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of the 

Indiana Academy 
of Science 

Founded December 29, 1885 

Volume 95 


Indiana University 

Bloomington, Indiana 

Spring Meeting 

April 26, 27, 1985 

Brown County State Park 

Nashville, Indiana 

Fall Meeting 

November 14, 15, 16, 1985 

Indiana University 

Bloomington, Indiana 

Published at Indianapolis, Indiana 

1 . The permanent address of the Academy is the Indiana Academy of Science, 
140 North Senate Avenue, Indianapolis, Indiana 46204. 

2. Instructions for Contributors appear at the end of this volume. 

3. Exchanges. Items sent in exchange for the Proceedings and correspondence 
concerning exchange arrangements should be addressed: 

John Shephard Wright Memorial Library of the Indiana 

Academy of Science 

140 North Senate Avenue 

Indianapolis, Indiana 46204 

4. Proceedings may be purchased through the Library at $12.00 for each volume. 

5. Reprints of technical papers often can be secured from the authors. They 
cannot be supplied by the library nor by the officers of the Academy. 

6. The Constitution and By-Laws reprinted from Vol. 74 are available to members 
upon application to the Secretary. Necrologies reprinted from the various volumes can 
be supplied to relatives and friends of deceased members by the Secretary. 

7. Officers whose names and addresses are not known to correspondents may 
be addressed in care of the library. 

Editorial Board 

Don Winslow, Chair 
Office of School Programs 
Indiana University 
Bloomington, IN 47405 

Robert F. Dale 
Dept. of Agronomy 
Purdue University 
West Lafayette, IN 47907 

Hans O. Andersen 

Dept. of Science and Environmental 

Indiana University 
Bloomington, IN 47405 

Rita Barr 

Dept. of Biological Sciences 

Purdue University 

West Lafayette, IN 47907 

Ernest E. Campaigne 
Dept. of Chemistry 
Indiana University 
Bloomington, IN 47405 

William R. Clark 
Dept. of Psychological Science 
Ball State University 
Muncie, IN 47306 

James R. Gammon 
Dept. of Zoology 
DePauw University 
Greencastle, IN 46135 

James H. Kellar 
Dept. of Archaeology 
Indiana University 
Bloomington, IN 47405 

Benjamin Moulton 

Dept. of Geography and Geology 

Indiana State University 

Terre Haute, IN 47809 

Carl Sartain 
Dept. of Physics 
Indiana State University 
Terre Haute, IN 47809 

John F. Pelton John O. Whitaker, Jr. 

Rt. 2, Box 404 Dept. of Life Sciences 

Nashville, IN 47448 Indiana State University 

Terre Haute, IN 47809 
Alfred Schmidt 

Dept. of Mathematics Bernard S. Wostmann 

Rose-Hulman Institute Lobund Laboratory 

Terre Haute, IN 47803 University of Notre Dame 

Notre Dame, IN 46556 
J. Dan Webster 

P.O. Box 292 Frank N. Young 

Hanover, IN 47243 Dept. of Biology 

Indiana University 

Bloomington, IN 47405 



Daily, W.A. and F.K. Daily $9.00 ppd 


John O. Whitaker, Jr. $8.95 ppd 


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John O. Sawyer & Alton A. Lindsey $4.00 ppd 


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Make check payable to: Indiana Academy of Science. Send to Dr. Benjamin Moulton, 
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News Release: Pettersen's Resolution Commends Indiana 

Academy of Science 3 

House Bill No. HCR 113 3 

Officers and Committees for 1985 5 

Minutes of the Spring Meeting (Executive Committee) 14 

Minutes of the Spring Meeting (General Session) 18 

Minutes of the Fall Meeting (Executive Committee) 19 

Minutes of the Fall Meeting (Academy Council) 24 

Minutes of the Fall Meeting (General Meeting) 25 

Minutes of the Budget Committee Meeting 29 

Annual Financial Report 32 

Annual Report, Indiana Junior Academy of Science 

Spring Meeting 36 

Fall Meeting 36 

Necrology, Fay Kenoyer Daily, Necrologist 39 

Corporate Members of the Academy 54 

New Members for 1985 55 


Luncheon Address 

"Centennial Address Given to the Indiana Academy of 

Science," John D. Hague 61 

Presidential Address 

"Acts of God and Climatic Expectation," Benjamin Moulton 66 

"Speaker of the Year" Address, 1985-86 

"Scientific Literacy: The Missing Link," Jane Butler Kahle 72 


C. Michael Anslinger— Evidence for Heat-treatment at the Wint 

Site (12B95), Bartholomew County, Indiana* 85 

Kristen Beckman— Pesticide Use: An Occupational Hazard in the 

Conduct of Archaeological Survey* 85 

Diane E. Beynon — Archaic Adaptations in Northeastern Indiana: 

An Overview* 85 

Mark Cantin and C. Michael Anslinger— Jeffersonville Chert: A 

Problem in Provenience* 86 

Donald R. Cochran— Early Archaic in the Upper Wabash Drainage: 

An Initial Assessment* 86 

Chris Jackson and Robert E. Pace— Test Excavations at the Smith 

Site (12-Vi-86) in 1985, Vigo County, Indiana* 86 


vi Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 95 (1986) 


Misty Jackson and Mary Ellen Waite — Archaeological 
Investigation of the Early 19th Century Preston House, 
Terre Haute, Indiana* 87 

Mary Lou James and Donald R. Cochran— An Archaeological Survey 

of Jay County, Indiana* 87 

James Kendrick and Robert E. Pace — Test Excavations at the 
Amini Site: A Late Archaic Settlement in Dubois County, 
Indiana, 1985* 87 

James August Mohow— Projectile Point Types of Northeastern 

Indiana* 87 

Mark Schurr and Kenneth B. Tankersley— Arrowhead Arch (12Cr 219), 
a Multicomponent Rockshelter Site in Southcentral 
Indiana* 88 

B.K. Swartz, Jr.— The Present Status of Knowledge Regarding 
Petroglyphs, Markings, and Notable Graffiti in the State of 
Indiana* 88 

Kenneth B. Tankersley— Early Paleoindian Chert Exploitation in 

Indiana: A Preliminary Report* 88 

Curtis H. Tomak — An Archaeological Excavation at the Alton Site, 

Perry County, Indiana* 88 


Blair Brengle, William Stillwell and Stephen Wassall— Effect 

of Abscisic Acid on Phospholipid Bilayers* 89 

A.E. Brooks, W.N. Doemel, J.E. Miner and A.K. Konopka— The 

Algae of an Acid Lake* 89 

Kerry B. Dunbar, Kathryn J. Wilson, Bruce H. Petersen and 

David D. Biesboer — Laticifer Differentiation in Embryoids 

Derived from Tissue Cultures of Asclepias curassavica 

(Asclepiadaceae)* 90 

R.A. Gyure, W.N. Doemel, A.E. Brooks, A.K. Konopka and J.E. 
Miner — The Natural Reduction of the Acidity of Acid 
Polluted Strip Mine Lakes* 90 

R.M. Lopez-Franco and J.F. Hennen— The Black Cherry Rust in 

the Americas* 90 

Eric S. Menges and Kimberly A. Wade — Community Structure of an 
Indiana Gravel Hill Prairie with Special Reference to the State 
Endangered Besseya bullii* 91 

L.A. Neeb and B.D. Allamong — Analysis of DNA Methylation in the 
Growth and Development of the Early Alaska Pea (Pisum 
sativum)* 91 

Solomon Oyeleke and J.D. Schoknecht— A zolla caroliniana and its 

Symbionts* 92 


Table of Contents vii 


Wesley Shanklin and Willard F. Yates, Jr.— Induction of 
Embryogenesis in Embryo-derived Callus of Ginkgo 
biloba L.* 92 

Henry Stelzer and Robert J. Reinsvold — Micropropagation of 
Black Locust: A Controlled Method to Study the Rhizobial/ 
Legume Symbiosis* 92 

William A. Daily— Some Algae of Hillside Seeps in Turkey Run 

State Park, Parke County, Indiana 95 

K. Michael Foos and Judith A. Royer — Quick and Easy Methods for 

Collecting Coprophilous Fungi 99 

Bill N. McKnight— Notes on the Bryophytes of Indiana: I. 

Additions to the Flora 101 

Kenneth E. Nichols, Deborah Hall and William W. Bloom— 
Evidence of Genetic Recombination in Cyanidium 
caldarium 1 07 

Rosemary Rodibaugh, Connie Weaver and April Mason — 

Incorporation of a "SE Label into Agaricus bisporus Ill 

Gail E. Ruhl, Paul C. Pecknold, Donald H. Scott and Richard X. 
Latin— A Compilation of Plant Diseases and Disorders in 
Indiana - 1985 115 

Cell Biology 

A.S. Bennett, M.L. Richeson and A. Foust— Role of Dietary 

Fatty Acids in Murine Mammary Tumors* 121 

Bryon Bhagwandin, S.T. Barefoot and F.W. Kleinhans — Lag Time 

of OH* Radical Production by Zymosan Stimulated Neutrophils* 121 

Maureen Hill, F.W. Kleinhans and S.T. Barefoot — Determination 
of OH» Production by Stimulated Neutrophils Using ESR 
Spectroscopy* 121 

Mohinder S. Jarial— Ultrastructural Organization of the Sub- 
commissural Organ on Mongolian Gerbil Meriones 
unguicalatus* 122 

R. Douglas Lyng — Using Cultured Fetal Mouse Salivary Glands 

to Detect Teratogenic Potential of Chemicals* 122 

Richard S. Manalis — A New Pharmacological Tool to Study 

Neurotransmitter Release at the Frog Neuromuscular Junction* 123 

John W. Munford— Effect of Amiloride on Insulin-stimulated Sodium 

Efflux from Rat Skeletal Muscle* 123 

L.A. Neeb and B.D. Allamong — Analysis of DNA Methylation in the 
Growth and Development of the Early Alaska Pea (Pisum 
sativum)* 1 24 

M.L. Richeson and A.S. Bennett— Effect of Dietary Fats on the 
Incidence of Preneoplastic Nodules in Mammary Glands of 
Strain A/St Mice* 124 


viii Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 95 (1986) 


Steven C. Salaris and Steven T. Barefoot— An Improved Method for 

Measuring Lysozyme* 1 24 

A.C. Snyder, S.B. Kaiserauer and S. Griffith— Muscle Glucoses- 
Phosphate Dehydrogenase Activity Following Various Durations 
of Eccentric Exercise* 125 

Robert J. Stark— Effects of Ionophore A23187 on Acinar Cells 

of Mouse Parotid Salivary Glands* 125 

Teresa R. Forsyth— Absence of Dosage Compensation in the X- 
linked Acid Phosphatase Gene, Ap-6 in Drosophila 
pseudoobscura and D. miranda 127 

P. Waranimman, I.L. Sun and F.L. Crane — Evidence for a 
Transplasma Membrane Electron Transport System on Intact 
Ehrlich Lettre Ascite Tumor Cells 137 


M. Behforouz, J.L. Bolan and T.T. Curran — Regiospecific Addition 

of Organocuprate Reagents to a, (3 — Unsaturated Esters* 145 

M. Behforouz, M.E. Ogle and H. Zarrinmayeh — fi — Carbolines 
and their Tetrahydro Compounds Derived from the Amino Acid 
/3— Methyltryptophan* 145 

Stanley L. Burden, A. Griffin, K. Hartmen, G. Passon, D. Baxter, 
A. Pedersen, T. Ferris, P. VanVleet, B. Zimmerman, P. Clark 
and R. Phillips— Computerized Electronic Weighing* 145 

Christopher Colburn, Mark R. Johnson, John A. Mosbo and Lynn R. 
Sousa— Effects of Alkali Metal Cation and Crown Ether Ring 
Size and Rigidity on Binding Constants and Carbon-13 NMR 
Chemical Shifts in Napthalene-containing Crown Ethers* 146 

Shrikrishna W. Dhawale and Linda J. Alexander— Corrosion of Some 
Copper Alloys and Metals in Thiosulfate and Tetrathionate 
Solutions* 146 

Jeffrey S. Duffy and Ben Nassim— Pilot Studies Directed Toward 
the Synthesis of Cucurbitanes-II Conversion of Hecogenine to 
9, 1 l-Dehydro-12-deoxyhecogenine* 146 

Deke T. Gundersen and Ben Nassim — Pilot Studies Directed Toward 
the Synthesis of Cucurbitanes-I Generation of a Diosphenol 
System in the A-Ring of Hecogenine* 147 

Richard A. Kjonaas— Palladium Catalyzed 0-Arylation of Methyl 

Vinyl Ketone with Thallated Aromatics* 147 

Shannon G. Lieb and J.W. Bevan — Vibrational Predissociation of 

Linear Hydrogen Bonded Complexes* 147 

Robert J. Morris, Mark M. McDonald, John A. Mosbo and Bruce N. 

Storhoff — The Syntheses of Functionalized Aza Crown Ethers* 148 


Table of Contents ix 


Lynn R. Sousa, Beth E. Beeson, Byungki Son, Stasia A. Barnell, 
and Thomas E. Mabry — A Quest for Flashy Crowns: Crown 
Ethers with Cation-enhanced Fluorescence* 148 

Alan Spott and J.C. Huffman — The Construction of Space- 
filling Models from Crystallographic Data* 148 

Kenneth L. Stevenson, Janet L. Braun, Rebecca A. Sparks and 

Melinda A. Stevenson— Equilibria and Spectra of Iodo 

Complexes of Copper (I) in Aqueous Solution* 148 

Kimberly K. Strouse, Neil Anthony, John M. Brumfield, LeRoy A. 

Kroll, John A. Mosbo and Bruce N. Storhoff— 15-Crown-5 

Systems with Sidearms Containing Additional Functionalities* 149 

Bert Thomas and Joe Kirsch— Variable Temperature NMR Studies 
of the Association of Aliphatic Alcohols in Dilute Carbon 
Tetrachloride Solutions* 149 

Stephen R. Wassall, William Stillwell and Martel Zeldin— 
The Effects of Retinoids on Phospholipid Model Membrane 
Phase Behavior* 149 

Lisa Ann Blyshak and A.J.C.L. Hogarth— Flow Injection Analysis: 

An Investigation of N-Phenylbenzohydroxamic Acid 151 

E. Campaigne and Richard F. Weddleton— Substituted Derivatives 
of 3a, 4, 5, 6— Tetrahydrosuccinimido[3, 4-b] 
Acenaphthen-10-one 159 

E. Campaigne and Richard F. Weddleton — Succinimido[3,4-b] 

indan-8-one Derivatives 167 

Rick A. Flurer and Kenneth L. Busch— Derivatization of 

Biomolecules for Analysis by Fast Atom Bombardment Mass 

Spectrometry 171 

Scott P. Horn, Kjrsten Folting and J.C. Huffman— The Crystal and 
Molecular Structure of Oxysanguinarine Obtained from 
Sanguinaria canadensis L., Papaveraceae 177 

Kyle J. Kroha and Kenneth L. Busch — Characterization of Some 

Liquid Phases for Fast Atom Bombardment Mass Spectrometry 183 


James R. Aldrich— The Flora and Vegetation of the Big Chapman 

Lake Wetlands, Kosciusko County, Indiana* 187 

Spencer Cortwright— The Roles of Dispersal and History in 

Amphibian Communities* 187 

James D. Hengeveld — Does the Starvation of Red-winged 

Blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus) Nestlings Benefit the 

Surviving Nest Mates?* 1 87 

Thomas S. McComish — A 1984 Diet Evaluation for Salmonids from 

Indiana Waters of Lake Michigan* 188 


x Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 95 (1986) 


Michael Magier and Stephen Perrill— The Non-calling Male Tactic 

in the Northern Cricket Frog, Acris crepitans* 188 

Molly R. Morris — Mating Behavior and Sexual Selection in the 

Gray Treefrog (Hyla chrysoscelis)* 1 89 

Craig E. Nelson— Can Diets Affect Frog Distributions?* 189 

G.A. Romero and Craig E. Nelson — Why Should a Flower Scare its 

Pollinators?* 189 

Edwin R. Squiers and Cynthia J. Krauss— The Relationship between 
Weed Community Development and Tillage Type in Grant County, 
Indiana Field Corn Plantings* 189 

Rod Walton — Density-dependent Mortality and Distribution of 

Eggs by the Goldenrod Gall Fly* 190 

Stacia Yoon and Stephen Perrill— Acoustical Signals in the 

Northern Cricket Frog Acris crepitans* 190 

Greg R. Bright — Notes on the Caddisflies of the Kankakee River 

in Indiana 191 

John S. Castrale and Leslie Donaldson — Summer Distribution and 
Population Trends of Gray Catbird, Brown Thrasher and 
Northern Mockingbird in Indiana 195 

Lane A. Geyer and Evelyn Kirkwood— Change in Community Attributes 
Due to High Water Damage in Spicer Lake Nature Preserve, St. 
Joseph County, Indiana 203 

Michael J. Lodato — Herpetological Notes from the Buffalo Flat 

Natural Area 209 

George R. Parker and Paul T. Sherwood — Gap Phase Dynamics of a 

Mature Indiana Forest 217 

John Richard Schrock and Jack R. Munsee — A Comparison of Trees and 
Tree Growth on Unreclaimed 1949 Indiana Coal Spoil Banks in 
1964 and 1981 225 

Peggy J.M. Wier— Galls of Juncus scirpoides Formed by Livia 

maculipennis (Liviidae, Homoptera) 247 


Warren W. Bowden — The Wilsak Thodos Equation of State: Its 

Use and Applicability* 253 

David D. Chesak — Development of a Microcomputer Based System 

for On-line Behavioral Experiments* 253 

Chung-Ming Lin and Warren W. Bowden — Correlation of the 

Volumetric Properties of Compressed Liquids* 254 

Rosalie J. Kramer — Heat Efficiency of a Passive Solar 

Greenhouse* 254 

S. Leipziger and B. Lewis — Application of Finite Time 

Thermodynamics to a Simple Power Cycle* 255 


Table of Contents xi 


David Lampe, Richard Shukle, John Foster and Richard Lister— 

Aphid Feeding Behavior and Resistance to Barley Yellow 

Dwarf Virus in Agropyron Species* 257 

Raymond Russo— Surplus Killing in Toxorhynchites (Diptera: Culicidae)* . . 257 
Anne Westbrook and Ray Russo— Ecdysteroid Levels throughout 

Larval Development of Two Species of Toxorhynchites 

(Diptera: Culicidae)* 257 

Harold L. Zimmack— Selection of an Insect Pathogen* 258 

Robert W. Meyer— Insects and Other Arthropods of Economic 

Importance in Indiana in 1985 259 

Jack R. Munsee, Wilmar B. Jansma and John R. Schrock— Revision of 
the Checklist of Indiana Ants with the Addition of Five New 
Species (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) 265 

R.D. Waltz and J.W. Hart— Epitoky in Hypogastrura (Cyclograna) 

horrida Yosii, 1960 (Hexapoda: Collembola: Hypogastruridae 275 

Environmental Quality 

William Beranek, Jr. and Elizabeth Dusold— The Technical Basis of 
an Indiana Groundwater Quality Policy: The Marion County 
Experience* 277 

Brad H. Carter, Mary Lou Fox, Richard W. Miller, Robert A. 
Pribush, Michael J. Stevenson and Mark Westfall— Survey of 
Indiana Streams for Sensitivity to Acid Deposition* 277 

H.E. Dunn, B.P. Miller, G.P. Lutz and J.M. Little— 

Evaporation Rates of Organic Liquids at Wind Speeds and 

Liquid Temperatures* 277 

Larissa Godish and Thad Godish— Acid Effects on Mortality, 

Light Sensitivity and Regeneration of Fresh Water Planaria* 278 

Thad Godish, Jerome Rouch and David McClure— Metabolically- 
enhanced C0 2 Levels in Classroom Environments in a Variable 
Air Volume Climate Controlled Building* 278 

Robert Morse, Jerry Papenmeier, Jack E. Leonard and William 
Beranek, Jr. — Gas Chromatography as a Screening Tool for 
Total Volatile Organics in Groundwater and Surface Water 
Samples* 278 

Joseph R. Siefker and Anthony P. Neidlinger— Chemical Analysis 

of Two Lakes in Vigo County, Indiana for Specific Components* .... 278 

NJ. Parke and J.R. Gammon— An Investigation of Phytoplankton 

Sedimentation in the Middle Wabash River 279 

James E. Simon, Michael Simini, Dennis R. Decoteau, William 

McFee, Ken Scheeringa and James E. Newman — Monitoring Air 

Pollution for Its Potential Impact on Agricultural Crops in 

SW Indiana 289 


xii Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 95 (1986) 


Geology and Geography 

Konrad J. Banaszak — Ground-water Basins and Statewide Ground-water 

Monitoring - Indiana as an Example* 303 

Mark Binkley— Weather Types Related to Extreme Maximum 

Temperature* 303 

Will H. Black well — Evidence of Fossil Algae in the Upper 

Ordovician of Southeast Indiana and Southwest Ohio* 304 

Annie Carson, Paul Chojenski and Mark E. Patzkowsky— Surficial 
Water Flow Patterns in Fistulipora sp. (Bryozoa) (Chesterian, 
Mississippian)* 304 

J. Fan and C.W. Lovell— Measurement of Slope Erosion* 304 

Henry H. Gray — Ice-marginal Drainage along the Glacial 

Boundary in Southeastern Indiana* 305 

Harvey Henson, Trent A. Dewees and Richard H. Fluegeman, Jr.— 
Paleontology of the Waldron Formation (Silurian; Wenlockian) 
from near Muncie, Indiana* 305 

Gerald J. Shea— The Microearthquake Storm of 1984 Recorded 

in Terre Haute, Indiana* 305 

Terry R. West — Engineering Geology of Indiana Lake Bed 

Deposits and their Effect on Coal Mining* 306 

Garre A. Conner — Type Section for Indian Creek Limestone Beds in 

the Ste. Genevieve Formation of South Central Indiana 307 

John B. Droste, N. Gary Lane and Christopher G. Maples— A Bird- 
foot Delta in the Subsurface Pennsylvanian of Sullivan County, 
Indiana 313 

Paul N. Irwin, Licia A. Weber, Donald D. Carr and Walter A. 

