on the 
Circle, 1957; Early Wawasee Days, I960; and Schliemann in Indianapolis, 1961. 
He prepared a bibliography of Indiana archeology in 1932 which was published 
by the Indiana Historical Bureau. He was largely responsible for the acquisition 
of the Angel Mounds site on the Ohio River by the Indiana Historical Society 



62 Indiana Academy of Science 

and the subsequent study and publication on it. He supported site surveys and 
excavations. Excavations by the society and Indiana University led to the 
publication of Angel Site, an Historical, Archeological and Ethnological Study 
by Glenn A. Black. Other publications of the historical society were directly 
supported by Mr. Lilly or grants from Lilly Endowment, Inc. The Indiana 
Historical Society's new Conference and board of Trustees Room is to be a 
memorial to Mr. Lilly enhanced by gifts from the members. 

Mr. Lilly received many honors among them were honorary degrees from 
the following colleges and universities: the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy 
and Science, Wabash College, University of Kentucky, Indiana University, 
University of Pittsburgh, Ball State University, University of the South, Butler 
University, Transylvania University, Union College, DePauw University and 
Kenyon College. He was also honored by China for donations of medicines in 
1942 and he received Olav's Medallion in 1948 from Norway. Other honors 
included being placed on the honor roll at Union College; an alumni medal from 
Philadelphia College of Pharmacy and Science; Centennial Award from the 
Indiana Dental Association; Remington Honor Medal from the American 
Pharmaceutical Association; merit award from the American Association for 
State and Local History; a testimonial from the Trowel and Brush Society for 
his archeological contributions; alumni merit award from Wabash College; 
William Henry Harrison citation from Vincennes University; Bishop Case 
Medal for distinguished service to the Protestant Episcopal Church from 
Kenyon College; award for service to the deaf from the Alexander Graham Bell 
Association. He was honorary chairman of the Marion County Tuberculosis 
Society's Christmas seal campaign from 1932 through 1947 and headed a drive 
for new units of the Boy Scouts of America conducted by the Central Indiana 
Council in 1952. He was named philanthropic man of the year in 1951 by the 
Indianapolis Community Chest. He helped organize the Indianapolis United 
Fund and was board chairman and subsequently honorary co-chairman of the 
United Way of Indianapolis, Incorporated. He was honorary chairman in 1965 
and 1966 for the successful debut in Indianapolis of the Metropolitan Opera 
National Company. In 1969, Governor Whitcomb proclaimed April 1 (Mr. 
Lilly's birthday) Eli Lilly Day in Indiana in honor of his contributions to the 
state and its citizens. In March, 1976, he received the Robert L. Stringer award 
for good citizenship and a key to the city of Indianapolis from the Lilly 
American Legion Post and Mayor William Hudnut, respectively, and March 19 
was declared Eli Lilly Day in the city. 

Mr. Lilly joined the Indiana Academy of Science in 1930 and he was 
honored as fellow in 1937. He gave several papers at Academy meetings chiefly 
on archeological studies. He was president of the Academy in 1938 and gave an 
address on A Plan for Accomplishing More Effective Research. The plan for 
interdisciplinary expertise coordinated for a more effective approach to a 
research problem had been used with great success by Mr. Lilly in his business. 
Besides the Academy Executive Committee, Mr. Lilly served on a number of 
other committees such as Archeological Survey, Relation of the Academy to 
state, and the Library Committee for a great number of years. In 1975, the 
Executive Committee of the Indiana Academy of Science granted honorary 



Necrology 63 

membership to Mr. Lilly in recognition of his lifelong interest in and 
contributions to the society. 

Mr. Lilly was also honorary member of Phi Beta Kappa, honorary 
president of the American Pharmaceutical Association; member of the 
American Anthropological Society, American Chemical Society, Phi Delta Chi; 
honorary commander in chief of the Military Order of the Loyal Legion of the 
United States; fellow of the Rochester (N. Y.) Museum of Arts and Sciences, a 
trustee of The Indianapolis Museum of Art and of Wabash College, trustee and 
past president of the Indiana Historical Society, and chairman emeritus of the 
Historic Landmarks Foundation of Indiana. He was former director of the 
American Foundation for Pharmaceutical Education, English Foundation, 
Indiana Manufacturers Association, Indianapolis Symphony Orchestra and 
Purdue Research Foundation. Biographic material can be found on Mr. Lilly in 
Who's Who in the Midwest, Who's Who in Indiana; Indiana Lives and other 
references. 

Mr. Lilly was ninety one at his death. His long and exemplary life had an 
impact on millions of people. 



64 Indiana Academy of Science 

Armin William Manning 

Milwaukee, Wisconsin East Marion, New York 

August 22, 1913 July 17, 1977 

Dr. Armin Manning died July 17, 1977, at his summer home in East 
Marion, New York, after suffering a heart attack. He was chairman of the 
Physics Department of Valparaiso University. His specialty was nuclear 
physics. 

Dr. Manning was born in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, August 22, 1913. He 
received a B.A. degree from Valparaiso University in 1936; a B.D. degree from 
Concordia Seminary in 1937; an M.A. degree from the University of Michigan 
in 1938 and a Ph.D. degree from Fordham University in 1957. At Fordham, Dr. 
Manning studied under Nobel Prize winner Dr. V. F. Hess. 

Dr. Manning began teaching as a professor of mathematics and modern 
physics at Concordia College, Bronxville, New York, from 1938 to 1956. He was 
also an instructor in the evening school at City College of New York from 1947 
to 1956. During World War II, he served three years in a restricted war 
laboratory. He was an associate research physicist at Brookhaven National 
Laboratory on Long Island from 1957 to 1958 and worked summers from 1959 
through 1962 at the Aberdeen Proving Ground in Maryland. He also spent a 
sabbatical leave there, too, during the fall semester of 1963 to 1964 in the nuclear 
ballistics laboratory. There, also, he was a consultant to the Terminal Ballistics 
Laboratory from 1964 to 1972. He did part time research from 1945 to 1946 for 
Associated Metalcrafts of Philadelphia. 

Dr. Manning came back to Valparaiso University in 1956 to be associate 
professor and co-chairman of the physics department. He was professor and 
chairman of the department from 1961 on. He obtained a sub-critical nuclear 
reactor for the campus and in 1970 the United States Atomic Energy 
Commission designated the school "a model for all small universities wishing to 
provide excellent training in the field of undergraduate physics". Dr. Manning 
had also become a clergyman in the Lutheran Church, Missouri Synod. 
According to a news release from Valparaiso University, President Huegli said 
of him, "Dr. Manning was a respected and beloved colleague who combined the 
insights of a theologian with the scholarship of a physicist. He brought strength 
to the faculty and wholehearted dedication to teaching and research in his 
discipline. The university is a better place of learning, because he was a part of it, 
and many generations of students will remember him with grateful hearts." 

Dr. Manning joined the Indiana Academy of Science in 1956, the year he 
came to Valparaiso University. At a fall meeting in 1961, he presented a paper 
co-authored by men from the Terminal Ballistics Laboratory, Aberdeen 
Proving Ground, on a method to measure neutron flux by a paraffin oil bath 
technique. He was the author or co-author of a number of other articles 
published in educational, scientific or army journals. His specific field of 
research was in reactor physics and radioactivity. He was also a member of the 
American Association for the Advancement of Science; American Association 
of Physics Teachers; American Geophysical Union; Indiana State Health 



Necrology 65 

Department's radiological section; American Institute of Electrical Engineers, 
physics section. Biographic material can be found in the National Faculty 
Directory and American Men and Women of Science. 

Dr. Manning's death at sixty four was a great loss. 



66 Indiana Academy of Science 

dorsey p. marting 

Branchville, Indiana Tucson, Arizona 

October 3, 1894 April 28, 1977 

Mr. Dorsey P. Marting was a retired meteorologist and newspaper 
reporter. He was a native of Indiana having been born near Branchville, 
Indiana, October 3, 1 894. He was reared and educated in the state and received a 
bachelor's degree from Ball State Teacher's College, Muncie, Indiana. He 
taught high school science in the public school system of Indiana. Then he served 
during World War I aboard the U.S.S. Antigone with the rank of Ensign. He 
was transferred to the U.S. Army Quarter Master's Corps until the end of the 
war. 

Mr. Marting served in the United States National Weather Bureau as 
Meteorologist in charge of the station for thirty-six years. The stations were in 
Roseburg and Astoria, Oregon; Denver, Colorado; and Winslow, Arizona. He 
retired in 1964. He received considerable publicity in newspapers and magazines 
and his scientific contributions have been incorporated into a novel (in 
manuscript) by Mr. Marting and his wife, Dorila, which they composed over a 
period of twenty-five years. 

Mr. Marting was a free lance reporter contributing news and feature stories 
to the Arizona Republic of Phoenix, the Arizona Daily Sun of Flagstaff and 
Winslow Mail of Winslow, Arizona, from 1962 through 1968. His excellent 
photography was well-known and was pursued as a hobby in later years. His 
wife, Dorila, is also a free lance reporter. 

Mr. Marting joined the Indiana Academy of Science in 1926 and was a 
faithful member through the years even though his life work was out-of-state. 
He was also a member of the American Meteorological Society, Masonic Lodge 
of Eckerty, Indiana, and Arizona Press Club. 

A niece, Dr. Barbara Marting, of Evansville, Indiana, wrote a loving tribute 
to her uncle, Dorsey P. Marting. It was printed in the notice of death on April 28, 
1977 and private services for Mr. Marting conducted on top of Mount Lemmon 
overlooking Tucson, Arizona. In part, she said, "He cared deeply for others, yet 
never gave the impression of having any problems of his own. He was always 
concerned with the comfort of others, but asked nothing more of life than what 
he daily received. He was always cheerful, interesting and interested ... He has 
added zest to our lives and given us an example to live by. . ." 



Necrology 



67 




Fernandus Payne 



Shelbyville, Indiana 
February 13, 1881 



Frankfort, Indiana 
October 13, 1977 



Dr. Fernandus Payne was a native of Indiana, born in a log cabin near 
Shelbyville February 13, 1881. At his death, he was an internationally famous 
scientist and had lived to be ninety-six years old. For many years he was dean of 
the Indiana University Graduate School, dean of the Indiana University College 
of Arts and Sciences and chairman of the zoology department. 

Dr. Payne's early education was obtained in the Hoosier state and the ensuing 
years of struggle for his advanced education prompted him to set up a 
scholarship fund in 1965 at Indiana University for students in the life sciences. 
He obtained a B.S. degree from Valparaiso University in 1901. From Indiana 
University, he received an A.B. in 1905 and an M.A. in 1906. From Columbia 
University, he received a Ph.D. degree in 1909. In 1912, he was a student at the 
Biological Station at Naples and the University of Wurzburg. 



68 Indiana Academy of Science 

Dr. Payne began his teaching and administrative career at Indiana 
University in 1909 as an assistant professor of zoology and held that title until 
1912. From 1912 to 1919, he was an associate professor of zoology and then full 
professor until 1951 when he became emeritus professor. Dr. Payne helped 
guide the zoology department when the health of Dr. Carl H. Eigenman, the 
chairman, failed. After Dr. Eigenman died, Dr. Payne became chairman in 1927 
serving in that capacity until 1948. He was assistant dean of the Graduate School 
from 1925 to 1927 and dean from 1927 until 1947. He was acting dean from 1943 
to 1946. Other administrative positions during this period included being vice 
chairman of the division of biology and agriculture of the National Research 
Council from 1931 to 1932 and chairman from 1932 to 1933. Dr. Payne had the 
ability to discern great potential in people then guide with a light touch while 
they achieved to the fullest of their abilities. He was able to attract a number of 
distinguished scientists to the Indiana University campus. These included 
Herman J. Muller, a Nobel Prize winner; R.E. Cleland; Tracy M. Sonneborn; 
S.E. Luria and Alfred C. Kinsey. Eminent students taught by this group 
included at least one Nobel Prize winner. After retiring in 1951, he returned to 
the work he loved best, his research, in which he remained active for more than 
twenty more years. He was widely acclaimed for work on blind fish, cytology 
and genetics. 

Dr. Payne was assistant director of the National Science Foundation from 
1952 to 1953. He wrote an autobiography, Memories and Reflections (Indiana 
University Press, 1975) to which the reader is referred for further information 
about this great man. He is also listed in Indiana Scientists, Who's Who in the 
Midwest, and American Men of Science. 

Dr. Payne joined the Indiana Academy of Science in 1913, and was 
honored as fellow in 1916. He was an emeritus member at death and had been a 
member of the Academy for sixty four years. He served as editor in 1919 and 
1921 and also on the Publication of Proceedings Committee. He was vice 
president in 1923, and president in 1932. He also served on the Nominations 
Committee and was a member of the Executive Committee for over fifty years. 
He was the author of quite a few papers (some given by title) and memorials 
presented to the Academy. Some of the papers were on blind fish, genetics of 
Drosophila and other genetic studies, the occurrence of fresh-water medusae in 
Indiana, etc. He was also a fellow of the American Association for the 
Advancement of Science (member of the executive committee for many years), 
vice president in 1929; past president of the American Society of Zoologists; 
member of the Genetics Society; American Society of Naturalists; Association 
of American Universities (chairman of the committee on classification from 
1934 to 1946); American Association of University Professors (member of the 
council from 1935 to 1938); Sigma Xi and Phi Beta Kappa. 

Dr. Fernandus Payne died October 13, 1977, in Frankfort, Indiana, where 
he had resided. His life span was just four years short of a century, a century 
witnessing an astonishing development in science. During that time, he had 
developed the Indiana University Zoology Department and Graduate School 



Presidential Address 69 

into one of the nation's best. In the Indiana Alumni Magazine announcement 
of a third volume of a history of the university, a caption "IU's rise to greatness" 
is followed by comments on hiring Dr. Payne and others. With that it states, "A 
new era began for Indiana University. . ." 



NEW MEMBERS INDIANA ACADEMY 
OF SCIENCE— 1977 

Mr. Robert M. Anderson, Box 341, Bloomington, IN 47401 

Mr. Munawar Ahmad Anees, Department of Zoology, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47401 

Dr. Mary F. Asterii a, 3400 Broadway, Northwest Center for Med. Ed., I.U. School of Medicine, 

Gary, IN 46408 
Dr. George S. Bakken, Life Science Department, Indiana State University, Terre Haute, IN 47809 
Dr. William Baldwin. 3400 Broadway, lnd. Univ. Med. School, Gary, IN 46408 
Dr. Dale I. Balls, Physics Department, Anderson College, Anderson, IN 46013 
Mr. Jack Barnks, 8600 University Blvd., Evansville, IN 47711 
Mak\ Darnki i Bauer, 3501 S. Stover. Bldg. 5. Apt. 95. Ft. Collins. CO 80521 
Mr. Thomas M. Bodei.l. R.R. 3, Wabash. IN 46992 

Miss Mary Boucherle, Dept. of Biology, Jordan Hall, Bloomington, IN 47401 
Mr. Jonathan Oswald Brooks, 107 East Central, Rosedale High School, Rosedale, IN 47874 
Dr. Richard L. Buckner, Div. of Sci. & Math, Indiana State University, Evansville, IN 47712 
Miss Deborah Ann Champagne, Dept. of Zoology, Jordan Hall 224, Indiana University, Blooming- 
ton, IN 47401 
Mr. Charles G. Crawford, 1808 Orchid Ct., Indianapolis, IN 46219 

Mr. James R. Crcm, Agronomy Department, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 
Mr. Richard A. Davis, 5047 N. Capitol, Indianapolis, IN 46208 

Miss Carlotta L. DeMaio, Dept. of Life Sciences, Indiana State University, Terre Haute, IN 47807 
Miss Stephanie Jo DeNefe, P.O. 1369 Holy Cross St., St. Mary's College, Notre Dame, IN 46556 
Mr. & Mrs. Carl S. Diehl, R.R. I, Albion, IN 46701 

Mr. Vincent A. DiNoto, Jr., Physics Department, Indiana State University, Terre Haute, IN 47809 
Miss Diana J. Einselen. 750 West Hampton. Indianapolis, IN 46208 
Miss Debra P. Gayda, 240 S. Salisbury, Apt. 17, West Lafayette, IN 47906 
Dr. Thaddeus J. Godish, Dept. of Natural Resources, Ball State University, Muncie, IN 47306 
Sister Mary Walter Goebel, Convent, Ferdinand, IN 47532 

Mr. James K. Good, Dept. of Geography, Indiana State University, Terre Haute, IN 47809 
Mrs. Lois Mur.NO Gray. Spring Mill State Park, Box 95, Mitchell, IN 47446 
Dr. Stanley N. Grove, Department of Biology, Goshen College, Goshen, IN 46526 
Dr. Edward M. Hale, 1213 Ridge Road, Muncie, IN 47304 

Dr. Uwe J. Hansen, Dept. of Physics, Indiana State University, Terre Haute, IN 47809 
Mr. Ronald L. Helms, R.R. I, Pimento, IN 47866 
Mr. John H. Hii.lis, 520 N. Summitt St., Kendallville, IN 46755 

Mr. Michael R. Hudson, Dept. of Geology, Indiana University, Bloomington. IN 47401 
Mr. Larry Hutchens, Eli Lilly Research Labs, Indianapolis, IN 46206 
Mrs. Mary Ann Johns, 1639 171st St., Hammond, IN 46324 

Dr. Eric R. Johnson, Dept. of Chemistry, Ball State University, Muncie, IN 47306 
Jay H. Jones, Dept. Plant Sciences, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47401- New Member 1976 
Dr. James H. Keith, 5042 North Capitol, Indianapolis, IN 46208 

Mrs. Susan Kephart, Plant Sciences, Box 95, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47401 
Jefeery L. Kingdon, Rustic Oaks, Apt. II0-A, Hwy. 54 W, Jefferson City, MO 65101 
Mr. Dixon H. Landers, 204 S. Clark St., Bloomington, IN 47401 
Ms. Nancy R. Larson, Science Building, St. Mary's College, Notre Dame, IN 46601 
Mr. David M. Leva, Dept. of Entomology, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 
Dr. Russell E. Lewis, Department of Sociology, University of Evansville, Evansville, IN 47702 
Mr. John W. McClain, 101 Crawford St., Apt. 209. Terre Haute, IN 47809 

70 



New Members 71 



Dr. Richard O. McCRACKEN, Biology Department, I.U.P.U.I., Indianapolis, IN 46205 

Mr. David D. MclNTOSH, 823 B, Teachers College, Ball State University, Muncie, IN 47306 

Miss Karen L. MclNTOSH, 16 1/2 North Salisbury St., West Lafayette, IN 47906 

Ms. Cathy Meyer, Biology Department, Indiana University. Bloomington, IN 47401 

Mr. WlLLARD Moore, Conner Praire Pioneer Settlement. 13400 Allisonville Road, Noblesville, IN 

46060 
Dr. & Mrs. David W. Morgan, I 740S Auten Rd., Granger. IN 46530 
Mr. Michael Nowacki, 3400 Broadway, Biology Department. Indiana University Northwest, Gary, 

IN 46408 
Mr. Malven L. Olson, 3232 Halifax Drive, Indianapolis, IN 46222 
Mr. Own Salem Own, 201 Crawford St., Apt. 309. Terre Haute, IN 47807 
Dr. George W. Pendygraft, 10354 Dunham Court West, Indianapolis, IN 46229 
Mr. Peter Percival, Department of Zoology, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47401 
Mr. Warren J. Pettitt, R.R. 2, Carmel. IN 46032 
Dr. Loy Dean Pike, IUSB, Northside Blvd., South Bend, IN 46615 
Andreas Polemitis, 519 Tulip Tree House, Bloomington, IN 47401 
Mr. Charles I.. Rhykerd. Jr.. 164 Blueberry Lane, West Lafayette, IN 47906 
Mr. G. Phillip Robertson, Jordan Hall 224, Zoology Dept., Indiana University, Bloomington. IN 

47401 
Dr. Ray Russo, I. U. P.U.I. 1201 E. 38th St., Indianapolis. IN 46205 
Dr. Herbert Senft II, 1706 N. Maddox Drive, Muncie, IN 47304 
Mr. Pail Sergita. 5032 Brandywine Dr., #332, Indianapolis, IN 46241 
Dr. Jane R. Shoup, Department of Biology, Purdue University. Calumet Campus. Hammond, IN 

46323 
Dr. Gerald R. Showalter, Dept. of Geog. Geol., Ball State University, Muncie, IN 47306 
Dr. Horst F. Siewart, Dept. of Natural Resources, Ball State University, Muncie, IN 47306 
Mr. Douglas Soltis. 2106 E. 2nd St., No. 9, Bloomington, IN 47401 
M. Maurie Sommer, Publications. St Mary's College, Notre Dame. IN 46656 
Dr. Anne Spacie, Dept. of Forestry & Nat. Res., Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 
Dr. Edwin R. Sqciers, Biology Department, Taylor University. Upland, IN 46989 
Mr. Patrick Steele, Huddleston Farmhouse Inn Museum, R. R. I, Box 555, Cambridge City, IN 

47327 
Mr. Anibal L. Taboas. 308 Argonne National Lab., Argonne, IE 60439 

Mr. L. Michael Tkapasso, Dept. Geography & Geology. Indiana State University Terre Haute, IN 
47809 

Mr. Gordon VanWoerkom, Dept. of Entomology, Purdue University. W. Lafayette, IN 47906 
Mr. Ralph R. B. von Frese, Geosciences Dept., Purdue University, W. Lafayette, IN 47906 
Dr. Robert B. Votaw. 8030 Hickory Street, Gary, IN 46403 

Miss Mary E. Wassel, Dept. of Life Sciences, Indiana State University, Terre Haute, IN 47809 
Mr. David W. Wearly, 6121 Haverford Avenue, Indianapolis, IN 46220 
Mr. Gary S. Westerman, 1327 Liberty Avenue, Terre Haute, IN 47809 
Mr. Steve R. White, R. R. I, Box 57. Sullivan, IN 47882 

Dr. Robert P. Wintsch, Department of Geology, Indiana University, Bloomington. IN 47401 
Center Grove High School Science Cub. c o Wilma Griffin. Center Grove High School. 

(ireenwood, IN 46142 
The Grams. Highland Sr. High. 9135 Erie Street. Highland, IN 46322 



PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS 



HISTORY OF A RIVER 

Clarence F. Dineen 
Saint Mary's College, Notre Dame, IN 46556 

The Saint Joseph River in northern Indiana and southern Michigan has 
played a major role in the development of the communities within the 
watershed. The native American in his birch bark canoe was the pioneer in river 
transportation. It is no coincidence that South Bend is located on the southern 
bend of the main river. Today almost every drop which is removed from the river 
system, used, and then returned to the watershed is scrutinized by governmental 
agencies and the watchful eyes of residents. 

The native Americans and explorers accepted the waterway for all the 
assets the natural conditions had to offer. Only the beaver (Castor canadensis), a 
skilled engineer, injected measures of control. However, the beaver was 
subjected to numerous ecological restraints. Thus, the impact of beaver activity 
not only developed gradually but never attained any great magnitude. 

The attitude of pioneers and early settlers toward the water resources was 
the same as for the minerals, soils, plants and animals: i.e., complete freedom of 
the individual to use the seemingly inexhaustible supply of natural resources for 
whatever benefited him at the moment. His actions are documented very well by 
scars and artifacts, some of which have remained for over a century. 

However, as the density of the population increased and technology 
developed, the demands on the Saint Joseph River became highly varied and 
reached levels of great magnitude. The demands on the river approached and 
exceeded the natural ecological carrying capacity without man even 
understanding the full impact of the carrying capacity concept. In an attempt to 
meet the growing, specific needs of man, changes and controls of our waterways 
became necessities. This, together with little or no foresight as to the long range 
effects, made disasters of various degrees imperative. 

The Saint Joseph River watershed was formed by the action of glaciers. In 
glacial times the waterway functioned as a much larger system. A tremendous 
flow of water drained the present Saint Joseph River area directly into the 
Kankakee system and on to the Mississippi River. The swamps and low lands of 
the upper Kankakee and the greatly reduced Saint Joseph River watershed are 
vestiges of a much larger system. In post-glacial time the systems were separated 
by only a slight rise in land which became a well-known portage. The extensive 
use of the portage from the Saint Joseph River to the Kankakee by many native 
American tribes has been documented by early explorers, namely, the poet- 
priest Father James Marquette (1669) and Rene Robert Cavalier de La Salle 
( 1 679) and by well worn trails and other artifacts which are clearly evident today. 

72 



Presidential Address 



73 



The main river was first called The River of the Miamis in reference to one of 
the three native tribes (Miamis, Potawatomes, Ottawas). Later the name was 
changed to Saint Joseph's River of the Lakes, then to Saint Joseph's and finally 
Saint Joseph. 




'MICHIGAN 
* INDIANA 



JOSEPH RIVER 
WATERSHED 



FIGURE I. SAINT JOSEPH RIVER WATERSHED 



The Saint Joseph River watershed, (Fig. 1 ) now referred to as the Michiana 
watershed, drains only ll,137kl 2 (4300M 2 ). The 338 kilometers (210 miles) of 
main stream begins in Michigan, enters Indiana, and returns to Michigan where 
it empties into Lake Michigan. About 20 percent of the main stream and 27 
percent of the watershed are in Indiana. Seven hundred miles of significant 
tributaries to the main stream and over 1000 lakes, 400 of which range in size 
from 9 to 15.5 kl 2 (3.5 to 6 M 2 ), complete the water network of the Michiana 
watershed. The pronounced fall of 183 meters (600 feet) from the source to the 
mouth has been an attractive feature for users of the river. 

Now let us examine the history of some of the activities of man as they are 
related to the great natural resource, the Michiana watershed. The water supply 
has been a very attractive force in the growth and development of communities 
within the entire area. The uses as well as the misuses of the river as a natural 
resource have been highly varied and they form historical milestones in the 
development of the total area. The impact of these activities on the water 
resource warrants careful study. History has been properly termed — a vast 
warning system. Certainly in the case of the Saint Joseph River many warnings 
have been very clear but the response of man has been apathetic, or at best short 
sighted. 

A rather complete report of the early navigation on the Saint Joseph River 
was published by Knoblock (8). The populations of native Americans traveled 



74 Indiana Academy of Science 

on the rivers extensively while hunting and fishing. Also, they shifted by water 
from one area to another in response to pressures among the tribes and to 
seasonal changes. Fur trading developed and from 1700 until about 1831 furs 
carried in canoes were the predominant freight on the river. However, 
communities of immigrants grew and in order to meet the rapidly developing 
demand for the transportation of other freight, keel boats, which at first were 
actually only large canoes, were constructed. The first keel boat on the Saint 
Joseph River was built in 1831 and by 1833 a fleet of a dozen keel boats, some 
actually much too large for the capacity of the river, operated from the Lake 
Michigan to South Bend and points upstream. As agriculture developed and the 
towns along the river continued to grow, mills were constructed. Beginning 
about 1830 until 1900, all of the larger towns along the river had one or more 
flour, grist, and saw mills (7). The milling industry used the river for water power 
and to transport their products. At first direct power was used by way of races 
and channels. Then dams were built for better water control to produce power 
efficiently. In addition, the cutting of timber and converting a major portion of 
the area into agriculture had a significant impact on the watershed. The volume 
of water in the surface drainage was reduced and the rate of flow throughout the 
year fluctuated to a greater degree. These changes made navigation less and less 
feasible. However, steamboats came into use in 1833 on the river which helped 
overcome to some degree the reduced water capacity problem as well as the 
many natural and man-made physical obstacles which were discouraging 
navigation. Twenty-four steamboats operated from the mouth of the Saint 
Joseph River at Saint Joseph, Michigan (first called Newburyport) to South 
Bend and beyond during the period from 1 832 to 1 925. The primary function of 
the steamboats was to carry freight, but pleasure boating played a secondary 
role. In attempts to develop the Saint Joseph River as a navigable river, efforts 
were made to obtain major help from the government, but federal money was 
refused three times between 1832 and 1847. A futile attempt was made to join the 
Kankakee and the Saint Joseph River for navigation. 

Planning to link the Saint Joseph River with other drainage systems did not 
disappear quickly nor completely. In 1 879, government engineers made a survey 
of the river from Elkhart, Indiana, to the mouth. The report was adverse to 
making the river navigable. Even in the 20th century surveys and plans 
continued. However, efforts to retain and to develop the Saint Joseph River as a 
navigable river have been unsuccessful, chiefly due to the simple fact there is not 
enough water. However, railroads were developing rapidly during the upsurge 
of demands on the Saint Joseph River for the transport of freight. Thus, the river 
was spared the demand to carry freight. 

As the watershed area was converted to agriculture, the destruction of 
fertile land by erosion received considerable attention. The deterioration of the 
river system by the deposits of sediments from the land was ignored for many 
years. The scientific literature included some excellent observations; i.e., the 
report in the Proceedings of the Indiana Academy by Dryer and Davis (4) in 
1910 described the erosion factor related to a small stream over a period of 13 
years. The eroded materials from poorly managed farms, and materials from 
disturbed banks, roadways, housing developments and even the construction of 



Presidential Address 75 

modern shopping centers have had a continuously serious impact on the 
waterways, in particular on the small streams. These impacts have elicited far 
too little response to protect the water. However, when massive amounts of 
fertilizer were added annually to soils and extensive use of pesticides became 
commonplace, some of the top predator fishes in small streams were killed. Then 
and only then was the need to protect the waterways seriously noted. Likewise, 
when in recent time the total coliform counts and in some cases the fecal 
coliform counts reached high levels in small streams, there has been positive 
responses to protect the water resources. 

In the last few decades, agriculture and other land use programs have 
included facets which indicate a clear cut awareness of the erosion problem as 
related to the water resources. However, to adequately protect the river and 
many of the smaller streams, strips of undisturbed areas along banks are needed, 
not only to protect against erosion, but also to provide cover and a movement 
path for wildlife. These filter strips or green belts as they are sometimes called, 
are excellent in principle to protect aquatic ecosystems. Nevertheless, most of 
the streams in the Michiana watershed have been striped naked or have been 
given what I call back door attention. 

In spite of the many assets of water as a natural resource, we have turned 
our backs to rivers in the past. The waterways have become dumping grounds 
for solid wastes, highly varied in kind and of tremendous magnitude in volume. 
The Saint Joseph River has had its fair share of dumps. A canoe trip on the Saint 
Joseph River, in particular along the smaller tributaries, reveals many hidden 
records of serious damage to the waterway. Some dumps are very old, that is, 
almost obliviated by natural succession; while others are brand new wounds in 
nature. The idea that the best way to get rid of something is to throw it away in 
some body of water is deeply implanted in the minds of Americans. 

Nevertheless, during the last few decades there has been a decided change in 
the attitude of the public toward our lakes and rivers. A plea to make the Saint 
Joseph River your front yard has been heard. A prime example is Indiana 
University of South Bend (built in 1 96 1 ) which was constructed to face the river, 
with only a double-lane road as a distractive feature. A significant assumption is 
that youth will not allow a polluted river. Also in South Bend, Century Center, 
1977, is a serious attempt to obtain the maximum use of a river front. A strange 
coincidence has been noted, that is, over a century ago rocks and boulders were 
removed from the river bed to improve navigation. Navigation improved for a 
while, waned and almost completely disappeared. In 1976, rocks and boulders 
were returned to the same river bed to create white water rapids for aesthetic 
reasons. Also, there might be a return of blackflies and other small dipterans. 

The call to make the river your front yard has been heard by suburban 
developers. Extensive rows of homes now occupy the banks of the Saint Joseph 
River. The impact on the river has been greater and in many ways less desirable 
than the construction of public buildings. As houses began to line the banks, 
cement walls, sometimes for miles, were erected, lowlands were filled, and 
drainage inlets were tampered with. All of these changes in order to use the river 
for recreation made new demands on the river. The river front accommodates 



76 Indiana Academy of Science 

boat houses, high speed motors and water skiing equipment. Unfortunately, 
seldom do you find a significant resemblance between the natural habitat of the 
river bank and the front yard of homes. 

A long story could be told on the use of the river front property by industry. 
At first mills used the water for direct power which gave way to larger plants 
using dams for hydroelectric power. Then, the picture changed to almost 
exclusively fossil fuels plants on the river. Consequently, large and small 
industries moved away from the waterway because electricity could be 
transported and fossil fuels were not carried on the river. Railroads had taken 
over the burden of coal transportation. Nevertheless, many industries stayed 
close to the river for two reasons, a place to deposit waste products and the 
thermal aspect. As industry grew, the disposal of wastes and large quantities of 
heat became major problems. Until very recently, as a field, aquatic ecologist I 
found it most difficult if not impossible to approach the Saint Joseph River at 
industrial sites. Barricades of all descriptions had been erected and the attitude 
of management was hostile to say the least. In the minds of management not 
only the land but the river was owned by industry. 

The disposal of solid and liquid industrial wastes into the Saint Joseph 
River began with mills in the first quarter of the nineteenth century. During the 
river milling period, numerous newspaper articles, urged by conservation 
minded organizations, noted changes in the river. Pollution and obstructions by 
dams were given as the major reasons for changes in the fish populations. One 
article in the early nineteenth century stated that, "about the only life in some 
sections is that of the turtle." The mills on the river vanished before any 
abatement was seriously considered. However, as industries developed and the 
wastes became highly varied, the ecological carrying capacity of the river was 
exceeded in may locations. The pathway toward abatement and improvement 
has been most difficult. First the waste problems had to be exposed, then 
analyses of damage and finally pressure for abatement. 

In 1977 these point sources of solid and liquid pollution .have been 
identified, the analyses of damage is in progress, and fortunately considerable 
abatement has been accomplished. The major question is, at what level should 
pollution be permitted. Likewise the same question is being asked in regard to 
thermal pollution. Many fossil fuel plants are located on the Saint Joseph River. 
The conversion of massive amounts of one type of energy to another follows the 
well-known laws of thermodynamics. Thermal pollution at a significant level 
has occurred in the Saint Joseph River. The question today is, to what extent do 
we wish to have changes in temperature, caused by industry, control the biotic 
status of the water resource? 

The impact of domestic sewage on the Saint Joseph River has followed the 
same general pattern as on most midwestern waterways. Abatement to various 
degrees came long after the ecological carrying capacity of most segments of the 
river system had been seriously exceeded. This was due largely to the rapid 
population growth coupled with a reluctance to construct disposal plants. 
Scientific publications, and, frequently newspaper articles, stressed the 
deterioration of the river. Dolley (3), a student of the well-known parasitologist 



Presidential Address 77 

Henry B. Ward, made an extensive study of the biology of the Saint Joseph 
River in 1933. He emphasized the grossly polluted conditions in urbanized 
sections of the river. Nevertheless, the first disposal plants in those same areas 
were not built until over twenty years later. 

Even with modern technology in sewage waste disposal the Saint Joseph 
River is used as a "back up" system. In the event of heavy rainfall, overflow 
valves open up to permit sewage along with the run off water to empty directly 
into the river. In several cities, South Bend included, the number of overflow 
outlets has increased in the last decade. Also, if there is a mechanical or electrical 
failure in pump systems which are conveniently associated with the Saint Joseph 
River, the sewage flow doesn't stop, it simply dumps everything into the river. In 
general the impact of industrial and domestic wastes on the Saint Joseph River 
has been reduced to a considerable degree, however, this only covers the point 
sources of pollutants. The control of nonpoint sources is more difficult to locate 
and analyze. Control measures are just beginning. 

The recreational uses of the Saint Joseph River began with swimming, 
canoeing, small hand-powered boats. Swimming lessened largely in reaction to 
pollution both domestic and industrial. Canoeing has had an upsurge in recent 
decades both as an individual sport and as annual organized events. A paddler's 
guide to one section of the river includes historical landmarks for the traveler. 
Large, slow moving boats are now common on the reservoir areas behind dams 
where homes line the banks. Pleasure boats began when river freight flourished 
in the early 19th century. The dams and great fluctuations in water levels have 
discouraged pleasure passenger boating over extensive sections. However, 
during the last few decades pleasure boats have regular schedules on several 
short sections of the Saint Joseph River where the water level is maintained by 
dams. Sportmen have encouraged speed boating and water skiing on the Saint 
Joseph River. These activities have been largely incompatible with the more 
passive recreational activities such as fishing, canoeing, and small craft boating. 
Also, there has been a complete disregard for biotic aspects, i.e., spawning beds 
of fishes. Zoning of the river for the various recreational activities has been 
considered possible but extremely difficult to enforce. 

In the mid-twentieth century, youth camps and trailer camp grounds have 
become common along the smaller tributaries of the Saint Joseph River. Most 
of the impact of the recreational activities by these groups on the tributaries has 
not been extremely harmful. However, two species of clams have disappeared 
from one tributary due to eager collectors from a large trailer camp. I hope they 
produced many science fair winners in the Chicago school system. The impact 
has in some areas exceeded the carrying capacity of small natural streams. 

Early settlers spoke of the biotic assets of the river in terms of plenty of life 
in the water and an abundance of birds and animals associated with the river. 
Research on the biotic aspects of the Saint Joseph River has been rather sparse 
and frequently limited to small areas on a single taxon. However, the fact that 
numerous changes have taken place has been sufficiently documented. As the 
human population of the watershed increased, mills, dams and roads were 
constructed, and wastes were deposited into the waterway. Thus, the impression of 



78 Indiana Academy of Science 

plenty of clean natural water changed. Concerned citizens wrote in terms of 
deterioration and pollution of aquatic habitats. 

The record of fishes in the Saint Joseph River watershed indicates many 
changes in species and number. However, much is really unknown due to a lack 
of comprehensive basic research. The story of changes in the population of 
mussels in the watershed is quite clear and it suggests similar patterns for many 
other taxa. In particular, the large bivalve (Unionidae) populations have 
declined in number of species and the size of populations. In addition to the 
basic research on mussels, the practical uses of mussels have been recorded; 
consequently, population data can be safely extrapolated. Van der Schalie (10) 
stated that mussels were once plentiful and all are potentially edible. This is 
clearly shown by the large piles of shells left as kitchen middens at camp sited by 
many native Americans and manuals on survival include mussels (10). 

The Saint Joseph River watershed supplied a share of the large tonnage of 
commercially valuable mussel shells used for buttons and novelties. The button 
industry, which was established in the last decade of the nineteeth century and 
flourished for about 50 years (9), used many species which were common in the 
Saint Joseph River watershed. Only one of the three formerly most useful 
species is found in any significant number in the watershed today. Dineen (1,2), 
Goodrich & Van der Schalie (5), clearly established and the fact that at least 
twenty-one species formerly inhabited the portion of the Saint Joseph River 
watershed in Indiana. These studies and subsequent work produced only eleven 
living species and only two of the eleven species were common. The valves 
(shells) of ten other species were found, many of which were rare and greatly 
deteriorated. Why has the number of species of bivalves been reduced to almost 
fifty percent? First, all freshwater mussels are parasitic on fish in one stage of the 
life cycle. Thus, the construction of dams set restrictions on the distribution of 
mussels even though feeble attempts have been made to construct fish ladders. 
Secondly, the button industry reduced the populations in some sections. 
Sediments carried to the river by water erosion, from the time the first trees were 
cleared until today when almost the complete watershed area is managed, had 
some impact on the mussel populations. Also, domestic and industrial wastes, in 
spite of abatement measures, have influenced the molluscan populations. The 
total flow of water in the Saint Joseph River was greater and fluctuated less 
when the watershed was timber and wilderness as compared to present urban 
and agricultural watershed. In August 1959, when the annual precipitation was 
low and the dams controlled the flow to regulate the output of electricity, mussel 
beds were exposed to desiccation and to predation by raccoons and birds. 
Likewise, new wide bridges, roads, retaining walls and extensive land fill of 
floodplains and wetlands adjacent to the watershed have greatly reduced the 
area of suitable habitat for mussels. Small tributaries have been diverted into 
ponds and the vegetation along the banks removed. Consequently, the 
temperature of the water has increased beyond the tolerance of some mussels. 
No doubt habitat destruction has been the single most limiting factor. 

The strictly aesthetic aspects of the Saint Joseph River have been 
emphasized by poets and naturalists. The native Americans loved the Saint 
Joseph River. However, practical forces have always taken top priority. Efforts 



Presidential Addrhss 79 

to retain or to improve the aesthetics, in terms of natural conditions, have been 
sporadic and limited to small segments. 

In conclusion, a review of the history of the river as a natural resource and 
an analysis of the present conditions indicate that the status of the complete 
Michiana watershed, with the Saint Joseph River as the main artery, is rather 
critical and tenuous. 

Water and air are actually the last two facets of the environment which, to a 
significant degree, are treated as commons. The principle of commons has been 
expressed explicitly by Hardin (6) in his "Tragedy of the Commons." The Saint 
Joseph River as a natural resource has had many uses over a period of a couple 
of centuries. 

Consequently, when all of the numerous demands for the water supply of 
the Michiana watershed and the impact of erosion are considered, it becomes 
obvious that water must be managed as a cyclic commodity. The amount of 
water is finite, it is not inexhaustible. The natural ecological carrying capacity 
can be exceeded in many ways. There are no substitutes for many of the uses of 
water. Clean-up activities are frequent in the drainage area, but that only 
indicates that prevention must be given a higher priority. Today individuals and 
organizations form a strong collective force favoring total management of the 
water supply. Master plans must supersede segmented actions which have had 
long histories of use and misuse of the water resources. Master plans have been 
emerging but progress is extremely slow. The Michiana watershed includes two 
states, fifteen counties, and numerous townships, cities and towns. Yet this is a 
small watershed. Nevertheless, mutual understanding and cooperation must 
become the driving force supporting any significant plan for water management. 
A complete basic inventory of the water resources, formulating a plan, executing 
the plan and finally monitoring and adjusting the operation of the plan are all 
essential aspects of the total program. The first two steps of a total program are 
receiving much attention at the present time. 

My major concern after reviewing the history of the Saint Joseph River and 
observing some areas for over twenty-five years is the obvious ever-increasing 
trend to change a beautiful river from a free flowing natural system toward a 
tightly controlled series of channels and ditches. There must be some middle 
ground area which would be most rewarding to man in the long range. To 
achieve this middle ground position the greatest need is to build a stronger 
foundation for whatever super structure which might be built and called a water 
management program. The building blocks for a firm foundation are the results 
of basic research. To The Academy, I make a strong plea for greater awareness 
of the serious need for basic research — the most significant justification for 
having The Academy. 



80 Indiana Academy of Science 



Literature Cited 

1. Dineen, C. F., 1960. Bottom types and organisms of the Saint Joseph River. Fish. Res. Rep., 
Statewide Fish. Invest., Indiana Dept. Conserv. 3(2):2-27. 

2. Dineen, C. F., 1970. Changes in the molluscan fauna of the Saint Joseph River, Indiana between 
1959 and 1970, Proceedings, Indiana Academy of Science, 80:246-250. 

3. Dolley, J. S., 1933. Preliminary notes on the biology of the Saint Joseph River, Amer. Mid. Nat., 
14:193-227. 

4. Dryer, C. R. and M. K. Davis, 1910. The work done by normal brooks in thirteen years, Proc. 
Indiana Acad. Science, 20:147-152. 

5. Goodrich, C. and H. Van der Schalie, 1944. A revision of the Mollusca of Indiana, Amer. Mid. 
Nat., 32(2):257-326. 

6. Hardin, G., 1968. The Tragedy of the Commons, Science Vol. 162, pp. 1243-1248. 

7. Howard, T. E., 1907. A History of the Saint Joseph County, Indiana, Vol. I, The Lewis Publishing 
Company. 

8. Knoblock, O. M., 1925. Early Navigation on the Saint Joseph River, Indiana Historical Society 
Publications, Vol. 8, Number 4. 

9. Krumholz, L. A., R. L. Bingham and E. R. Meyers, 1969. A Survey of the commercially valuable 
mussels of the Wabash and White Rivers of Indiana, Proc. Indiana Acad, of Science 79:205-226. 

10. Van der Schalie, H., 1960. Pearls, food and buttons practical uses of Michigan mussels. Michigan 
Department Conserv. Fish Div. Pamphlet #32, June, 1960. 



ANTHROPOLOGY 

Chairman: Edward M. Dolan, DePauw University 
Greencastle, Indiana 46135 

Chairman-Elect: Russell E. Lewis 
University of Evansville, Evansville Indiana 47701 

Abstracts 

A Riverton Culture Gathering Site in Parke County, Indiana. Robert E. Pace 

and Steve Coffing, Indiana State University Trench tests on an 

intermediate level terrace above Big Raccoon Creek in southwest Parke County 
uncovered heavey concentrations of cracked stone, remanents of midden, 
burned areas and pits. A tool assemblage is dominated by milling stones, with 
few knives, scrapers and projectile points. Bone was absent, but quantities of 
carbonized nuts and traces of oil indicated a highly specialized gathering station, 
suspected but not previously reported as a part of the Riverton settelment 
pattern. Carbonized nut remains have been dated at 810 B.C. (UGa-1902: 2760 + 
95 B.P.). 

Settlement Patterns Along the White River, Southeast Knox County. Gary A. 

Apfelstadt and Robert E. Pace, Indiana State University A sector of 

changing terrain was surveyed that extended from the White River into adjacent 
upland. Both Archaic and Woodland sites were located, with the former 
concentrated in the upland and the latter along the bluffs and on the floodplain. 
It is suggested that the shift in settlement patterns is associated with an 
introduction of cultigens better adapted to floodplain growth. 

"Continuity and Change in the Political System of the Caribs of Central 
America". Emory C. Whiple, Department of Sociology/ Anthropology, 

Indiana University-Purdue University at Fort Wayne The Caribs 

(Garifuna) of Belize are undergoing changes in their traditional political system 
which are a direct result of the recent influence of national politics. Concepts 
such as individual suffrage, political parties, and secret balloting conflict with 
the traditional system of decision making, which is based upon kinship and 
eithnic unity. Nevertheless, the Caribs have adopted many aspects of the 
parlimentary system, especially when they are faced with new political problems 
which are the outgrowth of modernization. 

A Riverton Culture Base Camp in Bartholomew County, Indiana. Mark 
Wolfal, Phil McClure and Robert E. Pace, Wabash Valley Archaeological 

Society A Field Workshop conducted a controlled surface survey and 

subsurface testing at a Riverton base camp near Azalia, in southeast 
Bartholomew County. The surface and midden produced cracked stone, a 
number of Riverton points, and related hunting tools, along with a few milling 
stones. Fragments of bone, nuts and mussel shell were recovered, and a large pit 
examined. The site is one of several on high floodplain terraces along the White 
River, and conforms to Winter's definition of a base camp, as applied to 
Riverton Culture settlement patterns along the Wabash River. 

81 



82 Indiana Academy of Science 

"Preliminary Analysis of Religious Iconograph in Nahua, Otomi, and Tepehua 
Paper Cuttings". Alan R. Sandstrom, Department of Sociology/ Anthro- 
pology, Indiana University Purdue University at Fort Wayne, Fort Wayne, 

Indiana 46805 Nahua, Otomi, and Tepehua Indians of the Huasteca region 

in east central Mexico continue the ancient art of cutting paper images for use in 
religious rituals. In this report, these images are shown to represent spirits and 
religious concepts that are important to the Indian worldview. Through analysis 
of a large number of paper images collected in the Huasteca, elements of 
worldview, processes of religious change and syncretism, and principles of 
symbolic expression are illuminated. Finally, changes in the nature of paper 
images are noted as they are increasingly manufactured for sale as tourist items. 

The Wilson Site: A Havana Burial Mound in Southwest Vigo County. Robert 
E. Pace and Charles M. Anslinger, Indiana State University Excava- 
tions of a disturbed Havana Tradition burial mound has established the 
presence of a sub-floor tomb, a ramp, ash pits, a fiberous mantle, and clay caps. 
Similar features are noted in the Illinois River Valley mounds. A Havana village 
is located nearby at the Farrand Site. Charcoal from ash pits has been dated at 
115 B.C. (UGa-1898: 2065 ± 120 B.P.). 

Costumbre in The Cuchumatan Mountains, Guatemala. Francis X. Grollig, 
S. J., Ph. D. Anthropology Department, Loyola University of 

Chicago This presentation will be a part of a forthcoming volume, 

Guatemala: Folk and Folk Religion. It is built on original observations that 
were a part of the author's fieldwork for the doctorate (Indiana U. 1959). All of 
the work was done in the northwestern section, in the department of 
Huehuetenango. Some examples are cited; some are developed in detail. Special 
attention is given to the bloody sacrifices and "The Ancient Idol" at San Juan 
Atitan and Santa Eulalia, respectively. 



Forensic Anthropology— Theory and Practice 

Charles P. Warren 

Department of Anthropology 

University of Illinois at Chicago Circle, 1977 

Forensic Anthropology as a Subdiscipline 

Forensic science is the study and practice of the application of science to the 
purpose of law. Theoretically, forensic anthropology is the application of 
anthropological methods and techniques to the resolution of legal problems. In 
practice, with some exceptions, forensic anthropology is the recognition and 
analysis of hominid anatomical structures, primarily for the purpose of personal 
identification of unknown human remains (11). 

The associated research is concerned with the characteristics of both soft 
and hard tissues of human remains, and the methodological techniques which 
have been developed contribute to the determination of sex, race, age, stature, 
muscularity, hair analyses, body fluid typing, anomalies, non-metric traits, 
discriminant trait analyses, and the blood-grouping of bone. The research is 



PALEOANTHROPOLOGY 



BIOARCHAEOLOGY 




ANATOMICAL 

FORENSIC 

SCIENCES 



PALEOPATHOLOGY- 



CRIMINALISTICS 



HUMAN 

GROWTH 

STUDIES 



DISASTER AND MILITARY 
PERSONAL IDENTIFICATION 



FORENSIC 
ODONTOLOGY 



Figure 1 . The relationships between developmental and comparative osteology and the disciplines 
which utilize the basic concepts of osteology. 



83 



84 Indiana Academy of Science 

further concerned with the anlayses of structural modification of both soft and 
hard tissues of human remains as induced by decomposition vectors, wounds 
and pathology, animal marks, bone changes in salt water, plant activity on 
bones, the impact of the environment on bones, and other related investigations 
which help to reconstruct the history of the remains. 

Regardless of the research interests, the applied skills, or the specialization 
titles of the forensic anthropologist — physical anthropologist, bioanthropolo- 
gist, bioarchaeologist, human paleontologist, criminalistician, or mass disaster 
expert, that is, some form of identification specialist who works with human 
remains — one must accept the fact that the recognition and analysis of human 
teeth and bones are basic to forensic anthropology — and to the anatomical 
forensic sciences in general. It is essential that the practitioner of forensic 
anthropology — whatever the parent discipline may be — have ample competence 
in the fields of general human skeletal and dental anatomy and be fairly well 
acquainted with the up-to-date techniques of anthropological osteology. 

Comparative human osteology is the core discipline which provides 
functional data for at least eight areas of anthropological interest, as follows: 
human growth studies; paleopathology; paleoanthropology; bioarchaeology; 
the anatomical forensic sciences; criminalistics; forensic odontology; and 
disaster and military personal identification (see Fig. 1). The latter will be of 
major concern in the discussion which follows, but throughout the discussion 
the importance of anthropological osteology will be stressed. 

An Example of a Job Description 

An example of the role of the forensic anthropologist in disaster and 
military identification is outlined in the job description for the physical 
anthropologist (5) employed in the U. S. Army Central Identification 
Laboratory (CILTHAI), formerly located in Sattahip, Thailand, during the 
recent military conflict in Southeast Asia (1, 2, 3, 4, 10). 

The physical (forensic) anthropologist receives general administrative 
supervision from the Chief, Central Identification Laboratory, who assigns the 
overall responsibilities and discusses the major projects, field trips, and 
problems which affect established policy or those requiring additional personnel 
or equipment. The work of the anthropologist is conducted independently, with 
only occasional outside professional consultation, and the completed 
identification work is normally accepted as final. The laboratory findings of the 
anthropologist and his co-workers are reviewed for effectiveness, results, and 
conformance with established policy. 

The major duties are to serve as a physical (forensic) anthropologist with 
responsibility for conducting anthropological studies and investigations 
oriented toward establishing the positive identification of skeletal remains of 
allied war dead and civil disaster victims recovered in Southeast Asia. The 
anthropologist applies a technical knowledge of physical (forensic) 
anthropology primarily involving such fields as osteology, anatomy, 
anthropometry, race, age, and sex determination, and related areas. 



Anthropology 85 

The physical (forensic) anthropologist plans and conducts investigations to 
achieve, if possible, the resolution of the identity of casualties. He obtains and 
reviews the reports from authorities and other sources throughout Southeast 
Asia, including casualty reports, health and dental records, X-ray 
transparencies, eye-witness accounts, after-action reports, statements of 
incident, aircraft manifests, fingerprint and footprint records, and other 
associated data required for subsequent matching with the laboratory 
findings — acts which may lead to the identification of each casualty. Further, 
the anthropologist conducts the background research of recovered but 
incomplete remains, mising-in-action personnel, and killed-in-action but body- 
not-recovered personnel by means of a thorough analysis of laboratory case 
files, alpha rosters, grid locator cards, and the Bright Light Identification 
Parameters. Utilizing this acquired information, the anthropologist then 
associates the recovered skeletal remains with the proper casualty, or group of 
casualties, and determines if partial or minimal recoveries of remains actually 
represent portions of previously recovered incomplete remains or if the remains 
present represent the only recoverable portions of a casualty not previously 
recovered. 

The anthropologist performs laboratory examinations by processing and 
studying each skeletal and semiskeletal set of complete or fragmentary remains 
to determine sex, race, dentition, age, stature, muscularity, hair color, 
anomalies, malformations, deformations, healed fractures, old injuries, 
amputations, and the markers of bone disease. He also supervises the 
preparation of the dental charts which reflect the extraction and restoration 
patterns, together with their spacings, inclinations, rotations, versions, 
overlappings, types of occulsion, degrees of abrasion, impactions, and the 
presence of supernumerary teeth and prosthetic devices. 

The anthropologist attempts to recognize and reassemble the small 
fragmentary skeletal portions that are splintered by trauma or burning. The 
majority of the remains received in the laboratory will have suffered extreme 
trauma or calcination as the result of explosions, air crashes, projectile impact, 
or other factors leading to tissue damage and dismemberment. The 
anthropologist utilizes his working knowledge of anthropometry and its proper 
instruments, techniques, and land-marks to obtain raw data, which is then 
translated into objective measurements and meaningful indices. 

Administratively, the anthropologist consolidates the collective 
investigative evidence with the laboratory findings so as to achieve positive 
identification of the individual set of remains. He supervises the preparation of a 
variety of anatomical, skeletal, and dental charts, and he identifies the 
reconstituted individual remains by matching the anthropological findings with 
all of the available data, he then prepares comprehensive Certificates of Identity 
and supplementary anthropological reports, which include case histories 
leading up to recovery, detailed descriptions of the remains, comparisons with 
the records available for the casualty, summaries of the facts and circumstances 
of the individual case, data which eliminate all of the other associated casualties, 
discussions of discrepancies considered and discounted, and evaluations of all 
relevant factors, thus concluding with a concise decision — that is, an 



86 Indiana Academy of Science 

anthropolotical opinion in a format that is scientifically sound for presentation 
in any court of law. The anthropologist also performs other duties as assigned ( 1 , 
2, 3, 4, 5, 10). 

In spite of the intricacy and complexity of the above job description, the 
entire procedure may be summarized in the form of primary and secondary 
goals to be held and acted upon by the physical (forensic) anthropologist and his 
co-workers in the laboratory: (a) establish the uniqueness of the remains, that is, 
reduce commingling to zero; (b) identify the remains, that is, establish the 
correct location of the former living individual in the social matrix of his or her 
family, community, and society; (c) improve current techniques and develop 
new methods for more efficiency and reliability in the establishment of the above 
primary goals; (d) increase information in all areas of knowledge relevant to the 
above primary goals; and (e) provide a sound legal basis for the scientific and 
circumstantial findings. 



Laboratory Procedure 

In addition to the recognition of the primary and secondary goals of the 
laboratory personnel as indicated above, laboratory procedure is an important 
consideration. As data are being revealed, ascertained, and recorded, the 
sequence for assessing the anthropometric data from skeletal human remains is 
very important. The recommended sequence has been discussed by Krogman (6, 
7) and Stewart (8, 9) and with slight modification takes the form of a series of 
interrogative statements, as follows: 

1. Is it bone? 

2. Is it hominid (human) bone? 

3. What bones are present? 

4. Are sets of remains commingled? 

5. Is the individual male or female? 

6. What is the race or ethnicity? 

7. What is the nature of the dentition? 

8. What is the age at the time of death? 

9. What is the height or stature? 

10. What anomalies or abnormalities are visible? 

11. What is the osteological evidence of the cause of death? 

Sequence of the assessment of data is important because the determination of 
some of the characteristics is dependent upon prior knowledge of other 
characteristics (11). 

Segregating commingled human remains also requires set procedures. 
When remains are received in the laboratory, there are no records of (a) the exact 
locations or (b) the positional relationships of the recovered bones as they may 
have been arranged at, or in, the site of the recovery. However, one must assume 
that the collecting and packaging of the recovered bones was not done 
randomly, but reflects to some extent the proximity of the bones, one to another, 
at the site of the recovery. Therefore, the packages containing the bones 
represent an initial, but tentative, segregation. It is for this reason, then, that the 



Anthropology 87 

contents of each package must be kept separate from the items in other packages 
from the same site during the initial stages of the segregation process. 

After the bones have been cleaned, and washed only if necessary, the entire 
set of bones in each package should be arranged on the laboratory table so that 
each bone occupies its normal relative position to the other bones of a supine 
human skeleton. This procedure provides an early visual awareness of the skeltal 
parts which make up the contents of each package. It also provides a quick 
revelation of the presence of the bones of animals other than human. At this 
stage of the procedure the minimum number of individuals represented in each 
commingled package can be assessed by counting the multiple identical skeletal 
protions. 

If there are no objections to marking the bones, each bone on each table 
(each table bearing the contents of one package) should be marked with an 
identifying mark indicating the table (that is, the original package) upon which it 
presently resides. This assures the worker that any skeletal portion can always be 
returned to its original table (package) if the need arises. The markings on the 
bones also permit the subsequent construction of a descriptive narrative of the 
procedural activities which occurred during the segregation and reconstruction 
of each set of remains, if such a document is requested. 

As the segregation of the commingled remains progresses, it is important 
that the worker realize that a skeletal part should not be removed from its 
original position to a new position — that is, from one table to another — unless 
there is a valid and accountable reason for doing so. In other words, the parts 
which arrived in the laboratory in a single package are assumed to belong to one 
individual unless some discrepancy is observed. The usual osteological 
discrepancies which necessitate the relocating of skeletal parts are as follows: 

1. Duplication of anatomical parts; 

2. Improper articulation with other related anatomical parts; 

3. Improper matching of bilaterally symmetrical parts; 

4. Incompatibility of size in relation to other anatomical parts; and, 

5. Incompatibility of surface anatomy when compared with other bones of 
the set. 

The worker may develop other reasons for relocating anatomical parts — for 
instance, evidence of similar trauma on closely associated bones or the fitting of 
bone fragments to distantly removed bones — but it must be stressed that in each 
instance there should be ample justification for making such changes. 

Basic Skills Required of an Identification Specialist 

Throughout the above discussion the reader has been made aware of the 
basic skills required of identification specialists and, more specifically, forensic 
anthropologists. These skills may be summarized as follows: 

1. Thorough knowledge of human surface anatomy; 

2. Familiarity with procedures for chemical analyses of body fluids; 

3. Thorough knowledge of the skeletal anatomy of the human organism; 

4. Thorough knowledge of the dental anatomy of the human organism; 



88 Indiana Academy of Science 

5. Familiarity with the concept of variability and its manifestations in 
human populations; 

6. Familiarity with the methods and techniques used in obtaining and 
assessing anthropometric and anthroposcopic data; 

7. Thorough knowledge of the effect of trauma and heat on flesh- 
covered, semiskeletal, or skeletal remains; 

8. Knowledge of types of tissue associated with non-skeletal remains; 

9. Familiarity with procedures for systematically segregating 
commingled flesh-covered and semiskeletal remains; 

10. Thorough knowledge of fragmentary skeletal human remains; 

11. Familiarity with procedures for systematically segregating 
commingled skeletal remains; and, 

12. Knowledge of the role and function of the forensic anthropologist as 
an expert witness. 

In summary, the processes of personal identification demand the matching 
of complex physical characteristics as revealed by the remains with the record of 
an individual who manifested these complex characteristics in life. The forensic 
anthropologist, as a result of training, research, and field experiences, must be 
well equipped to perform most of the tasks required in the processes of personal 
identification but must also be prepared to work in close cooperation with 
experts and technicians in other disciplines in order to fulfill the role which is 
prescribed for the forensic anthropologist. 



Anthropology 89 



Literature Cited 

1. Field Manual. 1959. Handling of deceased personnel in theaters of operations. FM 10-63. 
Departments of the Army, the Navy, and the Air Force, Washington, D.C. 128 p. 

2. Field Manual. 1976. Identification of deceased personnel. FM 10-286. Headquarters, 
Department of the Army, Washington, D.C. 108 p. 

3. Helgesen, H. T., ed. 1974. Standing operating procedure — Central Identification Laboratory 
(CILTHAI). Department of the Army, U.S. Army Central Identification Laboratory, Sattahip, 
Thailand. 49 p. (unpubl.). 

4. Helgesen, H. T., ed. 1975. Standing operating procedure— Central Identification Laboratory 
(CILTHAI). Department of the Army, U.S. Army Central Identification Laboratory, Sattahip, 
Thailand. 52 p. (unpubl.). 

5. Job Description. 1973. Physical Anthropologist. U.S. Civil Service Commission PCS GS-190-0. 
Headquarters, U.S. Army Support, Thailand. 1 p. (unpubl.). 

6. Krogman, W. M. 1949. The human skeleton in legal medicine, medical aspects. In S.A. Levinson, 
ed., Symposium on medicolegal problems. Series two. Lippincott, Philadelphia, pp. 1-92. 

7. Krogman, W. M. 1973. The human skeleton in forensic medicine: a detailed and analytic 
discussion and interpretation of problems in the identification of human skeletal material. 2nd Ptg. 
Thomas, Springfield, 111. 337 p. 

8. Stewart, T. D. 1951. What the bones tell. FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin. February, pp. 1-5. 

9. Stewart, T. D. 1968. Identification by skeletal structures. In F. E. Camps, ed., Gradwohl's legal 
medicine. 2nd ed. John Wright & Sons, Ltd., Bristol, pp. 123-154. 

10. Technical Manual. 1964. Identification of deceased personnel. TM 10-286. Headquarters, 
Department of the Army, Washington, D. C. 128 p. 

1 1. Warren, C. P. 1978. Personal identification of human remains: an overview. Journal of Forensic 
Sciences 23(2):388-395. 






An Early Woodland Burial from Greene County, Indiana 

Curtis H. Tomak 

Indiana State Highway Commission 

Indianapolis, Indiana 46204 

and 

Norma J. O'Connor 

Department of Anthropology 

Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 47401 

Introduction 

The subject of this paper is a discussion of an Early Woodland burial from 
Greene County, Indiana. Greene County is located along the West Fork of the 
White River in southwestern Indiana. 

While surface collecting, two individuals found a large flint blade with red 
ochre on it on the surface of a plowed field. This indicated to them that a deposit 
of archaeological materials might be buried there. They excavated and cleaned 
the immediate area, uncovering a deposit of human bone and artifacts just below 
the plow line. They left the deposit in place and called one of the authors (CHT) 
late one afternoon and invited him to assist in its removal that day. 



The Site 

The burial was located on an archaeological site that is situated on the edge 
of upland immediately adjacent to a former marshland. This site had previously 
been surveyed by one of the authors (CHT). A light scatter of material occurs 
over an area of about 1 acre. The material recovered indicates that the site is 
multicomponent, having been occupied by various Archaic and Woodland 
peoples. 

The Burial Feature 

The intact burial deposit consisted of a mass of cremated human bone, red 
ochre, 14 blades, 1 drill, and 1 grooved sandstone "tablet" (Fig. 1). The deposit 
was about 4 inches thick, 1 3 inches in east-west diameter, and 1 8 inches in north- 
south diameter. It was about 13 inches below ground surface. The matrix was 
dark in color and contrasted with the yellowish clay subsoil. 

There was no evidence of burning in the burial pit, indicating that the 
cremation had occurred elsewhere. After cremation the bone and red ochre were 
placed in the pit. Four of the blades, the drill, and the grooved stone were 
positioned just above some of the bone and just south of the main concentration 
of bone. The drill was lying upon the grooved stone, and the rest of the blades 
were placed more or less horizontally on top of the bone and the above- 
mentioned artifacts. Eight of the overlying blades were irregularly grouped with 
most having an approximate east-west orientation. This group was bounded on 
the northwest and the southeast by a blade oriented northeast-southwest. Red 

90 



Anthropology 



91 



ochre was on the blades, drill, grooved stone, and bone and in the surrounding 
matrix. The artifacts had not been burned. 




Figure 1: Top: 6 of the 15 blades from the burial deposit. Bottom: Grooved stone tablet from the 
burial deposit, point from the burial pit, drill from the burial deposit. 

About 9 inches west of the burial deposit and within the burial pit was a 
stemmed point (Fig. 1). The point was in undisturbed context at about the same 
elevation as the top of the burial deposit. Upon screening the fill of the pit, 1 red 
chert flake and 5 gray chert fragments from a bifacial object(s) were found. This 
object(s) had been shattered by heat, presumably in the crematory fire. 

Artifact Descriptions 

The blades are elongated "leaf shaped" artifacts. They are widest in their 
midsection or their proximal portion and taper to a pointed to rounded basal 
edge. They are well chipped, and most of them exhibit terminal cortex and have 
had at least some of their lateral edges dulled. They are made from a blue-gray 
flint probably obtained from deposits in the vicinity of Harrison County, 
Indiana. Length varies from 137 to 155 mm., with 11 of them being 146 to 154 
mm. long. Maximum width varies from 36 to 47 mm. However, 10 of them are 
44 to 46 mm. wide. Midpoint thickness ranges from about 7 to 10 mm. 

The drill has a rounded stem which is 32 mm. long and 21 mm. wide. The 
lateral edges of the stem are ground smooth. The bit is inset somewhat from the 
stem and is 60 mm. long. Thickness varies from about 6 to 8 mm. This artifact is 
made from what appears to be Harrison County flint. 

The grooved stone consists of a tabular piece of fine grained sandstone 
more or less rectanguloid in outline with 1 corner missing. It has a maximum 



92 Indiana Academy of Science 

length of 76 mm., a maximum width of 60 mm., and is 13 to 23 mm. thick. The 
longest edge has been smoothed and has a narrow "pencil line" groove along its 
midline. The other edges are broken and irregular. The concave edge has 2 
narrow pencil line grooves. One face has a diagnoal groove about 45 mm. long 
and about 10 mm. wide. The other face exhibits 2 parallel diagonal grooves. One 
is about 45 mm long and about 10 mm. wide, and the other is about 35 mm. long 
and about 9 mm. wide. The faces also possess various scratches and narrow 
grooves. 

The point has a blade which is 61 mm. long and a stem which is 19 mm. in 
length. The stem is inset from the blade by narrow sloping shoulders and tapers 
somewhat to a rather straight basal edge. The shoulder width is 29 mm., and the 
blade thickness is about 8 mm. This point is made from Harrison County flint. 

Cultural Comparison 

The artifactual materials placed in the burial feature are like those 
occurring with cremations and other forms of burial at some Adena sites in the 
Ohio Valley as exemplified below. 

The Tarlton mound was a small structure located in Fayette County, 
Kentucky (9). It is reported to have produced a mass of cremated bone and red 
ochre accompanied by, among other thing, leaf shaped blades and drills (drill 
form unspecified). In addition, a grooved sandstone tablet and a stemmed point 
like the Greene County specimen are said to have come from the mound 
(location unspecified). 

The Fisher mound was a small structure located near the Tarlton mound 
(10). Several deposits of materials were found in it which included artifacts like 
the Greene County specimens. For example, a group of 8 artifacts in association 
with red ochre designated as Burial 6 included 2 drills, 2 leaf shaped blades, and 1 
sandstone tablet. Burial 1 consisted of cremated bones accompanied by, among 
other things, red ochre, drills, stemmed points, a leaf shaped blade, and stone 
tablets. The close similarity between the Kentucky and Indiana artifacts is quite 
apparent. 

The Natrium mound (7) and the Cresap mound (3) were sizable and rather 
complicated tumuli located along the Ohio River near Moundsville, West 
Virginia. Both contained numerous burials and deposits of materials. Artifacts 
such as those from Greene County were well represented at these sites. By way of 
example, Feature 40 at Natrium contained cremated and uncremated human 
remains deposited with, among other things, red ochre, grooved stone tablets, 
leaf shaped blades, stemmed points, and a drill. Burial 42 and Cresap consisted 
of an extended uncremated burial (minus skull) and portions of a cremated skull 
in association with red ochre, grooved stone tablets, a stemmed point, and leaf 
shaped blades, in addition to a couple of other items. 

Dragoo (3) utilized the stratified nature of the Cresap mound to formulate a 
sequence of Adena cultural development. He divided the sequence into early to 
middle Adena and late Adena. Included among the attributes of his early to 
middle division are: burned and unburned artifacts placed with cremated 
remains; extensive use of red ochre; grooved stone tablets; and drills with 



Anthropology 93 

slightly expanded or stemmed bases, leaf shaped blades, and stemmed points 
like the Greenee County specimens. Cresap, Natrium, and Fisher are listed as 
typical early to middle Adena sites. 

Typologically the Green County burial would not have been out of place at 
the Kentucky and West Virginia sites referred to herein, and it conforms quite 
well to what Dragoo terms early to middle Adena. Disregarding the 
appropriateness or the desirability of referring to the local burial as Adena and 
notwithstanding the observation that it occurred somewhat west of what is 
generally considered as "Adenaland", the fact remains that the Greene County 
burial is very much like ones termed Adena in the central and upper Ohio Valley. 

Chronological Placement 

The Greene County burial deposit is very much like ones Dragoo (3, 4) 
refers to as early to middle Adena. In those same publications Dragoo, utilizing 
a variety of considerations (radiocarbon dates for Adena and other cultural 
manifestations, typology, stratigraphy, cultural distributions, and 
anthropological theory) places the entire Ohio Valley Adena sequence in the 
first millenium B.C. 

Another way to approximate the date of the local occupation is to consider 
its place within the local cultural sequence. 

An attempt at elucidating the cultural sequence for the Greene County area 
has been made (8). The latest Late Archaic occupation recognized is one 
utilizing "Riverton" points which are common in the Greene County area. The 
Riverton culture has been defined by Winters (12) from sites in the Wabash 
Valley just west of the Greene County area. Radiocarbon dates for Riverton in 
that portion of the Wabash Valley indicate a time span of approximately 1500 to 
1000 B.C. (12). The local "Riverton" occupation is thought to date about the 
same and to immediately predate the occupation under consideration. 

There is evidence of a Middle Woodland Havana-like or influenced 
occupation in Greene County (8). This occupation is evidenced by ceramics, 
Snyders-like points, and the Worthington mound. Based upon a variety of 
considerations, this occupation is thought to begin no sooner than late in the 
first millenium B.C. and to postdate the one under consideration. 

The foregoing indicate to the writers that the burial deposit which is the 
subject of this paper probably dates sometime in the first millenium B.C. 

Occurrence and Associations 

The writers know of no other burial from the Greene County area which 
can with certainty be associated with the one under consideration. Other 
cremated bone-red ochre deposits are known from the area, but they were 
unaccompanied by artifacts or they do pertain or could pertain to other 
occupations. 

Several caches of leaf shaped blades like those placed with the burial have 
been found in Greene County and the immediately adjacent area. These caches 
range in size from 3 to over 600. Such caches have been reported for other 
sections of southwestern Indiana (personal communications). 



94 Indiana Academy of Science 

The style of stemmed point found in the burial pit and related stemmed 
variants from the Greene County area have been termed Category P points in a 
recent study (8). Category P points are common in Greene County. They occur 
on many sites, and some sites produce numerous examples. Some scrapers and 
drills have a stem like that of Category P points. The drill from the burial deposit 
has such a basal configuration. 

Stone celts are common in Greene County, and boatstones and rectaguloid 
two-holed gorgets with concave sides and drilled from one face are occasionally 
found. It is quite probable that some of the celts and possible that the boatstones 
and gorgets pertain to the occupation in question. Such or similar artifacts 
occurred at the Adena sites mentioned previously. 

A thick, generally coarse grit tempered pottery which may have cord 
impressions on both the exterior and the interior surfaces occurs in Greene 
County. For the area this kind of ceramic is included in Category A pottery (8). 
It is similar to such Early Woodland types as Marion Thick and Fayette Thick 
and may be associated with the occupation under consideration. Dragoo (3, 4) 
associates Fayette Thick with his early to middle Adena division. 

Table 1 : Weights and numbers of fragments identified. 











% of identified 






wt. in grams 


%of total wt. 


total wt. 


# of fragments 


vault bones 


22.7 


20.6 


26.0 


31 


facial bones 


1.8 


1.6 


2.1 


4 


mandible 


3.4 


3.1 


3.9 


4 


teeth 


0.3 


0.3 


0.3 


2 


ribs 


2.5 


2.3 


2.9 


4 


innominate 


3.9 


3.5 


4.5 


3 


upper long bones 


18.0 


16.3 


20.6 


18 


lower long bones 


8.0 


7.3 


9.2 


7 


unclassified long bones 


26.8 


24.3 


30.7 


111 


unidentified 


22.9 


20.8 




214 


Total 


110.3 






398 


Total identified 


87.4 






184 





Skeletal Remains 

The human skeletal remains from the burial consist of the approximately 
400 bone fragments considered in this analysis and possibly of a few other 
minute fragments which were not removed from the soil matrix. All of the bone 
fragments are small, most being under 20 mm., the largest being only 35 mm. in 
length. All of the bone has been cremated and nearly all is chalky white in color. 
Red ochre occurs on a large proportion of the fragments. Information 
concerning the types of fragments identified and their collective weights and 
numbers is to be found in Table 1. 

No duplicate diagnostic skeletal parts were observed in the burial deposit, 
and there is no evidence that more than one maturational level is represented. 
Therefore, the remains appear to represent a single individual. Although all of 



Anthropology 95 

the bone was highly calcined and broken into small, frequently distorted 
fragments, several clues as to the probable age and sex of the individual were 
available. The adult proportions of the rib fragments, the complete epiphyseal 
union of the distal femur, the robusticity of long bone fragments, and the very 
marked development of the (right) suprameatal crest suggest that the individual 
was most likely an adult male. 

The only pathological lesion observed on the remains is a slight periosteal 
reaction on the exterior of 2 of the vault bones. This condition is undiagnostic in 
character and provides no good evidence for its cause. One cremated molar root 
is so distorted as to cause some question as to its human origin. However, its 
dissimilarity to the morphology of other animal forms (William R. Adams, 
personal communication) and the apparent absence of other cremated non- 
human faunal remains in the contents of the burial deposit suggest that this 
distortion is the result of heat damage to a presumably otherwise normal or non- 
pathological human molar root. 

A very hot and/ or long-burning fire is demonstrated by the high degree of 
calcining of all of the bones (11). Vault and long bone fragments which exhibit 
deep checking, spiral fracturing, and warping all indicate that the cremation 
took place soon after the death of the individual, presumably while the body was 
still fleshed (1). Differential degrees of burning of various skeletal parts was not 
noted, making it impossible to determine the position of the body relative to the 
crematory fire. Only 1 articular surface (a left mandibular condyle) was present. 
There was therefore insufficient evidence to determine whether the body had 
been cremated while articulated or disarticulated (1, 2). The small size of the 
fragments at least suggests that the bones may have been intentionally broken 
after burning; it is not clear whether fire damage alone would or would not 
account for such extensive fracturing (5). 



Table 2: observed and expected distributions of various skeletal parts by weight (expected 
frequencies based on Seale 1959) 









obs. % of 
identified total 


exp. % of 
total 


obs. weight 
in grams 


exp. weight 
in grams 


skull 

ribs 

limbs 




32.3 

2.9 

65.0 


18.5 
16.9 
64.5 




28.2 

2.5 

56.7 


16.2 
14.8 
56.4 








observed 


( 


expected 






superioi 
inferior 


• limbs 
limbs 


20.6% 

9.2% 




18.5% 
46.0% 









Characteristics of the burial feature have been mentioned in the 
archaeological portion of the paper which suggest that the individual was 
cremated elsewhere and secondarily buried in the pit. Differential or incomplete 
secondary burial is suggested by the marked differences between the observed 
frequencies by weight of skeletal parts recovered and the expected frequencies 
by weight of those same skeletal parts from a control sample. The expected 



96 Indiana Academy of Science 

frequencies were taken from the work of Raymond Seale (6) which details the 
weights of the component parts of the dry, fat-free skeletons of 100 adult 
American Whites and Blacks. His subsample of 25 adult male Caucasians has 
been used for comparison in the present analysis, it being assumed to be the 
subsample from his work closest in skeletal characteristics to that of an adult 
American Indian male. Observed frequencies by weight of the archaeological 
specimens were calculated under the assumption that the unidentified fragments 
are distributed as in the identifiable portion of the sample and may thus be 
disregarded for this purpose. Observed frequencies were therefore calculated in 
relation to the weight of the total identified portion of the sample. Comparison 
of observed and expected frequencies shows that in this burial more of the total 
weight of bone is represented by skull fragments than would be expected. Less is 
represented by the rest of the axial skeleton and by the lower limb than would be 
expected, and the upper limb is represented in approximately the expected 
proportion of the total bone weight (Table 2). These differences were not tested 
for significance due to the inability to find an acceptable statistical procedure for 
testing differences in weight in grams. However, visual comparisons of the 
differences in weight suggest that in the secondary burial process portions of 
skull were collected and deposited in the grave at the expense of most of the rest 
of the skeleton. 

Summary 

This paper discusses a burial feature from Greene County, Indiana. The 
feature contained cremated human bone, red ochre, and several artifacts. An 
analysis of the skeltal material indicates that it likely represents the remains of 
one adult male and that the individual was cremated in a hot and /or long 
burning fire soon after death. The cremation occurred elsewhere and some of the 
bones were subsequently deposited in the burial pit along with red ochre and a 
few heat fractured biface fragments. There appears to have been selection for 
burial of skull bone at the expense of most of the rest of the skeleton, and there is 
the possibility that the bone may have been intentionally broken into small 
fragments prior to burial. 

After the skeletal material had been placed in the grave, a group of artifacts 
with red ochre on them was then added to the deposit. These artifacts had not 
been burned and consist of 15 leaf shaped blades, a drill, and a grooved 
sandstone "tablet". A stemmed point was put in the burial pit away from the 
central deposit. 

The artifacts are quite like those associated with early to middle Adena of 
the Ohio Valley. We think that the burial is Early Woodland, dating in the first 
millenium B.C. 

Acknowledgements 

The authors wish to thank Suzanne and Earl Hensley for allowing one of 
them (CHT) to participate in the excavation of the burial deposit and for 
permitting the examination of the recovered materials. Their help and interest in 
greatly appreciated. We would also like to acknowledge the assistance of 
William R. Adams, ethnozoologist in the Department of Anthropology at 



Anthropology 97 

Indiana University, for examining some of skeletal material for faunal remains 
and to thank Delia C. Cook, physical anthropologist in the Department of 
Anthropology at Indiana University,for assistance in the analysis of the skeletal 
material. 



Literature Cited 

1. Baby, R. S. 1954. Hopewell cremation practices. Papers in Archaeology, No. 1. Ohio Hist. Soc. 

2. Buikstra, J. E., and L. Goldstein. 1973. The Perrins ledge crematory. 111. State Mus. Reports of 
Investigations, No. 28. Springfield. 

3. Dragoo, D. W. 1963. Mounds for the dead. Annals of Carnegie Mus., Vol. 37. 315 p. 

4. Dragoo, D. W. 1964. The development of Adena culture and its role in the formation of Ohio 
Hopewell. In: Hopewellian studies, edited by J. R. Caldwell and R. L. Hall. 111. State Mus. Sci. 
Papers, 12(1): 1-34. 

5. Lisowski, F. P. 1956. The cremations from Barcelodaid y Gawres. In: Barcelodaid y Gawres, 
edited by T. G. E. Powell and G. E. Daniel, pp. 62-69. 

6. Seale, R. U. 1959. The weight of the dry fat-free skeleton of American Whites and Negroes. Amer. 
Jour, of Phys. Anth., 17(l):37-48. 

7. Solecki, R. S. 1953. Exploration of an Adena mound at Natrium, West Virginia. Smithsonian 
Institution, B. A. E. Bull. 151, Anth. Papers 40.79 p. 

8. Tomak, C. H. 1970. Aboriginal occupations in the vicinity of Greene County, Indiana. M. A. 
thesis. Indiana Univ. 313 p. 

9. Webb, W. S. 1943. The Riley mound and the Landing mound with additional notes on the Mt. 
Horeb site, Fa 1, and sites Fa 14 and Fa 15, Fayette County. Univ. of Ky. Reports in Anth. and 
Arch., 5(7):657-665. 

10. Webb, W. S., and W. G. Haag, 1947. The Fisher site. Univ. of Ky. Reports in Anth. and Arch., 
7(2):56 p. 

11. Wells, C. 1960. A study of cremation. Antiquity, 34:29-47 

12. Winters, H. D. 1969. The Riverton culture. 111. State Mus. Reports of Investigations, No. 13. 



BOTANY 

Chairman: Gary E. Dolph, Indiana University-Kokomo, 
Kokomo, Indiana 46901 

Chairman-Elect: Larry Yoder, Ohio State University-Marion, 
Marion, Ohio 43302 

Abstracts 

Plant Cell and Tissue Culture for In Vitro Manipulation with Agronomic 
Species. N. P. Maxon, C. L. Rhykerd and C. L. Rhykerd Jr., Depart- 
ments of Agronomy and Botany and Plant Pathology, Purdue University, 

West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 Application of novel techniques 

in plant cell and tissue culture with agronomic species is rapidly becoming a 
potent research tool for the plant scientist. There is great interest by plant 
breeders and geneticists to expand the genetic variability of existing gene pools. 
This objective is hampered by the conservative nature of the sexual cycle. 
Through the use of cell and tissue culture new genetic combinations are possible 
with such techniques as cell hybridization, exogenous DNA uptake or forced 
somatic cell association. Directed mutation induction has been limited by lack 
of selection screens for desirable mutants. In Vitro selection using suspension 
culture is a powerful tool for those interested in mutation breeding. Tissue and 
embryo culture can now be used to restore fertility to normally sterile F 1 plants. 
By allowing F 1 callus tissue to change its ploidy level, sexual recombination is 
possible with regenerated plants. Haploid plants can be recovered from anther 
or pollen culture and be induced to double forming a homozygous diploid. The 
factor limiting greater utilization of these research techniques is the difficulty of 
regeneration of plants from primary and secondary callus. It appears that the 
greatest success with regeneration comes from species that can be vegetatively 
propagated. By exploring various phytohormone combinations and pre- 
conditioning treatments, this impediment in application of these techniques will 
soon be removed. 

Quantitative Experiments with Plant Catalase for the Beginning Botany 
Laboratory. William W. Bloom and Gayton C. Marks, Department of 

Biology, Valparaiso University, Valparaiso, Indiana, 46383 An effective 

inexpensive manometer is described, together with a convenient method of 
extracting catalase from germinating cucumber seeds. A number of experiemtns 
are described for laboratory teams of four students. Quantitative data can be 
collected on the effects of variations in pH, temperatures, enzyme 
concentrations, and substrate concentrations. The inactivation of the enzyme by 
boiling and poisoning with heavy metals can also be demonstrated. 

Use of Computers to Enhance Education in Plants and Human Affairs. 

Theodore J. Crovello, Department of Biology, University of Notre Dame, 

Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 Computers are used in an advanced 

undergraduate Plants and Human Affairs course which is open to all juniors and 

99 



100 Indiana Academy of Science 

seniors at the University. Computers were introduced to enhance both teaching 
and learning in the course. Major uses involved information retrieval (of 
literature, of 2 x 2 slides, etc.), multiple choice course review, and simulation of 
plant-related systems of relevance to society (the world model, and endangered 
species status). Reaction to all aspects of computer use in general has been good, 
but efforts must still be made to enhance understanding and clarity of the more 
difficult assignments, particularly those involving simulation. Many different 
types of people are required to make computere assisted education work, 
including biology professors, students in nonparasitic roles, and computer 
center personnel. We believe that students benefit from the use of computers in 
Plants and Human Affairs, and while computers will not replace good teachers, 
they can enhance their effectiveness. 

The Trees of the Manchester College Campus after Sixty Years. Philip A. 
Orpurt, Biology Department, Manchester College, North Manchester, 

Indiana 46962 Sixty years ago in 1917, E. E. Frantz, a Manchester College 

student chose as the topic for his required graduation thesis, "Trees of 
Manchester College." This paper is to acknowledge that earlier study and to 
report on the general status and growth of some of the trees which have survived 
to the present. The M. C. Campus was established in an "oak opening," 
consequently, Quercus alba L., the white oak comprised the most numerous 
species. Counts when compared with those of 19 1 7 indicate that the stresses and 
hazards often associated with campus life have taken their toll. Of 441 white 
oaks in 1917 only 169 remain. From an average dbh of 10 inches and an average 
height of 45 feet in 1917 the white oaks remaining have grown to an average dbh 
of 21 inches and an average height of 75 feet with some attaining a height of 85 
feet. The frequencies of oak trees ranging from 10 in. dbh to a maximum of 32 
inches show a relatively even distribution. 

Some Effects of Cadmium on Carbon Dioxide and Water Vapor Transfer in 
Leaves of Acer saccharinum L. Robert J. Lamoreaux, William R. Chaney 
and Richard C. Strickland, Department of Forestry and Natural Resources, 

Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47906 Net photosynthesis, 

transpiration and dark respiration were measured in excised leaves of silver 
maple {Acer saccharinum L. exposed to 0, 5, 10 or 20 ppm Cd 2+ added as CdCb ■ 
2 l /a H 2 0. Rates of net photosynthesis and transpiration were reduced to 18 and 
21%, respectively, of untreated controls after 64 hours, and reduced rates were 
highly correlated with solution concentration of Cd 2+ . Dark respiration 
increased to 1 93% of untreated controls but was poorly correlated with solution 
concentration of Cd 2+ . Diffusion resistances of leaves to carbon dioxide and 
water vapor transfer increased with increasing Cd 2+ concentration. Cadmium 
treated leaves exhibited increased mesophyll resistance to carbon dioxide 
transfer which was probably an indirect effect of Cd 2+ acting on diffusive and 
enzymatic factors associated with the mesophyll cells. These findings indicate 
that Cd 2+ inhibited transpiration by interference with stomatal function, and 
that it inhibited net photosynthesis by increasing both stomatal and mesophyll 
resistance to carbon dioxide uptake. 

Ultrastructural Changes of Chloroplasts in Attached and Detached, Aging, 
Primary Wheat Leaves. W. J. Hurkman and G. S. Kennedy, Department of 



Botany 101 

Botany and Plant Pathology, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 
and Department of Botany, University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 

53201 In chloroplasts of mesophyll cells in attached, naturally senescing 

primary leaves of wheat, the first indications of aging are the appearance of 
osmiophilic globuli and reorientation of the thylakoidal system. Subsequently, 
the membranes of the grana and intergrana lamellae become distended and, 
later, dissociate into distinct vesicles. Concurrent with these membrane changes, 
osmiophilic globuli increase in size and number, the stroma becomes less dense, 
and the chloroplast envelope remains intact. In chloroplasts of mesophyll cells 
in detached, aging, primary leaves, initial changes also include appearance of 
osmiophilic globuli and lamellar reorientation. However, later stages of 
chloroplast degradation are strikingly different. The chloroplast envelope 
breaks down prior to lamellar breakdown. Osmiophilic globuli are fewer in 
number. Swelling of grana and intergrana lamellae is not pronounced and, 
additionally, the thylakoidal system degenerates without the formation of 
vesicles. 

Storing Orchid Pollinia for Future Use in Hybridization: A Preliminary Report. 

W. S. Courtis, Assistant Professor of Biology, IUPUI, Indianapolis, Indiana 

46205 Data obtained to date suggest that optimal storage conditions may 

be different for different species. In general, this study confirms the previously 
reported detrimental effects of drying agents; and, that lower temperatures(4° 
and -6°C) are most effective. The data also suggest that stored pollen may 
germinate on artificial media and yet fail to produce seed when used for 
pollination. 

Predicting Crop Yields by Use of Multiple Species Phenology Observations. 

Byron O. Blair*, V. L. Anderson, and C. L. Rhykerd Phenology 

observations on lilac (Syringa persica) have been in continued use since they 
were instigated in the mid 1960's over broad areas of the United States and more 
recently the Northeastern Providences of Canada. These observations have been 
of limited value in the United States due to the very short period in the spring 
when phenological observations on lilac can be taken. However, these 
observations have been of greater value in predicting yields in Canada where 
agricultural production is limited by the shorter growing season. In 1964 a 
multiple garden system with several species was initiated in Indiana. Ten years of 
data have been collected from seven species with flowering patterns from late 
April to September. This paper is a correlation evaluation of species at several 
locations with yearly corn and soybean yields and demonstrates how 
phenological studies employing multiple species may be used in predicting crop 
yields. 

Nutrient Capital and Substrate Quality of Logs in an Old-Growth Douglas-fir 
Forest. Paul C. MacMillan, Department of Biology, Hanover, College, 
Hanover, Indiana 47243. K. Cromack, Jr. and J. E. Means, School of Forestry, 

Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon 97330 Visual criteria were used 

to classify Douglas-fir logs into 5 decay classes: 1 = recent input, to 5 - highly 
decayed log. These decay classes were used in our study of log nutrient capital 
and substrate quality in a 450 yr old stand in western Oregon. Mean residence 
time of logs by decay class was: 7, 16, 36, 82 & 159 yr. Over this time span wood 



102 Indiana Academy of Science 

density decreased to less than one-half the original density. Percent of N, P, K, 
Ca, Mg & Na all increased with residence time; changes in absolute 
concentrations and total kg/ ha of these elements will be discussed. Percent of 
lignin increased and % cellulose decreased with residence time; changes in 
absolute concentrations of carbon components and C/N ratios will be 
discussed. 

Effects of Low Levels of Available Cadmium on Height Growth, Dry Matter 
Accumulation and Tissue Cadmium Levels in Soybeans. Richard C. 
Strickland, William R. CHANEYand Robert J. Lamoreaux, Department of 
Forestry and Natural Resources, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 

47906 Soybeans (Glycine max L. var. Williams) were grown for seven 

weeks in a greenhouse in quartz sand amended with 0, 0.063, 0.125, 0.25, 0.50, 
1.00, 2.00 or 4.00 ppm CdCl 2 ■ 2 l / 2 H 2 (49.4% Cd). Heights were measured 
weekly and at harvest plants were separated into leaves, stems and roots for 
subsequent dry weight and Cd 2+ determinations. Height growth was reduced 
over the entire study period in the 2.00 and 4.00 ppm treatments, while in all 
other treatments heights were not statistically different. Treatments above 0.25 
ppm caused significant decreases in dry matter accumulation with leaves, stems 
and roots showing similar patterns of reduction. While Cd 2+ levels in the various 
tissues increased with increasing treatment, the pattern of accumulation varied 
among tissues. For treatments up to 0.50 ppm, stems contained less Cd 2+ than 
leaves, but in higher treatments the reverse was true. Cadmium levels in roots 
were always higher than in leaves and stems. Accumulation of Cd 2+ by leaves, 
stems and roots ranged from 1.0 to 11.2, 0.2 to 61.3 and 1.5 to 582.7 ppm, 
respectively, and was highly correlated with treatment. This study showed: (1) 
substantial accumulation can occur at low levels of available cadmium, (2) 
accumulation of cadmium in roots is not necessarily reflected in dry matter 
reduction in roots or shoots, (3) height growth is less sensitive to cadmium than 
dry matter accumulation, (4) cadmium is not evenly distributed throughout the 
plant and (4) there is no growth stimulation at any level of cadmium used in this 
investigation. 

Organic Matter Influences Availability, Uptake and Distribution of Cadmium 
in Soybeans. Richard C. Strickland, William R. Chaney and Robert J. 
Lamoreaux, Department of Forestry and Natural Resources, Purdue 

University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47906 Soybeans (Glycine max L. var. 

Williams) were grown for six weeks in the greenhouse in quartz sand containing 
0, 3, 6, 12, 24 or 48%(v/v) sterilized peat moss. The cation exchange capacities of 
the organic matter-sand (OM-S) mixtures ranged from to 8.7 meg/ lOOg dry 
weight. Imposed on each OM-S mixture was a CdCb ■ 2 l / 2 H2O treatment of 0, 
2.5, 5.0, 10.0, 20.0 or 40.0 ppm. Height growth was measured weekly and at 
harvest plants were separated into leaves, stems and roots for dry weight and 
tissue Cd 2+ determinations. Height growth and dry matter accumulation in all 
tissues were reduced and Cd 2+ content was increased for plants grown in sand 
alone. These effects were correlated with increasing Cd 2+ concentration in the 
rooting medium. Inhibitions in growth by Cd 2+ were reduced by addition of 
organic matter; the amount of alleviation was dependent on the level of organic 
matter and the Cd 2+ treatment. In the 0, 3 and 6% OM-S mixtures, Cd 2+ content 






Botany 103 



in the various tissues was correlated with metal treatments in the 1 2, 24 and 
OM-S mixtures. The order of Cd~ + accumulation in the tissues was roots « 
stems < leaves. 

Greening in Albino Plants of a Green: Albino Strain of Tobacco without the 
Addition of an Amino Acid to the Culture Medium. Susannah Nelson,* Mary 
Jo Donovan and Anne Susalla, Saint Mary's College, Notre 

Dame Albino plants of a green: albino strain of tobacco have consistently 

become variegated with green when grown on a specific culture medium that 
includes the amino acid, glycine. Because leucine produces greenness in other 
albino plant species and is relatively similar to glycine in its chemical 
configuration, it was used to substitute glycine in the cu'ture medium. The 
leucine-grown plants became green to the same degree as the control glycine- 
grown plants. The plants were then grown on the culture medium without an 
amino acid. Greenness occurred and the plants could not be distinguished from 
control plants grown on the culture medium containing glycine. Thus, albino 
plants of this strain of tobacco do not need an amino acid in the culture medium 
for greenness to occur. 

Possible Disadvantages of Isolating Plant Cuticles by the ZnCl2-HCl Method. 

Jay H. Jones, Department of Biology, Indiana University, Bloomington, 

Indiana 47401 Isolated cuticles are used for a variety of purposes. These 

include studies of cuticular anatomy and morphology, ion exchange and 
permeability, water loss and chemical composition. Methods of isolating 
cuticles also vary. One of the most frequently used methods (Holloway and 
Baker, Plant Physiol. 43:1878-1879) involves digestion of leaf discs in a 
concentrated ZnCb-HCl solution. Intuitively such a harsh treatment might be 
expected to cause molecular changes within the cuticle. To test this, the 
composition of cutin hydrogenolysates prepared from cuticles isolated by the 
ZnCh-HCl and the less severe oxalate methods were compared. Results indicate 
that chemical changes do occur during the ZnCh-HCl digestion. These changes 
involve unsaturated cutin components. The exact identity of the products is still 
under investigation. These changes are of little importance for anatomical and 
morphological work. However, when working with ion exchange, permeability 
and chemical composition, such changes should be avoided by using other 
methods or at least taken into consideration. 

The Foliar Physiognomy of an Indiana Lake Bottom and its Paleoclimatic 
Implications. John L. Roth, Department of Biology, Indiana University, 

Bloomington, Indiana 47401 The current method of leaf margin and leaf 

size analysis in paleoclimatology assumes that the foliar physiognomy of a fossil 
deposit accurately reflects the physiognomy of the living forest from which it 
was derived. However, a study of lake bottom sediments from a small lake near 
Bloomington, Indiana shows that depositional systems are selective and tend to 
distort the physiognomic composition of fossil deposits. Streamside vegetation 
and sun leaves tend to be overrepresented in fossil deposits, while large leaves 
tend to be fragmented during transport and underrepresented in fossil deposits. 
Seasonal variations in the rate of deposition and in the leaf fall of deciduous and 
evergreen species also distort the physiognomy of the deposit. Therefore, foliar 
physiognomic data compiled from a fossil deposit cannot be compared to foliar 



104 Indiana Academy of Science 

physiognomic data compiled from herbarium collections and published 
regional floras as this would lead to a misinterpretation of the paleoclimate. It 
should be compared to new reference data that is compiled from modern sites of 
deposition and carefully correlated with local climatic conditions. 



The Root Rot of Black Walnut Seedlings Caused by 
Phytophthora citric ola* 

R. C. Ploetz and R. J. Green, Jr. 

Department of Botany and Plant Pathology 

Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 

Introduction 

Black walnut, Juglans nigra, L. is one of the most highly valued species of 
the American deciduous forest. The rich wood color, its durability and ease with 
which it is worked placed black walnut in high demand in both the lumber and 
veneer industries of the U.S. and abroad. Nearly one third of the veneer-quality 
walnut logs harvested annually in the U.S. come from Indiana (Blyth 1973). 
Because of the demand and dwindling supply of walnut trees for harvest, nursery 
production of seedlings in state-owned and private nurseries has more than 
doubled in the eastern U.S. in the past few years (Grey 1973). 




Figure. 1. Symptoms of root rot of black walnut seedlings caused by Phytophthora citricola. 
Infection usually restricted to root collar area of seedling. 



♦Research supported, in part, by funds from the Cooperative Agreement 13-390, North Central 
Forest Experiment Station, U.S. Forest Service. 

105 



106 Indiana Academy of Science 

Walnut seedling production is often severely curtailed both in the seedbed 
and in winter storage by a root rot disease. In seedbed, the symptoms include a 
general chlorosis and wilting of above-ground parts and the root system exhibits 
distinct water-soaked, greenish black lesions, usually located at the root collar 
(Fig. 1). The root lesions increase rapidly in size and the entire seedling turns 
black. Roots of infected plants in storage exhibit similar symptoms and, in both 
cases, mortality is almost certain. 

In general, infected seedlings occur in the poorly drained areas of the 
seedbed. Infection centers start as isolated diseased plants which, in time, give 
rise to expanding areas of dead and dying plants. In storage, symptoms develop 
primarily from incipient infection from the seedbed, but the causal agent may 
spread rapidly to other plants. 

In 1970, Green and Pratt implicated Phytophthora citricola Sawada as the 
causal fungus of this disease. However, other species of Phytophthora are also 
associated with root disease of black walnut (Green 1975). More recently, 
Cylindrocladium scoparium and related species have been associated with a root 
disease of walnut seedlings (Cordell and Matuszewski 1974). Also, critical 
studies have not been made of the factors of the soil environment which favor 
infection by P. citricola and the factors affecting germination of oospores of P. 
citricola in soil. For example, Banihashemi and Mitchell (1976) found that both 
light quality and light intensity affected germination of other Phytophthora 
species and this may be significant in the localization of root infection. 

The objectives of this study were to a) ascertain whether species of 
Phytophthora or fungi other than P. citricola are involved in this disease, b) to 
determine the effect of soil environmental conditions and inoculum density on 
infection by P. citricola and c) ascertain the effect of various environmental 
factors on germination of oospores of P. citricola. 

Materials and Methods 

In earlier studies, Green and Pratt (1970) found it difficult to isolate 
consistently P. citricola from diseased walnut seedlings. They used both selective 
media and baiting techniques. We used the following selective media for 
isolation from diseased roots: 

PNP — potato dextrose agar (PDA) + neomycin (50 ppm), penicillin G 
(35 ppm) and pimaracin (100 ppm). This medium is similar to 
that described by Eckert and Tsao (1962) for selective isolation 
of Phytophthora sp.. 

ENC — V-8 juice nutrient agar + neomycin (100 ppm), Chloromycetin 
(10 ppm) and endomycin (10 ppm), for isolation of 
Phythiaceous fungi (Schmitthenner and Hilty 1962). 

PDTA — PDA + tergitol NPX (200 ppm) and aureomycin (30 ppm) for 
isolation of Cylindrocladium sp. and other fungi (Watson 
1960). 

Diseased roots were washed, surface sterilized in 1% sodium hypochlorite 
(NaOCl) for 5 min. and tissue selections from the periphery of the root lesion 



Botany 107 

placed on the selective media. The plates were incubated at 25° C in the dark and 
emerging fungi isolated by hyphal tip transfer. 

At least three species of Phytophthora cause a root disease of walnut (Green 
1975). A similar, but distinct, root disease is caused by Cylindrocladiwn 
scoparium (Cordell and Matuszewski 1974) and related species. Black walnut 
seedlings were inoculated with isolates of the following fungi: Phytophthora 
citricola — (host: black walnut), P. cactorum — (host: apple), P. cinnamomi 
(host: rhododendron and Taxus sp). and Cylindrocladium scoparium — (host: 
black walnut). 

All isolates were grown on PDA for 3 weeks at 25° C in termittent light. 
Walnut seedlings were grown from stratified seed in sterile sand for 4 weeks and 
then lifted, the roots washed gently in tap water and inoculations made in the 
root collar area. Root tissue was cut to a depth of ca. 1 cm and a 0.5 cm square 
section of mycelial mat inserted in the wound. Check plants were wounded but 
not inoculated. The wound area was protected with petrolatum and the 
seedlings incubated in sterile, moist vermiculite in the greenhouse for 3 weeks. 

After incubation, the inoculated seedlings were lifted and the fleshy 
primary root was cut lengthwise to determine the extent of root involvement. 
The area of the cut surface of the primary root which exhibited symptoms was 
calculated as a percentage of the total cut root surface area. The comparative 
virulence of the various Phytophthora species to black walnut seedlings was 
determined on the basis of root involvement. The inoculated seedling roots were 
then surface sterilized in 1% NaOCl for 2 min. and tissue sections placed on both 
PNP and ENC media. 

The effects of varying soil moisture and temperature regimes and inoculum 
density on infection of walnut seedlings by P. citricola were determined. 
Naturally infested nursery soil was used and the moisture saturation capacity 
(SC) was determined by the methods described by Couch and others (1967). 
Oospores of P. citricola were produced, following Honour and Tsao (1974), and 
added to sterile silica sand. The supplemental inoculum was incorporated in the 
upper 5 cm of the soil container. 

Naturally infected nursery soil was placed in ceramic containers (dia 25 cm, 
ht 25 cm) with a drain and 5 walnut seeds with the radicle just emerging planted 
in each container. The containers were placed in controlled environment 
chambers and soil temperature, moisture and inoculum density varied as 
follows: 

Soil temperatures — 15°C and 22. 5° C, 12 hr photoperiod 

Soil moisture — 100% SC and 60% SC for 24 and 72 hr, respectively, 
followed by free drainage 

Soil inoculum — naturally infested nursery soil (NS) and nursery soil 
amended with 500 oospores/ g soil (NS + 1) in upper 5 
cm 

All treatments were replicated 3 times and the soil moisture adjusted daily 
when soil moisture was controlled. Thereafter, the soil containers were watered 
every 3 days for the duration of the 3-week incubation period. 



