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Full text of "Proceedings of the Indiana Academy of Science"

Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2012 with funding from 

LYRASIS Members and Sloan Foundation 



http://archive.org/details/proceedingsofindv94indi 



PROCEEDINGS 

of the 

Indiana Academy 
of Science 

Centennial Year 

Founded December 29, 1885 



Volume 94 
1984 



DONALD R. WINSLOW, Editor 

Indiana University 

Bloomington, Indiana 



Spring Meeting 
April 27, 28, 1984 
Brookville, Indiana 



Fall Meeting 

November 1, 2, 3, 1984 

Butler University 

Indianapolis, Indiana 

Published at Indianapolis, Indiana 
1985 



1. The permanent address of the Academy is the Indiana Academy of Science, 140 North Senate Avenue, 
Indianapolis, Indiana 46204. 

2. Instructions for Contributors appear at the end of this volume. 

3. Exchanges. Items sent in exchange for the Proceedings and correspondence concerning exchange arrangements 
should be addressed: 

John Shepard Wright Memorial Library of the Indiana 

Academy of Science 

140 North Senate Avenue 

Indianapolis, Indiana 46204 

4. Proceedings may be purchased through the Library at $12.00 for each volume. 

5. Reprints of technical papers often can be secured from the authors. They cannot be supplied by the Library 
nor by the officers of the Academy. 

6. The Constitution and By-Laws reprinted from Vol. 74 are available to members upon application to the 
Secretary. Necrologies reprinted from the various volumes can be supplied to relatives and friends of deceased members 
by the Secretary. 

7. Officers whose names and addresses are not known to correspondents may be addressed in care of the Library. 



Editorial Board 
1984 

Donald R. Winslow Benjamin Moulton 

Chairman and Editor John Pelton 

Hans Andersen Carl Sartain 

Rita Barr Alfred Schmidt 

Ernest Campaigne J. Dan Webster 

Robert F. Dale John O. Whitaker 

James Gammon Bernard S. Wostmann 

James Kellar Frank Young 
Gene Kritsky 



PUBLICATIONS AVAILABLE FROM THE ACADEMY 

HISTORY OF THE INDIANA ACADEMY OF SCIENCE, 

Daily, W. A. and Daily, F.K. $9.00 ppd 

ECTOPARASITES OF MAMMALS OF INDIANA, 

John O. Whitaker, Jr. $8.95 ppd 

DISTRIBUTION OF THE MAMMALS OF INDIANA, 

Russell E. Munford $3.00 ppd 

VEGETATION OF THE LIFE ZONES IN COSTA RICA, 

John O. Sawyer & Alton A. Lindsey $4.00 ppd 

AMPHIBIANS & REPTILES OF INDIANA, 

Sherman A. Minton, Jr. $6.00 ppd 

Order from and make check payable to: Indiana Academy of Science. Send to Dr. Benjamin 
Moulton, Dept. of Geography and Geology, Indiana State University, Terre Haute, IN 
47809. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

Page 
Preface to the Centennial Volume 
Theodore J. Crovello, President 3 

Officers and Committees for 1984 4 

HIGHLIGHTS OF THE SPRING MEETING 

Brookville Historical Tour, John Newman 13 

Our Brookville Bond, Fay Kenoyer Daily 18 

The Making of David Starr Jordan, Gary A. Sojka 22 

Reports from field trip leaders: 

Geology, Curtis H. Ault and John R. Hill 29 

Ornithology, William H. Buskirk 30 

Zoology, Sherman A. Minton 30 

Minutes of the Spring Meeting 
(Executive Committee) 31 

PICTORIAL HIGHLIGHTS OF THE FALL MEETING 

Welcome to Butler University, John G. Johnson 

President, Butler University 35 

Welcome to the Fall Meeting, Theodore J. Crovello, 

President, Indiana Academy of Science 36 

Centennial Address 37 

Dinner for Senior Academy Officers 38 

Executive Committee Meetings 39 

Noon Luncheon 41 

Poster Sessions 42 

Indiana Junior Academy of Science 43 

Special Acknowledgment 44 

Minutes of the Fall Meeting (Executive Committee) 48 

Minutes of the Fall Meeting (General Session) 54 

Minutes of the Budget Committee Meeting 57 

Annual Financial Report 59 

Annual Report, Indiana Junior Academy of Science 64 

Necrology, Fay Kenoyer Daily, Necrologist 69 

New Members for 1984 76 

ADDRESSES AND CONTRIBUTED PAPERS 

Presidential Address 

"Computers, Education, and Artificial Intelligence," 

Theodore J. Crovello 80 

"Speaker of the Year" Address, 1984-85 

"The Contributions of the Nightshade Family (Solanaceae) 

to Human Welfare," Charles B. Heiser, Jr 88 

*Abstracts 

iii 



iv Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 94 (1985) 

Anthropology 

C. Michael Anslinger— Debitage Classification Systems* 93 

Ruth Brinker— Mann Site Figurines* 93 

Frank Burkett and Donald R. Cochran— The Commissary Site (12-Hn-2) 
Revisited* 93 

Mark Cantin and C. Michael Anslinger— Holland Chert Quarries/ Workshops 
Near Huntingburg, Dubois County, Indiana* 93 

Mary Ellen Carpenter and Robert E. Pace— Test Excavations at the Smith Site, 
(12-Vi-86), Vigo County, Indiana* 94 

Catharine A. Carson — A Description of Kenneth Chert* 94 

Della Collins Cook— Three Cranial Tumors from Late Woodland Sites: Diagnosis 
and Cultural Implications* 94 

Edmond J . Furia— A Useful Morphological Characteristic of Two Toed Sloth Hair* 94 

Ronald Hicks— The Year at Drombeg* 95 

Misty Jackson and Robert E. Pace — Towards Predicting Loss of Archaeological 
Resources from River Channel Migrations* 95 

James A. Mohow— A Preliminary Survey of the Maumee River in Allen County, 
Indiana* 95 

P. Ranel Stephenson— Woodland Sites and Ross Soils: A Correlation in the Upper 
White River (West Fork) Drainage* 95 

Curtis H. Tomak— Some Late Archaic Manifestations in Indiana* 96 

Botany 

Blair Brengle and William Stillwell — Effect of Cytokinins on Erythritol 
Permeability to Phosphatidylcholine Bilayers* 97 

Rita deCassia, G. Borges, William R. Chaney and Phillip E. Pope — Nonspecificity 
with Varied Effectivity in Mycorrhizal Associations* 97 

Vonda Frantz — Insect Pest Control in the Greenhouse: Alternatives to Commer- 
cial Toxins* 98 

Ralph J. Green, Jr. and Philip T. Marshall — Oak "Leaf Tatters": A Malady 
of Unknown Cause in Indiana* 98 

Romesh C. Mehra and E. Boyts — G-banding in Lens culinaris and Vicia faba* 98 

H.S. Bhella — Response of Muskmelon to Within-row Plant Spacing 99 

H.S. Bhella and G.E. Wilcox — Stem Length as an Estimator of Muskmelon Growth 105 

K. Michael Foos and Judith A. Royer — Isolation of the Coprophilous Fungus, 
Pilobolus, from Wayne County, Indiana 109 

Jonathan Leeds, Lynne Bemis, Rita Barr and Frederick L. Crane — A New 
Amine as an Uncoupler of Chloroplast Electron Transport 113 

Gayton C. Marks, William W. Bloom and Jeffrey G. Boyle — A Rapid Method 
for the Determination of Barley Seed Viability 117 

Patricia W. Reed — Population Studies of Threatened and Endangered Plants of 
Barker Woods Nature Preserve, LaPorte County, Indiana 121 



'Abstracts 



Table of Contents v 

G.L. Reed and W.R. Stevenson — Bacterial Wilt Resistance in Commercial 
Muskmelon Cultivars 131 

Rosemary Rodibaugh and Connie Weaver — Improving Efficiency of Iron Up- 
take by Soybeans 141 

Gail E. Ruhl, Richard X. Latin, Paul C. Pecknold and Donald H. Scott — A 
Compilation of Plant Diseases and Disorders in Indiana — 1984 145 

Cell Biology 

Kathy Burek and Robert J. Stark — Effect of Acetylcholine Stimulation on 
Cytosolic Chloride in Parotid Acinar Cells* 151 

Edwin M. Goebel and Deborah A. McMahan — Physiological Studies of 
Azospirillum amazonense* 151 

Ralph A. Jersild, Jr. — A Brief History of the Cell Biology Section, Indiana Academy 
of Science* 152 

Michael S. Maloney — Concanavalin A Inhibits Oral Regeneration in Stentor 
coeruleus by Binding to the Cell Surface* 152 

John W. Munford and Thomas Koenig — The Effect of Fasting on Sodium Pump 
Activity in Rat Skeletal Muscle* 152 

Jeanette M. Schepper and James P. Hughes — Increased Binding of Growth Hor- 
mone following Cleavage by Rabbit Liver Plasmalemma* 153 

A.C. Snyder, A.R. Coggan and J.J. Uhl — Protein Degradation after Eccentric 
Exercise* 153 

Martin A. Vaughan, Timothy J. Mulkey and Charles W. Goff — Calmodulin 
Stimulation of ATP — Dependent Ca 2+ Uptake in Maize Root Microsomes* 154 

Henry C. Womack— The Effect of Illumination on the Rat Pineal as Measured 
by MSH Activity* 1 54 

James P. Holland, Richard Brooks and Erich Weidenbener — Plasma Pro- 
gesterone, Blastocyst Steroidogenesis and Blastocyst Survival in Rats with Altered 
Thyroid Status 155 

Lisa B. Nass, Annette L. Schlueter and Grayson S. Davis — Chick Limb Duplica- 
tions Produced by Retinoic Acid Releasing Microimplants 161 

Chemistry 

Sepehra Akhavan, Kristen Faust and Bruce Storhoff — Ambidentate Phosphine 
Ligands: Phosphine-amine and Phosphine-imidate Complexes of Tungsten* 167 

Stasia A. Barnell, Beth E. Beeson and Lynn R. Sousa — The Synthesis of a Crown 
Ether that May Exhibit Metal Cation Enhanced Fluorescence* 167 

Mohammad Behforouz, Joseph L. Bolan and Michael S. Flynt — 
2,4-Dinitrophenylhydrazones: A Modified Method for the Preparation of these 
Derivatives and an Explanation of Previous Conflicting Results* 167 

Mohammad Behforouz and K.E. Mennen — Wittig Reaction: Stable Ylides in the 
Preparation of 7, 5-unsaturated-|3-Ketoesters* 168 

Mohammad Behforouz and M.E. Ogle — Synthesis of /3-Carbolines Dervied from 
2-Amino-3-(3-indolyl)-butyric Acid (0-Methyltryptophan)* 168 



'Abstracts 



vi Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 94 (1985) 

Stanley L. Burden and Phillip W. Schultz — Coulometric Titrations: Low Cost 
Alternatives for Computer Controlled Titrations* 169 

Mark Cisneros and Joe Kirsch — Temperature Dependent Infrared Studies of the 
Hydrogen Bonding in Aliphatic Alcohols* 169 

Sally K. Dotterer and Kenneth L. Stevenson — Spectra and Equilibria of the 
Thiocyanate Complexes of Copper (I) in Aqueous Solution* 169 

Jennifer L. Dyke and John A. Mosbo — Steric and Electronic Effects upon cis:trans 
Distributions in W(CO) 4 (L)(L') Complexes when L and L' are Phosphorus 
Ligands* 170 

Bernice Ellis, Kevin Cooksy, James M. Anderson and Harry W. Jarrett — A 
Simple, Reproducible High Performance Liquid Chromatography Separation 
of Amino Acids with Picomole Sensitivity* 170 

Maureen L. Hill, Patrick Gallagher, Jeff Macri and F.W. Kleinhans — An 
Electron Spin Resonance Method for the Measurement of Liposomal Leakage* 170 

J.C. Huffman, R.A.D. Wentworth, W.E. Streib and C.J. Huffman — Hindered 
Ligand Systems: Structure of the cis,cis- 1,3, 5-Tris (pyridine-2-carboxaldimine) 
cyclohexane Complexes of Fe(II) and Ni(II) Ions* 171 

Nathan E. Kastelein, Phillip E. Klunzinger, Edward J. Ciesla, Claudia Rishaw, 
Cynthia L. Roth and Stanley L. Burden — Robots in the Chemistry 
Laboratory, Part I: A High Speed RS-232C Serial Communications Link for 
Controlling a HERO I Robot from an Apple II Plus Microcomputer* 171 

Nathan E. Kastelein, Phillip E. Klunzinger, Edward J. Ciesla, Cynthia L. 
Roth, Claudia Rishaw and Stanley L. Burden — Robots in the Chemistry 
Laboratory, Part II: Software for Controlling a HERO I Robot from an Apple 
II Plus Microcomputer via a High Speed RS-232C Communications Link* . 171 

Richard A. Kjonaas — Reaction Sequence Alteration in the Acetoacetic Ester Syn- 
thesis of Ketones* 172 

LeRoy Kroll and Bruce Storhoff — Functionalized Crown Ethers* 172 

Steve Newnam and James P. Rybarczyk — A Trace Metal Analysis of Coal and 
Acid Rain* 1 72 

Laura Pokorney and James R. Rybarczyk — Conclusion of Acid Rain Monitor- 
ing in Central Indiana* 173 

Eugene Schwartz — Atomic Polarizations of Transition Metal tris-3- 
Pentanedionates* 173 

John Scircle and Joe Kirsch — Temperature Dependent Infrared Studies of the 
Hydrogen Bonding in Aliphatic Alcohols* 173 

Joseph R. Siefker and Kenneth R. Kimmerle — A Study of the Coordination Com- 
pounds of Some of the Transition Metals Using 2(2-Aminoethoxy)-Ethanol as 
a Ligand and l-Methyl-2-Pyrrolidinone as a Solvent* 173 

Daniel K. Wunderlich and Myong-Ku Ahn — An Investigation of Aluminum Con- 
centrations in Water* 1 74 

Christopher L. Bush and Raima M. Larter — Sensitivity Studies of a Computer 
Model for the Peroxidase-oxidase Oscillating Reaction 177 

Joe Kirsch, Shannon Lieb and Mark Cisneros — A SCC MO Calculation on the 
Tetracyanoethylene-benzine Complex 181 

*Abstracts 



Table of Contents vii 

Kristine S. Kurtz and Kenneth L. Stevenson — Spectra and Photochemistry of 
the Chloro Complexes of Copper (I) 187 

Barth H. Ragatz, Gina Modrak and Ericka Baeske — Evaluation of Sample Pre- 
treatments as Potential Methods of Enhancing Phospholipid Extraction from 
Human Amniotic Fluid 193 

Barth H. Ragatz, Gina Modrak and Patricia S. Conn — Comparison of Two 
Simple Methods for Determining Lecithin/Sphingomyelin (L/S) Ratios in Human 
Amniotic Fluid Samples 197 

Barth H. Ragatz, Gina Modrak and Mike Engle — The Effects of Oligolysines 
and Polylysines on Human Platelet Aggregation Induced by Polylysines, 
Adenosine Diphosphate, and Epinephrine 203 

Ecology 

James R. Aldrich — Pipewort Pond, a Unique Wetland with Atlantic Coastal Plain 
Elements in Elkhart County, Indiana* 209 

James W. Berry — Competition for Ownership of Webs in the Semi-social Spider 
Cyrtophora moluccensis of Yap (Caroline Islands, Micronesia)* 209 

Alex Burgin and David T. Krohne — Regional Low Density and Extinction in 
Populations of Peromyscus leucopus* 209 

Spencer A. Cortwright — Predator-determined Structure in Amphibian Pond 

Communities* 210 

Michael A. Ewert and Craig E. Nelson — The Complex Relationship of Embryonic 
Development to Incubation Temperature in Turtles* 210 

Scott Ferson and Daniel D. Stockton — A Competitive Ecotone between Hard- 
wood and Relict Hemlock Communities* 210 

Burnell C. Fischer and John A. Kershaw, Jr. — Development and Analysis of 
a CFI Data Base for Indiana* 211 

George S. Libey and Gary E. Miller — Biofiltration in Intensive Culture Systems: 
Design Considerations* 211 

Molly Morris — Sexual Selection and Alternative Mating Strategies in Hyla crucifer 
and Hyla chrysoscelis* 212 

Craig E. Nelson — Do Tadpoles Die for their Siblings?* 212 

George R. Parker and Donald J. Leopold — Tree Species Dynamics in an Old- 
growth Deciduous Forest since 1926* 212 

Stephen A. Perrill — Male Mating Behavior in Hyla cinerea* 213 

Phillip E. Pope, William R. Chaney and William R. Byrnes — Hardwood Tree 
and Ground Cover Establishment on Reclaimed Mineland and Unmined Reference 
Sites in Indiana* 213 

Brad Semel and Douglas C. Andersen — Interactions among Mast, Small Mam- 
mals, and Insects, and their Implications* 213 

Rod Walton— Density-dependent Mortality on Galls of the Goldenrod Gall Fly, 
Eurosta solidaginis* 214 

David K. Apsley, Donald J. Leopold and George R. Parker — Tree Species 
Response to Release from Domestic Livestock Grazing 215 



"Abstracts 



vin Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 94 (1985) 

Steven E. Backs, Sean T. Kelly, P. Decker Major and Brian K. Miller— 
Characteristics of Drumming Habitat of Ruffed Grouse in Indiana 227 

Virgil Brack, Jr.— The Foraging Ecology of Some Bats in Indiana 231 

John S. Castrale, Robert E. Rolley and William J. Pfingsten— Legal Game 
Harvest by Indiana Landowners Hunting without a License 239 

Michael A. Homoya, D. Brian Abrell, James A. Aldrich and Thomas W. Post— 
The Natural Regions of Indiana 245 

Eric S. Menges and Thomas V. Armentano— Successional Relationships of Pine 
Stands at Indiana Dunes 269 

Edwin R. Squiers— The Roots of Ecology in Indiana 289 

Engineering 

David D. Chesak — The IAS Engineering Section: A Brief History* 293 

S. Dhawale, G. Cragnulino and D.D. Macdonald — Stress Corrosion Cracking 
of Sensitized Austenitic Stainless Steels in Basic Acid Solution Containing Sulfur 
Oxyanions* 293 

Andrew Hollerman — Engineering and Science Education's Dilemma: Inadequate 
Science Programs in the Public School System* 293 

Scott Oblander and W.W. Bowden — Prediction of the Variation of Azeotropic 
Composition Using the Gibbs-Konovalov Theorem* 293 

Dennis West and W.W. Bowden — The PVT Behavior of Compressed Liquids* 295 

Paul W. Mueller, Roger M. Hoffer and John E. Jacobson — Evaluation of 
Landsat Thematic Mapper Data for Classifying Forest Lands 297 

Entomology 

Jaime E. Araya and John E. Foster — Effect of Barley Yellow Dwarf Virus Infec- 
tion of Wheat and Oats on the Life Cycle of Rhopalosiphum padi (L.)* . . . 303 

William E. Chaney — Efficiency of Pollen Traps with Various Sized Trap Screens* 303 

B.H. Chen, J.E. Foster and H.W. Ohm — Effect of Viruliferous and Non- 
viruliferous Rhopalosiphum padi (L.) Aphids on Winter Wheat* 304 

C. Kudagamage and J.E. Foster — Mass Rearing the Bird Cherry Oat Aphid, 
Rhopalosiphum padi (L.)* 304 

G.L. Reed and D.K. Reed — Assessment of Numbers of Striped Cucumber Beetle 
Adults and Frequency of Feeding Injury on Muskmelon Cultivars* 304 

H.V. Scheller, R.H. Shukle, E.S. Furgason and J.E. Foster — Relationship of 
Probing Behavior of Sitobion avenae (Fabricius) to Transmission cf Luteoviruses 
Causing Cereal Yellow-dwarf Diseases* 305 

R.H. Shukle, H.V. Scheller and J.E. Foster — Identification of a Pectinase in 
Larvae of the Hessian Fly, Mayetiola destructor (Say)* 305 

V. Thirakhupt and J.E. Foster — Preference of the Bird Cherry Oat Aphid, 
Rhopalosiphum padi (L.) on Hessian Fly-infested Wheat and Effects on its 
Biology* 305 

John J. Favinger — Anecdotal History of Entomology in Indiana 307 

Philip T. Marshall and James A. Clark — Indiana Gypsy Moth Survey — A History 3 1 3 



* Abstracts 



Table of Contents ix 

Robert W. Meyer — Insects and Other Arthropods of Economic Importance in 
Indiana in 1984 323 

Jack R. Munsee — Annual Changes in Flea Populations on Three Domestic Pets, 

1978-1984 329 

David K. Reed and Gary L. Reed — Control of Vegetable Insects with Neem Seed 
Extracts 335 

John Richard Schrock — Checklist of Adult Carabid Beetles Known from Indiana 341 

Charles E. White, Frank N. Young and N.M. Downee — A Checklist of the Aquatic 
Coleoptera of Indiana 357 

Environmental Quality 

William Beranek, Jr. and Elizabeth DuSold — The Determination of the Removal 
Rate of Specific Chemicals by the Indianapolis Wastewater Treatment System* 37 1 

William Beranek, Jr., Elizabeth DuSold, John Merrill and Martin St. Clair — 
A Superfund Risk Assessment in Indiana: A Case Study of the Columbia City Site* 371 

William Beranek, Jr. and David Jordan — The Ratio of PM-10 to TSP in the 
Atmosphere* 371 

Howard E. Dunn, Benjamin P. Miller, Charles B. Macer and Michael E. 
Klansmeier — Evaporation Rates of Organic Liquids at Various Wind Speeds 
and Temperatures* 372 

Denise Benson, Claude D. Baker, Bill J. Forsyth and John S. Castrale — 
Herbicide (Alachlor, Atrazine, Linuron and Paraquat) Residues in Deer Mice 
Inhabiting Conventional and Minimum Tillage Row-crop Fields 373 

Ronald J. Galloy — Acid Rain: A Synopsis 381 

Geology and Geography 

Konrad J. Banaszak and Theodore K. Greenman — Landfills in Marion County— 
A Revisit* 387 

K.C. Kuo and T.R. West— Compression Strength Testing of the Springfield Coal, 
Coal V, Pike County, Indiana* 387 

Alan C. Samuelson— Interpretation of Glacial Geology and Groundwater Problems 
in East-central Indiana Using Improved Compilations of Water Well Driller's 
Records* 388 

J.R. Sans and CD. Potter— Three-dimensional Patterns of Biotic Composition 
within the Cloudy Pass Batholith, Washington* 388 

William L. Wilson and Donald W. Ash — Geology and Geomorphic History of 
the Garrison Chapel Cave System, Monroe County, Indiana* 388 

Will H. Blackwell— Evidence of Algal Source of Micrite in a Saluda Coral Zone 
in Southeastern Indiana 391 

History of Science 

Barbara A. Seeley and Gerald R. Seeley— The Rich and Varied Past of the History 
of Science Section 395 

Microbiology and Molecular Biology 

Nancy C. Behforouz — Effect of Cyclosporine A on Leishmania tropica* .... 401 

*Abstracts 



x Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 94 (1985) 

Richard H. Lambert and J.R. Garcia — The Regulation of S-Adenosylmethionine 
Synthetase in Candida albicans* 401 

M. Langona — A Case of Tuberculosis in the University Setting* 401 

M. Langona, S. Bossung and M. Orr — Scabies: A Nosocomial Outbreak*. . . 402 

Steven H. Larsen and Joann Hoskins — Three Plasmid Cloning Vectors for Mam- 
malian Cells* 402 

Linda Madisen and M.E. Hodes — Banking DNA for Future Diagnosis of Hereditary 
Diseases* 402 

F.H. Norris and M.E. Hodes — An Examination of 495 Splice Junction Sequences* 403 

Tom Pugh and Mary Clancy — Transcriptional Regulation of the Sporulation- 
specific Glucoamylase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae* 403 

James L. Shellhaas — Development of a Model System for the Study of Murine 
Leukocyte Chemiluminescence* 404 

M. Skaria, J.E. Foster and R.M. Lister — Relationship between Symptomatic 
Resistance and Virus Production in Barley Cultivars Inoculated with Barley Yellow 
Dwarf Virus* 404 

David L. Snyder and Bernard S. Wostmann — Serum Hormone Levels in Germ- 
free and Conventional Rats: Effect of Dietary Restriction* 404 

I.L. Sun, J.E. Putnam and F.L. Crane — Control of Cell Growth by Trans- 
plasmalemma Redox: Stimulation of HeLa Cell Growth by Impermeable Oxidants 407 

Physics and Astronomy 

Albert A. Bartlett and Richard L. Conklin — The Dynamics of the Population 
of the United States* 417 

Marshall P. Cady, Jr. — On the Measurement of Thermal Diffusivities with 
Bryngdahl Interferometry* 417 

Vincent A. DiNoto, Jr. — The Physics of the Grist-mill* 418 

Frank K. Edmondson — The National Optical Astronomy Observatories* 418 

L. Dwight Farringer — The Manchester Interface Adapter for Commodore and 
Apple Microcomputers* 418 

Jodi Hamilton and Thomas H. Robertson — Software for Astronomical 

Photometry* 419 

Lawrence E. Poorman — Licensing and Certification of Physics Teachers by Ex- 
amination: What are the Dangers? 419 

Thomas H. Robertson and Jodi Hamilton — A System for Astronomical 
Photometry* 419 

Gerald J. Shea— The Great Southern U.S. Geologic Uplift Observed in the Early 
Months in 1984* 419 

F.R. Steldt — Astrophotography Using Celestron Telescopes* 420 

Nancy Watson and James Watson, Jr. — Using Toys to Teach Physics to Middle 

School Students* 420 

Samir I. Sayegh and Joseph D. Lawrence — Integer-valued Equivalent Resistances 421 



'Abstracts 



Table of Contents xi 

Plant Taxonomy 

James R. Aldrich, Lee A. Casebere and Helene Starcs — The Discovery of Native 
Rare Vascular Plants in Northern Indiana* 425 

Roxane A. Dupuis and Richard Jensen — A Preliminary Survey of Phenolic Com- 
pounds in Sympatric Populations of Quercus shumardii and Q. rubra in Nor- 
thern Indiana* 425 

J.F. Hennen, R.M. Lopez-F and M.M. Hennen — Rust Species Diversity in 
Temperate and Tropical Regions in the Americas* 425 

Michael A. Homoya — Additions to the Flora of Indiana: II* 426 

Richard J. Jensen and Roxane A. Dupuis — Assessing Variation in Mixed Oak 
Communities: Evaluation of Multivariate Analyses of Morphological Data* 426 

R.C. Mehra, D. Fisher, S. Brekrus, S. Alwine, J. Palbykin and M.G. Butler — 
Linear Differentiation of Alluim cepa, Lens culinaris and Vicia faba 
Chromosomes* 426 

Paul E. Rothrock — Vascular Flora of Grant County, Indiana: Additions and 
Comments* 427 

Rebecca A. Strait and Marion T. Jackson — Pre-burning Floral Inventory of 
Little Bluestem Prairie, Vigo County, Indiana* 427 

Richard J. Jensen — The Red and Black Oaks of Indiana 429 

John W. McCain — A Preliminary Review and Multiple-entry Key to the Rust Fungi 
on Cyperaceae and Juncaceae in Indiana 447 

Thomas W. Post — Additions to the Flora of Pike and Gibson Counties, Indiana 455 

Thomas W. Post, John A. Bacone and James R. Aldrich — Gravel Hill Praries 
of Indiana 457 

Victor Riemenschneider and Patricia Wiese Reed — Vascular Plants of Barker 
Woods Nature Preserve, LaPorte County, Indiana 465 

Psychology 

A.M. Fullenkamp, Kim Duffy, Robert A. Vance and Robert Fischer — Marking 
in Submissive Male Gerbils after Contact with a Dominant Male and His Odors* 47 1 

Bonnie Gray, Robert Fischer and Gary Meunier — Heterosexual Social Interac- 
tions in the Syrian Hamster* 471 

Barbara Kane — The Several Themes of Adolescence* 471 

Oliver C.S. Tzeng and Roberta Schlossmann — Psychovector Love Scale and 

its Differentiability* 472 

John M. Vayhinger— Orwell's 1984, Skinner's Walden II, Marx' Classless Society 
and other Utopias: An Exploration of Human Expectation and the Psychological 
Factors in a "Perfect Society" 472 

Roger Ware and Charles Yokomoto — Personality Types and Perceptual-motor 
Performance* 473 

Walter Hartmann — Munro's Doctrines: A Forgotten Pioneer in Holism and 
Hypnosis 475 



*Abstracts 



xii Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 94 (1985) 

Science Education 

Marshall P. Cady, Jr. — Ideas Concerning the Use of Computer Data Acquisition 
Systems to Improve Teaching Effectiveness within the Laboratory* 483 

Walter Cory — A New and Challenging Science Program from AAAS for Grades 
7 and 8* 483 

G. Earle Francq and Jerry M. Colglazier — Determining Needs: First Step for 
Improving Science and Mathematics Instruction in Rural High Schools in North- 
western Indiana* 484 

D. Fabian Lozano-Garcia' and Roger M. Hoffer — The Layered Classifier: A 
More Effective Method for Studying Seasonal Changes in Forest Cover Types 
Using Satellite Data* 484 

James George — Synthesis Experiments for High School Chemistry 485 

Linda Hamrick and Harold Harty — The International Challenge: A Comparison 
of Science Education Models from Four Nations* 485 

Susan M. Johnson — A New Approach to Fostering Scientific Literacy among In- 
diana's Secondary School Students* 485 

Paul B. Kissinger and John A. Ricketts — Science Training for the Industrial En- 
vironment (STIE)* 486 

Rosalie Kramer — Field Biology: A Blow to Provincialism* 486 

John Richard Schrock — Speaking of Sex — A Presentation on Terminology for 
Students in Reproductive Biology Classes* 486 

Richard E. Schuley and Marshall P. Cady, Jr. — Improving the Results of 
Molecular Mass Determination Experiments by Using a Microelectronic Ther- 
mistor Device* 486 

Katharine Sessions — An Introductory Titration for First Year Chemistry Students: 
A Comparison of Antacid Effectiveness* 487 

Stanley S. Shimer — Using the Microcomputer to Teach Science in the Elementary 
Classroom* 487 

James T. Streator — Computer Aided Classroom Presentations in Chemistry* . 487 

Albert A. Williams — Color Vision: A Lecture Demonstration of Afterimages* 488 

Gary E. Dolph — CLIMATE: A Microcomputer Program Allowing Student Prepara- 
tion of Climatic Maps for Indiana 489 

L. Dwight Farringer, James T. Streator and Albert A. Williams — A Summer 
Institute in Microcomputer Applications for Secondary School Science Teachers 499 

K. Michael Foos — Use of a Microcomputer to Enhance the Coin Flip Probability 
Exercise in the General Biology Laboratory 503 

Lawrence Scharmann and Harold Harty — Two-year College Biology Instruc- 
tors' Perceptions about their Role Expectations 509 

Soil and Atmospheric Sciences 

M.F. Baumgardner, N.N. Chaudhuri and S.J. Kristof — Land Cover Classifica- 
tion of Rupgang Thana Dhaka, Bangladesh Using Landsat MSS Data* .... 517 

William R. Gommel, Douglas W. Poad and John W. Wicker — Air Temperature 
Fluctuation in Alabama During the Annular Solar Eclipse on 30 May 1984* 517 

♦Abstracts 



Table of Contents xiii 

Paul Joseph and C.W. Lovell — Engineering Properties of Indiana Peats and 
Mucks* 518 

C.W. Lovell — Characterization of Indiana Soils by Porosimetry* 518 

C.L. Rhykerd, S.E. Fowler, Alfonso de Almeida, A.M. Ferreira, Nuno 
Moreira, C.H. Noller and J.L. Ahlrichs — Survey of the Mineral Composi- 
tion of Forage Crops in Portugal* 518 

C.R. Valenzuela, T.L. Phillips, M.F. Baumgardner and L.A. Bartolucci — 
Soils; An Important Component in a Digital Geographic Information System* 519 

J. A. Andresen, W.W. McFee, J.L. Ahlrichs and K.T. PawU— Wet Atmospheric 
Deposition in Indiana 521 

John T. Curran, Albert P. Shipe and Edward C. Yess — The National Weather 
Service Rainfall Data Collection Network in Indiana 529 

D.P. Franzmeier, H.M. Galloway and J.E. Yahner — Soil Survey in Indiana: 
Past, Present and Future 533 

Diane L. Klingle and David R. Smith — Gust Fronts in Doppler Radar Data . 547 

T.E. Klingler and D.R. Smith — An Analysis of the 28 March 1984 Tornado Out- 
break in the Carolinas 555 

Ana L. Pires, J.L. Ahlrichs and C.L. Rhykerd — Response of Forage Crops to 
Dolomitic Lime 565 

Wayne F. Rostek, Jr. and John T. Snow — A Wind Tunnel Investigation of 
Roughness Parameters for Surfaces of Regularly Arrayed Roughness Elements 571 

John Richard Schrock and Jack R. Munsee — A Comparison of Soils on 
Unreclaimed 1949 Indiana Coal Stripmine Surfaces in 1964 and 1981 579 

Zoology 

James D. Hengeveld — The Adaptive (?) Significance of Brood Reduction in the 
Red-winged Blackbird (Angelaius phoeniceus)* 597 

John B. Iverson — Patterns of Relative Fecundity in Snakes* 597 

Mohinder S. Jarial — Light Microscopic and Ultrastructural Features of the Gut 
of the Balsam Woolly Aphid, Adelges piceae Ratz* 597 

Michael D. Johnson — Parental Investment in the Bee Ceratina calcarata Robert- 
son (Hymenoptera: Xylocopidae): A Preliminary Study* 598 

Michael P. Kowalski — Territorial Behavior in the Prothonotary Warbler, Pro- 
tonotaria citrea, Between- and Within-season Territory Relocations* 598 

James R. Litton, Jr. — A Record of the Freshwater Nemertean Prostoma graecense 
(Bohmig) in Indiana* 599 

James R. Litton, Jr. — Seasonal Abundance of the Psammic Rotifers of Spicer Lake, 
Indiana* 599 

William J. Rowland — Visual Signals in Sticklebacks: A Reexamination and Ex- 
tension of Some Classic Experiments* 599 

Sherman A. Minton — Venom Antigens in Oral Secretions of Colubrid Snakes* 600 

Roderick A. Suthers — Physiology of Vocalization by an Echolocating Bird* . 600 

Licia Wolf — An Experimental Study of Biparental Care in the Dark-eyed Junco* 601 



'Abstracts 



xiv Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 94 (1985) 

Claude D. Baker, Bill J. Forsyth, Tom Wiles and D. Brian Abrell — Rediscovery 
of the Spotted Darter, Etheostoma maculatum, in Indiana Waters: Blue River; 
Crawford, Harrison and Washington Counties; Ohio River Drainage, USA 603 

Virgil Brack, Jr., Ted T. Cable and Daniel E. Driscoll — Food Habits of Urban 
American Kestrels, Falco sparverius 607 

Richard L. Buckner, Melvin W. Denner, Daniel R. Brooks and Shareen C. 
Buckner — Parasitic Endohelminths from Fishes of Southern Indiana 615 

Wynn W. Cudmore — The Present Distribution and Status of the Eastern Woodrat, 
Neotoma floridana, in Indiana 621 

David L. Daniell — Occurrence of Swimmers' Itch in Northeast Indiana 629 

Bill J. Forsyth, Claude D. Baker, Tom Wiles and Charles Weilbaker — 
Cottonmouth, Agkistrodon piscivorus, Records from the Blue River and Potato 
Run in Harrison County, Indiana (Ohio River Drainage, USA) 633 

Thomas W. French — Dental Anomalies in Three Species of Shrews from Indiana 635 

Thomas W. French — Reproduction and Age Structure of Three Indiana Shrews 641 

Neil J. Parke and Charles E. Mays — Canine Dirofilariasis in Central Indiana 645 

D. David Pascal, Jr. and John O. Whitaker, Jr. — Ectoparasites of Pine Voles, 
Microtus pinetorum, from Clark County, Illinois 649 

Ronald L. Richards — Quarternary Remains of the Spotted Skunk Spilogale 
putorius, in Indiana 657 

Ronald L. Richards and William R. Wepler — Extinct Woodland Muskox, Sym- 
bos cavifrons, Cranium from Miami County, North Central Indiana 667 

David M. Sever and Douglas Duff — Survey of the Fishes of the Kingsbury State 
Fish and Wildlife Area, LaPorte County, Indiana 673 

Marcus D. Webster — Heat Loss from Avian Integument: Effects of Posture and 
the Plumage 68 1 

Charles Weilbaker, Claude D. Baker, Bill J. Forsyth, Carl M. Christenson 
and Ralph W. Taylor — The Freshwater Naiads, Bivalvia: Unionidae, of the 
Blue River, a Southern Indiana Tributary of the Ohio River 687 

Instructions for Contributors 693 

Index 697 



Proceedings 

of the 

Indiana Academy 

of Science 



Preface To The Centennial Volume 

As President of the Indiana Academy of Science during this Centennial Year I am 
honored to introduce this volume of its Proceedings. 

During this special year I found it valuable to think back over the last hundred 
years and to reconstruct what science must have been like over this period in general, 
but also more specifically within Indiana. How much scientific knowledge and insight 
do we take for granted today that did not exist even ten or twenty years ago, let alone 
in 1885? Moreover, what current methods and support resources simply were unknown 
or unavailable during the earlier days of our Academy? 

Even more important than how much we have learned and grown is the realization 
that today each of us is related to the many scientists who have preceded us in the Academy. 
Moreover, all eleven hundred of us are the only link to the Academy's future. We join 
our past colleagues in the spirit of science and in the scientific endeavor at a time when 
our skills and dedication are needed more than ever throughout society. For science is 
an essential part of today's world, and will be in the future. Our knowledge and abilities 
can help alleviate many world problems, but they can also amplify them. Today we 
desperately need a continuously concerned scientific community as well as a scientifically 
literate society. 

We stand on the threshold of the next hundred years of the Indiana Academy of 
Science. Let us dedicate ourselves even more deeply to advancing science in ways that 
also contribute to all the people of Indiana and the world! 



Theodore J. Crovello, 

President 

Indiana Academy of Science 



Indiana Academy of Science 
Officers for 1984 



President 



President-Elect 



Secretary 



Treasurer 



Director of Public Relations 



Editor of PROCEEDINGS 



Theodore J. Crovello 
Department of Biology 
The University of Notre Dame 
Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 
PHONE: (219) 239-7496 
SUVON: +736 + 7496 

Benjamin Moulton, Professor Emeritus 
Department of Geography & Geology 
Indiana State University 
Terre Haute, Indiana 47809 
PHONE: (812) 234-3870 
SUVON: __ + 749 + 9 + 234-3870 

Richard L. Conklin 
Department of Physics 
Hanover College 
Hanover, Indiana 47243 
PHONE: (812) 866-2151, ext. 348 
SUVON: + 719 + 348 

Duvall A. Jones 
Department of Biology 
St. Joseph's College 
Rensselaer, Indiana 47978 
PHONE: (219) 886-7111, ext. 214 
SUVON: + 741+214 

Walter A. Cory, Jr. 
Coordinator for School Sciences 
W. W. Wright 253 
Indiana University 
Bloomington, Indiana 47405 
PHONE: (812) 335-5090 
SUVON: + 703 + 55090 

Donald R. Winslow 
School of Education 201 A 
Indiana University 
Bloomington, Indiana 47405 
PHONE: (812) 335-8658 
SUVON: +703 + 58658 



Officers and Committees 5 

Committee Chairpersons and Special Appointments 

I. Elected Committees 

1. Academy Foundation Committee: William A. Daily, Chair (SUVON: 
+ 9 + 251-4719) 

2. Bonding Committee: Mary Lee Richeson, Chair (SUVON: 
+ 710+5546) 

3. Research Grants Committee: Uwe Hansen, Chair (SUVON: 
+749 + 2429) 

II. Standing and Ad Hoc Committees, and Special Appointments 

4. Academy Representative to The American Association for the Advance- 
ment of Science: Walter A. Cory, Jr. (SUVON + 703 + 55090) 

5. Academy Representative to The Indiana Natural Resources Commission: 
Damian A. Schmelz (SUVON: + 8970) 

6. Auditing Committee: John A. Ricketts, Chair (SUVON: + 706 + 4607) 

7. Biological Survey Committee: John A. Bacone, Chair (SUVON: 
__ + 9 + 232 + 4052) 

8. Centennial Program Committee: John B. Patton, Chair (SUVON: 
+703 + 52862) 

9. Constitution Committee: William R. Eberly, Chair (SUVON: 
+ 729 + 309) 

10. Editorial Board for the Proceedings: Donald R. Winslow, Chair (SUVON: 
+703 + 58658) 

11. Emeritus Member Selection Committee: Robert H. Cooper, Chair 
(SUVON: + 732 + + 288-9068) 

12. Fellows Committee: William Melhorn, Chair (SUVON: 
+ 755 + 43277) 

13. Financial Planning: Frank Guthrie, Chair (SUVON: + 739 + 312) 

14. High School Teacher Research Fellows Committee: Walter A. Cory, Jr., 
Chair (SUVON: + 703 + 55090) 

15. Indiana Science Talent Search Committee: Walter A. Cory, Jr. Chair 
(SUVON: + 703 + 55090) 

16. Invitations Committee: Donald J. Cook, Chair (SUVON + 706 + 4601) 

17. Junior Academy Council, Director: Cheryl Mason (PHONE: 
219/924-7400) 

18. Library Committee: Lois Burton, Chair (SUVON: __ + 9 + 253 + 7798) 

19. Membership Committee: Duvall A. Jones, Chair (SUVON: 
+ 741+214) 

20. Necrologist: Fay K. Daily (SUVON: + 9 + 251-4719) 

21. Newsletter Editor: Walter A. Cory, Jr. (SUVON: + 703-55090) 

22. Nominations Committee: J. Dan Webster, Chair (SUVON: 
+719 + 310) 

23. Parlimentarian: Clarence Dineen (SUVON: + 743 + 4525) 

24. Preservation of Natural Areas Committee: Marian T. Jackson, Chair 
(SUVON: + 749 + 2489) 

25. Program Committee: Philip A. St. John (SUVON: +704 + 9411) 

26. Publications Committee: Benjamin Moulton, Chair (SUVON: 
+ 749 + 9 + 234-3870) 

27. Resolutions Committee: William Davies, Chair (SUVON: 
+ 710 + 5535) 



Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 94 (1985) 

28. Science and Society Committee: Alice S. Bennett, Chair (SUVON: 
+ 732 + 6875) 

29. Speaker of the Year Selection Committee: Richard J. Jensen, Chair 
(SUVON: + 743 + 4674) 

30. Youth Activities Committee: Susan M. Johnson, Chair (SUVON: 
+ 723 + 4043) 



The Council 

The Council consists of the officers plus the Chairperson of the Science and Society 
Committee. 

Council Members for 1984: 

Theodore J. Crovello, President 

Benjamin Moulton, President-Elect 

Richard L. Conklin, Secretary 

Duvall A. Jones, Treasurer 

Walter A. Cory, Jr., Director of Public Relations 

Donald R. Winslow, Editor of Proceedings 

Alice S. Bennett, Chair of Science and Society Committee 

The Executive Committee 

The Executive Committee consists of the past presidents, current officers, chair- 
persons of the sections, chairpersons of all committees, director of the Youth Activities 
Committee, and representatives of affiliated organizations. 

For current Executive Committee membership, see parts of this Directory listing 
the above positions. 

The Budget Committee 

The Council: 

Theodore J. Crovello, President (and Chair of Budget Committee) 

Benjamin Moulton, President-Elect 

Richard L. Conklin, Secretary 

Duvall A. Jones, Treasurer 

Walter A. Cory, Jr., Director of Public Relations 

Donald R. Winslow, Editor of Proceedings 

Alice S. Bennett, Chair of Science and Society Committee 

Immediate Past President: Alice Bennett 
Junior Academy Council Director: Cheryl Mason 
Library Committee Chair: Lois Burton 
Program Committee Chair: Philip A. St. John 
Youth Activities Committee Chair: Susan M. Johnson 



1984 Committees and Special Appointments 

Elected Committees 

1. Academy Foundation William A. Daily, Chair (1985) 

John Ricketts (1984) 

2. Bonding Committee Mary Lee Richeson, Chair (1985) 

Donald Hendricks (1984) 



Officers and Committees 



Research Grants Committee 



II. Standing and Ad Hoc Committees 

4. Academy Representative to the 
American Association for the Ad- 
vancement of Science: 

5. Academy Representative on the 
Indiana Natural Resources 
Commission: 

6. Auditing Committee: 

7. Biological Survey Committee: 



8. Centennial Program Committee: 



9. Constitution Committee: 



10. Editorial Board for the 
Proceedings 



Uwe J. Hansen, Chair (1985) 
Betty D. Allamong (1984) 
John H. Cleveland (1986) 
John O. Whitaker, Jr. (1987) 
James F. Newman (1988) 



Walter A. Cory, Jr. 



Damian A. Schmelz. 

John A. Rjcketts, Chair (1984) 
Andrew G. Mehall (1983) 

John A. Bacone, Chair 
James Aldrich 
Theodore J. Crovello 
James R. Gammon 
Donald Hendricks 
Philip A. Orput 
Victor Riemenschneider 
Harmon P. Weeks 
John Whitaker 

John B. Patton, Chair 
Alice S. Bennett 
Walter A. Cory, Jr. 
Fay K. Daily 
William A. Daily 
John F. Pelton 
Philip A. St. John 

William R. Eberly, Chair 
William A. Daily 
Clarence Dineen 

Donald R. Winslow, Chair 

Hans O. Andersen 

Rita Barr 

Ernest E. Campaigne 

Donald P. Franzmeier 

James R. Gammon 

James H. Kellar 

Benjamin Moulton 

John F. Pelton 

Carl C. Sartain 

Alfred Schmidt 

John O. Whitaker, Jr. 

Bernard S. Wostmann 

Frank N. Young 



Indiana Academy of Science 



Vol. 94 (1985) 



1 1 . Emeritus Member Selection 
Committee: 



Robert H. Cooper, Chair 
Harry G. Day 
Howard H. Michaud 
Winona H. Welch 



12. Fellows Committee: 



13. Financial Planning Committee: 



William Melhorn, (1985) Chair 
Stanley L. Burden (1986) 
Richard Conklin (1984) 
Della Cook ((1985) 
Clarence Dineen (1986) 
John J. Favinger (1984) 
Robert Henry (1985) 
Richard Jensen (1986) 
James G. List (1986) 
Robert D. Miles (1985) 
John F. Pelton (1986) 
Russell K. Stivers (1984) 
Eugene D. Weinberg (1984) 

Frank Guthrie, Chair 
William A. Daily 
Duvall A. Jones 
John A. Ricketts 



14. High School Teacher Research 
Fellows Committe: 



15. Indiana Science Talent Search 
Committee: 



16. Invitations Committees: 

17. Junior Academy Council: 



18. Library Committee: 



Walter A. Cory, Jr. Chair 
Alice S. Bennett 
Ernest E. Campaigne 
Cheryl Mason 



Walter A. Cory, Jr., Chair 
Jo Ann Jansing 
Richard A. Mayes 
Van A. Neie 
Alfred Schmidt 
Harold Zimmack 

Donald J. Cook, Chair 

Cheryl Mason, Director 
William T. Anderson, Jr. 
Michael Kobe 
Virginia Rhodes 
Carroll Ritter 
Leota Skirvin 
Jane Tucker 

Lois Burton, Chair 
James A. Clark 
William A. Daily 
John F. Pelton 



Officers and Committees 



19. Membership Committee: 



20. Necrologist: 

21. Newsletter Editor: 

22. Nominations Committee: 



23. Parliamentarian: 

24. Preservation of Natural Areas 
Committee: 



25. Program Committee: 

26. Publications Committee: 



27. Resolutions Committee: 



28. Science and Society Committee: 



Duvall A. Jones, Chair 
Robert H. Cooper 
Walter A. Cory, Jr. 
Marion Jackson 
Susan Johnson 
Jackson L. Marr 
William Melhorn 

Fay K. Daily 

Walter A. Cory, Jr. 

J. Dan Webster, Chair 
Alice S. Bennett 
William R. Eberly 

Clarence Dineen 

Marion T. Jackson (1984), Chair 
James Aldrich (1986) 
John A. Bacone (1985) 
Carl H. Krekeler (1984) 
Carrolle Markle (Honorary) 
George Parker (1986) 
Victor Riemenschneider (1984) 
Robert C. Weber (1985) 
William Weeks (1986) 
Winona H. Welch (Honorary) 

Philip A. St. John, Chair 

Benjamin Moulton, Chair 
Lois Burton 
Donald J. Cook 
Walter A. Cory, Jr. 
William Eberly 
Willis H. Johnson 
J. Dan Webster 
John O. Whitaker 

William Davies, Chair 
Edward C. Miller 

Alice S. Bennett, Chair 
William Beranek, Jr. 
Stanley Burden 
Lois Burton 
Walter A. Cory, Jr. 
Jon R. Hendrix 
Gene Kritsky 
Elden Ortmann 
John Pelton 
James Shuler 
Edwin R. Squiers 
Philip A. St. John 
Charles Wier 
Howard R. Youse 



10 



Indiana Academy of Science 



Vol. 94 (1985) 



29. "Speaker of the Year" Selection 
Committee: 



30. Youth Activities Committee: 



Richard J. Jensen, Chair 
Stanley L. Burden 
Robert E. Hale 
Thomas R. Mertens 

Susan M. Johnson, Chair 
Lloyd Anderson 
Jerry Colglazier 
Walter A. Cory, Jr. 
Karl Kaufman 
Michael L. Kobe 
Cheryl Mason 
Virginia Rhodes 
John A. Ricketts 
Stanley Shimer 
Leota Skirvin 
Jane Tucker 



IAS 1984 Section Chairpersons and Chairpersons-Elect 



Chairpersons 

Donald Cochran 
Department of Anthropology 
Ball State University 
Muncie, Indiana 47306 
(317) 285-4927 



Phillip E. Pope 
Department of Forestry 
Purdue University 
West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 
(317) 494-3590 

Ralph Jersild 
Department of Anatomy 
Indiana University School of 

Medicine 
Indianapolis, Indiana 46202 
(317) 264-8730 

Shannon Lieb 
Department of Chemistry 
Butler University 
Indianapolis, Indiana 46208 
(317) 283-9410 



Chairpersons-Elect 

Anthropology 

Diane Beynon 

Department of Anthropology 
Indiana University — Purdue 
University at Fort Wayne 
2101 Coliseum Boulevard East 
Fort Wayne, Indiana 46805 
(219) 482-5391 

Botany 

Austin E. Brooks 
Department of Biology 
Wabash College 
Crawfordsville, Indiana 47333 
(317) 362-1400 ext. 350 

Cell Biology 

Robert Stark 
Department of Zoology 
DePauw University 
Greencastle, Indiana 46135 
(317) 653-4776 

Chemistry 

Dennis G. Peters 
Department of Chemistry 
Chemistry Building, Room A 112 
Indiana University 
Bloomington, Indiana 47405 
(812) 335-9671 



Officers and Committees 



11 



Edwin R. Squiers 
Department of Biology 
Taylor University 
Upland, Indiana 46989 
(317) 998-2751 ext. 386 

David D. Chesak 
Box 883 

St. Joseph's College 
Rensselaer, Indiana 47978 
(219) 866-7111 

Paul Robert Grimstad 
Department of Biology 
University of Notre Dame 
Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 
(219) 239-5493 



William Beranek 

Indiana Center for Advanced 

Research 
120 E. 38th Street 
P.O. Box 647 

Indianapolis, Indiana 46223 
(317) 264-2827 

Edward Lyon 
Department of Geography 
Ball State University 
Muncie, Indiana 47306 
(317) 285-1761 



Ecology 

Richard W. Miller 
Department of Zoology 
Butler University 
Indianapolis, Indiana 46208 
(317) 283-9328 

Engineering 

William Stanchina 

Department of Electrical Engineering 

Notre Dame University 

Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 

(219) 239-5693 

Entomology 

James Haddock 

Department of Biological Sciences 

Indiana University-Purdue University 

at Fort Wayne 
2101 Coliseum Boulevard East 
Fort Wayne, Indiana 46805 
(219) 482-5254 

Environmental Quality 

Horst Siewert 

Department of Natural Resources 

Ball State University 

Muncie, Indiana 47306 

(317) 285-5790 



Geology and Geography 

John Cleveland 

Department of Geology/Geography 

Indiana State University 

Terre Haute, Indiana 47809 

(812) 749-2833 



Gene Kritsky 
Department of Biology 
College of Mount St. Joseph 
Mount St. Joseph, Ohio 45051 
(513) 244-4401 



History of Science 

Gerald Seeley 

Department of Civil Engineering 
Valparaiso University 
Valparaiso, Indiana 46883 
(219) 464-5120 



J. R. Garcia 

Department of Biology 
Ball State University 
Muncie, Indiana 47306 
(317) 284-4045 



Microbiology and Molecular Biology 

Mary Lee Richeson 
Department of Biological Sciences 
Indiana University-Purdue University 

at Fort Wayne 
2101 Coliseum Boulevard East 
Fort Wayne, Indiana 46805 
(219) 482-5546 



12 



Indiana Academy of Science 



Vol. 94 (1985) 



Vincent A. DiNoto, Jr. 
Department of Physics 
Indiana University Southeast 
New Albany, Indiana 47150 
(812) 945-2731 ext 390 



Marion T. Jackson 
Department of Life Sciences 
Indiana State University 
Terre Haute, Indiana 47809 
(812) 232-6311 



Physics and Astronomy 

Ruth Howes 

Department of Physics and 

Astronomy 
Ball State University 
Muncie, Indiana 47306 
(317) 285-5494 or 285-6268— Dept. 

Plant Taxonomy 

Victor Riemenschneider 
Department of Biology 
Indiana University South Bend 
South Bend, Indiana 46615 
(219) 272-8262 

Psychology 



Robert Fischer 

Department of Psychological Sciences 

Ball State University 

Muncie, Indiana 47306 

(317) 285-1713 



Linda Hamrick 
The Canterbury School 
5601 Covington Road 
Fort Wayne, Indiana 46804 
(219 432-7776 



David R. Smith 
Department of Geosciences 
Purdue University 
West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 
(317) 494-3285 

Thomas Fogle 
Department of Biology 
St. Mary's College 
Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 
(219) 284-4675 



Science Education 

Gary Dolph 
Department of Botany 
Indiana University at Kokomo 
Kokomo, Indiana 46902 
(317) 453-2000 

Soil and Atmospheric Sciences 

Charles L. Rhykerd 
Department of Agronomy 
Purdue University 
West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 
(317) 494-8101 

Zoology 

James R. Litton, Jr. 
Department of Biology 
St. Mary's College 
Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 
(219) 284-4669 or 4671 



HIGHLIGHTS OF THE SPRING MEETING 




Photo courtesy of Whitewater Publications, Inc. 

Members of the Indiana Academy of Science toured Brookville historical sites. John 
Newman, former Brookville High School teacher, (far left) conducted the tour. 



Indiana Academy of Science 

CENTENNIAL YEAR 

HISTORICAL HIKE OF BROOKVILLE 

Friday, April 27, 1984 

At the forks of the Whitewater river, early in Indiana history, were located 
millstones. From these grew a town, strategically located to control and process produce 
coming down the forks from interior farms. Thus by August, 1808, Brookville was 
platted by Amos Butler and Jesse B. Thomas. Soon John Allen and Amos Butler were 
platting additions. Why such rapid growth? The forks of the Whitewater served as 
"roads" to hinterlands from Cincinnati in which settlers could venture north past the 
National Road, or west, towards Indianapolis. Brookville's location quickly drew Hoosier 
leaders and a Federal Land office. One can judge the prosperity of a town by its homes 
and public buildings. By 1819 log structures were being replaced by brick made at 
a factory located on the site of the high school, instead of being burned for each 
individual project. Yet with the removal of the land office to Indianapolis in 1825 
depression hit Brookville; much land, and even James Brown Ray's home, was in the 
hands of the Bank of the United States at Philadelphia or in the hands of speculators. 
With the passage of the Internal Improvements Act in 1836, prosperity returned to 
Brookville with the building of the Whitewater Canal — new homes and businesses "o/ 
permanent improvements.'''' Such development began to wane by 1855 when the exodus 
of younger members of families for the "West" offset progress. The Civil War brought 

13 



14 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 94 (1985) 

industrialization to the United States and several new factories to Brookville, as barrel 
and paper making. The days of Scotus Gaul Picti, whose members believed that 
"Brookville was the greatest town on earth," caused the last business building boon in 
Brookville between 1890 and 1915. With the growth of urbanization, Brookville 
has more and more been left with her last greatest resources, her history. 

To tour Brookville, then, is to do so on her terms — leisurely and curiously. Not 
to wonder why Governor James Brown Ray ever lived in Brookville, but to imagine 
his coming out of his home to greet you. Or not to mumble about the lack of parking 
places in town, but to wonder at the anger of the president of the Brookville National 
Bank for the livery stable customers next door who took all the bank customers' spaces 
at the hitching rail. Only then can Brookville' s secrets unlock to reveal her uniqueness, 
fame and beauty. 

1. BRACKEN HILL, in back of St. Michael's Church, was the site of a cabin built 
by John Allen, a co-settler of Brookville. Part of his second home, built about 1808, 
is still standing. Brick home was built by the Price family in 1837 and remodeled in 
1937 by Al C. Brown. This home was long the residence of the Bracken family, William 
being a veteran of the Civil War and a regional politician. 

2. BIRTHPLACE OF LEW WALLACE— Lew Wallace, soldier, statesman, and author 
was born in a home on this site, April 10, 1827. David Wallace, his father, was Governor 
of Indiana from 1837 to 1840. His mother, Esther Test, was the daughter of John 
Test, first Circuit Judge and Congressman. Marked by the Brookville Kiwanis Club. 

3. ST. MICHAEL'S CATHOLIC CHURCH, First Catholic Church on this site in 
1845. Present church dedicated March 25, 1862. St. Michael's School was founded 
in 1855. First school building, 1875. Present structure erected in 1913. Remodeled in 1956. 

4. SITE OF NOAH NOBLE HOME, 353 High, was the residence of Noah Noble, 
governor of Indiana from 1831 to 1837. The original home became the Catholic rectory 
in 1863 and was moved across the square when the present rectory was built in 1882-1883. 
Later his home was torn down. 

5. JAIL AND SITE OF OLD YELLOW TA VERN, 459 Main, in 1808 a blockhouse 
was erected which in 1811 was converted into a "tavern" and hotel by James Knight. 
After his death his wife, Mary, ran the tavern for many years. This structure was 
torn down in 1861 and in 1882-1884, the present jail was built here. 

6A. COURTHOUSE, Fourth & Main, is the second brick and fifth courthouse used 
in Franklin County. The first was the "Yellow Tavern," on the site of the jail, then 
a log courthouse on the public square, then in 1816-17 James Knight built a brick 
structure which burned in February, 1852. The Lutheran Methodist Church on Fourth 
St. was rented as a courthouse until the present one was completed in 1855. This structure 
was extensively remodeled in 1912. 

6B. VALLEY HOUSE, 450 Main, is on the site of the "Brookville Hotel," operated 
by Andrew Wallace, father of Governor David Wallace. This frame structure was 
destroyed by fire in 1852, and the present structure, the Valley House, was opened 
in December, 1852. This hotel is reputed to be the oldest continuously operating hotel 
in Indiana. 

7. COURT STREET, in the rear of the Courthouse, contains buildings dating back 
to circa 1819. Many law offices, the office of the Indiana American, and a marble 
works, were located here in the 1840s through the 1870s. 

8. HISTORY OF LOT 37, a business block burned out in February 1852. The buildings 
which burned give an idea of the development of Brookville in 1852. 



Highlights of the Spring Meeting 15 

9. SITE OF OLD WHITE CORNER, 501 Main, was the site of the store of Nathan 
D. Gallion, an early merchant of Brookville and competitor of Tyner. 

10. RICHARD TYNER HOME AND SITE OF OLD GRINDSTONE CORNER, 
512 Main, was the store and residence of Richard Tyner, an early merchant in Brookville. 
Since he continuously advertised grindstones, he acquired this name for this corner. 

1 1A. HITT-HOWLAND-FARQUHAR-GOODWIN home - Probably built by John 
W. Hitt, father of George Hitt, Indianapolis newspaper editor, prior to 1840. Owned 
by John Howland, father of Hewitt Howland, former editor of Harpers; John H. 
Farquhar, Congressman and Lincoln elector in 1 860; and three generations of the Good- 
win family, John R., Charles F., and John P. Goodwin. Originally it was a story 
and a half house. 

11B. WILLIAMS-BUTLER HOME, 911 Main, was built about 1820 for M.T. 
Williams. It is an excellent example of Federal style structure, with a recently added 
circular porch. It has long been the home of W.W. Butler, a leading naturalist and 
prison reformer in Indiana. 

12. O' BYRNE HOME, 912 Main Street, was built in the late 1850s for Judge Wilson 
Morrow. This home is known as the home of three judges; in addition to Morrow, 
Judge Ferdinand F. Swift and Judge Roscoe C. O'Bryne have lived here. 

13. MATSON HOME, 914 Main, was built in 1842-43 for John A. Matson, a 
businessman and Whig candidate for Governor in 1849. Matson lost the election locally 
since he described himself as a poor man (oh, those ideals of frontier democracy!) 
which contradicted the splendor of this home. His son, Courtland Matson, was a 
Democratic candidate for governor in 1888. Note the leaded glass in the doorway. 

14. "JAIL HOME," 1032 Main, was built in 1852-55 by Henry H. Remy, of brick 
taken from the first brick courthouse, 1816, which burned in 1852, and the stone from 
the old stone jail. An unusual feature is a stone with a ring in it, to which prisoners 
were chained. 

15. RYAN-STOUT HOME, 1038 Main, was built about 1878 in neo-Federal style. 
This building excellently preserved, reveals the prosperity of Brookville in the 1870s 
and 1880s with a large residence, a stone "cellar," a shed and carriage house stable. 

16. WILLHITE TOURIST HOME, 1049 Main, was built in 1909 and is noted for 
its "Stained Glass Windows" on the North. There is cherry woodwork and doors which 
have hand carved designs on them. The home is also furnished with beautiful antiques. 

17. HEASOM-COOKSEY HOME, 1001 Cliff was built for A.J. Heasom in 1881. 
Heasom, a Civil War veteran, was a local politician and merchant in Brookville. Note 
the footstone at the back door and the carriage house in the rear. A.J. Cooksey, a 
noted woodcarver and contractor, lived here from about 1906 to 1955. 

18. WILSON HOME, 1023 Cliff Street, this property was originally platted June 
23, 1875 by Mrs. Jane McCarty. In 1916 it was purchased by Furman W. Hathway 
who was a cigar manufacturer. In 1928 Fred and Ethel Rusterholz bought it and owned 
it until August 22, 1975 when it was purchased by the present owners. 

19. CHURCH OF CHRIST, Tenth & Franklin. This church was built in 1917. This 
denomination was organized in Franklin County by Alexander Campbell in 1866. 

20. SITE OF THE BROOKVILLE COLLEGE, Tenth & Franklin, on this site in 
1819 was a brick factory. Later this two-acre site was transferred to the regents of 
Brookville College who built a three story brick on the site of the present older high 
school building between 1852 and 1855. This school was in use by the Methodists from 



16 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 94 (1985) 

1855 to 1873, when it was sold to the town of Brookville for a public school building, 
and the building was razed in 1912. 

21A. JAMES BROWN RAY HOME, Tenth & Franklin, was built probably 
in 1821, as Ray sold his home in September 1921 to William Noble: Lot 59: "on which 
stands the house in which I now live." Noble sold this property to the Bank of the 
United States in 1822, which James B. Lile, a teacher of the Franklin County Seminary, 
and later of Centerville, bought, in 1833, "one lot of land with an old frame building 
thereon called the Brookville Hotel on the north part of lot numbered thirty seven 
. . . and the other lot of land with the old frame house on it called the Ray home 
. . . being the same premises formerly occupied by Governor Ray and conveyed by 
him by deed dated 1 -September 1821 to William Noble." The aristocratic frills on 
the building nearly cost Ray the election in 1825. 

2 1 B . OLD BROOKVILLE CHURCH AND CEMETER Y, Tenth Street — was built 
in 1820-21 by the Methodists who held the property until 1830, selling it to the 
Presbyterians who controlled it until 1848, when the Lutheran congregation bought it. 
It was abandoned in 1923 and in the 1950s the Baptists held service in this church. The 
bell tower was added in 1873. In the 1960s this edifice was restored by the Franklin County 
Historical Society. The cemetery was first used in 1816 and was the only one until 1883 
when Maple Grove Cemetery was opened. 

22. FRANKLIN COUNTY SEMINARY— Fifth & Mill Streets, built in 1828-1831, 
is one of four such county seminaries still standing of sixty-five buildings erected in 
Indiana. It has been purchased by the Franklin County Historical Society for a museum. 

23. LUTHERAN METHODIST CHURCH, Fourth & Franklin, was built in 1849 
and was used as the courthouse from 1852 to 1855. 

24. VALLEY CHRISTIAN CHURCH, 173 East Fourth Street, the first Christian 
denominations came to Franklin County at the turn of the century. The Valley Chris- 
tians were established seventeen years ago and the present structure replaced a struc- 
ture which burned in 1981. 

25. FIRST CHRISTIAN CHURCH, 123 East Sixth Street. The Christian denomina- 
tions came to Franklin County at the turn of the century. The present structure was 
built in 1848 by the Methodists and sold to the Presbyterians and since 1960 has been 
renovated and used by the Disciples of Christ (First Christians) until the present time. 

26. BROOKVILLE UNITED METHODIST, 150 East Eighth Street — The Good- 
win family was instrumental in founding the Methodist denomination in Franklin County 
The present building was built in 1866 with an addition to 1927. 

27. ST THOMAS LUTHERAN CHURCH. Ninth & Franklin, built in 1920 and 
dedicated in 1924. The Lutherans first organized their church in Franklin County in 1848. 

28. LITTLE CEDAR GROVE BAPTIST CHURCH— Oldest church on original site 
in Indiana. First services held August 1, 1812. Tradition says that a blockhouse was 
erected for protection while the church was being built. Clay for the bricks kneaded 
by oxen on this site. Restored by Franklin County Historical Society, the National 
Society of Colonial Dames of Indiana, and Franklin County, 1952-1955. 

29. THE HERMITAGE, in back of the ball park, tour of the house and grounds. 
Oldest part was built by James Speer in 1817 and the wings were added about 1898. 
James Speer had a mill just to the southeast which was torn down in 1905. The Hermitage 
was the center of a Franklin County art colony, under the direction of J. Otis Adams 
and Theodore Steele at the turn of the century. Home was badly damaged in the 1913 
flood. 



Highlights of the Spring Meeting 



17 




& &(D 



Our Brookville Bond 

Fay Kenoyer Daily 

Butler University 

Box 169 

Indianapolis, Indiana 46208 

To start our centennial year, a return to the place where our society was con- 
ceived seemed appropriate to honor our founder, Amos Butler (Figure 1), who lived 
here, and to enjoy the beauty of this region. 




Figure 1. Amos William Butler. 




Brookville was settled in 1804 by Amos Butler, Senior. His cabin was built just 
north of the Hermitage site, and he soon built a flour mill on the river bank nearby. 
In 1908, he platted Brookville with the help of Jesse B. Thomas. Many prominent 
men have lived here including Amos W. Butler, grandson of the senior A. Butler. 

Amos William Butler was born in Brookville in 1860 and was educated in local 
schools. He attended Brookville College, Hanover College and Indiana University where 
he received an A.B. in 1894, M.A. in 1900, and L.L.D. in 1922. He received an L.L.D. 
from Hanover also in 1915. The Brookville College mentioned above used to be located 
on Main Street now the site of the Franklin County High School. 

Butler was influenced early in life by the well-known naturalist, Dr. Rufus Hay- 
mond. As time passed, Butler found other members of the community interested in 
scientific subjects including Edgar Quick, Oscar Meynke, Charles F. Goodwin, Rev. 
David R. Moore and Clifford R. Case. The Rev. Moore arranged for lectures, some 
of which were scientific, in his Presbyterian Church. The lectures were so successful 
that Amos Butler discussed with the Rev. Moore the subject of forming a scientific 
society. Several people met at the residence of Rev. Moore in 1881 and formed the 
Brookville Natural History Society. The Rev. Moore was chosen president; Charles 
Goodwin, a banker, was vice-president; Amos Butler, secretary; Edgar R. Quick, editor 
of the Franklin Democrat, was correspondent; and John T. Rehme was treasurer. The 
group met over the stove store of Emerson Rockafellar for awhile. Evidently, Butler 
was co-owner of a tinning business with Rockafellar and Goodwin was influential in 
obtaining the Waltz Mansion for their later use. The Brookville National Bank owned 
the mansion and donated the parlor for a museum and meeting room. Many promi- 
nent Indiana scientists came to lecture at meetings. Among them were David S. Jordan, 
professor of zoology at Indiana University; John M. Coulter, Wabash College pro- 
fessor of botany; David Worth Dennis, professor of biology at Earlham College; John 



Highlights of the Spring Meeting 19 

P.D. John, president of Moore's Hill College; Barton W. Evermann, naturalist fur- 
thering his education at Indiana University at the time; and Stanley Coulter, botanist 
and conservationist, lawyer and teacher at Coates College. 

Amos Butler did not confine himself to these scientific activities, however; he 
attended American Association for the Advancement of Science meetings where his 
circle of scientific friends expanded. It was at one of these meetings that he called 
a conference to discuss forming a state-wide organization. He had been corresponding 
with other Indiana scientists to see how they felt about it. In his words (2), "In my 
endeavor to obtain information on zoological subjects, I corresponded with a number 
of scientific men in the state. The results were often very unsatisfactory. I found the 
experience of other men the same; so I began thinking of some way to bring those 
interested in science in the state together to get acquainted and exchange experiences. 
To that end, correspondence was undertaken with John M. Coulter, Charles R. Barnes, 
Daniel Kirkwood, T.A. Wylie, David Starr Jordan, Stanley Coulter, R.B. Warder, 
Philip S. Baker, O.P. Jenkins, David W. Dennis, J. P.D. John, Richard Owen and 
others. Most of these gave favorable responses." 

At an 1885 AAAS meeting, Butler met with a number of scientists who decided 
that the Brookville Natural History Society, as the most active society in the state, 
should call a state meeting of scientists. A committee should be appointed by the 
Brookville society to attend to the details of planning. The Rev. Moore, S.P. Stoddard 
and Amos Butler were appointed to the committee. Our Academy came into being 
December 29, 1885, at the Marion County Courthouse in Indianapolis, Indiana, with 
Dr. J. P.D. John of DePauw University presiding and Amos Butler as secretary. At 
the meeting, David Starr Jordan was elected president; J.M. Coulter, J. P.D. John 
and Rev. Moore as vice-presidents; Amos Butler, secretary; O.P. Jenkins, treasurer; 
and J.N. Hurty, librarian. Amos Butler presented a constitution which he had written. 
A faded pencil-written copy of it can be found in the Indiana Academy of Science 
files in our library housed at the State Library Building. The constitution was adopted 
with a few changes and charter members signed a roster attached finally to a typed 
copy of it. It was decided at the meeting that those persons who signed their names, 
had their names signed to the constitution and by-laws at this meeting or had requested 
that they be considered original members should be considered charter members. 
Evidently 46 persons attended the meeting judging by the signatures. Mr. W. de M. 
Hooper signed for Dr. Henry Jameson making 47 signatures at the meeting. Seven 
signatures were added by the treasurer with a notation, "by order of the executive 
committee" making 54 names of charter members. No later changes in this decision 
for determining charter members could be found in the minutes. The constitution and 
by-laws with the list of signatures were sent to the secretary, Amos Butler, on January 
4, 1886, (less than a week after the meeting) by O.P. Jenkins, treasurer, with a letter 
signifying that these were the charter members. The letter became separated from the 
signature list and constitution. These and the minute books were unavailable for a 
period. They were all brought together and the charter members verified during the 
recent writing of an Academy history. The materials are all in the State Library Indiana 
Section archives now. 

The first Indiana Academy of Science field meeting was scheduled the following 
May 20-21, 1886. In Butler's words (1), "It was fitting that the first 'Field Meeting' 
of the Indiana Academy of Science should be held at Brookville. There the idea of 
such an organization originated. There the steps were taken through the Brookville 
Society of Natural History by which scientific investigators of the state were brought 
together at Indianapolis, December 29, 1885, to adopt articles of association and ef- 
fect an organization." 

The Brookville field meeting participants assembled in the town hall for evening 



20 



Indiana Academy of Science 



Vol. 94 (1985) 



£ji£ 




Figure 2. Town Hall, Brookville, Indiana. 
A. (left) in 1886. B (right) in 
1984. 






,1 





meetings. The hall as it appeared then is shown in Figure 2A. Figure 2B shows its 
present appearance without the upper story and steeple. It is located on Main Street 
by the courthouse between Fourth and Fifth Streets. It gave me a feeling of awe as 
I stepped into the halls to think that some of our charter members assembled there 
almost 98 years ago for a meeting. Amos Butler lists 33 people registered at that first 
spring meeting of our society. Among them were 15 charter members. With 7 new 
members taken in at that meeting, the Academy had 61 members at that time. Of 
that meeting Butler (2) wrote, "Some of us recall a few events of the first meeting — 
how disappointed we were that John Coulter was unable to be present for one of 
the principle addresses; how well his place was filled by David W. Dennis; that Ever- 
mann and others of the Indiana University crowd drove through in a carriage and 
on the way made a collection of fishes in the western part of Franklin County. We 
had no Kiwanis Club to make such splendid arrangements — but the Brookville Society 
of Natural History and its friends did the best they could. . . ." 

Perhaps the next speaker will tell you more about that first field meeting as much 
of it involved our first president, David Starr Jordan. Suffice it to say, the meeting 
was a great success as was the second spring meeting in Brookville in 1923. 

Some of the men mentioned here, many of whom were very young when the 
Academy was organized, became internationally known. Their fellowship and shared 
enthusiasm for their work and this organization, undoubtedly, had much to contribute 
to this. Amos Butler was not only known for his scientific pursuits, but they were 
interwoven into social work on the State Board of Charities. In the Academy, he serv- 
ed as secretary for the first eight years and later was president. In Dean Stanley Coulter's 
(3) memorial tribute to him, it was stated that, "The Indiana Academy of Science 



Highlights of the Spring Meeting 



21 



came into being and was kept alive during its earlier years because he refused to allow 
it to die. It would not have been born, nor would it have lived, without Butler's genius 
for organization — ." 

Amos Butler was president in a number of other scientific organizations as well 
as the Academy. He not only was founder of this organization and the Brookville 
Natural History Society, but also eight more including the Indiana Audubon Society. 
There is a good biography of him by Dr. Barton W. Evermann (4) in the Indiana 
Audubon Society 1932 Yearbook dedicated to Amos Butler. His bibliography is included. 

Our society did not return to Brookville for a meeting after 1923. With the growth 
of the society and lack of adequate facilities in Brookville, we came down as far as 
the Mary Gray bird sanctuary instead. We just had to strengthen our bond of fellowship, 
our Brookville bond, if you will, by returning here in our centennial year. 

As Amos Butler said so eloquently at the end of his talk to members of the 
Academy the first time we returned here for a meeting in 1923, "Here we are back 
to the place where it originated — to Brookville — hail all hail." Or if you prefer today's 
vernacular, Hello out there, Brookville, we have returned! 



3. 



4. 



Literature Cited 

Butler, Amos W. 1892. Field Meetings. Proc. I.A.S. (for 1891) 1: 9-13. 
Butler, Amos W. 1924. Early history of the Indiana Academy of Science. Proc. 
I.A.S. 33: 14-18. 

Coulter, Stanley. 1938. Memorial tribute to Dr. Butler delivered at the general 
session of the Academy, November 5, 1937. Proc. I.A.S. 47: 25. 
Evermann, Barton Warren. 1932. Amos William Butler. Indiana Audubon 
Soc. Yearbook. 





Gary A. Sojka and Fay K. Daily 



The Making of David Starr Jordan 

Gary A. Sojka* 

President, Bucknell University 

Marts Hall, Lewisburg, Pennsylvania 17837 

On May 21, 1886, the field meeting of the Indiana Academy was called to order 
at the town hall in Brookville. David Starr Jordan presided. At that meeting, Jordan 
presented two papers: one on Darwin and the other on "How To Go Fishing." In a 
later address, his presidential speech to the American Association for the Advancement 
of Science in 1910, Jordan talked on "the making of Darwin." He listed the elements 
that came together to influence Darwin and helped to prepare him for his great work. 
Among these were observations on Darwin's genetic makeup or his "inherent self," his 
contact with nature, and, finally, the influence of an inspiring teacher. 

In discussing "the making of Jordan," I will examine these same elements. His 




*At the time of this address, Gary Sojka was Dean, College of Arts and Sciences, Indiana University, Bloom- 
ington, Indiana 47405. 



22 



Highlights of the Spring Meeting 23 

genetic and family background, of course, is no longer easy to analyze; consequently, 
I will place more emphasis on the events and mentors that shaped and influenced this 
pioneer educator, scientist, internationalist and pacifist. 

Jordan was born in 1 85 1 in Gainesville, New Yor k , and was christened simply David 
Jordan. The Starr came later. He was the fourth of five children born of Puritan stock, 
originally from Devon. His grandfather fought in the Revolutionary War and his father, 
Hiram Jordan, was born in 1809, the same year as Lincoln and Darwin. He worshipped 
his older brother, Rufus Bacon Jordan, who was 13 years his senior. Rufus went off 
to Washington to enlist in 1862 and immediately contracted "Army Fever" and died. 
Jordan experienced deep and intense feelings of loneliness for years afterwards. He later 
stated that it was at the moment of hearing of his brother's death that he realized the 
terrible tragedy of war. Those feelings stayed with him throughout his life and he dedicated 
his 1907 book, The Human Harvest, which dealt with the biological effects of war, to 
his late brother. 

In his childhood he invented for himself an imaginary hero that he named David 
Emanuel Starr. It was as a young adult that he added the middle name Starr — an act 
that gives some insight into the level of Jordan's self-esteem. As a boy growing up in 
a rustic environment, he developed interests in natural history. His earliest scientific obser- 
vations were of the stars. He mapped the celestial bodies and endeavored to learn their 
names. By the age of 13 he had a complete set of handdrawn star charts. He next turned 
to terrestrial geography. He was fascinated by maps, and as a result, he longed to travel 
at a very early age. Apparently his first interest in zoology grew from his responsibility 
around the Jordan farm to tend the flocks. From his experience in caring for diseased 
sheep and from his brother's death, he developed a strong interest in the disease process 
and in infection. His first scientific notes were published in The Cornell newspaper, fol- 
lowed quickly by a botanical paper in the American Naturalist and a paper on hoof rot 
in sheep in the Prairie Farmer, all in 1871. In addition to his interest in microbiology 
and zoology, botany fascinated the young Jordan. While yet quite young he developed 
a scientific as well as an esthetic interest in the flora that surrounded him. He combined 
his cartographic and botanical interests and began to observe, record, and map the biota 
of different locales on and about the Jordan homestead. 

At age 14, in his own words, "being considered a youth of promise and otherwise 
apparently harmless," he was admitted to the female seminary of Gainesville run by two 
young women recently come from Mount Holyoke. There he learned French, but his primary 
literary interest, not surprisingly, was Thoreau. It was during this time that Jordan first 
developed his life-long interest in baseball. The boys of the town organized a ball club 
called the Gainesville Suaves. They dressed the part with bright red pantaloons and ac- 
companying oriental panache. It was in a baseball game that Jordan broke his nose in 
a violent collision while chasing a flyball. This accident produced his most distinctive 
physical feature as later portraits show. Baseball remained an important part of Jordan's 
entire life. He was involved early and seriously in the question of whether a curve ball 
actually changed its direction of flight or was an optical illusion. He also took great pride 
in being able to hit with what he considered remarkable power. 

Jordan originally had planned to go to Yale University. However, he won a Cornell 
scholarship and he entered that new school on March, 1869, with $75.00 in his pocket. 
Cornell University was seven years old at that time. Significantly, he had the same $75 .00 
upon graduation three years later, thus proving that wealth was not needed to complete 
an education at Cornell as it would have been at other eastern schools of that era. This 
fit, of course, with Ezra Cornell's desire that a young man should be able to work his 
way through school, either through manual labor or help to the university. 

By 1870, at the age of 19, he already had become a lecturer in botany. He was also 
a very clubby person. He lived at the Grove Boarding Club, became an early member 



24 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 94 (1985) 

of Delta Espilon, and later joined the AAAS and Sigma Xi, which was founded at Cornell 
in 1896 with Jordan as a charter member. In his autobiography Jordan goes into con- 
siderable detail discussing the merits of the college fraternity system. 

The early days at Cornell were marked by crude facilities and cramped quarters, 
but Jordan noted that they were characterized by a kind of enthusiasm and pioneer spirit 
that are hard to maintain in days of prosperity. "At the time we were all young together, 
freshman students, freshman professors, freshman president, without experience or tradi- 
tion to guide or impede, but we had youth and we had truth and not even the gods have 
those," he observed in his autobiography. But, whatever were the conditions at Cornell, 
Jordan met the two persons who would prove to be his most influential 
teachers: Louis Agassiz from Harvard, a non-resident professor and the most famous 
naturalist of his time, and Andrew Dixon White, the young and vigorous president of 
the institution. Jordan later went to study with Agassiz who molded his views in science. 
White, the enthusiastic and energetic administrator, probably had a greater influence 
than any other person on Jordan as an educator. White's view on co-education and cur- 
riculum design greatly impressed Jordan. He became noted in these areas at both Indiana 
and Stanford, where one can still see the influence of White. White also put great em- 
phasis on attracting outstanding scholars. Those he could not get on the Cornell payroll, 
he brought in as non-resident professors. Among them, in Jordan's time, were Agassiz 
and James Russell Lowell. Jordan appreciated the effect that such persons had on the 
young, serious scholar, so he endeavored to "bring in the masters" whenever he was 
in charge. The concept of developing strong and autonomous academic departments also 
derived from his Cornell experience. 

Jordan majored in botany and minored in geology and zoology. He became compe- 
tent in French, German, Italian and Spanish. He later added Norwegian and, in his own 
words, "some Chinese." Again, we see the interest in things international, for this language 
preparation would later make him a facile traveler in Europe. He left Cornell in 1872 
with a Master of Science. His Master's thesis was on the " Wildflowers of Wyoming County 
in New York." In 1886, he also was awarded the Doctor of Laws degree from Cornell, 
which he declined because he didn't believe in honorary degrees. 

Upon graduation he had to make a career choice between botany or sheep husban- 
dry. He chose the former and took a $1,300 per year appointment at Lombard College 
in Galesburg, Illinois. This institution was later absorbed by the much larger and better 
endowed Knox College. On the way to Galesburg, he attended his first scientific society 
meeting. The AAAS was meeting in Dubuque, Iowa. One of America's great scientists, 
Asa Gray, was in attendance. Jordan was mightily impressed by the social and intellec- 
tual atmosphere. As noted, he later became the President of the AAAS, but it was this 
first meeting which clearly indicated to him that scientific meetings were a valuable exer- 
cise and ought to be regularly attended. 

Jordan did not do well at Lombard, which he felt suffered from small and narrow 
thinking. He was probably fired, but, in any case, he left after one year. He next went 
to Appleton Collegiate Institute as principal. It was there that he turned to the study 
of fishes because of their relative abundance and ease of study. Appelton Collegiate In- 
stitute was then absorbed by the much larger Lawrence University. 

From Appleton, he went to the high school in Indianapolis to be in charge of natural 
science. The following are his first impressions of the city of Indianapolis. "The capital 
of Indiana at first sight seemed singularly monotonous, being perfectly level and laid 
out in regular squares around a central circle. The streets, moreover, were lined with silver 
maple, a second-rate shade tree, which do not appeal to me. The people said I would 
learn to love the town; as a matter of fact, I did! Among other reasons because it contained 
an unusual number of clear-headed and broad-minded citizens." Among those good citizens 
were William Henry Harrison, James Whitcomb Riley, and Dr. William B. Fletcher, 



Highlights of the Spring Meeting 25 

a pioneer in the humane treatment of mental disorders. 

In the summer of his first year at the Indianapolis high school, he was elected without 
warning, according to him, to the professorship of biology at the nascent Northwestern 
Christian University at Irvington. Before it even opened its doors, it was renamed Butler 
University. In 1878-79, a schism occured at Butler between those who wanted a progressive 
scholarly insitution tied to the main trends in American scholarship and those who wanted 
closer ties to the Christian Church. As a consequence, faculty began to leave. Jordan's 
colleague, A.W. Brayton, tried to secure a post at Indiana University. Jordan may have 
done a "Miles Standish" on his colleague by going to Bloomington to testify on his behalf. 
As a result of his efforts on behalf of his friend, Jordan, rather than Brayton, was offered 
the position at Indiana University. Jordan was very critical of what he found in Bloom- 
ington. He had little good to say of the clergymen who headed the place. It was rural 
and back woodsy and suffered from a fixed curriculum. There were a few things that 
appealed to him, however. He had great respect for four of the faculty: Daniel Kirkwood, 
Theophilus Wiley, Elisha Ballantine, and Richard Owens. He also appreciated the "Bates 
School of Philosophy." It seemed there existed a unique and quaint situation in Bloom- 
ington for Henry S. Bates, the local shoemaker, who, though possessing little formal 
education, loved literature and philosophy and talking with students. Indiana University 
students could be found gathering around his shoeshop at various hours of the day and 
early evening discussing natural philosophy and literature among themselves and with 
the cobbler, "Professor" Bates. From the time Jordan joined the Indianapolis high school 
until the time he left for Stanford, he spent 17 years in Indiana. In that time he visited 
each of the 92 counties and claimed friends and acquaintances in each of them. 

In the summer between his leaving Galesburg and the beginning of his appointment 
in Appleton, he went to Penikese Island to study with Agassiz, who had a wonderful, 
revolutionary idea for a summer school of science for teachers of science and natural 
history. The summer session was one response to the perception that there was a crisis 
in the schools concerning math and science education. This was the first educational ex- 
periment of its kind in the United States, and Jordan was privileged to be a part of it. 
The Penikese experiment was called the Anderson School of Natural History. The first 
class was composed of 35 men and 15 women living together in make-shift quarters and 
separated from each other simply by sheets and other cloth materials hung in the middle 
of the room. Agassiz felt that this was a missonary work of the highest importance because 
he believed he had gathered around him people who had great influence on the young 
of the nation. 

Agassiz was a gifted observer and naturalist; he was not a Darwinian evolutionist, 
but rather a natural theologist. He tried to build a bridge between religion and science. 
He felt that his own studies were "just glimpses into divine plans," and that, as he noted 
in 1887, "Our task is complete as soon as we have proved His existence." Agassiz died 
the first winter after the Penikese summer. The Anderson School opened again the following 
summer, but this time under the direction of Louis Agassiz's son, Alexander. Jordan 
was again present. Mottos and slogans of Agassiz were printed on bed sheets and hung 
on the walls of the crude shelterhouse in an effort to try to make the presence of the 
master a little more real. Some of these slogans, such as "study nature, not books," 
"strive to interpret what really exists," "be not afraid to say I don't know," hung around 
the room. After the second summer, the Anderson School closed forever. Interestingly, 
15 years later Jordan's student, Carl Eigenmann, took those banners from the walls of 
the crude shelterhouse to Woods Hole, the natural successor to the Penikese experiment. 

It seems strange to us today that Jordan, so prominently remembered among the 
early Darwinists as a contributor to the modern evolutionary theory, should have been 
so keenly influenced by Agassiz, a believer in theistic evolution. However, at that time, 
there was a number of differing views on the formation and mutability of species, Darwin's 



26 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 94 (1985) 

natural selection theory being only one of them. Natural selection was interpreted by 
the Darwinists of that time as gradual preferential survival of creatures with slight positive 
variations. Theistic evolution, as espoused by Agassiz and his followers, stated that variation 
occurs; however, it is not random but rather directed toward some purposeful end by 
a creator's will. Probably the greatest intellectual challenge to Darwinian natural selection 
at that time was Lamarckism. Only one aspect of Lamarck's earlier theory applies, of 
course, that being the inheritance of acquired characteristics. Interestingly, Lamarck's 
theory was put forth in the year 1809, the same year that Darwin, Lincoln and Jordan's father 
were born. In this theory, characteristics acquired in the lifetime of the organism are supposed 
to be passed on in some way to the offspring. Another prevalent idea of the day was 
orthogenesis — evolution consistently directed along a single path by forces originating 
within the organisms themselves. These involuntary trends were thought to unfold without 
reference to the demands of the environment. And, finally, there was the so-called mutation 
of significantly new forms. The mutations occur at random and are non-adaptive. In 
the late 19th century, mutations were thought to create new populations instantaneously 
which were separate and distinct from the originals, a rather different interpretation than 
we have today. 

The following quotation describes the influence that Agassiz's teaching had on Jor- 
dan's intellectual development with regard to biological evolution: 

Agassiz had no sympathy with the prejudices exploited by weak and foolish 
men in opposition with Darwin's views. He believed in the absolute freedom 
of science and that no authority whatever can answer beforehand the ques- 
tions we endeavored to solve. An attitude strikingly evidenced by the fact that 
everyone, especially trained by him, afterward joined the ranks of the evolu- 
tionists. He taught us to think for ourselves not merely to follow him. This, 
though I accepted his philosophy regarding the origin and permanence of species 
when I began serious studies in zoology, as my work went on there imper- 
manence impressed me more and more strongly. Gradually, I found it impossible 
to believe that the different kinds of animals and plants had been separately 
created in their present forms. Nevertheless, while I pay tribute to Darwin's 
marvelous insight, I was finally converted to the theory of divergence through 
natural selection and other factors, not by his arguments but rather by the 
special facts unraveling themselves before my own eyes. The rational meaning 
of which he had plainly indicated. I sometimes said that I went over to the evolu- 
tionist with the grace of a cat the boy leads by its tail across the carpet. 
All of Agassiz's students passed through a similar experience and most of them 
came to recognize that in the formation of every species, at least four elements were in- 
volved, those being the resident or internal factors of heredity and variation and the ex- 
ternal or environmental ones of selection and segregation. Actually, by 1869, or 10 years 
after the publication of The Origin of the Species, acceptance of evolution was widespread 
and firmly established. What was in doubt, and still is, is the precise mechanism of evolution. 
Darwin favored sympatric natural selection: slow, gradual selection of better fit individuals 
in the population until a new species finally emerges, formed alongside the original which 
may or may not then become extinct. The modern synthesis with Mendelian genetics 
gave a mechanism for the insertion of variation into the scheme. However, the fossil record 
does not accord easily with his model since it appears more abrupt or punctuated. Darwin 
himself decried that fact and tried to explain it away by pointing out that the fossil record 
was probably incomplete. It was some of Jordan's work on minnows and darters and 
other non-migratory fish that first suggested the importance of geological isolation as 
a crucial factor of allowing the buildup of differentiating factors in the speciation process. 
This concept, which later became known as "Jordan's Law," has been incorporated in 
the modern theory of punctuated equilibrium. 



Highlights of the Spring Meeting 27 

In his years at Indiana University, Jordan continued to do field work on fishes. 
He involved students in his work and considered this as part of his teaching. Significantly, 
he never gave up that enterprise during his years as President at Indiana or Stanford. 
He always taught and carried on research. His interest in travel continued while at Indiana 
University. He spent a good deal of time on the West Coast doing a systematic study 
of the fishes of the Pacific Coast for the United States government. He also began to 
go regularly to Europe with students. His command of languages and his training as 
a naturalist made him an excellent tour guide for students. On one of his trips he and 
some of his students climbed the Matterhorn. This adventure gave him a popular subject 
for the numerous lectures that he gave around the state of Indiana. These frequent Euro- 
pean visits also convinced him of the foolishness of protective tariffs. He tended to believe 
in a world community and once wrote a satiricial essay about protective tariffs. He attended 
international scientific meetings whenever possible, and ultimately brought great distinc- 
tion to the fledgling Indiana University when he won the gold medal at the First International 
Fishes Congress, held in London in 1883, for his collective writings on the "Taxonomy 
of Fishes." 

In 1884, Lemaul Moss resigned and Ballantine was made the acting president of 
Indiana University. Jordan succeeded him in 1885. He had to find money for new buildings, 
he had to battle the legislature for funds, and he had to convince the population of a 
backward state that a college education was worth having. Some things change only slowly. 

Much of what he liked best about Cornell he brought about at Indiana. In 1881 
as a faculty member, he tried to introduce a new curriculum with electives but he failed. 
In 1 886, as President, he did away with a fixed curriculum and introduced a strong depart- 
mental system, electives and a major professor system for indepth study in the last two 
years. He often pointed with pride to Carl Eigenmann, who took biology instead of Latin 
in this new system, as one of the successful examples of his educational initiatives. Jordan 
made a major effort to expose students to the masters. He worked hard to assemble a 
fine faculty in Bloomington and, later, he hurt Indiana University badly when he took 
most of the best with him when he left for Stanford. He also tried to bring impressive 
and important personages to campus, not the least of those being the young naturalist, 
Theodore Roosevelt. 

In the foregoing, I have made a modest attempt to find the elements in Jordan's 
background and experience that equipped him for his role as scientist, internationalist, 
antiwar advocate, and pioneer educator. There can be little doubt that both Stanford 
and Indiana Unviersity benefitted from the influence exerted on the young Jordan by 
Andrew Dixon White in his years at Cornell. It is also clear that Agassiz, though holding 
opposing views himself, set Jordan on the path to important scientific contributions. 
Jordan's early experiences with social and scientific societies made him a willing and 
able leader and developer of the important scientific and educational institutions springing 
up around him. 

Perhaps one of the best indications of the power of these early influences on Jordan's 
subsequent career comes from an oft-told Jordan anecdote. It is said that Jordan always 
recognized the students at Indiana and called them by their given names. Some years 
after Jordan left Bloomington to be President at Stanford, an Indiana University graduate 
from the Jordan era was visiting in Palo Alto. As they strolled around the Stanford 
campus, Jordan nodded and smiled at the Stanford undergraduates as they passed by 
but he did not acknowledge them by name. When the I.U. man inquired about this, Jordan 
reportedly replied, "Every time I remember the name of an undergraduate, I forget the 
name of a fish." I wonder if Jordan also remembered an Agassiz quotation emblazoned 
on one of those bed sheets that Eigenmann later carried to Woods Hole: "The memory 
must not be kept too full or it will spill over." 



28 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 94 (1985) 

Reference Materials 

Days of A Man 

The Eclipse of Darwinsim 

Archives of Indiana University 



Highlights of the Spring Meeting 29 

Geology field trip, April 28, 1984 
Curtis H. Ault and John R. Hill, Leaders 

About 15 geology enthusiasts traveled by car and van through the valley of the 
Whitewater River, along the historical Whitewater Canal, and among the wooded hills 
from Brookville westward past the old milltown of Metamora to view and examine 
the landforms and rocks that form the scenic region near Brookville. Bold topographic 
relief, the result of differential erosion of glacial deposits and bedrock, gives the 
Brookville area a rugged appearance that reflects the character and self reliance of 
both the founders and the present-day population of Franklin County. 

Examination of the rocks exposed in the Derbyshire Quarry, about 15 miles west 
of Brookville, revealed qualities of the local bedrock that has given the region its 
reputation for durable building stone since the early 1800s. The flaggy limestone of 
the Laurel Member of the Salamonie Dolomite (Silurian) is now being quarried at 
Derbyshire for building stone that is used for veneer in Indiana and Ohio, and for 
crushed-stone aggregate for local use. Limestone of the underlying Osgood Member 
of the Salamonie, and the Brassfield Limestone (Silurian), which has a distinctive brassy 
color and coarse chrystallinity, are also quarried at the Derbyshire operation. 

The overlying glacial deposits were evident along the field trip route, particularly 
as valley-train terraces flanking the Whitewater valley. About 15 feet of Illinoian or 
older till, containing at least one and probably two paleosols, are exposed above the 
bedrock in the Derbyshire quarry. 

The small Derbyshire Falls, which was recognized in the early literature, is visible 
from the quarry, but the valley containing the falls appears to be in imminent danger 
of flooding or burial with waste overburden from the quarry. Participants of the field 
trip had the opportunity to ponder the alternative of placing the quarry at this locality 
to the eventual detriment of the scenic setting of the falls versus the possible greater 
cost of importing crushed stone from more distant points. 

Mr. Charles Holzhause, a second-generation stone merchant, discussed the value 
and the use of a variety of building stone that he sells from his stone yard at Metamora. 
His building stone included several varieties of the Laurel limestone that we examined 
in the Derbyshire Quarry. Mr. Holzhause emphasized the use of a large number of 
rock types for different kinds of construction and to satisfy individual personal tastes. 
We expanded our concepts of how veneer and other building stone could be used and 
displayed and gained an appreciation for the effort and expense that go into this type 
of masonry. 

All participants of the trip became avid paleontologists at the last stop, where 
a wide variety of fossils had weathered out of a 100- foot section of Dillsboro Formation 
(Ordovician). The fossiliferous Dillsboro is exposed at the Brookville Lake dam on 
the north side of Brookville and consists of thin blue limestone flags interbedded with 
shale. The limestone contains numerous fossils, and the common brachiopods 
Rafinesquina and Platystophia, the bryozoan Hallopora, and the cup coral Streptelasma 
are present in great abundance. Fragments and whole specimens of trilobites such as 
Isotelus are much less common but more exciting to find. 

Heavily laden with fossil-bearing rocks, we reached the end of this most-satisfying 
centennial Academy field trip just as the rain began to fall. The timing couldn't have 
been better. 



30 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 94 (1985) 

Ornithology field trip, April 28, 1984 
William H. Buskirk, Leader 

The Ornithology walk at the Spring Meeting of the Indiana Academy of Science 
at Brookville ran from 6:00 to 8:00 a.m. and was attended by nine people. The trip 
visited an area along the scenic drive on the southeast side of the Brookville Reservoir. 
Numbers of migrant birds were seen or heard. This included Indigo Buntings, Ovenbird, 
Black-throated Green Warbler, etc. A highlight was the simultaneous sighting of both 
Scarlet and Summer Tanagers! 



Zoology field trip, April 28, 1984 
Sherman A. Minton, Leader 

The zoology field trip made 28 April in conjunction with the Brookville meeting 
was chiefly concerned with herpetology. The group assembled about 9 a.m. near Derby- 
shire Quarry and proceeded down Silliman's Hollow. Two-lined salamanders (Eurycea 
bislineata) and northern dusky salamanders {Desmognathus fuscus) were plentiful along 
the small rocky streams. Eggs of the former species were found. Long-tailed salamanders 
{Eurycea longicauda) were also noted in this habitat. Redbacked salamanders (Plethodon 
cinereus) were numerous in adjacent woodland along with smaller numbers of slimy 
salamanders (Plethodon glutinosus). Of special interest was the collection of a specimen 
of the ravine salamander {Plethodon richmondi). This species is known from only a 
few sites in extreme southeastern and east central Indiana and had not previously been 
recorded from Franklin County. Another interesting find was an adult salamander 
of the Ambystoma jeffersonianum complex. It has not been determined if it represents 
the diploid species, jeffersonianum, or the all-female triploid form, platineum. A large 
adult of the small-mouth salamander (Ambystoma texanum) also was taken. A few 
frogs, probably the green frog (Rana clamitans), were noted along the main stream 
in the hollow. Calls of the American toad (Bufo americanus) and spring peeper (Hyla 
crucifer) were heard. Box turtles (Terrapene Carolina) were plentiful, and a pair was 
observed courting. Snakes observed included one adult and a juvenile black racer 
(Coluber constrictor), two adult ringneck snakes (Diadophis punctatus), an eastern 
garter snake (Thamnophis sirtalis), and a small juvenile of the banded watersnake 
(Nerodia sipedori). Most of these amphibians and reptiles were merely observed or 
released at site of capture after identification or photography. A few specimens were 
retained by John Iverson and Sherman Minton for deposition in museum collections. 



Highlights of the Spring Meeting 31 

Indiana Academy of Science 

SPRING MEETING 

OF THE EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 

April 27, 1984 

MINUTES 

President Theodore J. Crovello called the meeting to order at 4:00 PM in the Knights 
of Columbus Hall, Brookville, Indiana. 

Minutes of the Executive Committee meeting of October 27, 1983, were approved 
as distributed. 

TREASURER'S REPORT 

Treasurer Duvall Jones distributed a report of the Academy's finances as of April 
26, 1984: 

1984 Income $15,844.24 

1984 Expenditures 13,787.23 

Balance 

Academy Accounts 10,668.86 

Administered Accounts 16,007.43 



Total $26,676.29 

REPORTS OF ELECTED COMMITTEES 

Academy Foundation Committee 

William A. Daily, chairman, reported that on March 3 1 , 1984, the Invested Income 
Account had a total market value of $118,548.84, of which $4,727.25 was spent on April 
4 to assist in publication of the Proceedings. On March 3 1 the market value of the Foun- 
dation Account was $40,812.38 and the market value of the John S. Wright Fund was 
$716,729.99. 

Research Grants Committee 

Benjamin Moulton presented the report for Uwe Hansen, Chair. Academy Research 
Grants in the amount of $10,335 have been awarded. A list of the grants is appended 
to these minutes. 

REPORTS OF STANDING COMMITTEES 
Academy Representative to the A A AS 

Walter Cory will attend the annual meeting of the AAAS and requests suggestions 
for ways the national organization might assist the Indiana chapter. 

Academy Representative to Indiana Natural Resources Commission 

Damian Schmelz reported some examples from the 77 items on the agenda of the 
April meeting of the Commission. 

Constitution Committee 

William Eberly, Chair, requested input from all committees and officers on ways 
that current practice differs from statements in the Constitution. The Committee plans 
to have a proposed revision of the Constitution in the hands of members 30 days before 
the Fall meeting of the Academy. 

Emeritus Members Selection Committee 

Robert Cooper, Chair, recommended that the following members be granted Emeritus 
status: 

Dr. Francis D. Hole, Madison, WI 

Dr. R. Emerson Niswander, North Manchester, IN 

The recommendation was approved. 



32 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 94 (1985) 

High School Teachers Research Fellows Committee 

Walter Cory, Chair, reported that two Fellows have been accepted for Summer 1984. 
They are being encouraged to present papers at the Fall meeting. 

Indiana Science Talent Search Committee 

Walter Cory, Chair, reported that of 42 entrants, 25 were selected as finalists and 
13 of those were declared winners. Kappa Kappa Kappa provides funding for the finals 
in the competition and for two $1000 scholarships. 

Invitations Committee 

Walter Cory reported that the 1985 meetings will be hosted by Indiana University, 
Bloomington. The Spring meeting will be at Brown County State Park on April 26-27. 
The Fall meeting will be on the Bloomington campus on November 15-16. 

No meeting sites have been selected for 1986 and beyond. 

Junior Academy Council 

Susan Johnson reported that the Spring meeting of the Junior Academy is in pro- 
gress at Hammond. 

Cheryl L. Mason has replaced Leota Skirvin Smith as Director of the Junior Academy. 

Library Committee 

Lois Burton, Chair, reported that Volume 92 of the Proceedings has been distributed 
to 683 Academy members and science clubs. 205 copies have been sent to libraries, in- 
stitutions, and scientific societies. 

The "Requisition for Printing" for Volume 93 was submitted to the Department 
of Administration on March 20. 825 cloth bound and 525 paper bound copies will be 
printed. The amount to be paid by the State will be $8900. 

Membership Committee 

Duvall Jones, Chair, reported 604 paid memberships as of April 26, with 420 on 
file from 1983 not paid for 1984. 1 1 1 members and clubs were dropped for nonpayment 
of 1983 dues; some of these have now been reinstated. 

A member has asked if the $300 dues for Life Membership might be paid in three 
$100 annual installments. There was no immediate objection, but a discussion ensued 
of that question and the related one concerning the use of Life Membership dues as sources 
of income through interest. President Crovello recommended that the matter be referred 
to the Financial Planning Committee. 

The question of exchanging membership lists with other organizations as a possible 
way of promoting membership was raised. Current policy is that this is not done unless 
in some specific case it is deemed advantageous. 

Newsletter Editor 

Walter Cory reported that the Spring Newsletter had not appeared because of ad- 
ministrative problems in his office. Absence of the Newsletter has led to confusion among 
the Section Chairs concerning the Call for Papers for the Fall meeting. 

It was agreed that instructions should be given to a person as soon as he or she 
becomes Chair-Elect . A meeting for incoming Chairs and Chairs-Elect should be con- 
sidered as part of the agenda for the Fall meeting. 

Program Committee and Centennial Committee 

Philip St. John, Program Chair, reported that details of speakers and program for 
the Fall meeting at Butler University are in progress. Edwin Squiers, Ecology Chair, said 
that his section is planning a poster session describing graduate programs offered by univer- 
sities in Indiana, and suggested that other sections might consider this. As part of the 
Centennial observation, sections are encouraged to solicit papers about the histories of 
their disciplines in Indiana. 



Minutes of the Executive Committee 33 

Publications Committee 

Benjamin Moulton, Chair, reported that Academy monograph sales have been 
responding to promotional efforts. The Centennial volume is at the publisher, and a special 
cover has been designed. 

Jones and Burton asked if the price of back issues of monographs should be increased 
to cover increased costs of production and mailing. 

Resolutions Committee 

President Crovello called for suggestions for special resolutions in connection with 
the Centennial observance. 

Science and Society Committee 

Alice Bennett, Chair, presented the report. 

The Committee is implementing its responsibility to relate to State government through 
the participation of several of its members on the Task Force on Science and Education. 
Its goal is to provide recommendations for ways of improving scientific literacy and 
capabilities of Indiana citizens. 

The second responsibility of the Committee is to provide a means for the dissemina- 
tion of information to the people in Indiana. It is planning to arrange for the Fall meeting 
a symposium on the topic of Artificial Intelligence. If possible, the proceedings will be 
published in cooperation with the Publications Committee. 

Gene Kritsky of the History of Science section is preparing an important collection 
of portraits of Charles Darwin. It is possible that funds from the Science and Society 
budget might be used to assist in the preparation and display of the collection, and that 
it be exhibited at the Fall meeting. 

Youth Activities Committee 

Susan Johnson, Chair, reported on the Junior Academy and the Science Talent 
Search, and participation in the International Science Fair. The Committee is pursuing 
plans for public recognition of outstanding science teachers and for a workshop for science 
teachers on the topic of science clubs and research in the schools. 
The meeting was adjourned at 5:15 p.m. 

Following a buffet dinner two talks appropriate to the Centennial theme were 
presented: 

Fay Kenoyer Daily told of the group of scientists who gathered in Brookville one 
hundred years ago to found the society that grew into the Indiana Academy. 

Dean Gary A. Sojka of Indiana University traced the life of David Starr Jordan, 
a giant in the early history of the Academy and the University. 

A good number of people joined on Saturday in field trips into the surrounding 
countryside. 

Respectfully submitted, 
Richard L. Conklin, Secretary 



34 



Indiana Academy of Science 



Vol. 94 (1985) 



Indiana Academy of Science 
Spring, 1984, Grant Applications Funded 



Research 
No. Principal Investigator/ 
Institution & Dept. 



Grants Committee Actions 
Title 



Funded 



10 



11 



12 



13 



14 



15 



16 



17 



Mark Binkley 

ISU Geography 

S. Cortwright 

IU Biology 

S.W. Dhawale 

IU East Chemistry 

R. Faflak 

ISU Geology 

H. Feldman 

IU Geology 

S. R. Ferson 

State U of NY 

B. Fuchs 

ISU Life Sc. 

J. Hengeveld 

IU Biology 

M. A. Hughes 

IU Biology 

Ralph Joyner 

BSU Chem. 

R. Doug Lyng 

IUPU Ft. Wayne Bio 

Robert Pinger 

BSU Bio 

A. Roux 

Notre Dame Bio 

Curtis Tomak 

In Dept Highway 

Rod Walton 

IU Biology 

Wm. Wilson 

ISU Geology 

Licia Wolf 

IU Biology 



Base Study for the Development of 

a Synoptic Climatology ... $ 500.00 

The Role of Predation and the Meta- 

community in the Community . . . 550.00 

Corrosion of Some Copper Alloys 

and Metals in Thiosulfate . . . 550,00 

Quaternary Stratigraphy and 

Chronology of Terraces . . . 470.00 

Spatial Distribution of Macrofauna 

& Paleoenvironmental . . . 370.00 

Ecotones between Eastern Hemlock 

Communities and Surrounding . . . 600.00 

Beta-Adrenergic Receptors in 

Muric Splenic T Lymphocytes 750.00 

The Adaptive Significance of 

Brood Reduction . . . 700.00 

Cold-Temperature Activity in Two 

Freshwater Turtles . . . 400.00 

Insertion Reactions of Tin and 

Germanium Phthalocyanines 450.00 

A Preliminary Investigation on 

Using Cultured Mouse . . . 570.00 

Serology Survey of Selected 

Indiana Vertebrates . . . 650.00 

Microdistribution of Trichoptera 

Populations in Juday Creek 650.00 

Archaeological Research at 

Alton Site 900.00 

Factors Influencing the Distribution 

of the Goldenrod . . . 450.00 

Lithologic and Base Level Controls 

on Cavern Positions . . . 800.00 

Biparental Care in the Monogamous 

Dark-eyed Junco; . . . 975.00 

TOTAL $10,335.00 



PICTORIAL HIGHLIGHTS 
OF THE FALL MEETING 




Welcome to Butler University, Clowes Hall. John G. Johnson, President, Butler University. 

35 



36 



Indiana Academy of Science 



Vol. 94 (1985) 




Welcome to the Fall Meeting. Theodore J. Crovello, President, Indiana Academy of 
Science. 



Highlights of the Fall Meeting 



37 




Centennial Address: Past and Future Roles of Interdisciplinary Societies. Philip H. Abelson, 
Editor, Science. 



38 



Indiana Academy of Science 



Vol. 94 (1985) 




Dinner for Senior Academy Officers, Officers Elect, Committee and Section Chairs and 
their guests. Krannert Room, Clowes Hall. 



Highlights of the Fall Meeting 



39 



* * « m ■ ~ 





Executive Committee Meetings often generate problems. 



40 



Indiana Academy of Science 



Vol. 94 (1985) 





Participants sometime provide solutions. 



Highlights of the Fall Meeting 



41 




Gymnasiums provide space for informal luncheons. 



42 



Indiana Academy of Science 



Vol. 94 (1985) 




■si^Y 



>-?! 




Poster Sessions are becoming increasingly popular. 



Highlights of the Fall Meeting 



43 




The Junior Academy sessions provide opportunities for student interactions. 



SPECIAL ACKNOWLEDGMENT 

Indianapolis, Indiana 

November 2, 1984 

During the Centennial Meeting, the Academy membership acknowledged those who 

have been members for 50, or more, years. The 1984 membership roster included the 

following 49 members who have an accumulated service to the Indiana Academy of Science 

of 2,653 years. 



Name and Address 


Section 


Year Joined 


Number of Years 


Adams, William B. 


B 


1919 


65 


703 Anita Street 








Bloomington, IN 47401 








Aldred, Jacob William H. 


C 


1929 


55 


R.R. 5, Box 8 








Florence, AL 35630 









Baldwin, Ira CBR 1919 65 

1806 Van Hise Hall 
University of Wisconsin 
Madison, WI 53706 

Bochstahler, Lester I. CGP 1920 64 

422 Davis Street 
Evanston, IL 60201 

Brubaker, Ralph SGE 1932 52 

Box 141 

Leesburg, IN 46538 

Campbell, Mildred F. AZB 1931 53 

29 North Hawthorne Lane 
Indianapolis, IN 46219 

Caylor, Harold D. ZCR 1931 53 

303 South Main Street 
Bluffton, In 46714 

Cooper, Robert H. RBC 1934 50 

R.R. 9, Box 298 

Muncie, IN 47302 

Decay, M.H. George ACG 1929 55 

715 Meridian Street 
West Lafayette, IN 47906 

Dunham, David H. RBZ 1920 64 

230 Connolly Street 
West Lafayette, IN 47906 

Fidlar, Marion M. CG 1931 53 

1040 Vista View Drive 
Salt Lake City, UT 84108 

Fulford, Margaret B 1929 55 

Department of Biological Sciences 
University of Cincinnati 
Cincinnati, OH 45221 

44 



Special Acknowledgment 



45 



Name and Address 

Geisler, Florence E. 
3717 North Riley Avenue 
Indianapolis, IN 46218 

Gettlefinger, W.C. 
9 Lincoln Road 
Indianapolis, IN 40223 

Girton, Raymond E. 

47 Cordone Drive 

San Anselmo, CA 94960 

Gould, George E. 

848 Kent Avenue 

West Lafayette, IN 47906 

Gray, Nina E. 

Trust Department 

First National Bank of Normal 

Normal, IL 61761 

Guard, Arthur T. 
1845 Woodland Avenue 
West Lafayette, IN 47506 

Haas, Flora A. 
1010 Lafayette Road 
Crawfordsville, IN 47933 

Hazlett, Donald C. 
Russellville, IN 46175 

Headlee, W. Hugh 
762 North Riley Avenue 
Indianapolis, IN 46201 

Hennion, George F. 
141 East Lasalle Avenue 
South Bend, IN 46617 

Hougham, Naomi M. 
300 North Water Street 
Franklin, IN 46131 

Johnson, Willis H. 
Department of Biology 
Wabash College 
Crawfordsville, IN 47933 

Jordan, Esther K. 
400 Circle Avenue 
Kerrville, TX 78028 

Lang, Maud O. 

R.R. 2 

Richland, IN 47634 

Lemon, Lola M. 
Box 113 
Larwill, IN 46763 



Section Year Joined Number of Years 

BG 1925 59 



BP 

BOH 

EZ 

BZ 

BTL 

BT 

G 
BEZ 



BZG 



ZY 



RB 



B 



1928 
1928 
1934 
1928 

1929 

1914 

1930 
1926 

1928 

1922 

1928 

1931 
1933 
1929 



56 

56 
50 
56 

55 
70 

54 

58 

56 
62 
56 

53 
51 

55 



46 



Indiana Academy of Science 



Vol. 94 (1985) 



Name and Address 

McCormick, Robert N. 
211 Stradling Road 
Muncie, IN 47304 

Mathias, Harry R. 
123 East Evers Avenue 
Bowling Green, OH 43402 

Mellon, Melvin G. 
338 Overlook Drive 
West Lafayette, IN 47906 

Michaud, Howard H. 
301 East Stadium Avenue 
West Lafayette, IN 47906 

Miner, William B. 
710 Normal Road 
Dekalb, IL 60115 

Murray, Merritt J. 
2718 Oakland Drive 
Kalamazoo, MI 49008 

Payne, Elmer C. 
440 River Road 
Chatham, NJ 07928 

Plasterer, Eiffel G. 
R.R. 5, Box 245 
Huntington, IN 46750 

Richter, Arthur 

8872 Westfield Boulevard 

Indianapolis, IN 46240 

Roehm, John C. 
102 Harold Drive 
Hot Springs, AR 71901 

Rothrock, Henry S. 
3 Red Oak Road 
Wilmington, DE 19806 

Shock, Nathan W. 
6505 Maplewood Road 
Baltimore, MD 21212 

Slusser, Mack W. 

611 North Lebanon Street, Apt. 

Lebanon, IN 46052 

Smithberger, Andrew T. 
53085 Oakmont Park East Drive 
South Bend, IN 46637 

Sperry, Theodore M. 
1413 South College 
Pittsburgh, KS 66762 



Section Year Joined Number of Years 

ZRC 1931 53 



M 1925 



1921 



BZH 1929 



1928 



BZT 1929 



1933 



PC 1929 



1926 



GY 1924 



1926 



OY 1927 



1930 



1927 



BLT 1928 



59 



63 



55 



56 



55 



51 



55 



58 



60 



58 



57 



54 



57 



56 



Special Acknowledgment 47 



Name and Address 


Section 


Year Joined 


Number of Years 


Tallman, Arthur W. 


RC 


1928 


56 


207 Applecore Avenue 








Hendersonville, NC 28739 








Thompson, Harold B. 


P 


1934 


50 


8501 Wicklow 








Cincinnati, OH 45236 








Webb, Harold D. 


P 


1930 


54 


812 West Delaware Street 








Urbana, IL 61801 








Welch, Winona H. 


BR 


1924 


60 


102 West Poplar Street 








Greencastle, IN 46135 








Welcher, Frank 


C 


1934 


50 


7340 Indian Lake Road 








Indianapolis, IN 46236 








Wick wire, Grant T. 


G 


1928 


56 


43 Fenwood Grove Road 








Saybrook, CT 06475 








Willer, William Arnold 


BZZ 


1929 


55 


3890 Hartman Road 








Sodus, MI 49126 








Witmer, Samuel W. 


BZ 


1921 


63 


1325 Greencroft Drive, Apt. 385 








Goshen, IN 46826 








Wolfe, Harold E. 


M 


1920 


64 


2611 East Second Street, Apt. 16 








Bloomington, IN 47401 









Indiana Academy of Science 

FALL MEETING 

OF THE EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 

November 1, 1984 

MINUTES 
President Theodore J. Crovello called the meeting to order at 3:30 p.m. in Gallahue 
Hall 108, Butler University, Indianapolis, Indiana. 

TREASURER'S REPORT 
Treasurer Duvall A. Jones reported the Academy finances as of October 31, 1984: 

Current Assets 

Checking Account $ 7,822.96 

Savings Accounts $19,566.07 

$27,389.03 

These are assigned to: 

Academy Accounts $13,229.80 

Administered Accounts $14,159.23 



$27,389.03 
The total membership as of October 31, 1984, was 1,040. 

It was moved, seconded, and voted that the Treasurer's report be accepted. 

REPORTS OF ELECTED COMMITTEES 
Academy Foundation Committee 

William A. Daily, Chair, reported that on October 26, 1984, the Foundation Ac- 
count had a market value of $42,424.53 and had earned $2,956.68 during the past year. 
The John S. Wright Fund had a market value of $678,504.03; its income was $37,580.08. 
The Invested Income Account, with assets of $125, 143.65 had earned income of $8,853. 1 1 
and income transfer from the Wright Fund of $33,579.98. 
The report was approved. 

Bonding Committee 
No report. 

Research Grants Committee 

Benjamin Moulton, reporting for Uwe Hansen, Chair, distributed a list of Academy 
Research Grants in the amount of $9,600 and High School Research Grants in the amount 
of $1,152. A list of the individual grants is appended to these minutes. 

Report of Constitution Committee 

The ad hoc committee on the revision of the Constitution and By-laws of the Academy, 
William Eberly, Chair, William Daily, and Clarence Dineen was represented by Dr. Eberly. 
He presented a four-page report listing suggested revisions. There was some discussion 
of the wisdom of discussing revisions without being able to see them in the context of 
the entire document. It was agreed that the changes would be discussed and that members 
should be able to see the entire revised document before being asked for final approval. 

In the ensuing discussion several editorial changes were suggested which will be in- 
corporated in the document to be presented to the membership. These minutes will report 
only those points where there was substantial discussion and/or issues were unresolved. 

In Article 1 , Section 3, the committee recommended empowering the Council, rather 
than the Executive Committee to act as an advisory body. There was some objection to this. 

The committee recommends deleting Member from the list of membership categories. 
Consideration should be given to making it possible for Senior Members to indicate that 
they do not wish to receive the Proceedings. 

48 



Minutes of the Executive Committee 49 

The committee recommends that the sponsor of a science club be required to be 
a Senior Member of the Academy. It was suggested this might be an imposition because 
their commitment to Junior Academy activities precludes participation in Academy events. 

By a show of hands, a majority of those present expressed preference for the word 
chair to replace chairman wherever it appears. 

There was considerable discussion of Article V, Section 1, Part (1) concerning Trustees 
of the Academy Foundation. The resulting recommendation was that there be three elected 
members with rotating three-year terms, plus the Treasurer of the Academy as an ex- 
officio member without vote. 

There was no discussion of Article V, Section 2, which describes the standing com- 
mittees appointed annually. 

Inclusion of the Science and Society chair on the Budget Committee by a revision 
of Article VI, Section 4, was questioned. 

J. Dan Webster moved that the Executive Committee table the entire report of the 
Constitution Committee until the next meeting of the Executive Committee. The motion 
was seconded and carried. 

REPORTS OF STANDING COMMITTEES 

Speaker of the Year 

Dr. Charles E. Heiser, Distinguished Professor of Botany, Indiana University, Bloom- 
ington, is Speaker of the Year. 

Editor 

Donald Winslow, Editor, reported that Volume 92 (1982) of the Proceedings was 
delivered from Western Newspaper Publishing Co., Inc. The issue was 825 hard bound 
and 525 paper copies, at a total cost of $15,332.49. The State of Indiana paid $8,400 
and the Academy $6,932.49. 

Copy for Volume 93 (1983) was in the hands of the printer on July 2, 1984. Section 
chairs are reminded of the December 1 deadline for copy, which has not been honored 
by several, resulting in the late submission to the printer. The volume is still in production 
and should appear early in 1985. 

The Academy offered an honorarium for the best research papers in biological and 
physical sciences but the Editorial Board felt that none of the papers submitted for Volume 
93 met the criteria. 

The biennial budget request was submitted to the State Budget Agency in August. 
The request for Fiscal Year 1985-86 is $9,200; for 1986-87 it is $9,400. The 1984-85 ap- 
propriation is $8,900. 

Committee on Emeritus Members 

Dr. John Christian, School of Health Science, Purdue University, was granted 
Emeritus Membership. 

Nominating Committee 

J. Dan Webster, chair, reported the slate of officers who will be nominated for 
election at the General Meeting. His motion to nominate these people was approved. 

Committee on Fellows 

Wilton S. Melhorn, chair, presented the names of seven members to be placed in 
nomination at the General Meeting. They were approved for presentation to the member- 
ship at the General Meeting. 