Hasenmueller— Indiana Coal Mine Information Project 319 

Haydn H. Murray, Richard P. Heberton and Roland S. Merkl— 
Petrographic and Trace Element Characteristics of the Hymera 
(VI) Coal in Indiana 325 

Haydn H. Murray, Stephen C. Smith and Martin G. Yates— Trace 
Elements of the Springfield (V) Coal and Characteristics of 
Associated Rocks 333 

John A. Rupp— The Backbone Limestone (Lower Devonian), a 

Potential Reservoir in Southern Indiana 339 

Christopher E.K. Schubert, Victoria L. Warren, Walter A. 
Hasenmueller and Donald D. Carr— Using the National Coal 
Resource Data System to Assist Coal Resource Investigations 
in Indiana 349 

History of Science 

Elizabeth Hunt— Evolution and Morality as Interpreted by T.H. 

Huxley and Herbert Spencer* 353 

Table of Contents xiii 


"There Were Giants in Those Days." A Symposium on the Founders 

of The Indiana Academy of Science 355 

Harry G. Day— Survey of the Lives and Careers of Three Charter 
Members of the Indiana Academy of Science: Theophilus A. 
Wylie, Richard Owen and Harvey W. Wiley 355 

Frank K. Edmondson — Daniel Kirkwood 363 

Charles B. Heiser, Jr.— John Merle Coulter, Botanist 367 

Frank N. Young — The Giants of Zoology: Jordan, Eigenmann and 

Payne 371 

Alan Stanley Horowitz— Notes on the History of the 

Paleontological Collection, Department of Geology, Indiana 

University 375 

Gene Kritsky— Charles Darwin on Animal Rights 381 

N. Gary Lane— William W. Borden and the Borden Collection 385 

Microbiology and Molecular Biology 

Nancy Behforouz and Charlotte Wenger— Prophylactic Treatment of 

Balb/c Mice with Two Cyclosporines Enhances Resistance to L. tropica* 391 

Young C. Chen and James A. Evanson — Interferon-induced Inhibition 

of Cell Transformation by RNA Tumor Virus* 391 

Thomas A. Cole, Ross E. Marburger and Barry P. Bone— A 
Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoretic Assay for Chitinase Using 
a Substrate-included System* 392 

J.B. Ellis, P. Eichman and C.E. Warnes— Enzyme Characterization 
and Product Analysis of a Chitinase System of a Freshwater 
Bacterial Isolate* 392 

J.R. Garcia — S-Adenosylmethionine Synthetase and the 

Morphogenesis of Mucor racemosus* 392 

Deborah A. McMahan and Edwin M. Goebel — Isolation of Azospirillum 

Species from Indiana and Michigan Soils* 392 

G.K. Podila, W.H. Flurkey and R.F. Bozarth— Comparison of Capsid 
Gene Products of Ustilago maydis Virus by in vitro 
Translation* 393 

James L. Shellhaas— A Functional Comparison of Elicited Murine 

Peritoneal Cells and Peripheral Blood Neutrophils* 393 

Mark Wasserman, Scott Watkins, John Cunniff, K. Disser and S. 
Surzycki— The Isolation of the Genes Encoding the Second 
Largest Subunit of Human RNA Polymerase II* 393 

Kathleen R. Billings and Kara W. Eberly— Staphylococci and 
Micrococci from the Skin of Northern Indiana Sciurids, Tamias 
striatus and Tamiasciurus hudsonicus 395 

Harold W. Reed, Sr.— Compartmentalization of Aspartate 

Transcarbamylase During Division of Caulobacter crescentus 399 


xiv Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 95 (1986) 

Physics and Astronomy 

Karen G. Ferguson, Bradley A. Silburt, Doreen Wiley and F.R. 

Steldt— A Novel 360° Hologram* 403 

Uwe J. Hansen, Scott Hampton and Thomas D. Rossing— Holographic 

Interferometric Vibration Studies* 403 

Uwe J. Hansen, John Popp, Thomas D. Rossing and William Y. 

Strong— Modal Analysis Studies of Guitars* 403 

Hollis R. Johnson, Thomas B. Ake and Joel A. Eaton — 

Chromospheres of Red Giant Stars* 404 

Samir I. Sayegh— Non-linear Differential Equations and Symbolic 

Manipulation in Physics* 404 

Michael R. Witty and Ronald M. Cosby — Thermal Energy 

Reclamation from Industrial Process Wastewater* 404 

Kevin Yaussy, Roger Rollins and E.R. Hunt— Numerical Evidence 

for Fractal Basin Boundaries for the Duffing Oscillator* 404 

William Andrew Hollerman — Construction and Testing of a New 
Atomic Physics Beam Line at the Western Michigan University 
Accelerator Laboratory 407 

Plant Taxonomy 

John A. Bacone, Lee A. Casebere and Thomas W. Post— Flora of 

Indiana Railroad Prairies* 411 

E.J. Hill and Richard J. Jensen— Geographic Spatial Auto- 
correlation in Fruit Characters of Quercus ellipsoidalis* 411 

Richard J. Jensen — AUTOCOR: A Program for Analyzing Geographic 

Spatial Auto-correlation* 411 

Clifton Keller and Kirby Guild— The Computerization of Regional 

Floristic Data* 412 

Richard H. Maxwell— Natural Area Remnants within the Indiana 

Army Ammunition Plant, Charlestown, Indiana* 412 

James R. Aldrich, John A. Bacone and Michael A. Homoya— List of 
Extirpated, Endangered, Threatened and Rare Vascular Plants in 
Indiana: An Update 413 

James R. Aldrich, Lee A. Casebere, Michael A. Homoya and Helene 
Starcs — The Discovery of Native Rare Vascular Plants in 
Northern Indiana 421 

Michael A. Homoya and D. Brian Abrell— Recent Additions to the 

Flora of Southern Indiana 429 

Henry H. Huffman— A Field Survey of the Yellowwood, Cladrastis 

lutea, in Brown County, Indiana 433 

John W. McCain— More New Vascular Plant Distribution Records for 

Tippecanoe and Other Counties in Indiana 443 

Table of Contents xv 


Rebecca A. Strait and Marion T. Jackson— An Ecological Analysis 
of the Plant Communities of Little Bluestem Prairie Nature 
Preserve: Pre-burning versus Post-burning 447 


K.A. Duffey, R.B. Fischer, A. Fullenkamp and R.A. Vance — An 

Avoidance Role for Glandular Odors in Merionesl* 453 

Thomas Holmes— Fixed Interval Responding in Old and Young Syrian 

Hamsters* 453 

Barbara Kane— A Themes Analysis of Excuses Offered by Adults and 

Late Adolescents* 453 

Frederic W. Widlak and Patricia A. Scofield— Gender Stereotyping 
of Occupations as a Function of Perceivers' Sex, Age and 
Familiarity with the Occupation* 454 

Kathryn N. Black, Michael R. Stevenson and Diane N. Villwock— 

What Do "Masculine" and "Feminine" Mean in Everyday Usage? . . . 455 

Science Education 

Vincent A. DiNoto, Jr.— What Can You Do with One Sheet of 

Paper?* 459 

Thomas A. Fogle and Karilee Watson— Teaching Genetics to Gifted 

Junior High Girls* 459 

Dorothy L. Gabel and K.V. Samuel — Students' Conceptions of the 

Particulate Nature of Matter* 460 

Uwe J. Hansen— Holography in the High School Classroom* 460 

E.J. Holt and R.R. Hall— A Visually Dynamic Method to Investigate 

Enzyme Characteristics: Chymotryptic Digestion of Milk* 460 

Susan M. Johnson and Mildred T. Ballou— Science Instruction 
Designed to Help Young Children Understand the Nature of 
Change* 46 1 

Jane Butler Kahle— Science Career Options for Rural Environment 

Students* 461 

Wilson B. Lutz— The Preparation of a Vat Dye and Its Application 
to Cotton: An Experiment Suitable for the Introductory 
Chemistry Laboratory* 461 

John A. Ricketts — Chemical Education in the Peoples Republic of 

China* 462 

Ted T. Cable and Douglas M. Knudson — The Park Manager's View of 

Environmental Interpretation as a Management Tool 463 

Gary E. Dolph — LEAF MARGIN: A Computer Simulation of Leaf Margin 

Variation in Indiana 469 

K. Michael Foos— Developing Writing Skills in Science Classes 479 


xvi Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 95 (1986) 


Alan R. Janssen, Joan Y. Kneessi, Camille M. Andrzejewski and 
Grayson S. Davis— An Easy Method for Microinjecting India 
Ink into the Blood Vessels of Stage 18 to 27 Chick Embryos 483 

Daniel L. Replogle and Chester A. Pinkham — Interfacing Micro- 
computers to Science Experiments 487 

Michael H. Stitsworth— Dominican Republic/Indiana 4-H Exchange: 

An Alternative Approach to Natural Resources Education 493 

Soil and Atmospheric Sciences 

B.H. Carter, J. Daniel, M.L. Fox, R.A. Pribush and M.J. Stevenson— 

Foliage Extraction Methods for Ion Chromatography* 499 

Timothy E. Klingler and David R. Smith— Real-time Forecast Veri- 
fication During the 28 March 1985 Severe Weather Outbreak in 
Northern Indiana* 499 

L.H. McGhee and D.P. Franzmeier — Determination of Fabric- 
related Soil Properties Using Samples Collected with a Truck 
Mounted Core Sampler* 500 

E.M. Ossom and C.L. Rhykerd— The Mangrove Swamps of Southern 

Nigeria, I: A Brief Survey of the Ecosystem* 500 

E.M. Ossom and C.L. Rhykerd — The Mangrove Swamps of Southern 

Nigeria, II: Problems and Prospects* 500 

R.G. Wichmann, S.E. Hawkins, D.B. Mengel, L.E. Schweitzer and 
J.H. Ahlrichs— Differential Response of Maize Inbreds to 
Nitrogen Fertilizer* 501 

Jeffrey A. Andresen and Robert F. Dale — Climatic Data Bases 503 

Jerry A. Thomas and Norris E. Barnett— Conservation Tillage 

Systems for Northwest Indiana 513 


Jude Boyll Bingham— Arthropods of the Guano Communities of the 

Big Brown Bat (Eptesicus fuscus) Colonies of Indiana* 519 

Patricia J. Clark, Michael A. Ewert and Craig E. Nelson— 

Physiological Aspects of Temperature Dependent Sex* 519 

Sherry L. Gummer — Ectoparasites, Including Mites of Cryptic 

Biotopes, of Eptesicus fuscus, the Big Brown Bat* 520 

Edward M. Hopkins— Preliminary Results of the Indiana Breeding 

Bird Atlas Project* 520 

Duvall A. Jones— Effects of Temperature, Body Size and Other 

Factors upon Oxygen Consumption of Tropical Anuran Tadpoles* 520 

William H. Kern, Jr.— The Range of the Hellbender, Cryptobranchus 

alleganiensis alleganiensis, in Indiana* 520 

William H. Kern, Jr.— Reproduction of the Hellbender, 

Cryptobranchus alleganiensis, in Indiana* 521 

Table of Contents t y . . xvii 


William H. Kern, Jr. — Size Class Distribution of the Hellbender, 
Cryptobranchus alteganiensis, in Indiana and Its Implications 
for their Life History* ' . J 521 

David M. Sever, Susan Duff and Angela Gonzalez — Aspects of Ova 

Variability in Ambystoma tigrinum* 521 

Henry Tamar— Should the "Egg-destruction" Hypothesis of Dinosaur 

Extinction Be Discarded?* '. 522 

Virgil R. Holmes, Ted T. Cable and Virgil Brack, Jr.— Avifauna 
as Indicators of Habitat Quality in Some Wetlands of Northern 
Indiana 523 

Charles E. Mays— Effects of Sidestream Smoke on Pregnant Mice and 

their Offspring 529 

Ronald L. Richards — Late Pleistocene Remains of Boreal Voles 
(Genera Phenacomys and Clethrionomys) from Southern Indiana 
Caves 537 

Doris J. Watt and Laura A. Sadowski — Development of Courtship 

Feeding in the American Goldfinch (Carduelis tristis) 547 

J. Dan Webster— Geographic Distribution of Birds in Southeastern 

Alaska: An Analysis 555 

John O. Whitaker, Jr. and Brian Abrell— The Swamp Rabbit 

Sylvilagus aquaticus, in Indiana, 1984-1985 563 

John O. Whitaker, Jr. and Louis R. Douglas — Bat Rabies in 

Indiana, 1965-1984 571 

Constitution of the Indiana Academy of Science 585 

Instructions for Contributors 597 

Index 601 



of the 

Indiana Academy 

of Science 

Petersen's Resolution Commends Indiana 
Academy of Science 

Indianapolis — A resolution (HCR 113) authored by State Representative Mary 
Pettersen (D-Hammond) congratulating the Indiana Academy of Science for 100 years 
of service passed the House of Representatives by acclamation April 8. 

"The Indiana Academy of Science is an invaluable asset to our citizens," Pet- 
tersen said. "It publishes works about scientific matters relevant to Indiana, and it 
fosters youth interest in science by providing grants to teachers and maintaining a 
Junior Academy of Science." 

"The academy also funds research by its member scientists and enables the John 
S. Wright Library at the Indiana State Library Building to receive scientific literature 
from around the world," Pettersen added. 

The resolution states, "That the General Assembly of the State of Indiana hereby 
extends its commendations to the Indiana Academy of Science for a century of pro- 
ductive research and activity of benefit to the State and its citizens." 


A HOUSE CONCURRENT RESOLUTION recognizing and commending the Ind- 
iana Academy of Science upon its centennial. 

WHEREAS, the Indiana Academy of Science was established in the course of 
an organizational meeting in 1885 and is thus in its centennial year; and 

WHEREAS, the Academy was incorporated December 21, 1887, when articles 
of association were filed with the Secretary of State of Indiana; and 

WHEREAS, the scientific papers presented at the annual meetings of the Academy 
have been published since 1892 in a series of Proceedings volumes of which the ac- 
count for 1984 will be Volume 94; and 

WHEREAS, a series of Monographs has been issued dealing with scientific topics 
of significance to the State of Indiana; and 

WHEREAS, the Academy has fostered youth activities in the field of science 
by providing grants to teachers and affording opportunity to present results of student 
research at annual meetings of the Junior Academy of Science, and 

WHEREAS, the Academy has provided financial support for countless research 
investigations by its members; and 

WHEREAS, the John S. Wright Library, established in the name of the Academy, 
is housed in the Indiana State Library Building; and 

WHEREAS, the Proceedings and Monographs published by the Academy receive 
worldwide distribution and are the medium of exchange whereby the John S. Wright 
Library acquires numerous valuable acquisitions from other scientific organizations. 

Now therefore, 


SECTION 1. That the General Assembly of the State of Indiana hereby extends 
its commendations to the Indiana Academy of Science for a century of productive 
research and activity of benefit to the State and its citizens. 

4 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 95 (1986) 

SECTION 2. That the Principal Clerk of the House of Representatives is hereby 
directed to transmit a copy of this resolution to the Academy through this year's Presi- 
dent, Dr. Benjamin F. Moulton. 

PETTERSEN, Representative 

Indiana Academy of Science 
Officers for 1985 





Director of Public Relations 

Editor of Proceedings 

Benjamin Moulton, Professor Emeritus 
Department of Geography and Geology 
Indiana State University 
Terre Haute, IN 47809 
PHONE: (812)234-3870 
SUVON: +749 + 9 + 234-3870 

Ernest E. Campaigne 
Department of Chemistry 
Indiana University 
Bloomington, IN 47405 
PHONE: (317)335-5957 
SUVON: + 703 + 55957 

Richard L. Conklin 

Department of Physics 

Hanover College 

Hanover, IN 47243 

PHONE: (812)866-2151, ext. 348 

SUVON: + 719 + 348 

Duvall A. Jones 
Department of Biology 
St. Joseph's College 
Rensselaer, IN 47978 
PHONE: (219)866-7111, ext. 214 
SUVON: + 741+214 

Alfred R. Schmidt 
Department of Mathematics 
Rose-Hulman Institute 
Terre Haute, IN 47803 
PHONE: (812)877-1511 
SUVON: + 739 + 877-1511 

Donald R. Winslow 
School of Education 
Indiana University 
Bloomington, IN 47405 
PHONE: (812)335-8658 
SUVON: + 703 + 58658 

Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 95 (1986) 

Committee Chairpersons and Special Appointments 


1. Academy Foundation Committee: William A. Daily, Chair (SUVON: 
+ 9 + 251-4719) 

2. Bonding Committee: Mary Lee Richeson, Chair (SUVON: + 710 + 5546) 

3. Research Grants Committee: Uwe Hansen, Chair (SUVON: + 749 + 2429) 


4. Academy Representative to The American Association for the Advancement 
of Science: Walter A. Cory, Jr. (SUVON: + 703 + 55090) 

5. Academy Representative to The Indiana Natural Resources Commission: 
Damian A. Schmelz (SUVON: + 8970) 

6. Auditing Committee: John A. Ricketts, Chair (SUVON: + 706 + 4607) 

7. Biological Survey Committee: John A. Bacone, Chair (SUVON: 
+ 9 + 232 + 4052) 

8. Centennial Program Committee: John B. Patton, Chair (SUVON: 
+ 703 + 52862) 

9. Constitution Committee: William R. Eberly, Chair (SUVON: + 729 + 309) 

10. Editorial Board for the Proceedings: Donald R. Winslow, Chair (SUVON: 
+ 703 + 58658) 

11. Emeritus Member Selection Committee: Robert H. Cooper, Chair (SUVON: 
+ 732 + + 288-9068) 

12. Fellows Committee: William Melhorn, Chair (SUVON: + 755 + 43277) 

13. Financial Planning: Frank Guthrie, Chair (SUVON: +759+312) 

14. High School Teacher Research Fellows Committee: Walter A. Cory, Jr., 
Chair (SUVON: + 703 + 55090) 

15. Indiana Science Talent Search Committee: Walter A. Cory, Jr., Chair 
(SUVON: + 703 + 55090) 

16. Invitations Committee: Donald J. Cook, Chair (SUVON: + 706 + 4601) 

17. Junior Academy Council, Director: Cheryl Mason (SUVON: 
+ 755 + 494 + 8524) 

18. Library Committee: Holly Oster, Chair (SUVON: + 9 + 232-3686) 

19. Membership Committee: Ernest Campaigne, Chair (SUVON: 
+ 703 + 55957) 

20. Necrologist: Fay K. Daily (SUVON: + 9 + 251-4719) 

21. Newsletter Editor: Alfred Schmidt (SUVON: +739 + 877-1511) 

22. Nominations Committee: William Eberly, Chair (SUVON: + 729 + 309) 

23. Parliamentarian: Clarence Dineen (SUVON: + 743 + 4525) 

24. Preservation of Natural Areas Committee: Marion T. Jackson, Chair 
(SUVON: + 749 + 2489) 

25. Program Committee: Ernest Campaigne, Co-Chair (SUVON: 

+703 + 55957); Donald R. Winslow, Co-Chair (SUVON: 

+ 703 + 58658) 

26. Publications Committee: Benjamin Moulton, Chair (SUVON: 
+ 749 + 9 + 234-3870) 

27. Resolutions Committee: William Da vies, Chair (SUVON: + 710 + 5535) 

28. Science and Society Committee: ALice S. Bennett, Chair (SUVON: 
+ 732 + 6875) 

Officers and Committees for 1985 7 

29. Speaker for the Year Selection Committee: Richard J. Jensen, Chair (SUVON: 
+ 743 + 4675) 

30. Youth Activities Committee: Susan M. Johnson, Chair (SUVON: 
+ 723 + 4043) 

The Council 

The Council consists of the Officers plus the Chairperson of the Science and 
Society Committee. 