108 



Indiana Academy of Science 



The effects of culture age, temperature and light intensity and quality on 
germination of oospores of P. citricola were determined. Germination boxes (30 
x 60 x 10 cm) with an open top were placed in a high light intensity, controlled 
environment chamber (22. 5° C, 16 hr photoperiod, 3400 f.c). The light intensity 
in the germination boxes was controlled with varying layers of cheese cloth 
(open — 3400 f.c; 16 layers — 830 f.c.) and light quality was varied using filters 
of colored acetate (blue, aqua, green, yellow, and red). When light quality was 
varied, the light intensity under each filter was adjusted to approximately 800 
f.c. Oospore germination was also compared at 25° C in total darkness and in 
continuous light of 300 f.c. and 3 f.c. Ooospores from cultures 2, 4 and 7 weeks 
old were observed for germination after 3, 6, and 10 days. 

Results 

Isolation — selective media — Phytophthora citricola was recovered from 
1 1 of the 20 diseased walnut seedlings on the selective medium PNP, but only 
from 2 of the seedlings on ENC. On both media, especially ENC, Phthium 
sp.and other fast growing fungi were common. This made detection of slower 
growing fungi as Phytophthora sp. difficult. Diseased root tissue on PDTA 
yielded numerous fungi, including Fusarium sp., Penicillium sp. and Phythium 
sp., but no known root pathogen of walnut. Cylindrocladium scoparium, which 
causes the black root rot disease of walnut seedlings, was not recovered in any 
isolation attempts. Thus, although successful isolation of P. citricola was limited 
(approx. 50%), no other known root pathogen of walnut was recovered. Later 
inoculations confirmed the virulence of P. citricola isolates. 



k 




w 






Figure. 2. Comparative virulence of A) Phytophthora cactorum, B)P. cinnamomi and C)P. citricola 
to roots of black walnut seedlings, D) wounded, non-inoculated control. 



Botany 109 

Inoculation — Walnut seedlings were inoculated with isolates of P. 
citricola, P. cactorum and P. cinnamomi to compare disease severity and 
symptoms. In addition, seedlings were inoculated with Cylindrocladium 
scoparium. Although all Phytophthora sp. induced root lesions, there was a 
marked difference between species in the extent of root tissue involvement. This 
is demonstrated in Fig. 2, which diagramatically shows the comparative root 
involvement by P. citricola, P. cactorum and P. cinnamomi following wound 
inoculation. The black area represents the average (10 seedlings) root 
involvement. The isolates of P. citricola produced extensive necrotic lesions in 
the root tissues, compared to infection by P. cactorum and P. cinnamomi. These 
differences may be due, in part, to the origin of the respective isolates, since P. 
citricola was from walnut and P. cactorum and P. cinnamomi were from other 
hosts. Nonetheless, only P. citricola produced the typical extensive root 
involvement associated with this disease. Also, P. citricola was readily reisolated 
from inoculated seedlings (80%), while P. cactorum was recovered from only 
20% of the inoculated seedlings and P. cinnamomi was not recovered. 

Walnut seedlings inoculated with Cylindrocladium scoparium exhibited 
symptoms typical of the root rot disease described for this pathogen (Cordell 
and Matuszewski 1974). These included longitudinal cracks and brown, necrotic 
lesions which were sunken in the root tissues. The fungus was readily reisolated 
from the inoculated seedlings on PDTA. 

Table 1 . The effects of soil moisture, temperature, and inoculum density on infection of black walnut 
seedlings by Phytophthora citricola. 

Temp ° C 
15 



22.5 



Soil moisture- 7 


Inoc^ 


Infect — roots 


100% SC - 24 hr 


NS 


4/15 




NS + I 


8/15 


100% SC - 72 hr 


NS 


10/15 




NS + I 


13/15 


60% SC - 72 hr 


NS 


1/15 




NS + I 


2/15 


free drainage 


NS + I 


1/15 


100% SC - 24 hr 


NS 


7/15 




NS + I 


10/15 


100% SC - 72 hr 


NS 


8/15 




NS + I 


11/15 


60% SC - 72 hr 


NS 


2/15 




NS + I 


2/15 


free drainage 


NS + I 


0/15 



-'Soil moisture X 100% and 60% saturation capacity (SC) of soil for 24 and 72 hr, followed by free 
drainage for 3 weeks. 

-'inoc — NS — naturally infested nursery soil; NS + I — nursery soil + 500 oospores/ g in upper 5 cm of 
soil. 

Factors affecting infection incidence — The effects of soil temperature, soil 
moisture and inoculum density on infection of walnut seedlings by P. citricola 
are shown in Table 1. Infection varied markedly with soil conditions. Infection 
was low (0/15 — 2/1 5) in NS and NS+I soil if the moisture was below 100% SC. 



1 io Indiana Academy of Science 

The infection increased progressively when the soil moisture was increased to 
1 00% SC for 24 and 72 hr, respectively, and with supplemental inoculum (NS+I). 
A slight increase in infection occurred in most treatments when the temperature 
was increased from 15°C to 22.5°C. The highest infection incidence (13/15) 
occurred when the soil moisture was 100% SC for 72 hr at 15°C in NS+I soil. 

Table 2. The effects of age, incubation time, light intensity and quality on the germination of 
oospores of Phytophthora citricola. 







Treatment 






Germination (%) 






Age - 


— 2 wks. 


Age — 4 wks. Age - 


— 7 wks. 


Temp °C 


3 da 


10 da 


3 da 10 da 3 da 


10 da 



Q.T- 1 


1.3 


3.7 


6.0 


1.3 


1.3 


0.7 


7.3 


4.7 


18.0 


10.0 


9.0 


2.0 


7.3 


6.0 


25.3 


7.3 


30.0 











1.3 














2.0 


8.0 


7.3 


8.0 


2.7 


11.3 


28.0 


46.7 


11.3 


41.3 


2.0 


23.3 


47.4 


60.7 


30.0 


57.3 





3.3 


7.3 


11.3 


7.3 


10.0 





1.3 


4.7 


14.7 


11.3 


18.0 








2.7 


1.3 


2.0 


8.0 





14.7 


46.0 


46.7 


41.7 


58.7 











1.3 


1.3 


2.0 



25 dark 

3 f.c. 
200 f.c. 

22.5 3,400 f.c. 

2,300 f.c. 
1 ,200 f.c. 
830 f.c. 

22.5 (800 f.c.) 

blue filter 
green filter 
aqua filter 
yellow filter 
red filter 



a - Percent germination X 150 oospores counted at random. 

The effects of culture age, incubation time, light intensity and light quality 
on germination of oospores of P. citricola are presented in Table 2. Oospore 
germination was affected by all factors, as indicated by the comparative 
germination rates. Germination increased with culture age, regardless of other 
treatments, and the data indicate that both light intensity and light quality affect 
germination. The highest germination occurred with oospores from cultures 4 
and 7 weeks old incubated at 22. 5° C, 830 f.c. and decreased sharply as the light 
intensity increased above 1200 f.c. Germination was almost completely inhibited 
at 3400 f.c. Light quality also affected oospore germination with the germination 
rate under a yellow filter approaching that of full light under similar intensities. 
Germination was reduced under all other filters with the lowest germination 
occurring under the red filter. 

Discussion 

Although isolation of P. citricola from diseased walnut seedlings was 
somewhat erratic, even with selective media, the results confirm this fungus as 
the causal agent of the root rot disease described. No other fungi, including other 
species of Phytophthora and Clyindrocladium scoparium, were consistently 
isolated from diseased seedlings. Inoculation trials showed that the symptoms 
produced by C. scoparium are distinct from those caused by P. citricola. 



Botany 1 1 1 

The inconsistency in reisolation of P. citricola from diseased seedlings may 
be related to both the relatively slow growth of this fungus and the nature of the 
primary root of the walnut seedling. The root is fleshy and, under soil conditions 
favorable for infection, is rapidly colonized by secondary organisms. In 
controlled inoculation studies, the reisolation of P. citricola was much more 
consistent (80%+). 

The effects of soil environmental conditions on infection incidence under 
controlled conditions correlate with field observations. In the nursery, diseased 
plants occur primarily in poorly drained areas and we found that infection 
incidence was invariably low unless soil moisture was 100% SC for 24 hr or 
more, regardless of other conditions. 

We also found that germination of oospores of P. citricola is markedly 
influenced by light and that both light intensity and light quality may affect the 
germination rate. These results compare favorably with results presented by 
Banihashemi and Mitchell (1976) with oospores of P. cactorum. They found 
that germination was essentially the same under blue and yellow filters (30.8% 
and 31%, respectively), whereas we found germination of oospores of P. 
citricola was much lower under the blue acetate filter (10%) than under the 
yellow filter (6 1.7%). However, there was good agreement on the light intensities 
most favorable for germination (200-1000 f.c.) and the light quality least 
favorable for germination (red). The differences observed in light quality may be 
due to innate differences in these two closely related organisms or to differences 
in the filter systems used. The filters we used were of unspecified wavelength 
transmission and comparisons based on filter color alone may be unreliable. 

The dependency of the oospores of P. citricola on light for optimal 
germination may also explain the occurrence of infection almost exclusively at 
the root collar of walnut seedlings rather than at random over the entire root 
system. Since both light and soil moisture saturation are apparently required for 
oospore germination and subsequent infection, these conditions are met 
primarily at or near the soil surface. Thus, infection is restricted primarily to the 
root collar area of the susceptible walnut seedlings. 



Literature Cited 

1. Banihashemi, Z., and J. E. Mitchell. 1976. Factors affecting oospore germination in 
Phytophthora cactorum, the incitant of apple collar rot. Phytopathology 66:443-448. 

2. Blyth, J. E. 1973. "Timber demand and use", p. 7-9, Black walnut as a crop, U.S. Forest Service 
General Tech. Rpt. NC-4. 

3. Cordell, C. E., and M. Matuszewski. 1974. Cylindrocladium scoparium — damaging black 
walnut seedlings in Kentucky nurseries. Plant Dis. Reptr. 58:188-189. 

4. Couch, H. B., L. H. Purdy, and D. W. Henderson. 1967. Application of soil moisture principles 
to the study of plant disease. Va. Polytech. Inst. Res. Bull. 4, 23 p. 

5. Eckert, J. W., and P. H. Tsao. 1962. A selective antibiotic medium for isolation of Phytophthora 
and Phthium from plant roots. Phytopathology 52:771-777. 

6. Green, R. J., Jr., 1975. "Phytophthora root rot of black walnut seedlings", p. 19-22, Forest 
Nursery Diseases in the United States, Agric. Handbook No. 470. 



112 Indiana Academy of Science 

7. Green, R. J., Jr. and R. G. Pratt. 1970. Root rot of black walnut seedlings, caused by 
Phytophthora citricola. Plant Dis. Reptr. 54:583-585. 

8. Grey, G. W. 1973. "Seven Years of Growth", p. 4-6, Black walnut as a crop, U.S. Forest Service 
Tech. Rpt. NC-4. 

9. Honour, R. C., and P. H. Tsao. 1974. Production of oospores by Phytophthora parasitica in 
liquid medium. Mycologia 66:1030-1038. 

10. Schmitthenner, A. F., and J. W. Hilty. 1962. A modified dilution technique of obtaining single 
isolates of fungi from contaminated material. Phytopathology 52:582-583. 

1 1 . Watson, R. D. 1960. Soil washing improved the value of the soil solution and plant count method 
estimating populations of soil fungi. Phytopathology 50:792-794. 



Seeding Orchardgrass In An Established Stand of Alfalfa 

C. L. Rhykerd, B. O. Blair 

N. P. Maxon, R. E. Mullen, and J. J. Vorst 

Department of Agronomy, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 

Introduction 

Several situations arise where it would be desirable to seed a cool-season 
grass, such as orchardgrass, in an already established stand of alfalfa. The most 
common situation occurs as alfalfa stands become unproductive due primarily 
to a thinning of the stand. The recent development of "clear seeding" of alfalfa 
involving the application of the herbicides Balan or Eptam dictate that pure 
alfalfa must be seeded since these herbicides kill many grasses. 

Many dairy farmers prefer to seed alfalfa without a grass because of the 
high quality forage produced by alfalfa. However, there are advantages to 
growing a cool-season grass in association with alfalfa (1). These advantages 
include: 

1. Reduced soil erosion. 

2. Reduced winter heaving of alfalfa. 

3. Resistance to weed encroachment. 

4. Reduced bloat hazard. 

5. Reduced lodging of alfalfa. 

6. Hay drying is more rapid. 

7. More easily preserved silage. 

The following experiment was conducted since little, if any research has 
been reported relative to the feasibility of seeding orchardgrass in an established 
stand of alfalfa. 

Materials and Methods 

This experiment was conducted on the Purdue University Agromony 
Farm, West Lafayette, Indiana. The soil types on the experimental site were a 
Chalmers silty clay loam (typic argioquoll) and Raub silt loam (aquic argiudoll). 

'Hallmark' orchardgrass was seeded on a 5-year-old stand of Tempo' 
alfalfa employing the following methods of seeding: 1) late summer seeded with 
a Nordsten grain drill, 2) frost-seeded in late winter, 3) early spring seeded with a 
John Deere Powr-Till Seeder. The dates of seeding were September 24, 1975, 
March 26, and April 2, 1 976, respectively. The rate of seeding was 1 1 . 2 kg/ ha for 
all methods of seeding. Tiller counts, using a 20 x 50 cm quadrat, were taken 
after the first cutting in 1977. 

The 5-year-old stand of alfalfa had been originally seeded to study the effect 
of seeding rate and method of seeding on alfalfa yields (2). At the time the 
orchardgrass was seeded, the alfalfa population was approximately 20 
plants/ m 2 (3). 

113 



114 Indiana Academy of Science 

Results and Discussion 

Tiller counts of the orchardgrass were taken following the first cutting in 
1977. No attempt was made to make a stand evaluation in 1976 since seedlings 
from the spring-seeding were slow to establish. The 1975 late summer seeded 
orchardgrass plots made vigorous growth in 1976 indicating successful 
establishment. 

The data presented in Table 1 demonstrate that all methods of seeding the 
orchardgrass in an established stand of alfalfa were successful. It was evident 
from observing the plots during the growing season in 1976 that the seeding rate 
for the late summer seeded and the spring seeded orchardgrass was too high. 
Consequently these two methods of seeding resulted in excessive competition 
for the alfalfa. 

Table 1 . Effect of time and method of seeding orchardgrass in established alfalfa on the number of 
orchardgrass tillers/ m 2 . Tiller counts were taken in June 1977. 

Orchardgrass 1 
Seeding Time Tillers/ m 2 

Late Summer— 1975 1188 

Frost Seeding — 1976 631 

Spring Seeded 1976 950 

Based on these results it is apparant that, in Indiana, late summer is a better 
time to seed orchardgrass in an established alfalfa stand than late winter or early 
spring. One of the factors favoring the late summer seeding of orchardgrass is 
the cool temperatures at this time along with adequate rainfall. In addition, 
adapted alfalfa varieties produced a rosette type growth during the fall months 
thereby offering less competition to the orchardgrass seedlings. Alfalfa makes 
vigorous growth during the spring months and consequently offers a great deal 
of competition to the young orchardgrass seedlings. 

Agronomists in the Midwest often do not recommend late summer seeding 
of orchardgrass due to lack of winterhardiness in orchardgrass seedlings. There 
was no evidence of winter killing of seedlings in this experiment. Quite possibly 
the established alfalfa plants provided some protection to the orchardgrass 
seedlings. 

Based on the results of this study, a late summer seeding rate for 
orchardgrass of 5-6 kg/ ha should be adequate when seeding in an established 
alfalfa stand. The 11.2 kg/ ha seeding rate appeared optimal for the frost seeding 
while 6-8 kg/ ha should be sufficient for spring seeding of orchardgrass. 

Some soil coverage of the orchardgrass seed was provided by the Nordsten 
grain drill and the John Deere Powr-Till Seeder. Based on the data from this 
investigation, the use of seeding equipment providing some soil coverage of the 
seed would appear advantageous to insuring the successful establishment of a 
cool-season grass such as orchardgrass in an established stand of alfalfa. 



Average of 3 replications. 



Botany 115 

Acknowledgments 

The authors wish to acknowledge the assistance of Mr. Samual E. St. Clair, 
a Purdue University student, in taking the tiller counts reported in this paper. 

Literature Cited 

1. Decker, A. M., T. H. Taylor, and C. J. Willard. 1973. Establishment of new seedings. In 
Forages. Iowa State University Press, Ames, Iowa, 3rd edition, p. 384-395. 

2. LaBorde, H. E. 1973. Effect of rate, method, and date of seeding on stand establishment and yield 
of Medicago sativa L. M.S. Thesis. Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907. 

3. Mullen, R. E. 1975. Effects of seeding management on performance of two-and three-year-old 
alfalfa. Ph.D. Thesis. Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907. 



Eighteen- Year Performance of an Eastern White Pine 
Genetic Test Plantation in Southern Indiana 

Robert D. Williams and David T. Funk 

Principal Silviculturist and Principal Plant Geneticist 

USDA Forest Service, North Central Forest Experiment Station 

Bedford, Indiana, and Carbondale, Illinois 



Introduction 

Eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L.) is the best selling species at Indiana's 
two State tree nurseries. More than 1.7 million white pine seedlings and 
transplants were planted in Indiana during the spring of 1977. The possibility of 
improving the yield of white pine in Indiana by use of seed of optimum 
geographic origin prompted the establishment of a test of white pine from 16 
seed sources. 

Methods 

Seeds were collected from 16 locations throughout the natural range of 
white pine. Seedlings from the 16 origins were grown for 2 years at the Edwards 
State Nursery, Morganton, North Carolina, and planted on a bottomland site in 
Perry County, Indiana, on the Hoosier National Forest in the spring of 1959. 
The planting site includes two soil series, Henshaw and Uniontown, and the 
topsoil of both soils is classed as silt loam. Both soils are suitable for planting 
white pine. 

Twelve 4-tree row-plants of each provenance were planted with a mattock 
in a completely random design. Randomly assigned locations were saved for the 
seedlings from the Lower Michigan source, which were planted as 3-year-old 
transplants in 1961. Study trees were planted 7 feet apart in rows 14 feet apart. 
Intervening rows were planted with filler trees, which were cut in 1975. 

First-year survival of the planting was poor — it ranged from 30 to 56 
percent. Blank spots were replanted in 1960 and 1961, and in the fall of 1961 
survival ranged from 85 to 100 percent. Only two seed sources, Maine and 
Quebeck, had survival less than 92 percent. 

In 1976 the two "best" (usually tallest) trees per plot were measured and 
their heights and diameters averaged for analysis. A few plots contained only 
one live treeand two of the plots contained no live trees; missing values were 
replaced. Average height, diameter, and "volume" (D 2 H) of the 20-year-old trees 
(18-year-old plantation) were calculated and subjected to analysis of variance 
(table 1). 

Results 

Height, diameter, and D 2 H differences attributable to seed source are 
highly significant; the probability of differences being due to chance is at the 
vanishing point. 

116 



Botany 



117 



Table 1. Height, diameter, and LfiH of eastern white pine trees in an 18-year-old southern Indiana 
plantation in relation to geographic origin. 





Origin 




Height 


Diameter 




Location 


North latitude 


D 2 H 




Degrees 


Feet 


Inches 


Feet 3 


Union Co., GA 


34.8 


39.3 


7.6 


15.8 


Transylvania Co., NC 


35.2 


37.4 


7.4 


14.2 


Green Co., TN 


36.0 


40.6 


8.3 


19.4 


Pulaski Co., VA 


37.1 


32.8 


6.5 


9.6 


Greenbrier Co., WV 


38.0 


32.8 


5.8 


7.7 


Ashland Co., OH 


40.8 


36.7 


7.1 


12.8 


Monroe Co., PA 


41.1 


37.5 


7.3 


13.9 


Allamakee Co., IA 


43.5 


25.8 


4.6 


3.8 


Newaygo Co., MI 


43.5 


^39.7 


i ; 7.8 


-16.8 


Lunenburg Co., N.S. 


44.4 


29.0 


5.1 


5.2 


Franklin Co., NY 


44.4 


30.7 


5.4 


6.2 


Penobscot Co., ME 


44.9 


26.7 


4.4 


3.6 


Forest Co., WI 


45.9 


35.8 


7.1 


12.5 


Algoma Dist., Ont. 


46.2 


30.7 


5.1 


5.5 


Cass Co., MN 


47.4 


28.4 


4.8 


4.5 


Pontiac Co., Quebec 


47.5 


23.2 


3.7 


2.2 


Plantation mean 




32.9 


6.1 


9.6 



i'Trees of Michigan origin are 1 year younger than the rest; height and diameter were adjusted by 
adding mean of past 3 years' increment. 

The relative ranking of the provenances by height has remained remarkably 
consistent (table 2). The North Carolina, Tennessee, Pennsylvania, Georgia, and 
Ohio provenances were "good prospects" at age 5 (Funk 1964) and they are still 

Table 2. Height rank of white pine trees at five successive measurements according to geographic 

origin. 



Provenance 



location 



Plantation age (years) 



5 


6 


10 


15 


18 


4 


4 


6 


4 


3 


1 


1 


3 


5 


5 


2 


2 


2 


3 


1 


7 


7 


8 


8 


8.5 


9 


9 


9 


9 


8.5 


5 


5 


5 


2 


6 


3 


3 


4 


6 


4 


10 


10 


13 


15 


15 


(6) 


(6) 


(1) 


(1) 


(2) 


11 


11 


10 


11 


12 


12 


13 


11 


10 


10 


15 


15 


15 


14 


14 


8 


8 


7 


7 


7 


13 


12 


12 


12 


11 


14 


14 


14 


13 


13 


16 


16 


16 


16 


16 



GA 
NC 

TN 

VA 

WV 

OH 

PA 

IA 

Ml! 7 

NS 

NY 

ME 

WI 

ON 

MN 

PQ 



- 7 Ranks for Michigan provenance based on adjusted heights. 



118 



Indiana Academy of Science 



among the top six. Age: age correlations of rankings for total height are good 
(table 3); no serious mistakes would have been made at age 5 in an attempt to 
select the provenances containing the tallest trees at age 18. 

Table 3. Age: age Spearman rank correlations for height. 











Age 






age 


6 


10 




15 


18 


5 


.998 


.92 




.84 


.87 


6 





.92 




.84 


.87 


10 










.95 


.95 


15 


— 


— 




— 


.95 





D 2 H, an indicator of volume, was calculated for the different provenances. 
'Volume" of the Tennessee trees is 9 times that of the Quebec trees and more 




Figure 



Botany 119 

than 5.5 times the "volume" of the trees from Maine (table 1). It is plain that 
failure to consider origin of white pine seed could result in serious economic loss. 

A comparison of the D 2 H values indicates the superiority of the more 
southern provenances. Three-fourths of the southern sources (lower latitude) 
rank in the top half, and three-fourths of the northern sources fall in the lower 
half. 

Trees from about one-fourth the seed sources do not fit a geographic origin 
pattern. Trees from lower Michigan and Wisconsin have grown faster, and trees 
from Iowa, Virginia, and West Virginia have grown slower than would have 
been expected from the latitude of their provenance. 

Recommendations 

We continue to recommend an extensive collection zone for white pine seed 
to be planted in Indiana (figure 1). Because of the poor performance of the 
Virginia and West Virginia seedlings, however, we recommend caution in 
obtaining seed from these two States for use in Indiana. Our confidence in these 
recommendations is increased by previous similar findings in southern Illinois 
and eastern Kentucky (Funk, Allen, and Williams 1975). 

To establish fast growing but genetically diverse stands in Indiana, 
nurseries should furnish white pine seedlings using a mixture of seed from 
several stands in the "top 6" States. Subsequent research based on more 
intensive collections within the southern Appalachian Mountains may provide 
the opportunity to further refine recommended seed procurement zones. 



Literature Cited 

1. Funk, David T., 1964. Southern Appalachian white pine off to a good start in the midwest. Cent. 
States For. Tree Improv. Conf. Proc. 4:26-28. 

2. Funk, David T., Rufus Allen, and Robert D. Williams., 1975. Fifteen-year performance of 
eastern white pine seed sources tests in the lower Ohio Valley. Cent. States For. Tree Improv. Conf. 
Proc. 9:153-158, illus. 



Notes on the Construction of Leaf Size Distributions 

Gary E. Dolph, Indiana University at Kokomo, Kokomo, Indiana 46901 

Introduction 

In a recent review article, Dolph and Dilcher (11) synthesized the available 
literature on leaf size variation in the tropical latitudinal region of the western 
hemisphere. Based on the percentage of species having large leaves at 73 sample 
sites, the tropical latitudinal region was divided into four foliar belts. Each foliar 
belt had a characteristic average percentage of species having large leaves, but 
the variation either within or between the foliar belts was not continuous. An 
attempt was made to extend this analysis into the subtropical and warm 
temperate latitudinal regions of the western hemisphere, but a lack of pertinent 
data prevented any definitive conclusions from being reached. 

Although variation in leaf size did occur, a close correlation between leaf 
size and climate in the western hemisphere could not be demonstrated ( 1 1) at the 
present time. This is due in part to the lack of data, particularly from non- 
tropical life zones, and in part to the way in which leaf size data were collected in 
the past. Seven problems complicated the attempt to correlate leaf size variation 
with climate: 1) only five sample sites have been studied outside of the tropical 
life zones; 2) the sample stands represent a mixture of climatic and non-climatic 
associations {sensu 16, 17); 3) sample populations differed depending on the 
investigator; 4) sampling techniques varied; 5) data from several sample stands 
were lumped together in many studies; 6) adequate climatic data were not given 
for the majority of the sample stands; and 7) leaf area was not estimated in a 
consistent fashion. In order to develop a hypothesis which successfully relates 
leaf size variation with climate, future field studies will have to be carried out in a 
consistent fashion. 

Life Zones Sampled 

Of the 78 sample stands studied (1 1), 73(93.6%) were located in the tropical 
latitudinal region. Two (2.4%) sample stands were studied in the subtropical 
latitudinal region. Three (4.0%) were from the warm temperate latitudinal 
region. Sampling has been carried out in 9 tropical life zones. Twenty-eight life 
zones in the tropical latitudinal region have not been studied. In the subtropical 
latitudinal region, sampling has been carried out only in the moist forest life 
zone, leaving 28 additional life zones to be sampled. Outside of the tropical and 
subtropical latitudinal regions, only 2 life zones (the warm temperate moist and 
montane wet forest life zones) have been sampled, leaving data to be collected 
from an additional 48 life zones. Sampling outside of the tropical latitudinal 
region is particularly crucial because the decrease in leaf size predicted (21) does 
not occur based on the available data (11). Dolph and Dilcher (10, work in 
progress) are currently analyzing the flora of North and South Carolina, and 
Dolph (work in progress) is analyzing the flora of Indiana. 

120 



Botany 121 

Nature of the Sample Stands 

The analysis of the variation in leaf size with respect to climate (11) was 
based on Holdridge's (16, 17) life zone chart. Holdridge (16, 17) recognized 4 
basic classes of associations (climatic, atmospheric, edaphic, and hydric), 
although various combinations of these classes are possible. A climatic 
association is one in which only the three major climatic factors (temperature, 
rainfall, and humidity) influence the plant community (16, 17). In comparison, 
atmospheric, edaphic, and hydric associations are referred to as non-climatic or 
non-zonal associations. In non-zonal associations, the physiognomy of the 
vegetation will indicate conditions that are drier or wetter than the climatic 
association normal for that life zone. The difference in physiognomy results 
from the action of the second order environmental factors such as soil type, 
drainage, or wind ( 1 6, 1 7). Successional associations are recognized in the colder 
regions of the world but not in the warmer where the successional stages are of 
shorter duration (16). According to Holdridge (16), if plant form is related to 
climate, there should be one characteristic physiognomy for the vegetation of 
the life zone, that of the climatic association. The non-zonal associations may 
occur in any life zone, but the plants found in these associations have 
physiognomies that are very divergent from those of the climatic association. 
Because of their divergent physiognomies, the non-zonal associations have 
received more attention than the zonal. Swamps (12, 25), gallery forests (6, 12, 
25), vegetation on soils having excessive drainage ( 1 , 19), transitional forests ( 1 2, 
25), cloud forests (18), or secondary successional forests (12, 13, 28) should not 
be expected to support vegetation having the physiognomy characteristic of the 
climatic association. Theoretically, these associations should not be used when 
attempting to correlate leaf form with climate. 

Nevertheless, in many cases, the use of data from non-climatic associations 
did not affect the outcome of the study (11). A good example was the use of 
secondary forest sites. Five sample stands representing successional semi- 
evergreen to evergreen seasonal forest on Trinidad (13) had an average 
percentage of species having large leaves of 87.8% (11). This percentage was only 
somewhat higher than the average percentage from the tropical basal belt 
(83.0%, 1 1 ) and only slightly different from the percentage reported by Beard (4) 
from the undisturbed seasonal evergreen forest of Trinidad (87.1%). Most 
ecological measurements require the use of undisturbed vegetation because they 
reflect the structure of the mature vegetation. Because the percentage of large 
leaves at individual sample stands was based on the species present and not the 
individuals present, the disturbed nature of secondary forests does not influence 
the outcome of the calculation. In other instances, such as with stream side and 
upland vegetation, significant differences in leaf size occurred within the same 
life zone. Additional studies should attempt to find a basis for these differences. 

Sample Populations 

The sample populations utilized when studying leaf form have not been 
constant. The chief differences occur in ( 1 ) the types of life forms studied and (2) 
the number of species recorded. By varying the types of plants included in a 
study, significantly different leaf size distributions may be produced. For 



122 Indiana Academy of Science 

example, studies in the tropics (4, 5, 6, 12, 14, 28) have emphasized trees and 
neglected shrubs and vines. Cain et al. (6) provided leaf size distributions for the 
entire plant community and the trees alone. The percentage of species having 
large leaves was greater for the trees (84. 1%) than for the entire flora (79.5%). 
Ideally, the leaf size for all species of dicotyledonous trees, shrubs, and vines 
should be recorded (2, 3, 21). In studying the warm temperate moist forest life 
zone, Dolph (8, 9) utilized all the dicotyledonous trees, shrubs, and vines. 
Monocotyledons such as the palms (12), herbaceous angiosperms (6, 18), and 
ferns (6) should not be used, particularly if the data is to be used in estimating 
paleoclimate. 

In addition to sampling different life forms, different sampling intensities 
have been used in different studies. A lower sampling intensity than desirable 
was a characteristic of the majority of the sample stands studied in the tropics. In 
the tropical latitudinal region, the number of species recorded ranged from a low 
of 7 (12) to a maximum of 218 (6). The number of species sampled at the 73 
localities (11) was very different. Sampling was rarely complete. For example, 
Gentry (12) recorded 7 tree species from a ridge top south of Osa Station in the 
tropical wet forest life zone. In comparison, 97 tree species were recorded west of 
Rincon and a minimum of 82 tree species south of Rincon in ridge top forests on 
the Osa Pennisula by Holdridge et al. (17). The calculation of leaf area for only 
the more common or dominant species in a sample stand was proposed by 
Richards et al. (22). Because the correlation of leaf form with climate can vary 
depending on the sampling intensity, more complete samples are desirable. 

Improper Sampling Technique 

A low species diversity in the sample could also result from improper 
sampling of the vegetation. In a number of studies, a sufficiently large sampling 
area was used to record either all the tree species (4, 6), all the phanerophytes (1, 
19), or all the woody dicotyledons (8, 9). At many sample stands (12, 16, 17, 23, 
24, 27), the sampling area was inadequate for complete analysis of the 
vegetation. In sampling the tropical dry and wet forest life zones, Gentry (12) 
analyzed between approximately 60 to 90 sq m at each locality by the line 
transect method. This sampling area is less than the 200-500 sq m suggested for 
use in temperate forests (20) and is insufficient for sampling more diverse 
tropical woodlands. In contrast, Dolph (8, 9) sampled 1 ,000 sq m when studying 
the warm temperate moist forest of Indiana. For some sample sites (18, 28), 
sampling area was not discussed. Grubb et al. ( 14) did not feel that sampling area 
had a great influence on the analysis of leaf size distribution. Because the 
number of species recorded is dependent on the intensity of sampling, this 
conclusion is in error. The determination of leaf size distribution at any locality 
must be based on an adequate sample. 

Generalized Vegetation Descriptions 

Some investigators (4, 25, 26) did not record leaf size distribution by 
locality but gave synthesized data for an entire vegetation type. For example, 
Stehlef (25, 26) normally did not record leaf size distributions for specific forests 
on the Caribbean Islands. Instead, the common species in the different 



Botany 123 

associations studies throughout the Caribbean and the range in leaf size of each 
were listed. Depending on how the data are used, very divergent results can be 
obtained. Using the data for the mesophytic forest at St. Luce, Martinque (25), 
the percentage of species having large leaves was 30.5%, if the smallest sizes in 
the range of each species were applied; and 80%, if the largest were used. 
Generalized leaf size distributions should not be used because they fail to 
account for the local effect of climate on vegetation. Leaf size distributions 
should be given on a stand by stand basis. 

Lack of Climatic Data 

Considerable difficulty was encountered in estimating the precise climate at 
each of the sample sites, particularly in the tropical life zones. This problem is a 
direct result of the lack of weather stations in the tropics ( 1 7). In the initial survey 
(11), the mean annual biotemperature of 19 of the original 78 sample sites had to 
be estimated from nearby weather stations. Additional climatic data might shift 
the position of the data points slightly on the life zone chart, particularly along 
the axis indicating mean annual biotemperature. This problem did not affect the 
initial study of leaf size distributions (11) because the relative and not the 
absolute position of the sample stands was most important. If larger amounts of 
data or a different method of analysis (e.g., Wisconsin polar ordination) are 
used, more exact climatic data will be necessary. 

Estimation of Leaf Area 

Finally, a better method of estimating leaf area must be used. In the 
majority of studies (4, 5, 6, 12, 18, 28), leaf area was estimated as two-thirds of 
the product of leaf length and width. A recent study (9) has indicated that as 
many as 30% of the species studied at a single locality can be placed in the wrong 
size class by using this equation. The best approach (9) is to use a dot planimeter 
(15) to estimate leaf area. Sophisticated electronic equipment is available to 
carry out these estimates, but it can only be transported back and forth to the 
sample site with great difficulty. 

Conclusions 

The theories relating leaf form with climate (2, 3,21) were all proposed over 
forty years ago. Analysis of the available data on leaf size has indicated that 
theoretical predictions and field observations do not always agree (11). If the 
theories are to be revised, more data must be collected using a uniform 
procedure. The need for a uniform method of data analysis was first noted in 
1940 (22) but was disregarded. If followed, the proposals presented in this paper 
should increase the accuracy of studies on the variation in leaf morphology and 
make data from different areas of the world more directly comparable. 

The need for accuracy in the determination of leaf size distributions is 
particularly important for the estimation of paleoclimates. Currently, there are 
two methods available for estimating paleoclimate. One method is based on 
estimating the climate under which a fossil species lived by the climate under 
which its nearest living relative currently exists. If the fossil species is 
misidentified, paleoclimatic estimates based on its nearest living relative will be 



124 Indiana Academy of Science 

inaccurate. The second method involves using the correlation between modern 
climates and leaf morphology to estimate paleoclimates. As the study of local 
variation in leaf form with climate has revealed (11), this approach, although 
promising, will yield useful results only after more data has been collected using 
a standardized system of analysis. 



Literature Cited 

1. Asprey, G. F. and A. R. Loveless. 1958. The dry evergreen formation of Jamaica. II. The raised 
coral beaches of the north coast. J. Ecol. 46:547-570. 

2. Bailey, I. W. and E. W. Sinnott. 1915. A botanical index of Cretaceous and Tertiary climates. 
Science 41:831-834. 

3. and 1916. The climatic distribution of certain types of angiosperm leaves. Am. J. Bot. 

3:24-39. 

4. Beard, J. S. 1946. The natural vegetation of Trinidad. Oxford For. Mem. 20:1-152. 

5. Cain, I. A. and G. M. de Oliveira Castro. 1959. Manual of vegetation analysis. Harper, New 
York. 325 pp. 

6. , G. M. de Oliveira Castro, J. Murca Peres, and N. T. daSilva. 1956. Application of some 

phytosociological techniques to the Brazilian rain forest. Am. J. Bot. 43:911-941. 

7. Dilcher, D. L. 1973. The Eocene floras of southeastern North America. In A. Graham (Ed). 
Vegetation and Vegetational History of Northern Latin America, pp. 39-59. Elsevier, New York. 

8. Dolph, G. E. 1971. A comparison of local and regional leaf characteristics in Indiana. Proc. Ind. 
Acad. Sci. 80:99-103. 

9. 1977. The effect of different calculational techniques on the estimation of leaf area and the 

construction of leaf size distributions. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 104:264-269. 

10. and D. L. Dilcher. 1976. Foliar physiognomy of the Carolinas. Am. J. Bot. 63 (Supp.): 24. 

11. and 1979. Variation in leaf size with respect to climate. Manuscript in preparation. 

12. Gentry, A. H. 1969. A comparison of some leaf characteristics of tropical dry forest and tropical 
wet forest in Costa Rica. Turrialba 19:419-428. 

13. Greig-Smith, P. 1952. Ecological observations on degraded and secondary forest in Trinidad, 
British West Indies, I. General features of the vegetation. J. Ecol. 40:283-315. 

14. Grubb, P. J., J. R. Lloyd, T. D. Pennington, and T. C. Whitmore. 1963. A comparison of 
montane and lowland rain forest in Ecuador. I. The forest structure, physiognomy, and floristics. J. 
Ecol. 51:567-601. 

15. Heinicke, D. H. 1963. Note on the distribution of leaf area and leaf distribution in fruit trees. Can. 
J. Plant Sci. 43:597-598. 

16. Holdridge, L. R. 1967. Life zone ecology. Tropical Science Center, San Jose, Costa Rica. 206 pp. 

17. , W. C. Grenke, W. H. Hatheway, T. Liang, and J. A. Tosi, Jr. 1971. Forest environments in 

tropical life zones: A pilot study. Pergamon Press, New York. 747 pp. 

18. Howard, R. A. 1969. The ecology of an elfin forest in Puerto Rico, 8. Studies on stem growth and 
form of leaf structure. J. Arn. Arb. 50:225-262. 

19. Loveless, A. R. and G. F. Asprey. 1957. The dry evergreen formations of Jamaica. I. The 
limestone hills of the south coast. J. Ecol. 45:799-822. 

20. Mueller-Dombois, D. and H. Ellenberg. 1974. Aims and methods of vegetation ecology. John 
Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York. 547 pp. 

21. Raunkiaer, C. 1934. The life-forms of plants and statistical plant geography. Oxford University 
Press, Oxford. 632 pp. 

22. Richards, P. W., A. G. TANSLEY,and A. S. Watt. 1940. The recording of structure, life form, and 
flora of tropical forest communities as a basis for their classification. J. Ecol. 28:224-239. 



Botany 125 

23. Smith, J. H. Nelson. 1945. Forest associations of British Honduras, II. Caribbean Forester 
6(2):45-61. 

24. 1945. Forest associations of British Honduras, III. Caribbean Forester 7(3): 1 3 1 - 147. 

25. Stehle\ H. 1945. Forest types of the Caribbean Islands. Caribbean Forester 6(Supp.):273-393. 

26. and E. Bruet. 1953. Esquisse gdologique et evolution phytosociologique sur les sables de 

sedimentation moderne de la plage de Grande Anse-Deshayes, en Guadeloupe. Bull. Mus. Natl. 
Hist. Nat. 25(6):6 10-620. 

27. Stevenson, N. S. 1942. Forest associations of British Honduras, I. Caribbean Forester 3(4): 164- 
171. 

28. Tasaico, H. 1959. La fisionaomia de las hojas de arboles en alguner formacioner tropicales. M.A. 
thesis. Inst. Interam. Ciencias Agricolas, Turrialba, Costa Rica. 88 pp. 



CELL BIOLOGY 

Chairman: Ralph Jersild, Jr., Department of Anatomy 
Indiana University Medical Center, Indianapolis, Indiana 46202 

Chairman-Elect: Betty D. Allamong, Department of Biology 
Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana 47306 

Abstracts 

Light-Induced Changes in Photoreceptor Metabolism, A New Clue to Visual 

Function. Edward A. Kimble, Purdue University Light induced 

changes in the respiration of bullfrog retinae have been recorded under 
conditions where synaptic transmission is known to be blocked, i.e. after 
treatment with lOmM sodium aspartate. Under these conditions, illumination 
causes a decrease in respiration that is apparently related to known changes in 
the active transport of sodium ions and which amounts to a decrease in 
respiration of -6800 O2 molecules per photon captured. Elimination of sodium 
transport by treatment with 10" 4 M ouabain or by removal of sodium gives rise to 
a second type of response. Illumination now stimulates respiration (+2160 O2 
molecules/ photon captured). This response is abolished by removal of calcium 
but readdition of calcium restores the response. These responses appear to 
reflect changes in metabolic energy usage. Furthermore, bypassing anaerobic 
sites of energy production does not change the general pattern of response. This 
technique allows detection of chemical events in the retina which are not 
currently detectable by electrophysiological measurements. 

The Distribution and Mobility of Anionic Sites on Intestinal Absorptive Cell 
Brush Borders. Ralph A. Jersild, Jr. and R. W. Crawford, Department of 
Anatomy, Indiana University Medical Center, Indianapolis, Indiana 

46202 The distribution and behavior of anionic sites on the microvillous 

surface of rat jejunal absorptive cells were studied using polycationic ferritin 
(PCF) as a visual probe. Segments were incubated in PCF either before or after 
glutaraldehyde fixation. The results indicated that the anionic sites can be 
divided into three groups based on their interaction with PCF. 1 ) Sites along the 
length of the microvilli which are accessible to binding PCF in living, unfixed 
cells. These sites are capable of translational mobility at the membrane surface 
and can be induced to cluster into discrete patches by PCF. Their redistribution 
is prevented by prefixation. 2) Sites randomly distributed along the length of the 
microvilli which are inaccessible to PCF without prior fixation. 3) Sites 
restricted to the microvillous tips which are accessible to PCF without fixation, 
but are apparently immobile. Independent variation was observed in the 
number of sites in each of the three groups among neighboring cells irrespective 
of villous position, suggestive of variations in the turnover of these sites. 

The Structure of Small Molecule Permeation Channels in Human Red Blood 
Cell Membranes. William K. Stephenson and R. Scott Vander Wall, 
Department of Biology, Earlham College, Richman, Indiana 47374 The 

127 



128 Indiana Academy of Science 

permeability of human red blood cell (rbc) membranes to water and various 
alcohols was determined by comparing hemolysis times. The maximum 
diameter of the permeation channels or pores for small molecules was 
determined to be 10 A since the rbc is relatively impermeable to glucose. 
Alcohols with van der Walls radii diameters of up to 6.3 A are able to enter the 
rbc. An increased number of hydroxyl groups retards permeability. We 
conclude that the channels by which small molecules permeate the rbc 
membrane are lined with ionic and /or polar groups which interact with the 
permeating molecules. 

Morphological and Functional Interaction of Dissociated Rat Superior 
Cervical Ganglion Neurons and Heart Ventricular Cells in Co-culture. 

Kathleen L. King*, Daniel C. Williams, George B. Boder and Richard J. 
Harley. The Lilly Research Laboratories, Eli Lilly and Company, 

Indianapolis, Indiana 46206 In the absence of exogenously supplied nerve 

growth factor, dissociated newborn rat superior cervical ganglion neurons will 
survive and extend processes on a monolayer of dissociated rat heart ventricular 
cells in culture. Interaction between these two types of cells in co-culture was 
stimulated by the addition of tyramine which is believed to increase heart rate in 
vivo by effecting release of catecholamines from sympathetic nerve endings. In 
83% of the co-cultures examined in the presence of 5xl0" 6 M tyramine, an 
increase in the beat rate of the ventricular cells contacted by neuronal processes 
was observed and measured by means of a photooptical system. Heart cells 
cultured without neurons did not show a positive chronotropic response to this 
concentration of tyramine. Examination of the co-cultures with electron 
microscopy has revealed muscle cell surfaces in close apposition to neuronal 
varicosities containing granular and agranular vesicles. The dimensions of the 
junctional spaces, the vesicle size, and the spatial relationships were similar to 
those in the mouse ventricle in vivo. These observations suggest that the 
association of sympathetic neurons and heart ventricular cells in co-culture is at 
least in some ways similar to their morphological and functional interaction in 
vivo. 

Effect of Retinol Palmitate on Glycolipid and Glycoprotein Galactosyl 
Transferase Activities of Rat Liver Plasma Membrane. Kim E. Creek, D. James 
Morre* and C. L. Richardson, Departments of Biological Sciences and 
Medicinal Chemistry, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 

47907 Vitamin A has been implicated in glycosyltransferase reactions and 

retinol phosphate has been identified as a lipid carrier for certain hexoses 
destined for incorporation glycoproteins. Both vitamin A-deficient and - 
supplemented diets have similar effects in depressing levels of liver glycolipids 
and in the first glycosyltransferase unique to the ganglioside biosynthetic 
pathway (Richardson et al., Biochim. Biophys. Acta 488, 88, 1977). In the 
present study, effects of retinol palmitate on catalysis of transfer of galactose 
from UDP-galactose to endogenous glycoprotein and glycolipid acceptors by 
purified plasma membrane preparations from rat liver were examined. Results 
show a log dose dependency with an optium at about 1/ 1000 unit per assay. 
Above or below this optium concentration, the vitamin inhibited the enzymatic 
activity as in previous studies in vivo. The significance of these findings to use of 



Cell Biology 129 

retinol derivatives in cancer chemotherapy will be discussed. Work supported in 
part by a grant from the Phi Beta Psi National Sorority to C.L.R. 

Fast Axoplasmic Transport of Calcium is Associated with the Transport of a 
Protein in the Mammalian Nerve. Zafar Iqbal, Department of Physiology and 
the Medical Biophysics Program, Indiana University School of Medicine, 

Indianapolis, Indiana 46202, U.S. A The role of calcium in axoplasmic 

transport has come under attention in our laboratory as a result of studies 
showing that Ca 2+ is required in the medium to maintain axoplasmic transport 
and that it is transported at a fast rate of 410 mm/day in cat sciatic nerve (Iqbal 
& Ochs, Neurosci. Abst. /: 802, 1975; Ochs, Iqbal, Worth & Chan, Int. Soc. 
Neurochem. Symp., 1977). This communication describes that the transport of 
Ca 2+ in the nerve is associated with the transport of a calcium binding protein in 
the nerve. These studies were made by injecting Ca + into L7 dorsal root 
ganglion of cat and the labeled transported protein in the nerve characterized by 
gel filtration using Sephadex G 100 and Biogel A 5m columns. Fast transported 
45 Ca 2+ was found associated with a protein peak eluting in the range of 15,000 
dalton. Using [ 3 H]-leucine as a precursor, this 15,000 dalton protein was found 
to be transported at the same rate as 4S Ca 2+ labeled protein in the sciatic nerve. 
When [ 3 H]-leucine labeled protein was incubated with 45 Ca 2+ and processed for 
gel filtration, both 45 Ca 2+ and [ 3 H]-activities eluted at the same elution volume 
from the column. These results suggest that Ca 2+ is transported in the nerve in 
association with the protein. Some possible roles played by the calcium binding 
protein will also be discussed. Supported by the NIH grant PHS R01 NS 8706- 
08. 

The Effects of Isoproterenol on Mitosis and Cell Ultrastructure. Meg Durkin 
and Charles W. Goff, Department of Life Sciences, Indiana State University, 

Terre Haute, Indiana 47809 Isoproterenol and other factors which enhance 

the activity of adenyl cyclase and thus lead to increased intracellular levels of 
CAMP in a number of animal systems has been shown to lead to a decrease in 
cell division within 24 hours. In an attempt to determine whether isoproterenol 
has the same effect on plant systems, onion roots {Allium cepa) were grown in a 
solution of 0.5 mM isoproterenol over a 24-hour period. Roots were sampled at 
0, 1,3, 6, 9, 12 and 24-hour intervals, fixed and squash preparations of the roots 
were examined under light microscopy. The mitotic index was calculated and 
compared against control roots grown in distilled water. The experimental cells 
showed a significant decrease in the percentage of mitotic cells 1 hour after 
treatment (from 1 1.5% to 5.9%) and remained approximately one-half of the 
percentage of mitotic cells for the control cells thorughout the 24 hour period. 
Studies are in progress to determine whether any ultrastructural changes, 
particularly involving the mitotic process, are associated with the presumed 
change in intracellular CAMP level. 

Increased amounts of ATP related to cellular activation of onion leaf base 
tissue. Dr. W. S. Courtis, Assistant Professor of Biology, IUPUI, 1201 E. 38th 

Street, Indianapolis, Indiana 46205 Previously protected (quiescent) onion 

leaf base tissue exposed to the ambient atmosphere contained significantly more 
ATP per gram fresh weight than control tissue. Although 48 hour exposed tissue 
contained more ATP than 24 hour exposed tissue, the difference (6 nm ATP per 



130 Indiana Academy of Science 

gram fresh weight) was not significantly different. These data suggest that leaf 
base mesophyll cells are activated by exposure in a manner similar to that 
reported for outer epidermal cells using other techniques. 



Sialic Acid Elevated in Experimental Liver Cancer 1 

Thomas M. Kloppel, Dorien Sarles, Linda B. Jacobsen and D. James Morre" 
Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 

Introduction 

Constituents of cell surfaces of mammalian cells which may be important to 
cancer-related properties are glycoproteins and glycolipids ( 14, 1 5). Sialic acid is 
a common terminal saccharide on many of these glycoproteins and glycolipids. 

Some tumors have been reported to have elevated sialic acid content, 
including human tumors of the colon, stomach, breast and other tissues ( 1 , 2, 6) 
and experimental liver tumors of the rat (8-10). Some authors, however, have 
concluded that specific cell surface sialic acid changes are not a general property 
of neoplastic cells (11, 17). In cultured transformed cells, the most frequent 
change is a lowering of the membrane sialic acid content (3, 12, 13). 

As part of a continuing study to determine to what extent sialic acid 
changes are associated with experimental liver cancer, the present study 
compares the sialic acid content of several transplantable hepatomas and 
normal livers of animals bearing transplantable hepatomas to those of 
carcinogen-induced squamous cell carcinomas and normal and regenerating 
liver. The results, although preliminary, suggest a pattern of sialic acid change 
which may be a property of neoplastic cells when considered in the context of 
previously published results from our laboratory and work of others. 

Materials and Methods 

To obtain hyperplastic and neoplastic liver tissues, inbred (CDF) male 
Wistar rats (Carworth Farms, New City, N.Y.) weighing 150 to 170 g were fed a 
low protein basal diet (Carcinogenic Basal Diet, Teklad Mills, Madison, 
Wisconsin) containing 0.05% N-2-fluorenylacetamide (Aldrich Chemical Co.) 
according to the schedule of Merkow et al. (7). Control rats received basal diet 
without added carcinogen. At the end of a 13-week feeding schedule, all rats 
were fed the basal diet for two additional weeks. Rats were killed by cervical 
dislocation after a 24 hr fast and bled. 

Transplantable tumors originated from carcinogen treated livers and were 
harvested 6 to 10 months after the beginning of carcinogen administration. 
Hyperplastic nodules and hepatomas appearing in tissues were removed, 
washed, minced in sterile salt solution and injected subcutaneously into 
syngeneic recipients. At the same time, a portion of each tumor was fixed in 
Bouin's fixative solution or buffered 2% glutaraldehyde for histopathological 
analysis. Any remaining tissue was stored at -20° C for determination of sialic 
acid and protein. Once the transplanted tumors had reached a diameter of 
approximately 3 cm, they were removed aseptically, minced and transplanted 



'Supported in part by a grant from the National Institutes of Health CA 21958. 

131 



132 Indiana Academy of Science 

into a second syngeneic recipient or processed for tissue culture as outlined 
below. 

To initiate tumor cell lines in culture, the transplantable hepatomas were 
rinsed in calcium- and magnesium-free balanced salt solution and necrotic areas 
were removed. Finely minced portions of the tumor were added to growth media 
or incubated at 37° C in a trypsinizing flask with either 1% collagenase, 0.25% 
trypsin, or 0.05% trypsin containing 0.02% EDTA for intervals of 15 to 20 min. 
After incubation, cells were removed, washed and placed in growth medium. 
The growth medium was a minimum essential medium with Earles salts or 
Ham's F-10 nutrient mixture supplemented with 15 to 20% fetal calf serum, or 
10% donor horse serum and 10% fetal calf serum. No single combination of 
processing, medium, or serum was successful with all tumors processed. Once 
the cultures had become confluent, or when dense colonies developed, 
subcultures were obtained by routine procedures. Tumorigenicity was 
monitored by harvesting cells and injecting the saline washed cells into syngeneic 
recipient animals. 

Regenerating liver was induced by surgical removal of one or two liver 
lobes of sodium pentobarbital anesthesized animals. Ligation with suture was 
used to prevent hemorrhaging. Hyperplastic liver tissue was removed one week 
later and frozen for later analysis. 

For biochemical analysis, tissues were minced, rinsed to remove residual 
blood, and homogenized in four volumes of ice-cold distilled water with a 
Polytron tissue homogenizer (Kinematica, Lucerne, Switzerland). The resulting 
homogenates were sampled for determination of protein (5) and sialic acid ( 1 6). 
For sialic acid determinations, samples were hydrolyzed with 0.5 ml 0. 1 N HC1 
for 1 hour at 80° C, and the sialic acid determined by the thiobarbituric acid 
procedure of Warren (16). In order to reduce interference from the crude 
homogenates, values of sialic acid were calculated by recording absorbance at 2 
wavelengths and substituting these values into the following equation: nmoles 
sialic acid = 90 (O.D.549) - 33 (O.D.532). The value reported is the mean of 
triplicate determinations. 

Results 

The transplantable hepatomas studied were well differentiated hepatomas 
derived from primary tumors induced in the rat by oral administration of the 
carcinogen N-2-fluorenylacetamide. Tumors were analyzed after the third 
transfer in syngeneic recipients. 

On a protein basis, levels of total sialic acid were elevated 1.4 to 4.0 times 
control liver in the four transplantable hepatomas analyzed (Table 1). 
Additionally sialic acid levels were significantly elevated in livers from 
carcinogen treated animals prior to the appearance of either hepatomas or 
hyperplastic nodules and even in apparently normal livers of animals bearing 
transplantable hepatomas subcutaneously implanted. In contrast, regenerating 
liver showed no elevation in sialic acid. A transplantable squamous cell 
carcinoma from the jaw region (in vivo and in vitro), derived from rats fed the 
carcinogen N-2-fluorenylacetamide, showed sialic acid values similar to those of 
hepatomas (Table 1). 



Cell Biology 



133 



Table 1. Sialic acid from experimental tumors and control tissues. 



Tissue Source 



Total Sialic Acid 
(nanomoles per mg protein) 
+ Standard Deviation 



Control Liver 
Liver from Carcinogen- 
Treated Animals 
Regenerating Liver 
Transplantable Hepatomas 

RLTi 

RLT2 

RLT3 

RLT7 
Liver from Rats Bearing 

Transplantable Tumors 
Transplantable Squamous Cell 
Carcinomas from Jaw Region 

JTi 

JT2 

In Cell Culture 



4.5 + 0.3 
7.0+ 1.0 



3.8 



18.0 

16.4 
6.3 

10.3 
5.9 



18.0 
16.9 
21.6 



0.7 



When sialic acid content was expressed as a function of growth rate for the 
four transplantable hepatomas and two jaw tumors, an optimum curve was 
obtained (Fig. 1). Sialic acid content was greatest on a protein basis (or fresh 
weight basis) with tumors of intermediate growth rate. The slowest and most 
rapidly growing hepatomas had specific sialic acid values of lesser magnitude 
although still elevated relative to control liver. 



Table 2. Characteristics of experimental tumors cultured in vitro. 







Derived from 


Transfer 








Transplantable 


Number 


Predominant In 


Tumor Production 


Tissue Source 


Tumor 


In Vivo 


Vitro Cel Type 


In Vivo 


Liver 


RLT! 


1 


epithelial-like 


yes 






2 


fibroblast-like 


no 




RLT2 


1 
2 


fibroblast-like 
fibroblast-like 






RLT3 


1 


fibroblast-like 


no 




RLT4 


1 


fibroblast-like 




Jaw Region 


JTi 


1 


epithelial-like 


yes 




JT2 


1 


epithelial-like 


yes 





Those hepatoma and squamous cell carcinoma lines successfully carried in 
cell culture are summarized in Table 2. Thus far, only the squamous cell 
carcinoma and one hepatoma line have been successfully transplanted back into 
an animal. 



134 



Indiana Academy of Science 



c 
o 

£ 



o 
< 

o 
< 




GROWTH RATE 



mm /day x I0 2 /I0 7 



cells 



Figure 1. Relationship between specific sialic acid content and growth rate of transplantable 

hepatomas ( A ) and squamous cell carcinomas of the jaw region (•) originally induced in the rat by 

administration of the carcinogen N-2-fluorenylacetamide. 



Discussion 

As emphasized in the Introduction, sialic acid alterations during 
tumorigenesis have been questioned as to general significance because, while 
elevations have been recorded for solid tumors, a frequent change in 
transformed cells in culture is a lowering of sialic acid content (11, 17). Our 
findings taken together with previous work from our laboratory and work of 
others and summarized in Figure 2, however, suggest that sialic acid changes 
may exhibit a more meaningful pattern than previously suspected. 

Merritt et al. (8) reported increased sialic acid in preneoplastic hyperplastic 
nodules of rat liver induced by administration of the N-2-fluorenylacetamide 
carcinogen. Later studies (9) compared pooled small hepatomas most of which 
were classified as well differentiated as well as livers from carcinogen-treated 
animals, liver tissue surrounding nodules and hepatomas, fetal liver and livers of 
developing animals. 

Sialic acid levels are elevated in fetal liver and at birth, drop sharply in the 
week after birth and remain more or less constant in the adult. Following 
administration of carcinogen, sialic acid values once again begin to increase with 
a nearly 2-fold elevation in hyperplastic liver nodules. Maximum values are 
attained in well differentiated hepatomas with a decline in invasive, poorly 
differentiated and poorly circumscribed hepatomas. 






Cell Biology 



135 




NI310dd Gw/Qiov OHVIS S310WONVN 

Figure 2. Summary of changes in total specific sialic acid content during liver development and N-2- 

fluorenylacetamide-induced tumorigenesis in rat liver and cells in culture. Indications for cells in 

culture are based on information from the literature (see discussion). Other values are from the studies 

of Merritt et al. (8, 9) in our laboratory. 



136 Indiana Academy of Science 

The present results augment and extend these observations. It should be 
noted that the absolute values obtained are less than those reported by Meritt et 
al. (8, 9). However a different method of sialic acid determination was utilized in 
the present investigation along with a procedure to correct for interference from 
non-sialic acid sources of absorbing chromogens. However, the relative values 
obtained are comparable to those of Merritt et al. (89) and show an optimum 
curve with maximum sialic acid content on a protein basis with transplantable 
tumors of intermediate rates of growth. 

These findings point to an explanation for changes in sialic acid of opposite 
sign previously obtained. Cell lines of fibroblast origin exhibit extremely rapid 
rates of growth. Transformation serves to give an even more rapid rate of 
growth. Thus a decrease in sialic acid under such conditions would follow the 
same pattern we have observed with the transplantable hepatomas. 

Although we have not studied the cause of the increased total sialic acid 
content in hyperplastic tissues and well differentiated hepatomas, other studies 
from our laboratory indicate that similar increases in lipid-associated sialic acid 
(sialic acid-containing glycolipids = gangliosides) are attributable to increased 
specific activities of glycolipid biosynthetic enzymes (10). Recently Kloppel et al. 
(4) reported a biochemical method of cancer detection based on serum analysis 
of lipid-associated sialic acid in mice and humans bearing mammary and colonic 
carcinomas. In this regard, the elevated sialic acid levels in livers of rats bearing 
transplantable hepatomas are of interest. Taken with the observations of 
Kloppel et al. (4) that a serum sialic acid fraction is elevated, the findings point to 
elevations in sialic acid as a primary and early tissue response to the presence of 
cancer or to specific lesions of a potentially precancerous nature. 



Literature Cited 

1. Barker, S. A., M. Stacey, D. J. Tipper and J. H. Kirkham. 1959. Some observations on certain 
mucoproteins containing neuraminic acid. Nature 184:BA68-BA69. 

2. Bryant, M. L., G. D. STONERand R. P. Metzger. 1974. Protein-bound carbohydrate content of 
normal and tumorous human lung tissue. Biochim. Biophhys. Acta 343:226-231. 

3. Grimes, W. J. 1973. Glycosyltransferase and sialic acid levels of normal and transformed cells. 
Biochemistry 12:990-996. 

4. Kloppel, T. M, T. W. Keenan, M. J. Freeman and D. J. Morre". 1977. Glycolipid bound sialic 
acid in serum: Increased levels in mice and humans bearing mammary carcinomas. Proc. Natl. 
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5. Lowry, O. H., N. J. Rosebrough, A. L. Farr and R. J. Randall. 1951. Protein measurement 
with the Folin phenol reagent. J. Biol. Chem. 193:265-275. 

6. Mabry, W. E. and R. Carubelli. 1972. Sialic acid in human cancer. Experentia 28:182-183. 

7. Merkow, L. P., S. M. Epstein, E. Farber, M. Pardo and B. Bartus. 1969. Cellular analysis of 
liver carcinogenesis. III. Comparison of the ultrastructure of hyperplastic liver nodules and 
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8. Merritt, W. D., T. W. Keenan and D. J. Morre". 1976. Gangliosides and other lipids of 
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185. 



Cell Biology 137 

9. Merritt, W. D., C. L. Richardson, T. W. Keenan and D. J. Morre". In Press. Gangliosides of 
liver tumors induced by N-2-fluorenylacetamide. I. Ganglioside alterations in liver tumorigenesis 
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10. Merritt, W. D., D. J. Morre" and T. W. Keenan. In Press. Gangliosides of liver tumors induced 
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1 1. Nicolson, G. L. 1976. Trans-membrane control of the receptors on normal and tumor cells. II. 
Surface changes associated with transformation and malignancy. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 458:98- 
102. 

12. Ohta, N., A. B. Pardee, B. R. McAuslan and M. M. Burger. 1968. Sialic acid contents and 
controls of normal and malignant cells. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 158:98-102. 

13. Perdue, J. F., R. Kletzien and V. L. Wray. 1972. The isolation and characterization of plasma 
membrane from cultured cells. IV. The carbohydrate composition of membranes isolated from 
oncogenic RNA virus-converted chick embryo fibroblasts. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 266:505-510. 

14. Richardson, C. L., S. R. Baker, D. J. Morre" and T. W. Keenan. 1975. Glycosphingolipid 
synthesis and tumorigenesis: A role for the Golgi apparatus in the origin of specific receptor 
molecules of the mammalian cell surface. Biochim. Biophys. Acta Cancer Reviews 417:175-186. 

15. Wallach, D. F. H. 1975. Membrane molecular biology of neoplastic cells. Elsevier Scientific, 
Amsterdam-Oxford-New York. 525 pp. 

16. Warren, L. 1959. The thiobarbituric acid assay of sialic acids. J. Biol. Chem. 234:1971-1975. 

17. Weiss, L. 1973. Neuraminidase, sialic acids, and cell interactions. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 50:3-19. 



Extraction and Purification of a Factor which Stimulates 
Silicomolybdate Reduction by Photosystem II of Spinach Chloroplasts 

L. Leonard, R. Barr and F. L. Crane 1 

Department of Biological Sciences 

Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47901 

Introduction* 

As shown by Swanson, Thomson and Mudd (10), extraction of tobacco 
chloroplasts with acetone concentrations up to 30% in fresh or glutaraldehyde- 
fixed material removes some neutral lipid, acylated steryl glycoside, and 
monogalactosyl diglyceride, but the structural integrity of chloroplast 
membranes remains undisturbed. Likewise, the activity of most photosynthetic 
electron transport reactions is undiminished or even stimulated after a 30% 
acetone wash (Barr, unpublished results). The only exception may be 
silicomolybdate reduction by PS II in presence of DCMU (3), a reaction which 
normally gives good O2 evolution rates for the first 30 seconds but stops 
thereafter. In this study, we have explored the possibility of loss of a factor from 
chloroplast membranes in presence of silicomolybdic acid. For this purpose, we 
used low acetone concentrations (1-2%) to extract and purify a factor from 
spinach chloroplasts, which, when added to the silicomolybdate assay, 
stimulates O2 evoluation up to 50%. The identity of the stimulator is also 
discussed. It may be a pteridine or an analog of folic acid (4). 

Materials and Methods 

Chloroplasts were made from market spinach in 0.4 sucrose — 0.05M NaCl 
according to a modified method of Jagendorf and Avron (5). Chlorophyll was 
determined according to Arnon (1). Chloroplasts containing 1 mgchl/ml were 
osmotically shocked by suspending in water prior to an acetone wash (10 mg 
chl/50 ml 1 or 2% acetone in batches of 3-5). The washed chloroplasts were 
sedimented by centrifugation at 2,000x g for 10 min. The supernatant containing 
silicomolybdate stimulation factor was further purified by centrifugation at 
7,500 x g. The clear yellow supernatant was used for further purification on 
columns or by TLC. Sometimes it was dialyzed overnight to remove the acetone, 
especially if used in silicomolybdate assays. 

Purification of silicomolybdate stimulation factor was carried out in 3 
ways: ( 1 ) on DEAE cellulose columns equilibrated with 5 m M phosphate buffer, 
pH 7; elution of yellow band with 0.5 M NaCl in 5mM phosphate buffer, (2) on 



'Supported by NSF Grant BMS 7419689. 

*Abbreviations used frequently are: 
DCMU— 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)- 1,1 -dimethylurea; 
PS II — photosystem II; 
SM — silicomolybdic acid. 

138 



Cell Biology 



139 



Merck aluminum oxide columns equilibrated with 2% acetone; elution of yellow 
band with 2% ammonium hydroxide after a 1% ammonium wash, (3) on PEI 
Cellulose F TLC plates developed in 8% ammonium hydroxide; yellow 
stimulator band has an Rf of 0.37 or higher depending on purity of starting 
material. 

Silicomolybdate reduction by spinach chloroplasts in presence of DCMU 
was measured as (h evolution with a Clark-type oxygen electrode connected to a 
Yellow Springs Oxygen Monitor. Rates were recorded with a Sargent- Welch 
SRG recorder. Illumination (5 x 10 5 ergs/cm 2 -sec) was provided by a specially 
built light source using a General Electric CBA (120V) Quartzline projector 
lamp. Reaction mixtures are given in the legend of Fig. 2. 

Folic acid (Sigma) was added to chloroplasts as alkaline solutions in water. 

Results and Discussion 

The silicomolybdate stimulation factor removed from chloroplasts by 1 or 
2% acetone washes remains unidentified, although certain similarities between 
folic acid and the factor in various stages of purification are apparent from 



2.0 
1.8 
1.6 
1.4 



UJ 
1.2 

< 
gl.0 

O 
CO 
§0.8 



0.6 
0.4 
0.2 





folic acid 




— fr.from alumina 




(before dialysis) 


c \ /""X 


after dialysis 


"n \ / \ 


A-A 0.5M NaCI from DEAE 


v \ \ f >*«S. 


1%acetone super- 


• \\ \ 1 X v \ 


natant 
(after dialysis) 


•-• compound after 


heptane extraction 


\ \s ^ /vX 




\ \\ / \\ 




\i •• / \ \ 




- x — /-••• \ ^ 




v\\7 \ 




-V-->4 




% -*^'\. ^* 




V--** ^ N \1_ 




^ n 


-■ 


**w. W *++-^ 


1 1 


1 1 



225 250 275 300 

WAVELENGTH (nm) 



325 



350 



Figure 1. The Ultraviolet Absorption Spectra of the Silicomolybdate Stimulation Factor Isolated 

from Spinach Chloroplasts by 1 or 2% Acetone Extraction in Various Stages of Purification. The U. V. 

absorption spectrum of folic acid is included for comparison. 



140 



Indiana Academy of Science 




(JM/IMO Bw/ Am03n) NOIJUTIOA3 z 



Figure 2. Stimulation of Silicomolybdate Reduction in Presence of DC M U at p H 6 bv the Factor 
Isolated from 1 or 2% Acetone Extracts of Spinach Chloroplasts Compared to Stimulation by Folic 
Acid Under the Same Conditions. Silicomolybdate reduction assayed polarographicallv with a Clark- 
type electrode. Reaction mixture contained in 1.5 ml volume: chloroplasts (50 g chlorophyll), buffer 
(25 mM Tris-Mes. pH 6 or 8), 2 mM MgCh at pH 6 only. 2 mM NH^CIat pH8only, DCMU(I.5 /uM), 
si/icomolybdic acid (0.2 mg). 



Cell Biology 141 

absorption spectra in the U.V. region of the spectrum (Fig. 1). The fraction 
which resembles folic acid the most comes from purification of 2% acetone 
extracts on a DEAE cellulose column and is eluted with 0.5 M NaCl. This factor 
shows an absorption maximum at about 280nm, a minimum at 250 nm, as does 
folic acid itself. However, the factor does not give blue fluorescence. The Rf on 
PEI Cellulose F TLC plates developed in 8% ammonium hydroxide is also 
different (0.37) versus 0.67 for folic acid). This difference may be due to 
insufficient purification of the factor or to breakdown during our isolation 
procedures, which require long periods of dialysis to remove residual acetone. 
However, stimulation of silicomolybdate reduction by PS II in presence of 
DCMUis shown by the impure 2% acetone factor after centrifugation at 7,500 x 
g and dialysis (Fig. 2), as well as by various purified forms (not shown). Better 
stimulation of the rate at pH 6 is given by the acetone factor than by folic acid 
itself (Fig. 2), although lower concentrations of folic acid are required for 
maximum stimulation (1:15) before inhibition of the rate is observed. At pH 8, 
the acetone factor and folic acid are slightly inhibitory. 

Folic acid was first isolated from spinach leaves by Mitchell and co-workers 
(6,7). Folic acid and other pteridines stimulate photophosphorylation in spinach 
chloroplasts (8,9). However, this is the first report of its action on 
silicomolybdate reduction by PS II. The significance of stimulation of the 
forward electron transport reactions by folic acid and the isolated acetone factor 
may be related to the redox feedback control mechanism described earlier by 
Barr and Crane (2) in which substances which inhibit silicomolybdate reduction 
in presence of DCMU stimulate forward electron transport and 
photophosphorylation. Higher concentrations of folic acid or of the isolated 
factor than shown in Fig. 2 inhibit silicomolybdate reduction more than 75%, 
resulting in increased forward electron transport according to predictions. 

In conclusion, it can be stated that a stimulator of silicomolybdate 
reduction has been isolated from dilute acetone extracts of spinach chloroplasts 
which resembles folic acid in certain aspects but not in others. Complete 
identification of the factor awaits further study. 



Literature Cited 

1. Arnon, D. I. 1949. Copper enzyme in isolated chloroplasts. Polyphenoloxidase in Beta vulgaris. 
Plant Physiol. 24:1-15. 

2. Barr, R., and F. L. Crane 1976. Control of photosynthesis byCO:: evidence for a bicarbonate- 
inhibited redox feedback in photosystem II. Proceed. Indiana Acad. Sci. 85:120-128. 

3. Barr, R., F. L. Crane, and R. T. Gianquita 1975. Dichlorophenylurea-insensitive reduction of 
silicomolybdic acid by chloroplast photosystem II. Plant Physiol. 55:460-462. 

4. Blakley, R. L. The Biochemistry of Folic Acid and Related Pteridines. in Frontiers of Biology, 
vol. 13. A. Neubergerand E. L. Tatum, eds. North-Holland Publishing Co. Amsterdam, 1969. 569 
pages. 

5. Jagendorf, A. T.,and M. Avron 1958. Cofactors and rates of photosynthetic phosphorylation by 
spinach chloroplasts. J. Biol. Chem. 231:277-290. 

6. Mitchell, H. K., E. E. Snell, and R. Williams 1941. The concentration of "folic acid". J. Am. 
Chem. Soc. 63:2284. 



142 Indiana Academy of Science 

7. Mitchell, H. K. 1944. Folic acid IV. Absorption spectra. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 66:274-278. 

8. Maclean, F. I., Y. Fujita, H. S. Forrest, and J. Myers 1965. Photosynthetic phosphorylation: 
stimulation by pteridines and comparison with phosphodoxin. Science 149:636-638. 

9. Maclean, F. I., Y. Fujita, H. S. Forrest, and J. Myers- 1966. Stimulation of 
photophosphorylation and cytochrome c photooxidation by pteridines. Plant Physiol. 41:774-779. 

10. Swanson, E. W., W. W. Thomson, and J. B. Mudd 1973. Theeffect of lipid extraction onelectron- 
microscopic images of plant membranes. Can. J. Bot. 51:1221-1229. 



Electrophysiological Characterization of the 
Ionic Selectivity of Necturus Proximal Tubule 

Mary F. Asterita 

Northwest Center for Medicial Education 

Indiana University of Medicine, Gary, Indiana 

and 

Emile L. Boulpaep 

Yale University School of Medicine 

New Haven, Connecticut 06510 

Abstract 

The characteristics of transepithelial conductance in the proximal tubules of the kidney of the 
amphibian, Necturus maculosus was assessed by employing electrophysiological techniques. 



Changes in luminal cell membrane, AV 2 , peritubular cell membrane, AVi, 
and transepithelial potential, AV 3 were monitored during unilateral salt 
dilutions in the peritubular capillaries, p, or in the lumen, /, or bilaterally in 
both the pertibular capillaries and lumen simultaneously, pi. Transference 
numbers for sodium and chloride were evaluated from the voltage deflection 
of V 3 induced across the epithelium by these salt dilutions. Actual changes in 
the electromotive forces induced by salt dilutions across the peritubular 
membrane, AEi, luminal membrane, AE 2 , and paracellular path or extra- 
cellular shunt path, AE3 were estimated by solving a set of simultaneous 
equations using AVi and AV 3 during p, I, or pi, the luminal to peritubular 
cell membrane resistance ratio, and the specific transepithelial resistance. The 
results indicate that the proximal tubule exhibits a marked degree of anionic 
selectivity. Also, the observed transepithelial potential changes closely 
approximate the actual changes in electromotive force induced across the 
paracellular pathway and thus yield an accurate estimate of the ionic 
selectivity of the paracellular path. 

Introduction 

Epithelial cells are held together by junctional complexes encircling each 
cell (12). In a number of epithelia, these junctions offer little resistance to ion 
movement. Proximal convoluted tubules of Necturus (4,28) dog (8), rat (16), 
rabbit (22), Ambystoma (25) and Triturus (19) kidney as well as Necturus 
gallbladder (14), and rabbit ileum (22) are characterized by epithelial cells and 
conspicuous lateral intercellular spaces, joined at their apical surface by a 
junctional complex. This junctional complex which includes the Zonula 
Occludens together with the lateral intercellular spaces comprise the 
extracellular shunt path or paracellular pathway for transepithelial ion 
movement. Permeability and resistance properties of the two cell membranes in 
series as well as that of the shunt must be elucidated for the complete 

143 



144 Indiana Academy of Science 

characterization of transepithelial ion movement. Transepithelial ion 
movement has been studied in terms of the contributions made by the two ceil 
membranes in series as well as the extracellular or paracellular shunt pathway in 
the Necturus proximal tubule (2,3,5,6,7). This work attempts to further clarify 
the role played by the paracellular shunt in passive ion movement. In the 
presence of transepithelial ion concentration gradients, the proximal tubular 
epithelium develops difussion potentials which superimpose on the normal 
transepithelial potential difference. Using salt dilutions on either side of the 
epithelium and treating the resulting changes in transepithelial potential 
difference as a liquid junction potential, the relative transepithelial ion 
selectivity of the epithelium was assessed for sodium and chloride ions. 
Moveover determinations of potential differences and resistances during salt 
dilution were used to analyze the various elements of an quivalent electrical 
circuit of the proximal epithelium (2,5). Actual changes in the electromotive 
forces were computed both for the two cell membranes in series, luminal and 
peritubular, and for the paracellular pathway. These changes in equivalent 
electromotive forces were correlated with observed changes in potential 
difference across the same barriers. The results lend support to the view that the 
properties of the overall eipthelium are characterized entirely by the paracellular 
pathway and that observed changes in trasepithelial potential yield an accurate 
estimate of the ionic selectivity pattern of the shunt. 

Methods 

Animal Preparation 

All experiments were performed on adult Necturus maculosus of either sex 
(Mogul-Ed, Oshkosh, Wisconsin). Doubly perfused kidneys of Necturus were 
prepared as previously described (17). The composition of control solutions, i.e., 
both superfusion fluid bathing the kidney surface and vascular perfusion fluid, 
was similar to the Ringer solution used previously, (2). Experimental 
superfusion and vascular perfusion solutions had the same ionic composition as 
Ringer solution except that a moiety of NaCl was replaced in isosmotic 
proportions by sucrose. 

Electrical Measurements 

Peritubular (Vi) or transepithelial (V 3 ) electrical potential differences were 
recorded differentially, i.e., between an intracellular or intraluminal 
microelectrode and an external reference microelectrode by means of high 
impedance electrometers. Intracellular or intraluminal microelectrodes were of 
the Ling-Gerard type. Only microelectrodes with tip potentials less than-L5mV 
were used. The differential output of the electrometers was displayed on a 
Tektronix 502A dual-beam oscilloscope and recorded by means of a Gould 
Brush 220 recorder (Gould Inc, Cleveland, Ohio). All electrical potential 
measurements were made on early and mid-proximal convoluted surface 
tubules. 

The following technique was employed in the measurement of dilution 
potentials during salt gradient experiments. A double-barrelled pipette for 
microperfusion was initially made to impale the lumen such that solutions could 
be rapidly switched on the luminal side of the cells. Transepithelial potential 



Cell Biology 145 

differences, V 3 as well as changes in this potential difference, AV 3 were 
monitored during unilateral salt dilutions in the lumen, /, or in the peritubular 
capillaries, p, and lumen simultaneously, pi. Four switches in solution were 
made in succession while the microelectrode impaled the lumen, according to 
the following protocol. The sequence of substitutions for tenfold dilutions was 



(NaCl) p = 


100^100^10^10 ^100 


(NaCL) 1 


100 10 10 100 100 


(NaCl) p 





where (NaCl) 1 represents the ratio of the sodium chloride concentration in the 
pertibular capillaries to that in the lumen. First, the peritubular capillaries 
and lumen were perfused with control Ringer solution c, and the transepithelial 
potential difference, V c 3 was recorded. Second, the luminal fluid was diluted by a 
factor of 10, an / substitution, and the transepithelial potential was recorded, 
V 3. AV i was calculated as V 3 - V c 3 . Third, a bilateral substitution was made and 
the transepithelial potential, V P 3 was recorded when both peritubular and 
luminal compartments, pi, were diluted by a factor of 10. AV P 3 was computed 
as V pl 3 - V c 3 , was obtained when the luminal fluid was returned to the control 
solution and the peritubular compartment remained diluted, a p substitution. 
AV P 3 was taken as V P 3 - V c 3 . Finally, both compartments were returned to the 
control solution and V3 was again recorded. All substitutions occurred during a 
single impalement. Thus, the sequence of substitutions can be summarized as 
c, I, pi, p, c where c, p, I, pi are used as superscripts to indicate the conditions 
in which the absolute potential difference* V, and the change in potential 
difference from control, AV, were obtained. The same procedure was followed 
for the twofold and fivefold sodium chloride dilutions. A switch from one 
perfusion solution to the next was made only after a steady state transepithelial 
potential difference was achieved. Reversing the sequence did not alter the 
results. 

The measurements of peritubular membrane potential, Vi as well as 
changes in this potential, AVi were achieved during salt dilution experiments 
using the same protocol as above except that the recording microelectrode 
impaled the cell. 

The ratio of luminal (R2) to peritubular (Ri) cell membrane resistance, was 
evaluated from a direct measurement of the voltage divider ratio. Hyper- 
polarizing square wave currents from a constant current source were applied 
across a microelectrode within the tubular lumen. A second microelectrode in 
close proximity to the first, impaled a cell of the same tubule. As current 
was injected through the intraluminal microelectrode, a deflection of the 
peritubular membrane potential AVi was sensed by the intracellular micro- 
electrode. The latter electrode was then advanced into the lumen at the same site. 
Again, upon current passage through the first microelectrode, a deflection of the 
transepithelial potential, AV 3 was detected by the second microelectrode. 
Deflections across the luminal cell membrane potential, AV 2 , were then 
calculated from the difference between AV 3 and AVi. The voltage divider 
ratio, AF2/AV1 is a measure of R2/R1. 



146 



Indiana Academy of Science 



The specific resistance of early proximal tubules was measured by means 
of cable analysis experiments using the technique described earlier (4,8,18) 
and was determined from the measured length constant, the known resistivity of 
Ringer solution in the lumen, and the internal radius of the tubule (4). 




CI® 



Figure 1 . Magnitude of the transepithelial potential, Vi, during salt gradient experiments plotted 

against the logarithm of the sodium chloride concentration gradient. Mean values with ± 1 SE are 

shown. Number of observations are in parentheses. 



Results 
Salt dilution potential measurements 

Figure 1 illustrates the results obtained for V 3 during the imposition of three 
different sodium chloride concentration gradients. Measurements of V 3 in mV 
are plotted on the ordinate and sodium chloride concentrations ratios, 
(NaCl) p /(NaCl)' are plotted on the abscissa. Luminal dilutions are shown on the 
right and peritubular dilutions are shown on the left. As can be seen from the 
graph, dilution of the intraluminal fluid, i.e. an / substitution, results in an 
hyperpolarization of the transepithelial potential. This is the case for all three 
dilution factors. On the other hand, dilution of the vascular compartment, i.e., a 
p substitution, results in a reversal of the transepithelial potential for all 
gradients studied. For both unilateral dilutions, the diluted compartment 
becomes more negative which implies perferential anionic selectivity of the 
tubular epithelium. In contrast, in superficial mammalian proximal convoluted 
tubule of rat and dog in vivo, (8,9,16), in isolated juxtamedullary proximal 
convoluted tubules (20), juxtamedullary proximal straight tubules (20,21) and 
in the first millimeter of isolated superficial proximal convoluted tubules (20) of 
rabbit kidney, it has been shown that the epithelium is cation selective. However, 
the second millimeter of isolated superficial proximal convoluted tubules (20) 
and the pars recta of superficial proximal tubules (21,26) of the rabbit exhibit a 
selectivity quite similar to the present findings. 



Cell Biology 147 

Figure 1 also shows that salt gradients of equal magnitude but of reversed 
direction yield identical Ws but of opposite sign. The symmetry in response in 
absolute values for V 3 implies that either the epithelium as a whole acts as a 
single barrier or that the two cell membranes in series, i.e., both the luminal and 
peritubular cell membranes, exhibit identical ion selectivity. This latter 
possibility is highly unlikely in view of previous findings (5,6,7) which show 
discrepant selectivity properties of the peritubular and luminal membrane 
particularly with respect to sodium ion permeability. 

A quantitative estimate of the transference numbers for sodium (t Na ) and 
chloride (tci) can be obtained if AV 3 is treated as a liquid junction potential. The 
change in transepithelial potential, the change in the sodium chloride 
concentration ratio in the two compartments, i.e., peritubular and luminal, and 
the transference numbers are related by the following equation: 

&1 = 2.3 RI (t Na - to) 



d(log (NaCl)p ) F 

(NaCl), 

where R is the universal gas constant, F is the Faraday constant, and T is the 
absolute temperature. 

Figure 1 exhibits a non-linear behavior of V 3 plotted against log 
(NaCl) p /(NaCl)i. Therefore separate slopes were evaluated. For each dilution 
factor, data from V c 3 , V p 3 , V 3 , and V p 3 were pooled to compute regression lines. 
Table 1 compares the calculated transference number tci and t Na together with 
the transference number ratio tci/ t Na for different dilution factors. In all cases the 
transference number ratio exceeds the free solution chloride to sodium mobility 
ratio of 1.52. 













Table 


1 












Transference 


numbers for 


chloride and sodium 




Factor 


Average [ 


NaCl] 


[NaCl]p 
(NaClK 


d 


dv 3 




Dilution 


,. [NaCl]p, 

(lo8 [NaClK } 




2 




75 


mM 




0.5 A 2 


-31, 


, 5 mV + 3.4 ( 


in-77) 


5 




60 


mM 




0.2 & 5 


-25 


.4 tnV + 1.0 I 


In-92) 


10 




55 


mM 




0.1 & 10 


-22 


.6 mV + 0.6 1 


In-85) 



Evidence presented thus far strongly suggests that the measured changes in 
transepithelial potential difference reflect the presence of a single barrier and are 
likely due to the selectivity of the paracellular pathway, rather than to two 
barriers, such as the two cell membranes, basolateral or peritubular membrane, 
and luminal membrane, in series. 

Consider Ei, E2, and E 3 as the equivalent ionic electromotive forces due to 
the diffusional pathways of respectively the peritubular cell membrane, the 
luminal cell membrane, and the paracellular shunt, and Ri , R2, R 3 the equivalent 
corresponding ionic resistances of these same barriers. The potential differences 
recorded across the peritubular cell membrane Vi, the luminal cell membrane 



148 Indiana Academy of Science 

V 2 , and across the entire epithelium V 3 are not simply related to the electrical 
parameters E and R of their own barrier but to the interplay of all three 
electromotive forces and all three ionic conductances combined (5). Equations 
relating these parameters have been reported earlier (2,5). 

The presence of three boundaries across which diffusion potential 
differences may occur renders it impossible to study one barrier independently 
of the two others. Externally imposed changes in chemical potential as 
performed during salt dilutions always affect the chemical potential difference 
across two barriers simultaneously (5). For example, a peritubular salt dilution 
(p) affects the diffusional pathways which are represented by Ei and E3, a 
luminal salt dilution (1) affects similarly E2 and E 3 , whereas a symmetrical ion 
composition (pi) would affect at least Ei and E2. 

In view of these problems of interpretation, additional information was 
gathered with the aim of at least resolving the true permeability characteristics of 
the paracellular pathway. For this purpose peritubular membrane potential 
differences, Vi, and changes in Vi, AVi were also measured during salt dilutions 
of the same type as described above. 

Resistance measurements 

The luminal to peritubular cell membrane resistance ratio, for the free flow 
condition in 19 proximal tubular impalements was 2.82 ± 0.25 as shown in Table 
2. This is not significantly different from a value of 2. 52 ± 0.30 (n=22) obtained 

Table 2 
Experimental Potential Differences and Resistances 



v l 


(■V) 




c 

-52.89 + 1.50 
(19) 


-30.13 + 1.95 
(16) 


( 
-42.06 + 


1.56 
(17) 


Pt 

-20.08 + 1.98 
(13) 


AVj 


(■V) 






♦21.97 + 1.02 


♦ 10.76 + 


0.80 


+30.92 + 2.03 










(16) 




(17) 


(13) 


V 2 


(mV) 




+46.37 


4-48.84 


+11.64 




+13.58 


AV 2 


(mV) 






+ 1.70 


-34.89 




-31.60 


V 3 


(mV) 




-6.52 + 0.81 
(28) 


+18.70 + 0.63 
(23) 


-30.42 + 


1.43 
(19) 


-6.50 +1.30 
(15) 


AV3 


(mV) 






+23.67 + 0.75 
(23) 


-24.13 + 


0.99 
(19) 


-0.68 + 0.83 
(15) 


R 2 
R l 






2.82 + 0.25 
(19) 










R te 


(ohm en 


2 ) 


102.16 + 13.62 
(19) 










All 


values 


are 


means + SE 










Numbers In 


parentheses refer to 


the number of observations 


. 




V 


V v 3 


are 


the mean peritubular, luminal, and transep 


thellal potentials. 



potentials as compared to control during 1:10 salt dilution. 

R./R. is the ratio of the luminal to peritubular cell membrane resistances. 

R is the specific transeplthellal resistance. 

c refers to the control condition, p to unilateral peritubular substitution, 
t to unilateral luminal substitution, pt to bilateral peritubular and 
luminal substitutions. 



Cell Biology 149 

previously (7). The specific resistance of the proximal tubule was measured by 
means of cable analysis experiments. The specific resistivity, R„ of the 
intraluminal fluid was taken to be 100 ohm cm 2 (4). The tubule radius, r, 
measured for 19 impalements of different early proximal tubules averaged 60.47 
± 1.56 x 10" 4 cm. The tubular length constant, A, for the same tubules averaged 
53 1 .36 + 36.32 X 10~ 4 cm. This can be compared with a value of 492.00 ± 33.48 X 
10" 4 cm (n=14) for the blood perfused kidney also measured from early segments 
of the proximal tubule (4). The tubule radius, r, and length constant was deter- 
mined experimentally and the specific resistance (R te ), for each tubule was then 
calculated by means of the equation 

R te = 2R, A 2 (2) 

r 

The specific transepithelial resistance for 19 tubules averaged 102.16 ± 13.62 
ohm cm 2 as shown in Table 2. Again, this can be compared with a value for the 
blood perfused kidney of 69.87 ± 8.47 (n = 14) ohm cm 2 (4). 

Analysis of single electromotive forces and resistances 

The observed changes in cellular and transepithelial potential difference 
together with the relative and absolute resistance measurements given in Table 2 
may be combined to obtain information on the actual changes in electromotive 
forces of either the peritubular, luminal or paracellular barrier. In accordance 
with the equivalent electrical circuit for a shunted epithelium (2,5) observed 
changes in potential at any barrer, AV, relate to actual changes in electromotive 
force, AE, and resistances R, according to the following set of equations (3) to (8). 

AV f = AEf (R 2 + R 3 ) + R! (AE P - AEg) (3) 
Ri + R 2 + R 3 



AV \ = AE', (R 2 + R 3 ) + Ri (AE' 3 - AE 2 ) (4) 
R, + R 2 + R 3 



AW p\ = AE pl l (R 2 + R 3 ) + R, (AE P 3 - AE P 2 ) 
R, + R 2 + R 3 



(5) 



AV p 2 = AE p 2 (R, + R 3 ) + R 2 (AE^ - AE^) (6) 
R, + R 2 + R 3 



A V 2 = AE 2 (R, + R 3 ) + R 2 (AE 3 - AE 1 ,) (7) 

R, + R 2 + R 3 



150 Indiana Academy of Science 

av p' = AE P 2 (R, + R 3 ) + R 2 (AE P 3 - AE P 1) (8) 
Ri + R 2 + R 3 

These equations relate changes in potential with changes in electromotive force 
and membrane resistances and are derived from the general expressions for Vi, 
V 2 and V 3 as a function of E's and R's (5). The equations (3) to (8) assume that the 
resistances Ri, R 2 , and R 3 are unaltered by the substitutions. The first three 
equations (3) to (5) show peritubular membrane potential changes AVi obtained 
during unilateral dilutions on the luminal side, /, peritubular side, p, and for 
bilateral dilutions, pi. The next three questions (6) to (8) show luminal 
membrane potential changes AV 2 obtained under the same conditions. Similar 
equations for AV 3 are not included since these equations would constitute a 
dependent set. The luminal to peritubular membrane resistance ratio, a, and the 
specific resistence of the epithelium, R te , are also shown and explicitly stated in 
terms of the individual resistances in equations (9) and (10). 



Ri 

(Ri + R 2 ) R 3 
R, + R 2 + R. 



(9) 
(10) 



Equations (3), (4), (5), (6), (7), (8), (9), (10) constitute eight 
equations in twelve unknowns, i.e., Ri, R 2 , R 3 , E p i, Ei, E pl i, E p 2 , E 2 , 
E p 2 , E p , E 3 , E pl 3 . Six additional assumptions further reduce 
the number of unknowns. The assumptions are: (a) AEi = 

^E p 2 = AE pl 3 = 0; (b) AE P , - AE p1 ,; (c) AE 2 = AE P 2 and (d) 
AE P 3 = -AE 3 . 

The first two equalities in (a) state that the cell membrane e.m.f. (luminal or 
peritubular) does not change during a change in chemical potential at the 
contralateral barrier (peritubular or luminal) respectively. The third equlity 
states that changes in paracellular e.m.f. remain unaffected by bilateral 
substitutions. This implies the presence of a single membrane or symmetrical 
barrier. The latter assumption is justified by the demonstration of symmetrical 
responses of AV 3 during salt gradients of opposite sign. The assumptions in (b) 
and (c) state that the e.m.f. of a membrane will undergo the same independent 
change whether that membrane alone or also the contralateral membrane is 
exposed to an external concentration change. This holds for both the 
peritubular membrane and luminal membrane. The last assumption in (d) states 
that changes in shunt e.m.f. for luminal substitutions are equal but opposite in 
sign to shunt e.m.f. changes for peritubular substitutions. Again, this implies the 
presence of a symmetrical barrier. With these assumptions, the system is reduced 
to six independent equations, (1 1), (12), (13), (14), (5), (8), in six unknowns AE P , 
AE 2 , AE P 3 , Ri, R 2 , R 3 which can then be solved. 

AV, = AE P , (R 2 + R 3 ) + AE P 3 R, (11) 

R, + R 2 + R 3 



Cell Biology 



151 



AV 



■Ri (AE 2 + AE P 3 ) 



R, + R 2 + R 3 



av p = R 2 (AE p 3 - AE P .) 



R, + R 2 + R 3 

Av j, = AE 2 (Ri + R 3 ) - AE P 3 R 2 
R, + R 2 + R 3 



(12) 
(13) 
(14) 



Using this set of equations, the various single barrier AE's and R's were 
calculated and are listed in the left column of Table 3. Observed AV values for/?, 
/, and pi substitutions are shown for comparison in the right column. All AV 2 
values have been calculated from measured AV 3 and AVi values for all 
substitutions. As can be seen, the AEi 's and AVi 's approximate one another for 
peritubular salt dilutions only. No correlation exists between AE 2 and AV 2 for 
any of the substitutions, whereas there is a complete agreement between AE 3 and 
AV 3 in all conditions. 

In addition, solution of the equations also yields quantitative information 
concerning cell membrane resistances. The luminal membrane, R 2 is found to 
have almost free times the resistance of the peritubular membrane, Ri, with 
absolute values shown in Table 3. Paracellular resistance, R3, is calculated to be 
103 ohm cm 2 , very close to the overall measured transepithelial specific 
resistance of 102 ohm cm 2 . Calculated values for Ri and R 2 are moreover close to 
the resistance values obtained experimentally by means of cable analysis for 
proximal tubules of Necturus (1,28) and Triturus (19). 



Calculated parameters 





+21.37 mV 


e 

l " 


raV 


<• 


+21.37 mV 


u% - 


mV 


< 


+65.2 i mV 


< 


-65.23 mV 


-5 


+23.69 mV 


«5 


-23.69 mV 


< 


mV 


"1 ■ 


2,550 ohm. cm 


"2 • 


2 
7, 192 ohm. cm 


*3 " 


103 ohm. cm 



Observed potential changes 



+21.97 mV 



►30. 92 mV 



AV^ - + 1 . 70 mV 
AV^ - -34.89 mV 
AVJ? - -31.60 mV 



«P< 



AE,, AE 2 ' AE 3 are tne calculated changes in e.m.f. induced by a tenfold 
salt dilution across the peritubular, luminal, and paracellular barriers. 



152 Indiana Academy of Science 

Discussion 

The present electrical measurements provide firm evidence for the 
important role an extracellular or paracellular shunt path plays in the overall 
transepithelial conductance of the proximal tubules of Necturus kidney. 

Relative chloride to sodium transference numbers obtained indicate that 
the paracellular path behaves as an anion-selective barrier. The great majority of 
leaky epithelia exhibit an opposite cation selective permeability pattern where 
sodium permeability dominates chloride permeability. Such is the case for 
proximal convoluted tubules of the in vivo rat kidney (9,16) and autoperfused 
dog kidney (8), the juxtamedullary convoluted segments (20) of isolated rabbit 
proximal tubule, fish gallbladder (11), rabbit gallbladder (11, 13), bullfrog 
gallbladder (23), mammalian small intestine (13,29) and tortoise small intestine 
(30). 

Preferential anion permeation in the amphibian proximal tubule may result 
from the epithelium acting as an anion-exchange membrane with fixed or 
mobile sites (27). Alternatively the sites within the pores or channels controlling 
transepithelial ion movement may be electroneutral with polar pores such that 
the positive charge of the dipole protrudes into the center of the pore, thus 
facilitating anion transfer. 

Transepithelial potential differences yield a non-linear but symmetrical 
response to the imposition of salt gradients across the epithelium. The 
preferential permeability for chloride or the tcr/tNa ratio decreased with either 
increased absolute gradient, larger dilution factor or with decreased average salt 
concentration in the permeation barrier. Similar relationships between 
transepithelial potential difference and sodium chloride concentrations of salt 
gradients have been reported in rat proximal tubule (15). 

Relationships between transepithelial potential and salt concentration also 
deviate from linearity in rabbit ileum (13). Asymmetrical responses elicited by 
composition changes of solutions on opposing sides of leaky epithelia have 
occasionally been reported but are probably due to the presence of different 
unstirred layers on either side (29,30). Linear and symmetrical responses of 
transepithelial potential difference to unilateral salt gradients of opposite 
polarity but equal magnitude have been found in fish gallbladder (10), rabbit 
gallbladder (1 1) and bullfrog gallbladder (23). 

The kind of deviation in the behavior of the selectivity shown in Figure 1 
and Table 1 indicates a dependence of the relative chloride to sodium 
permeability on either the absolute value of the concentration difference or on 
the average concentration of the salt in the diffusion barrier. It is interesting to 
note that a tci/tNa ratio close to the free solution mobility ratio was found in a 
1:20 dilution (7). 

The present study provides direct evidence that the observed transepithelial 
potential changes originate from a single permselective path i.e., the paracellular 
shunt. They symmetry of the transepithelial voltage-salt concentration plots 
suggest the presence of a single barrier, and a selectivity due to the extracellular 
shunt rather than to the two cell membranes in series. In order to firmly establish 
this point, changes in transepithelial potential differences and changes in cell 



Cell Biology 153 

membrane potential difference were correlated with the actual changes in 
electromotive forces generated across these same barriers. The results of this 
analysis clearly confirm the view that the changes in both the luminal and 
peritubular cell membrane potential differences cannot be completely 
accounted for in terms of actual changes in the electromotive forces generated 
across these same barriers (2,3,5). On the contrary, as predicted, the changes in 
transepithelial potential differences can be completely accounted for in terms of 
changes in electromotive force generated across the shunt. The observed 
selectivity pattern of the entire epithelium as calculated from AV 3 describes 
accurately the relative contribution of chloride and sodium to the diffusional 
pathways along the paracellular route. 

Finally, it is important to note that the entire analysis employed in the 
present study has considered only dissipative processes at each of the membrane 
barriers. Inclusion of active transport pumps behaving as constant current 
sources greatly complicates the interpretation of electrical potential differences 
induced by changes in external chemical potential (5). 

In conclusion, the data support the view of the existence of a low 
paracellular shunt resistance and electrical coupling between contralateral cell 
membranes in the proximal tubule of the Necturus. The properties of the overall 
epithelium seem to be almost entirely determined by the paracellular pathway. 
This path is governed by a simple symmetrical membrane, perhaps electrically 
neutral or of a certain fixed charge density. In contrast to the mammalian kidney 
and other leaky epithelia, the proximal tubular wall of the Necturus kidney is 
anion selective. Transepithelial potential changes observed are close estimates of 
the actual changes in the paracellular electromotive force. Hence, imposed 
transepithelial diffusion potentials across this "leaky" epithelium measure 
accurately the ionic selectivity of the paracellular shunt pathway. 



Acknowledgements 

The authors wish to thank the Connecticut Heart Association and the 
National Institute of Health for funding this research. 

Literature Cited 

1. Anagnostopoulos, T. and E. Velu. 1974. Electrical resistance of cell membranes in Necturus 
kidney. Flugers Arch. 346:327-399. 

2. Boulpaep, E. . 1967. Ion permeability of the peritubular and luminal membrane of the renal 
tubular cell. In "Transport and Funktion intracellularer Elektrolyte", edit F. Kruck, Urban and 
Schwarzenberg, 98-107. 

3. Boulpaep, E. L. 1971. Electrophysiological properties of the proximal tubule: Importance of 
cellular and intercellular transport pathways. In: Electrophysiology of Epithelial Cells, Stuttgart, 
F. K. Schattauer Verlag, 91-118. 

4. Boulpaep, E. L. 1972. Permeability changes of the proximal tubule of Necturus during saline 
loading. Am. J. Physiol. 222:517-531. 

5. Boulpaep, E. L. 1976. Electrical phenomena in the nephron. Kidney Int. 9:88-102. 

6. Boulpaep, E. L. Electrophysiology of the proximal tubule of Necturus kidney. I. The peritubular 
cell membrane. J. Gen. Physiol, submitted. 



154 Indiana Academy of Science 

7. Boulpaep, E. L. Electrophysiology of the proximal tubule of Necturus kidney. II. The luminal cell 
membrane and the paracellular pathway. J. Gen. Physiol, submitted. 

8. Boulpaep, E. L. and J. F. Seely. 1971. Electrophysiology of proximal and distal tubules in the 
autoperfused dog kidney. Am. J. Physiol. 221:1084-1096. 

9. de Mello G. B., A. G. Lopes and G. Malnic. 1976. Conductances, diffusion and streaming 
potentials in the rat proximal tubule J. Physiol. (London) 260:553-569. 

10. Diamond, J. M. 1962. The mechanism of solute transport by the gallbladder J. Physiol. (London) 
161:474-502. 

11. Diamond, J. M. and S. C. Harrison. 1966. The effect of membrane fixed charges on diffusion 
potentials and streaming potentials. J. Physiol. 183:37-57. 

12. Farquhar, M. G. and G. E. Palade. 1963. Junctional complexes in various epithelia. J. Cell Biol. 
17:375-412. 

13. Frizzell, R. a. and S. G. Schultz. 1972. Ionic conductances of extracellular shunt pathway in 
rabbit ileum. Influence of shunt on transmural sodium transport and electrical potential 
differences. J. Gen. Physiol. 59:318-346. 

14. Fromter, E. 1972. The route of passive ion movement through the epithelium of Necturus 
gallbladder. J. Membrane Biol. 8:259-301. 

15. Fromter, E., C. W. Muller and H. Knauf. 1968. Fixe neative Wandladungen im proximalen 
Konvolut der Rattenniere and inre Beeinflussung durch Calciumionen. 6th Symp. Gesellschaft 
Nephrol., Vienna, p. 61-64. 

16. Fromter, E., C. W. Muller and T. Wick. 1971. Permeability properties of the proximal tubular 
epithelium of the rat kidney studied with electrophysiological methods. In "Electrophysiology of 
Epithelial Cells, Stuttgart, F. K. Schattauer Verlag, p. 119-148. 

17. Giebisch, G. 1961. Measurement of electrical potential difference on single nephrons of the 
perfused Necturus kidney. J. Gen. Physiol. 44:659-678. 

18. Grandchamp, A., and E. L. Boulpaep. 1974. Pressure control of sodium reabsorption and 
intercellular backflux across proximal kidney tubule. J. Clin. Invest. 54:69-82. 