Youth Activities Committee 

Susan M. Johnson, chair, presented the report. 

The Committee has identified leading science teachers through a statewide search 
process. The two finalists and six semi-finalists will be recognized at the General Meeting. 



50 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 94 (1985) 

A grant proposal to the AAAS for the support of research projects by secondary 
school students has been funded for $1200. 

The committee proposes the establishment of a Science Olympiad, a series of con- 
tests by which middle and junior high school students would be encouraged to become 
interested in science-related activities. 

Dr. Johnson moved that the Academy support the exploration of establishing an 
Indiana Science Olympiad. The motion carried. 

Invitations Committee 

Donald Cook, chair, reported that the 1985 host will be Indiana University at Bloom- 
ington, but that no invitations have been received for 1986 and beyond. 

Junior Academy of Science 

Cheryl Mason, Director, is studying the history of the Junior Academy and hopes 
to make its activities parallel those of the Academy. Suggestions can be sent to her at 
216 Chemistry Building, Purdue. 

Publications Committee 

Benjamin Moulton, chair, reported that the inventory of past publications ranges 
from 1300 to 2000 copies for each of the past four monographs. Storage areas must be 
found. 

Progress is continuing on three monographs. 

400 copies of The History of the Indiana Academy of Science by William and Fay 
Kenoyer Dailey will be available for distribution after the General Meeting. The Academy 
owes a debt of gratitude to the Dailys for their completion of this five-year task. 

A booklet summarizing the Symposium on Artificial Intelligence has been published 
and is being distributed at this meeting and about the state. 

Library Committee 

Distribution of the Academy Proceedings, Volume 92, has been completed by shipping 
304 volumes to foreign exchange agencies. 176 volumes from the library's journals were 
bound commercially. 27 volumes and 23 microfiche have been added to the library col- 
lection, making the total number of volumes in the library 10,760. 

The "Advice of Allotment" ($8900) has been received from the State Budget Agency 
to be applied to the cost of printing Volume 93 of the Proceedings. Budget requests for 
the next biennium have been delivered to the State Budget Agency: $9200 for 1985/86 
and $9400 for 1986-87. 

Mrs. Holly Oster of the Indiana State Library has been appointed to succeed Mrs. 
Lois Burton as librarian in charge of the Academy library. 

Membership Committee 

Duvall Jones pointed out that new brochures are necessary but membership categories 
are not clear pending revision of the Constitution. 

Alice Bennett moved that the Executive Committee authorize publication of a brochure 
that does not include the "Member" category. The motion carried. 

Representative to the Natural Resources Committee 

Damian Schmelz circulated a report that said the Commission met in the field three 
times and at the State Museum. Agenda items pertain to oil and gas, water and flood- 
ways, forestry and wildlife, coal mining and reclamation. 

Resolutions Committee 

William Davies, chair, moved approval of a resolution he will present at the General 
Meeting, expressing appreciation to Butler University. Approval was granted. 

Duvall Jones has suggested seven resolutions concerning education in Indiana. They 
were not discussed, but some modification of them may be presented by Jones on the 
floor of the General Meeting. 



Minutes of the Executive Committee 51 

Science and Society Committee 

Alice Bennett, chair, reminded members of the Saturday Symposium and called 
attention to a Darwin exhibit prepared by Gene Kritsky of the History of Science section . 

NEW BUSINESS 

Frank Guthrie moved that the initiation and reinstatement fee for members be set 
at zero dollars for 1985. The motion was seconded and carried. 

Fay Kenoyer Daily, speaking on behalf of Lois Burton, presented Holly Oster, who 
is taking care of Academy affairs at the State Library. She has been voted by the State 
Library to succeed Mrs. Burton as our representative there. In order to cement this rela- 
tionship and because of her devotion and excellent handling of our affairs and excellent 
qualifications, Fay Daily moved that Holly Oster be elected an Honorary Member of 
the Academy. The motion was seconded and carried. 
Adjournment: 5:45 p.m. 

Respectfully submitted 
Richard L. Conklin, Secretary 



52 



Indiana Academy of Science 



Vol. 94 (1985) 



Indiana Academy of Sciences 
Fall 1984 Grant Application Funded 



Research Grants Committee Actions 



Principal Investigator 
— Institution 


Title 


Funded 


C. M. Anslinger 
ISU 


Thermoluminescent Determination of Chert 
Tools and Debitage from the Wint Site 


$ 800 


N. C. Behforouz 
Ball State U 


The Role of Prostaglandin E 2 in the 
Immune Response to Leishmania tropica 


$1,000 


M. B. Berg/R. Hellenthal 
Notre Dame 


The Role of Chironomids (Diptera: 
Chironomidae) in Stream Insect 
Productivity 


$ 500 


A. K. Berndtson/ 
R. Hellenthal 
Notre Dame 


Plasma and Follicular Proteolytic En- 
zymes in the Ovulation of Brooktrout . . . 


$ 650 


D. DeManno/K. Tweedell 
Notre Dame 


The Role of Adenylyl Cyclase in Brook 
Trout Oocyte Final Maturation 


$ 750 


B. B. Dusa/W. Brett 
ISU 


Murine Natural Resistance to Trypanosoma 
Lewisi 


$ 850 


T. E. Klingler/D. Smith 
Purdue 


Field Observations and Objective Analysis 
of Severe Weather in Indiana 


$1,000 


0. Kukal/J. Duman 
Notre Dame 


Control of Cold Hardiness in Arctic Insects 


$ 500 


K. C. Kuo/T. West 
Purdue 


Compression Strength Testing of the 
Springfield Coal, Pike County 


$ 750 


C. L. Mason/J. Kahle 
Purdue 


Renovation and Updating the Biology 
Classroom 


$1,000 


J. Neven/J. Duman 
Notre Dame 


Freeze Tolerance in Insects 


$ 500 


G. K. Podila/W. Brett 
ISU 


In Vitro Translation and Gene Analysis of 
Double Stranded RNA Mycovirus 


$ 600 



C. M. Rogers/ 
V. Nolan, Jr. 
IU-Bloomington 



Genetic and Environmental Components of $ 700 

Winter Fat Storage in the Dark-Eyed Junco 

Total $9,600 



Minutes of the Executive Committee 



53 





FALL 1984 






Secondary School Research Grants 




Name/Sponsor 


Institution 


Funded 


Loretts Baker 


East Noble 


$ 150.00 


(V. Rhodes) 


Kendallville 




Sally Bloom 


East Noble 


100.00 


(V. Rhodes) 


Kendallville 




Eric Bonfield 


Marquette 


110.00 


(D. Christakis) 


Michigan City 




Julie Goldman 


Gage Institute 


175.00 


(M. Goldberg) 


Indianapolis 




John Hendricks 


Marquette 


100.00 


(D. Christakis) 


Michigan City 




Sima Medow 


John Adams 


57.00 


N. Longenecker) 


South Bend 




Michele Mengel 


John Adams 


70.00 


(N. Longenecker) 


South Bend 




Jerome W. Naylor 


John Adams 


70.00 


(N. Longenecker) 


South Bend 




Mark D. Owens 


Marquette 


50.00 


(D. Christakis) 


Michigan City 




Tammy Sibert 


East Noble 


170.00 


(V. Rhodes) 


Kendalville 




Ann R. Thorvik 


Marquette 


100.00 


(D. Christakis) 


Michigan City 
Total: 






$1,152.00 



Indiana Academy of Science 

Minutes of the General Meeting 

November 2, 1984 

The General Meeting of the Indiana Academy of Science was called to order by 
President Theodore J. Crovello at 1:20 p.m. on Friday, November 2, 1984, in Clowes 
Hall, Butler University, Indianapolis. 

President Crovello opened this one-hundredth meeting of the Academy with reflec- 
tions on the value of scientific disciplines working together as they have in Indiana since 
1885 and moving forward together into the second hundred years. 

President John G. Johnson of Butler University welcomed the Academy on behalf 
of the University. Dr. Crovello presented to him and the University a copy of the History 
of the Indiana Academy of Science. 

Secretary Richard L. Conklin gave a summary of the Executive Committee meeting. 
J. Dan Webster, Nominating Committee chair, moved the election of the following 
persons as officers and members of elected committees for 1985. 
President: Benjamin Moulton 
President-Elect: Ernest E. Campaigne 
Treasurer: Duvall A. Jones 
Director of Public Relations: Alfred Schmidt 
Editor: Donald R. Winslow 

Academy Foundation Committee member (2 year term): John A. Ricketts 
Bonding Committee member (2 year term): Donald Hendricks 
Research Grants Committee member: Austin Brooks 
The motion was seconded and carried, and those named were declared to be elected. 
Resolutions Committee Chair William Davies presented the following resolution: 

WHEREAS: The Indiana Academy of Science is deeply grateful to Butler University 
for its invitation to hold our 100th annual meeting on their campus; and 

WHEREAS: The administration, faculty, and students alike have cooperated in pro- 
viding us their facilities for this Centennial Meeting; be it 

RESOLVED: That the Academy members here assembled express their sincere ap- 
preciation to Dr. John G. Johnson, President of Butler University, for 
all the courtesies that have been extended to the Academy during this 
meeting. We are especially grateful to Dr. Philip St. John, his staff, 
and other participating members of the Butler University faculty, for 
the arrangements of the entire program and the comfort and conve- 
niences provided the membership. We also express our sincere thanks 
to all members who organized and participated in all aspects of the 
Centennial Program. 

The resolution was adopted unanimously. 

Richard Conklin, member of the Committee on Fellows, moved that the following 
persons, whose nomination had been approved by the Executive Committee, be elected 
to the rank of Fellow: 

Ernest M. Agee, Purdue University 

Lois Burton, Indiana State Library 

Thaddeus J. Godish, Ball State University 

William R. Gommel, Indiana Central University 

Henry H. Gray, Indiana Geological Survey 

John H. Meiser, Ball State University 

David M. Sever, St. Mary's College 

54 



Minutes of the General Session 55 

The motion was seconded and carried. Congratulations and certificates of recogni- 
tion were extended to those newly-elected Fellows who were present. 

Holly Oster of the Indiana State Library, who was elected an Honorary Member 
of the Academy by the Executive Committee, was introduced. She acted on behalf of 
Lois Burton in accepting a plaque recognizing Mrs. Burton's years of service to the Academy 
as Director of the John S. Wright Library. 

Recognition copies of the History of the Indiana Academy of Science were presented 
to its authors, Fay Kenoyer Daily and William Daily. Benjamin Moulton announced that 
copies would be distributed to members after the meeting. 

Secretary Richard Conklin moved that the Indiana Academy of Science continue 
its affiliate relationship with the American Association for the Advancement of Science. 
The motion was seconded and carried. 

Duvall Jones presented the following resolutions: 

WHEREAS members of the Indiana Academy of Science are seriously concerned 
about having adequate numbers of well-qualified science teachers for 
the schools of Indiana 

BE IT RESOLVED that the Indiana Academy of Science recommends that certifica- 
tion through a teaching minor in a science (or mathematics) be limited 
to those persons with a major concentration of courses in another natural 
science (or mathematics), and 

WHEREAS science education at the elementary level is important to the develop- 
ment of attitudes toward science, 

BE IT RESOLVED that the Indiana Academy of Science favors the increased re- 
quirements for science education in the elementary schools, and recom- 
mends support for science workshops and science consultants to assist 
elementary school teachers at the regional or local level. 

After a brief discussion, the resolutions were approved by a majority of those pre- 
sent, as indicated by a show of hands. 

Fay Kenoyer Daily, Necrologist, reported the deaths of the following Academy members 
who deaths had been recorded during the past year: 

Bryon G. Bernard 

Walter I. Brumbaugh 

David H. Dunham 

Elmer C. Payne 

Edward W. Shrigley 

Ruth Wimmer 

Susan M. Johnson, Youth Activities Committee Chair, presented awards to the semi- 
finalists and finalists in the 1984 Presidential Awards for Excellence in Science Teaching: 
Semifinalists: 

Gene P. Buzzard, Snider High School, Ft. Wayne 

Ronald E. Divelbiss, Leo Junior/Senior High School 

Gladysmae Good, Arlington High School, Indianapolis 

Carole Goshorn, East High School, Columbus 

Michael Kobe, Clay High School, South Bend 

John J. Portle, North High School, Bloomington 

Finalists: 

Nevin Longenecker, John Adams High School, South Bend 

Virginia Rhodes, East Noble High School, Kendalville 

Mr. Longenecker spoke briefly about his reaction to the White House presentation 
of the Presidential Awards. 



56 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 94 (1985) 

The Speaker of the Year, Dr. Charles B. Heiser, Jr., Distinguished Professor of 
Botany, Indiana University, Bloomington, gave an abbreviated version of the lecture 
he will be presenting in that capacity, "The Contributions of the Nightshade Family 
(Solanaceae) to Human Welfare." 

The meeting adjourned at 2:40 p.m. 

Respectfully submitted, 
Richard L. Conklin, Secretary 



Indiana Academy of Science 

Budget Committee Meeting 

December 1, 1984 

Members Present: Alice Bennett, Richard Conklin, E. E. Campaigne, Walter Cory, 
William Daily, Frank Guthrie, Uwe Hansen, Duvall Jones, Susan Johnson, Cheryl Mason, 
Benjamin Moulton (President), Holly Oster, Donald Winslow. 

Called to Order: 10:10 a.m., in Room 159A, Indiana State Library, Indianapolis. 

President Moulton opened the meeting with a brief statement of his hope to work 
within the budget being set for 1985, guided by the findings of the Finance Committee 
which should be reported at the Spring Meeting. He plans to write letters to the past 
twenty presidents of the Academy asking their opinions on the role and operation of 
the Academy in its second century. 

There was some discussion of financial decisions that must be made by the Publica- 
tions Committee: Shall the price of the Proceedings be increased, given the fact that only 
$7.00 from dues are available to pay the $1 1 .37 cost per copy. The History of the Academy 
cost about $5.50 per copy. It is being distributed free to members but a price needs to 
be set for copies sold to non-members. Guthrie suggested $7.50 for additional copies 
to members, $10.00 for non-members. Jones wondered if the History could be used as 
an incentive in the forthcoming membership campaign. Several combinations of years 
of membership and copies of the History with package rates were suggested. Other 
monographs might also be used. 

Jones moved that publication cost of the brochure describing the Fall, 1984 Sym- 
posium on Artifical Intelligence be taken from the Income Trust Fund. The motion was 
seconded, and carried after some discussion about whether such publications could be 
more appropriately charged to Science and Society or Publications. The motion carried. 

The Treasurer presented the proposed budget for 1985, which is attached herewith. 
After it had been discussed line by line, Hansen moved approval of the operating budget. 
The motion carried. 

The following amounts were proposed for items paid from the Trust Fund: 

Research grants $23,200 

Research fellowships 3,000 

Publications 20,000 (Butterflies of Indiana) 

15,000 (Climate of Indiana) 
1,500 (Symposium Brochures) 
15,000 (History of the Academy) 

Cory moved approval of the budget for Trust Fund and Administered Accounts. 
The motion carried. 

The Bonding Committee will be instructed to discuss the necessity of bonding the 
Treasurer and the Trustees. 

Bennett moved that the Academy designate Chase Manhattan Bank as a depository 
of Academy funds. The motion was seconded by Mason and approved. 

Guthrie presented a suggested revision of membership categories and dues. It was 
discussed briefly but no action was taken. 

Mason recommended that a liaison person from the host institution at the Fall meeting 
be appointed to work with the Junior Academy. 

Winslow raised the question of late abstracts delaying publication of the Proceedings. 
He was encouraged to send a letter to persons presenting papers asking them to press 
their section chairs to submit the abstracts on time. 

57 



58 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 94 (1985) 

The meeting was adjourned at 12:30 p.m. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Richard L. Conklin 
Secretary 



Indiana Academy of Science 
1985 Budget 





Budgeted 


Budgeted 


Academy Accounts 


Income 


Expenses 


Dues 


9,250 




Reprints: Vol. 92 & 93 


2,750 


2,500 


Interest 


2,700 




Transfer from Administered Account 






Reserve funds for Centennial 


2,000 




Meetings 






Program, Printing, and Mailing 






Registration Fees & Hospitality 






Meals 


2,000 




President's Contingency Fund 




250 


Secretary 




400 


Treasurer 




750 


Editor's Expenses 




400 


General Office Expenses 


/ 


450 


Officer Travel 




150 


AAAS Representative 




400 


Biological Survey Committee 




1,000 


Centennial Committee 




2,000 


Finance Committee 




250 


Junior Academy of Science 




1,000 


Membership Committee 




500 


Newsletter 




900 


Public Relations 




150 


Program Committee 




2,000 


Speaker of the Year 




700 


Youth Activities Committee 




1,250 


Section Chairmen's Expenses 




50 


CPA Fees for Tax Returns 




550 


Miscellaneous 




100 


Transfers to Administered Accounts 






Library Binding 




1,500 


Proceedings; Mailing 




700 


Science and Society 




750 



TOTALS $18,700 $18,700 



Indiana Academy of Science 
Financial Report 

1 January — 31 December 1984 

I. ACADEMY ACCOUNTS 



Dues 

Reprints: Vol. 92 & 93 

Interest 

Transfer from Administered Accounts 

Reserve funds for Centennial 

President's Contingency Fund 

Secretary 

Treasurer 

Editor's Expenses 

General Office Expenses 

Officer Travel 

AAAS Representative 

Biological Survey Committee 

Centennial Committee 

Finance Committee 

Junior Academy of Science 

Membership Committee 

Newsletter/Public Relations 

Program Printing & Mailing 

Speaker of the Year 

Youth Activities Committee 

Section Chair's Expenses 

CPA Fees for Tax Returns 

Miscellaneous 

Transfers to Administered Accounts 

Library Binding 

Proceedings: Mailing 

TOTALS for Academy Accounts 

Administered Account (for budgetary 
purposes only) 

Meeting Fees and Hospitality 



Income 


Budgeted 


Expenditures 


Budgeted 


$ 9,192.00 


$ 8,000.00 






1,773.20 


3,250.00 


$ 1,943.18 


$ 2,850.00 


2,859.75 


2,000.00 






434.58 


434.58 
3,200.00 










21.76 


1,000.00 






276.55 


600.00 






626.84 


750.00 






262.06 


700.00 






210.21 


250.00 






150.00 


150.00 






299.50 


300.00 






0.00 


1,000.00 






1,053.90 


2,600.00 






0.00 


450.00 






998.49 


1,000.00 






40.00 


800.00 






1,050.00 


1,050.00 






1,554.24 


2,000.00 






700.00 


700.00 






700.75 


1,650.00 






50.00 


50.00 






500.00 


500.00 






0.00 


100.00 






1,500.00 


1,500.00 






775.00 


775.00 


$14,259.53 


$16,884.58 


$12,712.48 


$20,775.00 



1,983.00 



1,500.00 



1,172.97 



1,500.00 



TOTALS for Budgetary Purposes 


$16,242.53 


$18,384.58 


$13,885.45 


$22,275.00 


II. 


ADMINISTERED ACCOUNTS 








1 January 


1984 Transfers 


1984 Transfers & 


31 December 




Balance 


& Income* 


Expenditures 


Balance 


Junior Academy 


434.58 


$ 0.00 


$ 434.58 (T 3 ) 


0.00 


J.S. Wright Library Fund 


134.28 


0.00 


0.00 


134.28 


Lilly III Library Fund 


2,619.76 


0.00 


0.00 


2,619.76 


Lilly V Library Fund 


4,500.20 


0.00 


0.00 


4,500.20 


Library Binding 


3,000.65 


1,500.00 (T,) 


2,088.45 


2,412.20 


Proceedings'. Printing 


1,952.89 


4,727.25 (T 2 ) 


4,727.25** 


1,952.89 


Proceedings: Mailing 


550.09 


775.00 (T.) 


577.51 


747.58 


Publications: Printing & 


3,435.35 


901.26 (I) 


14,235.90 


4,282.61 


Sale 




14,181.90 (T 2 ) 






Research Fellowships 


149.25 


2,520.00 (T 2 ) 


2,520.00 


149.25 


Research Grants & Awards 


-5,210.76 


20,435.00 (T 2 ) 


20,660.70 


-3,936.46 


AAAS 




1,200.00 (I) 






Life Membership 




300.00(1) 






Science & Society 


1,295.09 


0.00 


1,035.42 


259.67 


Science Talent Search 


948.24 


2,525.74 (I) 


2,209.37 


1,264.61 


Meeting Fund 


0.00 


3,821.25 (1) 


2,946.07 


875.18 


TOTALS 


$13,809.62 


$52,887.40 


$51,435.25 


$15,261.77 


*I: Income from external sources. 


T 2 : 


Transfer from Academy Trust Funds 




T.: Transfer from Academy Accounts. 


T 3 : 


Transfer to Academy Accounts 




** The State of Indiana paid an additional $8,400.00 toward printing of the Proceedings 





59 



60 



Indiana Academy of Science 



Vol. 94 (1985) 



in. 



Balance: 1 January 1984 
1984 Income 
1984 Expenditures 
Balance: 31 December 1984 



SUMMARY 

Academy 
Accounts 



$10,809.66 
14,259.53 
12,712.48 
12,356.71 



Administered 
Accounts 



$13,809.62 
52,887.40 
51,435.25 
15,261.77 



TOTAL 



$24,619.28 
67,146.93 
64,147.73 

27,618.48 



IV. BANK BALANCES (as of 31 December 1984) 

Super NOW Account 

Northwest National Bank, Rensselaer, IN 
Money Market Checking Account 

Chase Manhattan Bank, Acct #581-1-703239 
Savings Accounts 

Farmers National Bank, Remington, IN-CD #2408862 

#302641 

State Bank of Rensselear, IN-CD #S 11766 



TOTAL 



V. SUMMARY OF TRUST FUNDS 



Foundation Account (0043-00-0) 
1. Income Account 

Income Cash Balance (1/1/84) 
Dividends and interest for 1984 
Investments sold 
Disbursements for 1984 
Investments purchased 
Research grants 
Transfer to principal cash 

Income cash balance (12/31/84) 



2,000.00 

300.00 

1,216.64 



$ 3,516.64 



0.00 

3,016.64 

500.00 



$-3,516.64 



$4,810.68 

9,063.58 

2,000.00 

2,000.00 

9,744.22 

$27,618.48 



0.00 



0.00 



Principal Account 
Principal cash balance (1/1/84) 
Total receipts for 1984 
Transfer from Income Account 
Total disbursements for 1984 
Investments purchased 

Principal cash balance (12/31/84) 
Market value of investments (12/31/84) 
Total value of account (12/31/84) 



$ 7,700.00 



475.81 
6,200.00 
1,216.64 

-7,700.00 



192.45 



192.45 
40,979.33 

41,171.78 



'Carrying value of investments (12/31/84) is $34,828.68. 



B. John S. Wright Fund (00430-01-9) 

1. Income Account 

Income cash balance (1/1/84) 
Dividends and interest for 1984 
Disbursements for 1984 
Commission and fees 
Transfer to 00430-02-8 
Investments purchased 

Income cash balance (12/31/84) 

2. Principal Account 

Principal cash balance (1/1/84) 
Total receipts for 1984 
Total disbursements for 1984 

Principal cash balance 



0.00 
38,751.07 



$ 4,000.10 

33,113.63 

$ 4,600.00 

$ 41,713.73 $41,713.73 



$- 2,962.66 

$ 2.19 

189,088.65 

-189,085.89 

$ 4.95 



Market value of investments (12/31/84) 

Total value of account (12/31/84) 

* Negative balance due to computer error; corrected 1/2/85. 
"♦Carrying value of investments (12/31/84) is $367,882.23. 



$ -2,962.66 



$ 4.95 

722,499.43 
$719,541.70 



Financial Report 



61 



C. J.S. Wright Invested Income Account (00430-02-8) 

1. Income Account 

Income cash balance (1/1/84) 
Total interest for 1984 
Investments sold 
Disbursements for 1984 

Investments purchased 

Distributions (grants) 
Transfer to Principal account 

Income cash balance (12/31/84) 

2. Principal Account 

Principal cash balance (1/1/84) 

Funds transferred from Account 00430-01-9 

Investments sold 

Disbursements for 1984 
Investments purchased 
Distributions (Grants and Proceedings) 

Transfer from Income account 

Principal cash balance (12/31/84) 
Carrying value of investments (Income account) (12/31/84) 
Carrying value of investments (Principal account) (12/31/84) 

Total value of account (12/31/84) 



$ 0.00 

12,212.01 
11,500.00 

-11,100.00 
-2,520.00 
-6,877.34 

$ 3,214.67 

$ 5,475.21 
33,113.63 
108,200.00 

-109,319.16 

-39,044.15 

6,877.34 

$ 5,302.87 



$ 3,214.67 



i 5,302.87 

4,100.00 

101,404.39 



$114,021.93 



D. Total Assets of Trust Accounts (12/31/84) 









Market Value 






Income Cash 


Principal Cash 


of Investments 


Total 


Account 00430-00-0 


$ 0.00 


$ 192.45 


$ 40,979.33 


$ 41,171.78 


Account 00430-01-9 


-2,962.66 


4.95 


722,499.43 


719,541.72 


Account 00430-02-8 


3,214.67 


5,302.87 


105,504.39* 


114,021.93 


Totals (12/31/84) 


$ 252.01 


$ 5,500.27 


$868,983.15 


$874,735.43 


""Carrying value of investments 











VI. NOTES 

Membership as of 31 January 1985: The Treasurer's records show that the Academy has 1112 paid memberships 
for 1984: 51 sustaining, 2 sustaining family, 508 senior, 33 senior family, 255 regular, 13 regular family, 1 10 student, 
106 emeritus, 3 honorary, 4 life, and 27 club memberships. 

6 members deceased (included in totals above) 

101 members on file from 1983, but not paid for 1984. 
143 new members for 1984 (included in totals above). 
13 previous members reinstated in 1984 (included in totals above). 

7 persons resigned. 

105 individuals dropped for nonpayment of 1983 dues. 



Dues structure for 1984: $ 2.00 for student memberships 

5.00 for memberships and club memberships 
10.00 for senior memberships 
25.00 for sustaining memberships 
2.00 additional for family memberships 
300.00 for life memberships 
150.00-500.00 corporate memberships 
50.00-100.00 institutional memberships 
Reprints: All authors of papers in Volume 92 of the Proceedings have paid for the reprints which they ordered. 
Cost of the reprints to the Academy was $1 ,943. 18. Authors paid the Academy $2,044.25 for reprints. 
Publications: Sales of reprints, monographs and Proceedings in 1984 totaled $2,618.46. 

Research Grants: Funds totaling $21,087.00 have been awarded to: M. Binkley (Indiana State), H-W 
Chang (Indiana U.), S. Cortwright (Indiana U.), S.W. Dhawale (Indiana U.), R. Faflak (Indiana State 
U.), H. Feldman (Indiana U.), S.R. Ferson (State U of NY), B. Fuchs (Indiana State U.), J. Hengeveld 
(Indiana U.), M.A. Hughes (Indiana U.), R. Joyner (Ball State), C. Kirkner (Notre Dame), J.M. Kwolek 
(Indiana U.), R. Lyng (IUPU— Ft. Wayne), M. Mandracchia (Notre Dame), R. Pinger (Ball State), 
S. Ropski (1SU Life Sc), A. Roux (Notre Dame), C. Tomak (IN Dept. Highw.), Vierma & Feldman 
(Indiana U.), R. Walton (Indiana U.), Wm. Wilson (Indiana State U.), L. Wolf (Indiana U.), CM. 
Anslinger (Indiana State U.), N.C. Behforouz (Ball State U.), M.B. Berg/R. Hellenthal (Notre Dame), 
A.K. Berndtson (Notre Dame), D. DeManno (Notre Dame), B.B. Dusai (Indiana State U.), T.E. Klinger 
(Purdue), O. Kukal (Notre Dame), K.D. Kuo (Purdue), C.L. Mason (Purdue), L. Neven (Notre Dame), 



62 



Indiana Academy of Science 



Vol. 94 (1985) 



G.K. Podila (Indiana State U.), CM. Rogers (Indiana U.), L. Baker (East Noble H.S.), T. Barker 
(East Noble H.S.), S. Bloom (East Noble H.S.), E. Bonfield (Marquette H.S.), J. Goldman (Gage In- 
stitute), J. Hendricks (Marquette H.S.), S. Medow(John Adams), M. Mengel (John Adams), J. Naylor 
(John Adams), M.D. Owens (Marquette H.S.), T. Sibert (East Noble H.S.), A.R. Thorvik (Marquette H.S.). 
Grants Received: Kappa Kappa Kappa Sorority made $2,500 available for awards and expenses for the Science Talent 
Search for Indiana high school students. 

The American Association for the Advancement of Science granted $1,200 to be used by high school 
students for research. 

VII. BUDGET FOR 1985 

The following budget was approved by the Budget Committee in the meeting of 
1 December 1984. 



Anticipated Income 
Academy Accounts 

Dues 

Interest 

Reprint Charges to Authors: Vol. 93 & 94 

Centennial expenses (from reserves) 
Administered Accounts 

Meeting Fees 



Total 



$ 9,250.00 
2,700.00 
2,750.00 
2,000.00 

2,000.00 
$ 18,700.00 $ 18,700.00 



Budgeted Expenditures 
Academy Accounts 

Reprints 

President's Contingency 

Secretary 

Treasurer 

Editor's Expenses 

General Office Expenses 

Officer Travel 

AAAS Representative 

Biological Survey Committee 

Centennial Committee 

Finance Committee 

Junior Academy of Science 

Membership Committee 

Newsletter/Public Relations 

Program Printing & Mailing 

Speaker of the Year 

Youth Activities Committee 

Section Chairmen's Expenses 

CPA Fees for Tax Returns 

Miscellaneous 
Transfers to Administered Accounts 

Library Binding 

Proceedings: Mailing 

Science and Society 
Total for Academy Account 
Administered Account 

Meeting expenses 

Budgetary Deficit 



Total 



$ 2,500.00 

250.00 

400.00 

750.00 

400.00 

450.00 

150.00 

400.00 
1,000.00 
2,000.00 

250.00 
1,000.00 

500.00 
1,050.00 
2,000.00 

700.00 

1,250.00 

50.00 

550.00 

100.00 

1,500.00 

700.00 

750.00 

$ 18,700.00 

$ 1,500.00 

$ 20,200.00 $ 



20,200.00 
-1,500.00 



Trust Funds 

Anticipated Income and Expendable Funds 
IAS Foundation (00430-00-0) 
J. S. Wright Fund (00430-01-9) 
Invested Income Account (00430-02-8) 
TOTAL 



$ 2,500.00 

35,000.00 

114,000.00 

$151,500.00 



Financial Report 63 

Approved Expenditures 

Fiduciary Fees 4,000.00 

Research Grants for Senior Academy Members 22,500.00 

Research Fellowships for Secondary School Teachers 3,000.00 

Publications 

Proceedings— Volume 93 5,000.00 

Climate of Indiana 1 5 ,000.00 

Butterflies of Indiana 20,000.00 

Symposium booklet (Science and Society) 1,500.00 

Brochure on research grants 700.00 

Awards for outstanding research papers 300.00 

TOTAL $ 72,000.00 

**************************************************************************************************** 

Restricted Accounts (accounted for elsewhere) 
Anticipated Income 

AAAS Funds for High School Student Research Grants $ 1,200.00 

Tri-Kappa funds for Science Talent Search 2,500.00 

Meeting fees 2,000.00 

Sale of Publications 1,000.00 

Income from Foundation Account 300.00 

TOTAL 7,000.00 

Anticipated Expenditures 

Research Grants Committee — Junior Academy Grants $ 1,200.00 

Science Talent Search 2,500.00 

Meeting expenses (Hospitality) 1,500.00 

Publications 300.00 

Awards for outstanding research papers 300.00 
(Funds from Foundation Account) 

TOTAL $ 5,800.00 

Respectfully submitted, 
Duvall A. Jones, Treasurer 

We, the undersigned, have audited the Treasurer's records for the Indiana Academy of Science for the year 
of 1984 and have found them to be accurate and in order. 



Andrew G. Mehall John Ricketts 
1985 1985 



INDIANA JUNIOR ACADEMY OF SCIENCE 
Senior Division Presentation Schedule 



November 2, 1984 

9:30 Student: 
School: 
Title: 



9:45 Student: 
School: 
Title: 



10:00 



10:15 



10:30 



10:45 



11:00 



11:15 



9:30 



9:45 



Student: 

School: 

Title: 

Student: 

School: 

Title: 

Student: 

School: 

Title: 

Student: 

School: 

Title: 

Student: 

School: 

Title: 

Student: 

School: 

Title: 



Alternate 
Student 
School: 
Title: 



Student: 

School: 

Title: 



Student: 

School: 

Title: 



Butler University 

Life Science 

Tim Burgess 

Center Grove High School (Greenwood) 

"An Examination of the Phytotoxic Effects of Sulfur and 

Nitrogen Dioxides on Jack Pine Trees (Pinus banksiana) and 

Alfalfa (Medicago sativa)" 

Richard Berry 

Donald E. Gavit High School (Hammond) 

"Determining the Concentration at which 2,4,5 Trichlorophenox- 

yacetic Acid Changes from an Herbicide to a Plant Growth 

Stimulant on Hydroponically Grown Pisum sativum'''' 

Sally Bloom 

East Noble High School (Kendallville) 

"A Study of Histoplasma Culture and Treatment in Vitro" 

Ted Couillard 

Highland High School (Highland) 

"Cortical Bone Thickness in Chirikiv Island Eskimos" 

Scott Seay 

Center Grove High School (Greenwood) 

"The Importance of Vitamin A" 

Loretta Baker 

East Noble High School (Kendallville) 

"Studies on Gossypol: II. Antifertility Effects in Nutritionally 

Deprived Male Hamsters, Mesocricetus auratus 

Tonette Atkins 

Paoli Junior-Senior High School (Paoli) 

"Synergism Identification of Antibiotic Combinations Phase II: 

Toxicity Determination Utilizing Tissue Culture Techniques" 

Valerie Lamos 

Canterbury High School (Fort Wayne) 

"Wholeist Versus Serialist Learners: A Classroom Applicable 

Diagnostic Tool for Learning Preference with Variables of Lobe 

Dominance, Scanning Approach and Age" 

Robert Beglin 

Marquette High School (Michigan City) 

"Electrical Cell Hybridization and the Discovery of a New Cell 

Line" 

Physical Science 

Peter Hershberger 

Canterbury High School (Fort Wayne) 

"Computers in the Workplace: Radiation Dosage in Millirads 

among Personnel Involved in Office Cathode Ray Tube Work 

as a Function of CRT Year of Manufacture" 

Anne Tseng 

Highland High School (Highland) 

"Manipulation of DNA with Restriction Enzymes" 



64 



Junior Academy Report 



65 



10:00 Student: Gene DeFelice 

School: Donald E. Gavit High School (Hammond) 

Title: "An Inexpensive Method for Drawing Space-Fill Molecules" 

10:15 Student: Annie Carson 

School: Bishop Chatard High School (Indianapolis) 

Title: "Extraction, Separation, and Purification of Anthocyanins for 

Use as a Natural Food Colorant" 
10:30 Student: Mark Owens 

School: Marquette High School (Michigan City) 

Title: "Holographic Interferometry: Determination of Pressure 

Mediated Nanometric Deformation as Applied to Reinforced 
Plastic Configurations" 



November 2, 1984 



9:35 



9:47 



10:11 



10:35 



10:47 



9:59 



10:23 



Student: 

School: 

Title: 



Student: 

School: 

Title: 

Student: 

School: 

Title: 

Student: 

School: 

Title: 

Student: 

School: 

Title: 



Student: 

School: 

Title: 

Student: 

School: 

Title: 



Junior Division Presentation Schedule 

Butler University 
Biological Science 

Jennifer Dawes 

Canterbury Middle School (Ft. Wayne) 
"A Microphotographic Investigation of Chloroplastid Concen- 
tration and Chlorophyll Density as a Function of Water Tur- 
bidity of Selected Area Rivers and Streams" 
Janette DeFelice 

Donald E. Gavit Middle School (Hammond) 
"The Effects of Pharmaceutical Vitamins on the Green Bean 
Plant" 

Laura Mannion 

Donald E. Gavit Middle School (Hammond) 
"The Effects of an Acid Rain-Like Solution on Ivy and Petunia 
Plants" 
Brett Bologna 

Marquette HS, (Michigan City) 

"The Etiology of Cancer: Bacterial Assaying for the Potential 
Carcinogenicity of Nicotine and Chewing Tobacco" 
Chris Bardol 

Marquette HS, (Michigan City) 

"The Preventative Effect of Vitamin E on Crown Gall Tumors 
in Helianthus annus" 

Physical Science 

Mark Skoog 

Highland High School (Highland) 

"Kirlian Photography" 

Meghan Cast 

The Canterbury School, (Ft. Wayne) 

"Precipating Sulfides: A Comparison of Three Metals as Sulfide 

Salts in Relation to Physical Differences in Structure" 



Place 



1st 



Senior Division Paper Presentation Winners 
Biological 
Name Grade 



Loretta Baker 



12 



School 



East Noble HS 



66 

2nd 

3rd 

1st 

2nd 

3rd 



Indiana Academy of Science 



Tonette Atkins 
Rich Berry 

Anne Tseng 
Gene DeFelice 
Mark Owens 



Physical 





Vol. 94 (1985) 


12 


Paoli HS 


12 


Gavit HS 


12 


Highland HS 


11 


Gavit HS 


12 


Marquette HS 



1st 

2nd 

3rd 



Junior Division Paper Presentation Winners 
Biological 

Chris Bardol 9 

Brett Bologna 9 

Jennifer Dawes 8 



Marquette HS 
Marquette HS 
Canterbury MS 



Outstanding Jr. Scientist Nominees 



Nominee 



Mark Owen 
Anne Tseng 
Chris Moses 
Annie Carson 
Loretta Baker 
Richard Berry 
John Satanele 



School 



City 



Marquette HS 
Highland HS 
Canterbury HS 
Bishop Chattard HS 
East Noble HS 
Gavit HS 
E. C. Roosevelt 



Michigan City 

Highland 

Ft. Wayne 

Indianapolis 

Kendalville 

Hammond 

East Chicago 



Outstanding Jr. Scientist Award 





Name 






Grade 


School 


Winner 
Alternate 


Mark Owen 
Anne Tseng 






11 
12 


Marquette HS 
Highland HS 




A.A.A.S. Winners 








Name 




Grade 


School 


Top Female 
Top Male 


Anne Tseng 
Mark Owen 




12 
11 


Highland HS 
Marquette HS 




Senior Division Polemic Winners 

1st Place 




Name 


Grade 






School 


Tim Burgess 
Rich Prall 
Lorie Knobel 
Doug Peters 




11 
11 
11 
11 






Center Grove HS 
(B Team) 


Lisa Parsons 
Colby Parsons 
Eric Todd 
Ann Thorvik 




2nd Place 
12 
10 
10 
10 






Marquette HS 
(B Team) 



Junior Academy Report 



67 



Charlie Wolven 
Lynda Chick 
Alan Adad 
Ted Couillard 



3rd Place 
11 
10 
12 
12 



Highland HS 
(B Team) 



Junior Division Polemic Winners 



Jenny Dawes 
Anne Hayhurst 
Katie Posther 
Brad Keoun 

Pat Abram 
Charles Welborne 
Heidi Bonfield 
Gina Palmer 

Chris Sessions 
Selena Hariharan 
Chris Cranz 
Elisa Spindler 



Place 

1st 

2nd 

3rd 



Canterbury MS 



1st 

2nd 

3rd 



8 
8 
8 


(A Team) 


2nd Place 
9 
9 
9 
9 


Marquette HS 
(A Team) 


3rd Place 
8 
8 
8 
8 


Canterbury MS 
(B Team) 


Aerodynamic Contest 
Senior Division 
Name 


Distance 


David Caseldine 
Sean Eviston 
Luke Adams 


62.0 ft 
55.0 ft 
47.2 ft 


Junior Division 

John Puke 
Nanelle Digdigan 
Mark Skoog 


35.0 ft 
33.2 ft 
32.8 ft 



Minutes of the 

Indiana Junior Academy of Science 

52nd Annual Planning Meeting 

On August 23, 1984, there was an Indiana Junior Academy meeting held for council 
members, officers, and club representatives. The meeting was held at Purdue University 
in West Lafayette, Indiana. The purpose of the meeting was to plan the fall meeting 
and to take under consideration constitution revisions suggested by the Gavit Science 
Club. It was decided at this meeting that each club would have one delegate for voting 
purposes at the annual fall meeting. This would eliminate a lot of the confusion that 
has existed in the past during vote tabulation. 

Two days later on August 25, 1984, a meeting was held at Mr. Kobe's home in 
Munster, Indiana. The club delegates in attendance at this meeting made revisions to 
the constitution and submitted these revisions for club approval at the annual fall meeting. 

Respectively submitted 

Kimberly M. Canady 

Indiana Junior Academy Secretary 

On November 2nd 1984 the Indiana Junior Academy of Science held its 52nd an- 
nual meeting at Butler University in Indianapolis, Ind. The meeting was opened by Presi- 
dent Petra Fuerhaupter. 

Thorn Barker, our I.J.A.S. representative to the A.J.A.S., gave a report of the 
A.J.A.S. meeting that he attended during the summer in New York City, NY. 

The Senior Academy recognized Jr. Academy Director Cheryl Mason and Council 
Members Michael Kobe and Virginia Rhodes for their contributions toward the Indiana 
Junior Academy of Science. 

Keith Hunnings, director of the I.J.A.S. for ten years, was presented a plaque for 
his outstanding efforts as past director. 

Dr. James Paul George of De Pauw University distributed chemistry lab papers 
to those who were interested. 

The constitution changes proposed by the Gavit HS Science club, and the subse- 
quent alteration re-written by committee were unanimously approved by the membership. 

Respectively submitted 
Kimberly Canady 
I.J.A.S. Secretary 



68 



Necrology 
Fay Kenoyer Daily, Butler University 



Br yon G. Bernard 
Serena, Illinois LaPorte, Indiana 

June 21, 1921 February 7, 1984 



Mr. Byron G. Bernard, Biology teacher and Audio- Visual Administrator, was a 
native of Serena, Illinois, where he was born on June 21 , 1921 . His grade and high school 
education was obtained locally. Higher education followed at the University of Illinois 
where he obtained a B . S . degree in 1 940 and an M . S . degree in 1 950. He attended summer 
school at Indiana University, University of Hawaii and other universities. 

Mr. Bernard began teaching Biology at the University of Illinois High School in 
1949 where he taught a year. In 1950, he joined the teaching staff at LaPorte High School 
where he taught Biology until 1970. He then had an additional assignment in the Audio- 
Visual Department until 1975. At the time, Mr. Bernard became Head of the Secondary 
School Audio- Visual Department for LaPorte Community Schools which post he held 
at death on February 7, 1984. 

Mr. Bernard joined the Indiana Academy of Science in 1950, the year he received 
an M.S. degree from Illinois and began teaching at LaPorte High School. His interests 
were listed as Botany, Zoology, and Science Teaching. He aided in Science Fair projects 
and was a student sponsor at national science fairs. 

Other activities included review of science articles and films for professional organiza- 
tions and he reviewed films for selection by the Northern Educational Service Center 
(39 school corporations). 

Mr. Bernard was a member of the Rotary Club and Elks and liked photography 
and travel. He would have been 63 years of age in June, 1984, had he survived until that time. 



69 



70 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 94 (1985) 

Walter I. Brumbaugh 

Huntington, Indiana Union City, Ohio 

May 4, 1908 August 11, 1983 



Mr. Walter I. Brumbaugh's chief interests were Chemistry and Physics and his pro- 
fession was in secondary school teaching. He was born May 4, 1908, in Huntington, 
Indiana, to Isaac and Ida Belle Brumbaugh. 

Mr. Brumbaugh began teaching in 1930 in Lancaster, Indiana, and also taught at 
Forest, Indiana and Winchester. 

In 1940, Mr. Brumbaugh moved to Union City. There he taught in the Union City 
Community High School until retirement in 1973. 

The next year after moving to Union City, in 1944, Mr. Brumbaugh joined the Indiana 
Academy of Science. He was an Emeritus member at death. He was also a member of 
the Union City Church of the Brethern. 

After a long illness, death came to Walter I. Brumbaugh on August 11, 1983, at 
Crotinger Nursing Home in Union City. 



Necrology 7 1 

D(avid) H(anon) Dunham 

Indianapolis, Indiana Lafayette, Indiana 

November 23, 1894 June 3, 1983 



Dr. David H. Dunham died June 3, 1983, at 88 years of age after a long illness. 
He was Professor Emeritus from Purdue University where he had taught Biology for 
many years. 

Dr. Dunham was a native of Indianapolis, Indiana, and born November 23, 1894. 
He was still young when moving to Hillsboro, Ohio, and then Oxford where he graduated 
from high school. He moved to West Lafayette, Indiana, in 1914. During World War 
I, he served in the Army. He then attended Purdue University earning a B.S. degree in 
1920 and master's degree in 1922. He received a Ph.D. degree from the University of 
Wisconsin in 1931. He was an assistant and instructor in Biology at Purdue from 1921 
to 1927, then went to the Monroe Cheese Company in Ohio to work as a bacteriologist 
for a year. In 1929, he was back at Purdue University teaching Biology. He became assis- 
tant professor in 1930, associate professor in 1939 and retired in 1963 becoming Pro- 
fessor Emeritus. 

While at Purdue, David Dunham served well. His classrooms were alive with activity 
and his popular field trips will long be remembered by the alumni. He had a willingness 
to teach undergraduate non-major students hoping to provide a broader education among 
our citizens. His chief hobby was photography. He owned a trailer and took several trips 
each year with it over the United States of America and also through Mexico and Guatemala. 
He traveled until he was 86 years old. His research followed bacteriological lines in the 
physiological relationship between the rhizobia and Leguminosae and other agricultural 
bacteriological problems. He was recognized for his work in Who's Who in Indiana and 
American Men of Science. 

Dr. Dunham joined the Indiana Academy of Science in 1920, the year of receiving 
his B.S. degree from Purdue University. It was recorded that he was in attendance in 
the early 1920's at spring Indiana Academy of Science meetings. He listed Bacteriology, 
Botany and Zoology as interests. He was honored as a Fellow in 1935 and was an Emeritus 
Member at death. 

Dr. David H. Dunham died June 3, 1983, at Home Hospital in Lafayette, Indiana, 
after a two-year illness. We are indebted to Dr. Samuel N. Postlethwait, J. Alfred Chiscon 
and Mary L. Stiller for their fine memorial resolution for Dr. Dunham. After discussing 
rapid post-war development of the Biological Science Department and the steadfast 
endeavors of the earlier faculty which made it possible, the memorial concludes, "Over 
time he too has become a part of the 'Spirit of Old Purdue' that is not easily forgotten." 



72 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 94 (1985) 

Elmer Curry Payne 

West Lebanon, Indiana Summit, New Jersey 

July 3, 1900 March 9, 1984 



Dr. Elmer Curry Payne was a very versatile chemist who served in many capacities 
during his career. He was born in West Lebanon, Indiana, but by high school age was 
living in Indianapolis where he graduated from Shortridge High School. He received an 
A.B. degree from Butler University in 1922, A.M. degree from Johns Hopkins Univer- 
sity in 1928 and a Ph.D. degree from the University of Cincinnati in 1931. 

Dr. Payne found employment in 1923 to 1924 at the Indianapolis Water Company. 
Then continued his education. Upon completion, he came back to Indiana in 1932 to 
teach Chemistry at Butler University until 1935. He was with the United States Depart- 
ment of Agriculture, Food and Drug Administration from 1935 to 1943. Developmental 
Chemistry had his attention with Sylvania Electrical Products in Indiana from 1943 to 
1951 . In 1952, he became Chief of the Inorganic Chemistry Section of the U.S. Atomic 
Energy Commission until retirement in 1965. He followed physiochemical research after 
retirement. Many of his works have not been published because they are government 
classified by the A.E.C. 

Dr. Payne joined the Indiana Academy of Science in 1933 while teaching at Butler 
University. He was an Emeritus member at death. He had many affiliations: American 
Archeological Society, Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Alpha Chi Sigma, 
Sigma Chi, American Chemical Society and American Association for the Advancement 
of Science. 

Dr. Payne had many hobbies which were too numerous to mention in toto. They 
covered a wide range of interests such as philosophy, astronomy, languages, engineering, 
oil painting, cooking, ancient weaponry, horticulture, politics, government economics 
and finance. His philosophy of the universe was that it is purposeful — it has a purpose. 
On March 9, 1984, at 84 years of age, Elmer Curry Payne died in Overlook Hospital, 
Summit, New Jersey. When his son, Palmer Payne, was asked for information, he was 
very kind to supply much that is incorporated here. It was interesting that when asked 
to characterize his father, the son replied, "I don't feel qualified to make such judge- 
ment. He was too complex and involved in so many areas of thought and activity. I'm 
his son and knew him half a century." This account would certainly testify to that. This 
author remembers him from student days as a conscientious, effective, rather shy and 
reserved professor of chemistry teaching at Butler University. He taught a good course! 



Necrology 73 

Edward White Shrigley 

Lansdowne, Pennsylvania Tucson, Arizona 

February 20, 1908 December 24, 1983 



Dr. Edward White Shrigley was a physician and university professor born in 
Lansdowne, Pennsylvania, February 20, 1908, to Arthur and Rebecca Shrigley. He was 
a student at Iowa State University receiving a certificate in vocational agriculture in 1928, 
a B.S. degree in genetics in 1932, and an M.S. degree in 1933. An M. A. degree was received 
from Harvard in 1934. At the University of Wisconsin, his doctorate in genetics was 
taken under the direction of the renowned M.R. Irwin. It was received in 1937. He also 
entered the medical school there receiving an M.D. in 1941 and a two-year internship. 
As a Fellow of the International Cancer Research Foundation at Yale University, he was 
an instructor and later an assistant professor in Bacteriology from 1942 to 1949, and 
was serologist-in-chief at Grace New Haven Community Hospital from 1948 to 1949. 

It was 1949 when Edward Shrigley came to Indianapolis, Indiana, to be Associate 
Professor of Microbiology at Indiana University School of Medicine. He became a pro- 
fessor in 1952 and the head of the department in 1953 and was also Director of Graduate 
Programs from 1968 to 1973. He retired in 1975 becoming Professor Emeritus and then 
moved to Tucson, Arizona. While Head of the Department of Microbiology at Indiana 
University Medical School, Dr. Shrigley organized the graduate program and was largely 
responsible for the first Public Health Service Training Grant at the Medical Center. 
He was also instrumental in establishing the chaplaincy program there, the philosophy 
club and recorder society on campus. 

Dr. Shrigley carried out many important assignments during his career such as ser- 
vice on the test committee in bacteriology for the National Board of Medical Examiners, 
1953 to 1957; on the genetics panel, committee growth, National Research Council in 
1955; on the selection committee for senior research fellows in the U.S. Public Health 
Service, 1959 to 1962; and on the American Board of Microbiology. 

Dr. Shrigley joined the Indiana Academy of Science in 1950. In 1957, he was Chair- 
man of the Bacteriology Division. He was honored as Fellow in 1960, and was an Emeritus 
member at death. His interests were listed as Zoology, Bacteriology and Cell Biology. 
He was active in several other societies including: Fellow of the American Association 
for the Advancement of Science; Secretary of the Society for Study of Development and 
Growth, 1947 to 1949; Society of Microbiology; Genetics Society of America; American 
Association of Immunologists; Editor of the Abstracts Section, Association of Cancer 
Research, 1946 to 1948; Academy of Microbiology; Fellow of the New York Academy; 
Sigma Xi; Phi Kappa Phi; Phi Sigma; Alpha Omega Alpha and Friends meetings. 

The narrow specialization and great expansion in many fields of science were of 
great concern to him. Therefore, he encouraged lecturers to cover subjects outside the 
scope of their specialization. He himself pursued a diversity of interests including genetics 
in animals, viruses and bacteriophage. He was licensed to practice medicine in Indiana, 
Connecticut and Wisconsin, and was interested in medical programs in Pakistan, Australia, 
Burma and Peru. He studied archeology, anthropology and religions throughout the world 
traveling extensively. 

Dr. Edward White Shrigley was developing new interests after retirement at Tucson, 
Arizona. He was deeply involved in water quality and water supply in a part of the land 
where these matters are of utmost importance. He was hospitalized only a short time 
suffering from heart failure before he died December 24, 1983. It is fitting to end this 
account with a memorial by his children, "Today we gather on this hilltop to return 
to the earth the ashes of this beloved man. Together we draw strength in remembering 
the way he lived and what he taught each of us. He taught us what is important in life 



74 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 94 (1985) 

and what is not. He believed that although the answers in life change, the questions, 
throughout time, remain the same. His compassion for others, his humor, his honesty, 
his love for learning and his personal concern for the future of mankind are deep and 
lasting values " 



Necrology 75 

Ruth M. Wimmer 

Hungtington County, Indiana Fort Wayne, Indiana 

December 12, 1903 June 2, 1983 



Miss Ruth M. Wimmer was a teacher of Chemistry and Dean of Girls for many 
years at Elmhurst High School in Fort Wayne, Indiana. According to her executor, Mr. 
William Gordan, she was an only child born to a doctor and his wife in Huntington 
County, Indiana. Miss Wimmer graduated from Huntington High School in 1921. She 
attended Western College for Women from 1921 to 1923, then went on to the College 
of Education at Indiana University. In June, 1925, she received an A.B. degree from 
that university, and an A.M. degree in June, 1927. 

When Elmhurst High School opened in Fort Wayne in 1932, Ruth was employed 
to teach chemistry, mathematics and geography. She was Dean of Girls for 35 years, 
too, and became Chairman of the Chemistry Department. She retired in 1967. 

Elmhurst High School Principal Richard Horstmeyer described Miss Wimmer 
(January, 1984, Chemical and Engineering News) as "very rigid, stern, of the old school." 
However, he added that students in her classes received an excellent background in 
Chemistry. A former student once nominated her for an American Chemical Society 
Award because of her excellent teaching motivating many to become doctors, chemists 
and scientists in other specialities. 

Miss Wimmer also discovered a better way to reduce resistance of wood separators 
for storage batteries and sold the idea to manufacturers in Indianapolis in 1926. 

Ruth Wimmer joined the Indiana Academy of Science in 1937 after starting her 
teaching career at Elmhurst High School. Chemistry was listed as her chief interest and 
she served on the Junior Academy Council and the Youth Activities Committee. She 
was an Emeritus Member at death. She also belonged to the American Chemical Society. 

At 79 years of age, Miss Ruth M. Wimmer died June 2, 1983, at the Towne House 
Health Center in Fort Wayne, Indiana, leaving a truly noteworthy legacy, a $600,000 
science scholarship fund. It has been established in memory of her parents who left to 
her a nice inheritance which she managed well. Graduates of Huntington (North) and 
Elmhurst High Schools are to benefit from the income from the trust fund to pursue 
careers in science, medicine and nursing. Of course, this was the tangible legacy. The 
intangible is her favorable influence perpetuated in the lives of those she touched. 



Indiana Academy of Science 
NEW MEMBERS 1984 

Abrell, D. Brian, Indiana Heritage Program, 612 State Office Bldg., Indianapolis, IN 

46204 
Anslinger, C. Michael, Anthropology Museum, Indiana State University, Terre Haute, 

IN 47809 
Aspley, David K., 340 South Grant, Apt. #1, West Lafayette, IN 47906 
Araya, Jaime E., Dept. of Entomology, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 
Arnold, Paul T., Dept. of Botany, Miami University, Oxford, OH 45056 
Averbeck, Janet, Dept. of Biological Sciences, Indiana University-Purdue University 

at Fort Wayne, Fort Wayne, IN 46805 
Barefoot, Steven T., 1604 North Capitol Ave., Methodist Hospital, Indianapolis, IN 

46202 
Behforouz, Nancy, Dept. of Biology, Ball State University, Muncie, IN 47306 
Bhella, Harbans S., Research Horticulturist, USDA-ARS, P.O. Box 944, Vincennes, 

IN 47591 
Bicha, Wesley J., Chemical Plants Engineer, 1494 New London, Hamilton, OH 45103 
Binkley, Mark, Dept. of Geography, Indiana State University, Terre Haute, IN 47809 
Blackwell, Will H., Dept. of Botany, Miami University, Oxford, OH 45056 
Boyle, Jeffrey G., 2509 Camelback Rd., Salt Lake City, UT 84121 
Brinker, Ruth, Glenn A. Black Laboratory, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405 
Carson, Catharine Anne, Box #18 Shively Hall, Muncie, IN 47306 
Casebere, Lee A., 601 State Office Bldg., Indianapolis, IN 46204 
Chatham, Lloyd, 9345 S. St. Rd. 58, Columbus, IN 47201 

Chaney, William E., Dept. of Entomology, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 
Chen, Young C, Dept. of Biological Sciences, Indiana University-Purdue University 

at Fort Wayne, 2101 Coliseum Blvd. East, Fort Wayne, IN 46805 
Chen, Bing-Huei, Dept. of Entomology, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 
Clark, Dennis E., 3920 Centennial N. Drive, Indianapolis, IN 46208 
Clark, William R., Dept. of Psychological Science, Ball State University, Muncie, IN 

47306 
Conover, Diana R., Archaeological Resources Management Service, Ball State University, 

Muncie, IN 47306 
Cook, Charles K., Dept. of Mathematics, Tri State University, Angola, IN 46703 
Cooper, David L., La Porte High School, La Porte, IN 46350 
Cortwright, Spencer, Dept. of Biology, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405 
Goshorn, Carole R. F., 230 S. Marr Rd., Columbus, IN 47201 
Costello, Priscilla, Terre Haute South, 3737 South 7th St., Terre Haute, IN 47802 
Culver, J. Bart, P.O. Box 294, North Webster, IN 46555 

Crawford, Ronald R., Dept. of Biology, Ball State University, Muncie, IN 47304 
Deckers, Lambert, Dept. of Psychological Science, 5959 Broadway, Ball State University, 

Muncie, IN 47306 
Dustman, Nancy J., Andrean High School, 5959 Broadway, Merrillville, IN 46410 
Ebstino, Frank, Northrop High School, 7001 Coldwater Rd., Fort Wayne, IN 46825 
Eubanks, Mary, Dept. of Biology, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405 
Farlow, James O., Indiana University-Purdue University at Fort Wayne, Fort Wayne, 

IN 46805 
Flohr, Stephen M., 7001 Coldwater Rd., Fort Wayne IN 46825 
Fluegeman, Richard H., Dept. of Geology, Ball State University, Muncie, IN 47306 
Forsyth, Bill J . , Dept. of Biology, Indiana University Southeast, New Albany, IN 47 1 50 

76 



New Members— 1984 77 

Foster, John E., Dept. of Entomology, Purdue University, Lafayette, In 47907 
Francq, G. Earle, Indiana Department of Education, Division of Curriculum, Room 

229 State House, Indianapolis, IN 46204 
Friedle, Robert E., Dept. of Educational Psychology, Ball State University, Muncie,IN 

47306 
Goetz, Frederick W., Dept. of Biology, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 
Goetz, Rebecca J., Dept. of Botany and Plant Pathology, Purdue University, West 

Lafayette, IN 47907 
Goldmann, B. R. and Julie S., Gage Institute, 6144 N. College, Indianapolis, IN 46220 
Good, Gladysmae, Arlington High School, 4825 N. Arlington, Indianapolis, IN 46226 
Grow, Brien N., 635 Barnhill Drive, MS 157, Indianapolis, IN 46223 
Harshman, Hardwick W., School of Education, Indiana University-Purdue University 

at Indianapolis, 902 W. New York St., Indianapolis, IN 46223 
Hartmann, Walter, Dept. of Psychology, Purdue University Calumet, Hammond, IN 

46323 
Harty, Harold, Dept. of Science and Environmental Education, 202-B Education Bldg., 

Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405 
Hendricks, Nancy, 5805 East Southport Rd., Indianapolis, IN 46227 
Hennen, Joe F., and Mary Hennen, Dept. of Botany and Plant Pathology, Purdue 

University, West Lafayette, IN 47906 
Hollerman, Andrew, Dept. of Physics, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 
Huber, Melanie B., 373 South 7th St., Terre Haute, IN 47802 
Huffman, Henry, 2309'/2 N. Headley Rd., Bloomington, IN 47401 
Jarrett, III, Harry W., Dept. of Biology, Indiana University-Purdue University at 

Indianapolis, Indianapolis, IN 46223 
Johnsen, Torgeir S., Dept. of Biology, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405 
Kane, Barbara, Indiana State University, Terre Haute, IN 47809 
Karns, Daryl R., Hanover College, Hanover, IN 47243 

Kern, Jr., William H., Dept. of Zoology, University of Florida, Gainesville, Fla. 32611 
Kesling, Mark D., The Children's Museum, P.O. Box 3000, Indianapolis, IN 46206 
Kim, Sunghee K., Dept. of Home Economics, Ball State University, Muncie, IN 47306 
Kirsch, Joseph, Dept. of Chemistry, Butler University, Indianapolis, IN 46208 
Kjonaas, Richard A., Dept. of Chemistry, Indiana State University, Terre Haute, IN 47809 
Kovach, Warren L., Dept. of Biology, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405 
Krohne, David T., Dept. of Biology, Wabash College, Crawfordsville, IN 47933 
Kuaalen, Ruth, Dept. of Horticulture, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 
Kupagamage, Chan, Dept. of Entomology, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47906 
Larsen, Steven H., School of Medicine, Indiana University, 1 100 West Michigan St., 

Indianapolis, IN 46223 
Leech, Curtis K., Dept. of Psychology, Anderson College, Anderson, IN 46011 
Lieb, Shannon G., Dept. of Chemistry, Butler University, Indianapolis, IN 46208 
Loucks, Orie L., Butler University, 4600 Sunset Ave., Indianapolis, IN 46208 
McCune, III, John E., R.R. 2, Box 155 B, Floyds Knobs, IN 47119 
McDonald, Dennis L., Dept. of Biology, Hanover College, Hanover, IN 47243 
McGowan, Michael J., Senior Entomologist, Lilly Research Labs, Greenfield, IN 46140 
McMillen, Jack D., Dept. of Biology, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 
Maloney, Michael S., Dept. of Zoology, Butler University, Indianapolis, IN 46208 
Marshall, Philip T., Vallonia State Nursery, Vallonia, IN 47281 
Matyas, Marsha Lakes, Dept. of Chemistry, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 
Menges, Eric, Holcomb Research Institute, Butler University, Indianapolis, IN 46208 
Meunier, Gary F., Dept. of Psychological Science, Ball State University, Muncie, IN 47304 
Morse, Mary Ann, Dept. of Education, Indiana University East, Richmond, IN 47374 



78 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 94 (1985) 

Neill, Michael J., Director, ICCE, 902 W. New York St., Indianapolis, IN 46223 
Nicks, Anthony Ray, R.R. 2, Box 373, Borden, IN 47106 
Nolan, Val Jr., Dept. of Biology, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405 
Ossom, EkpoM., Faculty of Agriculture, University of Science and Technology, P.M.B. 

5080, Port Harcourt, Nigeria 
Oster, Holly, Indiana State Library, 140 N. Senate Ave., Indianapolis, IN 46204 
Ott, Karen J., Dept. of Biology, University of Evansville, Evansville, IN 47702 
Parke, Neil, Dept. of Biological Sciences, DePauw University, Greencastle, IN 46135 
Perrill, Stephen A., Dept. of Zoology, Butler University, Indianapolis, IN 46208 
Podila, Gopi Krishna, Dept. of Life Sciences, Indiana State University, Terre Haute, 

IN 47809 
Post, Thomas W., Div. of Nature Preserves, 601 State Office Building, Indianapolis, 

IN 46204 
Pribush, Robert A., Dept. of Chemistry, Butler Universitv. Indianaoolis, IN 46208 
Replogle, Daniel L., R.R. 3, Kendallville, IN 46755 

Reynolds, Gordon, Seymour High School, 1350 W. 2nd St., Seymour, IN 47274 
Robertson, Thomas H., Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Ball State University, Mun- 

cie, IN 47306 
Robison, Floyd E., Research and Assessment Consultant, Indiana Department of Educa- 
tion, Indianapolis, IN 46204 
Rodia, Jacob S., Dept. of Chemistry, St. Joseph's College, Rensselaer, IN 47978 
Scharmann, Lawrence C, School of Education, Indiana University, Bloomington, 

IN 47405 
Schell, Barbara J., R.R. 4, Box 294, Floyds Knobs, IN 47119 
Schepper, Jeanette, Indiana State University, Terre Haute, IN 47809 
Schnitzer, Samuel B., Dept. of Psychology, Indiana State University, Terre Haute, 

IN 47809 
Schroeder, Christopher C, 513 W. Wabash Ave., Crawfordsville, IN 47933 
Secora, Elizabeth V., Fish and Wildlife Biologist, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 718 

N. Walnut St., Bloomington, IN 47401 
Sessions, Katharine J., 12321 Aboite Ctr. R., Fort Wayne, IN 46804 
Shannon, Marilyn M., Dept. of Biological Sciences, Indiana University-Purdue University 

at Fort Wayne, Fort Wayne, In 46805 
Shellhaas, James L., Dept. of Microbiology, Butler University, Indianapolis, IN 46208 
Sitler, Martha, Taylor University, Upland, IN 46989 

Stefanavage, Tom, Indiana Department of Natural Resources, Columbia City, IN 46725 
Stephenson, P. Ranel, Dept. of Anthropology, Ball State University, Muncie, IN 47306 
Stevenson, Kenneth L., Dept. of Chemistry, Indiana University-Purdue University at 

Fort Wayne, Fort Wayne, IN 46805 
Suthers, Roderick A., Medical Sciences Program, Indiana University, Bloomington, 

IN 47405 
Taylor, Ralph W., Dept. of Biological Sciences, Marshall University, Huntington, WV 

25701 
Terry, Roger L., Dept. of Psychology, Hanover College, Hanover, IN 47243 
Thirakhupt, Vacharobon, Dept. of Entomology, Purdue University, West Lafayette, 

IN 47907 
Turbowitz, Neal, Dept. of Anthropology, Indiana University-Purdue University at 

Indianapolis, Indianapolis, IN 46202 
Tuncay, Atilla, Dept. of Chemistry, Indiana University Northwest, Gary, IN 46408 
Tzeng, Oliver C. S., Dept. of Psychology, Indiana University-Purdue University at 

Indianapolis, Indianapolis, IN 46223 
Ware, Roger, Dept. of Psychology, Indiana University-Purdue University at Indianapolis, 

Indianapolis, IN 46233 



New Members — 1984 79 

Wartzoh, Douglas, Dept. of Biological Sciences, Indiana University-Purdue University 

at Fort Wayne, Fort Wayne, IN 46805 
Weilbaker, Charles N., Dept. of Biology, Indiana University Southeast, New Albany, 

IN 47150 
White, Arthur J., Dept. of Biology, Ball State University, Muncie, IN 47306 
Wiles, Tom, Dept. of Biology, Indiana University Southeast, New Albany, IN 47150 
Williford, L., Northwestern High School, 3431 North 400W, Kokomo, IN 46901 
Wolfal, Marcus L., 1460 South 650 East, Columbus, IN 47203 
Wunderlich, Daniel K., R.R. 31, Box 455, Terre Haute, In 47803 
Young, David, Dept. of Psychology, Indiana University-Purdue University at Fort Wayne, 

Fort Wayne, IN 46805 
Young, Gary N., Coordinator of Information, Ball State University, Muncie, IN 47306 
Bishop Chathard High School Science Club, Sponsor: July L. Lines, Indianapolis, IN 

46220 
Borden High School Science Club, Sponsor: Thomas Lockmund, Borden, IN 47106 
Center Grove High School Science Club, Sponsors: Carolyn Hayes and Wilma Griffin, 

2717 South Morgantown Road, Greenwood, IN 46142 
Highland High School, Milligrams, Sponsor: Kathy Reitz, Highland, IN 46322 
Kahler Middle School Science Club, Sponsor: Connie Murray 456 Elm St., Dyer, IN 4631 1 
Munster High School Science Club, Sponsor: Donald Ullxman, Munster High School, 

8808 Columbia, Munster, IN 46311 
Roosevelt High School Science Club, Sponsor: Maria Dalhoumi, Roosevelt High School, 

East Chicago, IN 46312 
West Side Senior High School Science Club, Shirley S. Moorehead, 9th Ave. and Gerry 

St., Gary IN 46406 



ADDRESSES AND CONTRIBUTED PAPERS 



COMPUTERS, EDUCATION, AND ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE 

Theodore J. Crovello 

Department of Biology 

The University of Notre Dame 

Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 

Introduction 

When large "maxicomputers" began to appear in the 1960s, we appreciated their 
value in banking, in airline reservation systems and in many other areas. But for 
educators they were far removed from our daily activities and could be easily ignored. 
Today more powerful maxicomputers, the appearance and spread of the totally new 
microcomputer, and a growing diversity of uses and users are causing a true Computer 
Revolution in our society. What the Industrial Revolution did for our physical abilities, 
the Computer Revolution is doing for our minds. At times I wonder how, if they 
were alive today, outstanding people like Martin Luther King or Gandhi or Darwin 
or Leonardo da Vinci would be using computers, and for what! 

An important difference between the two revolutions is that the Computer Revolu- 
tion is happening faster, taking only years instead of centuries. While it is called the 
Computer Revolution, more than just computers in the narrow sense are involved. 
It also includes telecommunications, television as a two way communications device, 
and much more. Telematics is a term frequently used to include this wide diversity 
of machines, data, and sensing devices. Computers also have become a convenient 
scapegoat in society. If a power or credit card company makes an error in our bill, 
it is the computer's fault. We know that a true computer error is a very unlikely 
explanation, but it fills a necessary psychological function. 

One way to appreciate how important computers have become in society is to 
consider what would happen if suddenly all computers ceased to function and could 
not be fixed or replaced. Requests for instant credit could no longer be filled. Airline 
reservations and traffic control would have to be done manually, greatly reducing the 
total number of flights. Our salary checks would be slower in arriving. Computer based 
patient monitoring would cease. Many military weapons would be unusable. The list 
is almost infinite. 

Closer to our careers, computers in education would disappear, much like biological 
extinction. The question of whether this would be a good or bad event would no doubt 
bring a mixed response from educators. Regardless of how one feels about educational 
computing, it plays a significant part in American education today. Consequently, as 
professional educators we are mandated to become familiar enough with the subject 
to make sound decisions for ourselves about its role in the education of our particular 
students. 

In this paper I will examine the current status of computer assisted education 
and one of its possible future directions. To do that I first will review some basic 
concepts of computers and of education. 

Computers 

Computers have been called many things, some of them unprintable. I suggest 
the following as a simple, optimistic, nonthreatening, operational definition: computers 

80 



Presidential Address 81 

are an extension of our minds and senses! And in education they also are extensions 
of the minds and senses of our students. A corollary emerges from such a definition: 
computers can never replace good teachers; they can only enhance their value. 

Computers are not just the hardware, the physical machines themselves. Rather, 
a computer system has three essential components: hardware; software; and people. 
Software refers mainly to the programs written to tell the computer hardware what 
to do. People are us! But for educomputing the two most important groups are in- 
structors and learners. Decisions made about computers in education must consider 
the specifics of all three components of the computer system. Failure to do so has 
been costly and frustrating. Perhaps the most common example is when a college 
administration purchases a series of microcomputers from the company that submitted 
the lowest bid to supply the hardware. Joy turns to sorrow when the administration 
learns that few if any educational programs exist for that particular machine, and 
the people in that particular educational computing system (the students and educators) 
are unable to create them. 

The fields of computing and of educational computing are in exponential phases 
of growth. No characteristic is changing linearly over time, be it the possible number 
of additions per second, the number and diversity of users and uses, or any other 
property. It is like every day we find that we can jog faster and faster. 

Education 

Most of us are professional educators, a noble and essential calling. But do we 
really educate? Do we educate effectively? How do we know? Do we or our administra- 
tion measure it by the popularity poll of Teacher Course Evaluations administered 
to students? 

Do we consider holistic aspects of education? That is, do we consider not just 
the cognitive intellectual backgrounds and goals of our students but also the affective 
domain — the emotional attitudes and motivation towards the subject, both of our 
students and of ourselves? 

What do we try to maximize in our courses? Is it test scores, student excitement 
about the topic, valuable reasoning skills, or? 

What type of diagram would each of us draw to summarize the pedagogic com- 
ponents of one of our courses? Would items like lecture and textbook emerge as the 
most important sources of learning? If you asked each of your students to do the 
same, would they draw the same diagram? More importantly, would they indicate 
the same components as being the most important in their learning? For example, 
you might think that your lectures are the most important component, but they might 
say it is other students and the laboratory. Only after such a systems diagram has 
been created specifically for a particular course can we decide on a sound basis if 
computers can enhance education in it. Computers can be considered as just another 
component in such a diagram. But they are special since they have the potential to 
affect almost all others to a very significant degree. 

Computers in Education 

Overlapping and redundant terminology is unavoidable in any rapidly developing 
field. Educational computing is no exception. Let me define several commonly used 
terms, because each relates to a different and important concept. I use "computers 
in education" as a neutral, general term to encompass all elements of educomputing. 
It has three major components: computer awareness; computer literacy; and computer 
assisted education. 

"Computer awareness" is an appreciation of how computers affect us in our 



82 



Indiana Academy of Science 



Vol. 94 (1985) 



everyday lives, both individually and as members of society. Grocery store checkout 
scanners, computerized brain scans, traffic signal controls, are three specific examples. 

"Computer literacy" is the ability of a particular person to perform a particular 
task via computer. Let me emphasize that this may not require knowledge of a pro- 
gramming language such as BASIC. Examples are a professor or student writing a 
program to simulate exponential or logistic population growth, use of a word process- 
ing package to prepare term papers, or use of a test bank to prepare chemistry 
examinations. Some people include computer literacy as part of computer awareness, 
but this causes considerable confusion. 

Finally, "computer assisted education" is the use of computers to teach or learn 
a subject other than computing. So computers in the physics laboratory or in an earth 
sciences lecture are examples of computer assisted education. Relationships among the 
three components of computers in education can be summarized using a Venn diagram 
(Figure 1). Focusing on computer assisted education, it can involve a topic in basic 
science and require no computer literacy beyond how to follow instructions given on 
the computer screen. Alternatively, students may be asked to carry out a simulation 
of possible outcomes from a nuclear power plant accident. This would involve an overlap 
with computer awareness (Figure 1, area 1). Another possibility would require students 
to create a simple program to evaluate the effect of different growth coefficients on 
population size after 25 generations. This task would involve computer literacy (Figure 
1, area 3). Finally, certain activities in computer assisted education can require all 

COMPUTERS IN EDUCATION 




Figure 1 . The three aspects of computers in education. 



Presidential Address 83 

three components of computers in education (Figure 1, area 4). For example, each 
group of students might be asked to construct and analyze a model of endangered 
species to suggest good management strategies. 

Given an understanding of computers, education and computers in education, 
the essential question still remains: can computers enhance education? This is really 
too general a question. Important but more specific questions include the following: 
can computers make a subject more attractive, allowing students to internalize it; can 
they help students learn a topic more quickly or deeply, i.e., to climb Bloom's cognitive 
ladder faster and higher. 

Let's consider the lecture component of a course. Why are they often boring 
to students? The major reason is because the majority of students frequently remain 
totally passive throughout the lecture period. No matter how good the lecturer, most 
students are still involved in only one way communication. Yet we ourselves know 
that we only really learn a topic when we have to teach it. And the reason is that 
we are totally active in the process. What this means is that ultimately computers may 
allow educators to carry out more effectively the essential roles of facilitator and expert, 
doing what we should — taking up where the computer and any other educational devices 
leave off. 

In the usual lecture only course, students never get the chance to be tutors. In 
such cases, even without computers, the following procedure might be valuable. Take 
the last ten minutes of every lecture period, lock the doors, have students simply turn 
around to arrange themselves in groups of three or four, and let them teach each 
other what was said by the professor in the first forty minutes. One important advan- 
tage is that such a procedure would correct those instances when students truly believe 
they understand what was said in lecture but in fact do not. 

Today computers are used in many ways in education; literature retrieval; data 
retrieval; data accumulation; online control of experiments; statistical analysis; graphic 
summarization; simulation and modeling; decision making; drill and practice; tutorials; 
test generation and administration; course management; and word processing. The list 
grows every year. 

Computers are used in the above ways because educators believe they will enhance 
learning. Any other reason is insufficient. More specific reasons for using computers 
in education include the following: increased effectiveness of teaching what we already 
teach; increased students' interest in the subject matter; an increasingly active role 
for students; a decrease of boring tasks associated with learning; increased ability for 
students to learn at their own pace (and according to their own particular diurnal 
rhythms!); and an increase in the level of individualized instruction. This last reason 
reveals a paradox — that the allegedly impersonal computer might be able to provide 
a more personal education. A corollary is that computers could help provide a better 
education to a heterogeneous group of students. 

Artificial Intelligence 

Before considering the future of computers in education, let's review some basic 
ideas of artificial intelligence. Its use in education promises to be as important as the 
computer itself. Artificial intelligence is the ability of a machine to exhibit intelligent 
behavior. This begs the question of what constitutes intelligent behavior, and each 
of us probably would indicate the boundary of intelligence differently. For example, 
does a word processing program exhibit intelligent behavior? Is a graphing program 
that includes automatic scaling of a graph's axes intelligent? Does a disease diagnosis 
program have intelligence? 

Perhaps the most constructive view is not to consider intelligence as a yes/no 



84 



Indiana Academy of Science 



Vol. 94 (1985) 



character, i.e., that a person or machine either has or does not have intelligence. It 
seems more useful to consider intelligence as a continuum, such that a particular com- 
puter program, just as individual people, may exhibit various degrees of intelligence 
depending on the particular skill or intelligence criterion being used. Currently the 
field of artificial intelligence reserves the term artificial intelligence for programs that 
exhibit higher levels of cognitive behavior. Thus, a disease diagnosis program that 
just compared a set of a patient's symptoms against the known symptoms of a series 
of diseases would not be considered intelligent. On the other hand, one that incor- 
porated expert physicians' procedural knowledge in addition to their factual knowledge 
would be considered intelligent. 

Artificial Intelligence In Education: A Future Direction 

Artificial intelligence in education is the use of intelligent computers to educate. 
For example, a program that simply asked a grade school student to solve simple sub- 
traction examples would not be considered intelligent. But a program that could do 
the following would be considered intelligent: keep track of a particular student's mistakes 

TEACHER - STUDENT 
INTERACTION 



&fs^^^&&&&&£&® THE TEACHER ^^s^s^ss^s^s&ski^^. 



1 

IP 

a 



s 3 



SUBJECT 
KNOWLEDGE 



lf^ 

TUTORING ] 
KNOWLEDGE 
(PEDAGOGY) 




KNOWLEDGE 

ABOUT THE 

STUDENT 



tf 



^a* a *J^*^^*^^ 









£ 
^ 

I 



The STUDENT 






Figure 2. /I diagram of teacher-student interaction. 



Presidential Address 85 

over a series of subtraction examples; determine what particular type of error is being 
made; and provide customized remediation to help the student discover and correct 
the specific procedural mistake. 

Let's paraphrase these ideas by considering what a teacher does. Figure 2 sum- 
marizes the interaction between a teacher and a student. Assume the topic is the sub- 
traction problem described above, or the study of meiosis in organisms, etc. An effec- 
tive teacher must have three types of knowledge: knowledge about the subject matter; 
knowledge about the particular student; and pedagogic knowledge sophisticated enough 
to help each student in the most effective way. 

Figure 3 shows what an intelligent computer program must have to be able to 
exhibit intelligent behavior in education. Analogous with the teacher, it must have 
three types of knowledge: a model of the particular student's understanding of the 
topic being learned; expert knowledge of the topic for comparison with the student's 
knowledge; and the ability to tutor each student in the best way. 

The similarity between Figures 2 and 3 is obvious. Does this indicate even more 
emphatically that the role of educators will decrease? No! On the contrary, I firmly 

COMPUTER - STUDENT 

INTERACTION BASED ON 
ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE 



g«M^3«3«30!S!KaS!5.S!THE COMPU TER*M*MSSS3CMi^^ 

§ 9 



[ The EXPERT ! 1 

I "7 < 



1 _ J£™ ..... X p 

1 [ The TUTOR U-J The STUDENT | | 



$, K f" ^T MODEL i 

3 



Xmt nfll B t i ni J gj/ilt lS fii Wt G a iJl 




3 




I The STUDENT | 

Figure 3. A diagram of computer-student interaction based on artificial intelligence. 



86 



Indiana Academy of Science 



Vol. 94 (1985) 



believe that every advance in educomputing will underscore the value of educators 
and increase their roles for several reasons. First, viewing computers as another com- 
ponent in the educational system clearly requires a professional to integrate them with 
other components in a way that assures maximum learning. Second, computer pro- 
grams will never be available for every topic covered in a course, with respect both 
to depth of coverage and in the format most appropriate to a particular class of students. 
Third, even if appropriate programs were available for all topics, few would exhibit 
high levels of pedagogic intelligence; the time and other resources needed to create 
such programs would be a serious limitation. Finally, just as with textbooks, many 
programs become outdated as soon as they are available. Some PERSON has to fill 
that gap, and that person is the professional educator. 

Educational Computing Today and Tomorrow 

Let's summarize where educational computing is today and where it might be 
in the future. Certainly we can expect continued improvements in hardware, due mostly 
to microprocessor technologies that allow more computer power to be put on one com- 
puter chip. Almost all microcomputers used in education today are based on an 8-bit 
chip. One exception is the Macintosh with a 32-bit architecture. That is an increase 

ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE 
IN EDUCATION (AIE) 




Figure 4. Artificial intelligence in education. 



Presidential Address 87 

of two orders of binary magnitude. When most educational computers have a 32-bit 
or higher foundation, expect parallel increases in software. 

More important than hardware are the changes in educational software. Figure 
4 relates present and future developments in programs for education. Currently many 
educators are involved with Computer Assisted Education (CAE). At the same time 
artificial intelligence (AI) is a very active area of computer research. Several current 
education programs exhibit high levels of intelligence, but they are prototypes, not 
used widely, and require larger machines than those found in the classroom. Never- 
theless, we can expect that the triple overlap of computers, education, and intelligence, 
i.e., Artificial Intelligence in Education (AIE) will become more common and more 
important. One other overlap area appears in Figure 4, that between Intelligence and 
Education (IE). It asks us to consider just how intelligently we are educating now, 
even without the computer. I do not believe or mean to imply that there is no intelligent 
education without computers. But Figure 4 might motivate each of us to consider how 
we could increase intelligent education in our particular situation, regardless of whether 
computers are being used. 

Periodically someone asks if computers in education are just a fad, like teaching 
machines and simple uses of television. From my perspective of almost twenty years 
in education I can say it is not just a fad and will not go away. One reason is that 
the programs will be smarter, but another reason is that more and more educators 
will accept intelligent computers both as powerful teaching aids and teaching aides! 



THE CONTRIBUTIONS OF THE NIGHTSHADE FAMILY (SOLANACEAE) 

TO HUMAN WELFARE 

Charles B. Heiser, Jr.* 
Indiana University 
Bloomington, Indiana 47405 

Few would deny that the grass family (Poaceae) and the legume family (Fabaceae) 
are the two plant families of greatest importance to humankind. The many contribu- 
tions of the nightshade family have not been as widely recognized, but certainly the 
family ranks, if not third, at least among the top five plant families for its significance 
to humankind. The family has contributed food, medicinal and ornamental plants, 
and no genus has contributed more than Solarium which is not surprising for it is 
the largest genus in the family, containing several hundred species. 

The Irish potato (S. tuberosum) ranks after the major cereals as the most impor- 
tant source of food for humans. The potato was domesticated in the Andes, where 
some of the wild species are still used. It perhaps was the original freeze-dried food. 
The potatoes were allowed to freeze at night and as they thawed the next day they 
were stamped with the feet. This process which was repeated for a few days resulted 
in a dehydrated product called chuno. The reasons for making chuno were twofold: 
the bitter and toxic alkaloids were removed from the potato and the keeping property 
of the potato was greatly increased. The potato was introduced to Europe by the Spanish 
in the sixteenth century but it was to be some time before it amounted to much there. 
The potatoes that first reached Europe were not well adapted to the climate and then 
too, many people regarded the plant with suspicion, probably because it was associated 
with the other members of the family already known in Europe, most of which were 
extremely poisonous. However, it was slowly accepted and then spread rapidly, soon 
becoming almost the sole food of the Irish. Then when the blight struck in the middle 
of the last century, disaster followed as has been told in fascinating detail by Cecil 
Woodham-Smith in The Great Hunger. This led to a huge number of the Irish 
emigrating, many to the United States, where they were to have a great influence on 
the political life. 

Although most of the food plants in the family are native to tropical America, 
the eggplant (5. melongena) comes from southeastern Asia. It, too, was thought to 
be poisonous when it first reached Europe and was called Mala insana, or mad apple, 
for the eating of it was thought to cause insanity. This feeling lingered among some 
people until recently. They believed it necessary to soak it in vinegar or salt water 
to remove the toxic properties before eating it. Why the plant was called eggplant 
puzzled me as a child, for I knew of no egg so large. If one were to see the fruits 
of the wild and primitive varieties, however, he would understand, for they do resem- 
ble a hen's eggs in size and color. 

Returning to the Americas, we find several other species of Solatium with edible 
berries, most of them very little known in the United States. One of my favorites 



"Indiana Academy of Science, "Speaker of the Year," 1984-85. After it was announced that I had been 
selected Speaker-of-the-Year for the Indiana Academy of Science, I received a note of congratulations from Harry 
G. Day, Professor Emeritus of Chemistry at Indiana University and a former president of the Academy. In it 
he pointed out that my selection for this honor and service reminded him of Ralph E. Cleland, another former 
president of the Academy, who had done much for science in Indiana, including fostering the Speaker-of-the-Year 
Program. It is most appropriate that I acknowledge Dr. Cleland here, for it was he who, as chairman of the 
Department of Botany at Indiana University, brought me to Indiana University in 1947. As a native Hoosier I 
welcomed the opportunity to return to the state of Indiana. 

88 



Speaker of the Year 89 

is the naranjilla or lulo (5. quitoense) a shrub cultivated mostly at mid-altitudes in 
Colombia and Ecuador. Its fruit yields a juice that has few or no equals. Unfortunate- 
ly much of the flavor is lost when the juice is canned so the juice is not as widely 
appreciated as it deserves to be. Presently improved canning techniques and freeze- 
dried methods are being used which preserve much of the original flavor so that we 
may eventually be able to enjoy it in this country. Closely related to this species is 
the cocona or tupiru, S. sessiliflorum, which is cultivated in much of the Amazon 
basin and whose fruit gives a juice and is also used as a vegetable in meat dishes. 
Another South American species with an edible fruit is the pepino (5. muricatum) 
of western South America. It is now being cultivated in New Zealand, and fruits from 
there reach our markets occasionally through Frieda's Finest Produce Specialties, Inc. 
I have done research on all three of these plants, and I am tempted to tell you more 
about them, but if I were to do so I would have to omit some of the other important 
species in the family. 

One that is interesting but not terribly important is the garden huckleberry (S. 
scabrum), which of course is not a huckleberry. It perhaps is familiar to some of you, 
for it is carried by many seed companies and is grown in Indiana. It is related to 
the weedy black nightshades of our gardens, but its origin is a mystery. We are not 
even certain as to the continent on which it originated. To my way of thinking it is 
much inferior as a food plant to the related wonderberry or sunberry (S. burbankii) 
of Luther Burbank which was introduced in the early part of the century but which 
has now virtually disappeared. 

It is now time to leave the genus Solarium but I should point out that it also 
includes medicinal and ornamental plants which I shall speak of later. Also I should 
mention that it contains a number of harmful plants. In addition to many poisonous 
species, it also includes a number of weeds. The horse-nettle (S. carolinense), well 
known in Indiana, is one of our worst weeds. Long rhizomes make it most difficult 
to eradicate once it becomes established. 

Closely related to Solarium, and considered by some as a member of that genus, 
is Lycopersicon, which includes the wild and domesticated tomatoes. All of the wild 
tomatoes are native to western South America but all the evidence points to Mexico 
as being the center of origin of the cultivated tomato (L. esculentum). How is that 
to be explained? Somehow seeds of a wild tomato must have been carried to Mexico 
by humans or some other animal, perhaps birds, early in the prehistoric period. Our 
cherry tomato which has become so popular in salad bars is probably very similar 
to the wild tomato that gave rise to the domesticated one. After its introduction to 
Europe the tomato suffered the same fate as the potato and eggplant, and as recently 
as the last century it was still regarded as poisonous by some people. At one time 
it was called love apple, and solely because of the name, was thought to be an 
aphrodisiac. One story of the origin of this name is that it is a transformation of 
an Italian name pomi d'oro (apple of gold) into poma amoris (apple of love). Some 
of the earliest tomatoes to reach Europe were yellow or golden in color. Yellow tomatoes, 
of course, are still grown and supposedly are less acid than red tomatoes and hence 
are preferred by some people. Certainly few vegetables are more popular than the 
tomato. This popularity cannot be explained on the basis of nutritional value, for 
several other vegetables, broccoli, for example, are a better source of vitamins and 
minerals. 

Another kind of tomato, the tree tomato (Cyphomandra crassifolia) is another 
contribution of the family from western South America. I fail to see the resemblence 
of the fruit to the tomato in shape or flavor and it is used more as a fruit than a 
vegetable. Moreover, the plant is a small tree or shrub, quite unlike our tomato. Today 
the plant is also grown in New Zealand and fruits from there occasionally reach our 



90 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 94 (1985) 

markets under the name tamarillo. The plant is also advertised by a nursery in this 
country for growing in the home, with claims of yields up to 60 pounds. I haven't 
recently purchased plants from this nursery, but with the ones I have grown from 
South American I am lucky to get two or three fruits to a plant and then only if 
I hand pollinate the flowers. 

With the increasing popularity of Mexican foods, another Latin American con- 
tribution, the tomatillo or tomate {Physalis philadelphica) is becoming common in our 
markets. The tomate is a ground cherry or husk tomato related to those of Indiana 
which are sometimes collected by wild food fanciers. The tomate was domesticated 
in Mexico, and mixed with chili pepper or by itself, is used to prepare the green sauces 
so widely found in Mexico and Guatemala on enchiladas and other foods. Our word 
tomato is derived from tomate, but in Mexico Physalis is tomate and the tomato is 
jitomate. The prefix of the latter was dropped by the Spanish when they carried the 
plant to new areas. 

In the Andes the fruit of another species, uchuva (P. peruviana) is eaten out 
of hand, but apparently the plant is not cultivated there. It is, however, sometimes 
cultivated in the United States under the name of Cape Gooseberry. Insofar as I have 
been able to learn the plant went from South America to South Africa and from the 
Cape of Good Hope it was taken to Australia where it was called Cape Gooseberry. 
The fruit does resemble the gooseberry in shape and size, but, of course, the true 
gooseberry belongs to a completely different family. 

After black pepper, a member of another family, the red or chili peppers are 
the world's major spice. The red peppers come to us from Latin America where four 
or five different species were domesticated. Nearly all of the ones grown in the United 
States, including such as chili, pimiento, cayenne, jalapeno and the sweet peppers, 
belong to a single species, Capsicum annuum which was originally domesticated in 
Mexico. So far I have said little about the changes that occur when a wild species 
becomes domesticated. The peppers afford a good opportunity, for they have been 
subjected to detailed study by some of my students and me. The ancestral form, one 
of the bird peppers, was originally considered a separate species but now that its close 
relationship to the domesticated peppers has been demonstrated it is recognized only 
as a variety (C. annuum var. glabriusculum). It has very small berries, red in color, 
extremely pungent, readily deciduous and borne erect. In the domesticated peppers 
we find an increase in size of the berry, various mature fruit colors in addition to 
red, pungent and non-pungent, persistent on the stalk, and either erect or pendent. 
Several of these changes largely eliminate the dispersal of the fruit by birds so that 
the berries are always available to people. At the same time the plants became depen- 
dent on people for their perpetuation. In other parts of tropical America other wild 
species were brought into domestication, one of which, C. frutescens, is cultivated 
in the United States and is the source of the well-known sauce, Tabasco. 

There are several other minor food plants in the family, but it is now time to 
turn our attention to the drug and medicinal members, most of which are extremely 
poisonous and several of which have been used as hallucinogens. Our earliest record 
of these comes from the Old World. Although now little used in medicine, the most 
notorious is the mandrake (Mandragora officinarum). The root of the plant was thought 
to resemble the human figure, and for this reason many superstitions grew up around 
the plant. It was a cure all and served as a love potion, an aphrodisiac, and for knock- 
out drops; we know that it functioned effectively at least for the last use. The plant 
is mentioned in both the Bible and Shakespeare, and Machiavelli's play, La Mandragola, 
is still being produced. 

Two other Old World plants of which we find early uses, henbane (Hyoscyamus 
niger) and the deadly nightshade (Atropa belladonna) are sources of hyoscyamine and 



Speaker of the Year 91 

atropine, both widely used in medicine. The latter is the only antidote known for a 
number of toxic substances. 

The genus Datura is perhaps better known to you than the other medicinal plants 
in the family, for one species, the Jimson weed or thorn apple, D. stramonium, said 
to be native to Asia, is a fairly common weed in Indiana. At one time this species 
was fairly widely used in medicine. Another species, the angel's trumpet, Datura inoxia, 
is sometimes grown as an ornamental in this state. It was a sacred plant among 
southwestern Indians and was used ceremonially. The tree Daturas of Central and 
South America, now placed in the genus Brugmansia, were widely used as hallucinogens 
by the native people. One of these, B. sanguinea, whose seeds were used as a narcotic, 
has recently been brought into cultivation in Ecuador for the production of scopolamine. 

Solarium also provides us with drug plants. One of the newer ones is S. marginatum, 
a native of Africa, which became well established as a weed in the Andes. A few years 
ago an Ecuadorian chemist, Alfredo Paredes, found that it was a rich source of steroids, 
and recently it has been brought into cultivation in Ecuador for the production of 
solasodine, which is being used to make anti-inflammatory drugs and birth control 
pills. It will be interesting to observe the changes in B. sanguinea and S. marginatum 
as they become converted from wild to domesticated plants. Most of our domesticated 
plants are of very ancient origin, so we do not have exact records of the changes that 
have taken place. 

There are other medicinal plants in the family including some of those previously 
mentioned as food plants. For example, the red peppers at one time were rather exten- 
sively so used and still have a minor role. Tobacco is another plant that one time 
was thought to have medicinal value. It was difficult for me to know how to work 
this plant into a talk on the contributions of the family to human welfare, for there 
are few plants that cause more harm — the connection of tobacco with cancer and other 
health problems in humans is well documented. It is, in fact, difficult to find anything 
good to say about the plant, but it does kill insects as well as humans and has been 
employed in pesticides. The plant was used ceremonially by the American Indians. 
Columbus himself saw the plant, and it was to spread more rapidly around the world 
after the discovery of the Americans than any plant with the possible exception of 
corn. Nearly all of the tobacco cultivated around the world today is Nicotiana tabacum. 
The Indians, however, domesticated a second species, N. rustica, that was widely 
cultivated in Mexico and the eastern United States. In fact, this species was the first 
one cultivated in Virginia, and it wasn't until the English obtained seeds of N. tabacum, 
apparently smuggled in from the Spanish colonies, that tobacco growing began to thrive 
in Virginia, which, I am sorry to say, it still does today. 

The final contribution of the family is a great number of ornamentals. Sometimes 
these are overlooked in ethnobotanic surveys, but the appreciation of plants for their 
aesthetic value apparently goes back to prehistoric times, and, of course, the produc- 
tion of ornamentals is a multi-million dollar business today. Many of the genera already 
discussed have furnished us a number of ornamentals, some of which are appreciated 
for their fruits rather than their flowers — thus we have the Jerusalum cherry (Solanum 
pseudo-capsicum), the Chinese lantern plant (Physa/is alkekengi ) and the ornamental 
peppers (various cultivars of Capsicum annuum). For their flowers we have the flowering 
tobaccos (several species of Nicotiana), Solanum wendlandi, and several species of 
Datura and Brugmansia. More widely grown than any of these is the petunia {Petunia 
hybrida), certainly one of the most appreciated of our garden ornamentals, not only 
for its beauty but for the fact that it is so easily grown. Our petunia is of hybrid 
origin, involving two or more species native to southern South America. From here 
also have come two other favorites, Salpiglossis sinuata and Schizanthus pinna tus. 
The latter is known under the common names of butterfly flower and poor man's 



92 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 94 (1985) 

orchid. Like many of the other common names, the latter is rather misleading, but 
the flower does have a slight resemblance to an orchid and certainly the plants cost 
less than most orchids. 

This concludes the survey of the family which, I think you will agree, is of con- 
siderable importance. One word of caution perhaps is in order, however. A few years 
ago Childers and Russo (1977) brought together a large number of testimonials from 
people who claimed that by giving up the eating of solanaceous plants their arthritis 
had been improved or eliminated. However, until definite proof is forthcoming I shall 
continue to eat potatoes, tomatoes and chili peppers with enjoyment. 

Literature Cited 

1. Childers, N.F. and G.M. Russo. 1977. The Nightshades and Health. Somerset 
Press, Somerset, N.J. 

2. D'Arcy, W.G. (ed.). 1984. Biology and Systematics of the Solanaceae. Colum- 
bia University Press, New York. 

3. Hawkes, J.G., R.N. Lester and A.D. Skelding (eds.). 1979. The Biology and 
Taxonomy of the Solanaceae. Academic Press, London. 

4. Heiser, C.B. 1969. Nightshades, the Paradoxical Plants. W.H. Freeman, San 
Francisco. 

5. . 1984. The Ethnobotany of the neotropical Solanaceae, in G. Prance and 

J. Kallunki (eds.), Ethnobotany in the Neotropics. New York Botanical Garden, 
New York. 

6. 1984 (in press). Of Plants and People. University of Oklahoma Press. 

Norman OK. 



ANTHROPOLOGY 

Chairperson: Donald Cochran 
Department of Anthropology 
Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana 47306 (317)285-4927 

Chairperson-Elect: Diane Beynon 
Department of Anthropology 
Indiana University-Purdue University at Fort Wayne 
2101 Coliseum Boulevard East, Fort Wayne, Indiana 46805 (219)482-5391 

ABSTRACTS 

Debitage Classification Systems. C. Michael Anslinger, Indiana State University, 

Terre Haute, Indiana 47809. In recent years archaeologists have found it useful 

to place debitage recovered from archaeological sites into discrete groups which 
theoretically represent sequential stages of lithic reduction systems. This provides one 
line of evidence for reconstructing past site activities and functions which is a primary 
goal of archaeology. However, recent studies have shown that some of the flake attribute 
lists traditionally used to place flakes in their appropriate reduction stage are not always 
meaningful and may, in fact, be ambiguous. This paper discusses some of the debitage 
classification systems used by researchers and reports on the application of a par- 
ticular method of classification to a Lake Archaic lithic assemblage from Bartholomew 
County, Indiana. 

Mann Site Figurines. Ruth Brinker, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 

47405. Figurines of human forms are found at the Mann Site in great numbers 

and in almost all known contexts. A total of 421 fragments of human figures have 
been recovered generally from village midden, but also from pits and mounds. The 
figurines have many characteristics in common which makes them "recognizable," 
yet some distinctive individual traits are present as well. A general description of 
characteristic forms is presented, variables are quantified, and Mann Site figurines 
are compared with figurines from other Hopewellian sites in Ohio and Illinois. 

The Commissary Site (12-Hn-2) Revisited. Frank Burkett and Donald R. Cochran, 

Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana 47306. Monitoring of a small earthmoving 

project at the Commissary site revealed the remains of a prehistoric pit containing 
a few human and small mammal bones. A 10 gm sample of wood charcoal from the 
pit yielded a calibrated radiocarbon date of A.D. 1180 ± 60. This date antedates the 
one radiocarbon date previously acquired from the site, A.D. 635 ± 105, by 500 years. 
The Commissary site has been considered to be an early Late Woodland site because 
of the earlier radiocarbon date and the one cordmarked ceramic vessel recovered. The 
more recent date is contemporaneous with regional Late Woodland Oliver phase sites 
and suggests that either the site was in use for over 500 years or that its placement 
needs to be reassessed. 

Holland Chert Quarries/Workshops Near Huntingburg, Dubois County, Indiana. Mark 
Cantin and C. Michael Anslinger, Indiana State University, Terre Haute, Indiana 

47809. A recent archaeological survey conducted near Huntingburg, Dubois County, 

Indiana, yielded several sites interpreted as chert quarries and/or knapping workshops. 

93 



94 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 94 (1985) 

The raw material utilized is Holland Chert and its variants. This paper will describe 
the provenience and physical properties of the Holland Chert, as well as its utilization 
via lithic reduction sequence analysis, and relate this within the framework of the larger 
survey. 

Test Excavations at the Smith Site, (12-Vi-86), Vigo County, Indiana. Mary Ellen 
Carpenter and Robert E. Pace, University of Illinois-Chicago Circle and Indiana 

State University, Terre Haute, Indiana 47809. Materials diagnostic of Albee and 

Vincennes components have been recovered from the surface of the Smith and other 
sites in Sullivan, Vigo, Parke and Vermillion counties. Excavations previously reported 
have been either too limited or inadequately reported to firmly establish temporal, 
spatial and cultural relationships of Albee and Vincennes. Testing at the Smith Site 
was specifically undertaken to address these problems. Preliminary results suggest con- 
temporaneity of materials, and either a mixing of the two populations or rapid assimila- 
tion of Vincennes material culture by Albee peoples. 

A Description of Kenneth Chert. Catharine A. Carson, Ball State University, Muncie, 

Indiana 47306. The purpose of this study is to identify and describe cherts that 

occur within the Kenneth Limestone of the Wabash Formation of north-central In- 
diana. Kenneth chert is most commonly brownish-gray in color with a predominance 
of lighter grey to white. The most obvious diagnostic characteristic of this chert is 
its mottled, speckled, swirled, or splotched appearance due primarily to the differen- 
tial silicification of fossil and burrow inclusions and the surrounding matrix. The above 
factors result in Kenneth chert possessing a highly varied appearance. The chert, which 
occurs as thin lenses as well as small nodules, is known to outcrop principally in Howard, 
Cass, and Carroll counties. Kenneth chert is archaeologically significant as a raw material 
source for the prehistoric manufacturing of chipped-stone tools. 

Three Cranial Tumors from Late Woodland Sites: Diagnosis and Cultural Implica- 
tions. Della Collins Cook. Department of Anthropology, Indiana University, Bloom- 

ington, Indiana 47405. Tumors may not leave clear evidence on the skeleton, and 

they are less common than traumatic and infectious bone pathology. For these reasons 
paleopathologists seldom discuss them. An angioma or meningioma in an adult from 
the Koster mound group, Green Co., Illinois, a probable melanotic ameloblastoma 
in a child from the Schild mound group, Greene Co., Illinois, and an osteogenic tumor 
of the cranial base in an adult from the Alt site, LaPorte Co., Indiana, are presented. 
It is unlikely that age-specific frequencies of these tumors were very different in 
prehistoric times than they are today. The two adults are likely to have exhibited 
behavioral alterations that would have required much attention on the part of care- 
givers in their communities. 

A Useful Morphological Characteristic of Two Toed Sloth Hair. Edmond J. Furia, 

Department of Anthropology, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 47405. The 

guard hairs or protective hairs from Choloepus hoffmanni and Choloepus didactylus 
were observed using a scanning electron microscope. The morphological characteristic 
of these hairs is unique among hairs from all living mammals known to the observer. 
A single hair form either Choloepus species splits a minimum of three times in a 
geometric fashion progressing from the proximal to distal portion. This "splitting" 
can produce what appears to be eight differentiated shafts in the distal portion of 
any one hair. This unique quality of two toed sloth hair may prove to be useful to 
anyone investigating the composition of coprolithic material. This information may 
prove useful also to ecology, zoology, and evolutionary biology. 



Anthropology 



95 



The Year at Dromberg. Ronald Hicks, Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana 

47306. It has been known for more than two centuries that Stonehenge is oriented 

to mark the summer solstice sunrise, and recent research on other stone circles has 
produced claims for their use to mark as many as 13 other dates, creating a 16-month 
solar calendar. Observations over the course of a year at one stone circle — Dromberg, 
in County Cork, Ireland — which has been known for some time to be oriented on 
winter solstice sunset have shown it to be designed also to mark both summer and 
winter solstice sunrises but no other dates. Indeed, weather conditions between autumnal 
and vernal equinox today, which are not likely to be significantly different from those 
prevailing at the time the circle was constructed, are such that chances of making the 
necessary observations during that half of the year are slim for any of the proposed 
dates except the winter solstice. 

Towards Predicting Loss of Archaeological Resources from River Channel Migrations. 

Misty Jackson and Robert E. Pace, Indiana State University, Terre Haute, Indiana 

47809. Data being collected from riverbank survey of the central and lower Wabash, 

White and Eel rivers suggest significant patterns in frequency, size and cultural affilia- 
tions of exposed archaeological sites. Explanatory hypotheses being developed and tested 
include variables relating to past and present stream dynamics, natural features and 
resource base and settlement systems of prehistoric peoples. Preliminary results are 
reported. 

A Preliminary Survey of the Maumee River in Allen County, Indiana. James A. Mohow, 
Indiana University-Purdue University at Fort Wayne, Fort Wayne, Indiana 46805 and 

David Diaz, 4512 S. Hanna, Fort Wayne, Indiana 46806. A preliminary surface 

survey was conducted along a six mile length of the Maumee River in Allen County, 
Indiana between fall of 1980 and fall of 1983. The survey concentrated on the river's 
floodplain and its adjacent terraces. As this was a preliminary survey, its prime objec- 
tive was to identify archaeological sites and certain chronologically sensitive artifacts 
within the research area. A total of 55 prehistoric sites was recorded during the survey 
and more than 4,000 artifacts were recovered. The artifacts consist of lithics and ceramics. 
Preliminary identification of pottery and tool types reveals that most sites were multi- 
component in nature, ranging from Paelo-Indian through Late Woodland times. Since 
it is little known archaeologically, the primary purpose of this survey was to achieve 
an overview of the area as well as to form a basis for future research. 

Woodland Sites and Ross Soils: A Correlation in the Upper White River (West Fork) 

Drainage. P. Ranel Stephenson, Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana 47306. A 

reconnaissance survey of the Upper White River drainage in Randolph, Delaware, 
Madison, and Hamilton counties was focused on gathering data on Woodland habita- 
tion sites. The survey was carried out predominantly in the floodplain of the White 
River to determine whether particular soil types were selected for occupation. During 
the survey, 32 new floodplain sites were discovered; of these, 10 contained pottery 
and nine of the sites with pottery were located on Ross soils. Ross soils formed under 
mixed hardwoods and prairie grasses and constituted the smallest percentage of the 
floodplain soil types present in the counties being surveyed. Areas of Ross soil surveyed 
always produced Woodland components whereas surveys of other floodplain soils did 
not. A comparison of the locations of Ross soils and Delaware villages in the survey 
area also showed that Delaware villages were located adjacent to the larger areas of 
Ross soils. It, therefore, appears that Ross soils were selected by the Woodland occupants 
of the Upper White River drainage for either occupation or cultivation. 



96 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 94 (1985) 

Some Late Archaic Manifestations in Indiana. Curtis H. Tomak, Indiana Depart- 
ment of Highways, Indianapolis, Indiana 46204. This paper focuses upon pre- 

Riverton Late Archaic manifestations in the valley of the West Fork of White River 
upstream into Morgan County and in the valley of the East Fork of White River 
upstream into Jackson County. Those two areas are discussed in terms of sites, setting, 
cultural assemblages, and occupations or phases. Then some other areas of the state, 
particularly in southern Indiana, are considered. This is followed by commentary re- 
garding the Late Archaic manifestations under review. 



BOTANY 

Chairperson: Phillip E. Pope 
Department of Forestry, Purdue University 
West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (317)494-3590 

Chairperson-Elect: Austin E. Brooks 
Department of Biology 
Wabash College, Crawfordsville, Indiana 47933 (317) 362-1400 ext. 350 

ABSTRACTS 

Effect of Cytokinins on Erythritol Permeability to Phosphatidylcholine Bilayers. Blair 
Brengle and William Stillwell, Department of Biology, Indiana University-Purdue 

University at Indianapolis, Indianapolis, Indiana 46223. Previously, we 

demonstrated that the plant hormone kinetin enhances water permeability to several 
natural and synthetic phosphatidylcholine bilayers. This enhancement was noted only 
with bilayers in the liquid crystalline state. Here we report the effect of kinetin, 
benzyladenine, c/s-zeatin and trans-zeal'm on the permeability of erythritol to bilayers 
composed of natural and synthetic phosphatidylcholines. Mixed isomer zeatin (75% 
trans, 25% cis), kinetin and to a much lesser extent benzyladenine are shown to enhance 
erythritol permeability at concentrations from to 1.16 mM with egg lecithin liposomes. 
Trans-zeatin and adenine have no effect on permeability over the same concentrations. 
C/s-zeatin greatly enhances erythritol permeability to synthetic dimyristoylphosphatidyl- 
choline and dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine bilayers only when the lipids are in the 
liquid crystalline state (above the phase transition temperature). 7>a/7s-zeatin is totally 
ineffective at altering permeability whether the synthetic bilayers are in the liquid 
crystalline or gel states. These results clearly demonstrate for the first time a substan- 
tial difference between cis and trans-zeatin on affecting membrane permeability. 

Nonspecificity with Varied Effectivity in Mycorrhizal Associations. Rita de Cassia, 
G. Borges, William R. Chaney and Phillip E. Pope, Department of Forestry and 
Natural Resources, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907. A com- 
mon and widespread symbiosis in plants is the mycorrhizal association between roots 
and colonizing fungi. Mycorrhiza are not restricted to specific groups of plants, but 
occur in practically all families of angiosperms, gymnosperms, and many lower plants. 
Most commercial fruit, nut, and forest trees as well as agronomic grain and forage 
crops normally form mycorrhiza. Mycorrhizal associations are so common under natural 
conditions that a nonmycorrhizal plant is the exception. There is little evidence of 
host specificity for mycorrhizal formation. The same fungal species or isolate can colonize 
numerous host species belonging to several different families, although there is some 
evidence that particular fungi are preferentially associated with particular host species. 
However, the effectivity or the degree of nutritional or other advantage resulting from 
the symbiotic association can vary widely among fungal and host combinations. 
Nonspecificity for fungal colonization of five angiosperm tree species (Fraxinus 
pennsylvanica Marsh., Liriodendron tulipfera L., Liquidambar styraciflua L., Plan- 
tanus occidentalis L., and Acacia scleroxyla Tuss.) and six species of vesicular-arbuscular 
mycorrhizal fungi (Glomus mosseae, G. fasciculatum, G. stunicatum, G. macrocar- 
pum, G. epigaeum, and Gigaspora margarita) was shown in greenhouse studies. 
However, the effectivity of the various fungal host combinations as determined by 
growth of the seedlings was different. A review of literature shows nonspecificity with 
varied effectivity to be a common occurrence in mycorrhizal associations. 

97 



98 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 94 (1985) 

Insect Pest Control in the Greenhouse: Alternatives to Commercial Toxins. Vonda 
Frantz, Department of Biology, Indiana University-Purdue University at Indianapolis, 

Indianapolis, Indiana 46205. Treatments for control of mealybug on Coleus were 

tested over a period of several months. Plants were sprayed approximately weekly with 
a mixture of garlic, cayenne pepper, mineral oil, and liquid soap, or with Safer's In- 
secticidal Soap. Three different concentrations of the first mixture were tested and 
two concentrations of Safer's. One set of controls was sprayed with water and another 
was given no treatment. During the first half of the study mealybug adults, young, 
and egg masses, were counted before each treatment. During the last half, photogenic 
evidence was obtained to document the general effectiveness of each treatment. 
Photographic evidence demonstrates that these treatments are effective in total greenhouse 
control. All treatments result in fewer mealybugs than when water or no treatment 
is applied. Safer's Insecticidal Soap is the most effective even when sprayed less fre- 
quently than the mixture. 

Oak "Leaf Tatters": A Malady of Unknown Cause in Indiana. Ralph J. Green, Jr., 
Department of Biology and Plant Pathology, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 
47907 and Philip T. Marshall, Forest Pest Specialist, Division of Forestry, Indiana 
Department of Natural Resources, Indianapolis, Indiana 46204. In 1983, a previous- 
ly unreported malady of oaks, primarily white oak, Quercus alba, was found in a 
number of counties in northcentral Indiana. The symptoms include a marked reduc- 
tion in the interveinal leaf blade tissue followed by a partial or complete necrosis of 
affected leaves. If a second growth flush occurs, these leaves are usually normal, but 
reduced in size. The name of oak "leaf tatters" has been used to describe the symp- 
tom complex. Symptoms begin in the lower part of the crown and are progressive 
the following season. More than 50% of the trees marked with total crown involve- 
ment in 1983 failed to leaf out in 1984. No trees under observation have recovered, 
to date. Although symptoms have been observed primarily on white oak, other oak 
species, especially black oak, Q. velutina, are also affected. Attempts to associate a 
specific causal agent with the symptom complex through field observations, laboratory 
isolations, electron micrographs of affected tissues and grafting have, to date, been 
inconclusive. However, the progressive nature of the symptoms, both on affected trees 
and within stands, suggests an infectious agent of some type. 

G-banding in Lens culinaris and Vicia faba. Romesh C. Mehra and E. Boyts, Depart- 
ment of Biology, Indiana University at South Bend, South Bend, Indiana 46634. In 

the last decade and a half, several banding techniques for linear differentiation of 
chromosomes have been developed. Some of these are C, G, N, Q and R banding 
procedures. Since the discovery of these techniques, revolutionary advances have been 
made in mammalia cytogenetics. However, such has not been the case in plants. Where, 
of 231,413 plant species, only 90 have been studied by banding techniques. The techni- 
que that has provided maximum differentiation of mammalian chromosomes is G- 
banding. It is generally agreed that G-banding is produced because of the enhance- 
ment of chromomeric organization of mammalian chromosomes. In plants on the other 
hand, G-banding has had the least amount of success. It has been suggested that this 
is because chromomeres in plant mitotic chromosomes are too close together and banding 
procedures cannot reveal such bands. We have attempted G-banding on two legumes, 
Lens culinaris and Vicia faba, and have obtained some measure of success. Additionally, 
we have been able to reveal chromomeric organization of mitotic chromosomes in several 
plants and found that indeed there appears to be a relationship of G-bands and 
chromomeric organization. Evidence for the same will be presented. 



Response of Muskmelon to Within-row Plant Spacing 

H.S. Bhella 
USDA-ARS, Vincennes University 
Vincennes, Indiana 47591 

and 

Department of Agriculture 

Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 

Introduction 

The yield response of muskmelons to plant spacing has been investigated in Arizona 
(3), California (2,6) and Florida (5), but very little research, if any, has been conducted 
in other areas of the United States 

Davis and Meinhert (2) and Frazier (3) reported that the total yield and number 
of marketable fruits were the greatest when Powdery Mildew Resistant (P.M.R.) No. 
45 cantaloupe plants were spaced 30 cm apart in rows 1.8 m apart. Lazin and Simonds 
(5) found that increasing distance between plants (decreasing plant population) increased 
the number of fruits per plant and mean fruit weight but decreased the total number 
and weight of muskmelon cvs. Earli-Dew and TAM-Dew Improved. Holliday (4) ex- 
plained the relationship between plant population and crop yield for fruiting crops as 
a parabolic curve. With this type of curve, a certain plant population gives a maximum 
yield, while larger or smaller populations give lower yields (4). 

This study evaluated the effects of 25, 50, 75, and 100 cm within-row plant spac- 
ings in rows 2.7 m apart on stem length, leaf area, dry matter, soluble solids, marketable 
yield, number of culls and marketable fruit, yield per plant, fruits per plant, fruit 
weight, and nutrient content of muskmelon cvs. Burpee Hybrid and Classic on a 
southwestern Indiana sandy loam, mixed, mesic Typic Hapludalf soil in 1982 and 1983. 

Materials and Methods 

Field investigations were conducted in 1982 and 1983. The 15 cm of soils had 
a pH of 5.7 to 6.5, 155 to 220 kg/ha available P (Bray P-l), and 260 to 335 kg/ha 
available K (IN ammonium acetate extractable), as determined by the Purdue soil testing 
laboratory (1). The preplant fertilizer application consisted of 112, 25, .and 140 kg/ha 
of N, P, and K, respectively. Plots were sidedressed with 50 kg/ha N five weeks after 
transplanting. Granular furadan (Carbofuran) and prefar (Bensulide) were applied 
preplant at the recommended rates for insect and weed control, respectively. Black 
plastic mulch, 120 cm wide by 32 (i m thick, and drip irrigation hose (3.55 1/hr/m 
Tri-Wall® 0.15 mm) with orifices 31 cm apart were simultaneously applied. 

The experimental plots were established in a complete randomized block design 
with 4 replications and each of the 4 treatments, e.g., 25, 50, 75, and 100 cm distance 
between plants, was randomly assigned to a 16 x 2.7 m plot. Three-week-old greenhouse 
raised plants (three-leaf-stage) of muskmelon cvs. Burpee Hybrid in 1982 and Classic 
in 1983 were transplanted on May 13 each year. Guard rows were planted on both 
ends of the experimental area. 

A 7-10 day spray schedule was followed throughout the growing period for disease 
and insect control. Plots were kept weed free by hand hoeing. All plots were trickle ir- 
rigated until tensiometer readings at 30 cm depth reached 33 kPa. 

Surface soil samples (0 to 15 cm) and petioles of first fully-expanded leaf near 
the growing point were sampled 5 weeks after transplanting in 1983 and analyzed (1). 

Harvest data on weight and number of marketable muskmelons were collected 

99 



100 



Indiana Academy of Science 



Vol. 94 (1985) 



daily. The muskmelons were analyzed for total solids using Bausch and Lomb refrac- 
tometer. Unmarketable muskmelons were culled and no data on culling were recorded 
in 1982. During the 1983 growing season, data on number of culls were recorded. 

Results and Discussion 

Stem length. Total stem length per vine measured 32 days after transplanting 
for 'Classic' muskmelon in 1983 increased from 215 to 368 cm with the increase in 
within-row plant spacing from 25 to 100 cm. Stem length response to within-row com- 
petition was expressed by the equation Y = 175 + 2.019X (Figure 1A) or quadratic 
equation Y = 132 + 3.708X - 0.0136X 2 , which suggests that muskmelon stem growth 
is a function of within-row plant spacing. 

It is interesting to note that the quadratic equation predicts a maximum stem 
growth of 384 cm at 130 cm within-row plant spacing. Since the maximum was outside 
the parameters of this study, the quadratic equation cannot be meaningfully extrapolated. 

Leaf area. A highly significant relationship was observed between leaf area and 
within-row plant spacing in 1983 (Figure IB). This relationship was expressed by the 
equation Y = 118.5 + 0.204X. This positive relationship indicates that muskmelon 
leaf area was directly influenced by within-row plant spacing. 





400 


• 


A / 








/ * 




350 




/ 




300 






I 

Lkl 


250 


, 


/ R 2 - 0.87 

Y » 175 ♦ 2.019X 


t- 




/* 






206 








150 







s 



2.9 



2.8 



2 



2.6 



2.5 



25 



50 



75 



100 



125 



PLANT SPACING (CM) 




140 



135 . 



R*-* -0.99 

Y - 3.116 - 6.169 



25 50 75 100 
PLANT SPACING (CM) 



125 



£ 130 

2 



S 125 



120 



115 



12 



10 



Ik 8 



2 
^ 6 



R « 0.93 

Y - 118.5 + 0.204X 



25 50 75 100 125 
PLANT SPACING (CM) 



R'- -0.48 

Y - 1278 - 8.404X 



25 50 75 100 
PLANT SPACING (CM) 



125 



Figure 1A-D. Relationship between within-row plant spacing and A) stem length; 
B) leaf area; C) dry matter per hectare; and D) culls per hectare in muskmelon cv. Classic. 



Botany 



101 



Table 1 . Effect of Within-row Plant Spacing on Muskmelon Petiole Nutrient Content. 



Plant 


N 


P 


K 


Ca 


Mg 


Mn 


Fe 


B 


Cu 


Zn 


Al 


Na 


spacing 






Percent 




















(cm) 








PPM 








25 


3.3 


0.27 


2.73 


4.93 


0.51 


683 


174 


20 


10 


41 


124 


212 


50 


2.6 


0.30 


3.06 


4.72 


0.47 


614 


156 


22 


9 


42 


107 


242 


75 


4.5 


0.29 


3.14 


4.90 


0.47 


637 


166 


22 


10 


43 


1 17 


205 


100 


3.1 


0.26 


2.84 


5.31 


0.48 


642 


164 


19 


10 


42 


130 


217 



'Values reported are means of two replications. 

Dry matter. Total above ground dry matter, excluding fruit, decreased linearly 
with increased within-row plant spacing, e.g., 2.5 mt/ha at 100 cm and 3.0 mt/ha 
at 25 cm within-row plant spacing. This highly significant linear relationship was 
expressed by the equation Y = 3.116 - 6.169" 3 x (Figure 1C). 

Nutrient content. Data on muskmelon petiole and soil nutrient content for the 
1983 growing season are reported in Tables 1 and 2. 

Yield. Total marketable yields (mt/ha) was not affected by plant spacing in either 
year. These results differ from those reported by Lazin and Simonds (5), who reported 
a highly significant decrease in yield from 19.9 to 15.1 mt/ha as within-row plant spacing 
increased from 30 to 90 cm under Florida conditions. It is interesting to note that 
yield of cv. Classic was 23 percent more than that of cv. Burpee Hybrid. 