Council Members for 1985: 

Benjamin Moulton, President 

Ernest Campaigne, President-Elect 

Richard L. Conklin, Secretary 

Duvall A. Jones, Treasurer 

Alfred R. Schmidt, Director of Public Relations 

Donald R. Winslow, Editor of Proceedings 

Alice S. Bennett, Chair of Science and Society Committee 

The Executive Committee 

The Executive Committee consists of the past presidents, current officers, chairper- 
sons of the Sections, chairpersons of all committees, directors of the Youth Activities 
Committee, and representatives of affiliated organizations. 

For current Executive Committee membership, see parts of this Directory listing 
the above positions. 

The Budget Committee 

Benjamin Moulton, President 

Ernest Campaigne, President-Elect 

Richard L. Conklin, Secretary 

Duvall A. Jones, Treasurer 

Alfred R. Schmidt, Director of Public Relations 

Donald R. Winslow, Editor of Proceedings 

Alice S. Bennett, Chair of Committee on Relations of the Academy to the State 

Immediate Past President: Theodore Crovello 
Junior Academy Council Director: Cheryl Mason 
Library Committee Chair: Lois Burton 
Program Committee Co-Chair: Ernest E. Campaigne 
Co-Chair: Donald R. Winslow 
Youth Activities Committee Chair: Susan M. Johnson 

1985 Committees and Special Appointments 


1. Academy Foundation William A. Daily, Chair (1985) 

John Ricketts (1986) 

2. Bonding Committee Mary Lee Richeson, Chair 


Donald Hendricks (1986) 

Indiana Academy of Science 

Vol. 95 (1986) 

3. Research Grants Committee Uwe J. Hansen, Chair (1985) 

Austin Brooks (1989) 
John H. Cleveland (1986) 
John O. Whitaker, Jr. (1987) 
James E. Newman (1988) 


4. Academy Representative to The 
American Association for the Ad- 
vancement of Science: Walter A. 
Cory, Jr. 

5. Academy Representative on The 
Indiana Natural Resources Com- 
mission: Damian A. Schmelz 

6. Auditing Committee 

7. Biological Survey Committee: 

8. Centennial Program Committee: 
(ad hoc) 

9. Constitution Committee: 

10. Editorial Board for the 

Emeritus Member Selection 

John Rickets, Chair 
Andrew Mehall, II 

John A. Bacone, Chair 
James Aldrich 
Theodore J. Crovello 
James R. Gammon 
Philip A. Orput 
Victor Riemenschneider 
Harmon P. Weeks 
John Whitaker 

John B. Patton, Chair 
Ernest Campaigne 
Walter A. Cory, Jr. 
Fay K. Daily 
William A. Daily 
J. Dan Webster 
Donald R. Winslow 

William R. Eberly, Chair 

William A. Daily 

Clarence Dineen 

Donald R. Winslow, Chair 

Hans O. Andersen 

Rita Barr 

Ernest E. Campaigne 

Robert F. Dale 

James R. Gammon 

James H. Kellar 

Benjamin Moulton 

Carl C. Sartain 

Alfred Schmidt 

J. Dan Webster 

John O. Whitaker, Jr. 

Bernard S. Wostmann 

Frank N. Young 

Robert H. Cooper, Chair 
Harry G. Day 

Officers and Committees for 1985 

12. Fellows Committee: 

13. Financial Planning Committee: 
(ad hoc) 

14. High School Teacher Research 
Fellows Committee: 

15. Indiana Science Talent Search 

16. Invitations Committee: 

17. Junior Academy Council: 

18. Library Committee: 

19. Membership Committee: 

Howard H. Michaud 
Winona H. Weich 

Wilton N. Melhorn (1985), 

John Bacone (1987) 
Stanley L. Burden (1986) 
Richard Conklin (1987) 
Della Cook (1985) 
Clarence Dineen (1986) 
William R. Gommel (1987) 
Robert Henry (1985) 
Richard Jensen (1986) 
James G. List (1986) 
Robert D. Miles (1985) 
John F. Pelton (1986) 
Russell K. Stivers (1987) 

Frank Guthrie, Chair 
William A. Daily 
Duvall A. Jones 
John A. Ricketts 

Walter A. Cory, Jr., Chair 
Alice S. Bennett 
Ernest E. Campaigne 
Cheryl Mason 

Walter A. Cory, Jr., Chair 

Jo Ann Jansing 

Richard A. Mayes 

Van A. Neie 

Alfred Schmidt 

Harold Zimmack 

Donald J. Cook, Chair 
William R. Chaney 
Marshall P. Cady, Jr. 
Vincent A. DiNoto 
James A. Brenneman 

Cheryl Mason, Director 
William T. Anderson, Jr. 
Michael Kobe 
Virginia Rhodes 
Linda Hamrick 

Holly Oster, Chair 
James A. Clark 
William A. Daily 
Lois Burton 

Ernest Campaigne, Chair 
Warren W. Bowden 
Robert H. Cooper 
Walter A. Cory, Jr. 
Barbara Kane 


Indiana Academy of Science 

Vol. 95 (1986) 

20. Necrologist: 

21. Newsletter Editor: 

22. Nominations Committee: 

23. Parliamentarian: 

24. Preservation of Natural Areas 

25. Program Committee: 

26. Publications Committee: 

27. Resolutions Committee: 

28. Science and Society Committee: 


"Speaker of the Year' 
Selection Committee: 

Susan Johnson 
Duvall Jones 
Alfred Schmidt 

Fay K. Daily 

Alfred R. Schmidt 

William R. Eberly, Chair 
Alice S. Bennett 
Theodore J. Crovello 

Clarence Dineen 

Marion T. Jackson (1987), 


James Aldrich (1986) 

John A. Bacone (1985) 

Robert O. Petty (1987) 

Carrolle Markle (Honorary) 

George Parker (1986) 

Victor Riemenschneider (1987) 

Robert C. Weber (1985) 

William Weeks (1986) 

Winona H. Welch (Honorary) 

Ernest Campaigne, Co-Chair 
Donald R. Winslow, Co-Chair 
Walter Cory, Jr. 
John Patton 

Benjamin Moulton, Chair 
Lois Burton 
Donald J. Cook 
Walter A. Cory, Jr. 
William Eberly 
Willis H. Johnson 
J. Dan Webster 
John O. Whitaker 
Donald R. Winslow 

William Davies, Chair 
Edward C. Miller 

Alice S. Bennett, Chair 
William Beranek, Jr. 
Stanley Burden 
Walter A. Cory, Jr. 
Gene Kritsky 
Elden Ortmann 
James Shuler 
Edwin R. Squiers 
Philip A. St. John 
Charles Wier 
Howard R. Youse 
Alfred Schmidt 

Richard J. Jensen, Chair 
Stanley L. Burden 

Officers and Committees for 1985 

30. Youth Activities Committee: 

Robert E. Hale 
Thomas R. Mertens 

Susan M. Johnson, Chair 
Lloyd Anderson 
Walter A. Cory, Jr. 
Karl Kaufman 
Michael L. Kobe 
Cheryl Mason 
Virginia Rhodes 
John A. Ricketts 
Stanley Shimer 
Leota Skirvin 
Jane Tucker 


IAS 1985 Section Chair and Chair-Elect 


Diane E. Beynon 
Department of Anthropology 
Indiana University-Purdue 

University at Fort Wayne 
2101 Coliseum Boulevard East 

Austin E. Brooks 
Department of Biology 
Wabash College 
Crawfordsville, Indiana 47933 

Robert J. Stark 
Department of Zoology 
DePauw University 
Greencastle, Indiana 46135 

Dennis G. Peters 
Department of Chemistry 
Indiana University 
Bloomington, Indiana 47405 

Richard W. Miller 
Department of Zoology 
Butler University 
Indianapolis, Indiana 46208 


Ronald Hicks 
Department of Anthropology 
Ball State University 
Muncie, Indiana 47306 


Gail E. Ruhl 

Plant Diagnostic Clinic 

Department of Botany and 

Plant Pathology 
Purdue University 
West Lafayette, IN 47907 

Cell Biology 

John W. Munford 
Department of Biology 
Wabash College 
Crawfordsville, IN 47933 


Stanley L. Burden 
Science Center 
Taylor University 
Upland, Indiana 46989 


George R. Parker 
Department of Forestry and 

Natural Resources 
Purdue University 
West Lafayette, IN 47907 

12 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 95 (1986) 


Warren W. Bowden David D. Chesak 

Department of Chemical Department of Physics 

Engineering St. Joseph's College 

Rose-Hulman Institute of Rensselaer, Indiana 47978 

Technology (219)866-7111 
Terre Haute, Indiana 47803 


James D. Haddock Gene Kritsky 

Department of Biological Science Department of Biology 

Indiana University-Purdue College of Mount St. Joseph 

University at Fort Wayne Mount St. Joseph, Ohio 45030 

2101 Coliseum Boulevard East (513)244-4401 
Fort Wayne, Indiana 46805 

Environmental Quality 

H. Fred Siewert Peter Hippensteel 

Department of Natural Resources Department of Biology 

Ball State University Tri-State University 

Muncie, Indiana 47306 Angola, Indiana 46703 

(317)285-5790 (219)665-3141 Ext 276 

Geology and Geography 

Donald W. Ash Akhtar Husain Siddiqi 

Department of Geography and Department of Geography and 

Geology Geology 

Indiana State University Indiana State University 

Terre Haute, Indiana 47809 Terre Haute, Indiana 47809 

(8 1 2)232-63 11/2188 (81 2)232-63 1 1 /244 1 

History of Science 

Gerald R. Seeley Barbara Ann Seeley 

Department of Civil Engineering 805 Hastings Terrace 

Valparaiso University Valparaiso, Indiana 46383 

Valparaiso, Indiana 46383 (219)465-1948 

Microbiology and Molecular Biology 

Mary Lee Richeson Nancy C. Behforouz 

Indiana University-Purdue Department of Biology 

University at Fort Wayne Ball State University 

2101 Coliseum Boulevard East Muncie, Indiana 47306 

Fort Wayne, Indiana 47306 (317)285-8844 

Physics and Astronomy 

Ruth Howes Edward A. Vondrak 

Department of Physics and Department of Mathematics 

Astronomy and Physics 

Ball State University Indiana Central University 

Muncie, Indiana 47306 Indianapolis, IN 46227 

(317)285-5494 (317)788-3311 

Officers and Committees for 1985 13 

Plant Taxonomy 

Victor Riemenschneider John W. McCain 

Department of Biology Department of Botany and 

Indiana University at South Bend Plant Taxonomy 

South Bend, Indiana 46615 Purdue University 

(219)272-8262 West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 



Robert B. Fischer Barbara Kane 

Department of Psychological Department of Educational and 

Sciences School Psychology 

Ball State University Indiana State University 

Muncie, Indiana 47306 Terre Haute, IN 47809 

(317)285-1713 (812)232-6311 

Science Education 

Gary Dolph Walter A. Cory, Jr. 

Division of Natural and Physical Education Building 253 

Sciences Indiana University 

Indiana University at Kokomo Bloomington, IN 47405 

Kokomo, Indiana 46902 (812)335-5090 

Soil and Atmospheric Sciences 

Charles L. Rhykerd John T. Curran 

Department of Agronomy National Weather Service 

Purdue University Indianapolis International Airport 

West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 P.O. Box 51256 

(317)494-4787 Indianapolis, IN 46251 



James R. Litton, Jr. Ronald L. Richards 

Department of Biology Indiana State Museum and 

Saint Mary's College Memorial 

Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 202 N. Alabama Street 

(219)284-4669 Indianapolis, IN 46204 



April 26, 1985 


President Benjamin Moulton called the meeting to order at 3:10 p.m. in the meeting 
room of Abe Martin Lodge, Brown County State Park. 

Minutes of the Spring and Fall 1984 meetings of the Executive Committee were 
approved as distributed. 

Bonding Committee 

President Moulton read a letter indicating the need for renewal of the Surety 
Bond for the Treasurer. The Committee recommends continuation of the bond, at 
a cost of $150. A motion to continue this bond was made by John Ricketts, seconded, 
and carried. 

Academy Foundation Committee 

William A. Daily, chair, reported that on March 31 the Invested Income Account 
had a total market value of $1 16,377.69. The market value of the Foundation Account 
was $42,421.50, and that of the John S. Wright Fund was $797,865.35. 

Research Grants Committee 

Duvall Jones reported for Uwe Hansen that a total of $10,1 13 has been awarded 
this Spring. A list of the awards is appended to these minutes. 

Membership Committee 

E. Campaigne, chair, moved that all applicants for membership duly approved 
by the Treasurer be elected as members. The motion carried. 

The Membership Committee has implemented an extensive mail campaign for 
membership. Eight hundred and thirty people identified through lists of AAAS members 
have been sent personal letters inviting them to join the Academy, and offering the 
bonus of an Academy publication for joining this year. Sixty four persons have joined 
this year, perhaps 15 because of the campaign. Books have been distributed to new 
members as requested. The committee is now using a list of about 280 persons from 
the American Chemical Society. 

Committee on Emeritus Members 

Robert Cooper, chair, reported that no one is currently requesting emeritus member- 
ship. He noted that Dr. Alfred H. Meyer, of Valparaiso, President of the Academy 
in 1955, is not currently a member and is not eligible for emeritus membership. J. 
Dan Webster moved that Alfred H. Meyer be elected to Honorary Membership. The 
motion was seconded and carried after some discussion. 

Library Committee 

Holly Oster, chair, reported that in March 1985 complimentary copies of History 
of the Indiana Academy of Science were mailed to 780 Academy members and 328 
Indiana public and postsecondary academic libraries. Exchange copies of the History 
will be mailed with the current volume of the Proceedings. 

Hardcover copies of Proceedings Volume 93 were received from the printer on 
April 8 and were mailed to 691 Academy members and 79 Indiana libraries. Work 
is progressing on mailing of paperbound exchange copies. 

Notice has been received regarding state funds for printing of Proceedings Volumes 


Spring Meeting of Executive Committee 15 

94 and 95, indicating that $8,900 will be appropriate for each year of the 1985/87 


Invitations Committee 

President Moulton announced that an invitation has been received from Indiana 
Central College for the 1986 meetings. The invitation was accepted by consensus. 

Science and Society Committee 

Alice S. Bennett, chair, reported that the committee met in March and discussed 
organizing subcommittees to deal with topics such as selection of science texts in the 
public schools, water pollution and waste disposal, and artificial intelligence. 

The symposium topic for the Fall 1985 meeting will be the science of aging. Gerry 
Meunier of Ball State is planning the symposium. 

Youth Activities Committee 

The Junior Academy of Science was meeting at Greenwood; so the report was 
presented by Alice Bennett on behalf of Susan Johnson, chair. 

After obtaining approval at the Fall Executive Committee meeting of the Academy, 
it was decided to plan a small-scale science olympiad for the Spring meeting of the 
Junior Academy. During the summer, plans will be formulated regarding future disposi- 
tion of the olympiad. 

The report also included announcement of recognition of teachers at the Fall 
meeting, and the brochure for science fair directors. 

Plans are under way for the establishment of a State Science Fair. Two meetings 
have been held and subcommittees have been formed to look into details. 

Upon a motion by Dr. Bennett, the report was accepted. 
Science Talent Search 

Walter Cory reported that of twenty-five finalists thirteen were selected to attend 
the annual meeting in Indianapolis. Kappa Kappa Kappa supported this event and 
awarded two $1000 scholarships. He also urged the Academy to think about ways 
of financing Regional Science Fairs, and starting new regional fairs as well as a state 
fair. Alfred Schmidt commented on the high quality of the Science Talent projects 
and urged that the Academy recognize the teachers whose students are consistently 

Representative to the Department of Natural Resources 

President Moulton read a brief report by Damien Schmelz. 

Centennial Committee 

John Patton, chair, reported that the State Legislature has passed a resolution 
commending the Academy. 

A special speaker for the Fall meeting is being sought. 

Donald Winslow, Editor, reported that seventy six manuscripts have been ac- 
cepted for Volume 94 of the Proceedings. 

Indiana Breeding Bird Atlas 

J. Dan Webster announced the beginning of a five-year program entitled "Indiana 
Breeding Bird Atlas," sponsored by the Indiana Department of Natural Resources 
and the Indiana Audubon Society. It is funded by the non-game and endangered wildlife 
program of the DNR. The project is expected to be a large effort by amateur bird 
watchers, coordinated by Edward M. Hopkins, a member of the Academy. Dr. Webster 
expressed his hope that the Academy would become a sponsor, giving encouragement, 
moral support, publicity, and publication of the final report (contingent upon approval 
by the Publications Committee). 

16 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 95 (1986) 

Dr. Webster moved that the Academy agree to be listed as a sponsoring organization 
of the "Indiana Breeding Bird Atlas" project. The motion carried. 

ad hoc Committee on Financial Planning 

The report was presented by John Ricketts. The committee made the following 
recommendations and urged their adoption and/or implementation: 

1. They recommended: diversification of the John S. Wright Fund, but so as 
to retain at least 4,000 shares of Eli Lilly and Company stock for the foreseeable future; 
retention of at least $50,000 in the Invested Income Account to serve as an emergency 
fund. These changes should take place over a two or three year period, always with 
the majority agreement of the Trustees of the Academy. 

2. They believe the practice of charging a registration fee for attending meetings 
of the Academy should be discontinued as soon as possible. 

3. They recommend that the Treasurer continue prudent investment of temporary 
surplus funds. 

4. They recommend a substantial simplification of membership and dues 
categories and a permanent elimination of initiation and reinstatement fees, and pro- 
pose the following schedule: 

Member - $15 

Student Member - $5 

Sustaining Member - $25 

Life Member - $250 

Honorary, emeritus members - no dues 

Club - $10 

Other categories have not been beneficial and should be deleted. 