19. Hoshi. T. and F. Sakai. 1967. A comparison of the electrical resistances of the surface cell 
membrane and cellular wall in the proximal tubule of the newt kidney. Jap. J. Physiol. 17:627-637. 

20. Jacobson, H. R. and J. P. Kokko. 1976. Intrinsic differences in various segments of the proximal 
convoluted tubule. J. Clin. Invest. 57:818-825. 

21. Kawarmura, S., M. Imai, D. W. SELDiNand J. P. Kokko. 1975. Characteristics of salt and water 
transport in superficial and juxtamedullary straight segments of proximal tubules. J. Clin. Invest. 
55:1269-1277. 

22. Lutz, M. D., J. Cardinal, and M. B. Burg. 1973. Electrical resistance of renal proximal tubule 
perfused in vitro. Am. J. Physiol. 225:729-734. 

23. Moreno, J. H. and J. M. Diamond. 1975. Cation permeation mechanism and cation selectivity in 
tight junctions of gallbladder epithelium. In "Membranes— A series of advances", Vol. 3, lipid 
bilayers and biological membranes: dynamic properties, p. 383-497. 

24. Rose, R. C. and S. G. Schultz. 1971. Studies on the electrical potential profile across rabbit ileum. 
Effects of sugars and amino acids on transmural and transmucosal electrical potential differences. 
J. Gen. Physiol. 57:639-663. 

25. Sackin, H., and E. L. Boulpaep. 1976. Simultaneous intracellular and transepithelial potential 
measurements in isolated perfused amphibian proximal tubules. Kidney Int. 10:597. 

26. Schafer, J. A., S. L. Troutman and T. E. Andreoli. 1974. Volume reabsorption, transepithelial 
potential differences, and ionic permeability properites in mammalian superficial proximal 
straight tubules. J. Gen. Physiol. 64:582-607. 

27. Teorell, T. 1953. Transport process and electrical phenomena in ionic membranes. Progr. 
Biophys. Biophys. Chem. 3:305-369. 

28. Windhager E. E., E. L. Boulpaep and G. Giebisch. 1967. Electrophysiological studies on single 
nephrons. Proc. Intern. Congr. Nephron., 3rd, Washington 1966, Basel, Karger, Vol. I, p. 35-47. 



Cell Biology 155 

29. Wright, E. M. 1966. Diffusion potentials across the small intestine. Nature, 212:189-190. 

31. Wright, E. M., P.H. Barry and J. M. Diamond. 1971. The mechanism of cation permeation in 
rabbit gallbladder. Conductances, the current voltage relation, the concentration dependence of 
anioncation discrimination, and the calcium competition effect. J. Membrane Biol. 4:331-357. 



CHEMISTRY 

Chairman: Pang-Fai Ma, Department of Chemistry 
Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana 47306 

Chairman-Elect: Clyde R. Metz, Department of Chemistry 
Indiana Purdue University, Indianapolis, Indiana 46205 

Abstracts 

A General Synthesis of Cyclobut-l-enecarboxylates. Stephen R. Wilson 
and Lawrence R. Phillips*, Department of Chemistry, Indiana University, 
Bloomington, Indiana 4740 1 A general synthesis is described for cyclobut- 
l-enecarboxylates from cyclobutanecarboxylates via sulfenylation-dehydro- 
sulfoxylation and selenenylation-dehydroselenoxylation. Treatment of cyclo- 
butanecarboxylates / with lithium diisopropylamide at low temperatures 
followed by quenching of the ester enolate with either diphenyl disulfide or 
diphenyl diselenide gave 2. Oxidation of 2 to give 3 (either the sulfoxide or 
selenoxide, respectively) was done with sodium metaperiodate or hydrogen 
peroxide. Dehydroselenoxylation proceeded smoothly at room temperature 

1 2(X=S or Se) 3 4(18-45% over-all yield) 

whereas heating was required to effect dehydrosulfoxylation to give 4. Examples 
were given and discussed to demonstrate the scope and limitations of the reaction 
sequence. An interesting parallel between diethyl malonate 5 and methyl 
1-phenylsulfinoacetate 6 became apparent during this investigation. 
6 was alkylated with 1,3-diiodopropane in dimethylformamide in the 

CO.Et ^ C0 2 Et feph ^ ^Ph 

C0 2 Et 1 C0 2 Et C0 2 Me + ] C0 2 Me 



presence of two equivalents of sodium hydride to give 7 in 39% yield. Thus, a 
synthetic route has been described to make potentially interesting cyclobut-l- 
enecarboxylates which were formerly unavailable. 

Recent Progress in Radiocarbon Dating at Ball State University. Richard 
Mulford, Department of Geography-Geology, and John H. Meiser, 
Department of Chemistry, and David E. Koltenbah, Department of Physics, 

Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana 47306 The entire radiocarbon 

dating process is discussed. Emphasis is placed on sample collection, sample 
preparation, and data calculation. Peat samples were collected from post- 
Wisconsin peat bogs north of Muncie In Delaware County. The sample is 
cleaned megascopically of all foreign material. To remove carbonates and humic 

157 



158 Indiana Academy of Science 

acid the sample is boiled in 2N HC1 and . 1 N NaOH respectively for a period of 2 
hours. The liquid in the final solution is boiled off leaving a carbon residue. 
Volatiles are removed by pyrolyzing the carbon sample in the reactor. Metallic 
lithium is added with the pyrolyzed sample and heated to 900° C forming lithium 
carbide. Distilled water is added to the lithium carbide producing acetylene and 
hydrogen gas. The acetylene gas is subjected to an acetone-dry ice bath, and 
ascarite-phosphorous pentoxide trap for purification. The acetylene gas is 
trimmerized to benzene by use of a vanadium pentoxide catalyst. The 
radioactive benzene vial is counted in a Beckman Liquid Scintillation Center 
and the radiocarbon date is calculated. 

The Synthesis and Characterization of Phosphine-Nitrile Systems. Ivan Saval, 
Jonathan Worstell, and Bruce N. Storhoff, Department of Chemistry, Ball 

State University, Muncie, Indiana 47306 Synthetic methods based on 

Michaelis-Arbuzov and/ or metal-halogen exchange reactions have been found 
to provide convenient routes to phosphine-nitrile systems. Both the previously 
reported o-NCC6H4P(C6H5)2 and the novel o-NCC6H 4 P(N(CH3)2)2 have been 
obtained in good yield from the readily available starting materials R2PCI and o- 
NCC6H4Br. The novel (C6Hs)2P(CH2)3CN has been obtained in good yield from 
(C6H5)2POC2H5 and C1(CH2)3CN. The Chemical and spectroscopic properties 
of the novel posphines are discussed. 

Palladium (II) Complexes of Potentially Bidentate Phosphine-Nitrile Ligands. 

Horeb Trujillo and Bruce N. Storhoff, Department of Chemistry, Ball State 

University, Muncie Indiana 47306 Several novel palladium (II) complexes 

of the stoichiometries L2PdX2 and (LPdX2)n where L is (cyanomethyl) 
diphenylphosphine, (2-cyanoethyl)diphenylphosphine, (3-cyanopropyl)di- 
phenylphosphine, or (o-cyanophenyl)diphenylphosphine have been 
synthesized. In the complexes of the stoichiometry L2PdX2 (X = CI, Br, SCN) the 
ligands have been found to function as monodentate phosphines. Both ligand 
and halogen bridging have been detected for the (LPdX2) n complexes. The 
nitrile groups in these palladium complexes display diverse patterns of 
reactivities, and some of these are discussed. 

Stereochemical Probes: A Test to Distinguish Erythro and Threo Dia- 
stereomers. Paul L. Bock, Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana 47306 



A widely used nmr technique employing diastereomeric RCHDCHDX 
compounds as stereochemical probes is based on the assumption that anti 
conformations are preferred so that J erythro is larger than J threo; hence erythro 
and threo diastereomers can be identified, and the stereochemistry of reactions 
can be monitored. If, however, the gauche conformations were preferred, then 
J threo would be the larger coupling constant, and incorrect stereochemical 
assignments would be made. This study suggests that assignments of erythro and 
threo configurations can be made regardless of which conformation is favored. 
The technique involves observing the coupling constants at two different 
temperatures. The one that changes the most for a given change in temperature 
will be J erythro. 

The Behavior of the Bismuth-Bismuth Oxide Electrode in pH Determinations. 

John A. Ricketts and Paul A. Lang, Chemistry Department, DePauw 



Chemistry 159 

University, Greencastle, Indiana 46135 The electrochemical behavior of 

the galvanic couple, Bi/ Bi 2 C>3(s) H// / saturated calomel electrode was studied as 
a function of pH at 25° C. Two types of electrodes were employed, a slug 
electrode and a semimicro electrode. The effect of various pretreatments of the 
electrode surface before the potential difference was measured were studied, and 
it was found that polishing of the electrode surface with fine emery paper gave 
the most reproducible results. In the pH range 5-8 the potential-pH relationship 
is best represented by the equation, E(volts) = 0.191 - 0.0589 pH with the 
bismuth electrode being negative with respect to the calomel electrode. On the 
hydrogen scale the standard reduction potential for the Bi-Bi 2 3 couple 
becomes E(red. volts) = 0.434 - 0.0589 pH. The performance of the Bi-Bi 2 3 
electrode as the indicating electrode in the potentiometric titration of acid with 
base was compared with that of the glass electrode and the Sb-Sb 2 03 electrode. 
It was found that the Bi-Bi 2 3 indicated an equivalence point nearer to that 
observed with the glass electrode than did the Sb-Sb 2 03 electrode. 

Wabash River Water Analyses in the Vicinity of Sugar and Coal Creeks, Vigo 
County, Indiana. Joseph R. Siefker and Jonathan O. Brooks, Department of 
Chemistry, Indiana State University, Terre Haute, Indiana 47809 Concen- 
trations of over a dozen inorganic elements were determined weekly for a year. 
Recent sodium concentrations have doubled, mostly as chloride and 
bicarbonate, over prior years. Sodium, calcium, and iron are their lowest in 
summer, early-fall, and fall-winter, respectively. Nitrate levels were at 60% of 
their May maximum of 3mg/ 1 in August and September. Nitrate/ phosphate 
ratios peaked in both May and July. Sugar Creek assayed higher in potassium 
and Coal Creek assayed higher in calcium, iron and sulfate compared to the 
Wabash River. Assays corrected to a designated basal flow indicated a smooth 
increase in mineral flow with river stage. 

Reaction Rates and Equilibria at Tricoordinate Phosphorus. J. A. Mosbo, 
Department of Chemistry, Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana 47306 



Reaction rate and equilibrium data for alcohol and amine exchange at 
phosphorus have been obtained for a series of 2-substituted-l,3,2-diazaphos- 
phorinanes and 2-substituted-l,3-dimethyl-l,3,2-diazaphosphorinanes. The 
data are interpreted in terms of the electronic and steric characteristics of the 
exchanging groups and the 1,3 substituents. The dependence of the reaction 
rates and equilibrium positions upon added acid are also discussed. 

Reactions of Hypofluorous Acid with Organic Compounds. E. H. Appelman, 
Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439, and K. G. Migliorese 
and M. N. Tsangaris*, Department of Chemistry, Indiana University North- 
west, Gary, Indiana 46408 The recent preparation of hypofluorous acid 

provides a unique opportunity to study the reactions of this extremely reactive 
molecule with organic compounds. To date, only the reaction of hypofluorous 
acid with aromatic hydrocarbons to yield phenols has been reported. We have 
studied the reactions of hypofluorous acid with various alkenes and alkynes. 
With alkenes, the major products appear to be a-fluoroalcohols while in the case 
of alkynes, the products are a-fluoraldehydes and ketones. The mechanistic 
implications of these results will be discussed. 



160 Indiana Academy of Science 

A Research Chemist's Formula for Retirement. F. O. Rice, Fellow-byCourtesy, 

The Johns Hopkins University In 1968 I resigned from the University of 

Notre Dame where I had held a position in the Radiation Laboratory since 1962 
as Visiting Research Professor. I built a good laboratory in the basement of my 
home and there, with the help of an assistant, I continue my research work for a 
few hours each day. I obtain my asistant by advertising for a high school student 
who has had at least one year of chemistry and is interested in continuing in 
chemistry or chemical engineering after he finishes high school: after a period of 
training this arrangement is entirely satisfactory; a capable student can be 
trusted to carry out directions without close supervision. Such an arrangement 
requires, in addition to a good laboratory and assistant, three other things: shop, 
glassblowing and storeroom and ordering facilities. I am particularly indebted 
to the University of Notre Dame, through its Chemistry Department and 
Radiation Laboratory, for such help. Notre Dame is only a mile or so from my 
home and I make frequent use of their readily available assistance. I want also to 
thank the Johns Hopkins University Chemistry Department for an annual 
research grant, as well as the Bureau of Standards Polymers Division for help on 
several occasions. I have been working during the past few years on problems I 
had tried many years ago but which gave negative results. It seemed worthwhile 
to apply the newer techniques and increased knowledge now available. Evering 
and I had originally shown that, under the action of heat, ordinary organic 
compounds decompose into free radicals (J. Am. Chem. Soc, 54, 3529 (1932)). 
The following years were occupied studying methyl, and other univalent, carbon 
radicals. We had also attempted to study methylene, using as our source 
diazomethane, but this compound is so treacherously explosive that we finally 
abandoned the work. At present I am taking it up again, using the reaction 
between dichlor organic compounds and metallic sodium in the vapor state. 

Dielectric Properties of Bromanil (2,3,5,6-telrabromo-l,4-benzoquinone). 

Eugene P. Schwartz, Department of Chemistry, DePauw University, 

Greencastle, Indiana 46135 Dielectric properties of benzene solutions of 

the title compound were determined at a radio — and at a visible frequency. The 
compound was found to show an atomic polarization of about 9.4 cc, which is 
appreciably larger than the value previously reported. In contrast to the 
behavior of the parent compound ( 1 ,4-benzoquinone), for bromanil most of this 
polarization is accounted for by a maximum loss in the microwave region at a 
wavelength near 1 cm. Possible sources of this loss are discussed. 

New Methods of Analysis of Isomeric Diols. Michael Whalon and Terry L. 
Kruger, Department of Chemistry, Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana 47306 



Studies of diols with Eu(fod)3 allow easy analysis of the compounds for structure 
and purity. The raeso-2,4-pentanediol and meso-l,3-cyclohexanediol appear to 
coordinate twice to one Eu atom. The 8 vs R/ S ratio plot and coupling constants 
both support this conclusion. In contrast, trans- 1 ,2-cyclopentanediol can attach 
two Eu(fod) 3 and is structured so that a bidentate complex is unlikely. A 
computer-programmed fit of the data for the meso-2,4-pentanediol was 
necessary to extract the coupling constants. 



Chemistry 161 

Determination of Iron in Breakfast Cereals by X-Ray Fluorescence. Philip A. 
Kinsey and Richard E. Rutledge, University of Evansville, Evansville, 

Indiana, 47702 An x-ray fluorescence method for the determination of iron 

in breakfast cereals were developed. The cereal was ground and pelletized in a 
press and the intensity of the Ka line of iron measured. A least squares working 
curve of intensity vs. iron concentration was determined over the concentration 
range, 10 to 200 ppm, using iron standards prepared by serial dilution of Spex 
HiPure Fe 2 3 in microcrystalline cellulose. The standards were analyzed by a 
spectrophotometric method to verify their concentration and homogeneity. It 
was necessary to reduce the Fe2C>3 particle size until it would pass through a 250 
mesh sieve to obtain uniformity in the standards. Samples of a iron fortified 
cereal and an unfortified cereal were collected over a five month period and 
analyzed. A much greater variability in iron content was found in the fortified 
cereal. In conclusion, the x-ray method was fast and gave reproducible results 
for analyzing iron in breakfast cereals. 

Identification of the cis and trans Isomers of 4-t-Butylcyclohexanecarbonitrile. 

Catherine A. Dick, Terry L. Kruger, and Bruce N. Storhoff, Department 

of Chemistry, Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana 47306 The effects of 

the lanthanide shift reagent tris(6,6,7.7,888-heptafluoro-2,2-dimethyl-3,5- 
octanedionato) europium (Eu(fod)3) on the proton NMR spectra of the cis and 
trans isomers of 4-t-butylcyclohexanecarbonitrile have been determined. For 
both isomers, the signal from the proton that is geminal to the nitrile group is 
shifted downfield to a point where it is well-separated from the remainder of 
the signals. The shifted signals can be interpreted by application of the Karplus 
equation and used to unequivocally distinguish the cis from the trans form. 

Applications of Transactional Analysis to the Laboratory Situation. Terry L. 
Kruger, Department of Chemistry, Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana 

47306 A popular theory, transactional analysis (TA), of personality 

structure was sketched and applied to everyday problems concerning chemists. 
Examples from lecture and from laboratory were used to illustrate the use of the 
theory. Games such as Grade Grubber, NIGYYSOB, IDU, and No Time were 
discussed within the framework of the theory. Work by Piaget and by Kelley was 
shown as supporting the usefulness of TA. 

Michael-Like Reactions: The Reaction of Diphenylphosphine with 
ICycloalkene Carbonitriles. Douglas Grinstead, Joseph Wu, Terry Kruger, 

and Bruce Storhoff, Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana 47306 

Michael-like additions of diphenylphosphine, PhuPH, to 1-cyanocyclohexene 
and 1-cyanocyclopentene have been investigated. The reactions are base 
catalyzed and give the corresponding (2-cyanocycloalkyl)diphenylphosphines 
in 60-80% yields. The effects of the type of base on the isomer distributions of the 
products have been determined. For aqueous hydroxide, the Ph^PCsHsCN 
product consists of two isomers (ca. 65:35), whereas the PI12PC6H10CN product 
is a single isomer. The reaction product from C5H7CN and PI12PH in the 
presence of potassium tert-butoxide also consists of two isomers. However, the 
isomer ratio is ca. 15:85. Results from deuteration studies are also presented. 



162 Indiana Academy of Science 

An Investigation of the Feasibility of Classifying and Identifying Soil Samples 
of Forensic Interest on the Basis of Elemental Composition by X-ray 
Fluorescence Spectrometry. R. Segal, Lone Star Industries, Greencastle, 
Indiana 46135, D. J. Reuland and W. A. Trinler, Chemistry Department, 

Indiana State University, Terre Haute, Indiana 47809 Two potential 

forensic applications of soil analysis by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) were studied. 
First, the possibility of cataloging soils on the basis of XRF data on oxide 
composition was investigated. Soils belonging to three soil series: Elston, 
Warsaw and Iva, were collected and analyzed. Data are presented as loss-free 
oxide percentages and as oxide ratios. Oxides measured were: silicon, 
aluminum, iron, potassium, calcium, magnesium and titanium. No significant 
differences were found in the composition of the three soil series for either the 
seven oxides or ten oxide ratios. Secondly, soils from five environmentally 
differing locations were collected and analyzed. The five areas were selected with 
the criterion that the chemical composition of each might be affected by the 
environmental conditions. An eroded area, soil next to railroad tracks, a plowed 
field, soil located downwind from a portland cement manufacturer, and soil 
from a reclaimed stripmined area were analyzed. Data are presented as loss-free 
oxides and as oxide ratios. Variations in composition for the five sampled 
locations were studied for their use as tracers. Significant differences in the 
compositions of several samples were noted. 



Optimization of Reaction Conditions for the Preparation 
of Subunits from Variant Hemoglobins 

Barth H. Ragatz and Gina Modrak 

Northwest Center for Medical Education 

Indiana University School of Medicine 

Gary, Indiana 46408 

Introduction 

Several reports exist in the literature about the effectiveness of sodium 
ptfra-chloromercuribenzoate and other organomercurials as inducers of 
dissociation of normal human adult hemoglobin (2,6,8). These 
organomercurials have been shown to be selective in reacting with protein thiol 
groups. Once an organomercurial reagent is covalently linked to the reactive 
thiols in the beta subunits (cysteinyl residue 3), symmetrical dissociation to 
dimers occurs. Additional reagent is linked to cysteinyl residue 1 12 in the beta 
subunits and to cysteinyl residue 104 in the alpha subunits to complete 
dissociation to isolated hemoglobin subunits (6,7). 

The organomercurials can be removed by a variety of mild conditions to 
yield subunits whose physical and chemical properties have been characterized 
(3, 1). These subunits can recombine to form stable tetramers with biological and 
physicochemical properties that are identical to normal adult hemoglobin (1). 

Unfortunately, no mention is made of yield of isolated subunits in the above 
references. This question is of importance when attempting to isolate subunits 
from variant hemoglobins. (Variant hemoglobin subunits can be used in 
physicochemical studies assessing influence of primary structure on 
quaternary structure and in the preparation of purified antisera with diagnostic 
potential.) Thus, the effects of incubation temperature, time of incubation, 
organomercurial structure, and incubation pH on overall yield of soluble 
hemoproteins remaining in a reaction mixture have been investigated with 
hemoglobin A, and information obtained has been applied to the preparation of 
isolated subunits from Hemoglobin S. 

Materials and Methods 

Hemoglobin was isolated from freshly drawn saline washed erythrocytes by 
the water-toluene lysis method (5) and was stored at 5° C in the CO saturated 
form. 

One gram of hemoglobin (determined by absorbance of the CO derivative 
at 540 mm) was diluted to a final volume of 10 ml with a final buffer 
concentration of 0.01 M sodium phosphate, 0. 1M sodium chloride. 
Temperature was regulated during the experiments with a Temp-Stir 
temperature regulator (Precision Scientific Co.). Organomercurials (purchased 
from Sigma Chemical Co.) were dissolved in the minimum volume of 1M 
sodium hydroxide and adjusted to pH6.0 with 1M hydrochloric acid; final 

163 



164 Indiana Academy of Science 

amount of organomercurial added was 8:1 molar excess compared to 
hemoglobin. These compounds were rapidly mixed with a hemoglobin solution 
and timing of incubation was initiated. 

At four hour intervals, a representative aliquot was taken from the reaction 
mixture and centrifuged at 2000 RPM in a Sorvall GLC-1 centrifuge (Sorvall 
513/539 rotor) for ten minutes. An appropriately diluted sample of the 
supernatant was bubbled with CO and absorbance was measured at 540nm with 
a Beckman Acta C — III spectrophotometer. The percentage of total 
hemoproteins remaining in this supernatant fluid was finally calculated. 

Dissociation into subunits was monitored by cellulose acetate 
electrophoresis of a 5 microliter sample taken from each supernatant fluid. A 
Buchler Instrument Co. 3-1014A power supply and a Gelman electrophoresis 
chamber were used under the following conditions: 

Tris-glycine buffer, pH9.3; 5°C; 300 VDC-constant voltage mode; 30 
minutes development time; staining in 0.2% Ponceau S (Sigma Chemical Co.) 
dissolved in 4% trichloroacetic acid; destaining in 5% acetic acid washes (8). 

Table 1. Effect of Reaction Temperature on Hemoglobin A Denaturation (PCMB, pH6.0, 0.1M NaCl) 

Percent Soluble Hemoprotein Remaining 
Reaction Time 



(In Hours) at 23° C at 37° C 

4 83 56 

8 75 43 

12 66 33 

16 63 24 

20 61 16 

24 60 9 



Results 

The effects of incubation temperature on hemoglobin A denaturation using 
sodium para chloromercuribenzoate (PCMB) as a typical organomercurial is 
presented in Table 1. It can be seen that there is a profound loss of soluble 
hemoproteins from the reaction mixtures at both 23° C and 37° C and that this 
loss increases with incubation time, especially at 37° C. Cellulose acetate 
electropherograms also reveal that there is no improvement in efficiency of 
dissociation into subunits at the elevated temperatures. From the viewpoints of 
both dissociation efficiency and maintenance of subunit yield, 5° C remains the 
preferred incubation temperature. 

Table 2 shows the effect of organomercurial structure on hemoglobin A 
denaturation. It is seen that the organomercurials used in the present case are 
not markedly different in magnitude as perturbants of protein conformation. 
Cellulose acetate electrophoresis also reveals little difference among the 
compounds in dissociation efficiency. This is not surprising since the principal 
difference in structure is the replacement of a para carboxyl group (in PCMB or 
PHMB) with a para sulfonic acid moiety (in PCMPS or PHMPS). This is in 
agreement with the findings of Stefanini et. al. for dissociation efficiency with 



Chemistry 165 



Table 2. Effect of the Organomercurial Structure on Hemoglobin A Denaturation (5° C, 0.1 M NaCl, 
0.01 M sodium phosphate, pH6.0) 



Reaction Time 



Percent Soluble Hemoprotein Remaining 



4 


92 


8 


95 


16 


97 


20 


86 



99 


— 


100 


100 


— 


97 


99 


97 



(In Hours) PCMB PHMB PCMPS PHMPS 

94 



93 

other organomercurials. They also concluded that presence of a para carboxyl 
substituent was not essential (8). (These abbreviations refer to the sodium salts 
of the following chemical compounds: PCMB, para chloromercuribenzoate; 
PHMB, para hydroxymercuribenzoate; PCMPS, para chloromercuriphenyl 
sulfonate; and PHMPS, para hydroxymercuriphenyl sulfonate). 

Hemoprotein denaturation is much greater when incubation occurs at 
pH6.0 than when pH7.0 is selected (Table 3). Unfortunately, cellulose acetate 
electrophoresis reveals that very little dissociation into subunits occurs at pH7.0. 
Dissociation efficienty at pH6.0 has been documented elsewhere also (3,6,8). 

Under the present experimental conditions, it has also been observed that 
dissociation is effective at time intervals less than the 16-20 hour interval 
commonly used and that denaturation loss is also avoided in this way. 

Table 3. Effect of pH of the Reaction Mixture on Hemoglobin A Denaturation (PCMB, 5° C, 0.1 M 
NaCl, 0.01 M sodium phosphate) 

Percent Soluble Hemoprotein Remaining 
Reaction Time 



(In Hours) at pH 6.0 at pH 7.0 

4 89 100 

8 87 100 

12 84 98 

16 77 97 

20 72 96 

24 66 96 



Discussion 

From the present studies, the following experimental conditions have been 
selected for the optimum yield of native hemoglobin A subunits: 0.01 M 
sodium phosphate buffer, pH6.0; PCMB (or PHMB)/hemoglobin, 8:1 molar 
excess; incubation temperature, 5°C; and incubation time, 8 hours. 

Age of the hemoglobin source is also an important consideration from the 
veiw point of susceptibility to denaturation. For this reason, stored whole blood 
samples have been judged unsatisfactory for the present purpose. 

Using the above reaction conditions, several successful attempts to isolate 
(3 s subunits from hemoglobin S have occurred. Some rapidly eluted 



166 Indiana Academy of Science 

hemoprotein contaminant has been present in small amounts when the 
carboxymethyl cellulose chromatographic method of Bucci and Fronticelli has 
been employed (2). At the present stage of the investigation, no additional 
information has been obtained about efficiency of removal of the 
organomercurial, but the use of organomercurial dissociation of variant 
hemoglobins to yield native abnormal subunits for various uses appears 
promising. 



Literature Cited 

1. Antonini, E., E. Bucci, C. Fronticelli, E. Chiancone, J. Wyman and A. Rossi-Fanelli. 1966. 
The Properties and Interactions of the Isolated a and /3 -chains of Human Haemoglobin. V. The 
reaction of a - and p chains. J. Mol. Biol. 17:29-46. 

2. Bucci, E. and C. Fronticelli. 1965. A New Method for the Preparation of a and /JSubunits of 
Hemoglobin. J. Biol. Chem. 240: PC55 1-552. 

3. Bucci, E., C. Fronticelli, E. Chiancone, J. Wyman, E. Antonini and A. Rossi-Fanelli. 1965. 
The Properties and Interactions of the Isolated a and /? chains of Human Haemoglobin. I. 
Sedimentation and Electrophoretic Behavior. J. Mol. Biol. 12:183-192. 

4. Chin, H. P. 1970. Cellulose Acetate Electrophoresis. Ann Arbor — Humphrey Science Publishers. 

5. Ragatz, B. H. 1969. Proton-Binding Behavior of the Subunits of Human Hemoglobin. M.S. 
Thesis, Indiana University. 

6. Rosemeyer, M.A. and E. R. Huehns. 1967. On the Mechanism of the Dissociation of 
Haemoglobin. J. Mol. Biol. 25:253-273. 

7. Shaeffer, J. R., A. T. Ansevin, R. P. Thompson and P. K. Trostle. 1969. Evidence that the 
Dissociation of Human Hemoglobin by p-Mercuribenzoate is Related to the Structure of the fi- 
chain. J. Mol. Biol. 40:415-421. 

8. Stefanini, S., E. Chiancone, C. H. McMuRRAYand E. Antonini. 1972. Dissociation of Human 
Hemoglobin by Different Organomercurials. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 151:28-34. 



ECOLOGY 

Chairman: Thomas S. McComish, Department of Biology 
Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana 47306 

Chairman-Elect: Robert B. Priddy, Department of Natural Resources 
Huntington College, Huntington, Indiana 46750 

Abstracts 

Growth of A ndropogon gerardi as Affected by Seed Source, Heavy metals, and 
Nutrients in two Northwestern Indiana Soils. Louis H. Ehinger and Goerge R. 
Parker, Department of Forestry and Natural Resources, Purdue University, 

West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 A greenhouse pot study was conducted to 

test the effects of seed source, heavy metals, and nutrients on the growth of 
Andropogon gerardii. Soil and seed were collected from two sites in 
northwestern Indiana. One site is an urban, heavy metal contaminated site; the 
other is a rural uncontaminated site. 

The growth variables considered were germination, height growth, tiller 
production and biomass. Germination of seed from the urban site was less than 
that of rural site seed. The urban site soil reduced height growth within four 
weeks of germination. Added nutrients promoted height growth by the eighth 
week although they did not alleviate completedly the height reduction in the 
urban soil. Plant height appeared also to slow down in correlation with an 
increase in tiller production. 

After seven weeks, the urban site soil had significantly reduced the number 
of tillers produced per plant. After nine weeks it became apparent that this was 
affected by the seed source. The urban site plants produced significantly fewer 
tillers than the rural site plants on the rural site soil while neither seed source 
produced tillers on the urban soil. 

Top biomass reacted essentially the same as plant height. Both added 
nutrients and the rural site soil resulted in more top biomass. Again nutrients 
increased biomass on the urban site soil but did not alleviate completely the 
biomass reduction due to the urban soil. Root biomass reacted differently. 
Nutrients increased root biomass in the urban site soil but decreased root 
biomass in the rural site soil. 

Although ecotypic (site) variation in tolerance to the urban site soil could 
not be shown, the urban site plants did exhibit some characters common to 
metal tolerant ecotypes. 

Adult plants were suggested to be better suited than seed material to 
population tolerance studies on the urban site due to suspected low selection 
pressures and high gene flow. 

Effects of Zinc addition to two northwestern Indiana soils on growth of 
Andropogon scoparius and availability of Cd, Pb and Cu. Larry J. Miles and 

167 



168 Indiana Academy of Science 

George R. Parker, Department of Forestry and Natural Resources, Purdue 

University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 Zinc was added to soils collected 

from an urban site in East Chicago and a rural site located on the Willow Slough 
Fish and Wildlife Area. The urban site had been contaminated with Zn, Cd, Pb 
and Cu through atmospheric industrial fallout. Germination, survival, height 
growth and dry weight yield were determined for little bluestem {Andropogon 
scoparius). Metal concentrations in the soil and plants were determined with an 
atomic absorption spectrophotometer. 

Height growth and dry weight yeild were affected while germination and 
survival were not. This response was non-linear and apparently due to soil 
chemistry effects on Zn availability (as measured by DTPA extraction) rather 
than plant physiological effects on Zn uptake. The nature of the results also 
indicate the existance of a critical limit for zinc toxicity effects. 

Growth, as measured by dry weight yield and height is stunded on the urban 
soil control treatment as compared to the rural soil control group. Zinc 
additions to the rural soil result in a similar stunting of growth. It is hypothesized 
that zinc toxicity may be the factor limiting growth on the urban soil. 

Zinc additions significantly decreased the levels of DTPA extractable Cd, 
Pb, and Cu, and apparently decreased the plant concentrations of Pb and Cu 
and increased the plant Cd concentration although these effects were not 
significant. 

Log Input and Decomposition in and Old-Growth Douglas-fir Forest. 

♦MacMillan, Paul C, Department of Biology, Hanover College, Hanover, 
Indiana 47243, J. E. Means and K. Cromack, Jr., School of Forestry, Oregon 

State University, Corvallis, Oregon 97330 A 5-class scheme of Douglas-fir 

log decomposition will be presented: 1 = most recent, to 5= most decayed. This 
scheme was used in our study of log input and decomposition in a 450 yr old 
stand in western Oregon. The numbers of Douglas-fir logs by decay class were 
27, 15, 21, 39 & 128 logs/ ha. Log biomass by decay class ranged from 324 to 15 
mt/ha, for a total of 587 mt/ha for all all classes. Estimated log input rates varied 
from 0.76 to 2.32 (mean = 1.33) logs/ yr/ ha. Mean wood density by decay class 
ranged from 543 to 151 mg/cc; one-half of the original density was reached in 
approximately 94 yr residence time. A decay rate of k = -0.0074 was obtained 
using the exponential decay model. With this and other data on Douglas-fir 
decomposition we found a correlation of decay rate as a function of surface to 
volume ratio (r = 0.99) using the power function model. 

Trends in the structural organization of an early successional system: The 
Devon Project. Edwin R. Squiers, Department of Biology, Taylor University, 

Upland, Indiana 46989 The organizational dynamics of an early secondary 

succession system were studied on experimental plots at the Waterloo Mills 
Field Research Station, Devon, PA. Data were obtained by intensive sampling 
of replicated subplots within a randomized complete block design containing a 
control (natural revegetation) and treatments (supplemental seeding of 15 and 
34 species of local "weeds"). Univariate and multivariate analytical techniques 
were used to evaluate presence-and-absence, frequency, and cover data collected 
annually for six years (1964-1969) after fallowing. The results indicate that the 



Ecology 169 

structural organization of this system may be described as three intergrading 
phases: Phase I, a period of temporally associated populations of annuals; Phase 
II, a period of temporal/ spatial discontinuity; and Phase III, a period of 
spatially associated populations of herbaceous and woody perennials. The 
recognition of the temporal/ spatial shift in community organization as well as 
other trends in these data suggest that several commonly held assumpions 
relating to the study of secondary succession are invalid. 

Restoration of Eutrophic— Evaluation of Fly Ash as a Bottom Sealant. 

Richard W. Greene*, David F. Spencer, Quentin E. Ross, Hung-Yiu 

Yeung and Thomas L. Theis For the past several years, the Departments 

of Biology and Civil Engineering at Notre Dame have been involved in an 
interdisciplinary project designed to determine the usefulness of fly ash as a 
bottom sealant during lake restoration treatments. Lake Charles East, an 
eutrophic lake in northeastern Indiana, was treated with lime in order to 
precipitate phosphates from the water column. Following the liming, a two-inch 
layer of fly ash was applied to the lake bottom in order to seal the sediments and 
retard phosphate regeneration back into the water. In the two years since the 
lake treatment positive changes have been noted in both the physical and 
biological properties of the site. 

The study was supported by Grant #R80 1245 from the U.S. Environmental 
Protection Agency. 

Determination of Trace Elements in Indiana Air and Sludge Samples, Using 
Neutron Activation Analysis. Craig Caupp, Eva Liu, and Toufiq A. Siddiqi, 
School of Public and Environmental Affairs, Indiana University, Bloomington, 

Indiana A major advantage of using neutron activation analysis is the 

ability to determine the concentrations of several elements with only one set of 
measurements. Using the research reactor at the University of Missouri, 
Columbia, we have determined the concentrations of Ag, Au, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, 
Cu, Eu, La, Sb, Sc, Ta, V, and Zn in sludge samples from Bloomington and 
Warsaw (Indiana) as well as amounts of Al, Br, Ca, CI, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Na, 
Sc, Ti, V and Zn in an Indianapolis air sample. These results are compared to 
data obtained elsewhere in the nation, and their health implications are 
discussed. 

Determination of Primary Production in Four Borrow Pit Lakes in East-central 
Indiana. Byron G. Torke and Bradley J. Hall, Department of Biology, Ball 

State University, Muncie, Indiana 47306 During 1976, gross primary 

production values were determined for four borrow-pit lakes located in 
Delaware and Grant counties along state highway 1-69. Oxygen evolution was 
measured for various depths utilizing the light-dark bottle method. Chemical 
parameters and plankton populations were also assessed, and their relations to 
pond productivity are discussed. Frequent wind mixing of these shallow ponds 
is probably a major factor affecting productivity. In general all four ponds 
showed moderate to high production values, indicating that production values 
are more than adequate to support fish populations for recreational fishing use. 

Frozen Chironomid Larvae as Food in Feeding Experiments with Bluegills. T. 

S. McComish, Department of Biology, Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana 



170 Indiana Academy of Science 

47306 and R. O. Anderson, Missouri Cooperative Fishery Research Unit, 

University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri 65201 Large quantities of 

chironomid larvae were collected from a sewage lagoon, cleared of debris, and 
frozen for use in fish feeding experiments. Bluegills {Lepomis macrochirus) fed 
frozen larvae accepted them as readily as live larvae. Changes in the proximate 
composition of previously frozen larvae soaked in water for 18 hours were 
insignificant. Size and proximate composition of larvae fluctuated seasonally. 
Gut contents significantly affected the proximate consumption and energy 
content of larvae. 

A Study of Periphyton Production in the Wabash River. Anne Spacie, 
Department of Forestry and Natural Resources, Purdue University, West 

Lafayette, Indiana 47907 The production of periphytic algae in the Wabash 

River near Lafayette, Indiana was measured during three consecutive years. 
Colonization of attached algae on floating artificial substrates was estimated by 
chlorophyll-a content. Biomass and species composition of selected periphyton 
samples were also determined. 

Chlorophyll-a production was similar at sites above and below Lafayette 
during the three periods studied. No seasonal trends were evident between July 
and November. Typical levels of 4 - 40 mg chlorophyll-a/ m 2 were found at 
Lafayette and at sites 80 miles downstream near Clinton. Production at sites 
within the town of Lafayette was significantly lower than production at sites 
further up or downstream. Possible explanations for this suppression, including 
differences in solar radiation, current velocity, and water quality are discussed. 

Impingement at the NIPSCO Michigan city generating Station— Preliminary 
results and a comparison of analysis methods. Morgan, D. W.* and L. D. 

Cline. 1Q77 Thp Aquatic Behavior Laboratory, as part of the three year 

project to determine effects of the Michigan City generating Station on fish 
populations of southern Lake Michigan, conducted a year-long monitoring 
project of fish impinged on the station's travelling screens. All fish were removed 
hourly for a 24-hour period every 4th day from December 1975 thru November 
1976. There wer then identified to species, weighed, measured, and sexed. Over 
30,000 fish of more than 50 species were removed, with the alewife accounting 
for more than 28,000 individuals, followed by gizzard shad (696), spottail shiner 
(558), rainbow smelt (89), bluegill (89) and yellow perch (86). 

Biological data obtained during this project will be discussed in relation to 
known fish movements and populations in southern Lake Michigan, and three 
alternative methods of determining total impact by impingement of power 
generating stations employing once-through cooling will be presented and 
compared. Suggestions for analysis of similar future impact studies will be 
presented. 

Factors Affecting Ichthyoplankton Entrainment in the Michigan City 
Generating Station Condenser Cooling Water System. Best, C. D.* and D. W. 

Morgon. 1977 Analysis of ichthyoplankton entrainment data collected at 

the NIPSCO Michigan City Generating Station indicates a correlation between 
temperature changes and density of alewife, carp, and spottail shiner larvae. The 
plankton sampling program was conducted from 3 May to 23 August, 1976, 



Ecology 171 

with the first occurrence of the 3 species found on 27 May when average 
temperatures of intake and discharge waters were 15.4°C and 20.0° C 
respectively. 

Mean larval densities varied directly with temperature from 12 June to 14 
July. The first major increase in the density of carp, alewife and spottail shiner 
larvae occurred on 16 June when average intake temperature was 21.1°C and 
average discharge temperature was 27.2° C. The mean density of all larvae 
dropped sharply on July 26th when water temperatures averaged 24. 1°C at the 
intake crib and 31.7° C in the discharge plume. Thereafter, mean density of 
larvae varied inversely with discharge temperature changes, with relatively fewer 
larvae being found when temperatures were above 29.0° C. 

No significant correlation was found between larval density and plant flow, 
rainfall, or barometric pressure. 

Fish Communities in the Vicinity of the Michigan City Generating Station— 

Preliminary results. Dawis, D. M.* and D. W. Morgan. 1977 As part of 

the three year study to determine effects of the Michigan City Generating 
Station on fish populations in southern Lake Michigan, a gill net sampling 
program was started in June 1977. This ongoing project includes four sampling 
sites designed to delineate differences, if any, in fish community structure due to 
generating station intake and discharge and /or the Michigan City breakwater 
system. The sites are being sampled under three wind conditions: less than 5 kts., 
and greater than 5 kts from the northeast and southwest. Six-hour sets are made 
during consecutive day and night periods. Gill net mesh sizes range from 1 " to 8" 
(stretched) mesh. All fish are identified to species, weighed, measured (T.L.), 
and sexed, and concurrent water chemistry data (D.O., temperature, 
conductivity, and pH) and current data (direction and speed) are taken at start 
and finish of each set. 

Preliminary results indicate differences in community structure due to 
location and time of day. Analyses of possible correlations with water 
temperature, chemical and current characteristics, and weather conditions are 
currently being undertaken and will be provisionally discussed. 

Seasonal Distribution of By thinia tentaculata in Hamlin Lake, Mason County, 
Michigan. Donald E. Miller, Department of Biology, Ball State University, 

Muncie, Indiana 47306 Bythinia (Bithynia, Bulimus) tentaculata has been 

reported in the Great Lakes and associated bodies of water where it probably 
was introduced from Europe. It is now abundant in Hamlin Lake, Mason 
County, Michigan. 

Observations and collections of these snails were made from June, 1972 to 
June, 1977. Although winter observations were limited, adults appeared to over- 
winter on the lake bottom and on various types of supports in water one to two 
meters deep. Soon after ice-off (March 9, 1973; March 27, 1974; April 17, 1975; 
March 24, 1976; and March 30, 1977), adult snails migrated to shallow water 
where they found supports and soon began to deposit eggs: by April 29, 1 976 and 
April 23, 1977. Microscope slides gave the best picture of egg abundance. At the 
peak of egg deposition, up to 45 egg masses were found on one microscope slide. 
By early May up to 48 snails were found on two sides of a 25 x 77mm microscope 



172 Indiana Academy of Science 

slide. At greatest abundance the snails occupied up to 30 per cent of the surface 
of some dock posts, microcsope slides, and other supports. At times 90 per cent 
or more of microscope slide surfaces were covered by snails and snail eggs. The 
population declined by late August, but even then substantial numbers were 
found on limited areas of some supports. Snails did not again become abundant 
on supports until the following spring. Distribution and abundance of Bythinia 
varied in different localities and depths in the lake. An accurate picture of 
abundance and distribution requires observations at several stations. At times, 
other species of snails, especially Goniobasis livescens, were present at the 
collection sites. 

The Fish Community as an Indicator of Water Quality. J. R. Gammon, 
Department of Zoology, DePauw University, Greencastle, Indiana 

46135 Although regulations for water quality standards stress the general 

goal of maintaining "balanced" aquatic communities, little progress has been 
made in establishing what a "balanced" aquatic community consists of. 

Among a variety of community paramenters based upon electrofishing 
catches of fish from rivers, a composite index of well-being incorporating 
relative density, relative biomass, Shannon index of diversity based on numeric 
data, and Shannon index based on biomass appears to reflect environmental 
conditions better than any single parameter. Profiles of water quality based 
upon the composite index are presented for the Wabash River, 200 miles of the 
Ohio River, and the middle Great Miami River. 

Success of the Holdridge Life Zone Model in yielding Potential 
Evapotranspiration Estimates for U.S. Weather Stations. A. A. Lindsey, 

Purdue University Biological and physical aspects of the Holdridge life 

zone model are closely related, but the biological ones have not been 
persuasively tested against external criteria. However, validation of Holdridge's 
concept is possible from physical data from an independent method, by 
comparison of results for potential evapotranspiration between the Holdridge 
and the (standard) Thornthwaite method. In comparing such results for 300 
weather stations scattered through the 50 states, I found a mere 1.65 per cent 
difference, in the mean of all stations combined, from the corresponding 
Thornthwaite mean. This results from the canceling out of consistent bias in 
Holdridge from the Thornthwaite results, in that Holdridge's method 
overestimated potential evapotranspiration in all four Warm Temperate life 
zones studied, and consistently underestimated it in the three Cool Temperate 
and three Warm Temperate Montane life zones. The Holdridge approach has a 
general tendency to underestimate this value, overall. 

Holdridge's procedure, using the 300 stations lumped, was more variable, 
its coefficient of variability being 33.9 compared with a CV of 27.3 for 
Thornthwaite. The coefficient of correlation (r) between the two methods was 
rather good (0.94). In a breakdown by life zones, five of the major zones had r 
values of 0.96 through 0.99. These statistical results, though showing that 
Holdridge's method is inferior to Thornthwaite's for potential evapotranspira- 
tion, furnish strong physical or climatological confirmation of the basic concept 
of Holdridge's system overall. 



Ecology 173 

Evaluation of a Ruffed Grouse Reintroduction in Northern Indiana. Sean T. 
Kelly* and Charles M. Kirkpatrick, Department of Forestry, Purdue 

University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 Throughout northern Indiana, 

in the late 1800's and early 1900's, once substantial ruffed grouse (Bonasa 
umbellus) populations were extirpated by intensive agriculture. Land 
abandonment and public land purchases have recently produced potentially 
suitable grouse habitat, and since 1952 the Indiana Department of Natural 
Resources has attempted to restore the species to part of its former range. One 
reintroduction was made at Jasper-Pulaski Fish and Wildlife Area, where 89 
wild -trapped birds were released in the falls of 1970 and 1971. This study 
evaluated the success of that reintroduction. Drumming counts conducted 
during the springs of 1976 and 1977 revealed 14 and 20 drumming activity 
centers, respectively. Density estimates derived from seasonal strip censuses 
ranged from 6-31 birds per 100 hectares. Flush counts indicated that birds used 
the upland hardwood-brush type during all seasons except winter when the birds 
moved to the lowland woody community, possibly because of changes in food 
availability. Reproduction was suggested in 1977 by the capture of three 
unbanded drumming males, and confirmed by the sighting of five broods during 
the summer field season. The ruffed grouse appears to be the established on this 
area, and the success of this reintroduction indicates that restocking is a viable 
means of reestablishing the ruffed grouse in other forested portions of northern 
Indiana. 



Primary Productivity and Chlorophyll a of Selected Northern Indiana Lakes 

Thomas E. Lauer and Kenneth A. Frato 

Division of Water Pollution Control, Indiana State Board of Health 

1330 West Michigan Street, Indianapolis, Indiana 46206 

Introduction 

The State of Indiana was required by Section 314 (a) of the Federal Water 
Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972 to identify and classify all publicly 
owned fresh water lakes according to their trophic status. Initially a preliminary 
limnological survey of all public lakes in the state was undertaken. Subsequent 
classification using Bon Homme's index (2) placed these lakes into a trophic 
state ranking. From this information, more intensive studies were implemented 
on selected "key" or "problem" lakes. Special attention was given those bodies of 
water where a high degree of cultural eutrophy or a rapid change in the quality of 
the lake existed. 

As part of the intensive survey program, eight lakes in northern Indiana 
were sampled in the summer of 1976. The study was designed to determine: 1) 
the rate at which new organic matter is formed and accumulated within the lake 
under study (primary productivity), 2) the concentration of photosynthetic 
pigment for estimation of plankton biomass (chlorophyll a), and 3) how the 
previous classification using BonHomme's index (2) compares with the 1976 
findings and other classification schemes. 

Study Areas 

A total of eight lakes was studied in Kosciusko, LaGrange, Noble and 
Steuben Counties. They range in size from 10 ha. to 325 ha., and represent a wide 
range of trophic states. Crooked, Webster, Hamilton, and Sylvan are large lakes 
that are heavily developed and highly recreational. Palestine, Long and Waubee 
are somewhat smaller but are also developed along a significant portion of their 
shore line. While only a small portion of Martin Lake is populated, it is being 
developed at a fast rate. Table I presents a more complete morphometric 
description of the lakes. 

Table 1. Morphometric characteristics of the eight lakes studied in northern Indiana, 1976. 









Area 


Volume 


Max Depth 


Mean Depth 


Lake 


County 


(ha.) 


(m 3 xl0 6 ) 


(m) 


(m) 


Crooked 


Steuben 


325 


12.4 


23.5 


3.8 


Webster 


Kosciusko 


237 


8.8 


13.7 


3.7 


Hamilton 


Steuben 


325 


20.5 


21.3 


6.3 


Martin 


LaGrange 


10 


1.1 


17.1 


11. 


Waubee 


Kosciusko 


76 


5.9 


15.5 


7.8 


Long 


Steuben 


37 


1.9 


9.7 


5.1 


Sylvan 


Noble 


255 


7.6 


11.0 


3.0 


Palestine 


Kosciusko 


94 


1.1 


9.0 


1.2 





174 



Ecology 175 

Methods 

Algal primary productivity was measured in situ using carbon- 14 
methodology. Modification of the procedures outlined by Slack (4), Strickland 
and Parsons (5), and Vollenweider ( 1 3) were utilized. The procedures outlined in 
this study incorporated suggestions proposed by the Biology Section, Central 
Regional Lab of Region V, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 

Samples for determination of primary productivity were collected at depth 
intervals which varied from 0.25 to 1.0 m (dependent upon the depth of the 
eupthotic zone) with either an opaque plastic Van Dorn or Kemmer-type 
sampler. Surfactant washed (Contrad 70), acid washed, and thoroughly rinsed 
300 ml BOD bottles were filled from the sampler through a length of rubber 
tubing. One dark and two light bottles were filled for each depth sampled. The 
contents of a sterile glass ampoule containing 2.0 ml of C-14 as sodium 
bicarbonate of known activity (approximately 1 /uCi/ml) was injected into the 
BOD bottle with a 2 ml B-D Cornwall syringe fitted with a 4-inch canula. While 
adding the C-14, the bottles were either kept in subdued light or enclosed within 
a black plastic bag. All bottles were placed in light-tight plywood boxes from the 
time of sample collection until placement in the water column. When all samples 
at a station had been inoculated, the bottles were suspended at the depth from 
which the samples had been collected and incubated in situ for four hours 
(generally, between 10:00 a.m. and 2:00 p.m.). Following incubation, 1 ml of 
formalin was added to each bottle to arrest photosynthesis. Samples were 
immediately transported to the field laboratory and processed within two to 
three hours. 

In the laboratory a measured aliquot (usually 50 ml) was filtered through a 
47 mm, 0.45 /um membrane filter (Millipore-HAW P04 4700). Vacuum was 
maintained at less than 200 mm of mercury. A rinse of approximately 10 ml of 
distilled water was applied and the filter vacuum dried. Each filter was 
immediately placed in a scintillation vial containing 20 ml of Beckman Filter- 
Solv liquid scintillation cocktail and stored until counted. 

Background samples were prepared by filtering 50 ml of distilled water 
through a membrane filter and placing the filter in 20 ml of cocktail. 
Background samples were prepared in triplicate at least once each week 
throughout the study. Productivity and background samples were counted twice 
in series for 20 minutes or 10,000 counts and the results averaged. 

Counting efficiency was determined by the external standard ratio method. 
A quench series was prepared using nitromethane as the quenching agent and 
Beckman Filter-Solv as the cocktail. Primary productivity in mg carbon per 
cubic meter per hour (mgC/m 3 /hr) was calculated using the equation of 
Saunders (3). The values from the entire eupthotic zone were integrated using 
the method of Slack (4) and expressed as mgC/m 2 /hr. 

Samples for analysis of chlorophyll a were collected with an opaque plastic 
sampler. Lake water was transferred to plastic containers and stored in a cooler 
until processed. Samples were kept in subdued light with the time between 
collection and processing rarely exceeding two hours. 

At the field laboratory, the sample was thoroughly shaken and 200 ml were 



176 Indiana Academy of Science 

filtered through a glass fiber filter (Gelman-type AE). When the filter was almost 
clear, approximately 1 ml of saturated magnesium carbonate suspension was 
added to the filter followed by a distilled water rinse. The filter was folded with 
forceps, algae side inward, and wrapped in aluminun foil. The foil packets were 
placed in labeled 48 x 5 mm plastic petri dishes and immediately frozen. Samples 
were kept frozen until the chlorophyll was extracted. Replicate samples were run 
for quality control and consisted of 200 ml aliquots from the same sample 
container. 

The extraction and measurement of chlorophyll a in the samples was 
performed by the Biology Section, Central Regional Laboratory of Region V, 
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, according to the fluorometric method 
of Strickland and Parsons (5). Chlorophyll a concentrations were corrected for 
phaeophytin. 

The eight study lakes were ranked and classified based on primary 
productivity and chlorophyll a values. Where the exact trophic status was not 
delineated by these two parameters, subjective judgments were based on the 
supplemental data collected. These other data included total phosphorus, 
nitrate-nitrogen, ammonia, total kjeldahl nitrogen, alkalinity, pH, temperature, 
dissolved oxygen, Secchi disc readings and light transmittance levels. Secchi 
disc, total phosphorus and chlorophyll a were used to calculate Carlson's 
Trophic State Index (TSI) (1). 

Results 

Primary productivity and chlorophyll a data for the eight study lakes are 
summarized in Table 2. Palestine Lake showed the highest primary productivity 
at 430 mgC/m 2 /hr in June. The value dropped somewhat in July and declined 
further in August. During July, 85 percent of the production in Palestine Lake 
was restricted to the first meter. In August, when the Secchi disc reading was 
0.25 m and the one percent light transmittance level was less than one meter, 100 
percent of the primary productivity was found in the first meter. These 
productivity values did not include that contributed by the extensive 
macrophyte growth (primarily spatterdock and duckweed) which covered over 
40 percent of the lake surface. Although macrophytes were evident in other lakes 
studied, none approached the dense growth found at Palestine. The chlorophyll 
a values were twice that of any other study lake in July and August, ranging up to 
87.8 mg/m 3 . 

Algal production at Sylvan Lake increased as the summer progressed. 
Eighty-five percent of the primary productivity within the euphotic zone was 
confined to the first meter in August. Unlike Palestine Lake, the density of 
macrophytes was small, contributing little to the total productivity of the lake. 
The rapid extinction of light in the water column (one percent light 
transmittance level at 2.5, 1.75, and 1.75 m in June, July and August, 
respectively) from the biogenic turbidity effectively limited macrophyte growth. 
This observation was also noted by Wetzel (14). 

Long Lake has a history of severe algal problems according to Indiana 
State Board of Health records (ISBH unpublished) and (5). The findings of this 



Ecology 



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178 Indiana Academy of Science 

study indicated it to be a highly productive lake (240 mgC/m 2 /hr in August). 
The chlorophyll a values were high in all months sampled, indicating no decline 
from the National Eutrophication Survey (NES) findings of 1973 (8). 

Primary productivity in Waubee Lake reached 290 mgC/m 2 /hr in August. 
The high chlorophyll a values, also found this month, indicated the fertile nature 
of this lake. Only Palestine and Sylvan indicated higher productivity during the 
study, while only Palestine had higher chlorophyll a concentrations. 

In Martin Lake, primary productivity in June and August were comparable 
to the values found at Webster, Crooked and Hamilton Lakes. However, 
productivity in July was much lower than during the same sampling period at 
the above-mentioned lakes. 

Hamilton Lake experienced a large increase in productivity in July. Algal 
clumping was apparent in some areas of the lake, while Secchi disc readings and 
light transmittance levels indicated the increase in biogenic turbidity. 
Chlorophyll a values in July were also the highest found at this lake. Both the 
June and August samples indicated a lowered rate of production and 
chlorophyll a. 

In both Webster and Crooked Lakes primary productivity values were low 
initially and increased as the summer progressed. Both also displayed low 
chlorophyll a values ranging from 4.2 to 7.5 mg/m 3 . 

Discussion 

Rankings and classifications from this study and other methods are shown in 
Table 3. Crooked, Hamilton and Webster Lakes exhibited similar trophic 
characteristics. This study classified Crooked Lake eutrophic, not meso- 
eutrophic as indicated by both NES (6) and ISBH (unpublished). However, by 
all classification methods it was considered the least eutrophic. We based our 
ranking on the low productivities and chlorophyll a values found. In addition, 
the distribution of productivity in the water column was indicative of a 
eutrophic lake (15) during July and August. Productivity and chlorophyll a 
values were similar in Webster and Crooked Lakes but the values for Webster 
were slightly higher (except for the June chlorophyll a value). The large increase 
in productivity and chlorophyll a values in Hamilton Lake during July were 
responsible for ranking this lake more eutrophic than Webster Lake. These July 
figures may indicate that this lake is more susceptible to algal blooms. This 
ranking corresponds with the NES results (6, 7, 12). However, both earlier ISBH 
data (unpublished) and TSI (1) show Hamilton Lake to be less eutrophic than 
Webster Lake. Thus, the importance placed on different parameters may 
influence the ranking of these two lakes. 

The relatively low ranking assigned Martin Lake was not expected since the 
other two lakes in the chain (Oliver and Olin) were considered to be mesotrophic 
by NES (9, 10) and the earlier ISBH survey (ISBH, unpublished). Impact from 
non-point source runoff in recent years has been decisive in changing the trophic 
status of this lake. Heavy rain in the watershed the day before the July sampling 
brought in an excessive amount of sediment from a soybean field approximately 
one-half mile away. This inorganic turbidity restricted the euphotic zone to the 



Ecology 



179 



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180 Indiana Academy of Science 

upper 1.5 m. In addition, overcast weather conditions reduced incident solar 
radiation, further limiting the energy available for algal photosynthesis. These 
conditions were probably responsible for the low productivity found in July, 
and it is the opinion of these investigators that this measurement is not indicative 
of the true trophic status of Martin Lake. 

Waubee, Long and Sylvan Lakes appear to be similar when viewing 
productivity and chlorophyll a data. The ranking of Waubee Lake as less 
eutrophic reflects the chlorophyll a and productivity found in June and July. 
Although Long Lake showed chlorophyll a values in excess of Sylvan Lake in all 
months, the productivity depth profile (ISBH, unpublished) in August showed 
Sylvan Lake to be in a more advanced eutrophic state. 

Palestine Lake was found to be highly eutrophic, much more so than the 
other lakes in the study. Based on ISBH surveys (ISBH, unpublished), this lake 
has a history of problems related to its highly eutrophic state and these problems 
were evident at the time of sampling. 

Conclusions 

1. Crooked Lake was considered the least eutrophic of the study lakes. 

2. Hamilton and Webster Lakes generally exhibit characteristics of moderate 
eutrophy, but are subject to algal blooms which are indicative of their 
trophic variability. 

3. Accelerated eutrophication might be expected in Martin Lake due to the 
impact of heavy non-point source runoff. If not controlled, this trend may 
spread to the other lakes in the chain. 

4. Sylvan, Long and Waubee Lakes appear to be in an advanced eutrophic 
state. 

5. Based on the consistently high productivity and chlorophyll a values, 
Palestine Lake was considered the most eutrophic of the eight lakes studied. 

6. Various lake classification schemes may produce different results. 
Differences between the classification scheme developed in this study and 
those developed from earlier studies may reflect actual changes in trophic 
state. However, differences in techniques, parameters, sampling dates and 
subjective observations may explain some of the differences. 

Disclaimer 

Mention of trade names or commercial products does constitute 
endorsement or recommendation for use by the Indiana State Board of Health. 



Literature Cited 

1. Carlson, R. E. 1977. A trophic state index for lakes. Limnol. Oceanogr. 22:361-369. 

2. Indiana State Board of Health. 1977. Annual report to U.S. Congress. 305(b) report for 1976. 
Indiana State Board of Health Pub. Loose-leaf pub. n. p. 

3. Saunders, G. W., F. B. Trama, and R. W. Bachmann. 1962. Evaluation of a modified C-14 
technique for shipboard estimation of photosynthesis in large lakes. Great lakes Res. Div. Pub. No. 
8, 61 p. 






Ecology 181 

4. Slack K. V., R. C. Averett, P. E. Greeson, and R. G. Lipscomb. 1973. Methods for collection 
and analysis of aquatic biological and microbiological samples. Techniques for water resources 
investigation of the U.S.G.S. Book 5, 165 p. 

5. Strickland, J. D. H., and T. R. Parsons. 1972. A practical handbook of seawater analysis. Bull. 
Fish. Res. Bd. Can. Bull. 167, 311. p. 

6. U. S. EPA. 1976. Report on Crooked Lake, Steuben Co., Indiana. Corvallis Environmental 
Research Laboratory, Corvallis, Oregon, and Environmental Monitoring and Support 
Laboratory, Las Vegas, Nevada. Working paper No. 325. 

7. 1976. Report on Hamilton Lake, Steuben Co., Indiana. Corvallis Environmental Research 

Laboratory, Corvallis, Oregon, and Environmental Monitoring and Support Laboratory, Las 
Vegas, Nevada. Working paper No. 328. 

8. 1976. Report on Long Lake, Steuben Co., Indiana. Corvallis Environmental Research 

Laboratory, Corvallis, Oregon, and Environmental Monitoring and Support Laboratory, Las 
Vegas, Nevada. Working paper No. 332. 

9. 1976. Report on Olin Lake, LaGrange Co., Indiana. Corvallis Environmental Research 

Laboratory, Corvallis, Oregon, and Environmental Monitoring and Support Laboratory, Las 
Vegas, Nevada. Working paper No. 338. 

10. 1976. Report on Oliver Lake, LaGrange Co., Indiana. Corvallis Environmental Research 

Laboratory, Corvallis, Oregon, and Environmental Monitoring and Support Laboratory, Las 
Vegas, Nevada. Working paper No. 339. 

11. 1975. Report on Sylvan Lake, Noble Co., Indiana. Corvallis Environmental Research 

Laboratory, Corvallis, Oregon, and Environmental Monitoring and Support Laboratory, Las 
Vegas, Nevada. Working paper No. 341. 

12. 1976. Report on Webster Lake, Kosciusko Co., Indiana. Corvallis Environmental Research 

Laboratory, Corvallis, Oregon, and Environmental Monitoring and Support Laboratory, Las 
Vegas, Nevada. Working paper No. 345. 

13. Vollenweider, R. A., ed. 1974. A manual on methods for measuring primary production in 
aquatic environments. Blackwell Scientific Publ., Oxford. I.B.P. Handbook No. 12, Second ed., 
225 p. 

14. Wetzel, R. G. 1966. Variations in productivity of Goose and hypereutrophic Sylvan Lakes, 
Indiana. Invest. Ind. Lakes and Streams. 7:147-184. 

15. 1975. Limnology. W. B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia. 743 p. 



Distribution of Stream Fishes in Tippecanoe County, Indiana. 

Kevin D. Curry and Anne Spacie 

Department of Forestry and Natural Resources 

Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 

Introduction 

Accurate distributional records are important in assessing long term 
changes in fish distribution. Gerking (2) published the last record for fishes of 
Tippecanoe County in his 1945 report on Indiana fishes. Since 1945, changes in 
habitat, taxonomic status, and collection methods have all effected changes in 
the reports and records offish that occur in the streams and rivers of Tippecanoe 
County. 

Several researchers have monitored the distribution of fish in the county 
since Gerking's (2) state survey. Erman and Mumford (1) added 19 species to 
Gerkings list in their collections from 1958 to 1965. They noted Gerking had 
mapped a collection site for the channel darter, Percina copelandi, in lower 
Wildcat Creek but reported it only from Big Pine Creek, Fountain County and 
the Wabash River near Attica in Warren County. Lehman (4) did an intensive 
investigation of fish populations in channelized and natural segments of Wea 
and Little Wea Creek. Changes in fish community diversity of Indian Creek 
were investigated relative to quantified measures of habitat diversity by Gorman 
(3). Fisheries classes at Purdue University have noted occurrences offish species 
in the Wabash River from 1971 to 1977. During our investigations, we collected 
in all the major streams in the county from 1974 to 1977. 

The purpose of this report is to update and summarize all records of fish 
distribution in Tippecanoe County since 1945. We have included studies by 
other researchers in updating the information on fish distribution. 

Sites 

All stream systems within the county drain into the Wabash River. The 
Wabash River enters the northeast corner and flows southwest through the 
northern half of the county. The Flint Creek, Wea Creek, and Wildcat Creek 
systems drain northwest through approximately two-thirds of Tippecanoe 
County. Indian Creek, Little Pine Creek and Burnetts Creek are the principle 
stream drainages for the remaining one-third of the county northwest of the 
Wabash River. Our survey covered 39 sites within the county (Table 1). 

Table 1 . Collection Sites in Tippecanoe County, Indiana. 

1. Flint Creek, sec. 4-5, Burnetts Reserve, T. 22 N., R. 6 W.. 

2. Flint Creek, sec. 1, Burnetts Reserve, T. 22 N., R. 6 W.. 

3. Wea Creek, sec. 30, T. 21 N., R. 4 W.. 

4. Wea Creek, sec. 18, T. 21 N., R. 4 W.. 

5. Wea Creek, sec. 17, T. 21 N., R. 4 W.. 

6. Wea Creek, sec. 9, T. 21 N., R. 4 W.. 

7. Wea Creek, sec. 2, T. 21 N., R. 4 W.. 

182 



23 N., R 


3 W.. 


T. 23 N., 


R. 3 W. 


23 N., R 


3 W.. 


T. 23 N., 


R. 3 W. 



Ecology 183 

8. Wea Creek, sec. 22, T. 22 N., R. 4 W.. 

9. Wea Creek, sec. 12, T. 22 N., R. 5 W.. 

10. Dismal Creek, sec. 22, T. 22 N. R. 4 W.. 

11. Little Wea Creek, sec. 21, T. 21 N., R. 5 W.. 

12. Little Wea Creek, sec. 10, T. 21. N., R. 5 W.. 

13. Little Wea Creek, sec. 1, T. 21 N., R. 5 W.. 

14. Little Wea Creek, sec. 12, T. 22 N., R 5 W.. 

15. Wildcat Creek, sec. 22, T. 22 N., R. 3 W.. 

16. Wildcat Creek, sec. 33, T. 

17. Wildcat Creek, sec. 26-27, 

18. Wildcat Creek, sec. 21, T. 

19. Wildcat Creek, sec. 10-11, 

20. Wildcat Creek, sec. 14, T. 23 N.,R.4W.. 

21. Wildcat Creek, sec. 3, T. 23 N., R. 4 W.. 

22. Sugar Creek, sec. 21, T. 24 N., R. 3 W.. 

23. Buck Creek, sec. 30-31, T. 24 N., R. 3 W.. 

24. Little Pine Creek, sec. 36, T. 24 N., R. 6 W.. 

25. Little Pine Creek, sec. 22, T. 23 N., R. 6 W.. 

26. Indian Creek, sec. 4, T. 23 N., R. 5 W.. 

27. Indian Creek, sec. 18, T. 23 N., R. 5 W.. 

28. Indian Creek, sec. 24, T. 23 N., R. 6 W.. 

29. Burnetts Creek, sec. 27, T. 24 N., R. 4 W.. 

30. Moots Creek, sec. 8, T. 24 N., R. 3 W.. 

31. Wabash River, sec. 16, T. 24 N. R. 3 W.. 

32. Wabash River, sec. 20, T. 24 N., R. 3 W.. 

33. Wabash River, sec. 17, T. 23 N., R. 4 W.. 

34. Wabash River, sec. 29, T. 23 N., R. 4 W.. 

35. Wabash River, sec. 31, T. 23 N., R. 4 W.. 

36. Wabash River, sec. 35, T. 23 N., R. 5 W.. 

37. Wabash River, sec. 28, T. 23 N., R. 5 W.. 

38. Wabash River, sec. 26, T. 23 N., R. 6 W.. 

39. Wabash River, sec. 3, T. 22 N., R. 6 W.. 

Methods 

Fish were sampled by means of 1/4 inch mesh seines, gas powered D.C. 
back pack shocker, Smith Root Type VI electrofisher, hoop nets and D-nets. 
Common species were identified in the field. Other specimens were preserved 
and returned to the laboratory. Laboratory identifications were made using the 
taxonomic keys of Nelson and Gerking (5), Pflieger (6), and Trautman (7). Voucher 
specimens for most of the species reported are located at the Department of 
Forestry and Natural Resources, Purdue University. 

Collection sites are listed according to stream system. Species are listed by 
family and include the numbers and letters that correspond to their collection 
records in this report (Table 2). 

Site specific information is not included in Gorman's (3) report and 
specimens from his Indian Creek Study are no longer present at Purdue 
University. We are listing species reported by Gorman that were not collected in 
our investigation by using In. Crk. under the species name. 



184 Indiana Academy of Science 

Table 2. List of Species 



PETROMYZONTIDAE 

Lampetra lamottei (Lesueur); American Brook lamprey. 21. 

Ichthyomyzon unicuspis (Hubbs and Trautman). Silver lamprey. 31, 33, 34, 38. 

POLYODONTIDAE 

Polyodon spathula (Walbaum); Paddlefish. 33, 36. 

ACIPENSERIDAE 

Scaphirhynchus platorynchus (Rafinesque); Shovelnose sturgeon. 21, 32, 33, 39. 

LEPISOSTEIDAE 

Lepisosteus osseus (Linnaeus); Longnose gar. 31, 33, 36, 37, 38, 39. 
Lepisosteus platostomus (Rafinesque); Shortnose gar. 33, 34, 36, 37. 

AMIIDAE 

Amia calva (Linnaeus); Bowfin. 33, 36, 38. 

ANGUILLIDAE 

Anguilla rostrata (Lesueur); American eel. 31, 33, 36. 

CLUPEIDAE 

Dorosoma cepedianum (Lesueur); Gizzard shad. 21, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39. 
Alosa chrysochloris (Rafinesque); Skipjack herring. 32, 33, 36. 

ESOCIDAE 

Esox americanus vermiculatus (Lesueur); Grass pickerel. 3, 6. 
Esox lucius (Linnaeus); Northern pike. 33. 

HIODONTIDAE 

Hiodon alosoides (Rafinesque); Goldeye. 33, 36, 37, 39. 
Hiodon tergisus (Lesueur); Mooneye. 32, 33, 36, 38, 39. 

CYPRINIDAE 

Cyprinus carpio (Linnaeus); Carp. 21, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39. 

Rhinichthys atratulus (Hermann); Blacknose dace. 1, 2, 5, 7, 9, 1 1, 12, 13, 17, 21, 23, 25, 26, 27, 

28, 29. 
Hybopsis amblops (Rafinesque); Bigeye chub. 7, 21, 30, 37. 
Semotilus atromaculatus (Mitchell); Creek chub. 1, 2, 5, 6, 9, 1 1, 12, 13, 14, 17, 23, 24, 26, 27, 

28, 29, 30, 32, 38. 
Nocomis micropogon (Cope); River chub. 2, 7, 19, 25, 27, 28, 30, 31, 32, 37, 38. 
Hybopsis aestivalis (Girard); Speckled chub. 21, 32, 35. 
Hybopsis x-punctata (Hubbs and Crowe); Gravel chub. 32. 
Pimephales notatus (Rafinesque); Bluntnose minnow. 1, 2, 6, 7, 9, 1 1, 12, 14, 22, 23, 24, 26, 27, 

28, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39. 
Pimephales vigilax (Baird and Girard); Bullhead minnow. 21. 
Pimephales promelas (Rafinesque); Fathead minnow. In. Crk. 

Ericymba buccata (Cope); Silverjaw minnow. 2, 4, 5, 7, 9, 1 1, 12, 14, 22, 23, 24, 28, 31, 35, 36. 
Hybognathus nuchalis (Agassiz); Silvery minnow. 14, 34, 39. In. Crk. 
Phenacobius mirabilis (Girard); Suckermouth minnow. 2, 15, 21, 25, 30, 31, 32, 36, 37, 39. In. 

Crk. 
Notropis chrysocephalus (Rafinesque); Striped shiner. 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 14, 19, 20, 22, 23, 25, 26, 

27, 28, 29, 30, 32, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39. 
Notropus atherinoides (Rafinesque); Emerald shiner. 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37. 
Notemigonus chrysoleucas (Mitchill); Golden shiner. In. Crk. 
Notropis volucellus (Cope); Mimic shiner. 2, 36, 39. 
Notropis umbratilis (Girard); Redfin shiner. 5, 9, 24. In. Crk. 
Notropis blennius (Girard); River shiner. 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37. In. Crk. 
Notropis rubellus (Agassiz); Rosyface shiner. 4, 5, 7. 

Notropis stramineus (Cope); Sand shiner. 7, 21, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39. In. Crk. 
Notropis spilopterus (Cope); Spotfin shiner. 1, 2, 7, 13, 21, 22, 23, 24, 26, 27, 28, 30, 31, 32, 33, 

34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39. 



Ecology 185 



Notropis whipplei (Girard); Steelcolor shiner. 2, 30. 

Campostoma anomalum (Rafinesque); Stoneroller. 1, 2, 4, 11, 14, 15, 17, 21, 22, 24, 25, 26, 27, 

28, 30, 31, 32, 35, 36, 37, 39. 
CATOSTOMIDAE 

Cycleptus elongatus (Lesueur); Blue sucker. 35. 

Hypentelium nigricans. (Lesueur); Northern hog sucker. 1,2, 7, 12, 13, 14, 16,20,21,28,31,32, 

33, 35, 36, 38. 
Minytrema melanops (Rafinesque); Spotted sucker. 33, 36, 38. 

Catostomus commersoni (Lacepede); White sucker. 2, 4, 6, 9, 11, 19, 20, 21, 27, 33, 36, 38. 
Carpiodes velifer (Rafinesque); Highfin carpsucker. 21, 31, 33. 
Carpiodes cyprinus (Lesueur); Quill back. 21, 31, 33, 36. 

Carpiodes carpio (Rafinesque); River carpsucker. 21, 31, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39. 
Ictiobus cyprinellus (Valenciennes); Bigmouth buffalo. 33, 35, 36, 39. 
Ictiobus niger (Rafinesque); Black buffalo. 32, 33, 26. 
Ictiobus bubalus (Rafinesque); Smallmouth buffalo. 31, 33, 35, 36, 37. 
Erimyzon oblongus (Mitchill); Creek chubsucker. 11. In. Cr. 
Moxostoma erythrurum (Rafinesque); Golden redhorse. 20, 21, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 

39. 
Moxostoma carinatum (Cope); River redhorse. 21, 31, 32, 33, 38. 
Moxostoma macrolepidotum (Lesueur); Shorthead redhorse. 14, 21, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 

38, 39. 
Moxostoma anisurum (Rafinesque); Siver redhorse. 21, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 38, 39. 

ICTALURIDAE 

Ictalurus melas (Rafinesque); Black bullhead. In. Cr. 
Ictalurus punctatus (Rafinesque); Channel catfish. 21, 33, 34, 36. 
Pylodictus olivaris (Rafinesque); Flathead catfish. 21, 33, 34, 36. 
Ictalurus natalis (Lesueur); Yellow bullhead. 3, 5, In. Crk. 
Noturus miurus (Jordan); Brindled madtom. 18, 32. 
Noturus flavus (Rafinesque); Stonecat. 13, 14, 20. 

GADIDAE 

Lota lota (Linnaeus); Burbot. 33, 36. 

CYPRINODONTIDAE 

Fundulus notatus (Rafinesque); Blackstripe topminnow. 3. 

ATHERINIDAE 

Labidesthes sicculus (Cope); Brook silversides. 33, 34, 36. 

COTTIDAE 

Cottus bairdi (Girard); Mottled sculpin. 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 8, 9, 1 1, 12, 13, 17, 18, 20, 22, 23, 25, 28, 29, 
30. 

PERCICTHYIDAE 

Morone chrysops (Rafinesque); White bass. 21, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38. 

CENTRARCHIDAE 

Micropterus salmoides (Lacepede); Largemouth bass. 21, 32, 33, 34, 36, 37. In. Crk. 

Micropterus dolomieui (Lacepede); Smallmouth bass. 6, 13, 14, 17, 20, 21, 31, 32, 36, 38. 

Lepomis macrochirus (Rafinesque); Bluegill. 14, 19, 34, 36. In. Crk. 

Lepomis cyanellus (Rafinesque); Green sunfish. 3, 5, 6, 14, 19, 27, 33, 36. 

Lepomis megalotis (Rafinesque); Longear sunfish. 1, 2, 5, 6, 13, 14, 17, 20, 21, 27, 28, 32, 33, 34, 

36, 38, 39. 
Lepomis humilis (Girard); Orangespotted sunfish. 33. 
Ambloplites rupestris (Rafinesque); Rockbass. 3, 6, 20. 
Pomoxis nigromaculatus (Lesueur); Black crappie. 33, 36. 
Pomoxis annularis (Rafinesque); White crappie. 33, 34, 36, 38, 39. 

PERCIDAE 

Stizostedion canadense (Smith); Sauger. 21, 31, 32, 33, 34, 36, 37, 38, 39. 
Stizostedion vitreum vitreum (Mitchill); Walleye. 21, 36. 
Perca flavescens (Mitchill); Yellow perch. 18. 



186 Indiana Academy of Science 



Percina maculata (Girard); Blackside darter. 19, 20, 21. 

Ammocrypta pellucida (Putnam); Eastern sand darter. 21. 

Etheostoma flabellare (Rafinesque); Fantail darter. 1,2, 13. 

Etheostoma blennioides (Rafinesque); Greenside darter. 1, 3, 7, 8, 12, 13, 14, 20, 25, 28. 

Etheostoma nigrum (Rafinesque); Johnny darter. 1, 3, 4, 5, 8, 10, 1 1, 12, 13, 19, 20, 24, 28, 29, 

30, 32, 37. 
Percina caprodes (Rafinesque); Log perch. 32, 36, 37, 39. 

Etheostoma spectabile (Agassiz); Orangethroat darter. 2, 3, 10, 12, 13, 17, 25, 27, 28. 
Etheostoma caeruleum (Storer); Rainbow darter. 1, 5, 7, 13, 14, 20, 25, 29, 30, 32. 

SCIAENIDAE 

Aplodinotus grunniens (Rafinesque); Freshwater drum. 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 37, 38. 



Results and Discussion 

Eighty-six species representing 20 families were identified from collections 
within the county (Table 2). Our report represents an addition of 40 species to 
Gerking's (2) list for fish in Tippecanoe County, Twenty-one of the new species 
records are primarily Wabash River species (Icthyomyzon unicuspis, Polyodon 
spathula, Sacphirhynchus platorynchus, Lepisosteus osseus, Lepisosteus 
platostomus, Amia calva, Anguilla rostrata, Esox lucius, Hiodon alosoides, 
Hiodon tergisus, Cycleptus elongatus, Carpiodes velifer, Carpiodes carpio, 
Ictiobus niger, Ictiobus bubalus, Moxostoma duquesnei, Moxostoma 
macrolepidotum, Pylodictus olivaris, Lota lota, Morone chrysops, Stizostedion 
vitreum vitreum). Most of these fish probably were present in the Wabash River 
during past surveys but these species are not easily captued by seining. 
Electrofishing gear enabled us to sample these species effectively in our 
investigations. 

Of the 46 species collected in Tippecanoe County by Gerking (2), only the 
harelip sucker, Lagochila lacera, bluebreast darter, Etheostoma camurum, and 
channel darter, Percina copelandi, were not found in our study. Single records 
for four species were recorded by Erman and Mumford (1) in their preliminary 
report (bigmouth shiner, Notropis dorsalis, spotted bass, Micropterus 
punctalatus, warmouth, Chaenobryttus gulosus, and the tadpole madtom, 
Noturus gyrinus). None of these species were found during our investigations. 

Two species appear to be localized in their distribution. We collected the 
brindled madtom, Noturus miurus, only from upper Wildcat Creek and below 
the junction of the Tippecanoe and Wabash Rivers. Eastern sand darters, 
Ammocrypta pellucida, were captured only in our collections from lower 
Wildcat Creek. Gerking (2) and Erman and Mumford (1) reported both of these 
species only from Wildcat Creek. Additional careful sampling is necessary to 
properly assess the current distribution of these species. 

Of the large fish we collected in the Wabash mainstem, five species were 
seldom seen during our study. One northern pike, Esox lucius, was captured 
during a fisheries class in 1975. Burbot, Lota lota, and walleye, Stizostedion 
vitreum vitreum, are captured occasionally in our spring D-net samples. These 
fish probably escaped from impoundments on upstream tributaries or from pay 
fishing ponds that flood into the Wabash River in the spring. Shovelnose 
sturgeon, Scaphirhynchus platorynchus, and blue sucker, Cycleptus elongatus, 






Ecology 187 

were captured infrequently in our river electrofishing surveys. We have sighted 
one blue sucker while electrofishing in the Wabash River below Wildcat Creek 
in 1975. Two blue suckers were sighted between Lafayette and the mouth of Wea 
Creek during the 1977 summer survey of the Wabash River 1 . 

Noticeable changes in abundance and distribution of species occurred 
between major habitats. Redfin shiners, Notropis wnbratilis, appear to inhabit 
only the upper headwaters of a few streams in Tippecanoe County while nine 
species were abundant throughout the tributary streams of the Wabash River 
{Semotilus atromaculatus, Pimephales notatus, Ericymba buccata, Notropis 
chrysocephalus, Notropis spilopterus, Campostoma anomalum, Hypentelium 
nigricans, Cottus bairdi, Etheostoma nigrum). Bluntnose minnows, Pimephales 
notatus, and spotfin shiners, Notropis spilopterus, were also extremely 
abundant in seine collections from the Wabash River but six of the remaining 
seven common stream species rarely appeared in our Wabash River collections. 
We captured large adult northern hogsuckers, Hypentelium nigricans, regularly 
in our electrofishing surveys of the Wabash River but juveniles were abundant 
only in the tributaries. Sand shiners, Notropis stramineus, river shiners, 
Notropis blennius, and emerald shiners, Notropis atherinoides, consistently 
appeared in the Wabash River collections but were seldom collected in the 
tributary streams. 

During the course of this study and related projects we noted marked 
seasonal changes in the distribution and abundance of several catostomids that 
are characterized as river species. During March and April, several species of 
redhorse (Moxostoma anisuram, M. erythrurum, M. duquesnei, M. 
macrolepidotum, M. carinatum) and river carpsuckers, Carpiodes carpio, are 
extremely abundant during their spring spawning run in Wildcat Creek. After 
early to mid May, some of these species reside in the stream in much lower 
numbers while others appear to be absent (M. carinatum, M. anisurum). 

Of the large Wabash River species collected in our investigations, five 
species were extremely abundant (Dorosoma cepedianum, Cyprinus carpio, 
Carpiodes carpio, Moxostoma erythrurum, and Moxostoma maccrolepidotum 
White bass, Morone chrysops, and silver redhorse, Moxostoma anisurum, were 
captured frequently but in much smaller numbers. 



'Personal communication Dr. James Gammon, DePauw University, Greencastle, Indiana. 



88 Indiana Academy of Science 

Literature Cited 

1. Erman, D. C.,andR. E. Munford. A preliminary list of the fishes of Tippecanoe County, Indiana. 
Unpublished report. 6 p. 

2. Gerking, S. D. 1945. The distribution of the fishes of Indiana. Invest. Indiana Lakes and Streams 
3:1-137. 

3. Gorman, O. T. 1976. Diversity and stability in the fish communities of some Indiana and Panama 
streams. M. S. Thesis, Purdue University. 

4. Lehman, L. L. 1974. Some effects of PL 566 small watershed project on fish populations and 
selected water quality variables within and below a channelized area. M. S. Thesis, Purdue 
University. 

5. Nelson, J. S., and S. D. Gerking. 1968. Annotated key to the fishes of Indiana, Indiana 
University, Bloomington, Indiana. 

6. Pflieger, W. L. 1975. The fishes of Missouri. Missouri Dept. of Conservation. 343 p. 

7. Trautman, M. B. 1957. The fishes of Ohio. The Ohio State University Press, Columbus, Ohio. 638 
P- 



Reproductive Ecology of the Tiger Salamander, 
Amby stoma tigrinum, in Northern Indiana 

David M. Sever and Clarence F. Dineen 
Department of Biology, Saint Mary's College, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 

Introduction 

The tiger salamander, Ambystoma tigrinum (Green), is the most widely 
distributed species of salamander in the world. Seven subspecies range from 
central Alberta to Saskatchewan to the southern limits of the Mexican Plateau 
and from Long Island, New York to the Pacific coast of California (7). The 
subspecies occurring in Indiana, A. t. tigrinum, occurs over most of the eastern 
deciduous forest region except in the Appalachians (7). 

Adult A. t. tigrinum are terrestrial burrowers except for a short period in 
late winter when they migrate to ponds to breed. The most detailed life history 
accounts of A. t. tigrinum are by Bishop (2) in New York and Hassinger et al. (8) 
and Anderson et al. (1) in New Jersey. There have been no ecological studies on 
midwest populations. 

In 1975, we became aware of a large population of A. t. tigrinum breeding in 
a temporary pond 1 km south of Saint Mary's College. We studied various 
aspects of the reproductive ecology of this population in 1976 and 1977. Specific 
aims of the study were to determine numbers and sex ratio of breeding adults, 
food and growth of larvae, and details of migration of both adults and newly 
metamorphosed individuals. 

Materials and Methods 

The study pond is situated in a mowed grassy field. The pond at maximum 
size is one-fourth ha and 60 cm deep (Fig. 1). Milkweed {Asclepias incarnata) 
and a few red maple trees (Acer rubrum), cottonwoods {Populus deltoides) and 
willows (Salix niger) grow around the border of the pond. The pond is filled by 
melting winter snows and rainfall. Water was held until late July in 1976 and late 
May in 1977. During spring, pH of the pond is 6.8-7.0. A. tigrinum is the only 
salamander breeding in the pond, but anurans Pseudacris triseriata and Bufo 
americanus are present. The area surrounding the pond was once an extensive 
wetland, but human activities have reduced the habitat suitable for Ambystoma 
breeding to the one pond. 

In 1975, the first salamanders were noted in the pond on 14 March. In 1976, 
we visited the pond on 28 February to set up pit traps around the pond, but 
seining revealed that a considerable number of salamanders were already 
present — 46 were collected in one hour of seining. Pit traps were nevertheless set 
up and checked daily. These traps were set at 1 2 compass points about 1 m from 
the circumference of the pond (Fig. 1). Drift fences from each pit trap diverted 
immigrating salamanders into the traps. The cans used for traps were 28.0 cm in 
diameter and 36 cm deep. When it appeared that no more salamanders were 

189 



190 



Indiana Academy of Science 



w® 




32 m 



o Q oo o 




©E 



© 

s 



© 



Figure 1. Study pond showing dimensions at maximum size in March, distribution of trees, and 
placement of pit traps (numbered circles) and drift fences (on trap 1). Not drawn to scale. 

immigrating into the pond, the drift fences were turned on 23 March to sample 
emigrating salamanders. Additional seining samples were made on 5, 12 and 22 
March, and four salamanders were caught by dipnet on 9 March. Seining on 2 
April produced no specimens. 

Larvae were collected throughout the period of metamorphosis in 1976, 
and stomach analyses of food items were made. Prior to metamorphosis, traps 
and drift fences were set to capture the emigrating newly metamorphosed 
individuals. 

In 1977, traps were not used, and all adult salamanders recorded were 
captured by seining on 26 February; 4, 10, 21 and 29 March; 3, 1 1, and 15 April. 
Seining on 24 April produced no specimens. 

Each seining effort was an hour. All salamanders were individually marked 
by toe-clipping. Sex was determined by the presence of swollen cloacal glands in 
males and the absence of such swellings in females. The snout-vent length (S VL) 
of all specimens was measured in the field to the nearest mm from the tip of the 
snout to the caudal end of the vent. 



Results and Discussion 

Characteristics of the Adult Population 

In 1976, 189 (14300:46++) Ambystoma tigrinum were captured. Of these, 
158 (122:36) were captured by seining, 24(17:7) by traps, 4(1:3) by dipnet and 3 
(3:0) by both traps and seining. In 1977, 244 (204:40) individuals were captured 



Ecology 



191 





for the first time by seining. The overall sex ratio in 1976 was 76.7:24.3, and in 
1977 it was 84.6: 16.4. The operational sex ratio is the ratio of fertilizable females 
to sexually active males at any one time (6). This varied considerably among 
samples (Fig. 2). Significance of the sex ratio is discussed after consideration of 
migratory movements and population size. 



ioo ^ 

90 
80 
70 
60- 
°/ O 50 
40- 
30- 
20 
10 





12345 12345678 

1976 1977 

COLLECTIONS 

Figure 2. Sequential percentage of male and female Ambystoma tigrinum in 1976-1977 samples. 



Size Relationships. — There was no difference at the 0.01 probability level in 
snout-vent lengths (SVL) among collections or between males and females 
(Table 1). Males ranged from 8. 1-1 2. 5 cm and females 8.5-12.6 cm SVL. Figs. 3 
and 4 show frequency distributions for SVL of all specimens collected in 1976 
and 1977 respectively. By inspection, both distributions are normal. It is 
interesting to note that the mode for 1976 was 10.5 cm, and for 1977 it was 1 1.0 
cm (Figs. 3-4) although mean SVL did not vary much between years (Table 1). 

Age classes based on SVL would be hazardous to define. Sixteen specimens 
originally captured and measured in 1976 were recaptured and remeasured in 
1977. The average change in SVL of these 16 specimens between years is +. 16 cm, 
which is probably within the range of measuring error. Growth of adults appears 
to be too slow to detect age classes by simple field measurements. 

Migration of Adults. — Only 14 specimens (7oo:7+r) were captured in pit 
traps between 29 February-14 March, 1976, as they immigrated to the pond. 
Five were in the W trap, 3 in the E trap and the others in traps ENE ( 1 ), SES (2), 



192 



Indiana Academy of Science 



20 

N 15 

10 

5 



I 



I 



D c^l 



I 



\iih 



I 



8.5 9.0 9.5 10.0 10.5 1U) 113 1Z0 12.5 

SVL (CM) 

Figure 3 . Frequency distribution of snout-vent lengths (S VL) of A mbystoma tigrinum males (open 
blocks) and females (solid blocks) captured by seining in 1976. 



N 



40-1 

35 

30 
25 

20 
15 
10J 



I 



I 



P 



D 



Liu 



I 



LT 



D 



8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.0 10.5 11.0 11.5 12.0 12.5 

SVL (CM) 

Figure 4. Frequency distribution of snout-vent lengths (S VL) ofAmbystoma tigrinum males (open 
blocks) and females (solid blocks) captured by seining in 1977. 



Ecology 



193 



Table 1. Data on snout-vent lengths of Ambystoma tigrinum collected in 1976 and 1977 by seining. 

Females for a given year were considered as a group separate from males. Data on males from each 

collection and females for each year were subjected to an analysis of variance. F ratios were 

nonsignificant at the 0.0 1 level. 







Date 




N 




Range 


Mean 


Var 


1976 


















28 


Feb 


39 




8.5-12.5 


10.6 


0.82 




5 


Mar 


55 




8.5-12.0 


10.5 


0.53 




12 


Mar 


26 




9.0-12.0 


10.7 


0.70 




22 


Mar 


12 




9.8-12.1 


10.8 


0.50 




all 


n 


39 


Fs(4,167) = 


8.5-12.6 
= 0.4890 


10.6 


0.86 


1977 


















26 


Feb 


22 




9.1-12.0 


10.8 


0.52 




4 


Mar 


37 




9.6-12.0 


10.9 


0.44 




10 


Mar 


51 




9.0-12.5 


10.6 


0.80 




21 


Mar 


63 




9.0-12.0 


10.8 


0.62 




29 


Mar 


18 




9.5-12.0 


10.5 


0.62 




3 


Ap 


28 




8.1-11.5 


10.4 


0.79 




11 


Ap 


25 




9.0-12.5 


10.7 


0.64 




15 


Ap 


17 




8.5-12.0 


10.5 


0.73 




all 


n 


44 




9.4-12.2 


10.8 


0.48 








Fs(8,296) = 


= 1.1507 









SWS (2) and WSW (1). Two males captured in traps on 1 and 7 March were 
recaptured in the pond on 12 March. 

After drift fences were turned to capture the emigrating salamanders, 13 
were collected in pit traps on 29 March. Eleven of these were in traps NEN-ESE, 



15 



°C 5 



-5 




40 

P 30 

(m m)20 

10 




Figure 5. 77?^ relation of mean temperature (° C) and precipitation (P) to numbers (N) of adult 

Ambystoma tigrinum captured in pit traps in 1976. Those captured on 30 March were emigrating 

individuals; the rest were immigrating to the pond. 



194 



Indiana Academy of Science 



and the remainder were in traps N and WSW. These 13 salamanders were all 
males. One individual had previously been captured in the pond on 28 February, 
5 and 22 March. 

The relationships among adult migration, mean daily air temperature and 
precipitation are shown in Fig. 5. Migration was correlated with periods of 
precipitation. Temperature appears to show less relation to migratory behavior 
aside from the fact that rainfall was generally associated with a decrease in 
temperature. 

We found no evidence of a fall migration of salamanders to the breeding 
pond as suggested for A. tigrinum by Duellman (5) in Michigan and Smith (14) 
in Illinois. The pond is dry in late fall and appears as a tree-line depression in the 
field. The first immigrating salamanders arrive during or immediately after 
periods of bitter cold weather, but the highest population concentrations are not 
found until the air temperature is in the 8-16 C range (Fig. 6). 




Figure 6. The relation of mean temperature (° C) and precipitation (P) to Petersen population 
estimates (N)for samples of Ambystoma tigrinum obtained by seining in 1977. 



Recaptures. — In 1976, 11 specimens (5.8%) were recaptured within the 
breeding season. Ten were recaptured once, and one male was recaptured three 
times. Two of the 10, both males, were initially captured in pit traps and 
subsequently recaptured in the pond. Of the 10 recaptured once, three were 
females. Four of the males and two of the females were recaptured one collection 
after initial capture, and three males and one female were recaptured two 
collections later. The specimen recaptured three times was captured in the first 
seining collection on 28 February and recaptured in the pond on 5 and 22 
March. Its final recapture came in a trap on 29 March. Thus this male, captured 
in the first and last samples of 1976, spend the entire breeding season in the pond. 

Eighteen specimens (9.5%) captured in 1976 were recaptured in 1977. One 



Ecology 195 

was subsequently recaptured in 1977 three times, six were recaptured twice and 
11 were recaptured once. Three (16.7%) of the 18 specimens were females. This 
percentage is similar to the overall sex ratio and indicates that some if not most 
female A. trigrinum breed annually. 

There was a correlation between dates when some of these 18 specimens 
were initially captured in 1976 and initially recaptured in 1977. Thus two 
specimens originally collected on 28 February, 1976 were recaptured on 26 
February, 1977, and two others originally captured on 12 March, 1976 were 
recaptured on 10 March, 1977. However, two specimens originally captured on 
5 March, 1976 were not recaptured until 3 and 11 April, 1977. Other dates are 
not as close or disparate as these examples. Synchronic comparisons between 

1976 and 1977 are hampered or invalidated by the extreme weather differences 
between the two years. The winter of 1976 was relatively mild while the winter of 

1977 was the coldest on record. Salamanders arrived at the pond both years in 
later February, but they remained at the pond longer in 1977 (maximum until 24 
April) than in 1976 (maximum until 31 March). 

Of specimens initially captured in 1977, 32 (13.1%) specimens were 
recaptured in subsequent samples in the breeding season. Four specimens were 
recaptured twice. Only one female was recaptured within the 1977 collections, 
and she was recaptured in the subsequent two collections. Of the other three 
multiple recaptures, one male was recaptured in the following two collections 
and another was recaptured in the next collection and two collections 
afterwards. The final multiple recapture was a male initially collected in the first 
sample on 26 February, recaptured three collections later (22 March) and finally 
recaptured in the last collection on 1 5 April. So this individual, as noted for one 
in 1976, spent the entire breeding season in the pond. 

Of the 28 specimens (all males) recaptured once during the breeding season 
in 1977, 1 1 specimens were recaptured one collection later, nine were recaptured 
two collections later, five were recaptured three collections later, one was 
recaptured four collections later and two were recaptured five collections later. 

Table 2. Population estimates (N) based on the Petersen method using 1976-1977 collections of 
Ambystoma tigrinum obtained by seining. 95% confidence limits were calculated using a Poisson dis- 
tribution. The percentage of females is the actual value for each sample. 

Date <$$ N 95% CL 

1976 



1977 



28 


Feb 


5 


Mar 


12 


Mar 


26 


Feb 


4 


Mar 


10 


Mar 


21 


Mar 


29 


Mar 


3 


Ap 


11 


Ap 



15.2 


787 


309-3149 


16.7 


770 


302-3082 


42.2 


360 


100-3600 


18.5 


383 


130-1913 


11.9 


254 


138-541 


20.3 


1132 


444-4526 


13.7 


560 


191-2796 


18.2 


245 


84-1227 


6.7 


277 


94-1387 





299 


83-2990 



196 Indiana Academy of Science 

Population Size. — Using the formula for the adjusted Petersen estimate of 
Ricker (13), population size was estimated between successive seining 
collections in 1976 and 1977 (Table 2). There was considerable variability in 
population estimates throughout each breeding season, ranging from 360-787 in 
1976 and 245-1 132 in 1977. In 1976, there were three recaptures between the first 
three collections and one between the last two collections. In 1977, there were 
nine recaptures on 10 March from the previous sample on 4 March, but between 
each other sample and the previous collection there were only two or three 
recaptures except on 15 April there was only one recapture. 

Population estimates are also compared in Table 2 with actual percentage 
of females (operational sex ratio) per sample. In 1977 the largest population 
estimate was on 10 March. This sample had the second highest percentage of 
females (20%) for the season. The highest percentage of females in 1977 was 
22.7% for the 15 April collection for which no Petersen estimate can be made, 
but there were relatively few salamanders left in the pond at that time. 
Population estimates for 29 March (245), 3 April (277) and 1 1 April (299) were 
similar, but on 29 March there were 18% females, on 3 April 6. 7% females and 
on 1 1 April no females. 

The disparate population estimates, low numbers of recaptures and 
dramatic shifts in the operational sex ratio indicate that there is variable 
migration among individuals to and from the breeding pond. Only four females 
were recaptured within a given season, none more than two collections following 
initial capture. This implies that females do not remain at the pond for an 
extended period but rather mate soon after arriving at the pond, oviposit and 
leave the pond. The variation in the operational sex ratio further indicates that 
females arrive and leave at various times, i.e., there is no synchronic mass 
migration of females. Most male recaptures were also in the collection following 
initial capture, but many males were recaptured several collections later, and 
data on two males demonstrate that they spent the entire breeding season in the 
pond (see under Recaptures). Thus, although individual males remain at the 
pond for variable periods, males in general stay at the breeding pond longer than 
females. 

Although both males and females act as individuals in their migratory 
movements, there are definite periods correlated with optimal weather 
conditions when shifts in population size imply extensive movement within the 
population. Such periods of mass movement are seen for the 1977 sample in Fig. 
6. Population numbers increased dramatically during a period of high 
precipitation and rising temperature (4-10 March) and decreased during a 
subsequent similar period (29 March- 11 April). 

Other methods of estimating population size based on multiple censusing, 
such as those described by Ricker ( 1 3), are inappropriate when there is extensive 
migration. 

The only other estimate of the size of a breeding population of A. t. 
tigrinum was by Anderson et al. (1) in New Jersey where they estimated a 
population of 540 adults in a series of small adjacent ponds. Because of the 
effects of migration throughout the breeding period, it is hard to estimate the 



Ecology 197 

total number of adults in our breeding population, but it could be 1500-2000 
individuals. 

Interpretation of the Sex Ratio. — Wilson (15) stated that ideally, a parent 
will not produce equal numbers of each sex but instead make equal investments 
in them. Female A. tigrinwn produce and maintain large numbers of eggs and 
thus assume the greatest physiological burden for reproduction in the sepcies. 
The evolutionary strategy pursued by this species should be one by which 
individual females arriving at the philopatric breeding area have the greatest 
chance of mating, preferably with a superior male. To insure that each female 
offspring will find a mate, it would be advantageous for an individual to produce 
more males than females or to at least have all the males aggregated in one area 
for a period of time. 

The courtship activities of A. tigrinum constitute the type of male 
dominance polygyny involving a lek (6). A lek is a communal display area where 
males congregate for the sole purpose of attracting and courting females and to 
which females come for mating. Such aggregations are typified by fairly long 
breeding seasons, an operational sex ratio skewed towards males, the inability of 
individual males to control resources necessary for female acquisition and some 
asynchrony in female mating receptivity (6). 

These criteria seem to fit what is known about breeding activities in A. 
tigrinum. The long breeding season, communal mating area, skewed sex ratio 
toward males and lack of controllable resources are obvious features of this 
population. Asynchrony of female mating receptivity due to variable migration 
of females was discussed under Population Size. We will comment only on the 
communal nature of the male courtship display. 

Courtship in many Ambystoma involves a mass display by males called the 
Liebesspiel (10). This was described in A. tigrinum by Kumpf (9) and O'Donnell 
(11). O'Donnell (11) stated that courtship begins by males nosing other 
individuals indescriminate of sex, and such nosing is permitted by both males 
and females. In A. maculatum Nobel (10) stated that such movements involve 
males turning back and forth over one another and rubbing snouts agains each 
other's tail or body in a caudo-cephalic direction. Also, the most aggressive 
males frequently pass under the bodies of others (10). 

Females are presumably attracted to males by secretions of the male cloacal 
glands (9). The female follows the male with her snout applied to the male's vent 
(9). After the male extrudes a spermatophore, the female settles her vent over it 
and swims away with the apex of the spermatophore containing the 
spermatozoa lodged in her cloaca (9). O'Donnell (11) stated that the number of 
spermatophores is small, and deposition is not necessarily dependent upon 
presence of females or preceding courtship activities. 

Thus A. tigrinum fits the lek strategy which explains the skewed sex ratio 
towards males. If the males of a population remain a long time at the breeding 
area while females come and go, the operational sex ratio at any one time may be 
highly skewed towards males. Females have the largest physical investment in 
the next generation, and nearly all females would be expected to mate 
successfully. A group of males is more likely to attract a single female than is a 



198 Indiana Academy of Science 

solitary male, and a male is more likely to encounter a receptive female when he 
is in a group ( 1 5). However, there may be disporportionate success among males 
in terms of successful matings. Larger, healthier or otherwise dominant males 
may mate a number of times while other males do not mate at all (6, 15). 

The skewed sex ratio observed in this population may not only be related to 
sexual differences in length of time spent at the pond, but may also indicate that 
individuals produce more males than females to insure that each female finds a 
mate. The mechanics of maintaining such a skewed sex ratio in a dioecious 
species with a heterogametic and homogametic sex begs more data. The adult 
sex ratio is a product of three quantities: the ratio at birth, the difference in 
maturation time between males and females, and differential mortality (15). All 
three of these quantities can be functions of sexual selection (15). Work needs to 
be attempted on A. tigrinum to see if any of these factors are also responsible for 
the skewed sex ratio in our population of A. tigrinum. 