Culls. Number of culls (unmarketable fruits) per hectare for 'Classic' muskmelon 
was highest at the closer spacings and lowest at the wider spacings (Figure ID). These 
results are in agreement with Zahara (6). 

Number of fruits. As plant spacing increased from 25 to 100 cm, the number 
of marketable fruits per hectare decreased (Figure 2A). Furthermore, highly signifi- 
cant negative coefficients of determination (R 2 ) between plant spacing and number 
of marketable fruits per hectare suggest that number of fruits per hectare is closely 
related to plant spacing. These results agree with those of Davis and Meinert (2) and 
Frazier (3). Zahara (6) found that as plant spacing increased from 25 x 25-cm to 75 
x 75-cm, the number of marketable fruits per 15.2 m row increased from to 27. 
In his study, Zahara (6) was dealing with much higher plant populations (18,000 to 
160,000 plants per hectare) and the increased competition with increased plant popula- 
tion resulted in yield decreases (4). My studies, however, dealt with plant populations 
of only 3,600 to 14,500 plants per hectare and only within-row competition. Holliday 
(4) concluded that a certain plant population gives a maximum yield, while larger or 
smaller populations give lower yields. Zahara's study was probably at the "larger" 
population according to Holliday's parabolic curve. 

Table 2. Effect of Within-row plant spacing on soil nutrient content.* 



Plant 


P 


K 


Ca 


Mg 


Mn 


spacing 












(cm) 






ppm 






25 


78 


58 


310 


24 


72 


50 


66 


80 


370 


36 


45 


75 


82 


80 


340 


33 


69 


100 


73 


85 


350 


23 


40 



'Values reported are means of two replications. 



102 



Indiana Academy of Science 



Vol. 94 (1985) 



24 



22 



2 20 

X 

5 

£ 18 



2 



16 



14 



10 




5 3 




035X 



-L. 



-L. 



25 50 75 100 125 
PLANT SPACING (CM) 



R - 0.97 
. Y - 0.15 ♦ 0.101X 



25 50 75 TOO 125 

PLANT SPACING (CM) 



3 6 

s! 



2 . 




/ 

/ 2 

r/ R z « 0.98 

(/ Y - -0.139 + 0.087X 







" R2. 


0.32 ., 






2.5 


. Y » 


1.78 + 0.008X ^/* 






2.0 




^^ 




»- 
u. 

V- 

3 

UJ 


1.5 
1.0 




^''' R 2 ' 0.79 
' + Y « 1.147 + 0.007X 

i i i . j 





f5 50 75 100 125 
PLANT SPACING (CM) 



25 50 75 100 125 
PLANT SPACING (CM) 



Figure 2A-D. Relationship between within-row plant spacing and A) fruits per hec- 
tare; B) fruits per plant; C) yield per plant; and D) weight per fruit in muskmelon 
cvs. Burpee Hybrid (H + ) and Classic (* *). 

Number of fruits per plant. Highly significant linear relationships were established 
between fruits per plant and plant spacing during both the years, the coefficient of 
determination being 0.94 and 0.98 in 1982 and 1983, respectively (Figure 2B). These 
results are in agreement with those of others (2,5). 

The quadratic equation for number of fruits per hectare (x 1000) in relation to 
within-row plant spacing was Y = 26.375 - 0.153X + 0.0006X 2 for 'Burpee Hybrid' 
and Y = 22.325 - 0.1302X + 0.00052X 2 for 'Classic' muskmelon. Based on these 
equations maximum fruits were predicted for 125 cm within row plant spacing. Accord- 
ing to these equations, competition ceased at 125 cm within-row plant spacing. 

Yield per plant. The mean yield (kg) per plant was highly correlated with plant 
spacing each year, increasing significantly as spacing between plants increased from 
25 to 100 cm (Figure 2C). 

Fruit weight. The mean fruit weight increased significantly as plant spacing in- 
creased from 25 to 100 cm (Figure 2D). Lazin and Simonds (5) reported that as distance 
between plants increase from 30 to 90 cm, mean muskmelon weight increased from 
1.36 to 1.53 kg. The highly significant coefficient of determination between plant spacing 
and fruit weight (Figure 2D) suggests that fruit weight is a function of plant spacing 
and can be manipulated to meet consumer and/or market demand. 



Botany 



103 



Soluble solids. Within-row plant spacing had a significant effect on soluble solids. 
The highly significant linear relationship showed that soluble solids increased as the 
within-row plant spacing increased from 25 to 100 cm (Figure 3). Davis and Meinert 
(2) and Zahara (6) also reported similar results. 



12 

B 

(•) 

Q 

5 
«/> 

H 11 

C3 

=3 

10 



Y • 9.75 ♦ 0.026X 




+ 

R 2 - 0.95 

Y • 10.05 + 0.008X 



25 50 75 100 125 

PLANT SPACING (CM) 

Figure 3. Relationship between within-row plant spacing and soluble solids in 
muskmelon cvs. Burpee Hybrid (H h) and Classic (* *). 

Summary 

The effects of within-row plant spacings of 25, 50, 75, and 100 cm with row 
spacing of 2.7 m on 'Burpee Hybrid' and 'Classic' muskmelons were evaluated in field 
studies conducted on a southwestern Indiana sandy loam, mixed, mesic Typic Hapludalf 
soil in 1982 and 1983. With increased plant spacing from 25 to 100 cm, stem length, 
leaf area, yield (kg) per plant, number of fruits per plant, fruit weight, and soluble 
solids increased linearly, whereas dry matter, number of culls, and marketable fruits 
per hectare decreased linearly. Plant spacings had no significant effect on soil and 
petiole nutrient content and total marketable tonnage. 

Note 

Joint contribution from USDA-ARS, and Department of Horticulture, Purdue 
University, West Lafayette, Indiana. Mention of firm names or trade products does not 
imply endorsement or recommendation by the USDA or Purdue University over other 
firms or similar products not mentioned. 



Literature Cited 

1. Anonymous. 1980. Recommended chemical soil test procedures for the North 
Central Region. North Central Regional Publication No. 221 (Revised). W.C. 
Dahnke (ed.). North Dakota Agr. Exp. Stn. Bull. No. 499 (Revised). 

2. Davis, G.N. and U.G.H. Meinert. 1965. The effect of plant spacing and fruit 
pruning on the fruits of P.M.R. No. 45 cantaloupe. Proc. Amer. Soc. Hort. 
Sci. 87:299-302. 

3. Frazier, W.A. 1940. Fruiting of the Powdery Mildew Resistant No. 45 cantaloupe 
as affected by spacing. Proc. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 37:831-835. 

4. Holliday, R. 1960. Plant population and crop yield. Nature 186 (4718):22-24. 

5. Lazin, M.B. and S.C. Simonds. 1981. Influence on planting method, fertilizer 



104 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 94 (1985) 

rate, and within row plant spacing on production of two cultivars of honeydew 
melons. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 94:180-182. 
6. Zahara, M. 1972. Effects of plant density on yield and quality of cantaloupe. 
Cal. Agr. 26:(7):15. 



Stem Length as an Estimator of Muskmelon Growth 

H.S. Bhella 

USDA-ARS, Vincennes University 

Vincennes, Indiana 47591 

and 

G.E. Wilcox 

Department of Horticulture 

Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 

Introduction 

Measurement of growth parameters is an essential component of plant science 
research. In order to determine stem and root growth response to various cultural, 
management, and insect-pest control practices, plant scientists sacrifice live plants from 
their experimental plots. This direct measurement of top or root growth, a universally 
accepted criterion for growth measurement, is costly, laborious, and time consuming. 
It inflates the error variance because intact plants are permanently lost from experimental 
plots. Furthermore, this permanent loss of plants reduces plant population and does 
not allow repeated observations for measurement of plant growth and development 
on the same plant. 

Because of these implications, the melon working group consisting of USDA- 
ARS and Purdue University horticulturists, entomologists, plant pathologists, and plant 
physiologists was looking for an alternative method for muskmelon growth measure- 
ment. This study was undertaken as part of a team approach for determining and 
documenting a rapid, reproducible, and practically acceptable method for muskmelon 
growth measurement, which is as reliable as the top weight method and allows repeated 
observations on the same plant. The main objective of this greenhouse study was to 
obtain the closest fit regression equations between total stem length and stem and root 
weight, which could be used to estimate muskmelon growth with minimal error. 

Materials and Methods 

Muskmelon cv. Burpee Hybrid seeds were sown on February 2, 1983 and cv. 
Saticoy on January 4, 1984 in no. 38 growing trays (Growing Systems, Inc., Milwaukee, 
WI 53213) containing Jiffy-Mix (composed of shredded sphagnum peat moss and 
horticultural-grade vemiculite) growing medium. The seedlings were grown under 
greenhouse conditions at day/night temperature of approximately 30/21 ±3°C and 16-hr. 
light from 20-watt Luxor, Vita-Lite lamps suspended 27 cm above the plants with one 
bulb per 0.28 m 2 of bench space. 

Fifteen-day old seedlings (3 to 4 true leaf stage) of cvs. Burpee Hybrid and Saticoy 
were transplanted into one-liter black plastic pots using 'Flint shot' sand as growing 
medium. Because of difficulties in separation of roots from growing medium for 
muskmelon cultivars sown in Jiffy-Mix, 'Classic' muskmelon was direct seeded into 
one-liter black plastic pots containing 'Flint shot' sand on March 8, 1984. Plants were 
fed daily with Hoagland's solution (1) containing various levels of nitrogen (up to 
200 ppm) to achieve wide range of variation in stem and root growth rates. Iron chelate 
was added to the Hoagland's solution twice a week. 

Muskmelon plants were harvested five weeks after seeding or 3 weeks after 
transplanting. Data on total stem length and stem fresh/wet weight were recorded during 
harvest. Muskmelon cv. Classic roots were separated from the growing medium (sand) 
by gently washing with tap water over a screen and blotted. The stem and root samples 
were dried in a forced air oven for 48-hr at about 50°C and then weighed. 

105 



106 



Indiana Academy of Science 



Vol. 94 (1985) 



Results and Discussion 

In this study, we found highly significant positive relationships between stem length 
and top growth (Figure 1). The coefficients of determination for muskmelon cvs. Saticoy, 
Burpee Hybrid and Classic were 0.95, 0.98, and 0.98 for top fresh weight, and 0.96, 
0.97 and 0.99 for top dry weight, respectively. Interestingly, highly significant correla- 
tions were also obtained between stem length and total (top plus root) dry weight 
(R 2 =0.99) and root dry weight (R 2 =0.71) for muskmelon cv. Classic. Complete separa- 
tion of entire root system from Jiffy-Mix for muskmelon cvs. Saticoy and Burpee 
Hybrid was not achieved, thus, their results are not reported. These highly significant 



cr 


40 


_ cv 

Y=- 


Saticoy 
-3.36+0. 508X 




i— 


30 


R 2 = 


=0.95 


f* 


X 
C/3 

LU 

OS 

LL 


20 




i / 




Q_ 

o 

f- 


10 





I 1 1 


" ' 



CV. Saticoy 



U3 40 - 

£ 30- 

00 20 

u_ 

o. 10 
o 

K 

3 40 

fe 30 

J2 20 L 

u_ 

Q. 10 - 

o 

i— 





o 2.5 



2 2.0 

>- 

g 1.5 

8 1 -° 

1 °" 5 



20 40 60 80 

STEM LENGTH (cm) 

CV. Burpee Hybrid 
Y=-4.92+0.476X 
R =0. 



20 40 60 80 

STEM LENGTH (CM) 



20 40 60 80 

STEM LENGTH (CM) 
CV. Classic 
Y=0. 31+2. 57x10 
R 2 =0.99 



20 40 60 80 

STEM LENGTH (cm) 



100 




100 




100 




100 






2 


5 


ID 








2 





h- 
2 


1 


5 


>> 

a 


1 





O 
1— 





5 

n 



20 40 60 80 
STEM LENGTH (cm) 



CV. Burpee Hybrid 
Y=-0.02+2.33xlO" 2 X 
R 2 =0 . 97 








2.5 

2.0U 

1.5 

1.0 

0.5h 




20 40 60 80 100 

STEM LENGTH (cm) 



CV. Classic 

Y=0.19+2.35*10 -2 X 

R 2 =0.99 



20 40 60 80 

STEM LENGTH (CM) 



20 40 60 30 

STEM LENGTH (cm) 



100 





0.4 


CV. Classic 
Y=0.12+2.26xlO" 3 X 




CJ 










R 2 =0.71 


* 


1— 








s 


0.3 






>- 








(Y 








o 


0.2 


* ^^^ 




O 




^^^ * 




o 








oc 


0.1 


i.i i 


' 1 — 



100 



Figure 1. Relationships between various growth parameters of muskmelon. All co- 
efficients of determination significant at 0.01 level of probability. 



Botany 107 

correlation coefficients and regression equations support the hypothesis that stem length 
is as reliable an indicator of growth as is the destructive harvest for dry weight measure- 
ment of top growth. 

The results of this study establishes a direct relationship between stem length and 
top growth and root growth that can be used to evaluate top and root limiting condi- 
tions in muskmelon. Furthermore, this study demonstrates that stem and root weights 
can be indirectly predicted with high degree of accuracy by entering stem length in 
the regression equations, as well as for the inverse problem of estimating stem length 
from stem and root weights. 

Highly significant correlations between various growth parameters for three 
muskmelon cultivars suggest the stem length method is reproducible. In terms of 
simplicity, practicality, and rapidity, both methods are useful means of determining 
muskmelon growth. However, the stem weight method has a serious drawback because 
of permanent loss of plants from experiment. The stem length method has important 
advantages because it allows repeated observations on the same plant. This method 
should be useful to plant scientists measuring growth of vine crops. 

Summary 

A rapid, reproducible, and practically acceptable method for measuring muskmelon 
growth, without destroying intact plants was developed. We tested the hypothesis that 
total stem/vine length measurement of muskmelon provides the same indications of 
growth as does stem/top weight, a universally accepted criterion for plant growth 
measurement. Total stem length was found to be highly correlated with top fresh 
(R 2 = 0.95, 0.98 and 0.98) and dry (R 2 = 0.96, 0.97, and 0.99) weights for muskmelon 
cvs. Saticoy, Burpee Hybrid, and Classic, respectively. Total dry matter (top plus root; 
R 2 = 0.99) and root dry weight (R 2 = 0.71) were also found to be highly correlated with 
stem length for cv. Classic. These highly significant coefficients of determination sug- 
gest that stem length in the early stages of plant development is a reliable and reproducible 
estimator of muskmelon growth. 

Note 

Joint contribution from the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research 
Service and Department of Horticulture, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907. 
Mention of firm names or trade products does not imply endorsement or recommenda- 
tion by the USDA or Purdue University over other firms or similar products not mentioned. 

Literature Cited 

1. Hoagland, D.R. and D.I. Arnon. 1950. The water-culture method for growing 
plants without soil. Revised by D.I. Arnon. CA Agric. Exp. Stn. Cir. 347. 32 p. 



Isolation of the Corprophilous Fungus, Pilobolus, 
from Wayne County, Indiana 

K. Michael Foos and Judith A. Royer 
Department of Biology, Indiana University East 
Richmond, Indiana 47374 

Introduction 

Pilobolus is a microscopic zygomycete that grows on the dung of herbivores. And, 
while it appears to be widely distributed, it has not been widely recorded. Records 
of Pilobolus from North America are particularly uncommon. 

Pilobolus has been recorded from Ohio (4), Michigan (1), New York and Penn- 
sylvania (5), but no records of Pilobolus from Indiana exist. In this study samples 
of dung were collected in Wayne County, Indiana and examined for isolates of Pilobolus. 

Methods and Materials 

Beginning mid-winter, collections of Pilobolus were made from samples of dung 
of herbivores collected at 35 locations in Wayne County, Indiana. These samples were 
collected from sheep, beef and dairy cattle, horses, ponies, llamas and deer. Only fresh 
samples of dung were collected. These collections were made aseptically in plastic baggies 
and were transferred within hours to sterile preparation dishes lined with water saturated 
filter paper. All cultures were maintained at room temperature under cool white fluores- 
cent lights with an intensity of 320 foot candles with a 12 hour photoperiod until growth 
with visible sporangiophores appeared. 

Upon maturity Pilobolus discharge their sporangia. These sporangia adhered to 
the tops and sides of the preparation dishes because of the gelatinous layer around 
the sporangium. Isolates were obtained by removing single sporangia from the sides 
or tops of the preparation dishes with a sterile inoculating needle. Each sporangium 
was transferred to a petri dish containing dung agar (6). After 1 to 1 1/2 weeks growth 
would fill the petri dish depleting the media. At such times hyphal tips were trans- 
ferred to fresh media. Active hyphal growth could be seen within 24 hours after transfer. 

Development of Pilobolus sporangia is influenced by light, so sporangia were 
collected between 9 am and 1 pm daily (the photoperiod was set between 8 am and 
8 pm). Sporangia were collected from the lids of petri dishes or from sporangiophores 
with sterile inoculating needles or microforceps, and mounted in lactophenol. Spores 
were also observed in the lactophenol mounting preparation. Pressure on the coverslip 
broke the sporangial wall releasing spores for observation and measurement. Columella 
were observed by removing sporangia with microforceps. 

The following characteristics were observed and measured: 

1. Spore size, shape, color, and wall thickness 

2. Sporangium size, shape, and ornamentation 

3. Sporangiophore length 

4. Trophocyst size and shape 

5. Subsporangial swelling size, shape, and color 

6. Columella shape 

Measurements of taxonomic structures were made both from the original isolates 
on dung and later from the growth on dung agar. 

Results 

The genus Pilobolus has rarely been seen to reproduce sexually. Its normal method 

109 



110 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 94 (1985) 

of asexual reproduction is by the production of sporangiospores within a sporangium. 
The structure of this asexual reproductive complex, and the component structures are 
the primary taxonomic characteristics for the genus. 

In nature, Pilobolus grows submerged in dung with its sporangial apparatus rising 
above the surface. The sporangial apparatus of Pilobolus is unique. It consists of the 
sporangium, containing sporangiospores, the subsporangial swelling, the sporangiophore, 
and the trophocyst. The sporangium is covered with a thick cutinized wall that is dark- 
ly pigmented and rests at the apex of the sporangiophore. This sporangium contains 
thousands of sporangiospores. Unlike many zygomycetes, the spores within the Pilobolus 
sporangium remain together and act as a sporangial unit. Upon maturity the sporangium 
with all of its spores is forceably discharged from the sporangiophore and travels as 
far as 8 feet. This characteristic gives Pilobolus its name "hat thrower" (2). 

The subsporangial swelling is the portion of the sporangiophore located just below 
the sporangium. It is a widened area of the sporangiophore which is light sensitive 
and acts in 'aiming' or directing of the sporangium prior to discharge. Below the 
subsporangial swelling is the long, slender sporangiophore. The sporangiophore measures 
from 1 mm to several centimeters in length in different species and holds the sporangium 
above the surface of the substratum. 

The trophocyst, a structure unique to Pilobolus, is located at the lower end of 
the sporangiophore. It is embedded in the substratum and anchors the sporangial ap- 
paratus. The trophocyst may be elongated, somewhat oval, or turnip shaped. 

These structures: the sporangium, sporangiospores, subsporangial swelling, 
sporangiophore, and trophocyst are the primary characteristics used in the taxonomy 
of Pilobolus. 

From twenty-eight isolates of Pilobolus from Wayne County, Indiana, four dif- 
ferent species were recovered. These species were: Pilobolus cry stallinus, Pilobolus kleinii, 
Pilobolus longipes, and Pilobolus roridus. 

Pilobolus crystallinus Tode (7) 

Pilobolus crystallinus sporangiophores develop in 3 to 4 days, are 1 to 5 mm long, 
and are clear to pale yellow in color. Trophocysts develop submerged in the substratum 
and are usually 500 /*m long by 350 ^m wide. Sporangiospores are pale yellow ellipses 
which measure 9.83 ± 0.90 /xm in length by 6.05 ± 0.75 /*m in width producing a 
length to width ratio of 1.62. 

Sporangia are covered with a dark, cutinized wall and range from 100-750 /*m 
in diameter, with a mean of 205.7 ± 49.7 fim. About 1/3 of the isolates recovered 
have polygonal reticulations as described by van Tieghem (8). 

Pilobolus crystallinus was isolated in 15 locations in Wayne County during March 
through August from the dung of sheep, cattle, donkey, goat, llama, and pony. 
Pilobolus kleinii van Tieghem (8) 

Pilobolus kleinii sporangiophores measure 2-3 cm in length and arise from dark yellow 
turnip shaped trophocysts measuring 300-500 (im in diameter. The trophocysts are often 
partially submerged within the substratum. Sporangia are dark, smooth, and cutiniz- 
ed. They measure 100-300 /mi across with a mean of 146.25 ± 98.8 /*m, and are about 
2/3 as high as wide. The columella are conical and extend deeply into the sporangia. 
Sporangiospores are yellow and elliptical, measuring 12.14 ± 1.16 (im in length by 
7.57 ± 0.59 /on in width with a length to width ratio of 1.60. 

Pilobolus kleinii was isolated in 5 locations in Wayne County between March 
and August from the dung of cows, sheep, and goats. 

Pilobolus longipes van Tieghem (8) 

Pilobolus longipes sporangiophores range from 5 mm to 3 cm (sometimes longer) and 



Botany 1 1 1 

develop from large trophocytes often 1 mm or more in length. Sporangiophores grow- 
ing from freshly collected dung are much longer than those growing from isolates 
transferred to samples of sterilized dung or to dung agar. Sporangia are nearly globose, 
smooth, dark, cutinized and vary greatly in size from 100 to more than 400 /mi in 
diameter. However, the mean diameter for sporangia is 226.3 ± 53.7 /im. 
Sporangiospores are subglobose to globose, dark yellow to orange in color and measure 
12.23 ± 1.59 fim by 11.23 ± 1.52 /im with a length to width ration of 1.09. 

Philobolus longipes was isolated at 7 locations in Wayne County during May 
through July. All isolates were taken from horse dung. 

Pilobolus roridus (Bolt.) Pers. (3) 

Pilobolus roridus sporangiophores are 1 to 2 mm long. The sporangia are smooth 
and hemispherical, and average 260.0 ± 22.4 /im in diameter. The trophocysts are 
250-300 /im in diameter, nearly spherical, and bright orange in color. The sporangiospores 
are pale yellow to colorless, oval in shape and measure 5.79 ± 0.68 /mi in length 
and 3.07 ± 0.35 /im in width. The length to width ratio is 1.89. 

Pilobolus roridus was isolated in Wayne County during August from deer dung. 

Discussion 

Even though Pilobolus has been isolated in many places, this is the first record 
of isolates from Indiana. The source of the substratum from which the organism was 
isolated has been recorded. Even though there seems to be some relationship between 
the species of Pilobolus isolated, and the type of dung on which it was found, there 
has not been a direct correlation shown. It is, however, interesting to note that P. 
longipes was isolated seven times in this study and in all instances it was isolated from 
horse dung. The time of year each collection of dung was made was recorded. During 
the winter it was difficult to obtain isolates of Pilobolus. Dung of herbivores not ob- 
taining at least part of their food by grazing on pasture included no isolates of Pilobolus. 
It is easy to speculate that Pilobolus can be isolated only from the dung of animals 
grazing on open pasture. Certainly, this was the case in this study. 

Many of the taxonomic characters traditionally used with Pilobolus are of ques- 
tionable value in separating the various species. This is because of the wide variation 
that occurs within a single isolate. Sporangium size, subsporangial swelling size and 
shape, and to some degree length of the sporangiophore have little value. The fluctua- 
tion in these characters makes them almost useless. 

The sporangiospores seem to be the most constant and thus exhibit the most 
valuable taxonomic characteristics. The size, shape, and coloration of the sporangiospore 
are reliable taxonomic characteristics. Regardless of the size of the sporangium, the 
sporangiospores contained within remain remarkably constant. 

Acknowledgments 

We would like to thank Lori Westberg for her technical assistance, Dr. Dorothy 
Adalis for the use of her photomicroscope, and the Indiana University Research Opera- 
tions Committee for its financial support in this project. 

Literature Cited 

1. Bessey, E.A. 1946. Studies of Pilobolus: P. kleinii and P. longipes. Papers 
Michigan Acad. Science 32:15-26. 

2. Buller, A.H.R. 1934. Researches on fungi. Volume VI. Longmans, Green, and 
Co. London. 513 p. 



112 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 94 (1985) 

3. Persoon, C.H. 1801. Synopsis methodica Fungorum. Part 1. p. 117-118. 

4. Rakestraw, James B. and K. Michael Foos. 1980. Isolation of the coprophilous 
fungus, Pilobolus, from Lake County, Ohio. Ohio J. Science 80:20 (Abstr.) 

5. Sumstine, D.R. 1910. The North American Mucorales. Mycologia 2:125-154. 

6. Swartz, Delbert. 1934. Pilobolus crystallinus in pure culture. Mycologia 
26:192-194. 

7. Tode, H.J. 1784. Beschreibung des Hutwerfers. Schrift. Gesell. Naturf. Freunde 
Bed. 5:46. 

8. Van Tieghem, P. 1876. Troisieme memorie sur les Murocinees. Ann. Sci. Nat. 
4:335-349. 



A New Amine as an Uncoupler of Chloroplast Electron Transport 

Jonathan Leeds, Lynne Bemis, Rita Barr and Frederick L. Crane 
Department of Biological Sciences 
Purdue University 
West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 

Abbreviations used: DAD-diaminodurene; DBMIB-2,5,8-dibromo-3-methyl-6- 
isopropyl-p-benzoquinone; DCMU-dichlorophenyl-dimethylurea; DMBQ-2, 
5-dimethylbenzoquinone; DNP-INT -2, 4-dinitrophenylether of iodonitrothymol; FCCP- 
carbonylcyanide-p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone; MV-methylviologen; 
TMPD-N-tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine. 

Introduction 

In isolated chloroplasts electron transport is coupled to photophosphorylation 
(1,2). To study electron transport rates in Photosystem I and II, certain chloroplast 
reactions require an uncoupler to be present. The common uncouplers used for this 
purpose are FCCP, ammonia and such ionophores as gramicidin (2). 

In this study we describe a new amine-type uncoupler, N-[bis-(3,5-trifluoromethyl)- 
phenyl]-2,4-dinitro(3-trifluromethyl)-benzamine (DP A, Figure 1), which appears to work 




3 w ' 3 

Figure 1. The Chemical Composition of the Uncoupler, DPA. 



best at coupling site 1, located between the two photosystems in the chloroplast elec- 
tron transport chain. We show that low concentrations (1 x 10 ~ 7 ) are required to 
stimulate electron transport 60% or to inhibit the proton gradients associated with 
photophosphorylation. 



Materials and Methods 

Spinach or lettuce chloroplasts were prepared from commercially available sources 
by methods previously reported (3). Briefly, about 20g of leaves were ground in a 
Waring blender in 100 ml sucrose-NaCl (0.4 M sucrose, 0.05 M NaCl) with 6 on-and- 
off bursts of energy. The resulting green suspension was filtered through 10 layers 
of cheesecloth and a single layer of Miracloth into 2 50-ml centrifuge tubes. Heavy 
particles, such as the remains of cell walls and nuclei, were pelleted after centrifuga- 
tion at 600 x g for 2 min and discarded. The supernatant was filtered through Miracloth 

113 



114 



Indiana Academy of Science 



Vol. 94 (1985) 



into clean tubes and centrifuged at 1,200 x g for 10 min. to collect chloroplasts, which 
were suspended in 5 ml SN. Chlorophyll was determined according to Arnon (4). 

Oxygen uptake or evolution were measured with a Clark-type electrode connected 
to a Yellow Springs Instrument oxygen monitor. Reaction rates were recorded with 
a Sargent-Welch SRG recorder. Chloroplast proton pump was assayed by the methods 
of Dilley (5). 

DPA was synthesized in the Eli Lilly Laboratories and made available through 
the courtesy of Dr. Hollingsworth, Purdue Department of Entomology. 

Results and Discussion 

An uncoupler should stimulate electron transport reactions in low concentrations 
(1 x 10" 6 to 1 x 10~ 9 ). As Figure 2 and 3 show, DPA meets this criterion. Partial reac- 
tions, which are known to involve coupling site 1, such as H 2 — MV (+ azide) 
and H 2 - FeCN (pH 6 or 8) are stimulated from 30-60%, whereas H 2 - FeCN 
with DNP-INT or H 2 - DDMBQ with DBMIB show little stimulation of electron 




- MV, pH 8 

AFeCN,pH 8 

• FeCN t pH 6 

■ F«CN, pH 8 (+DNPINT) 

D DMBQ.pH 7 (♦DBMIB) 



3 10 30 

DPA (n molar) 



100 



300 



KXX> 



Figure 2. Uncoupling of Photosystem I and II Reactions by the Uncoupler, DPA. 
Reaction mixtures contained chloroplasts (0.05 mg chlorophyll), 25 mM Tris-Mes, pH 
6, 7, or 8, as shown and electron acceptors or inhibitors in concentrations indicated 
below: DMBQ-lOmM; DCMU-5^M; DNP-INT; 10/xM; and FeCN 250 or 500 fiM. 



transport, since they accept electrons before coupling site 1 (Figure 4). Likewise, PS 
I reactions, which involve this site also stimulate electron transport rates from 40-60% 
(Figure 3). 



Botany 



115 





70 




60 




50 




40 


55 








z 


30 


Q 




1- 


20 


m 




X 

z 


10 


n 




rr 










z 



-10 


b 




< 


-20 


3 




2 


-30 


H 




en 






-40 




-50 




-60 



-70 




- Asc. +DAD-«»MV, pH8 

O Asc. + DAD-*-MV, pH8 ( + DBMIB) 

• Asc. +DAD-*-MV, pH8 (+DNPINT) 

■ Asc. + TMPD-^ MV, pH 8 

A Asc. +TMPD-*-MV, pH 8 (+DNPINT) 

D Duroquinol -*» MV, pH 6 



1 



10 30 

DPA (n molar) 



100 



300 



1000 



Figure 3. Uncoupling of Photosystem I Reactions by the Uncoupler, DPA. Reac- 
tion mixtures as in Fig. 1 with additional reaction components in concentrations in- 
dicated below: ascorbate, ImM; DAD, 0.5mM; TMPD, 5/xM; and duroquinol, 0.5mM. 



PSD 



Mn 



FeCN n pH 8 



Asc. + TMPD 




ADP+Pi 



MV 
e" 



FO AND 

Reductase 

Complex 



© 
NADP 



PS I 



H 2 2 

Figure 4. The Z-scheme of Chloroplast Electron Transport, Showing Coupling Site 
I, Uncoupled by DPA. 



116 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 94 (1985) 

The second criterion for establishing a compound as an uncoupler is to show 
that it inhibits the light-dependent proton pump associated with photophosphoryla- 
tion. According to Table I, 100 nanomolar DPA (1 x 10 ~ 7 M) inhibits the chloroplast 
proton pump 49%. Higher concentrations of the uncoupler lead to > 90°7o inhibition. 

These criteria establish DPA as a potent new uncoupler. Only a few known un- 
couples, such as FCCP (6,7) or TTFB (8) uncouple in lower concentrations than DPA 
(1 x 10" 8 M versus 1 x 10" 7 M, respectively). This new uncoupler involves coupling site 
1, located between the 2 photosystems (Figure 4). 

Table I. Inhibition of Chloroplast Proton Pump Associated with ATP Formation 



DNP cone. ATP INHIBITION 

(nM) OtMOLES/mg CHL'HR) («7o) 

420 — 

10 362 14 

30 315 25 

60 252 40 

100 213 49 

300 174 59 

600 142 76 

1000 20 95 



Literature Cited 

1. Trebst, A. 1974. Energy conservation in photosynthetic electron transport of 
chloroplasts. Ann. Rev. Plant Physiol. 25, 423-458. 

2. Good, N.E. 1977. Uncoupling of electron transport from phosphorylation in 
chloroplasts. In Encyclopedia of Plant Physiol., new series, vol. 5. (Trebst, H. 
and M. Avron, eds.), Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp. 429-436. 

3. Seng, T.W., R. Barr and F.L. Crane, 1983. L-Methionine Sulfoximine as a 
new electron acceptor in Photosystem I of spinach chloroplasts. Proceed. Indiana 
Acad. Sci. 92, 119-123. 

4. Arnon, D.I. 1949. Copper enzymes in isolated chloroplasts. Polyphenoloxidase 
in Beta vulgaris. Plant Physiol. 24, 1-15. 

5. Dilley, R.A. 1972. Ion transport (H + , K + , Mg 2+ exchange phenomena), in 
Methods of Enzymol., vol. XXIV, part B (A. San Pietro, ed.), Academic Press, 
New York, pp. 68-74. 

6. Heytler, P.G. 1979. Uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation, in Methods in 
Enzymol., vol. LV, part F (S. Fleischer and L. Packer, eds.), Academic Press, 
New York, pp. 462-472. 

7. Heytler, P.G. and W.W. Prichard. 1962. A new class of uncoupling agents- 
carbonyl cyanide phenylhydrazones. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 7, 272-275. 

8. Jones, O.T.G. and W.A. Watson. 1965. Activity of 2-trifluoromethyl- 
benzimidazoles as uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation. Nature (London) 208, 
1169-1170. 



A Rapid Method for the Determination of Barley Seed Viability 

Gayton C. Marks, William W. Bloom, Jeffrey G. Boyle 
Department of Biology, Valparaiso University 
Valparaiso, Indiana 46383 

Introduction 

Barley farmers and shipment processors currently need a more rapid method for 
the determination of barley caryopses viability, especially for those grains used for 
malting. Not only is the time required for the test significant, but the methods used 
must also produce accurate results to ensure an adequate evaluation of the barley sample 
for processing. Grain dealers must know the quality of the incoming barley so that 
they can transfer it either to the appropriate purchasing company or to proper storage 
for future sale and shipment. Since much of the grain is brought to the elevators directly 
from the fields, lengthy testing procedures delay unloading trucks and result in delayed 
processing and inefficient shipment control. 

The current methods of testing viability involve lengthy determination times as 
well as complicated procedures. In the most accurate test, one hundred fruits (hereinafter 
identified as seeds) are placed in a flat dish on wet filter paper or tissue and allowed 
to germinate for approximately 24 hours. Viability is then determined by deriving a 
total percentage of seeds from which the coleorhiza (chit) has emerged. While the results 
from this test are accurate and easily assessed, the amount of time involved usually 
extends beyond the desired limit. 

The Schonfeld test involves placing a filter-funnel with 100 barley seeds into a 
cabinet at 18-20°C and subjecting the seeds to a saturated water vapor atmosphere. 
The seeds are steeped, drained, and re-wet so that after a certain time, the germin- 
ability percentage can be observed. In a similar technique called the Schonjahn or 
Coldewe method, the seeds are placed in holes within porcelain plates so that the em- 
bryo is pointing down. The plates are housed in a container full of sand and water. 
After germinating time has elapsed, viability percentages are obtained by counting the 
roots growing through the holes (1). 

Waller attempted to determine germinability of Phaseolus seeds through electronic 
methods. Beans were soaked in water, split, and the radicle removed and connected 
to electrodes. An induction coil provided sufficient stimulus and a galvanometer was 
then used to measure shock deflection. Viable seeds were identified by greater relative 
deflection and non-viable seeds produced no response (3). Later, Fraser used the same 
electronic method to test barley embryos and, in fact, confirmed Waller's results (3). 
Although these techniques presumably identified differences in living and dead tissues, 
no further investigation has been undertaken. 

There are a number of staining methods used involving color changes that in- 
dicate the viability or non-viability of a seed. Of the various staining methods used, 
one early test by Dimitriewicz employed sulfuric acid in a timed observation where 
viable seeds turned a deep rose color in five minutes. Further, respiratory activity of 
seeds from soaking in meta-, para-, or orth-dinitrobenzene solutions for twenty hours 
followed by ammonia for one hour results in an orange color for viable seeds. Selenium 
reduction produces a purple color, both of which are also indicative of seed germinability 
(1). 

In addition, dead seeds have been known to take up barium chloride which can 
then be detected by x-rays. Seeds can also take up rasazuria and indigo stains for 
color detection observation (1). Another common method involves the biochemical 
activity of living seeds whereby endogenous enzymes and substrates reduce 

117 



118 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 94 (1985) 

2-(p-iodophenyl)-3-(p-nitrophenyl)-5-phenyl tetrazolium chloride to easily detected in- 
soluble red formazanes. This is the most popular method used today among grain 
elevators and farmers. A sample of at least one hundred seeds is taken from a truck 
or storage compartment and individually counted in a dish on the cutting device. Each 
seed is then dropped down a small rack until it rests between a secured cutting ridge 
at the center of the device. The seed must then be held in place while a blade is slid 
across it, longitudinally splitting the barley into two equal pieces. This process exposes 
one side of the embryo and is subsequently stained and counted for viability. Although 
this method has proven accurate, it requires a 45-60 minute incubation period and 
also involves inefficient and lengthy seed preparation. 

Materials and Methods 

The tetrazolium (2,3,5-triphenyl-2H tetrazolium chloride monohydrate) test for 
the viability of seeds is based on the principle that living tissues release hydrogen as 
part of the respiratory process occurring in the mitochondria. Hydrogen combines with 
the colorless tetrazolium salt and produces a red pigment (2). Since seeds are largely 
dehydrated at maturity, it is necessary to hydrate the embryo for the enzyme systems 
to function. With intact seeds, this is a slow process. Even when barley grains are 
split in the currently used method described earlier, only a small amount of surface 
area is actually exposed to the water in the test solution, requiring one to several hours 
for a positive test for viability (4). In addition, the handling of the seeds individually 
is time consuming. 

It is well known that living plant cells can be separated and continue to function. 
A method was sought that would reduce the time required for preparation and to 
expose more cells of the embryo directly to the hydrating solution. The most suitable 
method devised was to subject the barley grains to considerable pressure, thereby flat- 
tening the grain and exposing a relatively large surface area to the test solution. A 
9cm Whatman filter paper disc was placed in the inverted lid of a 10cm plastic Petri 
dish and saturated with a 0.50% solution of tetrazolium chloride. Twenty-five barley 
seeds were arranged on the filter paper and covered with the bottom of the Petri dish. 
A metal disc 8cm in diameter and 3cm thick was placed inside the bottom of the Petri 
dish. This assembly was placed on a Carver hydraulic press and pressed at 16,000-18,000 
lbs. Additional test solution was added after pressing to ensure sufficient saturation 
of seeds. This resulted, then, in the exposure of abundant embryonic tissue to rapid 
hydration and penetration of the tetrazolium salt into the cells. The water activates 
the enzyme systems and effects the release of hydrogen ions which then react with 
the tetrazolium chloride. Positive tests were detectable by the presence of a pink or 
red pigment in the embryonic tissue in less than ten minutes. In twenty minutes, accurate 
evaluation of all the seeds could be made. 

As a check on the validity of this method, a standard wet-towel germination test, 
which required twenty-four or more hours to complete, was made for each sample 
of seeds tested. 

Results 

The results of the viability test by the two testing methods are shown in Table 1. 

Discussion 

While the tetrazolium chloride test with pressed barley seeds may not legally 
substitute for standard tests now in use, it seems to provide a more rapid and suffi- 
ciently accurate method to permit sorting for storage and shipping purposes. 



Botany 



119 



Table 1. A comparison of the results of the two methods for determining barley seed 
viability. 



Group A 



Group B 



Group C 



Group D 



Tetrazolium Wei Towel Tetrazolium Wet Towel Tetrazolium Wet Towel Tetrazolium Wet Towel 
Test Test Test Test Test Test Test Test 



Trial 1 


















a) tt seeds 


100 


100 


100 


100 


100 


100 


100 


100 


b) Germinated and 


93 


76 


91 


89 


100 


98 


93 


95 


% Viability 


















Trial 2 


















a) tt seeds 


100 


100 


100 


100 


100 


100 


100 


100 


b) Germinated and 


95 


81 


92 


93 


100 


99 


96 


95 


% Viability 


















Trial 3 


















a) tt seeds 


100 


100 


100 


100 


100 


100 






b) Germinated and 


92 


86 


96 


94 


99 


99 






% Viability 


















Trial 4 


















a) tt seeds 


100 


100 


100 


100 


100 


100 






b) Germinated and 


88 


96 


95 


100 


100 


100 






% Viability 


















Trial 5 


















a) tt seeds 


100 


100 


100 


100 


100 


100 






b) Germinated and 


93 


93 


97 


99 


99 


99 






% Viability 


















Average Viability 


92.2% 


86.4% 


94.2% 


95.0% 


99.6% 


99.0% 


94.5% 


95.0% 



Work is being continued to determine the effect temperature has on viability deter- 
mination rate. So far, experimental data suggests that tetrazolium chloride reduction 
is temperature dependent within certain limits. Rapid methods for counting the samples 
and positioning the seeds for testing also are being explored. 

Literature Cited 



1. 

2. 



3. 



Briggs, D.E. 1978. Barley, Chapman and Hall, New York. 565 p. 

Colbry, Vera L., Thomas Swofford, and Robert P. Moore, 1961. Tests for 

Germination in the Laboratory. Seeds, The Yearbook of Agriculture, The U.S. 

Gov't Printing Office. 441-443. 

Crocker, William, and Lela V. Barton, 1957. Physiology of Seeds. Chronica 

Botanica Co., Waltham, Mass. 261 p. 

Flemion, Florence, and Harriet Poole, 1948. Seed Viability Tests With 2, 

3, 5 -Triphenyltetrazolium Chloride. Contrib. Boyce Townsend Inst. 

15:243-258. 



Population Studies of Threatened and Endangered Plants of Barker Woods 
Nature Preserve, LaPorte County, Indiana 

Patricia Wiese Reed 

233 Hillcrest Road 

Michigan City, Indiana 46360 

Barker Woods Nature Preserve covers 12 ha in Michigan City, LaPorte County, 
Indiana. The geomorphic features of the preserve reflect their origin as part of an 
ancient great lake shoreline (Figure 1). The soils on the site are deep, sandy, acid, 




100m 



500' 



♦ 



Figure 1. Geomorphic Features of the Barker Woods Nature Preserve. 61 cm con- 
tour interval. 



121 



122 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 94 (1985) 

moderate in organic content and characterized by a seasonally high water table. The 
preserve includes pin oak — red maple hydric upland depressional woods, and white 
oak — red oak — black oak dry mesic upland forest (Tom Post, personal communica- 
tion). Riemenschneider and Reed (11) further describes the property and its history. 
The purpose of this study was to investigate the population numbers and viability 
of seven state threatened or endangered plant species found on the preserve, and to 
describe their general physical habitat preferences. The state endangered species are 
Carex arctata Boott (Drooping wood sedge) and C. folliculata L. (Long sedge). The 
state threatened species include Betula papyri/era Marsh (Paper birch), Epigaea repens 
L. (Trailing arbutus), Melampyrum lineare Desr. (Cow wheat), Pyrola americana Sweet. 
(Round-leaved shinleaf) and P. elliptica Nutt. (Shinleaf)- 

Methods 

Data was collected from field observations during 1983, personal interviews, and 
a literature search for each species of concern. A contour map of the general surface 
of the water table was made using data from U.S.G.S. 7.5' quadrangle maps. Addi- 
tional maps were made over a base map with a 61 cm contour interval. Geomorphic 
features were interpreted with the assistance of Dr. Mark Reshkin of Indiana Univer- 
sity Northwest. Basic soil data (7) were extrapolated to the 61 cm contour map. Two 
soil borings were taken with a hand auger and interpreted by Dr. Victor Riemenschneider 
of Indiana University South Bend. 

Plant nomenclature was based on Kartesz and Kartesz (8) and endangered and 
threatened classifications were based on Bacone and Hedge (1). Data on species habitat 
and status were collected from the Natural Heritage Programs of Indiana, Illinois, 
Kentucky, Michigan, Ohio and Wisconsin. 

Sixty-four random one meter square plots were sampled in the northeast corner 
of the preserve. This method was abandoned in July and replaced by a walking traverse 
of the property. All populations of endangered and threatened plants were counted 
and marked. For Epigaea repens, Pyrola americana and P. elliptica the ground surface 
covered was measured. Species locations were mapped with a plane table. 

Results and Discussion 

Carex arctata is common in Michigan and Wisconsin, is endangered in Ohio, 
and does not occur in Illinois. In Indiana it is reported only from two sites in La 
Porte County. 

A total of 1583 individual clumps were found (68% with seed), over most of the pre- 
serve on Saugatuck-Pipestone complex, Brems fine sand, Newton loamy fine sand, Oakville 
fine sand and Urban land — Morocco complex soils (Figure 2). No C. arctata were 
found in the pin oak (Quercus palustris) openings, or in areas of planted pine. 
This sedge was most frequent in middle of an old trail, on spoils mounds beside drainage 
ditches, and atop low windthrow mounds. Some preference was shown for slightly 
high areas (192.6-193.2 m elevation) and for the north slopes of these higher areas. 
C. arctata occurred both in areas with and without evident fire scars. 

The correlation of Carex arctata with disturbed areas (trails and ditches) may 
be due to several physical and biological factors. The trails and ditches are fairly open. 
Either the additional available light or the removal of competing growth may be a 
critical factor in the growth of the species. In addition, the mounds and the edges 
of the ditches are full of small mammal burrows, with the heaviest seed-producing 
C. arctata plants growing over heavily burrowed spots. It appears that small mammals 
have been a major factor in seed transportation of this sedge. 

Carex folliculata is now extirpated in Illinois, is threatened in Wisconsin and Ohio, 




500' 
i 



Legend 

o Individual Carex arctata 
^ 2-5 Carex arctata 
O 6-10 Carex arctata 

O 11-40 Carex arctata 

Trail 



Drainage ditch 

Figure 2. Locations of Carex arctata in Barker Woods Nature Preserve, Showing 
the Relationship to Trails and Ditches. 61 cm contour interval. 



and is uncommon in Michigan. In Indiana it is found only in northern Porter and 
LaPorte Counties. Its habitat is usually swampy woods and bog thickets. 

Ninety-seven plants were found in Barker Woods, 27% with seeds. The plants 
were found only at 192 to 193.2 m elevation on Saugatuck-Pipestone complex soils 
at the edge of the southeast pin oak opening (Figure 3). No fire scars were evident. 

Historically, the water table stood at 192.6 m elevation, as evidenced today by 
the presence of pin oak openings. Mapping by the author of the current water table 
showed water under Barker Woods at 191.4 to 191.7 m elevation. This drop is due 
to drainage of the general area begun before the turn of the century and continued 
to this day. Carex folliculata, a species of wet woods, persists up to 1.8 m above the 



124 



Indiana Academy of Science 



Vol. 94 (1985) 




100m 



500' 
t 



Figure 3. Location of Carex folliculata in Barker Woods Nature Preserve, Showing 
the Relationship to Flat, Open Forest Floor. 61 cm contour interval. 



water table. A soil auger taken in the area of the C. folliculata in September of 1983, 
after a dry summer, showed moist soil within 60 cm of the surface. C. folliculata 
may be utilizing rain water suspended above the water table atop cemented layers of 
sand called iron pans, which are characteristic of the Saugatuck-Pipestone complex soils. 

Betula papyrifera is common in Michigan and Wisconsin, and is found (but is 
not common) in northern Illinois. In Indiana it is native only to Lake, Porter and 
LaPorte Counties. B. papyrifera is considered an early successional species, lasting 
only one generation before being replaced by more shade tolerant species (5). Very 
young seedlings are very sensitive and need some shade, but as they grow they need 
overhead light (9). 

A total of 202 individuals were found in the preserve in two groves (Figure 4). 
Grove A consisted of 77 widely scattered trees on the north slope of a Glenwood stage 
sandbar on Saugatuck-Pipestone complex, Newton loamy fine sand and Brems fine 
sand. Grove A is being over shaded by pin oak, red maple, tulip, and sassafras. 



Botany 



125 




100m 
i 



500' 



Figure 4. Locations of Betula papyrifera in Barker Woods Nature Preserve, Show- 
ing Relationship to Fire Scarred Areas. 61 cm contour interval. 



Immediately north and east of this grove, on adjacent property, the paper birch trees 
were larger and healthier. This land was disturbed more recently and the paper birch 
are still the dominant trees. 

Grove B is a concentration of 125 trees, including many young trees, on Saugatuck- 
Pipestone complex soils. Some overshading of birch is occurring, but the area has 
been kept fairly open by regular windthrows. 

The most recent recorded fire on the preserve occurred in 1967 (Orphie Loomis, 
personal communication). Judging from the fire scars present, Grove B burned to a 
greater extent than Grove A, perhaps explaining the vigor of Grove B. 

Epigaea repens was once common in Michigan, before being collected almost 
to extinction. It has been totally eliminated in Illinois. It is frequent in northern Wisconsin 
and eastern Ohio. In Indiana the species is reported from eight counties (Allen, Elkhart, 
LaGrange, Lake, LaPorte, Monroe and Washington). 

Trailing arbutus occurred only in the northeast corner of Barker Woods (Figure 5). 



126 



Indiana Academy of Science 



Vol. 94 (1985) 



North boundary of Barker Woods Nature Preserve 



1 




\ 




9ul. 










/ 


















Jp 










^ffJb ___^--^ 


aMl-i 

QMI-I 






Q.MI-1 












-'>-« m '(''''f"^; 


W '-<J(IM|-I 






/ 








"^ H*-3 aui-i 
=-"''' m 4 7 

qMI-l 




// 





W& 






Bor 
Not 


Ker Woods 
art Preserve 

1 



Figure 5. Locations of Epigaea repens (Er) and Melampyrum lineare (Ml) in the 
Two Northeast Sectors of Barker Woods Nature Preserve. 61 cm contour interval. 



Three mats, covering 6.5 m 2 of ground surface were found on the north side of the sandbar 
on Brems fine sand and Newton loamy fine sand. 

Reproduction data was not available for 1983, but flowers were present in 1984. 
Ants, important for pollination and seed transportation (3), were active on the plants 
in 1984. 

Epigaea repens grew in one area of intense sunlight, and two areas of partial 
shade. Moderate leaf duff covered all plants. Fire scars were present in the area. The 
species tolerates five very well (3). 

Melampyrum lineare is common in Michigan and Wisconsin, but is considered 
threatened in Illinois and Ohio. It is reported from six counties in Indiana (Lake, La 
Porte, LaGrange, Porter, Tippecanoe and White). Its habitat varies from bogs to dry, 
coniferous woods. 

Cow wheat was found only in the northeast section of the preserve (Figure 5). 
It occurred on Newton loamy fine sand, Brems fine sand and Saugatuck-Pipestone 
complex soils on the north slope of the sandbar. Fire scars were present in the area. 

One hundred and thirty-five plants were found, 93% of which bore seed. This 
was an increase from 44 plants in 1982. Even plants which were partially grazed or 
dried continued to produce flowers and seeds. Laboratory studies (2) have found that 
as many as 264 seeds are produced by one plant. 

Melampyrum lineare is a non-obligatory root parasite, attaching itself to host 
roots or rhizomes by extremely fine roots bearing minute haustoria. Host plants in- 
clude dicots, monocots, conifers, ferns and a bryophyte {Sphagnum). Cow wheat can 
also be saphrophytic, attaching to humus or dead plant tissue (10). In Barker Woods 
the M. lineare was concentrated in a sunny area opened up by the death of a large 
wild black cherry tree. M. lineare may have a saphrophytic relationship with the dead 



Botany 



127 



roots of the cherry tree, or it may be parasitic on live plants such as the thick stand 
of bracken fern present. 

Pyrola americana is common in northern Michigan and northern and central 
Wisconsin. It is frequent in eastern Ohio, but is considered endangered in Illinois. 
In Indiana it is reported from six counties (LaGrange, Lake, LaPorte, Porter, Steuben 
and St. Joseph). 

In Barker Woods this species was found in one large, disjunct population, with 
five additional, small locations throughout the preserve (Figure 6). Three of the six 
locations showed evidence of fire. This shinleaf occurred on Newton loamy fine sand, 
Brems fine sand and Saugatuck-Pipestone complex soils, usually atop windthrow mounds 
in moderate shade. 

The north fence population of P. americana covered 230.1 m 2 of ground surface, 
while the five smaller areas covered 31.5 m 2 . 







100m 

— i 



500' 



Figure 6. Locations of Pyrola americana and P. elliptica in Barker Woods Nature 
Preserve. 61 cm contour interval. 



128 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 94 (1985) 

In 1983 only one flower stalk was produced by P. americana across the entire 
preserve, and this solitary stalk did not set seed. The lack of flowering may have been 
due to unfavorable environmental conditions, such as the dry summer, or to the general 
characteristic of the species to reproduce vegetatively (Dr. Eric Haber, personal 
communication). 

Pyrola elliptica is common in Michigan, Wisconsin and Ohio. It occurs in northern 
Illinois, but is becoming more rare. Deam (4) considered this the most common species 
of the genus in Indiana. It is reported from 11 counties (Cass, Elkhart, Grant, Kosciusko, 
LaGrange, LaPorte, Parke, Porter, Putnam, Steuben and St. Joseph). The Barker Woods 
population is the only population in LaPorte Co. 

P. elliptica was found in the preserve in only one 22 m 2 area of thinly scattered 
individuals (Figure 6). One flower stalk with seeds was produced in 1983. The plants 
were found on the north slope of the sandbar at the border of the Brems fine sand 
and the Newton loamy fine sand, among fire scars. 

Of the seven species of concern, all but Carex folliculata have northern affinities. 
Pyrola americana, P. elliptica and Epigaea repens were considered boreal relics by 
Friesner (6). In this light, north to south profiles of Barker Woods were made, show- 
ing the locations of the seven species in relation to the geomorphic features (Figure 7). 

In Profile A- A ' Betula papyri/era, Pyrola americana, Melampyrum lineare, and 
Epigaea repens were found on the north slope of the sandbar; B. papyrifera was found 
on the north slope of a slight rise, and Carex arctata and C. folliculata were found 
at the base of the north slope of the Glenwood dune. Profile B-B ' shows C. arctata, 
P. americana, B. papyrifera and P. elliptica occurring on the north slope of the sand- 
bar, and C. arctata occurring at the base of the north slope of the Glenwood dune. 
In Profile C-C ', C. arctata was found on the north slope of two slight rises in the 
central low area. The conclusion is that north slopes are preferred habitat for six of 
the seven species of concern. 

Summary 

Populations of Carex arctata, Melampyrum lineare and Pyrola americana are pre- 
sent in large numbers in Barker Woods Nature Preserve and are reproducing sexually 
or vegetatively. The population of C. folliculata is small but is reproducing. A species 
of wet habitats, it does not seem stressed by the lowered water table and may be utiliz- 
ing water suspended above the water table by cemented layers of sand. The Betula 
papyrifera population is large but is declining due to succession. Epigaea repens and 
P. elliptica are present in small numbers and are reproducing. All species of concern, 
except Carex folliculata, appear to prefer north facing slopes, reflecting their northern 
affinities. 

I thank Dr. Victor Riemenschneider for his assistance, the Barker Woods Preserve 
Management Committee for funding the study, and the generous contribution of Miss 
Margery Barker which endowed the preserve and made such a study possible. 

Literature Cited 

1. Bacone, J. A. and C.L. Hedge. 1980. A preliminary list of endangered and 
threatened vascular plants in Indiana. Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. 89:359-371. 

2. Cantlon, J.E., E.J.C. Curtis and W.M. Malcom. 1963. Studies of Melampyrum 
lineare. Ecol. 44:466-474. 

3. Clay, K. and N.C. Ellstrand. 1981. Stylar polymorphism in Epigaea repens, a 
dioecious species. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club. 108:305-310. 

4. Deam, C.C. 1940. Flora of Indiana. Dept. Conserv., Div. For., Indianapolis, 
1,236 p. 



Botany 



129 



SOUTH 




-640 



630 



-640 



630 




Index map of Preterve 
Showing location of profiles 



Figure 7. North to South Profiles of Barker Woods Nature Preserve, Showing Pre- 
ferred Growth Locations of Threatened and Endangered Species. Vertical exaggera- 
tion 15X. 



Fowells, H.A., compiler. 1965. Silvics of the Forest Trees of the United States. 

U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service Agri. Handbook No. 271, 

Washington. 

Friesner, R.C. 1936. Indiana as a critical botanical area. Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. 

46:28-45. 



130 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 94 (1985) 

7. Furr, G.F., Jr. 1982. Soil Survey of La Porte County, Indiana. U.S. Department 
of Agriculture. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington. 162 p. + maps. 

8. Kartesz, J.T. and R. Kartesz. 1980. A Synonymized Checklist of the Vascular 
Flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. VII. The Biota of North 
America. University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill. 

9. Marquis, D.A., J.C. Bjorkbom and G. Yelenosky. 1964. Effect of seedbed con- 
dition and light exposure of paper birch regeneration. Jour. For. (1964):876-881. 

10. Piehl, M.A. 1962. The parasitic behavior of Melampyrum lineare and a note on 
its seed color. Rhodora (1962): 15-23. 

11. Riemenschneider, V. and P.W. Reed. 1985. Vascular plants of Barker Woods 
Nature Preserve, La Porte County, Indiana. Proc. In. Acad. Sci. 94:(in press). 



Bacterial Wilt Resistance in Commercial Muskmelon Cultivars 

G.L. Reed 

USDA-ARS, Vincennes University 

Vincennes, Indiana 47591 

and 

Department of Entomology 

Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 

and 

W.R. Stevenson 

Department of Plant Pathology 

University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 

Introduction 

The number of available muskmelon, Cucumis melo L., cultivars with resistance 
to bacterial wilt, Erwinia tracheiphilla (Smith) Dye, has declined along with the impor- 
tance of Midwestern production. However, current transportation costs have created 
a resurgence in demand for production in the area. This demand justifies the selection 
of resistant cultivars (both varieties and hybrids) since bacterial wilt continues to be 
a major disease of muskmelon, cucumis melo L., in the Midwest (1,3 and 6). Though 
transmission of the bacterium was demonstrated to occur by insect vectors prior to 
the turn of the century (2), (primarily by the striped cucumber beetle, Acalymma vit- 
tatum (F.)); no adequate means of protection from the disease existed before the advent 
of modern insecticides (1). Control of the vectors by insecticide application has reduced 
incidence of the disease, but significant losses still occur (3). No extensive effort has 
been made to develop cultivars with high levels of resistance. The development of 
bacterial wilt resistant cultivars and hybrids would reduce those losses and provide an 
alternative to the current indirect method of disease control. 

This research was initiated to evaluate commercially adapted muskmelon cultivars 
for resistance to bacterial wilt. The search was initiated in commercial germplasm to 
permit easier selection of disease resistant cultivars with horticulturally acceptable traits. 
Seed of 187 cultivars were acquired from the vegetable seed industry, the National 
Seed Storage Laboratory, Fort Collins, CO, and public melon breeders. This germ- 
plasm was screened for resistance in both the field and greenhouse. No cultivar with 
adequate resistance for unprotected commercial production was found, but several 
cultivars contained resistant plants in frequences adequate to allow the selection of resis- 
tant cultivars. 

Materials and Methods 

Cultivars were evaluated for bacterial wilt resistance in three separate trials. The 
number of cultivars and plants tested per cultivar varied between trials and within 
each trial due to availability and germination of seed. In 1976, a field evaluation was 
conducted where transmission of the pathogen was dependent upon feeding by field 
populations of striped cucumber beetles. In 1977 and 1979, seedlings were inoculated 
with the bacterium in greenhouse trials. 

Field. The 1976 trial was planted in a commercial field located 3.2 km SE of 
Vincennes, IN, in the center of a major melon production area about 4.8 km wide 
and 16 km long that contained about 810 hectares of muskmelon and 2025 hectares 
of watermelon. Field preparation and routine vegetable production practices were pro- 
vided by the grower and were identical to those of his commercial fields except that 
no pesticide program was applied. Transplants of 67 cultivars were grown in cold frames 

131 



132 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 94 (1985) 

using veneer "dirt bands" (8.9 x 8.9 x 10.2 cm) filled with spent mushroom compost 
as growing medium (4). Seedlings were transplanted at the 3-4 true leaf stage during 
mid-May with five plants/row (1.5 m apart) in rows 1.8 m wide. Plots were separated 
by 4.6 m wide alleyways. The experiment was replicated three times with five plants 
per cultivar per replication. To estimate beetle populations, counts of striped cucumber 
beetle adults were made May 24 and June 7. Symptoms and mortality associated with 
bacterial wilt were recorded weekly. 

Greenhouse. Greenhouse trials were conducted in 1977 and 1979 to provide a 
uniform evaluation of cultivars for bacterial wilt resistance. Greenhouses were operated 
at 30 C with 24 h light from 40 watt Luxor Vita-Lite Lamps suspended 27 cm above 
the plants with one bulb/0.28 m 2 of bench space. Seedlings were grown in Jiffy 64® 
trays with Jiffy Plus® potting medium. They were watered daily and received no 
additional fertilization. Greenhouse trials were designed as randomized complete block 
experiments with four replications and 16-24 seeds planted per cultivar per replication. 

Seedlings were inoculated with bacterial wilt at the fully expanded cotyledon stage, 
five days after planting. Inoculum for the 1977 trial was prepared from an E. tracheiphila 
culture isolated at Vincennes, IN, during 1976. Inoculum culture for the 1979 trial 
was from a culture provided by H. M. Munger, Cornell University. Inoculum was 
prepared according to Reed and Stevenson (3) from inoculated infected muskmelon 
seedlings cv. Perlita which exhibited wilting of both cotyledons. Virulence of inoculum 
was established on the response of susceptible check cultivars (Charentais Imp. and 
Perlita). In 1977, seedlings were inoculated using a #1 cork through which eight randomly 
placed pins protruded a distance of 1 mm (3). In 1977, plants surviving initial inocula- 
tion were reinoculated (on 1st and 2nd true leaves) to reduce the chance of escapes. 
During the 1979 trial, a single cotyledon inoculation was made using the 15-pin in- 
oculation dispenser with reservoir described by Reed and Stevenson (3). 

Totals of 100 and 185 cultivars were evaluated in 1977 and 1979 respectively. 
To determine whether frequencies of resistant plants might vary between sources of 
seed of the same cultivar, lots from several companies were tested in 1979, increasing 
the number of treatments evaluated from 185 to 323. Due to the large number of 
treatments, only two replications were used in 1979. Seedling mortality was recorded 
twice weekly during greenhouse evaluations. Percent survival was computed by dividing 
the number of surviving seedlings by the number of inoculated seedlings. Percent sur- 
vival data presented in Tables 1-4 are means of the percent survival computed for 
each replication. During the 1979 trial, surviving plants were visually rated for symp- 
toms of the disease. A 1-5 rating scale was used where: 1 = plants without symptoms, 
2 = plants with chlorosis or wilting on cotyledons or lower leaves, 3 = plants with chlorosis 
or wilting in upper or terminal growth, 4 = plants with chlorosis or wilting throughout 
and dwarfed in size and 5 = plants dead. 

Results 

Resistance evaluations during 1976, 1977 and 1979 are reported in Tables 1 through 
5. All of the cultivars were tested in combined trials, but have been grouped into hybrids 
(Table 1), commercially available varieties (Table 2), obsolete cultivars (Table 3), breeding 
lines (Table 4), and a list of promising resistance sources (Table 5). Mean percent sur- 
vival of 46.3, 9.6 and 1.1 were observed, respectively for the 3 trials. For the 1976 
evaluation, striped cucumber beetle adult counts averaged 2.75 beetles per plant and 
ranged from per plant on the least attractive cultivar to 12.2 on the most attractive. 
Percent survival of the susceptible check cultivar Perlita were 60, 2, and and of the 
susceptible check cultivar Charentais Improved were 8, 6, and for the three trials. 
Cultivars; Wescan, Burrell's Gem, Hales Best, Harvest Queen, Hearts of Gold, 



Botany 133 

Table 1 . Summary of response of muskmelon hybrids screened for resistance to bacterial 
wilt, Erwinia tracheiphila (Smith) Dye. 

1976 1977 1979 



Cultivar 

Alaska Hy 
Ambrosia Hy 
Ball 1776 Hy 
Burpee Hy 
Bushwhopper Hy 

Canada Gem Hy 
Carnival Hy 
Chaca tt\ Hy 
Chando Hy 
Classic Hy 

Crenshaw Hy 
Croustillan Hy 
Dixie Jumbo Hy 
Earlisweet Hy 
Early Dawn Hy 

Giant Hy 
Golden Crispy Hy 
Gold Star Hy 
Harmony Hy 
Harper Hy 

Honey Drop Hy 
Known-You Hy 
Luscious Hy 
Mainerock Hy 
Market Pride F2 Hy 

Midwest Extra Early HY 
Minnesota Hy 16 
Minnesota Hy 26 
Oval Chaca Hy 
Roadside Hy 

Samson Hy 
Saticoy Hy 
Scoop Hy 
Star Headliner Hy 
Star Trek Hy 

Summet Hy 
Sundae Fl Hy 
Super Hy 
Super Market Hy 
Supreme Delight Hy 

Sweetie Hy 



# 


% 


tt 


% 


tt 


°?o 


Tested 


Survival 


Tested 


Survival 


Tested 


Survival 


— 


— 


— 


— 


49 





— 


— 


— 


— 


48 





— 


— 


— 


— 


41 





15 


20 


31 


10 


71 


3 


— 


— 


— 


— 


68 





— 


— 


— 





47 





— 


— 


— 


— 


43 





— 


— 


— 


— 


46 





— 


— 


— 


— 


73 





15 


67 


23 


10 


48 





— 


— 


— 


— 


62 





— 


— 


— 


— 


61 





15 


40 


— 


— 


49 





— 


— 


— 


— 


61 





— 


— 


— 


— 


48 





— 


— 


— 





58 





— 


— 


— 


— 


58 





— 


— 


— 


— 


50 





— 


— 


— 


— 


49 





15 


73 


36 


10 


48 





— 


— 


— 


— 


51 





— 


— 


— 


— 


46 





— 


— 


— 


— 


45 





— 


— 


— 


— 


43 





15 


73 


54 


10 


46 





— 


— 


— 


— 


47 





— 


— 


— 


— 


47 





— 


— 


— 


— 


14 





— 


— 


— 


— 


48 





— 


— 


— 


— 


46 





— 


— 


— 





43 





15 


47 


31 


19 


45 





— 


— 


— 


— 


49 





— 


— 


— 


— 


46 





— 


— 


— 


— 


47 


2 


— 


— 


— 


— 


46 





— 


— 


— 


— 


48 





— 


— 


— 


— 


29 


11 


15 


47 


60 


10 


44 





— 


— 


— 


— 


44 






Pride of Wisconsin, and Schoon's Hard Shell had the highest percent survival in 1976. 
Cultivars; Persianet, Md 63-53, Rocky Ford Poleock, Emerald Gem, PMR-8, Rocks, 
and Burreh"s Gem had the highest percent survival in 1977. Cultivars; Burrell's Gem, 



134 



Indiana Academy of Science 



Vol. 94 (1985) 



Table 2. Summary of response of commercial muskmelon cultivars screened for resistance 
to bacterial wilt, Erwinia tracheiphila (Smith) Dye. 







1976 




1977 




1979 




# 


% 


ff 


% 


n 


% 


Cultivar 


Tested 


Survival 


Tested 


Survival 


Tested 


Survival 


Amarelo 


— 


— 


— 


— 


39 





Banana 


15 


47 


32 


20 


97 


4 


Bender's Surprise 


— 


— 


— 


— 


107 


2 


Bush Midget 


— 


— 


— 


— 


67 





Casaba, Golden Beauty 


13 


8 


59 





74 





Casaba, Sun Gold 


— 


— 








33 





Cavillon Red-Fleshed 


— 


— 


— 


— 


38 





Charentais Improved 


12 


8 


24 


6 


47 





Chilton 


— 


— 


— 


— 


77 





Crenshaw 


14 


7 


41 





118 





Crenshaw Golden 


— 


— 


— 





44 





Cum Laude 


12 


7 


35 


12 


46 





Delicious 51 


15 


60 


55 


5 


508 


1 


Dr. Jaegar's Mildew Res. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


35 


3 


Dwarf 


— 


— 


— 


— 


37 


3 


Early Delicious 51 





— 


29 





77 





Early May 


10 


50 


27 


5 


53 





Early Sugar Midget 


— 


— 


10 





26 





Eden Gem 


15 


47 


5 





43 





Edisto 


15 


40 


9 


5 


132 


1 


Edisto 47 


15 


60 


43 


12 


227 


2 


Far North 


— 


— 


— 


— 


81 





Fordhook Gem 


15 


47 


48 


10 


31 





Four-Fifty (450) 


15 


60 


34 





37 





Giant 


15 


20 


47 


7 


42 





Gold Cup 


15 


40 


51 


10 


26 





Gold Cup 55 


— 


— 


— 


— 


45 





Golden Champlain 


— 


— 


— 


— 


86 


1 


Golden Honey 


15 


53 


49 


5 


46 





Golden Perfection 


15 


40 


37 


8 


80 


1 


Gold Lined Rockyford 


— 


— 


— 


— 


44 





Granite State 


— 


— 


— 


— 


48 





Green Nutmeg 


— 


— 


— 


— 


47 





Gulfcoast 


— 


— 


— 


— 


72 





Gulfstream 


15 


27 


64 


15 


76 


3 


Gusto 45 








48 


3 


46 





Hales Best 


15 


80 


33 


5 


222 


.5 


Hales Best 36 Improved 


15 


40 


42 


8 


290 


1 


Hales Best 936 


15 


60 


29 


22 


27 





Hales Best Jumbo 


15 


53 


50 


14 


378 


1 


Hales Best Jumbo Improved 














54 





Haogen 


— 


— 


— 


— 


37 





Harvest Queen 


15 


80 


36 


8 


370 


1 


Hearts of Gold 


15 


80 


57 


19 


472 


2 


Honey Rock 


14 


43 


41 


13 


464 


2 


Honey Rock Improved 


— 


— 


— 


— 


40 


2 


Illinois Hardshell 


— 


— 


— 


— 


42 


2 



Botany 



135 



Table 2. — Continued 







1976 




1977 




1979 




ft 


% 


# 


% 


# 


% 


Cultivar 


Tested 


Survival 


Tested 


Survival 


Tested 


Survival 


Imperial 5 


— 


— 


— 


— 


37 





Imperial 45 


— 


— 


— 


— 


49 





Imperial 4-50 


15 


20 


57 


9 


42 





Imperial 45-S12 


15 


53 


58 


2 


31 


8 


Iroquois 


15 


73 


56 


8 


551 


4 


Kangold 


15 


33 


50 


19 


122 


3 


King Henry 


15 


20 


46 


3 


35 


3 


Knight's Early 


— 


— 


— 


— 


40 





Mammoth 


— 


— 


58 


19 


48 


2 


Midget 


— 


— 


— 


— 


47 





Mildew Resistant 45 


— 


— 


— 


— 


93 


1 


Minnesota Honey 


— 


— 


— 


— 


43 





Minnesota Honey Mist 


— 


— 


— 


— 


38 





Minnesota Midget 


— 


— 


36 


15 


114 


2 


New Ideal 


— 


— 


29 


22 


79 


1 


No 45-SJ 


— 


— 


39 


2 


27 





Ogen 


11 





44 


2 


23 


2 


Old Time Tennessee 


15 





57 


13 


39 





Osage 


— 


— 


— 


— 


42 


2 


Pennsweet 


— 


— 


— 


— 


64 


3 


Perfection 


15 


60 


59 


7 


94 





Perlita 


15 


27 


67 


2 


79 





Persian Small 


— 


— 


43 


8 


31 





Planter's Jumbo 


15 


53 


48 


2 


226 


.4 


PMR-45 


14 


29 


64 


9 


122 


1 


PMR-450 


13 


31 


27 


2 


45 





Pride of Wisconsin 


15 


80 


38 


4 


275 


1 


Queen Of Colorado 


15 


67 


37 





110 


1 


Resistance #45 


— 











41 


7 


Rio Gold 


15 


33 


49 


3 


31 





Rocky Ford 


15 


53 


43 


16 


261 


.4 


Rocky Ford, Earliest 


— 


— 


— 


— 


.45 





Rocky Ford, Poleock 


— 


— 


31 


29 


"65 


5 


Roi du Nord 














42 





Schoon's Hardshell 


15 


80 


42 


7 


280 


.3 


Short 'N' Sweet 


— 


— 


— 


— 


55 





Shumway's Giant 


— 


— 


— 


— 


40 





Sierra Gold 


15 


7 


17 


5 


33 





Smith's Perfect 


— 


— 


34 


13 


177 





Spartan Rock 


15 


53 


35 


6 


174 





Sugar Salmon 


15 


53 


49 


20 


47 





Sulphur Resistant 59 


— 


— 


— 


— 


56 





Sulphur Resistant 91 


— 


- 


- 


- 


39 





Sweet Granite 














32 





Tarn Uvalde 


— 


— 


— 


— 


49 





Texas No. 1 


— 


— 


30 


5 


86 





Tip Top 


— 


— 


— 


— 


32 





Top Mark 


— 


- 


50 


11 


48 





Turkey 


15 


53 


55 


5 


47 





Yellow Canary 


— 


— 


— 


— 


14 


7 



136 



Indiana Academy of Science 



Vol. 94 (1985) 



Table 3 . Summary of response of obsolete muskmelon cultivars screened for resistance 
to bacterial wilt, Erwinia tracheiphila (Smith) Dye. 







1976 




1977 




1979 




» 


°/o 


n 


% 


ft 


% 


Cultivar 


Tested 


Survival 


Tested 


Survival 


Tested 


Survival 


Arizona 13 


— 


— 


— 


— 


26 


5 


Burpee's Fordhook 


— 


— 


55 


13 


47 





Burrell's Gem 


15 


93 


43 


25 


25 


25 


Burrell's Superfecto 


— 


— 


10 


10 


12 





Bush, M.M. 


— 


— 


9 


8 


7 





Campo 


5 


20 


— 


— 


45 





Daisy 


15 


53 


36 


9 


42 


7 


Dulce 


10 


30 


36 


2 


53 





Early Mayfair 


— 


— 


59 


14 


41 





Early Sunrise 


— 


— 


— 


— 


37 


5 


Early Wonder 


— 


— 


— 


— 


8 


16 


Emerald Gem 


— 


— 


33 


29 


29 


7 


Extra Early Hackensack 


— 


— 


20 


5 


41 





Extra Early Sunrise 


— 


— 


55 





36 





Healy's Pride 


15 


73 


30 


3 


15 





Honey Ball 


— 


— 


12 


6 


46 





Jenny Lind 


— 


— 


28 


5 


48 





Jewel 


10 


50 


22 


6 


32 


12 


Kilgore's Hummer 


— 


— 


26 


17 


46 





Milwaukee Market 


— 


— 


23 


8 


58 





Perfecto 








35 


23 


48 





Perfecto, Perfected 


— 


— 


61 


27 


— 


— 


Persianet 


8 


25 


26 


36 


44 





Pink Queen 


— 


— 


20 


8 


44 





Queen Anne's Pocket 


— 


— 


13 





34 


3 


Rock "O" Honey 


— 





29 


14 


45 


2 


Seneca Delicious 


— 


— 


19 


12 


46 





Sheridan 


— 


— 


27 





46 





Ward's Ideal 


— 


— 


13 


5 


49 


2 


Woodside Winner 


— 


— 


16 


5 


62 





Yate's Surprise 


- 


- 


27 


4 


43 






Early Wonder, Jewel, Super Hybrid, Imperial 45-S12, Resistant No. 45, and Yellow 
Canary, had the highest percent survival in 1979. Cultivars; Burrell's Gem, Early 
Wonder, Jewel, Super Hybrid, Yellow Canary, Imperial 45-S12, Resistant No. 45, Daisy, 
and Early Sunrise had the lowest mean disease severity ratings in 1979. Twenty-six 
cultivars had disease severity ratings of 1.00 for surviving plants in 1979 (Table 5). 
Analysis of variance for all three trials demonstrated significant differences be- 
tween cultivars. F values of 3.676 for 66/132 df in 1976 and 2.507 for 99/297 df in 
1977 were both significant at .01 probability. The 1979 trial was transformed with 
Arcsin because of the large number of cultivars with percent survival. The F value 
of 1.334 for 184/184 df in 1979 was significant at .05 probability. A Bayes LSD (BLSD) 
was used to separate the large number of means (5). For the 1976 trial BLSD's of 
31, 36, and 48 indicated significant differences between cultivars at K values of 50, 
100, and 500. For 1977, BLSD's of 17.2, 20.1, and 27.3 indicated significant differences. 



Botany 



137 



Table 4. Summary of response of muskmelon breeding lines screened for resistance 
to bacterial wilt, Erwinia tracheiphila (Smith) Dye. 







1976 




1977 




1979 




# 


% 


# 


% 


n 


% 


Cultivar 


Tested 


Survival 


Tested 


Survival 


Tested 


Survival 


AC 67-59 


— 


— 


— 


— 


34 


3 


Cobmelon 


4 


25 


32 


5 


41 





Doublon 


— 


— 


— 


— 


40 





Earl's Favorite 


— 


— 


— 


— 


14 





GA-47 


5 


60 


41 


14 


81 





Jacumba 


5 


20 


33 





32 





MD 63-53 


15 


47 


54 


34 


51 





Ogon 9 


— 


— 


— 


— 


65 





PMR-5 


3 





33 


2 


46 





PMR-6 


15 


40 


19 





— 


— 


PMR-8 


10 


30 


18 


28 


46 


2 


PMR-29 


— 


— 


— 


— 


64 





Purdue 44 


— 


— 


25 


4 


40 





Rocks 


10 


60 


28 


27 


49 





Santa Claus 


— 


— 


— 


— 


37 


2 


Seminole 














23 





Wescan 


5 


100 


23 


5 


57 





Yellow Green 


15 


40 


28 


7 


45 






For 1979, BLSD's of 14.1 and 18.8 indicated significant differences at K values of 
50 and 100. 



Discussion 

No muskmelon cultivar tested has ad adequate frequency of bacterial wilt resis- 
tant plants to be used in commercial plantings without insecticide protection; however, 
a substantial number of lines had sufficient frequencies of resistant plants to be used 
as germplasm for developing resistant varieties and hybrids. The 1979 trial provides 
the best comparison to select cultivars for four reasons. 

First, it was the only trial in which plants of the susceptible check cultivars Perlita 
and Charentais Improved were completely killed. The 1976 trial was not simply an 
evaluation of bacterial wilt resistance; but, also an evaluation of striped cucumber 
beetle feeding preference. It is of interest, however, that those lines with 80 to 100 
percent survival in the 1976 trial, with the exception of Wescan, had surviving plants 
in the 1979 trial. In 1977 some plants of the check cultivars escaped infection with 
the disease, even when inoculated 3 times. Of the 7 most resistant cultivars of the 
1977 trial, Persianet, Md 63-53, and Rocks proved to be totally susceptible in the 1979 trial. 

Second, of the 54 cultivars with frequencies of resistant plants in 1979, plants 
of only 3 of these lines were all susceptible, either in 1976 or 1977. Because all 3 of 
these cultivars had relatively low frequencies of resistant plants in 1979; the probability 
of a resistant plant occurring in the small number of plants tested in the earlier test 
could explain these inconsistencies. For instance, Queen Anne's Pocket had 3 percent 
survival in 1979, but none in 1977, when only 13 plants germinated for evaluation. 

Third, the 1979 evaluation was much more inclusive of cultivars than the earlier 
trials. 



138 



Indiana Academy of Science 



Vol. 94 (1985) 



Table 5 . Response of cultivars identified as sources of resistance to bacterial wilt Erwinia 
tracheiphila (Smith) Dye. 











1979 






1976 


1977 










Percent 
Survival 


Disease Rat 


ing 




Percent 
Survival 


Percent 
Survival 




Cultivar 


Overall 


Survivors 


Burrell's Gem 


93 


25 


25 


3.75 


1.00 


Early Wonder 


— 


— 


16 


4.35 


1.00 


Jewel 


50 


6 


12 


4.45 


1.00 


Super Hy 


— 


— 


11 


4.50 


1.30 


Imperial 45-S12 


53 


2 


8 


4.70 


1.30 


Resistant No. 45 


— 


— 


7 


4.70 


1.70 


Yellow Canary 


— 


— 


7 


4.65 


1.00 


Daisy 


53 


9 


7 


4.70 


1.70 


Emerald Gem 


— 


29 


7 


4.88 


1.00 


Early Sunrise 


— 


— 


5 


4.70 


1.00 


Arizona 13 


— 





5 


4.75 


1.00 


Rocky Ford Poleock 


— 


29 


5 


4.80 


1.00 


Iroquois 


73 


8 


4 


4.81 


1.30 


Banana 


47 


20 


4 


4.85 


1.00 


Kangold 


33 


19 


3 


4.88 


2.00 


Pennsweet 


— 





3 


4.93 


2.00 


AC 67-59 


— 


— 


3 


4.85 


1.00 


Queen Anne's Pocket 


— 





3 


4.85 


1.00 


King Henry 


20 


3 


3 


4.90 


2.00 


Burpee Hy 


20 


10 


3 


4.85 


1.00 


Dr. Jaeper's Mildew Resistant 


— 


— 


3 


4.85 


1.00 


Dwarf 


— 


— 


3 


4.95 


3.00 


Gulfstream 


27 


15 


3 


4.93 


2.50 


Santa Claus 


— 


— 


2 


4.90 


1.00 


Ogen 





2 


2 


4.93 


2.00 


Honey Rock Improved 


— 


— 


2 


4.90 


1.00 


Illinois Hardshell 


— 


— 


2 


4.90 


1.00 


Osage 


— 


— 


2 


4.90 


1.00 


PMR-8 


30 


28 


2 


4.95 


2.00 


Rock "O" Honey 


— 


14 


2 


4.95 


3.00 


Star Trek Hy 


— 





2 


4.85 


3.00 


Honey Rock 


43 


13 


2 


4.92 


1.60 


Mammoth 


— 


19 


2 


4.90 


1.00 


Ward's Ideal 


— 


5 


2 


4.95 


3.00 


Edisto 47 


60 


12 


2 


4.93 


2.50 


Hearts of Gold 


80 


19 


2 


4.92 


1.20 


Bender's Surprise 


— 


— 


2 


4.95 


1.50 


Minnesota Midget 


— 


15 


2 


4.97 


3.50 


New Ideal 


— 


22 


1 


4.95 


1.00 


Harvest Queen 


80 


8 


1 


4.91 


1.00 


Golden Perfection 


40 


8 


1 


4.93 


1.00 


Golden Champlain 


— 


— 


1 


4.85 


1.00 


Hales Best 36 Improved 


33 


8 


1 


4.95 


2.70 


Mildew Resistant 45 


— 


— 


1 


4.98 


2.00 


Pride of Wisconsin 


80 


4 


1 


4.95 


1.50 



Botany 139 



Table 5. — Continued 











1979 








1976 


1977 
















ing 






Percent 


Percent 


Percent 














Cultivar 


Survival 


Survival 


Survival 


Overall 


Survivors 


PMR-45 


29 


9 


1 


4.99 




4.00 


Queen of Colorado 


67 





1 


4.99 




4.00 


Hales Best Jumbo 


53 


14 


1 


4.97 




1.30 


Edisto 


40 


5 


1 


4.95 




1.00 


Delicious 51 


60 


5 


1 


4.99 




1.80 


Hales Best 


80 


5 


.5 


4.98 




1.00 


Planter's Jumbo 


53 


2 


.4 


4.98 




1.00 


Rocky Ford 


53 


16 


.4 


4.99 




1.00 


Schoon's Hardshell 


80 


7 


.3 


4.99 




4.00 



1 = plants without symptoms, 2 = plants with chlorosis or wilting on cotyledons or lower leaves, 3 = plants with chlorosis 
or wilting in upper or terminal growth but remaining vigorus, 4 = plants with wilting or chlorosis throughout and 
dwarfed in size, 5= plants that died. 

Fourth, the 1979 trial included an evaluation of disease severity which allows 
comparison based on effect of the disease on surviving plants as well as frequency 
of surviving plants. 

On this basis, muskmelon cultivars; Burrell's Gem, Early Wonder, Jewel, Super 
Hybrid, Imperial 45-S12, Resistant No. 45, Yellow Canary, Daisy, and Emerald Gem 
are the most useful cultivars for developing bacterial wilt resistance; however, testing 
of further lots of Super Hybrid indicated much lower levels of resistant plants. Of 
those cultivars, Burrell's Gem, Early Wonder, Jewel, Yellow Canary, and Emerald 
Gem had surviving plants without visible symptoms of the disease (Table 5). Of this 
group, Burrell's Gem is probably the best source of resistance. It performed well in 
all trials, had the lowest overall disease rating in 1979, and had no symptom develop- 
ment in surviving plants. 

The three cultivars with highest percent survival and six of the 10 with highest 
survival in the 1979 trial were obsolete cultivars, pointing out the need for preserving 
these irreplaceable resources. Finding the largest number of cultivars with frequencies 
of resistant plants to be from obsolete germplasm, indicates that recent trends in com- 
mercial muskmelon breeding have decreased numbers of cultivars with resistance to 
bacterial wilt. Comparisons of seed lots from several companies showed that though 
normal variance was observed, indications of significantly different frequencies of resis- 
tant plant between lots from different companies did not occur. 

In summary, 54 cultivars were identified which had frequencies of bacterial wilt 
resistant plants; but no cultivar tested was adequately resistant for commercial usage 
without insecticide protection. Among surviving plants, response to the disease varied; 
possibly indicating that different mechanisms for resistance might be present. Con- 
sidering the relatively low frequencies of resistant plants and the potential for more 
than one resistance mechanism, recurrent selection procedures should be effective in 
development of resistant germplasm. This research provides plant breeders with a list 
of cultivars which contain frequencies of resistant plants which should assist in the 
development of bacterial wilt resistant cultivars. 

Acknowledgments 

The authors would like to thank Sonja Myers, Bryan Robling, Grace Barrick, 



140 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 94 (1985) 

and Jerry Powell for their assistance in screening these cultivars; Dr. Louis Bass of 
the National Seed Storage Laboratory, USDA, ARS, for providing most of the obsolete 
cultivars and the many commercial seed companies and public muskmelon researchers 
which provided seed utilized in the research. 

Summary 

A decline in Midwestern muskmelon production during the past 30 years has 
resulted in fewer cultivars with resistance to bacterial wilt, Erwinia tracheiphila. Levels 
of resistance in 187 cultivars were assessed in field and greenhouse experiments. Resistance 
was most common in obsolete muskmelon cultivars and least common in current com- 
mercial hybrids. Commercially available cultivars which had resistant plants tended 
to be older cultivars. Of the 12 cultivars with highest frequency of resistant plants, 
half are obsolete. No cultivar tested was sufficiently resistant for commercial produc- 
tion without insecticide protection, but resistant plants were observed in many cultivars. 
Burrell's Gem, Early Wonder, and Jewel had the highest frequency of resistant plants. 

Literature Cited 

1. Gould, G.E. 1936. Studies on cucumber beetle control in 1935. J. Econ. Entomol. 
29(4):731. 

2. Rand, F.V. and Enlows, E.M. 1916. Transmission and control of bacterial wilt 
of cucurbits. J. Agr. Res. 6:417-434. 

3. Reed, G.L. and Stevenson, W.R. 1982. Methods for inoculating muskmelon with 
Erwinia tracheiphila. Plant Dis. 66:778-780. 

4. Romanowski, R.R. and Sims, C.E. 1976. Cantaloupe mulching studies in 
Southwestern Indiana. Purdue Univ. Hort. Dept., Veg., Crops Mimeo. 76-83. 

5. Smith, C.W. 1978. Bayes least significant differences: A review and comparison. 
Agron. J. 70:123-127. 

6. Watterson, J.C., Williams, P.H. and Durbin, R.D. 1971. Response of cucurbits 
to Erwinia tracheiphila bacterial wilt. Plant Dis. Rep. 55:816-819. 



Improving Efficiency of Iron Uptake by Soybeans 

Rosemary Rodibaugh and Connie Weaver 

Department of Foods and Nutrition 

Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 

Introduction 

In order to conveniently study the distribution, chemical form, and bioavailability 
of iron in plant foods, plants are intrinsically labeled with isotopes of the mineral. 
Usually this involves growing the plants hydroponically and introducing the label via 
the nutrient solution. 

Iron is the most difficult nutrient to keep in solution in hydroponic systems. The 
solubility of iron is highly pH dependent. It is more soluble in acid solutions and 
precipitates with phosphates in alkaline solutions (7). Chelating agents combine with 
micronutrients such as iron to form soluble complexes or chelates. By increasing the 
solubility of iron, these chelates play an important role in transporting iron to the 
plant roots (5). Certain chelating agents are more effective than others. EDDHA 
(ethylenediamine di (o-hydroxyphenylacetate)) has been shown to be effective over a 
wide pH range (pH 4-9) (3) and promote iron uptake-translocation in iron-stressed 
soybeans (1). DTPA (diethylenetriaminepentaacetate) is effective over the pH range 
4-7.8 (3). 

Soybeans typically absorb < 10% of available iron. Accumulation of iron by soy- 
beans is less efficient than other trace minerals such as zinc. In an effort to discover 
optimal conditions for intrinsically labelling soybeans with 59 Fe, this study investigated 
the efficiency of incorporation of a single does of 59 FeCl 3 into hydroponically grown 
soybeans under three different conditions: 1) nutrient solution containing DTPA, 2) 
nutrient solution containing EDDHA, and 3) root iron stripped with ferrozine prior 
to dosing. 

Materials and Methods 

Soybeans seeds [Glycine Max. (L) Merr. 'Century'] were germinated in vermiculite. 
After two weeks seedlings were transferred to 2 liter plastic pots containing a modified 
Hoagland-Arnon nutrient solution (4), measured pH 6.4. Iron was added as FeDTPA, 
sodium ferric diethylenetriaminepentaacetate (Sequestrene, Ciba Geigy Corp., 
Greensboro, N.C.). The nutrient solution was aerated continuously and replenished 
daily. There were six plants per pot and twelve plants per treatment. Plants were grown 
outdoors to the flowering stage at which time a single dose of 0.15 /tCi of 59 FeCl 3 was 
added to each pot. After two weeks of exposure to the 59 FeCl 3 , the roots were 
removed and discarded. The six plants from each pot were weighed together and assayed 
for 59 Fe in a whole body gamma counter. 

Three treatments were initiated at flowering. Group I plants remained in the 
modified Hoagland-Arnon nutrient solution (Table I) throughout the entire study. This 
has been the usual procedure for our lab (7). The chelating agent was DTPA. Four 
days prior to receiving the 59 FeCl 3 dose, group II plants were transferred to Chaney's 
nutrient solution (Table 1) which contained an excess of EDDHA and had a pH of 
7.2. The plants remained in Chaney's nutrient solution for the duration of the study. 
Group III plant roots were placed in a solution of 250mM sodium dithionite, a reduc- 
ing agent, and 1.5mM ferrozine, a strong Fe 2+ chelator, one day prior to dosing to 
strip iron from the roots. Nitrogen gas was bubbled through the solution to keep it 
oxygen-free, thus preventing reoxidation of Fe 2 + . After this treatment, the plants were 
transferred to Chaney's nutrient solution for the remainder of the study. 

141 



142 



Indiana Academy of Science 



Vol. 94 (1985) 



Table 1. Concentration of Individual Elements in Nutrient Solutions 



Element 



Modified Hoagland- 


Chaney's 


Arnon Nutrient Solutions' 


Nutrient Solution 


mM 


mM 


15 


15 


8.6 


1.12 


4 


5 


1 


0.02 


2 


2 


2 


5 


liM 


M M 


9 


2 


46 


10 


0.77 


1 


0.32 


0.4 


— 


0.2 


0.5 


0.2 


45 


4 


45 






40 


6.4 


7.2 



N 

K 

Ca 

P 

S 
Mg 



Mn 
B 
Zn 
Cu 
Co 
Mo 
Fe 



DPTA 
EDDHA 
PH 



'Ref. 4 
2 Ref. 2 



Results and Discussion 

Accumulation of 59 Fe by soybeans in the three treatment groups is shown in Table 
II. Plants in group I, exposed to DTPA, incorporated 4. 6% of the 59 Fe dose into 
plant shoots. Plants in group II, exposed to a molar excess of EDDHA, incorporated 
10.3% of the dose. This is more than twice as much as for group I. Stripping iron from 
the roots of the plants in Group III increased the uptake of 59 Fe to 13.0% of the 
dose when EDDHA was the chelating agent. The stripping process caused the plants 
to wilt and growth was stunted when compared to plants in groups I and II. 

Until recently, the best model for iron uptake by soybean plants was proposed 
by Chaney et al (1) who found that iron must be in the reduced form (Fe 2 + ) to be 

Table 2. Efficiency of S9 Fe Accumulation by Soybean Plants 



Treatment 



cpm i9 Fe 



Total weight of 
plants (g) 



% 5 'Fe dose 
in plant shoot 



Group I 


12,1 12 ± 575 


DTPA 




Group II 


27,175 + 4465 


EDDHA 




Group 111 


34,402 ±11,744 


EDDHA, 




stripped 




roots 





681 



735 



459 



4.6±0.2 C 



10.3±1.7 l 



13.0±4.4^ 



Different Superscripts denote significant difference at P^0.05 



Botany 



143 



absorbed. It has been known for several years that soybean roots are capable of reduc- 
ing Fe 3 + -chelates in their immediate vicinity. This reducing ability is greatly enhanced 
in iron deficiency. 

According to Chaney et al (1), the Fe 3 + -chelate is reduced to the Fe 2 + -chelate 
at the root. The Fe 2 + -chelate can be oxidized or can dissociate to free Fe 2 + and 
free chelating agent. The free Fe 2 + can be absorbed by the root, complex with the 
chelating agent, or complex with any competing chelating substance in the nutrient 
solution. 

Evidence is accumulating that the reduction of Fe 3 + -chelate is an enzymatic pro- 
cess that takes place at the plasmalemma of the epidermal cells on the root surface 
(6). This enzyme would be embedded in the plasmalemma and capable of transporting 
electrons across the membrane. Recently Sijmons and Bienfait (6) determined that 
cytosolic NADPH is the electron donor for extracellular Fe 3 + reduction in iron defi- 
cient bean roots. They found that the supply of reduced pyridine nucleotides in lateral 
roots of iron deficient beans was greatly enhanced, and that the level of cytosolic 
NADPH was strongly lowered when iron deficient roots were exposed to extracellular 
iron salts. This indicates that electrons are transported from the cytosolic NADPH to 
the Fe 3 + outside the cell via a transmembrance electron carrier (Figure 1). Sijmons and 
Bienfait concluded that one of the functions of trans-plasma transport systems in 
plant roots is the reduction of extracellular Fe 3 + -chelates which is a necessary step 
in the uptake of iron by the roots. 

There was an excess of EDDHA in the nutrient solution used in groups II and 
III. This excess chelating agent bound both the radioactive and non-radioactive forms 
of iron so that there was an equilibrium between the S9 Fe 3 + -chelate and Fe 3 + -chelate 
complexes. Therefore, all iron-chelate in the nutrient solution was equally available 



R 



Pentose -P- pathway 

Glycolysis" 

Others 



RH 




NAD(P)H 



NAD(P) + 



ROOT EPIDERMIS CELL 




OUT 



Fe 3 -chel 



Fe 2 !.chel 



V 



Fe 2+ 



Figure 1 . Diagram for Fe 3 + reduction mechanism by root epidermis cells adapted from 
Sijmons and Bienfait (6). 



144 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 94 (1985) 

for absorption. EDDHA is a more efficient chelating agent than DTP A because it 
binds Fe 3 + very tightly which keeps it from precipitating out of solution and makes 
it more available for absorption. EDDHA has a greater affinity for Fe 3 + and a lower 
affinity for Fe 2 + than does DTP A. When the Fe 3 + -chelate is reduced to Fe 2 + -chelate 
at the root, EDDHA releases the iron very readily. Thus EDDHA delivers iron to 
the roots more efficiently than DTPA. Also, soybeans have been shown to adapt to 
excess chelating agent in nutrient solutions by increasing their ability to reduce and 
absorb iron (1). EDDHA was present in excess but DTPA was not. A third reason 
for increased efficiency of accumulation of Fe 3 + by group II plants over group I plants 
could be the lower iron concentration of the nutrient solution. 

The further increase in 59 Fe uptake by the plants in group III was due to the 
removal of non-radioactive iron from the immediate vicinity of the roots. There was 
less competition for absorption between the non-radioactive iron and the 59 Fe than 
in group II. Therefore, more of the 59 Fe was available for absorption. There was an 
increase in the uptake of 59 Fe, but not necessarily total iron. The drawback to this 
increased 59 Fe uptake is that the procedure used to strip iron from the roots caused 
the plants to wilt and their growth to be stunted. 

The data presented here indicate that nutrient solutions containing EDDHA result 
in more efficient uptake of an iron label than those containing DTPA. Prior stripping 
of iron from roots is not recommended. 



Literature Cited 

1. Chaney, R.L., J.C. Brown, and L.O. Tiffin, 1972. Obligatory reduction of ferric 
chelates in iron uptake by soybeans. Plant Physiol. 50:208-213. 

2. Chaney, R.L., 1984. Personal communication. 

3. Halvorson, A.D. and W.L. Lindsay, 1972. Equilibrium relationships of metal 
chelates in hydroponic solutions. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. Proc, 36:755-761. 

4. Hoagland, P.R. and Arnon, D.I., 1950. The water culture method for growing 
plants without soil. Calif. Agric. Exp. Sta. Circular 347. 

5. Lindsay, W.L., 1974. Role of chelation in micronutrient availability, in The Plant 
Root and its Environment, E.W. Carson, ed. University Press of Virginia, 
Charlottesville, VA. 

6. Sijmons, P.C., and H.J. Bienfait, 1983. Source of electrons for extracellular Fe(III) 
reduction in iron deficient bean roots. Physiol. Plant. 59:409-415. 

7. Weaver, CM., H.A. Schmitt, M.A. Stuart, A.C. Mason, N.R. Meyer, and J.G. 
Elliot, 1984. Radiolabeled iron in soybeans: intrinsic labeling and bioavailability 
of iron to rats from defatted flour. J. Nutr., 114:1035-1041. 



A Compilation of Plant Diseases and Disorders in Indiana — 1984 

Gail E. Ruhl, Richard X. Latin, Paul C. Pecknold 

and Donald H. Scott 

Department of Botany and Plant Pathology 

Purdue University 

West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 

Introduction 

The Plant Diagnostic Clinic in the Department of Botany and Plant Pathology 
at Purdue University is a service of the Cooperative Extension Service, Purdue 
Agricultural Experiment Station. The clinic provides a free service to interested per- 
sons through the county extension system for accurate identification of weeds, plant 
diseases and plant disorders. This paper is a summary of the major plant diseases 
and disorders which were diagnosed in the clinic and observed throughout the state 
in 1984. 

Methods 

Plant specimens are submitted to the Plant Diagnostic Clinic from county exten- 
sion agents, homeowners, growers, nursery operators, consultants, and others. Specimens 
are diagnosed visually or by culturing the pathogen on selected media. Some virus 
diseases are diagnosed by the leaf dip (negative stain) technique utilizing the electron 
microscope. Once a disease or disorder is diagnosed, appropriate control measures 
are suggested. A summary of the samples diagnosed from January 1 through Nov. 
26, 1984 is given in Table 1. 

Results 

The incidence and severity of infectious diseases were greatly influenced by extremes 
in environmental conditions in 1984. Weather and site-related problems were com- 
monplace. The severe cold temperatures of December, 1983, in conjunction with a 
lack of snow cover caused widespread death or injury to both agronomic and ornamental 
crops. 

Shade and Ornamental Trees 

Diseases: Ash anthracnose was exceptionally severe in the southern areas of the state, 
resulting in heavy defoliation during May and early June. Anthracnose on sycamore, 
white oak and maple was also severe. Sycamores especially showed extensive dieback 
and twig infection. Apple scab was the most common disease on crabapples, causing 
extensive leap drop throughout the summer. Rust diseases in general were severe, 
especially cedar quince rust on hawthorn. 

Disorders: The severe cold in December in conjunction with a lack of snow cover caused 
widespread death or injury to both landscape trees and nursery seedlings. The sudden 
freezing caused extensive damage at the Vallonia State Nursery. Especially hard hit 
were black walnut, white, black, English and cherrybark oaks, tulip, ash, and Chinese 
chestnut seedlings. Established landscape trees most severely damaged were sweetgum, 
ornamental cherry, and purple leaf plum. The northern third of Indiana experienced 
severe winter burn to conifers and broadleaved evergreens. White oak "tatters," a 
newly discovered disorder of white oak, was very prevalent in the northern half of the 
state. The exact cause of this disorder is not yet known. Tree decline and leaf scorch 
were the most predominant problems during the summer. 

145 



146 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 94 (1985) 

Table 1 . Plant samples received in the Purdue Plant Diagnostic Clinic Jan. 1 through 
Nov. 26, 1984. 





Number of 










Plant Speciman 


Samples 


Diseases 


Disorders 


Chemical 


Nutritional 


AGRONOMIC 












Corn 


95 


36 


3! 


13 


9 


Soybeans 


101 


81 


9 


5 




Small Grain 


28 


19 


6 


2 


4 


Forage Grasses 












and Legumes 


31 


25 


4 


1 


2 


ORNAMENTAL 












Trees-Shade and 












Ornamental 


332 


114 


181 


14 


5 


Shrubs and 


i 










Groundcover 


79 


12 


54 


5 


1 


Flowers 


50 


30 


9 


3 


4 


House plants 


13 


7 


3 








FRUIT 












Tree Fruit 


62 


26 


27 


1 


2 


Small Fruit 


41 


13 


21 


4 





VEGETABLE 


100 


47 


22 


13 


5 


TURFGRASS 


45 


25 


20 


1 


1 


PLANT IDENTIFICATION 


167 














FORWARDED TO 












ENTOMOLOGY 


64 


— 


— 


— 


— 


TOTAL 


1208 


435 


387 


79 


38 



Problems caused by an infectious disease causing agent, e.g. fungus, bacterium, virus, mycoplasma, nematode. 
Problem caused by noninfectious environmental stress, e.g. wind, drought, heat, soil compaction. 
c Problem caused by herbicide/pesticide misuse. 
Problem caused by a nutrient imbalance. 



Ornamentals 

Diseases: Powdery mildew was the most frequently recorded disease of shrubs and 
flowers. Those plants most frequently recorded with powdery mildew infections were 
lilac, rose, euonymus, and zinnia. Crown gall on euonymus was very noticeable during 
the early spring period. 

Disorders: Injury from the severe December cold was most noticeable on cotoneaster, 
euonymus, pyracantha, holly, rhododendron and barberry. However, many other 
ornamentals also showed cold damage. The extent of cold injury varied, depending 
on plant age, location and vigor. Symptoms associated with cold injury were complete 
plant death, delayed leafing out, sudden wilt and dieback of new growth, as well as 
severe cracking of young exposed tissue. 

Tree Fruits 

Diseases: Heavy rainfall in late April and May resulted in outbreaks of apple scab 
in a number of commercial apple orchards. Cedar apple rust was also prevalent. Of 
interest was the very light amount of fire blight. This usually widespread disease was 
only noted in a few orchards in the northern part of Indiana during late June. The 



Botany 147 

most noticeable disease on peaches and nectarines was bacterial leafspot, which caused 
mild to moderate leaf injury in isolated orchards. Peach leaf curl and plum pockets 
on both peach and nectarine were common during mid and late spring. 

Disorders: The extreme cold killed fruit buds of many stone fruits. Peach and nec- 
tarine were especially damaged. Only the southernmost part of the state yielded a peach 
or nectarine crop. In addition to cold injury on fruit buds, there was extensive cold 
damage to stem tissue of all tree fruits, most noticeably stone fruits. Many peach trees 
were killed or showed extensive limb death. Cold injury to the roots of various apple 
root stocks, especially E.M. 7, was noted in a number of orchards in the southern 
portion of the state. Damage was most severe on exposed sites which had no snow 
cover during December. 

Small Fruits 

Diseases: Strawberries were the most frequently submitted of the small fruit specimens. 
However, no major infectious diseases were recorded on strawberries during the grow- 
ing season. Various leaf spots, Botrytis fruit rot and black root rot were common 
diseases on samples submitted to the clinic. Raspberry anthracnose and other cane 
infecting diseases were frequently observed on brambles. 

Disorders: Cold injury to roots and the root-crown area was the most prevalent disorder 
of strawberries and raspberries. Such injury resulted in extensive losses to many com- 
mercial growers. Entire fields were killed in certain areas of the state. 

Turf grass 

Diseases: In general, weather conditions were good for turfgrass growth and develop- 
ment during 1984. Disease problems were relatively minor and scattered except for 
early spring when wet, cool weather was favorable for development of the Helmin- 
thosporium leaf blight and melting out complex. 

Disorders: Excessive thatch accumulation continues to be a major cause of turfgrass 
problems in home laws. 

Vegetables 

Hot, dry weather in early June may be responsible for the relatively low levels 
of foliage diseases throughout the weeks of summer. Moderate or severe epidemics 
of foliar vegetable diseases did not occur until late August and mid September, when 
cool nights were accompanied by heavy dews. Significant disease problems were observed 
on vegetable seedlings, cucurbits, tomatoes, and crucifers. 

Seedling diseases: Damping-off, caused by Pythium spp., was diagnosed in muskmelon 
and watermelon seedbeds. Most seedbeds showed less than 1% damping-off. However, 
at two locations farmers lost more than 30% of their seedlings to damping-off. Pepper 
seedbeds were again plagued by Rhizoctonia spp., which caused a wirestem symptom 
and death of young seedlings. The problem occurred mostly in outdoor seedbeds, but 
occasional problems were observed among greenhouse grown seedlings. 

Cucurbit diseases: The usual melon foliar blights, powdery mildew and Alternaria leaf 
blight, were established late in the season and, therefore, resulted in little or no yield 
loss. An epidemic of downy mildew developed in the melon crop in southwestern Indiana 
during mid September. The disease was established too late to cause significant economic 
loss. 

A malady associated with environmental stress (nutrient imbalance, acid soil, and 
air pollution) occurred on a significant number of melon farms in 1984. The problem 



148 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 94 (1985) 

was diagnosed in south-central Indiana (Jackson County) for the first time. 

Incidence of bacterial wilt was reduced from levels observed in previous years. 
Presumably registration and widespread application of a soil-incorporated insecticide 
is responsible for reduced levels of bacterial wilt. 

Fusarium wilt was severe in southwestern Indiana wherever growers planted wilt 
susceptible cultivars. 'Superstar,' a Fusarium wilt resistant muskmelon cultivar that 
accounted for less than 5% of the acreage in 1982, was estimated to occupy more 
than 60% of the land planted to muskmelons. Fusarium wilt remained a mild problem 
on watermelons because growers have been using cultivars that are more resistant. 

Tomato disease: Widespread, serious epidemics of major tomato fruit and foliage diseases 
did not develop in 1984. Low incidences of anthracnose, bacterial speck, bacterial spot, 
early blight, gray leaf spot, and Septoria leaf spot were observed in many fields. Bacterial 
canker caused severe or near total losses of fresh market and processing tomatoes at 
a variety of locations throughout the state. Until the seed sources can be accurately 
assayed and indexed for presence of the bacterial canker organism, this disease will 
continue to be a significant threat to tomato production. 

Sclerotinia stem rot was responsible for the near total loss of a field in central 
Indiana. The distribution of Sclerotinia infected plants normally is very clustered and 
incidence usually is less than 0.01%. Patterns in the field and field history suggested 
that the organism was introduced by transplants obtained from other states. The presence 
of this disease may present long-term problems because the pathogen will remain in- 
definitely in northern soils and also may depress soybean yields. 

Crucifer diseases: Black rot of cabbage was observed on the most susceptible varieties 
in northwestern Indiana. Downy mildew of cabbage, cauliflower, and broccoli was 
observed in commercial fields in mid-September. 

Agronomic Crops 

Disease - Wheat: Extremely cold temperatures in December, 1983, coupled with no 
snow cover resulted in considerable winter kill in the southern half of Indiana. Wheat 
in the northern half of the state was protected by adequate snow cover, and only minor 
winter kill was observed. Rhizoctonia spring blight was prevalent, primarily in southern 
Indiana, and this disease coupled with winter kill resulted in poor stands in many fields. 
The cool, wet spring was favorable for the development of Septoria leaf blotch and 
some powdery mildew. Dry June conditions, however, kept these diseases from develop- 
ing to major yield-reducing proportions. Leaf rust developed throughout the state and 
to severe levels in some fields. However, the disease developed late in the growing 
season and yield losses were estimated to be small. Take-all was severe in some scat- 
tered fields but was not a significant problem in most fields. While a few fields were 
sparsely affected with either wheat spindle streak mosaic or barley yellow dwarf virus, 
both of these diseases were minor and considerably less prevalent than during the 1983 
growing season. A few fields were affected with bunt. Bunt appeared to be primarily 
in individual fields in the north-central and north-eastern part of the state. 

Diseases - Corn: Cool, wet weather delayed corn planting in many fields. Those fields 
that were planted in late April and early May were subjected to heavy rainfall. As 
a result, portions of many of these fields were flooded for brief periods of time, and 
crazy top (Sclerophthora macrospora), developed in small scattered areas of many of 
these fields throughout the state. Overall, however, this disease caused only minor 
yield losses. Foliar diseases were at low levels throughout the growing season. Minor 
field infections by the organisms that cause the leaf blight phase of Stewart's disease, 
southern corn leaf blight, holcus spot, northern corn leaf blight and northern corn 



Botany 149 

leaf spot were observed. Common corn smut was noted throughout the state, but yield 
losses were minor. Stalk rots were prevalent in most fields, with some fields having 
50% or more of the plants affected. Gibberella and Fusarium stalk rots were most 
common with moderate amounts of anthracnose stalk rot. Fusarium ear rot was the 
most common corn disease, however not severe enough to cause significant yield loss. 
Only rare, light occurrences of Gibberella ear rot were observed. 

Disorders - Corn: Hot, dry conditions coupled with several days of continuous high 
winds dried out the upper soil surfaces of many corn fields when plants were starting 
to develop the crown root system. These environmental conditions were incompatible 
with the proper development of the crown root system, and a condition called floppy 
corn developed in widespread areas of the state. Cultivation and/or timely rainfall 
alleviated the condition in most fields. 

A condition of unknown etiology occurred for the first known time in several 
southern Indiana fields. A wide range of symptoms were associated with this disorder. 
Abnormal plant growth was first observed when corn plants were in the 4th to 5th 
leaf stage. The symptoms were stunted, chlorotic plants with portions of new leaves 
emerging from the whorl that were translucent and dead or dying. This tissue death 
gave plant leaves a "shot-hole" or "cut-leaf" appearance. The initial symptoms were 
rapidly followed by leaf trapping and twisting which produced a downward curvature 
of plant tops. Multiple suckers developed in many affected plants. In severely affected 
fields, varying numbers of these plants died (as high as 50%). Later symptoms were 
stunted to spindly single to multiple plants or highly deformed, severely stunted plants 
with extremely shortened internodes. Split stalks and deformed leaves were commonly 
found on the shorter plants. As affected plants reached the reproductive stage, tassels 
were either absent, did not emerge because of leaf trapping, or, in some cases, emerged 
normally. Ear shoot development was variable from none to a single ear shoot at each 
of several nodes. Also in many plants, ear shoot development occurred at the top 
of the plants where the tassel normally develops. Sometimes only ear shoots appeared 
at the tassel's location, while in other cases a combination of ear shoots and tassels 
developed. When ears developed, regardless of location on the plant, they were small, 
poorly pollinated and had a definite curvature. One of the most striking symptoms 
was the development of the ear at the top of the plant. Other symptoms noted on 
some plants were abnormally long silks and abnormally long, multiple husks that gave 
ears a feather duster appearance. 

The disorder was at first thought to be associated only with no-till corn in PIK 
ground with a heavy sweet clover residue. However, the condition was later found 
in other tillage systems and with different plant residues. However, the condition was 
more severe and more prevalent in no-till systems. One severely affected field was 
no-till corn into wheat stubble. The condition was observed across several hybrids and 
herbicide treatments. Purdue entomologists could find no consistent evidence of insect 
injury in the affected fields. Purdue, Kentucky, and Illinois plant pathologists could 
find no evidence of a plant pathogen in or on the affected plants that is known to 
cause similar abnormalities. Some of the symptoms exhibited by affected plants were 
similar to symptoms of the downy mildew disease known as crazy top, but oospores 
of the causal agent could not be found. With crazy top, these oospores are readily 
found in diseased tissue. 

The only consistent factors found in all affected fields were that the planter opening 
did not close in no-till, or planting was very shallow with some exposed seed in other 
tillage systems. Also, planting dates between May 15 and June 1 and wet soil condi- 
tions seemed to be consistent. In nearly every instance (with only 1 known exception), 
heavy rainfall occurred within a day to a few days after planting. 



150 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 94 (1985) 

It is possible that the abnormal development was due to a hormone imbalance 
within the plant, but no one has yet secured evidence as to what caused the imbalance* 
The general consensus of opinion at Purdue is that the cause was probably a combina- 
tion of factors rather than a single causal agent. The causal agent or agents is or are 
probably exceedingly rare, as this was the first time anyone recalls seeing the problem. 
Further laboratory and greenhouse experiments are being conducted. 

Diseases - Soybean: Pythium and Phytophthora seedling blights were common in fields 
planted before mid-May. Rhizoctonia root rot was common and occasionally severe 
in many fields. Phytophthora occurred in some fields, but it was not severe. Bacterial 
blight, downy mildew, and brown spot were common foliar diseases, but their severity 
was not sufficient to cause significant yield reductions. The most damaging soybean 
diseases were caused by soil-borne pathogens and did not become evident until mid- 
season or later. Brown stem rot was more prevalent and damaging than in recent years. 
Charcoal root rot was prevalent in southern Indiana and damaging in several fields. 
The soybean cyst nematode was identified in additional fields, especially in the north- 
western part of the state, and Sclerotinia stem rot caused yield losses in some central 
Indiana fields. 

Diseases - Alfalfa: Foliar diseases were prevalent throughout the state before the first 
cutting. Sclerotinia crown and stem rot was observed in several fields. This disease 
was especially damaging in a few fall seeded fields. The crown, root rot complex was 
responsible for killing patches of plants in some fields. Rust developed severely in 
a few stressed fields late in the season. 



CELL BIOLOGY 

Chairperson: Ralph Jersild 

Department of Anatomy 

Indiana University School of Medicine 

Indianapolis, Indiana 46202 (317)264-8730 

Chairperson-Elect: Robert Stark 

Department of Zoology, DePauw University 

Greencastle, Indiana 46135 (317)653-4776 



ABSTRACTS 

Effect of Acetylcholine Stimulation on Cytosolic Chloride in Parotid Acinar Cells. 

Kathy Burek and Robert J. Stark, DePauw University, Greencastle, Indiana 

46135. In parotid salivary glands, acetylcholine stimulates fluid, electrolyte, and 

protein secretion and hyperpolarizes the basolateral membrane. To examine the ionic 
mechanisms involved in this process, we used ion-selective and conventional microelec- 
trodes to measure the cytosolic chloride activity (a c ,) and basolateral membrane poten- 
tial (Em) during acetylcholine stimulation of mouse parotid glands. In unstimulated 
cells, a c i was 45.2 ± 1.1 mM (n=25) and Em was -33.8 ± 1.6 mV (n = 66). 
Acetylcholine at concentrations of 2X 10-9, lx 10-8, IX 10-7, lx 10-6 and lx 10-5 M 
produced a decrease in a c , of 3.5 ± 0.3, 4.4 ± 0.7, 8.0 ± 0.5, 9.3 ± 0.7, and 9.5 ± 
1.8 mM and hyperpolarized Em by 0.6 ± 0.1, 1.4 ± 0.2, 4.9 ± 0.2, 8.4 ± 0.3 and 
8.4 ± 0.5 mV respectively. The inverse relationship observed between Em and log 
a c , suggests that the membrane hyperpolarizations occurring in response to acetylcholine 
stimulation may be related to the corresponding changes in cytosolic chloride. (Sup- 
ported by a Research Grant from the Indiana Academy of Science) 

Physiological Studies of Azospirillum amazonense. Edwin M. Goebel and Deborah 
A. McMahan, Department of Biological Sciences, Indiana University-Purdue Univer- 
sity at Fort Wayne, Fort Wayne, Indiana 47805. Members of the genus Azospirillum 

have been shown to fix nitrogen under microaerophilic conditions in both tropical 
and temperate regions. The microbe will fix nitrogen either in association with the 
roots of non-legume plants or free-living in the soil. Two species within the genus 
have been extensively studied. Neither of these species were able to utilize disaccharides 
for catabolism. A newly described species, A. amazonense, has been shown to utilize 
certain disaccharides, especially sucrose. This species shares the ability to use various 
five and six carbon sugars and organic acids with the other two members of the genus. 
This species has been shown by others to belong to the genus by means of comparing 
G + C ratio and morphological characteristics. The study reported here sought to deter- 
mine which compounds could be used by the microbe grown under either nitrogen- 
fixing or fixed nitrogen conditions. Growth occurred in all conditions tested; however, 
the best growth occurred with glucose, sucrose, citrate, succinate and malate. Growth 
also occurred with galactose, rhamnose, xylose, fructose, ribose, and both D- and L- 
arabinose. Growth studies in a defined medium containing ammonium sulfate showed 
the doubling time to be shortest (1.5-2.5 hours) when either glucose or sucrose was 
provided. Growth with fructose or galactose was considerably slower. Attempts have 
also been made to isolate Azospirillum species from the soil in the midwestern area 
of the U.S. A semi-solid nitrogen-free malate medium was utilized for primary isola- 

151 



152 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 94 (1985) 

tion. Secondary isolation was accomplished by selecting characteristic colonies grow- 
ing on a complex agar medium containing congo red. 

A Brief History of the Cell Biology Section, Indiana Academy of Science. Ralph 
A. Jersild, Jr., Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana 

46223. The first meeting of the Cell Biology Section was held during the fall meeting 

of the Academy, October 21, 1967, at Indiana University, Bloomington. For two years 
prior to this, a number of scientists and technicians from throughout the state of In- 
diana and with common interests in electron microscopy had been meeting as a separate 
group. By 1967 this group was well-established, and it became clear that a more for- 
mal organization was needed. Informal discussions were initiated with Dr. A. A. Lind- 
sey, then President of the Academy, for organization as a Section within the Academy. 
At the time, the formation of a Cell Biology Section had been under consideration 
by the Academy. At its spring 1967 meeting, therefore, the Academy offered to tem- 
porarily establish a Cell Biology Section through which our group could present and 
determine the extent of interest statewide. The idea was accepted enthusiastically. The 
divisional meeting in the fall of 1967 was considered a success, with 12 papers and 
3 exhibits presented. The Executive Committee of the Academy subsequently voted 
at their spring 1968 meeting to make the Cell Biology Section permanent. It was an 
honor for me to serve as the Section's first chairperson. Others from the original group 
that were instrumental in organizing the Section include Dr. D. James Morre and Dr. 
Edward J. Hinsman, Purdue University; and Dr. James E. Carter, Indiana University 
School of Medicine. From 1967 through 1984, 13 different persons have chaired this 
Section, representing 11 institutional locations around the state. An average of 12 papers 
have been presented yearly during this period by persons with interests in Cell Biology. 

Concanavalin A Inhibits Oral Regeneration in Stentor coeruleus by Binding to the 
Cell Surface. Michael S. Maloney, Department of Zoology, Butler University, 

Indianapolis, Indiana 46208. Loss of the oral feeding apparatus of the ciliate Stentor 

coeruleus results in the regeneration of a new one in 8-10 hrs, a process known as 
oral regeneration. Cell surface glycoproteins seem to be involved in oral regeneration 
as Concanavalin A (Con A), which binds to such proteins, delays oral regeneration. 
Binding of Con A to the cell surface of Stentor is indicated by the fact that a-methyl 
mannoside completely reverses the effect of Con A on oral regeneration. Crosslinking 
of membrane bound Con A receptor molecules may also be involved as succinyl Con 
A, which does not crosslink these receptors in other cells, has no effect on oral regenera- 
tion. To provide a direct demonstration of Con A binding to the cell surface, cells 
were exposed to fluorescein isothiocyanate Con A (FITC-Con A) for 30 min, fixed, 
and then examined by fluorescence microscopy. Upon exposure to FITC-Con A, the 
Con A is localized on the cell surface as accumulations of fluorescent granules on 
the posterior one half of the cell. These granules are always localized in the pigmented 
stripes between the rows of body cilia. Smaller fluorescent granules were also found 
in a linear array at the base of the membranellar cilia in the gullet area. Quite often 
the entire membranellar band was diffusely stained. Fixed cells without FITC-Con A 
exposure show none of these features. When cells are treated simultaneously with FITC- 
Con A and a-methyl mannoside, there is no binding of Con A. 

Supported by a Holcomb Research Fellowship from Butler University. 

The Effect of Fasting on Sodium Pump Activity in Rat Skeletal Muscle. John W. 
Munford and Thomas Koenig, Department of Biology, Wabash College, Crawfords- 
ville, Indiana 47933. It has recently been reported that decreased circulating in- 



Cell Biology 153 

sulin levels, resulting from either diabetes or fasting, are associated with a significant 
increase in intracellular sodium levels in rat skeletal muscle. It has been suggested that 
this increase in intracellular sodium results from decreased sodium pump activity. To 
test this hypothesis, the effect of fasting-induced hypoinsulinemia on the rate of 22 Na 
efflux from rat soleus muscle was investigated. In soleus muscles isolated from rats 
fasted for 72 hrs, the rates of both total 22 Na efflux and ouabain-sensitive 22 Na efflux 
were decreased by approximately 20% compared to the rates of 22 Na efflux of muscles 
from fed rats. However, it appears that soleus muscles from fasted rats retain their 
sensitivity to insulin since the in vitro treatment of soleus muscles from rats fasted 
for 72 hrs with insulin increased the rate of 22 Na efflux to the same level as in muscles 
from fed rats. The decreased rate of 22 Na efflux in muscles from fasted rats may be 
the result of a decreased number of sodium pump sites since preliminary data suggests 
that soleus muscles from rats fasted for 72 hrs have a decreased number of 3 H-ouabain 
binding sites compared to muscles from fed rats. 