5. They recommend that the Treasurer/Budget Committee take steps to reduce 
the number of administered accounts. 

6. They recommend that the Academy reimburse mileage at 20 cents per mile 
for attendance at special meetings but not for the regular Spring and Fall meetings. 

Members of the committee are William A. Daily, Frank Guthrie, chair, Duvall 
Jones, and John Ricketts. 

Following the presentation of each recommendation there was some discussion, 
especially Item 2 and 4. 

Alice Bennett moved that Items 1, 3, 5, and 6 be approved and that action on 
Items 2 and 4 be deferred until the revision of the Constitution is completed. The 
motion carried. 

Survey of Past Presidents 

President Moulton wrote a letter in early January to the past twenty Presidents 
of the Academy for suggestions as to how and what the Academy might do during 
its second century. He circulated a summary of the comments of the few who have 
Constitution Committee 

William Eberly, chair, commented on the work of the committee and moved adop- 
tion of the amended constitution as circulated. Alice Bennett moved that action be 
postponed until the evening business meeting. The motion to postpone carried and 
the meeting was recessed for dinner. 

The meeting reconvened at 7:08 p.m. and detailed discussion of the Constitution 
began. Several motions failed. Recorded here are motions that passed and suggestions 
that seemed to have general assent: 

Remove sex-specific language. 

Article I, Sec. 3: "The Academy shall, . . . , act as an advisory body. . ." 

Spring Meeting of Executive Committee 


Article II, Sec. 1: "Nomination for membership as Emeritus or Honorary shall 
be submitted to the Executive Committee, . . ." 

Article II throughout: replace "be elected to" by "apply for" in appropriate places. 

Article III, Sec. 6: delete "and shall issue notices of all meetings." 

It being time for the evening program, it was moved that the meeting be recessed 
until the time of the General Meeting. 

Respectfully submitted, 
Richard L. Conklin, Secretary 


Indiana Academy of Science 
1985, Research Grant Applications Funded 

Principal Investigator/ 

1. R. L. Brooks 
Indiana University 

2. D. R. Conover 

Ball State University 

3. S. Cort wright 
Indiana University 

4. R. B. Fisher 

Ball State University 

5. J. D. Hengeveld 
Indiana University 

6. D. T. Krohne 
Wabash College 

7. J. A. Olsen 
Wabash College 

8. M. Patzkowsky 
Indiana University 

9. B. A. Read 

Ball State University 

10. W. J. Rowland 
Indiana University 

11. P. T. Sherwood 
Purdue University 

12. P. Sniegowski 
Indiana University 

13. C. H. Tomak 
Dept. of Highways 

14. D. J. Watt 

St. Mary's College 

Title Funded 

An Investigation of Plasma $ 1,000.00 

Progesterone Levels . . . 

A Locational Analysis of Burial 600.00 

Mounds . . . 

Mechanisms of Community Struc- 650.00 

ture . . .Pond Communities 

The Dynamics of Sexual Rearousal 500.00 

in Female Hamsters . . . 

Does the Starvation of Redwinged 500.00 

Blackbird Nestlings . . . 

Genetic Structure of Population of 500.00 

Peromyscus leucopus 

Superoxide Dismutase Isoenzyme 900.00 

Activity in Wounded Plant Tissue 
Astogeny of Water Flow Patterns 500.00 

in a Fossil . . . 

The Effects of Dietary Fats 950.00 

on Tissue Cholesterol . . . 

Processes of Mate Choice in Male 1,113.00 


Gap Phase Dynamics of a Temper- 500.00 

ate Deciduous Indiana Forest 
A Field Experiment in the Control 900.00 

of Vernal Migration . . . 

Archeological Research in the Coal 750.00 

Mining Area of Indiana 

Survey of Rare, Threatened and 750.00 

Endangered Species . . . 




April 26, 1985 


The evening program was an illustrated lecture by Mr. William Zimmerman, il- 
lustrator of The Birds of Indiana. The place was the meeting room of Abe Martin 
Lodge, Brown County State Park. 

At 9:15 p.m., following the lecture and question period, President Benjamin 
Moulton called the General Meeting to order. 

Minutes of the General Meeting of November 2, 1984, were approved. 

E. Campaigne, Membership Committee chair, moved the approval of the elec- 
tion of the persons most recently nominated for membership. The motion carried. 

Duvall Jones, Treasurer, presented a report on the period January 1 -April 24. 
He reported receipts of $6,653.45 and expenditures of $5,364.70, and pronounced the 
Academy in good financial condition. Receipts at the Fall meeting were $800 more 
than expenditures, thanks to the generosity of Butler University in providing facilities 
without charge. There are 685 paid memberships for 1985, 436 on file from 1984 not 
paid for 1985. Ninety members were dropped for non-payment of 1984 dues. Walter 
Cory moved that the Treasurer's report be accepted. The motion carried. 

Program co-chairs reminded the few section chairs who were present to urge 
members of their sections to present papers at the Fall meeting, to be sure that one 
of the presenters of a paper is a member of the Academy, and to enforce the September 
1 deadline for all abstracts. 

The meeting was adjourned at 9:35 p.m. 

Respectfully submitted, 
Richard L. Conklin, Secretary 



November 14, 1985 


The meeting was called to order by President Benjamin Moulton at 7:45 p.m. 
in the Georgian Room, Indiana Memorial Union, Indiana University, Bloomington. 
Approximately thirty members were present. 

The minutes of the Spring meeting of the Executive Committee were approved. 

The Secretary moved that the Executive Committee recommend to the general 
membership that the minutes of the 1984 General Meeting be approved. The motion 


Academy Foundation Committee (William A. Daily) 

On September 30, 1985, the Foundation Account had a market value of $46,407.00, 
an increase of $3,065.00 since 1984. Income of the John S. Wright Fund was $40,206.72, 
giving it a market value of $835,949.58. The market value of the Invested Income 
Account was $133,052.39, it earned $15,035.75 during the year. 

Upon motion by E. Campaigne, the report was accepted. 

Research Grants Committee (Benjamin Moulton for Uwe Hansen) 

In the Spring of 1985, 16 proposals requested $14,572.00, 14 were funded in the 

amount of $10,113.00. In the Fall 17 proposals totaled $15,655.00, of these, 16 were 

funded, totaling $10,765.00. Of the $22,500.00 allocated, then, $21,028.00 was awarded. 

For high school research grants, $1,300.00 was allocated, $2,138.00 requested, $1,239.00 

awarded. All ten projects proposed were funded. 

A list of the grants awarded is appended to these minutes. 


Representative to A A AS (Walter Cory) 

Cory attended the meeting in Los Angeles. The question of the title of Section 
X, with which this Academy is affiliated, has not been resolved. Cory recommends 
that two students and one adult from Indiana be sent to the annual meeting of the 
Junior Academy of Science. 

Representative to Natural Resources Commission (Damian Schmelz) 

Monthly meetings are held in Indianapolis. In addition to making routine deci- 
sions regarding drillings, wildlife, and state parks, the Commission held three field 
meetings. One was at Spring Mill State Park; another at Michigan City to inspect 
a landfill pollution site, beach erosion, and salmon migration; a third at Vincennes 
to tour historic properties and consider problems of some wetlands areas. An issue 
of increasing concern is the "mining" of major aquifers. 

Biology Survey and Preservation of Natural Areas Committees (John Bacone) 

The Literature Project of the BSC has prepared a bibliography/reference com- 
pilation of all past scientific publications in Indiana. It may be published soon. 

The Committee was a sponsor of the Northeast Indiana Natural Areas Conference 
at Tri-State University. A similar conference will be held at Indiana University North- 
west on May 1-3. Ron Hebert of the Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore invited Academy 
members to submit papers to symposia on natural succession, visitor management, 
and shoreline processes. 


20 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 95 (1986) 

The Preservation of Natural Areas Committee coodinates the work of profes- 
sional preservationists with scientific and lay communities of the state. Indiana has 
85 dedicated preserves totaling 10,902 acres; seven of these have been added since June, 
1984. Inventories are underway for high quality natural areas and for rare species. 
These things have good possibilities for research projects, and several are being con- 
ducted. The committee works closely with the Nature Conservancy and the Indiana 
Division of Nature Preserves. 

Centennial Committee (John Patton) 

The only Centennial event at this meeting will be the luncheon address by John 
D. Hague, President of the Corporation for Science and Technology. He will speak 
on "The Future of Science and Industry in Indiana." 

Editorial Board (Donald Winslow) 

Volume 94 of the Proceedings should go to press in about a month. It will be 
a large volume because of several Centennial features and a physiographic map of 

Volume 93, containing 544 text pages, was delivered from the Western Newspaper 
Publishing Co., Inc., in 825 case-bound copies, 525 paper-bound, and 32 author reprints. 
The total cost was $14,892.00, of which the state paid $8,900.00. 

The State Budget Agency has allocated $8,900.00 for both 1985-86 and 1986-87. 

Emeritus Membership Selection Committee (Robert H. Cooper) 

There have been no applications for Emeritus membership during 1985. Cooper 
recommends that information concerning availability of this status be put in the Newslet- 
ter regularly. 

Fellows Committee (Richard Conklin for Wilton Melhorn) 

The names of nine persons recommended for the rank of Fellow of the Academy 
were presented. Upon motion by Conklin, the nominees are to be recommended to 
the membership at the General Meeting. 

High School Fellowships (Walter Cory) 

Jude Bingham and Sherry Gammer, both of Terre Haute, worked with Dr. John 
O. Whitaker of Indiana State University during the summer. Both are presenting papers 
in the Zoology Section. 

Shari James of Scottsburg used the remainder of the Research Fellow funds to 
help with a trip to Japan which she will report to the Academy later. 

Science Talent Search (Walter Cory) 

Twenty-five students were interviewed and invited to Indianapolis as the guests 
of Tri Kappa who paid their expenses and awarded two $1,000.00 scholarships. Thir- 
teen were declared winners. 

Invitations Committee (Donald Cook) 

Indiana Central University will serve as host to the 1986 meetings. Gerald Zim- 
merman, one of the co-chairs is here to observe. John Batey is the other co-chair. 

Dr. William Hickey of St. Mary's College has invited the Academy to meet there 
in 1988. A motion to accept that invitation carried. 

Zimmerman announced that the General Meeting will be held November 13, 14, 
and 15. Other campus events preclude any earlier date. The Spring meeting will be 
April 25 and 26 at Spring Mill State Park. He circulated tentative schedules for both 

Junior Academy (Dean Christakis) 

The second Indiana Science Olympiad will be on March 22 at Indiana University 
Northwest. About 150 students are expected at the Junior Academy meeting tomor- 

Fall Meeting of Executive Committee 21 

row. In the Senior division (grades 10-12) about 13 papers will be presented in life 
sciences, 4 in physical. In the Junior division (grades 6-9) there will be 4 in life sciences, 
2 in physical. 

Library Committee (Holly Oster) 

During 1985, 255 volumes were added to the collection of the John Shepard Wright 
Memorial Library, bringing the total to 11,015. The library processed 249 interlibrary 
loan requests. The library is part of the OCLC Interlibrary loan system. 

In June exchange distribution of Volume 93 of the Proceedings was completed. 
These volumes were sent to 141 domestic and 323 foreign exchange agencies. 

Membership Committee (E. Campaigne) 

In an extensive mail campaign 1,115 letters were sent to scientists in Indiana who 
were not members, at a cost of $403.30 (36. lc each). As of October 1 there were 
111 new members. (Duvall Jones reported 161 new members to date.) Free copies of 
Academy publications were offered to new members. About 30 have been requested. 
To activate the dormant categories of Corporate and Institutional member , ap- 
propriate officers of some thirty corporations were contacted. Corporate members to 
date are: 

Eli Lilly and Co., Indianapolis 
Ball Corporation, Muncie 

International Mineral and Chemical Co., Terre Haute 
Ford Motor Company, Indianapolis 
Reilly Tar and Chemical Co., Indianapolis 
Campaigne moved that election of all new members proposed be recommended 
to the membership at the General Meeting. The motion carried. 

Nominating Committee (William Eberly) 

A slate of candidates was presented. Upon motion by Eberly the slate was recom- 
mended for presentation to the members at the General Meeting. 

Resolutions Committee (William Davies) 

Davies moved that four resolutions be submitted to the membership for adoption: 

1. Express thanks to Indiana University for serving as host to this meeting. 

2. Express thanks to the Centennial Committee upon successful completion of 
their efforts. 

3. Express support to the Indiana State Museum, and especially its effort to 
establish a new facility at White River State Park. 

4. Express concern about the teaching of science in the public schools. 
Resolutions 1 and 2 passed without debate. Two people from the state museum 

staff (Ronald Richards and Virginia Hamm) discussed Resolution 3 and others spoke 
in support of it. It passed without dissent. Resolution 4 stimulated a spirited debate 
and some unsuccessful efforts to amend it. It finally carried with the understanding 
that the wording would be changed to reflect the concerns of the Council. 

Final forms of the resolutions appear in the minutes of the General Meeting. 

Science and Society Committee (Alice S. Bennett) 

The committee organized the symposium on the Scientific Study of Aging scheduled 
for November 16. Some members are meeting with the Corporation for Science and 

Youth Activities (Susan Johnson) 

A grant of $1,000.00 was received from the AAAS to support high school stu- 
dent research projects. 

The Academy will honor eight outstanding high school teachers at the General 


Indiana Academy of Science 

Vol. 95 (1986) 

Dean Christakis of Marquette High School, Michigan City, has replaced Cheryl 
Mason as Director of the Junior Academy. 


Alice Bennett moved approval of the Constitution and By-Laws as distributed 
to the membership and modified at the meeting of the Council. The motion carried. 

Duvall Jones moved that the dues for 1986 be set at $15.00 for Members, $10.00 
for Associate Members. After some debate, the motion carried. 

Walter Cory announced that the first Indiana Science and Engineering Fair will 
be held in Indianapolis on April 18 and 19, 1986. Seventy-two students, in grades 
7-12, will participate. 

Treasurer Duvall Jones reported the Academy's finances as of November 12, 1985. 

Current Assets 

Checking accounts $10,726.78 

Savings accounts 22,796.25 

These are assigned to 
Academy accounts 
Administered accounts 



The financial report was adopted. 

The number of members as of November 12 was 1,040. 
The meeting adjourned at 10:10 p.m. 

Respectfully submitted, 
Richard L. Conklin, Secretary 


Indiana Academy of Science 
1985, High School Research Grants Funded 








Infl. of Vit. E . . . 

$ 65.00 



East Noble 

chem . . . 





Immunolog. Res. II 




John Adams 

Effects of Aspar- 




Gage Institute 

Effects of Stress 




John Adams 

Tetracycline . . . 




East Noble 

Cytospora Canker 









John Adams 

Thyroidism in mice 





Anti-cancer agents 


Fall Meeting of Executive Committee 


Indiana Academy of Science 
Fall, 1985, Research Grant Applications Funded 








Principal Investigator/ 




G. Adams 

Intraspecific Aggregation Among 

$ 380.00 

Indiana University 

Cellular Slime Molds 

M. Berg 

Selection of Chironomids as Food 


Notre Dame 

for the Mottled Sculpin 

W. Cory 

A Study of Computer Software in 


Indiana University 

Science Classes at the Secondary 

A. Gardner 

Development of a Biology Career 


Purdue University 

Information Course 

P. Jordan 

Field and Laboratory Geologic 


Purdue University 

Study of a Proposed Landfill . . . 

M. Kelly 

Effect of the H-Y Antigen in 


Indiana University 

Turtles with Temperature Depen- 
dent Sex Determination 

K. Kolberg 

A Fine-Structure Study of the 


Notre Dame 

Developmental Toxicity of 
Nicotine . . . 

R. Larter 

A Computational Study of Oscillat- 



ing Chemical Reactions 

P. Leavitt 

Effects of Herbivory on Aquatic 


Notre Dame 

Primary Production . . . 

D. Lipke 

Effects and Metabolism of 


Notre Dame 

Bradykinin in Rainbow Trout 

M. Mclnerney 

The Air Resistance of Golf Balls 


Rose Hulman 

at Low Speeds 

M. Morris 

Sexual Selection in the Gray 


Indiana University 


P. Krishna 

Analysis of in Vivo Synthesis and 


Indiana State Univ. 

Processing of Killer Toxin . . . 

M. Ranjan 

The Effects of pH on Phospholi- 


Notre Dame 

pase Activity in Goldfish Follicles 

D. Sever 

Natural Growth and Mortality of 


Notre Dame 

the Tiger Salamander . . . 

A. Tuncay 

A Study of Homoaromaticity in 


Indiana University 






November 14, 1985 


The Council of the Indiana Academy of Science met in the Dogwood Room of 
the Indiana Memorial Union, Bloomington, on Thursday, November 14, 1985. 

The meeting was called to order by President Benjamin Moulton at 3:00 p.m. 
Council members present were Alice Bennett, E.E. Campaigne, Richard Conklin, Duvall 
Jones, Benjamin Moulton, and Donald Winslow. Others attending were William Eberly, 
Frank Guthrie, Susan Johnson, Wilton Melhorn, Holly Oster, and Victor 

The proposed new Constitution and By-Laws were examined for final changes 
before presentation to the Executive Committee. Holly Oster pointed out that the 
reference to state government in the old Constitution was important for legal reasons, 
and Article I was restored to essentially its original wording. William Eberly com- 
mented that the Bonding Committee has few duties and might not be necessary; after 
some discussion it was retained. Minor corrections in wording and syntax were incor- 
porated. If the Constitution and By-Laws are approved at the General Meeting, they 
will be distributed to the membership with the December Newsletter. 

E. Campaigne moved that a committee be appointed to investigate the effectiveness 
of the Speakers' Bureau and consider whether a Visiting Scientist program might be 
a better way to get information to the schools and the public. 

Further discussion of the Academy's role in disseminating science information 
centered around the need for an enlarged Science and Society Committee and the need 
to redefine the role of the Public Relations Committee. No recommendations were made. 

Duvall Jones described the state educational loan program and wondered if the 
Academy should promote a similar program specifically directed at encouraging high 
school students to become science teachers. It was suggested that this might be a pro- 
ject for one or more of the new corporate sponsors, and that the Youth Activities 
Committee might study the matter. 

E. Campaigne suggested that abstracts of all papers to be presented at a meeting 
of the Academy should be printed and made available at or before the meeting. The 
September 1 deadline would need to be rigorously adhered to. A special form for 
abstracts would be needed, probably circulated via the Newsletter. 

A brief discussion of the question of copyright of papers published in the Pro- 
ceedings was terminated with the agreement that more information was needed. 

The meeting was adjourned at 5:30 p.m. 

Respectfully submitted, 
Richard L. Conklin, Secretary 



November 15, 1985 


The meeting was called to order by President Benjamin Moulton at 1:15 p.m. 
in Whittenberger Auditorium, Indiana Memorial Union, Indiana University, 

Greetings on behalf of the University were extended by Dr. W. George Pinnell, 
Executive Vice President of Indiana University and President of the Indiana Univers- 
ity Foundation. 

President Moulton welcomed Dr. Paul M. Daniel, President of the Ohio Academy 
of Science, who was visiting as a Centennial guest. 

The Secretary presented a summary of the meeting of the Executive Committee. 
There was no objection to the recommended approval of the minutes of the 1984 General 

E. Campaigne, Membership chair, moved that all qualified applicants for member- 
ship during 1985 be elected. The motion carried. 