Another explanation for the relatively high number of males in breeding 
populations of A. tigrinum was offered by Anderson et ah (1). They suggested 
that females have a biennial reproductive cycle while males breed annually. Our 
data do not support this. Of the 18 specimens originally captured in 1976 that 
were recaptured in 1977, three (16.7%) were females, approximately the 
proportion one would expect. This indicates that many, if not all female A. 
tigrinum breed annually in this population. 

Survivorship. — Blanchard (3) reported that a male A. tigrinum raised from 
an egg lived 1 1 years in captivity. A female collected as an adult was still in good 
condition after seven years (3). Oliver (12) reported that an aquatic neotenic 
larvae of A. tigrinum lived 25 years and a transformed adult 16 years. Thus A. 
tigrinum is a relatively long-lived species. 

We assume a variable survival rate for A. tigrinum throughout the year due 
to the marked difference in habitat between the aquatic breeding period and the 
terrestrial mode of life the rest of the year. However, we also assume that natural 
mortality will be similar among all ages of adults due to similarity of body size, 
slow growth and known longevity. Ricker (13) gives a formula for determining 
survivorship (S) based on variable rates as: 

S = Ri (M2) / R 2 (M2) 
where Ri = number of specimens marked in the first year and recaptured in the 
second, R2 = recaptures in the second year, Mi = number of specimens marked in 
the first year, and M2 = number of specimens marked in the second year. Solving 
this equation for our data gives a survivorship of 71.9% with a variance of .040. 
This estimate proposes that roughly 72% of the salamanders that bred in 1976 
survived to breed again in 1977. 

Characteristics of Eggs, Larvae and Newly Metamorphosed Individuals 

Hatching and Growth of Larvae. — In 1976, the first eggs were noted in the 
pond on 2 March and first hatching larvae on 2 April. Clutches were generally 
attached to vegetation bordering the deeper portion of the pond. Hatching seemed 
limited to April, but egg clutches in various stages of development were found 
throughout the month indicating again that females are asynchronous in 



Ecology 199 

migrating to the pond. Other workers initiated a detailed study of oviposition in 
the population in 1977; their results will be reported elsewhere. Our results on 
larval development are limited to 1976. 

The frequency distributions of snout-vent lengths of larvae collected in the 
pond on 29 June and 19 July and of newly metamorphosed individuals caught in 
traps on 6 and 15 July are shown in Fig. 7. The wide range of larval sizes also 
indicates an extended period of egg-laying. 

19 JULY 



.lui 



15 J ULY 



Jt 



6 J ULY 




29 JUNE 



35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 



SVL (mm) 



Figure 7. Frequency distribution of snout-vent lengths (SVL) of larval Ambystoma tigrinum 

collected in the pond on 29 June and 19 July and of newly metamorphosed individuals captured in pit 

traps on 6 and 15 July, 1976. 

Toward the end of July, 1976, as the pond became nearly dry, some 
specimens collected in pit traps were not completely metamorphosed and still 
possessed gill stubs. When we visited the pond on the night of 15 July, 200 larvae 
were actually counted before counting was stopped as many more than that were 
present. As pond depressions dried, large larvae made no attempts to burrow or 
cross overland to other depressions still holding water. Since some trapped 
specimens still retained gill stubs, this suggests that the urge to emigrate is closely 
correlated with a specific stage of metamorphosis. 

The pond dried completely on 20 July, and many larvae were found 
desiccated. These larvae were apparently from late broods and had not reached a 
critical stage necessary for emigrating behavior. Most of these desiccated larvae 
were quite large. Larvae that failed to leave the drying depressions were heavily 
preyed upon by birds, especially killdeer, bittern and grackles. 



200 Indiana Academy of Science 

In 1977, following a prolonged drought, the pond dried completely at the 
end of May. No collection was made immediately prior to the drying, and it is 
assumed that the entire year crop was killed. Such catastrophies may play an 
enormous role in the dynamics of this population of A. tigrinum. The pond is the 
last suitable habitat for A. tigrinum in an area of several kilometers, and many 
man-made barriers exist in the interim. 

The fate of all such ponds in succession is to disapper, but as long as the 
pond holds water during breeding activities, salamanders are likely to return to 
the pond for a number of years. The high survival rate for adults (71.9%) and 
longevity ( 1 6 years) indicate that the population could continue for a number of 
seasons without recruitment from younger classes. 

Food Habits of the Metamorphosing Larvae. — In the absence of predator 
fishes, the larval salamanders were the top predators in the aquatic ecosystem. 
However, a few large, larval predacious beetles {Dytiscus) were observed feeding 
on larval A. tigrinum. Insect predation on small larval A. tigrinum was reported 
by Anderson et al.(l). 

The larvae of A. tigrinum were voracious feeders from the time the yolk was 
absorbed until metamorphosis was close to completion. The larvae of all ages 
were primarily carnivorous. Some plant and organic detritus were consumed 
inadvertently while feeding on animals. Limited quantities of filamentous algae 
(Oedogonium, Spriogyra, Zygemia) were taken when the small larvae fed 
extensively on individual planktonic crustaceans which were feeding on algal 
masses attached to rooted plants. Also, organic detritus was found in the 
stomachs when the larvae fed on certain benthic invertebrates {i.e., Hyalella, 
chironomid larvae) and during the period when small tadpoles (Bufo 
americanus) were preyed upon in large numbers in the warm, shallow (less than 
5 cm) edges of the pond. 

The size of the animals as prey was a significant selective factor in the 
feeding habits of the larval salamanders. However, other than swallowable size, 
there were no species preference for prey. Selection of swallowable prey was 
directly correlated with abundance. In this respect the natural development and 
succession of invertebrates in the temporary pond supplied ample food for the 
population of A. tigrinum larvae. 

All microhabitats of the pond were inhabited by the larval salamanders at 
some stage in their development. While the larvae moved primarily on the 
bottom in search of food, many were observed swimming among rooted plants. 
Also, they moved into planktonic zones where crustaceans were feeding on 
filamentous algae and into very shallow water to consume tadpoles. 

In the Eubranchiopoda, which characteristically inhabit temporary ponds 
in early spring, the fairy shrimp population preceded the development of feeding 
larval salamanders. However, one species of clam shrimp was a significant food 
item in April. Cladocera, chiefly Ceriodaphnia and species of Copepoda 
constituted major food items. Ostracoda, a few Rotatoria and small immature 
insects completed the diet of larval salamanders in April. 

In May, Rotatoria, mainly Brachionus, and water mites, Hydracarina, 
became important foods. The cladoceran population shifted from primarily 



Ecology 201 

Ceriodaphnia to Daphnia and secondarily Chydorus. Also, for a period of 
about two weeks in May large numbers of Bufo americanus tadpoles were 
consumed. 

The planktonic organisms remained important food items throughout June 
and July. However, a variety of insects formed the chief portion of the diet. 
Dineen (4) reported that larval A. tigrinum have dual feeding habits; snapping at 
the larger organisms when light is adequate and gulping water from a stationary 
position in order to sieve out plankters when the light intensity is low. Several 
species of Odonata and Trichoptera were common food items. The most 
significant families of Hemiptera were Corixidae, Gerridae, Nepidae, and 
Notonectidae. Coleoptera was represented in the stomachs by Dytiscidae, 
Hydrophilidae, Belostomatidae and Gyrinidae. Tendipedidae and Culicidae 
were abundant dipteran foods. Other common summer food included 
Amphipoda, Oligochaeta and Gastropoda. Very few Hirudinea were consumed 
by the larvae. Some terrestrial insects were eated by the larval salamanders. 
Surface feeding was observed on a few occasions in shallow water. 

The newly metamorphosed individuals captured in pit traps during 
emigration contained mainly earthworms and terrestrial insects. However, 
many of the stomachs were empty. 

Emigration of Newly Metamorphosed Individuals. — Traps were set up in 
June, 1976, and between 6-29 July, 158 newly metamorphosed individuals were 
caught in the traps. All 12 traps caught some specimens, but 58% were in traps 
NEN-ESE. The pond dried completely on 20 July, but a heavy rain refilled the 
pond on 21 July and 35 specimens were caught that day in traps even though 
there was no evidence of live salamanders in the pond the previous day. After 21 
July, no larvae were found in the pond, and only seven were caught in traps. 
These latter specimens may have fallen into the traps during normal foraging 
and not have been new pond emigrants. The relationship of temperature and 
precipitation to numbers of specimens caught in the traps is shown in Fig. 8. 
Emigration was correlated with rainfall and/ or low temperature. 

The general easterly preference for migratory movements of newly 
metamorphosed specimens cannot be explained. To the east are extensive 
athletic fields bordering a major highway on which dead salamanders have not 
been observed. To the north is the campus of Holy Cross Junior College and to 
the south and west are large fields bordering the Saint Joseph River. The 
grounds-keeper of Holy Cross Junior College mentions the occasional 
unearthing of specimens while planting trees and doing other work on the 
grounds. 



202 



Indiana Academy of Science 




10 15 20 25 

JULY 



30 



Figure 8. Relation of mean temperature (° C) and precipitation (P) to numbers (N) of newly 
metamorphosed Ambystoma tigrinum captured in pit traps in July, 1976. 

Acknowledgements 

This study was supported by a grant-in-aid from the Indiana Academy of 
Science. We wish to thank the administrators of Holy Cross Junior College for 
access to the pond. We also wish to thank many undergraduate students who 
aided in this research, especially Stephanie Jo DeNeff, Rita Schroer and 
Madeline Couture. 



Literature Cited 

1. Anderson, J. D., D. D. Hassinger, and G. H. Darymple. 1971. Natural mortality of eggs and 
larvae of Ambystoma t. tigrinum. Ecology 52:1107-1112. 

2. Bishop, S. C. 1941. The salamanders of New York. New York State Mus. Bull. 3241-365. 

3. Blanchard, F. C. 1932. Length of life in the tiger salamander, Ambystoma tigrinum (Green). 
Copeia 1932:98-99. 

4. Dineen, C. F. 1955. Food habits of the larval tiger salamander (Ambyustoma tigrinum). Proc. Ind. 
Acad. Sci. 65:231-233. 

5. Duellman, W. E. 1954. Observations on autumn movements of the salamander Ambystoma 
tigrinum tigrinum in southeastern Michigan. Copeia 1954:156-157. 

6. Emlen, S. T. and L. W. Oring. 1977. Ecology, sexual selection, and the evoluation of mating 
systems. Science 197:215-223. 



Ecology 203 

7. Gehlbach, F. R. 1967. Ambystoma tigrinum. Cat. Amer. Amphib. Rept:5 1.1-4. 

8. Hassinger, D. D., Anderson, J. D., and G. H. Dalrymple. 1970. The early life history and 
ecology of Ambystoma tigrinum and Ambystoma opacum in New Jersey. Amer. Midi. Nat. 
84:474-495. 

9. Kumpf, K. F. 1934. The courtship of Ambystoma tigrinum. Copeia 1934:7-10. 

10. Noble, G. K. 1931. The biology of the Amphibia. McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York. 577 pp. 

11. O'Donnell, D. J. 1937. Natural history of the ambystomid salamanders of Illinois. Amer. Midi. 
Nat. 18:1063-1071. 

12. Oliver, J. A. 1955. The natural history of North American amphibians and reptiles. D. Van 
Nostrand Publ. Co., Princeton, New Jersey. 359 pp. 

13. Ricker, W. E. 1975. Computation and interpretation of biological statistics of fish populations. 
Fish. Res. Board Canada Bull. 191:1-382. 

14. Smith, P. W. 1961. The amphibians and reptiles of Illinois. Bull. 111. Nat. Hist. Surv. 28:1-298. 

15. Wilson, E. O. 1975. Sociobiology: the new synthesis. Belknap Press, Harvard University, 
Cambridge, Mass. 697 pp. 



A Study of the Relationship Between 

Phytoplankton Abundance and Trace Metal Concentrations 

in Eutrophic Lake Charles East, Using Correlation Techniques 

David F. Spencer, Richard W. Greene, Hung Yiu Yeung, Quentin E. Ross 
Department of Biology, Notre Dame University, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 

Thomas L. Theis, Elizabeth E. Dodge 

Department of Civil Engineering 

Notre Dame University, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 

Introduction 

While phytoplankton succession is familiar, determination of the specific 
biological and environmental factors which influence the timing of relative 
species abundances remains a central question for aquatic ecologists. Recently, 
Porter (13) has reviewed the literature on the relative importance of chemical 
(nutrient availability), physical (light, temperature), and biological 
(zooplankton grazing) factors and concluded that all three interact to determine 
which algal species will occur and become dominant in a lake at any given 
moment. However, much remains to be learned before ecologists arrive at a 
general model to explain the temporal changes in species composition which 
characterize aquatic communities. Goldman (5) suggests that this statement is 
especially significant with regard to the role of trace metals, which may play a 
dual role in phytoplankton species succession. Trace metals may function either 
as limiting nutrients (6), or as substances which differentially inhibit algal 
photosynthesis and growth (16,18,19) thereby, influencing species succession 
(12, 17). 

Chau et al. (2) studied relationships between levels of Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Fe, Pb, 
Mn, Mo, Ni, Sr, V, and Zn and the subsurface concentrations of chlorophyll in 
Lake Ontario during 1969. They reported positive correlations between 
chlorophyll and Zn, and combinations of Zn, Cu, and Fe. The purpose of this 
paper is to examine the results of a similar study using data on the 
phytoplankton community and physio-chemical parameters collected from 
Lake Charles East, Indiana. In the course of this study the levels of 10 trace 
metals, 8 of which were considered by Chau et al. (2) were measured. 
Additionally, measurements of the levels of arsenic and selenium were included 
in the present study. Comparisons between the total algal standing crop and 
trace metal levels, were augmented by attempts to correlate trace metal levels 
with the abundances of classes of algae and of individual species. Such 
comparisons are not possible when algal abundance is measured as chlorophyll. 
Therefore, this study not only contributes information on two trace metals not 
considered by Chau et al. (2), but also provides information on the interaction 
between trace metal levels and individual algal species abundances under field 
conditions. 

204 



Ecology 205 

Table 1. Morphometric and geographic characters for Ljike Charles East, Indiana 



Maximum length 6I7 - 2 m 

Maximum width 237 - 7 m 

Maximum depth ^ 3.1 m 

Mean depth 

Relative depth 

Surface area 

Volume 1849525 m 

Shore line length l563 - 6 m 

Shore line development *■•* 

Elevation 3II ° m 

Latitude 

Longitude 



2.1 m 
.9 m 
8.6 hectares 



41.38 N 
85.00 W 



Study Area 

Lake Charles East is a small, shallow, man-made lake located 
approximately 7 kilometers north of Angola, in Steuben County, Indiana. 
Pertinent morphometric and geographic characteristics are listed in Table 1. 
The lake is traversed by 2 bridges which are part of U.S. Interstate Highway 69. 
Using the criteria of Wetzel (22) the lake may be described as hypereutrophic. 
During the study period the mean value for total phosphorus (particulate plus 
reactive) was 301 (±66.5) /ug/1, and the mean total algal biomass was 160.3 
(±140. 1) cm 3 /m 3 . Additional data on the chemical and physical characteristics of 
Lake Charles East are given in Table 2. 



Table 2. Chemical, physical, and biological parameters for Lake Charles East from April — Octobe 

1976. 



Total phosphorus 

Dissolved phosphorus 

Temperature 

pH 

Dissolved oxygen 

Alkalinity 

Ammonia-Nitrogen* 

Nitrite Nitrate-Nitrogen 31 

Total Organic Nitrogen* 

Hardness 

Calcium 

Sulfates 

Total Algal Biomass 

*mg/ 1 as nitrogen 



X 


s 


301.0 


66.5 ugl 1 


53.4 


48.1 ugl 1 


21.6 


3.8 °C 


8.5 


0.7 


6.6 


2.0 mg/1 


11.5 


28.5 


0.7 


0.7 


0.04 


0.04 


1.8 


1.0 


148.3 


35.6 


78.2 


37.6 


16.6 


2.1 


160.3 


140.1 cm'/m 



206 Indiana Academy of Science 

Methods of Analysis 

One liter samples were collected with a plastic Kemmerer water sampler 
from 0.5 m depth at a sampling station near the deepest part of the lake. Samples 
were filtered through fiber glass filters (1 yum pore size) within one-half hour or 
collection. One hundred milliliters were pipetted into acid-washed ground glass- 
stoppered bottles, preserved with 5 drops of 50% perchloric acid and 
transported to the laboratory for analysis. The trace metal concentrations were 
determined using a Perkin-Elmer model 305 atomic absorption 
spectrophotometer equipped with a graphite furnace and an automatic 
sampling device. Additional chemical parameters were determined using the 
techniques outlined in Standard Methods (1). 

One liter phytoplankton samples were collected and fixed with Lugol's 
solution (20). Phytoplankton enumeration was accomplished using the stained- 
organism, membrane filter technique described by DeNoyelles (4). Cell counts 
were converted to biomass units (cubic micrometers) using species volumes 
given by Nauwerck (9). Climatic data were obtained from a local weather 
station. Data on the traffic flow across the two bridges of Interstate 69 were 
obtained from the Indiana Department of Highways. Statistical treatment of the 
data was facilitated by use of the programs in the Statistical Package for the 
Social Sciences (10). 



Table 3. Trace metal concentrations in Lake Charles East, Indiana during April to October, 1976. 
Values are from samples collected from 0.5 meter and are in units ofug/L 





Date 


FE 


Mn 


Cu 


Cr 


Cd 


As 


PbZn 


Ni 


Se 


Apr 15 


165 


5 


29 


15 


nd 


X 


318 


365 


X 


May 


180 


13 


24 


18 


nd 


100 


335 


300 


37 


Jun 8 


186 


4 


7 


1 


72 


502 


6539 






Jun 17 


307 


43 


5 


11 


1 


65 


551 


85 


37 


Jun 24 


216 


37 


5 


6 


2 


61 


553 


103 


34 


Jul 8 


160 


51 


7 


1 


3 


57 


596 


83 


30 


Jul 21 


143 


40 


8 


1 


3 


60 


596 


40 


30 


Jul 28 


90 


10 


8 


1 


3 


60 


554 


33 


30 


Aug 4 


108 


23 


8 


1 


2 


58 


784 


28 


31 


Aug 18 


170 


97 


7 


2 


1 


70 


1186 


56 


44 


Aug 25 


215 


158 


6 


3 


1 


84 


1357 


90 


55 


Sep 15 


295 


115 


45 


4 


2 


60 


549 


83 


30 


Oct 4 


655 


510 


30 


8 


3 


56 


257 


90 


30 


MEAN 


222 


88 


14 


6 


2 


67 


625 


.109 


36 


S.D. 


144 


135 


13 


5 


1 


13 


322 


103 


8 





nd, not detected; x, not determined 

Results and Discussions 

Table 3 lists the measured concentrations for each of the trace metals 
monitored during this study. The general trends for temporal metal 
distributions were as follows. Arsenic, chromium, and nickel were relatively 
high during the spring and decreased through the summer and autumn. Arsenic 



Ecology 



207 



exhibited a second peak in late August. Cadmium was low through the spring, 
peaked in midsummer, declined, and then peaked again in late autumn. Copper 
displayed a vernal and an autumnal peak and was relatively low through the 
summer. Iron, lead, manganese, and selenium exhibited general increases from 
spring to late autumn. Zinc displayed three peaks: spring, midsummer, and 
autumn. 

Metal concentrations in Lake Charles are higher in every case except zinc, 
than those reported by Wetzel (220 for 8 lakes in northeastern Indiana. 
Concentrations of Pb, Ni, Fe, and Mn are higher than the average level reported 
by Kopp and Kroner (8) for lakes and rivers in the United States, while Zn and 
Cd are lower than the values given by Kopp and Kroner (8). 

Figure 1 shows the relationship between Pb concentration in Lake Charles 
and the traffic density over the bridges of Interstate 69 which cross the lake. The 
functional relationship between Pb concentration and traffic density was 
determined using Bartlett's 3-group method for Model II regression (14,1 5). The 
regression equation is, (Pb) = -707.3 + 0.068 x Traffic density. The 95% 
confidence limits on the slope are lower limit = 0.053 and upper limit = 0.124. 



CD 

2 















* 




120 












* 




100 


- 














80 














* 


60 
40 








* y 


* 




i 


20 




* 

1 


Wy 


* i 


i 


1 





10.4 10.8 11.2 11.6 
RUTOMOBILES/DflY (* 1000) 

Figure 1 . This figure shows the relationship he/ween lead concentration and the traffic density across 

the two bridges which bisect the lake. The verticle axis shows lead concentration in ug/ 1 while, the 

horizontal axis refers to the mean daily number of automobiles across the bridges. 



Cowgill (3) reported that rainfall during the previous 7 days and zinc 
concentrations in Linseley Pond, Connecticut, were correlated, suggesting that 
zinc dynamics were closely related to rainfall. This does not appear to be so for 
Lake Charles. Neither, zinc nor any other metal measured by us showed a 
significant correlation with rainfall. 



X 


S 


3147 


5500 


5223 


6948 


406 


598 


26 


47 


57 


80 


132 


203 


15 


31 


676 


1209 


11 


41 


11 


40 


35 


76 


15 


42 


68 


170 


38 


78 


750 


2375 


403 


1038 


878 


2730 


18 


36 


64 


97 


10489 


21253 


916 


1304 



208 Indiana Academy of Science 

Table 4. The phytoplankton species sampled in Lake Charles East during the study period. The values 
given are the mean and standard deviation of three samples taken at 5.0, 1.5, and 2.0 meters. 



Species 

Oscillatoria Agardhii 
A nabaena circinalis 
Microcystis aeruginosa 
Aphanizomenon flos-aquae 
Merismopedia sp. 
Trachelomonas hispida 
Scenedesmus dimorphus 
S. quadricauda 
S. arcuatus 

A nkistrodesmus falcatus 
Pediastrum duplex 
Cosmarium sp. 
Dactylococcus sp. 
Staurastrum sp. 
Tetraedron sp. 
Chlamydomonas sp. 
Cyclotella bodanica 
Synedra ulna 
Navicula sp. 
Cryptomonas ovata 
Gymnodinium palustre 



Phytoplankton species succession in Lake Charles East followed the typical 
pattern described by Hutchinson (7) for temperate eutrophic lakes. Species and 
their mean abundances (counts/ ml) are given in Table 4. In the spring 
Cryptophyta, Bacillariophyceae, and Chlorophyta were dominant. Thereafter, 
with the exception of a diatom bloom {Cyclotella bodanica) in mid-June, 
Cyanophyta remained dominant until mid-September. During this period the 
dominant blue-green species shifted according to the following scheme: 
Aphanizomenon flos-aquae to Anabaena circinalis to Microcystis aeruginosa. 

Other species which contributed up to 20% of the total biomass during this 
period were Gymnodinium palustre, Cryptomonas ovata, and Scenedesmus 
quadricauda. By mid-September, Cryptomonas ovata had become the 
dominant species. The general pattern is evident in Figure 2. 

Using bivariate correlation analysis the matrix of algal abundances, trace 
metal concentrations, and physico-chemical parameters were scanned for 
statistically significant relationships. The null hypothesis is that there exists no 
relationship between trace metal concentration or physico-chemical parameter 
and algal abundance. Algal abundance was represented by three types of 
variables. They are total algal biomass, biomass of classes of algae (i.e. blue- 
greens, greens, diatoms, etc.), and biomass of individual species. Since there is a 
priori evidence to suggest that any given correlation may be positive or negative, 
a two-tailed test of significance was employed. A number of statistically 
significant correlations were found. These are listed in Table 5. The question 
arises as to whether or not the significant correlation observed between the 
abundance of species A and trace metal B is real, or whether it merely reflects the 



Ecology 



209 



PHYTDPLRNKTON, V. COMPOSITION 

0.00 20.00 UO. 00 60.00 80.00 100.00 



ZD 



K 




ID 



LD 



Figure 2. This figure shows the percent contribution of the Chrysophyta (white), Chlorophyta 

(diagonal), Cyanophyta (cross-hatched), Cryptophyta (vertical), and Pyrrhophyta (solid) to the total 

algal hiomass during the study period. 



Table 5. Pearson correlation coefficients between algal variables and the physico-chemical and trace 
metal parameters measured in this study. Correlations are significant at the 0.05 level. 



Oscillatoria Agardhii- Pb,Se,A,H,Ca 
Microcystis aeruginosa — Pb , P H , A , H , Ca 
Trachelomonas hispida — Cr,Zn, A, H.Ca 
Navicula sp.— Cr,Ni,T,H,Ca 
Scenedesmus quadricauda—Pb.PH, A, H,Ca 
Ankistrodesmus falcatus — Cr,As,Ni 
Cosmarium sp. — Cu,TP04 
Cryptomonas ovata — Cu,TP04 
Aphanizomenon flos-aquae — Cr, As 
S. dimorphus — Pb,Se 
Dactylococcus sp. — Zn,Si,A,S04 
Merismopedia sp. — Pb,TP04,OPO4 
Pediastrum duplex — Si,PH 
S. arcuatus — Fe,Mn,NH3 
Cyanophyta— Cr,Pb,Se,PH, A, H,Ca 
Total Algal Biomass — pb,PH 



A, represents alkalinity; H, represents hardness; T, represents temperature; TP04, represents total 
phosphorus; OP04, represents dissolved phosphurs; NH3, represents ammonia-nitrogen. 



210 Indiana Academy of Science 

fact that both are correlated with a third factor, C. Partial correlation techniques 
provide a means of answering this question, at least in terms of the variables 
measured during this study. For example, in the case of the correlations 
observed between T. hispida and Cr, Zn, alkalinity, hardness, and Ca, partial 
correlations techniques allow calculation of the correlation between 
Trachelomonas abundance and Zn while statistically holding Cr, alkalinity 
hardness, and Ca constant. A resulting significant partial correlation coefficient 
suggests that in terms of the variables considered, the correlation between 
Trachelomonas and Zn is not a spurious one (10). Table 6 list the significant 
correlations between algal variables and the trace metal concentrations. 

Table 6. Significant partial correlation coefficients between algal variables and physico-chemical and 
trace metal par amets. Coefficients are significant at the 0.05 level, 'ns' indicates that no significant 
correlations were observed. 

Total Algal Biomass ns 

Chlorophyta ns 

Chrysophyta ns 

Pyrrhophyta ns 

Cryptophyta ns 

Cyanophyta — Se 0.83 

Microcystis aeruginosa — Pb 0.84 

Scenedesmus quadricauda — Pb 0.67 

Trachelomonas hispida — Car 0.77 

Aphanizomenon flos-aquae — Cr 0.51 

Navicula sp. — Ni 0.75 

5. arcuatus— Mn 0.77 
T. hispida — Zn -0.68 



Chau et al. (2) reported positive correlations between subsurface 
chlorophyll concentrations for Zn and combinations of Zn and Cu and Zn and 
Fe. Lake Charles total algal biomass was not correlated with these or any other 
trace metal considered here. However, total blue-green algal biomass was 
significantly correlated with Se concentration. Selenium was not reported by 
Chau et al. (2). The significant species abundance — trace metal correlations 
involve 3 species of green algae, 2 of blue-green, and 1 diatom species. The trace 
metals include 2 which are known to be required micronutrients, Zn and Mn 
(11), while the role of Pb, Cr, Ni, and Se in natural waters still needs to be 
established. The observed correlations are all positive except for the one 
between Zn and T. hispida. 

Care must be used in ascribing ecological meaning to these correlation 
coefficients. A significant correlation coefficient implies that the two variables 
covary in a manner that does not seem likely to be due to chance alone ( 15). With 
this caution, we suggest that the positive correlations between species 
abundance and trace metal concentration reported here may be interpreted as 
meaning that a given species may be more tolerant of higher levels of the trace 
metal it is correlated with, than another noncorrelated species. A second 
interpretation may be that a nutrient limitation is involved (5). Controlled 
bioassy experiments presently underway should provide a clearer indication as 
to which interpretation is more appropriate for the cases reported above. 



Ecology 211 

Acknowledgements 

We would like to thank Peter J. McCabe, Brian P. J. Higgins, and Sudhir 
C. Mohleji for technical assistance. This research was supported by the United 
States Environmental Protection Agency (Project number R-80 1245-04-2). 



Literature Cited 

1. American Public Health Association. 1971. Standard Methods for the examination of water 
and wastewater. 13th edition. APHA, Washington, D.C. 874 p. 

2. Chau, Y.K., V.K. Chawla, H.F. Nicholson, and R.A. Vollenweider. 1970. Distribution of 
trace elements and chlorophyll-A in Lake Ontario, inter. Assoc. Great Lakes Research, Proc. 13th 
Conf. on Great Lakes Research, Part 2:659-672 

3. Cowgill, U.M. 1970. The hydrogeochemistry of Linsely Pond, North Branford, Connecticut. I. 
Introduction, field work and chemistry by X-ray emission spectroscopy, arch. Hydrobiol. 68: 1 -95 

4. DeNoyelles, F. 1968. A stained-organism filter technique for concentrating phytoplankton. 
Limn, and Ocean. 13: 562-565 

5. Goldman, C.R. 1972. The role of minor nutrients in limiting the productivity of aquatic 
ecosystems, p 21-33. In: Symposium on nutrients and ecosystems: The limiting nutrient 
controversy, ed. G.E. Likens, Am. Soc. Lim. & Ocean. Spec. Symp. v. 1 

6. Goldman, C.R. 1965. Micronutrient limiting factors and their detection in natural phytoplankton 
populations, p 121-135. In: Primary productivity in acquatic environments, ed. C.R. Goldman. 
Mem. Inst. Ital. Idrobiol. 18 Suppl., Univ. Calif. Press, Berkeley 

7. Hutchinson, G.E. 1967. Treatise on Limnology, vol 2. Introduction to lake biology and the 
limnoplankton. Wiley, N.Y. 

8. Kopp, J.F. and R.C. Kroner, (n.d.) Trace metals in waters of the United States. Fed. Water Poll. 
Cont. Admit*, Cincinnati 

9. Nauwerck, A. 1963. Die Beziehungen zwischen zooplankton und phytoplankton im See Erken. 
Symb. Bot. Upsal. 17:16-163 

10. Nie, N.H., C.H. Hull, J.G. Jenkins, K. Steinbrenner, D.H. Bent. 1975. SPSS statistical 
package for the social sciences, 2 ed. McGraw-Hill, N.Y. 675 p 

11. O'Kelly, J.C. 1974. Inorganic nutrients, p 610-635. In: Algal physiology and biochemistry, ed. 
W.D.P. Stewart. Univ. Calif. Press, Berkeley 989 p. 

12. Patrick, R., T. Bott, R. Larson. 1975. The role of trace elements in management of nuisance 
growth. Environmental protection Tech. Ser. EPA-660/ 2-75-008. 247 p 

13. Porter, Karen Glaus. 1977. The plant-animal interface in freshwater ecosystems. Am. Scientist 
65:159-170 

14. Simpson, G.G., A. Roe, R.C. Lewontin. 1960. Quantitative Zoology. Harcourt, Brace, & World, 
Inc., N.Y. 440 p 

15. Sokal, R.R. and F.J. Rohlf. 1969. Biometry. W.H. Freeman and Co. 776 p 

16. Steeman-Nielsen, E. and S. Wium-Anderson. 1971 . The influence of Cu on Photosynthesis and 
growth in diatoms. Physiol. Plant. 24: 480-484 

17. Thomas, W.H. and D.L.R. Seibert. 1977. Effects of Copper on the dominance and the diversity of 
algae: controlled ecosystem pollution experiment. Bull. Mar. Sci. 27: 23-33 

18. Thomas, W.H., O. Holm-Hansen, D.L.R. Seibert, F. Azam, R. Hodson, and M. Takahashi. 
1977. Effects of copper on phytoplankton standing crop and productivity: controlled ecosystem 
pollution experiment. Bull. Mar. Sci. 27:34-43 

19. Tompkins, T. and D.W. Blinn. 1976. The effect of mercury on the growth rate of Fragilaria 
crotonesis Kitton and Asterionella formosa Hass. Hydrobiol. 49:111-116 



212 Indiana Academy of Science 

20. Vollenweider, R.A. 1974. A manual on methods for measuring primary production in aquatic 
environments. IBP Handbook No. 12, Blackwell Scientific Pub., London. 225 p 

21. Wetzel, R.G. 1975. Limnology. W.B. Saunders, Philadelphia 743 p 

22. Wetzel, R.G. 1966. Productivity and nutrient relationships in marl lakes of northern Indiana. 
Verhn. Int. Ver. Limnol. 16:321-332 



Factors Controlling Eutrophication in Lake Monroe 

William Chang 

Department of Biology, Indiana University 

Bloomington, Indiana 47401 



Introduction 

The principal result of lake eutrophication is increased algal productivity. 
This increase is regulated by a variety of environmental factors, of which light 
and nutrients, particularly phosphorous, are the prime limiting factors in Lake 
Monroe, Indiana (1,2). Sufficient solar radiation and nutrient enrichment are of 
great significant in controlling algal productivity, and the interdependence of 
these factors is of significant importance in accelerating primary productivity in 
this lake (2). Similar findings were obtained in the study of two Illinois rivers by 
Wang (6). The Illinois River was characterized by turbid conditions and was 
generally void of algal blooms, whereas the Fox River was usually clear except 
during periods of frequent algal blooms. His report attributes this effect to high 
turbidity conditions, which cause a light-inhibition effect and thus retard algal 
growth. 

In Lake Monroe, during the summer months of 1975 and 1976, surface 
light-inhibitions in productivity were observed. Nutrient enrichment 
experiments were also performed; however, no significant increase in algal 
productivity was observed during these experiments. A hypothesis of the 
existence of a factor inhibiting algal productivity was formed. This hypothesis 
assumes that the factor occurred concurrently with increased productivity in 
summer months when the concentration of alkalinity in the lake rose above 0.48 
meq (this concentration was determined by the value that best correlated with 
significant changes in algal assays) and disappeared when the concentration of 
alkalinity fell below 0.48 meq. The effect could be neutralized by the addition of 
EDTA (a chelator). The hypothesis was further tested by Chang (2), who 
confirmed the existence of this inhibiting factor. 

This paper focuses on the characteristics of the inhibiting effect. From what 
is known, two hypotheses can be formed: (A) the change in alkalinity, which 
results from the increased productivity in summer, alters the permeability of 
algal membranes, which in turn prevents algal intake of nutrients present in the 
water during the experiment (Grossman, pers. comm.); or (B) the increase in 
alkalinity in summer causes a chain of chemical changes in the water, thereby 
rendering the enriched nutrients, in particular soluble reactive phosphate, 
inaccessible to the algal population (7). In hyopothesis A, the addition of EDTA 
may cause an increase in the permeability of algal membranes and thus increase 
algal productivity. With respect to hypothesis B, when EDTA is added, it 
chelates with cations in these phosphate-bonded compounds releasing 
phosphate in accessible form to algae and thereby increasing algal productivity. 

213 



214 



Indiana Academy of Science 



Materials and Methods 

Bioassay experiments were conducted from May to August, 1977, in Lake 
Monroe by monitoring the flux of carbon dioxide molecules. This method 
involves measuring the differential metabolism in transparent and darkened 
bottles with C-14 labelled carbon dioxide. The bottles were filled with water 
samples collected at one-meter intervals from 0-6 meters and incubated for six 
hours at the depth from which the sample was taken. A detailed discussion of the 
method can be found in Lewis (5) and Chang and Frey (1). 

Stock solutions were prepared containing 5 ug/ml phosphate as KH2PO 
and 300 ug/ liter EDTA. In each experiment the amount of nutrient varied 
according to the experimental design (Table 1). The concentrations of soluble 
reactive phosphate in the water before and after the addition of EDTA were 
determined by the extraction method of Golterman and Clymo (3). In the 
laboratory, the samples from each depth were separated into two groups. One 
group served as the control; the other group was treated with EDTA, and 
immediately analyzed for soluble reactive phosphate. Glassware used for the 
determination was acid-washed and rinsed in double-distilled water just prior to 
use. The determination was made with a Cary-14 spectrophotometer in a 10-cm 
cell at a wavelength of 885 mu. The results are shown in Tables 2 and 3. Bottles 
were artificially aerated with CO2 to lower the alkalinity concentration in the 
water to that existing prior to the summer increase in productivity. This 
technique decreased pH by 0.3 degrees. 

Comparisons of the productivity results between the bottles with various 
nutrient enrichment and CO2 treatments, and the control were made using 
Fisher's distribution-free sign test (4). The results are shown in Table 1. 

Table 1 . Comparison of the productivity results between the bottles with various nutrient enrichment 

and the control using Fisher's distribution free sign test. ( — not significant; * significant increase at 5% 

level; ** significant increase at 1% level; x significant decrease at 1% level.) 





Lake water 


Lake water 


Lake water 


Lake water 


& 


& 


& 


& 5ug/l of P04 


EDTA (1 ml) 


5 ug/1 of P04 


15 ug/1 of P04 


& C02 aeration 


Control * 


— 


— 


no data 


(June 29) 








Control ** 


— 


no data 


X 


(July 13) 











Results and Discussion 

If hypothesis A is correct, then the reduction of alkalinity in the water to the 
level prior to the summer increase in productivity should alter the permeability 
of the algal membranes, thereby causing a significant increase in productivity in 
the enriched bottles as compared to the control. However, the results of the 
artificial reduction of alkalinity by CO2 aeration in the phosphate-enriched 
bottles showed no significant increase in productivity when compared to the 
control, but instead a significant reduction in productivity (Table 1). These 



Ecology 215 

results indicate that this hypothesis is not likely to explain the mechanism that 
regulates this sytem. 

Hypothesis B assumes that a chain of chemical changes occurs in the water 
due to the increase in alkalinity in the summer months, thereby rendering some 
nutrients, in particular soluble reactive phosphate, unavailable to the algal 
population. It is known, however, that when added to the water, EDTA chelates 
with cations of the phosphate-bonded compounds, thereby releasing phosphate 
in accessible form to the algae. Therefore, if this process does indeed take place 
in the water, the addition of EDTA should cause a significant increase in soluble 
reactive phosphate in the water. The results of the experiments with EDTA 
conducted on June 29, 1977, and July 13, 1977, showed EDTA not only had a 
significant effect on algal productivity, but also triggered an increase in the 
concentration of soluble reactive phosphate in the water (Tables 2 and 3). This 
suggests that hypothesis B may offer an explanation for the phenomenon under 
study. 

Table 2. The concentration of soluble reactive phosphate (in ug per liter) before and after the addition 
of EDTA as determined on July 29, 1977. 





Depth 


Prior to the add 


ition 


Aft 


er the addition 


in 




of EDTA 






of EDTA 




meters 


Mean 




S. D. 


Mean 




S. D. 


1 


3.4 




4.5 


0.2 




0.3 


2 


0.1 




0.1 







0.1 


3 


0.4 




0.4 


0.9 




1.5 


4 


1.6 




0.6 


6.5 




0.8 


5 







3.1 













Table 3. 77?^ concentration of soluble reactive phosphate (in ug per liter) before and after the addition 
of EDTA as determined on July 13, 1977. 





Depth 


Prior to the addition 


After the addition 


in 




of EDTA 




of EDTA 


meters 


Mean 




S. D. 


Mean S. D. 













8 


1 


10.5 




0.7 


15 2.8 


3 













5 










0.2 





However, some questions also arose when the results shown in Tables 2 and 
3 were reviewed. Significant increases in soluble reactive phosphate were found 
only in the sample taken from the four meter depth on June 29, and from the 
surface and the one meter depth on July 1 3. It was also noted that the amount of 
the increases was small. These results hardly support this hypothesis, in 
particular regarding the chelating power, and cannot fully account for the 
increase in productivity caused by EDTA. Therefore, there must be other 
accompanying physiological changes that are triggered by the addition of 
EDTA, or other complex mechanisms that interact with EDTA not yet 



216 Indiana Academy of Science 

understood. Nevertheless, it is certain that the unavailable nutrients, in 
particular phosphate, are released to the algae in an accessible form through 
EDTA-chelation. 

In summary, the inhibiting factor of algal productivity in Lake Monroe is 
probably affected by changes in the physical environment, and the chemical 
chelating power of EDTA may be one of the mechanisms which control this 
process. However, the complete dynamics of this system appear to be very 
complex, and a satisfactory explanation has yet to be found. 



Literature Cited 

1. Chang, W., and D. G. Frey. 1977. Nutrient relations, pages 71-117 in: Technical report no. 87, 
Indiana University Water Resources Research Center. 

2. Chang, W., 1977. The use of path analysis to determine the factors affecting eutrophication. 34 p. 

M.S. 

3. Golterman, H. L., and R. S. Clymo. 1969. Methods for Chemical Analysis of Fresh Water. IBP 
Handbook no. 8. Blackwells, Oxford. 166 p. 

4. Hollander, M., and D. Wolfe. 1973. Nonparametric Statistical Methods. John Wiley and Sons, 
New York. 503 p. 

5. Lewis, W. M., Jr. 1974. Primary production in the plankton community of a tropical lake. Ecol. 
Monogr. 44:377-409. 

6. Wang, W. C, 1974. Effects of turbidity on algal growth, Technical report no. ISWS-74-CIR-121. 
Illinois State Water Survey, Urbana. 14 p. 

7. Wetzel, R. G., 1966. Productivity and nutrient relationships in marl lakes of northern Indiana. 
Verh. Int. Verein. Limnol 16:321-332. 

Acknowledgements 

The author would like to thank the Indiana Academy of Science for the 
support received through a research grant. The author would also like to 
thank L. Chang, M. Slovin, M. Tamura, and M. Binford for reviewing this 
paper. 



Bacterial Examination of Four Borrow Pit Lakes in East Central Indiana 

Carl E. Warnes, Department of Biology 
Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana 47306 

Introduction 

One aspect of aquatic ecosystems often overlooked is the role played by 
bacteria in nutrient cycling and decompositional processes within the water 
column. Various bacterial types are involved in transformation of N and S 
within the water column. Vanderpost (8) has enumerated such physiological 
types of bacteria as nitrifiers, denitrifiers, ammonifiers, and sulfate reducers 
within Lake Ontario sediments and waters. Saprophytic bacteria are often 
considered synonymous with ammonifying bacteria within the water as 
mentioned by Rodina (6). These are very active in decomposition processes 
within the lake. 

The present study was designed with four goals in mind: to provide data on 
the water for recreational use from a bacteriological standpoint by MPN values 
for total coliforms; ascertain bacterial potential for cycling of N and S within the 
system by determining numbers of sulfur oxidizers, sulfate reducers, 
dentitrifiers, nitrifiers, and ammonifiers; to determine numbers of saprophytic 
bacteria within the water most responsible for decompositional processes; and 
to determine if bacterial stratification exists during the summer months in 
Dumpert's Lake, the deepest of the four lakes examined. The results of these 
studies will be related to various environmental parameters as they might affect 
bacterial potential and numbers. 

Description of Study Area 

Four borrow pit lakes were selected along 1-69 in Indiana for variation in 
surface area, depth, and general conditions. The lakes are named according to 
the individual owning the land on which they are located. Clark Lake consists of 
1.5 acres with a mean depth of 2.75 m and maximum depth of 3.7 m. Cardinal 
Lake is 17.2 acres with mean and maximum depths of 1.9 m and 2.5 m 
respectively. Dumpert Lake is 8 acres having a mean and maximum depth of 2.4 
m and 5.5 m, respectively. The fourth lake is referred to as Walter's and has mean 
and maximum depths of 1 .4 m and 1 .8 m respectively and a surface area of 4.5 
acres. The first three are located in north west Delaware County, Indiana while 
Walter's is located in southern Grant County, Indiana. 

Methods 

Water samples were taken at least monthly over the 1976 calendar year. A 
2-1 Kemerrer was used for collection of water samples at the water-sediment 
interface where maximal bacterial activity is known to occur. All samples were 
taken close to the deepest spot in the four borrow pit lakes examined. Samples 
were placed in sterile medicine bottles for transport to the laboratory. Samples 
for the stratification study were taken with a J-Z bacteriological sampler 

217 



218 



Indiana Academy of Science 



(Rigosha Co., Rigosha, Japan). This apparatus allows for sample collectionata 
given depth without contamination from water from other depths within the 
water column. 

Most probable number (MPN) technique was used to estimate numbers of 
ammonifiers, denitrifiers, sulfur oxidizers, sulfate oxidizers, sulfate reducers, 
nitrifiers, and total coliforms. Triplicate tubes were inoculated with the 
appropriate dilutions for MPN determinations. The MPN procedure followed 
was outlined in Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and 
Wastewater (3). 

Appropriate dilutions of the following media were inoculated and 
incubated at 28-30° C for 3 weeks before results were recorded: Postgate's 
medium (5) for sulfur oxidizers; Starkey's medium (7) for sulfate reducers; 
Alexander and Clark's medium (2) for nitrifying bacteria using ammonium as an 
energy source; Alexander's medium (1) for denitrifying bacteria; and 
Vanderpost's medium (8) for ammonifying bacteria. Total coliforms were 
obtained by standard procedures using lactose broth as a presumptive media 
with incubation temperatures of 37° C. 

Results 

Of the more than 48 samples taken of the 1976 calendar year only twice did 
total coliform values exceed one organism per ml. The June sample in Clark's 
Lake and the October sample in Cardinal Lake, both reached 150 coliform/ 100 
ml sample. Samples taken at drainage ditches and field tiles at their entrance into 
the lake never surpassed 1 coliform/ ml. These sites were only sampled a few 
months of the year when water was observed flowing in them. 

A positive test for sulfate reducing bacteria was the presence of a black 
precipitate in the screw cap tube filled with Starkey's medium (7). Values 
obtained over the year (Figure 1) show relatively high values in the shallower 







!> 2400 








. . CARDINAL 






S 










. . CLARK 


1500. 










i 


. . DUMPERT 

• • WALTERS 


1200- 








it 




j i 




900. 








,' \ 




/ ;t * 




600- 


\ 


V 




1 \ 




/ \ 


\ 


300- 






\ ' 




\jl 




\\ 








\ ; / 


~^~~- 


Jif/ 




\4->. 








I 1 T 








■ 


■ 


r i -T- 1 



Figure 1 . Sulfate reducing bacteria at the sediment-water interface in borrow pit lakes during the 1976 

calendar year. 



Ecology 



219 



lakes (Walter's and Clark's). A very black mud sediment was visible in Walter's 
Lake with the generation of sulfide evident by smell and color. This was not the 
case in Clark or the other lake sediments. 

Sulfur oxidizers were determined by a drop in pH and the presence of a red 
precipitate in the media described by Postgate (5) for enumeration of these 
organisms. Initial pH values of 7 and 5 were tried but no positive results were 
obtained. Members of the genus Thiobacillus could be determined by this 
medium. 

The presence of gas and an alkaline reaction were considered positive tests 
for denitrifying bacteria in Alexander's medium (1). In all lakes greatest 
numbers were obtained in September (Figure 2). These bacteria utilize NCbasa 
terminal electron acceptor in the limitation or absence of oxygen. In general, 
numbers decreased substantially during the colder months following the 
September peak. 



















t>2.4X10 5 








CARDINAL 












1U 5 - 












CLARK 






















_-- 


™ * 


DUMPERT 
WALTERS 










7 A 
























ij 


/ M 


10 4 - 






n 








\ // 


/ /'■ \ l \ 

\\\ 

V, \ ; 




f — 


7 






10'- 




/ 


/' V 


~*~ 


-•/-•'*.-■ 


/ 

_ -4 


* 


^ \ 

' \ ' * 

■A \ •// 


10? 



















Figure 2. Denitrifying bacteria at the sediment-water interface in borrow pit lakes during the IV76 

calendar year. 



A blue color upon addition of Griess-Ilosvay reagent to Alexander and 
Clark's medium (2) was a positive test for ammonium oxidizing bacteria. 
Although the organisms were not detected in all samples, highest values (240- 
1 100/ 100 ml) were observed in April samples. These autotrophic, highly aerobic 
organisms may have lacked proper oxygen during the experiment although 
samples were vortexed every third day. 

Ammonification, the release of ammonia from nitrogenous compounds, 
can be performed by a diverse group of bacteria. A positive test for ammonifying 
bacteria in the MPN tubes was the appearance of an orange precipitate on the 
addition of Nessler's reagent to Vanderpost's medium (8). The highest values for 
ammonifying bacteria occurred primarily in the summer months. December 



220 Indiana Academy of Science 

samples also showed increased values. Values equal to or greater than 2.4 x 10 6 
bacteria/ 100 ml occurred in the summer months with values of 9.3 x 10 4 / 100 ml 
in Cardinal to 1.1 x 10' \ 100 ml in Clark and Walters as obtained in December. 
Dumpert had an MPN of 2.4 x 10 5 / 100 ml in December. Samples in January 
and February were equal to or greater than 2.4 x 10 4 to 2.4 x 10 5 respectively in 
the four lakes. 

Stratification studies conducted on Dumperfs lake showed no real 
stratification of the bacterial types studied (Table 1). The 4.5 m sample 
represents the sediment-water interface. Care was taken to collect the water 
samples for stratification from the surface to the deepest sample, in that order to 
avoid mixing of the column by the sampling procedure. 



Table 1. Enumeration of Bacterial Types (MPN/ 100ml) in Dumperts Borrow Pit Lake at varying 
depths during June and July 1976. 





June sample 
Depth (M) 


Coliforms 


Nitrifiers 


Denitrifiers 


Ammonifiers 


Sulfate 
reducers 





4 


<30 


90 


1.100.000 


3 


1.5 


9 


<30 


230 


210.000 


21 


3 


4 


<30 


110 


21.000 


240 


4.5 


< 3 






2.400.000 


53 


July 












sample 















15 


<30 





2,400,000 


9 


1.5 


9 


<30 


70 


1 50,000 


93 


3 


4 


<30 


90 


1 50,000 


93 


4.5 


< 3 


<30 


< 30 


12.000 


150 





Discussion 

Data obtained on coliforms indicate the borrow pit lakes to be relatively 
free from sewage pollution. The recreational value of these lakes are not 
jeopardized by contamination from domestic or human sewage. However, 
further tests should be conducted to determine the safety of the water for 
drinking and swimming purposes. 

The bacterial cycling of sulfur in the lake is exemplified by the sulfate 
reducing bacteria. These bacteria metabolize most efficiently in the shallow, 
relatively small borrow pit lakes examined (Clark and Walters). The values 
obtained for these organisms will probably increase with age of the pits as silt 
and other debris slowly fill in the pit. The high numbers point to the accelerated 
eutrophy most likely occurring in these bodies of water. Their presence also 
points to possible taste and odor problems, as well as corrosive qualities, often 
associated with members of this group. 

Sulfur oxidizers such as Thiobacillus novellus are probably active in the 
bodies of water, although no results were obtained to indicate this. Enrichment 
studies have shown the existence of photosynthetic bacteria possibly active in 
this S transformation. 



Ecology 221 

The increased numbers of denitrifying bacteria obtained over the warmer 
months supported studies conducted by Owens and Nelson (4) on selected farm 
ponds in Indiana. They reported the effects of various parameters on 
denitrification processes in surface waters. Using water from the sediment-water 
interface shows higher numbers (4, 7) and also a greater potential for 
microenvironments of an anaerobic nature required for identification. Nitrate 
runoff from adjacent fields may also have stimulated the increased numbers 
obtained during the warmer summer months. 

The peak in nitrifying bacteria in April may be associated with application 
of ammonium fertilizer to nearby fields with subsequent runoff into the borrow 
pit lakes. 

The number of ammonifying bacteria were high in nearly all samples taken. 
This is indicative of the high counts of saprophytic bacteria existing in lakes (7). 
This group of bacteria display potential degradative qualities that may be active 
in the borrow pit lakes. 

Typical bacterial stratification in lakes should show highest bacterial 
numbers at the sediment-water interface with second highest values at the water- 
air interface. This is not evident with the physiological types examined. 
However, oxygen sensitive organisms, such as sulfate reducers, do show an 
increase with increasing depths. 



Literature Cited 

1. Alexander, Martin. 1965. Denitrifying bacteria, pp. 1484-1486 In C. A. Black (Ed.). Methods of 
Soil Analysis. Monogr. No. 9. Amer. Soc. Agron., Madison, Wis. 1572 p. 

2. and F. Clark. 1965. Nitrifying bacteria, pp. 1477-1487 In C. A. Black (Ed.). Methods of 

Soil Analysis. Monogr. No. 9. Amer. Soc. Agron., Madison. Wis. 1572 p. 

3. American Public Health Association. 1971. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water 
and Wastewater. 13th ed. American Public Health Association. Inc.. Washington. IXC. 874 p. 

4. Owens, L. B. and D. W. Nelson. 1973. Relationship of various indices of water quality to 
denitrification in surface waters. Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 82:404-413. 

5. Postgate, J. R. 1966. Media for sulfur bacteria. J. Lab Practice 15:1239-1244. 

6. Rodina, A. G. 1972. Methods of Aquatic Microbiology. R. R. Colwell and M. S. Zumbruski 
(eds.). University Park Press, Baltimore. 461 p. 

7. Starkev, R. L. 1948. Characteristics and cultivation of sulfate reducing bacteria. J. American 
Works Assoc. 40:1291-1298. 

8. Vanderpost, J. M. 1972. Bacterial and physical characteristics of Lake Ontario sediment during 
several months. Proc. 15th Conf. Great Lakes Res. 15:198-213. 



Terrestrial Flora and Vertebrate Fauna 
of Four East-Central Indiana Borrow Pit Lakes 

Elizabeth S. Maxwell and Ralph D. Kirkpatrick 
Department of Biology, Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana 47306 

Introduction 

Borrow pit lakes created by the removal of soil during highway construction 
may have value to wildlife. To determine potential wildlife values of borrow pit 
areas, comprehensive surveys of flora and fauna of the lands adjacent to four 
borrow pit lakes located along Interstate 69 in Delaware and Grant Counties, 
Indiana, were made during 1976. 

Related Literature 

Few references about wildlife use of small man-made bodies of water and their 
adjacent areas are available. Greenwell (3) reported consistent use of Missouri 
farm ponds by upland game birds and game mammals, small mammals, and 
songbirds. In 1966, Evans and Kerbs (1,2) studied waterfoul and shorebird use 
of selected stock ponds in South Dakota. They noted that although the main 
purpose of the stock ponds was to provide drinking water for livestock, many 
species of waterfowl and shorebirds used them for resting and feeding during 
migration periods and for summer nesting habitat. Merrill and Kirkpatrick (5) 
recorded that newly created borrow pit lakes along Interstate Highway 69 (1-69) 
in northeastern Indiana provide suitable resting and feeding habitat for various 
species of birds. They noted the presence of waterfowl, shorebirds, and other 
birds during 1968 on three study borrow pit lakes in Delaware County, Indiana 

Other literature related to the ecology of disturbed land with associated 
bodies of water includes a study by Jones (4) of the avifauna of a strip-mined 
region in southern Indiana. He included nearly 90 bodies of water in his study 
area. Riley (6,7,8) discussed wildlife values of reclaimed strip-mined lands in 
southeastern Ohio. 

The Study Areas 

Four study borrow pit lakes were selected adjacent to 1-69 in Delaware and 
Grant Counties, Indiana. They varied in surface area, depth and in other 
morphometric characteristics. The four lakes: Cardinal, Clark's, Dumpert's, 
Walters', are privately owned and are located on land previously used for 
agricultural crops. 

Cardinal Lake is L-shaped and has approximately 6.9 ha of water surface. 
It has a maximum depth of 2.5 m and is bounded on three sides by cultivated 
fields. Wildlife and erosion-control plantings are established around the 
perimeter of the pit. A bluegrass lane approximately 6 m wide separates the 
borrow pit from its bordering fields and a county road. 

Clark's Borrow Pit Lake has a water surface area of 0.8 ha and a maximum 
depth of 2.5 m and is bounded on three sides by cultivated fields. Wildlife and 

222 



Ecology 223 

erosion-control plantings are established around the perimeter of the lake. A 
bluegrass (Poa pratensis) lane approximately 6 m wide separates the borrow pit 
from its bordering fields and a county road. 

Dumpert's Borrow Pit Lake is near-oval in shape with a water surface area 
of approximately 3.2 ha and a maximum depth of 5.5 m. It is surrounded by a 
strip of grassland which is in turn bordered by a deciduous woodlot on the east 
and by cultivated fields on the north and south. Wildlife plantings have recently 
been made adjacent to the pit. 

Walters' Borrow Pit Lake is rectangular and has a water surface area of 0.8 
ha with a maximum depth of 1.75 m. It is surrounded by cultivated fields. A 
mature multiflora rose (Rosa multiflora) hedge on the north and west sides 
borders the borrow pit area. 

Methods and Materials 

Birds at each borrow pit were observed weekly using binoculars and/ or a 
spotting telescope. Numbers and kinds of observed birds were compiled. 

Small mammal populations on land adjacent to the borrow pits were 
sampled by mouse snaptraps and by Museum Special snaptraps. A transect line 
at each pit had a total of 20 trapping stations spaced at 10 m intervals. Three 
snaptraps were set at each station for five nights, making a total of 300 
trapnights per sampling period at each pit. Traps were baited with dry rolled 
oats and were checked each morning and evening. Trapped specimens were 
identified, catalogued and deposited in the Ball State University Mammal 
Collection. 

Vegetative cover at the borrow pits was sampled by collection of non- 
woody plants for later identification in the Ball State University Herbarium. 
Woody plants were identified in the field. 

Results and Discussion 

Vegetation 

Terrestrial vegetation adjacent to the four borrow pit lakes was 
characterized by early successional species that would be expected on former 
cropland in this region, e.g. thistles (Cirsium spp.), bluegrass and chickory 
{Cichorium intybus). Multiflora rose was present on all areas, having been 
planted on the Walters' area, and having spread to other areas from nearby 
plantings. Woody invasion of fencerows included native species such as red 
mulberry {Morus rubra) and hawthorn {Crataegus spp.). Wildlife cover 
plantings on Clark's area included red and white pine (Pinus spp.). Wetland 
species encountered were principally cattails (Typha spp.), sedges (Carex spp.), 
cottonwood (Populus deltoides) and willows (Salix spp.). 

Vegetation, with the exception of the multiflora rose hedge on Walters' area 
and in fencerows on all areas, was kept low by periodic mowing. This 
management strategy denied nesting and escape cover to larger vertebrates. 
Birds 

Bird surveys were conducted during 11 months (January through 
November) in 1968 on Cardinal Lake and Clark areas by Merrill and 



224 



Indiana Academy of Science 



Table 1 . Status of birds observed on four borrow pit lakes in east-central Indiana during 1976 or 1968 

and 1976. 



Species 



Cardinal Clark's ' Dumpert's Walters' 



1968' 1976 1968' 1976 1976 



1976 



Pied-billed Grebe, 

Podilymbus podiceps 
Canada Goose, 

Branta canadensis 
Mallard, 

Anas platyrhynchos 
Northern Shoveler, 

Anas clypeata 
Blue-winged Teal, 

Anas discors 
Green-winged Teal, 

Anas crecca 
Wood Duck, 

A ix sponsa 
Ring-necked Duck, 

Aythya collaris 
Lesser Scaup, 

Aythya affinis 
Common Goldeneye, 

Bucephala clangula 
Bufflehead, 

Bucephala albeola 
Ruddy Duck, 

Oxyura jamaicensis 
Hooded Merganser, 

Lophodytes cucullatus 
Turkey Vulture, 

Cathartes aura 
Bobwhite, 

Colinus virginianus 
Common Egret, 

Casmerodius albus 
Great Blue Heron, 

Ardea herodias 
Green Heron, 

Butorides virescens 
American Bittern, 

Botaurus lentiginosus 
American Coot, 

Fulica americana 
American Golden Plover, 

Pluvialis dominica 
Piping Plover, 

Charadrius melodus 
Semipalmated Plover, 

Charadrius semipalmatus 



Data from: Merrill and Kirkpatrick (1970). 

a = abudnant, 51 or more individuals seen during period of study, 
c = common, I I to 50 individuals seen during period of study, 
u = uncommon, 1 to 10 individuals seen during period of study. 



Ecology 225 



Cardinal Clark's Dumpert's Walters' 

Species 1968 1 1976 1968' 1976 1976 1976 

Killdeer, 

Charadrius vociferus a a a c c c 

Solitary Sandpiper, 

Tringa solitaria u 

Spotted Sandpiper, 

Actitis macular ia c a u a c 

Greater Yellowlegs, 

Tringa melanoleucus u u 

Lesser Yellowlegs, 

Tringa flavipes c c u 

Short-billed Dowitcher, 

Limnodromus griseus u 

Long-billed Dowitcher, 

Limnodromus scolopaceus u 

Pectoral Sandpiper, 

Calidris melanotos u 

Baird's Sandpiper, 

Calidris bairdii u 

Least Sandpiper, 

Calidris minutilla u 

Semipalmated Sandpiper, 

Calidris pusillus u u c 

American Woodcock, 

Philohela minor c 

Common Snipe, 

Capella gallinago c c u 

Bonaparte's Gull, 

Larus Philadelphia u 

Common Tern, 

Sterna hirundo u 

Rock Dove, 

Columba livia c a c a 

Mourning Dove, 

Zenaida macroura a a a a a c 

Chimney Swift, 

Chaetura pelagica u 

Belted Kingfisher, 

Megaceryle alcyon u u u 

Common Flicker, 

Colaptes auratus u u u u 

Red-headed Woodpecker, 

Melanerpes erythrocephalus u 

Hairy Woodpecker, 

Picoides villosus u 

Downy Woodpecker, 

Picoides puhescens u u 

Eastern Kingbird, 

Tvrannus tvrannus u u 



'Data from: Merrill and Kirkpatrick (1970). 

a = abundant, 51 or more individuals seen during period of study. 
c = common, 1 1 to 50 individuals seen during period of study, 
u = uncommon, 1 to 10 individuals seen during period of study. 



226 Indiana Academy of Science 



Cardinal Clark's Dumpert's Walters' 

Species 1968' 1976 I968 1 1976 1976 1976 

Least Flycatcher, 

Empidonax minimus u 

Eastern Wood Pewee, 

Contopus virens u 

Horned Lark, 

Eremophila alpestris a c u 

Barn Swallow, 

Hirundo rustica c c c u c c 

Tree Swallow, 

Iridoprdcne bicolor u u u 

Bank Swallow, 

Riparia riparia c u u u 

Rough-winged Swallow, 

Stelgedopteryx rujicollis u 

Blue Jay, 

Cyanocitta cristata c 

Common Crow, 

Corvus brachyrhynchos a c c c c u 

Carolina Chickadee, 

Parus carolinensis u c u 

Tufted Titmouse, 

Parus bicolor u u 

White-breasted Nuthatch, 

Sitta carolinensis u 

House Wren, 

Troglodytes aedon u 

Mockingbird, 

Mimus polyglottos u 

Gray Catbird, 

Dumetella carolinensis u 

Brown Thrasher, 

Toxostoma rufum u u 

Robin, 

Turdus migratorius c c c u c u 

Hermit Thrush, 

Catharus guttata u 

Golden-crowned Kinglet, 

Regulus satrapa u 

Cedar Waxwing, 

Bobycilla cedrorum u u 

Starling, 

Sturnus vulgaris a a c c a c 

White-eyed Vireo, 

Vireo griseus u 

Nashville Warbler, 

Vermivora ruficapilla u 

Yellow-rumped Warbler, 

Dendroica coronata c 



'Data from: Merrill and Kirkpatrick (1970). 

a = abundant, 51 or more individuals seen during period of study, 
c = common, 1 I to 50 individuals seen during period of study, 
u = uncommon, 1 to 10 individuals seen during period of study. 



I 



Ecology 



227 



Species 



Cardinal 



Clark's Dumpert's Walters' 



1968' 1976 1968 1 1976 



1976 



1976 



Bay-breasted Warbler, 

Dendroica castanea 
Pine Warbler, 

Dendroica pinus 
Palm Warbler, 

Dendroica pahnarum 
Common Yellowthroat, 

Geothlypis trichas 
House Sparrow, 

Passer domesticus 
Meadowlark, 

Sturnella spp. 
Red-winged Blackbird, 

Agelaius phoeniceus 
Rusty Blackbird, 

Euphagus carolinus 
Common Grackle, 

Quiscalus quiscula 
Brown-headed Cowbird, 

Molothrus ater 
Cardinal, 

Cardinalis cardinalis 
Indigo Bunting, 

Passerina cyanea 
American Goldfinch, 

Carduelis tristis 
Savannah Sparrow, 

Passerculus sandwichensis 
Vesper Sparrow, 

Pooecetes gramineus 
Dark-eyed Junco, 

Junco hyemalis 
Tree Sparrow, 

Spizella arborea 
Field Sparrow, 

Spizella pusilla 
White-throated Sparrow, 

Zonotrichia albicollis 
Fox Sparrow, 

Passerella iliaca 
Song Sparrow, 

Melospiza melodia 



'Data from: Merrill and Kirkpatrick (1970). 

a = abundant, 51 or more individuals seen during period of study, 
c = common, 1 1 to 50 individuals seen during period of study, 
u = uncommon, 1 to 10 individuals seen during period of study. 



Kirkpatrick (5). A comparison of bird observations for 1968 and 1976 (12 
months) for these areas reveal that 1 1 waterfowl species were found on Cardinal 
Lake during one or both of the study years (Table 1). Common goldeneye 
{Bucephala clangula), hooded merganser {Lophdytes cucullatus), ring-necked 



228 Indiana Academy of Science 

duck {Ay thy a collaris) and the shoveler {Anas clypeata) were observed in 1968 
but not in 1976. The Canada goose {Branta canadensis) and the woodduck {Aix 
sponsa) were seen only in 1976. The American woodcock {Philohela minor) was 
not seen in 1968 but was common in 1976, probably as a breeding and nesting 
species. During the interval between 1968 and 1976, woodcock nesting cover and 
feeding areas developed in the low, wet, unmowed area immediately south of 
Cardinal Lake. 

The number of waterfowl species observed on Clark's Borrow Pit area 
declined from four to one between 1968 and 1976. Bufflehead {Bucephala 
albeola), green-winged teal {Anas crecca), lesser scaup {Aytha affinis), and the 
mallard {Anas platyrhynchos) were seen in 1968 but only the lesser scaup was 
seen in 1976. 

A total of 65 avian species was observed at the Dumpert Borrow Pit and 33 
species were observed at the Walters' Borrow Pit during 1976. The greater 
number of species seen at Dumpert's is probably due to its larger surface area 
and to the greater number of habitats in its immediate vicinity. 

Mammals 

A total of seven mammalian species was collected on transects. The masked 
shrew {Sorex cinereus) was taken on all but Dumpert's Borrow Pit area while the 
short-tailed shrew {Blarina brevicauda) was taken on all the study areas. The 
eastern chipmunk {Tamias striatus) was collected only on Walters' area. The 
white-footed mouse {Peromscus leucopus), the deer mouse {P. maniculatus) and 
the meadow vole {Microtus pennsylvanicus) were taken on all four study areas. 
Feral house mouse {Mus musculus) populations were found on all but the 
Walters' study area. 

Larger mammals not collected but known to occur on the areas include: 
raccoon {Procyon lotor), red fox {Vulpes vulpes), striped skunk {Mephitis 
mephitis), muskrat {Ondatra zibet hicus) and Virginia opossom {Didelphis 
virginiana). Certain of these furbearers, particularly the muskrat, are harvested 
by trappers on Cardinal and Walters'. These larger mammals add to the biotic 
diversity and to the aesthetic appeal of the areas. 

Conclusions 

The construction of borrow pit lakes has created habitat necessary for 
recreationally important wetland wildlife species including waterfowl, 
shorebirds and certain furbearers such as the muskrat. The removal of the areas 
from cultivation and the establishment of permanent woody and herbaceous 
cover allows the presence of a diverse songbird fauna as well as several of the 
larger mammals. It can be anticipated that additional wildlife species will appear 
on the areas as community succession progresses. In a region of intensive 
farming and rapid urbanization borrow pit lakes will become of increasing 
importance for recreational activities including birdwatching, trapping and 
nature study. 



Ecology 229 

Literature Cited 

1. Evans, K. E., and R. R. Kerbs. 1967. Waterfowl and shorebird use on selected stock ponds in 
Jackson County: 1966. South Dakota Bird Notes 19(2):28-30. 

2. Evans, K. E., and R. R. Kerbs. 1977. Avian use of livestock watering ponds in western South 
Dakota. U.S. Dept. Agri. Forest Serv. Gen. Tech. Rept. RM-35. 1 1 p. 

3. Greenwell, G. A. 1948. Wildlife values of Missouri farm ponds. N. Amer. Wildl Conf Trans 
13:271-281. 

4. Jones, G. S. 1968. Avifauna of a study area in the strip-mined region of Indiana. Ind. Audubon 
Quart. 46(4):92-97. 

5. Merrill, R. L., and R. D. Kirkpatrick. 1970. Utilization of three Delaware County, Indiana 
borrow pits by birds. Ind. Audubon Quart. 48(1): 14-20. 

6. Riley, C. V. 1954. The utilization of reclaimed coal strip-lands for the production of wildlife. N. 
Amer. Wildl. Conf. 19:324-337. 

7. Riley, C. V. 1957. Reclamation of coal strip-mined lands with reference to wildlife plantings. J 
Wildl. Manage. 21(4): 402-413. 

8. Riley, C. V. 1960. The ecology of water areas associated with coal strip-mined lands in Ohio. Ohio 
Jour. Sci. 60(2): 106-1 21. 



Possible Physiological Clock Associated 

with the Feeding Habits of the 

Central Mud minnow (Umbra limi) Kirtland 

Kathleen L. Horwath and David W. Morgan 

Aquatic Behavior Laboratory, Department of Biology 

University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 

Introduction 

Predator-prey relationships of fish and aquatic insects have functioned in 
the regulation of both vertebrate and invertebrate populations throughout 
history. The idea of fish predators as means of insect control has been widely 
adopted. Although emphasis has been on Gambusia affinis, a number of small 
fish with broad tolerance levels for temperature changes and organic pollutants 
have possibilities for such biological control. 

It should not be surprising, therefore, to consider the central mudminnow, 
Umbra limi, along these same lines. Peckham and Dineen (9) reported that 
mudminnows are a carnivorous species, feeding generally on the bottom. 
Principle food items are small crustaceans, molluscs, and most important, insect 
larvae. 

Analysis of the feeding habits of the mudminnow is necessary in considering 
the fish for biological control. Population distributions of prey and predator 
tend to follow a sinusoidal rhythm. Since most aquatic insects reach their peak 
numbers in early summer, it is necessary to see just when the predator 
population has its maximum influence on the prey. Washino (11) reported that 
the greatest number and variety of food organisms consumed by predatory fish 
occurred in the early summer and that predation on mosquitoes intensified in 
the later summer period as a result of the relative scarcity of other food sources. 
To consider Umbra limi for mosquito control, one would have to show that it 
followed this basic pattern and was most effective as a predator during these 
times. 

The ability of organisms to respond to their environment in rhythmical 
cycles has proven to be of selective value. Periodicity in organisms, cued either 
by some external or internal factor, allows them the advantages of obtaining 
basic energy requirements and reproductive needs at the most opportune time. 

The idea of synchronized rhythms, especially in the interaction of the 
predator and prey, is not new. However, the idea of finding a rhythmic pattern 
intrinsic in the predator itself which is involved in the regulation of its feeding 
activity towards the prey is a different matter. This study provides information 
on the feeding behavior of the mudminnow, with special emphasis on a possible 
physiological cycle involved with their feeding activity. It is an effort to improve 
our understanding of the fish in its natural environment. This knowledge can 
then be applied as needed to make this proposed method of insect control as 
effective as possible. 

230 



Ecology 23 1 

Materials and Methods 

This investigation consisted of two experiments. Experiment I was 
designed to analyze the feeding behavior of groups of mudminnows while they 
were maintained solely on a diet of mosquito larvae. Experiment II was designed 
to analyze the feeding responses of individual fish with the same diet, under 
controlled light and temperature, and in isolated conditions. 

Central mudminnows were taken from Juday Creek, a small stream in St. 
Joseph County, Indiana, which empties into the St. Joseph River north of South 
Bend, Indiana. 

For the first experiment, dealing with the feeding behavior of groups in 
Umbra limi, a total of 15 fish was placed in three 20-gallon tanks, which were 
barren except for sand on the bottom. Five Umbra were introduced to each tank 
according to relative size, with one tank containing fish of 3 to 4 cm. standard 
length, the second 5 to 6 cm., and the third 7 to 8 cm. 

Part two of the research, which analyzed individual responses, was 
conducted after the first experiment had been completed. It consisted of fifteen 
10-gallon tanks placed in an enclosed room where temperature was regulated at 
17.2°C and light was constant. Each tank contained only one fish, with five 
tanks per size class of fish. 

Mosquito type-form Aedes aegypti aegypti of the ROCK strain 
(Rockefeller Institute) were used throughout the study, and were reared at 31° C 
and 80% relative humidity. Properly conditioned egg strips were hatched in 
water of 2 1 ° C and the resulting first instar larvae were placed in pans filled with 
tap water. Liver powder was used as food for the larvae. When the larvae became 
fourth instar, they were then fed to the fish. 

All fish were fed to repletion. In the group tanks, the fish were fed by placing 
mosquito larvae in the tank continously until all fish refused to respond to the 
larvae. For the second experiment, each fish was given a predetermined number 
of larvae depending on the size of the fish and was restricted to a fixed amount of 
time consumption. All fish were given an excess of mosquito larvae. Small fish 
received 200 mosquito larvae per feeding; the medium sized fish 250 larvae- and 
the large fish, 350 larvae. Fifteen minutes was shown by the first experiment to 
be sufficient time for all fish to reach repletion. Therefore, at the end of fifteen 
minutes the remaining larvae were removed, and the amount eaten by each fish 
was determined. The fish were fed every two days. 

This information was collected from July 17 to October 14 1976 and 
January 31 to March 8, 1977. Graphs of the number of larvae consumed perday 
the total number of larvae consumed per size-class, and the number of larvae 
consumed by each fish were prepared for comparison of the feeding activity per 
individual fish and per size range. Similar comparative graphs were made of the 
following: barometric pressure, temperature, relative humidity, sky cover 
precipitation, and phases of the moon to determine any correlations between 
feeding habits and these factors. 

Statistical analysis by the nonparametric Friedman Two- Way Analysis of 
Variance by Ranks was performed to compare the number of larvae consumed 
at the observed peaks in the feeding activity (10). 



232 



Indiana Academy of Science 



Results 

The total number of larvae eaten by each size of fish during the first 
experiment is shown in Figure 1. The graph shows that the total amount of 
larvae eaten was dependent on the relative size of the fish, with the total amount 
consumed by small fish being less than the total amount eaten by medium or 
large fish. 



IstQ- first quarter 
LQ - last quarter 

3 to ^crn. fish 

5 to 6cn. fish 
7 to Scm. fish 




Figure 1 . Total larvae consumed per size class. 



Independent of the size of the fish are patterns of high and low points in the 
consumption of larvae. Figure 1 shows increases in the level of consumption 
approximately every 14 days, with the greatest amount eaten during the first 
quarter and last quarter phases of the moon. Alternatively, the lowest 
consumption periods occurred approximately every 14 days during the new 
moon and full moon. The total number of larvae consumed by all fish in 
Experiment I (see Fig. 2), emphasizes this general trend of a near- 14-day feeding 
response exhibited by all three size classes. 

Statistical analysis of the amount of consumption for the group tanks 
revealed the differences in larval consumption during different phases of the 
moon are significant at the 0.001 alpha level. 

The Umbra exposed to external factors also exhibited an overall decrease in 
response to mosquito larvae during the three-month experimental period. 
However, statistical analysis of the third month alone showed that there was still 
a highly significant difference ( = 0.001) in the rates of larval consumption 
between the first and last quarter phases of the moon, and the new moon and full 
moon, indicating that the feeding pattern, although diminished overall, was still 
present. 

Each fish responded to the prey with varying degrees of consumption, but 



Ecology 



233 











1st q 










NM - new moon 
1st Q- first quarter 
FM - full moon 




I50O 


LQ 














LQ - last quarter 




1200 










LQ 








TOTAL 














1st Q 






LARVAE 




















CONSUMED 


900 

6 
30 
















LQ 1st Q 








NM 




FM 




NM 


FM 


NM FM 



6 12 18 24 30 36 42 48 54 60 66 72 78 

DAYS 



Figure 2. Total larvae consumed. 

nevertheless with regular fluctuations approximately every 14 days. The amount 
of consumption by individual fish in the group tanks is shown in Figure 3. The 
feeding behavior of two fish from the medium size category is shown to 
emphasize similarities in the feeding activities of some fish, while also revealing 
characteristic differences in the feeding behavior of each fish. 

Data collected from the second experiment indicate that the 14-day cycle 
was present in all fish in the controlled environment, regardless of size. Figure 4 
shows the total number of larve consumed per size class for Experiment II. 



TOTAL 
LARVAE 

CONSUMED 



1st Q- first quarter 

LQ - last quarter 
5 to 6cm. fish 





60 66 72 



Figure 3. Consumption per individual. 



234 



Indiana Academy of Science 



800 
TOTAL 
LARVAE 
CONSUMED 60 ° 




7 to 8cm. fish 



5 to 6cm. fish 



.3 to 4cm. fish 



1st Q- first quarter 
LQ - last quarter 



20 25 30 35 



Figure 4. Total larvae consumed per size class. 

Analysis by Friedman's Xr 2 test again supports the hypothesis of a 14-day cycle, 
and possible correlation to lunar periodicity, but with significance only at the 
0.1 alpha level. 

The feeding activity under constant light appeared to be slightly out of 
phase among the fifteen fish. Not all fish increased the amount eaten on exactly 
the same day. Figure 5 shows the feeding pattern of three individual fish of 
various sizes superimposed on each other and shifted to coincide with each other 





250 






A 






200 




,-_ 


1 




TOTAL 






1 /\ / '"\ 


A 




LARVAE 






"' /^-^ V| «' 






CONSUMED 


150 




A / \\ // 


/ 


\" /\ 1 v 




100 


t 


V \ A / / i 








50 




N .. /' 







15 20 25 30 35 40 

DAYS 



Figure 5. De synchronization of feeding cycles under controlled conditions. 



Ecology 235 

(arrows indicate first day of feeding). Even though there is a desynchronization 
in their feeding behavior, the approximate 14-day feeding pattern is still found. 
This deviation resulted in a more lengthy period of increases or decreases (see 
Fig. 4), and also in a lesser significant difference between peaks and troughs as 
shown by the 0.1 alpha level obtained by statistical analysis. 

Results from the second experiment also suggests the presence of damping. 
The feeding rhythm was still present, but continued exposure to constant 
conditions resulted in reduced amplitude of the cycle. 

Graphs of corresponding temperature, relative humidity, sky cover, and 
precipitation revealed that there is little, if any, correlation between these 
parameters and the feeding habits of the mudminnow. 

Discussion 

Results obtained by the first experiment suggest the presence of a 
physiological clock associated with the feeding behavior of the central 
mudminnow. Regardless of the size of the fish, there is present a rhythmic 
feeding response with an approximate 14-day period and possible lunar 
correlation. 

Fish exposed to natural light cycles, as in the first experiment, possess a 
rhythmic pattern in feeding. However, the first trials can only suggest the 
presence of a physiological clock. Whether it was only chance that these fish 
increased or decreased their consumption of larvae approximately every 
fourteen days, or if this behavior was actually a mechanism incorporating a 
physiological process along with external cueing factors still needed to be 
ascertained. The second experiment pursued this aspect in more detail. 

The periodicity found in the feeding habits of the first fish could be purely 
exogenous, where the environment is the real and only cause of the rhythm 
which in turn ceases in artificial constant conditions. Contrary to this 
endogenous rhythms, are controlled from within the organism itself. In 
this case the periodic environmental factor operates only as a synchronizing 
agent. 

Results obtained from the second experiment, in which mudminnows were 
placed in a constant environment, indicate the presence of an endogenous 
rhythm. 

The 14-day periodicity continued in artificial conditions but with a 
frequency that deviated slightly from the exact amount of a lunar cycle. Aschoff 
(1) states that under artificial conditions, if a periodicity continues but deviates 
by a certain, more or less constant amount from the external factor, then the 
periodicity is endogenous. The results obtained show that phase shifts were 
found in some individuals. At present, it is not possible to determine if these 
deviations were constant. However, the possibility exists, that by excluding 
external stimuli, which in this case appeared to be the light intensity of the moon, 
the physiological clock involved with the feeding of the mudminnow was unable 
to be synchronized and the fish became out of phase with one another. 

Fade-out, or damping of an oscillation, is dependent on the conditions in 
which the organism is placed, Bunning (4). Continuous light often causes fade- 



236 Indiana Academy of Science 

outs more rapidly than continuous darkness. These results show that there is a 
damping effect on the feeding cycle under constant conditions. 

What is the significance of a rhythmic cycle in the feeding behavior of the 
central mudminnow? Does the feeding rhythm present an adaptive value for the 
species in its natural environment? Such questions must be looked at in the 
entire context of the interaction of the species with the physical and biological 
environment around it. 

Structural characteristics of species are related to their food niches. Keast 
(7) described the morphological adaptation of Umbra limi which enable them to 
capture both hard and soft bodied insects. Physiological adaptations are equally 
important for the survival of the species. The presence of a physiological clock 
involved with the feeding habits of the mudminnow provides a selective 
advantage for the species by keeping the individuals of a population in phase 
with the environment in which they live. Exploitation of resources is maximized 
and intraspecific competition is limited. 

Lunar cycles have been shown to exist in chironomids, ephemeropterans 
and trichopterans. Such cycles deal with the synchronization of hatching, 
emergence and reproduction. The effectiveness of the predator would be greatly 
increased if it possessed a synchronizing agent that enabled it to follow the 
prey in such a cycle. 

Some chironomids have been show to hatch within a few days of the full 
moon and new moon. A maximum number of larvae would therefore be present 
during the first and last quarter phases of the moon, a time when the 
mudminnow would be at its peak point in the consumption of larvae. At times of 
low prey densities the predator would also be at the low consumption point in its 
cycle. 

Umbra limi also possess a seasonal response in their feeding behavior. The 
results from these experiments, in accordance with Maw (8), show that the 
mudminnow consumed the largest amount of larvae during the summer months, 
the season when Washino (11) indicates that mosquito larvae numbers 
increased. Maw noted a decrease in the numbers of larvae consumed by the 
mudminnow toward the later summer and suggested this relative state of 
inactivity could reflect a parallel period of aestivation that might occur during 
adverse conditions in its normal habit. The overall decline in larvae 
consumption found in the first experiment agrees with these findings. The effect 
of a continuous laboratory environment is also a possible factor involved with 
this apparent decline. 

The selective advantage of the predator population in synchronization with 
prey is evident. The availability of food along with reduction of intraspecific 
competition operates to maintain the species at its optimal level. 

As a possible agent for biological control, Umbra limi appears to be highly 
qualified. Findings from this research support Maw (8) who recommended the 
central mudminnow for integrated control programs. The species is adapted 
morphologically and physiologically to capture and assimilate prey such as 
aquatic insects with great efficiency, at the most opportune time to insure their 
growth and reproduction for the continuation of their species. 



Ecology 237 

Acknowledgements 

We would like to acknowledge the advice, aid, and use of facilities for 
raising mosquitoes supplied by Dr. George Craig of the Vector Biology 
Laboratory, University of Notre Dame. 

Literature Cited 

1. Aschoff, Jurgen. 1960. Exogenous and endogenous components in circadian rhythms. Cold 
Spring Harbor Symposium Quant. Biol. 25:11-26. 

2. Bay, Ernest, 1969. Fish predators. Conference of the California Mosquito Control Association. 

3. Bunning, Erwin. 1960. Biological clocks. Cold Spring Harbor Symposium Quant. Biol. 25:1-9. 
4. 1967. The Physiological Clock. Springer- Verlag, New York, Inc., New York, N.Y. 167 pp. 

5. Cold Spring Harbor Symposia On Quantitative Biology. 1960. Biological Clocks, Volume 
25. Waverly Press, Inc., Maryland, 524 pp. 

6. Hauenschild, C. 1960. Lunar periodicity. Cold Spring Symposium Quant. Biol. 25:491-497. 

7. Keast, Allen, and Deirdre Webb. 1966. Mouth and body form relative to feeding ecology in the 
fish fauna of a small lake, Lake Opinicon, Ontario. Fish. Res. Board Can. J. 23(12): 1845-1874. 

8. Maw, M. G. 1968. The mudminnow Umbra limi (Kirtland). A possible mosquito control agent in 
semi-permanent pools. Mosq. News. 28(1): 120. 

9. Peckhan, Richard S. and Clarence F. Dineen. 1957. Ecology of the central mudminnow. 
Umbra limi (Kirtland). The Am. Midi. Nat. 58(1 ):222-23 1 . 

10. Siegel, Sidney. 1956. Nonparametric Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences. McGraw-Hill Book 
Company, New York, N.Y. 312 pp. 

1 1. Washino, Robert K. 1968. Predator prey studies in relation to an integrated mosquito control 
program, A progress resport. Conference of the California Mosquito Control Association. 



Recent Fish Collections from Blue River, Washington County, Indiana 

H. E. McReynolds 

U.S. Forest Service, Bedford, Indiana 47421 

and 

Joseph L. Janisch, Division of Fish and Wildlife 

Indiana Department of Natural Resources, Indianapolis, Indiana 46204 

Introduction 

During the summer of 1977, Dr. James Gammon of DePauw University (in 
a conversation with the senior author) mentioned a situation that led to the 
present study. Dr Gammon, interested for years in the systematics and 
distribution of Indiana fishes, asked McReynolds if he were aware that Indiana 
Department of Natural Resources had reported the capture of the white shiner, 
Notropis albeolus, in its Blue River survey in 1972. McReynolds, also with a 
long term interest in the distributional pattern of the Indiana ichthyofauna, had 
been living out of the State at that time, and was unaware of this record. 

If the white shiner record were a valid one, this would appear to be the most 
extraordinary find of a new fish species in Indiana history. Only two species of 
true fishes have displayed significant gaps between their previously known range 
and the locality of their subsequent discovery in Indiana. Heretofore, the most 
curious occurrence has been Shelby Gerking's collection (1) of the studfish, 
Fundulus catenatus, in Shelby and Bartholomew counties, with an intervening 
gap of 150-200 airline miles from its previously most northern occurrence in 
south-central Kentucky. This distributional "flier" has never been adequately 
explained. 

The other anomaly was the identification of a burbot, Lota lota, by 
McReynolds from the Whitewater River, Franklin County, in the late 1950's. 
However, further investigation and subsequent sporadic occurrences 
throughout Indiana indicated that these were escapes from fee-fishing lakes 
("pay ponds") whose owners were being sold burbot by Minnesota fish haulers 
under the more attractive misnomer of "Canadian catfish." Among the agnathid 
fishes, the occurrence of a sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus, in the Mississippi 
River drainage (Tippecanoe system) has never been explained. This puzzling 
record apparently was not the result of a misidentification, since both Shelby 
Gerking and Vernon Applegate verified the identification (2). 

The range of Notropis albeolus is basically eastern coast drainages, with its 
only occurrence in the Ohio River drainage being in the upper Kanawha System 
(New River) in Virginia, West Virginia, and possibly North Carolina. Therefore, 
the discovery of the white shiner in Indiana would not only add a new species, 
but would also be a spectacular distributional event. On the basis of ths 
interesting situation, the senior author contacted the junior author, Joseph 
Janisch, who had made the 1972 Blue River survey. A review of the field data 
indicated that 36 specimens assigned to N. albeolus had been taken at 3 sites. 

238 



Ecology 239 

In this review of the field records, another interesting occurrence was noted . 
The popeye shiner, Notropis ariommus, was recorded from several collection 
sites in the upper Blue River. There have been no documented records of this 
species in Indiana since the late 1800's (although there is an unsubstantiated 
report of this species from a recent collection), and some taxonomists have 
speculated that it has been extirpated from Indiana. Interestingly, the clear 
upper Blue River tributaries are the type of habitat in which one might expect to 
find N. ariommus if it still exists in this State. At the suggestion of Janisch, and 
the concurrence of Chief of Fisheries Robert Hollingsworth, the authors 
decided to jointly re-sample selected Blue River sites. 

We picked one of the upper tributary sites from which both albeolus and 
ariommus had been recorded in the original survey (3). This was a section of the 
Middle Fork of Blue River in Township 1 North, Range 4 East northwest 
quarter of the northeast quarter of Section 3. At 10:00 a.m. on September 28, the 
authors, with the assistance of DNR fisheries biologists Larry Lehman and 
Robin Knox, applied an emulsified rotenone formulation to this stretch of 
stream. The stream at this point is a medium-sized creek with a low to moderate 
current. It is rocky with much sand and gravel bottom, and at the time of the 
collection was quite clear. The stream has produced only an intermediate degree 
of entrenchment below its surrounding flood plain, possibly due to the bedrock 
strata upon which it is based (perhaps the Harrodsburg Limestone?). Habitat- 
wise, the Middle Fork appears to be a smallmouth bass-rock bass creek, 
although largemouth bass were also collected in the sample. 

Results 

Collection of dead and dying fish continued at the site until 2:00 p.m. Many 
specimens bearing a resemblance in the field to albeolus and to ariommus were 
picked up. We had previously determined that the species most likely to be 
confused with albeolus was Notropis chrysocephalus and that the species closest 
to ariommus was Notropis boops. Although additional replicate collection 
stations had been planned, numerous specimens of the two target species were 
taken and we saw no need for further collections. We were confident that these 
were the two species which had been called albeolus and ariommus in the 
original survey. 

Subsequent to the field collections, the specimens in question were 
examined in the laboratory. The specimens bearing a general resemblance to 
Notropis albeolus proved to have the faint parallel lines on the upper sides that 
form V-shaped markings. These lines are characteristic of the striped shiner, 
Notropis chrysocephalus, and are lacking on the white shiner, Notropis 
albeolus. Study of the specimens resembling Notropis ariommus showed 
consistent counts of 8 anal rays. The bigeye shiner, Notropis boops, generally 
has 8 anal rays (ocassionally 9, rarely 7). N. ariommus generally has 9 anal rays 
(occasionally 8 or 10). 

On the basis of these examinations, we felt that these had been 
misidentifications in the original survey. However, specimens were submitted to 
fish systematists for verification of our identifications. We sent the species in 
question to Drs. P.W. Smith, and Larry M. Page, Faunistic Studies Section of 



240 Indiana Academy of Science 

the Illinois Natural History Survey. They verified our identifications of this 
recent collection. On the basis of these findings, we must presume that Notropis 
albeolus is not a member of the Indiana fauna, and that the fish identified as this 
species in the 1972 survey was actually Notropis chrysocephalus. Similarly, it 
would apear that we have not re-established — unfortunately — the presence of 
Notropis ariommus in Indiana. It is highly likely that the species mistaken for 
ariommus was Notropis boops, found also by Gerking in the upper Blue River 
(1). 

Since it appears that the white shiner cannot be reasonably added to the list 
of Indiana species, some review of the numerical status of the State's 
ichthyofauna seems indicated. 

Gerkings's distributional study (1) lists 170 species and an additional 16 
subspecific forms. A later Gerking paper (2) revises the State fish list to include 
172 species and 11 subspecies. He settles on these figures in spite of the 174 
species included in his actual key in this paper. (He deletes Notropis dorsalis, 
found in a routine Notre Dame class collection, since the collection site had not 
been recorded and is unknown. He did not include Moxostoma breviceps 
(although in his key) because there were no authentic Indiana records for this 
species at that time.) 

McReynolds' 1966 paper (4) adds 3 new species to the State's fauna: 
Dorosoma petenense, Notropis fumeus, and Moxostoma breviceps (which 
Gerking had correctly presumed in 1955 to be present in Indiana waters). He lists 
175 species but he did not give the number of subspecies he considered viable 
forms. 

Omitted in Gerking's 1955 key, and subsequently in McReynolds' faunal 
total, was the white catfish Ictalurus catus, which was being trucked into the 
State from Virginia and sold to pond and lake owners. In the early 1960's, a 
Ripley County commercial hatchery was raising this catfish for sale and 
distribution throughout Indiana. On the basis of the rather widespread dispersal 
of this species, it would appear that the white catfish is probably still present in 
the State, and we have added it to the Indiana list. 

Since 1966, several taxonomic and /or distributional changes have 
occurred. Foremost, has been the introduction and establishment of the Pacific 
salmons in Lake Michigan and northern Indiana. The coho salmon, 
Oncorhynchus kisutch, was the first species introduced, and its spectacular 
success instigated further introductions of the chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus 
tshawytsha, and the kokanee salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka. The first two 
species, at least, seem to be long term residents of Indiana waters and should be 
added to the State's fauna. 

With the intentional introductions by the State of Arkansas and potential 
escapes from research ponds, the white amur, Ctenopharyngodon idella, is now 
a presumed member of the Indiana fauna. We may as well make this unfortunate 
addition to the list. Also, the two subspecies of Notropis cornutus have been 
given full specific status as Notropis cornutus (the common shiner) and Notropis 
chrysocephalus (the striped shiner). This taxonomic change adds Notropis 
chrysocephalus to the State's fauna. The Indiana Department of Natural 



Ecology 241 

Resources stocked the striped bass {Morone saxatilis) several years ago in 
Brookville Reservoir. Since specimens have been captured by test netting and 
angling, it appears that this species may become established in the Whitewater 
system. We tentatively add this species to the Indiana fauna. The Atlantic 
salmon, Salmo salar, has been stocked in Great Lakes waters by the Michigan 
DNR, but within our knowledge has not yet been taken in Indiana waters. 

Adding these new additions to the State fauna list, it would appear that 180 
species of fish occur in (or have been recorded from) Indiana. 



Literature Cited 

1. Gerking, S. D., 1945. Distribution of the fishes of Indiana. Investigations of Indiana Lakes and 
Streams 3(1):1-137. 

2. 1955. Key to the fishes of Indiana. Investigations of Indiana Lakes and Streams 4 (2):49-86. 

3. Janisch, Joseph L., 1972. Blue River: Stream survey report (mimeo). Division of Fish and Wildlife 
Report, Indiana Dept. of Nat. Res., 53 pp. 

4. McReynolds, H. E., 1966. Recent Indiana fish collections with notes on five new or rare species. 
Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. 75:299-302. 



ENTOMOLOGY 

Chairman: Jack R. Munsee, Department of Life Sciences 
Indiana State University, Terre Haute, Indiana 47809 

Chairman-Elect: Richard F. Wilkey, Slide Mounts, Inc. 
Bluffton, Indiana 46714 

Abstracts 

Organic Insect "Control" in Indiana Vegetables. Alan C. York, Entomology 

Hall, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 Cucumber, snap 

beans, eggplant, and cabbage were interplanted between previously 
transplanted rows of seven companionate plant treatments: dwarf marigold, 
nasturtium, peppermint, thyme, sage, and dill. Companionate crops were 
transplanted on 30 in centers and vegetables seeded between these rows 
approximately 2 weeks later. Each treatment consisted of 5 rows of a 
companionate plant and one row each of the 4 vegetables. The control 
(untreated) was created by seeding 3 rows of each of the vegetables and spraying 
at 10-day intervals with carbaryl 80S, 5 tsp per gallon of water per 500 sq ft. 
Three replicates were utilized of each treatment. Insect numbers, crop damage, 
and yield were evaluated. Only yields differed significantly one from another. 
Snap bean yields were highest in the dwarf marigold treatment, followed by 
nasturtium, dill, peppermint, and insecticide. Cucumber yields were highest in 
dill, followed by dwarf marigold, insecticide, sage, and nasturtium. Eggplant 
yields were highest in the insecticide treatment, followed by dill, thyme and 
dwarf marigold. Cabbage seedlings in each treatment except the insecticide were 
destroyed when about 3 in tall by flea beetles. 

"Studies on the Predation of Mosquito Larvae, by Pleid Bugs." Randall T. 
Baum and James D. Haddock, Department of Biology, Purdue University, 

Fort Wayne, Indiana 46805 In an attempt to assess the predation efficiency 

of pleid bugs (Hemiptera: Pleidae) on mosquito larvae experiments using prey- 
predator ratios of 20:2, 20:5 and 20: 10 were set up in white laboratory porcelain 
pans. A 20:2 ratio resulted in the highest efficiency of predation: 1.13 
larvae/ predator/ day. This is presumably due to a lessening of competition 
between the predators. Experiments designed to explore a relationship between 
predation efficiency and % light transmittance ranges (18-23%, 60-78% and 95- 
100%) showed no significant differences between high and low values. 
Occassionally, more than one pleid bug was observed feeding on a mosquito 
larva. No cannibalism was observed during the course of the experiments. There 
was a trend toward greater predation efficiency if the prey were less than 5mm in 
length. Pleids will sometimes be found attacking mosquito purae which are 
somewhat larger but less active. 

Parasites Reared from Black Cutworm Larvae (Argrotis ipsilon Hufnagel) 
(Leipdoptera: Noctuidae) Collected in Indiana Corn Fields from 1947 to 1977. 

Richard B. Schoenbolm and F. T. Turpin, Entomology Department, Purdue 

243 



244 Indiana Academy of Science 

University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 Black cutworm larvae found 

infesting Indiana corn fields were collected in the springs of 1974, 9175, 1976, 
and 1977. Larval stages collected ranged from third instar to sixth instar. 
Collected larvae were reared in the laboratory and emergent parasites were 
identified. The following parasite species were obtained: Meteorus leviventris 
(Wesmael) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), Microplitis kewlevi Muesebeck 
(Hymenoptera: Braconidae), Campoletis argentifrons (Cresson) (Hymenop- 
tera: Ichneumonidae), Archytas apicifer (Walker) (Diptera: Tachinidae), and 
Bonnetia comta (Fallen) (Diptera: Tachinidae). Rates of parasitism were 10.4, 
67.7, 23.8, and 12.2 percent in 1974, 1975, 1976, and 1977, respectively. In all 
four years, M. leviventris was the most abundant, and B. comta was the next 
most abundant parasite. The black cutworm was a new host record for A. 
apicifer. 

Hemocytes of the Fifth Instar European Corn Borer, Ostrinianubilalis. Hubner 
Spencer E. Reames and Harold L. Zimmack, Biology Department, Ball State 

University Hemocytes of the fifth instar European corn borer, Ostrinia 

nubilalis Hubner (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) were examined in stained and 
unstained preparations. Prohemocytes, plasmatocytes, granular hemocytes, 
oenocytoids, and spherule cells were found in this stage. The prohemocytes are 
characterized by a scant intensely basophilic cytoplasm. The highly 
pleomorphic plasmatocytes are characterized by a punctate nucleus, and 
production of cytoplasmic extensions in vetro. Granular hemocytes are 
characterized by a small eccentric to central nucleus, accumulation of lipid 
droplets, and the production of extremely fine cytoplasmic extensions in living 
preparations. The oenocytoid is characterized by a small eccentric nucleus in a 
large expanse of hemogenous basophilic cytoplasm. The spherule cell is 
characterized by a number of large sperules within the cytoplasm which may 
mask the nucleus. 

Some Techniques for Collecting, Preserving and the Slidemounting of 
Arthropods. R. F. Wilkey, Arthropod Slidemounts, 118 West Cherry Street 

(P.O. Box 185), Bluffton, Indiana 467 14 One of the most important steps in 

making satisfactory slidemounts is the "quick heat fixing" of the tissue. This is 
done by collecting the specimens in 75% alcohol and heating this solution, just to 
a light boil. Allow to cool, pour off the heating alcohol and replace with fresh. 
This heating needs to be done as soon as possible — at least within 48 hours. This 
procedure applies to large specimens to be stored in alcohol as well as material to 
be slidemounted. There are two basic "types" of mounting media; temporary 
and permanent. Of the temporary type, the most common are HOYER'S and 
POLYVINYL ALCOHOL. Specimens may be mounted directly into these 
media from life or alcohol and with heating, may become clear enough for 
observation. I consider these temporary because they are somewhat 
unpredictable and may break down in several ways. The most common perment 
type media are; BALSUM, EUPARAL and PICCOLYTE. Material to be 
mounted using these media are cleared in a 10% KOH solution (up to 3-4 days), 
cold, rinsed in a weak alcohol solution (10%) and transferred to a special lacto- 
phenol solution with a special staining formula added. This is heated for 1-2 
hours and specimens then rinsed in a 75% alcohol mixture and mounted directly 



Entomology 245 

in EUPARAL or transferred to Cellosolve or Xylene and then into BALSAM or 
PICCOLYTE. The transferral and manipulation of the specimens is made easier 
by the use of microtools such as cutters, spatulas and probes. Most of the 
chemicals, detailed techniques, tools and other supplies are available from the 
above company. 

Considerations of Variability and Taxonomic Methodology in the Systematics 
of the Orthocladiinae (Diptera: Chironomidae). Ronald A. Hellenthal, 
Biology Department, University of Notre Dame, Edwin F. Cook, Department 
of Entomology, Fisheries & Wildlife, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, 
Minnesota 55 108, and Theodore J. Crovello, Biology Department, University 

of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 Specimen samples of adults of 

taxa within the Orthocladiinae were evaluated for character variability and 
distribution characteristics and for the importance and effects of observer errors 
and specimen preparation procedures. Slide-mounts of dissected specimens 
were found to be indispensible for taxonomic study of adult Chironomidae. 
Slide-mounting methods omitting maceration or utilizing phenol were 
unacceptable for many Orthocladiinae due to insufficient clearing or distortion 
of characters. Character measurements made by different persons showed 
significant differences. For most characters these ranged from 1% to 3% of 
character means, but for measurements of antenna flagellomeres they exceeded 
6% of the mean and accounted for over 75% of the total variation. Pooled 
conspecific character samples from different localities or dates generally showed 
greater variability and more frequent departures from normality than single 
samples. Pooling increased sample variability by as much as 250%. The quality 
of ratio characters was evaluated by comparing the relative variability with that 
expected for the ratio assuming a random association between the numerator 
and denominator component variables. The antenna ratio and ratios of palp 
segment lengths frequently offered no significant advantage over their 
component variables. 

The Effect of a Pathogen, Nosema necatrix on the European Corn Borer, 
Ostrinia nubilalis Hubner. John L. Manuszak and Dr. Harold L. Zimmack, 

Ball State University European corn borer egg masses in the blackhead 

stage of development were topically infected with spore suspensions of Nosema 
necatrix, a known pathogen of the armyworm, Pseudaletia unipuncta. A 
comparative study of laboratory and field corn borers was conducted to 
determine if N. necatrix could be used as an effective microbial control agent 
against the European corn borer. Laboratory corn borers reared on artificial 
medium and field recovered borers were sacrificed exposing the malpighian 
tubules and fat bodies. Slides were stained with Zeihl's Carbol Fuchsin and 
examined for the presence of N. necatrix. The observed percent of infection and 
per cent of mortality was recorded for laboratory and field borers. 