Increased Binding of Growth Hormone Following Cleavage by Rabbit Liver 
Plasmalemma. Jeanette M. Schepper and James P. Hughes, Department of Life 

Sciences, Indiana State University, Terre Haute, Indiana 47809. Several studies 

have shown that proteolytic cleavage can enhance the biological activity of the growth 
hormone (GH) molecule. It seemed possible therefore, that proteolytic modification 
of GH structure might be a normal function of GH-target tissues. Plasmalemma-enriched 
fractions isolated from rabbit liver were found to contain a proteinase(s) which cleaved 
the large disulfide loop of human (h) and rat (r) GH. The proteolytic activity was 
specific to plasmalemma-enriched fractions in that much lower activities were observed 
in microsomal-enriched fractions prepared from the same livers. The plasmalemmal 
proteinase(s) may be a trypsin-like enzyme because proteolytic activity was decreased 
by the two serine proteinase inhibitors. Inhibition by unlabeled hGH of [ 125 I] GH 
binding to receptors did not prevent cleavage of the tracer; therefore, hormone-receptor 
interaction was not required for cleavage of the GH molecule. In binding studies, cleaved 
GH associated more readily than did intact hormone with rabbit liver receptors. These 
studies suggest that plasmalemma-enriched fractions prepared from rabbit liver con- 
tain a proteinase which cleaves the GH molecule in a highly specific manner. Moreover, 
it is unlikely that inactivation of GH is the function of this limited proteolysis because 
cleaved hormone is bound preferentially by at least a subset of receptors in rabbit liver. 

Protein Degradation after Eccentric Exercise. A.C. Snyder, A.R. Coggan and J.J. 
Uhl, Human Performance Laboratory, Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana 

47306. Net degradation of proteins in skeletal muscle and liver occurs after 

exhaustive exercise. Similarly, increases in muscle protein degradation and structural 
alternations occur following nonexhaustive eccentric muscular contractions (force pro- 
duced in lengthening muscles). The purposes of this study were to determine: 1) if 
increasing muscle protein, but not liver protein degradation, occurred following a single 
bout of nonexhaustive eccentric exercise, and 2) the association between this muscle 
protein breakdown and the activity of the calcium activated factor (CAF), a muscle 
protease. METHODS: Male rats were randomly assigned to one of two groups: 1) 
sedentary or 2) exercised for 90 minutes down a 16° decline on a treadmill at 16 m/min. 
Animals were sacrificed 24 hours following the exercise bout and the appropriate tissues 
were removed. RESULTS: Following the exercise, muscle protein degradation was 
significantly increased; however, no change in liver protein content was observed. The 
activity of the CAF enzyme was not increased in any of the muscles examined follow- 
ing the exercise bout. CONCLUSIONS: 1) Muscle protein but not liver protein degrada- 



154 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 94 (1985) 

tion increases following a single nonexhaustive eccentric exercise. 2) As the CAF enzyme 
is thought to be the initiating enzyme of protein degradation, the exact mechanism 
causing the increased degradation following nonexhaustive eccentric exercise remains 
unknown. 

Calmodulin Stimulation of ATP-Dependent Ca 2 + Uptake in Maize Root 
Microsomes. Martin A. Vaughan, Timothy J. Mulkey and Charles W. Goff, 
Department of Life Sciences, Indiana State University, Terre Haute, Indiana 

47809. The ATP-dependent uptake of Ca 2 + by microsomal membrane fractions 

prepared from 1 cm segments of maize root tips was assayed in the presence of added 
bovine calmodulin and calmodulin antagonists. Increased concentrations of bovine 
calmodulin resulted in increased ATP-dependent Ca 2 uptake by the microsomal 
vesicles. The magnitude of calmodulin stimulation over calmodulin depleted controls 
ranged from 200-400%. The very specific calmodulin antagonist R24571 inhibited the 
ATP-dependent Ca 2+ uptake by 90% at a concentration of 10~ 4 M. A concentration 
of 0.5mM chlorpromazine, a phenothiozine drug, was required to affect a similar level 
of inhibition. Contrary to previous reports, these data strongly suggest that the ATP- 
dependent Ca 2+ uptake of maize root microsomes is a calmodulin mediated process. 

The Effect of Illumination on the Rat Pineal as Measured by MSH Activity. Henry 

C. Womack, Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana 47306. Albino rats were kept 

in constant light or constant darkness for a period of 24 hours. The animals were 
then decapitated and their pituitary glands removed, weighed, and homogenized. The 
melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) activity of these glands was assayed by in- 
jecting the test material into the dorsal lymph sacs of hypophysectomized frogs. Pinealec- 
tomized and sham-pinealectomized animals were subjected to these same experimental 
procedures. MSH levels were higher in the pituitaries of those rats kept in constant 
light regardless of the age or sex of the animal. The pituitary MSH content of rats 
kept in constant darkness elevated significantly about eight hours after the animals 
were exposed to light; about twice this amount of time was required for significant 
decreases in MSH levels when light-adapted animals were placed in the dark. When 
pinealectomized rats were placed in darkness there was no subsequent fall in MSH 
levels as in the controls. It is felt that the pineal hormone melatonin may influence 
pituitary MSH release by blocking the action of a MSH-release inhibiting factor (MIF) 
known to be produced by the rat hypothalamus; the release of melatonin itself is sup- 
pressed by illumination. 



Plasma Progesterone, Blastocyst Steriodogenesis and Blastocyst 
Survival in Rats with Altered Thyroid Status 

James P. Holland, Richard Brooks and Erich Weidenbener 
Department of Biology 
Indiana University 
Bloomington, Indiana 47405 

Introduction 

Studies in our laboratory continue to investigate the mechanism by means of which 
thyroid hormone influences reproductive physiology in the female rat. Thyroid hor- 
mone has been reported to exert effects upon the reproductive system and pregnancy 
in many types of animals, including human beings. These findings have been reviewed 
by Leathern (11). However, the mechanisms by means of which thyroid hormone ex- 
erts these effects have not been elucidated. In our laboratory, earlier investigations 
of thyroidal influences upon reproduction have utilized the technique of experimental- 
ly delayed implantation of blastocyst in rats (4), which allows the investigator to con- 
trol some of the variables which one encounters in studies of reproduction. For exam- 
ple, this technique allows the investigator to control the levels of sex steroids available 
during early pregnancy, allows control of the time of implantation, and allows the 
separation of progesterone-dependent effects from estrogen-dependent effects. Our earlier 
investigations (8, 9) using rats demonstrated that thyroxine, in dosages as low as 8 
ug per day, can compensate for progesterone deficiency during the progesterone- 
dependent maintenance period of experimentally induced delayed blastocytes. The op- 
posite effect was caused by surgical thyroidectomy which further intensifies the detrimen- 
tal effects of progesterone deficiency upon the survival of blastocysts. Our studies have 
further demonstrated that the thyroidal effect upon progesterone-dependent blastocyst 
survival is exerted by means of direct effects upon the blastocyst as well as by means 
of effects upon the uterus which indirectly effect the blastocyst. For example, thyroid 
hormone was demonstrated to stimulate RNA and protein synthesis in the blastocyst 
(1) and was demonstrated to stimulate the activity of a uterine enzyme associated with 
blastocyst survival (9). In the present investigations there is a continued examination 
of a direct effect and an indirect effect of thyroid hormone upon the rat blastocyst. 
For a direct effect the influence of thyroid hormone upon blastocyst steroidogenesis 
was examined, and for an indirect effect the influence of thyroid hormone upon plasma 
levels of progesterone was examined. 

Materials and Methods 

Sprague-Dawley-derived female albino rats (Harlan Industries, Cumberland, Ind.) 
between 60 and 120 days old were maintained on Wayne Laboratory Chow and tap 
water ad libitum. All rats were housed in an animal room at 24 °C with a daily il- 
lumination schedule of 14 hours of light and 10 hours of darkness. Hyperthyrodism 
was induced by daily injection of 48 /xg L-thyroxine (Sigma Chemical Co.) beginning 
at least ten prior to the experiment. Surgical thyroidectomies were performed through 
a mid-ventral incision in the neck at least four weeks prior to the experiment. 

Blastocyst Cytochemistry 

Female rats showing a proestrus or estrus vaginal smear were placed overnight 
in cages with adult male rats. Insemination was confixmed on the following morning 
by the presence of spermatozoa in the vaginal smear and this was designated as Day 
1 of pregnancy. Experimental delay of implantation was accomplished by ovariectomy 

155 



156 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 94 (1985) 

on Day 3 of pregnancy and daily injections of 0.4 mg of progestrone (the deficiency 
dosage as determined in earlier studies; 8, 9). Blastocysts were flushed from the uteri 
excised from control, hyperthyroid, and hypothroid rats on either Day 5 of pregnancy 
(normal, non-delayed blastocysts) or on Day 8 of pregnancy (the final day of the 
progesterone-dependent delay period during delay of implantation). Using a one-milliliter 
syringe filled with 0.1 M phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) and fitted with a 25 gauge needle, 
the blastocysts were washed and flushed into depression slides. Blastocyst cytochemistry 
for the determination of 3/3 hydroxysteriod dehydrogenase was conducted according 
to the procedure of Dey and Dickman (5). For each blastocyst cytochemistry experi- 
ment, the incubation medium was freshly prepared. This medium was prepared by 
adding the following to 9.6 ml of 0.1 M phosphate buffer (pH 7.4): 1.8 mg dehydroe- 
piandrosterone, 4.5 mg nicotinomide adenine dinucleotide (NAD), and 2 mg Nitro 
Blue tetrazolium dissolved in a minimal amount of dimethyl formamide (all obtained 
from Sigma Chem. Co., St. Louis, MO.). An aliquot of 0.5 ml of the incubation 
medium was placed in each depression of depression slides. Three to four blastocysts 
were placed into the medium of each depression; each depression slide was then placed 
in a Petri dish containing moistened filter paper and these dishes were incubated at 
37 °C for three hours. As controls, some depressions did not contain the substrate 
dehydroepiandrosterone. After three hours the blastocysts were removed from the depres- 
sion slides, placed on microscope slides, and at 100X and 430X magnification they 
were analyzed for intensity of the formazan reaction and were photographed. 

Progesterone Radioimmunoassay 

Control, hyperthyroid, and hypothyroid rats were ovariectomized and injected 
daily with 0.4 mg progesterone for five days in order to simulate the progesterone 
maintenance period in the delayed implantation experiments. On the sixth day (com- 
parable to Day 8, the final day of blastocyst delay in the delayed implantation 
experiments) the rats were anesthesized with ether and blood samples were removed 
by means of cardiac puncture. Heparin dissolved in physiological saline was used as 
anticoagulant. 

Radioimmunoassay of plasma was accomplished using Coat-A-Count, solid phase 
,25 I radioimmunoassay kits prepared by Diagnostic Products Corp., Los Angeles, Calif. 
(6). Duplicate aliquots of 100 ul of each plasma sample were used for the determina- 
tions, incubation time was three hours at room temperature, and the tubes were counted 
for one minute in a Beckman Gamma 4000 gamma counter. Corrections were made 
for non-specific binding, a seven-point standard curve was established, and the pro- 
gesterone levels in the plasma samples were expressed as ng per milliliter. The assay 
is sensitive to a minimum of 0.05 ng per milliliter. 

Results 

Table I summarizes the evaluations of the cytochemical reaction for 3 (3- 
hydroxysteriod dehydrogenase in non-delayed blastocysts which were flushed from the 
uteri of control, hyperthyroid, and hypothyroid rats on Day 5 of pregnancy. High 
amounts of the enzymatic reaction were present in all of these blastocysts, and there 
were no differences between blastocysts which were obtained from rats of different 
thyroid states. As a control for the reaction, blastocysts which were incubated in medium 
without the dehydroepiandrosterone substrate did not show the darkening indicative 
of the enzymatic reaction. 

Table 2 summarizes the evaluations of the cytochemical reaction for 3 /3- 
hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase in delayed blastocysts (maintained on a deficiency dosage 
of progesterone) which were flushed from the uteri of control, hyperthyroid, and 



Cell Biology 157 

Table 1 . Summary of Histochemical Determinations of 3 /3-OH Steroid Dehydrogenase 
in Five-day Blastocysts Obtained from Rats of Different Thyroid States (Intact Ovaries — No 
Exogenous Progesterone) 





No. Blastocysts 
Examined 


Enzyme 


Reaction in 


Treatment 


Trophoblast 


Inner Cell Mass 


Euthyroid 

Hyperthyroid 

Hypothyroid 


26 

24 

17 


+ + + 
+ + + 
+ + + 


+ + + 
+ + + 

+ + + 



Blastocysts were incubated for three hours at 37 °C in 0.1 M phosphate buffer containing dehydroepiandrosterone, 
NAD, and Nitro Blue tetrazolium. 



hypothyroid rats on Day 8 of pregnancy. The blastocysts from control and hyper- 
thyroid rats showed approximately the same levels of enzyme activity, except for possibly 
higher activity in the inner cell mass area of those from hyperthyroid rats. The blastocysts 

Table 2. Summary of Histochemical Determinations of 3 (3-OH Steroid Dehyrogenase 
in Eight-day Blastocysts Obtained from Rats of Different Thyroid States (Experimentally 
Delayed Blastocysts) 

No. Blastocysts Enzyme Reaction in 



Treatment Examined Trophoblast Inner Cell Mass 

Euthyroid 28 + + + + 

+ 0.4 mg Prog. 

Hyperthyroid 55 + + + + + + 

+ 0.4 mg Prog. 

Hypothyroid 16 + 

+ 0.4 mg Prog. 

All animals were ovariectomized on Day 3 of pregnancy and maintained with progesterone until autopsy on Day 8. 

Blastocysts were incubated for three hours at 37 °C in 0.1 M phosphate buffer containing dehydroepiandrosterone, 
NAD, and Nitro Blue tetrazolium. 

from the hypothyroid rats, however, showed much lower levels of the enzyme activity 
and some of these blastocysts were entirely devoid of the enzyme activity. Again, the 
blastocysts which were incubated in medium without the dehydroepiandrosterone did 
not show darkening. 

Table 3 contains the data from the l25 I radioimmunoassay determinations of plasma 

Table 3 . Effect of Altered Thyroid States Upon Plasma Progesterone Levels in Ovariec- 
tomized Rats Injected Daily with 0.4 mg Progesterone for Five Days 

Plasma Progesterone + 
Treatment No. Rats (ng/ml) 

Euthyroid 8 5.27 

Hyperthyroid 8 4.55 

Hypothyroid 8 9.32* 



+ Corrected to uniform body weights. 

Progesterone determinations by means of radioimmunoassay (Diagnostic Products Corporation). 

*Significantly different from euthyroid and hyperthyroid (P < 0.05) as determined by Tukey and Scheffe analysis. 



158 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 94 (1985) 

progesterone in rats of different thyroid states. It can be seen that there was no dif- 
ference in plasma progesterone level in control and hyperthyroid rats. On the other 
hand, the hypothyroid rats had a significantly higher plasma progesterone level than 
controls (9.32 ng/ml and 5.27 ng/ml, respectively). 

Discussion 

The survival of blastocysts in rats which are ovariectomized on the third day 
of pregnancy is progesterone-dependent. Implantation and further development of these 
blastocysts are "delayed" since ovariectomy removes the source of estrogen which is 
essential for the implantation process (13). The normal daily maintenance dose of pro- 
gesterone during delay is 2.0 mg; a deficiency dose of 0.4 mg/day causes a significant 
decrease in the number of surviving blastocysts (10). Thyroid hormone has been 
demonstrated to exert important effects upon delayed blastocysts during a deficiency 
of progesterone. Our earlier studies have shown that these thyroidal effects may be 
exerted directly upon the blastocyst or indirectly by means of altered uterine physiology. 
The full extent and mechanisms of the direct and indirect effects of thyroid hormone 
have not been elucidated. The present studies were conducted to determine whether 
maternal thyroid activity can alter the activity of an enzyme in the blastocyst which 
is important for progesterone synthesis and whether thyroid hormone influences the 
plasma levels of progesterone which may influence uterine physiology. 

Using cytochemical determinations of 3 /3-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, a key 
enzyme in steroidogenesis, investigators (5) have demonstrated that the pre-implantation 
blastocysts of the rat and the rabbit synthesize steroid hormones. It has also been 
suggested that blastocysts of the rabbit accumulate steroids from the uterine fluid (2). 
In the present studies the five-day blastocysts from normal, intact rats all showed high 
levels of the 3 /3-hydroxysteriod dehydrogenase regardless of the thyroid status of the 
mother. This is not surprising since our data from earlier experiments have all in- 
dicated that thyroidal effects only become important during progesterone deficiency. 
No such deficiency existed in these intact rats. On the other hand, the delayed" blastocysts 
in hypothyroid rats which had been maintained on a deficiency dosage of progesterone 
showed lower intensity of the enzyme reaction. This finding correlates well with our 
earlier studies. The hypothyroid, progesterone-deficient rats comprise the group which 
had the lowest survival of blastocysts (8, 10), and these blastocysts showed the lowest 
amount of protein synthesis (1). However, the ability of hyperthyroidism to overcome 
the detrimental effects of progesterone deficiency cannot be explained by means of 
the 3 /?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase studies since blastocysts from control and hyper- 
thyroid rats showed approximately the same levels of the enzymatic reaction. In order 
to more clearly determine whether thyroid hormone influences steroidogenesis in the 
rat blastocyst, we are conducting in vitro steroidogenesis experiments with long-term 
(four days) incubated blastocysts using NCTC-135 (GIBCO) nutrient medium which 
is changed daily and analyzed for progesterone by means of radioimmunoassay. Recently, 
McCormack (12) reported in vitro studies of rat blastocyst steroidogenesis using this 
procedure. They found that the blastocyst production of progesterone was low and 
variable. 

An indirect route by means of which thyroid activity may influence blastocyst 
survival is by altering the metabolism of progesterone and its action upon the uterus. 
Bradlow et al. (3) reported that thyroid hormone alters the activity of enzymes that 
transform progesterone in vivo in hyperthyroid human beings, resulting in a shift toward 
the production of 5 a-reduced metabolites of progesterone. Our preliminary studies 
reported here show that in rats which were treated with progesterone in a manner 
to simulate the delayed implantation studies, hypothyroid rats have a significantly higher 



Cell Biology 159 

plasma progesterone level than do control or hyperthyroid rats. Since the hypothyroid 
rats are the ones with the lowest survival of blastocysts, the higher plasma progesterone 
level in these rats may reflect an altered metabolism (utilization, degradation, excre- 
tion, etc.) of progesterone which has an overall negative effect upon uterine physiology 
and blastocyst survival. Again, the beneficial effects of thyroid hormone cannot be 
explained by the present data. Gas chromatographic studies of progesterone metabolism 
in rats of different thyroid states are underway to further examine the conversion of 
progesterone to related compounds and the excretion patterns of progesterone 
metabolites. Also, uterine progesterone receptor binding studies should be helpful in 
approaching firm conclusions concerning the effects of thyroid hormone which are 
exerted by way of the uterus. Receptors for thyroid hormone were recently identified 
in the rat uterus (7); therefore, thyroidal effects upon the uterus are expected to be 
significant. 

Collectively the present studies concerning blastocyst cytochemistry and plasma 
progesterone levels are generally supportive of our earlier findings that thyroid hormone 
can influence blastocyst survival by means of direct effects upon the blastocyst and 
by methods which influence uterine physiology. Further studies are in progress in order 
to more clearly determine the mechanisms which are involved. 

Literature Cited 

1. Archer, V.G. and J. P. Holland. (1980). Effect of maternal thyroid activity upon 
in vitro protein synthesis in the rat blastocyst. Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. 90:136-142. 

2. Borland, R.M. G.F. Erichson, and T. Ducibella. (1977). Accumulation of steroids 
in rabbit pre-implantation blastocysts. J. Reprod. Fert. 49:219-224. 

3. Bradlow, H.L. D.K. Fukushima, B. Zumoff, L. Hellman, and T.F. Gallagher. 
(1966). Influence on thyroid hormone on progesterone transformation in man. 
J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 26:831-834. 

4. Cochrane, R.G. and R.K. Meyer. (1957). Delayed nidation in the rat induced 
by progesterone. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 96:155-159. 

5. Dey, S.K. and Z. Dickman. (1974). DeIta-5, 3-beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 
activity in rat embryos on days 1 through 7 of pregnancy. Endocrinology 
95:321-322. 

6. Diagnostic Products Corp. (1982). Progesterone, Coat-A-Count protocol. 

7. Evans, R.W., A. P. Farwell, and L.E. Braverman. (1983). Nuclear thyroid hor- 
mone receptor in the rat uterus. Endocrinology 113:1459-1463. 

8. Holland, J. P., J.M. Dorsey, N.N. Harris, and F.L. Johnson (1967). Effect of 
thyroid activity upon delayed implantation of blastocysts in the rat. J. Reprod. 
Fert. 14:81-85. 

9. Holland, J. P., F.L. Calhoun, N.N. Harris, and N.W. Walton. (1968). Uterine 
alkaline phosphatase and blastocyst implantation during altered thyroid activity. 
Acta Endocr., Copenh. 59:335-343. 

10. Holland, J. P., J.M. Finley, R.D. Kazwell, and F.L. Meshberger. (1970). 
Progesterone-dependent blastocyst survival during altered thyroid activity in the 
rat. J. Reprod. Fert. 23:143-146. 

11. Leathern, J.H. (1972). Role of the thyroid. In Reproductive Biology, H. Balin 
and S. Glasser (eds.), pp. 857-876. Excerpta Medica, Amsterdam. 

12. McCormack, S.A. and S.R. Glasser. (1981). Hormone production by rat blastocysts 
and midpregnancy trophoblasts in vitro. In Cellular and Molecular Aspects of 
Implantation, S. Glasser and D.W. Bullock (eds.), pp. 461-463. Plenum Press, 
New York. 

13. Prasad, M.R.N., S. Mohla, and M. Rajalakshmi. (1969). Hormonal environment 



160 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 94 (1985) 

and blastocyst development. In Progress in Endocrinology, C. Gaul and F.J.B. 
Ebling (eds.), pp. 939-943. Excerpta Medica, Amsterdam. 



Chick Limb Duplications Produced by Retinoic Acid Releasing 
Microimplants 

Lisa B. Nass, Annette J. Schlueter and Grayson S. Davis 
Department of Biology 
Valparaiso University 
Valparaiso, Indiana 46383 

Introduction 

Several recent studies have suggested that the limb bud vasculature may act in 
determining the skeletal pattern of the limb (3) by establishing metabolic gradients 
which would control the local differentiation of muscle or cartilage (1). Furthermore, 
systemic application of vitamin A, or its acid, retinoic acid, to developing embryos 
has been shown to produce both skeletal malformation and abnormal vascularization 
of the limb (7, 4). When microimplants of filter paper containing retinoic acid are 
implanted into developing limb buds, they can induce duplications of the limb skeleton 
(11), apparently mimicking the action of the polarizing region. Our initial interest was 
to observe the effect upon the vasculature produced by retinoic acid implants. However, 
we were unable to reliably produce duplications with filter paper implants. An alter- 
native implant, an ion exchange bead, was suggested by Bruce M. Alberts, Depart- 
ment of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of California, San Francisco (2). A 
comparison of these two carriers revealed that the ion exchange implanting method 
was far more reliable, less toxic, and less likely to induce other malformations than 
the filter paper implanting method. 

Methods 

For the paper implants, Rhode Island Red chick eggs were incubated under standard 
conditions for three days to stages 18 to 20 (6) while being turned twice daily. The 
eggs were then windowed as described by Hamburger (5) except that the windows were 
broken into the shell with forceps rather than sawn with a hacksaw blade. This method 
is reliable for early stage chicks and much faster than sawing. The amniotic fold directly 
over the right wing bud was pulled back using an electrolytically sharpened tungsten 
wire probe and a slit was then made into the anterior portion of this bud using the 
same probe. 

A small piece (0.5mm x 0.5mm) of Whatman diethylaminoethyl cellulose (DEAE) 
filter paper was prepared for implanation by being soaked for one minute in one 
of a series of concentrations of all trans-retinoic acid (Sigma, type XX) dissolved in 
dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO; Sigma grade 1). The solutions for each experiment were 
made from a freshly opened ampoule of retinoic acid and kept in darkness to minimize 
decomposition of the retinoic acid. Paper soaked longer than one minute tended to 
disintegrate when implantation into the slit was attempted. This paper was then im- 
planted into the slit such that the paper extended through the apical ectodermal ridge 
and into the limb mesoderm adjacent to somites 15, 16 and 17. A free edge of the 
paper remained outside the limb bud. The window was then sealed with cellophane 
tape and the egg reincubated. 

After seven days, the embryo (now at stage 35 to 37) was removed from the 
egg, rinsed in physiological saline and fixed in Bouin's fixative. The fixed embryo 
was stained with 1.2% solution of Victoria Blue B dye (Sigma) to stain the cartilages, 
dehydrated in a graded ethanol series (50%, 70% and 95%) and transferred to methyl 
salicylate to clear the flesh so that the skeletal elements could be examined for 
duplications. 

161 



162 



Indiana Academy of Science 



Vol. 94 (1985) 



For the bead implants, the same method was used up to and including slitting 
the wing bud with the tungsten probe. However, instead of introducing the retinoic 
acid in filter paper carriers, AG1-X2 ion exchange beads (Formate form, 100-200 mesh, 
Bio-Rad Laboratories) were used. These beads, made of a styrenedivinylbenzene 
crosslinked lattice with attached quaternary ammonium groups, exchanged electro- 
statically bound formate ions for retinoic acid ions when soaked for 20 minutes in 
one of a series of concentrations of retinoic acid in DMSO (2). The beads loaded 
with retinoic acid were then rinsed twice with ten minute changes of Hank's balanced 
salt solution and implanted. The implanted bead was completely surrounded by the 



100 



90 



80 



70 



O 60 
Si 

o 

§J 50 
Q 



40 



30 



20 



10 



O 



or 



■A FILTER PAPER (N = 35) 
■0 ION EXCHANGE BEAD (N = 117) 

-© 



f 



4 



0.1 



23456789 
RETINOIC ACID CONCENTRATION (MG/ML) 



Figure 1. Dose response curves for filter paper and ion exchange bead implants: 
percent of surviving embryos with limb duplications versus retinoic acid concentration. 



Cell Biology 



163 



mesoderm just beneath the apical ectodermal ridge. The egg was next sealed with 
cellophane tape and reincubated. The embryo was later fixed, stained and cleared as 
before. Controls were run for both implanting processes using either filter paper or 
beads soaked in DMSO alone. Several bead-implanted and several paper-implanted 
embryos were fixed after only one or two days of incubation and examined to see 
if the implants had slipped out of the limb. 

Results 

All control embryos examined one or two days after implantation of either filter 
paper or beads still retained their implants. Furthermore, once 10 day embryos were 
cleared, it was often possible to find the implant still in the limb. When loaded with 
retinoic acid, both types of implant were capable of producing duplications in the 
cartilages of the autopod. Bead implants produced duplications when loaded with lower 
concentrations of retinoic acid than did the paper implants (Figure 1). Trying to pro- 
duce more duplications by increasing the retinoic acid concentration loaded into the 
paper produced an increase in the death rate to a value much greater than that obtained 
with the bead implants (Figure 2). Moreover, nearly 100°7o of the embryos surviving 





100 








FILTER PAPER ( N = 131) 






90 








" ION EXCHANGE BEAD (N - 117J 


_- -® 




80 










_ -— 




70 








^ J&— " 




en 


60 








— " 




I 










©- " 




h- 














< 














UJ 


50 












Q 














IL 














O 


40 












3 


30 
20- 
10 

















»— 


» 


A — ■ i 







RETINOIC ACID CONCENTRATION (MG/ML) 

Figure 2. Dose response curves for filter paper and ion exchange bead implants: 
percent of deaths unattributable to contamination or injury at the time of implant 
versus retinoic acid concentration. 



the paper implant technique were malformed. These embryos developed brain defor- 
mations, beak deformations, ectopia cordis (heart exterior to the chest cavity), or 
extensive abdominal herniation of the gut. Such abnormalities were common but not 
universal in control embryos implanted with filter paper soaked in DMSO alone. Only 
one of the 117 surviving bead-implanted embryos showed a detectable malformation. 
When the results of the 5mg/ml bead-implanted embryos were examined, substantial 
differences in the length of the duplicated digits were noted. Embryos implanted at 
earlier stages had longer duplications (Figure 3). 



164 



Indiana Academy of Science 



Vol. 94 (1985) 



ai 
5 
O 
m 
<r> 

a 
ui 

i- 
< 

_j 

Q. 

3 

a 

u. 
o 

<T 
UJ 
CD 

5 



(N = 35 AT 5 MG/ML) 




18 



19 20 

STAGE OF EMBRYO AT TIME OF BEAD 



IMPLANT 



Figure 3. Average number of duplicated segments versus the stage of the embryo 
at the time the bead was implanted. 



Discussion 

The data from the two types of carriers showed significant differences. A much 
higher rate of duplication was obtained with lower retinoic acid concentrations when 
using ion exchange beads as opposed to filter paper. Specifically, an 83% duplication 
rate was obtained at a concentration of 5mg/ml of retinoic acid using ion exchange 
beads, significantly better than a 17% duplication rate at a concentration of 8mg/ml 
using the filter paper carrier (see Figure 1). This may be attributable to the fact that 
the bead releases retinoic acid in lower concentrations and over a longer period of 
time than does the paper (2). Since neither paper nor bead shows an inclination to 
slip out of the limb after proper implantation, we cannot attribute the lower percent 
duplication obtained with paper to the failure of paper to remain implanted. 

At the same time, the death rate (unattributable to contamination or embryonic 
injury at the time of implantation) was much lower for bead-implanted embryos than 
for filter paper-implanted embryos. At a 5 mg/ml concentration of retinoic acid using 
the ion exchange bead method, a death rate of only 7% was observed, whereas at 
a 4 mg/ml concentration of retinoic acid using the filter paper method a 56% death 
rate resulted (Figure 2). Because the malformations in the filter paper-implanted em- 
bryos occurred in the controls as well as the experimental chicks, it may be that this 
effect was due to the filter paper itself, or, more likely, to the relatively large amount 
of DMSO each filter paper implant carried. Furthermore, the embryos treated with 
retinoic acid-containing paper implants almost universally developed with head defor- 
mations, heart exterior to the chest cavity or gut exterior to the abdominal cavity. 
In contrast, the ion exchange bead treated embryos showed only one case of deforma- 
tion (at a concentration of 5 mg/ml). 

The fact that implanting young embryos produced longer (proximal to distal) 
duplications is not surprising given the popular model of sequential proximal-distal 
specification of limb pattern (8). According to this model, increasingly shorter and 
more distal regions of the limb would be labile to alterations, including duplications, 



Cell Biology 165 

of pattern at later stages (9). We were surprised that a stage 18 implant would produce 
duplications in the autopod alone. Experiments in which limb development is inter- 
rupted by removal of the apical ectodermal ridge indicate that at stage 18 pattern 
specification is not yet effectively complete for the zeugopod or even the most distal 
portion of the stylopod (8, 10). 

We are convinced that retinoic acid implants are an effective tool for producing 
duplications in the pattern of limb cartilages. Of the two carriers we compared, the 
ion exchange beads are by far the more reliable and less damaging to the embryo. 
We are now examining the early effects of retinoic acid implants upon the vasculature 
of the limb bud. 

Literature Cited 

1. Caplan, A. I., and S. Koutroupas, 1973. The control of muscle and cartilage 
development in the chick limb: the role of differential vascularization. J . Embryol. 
exp. Morph. 29:571-583. 

2. Eichele, G., C. Tickle, and B.M. Alberts. Micro-controlled release of biologically 
active compounds in chick embryos: beads of 200 um diameter for the local release 
of retinoids. In preparation. 

3. Feinberg, R.N. and J.W. Saunders, Jr., 1982. Effects of excising the apical 
ectodermal ridge on the development of the marginal vasculature of the wing 
bud in the chick embryo. J. exp. Zool. 219:345-354. 

4. Fraser, B.A., and A. A. Travill, 1978. The relation of aberrant vasculogenesis 
to skeletal malformation in the hamster fetus. Anat. Embryol. 154:111-120. 

5. Hamburger, V., 1942. A Manual of Experimental Embryology. University of 
Chicago Press, Chicago. 

6. Hamburger, V., and H. Hamilton, 1951. A series of normal stages in the develop- 
ment of the chick embryo. J. Morphol. 88:49-92. 

7. Kochhar, D.M., 1977. Cellular basis of congenital limb deformity induced in mice 
by vitamin A. Proceedings of the Second International Conference on 
Morphogenesis and Malformation. Birth Defects: Original Article Series 13:111-154. 

8. Saunders, J.W. Jr., 1948. The proximo-distal sequence of the origin of the parts 
of the chick wing and the role of the ectoderm. J. exp. Zool. 108:363-404. 

9. , M.T. Gesseling, and J. Errick, 1976. Inductive activity and enduring cellular 

constitution of a supernumerary apical ectodermal ridge grafted to the limb bud 
of the chick embryo. Devi. Biol. 50:16-25. 

10. Summerbell, D., 1974. A quantitative analysis of the effect of the excision of 
the AER from the chick limb-bud. J. Embryol. exp. Morph. 32:651-660. 

11. Tickle, C, B. Alberts, L. Wolpert, and J. Lee, 1982. Local application of retinoic 
acid to the limb bud mimics the action of the polarising region. Nature, Lond. 
296:564-565. 



CHEMISTRY 

Chairperson: Shannon Lieb 
Department of Chemistry, Butler University 
Indianapolis, Indiana 46208 (317)283-9410 

Chairperson-Elect: Dennis G. Peters 
Department of Chemistry, Chemistry Building Room A112, Indiana University 
Bloomington, Indiana 47405 (812)335-9671 



ABSTRACTS 

Ambidentate Phosphine Ligands: Phosphine-amine and Phosphine-imidate Complexes 
of Tungsten. Sepehra Akhavan, Kristen Faust and Bruce Storhoff, Department 

of Chemistry, Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana 47306. The reaction of 

Ph 2 PCH 2 CH(R)CN (R = CH 3 ,H) (L) with W(CO)6 with an excess of NaBH 4 in dry 
ethanol provides excellent yields of as-coordinated (CO) 4 W[Ph 2 PCH 2 CH(R)CH 2 NH 2 ] 
and (CO) 4 W[Ph 2 PCH 2 CH(R)C(OC 2 H 5 )NH. The latter are converted to the correspond- 
ing phosphine-amine complexes upon reaction with additional NaBH 4 . These results 
are rationalized in terms of a reaction scheme involving a side-on coordinated nitrile 
group which is susceptible to nucleophilic attack by ethanol. The coordinated amine 
and imidate groups are replaced by PMe 2 Ph providing mixtures of cis and trans 
complexes. 

The Synthesis of a Crown Ether that May Exhibit Metal Cation Enhanced Fluorescence. 

Stasia A. Barnell, Beth E. Beeson and Lynn R. Sousa, Department of Chemistry, 
Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana 47306. A crown ether molecule that con- 
tains both a fluorescent chromophore and a potential quencher of that chromophore's 
fluorescence is being synthesized. The synthesis is convergent and involves several steps. 
Based on literature data concerning the steric requirements for the quenching of 
fluorescent singlet states and our understanding of metal cation complexation by crown 
ethers, it is probable that some metal cations (Na + , K + , Ca + \ etc.) will enhance 
the fluorescence of our crown ether compound. Such a "fluorogenic" crown ether 
could prove useful for the quantitative analysis of selected metal cations. 

2,4-Dinitrophenylhydrazones: A Modified Method for the Preparation of these 
Derivatives and an Explanation of Previous Conflicting Results. Mohammad Behforouz, 
Joseph L. Bolan and Michael S. Flynt, Department of Chemistry, Ball State Univer- 
sity, Muncie, Indiana 47306. We have found that the conventional methods for 

forming 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazones (2,4-DNPs) usually leave traces of acids com- 
plexed with the derivatives and that this has been the major cause for the melting 
point discrepancies and controversy throughout the 50 year history of their applica- 
tion. A simple modification of the original method, a bicarbonate wash of the 2,4-DNP 
crystals, removes the acid and reproducibly gives derivatives with previously reported 
or higher melting ranges. A series of aldehydes and ketones was selected and the 
2,4-DNPs were prepared by both the conventional and the modified methods. In nearly 
all cases the modified method gave products with higher melting ranges. 2,4-DNPs 
of several hydroxy ketones previously unattainable by the standard method were also 
prepared. Careful studies of the 2,4-DNPs of acetaldehyde and 3-hydroxy- 
3-methyl-2-butanone by NMR spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetric analysis 

167 



168 



Indiana Academy of Science 



Vol. 94 (1985) 



showed that traces of acids incorporated in the crystals catalyze the interconversion 
of the syn and anti forms of the 2,4-DNPs and promote the dehydration of the hydroxy- 
carbonyl derivatives thus lowering or changing the melting behaviors of the products. 



Wittig Reaction: Stable Ylides in the Preparation of 7,<5-unsaturated-j3-Ketoesters. 
Mohammad Behforouz and K.E. Mennen, Department of Chemistry, Ball State 

University, Muncie, Indiana 47306. Stable ylides of /3-ketoesters are prepared and 

their condensations with aromatic and aliphatic aldehydes to give 7,6-unsaturated-jS- 
ketoesters are discussed. These Wittig reactions are sterospecific and give mainly the 
E-isomers. ~ 





R = H, Me 
X = CI, Br 

PPh 3 

R Ar> 



PhoP 



C0 2 Me 



PPh 3 X' 




, I' 
R-C-H 



Base 



PPho 







,/ 

R "R 



OMe 



Base 



CO (OMe) 



Synthesis of /3-CarboIines Derived from 2-Amino-3-(3-indoIyl)-butyric Acid (/3- 
Methyltryptophan). Mohammad Behforouz and M.E. Ogle, Department of Chemistry, 
Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana 47306. Although /3-carbolines are com- 
mon structural units and their chemistry has been well documented, their preparations 
from 0-methyltryptophan (1) have never been reported. Four aldehydes were reacted 
with /3-methyltryptophan via the Pictet-Spengler reaction to form the corresponding 
salts of tetrahydro-/3-carbolines (2a-d). The formation and subsequent esterification 
and dehydrogenation of these compounds were studied. 

An example of such a synthetic route involves the reaction of acetaldehyde with 
j8-methyltryptophan in aqueous sulfuric acid at 25° to yield 2a-d. The resulting salt 
(2a) was filtered, dried, and dissolved in saturated methanolic HC1 and refluxed under 
nitrogen to yield the salt 3a-CHl. The salt was converted to the free base on treatment 
with 14% NH4OH to give 3a. The resulting free base was refluxed over 10% Pd/C 
in dioxane to yield 4a. Reactions involving the other aldehydes were conducted in an 
identical fashion. 



+ RCH 




CH3CH 



HOCH- 




CO2CH3 



'HC1 



Pd/C_ 



(3a-d) 




Chemistry 169 

Coulometric Titrations: Low Cost Alternatives for Computer Controlled Titrations. 

Stanley L. Burden and Phillip W. Schultz, Department of Chemistry, Taylor Univer- 
sity, Upland, Indiana 46989. Software and hardware for several different system 

configurations to carry out coulometric titrations under control of an Apple II or He 
computer will be presented. One of the main advantages of the coulometric approach 
is the elimination of costly titrant delivery systems. The systems described will accom- 
modate a variety of budget and equipment limitations. The simplest systems use, in 
addition to the Apple and pH meter with BCD readout, only a battery, electrodes 
and simple interfacing costing less than $50 to construct. Such a system is useful for 
classroom demonstrations or experiments in which shapes of titration curves are the 
primary data of interest as opposed to highly accurate end point determinations. The 
software presented will plot the data collected in real time and will compute and display 
first and second deratives as well as Gran plots in different colors using the high resolu- 
resolution graphics. A somewhat more expensive system uses operational amplifiers 
for the constant current source and a relay and timer, controlled by the computer, 
to stop the titration at a user selected endpoint potential or pH. The software for 
this system also permits specifying a pH or potential at which current will begin to 
be delivered in short pulses, with user selected intervals between pulses, to permit the 
endpoint to be approached slowly. Applications of the use of these systems and typical 
data will be presented. 

Temperature Dependent Infrared Studies of the Hydrogen Bonding in Aliphatic Alcohols. 

Mark Cisneros and Joe Kirsch, Department of Chemistry, Butler University, 

Indianapolis, Indiana 46208. The extent of the hydrogen bonding of aliphatic 

alcohols in dilute solutions has been studied through the use of temperature dependent 
infrared spectroscopy. The equilibrium constants for the hydrogen bonding process 
have been determined as a function of temperature. The enthalpy and entropy for 
the hydrogen bonding process has been calculated from the temperature dependent 
equilibrium constants. The equilibrium constants, enthalpies, and entropies for the 
hydrogen bonding process are related to the molecular structure of the alcohols and 
the steric hindrance at the hydrogen bonding site. 

Spectra and Equilibria of the Thiocyanato Complexes of Copper (I) in Aqueous Solu- 
tion. Sally K. Dotterer and Kenneth L. Stevenson, Department of Chemistry, 
Indiana University-Purdue University at Fort Wayne, Fort Wayne, Indiana 

46805. The objective of this research was to determine the spectra of the copper 

(I)-thiocyanato complexes and recheck the published value of the equilibrium constant 
for the reaction: 

Cu(SCN), 2 - + SCN" = Cu(SCN) 4 3 - 

According to Ahrland and Tageson, there are normally three complexes present in 
aqueous solutions of CuSCN and SCN" : Cu 2 (SCN) 6 4 - , Cu(SCN) 3 2 ~ , and Cu(SCN) 4 3 " . 
Of these, based on the reported values for equilibrium constants, only Cu(SCN) 3 2_ 
and Cu(SCN) 4 3 ~ are present in significant concentrations. To determine the spectrum 
of each complex in the equilibrated, anaerobic solution, spectra were run on solutions 
of copper (I) thiocyanate, at a constant ionic strength of 5.0M (NaC10 4 medium) while 
varying the thiocyanate concentration between 0.2M and 5.0M. The most significant 
data appeared at thiocyanate concentrations lower than 1.0M, but the very low solubility 
of CuSCN at these thiocyanate concentrations caused difficulty in obtaining these data. 
This was done by filtering saturated CuSCN solutions, taking the spectra, and deter- 
mining the copper concentration with atomic absorption spectrophotometry. At thio- 
cyanate concentrations above 2.0M, the copper concentration was maintained at 0.005M. 



170 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 94 (1985) 

From the spectra, the molar extinction coefficient was calculated at a specific wavelength 
for each solution, and, using a computer technique, an attempt was made at recalculating 
the value for the equilibrium constant. From this value, the spectra of each of the 
two complexes can be determined. 

Steric and Electronic Effects upon cis:trans Distributions in W(CO) 4 (L)(L ' ) Complexes 
when L and L' are Phosphorus Ligands. Jennifer L. Dyke and John A. Mosbo, 

Department of Chemistry, Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana 47306. The 

tungsten complexes W(CO) 4 (L)(Py) (Py = pyridine and L = PPh 2 Et or PPhMe 2 ) 
have been reacted with two series of electronically and sterically divergent ligands, 
PPh x (OMe) 3 _ x and PPH X (NMe 2 ) 3 . x (where x = 0, 1 or 2). Cis:trans ratios of the 
W(CO) 4 (L)(L') products decrease in the order x = 0>1>2 for the OMe-containing 
series, but increase with the number of phenyl groups for the MNe 2 -containing ligands. 
These results are consistent with increasing trans preference as the size of L' increases, 
but are also consistent with increasing trans preference as the Tolman electronic 
parameter (v) decreases. 

A Simple, Reproducible High Performance Liquid Chromatography Separation of 
Amino Acids with Picomole Sensitivity. Bernice Ellis, Kevin Cooksy, James M. 
Anderson, and Harry W. Jarrett, Department of Biology, Indiana University-Purdue 
University at Indianapolis, Indianapolis, Indiana 46223 and Alltech Associates/Ap- 
plied Science Labs, Deerfield, Illinois 60015. A method for separating and quan- 

titating the amino acids commonly found in protein acid hydrolysates has been developed. 
The amino acids are derivatized using o-phthaldehyde reagent and separated using reverse 
phase by a method similar to published reports. Our method differs from these in 
that it uses a C8 reverse phase column, 0.1% triethylamine in the buffers to improve 
the peak shape of HIS, and achieves baseline separation of all amino acids in 16 min 
total analysis time. The column (4 x 15 cm) used is inexpensive and various lots of 
the column have been shown to behave identically. The limits of detection are in the 
10 ~ 12 to 10 ~ ' 4 mole range. The same column has been used for over 100 analyses without 
a guard column or any special precautions with no degradation of performance noted. 
The detailed method and factors which influence resolution will be discussed. 

An Electron Spin Resonance Method for the Measurement of Liposomal Leakage. 

Maureen L. Hill, Patrick Gallagher and Jeff Macri, Department of Medical 
Research, Methodist Hospital of Indiana, Inc., 46202, F.W. Kleinhans, Department 
of Medical Research, Methodist Hospital of Indiana Inc., and Department of Physics, 
Indiana University-Purdue University at Indianapolis, Indianapolis, Indiana 

46223. The effectiveness of different compositions of liposomes as drug delivery 

systems is dependent on their leakage properties. Diffusion into multilamellar liposomes 
was examined by recording the increase in ESR signal amplitude as the spin label, 
3-carboxy-Proxyl, diffused into the lipid vesicle. The external spin label signal was 
quenched with chromium oxalate. Values for leakage into vesicles obtained via ESR 
were compared with studies of leakage out of vesicles by the conventional radioactive 
tracer method using 99W Tc0 4 . Both radioactive tracer and spin label have a negative one 
charge and comparable molecular weights of 163 and 169, respectively. They yielded 
qualitatively similar results; however, the ESR data exhibited significantly less scatter 
of ± 2% vs. ± 5% with the radioactive tracer method. The data exhibit a fast initial 
rate of leakage followed by a slow long-term component. This does not fit a simple 
Fick's Law process. It suggests a distribution of liposomal diffusion rates or sizes, 
thus a nonhomogeneous system. Membrane compositions considered included distearoyl, 



Chemistry 171 

dipalmitoyl, and dimystearoyl phosphatidylcholines with varying ratios of cholesterol. 
ESR is superior to the radioactive method as it decreases scatter, eliminates the hazards 
of working with radioactive materials, and also eliminates the difficulties associated 
with disposal of the radioactive wastes. 

Hindered Ligand Systems: Structure of the c/s,ra-l,3,5-Tris(pyridine-2-carboxaldimine) 
cyclohexane Complexes of Fe(II) and Ni(II) Ions. J.C. Huffman, R.A.D. Wentworth, 
W.E. Streib and C.J. Huffman, Molecular Structure Center, Department of Chemistry, 

Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 47405. Structures of the perchlorate 

salts of the title compounds have been determined by single crystal X-ray crystallography. 
The Fe(II) complex is monoclinic, space group Cc with a = 17.230(10), b = 9.729(4), 
c = 16.061(7)A, beta - 104.79(2)° (at -130 C); D cak = 1.662 gm/cm 3 for Z = 4. 
The Ni(II) complex is cubic, space group P2,3 with a = 14.337(6)A (at 20 C.) and 
D ! = 1 .474 gm/cm 3 for Z = 4. The Fe(II) complex has approximate octahedral coor- 
dination while the Ni(II) complex lies intermediate between the trigonal prismatic coor- 
dination previously found for the Zn(II) and Co(II) complexes and that of the Fe(II) 
ion. A detailed comparison is made of the inter- and intramolecular distortions pre- 
sent in this unusual system. 

Robots in the Chemistry Laboratory, Part I: A High Speed RS-232C Serial Communica- 
tions Link for Controlling a HERO I Robot from an Apple II Plus Microcomputer. 

Nathan E. Kastelein, Phillip E. Klunzinger, Edward J. Ciesla, Claudia Rishaw, 
Cynthia L. Roth and Stanley L. Burden. Digital Equipment Corporation, St. Louis, 
Missouri and the Department of Information Science, Physics and Chemistry, Taylor 

University, Upland, Indiana 46989. Small table-top robots are beginning to be 

used in the analytical chemistry laboratory to minimize routine and mundane sample 
preparation tasks. Although its capabilities are not well-suited for many laboratory 
tasks, the low price and variety of sensors on the HERO I robot make it attractive 
for introducing laboratory robotics to undergraduate students. As the first phase of 
developing an instructional laboratory robotics system, a method of minimizing the 
constraints of limited memory and inconvenient programming associated with the HERO 
I was needed. To overcome these limitations, an RS-232C communications interface 
which runs at 9600 baud has been designed and installed in a HERO I robot. The 
interface allows the robot to be controlled via a single RS-232C cable from any com- 
puter with RS-232C output capability. The interface and associated cable can be con- 
structed for approximately $60. In our application, an Apple II Plus microcomputer 
was used to write programs and then download them, one command at a time, to 
the robot over the serial communications line. This presentation will focus on the hard- 
ware of the communications link. The initial phase of a robotized solution preparation 
system was implemented as the first application of this system. 

Robots in the Chemistry Laboratory, Part II: Software for Controlling a HERO I 
Robot from an Apple II Plus Microcomputer via a High Speed RS-232C Communica- 
tions Link. Nathan E. Kastelein, Phillip E. Klunzlnger, Edward J. Ciesla, Cynthia 
L. Roth, Claudia Rishaw and Stanley L. Burden. Digital Equipment Corporation, 
St. Louis, Missouri, and the Department of Information Science, Physics and Chemistry, 

Taylor University, Upland, Indiana 46989. Software has been written for both 

the HERO I robot and the Apple II Plus microcomputer which enables programs to 
be written on the Apple and downloaded to the robot over an RS-232C line operating 
at 9600 baud. A short assembly language routine which is loaded into the robot memory 
from a cassette tape enables the more lengthy command receiving and interpreting 



172 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 94 (1985) 

routines to be downloaded frcm the Apple. To activate the robot, commands are sent 
from the Apple to the robot as a sequence of escape characters which indicate the 
appropriate motor to activate as well as the direction, speed and extent of movement. 
Commands are sent and executed by the robot individually. Typical command formats 
and capabilities will be discussed. Software was also written for the HERO I robot 
which will accept these escape sequences, acknowledge to the Apple the reception of 
the command and activate the appropriate motor. Since robot movement is much slower 
than transmission time plus interpretation time, the next interpreted command is always 
available before the robot needs it and the robot motion occurs just as if all of the 
commands were residing in the on-board robot memory. This presentation will focus 
on the software involved in this system. 

Reaction Sequence Alteration in the Acetoacetic Ester Synthesis of Ketones. Richard 
A. Kjonaas, Department of Chemistry, Indiana State University, Terre Haute, Indiana 

47809. The acetoacetic ester synthesis of ketones is a very important method not 

only of making ketones, but also of making new carbon-carbon bonds. This classical 
method and its well known modifications, such as the use of j8-ketosulfoxides and 
/3-ketosulfones, require hydrolysis, saponification, aluminum amalgam reduction, or 
other such treatment to remove the stabilizing group after alkylation has been achieved. 
Thus, these methods cannot be used with substrates that are sensitive to these post- 
alkylation treatments. We have found at ISU, however, that deprotonation of acetoacetic 
acid with two equivalents of base, followed by alkylation, gives an adduct which readily 
decarboxylates in situ to give good yields of methyl ketones. This method, which is 
essentially an alteration of the reaction sequence of the acetoacetic ester synthesis of 
ketones, provides a way of achieving the same goals as that synthesis but without carrying 
the organo halide moiety through harsh reaction conditions. 

Functionalized Crown Ethers. LeRoy Kroll and Bruce Storhoff, Ball State Univer- 
sity, Muncie, Indiana 47306. The previously reported 15-crown-5 ethers functionaliz- 
ed with -CH 2 OH or -CH 2 0-CH 2 CH =CH 2 have been studied as potential starting 
materials for phosphine- and phosphinite-crown ethers. In accord, the reaction of 
15-crown-5-CH 2 OPPh 2 which has been identified by spectroscopic measurements. In 
contrast, the corresponding phosphine derivative, 15-crown-5-CH 2 PPh 2 has yet to be 
identified from the reaction between 15-crown-5-CH 2 OTs and Ph 2 P~. The reaction 
of 15-crown-5-CH 2 OCH 2 CH = CH 2 with 9-BBN has also been investigated. This yields 
a surprisingly water soluble compound which has been tentatively identified as the 
corresponding alcohol, 15-crown-5-CH 2 OCH 2 CH 2 CH 2 OH. 

A Trace Metal Analysis of Coal and Acid Rain. Steve Newnam and James P. 
Rybarczyk, Department of Chemistry, Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana 

47306. In an attempt to determine the origins of acid precipitation collected in 

Central Indiana, a thorough trace metal analysis was performed on the samples pro- 
vided by volunteer members of the Central Indiana District 656 of the International 
Rotary Club. The 2000 samples from this study were analyzed for such metal ions 
as Ca, Mg, Na, K, Fe, V, Mn, etc., on a graphite furnace atomic absorption system 
and an inductively coupled plasma. The ratios between the amounts of these various 
trace metals found in the samples were found to be related to seasonal, geographical, 
and pH variations and thus provide an indirect means of "tracing" the source of the 
metals. With the volunteer assistance of numerous electric power companies, coal samples 
were obtained from various geographic Midwest locations. These coal samples were 
thoroughly digested in a modified procedure and then analyzed for their trace metal 



Chemistry 173 

content. Utilizing the variable geographical and meteorological data for the acid rain 
samples, the metal ratios from the coal samples were compared to those measured 
from the acid rain. 

Conclusion of Acid Rain Monitoring in Central Indiana. Laura Pokorney and James 
P. Rybarczyk, Department of Chemistry, Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana 

47306. With the volunteer assistance of the Central Indiana District 656 of the 

International Rotary Club, thirty precipitation collection stations have been in opera- 
tion for the past two years. This collection process has just been concluded with over 
2000 samples being analyzed for pH, conductivity, depth, trace metal ion and anion 
concentrations. These data have been related to the various meteorological, geographical, 
and seasonal conditions at the time of collection. The resulting statistical data base 
has revealed definite trends in acid precipitation within Central Indiana, with an overall 
volume-weighted average pH of 3.9 for the two-year precipitation study. Several in- 
dividual events have been recorded in the highly acidic pH = 2.8 to 2.0 region. 

One of the most obvious effects of acid rain in Central Indiana is structural damage. 
In conjunction with the above monitoring study, carefully-controlled laboratory weather- 
ing studies of Indiana limestone have been conducted. Various types of Indiana limestone 
were subjected to pH = 4.0 and 3.0 simulated rain, and the results quantitatively 
monitored. 

Atomic Polarizations of Transition Metal /ra-3-Pentanedionates. Eugene Schwartz, 

Department of Chemistry, DePauw University, Greencastle, Indiana 46135. Results 

are presented for the radiofrequency and electronic polarizations of the 
^m-3-pentanedionates of vanadium(III), manganese(III), and ruthenium(III) in benzene 
solution. The atomic polarizations (the difference between the radiofrequency and the 
visible frequency or electronic polarization) for these compounds are, for vanadium(III), 
manganese(III), and ruthenium(III), 39 cc, 81 cc, and 35 cc, respectively. The atomic 
polarizations for the //7S-3-pentanedionates of the series vanadium(III) through cobalt(III) 
peak at manganese(III). The second transition series compound /n'5-3-pentanedionato- 
ruthenium(III) has an atomic polarization considerably smaller than its iron(III) analogue. 
These results are discussed in terms of contributions to the atomic polarization arising 
from absorptions in the high frequency microwave region and in the far-infrared spec- 
tral region. 

Temperature Dependent Infrared Studies of the Hydrogen Bonding in Aliphatic Alcohols. 

John Scircle and Joe Kirsch, Department of Chemistry, Butler University, 

Indianapolis, Indiana 46208. The extent of the hydrogen bonding of aliphatic 

alcohols in dilute solutions has been studied through the use of temperature dependent 
infrared spectroscopy. The equilibrium constants for the hydrogen bonding process 
have been determined as a function of temperature. The enthalpy and entropy for 
the hydrogen bonding process has been calculated from the temperature dependent 
equilibrium constants. The equilibrium constants, enthalpies, and entropies for the 
hydrogen bonding process are related to the molecular structure of the alcohols and 
the steric hindrance at the hydrogen bonding site. 

A study of the Coordination Compounds of Some of the Transition Metals Using 
2(2-Aminoethoxy)-Ethanol as a Ligand and l-Methyl-2-Pyrrolidinone as a Solvent. 

Joseph R. Siefker and Kenneth R. Kimmerle, Department of Chemistry, Indiana 

State University, Terre Haute, Indiana 47809. The purpose for this study was 

to investigate the coordination compounds of some of the transition metals using 



174 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 94 (1985) 

2(2-aminoethoxy)-ethanol as a ligand and l-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone as a solvent. The 
formation of a coordination compound in solution is an equilibrium process. For metal 
complexes the central elements of coordination, the transition metal ions, are surrounded 
by the coordinating groups or ligands, which at first are the solvent molecules but 
later are replaced by the ligand molecules. The formation of the complex may be 
represented by the equation: 

M + nL r ML 

n 

and the corresponding formation constant is: 

K f = [ML n ] 
[M] [L] n 

Two independent spectrophotometric methods were used to measure the variation of 
the metal ion and metal complex concentrations during the formation of the complex. 
Job's method of continuous variations as modified by Vosburgh and Cooper was the 
major method used to determine the coordination formula and the formation constant 
for the complex. The second method, called the mole ratio or fixed metal method, 
was tested for its applicability to this case and was used to give a check for the results 
of Job's method. The spectra were recorded with a Cary Model 14 Spectrophotometer. 

The coordination formulas and average formation constants from Job's method are 
presented below: Nickel (II) Perchlorate and 2(2-Aminoethoxy)-Ethanol Complex 

Formula = [Ni(2(2-Aminoethoxy)-Ethanol) 2 ](C10 4 ): 

K f = 6.5 10 4 

Copper (II) Nitrate and 2(2-Aminoethoxy)-Ethanol Complex 

Formula = [Cu(2(-Aminoethoxy)-Ethanol) 2 ](N0 3 )2 

K f = 2.2 x 10 5 

Cobalt (II) Perchlorate and 2(2-Aminoethoxy)-Ethanol Complex 

Formula = [Co(2(2-Aminoethoxy)-Ethanol) 3 ](C10 4 )2 

K f = 1.9 x 10 10 

Manganese (II) Perchlorate and 2(2-Aminoethoxy)-Ethanol Complex 

Formula = [Mn(2(2-Aminoethoxy)-Ethanol) 3 ](C10 4 ) 2 

K f = 1.5 x 10" 

An Investigation of Aluminum Concentrations in Water. Daniel K. Wunderlich, 
Department of Science, Terre Haute South High School, Terre Haute, Indiana 47802 
and Myong-Ku Ahn, Department of Chemistry, Indiana State University, Terre Haute, 

Indiana 47809. In this project we investigated the amount of aluminum obtainable 

from water solutions under conditions similar to those used in cooking with aluminum 



Chemistry 175 

utensils. The aqueous aluminum concentrations were examined as a function of exposed 
surface area and pH. The aluminum from sample runs was complexed with 
8-hydroxyquinoline and concentrated by extracting with chloroform. The concentra- 
tions of aluminum were determined by the molecular fluorescence of the complex, 
tris(8-hydroxyquinolato)aluminum(III), at 509 nm. The total aluminum concentrations 
ranged from 0.38 to 1.9 ppm for the aluminum surface area between 125 cm 2 and 
625 cm 2 , respectively, in 200 ml of distilled water. Aluminum levels in the diet have 
recently been suspected of being connected with health hazards including senile dementia 
and osteomalacia. 



Sensitivity Studies of a Computer Model for the Peroxidase-oxidase 
Oscillating Reaction 

Christopher L. Bush and Raima M. Larter 
Department of Chemistry 
Indiana University-Purdue University at Indianapolis 
Indianapolis, Indiana 46223 

Introduction 

The peroxidase-oxidase enzyme catalyzed reaction is considered to have the general 
form 

2 + 2 YH 2 - 2 H 2 + 2 Y 

where YH 2 is a hydrogen donor such as nicotinamide adenine dinucletide (NADH). 
In an experiment performed by Olsen and Degn (3) a continuous flow of NADH was 
pumped into a reaction mixture containing the peroxidase-oxidase enzyme. A continuous 
flow of 2 was supplied by blowing a mixture of nitrogen and oxygen over the sur- 
face. When the reaction mixture was stirred, oscillations in the concentrations of NAD 
(the oxidized product) and 2 were observed. 

Method 

A model for the peroxidase-oxidase reaction has been proposed by Olsen and 
Degn (3). The essential steps in the mechanism are: 

K, 

A + B + X - 2X 

K 2 

2 X - 2 Y 



K 3 
A + B + Y-2X 



K 4 

X - P 



K 5 

Y - Q 



K 6 
X_ -* X 



K 7 
A - A 

o — 

K-7 



K 8 

B - B [1] 



177 



178 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 94 (1985) 

where A is [0 2 ], B is [NADH], and X and Y are intermediate free radicals. The rate 
constants K,-K 8 and initial concentrations A and B were chosen by comparing com- 
puter simulations to experiment. The computer simulations involve the numerical solution 
of 



dA 
dt 

dB 
dt 

dX 
dt 

dY_ 
dt 



-K,ABX - K 3 ABY + K 7 A - K_ 7 A 

-K,ABX - K 3 ABY + K 8 B 

-K,ABX - 2 K 2 X 2 + 2 K 3 ABY - K 4 X + K 6 

2 K 2 X 2 - K 3 ABY - K 5 Y [2] 



When the constants K,-K 8 , A and B are chosen appropriately, 1 the solutions to [2] 
are found to be oscillating functions of time, t. 

The validity of this model was tested using sensitivity analysis. Sensitivity analysis 
provides several different kinds of information about the changes in the solution of 
a set of differential equations due to changes in the values of its parameters. For this 
model, it will allow us to determine which rate parameters affect the oscillation's 
characteristics, such as its period. The sensitivity analysis yields sensitivity coefficients 
which are gradients of the limit cycle in parameter space. The general form of equa- 
tion [2] is: 

dC/dt = RjtC,..., C N , a,,..., aj i = 1,..., N [3] 

where C is the concentration of the species i, R is an algebraic function describing the rate 
of change of C due to chemical reactions, and a ,,..., a are parameters such as rate con- 
stants. The solution to equation [3] for an oscillatory mechanism may be written as 



00 

Cj(t) = ^ [ a ! n cos 7 ml + b ! n sin 2n Zl 

T T 

n = 

,1 ^„A kl 



[4] 



where t is the period of the oscillation, and r, a n and b^ are all functions of the system 
parameters. 

Differentiating equation [4] with respect to a paramater ex. gives the following ex- 
pression for the sensitivity coefficients: 

dc i < t \ .. 2n7rt dr V^ L i cJr1 2nxt 



(t) = 2n^t p_ y [^ sin 2mrt . nb i 2mrt 

T^ da; W L n 7 n r 

n = 



dcc- } 



00 

+ 



n = da i T da ] 



[5] 



Larter, Rabitz and Kramer (2) have shown that [5] reduces to: 



dC \ -t dr dC ' \ 

daj " t daj dt 



Chemistry 179 



(§-),« 



where the subscript r on the second term indicates that the period, r, is constant for 
that term. The first tern consists of a linear function of time [t/ridr/da )] multiplied 
by a periodic function (dC /dt). This equation has also been derived by Tomovic and 
Vukobratovic (5). Unless dr/da] = 0, dC'/da. will grow as an undamped oscillation as 
t get large. This means that dC'/da- gives us physically meaningful result since it becomes 
infinitely large as t progresses. 

In constrast, the modified sensitivity coefficient, (dC /dojMt), does give physically 
meaningful results since it is well-defined and periodic for a differential equation system 
that is structurally stable to perturbation of aj. Since the second term is purely periodic, 
the values will be consistent as t progresses. In order to solve for this second term, the 
period sensitivity, dr/daj must be determined. First, the sensitivity coefficients in equa- 
tion [6] are integrated from t to t + r and evaluated at two different times, t, i.e., t 
= t, and t = t 2 , and then these results are subtracted giving, 



dr/da: - 


r U + T 

I " 

t 2 


dC: p ti . t 

t, 


aq 

daj 


J 




q (t,) - q (t 2 ) 





[7] 



Numerical instabilities encountered by Edelson and Thomas ( 1 ) with a similar calculation 
were avoided by eliminating choices where the concentration at t, and t 2 were approx- 
imately equivalent. Now the modified sensitivity coefficient can be found because dC dt 
have already been calculated, and t/r can be found by measuring the period, r, with 
t already known. 

Discussion 

The peroxidase-oxidase reaction is an oscillatory reaction with a limit cycle solu- 
tion, so we used the above equations to obtain a modified sensitivity coefficient. In 
order to oscillate, a reaction must operate far from equilibrium; this system satisfies 
this requirement because substrates, A and B, are being continually added. Also, some 
product of at step in the reaction sequence must exert an influence on its own rate 
of formation; the intermediate free radicals, X and Y, are produced autocatalytically 
and thus do influence their own formation. 

These two facts seem to indicate the importance of the rate constants for the 
addition of the substrates and the autocatalytic steps. We have found this to be true 
for the rate constant, K 8 , which is the rate constant for the addition of NADH. For 
most values of K 8 , the solution is not a true periodic function, and the sensitivity 
coefficients do not show unbounded growth with time. These quasi-periodic regions 
give some unusual results which appear to include some chaotic regions; Olsen (4) 
has also noted these chaotic regions. We intend to investigate this further at a later 
date. The solution is truly periodic when K 8 is equal to 0.4939; for the periodic solu- 
tion, the sensitivity coefficients had the expected time behavior given by equation [6]. 

Note 

1. The values used were K, = 8.5 x 10" 2 , K 2 = 1.25 x 10\ K, = 4.8675 x 10~ 2 , 
K 4 = 20.0, K, = 2.0, K 6 = 1.0 x 10~\ K 7 = .94, K- 7 = .1175, K 8 = .4939, 
A = 3.84, Bo = 33.73, X = 1.1 x 10~ 4 , Y = 3.62 x 10~ 6 . 



180 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 94 (1985) 

Literature Cited 

1. Edelson, D. and Thomas, V.M. 1981. Sensitivity Analysis of Oscillating Reac- 
tions. 1. The Period of the Oregonator. J. Phys. Chem. 85:1555-1558. 

2. Larter, R., Rabitz, H. and Kramer, M. 1984. Sensitivity Analysis of Limit Cycles 
with Application to the Bursselator. J. Chem. Phys. 80:4120-4128. 

3. Olsen, L.F. an Degn, H. 1978. Oscillatory Kinetics of the Peroxidase-Oxidase 
Reaction in an Open System; Experimental and Theoretical Studies. Biochim. 
et Biophys. Acta 523:321-334. 

4. Olsen, L.F. 1983. An Enzyme Reaction with a Strange Attractor. Phys. Lett. 
94 A: 454-45 7. 

5. Tomovic, Rajko and Vukobratovic, Miomir. General Sensitivity Theory, 1972. 
Elsevier, New York. 



A SCC MO Calculation on the Tetracyanoethylene-benzene Complex 

Joe Kirsch, Shannon Lieb and Mark Cisneros 
Department of Chemistry 

Butler University 
Indianapolis, Indiana 46208 

Introduction 

The tetracyanoethylene-benzene charge transfer complex is formed through the 
interaction of the pi electron density of the benzene and the pi antibonding orbitals 
of the tetracyanoethylene. Two sandwich type structures of the complex have been 
proposed in the literature (2) and are shown in Figure 1 . Molecular orbital calculations 



STRUCTURE 



STRUCTURE 






^ 



: .xx 



% 



H 



H. C 



C M 




H C 



C. H 



Figure 1. Proposed Structures of Benzene-Tetracyanoethylene Complex. 

can be used to determine the nature and energy of the absorption which results from 
complex formation. If the calculations are carried out as a function of the benzene- 
tetracyanoethylene intermolecular distance, the intermolecular distance that yields the 
best agreement with the observed charge transfer energy can be obtained. 

Calculations 

The MO calculations were carried out on a VAX 11/780 computer. The necessary 
input data for the SCC MO program are given in Table 1. The atomic coordinates 
are calculated from standard bond lengths and bond angles. These molecular parameters 
are also listed in Table 1. 

The SCC MO calculations require the evaluation of overlap integrals, coulomb 
integrals, and resonance integrals. These integrals are the elements of the secular deter- 
minant. Calculation of the overlap integrals, S-, using Slater type atomic orbitals, the 
effective nuclear charge, and the atomic coordinates have been described in the literature 
(1). Valence orbital ionization energies, VOIE, are used to approximate the coulomb 



181 



182 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 94 (1985) 

Table 1. Input Data for the SCC MO Program 

1 . Total Number of Atoms in the Complex (22) 

2. Atomic Number of Each Atom 

3. Valence Shell Atomic Orbitals (Carbon and Nitrogen — 2s, 2p , 2p , 2p ; Hydrogen - Is) 

4. Total Number of Valence Electrons (74) 

5. Charge on Each Atom 

6. Electron Population in Each Atomic Orbital 

7. Coordinates for Each Atom* 

* Bond Type Length (angstroms) Angle (Deg.) 

Benzene C-C 1.390 

Benzene C-H 1.085 

TCNE C = C 1.336 

TCNE C = C 1.157 

TCNE C-C 1 .450 

Benzene C-C-C 120 

Benzene C-C-H 120 

TCNE C = C-C 120 

TCNE C-C = N 180 



integrals, H (1). The Wolfsberg-Helmholtz approximation is used to determine the 
resonance integrals, H (1). The secular determinant is then solved from these values 
of S , H.., H to obtain two sets of MO mixing coefficients (Eigenvectors) and MO 
energies (eigenvalues). 

The eigenvectors resulting from the calculation are used in a Mulliken population analysis 
to calculate new atomic charges for each atom in the complex. These new atomic charges, 
output atomic charges, are compared to the input atomic charges. If the input and 
the output charges are different, the difference times 0.1 is used as a new input charge; 
and the calculation is recycled until the input and output atomic charges converge 
and self consistent charges on the atoms are obtained. 

Results and Discussion 

The benzene-tetracyanoethylene complex has 74 valence electrons and 70 valence 
atomic orbitals in its basis set. This basis set and collection of valence electrons will 
yield 70 molecular orbitals with the first 37 molecular orbitals being doubly populated 
with electrons. The 38th molecular orbital is the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital. 
The lowest energy electronic transition, the charge transfer band, will then occur bet- 
ween the 37th MO and the 38th MO. 

Examination of the eigenvectors for molecular orbitals 37 and 38 show that all 
of the atomic orbital coefficients are near zero except those for the pi 2p type atomic 
orbitals. This indicates that molecular orbitals 37 and 38 are primarily pi type molecular 
orbitals. The values of the eigenvectors of the pi 2p atomic orbitals for molecular 
orbitals 37 and 38 are listed in Table 2. The atom numbering system is given in Figure 
2 and 3 for each proposed structure. Further examination of the eigenvectors show 
that MO 37 is bonding for benzene (C2-C3 and C5-C6), bonding for tetracyanoethylene 
(CN groups), and bonding for the complex for both structures. Molecular orbital 38, 
however, is antibonding for the tetracyanoethylene part of the complex for both struc- 
tures. Finally, it can be noted that the eigenvectors indicate more electron density, 
larger values for the eigenvectors, on the tetracyanoethylene for MO 38 than for MO 
37 in both structures. In summary, the analysis of the eigenvectors for MO 37, highest 
occupied, and MO 38, lowest empty, supports the notion of an electronic transition, 
charge transfer, from a benzene pi bonding MO to a tetracyanoethylene pi antibon- 
ding MO as a description of the charge transfer band. 



Chemistry 



183 



Table 2. Pi AO Eigenvectors for the Benzene — Tetracyanoethylene Complex 



Atom Number* 




Structure 


A 


Structure 


B 






M037 


M038 


M037 


M038 


Benzene 


C-l 














Benzene 


C-2 


-.36 


.38 


-.32 


-.25 


Benzene 


C-3 


-.36 


-.38 


-.32 


-.25 


Benzene 


C-4 














Benzene 


C-5 


.36 


-.38 


.32 


.25 


Benzene 


C-6 


.36 


.38 


.32 


.25 


TCNE 


C-7 








.117 


.47 


TCNE 


C-8 








-.07 


-.47 


TCNE 


C-9 


.13 


-.21 


.14 


.22 


TCNE 


C-10 


-.13 


.21 


.14 


.22 


TCNE 


C-l 1 


-.13 


-.21 


-.14 


-.22 


TCNE 


C-12 


.13 


.21 


-.14 


-.22 


TCNE 


N-13 


-.29 


-.35 


32 


-.30 


TCNE 


N-14 


.29 


.35 


.32 


-.30 


TCNE 


N-15 


-.29 


.35 


-.32 


.30 


TCNE 


N-16 


.29 


-.35 


-.32 


.30 



*Refers to the numbering system in figures 2 and 3 

Table 3 shows the energy difference of MO 38 and MO 37, energy of the charge 
transfer band, as a function of the benzene-tetracyanoethylene intermolecular distance. 
Figures 4 and 5 are plots of this data for each proposed structure. The plots for both 
structures show minimum near the observed charge transfer absorption energy for an 
intermolecular distance of 2 angstroms, structure A— 386 nm, 2.04 A; structure B— 389 
nm, 2.09 A. 



STRUCTURE 



STRUCTURE 



B 



N 



16 



H' 




114 



'C 



9 



H 



C 7 C 



C 8 

C 

H 



C 



-N 



15 



H Cj^C^^Cii^h 




10 



H 

■N 



13 




Figure 2. Atom Numbering System for Figure 3. Atom Numbering System for 



Eigenvector Analysis in Table 2. 



Eigenvector Analysis in Table 2. 



184 



Indiana Academy of Science 



Vol. 94 (1985) 



Table 3. E(MO 38) - E(MO 37) versus the Benzene-Tetracyanoethylene Intermolecular 
Distance 

Structure A 



r (angstroms) 
1.97 
1.98 
1.99 
2.00 
2.04 
2.05 
2.10 



E(MO-38) - E(MO-37) [nm] 
413 
409 
405 
401 
386 
388 
403 



Structure B 



r (angstroms) 
2.03 
2.04 
2.05 
2.06 
2.07 
2.08 
2.09 
2.10 
2.12 



E(MO-38) - E(MO-37) [nm] 
409 
406 
402 
398 
395 
391 
389 
392 
398 



no 

I 
O 



UJ 



00 
00 

I 
a 



LxJ 









STRUCTURE A 




+ 






410 


+ 








+ 




+ 


400 


+ 






390 








380 
^7n 


i i 




1 ! 



r (Angstroms) 



Figure 4. Charge Transfer Band Energy vs Benzene — TCNE Intermolecular Distance. 



Chemistry 



185 



m 

i 
o 

:e 

LU 
I 

/"> 

00 
00 

I 
a 

l_Ll 



4«:u 






STRUCTURE B 




410 






+ 
+ 




400 






+ ■+• 

+ 




390 










380 




i 


i i 





r (Angstroms) 
Figure 5. Charge Transfer Band Energy vs Benzene— TCNE Intermolecular Distance. 



Acknowledgments 

The authors wish to thank the Holcomb Research Institute and the Butler University 
Academic Grants Committee for their funding of this project. 

Literature Cited 

1. McGlynn, S.P., L.G. Vanquickenborne, M. Kinoshita, and D.G. Carrol, 1972, 
Introduction to Applied Quantum Chemistry, Holt Rinehart Winston, New York, 
N.Y., 48, 97-140. 

2. Mobley, M.J., K.E. Rieckhoff, and E.M. Voight, 1978, Spectroscopic Studies 
on the Conformations of Electron Donor Acceptor Complexes of Tetra- 
cyanoethylene, J. Physical Chem., 82, 2005-2012. 



Spectra and Photochemistry of the Chloro Complexes of Copper(I) 

Kristine S. Kurtz and Kenneth L. Stevenson 
Department of Chemistry 
Indiana University-Purdue University at Fort Wayne 
Fort Wayne, Indiana 46805 

Introduction 

Previous studies (9,8,7,4,1) have shown that in aqueous chloride media, the two 
copper(I) complexes shown in the following equation are in equilibrium: 

1) CuCl 2 ~ + CI" - CuCl 3 2 ~ 

The purposes of this study were to achieve the following measurements of this system 
at 5M ionic strength: 1) verification of the equilibrium constant measured by Ahrland 
and Tagesson (1), 2) to resolve the ultraviolet charge-transfer-to-solvent (CTTS) spec- 
tra of these two complexes, and 3) to determine the quantum yields of the following 
photoredox reaction: 

2) Cu(I) + H+ = Cu(II) + l/2H 2 (g) 

for each of the two complexes at several wavelengths in the CTTS absorption region. 

Procedure 

Seven solutions in which chloride ion concentration varied from 0.2M to 5M at 
constant ionic strength of 5M and constant hydrogen ion concentration of 1M were 
prepared using analytical grade reagents (perchloric acid, sodium perchlorate, sodium 
chloride, and hydrochloric acid) and deionized water. Since Cu(I) solutions are readily 
oxidized by air, the 0.01 M cuprous chloride solutions were prepared by inserting test 
tubes containing preweighed amounts of cuprous chloride into the flasks containing the 
solutions, above, and bubble-degassed with argon through septums in the top of the flasks. 
The flasks were then tipped and the solid dissolved. 

The absorbance spectra of the equilibrated solutions were measured in the 200-340 
nm range where the two complexes exhibit CTTS absorption (4). A Beckman ACTA 
M-VI spectrometer interfaced with a HP-86 microcomputer allowed the spectra to be 
stored on disk for subsequent spectral computations. 

The photochemical setup consisted of a Schoeffel 1000-watt mercury-xenon high 
pressure arc lamp, a Jarrell Ash quarter meter monochromator, a thermostated 1-cm 
cuvette, and a recording gas volumeter (3) for measuring the evolved hydrogen gas. 
Light intensities were measured in the cuvette with the potassium trioxalatoferrate (III) 
actinometer (5). Volumeter chart traces were digitized and integrated rates determined 
with the computer. 

Results and Discussion 

Figure 1 shows the molar extinction absorption spectra of the seven solutions 
of varying chloride ion concentration. The increase in peak absorption at 274 nm with 
increase in [CI - ] indicates that the trichloro species has a stronger absorption in this 
region. Since there are only two complexes in equilibrium in this system, one ca n 
show (4) that the measured extinction coefficient is a function of the extinction coeffi- 

187 



Indiana Academy of Science 



Vol. 94 (1985) 



CI 

o 

H 

+^ 
u 

c 



X 

LU 



D 
O 



5000 



4000 - 



3000 - 



2000 



f= 1000 - 




200 



300 



320 



340 



220 240 260 280 

Wavolength ( n m ) 

Figure 1. Molar extinction spectra of 0.01M CuCl in 5M ionic strength medium in 
which 0.2<[C1~]<5.0M, at 25°C. 

cients of di- and trichloro complexes, e 2 and e 3 , and the equilibrium constant, K, for 
equation 1, as follows: 

3) e = e 3 + (e 2 - e 3 )/(l + K[Cr]) 



5000 



4000 - 



o 



U 3000 

c 

L^ 2000 

L 
O 



o 



1000 - 




200 



220 



240 



260 



280 



300 



320 



340 



WavG length (nm) 

Figure 2. Resolved molar extinction spectra of CuCl 2 ~ and CuCl 3 2 ~ at 5M ionic 
strength, 25°C, assuming K = 0.72. 



Chemistry 



189 



^r 

CM 

u 

Q) 



D 
+^ 
C 
O 
D 

a 



o. 6 



0.5 -- 



0. 4 



0. 3 - 



0.2 -- 



0. 1 -- 



0.0 




[C1-] 

Figure 3. Quantum yield of photooxidation of aqueous CuCl versus chloride ion con- 
centration, at 274 nm irradiating wavelength, 25°C, 5M ionic strength. 



The computer was used to find the value of K which gave the best linear fit of e 
vs. 1/(1 + K[C1"]) in the 271 to 281 nm region where the spectra are most sensitive 
to chloride ion concentration. This gave an average value of K of 0.72 ± 0.08, which 
compares favorably to the value of 0.76 ± 0.07 determined by Ahrland and Tagesson 
from electrochemical measurements (1). Using our value of K the computer then 
calculated e 2 and e 3 from equation 3 at all wavelengths, resulting in the resolved spec- 
tra for the two complexes, as shown in Figure 2. It is noteworthy that the trichloro 
complex has a strong band at 274 nm compared to a weak shoulder somewhat blue 
shifted in the dichloro species, whereas both exhibit transitions more nearly equal in 
the 230-235 nm region. 

Figure 3 indicates that the quantum efficiency of photolysis into the band at 274 
nm is depressed by increasing chloride ion concentration. This would imply that the 
trichloro species has a lower quantum efficiency than the dichloro complex. One can 
show, using Beer's law, that the net quantum yield, <J> , is related to individual quan- 
tum yields of the di- and trichloro complexes, <j> 2 and (j) 3 as follows: 



4) <(> = (j)3 +. 



(§2 ~ fyl) e 2 



(e 2 + e 3 K[Cl-]) 



A suitable linear plot of this function at 274 nm is shown in Figure 4, resulting in 
resolved quantum yields for the two complexes. Equation 4 was used for the curve-fit 
in Figure 3 using the results of the linear regression. These quantum yields and those 
determined at two other wavelengths are shown in Table 1. 

These results show that the quantum yields bear an inverse relationship to molar 
extinction coefficients, since the trichloro complex, which has the larger absorbance, 
has the smaller quantum yield. This may be rationalized by the fact that lifetime of 



190 



Indiana Academy of Science 



Vol. 94 (1985) 



E 

C 

C\J 

QJ 



E 
D 
-P 
C 
D 
D 

a 



U. D 

0. 5 - 








0. 4 - 






^ -Q 


0.3 - 




jy 




0. 2 - 


/- 






0. 1 - 

n. n - 


1 


1 


H 1 1 



0.00 



0. 10 



0.20 



0. 30 



q 2 / Ce 2 + e 3 K [CI ] ) 

Figure 4. Quantum yield of photooxidation of aqueous CuCl versus the function, 
e 2 /(e 2 -e 3 K[Cl~]), at same conditions as Figure 3. 

any excited state is inversely proportional to the oscillator strength (2). The dichloro 
species, which has the lower absorbance, and hence lower oscillator strength, would 
have a longer excited state lifetime, thus resulting in a greater probability for the hydrated 
electron produced by the photolysis to be scavenged by hydrogen ion (6). Further 
experiments are in progress, with the intent of discerning similarities or contrasts with 
spectral and photochemical properties of other halo complexes, and what role 
sterochemistry plays in these properties. 

Acknowledgment 

Acknowledgment is made to the donors of the Petroleum Research Fund, 
administered by the American Chemical Society, for support of this research. 

Literature Cited 

1. Ahrland, A., and Tagesson, B. 1977. Thermodynamics of Metal Complex For- 
mation in Aqueous Solution. XII. Equilibrium Measurements on the Copper(I) 
Bromide, Iodide and Thiocyanate Systems. Acta. Chem. Scand., A31(8):615. 

2. Calvert, J.G. and Pitts, Jr., J. N. Photochemistry. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 
New York, 1966, 173-174 pp. 

Table 1: Quantum Yields 



Wavelength (nm) 



Quantum Yield 



265 
274 
296 



CuCh 


CuCl, 2 


1.30 +-0.12 


0.178 + -0.010 


1.62 +-0.28 


0.144 + -0.010 


1.47 + -0.25 


0.275 + -0.010 



Chemistry 191 

3. Davis, D.D., and Stevenson, K.L. 1977. A Recording Gas Microvolumeter. J. 
Chem. Educ., 54: 394. 

4. Davis, D.D., Stevenson, K.L., and Davis, C.R. 1978. Photooxidation of Dichloro- 
and Trichlorocuprate(I) Ions in Acid Solution. J. Amer. Chem. Soc, 100(17): 5344. 

5. Hatchard, C.G., and Parker, L.A. 1956. A New Sensitive Chemical Actonometer 
II. Potassium Ferrioxalato as a Standard Chemical Actinometer. Proc. Roy. Soc. 
London, A235: 518. 

6. Stevenson, K.L., Kaehr, D.M., Davis, D.D., and Davis, C.R. 1980. Long-Lived 
Intermediates in the Production of Hydrogen from Ultraviolete Photolysis of Acidic 
Di- and Trichlorocuprate(I) Ions. Inorg. Chem., 19(3): 782. 

7. Sugasaka, K. and Fujii, A. 1976. A Spectrophotometry Study of Copper (I) Chloro- 
Complexes lin Aqueous 5M Na(Cl,C10 4 ) Solutions. Bull. Chem. Soc. Japan, 49(1): 
82. 

8. Sukhova, T.G., Temkin, O.N., and Flid, R.M. 1970. Electronic Absorption Spectra 
of Chloro-complexes of Univalent Copper in Aqueous Solution. Russ. J. Inorg. 
Chem., 15(7): 949. 

9. Sukhova, T.G., Temkin, O.N., Flid, R.M., and Kaliya, T.K. 1968. Determina- 
tion of the Composition and Stability Constants of Chlorocuprate (I) Complexes 
in Concentrated Solutions. Russ. J. Inorg. Chem., 13(8): 1072. 



Evaluation of Sample Pre-treatments as Potential Methods of Enhancing 
Phospholipid Extraction from Human Amniotic Fluid 

Barth H. Ragatz, Gina Modrak and Ericka Baeske 

Fort Wayne Center for Medical Education 

Indiana University School of Medicine 

Indiana University-Purdue University at Fort Wayne 

Fort Wayne, Indiana 46805 

Introduction 

It is well known that phospholipids present in human amniotic fluid have been 
transferred from the fetal lung compartment to amniotic fluid. Furthermore, these 
phospholipids are components of pulmonary surfactant, a fluid necessary for normal 
lung physiology in neonates. These phospholipids necessary in surfactant are synthesized 
by the Type II alveolar cells and include dipalmityl phosphatidyl choline (lecithin), 
sphingomyelin, and phosphatidyl glycerol. The relative levels of sphingomyelin are known 
to remain rather constant throughout gestational development, but the levels of both 
lecithin and phosphatidyl glycerol increase dramatically beyond week 28 of intrauterine 
life. If the phospholipids are extracted from amniotic fluid and chromatographed, it 
is possible to predict that normal fetal lung development is occurring when 
lecithin/sphingomyelin ratios are greater than 2.0 and when phosphatidyl glycerol is 
also detected among the chromatographically resolved spots (6). 

Amniotic fluid is a complex analytical matrix composed of water, dissolved salts, 
various proteins, cholesterol and other neutral lipids and several kinds of phospholipids. 
We decided to evaluate various pre-treatment methods to determine if we could release 
more phospholipid from protein binding sites to enhance the extraction of the three 
principal phospholipids into chloroform-methanol, and to avoid the emulsions sometimes 
generated when amniotic fluid samples are extracted with chloroform-methanol. Potential 
pre-treatments could involve the quantitative destruction or removal of undesired com- 
ponents from the mixture (protein, cholesterol, or neutral lipids) or enhancement of 
the extractibility of the three principal phospholipids into chloroform-methanol (3). 
We have evaluated three pre-treatment procedures for this purpose: addition of am- 
monium sulfate to alter the activity coefficient of water and permit quantitative removal 
of protein components from the analytical matrix; pre-extraction with various non- 
polar organic solvents to quantitatively remove cholesterol and/or neutral lipids from 
the analytical matrix; or adjustment of the amniotic fluid pH to either acid or alkaline 
extremes to alter the partition coefficient of the principal phospholipids into chloroform- 
methanol by modification of ionization states of the principal phospholipids. 

Materials and Methods 

Frozen human amniotic fluid samples were obtained from Parkview Memorial 
Hospital, Fort Wayne, Indiana and from University Hospital, Indianapolis, Indiana. 
These samples were thawed, pooled and refrozen in 4 ml. aliquots. All samples were 
stored at -20°C. Only those samples stored for periods less than nine months were 
used and samples obviously contaminated with blood or meconium or heme pigments 
were routinely discarded. Ammonium sulfate (A-5132) was obtained from Sigma 
Chemical Company, St. Louis, Missouri and was added as various dry powered in- 
crements to 4 ml. amniotic fluid samples which had been thawed to room temperature. 
After thorough mixing with the ammonium sulfate, the samples were centrifuged at 
1000 RPM for five minutes in a Clay-Adams centrifuge and extracted with chloroform 



193 



194 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 94 (1985) 

and methanol according to the Helena Fetal Tek 200 Procedure (1). The remaining 
steps in determination of L/S ratio and detection of phosphotidyl glycerol were according 
to the Helena Fetal Tek 200 method also. 

For organic solvent pre-extraction tests, ACS reagent grade Matheson, Coleman 
and Bell reagents were used, including hexanes (HX 299), ethyl acetate (EX 240), benzene 
(BX 220), and tricholoroacetic acid (TX 1045). For organic solvent pre-extractions, 
a 4 ml. sample of thawed amniotic fluid was placed in a 15 ml. liquid scintillation 
counting vial. The appropriate organic solvent was added in three separate portions 
of 3 ml. each. The vial was shaken after each addition and the top organic reagent 
layer was withdrawn by a Pasteur pipet. After the third extraction was completed, 
a 2 ml. sample of amniotic fluid was drawn off with a measuring pipet from the bottom 
aqueous layer and again submitted to the Helena Fetal Tek 200 Procedure. An un- 
treated sample was also used in the Helena method to serve as a control. 

For trichloroacetic acid pre-treatment, a 4 ml. amniotic fluid sample was mixed 
with 8 ml. of chilled trichloroacetic acid. After precipitation had occurred, the sample 
was transferred to centrifuge tubes equipped with Bio Analytical Systems filters. Tubes 
loaded with 1.5 ml. samples were centrifuged at 2000 RPM's for ten minutes. Since 
filters became clogged with precipitates, it was often necessary to transfer partially 
clarified liquid to fresh centrifuge-filter apparatus and repeat the centrifugation step 
a second time. The combined filtered solutions were adjusted back to pH 7 using 2 
M. sodium hydroxide and glacial acetic acid. The resultant aqueous sample was sub- 
mitted to the Helena Fetal Tek 200 Procedure. 

Finally, amniotic fluid samples were adjusted to extremes of pH using 1 M. sodium 
phosphate, analytical reagent grade, supplied by Mallinckrodt, Inc. The pH altered 
samples were prepared as usual by the Helena Fetal Tek 200 method. 



Results 



The effect of ammonium sulfate precipitation of amniotic fluid samples on the 
L/S determination can be seen in Table 1. Four values are reported at each treatment 
level on four aliquots of the pooled amniotic fluid. It can be seen when ammonium 
sulfate is added in amounts which would bring the saturation of water from 20% to 
80% that no alteration of the L/S ratio occurs. It was also noted that huge amounts 
of protein were precipitated, even at the lowest level of ammonium sulfate addition. 
Although the ammonium sulfate pre-treatment does not negatively influence the 
extraction of lecithin and sphingomyelin, there is no enhancement of phosphatidyl 
glycerol from the altered analytical matrix. Thus ammonium sulfate pre-treatment would 
be of no value in the present case. 



Table 1. Effect of Ammonium Sulfate Precipitation of Amniotic Fluid on L/S 
Determination 

Amount (NH 4 );S0 4 added 

to 4 ml sample L/S Ratio 



untreated — ; 1.2 

0.56g 1.1; 0.7 

1.13g 1.6; 0.8 

1.69g 1.2; 0.9 



2.26g — -; 1.1; 1.2 



1.2 
1.2 
1.2 
1.1 
1.2 



Chemistry 195 

Table 2. Effect of Organic Solvent Pre-Extraction of Amniotic Fluid on L/S 
Determination 

Organic Solvent L/S Ratio 



None 0.9 

Benzene 0.8 

Ethyl Acetate 0.7 

Hexanes 0.8 



1.1 
1.0 
0.6 
0.8 



1.1; 0.7 

0.9; 0.5 

0.7; 0.5 

1.0; 0.7 



Trichloroacetic Acid ppt. formed 



Table 2 shows the effects of various organic solvent pre-extractions of amniotic 
fluid upon the L/S determination. Once again, benzene and hexane are without effect 
on the determined L/S ratio and no additional phophatidyl glycerol was extracted into 
the chloroform-methanol treatment of the Helena Fetal Tex 200 Procedure. No attempt 
has been made to examine the extent to which cholesterol or neutral lipids may have 
been removed by organic solvent extraction. Table 2 suggests that ethyl acetate pre- 
extraction lowers the L/S ratio which is calculated. Examination of the densitometer 
scans show clearly that ethyl acetate differentially removes lecithin in the pre-extraction 
phase. Trichloroacetic acid treatment yields a copious precipitate which apparently traps 
phospholipids quantitatively in the precipitating mixture. We have concluded that the 
organic solvent pre-extractions examined at present are of no value in the pre-treatment 
of human amniotic fluid for the enhancement of phospholipid removal by the Fetal 
Tek 200 Procedure. 

Table 3 shows the effect of extreme pH adjustment of amniotic fluid before 
extraction on the determined L/S ratios. It was seen that there is no significant altera- 
tion of the L/S ratio by adjustment of amniotic fluid pH to either pH2 or pH12. 
Once again no enhancement of phosphatidyl glycerol extraction into the chloroform- 
methanol occurred. 

Discussion 

Although undesirable contaminants are often removed from an analytical matrix 
by pre-precipitation treatments or by pre-extraction, it is clear that the three approaches 
presently reported have not been of value in enhancing the removal of phospholipids 
from human amniotic fluid. In the past, Gluck et al. have reported that acetone pre- 
treatment was useful in enhancing the extraction of lecithin and sphingomyelin (4). 
More recently, other reports suggest that acetone pre-treatment is useless (5). A recent 



Table 3. Effect of pH Adjustment of Amniotic Fluid (before extraction) on L/S 
Determination 

Adjusted pH of Sample L/S Ratio 

1. 2M sodium phosphate, pH2 1.4 

1.3 
1.6 
1.7 

2. 2M sodium phosphate, pH12 3.1 

1.3 
1.5 
1.4 



196 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 94 (1985) 

report by Duck-Chong et al. compared various methods of extracting phospholipids 
from human amniotic fluid. These authors noted that various pre-treatment exposure, 
such as extraction with chilled solvents or chromatography of single phased mixtures 
over Sephadex G25 columns caused decreases from 15 to 40% in the total phospholipid 
originally present in the sample (2). 

This report dramatizes the fact that whatever procedure one uses in determining 
L/S ratios, it is necessary to rigorously standardize all conditions and to develop local 
standards for fetal lung maturity by comparing statistically the results obtained on 
many patient samples with the general health observed in the neonate during subse- 
quent postpartum follow-up. We are continuing to evaluate other pre-treatment methods 
in our laboratory with the hope of realizing this desired goal of enhancing the removal 
of lecithin, sphingomyelin and phosphatidyl glycerol into chloroform-methanol extraction 
mixture. 

The authors wish to acknowledge the careful preparation of this manuscript by 
Ms. Elaine Wilson. 

Literature Cited 

1. Anonymous. 1982. Helena Fetal Tek 200 Method. Helena Laboratories, Beau- 
mont, Texas, p. 1-6. 

2. Duck-Chong, C.G., G.J. Baker, S.R. Murdoch and R.M. Price. 1984. Methods 
for Extracting Phospholipids from Human Amniotic Fluid Compared. Clin. Chem. 
30:271-274. 

3. Giese, R.W. 1983. Technical Considerations in the Use of "High-Performance" 
Liquid Chromatography in Therapeutic Drug Monitoring. Clin. Chem. 
29:1331-1343. 

4. Gluck, L. 1971. Diagnosis of Respiratory Distress Syndrome by Amniocentesis. 
Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 109:440-445. 

5. Hill, E.H. 1979. Comparison of Foam Stability Index and Lecithin/Sphingomyelin 
Ratio in Amniotic Fluid and Its Predictive Value for Fetal Lung Maturity. Clin. 
Chem. 25:1138. 

6. Gluck, L. 1978. Evaluating Functional Fetal Maturation. Clin. Obstet. and Gynecol. 
21:547-559. 



Comparison of Two Simple Methods for Determining 
Lecithin/Sphingomyelin (L/S) Ratios in Human Amniotic Fluid Samples 

Barth H. Ragatz, Gin a Modrak and Patricia S. Conn 

Fort Wayne Center for Medical Education 

Indiana University School of Medicine, and 

Department of Mathematical Sciences 

Indiana University-Purdue University at Fort Wayne Campus 

Fort Wayne, Indiana 46805 



Introduction 

The ability of a neonate to survive after delivery depends largely on proper develop- 
ment of its respiratory system. If the Type II alveolar cells are incapable of synthesiz- 
ing proper pulmonary surfactant, there is a high probability that the neonate will have 
respiratory distress syndrome. Proper pulmonary surfactant is rich in phospholipids, 
especially dipalmityl phosphatidyl choline (lecithin) and phosphatidly glycerol (PG). 
The latter phospholipid is present in the pulmonary surfactant in tenfold smaller molar 
quantities. Since the maternal amniotic fluid is in direct contact with the fetal lung 
compartment during gestation, the lung phospholipids are readily transferred and 
reflected in relative abundance in the amniotic fluid (10,2,5). 

Analytical studies of phospholipids present in amniotic fluid have shown that 
the relative levels of sphingomyelin remain relatively constant throughout gestational 
development. However, the amounts of lecithin and phosphatidyl glycerol are relatively 
low throughout gestation until approximately week 28 when both of these compounds 
begin to increase in relative levels asymptotically. If an amniotic fluid sample is carefully 
taken by amniocentesis before delivery, it is possible to remove contaminating cells 
and to extract the phospholipids from the amniotic fluid. The phospholipids can be 
collected in a cholorform layer, concentrated, and subjected to thin layer chromatography 
for resolution. After separation, some detection method can be employed and the relative 
amounts of sphingomyelin, lecithin, and phosphatidyl glycerol can be detected either 
by visualization of a developed color or by a developed fluorophore (10). The detected 
phospholipid spots can be measured visually or with a scanning densitometer. If an 
L/S ratio greater than 2.0 and the presence of phosphatidyl glycerol are detected it 
can be concluded with some certainty that fetal lung development is normal. If a smaller 
L/S ratio or absence of phosphatidyl glycerol in the amniotic fluid sample is detected, 
it is possible to give fetal retentive drugs and to enhance the synthesis of pulmonary 
lecithin and phosphatidyl glycerol by administration of Cortisol to the mother (5). 

Various detection systems have been utilized in the past to reveal phospholipids 
resolved by thin layer chromatography. These detection reagents have been ionization 
sensitive, unsaturation sensitive, or phosphate sensitive. In recent years the Helena 
Laboratories (Beaumont, Texas) copper acetate reagent (8000) has enjoyed much 
popularity as an unsaturation sensitive detector. Using 42 human amniotic fluid samples, 
we have compared the results obtained for L/S ratios by the copper acetate charring 
detection method with the use of anilino -1,8- naphthalene sulfonate (ANS) detec- 
tion. We have used this latter reagent because of its reported ability to form fluores- 
cent complexes with phospholipids and yield similar fluorescence intensities. In earlier 
studies in our laboratories we have also found anilino - 1, 8 - naphthaline sulfonate 
to be especially sensitive in detecting six phospholipid standards and we found the 
response for spot size to concentration load to be linear for most of the phospholipids 
over a 100 fold concentration range (7). 

197 



198 



Indiana Academy of Science 



Vol. 94 (1985) 



Materials and Methods 

Purified phospholipid standards (lecithin, sphingomyelin, phosphatidyl glycerol) 
were purchased from Sigma Chemical Company, St. Louis, Missouri, and were dissolved 
in chloroform at concentrations of two milligrams per milliliter. Glass plates (20 cen- 
timeter X 20 centimeter) were coated with a slurry prepared by dissolving Silica Gel 
G (Brinkman 7731) 40 grams in 90 milliliters of demineralized water. The silica gel 
was coated with a Brinkman apparatus. Plates were air dried at room temperature 
overnight and received no additional activation at higher temperatures. Frozen amniotic 
fluid samples were thawed to room temperature and two ml. aliquots were placed in 
60 ml. separatory funnels. Two ml. of 100% methanol was added and the mixture 
was shaken for 20 seconds. Two ml. of chloroform was added and the mixture was 
again shaken for 20 seconds. Each emulsified sample was centrifuged in a Clay Adams 
Clinical Centrifuge at 2000 RPM's for ten minutes. A Pasteur pipet was used to carefully 
remove a one ml. aliquot from the lower chloroform layer. The organic extract was 
evaporated to dryness under a stream of nitrogen and was reconstituted with approx- 
imately 40 microliters of chloroform. 

This entire extract could be placed on a thin layer plate and chromatographed 
along with ten microliter samples of the respective phospholipid standards. The plates 
were developed in a solvent system containing 68 ml. of chloroform, 28 ml. of methanol, 
and 4 ml. of 30% ammonium hydroxide, in a Sigma thin layer chromatography chamber. 
Detection of the resolved phospholipids was accomplished by direct visualization follow- 
ing spraying with the Helena Laboratories copper acetate spray reagent and heating 
to 120°C for ten minutes. Alternatively, a similar aliquot from a given patient amniotic 
fluid extract was detected by spraying a solution of 50 milligrams of ANS dissolved 
in 100 ml. of methylene chloride. Detection of the resolved spots was obtained with 
a Ultra-Violet Products UVSL-25 lamp. Spots were quickly circled with pencil and 
a quantity proportional to spot area was calculated by multiplying horizontal diameter 
by vertical diameter of each spot. Finally the ratio of lecithin spot area to sphingomyelin 
spot area was calculated. The sub-populations of 42 patient samples detected by these 
two methods were statistically compared using the Students' t test. 

Results 

The statistical data obtained from the Students' t test is shown in Table 1. The 
result of comparing the two population means with each other statistically indicates 
in a two-tail probability that the two methods give statistically significantly different 
results. Of course this statistical parameter does not indicate that one method is better 
than the other, merely that the two sample populations are statistically different (4). 



Table 1: Comparison of L/S Ratios in Amniotic Fluid Determined by Two Detection 
Methods on 42 Patient Samples. 



ANS Fluorescence Detection Method 
Cupric Acetate Charring Method 

Diff. of Means 

Std. Error Diff. of Mean 

Calc. t Value 

Two Tail. Probability 



Mean of L/S Ratios Std. Dev, 


2.56 


1.17 


2.07 


0.94 


0.49 




0.14 




3.39 




0.002 (Significantly Different) 





Chemistry 199 

Table 2: Individual Patient L/S Ratios Determined by the Two Detection Methods 

Patient No. ANS Fluorescence Cupric Acetate Charring 

1 2.60 0.72 

2 2.00 0.75 

3 3.00 0.83 

4 1.40 0.98 

5 2.80 1.30 

6 4.50 1.60 

7 0.83 1.40 

8 1.50 1.20 

9 1.20 0.85 

10 0.98 1.40 

11 0.48 1.20 

12 4.00 3.80 

13 2.60 4.40 

14 2.40 2.10 

15 1.50 1.60 

16 2.80 1.50 

17 2.60 2.30 

18 4.30 2.80 

19 1.30 1.40 

20 3.30 2.50 

21 3.30 3.90 

22 3.60 3.00 

23 2.50 2.70 

24 2.20 2.40 

25 2.90 3.00 

26 5.30 3.10 

27 1.60 1.50 

28 1.30 2.00 

29 3.40 2.60 

30 1.40 0.88 

31 1.70 1.80 

32 2.80 3.70 

33 1.80 1.70 

34 3.70 3.00 

35 2.20 1.50 

36 3.20 2.00 

37 3.60 1.90 

38 4.20 3.20 

39 1.40 1.40 

40 3.90 3.00 

41 4.30 3.50 

42 1.20 1.70 



It is evident from Table 2 that in 28 of the 42 L/S ratio determinations, these ratios 
are larger when determined by the ANS fluorescence method. 

Discussion 

Published results from several laboratories suggest that the copper acetate charr- 
ing method of detection is loaded with problems. Spillman, et al. reported that when 
unsaturation sensitive methods such as copper acetate are compared with unsaturation 
insensitive methods such as molybdate detection, that the unsaturation insensitive 
methods consistently give higher L/S ratios than those methods that are unsaturation 
sensitive (8). Touchstone, et al. completed a study of the reactivity of separated 
phospholipids toward various charring reagents. They also noted that saturated lecithins 
as are commonly found in mature amniotic fluids are rather insensitive to copper acetate 



200 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 94 (1985) 

detection. Those lecithins containing at least one unsaturated fatty acid are responsive 
to the reagent and multiple unsaturated lecithins are additionally sensitive. Partially 
unsaturated samples of phosphatidyl ethanolamine, phosphatidyl serine and phosphatidly 
inositol are also responsive to copper aceteate charring reagents (9). Various resear- 
chers report that the relative abundance of saturated lecithins (as dipalmityl phosphatidyl 
choline) increases dramatically beyond week 30 of gestation (5). Thus, as fetal lung 
maturation occurs as reflected by pulmonary surfactant present in amniotic fluid one 
can expect the resultant lecithins to become increasingly insensitive to spray reagents 
such as copper acetate. 

A number of authors have shown that the temperature used to complete the charring 
is even critical with copper acetate sprays. Mueller has shown, if sprayed plates are 
heated at 120°C that consistently higher L/S ratios are determined, while if plates are 
heated to 130°C, consistently lower L/S ratios are determined, using the phospholipid 
standards (6). In a classic study by Gluck, et al. comparing other charring methods, 
it was noted that differing results are obtained at different temperatures and also results 
are dependent on whether calcium sulfate binder is present or absent in the silica gel. 
Finally these results were variable with the kind of charring reagent used (3). Brown, 
et al. recently reported that as charring times are increased, the resolved sphingomyelin 
spot intensified in color while the resolved lecithin spot decreases in color. Thus as 
charring time is increased, the L/S ratio appears to decrease (1). 

These published results of other researchers certainly indicate that if copper acetate 
charring methods are used that all the parameters, such as silica gel source, presence 
or absence of calcium sulfate binder, charring temperature, and charring time must 
be very carefully and uniformly regulated from one determination to another. In order 
to ultimately decide if the sensitive ANS fluorescent reagent is more effective, we will 
need to conduct a series of experiments comparing L/S determinations on amniotic 
fluid samples for the two detection methods. We will need to have an elaborate neonate 
follow-up after the fact to actually determine if the lung development of the newborn 
would parallel the estimate yielded by our respective tests. 

Summary 

We have extracted and chromatographed methanol-chloroform concentrates of 
42 patient amniotic fluid samples on air dried silica gel thin layer chromatography 
plates. We have detected resolved phospholipids by either direct visualization of cupric 
acetate charred spots or by fluorescence of spots revealed after spraying with ANS. 
Calculation of spot areas in each case has permitted us to determine 
lecithin/sphingomyelin ratios for each sample analyzed by each detection method. We 
have shown that the two sample populations are statistically different and that the 
saturated lecithin sensitive methods (ANS detection) yields larger L/S ratios for 28 
of the 42 patient samples. 

The authors wish to acknowledge the typing of this manuscript by Ms. Elaine 
Wilson. 

Literature Cited 

1. Brown, L.M., C.G. Duck-Chong and W.J. Hensley. 1982. Improved Procedure 
for Lecithin/Sphingomyellin Ratio in Amniotic Fluid Reduces False Predictions 
of Lung Immaturity. Clin. Chem. 28:344-348. 

2. Gluck, L. 1978. Evaluating Functional Fetal Maturation. Clin. Obstet. and Gyn. 
21:547-559. 

3. Gluck, L., M.V. Kulovich and R.C. Borer. 1971. Diagnosis of the Respiratory 
Distress Syndrome by Amniocentesis. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 109:440-445. 



Chemistry 201 

4. Kaplan, L.A. and A.J. Pesce. 1984. Clinical Chemistry: Theory, Analysis and 
Correlation. C.V. Mosby Co., St. Louis, p. 287-296. 

5. Kikkawa, Y. and F. Smith. 1983. Cellular and Biochemical Aspects of Pulmonary 
Surfactant in Health and Disease. Lab. Investig. 49:122-139. 

6. Mueller, R.G. 1982. Effect of Charring Temperature on Observed L/S Ratio. 
Clin. Chim. Acta. 122:79-83. 

7. Ragatz, B.H., B. Otfinoski, G. Modrak and D. Lyng. 1982. Evaluation of Detection 
Systems Used to Determine Lecithin/Sphingomyelin Ratios in Amniotic Fluid. 
Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. 91:188-194. 

8. Spillman, T., D.B. Colton, S.C. Lynn, Jr. and J. P. Bretandiere. 1983. Influence 
of Phospholipid Saturation on Classical Thin-Layer Chromatographic Detection 
Methods and Its Effect on Amniotic Fluid Lecithin/Sphingomyelin Ratio Deter- 
minations. Clin. Chem. 29:250-255. 

9. Touchstone, J.C., S.S. Levin, M.F. Dobbins, L. Matthews, P.C. Beers and S.G. 
Gable. 1983. (3-sn-Phosphatidyl) cholines (Lecithins) in Amniotic Fluid. Clin. 
Chem. 29:1951-1954. 

10. Warren, B.M. 1980. The L/S Ratio—How Does It Relate to Fetal Maturity? Helena 
Laboratories. Beaumont, Texas. 



The Effects of Oligolysines and Polylysines on Human Platelet Aggregation 
Induced by Polylysines, Adenosine Diphosphate, and Epinephrine 

Barth H. Ragatz, Gina Modrak and Mike Engle 
Fort Wayne Center for Medical Education, Indiana University School of 

Medicine 
and Department of Biological Sciences, Indiana University-Purdue University at 

Fort Wayne 
Fort Wayne, Indiana 47805 

Introduction 

In the past there have been several confusing reports in the literature about the 
interaction of polylysine with human platelet-rich plasma (PRP) suspensions. Some 
reports indicate that this synthetic polycation can induce platelet aggregation and 
stimulate the release reaction when added to PRP suspensions (5). Other investigators 
have suggested that at most there is an electrostatic interaction between the positively 
charged polylysine and the sialic acid-rich negatively charged platelet surfaces (6). This 
polylysine effect has been reported to be independent of polymer molecular weight, 
with polymers in the molecular weight range 2500-400,000 Daltons being effective (4, 
5, 6, 7, 8, 10). Once again, Metcalf and Lyman report that plasma cofactors may 
be required for the polylysine-platelet interaction but Massini et al. report that no 
plasma cofactor is required (4, 5). Published reports also indicate that conformational 
variations are possible and that extended left-handed polylysine helices effectively in- 
teract with platelets and that L, D, and D-L monomers can be present. Metcalf and 
Lyman indicate that the beta polylysine conformation interacts with the platelets, while 
the random coil conformation is ineffective (4). 

It is reported also that the epsilon amino groups of the lysine monomers must 
remain intact for the interaction to occur. Succinylation of these groups abolishes ac- 
tivity as does deamination, N-acetylation, or N-dinitrophenylation. Various biological 
polyanions can also inhibit the polylysine-platelet interaction, presumably by forming 
electrostatic complexes with the added polylysine. Included in this category are heparin 
and chondroitin sulfates (7). 

Since many reagents which induce platelet aggregation or the release reactions 
in platelets are dependent on the liberation of arachidonic acid from membrane bound 
phospholipids, and the subsequent generation of cyclic endoperoxides from the 
arachidonic acid, we decided to use a well known reagent to block the generation of 
these derivatives in the arachidonic acid cascade (13). We reasoned that if the polylysine- 
platelet interaction is primarily an electrostatic interaction, then impairment of the 
biochemical functionality of the platelets probably would not alter it. 

It is well known that aspirin (acetyl salicylic acid) is a common pharmacologic 
agent which can block the generation of arachidonic acid derivatives (13). Published 
studies indicate that aspirin acetylates susceptible protein R groups on at least three 
platelet proteins, including the enzyme, platelet cyclo-oxygenase. This particular en- 
zyme is involved in the generation of the cyclic endoperoxide intermediates (PGG 2 , 
PGH 2 ) which are precursors to the potent platelet aggregator, thromboxane A 2 (2, 4, 9). 

In our present study, we have taken platelets from human volunteer subjects who 
were either aspirin-free or well aspirinized at the time the platelets were collected, and 
we have then studied the interaction of various molecular weight, oligo-and polylysines 
with either aspirin-free or well aspirinized platelets in plasma suspension. We have 
also studied the interaction of these two kinds of platelet populations by incubating 
them with various molecular weight oligo-or polylysines and then adding low doses 

203 



204 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 94 (1985) 

of adenosine diphosphate to the suspensions 30 seconds later. The dose of adenosine 
diphosphate was selected to induce only a mild reversible primary aggregation when 
it is added alone. Finally, the two kinds of platelet populations were preincubated 
with various oligo-and polylysines and then epinephrine was added in strong aggregating 
30 seconds later. 

Materials and Methods 

Potential platelet donors were recruited and each completed a questionnaire 
evaluating disease- free and drug-free state of the donor. Each donor also signed an 
informed consent statement developed and approved by the Committees for the Pro- 
tection of Human Subjects within IUPUI and IPFW. Approximately 50 ml. of whole 
blood was collected into Becton-Dickinson 6419 Vacutainers, specifically designed for 
preparation of PRP. These evacuated containers were sterilized, silicone-coated, and 
contain 0.5 ml. of buffered 0.129M sodium citrate. The collected whole blood was 
centrifuged in a vibration-free Sorvall DuPont T6000 centrifuge at room temperature 
for ten minutes at 1000 RPM's. The PRP is carefully pipetted from the top of the 
tubes into a plastic container using a plastic Falcon 10 ml. pipet. Platelet poor plasma 
(PPP) was prepared by centrifuging the remaining blood components for ten minutes 
at 10,000 RPMs in a high speed refrigerated Sorvall centrifuge and the supernatant 
resulting was collected. Platelet counts were obtained on an automated Coulter counter 
at Veterans Administration Hospital in Fort Wayne, Indiana. All PRP typically had 
a platelet count greater than 350,000 platelets/mm 3 . 

Adenosine diphosphate and most of the polylysines were obtained from Sigma 
Chemical Company. Some of the polylysines and all oligolysines were obtained from 
Vega Chemical Company. Epinephrine was obtained from Bio Data Corporation. Stock 
solutions were prepared at appropriate concentrations by diluting the respective reagent 
with 0.85% sodium chloride. Dilutions were prepared also using this sodium chloride 
solution and all solutions were adjusted to pH7 with an Orion 501 pH meter. The 
test reagent solutions and standards were stored in plastic culture tubes at — 20°C in 
5 ml. aliquots. Polylysines and oligolysine were dissolved at the appropriate concen- 
tration on the day of usage. 

Platelet-rich plasma was stored at room temperature and promptly utilized within 
4-6 hours after the whole blood was drawn. All aggregation tests were done in a Payton 
300 Dual Channel Aggregometer at 37°C. with a constant stirring speed of 900 RPM's. 
These conditions are optimal for efficient aggregation and do not cause sufficient shearing 
forces to disaggregate platelet clumps. The chart recorder ranges are established on 
the two pen recorder system using aliquots of platelet-rich and platelet-poor plasma. 
Baseline stability is periodically checked and aggregation standards are added to samples 
periodically to insure that platelets are remaining viable. If obvious erythrocyte sediments 
or hemolysis is detected in the PRP, it is discarded promptly. 

Results 

Typical results evaluating the interaction of platelet suspensions with the oligo- 
and polylysines at 1 mg./l ml. concentrations are shown in Table 1. It can be seen 
that if small oligolysines (lysyl-lysine, pentalysine) or intermediate molecular weight 
lysines (molecular 4000-14,000 Daltons) are added to suspensions of normal platelets 
or aspirinized platelets, no aggregation effect is observed when monitored for at least 
five minute periods. It can be seen, however, when large molecular weight polylysines 
(25,000-240,000 Daltons) are added to normal or aspirinized platelet suspensions that 
a prompt, complete aggregation occurs. The experimental results suggest that a larger 
polylysine (molecular weight = 55,000 Daltons) is required to bring about initial 



Chemistry 205 

Table 1 . Interaction of Platelet-Rich Plasma Suspensions with Oligo- and Polylysines 
(at lmg/ml concentrations) 



Compound Added Aspirin Free Platelets Aspirinized Platelets 

Lysyl-Lysine — - 

Pentalysine - - 

4K Polylysine - - 

14K Polylysine - - 

25K Polylysine + 

55K Polylysine + + 

90K Polylysine + + 

150K Polylysine N.D. + 

240K Polylysine N.D. + 



( + ) = Complete, Irreversible Aggregation 
( - ) = No Effect 
N.D. = No Data Collected 



aggregation of platelets, but basically it can be concluded that the polylysine-platelet 
interaction is independent of the usual functioning arachidonic acid cascade leading 
to the production of cyclic endoperoxides and thromboxane A 2 . 

Table 2 shows the effects of pre-incubating normal platelets or aspirinized platelets 
with various oligo- or polylysines for 30 seconds before a low dose of adenosine 
diphosphate (ADP) is added. This table indicates once again that there is no difference 
in responsiveness between the normal platelets and the aspirinized platelets. Further- 
more, this series of experiments shows that there is a cooperative interaction between 
the larger polylysines (molecular weight greater than 25,000 Daltons) and adenosine 
diphosphate. This cooperative interaction between polylysine and ADP can be explained 
by a linkage of a discrete polycation receptor with the adenosine diphosphate receptor, 
or by the fact that platelets preincubated with polylysines are drawn in closer proximi- 
ty to one another and are more readily stimulated by low doses of ADP than is the 
case when polylysines are absent. It can certainly be seen that aspirin does not impair 
in any way this polylysine and adenosine diphosphate interaction with platelets. 



Table 2: Effects of 30 Sec. Pre-Incubation of Oligo- and Polylysines on ADP-Induced 
Platelet Aggregation 

ADP Added 30" After: 

Lysyl-Lysine 
Pentalysine 
4K Polylysine 
14K Polylysine 
25K Polylysine 
90K Polylysine 
150K Polylysine 
240K Polylysine 



( - ) = No Effect 

( + ) = Rapid, Complete, Irreversible Aggregation 
N.D. + No Data Collected 



Aspirin Free Platelets 


Aspirinized Platelets 


- 


N.D. 


- 


N.D. 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 



206 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 94 (1985) 

Table 3. Effects of 30 Sec. Pre-Incubation of Oligo- and Polylysines on Epinephrine- 
Induced Platelet Aggregation 

Epi Added 30" After: Aspirin Free Platelets Aspirinized Platelets 

Lysyl-lysine - N.D. 

Pentalysine - — 

4K Polylysine - - 

25K Polylysine + + 

55K Polylysine + + 

90K Polylysine + + 

150K Polylysine + + 

240K Polylysine + + 



( - ) = No Effect 

( + ) = Enhances Aggregation in Magnitude or Onset 
N.D. = No Data Collected 



Finally Table 3 shows the effect of pre-incubating normal platelets or aspirinized 
platelets with various oligo-or polylysines and then adding a vigorous aggregating dose 
of epinephrine 30 seconds after the polycation addition. Once again, the data in Table 
3 shows there is no difference in response between the normal and aspirinized platelets. 
It can be seen that a minimal sized polylysine (molecular weight = 25,000 Daltons) 
is required for this cooperative effect and again, there is a positive interaction between 
polylysine pre-incubation and epinephrine addition. As was the case for secondary ADP 
induced aggregation, this phenomenon could be explained by the linkage of a discrete 
polycation receptor to a discrete membrane epinephrine receptor on the platelets, or 
it could be explained alternatively by an electrostatic interaction of the polylysines with 
the platelets initially bringing them into spatial proximity to enhance the effect of 
epinephrine. Again, it is obvious that the aspirinized, biochemically impaired platelets 
yield equally good responses in these polylysine-epinephrine experiments. 

Discussion 

The present results indicate that polylysine polymers in the molecular weight range 
25,000 to 240,000 Daltons are effective in inducing aggregation of platelet rich plasma 
when added at concentrations of 1 mg./l ml. In contrast to earlier published studies 
with normal platelets, we have observed no aggregation with polylysines of molecular 
weight lower than 14,000 Daltons. Many of the earlier studies were done with citrate 
addition to whole blood in which the relative concentration of citrate was less care- 
fully controlled and not standardized as has been the case in the present study using 
the B-D liquid citrate Vacutainers (4, 5, 6, 7, 10). Control of relative citrate concentra- 
tion has been shown to be an important parameter in obtaining good platelet aggrega- 
tion results in clinical studies (11). 

In both normal and aspirinized platelets, we have seen a cooperative interaction 
between polylysines and classical aggregating agents, such as adenosine diphosphate 
or epinephrine. These positive interactions could be explained by a coupling between 
discrete receptor sites on the platelet surface and by an electrostatic interaction of platelets 
with polylysines initially. These present results do demonstrate that biochemically im- 
paired platelets with an inability to generate the cyclic endoperoxides PGG 2 or PGH 2 , 
or the potent aggregating substance, thromboxane A 2 , give equally good responses 
to polylysines or combinations of polylysines with either adenosine diphosphate or 
epinephrine. Although the present results alone do not prove conclusively that polylysines 
are without biochemical or metabolic effects on the platelets, they are certainly sug- 



Chemistry 207 

gestive that polylysine-platelet interactions are largely electrostatic in nature. Earlier 
published reports by Guccione et al. in which platelets were pretreated with adenosine, 
EDTA, or prostaglandin E 2 also suggest that platelet functionality is not altered when 
polylysines are finally added (3). 