The Secretary, acting on behalf of Fellows Committee chair Wilton Melhorn, 
moved that the following persons be elected to the rank of Fellow of the Academy: 
James L. Ahlrichs, Agronomy, Purdue University-Lafayette 
Robert M. Brooker, Chemistry, Indiana Central University 
Donald D. Carr, Geology, Indiana Geological Survey 
Ronald M. Cosby, Physics, Ball State University 
Susan M. Johnson, Biology, Ball State University 
Ralph D. Kirkpatrick, Biology, Ball State University 
Harold E. McReynolds, Ecology, U.S. Forest Service, Eastern Region 
Elmer Nussbaum, Physics, Taylor University 
Mary Lee Richeson, Biology, IU-PU Ft. Wayne 
They were elected, and those who were present received certificates of recognition. 
On behalf of the Nominating Committee, William Eberly, chair, presented the 
following nominations to fill those elected positions that expire in 1985: 
President-Elect, 2 year term (President, 1987) 

Stanley Burden, Taylor University 
Secretary, 1986-88 

Richard L. Conklin, Hanover College 
Academy Foundation, 1986-87 

William A. Daily, Indianapolis 
Bonding Committee, 1986 

Mary Lee Richeson, Indiana-Purdue Ft. Wayne 
Research Grants Committee, 1986-1990 
Wilson B. Lutz, Manchester College 
There being no further nominations, the Secretary was instructed to cast a 
unanimous ballot for the above slate of officers. 

Faye Kenoyer Daily, Necrologist, presented the following names of Academy 
members whose deaths had been noted since the 1984 meeting: 
Thomas Barton Nina E. Gray 

Barry P. Bone Flora Naderson Haas 

Arthur C. Brookley William G. Kessel 

William B. Bunger George F. Martin 



Indiana Academy of Science 

Vol. 95 (1986) 

John J. Doyle Henry R. Mathias 

John Favinger Thomas Ostdick 

Ernest H. Gerkin 
A moment of silence was observed in their honor. 

William Davies, chair of the Resolutions Committee, presented the following resolu- 
tions, all of which were adopted. 




The Indiana Academy of Science is deeply grateful to In- 
diana University for the invitation to hold the 101st annual 
meeting on the Bloomington campus; and 
The administration, faculty, staff and students alike have 
cooperated admirably in providing us their facilities and sup- 
port for this 101st annual meeting of the Indiana Academy 
of Science; be it 

That the Academy members here assembled express their 
sincere appreciation to Dr. John W. Ryan, President of the 
University, and Dr. Kenneth R.R. Gros Louis, Vice-President 
of the Bloomington campus, for all the courtesies that have 
been extended to the Academy during this meeting. We are 
especially grateful to Drs. Ernest Campaigne, Walter Cory, 
and Donald Winslow, Co-Chairmen of the Program Com- 
mittee, and to the members of their committee for the ar- 
rangements of the entire program and for the comfort and 
conveniences provided our members. We also express our 
sincere thanks to all members who organized and participated 
in the symposium "The Scientific Study of Aging." 

* * * * * 



The combined efforts of the Centennial Committee and the 
Program Committees of 1984 and 1985 brought outstanding 
scientists to speak to the Academy, organized memorable field 
trips, obtained favorable publicity for science and for the 
Academy, and arranged for other events and amenities ap- 
propriate to the Centennial celebration of the Academy, 
That the Indiana Academy of Science expresses its apprecia- 
tion to Dr. John Patton, Dr. Philip St. John, Dr. Donald 
Winslow, Dr. E. Campaigne and to the other committee 
members who gave freely of their time and effort to make 
the observance of the Academy Centennial so successful. 




Grade inflation, social promotion, and other factors have 
seriously eroded meaningful standards for academic perfor- 
mance of students in the public schools of Indiana, and 
Academic preparation of Indiana's high school graduates has 
frequently been judged inadequate by various groups, in- 
cluding: high school graduates who have difficulty in reaching 
their desired professional goals; industrialists who find their 
employees lacking in basic learning skills; and college pro- 
fessors who find that they have to provide remedial instruc- 
tion for their students, and 
The present patchwork of state-required tests produces results 

Fall Meeting 



which have little use in studies of academic problems in Ind- 
iana's public schools, 

That the Indiana Academy of Science supports and encourages 
H. Dean Evans, State Superintendent of Public Instruction, 
in his efforts to develop minimal state standards for course 
content and for student achievement in fundamental science 
and mathematics courses in the secondary schools, as well 
as for science and math content and achievement for grade 
levels in the elementary schools, of Indiana. 



WHEREAS: The Indiana Academy of Science is directed, constitution- 

ally, to promote scientific research and the diffusion of scien- 
tific information in a scholarly manner, and has interest in 
improving science education in the public schools, and in in- 
forming the general public of the level of scientific knowledge, 

The Indiana State Museum and Historic Sites in following 
its mandate to collect, preserve and interpret Indiana natural 
and cultural history, maintains academic curatorial positions 
and provides educational services to the public school system 
and disseminates knowledge to the general public through 
exhibition and public programming, and 
The Indiana State Museum is seeking to increase and enhance 
its program of artifact/specimen collection, research capabil- 
ity, educational and public programming by inclusion in a 
museum complex in White River State Park, Indianapolis, 
this expansion presently limited by insufficient collection, 
laboratory and office space, and structural and environmen- 
tal limitations of the present facility, and 
The Indiana Academy of Science has in the past supported 
action for an improved facility for the Indiana State Museum, 
be it 

That the Indiana Academy of Science supports efforts of the 
Indiana State Museum to establish a new facility in the White 
River State Park, Indianapolis. 

That the Indiana Academy of Science and the Indiana State 
Museum have inclusive goals in science and in education and 
should promote a close working relationship. 

Youth Activities chair Susan Johnson introduced the eight high school teachers 
who were the finalists and semi-finalists in the 1985 Indiana competition of the Presiden- 
tial Search for Excellence in Science and Mathematics teaching: 
Finalists: Carole R. Goshorn (National Winner) 

Columbus East High School 
Columbus, IN 47201 

Gordon Mendenhall 
Lawrence Central High School 
Indianapolis, IN 46226 

Joseph D. Ruhl 
Jefferson High School 
Lafayette, IN 47905 




28 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 95 (1986) 

Semi-finalists: Diane Wilson Burnett 

Warren Central High School 
Indianapolis, IN 46229 

Gladysmae Good 
Arlington High School 
Indianapolis, IN 46226 

George Hultgren 
Rogers High School 
Michigan City, IN 46360 

Allen T. King 

Seventh Grade Building 

New Castle, IN 47362 

Douglas L. Waldman 
Homestead High School 
Fort Wayne, IN 46804 
Each was presented a book, and Carole Goshorn spoke briefly. 
Alice Bennett moved acceptance of the new Constitution and By-Laws as distributed 
to the membership and approved by the Executive Committee, directing the President 
to make any necessary editorial and typographic changes. The motion carried with 
no dissenting votes. 

The business having been concluded, the President presented Speaker of the Year 
Dr. Jane Butler Kahle, Professor of Biological Sciences and Education, and Associate 
Dean of the Graduate School, Purdue University, West Lafayette, who spoke to the 
title, "Scientific Literacy: The Missing Link." 

Respectfully submitted, 
Richard L. Conklin, Secretary 


December 14, 1985 


The meeting was called to order by President E. Campaigne at 9:30 a.m. in Room 
159A of the Indiana State Library, Indianapolis. 

Members present and their area of interest were: E. Campaigne (President), Stanley 
Burden (President-elect), Richard Conklin (Secretary), Duvall Jones (Treasurer), Alfred 
Schmidt (Public Relations), Benjamin Moulton (Publications, Past President), Donald 
Winslow (Editor), Gerald Zimmerman (Program), Holly Oster (Library), Susan Johnson 
(Youth Activities), William Daily (Academy Foundation), Alice Bennett (Science and 
Society), Uwe Hansen (Research Grants); by invitation, Walter Cory (Research 
Fellowships), John Bacone (Biology Survey). 

Minutes of the December 1, 1984, Budget Committee meeting were reviewed and 

Winslow and Campaigne circulated a report of the 1985 Fall meeting. It showed 
that Academy attendance was 479, Junior Academy 201, total income was $3,830.00, 
expenses, $4,400.00. The deficit can be met from reserves. 

Zimmerman requested that he be informed of the number of members of each 
section, to help in assigning rooms at Indiana Central. 

Hansen moved that the registration fee for the 1986 Fall meeting be $10. Bennett 
moved to amend this fee to $7 for non-members, $5 for members. After considerable 
discussion the amendment carried. 

Schmidt suggested that a directory be published, listing the names and addresses 
of members alphabetically, by zip code, and by section. 

Schmidt also suggested that it be proposed to Council that certificates of ap- 
preciation be awarded to outstanding teachers. 

Joyce M. Martello of BMA Associates, Inc., Indianapolis, reviewed a proposal 
submitted by her firm to establish a central office, perform the billing and member- 
ship roles of the Secretary and Treasurer, and assist in conference planning. After 
her presentation, Moulton moved that the President appoint a committee to investigate 
the question of establishing an Executive Secretary's office or some similar arrange- 
ment. The motion carried. 

Johnson noted that the Science Olympiad has been included in her budget re- 
quest. There was some discussion of high school research grants. It was suggested 
that the Youth Activities Committee send a letter to high schools reminding them of 
the program. Applications for grants will continue to go to the Research Grants 

Bennett explained that her budget request included funds for reactivating the 
Speakers Bureau, and for symposium brochures. A topic is needed for the 1986 sym- 
posium. She suggested that an award might be established to reward leadership in 
research by teachers in colleges. 

Hansen reported little change in request for research grants. The $1,500.00 limit 
per grant still seems appropriate. About $600.00 is needed for mailing brochures. The 
President thanked Dr. Hansen for his service as Research Grants chair. 

Cory reported that the research fellowships have made more teachers aware of 
the importance and stimulation of research. However, the stipend is so small that few 
teachers can afford to take advantage of it. Perhaps the Academy should seek outside 
help for support of this program. 


30 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 95 (1986) 

Burden asked for $1,500.00 additional allocation to membership for the publica- 
tion of a new brochure. 

Jones suggested that new members should be given some tangible evidence of 
membership. Moulton proposed a card attached to the annual dues statement. 

Bacone presented a request for funds for a survey of endangered invertebrates 
and lower vascular plants in Indiana. The Biology Survey Committee should present 
a report for publication in the Proceedings. 

Jones moved the following shifts in funds from line items in the 1985 budget: 
$300 from Reprints to Secretary, for mailing proposed Constitution. 
$180 from Finance Committee to President, General Office ($80) and Membership 

Awards from high school research papers, and mailing of books to new members 
to be paid from miscellaneous. 
The motion carried. 

Jones moved adoption of the following budget for 1986: 


Dues $13,800.00 

Reprints, Vol. 93 2,750.00 

Interest 2,100.00 

Reserve funds 2,600.00 



Management & General expenses 


General Office 

$ 600.00 

President's Contingency Fund 








Membership Committee 


Officer Travel 


CPA Fees 


Program Services 





Public Relations 


Programs for meetings 


Junior Academy 


Youth Activities Committee 


Speaker of the Year 


Section Chairs 


AAAS Representative 


Biological Survey Committee 




Transfers to Administered Accounts 

Library binding 


Publications: Mailing 


Science & Society Committee 



Budget Committee Meeting 31 

Hansen moved the following allocation of money from the trust funds: 

Fiduciary fees 

$ 4,000.00 

Research grants for Senior Academy 



Research fellowships 



Proceedings - Volume 94 


Climate of Indiana 


Butterflies of Indiana 


Endangered Species 


Symposium booklet (Science 




Brochure on research grants/postage 


Awards for research 


The motion carried. 

Campaigne distributed copies of a proposal to amend Article VI, Section 3 of 
the By-Laws, and related Sections. No action was called for. 
The meeting adjourned at 12:15 p.m. 

Respectfully submitted, 
Richard L. Conklin, Secretary 

Indiana Academy of Science 

Financial Report 

1 January — 31 December 1985 


Income and 




and Transfers 



$ 9,250.00 

Reprints: Vol. 93 



Vo. 94 





Reserve funds for Centennial expenses 


Transfer from Administered Accounts 


Management & General expenses 


General Office 

$ 500.48 

President's Contingency Fund 








Membership Committee 


Finance Committee 


Officer Travel 


CPA Fees 


Program Services 





Public Relations 


Programs for meetings 


Junior Academy 


Youth Activities Committee 


Speaker of the Year 


Section Chairs 


AAAS Representative 


Biological Survey Committee 


Centennial Committee 




Transfers to Administered Accounts 

Library binding 


Publications: Mailing 


Science & Society Committee 




$15,789.45 $16,700.00 $13,085.98 

















January 1 

1985 Transfers 

1985 Transfers 

31 December 


& Income* 

& Expenditures 


J.S. Wright Library Fund 

$ 134.28 

$ 0.00 

$ 0.00 

$ 134.28 

Lilly Library Fund 





Library Binding 





Meeting Fees & Expenses 






Printing: Proceedings: 


4,281. 600",) 






Mailing: Proceedings 


700.00(T I ) 






Sale of Publications 





Research Fellowships 


3,000.00(T ; ) 




Annual Financial Report 


Research Grants & Awards 





Science & Society 





Science Talent Search 



$ 39.470.64 




$ 36,356.75 

I 18,375.66 

Income from external sources 
Transfer from Academy Accounts. 

T 2 : Transfer from Academy Trust Funds. 
T,: Transfer to Academy Accounts 

The State of Indiana paid an additional $8,900.00 toward printing of the Proceedings. 



Balance: 1 January 1985 
1985 Income 
1985 Expenditures 
Balance: 31 December 1985 









IV. BANK BALANCES (as of 31 December 1985) 

Super NOW Account 

Northwest National Bank, Rensselaer, IN Acct# 21-0497-4 

Hi-Fi Checking Account 
Northwest National Bank, Rensselaer, IN; Acct# 70-0325-4 

Savings Accounts 

Farmers National Bank, Remington, IN; CD #2408862 

State Bank of Rensselaer, IN-CD #100211766 
Purdue National Bank, Lafayette, IN CD #66594185 
Indiana Federal S&L, Rensselaer, IN CD #10-0140111 





Assets (I January 1985) 


Tax Value of Investments 

Tax Value of Account 

Income and Transfers 



Income from Sales 

Transfer from Wright Fund 

Expenditures and Transfers 

Fiduciary Fees 

Transfer to Invested Income 

Distributions to Programs 

Assets (31 December 1985) 

Tax Value of Investments 
Short Term Investments 

Tax Value of Account 

Market Value of Principal 

•Negative balances due to computer error; corrected 

Research Acct. 

Wright Fund 

Invested Income 




$ 192.45 








$ 36.921.13 



































$ 39.700.19 

$ 369.570.37 

$ 133.939.45 

$ 47,266.91 


$ 120,024.73 

on 2 January. 


Indiana Academy of Science 

Vol. 95 (1986) 


Membership as of 31 January 1986. The Treasurer's records show that the Academy has 1146 paid memberships 
for 1985: 46 sustaining, 15 sustaining family, 563 senior, 31 senior family, 245 regular, 11 regular family, 96 stu- 
dent, 98 emeritus, 4 honorary, 5 life, 26 club, 5 corporate, and 1 institutional. Also there were: 
13 members deceased (included in totals above) 
115 members on file from 1984, but not paid for 1985 
156 new members for 1985 (inlcuded in totals above). The Centennial Membership Campaign brought in 

53 of these new members. 
12 previous members reinstated in 1985 (included in totals above) 
1 person resigned 
88 persons were dropped for nonpayment of 1984 dues. 

Dues structure for 1985: 


$ 2.00 for student memberships 

5.00 for memberships and club memberships 

10.00 for senior memberships 

25.00 for sustaining memberships 

2.00 additional for family memberships 

300.00 for life memberships 

150.00-500.00 corporate memberships 

50.00-100.00 institutional memberships 

All authors of papers in Volume 93 of the Proceedings have paid for the reprints which 
they ordered. Cost of the reprints to the Academy was SI, 412. 80. Authors paid the 
Academy $1,418.45 for reprints. 

Publications: Sales of reprints, monographs and Proceedings in 1985 totaled $2,752.20. 

Research Grants: Funds totaling $21,087.00 have been awarded as shown in the report of the Research 

Grants Committee. 

Grants Received: The State of Indiana contributed $8,900.00 toward publication of the Academy Pro- 

ceedings. Kappa Kappa Kappa Sorority made $2,500 available for awards and expenses 
for the Science Talent Search for Indiana high school students. 

The American Association for the Advancement of Science granted $1,200 to be used 
by high school students for research. 

Public Service Indiana provided funds for a teacher's workshop in conjunction with 
the Science Talent Search of 1986. 

The John S. Wright Fund, one of the Academy's trust accounts, supports most of the 
Academy's research grant programs, as well as research-related publications such as 
the Proceedings and monographs. 


The following budget was approved by the Budget Committee in the meeting of 14 December 1985. 

Anticipated Income 
Academy Accounts 



Reprint Charges to Authors: Vol. 94 & 95 

Reserve funds 
Administered Accounts 

Meeting Fees 




Budgeted Expenditures 
Academy Accounts 

Management & General expenses 
General offices 
President's Contingency Fund 

$ 600.00 

Annual Financial Report 




Membership Committee 

Officer Travel 

CPA Fees 



Program Services 



Public Relations 

Programs for meetings 

Junior Academy 

Youth Activities Committee 

Speaker of the Year 

Section Chairs 

AAAS Representative 

Biological Survey Committee 

Science & Society Committee 


Transfers to Administered Accounts 
Library binding 
Publications: Mailing 















Administered Account 
Meeting Expenses 



Trust Funds 

Anticipated Income and Expendable Funds 
IAS Foundation (00430-00-0) 
J.S. Wright Fund (00430-01-9) 
Invested Income Account (00430-02-8) 

Approved Expenditures 
Fiduciary Fees 

Research Grants for Senior Academy Members 
Research Fellowships for Secondary School Teachers 

Proceedings - Volume 93 

Climate of Indiana 

Butterflies of Indiana 

Endangered Species 

Symposium booklet (Science & Society) 

Brochure on research grants/postage 

Awards for outstanding research papers 


$ 2,500.00 



$ 170.500.00 

$ 4,000.00 










$ 78,100.00 

Respectfully submitted, 

Duvall A. Jones, Treasurer 

We, the undersigned, have audited the Treasurer's records for the Indiana Academy of Science for the 
year 1985 and have found them to be accurate and in order. 

Andrew G. Mehall 

John Ricketts 




Spring Meeting 

The Spring Meeting of the Indiana Junior Academy of Science was held on April 
27th, 1985 at Center Grove High School in Greenwood. A liaison was formed with 
the National Science Olympiad in order to provide a meeting for the Indiana Olym- 
piad members. Both Academy and Olympiad members were able to compete in the 
following events: Name That Organism, Rocks to Riches, Periodic Table Quiz, Facts 
in Five, Metric Estimation, Science Bowl, Pentathalon, Fermi Questions, and Password. 

During the business meeting of the Junior Academy, Jeff Terry was elected vice- 
president and Dorothy Balac, secretary; both are from Hammond Gavit High School. 
Since Steve Rogers was president-elect (before the constitution change) he assumed 
the duties of president. 

Eight schools were present. Division I winners were Gavit Middle School (1st 
place) and Charlestown Jr. High School (2nd place). Division II winners were Seymour 
H.S. and Hammond Gavit H.S. (tied for 1st place) with Bedford North Lawrence 
placing third. 

Wilma Griffin and Carolyn Hayes, along with their Science Club at Center Grove 
did an excellent job of hosting the meeting. 