A Gynandromorph of Smithistruma (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) 

Jack R. Munsee, Department of Life Sciences 
Indiana State University, Terre Haute, Indiana 47809 

Introduction 

Among ants collected in an undisturbed stripmine area, Vermillion 
County, was a unique individual belonging to the genus Smithistruma. The 
latter is represented by small ants, less than to slightly more than 2 mm. A 
description of a worker of S. filitalpa Brown collected in the abandoned 
stripmine adjacent to the location noted above has been cited from Indiana (4). 
Contained in the description are the characteristics of the Tribe Cdaetini which 
is represented by ants of this genus. The specimen in question represents the 
reproductive castes in a single individual, although Wilson (9) recognizes male 
ants as a caste only in the loosest sense. At least, the right side of the body is 
predominantly male, while the left is female. Such an anomaly is a bilateral 
gynandromorph. 

The problem of gynandromorphism is associated with caste determination 
in ants. As to the latter, two opposing views developed among myrmecologists: 
One argued that caste was determined genetically, or blastogenically; the other 
view, trophogenic, claimed that caste was determined by nutrition or caused by 
environmental effects (6, 7, 9). Wheeler (6) supported the blastogenic view, and 
according to Wilson (9) did not distinguish between normal functional castes 
and true anomalies. In 1937, Wheeler (6) published a detailed account of his 
study of an entire preserved colony of the fungus ant, Acromyrmex 
octospinosus Reich, from Trinidad. There were over 8000 normal and 163 
aberrant individuals in the collection. Among the latter were 10 
gynandromorphs. The female component in each was confined to the head, 
except in one specimen in which the genitalia was bisexual. According to 
Wheeler the body of these ants was that of a "perfectly formed male." Whiting 
(7) suggested that these "gynandromorphs" were male intersexes of varying 
forms with more or less superficial female traits. He cited Goldschmidt who 
determined that intersexes result when there is a shift at a specific point in 
development from one sex to that of the opposite. According to Whiting (7), 
intersexuality may result from trophogenic or other environmental factors, 
besides resulting genetically from race-crossing. 

Whereas Wheeler's "gynandromorphs" may be more accurately considered 
as intersexes, the single specimen of Smithistruma in the present study is a true 
gynandromorph. In true sexual mosaics the male and female parts of the body 
are distributed more or less at random (7). Thus, male regions may be limited to 
anterior or posterior half, to right or left sides, or in a female head or abdomen 
there may be an island or spot of male tissue. Whiting's opinion of Wheeler's 
"gynandromorphs" has come to be accepted and lends further evidence to the 
trophogenic view of caste determinations in ants (9); furthermore, Wilson cited 

246 



Entomology 



247 



the separate works of Brian, Weir, Wesson, et al., in which nutritional and 
environmental factors have been demonstrated to be important factors in caste 
determination in some ants. An interesting side-light related to ant nutrition 
came from Dr. George C. Wheeler (personal communication). Upon enquiring 
if, in his extensive studies of ant larvae, he had noted the presence of anomalous 
forms of these stages, he indicated that he had not. Although true mosaics, 
including bilateral gynandromorphs, are viable adults, an anomalous larva 
would die if it could not receive nourishment from nurse ants. 

Methods 

The gynandromorph was compared with a normal male and a normal 
female of this genus. The three specimens were studied in glycerin in deep 
depression slides, using a stereomicroscope with 10X and 15X eye pieces, and 
having IX, 3X, 6X, and 8X objectives. The comparisons began with head 




Figures Approximately 25X 
Figure 1. Gynandromorph ofSmithistruma: Male side represented by 13- segmented antenna, large 
compound eye and ocelli, reduced spongiform processes of pedicel, lack of gastric costulae, and 

pigmentation (above). 
Figure 2. Gynandromorph of Smithistruma: Female side represented by 6-segmented antenna (one 
funicular segment obscured), reduced compound eye, well-developed spongiform processes of pedicel, 

presence of gastric costulae, and general lack of pigmentation (below). 
Figure 3. Front view of gynandromorph showing pyriform head, male and female compound eyes 
and ocelli, mandibles, antennae, distribution of head and thoracic pigment, and reticulation (shown in 

part) of head capsule (right). 



248 Indiana Academy of Science 

structures and proceeded posteriorly. Attention was given to differences in size, 
form, and color of sclerites being compared in each region on male and female 
sides. An ocular micrometer was used to measure certain structures, including 
mouthparts. The latter are very small and detection of slight differences in sizes 
cannot be determined otherwise. Lateral male and female habitus are shown in 
Figures 1 and 2. Figure 3 is a frontal view of head and thorax. Drawings were 
done with the aid of a camera lucida. 

Discussion and Results 

The head is divided laterally into distinct regions with the right side 
predominantly male, and the left, female; the latter representing more of the 
total head surface (Fig. 3). Head shape also more closely approaches that of the 
normal female, thus affecting the normal teardrop head shape of the male, since 
that of the female is more flattened and pyriform. The right side bears a typical, 
filamentous, 13-segmented male antenna, while the left is 6-segmented and 
elbowed as found in the workers and queens of this genus. The preocular 
laminae on the female side (Fig. 3) is missing from the other side. The large 
compound eye on the right is that of the male, and on the left is its much smaller 
female counterpart. Two ocelli, right lateral and medial, are similar in size and 
shape to those found in normal males. The left lateral ocellus, however, is small 
and rudimentary, most closely resembling that of the female. Anteriorly, the 
clypeus is sharply separated into male and female portions. The male part of this 
structure is small and subtends the female part which is conspicuous and well 
developed (Fig. 3). Lateral and anterior margins of the female clypeus are 
bordered by stout, antero-medially projecting hairs with similar cover rather 
closely distributed over much of that side of the head. On the male side, shorter, 
stout curved hairs are sparse and lacking from the clypeal margins. Both male 
and female head surfaces are distinctly reticulate (partly shown in Figs. 1 and 3). 
Below the clypeus is the labrum, which in this genus of ants is two-pronged, 
united basally, and usually projects beyond the anterior border of the clypeus. 
The right element of the labrum is reduced and represents the male structure, 
while the female counterpart is much longer and robust; however, each projects 
beyond the anterior borders of their respective clypei. Beneath the clypei are the 
mandibles, the right, small, toothless, and spike-like, typical of the male of this 
genus (Fig. 3). In males of Smithistruma, the mandibles are shorter than, or at 
least not greater in length than the greatest diameter of the eye, according to 
Brown (1). In the anomalous ant, the length of the male mandible is about .03 
mm compared with .19 mm, the male eye diameter (Figs. 1 and 3). The left 
mandible is distinctly like that of the female and worker, bearing apical and 
intermediate (principal) teeth, as well as a tooth at the basal inner border ( 1 ). The 
maxillary and labial components are quite small, as noted by Kennedy and 
Schramm (3) who determined that the length of the mentum and submentum of 
a worker (S. dietrichi) of this genus measured .02 in. (about .5 mm), while the 
labial palp was .00 1 in. (.025 mm). Since the maxillae appear to be essentially the 
same size and form, and the intervening labium appears normal in shape and size 
when compared with these structures of the normal female, it is assumed that 
they are not anomalous. The mentum of the anomalous ant is about .08 mm, 
while that of the normal female is . 1 1 mm in length. Some of the differences may 



Entomology 249 

be accounted for due to measurements being made in situ on the former, while 
this structure was removed for measurement from the normal ant. Although the 
mentum of the male is about the same length as that for the normal female, it 
appears to be distinctly marginate, which is not seen in the mentum of either the 
anomaly or normal female. 

Viewed laterally, the outline of the alitrunk corresponds nicely to that of the 
male (Fig. 1, 2). It follows, therefore, that the sclerites of this tagma reflect male 
influence for the most part. The pronotum is predominantly male,although it 
lacks the dark pigmentation of that sex. Especially noticeable is the mesoscutum 
which in males is bulbous and rounded above, while in females it is flattened. On 
the male side this sclerite is higher than on the left, or female side (Fig. 3). It is 
also distinguishable from the left side since it is darkly pigmented as in the 
normal male. On the right, anteriorly and dorsally, may be seen a vestige of the 
Mayrian furrow (Fig. 1), but a parapsidal suture on the same side is not evident. 
Both foregoing traits are often found in male ants. Dorsally, between the 
mesoscutum and scutellum is a transverse sclerite found in alate ants and known 
as the parapteron. On the male side, the lateral portion of this sclerite is well- 
developed and distinctly angular. Its opposite extremity on the female side is less 
conspicuous and rounded. Continuing posteriorly to the scutellum, on the 
female side the margin curves evenly toward the apex, while on the male side the 
curve to the apex is more abrupt. Also, it is darker. The metanotum of the 
gynandromorph is longer at the midline (.04 mm) than that of either the normal 
female or male (.02, .03 mm, respectively). However, since its length more 
closely matches that of the latter, it is felt that it is a male sclerite. Bilaterally, the 
mesosterna, mesepisterna, and mesepimera are somewhat similar in form and 
size, and reflect male influence. On the male side these sclerites are darker. 
Similarly, the corresponding sclerites of the metathorax exhibit male size and 
form but are not as deeply pigmented as those of the mesothorax. The basal and 
declivous faces of the epinota of the normal male and female meet at distinct 
angles, with that of the male being more acute and therefore more distinct. 
Spongiform plates on these faces form epinotal spine-like structures. The basal 
and declivous faces of the epinotum of the anomaly are joined by a curve but 
they are distinct. The characteristics of this sclerite in the anomaly most closely 
resembles that of the normal male. It is darkly pigmented. Finally, the stigma, or 
spiracle, of the epinotum on the male side is more conspicuous than on the 
female side. 

A characteristic of dacetine ants is the presence of spongiform collars 
and/ or plates associated with the epinotum, petiole, and post-petiole (Figs. I, 2). 
The same spongiform material forms the preocular laminae, noted previously. 
These processes are well developed in workers and normal females. In the 
anomaly, two inconspicuous thin lamellae parallel one another on either side of 
the declivous face of the epinotum, the left being slightly larger (Figs. 1,2). In the 
normal male these lamellae are inconspicuous. 

The alate forms of the genus have a much reduced venation in both pairs of 
wings, according to Brown (1). Since basic studies of ant wings have been largely 
confined to the mesothoracic or fore wings, most of the following applies to 
these. The complement of veins found in the gynandromorph was the same as in 



250 Indiana Academy of Science 

the normal male and female. Prominent in each are R + Sc, the stigma, and 2r; 
also easily seen are the "basalis" veins ( 1 ), which are the first free abscissae of the 
radial sector (Rs) and the Media (M), or Rsfl and Mfl, respectively. Other veins 
were represented by furrows resulting from disturbances of the pattern of 
microtrichia. These furrows were seen in reflected light only, and represent the 
presence of former veins (2). Differences in wing lengths between those of the 
anomaly and those of the normal ants were noted. On the basis of this, it is 
believed that the wings of the anomalous ant, which appeared identical, are 
female. Approximate wing lengths for the normal male and female were 1.9 mm 
and 2. 1 mm, respectively. For the gynandromorph wing length was 2.2 mm. The 
metathoracic or hind wing of the anomalous ant is slightly longer than that of 
either the normal male or female, although for these, it is about the same length. 
(The left hind wing of the gynandromorph is broken off beyond the hamuli.) As 
observed by Brown (1), the only vein in the hind wing is found in the basal part of 
the costal region. The 4 hamuli appear normal, decreasing in length toward the 
apex of the wings. 

The petiole of the anomalous ant tends toward maleness, being about the 
same length as in the normal male (.28 mm), compared with the normal female 
(.26 mm). The node is rounded above but more angular in the female. From 
above, the petiole appears asymmetrical, the male part of the node is longer and 
rounded laterally, while the node on the female side is clearly more angular. 
Also, the petiolar stalk on the male side is ridged and projects laterally beneath 
the node, while on the other side the projection is less pronounced with the side 
somewhat straight as seen from above. The median ventral spongiform plate is 
present in all three ants; however, it is much more developed in the normal 
female than in either the gynandromorph or the normal male, although degree 
of development most closely approaches that of the latter. Whereas conspicuous 
and well-developed "wings" of spongiform substance, interconnected by a 
bridge, flank the node of the petiole posteriorly in the normal female, in the 
gynandromorph only the left "wing" is seen. Extending laterally toward the right 
or male side is a single low, inconspicuous spongiform plate as seen in the 
normal male. 

The postpetiole clearly displays male and female characteristics. Most 
notable are the shape of the node, as seen from above, and the distribution of the 
spongiform substance. On the female side the node is angular-ovoid, and on the 
male side it is rounded, the two sides corresponding in form to their respective 
sides in the normal ants. On the female side the spongiform substance is seen as a 
mass covering this side of the postpetiole, although it is not as dense as in the 
normal female. On the male side this substance is lacking, except for a thin 
transverse plate subtending this segment, which is the condition found in the 
normal male (Figs. 1, 2). 

The gaster of the anomalous ant is larger than that of either normal ant. 
Because in preserving, swelling or shrinking of the gaster occurs, it is difficult to 
assess actual sizes for comparison. Dorsally, the first gastric segment is nicely 
separated into male and female regions by the basal costulae. These are absent in 
the male, but are represented by about a dozen conspicuous striae in the female 



Entomology 251 

region of this tergite. The male region, which represents about one-half the 
dorsal surface, is smooth and shinning as it is over the entire tergite in the normal 
male. 

Most myrmecine female ants bear a sting (5), which is well developed in the 
queens. The sting is plainly visible in the normal alate female, but absent in the 
gynandromorph. Also, in the latter there appears to be no distinct genital 
capsule as in the normal male. Structures of the genitalia present are positioned 
toward the left or female side. A poorly developed genital capsule is 
recognizable, and it bears a single left volsella flanked on the right by a stipe. On 
the left is a stipe-like mass which may or may not be the partner to the structure 
on the right. The sclerotized volsella is not similar in form to the pair in the 
normal male; therefore, it is assumed that the volsella of the anomalous ant 
represents a different species of the genus. According to Brown (1), volsellae 
appear to vary with species or species-groups. 

To account for an anomaly such as exhibited in the gynandromorph of 
Smithistruma, Wiggles worth (8) states that in all cases of gynandromorphism in 
insects some of the cleavage nuclei are male and some are female. Such nuclei 
reaching the cortical zone of the egg become determined for a given part of the 
body, and patches of one or the other sex develop depending on the constitution 
of the cells from which they happen to be formed. In this ant instead of patches, 
whole sclerites, or parts of sclerites, as well as entire structures exhibit 
characteristics of one sex or the other. Male cleavage nuclei reaching the 
presumptive compound eye region of the embryo resulted in its partner being 
female. Differential sexual development of other characteristics of the 
gynandomorph ant may be similarly accounted for. The mosaic pattern of 
distribution of maleness and femaleness shown in the anomaly indicates that it is 
a true gynandromorph, quite unlike Wheeler's "gynandromorphs" of 
Acromyrmex. 



Literature Cited 

1 . Brown, William L., Jr., 1953. Revisionary studies in the Ant Tribe Dacetini. Amer. Midi. Natur. 
50(1):1-137. 

2. Brown, William L., Jr., and W. L. Nutting. 1950. Wing venation and the phylogeny of the 
Formicidae. Trans. Amer. Entomol. Soc. 75:113-132. 

3. Kennedy, C. H., and M. M. Schramm. 1953. A new Strumigenys with notes on Ohio species 
(Formicidae: Hymenoptera). Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer., 26:95-104. 

4. Munsee, J. R. 1976. Smithistruma filitalpa W. L. Brown. An Indiana dacetine ant. Proc. Ind. 
Acad. Sci. 86: (in press). 

5. Wheeler, W. M. 1910. Ants, Their Structure, Development and Behavior. Columbia Univ. Press., 
N.Y. 663 pp., illus. 

6. Wheeler, W. M. 1937. Mosaics and other anomalies among ants. Harvard Univ. Press, 
Cambridge, Mass. 95 pp., illus. 

7. Whiting, P. W. 1938. Anomalies and case determination in ants. Jour. Heredity 29(5): 189-193. 

8. Wigglesworth, V. B. 1974. Principles of Insect Physiology. Chapman and Hall Ltd., London. 7th 
ed. 827 pp., illus. 

9. Wilson, E.O. 1971. The Insect Societies. Harvard Univ. Press, Cambridge, Mass., 548 pp., illus. 



252 Indiana Academy of Science 



Seasonal and Spatial Variation of Species 

Diversity in Collections of Scarabaeidae, 

Elateridae, and Cerambycidae from West Central Indiana 1 

David B. MacLean 

Department of Biological Sciences 

Youngstown State University, Youngstown, Ohio 44555 

Introduction 

The organization of biotic communities has received increasing attention in 
recent years from both plant and animal ecologists. Research on plant 
communities has emphasized the successional changes that occur with time. 
Approaches to the study of plant communities have often involved ordination 
procedures and an analysis of the relationships between plants and 
environmental gradients. Animal communities have usually been arbitrarily 
defined according to either the habitat or taxonomic group. Research on animal 
communities has been less extensive than plant studies and has emphasized 
species diversity as a basic characteristic. Poole (7) has stated that the degree of 
community organization may be related to the relative difference in the 
variabilities of seasonal species diversity and the populations of the most 
abundant members of the community. This paper presents the results of 
research on the seasonal and spatial variations of collections of three insect 
families and their representative species populations. 

Methods 

The 16 sites chosen for this study were all mixed hardwood stands of 
varying vegetational composition, soils, topography, and past management. 
The stands were representtive of woodland habitats found throughout 
Tippecanoe County, Indiana. 

The trees, saplings, and seedlings were tallied in to one-half acre (one acre= 
4048.3 M 2 ) plot near the center of each stand. The diameter of the trees (4.0 
inches and over diameter breast height) (1.0 inch = 2.54cm.)and saplings (l.Oto 
3.9 inches diameter breast height) and the number of seedlings (less than 1.0 
inches in diameter) were recorded for all woody species. Only seedlings over 12 
inches high were recorded. 

Insects were sampled by an omnidirectional light trap at the center of each 
site. The attractant source was two 2-watt argon glow lamps powered by three 45 
volt batteries (5). The traps were operated from July to September of 1966 and 
from late May through August of 1967. collections were made at stand 16 only 
during 1966 and at stands 5 and 13 only during 1967. collections were made 
every two days except at the end of the sampling season when they were made 
twice a week. 



'Based in part on the Ph.D dissertation of the author, "Ordination of Forest Insect and Plant 
Communities in West Central Indiana" submitted to the faculty. Department of Entomology, Purdue 
University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Ph.D degree, January, 1969. 



Entomology 



253 



The insect families chosen for analysis were the Scarabaeidae, Elateridae, 
and Cerambycidae. Many additional families could have been included but for 
practical reasons the study was confined to these well known groups. All 
determinations were made by the author. 

Results 

Twenty five species of trees were assigned to four species-groups (9): (1) 
beech-maple species-group; (2) oak-hickory species-group; (3) upland 
mesophytic species-group; (4) lowland-depressional species-group. An 
additional designation was made for a black locust "species-group" because of 
the large numbers of this species at stand 13. Relative importance values were 
calculated for each tree species as the average of its relative density, frequency, 
and basal area (2). Based on the relative importance values of species-groups, 
each stand was designated as one of the five forest types of Schmelz and Lindsey 
(9). Eleven stands were designated as mixed woods, two as oak-hickory, two as 
lowland-depressional, and one as "early successional". 




JUNE JULY AUGUST JUNE JULY AUGUST 



Figure 1 . Seasonal distribution of selected insect species. A. Serica campestris; B. S. sericea; C. Cyclo- 

cephala borealis; D. C. immaculata; E. Copris fricator fricator; F. Orlhosoma brunneum; G. crossed 

hatched bars, Hemicrepedius bilobatus, clear bars H. memnonius; H. Melanotus Sagittarius; 

I. M. similis; J. M. ignobilis. 



254 



Indiana Academy of Science 



A total of 8179 specimens was identified from the light trap collections, 
consisting of 35 species of Scarabaeidae, 26 species of Elateridae, and 33 species 
of Cerambycidae. Twenty collections from May 30 to July 1 1, 1967 and twenty 
four from July 13 to August 30, 1966 were selected to represent the seasonal 
distribution of selected species. The period of peak adult flight was very short for 
some species, e.g. Phyllophaga futilis, P. tristis, P.fusca, and P. inversa. Others 
such as Serica sericea, Hemicrepedius memnonius, Melanotus Sagittarius, M. 
similis, and M. ignobilis (Figure IB, G, H, I, and J) were collected throughout 
most of the season. Two periods of adult activity were evident for Cophsfricator 
fricator, the first from late May to June 29 and the second from mid-July to late 
August (Figure IE). The most abundant cerambycid, Orthosoma brunneum, 
had a well-defined mid-seasonal period of abundance (Figure IF). 

Because light trap collections cannot be considered to be random samples, 
each collection was treated as a complete population (6). Species diversity values 
(H) based on Brillouin's formula: 

H = C_ (logioN! - logioN!) 

N 

where c = 2.302585, and N was the number of specimens in each collection, were 
calculated for five periods from June through August (4). 



1.4000 
1.2000 

1.0000 
0.8000 
0.6000 
0.4000 
0.2000 

0.0000 



.Scarabaeidae 




Elateridae 



Cerambycidae 



JUNE 



JULY 



AUGUST 



Figure 2. Seasonal distribution of H for collections of Scarabaeidae (solid circles), Elateridae (open 
circles), and Cerambycidae (Xs) made during the summers of 1966 and 1967. 



Entomology 255 

The seasonal distribution of H averaged for all sites is shown in Figure 2 for 
the Scarabaeidae, Elateridae, and Cerambycidae. The average diversity of 
collections of Scarabaeidae, was highest during June, decreased in early July 
and reached a second maximum during mid-July. From late July to September, 
diversity decreased steadily. Collections made during the two periods of highest 
species diversity (June and mid-July) had an average of 264 and 46 specimens 
per site respectively. Collections made during early July and August had 
averages of 10, 12 and 8 specimens per site. 

The distribution of H for collections of Elateridae reached a maximum in 
July and declined rapidly in early August and recovered slightly during late 
August. 

The Cerambycidae showed a sharp increase in species diversity in late July 
and declined to a seasonal low in late August. Collections increased from an 
average of 3 individuals per site in June to a maximum of 20 in late July and 
declined to an average of only 2 cerambycids per site in late August. 

A summary of the results of a model II analysis of variance of seasonal 
species diversity values (H) for collections of Scarabaeidae, Elateridae, and 
Cerambycidae is shown in Table I. The two sources of variation were among 
dates (June, early July, early August, and late August) and within dates (among 
sites within collection periods). Variation in H among collection periods was 
highly significant for all three insect families. The added variance component for 
among dates accounted for 41 , 22, and 32 percent of the total variation in species 
diversity for the Scarabaeidae, Elateridae, and Cerambycidae respectively. A 

Table 1. Summary of Analysis of Variance of H Values for Scarabaeidae, Elateridae, and 

Cerambycidae. 

Family Source d.f F 

Scarabaeidae among dates 4 10.987*** 

within dates 66 

Elateridae among dates 4 4 .985*** 

within dates 67 

Cerambycidae among dates 4 7.792*** 

***P < 0.005. 4 and 60 degrees of freedom. 



Table 2. Values of Coefficient of Variation based on H among and within dates and specie. 
Scarabaeidae, Elateridae, and Cerambycidae. 





Family 


Number 
Collected 


C.V. 1 

Among dates 


for H 


values 
Within dates 


Range of popula- 
tion C.V. values : 


Scarabaeidae 

Elateridae 

Cerambycidae 


4960 

2789 
430 


0.4430 
0.4958 
0.7052 




0.4342 
0.6581 
0.8438 


0.8567-4.9888 
0.4198-2.1125 
0.3354-1.3618 





'Coefficient of Variation. 

2 Based on the ten most abundant species. 



256 Indiana Academy of Science 

coefficient of variation was calculated from the antilog of the variance 
component for both among and within sites (Table 2). The scarabaeidae had the 
smallest coefficients of variation and the Cerambycidae the largest. 

A coefficient of variation was also calculated for the ten most abundant 
species of each family based on the number of each species as a percentage of the 
total population during a collection period (7). The range of values is given for 
each family in Table 2. Poole (7) states that smaller values of coefficients of 
variation based on H than ones based on species populations indicate a degree of 
community organization. Values for all ten species of Scarabaeidae were much 
larger than those based on the among and within collection periods. However, 
the coefficients of variation of two species were smaller than that for among 
dates (M. similis) and within dates (M. similis and M. ignobilis). These species 
showed less variability in their seasonal population size than was present in the 
seasonal species diversity for the entire elaterid community. 

Coefficients of variation for six of the ten most abundant Cerambycidae 
were less than the coefficient of variation for among dates. The range of 
coefficients for these species was quite small (0.3354-0.6942). Fewer than 
seventeen specimens were collected for each of the four species that had 
coefficients larger than the coefficient of variation for among dates. The fact that 
these species were infrequently collected could account for their high seasonal 
variability. 

An inverse relationship was noted for numbers collected and the variability 
of the community both among and within dates (Table 2). The species diversity 
of communities composed of relatively small populations was more variable 
than that of communities made up of larger species populations. The seasonal 
variability of species populations was highest in numerically large communities 
and lowest in small communities. 

Species diversity values (H) were calculated for all stands based on the 
species of trees recorded within each one-half acre plot. Correlation coefficients 
calculated for H (trees) and H (insects) were all nonsignificant. 

The collections of Scarabaeidae and Elateridae were next subjected to a 
cluster analysis based on the unweighted pair-group method (10). The results, 
which are summarized in Table 3, show that the collections were clustered more 
by month than by site. At the 0.20 level of similarity, sixteen clusters of scarab 

Table 3. Summary of Cluster Analysis of Collections of Scarabaeidae and Elateridae. 

Family 
Scarabaeidae 



Elateridae 



Similarity level 


No. of clusters 


0.80 


53 


0.50 


31 


0.20 


16 


0.10 


10 


0.80 


47 


0.50 


28 


0.20 


14 


0.10 


11 



Entomology 257 

collections were evident (Table 3). If several distinct insect communities existed, 
one would expect that most collections would be restricted to only one or two 
clusters. However, collections from three sites were included in five different 
clusters and nine sites in four different clusters. Thirteen of these clusters had 
collections from more than one site. The most distinctive collections came from 
sites 14 (heavily grazed white oak woodlot) and 15 (Wabash River floodplain) 
which occurred in three and two different clusters respectively. No cluster had 
more than two collections from the same site. However, based on seasonal 
periods, the clusters consisted of collections from no more than two consecutive 
months. Seven clusters included collections from the same month and nine from 
two months. 

Cluster analysis of collections of 26 species of Elateridae produced 14 
clusters united at the 0.20 level of similarity (Table 3). Twelve of these clusters 
had collections from more than one site. Collections from two sites were 
included in five different clusters, from five sites in three different clusters, and 
from one site in two different clusters. One cluster consisted of collections from 
three months and four from two months and eight from the same month. Like 
the Scarabaeidae, the collections of Elateridae were clustered more by month 
than by site. 

Discussion 

Based on values of H among and within collection periods, the 
Scarabaeidae made up the most stable, i.e. organized, insect community. A 
number of well recognized ecological groups are included within this family (8). 
Larvae of the genera Phyllophaga, Cyclocephala, Macrodactylus, and 
Osmoderma as well as many others feed on the roots of plants. Adults of most of 
these species feed on the foliage of forest trees and shrubs. Many of these species 
had highly variable populations, i.e. they were present for short periods of time 
but often in large numbers. However, they were replaced by other species 
throughout the season which tended to maintain a large number of species at 
most sites and thereby minimized the variability of the species diversity. Most 
plant feeding woodland species such as Serica sericea and Diplotaxis harperi 
showed less variability in their seasonal populations than did most species of 
Phyllophaga. Populations of dung feeding species (e.g. Ateuchus histeroides 
punctatus and Copris fricator fricator) were less variable than populations of 
grass feeding species {Phyllophaga and Cyclocephala) but more variable than 
the woodland species. Pelidonata punctata, a species that develops in decaying 
wood was one of the least variable scarabs throughout the season. 

Values of H among and within sites for the Cerambycidae showed the least 
evidence of community organization. Many species of Cerambycidae appear to 
be opportunistic since their presence at a site depends on specific requirements 
for larval development (3). Populations of cerambycids were the least variable of 
any which indicates that the species present at a site are able to utilize food 
sources that are available on a nonseasonal basis. 

Most species of woodland Elateridae are phytophagous (e.g. Melanotus 
spp.) while some are carnivorous (e.g. Conoderus spp. and Hemicrepedius 
bilobatus) (1). Plant feeding species are found in soil or in decayed tree trunks 



258 Indiana Academy of Science 

and plant remains. Populations that exhibited the most seasonal variation 
included both phytophagous species (Limonius grisseus, Agriotes oblongicollis, 
M. Sagittarius, M. corticinus) and carnivorous species (H. bilobatus). 
Populations that showed the least seasonal variability also included both 
phytophagous (H. memnonius, M. similis, M. ignobilis) and carnivorous species 
(larvae of Athous cuculatus are carnivorous). 

The results of this study provided indirect evidence of varying amounts of 
community organization for the Scarabaeidae, Elateridae, and Cerambycidae. 
Analysis of variance and cluster analysis of insect collections indicated that such 
community organization may involve successive species populations 
throughout the season more than differences between community types. The 
seasonal variability of species population may, in addition to many other 
factors, be related to the availability of its host food (e.g. plant stems, roots, 
wood, dung, etc.) and the ability of the insect to exploit it. If the food source is 
highly predictable in its seasonal availability (e.g. foliage and decayed wood for 
forest trees) the population may be less variable than that of a species that feeds 
on either seasonally abundant hosts or on less predictable food sources (e.g. prey 
of carnivorous species). 

Literature Cited 

1. Arnett, R. H. Jr. 1968. The Beetles of the United States. 1968. The American Entomol. Institute. 
Ann Arbor, Mich, xii and 1112 pp. 

2. Brown, R. T. and J. T. Curtis. 1952. The upland conifer-hardwood forests of northern 
Wisconsin. Ecol. Monogr. 22:217-234. 

3. Linsley, E. G. 1959. Ecology of Cerambycidae. Ann. Rev. Entomol. 4:99-138. 

4. Lloyd, M. J. H. Zar, and J. R. Karr. 1968. On the calculation of information-theoretical 
measures of diversity. Amer. Midi. Naturalist. 79:257-272. 

5. Lowe, R. B. and L. G. Putnam. 1964. Some simple and useful technological developments in light 
traps. Canadian Entomol. 96:129. 

6. Pielou, E. C. 1966. The measurement of diversity in different types of biological collections. J. 
Theoretical Biol. 13:131-144. 

7. Poole, R. W. 1 970. Temporal variation in the species diversity of woodland caddisfly fauna from 
Central Illinois, trans. III. Acad. Sci. 63:383-385. 

8. Ritcher, P.O. 1958. Biology of Scarabaeidae. Ann. Rev. Entomol. 3:311-334. 

9. Schmelz, D. V. and A. A. Lindsey. 1970. Relationships among the forest types of Indiana. Ecol. 
51:620-629. 

10. Sneath, P. H. and R. R. Sokal. 1973. Numerical taxonomy; the Principles and Practices of 
Numerical Classification. W. H. Greeman, San Francisco, California. 573 p. 

Acknowledgements 

The author wishes to acknowledge Dr. Ronald Giese and Dr. Leland 
Chandler for their encouragement and help with this research while at Purdue 
University. 



The 13-year Cicada — Conclusion of an 
Experiment Started in 1963 1 

D. K. Reed, G. L. Reed and D. W. Hamilton 2 

Science and Education Administration, USDA, NCR 

Vincennes, Indiana 47591 

Introduction 

The periodical cicada, Magicicada spp., a pest of orchards in many areas of 
the U.S., makes dramatic appearances at intervals of either 13 or 17 years. After 
years of feeding underground upon roots of the trees, they sudenly emerge in 
enormous numbers and move into trees and other woody vegetation in the area. 
Although adults are equipped with piercing-sucking mouthparts, they do not 
feed. Instead, they damage the tree with oviposition wounds made when the 
female deposits her eggs in the bark of the trees. Hamilton and Cleveland said, 
"The bark is pushed from the wood and the wood cut and raised so that series of 
small bundles of splinters protrude from the surface" (2). Each female lays from 
400 to 600 eggs with 12 to 20 eggs deposited within each puncture. The damage 
can be severe in apple and peach orchards, causing die-back of terminals and 
death of even large branches. 

Control of the adult cicadas is difficult. Since the insect does not feed 
actively after emergence, it must be reached with a contact insecticide to kill it. 
Moreover the insects emerge in large numbers daily over a period of 2 to 3 weeks, 
so in orchards adjacent to woodlands and in orchards heavily infested by the 
previous brood of cicadas, numerous applications of insecticides may be 
necessary. 

Because of this difficulty during emergence of Brood XXIII of the 
periodical cicada in 1963, Hamilton and co-workers initiated research to 
determine the potential for controlling newly hatched cicada nymphs. Their 
investigations showed that as many as 63 nymphs 10.092 m 2 ( 1 ft 2 ) were common 
under mature apple trees in southern Indiana, that is about 43,000 nymphs were 
feeding on the roots of each tree. They suspected, therefore, that severe decline 
of apple trees, often attributed to other causes, might actually reflect the heavy 
feeding over 13 or 17years of an expanding population of cicadas. Hamilton 
identified all three species of the 13-year cicada, Magicicada tredecim-W alsh 
and Riley, M. tredecassini- Alexander and Moore, and M. tredecula-Alexander 
and Moore, in the 1963 population (1). 

Materials and Methods 

In 1963, Hamilton (unpublished data) tested 3 carbamates: Carbaryl (1- 
naphthyl methylcarbamate); aldicarb (2-methyl-2-(methylthio) propion- 



1 Mention of a pesticide in this paper does not constitute a recommendation for use by the U.S. 
Department of Agriculture nor does it imply registration under FITRA as amended. 
2 Now retired. 

259 



260 



Indiana Academy of Science 



aldehyde O-(methylcarbamoyl)oxime); and mexacarbate (4-dimethylamino)-3 
5-xylyl methylcarbamate); also 3 organophosphates: demeton (0,0-diethyl 0-[2- 
(ethylthio)ethyl] phosphorothioate and 0,0-diethyl ,S-[2-(ethylthio)ethyl] 
phosphorothioate); dimethoate (0,0-dimethyl S-[(methylcarbamoyl) methyl] 
phosphorodithioate); and phorate (0,0-diethyl ,S-[(ethylthio) methyl] 
phosphorodithioate. Foliar and ground applications of these materials were 
made in a heavily infested block of apple trees near Vincennes, Indiana, July 30 
as eggs of Brood XXIII began to hatch. Carbaryl, aldicarb, and mexacarbate 
were applied at a rate of 453. 6g a.i./378 liters (1 lb a.i./ 100 gal), and demeton, 
phorate, and dimethoate at 170g a.i./ 378 liters (6 oz a.i./ 100 gal). For the foliar 
application, trees were sprayed to run-off; for the ground treatment, ca. 5-10 
gal/ tree were applied. A randomized complete block design with 4 replications 
and 13 treatments (check plus foliar and ground application of the 6 chemicals) 
was utilized in the test. 

Counts of egg mortality made during 1963 by Hamilton and Cleveland 
indicated that the foliar applications of aldicarb and mexacarbate were effective 
in reducing egg hatch. However, they had to wait for emergence of the adults in 
1976 before the real evaluation could be made. Meanwhile, the entire research 
staff of the Vincennes laboratory was completely replaced though Hamilton did 
return to live in Vincennes after retirement. He was therefore available during 
the spring of 1976 and was able to work with the current staff of the laboratory to 
locate the plots used during 1963. Although some identity tags had been lost 
during the 13 years, enough remained to allow reconstruction of the 
experimental plots by using the plot maps in "Special Reports from 1963". 
Afterwards, screen cages, 67.09 cm 2 (2.2 ft 2 ), (1 cage/ tree) were placed under the 
treated and check trees, and emergence of adult cicadas was monitored weekly 
during 1976 (May 20 through mid-June). No attempt was made to separate the 3 
species of 13-year cicadas in the count. The resulting data were subjected to 
analysis of variance and the treatments were orthogonally partitioned. 

Table 1 . Effect of foliar (F) and ground (G) application of chemicals applied in 1963 to apple trees on 
emergence of 13-year cicada in 1976. 



Treatment 



(F) 



No. of cicadas emerged 



(G) 



Total 



Untreated 

Carbaryl 

Demeton 

Dimethoate 

Phorate 

Aldicarb 

Mexacarbate 



316 
192 
111 

134 

123 

71 

52 



225 


541 


156 


348 


162 


273 


127 


261 


68 


191 


91 


162 


83 


135 



LSD 0.05 = 36.9 
LSD 0.01 = 45.1 



Results and Discussion 

The difference in emergence in the check and treated plots was highly 
significant (Table 1), but emergence in plots treated with carbamates was not 



Entomology 261 

significantly different from emergence in plots treated with organophosphates. 
Aldicarb and mexacarbate were significantly (only 90% confidence limits) more 
effective than the other organophosphates dimethoate and demeton. The 
ground and foliar applications did not differ significantly. 

All chemical treatments therefore gave some degree of control of freshly 
hatched cicadas. Mexacarbate, aldicarb, and phorate appeared to be most 
effective. It is impressive that differences between treatments still show so clearly 
despite the length of time that had elapsed and the impact of nature upon these 
populations. Obviously, the 1963 treatments against the eggs had produced 
quite large differences. 



Literature Cited 

1. Hamilton, D. W., and M. L. Cleveland. 1963. Periodical cicadas in 1963, Broods 23 and 3. 
Special Report VI-7-63, Oct. 15, 1963. USDA 17p. 

2. Hamilton, D. W., and M. L. Cleveland. 1964. Periodical cicadas in 1963, Brood 23. Proc. 
Indiana Acad. Sci. 73:167-170. 



Inter generic Attraction of Ramosia rileyana 
and Synanthedon pictipes 

James A. Burnside and Thomas E. Mouzin 

Fruit and Vegetable Insects Research 

Agri. Res. Sen/., USDA, Vincennes, Indiana 47591 

Introduction 

In 1972, during tests of trap design for and population monitoring of the 
lesser peachtree borer, Synanthedon pictipes (Grote and Robinson), a serious 
pest of peach trees, significant numbers of male Ramosia rileyana (Hy. 
Edwards) were found in pheromone traps containing virgin females of S. 
pictipes. This intergeneric attraction was therefore studied in 1972, 1973 and 
1974. 

Methods and Materials 

Trap Placement — Five each virgin female lesser peachtree borers obtained 
from a laboratory culture were placed in screen-wire cages (5'/2 x 2'/2-in. diam) 
that were put into 1-gal cylindrical cardboard cartons coated inside with 
Stikem® (Wong and Cleveland 1970). In May 1972, 6 such traps were placed in a 
10-acre peach orchard (later found to contain scattered growth of Solanum 
carolinense L., the host plant of R. rileyana) to evaluate trap design and to 
monitor the emergence characteristic of S. pictipes. An additional 6 traps placed 
near stacks of infested peach trees that had been removed from an orchard and 
were being allowed to dry before burning were used to determine the number of 
moths that would complete development within these trees (thus adding to the 
population of adult moths in the area). The traps were checked, and fresh 
females were added every 3 days until September 4. 

Again in May 1973 and 1974, 6 similar traps were placed in the 10-acre 
orchard to detect the initial emergence of R. rileyana so field and laboratory 
tests could be initiated. Also, live R. rileyana males were captured by placing 5- 
10 virgin female lesser peachtree borers inside a cylindrical screen wire cage (9 x 
3'/2 in. diam) suspended from a peach tree limb. The attracted R. rileyana males 
were then easily captured by placing a similar container over them as they 
hovered near the trap. Female R. rileyana were captured by netting them as they 
rested on S. carolinense. A few males were also obtained by this method. 

Attempts to cross-mate the R. rileyana and S. pictipes were made by placing 
varying numbers of each inside a lxlxl screen-wire cage. The lesser peachtree 
borer females used in these tests were taken from the laboratory colony and held 
for 24 h after eclosion to insure sexual maturity. These moths and the captured 
male R. rileyana were held in a darkened room maintained at 60 ± 2° F to reduce 
flight activity and injury. All cross-mating tests were performed between 8 and 
1 I AM, the optimum mating period for lesser peachtree borers (Cleveland and 
Murdock 1964). 

262 






Entomology 263 

Results and Discussion 

In 1972, the 1st and last R. rileyana moths were caught July 12 and August 
23, respectively; a total of 58 was taken, 44 in the orchard and 14 from traps near 
the peach tree stacks (there were no host plants within 100 m). In 1973 and 1974, 
the 1st moths were captured August 1 and August 3, respectively. This trapping 
was then discontinued. However, 6 of the 10 separate attempts made in 1973 to 
lure R. rileyana males with lesser peachtree borer females were successful, and a 
total of 19 specimens was obtained. These attracted R. rileyana demonstrated 
definite pre-copulatory activities such as direct flight, hovering near calling 
females, clasper expansion, and striking, responses that are typical of S. pietipes. 
An additional 20^ and 4 (/were netted while resting on host plants. Then since 
all but one female caught in 1973 were gravid, the primary effort in 1974 was to 
net females from which we could obtain eggs that could be placed on rearing 
medium. Twenty-one ^ and 3(/were netted, and 3 additional were captured 
by luring with female lesser peachtree borers. 

Table 1 . Intergeneric sexual response of S. pietipes and R. rileyana. 

Trial No. 
No. ((/:£) 



1 


1:10 


2 


6:5 


3 


4:10 


4 


2:5 


5 


2:5 


6 


3:10 


7 


7:10 



5:10 



10:1 



Couplings 




Precopulatory 


No. 


Length 


behavior aj 


R. rileyana £ 


x S. pietipes + 









w 







O 







O 







S 


() 




M 







S 


4 


10.85.50 
and 70 sec 


S 


2 


momentary. 
4 1/2 min 


s 


S. pietipes J 
1 


x R. rileyana $. 

4 min S 





aj O - none; W = weak (hovering); M = moderate (clasper extension); S = strong (striking). 

Nine attempts at cross-mating R. rileyana and S. pietipes were made in 1973 
and 1974. Table 1 shows the numbers used and the results. Within 2 min after 
each of 7 couplings was terminated, the females resumed calling, an indication 
of an unsuccessful mating. The one time when a male S. pietipes coupled with a 
female R. rileyana took place in a cage that contained both male and female S. 
pietipes so this may have been an accidental connection. It has frequently been 
observed that male lesser peachtree borers exposed to a conspecific sex 
pheromone will "strike" at other males, non-calling females, inanimate objects 
such as small peach tree twigs, and even the likeness of moths drawn on the 
outside of cages containing calling females. In only 2 of the 9 trials was there no 
coupling and/ or pre-copulatory activity. 

The data thus indicate a definite attraction of R. rileyana males to the sex 
phermomone emitted by S. pietipes. This result does not correspond to the 



264 Indiana Academy of Science 

results obtained by Nielsen et al. (1975). They reported the capture of only 
conspecific males in traps baited with female S. pictipes through R. rileyana did 
respond to a fraction of the S. pictipes pheromone extracted with ether. In 
addition, they reported that only S. pictipes responded to (E,Z)-3,13- 
octadioadien-1-ol acetate, a synthesized attractant, which led them to believe 
that the primary sex attractant of S. pictipes is species specific and plays an 
important role in reproductive isolation of this moth. 

It has been theorized that certain sex pheromones contain 2 compounds; 
one that aids in mate location and the other that stimulates copulation. 
Therefore, different species may be attracted to a calling female, but the specifity 
of the stimulatory compound would insure reproductive isolation. In fact, the 
intergeneric couplings reported here indicate that a physical barrier, perhaps the 
genitalia of one or both of the species, may actually be responsible for the 
ultimate reproductive isolation of these 2 species. 

Running Head 

Intergeneric Attraction 

Indexing Phrases 

Ramosia rileyana 
Syanthedon pictipes 
Lesser Peachtree Borer 
Intergeneric Attraction 
Sex Pheromones 



Literature Cited 

1. Cleveland, M. L.,and L. L. Murdock. 1964. Natural sex attractant of the lesser peach tree borer. 
J. Econ. Entomol. 57:761-2. 

2. Nielson, D. G., F. F. Purrington, J. H. Tumlinson. R. E. Doolittle, and C. E. Young. 1975. 
Response of male clearwing moths to caged virgin females, female extracts, and synthetic sex 
attractants. Environ. Entomol. 4:451-4. 

3. Wong, T. T. Y., and M. L. Cleveland. 1970. Flourescent powder for marking deciduous fruit 
moths for studies of dispersal. J. Econ. Entomol. 63:338-9. 



Entomology 



Insects and Other Arthropods of Economic Importance in Indiana During 1977. 

Robert W. Meyer, Department of Entomology, 

Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 

Introduction 

Because the biology of many of our pest species is not yet well enough 
known, the effect of climate on abundance and activity cannot always be 
determined. The difference between 1975 and 1976 fall oviposition by the alfalfa 
weevil probably is weather-related, but what the factor is cannot be stated with 
certainty. The "premature" activity of many insects (Table 2 has dates for first 
and peak activity of many species) in 1977 is probably weather-related, and the 
severe setback in population numbers that the bagworm suffered is almost 
certainly due mostly to the cold. Some cold-susceptible insects on the other hand 
survived; the snow cover was probably responsible for that. But insect activity in 
general was less than normal in 1977. Fewer cells for extension service help, 
fewer nursery inspection problems, fewer arboviral infections. 

January averaged 9° F, 18° below normal for the month. Soil moisture was 
adequate through May even though rainfall was less than normal. June and July 
were both hot and dry, and August was cool and wet. The weather, in short was 
excellent for farm operations, permitting early planting and excellent harvesting 
conditions. And the dry period, though reducing yields in some crops, was not 
enough to seriously affect our two largest cash crops, corn and soybeans. In 
addition, it was a good year for cutworms and other lepidopterans. 

Corn and Small Grains 

Adults of the western corn rootworm {Diabrotica virgifera LeConte) 
appeared earlier (Table 1 gives available developmental data), in greater 

Table I. New State (*)and County Records for 1977 



Organism 

A naphes flavipes fForster) 

Bathyplectus anurus (Thomson) 



B. curculionis (Thomson) 

Chorizococcus lounsburyi (Brain) 
Diabrotica virgifera (LeConte) 

Diaparis sp. 

Lemophagus curt us Townes 
Microctonus aethiopoides Loan 
Tetrastichus julis ( Walker) 



County 

Whitley, Jay, Bartholomew, Marion, Hendricks, Shelby 

Bartholomew, Decatur, Clark, Dearborn, Jefferson, 

Jennings, Ripley, Scott, Switzerland. Brown, Monroe, 

Perry, Martin 
Bartholomew, Decatur, Jefferson, Ohio, Scott, Switzerland, 

Monroe, Perry, Martin, Pike, Vanderburgh 
Marion* 
Fayette, Union, Wayne, Dearborn, Franklin, Ripley, Scott, 

Lawrence, Monroe, Daviess, Dubois, Martin 
Huntington, Franklin 
Franklin 

Bartholomew, Scott 
LaGrange, Noble, Steuben, Wells, Whitley, Carroll, Lake, 

Jay, Blackford, Wayne, Fayette, Madison, Marion, 

Putnam, Owen, Brown, Monroe 



265 



266 



Indiana Academy of Science 



Table 2. Date of first appearance and/ or peak population of several species of insects 









Occurrence: 




Data 


Organism 


Stage 


First 


Peak(s) 


County 


Source 


Apple maggot 


Adult 


17 ,Iun 




Tippecanoe 


N.J. light 




Adult 




6 Jul 


Knox 


Pheromone 


Armyworm 


Ad., 1st flight 


29 Mar 


21 Apr 


Tippecanoe 


BL trap 




Ad. 2nd flight 




19 May 


Tippecanoe 


BL trap 




Ad. 3rd flight 




16 Jun 


Tippecanoe 


BL trap 




Ad. 4th flight 




11 Aug 


Tippecanoe 


BL trap 


Bathyplectes 


Adult 


30 Mar 




Harrison 


Sweep 


anurus 












B. curculionis 


Adult 


4 Apr 




Harrison 


Sweep 


Black cutworm 


Ad., 1st flight 


8 Apr 


23 Jun 


Tippecanoe 


BL trap 


Cereal leaf btle 


Adult 


28 Marh 




Harrison 


Sweep 


Chrysopa carnea 


Adult 


9 Mar 




Tippecanoe 


N.J. light 




Ad. 1st flight 




17 Jun 


Tippecanoe 


Sticky t. 




Ad. 2nd flight 




4 Aug 


Tippecanoe 


Sticky t. 


Chrysops cincticornis Adult 


7 May 




Washington 


Bait 


Chrysops niger 


Adult 


8 May 




Scott 


Bait 


Codling moth 


Ad., 1st night 


20 Apr 


1-18 May 


Knox 


Pheromone 




Ad. 2nd (light 




6 Jul 


Knox 


Pheromone 




Ad. 3rd night' 




17 Aug 


Knox 


Pheromone 


Convergent lady 


Ad. 1st flight 




17 Jun 


Tippecanoe 


Sticky t. 


beetle 


Ad. 2nd night 




28 Jul 


Tippecanoe 


Sticky t. 




Ad. 3rd night 




9 Sep 


Tippecanoe 


Sticky t. 


Corn earworm 


Ad., 1st night 


3 Aug 


8 Sep 


Tippecanoe 


BL trap 


European corn 


Ad.. 1st night 


15 May 


26 May 


Tippecanoe 


BL trap 


borer 


Ad. 2nd night 




21 Jul 


Tippecanoe 


BL trap 




Ad. 3rd night 




1 Sep 


Tippecanoe 


BL trap 


European red 


1st instar 


19 Apr 




La Porte 


Observed 


mite 












Fall armyworm 


Ad., 1st night 


8 Jul 


18 Aug 


Tippecanoe 


BL trap 


Lesser peachtree 


Ad., 1st night 


20 Apr 


11 May 


Knox 


Pheromone 


borer 


Ad. 2nd night 




22 Jun 


Knox 


Pheromone 




Ad. 3rd night 




17 Aug 


Knox 


Pheromone 


Meadow spittle bug 


1st instar 


28 Mar 




Harrison 


Observed 


Mexican bean beetle 


0/ wintering ad. 


29 Apr 




Owen 


Observed 




1st gen. eggs 


3 Jun 


16-27 Jun 


Lawrence 


Research 




1st instar 


16 June 




Lawrence 


Research 




O/wintering ad. 




20 Jun 


Lawrence 


Research 




1st gen. larvae 




30 Jun 


Lawrence 


Research 




1st gen. pupae 




18 Jul 


Lawrence 


Research 




1st gen. adults 


7 Jul 


14-21 Jul 


Lawrence 


Research 




2nd gen. eggs 


7 Jul 


25-28 Jul 


Lawrence 


Research 




2nd gen. 1st Ins 


21 Jul 




Lawrence 


Research 




2nd gen. larvae 




4-11 Aug 


Lawrence 


Research 




2nd gen. adult 


15 Aug 




Lawrence 


Research 


Northern corn 


Adult 




21 July 


Tippecanoe 


Sticky t. 


rootworm 












Obliquebanded 


Ad., 1st night 


c. 1 1 May 


18 May 


Knox 


Pheromone 


leafroller 


Ad. 2nd night 




16 Sep 


Knox 


Pheromone 


Oriental fruit 


Ad. 1st flight 




20 Apr 


Knox 


Pheromone 


moth 


Ad. 2nd night 




6 Jul 


Knox 


Pheromone 




Ad. 3rd night 




3-30 Aug 


Knox 


Pheromone 


Peachtree borer 


Ad. 1st flight 




3 Aug 


Knox 


Pheromone 



Entomology 



267 





Organism 




Occurrence: 




Data 


Organism 


Stage 


First 


Peak(s) 


County 


Source 


Plum curculio 


Adult 


1 May 




Tippecanoe 


Jarring 


Redbanded 


Adult 


26 Mar 




Tippecanoe 


Pheromone 


leafroller 


Ad. 1st flight 




20 Apr 


Knox 


Pheromone 




Ad. 2nd flight 




1 Jun 


Knox 


Pheromone 




Ad. 3rd flight 




10 Aug 


Knox 


Pheromone 




Ad. 4th flight 




16 Sep 


Knox 


Pheromone 


Spotted lady beetle 


Ad. 1st flight 




3 Jun 


Tippecanoe 


Sticky t. 




Ad. 2nd flight 




18 Aug 


Tippecanoe 


Sticky t. 




Ad. 3rd flight 




9 Sep 


Tippecanoe 


Sticky t. 


Variegated 


Ad., 1st flight 


1 Apr 


21 Apr 


Tippecanoe 


Sticky t. 


cutworm 


Ad. 2nd flight 




23 Jun 


Tippecanoe 


Sticky t. 




Ad. 3rd night 




8 Sep 


Tippecanoe 


Sticky t. 


Western corn 


Adult 


15 Jun 




Parke 


Observed 


rootworm 


Adult 




4 Aug 


Tippecanoe 


Sticky t. 





numbers in a larger portion of the state than ever before (See Table 2 for new 
county records: this species has been found in all counties except 19 in the 
southernmost part of the state). The masses of adults that invaded Lake 
Michigan recreation areas during the first week of August, rendering both the 
water and shore unfit for recreation, were a spectacular though probably unique 
manifestation of this abundance. Fields with adult populations of 4+/ plant were 
easy to find as far south as Tippecanoe Co. (where at least 20,000 acres — out of 
120,000 — were treated for the control of adults feeding on silks). Quart-size 
yellow sticky traps collected 15, 12, 19 and 11 adults/trap/day during the 4 
weeks from mid-July to mid-August in an untreated cornfield in Tippecanoe 
County which had a good population last year. Large numbers of adults in areas 
where they were previously scarce caused growers to apply pesticides in record 
amounts to prevent silk losses, but probably only a third or less of the estimated 
300,000 acres so treated ( @$7/ acre) were in any real danger. These applications, 
plus soil treatments to an estimated 2-2.25 million acres (nearly all in the 
northern half of the state) @ $8/acre plus losses in both treated and untreated 
corn make this the number 1 pest in corn in 1977. 

Adults averaged about 20/25 stalks in 75 fields in the northern districts 
surveyed from 1-3 August; at the same time northern corn rootworms (D. 
longicornis (Say)) averaged 3/25 stalks. In the central districts a week earlier 
westerns averaged 6, northerns 10/25 stalks, the latter the more numerous 
because westerns have only recently reached the areas south of Indianapolis. 

No soil-borne lepidopteran was of significance in corn this year; the 
sandhill cutworm (Euxoa detersa (Walker)) — which damaged the corn in sandy 
ridges in 5000 acres of corn — the darksided (E. messoria (Harris)), the dingy, 
{Feltia subgothica (Ha worth)), theclaybacked {Agrotisglaciiaria (Morrison)) — 
all uncommon in corn — as well as the usual black cutworm (A. ipsilon 
(Hufnagel)), were reported mostly from the northern districts. 

The state average of 68.4 larvae/ 100 stalks was the third highest in the 
history of the Indiana European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner)) 



268 Indiana Academy of Science 

survey; only the 1973 average of 1 10 and the 1971 average of 100 were higher. 
The north-eastern corner of the state had lower numbers than average, the 
south-eastern higher than ever before. Orange Co. had the highest county 
average (238/ 100) (not all counties were surveyed) and the highest single farm 
average was 1000/100 stalks, in Greene Co. 

Among the ear-feeding insects the fall army worm (Spodopterafrugiperda 
(J. E. Smith)) far outnumbered the corn earnworm {Heliothis zea (Boddie)); 
either one or the other was found in nearly 6% of the ears, with but small loss 
(about 5.7 lbs/ acre on the average). The fall armyworm was extremely abundant 
this year, and was found in the stalks and shanks (which it occasionally severed) 
as well as in the ear. It would have been a significant insect had it arrived before 
the kernels hardened. Bird damage was also light (a loss of an average of 1.6 
lbs/acre); the early planting probably was a factor among all the ear-feeding 
animals and the aphids. 

Only 32% of the stalks examined (7500) over the state in the fall corn insect 
damage survey showed evidence of having served as host to the corn leaf aphid 
(Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch)), and most of the infestations were light and 
late. A field of susceptible (Kentucky 27) corn of appropriate age averaged 47% 
fewer (after adjustment for stand) than the 1976 level of 581 /stalk (1975 = 
934/ stalk). 

Severe infestations by the greenburg {Schizaphis graminwn (Rondani)) 
were observed in sorghum in the WC district at the end of May. One treatment 
was necessary; predators kept them in control following the treatment to such an 
extent that the only greenbugs left on the plants were in the whorls, an unusual 
place for this species. The cereal leaf bettle {Oulema melanopus (Linnaeus)) was 
of no consequence in small grains with the possible exception of some fields of 
wheat grown for forage and some oat fields in Harrison Co. Several of these 
were conspicuously silvered. Larvae were to be found in many northern and 
eastern fields, however; last year they were generally difficult to find. 

While Hessian fly (Mayetiola destructor (Say)) infestations were still at low 
levels, they were twice numerous as last year and the highest in 4 years. Of 285 
fields surveyed in 44 counties, 35% were infested; 13 fields had infestations 
higher than 10%. The mean number of puparia/ 100 stems for all surveyed 
wheat was 1.7, the mean for cultivars resistant to Race B Hessian fly was 0.8, the 
mean for cultivars having no source of resistance, 4.9. The fall 1976 survey of 
preferred overwintering sites of the chinch bug {Blissus leucopterus (Say)) 
collected no chinch bugs. A few were taken outside the survey area in Adams 
Co., however, and they were occasionally reported from the same county in 1977 
in non-economic numbers in corn. The insect has also been collected from turf 
for several years, first in the Richmond area, and in 1977 as far west as 
Tippecanoe Co. 

Forage Legumes and Soybeans 

Alfalfa weevil (Hypera postica (Gyllenhal)) egg deposition usually begins 
after temperatures moderate in the fall. In contrast to the fall of 1975, when egg 
numbers in Harrison Co. alfalfa averaged in excess of 70/ quarter square foot, 



Entomology 269 

the fall, 1976, average was about a tenth of that. Spring oviposition also lagged; 
by 28 March there were only about 30, and by 4 April about 66/ quarter square 
foot. Springlaid eggs began to hatch in numbers by 14 April, but by then alfalfa 
was approaching maturity. By the 20th it was 19" tall and still averaged only 
about 2.3 larvae/ infested stem. For the first time in at least 5 years, a well 
managed alfalfa field in the southern third of Indiana generally did not need a 
control treatment where the harvest was properly timed. A stubble treatment 
after the first cutting was often necessary, however. For not only were alfalfa 
weevil larvae present, but this year clover leaf weevil (//. punctata (Fabricius)) 
larvae were present and sometimes more effective in retarding growth than were 
the alfalfa weevils. And for the first time in at least 10 years alfalfa was invaded 
by cutworms in significant numbers. Oviposition by the variegated cutworm 
(Peridroma saucia (Hiibner)) was observed on small plastic white flags planted 
in Harrison and Washington Co. alfalfa fields between 15 and 29 April. Mature 
larvae were present at the time of the harvest in numbers large enough to 
seriously delay regrowth in a number of fields in those counties as well as in 
Knox Co. (Up to 13/ sq. ft. were counted under newly windrowed alfalfa in the 
latter county.) Incidentally, although white flags as well as flags of other colors 
were planted in areas where adults were known to be present, they were never 
again used as oviposition sites. Later, in the last week in August, fall armyworms 
removed all of the leaves of 2 acres of alfalfa in a large field in Harrison Co. This 
was the most severe infestation observed, but larvae were widespread in this crop 
as well as in corn in the southern third of the state. Adult Mexican bean beetles 
(Epilachna vahvestis Mulsant) invaded alfalfa fields in September in such 
numbers, especially in Harrison and Washington Co., that a few growers were 
forced to treat for them. On the other hand the potato leafhopper (Empoasca 
fabae ( Harris)) was less of a problem than usual; the 1st and 2nd cuttings escaped 
injury entirely, though the 3rd and 4th in some cases were treated. 

In the fall adult alfalfa weevils appeared as early as the last week of 
August — at the rate of 1 / sweep in a Fulton Co. field, a rate that was reached by 4 
Nov. in a Warren Co. field. These are very high numbers for this part of the state, 
where economic infestations are not the rule. 

The Mexican bean bettle of course is primarly a pest of beans. In soybeans it 
was of importance especially through most of the SE district, in a few counties in 
the SC, in Daviess Co. in the SW and in Clay, Owens, and Parke in the WC. 
Populations in soybeans were observed as far north as the northern bordern of 
Wayne Co. in the east and the southwest corner of Montgomery Co. in the west, 
both the northernmost extensions of this pest on soybeans so far observed. 
Between 250,000 and 300,000 acres of soybeans were treated for this pest in 1977. 
The green cloverworm (Plathypena scabra (Fabricius)) was almost at outbreak 
levels as well, particularly in Benton, White and Jasper counties in August. 
Possibly 2% of the susceptible crop was endangered. 

Vegetables 

The most important insect in Indiana gardens in 1977 was probably the 
variegated cutworm. It was a problem especially in cabbages and tomatoes, but 
attacked a large variety of other garden plants and flowers. The cabbage looper 



270 Indiana Academy Of Science 

(Trichoplusia ni (Hubner)) and the imported cabbage worm (Pieris rapae 
(Linnaeus)) were also important in cole crops, but not the diamond back moth 
(P/ute/la xylostella (Linnaeus)). 

The first generation population of the Colorado potato beetle 
( Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say)) was economic, especially in the northern part 
of the state; the second was not. Corn earworms were an important pest in both 
sweet corn and tomatoes in August and early September. It and the European 
corn borer devastated snap beans in the Vincennes area during the same period, 
often rendering the pods unsaleable. Root maggots seem to be on the increase, as 
well. 

Ornamentals, Forest and Shade Trees 

In general, the elm leaf beetle {Pyrrhalta luteola (Muller)), the mimosa 
web worm (Homadaula anisocentra Meyrick) and sod webworm (Pediasia, 
Crambus sp. populations were down, and the bagworm (Thyhdopteryx 
ephemeraeformis (Ha worth)) was virtually wiped out except for warmer 
portions of the state. The black vine weevil {Otiorhynchus sulcatus (Fabricius)) 
on the other hand, was reported much more frequently, particularly from Taxus 
but also from blueberries and rhododendrons. The obscure scale (Melanaspis 
obscura (Comstock)) was also common especially on pin oaks. The big news 
among forest insects was again the forest tent caterpillar (Malacosoma disstria 
Hubner), whose 1977 expansion together with acres previously covered 
exceeded 30,000 acres. 

There were a few reports of a small scarab (Ataenius spretulus (Haldzman)) 
attacking turf; this insect has frequently been reported from the same host in 
Ohio. The bluegrass billbug {Sphenophorus parvulus Gyllenhal) was reported 
from a golf course in Wells Co., in damaging numbers. 

The species of insects reported most often by nursery inspectors during 
1977 are the following: 

1. Fall webworm {Hyphantria cunea (Dury)) 

2. Maple bladdergall mite ( Vasates quadripes Shimer) 

3. Boxelder twig borer (Proteoteras willingana (Kearfott)) 

4. Bronze birch borer (Agrilus anxius Gory) 

5. Oystershell scale {Lepidosaphes ulmi (Linnaeus)) 

6. Cooley spruce gall aphid (Adelges cooleyi (Gillette)) 

7. Velvet mite (Eriophyes aceris (Riley)) 

8. Japanese bettle (Popillia japonica Newman) 

9. Potato leafhopper {Empoasca fabae (Harris)) 

10. Euonymus scale {Unaspis euonymi (Comstock)) and Painted maple 
aphid (Drepanaphis acerifoliae (Thomas)) 

Man and Animals 

The following is a review of the inquiries received by Purdue Extension staff 
concerning household anthropod problems, which for convenience are grouped 
according to their intimacy with their hosts. An average year brings 25 1 inquiries 
concerning household nuisances. This year only 191 such inquiries were made, 
the lowest in at least the last 10 years, and the first to fall below the 200 mark. The 



Entomology 271 

greatest shortfall was among the "accidental invaders of the home" category, 
which dropped from an average of 99 to 65. Only the strawberry root weevil 
(Otiorhynchus ovatus (Linnaeus)) was reported in excess of its usual number of 
times — more often (12 times) than in any of the preceeding 10 years. Large 
swarms of the larger yellow ant {Acanthomyops inter jectus (Mayr)) were 
observed on 2 and 8 July in Henry Co. 

Creatures that live full time in man's houses — moth flies, sow bugs and so 
forth, — but do not normally share his food, were complained of but 6 times, a 
third of the usual, with moth flies (Psychodidae) heading the list. Commensals — 
extension calls average 73 annually — dropped to 53, and the Indian meal moth 
(Plodia interpunctella (Hubner)) which for the last 6 years has headed the list, 
became second behind the foreign grain bettle (Ahasverus advena (Waltl)), 
recorded 9 times. The flat grain beetle {Cryptolestes pusillus (Schonherr)) and 
the Australian spider beetle (Ptinus ocellus Brown) may have been in the state 
for many years; they were however identified for the first time from materials 
sent to the extension department and are thus newcomers to the list. 

Insects that feed upon so-called inedibles dropped only slightly in numbers 
of inquiries. The black carpet beetle (Attagenus megatoma (Fabricius)) 
remained the most commonly reported. New to this category last year was the 
brown house moth (Hofmannophila pseudospretella (Stainton)); it was 
reported again this year. The eastern subterranean termite (Reticulitermes 
flavipes (Kollar)) was reported at average levels, and led the list of arthropods 
that damage homes. 

Arthropods that bite or other wise attack man were reported 30 times, 
slightly above the 25 that is average, with the clover mite {Bryonia praetiosa 
Koch) in the lead. Two new arthropods were added to this group. The first is a 
centipede, Hemiscolopendra punctiventris punctiventris (Newport), taken in a 
Harrison Co. bedroom from the leg of a child. The child had been bitten several 
times, and this centipede was believed to have been the attacker. The second is a 
milichiid fly of the genus Desmometopa near m-nigrum (Zetterstedt). Larvae of 
this species were eventually found breeding in the dead space between two walls 
of a hospital in Miami Co., a space to which water had been admitted as a result 
of a construction project. Adults which emerged from the soaked debris found 
their way through the lighting system to the operating room to which they were 
attracted by open wounds and apparently the soap used for scrubbing or other 
odors associated with scrubbing. 

Blackflies (Simuliidae) were extremely abundant in several White Co. 
communities early in May, driving children from the playgrounds and golfers 
from the links. 

Only 10 cases of St. Louis encephalitis and 2 of the LaCrosse strain had 
been confirmed in the state by mid-November. 

Beneficial Insects 

(For range extensions of some beneficial insects see Table 1). 

Pediobius foveolatus (Crawford), an exotic parasite of the Mexican bean 
beetle, was released for the first time in June in Scott and Clay Counties. It was 



272 Indiana Academy Of Science 

probably an unfavorable time to release this parasite, a hot and dry period, but it 
provided protection in at least some parts of Scott Co. 

Rhinocyllus conicus Froelich, a weevil, was released in Jefferson, Johnson 
and Switzerland Counties in an effort to control the musk thistle {Carduus 
nutans). 

The spotted lady beetle {Coleomegilla maculata DeGeer), was less 
abundant this year than in previous years, both in alfalfa and in corn. On 7500 
corn stalks surveyed during the annual corn insect survey only 79 were observed, 
as compared with 121 on 4725 stalks in 1976, and 159 on 4700 stalks in 1975. On 
sticky traps in cornfield in Tippecanoe Co. they were outnumbered by 
Hippodamia convergens Guerin-Meneville, the usually less common 
convergent lady beetle. There was also no indication of a fall flight, which 
usually occurs about October first. 



GEOGRAPHY AND GEOLOGY 

Chairman: Mark Reshkin, Department of Public and Environmental Affairs 
Indiana University Northwest, Gary, Indiana 46408 

Chairman-Elect: Gerald R. Show alter, Department of Geography and Geology 
Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana 47306 

Abstracts 

An Assessment of Methodologies for Climate Corn Yield Research. 

Gary Westerman, Indiana State University, Terre Haute, Indiana 

47809 The purpose of this study is to assess the utility of two 

types of anlaytic methods, graphical and statistical, for investigating climate and 
corn yield relationships. Climatic data from southern Indiana are anlayzed by a 
modified climograph method and by the statistical methods of multiple 
correlation and stepwise regression. To account for considerable variation 
during the study period in technological factors, a method of adjusting yields is 
employed, thus enabling yields to be classified as peak (optimum) or deficit. The 
correlation-regression analysis is of limited usefulness, identifying a significant 
set of predictor variables for only one of the three study areas. Climographs are 
found to be useful in identifying several climatic factors which effectively 
separate peak production conditions from deficit conditions, but the 
climographs are not suited for predicting the magnitude of yield deficits. It thus 
would seem that a combination of these methods, graphical and statistical, is 
needed for a complete analysis of climate-yield relationships. 

Land vs. Space in the Middle East: Territorial Experience as a Source of 
Conflict. Maurie Sommer, Saint Mary's College, Notre Dame, Indiana 

46556 The evolution of territoriality in the Moslem Middle East has been 

sharply distinct from that of the Jewish state of Israel. Whereas the daral-Islam 
(land of Islam) has been fluid and dynamic in its growth and retrenching for 
more than ten centuries, eretz Yisroel (the land of Israel) has only recently taken 
on the modern form of a nation-state after centuries of having been nurtured as a 
fixed and preserved ideal by a people long dispersed from the region. The 
implications of these divergent pasts and experiences of territoriality have been 
felt amidst the many other tensions that for more than a generation have plagued 
the Middle East. The territorial component has become the more critical in 
recent years in view of demands by Palestinian groups for a separate national 
entity. These spatial factors will be examined historically, with emphasis on the 
Arab/ Moslem model, in order to elucidate contemporary political behavior 
patterns and to propose possible programmatic approaches for their resolution. 

Thickness and Geographic Boundary of the Terra Rossa in South-Central 
Indiana. Robert D. Hall and Thomas L. Greenawalt, Department of 
Geology, Indiana University-Purdue University, Indianapolis, Indiana 

46202 The geometry of the reddish silty clay (terra rossa) of the karst area in 

South-Central Indiana is similar to that of continental basins in which sediments 

273 



274 Indiana Academy Of Science 

are shed from adjacent uplands. The deposit generally thickens from a zero edge 
near the escarpments bordering the Mitchell Plain to over 30 feet (9. 1 m) at the 
center of this topographically trough-like area. Local variations in thickness are 
extreme. The wedge-shaped nature of the terra rossa deposit, together with 
evidence from earlier investigations of the stratigraphy and origin of surficial 
deposits in sinkholes, supports the contention that the terra rossa of the Mitchell 
Plain is primarily a transported sedimentary deposit. The source of much of the 
terra rossa sediment is probably the adjacent Crawford and Norman Uplands. 

A Characterization Study of Crude Oils From Certain Reservoirs In The 
Phillipstown Field, White County, Illinois. Rolla M. Dyer of Indiana State 
University Evansville, Warren R. Abbey of Barger Engineering Company, 

Robert Soaper of Soaper Chemical Company Gas chromatograms 

showing characteristic portions of the crude oil from known oil-producing 
formations or pay zones were collected. These characterized oils were used to 
prepare calibration mixtures and standards for the quantitative determination 
by zones of the crude oil from wells under water flood. This identification 
technique was and can be used to supplement the geological studies used in oil 
production, particularly in those oil pools where mutliple pay zones are present 
and open in the same well. This technique allows for an estimation of the portion 
of the total production that can be assigned to a particular zone. 

Aromatic Hydrocarbon Contamination of the Aquifer Supplying West Terre 
Haute, Indiana. Jeffery Ehrenzeller, Ben Dailey, Diane Lane, Tim O'Neil, 
Jay Franklin, Lynn Recker, and Donald W. Ash, Department of 
Geography and Geology, Indiana State University, Terre Haute, Indiana 

47809 Hydrocarbon contamination of the aquifer supplying the town of 

West Terre Haute, Indiana shows that the response of water levels to ground 
water pumping is critical — even in unconsolidated sands and gravels of high 
permeability where drawdown should be minimal. The suspected source of the 
contaminates is located approximately 200 ft south of the town's two water 
supply wells. This is down the regional flow path; and theoretically, except for 
dispersion effects, the contaminates should never have reached the vicinity of the 
wells. The cone of depression on the pumping wells reversed the gradient on the 
ground water table in the area of the wells and thus the contaminates flowed to 
the wells. 

Management alternatives include: 

(1) Joining Terre Haute's existing water supply system 

(2) Regulation of pumping to control (reduce) drawdown and recovery 
times on the wells 

(3) New well field development to replace existing wells 

Because of economic reasons, joining Terre Haute's water system was not 
feasible. Because the existing wells are old and because it was uncertain if the 
Health Department would allow the wells to be pumped again, new well fields 
were developed. 

Introductory Geology Field Trip Using Indianapolis Building Materials. 

Arthur Mirsky, Department of Geology, Indiana University-Purdue 

University, Indianapolis, Indiana 46202 Largely because of budgetary 

restrictions, the introductory Geology field trip to rural outcrops had to be 



Geography and Geology 275 

canceled. In its place the Department of Geology has developed a self-directed 
walking field trip which uses building materials in downtown Indianapolis as a 
substitute for natural outcrops. 

A surprisingly large number of varied geologic features can be seen in these 
building materials, particularly if one takes the complete walking tour of just 
over two miles. Students, however, can choose to take one or more of five 
shorter "loops" and miss very few, if any, features. Among igneous rocks, 
students can see basalt, diorite, gabbro, granite (in a variety of colors and grain 
sizes), granodiorite, larvikite (an alkaline syenite), monzonite, obsidian, pumice, 
and scoria. Among sedimentary rocks are breccia, chert, dolostone, limestone 
(with and without obvious fossils), sandstone, and travertine. Among 
metamorphic rocks are gneiss, a variety of marbles, quartizite, and schist. 
Minerals that are large enough to be visible include biotite, calcite, hematitie, 
hornblende, jasper, limonite, olivine, orthoclase feldspar, plagioclase feldspar, 
quartz (milky, rose, smoky), and serpentine. Man-made building materials 
include aluminum, brick (of a variety of colors), brass, bronze, cement, concrete, 
glass, pebble aggregates of various compositions, and a variety of tiles. 

Igneous textures range from glassy, fine- to coarse-grained to prophyritic; 
igneous structures include segregation zones, dikes, flow, and inclusions. All 
sedimentary textures are present except natural conglomerate; sedimentary 
structures include parallel bedding, several types of cross-bedding, laminations, 
graded bedding, stylolites, flagstone, and trace fossils. Fossil fragments are 
abundant as fossil hash, and recognizable fossils include several types of 
bryozoans, crinoid stems, brachiopods, and snails. Metamorphic textures 
include both foliated and massive; metamorphic structures include schistose, 
gneissose, ptygmatic, and flow. 

Both physical and chemical weathering are abundantly represented. 

The main shortcoming of the building-material field trip is that some 
aspects of introductory geology are not represented (such as glaciation, 
structural geology, landscape development). Also, of course, students can not 
take a hammer on the tour and collect samples. Still, using building materials in 
the downtown city is very useful for introductory geology in an urban university. 



Conodonts from a Core of the Black River Limestone, 
Subsurface of White County, Indiana 

Robert B. Votaw, Department of Geosciences 
Indiana University Northwest, Gary, Indiana 

Introduction 

Middle Ordovician rocks are well exposed throughout the eastern 
Midcontinent of the United States (Fig. 1), and these rocks have been 
thoroughly studied from the outcrop both stratigraphically and 
paleontologically. Middle Ordovician rocks are less well studied from the 
subsurface and are usually correlated on the basis of lithology (6). In Indiana, 
Middle Ordovician rocks do not outcrop and, their age has been determined by 
their subjacent position to the Upper Ordovician, well known from outcrops in 
southeastern Indiana. 

Stratigraphy 

The Indiana Geological Survey has defined two carbonate units from the 
subsurface as Middle Ordovician, the Trenton Limestone below the Upper 
Ordovician and the Black River limestone beneath the Trenton. These two units 
are readily distinguished lithologically, however there have been no reports of 
the fossil content of these two units in the subsurface of Indiana. The Indiana 
Geological Survey has kindly provided me with samples from a core through the 
Black River limestone from the John G. Forbes #1 well, drilled by the Indiana 
Gas and Water Co., in White County, Indiana. 




Figure 1. Outline map of the eastern Midcontinent of the United States showing the outcrop 
distribution of Middle Ordovician rocks. The location of the Forbes well, White County, Indiana, is 

indicated. 



276 



Geography and Geology 277 

The well is located in the SE'/ 4 , SW'/ 4l NE'/ 4 , Sec. 3, T27N, R6W. The well, 
located on the southwest flank of the Kankakee Arch, was spudded in 
Pleistocene till and reached a total depth of 1470 feet. The well bore penetrated 
the stratigraphic section from the Devonian New Albany shale into the upper 
120 feet of the Cambro-Ordovician Knox dolomite. The unit defined as Black 
River limestone is massively bedded, very fine-grained, tan to light gray, slightly 
dolomitic limestone with a few vugs and free floating sparry calcite crystals. In 
some zones, the unit is extensively bioturbated. The top of this interval lies at a 
depth of 1 1 60 feet immediately beneath the Trenton limestone and the bottom is 
placed at 1 352 feet at the top of a two foot interval of white sandstone cemented 
by calcite, designated the St. Peter sandstone (Fig. 2). The St. Peter sandstone 
lies uncomformably on the Knox dolomite. Thirty-one samples have been 
collected from this core from the lower twelve feet of the Trenton limestone to 
the base of the Black River limestone, as indicated in Figure 2. 



Table 





Faunal List 


specimens 


Faunal List 


specimens 


acodiform elements 


6 


Erismodus radicans 


69 


Acontiodus alveolaris 


! 


Microcoelodus symmetricus 


63 


Belodina compressa 


122 


oistodiform elements 


23 


Bryantodina? abrupta 


9 


Panderodus gracilis 


254 


Chirognathus monodactylus 


2 


Phragmodus inflexus 


5 


Curtognathus robustus 


7 


Phragmodus undatus 


1595 


Distacodus faleatus 


2 


Plectodina aculeata 


AH 


Drepanoistodus suberectus 


221 


Polyplacognathus ramosus 


54 






Total 


2521 





Paleontology 

Thirty-one samples from the Black River limestone were treated for 
conodonts by standard acetic acid techniques. More than 2500 identifiable 
conodont elements have been extracted from these samples. These elements 
have been assigned to fourteen species of thirteen genera of conodonts (Table 1 ). 
The stratigraphic intervals from which each species has been collected is 
indicated in Figure 2 by a solid vertical bar. Samples 1-4 contain elements of 
Phragmodus undatus (PI. 1, Figs. 4-6), a key species to Fauna 8 of Sweet, 
Ethington, and Barnes (5). Bryantodina? abrupta (PI. 1, Figs. 2 1-22) is present in 
samples 3 and 4 and is a common component of Fauna 8 elsewhere (1,5). 
Elements of Polyplacognathus ramosus (PI. 1, Figs. 39-20) are restricted to 
samples 1-3 of this collection but are known to range lower in the section 
elsewhere (2,7,8). Fauna 8 characterizes the type Trenton Group of New York 
(3) and its lateral equivalents throughout the eastern Midcontinent (5). 

Elements assigned to Fauna 7 of Sweet, Ethington, and Barnes are present 
below sample 4. Phragmodus inflexus (PI. 1, Figs. 1-3) is present in samples 28- 
30 near the base of the Black River limestone. This species is known to range up 
into the middle of Black Riveran rocks throughout the eastern Midcontinent 
(Fig. 3) (7). Erismodus radicans (PI. 1, Figs. 7-9), a fibrous conodont, is present 



278 



Indiana Academy Of Science 



knox 



BLACK RIVER 



TRENTON 



Lkfl n lj __ lj lZj — LJ — □ M □ — I~~l I I Zj LJ H HHHH 



ACONTIODUS ALVEOLARIS 
PHRAGMODUS INFLEXUS 



DISTACODUS FALCATUS 
-CHIROGNATHUS MONODACTYLUS 

CURTOGNATHUS ROBUSTUS 

ACODIFORM ELEMENTS 

PHRAGMODUS UNDATUS 
BRYANTODINA ABRUPTA 
POLYPLACOGNATHUS RAMOSUS 



PLECTODLNA ACULEATA 
OISTODIFORM ELEMENTS 
ERISMODUS RADICANS 



DREPANOISTODUS SUBERECTUS 

PANDERODUS GRACILIS 

BELODINA COMPRESSA 



MICROCOELODUS SYMMETRICUS 



Figure 2. Generalized lithology, intervals sampled and stratigraphic ranges of the conodont species 
from the Forbes well, White County, Indiana. 

from sample 4 through 31, and elsewhere is restricted to Fauna 7 (7). Other 
elements of fibrous conodonts Curtognathus robustus, Microcoelodus 
symmetricus, and Chirognathus monodaclylus are found throughout the 
interval of samples 4-31 and are common constituents of Black Riveran 
conodont collections elsewhere (7). Several ubiquitous Middle and Upper 
Ordovicain species, Drepanoistodus suberectus, Belodina compressa, and 
Panderodus gracilis are found throughout the sampled interval in the Forbes 
well. 



McGregor 

IOWA 



DIXON 
ILLINOIS 



MIDDLETOWN 
OHIO 



COMINCO CAMP NELSON 
CORE KENTUCKY 




highest 
Appalachignoihus 
deltcatulus 



Geography and Geology 



279 



Analysis of this conodont assumblage indicates a change from Fauna 7 to 
Fauna 8 between samples 5 and 4, six feet below the top of the Black River 
lithology. Consequently the lower 186 feet of the Black River limestone and the 
two feet of St. Peter sandstone are assigned to the Black Riveran Stage of the 
Champlainian Series, and the upper six feet of the Black River and the sampled 
portion of the lower Trenton limestone are assigned to the Rocklandian Stage. 



Correlation 

The Black River limestone of the Forbes well can be correlated with Middle 
Ordovician limestones in the outcrop at Dixon, Illinois, McGregor, Iowa, and 
along the Kentucky River south of Lexington, and in cores from wells near 
Middletown, Ohio, and in northern Kentucky (Fig. 3). The lowest stratigraphic 
occurrence of Phragmodus undatus marks the base of the Rocklandian Stage 
and the top of the Black Riveran. In each case cited here the top of the Black 
Riveran Stage falls within ten feet above or below the lithologic change at the 
contact of the Trenton limestone with the Black River limestone. 

Limestones of the Black Riveran Stage thin dramatically from 550 feet in 
the Cominco core of northern Kentucky (Fig. 3) to only forty feet in a complete 
exposure in northeastern Iowa. The stratigraphically highest occurrence of 
Phragmodus inflexus and Appalachignatus delicatulus document the 
Champlainian transgression of the eastern Midcontinent from southeast to 
northwest. 

The assemblage of conodont elements obtained from this core belongs to 
Faunas 7 and 8 of Sweet, Ethington, and Barnes, and is diagnostic of the Black 
Riveran and Rocklandian Stages respectively. Thus all of the lithologic unit in 
the subsurface of Indiana described by the Indiana Geological Survey as Black 
River limestone is, with the exception of the upper six feet, Black Riveran in age 
and correlative with the Watertown, Gull River, and Pamelia of New York, the 
Lebanon, Ridley, Pierce, and Murfreesboro of Tennessee, the Joachim of 



WHITE 
COUNTY 


OKLA- 
HOMA 


MISS- 
OURI 


IOWA 


CINCIN- 
NATI 


TENN- 
ESSEE 


NEW 
YORK 


STAGE 


TRENTON 


CORBIN 
RANCH 


PLATTIN 


DECORAH 


TYRONE 
OREGON 


CARTERS 


SELBY 


ROCK 
LAND 


BLACK 
RIVER 


UPPER 
BROMIDE 


JOACHIM 


PLATTE- 
VILLE 


CAMP 
NELSON 


LEBANON 

RIDLEY 

PIERCE 


TYPE 
BLACK 
RIVER 


BLACK 
RIVER 


ABSENT 


LOWER . 
BROMIDE 


DUTCH- 
TOWN 


ABSENT 


ABSENT 


ABSENT 


ABSENT 


CHAZY 



Figure 4. Correlation of the Black River limestone in White County, Indiana, with equivalent units in 
the eastern United States (After Sweet and Bergstrom, 1976). 



280 



Indiana Academy of Science 



Missouri, and the upper Bromide of Oklahoma (Fig. 4) according to the recent 
conodont-based correlation chart of Middle and Upper Ordovician of the 
United States Midcontinent (4). 




Explanation of Plate 1 
All figures are X40. Sample number for each specimen is in parentheses. 

Figures 1-3 — Phragmodus inflexus Stauffer. Lateral views of phragmodiform (29), 
cyrtoniodiform (29), and dichognathiform (28) elements. 

Figures 4-6 — Phragmodus undatus Branson and Mehl. Lateral views of dichognathiform (3), 
oistodiform (3), and phragmodiform (3) elements. 

Figures 7-9 — Erismodus radicans Hinde. Lateral views of microcoelodiform (29), ptiloconiform 
(29), and erismodiform (29) elements. 

Figures 10-12, 16-18 — Plectodina aculeata Stauffer. Lateral views of prioniodiniform (16), 
ozarkodiniform (27), and dichognathiform* 16)elements; posterior views of trichonodelliform (29) and 
zygognathiform (27) elements; lateral view of corydlodiform element (29). 



Geography and Geology 281 



Figures 13-15 — Drepanoistodus suberectus Branson and Mehl. Lateral views of 
drepanoistodiform (3), suberectiform (3), and oistodiform (3) elements. 

Figures 19-20 — Polyplacognthus ramosus Stauffer. Views of upper surface of 
polyplacognathiform (I) and bilobatiform (2) elements. 

Figures 21-22— Bryantodina? abrupta Branson and Mehl. Lateral views of bryantodiniform (3) 
and prioniodiniform (3) elements. 

Figures 23-24 — Belodina compressa Branson and Mehl. Lateral views of belodiniform (3) and 
oistodiform (3) elements. 

Figures 25 — Panderodus gracilis Branson and Mehl. Lateral view of panderodiform element (3). 



Literature Cited 

1. Bergstrom, S. M., and Sweet, W. C. 1966. Conodonts from the Lexington Limestone (Middle 
Ordovician) of Kentucky, and its lateral equivalents in Ohio and Indiana. Bull. Am. Paleont. 
50(229):27 1-441. 

2. Ethington, R. L., and Schumacher, D. 1969. Conodonts of the Copenhagen Formation (Middle 
Ordovician) in central Nevada. Jour. Paleont. 43:440-483. 

3. Schopf, T. J. M. 1966. Conodonts of the Trenton Group (Ordovician) in New York, southern 
Ontario, and Quebec. Bull. N.Y. St. Mus. 405:1-105. 

4. Sweet, W. C, and Bergstrom, S. M. 1976. Conodont Biostratigraphy of the Middle and Upper 
Ordovician of the United States Midcontinent. 121-151 in Bassett, M.G. (ed.). The Ordovician 
System: proceedings of a Paleontological Assoc, symposium. Univ. of Wales Press and National 
Museum of Wales, Cardif. 696. 

5. Sweet, W. E., Ethington, R. L., and Barnes, C. R. 1971. North American Middle and Upper 
Ordovician conodont faunas. Mem. Geol. Soc. Am. 127:163-193. 

6. Templeton, J. S., and Willman, H. B. 1963. Champlainian Series (Middle Ordovician) in Illinois. 
111. Geol. Surv. Bull. 89:1-260. 

7. Votaw, R. B. 1971. Conodont biostratigraphy of the Black River Group (Middle Ordovician) and 
equivalent rocks of the eastern Midcontinent, North America; Ph. D. diss, (unpubl) The Ohio State 
Univ. :1-170. 

8. Webers, G. F. 1966. The Middle and Upper Ordovician conodont faunas of Minnesota. Spec. 
Publ. Minn. Geol. Surv. SP-4: 1-123. 



Thick High-Purity Limestone and Dolomite, In Carroll County, Indiana 

Curtis H. Ault and Donald D. Carr 
Indiana Geological Survey, Bloomington, Indiana 47401 

Introduction 

Large -size high-purity dolomite deposits of reefal origin are well known in 
northern Indiana, northeastern Illinois, Michigan, and northwestern Ohio, but 
high-purity limestone reefal deposits are rare. Without doubt the original reef 
composition was limestone, but in many of the deposits diagenesis has changed 
the limestone to dolomite. Exceptions seem to occur, however, almost as 
accidents of nature, and because of this we were pleasantly surprised to discover 
two thick sections of high-purity carbonate rock in reefs of Silurian age, one 
limestone and one dolomite, about 6 miles apart in Carroll County (Fig. 1). 
Discovery of the high-purity limestone was propitious because the demand for 
high-purity carbonate rock for use in flue gas desulfurization, fluidized bed 




50 MILES 



Figure 1 . Map of Indiana showing areas of Fort Wayne and Terre Haute Bank and locations of some 

exposed (dots) and buried (circles) Silurian reefs. Reef interpretations by Curtis H. Ault, John B. 

Droste, and Robert H. Shaver. 



282 



Geography and Geology 283 

combustion, lime, glass raw materials, and chemical products has been 
increasing. The dolomite is currently being exploited for aggregate, but the 
limestone awaits commercial development. 

Background 

In 1973 the Indiana Geological Survey drilled a core hole (SDH 244) in the 
center of the Delphi reef as part of a study of reefs in northern Indiana by Curtis 
H. Ault and Robert H. Shaver. The reef was found to be 398 feet thick; this is the 
thickest continuous section of high-magnesium dolomite in Indiana ever 
analyzed by the Survey. Despite the impressive thickness and purity of the 
deposit, the full surface diameter and shape of the Delphi reef was not known 
until three more Survey cores were drilled in 1976 and 1977 as part of the Ault- 
Shaver study and for a detailed paleontologic and stratigraphic study by the 
Indiana University Paleontology Seminar of 1976-77 under the direction of 
Robert H. Shaver (4). 

Location of a reef of Silurian age near Camden, in Carroll County, was 
recorded in 1927 by Cumings and Shrock (3). Only a small outcrop of the 
Camden reef is visible in and near Little Deer Creek in the NE!4NE!4 sec. 25, T. 
25 N., R. 1 W. Cumings and Shrock described the outcrop as limestone, but 
samples of the limestone collected by the Survey in 1975 were dolomitic and 
considered unsuitable for many chemical uses. 

SDH 262 was drilled near the outcrops of the Camden reef in 1976 as part of 
the Ault-Shaver study. This is also the thickest section of high-calcium limestone 
ever analyzed by the Survey. A second test, SDH 264, was drilled in the reef one- 
quarter mile to the north to determine the extent of the reef and the amount of its 
stone reserves. 

Discovery of thick high-calcium limestone in the first test in the Camden 
reef was announced in a news release and Survey newsletter in December 1976. 
As a result, requests for additional information came from nearly 20 companies 
and individuals. Acreage on the reef has been leased commercially, and the 
deposit is now being evaluated by test drilling and chemical analysis of core 
samples for possible exploitation. 

Geologic Setting 

The Delphi and Camden reefs are part of a regional archipelago of Silurian 
reefs that extends from New York to Iowa and bounds major parts of the 
Appalachian, Michigan, and Illinois Basins in Ohio, Ontario, Wisconsin, 
Michigan, Indiana, and Illinois. Two carbonate banks, the east-westward- 
trending Fort Wayne Bank in northern Indiana and the northwest- 
southeastward-trending Terre Haute Bank in southwestern Indiana (Fig. 1)(1), 
were the loci for profuse reef growth during Silurian time. The banks define the 
limits of the Wabash Platform of central Indiana, a broad shallow-water shelf 
between the Michigan and Illinois Basins during the Silurian Period, where 
hundreds and probably thousands of solitary reefs grew, among them the Delphi 
and Camden reefs. 



284 



Indiana Academy of Science 



L.L. 



Kenneth 
Ls. 
Mbr. 



Kokomo 
Ls. 
Mbr. 



Liston Creek 
Ls. 
Mbr. 



Mississinewa 
Sh. 
Mbr. 



Louisville Ls. 



Woldron Fm. 



Limberlost Dol 



Salamonie Dol 



Figure 2. Stratigraphie chart showing Middle and Upper Silurian rocks in north-central Indiana. 

Growth and accumulation of some reefs on the platform were continuous 
from Niagaran (Wenlockian) through Cayugan (Pridolian) time (Fig. 2). The 
thick Delphi reef is one of these large long-lived reefs. It belongs to the second of 
five generations of Silurian reefs described by Droste and Shaver (2) and Shaver 
(5) for part of the Great Lakes area. The Camden reef appears to have roots in 
the Louisville Limestone and to be a third-generation reef. 



Geology of the Delphi Reef 

The Delphi reef is centered in the SW^SW^SW 1 /* sec. 19, T. 25 N., R. 2 W. 
It is in the abandoned south pit of the Delphi Limestone, Inc> quarry 
immediately north of U.S. 421 near the west edge of Delphi and less than one- 
quarter mile east of the Wabash River. It is one of at least two large reefs and 
may be part of a larger reef complex north and northeast of town. Reefal 
dolomite is also exposed near Deer Creek in the south part of town. 

The roots of the reef are in the Salamonie Dolomite; the overlying 
Limberlost Dolomite, Waldron Shale, Louisville Limestone, Wabash 
Formation, and Salina Formation (Fig. 2) have been recognized in cores in and 
near its edge (6). 

SDH 244 was drilled in the south quarry pit in the structural center of the 
reef. This is indicated by flank beds dipping away from the center in all 
directions. A secondary center on the north side of the reef in the active quarry 
pit (Fig. 3) has been described by the Indiana University Paleontology Seminar 
(4). 

Chemical analysis of this reef, except for an 8-foot section that was not 
cored at the top of SDH 244 and 20-foot interval of core lost at a depth of 220 



Geography and Geology 



285 




Figure 3. Active Delphi Limestone, Inc., quarry in north flank of Delphi reef 



feet, indicated that it was high-magnesium dolomite with less than 2 percent 
noncarbonate impurities (Table 1). 

The skeletal dolomite is light gray and sucrosic but has poorly defined fossil 
outlines and original textural features because of dolomitization. It is porous 
and friable in part. Its texture varies somewhat from the center to the edge of the 
reef because of fossils of different types and fragment sizes, but differences in 
lithology are not as distinctive as those in the Camden limestone reef. 



Table 1 


. Chemical analyses (weighted average 


in percent) for the 


Delphi and Camden reefs. 




Location 


Thickness 
(ft.) 


CaC03 MgC03 


Si02 


A1203 


Fe203 


Ti02 MnO 


Delphi 
Camden 


370' 

257 2 


54.8 44.3 
97.3 0.93 


0.32 
0.74 


0.087 
0.38 


0.20 
0.10 


nd 3 tr 4 
0.021 0.011 





•Includes core samples from SDH 244, SW'ASW^SW^ sec. 19. T. 25 N., R. 2 W.,and samples 
from quarry face near SDH 244; does not include 28 feet not cored. 

includes core samples from SDH 262, SE^NE«4NE!4 sec. 25, T. 25 N., R. 1 W., from a depth of 
57 to 323 feet; does not include three intervals of solution-cavity fill totaling 4. 1 feet or two intervals of 
core loss totaling 4.8 feet. 

3 nd = not determined. 

4 tr - trace. 



286 



Indiana Academy of Science 



Our knowledge of the shape of the reef and the amount of its stone reserves 
is increasing rapidly because of new information. Three Survey test holes drilled 
in 1976 and 1977 indicate that the reef is about a mile in diameter at the surface 
(Fig. 4). It is laterally expansive upward with two main periods of growth, one 
during Salamonie deposition and a later one of extensive growth during 
deposition of the Mississinewa Shale Member (Wabash Formation). 



R.3W. 



R.2W. 




1 Mile 





I I L 



1Km 

_i 



W/$M Active quarry pit 

Y////7//A 



Abandoned quarry pit 



® 



Survey drill hole 



Chemical analyses 



of core samples 

Figure 4. Approximate extent of Delphi reef and locations of quarry pits and Survey drill holes. 

The great thickness of the reef indicates the large amount of stone reserves 
left, even though the reef is much smaller near its base than at the surface. The 
thick section of high-magnesium dolomite at the center also indicates large 



Geography and Geology 287 

reserves of chemical stone. But much more core drilling and sampling will be 
needed before definite reserve figures for chemical stone can be calculated. 

Several secondary features of the reef are mentioned here because of their 
importance in quarrying and possible commercial implications. The reef 
contains near-surface grikes and small caves filled with carbonate and quartz 
sand. Some of these are particularly evident on the south face of the active 
quarry pit, and others could be a source of contamination during mining for 
chemical stone elsewhere in the reef. 

R.1W. R.1E. 




K? 



1 V 

, a jr. jv? \.cRM^ ; kt 

4\ 262 o 'tf ' ! /^APPROXIMATE 

< « q| v - > / EXTENT OF 

CAMDEN REEF 



$.-• 125 >^ 



?J 



•&• 






-700 X |j 

T Q? )| 



|6<V 



3693 



1 Km 



1 Mile 

j 



(§) Survey drill hole (SDH); chemical ▲ Reef outcrop 

analyses of core samples 
Figure 5. Approximate extent of Camden reef and locations of Survey drill holes and reef outcrops. 

Geology of the Camden Reef 

The Camden reef is centered approximately at the junction of sees. 19 and 
30, T. 25 N., R. 1 E., and sees. 24 and 25, T. 25 N.,R.1W, about 4 miles east of 
Camden and 1 mile south of State Road 218. Small outcrops of the reef are on 



288 Indiana Academy of Science 

the banks and in the streambed of Little Deer Creek, a few hundred feet south of 
the junction of County Roads 300 North and 300 East (Fig. 5). 

The full extent and shape and detailed lithology, chemistry, and 
stratigraphy of the Camden reef are incompletely known, even though several 
industrial core holes and two Survey core holes have now been drilled into or 
through the reef. Although much of the industrial data is proprietary and cannot 
be published, much can be said about the reef in a general way. 

Available core data indicate that the roots of the reef are in the Louisville 
Limestone, less than 20 feet above the top of the Waldron Formation, which is 
poorly developed at this location. The Louisville is blue gray, mottled, and easily 
differentiated from the overlying light-colored skeletal reefal limestone. Toward 
the southeast edge of the reef, some Mississinewa shale of the Wabash 
Formation has been recognized overlying the Louisville, but to date no nearby 
test holes have been drilled beyond the edge of the reef to reveal the stratigraphy 
of the uppermost Silurian interreef rocks. In a few holes, a thin brown silty 
dolomitic limestone or dolomite containing a few horn corals overlies the reef. 
These rocks have tentatively been identified as Devonian in age, possibly of the 
Traverse Formation. 

The reef is more than three-fourths of a mile in diameter and probably more 
than a mile in diameter in its upper part. Its thickness of more than 300 feet in 
SDH 262 and nearly 250 feet in SDH 264 indicate that stone reserves are more 
than enough for commercial aggregate and probably for commercial chemical 
stone, which depends on the size of the body of high-calcium limestone. That 
such a body exists seems likely because only 18 feet of the 308 fet of reef rock 
cored in SDH 262 exceeded 5 percent MgCCb. All limestone in the core 
contained less than 2 percent noncarbonate impurities, but a few solution 
cavities containing clay and silt, probably washed in by ground water, were 
found in most drill holes. In SDH 264, 90 feet of the 172 feet of high-calcium 
limestone cored in the reef was a continuous section. 

The high-calcium limestone of the reef is light tan to pink bioclastic 
limestone that is thought to have been deposited on the reef flanks; it contains 
moderate to abundant sparry calcite cement. Inclined bedding was observed in 
all flank beds cored, but direction of the flank dips is poorly understood. Vague 
bedding dips in the outcrops in and near Little Deer Creek are to the east and 
southeast. 

Determination of the center of the reef — important if muchdolomitization 
is associated with the center and near-center rocks and if we are to know the full 
extent of the reef — can only be speculated on at this time. Much micritic blue- 
gray dolomitic limestone and dolomite containing little-disturbed light-colored 
shells and stromotoporoids were cored in the top 160 feet at SDH 264. Bedding 
in this lithology is irregular and has little discernible dip. The distinction 
between this zone and the steeply dipping bioclastic skeletal limestone of the 
pink to light-buff flank beds is pronounced. SDH 264 thus may be in a near- 
center position for the upper part of the reef, although dipping flank beds were 
indicated in the bottom part of the core and lesser amounts of near-center 
lithologies were found in other drill holes. 



Geography and Geology 289 

In general, increased dolomitization of the flank beds has been found south, 
southeast, and southwest of SDH 262. Nowhere does the amount of dolomitized 
limestone and dolomite with more than 5 percent MgCO.i exceed 30 percent of 
the total reef section drilled. Generally, less than 20 percent, and in several wells 
less than 10 percent, of the reef rock is more than 5 percent MgCO.i. Even where 
the amount of dolomitic limestone and dolomite is nearly 30 percent, thick 
continuous sections of high-calcium limestone have been cored. 

Our preliminary data show dolomitization in two parts of the reef: (1) 
dolomitized carbonate muds that were deposited in the near-center areas of the 
reef and that have well-preserved and little-disturbed light-colored calcitic 
shells, corals, and large stromotoporoids, and (2) some dolomitized flank beds, 
possibly associated in part with interfingering interreef beds near the edge of the 
reef. Again, more information is needed to determine if dolomitization is 
confined to individual flank beds following the steep 30-40° dips, or if the 
dolomitized zones are independent of bedding boundaries. Selective 
dolomitization in porous zones by dolomitizing fluids probably was involved, 
but we have seen no obvious evidence of such permeable zones in the cores. 

Our study of the reef has been limited to microscopic examination of two 
cores and macroscopic examination of others. Detailed petrographic studies 
using thin section, staining, and SEM techniques would undoubtedly shed more 
light on the processes and effects of dolomitization. 

Geological and Commercial Implications 
Of The Delphi and Camden Reefs 

Discovery of thick chemical-quality carbonate stone in the Delphi and 
Camden reefs has prompted an examination of their relationship to the overall 
stratigraphy and reef distribution of northern Indiana. Obviously important is 
the relationship of the size and chemical composition of the Delphi and Camden 
reefs to reefs originating in similar stratigraphic positions in other areas. Both 
reefs have older beginnings than many reefs in Indiana, but their earlier 
Niagaran origins relate them to many Indiana reefs beginning at this same time. 
Thus we can make geologically and commercially important inferences 
concerning physical size, number, distribution, and composition of the reefs. 

The Delphi Generation 

The reef at Delphi arose out of Salamonie and Limberlost rocks, Droste 
and Shaver's (2) and Shaver's (5) second generation for part of the Great Lakes 
area (but the first generation of reefs in Indiana). Many small reefs of this 
generation in eastern Indiana and northwestern Ohio, where early Niagran 
rocks are well exposed in several quarries and some outcrops, have been 
described by geologists. Some of these early Silurian reefs were little more than 
mounds of biota that did not survive the environmental restrictions during 
deposition of the Limberlost Dolomite. Other reefs, though, gained a good 
foothold and survived to enlarge and expand later. 