In conclusion, there is no difference in response to populations of normal or 
aspirinized platelets to any of the tests mentioned above. There is a minimum molecular 
weight for polylysines that is required for induction of the aggregation reaction with 
B-D Vacutainer prepared platelet-rich plasma. However, since lysine and oligolysines 
have been shown to inhibit adenosine diphosphate or thrombin induced aggregation, 
it is obviously relevant for us to learn more about this polycation-platelet interaction 
(1, 12). The next phase of our research will include transmission electron 
photomicrographic studies to determine if the polylysine interaction causes any of the 
classic morphologic changes seen in platelets when various conventional aggregating 
agents are added. 

The authors wish to acknowledge the preparation of this manuscript by Ms. Elaine 
Wilson and the platelet counts which were provided by Mr. Zane Smith at the Veterans 
Administration Hospital in Fort Wayne. 

Literature Cited 

1. Agam, G., T.K. Gartner and A. Livne. 1984. Inhibition of Platelet Aggregation 
and Endogenous Lectin Activity by Oligoamines. Thromb. Res. 33:245-257. 

2. Buchanan, M.R., J. A. Rischke and J. Hirsh. 1982. Aspirin Inhibits Platelet Func- 
tion Independent of the Acetylation of Cyclo-Oxygenase, Thromb. Res. 25:363-373. 

3. Guccione, M.A., M.A. Packham, R.L. Kimbaugh-Rathbone, D.W. Perry and 
J.F. Mustard. 1976. Reactions of Polylysine with Human Platelets in Plasma and 
in Suspensions of Washed Platelets. Thrombos. Haemostas. 36:360-375. 

4. Hoak, J.C. 1983. Mechanisms of Action: Aspirin. Thromb. Res. Suppl. IV. 47-51. 

5. Massini, P., L.C. Metcalf, U. Naf and E.F. Luscher. 1974. Induction of Ag- 
gregation and of the Release Reaction in Human Platelets by Polylysine. 
Haemostasis. 3:8-19. 

6. Mohammed, S.F., H.Y.K. Chuang, P.E. Crowther and R.G. Mason. 1979. In- 
teractions of Poly (L-Lysine) with Human Platelets, Correlation of Binding with 
Induction of Platelet Aggregation. Thromb. Res. 15:781-791. 

7. Mohammed, S.F., H.Y.K. Chuang and R.G. Mason. 1977. Roles of Polymer 
Size and 6-Amino Groups in Polylysine-Platelet Interaction. Thromb. Res. 
1:193-202. 

8. Ragatz, B.H. 1980. Interactions of Various Homopolypeptides with Human 
Platelet-Rich Plasma Suspensions. Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. 90:180-185. 

9. Roth, G.J. and P.W. Majerus. 1975. The Mechanism of the Effect of Aspirin 
on Human Platelets. I. Acetylation of a Particulate Fraction Protein. J. Clin. 
Invest. 56:624-632. 

10. Tiffany, M.L. and J. A. Penner. 1976. Polylysine Aggregation of Human Blood 
Platelets. Thromb. Res. 8:529-530. 

11. Triplett, D.A. (Edit.). 1978. Platelet Function: Laboratory Evaluation and Clinical 
Application. Amer. Soc. Clin. Path. (Publisher), p. 64-67. 

12. Ts'ao, C, S.J. Hart, D.V. Krajewski and P.G. Sorenson. 1982. Opposite Effect 
of Lysine on Platelet Aggregation Induced by Arachidonate and by Other Ag- 
gregants. Thromb. Haemostas. 48:78-83. 

13. Weiss, H.J. 1982. Platelets: Pathophysiology and Antiplatelet Drug Therapy. Alan 
R. Liss, Inc., New York. 



ECOLOGY 

Chairperson: Edwin R. Squiers 
Department of Biology 

Taylor University 
Upland, Indiana 46989 
(317)998-2751 ext. 386 

Chairperson-Elect: Richard W. Miller 

Department of Zoology 

Butler University 

Indianapolis, Indiana 46208 

(317)283-9328 

ABSTRACTS 

Pipewort Pond, a Unique Wetland with Atlantic Coastal Plain Elements in Elkhart 
County, Indiana. James R. Aldrich, Division of Nature Preserves, Indiana Depart- 
ment of Natural Resources, Indianapolis, Indiana 46204. This remarkable wetland 

supports a unique assemblage of native vascular plants many of which are commonly 
referred to as "Atlantic Coastal Plain disjuncts." Many of the species that occur at 
Pipewort Pond such as Fuirena pumila, Psilocarya scirpoides, Rhynchospora 
macrostachya, Eriocaulon septangulare, Juncus pelocarpus and Utricularia purpurea 
are rare or otherwise noteworthy species for the Indiana flora. The vegetation and 
ecology of the wetland is discussed and a species list is presented. 

Competition for Ownership of Webs in the Semi-social Spider Cyrtophora moluccen- 
sis of Yap (Caroline Islands, Micronesia). James W. Berry, Department of Zoology, 

Butler University, Indianapolis, Indiana 46208. In a colonial web each spider builds 

its own orb, but wandering individuals frequently challenge the original inhabitant 
of the orb. When a spider is introduced into the orb of another spider, one of the 
individuals eventually is chased from the orb. Two important factors in deciding posses- 
sion of the orb are prior occupancy of the orb and body weight. Disregarding weight 
differences, the owner retained possession of the orb about 70% of the time. The 
heavier spider, whether the intruder or the owner, was the winner 60% of the time. 
In 53 experiments, the time elapsing between the intruder being introduced into the 
orb and one of the individuals leaving the orb varied from 30 seconds to more than 
four hours. 

Regional Low Density and Extinction in Populations of Peromyscus leucopus. Alex 
Burgin and David T. Krohne Department of Biology, Wabash College, Crawfords- 

ville, Indiana 47933. In the spring and summer of 1984 unusually low densities 

of populations of the white-footed deer mouse, Peromyscus leucopus were, encountered 
throughout the Sugar Creek drainage in west-central Indiana. Extensive trapping at 
seven sites on both sides of the creek indicated that this phenomenon extended for 
at least 60 km and included local extinction in at least three sites. Age structures were 
biased toward adults in all sites during the low density periods. Sex ratio was heavily 
biased toward males on all sites but one during this period. On the one site in which 
males did not predominate, recovery from the low density situation began earlier and 
continued more rapidly than on other sites. By the end of the summer of 1984, the 

209 



210 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 94 (1985) 

sites had begun to diverge in density with some recovering at different rates while 
others remained extinct. 

Predator-determined Structure in Amphibian Pond Communities. Spencer A. 
Cortwright, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 47405. Community struc- 
ture encompasses the number and relative abundances of interacting species. The 
mechanisms producing community structure are interactions among the species and 
their relations to the physical environment. Patterns in pond-breeding amphibians sug- 
gested that moderate or high densities of a fall-breeding Ambystoma (a salamander 
predator on spring-breeders) were associated with low populations of one spring-breeding 
salamander and higher populations of a second. A factorial pen experiment was done 
using two densities each of the three salamanders (plus constant numbers of other 
common amphibians). 

The results showed a strong predator effect on the fall-breeding Ambystoma 
opacum on two early-hatching species, Ambystoma jeffersonianum and Rana sylvatica, 
in both the pen experiment and the pond itself. Two later-hatching species, Ambystoma 
maculatum and Notophthalmus viridescens, experienced much higher survivorship in 
the presence of predators. Rana clamitans breeds even later, has low palatibility, and 
is too large to be consumed the following spring. Thus, timing of prey hatching and 
possibly prey behavior may strongly affect prey susceptibility and, hence, community 
structure. 

In more temporary pools without A. opacum, A. jeffersonianum survives in higher 
numbers and appears to depress the survivorship of A. maculatum. Thus A. opacum 
appears to cause a reversal in the relative abundances of these two prey species. 

The Complex Relationship of Embryonic Development to Incubation Temperature in 
Turtles. Michael A. Ewert and Craig E. Nelson, Indiana University, Bloomington, 

Indiana 47405. In birds, the incubation period within a species deviates little from 

the mean. In turtles, however, the incubation period within a species varies greatly 
and healthy turtles hatch following a broad range of durations. Only part of this variation 
is attributable to acceleration of development by increased temperature. At a single 
temperature, eggs from higher latitudes develop up to 30% faster than conspecifics 
from lower latitudes, a difference expressed throughout embryonic differentiation. Other 
species have a variably prolonged arrest of development in early stages and, sometimes, 
at term, when otherwise they are ready to hatch. 

What is the adaptive significance of variable incubation periods? In particular, 
what do slower developers gain? In species with environmental sex determination, pro- 
longed development may match temperature sensitive phases of development with 
seasonal arrays of temperatures more favorable for gonadal development. Alternatively, 
some species may be "bet-hedging" to assure that some eggs hatch when environmen- 
tal conditions are favorable. We are using calorimetry and respirometry to explore 
the energetic implications of these options. 

A Competitive Ecotone between Hardwood and Relict Hemlock Communities. Scott 
Person, Department of Ecology and Evolution, State University of New York, Stony 
Brook, New York 11794 and Daniel D. Stockton, Department of Biology, Wabash 

College, Crawfordsville, Indiana 47933. Apparently relict stands of Eastern 

Hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) occur along Sugar Creek bluffs at the Allee Memorial 
Woods Nature Preserve in Parke County, Indiana, in sites usually occupied by beech- 
maple hardwoods. If, despite their complexity and variability, these communities behave 
integrally in interaction with each other, the boundary between them is expected to 



Ecology 211 

be very sharp and display a constant width when measured objectively across perpen- 
dicular transects. In this case, local floristic configurations will form a bimodal distribu- 
tion in vegetation space lacking intermediate states. All hardwood trees (larger than 
7.5 cm dbh) and all hemlock stems (taller than 10 cm) were measured for diameter 
and mapped in a 1.8 hectare area which included an extremely sharp ecotone between 
communities with and without hemlock. Qualitative estimates of understory and 
herbaceous layer composition were also made. Analysis of these data may give weak- 
inferential evidence that this ecotone is the result of mutual competitive exclusion by 
the two communities along an environmental gradient. 

Development and Analysis of a CFI Data Base for Indiana. Burnell C. Fischer and 
John A. Kershaw, Jr., Department of Forestry and Natural Resources, Purdue Univer- 
sity, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907. Continuous Forest Inventory (CFI) plots were 

established throughout Indiana during the late 1940s through the mid 1960s. Many 
of these plots were maintained and periodically remeasured. However, few summaries 
of the data were attempted and the data, if not lost, was simply put in the file cabinet. 
This type of data is essential if forest researchers are to develop models of forest develop- 
ment and growth which can be used by forest managers. 

The relocation and remeasurement of the Purdue portion of Indiana's CFI plots 
is nearing completion. This will result in a data base of over 400 CFI plots (many 
originating in the early 1950s) on either Purdue Agricultural Centers and Purdue Depart- 
ment of Forestry and Natural Resources woodlands. The initial effort was concen- 
trated on these woodlands because the existing data was most accessible and these 
plots were considered to be in the "best" condition. Work has begun to assess the 
condition of plots and accompanying data bases on State Forests and other woodlands. 

Initial analysis of the data has concentrated on the development, and growth and 
yield of forest stands and the response of individual trees by species and size class. 
Stand growth is summarized by growth component. Gross growth, ingrowth, mortality 
and cut for basal area and board foot volume are utilized. Although, individual tree 
growth has primarily been an analysis of diameter growth by size class and species, 
we are also looking at ingrowth and mortality rates. 

Obviously, tree and plot growth rates are quite variable depending on both forest 
and site conditions. The summarization of a large data set, such as is available in 
Indiana, should allow researchers to test a number of hypotheses on the growth and 
management of Indiana forests. 

Biofiltration in Intensive Culture Systems: Design Considerations. George S. Libey 

and Gary E. Miller, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907. The 

growth of the human population is accompanied by a need to increase food produc- 
tion. Aquaculture, the cultivation of aquatic organisms, offers the potential for expanding 
the human food base. Reconditioning systems for fish culture increase the use of limited 
water supplies and maintain necessary water quality parameters. Characteristics or recon- 
ditioning systems include: 

Removal/detoxification of metabolic wastes 

Solid waste removal 

Reoxygenation 

Temperature control 

Disease control 

Design constraints are: 

Soluable organics concentration 



212 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 94 (1985) 

Soluable inorganics concentration 

Temperature 

Dissolved oxygen 

Alkalinity 

pH 

Devices available include: 

Packed tower (trickling filter) 
Rotating biological contractor 
Fluidized bed-reactor 
Tube/plate clarifier 

Sexual Selection and Alternative Mating Strategies in Hyla crucifer and Hyla chrysoscelis. 
Molly Morris, Department of Biology, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 

47405. Observations and field experiments were conducted on a population of 

Hyla crucifer (spring peeper) and a population of Hyla chrysoscelis (gray treefrog) 
during their respective mating seasons. Data was taken to determine behavioral and/or 
morphological characteristics that could influence a male's reproductive success. Close 
attention was also given to the location and distinguishing characteristics of the call 
sites. In both species, large males did not have a higher probability of mating than 
smaller males, nor did I find positive assortative mating of large males with large females 
and smaller males with smaller females. Factors that seem to affect mating success 
in gray treefrogs include the number of nights spent calling and a male's close associa- 
tion with another calling male. Males that spent more evenings calling had a higher 
probability of mating. These and other results will be discussed in terms of mating 
systems, alternative male mating strategies and game theory. 

Do Tadpoles Die for their Siblings? Craig E. Nelson, Department of Biology, Indiana 

University, Bloomington, Indiana 47405. When same-age conspecific tadpoles are 

grown together, it has frequently been observed that one or a few of the tadpoles 
grow well and that the growth of the other tadpoles is severely inhibited. Indeed the 
inhibited tadpoles often fail to feed and consequently die. Inhibitability appears to 
be selectively disadvantageous and might be expected to evolve out of the population. 
Kin-selection could maintain inhibitability if its net effect was an increase in the growth 
and/or survivorship of favored siblings. These experiments ask whether the growth 
disparity within sibling groups is greater than that within groups of non-siblings. Such 
a disparity would strongly implicate kin-selection. 

Tree Species Dynamics in an Old-growth Deciduous Forest since 1926. George R. 
Parker and Donald J. Leopold, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 

47907. All trees (_> cm dbh) in a 20.5 ha mature deciduous forest on the Tipton 

Till Plain of central Indiana were tagged and mapped in 1926. Trees within the central 
8.5 ha were remeasured and mapped in 1976. Thirty-two species were recorded in 1976 
and 28 in 1926. There was a shift in relative abundance among species due to ingrowth 
and mortality. The majority of ingrowth trees within a 5-m radius gap of dead domi- 
nant trees were Ulmus americana (30% of total) and Acer saccharum (20%). Low 
mortality species (<_25%) included A. saccharum, Aesculus glabra, most Carya spp., 
Celtis occidentalis and most Quercus spp. High mortality species (>75%) included 
Fagus grandifolia, Ulmus spp., and Fraxinus nigra. Nearly half (46.9%) of those trees 
measured in 1926 were dead by 1976. Stand density and basal area increased 93.9 and 
30.8%, respectively, to 320 stems/ha and 31.0 m/ha by 1976. Mortality has average 
2.9 stems/ha since 1976 with U. americana accounting for about 30% of those dying. 



Ecology 213 

Male Mating Behavior in Hyla cinerea. Stephen A. Perrill, Department of Zoology, 

Butler University, Indianapolis, Indiana 46208. Hyla cinerea males in two ponds 

on Wilmington Island, Georgia, were toe-clipped and freeze-branded for individual 
identification. Their activities and rates of mating success were observed over three 
breeding seasons, 1979-81. The goal of these observations was to relate their behavior, 
location, and physical characteristics to their rates of mating success. Three categories 
of behavior were considered (calling, satellite and non-calling) and more than 80% 
were found to be either calling or adopting the satellite strategy for most of the obser- 
vation period. The least site-specific, least mobile males showed the highest rate of 
mating success; the most site-specific, the least successful. In each year, there was a 
significant positive correlation between calling activity and mating success. Also, there 
were consistent positive relationships between the number of nights the frogs frequented 
the study site and their rates of mating success; but mean body size did not appear 
to influence the mating success rates. 

Hardwood Tree and Ground Cover Establishment on Reclaimed Mineland and Unmined 
Reference Sites in Indiana. Phillip E. Pope, William R. Chaney and William R. 
Byrnes, Department of Forestry and Natural Resources, Purdue University, West 

Lafayette, Indiana 47907. Establishment success, productivity, and compatibility 

of ground cover and hardwood tree seedlings planted concurrently and maintained 
under the same level of management were evaluated on reclaimed, surface-mined, coal 
land and unmined reference sites in southwestern Indiana. Topography, soils, and vegeta- 
tion were similar on both sites prior to mining. The mined land was reclaimed for 
forest land use under provisions of Public Law 95-87, The Surface Mining Control 
and Reclamation Act of 1977. The reference area was cleared of all vegetation and 
both sites were disced, limed, and fertilized before planting. Soil physical and chemical 
properties were analyzed and compared between sites. One-year-old black walnut (Juglans 
nigra L.) and red oak (Quercus rubra L.) seedlings were planted at 2 x 2 meter spacing 
concurrently with a mixture of K-31 fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) and red clover 
{Trifolium pratense L.) in spring 1981. Tree rows in one-half of each experimental 
unit were treated with amizine (simazine + amitrole) and dalapon to control ground 
cover plants and to assess the competitive effects of ground cover on hardwood tree 
establishment and growth. After three growing seasons, black walnut and red oak seed- 
ling survival was significantly greater on the reference site (88 and 77%, respectively) 
than on the reclaimed mineland (50 and 42%, respectively). Chemical control of ground 
cover was essential to meet stocking levels of 450 trees/acre specified in Federal and 
Indiana reclamation laws. Percent ground cover exceeded 70% of the cover present 
on the unmined reference site for three growing seasons, and hence met the initial 
requirement of Public Law 95-87. Ground cover biomass was similar on the minesite 
and reference areas in 1981, however, it was about twice as great on the reference 
site than on the minesite in the 1982 and 1983 growing seasons. 

Interactions among Mast, Small Mammals, and Insects, and their Implications for 
Oak Management. Brad Semel and Douglas C. Andersen, Purdue University West 
Lafayette, Indiana 47907. Interactions among acorn weevils (Circulionidae), short- 
tailed shrews (Blarina brevicauda), white-footed mice (Peromyscus), and acorns were 
examined to assess the net impact of these animals on acorn germination and survival. 
Only 5% of acorns collected in traps within replicate plots at Martell Forest, near 
Lafayette, Indiana were found to be undamaged. Sixty-two percent of the 1983 acorn 
crop was damaged as a result of Curculionid infestation; arboreal vertebrates damaged 
another 29%. 



214 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 94 (1985) 

Feeding trials indicated P. leucopus will consume both infested acorns and weevil 
larvae; a preference for non-infested acorns over infested acorns was detected in 
laboratory food choice experiments. Blarina consumed weevil larvae but did not extract 
them from acorns. Peromyscus detected and excavated larvae that had exited host 
acorns and entered the soil only from the upper 5 cm of the soil profile in contrast 
to Blarina brevicauda, which consumed larvae from within the upper 16 cm of the 
soil profile. Field experiments indicated that about 50% of larvae overwinter in the 
upper 5 cm of the soil profile; no larvae were noted to overwinter below 21 cm. Other 
field experiments indicated that rates of acorn removal by mice decreased as the pro- 
portion of weevil infestation increased. An attempt to document a negative impact 
by Blarina on Peromyscus populations was inconclusive. 

Taken together, our studies suggest that precaution is necessary in designing oak 
management programs based largely upon chemical insect control to increase acorn 
production; enhancement of the beneficial activities of Blarina may provide an alter- 
native strategy. 

Density-dependent Mortality on Galls of the Goldenrod Gall Fly, Eurosta 
solidaginis. Rod Walton, Department of Biology, Indiana University, Bloomington, 

Indiana 47405. The dependence of predator foraging on both local and overall 

prey density can have broad implications for the dynamics and stability of a predator- 
prey system. Recent discussions of the effects on predator efficiency of predator 
aggregation in areas of high prey density, transit times between prey patches and predator 
handling times, together with the distribution of prey among patches of a heterogeneous 
habitat suggest that different prey distributions should result in different foraging rates 
by predators. Prey faced with a strongly aggregating predator, for instance, will benefit 
from an underdispersed rather than a clumped distribution. This is especially critical 
for sedentary prey. Eurosta solidaginis (Tephritidae) females oviposit in the stems of 
Solidago spp. during early spring. Third instar larvae overwinter within spherical stem 
galls. During development and over the winter, larvae are vulnerable to several predators: 
two species of parasitoid (Eurytoma spp.) a predatory beetle larva (Mordellistena spp.) 
and avian predators (e.g. Downy Woodpeckers). This study was undertaken to deter- 
mine the distribution pattern of Eurosta galls in a natural habitat, the degree of density- 
dependence for each predator, and the theoretical "optimal" gall distribution that would 
minimize predation losses under the constraints of a specific suite of predators. 



Tree Species Response to Release from Domestic Livestock Grazing 

David K. Apsley, Donald J. Leopold and George R. Parker 
Department of Forestry and Natural Resources 
Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 

Introduction 

Grazing of domestic livestock has long been a factor which has greatly influenced 
forest structure and composition in the Central Hardwood Region, and the quality 
and quantity of timber produced. Approximately sixty-six percent of the forests in 
the Central Hardwoods Region were subjected to grazing as late as 1947 (4). Prior 
to the passage of the Indiana Forest Classification Act in 1921, nearly all of the farm 
woodlots in Indiana were grazed (3). Currently, approximately thirty percent of the 
forest land in Indiana is grazed (8). 

Although many of the farm woodlots in northern Indiana have been protected 
from grazing since the passage of the Forest Classification Act in 1921, questions con- 
cerning the long-term effect of grazing remain unanswered. The purpose of this report 
is to present recent findings of an extensive research project that was initiated in 1930 
to monitor the recovery of Central Hardwood forests from grazing by domestic livestock. 
Daniel Den Uyl, Department of Forestry and Natural Resources, Purdue University, 
established permanent plots in the early 1930s, throughout central and northern Indiana, 
and remeasured the plots at approximately five year intervals until the early 1960's. 
These plots were established to elucidate recovery processes of these woodlots from 
grazing. Den Uyl's initial project and early results are detailed in several publications 
(3,4,5,6,7 and 8). The foresight of Den Uyl has provided a unique opportunity to 
study the long-term effects of domestic livestock grazing. Research to be reported will 
focus on changes in species composition, size-class distributions, and basal area and 
density values over the past 50 years on several of Den Uyl's grazed and ungrazed plots. 

Study Area 

Some of Den Uyl's original plots had been visited from 1970 to 1984; however, 
due to recent disturbances in these stands (selective logging) and/or missing data from 
past inventories, only a small number of quadrats were suitable for remeasurement. 
Four plots were selected and are located in the Deam, Hoffman and Romey (two plots) 
woods in the northeastern Indiana counties of Wells, Allen and Adams, respectively 
(Figure 1). Each varied in forest type, silvical condition, density of canopy, and grazing 
history when they were established in 1931-32 (Table 1). All plots are level to slightly 
rolling and have had some selective cutting prior to plot establishment. 



Table 1. Characteristics of Plots at time of establishment, 1931-1932 (Diller and Medesy, 
unpublished report, Purdue University). 





Forest 


Silvical 


Canopy 


Gazing 


Last Year 


Woods 


Type 


Condition 


Density 


Intensity 


Grazed 


Deam 


Upland-Swamp 


Fair-poor 


70% 


Medium-Heavy 


1930 


Hoffman 


Oak-hickory 


very good 


90% 


none 


— 


Romey 


Oak-hickory 


good 


80% 


heavy 


1927 



See Day and DenUyl (1932) for grazing-intensity criteria. 



215 



216 



Indiana Academy of Science 



Vol. 94 (1985) 



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Figure 1. County map of Indiana showing location of Deam (1), Hoffman (2), and 
Romey (3) woods. 



Methods and Materials 

In 1931-1932 Den Uyl and associates established 70 plots in 16 northern Indiana 
counties. Plot size varied from 0.1 to 1 acre (0.04-0.4 ha), most being 0.5 acre (0.2 



Ecology 217 

ha) in size (7). Diameter at breast height (dbh; about 1.37 m above ground) was measured 
on every tree 0.6 inches (1.5 cm) or larger. Tree species, height and crown class were 
also determined for each stem. All stems were numbered with metal tags or paint and 
were mapped by location and crown shape. Each plot was remeasured at approximately 
five year intervals. Photographs were taken of each plot, and general plot descriptions 
were made which included: silvical condition, drainage, topography and density of 
crown cover. Grazing history and evidence of disturbance such as fire and cutting 
were also recorded when this information was available. 

In the fall of 1984 four 0.5 acre (0.2 ha) plots were remeasured. The original 
plots were located by maps made in 1931 and 1932. Maps which provided directions 
and distances from nearby towns were utilized to locate properties; those which 
designated plot locations by distances in chains (1 chain = 20.1 m) and bearings were 
used to determine the general plot locations. 

Once the plot locations were determined, a staff compass and 100 foot (30.5 m) 
tape were employed along with remnant tree tags, crown maps and records of distances 
and bearings to relocate quadrat boundaries. At least one metal corner stake from 
the original plot was found on three plots, and was used as a reference point. However, 
when no corner stakes were found, tagged trees from the original study that were on 
or near the boundary in conjunction with crown maps provided adequate information 
to estimate boundary positions. 

Several of the stems near the western edge of of plot no. 66 in the Romey woods 
were cleared for agricultural purposes. In order to eliminate the edge effects, 25 per- 
cent of the original plot was not included in the newly established plot, resulting in 
a 0.38 acre (0.15 ha) plot. Results for all plots have been expressed in relation to one 
hectare for ease of comparison. The data from both Romey plots are presented together 
since these plots were very similar. 

All of the trees present at the time of the initial inventory were remeasured (dbh), 
and the original numbers were recorded. When tree tags were no longer present or 
readable, crown maps and dbh measurements from the previous survey were used to 
determine original tree numbers. All stems greater than or equal to 1.0 cm dbh that 
were not present at the time of the previous survey were classified as ingrowth. Ingrowth 
stems were identified as to species, measured (dbh) and recorded. 

Diameters were recorded for all stems that forked at or below dbh, and all stems 
were measured to the nearest 0.1 cm (dbh). A metric caliper was used to measure 
dbh of stems less than 6.0 cm, and a metal diameter tape was used for stems larger 
than 6.0 cm. 

Data from Den Uyl's research (species, crown class and diameters from each 
measurement period) were stored, with the newly acquired data, on magnetic tape for 
analysis on the University's computer system. Computer programs were written by 
the senior author. 

Density (stems ha,~ '), basal area (m 2 ha~ '), and Importance Values ((relative density 
+ relative basal areas)/2) were calculated for each species by plot. Stems were also 
separated into 5.0 cm size-classes by species and all species combined. 



Results 

After grazing, some species which were not present in the initial survey had become 
established in the plots. At the Romey woods, two species (Carya tomentosa and Acer 
rubrum) colonized the plots with the cessation of grazing (Table 2). Celtis occidentalis, 
Fraxinus americana, F. nigra and Prunus serotina were new species to the plot in Deam 
woods following grazing (Table 3). Two new species, C. occidentalis and Liriodendron 



218 



Indiana Academy of Science 



Vol. 94 (1985) 



Table 2. Changes in density ha '(D), basal area m 2 ha ' and Importance Values 3 (IV) 
from 1932 to 1984 on plots #66 and #67, combined, in Romey's woods. 







1932 






1947 






1984 




Species 


D 


BA 


IV 


D 


BA 


IV 


D 


BA 


IV 


Acer rubrum 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


5.0 


0.1 


1.0 


3.3 


0.0 


0.1 


Acer saccharum 


64.2 


2.2 


12.2 


27.2 


1.0 


6.6 


644.2 


3.0 


22.3 


Carpinus caroliniana 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


Carya cordiformis 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


Carya glabra 


74.2 


2.4 


13.6 


66.8 


3.2 


18.2 


32.2 


4.2 


10.3 


Carya ovata 


212.5 


5.0 


34.0 


192.8 


6.4 


44.4 


169.6 


10.1 


24.9 


Carya tomentosa 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


3.3 


0.0 


0.1 


Celt is occidentalis 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


Fagus grandifolia 


27.2 


1.4 


6.7 


19.8 


0.6 


4.4 


31.3 


1.2 


3.3 


Fraxinus americana 


7.4 


0.1 


1.2 


7.4 


0.3 


1.8 


11.6 


0.2 


0.7 


Fraxinus nigra 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


Juglans nigra 


2.4 


0.2 


1.0 


2.4 


0.3 


1.2 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


Liriodendron tulipifera 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


Ostrya virginiana 


22.2 


0.2 


2.6 


17.3 


0.2 


2.6 


778.4 


1.8 


21.3 


Populus deltoides 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


Prunus serotina 


2.4 


0.1 


0.5 


2.4 


0.1 


0.6 


69.2 


0.2 


1.7 


Quercus alba 


19.8 


1.5 


6.0 


14.8 


1.0 


5.2 


14.8 


1.0 


2.5 


Quercus bicolor 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


Quercus macrocarpa 


5.0 


0.4 


1.6 


5.0 


0.6 


2.4 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


Quercus muehlenbergii 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


Quercus rubra 


24.7 


3.0 


10.6 


9.9 


1.0 


4.2 


93.9 


1.5 


4.4 


Tilia americana 


2.4 


0.1 


0.4 


2.4 


0.1 


0.6 


65.9 


0.4 


2.0 


Ulmus americana 


14.8 


0.9 


3.8 


14.8 


1.0 


5.0 


145.8 


0.5 


4.4 


Ulmus rubra 


17.3 


0.5 


3.2 


7.4 


0.2 


1.7 


18.2 


0.1 


0.8 


Others' 3 


27.2 


0.1 


2.8 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


56.0 


^b 


1.4 


TOTAL 


523.9 


18.0 




394.4 


16.1 




2139.1 


23.8 





IV = (relative density + relative basal area)/2. 
b T < 0.05 
"may include individuals of Quercus shumardii. 

includes Asimina triloba, Cornus spp., Crataegus spp., Lindera benzoin, Staphylea tri/olia and Viburnum prunifolium. 



d. 



Table 3. Changes in density ha ' (D), basal area M 2 MA 
values 3 (IV) from 1931 to 1984 on plot #49 in Deam's woods. 



(BA) and importance 







1931 






1951 






1984 




Species 


D 


BA 


IV 


D 


BA 


IV 


D 


BA 


IV 


Acer rubrum 


4.9 


0.7 


3.0 


4.9 


1.0 


3.4 


14.8 


1.6 


0.0 


Acer saccharum 


19.8 


1.4 


8.4 


19.8 


1.8 


9.0 


1,7"4.8 


4.1 


0.0 


Carpinus caroliniana 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


Carya cordiformis 


44.5 


2.3 


16.7 


19.8 


1.3 


7.8 


24.7 


1.5 


0.0 


Carya glabra 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


Carya ovata 


54.4 


3.5 


22.4 


54.4 


4.6 


23.9 


54.4 


6.1 


0.0 


Carya tomentosa 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


Celtis occidentals 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


14.8 


T R 


0.0 


Fagus grandifolia 


4.9 


0.7 


2.9 


4.9 


0.8 


3.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


Fraxinus americana 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


9.9 


T 


0.0 


Fraxinus nigra 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


93.9 


0.3 


0.0 


Juglans nigra 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


Liriodenron tulipifera 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


Ostrya virginiana 


4.9 


0.8 


1.4 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


207.6 


0.8 


0.0 


Populus deltoides 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


Prunus serotina 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


19.8 


T 


0.0 



Ecology 219 

Table 3. — Continued 









1931 






1951 






1984 




Species 


D 


BA 


IV 


D 


BA 


IV 


D 


BA 


IV 


Quercus alba 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


Quercus bicolor 


9.9 


1.3 


5.9 


9.9 


1.7 


6.3 


9.9 


2.7 


0.0 


Quercus macrocarpa 


9.9 


1.6 


6.7 


9.9 


2.4 


7.6 


9.9 


4.1 


0.0 


Quercus muehlenbergii 


4.9 


0.6 


2.8 


4.9 


0.9 


3.2 


4.9 


1.6 


0.0 


Quercus rubra 


14.8 


3.1 


11.7 


14.8 


4.4 


13.2 


14.8 


8.6 


0.0 


Tilia americana 


9.9 


1.7 


6.9 


29.6 


2.1 


12.1 


158.1 


1.8 


0.0 


Vlmus americana 


19.8 


2.0 


10.0 


19.8 


2.5 


10.5 


29.7 


0.2 


0.0 


Ulmus rubra 


4.9 


-pB 


1.2 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


499.2 


1.7 


10.0 


Others 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


207.6 


0.2 


0.0 


TOTAL 


207.6 


19.0 




192.7 


23.5 




3,098.7 


35.4 


0.0 





IV = (relative density + relative basal area)/2. 

B T < 0.05. 

r 

may include individuals of Quercus shumardii. 

includes Asimina triloba, Cornus, spp., Crataegus spp., Lindera benzoin, Staphylea trifolia and Viburnum 
prunifolium. 



tulipifera, also colonized the Hoffman woods, although this stand supposedly had not 
been grazed (Table 4). 

Some species disappeared from each plot. For example, Fagus grandifolia no longer 
exists in the plot at Deam woods. Juglans nigra and Quercus macrocarpa disappeared 
from the Romey plots, undoubtedly in part due to selective cutting of the former species. 
Carya glabra, Juglans nigra and Populus deltoides were not tallied during the 1984 
inventory in the Hoffman plot. However, most if not all of these species still exist 
outside of these plots within the respective woodlots. 

Densities have increased from 1931-1932 to 1984 for all species combined on all 
plots measured; however, increases are greatest on the plots that had been previously 
grazed. Overall density increased from 523.9 to 2139.1 stems ha -1 on the Romey plots, 
an increase of 308% (Table 2). Density changes were the greatest on the Deam plot; 
stem numbers increased from 207.6 to 3098.7 ha" 1 , an increase of 1392% (Table 3). 
Density values for all species combined on the ungrazed plot increase 86% (from 953.8 
to 1774.2 stems ha, -1 ; Table 4). 

On all plots surveyed there was a decrease in density from the first measurement 
(1931-1932) to the second (1947-1951). This decrease was greatest on the ungrazed Hoff- 
man plot (Table 4); however, the density for this plot was much greater than that 
of the grazed Romey and Deam plots at the time of the initial survey (Tables 2 and 
3). Records kept by Den Uyl indicate that some selective logging occurred in stands 
after 1931-1932, but most of the decrease in density was due to natural mortality. 
Since natural regeneration following grazing requires 3 to 15 years to establish (8), 
seedlings which colonized previously grazed plots were too small to be enumerated 
during the intermediate period. 

The two species that contributed to the greatest increase in density from 1931-1932 
to 1984 on the combined Romey plots were Acer saccharum and Ostyra virginiana. 
Densities increased from 64.2 to 644.2 stems ha" ' and from 22.2 to 778.4 stems ha" ' 
for Acer saccharum and Ostrya virginiana, respectively. These two species accounted 
for nearly 83% of the density on the Romey plots in 1984. 

Acer saccharum increased from 19.8 to 1724.8 stems ha" ' on the Deam plot; this 
increase accounts for nearly 59% of the total plot increase. Increases in density of 



220 



Indiana Academy of Science 



Vol. 94 (1985) 



Table 4. Changes in density ha ' (D), basal area M 2 ha ' (BA) and Importance Values A 
(IV). from 1931 to 1984 on plot #26 in Hoffman's woods. 







1931 






1951 






1984 




Species 


D 


BA 


IV 


D 


BA 


IV 


D 


BA 


IV 


Acer rubrum 


24.7 


0.6 


2.3 


14.8 


0.6 


2.4 


4.9 


0.2 


0.4 


Acer saccharum 


118.6 


0.7 


7.4 


93.9 


1.2 


10.1 


207.6 


2.2 


8.8 


Carpinus caroliniana 


44.5 


0.2 


2.6 


4.9 


T-B 


0.5 


192.7 


0.2 


5.7 


Carya cordiformis 


24.7 


0.8 


2.7 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


14.8 


T 


0.4 


Carya glabra 


29.7 


2.2 


5.3 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


Carya ovata 


9.9 


0.6 


4.9 


T 


0.4 


4.9 


T 


0.1 


Carya tomentosa 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


Celt is occidentalis 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


4.9 


T 


0.2 


Fagus grandifolia 


89.0 


0.5 


5.5 


59.3 


0.7 


6.3 


74.1 


1.4 


4.0 


Fraxinus americana 


24.7 


0.9 


2.8 


14.8 


1.1 


3.0 


123.6 


2.0 


6.2 


Fr ax in us nigra 


89.0 


1.4 


7.0 


19.8 


1.0 


3.3 


19.8 


T 


0.6 


Juglans nigra 


9.9 


0.7 


1.7 


9.9 


1.2 


2.7 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


Liriodendron tulipiefera 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


14.8 


0.3 


0.8 


Ostrya virginiana 


123.6 


0.4 


7.2 


74.1 


0.4 


7.2 


232.3 


1.4 


8.4 


Populus deltoides 


4.9 


0.4 


1.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


Prunus serotina 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


84.0 


0.1 


2.4 


Quercus alba 


74.1 


2.2 


7.5 


44.5 


2.3 


7.6 


34.6 


3.5 


5.7 


Quercus bicolor 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


Quercus macrocarpa 


14.8 


0.8 


2.2 


9.9 


1.3 


2.9 


9.9 


2.4 


3.6 


Quercus muehlenbergii 
Quercus rubra 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


93.9 


8.4 


18.8 


89.0 


12.9 


23.6 


84.0 


21.0 


31.0 


Tilia americana 


93.9 


6.8 


16.2 


74.1 


6.4 


16.8 


237.2 


1.7 


9.0 


Ulmus americana 


4.9 


0.1 


0.5 


4.9 


0.2 


0.7 


64.2 


0.1 


1.9 


Others 


4.9 


T 


0.3 


4.9 


T 


0.5 


286.6 


0.2 


8.0 


TOTAL 


953.8 


30.2 




568.3 


31.1 




1,774.2 


36.7 





IV = (relative density + relative basal area)/2. 
T< 0.05. 



D 



May include individuals of Quercus shumardii. 

Includes Asimina triloba, Cornus spp., Crataegus spp., Lindera benzoin, Staphylea trifolia and Viburnum prunifolium . 



Ostrya virginiana, Tilia americana, Ulmus spp. and species in the "other" category 
(mostly species that do not attain large size, e.g., Lindera benzoin, Asimina triloba 
and Viburnum prunifolium) account for another 37% of the increase. 

Several species {Acer saccharum, Carpinus caroliniana, Fraxinus americana, Ostyra 
virginiana and Tilia americana) have contributed greatly to the increase in the density 
of the ungrazed plot from 1931 to 1984. However, species in the "other" category, 
particularly Lindera benzoin, have contributed the greatest to this value. Thirty-four 
percent of the total increase is attributable to these species. 

Density values for Carya spp. and Quercus spp. on both grazed and ungrazed 
plots from 1931-1932 to 1984 have either decreased or remained fairly constant in most 
cases. Again, selective logging removed a portion of these stems (many of which had 
been previously injured) although most had died naturally. However, Quercus rubra 
density increased from 24.7 to 93.9 stems ha -1 on the combined Romey plots. 

Basal area for all species combined has increased from 1931-1932 to 1984 on 
all plots sampled; however, as with density, relative increases were greatest on the 
grazed plots. Basal area decreased at the intermediate inventory only in the Romey 
woods. 

Basal area values increased 32°7o (from 18.0 to 23.8 m 2 ha~') on the combined 
Romey plots (Table 2). The largest increase in basal area was on the Deam plot; basal 



Ecology 221 

area increased from 19.0 to 35.4 m 2 ~\ an increase of 86% (Table 3). Basal area on 
the ungrazed Hoffman plot increased from 30.2 to 36.7 m 2 ha~'. 

Carya glabra and C. ovata increased in basal area by 6.9 m 2 ha'M' on the Romey 
plots. This increase exceeds the total increase for these plots, because some species 
exhibited a net decrease in the basal area (e.g., Quercus spp. which decreased in basal 
area by 2.9 m 2 ha~ '). 

In contrast to the Romey plots, Carya spp. do not account for the greatest in- 
crease in basal area on the Deam plot. Only 1.8 m 2 ha _l of the basal area increase of 
16.8 m 2 ha _l is attributable to Carya spp. Quercus spp. added 10.40 m 2 ha~' of basal 
area; Q. rubra was responsible for over one-half of this increase by 0.9 and 2.7 
m 2 ha _1 , respectively, whereas Ulmus spp. basal area totals remained nearly constant. 

Quercus rubra increased in basal area by 12.6 m 2 ha" ' on the ungrazed plot, which 
is nearly double the increase for the entire plot. Concurrently, Tilia americiana, Ulmus 
rubra, and Carya glabra decreased in basal area by 5.1, 2.7 and 2.2 m 2 ha _l , 
respectively. 

In 1932 on the combined Romey plots, Carya ovata, C. glabra, Acer saccharum 
and Quercus rubra had Importance Values (IV's) of 34.0, 13.6, 12.2 and 10.6%, respec- 
tively (Table 2). The IV of Carya ovata dropped to 24.9% in 1984; however, C. ovata 
still has the highest IV. Carya glabra and Quercus rubra IV's also decreased in 1984, 
while the IV of Acer saccharum increased to 22.3% (mainly due to an increase in 
density). Ostrya virginiana IV increased the most from 1932 to 1984 of any species 
present, with an increase from 2.6 to 21.3% (mainly due to an increase in density). 

Carya ovata and C. cordiformis had the highest IVs of all species in 1931 on 
the Deam plot (combined IVs 39.1%; Table 3). Only two other species (Quercus rubra 
and Ulmus americana) had IVs of 10.0% or greater in 1931. In 1984, the IV for Carya 
spp. was 12.0%; less than one-third of what it was in 1931. Quercus rubra showed 
a slight increase in IV over this 53 year period. Ulmus spp. IV has remained the same; 
however, the density for this genus has increased from 24.8 to 528.9 stems ha~ '. Ulmus 
americana and U. rubra seedlings were combined in the U. rubra category due to the 
difficulty in distinguishing between the two species at this early age. Acer saccharum 
had the greatest IV increase from 1931 to 1984 (25.3% increase). 

Only two species (Quercus rubra and Tilia americana) found on the ungrazed 
Hoffman plot in 1931, had Importance Values greater than 10.0% (18.8 and 16.2%, 
respectively; Table 4). Both of these species exhibited larger changes in IVs from 1931 
to 1984; however, Quercus rubra IV increased to 31.0%, while Tilia americana IV 
decreased to 9.0%. Fraxinus nigra also decreased in IV from 7.0 to 0.6%. 

Size-class distributions for all species combined on grazed and ungrazed plots 
appear similar in 1931 and 1984 (Figure 2). Stem numbers in most size-classes on the 
ungrazed plots were greater than those on the grazed plots in 1931. In 1931, both 
the grazed and ungrazed plots have a notable depletion of stems in the smallest size- 
class and again in the 15.0-19.9 cm size-class. By 1984 this latter underrepresentation 
of stems is prominent in the 25.0-29.9 cm size-class. 

The size-class distribution for Acer saccharum and Ostrya virginiana combined 
on the grazed plot for 1984 (Figure 3) is quite distinct from that of 1931, primarily 
due to tremendous ingrowth of these species. Differences between these two yeas is 
less striking on the ungrazed plot, although stem numbers are currently greater in the 
smallest size-class. These two species made up nearly all of the stems in the lower 
four classes, all species combined (Figure 2) in 1984. 

Quercus spp. size-class distribution is similar for the grazed and ungrazed plots 
in 1931, in that both distributions roughly resemble a bell-shaped curve (Figure 4). 
In both cases no stems were found in the 1.0-4.9 cm size-class in 1931; however, there 
were more stems in the classes from 5.0 to 49.9 cm on the ungrazed plot than on 



222 



Indiana Academy of Science 



Vol. 94 (1985) 





H V- 



20 300 40 500 2600 

size-class lower limit icm.dbhi 



10 20 300 40 

SIZE-CLASS LOWER LIMIT CM.D8H 



500 >600 



Figure 2. Size-class distribution (stems ha ')of all species combined in 1931 (and 1932) 
and 1984 for grazed and ungrazed plots. 



the grazed plot. There were approximately 70 stems ha~ ' of Quercus spp. in the 1 .0-4.9 
and 5.0-9.9 cm size-classes combined on the grazed plots in 1984. This increase is due 
to Quercus rubra ingrowth on Romey plot no. 66; Quercus spp. regeneration was absent 
on the other plots. 



Q D 1931 

• • 1984 




h — i — i — y 

20 30 40 

SIZE-CLASS LOWER LIMIT <CM OBH) 



50 2:60 



20 30 40 50 

SIZE-CLASS LOWER LIMIT (CM. 08HI 



Figure 3. Size-class distribution (stems ha +l ) of Acer saccharum and Ostrya virgi- 
niana in 1931 (and 1932) and 1984 for grazed and ungrazed plots. 



Ecology 



223 




10 20 300 400 500 

SIZE-CLASS. L0WEH LIMIT ICM.DBM) 



Figure 4. Size-class distribution (stems ha ') of Quercus spp. in 1931 (and 1932) and 
1984 for grazed and ungrazed plots. 



Discussion 

Lowered forest productivity is a known consequence of grazing (5). The effect 
of grazing on various soil properties has been documented in many publications. Soil 
physical properties (e.g., porosity and permeability) are especially affected (2 and 17). 
Destruction of the forest floor, a vital part of the forest mineral and hydrologic cycles, 
is also a consequence (3). 

The current basal area of Deam woods (grazed) of 35.4 m 2 ha" ' is relatively high 
compared to that for mature forests in the Central Hardwoods Region (1, 10 and 14), 
although this woods had been grazed somewhat heavily in the early 1900s. But, such 
comparisons are not entirely valid because of differences in the lower stem diameter 
limit among studies (i.e., all stems) J> 1 cm in present study versus 10 cm in others). 
This disparity in lower diameter limit leads to even more dubious comparisons of stem 
densities. For example, the density in Deam woods of 3099 stems ha" ' is substantial- 
ly higher than the average density of 284 stems ha - ' for old-growth forests in Indiana 
(14). However, if only those stems J> 10.0 cm dbh are counted at Deam woods the 
resulting density is 143 stems ha" '. Another reason for such discrepancies in basal area 
and density between the present study and others cited is differences in stand age. 
Natural thinning has probably occurred to a greater degree in the old-growth forests 
previously mentioned compared to the younger Deam woods. 

Basal area and density values are much lower at Romey woods partly because 
site quality may be lowest of the three woods studied. Therefore, it appears that grazing 
may have a longer and more detrimental effect on forest processes (reduced tree species 
colonization, less growth, greater mortality, etc.) at Romey woods, although the graz- 
ing intensity and/or high-grading may have also been severe enough to cause such 
differences. Economically, less desirable timber species apparently have been favored 
by the combination of poor site quality and past grazing. However, more research 
is needed to evaluate site quality on all stands in this study. 

Comparisons between plots at Deam and Romey woods are likewise difficult 
because of initial differences in location, forest type, silvical condition, soils, etc. 



224 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 94 (1985) 

Although we initially believed that the ungrazed plot (Hoffman woods) would serve 
as a reasonable control, the 1931-32 compositional and structural data suggest that 
this woods was also disturbed prior to plot establishment. Written records indicate 
that this woods has been protected from grazing since the 1870s, but other disturbance 
factors could have affected this woods. 

Some authors (11, 14) have claimed that periods of stand disturbance could be 
determined based on the size-class distribution of stems as depicted in Figures 2, 3, 
4 (i.e., the size-class is plotted on the abscissa, the log of the number of stems in 
that class is plotted on the ordinate; a plot of these values constitutes the negative 
exponential distribution). Large deviations from the constantly decreasing straight line 
supposedly indicate periods of disturbance; however, others (13 and 20) have objected 
to such an affirmation. If this assumption is allowed, at least two major disturbances 
are apparent in all plots prior to 1930, as shown by the substantial underrepresenta- 
tion of stems in the 1.0-4.9 and 15.0-19.9 cm classes for the species combinations shown. 

Although the lack of stems in the smallest size-class in 1931-1932 could be attributed 
to grazing effects, this same phenomenon exists for the ungrazed plot. Possible reasons 
for this parity include: (1) the ungrazed plot had actually been grazed in the late 1800s 
to early 1900s; and/or (2) severe disturbance affected all stands similarly during the 
same years. Photographs of the ungrazed plot in 1931 reveal that few small stems 
existed in the understory, as in the grazed plots. Selective logging in all plots during 
this period could have contributed to depletion of larger stems, but a more likely factor 
is drought since the smallest trees seem to have been particularly susceptible. Climatic 
records at the nearest weather station (Fort Wayne, Indiana) indicate that severe droughts 
occurred periodically in the late 1800s to early 1900s (19). Such a climatic aberration 
could explain some of the similarities in the size-class distributions between grazed 
and ungrazed plots. There is also evidence that small fires had occurred in some of 
these stands, according to Den Uyl's unpublished data. 

The size-class distribution of Quercus spp. in both grazed and ungrazed plots 
suggests that at least this component of these stands established within a relatively 
narrow time period, i.e. the Quercus spp. are even-aged. This belief is based on a 
comparison of the present results with Quercus size-class distributions of Schnur (15) 
which represent even-aged stands at various ages over a range of site quality. 

Initially, the increase in Ulmus spp. IV in all woods may seem surprising, con- 
sidering the effect that Dutch elm disease and elm yellows has had on this genus in 
Indiana (16). This increase results despite mortality of larger individuals because of 
substantial ingrowth of U. americana and U. rubra. Similar density increases in these 
species have been noted elsewhere (12). 

Results from the 1981 survey reinforce some of Den Uyl's (8) findings. For in- 
stance, he stated that Acer saccharum, Ulmus spp., Ostrya virginiana and Prunus serotina 
colonization frequently occurred following grazing. These species are primarily light- 
seeded or bird-dispersed and produce some seed each year to provide a constant supply 
of propagules (8). These species are also fairly shade tolerant; therefore they can establish 
under a dense canopy and persist, at least while in the seedling stage (9). Day and 
Den Uyl (3) also state that unpalatable, 'weed' species (such as Ostrya virginiana) re- 
main on the site and regenerate prolifically following grazing which excludes establish- 
ment of more desirable timber species. 

Openings of 0.10 to 1 acre (0.04-0.4 ha) are required for the reproduction of 
most desirable tree species. Canopy densities of 70, 80 and 90% were present on Deam, 
Romey and Hoffman plots, respectively at establishment (Table 1) which did not allow 
sufficient sunlight to reach the forest floor for these shade intolerant species to establish 
and persist. Quercus spp. probably did not reproduce on most of the plots for this 
reason; furthermore, the Quercus rubra seedlings present on plot no. 66 were presumably 



Ecology 225 

the same individuals that Den Uyl noted in 1957 within openings created by the removal 
of six large overstory trees in 1942 (8). Also, Den Uyl (8) showed photographs of 
abundant Fraxinus americana reproduction on plot no. 67 of Romey woods. In 1984 
only two individuals of this species were tallied on the entire 0.5 acre (0.2 ha) quadrat. 
This decline in Fraxinus americana density is probably attributable to a decline in shade 
tolerance as this species ages. 

Due to site and historical differences among plots it is difficult to make specific 
conclusions about long-term species response to release from grazing. Site quality is 
an important factor to consider, since it undoubtedly affects the recovery of different 
species to release from grazing. In order to better ascertain the effects of grazing on 
forest composition and structure, it would be necessary to reestablish many more plots 
with similar characteristics. Ideally, woodlots which contain contiguous grazed and 
ungrazed plots should be utilized; however, rarely is such a condition available. Den 
Uyl did establish some plots in woodlots that were divided by fence into both grazed 
and protected sections; but, unfortunately these plots are no longer intact or they have 
been severely perturbed since their establishment. 



Literature Cited 

1. Auten, J.T. 1941. Notes on old-growth forests in Ohio, Indiana and Illinois. U.S. 
For. Serv. Exp. Stn. Tech. Note. No. 49, 8 p. 

2. Chandler, R.F. 1940. The influence of grazing upon certain soil and climatic con- 
ditions in farm woodlots. Jour. Amer. Soc. Agron. 32:216-230. 

3. Day, R.K. and D. Den Uyl 1932. The natural regeneration of farm woods following 
the exclusion of livestock. Purdue Univ. Ag. Exp. Sta. Bull. No. 368, Lafayette, 
In. 47 p. 

4. Den Uyl, D., O.D. Diller and R.K. Day. 1938. The development of natural 
regeneration in previously grazed farmwoods. Purdue Univ. Ag. Exp. Sta. Bull. 
No. 431. Lafayette, In. 28 p. 

5. Den Uyl, D. 1944. The growth of timber in Indiana farmwoods, J. For. 42:169-174. 

6. Den Uyl, D. 1947. Forest grazing in the Central States Region. Proc. Soc. Am. 
For., pp. 255-261. 

7. Den Uyl, D. 1958. A twenty year record of the growth and development of Indiana 
woodlands. Purdue Univ. Ag. Exp. Sta. Res. Bull. No. 661, Lafayette, In. 51. p. 

8. Den Uyl, D. 1961. Natural tree reproduction in mixed hardwood stands. Purdue 
Univ. Ag. Exp. Sta. Res. Bull. No. 728, Lafayette, In. 19 p. 

9. Fowells, H.A. (ed.) 1965. Silvics of forest trees of the United States. Ag. Hdbk. 
No. 271, USDA, Washington, D.C., 762 p. 

10. Held, M.E. and J.E. Winstead. 1975. Basal areas and climax status in mesic forest 
systems. Ann. Bot. 39:1147-1148. 

11. Johnson, F.L. and D.T. Bell. 1975. Size-class structure of three streamside forests. 
Amer. J. Bot. 62:81-85. 

12. Parker, G.R. and D.J. Leopold. 1983. Replacement of Ulmus americana L. in 
a mature east-central Indiana woods. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 110:482-488. 

13. Robertson, P. A., G.T. Weaver and J. A. Cavanaugh. 1978. Vegetation and tree 
species patterns near the northern terminus of the southern flood plain forest 
Ecol. Monogr. 48:249-267. 

14. Schmelz, D.V. and A. A. Lindsey. 1965. Size-class structure of old-growth forests 
in Indiana. For. Sci. 11:258-264. 

15. Schnur, G.L. 1937. Yield, stand, and volume tables for even aged upland oak 
forests. USDA Tech Bull. No. 560, Wash. D.C., 87 p. 



226 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 94 (1985) 

16. Schuder, D.J. 1955. Distribution of three important insect transmitted tree diseases. 
Indiana Acad. Sci. Proc. 64:116-120. 

17. Steinbrenner, E.C. 1951. Effect of grazing on floristic composition and soil pro- 
perties of farm woodlands in southern Wisconsin. J. For. 49:906-910. 

18. U.S. Dept. of Commerce, Bureau of Census. 1984. 1982 Census of agriculture. 
Vol. 1 Geo. Area Pt. 14 Indiana, 443 p. 

19. Visher, S.S. 1944. Climate of Indiana. Indiana Univ., Bloomington, In. 511 p. 

20. West, D.C., H.H. Shugart, Jr., and J.W. Ranney. 1981. Population structure 
of forests over a large area. For. Sci. 27:701-710. 






Characteristics of Drumming Habitat of Ruffed Grouse in Indiana 

Steven E. Backs, 
Department of Natural Resources, Mitchell, Indiana 47446 
Sean T. Kelly 
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Manchester, New Hampshire 03100 

P. Decker Major 

Department of Natural Resources, Mitchell, Indiana 47446 

Brian K. Miller 

Department of Environmental Protection, North Franklin, Connecticut 06254 

Introduction 

The drumming of the male ruffed grouse (Bonasa umbellus) is part of its ter- 
ritorial and reproductive behavior. Drumming sites are the focal point of spring court- 
ship activity and relatively easy to identify. Several studies have concentrated on describ- 
ing habitat characteristics around drumming sites (Palmer 1963, Boag and Sumanik 
1969, Stoll et al. 1975, Sousa 1978). Drumming sites are generally associated with dense 
understories of young trees or shrubs (Boag 1976, Hale et al. 1982). Gullion (1977) 
described optimum drumming habitat to be composed of 14,000-20,000 woody stems 
per ha. The objective of this study was to describe the vegetative characteristics of 
drumming sites used by ruffed grouse in Indiana. 

Study Area 

Drumming sites were studied on 3 areas. Thirty-two drumming sites were examined 
on 517 ha of the Jasper-Pulaski State Fish and Wildlife Area in northwest Indiana. 
Field work was conducted as part of an evaluation of ruffed grouse releases made 
in 1970 and 1971 (Kelly 1971, Kelly and Kirkpatrick 1979). The area is composed of 
two vegetative communities. The upland hardwood-brush community occurs on dry, 
sandy ridges and is dominated by black, white, and red oaks (Quercus velutina, Q. 
alba and Q. rubra). Brush consists of scrub oak, principally stunted black oak, sprouted 
from burned hardwood areas. The lowland- woody association consists of moist areas 
dominated by river brich (Betula nigra), quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides), and 
pin oak (Q. paulstris). 

Sixteen drumming sites were also examined on each of two study areas in 
unglaciated, southcentral Indiana on Hoosier National Forest. One area was Happy 
Hollow, 320 ha, located in Perry County; T4S, R1W, section 3. The other area, referred 
to as the Maumee Grouse Study Area, located on the Jackson-Brown county line con- 
sists of 335 ha; T7N, R2E, sections 11, 12, 13, and 14. Common upland species in- 
clude red, black, white, and chestnut oaks (Q. prinus), American beech (Fagus 
gradifolia), and hickories (Carya spp.). Common lowland species include ash (Frax- 
inus spp.), yellow-poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera), elm (Ulmus spp.), sycamore (Plan- 
tinus occidentalis), and river birch. Several pines (Pinus strobus, rubra, virginiana, 
and echinata) are found in small plantations introduced by various public agencies. 
Common understory species include blackberry (Rubus spp.), cherry (Prunus spp.), 
sassafras (Sassafras albidum), ironwood {Qstrya virginiana), greenbriar (Smilax spp.), 
flowering dogwood (Cornus florida), maples (Acer saccharum and rubrum), and sumac 
(Rhus spp.). 

Methods 

Male grouse were located by listening for drumming and searching for the drum- 

227 



228 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 94 (1985) 

ming stage (the spot where a grouse habitually stands while drumming) from late- 
March through mid-April. Good indications of an actively used drumming state are 
an accumulation of fecal droppings on the stage, molted feathers, and a bare spot 
of ground at the base of the log where leaves have been blown away by the drumming 
performance. The physical characteristics of the drumming stage are generally not con- 
sidered important (Gullion 1967, Boag and Sumanik 1969). Ruffed grouse are known 
to use rock ledges, boulders, rock walls, moss mounds, upturned roots, and stumps 
(Frank 1947, Bump et al. 1947). All stages used in this study were downed logs. 

Characteristics of the vegetation directly surrounding used drumming logs were 
compared to similar but unused logs located within 50 m of the used log and to the 
surrounding vegetation sampled at 4 points 20 m from each used log in 4 cardinal 
directions. The mean value of each vegetational parameter measured at the 4 20-m 
points was used to represent the surrounding vegetation. Trees (woody species > 13 
cm diameter at breast height, DBH) were tallied by point sampling at the drumming 
stage with a 10-factor, basal area prism (Beers and Miller 1964). A similar point was 
sampled at each unused log and at the 4 20-m points. A 0.002 ha circular plot (radius 
= 2.5 m) centered at the drumming stage and the other sample points was used to 
sample shrubs (wood species < 13 cm DBH). The herb layer vegetation was not sampled 
since it is absent during the early spring and thus would not influence the selection 
of drumming sites (Boag and Sumanik 1969, Palmer 1963). Tree and shrub frequen- 
cies were reported as their proportional occurrence in the plots sampled. An analysis 
of variance and Duncan's new multiple-range test (Steel and Torrie 1960) were used 
to determine differences in the tree and shrub densities surrounding used logs, unused 
logs, and 20-m plots. 

Results and Discussion 

Tree densities were similar (P >0.05; F = 1.21) at the three sample plots (Table 
1). However, shrub densities were greatest at used drumming logs (P<0.01; F = 16.05) 
and were the most important variable in determining drumming log use. High shrub 



Table 1. Tree and shrub densities (stems per ha) surrounding used drumming logs, 
unused logs, and at sample points 20 m from drumming logs used by ruffed grouse in 
Indiana. 

Variable Used Logs Unused Logs 20-m Plots 

TREES 

x 258 222 216 ' 

SE 
Range 

SHRUBS 
x 

SE 
Range 

OVERALL 

x 
SE 

n 
Range 

'Any two means not underscored by the same line are significantly different; those underscored are not (P<0.05); 
Duncan's New Multiple Range Test. 



26.5 


19.7 


13.0 


0-1,389 


6-582 


6-591 


34.914 


20,789 


21,350 


2,425.4 


1,869.5 


1,769.3 


4,500-87,500 


1,500-63,000 


1,750-49,995 


35,172 


21,011 


21,566 


2,366.0 


1,830.0 


1,555.0 


64 


64 


64 


4,500-88,889 


1,506-63,582 


1,756-50,586 



Ecology 229 

densities were responsible for the overall woody stem densities being greatest at used 
drumming logs (P<0.01; F = 16.96). The importance of a dense shrub layer in the 
selection of drumming sites by ruffed grouse has been determined previously (Boag 
and Sumanik 1969, Rusch and Keith 1971, Boag 1976, Stoll et al. 1979) and is further 
supported by results of this study. The overall mean stem density for drumming logs 
used in Indiana falls within the range of values reported elsewhere (Palmer 1963, Boag 
and Sumanik 1969, Rusch and Keith 1971, Gullion 1977, Sousa 1978, Stoll et al. 1979, 
Hale et al. 1982). 

Species composition of the vegetation sampled generally reflected the overall com- 
position of the study areas (Table 2). Oaks were the most common trees occurring 

Table 2. Vegetative composition surrounding used drumming logs, unused logs, and 
at sample points 20 m from logs used by ruffed grouse in Indiana. 1 

Used Logs Unused Logs 20-m Plots 

Variable °/o % % 

TREES 

Quercus velutina 39 45 67 

Quercus alba 47 67 77 

Quercus palustris 23 17 45 

Carya glabra 9 13 23 

Quercus rubra 11 25 33 

Populus spp. 12 8 24 

SHRUBS 

Prunus virginiana 36 25 41 

Rubus spp. 34 25 53 

Cornus florida 41 41 50 

Sassafras albidum 45 48 72 

Prunus serrotina 34 25 53 

Smilax sqp. 23 30 33 

Quercus alba 44 50 77 

Ostrya virginiana 30 34 41 

'Tree and shrub frequencies reported as their proportional occurrence in the plots sampled. 



around used drumming logs in Indiana. Shrub species occurring at high frequencies 
around used drumming logs were cherry, blackberry, flowering dogwood, sassafras, 
and greenbriar. Although aspen is considered an important component of ruffed grouse 
habitat in the Lake States (Gullion 1977) it occurred at relatively low frequency in 
our sample plots. Overall, the vegetation surrounding used drumming logs reflected 
the species composition of early serai or understory types indicative of the central hard- 
wood forests of Indiana. Species composition is generally considered less important 
in determining drumming site use than the physical structure of the vegetation (Stoll 
et al. 1979, Hale et al. 1982). 

Conclusions 

Habitat around drumming logs used by ruffed grouse in Indiana is generally 
characterized by high woody stem densities. The mean number of stems around 64 
used drumming logs was 35,172 stems/ha, ranging from 4,500 to 88,889 stems/ha. 
Stem densities around unused logs averaged 21,011 stems/ha ranging from 1,506-63,582 
stems/ha. Stem densities at sample points 20 m from drumming logs averaged 21,566 
stems/ha, ranging from 1,756-50,586 stems/ha. Differences in shrub densities separated 



230 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 94 (1985) 

used from unused logs. Results from this study agreed with similar studies elsewhere, 
indicating that the physical structure of the habitat, primarily the shrub layer, governs 
drumming log selection. 

Much of the work reported herein was supported by funds under Federal Aid 
in Fish and Wildlife Restoration Act; Wildlife Research Project W-26-R, Indiana. 
Jennifer Eckensberger is acknowledged for typing this manuscript. 

Literature Cited 

1. Beers, T.W. and C.I. Miller. 1964. Point sampling; research results, theory and 
applications. Purdue Univ. Res. Bull. 786, 56 pp. West Lafayette, IN. 

2. Boag, D.A. and K.M. Sumanik. 1969. Characteristics of drumming sites selected 
by ruffed grouse in Alberta. J. Wildl. Manage. 33(3):621-628. 

3. , 1976. The effect of shrub removal on occupancy of ruffed grouse drumm- 
ing sites. J. Wildl. Manage. 40:105-110. 

4. Bump, G., R.W. Darrow, F.C. Edminster, and W.F. Crissey. 1947. The ruffed 
grouse: life history, propagation, management. New York State Cons. Dept. 915 pp. 

5. Frank, W.J. 1947. Ruffed grouse drumming site counts. J. Wildl. Manage. 
11(4):307-316. 

6. Gullion, G.W. 1967. Selection and use of drumming sites by male ruffed grouse. 
Auk 84:87-112. 

7. , 1977. Forest manipulation for ruffed grouse. Trans. No. Amer. Wildl. and 

Nat. Resour. Conf. 42:449-458. 

8. Hale, P.E., A.S. Johnson, and J.L. Landers. 1982. Characteristics of ruffed grouse 
drumming sites in Georgia. J. Wildl. Manage. 46(1): 1 15-123. 

9. Kelly, S.T. 1977. Evaluation of a ruffed grouse reintroduction in northern Indiana. 
M.S. Thesis, Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN. 

10. and CM. Kirkpatrick. 1979. Evaluation of a ruffed grouse reintroduction 

in northern Indiana. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 7(4):288-291. 

11. Palmer, W.L. 1963. Ruffed grouse drumming sites in northern Michigan. J. Wildl. 
Manage. 27(4):656-663. 

12. Rusch, D.H. and L.B. Keith. 1971. Seasonal and annual trends in numbers of 
Alberta ruffed grouse. J. Wildl. Manage. 35(4):803-822. 

13. Sousa, P.J. 1978. Characteristics of drumming habitat of ruffed grouse (Bonasa 
umbellus) in Grafton, Vermont. M.S. Thesis, Univ. of Vermont, Burlington, 134 
pp. 

14. Steel, R.G.D. and J.H. Terrie. 1960. Principles and procedures of statistics. 
McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York, N.Y. 481 pp. 

15. Stoll, R.J., M.W. McClain, R.L. Boston, and G.P. Honchol. 1979. Ruffed grouse 
drumming sites characteristics in Ohio J. Wildl. Manage. 43(2):324-333. 



The Foraging Ecology of Some Bats in Indiana 

Virgil Brack, Jr. 
Department of Forestry and Natural Resources 
Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 

Introduction 

Twelve species of Chiroptera have been reported from Indiana (23), but Myotis 
austroriparius (southeastern myotis) and Plecotus rafinesquii (Rafinesque's big-eared 
bat) are extremely rare. Only 1 colony of Myotis grisescens (gray bat) is known from 
Indiana (7). Pipistrellus subflavus (eastern pipstrelle) is relegated to southern Indiana 
which was not glaciated by the most recent (Wisconsinan) glaciation. Nycticeius humeralis 
(evening bat) is uncommon in Indiana, with only a few nursery colonies containing 
adult females and young of the year having been located in Indiana (23). Lasiurus 
cinereus (hoary bat) is widely distributed but rarely common at any locale. Males are 
rare in the state (23). Lasionycteris noctivagans (silver-haired bat) is found in Indiana 
only in spring and autumn as a migrant (23). During the summer, the sexes of Myotis 
sodalis (Indiana bat) are allopatric within the state. Myotis keenii (Keen's bat), Myotis 
lucifugus (little brown myotis), Lasiurus borealis (red bat), and Eptesicus fuscus (big 
brown bat), occur throughout Indiana. 

Several species of bats can frequently be found within the same area or same 
habitat. This study was undertaken to determine the foods eaten, habitats or parts 
of habitats used, and times of activity, of each of the 10 species. Results of 2 of these, 
M. sodalis and M. keenii, will be reported upon elsewhere. 

Materials and Methods 

Bat Capture 

Bats were captured during the season of reproduction (15 April to 15 August) 
in wooded upland (14 sites; 89 net nights) and riparian areas (21 sites; 61 net nights) 
throughout Indiana. Mist nets were "stacked" and run on a rope pulley system to 
close off all flight space from the forest floor or stream surface up to the canopy. 
Capture time and height, and the sex, age, and reproductive condition were noted 
for each bat. Chi-square tests were used to determine randomness of activity during 
the night (divided into the periods: dusk to 22:00 h/22:00 to 24:00 h/24:00 to 02:00 
h/02:00 h to dawn), height of catch, and habitat (riparian/nonriparian) of catch. 
Heights of capture correspond to the 3 foliage layers (22): shrub (< 0.6 m), canopy 
(usually > 7.6 m, depending of the vegetation), and the understory or subcanopy. 
Catch per habitat was tested by both catch per net night and by catch per net site. 
Feces were sometimes collected from bats captured at caves. 

Fecal Analysis 

The analysis method used was that of Brack and LaVal (5). Briefly, insect parts 
were identified from the feces, and quantified by an estimate of percent volume. When 
the diets of 2 or more bats was combined each bat contributed equally to the combined 
diet. An analysis of variance was conducted on an arcsine-transformation of the date 
to compare diets among dates of sampling or sample groups. Statistical analyses 
were completed on Digital Equipment Corporation PDP-1 1/70 computer systems using 
a version of SPSS (24) from Northwestern University. 

A diet diversity index (DDI) was calculated for each species, and for some species 
by date, sex, and age of sample. The diversity index used was that of MacArthur 
(21): DDI = l/]£ Pj 2 , where P,, P 2 ... were the proportions of each insect order in the 
diet. 

231 



232 



Indiana Academy of Science 



Vol. 94 (1985) 



Results 

Myotis lucifugus 

Adult males were captured at caves during the summer but few individuals roosted 
there. No females or juveniles were caught at caves until late in the season. Only 4 
adult males, but 34 adult females and 19 juveniles, were caught outside the cave region. 
County records were established for Porter, Jasper, Starke, and LaPorte counties. 

The catch of M. lucifugus was similar in riparian and nonriparian habitat when 
considering catch per site, but more bats were caught in riparian habitat when con- 
sidering catch per net night (Table 1). In riparian habitat, catch was concentrated in 
the under story; in nonriparian habitat, catch was too small to test (Table 2). Catch 
was distributed evenly throughout the night (Table 3). 

Myotis grisescens 

Only 7 lactating females and 4 males were netted, all in riparian habitat. Two 
were caught in the subcanopy layer and 9 in the shrub layer. The catch appeared bimodal 
with bats captured early and late in the night, but the sample was too small to test. 
A total of 84 fecal pellets, 48 from females and 36 from males, were analyzed. Males' 
and females' diets were similar. Trichopterans formed 56.0% of the diet, coleopterans 
23.3%, lepidopterans 11.3%, dipterans 5.8%, hymenopterans 1.2%, plecopterans 0.5%, 
and homopterans 0.7%. Fewer homopterans were eaten by females (P = 0.040). The 
diet diversity index (DDI) was 5.79 for both sexes and 5.18 when combined. 

Lasiurus borealis 

A total of 85 individuals were caught; 6 unsexed, unaged bats escaped from nets 
before they could be removed. Four bats were caught at caves; 2 adult males and 
2 juveniles. The adult male (N = 22) and female (N = 21) catch was nearly equal. Lasiurus 
borealis was caught at more sites than any other species (Table 1). Catch was equal 
in riparian and nonriparian habitat when considered by net site, but greater in riparian 
habitat when considered by net night (Table 1). In riparian habitats the catch was 
greatest in the subcanopy layer but equal in the subcanopy and canopy layers in 
nonriparian habitat (Table 2). On 2 occasions, pastures dotted with small trees con- 
tained large numbers of L. borealis foraging several times the height of existing vegeta- 
tion. This bas was most frequently caught during the dusk and dawn periods, representing 
a bimodal activity period (Table 3). 

Table 1 . Bat catch by net night and by catch site in riparian (R) and nonriparian (NR) 
habitats. Statistics are based on 150 net nights (61 riparian, 89 nonriparian) at 35 catch 
sites (21 riparian, 14 nonriparian). 



Species 




Total Catch 


Ni 


amber of Bats Caught 


N 


umber of Sites Where 


















Caught 








Proportion 




















Bats/Net 


of 




















Night 


Sites 


R 


NR 


X 2 


P 


R 


NR 


X 2 


P 


M. lucifugus 


0.3867 


.4000 


50 


8 


49.843 


0.000 


10 


4 


0.762 


0.383 


M. grisescens 


0.0733 


.1143 


11 





16.047 


0.000 


4 









L. borealis 


0.6133 


.8000 


56 


36 


15.557 


0.000 


18 


10 


0.214 


0.643 


L. cinereus 


0.1200 


.2857 


4 


14 


2.539 


0.111 


4 


6 


1.667 


0.197 


E. fuscus 


1.7133 


.7714 


110 


147 


0.484 


0.487 


14 


13 


0.747 


0.388 


P. subflavus 


0.0733 


.1429 


11 





16.047 


0.000 


5 









N. humeralis 


0.0333 


.0286 





5 









1 






L. noctivagans 


0.0133 


.0286 





2 









1 







Ecology 



233 



Table 2. Bat catch at shrub (1), subcanopy (2), and canopy (3) levels in riparian, 
nonriparian, and both habitats combined. 



Species 








Riparian 




Nonriparian 




Combined 




1 


2 


3 


X 2 


P 


1 


2 


3 


X 2 


P 


X 2 


P 


M. lucifugus 


5 


40 


3 


54.125 


0.000 





5 


3 






55.750 


0.000 


M. grisescens 


9 


2 


























L. boreal is 


4 


31 


11 


25.609 


0.000 





16 


16 


16.000 


0.000 


35.615 


0.000 


L. cinereus 





3 


2 









6 


7 


6.615 


0.037 


9.000 


0.011 


E. fuscus 


7 


55 


13 


54.720 


0.000 


1 


95 


34 


104.969 


0.000 


157.532 


0.000 


P. subflavus 





9 


2 























N. humeralis 





















5 










L. noctivagans 





1 












1 


2 











Feces, totaling 318 pellets, from 59 bats were analyzed. Coleoptera (42.5%) and 
Lepidoptera (37.5%) were the major prey. Insects of the orders Diptera and Homoptera 
were each 4.3% of the diet, Plecoptera 2.1%, Neuroptera 1.8%, Hymenoptera 0.9%, 
and Trichoptera 0.5% of the diet. The following families of Coleoptera were iden- 
tified in the feces: Scarabaeidae 10 times, Elateridae 8 times, Silphidae 3 times, and 
Carabidae once. Curculionidae remains were identified 3 times; 2 of these were the 
Asiatic oak weevil, Cyrtepistomus castaneus. The diets of males, females, and juveniles 
were similar. There was no difference between the diets from bats captured in dif- 
ferent years. Dietary variation of bats captured at widely separated localities was also 
low, although consumption of Neuroptera varied (P = 0.011). DDI's varied between 
2.00 and 6.13. The overall DDI was 5.07. 

Lasiurus cinereus 

Five adults (1 male), 12 juveniles, and 1 unsexed unaged bat were caught. County 
records were established for Porter, Steuben, and Noble counties. The adult male is 
only the second known from the state. There was no difference between the numbers 
of bats caught in riparian and nonriparian habitats, either by site or by net night (Table 
1). In nonriparian habitat catch was divided between the canopy and subcanopy; riparian 
catch was too small to test (Table 2). Bats were caught throughout the night (Table 3). 

Twelve feces were collected from an adult female who had eaten only hymenopteran 
insects. Diets of 8 juvenile bats, determined from 37 fecal pellets, varied widely. Six 
had eaten diets containing more than 90% coleopterans. The remainder of their diets 



Table 3. Bat catch per species during four periods between dusk and dawn. 





Sunset 


22:00 h 


24:00 h 


02:00 h 








to 


to 


to 


to 






Species 


22:00 h 


24:00 h 


02:00 h 


Sunrise 


X 2 


P 


M. lucifugus 


18 


19 


16 


9 


3.935 


0.269 


M. grisescens 


3 


2 





6 






L. boreal is 


34 


18 


10 


20 


14.585 


0.002 


L. cinereus 


2 


8 


3 


5 


4.667 


0.198 


E. fuscus 


112 


69 


22 


42 


74.233 


0.000 


P. subflavus 


4 


2 


4 


1 






N. humeralis 





3 


1 


1 






L. noctivagans 


1 


1 





2 







234 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 94 (1985) 

were lepidopterans. Two bats ate predominantly lepidopterans (83.6 and 96.3%) but 
both also consumed some coleopterans (3.8 and 15.0%). Carabidae (Order: Coleoptera) 
were identified 6 times. Individual bats also ate insects belonging to the orders: Diptera 
(5.0%), Homoptera (1.3%), and Orthoptera (1.0%). The DDI was ,2.42. 

Eptesicus fuscus 

This bat is common statewide and was most frequently caught (Table 1). Four 
nursery colonies were located, 1 each in Shelby, Hamilton, St. Joseph, and Miami 
counties. At the caves, a few males could be caught as they came to night roost. 
Sometimes 1 or more bats would use the same roost spot night after night, beneath 
which was a notable feces accumulation. The catch of E. fuscus was similar in riparian 
and nonriparian habitats (Table 1), and in both habitats the catch was largest in the 
subcanopy layer (Table 2). Most bats were caught in the 2 periods from dusk to 24:00 
h, with the smallest catch from 24:00 to 02:00 h (Table 3). 

Pipistrellus subflavus 

Males were captured at caves during summer sampling; females and juveniles 
were not. Only 11 individuals (5 females) were netted away from caves, all in riparian 
habitat. Two males caught over the Salamonie River, Wabash County represent both 
the northern most Indiana record and a county record. The sample was too small 
to test, but most captures were in the understory (Table 2). The catch appeared 
distributed throughout the night. 

Feces were analyzed from 23 bats. The diet contained 33.0% dipterans (both 
Chironomidae and Muscidae were each identified once), 19.7% trichopterans, 14.1% 
coleopterans (Elateridae was identified 9 times; Curculionidae, 2 of which were Asiatic 
oak weevils, 8 times; Scarabaeidae 6 times; and Silphidae 3 times), 13.6% lepidopterans, 
12.0% homopterans, 3.0% hymenopterans, 2.6% neuropterans, and 0.1% plecopterans. 
The DDI of males and females were similar; the combined DDI was 6.68. 

Nycticeius humeralis 

Two females and 3 juveniles, were caught in 1980 in a Montgomery County upland 
woodlot; all were caught in the canopy layer after 22:00 h. The females ate 69.6% 
coleopterans, 29.1% lepidopterans, and 1.2% homopterans, while the juveniles at 68.9% 
coleopterans, 9.2% dipterans, 14.9% homopterans, 5.3% trichopterans, 1.5% 
hymenopterans, and 0.2% hemipterans. The combined DDI was 5.26. 

Lasionyceteris notivagans 

Two adult males were caught in Miami County on 3 June 1981 from the canopy 
layer of an upland woodlot. A third male was caught in Tippecanoe County on 18 
June 1983 from the subcanopy of riparian habitat. Thus all 3 represent later springs 
records than previously recorded in Indiana, i.e., 28 May (23). A juvenile was caught 
on 8 September 1981 from the subcanopy of an upland woodlot. These four captures 
were scattered throughout the night (Table 3). 

Feces were collected only from adult males. All ate dipterans (55.2%), neuropterans 
(22.1%), and lepidopterans (9.3%); one individual had also eaten insects belonging 
to the Coleoptera, Trichoptera, and Hymenoptera. The DDI was 4.80. 

Discussion 

Myotis lucifugus has frequently been found foraging low over pond and stream 
surfaces (13, 9, 2, 1, 10), and food habits studies have further substantiated this behavior 
(9, 2, 1). In the present study, M. lucifugus frequented subcanopy riparian habitat, 
and was active throughout the night. In Iowa (16) the species was active early but 
almost totally inactive the latter half of the night. 



Ecology 235 

Chemiluminescently tagged M. grisescens in Missouri foraged largely in riparious 
areas, just over the water surface (18). The habitat and height of captures in the pre- 
sent study concur with those findings, as does the diet with that in Missouri (20), 
emphasizing aquatic based prey. 

Foraging by L. borealis has been reported mainly from high over trees and pastures 
(19, 18). Prey reported previously (26, 27, 28, 8) and herein have been largely ter- 
restrial. Inconsistent with this, more bats per net night were caught in riparian habitats. 
One logical explanation for this discrepancy is that riparian captures, mostly in the 
subcanopy, represent use of this space as a travel lane. As in Iowa (16), activity was 
greatest during early evening. 

Although homopterans were frequently a small part of the L. borealis diet, 
Whitaker (28) and Brack et al. (8) found they sometimes constitute major parts of 
the diet. Whitaker (28) also found larger percentages of Orthoptera in the diet. However, 
similarities to past studies (26, 27, 28, 8), and comparisons among sex, age, and temporal 
subgroups of this study indicate a relatively stable diet composed largely of terrestrial prey. 

It is probable that L. cinereus, like L. borealis, frequents waterways primarily 
as travel lanes. This is supported by present and past food habit studies (3, 4, 27, 
28, 30, 8), and past foraging observations (18, 11, 30, 23). L. cinereus has been referred 
to as a moth specialist (3, 4), although a variety of other prey has been reported (27, 
28, 30, 8). The species has a robust jaw and a skull morphology suitable for eating 
hard-bodied insects (12). In this study, most prey were hard-bodied; most individuals' 
diets contained small percentages of soft-bodied (Lepidoptera) prey. Two bats ate 
predominantly lepidopteran prey. In British Columbia (11) and Iowa (16) L. cinereus 
was active late at night, temporally separating the foraging of the 2 Lasierus species. 

Typically, the diet of E. fuscus contains large proportions of hard-bodied insects, 
especially coleopterans (14, 25, 3, 4, 28). Since aquatic insect species are predominantly 
soft-bodied, it appears that E. fuscus uses open understory waterways for travel and 
feeds predominantly in uplands. Although catch was greatest in the understory, E. 
fuscus also uses the canopy and higher air spaces while foraging (25, 11). In Iowa 
(16) and British Columbia (11), as in Indiana, E. fuscus foraged predominantly early 
in the evening. 

Whitaker (28) reported a diet for P. subflavus similar to that reported here, with 
a wide diversity of prey items, including terrestrial and aquatic species. In Missouri, 
trichopterans predominated in the diet (20), and luminescently tagged bats foraged 
over or near streams (18). Data from the present study complement those findings; 
all captures were in the subcanopy and canopy of riparian habitat. 

Limited observations (18, 23) indicate that N. humeralis frequents tree crowns 
of open and early successional wooded pastures and floodplains. This bat has a cranial 
and jaw morphology of intermediate robustness, appropriate for some types of hard- 
bodied prey (12), and has been reported to eat largely Coleoptera, Homoptera, 
Hymenoptera, and Hemiptera, as well as Lepidoptera and Diptera (27, 28). Though 
again limited, the data collected on this species encourages a similar interpretation. 

In general, L. noctivagans forages in or near woodlands adjacent to streams or bodies 
of water (17), and has post dusk and predawn feeding periods (16, 15). Past dietary samples 
are small but include representatives of the Lepidoptera, Hemiptera, Coleoptera, Diptera, 
Trichoptera, and Isoptera (28, 29, 15). Similarly, small dietary samples in this study 
contained neuropterans, and lepidopterans as major components. 

In summary, 3 of the species of bats studies rely heavily upon a riparian environ- 
ment. M. grisescens foraged low over water, M. lucifugus was caught in the understory, 
and P. subflavus foraged around the riparian canopy and understory. The 2 Myotis 
species eat aquatic prey. Lasiurus borealis, L. cinereus, and E. fuscus frequent the 



236 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 94 (1985) 

riparian understory but do not forage there. They likely used it as a travel lane. E. 
fuscus feeds on coleopterans and is frequently caught in the upland understory, while 
both lasurines feed around and above woodland canopy. Because of a lack of data 
in this and other studies, the foraging ecology of TV. humeralis and L. noctivagans 
cannot be accurately characterized. 

Acknowledgments 

The majority of financial support was provided by the U.S. Forest Service, North 
Central Forest Experiment Station. Many individuals provided field support, in par- 
ticular Virgil R. Holmes spent many long hours in service. Bobby Witcher was a cons- 
tant companion. George P. McCabe and his students provided statistical help. Russell 
E. Mumford and Harmon P. Weeks provided equipment, encouragement, advice, and 
constructive criticism, and read various parts of the manuscript. Research was con- 
ducted under federal endangered permits PRT 2-4988 and PRT 2-9170 and appropriate 
Indiana state permits. 

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Legal Game Harvest by Indiana Landowners Hunting without a License 

John S. Castrale 

Indiana Division of Fish and Wildlife 

Mitchell, Indiana 47446 

and 

Robert E. Rolley and William J. Pfingsten 

Indiana Division of Fish and Wildlife 

Bloomington, Indiana 47401 



Monitoring the harvest of game animals is important to wildlife management 
agencies. Annual harvest figures provide information on the population status and 
distribution of game species and the popularity of various game species to sportsmen. 
This information can then be used by natural resources agencies to guide management 
efforts. 

Indiana state law requires all hunters to purchase a license to take game within 
the framework of established seasons and regulations. Landowners and tenants who 
hunt solely on their own land are exempt from purchasing a license but are still bound 
by hunting regulations. Surveying licensed hunters to determine game harvest is relatively 
straightforward because names and addresses can be obtained from receipt books main- 
tained by vendors selling hunting licenses. The Indiana Division of Fish and Wildlife 
samples licensed hunters annually in this manner to determine game harvest. Deter- 
mining harvest by unlicensed hunters is more difficult but is necessary to obtain more 
accurate estimates of the total harvest. 

This paper reports on the relative contribution of unlicensed landowners to the 
game harvest during the 1981 hunting season in Indiana. Unlike the survey of licensed 
hunters which was initiated in the 1940s and has been conducted annually in its pre- 
sent form since 1976 (Eisenhauer 1977a), the landowner survey is conducted at 5-year 
intervals with the first beginning in 1976 (Eisenhauer 1977b). Besides providing harvest 
estimates, the present survey gives information about the willingness of landowners 
to allow hunting on their land. 

Methods 

Landowners surveyed were selected from a list of 73,000 farm operators main- 
tained by the Agricultural Experiment Station at Purdue University in cooperation 
with the Statistical Reporting Service of the United States Department of Agriculture. 
This list contains farms with minimum annual sales of $1,000 in agricultural products. 
There were approximately 89,000 farms in Indiana in 1981 (United States Department 
of Agriculture 1982). A survey form was mailed to 12,196 Indiana landowners and 
tenants. The 1976 landowner survey utilized a single mailing, so a similar procedure 
was used in the present survey to maintain conformity. The postcard survey form con- 
tained 8 questions dealing with land ownership, hunting by family members, and whether 
hunting for small game and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) was allowed 
by the landowner (Castrale and Pfingsten 1982). A table was provided to record animal 
harvest by species for each family member who hunted without a license on their 
property. 

Because sportsmen typically overestimate their harvests (Atwood 1956, Eisenhauer 
1977c, Filion 1980), bias correction factors derived from a previous study (Pfingsten 
1980) were used to arrive at final harvest estimates. Correction factors used were as 
follows: squirrels (Sciurus niger, S. carolinensis), 0.588; eastern cottontail (Sylvilagus 

239 



240 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 94 (1985) 

floridanus), 0.543; northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus), 0.469; ring-necked phea- 
sant (Phasianus colchicus), 0.738; American woodcock (Scolopax minor), 0.471; and 
ruffed grouse (Bonasa umbellus), 0.812. Correction factors for white-tailed deer are 
calculated annually and for 1981 this figure was 0.832 (John C. Olson, personal 
communication). 

Statistical treatments included chi-square goodness-of-fit tests, chi-square tests 
for independence and Spearman rank correlation coefficients. 

Results and Discussion 

Of 12,196 questionnaires mailed to farm operators, 3,095 (25.4%) were returned 
and usable and form the basis of this report. Participation in hunting by farm households 
showed a slight (37% vs. 34%) but significant (X 2 = 8.49, df = 1, P <0.05) increase 
over the previous survey (Eisenhauer 1977b). Hunting households averaged 1.69 hunters 
in 1 98 1 . The number of households reporting hunting exclusively on their own land without 
purchasing a license also showed a significant increase (21% vs 15%, X 2 = 34.61, 
df = 1, P<0.001) in 1981 over 1976. Households averaged 1.44 unlicensed hunters. 
Projecting these figures, hunting landowners numbered 55,865 or 20% of Indiana sport- 
smen who pursued deer and small game and 10% (27,562) of the state's estimated 
283,682 deer and small game hunters were landowners hunting without a license. 

Squirrels and eastern cottontails were the most commonly hunted game species 
(Table 1). These mammals also experienced the highest seasonal harvests per landowner 
which resulted in the greatest total harvests of all species. Squirrels and rabbits were 
also popular with licensed hunters (Rolley 1984), however, so the contribution of lan- 
downers to the total harvest of these species was actually the least of all species (Table 
1). White-tailed deer were also frequently hunted by landowners, but the total kill 
was much lower than most other species due to more restrictive bag limits. American 
woodcock and ruffed grouse were of least interest to landowners, although the pro- 
portional harvest of woodcock was high. 

Landowners not purchasing a hunting license appeared to be less avid, or less 
experienced hunters than licensed sportsmen. With the exception of deer, seasonal 
harvests by landowners for each species averaged 65% (range = 58-82%) below licensed 
hunters, assuming each household represented 1.44 hunters. The mean number of white- 
tailed deer taken by landowners was higher than that of licensed hunters (Olson 1981), 
which indicates more interest in deer, or possibly a more utilitarian attitude toward 
sport hunting. Landowners more interested in hunting may buy a license in order to 
increase their hunting opportunities or to contribute to the management of wildlife 

Table 1 . Harvest statistics by landowners and tenants hunting only on their own property 
during the 1981-1982 hunting season in Indiana. 





Harvest by 


State harvest 




Seasonal 


Seasonal 




landowners 


accounted for by 


Landowners 


harvest 


harvest (no./ 


Species hunted 


(no. ± SE) 


landowners (%) 


hunting (%) 


(no. /landowner) 


licensed hunter) 


Squirrels 


45,515 ± 4,049 


4.5 


15.5 


3.30 


5.59 


Eastern cottontail 


33,384 ± 2,699 


4.9 


19.5 


1.92 


3.39 


Northern bobwhite 


6,452 ± 620 


6.6 


7.2 


1.01 


1.66 


American woodcock 


2,357 ± 521 


11.8 


4.2 


0.62 


1.35 


White-tailed deer 


2,250 ± 264 


12.4 


11.4 


0.27 


0.14 


Ring-necked pheasant 


1,610 ± 429 


7.3 


5.4 


0.34 


0.66 


Ruffed grouse 


1,197 ± 407 


5.0 


3.7 


0.37 


1.42 



Trom Rolley (1984) and Olson (1981). 



Ecology 



241 



resources. Therefore, unlicensed hunters may hunt less often. Persons who purchase 
a license may be more motivated to hunt even if they restrict their efforts to their 
own property. 

Changes in the harvests of deer and some small game species have been dramatic 
between survey periods (Eisenhauer 1977b). The harvest of ruffed grouse has shown 
the greatest increase (greater than an order of magnitude) since 1976. This species has 
undergone natural range expansion supplemented by the establishment of new popula- 
tions by transplanting (Backs 1984). Hunting opportunities for ruffed grouse have also 
increased with 13 counties open to hunting in 1981 compared with 9 in 1976. Grouse 
hunting in Indiana is a relatively young sport, and its popularity is rapidly increasing. 
The estimated harvest of American woodcock by unlicensed hunters has almost tripl- 
ed, although harvests by licensed hunters have declined about 50% between comparable 
years. Deer populations have increased in recent years (John C. Olson, personal com- 
munication), and the estimated number of white-tailed deer killed by landowners doubled 
over 1976. Declines in the kill of northern bobwhite and ring-necked pheasants are 
evident, and have been blamed on reduced populations due to unfavorable winters 
in the late 1970s as well as to loss of habitat. The harvest of squirrels have shown 
a substantial increase, while fewer rabbits were taken by landowners hunting without 
a license. 

Harvest figures show regional differences (Table 2) which are primarily due to 
the relative abundance and distribution of each game species in the state. Tree squir- 



Table 2. Regional distribution of game harvest by landowners hunting on their own 
property. Values given are percentages of total harvest for each species. 











Region 








Northwest 


Northeast 


Central 


Southwest 


South-central 


Southeast 




(425 ) a 


(721) 


(609) 


(351) 


(445) 


(528) 


Landowners 














responding 














(3,094) a 


13.8 


23.4 


19.9 


11.4 


14.4 


17.1 


Non-licensed 














hunters (897) 


10.6 


25.3 


13.5 


12.2 


17.7 


20.7 


Species 














harvested 














Squirrels 














(2,519) 


6.4 


15.6 


6.0 


10.1 


39.2 


22.6 


Eastern 














cottontail 














(2,003) 


11.0 


19.7 


8.6 


19.4 


25.6 


15.8 


Northern 














bobwhite 














(448) 


14.5 


2.5 


3.1 


47.8 


20.8 


11.4 


White-tailed 














deer (88) 


12.5 


29.5 


4.5 


5.7 


23.9 


23.9 


American 














woodcock 














(163) 


8.0 


54.6 


14.1 


6.7 


4.9 


11.7 


Ring-necked 














pheasant (71) 


43.7 


0.0 


28.2 


1.4 


8.5 


18.3 


Ruffed grouse 














(48) 


0.0 


0.0 


25.0 


0.0 


52.1 


22.9 



Sample size. 



242 



Indiana Academy of Science 



Vol. 94 (1985) 



rels are more common in the forested areas of southern Indiana. Changes in the regional 
harvests of northern bobwhite reflect more severe declines suffered by this species in 
northern Indiana (Castrale 1985). White-tailed deer populations are traditionally greatest 
in south-central Indiana, but northeastern and southeastern populations appeared to 
have increased. Complaints of deer damage to agricultural crops received by the Divi- 
sion of Fish and Wildlife have become common from these areas. Ring-necked pheasants 
are still principally harvested in the Northwest, but declines in this region as well as 
the Northeast are apparent. Releases of pheasants by conservation clubs and individuals 
throughout the state may help explain patterns of harvest in other areas. Ruffed grouse 
are no longer being harvested strictly from south-central Indiana due to the opening 
of other areas to grouse hunting. 

Hunting of small game was allowed by 76% of the landowners responding but 
only 51% permitted deer hunting. This category of response was the major reason 
for the highly significant difference (X 2 = 455, df = 3, P<0.001) in the patterns 
of the permission categories for allowing hunting of deer and small game. Whether 
or not hunting is allowed on a landowner's property is related to the amount of pro- 
perty owned (Figures 1, 2). Large farm operators are more likely to allow hunting 
of both deer (rho = 0.88, df = 6, P< 0.001) and small game (rho = 0.94, df = 
6, P<0.001). With increasing farm size, landowners were more likely to allow small 
game hunting by others (rho = 0.88, df = 6, P<0.001) and were more likely to hunt 
deer themselves or allow friends of the family to hunt deer (rho = 0.88, df = 6, 
P<0.001). 



50 



45 



40 



o 
en 

LU 7r 
Q_ 35 



Family & Friends 



.->o. 



30 



,-o- 



__._-.-cr" 



/ 



p <r" 



Others 



'---</ 



/ 



0- 


25- 


50- 


75- 


100- 


150- 


200- 


25 


50 


75 


100 


150 


200 


300 



>300 



FARM SIZE (ACRES) 



Figure 1. Relationship of farm size with percentage of sampled landowners allowing 
small game hunting by family and friends and other hunters. 



Ecology 



243 



35 



30 



25 



c_> 



20 



Fami ly & Friends 




0- 


25- 


50- 


75- 


100- 


150- 


200 


25 


50 


75 


100 


150 


200 


300 



>300 



FARM SIZE (ACRES) 

Figure 2. Relationship of farm size with percentage of sampled landowners allowing 
deer hunting by family and friends and other hunters. 

Regional differences existed in a landowner's willingness to allow hunting of deer 
(Table 3; X 2 = 213, df = 10, P< 0.001) and small game (Table 4; X 2 = 65, df = 
10, P<0.001) on their property. Differences for deer hunting were primarily due to 
a liberal hunting attitude by northeastern Indiana landowners and a restrictive attitude 
by farm operators in central Indiana. A similar pattern is shown for small game hunting 
with northwestern and central regions showing the fewest relative opportunities for 
hunting. It is unclear why these regional differences exist. 

Acknowledgments 

We appreciate the computer assistance provided by personnel at LARS in West 
Lafayette. John Olson calculated unpublished deer harvest figures. John Olson and 

Table 3 . Landowner's willingness to allow white-tailed deer hunting on their property. 
Values given are percentages of total responses by region. 



Hunting 








Region 






permission 


Northwest 


Northeast 


Central 




Southwest 


South-central 


Southeast 


response 


(421) a 


(715) 


(599 




(350) 


(441) 


(524) 


No hunting 


58.7 


32.4 


69.3 




43.4 


45.1 


50.2 


Family and 
















friends only 


25.2 


34.3 


17.0 




29.4 


24.3 


30.7 


Permission 
















needed 


13.8 


27.1 


11.4 




20.3 


22.4 


15.6 


Unrestricted 


2.4 


6.2 


2.3 




6.9 


8.2 


3.4 



No. landowners responding. 



244 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 94 (1985) 

Table 4. Landowner's willingness to allow small game hunting on their property. Values 
given are percentages of total responses by region. 



Hunting 








Region 






permission 


Northwest 


Northeast 


Central 




Southwest 


South-central 


Southeast 


response 


(425) a 


(721) 


(609) 




(351) 


(445) 


(528) 


No hunting 


30.1 


19.8 


31.4 




19.7 


19.1 


21.4 


Family and 
















friends only 


44.9 


40.5 


40.1 




44.4 


42.0 


46.4 


Permission 
















needed 


22.1 


33.6 


25.8 




30.8 


31.9 


28.8 


Unrestricted 


2.8 


6.1 


2.8 




5.1 


7.0 


3.4 



No. landowners responding. 



Robert Feldt reviewed the manuscript and Jennifer Eckensberger typed the drafts. This 
study was funded by Federal Aid to Wildlife Restoration in Indiana, Project W-26-R, 
and the Indiana Division of Fish and Wildlife. 

Literature Cited 

1. Atwood, E.L. 1956. Validity of mail survey data on bagged waterfowl. J. Wildl. 
Manage. 1:1-16. 

2. Backs, S.E. 1984. The historic and present distribution of ruffed grouse in Indiana. 
Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 93:161-166. 

3. Castrale, J.S. 1985. Bob white quail spring population levels. Indiana Div. of Fish 
and Wildl. Fed. Aid Prog. Rep. W-26-R-16. Job XX-F-3. 

4. Castrale, J.S. and W.J. Pfingsten. 1982. Landowner-tenant small game harvest. 
Indiana Div. Fish and Wildl. Fed. Aid Prog. Rep. W-26-R-13. Job XXIII-M-4. 

5. Eisenhauer, D.I. 1977a. Small game harvest survey. Indiana Div. Fish and Wildl. 
Fed. Aid Prog. Rep. W-26-R-8. Job XXIII-M-5. 

6. Eisenhauer, D.I. 1977b. Landowner-tenant small game harvest. Indiana Div. Fish 
and Wildl. Fed. Aid Prog. Rep. W-26-R-8. Job XXIII-M-4. 

7. Eisenhauer, D.I. 1977c. Determine magnitude of bias. Indiana Div. Fish and Wildl. 
Fed. Aid Prog. Rep. W-26-R-8. Job XXIII-M-2. 

8. Filion, F.L. 1980. Human surveys in wildlife management. Pages 441-453 in S.D. 
Schemintz (ed.). Wildlife management techniques, 4th ed. The Wildlife Society, 
Washington, D.C. 686 p. 

9. Olson, J.C. 1981. Deer harvest report card survey. Indiana Div. Fish and Wildl. 
Fed. Aid Prog. Reg. W-26-R-12. Job XIII-B-1. 

10. Pfingsten, W.J. 1980. Determine magnitude of response error. Indiana Div. Fish 
and Wildl. Fed. Aid Prog. Rep. W-26-R-11. Job XXIII-M-2. 

1 1. Rolley, R.E. 1984. Small game harvest survey. Indiana Div. Fish and Wildl. Fed. 
Aid Prog. Rep. W-26-R-15. Job XXIII-M-5. 

12. United States Department of Agriculture. 1982. Farm numbers hold steady. Indiana 
Agric. Rep. 2(16):3. 



The Natural Regions of Indiana 

Michael A. Homoya, D. Brian Abrell, James R. Aldrich 

and Thomas W. Post 

Indiana Natural Heritage Program 

Indiana Department of Natural Resources 

Indianapolis, Indiana 46204 

Introduction 

Schemes recognizing regions of natural features have a long history in Indiana. 
The surveyors and workers for the General Land Office (29) were possibly the first 
to describe and map the major natural community types, such as prairie and forest, 
found in presettlement Indiana. Starting in the early 1800s geologists were mapping 
and describing geologic features, with occasional references to vegetation, while 
naturalists were cataloging the flora and fauna. One of the first regionalizations of 
Indiana biota was by W.S. Blatchley, who in 1909 defined three life zones of the state 
using insect distribution as the criterion (11). Thirteen years later, the classic work 
on the physiographic regions of Indiana was published by C.A. Malott (45). Since 
then, a number of works have been published depicting regionalizations of various 
natural features, including maps on the Forestal Areas of Indiana (20) and Floral Areas 
of Indiana (21) by Deam, vegetation maps by Gordon (31), Potzger et al. (64), and 
Lindsey et al. (41), and maps of faunal areas by Barnes (9) and Chandler (16). The 
Natural Divisions of Indiana map by Lindsey et al. (43) was the first in Indiana to 
delineate natural landscape units based on a combination of natural features (with 
an emphasis on presettlement vegetation). Illinois (72) and Missouri (75) are two near- 
by states that have used this concept to develop natural region classifications. The 
present work is also a development of this concept. 

A natural region is a major, generalized unit of the landscape where a distinctive 
assemblage of natural features is present. It is part of a classification system that in- 
tegrates several natural features, including climate, soils, glacial history, topography, 
exposed bedrock, presettlement vegetation, species composition, physiography, and flora 
and fauna distribution to identify a natural region. A section is a subunit of a natural 
region where sufficient differences are evident such that recognition is warranted. The 
text and map presented here describe and illustrate the twelve natural regions and twenty- 
five sections determined by the authors. 

In a practical sense, knowledge of the features of a natural region should help 
one visualize the landscape and permit expectations about what can and cannot be 
found in a region. For example, only in the Knobstone Escarpment Section of the 
Highland Rim Natural Region can one expect to see a natural community with chestnut 
oak and Virginia pine growing on a steep hillside composed of Mississippian shale 
and siltstone. Conversely, one would not expect to see a calcareous fen natural com- 
munity in the section. 



Editor's Note: The Editor wishes to acknowledge not only the encouragement, but the patience, expertise, and 
and critical reviews of the above manuscript by the following persons — Henry Gray, Marion Jackson, Ben Moulton, 
John Patton and Damian Schmelz. Their combined efforts greatly assisted the authors in getting this manuscript 
into its final form for publication in this centennial volume of the Proceedings. 

The enclosed map, Plate 1, which accompanies this manuscript was made possible with the assistance of Henry 
Gray, John Hollingsworth and William Moran. The original map by J.E. Switzer, upon which the map is based, was 
printed previously in the following publications: 

Kingsbury, R.C. 1970. An Atlas of Indiana. Dept. of Geography, Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN. 94 p. 
Switzer, J.E. 1937. The Geography of Indiana. Ginn and Co., Boston. 52 p. 

245 



246 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 94 (1985) 

Methods 

No single criterion was used in determining natural regions although some single 
feature may have been emphasized for mapping purposes. For instance, the boun- 
daries of some natural regions may have been determined by the extent of the major 
natural community present, e.g., Grand Prairie Natural Region, or by the area of 
a dominant topographic feature, e.g., Shawnee Hills Natural Region. Although a single 
feature is used to delimit some boundaries, it is the combination of natural features 
that distinguish a natural region. 

Species composition was an important criterion, especially when considering the 
occurrence of rare and/or disjunct species, or species at the periphery of their range. 
These species reveal much about the landscape, not only about the area where they 
occur, but also about the area where they do not. For example, swamp chestnut oak 
(Quercus michauxii), a southern species on the periphery of its range in the Bluegrass 
Natural Region, does not occur in the adjacent Central Till Plain Natural Region.. 
Some significant difference in soil, glacial history, or other natural feature between 
the two natural regions is implied by the absence of this species in the Central Till 
Plain. Therefore, the distribution of this species was one criterion used to support 
separation of the Bluegrass Natural Region from the Central Till Plain Natural Region. 

A natural community is a group of organisms that are interrelated with each 
other and their environment (80). They are identified by such natural features as soil 
moisture and reaction, substrate, species composition, vegetation structure and 
topographic position. An excellent discussion of natural communities and their classifica- 
tion can be found in White and Madany (80). Although the present work is not in- 
tended to be a treatise on natural communities, those occurring most frequently in 
each natural region are discussed as are those restricted to or best developed in a region. 
Most of the communities found in Indiana are discussed somewhere in the text, although 
not in every region where they occur. For example, the fen natural community type 
occurs throughout northern Indiana, but is described in some detail only in the North- 
western Morainal region. Since fens are rather uniform compositionally, it would be 
redundant to describe them in every natural region where they occur. If a natural com- 
munity type is significantly different from one region to another, a description of the 
community is given in the discussion of each region. 

In describing features of a natural region, certain terms are used that need clarifica- 
tion. Characteristic refers to an association of one or more natural features with another. 
It may refer to a species commonly associated with a community (but not necessarily 
restricted to it), or to a species that occurs uncommonly in a community type, especially 
if it is restricted to it. For example, both the cliff clubmoss (Lycopodium porophilum) 
and Bradley's spleen wort (Asplenium bradleyi) are indigenous species of sandstone 
cliff natural communities in the Shawnee Hills. The former is regularly seen, but the 
latter has been found only once. Both characterize the community. Since it is usually 
difficult to identify a natural community by a single species, an assemblage of species 
is listed to distinguish one community from the next. 

The state is roughly divided into quadrants with northern and southern divisions 
separated by U.S Highway 40 east of Indianapolis and U.S. Highway 36 west of 
Indianapolis, and eastern and western divisions separated by U.S. Highway 31 north 
of Indianapolis and State Route 135 south of Indianapolis. Species that are geographically 
restricted are those found in only one section or region of a particular quadrant, yet 
also occurring in at least one other quadrant of the state. For example, the blunt-lobed 
grape fern {Botrychium oneidense) is a geographically restricted species of the 
Muscatatuck Flats and Canyons Section, for it occurs in no other section of the southeast 
quadrant. The species occurs elsewhere in the state, however, namely the northeast 



Ecology 247 

and northwest quadrants. State restricted species are indigenous to only one section 
or region in the entire state, e.g. French's shooting star (Dodecatheon frenchii) is a 
state restricted species known in Indiana only from the Crawford Upland Section of 
the Shawnee Hills Natural Region. These distinctions are intended only to illustrate 
disjunct or restricted occurrences of organisms and to help distinguish further one 
natural unit from the next. 

Except in a few instances, it is not stated whether natural communities listed 
for a region are extant. The reader can assume that communities listed have current 
examples, albeit in many cases small and/or highly degraded ones. 

Because of their strong community association and relative lack of mobility, reptiles 
and amphibians are some of the best community indicators of the fauna and are used 
for that purpose here when appropriate. Most birds and mammals are normally highly 
mobile and ubiquitous, and thus are used less frequently here as indicators, although 
some good community indicators are known. All organisms (plant and animal) listed 
in the text reflect documented occurrences of native populations but may or may not 
be extant. 

In the assignment of names for regions and sections, the traditional name identifying 
a particular region was used when appropriate, e.g. Scottsburg Lowland physiographic 
region became the Scottsburg Lowland Section of the Bluegrass Natural Region. In 
some cases, a traditional name was altered to emphasize major characteristic natural 
features, e.g. Mitchell Plain physiographic region became Mitchell Karst Plain Section 
of the Highland Rim Natural Region. Names of topographic features were incorporated 
into most names to help distinguish the area, e.g. Central Till Plain Natural Region. 
Where possible, names were given to maintain continuity with similar classifications 
in surrounding states, e.g. the Grand Prairie Natural Region adjoins the Grand Prairie 
Natural Division in Illinois. 

Boundary lines on the map (Plate 1 in envelope in back cover) do not necessarily 
indicate an abrupt change in all natural features, i.e. all the distinctive features listed 
for a region do not terminate at the line indicated, to be replaced by an entirely new 
set of features. As there is a continuum from one natural community to the next, 
so it is with natural regions. 

A variety of sources was consulted for information detailing natural features of 
the state. Physiographic works by Fenneman (25), Malott (45), Schneider (71), and 
Quarterman and Powell (65) proved most useful. County soil surveys and the Map 
of the Soil Associations of Indiana (44) were consulted for soils information. Regional 
geologic maps published by the Indiana Geological Survey were invaluable for illustrating 
bedrock and unconsolidated deposits. Wayne (77), and Wayne and Zumberge (78) were 
major sources of information on glacial geology. Information on the flora, including 
nomenclature, came from Deam (21) and the Indiana Natural Heritage Program (36). 
The latter, along with Lindsey et al. (43), were good references for vegetation infor- 
mation on specific sites, and survey notes of the General Land Office provided pre- 
settlement information (29). Separate works on the state's fish, birds, mammals, and 
herpetofauna by Gerking (30), Mumford and Keller (52), Mumford and Whitaker (53), 
and Minton (50), respectively, proved invaluable. Several additional papers consulted 
are cited in the text. 

Description of Natural Regions 

Region One — Lake Michigan Natural Region 

This natural region is an entirely aquatic one that includes Indiana's portion of 
a tremendous body of water, Lake Michigan. Formed from meltwater of the Wiscon- 
sinan ice sheet, this large lake is so different from the rest of Indiana's natural features 



248 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 94 (1985) 

that it deserves recognition as a separate natural region. It harbors (or formerly harbored) 
a number of fish species found nowhere else in the state, including lake whitefish (Cor- 
geonus clupeaformis), brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis), lake trout (Salvelinus 
namaycush), longnose sucker (Catastomus catastomus), slimy sculpin (Cottus cognatus), 
four horn sculpin (Myoxocephalus quadricornis), and ninespine stickleback (Pungitius 
pungitius). Unfortunately, many of these fishes have been replaced largely by exotics 
either by accidental or by intentional introduction. 

Region Two — Northwestern Morainal Natural Region 

The glaciated area formed in part by the latest advances of the Lake Michigan 
Lobe of the Wisconsinan ice sheet identifies this natural region. It is divided into three 
sections: the Valparaiso Moraine Section, the Chicago Lake Plain Section, and the 
Lake Michigan Border Section. 

A tremendous diversity of natural communities is present for such a small region, 
and floristically, no other natural region can compare in species diversity, at least on 
an acre for acre basis. This is due in part to the merging of several major vegetation 
types, these being the eastern deciduous forest, the tall grass prairie, and the northern 
forest and wetlands. In addition, an interesting assemblage of Atlantic Coastal Plain 
species, along with Lake Michigan shoreline endemics contribute to the diversity. 

The region is heavily populated and industrialized, but because much of it is poor 
agricultural land, and thus was never cultivated, high quality natural areas can be found 
interspersed among factories, homes, landfills, and city streets. The region and its sec- 
tions correlate with Illinois natural regions of similar names. Physiographic regions 
identified by Malott (45) include the Valparaiso Moraine Section and the Calumet 
Lacustrine Section of the Northern Moraine and Lake Region. Ecological studies of 
the region include Cowles (18), Olson (54), Rohr and Potzger (69), Bacone and Campbell 
(5), and Wilhelm (81). 

Section 2A — Valparaiso Moraine Section 

This section is identified by the presence of the Valparaiso Moraine, a moraine 
characterized by a mostly knob-and-kettle topography in the east that grades into a 
gently rolling till plain in the west. The soils generally are well drained, mostly calcareous 
silty clay loams of the Markham, Elliott, Morley, Blount, and Pewamo series. The 
eastern portion formerly was predominantly forested, while much of the western area 
was prairie. Other natural community types include fen, bog, lake, marsh, savanna, 
seep spring, and swamp. 

The forest community on mesic sites is of special interest, for it marks the western 
limit of the beech-maple community in the lower Lake Michigan region. Oak-hickory 
forest characterize drier sites, and include white oak (Quercus alba), red oak (Q. rubra), 
black oak (Q. velutina), shagbark hickory {Carya ovata), pignut hickory (C. glabra), 
and black cherry (Prunus serotina). Bur oak (Quercus macrocarpa) and black oak 
savannas occurred formerly but now are gone completely. The areas of prairie also 
are gone, except for a few small remnants in pioneer cemeteries and railroad rights-of- 
way. Species composition of these prairies is similar to those of the Grand Prairie 
Region. One notable exception is the former presence of Mead's milkweed (Asclepius 
meadii), as extirpated, state restricted species of this section. 

Excellent examples of the fen natural community type occur on the moraine. These 
normally unforested areas of mineral-rich seepage through muck commonly have a 
high diversity of species that include Kalm's lobelia (Lobelia kalmii), shrubby cin- 
quefoil (Potentilla fruticosa), Indian plantain (Cacalia tuberosa), tofieldia (Tofieldia 
glutinosa), small white ladyslipper (Cypripedium candidum), parnassia (Parnassia glauca), 
prairie dock (Silphium terebinthinaceum), fringed gentian (Gentiana crinita), marsh 



Ecology 249 

muhly (Muhlenbergia racemosa), and several Carex species, notably Carex leptalea 
and C. sterilis. Bog communities are similar in composition to those of the Northern 
Lakes Natural Region. Deep River is characteristic of streams of this section. 

Section 2B — Chicago Lake Plain Section 

This section is identified by the ridge-and-swale and lacustrine plain topography 
that occurs between the Valparaiso Moraine and the Border Section along Lake Michigan. 
It is located on the former site of Lake Chicago, and the ridge-and-swale topography 
is a remnant of water-level fluctuations of that glacial lake. Almost all of the natural 
communities are on sand substrates. Most of the sand is acid in reaction. Characteristic 
soil associations include the Whitaker-Milford-Del Rey and Oakville Maumee-Brems. 
Muck soils are scattered throughout. 

Major natural communities of this section include marsh, lake, sand savanna, 
sand prairie, and swamp, along with minor areas of various forest types. The sand 
savana is primarily comprised of two types: the black oak (Quercus velutina) and the 
black oak-pine (Pinus strobus, P. Banksiana) savanna. Almost pure stands of black 
oak characterize the savannas throughout most of this section, whereas the black oak- 
pine savannas are associated with the dune complex in the north part of the section. 
Typical species of the savannas include little bluestem (Andropogon scoparius), Junegrass 
(Koeleria cristata), goat's-rue (Tephrosia virginiana), lupine (Lupinus perennis), and 
sedges (Carex muhlenbergii and C. pensylvanica). Sand prairie intergrades with the 
savanna. Extensive areas of marsh once occurred throughout the section, especially 
along the Little and Grand Calumet Rivers. 

Many of the same animals found in the Kankakee Sand Section occur here also, 
apparently owing to the similarities of natural communities. The Chicago garter snake 
(Thamnophis sirtalis semifasciata) may be more common here than elsewhere in the state. 

Section 2C — Lake Michigan Border Section 

The three major natural features distinguishing this section are the beach com- 
munity, the high dunes (especially the foredune community), and the pannes. All oc- 
cur in the immediate vicinity and influence of Lake Michigan, and all are represen- 
tative of natural communities bordering the Lake throughout much of its shoreline. 
Sand is the major substrate, and the Oakville fine sand is the major soil series of 
the high dunes. Various mucks occur in the interdunal depressions. Calcareous sand 
occurs locally in the pannes. 

The beach community occupies a narrow strip of sand between the edge of Lake 
Michigan and the first line of dunes. It is an area of shifting sands where characteristic 
pioneer species include sea rocket (Cakile edentula var. lacustris), beachgrass (Am- 
mophila breviligulata), bug-seed (Corispermum hyssopifolium), spurge (Euphorbia 
polygonifolia), and silverweed (Potent ilia anserina). The beach community grades into 
the foredune of the high dunes complex. The foredune, like the beach, is on the wind- 
ward side of the high dunes, but it is somewhat more stable than the beach because 
of the presence of stabilizing plants, e.g. little bluestem (Andropogon scoparius), longleaf 
reedgrass (Calamovilfa longifolia), red-osier dogwood (Cornus stolonifera), beach pea 
(Lathyrus japonicus), aromatic sumac (Rhus aromatica), Pitcher's thistle (Circium pit- 
cheri), bearberry (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi), prostrate juniper (Juniperus communis), 
jack pine (Pinus banksiana), and gland leaf willow (Salix syrticola). 

Forests of the lee side high dunes are characterized by a mixture of mesophytic 
forest and savanna. White pine (Pinus strobus), red oak (Quercus rubra), white oak 
(Q. alba), black oak (Q. velutina), basswood (Tilia americana), red maple (Acer rubrum), 
white ash (Fraxinus americana), dogwoods (Cornus florida and C. rugosa), witchhazel 
(Hamamelis virginiana), and wafer ash (Ptelea trifoliata) are characteristic species of 



250 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 94 (1985) 

this area. The savanna component is similar to that of the Chicago Lake Plain Sec- 
tion, except that conifers are more important. 

Pannes are interdunal depressions composed of wet, calcareous sand typically 
on the lee side of the first or second line of dunes from the lakeshore. They are 
characterized by an unique floristic composition suggestive of a fen. Typical panne 
species include Kalm's lobelia (Lobelia kalmii), fringed gentian (Gentiana crinita), 
bladderwort (Utricularia cornuta), white upland aster (Aster ptarmicoides), rose gen- 
tian (Sabatia angularis), loesel twayblade (Liparis loeselii), rush (Juncus balticus), cladium 
(Cladium mariscoides), and sedges (Carex aurea, Rhynchospora capillacea, and Scleria 
verticillata). 

State restricted species from this section include beach grass, sea rocket, Pitcher's 
thistle, gland leaf willow, white upland aster, spurge, russet buffaloberry (Shepherdia 
canadensis), fringed polygala (Polygala paucifolia), Hooker's orchid (Platanthera 
hookeri), and sedge (Carex richardsonii). The piping plover (Charadrius melodus) was 
known in Indiana only from this section but is now extirpated. 

Region Three — Grand Prairie Natural Region 

This region is identified by the predominance of the tall grass prairie community 
type. The name "Grand Prairie" is applied in reference to the large expanse of prairie 
that occurred here and over much of northern Illinois. This area in Indiana is the 
major eastern lobe of the Prairie Peninsula as illustrated by Transeau (76). The region 
occupies a glaciated plain where a variety of unconsolidated deposits of Wisconsinan 
age are present, including dune sand, lacustrine sediments, outwash plain sediments 
(mostly sand and gravel), and till (end and ground moraines). The southern and eastern 
borders of the region are defined by the Wabash River Valley and the Maxinkuckee 
Moraine, and the Valparaiso Moraine marks the northern boundary. 

This region is identified not only by what is present, but by what is not. Many 
species characteristic of the eastern deciduous forest are noticeably absent here. Beech 
(Fagus grandifolia) and sugar maple (Acer saccharum), the major components of the 
beech-maple forest, are exceptionally rare species in this region. On a percentage basis, 
this region is the most altered of all natural regions in the state. Only remnants of 
the Grand Prairie are known to exist. Three sections are recognized: the Grand Prairie 
Section, the Kankakee Sand Section, and the Kankakee Marsh Section. They occupy 
parts of the Tipton Till Plain physiographic region and the Northern Moraine and 
Lake physiographic region of Malott (45). Ecological studies in this region include 
Finley and Potzger (26), Welch (79), Meyer (48), and Betz (10). 

Section 3A — Grand Prairie Section 

This section is distinguished by the predominance of loamy soil as opposed to 
the sandy and highly organic soils of the other sections of Region Three. The swell 
and swale topography in the northern part of the section is best ch tracterized by the 
silty clay loam soils of the Brookston-Odell-Corwin Association. Some areas of muck, 
particularly Carlisle muck, are present. The better drained soils in the south of the 
section are characterized by Parr silt loam and the Elston-Shipshe-Warsaw Associa- 
tion of well drained neutral to acid loam. Outwash and lacustrine deposits are characteriz- 
ed by the Rennselaer-Darroch-Whitaker Association. This area was the epitomy of 
the vast tall grass prairie of presettlement times. A great variety of prairie natural 
community types must have existed, but little is known about the species composition 
except what can be determined from small remnants in railroad rights-of-way and aban- 
doned pioneer cemeteries. Characteristic species of prairies on well drained sites in- 
clude little bluestem (Andropogon scoparius), big bluestem (A. gerardi), Indian grass 
(Sorghastrum nutans), switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), side-oats grama (Bouteloua 



Ecology 25 1 

curtipendula), compass plant (Silphium laciniatum), prairie dock (Silphium terebin- 
thinaceum), blazing star (Liatris pycnostachya), hairy sunflower (Helianthus mollis), 
feverfew (Parthenium integrifolium), pale purple coneflower {Echinacea pallida), yellow 
coneflower (Ratibida pinnata), leadplant (Amorpha canescens), rattlesnake master 
(Erynigium yuccifolium), prairie clovers (Petalostemum candidum and P. purpureum), 
prairie goldenrod (Solidago rigida), and prairie violet (Viola pedat if ida). The wet prairies 
are characterized by cordgrass (Spartina pectinata), big bluestem, Culver's-physic 
( Veronicastrum virginicum), water parsnip (Sium suave), golden alexander (Zizia aurea), 
cowbane (Oxypolis rigidior), Carex spp., and bluejoint grass (Calamagrostis canaden- 
sis). Other community types present include savanna, marsh, pond, bog (rare), and 
forest, the latter mostly along stream courses and in oak groves. Animals characteristic 
of this section include fox snake (Elaphe vulpina), prairie king snake (Lampropeltis 
calligaster), smooth green snake (Opheodrys vernalis), plains garter snake (Thamnophis 
radix), Franklin's ground squirrel (Spermophilus franklinii), western meadowlark 
(Sturnella neglecta), upland sandpiper (Bartramia longicauda), and the extirpated prairie 
chicken (Tympanuchus cupido). Typical streams of this section are low-gradient and 
silty, e.g. Sugar Creek (Benton County) and Iroquois River. 