Cheryl Mason 
Director, IJAS 

Fall Meeting 

Schools and Clubs Participating in the 53rd Annual Meeting of the Indiana Junior 
Academy of Science Competition, Nov. 15, 1985, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN: 
Michigan City Marquette, "Greek Mafia," 2 clubs; Dean Christakis, teacher 
Hammond Gavit, 2 clubs; Michael Kobe and Laurel Krol, teachers 
Fort Wayne Canterbury, 2 clubs; Megan Caldwell, Kathie Sessions, and Jill 
Burnett, teachers 

Franklin Central, 1 sr. club; Barb Fengya, teacher 

Kendallville East Noble, "Bi-Phy-Chem," 1 sr. club; Virginia Rhodes, teacher 
Paoli, "Science Research Team," 1 sr. club; Tom Anderson, teacher 
Center Grove, "Science Club," 1 club; Wilma Griffin, teacher 
Muncie Northside, 2 clubs; Susan McConnell, teacher 
Munster, 1 club; Donald Ullman, teacher 

W. Lafayette Harrison, 1 club; Marie Martinek and Mark Whitman, teachers 
Bedford North Lawrence, 1 club; Lewis Holt, teacher 
Evansville North, 1 club; Helen Fleck and Gerald Kirkman, teachers 
Bloomington North, 1 student: John Warren, and Mr. Warren, father 
Batchelor Middle, 1 teacher: Judy Douglas 
Borden, 1 club; Thomas Lockmund, teacher 

Hammond Gavit Middle, 1 jr. club; Bill Fariss and Miss Hiers, teachers 

Edgewood Jr. HS, 1 club; Barbara Engle and Jo Gilbertson, teachers 

(2 clubs — one jr. grades 7-9 club and one sr. grades 10-12 club; each club may 

enter two Polemic teams, two oral paper presenters, one poster presenter, two final 

paper writers, and one outstanding junior scientist [beginning in 1986, only students 

of grade 12 may be nominated for outstanding jr. scientist]; in the junior division, 


Junior Academy Report 37 

there is no competition for outstanding scientist and paper writers; Polemics teams 
can have up to four entrants each; no limit was placed on the number of student 
observers per club) 

We congratulate and thank all who helped to make the meeting so successful 
this year: Susan Johnson, Don Winslow and Duvall Jones of the Youth Activities 
Committee; the IJAS Council: Mrs. Rhodes, Mr. Kobe, Mr. Fariss, Mrs. Mason, and 
Mr. Anderson; the teacher-sponsors of each club; the student presenters, Polemics 
participants, student observers; the judges; also, Al Ruesink of the Dept. of Biology, 
Indiana University; Ed Moss of the IU News Bureau; and the IJAS Officers. 

A total of 201 students attended the meeting. 

Dean G. Christakis, Director 

Oral Paper Presenters — Sr. Div. Life Sciences 

1st Lance Payton, Paoli, "Mapping Genetic Recombinations of Genome 

Transfer During Interrupted Conjugation of E. coli: Phase III" 
2nd Ann Thorvik, Marquette, "The Effects of Estrogen and Testosterone as 

Anti-Cancer Agents Using Bacterial Carcinogenic Testing" 
2nd Douglas Jansen, East Noble, "Toxicity Testing of Environmental Pollutants 

Using a New Tadpole Indicator System" 
3rd Todd A. Scherer, Franklin Central, "Subcloning of a Nuclear Supressor 

Gene of Mitochondrial Mutation M990 Involved in the Production of ATP" 
3rd Valerie Lamos, Canterbury, "Survival of the Steadiest: An Analysis of 

the Effect of Tension on Student Achievement in Regard to Student Testing 


Oral Paper Presenters — Sr. Div. Physical Sciences 

1st Mark Owens, Marquette, "Real Time Transmission Holographic In- 

terferometry Determination of Nanometric Movement in Transparent 
Medium as Applied to Water Channel Flow Visualization of Various Test 

2nd Christopher Moses, Canterbury, "Complex Evaluation Functions vs. Deep 

Ply Searches in Microcomputer Chess Programs" 

3rd Paul Chojenski, Hammond Gavit, "A Study of Skeletal Structures Associ- 

Honorable ated with Flow Patterns in Fistulipora, A Fossil Encrusting Bryozoan" 


Oral Paper Presenters — Jr. Div. Life Sciences 

1st Ashely Couch, Canterbury, "Mnemonic Devices as Learning Aids" 

2nd Laura Mannion, Gavit, "The Effects of Acid Rain on the Germination 

and Growth of Plants" 
2nd Mark Mackiewicz, Gavit, "The Effects of Antibiotics on Bacillus cereus" 

3rd Janette DeFelice, Gavit Middle, "The Effects of Hormonal Regulation by 

Gibberelin, B-Nine and a Combination of Gibberelin and B-Nine on the 

Pisum sativum" 

Oral Paper Presenters — Jr. Div. Physical Sciences 

1st Cynthia Larmore, Canterbury, "The Capacity of Sodium Citrate, 

Dehydroryalumenum, Sodium Carbonate, and Magnesium Hydroxide to 
Effectively Lower the Acidity of a Chemical Solution" 

2nd Daren Daigle, Marquette, "The Basis, Structure and Manipulation of a 

Computer Environment" 

38 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 95 (1986) 

Outstanding Jr. Scientist of Indiana 

Winner: Mark D. Owens, Marquette, Michigan City, Senior 

Runner-up: Gene DeFelice, Gavit, Hammond, Senior 

Both students are invited to the American Assoc, for the Advancement of Science/ Amer. 

Jr. Academy of Science Convention in Philadelphia. 

Poster-Presenters — Sr. Division 

1st Kim Cochard, East Noble, "The Effects of Methylxanthines on the CF, 

Strain White Mice" 
2nd Eric Bonfield, Marquette, "Immunological Research: A Study of Prescribed 

Medications Using a Double Diffusion Antigen-Antibody Precipitation" 
2nd Kim Noble, Center Grove, "Fetal Alcohol Syndrome in Mus musculous 

3rd Tarini Ramaprakash, Canterbury, "The Importance of Winter Kill: A 

Parametric Study of Racoon Distemper as a Function of Climate Severity 

in Northern Indiana" 

Poster Presenters — Jr. Div. 

1st Chrissy Owens, Marquette, "Enzymes; The Source of Fermentation" 

2nd Jennifer Mackel, Canterbury, "Minimizing Wind Resistance by Altering 

3rd Andrew Lewis, Gavit, "The Ruby Laser" 

Written Final Papers— Sr. Div. Life 

1st Todd Scherer, Franklin Central, "Subcloning of a Nuclear Suppressor Gene 

of Mitochondrial Mutation M990 Involved in the Production of ATP" 

2nd Ann Thorvik, Marquette, "The Effects of Estrogen and Testosterone as 

Anti-Cancer Agents Using Bacterial Carcinogenic Testing" 

3rd Holly Gaudreau, Paoli, "Examination of Possible Teratogenic Effects of 

Exogeneous Compounds on Developing Chick Embryos" 

4th Mae-Mae Shieh, Harrison, "The Characterization of an Acetyl-Co A Car- 

boxylase Related Protein" 

4th Alvina Ma, Muncie Northside, "The Relative Importance of Chemical and 

Behavioral Inhibition in Rana catesbieana" 

4th Dorothy Balac, Gavit, "Tomato Plant Tissue Culture" 

Written Final Papers — Sr. Div. Physical 

1st Mark Owens, Marquette, "Real Time Transmission Holographic In- 

terferometry: Determination of Nanometric Movement in Transport Medium 
as Applied to Water Channel Flow Visualization of Various Test Specimens" 

2nd Gene DeFelice, Gavit, "The Use of Beer-Lambert's Law for Simultaneous 

Quantitative Analysis of Heavy Metals with Computer Analysis" 

Polemics (Team of Students working together on a test of scientific knowledge) 
Senior Division Junior Division 

1st Marquette 3rd Center grove 1st Marquette 3rd Canterbury 

2nd Franklin Central 3rd Gavit 2nd Muncie Northside 3rd Gavit 

2nd Marquette 3rd Munster 2nd Marquette 3rd Gavit 

The Polemics Test for 3 or 4 member teams was based on a knowledge of Fermi 
estimations, metric estimations, rock and mineral identification, chemistry, physics, 
Newton's Laws, biological, general science, current science, and terminology. Many 
of the questions were patterned after the style used in the National Science Olympiad. 

Fay Kenoyer Daily, Butler University 

Thomas Frank Barton 
Long Branch, Illinois Bloomington, Indiana 

December 3, 1905 August 14, 1985 

Dr. Thomas Frank Barton was a well-known geographer and geologist who taught 
at the Department of Geography and Geology in Southern Illinois University for 12 
years and then at Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana from 1947 to 1976 when 
he retired. He taught for 40 years and conducted classes from first grade to graduate 
level. During a stay of 2 years at the College of Education in Bankok, Thailand, he 
helped establish a geography department and wrote ".An Economic Geography of 
Thailand" stemming from that experience. 

Dr. Barton was born in Long Branch, Illinois, December 3, 1905. His college 
education began in that state resulting in a Bachelor of Education degree from Illinois 
State University-Normal. He received a Ph.M. degree from the University of Wiscon- 
sin and a Ph.D. degree from the University of Nebraska. 

Dr. Barton was a very versatile individual gaining recognition for several endeavors. 
At Indiana University, his courses were popular and he was described by a colleague 
"as one of the most stimulating teachers on campus." He produced more than 120 
articles and 10 textbooks on geography. He discovered that children thought the sub- 
ject very uninteresting when he was teaching grade schools in Illinois. To change this 
situation, he wrote three books which were published by the Bobbs-Merrill Company 
of Indianapolis, Indiana. They are the first series ever published for teaching geography 
to primary grade children. He was awarded the elementary geographic education prize 
by the National Council of Geography Teachers (1955) for the best article on teaching 
techniques published in the preceding 2 years in the organization's "Journal of 
Geography". He was editor of the journal from 1950 to 1965. Dr. Barton also edited 
wall maps and globes for N.J. Nystrom Company. The Distinguished Service Award 
was given to him by the Geographic Society of Chicago. For his teaching, research 
and writing achievements, he received from Sigma Delta Chi the prestigious Rocking 
Chair Award for Distinguished Service to Indiana University. He received the Distin- 
guished Alumnus Award from Illinois State University in 1975 and a Distinguished 
Service Award from the National Council for Geography Education. 

Another facet of Dr. Barton's activities centered on the environment and the con- 
servation of natural resources. The impact of city dwellers moving to the countryside 
for non-farm purposes was considered by him as a serious threat because it spawns 
rural slums, disrupts the physical environment by polluting streams and using land 
for non-farm purposes, creates demands for services from cities without substantial 
recompense, results in the use of more gasoline and oil because of commuting to cities 
for employment. 

Dr. Barton joined the Indiana Academy of Science in 1947 and was honored 
as Fellow in 1953. He gave many papers before the society on land use, city develop- 
ment, geographic recreational areas studies, and population changes. In 1952, he was 


40 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 95 (1986) 

chairman of the Geology and Geography Division and member of the Executive Com- 
mittee. From 1958 to 1960 he served on the Fellows Committee. 

In addition to the Indiana Academy of Science, he was also a member of Phi 
Delta Kappa, American Society of Professional Geographers, National Council of 
Geography Teachers, American Geographical Society and the American Association 
for the Advancement of Science. He was president of the Indiana Academy of Social 
Sciences, Indiana State Planning Commission and the Bloomington Environmental 

Dr. Thomas Frank Barton had led a very full and productive life when he died 
August 14, 1985, in a Bloomington, Indiana hospital. 

Necrology 41 

Barry P. Bone 

Indianapolis, Indiana Berkeley, California 

January 7, 1961 April 12, 1984 

Mr. Barry P. Bone was only 23 years of age when he died in California on April 
12, 1984, but he had shown potential for great achievement in Biochemistry. His death 
creates a great loss to family, friends and society not only because of his youth and 
potential but because he was also an ideal husband and son. 

Born January 7, 1961, in Indianapolis, Indiana, Barry attended grade school at 
Churchill, Hoffman Estates, Illinois; high school at Newberry in Memphis, Tennessee, 
and Warren Central High School, Indianapolis, Indiana. He received a B.S. degree 
cum laude at Wabash College in May, 1983. It was there that Dr. Thomas Cole through 
teaching and research projects greatly influenced Barry's desire to pursue research science. 
Barry worked two summers in research at Oak Ridge Laboratories, Oak Ridge, Ten- 
nessee, and 1 year with Dr. Cole at Wabash College. He was majoring in biochemistry 
at the University of California at Berkeley, California, when he died. 

Mr. Bone joined the Indiana Academy of Science in 1981 as a student member 
while an undergraduate at Wabash College. As interests, he listed Bacteriology, Cell 
Biology and Chemistry. He was also past president of the Phi Gamma Delta fraternity. 

His philosophy? He strove to learn, enjoy and share with others. We are indebted 
to Barry's mother, Mrs. Johnette Bone, for this wonderful insight into our young 
member's life. 

42 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 95 (1986) 

Arthur C. Brookley, Jr. 

Harvey, Illinois Ventura, California 

December 17, 1927 November 10, 1984 

Born December 17, 1927, Mr. Arthur C. Brookley, Jr. spent his early years in 
Harvey, Illinois, and graduated from grade school and Thornton High School. His 
higher education was begun at Indiana University where he earned a B.S. degree in 
geology in 1952, and in 1955 he received an M.A. degree in geology. He attended 
the University of Southern California from 1955 to 1956 to study geology and the 
University of California at Los Angeles in 1966 to study oceanic engineering. 

Over 20 years were spent as a geologist and paleontologist. He was manager of 
the United States Petroleum Company; with the Indiana Geological Survey; worked 
overseas for International Petroleum in Bogota, Columbia; the Iranian Oil Company 
in Teheran, Iran; and Esso in Tripoli, Libya. In the United States of America, he 
was associated with the Standard Oil Company in California; the Shell Oil Company 
in Los Angeles, California; with the Union Oil Company and Continental Oil Com- 
pany in Ventura, California. 

Mr. Brookley joined the Indiana Academy of Science in 1954 while at Indiana 
University in Bloomington working with the Indiana Geological Survey. He was a senior 
member of the Indiana Academy of Science and also a member of the American Associa- 
tion of Petroleum Geologists and the Geological Society of America. He was the author 
of articles on geology published in professional journals. 

At home, Mr. Brookley was an honest and loving family man. In public, he had 
the opportunity in foreign lands to further the cause of peace and help make the world 
a better place. Arthur C. Brookley, Jr. was only 58 years old when he died November 
10, 1984, at Community Hospital in Ventura, California. 

Necrology 43 

William Boone Bunger 

Alta Vista, Kansas Terre Haute, Indiana 

February 14, 1917 November 5, 1984 

Chemist, William Boone Bunger, became Professor Emeritus from Indiana State 
University in 1982 when he retired because of illness. He was born in Alta Vista, Kan- 
sas, February 14, 1917, but spent his early years in Topeka. He received a B.S. degree 
from Washburn College in 1940, an M.S. degree from Kansas State College in 1941 
and a Ph.D. degree in organic chemistry also from Kansas State College in 1949. 

Dr. Bunger began his professional career in industry as a chemist for the Hill 
Packing Company in 1939 and the Hercules Powder Company from 1941 to 1945. 
He turned to academic work for Kansas State College from 1947 to 1949 as an instruc- 
tor, and moved from assistant to associate professor from 1949 to 1957. At Auburn 
University, he served as associate research professor from 1957 to 1965. In 1965, he 
came to Indiana to be Chairman of the Chemistry Department and to teach at Indiana 
State University until retirement. He still maintained an office at the university in order 
to continue work on the revision of a reference book. Dr. William Boone Bunger was 
a very effective administrator, good teacher and fair with faculty and students. His 
approach was dignified and reserved but flavored with a much appreciated sense of 

Dr. Bunger joined the Indiana Academy of Science in 1966, the year after com- 
ing to teach at Indiana State University. He was honored as Fellow in 1980. He served 
on the Publications Committee from 1974 to 1982 and the Bonding Committee in 1981. 
His research covered electrical conductivity of solutions, infra red spectrophotometry, 
chemical kinetics, waxes and organic solvents. His work resulted in publications in 
these areas, and he co-authored a solutions manual for a standard physical chemistry 
text as well as authoring several books on chemistry. 

In addition to activity in the Indiana Academy of Science, Dr. Bunger belonged 
to the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and was a member of 
the American Chemical Society serving as chapter president and alternate counselor. 
He was among Ouststanding Educators of America in 1971, elected to Sigma Xi and 
received the Blue Key Award. 

Following a long illness, Dr. Bunger died in Regional Hospital, Terre Haute, 
Indiana, November 5, 1984, at 67 years of age. 

44 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 95 (1986) 

John Joseph Doyle 

Indianapolis, Indiana Indianapolis Indiana 

March 13, 1898 March 22, 1985 

A native of Indianapolis, Indiana, born March 13, 1898, Monsignor John Joseph 
Doyle died in the same city March 22, 1985 at 87 years of age. He was historian and 
archivist for the Catholic Archdiocese of Indianapolis which position he had held since 

The Right Reverend John J. Doyle attended grade school at Saint Joseph in Ind- 
ianapolis and high school at Manual High School in Indianapolis and Saint Meinrad 
Seminary. He was ordained May 17, 1921 at Saint Meinrad. His choice to become 
a Roman Catholic priest was influenced by his paternal uncle who was a catholic priest, 
and he was impressed by the assistant priest at Saint Joseph School, Father Vincent 
Dwyer. He also received a Ph.D. degree in 1933 from the Catholic University of America 
after studying there for three years. 

Monsignor Doyle began his service as assistant pastor of Saint Augustine Parish 
at Jeffersonville in 1921 where he stayed until 1927. He was back in Indianapolis at 
the Little Flower Church, Saint Thesee, from 1927 to 1930. There was time out for 
the work on the Ph.D. degree after which he was instructor and chaplain of Saint 
Mary of the Woods College (1933-1937). Marian College was established at that time 
where he became the first chaplain and first male faculty member. He taught sociology 
and philosophy and was department chairman. He endeared himself to the students 
for his spiritual counsel. When the men's residence hall was built in the 1960s, it was 
named for him because of student initiative which pleased him very much. He retired 
from Marian College in 1967. In 1971, he received an honorary doctorate in humane 
letters from the college. There were various other duties and tributes. In 1934, Mon- 
signor Doyle became a member of the Archdiocesan School Board. In 1937, he was 
made synodal examiner. In 1939, he became officialist of the Archdiocesan Tribunal 
and in 1945, Papal Chamberlain. He often was interviewed for Indianapolis newspaper 
articles or for the "Criterion". A fine biographic portrait of him appeared in the "Ind- 
ianapolis Star Magazine" June 14, 1981, by Lloyd B. Walton called "Hoosier in 
Profile— Rev. Msgr. John J. Doyle". He celebrated the 60th anniversary of his or- 
dination to the priesthood at a Mass of Thanksgiving at Marian College May 17, 1981. 

This was Monsignor Doyle's professional life, but we had the privilege of his 
presence because of his avocational interest in science. He joined the Indiana Academy 
of Science as a Senior Member in 1936 listing his interests as Anthropology and History 
of Science. However, he also had a special interest in astronomy and became a recognized 
expert in the field. An interest in nature was nurtured in him as a youngster by his 
father. The Academy now has a Division of Physics and Astronomy established in 
1979. He published articles on philosophy and the Catholic Church in Indiana and 
was active in the Indiana Historical Society. 

Monsignor John J. Doyle died in St. Vincent's Hospital, Indianapolis, after a 
long and fruitful life. 

Necrology 45 

John J. Favinger 

Near Albion, Noble County, Indiana Franklin, Indiana 

January 7, 1918 June 6, 1985 

Mr. John J. Favinger was with the Division of Entomology, Indiana Department 
of Conservation for 43 years. He joined the department in 1942 as Assistant Entomologist 
and became Indiana State Entomologist in 1958. He succeeded Frank N. Wallace and 
was only the fifth state entomologist in Indiana in 60 years. 

John was from a rural home, born on a farm near Albion, Noble County, Ind- 
iana, January 7, 1918. He graduated from Purdue University in 1940 with a B.S. degree 
in agriculture and a special interest in entomology. He received a master's degree in 
public affairs from Indiana University in 1983. 

After graduation from Purdue in 1940, John Favinger worked for 2 years with 
the United States Department of Agriculture and was sales representative with an 
agricultural chemicals firm before joining the Indiana Department of Conservation. 
He served with the United States Marine Corps during World War II. 