An excellent exposure of the latter, a reef that breaches the Limberlost 
Dolomite and the Waldron Formation, can be seen in the Muncie Stone Co. 
quarry at Montpelier, Wells County. The Delphi reef is another example of a 
second generation reef breaching these formations and expanding greatly in late 



290 Indiana Academy of Science 

Louisville and later time. Reefs that were able to survive the apparently 
restricted environments during deposition of parts of the Limberlost Dolomite 
and the Louisville Limestone, and possibly the Waldron Formation, were quite 
likely to continue their growth and eventually to become large reefs containing 
commercial deposits. Significantly, none of the known reefs of this generation 
are calcareous; all are dolomite, and many are high-magnesium dolomite. 

The Camden Generation 

Several large known reefs in northern Indiana, including the Camden reef 
are of this generation, the third generation for part of the Great Lakes area. The 
large reefs at Lapel, Madison County, and at Huntington, Huntington County, 
are believed to be of this generation. Drilling data indicate that their roots are at 
or near the base of the Louisville Limestone. Because of their large size, they are 
among the most important reefs for commercial mining in Indiana. 

Reefs of this generation apparently grew with little hindrance from 
incoming impurities deposited in the Louisville, but the seas were probably of 
above-average salinity during deposition of the middle part of the Louisville, a 
time of evaporite deposition in the Michigan Basin, which restricted the growth 
of some reefs and probably caused the termination of many. 

The third generation of reefs presents a lithologic mystery for Indiana reefs. 
Most reefs of Indiana have been thoroughly dolomitized, but the thickest known 
section of high-calcium limestone in Indiana, that in SDH 262 in the Camden 
reef, was deposited in a reef of this generation. There is little evident difference in 
the stratigraphy at the Camden reef and other dolomitized reefs of this 
generation. But the eroded tops at the bedrock surface of the larger reefs of this 
generation are at different stratigraphic levels. Available chemical analyses 
show few compositional differences or at least no obvious pattern of variable 
composition in the substrate and interreef rocks near the limestone reefs as 
compared with those near the dolomite reefs. 

Large reefs of the third generation offer excellent promise as commercial 
sources of both high-magnesium dolomite and high-calcium limestone. 

Other generations 

Two large reefs of the fourth generation, one at Bluffton, Wells County, 
and the other at the Pipe Creek Jr quarry in southwestern Grant County, have 
roots in upper Louisville limestone. The Pipe Creek Jr reef has a surface 
diameter of about a mile, and a 139-foot section of high-calcium limestone 
averaging less than 2 percent noncarbonate impurities has been core drilled on 
the south flank of the reef. The large dolomitic reef at Bluffton has been quarried 
for aggregate for many years. Cores at this reef show an earlier and apparently 
separate episode of third-generation reefing in basal Louisville limestone. Large 
fourth-generation reefs, such as Bluffton and Pipe Creek Jr, are prime 
exploration targets for commercial stone reserves. 

Small reefs of this generation with slightly younger beginnings in silty and 
argillaceous dolomite of the Mississinewa Shale Member of the Wabash 
Formation are present in large numbers in the Wabash Valley east of 
Logansport. As many as five reefs per square mile are exposed east of Lagro, 
Wabash County. Obvious commercial disadvantages are their small size and, 



Geography and Geology 291 

for some, their mixed composition. Few known Wabash Valley reefs of this 
generation are more than one-third of a mile in diameter in their maximum 
dimension or are much more than a hundred feet thick. Their reserves for 
commercial exploitation are limited, usually less than those required for a 
modern permanent quarry. 

A reef of the youngest Indiana generation, the fifth, has been identified by 
core drilling in Cass County about 10 miles northeast of the Camden reef and 3 
miles west of Logansport on the south bank of the Wabash River. The reef, 
although small, contains high-calcium limestone. 

From present knowledge, the fifth-generation reefs, originating in Salina 
rocks in Indiana, offer the least potential for large reserves of high-calcium 
limestone or high-magnesium dolomite. This is due to their small size and the 
limited geographic distribution of Salina rocks on the Wabash Platform. 



Literature Cited 

1. Ault, C. H., L. E. Becker, J. B. Droste, S. J. Keller, and R. H. Shaver. 1976. Map of Indiana 
showing thickness of Silurian rocks and location of reefs and reef-induced structures. Indiana 
Geol. Surv. Misc. Map 22. 

2. Droste, J. B., and R. H. Shaver. 1977. Synchronization of deposition: Silurian reef-bearing rocks 
on Wabash Platform with cyclic evaporites of Michigan Basin. American Assoc. Pet. Geol. Studies 
in Geol. No. 5. p. 93-109. 

3. Cumings, E. R., and R. R. Shrock. 1928. The geology of the Silurian rocks of northern Indiana. 
Indiana Dept. Conserv. Pub. 75. 226 p. 

4. Indiana University Paleontology Seminar (1976-77). In prep. Stratigraphy, structure, and 
zonation of the Silurian reef at Delphi, Indiana. 

5. Shaver, R. H. 1976. Indiana portion of guidebook for field trip on Silurian reefs, interreef facies, 
and faunal zones of northern Indiana and northeastern Illinois. Geol. Soc. America, North-Central 
Sec, and Western Michigan Univ. p. 1-27. 

6. , 1976. Log of core from Indiana Geological Survey Drill Hole 269. Unpublished core 

description, Indiana Geol. Surv. 5 p. 



Mineral Resource Considerations In A Regional Management Plan 

Peter L. Calengas, Geology Department 
Western Illinois University, Macomb, Illinois 61455 



Abstract 

An evaluation of Indiana Planning and Development Region 6 (Blackford, 
Delaware, Grant, Henry, Jay, Madison, and Randolph Counties) land-use 
plans reveals that continued availability of mineral resources necessary for 
future growth has received little consideration. 

Mineral resource data indicate that the construction materials sand and 
gravel and crushed stone are abundant but irregularly distributed throughout 
the region. 

Much of the difficulty facing future mineral development would be 
removed, and prospects for an adequate supply would be improved, if potential 
mineral producing areas were designated as dual-use districts, such as 
agricultural-mineral resource district, industrial-mineral resource district, and 
flood plain-mineral resource district. 

Introduction 

In regions undergoing rapid urban expansion, special problems are 
inevitable in planning land-use and zoning. Many environmental considerations 
have some geologic base — water supply, disposal of solid and liquid wastes, 
flooding, erosion, mineral resources, and others. This paper addresses mineral 
resources that are esential to the economy of urban areas. Of the many types of 
mineral resources, those that present special problems in urban area are the low- 
cost, high bulk, construction materials — crushed stone and sand and gravel. 
Every community desires to have low-cost materials for construction and 
development, but few citizens individually wish to live near or be bothered by the 
quarries, pits, mines, and processing plants that produce the materials. Local 
planning efforts to solve this problem are commonly directed toward removing 
the problem from the immediate environs. The common effect is to intensify the 
problem elsewhere. Most community and county plans and zoning ordinance do 
not provide for the production of mineral resources except to recognize the 
existence of present mineral-producing activities. It is difficult to obtain 
approval for extension of such operations, and it is sometimes virtually 
impossible in many locations to secure permission to open new deposits. As 
urbanization proceeds, land use other than minerals production spreads across 
the potential producing areas, making it unlikely that new mineral production 
will be permitted. The only way to secure adequate supply of such minerals for 
future needs is to classify those limited areas that contain the mineral resources 
in such way that appropriate reserves will be maintained. 

292 



Geography and Geology 293 

The Region 

Indiana Planning and Development Region 6, includes seven eastern and 
northeastern counties — Blackford, Delaware, Grant, Henry, Jay, Madison, and 
Randolph. The population of the region is 472,606, or 9. 10 percent of the state's 
total population (13). The region includes two Standard Metropolitan 
Statistical Areas (SMSA's), Anderson with a population of 138,45 1 people and 
Muncie with a population of 129,219 people (13). The region is expected to 
undergo a moderate to high (9.5 to 17.3) percentage increase in population 
for the period 1970 to 2000 (13). 

The future demand for mineral aggregate resources can be estimated by the 
increase in contract construction in the region. Data for the Anderson SMSA 
indicate a 121-percent change, and for Muncie a 70-percent change in contract 
construction for 1971-1990, ranking the Anderson and Muncie SMSA's third 
and tenth in the state respectively (6). 

Methods 

The sand and gravel resource potential of Region 6 (Fig. 1) was determined 
by compiling and reconciling information from the Muncie and Cincinnati 1° x 
2° quadrangle sheets (2 and 3); engineering soils maps of Delaware, Grant, and 
Madison Counties (11, 7, 10); water well logs from the Division of Water, 
Indiana Department of Natural Resources; and soil maps of Delaware (4), 
Madison (9), Randolph (1), Grant (5), and Blackford (12) Counties. 

In addition, all of the available water-well logs were checked to locate sand 
and gravel deposits at reasonable depths (less than 50 feet) and with no more 
than 20 feet of overlying material, such as tough glacial till, that is difficult and 
costly to remove. These wells are not plotted on Figure 1; they occur not only in 
the designated prospective sand and gravel producing areas (Fig. 1), but also 
outside these areas (till). 

The crushed stone resources (Fig. 1) were compiled by plotting depth to 
bedrock from water well logs, oil and gas wells, and seismic records and then 
drawing isopach contours for 100 feet, 50 feet, and 25 feet of overburden 
thickness. Figure 1 shows only the less-than-50-feet isopach contour. 

The Zoning Map of Region 6 (Fig. 3) was compiled by obtaining the zoning 
maps of the townships and cities (where available) of Region 6. The different 
zoning districts within corporate city limits are not shown on the map. The 
urban, built-up areas of the region include lands classified as residential districts, 
although some are classified as business, industrial, and commercial districts. 

Results 

Sand and Gravel Resources 

The prospective sand and gravel resources (Fig. 1) occurs as out wash-plain, 
valley train, and kame and esker deposits. 

Most of the outwash-plain deposits occur mainly in the southern third of 
Delaware County and in southern Randolph County. The largest outwash-plain 
areas are west and southwest of Muncie. The sand and gravel outwash deposits 
are highly variable, some areas being essentially all sand and other gravel. 



294 



Indiana Academy of Science 




Figure 1. 



The valley train deposits of the region are located along the numerous rivers 
and streams that occur in the region. The principal valley train deposits of the 
region occur in Henry County along the Big Blue and Flatrock Rivers. The 
valleys of these rivers are rather wide for the size of the streams, and sand and 
gravel deposits form terraces on either side of the streams. The terraces are 10 to 
15 feet above the adjacent floot plain, and the overbuden over much of the 
deposits range in thickness from to 25 feet. 

The kame and esker deposits of the region are highly variable. The eskers 
occur as long sinuous ridges in a general north-south direction south of 
Anderson and north of Muncie. The kames occur as rounded hill-like forms and 
as complexes in southwestern Henry and northwestern Jay Counties, and as 
small topographic highs in many parts of the region. 

Crushed Stone Resources 

The principal crushed stone resources of the region are to be found in 
Silurian reef rocks of the Huntington Lithofacies of the Wabash Formation, and 



Geography and Geology 



295 



20Miles 




'onian rocks 



Liston Creek Limestone 
Mbr. of Wabash Fm. 



Limberlosf Dolomite, 
Salamonie Dolomite,and 
Brassfield Limestone 



Ord 



ovician 



rocks 



■ 



Mississinewa Shale Mbr.of Wabash Fm. 
Louisville Limestone, and Wa Idron Fm., 
M, base of Mississinewa Shale Mbr. 



Figure 2. 



in the Liston Creek Limestone Member of the Wabash, the Louisville 
Limestone, the Limberlost Dolomite, and the Salamonie Dolomite (Fig. 2). The 
Devonian rocks below the glacial drift in southern Madison County have only a 
limited potential. The Ordovician rocks have no economic potential as an 
aggregate source, as they are too inaccessible and occur as exposures only along 
buried valleys where the glacial drift is thickest. Two of these deep buried valleys 
occur in the region (Fig. 2). 



296 



Indiana Academy of Science 



The prospective crushed stone producing areas of the region are situated 
where the Silurian rock units are overlain by shallow drift (less than 50 feet) (Fig. 
1). 

The region as a whole has adequate aggregate supplies, but they are not 
equally or uniformly distributed in each of the counties of the region. 

Land-Use Plans 

For the purpose of this report, the present land-use classification for the 
region is simplified into three types of districts, the agricultural, the urban, built- 
up, and the incorporated (Fig. 3). The urban built-up and incorporated areas 
show the extent of urbanization of the region. Most of the urban built-up and 
incorporated areas are classified by the individual city and county zoning 
ordinances as residential land use districts, although other land uses such as 
business, industry, and commerce are allowed in certain parts of the urban built- 
up and incorporated districts. 




Marion 



T 



GRANT CO 



^ -f .' 



"ft* - 



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Geography and Geology 297 

In general, mineral extraction operations are not allowed in areas classified 
as urban built-up, as these operations cannot be located closer than 300 feet to a 
residence. Therefore, in areas such as the rapidly urbanizing Muncie and 
Anderson metropolitan areas, land-use conflicts could arise, as the two areas are 
growing toward each other (Fig. 3). 

Present land-use classifications do not recognize minerals production as 
essential. Approval for mineral development can be obtained only through an 
Exception Use Permit, after meeting strict regulations for city and county 
zoning ordinances. 

Conclusions 

Mineral resource data indicate that the construction materials sand and 
gravel and crushed stone are abundant but irregularly distributed throughout 
the region. 

In order to assure an adequate future supply and to prevent possible future 
land use conflicts, I propose that certain areas where mineral resource potential 
exists (Fig. 1) be set aside, and classified as a dual use zone district such as 
agriculture-mineral resource district, industrial-mineral resource district, or 
residential-mineral resource district. This takes extractive operations within the 
regulations rather than as a non-conforming Use or special exception. This dual 
classification would accomplish two things: ( 1) it would make it easier to obtain 
an operating permit to expand new operations, and (2) it would define certain 
areas or tracts for sequential use, that is from agriculture to mineral production 
to recreational-residential; going from low cost development to high cost 
development. 

The above recommendation can be adopted as part of the land-use element 
in the Regional Development Plan now being formulated by the Region 6 
Planning and Development Commission. 



Literature Cited 

1. Buckannan, W. H. et al., 1931. Soil survey of Randolph County, Indiana: United States 
Department of Agriculture, 36 p. 

2. Burger, A. M., et al., 1971. Regional Geologic May No. 5, Muncie Sheet, Indiana Geological 
Survey. 

3. Gray, H. H., et al., 1972. Regional Geologic Map No. 7, Cincinnati Sheet, Indiana Geological 
Survey. 

4. Huffman, K. K. 1972. Soil Survey of Delaware County, Indiana: U.S. Department of Agriculture, 
Soil Conservation Service, 66p. 

5. Hurst, L. A., et al., 1917. Soil Survey of Grant County, Indiana: U.S. Department of Agriculture, 
36p. 

6. Marcus, M., 1977. Estimated percentage change in contract construction for 1971 to 1990: 
Indiana University School of Business. 

7. McLerran, J. H., 195 L Engineering soils map. Grant County, Indiana: Joint Highway Research 
Project, Purdue University (map). 

8. Region 8 Planning and Development Commission, 1977. Region 6 population projections by 
county. 



298 Indiana Academy of Science 

9. Schermerhorn, E. J., et al., 1967. Soil Survey of Madison County, Indiana: U.S. Department of 
Agriculture, 89p. 

10. Shurig, D. G., 1968. Engineering soils map of Madison County, Indiana: Joint Highway Research 
Project No. E-36-51B, 21 p. 

11. 1974. Engineering soils map of Delaware County, Indiana: Joint Highway Research 

Project, JHRP-74-7, Purdue University, Indiana State Highway Commission, 57p. 

12. Tharp, W. E., and Bacon, 1928. Soil survey of Blackford County, Indiana: U.S. Department of 
Agriculture, 41 p. 

13. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1970. Population Census for 1970. 



Application of Geology to Land Use Planning, 
Clinton County, Indiana 

Ellen E. Otto, Tennessee Valley Authority 
Engineering Geology Section, Chattanooga, Tennessee 37401 

Terry R. West, Dept. of Geosciences 
Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 



Introduction 

To provide a suitable base for developing a land use plan for Clinton 
County, Indiana, detailed data on the significant physical and cultural aspects of 
the area have been compiled for easy access (5). This inventory of physical and 
cultural characteristics provides planners with a detailed overview of the 
County, presented in map, table and text format. These materials can be used 
singly or in combination for various land use evaluations, the procedure 
depending upon the interaction of that use with the environment. Information is 
presented in an appropriate format which can be understood and interpreted by 
specialists and non-specialists alike. 

Setting 

In the current study, Clinton County, Indiana was chosen because of its 
location adjacent to a fast-growing sector of the state. Located approximately 40 
miles northwest of Indianapolis and 20 miles east of Lafayette it is bordered by 
Boone, Hamilton and Tippecanoe Counties which are experienceing major 
population growth. By providing a suitable information base for Clinton 
County prior to expansion, land use planning can proceed in an orderly manner 
and geologic factors can be included in the decision making process. 

The physiography of Clinton County is a result of Wisconsin age glacial 
deposition. The County is contained within the Tipton Till Plain division of the 
Central Lowlands Physiographic Province. This till plain, of youthful 
topography, is characterized by a gently undulating to moderately rolling 
surface. The maximum relief, caused by stream dissection, occurs within one 
mile of the major drainages. The valley flats commonly are less than one-half 
mile wide. Away from the drainage channels there has been little modification of 
the surface by Holocene drainage development. 

Local relief is greater in the northern part of the county because of 
dissection associated with the larger drainage channels in that sector. The land 
surface displays a regional slope to the northwest, toward the base level set by 
the Wabash River. Maximum total relief is approximately 300 feet, with a 
maximum local relief of about 70 feet occurring along portions of the South 
Fork Wildcat Creek. Bluffs 20 to 50 feet are common along most of the other 
drainage channels. 

299 



300 Indiana Academy of Science 

Methodology 

A review of literature concerned with urban planning, land use 
development, and engineering and environmental geology was undertaken to 
determine those physical characteristics which were most valuable to land use 
planning. The topics included for study were those pertaining to Clinton County 
and suited for presentation in a map format. 

Topics selected to convey general information about the county include 
generalized topography, bedrock geology, bedrock topography, drainage 
channels and watershed boundaries. Topics useful for land use planning 
included surficial geology, glacial drift thickness, gravel resources, soil 
association, piezometric surface, well yield, transportation systems, present land 
use and depth to seasonal high water table. Some of these topics were combined 
into a single map for convenience of presentation. 

Map sources of information for the various topics ranged in scale from 
1:24,000 to 1:500,000. A uniform scale was needed which would result in a base 
map of manageable size, yet convey sufficiently detailed information to be 
useful. A scale of 1 inch = 1 mile or 1 :63,360 was chosen. To achieve this scale, the 
fourteen USGS l x /i minute topographic quadrangle maps which comprise 
Clinton County were reduced to 38% of their original size, combined into a 
mosaic, and the base map prepared from that mosaic. This produced a map with 
dimensions of \l x /i" x 17" page size convenient for presentation. The final scale 
after reduction was approximately 1:150,000. The Depth to Seasonal High 
Water Table Map was presented at the original scale of 1:63,360 because of its 
considerable detail and the useful information it provides at that scale. 

Several sources of information were used in preparation of the topical 
maps. The USGS 7!/ 2 minute quadrangle provided information for the 50-foot 
contour-interval, generalized topography map, for drainage channels and 
watershed boundaries and for the transportation systems map. Pipeline 
locations for the transportation map were obtained from the "Map of Indiana 
Showing Oil, Gas and Products Pipelines" (4). Present land use was modified 
from a published report of consultants (3) with floodplain limits modified from 
the Danville Geologic Quadrangle (7) using 1939 black and whiteairphotosata 
scale of approximately 1:21,000. 

Bedrock geology was obtained from the Danville Geologic Quadrangle (7), 
and combined with bedrock topography as modified from a bedrock 
topography map of northern Indiana (1). Modifications were made based on 
logs of wells drilled to bedrock which are recorded with the Indiana Department 
of Natural Resources (DNR), Division of Water, Indianapolis, Indiana. 

Surficial geology was modified from the preliminary and published sheets 
of the Danville Geologic Quadrangle (7). These modifications were 
accomplished using airphoto interpretation. Glacial drift thickness, depicted 
with a 50-foot contour interval was added to the map. Drift thickness was based 
on wells penetrating bedrock (DNR information) and on published information 
(6). 

Well records from the Dept. of Natural Resources, Division of Water were 
used to produce the potential well-yield map and the piezometric surface map 



Geography and Geology 



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3. Natural soil drainage: PO (poorly drained), SPD (somewhat poorly drained). Others considered were moderately well and 
well drained. 

4. Subject to periodic flooding unless protected by dikes or levees. 

5. Organic areas 1n low landscape positions with or without surface outlets. 

6. Percent tillable, Classes I-IV by SCS Land Capability Classification. 

7. Present average yield on Classes I-IV (better row-crop soils) without Irrigation. 

8-11. Present' average yields on Classes I-VII (all soils) without Irrigation. For yields on Class I-IV only, multiply values 
1n col. 7 by .35 for soybeans, by .40 for wheat and divide by 30 for hay (tons). 

12. Percent potential increase over yields 1n cols. 8-11 with excellent management 1n best growing seasons. 

13. Productivity index ■ average gross return minus production and conservation costs (highest Index ■ 100). 

14-16. Col. 14. 1 (slight) to 4 (severe); col. 15. 1 (slight) to 3 (severe); col. 16, 1 (low) to 4 (high) response for grains. 

17. Muck soils (usually over 30* organic matter) not included In calculation. No percent OM given for Assn. 108. 

18. Soils with slight and moderate limitations by SCS system. Rest have severe limitations. 
19-23. Land use calculated from Indiana soil and water conservation needs Inventory data for 1958. 



Geography and Geology 303 

for the County. The piezometric surface map was presented at a 50-foot contour 
interval. 

The map showing soil associations was prepared from map information of the 
Agricultural Experimental Station/ Cooperative Extension Service, Purdue 
University (2). The Depth to Seasonal High Water Table Map was prepared 
from advanced field sheets provided by the Clinton County office of the Soil 
Conservation Service and through detailed photo interpretation of the 1939 
black and white airphotos of the County. 

Results 

The maps, tables and text of the complete report can be used for various 
phases of land use planning in Clinton County, Indiana (5). The maps can be 
used individually or in combination to make evaluations, depending upon the 
type of land use anticipated. For this discussion, general interpretations of 
various topical mpas are presetned as they relate to specific land uses. The 
purpose is to illustrate the value of the mapped information during initial phases 
of land use evaluations. The information is generalized and can only provide a 
starting point for planning. Because of the extreme variability of actual physical 
conditions and the small scale at which information was gathered, specific site 
investigations should also be performed before site selection is finalized. 

A map of the general soil associations of Clinton County (Figure 1) 
provides an overview of the soil types, textures, drainage characteristics, slope 
and parent material types. This map, used in combination with data from the 
Agricultural Experiment Station/ Cooperative Extension Service for each soil 
association, (Table 1) can provide information about yields for various crops, 
productivity of the soil, potential for wind or water erosion, percent of land 
surface suited for septic systems and the current type of land use found 
predominantly within a particular soil association. The descriptions of the soil 
association also include soils formed on floodplains, but these areas are 
excluded from development owing to the potential for flooding. 

Because the soil is directly involved with many aspects of land use, a map 
showing more detail than the general soils map can be very useful for planning. 
A detailed map at a scale of 1:63,360 was prepared using one characteritic of the 
soil, the depth to seasonal high water table, as the mapping unit (5). Soil wetness 
and drainage characteristics are important in determining what uses are 
acceptable for specific soils. For examle, soils with a depth to seasonal high 
water table of 0-1 foot would not be suited for a use as septic filter fields because 
of the need for a dry, permeable soil for absorption. Other uses, such as 
basement construction, would require special construction designs, such as 
waterproofing, and possibly drainage in soils with a high water table. The detail 
provided by this map can supply valuable information for many land uses and 
designate areas where corrective design would be needed to overcome wetness 
problems. 

An important resource for urban development is a supply of sand and 
gravel. The map of the surficial geology and glacial drift thickness (Figure 2) 
shows areas of potential supply. Valley train and kame deposits have a good 



304 



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Geography and Geology 307 

potential for sand and gravel production, with a moderate source available from 
alluvial deposits. 

The drift thickness contous on the surface geology map show that bedrock 
is not found within 50 feet of the surface, therefore, no bedrock will be 
encountered during normal foundation construction. This is an important 
consideration in estimating costs for excavation. 

Development of industry or residential areas requires a good source of 
water. In Clinton County, that source is ground water. A map of the potential 
well-yield (Figure 3) shows areas where yields of 0-50 gpm and yields of over 50 
gpm may be expected. The areas are generalized and yields cannot be 
guaranteed. However, the map does provide a starting point in the search for an 
adequate water supply for commercial or domestic use. 

The map of the piezometric surface (Figure 4) shows the elevations to which 
the ground water will rise under artesian pressure. Using this map in 
combination with topographic map information (available from the 7'/2 minute 
quadrangles of the county) depth to the static water surface in a well can be 
determined. The actual aquifer may be deeper, with the static water level 
reaching a higher elevation because of the artesian conditions. However, the 
position of the piezometric surface can provide information regarding how 
much lift will be needed to pump water to the surface. 

The general direction of ground water flow can also be determined from the 
piezometric surface map as flow occurs perpendicular to the contours and in the 
down-slope direction. Flow direction becomes important in the location of 
water supply wells which should be upgradient from likely sources of 
contamination, such as septic filter fields. Also a sanitary landfill shoud not be 
sited where the regional ground water flow is through the fill material. 

Along with information and maps of the physical characteristics of Clinton 
County, the cultural or man-made features also provide an important aspect for 
the land use planner. It is necessary to know where past development has taken 
place so patterns of growth can be determined and suitable areas for new 
development can be located. 

A map of transportation systems (Figure 5) locates the pipelines, 
transmission lines, railroads and highways of the county. Developing industry 
will wish to locate near ready access to one or more of these transportation 
systems depending upon the specific needs. Frankfort is an important railway 
center with lines extending to all parts of the state. Rapid access statewide is also 
provided by Interstate 65 which crosses the southwestern part of the county. 
Other state and federal highways provide ready access to nearby cities of 
Lafayette, Kokomo, Lebanon and Indianapolis, as well as other parts of the 
state. The transportation map is also helpful in planning residential areas so easy 
access to the development will be possible. 

The map of present land use (Figure 6) shows areas of urban development, 
industry, parks and institutions and agricultural areas. Industrial development 
would be best suited in areas where industry is already located, assuming the 
physical characteristics are suited for that type of development. Also the pattern 
of urban development can be determined from this map. Recent "strip 



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development" has taken place along the major highways with residential 
housing expanding in a linear fashion from the major towns. An example, is the 
pattern of growth of south of Frankfort to Antioch along state road 38, 39. This 
type of "strip development" if not planned, results in problems of extending 
municipal services for a great distance to serve a limited number of people. 
Development along a transportation route also limits access to lands beyond 
this "strip" for future development. 

The land use map also delineates floodplains, those areas which should not 
be used for development except for agriculture, open space or perhaps certain 
recreational uses which would not be greatly affected by occasional flooding. 
Cemeteries are located on the land use map because of the need to avoid these 
areas for most types of development. 

Conclusion 

A brief overview has been presented to show some specific uses of the 
various maps of physical and cultural aspects of Clinton County, Indiana. Using 
the extensive inventory of the County (5), planners can make more appropriate 
decisions related to land use. Before any final land use decisions are made, a 
more detailed on-site investigation would be required. However, the 
information in this report provides a proper starting point for analysis, 
streamlines the procedure and insures the consideration of geologic and other 
physical factors in the decision-making process. 



Literature Cited 

1. Burger, A. M, S. J. Keller and W. J. Wayne, 1966. Map showing bedrock topography of 
northern Indiana. Misc. Map 12, Ind. Geol. Surv., Bloomington, Indiana, scale 1:500,000. 

2. Cooperation Extension Service/ Agricultural Experiment Station and the Soil 
Conservation Service, USDA, 1971. General soil map and interpretation table for Clinton 
County, Indiana. Purdue Extension Publ. AY-50-12, scale 1:190,080. 

3. Huff, Carpenter, Ross Associates, 1974. Frankfort-Clinton County comprehensive plan. South 
Bend, Indiana. 

4. Keller, S. J., 1973. Map of Indiana showing oil, gas and products pipelines. Misc. Map 18, Ind. 
Geol. Surv., Bloomington, Indiana, scale 1:500,000. 

5. Otto, E. E., 1977. Engineering and environmental geology of Clinton County, Indiana. M.S. 
Thesis, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana. 118 p. 

6. Wayne, W. J., 1956. Thickness of drift and bedrock physiography of Indiana north of the 
Wisconsin glacial boundary. Report of Progress 7, Ind. Geol. Surv., Bloomington, Indiana, 70 p. 

7. Wayne, W. J., G. H. Johnson, and S. J. Keller, 1966. Geologic map of the Danville 1° x 2° 
Quadrangle, Indiana and Illinois, showing bedrock and unconsolidated deposits Regional Geol. 
Map No. 2, Ind. Geol. Surv., scale 1:250,000. 



The Effects of Strip Mine Blasting 

On Residential Structures Ayrshire Mine 

Warrick and Vanderburgh Counties, Indiana 

Jack Barnes, Geologist 

Purpose 

Investigation of numerous complaints regarding structural damage to 
residences in the vicinity of the Ayrshire Mine, Warrick County, Indiana (Figure 
# 1 ), prompted a twelve-month study into the nature and cause (or causes) of this 
widespread and severe damage. Data were collected from November 1976 
through May 1977. The cumulative effects of repeated strip mine blasting were 
thought to be the most probable cause of this damage, and a study was designed 
to confirm or disapprove this belief. 




LOCATION MAP 

AYRSHIRE MINE 

WARRICK COUNTY, INDIANA 




Figure 1. 

It is known that shock waves from a blast radiate outward in all directions 
from the source, and that the force decreases with an increase in distance from 
the blast. In a homogeneous medium shock waves radiate from a blast source in 
a spherical front. Therefore, distance from the blast area should be the prime 
factor influencing structural failure. 



311 



312 Indiana Academy of Science 

If strip mine blasting were the dominant cause for this widespread 
residential damage a similar halo pattern of concentric destruction radiating 
outward from the blast source should be apparent within the area studied. 
Damage should decrease with an increase in distance from the mine face where 
blasting occurs. This study was designed to test this hypothesis. 

Area Studied 

The area studied consists of rolling farm land and low-lying bottom land 
situated in western Warrick and eastern Vanderburgh Counties of Southwestern 
Indiana (Figure 1). Much of the western portion of the area is situated on an 
ancient lake bed that is now filled with 80-120 feed of unconsolidated alluvium. 
Ths fill rests of Paleozoic beds of shale, sandstone and siltstone. 

Strip mine operations at the Ayrshire Mine involve blasting and removal of 
70-90 feet of siltstone, sandstone, shale and limestone that overlie the upper and 
lower Millersburg coals of Pennsylvanian Age. Blasting occurs within one mile 
of the lake bed alluvium. 

Approximately 1300 homes are located within the survey area. Most 
residences are one-story, bungalow-type homes containing 1000-1500 square 
feet. Most have basements (62%), while construction type is divided between 
frame (36%), brick-block (43%) and combination (21%). The homes examined 
range from two years of age to log homes more than 100 years old. 

Method of Study 

A Home Damage Report form was devised to indicate location and type of 
damage, age of house, construction type, blast frequency, etc. (Figure 2). Mobile 
homes were not considered to be anchored to the ground firmly enough to 
register the strains applied to a standard home during blasting operations and 
were not included in this survey. Mobile homes were also excluded from a 
similar study of blasting damage conducted for the Atomic Energy Commission 
in 1973. 

The strip mine blasting area (high wall), bordering trench and mined-out area 
associated with the Ayrshire Mining operation, were located and plotted on a 
U.S. Geological Survey topographic map through ground investigation and 
overflight. Survey grid lines were then established along county roads indicated 
on a topographic map of the area. 

Concerned neighbors, students and parishioners of St. John's Catholic 
church formed survey teams of one or two persons each. These investigators 
were instructed in map reading and in completing Home Damage Reports. Each 
survey team was given a topographic map of the area on which they located each 
home with a number that matched the corresponding Home Damage Report 
number. Surveyors were instructed to take random samples located 
approximately one-half mile apart along established grid lines. Clustering of 
data in some areas was unavoidable because they were the only data available. 
Many homes close to the mine were owned by Amax Coal Company, or had 
been abandoned by the previous owners, resulting in an unavoidable scarcity of 
data within one mile of the Ayrshire Mine. A total of 169 homes were surveyed, 



Geography and Geology 313 



Figure 2 



Date 

Report No 

HOME DAMAGE REPORT 

Home Owner Age of Home. 

Address Phone 

Distance from Ayrshire Mine In Feet 



Number of Rooms (Exclusive of Basement) 

Basement ( ) Yes; ( ) No. 

Water Well ( ) Yes; ( ) No. 

Construction: ( ) Frame ( ) Block ( ) Brick ( ) Combination 

Basement: 

A. Square Footage 

B. Number of Hairline Cracks 

C. Number of Cracks Larger than Hairline 

D. Number of Cracks Longer than 5 ft 



E. Number of Horizontal Cracks Longer than 5 ft. 

F. Total of Number of Cracks 

9. Living Area Above Ground: 

A. Number of Floors 

B. Square Footage 



C. Number of Hairline Cracks 

D. Number of Cracks Larger Than Hairline. 

E. Number of Crakes Longer than 5 ft 



F. Number of Horizontal Cracks Longer than 5 ft 

G. Number of Horizontal Cracks at Junction of Wall and Ceiling 

H. Total Number of Cracks 

10. According to the homeowner, have cracks increased in width, length or number since the opening 
of the Ayrshire Mine? 

Width: ( ) Yes ( ) No 

Length: ( ) Yes ( ) No 

Number: ( ) Yes ( ) No 

11. Record any other damage that has occurred since blasting at the Ayrshire Mine commenced. 
(Damaged water wells or cisterns, porches, stoops, chimneys that have cracked or separated from the 
house; doors or windows that no longer fit, abundant chipped bricks, etc.) 



12. How many times a week is your home shaken by blasting?. 



13. Does blasting occur at night? ( ) Yes; ( ) No. 
on Sunday? ( ) Yes; ( ) No. 



(Signed) Examiner) 



(Signed) Homeowner 



in an area including an estimated 1300 homes which were indicated on the most 
recent topographic maps of the area. Of these, six were discarded because the 
home owner or resident did not attest the survey form with his (or her) signature. 
Sites unusually close to each other were occasionally combined as representative 



314 Indiana Academy of Science 

of that particular area. (Points 82 and 147 represent two and five homes 
respectively). Lack of funds, time and personnel resulted in a more concentrated 
random sample of data points within a four-mile belt trending approximately 
north-south and parallel with the mine face, which is located to the east of 
sampled area. Data were cross-checked for accuracy and plotted on a 
topographic map of the area as survey teams returned from the field. 

The data were divided into the following categories and color coded on a 
topographic base map according to the nautre and extent of damage reported. 

a. Blasts not felt — no damage reported (yellow) 

b. Blasts felt — no damage reported (green) 

c. Blasts felt — damage reported 

1. Sub-surface damage 

a. Damage to water wells, septic tanks and cisterns (blue) 

b. Damage to basement floors, basement walls and foundations 
(red) 

2. Surface damage 

a. Damage to windows, doors, porches, patios and garage 
floors (orange) 

b. Damage to living area walls, fireplaces, chimneys and brick 
or stone veneer (black) 

One-mile zones were then drawn around the blasting area measuring from 
the high wall shown in Figure 3. 

Percentages of homes reporting each type damage reported in Figure 3 were 
calculated in each one-mile blast ring. The blast ring effect that is indicated 
resulted from these calculations. 

These are as follows: 

Zone I 12 of 12 homes surveyed reported damage 100% 

Zone II 38 of 42 homes surveyed reported damage 91% 

Zone III 38 of 42 homes surveyed reported damage 64% 

Zone IV 14 of 35 homes surveyed reported damage 40% 

Zone V 9 of 19 homes surveyed reported damage 47% 

Zone VI 11 of 15 homes surveyed reported damage 73% 

Observations of home characteristics were assembled from the surveys 
located in each zone and summarized in Table 1. 

Table 1. Summary — Home Damage Survey 

1. Age of Structure 
5 Years Old: 

Zone I = 2/12(17%); II = 0/42 (0%); III = 5/38 (13%); IV = 2/35 (6%); V = 0/ 19(0%); VI = 2/ 15 
(13%). 

5-10 Years Old: 

Zone I = 2/ 12(17%); II = 6/42 (14%); III = 5/38 (13%); IV = 5/35 (14%); V = 2/ 19(10%); VI = 

1/15(7%). 

11-20 Years Old: 

Zone 1= 1/12(8%); II = 8/42 (19%); III = 7/38 (19%); IV = 8/35 (23%); V = 10/ 19 (53%); VI = 
4/15(27%). 



Geography and Geology 315 

Table 1. Summary— Home Damage Survey (continued) 

21-40 Years Old: 

Zone 1 = 4/12 (33%); II = 21/42 (50%); 111=13/38 (34%); I V = 9/ 35 (26%); V = 6/ 1 9 (32%); VI = 
6/15 (40%). 

Over 40 Years Old: 

Zone 1 = 3/12 (25%); II = 7/42 (17%); III = 8/38 (21%); IV = 1 1/35 (31%); V = 1/ 19 (5%); VI = 
2/15(13%). 

2. Construction 

More Than One Story Above Ground Level: 

Zone 1 = 3/12 (25%); II = 8/41 (20%); III = 9/39 (23%); IV =10/35 (29%); V = 5/ 19 (26%); VI = 
6/15 (40%). 

Homes With Basements: 

Zone 1=7/12 (58%); II = 32/42(76%); 111= 13/39(33%); IV = 24/35(69%); V = 1 1/ 19(58%); VI 
= 12/15(80%). 

Frame Construction: 

Zone I = 7/ 12(58%); 11= 15/42 (36%); III =19/ 38 (50%); IV= 11/35 (31%); V = 4/ 19 (21%); VI = 
3/15(20%). 

Brick- Block-Stone Construction: 

Zone I =5/12 (42%); 11= 19/42(45%); 111= 13/38(34%); IV = 17/35 (49%); V= 10/ 19(53%); VI 
= 5/ 15 (33%). 

Combination Construction: 

Zone 1 = 0/12(0%); 11 = 8/42(19%); 111 = 6/38(16%); IV = 7/35 (20%); V = 5/ 19 (26%); VI = 

7/15(47%). 

3. Homes Indicating Surface or Subsurface Structural Failure 

Zone I = 12/ 12 (100%); II = 38/42 (91%); III = 25/39 (64%); IV = 14/35 (40%); V = 9/ 19 (47%); 
VI = 11/15 (73%). 

4. Subsurface Failure — Basement Cracked 
Basement Cracked: 

Zone 1 = 3/7(43%); 11 = 26/32 (81%); III = 3/ 13 (25%); IV = 7/24 (29%); V = 3/ 1 1 (37%); VI = 
5/12(42%). 

More Than Two Cracks Larger Than Hairline: 

Zone I = 1/5 (20%); 11= 15/31 (49%); 111 = 2/ 13(15%); IV= 1/24(4%); V = 0/ 10(0%); VI = 0/ 1 1 

(0%). 
More Than Two Cracks Longer Than Five Feet: 

Zone I = 1/5 (20%); 11 = 7/31 (23%); 111 = 0/13 (0%); I V = 1/24 (4%); V = 0/ 10 (0%); VI = 0/ 1 1 

(0%). 

More Than Two Cracks: 

Zone 1= 1/5(20%); 11 = 21/31 (68%); 111 = 2/13(15%); IV = 4/24 (17%); V = 0/ 10 (0%); VI = 
4/ 1 1 (36%). 

5. Surface Failure— Living Area Above Ground Level Cracked 
Living Area Above Ground Cracked: 

Zone I = 11/ 12(92%); 11 = 32/42(76%); 111= 20/39(51%); IV = 9/35(26%); V = 6/ 19(32%); Vl = 
10/15(67%). 

More Than Two Cr-acks Larger Than Hairline: 

Zone 1 = 5/12 (42%); II = 15/42 (36%); III = 8/39 (20%); IV = 4/35 ( 1 1%); V = 0, 19 (0%); VI = 
0/15(0%). 

More Than Two Cracks Longer Than Three Feet: 

Zone 1 = 2/12(17%); 11= 14/42(33%); 111 = 7/39(18%); IV = 3/35 (9%); V = 0/ 19 (0%); VI = 
0/15(0%). 



316 



Indiana Academy of Science 



More Than Two Cracks: 

Zone I = 10/ 12(83%); 11 = 26/42(62%); 111= 16/39(41%); IV = 6/35(17%); V = 3/ 19(16%); VI = 
6/15 (40%). 

More Than Four Cracks: 

Zone I =8/ 12 (67%); II = 21/42 (50%); 111= 14/39(36%); IV = 6/35(17%); V = 2/ 19(10%); VI = 

4/15(27%). 

6. Homes Reporting Increase in Crack Width, Length or Number Since Opening of Ayrshire Mine 

Zone I = 11/ 12 (92%); II =32/42(77%); 111= 18/39(46%); IV = 9/35 (26%); V = 3/ 19(16%); VI = 
3/15(20%). 

7. Blast Frequency 

Home Shaken Less Than Five Times/ Week by Blasting: 

Zone I = 3/ 10 (30%); II =11/38(29%); 111= 18/34(53%); IV = 19/32(59%); V= 14/ 18(78%); VI 
= 13/14(92%). 

Home Shaken Five To Ten Times/ Week By Blasting: 

Zone I = 2/ 10 (20%); 11= 1 1/38 (29%); III = 10/34(29%); IV = 9/32(28%); V= 2/ 18(1 1%); VI = 

1/14(7%). 

Home Shaken More Than Ten Times/ Week By Blasting: 

Zone 1 = 5/10 (50%); II = 16/ 38 (42%); III = 6/ 34 (18%); IV = 4/ 32 (13%); V = 2/ 18 ( 1 1%); VI = 
0/ 14 (0%). 

Home Reporting Sunday Blasting: 

Zone I =3/9 (33%); 11= 13/40 (33%); 111 = 6/30(20%); IV = 3/26(12%); V = 2/7(39%); VI= 1/7 
(14%). 

Home Reporting Night Blasting: 

Zone I = 5/ 10 (50%); II = 23/41 (56%); III = 20/39(51%); IV = 9/32 (28%); V = 8/ 14(57%); VI = 
2/8 (25%). 




DI5TRNCE FRDM RYR5HIRE MINE IN MILES 
Figure 2. 



Geography and Geology 



317 




i " 


\J. 




V ' 






1 ""• ^ 


7 ! 


! / 


1 


I / 





EFFECTS OF STRIP MINE BLASTING 

AYRSHIRE MINE 

WARRICK COUNTY, INDIANA 



O SHOCKS NOT FELT 



D SHOCKS FELT- NO STRUCTURAL DAMAGE 



CRACK WIDTH, LENGTH, OR NUMBER SINCE OPENING OF 



Figure 3. 



The data indicated a linear drop in damage effects with an increase in 
distance from the mine face. These data were illustrated graphically in Figure 4. 

Data concerning the nature, distribution and thickness of alluvium were 
obtained from records of oil, coal and water tests in the area. This informatin 
was obtained from The Indiana Geological Survey, Bloomington, Indiana; The 
U.S. Geological Survey, Indianapolis, Indiana; Indiana State University 
Evansville, Evansville, Indiana; and The Indiana Water Resources Division of 
The Department of Conservation, Indianapolis, Indiana. An isopachous map of 
unconsolidated fill, was constructed from data contained in approximately 130 
wells and illustrated in Figure 5. 

A geologic cross section of the surface geology within the area studied was 
prepared to illustrate the effects of shock wave propagation in alluvium (Figure 
6). 



318 



Indiana Academy of Science 




z^U 







2J3L2 



r- 



£ 



> 



SlTtS WTTM THICKNESS ( 



ALLUVIUM THICKNESS 
DAYLIGHT QUADRANGLE FIGURE 4. 

COUNTIES 



A profile of abnormal residential structure failure was constructed along 
the geologic cross section A-A' to further illustrate the effects of repeated 
blasting near thick water-soaked alluvium. These effects are illustrated in Figure 

7. 



Geologic Cross Section A-A 
Vanderburgh 8 Warrick Co., Indiana . 




1 ' ' 

40 


■ ■ I ■ ■ 

35 


■ ■ 1 ■ ■ 

30 


. . , i . 

25 
Distance 


1 ' 1 " ' ' 

20 

- Feet X 1000 


15 


. . 1 i i 

10 


1 ' 1 
5 



Figure 5. 



Geography and Geology 



319 




40 



25 20 

Distance- Feet X 1000 



Figure 6. 



Conclusions 

This study was designed to prove or disprove the hypothesis that repeated 
strip mine blasting at the Ayrshire Mine was responsible for the severe and 
widespread structural failure observed in residences near the mine. The results of 
the study prove the hypothesis. The dominant factor in residential structural 
failure within three miles of the Ayrshire Mine is repeated blasting during 
stripping operations at this mine. Within four miles of the blasting area 
residential structural failure decreases linearly with distance from the mine face 
(R 2 = .96 to .99, depending on criteria measured) (Figure 4). Other possible 
causes of structural failure such as freezing and thawing, age of house, 
construction type, soil type, etc. are negligible, when compared with the 
overwhelming effects of repeated strip mine blasting. Age has been largely 
eliminated as a factor by the criteria established for abnormal structural failure. 
Other factors in residential structural failure do not occur as a function of 
distance from the mine face. Only the blast force occurs as a function of distance 
from the mine face. The determination of whether this structural failure is due to 
1) structural fatigue, 2) amplification or focusing of shock wave intensity in 
alluvium, and/ or 3) subsidence due to repeated vibration was not within the 
scope of this study. All of these possible explanations require additional 
investigation. Nevertheless, the data gathered and anlayzed indicates that 
blasting at the Ayrshire Mine is the cause of the abnormal residential structural 
failure observed within three miles of the mine face. 



320 Indiana Academy of Science 

Acknowledgements 

Dr. Robert Blakely, Professor of Geophysics, Indiana University. 
Dr. Eugene Carden, Professor of Mechanical Engineering, University of 
Alabama. 

Dr. Frank Stanonis, Professor of Geology, Indiana State University. 
Dr. Howard Dunn, Professor of Chemistry, Indiana State University. 
Dr. Barbara Moses, Professor of Mathematics, Indiana State University. 



Literature Cited 

1. Howell, Benjamin F., Jr. 1959. Introduction to Geophysics McGraw-Hill Company, N.Y. 399 p. 

2. Sholl, R. E. and Farhoomand, I. 1973. Statistical Correlation Of Observed Ground Motion With 
Low Rise Building Component Damage. "Project Rulison", John A. Blume & Associates, 
Research Division, San Francisco, California, 44 p. 

3. Straw, W. T., Gray, Henry H. and Powell, Richard L. 1977. Environmental Geology of the 
Evansville Area, Southwestern Indiana. #12 Special Report. Department of Natural Resources, 
Bloomington, Indiana 8 p. 



Bankfull Discharge of Indiana Streams 

Steven D. Jansen 
University of Illinois at Chicago Circle 



Introduction 

Bankfull discharge is considered an important parameter of stream 
behavior for two reasons. First, it represents the flow volume above which flood 
activity commences, and second, it is thought by many researchers to be 
equivalent to the channel-forming flow. Recurrence interval of bankfull 
discharge rather than discharge at bankfull stage is employed as the basis of 
stream behavior comparison. Use of recurrence intervals allows comparison of 
stream discharges in a form not primarily dependent on basin area or 
downstream order. Thus, a statistical property of the flood series is used to 
render discharges of large and small streams comparable. 

Bankfull discharges (Q b ) is the flow volume which completely fills the 
channel to the top of the bank. Any additional discharge would cause water to 
flow over the floodplain surface. Recurrence interval (RI) is the expected number 
of years between occurrences of a given event. Therefore, the recurrence interval 
of bankfull discharge (RI Q b ) is a measure of the frequency of the discharge 
which completely fills the stream channel. A high RI Q b indicates infrequent 
flooding while a low RI Q b indicates frequent flooding. In light of increasing 
floodplain usage, knowledge of RI Q b has utility for individuals and agencies 
confronted with tradeoffs between locational advantage and flood hazard. 

The geomorphological significance of bankfull discharge has been 
established in the literature over the last two decades. This recent research was 
stimulated by Wolman and Leopold's assertion that streams flowing in diverse 
climatic and physiographic regions flood with a relatively uniform frequency of 
once every year or every other year (12). Data from 177 streams in the United 
States and India showed RI Q b to be closer to 1 than 2 years where floodplain 
elevations were accurately known. 

Subsequent investigations in Australia (5,14), England (6,9), the United 
States (1, 11) and particularly Indiana (4, 8) have yielded remarkably similar 
values. These studies showed RI Q b to range from 0.5 1 to 4 years on the annual 
series, with most values between 1 and 2 years. 

Theoretical justification for uniform flood frequency was provided by 
Wolman and Miller's examination of the concept of "effective force" in 
landform development (13). Reasoning that above the level of competency the 
"effective force" of a process is the product of the rate of sediment movement 
times the frequency with which that rate of transport is attained, graphs relating 
transport rate times frequency as a function of applied stress will attain a 
maximum which represents the "effective force" of the process. In the case of 
sediment transport by rivers, the graphs showed most of the work to be done by 
frequent flows of moderate magnitude. They concluded from this result that 

321 



322 



Indiana Academy of Science 




f J Recurrence interval 

of bankfull discharge 



| Gaging station] ^^j Station number | 



40 KILOMETERS 



Figure I. Gamin? Marion locations and Rl Qh 



Geography and Geology 323 

channel and floodplain morphology are related to discharges approximating the 
bankfull stage. 

In most cases these studies employed laborious field methods to determine 
bankfull stage. The present study develops a method of deriving bankfull stage 
directly from rating curves. Problems in identifying the topographic bankfull 
level are averted by consulting readily available United States Geologic Survey 
(USGS) records. 

Data Collection 

Morphological considerations concerning the inception of overbank flow 
lead to the conclusion that bankfull discharge is concomitant with an observable 
change in the relationship between gage height and stream discharge. Below 
bankfull stage, increases in gage height are accompanied by regular increases in 
discharge due to higher water velocity and larger flow area. Above bankfull 
stage, however, additional increments of gage height are accompanied by 
extremely large increases in discharge as wide areas of floodplain surface 
become available for flow. Therefore, rating curves, which relate discharge to 
gage height, display smooth changes in slope below bankfull stage but flatten 
rapidly along the discharge axis as the bank is overtopped. The point of 
maximum slope change on the rating curve represents bankfull discharge. 

This method was employed to obtain 56 bankfull discharge observations 
from rating curves prepared by the USGS. Conversion from discharge to 
recurrence interval was accomplished by plotting, on log-Pearson Type III 
probability paper, the discharge associated with the 2-, 5-, 10-, 25-, 50-, and 100- 
year recurrence interval flood as given in Davis (3). This type of annual series 
analysis (7) yields a straight line plot. Identification of RI Q b is then simply a 
matter of locating Q b on the line and recording the associated RI. 

Data derived by this method agrees well with values found by others (4, 8) 
for 21 of the stream gages used in this study. Differences between the 21 
published values and those used herein are attributible to either the use of 
regional flood frequency analysis (8) as opposed to the individual station 
analysis used herein or the use of flood damage records (4) which may reflect 
stages above or below bankfull. 

Spatial Characteristics 

The map of gaging stations and RI Q b (Fig. 1) shows most of the 
observations to be well distributed over the vast midsection of Indiana with 
relatively few observations in the extreme north and south. RI Q h ranges from 
less than 1 year, generally in the south-central part of the state, to 3.9 years in the 
north-central part of the state. The mean value is 1 .26 years and the median and 
the mode are both 1.1 years. The frequency distribution of observations 
conforms well to the general form of Pearson Type III distributions (2) in that it 
is skewed to the right with limited range to the left. 

Power series polynomials were used to produce generalized computer trend 
surface maps and equations of RI Q b . This technique produces a least-squares fit 
by treating x and y map-coordinates as independent variables and RI Q b as the 
dependent variable. 



324 



Indiana Academy of Science 



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Figurk 2. Fourth - degree trend surface of Rl @ h 



Geography and Geology 



325 



The first-degree equation (R I Q b = 1.812-0.003x-0.235y) fits a plane to the 
spatial data. Although this surface only explains 23 per cent of the data varia- 
tion, it demonstrates the distinct south to north increase in Rl Q h . This is 
indicated by the fact that the y-coefficient (-0.235), representing north to south 
distance, is two orders of magnituted greater than the x-coefficient (-0.003), 
representing west to east distance. 

The fourth-degree surface (Fig. 2) accounts for 66 per cent of the variation. 
The most prominent feature of the quartic surface is the pronounced minimum 
in south-central Indiana. RI Q h increases in every direction from this point. A 
secondary minimum occurs along the northern half of the state's eastern border 
with Ohio. The steepest reliable gradient on the map is in the north-central part 
of the state where the surface attains its distinct maximum. To the north of the 
maximum and again in the southwest portion of the map, the surface equation 
generates meaningless values because of a lack of data points in these areas. It 
should be noted that the output of the routine is not the value of RI Q b at a 
specified location but only the trend of the data within the specified region (10). 
This phenomenon is evidenced by non-correspondence between the values in 
Figure 1 and those in Figure 2. 

Analysis of Variance 

The south to north increase in RI Q b suggests the possibility that bankfull 
discharge may be related to the variable effect of repeated glaciations in different 
parts of the state. It appears that RI Qb is inversely proportional to time elapsed 
since glaciation and the number of repeated glaciations and directly 
proportional to thickness of glacial materials. A direct test of these hypotheses is 
impractical due to the difficulty of obtaining a single numerical value 
characteristic of these glacial variables for each gaging station. However, a 



R E GI ON 



NO. OF 

DATA MEAN 

POINTS RI Q , 




Northern Lake and Moraine 



Tipton Till Plain 




Illinoian Glacial 



U ngl aci at ed 



28 



2.00 



1.23 



16 1.11 



1M. 



Figure 3. Glacial regions and analysis of variance statistics 



326 Indiana Academy of Science 

satisfactory surrogate for the necessary glacial measures is available in the form 
of Indiana's major physiographic regions. Significant differences in RI Q b 
between glacially determined physiographic regions would indicate the two are 
related. Analysis of variance is the appropriate test for such differences. 

Four regions are employed in the analysis of varianceXthe Northern Lake 
and Moraine Region, the Tipton Till Plain, the Illinoian Glacial Region, and the 
Unglaciated Region (Fig. 3). 

The analysis of variance yields significant F-test results at the 99 per cent 
confidence level. The results indicate that RI Q b variation within glacial regions 
is significantly less than RI Q b variations between regions. Thus, the null 
hypothesis is rejected and the hypothesis that RI Q b and glacial parameters are 
related is strengthened. The increase from south to north is again apparent. 

Correlation Analysis 

The results obtained in the preceding section may be spurious if the two 
variables are only related to each other by means of a third variable. One such 
potential confounding variable is precipitation which also varies along the 
north-south axis of the state. Correlations are calculated to test this possibility 
and to indentify morphometric variables related to RI Q b . Five morphometric 
drainage basin characteristics, a measure of soil conditions, and an index of 
precipitation are employed in the correlation analysis (Table 1 ). These data were 
obtained from Davis (3). 

Two of the variables are significantly correlated with RI Q b at the 95 per 
cent confidence level: drainage density and watershed relief. Two additional 
variables are significant at the 99 per cent confidence level: precipitation index 
(mean annual precipitation - average annual evapotranspiration - water 
equivalent of annual snowfall) and soil runoff coefficient (ratio of the volume of 
rainfall to the total volume of runoff occurring after the inception of runoff). 

Table I. Correlation Analysis Statistics 



Independent 
Variable 

Channel Slope 
Drainage Area 
Channel Length 
Precipitation Index 
Drainage Density 
Watershed Relief 
Soil Runoff Coefficient 



Graphs of RI Q b as a function of each of the significant variables illuminate 
the nature of the relationships. The graphs display strikingly similar 
characteristics: (1) a significant overall inverse relationship with RI Q b ; (2) a 
marked overlapping of the spatially clustered values of the Unglaciated Region, 
Illinoian Glacial Region and the Tipton Till Plain; (3) a separate spatial 
distribution for the Northern Lake and Moraine Region: and (4) a tendency toward 



No. of 




F- Ratio 


Data 


Correlation 


Significance 


Points 


with RI Q h 


Level 


54 


-0.03 


Not Significant 


56 


-0.16 


Not Significant 


54 


-0.23 


Not Significant 


41 


-0.44 


0.01 


20 


-0.44 


0.05 


54 


-0.48 


0.05 


21 


-0.73 


0.01 



Geography and Geology 327 

regional variability in the response of Rl Q h . Within certain regions the 
relationships seem random and in several cases a region displays an orthogonal 
relationship to the overall trend. The tendency toward randomness and 
orthogonality increases from south to north (i.e. prevalent in the Northern Lake 
and Moraine Region and the Tipton Till Plain and not found in the Illinoian 
Glacial Region and the Unglaciated Region). These results indicate that RI Q b is 
more closely related to some undiscovered regional mix of variables represented 
by the glacially defined regions than to any of the independent variables tested. 

Conclusions 

The uniform frequency of flooding of about 1-2 years, first postulated by 
Wolman and Leopold (12), is essentially confirmed by the modest range (0.9 to 
3.9 years) and the mean of 1.26 years obtained for Indiana streams. However, 
spatial analysis shows significant differences between glacially defined regions. 
Specifically, the results show a consistent increase in mean RI Qb from a low 
value of 1.0 year in the Unglaciated Region through 1.1 years in the Illinoian 
Glacial Region and 1.2 years in the Tipton Till Plain to a high value of almost 2.0 
years in the Northern Lake and Moraine Region. 

Correlation analysis indicates precipitation index, drainage density, relief 
and soil runoff coefficient to be significantly related to the frequency of bankfull 
flow. However, these correlations are not entirely convincing due to the 
inconsistency of the relationships from one glacial region to another. The 
correlation results are much more consistent for the Unglaciated Region and the 
Illinoian Glacial Region than for the more recently glaciated Tipton Till Plain 
and Northern Lake and Moraine Region. The significantly correlated variables 
may be reliable determinants of RI Q b only for streams that have reached a state 
of quasi-equilibrium. As many authors have suggested (12, 9, 14), a uniform 
frequency of flooding may be the end result of the balance achieved between the 
erosive effect of the water and the resistance to erosion provided by the channel 
material. The dramatic changes accompanying glaciation could obviously 
disturb such a quasi-equilibrium. The retreat of the glaciers would be followed 
by a refractory period during which the streams must readjust to a new regime. 
According to this view, the Unglaciated Region and the Illinoian Glacial Region 
have had sufficient time since glaciation to achieve a relatively uniform 
frequency of flooding whereas the Tipton Till Plain and the Northern Lake and 
Moraine Region have not. 

Literature Cited 

1. Brush, Jr., L. M. 1961. Drainage basins, channels, and flow characteristics of selected streams in 
central Pennsylvania. USGS Prof. Paper 282-f: 145-175. 

2. Chow, V. T. 1954. The log-probability law and its engineering application. Proc. Amer. Soc. Civil 
Engr. 80: 536:25p. 

3. Davis, L. G. 1974. Floods in Indiana: Technical manual for estimating their magnitude and 
frequency. USGS Circular 710:40p. 

4. Dury, G. H. 1961. Bankfull discharge: An example of its statistical relationships. Bui. Int. Assoc. 
Sci. Hydrology. 6:48-55. 

5. Dury, G. H., J. R. Hails, and M. B. Robbie. 1963. Bankfull discharge and the magnitude 
frequency series. Aust. J. Sci. 26:123-124. 



328 Indiana Academy of Science 

6. Harvey, A. M. 1969. Channel capacity and the adjustment of streams to hydrologic regime. J. 
Hydrology, 8:82-98. 

7. Langbein, W. B. 1949. Annual floods and the partial-duration series. Trans. Amer. Geophysics 
Union. 30:879-881. 

8. Leopold, L. B., M. G. Wolman, and J. P. Miller. 1964. Chapter 3, 27-96, in Fluvial Processes in 
Geomorphology. Freeman and Company, San Francisco. 

9. Nixon, M. 1959. A study of bankfull discharges of rivers in England and Wales. Proc. Inst. Civil 
Engr. (London). 12:157-174. 

10. Norcliffe, G. B. 1969. On the use and limitations of trend surface models. Canadian Geographer. 
13:338-348. 

11. Wolman, G. M. 1955. Natural channel of Brandywine Creek, Pennsylvania. USGS Prof. Paper 
271:50p. 

12. , and L. B. Leopold. 1957. River flood plains: Some observations on their formation. 

USGS Prof. Paper 282-C:87-107. 

13. Wolman, G. M., and J. P. Miller. I960; Magnitude and frequency of forces in geomorphic 
processes. J. Geology, 68:54-74. 

14. Woodyer, K. D. 1968. Bankfull frequencies in rivers. J. Hydrology. 6:114-141. 



The Effects of Lake Monroe on the 
Flow of Salt Creek, South Central Indiana 

L. Michael Trapasso 

Department of Geography and Geology 

Indiana State University 

Introduction 

In 1964, construction was completed at the Lake Monroe dam site, and in 
1965 the reservoir was filled. This undertaking resulted in the creation of the 
largest man-made lake in Indiana. Since its completion, studies and speculations 
have been made about its usefulness as well as its effects upon the surrounding 
environment. 

To this date, no work has been done concerning the dam's effects on Salt 
Creek, the stream which has been impounded. The purpose of this study is to 
determine how the reservoir has affected the flow of Salt Creek. Unit 
dydrograph analysis, double-mass analysis, and analysis of variance are 
executed to help achieve this purpose. 

Since its construction, the reservoir has been shown to add many economic 
benefits to the area. However, the Lake Monroe Project was constructed 
primarily as a means of flood control for the Salt Creek Basin and as a part of a 
flood control network for the Mississippi River. This study is designed to 
evaluate the flood control aspect of the Lake Monroe dam site. 

Study Area 

The study area is Salt Creek, downstream from the Monroe Reservoir. Salt 
Creek is a tributary to the East Fork of White River, a short distance 
downstream from Bedford, Indiana. It drains approximately two-thirds of 
Brown County, the lower half of Monroe County and parts of Lawrence and 
Jackson Counties. The drainage area is 1 146.6 sq. km.. The slope is .23 m. per 
km.. The length is 151.3 km.. Salt Creek is located in the Southern Thin Drift 
Region of Indiana (2). 

Data 

Diurnal discharge data was attained by the U.S. Geological Survey, 
Surface Water Supply Records, Part 3 Volume 3, Ohio River-Lousiville, 
Kentucky to Wabash River. The data was taken from Salt Creek gage near 
Harrodsburg, Indiana. The length of record for the Harrodsburg gage is 21 
years; conveniently divided in half by the completion date of the man-made lake. 
That is 1955 to 1965 comprises the pre-impoundment period; and 1966 to 1975 
comprises the post-impoundment period of record. 

Methods and Interpretation 

The derivation of a unit of hydrograph from a simple hydrograph is 
straightforward. The ordinates of the required unit hydrograph are equal to the 

329 



330 



Indiana Academy of Science 



corresponding ordinates of the given direct runoff hydrograph divided by the 
total amount of runoff in inches (1, 4). The percentage of runoff per day is 
calculated for each unit hydrograph storm. An average is taken for the runoff for 
each day, and a model unit hydrograph is derived (See Table 1). It is found that 
on the average, a large storm would produce a fluctuation in the direct runoff 
hydrograph that would last about five days. 



LOCATION OF MONROE RESERVOIR 
IN SOUTH CENTRAL INDIANA 



Study Area 




Monroe Co. 



Brown Co 



Jackson Co. 



30 

3 



Kilometers 



Table I Unit Hydrograph Analysis Daily Distribution (5 day storm) 





Days 


1st 


2nd 


3rd 


4th 


5th 


Pre-Impoundment 

Post-Impoundment 

Comparison 


12.8% 
10.5% 

17.9%* 


34.7% 
33.8% 

2.6%* 


35.1% 
30.3% 

13.7%* 


13.4% 
17.7% 
32.0%+ 


3.9% 

7.7% 

72.0%+ 





* decrease after impoundment 
+ increase after impoundment 



The unit hydrograph suggests, that the flow after a major storm, has been 
controlled by man. The rationale is as follows: On the first day, there is a great 
deal of retention of the surge of upstream water (approximately 18%). Between 
the second and third day, peak flow is expected, and less water is retained to 
prevent the reservoir from reaching a dangerously high level. On the fourth and 
fifth days, a great amount of water is released, in order to return the reservoir to 
normal levels. There is little danger in such a release by the dam because there is 



Geography and Geology 



331 



small percentage of runoff expected on these last two days. Furthermore, the 
downstream, portion of Salt Creek will begin to approach baseflow. Therefore a 
greater release by the dam on these last two days is more easily transported by 
Salt Creek, which by this time is in less danger of flooding. 

Analysis of variance is a statistical technique which seeks to determine the 
equality or inequality of two population means (3). The hypothesis for this study 
is MP re = Mpost. That is, the mean of the pre-impoundment period is equal to the 
mean of the post-impoundment period (see Table II). 

Table II Analysis of Variance Source Table 



Data Source 



d.f. 



F values* 



Result 



Annual Mean 

Discharge 

Annual 

Maximum Flow 

Annual 

Minimum Flow 

March Monthly 

Means 

March Daily 

Discharges 

October Monthly 

Means 

October Daily 

Discharges 



1 
16 

1 
10 

1 
10 

1 
16 

1 
237 

1 
16 



.040 


/u(pre) = ,u(post) 


4.6 


/i(pre) = M(post) 


8.69 


Ax(pre) ^ /i(post) 


2.16 


M(pre) = /u(post) 


46 


/u(pre) # ju(P ost ) 


.475 


/u(pre) = M(post) 


1662 


/i(pre) # Ai(post) 



.01 Probability of error. 



Table III Storms Used in Unit Hydrographs 



Pre-impoundment 



Post- Impoundment 



Storm I 


February 17-21, 1961 


Storm I 


April 14-17, 1969 


Storm II 


March 31-April 4, 1962 


Storm II 


May 10-15, 1971 


Storm III 


April 19-23, 1963 


Storm III 


April 7-12, 1972 






Storm IV 


February 4-8, 1973 



Annual Basis: Analysis of the annual mean discharge for pre- versus post- 
impoundment reveals that there is no significant difference between the two 
groups. Likewise, the annual maximum flows were not significantly different 
between pre- and post-impoundment. However, it was found that a significant 
difference exists in annual minimum flows between the two periods. This 
suggests that Monroe dam is used more often to augment low flow, and less 
often to retain high flows. 

High flows: Examination of the data reveals March as the month with the 
highest flow. March daily discharges were analyzed and it was found that the 
two periods differ significantly. This significant difference suggests that March 
daily discharges have been controlled by the dam. Daily discharges for March 



332 



Indiana Academy of Science 



have been reduced since the construction of the dam. However, this significant 
difference is lost when March monthly means were analyzed. 

Low Flows: The data reveals October as the month with the lowest flow. 
October daily discharges were anlayzed and it was found that they too, differ 
significantly between pre- and post-impoundment. The significance difference 
here suggests that October daily discharges have also been controlled by the 
dam. Daily discharges for October have been augmented since the construction 
of Monroe Dam. In analyzing October monthly means, again, the significant 
difference between pre- and post-impoundment is lost. 

The graph of the cumulative data of one variable versus the cumulative data 
of a related pattern is a straight line so long as the relation between the variables 
is a fixed ratio. A break in the slope will indicate a disruption in the system. The 
difference in the slope of the lines on either side of the break indicates the degree 
of change (5). The pattern is an average of four streams in the area of Salt 
Creek not impounded by any dam. They were: (1) East Fork of the White River 
at Bedford, (2) North Fork of Salt Creek at Belmont, (3) East Fork of White 
River near Shoals, (4) North Fork of Salt Creek near Nashville. 



GRAPH 1 
DOUBLE-MASS CURVE 



Cumulative Runoff for Pattern (c.m.s./sq. km.) 



Graph I reveals two remarkable features. First, there is a very slight but still 
visible break in the slope of the line. The ordinate and abscissa of these particular 
coordinates corresponded to the period of time in which the dam construction 
was completed and the reservoir was being filled. Second, it is remarkable that the 
break in the slope is very slight. As a safeguard against personal bias, regresion 
slopes were calculated on either side of the alleged break, and their slope 
coefficients were compared. It was found that they were indeed different, but the 
difference is very minute (1.06 as compared to 1.02). 



Geography and Geology 333 

Conclusions 

It appears that Lake Monroe affects the flow of Salt Creek on a short term 
basis. This is exemlified by the unit hydrograph analysis which shows the change 
in flow caused by a controlled slide gate at Monroe dam. The distribution of 
flow in the model unit hydrographs differ, showing control of a major storm 
event by man. 

However, on a long term basis, it appears that Lake Monroe has had no 
effect on Salt Creek. This is exemplified by the double-mass analysis which 
shows that the 21 year record of the Harrodsburg station has remained in 
balance with surrounding unimpounded streams. One minute disruption was 
noted in the double-mass curve during the time the reservoir was being filled. 

Analysis of variance seems to support both arguments. On a short term 
basis, that is March and October daily discharges, pre- and post-impoundment 
periods were found to be significantly different. However, on a long term basis, 
that is March and October monthly means, and annual mean discharges the pre- 
and post-impoundment periods were not statistically different. Information is 
lost in the calculation of any mean value. This loss of information may effect the 
significance of values in the analysis of variance program. However, it is not 
certain that this is the case here. 

It would appear that Lake Monroe does affect the flow of Salt Creek but 
only on a day to day basis, e.g. retention of flood waters, and augmentation of 
low flow periods. However when examining the situation on a monthly or yearly 
basis it would appear that Lake Monroe has no effect what-so-ever on the flow 
of Salt Creek. 

Acknowledgement 

The author wishes to thank Dr. John J. Hidore, Department of Geography, 
Indiana University for his patience and guidance. 



Literature Cited 

1. Chow, V. T., 1964. Handbook of Applied Hydrology. McGraw Hill Publ. Co., New York, N.Y. 
1950 p. 

2. Davis, L. G., 1974. Floods in Indiana: Technical Manual for Estimating Their Magnitude and 
Frequency, Geol. Surv. Circ. 710, U.S.G.S. Washington, D.C. 50 p. 

3. Glass, G. V., and Stanley, J. C, 1970. Statistical Methods in Education and Psychology. 
Prentice-Hall Publ. Inc., Englewood Cliffs, N.J. 596 p. 

4. Johnston D.,and Cross W., 1949. Elements of Applied Hydrology. Ronald Press Publ. Co., New 
York, N.Y. 293 p. 

5. U.S. Geological Survey, 1960. Manual of Hydrology: Part 1 General Surface- Water 
Techniques, 1541-B Double-Mass Curves, U.S. Gov't. Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 25 p. 



Hydrology and Water Quality of the 
Crooked Creek Watershed, Indianapolis, Indiana 

Robert D. Hall and Patricia A. Boaz 

Department of Geology and Department of Chemistry 

Indiana University-Purdue University, Indianapolis, Indiana 46202 

Introduction 

The Crooked Creek Watershed is located in northwestern Indianapolis in 
an area rapidly becoming urbanized. Crooked Creek drains into White River 
about 4 miles northwest of Monument Circle in downtown Indianapolis (Fig. 1 ). 

The area has the regional hydrology typical of central Indiana: the mean 
annual precipitation is 40 inches, and even though the mean annual 
evapotranspiration is high, the average flow in White River (the area's major 
stream) is slightly above 1000 cfs. The ground water system is in approximate 
equilibrium, and the United States Geological Survey has recently estimated a 
sustainable ground water recovery of about 90 mgd (2). 

The Crooked Creek Watershed is within the area glaciated during the early 
Woodfordian. The estimated time of ice recession is 18,000 to 20,000 years BP 
(1). The area is relatively featureless tillplain, characterized by generally 
unsorted and moderately impermeable silts containing variable amounts of 
gravel, sand, and clay. Some post-glacial alluvium of much greater permeability 
is found along Crooked Creek and its tributaries but not enough to importantly 
affect the hydrogeology of the area. The low permeability of the till favors runoff 
and impedes infiltration to the ground water system within the Crooked Creek 
Watershed. 

Physical Characteristics of the Watershed Influencing Runoff 

The physical characteristics of the watershed favor rapid runoff and high 
sediment yield in response to precipitation. The watershed is small (area of 18. 1 
square miles) and highly elongated along a general north-south trend (Fig. 1). 
Shape ratios (3) show basin elongation: form ratio, Rf = 0.20; circularity ratio, 
Re = 0.28; and elongation ratio, Re = 0.96. 

Crooked Creek is a fifth-order stream according to the Horton stream 
numbering system, as modified by Strahler (3). The major stream is long (9.7 
miles) with respect to watershed size, and most of the drainage net is 
concentrated in the upper part of the watershed (Fig. 1). An unusually large 
number of first-order tributaries (152) collects runoff from this rapidly 
urbanizing section. Bifurcation ratios of 5.0 for first-order through third-order 
streams vs. 2.0 for third-order through fifth-order streams illustrate the 
dominating influence of small tributaries in the upper part of the watershed (Fig. 
2). 

The upper part of the watershed contains four subwatersheds. From east to 
west these are: "Ditch Creek", Delaware Creek, "Upper" Crooked Creek, and 

334 



Geography and Geology 



335 




Figure I. Map of Marion County, Indiana, showing the location of the Crooked Creek Watershed. 



Payne Branch. The respective drainage densities of the subwatersheds of 3.26, 
5.00, 5.23, and 5.20 vs. that of the entire watershed (4.35) show again the 
importance of the upper part of the watershed in influencing runoff. 

Thus, a large number of first-order tributaries and high drainage densities 
favor rapid runoff from the upper part of the basin, as do: 1) short stream lengths 
(0.40 miles as an average); 2) moderately high total relief (216 feet); 3) a main 
stream gradient of 15 feet per mile; and 4) a lack of significant surface storage 
with only about 0.2% of the surface area in lakes and ponds. Accompanying the 
runoff should be a high sediment yield. 

Because the upper part of the watershed is undergoing rapid urbanization 
we can expect even greater influence of that sector on future hydrologic 
response. 

Hydrologic Response 

The study of hydrologic response, to date, has focused on an analysis of 
data available from the United States Geological Survey for their gaging station 
on Crooked Creek at the 42nd Street bridge. This site is located low in the 
watershed approximately 1 mile from the junction of Crooked Creek with White 
River. What follows, then, is a summary of hydrologic characteristics of the 
watershed as reflected in stream flow at that site only. The period of record is 
June 1969 through September 1975. 



336 



Indiana Academy of Science 





\\ 


BIFURCATION RATIO 




2.00 


CROOKED CREEK WATERSHED 




STREAMS 
o 


\ 


Vv 

X B.R. = 5.0 




o 
DC 




\ 




m 

g 1.00 




\ v ^ BR. =35 




o 




\\ 




0.50 




v\ 










= 2.0 





1 


2 3 4 
STREAM ORDERS 


5 



Figure 2. Bifurcation ratios — Crooked Creek Watershed 



A hydrograph plotted from monthly totals of discharge at the gaging 
station (Fig. 3) reveals an increase in the number and magnitude of high-level 
and peak discharges during the period of record. The total number of months 
per water year with discharges above 400 cfs has increased from 3 to 8-9 from 
1971 through 1974 (Table 1). During the same period the total number of 
months per water year with discharges above 600 cfs has increased from 1 to 8, 
and the total number of individual peak discharges has increased from 1 to 3 per 
water year. 

Annual runoff has increased by an average of 22% during the water years 
1971 through 1974, and by a total of 79% over that period (Table 1). Rainfall has 
also increased during the period, but only at an annual rate of 5.5% and by 24% 

Table 1. Changes inflow characteristics — Crooked Creek Watershed. 





Water 


Number of M 


onths Above 


Total Number 
of Peak Flows 


Annual 


% Change In 


Year 


400 cfs 


600 cfs 


Discharge 


Precipitation 


1971 
1972 
1973 
1974 


3 
5 
9 
8 


I 

4 
6 
8 


1 

2 
2 
3 




-35 
+52 
+49 

+22 


+ 2.5 
+ 7.1 
+ 6.6 
+ 5.8 


Mean 


+22 


+ 5.5 


Overall Change 


+ 79 


+24.0 





Geography and Geology 



337 




Figure 3. Hydrograph of monthly totals of discharge at the 42nd Street United States Geological 
Survey gaging station on Crooked Creek, June 1969 through September 1975. 

from 1971 to 1974. Clearly, another factor is increasing total runoff, as well as 
the number and magnitude of high-level discharges. Urbanization, particularly 
in the upper part of the Crooked Creek Watershed, is thought to be that factor. 



Water Quality 

Since June 1975 samples have been taken at sixteen evenly-distributed sites 
along Crooked Creek and its tributaries. Collection techniques and analytical 
procedures were those of the United States Geological Survey (4). Field 
measurement of dissolved oxygen, pH, specific conductance, and temperature 
accompanied each sample. Routine analyses were made for twenty four 
chemical parameters: acidity, alkalinity, boron, cadmium, calcium, carbon 
dioxide, chemical oxygen demand, chloride, hexavalent and tervalent 
chromium, hardness, iron, lead, loss on ignition, magnesium, nitrate, nitrite, 
orthophosphate, silica, solids (dissolved and suspended), sulfate, sulfide, and 
zinc. Additional analyses were made at three-month intervals: ammonia 
nitrogen, barium, bromide, detergents, iodide, organic matter, organic nitrogen, 
and phosphorous compounds (acid and acidpersulfate hydrolyzable.) 

The diversity of land use in the upper part of the Crooked Creek Watershed 
is clearly reflected by the water quality of the tributaries which drain the 
following subareas (Fig. 1). 

Ditch Creek 

This eastern-most tributary is channelized and drains the most heavily 
urbanized area. Relative to Upper Crooked Creek, the water exhibits 
significantly higher values for constituents indicative of organic pollution. These 
include nitrogen species, phosphates, and organic matter. Chloride levels 
average 40 mg/ liter higher than in Upper Crooked Creek. 

Delaware Creek 

Delaware Creek drains land which is primarily agricultural. Its waters are 



338 Indiana Academy of Science 

lower in almost all chemical constituents than those of Upper Crooked Creek. 
Exceptions are chemical oxygen demand and loss on ignition. Higher values for 
these parameters are not surprising because Delaware Creek has more biota 
than elsewhere in the upper part of the watershed. 

Agricultural activity seems to contribute little to non-point pollution. 
Negligible differences from Upper Crooked Creek are found for nitrogen 
species, phosphate, and sulfate, all of which could originate from soil treatment. 

Payne Branch 

This tributary drains the western portion of the upper watershed. This area 
is the site of two oil refineries, an asphalt company, several terminal wastewater 
lagoons, and a large completed Marion County landfill which lies above stream 
level. The contributions of the landfill and industrial operations to water quality 
are shown in Table 2. 



Table 2. Comparison of the water quality of Payne Branch with that of Upper Crooked Creek 

Acidity Averages 45 me/ liter higher 

Boron Averages 3.5 mg/ liter higher 

Cadmium Trace levels; usually absent in Upper Crooked Creek 

Chloride Averages 30 mg/ liter higher 

Iron Averages 3.2 mg/ liter higher 

Lead Trace levels; usually absent in Upper Crooked Creek 

Magnesium Occasionally reaches values as high as twice that of Upper Crooked Creek 

Organic matter Averages 120 mg/ liter higher 

Phosphate Few mg/ liter higher 

Silica Averages 12 mg/ liter higher 

Solids (dissolved) Averages 200 mg/ liter higher 

Sulfate Averages 40-50 mg/lier higher 

Sulfide Averages 0.5-1 mg/ liter higher 

Oil and foam Usually present in variable amounts; persist in diminished amounts in lower part 
of Crooked Creek after confluence 



Crooked Creek 

The water of Crooked Creek is of poor quality overall. Most chemical 
parameters show little variation or a gradual increase in value from headwaters 
to debouchment. Dilution is insufficient to offset the quantities of pollutant 
species received by the stream. 

During periods of low flow high levels of chloride, nitrogen, phosphate, and 
organic matter indicate sites of point pollution. These point sources were later 
confirmed and identified in the field or from maps. Each was a public or 
semipublic wastewater treatment facility or a septic system. 

Water Quality As a Reflection of Urbanization 

Water quality in the Crooked Creek Watershed clearly reflects the effect of 
increasing urbanization. Beginning in June 1976, samples could be compared 
with those obtained one year earlier. The following general results were 
observed. 



Geography and Geology 339 

Ditch Creek 

Little change in chemical parameters occurred. This finding is consistent 
with the fact that the eastern part of the upper watershed was already highly 
urbanized at the beginning of the study. 

Delaware Creek 

The area drained by this tributary has experienced an increase in the 
number of single residences and apartment complexes. A corresponding 
increase of 2-5% in values for dissolved solids, phosphate, chloride, and nitrogen 
species has occurred. 

Payne Branch 

Virtually no change in chemical parameters has been noted in this tributary. 
Although residential use of the area has increased slightly, the contribution of 
pollutants from industry and the landfill masks the effect of this increase. 

Crooked Creek 

During the one-year period deterioration of water quality accompanying 
population increase was significant. Representative results show increases of 30- 
50 mg/ liter for chloride, approximately 100 mg/ litter for dissolved solids and 
50-100 mg/ liter for suspended solids. 

Conclusions 

Urbanization of the Crooked Creek Watershed, particularly of its upper 
part, is shown by the hydrologic and water quality data. Rapid runoff and high 
sediment yield is accompanied by an increasing load of pollutants from 
residential, industrial, and agricultural sources. Runoff, sediment loss, and 
deterioration of water quality will increase even more as population growth of 
the watershed continues. 

Acknowledgements 

The illustrations were drafted by Marcia Moyer and the manuscript was 
typed by Ann England. The authors are grateful for their fine efforts. 



Literature Cited 

1. Harrison, W. 1963. Geology of Marion County, Indiana. Indiana Geol. Surv. Bull. 28:78 p. 

2. Meyer, W., J. P. Reussow, and D. C. Gillies. 1975. Availability of ground water in Marion 
County, Indiana. U.S. Geol. Survey Open-File Rpt. 75-312. 87 p. 

3. Morisawa, M. 1968. Streams— Their Dynamics and Morphology. McGraw-Hill Book Co., New 
York, N.Y. 175 p. 

4. Brown, E., M. W. Skougspad, and M.J. Fishman. 1970. Methods for collection and analysis of 
water samples for dissolved minerals and gases. U.S. Geol. Survey Techniques of Water Resources 
Investigations, Book 5, Chapter Al, 160 p. 



HISTORY OF SCIENCE 

Chairman: Gertrude L. Ward 
Earlham College, Richmond, Indiana 47374 

Chairman-Elect: William W. Bloom 
Valparaiso University, Valparaiso, Indiana 46383 

Abstracts 

The Story of Carbon Mesophase and Carbon Fibers. S. Mrozowski, Depart- 
ment of Physics and Astronomy, Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana 
47306 A study of the structure of premium petroleum cokes used in manu- 
facture of graphite electrodes for the steel industry has revealed that their high 
performance is due to crystallite alignment with axes perpendicular to the axis of 
the needle particle into which such cokes break upon grinding (thus the name 
needle cokes). It was found further that needle cokes can be produced from any 
tar of petroleum or coal origin, if the process of heattreatment and solidification 
is properly carried out, and if all the quasi-solid components (so-called second 
phase) are removed beforehand. This led to a multimillion industrial production 
of specialized high grade needle cokes. It was sometime later that the mechanism 
of this process became clarified. Brooks and Taylor have discovered formation 
in the liquid tar of small balls with highly oriented molecular arrangement 
(mesophase) which grow rapidly in size and numbers in the tar in relatively 
narrow range of temperature, and if there is no second phase coalesce into a 
molecularly oriented continum, giving then a needle coke upon solidification. 
Such tar in the mesophase state has been used recently to make carbon fibers 
with highly aligned structures. Carbon fibers were first produced and 
investigated some 15 years ago. It was found that very high tensile strengths can 
be obtained, many times higher than for steels or other metals especially if the 
graphite crystallites are aligned with planes parallel to the axis of the fiber. Such 
fibers are incorporated into composites from which racket frames, skis, and 
many other objects requiring very high modulus of elasticity and strengths are 
fabricated ( It is expected that in the near future even airplane wings will be made 
of such composites). Until now a partial crystalline alignment was obtained by 
stretching fibers while they are solidifying, but the new technique of using the 
mesophase promises even greater advances in production of very light 
composites with an exceptional one, two or tridimensional strength, as needed. 

The Cumberland Road. B. Elwood Montgomery, Department of 

Entomology, Purdue University Although we identify Road 40 as the Old 

National Road it extends rather far beyond the National Road both east and 
west. 

When the Ohio Company (not to be confused with the later Ohio Company 
of Associates) was chartered by King George in 1749 a direct path was 
immediately cut through the forests by Col. Thomas Cresap and Christopher 
Gist guided by the Indian chief, Nemacolin. This pack saddle trail was used by 

341 



342 Indiana Academy of Science 

21 year old George Washington, accompanied by Christopher Gist, in 1753 
carrying a message from Gov. Dinwiddie to the French at Fort le Boeuf. 
Washington cut a road along the route for his artillery and wagons the following 
year, when as a Colonel he led a military expedition against the French. It was as 
unsuccessful as the warning he had delivered the previous year. The road was 
further improved by the Coldstream Guards, forming the regular British army led 
to the disasterous defeat at the Battle of Monogahela by General Braddock in 
1755. The road became known as Braddock Road and portions of it are so-called 
to-day. 

George Washington appears to have been the first to propose the building of a 
National Highway in 1785. In 1806 Congress passed and President Jefferson 
signed a bill "to build a road from the navigable waters of the Atlantic to the 
river Ohio." Construction began in 1811 and the road was opened to traffic in 
1818. 

Long's Second Expedition in 1823 traveled the road to Wheeling. The 
narrative report of the scientific expedition compiled from the notes of Long, 
Say, Keating and Colhoun, contains very interesting observations on the 
condition of the road and political influences on its construction. 

The National Road: An Introduction. Gertrude L. Ward, Joseph Moore 

Museum, Earlham College, Richmond, Indiana The concept of the 

National Road can be traced to George Washington as early as 1784. 
Washington feared that the settlers in the Northwest lands would form political 
and commercial ties with either Spain or England. When the Congress passed 
the bill for the construction of the road from Cumberland to Ohio in 1806, they 
funded the first internal improvement project of the young American nation. 

The survey of the road in Indiana was completed by Jonathan Knight in 
1827. Appropriations for construction came in 1829. Crews worked east and 
west out of Indianapolis, and west out of Richmond. By 1835, it was open to 
traffic across the state. When federal funding ended in 1839, the road had been 
completed only in Richmond, Centerville, Indianapolis and Terre Haute. 

The plan called for the paving of the roadbed according to the Macadam 
process. However, the National Road was never surfaced for its entire length in 
Indiana. It was macadamed in Richmond, paved with flat creek stones set on 
edge at Centerville, macadamed in Indianapolis and Terre Haute. The rest of the 
road remained dirt. 

Many early settlers benefitted directly from the construction of the 
National Road. Road work paid 63 !/> cents per day, higher than the usual rate 
for labor. Other workers were paid for the number of feet of broken stone they 
could pile. Local farmers supplied teams of horses and oxen; many of the 
laborers and contractors who came to work on the road remained as permanent 
residents. 

The National Road: A Summary. Patrick H. Steele, Historic Landmarks 

Foundation of Indiana, Cambridge City, Indiana Several immediate 

benefits of construction and use of the National Road in Indiana are easily 
identified and documented. It created new jobs; increased the volume and 
quality of available trade goods; significantly reduced travel time, and attracted 



History of Science 343 

craftsmen and laborers into the state. In addition, the National Road provided a 
medium for the relatively easy transfer of ideas and goods between people of 
various backgrounds. The National Road became the route of culture for the 
Midwest. It brought together and united settlers into towns, attracted new 
business enterprises, and provided the connecting link that kept the state 
growing. 

The location of the National Road promoted the settlement and 
development of central Indiana. It provided an easier route to the newly opened 
lands in Illinois and Missouri. Several towns were platted or replatted to 
straddle the National Road. Vandalia was moved south to the National Road 
and became Cambridge City. Knightstown, named in honor of the surveyor 
Jonathan Knight, was created; Greenfield and Cumberland came into existance. 
The National Road became the Main Street of each of these towns. 

In 1926, the Old National Road became part of the new U.S. 40 route with 
concrete sections replacing large segments of the old dirt road. By 1935 it was 
widened as the east-west, coast-to-coast highway. Towns again prospered and 
business flourished. With the construction of the Interstate system in the 1960 , s 
through traffic has traveled across Indiana on 1-70 and U.S. 40 became obsolete. 
A new class of travelers has developed who are willing to take a slower trip 
across Indiana to experience vestiges of the 19th century. Preservation and 
restoration activity along the National Road are commonplace in eastern 
Indiana. Designation of the National Road as a Historic Civil Engineering 
Landmark was an important step. Perhaps an additional classification as a 
historic or scenic route would restore stature to Indiana's National Road. 



MICROBIOLOGY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY 

Chairman: Ralph L. Nicholson, Department of Botany and Plant Pathology 
Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47906 

Chairman-Elect: Debbie Gayda, Department of Biology 
Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 

Abstracts 

Development of Erysiphe polygoni on susceptible and resistant races of 
Oenothera biennis. Jean Dickey and Morris Levy, Department of Biological 

Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 Oenothera 

biennis (evening primrose) consists of numerous isogenic races. Each race, when 
grown in a greenhouse or garden, is characteristically either susceptible or 
resistant to the powdery mildew fungus Erysiphe polygoni. Both mildewed and 
non-mildewed plants are also found in nature. As the initial step in determining 
the basis of resistance, the time course of fungal development on susceptible and 
resistant Oe. biennis was studied. Leaves were artificially inoculated with E. 
polygoni conidiospores. At two hour intervals epidermal peels were taken and 
stained with aniline blue in lactophenol for examination by light microscope. In 
addition, some specimens of leaf tissue were fixed in formaldehyde-alcohol- 
acetic acid, dehydrated in acetone, critical-point dried and gold-coated for 
observation by scanning electron microscope. 

Under conditions of 95% relative humidity, 20 C, conidiospores germinated 
within 5 hours, appressoria were formed from 5-12 hours, penetration had been 
effected and haustoria initiated by 20 hours. On resistant plants, there was no 
further growth of the fungus. Secondary hyphae were present but poorly 
developed. On susceptible plants, by 26 hours after inoculation secondary 
penetration occurred and secondary haustoria appeared. Sporulating colonies 
could be seen in 4-5 days. 

Pathogenic Soil Amebas, Clyde G. Culbertson, M. D. Lilly Laboratory for 

Clinical Research Indianapolis, Indiana 46202 We have published a review 

of the literature regarding pathogenic soil amebas and have developed staining 
methods for identifying Naegleria and Acanthamoeba utilizing the indirect 
immunoperoxidase technique. Recently we have been able to improve this by 
utilizing Gill's modification of Mayer's hematoxylin, to first stain the formalin- 
fixed tissue sections or smears also fixed in formalin, thereafter applying the 
indirect immunoperoxidase procedure. 

With the advent of the vertical illuminator for epifluorescence, 
immunofluorescence identification can be similarly used, but this gives only a 
temporary preparation. Using hyperimmune serum made against Entamoeba 
histolytica it is also possible to identify this parasite in autopsy or biopsy tissues. 

The Effect of the Colletotrichum graminicola Conidial Matrix on Anthracnose 
Development in Maize. G. C. BERGSTROMand R. L. Nicholson, Department of 

345 



346 Indiana Academy of Science 

Botany and Plant Pathology, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 

47907 Colletotrichum graminicola isolate 104 was grown on oatmeal agar 

under constant fluorescent light (3200 lux) at 24 C. Conidia were borne in an 
orange, mucilagenous matrix both in cluture and on anthracnose infected corn 
leaves. The water soluble spore matrix was washed from conidia by 
centrifugation (2,000g) of aqueous spore suspensions and was removed in the 
supernatant. Two week old susceptible corn plants (inbred Mo940) inoculated 
with unwashed spores exhibited more rapid development of anthracnose 
symptoms than did plants inoculated with washed spores. Removal of the 
matrix did not affect the viability of spores, since germination percentages 
(twelve hours after inoculation onto 2% water agar containing 1 % sucrose) were 
the same for washed and unwashed spores. Addition of the macromolecule 
fraction (non-dialyzable) of the spore wash restored the ability of washed spores 
to cause rapid symptom development. Neither the spore wash dialyzate nor a 
leachate from oatmeal agar stimulated anthracnose development. Autoclaved 
spore wash also gave no stimulation. Thus, a heat-labile component of the 
macromolecule fraction of the spore matrix was associated with the stimulation 
of anthracnose seedling blight. 

Acid invertase activity (pH optimum of 4.7) was found in the spore wash 
and exhibited a maximum specific activity of 4,000 g glucose equivalents 
liberated /hr/mg protein at 30 C. the presence of an extracellular fungal 
invertase is consistent with the organism's preference for sucrose as a carbon 
source and may afford the pathogen an advantage in colonizing corn tissue. 
Maximum anthracnose severity is observed in the field at two stages of plant 
development characterized by the presence of high levels of sucrose in the host 
tissue. These stages correspond to seedlings up to the six-leaf stage and mature 
plants immediately following pollination. 

Role of the Cecum in Bild Acid Metabolism in Germfree Rats. D. Madsen, M. 
Beaver, E. Bruckner, and B. Wostmann. Lobund Laboratory, University of 

Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 High tissue levels of cholesterol 

in the germfree (GF) rodent has been suggested to be a function of the increased 
pools of bile acids. Increased cholesterol absorption from the GF rat gut has 
been demonstrated directly; increased bile acid absorption has been estimated 
from other data. The enlarged cecum of GF rodents is linked to several effects on 
metabolism. We have investigated the role of the cecum on bile acid metabolism 
and excretion in the GF and conventional (CV) rat. Indwelling cecal fistulas 
were established in GFandCV rats. 1.0 Ci of 14 -Na-deoxycholate(DOC)(2.0 
mg) was injected and feces subsequently analyzed over 9 days for excretion and 
distribution of label. Total excretion of label by the GFrat was roughly half that 
in the C V rat. The percent of label found in the cholic acid fraction of GF feces 
was more than twice that in the CV rats. (In the rat, absorbed DOC is 
rehydroxylated by the liver to cholic acid.) This indicates greater absorption and 
retention of DOC in the enterohepatic circulation, since 12ai P ha-hydroxylation in 
GF rat liver has been shown to be not greater than in CV rats. 

We conclude that bile acid absorption from the cecum of the GF rat is much 
greater than in the CV rat. This may be due to greater available cecal surface 



Microbiology and Molecular Biology 347 

area, greater absorptive capacity, or to variations in cecal emptying and 
intestinal transit time. 

In Vitro Selection of Somatic Callus Sectors High in Regeneration Capacity. N. 

P. Maxon, E. M. Jones, R. L. Nicholson, and C. L. Rhykerd. Departments of 
Agronomy and Botany and Plant Pathology, Purdue University, West 

Lafayette, Indiana 47907 Expression of totipotency in plant cells is 

dependent on genotype by environmental (in vitro) interactions. Alfalfa plants, 
Medicago sativa L., have been regenerated in our laboratory from primary 
callus. Examination of newly initiated callus revealed morphologically distinct 
callus sectors which were present in most callus that eventually regenerated. By 
selecting out and subculturing these sectors regeneration frequency was 
increased. 

These callus sectors contained cells organized in such a way as to resemble 
pre -embryo structures. When cells were examined 14-17 days after callus 
initiation they contained large numbers of starch granules surrounding the 
nucleus. After 18-20 days callus contained xylem cells apparently dispersed at 
random through the tissue. Following an additional 3 to 4 days growth 
interconnected elements of vascular tissue were evident. When callus was 
initiated on a proper auxin: cytokinnin medium, embroyogenesis was detected 
within 28 days. 

If callus sectors, such as the type found in alfalfa, occur in other plant 
genera and species, in vitro selection for these cell types may increase the 
regeneration capacity and reduce the time involved in the regneration of viable 
plants. This would be of particular importance for species which at present are 
difficult to regenerate from callus. 

Enumeration and Identification of Bacterial Chitinoclasts in Selected Indiana 
Waters with Emphasis on the Actinomycetes. S. G. Newman and C. E. Warnes. 

Department of Biology, Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana 47306 Four 

borrow pits located in East Central Indiana were examined quantitatively and 
qualitatively for aerobic bacterial chitin decomposition from January through 
July, 1977. Speciationof chitinolytic actinomycetes was accomplished primarily 
by patterns of carbon compound utilization and sporulating qualities of the 
isolates. Numbers of chitinoclasts were lowest (50- 150/ ml) in winter with 
increasing counts through spring and summer months (60-4200/ ml). Three 
major groups of chitinoclasts were isolated: gram-negative, nonfermentative 
rods (Group 1); gram-negative fermentative rods (Group II); and the 
actinomycetes (Group III). Actinomycetes comprised 0-20% of the chitinolytic 
bacterial community, attaining the highest percentages in the winter samples. A 
possible seasonal selection for different groups of actinomycetes was noted, with 
members of the genus Micromonospora predominating in the cold winter 
waters and Streptomyces spp. in warmer spring and summer waters. 

The Hypersensitive Response of Tomato to the Bacterial Wilt Pathogen, 
Pseudomonas solanacerarum. C. Y. Lin, W. R. Stevenson, and R. L. 
Nicholson, Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, Purdue University, 

West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 Inoculation of stem sections of resistant 

and susceptible tomato lines with an avirulent isolate of Pseudomonas 



348 Indiana Academy of Science 

solanacearum elicits a hypersensitive response characterized by intense 
browning of the tissue. A similar response is observed on resistant tomato stem 
sections inoculated with virulent isolates of the pathogen, but not on inoculated 
susceptible stem sections. The browning response is visible 48 hours after 
inoculation and increases in color intensity with time. By 96 hours after 
inoculation, susceptible stem pieces inoculated with virulent isolates are only 
slightly discolored whereas other tissue-isolate combinations are deep brown to 
black. Intact resistant plants inoculated with the virulent isolate respond with 
the development of brown coloration of internal and external tissues 48 hours 
after inoculation. Water-soaking near the point of inoculation is the only 
symptom apparent at this time on susceptible plants inoculated with the virulent 
isolate. A localized necrosis of tissues surrounding the site of inoculation with 
the virulent isolate appears on otherwise symptomless resistant plants 96 hours 
after inoculation. Wilting and internal tissue maceration are observed at this 
time on susceptible plants inoculated with the virulent isolate. 

The intensity of browning of resistant stem sections is greater when the 
virulent isolate inoculum is adjusted to 5.2 x 10 7 cells/ ml and less intense at 
higher and lower concentrations. Bacterial populations in inoculated resistant 
and susceptible plants increase at the same rate during the first 48 hours after 
inoculation. After 48 hours the bacterial population in susceptible plants 
continues to increase while the population in resistant plants rapidly decreases. 
Reduction of bacterial populations in resistant plants corresponds to the 
appearance of browning associated with the hypersensitive reaction. Bacterial 
populations in susceptible plants continue to increase until the time of plant wilt. 



Magnetic Effects on the Bacterium Escherichia coli 

W. W. Baldwin and M. F. Asterita 

Northwest Center for Medical Education 

Indiana University School of Medicine 

3400 Broadway, Gary, Indiana 46408 

Introduction 

Davis and Rawls, (2,3), have claimed that there are distinct differences 
between the north and south magnetic fields with regard to their effects on living 
organisms. This claim is based on their theory that the nature of the magnetic 
field surrounding a magnet is essentially quite different in nature from the 
conventionally accepted view. It has been tradionally held that the path of travel 
of magnetic lines of force is a direct one from pole to pole. However, Davis and 
Rawls claim that the magnetic lines of force travel from the south pole into the 
center of the magnet and from the center they travel to the north magnetic pole. 
The south pole of the magnet is characterized by lines of magnetic force spinning 
to the right (clockwise or positive spin) and the lines of force of the north pole 
spin to the left (counterclockwise or negative spin). The center of the magnet 
therefore posses a region of zero magnetism. According to this theory, the lines 
of magentic force show the same overall effect as that of conventional theory, 
namely, that of traversing from the south pole to the north pole of the magnet. 
The only difference is that the center of the magnet is a region of null field 
strength, since the magnitude and opposing directions of the north and south 
magnetic spins give a cancellation effect. This difference in spin effect is not a 
function of the shape of the magnet but bar magents of definite dimesions and 
structural material were found to be most effective in investigating the effects of 
the different magnetic pole energies or field strengths on various living 
organisms. 

Davis and Rawls (2,3) used a flat slate-like non-metalic magnet with an 
average field strength of 3000 gauss (N-l type biomagnet), 6" long by 2" wide by 
W thick with a lifetime of from 3 to 5 years. 

They found that the south pole of such a magnet when placed in close 
proximity to a living organism has a positive, enhancing effect, while the north 
pole has a negative, retarding effect. For example, in their study of the growth and 
development of chickens, the application of the N-l biomagnet south pole for a 
definite time period caused these organisms to grow faster and stronger than 
north pole treated animals. The north pole treated animals turned out to be light 
eaters and developed slower than control animals. The north pole treated 
animals were also more sensitive to surrounding noises and weather conditions. 
This was in distinct contrast to the overly strong south pole treated animals. 
Similar results, on other living systems, showing the different positive and 
negative effects of the south and north magentic pole energies were obtained by 
Davis and Rawls. Some of their other studies include the effects of north and 
south pole energies on seeds and other small animals such as snakes, birds, mice, 

349 



350 Indiana Academy of Science 

and rats. In all cases, the application of north and south magentic pole energies 
were different from control studies and produced opposite effects. The sex life, 
aging, and the increase or reduction of the normal life span of animals was also 
the subject of their investigations. In all cases, with regard to organism growth, 
the south pole magnetic field has a positive, enhancing growth effect while the 
north pole magnetic field has a negative, retarding effect. 

Other reports of magnetic effects on living systems have been published. 
Some of those that claimed an effect included Schaarschmidt et al (10), 
Persinger et al (9), Moskwa and Rostkowska (8). Grencser et al (5), and an early 
report by Kimball (7). However other workers including Jennison (6), Steen and 
Oftedal (11), and Dymshits et al (4) were unable to show effects of magnetic 
fields on biological systems. 

If Davis and Rawls were correct about the differential effects of north and 
south magnetic fields on living systems this might explain the apparent 
discrepancies in the published data. We attempted to test this theory in our 
laboratory by studying the effect of north and south magnetic pole energies on 
E. coli using the N-l type bar magent obtained from the laboratory of Davis and 
Rawls. These investigations were performed under three different conditions, 
application of the south magnetic field, application of the north magnetic field, 
and no magnetic exposure, all at constant 37° temperature. Our studies included 
the effect on growth rate, mutagenesis, and viability of E. coli in non-growth 
conditions. 