Section 3B — Kankakee Sand Section 

This area is characterized by the presence of predominantly prairie and savanna 
natural community types associated with sandy soils. It consists mostly of dune sand 
and outwash plain sediments. The dune areas are typically the Plainfield-Maumee- 
Oshtemo Association of acidic to neutral sand and sandy loams. The outwash plains 
consist of poorly drained sandy loams of the Maumee-Gilford-Sebewa Association and 
well drained sandy loams of the Tracy-Door-Lydick Association. The sand prairie and 
savanna communities are similar in species composition to the prairie of the Grand 
Prairie Section except that, in addition, a number of sand-dwelling species are present. 
These include porcupine grass (Stipa spartea), dropseed (Sporobolus clandestinus), 
longleaf reedgrass (Calamovilfa longifolia), Junegrass (Koeleria cristata), prairie talinum 
(Talinum rugospermum), puccoon (Lithospermum croceum), primrose violet (Viola 
primulifolia), sedges (Carex gravida and C. cumulata), and dwarf-dandelion (Krigia 
virginica). Savannas dominated by black oak (Quercus velutina) and prairie species 
occur on the dunal areas. Typical associates of the savannas include sand prairie species 
along with goat's-rue (Tephrosia virginiana), bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum), lupine 
(Lupinus perennis), sedge (Carex pensylvanica), bird's-foot violet (Viola pedata), black 
huckleberry (Gaylussacia baccata), dryland blueberry (Vaccinium vacillans), and lowbush 
blueberry (V. anqustifolium). Swales between the dunes might have any of several 
possible natural community types, including wet prairie, marsh, swamp, wet sand flat, 
and wet muck flat. A remarkable assemblage of plants with coastal plain affinities 
is known from the wet sand/muck flat community, including bladderwort (Utricularia 
radiata), panic grass (Panicum verrucosum), nutrush (Scleria reticularis), beak rush 
(Psilocarya scirpoides), sedge (Fimbristylis caroliniana), yellow-eyed grass (Xyris caroli- 
niana), bugleweed (Lycopus amplectens), and flax (Linum intercursum). Forest natural 
communities occur primarily in the eastern part of the section, where white oak (Quer- 
cus alba) and black oak (Q. velutina) are dominants. Pin oak flatwoods characterize 
some of the swales in dunal areas. Fauna of the Grand Prairie Section are found in 
this section also, along with species that thrive in sandy habitat, e.g. ornate box turtle 
(Terrapene ornata), bull snake (Pituophis melanoleucus), glass lizard (Ophisaurus at- 
tenuates), plains pocket gopher (Geomys bursarius), and lark sparrow (Chondestes 
grammacus). A geographically restricted population of eastern mud turtles (Kinoster- 
non subrubrum) occurs here. State restricted species of the section include bladder- 



252 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 94 (1985) 

wort (Utricularia radiata), flax (Linum intercursum), St. John's-wort {Hypericum ad- 
pressum), and sedge (Carex cumulata). Stream communities have all been altered greatly 
by channelization. 

Section 3C — Kankakee Marsh Section 

This section is identified by the predominance of marsh, lake, and wet prairie 
communities that existed along the Kankakee River in presettlement times. The marsh 
was several miles wide on both sides of the river for almost its entire run in Indiana. 
Extensive ditching beginning in the late 1800s has all but eliminated the natural wetlands. 
The section is part of a large Wisconsinan glacial outwash plain, with a substrate of 
acidic silt and sand. Characteristic soil series include Suman, Gilford, Maumee, and 
Bourbon. Good examples of prairie and marsh are absent from the area today. Rem- 
nants indicate that the wetlands were characterized by spatterdock {Nuphar advena), 
watershield (Brasenia schreberi), swamp loosestrife (Decodon verticillatus), bluejoint 
grass (Calamagrostis canadensis), reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea), common 
reed (Phragmites communis), giant bur-reed (Sparganium eurycarpum), knotweeds 
{Polygonum spp.), Spanish needles (Bidens spp.), arrowheads (Sagittaria spp.), and 
sedges (Scirpus spp. and Carex spp.). A narrow border of forest along the river con- 
tains characteristic floodplain species, e.g. silver maple (Acer saccharinum), red maple 
(A. rubrum), black willow (Salix nigra), green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica), cotton- 
wood (Populus deltoides), sycamore (Platanus occidentalis), river birch (Betula nigra), 
and indigo bush (Amorpha fruticosa), the last geographically restricted here. Two plants 
occurring as remarkable disjuncts include American snowbell (Styrax americana) and 
climbing hempweed (Mikania scandens) . The northern weed shiner (Notropis texanus) 
is state restricted here. The area was formerly a significant breeding habitat for waterfowl. 

Region Four — Northern Lakes Natural Region 

This natural region is identified by the presence of numerous fresh water lakes 
of glacial origin. Approximate borders of the area are the southern edge of the Packerton 
Moraine, the eastern edge of the Mississinewa and Salamonie Moraines north of the 
Eel River, and the western edge of the Maxinkuckee Moraine. 

This area was invaded from the northwest by the Lake Michigan Lobe of the 
late Wisconsinan ice sheet, from the northeast by the Saginaw Lobe, and from the 
east by the Erie Lobe. Consequently, the area is covered now with a thick and com- 
plex deposit of glacial material which, in places, is over 450 feet thick. Glacial topography 
also is complex and is characterized by knobs, kettles, kames, valley trains, and out- 
wash plains. The diversity of soils include: loamy soils in the morainal areas and till 
plains, typically the Miami-Crosier-Brookston-Riddles Association; neutral, clayey soils 
in morainal areas of the southeastern portion of the section, typically the Morley- 
Blount-Pewamo Association; and sandy loam soils on the outwash deposits, typically 
by the Oshtemo-Fox Association and the Plainfield-Maumee-Oshtemo Association. Muck 
soils, which are important components of wetland natural communities, include 
Houghton, Edwards and Adrian series. 

Natural community types are numerous, including bog, fen, marsh, prairie, sedge 
meadow, swamp, seep spring, lake, and various deciduous forest types. Oak and hickory 
species, especially red oak (Quercus rubra), white oak (Q. alba), black oak (Q. velutina), 
shagbark hickory (Carya ovata), and pignut hickory (C. glabra) dominate the dry and 
dry-mesic upland forests which once covered approximately one half of the region. Mesic sites 
characteristically have beech (Fagus grandifolia), sugar maple (Acer saccharum), black 
maple (A. nigrum), and tulip tree (Liriodendron tulipifera) as dominants. Floodplain 
forests typically include sycamore (Platanus occidentalis), American elm (Ulmus 
americana), red elm (U. rubra), green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica), silver maple (Acer 



Ecology 253 

saccharinum), red maple (A. rubrum), cottonwood (Populus deltoides), hackberry (Celt is 
occidentalis), and honey locust (Gleditsia thacanthos). 

Swamp communities commonly border lake and bog sites where red maple, silver 
maple, green ash, American elm, black ash (Fraxinus nigra), and locally, yellow birch 
(Betula luted), are typical associates. Swamps dominated by black ash typically are 
associated with seep springs. 

Bogs are more numerous here than in any other natural region. These communities 
commonly consist of a floating mat of Sphagnum moss occupying a glacial depres- 
sion. Distinctive bog plants include leatherleaf (Chamaedaphne calyculata), cranberry 
(Vaccinium macrocarpori), bog rosemary (Andromeda glaucophylla), pitcher plant (Sar- 
racenia purpurea), sundews (Drosera rotundifolia and D. intermedia), mountain holly 
(Nemopanthus mucronata), tamarack (Larix laricina), Virginia chain fern (Woodwar- 
dia virginica), grass-pink orchid (Calopogon pulchellus), rose pogonia orchid (Pogonia 
ophioglossoides), sedges (Carex oligosperma and Rhynchospora alba), poison sumac 
(Rhus vernix), and Sphagnum spp. 

Areas of marsh commonly are associated with the lake community. Typical marsh 
species include swamp loosetrife (Decodon verticillatus), cattails (Typha augustifolia and 
T. latifolia), bulrush (Scirpus validus), marsh fern (Thelypteris palustris), marsh 
cinquefoil (Potentilla palustris), and sedges, notably Carex stricta and C. lasiocarpa. 
In deeper water bordering the marsh, the lake community begins, where such distinc- 
tive species as spatterdock (Nuphar advena), water shield (Brasenia schreberi), fragrant 
water-lily (Nymphaea tuberosa), pickerelweed (Pontederia cordata), hornwort 
(Ceratophyllum demersum), wild celery (Vallisneria americana), pondweeds (Pot- 
amogeton spp.), Virginia arrow-arum (Peltandra virginica), and sedge (Scirpis subter- 
minalis) occur. 

Wet sand flats and muck flats border some of the lakes and shallow basins. In 
some places an unique flora of Atlantic Coastal Plain disjuncts is associated with these 
communities, including sedges such as Psilocarya scirpoides, Fuirena pumila, Rhyn- 
chospora macrostachya, and Eleocharis olivacea. 

State restricted plants of this region include ginger-leaved pyrola (Pyrola asarifolia), 
needle-and-thread grass (Stipa comata), knotted spikerush (Eleocharis equisetoides) , 
autumn willow (Salix serissima), and Deam's rockcress (Arabis missouriensis var. deamii). 
Distinctive fauna of the region include spotted turtle (Clemmys guttata), massasauga 
rattlesnake (Sistrurus catenatus), Blanding's turtle (Emydoidea blandingi), star-nosed 
mole (Condylura cristata), cisco (Coregonus artedii), marsh wren (Cistothorus palustris), 
swamp sparrow (Melospiza georgiana) and sandhill crane (Grus canadensis). 

Typical streams are clear, medium to low-gradient, and have sandy gravel beds. 
Good examples are Pigeon River, Elkhart River, upper Tippecanoe River and Fawn 
River. Exemplary lakes include Olin Lake, Crooked Lake, Marsh Lake and Lake 
Manitou. Ecological studies of the region include Scott (73), Potzger and Friesner (62), 
Mills (49), Everman and Clark (24) and Aldrich (2). 

Region Five — Central Till Plain Natural Region 

This, the largest natural region in Indiana, is a formerly forested plain of Wiscon- 
sinan till in the central area of the state. Aside from the Entrenched Valley Section, 
it is topographically homogeneous, although several glacial features, especially moraines, 
are common. The region is a major divide between the communities with strong northern 
affinities and those with strong southern affinities, and the Entrenched Valley Section 
is a concentrated melting pot of species with northern, southern, eastern, and western 
affinities. 

The three sections of the region are: the Entrenched Valley Section, characterized 
by moderately thick loess over Wisconsinan till; the Tipton Till Plain Section, 



254 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 94 (1985) 

characterized by loamy Wisconsinan till; and the Bluffton Till Plain Section, characterized 
by clayey Wisconsinan till. Besides the predominant forest community types, areas 
of prairie, marsh, fen, seep spring, bog, swamp, and lake are known. 

This region occupies most of Malott's (45) Tipton Till Plain physiographic region 
and portions of the Northern Moraine and Lake physiographic region. Ecological studies 
of the region include Cain (13), Friesner and Potzger (28), Potzger (59), Ebinger and 
Bacone (23), Petty and Harwood (55), Hollet and Jackson (33), and Post et al. (57). 

Section 5A — Entrenched Valley Section 

This section is quite unlike the other sections of the region. It is identified by 
the deeply entrenched valleys along major drainages, particularly the Wabash, Sugar, 
and Big Pine riverine systems. Bedrock is exposed in many places, and massive cliffs 
are common. Pennsylvanian, Mississippian, Devonian, and Silurian sandstone, siltstone, 
shale, and limestone are the predominant rock types. A variety of soils is present, 
including poorly drained to well drained silt loams that are acid to neutral in reaction 
and commonly covered with a moderately thick layer of loess. Representative soil series 
include Fincastle, Russell, Miami, and Brookston. Upland forests, bottomland forests, 
and flatwoods are the major natural community types present. 

Except in the specialized cliff and ravine communities, the forest associations 
are essentially the same as those of the Tipton Till Plain Section. Other natural com- 
munity types present in the section include prairie, gravel-hill prairie, fen, marsh, 
savanna, cliff, seep spring, and pond. The circumneutral seep spring is well represented 
and possibly is more common here than elsewhere in the state. This relatively open 
community typically is situated on the lower slopes of hills, particularly those border- 
ing larger drainages, such as the Wabash River. Water oozes through a muck soil 
in a diffuse manner, creating an environment where such plants as skunk cabbage 
(Symplocarpus foetidus), marsh marigold (Caltha palustris), Pennsylvania saxifrage 
(Saxifraga pennsylvanica), swamp woodbetony (Pedicularis lanceolata), jewelweed (Im- 
port iens biflora), queen-of-the-prairie (Filipendula rubra), nannyberry (Viburnum lentago), 
black ash (Fraxinus nigra), sedges (Carex bromoides, C. trichocarpa, and C. sterilis), 
white turtlehead (Chelone glabra), roughleaf goldenrod (Solidago patula), and purple- 
stem aster (Aster puniceus) are characteristic. 

The cliff and ravine communities provide an environment for an interesting 
assemblage of species, many of which occur as disjuncts that have northern affinities. 
Two of these, white pine (Pinus strobus) and hemlock (Tsuga canadensis), give a boreal 
appearance to the landscape. Other northern disjuncts include Canada yew (Taxus 
canadensis), Canada blueberry (Vaccinium canadense), shinleaf (Pyrola elliptica), wild 
sarsaparilla (Aralia nudicaulis), northern enchanter's nightshade (Ciracea alpina), 
roundleaf dogwood (Cornus rugosa), false melic grass (Schizachne purpurascens), and 
two-leaf Solomon's seal (Maianthemum canadense). Gravel hill prairies are state restricted 
here. Along with typical prairie species, they also have geographical and state restricted 
species, including many that have southern and western affinities. These include plains 
muhly (Muhlenbergia cuspidata), western wallflower (Erysimum arkansana), narrowleaf 
houstonia (Houstonia nigricans), gromwell (Lithospermum incisum), androsace 
(Androsace occidentalis) , and post oak (Quercus stellata). This section marks the nor- 
thern limit of several herpetofaunal species, including the cave salamander (Eurycea 
lucifuga), zigzag salamander (Plethodon dorsalis), long-tailed salamander (Eurycea 
longicauda), earth snake (Carphophis amoenus), and copperhead (Agkistrodon con- 
tortrix). State restricted species of this section include pitcher sandwort (Arenaria patula), 
forked aster (Aster furcatus), Forbe's saxifrage (Saxifraga forbesii), Canada yew, plains 
muhly, and Canada blueberry. Streams of this section are typically medium-gradient, 
relatively clear, and rocky, e.g. Sugar Creek, Big Walnut Creek, and Raccoon Creek. 



Ecology 255 

Section 5B — Tipton Till Plain Section 

This section is a mostly undissected plain formerly covered by an extensive beech- 
maple-oak forest. The soils are predominantly neutral silt and silty clay loams of the 
Crosby-Brookston Association. The northern flatwoods community associated with 
these poorly drained soils was ubiquitous but now is confined to scattered woodlots. 
Species common within the community include red maple (Acer rubrum), pin oak (Quer- 
cus palustris), bur oak (Q. macrocarpa), swamp white oak (Q. bicolor), Shumard's 
oak (Q. shumardii), American elm (Ulmus americana), and green ash (Fraxinus penn- 
sylvanica). In slightly better drained sites beech (Fagus grandifolia), sugar maple (Acer 
saccharum), black maple (Acer nigrum), white oak (Quercus alba), red oak (Q. rubra), 
shagbark hickory (Carya ovata), tulip poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera), red elm (Ulmus 
rubra), bass wood (Tilia americana), and white ash (Fraxinus americana) are characteristic. 
Other community types of this section include bog, prairie, marsh, seep spring, and 
pond. A few fens are known, including the well studied Cabin Creek Bog (28). They 
are similar in composition to fens elsewhere in the state. Because of the section's loca- 
tion and the scarcity of specialized natural communities, there are no restricted species. 

Section 5C— Bluffton Till Plain Section 

This section is characterized by the predominance of clay-rich soils on a relatively 
level till plain. This area, along with the Black Swamp, Northern Lakes and Northwestern 
Morainal Natural Regions, was one of the last areas of Indiana to be occupied by 
glacial ice, in this case, by the Ontario-Erie Lobe of the Wisconsinan ice sheet. A 
distinct series of moraines is evident in this section, and the Union City Moraine marks 
its southern border. As a consequence of the widespread presence of clayey till, much 
of the area is poorly drained. The acid to neutral silty clay loams of the Blount-Pewano- 
Morley Association characterize the region. Most of the natural communities are forested, 
along with minor areas of bog, prairie, fen, marsh and lake communities. Composi- 
tion of forest species is similar to the Tipton Till Plain Section, although swamp cotton- 
wood (Populus heterophylla) which formerly occurred regularly in swamps here, was 
and is rare on the Tipton Till Plain. A greater number of northern wetland species 
occur in this section than in the others of the region, e.g. cottongrass (Eriophorum 
gracile), northern St. John's-wort (Hypericum boreale), pitcher plant (Sarracenia pur- 
purea), and sedges (Carex alopecoidea, C. laricina, and C. limosa). Interestingly, two 
southern swamp species are known here as geographic restrictions, namely, swamp 
St. John's-wort (Triadenum tubulosum) and log sedge (Carex decomposita). 

Region Six — Black Swamp Natural Region 

This region is the western lobe of a large lacustrine plain occupying the area once 
covered by the ancient Lake Maumee. Lake Maumee, a predecessor to modern Lake 
Erie, was created when the meltwater of the Ontario-Erie Lobe of the Wisconsinan 
ice sheet was dammed by the Fort Wayne Moraine (45). The Lake, long since 
abandoned, is now an almost featureless, naturally poorly drained plain. Soils are typical- 
ly deep, acidic to neutral clay and silt loams of the Hoytville-Nappanee Association. 
This area is the same as Malott's (45) Maumee Lacustrine Section of the Northern 
Moraine and Lake Region. 

Named the Black Swamp by early settlers, the predominant natural community 
in the region consisted of swamp forest dominated by American elm (Ulmus americana), 
black ash (Fraxinus nigra), and maples (Acer rubrum and A. saccharinum). This and 
other natural community types are virtually non-existant in this region of Indiana to- 
day, for extensive drainage has permitted an almost complete conversion of the land- 
scape to agricultural uses. Other species known from the swamp forest and environs 



256 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 94 (1985) 

included bur oak (Quercus macrocarpa), swamp white oak (Q. bicolor), white ash 
(Fraxinus americana), shellbark hickory (Carya laciniosa), pawpaw (Asimina triloba), 
and spicebush (Lindera benzoin). No flora and fauna are known to be restricted to 
the region. Typical streams are low-gradient, silty and shallowly entrenched, e.g. Maumee 
River. 

Region Seven — Southwestern Lowlands Natural Region 

This region, which is characterized by low relief and extensive aggraded valleys, 
includes the area bounded in Indiana by the Shawnee Hills Natural Region to the east, 
the Wisconsinan glacial border to the north, the Southern Bottomlands Natural Region 
(along the Ohio River) to the south, and the Wabash River (north of Vincennes) to 
the west. Similar terrain occurs across the Wabash and Ohio Rivers in Illinois and 
Kentucky. Much of the region is nearly level, undissected, and poorly drained, although 
in several areas the topography is hilly and well drained. This region, except for the 
southern portion, was glaciated by the Illinoian ice sheet. The region is divided into 
three sections: the Plainville Sand Section, the Glaciated Section, and the Driftless 
Section. The extant natural communities are mostly forest types, although barrens were 
formerly dominant in the Plainville Sand Section, and large areas of prairie occurred 
in the Glaciated Section. All of this region occurs in the Wabash Lowland physiographic 
region of Malott (45). 

Ecological studies in the region include Lawlis (39), Lindsey (40), Ridgway (68), 
McCoy (46), Schneck (70), Homoya (34), Aldrich and Homoya (4), and Green (32). 

Section 7A — Plainville Sand Section 

The Plainville Sand Section is a small but unique area of eolian sand dunes east 
of the Wabash River and the White River. The sandy, acid soils are mostly in the 
Princeton, Bloomfield, and Ayrshire series. The barrens natural community type, now 
virtually gone from the landscape, was predominant on the ridges and well drained 
sites, and swamp, marsh, and wet prairie occupied the swales (29). The barrens vegeta- 
tion consisted mostly of prairie species, along with a collection of sand dwelling species 
of western and southern affinities, including beard grass (Gymnopogon ambiguus), 
Carolina anemone (Anemone carol in iana), tube penstemon (Penstemon tubaeflorus), 
clustered poppy-mallow (Callirhoe triangulata), hairy golden-aster (Chrysopsis villosa), 
narrowleaf dayflower (Commelina angustifolia), black hickory {Carya texana), sand 
hickory (C. pallida), androsace (Androsace occidentalis), rose gentian (Sabatia cam- 
panulata), sedge (Carex gravida), and fleabane (Erigeron pusillus). In a few degraded 
remnants, one can still observe barrens vegetation, including little bluestem (Andropogon 
scoparius), big bluestem (A. gerardi), Indian grass (Sorghastrum nutans), side-oats grama 
(Bouteloua curtipendula), New Jersey tea (Ceanothus americanus), and blackjack oak 
(Quercus marilandica). These areas also were inhabited by a prairie fauna. Species 
geographically restricted here include bull snake (Pituophis melanoleucus), ornate box 
turtle (Terrapene ornata), and six-lined racerunner (Cnemidophorus sexlineatus). The 
biota of this section are similar to those of the Kankakee Sand Section of the Grand 
Prairie Natural Region. 

Section 7B — Glaciated Section 

This section coincides with the Illinoian till plain of southwestern Indiana. The 
soils are predominantly acid to neutral silt loams with a thick layer of loess, typically 
the Iva, Cinncinati, Avon, Vigo, and Alford series. Natural communities are mostly 
forest types, but several types of former prairie are known. The flatwoods community 
type is common, but it is of different composition than the flatwoods in the Driftless 



Ecology 257 

Section, i.e. several species of southern affinity are uncommon or absent. Common 
flatwoods species include shagbark hickory {Carya ovata), shellbark hickory (C 
laciniosa), pin oak (Quercus palustris), shingle oak {Q. imbricaria), hackberry (Celtis 
occidentalis), green ash {Fraxinus pennsylvanica), red maple {Acer rubrum), and silver 
maple {A. saccharinum). Black ash {Fraxinus nigra) swamps are near their southern 
limit here. This section appears to have had the largest amount of prairie south of 
the Wisconsinan glacial border in Indiana. Little is known about the composition of 
the prairie, but it probably was very similar to the prairies of the Grand Prairie Region. 
Additional community types include swamp, marsh, pond, and low-gradient stream. 
Typical examples of the latter are Eel River and Busseron Creek. The prairie kingsnake 
{Lampropeltis calligaster) and the crawfish frog (Rana areolata) are characteristic species 
of this region. Smallmouth bass {Micropteris dolomieu) and northern rock bass 
(Ambloplites rupestris), common game fishes, are uncommon or absent in this section 
and in the natural region. 

Section 7C — Driftless Section 

This section is south of the Illinoian glacial border, and is therefore placed in 
the Interior Low Plateaus Physiographic Province. It is characterized by a topography 
of low hills and broad valleys, in an area that has the longest growing season and 
highest average summer temperature in the state. Most of the natural communities 
are upland forest types, occupying well drained slopes underlain by soils of the Zanesville, 
Wellston, and Tilsit series, which were formed in loess and weathered bedrock. Southern 
flatwoods occupy the lacustrine plains and river terraces, which are characterized by 
the McGary, Weinbach, Elkinsville, and Ginat series. Soils are predominantly acid 
in reaction. Characteristic species of the flatwoods include cherry bark oak {Quercus 
falcata var. pagodaefolia), sweetgum {Liquidambar styraciflua), shellbark hickory {Carya 
laciniosa), pin oak {Quercus palustris), swamp white oak {Q. bicolor), Shumard's oak 
{Q. shumardii), green ash {Fraxinus pennsylvanica), black gum {Nyssa sylvatica), and 
locally, post oak {Quercus stellata). State restricted species of the flatwoods are Indian 
pink {Spigelia marilandica), black quillwort {Isoetes melanopoda), and lesquerella {Les- 
querella globosa). The barrens associated with the post oak flatwoods do not have 
a typical prairie flora as do most other barrens communities. Instead, these xeric, 
ephemerally wet sites characteristically are dominated by lichens, mosses, poverty grass 
{Danthonia spicata), three-awn grass {Aristida ramosissima), spike-rush {Eleocharis ver- 
rucosa), and rushfoil {Crotonopsis elliptica), the latter state restricted here. The upland 
sites of this section are relatively dry oak-hickory dominated natural communities. The 
occurrence and abundance of southern red oak {Quercus falcata), post oak {Q. stellata), 
blackjack oak {Q. marilandica), and locally, chestnut oak {Q. prinus) help distinguish 
the upland forests of this section from those of the Glaciated Section. At least one 
acid seep spring community is known from this section. Other natural community types 
include marsh, swamp, sandstone cliff, and low to medium-gradient stream. 

Region Eight — Southern Bottomlands Natural Region 

This natural region includes the alluvial bottomlands along the rivers and larger 
streams in southwestern Indiana. It is distinguished from other bottomland regions 
in the state by the presence of several species with affinities to the lower Mississippi 
Valley and Gulf Coastal Plain. The Illinoian glacial border (see enclosed map) bisects 
the region, thus placing the northern portion in the Central Lowlands Physiographic 
Province and the southern portion in the Interior Low Plateaus Physiographic Pro- 
vince. The glacial border has had little effect on the bottomland biotic communities; 
therefore, the region is presented as one natural unit. 



258 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 94 (1985) 

The soils are mostly neutral to acid silt loams, and include series such as Nolin, 
Newark, Huntington, Linside, Stendal, and Bonnie. Much of the area is subject* to 
frequent flooding (or did flood prior to the construction of control structures). 

The natural communities of the region include bottomland forest, swamp, pond, 
slough, and formerly marsh and prairie. The bottomland forest, the major community 
of this region, is characterized by pecan {Carya illinoensis), sugarberry (Celt is laevigata), 
swamp chestnut oak (Quercus michauxii), pin oak (Q. palustris), swamp white oak 
(Q. bicolor), red maple {Acer rubrum), silver maple (Acer saccharinum), honey locust 
(Gleditsia triacanthos), catalpa (Catalpa speciosa), shellbark hickory (Carya laciniosa), 
sycamore (Platanus occidentalis), and green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica). The strongest 
southern influence is reflected in the swamps and sloughs, where bald cypress (Tax- 
odium distichum), swamp cottonwod (Populus heterophylla), water locust (Gleditsia 
aquatica), pumpkin ash (Fraxinus tomentosa), and overcup oak (Quercus lyratd) occur. 

Other distinctive southern species (many of which are restricted to this region) 
include American featherfoil (Hottonia inflata), bloodleaf (Iresine rhizomatosa), acanthus 
(Dicliptera brachiata), climbing dogbane (Trachelospermum difforme), milkweed 
(Asclepias perennis), catbird grape (Vitis palmata), woolly pipe-vine (Aristolochia tomen- 
tosa), sedge (Carex socialis), swamp privet (Forestiera acuminata), American snowbell 
(Styrax americana), climbing hempweed (Mikania scandens), spiderlily (Hymenocallis 
occidentalis), mistletoe (Phoradendron flavescens), and giant cane (Arundinaria 
gigantea). 

Distinctive southern animals include cottonmouth (Agkistrodon piscivorus), 
hieroglyphic turtle (Pseudemys concinna hieroglyphica xfloridana hoyi), diamondbacked 
watersnake (Nerodia rhombifera), eastern mud turtle (Kinosternon subrubrum), northern 
copperbelly (Nerodia erythrogaster), swamp rabbit (Sylvilagus aquaticus), mosquitofish 
(Gambusia affinis), harlequin darter (Etheostoma histrio — only one occurrence in In- 
diana), and yellow-crowned night heron (Nyctanassa violacea). 

The Patoka River is exemplary of a silt-bottomed, low-gradient stream characteristic 
of this region. Other typical aquatic features include large bottomland ponds, especially 
along the Wabash River, e.g. Foote Pond, Half Moon Pond, and Wabash Pond. The 
Wabash, Ohio, and White Rivers themselves are considered a separate natural region. 

Ecological studies in this region include: Cain (15), DenUyl (22), Lindsey (40), 
Schneck (70), and Ridgway (68). 

Region Nine — Shawnee Hills Natural Region 

"Shawnee Hills" is a name given by Flint (27) to a physiographic region of the 
Interior Low Plateaus in southwestern Indiana, southern Illinois, and western Ken- 
tucky. Only the contiguous belt of rugged hills on the outer (southern and eastern) 
periphery of the physiographic region denotes the Shawnee Hills Natural Region as 
identified here. The region is divided into the Crawford Upland Section and the Escarp- 
ment Section. Pennsylvanian and Mississippian bedrock, mostly sandstone, crops out 
in many places to form distinctive cliffs and rockhouses. Except for small areas of 
till in the northern portion, the region is driftless. 

This region appears to represent general presettlement conditions better than any 
other terrestrial region in the state. It is a rugged and generally sparsely populated 
area. The majority of natural communities are upland forest types, although a few 
sandstone and limestone glades, gravel washes, and barrens are known. 

Ecological studies in this region include Potzger et al. (63), Petty and Lindsey 
(56), Abrell and Jackson (1), Bacone et al. (6), and Badger and Jackson (8). 



Ecology 259 

Section 9A — Crawford Upland Section 

The most distinctive features of this section are the rugged hills with sandstone 
cliffs and rockhouses. Mississippian sandstone composes most of the cliffs in the eastern 
portion of the section, as well as lower elevation outcrops to the west, whereas 
Pennsylvanian sandstone (especially the Mansfield Formation) dominates the western 
portion and higher hills. The well drained acid silt loams of the Wellston-Zanesville- 
Berks Association are characteristic. The forest vegetation consists of an oak-hickory 
assortment of the upper slopes, while the coves have a mesic component. Characteristic 
upper slope species include black oak (Quercus velutina), white oak (Q. alba), chestnut 
oak (Q. prinus), scarlet oak (Q. coccinea), post oak (Q. stellata), pignut hickory {Carya 
glabra), small-fruited hickory (C. ovalis), shagbark hickory (C. ovata), and rarely, 
sourwood (Oxydendrum arborewn). The cove forests, especially those associated with 
rockhouses, most resemble the mixed mesophytic forest communities of the Mixed 
Mesophytic Region of the Cumberland Plateau as defined by Braun (12). Characteristic 
species include beech (Fagus grandifolia), tulip tree (Liriodendron tulipifera), red oak 
(Quercus rubra), sugar maple (Acer saccharum), black walnut (Juglans nigra), white 
ash (Fraxinus americana), and locally, yellow buckeye (Aesculus octandra), white 
basswood (Tilia heterophylla), umbrella magnolia {Magnolia tripetala), hemlock (Tsuga 
canadensis), and yellow birch (Betula luted). The sandstone cliff and rockhouse com- 
munities provide an environment for several species with Appalachian affinities, e.g. 
mountain laurel {Kalmia latifolia), mountain spleenwort (Asplenium montanum), sour- 
wood, and umbrella magnolia. Distinctive species of the rockhouses include filmy fern 
(Trichomanes boschianum), alumroot (Heuchera parviflora), Bradley's spleenwort 
(Asplenium bradleyi), French's shooting star (Dodecatheon frenchii), and the 
Appalachian gametophyte ( Vittaria sp.). A few examples of the acid seep spring community, 
a type extremely rare in Indiana, occur in this section. The characteristic flora of these 
bog-like environments includes cinnamon fern (Osmunda cinnamomea), royal fern (O. 
regalis), sedges (Carex bromoides, C. lurida), small clubspur orchid (Platanthera clavellata), 
black chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa), winterberry (Ilex verticillata), tearthumb 
(Polygonum arifolium), jewelweed (Impatiens biflora), crested wood fern (Dryopteris 
cristata), and Sphagnum spp. The barrens community is (and probably was) a minor 
component of this section. Only a few high quality remnants remain. Floristically, 
they are similar to the glades and barrens of the Highland Rim Natural Region, although 
missing many of the distinctive glade species. Sandstone glades are almost non-existent 
in Indiana, but at least two small ones are known from this section. Characteristic 
species of sandstone glades include little bluestem (Andropogon scoparius), slender 
knotweed (Polygonum tenue), poverty grass (Danthonia spicata), farkleberry (Vaccinium 
arboreum), goat's rue (Tephrosia virginiana), pineweed (Hypericum gentianoides), 
pinweed (Lechea tenuifolia), and panic grass (Panicum depauperatum). Most of Indiana's 
timber rattlesnake (Crotalis horridus) collections have come from this region and the 
Brown County Hills Section of the Highland Rim Natural Region (51). Two interesting 
mammals characteristic of this section are the smoky shrew (Sorex fumeus) and the 
pygmy shrew (Sorex hoyi), which are restricted in Indiana to this region and the Highland 
Rim (19). 

Section 9B — Escarpment Section 

This section includes the rugged hills situated along the eastern border of the 
region. It is a blend of the Crawford Upland Section and the Mitchell Karst Plain 
Section of the Highland Rim. Sandstone and sandstone derived soils (Wellston-Zanesville) 
cap most of the hills, and the lower elevations present limestone and limestone-derived 
soils (Crider, Hagerstown, Bedford, and Corydon). Sandstone cliffs and rockhouses 



260 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 94 (1985) 

are virtually unknown, but, limestone crops out to form large cliffs, especially along 
the Ohio River, and smaller stream courses. Karst features are not uncommon, especially 
in the lower and middle elevations. The natural communities consist of various upland 
forest types, especially dry-mesic and mesic. The species composition is similar to that 
of the Crawford Upland Section, except that certain species, e.g. post oak (Quercus 
stellata) and black oak (Q. velutina) commonly replace chestnut oak (Q. prinus) in 
the dry sites, and some of the mesic cove species, especially those with Appalachian 
affinities, are absent. Limestone glades and barrens occur in this section, but are not 
nearly as common as in the Highland Rim region. Limestone cliff communities occur 
mostly at the southern end of the section. Here, rare calciphiles such as alumroot 
(Heuchera villosa), wall-rue spleenwort (Asplenium ruta-muraria), cleft phlox (Phlox 
bifida var. stellaria), wild liveforever (Sedum telephioides), and black-seeded sedge (Carex 
eburnea) occur. Eastern woodrats (Neotoma floridana) inhabit the crevices of cliffs 
along the Ohio River, which is also a favorite roosting and nesting site for black vultures 
(Coragyps atratus). Cave communities are common in this section, where some of the 
largest caves in Indiana occur. They support an unique fauna, including a troglobitic 
crayfish (Orconectes inermis) and the northern cavefish (Amblyopsis spelaea). Some 
caves support large populations of hibernating bats, especially the endangered Indiana 
bat (Myotis sodalis). Limestone gravel wash communities are well represented here, 
and are similar to the same community type in the Highland Rim and Bluegrass Natural 
Regions. The wild blue indigo (Baptisia australis) is apparently confined in Indiana 
to this community type in this section. The typical aquatic features include normally 
clear, medium and high-gradient streams, springs, and sinkhole ponds. The lower Blue 
River is an exceptionally fine example of a larger stream in this section. 

Region Ten — Highland Rim Natural Region 

This natural region occupies in part the Highland Rim physiographic region of 
the Interior Low Plateaus that occurs in a discontinuous belt from northern Alabama 
through Tennessee, Kentucky, and into Indiana (65). The underlying strata are 
predominantly of Mississippian age, although some Pennsylvanian aged strata crop 
out in places. The region is unglaciated, except for relatively unmodified glaciated 
areas at the northern and eastern boundary. A distinctive feature of this region is the 
large expanse of karst topography, although several other major topographic features 
are known including cliffs and rugged hills. Much of the area was forested in presettle- 
ment times, but large areas of barrens occurred along with smaller areas of glade 
(limestone and siltstone) and gravel wash communities. 

This natural region is divided into three sections: the Mitchell Karst Plain Sec- 
tion, the Brown County Hills Section and the Knobstone Escarpment Section, They 
essentially occupy three of Malott's (45) physiographic regions: the Mitchell Plain, 
the Norman Upland, and the Scottsburg Lowland. 

Ecological studies in this region include Cain (14), Lindsey and Schmelz (42), 
Potzger (58), McQueeny (47), Keith (38), Bacone et al. (7), Aldrich et al. (3), and 
Homoya and Hedge (35). 

Section 10A — Mitchell Karst Plain Section 

The major feature of this section is the karst (sinkhole) plain. Several natural 
community types are associated with this plain, including cave, sinkhole pond and 
swamp, flatwoods, barrens, limestone glade and several upland forest types. The plain 
is relatively level, although in some areas, especially near the section's periphery, 
limestone cliffs and rugged hills are present. Caves are common. The soils are generally 
well drained silty loams derived from loess and weathered limestone. Acid cherty Bax- 



Ecology 261 

ter silt loam is present mostly in the south (correlating somewhat with the barrens 
community type), as is the netural to basic Corydon stony silt loam (correlating with 
the limestone glade and cliff community type). Crider silt loam is a major soil throughout 
most of the region. Possibly the largest area of barrens in Indiana was located in this 
section. Species commonly found in remnants of this prairie-like community include 
Indian grass (Sorghastrum nutans), big bluestem (Andropogon gerardi), little bluestem 
(Andropogon scoparius), rattlesnake master (Eryngium yuccifolium), prairie dock 
(Silphium terebinthinaceum), hairy sunflower (Helianthus mollis), prairie willow (Salix 
humilis), clasping milkweed (Asclepias amplexicaulis) and Carex meadii. Most of 
Indiana's limestone glades occur in this region, particularly in Harrison and Washington 
Counties. This bedrock community, like the barrens, has a prairie flora with addi- 
tional distinctive glade species including downy milk pea (Galactia volubilis var. mississip- 
piensis), angle-pod (Gonolobus obliquus), axe-shaped St. John's-wort (Hypericum 
dolabriforme), adder's tongue fern (Ophioglossum engelmannii), crested coral root 
orchid (Hexalectris spicata), and heartleaf alexander (Zizia aptera). Gravel wash com- 
munities composed of limestone and chert gravel border most streams. Characteristic 
species include big bluestem, Indian grass, Carolina willow (Salix caroliniana), water 
willow (Justicia americana), ninebark (Physocarpus opulifolius), pale dogwood (Cornus 
obliqua), and bulrush (Scirpus americanus). Karst wetland communities are the major 
aquatic features of the section. Southern swamp species are known from some of the sinkhole 
swamps, including beakrush (Rhynchospora corniculata), log sedge (Carex decomposita), 
giant sedge (C. gigantea), Virginia willow (Itea virginicia), and small buttercup (Ranun- 
culus pusillus), and netted chain fern (Woodwardia areolata). Usual dominants of these 
swamps are swamp cottonwood (Populus heterophylla), pin oak (Quercus palustris), 
swamp white oak (Q. bicolor), red maple (Acer rubrum), and sweet gum (Liquidam- 
bar styraciflua). Sinkhole pond communities normally have open water and marshy 
borders with cattails (Typha latifolia), bulrush (Scirpus validus), bur-reed (Sparganium 
androcladum), spatterdock (Nuphar advena), buttonbush (Cephalanthus occidentalis), 
swamp loosestrife (Decodon verticillatus), bladderwort (Utricularia gibba) and Carex 
comosa. Several forest communities are present in the section, but the western mesophytic 
forest type predominates (41), in which white oak (Quercus alba), sugar maple (Acer 
saccharum), shagbark hickory (Carya ovata), pignut hickory (C. glabra), and white 
ash (Fraxinus americana) are typical. Near the glade communities, some xeric forest 
occurs in which post oak (Quercus stellata), chinquapin oak (Q. muhlenbergii) and 
blue ash (Fraxinus quadrangulata) are characteristic. Chestnut oak (Quercus prinus), 
a very common component of the Brown County Hills Section and the Knobstone 
Escarpment Section, is uncommon in this section. State restricted species include quillwort 
(Isoetes engelmannii), netted chain fern, monkshood (Aconitum uncinatum), mannagrass 
(Glyceria acutiflora), blackstem spleenwort (Asplenium resiliens), glade violet (Viola 
egglestonii), and southern cavefish (Typhlichthys subterraneus). In karst areas, surface 
streams are few. Typical examples include medium and high-gradient streams with rocky 
bottoms, e.g. Indian Creek, Clear Creek, Buck Creek, and upper stretches of the Blue 
River. 

Section 10B — Brown County Hills Section 

This section is characterized by deeply dissected uplands underlain by siltstone, 
shale, and sandstone. The soils are well drained acid silt loams with minor amounts 
of loess, specifically the Berks-Gilpin-Weikert Association. Bedrock is near the sur- 
face, but rarely crops out. The natural communities are rather uniform in composi- 
tion, with uplands dominated by oak-hickory, especially chestnut oak (Quercus prinus), 
and ravines with mesic species, e.g. beech (Fagus grandifolia), red oak (Q. rubra), 



262 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 94 (1985) 

sugar maple (Acer saccharum), and white ash (Fraxinus americana). Typically, upper 
slopes have an almost pure stand of chestnut oak, a thick growth of greenbriar (Smilax 
spp.), low growing shrubs (Gaylussacia baccata and Vaccinium vacillans), and a carpet 
of sedges, notably Carex picta. The latter is essentially restricted in Indiana to this 
section, and yet is ubiquitous here. Yellowwood {Cladrastis kentuckea) is known in Indiana 
only from a small area of this section. The green adder's mouth orchid (Malaxis unifolia), 
trailing arbutus (Epigaea repens), and large whorled pogonia orchid (Isotria verticillata) 
are geographically restricted here except for single collections of the latter two in the 
Knobstone Escarpment Section. One occurrence of an acid seep spring community is 
known (58). Small, high-gradient ephemeral streams are common. Most larger streams 
are predominantly medium to low-gradient streams, e.g. Guthrie Creek, and all forks 
of Salt Creek. 

Section IOC — Knobstone Escarpment Section 

This section is similar to the Brown County Hills Section in terms of substrate 
and topography, but is distinguished by floristic, faunistic, and compositional differences 
of the forest communities. The major compositional difference is the presence of Virginia 
pine (Pinus virginiana) in the upland forest communities. The pine is commonly a 
co-dominant with chestnut oak (Quercus prinus) on many of the ridge crests and south- 
facing slopes. American chestnut (Castanea dentata) was a dominant historically, given 
the frequency that it was mentioned in the survey records of the General Land Office 
and its continued presence today as stump sprouts. Its place has been taken by chestnut 
oak. Carex picta, a species common in the Brown County Hills Section, is rare here. 
Rock outcrops are few and are restricted to ridge tops. Glades with a shaly substrate 
(fragments of siltstone, shale, and sandstone) are present but rare and normally occur 
on south-facing slopes. They are typically rather sterile environments primarily because 
of the unstable substrate and harsh climatic conditions. Typical associates include scat- 
tered clumps of little bluestem (Andropogon scoparius), goat's rue (Tephrosia virgi- 
niana), bird-foot violet (Viola pedata), and St. Andrew's cross (Ascyrum hypericoides). 
Xeric forests of blackjack oak (Quercus marilandica), chestnut oak, and scarlet oak 
(Q. coccinea) commonly border these glades. Species restricted in Indiana to this sec- 
tion include stout goldenrod (Solidago squarrosa), rattlesnake-weed (Hieracium 
venosum), bluegrass (Poa cuspidata), Virginia pine, red salamander (Pseudotriton ruber), 
scarlet snake (Cemophora coccinea), and crowned snake (Tantilla coronata). Small, 
and ephermeral high-gradient streams are the major aquatic features of this section. 
Typical larger streams include Muddy Fork of Silver Creek, Buffalo Creek, Twin Creek 
and Rush Creek. 

Region Eleven — Bluegrass Natural Region 

This natural region is identified and named not for a predominance of bluegrass 
(Poa spp.), but for similarities of the physiography and natural communities to the 
Bluegrass region of Kentucky. Traditionally, this portion of Indiana has not been con- 
sidered a part of the Interior Low Plateaus Bluegrass Region as outlined by Fenneman 
(25). However, several geologists have pointed out similarities in the Kentucky Bluegrass 
Region and the Indiana area, including Malott (45) and Ray (66), the latter placing 
them together in the Bluegrass part of the Interior Low Plateaus. Major portions of 
three of Malott's (45) physiographic regions are included in the Bluegrass Natural Region: 
the Dearborn Upland, the Muscatatuck Regional Slope, and the Scottsburg Lowland. 
The three sections of this natural region, the Switzerland Hills Section, the Muscatatuck 
Flats and Canyons Section, and the Scottsburg Lowland Section, approximate the area 
of these physiographic units. 



Ecology 263 

Although the entire natural region has been covered by one or more of the pre- 
Wisconsin ice sheets, today much of it is mantled by only a relatively thin veneer 
of till. The northern boundary of the region approximates the southern terminus of 
Wisconsinan glaciation. This boundary marks the northern limit in this region for several 
southern plant species, as well as many herpetofaunal species (74). 

Most of the natural region was originally forested, although a few glade, cliff, 
and barrens remnants are known, as well as non-forested aquatic communities. Ecological 
studies in the region include those of McCoy (46), Chapman (17), Potzger and Chandler 
(60, 61), Reidhead (67), and Jackson and Allen (37). 

Section 11A — Scottsburg Lowland Section 

The main features of this section are the wide alluvial and lacustrine plains that 
border the major streams, particularly the Muscatatuck River, the East Fork of White 
River, Silver Creek, and their tributaries. Major soils are acid to neutral silt loams, 
particularly of the Stendal, Atkins, Haymond, and Wilbur series. A sizable area of 
eolian sand occurs just east of the East Fork of the White River, but no unique com- 
munities or species are known to have been associated with it. Bedrock rarely crops 
out, the major exception being the Falls of the Ohio near Clarksville. Predominant 
natural communities are floodplain forest and swamp, although areas of upland forest 
are included that grade into the Muscatatuck Flats and Canyons Section. The swamp 
community is characterized by the occurrence of swamp cottonwood (Populus 
heterophylla), red maple (Acer rubrum), pin oak (Quercus palustris), river birch (Betula 
nigra), green ash {Fraxinus pennsylvanica), stiff dogwood (Cornus foemina), and button- 
bush (Cephalanthus occidentalis). The slightly better drained floodplain forest adds 
sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua), swamp chestnut oak (Quercus michauxii), swamp 
white oak (Q. bicolor), American elm (Ulmus americana), black gum (Nyssa sylvatica), 
beech (Fagus grandifolia), shellbark hickory (Carya laciniosd), and rarely, pecan (Carya 
illinoensis) . Characteristic herbs include Carex muskingumensis, C. louisianica, Virginia 
day flower (Commelina virgin ica), lizard's tail (Saururus cernuus), and woodreed (Cinna 
arundinacea). The very rare southern pale green orchid (Platanthera flava var. flavd) 
is geographically restricted here, as are the northern copperbelly (Nerodia erythrogaster 
neglecta), and the eastern ribbon snake (Thamnophis sauritus sauritis). The northern 
studfish (Fundulus catenatus) is known in Indiana only from streams in the far northern 
portion of this section. State restricted plants include the extinct stipuled scurf-pea 
(Psoralea stipulatd), and the extirpated Short's goldenrod (Solidago shortii). Wetland 
features in this section include swamps, acid seep springs, low-gradient, silty-bottomed 
streams and rivers and ponds. Were it not for the location of this section, it con- 
ceivably could fit into the Southern Bottomlands Natural Region. 

Section 1 1 B — Muscatatuck Flats and Canyons Section 

This section consists primarily of a broad, relatively flat west sloping plain with 
steep walled canyons entrenched by major streams. The plain is characterized best 
by the presence of poorly drained, acidic Cobbsfork and Avonburg silt loam soils and 
the occurrence of a southern flatwoods natural community type. These flatwoods 
typically have beech (Fagus grandifolia), red maple (Acer rubrum), sweetgum (Liquidam- 
bar styraciflua), pin oak (Quercus palustris), swamp chestnut oak (Q. michauxii), and 
tulip tree (Liriodendron tulipifera). A few species are restricted geographically here, 
including fox grape (Vitis labrusca), blunt-lobed grape fern (Botrychium oneidense), 
swamp dewberry (Rubus hispidus), dwarf ginseng (Panax trifolium) and false lily-of- 
the-valley (Maianthemum canadense). In canyons, cliffs and slopes of Silurian and 
Devonian limestone provide an environment quite unlike the flats. These sites are com- 



264 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 94 (1985) 

paratively rich floristically, and have a predominantly mixed mesophytic forest com- 
postiion. Canada violet (Viola canadensis), longspur violet (V. rostrata), and crinkleroot 
(Dentaria diphylla) are more common here than elsewhere in southern Indiana. American 
pennywort (Hydrocotyle americana), wideleaf ladies' tresses (Spiranthes lucida), and 
Carex pedunculata are restricted geographically here. Sullivantia (Sullivantia sullivan- 
tii) and golden St. John's-wort (Hypericum frondosum) are known in Indiana only 
from canyons in this section. The dusky salamander (Desmognathus fuscus) is a distinc- 
tive species of this section and the Bluegrass Natural Region. Non-forested community 
types include small areas of limestone gravel wash and limestone glade, the latter har- 
boring the only Indiana occurrence of Michaux leavenworthia (Leavenworthia uniflora). 
Minor areas of karst topography occur along valley borders. The major aquatic features 
include medium-gradient streams with beds of pavement-like limestone, such as Graham 
Creek, Big Creek, and the upper stretches of the Vernon Fork of the Muscatatuck River. 

Section 11C — Switzerland Hills Section 

This section is characterized by deeply dissected uplands composed of calcareous 
shale and limestone of Ordovician age. Bedrock is near the surface, but cliffs are rare. 
The area was glaciated, yet unconsolidated deposits are thin or absent. The Eden, 
Switzerland, and Pate neutral silty clay loams are the dominant soils series. Most of 
the natural communities are forested, although a few barrens remnants are known. 
A mixed mesophytic forest type is well represented, especially in the ravines. These 
forests should not be confused with the mixed mesophytic forests of the Cumberland 
Mountains as described by Braun (12), for there is little similarity in terms of floral 
composition, bedrock, soils, etc. Characteristic tree species include beech (Fagus gran- 
difolia), white ash (Fraxinus americana), sugar maple (Acer saccharum), white oak 
(Quercus alba), chinquapin oak (Q. muhlenbergii), red oak (Q. rubra), shagbark hickory 
(Carya ovata), blue ash (Fraxinus quadrangulata), tulip tree (Liriodendron tulipifera), 
Ohio buckeye (Aesculus glabra), and black walnut (Juglans nigra), with occasional 
occurrences of yellow buckeye (Aesculus octandra), and white bass wood (Tilia 
heterophylla). Historical evidence indicates that this area, especially along the Ohio 
River, possibly may be the only location where black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia) 
is native in the state (20, 29). Although no indigenous plant species is unique to this 
section, two species are more common here than elsewhere in the state, namely a fox- 
glove (Penstemon canescens), and Kentucky viburnum (Viburnum molle). The ravine 
salamander (Plethodon richmondi) is essentially restricted in Indiana to this section. 
Rocky, gravel-bottomed, medium-gradient streams such as Laughery Creek and 
Whitewater River, typify the major aquatic features of the region. 

Region Twelve — Big Rivers Natural Region 

This aquatic natural region includes those rivers (or portions of rivers) where 
the average flow is 7000 cubic feet per second or greater. This includes all of the Ohio 
River bordering Indiana, the White River up to the confluence of its two forks, and 
the Wabash River from its mouth to near Attica in Fountain County. These rivers 
provide an environment for several species not found in smaller riverine systems, e.g. 
the lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens), shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platoryn- 
chus), alligator gar (Lepisosteus spatula), shortnose gar (Lepisosteus platostomus), ship- 
jack herring (Alosa chrysochloris), smallmouth buffalofish (Ictiobus bublaus), goldeye 
(Hiodon alosoides), mooneye (Hiodon tergisus), and the blue sucker (Cycleptus 
elongatus). 

Mussel species distinctive of the Big Rivers Region include the fat pocketbook 
pearly mussel (Potamilus capax), white cat's paw pearly mussel (Epioblasma sulcata 



Ecology 265 

delicata), tubercled-blossom pearly mussel (E. torulosa torulosa), pink mucket pearly 
mussel (Lampsilis orbiculata), and Sampson's pearly mussel (Epioblasma sampsoni — 
extinct). The alligator snapping turtle (Macroclemys temmincki), and the hellbender 
(Cryptobranchus alleganiensis) are characteristic species of this region, but currently 
are very rare if not absent. At least one vascular plant is state restricted to this region, 
that being riverweed (Podostemum ceratophyllum). 

Acknowledgments 

Special appreciation is directed to the many individuals who contributed to the 
creation of this paper. Those individuals who provided helpful suggestions and criticisms 
include John Bacone, Lee Casebere, James Gammon, Henry Gray, Cloyce Hedge, 
Max Hutchinson, James Keith, Alton Lindsey, Sherman Minton, Larry Morse, Robert 
Petty, Richard Powell, John Schwegman, John Whitaker and John White. Technical 
assistance was provided by Tammy Carrigg, Terri Engle, Marilyn Glander, Hank Huff- 
man, Nancy Lax Kozar, Tim Renner, Bonnie Thomas, Jerrie Worthy, and especially 
by the principal author's wife, Barbara Homoya. A special thanks to the Department 
of Natural Resources, especially the Division of Nature Preserves, for the interest and 
support of this project. 

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Successional Relationships of Pine Stands at Indiana Dunes 

Eric S. Menges and Thomas V. Armentano 
Holcomb Research Institute 

Butler University 

Indianapolis, Indiana 46208 

Originally presented as 

Demographic and Community Aspects of White Pine and Jack Pine 

in Lake Michigan Dune Ecosystems 

Introduction 

Controversy about plant succession, its pathways, characteristics, rates, and 
mechanisms, continues to be a significant part of plant ecology today (e.g., 5, 10, 
22, 25, 26). The first major formulation of succession as a theory (7) was based largely 
on research at Indiana Dunes. Cowles (6) recognized that the parallel sand ridges, 
each marking the southern border of the Lake Michigan shoreline for a definable period 
following regional deglaciation, provided a unique opportunity to interpret the tem- 
poral dynamics of vegetation development. Later, Olson (23, 24) more quantitatively 
analyzed vegetation and soil patterns at the dunes and advanced successional theory. 

Cowles hypothesized that long-term changes in the vegetation composition of a 
site could be related to amelioration of harsh physical conditions, and that improve- 
ment in soil properties mediated changes by successive plant communities. Olson (23, 
24) emphasized that at Indiana Dunes, several plant communities thought by Cowles 
to be serai might be more or less permanent, largely because of nutrient limitations. 
Recently, the role of periodic fire in maintaining the integrity of a variety of dune 
communities has been emphasized (3, 13, 32). 

Within the Indiana Dunes area, individual species that are rare or at range limits 
have been considerable interest (32). These include two pine species, white pine (Pinus 
strobus) and jack pine {Pinus banksiana). Both species, particularly jack pine, are found 
at Indiana Dunes near their range limits (1 1) and are considered to be boreal relicts (32). 

Both Cowles and Olson considered pine stands to be successional at the dunes, 
in keeping with their apparent role at other sites. Cowles concluded that upland pine 
communities were usually replaced by oak-dominated communities. He did not com- 
ment specifically on the fate of lowland pine stands. While Olson (24) convincingly 
demonstrated that conversions of oak to sugar maple as hypothesized by Cowles were 
unlikely, he also concluded that oak would usually "quickly replace" pine in upland 
sites. The present paper summarizes community and population characteristics of pine 
stands at Indiana Dunes, and interprets the data in relation to the successional status 
of the two species. 

Our study was conducted in 1984, about 35 and 85 years after observations by 
Olson and Cowles, respectively. Although successional theory has evolved since these 
studies, interpretation of successional dynamics in forests still depends largely on in- 
ferences from stand structure and compositions at a single point in time. Long-term, 
replicable data sets are rare. Although we were unable to relocate plots established 
by Olson, our sampling stations were established at nearby locations closely similar 
in vegetation and site properties. In several cases we analyzed the same stands sampled 
by Olson (pers. comm.). 

Methods 

To evaluate white and jack pine populations, the present distribution of both 
species at Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore (IDNL) and Indiana Dunes State Park 

269 



270 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 94 (1985) 

(IDSP) was determined. Outside these properties, few undisturbed populations of either 
species exist on dunes habitat within Indiana. Low altitude aerial photographs (1:400) 
and previous reports by Wilhelm (32) and Krekeler (18) were used to locate stands. 
All sites likely to contain populations of either pine species were visited by the authors. 
For purposes of this investigation, a population was defined as a grouping of >15 
individuals of a species within 0.4 ha. 

Field work was done during the 1984 growing season. Pine stands were sampled 
using 100 m 2 (5.64 m) circular quadrats. Quadrats were stratified randomly along 
transects to efficiently cover intrastand variability. For stands limited in extent, con- 
tiguous square quadrats or complete sampling were used. All quadrat centers were 
marked with metal pins. 

All trees (woody stems 2.5 cm dbh or larger) in the quadrat were measured for 
diameter at breast height (dbh). We also recorded the presence of herbaceous species 
in each quadrat. Community attributes were sampled in June and July, and follow-up 
surveys were conducted in late August and September. Vouchers were collected. 
Nomenclature follows Wilhelm (32). 

We sampled pine trees more intensively, adding trees outside quadrats to increase 
sample size to 80 or more when possible. Heights of pine seedlings and samplings 
(< 2.5 cm dbh) in quadrats were measured. Increment cores were obtained from IDNL 
pines in late summer 1984. However, complete age-structures were taken for only two 
of the smaller populations of each species. Additional populations were partially cored 
nonrandomly to assure coverage of a range of sizes. 

Community analysis considered species presence in quadrats, and weighted all 
species (trees, shrubs, herbs) equally. We included species with two or more occur- 
rences in our samples. A polythetic divisine clustering technique called TWINSPAN 
(two-way indicator species analysis) was used to group floristically similar quadrats 
and co-occurring species. This technique, described elsewhere (12, 16), is considered 
to give particularly lucid placement of samples within a dendogram, and also forms 
divisions that may reflect secondary gradients (12). Community relationships also were 
interpreted, using detrended correspondence analysis (DC A). This iterative procedure 
ordinates species and samples simultaneously, and is effective in removing the arch 
distortion characteristic of many other multivariate techniques (12). 

Results 

Distribution of Pine Stands 

The largest populations of white pine remaining in the lakeshore area are located 
within state park boundaries. A total of seven white pine populations are located in 
the dunes area (Table 1). Population SP-7, located at the eastern end of the state 
park near the Keiser Survey Unit (KE-1), is the largest, consisting of 84 individuals 
(Figure 1, Table 1). This population is among the most diverse in terms of tree sizes. 
The second largest population is located in the Keiser Survey unit of the IDNL, less 
than 0.5 km east of the SP-7 and consists of 81 individuals located in a mesic pocket 
behind primary dunes. The remaining populations studied are far smaller in size (Table 
1). These sites currently support mixed hardwood pine forests in mesic pockets or on 
dune slopes. 

Nine populations of jack pine were selected for sampling (Figure 1, Table 1); 
these ranged in number of trees from less than 50 to over 300. Several populations 
were in interdunal depressions (pannes) that hold temporary standing water in the spring, 
or were located adjacent to permanent ponds. Others were found on open slopes, in 
woodlands on dune-complexes (sensu 32) or in mixed-hardwood stands on slopes or 



DA-1 


5 WP, >300 JP (most sapling 




and tree-sized) 


DA-2 


22 WP (Nearly all old growth) 


DA-3 


52 JP (all old growth) 


Miller Dunes — 


east of steel mills, near slag ponds 


MD-1 


47 JP 


MD-2 


-300 JP 


Keiser — east of 


state park road parking lot 


KE-1 


81 WP 


State Park 




SP-1 


17 WP, >300 JP 


SP-7 


84 WP 



Ecology 271 

Table 1 . Location and Status of Studied Jack Pine (JP) and White Pine (WP) Populations 
in Indiana Dunes 

Site Population Size Comments 

Ogden Dunes — West Beach Unit, east of town of Odgen Dunes 

OD-5 34 WP, many JP Old-growth woods on east facing dune slope, most 

JP on north and east edges; WP scattered in interior 
OD-1 >300 JP Open pine stand, edge of panne just behind lakefront 

dune 

West Beach — West Beach Unit, west of Odgen Dunes, east of parking lot, just behind primary dunes 
WB-1 >300 JP (most tree-sized) Open pine stand on well-drained dunes 

WB-2 >300 JP (most seedlings) Open pine stand adjacent to panne and ponds 

Dune Acres — west of town of Dune acres, along shore (DA-1); in mesic pocket, south of DA-1 (DA-2); and east 
of Mineral Springs Road, ca 1 km north of Cowles Bog (DA-3) 

Open pine stand on lakefront dune 

Old-growth forest in mesic pocket between dunes 
Closed swamp forest adjacent to marsh 

Dunes, upslope from pond 

Dune flat adjacent to panne and pond 

Mesic pocket and adjacent dune ridge 

Open lakefront dunes and mixed woods 

Mixed secondary woods, west of State Park road, 

ca 1 km south of lake front. 



in dune flats. Only one of the sampled populations was located in IDSP. Several other 
populations in IDSP were not sampled. 

Our inventory of IDNL populations reveals that outside of Pinhook Bog (over 
15 km to the southwest), no natural stands of jack or white pine are located east of 
the white pine population KE-1 or south of U.S. Route 12. Several additional stations 
of planted white pine were not considered in this study. These additional sites contain 
too few individuals of either species to meet our definition of a population. 

All pine populations occurred on areas mapped in soil surveys (30, 31) either 
as dune land or Oakville fine sand. Soils are composed of fine sand with some medium 
sand and fine gravel, and have little or no horizon development. They are extremely 
low in moisture-holding capacity, with neutral to acid pH. 

Community Analysis of Pine Stands 

Classification of Pine Stands. Pine stands at Indiana Dunes were divided by 
TWINSPAN into four groups (Figure 2). In labeling such stands, we relied both on 
field observations, known autecologies of major species, and previous work at Indiana 
Dunes (6, 18, 24, 32). 

(1) Jack-pine-dominated, open panne communities with an incomplete canopy, 
located near temporary or permanent bodies of water (WB-2, MD-2, OD-1). 
These stands had moderately high similarity to each other. 

(2) Jack-pine-dominated woodlands and dunes in upland areas (WB-1, MD-1, 
SP-1, DA-1). These dune-complex areas were generally extensive, structural- 
ly heterogeneous areas. Canopies were mostly open. The four stands were 
very similar to each other compositionally. 



272 



Indiana Academy of Science 



Vol. 94 (1985) 



« 




« o 

c e 


z 


O <t 




Z l 




<t * 




z " 




-I 






1 


E 1 




Figure 1. Location of white and jack pine populations analyzed in this study. 



Ecology 273 

% Similarity (2W/A+B) Within Groups 



en 


en 


A 


■P>. 


co 


CO 


Ol 

i 


O 

i 


Ol 


o 

1 


Ol 

i 


o 
1 



DA3 SP7 DA2 

0D5 KE1 . 

WB1 MD1 SP1 DA1 . 



WB2 MD2 OD1 



Figure 2. Cluster diagram of Indiana Dunes sites, based on TWINSPAN classification 
analysis, with similarities within and between groups calculated by city-block distance 
(2W/A + B where A are species in one quadrat, B those in the second, and W those in 
common; distance was averaged over all quadrats). 



(3) Mixed hardwood-pine forests, less protected or drier than the following group. 
The two sites included were OD-5, a slope forest with both pine species, 
and KE-1, a pocket behind large curving dunes with white pine and hard- 
wood trees. We followed previous convention in describing these areas as 
"mesic pockets." 

(4) Mesic or wet-mesic forests on dune flats. Two are mixed hardwood-pine 
stands: DA-3, a swamp forest with jack pine, and SP-7, a mixed hardwood 
forest with white pine. They contain species interpreted as indicating 
mesophytism or association with wet soils including Fraxinus americana, Acer 
rubrum and Nyssa sylvatica. 

A TWINSPAN classification at the quadrat level provided additional detail on what 
species are significant indicators of various groups of floristically similar quadrats. 

Within pine stands at Indiana Dunes, the major division was between closed 
forest/woodland areas and more open woodlands and dune formations (Figure 3). 
Many other species, particularly shade-intolerant trees (e.g., Populus deltoides), wetland 
plants (e.g., Hypericum kalmianum), and dunes forbs (e.g., Artemisia caudata), were 
found only rarely in closed forests. Many other species, however, are characteristically 
restricted to forests, including Acer rubrum, Prunus serotina, and Sassafras albidum. 

The major TWINSPAN division within closed forests distinguishes wet-mesic forests 
on dune flats (DA-3, SP-7) from upland mesic forests and woodlands (Figure 3). In 
open areas, the major division also results from apparent moisture (Figure 3). Areas 
adjacent to standing water, often pannes (OD-1, WB-1), support shade-intolerant 
moisture-loving species such as Hypericum kalmianum and Sabatia angu/aris. The op- 
posing species are characteristic of dry, open dunes and woodlands. 

Further divisions in the cluster analysis often can be attributed to more local 
factors. For example, the driest open areas are subdivided (at level 3) into open forma- 
tions dominated by dune grasses and annuals versus more shrubby thicket areas. A 
division of quadrats within the mesic pocket DA-2 reflects canopy gaps that favor 



274 



Indiana Academy of Science 



Vol. 94 (1985) 



LEVEL OF DIVISION 



* 


Sites 


Quads 


(# Q) 


2 


oot 


2 


WBKl) 


WB2(1) 


7 


WB2(6) 


O0M2) 


5 


001(6) 


4 


M02O) 




MDKO 


2 


WB1 


13 


3P1(6) 
0A1(3) 


006(3) 

WBKl) 


6 


M01(3) 


OtharsO) 


5 


WBK4) 


SPl(i) 


4 


WBK2) 


OD1(2) 


4 


0D6 


12 


DAH7) 
0D6(3) 




0th«r«(2) 


1 1 


KEK10) 


SP1(1) 


3 


0A2(3) 


2 


OA2(2) 


2 


DA2(2) 


8 


0A3(7) 


SP7(1) 


6 


SP7(fl) 


2 


SP7(2) 


1 


0A3(1) 



m 



r-) 







t~ 


f^ 


• 

c 

• 


















c 
• 
a 
O 

> 












<*- 


















• 

M 

:! 

o • 
2§ 

2 






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3 5 
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t^ 


(1 

C 
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XI • 

to P 

•3 

o £ 

-1 < 

■ 

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6 









e*- 


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3 

o 




C 
• 




o c 
IS 

0? 
°m 


a 
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• 

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n 


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tea 

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Oi « 

jO 

r • 












u 

"5 •> 

• « 

2 • 

I o 

• u. 




















o 
















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s 

3 











Figure 3. Cluster diagram of IDNL quadrats, based on TWINSPAN classification 
analysis. Indicated within dendrogram are environmental differences between branches. 
Along the left are shown the sites to which the quadrats belong and the number of 
quadrats found in each cluster. 



gap-phase trees over shade-tolerant shrubs and herbs. Although some subsequent divi- 
sions reflect finer distinctions in moisture, cover, and species diversity, other clusters 
are not associated with recognizable environmental factors. 



Ecology 



275 



Ordination of Pine Stands. The major axis of variation in the DCA ordination 
reflects crown cover: it extends from open sites (dry and wet) to closed forests. Quadrats 
from OD-1 to SP-7 define the endpoints of this axis, which passes respectively through 
wet open areas, dry open areas, drier forests and woodlands, and mesic forests (Figure 
4). The second major axis separates forests stands only, from the swamp forests at 
DA-3 to the mesic pocket at DA-2. SP-7 and KE-1 occupy intermediate positions. 

This ordination emphasizes the distinctness of several sites: the mesic pocket DA-2, 
the swamp forest DA-3, and the panne site MD-2. Other sites feature a compositional 
range. For example, OD-1 contains quadrats in temporary pannes with unique floristic 
elements, and also quadrats on sandy ridges similar to the upland dunes sites (Figure 
4). A compositional continuum is also evident in the upland dune areas, from quite 
open areas all the way to fairly mesic forests. Some sites (KE-1, MD-1) have rather 
narrow ranges within the continuum, but WB-1, SP-1, DA-1, and OD-5 all span a 
broad compositional range. SP-1 is the most heterogeneous, with some forest area 
similar to the mesic pocket KE-1, and other open areas similar to OD-1. 

DCA uses both sample (quadrat) and species distributions in its iterative analysis; 
thus, a map of species centroids is directly comparable to the sample map. In Figure 
5, some species centroids are indicated. Their distribution is generally similar to sam- 
ple distribution, with first-axis variation showing a gradient from open (Typha latifolia, 
Opuntia humifusa) to closed (Osmunda claytoniana), and second-axis reflecting mesic 
(Viburnum acerifolium) to wet-mesic {Quercus palustris) species. The species distribu- 




0D1 

Wet & Open 



Figure 4. Location of sample quadrats on first two axes of DCA ordination. Lines 
encompass all quadrats belonging to sites indicated in bold letters; major environmental 
factors are also indicated. 



276 



Indiana Academy of Science 



Vol. 94 (1985) 



tion shows more intermediate centroid placement for species occupying a range of 
habitat conditions. For example, Rhus radicans and Pinus banksiana, both located 
near the center of the ordination, range from wet-mesic to dry forests and woodlands 
to more open dune areas, although Pinus banksiana is notably absent from most closed 
forests (Figure 5). 



CO 
X 

< 




AXIS 1 

Figure 5. Location of major species centroids on first two axes of DCA ordination. 
Lines encompass all species locations. 



The preceding discussion was based on sample and species locations or graphs 
of the first two axes of DCA, i.e., those explaining the greatest amount of variation. 
The major effect of the third axis is to better separate some quadrants in WB-1 from 
the majority of those in SP-1 and DA-1. Species with strong correlations in the direc- 
tion of this separation include open-sand specialists such as Opuntia humifusa and 
Populus deltoides, as well as some weedy elements (e.g., Saponaria officinalis). We 
believe this compositional gradient reflects erosional damage from heavy recreational 
use of the West Beach Unit. 

Structure of Pine Stands 

Five jack pine populations occurred in areas with little other tree cover. WB-2 
has no other tree-size vegetation, while at MD-1, MD-2, and OD-2, only a few in- 
dividuals of other tree species occurred. These four sites all have less than 650 dm 2 
basal area/ha. Reproduction of jack pine is especially dense in the panne areas, but 
few seedlings of other species were sampled. 

At WB-1, jack pine accounted for 81% of sampled stems greater than 2.5 cm 
in diameter. Nearly all other species were understory trees or shrubs (Prunus virgi- 
niana, Amelanchier sp., Ptelea trifoliata) but seedlings were relatively sparse. At DA-1, 



Ecology 



277 



▲ ▲ Pinus banksiana 

• • Quercus velutina 

O O Tilia amencana 

■ ■ Amelanchier sp. 

D---Q Others 




Figure 6. Forest structure at DA-1. 



44% of the tree-sized stems present were jack pine, as were many smaller trees and 
seedlings (Figure 6). Reproduction of black oak, witch hazel {Hamamelis virginiana), 
and basswood is restricted to the highest parts of the dune slope. 

Mixed jack and white pine populations are present in the pine woodlands and 
mixed forests at SP-1 and OD-5. At both sites, white pine, along with black oak at 
SP-1, comprise the largest trees. However, white pine seedlings and midsized and smaller 
trees are scarce compared to jack pine and other species (Figure 7). Jack pine reproduc- 
tion is found largely in more open areas with cottonwood, red cedar {Juniperus virgi- 
niana), and sand cherry (Prunus pumila). 

In forests at the closed end of the first DCA axis, the forest structure is different. 
White pine dominates the mesic pockets KE-1 and DA-2, as well as the mixed secon- 
dary woods SP-7. In KE-1, it is the most common tree in every tree size class except 
the two smallest. The smallest tree-size classes are dominated by understory tree species 
(witch hazel, sassafras, and Amelanchier sp.), with few canopy species represented. 
Seedlings are quite dense at KE-1, consisting mainly of hardwoods. In the mesic pocket 
DA-2, white pine are mainly large, with no seedlings and only one sapling. In con- 
trast, the next largest tree species, red oak, has been reproducing well (Figure 8). This 
stand has a high basal area (4,260 dmVha), half again as great as KE-1. Small stems 
of white ash (Fraxinus americana), red maple, and basswood are present, although 
seedling density is low for all species. 

SP-7 has a substantial number of smaller white pine, although seedlings are sparse. 



278 



Indiana Academy of Science 



Vol. 94 (1985) 




A — 



SP1 



A — -A Pinus banksiana 
/V-A Pinu3 strobus 

9 « Quercus velutina 

V V Hamamelis virginiana 

■ ■ Amelanchier sp. 

Dp- -O Others 




20 25 

DBH (cm) 



Figure 7. Forest structure at SP-1 



35 



25 



20 



O 15 

Z 



10 



DA2 



— A Pinus strobus 

• Quercus rubra 

— O Quercus alba 
A Prunus serotina 



X K Hamamelis virginiana 

x- X Sassafras albidum 

D -Q Others 




5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 

DBH (cm) 

Figure 8. Forest structure at DA-2. 



Ecology 279 

All sizes of white oak are widely distributed, whereas many young black gum and 
red maple are found mainly in the wetter areas of this stand. Shrub density at SP-7 
is the highest of any of the sites sampled, with six species occurring in 20% or more 
of sampled segments. 

At DA-3, a swamp forest, neither small jack pine nor reproduction were noted. 
The larger adult jack pine have very small crowns high on the bole and some appeared 
to be senescent. In contrast, small trees and seedlings of several hardwood species, 
especially red maple (Acer rubrum), are common. Basal area is quite high (3400 dmVha) 
in this stand. 

Size Distributions of Pines 

Among the natural populations of white pine in the IDNL region, diameter distribu- 
tions ranged from 2.5 cm (the minimum by definition), to a 75.1 cm tree found at 
DA-2. Sapling and seedlings were less common, with only 50 individuals under 2.5 
cm dbh encountered in the lakefront — less than a quarter of trees tallied. 

Size distribution of white pine within individual populations varied (Figure 9). 
The population in one mesic pocket (DA-2) consisted mainly of trees ranging from 
15 to 75 cm, and completely lacked small trees, saplings, or seedlings. In contrast, 
the third mesic pocket at Keiser (KE-1) lacked the largest size classes (> 65 cm) but 
contained some seedlings. Many of these, however, were diseased. We found few recruits 
into small tree classes at Keiser. Overall, recruitment of white pine in mesic pockets 
is poor. 

The other three white pine populations sampled consisted primarily of medium- 
sized or small trees (Figure 9). All contained small numbers of saplings and/or seedl- 
ings, probably insufficient at present to maintain population levels in the future. Perhaps 
the most unusual stand was found at SP-7, where small white pine form a scattered 
but consistent understory beneath part of a mixed hardwood forest. 

Jack pine exists as a small tree in the lakeshore areas, with increasing numbers 
from larger to smaller size classes. Over 40% of tree-sized individuals were 7.5 cm 
dbh or less. Reproduction, as interpreted by seedling and sapling occurrence, was com- 
mon, and these size classes contained twice the number of trees. At all locations, small 
trees and juveniles were uncommon under closed canopies. 

The distribution of jack pine sizes was much less variable than that of white pine 
(Figure 10). Seven of the nine sampled populations were dominated numerically by 
seedlings or samplings, with small trees (2.5-7.5 cm dbh) making up the majority of 
> 2.5 cm dbh individuals. Populations MD-2, WB-2, and OD-1, all located near pannes 
or ponds, lacked larger trees and were numerically dominated by seedling size classes. 
Drier sites with abundant reproduction and medium-sized dominants were found at 
WB-1 and MD-1. The two populations with somewhat lower levels of reproduction 
and relatively large trees were at OD-5 and DA-1. Both sites contained trees in fairly 
open areas, dominated entirely by jack pine, but grading into nearly closed woodland 
with a mixture of hardwoods, some overtopping the pines. 

An eighth population, SP-1, was similar to OD-1 and DA-1 in physiognomy and 
site, but reproduction was poor. The jack pine population, located in a swamp forest 
at DA-3, consists of medium-sized and larger trees, nearly all with meager crowns 
located far from the ground. 

Age Structures and Long-term Growth of Pine Populations 

Jack pine populations at IDNL differ in age. Although the small population at 
Miller Dunes (MD-1) consists of trees ranging up to 73 years of age (Figure 11), most 
trees originated between 15 to 30 years ago. A conspicuous gap in the age distribution 
indicates that no trees presently found were recruited between 1928 and 1949. This 



280 



Indiana Academy of Science 



Vol. 94 (1985) 



w 




No. Trees 



O r- 


cn co *$ in to r^ 




1 l 1 1 1 1 
< 




















/ 





No. Trees 

o 



Q 
O 




No. Trees 

cn n rj- id co r^ 



No. Trees 

o o o 




Figure 9. Size distribution of white pine populations sampled in the Indiana Dunes region. 



age gap, however, is not reflected in a similar gap in size structure. 

Jack pine populations in the wetter areas are both smaller and younger than at 
MD-1. The age of the 20 trees cored at MD-2 ranged only up to 24 years. The largest 
tree at OD-1 was 64 years old, but most were probably much younger. At MD-2, 
trees have been continuously recruited since the recent origin of the population. 



Ecology 



281 




E 



0-50 

51-100 

101+ 

2.5-7.5 
7.6-12.5 
12.6-17.5 
17.6-22.5 
22.6-27.5 
27.6-32.5 
32.6+ 



No. Trees 

o o o 



No. Trees 

o o o 



No. Trees 



X CO 


V 




Figure 10. Size distribution of jack pine populations sampled in the Indiana Dunes region. 



The other two jack pine populations that were partially sampled for age, WB-1 
and DA-1, consist of trees with age distributions similar to MD-1. Maximum ages 
are 65 years in WB-1 and 58 years in DA-1. Both have a preponderance of individuals 
between 15 and 20 years of age. Another parallel is apparent in these three popula- 



282 



Indiana Academy of Science 



Vol. 94 (1985) 



CO 

LU 
LU 
CC 

h- 

o 

CC 
LU 
OQ 

D 



10r- 



10 



20 



30 



40 



50 



60 



70 



80 



90 100 



TREE AGE 

Figure 11. Age distribution of jack pine at MD-1. 

tions: a striking gap in the number of individuals recruited in the 1930s and 1940s 
(Table 2). 

Table 2. Apparent Absence of Jack Pine Recruitment over Two Decades as Determined 
by Increment Coring, Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore 











Year of First Seedling 






Entire 




Youngest 


Oldest 




No. Trees 


Population 


Oldest 


Pre- 1935 


Post-1935 


Population 


Cored 


Sampled 


Tree 


Recruit 


Recruit 


MD-1 


19 


Yes 


1911 


1928 


1949 


MD-2 


20 


No 


1960 


— 


1964 


WB-1 


27 


No 


1919 


1930 


1949 


DA-1 


25 


No 


1926 


1932 


1949 


OD-5 


2 


No 


1914* 


— 


— 


OD-1 


2 


No 


1920* 


— 


— 



♦Largest trees found at these sites were cored and aged. 



Overall, jack pine size and age distributions are highly correlated, suggesting a 
lack of suppression. Jack pine size is a good predictor of age with < orrelation coeffi- 
cients about 0.7 in 3 of 4 populations. Regression slopes indicate that diameter in- 
creases by 0.69 to 1.27 cm in an average year. This high growth rate, if maintained 
for 60 years, places lakeshore jack pines into a "good" site index (11). 

White Pine. A complete age distribution for white pine is available from DA-2, 
a mesic pocket site on the lakefront (Figure 12). This population includes the largest 
(75.1 cm dbh) and oldest (162 years) white pines sampled. The latter individual has 
a fire scar dating from about 1879, the approximate date that the five next largest 
pines were established. All other white pines in DA-2, with one exception, are 68-111 
years old; the number present slowly declines in younger age classes. Only one living 
tree originated within the last 64 years — a 19-year-old tree established on an encroaching 
dune. 



Ecology 283 



10 T 



0) 

LU 
UJ 

oc 

h- 

u_ 

O 5 

QC 
LU 

m 

z 



. n 



m m 



, probable scar date 



□ , 



10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 

TREE AGE 
Figure 12. Age structure of white pine population at DA-2. 



The history of population KE-1, the only other white pine population available 
for aging, was similar in history to DA-2. The oldest tree was 132 years old; peak 
recruitment occurred between 80 and 110 years ago; and only two trees sampled were 
younger than 60 years. While seedlings exist in this population, poor recruitment of 
canopy trees since 1900 suggests that high seedling mortality has prevailed. 

The size of white pine at DA-2 is fairly closely related to age (r = 0.69, p < 
0.001), and the average year resulted in an increment of 0.47 cm dbh. This growth 
is near the bottom of a range cited for dominant white pine (11). Growth at Keiser 
has been slower and more variable, and the age size correlation (r = 0.30) is not 
significant. 

Discussion 

Significant differences in the structure of the pine stands and the makeup of the 
pine populations reflect both the highly diverse dune environments and the distinct 
roles of the two species. Most evident is that white pine is less widely distributed and 
less vigorous than jack pine at Indiana Dunes. This distinction is curious, given that 
jack pine is at its southern range limit and is uncommon in most other southern Lake 
Michigan dunes (6; person, observ. of authors), whereas white pine is or was found 
widely in the region. However, industrial and urban development have destroyed areas 
that supported stands of both species (29, 32). White pine was highly valued as lumber, 
and merchantable trees may have been largely removed from the dunes area by the 
early twentieth century. 

Based on site physiognomy, and confirmed by quantitative vegetation analyses, 
jack and white pine are components of many community types in the dunes. Based 
on ordinations, cluster analyses, and analysis of forest structure, five types of pine 
communities can be distinguished: lowland pannes, pine woodlands, dry-mesic mixed 
slope forests, mesic pockets, and swamp forests. Jack pine is lacking only in mesic 
pockets, while white pine is absent in lowland pannes, dune-complex woodlands, and 
some swamp forests. The pine woodlands [pine dune of Krekeler (18)] are most 
widespread. Such woodlands are one of several intergrading community types in the 
dune-complex (32). Lowland pannes [pine bottoms, (6)] and mesic pockets are the 
most floristically distinct [see (6) for a detailed discussion]. The swamp forests are 
a heterogeneous group; our stands resemble the hydromesophytic forest/conifer swamp 
and pin oak flat classifications of Wilhelm (6). Pines were heavily logged in these com- 
munities (6) and current stands may be recovering from that disturbance. 

The ordering of community types from open to closed formations also suggests 
the successional sequences proposed by Cowles (6, 7) and Olson (24). Pines are generally 



284 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 94 (1985) 

assumed to play a serai role at the dunes. What evidence does our data provide to 
suggest that those community types represent a successional series? We examined the 
evidence separately for jack pine and white pine communities. 

Jack Pine. Size and age distribution and seedling recruitment of jack pine suggest 
that at several sites the species is a long-term feature of the dunes landscape. Jack 
pine should survive in the near future at all but one (DA-3) of the studied sites, although 
it may share dominance with basswood and black oak in some local areas. Reproduc- 
tion and dominance are particularly impressive in the wet open areas lacking signifi- 
cant numbers of other tree species. Jack pine establishment is commonly highest in 
moist, open situations (4, 11, 27). 

The role of fire in jack pine persistance at the dunes is unclear. Although over 
most of its range the species carries serotinous cones, this is not generally true of dunes 
populations. In most areas, however, jack pine success is related to periodic burning 
(3, 8, 28), although Cowles (6) thought that fire would promote a shift from pines 
to oaks in dune systems. The availability of unforested areas with a mineral soil seed- 
bed at the dunes appears to allow continued recruitment and survival of jack pine 
without fire. Fire currently occurs at fairly high frequencies in oak stands characteristical- 
ly lacking either pine species at Indiana Dunes (13), but little information has been 
summarized for other communities. 

Among the several tree survivorship models suggested to have general interpretative 
value, the negative exponential or "reverse J" size distribution is thought to represent 
a population in which mortality is constant over a range of sizes, and reproduction 
is sufficient to maintain population levels (20, 21). White pine recruitment is quite 
low, causing important deviations from a negative exponential curve. In contrast, jack 
pine distribution at Indiana Dunes is very closely modeled by the negative exponential 
(r 2 = .922, P < 0.001), strong evidence that jack pine self-replacement is likely. Rapid 
and consistent jack pine growth at four dunes sites suggests its lack of shade tolerance 
(11) and the lack of success of competing species. We suspect that stands dominated 
by jack pine, those with abundant reproduction, have been characterized generally 
by open canopies. 

Jack pine populations also contain all ages, a typical condition for self-reproducing 
stands (1, 19). Although jack pine has established periodically during this century, 
no survivors were found that established between 1928 and 1949. The recruitment gap 
may be related to the effect of drought on germination and subsequent establishment, 
but pollution stress also may have been involved. 

The forest structure of jack pine stands, its continued recruitment in most stands, 
the present density of juvenile individuals, and a healthy growth rate all suggest that 
jack pine is self-replacing in many Indiana Dunes stands. Conditions appear too harsh 
for more shade-tolerant species to be important invaders. 

Although Cowles (6, 7) emphasized the great resistance of the dune systems to 
change, he stated that "probably the oaks follow the pines, but the evidence on which 
this is based is not voluminous" (7, p. 174). He excluded exposed dune crests from 
this shift; there, pines might persist (6). Olson (24) suggested that first-generation pine 
stands would be "rapidly replaced" by black oak. He compared "invading" stands 
of young pine with decadent, adjacent stands at OD-5. However, 34 years later, hard- 
woods are still absent from jack-pine-dominated portions of these stands; the pine 
species being replaced are largely white pine. Thus, jack pine replacement by oaks, 
if it occurs, takes place only quite gradually. In contrast to assertions of both Cowles 
and Olson, jack pine upland communities are largely stable, compositionally. 

Cowles suggested that oaks should be excluded by the hydric conditions of pine 
bottoms, but did not speculate on succession there. Downing (9) described pannes as 
temporary phases in dune formation and Olson (24) implied as much in his model 



Ecology 285 

of community change. However, we agree with Wilhelm (32) that jack-pine-dominated 
pannes have a high degree of stability. 

White Pine. Unlike jack pine forests, white pine forests appear to be a temporary 
stage of vegetation succession throughout Indiana dunes. White pine appears to be 
in demographic decline at all sites, because more shade-tolerant species dominate all 
but the upper vegetation stratum. Only at SP-7 is there evidence that white pine is 
competing successfully. Depending on site, replacement by oaks (black, red, white), 
basswood, or red maple is likely, although dense populations of understory trees (especial- 
ly witch hazel) and shrubs in mesic and wet-mesic forests may slow the transition. 
The growth rates of adult white pine at two sites have been slow and variable, sug- 
gesting that competition may be inhibiting vigor. 

The low levels of current white pine recruitment are long-standing, judging by 
age distribution in residual stands. At one mesic pocket, fire may have eliminated most 
white pine trees established before 1879, while providing suitable conditions for recruit- 
ment. This evidence is consistent with previous work showing that white pine establish- 
ment often responds well to fire (14, 17), although other disturbances such as clearing 
can initiate regeneration. Further recruitment is sometimes possible in the absence of 
major disturbance (15). Data on fire frequency at the Indiana Dunes area, with the 
exception of oak stands (13), is not available. 

The poor recruitment of white pine in the last half-century, the low numbers 
of seedlings currently established, and the slow growth rate of adults suggest that white 
pine forests may indeed be shifting toward hardwood domination. These results agree 
with Cowles's (6) and Olson's (24) assessment of white pine stands at IDSP. 

Acknowledgments 

We wish to thank Jane Molofsky and Jeanette Daniel for their assistance in the 
field, and Jane Molofsky for her help in data analysis. Jerry Olson contributed useful 
ideas during several field trips. This research was supported by the Denver Office of 
the Air and Water Quality Division of the National Park Service, and by Holcomb 
Research Institute. 



Literature Cited 

1. Abrams, M.D. 1984. Uneven-aged jack pine in Michigan. Journal of Forestry 
82(5):306-307. 

2. Bacone, J.A., R.K. Campbell, and G.S. Wilhelm. 1980. Presettlement vegetation 
of the Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore. Proc. Second Conference on Scien- 
tific Research in the National Parks, San Francisco. Vol. 4. Resource Analysis 
and Mapping. National Park Service, Washington, D.C. 364 pp. 

3. Carlton, T.J. 1982. The composition, diversity, and heterogeneity of some jack 
pine (Pinus banksiana) stands in northeastern Ontario. Canadian Journal of Botany 
60(12):2629-2636. 

4. Cayford, J.H., Z. Chrosciewicz, and H.P. Sims. 1967. A Review of Silvicultural 
Research in Jack Pine. Canada Department of Forestry and Rural Development, 
Forestry Branch, Departmental Publication No. 1173. 

5. Connell, J.H. and R.O. Slatyer. 1977. Mechanisms of succession in natural com- 
munities and their role in community stability and organization. Am. Nat. 
111:1119-1144. 

6. Cowles, H.C. 1899. The ecological relations of the vegetation on the sand dunes 
of Lake Michigan. Botanical Gazette 27:95-117, 167-202, 281-308, 361-391. 

7. Cowles, H.C. 1901. The physiographic ecology of Chicago and vicinity; a study 



286 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 94 (1985) 

of the origin, development, and classification of plant societies. Botanical Gazette 
31:73-108, 145-182. 

8. Cwynar, L.C. 1977. The recent fire history of Barron Township, Algonquin Park, 
Canadian Journal of Botany 55(11): 1524-1538. 

9. Downing, E.R. 1922. A naturalist in the great lakes region. Univ. of Chicago 
Press, Chicago, IL (cited in Wilhelm 1980). 

10. Drury, W.T. and I.C.T. Nisbet. 1973. Succession. J. Arnold Arbor. (Harvard 
Univ.) 54:331-368. 

11. Fowells, H.A. 1965. Silvics of Forest Trees of the United States. U.S. Depart- 
ment of Agriculture, Forest Service. Agriculture Handbook 271. 

12. Gauch, H.G., Jr. 1982. Multivariate Analysis in Community Ecology. Cambridge 
University Press, Cambridge. 

13. Henderson, N.R. and J.N. Long. 1984. A comparison of stand structure and 
fire history in two black oak woodlands in northwestern Indiana. Bot. Gaz. 
145:222-228. 

14. Henry, J.D. and J.M.A. Swan. 1974. Reconstructing forest history from live and 
dead plant material — An approach to the study of forest succession in southwest 
New Hampshire. Ecology 55(4):772-783. 

15. Hibbs, D.E. 1982. White pine in the transition hardwood forest. Canadian Jour- 
nal of Botany 60(10): 2046-205 3. 

16. Hill, M.O. 1979. TWINSPAN— A FORTRAN program for arranging multivariate 
data in an ordered two-way table by classification of the individuals and attributes. 
Ithaca, NY. Cornell University (Cited in Guach 1982). 

17. Horton, K.W. and G.H.D. Bedell. 1960. White and Red Pine: Ecology, Silviculture, 
and Management. Canada Department of Northern Affairs and National Resources, 
Forestry Branch. Bulletin 124. Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. 

18. Krekeler, C.H. 1981. The Biota of the Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore. Chapter 
3. In M. Reshkin, W.E. Keifer, C.H. Krekeler, N.V. Weber, and L. Brunansky 
(eds.), Ecosystem Study of the Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore, Volume Two. 
Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore Research Program, Report 81-01. U.S. Depart- 
ment of the Interior, National Park Service, Midwest Region, pp. 3-1 to 3-346. 

19. Larsen, W.C. 1982. Structure, Biomass, and Net Primary Productivity for an 
Age-Sequence of Jack Pine Ecosystems. Ph.D. Dissertation, Michigan State Univer- 
sity. (Cited in Abrams 1984.) 

20. Lorimer, C.G. and L.E. Frelich. 1984. A simulation of equilibrium diameter 
distributions of sugar maple {Acer saccharum). Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical 
Club 11 1(2): 193-199. 

21. Meyer, H.A. and D.D. Stevenson. 1943. The structure and growth of virgin beech- 
birch-maple-hemlock forests in northern Pennsylvania. Journal of Agricultural 
Research 67:465-484. (Cited in Lorimer and Frelich 1984.) 

22. Odum, E.P. 1969. The strategy of ecosystem development. Science 164:262-270. 

23. Olson, J.S. 1951. Vegetation-substrate relations in Lake Michigan sand dune 
development. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Chicago, Department of Botany, 
Chicago, IL. 

24. Olson, J.S. 1958. Rates of succession and soil changes on southern Lake Michigan 
and sand dunes. Botanical Gazette 119(3): 125-170. 

25. Peet, R.K. and N.L. Christensen. 1980. Succession: a population process. Vegetatio 
43:131-140. 

26. Pickett, S.T.A. 1982. Population patterns through twenty years of old field suc- 
cession. Vegetatio 49:45-59. 

27. Shirley, H.L. 1945. Reproduction of upland conifers in the Lake States as af- 
fected by root competition and light. American Midland Naturalist 33(3):537-612. 



Ecology 287 

28. Swain, A.M. 1973. A history of fire and vegetation in northeastern Minnesota 
as recorded in lake sediments. Quaternary Research 3(3):383-396. 

29. Swink, F.A. and G. Wilhelm. 1979. Plants of the Chicago Region. 3rd edition. 
Morton Arborteum. Lisle, IL. 

30. U.S. Department of Agriculture. 1981. Soil Survey of Porter County, Indiana. 

31. U.S. Department of Agriculture. 1972. Soil Survey of Lake County, Indiana. 

32. Wilhelm, G.S. 1980. Report on the Special Vegetation of the Indiana Dunes Na- 
tional Lakeshore. Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore Research Program, Report 
80-01. U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service. 



The Roots of Ecology in Indiana 

Edwin R. Squiers 
Department of Biology and Environmental Science 
Taylor University, Upland, Indiana 46989 

If history is the interaction between places and people, then there can be little 
doubt that Indiana has an honored "place" in the history of ecology in North America. 
In fact, Indiana is the place where modern ecological science finds its roots. The Lake 
Michigan dunes of northwest Indiana served as the site for the pioneering research 
of Henry Chandler Cowles. In his 1899 doctoral dissertation entitled "The Ecological 
Relations of the Vegetation on the Sand Dunes of Lake Michigan," Cowles (1) defin- 
ed the science for succeeding generations of ecologists: 

"The province of ecology is to consider the mutual relationships between plants 
and their environment." 

Influenced by the ideas of European biogeographers such as E. Warming (2) and 
A.F.W. Schimper (3), and geologists, especially T.C. Chamberlin, Cowles filled the 
first several pages of his dissertation with his vision of the new science. 

"The ecologist employs the methods of physiography, regarding the flora of a 
pond or swamp or hillside not as a changeless landscape feature, but rather as 
a panorama, never twice alike." 

"Any plant society is the joint product of present and past environmental condi- 
tions, and perhaps the latter are much more important than most ecologists have 
thought." 

"The ecologist, then, must study the order of succession of the plant societies 
in the development of a region, and he must endeavor to discover the laws which 
govern the panoramic changes. Ecology, therefore, is a study in dynamics." 

Cowles recognized the division between community ecology (synecology) and popula- 
tion ecology (autoecology). Of the former, he writes: 

"The species characteristic of each formation must be discovered, together with 
the facts and laws of their distribution. The progressive changes that take place 
and the factors in the environment which cause these changes must be discussed." 

and of the latter: 

". . . it is the author's purpose to discuss the adaptations of the plants to their 
dune environment, paying especial attention to those species which show a large 
degree of plasticity, and which are found growing under widely divergent 
conditions." 

It is notable that Cowles chose the dunes of northwest Indiana as the site for his 
study because he felt "that nowhere else could many of the living problems of ecology 
be solved more clearly; that nowhere else could ecological principles be subjected to 
a more rigid test." Thus, it is the rare ecology text that does not identify Indiana 
as the "place" where ecology finds its roots in North America. 

With ecology firmly rooted in Indiana as "place," let me address the question 
of "person." It would be especially convenient at this point, to be able to say that 
Cowles was a "Hoosier" (He was not.) or that he attended Indiana University (He 
did not.) or that he taught at Butler or Purdue or Taylor or Hanover or any one 
of a number of Indiana's fine old colleges and universities (No luck there either.). 

289 



290 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 94 (1985) 

Indiana's connection with the roots of ecology as "person" is more subtle, though 
no less real. Again, we must look carefully at Cowles' dissertation. There, toward 
the end of the introduction, Cowles gratefully acknowledges the "kindly interest and 
cooperation shown by his associates . . . especially Head Professor John M. Coulter, 
through whose influence the author was directed along lines of ecological research." 
It seems, that Cowles' ideas were shaped by both a "place," the Indiana dunes, and 
a "person," John M. Coulter. 

John M. Coulter was a "Hoosier." Before accepting the position at the Univer- 
sity of Chicago, Coulter had been associated with Hanover College (graduating in the 
class of 1870), Wabash College and Indiana University. John was one of the founding 
fathers of the Indiana Academy of Science, elected President in 1886-7 and made a 
Fellow in 1893. Throughout his life, Dr. Coulter remained interested in the Academy 
and its affairs, returning on several occasions to address the membership. One of John 
Coulter's books, "Plant Relations" (4), firsst published in 1899, can be considered the 
first North American ecology textbook. This volume offers modern plant ecologists 
a fascinating look at the beginnings of their discipline. In the Preface to the 1901 
edition, Coulter cites the "recent rapid development of the subject" and adds addi- 
tional material, including several photographs, from Cowles research. It is notable 
that John was not the only Coulter to make an impact on the Indiana Science, his 
brother Stanley was also elected a Fellow of the Academy in 1893 and served as Presi- 
dent in 1895-96. Stanley Coulter would later become the Dean of the Purdue Univer- 
sity School of Forest Science. 

The interaction between John Coulter and Henry Cowles reminds us again of 
the importance of the relationship between professor and student in shaping the history 
of science. Cowles had begun his graduate work at the University of Chicago in 
geography, when Coulter, recognizing his potential, encouraged him first, to join the 
fledging Department of Botany and finally to study the ecology of the Indiana dunes. 
After completing his doctorate, Cowles remained at the University of Chicago as a 
master teacher. One of his students would later write of him: 

"No teacher brought his students more directly to nature. He was a master in 
the field. ... He was at his genial best around campfires in the evening. It is 
given to few men to found a new science and to live to see it well established." (5) 

The "pedagogical genealogy" of American plant ecologists, as outlined by Sprugel 
(6) in 1980, confirms Henry Chandler Cowles' extraordinary role in the development 
of ecology in North America. Figure 1, though far from a complete listing, illustrates 
the magnitude of Cowles' influence as a teacher. If Cowles is the "father of modern 
ecology" then surely John M. Coulter, Indiana Academy of Science President and 
Fellow, must be considered the "grandfather" of the science. 

Although Henry Cowles never published in the Proceedings of the Indiana Academy 
of Science, his ideas about ecology and succession influenced the research of Indiana 
scientists. As early as 1905, Will Scott wrote the following concerning his research 
on the Leesburg Swamp: 

"One of the main purposes has been to test the theories and factors proposed 
by Warming and Cowles. His (Cowles) most important conclusion is that plant 
societies are intimately associated with the physiography of a region and as the 
topographic forms change from one form to another the plant societies are also 
modified." (7) 

The Indiana Academy of Science, through John Coulter, left its mark on Henry 
Cowles and Cowles would return the favor many times. For example, the 1917 edition 
of the Proceedings contains a paper by M.S. Markle entitled "A Comparison of the 



Ecology 

COULTER Chamber 1 in 



291 



Trans eau 



Braun 



Shreve 




Coital 

Olmsted /\ Egler Bug 1 1 V\BauheMiire 

Lindeman vj -w\ 

HcCormick food Wistendahl 
Skiers 



E. Qdum 
Whit taker 



Mi 1 lam 



BornianK L Cooper 
Woo dwell Bliss 



Figure 1. Some of the "pedagogical descendents" of John M. Coulter and Henry 
Chandler Cowles (after Sprugel (6)). 

Plant Succession on Hudson River Limestone with that on Niagra Limestone, Near 
Richmond, Indiana" (8). Millard Markle was a graduate student of Cowles at the 
University of Chicago from 1910 to 1915. Markle would spend 58 years in active ser- 
vice to the Academy, serving as its President in 1945 and authoring "The History 
of Plant Taxonomy and Ecology in Indiana" in 1966 for Indiana's Sesquicentennial 
celebration. 

On 8 October 1965, the Ecology Section of the Indiana Academy of Science was 
formally approved and at the 1966 annual meeting the first papers, a total of four, 
were read. Today, the Section is alive and well with a membership of more than 330 
and with participation at annual meetings averaging more than 20 presentations per 
year. We've come along way John, I think you'd be proud. 

I stand before you today as a plant ecologist, Chairman on the Ecology Section 
of the Indiana Academy of Science at this centennial meeting, because of the influence 
of a "place," the Indiana dunes, and a "person" John M. Coulter, through his stu- 
dent Henry Chandler Cowles, through his student William S. Cooper, through his 
student Murray F. Buell, and through his students Jack McCormick, Ralph E. Good, 
and Warren A. Wistendahl. If John M. Coulter is the "grandfather" of ecology, then 
I am his "great, great, great grandson." Thus, I find myself connected to the roots 
of ecology in Indiana. 

Literature Cited 



1. Cowles, H.C. 1899. The ecological relations of the vegetation on the sand dunes 
of Lake Michigan. Doctoral Dissertation. University of Chicago. 

2. Warming, E. 1895. Plantsamfund. Copenhagen. 

3. Schimper, A.F.W. 1898. Pflanzengeographie auf physiologischer. Grundlage, Jena. 

4. Coulter, J.M. 1898. Plant relations. D. Appleton and Company, New York. 



292 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 94 (1985) 

5. Markle, M.S. 1966. The history of plant taxonomy and ecology in Indiana. Proc. 
Ind. Acad. Sci. 76:142-150. 

6. Sprugel, D.G. 1980. A "pedagogical geneaology" of American plant ecologists. 
Bull. Ecol. Soc. Amer. 61:197-200. 

7. Scott, W. 1905. The Leesburg Swamp. Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. 14:209-226. 

8. Markle, M.S. 1917. A comparison of the plant succession on Hudson River 
Limestone with that on Niagra Limestone near Richmond, Indiana. Proc. Ind. 
Acad. Sci. 28:109-113. 



ENGINEERING 

Chairperson: David D. Chesak 

Box 883 

St. Joseph's College 

Rensselaer, Indiana 47978 

(219)866-7111 

Chairperson-Elect: William Stanchina 

Department of Electrical Engineering 

Notre Dame University 

Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 

(219)239-5693 

ABSTRACTS 

The IAS Engineering Section: A Brief History. David D. Chesak, St. Joseph's College, 

Rensselaer, Indiana 47978. A survey of Engineering Section activity and some 

of the people involved will be made. 

Stress Corrosion Cracking of Sensitized Austenitic Stainless Steels in Boric Acid Solu- 
tion Containing Sulfur Oxyanions. S. Dhawale, Department of Chemistry, Indiana 
University East, Richmond, Indiana 47374 and G. Crangnolino and D.D. Macdonald, 

Ohio State University, Columbus Ohio. The stress corrosion cracking of Type 

304 stainless steel in boric acid solution containing thiosulfate or tetrathionate at room 
temperature was studied using the slow strain technique. The minimum concentration 
of each species required for stress corrosion cracking was determined in experiments 
at open circuit potentials. Studies on the potential dependence of stress corrosion cracking 
showed that severe stress corrosion cracking occurs over a narrow range of potential near 
the corrosion potential. Scanning electron microscopy was used to determine the resulting 
corrosion morphology. No stress corrosion cracking was observed for 304 L and 316 
L stainless steels under applied potential conditions. 

An electrochemical method was used to study the degree of sensitization of 304 
stainless steel and the effect of heat treatments. 

Engineering and Science Education's Dilemma: Inadequate Science Programs in the 
Public School System. Andrew Hollerman, Department of Physics, Purdue Univer- 
sity, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907. The role of science education in today's society 

has been changing in the last several years. The rapid increase of technology has caused 
many educators to begin to doubt the quality of science training in our public educa- 
tional system. The shortcomings of present science programs will be discussed. Per- 
sonal experiences will be cited. 

Prediction of the Variation of Azeotropic Compostion Using the Gibbs-Konovalov 
Theorem. Scott Oblander and W.W. Bowden, Department of Chemical Engineer- 
ing, Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology, Terre Haute, Indiana 47803. It has 
long been known that the assumption of the simple Margules equation 

ln 7 , = AX. 2 
7. = activity coefficient of component i 

293 



294 



Indiana Academy of Science 



Vol. 94 (1985) 



X. = mole fraction of component j in liquid 
A = empirically-determined constant 

leads to the following simple equation 



X,(T 2 )-'/2 
X,(T,)-'/2 



_L_xlnPXIi) 
A 2 P° 2 (T 2 ) 

1 ln P°(T.) 
A, P° 2 (T.) 



(1) 



where 

P°,P° = vapor pressures of 1 and 2 at T,, T 2 

A,,A 2 = Margules constant at T,,T 2 

This paper investigates how well the Gibbs-Konovalov theorem predicts the variation 
of azeotropic composition with pressure and temperature. The Gibbs-Konovalov theorem: 

If a two-phase boundary curve passes through an extreme value the composition 
of the two phases must be identical at that point. 

The equation used to determine the extreme-point is as follows: 

P = XJ.P1 + X 2 T 2 P° 2 (2) 

where 

P = total pressure 
X,X 2 = mole fractions 

7,, 7 2 = activity coefficients 
P°,P° 2 = vapor pressures 

The activity coefficients were assumed to be related to composition and temperature 
by the NRTL equation: 



ln7, 



X 2 



r 2l G 2 



r, 2 G, 



l(X, + X 2 G 2 ,) 2 



(X 2 + X,G, 2 ) ; 



(3) 



ln 72 = X, 



T| 2 G,; 



T 2 ,G; 



l(X 2 + X,G 12 ) 2 (X, + X 2 G 2 ,) 2 



(4) 



Gji = expC-o-Tjj) 

r:: = Sij-gjj 



RT 



(a) 
(b) 



(5) 



Tij = g Ji-gii 
RT 



(c) 



The vapor pressures P° were related to temperature through the Antoine equation 

Bi 



logP°= A. 



C +t 



(6) 



At a given temperature the conditions for an extremum in pressure in Equation (2) 



Engineering 295 

were investigated using ISML routines available on the Rose-Hulman VAX 780. At 
a given pressure the conditions for an extremum in temperature in Equation (2) were 
investigated. Calculated and experimental results are compared. 

The PVT Behavior of Compressed Liquids. Dennis West and W.W. Bowden, Depart- 
ment of Chemical Engineering, Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology, Terre Haute, 
Indiana 47803. Since about 1895 the 'Tait' equation 

V = V s [1 - C(t)ln <5^±1>] 
s B(t) + P s 

V = unit volume of liquid at Pressure P 
V s = unit volume of saturated liquid at P s 
C(t), B(t) = empirically-determined functions of temperature 

has been used to correlate the PVT properties of compressed liquids. In this paper 
it is shown that the following simpler, more physically-meaningful equation with more 
easily-determined constants correlates the PVT data on 3 common liquids at least as 
well as the Tait equation: 



P-P 

V = V s (1 - J ) 

P C K 



P-P s 
K = _^c_ = a(t) + b(t)P r + c(t)P r 2 
V-V 



V 

s 



p = p/p 

r c 

P c = critical pressure 

a,b,c = empirically-determined functions of temperature. 



Evaluation of Landsat Thematic Mapper Data for Classifying Forest Lands 

Paul W. Mueller, Roger M. Hoffer, and John E. Jacobson 

Department of Forestry and Natural Resources 

and Laboratory for Applications of Remote Sensing (LARS) 

Purdue University 

West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 



With the launch of Landsat- 1 in July of 1972, man entered a new era for obtain- 
ing information about earth resources. Landsat- 1 was the first unmanned satellite design- 
ed specifically for collecting data about earth resources on a global, repetitive, multispec- 
tral basis. 

Technology developed rapidly during the seventies for processing and analysis 
of the digital multispectral scanner data that was collected by Landsat. There was a 
great deal of interest in the multispectral data — commonly referred to as MSS data — 
and many applications were developed. Two more Landsat satellites with MSS sensors 
were launched before the end of the decade. 

Another milestone in Earth resource observations occurred in July 1982 when 
the fourth satellite in the Landsat series was launched. In addition to a MSS sensor, 
a new improved sensor called the Thematic Mapper (TM) was carried aboard Landsat-4. 
The TM sensor has improved spatial resolution and spectral dimensionality as com- 
pared to the MSS sensor (see Table 1). The MSS sensor collects data in only four 

Table 1. Comparison of Landsat Scanning Sensors. Adapted from (2). 





Thematic Mapper 




Multispectral Scanner 








(TM) 






(MSS) 




Spectral Band 


Wavelength 


Spectral 


Ground 


Wavelength 


Spectral 


Ground 


Designation 


Range 


Region 


IFOV 


Range 


Region 


IFOV 


1 


0.45-0.52 fim 


Visible Blue 


30 m 


0.5-0.6 nm 


Visible Green 


80 m 


2 


0.52-0.60 M m 


Visible Green 


30 m 


0.6-0.7 ^m 


Visible Red 


80 m 


3 


0.63-0.69 nm 


Visible Red 


30 m 


0.7-0.8 nm 


Near Infrared 


80 m 


4 


0.76-0.90 nm 


Near Infrared 


30 m 


0.8-1.1 tim 


Near Infrared 


80 m 


5 


1.55-1.75 ^m 


Middle Infrared 


30 m 








6 


2.08-2.35 /xm 


Middle Infrared 


30 m 








7 


10.40-12.50 ftm 


Thermal Infrared 


120 m 









spectral bands — two in the visible and two in the near infrared region of the elec- 
tromagnetic spectrum-whereas the TM sensor collects data in seven spectral band — 
three in the visible, one in the near infrared, two in the middle infrared, and one 
in the thermal infrared region. Because of the relatively low level of energy emitted 
in the thermal infrared region, the spatial resolution of this band is 120 meters — much 
larger than the other TM or MSS bands. The resolution, expressed as instantaneous 
field of view (IFOV), for the remaining six bands of the TM sensor is 30 meters as 
opposed to approximately 80 meters for the MSS sensor. 

Many studies, including those by Hoffer et al. (4), Kalensky and Scherk (5), 
and Strahler et al. (7), have shown that MSS data is useful for classifying geographic 
areas into broad cover types. Given the improvements of TM data, the purpose of 
this study was to determine the utility of TM data for classifying a predominantly 
forested area into broad cover types. The objectives were twofold: 

297 



298 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 94 (1985) 

1) Evaluate the utility of wintertime Thematic Mapper data for classifying forest 
and other broad cover types using supervised training statistics and a minimum 
distance classifier. 

2) Determine the value of different wavelength bands and combinations of bands 
for classifying the various cover types. 

Procedures 

The TM data were obtained by Landsat 4 on December 18, 1982. The study area 
was composed of St. Regis Corporation land in Baker County, Florida. Reference 
data used to interpret the TM data included 1:58,000 color infrared aerial photographs 
obtained on January 24, 1983, and a forest stand map that included stand boundaries, 
species, and ages. This map and the associated information was provided by the St. 
Regis Forest Resource Information System (FRIS) Center. Field visits (August and 
October 1984) to the study area by the authors provided a better understanding of 
the characteristics of the forest and other cover types present. Comparisons of the 
reference data and the spectral cluster maps proved to be very beneficial when analyz- 
ing and interpreting the TM data. 

The study area was predominantly forested. Major forest types in the area were 
slash and longleaf pine (the former often in plantations), and also pondcypress and 
mixed hardwoods principally occurring in shallow ponds or bays (1). A small number 
of agricultural areas were located within the study area and a small amount of exposed 
water was present. 

After viewing the aerial photographs, the St. Regis forest stand map, and a gray- 
scale printout of the TM data, it was determined that all the land cover types of the 
study area could be divided into six broad cover type classes, called information classes. 
The informational classes of interest included: three classes of pine forest — Young (0 
to 5 years), Medium-Aged (6 to 10 years), and Older (11 or more years); Deciduous 
Forest; Agricultural Areas; and Water. Because of spectral variability within some of 
these informational classes, it was determined that nine spectral classes were needed 
in order to adequately represent the informational classes defined. 

As indicated previously, at any one instant of time, the Thematic Mapper scan- 
ner on the Landsat satellite measures the reflectance and thermal emission in each 
of seven wavelength bands over a resolution element (or pixel) that represents an area 
on the ground of 30 meters by 30 meters (120 meters by 120 meters for band 7). These 
measurements provide the sets of data values that define the spectral patterns of the 
various cover types on the ground. In order to use a computer to classify satellite 
spectral data, the analyst must "train" the computer to recognize specific spectral 
patterns and then classify the data having these defined spectral patterns into the in- 
formational classes of interest. Such computer classification is based upon statistical 
pattern recognition theory — a well-documented body of knowledge used in many 
disciplines (8). 

The first step in computer classification involves the definition of a set of train- 
ing data that statistically represents the informational classes of interest. This step is 
one of the most critical parts of the entire classification procedure (3). 

In our analysis, we started by studying the St. Regis forest stand map and color 
infrared photographs and selecting potential training areas. Each training area involved 
a single cover type. Several training areas were defined for each cover type, so every 
spectral class in the study area would be represented in the training data set. The digital 
format TM data were then displayed on a Comtal Vision One/20 digital display unit 
as a color infrared composite (the digital equivalent of a color infrared photograph). 



Engineering 299 

The pixel coordinates of potential training areas were then designated. Each training 
area consisted of several contiguous pixels, and at least three such training areas were 
defined for each spectral class. Additional training areas were defined, if necessary, 
so that a minimum of 70 pixels (10 times the maximum number of wavelength bands 
used) would be included in the training statistics for each class, in-so-far as possible. 

The statistical characteristics of the training areas were then defined using the 
LARSYS software system. These statistics included the mean and covariance matrix 
of the seven bands for each spectral class (6), and provided the information necessary 
for computer classification of the various informational classes. 

The next step involved the actual classification of the TM data. The classification 
process involves the use of an algorithm to compare the training data statistics to the 
reflectance and emission values measured by the TM scanner for each pixel in the 
entire data set. Several classification algorithms are available within the LARSYS soft- 
ware. For this study, we used the relatively simple and fast minimum Euclidean distance 
classification algorithm of the CLASSIFYPOINTS processor. A detailed description 
of this processor and the entire LARSYS software system is documented by Phillips (6). 

To test quantitatively the accuracy of the classifications, a set of "test areas" 
were defined. Each test area consisted of a block of pixels thought to be representative 
of the six informational classes present. (Thus, a test area is very similar to a training 
area, but is used for an entirely different purpose.) A systematic statistical sampling 
procedure was used to define the test data locations so that the training areas and 
test areas were obtained from mutually exclusive locations in the data set. Fifty-three 
test fields totalling 2372 pixels were thus defined for this study. 

In order to evaluate the utility of the various TM wavelength bands for purposes 
of computer classification, a method to assess the information content of each wavelength 
band and band combination was required. Part of the LARSYS software (i.e. 
SEPARABILITY) involves a "feature selection" technique which allows the analyst 
to determine the optimum combination of bands to use, given any set of one through 
"n" wavelength bands. Transformed divergence (TD), a statistical distance measure, 
is calculated between all possible pairs of spectral classes for the specific combination 
of wavelength bands being considered. When the TD is large (e.g. values above 1900; 
maximum is 2000), there is a high probability that the two spectral classes can be 
discriminated and a correct classification will result (8). 

For this study, the "best" combinations of wavelength bands for each set of 
the one through seven bands of TM data were defined using the average and minimum 
TD values. Large average and minimum TD values were desirable as this indicated 
that the classes were spectrally separable. Generally, only the minimum TD values 
defined for each pair of spectral classes representing different informational classes 
(rather than spectral classes within the same informational class) were utilized. 

Based upon the Transformed Divergence results for determining the optimum 
one through seven wavelength band combinations, seven separate classifications of 
the data were then obtained, and the results were quantitatively summarized using 
the test fields that had been previously defined. The key point here is that the same 
training and test data were used for each of the seven classifications — the only variables 
were the number and combinations of wavelength bands utilized. 

Results and Discussion 

The "best" channel combinations and their average transformed divergences are 
summarized in Table 2. The performances for each of the seven classifications were 
assessed using the classification results for the test fields. Table 3 is the LARSYS- 
generated classification performance matrix for the "best" combination of four bands, 



300 



Indiana Academy of Science 



Vol. 94 (1985) 



Table 2. "Best" wavelength band combinations selected and their associated average 
and minimum transformed divergences. 



Number 



CHANNELS 



Bands 



TRANSFORMED DIVERGENCL 



Minimum 



Average 



5 

4,5 

4,5,7 

3,4,5,7 

3,4,5,6,7 

2,3,4,5,6,7 

1,2,3,4,5,6,7 



532 1 
1781 
1837' 
1938' 
1950' 
1952' 
1955' 



1761 
1980 
1987 
1991 
1992 
1993 
1993 



'Lower transformed divergence did occur between two spectral classes within the same information class. 

namely, bands 3, 4, 5, and 7, showing how the test pixels were classified. Such a matrix 
was generated for each of the seven classifications. The classification results for all 
classifications are summarized in Table 4. 

Table 3. Classification Performance Matrix for the "Best" Combination of Four Bands. 
(Fl = Young Pine Forest, F+ = Medium- Aged Pine Forest, F* = Older Pine Forest, 
FD = Deciduous Forest, AA = Agricultural Areas, WW = Water) 



FOREST 


LABORATORY FOR APPLICATIONS OF REMOTE SENSING OCT. 31, 1984 


RESULTS 4 




PURDUE UNIVERSITY 




08 48 01 AM 
LARSYS VERSION 3 


CLASSIFICATION STUDY 


430540387 CLASSIFIED OCT. 31, 1984 






CLASSIFICATION WRITTEN ON DISK 






CHANNELS USED 






Channel 3 


Spectral Band 


0.63 TO 0.69 Micrometers 




Calibration Code =1 CO = .0 


Channel 4 


Spectral Band 


0.76 TO 0.90 Micrometers 




Calibration Code =1 CO = .0 


Channel 5 


Spectral Band 


1.55 TO 1.75 Micrometers 




Calibration Code =1 CO = .0 


Channel 7 


Spectral Band 


10.40 TO 12.50 Micrometers 




Calibration Code =1 CO = .0 


SPECTRAL 


INFORMATION 


CLASSES 




SPECTRAL INFORMATION 


CLASS 


CLASS 






CLASS CLASS 


1 Fl 


Fl 




6 


Al AA 


2 F + 


F + 




7 


A2 AA 


3 F* 


F* 




8 


A3 AA 


4 FD 


FD 




9 


w WW 


5 FDC 


FD 









TEST CLASS PERFORMANCE 
NUMBER OF SAMPLES CLASSIFIED INTO 



INFORMATION 


NO OF 


PCT. 


CLASS 


SAMPS 


CORCT 


1 Fl 


351 


71.8 


2 F + 


235 


98.3 


3 F* 


1141 


99.1 


4 FD 


432 


95.4 


5 AA 


207 


97.1 


6 WW 


6 


83.3 


TOTAL 


2372 





Fl 


F + 


F* 


FD 


AA 


WW 


252 











99 





3 


231 

















5 


1131 


5 











5 


15 


412 








6 











201 














1 





5 



261 



241 



1147 



418 



300 



Overall performance ( 2232/ 2372) = 94.1 

Average Performance By Class ( 545.0/ 6) = 90.8 



10103 CPU TIME USED WAS 3.813 SECONDS 



(LARSMN) 



Engineering 



301 



Table 4. Summary of Classification Results. 



Classification Performance (%) 



Number 

of 

Test 

Pixels 



Number of TM Wavebands 
(Specific TM Wavebands) 



1 
(5) 



2 
(4,5) 



3 4 

(4,5,7) (3,4,5,7) 



5 
(3-7) 



6 
(2-7) 



7 
(1-7) 



Young Pine 
Forest 


351 


68.9 


72.4 


72.4 


71.8 


66.4 


66.4 


64.7 


Medium-Aged 
Pine Forest 


235 


70.6 


97.4 


97.4 


98.3 


98.3 


98.3 


99.1 


Older Pine 
Forest 


1141 


81.3 


98.9 


98.9 


99.1 


99.6 


99.6 


99.5 


Deciduous 
Forest 


432 


93.8 


95.4 


95.6 


95.4 


95.1 


95.1 


94.9 


Agriculture 
Areas 


207 


81.2 


97.1 


97.1 


97.1 


96.1 


96.1 


- 96.6 


Water 


6 


83.3 


83.3 


83.3 


83.3 


83.3 


83.3 


83.3 


Overall 
Performance 


2372 


80.7 


94.0 


94.1 


94.1 


93.4 


93.4 


93.2 


Average 
By Class 




79.9 


90.8 


90.8 


90.8 


89.8 


89.8 


89.7 



The overall performance for the classifications was high in all cases, except when 
only one TM wavelength band was used. Disregarding the one-band classification, the 
classification performance values for the individual informational classes were also 
very high except for the Young Pine Forest and Water classes. The low performance 
for the Young Pine Forest class is due to the fact that a significant number of pixels 
were being misclassified into the Agricultural Areas class. This is not surprising since 
the class Young Pine Forest includes recently harvested areas which consist of residual 
understory vegetation mixed with bare soil. This is spectrally similar to the situation 
often found in Agricultural Areas where agricultural crops and bare soil are mixed. 
This confusion is illustrated in Table 3 where Fl is the Young Pine Forest information 
class and AA is the Agricultural Areas information class. The relatively low classifica- 
tion performance for water stems from the fact that there was very little exposed water 
in the study area. With LARSYS, the test field must be rectangular. In the process 
of selecting a rectangular test field for a small, non-rectangular water body, one pixel 
(of six) was apparently an edge pixel — a mixture of two spectral classes — and was 
therefore misclassified. The small number of Water test pixels is directly related to 
the small amount of exposed water in the study area. 