As State Entomologist, Mr. Favinger was called upon often to solve problems 
for the public. His work was the subject of an article in the "Indianapolis News" 
July 14, 1978, by Howard Sinker who quoted John Favinger as follows: "There've 
never been two days alike. There's hardly a day when we don't get some kind of new 
question. We're not basically an extension agency, but we've kind of developed into 
a public service. We want to give people answers." An ecology conscious generation 
especially appreciated this service from John and James Clark, assistant then and now 
successor to State Entomologist. 

Mr. Favinger's regular duties with the Indiana Department of Conservation in- 
cluded nursery inspection, exotic pest surveys and cooperative control programs, such 
as on Japanese beetle, cereal leaf beetle, etc. 

In 1976, John was elected chairman of the National Plant Board. It is an organiza- 
tion of plant officials working for efficiency and inspection in plants. That same year 
Indiana Governor Otis Bowen appointed Mr. Favinger to an ad hoc advisory council 
to coordinate intensified mosquito control programs in the state. 

John joined the Indiana Academy of Science in 1942, the year he became Indiana 
Assistant Entomologist. He was honored as Fellow in 1971. He was an active member 
and was a contributor and moderator for a symposium on the history of the Indiana 
Department of Natural Resources and contributed several papers to paper sessions. 
He served on the Fellows Committee several years and was chairman of both the En- 
tomology Section (1958) and History of Science Section (1973). His reports to the society 
in addition to the symposium concerned the Indiana contribution to the National Plant 
Board, the cereal leaf beetle, gypsy moth and telephone cable penetration by Xylobiops 
basilaris Say. .He was also a member of the Entomological Society of America, American 
Registry of Professional Entomologists and Society of Indiana Pioneers, Honorary 
member of the Indiana Association of Nurserymen and Indianapolis Landscape 

It was a shock to Academy friends when John J. Favinger died at Johnson County 
Memorial Hospital, Franklin, Indiana, June 6, 1985. He had appeared to be in good 
health and good spirits when he presented a paper, "An Anecdotal History of En- 
tomology in Indiana", at our 100th annual meeting at Butler University, and had at- 
tended the spring Academy meeting at Brown County State Park. He will be missed. 

46 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 95 (1986) 

Ernest Hugh Gerkin 

Larwill, Indiana Columbus, Ohio 

March 31, 1898 September 27, 1984 

Dr. Ernest Hugh Gerkin was a Hoosier born in Larwill, Indiana, March 31, 1898. 
He had retired from teaching chemistry and physics at Indiana University at South 
Bend in 1968. He is survived by his wife and a son who is a research professor of 
chemistry at Ohio State University. Dr. Gerkin received his education in Indiana. He 
graduated from Columbia City High School in 1916 and received three degrees from 
Indiana University at Bloomington: an A.B. in 1922, M.A. in 1932 and Ph.D. in 1937 
in physical chemistry. 

It was at Griffith High School in Lake County that his teaching career began 
in 1925. He taught there until 1939 when he took a part-time assignment in the Exten- 
sion Division of Indiana University at South Bend. He also taught at the Indiana Univer- 
sity Calumet Center in East Chicago. He started full time teaching at Indiana Univer- 
sity South Bend as an instructor in 1941. He became an assistant professor in 1946 
and an associate professor of chemistry and physics in 1953. He was lauded as an 
excellent teacher by students and associates according to a fine memorial written by 
Walt P. Risler, Joseph H. Ross and Lester M. Wolfson. Besides his teaching assignments, 
he was a research chemist for the United States Rubber Company in Indiana in 1944. 

Dr. Gerkin joined the Indiana Academy of Science in 1928 and was a member 
for 57 years. His research concerned the grid design in storage battery plates. He was 
also a member of the American Chemical Society and the Association of Indiana 

Dr. Ernest Hugh Gerkin died September 27, 1984, in the Mount Carmel Medical 
Center, Columbus, Ohio, after a full life of 86 years. 

Necrology 47 

Nina Estella Gray 

Remington, Indiana Normal, Illinois 

October 29, 1901 January 23, 1985 

Dr. Nina Estella Gray was a retired professor who had taught biological sciences 
at Illinois State University for 31 years. She died January 23, 1985, at Brokaw Hospital, 
Normal, Illinois. 

Dr. Gray was born in Remington, Indiana, on October 29, 1901. She attended 
grade and high school there graduating from high school in 1919. In 1924, she graduated 
from DePauw University and was a Rector Scholar. Graduate work was done and 
a brief teachers assignment was held at the University of Wisconsin where she received 
an M.A. degree in 1930 and a Ph.D. degree in 1933. At the University of North 
Carolina's School of Public Health and Medical School, she received an additional 
Master's degree in Public Health in 1945. 

A professional career was taken up by Dr. Gray at Centralia Township High 
School and then Central Normal College (Indiana) from 1927 to 1929 when she returned 
to college for further studies. In 1935, there was a return to teaching. This time, it 
was at Illinois State Normal University where she stayed until retirement in 1966. Dr. 
Gray had a sabbatical leave in 1960 when she joined a group of scientists who retraced 
the path that Charles Darwin had followed in the 1800s. The Galapogos Islands, New 
Zealand, Australia, Africa and Teneriffe were visited to study animals in each region. 

Nina Gray was a very respected teacher at Illinois State Normal University. She 
used cadavers for study considered very innovative at the time. She prepared courses 
in human physical development in Special Education. 

It was in 1928 that Dr. Gray joined the Indiana Academy of Science and listed 
Botany and Zoology as interests. She was an Emeritus member at death and had been 
a member for 56 years. Other memberships included Sigma Delta Epsilon (national 
secretary, 1941 and national president, 1946), Delta Kappa Gamma, National Council 
for Exceptional Children, American Association for the Advancement of Science 
(Fellow), American Association of University Professors, American Association of 
University Women, Sigma Xi, and Phi Beta Kappa. She is listed in "American Men 
and Women of Science", Visher's "Indiana Scientists", the "Naturalist's Directory", 
and "Who's Who in Education". 

After retirement, Dr. Gray was active until illness intervened. She was at the 
Americana Healthcare Center at Normal, Illinois, when she was honored in May, 1984, 
as "Resident of the Month" for her accomplishments. It concluded, "Students con- 
tinue to remember her inspired teaching as her lasting impression influences their lives." 
We are indebted to various people and institutions for biographic material: Illinois 
State University, Mrs. Avonelle Brooks and Ruth Zimmerman by way of Mr. Ronald 
W. Gilbert, Dr. Winona Welch and the First National Bank of Normal, Illinois. 

48 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 95 (1986) 

Flora Charlotte (nee Anderson) Haas 
Bay Ridge, Florida Crawfordsville, Indiana 

June 27, 1885 December 10, 1984 

If Dr. Flora Anderson Haas had lived until December 10, 1985, she would have 
been 100 years old. Few people reach such an advanced age after spending many years 
outstanding performance as an individual and teacher. She was a botany professor, 
administrator, and researcher. 

Flora was born June 27, 1885 in Bay Ridge, Florida. Her grade school education 
was in Indianapolis. She then attended Marshall High School, Parke County, Indiana. 
The rest of her education was also in Indiana, pursued at Indiana University, Bloom- 
ington, where she earned a bachelor's, master's (1914) and doctor of philosophy (in 
botany, 1917) degrees. 

Dr. Haas taught at Wellesley College, Indiana University and Arkansas State 
Teachers College where she was head of the Botany Department. She was at Arkansas 
College at retirement when she was persuaded to teach at Union University, Jackson, 
Tennessee. She was head of the Botany Department there also and taught several more 
years. When she retired again, she and her husband lived on and managed an orange 
grove in Florida. In 1955, when her husband died, she returned to Indiana to live 
near her family. We are indebted to her sister, Brittie Anderson, for information about 
Flora and also Winona Welch supplied biographic material. 

While at Arkansas, Dr. Haas collected native flora which she identified and 
mounted to create a nice herbarium presented to Arkansas State Teacher's College 
when she retired from that position. She was outstanding in her profession and showed 
a high degree of sensitivity to the needs of her students during the depression years 
by helping them find finances for a college degree when they showed promise. She 
even invited some into her home providing free board and housing. She also gave 
talks at professional and club meetings. 

The chronology of Dr. Haas's various activities can be determined somewhat by 
the entries in our "Proceedings of the Indiana Academy of Science". When she joined 
our society in 1914, she had just received her Master's Degree from Indiana University 
and was at Wellesley College, Wellesley, Massachusetts. In 1916, her address was given 
as Bloomington, Indiana. Evidently, she was working on her doctorate which was re- 
ceived in 1917. In 1918 and 1919, her address was given as Crawfordsville, Indiana. 
She was listed at Bloomington, Indiana in 1920 where she remained for 10 years. She 
became a Fellow in the Indiana Academy of Science in 1923. Her married name first 
appears in 1928 (she married George Haas in June, 1927). Her address for 1930 was 
Arkansas State Teacher's College, Normal Station, Conway, Arkansas. She was still 
there by 1940, but was in Sorrento, Florida, by 1946 when the next full membership 
list for the Academy was published. Dr. Haas was active in our society serving as 
assistant secretary in 1923 and secretary in 1924 and 1925. She was on the membership 
committee in 1927. She attended spring meetings and gave papers at fall meetings. 
These covered stipules in Acer nigrum, sporogenous tissue of Porella, anomaly in the 
dandelion, and Marlyneaceae. 

During her declining years, Dr. Haas became legally blind and lost her hearing. 
Before that, her hobby was hand work and crafts. She retained her interest in plants 
and maintained the philosophy that God gave us the world — live life to the fullest 
in harmony with others. She died December 10, 1984, in the Emergency Room of 
Culver Union Hospital, Crawfordsville, Indiana. 

Necrology 49 

William George Kessel 

Terre Haute, Indiana Terre Haute, Indiana 

February 25, 1911 February 18, 1985 

A Professor Emeritus from Indiana State University, Dr. William George Kessel 
died February 18, 1985, in the Meadows Manor Nursing Home North, Terre Haute, 
Indiana. He was a native of that city, born February 25, 1911, and he attended Wiley 
High School from which he graduated in 1928. His education continued at Franklin 
College, Franklin, Indiana, where he earned an A.B. degree in chemistry in 1932. At 
Indiana State Teachers College, he received an M.A. degree in education in 1933. He 
returned to college again in 1946 earning an M.S. degree in chemistry and chemical 
engineering from Purdue University. Later in 1960, he received an Ed.D. degree in 
education and chemistry at Indiana University. 

During the period between 1934 and 1946 when he was out of school, he had 
various appointments. From 1934 to 1936, he was working at the Commercial Solvents 
Corporation as organic research chemist. He was a chemistry teacher in Terre Haute 
schools from 1937 to 1946 — much of this at Wiley High School. He was also a part- 
time chemist for J.W. Davis and R D X chemist for E.I. Dupont de Nemours. 

After graduation from Purdue in 1946, Dr. Kessel returned to Terre Haute as 
an assistant professor of chemistry at Indiana State Teachers College. He was made 
associate professor in 1958 and full professor in 1961. 

He had numerous additional responsibilities. He served as a consultant to Weston 
Paper Company and Daubert Chemistry Company, and as a member and/or president 
from 1962 to 1972 of the Vigo County School Board. He was also on the Emeline 
Fairbanks Public Library Board for 10 years and was president in 1964. He was on 
the Indiana State University Faculty Council for 6 years and a member of the Economic 
Benefits Committee, Caleb Mills Selection Committee and Distinguished Alumni 

The fields of research and publications by Dr. Kessel covered chemical educa- 
tion, a mine water problem, efficiency of rectifying columns, hydroponic home economics 
and chemistry, corrosion of zinc and paper making problems. 

Dr. William George Kessel was honored by election to Phi Delta Kappa and Sigma 
Alpha Epsilon, as Elk of the year from 1956 to 1966, as distinguished alumnus from 
Franklin College in 1968, with the Caleb Mills Teaching Award at Indiana State Univer- 
sity in 1975, with a citation from Terre Haute's mayor for contributing in the forma- 
tion of the Air and Water Pollution Board in 1965. 

Dr. Kessel joined the Indiana Academy of Science in 1946 and was honored as 
a Fellow in 1977. He was soon to become Sectional Chairman of the Chemistry Sec- 
tion in 1949 and served many years on various committees including Membership, 
Resolutions, Auditing, Youth Activities, and Fellows. He was Chairman of the Visiting 
Scientists Committee from 1963 through 1967 when he was honored for his work. 
He was an Emeritus Member at death. 

Unfortunately, the middle initial of Dr. William George Kessel has been omitted 
in some of the Academy records leading to a confusion of names with Dr. William 
H. Kessel, his father, who was also a member. Dr. William H. Kessel also taught 
at Wiley High School. We are indebted to a friend and colleague of the former, Eugene 
L. Herbst, retired from Indiana State University Chemistry Department for clarifying 
this and providing other pertinent biographic information about both men. 

William G. Kessel had a number of other professional memberships and offices: 
American Chemical Society (Councilor of the Council and Congressional Counselor, 
1974, Wabash Valley Section Chairman, 1948), Division of Chemical Education, Inc. 

50 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 95 (1986) 

(Treasurer, 1960-1966, Chairman, 1968), Journal of Chemical Education (Associate 
Editor, 1955-1965), American Association for the Advancement of Science, National 
Teachers Association, Manufacturing Chemists Association Educational Activities Com- 
mittee (1969) and American Institute of Chemists (Fellow, 1968). 

A tribute to Dr. Kessel kindly provided by the Chemistry Department at Indiana 
State University concludes, "Perhaps this was actually his greatest legacy— the many 
high school teachers carrying on his philosophy and principles of education." 

Necrology 51 

George Francis Martin 

Earlington, Kentucky Evansville, Indiana 

May 10, 1905 May 5, 1984 

Mr. George Francis Martin was a business man with a long-time interest in ar- 
chaeology which led him to join the Indiana Academy of Science as a joint member 
with his wife, Frances. He had a Bachelors Degree. Born May 10, 1905, in Earlington, 
Kentucky, Mr. Martin moved to Evansville, Indiana, in 1915 with his family and resided 
there after marriage. He moved to Newburgh, Indiana, in 1952. At about 8 years of 
age, he read "Men of the Old Stone Age" by Keith which created a 70 year interest 
in the field of archaeology. His archaeological activity was nurtured by Glenn A. Black, 
director of Angel Site. With his wife, Frances, Mr. Martin assisted in making site 
surveys, participating in Indiana University surveys and making photographs. He gave 
slide talks and brought guided tours to the area. In 1982, Mr. Martin became a member 
of the Board of Directors and a Charter Member of Friends of Angel Mounds. The 
purpose of the society was to develop interest in Angel Site as an educational and 
historical facility. 

Mr. Martin made numerous trips to museums and historic and prehistoric Indian 
sites in the Midwest, Southeast, Southwest and East. He gave many talks on Indians 
and their relics and archery. He was active in a number of international and domestic 
archery organizations and was awarded a pin by the International Archery Federation 
for shooting over 1000 in a FITA round achieved by only 15 archers in the world 
at that time. He also designed a target height and angle gauge adopted as standard 
nationally by the National Archery Association. 

Of course, his professional activity paralleled this. The Circulation Department 
of the Evansville Journal employed him from 1919 to 1922. He also started a business 
building radios for sale. Soon he took in three other teenagers into the business. Their 
Evansville Radio Laboratory, Ev-Ra-Lab, was the first such business in Evansville and 
possibly in the state of Indiana. Their sets were sold in the United States and Cuba 
and at one time, Sears requested their entire output. The sets had detectors, amplifiers, 
tubes and batteries. From May until October, 1922, he operated the business alone. 

He then became Apprentice Machinist for the Louisville and Nashville Railroad 
in its Howell, Indiana, steam locomotive repair shop. In 1925, he joined the Keller 
Crescent Company, an advertising and printing firm, as a photo-engraver. He was 
supervisor of the Engraving Department by 1928 and Camera and Color Department 
Supervisor by 1960. During that period from 1932 to 1933, he built and operated with 
friends an ice cream and sandwich business. In the 1970s, he photographed collections 
for the Evansville Museum of Arts and Sciences. 

In addition to the archery societies, Friends of Angel Mounds and the Indiana 
Academy of Science, Mr. Martin was a member of the Indiana Historical Society since 
1941, Southwestern Indiana Historical Society, Society for American Archaeology, Ohio 
Archaeological since 1951, Nature Conservancy, Trowel and Brush Society ( Society 
to honor Indiana University Angel Site Field School Students-Honorary Member in 
1950), and others. 

His hobbies were hunting, fishing, competitive rifle and pistol shooting, geology, 
geomorphology, and nature study (especially birds). 

Mr. George Francis Martin was 79 years old when he died May 5, 1984. He had 
gone to the hospital for a simple operation May 1 , but developed a respiratory com- 
plication producing death. As one can see from this short version of his activities, 
he was a very able, versatile man. 

52 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 95 (1986) 

Harry R. Mathias 

Rochester, Indiana Bowling Green, Ohio 

January 25, 1901 July 31, 1984 

Native to the lake country of northern Indiana, Mr. Harry R. Mathias was born 
January 25, 1901, at Rochester, Indiana. At an early age, his affinity for mathematics 
was evident. He attended Burton Grade School located 7 miles from Rochester and 
went to high school in Rochester. In 1923, he received an A.B. degree from Indiana 
Central College, Indianapolis, Indiana. He then studied at Indiana University receiv- 
ing a Master's degree in 1925. He also did graduate work at the University of Michigan 
from 1932 to 1941. 

Mr. Mathias started his professional career in the high school at Tyner, Indiana, 
as principal from 1923 to 1924. He then taught mathematics at Indiana University 
in 1925. In 1926, he became Head of the Mathematics Department at Indiana Central 
College, Indianapolis, where he remained until 1931. He moved to Bowling Green 
(Ohio) State University that year to become an instructor. He was assistant professor 
from 1937 to 1947 and associate professor until retirement in 1971 when he was made 
Emeritus Professor in Mathematics. He did tutoring then for 10 years. 

Harry Mathias was characterized as a generous, devoted, hard working man with 
integrity. His ability in mathematics was recognized by a national Mathematics Society 
and Sigma Xi. He also received a Distinguished Member Award in 1981 from the Rotary 
Club. He belonged to Sigma Chi and was a past national vice president of Kappa 
Mu Epsilon. He was church treasurer for many years and a member of the American 
Association of University Professors, and Mathematics Association. 

Mr. Mathias joined the Indiana Academy of Science in 1925. He was an Emeritus 
Member at death. 

As a hobby, Mr. Mathias took up carpentry which he practiced after school and 
on Saturdays. He built 15 apartments over a period of 15 years. Also, he built a house 
for his daughter with no help except for the basement. He often helped friends in 
Bowling Green with carpentry projects. 

A good and versatile man, Mr. Harry R. Mathias died July 31, 1984, at the Com- 
munity Nursing Home, Bowling Green, Ohio. 

Necrology 53 

Thomas Ostdick 

Elgin, Illinois Elgin, Illinois 

August 18, 1928 January 10, 1985 

The Reverend Thomas Ostdick was formerly president-rector at Saint Meinrad 
College. He was also a chemist with a B.A. degree (1952) from Saint Meinrad College 
and both a Master's degree (1957) and Ph.D. degree in chemistry and mathematics 
(1958) from Notre Dame University. He was born August 18, 1928, at Elgin, Illinois, 
and attended Saint Joseph grade school and Saint Edward High School there. He at- 
tended DePaul University in Chicago from 1945 until 1948. He then completed 
undergraduate work at Saint Meinrad College and became a Benedictine monk in 1950. 
He was ordained as a priest in 1954. 