Methods and Materials 

Strains and Growth Conditions: E. coli WWU was a gift of R.C. Bockrath 
and C. N. Newman and was grown either in A-l medium with appropriate 
supplements or nutrient broth plus glucose as described by Brockrath et al (1). 
The number of arginine revertants was determined on A-l medium lacking 
arginine and viability was determined on Difco Nutrient Agar plus 1% glucose 
plates. Liquid cultures were grown in 13 x 100 mm culture tubes and bubbled 
with air through a manifold to insure equal oxygenation. The 37° C growth 
temperature was maintained by a hair dryer with a variable autotransformer 
wired in series with the heating element. 

Magnetic Exposure: The culture tube with 5 ml of growth medium was 
clamped to the appropriate pole of the magnet or not exposed to a magnetic field 
(control) as was needed. The type N-l (3000 gauss) magnet was purchased from 
Davis and Rawls. 

Results 

The effect of magnetic fields on growth of E. Coli WWU was determined by 
diluting an over-night culture 1 to 10 on the morning of the experiment. When 
this diluted culture was in expoential growth it was further diluted to give at least 
five doublings before stationary phase was reached. The culture was then 
exposed to the magnet and at twenty minute intervals samples were taken and 
diluted and plated on nutrient agar to determine viable titer. Figure 1 shows the 
results of one such experiment. The correlation coefficients were: control = 0.98, 
north pole = 0.93, and south pole = 0.98. The slopes of all three lines were 0.03. It 



Microbiology and Molecular Biology 



351 



appeared that the magnet produced no measureable effect on growth (five 
doublings) in nutrient broth plus glucose. 

GROWTH 



lO- 



co 



10 



n = north 
- s = south 
— - c z control 



* 



MINUTES 



* 



* 



Figure 1 . Effect of the magnetic exposure on the growth ofE. coli. N - north magnetic poll exposure, 
S - south magnetic pole exposure, C - no magnetic exposure. 



Next, the effect of the magnetic field on long term viability was determined. 
The bacterial cells were grown overnight and diluted as before except the 
exponential culture was washed and suspended in AO buffer (1). Five ml of this 
suspension were placed in a 25 cm 2 tissue culture flask and placed on the 
appropriate pole of the magnet or left unexposed (control). Viability was 
determined as before. Figure 2 shows the results of the south pole exposure as 
compared with the control exposure. The north pole experiment (not shown 
here) produced similar results. The correlation coefficients for both lines (south 
and control) were 0.85 and the slopes of both lines were -0. 1 1 . It appeared that 
the magnet produced no measurable effect on viability of this bacterium when 
held in AO buffer. 

The final set of experiments was conducted to determine if the north or 
south magnetic field (3000 gauss) was mutagenic for E. coli WWU. Table 1 
demonstrates that mutation can be quantified in this organism by determining 
the number of arginine revertants. The number of arginine revertants was 
determined per 0.2 ml while viability was expressed per 1 .0 ml. As can be seen in 
the last row of the table, the number of revertants per 10 8 viable cells increased 
dramatically with only 30 seconds of ultraviolet light exposure. For tables 2 and 



352 



Indiana Academy of Science 

SOUTH POLE 




Figure 2. Effect of the magnetic exposure on the viability ofE. coli. in buffer (non-growth conditions). 
• = south magnetic exposure, O - no magnetic exposure. 

3 the bacteria were treated as in the viability experiment and the cells were plated 
on agar medium lacking arginine. In both cases there was no significant 
difference between those cells exposed to the magnetic field and the unexposed 
controls. 



Table 1 . The Effect of Ultraviolet Light on E. coli. 



Seconds of UV Exposure 1 







10 



20 



30 



Viability 3 x 10* 1.5x10* 1.3x10* 8.2 x 10 7 9.8 x 10 7 1 x 10 7 

Arginine Revertants 10 173 530 518 512 281 

Net Revertants 163 520 508 502 271 

Net Revertants/ 10* Viable Cells 543 2,080 3,200 2,600 13,600 



'The cells were suspended in buffer and irradiated with UV light (8-10 ergs per mm 2 per second) 
Table 2. The Effect of the North Magnetic Field on E. coli. 



Hours of Exposure 1 







Viability (Not exposed) 


1.3 x 10* 





1.2 x 10* 








1.2 x 10* 


Arg. Revertants (Not exposed) 


4 


5 


7 


7 


10 


5 


Viability (Exposed) 


1.3 x 10* 











7 x 10 7 


1.2 x 10* 


Arg. Revertants (Exposed) 


4 


6 


7 


9 


5 


8 


Net Revertants 





1 





2 


-5 


3 



1 Cells were suspended in buffer in a 25 cm 2 tissue culture flask and placed directly on the magnet. 



Microbiology and Molecular Biology 353 

Table 3. The Effect of the South Magnetic Field on E. coli. 



Hours of Exposure 1 



Viability (Not exposed) 


5 x 10« 











1 x 10 9 


1 x 10 9 


Arg. Revertants (Not exposed) 


4 


3 


2 


6 


2 


4 


Viability (Exposed) 


5 x 10" 


— 


6 x 10 8 








4 x 10* 


Arg. Revertants (Exposed) 


2 


3 


4 


5 


4 


5 


Net Revertants 


-2 





2 


-1 


2 


1 



■Cells were suspended in buffer in a 25 cm 2 tissue flask and placed directly on the magnet. 

Discussion 

We have attempted to determine if the type N-l magnet (3000 gauss) of 
Davis and Rawls could produce measurable effects on E. coli. The data in figure 1 
seem to indicate that there was no effect of either the north or south poles of the 
magnet on growth. The forty minute data from the north pole did seem to vary 
from the line of best fit, but this might be explained by experimental error since 
similar results were not seen in other experiments. 

Since it is difficult to maintain exponential growth in closed systems for long 
periods of time, we felt that measuring viability of cells held in buffer might be a 
more sensitive method to measure magnetic effects. Figure 2 showed, that while 
there is some scatter to the data, there was no significant difference in the slope 
of the two lines over a 24 hour period. 

Finally, if the mangetic field caused mutations, the effect would not be 
readily seen in the first two types of experiments. Therefore, we measured 
mutations directly using the arginine revertant system. Table 1 showed that a 30 
second exposure to UV light produced 13,600 mutations per 10 8 cells while a 5 
hour exposure with a magnet, using either the north or south pole, produced a 
number of mutants that was not significantly different from the unexposed 
controls. In conclusion, we could not detect any effect of the type N-l magnet on 
E. coli WWU. 



Literature Cited 

1. Cheung, M. K. and R. C. Bockrath. 1970. On the specificity of UV mutagenesis in E. coli. 
Mutation Res. 10:521-523. 

2. Davis, A. R. and W. C. Rawls, Jr. 1974. Magnetism and its effects on the living system. 
Exposition Press, Hicksville, New York. 

3. Davis, A. R. and W. C. Rawls, Jr. 1975. The magnetic effect. Exposition Press, Hicksville, New 
York. 

4. Dymshits, G. M., Z. M. Bekker and Y. N. Molin. 1974. Absence of the influence of a permanent 
magnet field on the enzymatic hydrolysis of DNA. Biofizika. 19:760-761. 

5. Gerencser, V. F., M. F. Barnothy and J. M. Barnothy. 1962. Inhibition of bacterial growth by 
magnetic fields. Nature. 196:539-541. 

6. Jennison, M. W. 1937. The growth of bacteria, yeasts, and molds in a strong magnetic field. J. 
Bacteriol. 33:15-29. 

7. Kimball, G. C. 1937. The growth of yeast in a magnetic field. J. Bacteriol. 35:109-122. 



354 Indiana Academy of Science 

8. Moskwa, W. and J. Rostkowska. 1965. Effects of a constant magnetic field on the fermentation 
and sensivity to toxins of yeast. Acta Pysiologica Polonica. 16:474-479. 

9. Persinger, M. A., G. B. Glavin and K. P. Ossenkopp. 1972. Physiological changes in adult rats 
exposed to a ELF rotating magnetic field. Int. J. Biometeor. 16:163-172. 

10. Schaarschmidt, B. and I. Lamprecht. 1974. Influence of a magnetic field on the UV sensitivity in 
yeast. Z. Naturforsch 29:447-448. 

1 1. Steen, H. B. and P. Oftedal. 1967. Lack of effect of constant magnetic fields on Drosophila egg 
hatching time. Experientia 23:814. 



PHYSICS 

Chairman: Elmer Nussbaum 
Physics Department, Taylor University, Upland, Indiana 46989 

Chairman-Elect: Carl C. Sartain 
Department of Physics, Indiana State University, Terre Haute, Indiana 47809 

Abstracts 

A Proposed Technique for the Computer- Aided Measurement of Loudspeaker 
Driver Parameters. Ralph L. Place, Department of Physics and Astronomy, 

Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana 47306 Principles of a technique are 

discussed for measuring loudspeaker driver parameters in which the 
loudspeaker in open-air is treated as an underdamped harmonic oscillator. 
Voltage information from the device under test is digitized by a fast analog-to- 
digital converter. Timing information is obtained using a gated crystal coltrolled 
oscillator circuit that provides the timing information in BCD form. Data 
acquisition occurs in time intervals between 20 msec and 500 msec in duration, 
depending on the resonance frequency of the device. Real-time data acquisition 
and storage occurs with subsequent analysis of the data by the computer. Two 
additional measurements must be made, one of initial current through the voice- 
coil and one of the resulting initial displacement. 

Computer Analysis of Alfven Wave Data. Ying Guey Fuh and Uwe J. 

Hansen A parallel faced bismuth samples serves as an interferometer for 

Alfven waves propagating in the compensated semi-metal at high magnetic 
fields. Resulting interference fringes are periodic in 1/B. A computer program 
was written to analyze this periodicity and extract effective mass density 
parameters from the slope of the straight line plot of the interference fringe index 
vs. 1/B. The computer program is designed to process data from the digital 
output of a high pressure Alfven wave experiment. 

The Economical Development of a Practical Holography Table. John A. 

Wisler and F. R. Steldt Construction of an inexpensive and portable 

holography table has been developed, such that the unit can function in 
economical hologram production and be operated at the undergraduate level. 
The unit incorporates three levels. Stability is attained at level one by use of an 
inner tube supported sandbox. Physical vibrations of the unit are monitored at 
the second level by a Michelson Interferometer. The third upper level functions 
as the holography area. This area is void of the bulky laser unit by transferring 
the beam from a second level housing to the main holography area through a 
mirror-shutter system. This allows both larger hologram production and an 
expanded experimentation area. 

Pressurization Technique for Alfven Wave Studies in Bismuth. Gary W. Erwin 

and Uwe J. Hansen.. A low cost, small volume gas pressure system was 

assembled and tested at room temperature and pressures to 27,500 PSI. The 

355 



356 Indiana Academy of Science 

experimental volume, a reservoir and the pump were presurized from a Helium 
gas tank at 3,000 PSI. Subsequently, the pressure in the experimental volume 
was raised to 27,500 PSI in 10 pump strokes. A modified van der Waals equation 
of state was used for volume and pressure calculations to reach the highest 
pressure in the least number of pump strokes. A comparison of this system with 
an oil reservoir system was made. 

Initial Experimentation of the Thermal Pollution of the Middle Wabash River. 

Vincent A. DiNoto, Jr., Physics Department, Indiana State University 

To show how the Middle Wabash River does not conform to the theoretical 
harmonical temperature curves of the U.S. Geological Survey, near Terre 
Haute, Indiana. By the use of a PDP8/I computer with a KV8/I display scope 
used to plot the theoretical curves with the experimental data points. The 
experimental data was taken with a Martex Mark V Probe, by the author and 
the West-Central Indiana Economical Development District, Water Quality 
Division. With a discussion of the possible cause and effect to the river ecology 
due to the termperature increases. 

A Low-Cost, Student-Built Communications Interface Project for an 8080A 
Based Microcomputer and a PDP 11/40 Minicomputer. John Stromseth, 
Gary Stern and Stanley Burden, Physics and Computer Science 

Departments, Taylor University, Upland, Indiana 46989 A project for 

undergraduate students who are ready to engage in or who have completed a 
study of universal asynchronous receiver/ transmitters (UARTS) in a digital 
electronics or computer interfacing course is described. The project can be either 
hardware or software oriented depending on the students' interest. An 
asynchronous communications link was designed which permits an E & L Mini 
Micro Designer to appear as a high speed programmable terminal to a PDP 
1 1/40 computer. The interface was designed by students and assembled on a 
solderless breadboard with components totaling approximately $30. The 
interface permits students to write, edit and cross-assemble programs on the 
PDP 11/40 and then dump them to the microcomputer RAM. This makes 
possible operations otherwise impossible with a microcomputer having only 
2.5K of RAM, since all of the PDP 1 1 / 40 memory and peripherals are accessible 
to the microcomputer. A student-written cross-assembler was also part of the 
project. 

A Low-Cost, Student-Built Digital Integrator for Computerized Logging of 
Solar Insolation Data. Kent W. Bullis and Stanley L. Burden, Chemistry 

Department, Taylor University, Upland, Indiana 46989 A solar-insolation 

data logging system which provides average values of insolation occurring 
during a specified sampling interval is described. An Eppley model 8-48 Black 
and White Pyranometer is used to measure the insolation. The pyranometer 
output signal is amplified and converted to a frequency by a Heath voltage- 
frequency converter and integrated. The associated counter, real-time clock and 
sequencing logic are constructed from standard TTL integrated circuits. The 
resulting information is entered into a PDP-8-L minicomputer using Heath 
Computer Interface Buffer equipment. At specified intervals the computer 
inputs the integrated value from the counter, resets the counter to zero, and 



Physics 357 

converts the integrated value to a mean, which it stores on magentic tape cassette 
and prints out along with the clock time as it collects the data. The cost of the 
pyranometer integraor, excluding the V-F converter, which was previously 
owned, was about $50. 

Computer Assisted Instruction Modules for Physical Science. Malcom E. 
Hults and Ralph L. Place, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Ball State 

University, Muncie, Indiana 47306 Six computer assisted instruction 

•modules, each consisting of twenty-five multiple choice questions, were written 
covering the basic topics of mechanics, properties of matter, heat, sound, light, 
electricity and magnetism. Three of the modules are basically simple recall while 
the other three are sets of simple problems. A computer program records the 
date, time, number of questions attempted, a final percent score and bonus 
points for each student using the modules. Use of the computer was strictly 
voluntary. Correlation of grades and use of the modules is discussed. 
Construction of a Molecular Nitrogen Laser and a Tunable Dye Laser for 
Lifetime Studies. Kevin E. Gardner, Department of Physics and Astronomy, 

Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana 47306 The construction of a pulsed 

molecular nitrogen laser to operate in the near ultraviolet range is discussed. The 
super radiance of this laser is to be used to stimulate lasing in an already existing 
tunable dye laser. The complete system is to be used for lifetime measurements 
especially of metastable levels of various metals. 
A Summary of Solar Energy Activities in Indiana. Elmer Nussbaum, Physics 

Department, Taylor University, Upland, Indiana 46989 Indiana's self 

assessment while bidding for ERDA's new Federal Solar Energy Research 
Institute provided an excellent opportunity to survey the state's interest and its 
activities related to solar energy. Though the bid was unsuccessful, the effort 
produced lasting positive effects. Indiana's growing role in solar programs can 
be documented by its increasing participation in HUD and ERDA grant 
programs. Memberships by Indiana firms and individuals in solar energy trade 
and professional organizations indicate statewide interest in learning about and 
becoming involved in solar energy options. Recent state legislation which 
provides tax relief serves as a further inducement to Indiana residents to include 
solar heating in new residential housing. 

An Innovative Approach to Environmental Physics Education. Gregory 
Peterson, Department of Physics, Indiana State University, Terre Haute, 

Indiana 47809 The environment of our lakes is a very strong emphasis in an 

environmental physics course (Physics 470/570) taught at Indiana State 
University. The major portion of the laboratory time spent by the students was 
used performing various water sampling tasks. An underwater camera, made 
available by an Indiana Academy of Science grant, was utilized to give students 
a view of the sampling devices as well as fish life and the underwater vegetation. 

A Brief Report of "History of Physics in Great Britain", The Professor's View. 

Carl C. Sartain, Indiana State University, Terre Haute, Indiana 

47809 This paper is a brief report on the "History of Physics in Great 

Britain". It describes who we are, where we went, what we saw, who lectured to 
us, and how well we met our objective — to improve our teaching of Physics by 
using historical examples, events and personalities. 



Factors Affecting the Operation of a TSEE Proportional Counter 

D. J. Fehringer, R. J. Vetter, and P. L. Ziemer 

School of Pharmacy and Pharmacal Sciences 
Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 

Introduction 

Exoelectron emission is the emission of low energy electrons from the 
surfaces of ionic crystals, metals, semiconductors, and some organic materials, 
either during or following various physical or chemical treatments including 
exposure to ionizing radiation. Electrons may be emitted spontaneously or upon 
stimulation of the material with heat or light. Exoelectron emission stimulated 
by heating the material is termed thermally stimulated exoelectron emission 
(TSEE), and shows emission maxima at distinct temperatures thought to be 
characteristic of the energy levels of electron traps in the investigated material. 

Measurement of TSEE for radiation dosimetry is often accomplished using 
windowless gas-flow radiation detectors operated in either the Geiger- Mueller 
(G-M) or the proportional region. The number of photo-electrons produced in 
the detector is dependent on a number of factors including the applied voltage, 
the electrode configuration, and the type and pressure of the filling gas (6). The 
probability of an electron within a detector producing an ionization when it 
collides with a gas molecule is dependent on the ionization potential of the 
molecule and the energy of the electron. The energy acquired by an electron 
between collisions depends on the electric field intensity through which it is 
accelerated and on the mean free path between collisions, or the molecular 
density of the gas. Electrons gain larger amounts of energy between collisions 
when the electric field intensity is increased or when the gas pressure is decreased 
(increasing the mean free path between collisions). Therefore, increasing the 
electric field intensity or decreasing the pressure of the filling gas will increase the 
probability of secondary electron production at each collision, and will increase 
the gas multiplication factor. Fenyves and Haiman (4) indicate that the 
multiplication factor increases approximately exponentially with increasing 
electric field strength, and decreases exponentially with increasing pressure of the 
filling gas. 

In addition to an effect on the output pulse size, the magnitude of the 
voltage applied to a proportional counter anode would be expected to 
significantly influence the efficiency with which exoelectrons are drawn into the 
sensitive volume of the proportional counter where electron multiplication 
occurs. The electric field intensity near the walls of a proportional counter is 
relatively low and will not strongly accelerate free electrons toward the center of 
the detector. It is possible, therefore, for exoelectrons to diffuse to the walls of 
the detector and be lost before producing a discharge. Increasing the detector 
voltage will increase the electric field intensity throughout the detector volume 
and will decrease the tendency for exoelectons to be lost in this manner. 
Niewiadomski (5) reported that making the TSEE sample electrically negative 

358 



Physics 



359 



with respect to the detector walls helped accelerate the emitted electrons into the 
detector volume and provided a four-fold increase in the TSEE detection 
efficiency. 

The objective of this study was to measure the influence of three major 
factors — the type of counting gas, the type and position of the detector anode, 
and the electrical potential of the TSEE sample — on the operation of the 
proportional counter for TSEE measurements. 

Methods and Materials 

The TSEE reader used for this study consisted of a windowless gas flow 
proportional counter with associated electronic instrumentation (Figure 1 ). The 
proportional counter was modified so as to accept a sliding drawer which 
contained the TSEE dosimeter, a heater, and thermocouples. A temperature 
programmer 1 was used to provide a linear heating rate of approximately 
50° C/ minute, and was controlled by a feedback signal from one of the 
thermocouples. The other thermocouple was used to monitor the heating rate 
during readout. 



k©kD 



iHEKD 



l 

H 

T 



Figure 1. Block diagram of TSEE measurement system. A, proportional counter-heater; B, 

temperature programmer; C, strip chart recorder; D, preamplifier; E, power supply; E. amplifier; G, 

single channel analyzer; H, count rate to voltage converter; I, scaler; J, timer. 



Pulses from the proportional counter were processed by commercially 
available modular equipment 2 consisting of a low-noise preamplifier operated 
with gain setting X 1 , a linear amplifier operated with gain setting X 1 50, a single- 
channel analyzer and a scaler to obtain the integrated output. A count rate-to- 
voltage converter of the diode pump type was constructed which produced a 
D.C. voltage proportional to the TSEE count rate ( 1 ). This converter permitted 
simultaneous recording of the TSEE "glow curve" and the heater temperature 
on a dual pen strip chart recorder. 



'Va'rian Instrument Co., Palo Alto, CA. 

2 Models 109 PC, 451, 406 A and 430, Ortec Incorporated, Oak Ridge, TN. 



360 Indiana Academy of Science 

A previous study of proportional counter operation (3) indicated that a 
90% argon— 10% methane counting gas (P-10 gas) did not provide adequate gas 
multiplication for TSEE counting applications, and that substitution of pure 
methane would improve the gas gain of the detector. This substitution of pure 
methane would improve the gas gain of the detector. This substitution was made 
and the operating characteristics, including pulse height distributions and 
"characteristic curve" measurements were investigated. 

Brown (2) reported that the type, shape and location of the anode within the 
detector significantly influenced the stability and detection efficiency of a 
proportional counter for TSEE measurements. In particular, he found that a 
needle-point anode provided more stable operation than the conventional loop 
anode. In our investigation several anodes of both the loop and the needle-point 
types were fabricated and the operating characteristics were recorded. 

In order to determine the influence of the electrical potential of the sample 
on the TSEE detection efficiency, the TSEE reader was modified so that the 
sample was insulated from ground potential, and a voltage was then applied to 
the sample using an external power supply. The TSEE detection efficiency was 
then determined by comparing the observed count rates at various potentials to 
that observed with the sample grounded, both for isothermal fading and during 
a normal TSEE readout cycle. 

Results and Discussion 

The use of pure methane rather than an argon — methane mixture as the 
counting gas improved the proportional counter operation for TSEE detection, 
although the counter operation was still not entirely satisfactory. The pulse 
height distributions obtained from an isothermally fading TSEE source for pure 
methane and for a 90% argon — 10% methane counting gas mixture are 
presented in Figure 2. Each curve was obtained at the highest voltage that would 
allow reasonably stable detector operation without transition to Geiger or 
multiple counting operation. Corresponding plots of count rates versus voltage, 
or "characteristic curves" are displayed in Figure 3. 

!« — Discriminator 

Figure 2. Pulse height distributions 
_ for pure methane at 4500 volts (M) and 

argon-methane at 2250 volts (A-M). 



r 

5 
PULSE HEIGHT (V) 



The curves of Figures 2 and 3 were found to be highly variable on a day-to- 
day basis, as illustrated in Figure 4. Below 4 100 volts, however, little variation in 
the characteristic curve was found, and, although it did not provide the 



Physics 



361 




COUNTER BIAS (kV) 



Figure 



3. Count rate versus voltage curves for argon-methane (A-M) and pure methane (M). 



maximum detection efficiency, 4000 volts was chosen as the working voltage in 
order to optimize the day-to-day reproducibility of the proportional counter. 
Variations in the characteristic curve were correlated with variations in the 
atmospheric pressure (pressure of the filling gas) as shown in Figure 4. It is 
suggested that decreases in the gas pressure favor transition to the Geiger 
counting mode, and that the resulting large increases in the dead time of the 
detector were responsible for the decreased count rates observed at higher 
voltages. At higher pressures the absence of a "counting plateau" is attributed to 
an increased tendency for the electrons to be collected into the sensitive volume 
of the detector as the voltage is increased. The observed increase in the count rate 
with increasing voltage was therefore due to an increase in the efficiency with 
which electrons were drawn into the detector volume before diffusing to the 
detector walls where thev would otherwise have been lost. 



> 5 

-J 

UJ 




I I I 

3.7 4.1 4.5 

COUNTER BIAS (kV) 



Figure 4. Variation of count rate with 

voltage as affected by day-to-day 

variations in barometric pressure. 



i 
4.9 



It was noted that use of pure methane as the counting gas appeared to 
increase the TSEE detection efficiency compared to the argon-methane gas. It 



362 



Indiana Academy of Science 



could not be determined, however, if this increase was due to an improved 
counting efficiency, or if the higher detector bias required for methane operation 
resulted in an increased exoelectron "collection efficiency" as discussed above. 




Figure 5. Variation of pulse height 
distributions with TSEE count rate. 



9 10 

PULSE HEIGHT (V) 



The pulse height distributions for both counting gases were found to exhibit 
a marked count rate dependence as illustrated in Figure 5. Higher count rates 
caused a shift of the pulse height distribution to larger pulse heights and the 
growth of additional peaks in the curve. 

Attix (1) reported that use of an argon-methane counting gas for TSEE 
detection resulted in large numbers of "spurious" counts, and that substitution 
of methane eliminated this problem. Our investigation confirmed the existence 
of these spurious pulses, with bursts of hundreds of counts spontaneously 
appearing, especially at higher temperatures during a readout cycle. 
Substitution of methane as the counting gas did not entirely eliminate this 
problem, but it did reduce the frequency of occurrence of these spurious pulses 
to an acceptably low level. It was also observed that the frequency of occurrence 
and the number of counts per burst both decreased during the course of a day's 
readout work. If the detector was not used for several days, however, the 
problem of spurious pulses was found to be considerably increased when work 
was resumed. It therefore appears that this effect may have been caused by water 
vapor or other atmospheric contaminants collected inside the detector while not 
in use. 

Brown (2) reported that substitution of a needle-point anode in place of the 
normal loop anode eliminated the spurious counting problem in his TSEE 
proportional counter. In our investigation, several platinum needle-point 
anodes of varying lengths were fabricated, and their operation was compared 
with that of a loop anode in both methane and argon-methane counting gases. 
None was found to outperform the loop anode in any way, including reduction 
of spurious counting. Measurements of pulse height distributions and 
characteristic curves indicated that the needle-point anodes operated in the 
proportional mode over a more limited voltage range and showed a sharper 
transition to Geiger operation than did the loop anode. The needle-point anodes 
were therefore discarded. 

A loop anode of approximately twice the diameter of the standard anode 



Physics 363 

was obtained, and its performance was measured. When installed, the bottom of 
this anode was only about 8 mm from the TSEE emitting surface, and it was 
thought that the increased electric field in the vicinity of the sample surface 
would improve the exoelectron "collection efficiency." The TSEE characteristic 
curve for this anode at room temperature exhibited a very attractive counting 
plateau extending over several hundred volts, but at higher temperatures an 
extremely high thermionic emission was found. It was thought that the increased 
electric field at the sample surface lowered the work function slightly resulting in 
the greatly increased thermionic emission. This anode was therefore also judged 
to be unsuitable, and the standard loop anode at a height of 25 mm above the 
sample was used for all subsequent investigations. 

The TSEE reader was modified so that an external power supply could be 
attached to the sample, biasing it at any desired potential with respect to ground. 
The infuence of the sample potential on the TSEE detection efficiency for an 
isothermally fading TSEE source was measured and the results are presented 
graphically in Figure 6. A negative sample potential was found to greatly 
increase the TSEE detection efficiency. At higher temperatures, however, it was 
found that a negative sample potential resulted in a very strong thermionic 
emission which largely obscurred any accompanying TSEE. Application of a 
negative bias to the sample was therefore judged to be an unacceptable method 
for improving the TSEE detection efficiency. 



Figure 6. Variation of TSEE detection 

efficiency with electrical potential of 

sample. 




-100 

SAMPLE POTENTIAL (V) 



Conclusions 

This study showed that use of pure methane as the counting gas in the TSEE 
proportional counter resulted in better counter stability and higher gas gain than 
the argon-methane counting gas. The standard loop anode positioned 25 mm 
above the sample gave better performance than needle-point on large-loop 
anodes. Detection efficiency was increased when a negative bias was applied to 
the sample, but thermionic emission was increased when ambient temperature 
was high. Although the operation of the detector was still not entirely 
satisfactory, it is suspected that additional investigations of the geometrical 
configuration of the detector and improvements in the associated electronic 
components could increase the TSEE detection efficiency and detector stability. 



364 Indiana Academy of Science 

Literature Cited 

1. Attix, F. H. 1971 A proportional counter for thermally-stimulated exoelectrons. Int. J. Appl. 
Radiat. Isotopes 22:185-197. 

2. Brown, L. D. 1971. Problems in the use of proportional counters for TSEE measurements. 
Proceedings of Third International Conference on Luminescence Dosimetry. Danish Atomic 
Energy Commission. Copenhagen. Riso Report No. 249. 654-659. 1229 p. 

3. Fehringer, D. J. 1973. The Effects of Microwave Radiation on Thermally Stimulated 
Exoelectron Emission. M.S. Thesis. Purdue University. 94 p. 

4. Fenyves, E., and O. Haiman. 1969. The Physical Principles of Nuclear Radiation Measurements. 
Academic Press. New York. 500 p. 

5. Niewiadomski, T. 1971. TSEE dosimetry studies. Proceedings of the Third International 
Conference on Luminescence Dosimetry. Danish Atomic Energy Commission. Copenhagen. Riso 
Report No. 249. 612-617. 1229 p. 

6. Price, W. J. 1964. Nuclear Radiation Detection. McGraw-Hill, New York. 430 p. 



Time Resolved Fluorescence Spectroscopy for in Situ Measurements 1 

Torsten Alvager and Mark Branham 
Department of Physics, Indiana State University, Terre Haute, Indiana 

Introduction 

Fluorescence measurements of biological material in situ is a a growing and 
potentially very powerful technique for many biological and medical studies. In 
most existing fluorometers adapted for in situ measurements a beam of 
excitation light is directed towards the sample position and fluorescence light is 
then detected in the fluorometer. In general, the method for creating a beam 
involves the use of a microscope in which a parallel beam of light is focused into 
a small spot at the sample position. This system is suitable for studying 
fluorescence from surface targets but is relatively complicated to use, especially 
if observations have to be performed over a longer period of time of living 
material. In such cases a more flexible arrangement to direct the light towards 
the sample spot is through the use of the recently developed light guide technique 
(5). This method may also allow fluorescence measurements of cells situated 
deep inside tissue and organs (2). 

The most important example of in situ fluorescence measurement is 
probably the assay of oxidation-reduction state of NADH in which this 
compound serves as an indicator of the rate of oxygen consumption and the rate 
of ATP formation in a tissue (3). This method has been applied, for instance, in 
observation of NADH fluorescence as a measure of oxygen consumption in 
various changing states of the cerebral cortex of cats in situ (6). 

A problem that confronts most in situ fluorescence studies is the effect of 
scattered and reflected excitation light. For a fluorophore with high quantum 
yield and suitable sample concentration (like NADH in the illustration 
mentioned above) it is often possible to separate, satisfactorily, the scattered 
light from the fluorescence light by the use of a monochromator or a filter. 
However, for less favorable cases spurious scattering light may dominate over 
fluorescence light even at the fluorescence wavelength and make a meaningful 
reading difficult or impossible. Under such circumstances, an improved 
fluorescence signal would be possible to obtain in many cases by separating the 
two light signals in time, since relative to the excitation light the fluorescence 
light is often delayed (often in the nanosecond range) while the scattered light is 
prompt. This possible method has been investigated in the present work. A 
nanosecond fluorescence spectrometer has been adapted to a light guide 
arrangement for observation of fluorescence and various experimental 
parameters of such a system have been measured. 



'Supported in part by a grant from the ISU Research Committee. 

365 



366 



Indiana Academy of Science 



Method 

A schematic block diagram of the experimental set-up is seen in Fig. 1. 
Nanosecond light pulses from an air spark source are selected in filter 1 and 
passed partially through a beam splitter. The light then enters a light guide 
system, consisting of a Schott uv-light guide having an effective diameter of 0. 1 
cm. The distol end of the light guide is in contact with the sample. Fluorophores 
in the immediate vicinity of the end point of the probe will be excited by the 
incoming light and re-emit some fluorescence light into the light guide. This light 
together with some scattered and reflected light is transported back to the beam 
splitter and part of it reflected into the detector system and registered after 
selection in filter 2. The time difference between light source pulses and 
corresponding detector pulses are measured in the time measuring unit which is 
a conventional delayed coincidence system and a time spectrum is finally 
obtained. 




Sample 



Fiber Optic 
System 



Detector 



Beam Splitter 



Monochromator 1 



Light Beam 



Figure 1. Block diagram of fiber optic fluorometer 



The instrument outlined in Fig. 1 is usually referred to as a nanosecond 
fluorescence spectrometer (1). The main difference between the present set-up 
and a conventional instrument is the light guide system. Light emitted from the 
spark, maintained between two high voltage electodes, is focused by a lens to the 
entrance surface of the light guide, which has a diameter of approximately 0.1 
cm. The beam splitter consists of a mirror with a small opening (diameter = 0.05 
cm) transmitting excitation light into the light guide. Part of the light returning 



Physics 



367 



through the light guide is reflected by the beam splitter into the detector. The 
filters are interferance filters. The detector is an RCA 8850 photomultiplier for 
registration of single photons. 



■S in3 




10 20 

Time (Nanoseconds) 



30 



Figure 2. Time spectra obtained with the fiber optic probe shown in Fig. 1 of quinine sulfate fixed in 
gelatine ( — •— • — • — ) and pure gelatine ( ). Excitation at 350 nm; emission of 460 nm. 

Results and Discussions 

A typical time spectrum measurement with the light guide can be seen in 
Fig. 2, where the numbers of counts registered by the detector is plotted vs. 
delayed time (in nanoseconds). The sample was 5 x 10" 5 M quinine sulfate in 0.1 
N H2SO4 fixed in gelatine to simulate biological material. The two filters had 
maximum transmission at wavelengths 350 nm (filter 1) and 460 nm (filter 2) 
respectively, corresponding to optimal excitation and emission conditions in 
quinine sulfate. The two peaks in Fig. 2 are due to a small residue of scattered 
and reflected light which, in spite of the filters, reached the detector. Peak A 
corresponds mainly to excitation light scattered into the detector from the 
section around the beam splitter, while Peak B is due to light passed through the 
light guide and scattered or reflected in the sample. The time difference between 
the two peaks is due to the time of flight of light in the light guide. The 
continuous part of the curve (C) in Fig. 2 corresponds to fluorescence light from 
quinine sulfate. The slope of the decay curve gives the lifetime of the decay. In 
this case it is 10.5 ns. This value can be compared to the lifetime of quinine 
sulfate in pure 0. 1 N H2SO4, which is 1 9.0 ns (4). The smaller value of the lifetime 
in the present case is mainly due the environmental change caused by the 
presence of the gel. 



368 Indiana Academy of Science 

The data presented in Fig. 2 shows clearly the advantage of using a timing 
device to separate fluorescence light from scattered light. The degree of 
separation depends, of course, on the lifetime of the fluorophore and the time 
resolution given by the instrument. In the present case the fluorescence lifetime 
(10.5 ns) is much longer than the instrumental time resolution (approximately 2 
ns) and the separation is good. For shortlived fluorophores several factors are of 
importance in determining the degree of separation. Of special interest for the 
light guide technique is the spread in time due to different paths of light rays in 
the light guide. To study this problem in more detail Fig. 2 gives also a 
measurement with a quinine sulfate absent from the sample (dashed curve) to 
enhance the prompt peaks. In this experiment two light guides were used: one 
situated between the beam splitter and the sample and one between the beam 
splitter and the detector. Both light guides were approximately 0.5 m in length. 
Light giving rise to peak A therefore traversed a distance three times shorter 
than light responsible for peak B. In spite of the length difference, the widths of 
the two peaks are approximately equal, which means that the time spread in the 
light guides contributes to less than 1 ns of the peak widths. For lifetimes in the 
range 1-2 ns this spread may be of importance. However, in such critical 
situations shorter light guides than those employed here may be used. 

It should be noted that by an improved design of the system the intensity of 
the scattered light could be reduced. For instance, the use of high quality 
monochromators instead of filters would attenuate the intensity of scattered and 
reflected light considerably. However, with the particular geometry necessary to 
use in connection with the light guide, non-fluorescence light will always be 
present and will give rise to some residual light that can enter the detector. The 
time measurement procedure will therefore be of importance in most situations, 
especially for fluorphores with a low quantum yield. 



Literature Cited 

1. Alvager, T. and W. X. Balcavage, 1974. Nanosecond fluorescence decay study of mitochondria 
and mitochondrial membranes. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Comm. 58:1039-1046. 

2. Alvager, T., 1977. Microfluorometry with optical fiber microprobe. To be published. 

3. Chance, B., P. Cohen, F. Jobsis, and B. Schoener, 1974. Intracellular oxidation-reduction states 
in vivo. Science 137:449-508. 

4. Guilbault, G., 1973. Practical Fluorescence. Marcel Dekker, Inc. New York, p. 13. 

5. Maveysky, A. and B. Chance, 1973. A new long-term method for the measurement of NADH 
fluorescence in intact rat brain with chronically implanted cannula. Oxygen Transport to Tissue: 
239-244. 

6. Rosenthal, M. and G. Somjen, 1973. Spreading depression, sustained potential shifts, and 
metabolic activity of cerebral cortex of cats. J. Neurophysol. 36:739-749. 



PLANT TAXONOMY 

Chairman: Victor Riemenschneider, Department of Biology 
Indiana University — South Bend, South Bend, IN 

Chairman-Elect: Theodore J. Crovello, Department of Biology 
University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 

Abstracts 

Vascular Plant Inventory of Fall Creek Nature Preserve 1 , Warren County, 
Indiana. Dennis E. Grossnickle, 1055 4th Street NE, Hickory, N.C. 28601 and 
Marion T. Jackson, Department of Life Sciences, Indiana State University, 

Terre Haute, IN 47809 Fall Creek Nature Preserve is a 43-acre forested 

tract which includes Fall Creek Gorge, a steep-walled sandstone canyon with 
large potholes along the creek floor. The tract was preserved by the Indiana 
Chapter of The Nature Conservancy. 

A year-long floristic inventory concluding in June, 1977, yielded a total of 
1 75 species of vascular plants, including 34 tree, 1 5 shrub and vine, 1 1 6 flowering 
herb and 10 fern species. Several additional species of graminoids await 
verification. Species of special interest because of disjunct distribution or small 
population size include Pinus strobus L., Gaylussacia baccata (Wang.) K. Koch, 
Aralia nudicaulis L., Panax quinquefolius L., Cynoglossum officinale L., 
Lobelia inflata L., Cacalia atriplicifolia L., Psoralea onobrychis Nutt., Trillium 
nivale Riddell, Poly gala senega L., Dodecatheon media L., Monotropa uniflora 
L., Mitchella repens L., Gerardia tenuifolia Vahl., G. virginica (L.), Mimulus 
alatus Ait., Zizia aurea (L.), Athyriumfilix-femina (L.) Roth., Woodsia glabella 
R. Br., and W. obtusa (Spreng.) Torr. Nomenclature follows Fernald (1950). 
Voucher specimens are located in the Indiana State University Herbarium. 

A complete floristic list is available from the authors or from The Nature 
Conservancy, Route 1, Box 155, Nashville, IN 47448. 

The Effectiveness of External Factors in Isolating Sympatric Species of 
Milkweed (Asclepias). Susan Rivar Kephart, Department of Biology, Indiana 

University, Bloomington, Indiana 47401 The coexistence of closely related 

plant species is made possible in large part by the presence of reproductive 
barriers to hybridization. As part of a study of reproductive isolation among 
locally sympatric Asclepias species, umbels from an experimental population 
containing A. incarnata and A. syriaca were examined for interspecific and 
intraspecific pollinium insertions. Previous study had indicated that insects fly 
freely between these species and that a given insect may carry both pollinium 
types simultaneously. A. incarnata pollinium insertions into stigmatic chambers 
of 871 A. syriaca flowers averaged 13% of the total number of correct insertions 



■A field expense grant from The Nature Preserves Stewardship Fund, Midwest Regional Office, 
The Nature Conservancy, is gratefully acknowledged. 

369 



370 Indiana Academy of Science 

(values ranged from 2-35%) during a 16-day overlap in flowering between the 
species. Reciprocal insertions have not yet been found (302 flowers sampled). 
Thus, neither the specific fit between pollinium and stigmatic chamber operating 
as a lock and key mechanical barrier nor differential positioning as a result of 
behavioral factors is sufficient to prevent pollinium transfer between species. 
However, mechanical and ethological factors, acting alone or in combination, 
may provide a partial, or one-way, barrier to hybridization. Experimental 
pollinations completed to date between A. syriaca and A. incarnata have also 
failed to yield hybrids, indicating physiological factors may be effective in 
preventing gene flow. It is suggested that both external factors and physiological 
effects are important in maintaining the very low level of hybridization observed 
in natural populations of sympatric milkweeds. 

Computerized Information Retrieval and Graphics to Study The Mustard Flora 
of the Soviet Union. Theodore J. Crovello and Douglas Miller, 
Department of Biology, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 

46556 The need arose to obtain as much information as possible about the 

mustard flora of the Soviet Union, especially of South Central Asia, and to have 
it in various summary formats, and to have it quickly. Accordingly, data in 
Volume 8 of the Flora of the Soviet Union was keypunched for computer 
processing. The mustard family (Brassicacceae) was found to be represented by 
757 species in 1 28 genera. For each genus its name, number, year published, and 
page number were captured. For each species its name, number, year published, 
distribution within and without the Soviet Union, habitat, months of flowering, 
and phytogeographic regions were captured for computer processing. Results 
included printouts of all or selected taxa, with all or only selected information on 
each. Graphic summaries included summary distribution maps over the 51 
phytogeographic regions of the Soviet Union, frequency distributions of 
number of species for each region, and plots of number of species by number of 
regions. Statistical analyses also were made. Total effort was less than two 
people-months. 

Artificial Interspecific Hybrids in Proboscidea (Martyniaceae). Peter K. 
Bretting, Department of Biology, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 

47401 Gene flow between species can be prevented or reduced by many 

different sorts of isolating mechanisms. The nature of the reproductive isolating 
mechanisms separating species of Proboscidea (Martyniaceae) is being 
examined through interspecific cross pollinations. To date, three species native 
to different geographical areas have been crossed: P. triloba (native to central 
Mexico), P. parviflora (native to the American Southwest and northern 
Mexico), and P. louisianica (native to the Great Plains). The following crosses 
yielded Fi plants: P. triloba X P. parviflora, P. louisianica X P. triloba, and P. 
parviflora X P. louisiancia. P. parviflora X P. louisiancia hybrids showed no 
reduction in pollen stainability, while P. triloba X P. parviflora and P. 
louisiancia X P. triloba hybrids had pollen stainabilities of 72% and 74% 
respectively. Several Indian groups of the American Southwest cultivate a 
distinct form of Proboscidea parviflora for use in basketry. Crosses of this 
cultivar with P. louisianica and P. parviflora yielded Fi plants with pollen 



Plant Taxonomy 371 

stainabilities greater than 95%. Additional crosses involving the preceding taxa 
and recently obtained Proboscidea accessions should lead to a better 
understanding of the reproductive isolating mechanisms extant in this genus. 



SCIENCE EDUCATION 

Chairman: Jon R. Hendrix 
Department of Biology, Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana 47306 

Chairman-Elect: Stanley S. Shimer 
Science Teaching Center, Indiana State University, Terre Haute, Indiana 47809 

Abstracts 

Column in agricultural magazine as educational text. James Mitchell Smith, 
Instructor, New Castle Area Vocational School, New Castle, Indiana 47362, 

also Box 23 Liberty, Indiana 47353 The column, "Over the dashboard" 

from the magazine, "Confinement" is used to present a point of view as well as 
basic agricultural information. 

The opening paragraph points the direction of the column. A repeating 
phrasing, almost a poem, occurs in the middle part of the column and the body 
of the information is in the later third of the column. Except that the last 
paragraph gives the summing up of the subject. 

As the writer of "Over the dashboard", I use the column with adult classes in 
agriculture which I teach in a vocational school. From time to time readers 
whom I do not know, write to me about the column. 

A Videotape Method for Testing of Anatomy Course Material. Matthew 
Kelty, University of Notre Dame, Department of Biology, Notre Dame, 

Indiana 46556 The introductory biology laboratory course (enrollment 

400) at the University of Notre Dame includes a nine-hour sequence on 
vertebrate dissection. In the past, testing this material by both lab practical and 
photographic slides has been unsatisfactory from the aspects of excessive time 
and energy expended in the first case, and poor quality of the test material in the 
second. Since 1975, a television system of testing has been employed, using color 
videotape recording equipment. Videotapes were produced which showed and 
asked questions about the anatomy of a dissected specimen. This system was 
judged the most successful employed because 1.) the capability of zooming from 
a view of the entire organism to an extreme close-up of a specific structure and of 
moving the structure to show it from various camera angles make the tape far 
superior to color slides, and 2.) the capability of testing 80-100 students 
simultaneously is much more efficient than a lab practical test. 

Utilizing Resource Individuals for TV Instruction in Biological Teaching 
Strategies. Charles L. Gehring, Professor of Life Sciences, Indiana State 

University, Terre Haute, Indiana 47809 The topic considered herein is 

restricted to utilizing resource individuals in the production of Instructional 
Television (ITV) programs. The new copyright laws make it difficult to use 
commercially prepared materials (films, video cassettes, etc.) in ITV. 
Fortunately, for the student, the copyright law does encourage the instructor to 

373 



374 Indiana Academy of Science 

develop materials and utilize individuals more appropriate to a specific course 
and/ or region. 

What are some of the criteria for selecting a resource individual? One, the 
individual must possess the expertise or skill which makes his/her participation 
worthwhile. Two, the individual must be a "willing", rather than a coerced, 
participant. Three, there must be sufficient visuals/graphics to eliminate the 
"talking face" syndrome. Prior to establishing these criteria, the author was 
involved in more than one bad ITV production. In terms of student disinterest, 
our worst production involved the panel discussion format, in which four 
experts from different ecological fields discussed environmental problems. 

To date, our greatest success with resource individuals involved staff 
members from the Human Genetics Department (Indiana University School of 
Medicine). The criteria for selection were established, followed by months of 
planning, taping, editing, and compiling the finished product. Resource 
individuals do exist; however, one must proceed with a well-conceived plan to 
utilize their talents in ITV programs. 

Bird Studies and Environmental Education. Marshall E. Parks, Science 
Teaching Center, Indiana State University, Terre Haute, Indiana 

47809 The University Studies Program at Indiana State University is an 

alternative general education track for undergraduate students. "Man and His 
Environment" is a course designed to increase environmental understandings by 
emphasizing a systems approach to basic biophysical interrelationships. The 
study of birds in their natural environment is one unit incorporated in this 
course. 

In this bird studies unit, the student learns to identify the common birds in 
the field and begins to perceive the nature of the relationships between 
organisms and their environments. The students utilizes field identification and 
special techniques, such as bird song recording using parabolic reflectors, and 
bird netting and scientific banding. However, the instructional emphasis is on 
the abiotic and biotic phenomena of birds in their natural environments. 

Important concepts and principles presented in other units of the course are 
reiterated, developed in more detail and carefully integrated into the bird studies 
unit. If planned properly a bird studies unit has considerable potential as a 
vehicle for improving the college students' understanding of basic 
environmental principles which have general application to all ecosystems. 

Development of spatial abilities in school age children. H. Marvin Bratt, 

Science Education, The Ohio State University, Marion, Ohio 43302. Tasks 

designed to engage the right and left hemispheres of the brain were given to 
school age children in an attempt to discover asymmetries in development. Of 
special concern were developmental differences in spatial recognition and 
conservation of space. For comparison, tasks which engage verbal abilities were 
also given. Twenty six school age children were randomly selected from a typical 
rural school and individually tested using the tasks. 

The data from the study indicate that there are differences in hemisphere 
functioning in these school age children. Scores on tasks requiring right 
hemisphere function were significantly higher than scores on left hemisphere 



Science Education 375 

tasks. With respect to age, there seem to be developmental differences in both 
right and left hemisphere abilities. The results tend to support the hypothesis 
(Gazziniga, 1970; Bratt and Haver, 1976; Hewitt, 1962; and Conel, 1959) that 1) 
the two hemispheres act independently during development, 2) that 
preadolescent children tend to use the right hemisphere more efficiently than the 
left, and 3) that children are more successful learners in environments containing 
objects and materials than in environments in which reading or verbal 
interaction is predominant. 

Development and Implementation of a Bioethical Decision-Making Course at 
Ball State University. Jon R. Hendrix, Associate Professor Biology, Ball State 

University Students' confusion about contemporary bioethical problems, 

an author-conducted national survey of bioethics course, and a research 
background in values/ morals education led the author to develop and 
implement a bioethical decision-making course at Ball State University, 
Muncie, Indiana. The major thrust of the course is the exploration of bioethical 
issues and the application of confluent, developmental value clarification 
teaching techniques to these issues. A four-step teaching model is employed: 

1. Sensitize students to a particular problem; 2. Analyze the particular 
problem from as many points of view as possible; 3. Synthesize a personal stance 
to the problem and; 4. Actualize the stance if possible. A contract grading system 
is employed having both core and optional activities. Small group discussions 
are also utilized to allow for examination of alternate views of peers. Hastings 
Center reading packets and extensive bibliographic materials were used as data 
bases for decision-making. Howard Brody's models in Ethical Decisions in 
Medicine were modified to include a value clarifying component and then 
utilized as the major mode of ethical decision-making. 

Piaget and Geology. Robert B. Votaw, Department of Geosciences, Indiana 

University Northwest, Gary Indiana Levels of thought processes and 

development of reasoning have been described by Piaget. Two of these levels 
exist among college students. Puzzles designed to assist in the recognition of 
these levels of thought processes have been administered to students enrolled in 
introductory earth science. Results show that half the students tested are 
functioning at a concrete level of reasoning, while most of the topics discussed in 
the course require a formal level of thought for mastery of the topic. 



SOIL AND ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCE 

Chairman: Lawrence A. Schaal, Department of Agronomy, 
Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 

Chairman-Elect: Stephen A. Justham, Department of Geography and Geology, 
Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana 47306 

Abstracts 

Comparison of Methods for Determining Exchangeable Bases in Soils. Russell 
K. Stivers, Department of Agronomy, Purdue University, West Lafayette, 

Indiana 47907 The Purdue Plant and Soil Analysis Laboratory offers two 

types of tests for exchangeable soil bases. One is the standard procedure in which 
samples are weighed, leached overnight with neutral, normal ammonium 
acetate, filtered, and elements determined by atomic absorption 
spectrophotometry. In our rapid procedure for K, Ca, Mg, and Na, samples are 
scooped, shaken five minutes in neutral, normal ammonium acetate, filtered, 
and the elements determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. This 
rapid procedure is used in our laboratory as the basis for K fertilizer 
recommendations and, in part, liming recommendations. The purpose of this 
research report is to compare results of the standard procedure with results of 
the rapid procedure for exchangeable K, Ca, Mg, and Na on the same soil 
samples. Two sets of data, each of 77 different soil samples tested in our 
laboratory during 1976 and 1977, were compared. One set of 77 samples from 
the surface soil on seven different Indiana farms, averaged 3.79% organic matter 
and 25. 1 milliequivalents of cation exchange capacity per 100 grams of soil. The 
other set of 77 samples from coal strip mines, averaged 1.02% organic matter 
and 20.5 milliequivalents of cation exchange capacity per 100 grams of soils. 
Regression coefficients relating rapid soil test cations to the leaching procedure 
for the same cations were determined. The regression coefficients of the farmers' 
samples were all significantly lower (P<001) than those of the strip mine 
samples for all four cations. These coefficients for farmers' samples were 402 for 
K, 271 for Ca, 197 for Mgand 93 for Na. All values are parts per two million per 
milliequi valent per 1 00 grams of soil. They were 51.5%, 67. 8%, 82.1% and 20. 2% 
respectively of the expected values. The corresponding respective values for the 
strip mine soil samples were 84.9%, 89.0%, 89.2% and 59.5%. 

Application of Satellite Remote Sensing Data For Mapping Vegetation. S. J. 

Kristof and R. A. Weismiller Computer-assisted statistical pattern 

recognition techniques of Landsat-2 data have been used to detect, identify and 
locate vegetative ground cover. 

Using the nonsupervised cluster routine technique and ground truth 
information, seven, different crop classes were selected for classification and 
testing. Variations in spectral response in the visible and in the reflective infrared 
electromagnetic spectrum resulted from differences in the type of vegetative 
cover, densities of the cover, stage of physiological development, geographic 

377 



378 Indiana Academy of Science 

orientation, and soil background. The response of plants to incident radiation 
varies with wavelength. Plants strongly absorb incoming radiation in the green 
and red portions of the spectrum, but absorb weakly in the reflective infrared 
region of the spectrum. The high absorption of visible radiation is attributed to 
the high absorption by chlorophylls and other leaf pigments (Gates, 1965). 
Under such circumstances the ratio between relative reflectance of the visible 
spectrum (0.5 to 0.7 /j, m) and relative reflectance of the infrared region will be 
low. Nonvegetated areas in general reflect more energy in the visible spectrum 
than in the reflective infrared; thus their ratio will be high. Association of 
nonsupervised cluster classes with their corresponding cover type was facilitated 
by the use of these characteristics. Almost all classes of vegetation differ in their 
reflective behavior from the ideal Lambertian law, mostly because of incomplete 
plant cover, moisture content, zenith and azimuth angles. 

Soil Science Atmospheric Science, Teaching Devices for Solar Heater and 

Methane Generator. James Mitchell Smith, Liberty, Indiana 47353 Used 

with adult classes in agriculture, New Castle, Indiana Vocational School, two 
models were found to be of value. 

Methane generator consists of a distillation flask, stopper in top opening 
and rubber tubing fastened to small outlet to the side. The rubber tubing leads to 
a bunsen burner and there is a clamp between flask and burner. Animal manure 
placed in flask and when clamp is released enough methane is generated to 
produce a small flame for a short time. 

Solar heater consists of flat plastic tray, in this tray is placed a quarter of an 
inch of water. Over the water is placed a black roofing sheet and over the roofing 
a plate of glass. When placed in the sun, water temperatures will rise 40° Fin an 
hour. 

The Status of Tornado Preparedness Planning in Indiana's Institutions of 
Higher Education. Stephen A. Justham, Department of Geography and 

Geology, Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana 47306 Institutions of 

higher education commonly function as communities isolated from the larger 
communities of which they are generally a part. Because institutions furnish 
duplicate services, such as health and police agencies, it is suggested that they 
have an equal responsibility to provide separate alerting systems to warn their 
communities of an impending tornado. The majority of Indiana's institutions, 
located in a "high risk" state, seem to be inadequately prepared to warn their 
populations of an approaching tornado. An institution's attitude toward the 
possibility of a tornado disaster may be related to the institution's chief 
administrator's perception of the probability of a tornado striking the 
institutional community. Several survey questions were designed to try to 
determine if there is any association between the chief administrator's 
perceptions and whether or not the institution has a tornado preparedness plan. 
The preliminary results of these aspects of the research are examined. 

Phosphate Chemistry of Indiana Lake and Reservoir Sediments. E. D. Orme 

and D. W. Nelson, Purdue University Soluble inorganic phosphorus is 

presumed to be a vital element in the process of lake eutrophication. 



Soil and Atmospheric Sciences 379 

Information available on Wisconsin lakes indicates that some sediment 
properties control sediment-water phosphorus exchange. Studies were 
conducted on Indiana lake and reservoir sediments to relate general sediment 
properties to the nature of the dynamic inorganic phosphate equilibrium 
between the sediment and water phases. The concept of equilibrium phosphate 
concentration (EPC) was introduced and evaluated as the sediment property 
which measures the ability of a sediment to maintain a concentration of P in the 
water phase. Data from reservoir and lake sediments were compared and 
parameters for each class of sediments statistically correlated. These 
correlations revealed that the sediment EPC was directly related to the degree of 
eutrophication in the body of water. The oxalate-extractable fractions appeared 
to be responsible for the majority of Padsorptive capacity of sediments. Oxalate 
and NH4F-extractable fractions of P in lake sediments appeared to be involved 
as pools of P for the dynamic equilibrium between sediment and water. The 
labile pool of P for reservoir sediments, though, appeared to involve only the 
NH4F-extractable fraction. 

The Influence of a Synoptic Scale Cyclone on Boundary Layer Winds Over 
Lake Michigan in Early Summer, 1976. Paul E. Ciisiei ski. Department of 

Atmos Sciences, Colorado State Univ., Ft. Collins, CO 80521, Phillip J. 
Smith, Dept. of Geosciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 

47097 The description of low level air flow over large bodies of water is a 

problem of major commercial and scientific importance. Insufficient and 
sporadic data often hamper adequate description of these wind fields. Progress 
though has been made by utilizing and relating relatively abundant synoptic 
scale data to low-level wind fields over water. Realizing that particularly 
significant winds and wind-driven waves are produced by snoptic scale systems 
moving over the Great Lakes, a case study was conducted for a cyclone system 
which moved across Lake Michigan on June 30 — July I, 1976. 

Objectives are (1) to present a synoptic analysis of the system, and (2) to 
formulate and test the validity of a simple model for estimating the low-level 
wind field over water. The primary components of the model are gradient winds 
determined at the top of the boundary layer and the power law wind profile 
relationship. The results from this model, which show relatively good agreement 
with the observed synoptic wind field, are discussed. The agreement in results is 
shown to be especially good under conditions of strong atmospheric turbulence 
when neutral stability existed. 



The Modern Climatology of Indiana Tornadoes 

Dennis A. Keyser, Ernest M. Agee and Christopher R. Church 
Department of Geosciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 

Introduction 

The tornado is an event which is quite common to the people of Indiana. On 
the average the state is affected by approximately 21 tornado events per year, 
with about 5 of these tornadoes bringing injury and/ or death. The destruction 
created by the tornado, certainly the most violent act of nature, is often 
unbelievable. During the period from 1905 through 1976 Indiana was 
considerably above the national average in tornado frequency, and the state was 
in the midst of two major tornado outbreaks. The Palm Sunday tornadoes in 
1965 and the Jumbo Tornado Outbreak of 3 April 1974 together spawned 
collectively 33 tornadoes and killed 184 people in the state. Since tornado 
activity is such an integral part of Indiana weather, reliable statistics on these 
storms should be of great importance to the people of the state. 

A paper by Agee (1969) in the Proceedings of the Academy entitled, The 
Climatology of Indiana Tornadoes, has been the most complete effort to 
statistically analyze tornadoes in Indiana. The article dealt with tornadoes 
occurring during a period from 1916 to 1968, which unfortunately was not a 
homogeneous data period. The National Severe Storms Forecast Center 
(NSSFC) in Kansas City, Missouri went into operation in 1953, and up until 
that time records of tornado events were not accurately kept. Many tornado 
events, especially those occurring primarily in rural areas, surely took place 
without being recorded. Since 1953 the NSSFC has encouraged the recording of 
all tornado events inform Data, a. NO A A publication. The impact of this effort 
can be verified by checking the yearly tornado frequencies in the article by Agee, 
which after 1953, increased by some 400 per cent. 

In this paper, the heterogeneity in the data has been eliminated since the 
statistics are only for Indiana tornadoes from 1950 to 1976. The "modern day" 
period of tornado data records was extended back to 1 950 (and double checked 
through 1976 as well) through a nationwide research effort by NSSFC and the 
U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. This has included a search though all 
records and archives, as well as local newspapers and state libraries to gather any 
useful information on storm damage. The goal of this paper has been to 
investigate and update many of the same statistical relationships as in the Agee 
article for the modern day period. For instance, the variation of monthly, yearly, 
and diurnal tornado frequencies will be investigated, as well as a county-by- 
county comparison of tornado occurrence. Even though such county-by-county 
statistics may seem significant (politically), they do not provide a reliable 
estimate of regional tornado frequency in the state because the counties are of 
unequal area. This problem was alleviated by dividing the state into equal area 
grids so that tornado statistics could be examined based on each individual grid. 

380 



Soil and Atmospheric Sciences 



381 



Data 

A computer printout listing each recorded tornado event in Indiana from 
1950 through 1976 was complied by the National Severe Storms Forecast Center 
and sent to the Purdue University Tornado Research Group. The statistics 
included were date, hour, location of the beginning point, location of the end 
point, fatalities, and injuries associated with each tornado event. Other 
information such as the FPP scales (when known) was also provided by this 
program, but it was not used in this statistical study. Also, waterspouts over 
Lake Michigan were not included in the tornado records. 

Results and discussion 

A total of 553 tornadoes were recorded in the state during the 1950 to 1976 
period, with 544 tornadoes originating in Indiana. Six tornadoes entered the 
state from Illinois, two from Kentucky, and 1 from Michigan. Of the 553 
tornadoes that affected the state, 374 were only brief touchdowns with no 
discernible track length, with the remaining 179 tornadoes creating a damage 
track. 




Figure 1 . Paths of the 553 tornadoes 
affecting Indiana from 1950 through 1976. 



In Fig. 1, the paths of all the tornadoes which affected Indiana during the 27 
year period of records have been plotted, with the single dots representing the 
brief touchdowns. As can be seen, the state has experienced a great deal of 
tornado activity, with several tracks extending over more than 50 miles of 
Hoosier countryside. The longest tornado path ever recorded in Indiana was 
created by the Monticello tornado on April 3, 1974. It began in Benton County 
in northwestern Indiana and moved northwest over a distance of 121 miles 
before it finally dissipated over Lagrange county in the extreme northeast corner 
of the state. 

Fig. 2 gives a county-by-county breakdown of tornado frequency from 
1950 to. 1976. Marion and Tippecanoe counties both experienced the greatest 
number of tornadoes with 18. St. Joseph, Elkhart, and Marshall counties were 
each affected by 17 tornadoes. Here, another problem with tornado recording 
comes into play. These counties are all highly populated, with the exception of 
Marshall. Obviously, population density has had a considerable impact on the 
reporting of tornadoes. Two counties, Floyd and Spencer were not affected by 
any tornadoes during the 1950 to 1976 period. Fig. 2 also indicates the numbers 
of tornadoes which originated within each county. The county which had the 



382 



Indiana Academy of Science 




Figure 2. Tornadoes affecting Indiana counties (framed), tornadoes originating in county (underlined), 
and the number of tornado days per county from 1950-1976. 



Soil and Atmospheric Sciences 



383 



maximum number of tornadoes originating in it was Tippecanoe with 17. 
Sixteen tornadoes originated in Marion county, 14 in Marshall county, and 13 
in Lake county. The number of tornado days per county is also shown in Fig. 2. 
Marion led all counties with 18 tornado days. Again it should be noted that 
counties do not represent equal geometric areas. 



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Figure 3. Total number of tornadoes 
affecting each 1253 square mile grid 
(for 1950-1976). Numbers in parenthesis 
next to border-line grids are the number 
of tornadoes which would affect that 
grid if it would hare the same area as the 
square grids (based on a proportion). 



Fig. 3 gives a more workable statistical model. Here, the state has been 
divided into equal grids, each representing an area of 1253 square miles. Along 
the Wabash and Ohio River boundaries in the southern part of the state it was 
impossible to arrive at these equal area grid divisions. The number within each 
grid indicates the number of tornadoes that affected that grid between 1950 and 
1976. Along the borderline regions, the numbers in parenthesis give the number 
of tornadoes which one could consider to have occurred in that region if it had 
had the same area as the equal area grids. Fig. 3 also shows that the maximum 
number of tornadoes affecting any grid occurred in a grid near the central part of 
the state. The value here was 42. The minimum number of tornadoes in a grid 
was 5, the converted value in a borderline grid in the southwest corner of 
Indiana. 




Figure 4. Isopleths of total number of 

tornadoes per 1253 sq. mile grid (for 

1950-1976). 



In Fig. 4, lines of constant number of tornadoes for the grids called 
isopleths, have been drawn. The solid isopleths are given in increments of 5 
tornadoes. These isopleths of total number of tornadoes from 1950 to 1976 point 
out three major areas of maximum tornado activity. The first maximum area 
during this period was located in the central portion of the state, just northeast of 
the Indianapolis area; 42 was the maximum value here. The second maximum. 



384 



Indiana Academy of Science 



with a value of 37 tornadoes, was located in the South Bend — Elkhart area in 
extreme north-central Indiana. Another maximum region was present near 
Lafayette, where 29 tornadoes were counted in a 1 253 sq. mile grid. This isopleth 
map shows a well-defined minimum region for tornado activity located in 
extreme south-western Indiana, where a minimum of 7 tornadoes was identified. 
Other minimum areas occurred in extreme southeast Indiana (10), in east- 
central Indiana (18), and in the extreme northeastern part of the state (16). 
Generally, Fig. 4 shows that tornado activity dropped off substantially toward 
the southern part of the state, while the northern two-thirds of the state 
experienced a relatively high frequency of tornado activity, except for a slight 
drop in frequency in the Logansport-Peru area of north-central Indiana. The 
geographical variation in tornado activity in Indiana can probably be explained 
in part by the variation in the topography of the state. The northern half of the 
state consists of primarily flat farm-land with few trees, this is especially true in 
northwestern Indiana. By contrast, in the southern half of the state the land 
becomes increasingly more hilly with numerous forested areas present. The 
effect of the rougher terrain may be to disrupt the boundary layer flow so as to 
dissipate the weaker tornadoes. 



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Figure 5. Total tornado track length, 
in miles, within each 1253 sq. mile grid 
(for 1950-1976). Numbers in parentheses 
next to border-line grids are the total 
tornado track lengths which would he 
located in that grid if it would have the 
same area as the square grids (based on 
a proportion). 



While identifying the number of tornadoes affecting a certain grid may be 
an important statistical study, it probably is not as significant as studying the 
total length of tornado tracks within the grids. The number of tornadoes 
affecting an area is surely biased to some extent by the population of that area. 
However, this bias can be removed by looking at only tornado track length in a 
grid as is done in Fig. 5. The length of all the tornado tracks during the 1950 
through 1976 period in each grid was totaled, with brief touchdowns given a 
length of one mile. Again total tornado track length in borderline grids was 
corrected to the value shown in parenthesis based on the proportion developed 
earlier. A total of 237 miles of tornado tracks affected the grid in the Elkhart 
area; this was the highest value for a grid in Indiana. The lowest value was 
recorded in the borderline grid along the Ohio River near Evansville where a 
corrected value of 1 1 miles of tornado tracks would have occurred if this grid 
could have expanded to an area of 1253 square miles. 

An isopleth map of the total tornado track length within each grid for the 27 
year period is shown in Fig. 6, with an increment between these isopleths of 20 
miles of tornado track length. Three large maximum areas can be seen, with the 



Soil and Atmospheric Sciences 



385 




Figure 6. Isopleths of total tornado 

track length, in miles per 1253 sq. mile 

grid (for 1950-1976). 



largest maximum, 237 miles of tornado tracks, in the grids in the South Bend — 
Elkhart region. Two other maximas occured, one in the Indianapolis area of 187 
miles and another in the area between Indianapolis and Louisville of 172 miles. 
Another maximum of 155 miles was present northwest of Lafayette. Minimum 
areas occurred in southwestern Indiana, 11 miles; in the extreme southeast 
corner of the state, 60 miles; in extreme west central Indiana, 33 miles; and in 
extreme east central Indiana, 74 miles. This pattern is somewhat similar to that 
in Fig. 4, however the maximum in track length in the sparsely-populated region 
between Louisville and Indianapolis was not pointed out as a maximum region 
for number of tornadoes in Fig. 4. Again, topography may have played an 
important role in tornado track length distribution. 



1950 



TORNADO DAYS PER YEAR 
TORNADO DEATH DAYS 



20 










































15 










































10 




^==\ 


7^ 


A 














5 




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( 

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-t* — 


^H- 


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-""T'-'-t — 


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> 



1965 



- TORNADOES PER YEAR 



• TORNADOES CAUSING 

INJURY OR DEATH 








■ 














/\ 


/ ^-x 








/ ■ 


/ N 


/ \ 






\ / /\ 


/ 




\ 


.^-v^^n/ 


V' ^-^ 


«»■■*> Nj / 


/ 















I960 



1965 



1970 



1975 



1950 1955 

Figure 7. Yearly distribution of tornadoes, tornadoes causing injury or death, tornado days, and 
■ tornado death days for Indiana (1950-1976). 



Fig. 7 shows the yearly distributions of tornadoes, tornado days, tornado 
death days, and tornadoes causing injury and death. This indicates that the 
reporting of tornadoes, and deaths and injuries due to tornadoes, increased 



386 



Indiana Academy of Science 



tremendously after 1953 when the NSSFC was initiated and began keeping 
accurate records of tornado activity. Fig. 7 tends to show an increasing trend in 
the number of tornadoes per year during the 27 year period. In fact the first half 
of the period averaged 17 tornadoes per year while the second half averaged 25 
per year. The trends in tornado days, tornado death days, and tornadoes causing 
injury or death have also increased in more recent years. The year 1965 had the 
greatest number of tornado days with 21; a total of 47 tornadoes occurred that 
year with 12 of these occurring on April 1 1 (Palm Sunday). 1973 was also a big 
tornado year with the largest number of tornado events for any year, 48, and a 
total of 20 tornado days. Surprisingly 1974, the year of the Jumbo Tornado 
Outbreak, did not have the largest frequency of tornadoes. Thirty were recorded 
that year and 21 of these occurred on April 3. The most tornadoes causing injury 
or death, however, did occur in 1974 with a total of 13 causing human casualties. 
Another important statistic was that of the 553 tornadoes affecting Indiana 
between 1950 and 1976, 110 (=20%) caused injury and/ or death. 



I I TORNADOES 

TORNADO DAYS 
TORNADOES CAUSING 
INJURY AND/OR DEATH 




Figure 8. Indiana tornado occurrences 
by month from 1950 through 1976. 



JFMAMJJASOND 



Fig. 8 shows the monthly distribution of Indiana tornadoes for the 1950 to 
1976 period. This indicates that April was the leading month for tornado 
activity, however, this distribution of tornadoes was actually bimodal since 
another maximum showed up in June, even though it was not as high as for 
April. The period of March through July experienced 78% of the total tornadoes 
during the 27 year period of records. This is explained by the fact that during the 
spring and early summer months there is an increase in frontal activity, and a 
potentially strong temperature gradient between warm-moist air brought 
northward ahead of cold fronts and the remaining cold polar air masses and 
snow-covered ground north of these fronts. The frequency of tornado activity 
drops off in August as frontal activity decreases but increases slightly in 
September when frontal activity increases once more (but contrasts are not as 
great). January had the least number of tornadoes with only 7. The maximum 
number of tornado days occurred in June, due mainly to the fact that more days 
with thunderstorms occur in this month than any other. Unlike the situation in 
April, however, the thunderstorm (in the event that it is severe enough to 
produce tornadoes) will probably spawn only a single tornado. In April, the 
single severe thunderstorn can easily spawn a family of 3 to 6 individual 
tornadoes. April was the leading month of the occurrence of tornadoes causing 



Soil and Atmospheric Sciences 



387 



injury and /or death. It should be noted that a higher proportion of tornadoes 
caused injury and / or death in early spring than in summer. For instance, 26% of 
the tornadoes in March caused casualties whereas only 7% caused casualties in 
June. This would indicate that the tornadoes in the spring are more severe. The 
late fall and early winter months also experienced a high proportion of 
tornadoes causing injury and/ or death; i.e. October 28%, November 47%, and 
December 36%. This seems to indicate that people may not take tornado 
warnings seriously this time of year. 

Table 1 gives the number of Indiana tornado deaths and tornado death days 
by month of the 27 year period. April was the month of greatest number of 
deaths, as would be expected with the two major outbreaks of the period 
occurring in that month. Of the 197 deaths due to tornadoes in Indiana from 
1950 to 1976, 184 or 93% were due to either the Palm Sunday or April 3, 1974 
tornado outbreaks. In the Palm Sunday outbreak 12 tornadoes killed 137 people 
while the 21 April 1974 tornadoes killed 47 people. This may indicate that in 
recent years people have become more aware and advised of tornado activity, 
and have been better prepared in the way of seeking shelter in the event a 
tornado warning is issued. 

Table 1. Indiana tornado deaths and tornado death days by month from 1950 through 1976. 



Tornado 


J 


F 


M 


A 


M 


J 


J 


A 


s 


o 


N 


D 


T 


Death Days 








3 


3 


2 











1 


1 








10 


Tornado 




























Deaths 








5 


186 


2 











2 


2 








197 



□ TORNADOES 
■ TORNADOES 

CAUSING INJURIES 




Figure 9. Diurnal variation of Indiana 
tornado activity from 1950 through 1976. 



00 02 04 06 



The diurnal variation of Indiana tornado activity is shown in Fig. 9. 
Tornadoes occurred most often around 5:00 p.m. local standard time (L.S.T.), 
with the period of 3:00 p.m. to 9:00 p.m. L.S.T. having produced 65% of all the 
tornadoes studied. It is during this time of day that convection can most readily 
occur due to daytime solar heating of the earth's surface. Of course, tornadoes 
could occur at any hour but the period from 8:00 a.m. to 10:00 a.m. L.S.T. was 
the least likely time for tornado activity to occur. Secondary maxima appeared 
at midnight to 1:00 a.m. L.S.T. and at 6:00 a.m. L.S.T. which might be 
associated with nocturnal thunderstorm activity which can occur in the 



388 



Indiana Academy of Science 



Midwest. Fig. 9 also shows the diurnal variation in tornadoes causing injuries. A 
maximum appeared at 1:00 p.m. L.S.T. and remained high through the 
afternoon and early evening hours in conjunction with the high frequency of 
tornadoes during these hours. 



MEANB237' 



140 " 160° 
160- 180° 
180-200° 
200-220° 
220-240° 
240-260° 
260-260° 
280-300° 
300-320° 
320-340° 



!6I ■ 



th= 



Figure 10. Distribution of Indiana 

tornadoes by direction from which they 

came (1 950-1976). 



In Fig. 10, the distribution of Indiana tornadoes by direction is portrayed. 
This is based only on those tornadoes with discernible tracks, while those 
consisting of only brief touchdowns were ignored. The directions, listed in 20° 
intervals, indicate the direction from which the tornado came. Standard 
meterological convention is used here with north indicated is 0°, east as 90°, 
south as 180°, and west as 270°. Fig. 10 shows that nearly all of the tornadoes 
had an eastward component in their direction of movement, while none showed 
a westward component in their direction of movement. The mean direction from 
which the Indiana tornado arrived during the 27 year period was 237° , out of the 
west southwest. Around 84% of the tornadoes during the period moved from 
southwest to northwest (categories 1 1 to 14). This is basically due to the fact that 
extratropical cyclones (low pressure systems) in the Midwest which create 
thunderstorms that spawn tornadoes generally move in a southwest to northeast 
direction. 

A method of determining the probability of a tornado striking a 
geometrical point on the earth's surface was developed in 1963 by H.C.S. Thorn 
of the Office of Climatology of the then U.S. Weather Bureau. The probability 
of a tornado striking a point in one year is simply the ratio of the total area 
covered by tornadoes in a year to the area over which the tornadoes may occur. 
The probability formula can be expressed as P = t / A, where t is the average area 
covered by tornadoes in the grid in one year and A is the area of the grid. Since 
Indiana has been divided into equal area grids and the total track length within 
each grid has already been determined, the value for P will be easy to compute. 
An average width for Indiana tornadoes of 250 yards has been determined from 
the data provided by the NSSFC. This converts to .142 miles. Multiplying this 
value by the total track length in the grid gives the total area within the grid 
affected by tornadoes. This number is then divided by 27 years to get an average 
for the total area affected by tornadoes in a single year. Finally, this value is then 
divided by A, the total area of the grid ( 1 253 square miles) to get the probability 
that a point in the grid will be affected by a tornado in a single year. The results of 



Soil and Atmospheric Sciences 



389 




U. 00018 
(0.815) 



Figure 1 1 . The probability of a tornado striking a given point within each 1253 sq. mile grid in Indiana 
for any single year. Numbers in parenthesis are the average number of tornadoes affecting the grids per year. 



this study are shown in Fig. 11. The grid surrounding the Elkhart region has the 
highest probability with a value of 0.00099. A grid in the extreme southwest 
corner of the state has a probability value of 0.00005 which is the lowest for any 
grid in Indiana. The numbers in parenthesis below these probability values are 
the average number of tornadoes affecting each grid per year during the 27 year 
period. 

Thorn also has shown that the recurrence interval for a tornado striking a 
point (i.e. the predicted number of years between successive tornado 
touchdowns at a given point) can be given by R = \> , where p is the probability 
value computed in the previous paragraph. Fig. 12 shows the recurrence interval 
(in years) for a given point on each grid based on the p values for that grid. A 
point in the Elkhart grid has a recurrence interval of 1,010 years, the lowest in the 
state. The highest recurrence interval value is 20,000 years, located in the grid in 
extreme southwestern Indiana near Evansville. 

Summary 

Tracks of all tornadoes occurring in Indiana from 1950 to 1976 have been 
plotted. Also, the state has been divided into equal-area grids (1253 sq. miles) 
and the total number of tornadoes occurring within each grid and the total 
tornado track length within each grid have been computed. Isopleths based on 
these quantities have been drawn for the entire state. In addition, yearly, 
monthly and diurnal variations of tornado frequencies, injuries, and deaths for 



390 



Indiana Academy of Science 





2128 


1111 


1010 


1887 




2??3 


2174 


2439 


2 041 




1538 


1818 


1695 


3226 




71^3 


1563 


1282 


1786 


/ 


2941 


2174 


1724 


4000 


4 

< 


2941 


4167 


1389 


2857 ^ 


2,50c y 


5000 


4348 


3448 f 




yf6,667 


20,000 


4762 r / \ 


_J 5556 





Figure 12. The predicted number of years between successive tornado touchdowns at a given point 
within each 1253 sq. mile grid for Indiana. 



Indiana have been presented along with directional variation of tornadoes for 
the period of 1950 through 1976. Finally, a point probability of tornado 
occurrence, and a recurrence interval for tornadoes for each grid at an arbitrary 
point in the grid have been determined. Ail of these data are summarized in Figs. 
1-12 and in Table 1. The importance of population bias and the importance of 
equal area studies of geographical tornado frequencies have been discussed. 
Also, the effect of topography on regional tornado distribution has been noted; 
however, more research will need to be done in this area before a definite 
correlation between topography and tornado frequency can be accurately 
presented. 

Acknowledgements 

The authors are grateful to Ms. Gene Shelley for typing the manuscript. 
This study was supported by the National Severe Storms Laboratory under 
NO A A Grant 04-5-022-15. 

Literature Cited 

1. Agee, Ernest M., 1969: The Climatology of Indiana Tornadoes. Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci., 79:299-308. 

2. Thom, H.C.S., 1963: Tornado Probabilities. Mon. Wea. Rev., 91:730-736. 



The Climatology of Cyclones and Anticyclones 

in the Upper Mississippi and Ohio River Valleys 

and Great Lakes Region, 1950-74 

Frederick E. Brennan, Department of Geosciences 
Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 

Phillip J. Smith, Department of Geosciences 
Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 

Introduction 

It is well known that migrating synoptic-scale cyclones and anticyclones are 
crucial in determining the weather over North America. Such events have been 
subjected to numerous individual case studies designed to diagnose their 
kinematic, dynamic, and thermodynamic properties and associated weather. 
However, in order to establish typical behavior and to understand the extent to 
which individual cases represent significant departures from the norm, a 
complete diagnosis of cyclones and anticyclones must also include analyses of 
their climatologies. Previous climatological studies of synoptic-scale systems 
have been reported by Hurley (5), Hosier and Gamage (4), Petterssen (8), Klein 
(6), Halzworth (3), Korshover (7), Reitan (9), and Colucci (2). Clearly, the 
amount of attention given to this subject has been very small. Further, aside 
from the work of Holzworth (3) and Colucci (2), little has been done to relate 
these climitologies to fluctuations in accompanying weather parameters. 

The objectives of the work described in this paper are: 

(1) to establish a climatology of cyclone and anticyclone events over the 
upper Mississippi and Ohio Valleys and Great Lakes region, and 

(2) to conduct a preliminary study of the relationship of this climatology to 
temperature and precipitation climatologies at a station in the interior of 
the region. 

The results provide more detailed depictions of the spatial distributions and 
temporal variations of cyclones and anticyclones over the study region than in 
any previous studies. 

Data Analysis Procedures 

The data utilized for this study span the 25 year period from 1950-74 for the 
region bounded by 32° N and 52° N latitude and 77° W and 97° W longitude (Fig. 
1). This region was selected to capture cyclones and anticyclones most likely to 
influence the upper Mississippi and Ohio River valleys and the Great Lakes 
area. The primary source of data was the NOAA/EDS monthly publication of 
Climatological Data — National Summary. Contained in each monthly volume 
are charts depicting positions and central pressures of cyclones and anticyclones 
that occurred during that particular month and could be identified for at least 24 
hours. Positions are indicated in six hour increments, while pressures are given 
every 24 hours. 

391 



392 



Indiana Academy of Science 









/ 








' vf 


f 


\ 


/ 
/ 




1 11 


} 










_J_I 




K. 




'ti 


J 




j 




v « 






1 
/ 

1 






1 


P"T 






1 
1 

/ 


1 
1 




(. 








1 

1 ~ 
1 






i 


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_I__ i 


s 




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1 






i 

i 


r 


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l 




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1 
I 






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1 


2 


— i 




<; 



i- 




OM «^t 



£*-- 



e* 



Figure 1. Study region and 2° x 2° latitude/ longitude analysis grid. 



Soil and Atmospheric Sciences 393 

Cyclone and anticyclone frequencies for the latitude/ longitude bounds 
previously noted were obtained by overlaying a 2° x 2° latitude/ longitude grid 
(Fig. 1) on the monthly data charts. The number of cyclones and anticyclones 
passing through each of the 100 2° x 2° quadrangles was recorded for each 
month in the period. Repeated entries into the same quadrangle by the same 
cyclone (anticyclone) were not included in the tabulation. In order to obtain 
quadrangle values representative of equivalent areas each value was normalized 
through multiplication by the factor Ao/An, where Ao is the area of the 
quadrangles bounded by 40° N and 42° N and An is the quadrangle area bounded 
by any 2° longitude limits. Seasonal frequencies for the 25-year period were 
obtained for each quadrangle by adding the frequencies in that quadrangle for 
each month in the season. Seasons are defined as: winter (December- February); 
spring (March- May); summer (June-August); fall (September-November). 

At the initial entry and final exit of a cyclone (anticyclone) from the study 
region the central pressure was recorded to the nearest millibar. The central 
pressure was determined by linear interpolation between the 24 hour interval 
pressure values given in the original data charts. Individual pressure values were 
combined to determine average incoming and outgoing central pressures for 
each month and season in the period and in some cases were subjected to 5 year 
running mean smoothing. This latter procedure was chosen in order to isolate 
the more persistent trends while smoothing shorter term fluctuations. Also 
recorded was the total number of cyclones (anticyclones) that travelled through 
the study region during each month. If a cyclone or anticyclone left the region 
and re-entered at another point, it was counted as only one occurrence. 

Finally, monthly precipitation and average temperature data for 
Whitestown, Indiana were derived from Indiana climatological records 1 for 
comparison with the cyclone and anticyclone statistics. This station was selected 
because it is located near the center of the study region, its data represent a 
particularly reliable climatological series over the period of study, and the data 
were readily available. 

Results 

Cyclone/anticyclone distributions 

Figs. 2 and 3 show, respectively, 25 year total cyclone and anticyclone 
frequency distributions for each season. The analyses reveal that distinct areas 
of maximum and minimum frequency occur and, in addition, that axes of 
maximum and minimum frequencies can also be seen. The resulting axes of 
maximum frequency suggest preferred cyclone or anticyclone tracks. The term 
"preferred" is employed in the sense that cyclones and anticyclones generally 
tend to travel along or very near these axes, although individual cyclones and 
anticyclones may deviate from or converge upon these axes at many different 
locations. In fact, the analyses occasionally show that some tracks terminate 
inside the study region because the movement of individual cyclones and 
anticyclones is so highly variable downstream from the termination point. 



'Provided by Mr. Lawrence A. Schaal, Dept. of Agronomy, P.U. 



394 



Indiana Academy of Science 




spring 




SUMMER 



Figure 2. Spatial distributions of cyclones for each season. Arrows represent preferred tracks. 
Isopleths correspond to 25 year totals in tens of units. 



Soil and Atmospheric Sciences 



395 





SPRING 





FALL 



Figure 3. Same as Fig. 2 for anticyclones. 



396 Indiana Academy of Science 

Prominent in the cyclone statistics are the frequency maxima that occur in 
the Great Lakes region and minima in the southern states. The maximum 
cyclone axes suggest the existence of three major cyclone tracks, with the overall 
cyclone occurrences exhibiting a northward migration from winter to summer. 
The first track, which is present in all seasons except summer, enters the region 
from the southwest and is likely associated with cyclones that originate or 
intensify in the area from the Texas panhandle to Colorado. Such cyclones are 
especially prominent in winter and spring, as verified by the present results. The 
second, which appears in all seasons except fall, lies along the northern tier of 
states and represents and extension of cyclones originating from Colorado north 
and west to Alberta. The third, which is prominent in all seasons, reflects 
cyclones propagating out of western and northwestern Canada across southern 
Ontario and Quebec. It is of interest to note that the cyclone tracks are similar to 
those documented by Reitan (9). However, the factor of three higher resolution 
used in the present study (2° vs. 740 km quadrangles by Reitan) results in less 
smoothing and reveals multiple track features not present in Reitan's results. 

The most prominent area of maximum anticyclone frequency occurs in the 
Ohio River Valley with a shift to the Allegheny region during the summer. 
Another maximum occurs west of James Bay during the fall and winter. 
Minimum anticyclone frequency occurs in the western Great Lakes region in the 
winter, spring, and fall. Two major anticyclone tracks, which again reflect 
seasonal migrations, traverse the region. The first, which is within the 
northeastern boundaries of the region only in fall and winter, reflects polar 
outbreaks penetrating central Canada. The second represents high pressure 
penetration into the midwest from the western states and Canada. 

Area average frequencies and central pressures 

Fig. 4 depicts five year running means of annual cyclone and anticyclone 
frequencies. Definite trends appear in both frequencies during the period, 
although they are less pronounced for anticyclones. Fluctuations in the cyclone 
frequencies are in phase with those in the anticyclone frequencies with the 
number of cyclones exceeding the anticyclones by a factor of 1.25. This 
corresponds closely to Klein's (6) factor of 1.3 for the Northern Hemisphere. 
Fig. 4 also suggests a cyclic pattern to the frequencies, although the amplitude of 
the pattern varies. Frequency minima occurred around 1956 and, more 
prominently, in the late 1960's. A frequency maximum occurred around 1960 
and possibly another around 1954, although the lack of data before 1950 
prevents complete definition of this maximum. The seasonal contributions 
depicted in Fig. 4 show that in general greatest cyclone frequencies can be 
expected in winter, followed in order by spring, fall, and summer. The greatest 
anticyclone frequencies are also seen in winter, but are followed in order by fall, 
summer, and spring. 

Fig. 5 contains five year running means of average annual entering and 
exiting central pressures for cyclones and anticyclones. Lower (higher) average 
central pressures are assumed to represent in general more intense cyclones 
(anticyclones). The average central pressure of cyclones increased during the 
first half of the period to a maximum around 1960, decreased to a minimum in 
the mid-1960's, and then began rising again during the last quarter of the period. 



Soil and Atmospheric Sciences 



397 



TOTAL 




1 WINTER 

2 SPRING 

3 FALL 

4 SUMMER 




1952 57 



62 
T- 



72 



ANTICYLONES 



F 28 




Figure 4. Five year running means of cyclone and anticyclone annual (top) and seasonal (center and 
bottom) frequencies for the study period. 



398 



Indiana Academy of Science 



t 
P 



1005 



1003 



1001 



CYCLONES 




.„.• 



I I I I I I I i 



1952 



57 



62 



T — 



i i i i » i 



67 



72 



t 
P 



1027 



1026 



1025 



ANTICYCLONES 




' ' ' ' ■■■!.. 



1952 



57 



62 



67 



72 



T — 



Figure 5. Five year running means of average annual central pressure in mb for cyclones and 
anticyclones. Solid line represents the average incoming central pressure and dashed line the average 
outgoing central pressure. Shaded areas indicate periods during which outgoing exceeds incoming 

pressure. 



Soil and Atmospheric Sciences 399 

The average central pressure of anticyclones reached a minimum around 1954, 
rose to a maximum during the first half of the 1960's, then fell to a minimum 
again in the early 1970's. Throughout the period cyclones intensified after 
entering the study region with the magnitude of the intensification remaining 
fairly constant (usually 1-1.5 mb). Anticyclones, on the other hand, tended to 
weaken after entering the region, although intensification did occur in each case 
when the central pressure was increasing from a minimum. The magnitude of 
anticyclone weakening (maximum value of 0.6 mb) is much less than cyclone 
intensification and tends to vary more throughout the period. 

Similar analyses of average central pressures for each season (not shown) 
reveal that cyclones generally intensified while propagating through the region 
in all seasons. Only during the spring did any significant periods of weakening 
occur, and then only during years of relatively low central pressure. In contrast 
to cyclones, fall and winter anticyclones weakened in the region throughout the 
period, while spring and summer anticyclones generally intensified. 

Fig. 6 depicts the 25 year monthly means of frequency and central pressure 
for cyclones and anticyclones occuring in the study region. January is the month 
of maximum cyclone activity, with a secondary minimum occurring in March. 
These results are in contrast to those of Hurley (5), who studied cyclones in the 
midwest for the period 1920-1929 and found a single cyclone maximum in April. 
July contains the fewest number of cyclones, in agreement with Hurley, and is 
the only month in which anticyclones outnumber cyclones. December and 
January are the favored months for anticyclones activity, while minimum 
anticyclone activity occurs in April. The central pressure of cyclones exhibit a 
roughly inverse relationship to their frequencies, with the lowest central pressure 
occurring in April and the highest in July. Further, while cyclone intensification 
occurs throughout most of the year, the previously noted tendency for spring 
cyclones to weaken in some years is seen in April and May. The central pressures 
of anticyclones are strongly seasonally dependent with the greatest pressures 
occurring during the colder winter months and lowest pressures in the warmer 
summer months. Again as noted earlier, anticyclones tend to weaken in the fall 
(especially November) and the winter (especially January) and tend to intensify 
during the spring and summer. The greatest intensification of anticyclones 
occurs in July. 

Comparisons with temperature/ precipitation statistics 

Finally, a preliminary attempt was made to relate cyclone/ anticyclone 
statistics to temperature and precipitation variabilities at a single station located 
near the center of the study region (Whitestown, Indiana). It is of course 
recognized that comparisons between regional cyclone/anticyclone statistics 
and single station temperature/ precipitation data are necessarily uncertain. 
Nevertheless, some relationships do emerge. 

Fig. 7 illustrates the annual mean temperature and total precipitation (five- 
year running means) for Whitestown. Also presented to exemplify the 
comparisons for one season are analgous statistics for the summer. The shape of 
the cyclone and anticyclone frequency pattern of Fig. 4 closely resembles that of 
the Whitestown temperature pattern except that the two profiles are out of 



400 



Indiana Academy of Science 



ANTICYCLONES 




FEB APR JUN AUG OCT DEC 

Figure 6. Top: Mean monthly frequencies of cyclones and anticyclones. Center and bottom: Mean 
monthly incoming (solid) and outgoing (dashed) central pressures for anticyclones and cyclones. 



Soil and Atmospheric Sciences 



401 




Figure 7. Top: Five year running means of Whitestown average annual temperatures in ° F (left) and 
total annual precipitation in inches (right) for the period. Bottom: Same as top for summer season. 



402 Indiana Academy of Science 

phase by approximately three years. Thus, warmer annual mean temperatures 
tend to occur during periods of more frequent cyclone and anticyclone 
occurrences. Comparison of average summer frequencies with average summer 
temperatures shows the same general result, with a particularly good 
comparison to be noted for the anticyclone frequencies. Relationships between 
annual precipitation amounts and cyclone/ anticyclone frequencies are less 
pronounced, a somewhat surprising result which probably reflects the 
limitations inherent in using a single station to represent the precipitation 
statistics. However, it is of interest to note that the relatively greater 
precipitation amounts prior to 1960 and the lesser amounts during the 1960's 
occur, respectively, during periods of relatively greater and lesser cyclone and 
anticyclone frequencies. 

Summary 

This study reveals that spatial and temporal patterns exist in the movement 
and intensities of cyclones and anticyclones and that these patterns bear some 
relationship to the average temperature and precipitation at a representative 
station. The study further suggests that extensions of the 2° x 2° grid analyses to 
all of North America, analyses of other regions, and more comprehensive 
summaries of the temperature/ precipitation characteristics of each region might 
be fruitful. Having established a full array of such statistics, it would then be of 
interest to study the causal mechanisms responsible for such statistics. 

Acknowledgements 

This research was partially supported by the Atmospheric Research 
Section of the National Science Foundation under Grant Nos. ATM 75-02898 
A01 and ATM 77-00932. 

Literature Cited 

1. Climatological Data-National Summary. 1950-1976. NOAA/EDS, U.S. Dept. of Commerce. 

2. Colcucci, S.J. 1976. Winter cyclone frequencies over the eastern United States and adjacent 
western Atlantic. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. 57:548-553. 

3. Holzworth, G.C. 1962. A study of air pollution potential for the western United States. J. Appl. 
Meteor. 1:366-382. 

4. Hosler, C.L., and L.A. Gamage 1956. Cyclone frequencies in the United States for the period 
1905-1954. Mon. Wea. Rev. 84:388-390. 

5. Hurley, J.C. 1954. Statistics on the movement and deepening of cyclones in the Middle West. 
Mon. Wea. Rev. 82:116-122. 

6. Klein, W.H. 1956. The frequency of cyclones and anticyclones in relation to the mean circulation. 
J. Meteor. 15:98-102. 

7. Korshover, J. 1967. Climatology of stagnating anticyclones east of the Rocky Mountains, 1936- 
1965. Public Health Service Publication No. 999-AP-34, U.S. Dept. of Health, Education, and 
Welfare. 

8. Peterssen, S. 1956. Weather Analysis and Forecasting, Vol. 1. McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc. 422 p. 

9. Reitan, C.H. 1974. Frequencies of cyclones and cyclogenesis for North America, 1951-1970. Mon. 
Wea. Rev. 102:861-868. 



Landsat Data From Two Forest Sites in Indiana 
Reflect Impact of Summer Drought 1 

Byron O. Blair and M. F. Baumgardner 

Agronomy Department 

Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 

B. E. Dethier 

Department of Atmospheric Science 

Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, 14850 

Introduction 

With the successful launch of LANDSAT-1 in July 1972, many exploratory 
research studies were initiated. A study entitled "Phenology Satellite 
Experiment" was initiated by the North Eastern Regional Agricultural Research 
Committee (NE-69) (Atmospheric Influences on Ecosystems and Satellite 
Sensing). 

The study was designed to scan forest canopies in fourteen areas in the 
eastern half of the country, from Orono, Maine, to College Station, Texas and 
ten locations in the Rocky Mountain states (4). 

Included in the eastern area were two locations in Indiana, one near West 
Lafayette which included McCormick Woods and adjacent areas, and the 
second near Princeton where U.S. 41 intersects the White River. Data and 
methods are included in the final report of the original report, which was 
undertaken to study the comparative progression of the Green and Brown wave 
(1). 

These two locations in Indiana were of particular interest because a severe 
drought condition developed in July 1973 at Princeton while Lafayette, 210 km 
to the north, had favorable weather and production conditions for both corn 
and soybeans, and they lie in the area of east-west overlap between two 
successive days of LANDSAT passes. During the 1973 season more data were 
collected at these locations than any of the other fourteen sites and thus provided 
an opportunity for this investigation. 

Differences in reflectance of the two canopies prompted a more detailed 
evaluation of data collected. 

Review of Literature 

Differences in seasonality, over broad areas of the United States as detected 
annually between different plant cultivars, have been reported by Caprio and 
Hopp and Blair (2,5). Most of these studies have been on limited species which 
are confined to phenophase observations which terminate in the early spring. 
Similar studies are in progress using cultivars which hopefully will make 
possible use of phenophase observations beyond flowering, i.e., fruit 
development, ripening and maturation (3). These data hopefully will provide 
additional phenophase information over more of the growing season and relate 

403 



404 



Indiana Academy of Science 



to the influence of seasonal climatic patterns over broad areas of the U.S. which 
relate to crop production. 

Recent analysis of lilac phenology data from the Ontario and Quebec 
Provinces of Canada for over 300 stations has demonstrated that with four years 
data new areas have been located not now in economic crop production. 
Agriculturists feel these areas can be successfully developed into needed crop 
production. Thus at least in marginal production areas above 50° N latitude, 
phenology observations have demonstrated a means of locating areas that may 
hopefully be shifted from timber to economic crop production (6). 

Without the need for developing extensive meteorological instrumentation, 
the hypothesis of using phenophase evaluation, which can be observed on 
selected species adapted to broad marginal areas of the humid subtropics, may 
have similar potential and application. 

Material and Methods 

After analysis of multispectral data collected from fourteen locations from 
Orono, Maine, to College Station, Texas, it was demonstrated that variations in 
spectral reflectance measured by bands 5 and 7 occur at the extremes and also at 
a mid-latitude location for both the green and brown wave. A more indepth 
evaluation of the two Indiana locations was undertaken. This was prompted for 



LAFAYETTE a PRINCETON, INDIANA 



30 r 



25 



20 



15 



10 




LAFAYETTE, INDIANA 
PRINCETON, INDIANA 



J L 



J L 



JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV 
1973 

Figure 1 . Mean relative canopy reflectance from wave band (.8- 1.1 nm) in percent of the total possible 
reflectance at two locations in Indiana during the growing season of 1973. 



Soil and Atmospheric Sciences 



405 



E 


>o >o 


oo 


c 




O 



OO rn O SO 

5 O oo o oo 



cn rn c-> c-i 



OS Os SO O 



rsi r- oo oo v~> 
r-~ i~- t-- m so 

o r- o oo o 



m Os oo so 



r — r— t — - — ■ 



a U 



n-> >o <n o <n 
(N so os r~ u~i 



S 2 



^ oo H 

3 < H 



406 



Indiana Academy of Science 



Table 2. The influence of 1973 climate on crop yields (kg I ha) at two Indiana locations. 



County 

Tippecanoe* 

White 

Warren 

Clinton 

Montgomery 

MEAN YIELD 



Lafayette Location 




Corn 


Soybeans 


6,608 


2,160 


6,384 


1,980 


6,328 


2,160 


6,664 


2,400 


6,496 


2,340 



6,496** 



2,208" 



Gibson* 

Warrick 

Vanderburg 

Posey 

Pike 

mean yield 



Princeton Location 

5,488 
4,816 
4,928 
5,264 
4,928 



5,045** 



Yield for county of site location 

Yield average for five county area around location 



1,680 
1,320 
1,860 
1,620 
1,440 

1,584** 



four reasons: 1) These locations provided more cloud free data than any other 
locations; 2) An intensive summer drought developed at the southern locations 
near Princeton which did not occur at Lafayette; 3) These locations were in close 
enough proximity (210 km) and with similar management practices so that the 
same crops are produced in both areas and the influence by water stress on forest 
canopy cover could be expected to be reflected in adjacent crop yields; and 4) 
The southern location and adjacent areas are residual soils which are more 
droughty than at the northern location which are a loess soil formed over glacial 
till and are more drought resistant. 

Reflectance data reported in this paper for the two locations for the 
growing season of 1973 have been summarized and reported (4). Figure 1 shows 
the canopy reflectance at these two locations. Voids in the data at both locations 
result from cloud cover which prevented obtaining satellite data on those dates. 



20 



g io 

z 
5 



PRINCETON RAINFALL 
FOR 1973 8 40 YR. x 




Figure 2. Comparison in cm of the 1973 rainfall 
pattern with the 40 year mean at Lafayette. 



-^1973 
-^-40YR. X 



MAY 



JUN JUL AUG 
DATE 



Soil and Atmospheric Sciences 407 

Comparative climatic and crop yield data are presented in Tables 1 and 2. 
Differences in rainfall at the two locations are shown in Figures 2 and 3. 



LAFAYETTE RAINFALL 
FOR 1973 8 40 YR. X 




Figure 3. Comparison in cm of the 1973 rainfall 
pattern with the 40 year mean at Princeton. 



Results and Discussions 

These data from canopy reflection which is the percent of total reflectance 
possible in band 7(. 8-1.1 \x m) show that the leaf cover at Princeton developed 
earlier and ahead of that at Lafayette with Princeton showing maximum 
reflectance from leaf cover in early June. Maximum reflectance developed at 
Lafayette in July. In July and until mid-August reflectance dropped appreciably 
at Princeton. This indicated a loss in canopy by leaf drop, change in metabolic 
processes or both, that influenced reflectance. The reflectance then continued to 
decline in a similar pattern at both locations but on a two to three week earlier 
schedule at Princeton. 

The loss in canopy reflectance at Princeton is associated with leaf drop 
and/ or perhaps change in chlorophyll quantities. Rainfall patterns and 
subsequent comparison of growing degree days at these two locations correlate 
with the reflectance differences (Table 1 and Figures 2 and 3). As seen in the table 
and illustrated in the figures, rainfall was much above normal at Princeton 
during spring and early summer with a marked drop to slightly below normal in 
July. This dry period extended over 29 days at Princeton with a total of 55 days 
without measurable precipitation. At Lafayette there were 39 rain free days with 
15 occurring in late August. 

The high spring precipitation pattern resulted in extensive, and probably 
above normal, leaf development at Princeton. Leaves began dropping under 
pressure of limiting water supplied in July. This observed leaf thinning and 
probable changes in stress was related to the difference in reflectance noted in 
the multispectral data in both bands 5 and 7. 

Precipitation patterns in Lafayette were normal during early spring 
followed by very favorable rainfall during late spring and summer with a 1 5-day 
dry period in late August. These comparative rainfall patterns are further 
reflected in the temperature differences in monthly and seasonal mean and 
growing degree days during July and August at these locations (Table 1). Under 
such different climatic patterns the leaf canopy would be expected to adjust to 
the stress at Princeton and remain near normal at Lafayette. 



408 Indiana Academy of Science 

The impact of a drought period has been clearly demonstrated between two 
locations 210 km apart. This climatic pattern is not an uncommon occurrence in 
Indiana and other areas in the Corn Belt. In 1974 the following year and again in 
1977 the reverse climatic pattern between these two areas was noted. 

The impact of detecting stress by multispectral scanning should also have 
similar implications on crop performance in these two areas. Table 2 shows the 
influence of this differing climatic pattern in 1973 on the yields of corn and 
soybeans in Tippecanoe, Gibson and four adjacent counties in each area. 
Results of the favorable conditions at Lafayette compared with the mid-summer 
drought at Princeton are quite obvious. 

Conclusions 

Based on analysis of data collected over one season, it would appear that if 
numerous sites of timber canopies of 50-100 ha over the Corn Belt were selected 
and could be monitored during the growing season such data would be available 
and useful in detecting the severity of drought stress over large areas. Its impact 
on pending productive potential of the crops of the immediate and adjacent 
areas might also be detected early in the season. Since the multiple scan data 
from LANDS AT- 1 and -2 are available, confirmation and feasibility of using 
this technique as a tool could be obtained by analysis of data already collected. 
Further study should be undertaken and would be necessary for using 
LANDSAT data for relating such information to annual production of food, 
fiber and timber. Further basic studies on relationship of water stress to leaf 
drop, chlorophyll changes and metabolism should also be investigated. 