Conclusions 

The results of this study show that: 

Forest and other broad cover type groups can be classified with a high degree 
of accuracy using wintertime Landsat Thematic Mapper data. 

Even the relatively simple minimum distance classification algorithm achieved highly 
accurate classification results for the six informational classes defined. 

The 1.55-1.75 /mi middle infrared wavelength band was found to be the single 
most useful band for discrimination between the spectral classes defined. 



302 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 94 (1985) 

The "best" combination of two wavelength bands included a band in the near 
infrared (0.76-0.90 /mi) and a band in the middle infrared (1.55-1.75 /mi) portion 
of the electromagentic spectrum. 

The 10.4-12.5 /im thermal infrared wavelength band appears to provide signifi- 
cant additional information for the classification process. 

The "best" combination of four wavelength bands included one band from each 
of the four major portions of the spectrum— visible, near infrared, middle in- 
frared, and the thermal infrared. 

Acknowledgments 

The authors would like to express their appreciation to St. Regis Corporation 
for their cooperation and help. This project was supported in part by NASA Contract 
NAS-26859. 

Literature Cited 

1. Avers, P.E., and K.C. Bracy. Soils and physiography of the Osceola National 
Forest. U.S. Department of Agriculture Forrest Service, Southern Region. 94. 

2. Freden, S.C., and F. Gordon, Jr. 1983. Landsat Satellites. Chapter 12 in: Col- 
well, R.N. (ed.), Manual of Remote Sensing. American Society of Photogrammetry, 
Falls Church, Virginia, pp. 517-570. 

3. Hoffer, R.M. 1981. Computer-aided analysis of remote sensor data: magic, mystery, 
or myth? Proceedings of Remote Sensing for Natural Resources: An Interna- 
tional View of Problems, Promises, and Accomplishments, University of Idaho, 
Moscow, Idaho, pp. 156-179. 

4. Hoffer, R.M., and LARS Staff. 1973. Techniques for computer-aided analysis 
of ERTS-1 data, useful in geologic, forest and water resource surveys. Proceedings 
of the Third Earth Resources Technology Satellite- 1 Symposium, NASA Goddard 
Space Flight Center, Washington, D.C., Volume 1, Section A. pp. 1687-1708. 

5. Kalensky, Z., and L.R. Scherk. 1975. Accuracy of forest mapping from Landsat 
computer compatible tapes. Proceedings of the 10th International Symposium 
on Remote Sensing of Environment, Ann Arbor, Michigan, pp. 1159-1167. 

6. Phillips, T.L. (ed.). 1973. LARSYS users manual. Laboratory for Applications 
of Remote Sensing, Purdue University. 

7. Strahler, A.H., T.L. Logan, and N.A. Bryant, 1978. Improving forest cover 
classification accuracy from Landsat by incorporating topographic information. 
Proceedings of the 12th International Symposium on Remote Sensing of Environ- 
ment, Ann Arbor, Michigan, pp. 927-942. 

8. Swain, P.H. 1978. Fundamentals of pattern recognition in remote sensing. Chapter 
three in: P.H. Swain and S.M. Davis (eds.), Remote Sensing: The Quantitative 
Approach. McGraw-Hill, Inc. pp. 136-187. 



ENTOMOLOGY 

Chairperson: Paul Robert Grimstad 

Department of Biology 

University of Notre Dame 

Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 

(219)239-5493 

Chairperson-Elect: James Haddock 

Department of Biological Sciences 

Indiana University-Purdue University 

at Fort Wayne 

2101 Coliseum Boulevard East 

Fort Wayne, Indiana 46805 

(219)482-5254 

ABSTRACTS 

Effect of Barley Yellow-dwarf Virus Infection of Wheat and Oats on the Life Cycle 

of Rhopalosiphum padi (L.). Jaime E. Araya and John E. Foster, Department of 
Entomology and the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Purdue University, West Lafayette, 

Indiana 47907. The life cycle of the bird cherry oat aphid, Rhopalosiphum padi 

(L.), was studied in the laboratory comparing specimens carrying Barley Yellow-dwarf 
virus (BYDV, PAV isolate) and virus-free aphids. Sections of leaves of wheat cultivars 
'Abe' and 'Caldwell,' and oats 'Clintland 64' and 'Porter,' infected with BYDV and 
virus-free, were used to rear the aphids in Petri dishes at 18 ± 1°C. Daily observations 
were recorded for pre-and reproductive periods, life duration, adult life, total number 
of progeny produced, mean progeny produced, and mean number of nymphs per day 
during the reproductive period of all treatments. The data were analyzed separately 
for each crop by ANOVAs and the Student-Neuman Keuls' test was used to separate 
means (P = 0.05). 

The data showed the aphids had a shorter life period and adult life in virus- 
infected wheat plant material. There were also differences for life duration when analyz- 
ing wheat cultivars x BYDV-infection. Virus infection in wheat increased the reproductive 
capacity of the aphid. No significant differences were detected when using oats. Fur- 
ther studies are needed to clarify the epidemiological relationships of all strains of 
BYDV, their vectors, and plant cultivars. 

Efficiency of Pollen Traps with Various Sized Trap Screens. William E. Chaney, 
R.P.E., Extension Apiculturist, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 

47907. In recent years beekeepers have become interested in trapping the pollen 

pellets from incoming foraging bees for a variety of reasons. These reasons include: 
1) Trapping pollen for sale 2) Trapping pollen to feed to different hives or the same 
hive at a later date 3) Prevent the hive from becoming pollen-bound 4) Preventing 
pesticide contaminated pollen from being stored in the hive. 

Five sizes of wire mesh were tested in identical traps randomly assigned to a dif- 
ferent hive of approximately equal strength. One of these meshes is the commonly 
recommended size. The study was replicated in three locations. The trapped pollen 
was collected regularly and weighed. Halfway through the experiment the traps were 
randomly reassigned within the five hives in each location. 

None of the four meshes tested was found to be better than the currently recom- 

303 



304 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 94 (1985) 

mended size. The size of the pollen pellet influenced the effectiveness of the various 
sized meshes. The size of the pollen pellet was determined mostly by the plant foraged 
and by the habits of individual foraging bees. 

Effect of Viruliferous and Non-viruliferous Rhopalosiphum padi (L). Aphids on Winter 
Wheat. B.H. Chen, J.E. Foster, and H.W. Ohm. Departments of Entomology, U.S. 
Department of Agriculture and Department of Agronomy, Purdue University, West 

Lafayette, Indiana 47907. The bird-cherry oat aphid, Rhopalosiphum padi (L.) 

is capable of damaging cereal crops by direct feeding and by transmitting the barley 
yellow dwarf virus (BYDV). Experiments were conducted to determine the effect of 
viruliferous and non-viruliferous R. padi on two wheat cultivars, Caldwell and Abe, 
and one wheat germplasm line, Elmo, in the greenhouse. R. padi without carrying 
any isolate of BYDV and those with PAV isolate were used for non-viruliferous and 
viruliferous infestation respectively. Results indicated that both viruliferous and non- 
viruliferous R. padi significantly affected tiller number, kernel number, and kernel 
weight per plant of Abe and Elmo. The non-viruliferous and viruliferous aphids reduced 
the weight of kernels per plant of Abe 37% and 48%, respectively. No significant 
reductions in these yield components were found on Caldwell plants infested with non- 
viruliferous aphids. Caldwell was shown to have a measure of tolerance to R. padi 
and/or BYDV while Abe was shown to be susceptible. 

Mass Rearing the Bird Cherry Oat Aphid, Rhopalosiphum padi (L.). C. Kudagamage 
and J.E. Foster, Department of Entomology and the U.S. Department of Agriculture, 

Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907. Breeding cereal crops for 

resistance to Rhopalosiphum padi (L.) and or barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV) disease 
could provide a cheap means of control of the aphid and BYDV without adversely 
affecting the environment. In a resistance breeding program methods should be available 
for conveniently rearing the aphids. 

Most studies on laboratory rearing have been directed towards finding the effect 
of host plant and temperature on the reproduction and survival of R. padi. However, 
in the literature, studies on the temperature effects on the biology of the aphid shows 
considerable variation of results by different workers. Therefore we decided to in- 
vestigate the effect of temperature and light on mass rearing of bird cherry oat aphid. 

We investigated the effect of five temperature regimes 13, 18, 20, 28°C and two 
photophase and scotophase periods 12:12, 14:10 h on prereproductive period (time 
taken for the aphids to reach reproductive stage) and fecundity. The optimum 
temperature and photophase: scotophase for rearing R. padi was determined to be 
20°C and 14:10 h respectively. At this temperature and photophase the mean progeny 
production was high and pre-reproductive period was short. 

Assessment of Numbers of Striped Cucumber Beetle Adults and Frequency of Feeding 
Injury on Muskmelon Cultivars. G.L. Reed and D.K. Reed, Fruit and Vegetable Insects 
Research Laboratory, Agriculture Research Service, USDA, Vincennes, Indiana 

47591. Field plantings of 74 muskmelon cultivars were evaluated to compare relative 

differences in attraction and feeding injury by adult striped cucumber beetles. Seedling 
and early vining stage of muskmelon plants were observed for numbers of beetles and 
evidence of feeding injury to leaves and stems. Considerably more beetles were observed 
on the cultivars Cobmelon, Tamdew and White-rinded honey dew, Charentais Improved 
and Ogen. Lower frequencies of feeding injury were observed on the stems of cultivars 
Milwaukee Market, Seneca Delicious, Campo, Early May, and Early Delicious and 
on the leaves of the cultivar Seneca Delicious. 



Entomology 305 

Relationship of Probing Behavior of Sitobion avenae (Fabricius) to Transmission of 
Luteoviruses Causing Cereal Yellow-dwarf Diseases. H.V. Scheller, R.H. Shukle, 
E.S. Furgason and J.E. Foster, NATO scholar, Departments of Entomology, Elec- 
trical Engineering and U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Purdue University, West Lafayette, 

Indiana 47907. The probing behavior of the English grain aphid, Sitobion avenae 

(Fabricious), on oats (Avena sativa, var. Clintland 64) has been studied by means of 
an electronic impedance monitoring system. This system records characteristic waveforms 
due to changes in the impedance of the aphid/plant connection associated with behavioral 
elements such as salivation, phloem contact, non-phloem ingestion, and phloem inges- 
tion. Interpretation of recorded waveforms has been confirmed by determining the 
position of aphid stylets through histological sectioning when characteristic waveforms 
are produced. 

Aphids carrying the PAV strain of barley yellow dwarf virus were given access 
to noninfected oat plants for limited periods of time. Some aphids were hindered in 
making phloem contact, other were manipulated to produce multiple probes. Plants 
were subsequently tested for the presence of virus by means of enzyme-linked immunosor- 
bent assay (ELISA). The association between elements of feeding behavior of 5. avenae 
and the transmission of cereal yellow-dwarf virus will be discussed. 

Identification of a Pectinase in Larvae of the Hessian Fly, Mayetiola destructor (Say). 
R.H. Shukle, H.V. Scheller and J.E. Foster, Department of Entomology; NATO 
scholar, and U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 

47907. The Hessian fly, Mayetiola destructor (Say), is a major pest of wheat in 

the United States, Europe and other parts of the world. We have shown that larvae 
of this insect possess a pectinase (a polygalacturonase) enzyme that is presumedly in- 
volved in the breakdown of cell wall and intercellular matrix material in the wheat 
plant. Polygalacturonase activity can be demonstrated in extracts of the salivary glands 
and midgut of larvae by an electrophoretic method using pectin-acrylamide gels. The 
presence of this enzyme has been further confirmed by reducing sugar assays using 
polygalacturonic acid (PGA) as the substrate. Optimum pH for hydrolysis of PGA 
by this enzyme appears to be 7.5. Larvae of five biotypes of M. destructor have been 
examined to date, and all appear to possess polygalacturonase activity. 

The possible association of a pectinase enzyme with resistance in wheat to Hes- 
sian fly infestation either through a hypersensitive response by the wheat plant, through 
changes in the chemical composition of cell wall and intercellular carbohydrates, or 
through the presence of enzyme inhibitors in the plant's tissues will be discussed. 

Preference of the Bird Cherry Oat Aphid, Rhopalosiphum padi (L.) on Hessian Fly- 
infested Wheat and Effects on its Biology. V. thirakhupt and J.E. Foster, Depart- 
ment of Entomology and the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Purdue University, West 

Lafayette, Indiana 47907. It has been observed frequently in the greenhouse that 

the Hessian fly-infested wheat plants are also infested with the bird cherry oat aphids 
much more often than the healthy or resistant plants. The studies were prompted and 
experiments were planned for confirmation of this observation. The Hessian fly biotype 
D and biotype D-susceptible wheat varieties — Blueboy, Knox 62, Monon and Seneca — 
were used as hosts in comparisons with the non-infested plants of the same varieties. 
Under controlled environmental chamber (20 ± 1°C and 14:10 hours photoperiod), 
R. padi showed significant preferences, providing both free-choice and no-choice tests, 
on the Hessian fly-infested plants of the three varieties to the non-infested ones, but 
not on Knox 62. When the aphids were confined on both plants, there were indica- 
tions that the infested plants provided better conditions to favor their performances. 



306 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 94 (1985) 

The most striking effects were on the reproduction and longevity with the least on 
time to maturity. However, the varietal differences existed and it should be noted that 
R. padi nymphs died before reaching maturity and, thus, failed to establish on the 
Hessian fly-infested Blueboy. 



Anecdotal History of Entomology in Indiana 

John J. Favinger 
Indiana Department of Natural Resources 
Indianapolis, Indiana 46204 

The history of entomology has been covered in various degrees from time to time 
in Proceedings of the Indiana Academy of Science (Everman, 1917; Davis, 1932, Mont- 
gomery, 1955; Deay, Luginbill, Ulman, Wilson, Young, 1955). I also had available 
an unpublished manuscript prepared by Dr. B. Elwood Montgomery in 1966. 

The science of entomology has been an integral part of the Indiana Academy 
of Science since its founding. At least six of the charter members can be considered 
to have entomology as a primary or secondary discipline. Six presidents have had en- 
tomology as their principal scientific interest but numerous other entomologists have 
held responsible offices or committee assignments in the first one hundred years of 
the Academy's existence. There was a paper on "Indiana Entomology," by P.S. Baker, 
at the first meeting and the Academy has continued to be an important influence and 
forum for Indiana Entomology since that time. Only four of the 100 meetings of the 
Academy have been without entomological papers and a high percentage of these have 
been published in full in the Proceedings. An informal session of entomologists began 
in the middle 1930s and this was organized as an official division in 1946. 

Early travelers commented on the abundance of bedbugs, fleas, mosquitoes and 
gnats in various parts of Indiana as early as its beginnings as a state in 1816. 

Thomas Say who was part of the "Boatload of Knowledge" that came down 
the Ohio and up the Wabash to New Harmony where Robert Owen and William Maclure 
intended to establish their Utopian experiment in communal living. Although the ex- 
periment failed the group's influence made New Harmony a center for culture and 
science for many years to come. 

Thomas Say was expert in many facets of natural history. He studied all groups 
of animals, described thousands of insects in many orders, and was the leading con- 
chologist of this time. 

Say died in 1834 and is buried at New Harmony. The student entomological society 
at Purdue is named for Say and the Thomas Say Foundation administered by the En- 
tomological Society of America continues to publish important monographs and treatises. 

After Say's death there was little organized entomological work in Indiana for 
50 years. Although there were occasional articles dealing with insect pests published 
in farm papers and, beginning in 1851, the Reports of the Indiana State Board of 
Agriculture. The first State Chemist, Harvey W. Wiley, who later became the father 
of the Food and Drug laws, suggested in the 1879 Report that entomologists should 
study the habits and methods of reproduction of many agricultural pests and to pro- 
vide some way to arrest their almost marvelous fertility. Beginning in the 1855 report, 
after F.M. Webster came to Indiana there were more frequent and well illustrated 
articles on insect problems confronting the farmer. 

The year 1884 was a banner year for Indiana entomology. Francis Marion Webster 
was appointed a special agent of the Bureau of Entomology of the United States Depart- 
ment of Agriculture and stationed as a consultant in entomology at its Purdue 
Agricultural Experiment Station. With little formal education Webster became one 
of the outstanding economic entomologists of the late 19th and early 20th centuries. 
He wrote Bulletin -1 of the Purdue Agricultural Experiment Station on the hessian 
fly and was an early advocate of cultural controls. Webster was a charter member 
of both the Indiana Academy of Science and the old American Association of Economic 
Entomologists serving as president of the latter organization in 1897. In 1906 Webster 

307 



308 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 94 (1985) 

became head of the Cereal and Forage Crop Insect section of the U.S.D.A. and for 
seven years was headquartered at Purdue. He died in 1916 a few days after being 
elected president of the Entomological Society of America. 

Also in 1884, James Troop came to Purdue as Professor of Horticulture and 
Entomology. A native of New York he earned a BS and MS at Michigan State College. 
He taught at Michigan State before coming to Purdue where he taught the first formal 
courses in entomology. 

When the General Assembly created an Office of State Entomologist in 1899 
primarily because of the rapid spread of San Jose scale by means of infested nursery 
stock, Troop was given this additional responsibility by Governor James Mount and 
served two terms of four years each. 

When Horticulture and Entomology at Purdue became separate departments, Pro- 
fessor Troop became head of Entomology, but remained very active in the Indiana 
Horticultural Society, where he was affectionately known as the "Grand Old Man 
of Hoosier Horticulture." He was designated Professor Emeritus in 1920 when J.J. 
Davis became head of the department, but he continued to teach until 1929. Professor 
Davis kept him on the staff until his death in 1941. Daddy Troop, as he was called 
in my undergraduate days, came to the office occasionally driving an old tan Buick 
in his own fashion. 

David Starr Jordan was not an entomologist but was well versed in many areas 
of zoology especially ichthyology. Jordan, a founder and first president of the Indiana 
Academy of Science, along with John Caspar Branner fostered Willis Stanley Blatchley's 
interest in nearly all sciences. The first course in entomology at Indiana University 
was taught by Branner in 1886 with three students, Blatchley, Charles Boleman and 
Jerome McNeil, each of whom became a recognized authority in some phase of 
entomology. 

W.S. Blatchley can be considered the first Hoosier entomologist. He was born 
in Connecticut but came with his family to Indiana at the age of one. He graduated 
from Indiana University in 1887 and was awarded a M A in 1891, teaching science 
at the Terre Haute High School in the meanwhile. Blatchley began publishing while 
still an undergraduate. In all he published more than 200 titles, 80 on entomology 
and the rest on a wide variety of subjects, including geology, birds, reptiles, batrachians 
and plants. He described 14 new genera and subgenera and 470 new species and varieties 
primarily in the Coleoptera, Othoptera and Hteroptera. The Department of Geology 
and Natural Resources in Indiana was for many years headed by a State Geologist 
which had become an elective office. Blatchley, with considerable backing from Academy 
members, was nominated by the Republicans in 1894, was elected that fall and reelected 
three times. 

After being defeated in the 1910 election, Blatchley spent the rest of his life writing, 
collecting, etc. He distributed his books through his own publishing company, the 
Nature Publishing Co., Indianapolis. Many of his nature books were autobiographical. 
Probably his best known work was the "Coleoptera of Indiana" published as Bulletin 
No. 1 of the Indiana Department of Geology and Natural Resources during his last 
few months as State Geologist. The "Coleoptera" was distributed free to libraries 
and many schools throughout the state. When copies became scarce and in great de- 
mand 15-20 years later, Blatchley wrote letters to recipients of the volume offering 
to buy copies in good condition for $5.00 each. I purchased a copy in almost mint 
condition for $75.00 75 years after publication and considered it a bargain. 

Blatchley was thrifty, even miserly, in many respects but from his own funds 
he established a pension for his life-long secretary to be administered by J.J. Davis 
but to be kept secret from his two sons because they would raise hell. 

E.B. Williamson graduated from Ohio State in 1898 and served as assistant curator 



Entomology 309 

of insects at the Carnegie Museum in Pittsburg. He returned to Bluffton, Indiana and 
eventually succeeded his father as president of the Wells County Bank. Meanwhile 
on a part-time basis became a note authority on the Odonata. He also became interested 
in hybridizing iris and gained world-wide recognition in that field. Longfield Iris Gardens 
had Indiana Nursery Certificate #\ for many years. 

Williamson published his first paper in 1898 and in 35 years published 123 scien- 
tific papers mainly on dragonflies but also on birds, fishes, and other groups. He was 
also an associate curator of Odonata at the University of Michigan Museum of Zoology 
1916-1928 and research associate from 1928 until his death in 1933. 

He made many expeditions to Central and South American and is credited by 
C.C. Deam as getting him seriously interested in botany. 

Benjamin Wallace Douglass was appointed State Entomologist by Governor J. 
Frank Hanley when regulatory work in entomology was moved to Indianapolis in 1907. 
Douglass was an expert photographer and skillful writer but must have gained his 
entomological expertise by osmosis. He had attended medical school in Indianapolis 
and had worked for C.C. Deam at the State Board of Forestry. The four annual reports 
written during his tenure are filled with accounts of insect pests, plant diseases and 
horticultural advice illustrated with excellent photographs. 

The State Entomologist was appointed for a four year term and Douglass' extended 
2 years into Governor Thomas R. Marshall's term. Douglass was not appointed and 
went into the tree surgery business with one of his assistants, Frank N. Wallace. He 
later operated an orchard in Brown County and continued to write for farm magazines 
like, The Country Gentleman. 

Douglass was succeeded by C.H. Baldwin who continued to publish excellent and 
informative annual reports. Baldwin assembled an especially competent staff. Harry 
Dietz and Harold Morrison wrote the "Coccidae or Scale Insects of Indiana" which 
was illustrated by R.E. Snodgrass, also a staff member. 

Dietz later worked for the Federal Horticultural Board but returned to Indiana 
in 1920 to be Frank Wallace's chief assistant for 10 years. After attending graduate 
school at Ohio State, he later became chief of pesticide research for Grasselli Chemicals 
(DuPont). 

Morrison, like Dietz, a native Hoosier, also later worked for the Federal 
Horticultural Board and was insect curator at the U.S. Museum and a world expert 
on scale insects. 

Snodgrass was a meticulous illustrator as well as an accomplished caricaturist 
and cartoonist. He became world famous for "Anatomy and Philosophy of the 
Honeybee" and texts on arthropod morphology and physiology. He was associated 
with the Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine and the University of Maryland. 
He maintained an association with the U.S. Museum after retirement in 1945 and was 
mentally alert and physically fit for the next 20 years. 

Frank N. Wallace was first hired for his accounting skills by Ben Douglass although 
he had no more formal training in this field than he did in entomology. He was a 
fast learner and very adaptable and had a unique way with people. Shortly after Ben 
Douglass was replaced by C.H. Baldwin, Douglass and Wallace formed the State Forestry 
Company in Indianapolis, a tree surgery and maintenance service. It was in this capacity 
that Dean Stanley Coulter of Purdue, long time member of the State Forestry Com- 
mission and later of the Conservation Commission recommended Wallace to Gene 
Stratton Porter. Mrs. Porter, the then famous novelist and naturalist, needed someone 
to supervise the rehabilitation of the trees at her new estate on Sylvan Lake. Wallace 
married Lorene Miller, who was Mrs. Porter's secretary. When it came time for Governor 
Samuel M. Ralston to appoint a successor to C.H. Baldwin, Mrs. Porter recommended 
Wallace. 



310 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 94 (1985) 

Wallace served as State Entomologist for 43 years (1915-1958), probably the longest 
tenure for a chief plant regulatory official anywhere in the United States. The four 
year term was omitted in new legislation creating the Indiana Department of Conser- 
vation in 1919. Wallace is the only person without a college degree ever to have served 
as president of the Indiana Academy of Science (1940). For many years he was the 
principal lobbyist to obtain the legislative appropriation to publish the Proceedings 
of the Academy. 

Wallace was in great demand as a slide lecturer on the many aspects of nature 
study and the Indiana State Parks. He served as one of the Central Plant Board's 
representatives to the first meeting of the National Plant Board in 1925. 

John June Davis probably had more influence on the history of entomology in 
Indiana than any other person. He graduated from the University of Illinois in 1907 
and first worked for S.A. Forbes, State Entomologist both in extension and research. 
He was an authority on the taxonomy of aphids and later on the biology and control 
of white grubs after becoming head of the Cereal and Forage Crops Insect Laboratory 
at Lafayette. When Japanese beetle was discovered on the East Coast he was appointed 
head of the laboratory at Riverton, New Jersey. 

In 1920 Davis was appointed head of the Entomology Department at Purdue 
and held this position until his retirement in 1956. At Purdue he taught, conducted 
research and extension work, traveling widely in state and out. He was an inspira- 
tional teacher and taught his favorite course, introductory entomology, for his entire 
tenure. 

He planned and began the development of a comprehensive insect collection and 
personally was responsible for the acquisition of many fine collections, like that of 
Blatchley and many others. Davis was an innovator in many other ways. He was respon- 
sible for many new programs and special courses in entomology adapted to the needs 
of forestry and pharmacy students. He arranged for the first meeting of North Central 
Entomologists in 1921 which was attended by 13 entomologists from 4 states. When 
this group again met at Purdue in 1930 there were nearly 100 in attendance. 

Davis also initiated the first conference of Indiana entomologists which was held 
at Purdue in the fall of 1923. He started the 4-H insect collection competition which, 
from a meager beginning in 1925, has expanded into a major project over most of 
the state. Glen Lehker, as Indiana's first full-time extension entomologist, came into 
the program some 10 years later and further developed the program which has given 
many individuals a start in the profession of entomology. 

Perhaps the most lasting contribution of J.J. Davis was in making the field of 
structural pest control a respectable profession. The famous Purdue Pest Control Con- 
ference was initiated with 68 attendees in 1937 and now has some 600 participants 
each year. 

Nearly all colleges and universities in Indiana have had an entomologist on staff 
either in a biology or zoology department even if no formal entomology courses were 
taught. 

Indiana University has had a number of distinguished teachers as well as students 
in entomology. Frank Young discussed a number of these in his History of Biology 
at Indiana University two years ago at Notre Dame. 

Notre Dame has gained prominence in entomology in the last 27 years since George 
Craig joined the faculty in 1957. The Vector Biology Laboratory and the Laboratory 
for Arborvirus Research and Surveillance are world famous and have trained students 
for responsible positions in this highly specialized field. 

Ball State University, noted for mosquito and tick research, has had a number 
of entomologists both in the Department of Physiology and Health Science and Depart- 
ment of Biology. The late Russell E. Siverly was the author of "Mosquitoes of In- 



Entomology 3 1 1 

diana" which was published by the Indiana State Board of Health which now has 
its own staff of entomologists dealing with public health aspects of the discipline. 
There have been many changes in the field of entomology in the last one hundred 
fifty years since the death of Thomas Say. Say was a taxonomist and interested primarily 
in classification. Later the economic aspects became increasingly important and life 
histories and control measures were studied. All of these are still important but there 
are also highly specialized areas like molecular biology and DNA research that were 
unknown just a few years ago. 

Literature Cited 

1. Daily, W.A. and F.K. Daily. 1984. History of the Indiana Academy of Science 
1885-1984, Ind. Acad. Sci. Indianapolis, IN. 249 p. 

2. David, J.J. 1932. Entomologists and Entomology in Indiana. Proc. Ind. Acad. 
Sci. 41:43-70. 

3. Deay, H.O. 1955. Entomology at Purdue, Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. 64:152-157. 

4. Everman, Barton Warren. 1917. A Century of Zoology in Indiana. Proc. Ind. 
Acad. Sci. 26:189-224. 

5. Luginbill, Phillip. 1955. Federal Entomology in Indiana. Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. 
64-161-164. 

6. Mallis, Arnold. 1971. American Entomologists. Rutgers U. Press, New Brunswick, 
N.J. 549 p. 

7. Montgomery, B. Elwood. 1955. Entomology Before 1854, Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. 
64:142-147. 

8. 1966. One Hundred Fifty Years of Entomology in Indiana, Unpublished 

manuscript, 27 p. 
9. Ulman, Paul T. 1955. Regulatory Entomology in Indiana, Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. 

64:158-160. 

10. Wilson, M. Curtis. 1955. Entomological Pioneers in Indiana, Proc. Ind. Acad. 
Sci. 64:148-151. 

11. Young, F.N. 1955. Work at Other Institutions and by Private Individuals Since 
1854. Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. 64:165-172. 



Indiana Gypsy Moth Survey — A History 

Philip T. Marshall 

Indiana Department of Natural Resources 

Vallonia, Indiana 47281 

and 

James A. Clark 

Indiana Department of Natural Resources 

Indianapolis, Indiana 46204 

Introduction 

Since gypsy moth's, Lymantria dispar L., (Lepidoptera, Lymantriidae), escape 
from a botanist in Medford Massachusetts in 1869, this forest defolitor has gradually 
spread west. Currently, the defoliation to timberlands of the United States occurs north- 
ward from western Pennsylvania, northeastern West Virginia, northern Virginia, 
Maryland, and Delaware through the New England states to Canada (6). While the 
gypsy moth caterpillars were eating their way through 14 states and over 52 million 
acres of forest land, man has unknowingly aided gypsy moth in their spread to other 
states (2). Currently, man and his vehicles have introduced gypsy moth to all states 
east of the Mississippi River and to several states west of the Mississippi including 
all west coast states. Realizing that gypsy moth would be introduced to noninfested 
states as man moved and travelled, the United States Department of Agriculture, Animal 
and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) began cooperative surveys to detect gypsy 
moth in these states. The cooperative gypsy moth survey in Indiana began in 1972, 
and this paper presents a history of the survey from 1972 through 1984. 

Methods and Materials 

The gypsy moth survey uses the gypsy moth pheromone trap. This trap is a delta 
trap (tent-like) approximately 9.4" x 4.0" x 4.0". The trap is made of plastic coated 
paperboard with two internal sides covered with Tack-Trap and the third side used 
to attach the pheromone bait. The traps are orange, tan or green in color. The trap 
will hold 15-20 male moths (3). 

The gypsy moth pheromone is called disparlure. Between 1972 and 1980, the racemic 
form of the pheromone was used. Starting in 1981, the improved 'plus' form of the 
pheromone has been used. The racemic form came in a green plastic dispenser approx- 
imately 1 " x 1 ". The 'plus' form is dispensed from a tan plastic dispenser 1 " x 1/8". 
The pheromone is released at a constant rate over the trapping period (3). 

The gypsy moth survey begins with a detection survey, and then, if a male moth 
is trapped, a delimitation survey is conducted the following year. If more than one 
moth is caught in one trap or when several traps in one localized area have one or 
more moths, an egg mass survey is conducted in the fall of the survey year. One addi- 
tional part of the gypsy moth survey is mass trapping. Mass trapping is used to follow- 
up aerial spray programs and in areas where patterns of male moth catches indicate 
an infestation has started but no other life stage has been found. 

In the detection survey, traps are placed according to two grid systems — one trap 
per three square miles (one trap every 1.7 mile) and one trap per 25 square mile (one 
trap every 5 mile, 5 mile grid). The USDA, APHIS uses the one trap per three square 
mile grid, and the Division of Entomology uses the one trap per 25 square mile grid. 
The grid system is rotated in each county each year to prevent surveying the same 
area each year and to achieve a complete survey of all land area after three years. 

313 



314 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 94 (1985) 

In some years, APHIS has intensified the detection survey to one trap per one square 
mile in some areas of the counties that they survey. 

In addition to the grid system of the detection survey, traps are placed in special 
sites such as campgrounds, interstate rest areas, motels, truck stops, national campers 
association meetings, nature preserves, classified forests, federal installations, univer- 
sities, and homes of people newly moved into Indiana from the northeast. 

The delimitation survey is conducted at a greater density of traps per square mile. 
Generally, 25 traps per square mile is used; however 32 or 81 traps per square mile 
may be used. The nine square mile area around the trap that caught a gypsy moth 
is trapped at the above density. An additional 16 square mile area surrounding the 
nine square mile area may be trapped at nine traps per square mile (5). When several 
gypsy moths are detected in close proximity to each other, the delimitation grid pat- 
terns will be modified and combined to efficiently delimit all catches of the gypsy 
moth. When only one moth is caught in a county, the nine square mile area may 
be reduced to a four square mile area at 25 traps per square mile with the detected 
moth at the center of the four square mile area. 

The egg mass survey is a general survey of all the area around the point where 
a gypsy moth was trapped. Personnel of the USDA, APHIS and the Division of 
Entomology search the environment for egg masses. They also contact people in the 
areas trying to locate anyone who may have moved there from the generally infested 
area of the northeastern United States. If egg masses are found, they are destroyed, 
and the area is defined as an infestation and will be placed in a control program the 
following year. 

Mass trapping is conducted on a grid system of three traps per acre (1920 traps 
per square mile) or one trap every 120 feet. It is confined to small areas because of 
the quantity of traps needed. 

In the cooperative survey, the USDA, APHIS selected certain counties each year 
to survey, and the Division of Entomology surveyed all remaining counties. From 1972 
through 1980, APHIS would survey 1/3 of the counties in the state. The selection 
of the counties was rotated each year so that after three years, APHIS had surveyed 
all counties of the state once, and the Division of Entomology has surveyed all counties 
once. Since 1981, APHIS has surveyed the counties where gypsy moth has been trap- 
ped the previous year, and the Division of Entomology has surveyed all remaining coun- 
ties. In 1984, the survey changed to target the placement of the traps in areas where 
gypsy moth had a high probability of being introduced. In 1984, APHIS surveyed 
all counties where gypsy moth was detected in 1983 and the counties with major 
metropolitan areas. The Division of Entomology surveyed all remaining counties targeting 
the traps into the cities. 

Personnel involved in the gypsy moth survey are given maps showing the grid 
system indicating where traps are to be placed. The traps are placed as close as possi- 
ble to the grid point on the map. The traps are placed on the siies of trees, posts, 
or poles. The location of each trap is recorded on a trap record form by trap number, 
county, township, range, section number, city or other name for the trap location 
such as the name of the campground. Directions to the trap are recorded, and a sketch 
map is drawn on the trap record form to help locate the trap. 

The traps are placed across the state during June with all traps to be in place 
by the first of July. Traps in the detection survey, generally, are not checked during 
the survey. However, traps in delimitation surveys are periodically checked, and traps 
in a mass trapping survey are checked regularly. All traps are removed during August, 
and the number of gypsy moths and their location are reported to the USDA, APHIS 
and the Division of Entomology. All moths found for the first time in a county are 



Entomology 3 1 5 

submitted to the USDA to be confirmed for official record of first find. The locations 
of moths are plotted on maps to observe the distribution of the gypsy moth. These 
maps aid in identifying the start of infestations and in the planning for the following 
year's survey. 

Results of the survey are summarized annually and reported to the USDA, APHIS 
and Forest Service, the Indiana Department of Natural Resources, Divisions of 
Entomology and Forestry, and the National Gypsy Moth Management Board. The 
report is also published in the Indiana Pest Informer, a newsletter on forest insect and 
diseases. 

Results 

Since 1972, the gypsy moth survey has placed 72,168 traps in the state (Table 
1). Personnel of the USDA, APHIS have placed 52,211 traps, and personnel of the 
Division of Entomology have placed 19,166 traps. An additional 791 traps have been 
placed by members of the National Campers and Hikers Association. 

Table 1. The number of gypsy moth traps set in Indiana by year and cooperators. 







Cooperators 






Year 


Federal 


State 


Other' 


Total 


1972 


883 


1640 




2523 


1973 


1622 


2 


51 


1673 


1974 


2031 


849 


94 


2974 


1975 


1602 


1193 




2795 


1976 


1413 


1919 


36 


3368 


1977 


3991 


1355 




5346 


1978 


3465 


1233 




4698 


1979 


4902 


1257 




6159 


1980 


5371 


1227 


200 


6798 


1981 


4678 


1819 


300 


6797 


1982 


3827 


2313 




6140 


1983 


9063 


1209 




10272 


1984 


9363 


3152 


110 


12625 


Total 


52211 


19166 


791 


72168 



'Primarily set by the National Campers and Hikers Association. 
'Records unavailable. 



The number of traps placed in the state started to increase in the late 70s. This 
increase was in response to the increased introduction of gypsy moth in Indiana from 
the increasing population of gypsy moth in the northeastern United States during this 
time (Table 1) (6). During 1979-1982, the number of traps placed in the state was 
at a constant level over 6,000. Then in 1983 and 1984, the number of traps placed 
almost doubled. This increase in traps placed was due to the use of mass trapping 
in areas where a gypsy moth infestation had been found, to increased intensity of 
the grid system in some counties of the state, and to the increased use of delimitation 
trapping around the increased number of gypsy moth catches of 1982 and 1983 (Table 2). 

During the thirteen years of the survey, traps have been placed in every county 
of the state, except for five years. In 1972, 1973, 1978, 1981, and 1984, traps were 
not placed in 1, 3, 4, 2, and 1 counties, respectively. 

1973 was the first year gypsy moth was found in Indiana. One male moth was 
found in Lake County (Table 2). Surveys in 1974 and 1975 did not catch gypsy moths; 
thus, the first find of gypsy moth was a 'hitchhiker.' 



316 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 94 (1985) 

Table 2. The number of gypsy moth males trapped in Indiana by year and county. 

Year County Number of moths 

1973 Lake 1 

1977 Whitley 1 

1980 1. Allen 1 

2 
1 
1 

4 
1 



10 

iv;;i i Allrn 2 

1 
1 

20 
1 
1 
2 

32 
4 



1. 


Allen 


2. 


Elkhart 


3. 


Franklin 


4. 


Hendricks 


5. 


Vigo 


6. 


Wayne 


1. 


Allen 


2. 


Bartholomew* 


3. 


Boone* 


4. 


Elkhart 


5. 


Lake 


6. 


LaPorte* 


7. 


Tippecanoe* 


8. 


Vigo 


9. 


Wayne 


!. 


Allen 


2. 


Bartholomew 


3. 


Blackford* 


4. 


Brown* 


5. 


Elkhart 


6. 


Fulton* 


7. 


Hancock* 


8. 


Hendricks 


9. 


Jefferson* 


10. 


Johnson* 


11. 


Kosciusko* 


12. 


LaPorte 


13. 


Marion* 


14. 


Monroe* 


15. 


Montgomery* 


16. 


Morgan* 


17. 


Noble* 


18. 


Putnam* 


19. 


St. Joseph* 


20. 


Tippecanoe 


21. 


Wayne 



2. 


Bartholomew 


3. 


Elkhart 


4. 


Greene* 


5. 


Hamilton* 


6. 


Hendricks 


7. 


LaGrange* 


8. 


Lake 


9. 


LaPorte 


10. 


Marion 


11. 


Monroe 


12. 


St. Joseph 



64 

!'.-•.; Mlrn 5 

14 
1 
1 
372 
1 
2 
2 
1 

20 
1 
4 

11 
1 
1 
2 
1 
1 

21 
8 
3 



473 

1983 1. Allen 1 

7 
29 

1 
2 
1 
1 
1 
1 
35 
1 

n 

91 



Entomology 



317 



Table 2. — Continued 



Year 



County 



Number of moths 



1984 



1 . Allen 

2. Decatur* 

3. DeKalb* 

4. Elkhart 

5. Fulton 

6. Hamilton 

7. Jackson* 

8. Johnson 

9. Kosciusko 

10. LaGrange 

11. Lake 

12. Marion 

13. Marshall* 

14. Monroe 

15. Orange* 

16. St. Joseph 

17. Wabash* 

18. Wayne 

19. Whitley 



11 
1 
I 

13 
1 
1 
1 

4 
4 
3 
8 

14 
2 
1 
1 

23 
1 
1 
1 



92 



*New county record for that year. 



The second gypsy moth was caught in 1977 in Whitley county. Again, this moth 
was a 'hitchhiker' and no infestation developed. 

1980 was the first year when more than one moth was found and more than 
one county had gypsy moth (Table 2). Since 1980 when 10 moths from 6 counties 
were found, gypsy moth has been found in Indiana every year. In 1981, 64 moths 
were found in 9 counties with 4 of the counties being new county records. In 1982, 
473 moths were found in 21 counties with 14 of the counties being new county records. 
In 1983, 91 moths were trapped in 12 counties with 3 counties being new county records. 
And in 1984, 92 moths were found in 19 counties with 7 new county records (Table 
2, Figure 1). 

The survey has trapped 732 male moths from 35 different counties since 1972 
(Table 3, Figure 2). Most of these gypsy moth catches have been one moth in one 
trap in one location. These single catches are 'hitchhikers' that did not develop into 
infestations. And, yearly survey records indicate 13 counties are more likely to have 
gypsy moth introduced and trapped from them. These counties are Allen, Elkhart, 
Hamilton, Hendricks, LaGrange, Lake, LaPorte, Marion, Monroe, St. Joseph, Tip- 
pecanoe, Vigo, and Wayne (Table 2 & 3). The major metropolitan areas of the state 
occur in or next to these counties, and this is one reason why these counties are prone 
to gypsy moth introduction. 

The survey has detected and located six infestations. This number may increase 
after the 1984 multiple-catches of gypsy moth are delimited to determine if an infesta- 
tion has started (Table 3). 

The first infestation was found in Vigo county in 1981. The 1980 survey found 
4 moths in a subdivision called Krislynn Woods near Tecumseh. In 1981, the survey 
trapped 31 moths in this areas. Egg mass surveys in 1981 found 63 egg masses around 
one home in the subdivision. Residents of this home had moved there from an infested 
area of New Jersey. 

Also in 1981 a second infestation was found in Elkhart county in the city of 



318 



Indiana Academy of Science 



Vol. 94 (1985) 




PULASKI 



PULTON 



ELKHART 



KOSCIUSKO 



LAG*A**Gt« snu*i* 



Moeu 



OCKALB 



WW(TL£V J 



CASS 



CA«90u. 



; P£C*NOt 



WABASH 



TON Lw 



'IPTQN 



WEi-i-S 



aDamS 



a 



DELAWARE 



RasCXX-P^ 




Figure 1. Locations where gypsy moth was trapped in 1984. 



Goshen. Surveys in 1980 found 2 moths in Elkhart county. In 1981, 20 moths were 
found with 18 moths being found in Goshen. Surveys in 1982 found 372 moths and 
80 egg masses. 



Entomology 



319 



Table 3. List of counties where gypsy moth males have been trapped including total 
moths trapped, year first trapped, number of consecutive years trapped and number of 
infestations. 



County 



Total moths 



First year 



Consecutive 
Years 



Number 
Infestations 



1. 


Allen 


20 


1980 


2. 


Bartholomew 


19 


1981 


3. 


Blackford 


1 


1982 


4. 


Boone 


1 


1981 


5. 


Brown 


1 


1982 


6. 


Decatur 


1 


1984 


7. 


DeKalb 


1 


1984 


8. 


Elkhart 


436 


1980 


9. 


Franklin 


1 


1980 


10. 


Fulton 


2 


1982 


11. 


Greene 


1 


1983 


12. 


Hamilton 


3 


1983 


13. 


Hancock 


2 


1982 


14. 


Hendricks 


4 


1980 


15. 


Jackson 


1 


1984 


16. 


Jefferson 


1 


1982 


17. 


Johnson 


22 


1982 


18. 


Kosciusko 


5 


1982 


19. 


LaGrange 


4 


1983 


20. 


Lake 


11 


1973 


21. 


LaPorte 


6 


1981 


22. 


Marion 


60 


1982 


23. 


Marshall 


2 


1984 


24. 


Monroe 


3 


1982 


25. 


Montgomery 


1 


1982 


26. 


Morgan 


2 


1982 


27. 


Noble 


1 


1982 


28. 


Orange 


1 


1984 


29. 


Putnam 


1 


1982 


30. 


St. Joseph 


55 


1982 


31. 


Tippecanoe 


10 


1981 


32. 


Vigo 


36 


1980 


33. 


Wabash 


1 


1984 


34. 


Wayne 


9 


1980 


35. 


Whitley 


2 


1977 



732 



Table 4: Explanation of symbols for figure 1 



One male moth in one trap in one location. 

More than one trap containing one male moth in one location. 

Multiple male moths in one trap in one location. 

One or more of the following in one location — one male moth per trap and multiple male moths 
per trap. 



320 



Indiana Academy of Science 



Vol. 94 (1985) 




Figure 2. Counties where gypsy moth has been trapped since the survey began in 1972. 



The infestation in Bartholomew county was in the city of Columbus. One moth 
was caught in 1981. In 1982, 14 moths were caught in the same area. Egg mass surveys 
in 1982 found 5 old egg masses on a boat trailer belonging to a family who had recently 



Entomology 321 

moved to Columbus from Connecticut. No viable egg masses were found, and with 
mass trapping this infestation has died-out (Table 2). 

The infestation in Johnson county (Table 3) was found in Camp Atterbury at 
a national meeting of the Campers and Hikers Association. This infestation was mostly 
'hitchhiking' moths, and the infestation died-out from mass trapping and ground sprays. 

The two infestations in Marion county were classified infestations based on the 
pattern of trapped moths from one year to the next. In 1982, 11 moths were found 
in the two areas. This increased to 35 in 1983. In both areas egg mass surveys were 
negative. Mass trapping has been used in each area, and only one of the two areas 
had gypsy moth trapped from it in 1984. 

Gypsy moth has been trapped from four state parks — Brown County, Chain-O- 
Lake, Clifty Falls, and Shakamak, one state recreation area — Paynetown (Monroe Reser- 
voir), several private and county campgrounds, on or near the campuses of Notre Dame, 
Purdue, and Indiana Universities, rest areas on interstates, and classified forests. All 
locations where multiple catches have been made can be linked to someone moving 
and carrying gypsy moth on their cars or RVs and their personal property into Indiana. 
Nurserystock from an infested northeastern nursery has also carried gypsy moth into 
Indiana. 

Discussion 

The gypsy moth survey has found that Indiana can easily have this defoliator 
introduced into the state and its forests. The survey has also found that gypsy moth 
is more likely to be introduced in cities and large metropolitan areas where movement 
of man is more likely to occur. Thus, the recent change in the survey to target traps 
into these areas. The survey has also found that man's vehicles and other property 
are the primary means of carrying gypsy moth into Indiana. 

Although cities and metropolitan areas may have a greater chance of introducing 
gypsy moth into Indiana, the rural areas of the state must not be forgotten. This is 
especially important for south central Indiana where the major forest areas of the 
state occurs (4). In this area, gypsy moth has been found in Brown County State Park, 
Paynetown Recreation Area, and the city of Bloomington. Should gypsy moth infesta- 
tions start in this area, a major natural resource of Indiana is threatened. 

The patterns of gypsy moth catches within a year and between years indicate 
that the current survey has done a good job in detecting the introduction of gypsy 
moth to Indiana. The survey has located many single catches of gypsy moth and subse- 
quently shown that these single catches were not the start of an infestation. The detec- 
tion survey and following delimitation survey have located six infestations with four 
of the six infestations eradicated and two under a control program. This early and 
efficient detection of gypsy moth will provide many years before a gypsy moth infesta- 
tion becomes an established population that could spread from within the state. 

As found in research on Dutch Elm Disease, an introduced pest to the United 
States like gypsy moth, efficient and intensive surveys to detect Dutch Elm Disease 
resulted in a greater length of service before elms were infected and killed and in an 
overall reduction in the cost of controlling the disease (1). This same intensive survey 
effort for gypsy moth in the noninfested states can provide similar benefits by lengthening 
the time to establish populations, by reducing costs of control and by defining in- 
troductions of gypsy moth in such a manner as to allow better match of control methods 
to the particular situation. Therefore, to protect the valuable forest resource and the 
wooded urban environments of Indiana, the gypsy moth survey should continue at 
the same or greater intensive level. 



322 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 94 (1985) 

Literature Cited 

1. Cannon, W.N., Jr. and D.P. Worley. 1976. Dutch elm disease control: perfor- 
mance and costs. USDA, For. Ser. Res. Pap. NE-345, 7 pp. 

2. Personal communication. U.S. Forest Service, State and Private Forestry, Forest 
Pest Management, Morgantown, W.V., Oct. 1984. 

3. Schwable, C.P. 1979. Using pheromone traps to detect and evaluate populations 
of the gypsy moth: gypsy moth handbook. USDA, Agric. Handbook No. 544, 
11 pp. 

4. Spencer, John S., Jr. 1969. Indiana's timber. USDA, For. Ser. Res. Bui. NC-7, 
61 pp. 

5. USDA. 1980. Gypsy moth and browntail moth program manual. Animal and 
Plant Health Inspection Service, 34 pp. 

6. USDA. 1984. Gypsy moth suppression and eradication projects: final environmental 
impact statement. USDA: Forest Service and APHIS, Washington, D.C. 



Insects and Other Arthropods of Economic Importance in Indiana in 1984 

Robert W. Meyer 
Department of Entomology 
Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 

Introduction 

The winter of 1983-1984 was harsh. In addition to depressed temperatures — a 
minus 29 degrees F. was recorded on 24 December in Hobart and the same temperature 
was recorded in English on 21 January — there was often little snow cover. This com- 
bination probably reduced alfalfa weevil and Mexican bean beetle populations, the 
latter already drastically reduced by high temperatures in the summer of 1983. 

The spring was cool and wet. Planting began in the northern third of the state 
the first week in May but was delayed until the third week in the southern half. Early 
in June drought conditions prevailed over much of the state, lasting for much of the 
summer; such rains as occurred were usually light and localized. Fortunately the sum- 
mer temperatures were moderate, preventing a recurrence of the damage the crops, 
especially corn, suffered in 1983. 

Other factors affected this year's crops. According to Indiana Weekly Weather 
and Crops (which provided most of the weather information above) 41% of the corn 
ground and 46% of the soybean ground was prepared by plowing, 45°7o and 46% 
were conservation tillage, and 14°7o of the corn and 8% of the soybeans were planted 
no-till. An estimated 6,000,000 acres of corn and 4,200,000 acres of soybeans were 
planted. 

Corn and Small Grains 

The western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera) is generally Indiana's most costly 
agricultural pest; an estimated 2,400,000 acres were treated in 1984 at a cost of 
$24,000,000. As usual, not all of the treating was necessary and some untreated areas 
should have been. In 1983 the government, in an effort to reduce corn surplusses, 
offered growers grain if they reduced their corn acreages, the so-called payment-in- 
kind program. Forty percent of the acres normally planted to corn were taken out 
of production, incidentally reducing the acres producing corn rootworms. The average 
number of beetles/stalk, counted late July and early August in visits to 225 fields, 
was 0.97 in 1983; in 1984 the figure was 0.64, with district averages ranging from 
0.43 go 0.87. Silk clipping rarely reached economic levels, if ever. 

The first first-instar in a Tippecanoe Co. field regularly surveyed for this insect 
was collected on 8 June, not unusually late, and the first adult reported in the state 
was collected on 3 July in Parke Co., the normal date for its appearance. 

Counts of the northern corn rootworm (D. barberi) averaged 0.07/stalk over the 
state, as determined by the survey described above. 

The fall, 1983, corn survey put European corn borer {Ostrinia nubilalis) larvae 
at 84/100 stalks, the state average. Adults this year observed as early as 30 May in 
Knox Co., but were probably present earlier as second instar larvae were collected 
by 13 June in Jackson Co. The peak flight of the first generation moths to blacklight 
traps occurred before the middle of June, when corn averaged less than 15 inches. 
The second flight peaked the first 2 weeks of August, by which time most of the corn 
had silked. Flights were not large, at least by 1983 standards when daily catches in 
some traps exceeded 500 whereas this year's catches generally did not reach 300/week. 
The fall survey this year of 300 fields in 60 counties found the average number of 
live larvae to be 99/100 stalks, unevenly distributed. Most of the larger populations 

323 



324 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 94 (1985) 

were in the northern districts, which is normal, with 6 counties averaging more than 
2 larvae/stalk. Only 1 county elsewhere — Jackson — averaged more than 2/stalk. 

The disease crazy top was more common this year than in other years. 

Minor pests in corn in 1984 were the following. 

Corn leaf aphids (Rhopalosiphum maidis) did not build up to the high numbers 
expected with moisture stresses; they were present as usual but at non-economic numbers. 

Billbugs (Undetermined) required treatment in a muck field of 90 acres in LaPorte 
Co. 

Japanese beetles (Popillia japonica) were more common this year than last, and 
when that happens there are usually a few fields of corn that require treatment to 
prevent silk clipping. Most of this type of damage occurred in the NW and NC districts. 

Black cutwork (Agrotis ipsilori) was infrequently reported from corn. 

Grasshoppers (Several species) and yellow woollybears (Diacrisia virginica) were 
both more common than usual, and sometimes did conspicuous damage to corn at 
field edges either alone or in combination. The latter was occasionally responsible for 
serious silk clipping. 

A survey of 385 certified seed fields in 62 counties in the spring of 1984 (con- 
ducted cooperatively by the Indiana Crop Improvement Association, the Agricultural 
Research Service of the USDA, and Purdue's Entomology Department) yielded the 
following data on the Hessian fly (Mayetiola destructor). The mean percent infested 
of all wheats surveyed — including wheats with no resistance to the fly — was 1 .4; mean 
puparia/100 stems for the same set: 2. Both of these figures were increases over last 
year. The most commonly planted wheat with H6 resistance — Caldwell — was infested 
at the rate of only 0.6%; all cultivars with H6 resistance together averaged only 0.4% 
infested. Those with no sources of resistance averaged 7.2% infested. 

The English grain aphid (Sitobion avenae) was common on small grains this year 
in the southern half of the state, far outnumbering the bird-cherry oat aphid 
{Rhopalosiphum padi). Neither was considered economic. 

Cereal leaf beetle {Oulema melanopus) normally occurs in numbers only in Harrison 
Co. This year adults were first swept from alfalfa on 25 April, an egg was seen on 
barley on 1 May and early instars on 22 May, in trace numbers only, and only in 
Harrison Co. 

Forage Legumes and Soybeans 

Aside from occasional, and usually field-edge, feeding by grasshoppers and/or 
yellow woollybears, soybeans were relatively free from insect attack this year. Mexican 
bean beetle {Epilachna varivestis) adults are usually swept early from alfalfa. This year 
none was. Adults were rare, and immatures were seen only in a few fields in Jennings 
Co. in soybeans. Green cloverworms (Plathypena scabra) were often present, but only 
in trace numbers. Japanese beetles were sometimes numerous enough to do conspicuous 
but non-economic feeding not confined to the northern districts as silk feeding is. A 
soybean leafminer (Odontota horni) was present in trace numbers in soybeans in the 
NW district. Bean leaf beetles (Cerotoma trifurcata) were swept from alfalfa about 
mid-May at the rate of 40-60/100 sweeps in the WC district, and they were occasionally 
numerous in soybeans later. They were seldom at economic numbers in soybeans. 

The alfalfa weevil (Hypera postica) was rarely a problem in alfalfa even in the 
southern third of the state. This was due both to good growth, enabling the plants 
to tolerate more feeding, and low numbers of larvae. At early bud stage (about 15 
May) when alfalfa averaged 70 or more centimeters, larvae averaged fewer than 1.5/stem 
in the SW, 0.5/stem (as a result of disease) in the SC district. The cold, open winter 
may have reduced adult numbers, and it certainly destroyed all the fall-laid eggs. 



Entomology 325 

Potato leafhopper (Empoasca fabae), usually the most serious pest of alfalfa in 
Indiana, was rarely a problem during 1984. One estimate places treated acreage at 
about 10% in the northern alfalfa-growing belt, much less in the southern. Only the 
third cutting was affected. 

Eggs of the variegated cutworm {Peridroma saucia) were first observed on white 
plastic flags in alfalfa in Harrison Co. on 1 May. Since they hatched the next day 
they must have been deposited several days before. They were not there 7 days earlier. 
They have been collected as early as 7 April in the same field. The species occasionally 
builds up in alfalfa and is often a garden pest. 

Vegetable Insects 

Garden insects were generally at lower-than-usual levels in 1984. Exceptions follow. 
The European corn borer was a serious pest in sweet corn, in beans grown for process- 
ing and in green peppers. There was an instance of this species also in onion tops, 
which is rather unusual. The corn earworm (Heliothis zed) was a serious pest in late 
sweet corn as well as in tomatoes. A pheromone trap in Tippecanoe Co. at its peak 
caught 227 adults in 1 night. 

Apparently it was a good year for the squash bug (Anasa tristis) and problems 
with squash vine borer (Melittia satyriniformis) have remained fairly constant. 

Fruit Insects 

All of the data on fruit tree insects, unless otherwise noted, are based on catches 
in 5 pheromone traps in Knox Co. operated by Thomas Mouzin of the USDA. The 
year's total catch is used to compare 1984 with previous years — not the best system 
but the best available. 

Codling moth (Cydia pomonella) catches of 245 were half those of the 8-year 
mean (1976-1983) of 513, with weak peaks at the end of May and the end of August. 

The 1984 total of 971 male redbanded leafroller (Argyrotaenia velutinana) was 
less than the 8-year average of 1429, with peaks in mid-April, mid- to end of June 
and mid-August. 

The 1984 catch of 307 obliquebanded leafroller {Choristoneura rosaceana) was 
near the 7-year average of 316, with a peak at mid-June and a lesser at the end of 
September. 

The catch of 220 leafminers (Phyllonorycter sp.) is double the 4-year average 
of 100. Knox Co. totals do not however reflect conditions occurring in the rest of 
the state. Economic or near economic infestations were seen in the NE counties of 
LaGrange and Adams, the EC counties of Wayne and Delaware, and the C district 
county of Madison. Adults in those counties were in flight the latter half of July. 

Oriental fruit moth (Grapholitha molesta) catches of 1372 were somewhat smaller 
than the 8-year mean of 1748. Larger numbers flew at the end of May, most of July 
and at the end of August and the beginning of September. 

This is only the fourth year that pheromones have been used in Knox Co. (rather 
than live females) to attract males of the lesser peachtree borers (Synanthedon pictipes). 
The 3-year average of 1849 was exceeded by this year's 2045. Peaks occurred in mid- 
June, mid-July and late August-early September. 

The peachtree borer (Synanthedon exitiosa) catch of 289 exceeds the 5-year average 
of 191; there was a mid-July peak. 

Trapping of San Jose scale (Quadraspidiotus perniciosus) was begun in 1982 when 
143 were collected. Half that many came in 1983. This year 1000-plus (too many to 
be counted accurately) came from 9-15 July, and 1066 were collected from 8-14 Oct. 
This year's total came to 3079. 



326 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 94 (1985) 

Insects of Ornamental Trees and Shrubs 

The ten insects most frequently seen by nursery inspectors during 1984 — using 
data supplied by the office of the State Entomologist — are listed here. 1. Fall web- 
worm, (Hyphantria cunea); 2. Japanese beetle; 3. Bronze birch borer, (Agrilus anx- 
ius); 4. Honeysuckle aphid, (Hydaphis tartaricae); 5. Fletcher scale; (Lecanium flet- 
cheri); 6. Yellownecked caterpillar, (Datana ministra); 7. Maple bladdergall mite, (Vasates 
quadhpes)', 8. Oystershell scale, (Lepidosaphes ulmi); 9. Mimosa webworm, {Homadaula 
anisocentra), and 10. Euonymus scale, (Unaspis euonymi). 

In general, the State Entomologist noted that reports of both aphids and borers 
were nearly double those of 1983. Apparently, the cool wet spring brought forth enough 
new growth for the aphids to flourish. He attributed the increase of borers to the 
stresses on trees caused by the drought of 1983 and the harsh winters that bracketed it. 

Man and Animals 

The following generalizations were provided by Medical Entomologist Michael 
Sinsko, Indiana State Board of Health, and they reflect the situation as of 31 October. 
Mosquito activity at best was spotty, with total activity down again due to a paucity 
of breeding sites. There were no reported cases of St. Louis encephalitis, 1 1 cases of 
LaCross encephalitis (about average) and no cases of eastern equine encephalitis. There 
were 5 confirmed cases of Rocky Mountain spotted fever. 

More difficult to categorize are several pest arthropods. Fleas, especially cat fleas 
(Ctenocephalides felis) had a good year. Head lice (Pediculus humanus capitis) were 
again common and scabies mites (Sarcoptes scabiei var. hominis) infestations seem 
to have reached a plateau. House fly activity is particularly difficult to estimate. Local 
conditions — the presence of a poultry operation for instance — may be a major nuisance 
in a year otherwise not noted for flies. Best estimates classify 1984 as an average year 
for house flies. 

Judging from the number of complaints about them it must have been a good 
year for yellow jackets. 

Cheryl Towell provided the following. Over the fly season this year, face flies 
(Musca autumnalis) averaged 7/ face, about half the average during the last 2 years. 
Horn flies (Haematobia irritans) were about average at 28/side. 

Beneficial Insects 

Adult alfalfa weevils were difficult to obtain in large enough numbers to estimate 
accurately the amount of parasitization by Microctonus aethiopoides, our most com- 
mon adult parasite. More than 2300 larvae were reared, however, to estimate the activity 
of Bathyplectes anurus and B. curculionis. On a district basis, the NC averaged 7%, 
the NE, 14 and the WC 8%, almost entirely by B. curculionis. B. anurus is known 
to be present all over the state; it is not known why it isn't more common at least 
in the WC district, which is surveyed frequently enough. The SW average totalled 
44%, 19% due to B. anurus, 25% to curculionis. The SC average was 61%, 56% 
due to anurus and only 5% due to curculionis. The 28% due to anurus and 18% 
due to curculionis adds up to 46% parasitized in the SE district. Sampling was done 
on a weekly basis when larvae were present in sufficient numbers to be readily swept, 
especially in the WC, the SW and the SC districts. B. anurus is the more common 
under normal circumstances in the earliest samples, curculionis in the later. The SC 
is exceptional, and is probably due to the presence of disease. The fungus Erynia sp. 
especially in Harrison Co. during the last 4 or 5 years has decimated weevil larval 
populations, especially the last to hatch. In summary, the state average including both 



Entomology 327 

species and all surveyed districts (the NW, C and EC districts were not surveyed) was 
43.5%. 

The red coccinellids collected on 10 sticky traps in a Tippecanoe Co. corn field 
are counted each year as a population estimate. The most commonly collected is Col- 
eomegi/la maculata; this year 538 were collected, the most ever collected, and that 
does not cover the hibernation flight which sometimes occurs (the corn was harvested 
too early to permit that count). The ratio of Coleomegilla maculata: Hippodamia con- 
vergens.H. tredecimpunctata:Cycloneda sanguinea this year was 84:9:0:7. The same 
ratio among the coccinellids observed during the fall corn insect survey was 96:4:0:0, 
based on seeing only 156 C. maculata on the 7500 stalks surveyed. 



Annual Changes in Flea Populations on Three Domestic Pets, 1978-1984 

Jack R. Munsee 
Department of Life Sciences 

Indiana State University 
Terre Haute, Indiana 47809 

Introduction 

There are about 1900 species and subspecies of fleas worldwide (4). In Indiana, 
Whitaker (6) has listed 31 species from wild mammals; in addition, two other species 
have been collected, one from barn swallows and another from man and domestic 
animals. Few among the many species of fleas are of direct concern to humans. Those 
that bother humans in modern societies are species that live on or in association with 
domestic animals or pets. Of direct concern to owners of the latter are the fleas that 
infest dogs and cats, especially if these pets share the living quarters of their owners. 
Because fleas may not always have contact with their normal hosts, in heavy infesta- 
tions humans may serve as temporary sources for blood upon which adult fleas feed 
exclusively. Fleas on pets that live outdoors are not as likely to become a serious threat 
to either pets or owners. 

This report is an outgrowth of efforts to control fleas on two neutered pet dogs 
and subsequently those infesting a neutered male cat. It was thought that if fleas were 
removed from the pets regularly in order to prevent large population build-ups, insec- 
ticides would not be needed. The purpose of control was to prevent development of 
large populations of fleas, rather than attempt to eliminate all fleas. 

Methods and Materials 

Although the practice of regular weekly grooming and collecting fleas began earlier, 
in 1978 recording of data started and continued through part of August 1984, covering 
a period of six years and eight months. At the onset of flea infestations, particular 
attention was given to combing as part of grooming. Also, since the pets not only 
differed in size but in kind of pelage, different techniques were used in removing fleas. 
The part retriever female dog weighs about thirty pounds (13.6 kg), has straight, black 
hair which is dense over most of her body. The miniature male poodle, weighs about 
eleven pounds (4.95 kg), has tightly curled, tan hair through which a comb cannot 
be drawn. The grey tiger male cat has long, fine hair which forms a dense coat over 
most of his body. 

On the retriever and cat, collecting was begun with a regular comb (7 teeth/cm). 
Some fleas were taken from hair mats removed with the comb. To remove fleas from 
the mats, forceps were used to transfer them to 70% ethanol. (Experience proved that 
it was important to keep the fleas in the mat and not allow them footing on any un- 
broken surface. While in the mat they seldom jumped, but from the comb's surface 
or finger they quickly sprung aloft). In addition, fine-toothed combs (12 teeth/cm) 
were used and were the most efficient collecting tool. Besides becoming entangled in 
hair mats, fleas were often wedged between the combs' teeth. They were then forced 
out with a thin blade into the alcohol. With the retriever, an alcohol wash-bottle was 
also used. In dense black hair, dark brown fleas can easily escape detection, but when 
seen they were doused with the alcohol. Besides being entangled they were mildly 
anesthetized making removal with blunt forceps easy. Forceps and alcohol wash-bottle 
were used to remove fleas from the poodle. Apparently, flea behavior includes positive 
thigmotropism. By pressing the hair upon the skin, a flea nearby would wedge itself 

329 



330 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 94 (1985) 

into the hair mesh so formed, and was easy to collect with the forceps. Fleas were 
readily removed from the poodle with forceps, especially on ventral posterior areas 
whf e the skin was mostly hairless. 

Combing time varied on the pets, continuing on each until no fleas were seen. 
Combing began anteriorly, proceeding posteriorly on the dorsal surfaces and the pro- 
cess repeated on the ventral areas with the animals lying on their sides. By means 
of a stereo microscope (30X), collected fleas were sexed and numbers of each sex recorded 
by the week. During periods of population build-ups, collecting was done on a daily 
basis. Specimens for each year were stored in vials with 70% alcohol. When several 
successive checks for fleas revealed their absence, collecting stopped. Collecting resumed 
when any of the pets were observed scratching themselves, or if during the weekly 
grooming, blood clots appeared in the hair mats. The appearance of clots on their 
sleeping pads also prompted the resumption of collecting. The presence of adult fleas 
was a certain indication that collecting should resume. 

As indicated in the Introduction, use of insecticides was not anticipated in con- 
trolling fleas. However, it was deemed necessary to apply an insecticide twenty-one 
different times during the six-year period, 1978 to 1984. Sevin™ as powder or spray 
and Durakyl™ were applied to one or all three of the pets and/or to their sleeping quarters 
on the following dates: 

1978 August and September 1982 July, August (3)*, September and 

October 

1979 August and September 1983 June, July (2), August and 

September 

1980 None 1984 June, July (2), and August (2) 

1981 December *Number of applications per month 

Using methods described above, it was possible to maintain a flea-host relation- 
ship among the pets that did not involve humans as temporary hosts. Additional steps 
taken to maintain this relationship included regular shaking and sweeping of sleeping 
pads and cleaning of sleeping quarters. Also, all debris combed from the pets was 
caught on the grooming pad and removed from the house. 

Results 

Most of the fleas were collected during the second halves of the years (Figures 
1 and 2). In the spring of 1983, however, more fleas were taken from the cat than 
from the dogs (Figure 2). A total of 4,549 fleas were collected and sex determinations 
made. Of the total, 2,937 were females and 1,612 were males resulting in a sex ratio 
of about 1.8:1.0. The species of flea collected in this study was Ctenocephalides felis 
felis (Bouche) as determined by Whitaker and Benton (personal communication). Among 
specimens submitted for examination by these investigators, the genal spines were not 
consistently subequal, nor was the distal end of the manubrium of the male clasper 
typically that of C. f. felis. With some fleas, Whitaker noted that the manubrium 
was expanded, somewhat similar to the condition found in C. can is /(Curtis), the dog 
flea. Another characteristic that aided in the determination was head length. That of 
C. f felis is relatively longer than C. canis. Geary (3) collected C. /. felis from three 
times as many sources as C. canis which attests to its more widespread distribution 
than the latter species. 

In his study of ectoparasitic insects, Marshall (3) found that females usually 
predominate in natural populations. Although he determined that the sex ratio of the 
majority of ectoparasitic insects is parity at emergence, fleas represent an exception. 



Entomology 



331 



500 
400 
300 
200 
100 

500 
400 
300 
200 
100 

500 

400- 

_ 

300 - 
200 - 
100 - 



1984 



■ MALE 
□ FEMALE 



t r 




t 1 1 r 



1983 




1982 



t 1 1 r 




JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC 

Figure 1. Number of fleas collected monthly from two domestic dogs, 1978-1984. 

One factor offered to account for this is that male fleas, being more active and smaller 
than females, tend to separate more readily from the host. Also, he believes that males 



332 

60 r 
40- 
20 



Indiana Academy of Science 



Vol. 94 (1985) 



T-1984 



■ MALE 
□ FEMALE 



T , 1 — f 



_ n jl| 



t 1 1 r 



60 
40 
20 



T-1983 



T r 




60 
40 
20 



T-1982 



t r 



p 



I 



liUi 



60 
40 
20 



T-1981 



t 1 1 1 1 1 r 




JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC 

Figure 2. Number of fleas collected monthly from a domestic cat (T), 1981-1984. 



are less able to withstand adverse conditions of nutrition and climate. He further noted 
that fleas are seasonal breeders. Another factor is that a sampling bias may exist that 
is caused by one sex spending more time on the host or in the home than the other. 
Finally, he noted that the sex ratio may vary with the season. 

In the present study, female fleas outnumbered males 1.8:1.0. Although collec- 
tions for some years show one and sometimes two months where the number of males 



Entomology 333 

exceeds that of females, the preponderance of females over males is clear (Figures 
1 and 2). This suggests that there is a certain amount of stability in the sex ratio. 

Chumakova and Kozlov (1) tested the stability of sex ratios in three species of 
fleas. They found the ratio stable in flea progeny as a function of the age of female 
fleas, when the progeny fed on different host species, and when progeny fed on dif- 
ferent generative states of the host. 

An attempt was made to correlate area meteorological data with numbers of fleas 
collected on a monthly basis for each of the six years and eight months. No significant 
correlation was observed when numbers of fleas were compared with monthly means 
of temperature, rainfall, and relative humidity. The highest correlation was found with 
temperature (r = 0.3). It was thought that significant correlation with one or more 
of these weather parameters would aid in explaining the changes in seasonal abun- 
dance as well as annual fluctuations in numbers of fleas shown in Figures 1 and 2. 

Cole (2) studied the effects of temperature on the sex ratio in Xenopsylla cheopis 
(Rothschild), the rat flea. He found no significant correlation between percentage of 
females, collected weekly for forty-five weeks, and rainfall, relative humidity, or satura- 
tion deficiency. However, there was high correlation (r = 0.8) with the sex ratio and 
weekly temperatures. 

Throughout the flea control period represented in this report, a serious effort 
was made to avoid using insecticides. When used most often, 1982-1984, population 
increases were more pronounced than during previous years. In order to provide relief 
to the pets and to keep the host-flea relationship at tolerable levels for them, insec- 
ticides were applied as indicated. While numbers of fleas were reduced, distribution 
patterns from year to year appear to be less affected by these applications (Figures 
1 and 2). Insecticides were used when needed rather than according to schedule. 

Conclusions 

Fleas of dogs and cats that live in the home can become a serious nuisance to 
human occupants if not actively controlled. In this study, from January 1978 through 
August 1984 , the attempt was to prevent fleas from building up large, uncontrollable 
populations on the pets without using insecticides. The intent was to maintain a 
manageable population of fleas by removing them from the pets regularly, mostly on 
a weekly basis. During the period indicated, on twenty-one occasions, however, it became 
necessary to use insecticides in addition to mechanical removal and sanitary control 
of fleas. 

Results of tallies of fleas over the years suggest a seasonal basis for observed 
changes in their populations. However, no significant correlation between numbers 
of fleas and mean monthly temperatures, rainfall, or relative humidity was found. 
With few exceptions, however, the sex ratio in which females outnumbered male fleas 
was consistent from year to year. Overall, females outnumbered males about 1.8:1.0. 

In this study during which fleas and their hosts were largely protected from the 
influence of the changes in weather and in the seasons, it appears that annual changes 
in the flea populations are intrinsically controlled on a cyclical basis which is indepen- 
dent of climatological influences. This explanation could account for the presence of 
fleas during the latter half of the year and their low numbers or absence in late winter 
and spring. 

I wish to thank Dr. John O. Whitaker, Jr., Indiana State University and Dr. 
Allen Benton, State University College of New York at Fredonia for their collabora- 
tion in determining the species of flea collected in this study. I am also indebted to 
several members of the Indiana State University staff for assistance in preparing this 
paper. They are: Mrs. Lucinda Roberts, graphic artist; Mr. Anthony Brentlinger, 



334 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 94 (1985) 

photographic specialist; Mr. Milton Firestone, Computer Center; Mr. William Gustin, 
I.S.U. Climatic Station; and Miss Kathi Paton, Life Science Department, for typing 
the manuscript. 

Literature Cited 

1. Chumakova, I.V., and M.P. Kozlov. 1979. Stability of the sex ratio and its 
significance in the reproduction of fleas (Aphaniptera). Entomol. Rev. 
58(2):244-247. 

2. Cole, L.C. 1945. The effect of temperature on the sex ratio of Xenopsylla cheopis 
recovered from live rats. Public Health Reports 60(45 ):1337-1354. 

3. Geary, J.M. 1959. The fleas of New York. Cornell University, Agric. Expt. Sta. 
Memoir 355. Ithaca, N.Y. 

4. James, M.T. and R.F. Harwood. 1969. Herm's Medical Entomology, 6th edition. 
The Macmillan Co., N.Y., 484 p. 

5. Marshall, A.G. 1981. The sex ratio in ectoparasitic insects. Ecol. Entomol. 
6(2):155-174. 

6. Whitaker, J.O., Jr. 1982. Ectoparasites of mammals of Indiana. Ind. Acad. Sci. 
Monograph No. 4. 



Control of Vegetable Insects with Neem Seed Extracts 

David K. Reed 1 and Gary L. Reed 2 

Agricultural Research Service, USDA 

Vincennes University 

Vincennes, Indiana 47591 

Introduction 

Plant products have a great potential for providing new and novel materials for 
pest management. The Neem tree, Axadirachta indica, has provided researchers with 
materials which appear promising against a variety of organisms (9). This remarkable 
tree, which grows in hot and arid parts of the world, has been known for centuries 
to possess unique properties (3-4-5), among them, the ability to ward off insects and 
other pests. Neem seed is used for many practical purposes, and very little fractiona- 
tion is necessary to provide materials with insecticidal, antifeedant, or growth modify- 
ing activity. Many parts of the tree are currently, and have for centuries been, used 
in medicine and cosmetics, an indication of the safety of these botanical materials. 

This paper reports on results of experiments conducted to access the efficacy of 
crude formulations of neem seed against economically important insect pests of 
vegetables. 

Materials and Methods 

Experiments were conducted at Vincennes, IN during 1982-84. The neem for- 
mulations used were either a liquid formulation made up of an ethyl alcohol extract 
of neem seed flour as a 1:1 dilution, or a dust formulation made up of defatted ground 
neem seed in kaolin. The liquid formulations of neem had previously been found to 
be effective as antifeedants against striped cucumber beetle Acalymma vittatum (F,) 
(STCB) (6), and 2 of its principal components, azadirachtin and salannin, were shown 
to deter feeding of STCB and spotted cucumber beetle, Diabrotica undecimpunctata 
howardi Barber, in greenhouse experiments (7). In these tests, Triton B-1956® 3 was 
added at a 0.075% concentration to the liquid neem formulations. 

Greenhouse tests — Muskmelon, var. Saticoy, seedlings were raised to a 2-leaf stage 
in 64 cup trays and thinned to 8 rows of 4 plants each. After cotyledon leaves were 
removed, treatments were applied to plants in the rows which had been randomly 
assigned. The experiment was replicated 3 times by treating 3 trays, each randomized 
differently, and placing them into separate 50x50x50-cm screen cages. The greenhouse 
was maintained at 29.5 ± 5°C, 60 RH ± 10% and 15:9 LD photoperiod regime. 
Dust was applied to individual plants with a puff duster whose nozzle was inserted 
into a 100-ml plastic cup placed over each plant to prevent cross contamination. STCB 
(50/cage) were immediately introduced into the cages. Plants were examined at 2-day 
intervals and damage was rated from (no damage) to 6 (complete destruction or 
consumption of foliage). 

Field tests — Sweet corn, 1982 and 1984. Sweet corn var. Silver Queen was planted 
in 8 x 1.8-m plots replicated 3 times in 1982 and 4 times in 1984. Silks were treated 
as they emerged by atomizing liquid formulations onto each ear to run-off using a 
Forestry tree paint sprayer in 1982 and a Solo backpack sprayer in 1984. Ears were 
treated 8 times in 1982 and 6 times in 1984 on an approximate 3-day schedule. All 
marketable ears were harvested 1 day after the last application and examined for corn 
earworm, Heliothis zea (CEW), and damage. In 1982, carbaryl and in 1984, Ammo® 
(cypermethrin), a synthetic pyrethroid was used as a standard insecticide. 

335 



336 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 94 (1985) 

Eggplant — 1983. Eggplant var. Dusky was planted in 16 x 1.8-m plots replicated 

3 times. Sprays were applied with a high clearance sprayer consisting of a 1-row boom 
composed of 1 central nozzle over the plants with a 2 dropped nozzles. Weekly 
applications were made (July 25-Sept 8) using 75 psi and 19 gpa. Dust treatments were 
applied with a Hudson plunger type puff duster. Ammo was used as a standard. Damage 
by flea beetle, Epitrix fuscula Crotch (FB) was rated on Aug 29 by applying a 2.5 
cm 2 template over 5 randomly selected leaves from each of 10 plants in a row and 
counting the number of feeding holes. Colorado potato beetles Leptinotarsa decemlineata 
Say (CPB) were counted at weekly intervals. Marketable fruits were harvested Aug 
29 and Sep 9, 1983. 

Potatoes — 1982. "Superior" potatoes were planted in 16 x 1.8 m plots replicated 

4 times. Treatments were applied using a tractor mounted boom sprayer with 1 central 
and 2 dropped nozzles at 65 psi and 21 gpa. Monitor® was applied as a standard. 
Applications were made weekly from June 2 until July 8. Weekly counts were made 
of CPB adults and larvae. 

Cabbage — 1983. A fall cabbage crop, var. Danish Ballhead was planted on June 
23 and transplanted into the field on Aug 8 in 16 x 1.8 m plots replicated 4 times. 
Weekly treatments were applied with the same equipment as used on eggplant and 
insect counts were made on weekly intervals from Sep 2 until Oct 14. 

In all of the field experiments, a randomized complete block arrangement was 
used. Data from all experiments were transformed (x + 1) and submitted to ANOV 
and DNMR. 

Results and Discussion 

Greenhouse tests. In the experiment using neem seed formulations in kaolin (Table 
10, the untreated plants were almost immediately consumed by STCB, but all dust 
treatments afforded some protection. Even kaolin alone provided some deterrent activity 
as long as other food was available. This avoidance by feeding beetles was probably 
due to physical factors alone and was easily overcome by starvation. Loss of activity 
by the higher dosages of neem after 3 days could be due to a lack of coverage after 
leaf growth, and treatments on a 2-3 day interval would be needed for continued pro- 
tection, particularly in the absence of alternate food. Pure neem seed flour (100%), 
when applied to young seedlings, was very phytotoxic but no such phytotoxicity was 
observed with the 20% dosage, which maintained some effect up to 6 days after 
treatment. 



Table 1 . Antifeedant activity of neem seed dust formulations against striped cucumber 
beetle adults on muskmelon seedlings in the greenhouse. 











Damage 


rating 1 at 


indicated day after treatment 


Material 

Neem 


Dosage 
100% 


1 

o a 


2 
a 


3 
1.00 ab 


5 
2.67 a 


6 

2.67 ab 


Neem 


20% 


a 


0.08 a 


0.33 a 


1.58 a 


1.58 a 


Neem 


20% (Celite) 


a 


0.33 a 


1.50 ab 


2.50 a 


3.00 b 


Neem 
Neem 


10% 

5% 


o a 
o a 


0.08 a 
a 


0.67 ab 
0.58 ab 


1.42 a 
1.92 a 


2.00 ab 
3.08 ab 


Neem 


2% 


0.67 a 


0.75 a 


1.67 ab 


3.17 a 


4.17 ab 


Kaolin 


— 


0.33 a 


1.25 b 


2.75 b 


4.61 


4.75 ab 


Untreated 


— 


5.33 b 


6.00 c 


6.00 c 


6.00 b 


6.00 b 



'Rating = 0-no feeding and 6-complete consumption or destruction. 

2 Means followed by the same letter are not significantly different (P = 0.05) by Duncan's New Multiple Range Test. 







% 


Damaged Ears 


Dosage 


1982 




1984 


.8% 


3.4 a ' 




— 


.2% 


29.2 b 




8.75 ab 


.4% 


26.2 b 




16.70 bc 


0.6 lb/ A 


— 




1.85 a 


— 


69. 9 C 




23.60 c 



Entomology 337 

Table 2. Efficacy of neem seed extract against corn earworm on sweet corn. 

Materials 

Carbaryl 

Neem 
Neem 
Ammo 
Untreated 

'Means followed by the same letter are not significalty different (P = 0.05) by Duncan's New Multiple Range Test. 

Field tests — Sweet corn, 1982 and 1984. Results of the trials on sweet corn are 
presented in Table 2. During both years, the standard insecticides used provided excellent 
control of CEW as expected. The neem formulations gave a significantly greater level 
of control than the untreated but this level would not satisfy the requirements of a 
commercial grower. In some instances, in the neem treatments, the observed damage 
was very slight and the young larvae were either dead or not found. Such damage 
would be tolerated in a home garden situation. There appeared to be little difference 
between the 2 neem dosages so that increasing the dosage would not increase efficacy 
to any extent. 

Table 3. Efficacy of neem seed extract against flea-beetle (FB) and Colorado potato 
beetle (CPB) on eggplant. 









No. FB 


No. 


CPB' 


Total wt 


Total no. 


Material 


Dosage 




holes/cm 


Adult 


Larvae 


mkt. fruit (g) 


mkt. fruit 


Neem spray 
Neem dust 


.2% 
20% 




1.2 a -' 
8.3 b 


11.3 
6.3 


0.3 a 
8.3 b 


964 l a 

2723 b 


35. 7 a 
11.3 b 


Ammo 


.06 lb 


ai/A 


0.4 a 


7.3 


4.7 a 


11726 3 


42. 3 a 


Untreated 


— 




10.4 b 


11.3 ns 


10.7 b 


2877 b 


9.3 b 



'Mean no./5 plants. 

2 Means followed by the same letter are not significantly different (P = 0.05) by Duncan's New Multiple Range Test. 

Eggplant — 1983. As shown in Table 3, Ammo, the standard insecticide was 
extremely effective against FB and CPB larvae. However, neem spray was just as ef- 
fective against both of these insects, both being significantly better than the untreated. 
Also, there was no difference between number and weight of marketable fruit between 
the 2 treatments. None of the treatments appeared to control adult CPB, possibly 
due to new infestations moving in from adjacent plots. Neem dust was not effective 
against either FB or CPB and this was reflected in the number and weight of marketable 
fruit. 

Potatoes — 1982. CPB larvae were controlled by neem spray when applied to 
potatoes (Table 4). As with eggplant, however, adults were not controlled by either 

Table 4. Efficacy of neem seed extract against Colorado potato beetle (CPB) on potatoes. 
1982. 

Mean no. for 5 plants 
Material Dosage Adults Larvae 

6.0 1.0 a ' 

4.3 1.3 a 

6.3 ns 6.0 b 

'Means followed by the same letter are not significantly different (P = 0.05) by Duncan's New Multiple Range Test. 



Neem 


.2% 


Monitor 


.75 lb ai/A 


Untreated 


— 



338 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 94 (1985) 

neem or the standard insecticide. Again, this may have been due to migration and 
not to lack of toxicity of the insecticide. 

Cabbage — 1983. During the fall crop, the major pest of cabbage is cabbage looper 
Trichoplusia ni (Hubner) (CL). Although neem spray was not as effective as the syn- 
thetic pyrethroid against CL on cabbage (Table 5), it did provide significantly greater 
control than the untreated. Whether activity of neem is related to direct toxicity or 
to a form of repellency is unknown at the present time. 

Table 5. Efficacy of neem seed extracts against cabbage looper (CL) on cabbage. 1983. 

Material Dosage Mean no. CL larvae/5 plants 



Ammo .06 lb ai/A 1 .3 ' 

Neem .2% 13. 3 b 

Untreated — 53. 3 C 

'Means followed by the same letter are not significantly different (P = 0.05) by Duncan's New Multiple Range Test. 

One of the major insect antifeedants isolated from neem kernels, azadirachtin, 
has been shown to possess growth regulator activity against insects (1 and 8). The 
reduction in larval development was not related to feeding inhibition. Azadirachtin 
in both of these reported studies apparently interfered with the molting hormone pools 
and affected normal ecdysis. Neem extracts were also shown to have a phagodeterrent 
effect on a flea beetle, Phyllotreta striolata (F.) in the laboratory (2). Our research 
substantiates this report. These are only a few of the many references to neem effec- 
tiveness against insects, and indicate the great potential that this material may have 
in pest management. Although it does not have the immediate, highly toxic activity 
of many pesticides, its activity against a variety of insect ciders, its mammalian safety 
and its environmentally non-disruptive nature should make it an ideal candidate for 
use in vegetable insect control. Where efficacy is not great enough to produce a com- 
mercial crop, home gardeners, because of their acceptance of greater injury levels, 
may be able to utilize neem effectively. Although neem sprays appear to be more effective 
as antifeedants, further work may be warranted with the dust formulations, particularly 
against certain insects. 



Acknowledgment 

This research was conducted at Vincennes, Indiana, USDA Laboratory and 
Southwest Purdue Agricultural Center, in cooperation with Indiana Agricultural 
Experiment Station, Purdue University, where both authors hold adjunct appointments 
in the Department of Entomology. Neem fractions were obtained from the Biologically 
Active Natural Products Laboratory, ARS-USDA, Beltsville, Maryland. 



Footnotes 

1 . Present address: Asian Parasite Laboratory, c/o American Embassy, Seoul Korea, 
APO San Francisco 9630. 

2. Present address: Oregon State University, Columbia Basin Agricultural Research 
Station, Box 105, Hermston, OR 97838. 

3. This article reports the results of research only. Mention of a proprietary product 
does not imply an endorsement or a recommendation for its use by USDA. 



Entomology 339 

Literature Cited 

1. Kubo, I. and Kloche, J. A. 1982. Azadirachtin, insect ecdysis inhibitor. Agric. 
Biol. Chem. 46:1951-1953. 

2. Meisner, J. and Mitchell, B.K. 1982. Phagodeterrent effect of neem extracts and 
azadirachtin on flea beetles, Phyllotreta striolata (F.). Z Pflkrankh. Pflschutz 
89:463-467. 

3. Radwanski, S. 1977. Neem tree 1. Commercial potential, characteristics and 
distribution. World Crops and Livestock 29:62-65. 

4. . 1977. Neem tree 2. Uses and potential uses. World Crops and Livestock 

29:111-113. 

5. . 1977. Neem tree 3. Further uses and potential uses. World Crops and 

Livestock 29:167-168. 

6. Reed, D.K., Jacobson, M., Warthen, J.D. Jr., Uebel, E.C., Tromley, N.J., Jurd, 
L. and Freedman, B. 1981. Cucumber beetles antifeedants: Laboratory screening 
of natural products. US Dep. Agri. SEA Tech. Bull. No. 1641. 13 pp. 

7. Reed, D.K., Warthen, J.D. Jr., Uebel, E.C. and Reed, G.L. 1982. Effects of 
two triterpenoids from neem on feeding by cucumber beetles (Col- 
eoptera.Chrysomelidae). J. Econ. Entomol. 75:1109-1113. 

8. Rembold, H., Sharma, G.K., Czoppelt, Ch., and Schmutterer, H. 1982. 
Azadirachtin: A potent insect growth regulator of plant origin. Z. Ang. Ent. 
93:12-17. 

9. Warthen, J.D. Jr. 1979. Azadirachta indica: a source of insect feeding inhibitors 
and growth regulators. US Dep. Agri. Rev. Manuals. ARM-NE-4, 21 pp. 



Checklist of Adult Carabid Beetles Known from Indiana 

John Richard Schrock 

Association of Systematics Collections 

University of Kansas 

Lawrence, Kansas 66045 

A followup of Munsee's 1964 study of insects on unreclaimed stripmines (8) placed 
at least 32 species of adult ground beetles on Vermillion County spoilbanks. To ad- 
dress the question "What percent of known Indiana carabids are represented in this 
environment?" it was necessary to compile a checklist of ground beetles identified 
from within the State. 

Indiana is fortunate to have W.S. Blatchley's turn-of-the-century classic Coleoptera 
of Indiana. Blatchley (1) listed 382 species of ground beetles, 351 of which are still 
recognized under a valid species name today in the North America Beetle Fauna (NABF) 
checklist (5). 

In 1941, E.L. Montgomery and J.M. Amos surveyed the beetles of the Clark 
County State Forest but published only the non-carabids (6). N.M. Downie added 
new "Records of Indiana Coleoptera" in 1956 (2), again in 1958 (3) and in 1967 with 
C.E. White (4). This increased the known Indiana carabid fauna by 21 species recognized 
today. 

The NABF Project checklist (5) clarified much of the synonymy and recorded 
223 species from Indiana. However in many genera, species were recorded from most 
of the surrounding states but not for Indiana and 181 of the valid species found in 
Blatchley were not recorded in the NABF checklist for Indiana. 

To develop a fuller checklist, the identified collections at Purdue University, Il- 
linois Natural History Survey and the Snow Entomological Museum were examined 
and a list of the holdings at Indiana University was incorporated. N.M. Downie pro- 
vided a list of carabids (from his large personal collection) not found in the other 
collections and clarified the status of "Bembidion intermedium Kirby," "Elaphrus 
riparius Linneaus," and " Pentagonica flavipes Leconte." Most synonyms were traced 
using the NABF list. Dr. George Ball placed six problematic names, updated the 
systematics, and suggested the names Amara trivialis Roucu., PU, and Aniilinus falli 
Bar, PU, are either unpublished or in error. Species from the Munsee (7) and Schrock 
(8) surveys were added. 

A total of 465 species is recorded for Indiana. In 1910, Blatchley listed 382 species 
and suggested an additional 74 might be found within the State based on records from 
neighboring states. Twenty-five of these are now in the present list. However, today 
there are an additional 124 species of ground beetles found in neighboring states in 
the NABF list that may have ranges extending across the Indiana border. 

Since ground beetles are a large group of common beetles highly selective in habitat 
and therefore important indicator species (9), this carabid checklist should provide 
a useful inventory reference in future environmental studies. And cataloguing our cur- 
rent holdings of carabids should make it easier to tally the remaining species yet to 
be found within the State. 

I would like to thank Dr. Jack R. Munsee for aid in repeating the stripmine 
study. Dr. George Ball identified spoil bank specimens and both Dr. Ball and N.M. 
Downie scanned this list for any major inaccuracies. Dr. Carl Krekeler of Valparaiso 
University checked the Pseudanophthalmus listings. Any remaining errors however, 
are mine. Examination of museum collections was made possible with the kind help 
of: Dr. Wallace LaBerge and Steve Heydon, Illinois Natural History Survey; Dr. George 



341 



342 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 94 (1985) 

Byers, Snow Entomological Museum; and Dr. W. P. McCafferty and R.D. Waltz, 
Purdue University. Dr. Frank Young tallied the holdings of the Indiana University 
collection. Without the use of the computer word processing facilities at the Associa- 
tion of Systematics Collections granted by Dr. Stephen Edwards, the management of 
this list would have been extremely laborious. 

CHECKLIST OF ADULT CARABID BEETLES KNOWN FROM INDIANA 

DC = N. M. Downie Collection 
IL = Illinois Natural History 
Survey Collection 
IU = Indiana University 
KU = Snow Entomological Museum 

University of Kansas 
PU = Purdue University 
B = Blatchley's Coleoptera of Indiana (1) 
C = NABF Checklist (5) 
Dl, D2, D3 = Records of Indiana Coleoptera 

I, and II and III by Downie (2), Downie (3), 

and Downie and White (4), respectively 
M = Munsee's 1966 stripmine collection, reported in Schrock (8) 
S = Schrock's 1981 stripmine survey (8) 

1. A bacidus permundus (Say) IU,PU; C,D1 

( = Pterostichus permundus Say) B 

2. Acupalpus alternans LeConte C 

3. Acupalpus cams (LeConte) PU;B 

4. Acupalpus hydropicus (LeConte) PU;B 

5. Acupalpus indistinctus (Dejean) DC 

6. Acupalpus partiarius (Say) 

( = Agonoderus partiarius Say) B 

( = Tachistodes partiarus (Say)) PU 

7. Acupalpus pauperculus (Dejean) 

( = Agonoderus pauperculus Dejean) B 

( = Tachistodes pauperculus (Dejean)) PU 

8. Acupalpus rectangulus Chaudoir C 

9. Acupalpus testaceus (Dejean) 

( = Agonoderus testaceus Dejean) B 

( = Tachistodes testaceus (Dejean)) PU 

10. Agonum aeruginosum (Dejean) 

( = Circinalia aeruginosus (Dejean)) KU 

( = Platynus aeruginosus (Dejean)) PU;B 

11. Agonum affine Kirby IL 

( = Platynus affinis (Kirby)) PU;B 

12. Agonum albicrus (Dejean) 

( = Agonum albicrum Dejean) D3 

( = Platynus albicrus (Dejean) PU;B 

13. Agonum anchomenoides (Randall) IL 

( = Platynus anchomenoides (Randall)) PU 

14. Agonum basale LeConte C 

( = Platynus basalis (LeConte)) PU;B 



Entomology 343 

15. Agonum collare Say C 

( = Platynus collaris Say) B 

16. Agonum corvus (LeConte) 

( = Platynus corvus LeConte) PU;B 

17. Agonum crenistriatum (LeConte) 

( = Platynus crenistriatus LeConte) PU;B 

18. Agonum cupripenne (Say) 

( = Platynus cupripennis (Say)) PU;B 

19. Agonum decorum (Say) 

( = Platynus decorus (Say)) PU;B 

( = Platynus obscurus LeConte) PU 

20. Agonum dilutipenne Motschulsky PU 

21. Agonum errans (Say) 

( = Platynus errans (Say) PU;B 

( = Platynus errans subcordatus LeConte) PU 

( = Platynus subcordatus LeConte) B 

22. Agonum excavatum (Dejean) 

( = Platynus excavatus (Dejean)) PU;B 

23. Agonum extensicolle (Say) 

( = Platynus extensicollis (Say)) PU;B 

( = Platynus extensicollis viridis (LeConte)) PU;B 

24. Agonum ferreum Haldeman IL 

( = Platynus ferreus (Haldeman)) PU;B 

25. Agonum formosum Sturm C 

26. Agonum gratiosum Mannerheim PU;C 

( = Platynus ruficornis LeConte) PU;B 

27. Agonum lutulentum (LeConte) IL;C 

( = Platynus lutulentulus LeConte) PU;B 

28. Agonum melanahum (Dejean) KU 

( = Platynus melanarius (Dejean)) PU;B 

29. Agonum moerens (Dejean) C 

( = Platynus moerens Dejean) B 

30. Agonum mutatum Gemminger & Harold IL,PU;D1 

( = Platynus atratus LeConte) B 

31. Agonum nutans (Say) 

( = Platynus nutans (Say)) PU;B 

32. Agonum octopunctatum (Fabricius) 

( = Platynus octopunctatus (Fabricius)) PU;B 

33. A go nu m pallipes Fabricius C 

( = Platynus limbatus (Say)) PU;B 

34. Agonum picticorne (Newman) D3 

( = Platynus picticornis Newman) PU 

35. Agonum placidum (Say) 

( = Platynus placidus (Say)) PU;B 

36. Agonum propinquum Gemminger & Harold 

( = Platynus piceus (LeConte)) PU 

37. Agonum punticeps Casey 

( = Platynus pusillus LeConte) B 

38. Agonum punctiforme (Say) 

( = Platynus punctiformis (Say)) PU;B 

39. Agonum quadhmaculatum (Horn) C 

( = Platynus quadrimaculatus Horn) PU;B 



344 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 94 (1985) 

40. Agonum rubripes LeConte C 

( = Platynus rubripes (LeConte)) PU;B 

41. Agonum rufipes (Dejean) DC 

42. Agonum striatopunctatum (Dejean) C 

( = Platynus nutans striatopunctatus (Dejean)) PU 

( = Platynus striatopunctatus Dejean) B 

43. Agonum tenue (LeConte) 

( = Platynus tenuis LeConte) PU;B 

44. Agonum thoreyi Dejean 

( = Platynus gemellus LeConte) PU;B 

( = Platynus picipennis (Kirby)) PU;B 

45. Amara aenea DeGeer DC 

46. Amara alpina Paykull 

( = Curtonotus argutus Casey) PU 

47. Amara angustata Say B 

48. Amara apricaria (Paykull) DC 

49. Amara avida (Say) PU;B 

( = Leiocnemis avida Say) PU;D1 

50. Amara basillaris (Say) PU;B 

51. Amara calij ornica (Dejean) 

( = Celia californica (Dejean)) PU 

52. Amara chalcea Dejean B 

( = Celia chalcea Dejean) PU 

53. Amara confusa LeConte 

( = Amara protensa Putzeys) PU;B 

54. Amara convexa LeConte 

( = Amara polita LeConte) PU;B 

55. Amara crassispina LeConte DC 

56. Amara cupreolata Putzeys PU;B 

57. Amara erratica Duftschmidt B 

( = Celia erratica (Sturm)) PU 

58. Amara exarata Dejean PU;B,C 

( = Bradytus exaratus Dejean) PU 

59. Amara familiaris Duftschmid DC 

60. Amara hyper bo rea Dejean 

( = Curtonotus elongatus (LeConte)) PU 

61. Amara interstitialis Dejean B 

62. Amara impuncticollis Say PU;B 

63. Amara latior Kirby B 

( = Bradytus latior Kirby) PU 

64. Amara littoralis Manner heim PU 

( = Amara fallax LeConte) PU;B 

65. Amara musculis (Say) B 

( = Celia musculis (Say)) PU 

66. Amara obesa (Say) PU;B 

( = Percosia obesa Say) IU 

67. Amara pallipes (Kirby) 

( = Triaena pallipes Kirby) D2 

68. Amara patruelis Dejean PU 

69. Amara pennsylvanica (Hay ward) B 

( = Curtonotus pennsylvanicus Hayward) PU 



Entomology 345 

70. Amara quenseli Schoenherr 

( = Amara remotestriata Dejean) B 

71. A mar a rubrica (Haldeman) B 

( = Celia rubrica Haldeman) PU 

72. Amara sinuosa Casey 

( = Amara subaenea LeConte) B 

73. Amara torrida Panzer 

( = Curtonotus infaustus LeConte) PU 

74. Amerinus linearis (LeConte) PU 

( = Bradycellus linearis LeConte) B 

75. Amphasia interstitialis (Say) PU;C 

( = Anisodactylus interstitialis Say) B 

76. Amphasia sericea (Harris) 

( = Anisodactylus sericea Harris) B 

( = Pseudamphasia sericea (Harris)) PU 

77. Anatrichis minutus Dejean IU;B 

78. Anillinus affabilis Brues PU 

79. Anillinus fortis Horn B 

80. Anillinus indianae Jeannel C 

81. Anisodactylus agricola Say PU;B,C 

82. Anisodactylus carbonarius (Say) PU;B 

83. Anisodactylus caenus Say PU;B,D1 

84. Anisodactylus discoideus Dejean B 

( = Anadaptus discoideus (Dejean)) IU,PU 

85. Anisodactylus dulcicollis LeFerte' PU 

( = Triplectrus dulcicollis LaFerte') D2 

86. Anisodactylus furvus LeConte PU;B,C 

87. Anisodactylus harrisi LeConte PU;B,C 

88. Anisodactylus kirbyi Lindroth DC 

89. Anisodactylus melanopus Haldeman KU,PU;B,D1 

90. Anisodactylus merula Germar C 

91. Anisodactylus nigerrimus Dejean IU,PU;B 

92. Anisodactylus nigrita Dejean B 

( = Anisodactylus interpunctatus Kirby) PU;B 

93. Anisodactylus nivalis Horn 

( = Anadaptus parvulus Casey) PU 

94. Anisodactylus ovularis Casey C 

( = Triplectrus ovularis Casey) PU 

95. Anisodactylus rusticus Say IL;B,C 

( = Triplectrus rusticus (Say)) IU,PU 

96. Anisodactylus sanctaecrucis Fabricius PU 

( = Anisodactylus baltimorensis (Say)) PU;B 

97. Anisodactylus similis LeConte 

( = Anisodactylus semipunctatus LeConte) PU 

98. Anisodactylus verticalis LeConte B 

99. Apenes lucidula (Dejean) KU,IU; D1,S 

100. Apenes sinuata Say B,C 

101. Apristus subsulcatus Dejean B 

( = Apristus cordicollis LeConte) B 

102. Ardistomis puncticotlis (Dejean) IU,PU;B,C 

103. Ardistomis viridis (Say) PU;B,C,D1 



346 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 94 (1985) 

104. Aspidoglossa subangulata (Chaudoir) IU,PU;B,C 

105. Atranus pubescens (Dejean) PU;B,C,D1 

106. Axinopalpus biplagiatus Dejean B,C 

107. Axinopalpus calif ornicus Motschulsky C 

108. Badister flavipes LeConte C 

109. Badister flavipes laticeps Blatchley C 

( = Badister laticeps Blatchley) B 

110. Badister maculatus LeConte PU;B,C 

111. Badister neopulchellus Lindroth DC 

112. Badister notatus Haldeman PU;B,C 

113. Badister ocularis Casey C 

( = Badister micans LeConte) B 

114. Badister parviceps Ball C 

115. Badister pulchellus LeConte B,C 

116. Badister reflexus LeConte PU:B,C 

117. Badister transversus Casey PU;C 

118. Bembidion affine Say IU,PU;B 

119. Bembidion americanum Dejean PU;B 

120. Bembidion anguliferum (LeConte) PU;B 

121. Bembidion cannula Chaudoir IL,PU;B 

122. Bembidion chalceum Dejean PU;B 

123. Bembidion concretum Casey DC 

124. Bembidion confusum Hayward PU;B 

125. Bembidion cordatum (LeConte) PU;B 

126. Bembidion coxendix Say PU;B,C 

127. Bembidion fortestriatum Motschulsky 

( = Bembidion cautum (LeConte)) PU 

128. Bembidion frontale (LeConte) PU 

( = "Bembidion assimile Gyllenhal") B 

129. Bembidion fugitans Casey C 

130. Bembidion graciliforme Hayward PU;B 

131. Bembidion grapei Gyllenhall C 

( = Bembidion picipes (Kirby)) PU;B,D1 

132. Bembidion honestum Say B 

133. Bembidion inaequale Say PU;B,D1 

134. Bembidion lacunarium Zimmermann C 

135. Bembidion laevigatum Say PU;B,D1 

136. Bembidion minax Casey C 

137. Bembidion nigrum Say PU;B,D1 

138. Bembidion nitidum Kirby B 

139. Bembidion obscurellum Motschulsky D3 

140. Bembidion patruele Dejean IL,PU;C 

( = Bembidion fraternum LeConte) B 

141. Bembidion pedicellatum LeConte IU,PU;B,D1 

142. Bembidion planum (Haldeman) PU 

( = Bembidion guexi Chaudoir) B 

143. Bembidion postremum Say DC 

144. Bembidion punctatostriatum Say PU;B 

145. Bembidion quadrimaculatum oppositum Say DC 

( = Bembidion quadrimaculatum (Linnaeus)) PU;B,D1 

146. Bembidion rapidum LeConte DC 

147. Bembidion semistriatum Haldeman B 



Entomology 347 

148. Bembidion tetracolum Say DC 

149. Bembidion transparens Gebler C 

150. Bembidion variegatum (Say) KU,PU;B 

( = Bembidion postfasciatum Hamilton) B 

151. Bembidion versicolor (LeConte) IL,IU,KU,PU;B 

152. Blethisa quadricollis Haldeman PU;B,C 

153. Brachinus adustipennis Erwin C 

154. Brachinus alternans Dejean B,C 

( = Brachinus deyrollei LaFerte') B 

( = Brachinus tormentarius LeConte) B 

155. Brachinus americanus LeConte B,C 

156. Brachinus cordicollis Dejean C 

157. Brachinus cyanipennis Say C 

158. Brachinus cyanochroaticus Erwin C 

159. Brachinus fulminatus Erwin C 

160. Brachinus fumans Fabricius C 

161. Brachinus janthinipennis Dejean C 

162. Brachinus medius Harris C 

163. Brachinus ovipennis LeConte C 

164. Brachinus quadripennis Dejean C 

165. Brachinus sublaevis Chaudoir C 

166. Brachinus tenuicollis LeConte C 

167. Bradycellus atrimedius (Say) 

( = Tachycellus atrimedius Say) B 

( = Triliarthrus atrimedius (Say)) PU 

168. Bradycellus badipennis (Haldeman) 

( = Tachycellus badiipennis Haldeman) B 

( = Triliarthrus badiipennis (Haldeman)) PU 

169. Bradycellus nigriceps LeConte C 

170. Bradycellus nigrinus Dejean 

( = Tachycellus nigrinus Dejean) B 

171. Bradycellus rupestris Say IU;B,C 

( = Stenocellus ruprestris (Say)) PU 

172. Calathus gregarius Say IU,KU,PU;B,C,S 

173. Calathus opaculus LeConte KU,PU;B,C,S 

174. Callida punctata LeConte IU;B,C 

175. Calosoma calidum Fabricius IL,PU;B,C 

176. Calosoma externum Say IL,PU;B 

177. Calosoma frigidum Kirby B,C 

178. Calosoma sayi Dejean PU 

( = Calosoms alternans sayi Dejean) D3 

179. Calosoma scrutator Fabricius IU,PU;B,C 

180. Calosoma wilcoxi LeConte PU;B,C 

181. Carabus limbatus Say IL,KU,PU;B,M,S 

182. Carabus maender Fischer IL;D3 

183. Carabus nemoralis Muller IU,PU 

184. Carabus serratus Say IL,KU,PU;B,C,D1 

185. Carabus sylvosus Say PU;B 

186. Carabus vinctus Weber IU,KU,PU;B,C 

187. Chlaenius aestivus Say PU;B,C 

188. Chlaenius brevilabris LeConte B,C 

189. Chlaenius cordicollis Kirby C 



348 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 94 (1985) 

190. Chlaenius emarginatus Say IU,KU;C,S 

( = Anomoglossus emarginatus Say) B 

191. Chlaenius erythropus Germar B,C 

192. Chlaenius impunctifrons Say B,C 

193. Chlaenius laticollis Say IU;B,C 

194. Chlaenius leucoscelis Chevrolat PU;B,D1 

195. Chlaenius lithophilus Say IL;C 

( = Brachylobus lithophilus Say) B 

196. Chlaenius niger Randall B,C 

197. Chlaenius nemoralis Say IU,B,C 

198. Chlaenius pensylvanicus Say B,C 

199. Chlaenius platyderus Chaudoir C 

( = Chlaenius diffinis Chaudoir) PU;B 

200. Chlaenius prasinus Dejean B,C 

201. Chlaenius purpuricollis Randall IL;B,C 

202. Chlaenius pusillus (Say) C 

( = Anomoglossus pusillus Say) B 

203. Chlaenius tomentosus Say IL;B,C 

204. Chlaenius tricolor Dejean C 

205. Chlaenius sericeus Forster B,C 

206. Chlaenius solitarius Say B,C 

207. Clivina americana Dejean PU;B 

208. Clivinia bipustulata (Fabricius) IU,KU,PU;B 

209. Clivina dentipes Dejean KU,PU;B 

210. Clivina impressifrons LeConte PU;B,C 

211. Clivina postica LeConte D3 

212. Clivinia puntigera LeConte PU;B,C,D1 

213. Clivina rubicunda LeConte B,C 

214. Clivina rufa LeConte PU;B,C,D1 

215. Colliurus pensylvanica (Linnaeus) 

( = Casnonia pensylvanica Linnaeus) IU;B 

216. Coptodera aerata Dejean KU;B,C 

217. Cratacanthus dubius (Beauvois) IL,PU;B,C 

218. Cyclotrachelus convivus (LeConte) 

( = Evarthrus convivus LeConte) KU,PU;C,S 

219. Cyclotrachelus furtivus (LeConte) 

( = Eumolops furtiva (LeConte)) PU 

( = Evarthrus furtivus (LeConte)) B 

220. Cyclotrachelus obsoletus (Say) 

( = Evarthrus obsoletus Say) KU,PU;C,S 

( = Pterostichus obsoletus Say) B 

221. Cyclotrachelus seximpressus (LeConte) 

( = Evarthrus seximpressus (LeConte)) KU,PU;B,C,S 

222. Cyclotrachelus sigillatus (Say) 

( = Evarthrus sigillatus (Say)) PU;B,D1 

( = Evarthrus americanus Dejean) B 

( = Evarthrus orbatus (Newman)) PU;B 

222. Cyclotrachelus sodalis (LeConte) 

( = Evarthrus sodalis LeConte) KU,PU;B,C,D1,M,S 

223. Cymindis americana Dejean KU;B,S 

224. Cymindis limbata (Dejean) 

( = Pinacodera limbata (Dejean)) KU;B,C,D1,S 



Entomology 349 

225. Cymindis neglecta Haldeman DC 

226. Cymindis pilosa Say B 

227. Cymindis platicollis (Say) 

( = Pinacodera platicollis (Say)) PU;B,C,D1 

228. Dicaelus ambiguus LaFerte' IU,KU,PU;B,C,D1,S 

229. Dicaelus dilatus sinuatus Ball 

( = Dicaelus dilatus Say) PU ; B , C 

230. Dicaelus elongatus Bonelli KU,PU;B,C,S 

231. Dicaelus furvus Dejean KU;B,C,S 

( = Dicaelus ovalis LeConte) B 

232. Dicaelus furvus carinatus Dejean PU 

233. Dicaelus politus Dejean IU,PU;B,C 

234. Dicaelus purpuratus Bonelli IU,KU,PU;B,C,S 

235. Dicaelus sculpt His intricatus LeConte 

( = Dicaelus sculptilis Say) B,C 

236. Dicaelus teter Bonelli IL;B 

237. Diplocheila assimilis (LeConte) 

( = Rembus assimilis LeConte) PU 

238. Diplocheila impressicollis Dejean PU;B 

( = Diplocheila impressicollis alternans) Casey B 

( = Diplocheila laticollis LeConte) B 

( = Rembus laticollis LeConte) PU 

239. Diplocheila major LeConte PU;C 

( = Diplocheila laticollis major LeConte) B 

240. Diplocheila obtusa LeConte B,C 

( = Rembus obtusa LeConte) PU;D1 

241. Diplocheila striatopunctata LeConte IU;C 

242. Discoderus parallelus (Haldeman) PU;B 

243. Dromius piceus Dejean B,C 

( = Dromius picipes [sic] Dejean) Dl 

244. Dyschirius erythrocerus LeConte PU;B,C,D1 

245. Dyschirius globulosus Say IU,PU;B 

246. Dyschirius haemorrhoidalis Dejean PU;B,C 

247. Dyschirius integer LeConte 

( = Dyschirius nigripes LeConte) PU;B 

248. Dyschirius longulus LeConte PU;B,C 

249. Dyschirius pilosus LeConte 

(- Dyschirius hispidus LeConte) PU;B,D1 

250. Dyschirius sphaericollis Say PU;B,C,D1 

251. Dyschirius terminatus LeConte PU;B,C,D2 

252. Elaphropus dolosus (LeConte) 

(=Tachys dolosa (LeConte)) PU 

( = Tachys dolosus (LeConte)) B 

253. Elaphropus ferrugineus (Dejean) 

( = Tachys ferrugineus (Dejean)) PU;B 

254. Elaphropus granarius (Dejean) 

( = Tachys granaria (Dejean)) PU 

( = Tachys granarius (Dejean)) B 

255. Elaphropus incurvus Say C 

( = Tachys incurva (Say)) PU 

( = Tachys incurvus (Say)) B 



350 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 94 (1985) 

256. Elaphropus parvicornis Notman C 

257. Elaphropus tripunctatus Say C 

( = Tachys tripunctatus Say) B 

258. Elaphropus vernicatus Casey C 

259. Elaphropus vivax (LeConte) 

( = Tachys capax LeConte) B 

( = Tachys vivax (LeConte)) PU;B 

260. Elaphropus xanthopus (Dejean) 

( = Tachys xanthopus (Dejean)) PU;B 

261. Elaphrus calif ornicus Mannerheim DC 

( = Elaphrus riparius Linnaeus) D2 

262. Elaphrus cicatricosus LeConte PU;B,C 

263. Elaphrus clairvillei Kirby B 

264. Elaphrus fuliginosus Say PU;B,C 

265. Elaphrus laevigatus LeConte B 

266. Elaphrus lecontei Crotch IL 

267. Elaphrus lindrothi Goulet 

268. Elaphrus ruscarius Say IU,PU;B 

269. Episcopellus autumnalis (Say) PU;C,D2 

( = Harpalus autumnalis Say) B 

270. Euphorticus pubescens (Dejean) D3 

27 1 . Euryderus grossus (Say) 

( = Nothopus grossus Say) B 

( = Nothopus valens Casey) PU 

( = Nothopus zabroides LeConte) PU;D1 

272. Galerita bicolor Drury KU;B,S 

273. Galerita janus Fabricius IU,KU;B,C,S 

274. Geopinus incrassatus (Dejean) IU,PU;B,C 

275. Gynandropus hylacis (Say) PU;B,C 

276. Harpalus actiosus Casey PU;C 

277. Harpalus af finis Schrank 

( = Harpalus viridianeus Beauvois) PU 

278. Harpalus bicolor (Fabricius) KU,PU;S 

( = Harpalus compar LeConte) PU;B 

279. Harpalus caliginosus (Fabricius) IL,IU,KU,PU;B,M 

280. Harpalus erraticus Say PU;B 

281. Harpalus erythropus Dejean KU,PU;B,C,M 

282. Harpalus fallax LeConte DC 

283. Harpalus faunus Say PU;B,C 

( = Harpalus convivus LeConte) B 

284. Harpalus fulgens Csiki C 

( = Harpalus nitidulus Chaudoir) PU;B,D1 

285. Harpalus fuliginosa Duftschmid DC 

286. Harpalus herbivagus Say PU;B 

287. Harpalus indianus (Csiki) C 

( = Harpalus testaceus LeConte) B 

( = Pharalus indianus Csiki) PU;D1 

( = Pharalus testaceus (LeConte)) PU 

288. Harpalus laticeps LeConte KU;B,C,D1 

289. Harpalus lewisi LeConte DC 

290. Harpalus longicollis LeConte KU;C,S 

( = Harpalus vagans LeConte) B 



Entomology 351 

291. Harpalus mob His Casey PU 

292. Harpalus par at us Casey DC 

293. Harpalus pensylvanicus DeGeer PU;B,C 

( = Harpalus longior Kirby) B 

294. Harpalus pleuriticus Kirby DC 

295. Harpalus protractus Casey PU;C 

296. Harpalus viduus LeConte PU;B 

297. Helluomorphoides ferrugineus (LeConte) D3 

298. Helluomorphoides praeustus bicolor Harris PU;C 

299. Helluomorphoides texanus LeConte B,C 

300. Lebia abdominalis Chaudoir B,C 

301. Lebia analis Dejean PU;B,C,D1 

302. Lebia atriventris Say IL,IU;B,C 

303. Lebia bivittata Fabricius B,C 

304. Lebia collaris Dejean C 

305 . Lebia divisa LeConte PU ; D 1 

306. Lebia fuscata Dejean PU;B,C,D1 

307. Lebia grandis Hentz IU;B,C 

308. Lebia lobulata LeConte PU;B,C,D1 

309. Lebia marginicollis Dejean KU;C,D3 

310. Lebia ornata Say KU;B,C,S 

311. Lebia pectita Horn C 

312. Lebia pleuritica LeConte D3 

313. Lebia pulchella Dejean IU;D3 

314. LebiapumilaDejean B,C 

( = Lebia rhodopus Schwarz) B,D2 

315. Lebia solea Hentz C 

( = Lebia scapularis Dejean) IU;B 

316. Lebia tricolor Say C,D3 

317. Lebia viridipennis Dejean B,C 

318. Lebia viridis Say I U ; B ,C 

319. Lebia vittata Fabricius B,C 

( = Lebia furcata LeConte) B 

320. Leptotrachelus dorsalis Fabricius B 

321. Loxandrus agillis Dejean B 

322. Loxandrus brevicollis LeConte B,C 

323. Loxandrus cincinnatiensis Casey C 

324. Loxandrus duryi Wright C 

325. Loxandrus erraticus Dejean B 

326. Loxandrus extendus Allen C 

327. Loxandrus gibbus Allen C 

328. Loxandrus minor Chaudoir B,C 

329. Loxandrus nitidulus LeConte C 

330. Loxandrus rectus Say IU;B 

331. Loxandrus robustus Allen C 

332. Loxandrus velocipes Casey C 

333. Loxandrus velox Dejean B 
324. Loxandrus vulneratus Casey C 

335. Metabletus americanus Dejean B 

336. Micratopus aenescens (LeConte) PU 

337. Microlestes nigrinus Mannerheim PU;D1 

( = Blechrus nigrinus (Mannerheim)) B 



352 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 94 (1985) 

338. Microlestes pusio LeConte 

( = Blechrus pusio LeConte) B 

339. Mioptachys flavicauda (Say) 

( = Tachymenis flavicauda (Say)) KU 

( = Tachys flavicauda (Say)) IU,PU;B 

340. Myas coracinus Say B,C 

( = Trigonognatha coracinus (Say)) PU 

341. Nebria lacustris Casey PU;C,D3 

342. Nebria pallipes Say PU;B,C 

343. Nomius pygmaeus (Dejean) PU 

344. Notiobia nitidipennis (LeConte) 

( = Anisotarsus nitidipennis LeConte) PU;B,D1 

( = Anisodactylus nitidipennis LeConte) PU 

345. Notiobia picea (LeConte) C 

( = Anisodactylus sayi Blatchley) PU;B 

( = Eurytrichus piceus LeConte) IU 

346. Notiobia terminata Say C 

( = Anisodactylus terminatus (Say)) PU;B 

( = Anisodactylus agilis (Dejean)) PU 

347. Notiophilus aeneus Herbst IU,KU,PU;B,C,S 

348. Notiophilus novemstriatus LeConte PU;C 

349. Notiophilus semistriatus Say IU,KU,PU;B,C,S 

350. Olisthopus parmatus (Say) PU;C 

351. Oodes amaroides Dejean B 

352. Oodes americanus Dejean B 

( = Oodes fluvialis LeConte) B 

353. Oodes parallelus Say KU 

( = Lachnocrepis parallelus Say) B 

354. Omophron americanum Dejean IL,PU;B 

355. Omophron nitidum LeConte PU;B,C 

356. Omophron robustum Horn PU;B,C 

357. Omophron tesselatum Say IL,KU,PU;C 

358. Panagaeus crucigerus Say PU;B,C 

359. Panagaeus fasciatus Say IU,PU;B,C 

360. Paratachys oblitus Casey C 

361. Paratachys proximus (Say) 

( = Tachys proximus (Say)) IU,KU,PU;B 

362. Paratachys pumilus Dejean 

( = Tachys coruscus LeConte) PU;B 

363. Paratachys scitulus (LeConte) 

( = Tachys scitulus LeConte) PU;B 

364. Pasimachus elongatus LeConte IL,PU;B 

365. Pasimachus depressus Fabricius PU;B 

366. Pasimachus punctulatus Haldeman PU;B,C 

367. Pasimachus sublaevis Beauvois C 

( = Pasimachus sublaevis Bonelli) B 

368. Patrobus longicornis Say IL,IU,PU;B 

369. Pentagonica picticornis Bates DC 

( = Pentagonica flavipes (LeConte)) PU;B,D1 

370. Pericompus ephippiatus (Say) PU;D1 

( = Tachys ephippiatus (Say)) PU;B 



Entomology 353 

371. Perigona nigriceps (Dejean) PU;C,D2 

( = Perigona pallipennis (LeConte)) PU;B 

372. Platynus angustatus Dejean PU 

373. Platynus brunneomarginatus Mannerheim PU 

374. Platynus caudatus LeConte B,C 

( = Rhadine caudata LeConte) PU 

375. Platynus cincticollis Say B 

376. Platynus decent is Say 

( = Platynus sinuatus (Dejean)) IU,PU;B 

( = "Platynus decens" Say) PU,B 

377. Platynus hypolithos (Say) IL,IU,PU 

( = Platynus hypolithus Say) B 

378. Platynus opaculus LeConte B 

379. Platynus parmarginatus Hamilton PU;B,C 

380. Platynus tenuicollis LeConte 

( = Platynus reflexus LeConte) PU;B 

381. Plochionus timidus Haldeman B 

382. Polyderis laevus (Say) 

( = Tachys laevus (Say)) PU;B 

383. Pseudapt inus pygmaeus (Dejean) D3 

384. Pseudanophthalmus barri Krekeler C 

385. Pseudanophthalmus blatchleyi Barr C 

386. Pseudanophthalmus chthonius Krekeler C 

387. Pseudanophthalmus emersoni Krekeler C 

388. Pseudanophthalmus eremita (Horn) C 

( = Anophthalmus eremita Horn) B 

389. Pseudanophthalmus leonae Barr C 

390. Pseudanophthalmus shilohensis Krekeler C 

391. Pseudanophthalmus shilohensis boonensis Krekeler C 

392. Pseudanophthalmus shilohensis mayfieldensis 

Krekeler C 

393. Pseudanophthalmus tenuis Horn IL,PU;C 

( = Anophthalmus tenuis Horn) B 

394. Pseudanophthalmus tenuis blatchleyi Barr C 

395. Pseudanophthalmus tenuis jeanneli Krekeler C 

396. Pseudanophthalmus tenuis morrisoni Jeannel C 

397. Pseudanophthalmus tenuis strict icollis Jeannel C 

398. Pseudanophthalmus youngi Krekeler C 

399. Pseudanophthalmus youngi donaldsoni Krekeler C 

400. Pterostichus adoxus (Say) PU;B 

401. Pterostichus adst rictus Eschscholtz 

( = Bothriopterus luczoti (Dejean)) PU 

( = Pterostichus luczotii Dejean) B 

402. Pterostichus bispiculatus Casey C 

403. Pterostichus caudicalis Say B 

( = Melanius caudicalis (Say)) PU 

404. Pterostichus chalcites Say KU;C,S 

( = Poecilus chalcites Say) PU 

( = Pterostichus sayi Brulle) B 

405. Pterostichus corvinus Dejean B 

( = Melanius corvinus (Dejean)) PU 



354 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 94 (1985) 

406. Pterostichus coracinus Newman B 

( = Euferonia coracina (Newman)) PU 

407. Pterostichus ebeninus Dejean B 

( = Melanius ebeninus Dejean) PU 

408. Pterostichus femoralis Kirby PU;B 

409. Pterostichus haldemani (LeConte) IU;B,C 

( = Lophoglossus haldemani (LeConte)) PU 

410. Pterostichus honestus Say B 

( = Gastrellarius honestus (Say)) PU 

411. Pterostichus leconteianus Lutshnik IU,PU 

( = Pterostichus erythropus Dejean) B 

412. Pterostichus luctuosus Dejean B 

( = Melanius luctuosus (Dejean)) PU 

413. Pterostichus lucublandus Say B 

( = Poecilus lucublandus Say) PU 

( = Pterostichus convexicollis Say) KU 

414. Pterostichus melanarius (Illiger) D3 

415. Pterostichus moestus Say 

( = Refonia moesta (Say)) PU 

416. Pterostichus mutus Say B 

( - Dysidius mutus (Say)) PU 

417. Pterostichus obscurus Say B 

( = Gasterosticta obscura (Say)) PU;D1 

418. Pterostichus ohionis Csiki 

( = Dysidius purpuratus LeConte) PU;D1 

( = Pterostichus purpuratus LeConte) B 

419. Pterostichus patruelis Dejean B 

( = Micromaseus patruelis (Dejean)) PU 

420. Pterostichus pensylvanicus LeConte B 

421. Pterostichus relictus Newman B,C 

( = Euferonia relicta (Newman)) PU 

422. Pterostichus rostratus Newman C 

423. Pterostichus scrutator (LeConte) B 

( = Lophoglossus scrutator LeConte) 

424. Pterostichus stygicus Say IU,KU,PU;B,C,S 

( = Euferonia stygica (Say)) PU 

425. Pterostichus tartaricus (Say) B,C 

( = Lophoglossus tartaricus (Say)) PU 

426. Pterostichus tristis Dejean PU 

427. Scaphinotus andrewsi germari (Chaudoir) 

( = Cychrus andrewsi germari Chaudoir) B 

428. Scaphinotus elevatus flammeus Haldeman 

( = Scaphinotus elevatus Fabricius) IL 

( = Cychrus elevatus Fabricius) B 

429. Scaphinotus tricarinatus Casey 

( = Scaphinotus andrewsi tricarinatus Casey) PU 

430. Scaphinotus unicolor (Fabricius) PU;C 

43 1 . Scaphinotus unicolor hews Harris C 

( = Cychrus unicolor Oliver) B 

432. Scarites substriatus Haldeman KU,PU;B,M 

433. Scarites subterraneus Fabricius IL,KU,PU;B,S 

434. Schizogenius amphibius Haldeman B 



Entomology 355 

435. Schizogenius ferrugineus Putzeys PU;B,D1 

436. Schizogenius lineolatus Say PU;B,D1 

437. Selenophorus ellipticus Dejean PU;B 

438. Selenophorus gagatinus Dejean KU,PU;B,C,D1,S 

439. Selenophorus granarius Dejean DC 

440. Selenophorus opalinus LeConte PU;B 

44 1 . Selenophorus pedicularius Dej ean PU ; B , C , D 1 

442. Sericoda bogemanni (Gyllenhal) 

( = Platynus bogemanni (Gyllenhal)) PU;B 

( = Agonum bogemanni Gyllenhal) KU 

443. Sphaeroderus lecontei Dejean IL,IU,KU,PU;S 

( = Cychrus lecontei Dejean) B 

444. Sphaeroderus stenostomus Weber C 

( = Sphaeroderus stenostomus indianae Blatchley) PU 

( = Cychrus stenostomus indiane Leng) B 

445. Stenocrepis cupreus (Chaudoir) C 

( = Oodes cupreus Chaudoir) B 

446. Stenocrepis quatuordecimstriata (Chaudoir) C 

( = Oodes 14-striatus Chaudoir) B 

447. Stenolophus carbonarius (Dejean) KU,PU;B,S 

448. Stenolophus comma Fabricius IL,IU,PU 

449. Stenolophus conjunctus (Say) PU;B 

450. Stenolophus dissimilis Dejean B,C 

451. Stenolophus fuliginosus Dejean PU;B 

452. Stenolophus fuscatus Dejean PU 

( = Stenolophus plebejus fuscatus Dejean) B 

453. Stenolophus lecontei Chaudoir 

( = Agonoderus lecontei Chaudoir) PU 

( = Agonoderus pallipes "(Fabricius)") IU,PU,B 

454. Stenolophus lineola (Fabricius) 

( = Agonoderus lineola (Fabricius)) PU;B 

455. Stenolophus ochropezus Dejean IU,PU;B 

456. Stenolophus plebejus Dejean B 

457. Stenolophus rotundicollis Haldeman 

( = Stenolophus scitulus Casey) PU 

458. Synuchus impunctatus (Say) IU 

( = Calathus impunctatus Say) B 

( = Pristodactyla impunctata (Say)) PU;D1 

459. Tachyta nana inornata Say C 

( = Tachyta nana (Gyllenhal)) PU 

( = Tachys nanus (Gyllenhal)) B 

460. Tetragonoderus fasciatus Haldeman IU;B,C 

461. Trechus chalybeus Dejean B 

462. Trichotichnus dichrous Dejean KU;C,S 

( = Harpalus dichrous Dejean) PU;B 

463. Trichotichnus vulpeculus (Say) 

( = Harpalus vulpeculus Say) PU;B 

464. Xestonotus lugubris (Dejean) PU 

( = Anisodactylus lugubris Dejean) B 

465. Zuphium americanum Dejean D3 



The following Indiana "records" are highly doubtful (G. Ball, personal 



cor- 



356 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 94 (1985) 

respondence): Bembidion oblongulum (Mannerheim), PU, is probably B. wingatei Bland; 
Pinacodera russata Newman, C, is now Cymindis complanata Dejean which does not 
likely occur farther north than Alabama; and Scaphinotus elevatus tenebricosus Roeschke, 
PU. 