Literature Cited 

1. Blair, B. 0.,and M. F. Baumgardner. 1977. Detection of the green and brown wave in hardwood 
canopy covers using multidate, multispectral data from LANDSAT- 1. Am. Jour. Agr. 69(5):803- 
808. 

2. Caprio, Joseph M. 1966. Patterns of plant development in the western United States. Montana 
Agr. Exp. Sta. Bull. 607. 42 pp. 

3. Caprio, J.M., M.D. Magnuson, and H.N. Metcalf. 1970. Instructions for phenological 
observations of Purple Common Lilac and Red Berry Honeysuckle. Montana Agr. Exp. Sta. 
Circular 250. 19 pp. 

4. Dethier, B. E. 1974. Phenology Satellite Experiment Type III. Final Project Report. NASA 
Contract NAS5-21781. Division of Atmospheric Science. Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 
14853. 789 pp. 

5. Hopp, R. J., and B. O. Blair. 1973. Plant phenology in eastern and central North America. Agr. 
Exp. Sta. Bull. 677. 20 pp. 

6. NE-95 Committee. July 1977. Annual Report. Phenology weather and crop yields. Laval 
University, Quebec, Canada (Unpublished). 



Transformations of Hydroxylamine in Soils 

D. W. Nelson 

Agronomy Department, Purdue University 

Introduction 

Although hydroxylamine (NH 2 OH) is considered to be an intermediate in 
biological nitrogen fixation (Equation 1), nitrification (Equation 2), and nitrate 
reduction (Equation 3) in various ecological systems (Alexander, 1961), few 
investigations have been concerned with NH2OH transformations in soils. 

N 2 - (NHOH) 2 - 2NH 2 OH - 2NH 3 - jlutamic acid (1) 

NHl - NH2OH - (HNO) - NO - NO 2 - NO 3 (2) 

NO3-NO2-?- NH2OH - NH + 4 (3) 

Duisberg and Buehrer (1954) found that NH 2 OH was not converted to nitrite 
and nitrate when added to soils. Bremner and Shaw (1958) could not detect the 
presence of NH2OH during studies of denitrification in soils; furthermore, they 
reported that NH 2 OH could not be recovered soon after addition to soils. They 
speculated that higher oxides of manganese and iron reacted with NH 2 OH to 
produce gaseous N compounds. Relatedly, Arnold (1954) observed that N 2 
was produced when NH 2 OH was added to wet soil which he attributed to 
reactions with nitrite. Nommik (1956) reported that N 2 and N 2 were evolved 
when NH 2 OH was added to soil maintained in an argon atmosphere. 

The lack of quantitative information on NH 2 OH transformations in soils 
coupled with the potential importance of these transformations in the loss of 
inorganic N from soils has prompted the work reported here. The objective of 
the work was to determine the fate of NH2OH in soils and to characterize the 
products of NH2OH reactions in representative soils. 

Materials and Methods 

The soils used (Table 1) were surface (0-15 cm) samples representing a wide 
range in physical and chemical properties. Samples were air-dried (20 to 22° C 
for 48 hours) and ground to pass an 80-mesh sieve. Organic C was determined by 
the method of Mebius (1960), total N by a semimicro Kjeldahl procedure 
(Bremner, 1965a), pH by glass electrode (soil:water ratio 1:2.5), clay by pipette 
analysis (Kilmer and Alexander, 1949) after dispersion by Na-saturated 
Amberlite IRC-50 resin (Edwards and Bremner, 1965) and cation exchange 
capacity by the procedure of Edwards (1967). 

In Experiment 1, 3 g samples of steam-sterilized soil were treated with 600 
/xg of N 15 H20H-N in 1 ml of solution. Treated samples were immediately 
extracted with 2 M KC1 or incubated for 4 days (25° C, 100% relative humidity) 
before extraction. The amount of NH 2 OH-N fixed and amounts converted to 
NH4, NO 2, and NO 3 were determined. In Experiment 2, 10 ml of pH 5 acetate 
buffer (2 M containing 10 g of soil, 0.5 g Mn0 2 , 0.5 M FeCl 3 , or 0.057 M NaN0 2 
were treated with 6 ml of a N 15 H 2 OH ■ HC1 solution containing 8 mg of NH 2 OH- 

409 



410 Indiana Academy of Science 

Table 1. Characteristics of soils used in the investigation. 







Soil 
















Cation- 








Organic 


Total 




exchange 


No. 


Type* 


PH 


C 


N 


Clay 


capacity 








% 


% 


% 


me/ 100 g 


1 


Pershing sil 


5.1 


1.79 


0.164 


19 


7.0 


2 


Clyde sil 


5.5 


4.30 


0.402 


25 


29.9 


3 


Sac sicl 


6.8 


2.48 


0.237 


34 


28.4 


4 


Thurman sa 


6.8 


0.64 


0.056 


1 


4.4 


5 


Glencoe sic 


6.8 


8.92 


0.860 


41 


48.8 





*sil, silt loam; silty clay loam; sa, sand; silty clay. 

N. Treatments were performed in a sealed gas analysis unit (helium-oxygen 
atmosphere) described by Nelson and Bremner, 1970) containing KMn0 4 
solution in the center well. After 48 hours of incubation at 25° C, the amount of 
added NH 2 OH-N fixed and the amounts converted to NH4, N0 2 , NO 3, NO + 
NO2, N 2 , and N 2 were determined. 

The amounts of NH4, N0 2 , and NO 3 in 2 M KC1 extracts of soils or in 
acetate buffer were estimated by the extraction-distillation procedure of 
Bremner and Keeney (1966). Hydroxylamine was estimated by a steam 
distillation procedure which involved recovery of inorganic N in soil extracts or 
acetate buffer before and after treatment with FeCh solution. High FeCh 
concentrations oxidized NH 2 OH to gaseous forms of N. Details of the method 
will be published elsewhere. The amount of N fixed (i.e. rendered 
nonextractable) on addition of N 15 enriched NH 2 OH to soil was determined by 
total N analysis and isotope-ratio analysis of the total N digest after removal of 
inorganic forms of N by extraction with 2 M KC1. Nitrogen isotope-ratio 
analyses were performed as described by Bremner (1965b) using a Consolidated 
Electrodynamics Corporation Model 21-620 mass spectrometer fitted with an 
isotope-ratio accessory. Amounts of NH 2 OH converted to N 2 and N 2 were 
estimated by gas chromatographic analysis of a 1 ml sample of the atmosphere 
within gas analysis units as described by Nelson and Bremner (1970). Amounts 
of NO plus N0 2 formed during NH 2 OH reactions were determined by absorbing 
these gases in a 0. 1 M K Mn04: 1 Af K OH solution and subsequent analysis of this 
solution for inorganic N as described by Nelson and Bremner (1970). 

Results and Discussion 

Data in Table 2 establish that added NH 2 OH rapidly reacts with soil 
constituents. The total recovery of added NH 2 OH-N immediately after addition 
averaged 55% in the five soils investigated. Only small amounts of added 
NH 2 OH-N were converted to NH4, N0 2 , or NO 3, whereas an average of 25% 
was "fixed" by soil constituents in a form which could not be extracted by KC1 
solutions. The fixation process was very rapid and the amount of NH 2 OH-N 
fixed was directly related to the organic C content of the soil. This suggests that 
the site of fixation of NH 2 OH in soils is organic matter. Recovery data suggests 



Soil and Atmospheric Sciences 411 

Table 2. Recovery ofhydroxylamine N after treatment of soils with hydroxylamine solution for and 4 

days. 





Treatmi 








Recovery of NH2OH-N (%) 


Soil 


;nt 


As 


As 


As 


As 




no. 


time (da 


iys) 


NH 2 OH 


NH4 


NO: + NO, 


fixed N 


Total 


1 







4 








9 


13 




4 




1 








10 


11 


2 







43 


1 


5 


30 


79 




4 




5 


2 


8 


34 


49 


3 







19 








19 


38 




4 




4 





4 


21 


29 


4 







67 





3 


10 


80 




4 




2 


3 


21 


22 


48 


5 







5 








55 


60 




4 




2 








56 


58 


Ave. 







28 





2 


25 


55 




4 




3 


1 


7 


29 


40 



that an average of 45% of the added N 15 could not be accounted for and was 
presumably lost from the system in gaseous form. 

Recovery of NH 2 OH-N four days after addition to soils showed that only 
small amounts of added N were present as NH2OH (Table 2). Limited amounts 
of added NH2OH-N were converted to NHl, NO 2, or NO 3 (significant amounts 
of NO 3 were formed in two soils). The amounts of added NH2OH-N fixed 
increased slightly after four days of incubation as compared to values for 
immediate fixation. Only an average of 40% of added N was recovered in soils 
following four days of incubation, suggesting that 60% was lost from soil in 
gaseous form. 

In an attempt to determine which components of soil were responsible for 
gaseous loss of added NH 2 OH-N and what types of gaseous N compounds are 
released upon addition of NH 2 OH to soils, a model system was used which 
allowed measurement of all NH 2 OH reaction products. Addition of NH 2 OH to 
acetate buffer containing two soils demonstrated that a portion of the added N is 
fixed, and substantial amounts of N are evolved as N 2 and N 2 (Table 3). The 
proportion of added N evolved from soils as N 2 is about equal to that evolved as 
N 2 0. This finding is somewhat surprising because most investigators have 
believed that N 2 is the major gaseous product of NH 2 OH reactions in soils. In 
an attempt to determine which soil constituents may be responsible for 
conversion of NH 2 OH to N 2 and N 2 0, inorganic substances present in soils were 
reacted with NH 2 OH under controlled conditions. Nitrite and Mn0 2 oxidized 
NH2OH to N 2 with little formation of N 2 (Table 3). Reaction of FeCl 3 with 
NH2OH resulted in significant production of N 2 along with large amounts of 
N 2 0. These findings suggest that inorganic materials may be responsible for 
decomposition of NH 2 OH in soils with subsequent release of gaesous forms of 
N. 



412 Indiana Academy of Science 

Table 3. Recovery of hydroxy/amine N added to pH 5 buffer containing various materials (25° C)* 













Recovery of added NH2OH-N (%) 


Material in 


•As 


As 


As 


As 


As 


As 


As 


buffer 


NH 2 OH 


nh; 


N0 2 + NO 


NO+ NO 


N 2 


N 2 


fixed 

N 


Soil no. 1 (lOg) 


2 








1 


41 


46 


10 


Soil no. 2 (lOg) 


6 


2 


10 





21 


23 


32 


Mn02 (0.5g) 





1 








2 


96 





0.5 M KeCl, 











<1 


29 


71 





0.057 M NaN02 








5 





5 


90 








Ten ml. of pH 5 acetate buffer (2 M) containing the material specified was treated with 6 ml of 
hydroxylamine hydrochloride solution containing 8 mg of hydroxylamine N. Treatments were 
performed in sealed gas analysis units (helium-oxygen atmosphere) with KMn04 solution in center 
chamber. 



Conclusions 

Hydroxylamine reacted rapidly with soil constituents after addition to 
soils. A small portion of added NH2OH was converted to other inorganic forms 
of N in soils (NH4, NO 2, NO 3) whereas substantial amounts were fixed by soil 
organic matter and evolved as gaseous forms of N. Fixation of NH 2 OH likely 
occurs through the formation of oximes when carbonyl groups in soil organic 
matter react with NH 2 OH (Equation 4): 

R-C=0 + NH2OH - R-C=NOH + H 2 (4) 

Schnitzer and Skinner (1965) and Porter (1969) have observed oxime formation 
upon treating humic acid materials with NH 2 OH. Gaseous N compounds are 
likely formed through the reaction of NH 2 OH with common inorganic 
constituents in soils such as ferric iron and manganese dioxide (Equations 5, 6 
and 7): 

2 Mn0 2 + 2NH 2 OH - 2 MnO + N 2 + 3H 2 (5) 

4Fe +3 + 2NH 2 OH - 4 Fe +2 + N 2 + 4H + (6) 

2Fe +3 + 2NH 2 OH - 2Fe +2 + N 2 + 2H 2 + 2H + (7) 

Mann and Quastel (1946) observed that NH 2 OH reacted rapidly with Mn0 2 in 

soils. Porter (1969) reported that NH 2 OH reacts with NO 2 to liberate large 

amounts of N 2 0, however, N0 2 is seldom detected in soils. 

The finding that NH 2 OH is rapidly decomposed and fixed when added to 
soils explains why this compound has never been detected in soil systems. 
Furthermore, it seems likely that NH 2 OH is not released into the soil 
environment during N transformation carried out by microorganisms because if 
this were the case large unexplained losses of N would occur. A more likely 
situation is that NH 2 OH is an intermediate in the transformations of inorganic 
N in cells of soil organisms, however, NH 2 OH is probably bound to the enzymes 
involved in oxidation-reduction of N compounds. Little NH 2 OH is released 
from the cell before more stable N compounds are formed enzymatically. The 
more stable N forms such as N H4 or NO 3 are then released from the cells and are 
available for use by plants or microorganisms. 



Soil and Atmospheric Sciences 413 

Literature Cited 

1. Arnold, P. W. 1954. Losses of nitrous oxide from soils. J. Soil Sci. 5:116126. 

2. Alexander, M. 1961. Introduction to Soil Microbiology. John Wiley and Sons, Inc. New York, N. 
Y. p. 472. 

3. Bremner, J. M. 1965a. Total nitrogen. Agronomy 9:1149-1178. 

4. Bremner, J. M. 1965b. Isotope-ratio analysis of nitrogen in nitrogen — 15 tracer investigations. 
Agronomy 9:1256-1286. 

5. Bremner, J. M. and D. R. Keeney 1966. Determination of different forms of nitrogen in soils. 3. 
Exchangeable ammonium, nitrate, and nitrite by extraction-distillation methods. Soil Sci. Soc. 
Amer. Proc. 30:577-582. 

6. Bremner, J. M. and K. Shaw. 1958. Denitrification in soil. J. Agric. Sci 51:22-39. 

7. DuiSBhRG, P. C. and T. F. Biehrer. 1954. Effect of ammonia and its oxidation products on rate of 
nitrification and plant growth. Soil Sci. 78:37-49. 

8. Edwards, A. P. 1967. A semimicro technique for the determination of cation exchange capacity. 
Can. J. Soil Sci. 47:140-142. 

9. Edwards, A. P. and J. M. Bremner 1965. Dispersion of mineral colloids in soils using cation 
exchange resins. Nature 205:208-209. 

10. Kilmer, V. J. and L. T. Alexander 1949. Methods of making mechanical analysis of soils. Soil 
Science 68:15-24. 

11. Mann, P. J. G. and J. H. Quastel 1946. Manganese metabolism in soils. Nature 158:154-156. 

12. Mebius, L.J. 1960. A rapid method for determination of organic carbon in soils. Anal. Chim. Acta 
22:120-124. 

13. Nelson, D. W. and J. M. Bremner 1970. Gaseous products of nitrite decomposition in soils. Soil 
Biol. Biochem. 2:203-215. 

14. Nommik, H. 1956. Investigations on denitrification in soil. Acta Agr. Scandinavica 6:195-228. 

15. Porter, L. K. 1969. Gaseous products provided by anaerobic reaction of sodium nitrite with oxime 
compounds and oximes synthesized from organic matter. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. Proc. 33:696-702. 

16. Schnitzer, M. and S.I. M. Skinner 1965. The carbonyl group in a soil organic matter preparation. 
Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. Proc. 29:400-405. 



Cadmium Levels of Golf Green Soils 

J. L. Lefton and J.L. Ahlrichs 

Agronomy Department 

Purdue University 

Introduction 

Cadmium is not an essential element for either plants or animals. The need 
for information about cadmium levels in soils and plants has come with the 
environmental and health concerns associated with heavy metals. The soil 
represents a vast natural sink where cadmium amd other heavy metals 
eventually are deposited either directly or indirectly. Once in the soil the metallic 
ions tend to accumulate although there is limited downward movement and 
some plant uptake. 

A normal soil cadmium range of 0.01-0.70 ppm is quoted in the literature, 
the average being 0.06 ppm (Bowen, 1966). Values reported 15 Indiana sites by 
Pietz et al. ( 1 978) range from < 0. 05 at Lafayette to 0. 60 at a site near Gary where 
contamination is expected. The average content of cadmium in sandstone was 
reported by Bowen (1966) as 0.05 ppm, in limestone as 9.04 ppm, and in shale as 
0.03 ppm. Cadmium is also geochemically associated with zinc materials such as 
ZnS (Lagerwerffs, 1972). 

One of the land use situations receiving great doses of added cadmium is 
that of golf greens. Fortunately this use of soil is not typical and the crop is not 
harvested for human consumption. The high concentrations of cadmium 
expected in golf green soils can be attributed to the heavy use of cadmium 
fungicides, activiated sewage sludge as a fertilizer source, and the use of 
phosphate fertilizers. In addition, there are natural sources of contamination 
from the air and rainfall, especially near cities and industrial areas. One would 
expect heavy accumulation of cadmium on greens to come primarily from the 
fungicide use in the 1950's and 1960's. Recent use has decreased because of a 
resistance of the pathogens to cadmium and with the advent of new controls. 

Cadmium carbonate, cadmium chloride, cadmium sebacate, and cadmium 
succinate have been used as fungicides (Couch, 1962). The most commonly used 
cadmium fungicide for the control and prevention of the disease, dollar spot, 
Sclerotina homoeocarpa, was a commercial product, Cadminate. It contained 
60% cadmium succinate as the active ingredient, thus the product had 29% total 
cadmium. The manufacturer recommends that 0.5 oz Cadminate per 1000 sq ft 
(15g/ 100m 2 ) per month be used on a preventative fungicide schedule. It was used 
extensively as a turf fungicide beginning about 1950. Today it is used lessdueto 
cadmium-resistant dollar spot strains. 

Additional contributions of cadmium to agricultural or turf soils could 
come from some phosphate fertilizers and from activated sewage sludge 
fertilizers. Schroeder and Balassa ( 1 963) reported 9-36 ppm Cd in the phosphate 
fraction of five fertilizers. The cadmium is primarily found in rock phosphate 
and super phosphate. Activated sewage sludges sold as slow-release sources of 

414 



Soil and Atmospheric Sciences 415 

nitrogen have only about 6% nitrogen so application rates of up to 100 lbs per 
1000 sq ft (50kg/ 100m 2 ) per year are not uncommon for golf greens. The trade 
name commonly used in turf management is Milorganite. The manufacturer 
reports that a representative sample of Milorganite contains 79 ppm Cd. 
Representative values from anaerabically-digested sludge produced by 10 
different Indiana cities varied from 3 to 810 ppm and average 170 ppm Cd 
(Sommers et. al., 1973). 

Thus golf greens were expected to be heavily contaminated with cadmium. 
The cadmium would be well equilibrated with the soil-plant system since much 
of the cadmium was added 10 or 20 years ago. The contaminated greens could 
therefore provide an excellent source of soil and plant material for cadmium 
research studies. 

The objectives of this study were to develop simplifying modifications in a 
procedure for determining Cd in plant and soil material and to use the method to 
assay cadmium levels in representative golf greens to determine both the content 
and the vertical distribution. 

Methods and Materials 

Sampling Procedures: 

The three main sampling locations were the Lafayette Country Club, Elks 
Country Club and The Purdue North Course, all in the Lafayette, IN vicinity. 
Three greens were randomly selected at each and four, one inch, cores were 
taken with a soil probe at random locations on each green. An additional 
sampling of three random cores were taken on the Purdue Experimental Green. 
The cores were separated into 0-3, 3-6, 6-9, and 9-12 inch layers and each 
analyzed separately. 

To verify the prevalence of cadmium on golf course greens in general, 
seventeen greens from twelve different golf courses located all across the USA 
were sampled at 0-1" or 0-2" depths. 

Samples were air-dried and crushed with a wooden roller to pass a 1 6-mesh 
aluminum screen. 

Digestion Procedures: ' 

1. A. 3.5 gram air-dried samples were placed in graduated 50 ml Folin-Wu 
N.P.N, tubes (Kimax 47125 or Corning 7940). 

2. N-octyl alcohol ( 1 ml) was added to each to reduce frothing during digestion. 

3. The samples were then placed in an aluminum heating block constructed as 
described by Nelson and Sommers (1972). 

4. One Folin-Wu tube centrally located in the block contained mineral oil and a 
thermometer to determine the operational temperature of the block. 

5. Twelve ml of concentrated HNO (70%) was added and 25 mm diameter 
funnel was placed on top of each tube to maintain a constant reflux of the 
liquid. 



1 A modification of the procedure for total cadmium used by the Analytical Lab, Bionucleonics, 
Purdue Univ., W. Lafayette, Indiana 47907. 



416 Indiana Academy of Science 

6. The aluminum block was then placed on an electric hot plate at a temperature 
of 110 C for approximately 15 hours of predigestion. 

7. After the pre-digestion the samples were cooled to room temperature, three 
ml of fuming HNO3 (90%) was added and they were reheated to 100 C. 
Digestion was considered complete when brown NO2 fumes disappeared. 

8. The samples were cooled to room temperature and diluted in the tubes to the 
35 ml mark with distilled water. 

9. The samples are then filtered through Whatman 42 filter paper into 50 ml 
Erlenmeyer flasks for reading on a Jarrell-Ash Model 82-526 Atomic 
Absorption Spectrophotometer. 

10. Cd solutions were prepared containing 2, 1, 0.5 and 0.1 ppm for the standard 
curve. 

Table 1. Cadmium Concentrations from 5 Different Samples. (A Comparison of the Results Obtained 

by the Method Described, and the Results Obtained by the Analytical Lab, Bionucleonics, Purdue 

University, West Lafayette, Indiana). 



Sample Location ppm Cd a ppm Cd 

Purdue University Golf 15.3 19.2 

Course, G. 1 1 

Lafayette Country Club, 9.1 10.2 

Practice Green 

Elks Country Club, 2.3 2.5 

G.9 

Elks Country Club, 1.8 ND C 

G.18 

Elks Country Club, 43.5 50.3 

G.18 

J Results from the method described in this paper. 

Results from the method utilized by the Analytical Lab, Bionucleonics, Purdue University, West 
Lafayette, Indiana. 
L Not detectable. 

Results and Discussion 

Analytical Procedure 

The development of an analytical procedure for total cadmium that would 
be rapid, easy to duplicate, and accurate was one of the objectives of this study. 
The low level of cadmium in most samples requires a digestion method which 
will handle several gram sample sizes with minimum dilution. 

The accuracy of the tube digestion method with 3.5 gm sample was 
evaluated by comparison to the cadmium values obtained on five representative 
samples by the analytical lab for the cadmium project 1 . The results (Table 1) of 
this investigation show a close agreement between the two procedures. The 
further substantiate the accuracy of the tube digestion method, recovery tests of 
added cadmium chloride ranged from 95 to 100%. This range was considered 
satisfactory for this particular study. Also the same check sample (Purdue North 



■The Analytical Lab, Bionucleonics, Purdue University, utilize a nitric acid digestion in 
Erlenmeyer flasks on a hot plate and determines cadmium on a Perkin-Elmer 304 atomic absorption 
Spectrophotometer. 



Soil and Atmospheric Sciences 



417 



Golf Course, Green 1 1, the 3-6 inch depth) was in each set of digestions run on 
the Lafayette vicinity samples. In each case the concentration of this sample did 
not vary measurably from the initial value of 2.5 ppm Cd. 

The N-octyl alcohol and nitric acid used in the digestion procedure 
contained no detectable cadium. 

Since the accuracy of the volume calibration of the tubes is + 0.8%, dilution 
directly in the digestion tubes was considered adequately precise. By diluting in 
the tubes, the chance for error in transferring digests is eliminated, and time and 
labor are reduced. 

It is estimated that a technician could analyze 500-600 samples per week 
utilizing two aluminum blocks with the method described. Thus, the proposed 
method represents an accurate, rapid and simple method for determining total 
cadmium in soil samples. 



Cadmium Levels in Golf Green Samples. 

The results (Table 2) show that the highest concentration of cadmium is in 
the top movement of cadmium vertically in the profile. Lagerwerff et al. (1970) 
found a similar situation for roadside soils contaminate with cadmium. 

Table 2. Cadmium Contents of Golf Greens Sampled at Four Locations, and at Four Deptsf 











Soil Profile Layer 


, inches 




Sampling 












Location b 




0-3 


3-6 




6-9 


9-12 










(ppm Cd) 




Elks C.C., 














West Lafayette, 














Indiana 


G. 9 


46.1 


2.9 




1.8 


1.9 




G. 18 


61.6 


3.2 




2.0 


1.7 




P. G. 


68.5 


3.0 




2.1 


1.7 


Purdue North 














Golf Course, 














West Lafayette, 














Indiana 


G. 9 


38.1 


3.6 




2.6 


2.6 




G. 11 


21.4 


2.4 




1.9 


1.4 




G. 3 


51.0 


2.7 




1.6 


1.8 


Lafayette C.C., 














Lafayette, 














Indiana 


G. 7 


35.5 


3.9 




3.5 


2.3 




P. G. 


8.3 


7.4 




2.8 


1.8 




G. 9 


33.0 


3.0 




2.4 


2.1 


Purdue Experi- 














mental Putting 














Green, West 














Lafayette, 














Indiana 




17.1 


3.6 




2.9 


1.9 



Average 38.1 3.6 2.4 

a Averages of triplicate smples and duplicate analysis. 
Samples are identified according to country club, city, state, and G (green). 



1.9 



418 Indiana Academy of Science 

For golf greens, the higher concentrations of cadmium in the surface can be 
attributed to several factors. To maintain resiliency on the surface of putting 
greens it is common practice to maintain a 0.25-0.50 inch thatch layer. The thatch 
layer offers a vast sink for chelation as well as exchange sites for heavy metals 
added to the surface. In addition, the use of hard water on golf greens tends to 
make most putting greens calcareous at the surface. The excessively high levels 
of phosphorus 1 found in a majority of greens also increases the possibility of 
precipitating cadmium in the surface layer. 

Only the practice green (Table 2) at the Lafayette Country Club was 
appreciable lower in total cadmium in the 0.3" layer, as compared to the other 
surface samples. This would be expected since this green was established 
recently. There has been less cadmium fungicide applied, less phosphorus 
fertilizer used, and less thatch build-up when compared to the other greens. 

Statistical studies showed the cadmium levels to vary from green to green 
on the same golf course and between golf courses. For the Elks Country Club the 
mean value of cadmium 2 in the 0-3" layer varied from 46. 1 to 68.5 ppm Cd. For 
the Purdue North Golf Course the variation was from 21.4 to 5.1 ppm Cd. For 
the Lafayette Country Club the variation was from 8.3 to 35.5 ppm Cd. This type 
of variation would be expected since golf greens vary in their construction, in 
slope, in compaction, in water application, and in the rate and frequency of 
cadmium fungicide application. 

In addition, variation in the cadmium levels existed in the lower portion of 
the profile of the greens. This can be attributed to differences in the internal 
water movement, layering within greens, and a variation in internal porosity of 
greens. The mean value of cadmium 2 in the 3-6" layer ranged from 2.5 to 3.9 ppm 
Cd. An exception to this was the practice green at the Lafayette Country Club. 
The mean value for cadmium 2 for this layer was 7.4 ppm Cd. Since the green is 
fairly new, the reduced compaction and a corresponding greater porosity in the 
top 6 inches of the profile would yield high infiltration and percolation rates. 
Also contributing to the movement of cadmium in this particular sample is the 
lack of organic matter in the surface. The thatch layer for this green was minimal 
when compared to the other samples. 

The cadmium content of samples within greens also varied significantly. 
The greatest source of error here would come from uneven application of the 
fungicide. In addition, variations in compaction, slope and moisture application 
on the same green could cause the varying cadmium contents. 

The high cadmium levels in the 9-12" layer is of special interest. Even at this 
depth the cadmium level is still considerable above the normal soil cadmium 
level of 0.06 ppm (Bo wen, 1966). Follow up studies on green 9 of the Purdue 
North Course showed that cadmium levels did not reach background levels until 
the 24" depth. 



'From the Midwest Turf Leaflet No. 16, 86% of the 1600 golf green samples tested by the Soil 
Testing, Laboratory of Purdue Univ. were excessively high in phosphorus (greater than 100 lbs. P/ A). 

2 The mean cadmium level was determined from triplicate samples and duplicate analysis. 



Soil and Atmospheric Sciences 419 

The 17 greens representing 12 golf courses across the USA (Table 3) 
illustrate the prevalence of the cadmium enrichment. The lowest surface soil 
value found was 4.2 ppm which is much above normal levels. The high value is 
the 80 ppm of the University of Michigan country club green 16. This is the 
oldest green in the collection being over 40 years old. It represents the 
accumulation of cadmium from many years of use in a part of the country where 
its use for disease control started early. 

Summary 

Digestion of soil samples for cadmium requires a concentrated digestate to 
maintain sufficient cadmium concentration for analysis. The 3.5 gm samples 
were handled well in the Folin-Wu tube digestion by long digestions at low 
temperature, use of N-octyl alcohol as antifoaming agent and use fuming HNO3 
acid for final digestion. The advantage of this block digestion system is the great 
number of large samples that can be digested simultaneously with minimal 
attention. 

Table 3. Cadmium Contents of surface soil samples from Greens of 12 additional Golf Courses a . 

Sampling Location Green No. ppm Cd 

Old Warson C.C., St. Louis, MD 
Big Spring C.C., Louisville, KY 
Point-O- Woods, Benton Harbor, MI 
Browns Run C.C., Middleton, OH 
Oakwood C.C., Cleveland, OH 
Riverside C.C., Battle Creek, MI 
Univ. of Mich. C.C., Ann Arbor, MI 
Goodyear Golf & C.C., Litchfield Park, AR 
Silver Lake C.C., Silver Lake, IL 
Sunset C.C., St. Louis, MO 
Sunset C.C., St. Louis, MO 
Edgewood C.C., Cinncinati, OH 
Edgewood C.C., Cinncinati, OH 
College Park, MA 
College Park, MA 
College Park, MA 
College Park, MA 

Average 14.0 

a Results are averages of duplicate analysis on samples taken from 0-l"depth with thatch removed 
excepting College Park samples which were 0-2" depth. 



Cadmium contents on old greens is particularly high in the surface 0-3 
inches, is still above normal at 9-12 inch depths, and in one green which was 
studied to greater depths the cadmium levels returned to normal at 24 inches. 

There is great variation in cadmium levels between golf courses, between 
greens on a course and within greens. These undoubtedly arises primarily from 
variation in rates of cadmium fungicide used and from movement patterns 
affected by physical and chemical properties of the green and its soil. 



10 


7.8 


17 


12.0 


1 


16.8 


15 


10.4 


15 


31.0 


2 


4.2 


16 


80.0 


15 


5.2 


10 


6.1 


2 


8.4 


10 


10.4 


4 


7.0 


16 


10.3 


X 


8.6 


10 


7.0 


12 


5.8 


15 


7.8 



420 Indiana Academy of Science 

Samples from greens all across the USA showed modest to very great 
contamination with cadmium. The levels appear to be related to the age of the 
green and the use of cadmium salts as fungicides. 

The soils, the microfauna, and the grass on the greens have been reacting 
with the cadmium for many years. Thus, we have an excellent source for high 
cadmium soil, microfauna and plant tissue from an already equilibrated system 
for future scientific studies. 

Acknowledgements 

The authors appreciate assistance received from R.P. Freeborg, A. Hegab, 
and W.P. Miller in the sampling and analytical work. 



Literature Cited 

1. Bowen, H.J.M. 1966. Trace elements in biochemistry. Academic Press, New York. p. 179. 

2. Lagerwerff, J.V. 1972. Lead, mercury, and cadmium as environmental contaminants. Soil 
Science Society of America, Madison, Wisconsin p. 619-628. 

3. Lagerwerff, J.V., and A.W. Specht. 1970. Contamination of roadside soil and vegetation with 
cadmium, nickel, lead, and zinc. Environ. Sci. Technol. 4:583-586. 

4. Nelson, D.W., and L.E. Sommers. 1972. A simple digestion procedure for estimation of total 
nitrogen in soils and sediments. J. Environ. Quality. l(4):423-425. 

5. Pietz, R.I., R.J. Vetter, D. Masarik, and W.W. McFee. 1978 Zinc and Cadmium Contents of 
Agricultural Soils and Corn in Northwestern Indiana. J. Environ. Quality (accepted for 
publication) 

6. Schroeder, H.A., and J.J. Balassa. 1963. Cadmium: uptake by vegetables from superphosphate 
by soil. Science 140:819-820. 

7. Sommers, L.E., D.W. Nelson, J.E. Yahner, and J.V. Mannering. 1973. Chemical Composition 
of Sewage Sludge from Selected Indiana Cities. Ind. Acad. Sci. 82:424-432. 



Comparison of Soil Structure Resulting 
From Permanent Pasture and Continuous Row Crop 

G.C. Steinhardt and L.D. Norton, Department of Agronomy, 
Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 

Physical properties of soils are an important factor in soil management to 
improve yield and promote continued soil productivity. Because the parameters 
that measure physical properties have been difficult to equate with yield 
response they have often been relegated to a secondary role as compared to the 
clearer relationship between soil fertility levels and yield. 

Recent examples of yield reduction from subsoil compaction and increased 
erosion noted on soils with poor soil structure has increased interest in 
maintaining soil structure and determining important components of it. In 
Fulton County, Indiana on a loamy sand soil a corn yield reduction from about 
6.4 metric ton/ha (100 bu/acre) to 1.9 metric ton/ ha (30 bu/acre) was due to 
compaction. And recent studies in Illinois show that sloping lands under intense 
cultivation are losing poorly structured surface soil at a rate that is too high to 
retain productivity. 

Currently in Indiana many soils have poor structure in the surface horizon. 
Two reasons have been suggested for this situation. First continuous row crops 
especially soybeans, do not add enough crop residue to promote soil structure. 
And second, less organic matter is being added to soils from animal agriculture 
because animal manure has been considered to be too low in nutrients for the 
effort needed to apply it, because of environmental concerns, and many farms 
have eliminated this part of their operation. 

Poor soil structure has also been evidenced by subsoil compaction 
problems that have occurred over a wide range of soil textures. Part of this is due 
to tilling wet soils, tilling at the same depth, and excessive use of a disk. 

Methods and Materials 

On a farm near Roachdale Indiana, a four acre pasture which had not been 
plowed in 75 years was available for a study to compare the soil physical 
properties under these conditions contrasted to those under continuous row 
cropping in the adjacent field. Two soils differing in drainage were present in the 
pasture, the somewhat poorly drained Fincastle and the poorly drained 
Ragsdale. These soils were also present in the adjacent plowed field. Field 
descriptions were made at each of the four sites representing each of four soil 
conditions, somewhat poorly drained Fincastle and poorly drained Ragsdale, 
both plowed and unplowed. Descriptions were made following the Soil Survey 
Manual guidelines (Soil Survey Staff, 1951) and the procedures of the Purdue 
University Soil Characterization Laboratory (Franzmeier et al., 1977). 

Ten pound bulk samples of the surface horizon were taken for 
characterization and aggregate analysis. Procedures for particle-size analysis, 
organic carbon, and chemical analysis followed those of the Purdue University 

421 



422 Indiana Academy of Science 

Soil Characterization Laboratory (Franzmeier et al., 1977) except that the 
particle-size analysis was completed both with and without destroying organic 
matter with hydrogen peroxide prior to analysis. 

Aggregate analysis followed a procedure developed by McFree (personal 
communication) which was based on a method by Kemper and Chepil (1965). 
The steps in the analysis are: 

1 . Sieve air dry natural aggreates through a sieve with square 8 mm openings. 
Discard material larger than 8 mm. 

2. Place the material that passed the 8 mm sieve on a sieve with a square 2 mm 
opening. Keep the material for analysis that is retained on the 2 mm sieve. 

3. Place the lOg samples in moisture dishes to determine air dry moisture 
content. 

4. Fill the container that is used for the wet sieving with water to within one 
inch of the top. Use a nest of 4 sieves with the following openings: 4.76mm, 
2.00mm, 1.00mm, and 0.21mm. Place each nest on a rack that attaches to 
the apparatus that oscillates the sample up and down 35 times per minute 
through a stroke of 38 mm. Adjust the nest of sieves so that at the top of the 
stroke the mesh of the top sieve is at the water surface. Be sure that any 
entrapped air is released. 

5. Place two 25g samples of air dry soil for each soil on the top sieve at the top 
of the stroke and sieve the sample for ten min. 

6. After ten minutes of sieving remove the nest of sieves from the water 
container and drain. Place a dish under each sieve and over dry at 105° C for 
thirty minutes. 

7. Weigh the oven dry aggregates. Place the aggregates in a dish, add a small 
amount of water and dispersing solution, and crush with a rubber 
policeman. Wash through the sieve that retained the aggregate until only 
sand particles remain. Place in the oven and dry at 105° C. 

8. Weigh sand fraction and subtract from original aggregate weight. The total 
oven dry weight is calculated from the sample weight and air dry moisture 
content. 

9. Determine the corrected aggregate amount retained on each sieve and 
determine the amount of fines by difference. 

10. Calculate fraction of total sample in each size fraction. Multiply this 
fraction by the mean size of each fraction. The sum of these numbers is the 
mean weight diameter (MWD). 

Results 

The field description of the two soils are shown in Tables 1 and 2. The 
differences between the plowed and unplowed soils are basically surface color 
and the strength of the granular structure in the surface horizon. The soils are 
classified as the Ragsdale silt loam in the poorly drained condition and Fincastle 
silt loam in the somewhat poorly drained condition. However, the color of the 
surface horizon in the unplowed Fincastle is darker than the modal concept. 

Table 3 contains the characterization data to compare the soil differences. 
Particle-size analysis shows that the field determination of silt loam texture class 



Soil and Atmospheric Sciences 



423 





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426 Indiana Academy of Science 

was correct. The Ragsdale soils were slightly higher in clay than the Fincastle 
soils. In swell and swale topography the lower lying, very poorly drained soils in 
the swale are often slightly higher in clay content than the somewhat poorly 
drained soils on the swells. 

When organic matter was destroyed by hydrogen peroxide the clay content 
is consistently higher for both the plowed and unplowed condition. This would 
show the ability of organic matter to aggregate clay and silt size particles into silt 
and sand size particles. These aggregates were very durable because they 
withstood overnight shaking with the dispersing solution of sodium 
metaphosphate and sodium carbonate. In both the unplowed Fincastle and 
Ragsdale the difference between organic matter free and organic matter 
included clay content was approximately 12.5%. This compared with a 
difference of about 2.5% for both the Fincastle and Ragsdale. This showed that 
the additional organic matter found in these unplowed soils was effective in 
enhancing soil structure. 

There has been some speculation that some of the silt size aggregates of clay 
size particles may act more like silt than clay in the soil. Comparing the air dry 
moisture content shown in Table 3 with clay content measured with and without 
organic matter destruction shows that this moisture content is more closely 
related to clay content determined after organic matter destruction. However, 
there might be another aspect to this relationship because silt size particles are 
related more to available moisture (Franzmeier et al., 1960 and Steinhardt, 
1968) than air dry moisture content and it may be in this property where these silt 
size aggregates have a measurable effect on soil moisture. 

Calculated mean weight diameter (MWD) is shown on Table 3. As 
expected both unplowed soils had coarser MWD than the plowed soils. The data 
also indicates that the Fincastle in both the plowed and unplowed condition had 
slightly stronger structure than the Ragsdale in a similar condition. This is 
contrary to what has been thought about these soils. There has been more 
concern about compaction and structure problems on the somewhat poorly 
drained than on the poorly drained soil. This data shows that current thinking 
about potential problems of soil structure may need examination. 

Another interesting feature of the aggregate analysis was the appearance of 
the aggregate before and after analysis. Before wet sieving aggregates from both 
plowed and unplowed soils, except for color, appeared quite similar. But after 
wet sieving there was a considerable difference, the aggregates in both unplowed 
soils had distinct faces on the individual granules compared to both plowed soils 
where the faces on individual aggregates were not as smooth or regular. It 
appeared as if the aggregates from the plowed soils were still being eroded away 
by the wet sieving while the unplowed soils had been worked down to an 
aggregate that would resist further breakdown. The unplowed aggregates were 
much larger and more durable which would improve the infiltration and 
permeability of the surface horizon for both dry and excessively wet conditions. 

Organic carbon content was also measured and it is shown in Table 3. As 
expected both unplowed soils were higher in organic carbon content than the 
unplowed soils. In the unplowed condition Fincastle and Ragsdale 



Soil and Atmospheric Sciences 427 

were quite similar in organic carbon content. On the cropped two 
different equilibrium contents were found with the poorly drained soils having a 
higher organic carbon content probably because of higher moisture content 
more time through the year. 

In other work (Steinhardt et al., 1977) there has been a relationship 
established for silt loam soil texture between the soil color as determined on the 
Munsell Soil Color Chart and organic matter content in the plow layer of 
Indiana soils. Samples from the plow layer horizon of 1 14 soils that had a silt 
loam texture and had a color of the 10 YR hue were examined. These separations 
could be consistently made: > 5% organic matter 10YR2/2 and N2/0; 3-5% 
organic matter 10YR2/2, 3/1, 3/2, and 3/3; less than 3% organic matter all 
other 10YR colors found for surface soils. This relationship changes for coarser 
textured soils to a lower organic matter content for the same color and to higher 
organic matter contents for the same color in finer textured soils. At this point, 
not enough samples have been completed to establish precise numbers. Of 
course, this relationship is not applicable in a different climate or moisture 
regime. 

The estimate of organic matter content with that actually measured was 
correct for the plowed soils and low for both unplowed soils. This indicates that 
a different equilibrium has been set up in the unplowed vs plowed soils and as a 
result the relationship between soil color and organic matter content must be 
limited to cropped soils. 

Summary and Conclusions 

Unplowed soils have a much higher content of clay particles aggregated 
into larger particles than plowed soils. However, the relationship of air dry 
moisture content is more closely related to clay content measured after organic 
matter is destroyed. 

The somewhat poorly drained Fincastle has slightly stronger structure than 
Ragsdale. This points out that poorly drained soils may have some potential 
structure problems that should be carefully examined. 

The unplowed soils have organic matter content which is higher than the 
plowed soils. These unplowed soils have a different relationship between soil 
color and organic carbon content which limits the application of the relationship 
between soil color and organic carbon content established for plowed soils. With 
higher organic carbon content, soil structure was much coarser and more 
durable. Both of these properties promote infiltration and improved moisture 
holding properties. This would support the value of soil management systems 
that promote addition of organic matter to soils for the improvement of soil 
physical properties. 



Literature Cited 

1. Franzmeier, D.P., E.P. Whiteside, and A.E. Erickson. 1960. Relationship of texture classes of 
fine earth to readily available water. 7th International Cong, of Soil Sci. Madison, Wisconsin 
1:354-363. 



428 Indiana Academy of Science 

2. Franzmeier, D.P., G.C. Steinhardt, and L.D. Norton. 1977. Soil characterization in Indiana I: 
Field and laboratory procedures. Research Bulletin No. 943. Purdue University, Agricultural 
Experiment Station. 36 pp. 

3. Kemper, W.D. and W.S. Chepil. 1965. Size distribution of aggregates. In C.A. Black (ed.) 
Methods of Soil Analysis, Part 1. Amer. Soc. of Agron., Madison, Wisconsin. 499-510 pp. 

4. Soil Survey Staff. 1951. Soil survey manual. USD A Handbook No. 18 U.S. Government 
Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 

5. Steinhardt, G.C. 1968. Relation of various particle size limits in the silt size range to selected 
physical properties. M.S. Thesis, Michigan State University. 

6. Steinhardt, G.C, D.P. Franzmeier, L.D. Norton, and J.E. Yahner. 1977. Comparison of 
organic carbon content with soil texture and color in Indiana soils. Agron. Abstracts, p. 19. 



ZOOLOGY 

Chairman: John O. Whitaker, Jr., Department of Life Sciences 
Indiana State University, Terre Haute, Indiana 47809 

Chairman-Elect: Jackson L. Marr, Department of Biology 
Indiana State University-Evansville, Evansville, Indiana 47712 

Abstracts 

The Influence of Space Reduction and Behavioral Stress upon Plasma 
Corticoids Concentration in Dairy Cows. Clive W. Arave* and Jack L. 
Albright, Department of Animal Sciences, Purdue University, West 

Lafayette, Indiana 47907 Increased corticoid concentrations in the blood 

have been one of the end results of psychological or social stress in various 
experiments. One objective of this study was to determine whether reduction in 
living area to one-fourth that normally found in loose housed dairy cattle was a 
stress sufficient to affect plasma corticoids concentration. A second objective 
was to determine what effect isolation in an even smaller area, as generally 
practiced for artificial insemination or health problems, had on plasma 
corticoids concentration. A final objective was to determine whether social 
dominance rank (DR) was associated with corticoids concentration. Space was 
reduced from 100 to 25 ft 2 /cow during weeks 2 and 4 for one group of 17 cows in 
a 4 week study. A second 1 7 cow group was maintained at 100 ft 2 cow during the 
same period as a control. Plasma total corticoids were determined for 8 cows (4 
from each group) at the 0, 24th and 72nd hour of each week and for 3 cows from 
each group following isolation. Corticoids were not increased but may have 
been lowered during space restriction. Average plasma corticoids were higher 
for the control group (1 1.0 vs. 5.7 ng/ml) than for the space restricted group. 
Social dominance appeared to have little relationship to corticoids 
concentration. Even though 5 of 6 cows experienced increased corticoids 
concentration in isolation one cow's corticoids decreased. Within cow 
differences between average and isolation corticoids were not significant. 

Models for Gas Diffusion into Red Blood Cells. Duvall A. Jones, Department 

of Biology, Saint Joseph's Colleges, Rennsselaer, Indiana 47978 Discoidal 

models of red cells have long been used to demonstrate that aspects of red cell 
shape, especially cell thickness and surface area to volume ratio, are important 
to rate of oxygen uptake by these cells. More recent theoretical and 
experimental studies, based upon spheres or infinitely thin sheets of 
hemoglobin, have concluded that red cell shape is not important to rate of gas 
uptake. Some suggest further that resistance to oxygen diffusion by the plasma 
membrane has an important limiting effect. 

The present analysis, based upon experimental data and discoidal models, 
demonstrates the importance of thickness and surface area/ volume ratios to 
rate of gas uptake. Shortcomings of models with extreme shapes are noted. 

Circadian Rhythm of Movement in the Mexican Jumping-Bean Moth, 
Laspeyresia saltitans (Westwood). William J. Brett, Life Sciences 

429 



430 Indiana Academy of Science 

Department, Indiana State University, Terre Haute, Indiana 47809 

Mexican jumping beans, Sebastiana, containing living larvae of the moth 
Laspeyresia saltitans were placed under a 12:12 light-dark regime and 
monitored for movement. This was accomplished by detection and 
amplification of audible clues, provided by movement of the seeds, which were 
fed into a physiograph. Data showed the larvae to have maximum movement 
during the period of light and very little movement during the peak period. The 
larvae anticipated the commencement of the dark period, but did not exhibit 
anticipatory behavior in relation to the commencement of the light period. 

Reproduction of Notropis spilopterus and Pimephales vigilax in the lower 
White River, Pike County, Indiana. Raymond A. Schlueter, Division of 

Science and Mathematics, University of Tampa, Tampa, Florida Gonads 

of Notropis spilopterus develop from March to June and become ripe in June. 
Spawning peak occurs in late July and August. Females contained eggs of three 
different size groups in addition to large ripe eggs indicating fractional 
spawning. 

Gonads of Pimephales vigilax develop in April and May and become ripe in 
June and July. Spawning occurs in June and early July. Ripe females had two 
egg sizes. Males were larger than females. 

A Preliminary Study on the Effect of Vasectomy on the Biology of the Mouse 
Epididymis. Larry R. Ganion, Department of Physiology and Health Science, 

Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana 47306 To examine the effect of 

vasectomy on the mammalian epididymis, a unilateral vasectomy was surgically 
performed on the left vas deferens of sexually mature white mice. The vas 
deferens was retracted through an abdominal incision, severed, ligated, and 
returned to the peritoneal cavity. The animals were sacrificed at intervals 
ranging from 2-17 months and the epididymides prepared for morphological 
and biochemical study. Those removed from the right side of the mice served as 
controls. The tissues were fixed in 3%glutaraldehyde, postfixed in 1% osmium 
tetroxide, embedded in epon 812, and viewed in an RCA EMU 3-C electron 
microscope. For histology study portions of the epididymides were fixed in 
Bouins. Vasectomy does not appear to drastically alter the histology or 
ultrastructure of the head of the epididymis, but a few morphological changes 
are observed within the tail of the epididymis. With time the tubules in the tail of 
the vasectomized epididymides became engorged with an amorphous substance, 
vacuoles developed in association with the epithelial wall, and large cells 
appeared within the lumina. The fine structure of the tubules in the epididymal 
tail is also altered by vasectomy. These alterations include a thickening of the 
basal lamina, shortening of epithelial cells, reduction in stereocilia and 
dissolution of lumenal sperm. Biochemical analyses for acid phosphatase 
revealed that there are no clearly demonstrable differences between the acid 
phosphatase activity levels of the experimental and control epididymides. 
Histochemical studies indicated that the enzyme is primarily restricted to 
specific epithelial cells of the epididymal tubules. With the electron microscope 
the reaction product was seen to be especially concentrated over cytoplasmic 
vacuoles of these cells. The histological distribution of acid phosphatase in the 
vasectomized and non-vasectomized epididymides appeared to be similar. 



Zoology 431 

Localization of Aminoglutethimide at the Cellular Level. Belinda A. Shenk 
and William J. Brett, Life Sciences Department, Indiana State University, 

Terre Haute, Indiana 47809 Previous studies have shown that there is a 

general tissue uptake of the anticonvulsant drug, aminoglutethimide (Elipten, 
Ciba) (AG). In this study, an attempt was made to determine the area(s) of AG 
localization within the cell. The liver was excised from a white rat which had 
been injected with tritiated AG one hour prior to sacrifice and a liver 
homogenate was prepared. Centrifugation was employed to separate cell 
organelles and membranes from the cytoplasm and to isolate mitochondria 
from the hemogenate. Samples of the pellet and supernatant from both sets of 
experiments were counted in a liquid scintillation counter. Results from our 
study indicate that AG largely localizes in the cytoplasm, but that AG does 
become significantly associated with the mitochondria and other cell 
organelle(s). 

The Fine Structure of the Nictitans Gland of the Dog with Particular Reference 
to the Formation and Release of its Secretory Product. Mohinder S. Jarial 
and Ling S. Jen, Department of Physiology and Health Science, Muncie Center 

for Medical Education, Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana 47306 The 

nictitans gland of mongrel dogs were studied grossly and by histological and 
electron microscopic techniques. 

The nictitans gland is a yellowish pink, spatula shaped glandular mass that 
surrounds the basal part of a flat somewhat T-shaped hyaline cartilage 
embedded in the nictitating membrane. Paraffin sections stained with 
hematoxylin and eosin show that it is a tubuloacinar gland composed of 
randomly distributed acini and ducts. Based on the electron density of the 
cytoplasmic matrix, two cell types can be differentiated in different acini i.e. 
"dark" and "light" cells. The myoepithelial cells are often present in relation to 
both cell types. The more numerous dark cells contain abdundant granular 
endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, vacuoles and numerous electron dense 
PAS positive secretory granules in the cytoplasm. The endoplasmic reticulum 
and nuclei lie in the basal portion of the cells. The light cells which are mainly 
located in the periphral portion of the gland contain large vesicles which give 
honeycomb-like appearance to these cells. Frozen sections of these cells stain 
positively for lipids with Sudan black B. Histochemical evidence shows that the 
dark cells secrete seromucoid material while the light cells are involved in lipid 
secretion. 

Proximally the ducts are lined with secretory cells which appear 
structurally similar to the dark cells of acini. Distal portion of the ducts 
progressively become devoid of secretory cells. 

In the acinar portion of the gland the granules of the dark cells are secreted 
in whole and retain their membranes after extrusion into the acinar lumina. In 
secretory portion of the ducts, the granules reach the ductal lumina by apical 
extensions of secretory cells. Cytoplasmic fragments containing granules are 



This work was supported in part by a grant from the College of Sciences and Humanities, Ball 
State University. 



432 Indiana Academy of Science 

frequently present in the ductal lumina. A few free nuclei have also been 
observed in the ductal lumina. 

In conclusion the nictitans gland has an apocrine form of secretions, 
although holocrine type of activity is exhibited by a portion of this gland. 

A Distribution Study of the Blacktail Shiner (Notropis venustus) in the Clear 

Creek Basin. H. E. McReynolds, U.S. Forest Service, Bedford, Indiana In 

1974, a joint survey was undertaken to determine the present distribution of the 
blacktail shiner (Notropis venustus). Biologists of the Illinois Department of 
Conservation, U.S. Forest Service, and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service sampled 
12 sites in the Clear Creek basin. This stream, in Union and Alexander counties, 
is the only Illinois drainage basin from which this rare minnow has been 
recorded. 

Food Habits of the Barn Owl Tyto alba in Clinton County, Ohio. Gary L. 
Tieben and John S. Halter, Department of Biological Sciences, St. Francis 

College, Fort Wayne, Indiana 46808 The food of the Barn Owl, Tyto alba 

in Clinton County, Ohio, consisted of small mammals and birds. In a twenty- 
two month period from June 1975 to April 1977, 972 pellets were collected. 
Pellet analysis showed the general diet to consist of Microtus pennsylv amicus 
81.1%, Blarina brevicauda 10.5%, birds .3% (Agelaius phoeniceus 40.0%, 
Stunella magna 4.0%, Sturnus vulgaris 4.0%, unidentified species 52.0%), 
Peromyscus sp. 1.3%, Microtus ochrogaster 0.6%, Mus musculus 0.4%, Rattus 
norvegicus 0.1%, Mus tela nivalus 0.1% and unidentified microtines 4.7%. Owl 
pellets were collected for three seasons, summer 1975, fall 1975, and winter 1975- 
76. The summer diet consisted of: M. pennsylvanicus 73.9%, B. brevicauda 9.8%, 
birds 6.5%, M. ochrogaster 3.3%, M. musculus 1.1%, M. nivalus 1.1%, and 
unidentified microtines 4.3%. The fall diet consisted of: M. penny slvanicus 
88.6%, B. brevicauda 5.7% and, unidentified microtines 5.7%. The winter diet 
consisted of: M. pennsylvanicus 90.0%, B. brevicauda 3.3% and unidentified 
microtines 6.7%. 

Mallophaga of Wild Mammals of Indiana. John O. Whitaker, Jr., and 
Rebecca J. Goff, Department of Life Sciences, Indiana State University, Terre 

Haute, Indiana 47809 Mallophaga (biting lice) were found on wild 

mammals of Indiana as follows: Geomydoecus illinoiensis on Geomys 
bursarius, Suricatoecus quadraticeps on Urocyon cinereoargenteus, 
Trichodectes octomaculatus on Procyon lotor, Stachiella kingi on Mustela 
nivalis, S. larseni on Mustela vison, Neotrichodectes minutus on Mustela 
frenata, N. interruptofasciatus on Taxidea taxus, N. mephitidis on Mephitis mephitis, 
and Tricholipeurus parallelus and T lipeuroides on Odocoileus virginiana. Not 
found to date were Suracatoecus vulpis (which could be synonymous with S. 
quadraticeps) from Vulpes vulpes, Heterodoxus spiniger and Trichodectes canis 
from Canis latrans, and Felicola felis from Lynx rufus. 

Effects of Age on Blood Pressure in Female Rats. W. J. Eversole, Life Sciences 

Department, Indiana State University, Terre Haute, Indiana 47809 Ten 

female rats of the Charles River strain were studied from the age of 42 days (170 
gm) until death by natural causes. They were fed Purina Laboratory Chow, had 
access at all times to tap water, and were housed in wire cages with five rats to a 



Zoology 433 

large cage ( 1 8 x 35 x 42 cm). Weights and blood pressures were taken at intervals 
varying from one to three months, and more often at certain critical times such 
as when severe illness was present or when death seemed eminent. The average 
survival was 734 days (2 yrs.) but one rat died at 490 days (1.3 yrs.) and the 
longest survivor lived 985 days (2.7 yrs.). Seven of the ten animals developed 
rapidly growing soft tumors of the mammary glands with the first palpable 
tumor appearing at 481 days (1.3 yrs.). One rat did not develope an observable 
tumor until it was 835 days of age (2.3 yrs.). Four rats developed huge tumors 
that, at the time of death, weighed more than the rat carcass itself. The more 
interesting aspect of this study was that the blood pressure did not progressively 
increase with age and most rats were normotensive throughout the study. In 
elderly rats that survived beyond the average two-year span the pressures 
fluctuated considerably but hypertension was not consistently present. Two rats 
that survived the longest had tremors and poor tail pulses terminally, making it 
difficult to obtain blood pressure readings during the week preceding death. 



Distribution and Abundance 
of Rodents in Cultivated Ecosystems 

Wayne C. Houtcooper, Department of Biology* 
Aquinas College, Grand Rapids, Michigan 49506 

Introduction 

The prairie deermouse {Peromyscus maniculatus bairdii Hoy & Kennicott) 
and the house mouse (Mus musculus L.) occur commonly in Vigo County, 
Indiana (3). Important previous studies have examined food habits (2), and 
various aspects of habitat relationships of these rodents (1,3,4,5). 

During a study from 1970 through 1974, information was gathered about 
rodent distribution and abundance in relation to season, habitat, and cover 
solely in agricultural habitats of Vigo County, Indiana. The specific objective of 
this report is to relate those findings to explain the occurrence of these rodents in 
cultivated field ecosystems and to compare my results with those of previous 
studies to determine what changes, if any, have occurred in the distribution and 
abundance of these rodents in cultivated field ecosystems. 

Methods and Materials 

Trapping was conducted in approximately 1133 ha of cropland in west- 
central Indiana from July 1970 to October 1974 by snap traps baited with a 
mixture of peanut butter and rolled oats. Fields were divided into plots of 25 x 25 
m and sampling plots were randomly selected. In each plot, 25 traps were set in 5 
lines of 5 traps, with 5 m between each trap and 2.5 m between the outer traps 
and the edge of the plot. Traps were checked each day for 4 consecutive days and 
rebaited when necessary. Sampling times were divided on the basis of season 
(winter, spring, summer, fall), type of habitat (corn, soybean, corn stubble, 
soybean stubble, plowed field) and amount of herbaceous cover (good, fair, 
poor). A description of cover types may be found elsewhere (4). All mammals 
taken were identified and sexed. A Chi-square goodness-of-fit test was used to 
determine significance of occurrence by season, type of habitat, and amount of 
cover. In all tests, the 0.05 level of significance was used. 

Results and Discussion 

A total of 497 P. m. bairdii (317 males, 180 females) and 281 M. musculus 
(166 males, 115 females) were taken from 177 plots. For each species, 
significantly more males than females were collected. Although undetermined, 
these differences may have reflected either true population sex ratios or trapping 
method influences (activity patterns including greater amount of movement by 
males, trap responses, bait selection, etc.). 



♦Present address: Chief biologist, Kentucky Nature Preserves Commission. 407 West Broadway, 
Frankfort, KY 40601. 

434 



Zoology 435 



Table 1 . Seasonal Distribution of Peromyscus maniculatus bairdii and Mus musculus in Cultivated 
Fields of Vigo County, Indiana, (number of plots shown in parentheses below respective season) 

Season 







Winter 


Spring 


Summer 


hall 






Dec- 


■Feb 


Mar- 


■May 


June 


-Aug 


Sept-Nov 






(33) 


(42) 


(65) 


(37) 






# of 


Mice/ 


# of 


Mice/ 


# of 


Mice/ 


# of 


Mice/ 


Species 


Sex 


Mice 


Plot 


Mice 


Plot 


Mice 


Plot 


Mice 


Plot 


P. m. bairdii 


Male 


60 


1.8 


35 


0.8 


159 


2.5 


63 


1.7 




Female 


35 


1.1 


29 


0.7 


74 


1.1 


42 


1.1 




Both 


95 


2.9 


64 


1.5 


233 


3.6 


105 


2.8 


M. musculus 


Male 


21 


0.6 


8 


0.2 


71 


1.1 


66 


1.8 




Female 


12 


0.4 


7 


0.2 


43 


0.7 


53 


1.4 




Both 


33 


1.0 


15 


0.4 


114 


1.8 


119 


3.2 



Seasonal distributions were summarized by species and sex (Table 1). Both 
species showed significant differences of distribution in relation to season than 
would be expected by chance alone. More P. m. bairdii were taken in summer 
and fewer in spring than expected, while values for fall and winter were as 
expected. Fewer M. musculus were taken in winter and spring and more in fall 
than expected; values for summer were as expected. These seasonal differences 
may act to minimize competition for food and space, thus enabling the two 
species to successfully inhabit these ecosystems. Whitaker (4) found that both 
species occurred together in a variety of habitats but at different rates dependent 
upon the quality of each habitat. Thus in response to the seasonal changes and 
the corresponding changes in habitat quality (cover, food, etc.), the seasonal 
distribution and abundance of these rodents also changed. An analysis by sex 
indicated that significant differences existed for male P. m. bairdii but not for 
females, and again, may have reflected true sex ratios or trapping method 
influences. Males were most frequent in summer and least frequent in spring, 
while more males than females were taken in winter, summer, and fall. No 
differences between sexes were noted for spring. Seasonal differences were 
found for both male and female M. musculus. Both sexes were most frequent 
during fall and least frequent during spring. Males were taken more frequently 
than females in winter and summer; no differences were found for spring or fall. 

Habitat relationships were summarized by species and sex (Table 2). 
Significant differences were found for each species and for each sex per species in 
relation to habitat distribution than would be expected by chance alone. Both 
male and female P. m. bairdii occurred more frequently in soybean and plowed 
fields and less frequently in stubble fields than expected; occurrence in corn was 
as expected. Whitaker (4) reported numbers of mice per plot for prairie deermice 
to be 0.9 for corn and corn stubble and 2.1 for soybean habitats. My values 
indicate slightly over a three-fold increase of P. m. bairdii in corn with smaller 
increases in corn stubble and soybean habitats. No comparable figures are 
available for soybean stubble or plowed field habitats. For M. musculus, both 
sexes occurred more frequently in corn fields and less frequently in stubble 



436 



Indiana Academy of Science 



Table 2. Habitat Distribution of Peromyscus maniculatus bairdii and Mus musculus in Cultivated 
Fields of Vigo County, Indiana, (number of plots shown in parentheses below respective habitat) 















Habitat 












Corn 


Corn S 


ubble 


Soyb 


ean 


Soybean 


Stubble 


Plowed Field 




(72) 


(41) 


(35) 


(19) 


(10) 




# of 


Mice/ 


# of 


Mice/ 


# of 


Mice/ 


# of 


Mice/ 


# of 


Mice/ 


Species Sex 


Mice 


Plot 


Mice 


Plot 


Mice 


Plot 


Mice 


Plot 


Mice 


Plot 


P. m. bairdii Male 


136 


1.9 


33 


0.8 


82 


2.3 


16 


0.8 


50 


5.0 


Female 


75 


1.0 


17 


0.4 


44 


1.3 


14 


0.7 


30 


3.0 


Both 


211 


2.9 


50 


1.2 


126 


3.6 


30 


1.6 


80 


8.0 


M. musculus Male 


95 


1.3 


20 


0.5 


37 


1.1 





0.0 


14 


1.4 


Female 


78 


1.1 


15 


0.4 


14 


0.4 





0.0 


8 


0.8 


Both 


173 


2.4 


35 


0.9 


51 


1.5 





0.0 


22 


2.2 





fields; occurrence in soybean fields was slightly more than expected for males 
and slightly less for females while occurrence in plowed fields was as expected 
for both sexes. In comparison to Whitaker's data (numbers of mice per plot) of 
3.7 for corn and 1.6 for corn stubble and soybean (4), my results show 
reductions of M. musculus in corn, corn stubble and in soybean habitats. Thus 
in at least three cultivated habitats, prairie deermice appear to have increased in 
abundance while the numbers of house mice declined. Specific reasons for these 
changes are not clear at the present time and should be a topic for future study. 

A significantly greater number of both species were taken in unharvested 
fields (corn and soybean) than in harvested fields (stubble and plowed fields). It 
was felt that movements of the mice in harvested fields were much less than in 
unharvested fields since food was more readily available as corn and soybeans 
left on the ground following harvest. Less time would be spent in searching for 
food and thus a lower catch would be expected. 



Table 3. Cover Relationships of Peromyscus maniculatus bairdii and Mus musculus in Cultivated 
Fields of Vigo County, Indiana, (number of plots shown in parentheses below respective cover type) 











Cover Type 








Gooc 




Fair 




Poor 








(41) 




(106) 




(30) 








# of 


Vlice/ 


# of 


vlice/ 


# of 


Vlice/ 


Species 


Sex 


Mice 


Plot 


Mice 


Plot 


Mice 


Plot 


P. m. bairdii 


Male 


96 


2.3 


139 


1.3 


82 


2.7 




Female 


52 


1.3 


86 


0.8 


42 


1.4 




Both 


148 


3.6 


225 


2.1 


124 


4.1 


M. musculus 


Male 


66 


1.6 


82 


0.8 


18 


0.6 




Female 


36 


0.9 


67 


0.6 


12 


0.4 




Both 


102 


2.5 


149 


1.4 


30 


1.0 



Cover relationships were summarized by species and sex (Table 3). 
Significant differences in distribution were found for each species and for each 



Zoology 437 

sex per species in relation to cover type than would be expected by chance alone. 
Both species occurred more frequently than expected in plots with good cover 
and less frequently in plots with fair cover. Plots with poor cover had more P. m. 
bairdii and fewer M. musculus than expected. A direct relationship between the 
amount of cover and the abundance of M. musculus was noted. Cover was 
generally good during fall and poor in spring. In addition, most of the corn plots 
had good cover. Therefore it appeared that cover quality was the most 
important factor influencing the distribution of M. musculus, and agrees with 
results reported by Whitaker (4). Presumably the house mice invade areas 
having fair to good cover and leave when cover decreases. Herbaceous cover 
appeared less important to P. m. bairdii. Houtcooper (1) found that P. m. 
bairdii. made extensive burrows in cultivated fields and therefore the burrows 
alone may serve as adequate cover. It appeared that the prairie deermice were 
permanent residents of the habitats studied. 

The results of this study in comparison to those of previous studies suggest 
that in several cultivated ecosystems (corn, corn stubble, and soybean) of Vigo 
County, Indiana, the abundance of prairie deermice has increased while the 
number of house mice has declined. These demographic changes should be 
monitored periodically in a continuing effort to assess the influence of these 
rodents upon cultivated ecosystems. 



Literature Cited 

1. Houtcooper, W. C. 1972. Rodent seed supply and burrows of Peromyscus in cultivated fields. 
Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. 81:384-389. 

2. Whitaker, J. O., Jr. 1966. Food of Mus musculus. Peromyscus maniculatus bairdi and 
Peromyscus leucopus in Vigo County, Indiana, J. Mamm., 47:473-486. 

3. 1967. Habitat and reproduction of some of the small mammals of Vigo County, Indiana, with 

a list of mammals known to occur there. Occ. Pap. C.C. Adams Center for Ecological Studies #16. 
24 p. 

4. 1967. Habitat relationships of four species of mice in Vigo County, Indiana. Ecology 48:867- 

872. 

5. 1968. Relation of Mus. Peromyscus and Microtus to the major textural classes of soils of 

Vigo County, Indiana. Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. 77:206-212. 



Serological Relationships among some Midwestern Snakes 

Sherman A. Minton Jr., Department of Microbilogy and Immunology 
Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana 46202 

Abstract 

Using immunoelectrophoresis, serum samples from 24 species of 
midwestern snakes were reacted against antiserums raised against serums of 
Elaphe obsoleta, Natrix sipedon, and Agkistrodon piscivorus. On the basis of 
immunoelectrophoretic patterns, three clusters of species can be recognized. 
One consists of Natrix (3 sp.), Thamnophis (2 sp.), Regina septemvittata, 
Clonophis kirtlandi, Storeria dekayi and Virginia valeriae. A second consists of 
Elaphe (2 sp.), Lampropeltis (3 sp.) and Pituophis melanoleucus. The third 
consists of Agkistrodon (2sp.), Sistrurus catenatus, and Crotalus horridus. Five 
species {Coluber constrictor, Diadophis punctatus, Carphophis amoenus, 
Farancia abacura, and Heterodon platyrhinos) do not fit well into any of the 
above groups nor do they appear closely related to each other. 
Immunoelectrophoretic patterns do not indicate a markedly closer relationship 
between the Natrix and Elaphe groups of nonvenomous snakes than exists 
between these groups and the Agkistrodon group of pit vipers. Elaphe, Natrix 
and Agkistrodon all have species in east Asia, and the American groups 
presumably evolved from this stock. Other relationships and their 
zoogeographic implications are discussed. 

Introduction 

About 38 species of snakes occur in Indiana and adjoining states. 
Traditional taxonomy divides them into two families, the venomous pit vipers 
(Crotalinae, now generally considered a subfamily of the Viperidae) and the 
"typical nonvenomous snakes" of the family Colubridae. However, work during 
the past decade by investigators using both morphological and 
nonmorphological criteria has shown the Colubridae to be a highly 
heterogenous group (2,6,9,12,13). This paper brings together my observations 
on serological relationships of midwestern snakes as based on comparison of 
serum immunoelectrophoretic patterns. While immunoelectrophoresis, micro 
complement fixation, and other serological techniques will not solve all the 
problems of snake systematics, they can be useful tools in estimating degrees of 
relationship in a group that shows much specialization and has a meagre fossil 
record. 

Materials and Methods 

Most of the snakes used were collected in Indiana and nearby states. Larger 
specimens were bled by heart puncture, smaller ones by decapitation. Serum was 
separated, divided into aliquots of 0.2 to 0.5 ml and either used immediately or 
stored at -20°. Samples used represented serum from one to eight individuals. 
Nearly all samples were used within six months of collection. Antisera were 
produced in rabbits against pooled serum from Agkistrodon piscivorus, Elaphe 

438 



Zoology 



439 



obsoleta, and Natrix sipedon by methods previously reported (8). 
Immunoelectrophoresis was carried out at room temperature on agar-coated 
slides in 0.025 ionic strength barbital buffer, p H 8. 6. Each set of slides was run at 
7.5 v/cm for 45-60 min depending on migration of a nigrosin dye marker. 
Development with antiserum was carried out for approximately 24 hrs at room 
temperature. Slides were washed, dried, and stained with amidoschwarz or 
Ponceau S. Many of the serum-antiserum combinations were repeated 3-10 
times; some were done only once or twice because of the small volume of the 
serum samples. 



1 



■ ««>»'SS - 



4 5 § 




1b 




1. 



JD> 



4 



/*"" 







^ih. 


4 























Figure 1 . Sera of natricine snakes developed with Natrix sipedon antiserum and with corresponding 
arcs numbered. J A (upper) Natrix sipedon, (lower) N. rhombifera: IB (upper) Thamnophis radix, 
(lower) T. sirtalis: IC (upper) Storeria dekayi, (lower) Virginia valeriae. In this and other figures, the 

anode is to the left. 



440 



Indiana Academy of Science 



Results 

Examination of many immunoelectrophoretic patterns indicates snake 
serum developed with antiserum against a homologous or closely related 
species shows a strong pattern of 6 arcs, 3 predominantly on the anode side and 3 
on the cathode side, with 2 to 4 additional minor arcs. Typical patterns are 
shown in Figures 1 and 2. The number of anode and cathode side arcs observed 




Figure 2. Sera of La mpr ope It is calligaster (upper), L. getulus (lower), and Elaphe obsoleta (both 
upper and lower) developed with Elaphe obsoleta antiserum. 

with various serum-antiserum combinations are shown in Table 1. In some 
cases, position of the arcs relative to the origin made their allocation arbitrary. 
One well defined arc, usually lying just to the anode side of the origin and often 
passing through it, is seen in nearly all combinations of serum and antiserum, 
being absent only when serums of archaic snakes such as Acrochoridids and 

Table 1 . Numbers of anode and cathode arcs observed with combinations of snake serums with three 
antiserums. The figure in parentheses represent the number of times the combination was carried out. 







Antiserum 








Snake Species 


Natrix 


sipedon 


Elaphe 


obsoleta 


Agkistrodon 


piscivorus 




Anode 


Cathode 


Anode 


Cathode 


Anode 


Cathode 


Natrix sipedon 


4-5 


4(10) 


2-3 


0(5) 


2 


1 (1) 


Natrix erythrogaster 


4 


4(3) 


3 


0(2) 


2 


1 (1) 


Natrix rhombifera 


5 


4(2) 














Regina septemvittata 


3-4 


2-3 (4) 


3 


0(2) 


2 


1 (1) 


Thamnophis sirtalis 


3 


3(5) 


3-4 


0(2) 


— 


— 







Zoology 






441 


Thamnophis radix 


4 


3(2) 


2 


1 (1) 






Clonophis kirtlandi 


3-4 


4(4) 


2-3 


0(2) 








Storeria dekayi 


2-3 


4(4) 


2 


0(2) 


2 


1 (1) 


Virginia valeriae 


3 


3(3) 


3 


0(1) 


— 





Coluber constrictor 


3 


2(2) 


3-4 


2-3 (4) 


2 


KD 


Elaphe ob so let a 


2 


2(4) 


4-6 


3(8) 


2 


0-1 (2) 


Elaphe vulpina 


— 


— 


5 


3(3) 


2 


0(1) 


Lampropeltis getulus 


2 


2(3) 


4-5 


2-3 (8) 


2 


0(2) 


Lampropeltis calligaster 








5 


3(1) 








Lampropeltis triangulum 


— 


— 


5 


0(1) 


2 


0(2) 


Pituophis melanoleucus 


2 


3(2) 


4 


2-3 (2) 








Diadophis punctatus 


3 


2(2) 


2 


1 (1) 


2 


1 (1) 


Carphophis amoenus 


2 


3(1) 


2 


0(1) 


2 


KD 


Farancia abacura 


2 


1 (3) 


2 


0(2) 








Heterodon platyrhinos 


2 


2-3 (4) 


2-3 


0(4) 


3-4 


1(3) 


Agkistrodon piscivorus 


2 


2(2) 


4 


0(4) 


4-5 


3-4 (5) 


Agkistrodon contortri.x 


2 


2(2) 


3 


0(1) 


3-4 


2-3 (5) 


Sistrurus catenatus 


1 


2(1) 


3 


1 (1) 


3 


2(2) 


Crotalus horridus 


1-2 


2(3) 


3 


1(2) 


3 


2(2) 





some Boids are developed with antiserums to serums of modern snakes. (Fig. 1, 
Arc 3) It is present in all patterns analyzed here and evidently represents a 
protein with similar antigenic determinants in the serum of most modern snakes. 
The arcs with greatest anode mobility, presumably prealbumin and albumin, 
appear in most of the patterns but show much variation in intensity of staining. 







3b 



^^i^s^^^ 












































Figure 3. Sera of Coluber constrictor and three natricine snakes developed with Elaphe obsoleta 

antiserum. 3A (upper) C. constrictor, (lower) Thamnophis sirtalis. JB (upper) Matrix erythrogaster 

(lower) Regina septemvittata. Note virtual absence of cathode side arcs. 



442 



Indiana Academy of Science 



Cathode side arcs, presumably globulins, show less tendency to be shared by 
diverse species (Fig. 3). 

When the number of arcs and their intensity and distinctness all are 
considered, an admittedly subjective evaluation, certain clusters of patterns can 
be detected. One includes those midwestern snakes, Natrix, Regina, 
Thamnophis, Clonophis, Storeria, and Virginia. All show patterns of at least 5 
arcs when developed with Matrix sipedon antiserum; usually no more than 3 arcs 
with Elaphe or Agkistrodon antiserums. The genera Elaphe, Lampropeltis, and 
Pituophis show 6 or more arcs when developed with Elaphe obsoleta antiserum; 
no more than 4 arcs when developed with Natrix or Agkistrodon antiserums. 












c 




Figure 4. Sera of pit vipers developed with various antisera. 4 A (upper) Crotalus horridus, (lower) 

Sistrurus catenatus developed with Natrix sipedon antiserum. 4B (upper) Sistrurus catenatus, (lower) 

Crotalus horridus developed with Elaphe obsoleta antiserum. 4C (upper) Sistrurus catenatus, (lower) 

Agkistrodon contortrix developed with A. piscivorus antiserum. 



Zoology 443 

Serums of pit vipers, Agkistrodon, Sistrurus and Crotalus, show at least 5 arcs 
when developed with Agkistrodon piscivorus antiserum; 3 or 4 arcs when 
developed with Elaphe or Natrix antiserums (Fig. 4). Five genera, each 
represented by a single species, do not fall into any of the above groups. 
Diadophis and Carphophis serums show 5 relatively weak arcs with Natrix 
antiserum, 2 or 3 with Elaphe and Agkistrodon. Farancia serum shows no more 
than 3 arcs with any antiserum. Heterodon serum shows no more than 4 arcs 
with any antiserum, but its strongest reactions are with Agkistrodon antiserum 
(Fig. 5). Coluber constrictor serum shows 4 or 5 arcs with Natrix antiserum and 
5 or 6 with Elaphe. 
f" ' .~—--—.--y..y 

s gmm ■■■ ■ 



€> 



Figure 5A. Serum of Heterodon platyrhinos (upper) and Elaphe obsoleta (lower) developed with 

Agkistrodon piscivorus antiserum. 5B. Serum of H. platyrhinos (upper ) and Farancia abaeura (lower) 

developed with Natrix sipedon antiserum. 

Discussion 

The snake fauna of the Midwest, like that of most of the northern 
hemisphere, contains no archaic or highly aberrant genera and appears to be of 
comparatively recent origin. Serological data presented here show a close 
relationship among the 9 species and 6 genera assigned to the natricine group. 
The genus Natrix is Eurasian, and there is convincing evidence (8,1 1) that the 
Eurasian and North American species are not closely related. Rossman and 
Eberle (11) suggest revival of the generic name Nerodia for the North American 
species. Thamnophis, closely allied to North American Natrix, occurs from 
northern Canada to Costa Rica and has undergone extensive speciation. The 



444 Indiana Academy of Science 

other American natricine genera contain one to a few species and are limited in 
distribution. Elaphe is Eurasian, and limited serological evidence indicates a 
fairly close relationship between New and Old World species. Lampropeltis is 
American with a range from Canada to Ecuador. Pituophis is also American 
and is found from Canada to southern Mexico. Serologically both these genera 
are closely allied to American Elaphe. The pit vipers are well represented in both 
Asia and America with one genus, Agkistrodon, common to the two regions. 
Serum immunoelectrophoretic patterns indicate a relatively remote relationship 
between two Asian Agkistrodon examined and the three American species. The 
same criterion indicates relationship between American Agkistrodon and the 
rattlesnakes {Sistrurus and Crotalus) is more remote than that between 
Thamnophis and American Natrix and between Lampropeltis and American 
Elaphe. For each of these three groups, the morphological, serological, and 
zoogeographic evidence indicates an Asian origin with migration to North 
America and extensive adaptive radiation with evolution of new genera. In the 
case of the pit vipers there has been an extensive adaptive radiation with 
evolution of new genera. In the case of the pit vipers there has been an extensive 
South American radiation as well. 

Serologically Coluber, as represented by its sole New World species, C. 
constrictor, is intermediate between the Natrix- Thamnophis and Elaphe- 
Lampropeltis groups although somewhat closer to the latter. On the basis of 
serum immunoelectrophoretic pattern, I cannot distinguish C. constrictor from 
two species of Masticophis that have been examined, and there are few 
morphological differences between the genera. Coluber contains numerous 
Eurasian species, but their relationships with one another and with their New 
World allies are obscure. 

Morphologically Heterodon appears closely related to Xenodon and 
Lystrophis of tropical America. The relatively strong immunoelectrophoretic 
pattern of Heterodon serum developed with Agkistrodon antiserum and also 
with Crotalus antiserum (9) suggests that Heterodon may belong to a stock from 
which the viperid snakes evolved. The data presented here tell little of the 
relationships of the North American genera Carphophis, Diadophis, and 
Farancia. The former two show a tenuous affinity with the natricine group, but 
this may be fortuitous. 

Of the midwestern snake genera not included in this study, there is 
serological data indicating Tropidoclonion is a typical natricine (7). Opheodrys 
is reported to be serologically related to Coluber and Cemophora to 
Lampropeltis ( 10). I have not examined serum from either midwestern species of 
Tantilla, but serum of the western T. nigriceps shows only weak reactions with 
Natrix and Elaphe antiserums. 

In summary, 19 of the 24 species studied can be allocated on the basis of 
serum immunoelectrophoretic patterns to one of three groups. All the groups 
have Eurasian affinities, but the species themselves represent a distinctively 
American evolutionary radiation. Fossil evidence indicates Elaphe, 
Lampropeltis, Natrix, and unidentified pit vipers were present in the Middle and 
Upper Miocene of central North America and were replacing an older boid 



Zoology 445 

fauna. A species ancestral to Heterodon was also present (3,4,5). Most of the 
genera and many of the species have been identified in Pliocene material ( 1 ). If a 
migration of Asian species to North America took place, it must have begun 
early in the Miocene some 25 million years ago and continued into the Pliocene. 
Serological differences between congeneric New and Old World species are 
compatible with a separation in time of this magnitude (8). 

Acknowledgements 

Equipment and financial support were provided by the Department of 
Microbiology and Immunology, Indiana University School of Medicine. 
Photography of the immunoelectrophoresis preparations was done by the 
Illustration Department of Indiana University Medical Center. Many persons 
donated snakes for use in this study, and I particularly want to thank H. B. 
Bechtel, James D. Fix, Philip Karant, and the Indiana Department of Natural 
Resources for specimens contributed. Madge R. Minton and Ronald Everhart 
helped with the care of the snakes and collection of blood samples. I am 
especially grateful to graduate students of the Department of Microbiology and 
Immunology whose gifts of surplus mice, rats, and hamsters have facilitated the 
maintainance of a healthy snake colony. 

Literature Cited 

1. Brattstrom, B. H. 1967. A succession of Pliocene and Pleistocene snake faunas from the High 
Plains of the United States. Copeia 1967:188-202. 

2. George, D. W. and H. C. Dessauer. 1970. Immunological correspondence of transferrins and the 
relationships of colubrid snakes. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 33:617-627. 

3. Holman, J. A. 1976. The herpetofauna of the Lower Valentine Formation, northcentral Nebraska. 
Herpetologica 32:262-268. 

4. 1976. Snakes of the Split Rock Formation (Middle Miocene), central Wyoming, ibid., 419- 

428. 

5. 1977. Upper Miocene snakes (Reptilia, Serpentes) from southeastern Nebraska. J. Herp. 

11:323-337. 

6. Mao, S. and B. Chen. 1974. Immunological correspondence of transferrins among some colubrid 
snakes. The Snake 7:89-93. 

7. Mao, S. and H. C. Dessauer. 1971. Selectively neutral mutations, transferrins and the evolution of 
natricine snakes. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 40A:669-680. 

8. Minton, S. A. 1976. Serological relationships among some congeneric North American and 
Eurasian colubrid snakes. Copeia 1976:672-678. 

9. Minton, S. A. and S. K. Salanitro. 1972. Serological relationships among some colubrid snakes. 
Copeia 1972:246-252. 

10. Pearson, D. D. 1966. Serological and immunoelectrophoretic comparisons among species of 
snakes. Bull. Sero. Mus. 36:8. 

11. Rossman, D. A. and W. G. Eberle. 1977. Partition of the genus Natrix with preliminary 
observations on evolutionary trends in natricine snakes. Herpetologica 33:34-43. 

12. Smith, H. M., R. B. Smith and H. L. Sawin. 1977. A summary of snake classification (Reptilia, 
Serpentes). J. Herp. 11:115-121. 

13. Underwood, G. 1967. A Contribution to the Classification of Snakes. British Museum Natural 
History, London, 179 pp. 



The ectoparasites of the southern bog lemming, 
Synaptomys cooperi, in Indiana 

Mary E. Wassel, Gary L. Tieben, and John O. Whitaker, Jr. 

Department of Life Sciences, Indiana State University 

Terre Haute, Indiana 47809 

Introduction 

The southern bog lemming, Synaptomys cooperi, is a small cricetid rodent 
found primarily in grassy fields. It is rarely trapped, since it is not readily 
attracted to bait, and since it tends to live in small colonies (1). Little is known 
about its external parasites. Connor (2) conducted an extensive life history study 
of S. cooperi in southern New Jersey and reported the ectoparasites as fleas, lice, 
ticks and mites, and Stegeman (7) reported mites, fleas and lice from S. cooperi 
from Michigan. Mites previouly reported from S. cooperi include Listrophorus 
synaptomys (3), Laelaps alaskensis (8, 9) and Laelaps stupkai(6). Fleas reported 
by Wilson (10) are Epitedia wenmanni and Rhadinopsylla orama. Jackson (5) 
indicates that the louse, Hoplopleura acanthopus, has been found on the 
southern bog lemming. 

The purpose of this paper is to present information on the ectoparasites 
from 65 bog lemmings from Indiana. 

Methods 

A total of 65 southern bog lemmings was examined, 50 from Vigo County, 
and 15 from Clay, Dearborn, Harrison, LaGrange, Martin, Newton, Parke and 
White Counties. Most were trapped with snapback mouse traps, although 17 
were caught in pit traps and one was caught by a cat in Clay County. Twenty-five 
of the lemmings were examined by brushing the fur with dissecting needles while 
using a dissecting microscope. The ectoparasites on the remaining lemmings 
were removed using a washing technique (4), after examining the lemmings 
under a dissecting microscope for attached parasites. The washing technique 
involved placing the animal in a pint jar containing a few grams of detergent and 
250-300 ml of water, then shaking the jar for 5 minutes to dislodge ectoparasites. 
The water was filtered through a vacuum filtration system. Ectoparasites were 
retained on the filter paper, which was examined under a dissecting microscope. 
Ectoparasites were placed in 75% ethanol with 5% glycerol for a few days, 
cleared and stained in Nesbitt's solution, and mounted in Hoyer's solution. 

Results 

Of the 65 bog lemmings examined, 62 (95.4%) were infested with 
ectoparasites. Two species of flea, one sucking louse, ten species of mites and 8 
others identified only to family or genus, 4 chigger mites and 3 ticks were found 
(Table 1). 

The common flea was Ctenophthalmus pseudagyrtes, with 16 individuals 
seen. This flea is mainly found on moles and shrews in Indiana, but is also found 

446 



Zoology 447 

Table 1. External parasites of 65 southern bog lemmings, Synaptomys cooperi, from Indiana. 

Number of Parasites Bog Lemmings Infested 
Parasites Total Average No. % 

Siphonaptera (fleas) 

Ctenophthalmus pseudagyrtes 

Baker, 1895 16 0.2 9 13.8 

Megabothris asio Baker, 

1904 1 0.01 1 1.5 

Anoplura (sucking lice) 
Hopolopleura acanthopus 

Burmeister, 1839 183± 2.8 11 16.9 

Acarina 

Mites 
Listrophorus synaptomys Fain, 

Whitaker, McDaniel, & 

Lukoschus, 1974 1657+ 25.5 20 30.7 

Dermacarus hypudaei (Koch, 

1841 623± 9.6 24 36.9 

Laelaps alaskensis Grant, 

1947 533 8.2 55 84.6 

Androlaelaps fahrenholzi 

(Berlese, 1911) 13 0.2 9 13.8 

Laelaps kochi Oudemans, 1936 13 0.2 2 3.1 

Ornithonyssus bacoti Hirst, 

1913 12 0.18 2 3.1 

Bakerdania sp. 10 0.15 6 9.2 

Euryparasitus sp. 10 0.15 5 7.7 

Oribatidae 7 0.1 7 10.8 

Anoetidae 3 0.04 2 3.0 

Haemogamasus liponyssoides 

Ewing, 1925 3 0.04 1 1.5 

Myocoptes japonensis Radford, 

1955 
Radfordia lemnina (Koch, 1841) 
Proetolaelaps sp. 
Pygmephorus mustelae 

Rack, 1975 
P. scalopi Mahunka, 1973 
Pygmephorus sp. 
Xenoryctes latiporus Fain and 

Whitaker, 1973 1 0.01 1 1.5 

Chigger mites (Trombiculidae) 
Euschoengastia peromysci 

(Ewing, 1929) 299 4.6 24 36.9 

E. ohioensis Farrell, 1956 26 0.4 8 12.3 

Eutrombicula alfreddugesi 

Oudemans, 1910 8 0.12 1 1.5 

Euschoengastia setosa (Ewing, 

1939) 5 0.08 1 1.5 

Ticks 
Dermacentor variabilis 

(Say, 1821) 381 5.9 28 43.1 

Ixodes muris Bishopp & 

Smith, 1937 9 0.13 2 3.1 

/. dentatus Marx, 1899 5 0.08 4 6. 1 



3 


0.04 


1 


1.5 


3 


0.04 


3 


4.6 


1 


0.01 


1 


1.5 


1 


0.01 


1 


1.5 


1 


0.01 


1 


1.5 


1 


0.01 


1 


1.5 



448 



Indiana Academy of Science 



on rodents and carnivores. Only one individual of the other species of flea, 
Megabothris asio, was taken. 

Sucking lice, Hoplopleura acanthopus, were found on 1 1 of the lemmings. 
This louse also infests the three species of Microtus in Indiana. 

By far the most abundant parasite taken was Listrophorus synaptomys, a 
small mite which clings in large numbers to individual hairs. It occurred on 20 
lemmings (30.7%), and was originally described on the basis of material 
collected during the present study (3). It is currently known only from Indiana 
and Sweden. In Sweden, the species was found on Lemmus lemmus and was 
described as a separate subspecies, L. s. edleri(3). Listrophorus s. synaptomysis 
known only from Synaptomys cooperi from Indiana, but likely occurs 
throughout the range of the host. 

Other abundant parasites include the mites Dermacarus hypudaei and 
Laelaps alaskensis, the tick Dermacentor variabilis, and the chigger 
Euschoengastia peromysci. Laelaps alaskensis occurred most frequently, being 
found on 55 (84.6%) lemmings. Laeplaps alaskensis reached its greatest 
abundance on Synaptomys cooperi on Indiana mammals, but occurs sparingly 
on all three species of Microtus, whereas Laelaps kochi occurs abundantly on 
Microtus (especially M. pinetorum), but sparingly on Synaptomys. 
Androlaelaps fahrenholzi, which occurred on 9 bog lemmings, commonly infests 
many Indiana mammals. Both the chigger E. ohioensis and the mite L. kochi 
mentioned above are found on Microtus pinetorum, a species sometimes 
trapped with 5". cooperi in this study. Other mites found include both parasitic 
and nonparasitic forms. 

The data are few, especially in summer, but there was some indication of 
seasonal changes in parasite load (Table 2). Listrophorus synaptomys was most 
abundant in summer and fall. Hoplopleura acanthopus was most abundant in 
fall and winter, whereas Laelaps alaskensis, Dermacarus hypudaei and 
Euschoengastia peromysci were most abundant in spring and winter. When 
tested with Chi-square at the 95% level, the seasonal variations for all 
ectoparasites in Table 2 were significant (x 2 = 87.0 or more). 

Table 2. Seasonal abundance of the common ectoparasites of 65 southern bog lemmings, Synaptomys 
cooperi, from Indiana, given as mean number per host. 



# Lemmings 
Parasites 



Spring 


Summer 


Fall 


Winter 


38 


4 


11 


12 


March- 


June- 


Sept.- 


Dec- 


May 


Aug. 


Nov. 


Feb. 


10.2 


0.75 


3.4 


8.75 


14.03 


— 


— 


7.5 


9.4 


— 


0.45 


0.08 


8.1 


— 


— 


3.25 


8.7 


103.7 


82.3 


0.42 


0.89 


— 


5.9 


6.8 



Laelaps alaskensis 
Dermacarus hypudaei 
Dermacentor variabilis 
Euschoengastia permomysci 
Listrophorus synaptomys 
Hoplopleura acanthopus 



The infestation of bog lemmings by sex was investigated. Using Chi-square, 
the significance of the difference in infestation between males and females was 



Zoology 449 

tested at the 95% level for seven of the common ectoparasites (H. acanthopus, L. 
alaskensis, D. variabilis, D. hypudaei, L. synaptomys, E. peromysci and E. 
ohioensis). 

The chiggers (E. peromysci and ohioensis) were significantly more common 
on females than males (x 2 - 10.98 for E. peromysci, 1 1.55 for E. ohioensis). The 
infestation by the other ectoparasites was not significantly different between 
males and females. 

To our knowledge, all of the ectoparasites of S. cooperi found in this study, 
with the exception of the louse Hoplopleura acanthopus and the mites Laelaps 
alaskensis and Listrophorus synaptomys, are reported for the first time on this 
host here. This includes 17 species and 8 various taxa of ectoparasites. 

Literature Cited 

1. Barbour, R. W. 1956. Synaptomys cooperi in Kentucky, with description of a new subspecies. J. 
Mammal. 37:413-416. 

2. Connor, P. F. 1959. The bog lemming Synaptomys cooperi in southern New Jersey. Publ. Mus. 
Mich. St. Univ. 1(5): 161-248. 

3. Fain, A., J. O. Whitaker, Jr., B. McDaniel and F. Lukoschus. 1974. Listrophorus 
synaptomys, a new species from Synaptomys and Lemmus (Acarina: Listrophoridae). 
Acarologia 16:319-324. 

4. Henry, L. G., and S. McKeever. 1971. A modification of the washing technique for quantitative 
evaluation of the ectoparasite load of small mammals. Jour. med. Entomol. 8:504-505. 

5. Jackson, H. H. T. 1961. Mammals of Wisconsin. The Univ. of Wis. Press, Madison. 504 p. 

6. Linzey, D. W., and D. A. Crossley, Jr. 1971. A new species of Laelaps from the lemming 
mouse, Synaptomys cooperi (Acarina: Laelapidae). Proc. Entomol. Soc. Wash. 73: 408-410. 

7. Stegeman, L. C. 1930. Notes on Synaptomys cooperi cooperi in Washtenaw County, Michigan. 
J. Mammal, 11:461-466. 

8. Whitaker, J. O., Jr., and N. Wilson. 1968. Mites of small mammals of Vigo County, Indiana. 
Amer. Midland Natur. 80:537-542. 

9. Wilson, N. 1957. Some ectoparasites from Indiana mammals. J. Mammal. 38:281-282. 

10. Wilson, N. 1961. The ectoparasites (Ixodides, Anoplura, and Siphonaptera) of Indiana 
mammals. Unpubl. Ph.d. Dissertation, Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, Indiana. 527 p. 



Variation in the Vertebral Column and Ribs of Songbirds 

J. Dan Webster and Steven G. Goff 

Biology Department, Hanover College 

Hanover, Indiana 47243 

Abstract 

Gross anatomy of vertebrae and ribs of 159 individuals of 47 species 
belonging to 14 families of oscine passeriform birds is compared. Number of 
cervico-dorsal ribs, number of free caudal vertebrae, and other characters 
supposed by various authors to be of taxonomic value are tabulated. 
Intraspecific variation essentially equals interspecific variation; no 
taxonomically useful characters at the generic or familial levels are found. 

In the nineteenth century, some authors such as Shufeldt (9,10) stated or 
implied, at least part of the time, that there was little variation in the ribs and 
vertebrae of birds of a single species. Even Gadow (5, 6) left little room for 
variation in the vertebrae, although he emphasized that, "There are no 
taxonomic characters in the ribs." Brodkorb (4) used the number of cervical 
vertebrae as a diagnostic character of the suborder Passeres, and number of free 
caudal vertebrae as a taxonomic character of some songbird families. Berger 
suggested (2) that the numbers of cervico-dorsal and thoraco-dorsal ribs might 
be characteristic of certain songbird families. 

Other authors {e.g. Lucas, 7, 8) have emphasized variability in the axial 
skeleton. Berger (2, 3) described some variation in the verterbral colums of 
cuckoos and starlings, with taxonomic implications in the variability. Webster 
(ms.) studying skeletons of warblers (Parulidae) noted a great deal of 
intraspecific variation in cervico-dorsal ribs — which led to the present study. 

Only articulated skeletons could be used for this work. Using a dissecting 
microscope, we examined the entire vertebral column, with ribs; each vertebra 
was designated by number on each specimen, beginning with the atlas as #1 . One 
hundred fifty-nine specimens of 47 species were studied. Earlier, Webster had 
studied many additional specimens and species for cervico-dorsal ribs only. 
Gadow (5, 6) was followed for anatomical terms, with one exception noted 
below. 

We thank the curators of the following collections for the loan of 
specimens: California Academy of Sciences, Moore Museum of Earlham 
College, Indiana State University, Louisiana State University Museum of 
Zoology, University of Michigan Museum of Zoology, personal collection of 
Alan Phillips, United States National Museum, Peabody Museum of Yale 
University. 

Our data was collected under the following headings: (a) Number and 
position of free ribs. These include the cervico-dorsal ribs (#13 and #14), which 
are movably articulated, but floating and lacking ventral parts or articulations; 
the cervico-dorsal rib on vertebra #13 was marked present if it was bone, 

450 



Zoology 



451 



whether it was a tiny fragment 1 mm long and monocipital or a well-developed, 
10 mm long {Molothrus ater), bicipital rib, but it was absent on 58% of the 
specimens. Farther posterior are the "true" or dorsal ribs (#15 to #18, #19 or 
#20), of these, the first four always articulate with the sternum. The rib of #19, if 
it belongs to this group, sometimes articulates with the sternum and sometimes 
with the ventral segment of the rib of #18. The rib of #20, if it belongs to this 
group, articulates with the ventral segment of the rib of #19. Most posterior are 
one or two thoracodorsal ribs which depend from the first one or two vertebrae of 
the synascrum. All of our specimens but two had 14 cervical vertebrae, including 
cervico-dorsals. These two, Meliphaga analoga, had 13 and 15 cervicals, 
respectively. 

(b) Ribs articulating with sternum. The ribs from the dorsal vertebrae 
("dorsal ribs") have dorsal and ventral parts and articulations. Sometimes the 
most posterior one or two articulate with preceding ribs, rather than with the sternum. 

(c) Thoraco-dorsal ribs. There are 3 or 4 thoraco-dorsal vertebrae 
(beginning with #19, #20, or #21) forming the medial part of the anterior region 
of the synsacrum. Of these, the anterior one or two bear free ribs, which usually 
have dorsal and ventral parts. The ventral segment, if present, articulates with 
the rib of the preceding segment. Gadow (5) called these anterior pelvic 
vertebrae and ribs. We have followed the terminology of Bellairs and Jenkin (1 .) 
In five specimens (of three species) the rib from the most anterior vertebra in the 
synsacrum articulated ventrally with the sternum; that is, the most anterior 
thoraco-dorsal vertebra-with-rib was also the most posterior dorsal! 

(d) Uncinate processes. These bones aren't ankylosed to the ribs in song 




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Figure 1. Vertebral column, ribs, sternum, and synsacrum of Passer domesticus in right lateral 
aspect. Free ribs can be seen attached to vertebrae #13 through #20 and uncinate processes on ribs #14 
through 18. Six free caudal vertebrae are evident. 



452 



Indiana Academy of Science 



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Zoology 457 

birds, but tightly attached by ligaments. Usually they are found only on the 
dorsal ribs, but often, also, on the cervico-dorsal rib of #14. Frequently an 
uncinate process is lacking on #19. 

(e) Synsacrum. The first vertebra in the synsacrum is usually #20. 

(f) Number of vertebrae in synsacrum. The lateral processes or ribs are 
counted in ventral aspect. 

(g) Number of free caudals. Posterior to those caudal vertebrae fused into 
the synsacrum and anterior to the pygostyle are a variable number of free caudal 
vertebrae. 

Our results can be seen in Tables 1 and 2. The number in parenthesis 
following the species name is the number of specimens examined. Unless 
variation is indicated, all specimens of that species were the same for that 
character. The symbol "N" denotes that that character wasn't studied in the 
species or was imperfect in the specimen. The symbol "#" shows the number of 
the vertebra in that skeleton. The fractional "!/ 2 " is used for an asymmetrical 
specimen, in which a condition was different on left and right sides of the body. 

Really, our effort was an exercise in futility as far as finding differential 
taxonomic characters was concerned. The only generic character among 8 
genera of warblers in Table 1 is the free rib on vertebra #13, which is less 
common in Vermivora than in the other genera. Variation within 15 specimens 
of one species {Basileuterus luteoviridis) exceeds that among 42 specimens of 20 
other species of the family in 5 of the 6 characters. As for possible familial 
characters, none are clear. However, there is a tendency for more uncinate 
processes in Vireonidae than in other families, and for fewer uncinate processes 
in Zosteropidae and Sylviidae than in the other families. As to number of free 
caudal vertebrae, the average is fewest in Sylviidae and most in Sturnidae, with 
all other families intermediate. 

Investigation of the hypapophyses began later than our study of other 
structures, and involved fewer specimens because several loans had been 
returned to their owners in the meantime. Moreover, Table 2 glosses over our 
difficulty, oftentimes, in trying to decide whether a certain vertebra did or did 
not bear a distinct hypapophysis. The data suggest to us no taxonomic 
information. 

Our observations are consonant with Brodkorb's (4) use of one character 
for the suborder Passeres: All but two of our specimens had 14 cervical 
(including cervico-dorsal) vertebrae. Shufeldt (10) tabulated some of the same 
rib and vertebral data we did for some species of songbirds. Our data are 
consistent with Shufeldt's (although showing more variation) except at one 
point — the number of cervical vertebrae, where Shufeldt found 13 in most 
Corvidae and Icteridae. Gadow (5) tabulated numbers of vetebrae in the various 
regions for several groups of birds. Our counts are consistent with Gadow's, but 
show more variation. 



458 



Indiana Academy of Science 



Table 2. Songbirds, Vertebral Hypapophyses 





Species 


Vertebrae #'s 
2-5; number 
of hypapo- 
physes pres- 
ent; range 
and (mean). 


Vertebrae #'s 
9-17; number 
of hypapo- 
physes pres- 
ent; range 
and (mean). 


Free caudal 
vertebrae; 
number of 
hypapophyses 
present; range 
and (mean). 


Corvidae: 

Corvus brachyrhynchos (1) 




3 


7 


N 


Paridae: 

Parus atricapillus (5) 




3 


7-9 (8) 


2-4 (3.2) 


Troglodytidae: 

Troglodytes troglodytes ( 1 ) 




3 


8 


4 


Turdidae: 

Turdus migratorius (9) 




3 


7 


2-4 (2.8) 


Sylviidae: 

Regulus calendula (5) 




3 


6-7 (6.4) 


2-3 (2.5) 


Meliphagidae: 

Meliphaga analoga (5) 
Zosteropidae 

Zosterops palpebrosa (4) 
Sturnidae: 

Sturnus vulgaris (7) 




3 

3 

3-4 (3.8) 


6-8 (6.6) 

6-8 (6.8) 
5-7(6.1) 


3 

3-4 (3.5) 
3-4 (3.3) 


Polceidae: 

Passer domesticus (6) 




4 


6-8 (7) 


5 


Vire