Literature Cited 

1. Blatchley, W.S. 1910. An Illustrated Descriptive Catalogue of the Coleoptera or 
Beetles Known to Occur in Indiana. The Nature Publishing Co., Indianapolis, 
Indiana. 1385. p. 

2. Downie, N. M. 1956. Records of Indiana Coleoptera, I. Proceedings of the Indiana 
Academy of Science. 66:115-124. 

3. Downie, N. M. 1958. Records of Indiana Coleoptera, II. Proceedings of the Indiana 
Academy of Science. 66:115-124. 

4. Downie, N. M. and C. E. White. 1967. Records of Indiana Coleoptera, III. Pro 
ceedings of the Indiana Academy of Science. 76: 308-316. 

5. Erwin, T., D. R. Whitehead and G. E. Ball. 1977. Family 4. Carabidae, The Ground 
Beetles. In: Checklist of the Beetles of North and Central America and the West 
Indies. Flora and Fauna Publications, Gainesville, Florida. 68 p. 

6. Montgomery, B. E. and J. M. Amos. 1941. Contributions to a list of the Coleoptera 
of the Clark County State Forest. Proceedings of the Indiana Academy of Science. 
50:251-258. 

7. Munsee, Jack R. 1966. The Ecology of Ants of Stripmine Spoil Banks. Ph.D. Disser- 
tation. Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 243 p. 

8. Schrock, John R. 1983. The Succession of Insects on Unreclaimed Coal Strip Mine 
Spoil Banks in Indiana. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas. 
207 p. 

9. Thiele, H.-U. 1977. Carabid Beetles in Their Environment. Springer- Verlag, Berlin. 
369 p. 



A Checklist of the Aquatic Coleoptera of Indiana 

Charles E. White, Frank N. Young, and N.M. Downie 
Department of Biology 
Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 47405 

The only readily available listing of the aquatic Coleoptera of Indiana is that 
of Blatchley in his Coleoptera of Indiana (1910). A number of species and genera 
have been added and changes in nomenclature have occurred. The late Charles E. 
White initiated the present list some years ago, but it has remained unpublished. The 
families of Coleoptera considered to be truly aquatic are as follows: Gyrinidae, 
Dytiscidae, Haliplidae, Noteridae, Helophoridae, Hydrochidae, Hydraenidae, 
Hydrophilidae (except for subfamily Sphaeridinae), Psephenidae, Dryopidae, and 
Elmidae. However, others such as the Heteroceridae, Limnichidae, and some groups 
of Chrysomelidae and Curculionidae are associated with aquatic situations. The 
Helodidae and Ptilodactylidae have aquatic larvae, but have not been included. 

$4 % ♦ ♦ 

It is now going on 75 years since W.S. Blatchley's "An Illustrated Descriptive 
Catalogue of the Coleoptera or Beetles (Exclusive of the Rhynchophora) Known to 
Occur in Indiana; With Bibliography and Descriptions of New Species" appeared as 
Bulletin No. 1 of the Indiana Department of Geology and Natural Resources in 1910. 
This 1,386-page book with 590 figures and one map is still one of the two comprehen- 
sive works on the Coleoptera, or beetles covering North America, the other being the 
five volume series of M.H. Hatch, the Beetles of the Pacific Northwest. 

In the aquatic families, Blatchley in 1910 listed the following: Haliplidae, 2 genera, 
11 species; Dytiscidae (including Noteridae) 25 genera, 96 species; Gyrinidae, 3 genera, 
14 species; Hydrophilidae (including Helophoridae, Hydrochidae, and Hydraenidae), 
26 genera, 69 species; Parnidae (including Psephenidae, Dryopidae-Parnidae, and 
Elmidae), 7 genera, 12 species. Some of the genera and species were presumptive and 
not represented by actual Indiana specimens. The following list enlarges Blatchley's 
list and attempts to bring the nomenclature up to date. 

The voucher material for the following list is largely in the Purdue University 
Laboratory of Insect Diversity collection or in the collections of the authors. The col- 
lection of the late Charles E. White is in the Florida State Collection of Arthropods 
in Gainesville, Florida. 



HALIPLIDAE 

Haliplus borealis LeC. 
Haliplus cribrarius LeC. 
Haliplus fasciatus Aube 
Haliplus immaculicollis Harris 

( = ruficollis/Blatchley) 
Haliplus longulus LeC. 
Haliplus ohioensis Wallis 

(probably = lewisii/Blatchley) 
Haliplus subguttatus LeC. 
Haliplus pantherinus Aube 

DYTISCIDAE 

Laccophilus maculosus maculosus Say 



357 



358 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 94 (1985) 

Laccophilus proximum proximus Say 
Laccophilus undatus Aube 
Laccophilus fasciatus rufus (Melsh.) 

Hydrovatus pustulatus pustulatus (Melsh.) 
Hydrovatus indianensis Blatchley 

Demopachria convexa (Aube) 

Uvarus granarius (Aube) 
Uvarus lacustris (Say) 
Uvarus suburbanus (Fall) 
Liodessus affinis affinis (Say) 
Liodessus fuscatus (Crotch) 
Liodessus flaviocollis (LeC.) 

Bidessonotus inconspicuus (LeC.) 
(= Bidessus pulicarius/Blatchley) 

Celina bubbelli Young 
Celina imitatrix Young 

Peltodytes 12-punctatus (Say) 
Peltodytes edentulus (LeC.) 
Peltodytes lengi Roberts 
Peltodytes muticus (LeC.) 
Peltodytes sexmaculatus Roberts 
Peltodytes litoralis Matheson 
Peltodytes pedunculatus (Blatchley) 
Peltodytes dunavani Young 

Celina bubbelli Young 

( = angustatus/Blatchley) 
Celina imitatrix Young 

Hygrotus sayi J. B-Browne 

( = punctatus//Say) 
Hygrotus turbidus (LeC.) 
Hygrotus dispar (LeC.) 
Hygrotus impressopunctatus Schall. 
Hygrotus acaroides (LeC.) 
Hygrotus laccophilinus (LeC.) 
Hygrotus dissimilis (Harris) 
Hygrotus nubilus (LeC.) 
Deronectus rotandatus (LeC.) 

( = depressus Fabr. of authors) 
Deronectes griseostriatus (DeG.) 

Falloporus triangularis (Fall) (Monroe Co.) 

Hydroporus (Heterosternuta) 
Hydroporus laetus Leech 



Entomology 359 

Hydroporus ohionis Fall 
Hydroporus pulcher LeC. 
Hydroporus wickhami Zaitzev 

(= concinnus/Zaitzev Lee.) 
Hydroporus (Neoporus) 
Hydroporus spurius LeC. 
Hydroporus venustus LeC. 
Hydroporus undulatus Say 
Hydroporus consimilis LeC. 
Hydroporus mixtus LeC. 
Hydroporus dimidiatus G. & H. 
Hydroporus mellitus LeC. 
Hydroporus vittatipennis G. & H. 
Hydroporus striatopunctatus Melsh. 
Hydroporus shermani Fall 
Hydroporus sericeus LeC. 
Hydroporus hybridus Aube 
Hydroporus clypealis Sharp 
Hydroporus semiflavus Fall (Monroe Co.) 
Hydroporus solitarius Sharp 
Hydroporus vitiosus LeC. 
Hydroporus blanchardi Sherman 
Hydroporus psammodytes Young 
Hydroporus aequus Fall 
Hydroporus filiolus Fall 
Hydroporus pagus Fall 
Hydroporus oblitus Aube (sensu H.C. Fall) 
Hydroporus despectus Fall (Monroe Co.) 
Hydroporus pseudovilis Young 

(= Hydroporus vilis/Blatchley) 
Hydroporus (Hydroporus s. str.) 
Hydroporus dichrous Melsh. 
Hydroporus brevicornis Fall 
Hydroporus americanus Aube 
Hydroporus melsheimeri Fall 
Hydroporus dentellus Fall 
Hydroporus notabilis LeC. 
Hydroporus rufilabris Sharp 
Hydroporus tenebrosus LeC. 
Hydroporus tristis Payk. 
Hydroporus signatus youngi Gordon 
Hydroporus niger Say 
Hydroporus despectus rusticus Sharp 
Hydroporus striola Gyll. 

Laccornis 

(= Agaporus) 
Laccornis conodeus LeC. 
Laccornis difformis LeC. 
Laccornis deltoids Fall 

Agabus (Gaurodytes) 



360 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 94 (1985) 

Agabus seriatus seriatus (Say) 
Agabus semivittatus (LeC.) 
Agabus aeruginosus Aube 
Agabus falli Guignot 

(= sharpi Fall) 
Agabus disintegratus (Crotch) 

( = taeniolatus//Blatchley) 
Agabus scapularis Mann. 

(= anthracinus Mann.) 
Agabus gagetes Aube 
Agabus stagninus (Say) 
Agabus punctatus Melsh. 
Agabus punctulatus Aube 

(= aeneolus Crotch) 
Agabus semipunctatus (Kirby) 
Agabus congener Thunb. 
Agabus ambiguus (Say) 

(= reticulatus Aube) 
Agabus phaeopterus (Kirby) 
Agabus erichsoni G. & H. 
Agabus obtusatus (Say) 
Agabus confusus (Blatchley) (S. Indiana) 

(= Rhantus confusus Blatchley) 
Agabus leptapsis (LeC.) 
Agabus erythropterus (Say) 
Agabus (Eriglenus) 
Agabus bifarius (Kirby) 

Ilybius biguttulus (Germ.) 
Ilybius ignarus LeC. 
Ilybius fraterculus LeC. 
Ilybius oblitus Sharp 
Ilybius angustior (Gyll.) 
Ilybius confusus Aube? 

Agabetes acunductus (Harris) 

Matus bicarinatus (Say) 
Matus ovatus ovatus Leech 

Copelatus glyphicus (Say) 

Copelatus chevrolati renovatus Guignot 

Coptotomus (Fabr.) 
Coptotomus longulus LeC. 
Coptotomus liticus Hilsenhoff 
Coptotomus lenticus Hilsenhoff 

Neoscutopterus angustus (LeC). 

Rhantus sinuatus LeC. 
Rhantus tostus LeC. 



Entomology 361 



Rhantus zimmermanni Wallis 
( = bistriatus//Blatchley) 

Colymbetes sculptilis (Harris) 

Dytiscus fasciventris Say 
Dytiscus verticalis Say 
Dytiscus hyridus Aube 
Dytiscus harrisii Kirby 

Hydaticus modestus Sharp 
( = stagnalis//Blatchley) 
Hydaticus piceus LeC. 

Acilius semisulcatus Aube 
Acilius mediatus (Say) 
Acilius fraternus (Harris) 
Acilius sylvanus Hilsenhof 

Thermonectus nigricollis ornaticollis (Aube) 
Thermonectus basillaris basillaris (Harris) 

Graphoderes liberus (Say) 
Graphoderes fasciatocollis (Harris) 
Graphoderes modestus Sharp 

Cybister fimbriolatus fimbriolatus (Say) 

NOTERIDAE 

Suphisellus puncticollis Crotch 
Suphisellus bicolor bicolor (Say) 
Suphisellus bicolor punctipennis (Sharp) 
Hydrocanthus atricolor (Say) 
( = texanus Sharp) 

GYRINIDAE 

Dineutus ciliatus (Forsb.) (Owen Co.) 

( = vittatus//Blatchley) 
Dineutus nigrior Roberts 
Dineutus discolor Aube 
Dineutus emarginatus Say 
Dineutus horni Roberts 
Dineutus assimilis Kirby 

( = americana Say) 

Gyrinus minutus (Fabr.) 

Gyrinus ventralis Kirby 

Gyrinus aeneolus LeC. 

Gyrinus affinis Aube 

Gyrinus analis Say 

Gyrinus lugens LeC. 



362 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 94 (1985) 

Gyrinus plicifer LeC. 

Gyrinus fraternus Coup. 

Gyrinus aquiris Lee. 

Gyrinus dichrous LeC. 

Gyrinus piceolus Blatchley 

Gyrinus borealis Aube 

Gyrinus pectoralis LeC. 

Gyretes compressus LeC. (Owen & Greene Co.) 



HELOPHORIDAE 

Helophorus oblongus LeC. 
Helophorus nitidulus LeC. 
Helophorus linearis LeC. 
Helophorus lacustris LeC. 
Helophorus lineatus Say 
Helophorus tuberculatus Gyll. 
Helophorus ventralis Mots. 
( = obsoletesulcatus Mots.) 

HYDROCHIDAE 

Hydrochus scabratus (Mulsant) 
Hydrochus inaequalis Lee. 
Hydrochus subcupreus Randall 
Hydrochus rufipes Melsh. 
Hydrochus setosus Leech 
Hydrochus ouelleti Leech 
Hydrochus squamifer LeC. 
Hydrochus excavatus LeC. 
Hydrochus granulatus Blatchley 
Hydrochus currani Brown 
Hydrochus brevitarsis Knisch 
Hydrochus undulatus Hellman 
Hydrochus neosquamifer Hellman 

LIMNEBIIDAE 

(= HYDRAENIDAE) 
Ochthebius foveicollis LeC. 
Ochthebius putamensis Blatchley 
Ochthebius cribricollis LeC. 

Gymnocthebius nitidus (LeC.) 

Hydraena pensylvanica Kies. 

Hydraena punctata LeC. 

Hydraena angulicollis Notm. 

Hydraena quadricurvipes Perkins (Brown Co.) 

Hydraena ancylis Perkins (Monroe Co.) 

Limnebius discolor (Casey) (Monroe Co.) 



Entomology 363 

HYDROPHILIDAE 

Hydrophilus triangularis Say 

Dibolocelus ovatus (G. & H.) 

Tropisternus lateralis nimbatus (Say) 
Tropisternus glaber (Herbst) 
Tropisternus blatchleyi modestus D'Orch. 
Tropisternus collaris striolatus (LeC.) 
Tropisternus mixtus (LeC.) 
Tropisternus natator D'Orch. 
Tropisternus sublaevis LeC? 

Hydrochara obtusata (Say) (n. Indiana) 
Hydrochara soror Smetana 
Hydrochara spangleri Smetana (Monroe Co.) 
Hydrochara leechi Smetana 

Chaetarthria pallida (LeC.) 
Chaetarthria atra (LeC.) (Monroe) 

Berosus pugnax LeC. 

Berosus pantherinus LeC. 

Berosus aculeatus LeC. 

Berosus infuscatus LeC. (Posey, Monroe, Crawford Cos.) 

Berosus ordinatus LeC. 

( = pennsylvanica Knisch) 
Berosus exiguus Say (Monroe Co.) 
Berosus peregrinus Herbst. 

Berosus fraternus LeC. (Posey, Monroe, Crawford Cos.) 
Berosus striatus (Say) 

Derallus altus LeC. (Posey Co.) 

Laccobius agilis Rand. 
Laccobius punctatus Melsh. 

Hydrobius fuscipes (Linn.) 
Hydrobius globosus (Say) 
Hydrobius tumidus LeC. 
Hydrobius melaneum Ger. 

Scherchopsis tesselatus (Ziegler) (Tippecanoe, Porter Cos.) 
(= Hydrobius tesselatus/VBlatchley) 

Paracymus (Creniphilus) 

Paracymus despectus (LeC.) 

Paracymus subcupreus (Say) 

Paracymus confusus Wooldridge (Posey Co.) 

Paracymus digestus (LeC.) 

Crenitulus (Creniphilus) 



364 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 94 (1985) 

Crenitulus suturalis (LeC.) (Monroe Co.) 
(= Creniphilus suturalis//Blatchley) 

Ancaena limbata (Fabr.) 
( = infuscatus//Blatchley) 

Crenitis longulus (Fall) (Monroe Co.) 

Enochrus 

( = Philhydrus/VBlatchley) 
Enochrus pygmaeus nebulosus (Say) 
Enochrus diffusus (LeC.) (Crawford Co.) 
Enochrus ochraceus (Melsh.) 
Enochrus consortus Green (Posey Co.) 
Enochrus horni (Leech) 

( = hamiltoni//Blatchley 
Enochrus cinctus (Say) 
Enochrus perplexus (LeC.) 

Helochares maculicollis Mulsant 

Helocombus bifidus (LeC.) 

Cymbiodyta lasustris LeC. 
Cymbiodyta vindicata Fall 
Cymbiodyta blanchardi Horn 
Cymbiodyta chamberlaini Smetana 
Cymbiodyta semistriatus (Zimm.) 
(= fimbriata Melsh.) 

Sphaeridium scarabaoides (Linn.) 
Sphaeridium bipustulatum (Fabr.) 
Sphaeridium lunutatum (Fabr.) 

Phaenonotus exstriatum (Say) 
( = estriatum//Blatchley) 

Genyon navicularis (Zimm.) 

Cercyon analis (Payk.) 
Cercyon pubescens LeC. 
Cercyon pygmaeus (Iliger) 
Cercyon nigriceps (Marsh.) 
Cercyon quisquilius (Linn.) 
Cercyon maculatus (Melsh.) 
Cercyon convexiusculus Steph. 

( = lugubris/VBlatchley) 
Cercyon tristis (Illiger) 
Cercyon haemorrhoidalis (Fabr.) 
Cercyon terminatus (Marsh.) 

( = melanocephala//Blatchley 
Cercyon unipunctatus (Linn.) 



Entomology 365 

Cercyon praetextatus (Say) 
Cercyon indistinctus Horm 
Cercyon navicularis Zimm. 
Cercyon atricapillus (Marsh.) 
Cercyon minusculus Melsh. 
Cercyon roseni Knish 
Cercyon pygmaeus (111.) 
Cercyon connivens Fall 
Cercyon herceus Smetana 
Cercyon erraticus Smetana 
Cercyon mendax Smetana 
Cercyon assecla Smetana 
Cercyon occallatus (Say) 
Cercyon lateralis (Marsh.) 

Cryptopleurum minutum (Fabr.) 
Cryptopleurum subtile Sharp 
Cryptopleurum americanum Horn? 

Pemelus costatus (LeC.)? 

DRYOPIDAE 

Helichus basalis LeC. (Parke County) 

Helichus fastigiatus (Say) 

Helichus lithophilus (Germ.) 

Helichus striatus LeC. (Parke and Tippecanoe Co.) 

ELMIDAE 

Stenelmis crenata (Say) 

Stenelmis decorata Sanderson 

Stenelmis maerkelii Motsch. 

(= sulcatus Blatchley) 

Stenelmis musgravei Sanderson 

Stenelmis quadrimaculatus Horn 

Stenelmis sandersoni Musgrave 

Stenelmis sexlineata Sanderson 

Stenelmis vittipennis Zimmerman 

Macronychus glabrata Say 

HETEROCERIDAE 

Centuriatus 

( = Heterocerus//Blatchley) 
Centuriatus auromicans (Kies.) 

Lanternarius 

(= Heterocerus Blatchley) 
Lanternarius brunneus (Melsh.) 
Lanternarius mollinus (Kies.) 
Lanternarius parrotus Pacheo 



366 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 94 (1985) 

Neoheterocerus 

( = Heterocerus//Blatchley) 
Neoheterocerus angustatus (Chev.) 
Neoheterocerus pallidus (Say) 

(= ventralis Melsh.) 
Neoheterocerus sandersoni Pacheco 

Dampfius 

( = Heterocerus/VBlatchley) 
Dampfius collaris (Kies). 
Dampfius undatus (Melsh.) 

Tropicus 

( = Heterocerus//Blatchley) 
Tropicus pusillus (Say) 

LIMNICHIDAE ( = Byrrihidae//Blatchley, ex parte) 
Limnichus obscurus (LeC.) 
Limnichus ovatus (LeC.) 
Limnichus nitidulus (LeC.) 
Limnichus punctatus (LeC.) 

Latrochus laticeps Csy. 

CHRYSOMELIDAE 

Macroplea nigricornis (Kby.) 

Donacia aequalis Say 
Donacia biimpressa Melsh 
Donacia cincticornis Newm. 
Donacia distincta LeC. 
Donacia fulgens Lee. 
Donacia hirticollis Kby. 
Donacia hypoleuca Lac. 
Donacia megacornis Blatch. 
Donacia palmata Oliv. 
Donacia parvidens Schffr. 
Donacia piscatrix Lac. 
Donacia porosicollis Lac. 
Donacia proxima Kby. 
Donacia pubescens LeC. 
Donacia pubicollis Suffr. 
Donacia quadricollis Say 

(= curticollis Knab) 
Donacia rufescens Lac. 
Donacia rugosa LeC. 
Donacia subtilis Kunze 
Donacia tuberculifrons Schffr. 

Plateumaris 
( = Donacia//Blatchley) 



Entomology 367 

Plateumaris diversa (Schffr.) 
Plateumaris emarginata (Kby.) 
Plateumaris falvipes (Kby.) 
Plateumaris metallica (Ahr.) 
Plateumaris sulciocollis (Lac.) 

Sominella 

(= Donacia//Blatchley) 
Sominella harrisi (LeC.) 

CURCULIONIDAE (in part, aquatic weevils) 
Tanysphyrus lemnae (Fab.) 

Bagous americanus LeC. 
Bagous atratus Blatch. 
Bagous bituberosa LeC. 
Bagous lengi Tanner 
Bagous magister LeC. 
Bagous nebulosus LeC. 
Bagous obliquus LeC. 
Bagous planatus LeC. 
Bagous pusillus LeC. 
Bagous restrictus LeC. 
Bagous tanneri O'Brien 
Bagous transversus LeC. 

Lissorhoptrus oryzphilus Kusch. 
Lissorhoptrus simplex (Say) 

Brachybamus electus Germ. 

Notiodes (Endalus/VBlatchley) 
Notiodes limatulus (Gyll.) 
Notiodes ovalis (LeC.) 

Onychylis nigrirostris (Boh.) 

Stenopelmus rufinasus Gyll. 

Lixellus lutulentus (Boh.) 
(= ASnchodemus angustus/VBlatchley) 

Listronotus (In part = Hyperodes of Blatchley) 

Listronotus appendiculatus (Boh.) 

Listronotus callosus LeC. 

Listronotus caudatus (Say) 

Listronotus debilis (Blatch.) 

Listronotus delumbis (Gyll.) 

Listronotus dietzi O'Brien 

Listronotus dorsalis (Dietz) 

Listronotus echinatus (Dietz) 



368 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 94 (1985) 

Listronotus frontalis LeC. 
Listronotus grypidoides (Dietz) 
Listronotus humilis (Gyll.) 
Listronotus maculicollis (Kby.) 
Listronotus montanus (Dietz) 
Listronotus nebulosus LeC. 
Listronotus porcellus (Say) 
Listronotus poseyensis (Blatch.) 
Listronotus sordidus (Gyll.) 
Listronotus sparsus (Say) 
Listronotus squamiger (Say) 
Listronotus tuberosus LeC. 

Catalogs, reviews, revisions, and other papers 
since Blatchley (1910) useful in classification 

Balfour-Browne, Jack. 1947. A revision of the genus Bidessonotus Regimbart 

(Coleoptera: Dytiscidae). Trans. Royal Ent. Soc. London 98(9):425-448, 12 figs. 
Blatchley, W.S. and C.W. Heng. 1916. Rhychrphora or Weevils of North Eastern 

America. Indianapolis: Nortmas Publishing Co. L82 pp. 
Brinck, Per. 1945. Nomenklatorische Studien uber Dytischiden. III. Die Klassifikation 

der Cybisterinen. Lunds Universitets Arsskrift (N.F. Avd. 2) 41(4): 1-20, 1 fig. 

(= Handlingar Kungl. Fysiografiska Sallskapets (N.F.) 56(4):l-20, 1 fig.). 
Brown, Harley P. 19 A catalog of the Coleoptera of America north of Mexico 

Family Elmidae. U.S. Dept. Agric, Agric. Handb. No. 529-550, 23 pp. Ibid. 

Family: Dryopidae, 8 pp. 
Darlington, Jr., P.J. 1936. A list of the West Indian Dryopidae (Coleoptera) with 

a new genus and eight new species including one from Columbia. Psyche 

43(2-3):65-83, 1 pi. 
D'Orchymont, A. 1921. Le genre Tropisternus I (Col. Hydrophilidae). Ann. Soc. Ent. 

Belgique 61:349-374. 
. 1922. Le genre Tropisternus II (Col. Hydrophilidae). Ann. Soc. Ent. Belgique 

62:11-48, 4 figs. 
Fall, H.C. 1919. The North American species of Coelambus. John D. Sherman, Jr., 

Mt. Vernon, N.Y., 20 pp. 
1922. A review of the North American species of Agabus together with a descrip- 
tion of a new genus and species of the tribe Agabini. John D. Sherman, Jr., 

Mt. Vernon, N.Y., 36 pp. 
1923. A revision of the North American species of Hydroporus and Agaporus. 

John D. Sherman, Jr., Mt. Vernon, N.Y. 219 pp. 
Leng, Charles W. 1920. Catalog of the coleoptera of America north of Mexico. John 

D. Sherman, R., Mt. Vernon, N.Y., x/ + 470 pp. (with supplements). 
Marx, Edward, J.K. 1957. Review of subgenus Donacia in Western Hemisphere. Bull. 

Mus. Nat. Hist. Vol. 112, pp. 195-278. 
Matheson, Robert. 1912. The Haliplidae of North America, north of Mexico. J. N.U. 

Ent. Soc. 20:156-193, 6 pi., 2 figs. 
Matta, James F., G. William Wolfe. 1981. A revision of the subgenus Heterosternuta 

Strand of Hydroporus Clairville (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae). Pan-Pacific Ent. 

57:176-218, 80 figs. 
Musgrave, Paul N. 1935. A synopsis of the genus Helichus Erichson in the United 

States and Canada with descriptions of new species (Coleoptera: Dryopidae). Proc. 

Ent. Soc. Wash. 37:137-145, 1 pi. 



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O'Brien, C.W. and G.J. Wibner. 1982. Annotated checklist of the weevils of North 

America. Mem. No. 34 Amer. Entom. Inst. Ann Arbor, MI. 
Pacheco, Francisco. 1978. A catalog of the Coleoptera of America north of Mexico. 

Family Heteroceridae. Agriculture Handbook No. 529-47. Wash. D.C.: U.S. Dept. 

Agriculture, X and 8 pp. 
Roberts, Chris H. 1913. Critical notes on the species of Haliplidae of America north 

of Mexico with descriptions of new species. J. N.Y. Ent. Soc. 21:91-123. 
Sanderson, Milton W. 1938. A monographic revision of the North American species 

of Stenelmis (Dryopidae: Coleoptera). Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull. 25:635-717, 2 pi. 
Smetana, Ales. 1974. Revision of the genus Cymbiodyta Bed. (Coleoptera: 

Hydrophilidae). Mem. Ent. Soc. Can. No. 93, iv + 112 pp., 147 figs. 
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eoptera: Hydrophilidae). Mem. Ent. Soc. Canada No. 105, 292 pp., 336 figs. 

(colored frontispiece). 
. 1980. Revision of the genus Hydrochara Berth. (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae). 

Mem. Ent. Soc. Canada No. Ill, iv+100 pp., 77 figs, (colored frontispiece) 
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Ent. Soc. 101:33-123, 102 figs. 



ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY 

Chairperson: William Beranek 

Indianapolis Center for Advanced Research 

120 E. 38th Street 

P.O. Box 647 

Indianapolis, Indiana 46223 

(317)264-2827 

Chairperson-Elect Horst Siewert 

Department of Natural Resources 

Ball State University 

Muncie, Indiana 47306 

(317)285-5790 

ABSTRACTS 

The Determination of the Removal Rate of Specific Chemicals by the Indianapolis 
Wastewater Treatment System. William Beranek, Jr. and Elizabeth DuSold, 
Indianapolis Center for Advanced Research, Inc., 611 North Capitol Avenue, In- 
dianapolis, Indiana 46206. The rate of removal of toxic chemicals from a municipal 

wastewater treatment facility is a critical value for policy makers determining the in- 
dustrial discharge concentrations into a sewer system. 

Increased attention to the removal rate now is occurring because of its regulatory 
use in adjusting the national categorical industrial discharge limits to the special condi- 
tions present in specific municipal wastewater treatment facilities. 

Due to the constantly changing heterogeneous chemical composition of the in- 
fluent of the facility and to the changing retention times of the flow of material through 
the facility, reliable measurement of the removal rates are very difficult. 

This paper reviews the removal rate measurements at the Indianapolis Advanced 
Wastewater Treatment facilities and discusses the significance of the measurements. 

A Superfund Risk Assessment in Indiana: A Case Study of the Columbia City Site. 

William Beranek, Jr., Elizabeth DuSold, John Merrill and Marten St. Clair, 
Indianapolis Center for Advanced Research, Inc., Beranek Associates, Inc., and Califor- 
nia Institute of Technology. The Wayne Waste Oil site in Columbia City, Indiana 

is currently on the National Priority List of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agen- 
cy of sites requiring a risk assessment under the Comprehensive Emergency Response, 
Liability and Compensation Act. This is due to the presence of chemicals close to 
an aquifer used as drinking water by a community of 5,000 people. 

The methods and results of the risk assessment which were performed between 
April 1983 and August 1984 are presented. The methods include chemical sampling 
and measurement, groundwater flow measurement, geological strata evaluation and 
draw-down pumping testing. 

The Ratio of PM-10 to TSP in the Atmosphere. William Beranek, Jr. and David 
Jordan, Indianapolis Center for Advanced Research, Inc., 611 North Capitol Avenue, 
Indianapolis, Indiana 46206. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is pro- 
posing to change the indicator pollutants of the National Ambient Air Quality stan- 
dard from total suspended particulates (TSP) to the fraction of particulate matter smaller 

371 



372 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 94 (1985) 

than ten microns in aerodynamic diameter (PM-10). Marion County currently has a 
non-attainment status for TSP, although 1983 readings showed no primary violations. 

In order to estimate the ambient air quality levels in Marion County of this new 
standard, the Indianapolis Air Pollution Control Division, with the support of 
Indianapolis corporations through the Indianapolis PM-10 Task Force, since January 
1983 has been monitoring PM-10 at four locations. 

This paper reviews the results of the study and discusses the implication in the 
context of the proposed changes in the federal regulations on particulates. 

Evaporation Rates of Organic Liquids at Various Wind Speeds and Temperatures. 

Howard E. Dunn, Benjamin P. Miller, Charles B. Macer and Michael E. 
Klausmeier, Departments of Chemistry and Physics, Indiana State University Evansville, 
Evansville, Indiana 47712. In previous papers the authors have investigated com- 
puter model predictions of downwind concentrations of toxic gases from continuous 
sources and from instantaneous releases. An additional case of importance is the calcula- 
tion of a region to be evacuated resulting from the evaporation of a toxic liquid spill. 
A review of the literature revealed minimal information pertaining to the calculation 
of evaporation rates of liquids at various wind speeds and temperatures. 

A wind tunnel was designed and constructed for the purpose of measuring the 
desired evaporation rates. The weight loss from an evaporation dish can be measured 
at intervals for wind speeds of three to twenty miles per hour at commonly encountered 
atmospheric temperatures above freezing. 

Results obtained have been compared with similar results reported by other in- 
vestigators and with empirical correlations reported for evaporation rates. Completed 
results from this evaporation rate study will be incorporated in a computer model to 
predict an evacuation zone for protection of the population from a spill of any one 
of several dangerous volatile chemicals. 






Herbicide (Alachlor, Atrazine, Linuron and Paraquat) Residues in Deer 
Mice Inhabiting Conventional and Minimum Tillage Row-crop Fields 

Denise Benson, Claude D. Baker, and Bill J. Forsyth 

Department of Biology 

Indiana University Southeast 

New Albany, Indiana 47150 

and 

John S. Castrale 

Indiana Division of Fish and Wildlife 

Mitchell, Indiana 47446 

The acreage of cropland in the United States incorporating conservation tillage 
methods has increased steadily from 14% in 1973 to over 24% in 1982 (12). During 
1982, reduced tillage practices were utilized on 34% of Indiana's 13 million acres of 
cropland (10). Based primarily on economic advantages and improved technology, it 
is predicted that conservation tillage in some form will be used on 60% of the nation's 
cropland by the year 2010 (12). 

Although a variety of practices qualify as reduced or conservation tillage, all have 
in common less disturbance to the soil with greater amounts of crop residues left on 
the soil surface. In most situations, chemical control of weeds substitutes for mechanical 
tillage. With minimum tillage (also referred to as no-till and zero tillage), weed control 
is solely by herbicides, and chemical applications and planting can be combined in 
the same operation. 

The environmental consequences of this shift in agricultural practice are just begin- 
ning to be explored. With minimum tillage, soils are less prone to compaction and 
soil loss on sloped land can be reduced by as much as 90% (12). Besides maintaining 
soil productivity, reduced soil erosion should result in decreased siltation of waterways 
and decreased air-borne soil particles. Benefits to wildlife from conservation tillage 
have also been envisioned and recent studies bear this out (11, 23, 25). 

A potentially detrimental impact of conservation tillage practices is the greater 
use of chemical pesticides. With reduced tillage, more vegetation residue remains on 
the soil surface interfering with herbicide incorporation. Thus, chemical application 
rates may need to be increased to maintain their effectiveness. Contact herbicides, 
such as paraquat and glyphosate, are unique to minimum tillage operations and should 
be the focus of research attention. 

The purpose of this study was to determine if 4 commonly used herbicides or 
their metabolites could be detected in deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus), the most 
common inhabitant of cultivated cropland in Indiana and much of the Midwest (17). 
A secondary objective was to determine if these herbicides may be having detrimental 
physiological effects on this rodent under natural field conditions. Alachlor, atrazine, 
and linuron were chosen because they are used extensively in the production of corn 
and soybeans, both in conventional and minimum tillage situations. Paraquat was chosen 
because it is the major contact herbicide used in zero tillage practices. Although these 
chemicals have been tested extensively on laboratory rodents and birds, few studies 
have examined the impacts of agricultural chemicals on wildlife species under natural 
field conditions (21). 

Materials and Methods 

Deer mice were taken from corn and soybean fields using snap traps baited with 
peanut butter and oats. All fields were commercially farmed and information about 

373 



374 



Indiana Academy of Science 



Vol. 94 (1985) 



Table 1 . Agricultural pesticide use and deer mice trapped from cultivated fields in Scott 
County, Indiana, 1983. Capitalized chemicals are trade names. 





Chemical application 
rate (per acre) 




Dates 




Deer mice 


Field 


Spraying 


Planting 


Trapping 


captured 


Conventional corn 
CRA 


alachlor (3 qts.) 
atrazine (2 lbs.) 
Amaze (7 lbs.) 


1 Jun 


2 Jun 


13-14 Jul 


3 


LSm 


atrazine (1.5 lbs.) 
butylate (4 qts.) 


26 Apr 


2 Jun 


13-14 Jul 


5 


PFA 


alachlor (2 qts.) 
atrazine (2 lbs.) 
carbofuran (15 lbs.) 


9 Jun 


9 Jun 


19, 22 Jul 


11 


Conventional soybeans 
LAG 


alachlor (3 qts.) 
linuron (2 qts.) 


12 Jun 


9 Jun 


19, 22 Jul 


14 


H1G 


alachlor (1 qt.) 
linuron (1 qt.) 


1 Jun 


25 May 


14-15 Jul 


22 


No-till corn 
MON 


alachlor (2 qts.) 
atrazine (2 lbs.) 
carbofuran (15 lbs.) 
paraquat (1.5 pts.) 


1 Jun 


19 May 


3, 5 Aug 


15 


BRO-C 


Bicep (3 qts.) 
carbofuran (9 lbs.) 
paraquat (2 qts.) 


24 May 


23 May 


3 Aug 


13 


No-till soybeans 
BROS 


Dual (1 qt.) 
linuron (0.5 qt.) 
paraquat (2 pts.) 


3 Jul 


3 Jul 


3 Aug 


5 


KSm 


alachlor (2 qts.) 
linuron (2 qts.) 
paraquat (1 pt.) 


16 Jun 


15 Jun 


2 Aug 


5 



planting and spraying dates and chemicals used (Table 1) were obtained directly from 
farmers. Fields were located in Scott County of southeastern Indiana, where soils are 
primarily silt loams derived from glacial till. The topography is flat to moderately rolling. 
Conventionally tilled corn and soybean fields had been plowed or disked in the 
spring before planting. No-till cornfields were slot-planted directly into the previous 
year's residues. A slot-planter uses a knife-like implement to make a narrow furrow 
in which the seed is deposited. No-till soybeans had been planted to winter wheat the 
previous fall, and were slot-planted with soybeans directly into residues following wheat 
harvest in early summer. More detailed crop histories are given elsewhere (6). 

Deer mice were trapped over a 4-night period in each field, and mammals cap- 
tured were individually bagged, labeled, frozen, and transported to laboratories at Indiana 
University Southeast. They were analyzed using thin-layer chromatographic (TLC) techni- 
ques described below. It was necessary to pool 3-6 mice to obtain enough material 
for each analysis. For histological analyses, mouse tissues were fixed in alcoholic for- 
malin, and later dehydrated, cleared, and embedded in paraffin blocks. Sections ob- 
tained from these blocks were attached to slides, stained with H & E, and mounted 
with Permount. The sections were then visually scanned for evidence of histological 
abnormalities. 



Environmental Quality 375 

Alachlor (= Lasso) 

Alachlor (2-chloro-2,6 diethyl-N-(methoxymethyl)-acetanilide) is a preemergent her- 
bicide manufactured by the Monsanto Corporation for the control of annual grasses 
and certain broadleaf weeds in soybeans and corn. The concentrate most commonly 
available at retail outlets contains 4 lbs. of alachlor per gallon. Following application, 
the active ingredient persists in the soil for 6-10 weeks (5). 

For alachlor, whole, skinned mice were homogenized in a blender and extrac- 
tions obtained using Method 1A of the Pesticide Analytical Manual, Vol. II (19). The 
2,6 diethylanilide residue obtained in this manner was concentrated "in vacuo" to 
0.5 ml, subsequently dissolved into lOyul of chloroform, and spotted on fluorescent 
silica gel TLC plates. Using a solvent system of 4:1 benzene-ethyl acetate, principal 
yellow spots would appear at Rf 0.85 if alachlor was present in the tissue samples. 

Atrazine (- AAtrex) 

Atrazine (2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-s-triazine), a substitute s-triazine 
available from CIBA-GEIGY Corporation in several trade name formulations such 
as AAtrex 4L, is a selective herbicide utilized for season-long weed control in corn 
and other crops. The retail product contains 4 lbs. of atrazine per gallon. 

For atrazine analysis, homogenized mouse livers were extracted with anhydrous 
methanol, and the resulting filtered solution was hydrolyzed with IN HC1 (23). Following 
separation into phases with the addition of n-hexane, the aqueous bottom layer was 
drawn off, neutralized with NFLOH, and then evaporated on a rotavapor to 0.5 ml. 
The resulting residue was dissolved into 10/tl of chloroform, spotted on fluorescent 
silica gel TLC plates, and developed in a solvent system consisting of 4:1 benzene- 
ethyl acetate. Atrazine, if present, would be located at the Rf value of 0.27. The limit 
of detection using this method was 0.03 ppm with approximately 70% recovery of 
parent material. 

Linuron (= Lorox) 

Linuron (3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-l-methoxy-l-methylurea), distributed by DuPont 
for selective weed control, is retailed as Lorox Weed Killer, a wettable powder con- 
taining 50% linuron, and Lorox L Weed Killer, an aqueous suspension containing 
41% linuron (13). 

For these extractions, whole, skinned mice were homogenized in a blender, in- 
itially extracted with anhydrous ether, and hydrolyzed with IN HC1 (4). The resulting 
solution was then adjusted to a pH greater than 11 with NaOH, and from this solu- 
tion, p-chloroaniline was re-extracted into a small volume of ether, dried with magnesium 
sulfates, and then evaporated almost to dryness with a rotavapor. The resulting concen- 
trate was dissolved in 9:1 petroleum ether-acetone, spotted on fluorescent silica gel 
plates, and subsequently developed in the following solvent system: 35 ml methanol, 
17.5 ml isoamylalcohol, 35 ml benzene, and 12.5 ml 2N HC1. If present, the p- 
chloroaniline derivative of linuron would appear at the Rf value of 0.85. The reported 
lower limit of detectability is 0.1 micrograms (4). Our recorded percent recovery of 
standard reference materials was 91.7%. 

Paraquat 

Paraquat (l,l'-dimethyl-4,4 dipyridilium dichloride), a non-selective contact her- 
bicide, is distributed by Chevron as Paraquat CL containing 2 lbs. of the paraquat 
cation per gallon. 

Whole, skinned, homogenized mice were extracted according to methods published 
in the Pesticide Analytical Manual, Vol. II (19). The filtered solution was then concen- 



376 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 94 (1985) 

trated "in vacuo" to 0.5 ml, spotted on fluorescent silica gel plates, and developed 
in the following sequential solvent system which was designed specifically for the detection 
of paraquat and its metabolites (1). The TLC plate remained in Solvent A which con- 
sisted of 1:1:2:1 benzene-amyl alcohol-methanol-lN HCI for seven minutes and was 
then immediately placed in Solvent B which consisted of 40:9:1 acetonitrile-H 2 0-ammonia 
until the solvent had traveled the entire length of the TLC plate. Paraquat, if present, 
remains at Rf 0.19. Related compounds have been reported at the following locations 
(1): QUINA-Rf 0.34, monopyridone-Rf 0.49, monoquat-Rf 0.54, and dipyridone-Rf 0.79. 

Results and Discussion 

A total of 76 deer mice was utilized in 17 assays for residues of the 4 herbicides 
(Table 2). Five assays indicated the presence of herbicides or their metabolites. Nine 
additional mice were histologically examined for lung and liver damage, and 2 individuals 
showed evidence of liver abnormalities (Table 2). 

Table 2. Summary of herbicide residue determinations and histological examinations 
of deer mouse livers. 





No. 


. fields 


No. mice 


Frequency of samples 


Frequency of 


Herbicide 


represented 


sampled 


with herbicide residues 


liver damage 


Alachlor 




6 


32 


2/7 


0/4 


Atrazine 




3 


18 


0/4 


0/2 


Linuron 




2 


11 


0/3 
3/3 b 


0/2 


Paraquat 




2 


15 


2/3 



Pooled samples include 3-6 individual deer mice. 
Metabolites uncertain. 

Alachlor 

Alachlor residues were detected in mice from two fields, a conventionally tilled 
cornfield (CRA) and a no-till soybean field (KSm). UV spectrophotometric analyses 
of the sample residues revealed principal wavelength peaks at 234 nm. Using p- 
chloroaniline as a reference, the recorded residues were calculated to be 0.0003 ppm 
(CRA) and 0.0001 ppm (KSm). These recorded levels are extremely low and far below 
the reported sensitivity levels of 0.01 to 0.02 ppm for this compound (18). 

Toxicology studies (5) of the effects of alachlor on rats indicated relatively high 
acute oral LD50s ranging from 100 mg/kg to 5800 mg/kg for various formulations of the 
retail product Lasso. Alachlor produced tumors in some laboratory mice when fed at levels 
greater than 260 mg/kg/day over the entire lifetime of the experimental animals (5). All 
4 deer mice histologically examined from fields in which alachlor was used showed 
normal liver appearance. The presence of detectable alachlor in some individuals is 
unlikely to create an environmental problem due to the large dosages required to in- 
duce tumors. In conventional as well as reduced tillage fields, it is improbable that 
these levels would ever be approached. 

A trazine 

Atrazine residues were not detected in any samples, nor did the livers of 2 mice 
examined appear abnormal. The acute oral toxicity of atrazine (AAtrex 4L) in rats 
was 1886 mg/kg in males and 1075 mg/kg in females (8). Besides this relatively high 
level of toxicity, atrazine is rapidly excreted from the body (8) posing little threat to 
nontarget rodents and their predators. Atrazine accounts for almost 25% of all her- 
bicides applied to crops in the United States, and may be metabolically transformed 



Environmental Quality 377 

by both plants and animals into a mutagenic substance (12, 20). Atrazine has been 
shown to affect the behavior of rats by altering their circadian rhythms (18). 

Linuron 

Linuron was not detected in any tissue samples. Dupont (13) reported an acute 
oral LD50 for linuron of 1906 mg/kg for male mice and 2873 mg/kg for females. 
Linuron fed to mice at dietary levels of 50 and 150 ppm for two years produced no 
measurable chronic effects, but an extremely high dietary level of 1500 ppm produced 
hepatocellular adenomas in female mice (13). In a reproduction study, linuron produced 
a high incidence of deformed embryos at a feeding rate of 200 mg/kg (14). No general 
toxic, reproductive, or teratogenic effects were noted in a 3-generation rat study at 
a dietary level of 125 ppm (13). 

Paraquat 

In utilizing the sequential TLC procedure for the detection of paraquat and its 
metabolites, no immediate evidence of paraquat was found at Rf 0.19-0.21. However, 
identical streaks with an Rf range from 0.54-0.72 were noted on plates developed from 
a no-till corn (BRO-C) and a no-till soybean field (BRO-S) (Figure 1). In addition, 
the tissue extractions from the no-till cornfield produced plates with compact spots 
located at Rf 0.89. The known degradation products of paraquat falling in this range 
would be monoquat (Rf 0.54) and dipyridone (0.79). Considering that definite resolu- 
tion was not obtained, it cannot be stated conclusively that these represent paraquat 
metabolites. The livers of 2 of 3 additional mice examined from both fields showed 
signs of damage, mainly changes in appearances of fatty cells which is a characteristic 
response of the liver to a wide variety of toxic compounds, including paraquat (24). 

In contrast to the relatively low toxicities of the other herbicides considered in 
this study, paraquat is moderately toxic and known to damage epithelial tissues of 
the skin, nails, cornea, liver, kidney, the gastrointestinal tract, and the respiratory 
tract (24). Such injuries may be reversible in all but the lung where a severe pulmonary 
reaction to paraquat in often fatal (24). Intraperitoneal injections were toxic at 17-21 
mg/kg in rats. Acute oral mammalian toxicities ranged from an LD50 of 5 mg/kg 
in hares (15) to 115 mg/kg in rats (24). This difference due to the mode of administra- 
tion is attributed to poor absorption of paraquat through the gastro-intestinal tract 
(9). Parquat is also a strong skin irritant with a reported acute dermal LD50 of about 
85 mg/kg in rats (24). Deer mice we examined displayed no skin lesions or loss of 
hair. Chronic administration of small doses of paraquat produced no clinical signs 
for several weeks (24). Thereafter, signs of illness developed in the form of anorexia, 
weight loss, and dyspnea. The animals usually died within 10 days of the onset of 
the symptoms (24). Paraquat has been noted to have many mutagenic and embryo- 
toxic properties (3, 24). Additional gross and microscopic morphological changes aris- 
ing from paraquat ingestion in rats included: loss of body weight, teratogenic effects 
in embryos, damage to the liver and kidney, lung weight increase and considerable 
pulmonary fibrosis, smaller spleen and thymus, heavier adrenals with abnormal histology, 
lowered white and red blood cell counts, degenerative changes in the testes, corneal 
opacification, and other changes as well (2, 24). 

Conclusions 

The lack of detectable concentrations of atrazine and linuron or their metabolites, 
the low frequency and extremely low concentrations of alachlor, and the absence of 
apparent liver damage in deer mice taken from fields in which these herbicides were 
used, indicate little cause for immediate environmental concern about their regulated 



378 



Indiana Academy of Science 



Vol. 94 (1985) 




Rf0.89 • • • 



Rf 0.72 



Rf 0.54 



Initial Spots 




BROS 



BROC 



Figure 1 . Tracings of TLC plates from tissue sample extractions of deer mice taken 
from 2 paraquat-treated fields (BRO-S, BRO-C) indicating metabolites of uncertain 
origin. Paraquat, if present, would have migrated directly above the initial spots. 



use on agricultural lands. Unlike many insecticides, herbicides rarely persist i n the 
environment for more than a few days or weeks (16). The results for paraquat, however, 
suggest that metabolites may be present in deer mice 31-71 days after field application 
and may be responsible for observed liver damage. This could result in elevated rates 
of mortality in deer mouse populations in no-till fields, although population levels 
and short-term mortality rates were found to be similar in conventional and minimum 
tillage fields in southern Indiana (6, 7). 

Further research is warranted to determine the exact origin of metabolites found 
in this study, as well as to obtain better estimates of the incidence of liver damage 
in deer mice inhabiting row-crop fields. It would seem prudent to encourage use of 
alternative contact herbicides (e.g., glyphosate) for no-till farming that may pose less risk. 



Acknowledgments 

Dave Fellows, Ben Nassim, and Rick Speer assisted in various aspects of this 
study. Special thanks go to Robert Feldt. Facilities were provided by the Departments 



Environmental Quality 379 

of Biology and Chemistry at Indiana University Southeast. The various chemical com- 
panies (Chevron, CIBA-GEIGY, DuPont, and Monsanto) willingly supplied informa- 
tion on the herbicides. Primary funding resulted from a grant to the senior author 
by the Indiana Division of Fish and Wildlife. Additional funding came from Federal 
Aid to Wildlife Restoration in Indiana, Project W-26-R. 

Literature Cited 

1. Abou-Donia, M.B. and A. A. Komell. 1978. Sequential thin-layer chromatography 
of paraquat and related compounds. J. Chromatog. 152:585-588. 

2. Bauer, C.A. 1983. The effects of paraquat on various reproductive and growth 
parameters in first and second generation bobwhite quail. Ph.D. Diss., Indiana 
State University, Terre Haute. 70 p. 

3. Benigni, R., M. Bignami, A. Carere, G. Conti., L. Conti, R. Crebelli, E. 
Doglotti, G. Gaulandi, A. Noveletto, and V. A. Ortali. 1979. Mutational 
studies with diquat and paraquat in vitro. Mutat. Res. 68:183-193. 

4. Bleidner, W.E. 1954. Application of chromatography in determination of micro- 
quantities of 3-(p-chlorophenyl)-l,l-dimethyl-urea. J. Agric. Food Chem. 
12:682-684. 

5. Brandt, E.J. 1984. Personal communication from Environmental Affairs Depart- 
ment, Monsanto Agricultural Products Co., St. Louis. 

6. Castrale, J.S. 1984. Impacts of conservation tillage practices on farmland wildlife 
in southeastern Indiana: population levels and habitat use. Indiana Div. Fish and 
Wildl. Fed. Aid Prog. Rep. Proj. No. W-26-R-15. Job No. XXXV-M-2,3. 

7. Castrale, J.S. 1984. Impacts of conservation tillage practices on farmland wildlife 
in southeastern Indiana: pesticide levels. Indiana Div. Fish and Wildl. Fed. Aid 
Prog. Rep. Proj. No. W-26-R-15. Job No. XXXV-M-4. 

8. CIBA-GEIGY Corporation 1984. Toxicology Data. AAtrex Herbicides. Personal 
communication from Agricultural Products Division. Greensboro, N.C. 

9. Clark, D.G., T.F. McElligott, and E.W. Hurst. 1966. The toxicity of para- 
quat. Brit. J. Ind. Med. 23:126-132. 

10. Conservation Tillage Information Center. 1983. 1982 National survey of con- 
servation tillage practices. Conservation Tillage Information Center, Fort Wayne, 
Indiana 83 p. 

11. Cowan, W.F. 1982. Waterfowl production on zero tillage farms. Wildl. Soc. 
Bull. 10:305-308. 

12. Crosson, P. 1982. Conservation tillage and conventional tillage: A comparative 
assessment. United States Environmental Protection Agency. EPA Rep. No. 
600/3-82-027. 72 p. 

13. DuPont de Nemours & Co. (Inc.). 1984. Technical Data sheet for linuron. Per- 
sonal communication from Biochemical Department. Wilmington, Delaware. 

14. Khera, K.S., C. Whalen, and G. Trivett. 1978. Teratogenicity studies on linuron, 
malathion, and methoxychlor in rats. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 45:435-444. 

15. Milhaud, G. 1974. Toxicity of grammoxone. Rec. Vet. 150:337. 

16. Morrison, M.L. and E.C. Meslow. 1983. Impacts of forest herbicides on wildlife: 
toxicity and habitat alteration. Trans. North Am. Wildl. and Nat. Resour. Conf. 
30:336-348. 

17. Mumford, R.E. and J.O. Whitaker, Jr. 1982. Mammals of Indiana. Indiana 
University Press, Bloomington. 537 p. 

18. Nicolau, G.Y. and E. Socoliuc. 1980. Effects of atrazine on circadian RNA, 
DNA and total protein rhythms in the thyroid and adrenal. Endrocinologie 
18:161-166. 



380 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 94 (1985) 

19. Pesticide Analytical Manual Vol. II. 1969. The determination of 
2-chloro-2,6-diethyl-N-(methoxymethyl) acetanilide metabolites containing 
2,6-diethylamine moiety. Pest. Reg. Sect. 180.249. 

20. Plewa, M.J. and J.M. Gentile. 1976. Mutagenicity of atrazine. A maize-microbe 
bioassay. Mutat. Res. 38:287-292. 

21. Robel, R.J., CD. Stalling, M.F. Westfahl, and A.M. Kadoum. 1972. Effects 
of insecticides on populations of rodents in Kansas 1965-69. Pesticides Monit. 
J. 6:115-121. 

22. Rodgers, R.D. and J.B. Wooley. 1983. Conservation tillage impacts on wildlife. 
J. Soil and Water Conserv. 38:212-213. 

23. Shin, K.H. and J.K. Moon. 1979. Analysis of atrazine herbicide residue by thin- 
layer chromatography. Punsok Hwahak 4:30-32. 

24. Smith, P. and D. Heath. 1976. Paraquat. Crit. Rev. Toxicol. 4:411-445. 

25. Warburton, D.B. and W.D. Klimstra. 1984. Wildlife use of no-till and con- 
ventionally tilled corn fields. J. Soil and Water Conserv. 39:327-330. 



Acid Rain: A Synopsis 

Ronald J. Galloy 

Indiana Air Pollution Control Division 

Indiana State Board of Health 

Indianapolis, Indiana 46206 

Introduction 

Acid rain is a simple term used to describe both dry and wet forms of acid deposi- 
tion. These depositions originate from naturally occurring and anthropogenic (man- 
made) sources. At this point there is a lack of scientific understanding regarding how 
much man-made pollutants contribute to this complex issue. 

Research programs conducted by the federal governments Interagency Task Force 
on Acid Precipitation are giving us greater understanding of acid rain. This research 
continues and programs are expanding but acid rain appears to be an issue that will 
require legislative action before there is full scientific conclusion on cause and effect. 

Historic Note 

In 1857 Robert Angus Smith, an English chemist, presented the first detailed 
analysis documenting polluted precipitation and some of its harmful effects. Twenty 
years later Smith authored a comprehensive precipitation chemistry study which coined 
the phrase "Acid Rain." 

Chemistry of Acid Rain 

The acidity-alkalinity of a water solution is measured by its pH. The pH scale 
ranges from (extreme acidity) to 14 (extreme alkalinity) with the value of 7 being 
neutral. Pure water has a pH of 7 since the dissociation of water molecules into hydrogen 
(acid) and hydroxyl (alkaline) ions is very small. The scale is logarithmic and each 
pH unit represents a ten-fold change in the hydrogen/hydroxyl ion concentration. 

What is acid rain? Acid rain defined is rain with a pH value lower than 5.6. 
The reason 5.6 is set as the determining pH is because carbon dioxide in balance with 
atmospheric moisture creates a carbonic acid solution with this value. Although rain 
is defined as acid below this level, naturally occurring rain may range down to 4.9 
and up to 6.5. These values allow for additional acidity resulting from lightning or 
alkalinity resulting from atmospheric dust. 2 ' 5 Figure 1 shows the pH scale with a list 
of values for commonly found substances. 

pH Scale 1 ' 2 

Extreme Alkalinity 14 



13 13.0 Lye 

12 12.0 Household ammonia 

11 

10 

9 8 to 9 Soap 

8 8.2 Baking soda 

Neutral (Pure Water) 1_ 7.4 Human blood 

6 6.4 Milk 

5 5.0 Carrots 

4 4.6 Bananas 

3 3.0 Apples 

2 2.2 Vinegar 

1 1.1 Stomach digestive acids 



Extreme Acidity 



Figure 1. pH scale with a list of values for commonly found substances. 

381 



382 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 94 (1985) 

Rain becomes acidic in several ways. Mainly this occurs from C0 2 , NO x and S0 2 
gases interacting with atmospheric moisture. Carbon dioxide is a naturally occurring 
gas composing .03 percent of the atmosphere and nitrogen oxides result from lightning 
and combustion processes. Most sulfur oxides are emitted from fossil fuel combustion 
at electric generation plants. Figure 2 shows how acids are formed from mixture of 
these gases with water. 

Acid Formation 

A. C0 2 + 2 H 2 - H,0 + + HCOj~ 

Carbon Dioxide + Water Yields Hydronium Ion and Bicarbonate 

B. 2 NO + 2 - 2N0 2 

Nitrous Oxide + Oxygen Yields Nitrogen Dioxide 

3 N0 2 + H 2 - 2 HN0 3 + NO 

Nitrogen Dioxide + Water Yields Nitric Acid and Nitrous Oxide 

HNO, + H 2 - H,0 + + NO," 

Nitric Acid + Water Yields Hydronium Ion and Nitrate 

C. So 2 + H 2 - 2H 2 SO, 

Sulfur Dioxide + Water Yields Sulfurous Acid 

2 H 2 SO, + Vi 2 - 2 H 2 S0 4 

Sulfurous Acid + Oxygen Yields Sulfuric Acid 

H 2 S0 4 + H 2 - H,0 + + HS0 4 " 

Sulfuric Acid + Water Yields Hydronium Ion + Bisulfate 

Figure 2. Acids formed from mixture of gases with water. 

Certain biological filters affect the chemistry of rainwater from its initial point 
of contact near grounds surface to watershed entrance. These filters include: a) the 
forest canopy, bushes, other plant leaves, and greenery which collect atmospheric dusts 
and add alkalinity to the water; b) the humus layer from decaying vegetation on the 
ground which adds acid concentrations; and c) the soil and rock layer containing alkaline 
minerals providing further alkalinity. These filters have had a constant effect on rain- 
water chemistry prior to man's influence, therefore any changes to watershed chemistry 
can be attributed to anthropogenic reasons. 

Major ions influencing rains pH are sulfate S0 4 ~ ~ , nitrate N0 3 ~ , chloride Cl _ , 
ammonium NH 4 + , calcium Ca + + , magnesium Mg + + , and potassium K + . Exactly 
how much man contributes to excessive acidity through sulfate an nitrate deposition 
is yet undetermined. It is believed the contributions through power plants, industrial 
processes, and transportation sources are significant. 

Affects of Acid Rain 

Rain is the natural cleansing agent of the atmosphere. As it forms and falls to 
the earth it gathers with it various pollutants including those causing acid rain. Ultimately 
it is the land and watersheds which act as final pollution collectors. 

Affects from acid rain are stated to include acidification of lakes resulting in 
reduced or total loss of fish population, corrosion of buildings and monuments, and 
reduced seed germination resulting in cuts in crop and timber production. Studies have 
been conducted showing that a pH of 5 is the level where fish life in general ceases 
to exist. Acid rain is also able to leach out metals from the soil including aluminum. 
Once soluble, aluminum can be toxic to aquatic wildlife by clogging the gills of fish 
and to vegetative species by causing a dehydration condition. 

The Congressional Research Service (CRS) has completed a study listing possible 
effects from the impact of acid rain on aquatic biota. According to CRS; bacteria, 
algae, vegetative, invertebrate, amphibian, and fish populations shift away from acid 
sensitive species. More specifically, bacterial decomposition decreases, sensitive fish 
species die or experience reproductive failure and increases in aluminum make fish 



Environmental Quality 383 

more susceptible to death from exposure to acid conditions. 4 Ironically lakes adversely 
affected by acid conditions appear crystal clear due to decreases by living biota in them. 
One of the major acid rain issues is degradation of the lakes and forests in the 
Adirondack Park system. This park, largest in America, covers six million acres, and 
is located in upper New York state. Some high elevation lakes and ponds in this park 
have acid values less than 5.0 pH 2 and hence do not support most form of fish life. 
Also, our northern neighbor Canada, is voicing strong concern over acid deposition 
originating from sources located in the United States but falling on its land and lakes. 
Recent studies, yet unconclusive, indicate that decline of some forest species from Maine 
to North Carolina are a result of the acid rain phenomenon. 

What Should We Achieve with an Acid Rain Regulatory Program 

Rain in the northeastern part of the country has been averaging 4.2 pH. The 
National Academy of Sciences states that a target level of 4.5 pH is necessary to pro- 
tect sensitive aquatic ecosystems from acid rain. 6 This pH level allows for natural causes 
of acidification and gives allowance for the fact that removal of all S0 2 and NO x 
emissions from man-made emission sources would be economically impossible. 

The U.S. EPA has estimated that at the start of the 1970's, about 26 million 
tons of S0 2 and 17 million tons of NO x were emitted annually into the atmosphere 
of the U.S. Of these totals, about 16 million tons of the S0 2 (62 percent) and 5 million 
tons of the NO x (29 percent) were exhausted by fossil fuel burning electric generation 
plants. 2 In EPA's nationwide emissions report for 1982 power plant S0 2 and NO x 
emissions amounted to 17.5 million tons and 7.5 million tons respectively. 10 

To achieve the necessary reductions of acid rain it is suggested that anywhere 
from 3 to 12 million tons of S0 2 be removed yearly from power plant exhaust gases. 
A lesser degree of NO x removal is also suggested. 

Control Methods 

Controlling acid rain means controlling S0 2 and NO, x emissions. Controlling S0 2 
emissions can include the following: 

1. Coal washing — Sulfur in coal occurs primarily in two forms, organic and 
inorganic (pyritic). Organic sulfur, chemically bound to the coal, cannot be removed 
by physical cleaning. Pyritic sulfur composing up to 45 percent of the sulfur in 
coal is bound to iron and occurs as a separate particle. Up to 90 percent of the 
pyritic sulfur can be removed by washing thus yielding reductions of 10 to 40 
percent of the total sulfur content. 8 

2. Using low sulfur coal for combustion— Coal generally ranges from 0.5 per- 
cent to 5 percent sulfur with western coal having a lower average sulfur content 
than midwestern coal. By midwestern standards locally mined coal is considered 
low sulfur when it is 2 percent or less. The lower the coals sulfur content the 
lower the generated emission level of S0 2 . 

3. Exhaust gas scrubbers— Scrubbers are very expensive to install and operate 
but are effective for controlling S0 2 . All new coal-fired power plants are required 
to remove 90 percent of the S0 2 gases or control it to a level of 1.2 pounds 
per million Btu, whichever is stricter. Usually this means scrubber installation. 

Controlling NO, x can be through use of low NO, x burners in power plants and in- 
dustrial boilers, and through vehicle emission reductions which are now occurring from 
currently implemented programs. 



384 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 94 (1985) 

Liming lakes has also been suggested as a control supplement and is reasonably 
cost-effective for regulating the pH of lakes. 

Control Proposals 

Several legislative bills have been submitted for action on acid rain. The legisla- 
tion ranges from a) reductions of 3 million tons of S0 2 from a 10-state area, b) 10 
million tons of S0 2 from 31 states east of and touching the Mississippi with additional 
reductions of NO, x , and c) 12 million tons of S0 2 from the 48 contiguous states with 
additional NO, x reductions. Who funds the equipment needed to yield these reductions 
range from each state paying for its required equipment and associated reduction to 
a national tax on most forms of electric generation applied where needed for the program. 

Expense 

S0 2 reductions are occurring as New Source Performance Standards for power 
plants take effect. NO, x reductions are occurring from NSPS also, and as emission reduc- 
tions from the newer auto fleet are realized. These reductions however are not happen- 
ing quickly enough to abate the acid rain problem. Current lack of an effective plan 
for acid rain is due to: a) the lack of conclusive knowledge about environmental effects 
coupled with; b) the great expense involved to retrofit controls onto existing utility boilers. 

To gain scientific understanding of this issue federal expenditures for acid rain 
research in fiscal year 1985 will double to $55.5 million from the 1984 level. The 
Environmental Protection Agency will receive the bulk of this with a 124 percent fun- 
ding increase to $34.3 million. 

Regarding expense of a control program the State of Indiana is used as an exam- 
ple for a cost estimate. In 1982 Indiana's total S0 2 emissions from stationary sources 
amounted to 1,694,000 tons with about 88 percent or 1,490,000 tons coming from 
power plants. 3 From an EPA survey of all coal burning public utilities in Indiana it 
was determined that retrofitting scrubbers to control S0 2 emissions would cost 1.85 
billion dollars. Operation and maintenance costs for these would amount to another 
355 million dollars yearly. 9 With this data an estimated expenditure of $1,241 per ton 
of emissions would be required to retrofit scrubbers with an additional expenditure 
of $238 per ton for yearly operation and maintenance. 

To conform with acid rain control strategy, Robert McKnight, Chief Environmental 
Engineer at Indianapolis Power and Light, states local utilities electric rates could be 
up to 31 percent higher from the costs of controlling S0 2 emissions. This figure applies 
to legislation such as the Stafford bill which requires each state to pay for their own 
contributing share of emissions. 7 Another study conducted by the Congressional Of- 
fice of Technology Assessment estimates utility rate increases ranging from 5 to 19 
percent as applied to various utilities in affected states. Other studies show as low 
as a 2 percent increase in rates to customers based on a national tax to fund this program. 

It should be understood that implementation of necessary acid rain control legisla- 
tion for environmental protection could result in associated social problems in the form 
of: a) displacing jobs in the coal mining industry; and b) increased utility expenses 
to be shared by the poor and elderly. To minimize social disruption reasonable legisla- 
tion must also account for job displacement protection and provide assistance to those 
less fortunate and unable to burden the extra expense of control. If these problems 
are dealt with fairly, society will surely gain from the benefits of protecting our buildings, 
monuments, lakes, forests, and aquatic wildlife. 

Conclusion 

Our environment has improved since the institution of federal, state, and local 



Environmental Quality 385 

environmental management programs, however, some problems remain. Acid rain is 
one of these. Environmentalists, industry, and the public all agree a solution is necessary. 
Perspectives on the solution vary widely but the differences are healthy for from these 
varied views a balanced effective management program will develop. For now acid 
rain is long from solved but as research continues and comprehensive management 
programs evolve our society will come to benefit from protection against acid rain. 

Literature Cited 

1. American Chemical Society, Acid Rain Information, Washington, D.C., October 
1982, 8 pp. 

2. Edison Electric Institute, An Updated Perspective on Acid Rain, Washington, 
D.C., November 1981, 44 pp. 

3. Indiana, Air Pollution Control Division, Emission Inventory Subsystem, 1982. 

4. Inside EPA, Weekly Report, Washington, D.C., October 28, 1983, p. 10. 

5. National Research Council, Acid Deposition; Atmospheric Processes in Eastern 
North America, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 1983, 375 pp. 

6. National Research Council, Atmosphere-Biosphere Interactions, National Academy 
Press, Washington, D.C., 1982, 263 pp. 

7. Stated by Robert McKnight, Chief Environmental Engineer, Indianapolis Power 
and Light, in a Telephone Interview with R.J. Galloy on January 12, 1984. 

8. U.S. EPA, Control Technique for Sulfur Oxide Emissions from Stationary Sources, 
Research Triangle Park, April 1981, p. 4.2-10. 

9. U.S. EPA, Document 600/7-8 1-0 12a, Utility FGD Survey Oct. -Dec, Research 
Triangle Park, 1980, pp. A-7, 8. 

10. U.S. EPA, National Emissions Data System, Nationwide Emissions Report, 
Research Triangle Park, December, 1983. 



GEOLOGY AND GEOGRAPHY 

Chairperson: Edward Lyon 

Department of Geography 

Ball State University 

Muncie, Indiana 47306 

(317)285-1761 

Chairperson-Elect: John Cleveland 

Department of Geology/Geography 

Indiana State University 

Terre Haute, Indiana 47809 

(812)749-2833 

ABSTRACTS 

Landfills in Marion County — A Revisit. Konrad J. Banaszak and Theodore K. 

Greeman, U.S. Geological Survey, 6023 Guion Road, Indianapolis, Indiana 46254. 

Seven landfills studied in the early 1970s were revisited in the fall of 1983. Four 
of the fills are in coarse sediments of the White River glaciofluvial channel and 
three are on the Tipton Till Plain. A map of lineaments was prepared from aerial 
photographs. There is no apparent relation between those features and the hydrology 
of the fills, probably because many wells are lost and four fills are in coarse material. 
Of the 82 wells drilled to study the three fills in till, 38 remain. Ground-water mounds 
were present at all three. At one fill, the specific conductance of water in most shallow 
wells ranged from 1,200 to 10,000 micromhos per centimeter (umhos/cm), and in a 
deep (162-foot) well specific conductance increased from an average of 760 umhos/cm 
in the 1970s to 4,450 umhos/cm in 1983. Of the 93 wells drilled to study the four 
fills in glaciofluvial material, 57 remain. In 1983, no data could be collected at one 
fill. Of the remaining fills, one had no gradient change; flow was toward the river 
with extremely slight vertical gradients. The second fill had no gradient change; flow 
was away from the river with downward vertical gradients. The gradient at the third 
fill had great change. In the 1970s, the shallow system flowed toward the river with 
a horizontal gradient of 0.001 and deep system was almost flat. In 1983, the direction 
of shallow and deep flow was away from the river with a horizontal gradient of 0.0025. 
These results confirm the advantages of continuous monitoring and the upredictability 
of changes in flow direction and gradient. 

Compression Strength Testing of the Springfield Coal, Coal V, Pike County, Indiana. 

K.C. Kuo and T.R. West, Department of Geosciences, Purdue University, West 

Lafayette, Indiana 47907. Coal pillars are left intact in underground mines to 

support the opening. Typically square or rectangular in shape, their purpose is to pro- 
vide safety and continued mining while preventing surface subsidence. The optimum 
design maximizes coal extraction as well. 

Coal strength can be determined by in-situ tests, (time consuming and expensive) 
or through laboratory testing. In the lab, different sized, cube-shaped specimens are 
tested in uniaxial compression. Research on Appalachian coals has shown that strength 
of cubes decreases with increasing size until a value equal to the pillar strength is obtained. 

In this research, specimens of the Springfield Coal (Coal V) were collected from 
an operating open pit mine, Pike County, Indiana. Cut from the working face im- 
mediately behind the loading shovel, they were stored in sealed styrofoam coolers to 

387 



388 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 94 (1985) 

prevent moisture loss. Cracks occur in coal specimens during drying. Storage is in 
a humidity chamber prior to sample preparation and for prepared samples until testing. 
Specimens are cut dry using a horizontal band saw with a tungsten carbide blade. 
After rough cutting, cubes are ground smooth using sand paper and a surface grinder 
to assure the loading surfaces are parallel. Cubes are prepared so that loading will 
be perpendicular to the bedding planes. Coal strength data for the Illinois Basin coals 
will be provided in this research. 

Interpretation of Glacial Geology and Groundwater Problems in East-central Indiana 
using Improved Compilations of Water Well Driller's Records. Alan C. Samuelson, 

Department of Geology, Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana 47306. Recently 

published USGS compilations of water well driller's records in East Central Indiana 
have proven to be superior to previously published general compilations. The data 
were compiled for computer simulations of regional groundwater conditions, but have 
been valuable in interpretation of landuse, site specific groundwater, and geologic pro- 
blems involving glacial stratigraphy. The new compilations show depth and lateral ex- 
tent of sand and gravel horizons. The improved maps display four to six sand and 
gravel horizons per county and show distribution by elevation and thickness of each 
horizon. A number of examples are presented to demonstrate data reliability as con- 
firmed by subsequent tests and the resulting evaluations of geologic, engineering, and 
groundwater resource problems. Specific aquifer horizons have been correlated with 
outcrop and out wash soil exposures. Locations of important groundwater seepage into 
stream baseflow can be identified. 

Three-dimensional Patterns of Biotite Composition within the Cloudy Pass Batholith, 
Washington. J.R. Sans and CD. Potter, Department of Geology, Ball State Univer- 
sity, Muncie, Indiana 47306. The Cloudy Pass batholith is a small epizonal pluton 

of Miocene age. Since the batholith straddles the Cascade Crest, it has been deeply 
dissected by glacial erosion so that specimens could be collected over an area 14.88 
by 15.26 kilometers with a vertical range of 1.54 kilometers. 

The ten chemical elements most abundant in biotite (Na, Mg, Al, Si, CI, K, Ca, 
Ti, Mn, total Fe) were determined by electron microprobe. Ferrous iron was deter- 
mined by decomposition in a teflon bomb followed by titration of excess standard 
potassium dichromate with standard ferrous ammonium sulfate. 

The compositional variations of biotite were studied on the following five dif- 
ferent scales extending over nine orders of magnitude (micrometers to kilometers): (1) 
within a single biotite grain, (2) between grains in a single thin section, (3) between 
sections from the same rock specimen, (4) between specimens from the same outcrop 
and, (5) over the entire accessible volume of the batholith (about 350 cubic kilometers). 

At the scale of a single biotite grain, three cations (Na, K and Mn) exhibit essen- 
tially no zoning, five cations (Mg, Al, Si, Ca, and Fe) show weak zoning, and one 
cation (Ti) shows strong zoning. At the three intermediate scales, specimens from the 
center of the pluton show a significant range of biotite composition, especially in the 
Fe/(Fe + Mg) cation ratio. Specimens from the margins and roof show a peculiar bimodal 
distribution of biotite compositions. On the scale of the entire batholith, Fe/(Fe + Mg), 
Mn, total Fe, and ferrous Fe decrease with elevation, whereas Mg, CI, and ferric iron 
increase. All the above features of biotite are interpreted as due to subtle resetting 
of composition by hydrothermal activity during the cooling history. 

Geology and Geomorphic History of the Garrison Chapel Cave System, Monroe County, 
Indiana. William L. Wilson and Donald W. Ash, Department of Geography and 



Geology and Geography 389 

Geology, Indiana State University, Terre Haute, Indiana 47809. The Garrison 

Chapel Cave System, in western Monroe County, Indiana, is composed of three 
hydrologically connected caves named Grotto, Shaft and Salamander. All three convey 
the same drainage westward from portions of the karsted Cave Creek and Garrison 
Chapel Valley watersheds. The cave stream resurges along the eastern side of Coon 
Hollow and is tributary to Richland Creek via Little Richland Creek. Up to four cavern 
levels are present in some portions of the system. Similar size, elevation, and fluvial 
sediments have led some authors to suggest that the Main Passage in Salamander Cave, 
the Big Room in Shaft, and the Main Passage in Grotto Cave were at one time in- 
tegrated parts of the same large truck drainage net. Recent stratigraphic measurements 
and level surveys show that the passages are not related. Upper levels are accordant 
with bedding, are generally strike-oriented, have low gradients, and have sequences 
of mostly silty fluvial sediment that rise to, or near to, the passage ceiling, except 
where re-excavated by free surface streams. The lowest level contains an active stream, 
is dip-oriented, has a gradient steeper than the local dip, consequently downcutting 
at least 35 feet through the stratigraphic section. The relationship between cave passages 
and their geologic setting suggests a history of initial progressively westward and 
stratigraphically lower development of strike-oriented, phreatic passages that occurred 
perhaps in response to base level lowering. Meander scars that rise along the cave 
wall while passing downstream, indicate conduits may have developed by upcutting 
to reach equilibrium with base level (paragenesis). At some places, the older, upper 
levels have collapsed into the stream (lowest) level. Some cave streams appear to have 
fortuitously intersected older passages and now follow the passages along certain reaches 
of the stream. Thick, paragenetic sediment has been partially excavated by modern 
streams that may be downcutting to reach equilibrium with base levels that were greatly 
lowered by deep stage entrenchment of surface streams associated with drainage rear- 
rangements of the Teays and Ohio rivers during Pleistocene glaciation. 



Evidence of Algal Source of Micrite in a Saluda 
Coral Zone in Southeastern Indiana 

Will H. Black well 

Departments of Botany and Geology 

Miami University, Oxford, Ohio 45056 

Introduction 

The Saluda Formation has received considerable study (1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 9), as indeed 
is the case with other Cincinnatian (Upper Ordovician) lithostratigraphic units. Com- 
pared to other Cincinnatian (particularly Richmondian) formations, however, the Saluda 
is lithologically distinct, being typically dolomitic and poorly fossiliferous. The prevalent 
lithology of the Saluda is either calcitic dolomite or dolomitic micritic (micro-to cryp- 
tocrystalline calcium carbonate) limestone (3). Developmentally, the Saluda again pro- 
vides contrast to other Cincinnatian strata in that it is in all probability the product 
of a lagoonal setting. Specifically, the Saluda is considered to have originated from 
a shallow, penesaline, atoll lagoon (3, 4, 9); associated tectonism perhaps represented 
the inception of the Cincinnati Arch (9). The contour of the Saluda Formation, biconvex 
and lens-like (3), reflects this ontogeny. 

The only really characteristic fossils of the Saluda are the compound corals, 
Favistella alveolata and Tetradium approximation (4). These two corals, singly or 
together, tend to form a biostromal zone (or zones), especially in Lower Saluda rocks 
(3, 4, 9). The coralline zone is of considerable paleoecological significance in that it 
represents the remains of a low, but broad, wave-resistant bank of corals (and other 
organisms) which essentially circumscribed the Saluda lagoon (3). Circumscription by 
this coral shoal produced a barrier which significantly altered depositional environ- 
ment, restricting conditions lagoonward as compared with the surrounding epeiric sea. 
Environmental restrictions of the shallow lagoon eventually led to increased evapora- 
tion rates, salinity, and dolomitization (perhaps penecontemporaneous) within the lagoon 
(3, 9). 

The encircling coralline zone per se is not so highly dolomitic, and contains an 
abundance of micrite. The often massive coral colonies are in some cases haphazardly 
oriented, indicating at least sporadic turbulent conditions of the surrounding sea (3). 
This relatively high energy coralline zone more or less effectively delimited the low 
energy (quiet water) lagoon from the moderate energy epeiric sea (9). The term "reef" 
is not applied to the coralline zone because of the lack of consistent structural con- 
solidation (3). 

As discussed by Van Hart (9) an apparent textural anomaly exists between evidence 
of a coral bank reflecting turbulent conditions and the presence (in association with 
the corals) of substantial amounts of ooze (micrite), which would presumably have 
been winnowed away by the turbulence. Van Hart speculated that the coralline zone 
might in fact represent a coral/algal complex, and that algal mats could have been 
the source of the persistent micrite which can be seen in some cases to connect and 
even surround the coral colonies. Although entirely logical, this idea has remained 
as speculation. Direct evidence of algae or of definitive algal micrite in the Saluda 
coralline zone has not been satisfactorily demonstrated. It is to this end that this 
investigation was directed. 

Materials and Methods 

Samples were collected at two exposures of the Saluda Formation in eastern Indiana. 
The first locality is on a roadcut along Highway 101, approximately 5 miles north 

391 



392 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 94 (1985) 

of Brookville (4.5 miles north of the Brookville Lake Flood Control Station). This 
is the locality designated as "Brookville North" by Hay (5). The thin exposure of 
the Saluda at this locality consists primarily of Tet radium colonies. Hay considered 
this exposure of the Saluda to represent the "feather edge" of the formation (personal 
communication). The second locality is 1.1 miles northwest of Versailles on Highway 
421 (north), 0.2 miles north of the divergence of Highways 421 and 50. Specifically, 
the locality occurs several hundred yards east of the road in the middle of the "west 
branch" of Cedar Creek; here a zone of Tetradium occurs within the confines of eight 
to nine feet of exposed Lower Saluda sediments (4, 9). In collecting specimens, care 
was taken to sample both colonial coral {Tetradium) material and, as well, intercalary 
micritic limestone areas. More than 60 thin sections were prepared, by standard techni- 
ques, divided equally between the two localities discussed. Slides and samples are 
deposited in the paleobotanical collection associated with the Herbarium at Miami 
University (MU). 

Results and Discussion 

Thin sections prepared of samples taken from Tetradium colonies often revealed 
associated micrite. Conversely, sectioned intercalary limestone samples frequently con- 
tained Tetradium fragments. A clear association is thus apparent between the colonial 
corals, or their fragments, and probable in situ micrite. Invertebrate fossils (other than 
corals) found in the micrite of the coralline zone are reasonably abundant and usually 
fragmentary (3), with Ostracodes perhaps most commonly observed. Such fragmen- 
tary constituents, trapped in the micrite, are doubtless allochthonous with respect to 
the fundamentally autochthonous coralline zone. Monticuliporid bryozoans are occa- 
sionally layered external to the surface of Tetradium colonies, and possibly constituted 
a minor in situ component of the coral bank. 

Microscopic examination of micritic regions in thin section generally supports 
the hypothesis (9) of a predominantly algal source of micrite in the coralline zone. 
The visible evidence is admittedly variable, however. A sliding scale exists between 
areas of pure opaque micrite and those exhibiting more or less distinct calcareous algal 
tubes. In either "extreme," or examples in between, an intimate relationship of algal 
micrites with surfaces of the Tetradium colonies may be observed. In clearest examples 
algae appear to have grown as encrusting masses directly upon Tetradium (Figure). 
Based on tube diameter, morphology, and irregularity, these fossil algae bear a greater 
resemblance to cyanophytes than to rhodophytes or chlorophytes (12). 

Microscopic observations made on micrites of the Saluda coralline zone are con- 
sistent with those of Wolf (1 1) on certain Australian Devonian and Recent algal deposits. 
In both Holocene and Paleozoic examples, Wolf observed the product of an apparently 
gradational grain diminution of calcareous algal cells and filaments to cryptocrystalline 
calcium carbonate. Wolf considered this "decrease in detail" to be an early diagenetic 
phenomenon. He discussed the possibility that algal tissue perhaps served bacteria nutri- 
tionally, and that subsequent to bacterial delay, the calcareous algal remains may have 
become reduced to detrital micrite and then lithified. Wolf (11) pointed to the need 
for experimentation to substantiate bacterial decay as a cause of algal micritization, 
as opposed to disintegration solely by mechanical abrasion (10). Regardless, Wolf con- 
cluded that a great deal of enigmatic biohermal or knoll reef micrite may be explained 
by grain diminution of algal colonies. 

My observations thus correspond to Wolf's (11) on textural alteration, and also 
support Van Hart's (9) hypothesis of the importance of algae in the development of 
the Saluda Tetradium zone. In more general terms these observations are consistent 
with the belief in the significant contribution of algae to many limestones and lime 



Geology and Geography 



393 





Figure. Encrusting algal mat material (left) in direct, perpendicular contact with large 
(by comparison) tubes of Tetradium (right). In the algal material, note apparent degenera- 
tion of irregular, tube-like structures to micrite. X75. 

sediments (7, 8, 10). With specific reference to the Saluda coralline zone, it appears 
that algae played an important role (co-significance along with corals) in its structural 
establishment, in its persistence as an entity in the face of turbulence, and in genesis 
of the observed high percentage of contained micrite. The unexpected abundance of 
micrite in the coralline zone thus relates directly to the importance of algae in con- 
struction of the zone. 

Conclusions 

An unexpectedly large amount of what is apparently autochthonous micrite occurs 
within the coralline {Tetradium) biostrome of the Saluda Formation. Evidence accrued 
in this investigation supports the hypothesis that this in situ micrite was derived in 
the main from algal mats, through a process of grain diminution of calcareous algal 
tubes. Rather than simply representing a coral rubble shoal, this biostrome is the rem- 
nant of a coral/algal complex within which fragments of other types of fossils (e.g., 
Ostracodes) were frequently trapped. Encrusting, trepostomous Bryozoa perhaps con- 
stituted a minor component of the biostrome. 



Literature Cited 

1. Browne, R.G. 1964. The coral horizons and stratigraphy of the Upper Rich- 
mond group in Kentucky west of the Cincinnati Arch. J. Paleontology 38:385-392. 

2. Foerste, A.F. 1903. The Richmond Group along the western side of the Cincin- 
nati anticline in Indiana and Kentucky. Amer. Geol. 31:333-361. 

3. Hatfield, C.B. 1968. Stratigraphy and paleoecology of the Saluda Formation 
(Cincinnatian) in Indiana, Ohio, and Kentucky. Geol. Soc. Amer., Special Paper 
95. 34 p. 



394 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 94 (1985) 

4. Hattin, D.E. 1961. Notes on Richmondian stratigraphy in Southeastern Indiana, 
p. 328-337. In Guidebook for Field Trips, Cincinnati Meeting, Geol. Soc. Amer. 

5. Hay. H.R. 1977. Field trip No. 1— Cincinnatian stratigraphy from Richmond 
to Aurora, Indiana, p. 1-1 to 1-33. In J.K. Pope and W.D. Martin (eds), 
Biostratigraphy and paleoenvironments of the Cincinnatian Series, southeastern 
Indiana. Guidebook, 7th Ann. Field Conference, Great Lakes Section, Soc. Econ. 
Paleontologists and Mineralogists. 

6. Martin, W.D. 1975. The petrology of a composite vertical section of Cincinna- 
tian Series limestones (Upper Ordovician) of southwestern Ohio, southeastern 
Indiana, and northern Kentucky. J. Sed. Pet. 45:907-925. 

7. Pettijohn, F.J. 1975. Sedimentary Rocks (third ed.). Harper & Row Publ., New 
York, Evanston, San Francisco, and London. 628 p. 

8. Stockman, K.W., Ginsburg, R.N. and Shinn, E.A. 1967. The production of 
lime mud by algae in South Florida. J. Sed. Pet. 37:633-648. 

9. Van Hart, D. 1966. The Physical Stratigraphy of the Saluda and Whitewater 
Formations (Cincinnatian Series), Southeastern Indiana. M.S. Thesis, Miami Univ., 
Oxford, OH. 142 p. 

10. Wolf, K.H. 1965a. Gradational sedimentary products of calcareous algae. Sedimen- 
tology 5:1-37. 

11. Wolf, K.H. 1965b. "Grain-diminution" of algal colonies to micrite. J. Sed. Pet. 
35:420-427. 

12. Wray, J.L. 1977. Calcareous Algae. Elsevier Scientific Publ. Co., Amsterdam, 
Oxford, New York. 185. p. 



HISTORY OF SCIENCE 

Chairperson: Gene Kritsky 

Department of Biology 

College of Mount St. Joseph 

Mount St. Joseph, Ohio 45051 

(513)244-4401 

Chairperson-Elect: Gerald Seeley 

Department of Civil Engineering 

Valparaiso University 

Valparaiso, Indiana 46883 

(219)464-5120 

The Rich and Varied Past of the History of Science Section 

Barbara A. Seeley 

805 Hastings Terrace 

Valparaiso, Indiana 46383 

and 

Gerald R. Seeley 

Department of Civil Engineering 

Valparaiso University 

Valparaiso, Indiana 46383 

This year celebrates the centennial meeting of the Indiana Academy of Science. 
In addition, this is the 40th anniversary of the first meeting of the History of Science 
Section. Naturally such events call for reflection. 

The History of Science is a fairly new section among the many which comprise 
the Indiana Academy of Science (IAS). It is natural that histories are not attempted 
until after a rich tradition already has taken root. As with any "infant," the formative 
years are especially important if that "infant" is to grow into a productive "adult." 
It is in this light that we look upon the early history of the section. 

The IAS was already 59 years old when the minutes of the October 28, 1943 
Executive Committee meeting stated the following (5): 

"A recommendation was made that a chairman of a committee be appointed 
for the consideration of plans for a History of Science in Indiana, including the 
biographies of Indiana scientists. Said committee is to consist of a chairman, 
and a member from each of the sections of the Academy. The most feasible plan 
is to be presented at the next meeting of the Academy." "Professor CO. Lee 
(Purdue) was elected to solicit papers concerning the history of the different fields 
of science, which are to be presented at the 1944 Academy meeting in a section 
on the History of Science." 

At the 1944 meeting, held appropriately at Butler University, W.E. Edington 
(DePauw University) presented plans for the History of Science in Indiana, including 
biographies of Indiana scientists (6). John S. Wright was elected Section Chairman 
for 1945. 

Looking at the papers presented at the first session in 1944, one sees that the 
section made a fine start with addresses to the general assembly entitled "A Historian 
Views Science," by Louis Sears and "A Critique of Science" by Carroll Hildebrand. 

395 



396 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 94 (1985) 

The papers presented at the section include three authors whose names quickly 
become familiar as one views the early years of the History of Science Section. Those 
first three authors were B. Elwood Montgomery, Paul Weatherwax, and John S. Wright. 

The paper by John Wright is entitled "Men of Science in Indiana, Past and Pre- 
sent." It is very appropriate that we meet John Wright in this fashion since the previous 
year he was given tribute for being a member of IAS for 50 years with active interest 
in the Academy throughout the entire period. John Wright joined the Academy in 
1893, one year after receiving his BS degree from Purdue and joining Eli Lilly as a 
botanist. His interests included medical botany, histology of drugs and food, phar- 
macology of plant drugs, and in later years, conservation and forestry. He was secretary 
of the Academy from 1895-1904, becoming President in 1905. The 50th anniversary 
of the Academy saw his active participation leading to a continued interest in the History 
of Science. In his retirement from active service at Eli Lilly, he was able to pursue 
this interest by advocating the publication of a historical Directory of Science for Indiana 
which eventually culminated in the publication of the volume Indiana Scientists by 
the IAS. As stated in the IAS tribute to him at the time of his death in 1951, (4) 
"he represented the tie with the 'Giants of Other Days' for he knew them all and 
he had actively served the Academy longer than any other member in its history." "He 
has left an imperishable mark on the IAS and he will henceforth take his rightful 
place as one of the 'Giants of Other Days."' 

Another author of 1944 was Paul Weatherwax, a graduate and Professor of Botany 
at Indiana University. His contributions to the History of Science Section included 
several articles relating to his prime interest in the history of Indian domesticated corn. 
A worldwide authority in this area, he traveled widely seeking the wild ancestor of 
Indian domesticated corn. Concluding that the original ancestor was extinct, he served 
on a committee of the National Research Council to preserve extant varieties contain- 
ing primitive characteristics which might be needed to re-develop resistant corn varieties 
for future needs. Dr. Weatherwax was a member of IAS for 63 years serving as Presi- 
dent of the Academy in 1941 and as Chairman of the History of Science Section in 
1949 (1). In 1966 he gave the invited paper, "Indiana Botany in Retrospect" as part 
of the Academy's Symposium celebrating the Indiana State Sesquicentennial. As noted 
by the editor of the symposium (2), "it is a signal honor and a mark of respect and 
confidence for these men to have been chosen to write the history of their own fields 
in Indiana. The collected papers published herein comprise a unique contribution to 
the history of science in Indiana by those who know it best and who have helped 
to make some of that history as well as write it." 

Our third author of 1944, B. Elwood Montgomery (Purdue) who was elected 
Fellow in 1929 contributed papers to the section over the longest time span, that being 
from 1944 through 1981. His contributions covered odonatology in Indiana and America, 
the domestication of bumblebees, Thomas Say Entomologist, Linnean "Elements" 
in Indiana fauna and flora, the Cumberland Road, the origin and derivation of insect 
names and entomological terms, and a Bicentennial Study of Indiana fauna. He served 
as Chairman of the Section in 1955 and 1969. 

The meeting of 1945 introduces us to the most prolific author of the History 
of Science Section, Stephen S. Visher of Indiana University. Dr. Visher contributed 
14 articles from 1945-1966. Being one of the nations outstanding geographers, he con- 
tributed several articles in this area, including his invited paper, "A Brief History of 
Geography in Indiana" for the Indiana Sesquicentennial celebration in 1966. However, 
his major contribution to the History of Science included many articles on the con- 
tributions and achievements of scientists in Indiana, chronicling Indiana Nobelists and 
National Academy members, and searching for a key to the success of outstanding 
persons with regard to their environment and geographical origins. He was editor of 



History of Science 397 

Indiana Scientists, a biographical directory and analysis which was published by IAS 
in 1951. He served as Section Chairman in 1948 and 1959. Dr. Visher's Presidential 
address of 1950 (7) contained conclusions regarding the production of this valuable 
resource known as scientific leadership, conclusions which are important for us to 
recall today. He viewed encouragement by one's family as highly significant in early 
years. He emphasized that no scientist is self-made and that personal encouragement 
by enthusiastic, stimulating teachers is deeply significant in the development of scien- 
tific leaders. As evidence of this connection he noted the large number of respected 
scientists trained by such great Indiana teachers as zoologist David Starr Jordan and 
botanist John M. Coulter. He encouraged his colleagues and each of us today to "be 
generous in encouraging our more promising students and young friends. A few 
appreciative words may alter their life!" 

Another long-term participant in the History of Science Section was William E. 
Edington, head of Mathematics and Astronomy at DePauw University. In 1944 as 
chairman of the committee, he presented plans to the Executive Committee of IAS 
for the History of Science in Indiana, including biographies of Indiana scientists. He 
was President of the Academy in 1937 and Chairman of the Section in 1946. He presented 
papers at the section from 1948 to 1973 on topics as diverse as The Wabash Academy 
of Science, the Terre Haute Scientific Society, The History of Science at DePauw, 
David Starr Jordan, John P.D. John, William Ephraim Heal, and Indiana Women 
in Mathematics. He was invited to join the ranks of the illustrious scientists participating 
in the 1966 Indiana Sesquicentennial Symposium with his paper entitled "Mathematics 
in Indiana 1816-1966, From the Rule of Three to Electronic Computers." 

However, Dr. Edington's greatest single contribution to the History of Science 
in Indiana was made long before the creation of the History of Science Section. He 
presented a paper (3) at the 50th meeting of the IAS in 1934 honoring the founders 
and charter members of the IAS entitled "There Were Giants in Those Days." This 
fascinating history chronicles the influence of four distinct factors on the foundation 
of the IAS: 1) the influence of the New Harmony scientific community, 2) the develop- 
ment of geological investigation, 3) the influence of Louis Agassiz, and 4) the inspira- 
tion derived from the American Association for the Advancement of Science. Dr. 
Edington's discussion of the founding members of IAS in this paper certainly was 
an appropriate beginning to his work in compiling the achievements of the contributors 
to science in Indiana. Over the next years Dr. Edington contributed papers on charter 
members of IAS, supplied considerable material for the book Indiana Scientists (Visher 
1951) and wrote memorials for the IAS for 35 years. By so doing, in his 53 years 
as a member of IAS, he had probably written more than anyone else on the history 
of the Academy. 

In addition to the four "giants" mentioned previously, the section continued to 
attract talented leaders. These men not only served as section officers and/or Academy 
officers, they have had a long association with the Academy and were prolific in the 
number of papers presented at History of Science Section meetings. 

The 1946 meeting brought two new contributors to the section, Charles A. Behrens 
and Raymond E. Girton of Purdue. Dr. Behrens gave us The History of the First 
Five Years of The IAS, the Purdue Biological Society, development of medical 
bacteriology, and the landmarks in chemotherapy. He served as Academy President 
in 1923 and Section Chairman in 1947. 

In 1946, Raymond Girton began a 29 year tradition of contributions including 
articles on developments in plant physiology, early studies in protoplasm, Joseph Priestly, 
17th Century microscopists, plant physiology at Purdue in the 19th Century, 3/4 Cen- 
tury of Biology at Purdue, and a Look at Academy Presidential Addresses. Prof. Gir- 
ton served as Academy President in 1956 and as Section Chairman in 1951 and 1952. 



398 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 94 (1985) 

CO. Lee was chairman at the first meeting of the History of Science Section 
in 1944. Over the next 10 years he presented papers on the history of the School of 
Pharmacy at Purdue and on the American Pharmaceutical Association form 1852-1952. 

C.L. Porter presented papers from 1947-1952 including the topics of Botanists 
of Purdue, Johnny Appleseed, the history and economic importance of Mentha piperita 
(mint), and the history of fungus antibiosis. A 43 year member, Dr. Porter served 
as President of the Academy in 1949 and Section Chairman in 1953. 

In 1947 the name of William J. Tinkle appears which is to span 25 years in the 
section from 1947-1973. His papers discuss various aspects of Darwinism, conserva- 
tion of germ plasm, natural selection, creationism, and a profile of J. Henri Fabre. 
He served as Section Chairman in 1956. 

Another long term contributor was M.S. Markle of Earlham who presented papers 
from 1953-1966 on the History of Science at Earlham, Dr. John T. Plummer, the 
Joseph Moore Museum at Earlham, and the influence of Quakers on Science in Indiana. 
He gave an invited paper at the Sesquicentennial symposium entitled "The History 
of Plant Taxonomy and Ecology in Indiana." During his 58 year membership in IAS 
he served as President of the Academy in 1945 and Section Chairman in 1954. 

Daniel DenUyl, a contributor of more recent years, presented papers from 
1953-1958 on the Civilians Conservation Corps, Charles C. Deam, forest conservation 
in Indiana, and the forests of the Lower Wabash bottomlands. He served as Section 
Chairman in 1957. 

We have still as members today four contributors who have been members of 
the Academy for 50 years or more who have also served us well in the History of 
Science Section. All from Purdue, they are H.H. Michaud, M.G. Mellon, Arthur T. 
Guard, and Raymond E. Girton whom we discussed earlier. 

Prof. Michaud has presented papers concerning conservation of natural resources, 
conservation of recreation and scenic resources, history of game regulations, and the 
history of science education in Indiana high schools. He served as Academy President 
in 1963 and as Section Chairman in 1958. 

M.G. Mellon contributed an article on developments in the analytic balance and 
was invited to present a paper on "Chemistry in Indiana at the States Sesquicenten- 
nial." As President of the Academy in 1942 his address was entitled "Science, Scien- 
tists, and Society." In addition he served the Section as Chairman in 1950. 

Arthur T. Guard has served us as Section Chairman in 1963 and 1964 and as 
Academy President in 1960. His papers include his Presidential address on "Recent 
Approaches to the Study of Plant Structure" and his section presentations on "Early 
Field Trips of the Indiana Academy of Science" and "John and William Bartram — 
Botanists at the Time of The Nation's Birth." 

The important task of recording the lives of the men and women who have shaped 
the Academy's past has been ably assumed by Fay K. Daily (Butler University), our 
Academy Necrologist. She has served as Chairman of the Section in 1960 and has 
presented papers on Botanists of Butler University 1920-1955, some scientific expedi- 
tions in the SE US taken by David Starr Jordan and an address at the 75th anniversary 
of the IAS entitled "The Academy from Horse and Buggy to Jet." Most recently 
she coauthored the History of the Indiana Academy of Science 1885-1984, A Centennial 
Volume. 

In reading the minutes of meetings, papers presented, and memorials to those 
who have preceded us, it is striking to see the depth of contributions made by these 
individuals. The words "friend and benefactor of the Indiana Academy of Science" 
certainly apply. 

In closing, we would like to turn again to words of William E. Edington, a great 
chronicler of the Academy. He concluded his address to the 50th meeting of the Academy 



History of Science 399 

entitled, "There Were Giants in Those Days," as follows (3): "And so I come to 
the conclusion. I hope this recital of illustrious names of those who have done so 
much for science in Indiana and our nation, names of scientists who were once active 
in our Academy as we are active today, will inspire the younger scientists of Indiana 
to attempt to follow in their footsteps. Indiana produced giants in those days. It is 
my hope that when the centennial meeting of our Academy is celebrated in 1984, someone 
speaking in authority may say there were giants in our days." 

Literature Cited 

1. Daily, F.K. 1977. Necrology for Paul Weatherwax. Proc. I.A.S. 86:63-65. 

2. Eberly, W.R. 1967. The History of Indiana Science. Proc. I.A.S. 76:64. 

3. Edington, W.E. 1935. There were giants in those days. Proc. I.A.S. 44:22-38. 
4. 1952. Necrology for John Shepard Wright. Proc. I.A.S. 61:30-32. 

5. Indiana Academy of Science 1944. Minutes of the Executive Committee, Oct. 

28, 1943. Proc. I.A.S. 53:XI-XII. 
6. 1945. Minutes of the Executive Committee, Nov. 10, 1944. Proc. I.A.S. 

54: XI. 
7. Visher, S.S. 1951. Indiana Scientists. Proc. I.A.S. 60:29-36. 



MICROBIOLOGY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY 

Chairperson: J.R. Garcia 
Department of Biology 

Ball State University 

Muncie, Indiana 47306 

(317)284-4045 

Chairperson-Elect: Mary Lee Richeson 

Department of Biological Sciences 

Indiana University-Purdue University at Fort Wayne 

2101 Coliseum Boulevard East 

Fort Wayne, Indiana 46805 

(219)482-5546 

ABSTRACTS 

Effect of Cyclosporine A on Leishmania tropica. Nancy C. Behforouz, Department 

of Biology, Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana 47306. The effect of Cyclosporine 

A, a new immunosuppressive and antiparasitic drug was tested, both in vivo and in 
vitro, on Leishmania tropica. In vitro, the drug inhibited growth of the parasite and 
decreased the infectivity of the organism. Although this drug appeared to have little 
or no therapeutic effect for susceptible, infected mice at the doses tested, it had a 
significant, dose-dependent prophylactic effect when used two days prior and five days 
following infection. 

The Regulation of S-Adenosylmethionine Synthetase in Candida albicans. Richard 
H. Lambert, Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, Indiana 46285 and J.R. Garcia, 
Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana 47306. S-Adenosylmethionine (SAM) syn- 
thetase from yeast and hyphal-phase cells of the dimorphic fungus C. albicans was 
characterized by kinetic analysis and response to inhibitors. SAM Synthetase is the 
enzyme responsible for the synthesis of S-Adenosylmethionine (SAM), the compound 
which serves as the major methyl-group donor in the methylation of macromolecules 
such as DNA, RNA, and proteins. The enzyme from yeast-phase cells has a km of 
0.17 mM for methionine, 0.14 mM for ATP, and is inhibited (in vitro) by dimethyl- 
sulfoxide, methionine sulfone and methionine sulfoxide. They hyphal-phase SAM syn- 
thetase has a km of 0.056 mM for methionine, 0.02 mM for ATP, and its activity 
(in vitro) is enhanced by the inhibitors used with the yeast-phase enzyme. This preliminary 
data strongly suggests that isozymes of SAM Synthetase are present in C. albicans 
and possibly that the isozymes are morphology-specific. 

The in vivo studies revealed that the enzyme's synthesis is repressed by the addi- 
tion of methionine and that the specific activity increases during a temperature-induced 
shift in morphology. In addition, it was shown that the increase in specific activity 
(seen during a yeast — hyphae shift and/or when yeast cells, grown in a methionine- 
supplemented medium, are transferred to a methionine-free medium) involves de novo 
protein synthesis. 

A Case of Tuberculosis in the University Setting. M. Langona, Department of 

Epidemiology, Ball Memorial Hospital, Muncie, Indiana 47303. Since the 1970s 

the United States Public Health Service has worked extremely hard in preventing the 

401 



402 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 94 (1985) 

transmission of communicable and infectious diseases within this country by Asian 
refugees. Mandatory health screening tests for tuberculosis, leprosy, venereal disease 
and other medical conditions have been provided while the refugee is still abroad, 
and then again upon arrival at various U.S. ports of entry. Unfortunately, Asians 
who are not refugees may immigrate into this country without appropriate healths testing 
and may represent a public health problem. 

This presentation will describe a case of pulmonary and extrapulmonary tuber- 
culosis diagnosed in a young, pregnant Korean who recently arrived in Indiana with 
her spouse who is a foreign-exchange university student. Unfortunately, the univer- 
sity's health policy only required tuberculosis skin testing of the enrolled student and 
not the spouse. Information will be provided about the diagnosis, epidemiologic workup, 
hospitalization of the tuberculosis patient, and the dichotomy of the public health 
regulations. 

Scabies: A Nosocomial Outbreak. M. Langona, S. Bossung, and M. Orr, Depart- 
ment of Epidemiology, Ball Memorial Hospital, Muncie, Indiana 47303. Sarcoptes 

scabiei (var. hominis) an obligate ectoparasitic mite of humans continues to present 
itself as a health problem within the United States. Although scabies is a non-reportable 
disease and reliable data on its incidence is limited, several investigators as well as 
the Centers for Disease Control report that the United States is experiencing the most 
significant increase in scabietic infestations since the epidemics of World War II. 

This presentation will describe a 1984 epidemic of Norwegian (crusted) Scabies 
which involved the admission of a nursing home patient into a community-teaching 
hospital and the subsequent nosocomial scabies outbreak of 15 hospital personnel and 
their families. 

The suspicion of scabies with supportive clinical and laboratory findings war- 
rants control measures, and dependent on the form of scabies present, the immediate 
and efficacious epidemiologic investigation within the hospital setting. 

Although the 20th century clinician possesses a simple and effective cure for scabies 
infestations, it is indeed disheartening that we lack the ability to eradicate this nuisance 
mite. 

Three Plasmid Cloning Vectors for Mammalian Cells. Steven H. Larsen and Joann 
Hoskins, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, Indiana 

University-Purdue University at Indianapolis, Indianapolis, Indiana 46223. Plasmid 

vectors based upon selection of the dominant phenotype of resistance to the G418 
antibiotic have been developed. To provide this resistance, the coding sequence for 
the Tn5-derived aminoglycoside phosphotransferase activity were sandwiched between 
the promotor and polyadenylation signals of the thymidine kinase gene from herpes 
simplex virus. This construct was placed into ampicillin or ampicillin-tetracycline resis- 
tant derivatives of pBR322. One such construct, pSL72, can be stably selected in mouse 
L293 cells at an efficiency equal to any previously known system (greater than 0.1% 
of the cells). This plasmid appears to be selectable at a single copy per ceil. A second 
vector, pSL71, is quite similar except that the copy number can be increased to about 
100 genomes per animal cell. The third plasmid includes mouse cell DNA sequences 
which provide the plasmid with the ability to be maintained extrachromosomally and 
hence recovered again from the animal cell into bacteria. 

Banking DNA for Future Diagnosis of Hereditary Diseases. Linda Madisen and M.E. 
Hodes, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indiana University-Purdue University 
at Indianapolis, Indianapolis, Indiana 46223. Recombinant DNA methodology 



Microbiology and Molecular Biology 403 

is becoming increasingly important for the detection of the carrier state of a number 
of genetic diseases. After generating a series of restriction fragment length polymor- 
phisms closely linked to a gene causing a disease, it is possible to predict whether 
an individual has inherited the haplotype associated with the deleterious gene. Such 
studies require DNA from informative relatives as well as from affecteds and so will 
require the long term storage of highly polymerized DNA, a relatively new procedure 
whose limitations are still being investigated. 

By storing DNA at temperatures above 4°, one may cause accelerated aging and 
thus mimic long term storage. We found that DNA stored in solution at -70°, -20°, 
4°, 25° and 37°C for two months remains high molecular weight. Early results indicate 
these different storage temperatures have no effect on restriction enzyme banding pat- 
terns for Xbal, Hindlll and EcoRI. Similar incubation of the DNA at 65°C resulted 
in extreme degradation. Furthermore, blood stored at -70°C for two months prior 
to extraction generally yielded a quantity of high molecular weight DNA comparable 
to fresh samples. Occasional frozen samples, however, yielded considerably lower DNA 
quantities, all of which were high molecular weight. 

An Examination of 495 Splice Junction Sequences. F.H. Norris, Eli Lilly and Com- 
pany, Indianapolis, Indiana 46285, and M.E. Hodes, Indiana University School of 
Medicine, Indiana University-Purdue University at Indianapolis, Indianapolis, Indiana 

46223. We have performed a computer aided examination of 495 of the exon- 

intron junctions reported in the June, 1984, Genetic Sequences Databank (GenBank). 
We examined the junction data as a pool and also segregated according to organisms 
in which they occur. The consensus sequence we found, 5'-(AC)AG/GT(AG)AGT, 
is the same as that reported by Mount and others. We also find that, except for the 
A or G at position +3, conservation of the sequence is highest near the splice point 
and drifts with distance, with the bases on the intron side of the junction being more 
highly conserved. The nine bases indicated by the consensus sequence seem to define 
the junction, since we find no conserved bases within 60 bases of the splice site. Beyond 
the -3 and +6 boundaries, the bases are randomly distributed. 

The frequencies of occurrence of the junction sequences were tabulated. We find 
no differences between the human-ape sequence frequencies and the frequencies of 
the other mammalian sequences. Striking differences appear as one compares sequences 
from higher and lower organisms. Over 60% of the human, but less than 40% of 
the non-mammalian vertebrate sequences, are of the form /GT(AG)AG. More than 
a third of the lower vertebrate junction sequences occurred one time. Perhaps because 
of a host-virus relationship, we see fewer differences between human and viral than 
between viral and lower vertebrate sequences. 

Transcriptional Regulation of the Sporulation-specific Glucoamylase of Saccharomyces 
cerevisiae. Tom Pugh and Mary Clancy, Department of Microbiology, University 
of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556. Sporulating cells of the yeast, Sac- 
charomyces cerevisiae contain a glucoamylase activity (SAG) which is distinct from 
similar enzymes found in vegetative cells. The enzyme is a glycoprotein and is capable 
of releasing free glucose from maltotriose, maltodextins, amylose and glycogen, but 
maltose is hydrolyzed slowly, if at all. The time of appearance of SAG activity during 
sporulation corresponds to the onset of glycogen degradation, and immediately pro- 
ceeds spore formation. 

We have been interested in differential gene expression in sporulating yeast and 
would like to know the level at which regulation of SAG activity occurs. SAG expres- 
sion is prevented if cycloheximide is added to sporulating cells at any time before full 



404 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 94 (1985) 

levels are attained. Antibody prepared against 400-fold purified enzyme specifically 
precipitates a protein of 68K daltous from extracts of sporulating cells which have 
been pulse-labelled in vivo 35 S-methionine. This band is not detected at early times 
in sporulation or in non-sporulating cells. This shows that the regulation of SAG activity 
is not post-translational and suggests that control may be transcriptional. 

We have constructed a library of S. cerevisiae DNA in the expression vector, 
pBD6, and are screening for the SAG gene, using a plate assay and antibody techniques. 

Development of a Model System for the Study of Murine Leukocyte Chemiluminescence. 

James L. Shellhaas, Butler University, Indianapolis, Indiana 46208. A model 

system was developed for the determination of the activation kinetics of murine peripheral 
blood polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN's). Utilizing discontinous density gradient 
centrifugation and dextran sedimentation, populations of PMN's were prepared of 
98% purity. These cell populations were then examined for their ability to respond 
with luminol-dependent chemiluminescence upon co-cultivation with the chemotactic 
peptide N-formylmethionine-leucine-phenylalanine (Fmet), the tumor promotor phorbol 
myristic acetate (PMA), and opsonized zymosan. Purified populations of PMN's were 
also examined for their responsiveness in chemotactic assays to each of the stimulation 
agents. Significant differences between the chemiluminescent kinetics of murine cells 
and the published kinetics of human cells were observed. Chemotactic responsiveness 
also differed in murine cells from that observed in human PMN cell populations. 

Relationship between Symptomatic Resistance and Virus Production in Barley Cultivars 
Inoculated with Barley Yellow Dwarf Virus. M. Skaria, J.E. Foster and R.M. Lister. 
Departments of Botany and Plant Pathology and the U.S. Department of Agriculture 

(Foster, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907. Resistance to barley 

yellow dwarf virus (BYDV) disease has been identified in some Ethiopian barleys. A 
genetic factor, the "Yd 2 " gene associated with symptomatic resistance has been trans- 
ferred to several barley cultivars. Few such barleys are available as near-isogenic pair 
with the only difference in presence or absence of the Yd 2 gene. We investigated the 
effect of the Yd 2 gene on virus synthesis in three near-isogenic barley pairs. One week 
old plants of California Mariout (Yd 2 - ) barley and the near-isogenic CM 67 (YD 2 + ) 
were inoculated with PAV, MAV, or RPV isolates of BYDV (i.e. transmitted by 
Rhopalosiphum padi L. and Sitibion avenae (Fabr.; by S. avenae; or by R padi, respec- 
tively). Inoculated plants were grown in a growth chamber at 20 ± 1°C. The virus 
content of shoots and roots was assessed at six day intervals for one month by enzyme- 
linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). With PAV, overall significantly less virus was 
detected in CM 67 than in California Mariout, but with MAV and RPV there were 
no such differences. In other experiments PAV production behaved similarly in Prato 
(Yd 2 + ) barley and the near-isogenic Briggs (Yd 2 - ), and in Atlas 68 (Yd 2 + ) barley 
and the near isogenic Atlas 57 (Yd 2 -). Thus, symptomatic resistance to BYDV in 
barley correlates with reduced virus synthesis. 

Serum Hormone Levels in Germfree and Conventional Rats: Effect of Dietary Restric- 
tion. David L. Snyder and Bernard S. Wostmann, Lobund Laboratory, University 

of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556. Germfree* rats were used to obtain 

background information on the relationship between aging, hormone levels, and restricted 
dietary intake. Blood samples were obtained by heart puncture from 14 conventional 



"Actinomyces sp. had previously contaminated the isolators of these GF rats. However, fecal smears did 
not indicate growth of these organisms in the intestinal tract. 



Microbiology and Molecular Biology 405 

(CV), 27 germfree (GF), and 12 germfree but restricted (GR) Lobund-Wistar rats. Intake 
for the restricted rats was 70% of ad lib. intake. All rats were males, 8 to 12 months 
old, and fed natural ingredient diet L485. Samples were collected between 10 A.M. 
and 12 P.M., under halothane anesthesia, and after an overnight fast. GF rats had 
slightly lower serum insulin than CV rats (52.9 vs. 62.6 uU/ml) but GR were significantly 
(P < 0.01) lower than GF (52.9 vs. 35.2 uU/ml). Serum glucose levels paralleled in- 
sulin levels (CV:140; GF:114; GR:98 mg/dl). No significant differences were found 
in total thyroxine (T4) levels (CV:6.2; GF:5.5; GR:5.5 ug/dl) and in total triiodothyronine 
(T3) levels (CV:115; GF:134; GR:133 ng/dl). Significant differences were found among