With this background, Father Ostdick began his full career of service after 
graduating from Notre Dame in 1958. He usually carried multiple duties. At Saint 
Meinrad college, he advanced from assistant to associate professor from 1958 to 1970. 
He was academic dean from 1963 to 1975, professor of chemistry and mathematics 
from 1970 on and President-Rector of Saint Meinrad College from 1975 until retire- 
ment in 1982. Besides these duties, he assisted the chaplain of Fort Knox, Kentucky 
for many years. He was recipient of grants for summer post-doctoral work at Notre 
Dame University from 1965 to 1971. They were bestowed by: the Atomic Energy Com- 
mission, National Institute of Health, National Aeronautics and Space Administration 
and National Science Foundation. He was a contributing member of the Council for 
the Advancement of Small Colleges from 1972 to 1975, associate editor of the "American 
Benedictine Review" from 1967 on, member of the executive committee of the Ind- 
iana Conference on Higher Education from 1980 on. 

Reverend Thomas Ostdick became a member of the Indiana Academy of Science 
in 1960 and was a regular member at death. He was interested in the Chemistry and 
Mathematics Sections of the organization. His own research dealt with the prepara- 
tion, reactions and properties of organoboron and organosilicon compounds as well 
as heat resistant polymers. He served on the Visiting Scientists Program from 1963 
to 1967 with three visits to high schools a year. He also was a member of the American 
Association for the Advancement of Science, American Chemical Society, Mathematics 
Association of America, Sigma Xi and a Fellow of the American Institute of Chemists. 
He is listed in "American Men and Women of Science", the source of some of this 
information. There was a helpful obituary in "The Herald" (Jasper, January, 1985), 
and material from personal correspondence was kindly provided by Father Damian 
Schmelz. The latter characterized Father Ostdick as using a "step by step scientific 
approach to his work and an out-going friendly personality." 

The Reverend Thomas Ostdick was on a combined business trip and visit with 
his mother when he died in Sherman Hospital in Elgin, Illinois, January 10, 1985, 
at the age of 56 years. 

Indiana Academy of Science 

Ball Corporation 

Muncie, IN 


John Pruis 

Eli Lilly and Company 




J.M. Mann 

Ford Motor Company 




H.W. Farrington 

International Minerals and 

Chemical Corporation 

Terre Haute, 


Reilly Tar and Chemical 

Corporation Indianapolis, IN Dr. Gerald L. Goe 


Indiana Academy of Science 

Albertson, Clarence E., Borg- Warner Corp., Wolf and Algonquin Rds., Des Plaines, 

IL 60018 
Allen, Jeffry B., Box 18, Hurlbut Hall, Ball State University, Muncie, IN 47306 
Baker, Claire A., Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 
Baube, Charles L., Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405 
Beckman, Kristen, Dept. of Sociology and Anthropology, Indiana University-Purdue 
University at Fort Wayne, 2101 Coliseum Blvd. East, Fort Wayne, IN 46805 
Bellima, Joseph J., Jr., Dept. of Chemistry and Physics, St. Mary's College, Notre 

Dame, IN 46556 
Benjaminov, Benjamin S., Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology, Terre Haute, IN 47803 
Berndtson, Amy Kathleen, Dept. of Biology, Notre Dame, IN 46556 
Bina, Minou, Dept. of Chemistry, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 
Bingham, Jude Boyll, 3055 Lafayette, Terre Haute, IN 47805 
Boisvenue, Rudy, Dept. of Parasitology, P.O. Box 708, Eli Lilly and Co., Green- 
field, IN 46140 
Bonham, Russell, A., Dept. of Chemistry, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405 
Bozarth, R.F., Dept. of Life Sciences, Indiana State University, Terre Haute, IN 47809 
Brattain, R. Michael, A.E. Staley Mfg. Co., Sagamore Operation, P.O. Box 1398, 

Lafayette, IN 47902 
Bromley, C. Bud, 108 Indiana St., Upland, IN 46989 
Brothers, Timothy S., Dept. of Geography, Indiana University-Purdue University 

at Indianapolis, 425 Agnes St., Indianapolis, IN 46202 
Bryan, William P., Indiana University School of Medicine, Indiana University-Purdue 

University at Indianapolis, 545 Barnhill Dr., Indianapolis, IN 46223 
Buskirk, William H., Dept. of Biology, Earlham College, Richmond, IN 47374 
Cable, Ted T., Dept. of Forestry, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas 66506 
Caponigri, Winifred, Holy Cross Jr. College, Notre Dame, IN 46556 
Chisholm, Malcolm H., Dept. of Chemistry, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405 
Christakis, Dean G., 1407 Swift St., Hobart, IN 46342 
Conner, Garre A., Suite 424, 115 SE Third St., Evansville, IN 47701 
Davidson, Ernest, Dept. of Chemistry, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405 
Davis, Joseph A., Indiana University-Purdue University at Fort Wayne, 2101 Col- 
iseum Blvd. East, Fort Wayne, IN 46805 
Dodd, J. Robert, Dept. of Geology, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405 
Dunbar, Kerry Burton, School of Science, Dept. of Biology, Indiana University- 
Purdue University at Indianapolis, Indianapolis, IN 46223 
Eberhart, Robert W., Jr., P.O. Box 645, Newburgh, IN 47630 
Emery, Alden, Dept. of Chemistry and Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, 

IN 47907 
Evans, Robert C, Dept. of Chemistry, Hanover College, Hanover, IN 47243 
Feldman, Howard R., Dept. of Geology, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405 
Flanners, Robert V., Dept. of Entomology, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 

Flurkey, William H., Dept. of Chemistry, Indiana State University, Terre Haute, 

IN 47809 
Forsyth, Teresa R., Dept. of Biology, Indiana University Southeast, New Albany, 
IN 47150 


56 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 95 (1986) 

Friedel, Arthur W., Indiana University-Purdue University at Fort Wayne, 2101 
Coliseum Blvd., East, Fort Wayne, IN 46805 

Gardner, April L., Rm. 216, Chemistry Building, Purdue University, West Lafayette, 
IN 47907 

Geyer, Lane, 50651 Laurel Rd., South Bend, IN 46637 

Gibson, David M., Dept. of Biochemistry, Indiana University School of Medicine, 
Indiana University-Purdue University at Indianapolis, Indianapolis, IN 46223 

Gillette, Marcia L., Indiana University at Kokomo, 2300 S. Washington St., Kokomo, 
IN 46902 

Goodnight, Gordon E., 700 Baker Rd., Hagerstown, IN 47346 

Gough, Mary, Shenandoah High School, R.R. 1, Middletown, IN 47362 

Grabowski, Sandra R., Dept. of Biological Sciences, Purdue University, West 
Lafayette, IN 47907 

Grabowski, Zbigniew W., Dept. of Physics, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 

Gummer, Sherry Lynne, 940 Walton Dr., Plainfield, IN 46168 

Hague, John D., President, Indiana Corporation for Science and Technology, One 
North Capitol Ave., Indianapolis, IN 46204 

Hall, Robert D., Dept. of Geology, Indiana University-Purdue University at Ind- 
ianapolis, 425 Agnes St., Indianapolis, IN 46202 

Hall, Roger R., Indiana University-Purdue University at Fort Wayne, 2101 Coliseum 
Blvd. East, Fort Wayne, IN 46805 

Hammond, Daniel G., Dept. of Chemistry, Taylor University, Upland, IN 46989 

Herr, E.B., Jr., President, Lilly Research Laboratories, 307 East McCarty St., 
Indianapolis, IN 46285 

Hill, Miriam Helen, Div. of Natural Sciences, Indiana University Southeast, 4201 
Grantline Rd., New Albany, IN 47150 

Hogan, Terry, Indianapolis Power and Light, Supervisor, Environmental Engineer- 
ing Div., P.O. Box 1595 B, Indianapolis, IN 46206 

Holmes, Thomas R., Institute of Gerontology, Ball State University, 710 N. McKinely, 
Muncie, IN 47306 

Holt, Lewis, C, Bedford-North Lawrence High School, R.R. 13, Box 350, Bedford, 
IN 47421 

Hopkins, Edward M., Indiana Breeding Bird Atlas, P.O. Box 2602, West Lafayette, 
IN 47906 

Hughes, Mark, Indiana University-Purdue University at Indianapolis, Medical Science, 
MS 218, Indianapolis, IN 46223 

Hunt, Elizabeth, 620 N. College #5, Bloomington, IN 47401 

Jackson, Misty M., Anthropology Laboratory, Jamison Hall, Indiana State Univer- 
sity, Terre Haute, IN 47809 

Jacobson, John E., Dept. of Forestry and Natural Resources, Purdue University, West 
Lafayette, IN 47907 

James, Sheryl J., Scottsburg High School, 500 S. Gardner St., Scottsburg, IN 47170 

Jeffers, Thomas K., Dept. of Animal Health, Lilly Research Laboratories, P.O. Box 
708, Greenfield, IN 46140 

Jenkins, W. Terry, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405 

Jones, Tracy L., 206-14 Airport Rd., West Lafayette, IN 47906 

Justice, Noel O., Glenn A. Black Laboratory of Archaeology, 9th and Fess St., Bloom- 
ington, IN 47405 

Kassis, John A., Indiana State Board of Health, 1330 West Michigan St., Indianapolis, 
IN 46206 

Kendall, Jerry, University of Evansville, 1800 Lincoln Ave., Evansville, IN 47714 

New Members— 1985 57 

Klingler, Timothy E., Dept. of Geosciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 

Kohn, James P., 178 Fitzpatrick Hall, Notre Dame University, Notre Dame, IN 46556 
Kolberg, Kathleen J.S., Dept. of Biology, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, 

IN 46556 
Kostka, David M., Dept. of Biology, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405 
Kroon, James L., Bethel College, 1001 W. McKinley, Mishawaka, IN 46545 
LaHue, Paul D., 1137 Linden Dr., Bloomington, IN 47401 
Lankford, Ruth Hudson, P.O. Box 642, Indianapolis, IN 46205 
Lantz, Larry A., John Adams High School, Dept. of Science, 808 S. Twyckenham 

Dr., South Bend, IN 46615 
Leedy, Fredrick A., Questioned Document Laboratory, Indiana State Police Dept., 

100 North Senate Ave., Rm. 102, Indianapolis, IN 46204 
Leipziger, Stuart, Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology, 5500 Wabash Ave., Terre 

Haute, IN 47803 
Lodge, David M., Dept. of Biological Sciences, University of Notre Dame, Notre 

Dame, IN 46556 
Lumeng, Lawrence, Div. of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Indiana University- 
Purdue University at Indianapolis, Emerson Hall, Rm. 421, 545 Barnhill Dr., 

Indianapolis, IN 46223 
Ma, Pang-Fai, Ball State University, Center for Medical Education, Muncie, IN 47306 
Macrury, Thomas B., International Minerals and Chemical Corp., P.O. Box 207, 

Terre Haute, IN 47808 
Mann, J.M., Attorney, Eli Lilly and Co., 307 East McCarty St., Indianapolis, IN 46285 
Marsh, Max, Lilly Research Laboratories, 307 East McCarty St., Indianapolis, IN 46285 
Mason, April C, Dept. of Foods and Nutrition, Stone Hall, Purdue University, West 

Lafayette, IN 47907 
May, Silas W., Dept. of Biology, Indiana University Northwest, 3400 Broadway, Gary, 

IN 46408 
McConnell, Sue, Northside High School, 2400 Bethel Ave., Muncie, IN 47304 
McGrath, Denny, 4200 N. Michigan Rd., Indianapolis, IN 46208 
McInerney, Michael, Dept. of Physics, Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology, Terre 

Haute, IN 47803 
McKnight, Bill N., Illinois Natural History Survey, 607 E. Peabody Dr., Champaign, 

IL 61820 
Moore, Walter J., 916 S. Mitchell St., Bloomington, IN 47401 
Moore, Ward W., Assoc. Dean, School of Medicine, Indiana University, 203 Myers 

Hall, Bloomington, IN 47405 
Mueller, Paul W., Dept. of Forestry and Natural Resources, Purdue University, West 

Lafayette, IN 47907 
Neven, Lisa G., Dept. of Biology, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 
Noonan, Dennis A., Dept. of Biology, DePauw University, Greencastle, IN 46135 
Onwood, David, Indiana University-Purdue University at Fort Wayne, 2101 Coliseum 

Blvd. East, Fort Wayne, IN 46805 
Pang, Hilda E., Dept. of Anthropology, Indiana State University, Terre Haute, IN 

Patzkowsky, Mark E., Dept. of Geology, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405 
Pearson, Jed, Tri-Lakes Fishery Station, R.R. 4, Columbia City, IN 46725 
Pfister, John F., Dept. of Psychology, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405 
Prentice, David A., Dept. of Life Sciences, Indiana State University, Terre Haute, 

IN 47809 

58 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 95 (1986) 

Pruis, John J., Vice President, Corporate Relations, Ball Corp., 345 S. High St., 

Muncie, IN 47302 
Rabideau, Peter, Dept. of Chemistry, Indiana University-Purdue University at Ind- 
ianapolis, Indianapolis, IN 46223 
Ray, James K., Indiana State Board of Health, Div. of Water Pollution Control, 1330 

W. Michigan St., Indianapolis, IN 46206 
Reed, Harold W., Sr., Indiana University at Kokomo, 2100 S. Washington St., 

Kokomo, IN 46902 
Rodibaugh, Rosemary, Dept. of Foods and Nutrition, Stone Hall, Purdue Univer- 
sity, West Lafayette, IN 47907 
Roffey, Patrick, Vice President, Lilly Research Laboratories, 307 East McCarty St., 

Indianapolis, IN 46285 
Rollins, Roger W., Dept. of Physics, Ohio University, Athens, OH 45701 
Roper, A.T., Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology, 5500 Wabash Ave., Terre Haute, 

IN 47803 
Roth, Jonathan N., Dept. of Biology, Goshen College, Goshen, IN 46526 
Sadler, Mark W„ 17000 Willow Ridge Trail, Fort Wayne, IN 46825 
Schmidt, Alfred R., Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology, Terre Haute, IN 47803 
Schmitt, David E., Dept. of Biology, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 
Schulze, Darrell G., Dept. of Agronomy, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 

Seeney, Charles E., Dir. of Chemical Resources, P.O. Box 207, Terre Haute, 

IN 47808 
Serianni, Anthony S., Dept. of Chemistry, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, 

IN 46556 
Shaner, Gregory, Dept. of Botany and Plant Pathology, Purdue University, West 

Lafayette, IN 47907 
Sherwood, Paul T., Dept. of Forestry, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 
Simon, Edward, Dept. of Biology, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 
Simon, James E., Dept. of Horticulture, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 
Snyder, David L., Lobound Laboratory, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, 

IN 46556 
Stabler, Timothy A., Dept. of Biology, Indiana University Northwest, Gary, IN 46408 
Summers, William A., Jr., Dir. of Growth Hormone Development Project, Interna- 
tional Minerals and Chemical Corp., P.O. Box 207, Terre Haute, IN 47808 
Tharp, Thomas M., Dept. of Geosciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 
Turco, Ron, Dept. of Agronomy, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 
Votaw, Robert B., Indiana University Northwest, Gary, IN 46408 
Wagner, Eugene S., Center for Medical Education, Ball State University, Muncie, 

IN 47306 
Wang, Heidi, Dept. of Biological Sciences, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, 

IN 46556 
Ward, Jeffrey S., Dept. of Forestry, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 
Wassall, Stephen R., Dept. of Physics, Indiana University-Purdue University at 

Indianapolis, Indianapolis, IN 46223 
Wasserman, Mark D., Dept. of Biology, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405 
Weir, Robert H., P.O. Box 1055, Nashville, IN 47448 
Werking, Robert J., Marion College, Marion, IN 46953 
Westbrook, Anne L., 7241 W. 34th St., Indianapolis, IN 46224 

White, Michael J., Dept. of Counseling Psychology, Ball State University, 610TC, 
Muncie, IN 47306 

New Members— 1985 59 

Whitehead, Donald R., Dept. of Biology, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405 
Whitman, Mark, Harrison High School, 5700 N. 50W, West Lafayette, IN 47906 
Wiebers, Jacob E., Dept. of Biological Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, 

IN 47907 
Wier, Peggy J.M., Sunnyside Junior High School, 2500 Cason St., Lafayette, 

IN 47904 
Williford, L., Northwestern High School, 3431 N-400 W., Kokomo, IN 46901 
Wissinger, Scott A., Dept. of Biological Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, 

IN 47907 
Witzmann, Frank A., Indiana University-Purdue University at Columbus, 2080 Bakalar 

Dr., Columbus, IN 47203 
Worl, Alison, Hanover College, Hanover, IN 47243 
Yarber, James, Thomas Carr Howe High School, 4900 Julian Ave., Indianapolis, 

IN 46201 
Yess, Edward C III, National Weather Service, Box 51526, Indianapolis, IN 46251 
Zimmel, Katy, Wesselman Park Nature Center, 551 N. Boeke Rd., Evansville, IN 47711 
Bedford-North Lawrence High School Science Club, Lewis C. Holt, Sponsor, Bed- 
ford, IN 47421 
Fulton Junior High School Science Club, Doris Jones, Sponsor, 7320 W. 10th St., 

Indianapolis, IN 46224 
Harrison High School Science Club, 5700 N. 50, West Lafayette, IN 47906 
Milligrams, Highland High School, Kathy Reitz, Sponsor, 9135 Erie St., Highland, 

IN 46322 
Northside High School Science Club, Sue McConnell, Sponsor, 2400 Bethel Ave., 

Muncie, IN 47304 
Northwestern High School Science Club, L. Williford, Sponsor, 3431 N-400 W., 

Kokomo, IN 46901 
Shenandoah High School Science Club, Mary Gough, Sponsor, R.R. #1, Middletown, 

IN 47362 

John D. Hague, President, Indiana Corporation for Science and Technology 



Centennial Address Given To 
The Indiana Academy of Science 

John D. Hague, 
President, Indiana Corporation for Science and Technology 

Mr. President, Members of the Indiana Academy of Science, Distinguished Guests, 
Ladies and Gentlemen— I am most pleased to have the opportunity to meet with you 
in this centennial celebration for the Indiana Academy of Science, and to think together 
with you about future roles of science, technology and industry in Indiana. 

The generally accepted definition shows science to be "The branch of knowledge 
or study dealing with the body of facts or truths systematically arranged in showing 
the operation of general laws", and technology to be "The branch of knowledge that 
deals with the industrial arts, applied science, engineering, etc." 

Today, we are going to think a bit about the future roles of science, technology 
and industry. We are going to take a "bird's-eye view" of a grand experiment on 
the part of Indiana to harness some of the energy in that triumvirate for the benefit 
of the residents in Indiana for generations to come ... an experiment in which you, 
personally, can be an important element. 

Much of our population gains only a veneer-like understanding of scientific pro- 
gress by their observations of industrial outputs that utilize the technology products 
of the scientific endeavor. For example, today a person needs only to visit a toy store 
to see the results of achievements in the areas of semiconductor research, computer 
architecture, software research, mercury and lithium storage cells, plasma physics, bi- 
stable liquid crystalography and dozens of others. They can also witness engineering 
achievements in the areas of increased complexity and capability per dollar of their 
investment, and they will be aware of the increased quality of the products and an 
increased application of the technology of juvenile ergonometrics. 

You and I, however, realize that semiconductor research has now resulted in our 
ability to utilize computers in our low-cost toys that are more powerful than some 
of our large mainframe computers of only a few years ago; applications in which these 
computers are powered by a single, small battery. We realize that the reliability of 
that computer is orders of magnitude better than that of the old mainframe computers. 
The cost of the computer chip to the toy manufacturer is considerably less than the 
user will pay for batteries to power the toy during the first six months of its use. 

But a few of us stop to realize that today's toys represent not only a few months 
or years of intensive design work by engineers and technicians, but also represent hun- 
dreds of years of scientific achievement, which each generation identifying new levels 
of scientific laws, building upon the foundation provided by the efforts to previous 
generations. In each generation, these new laws are passed on to the engineers and 
technologists, who again build on past achievements of others to develop and innovate 
new applications and controls for technologies. Then, the resulting designs flow into 
the industries and into the market place for a relatively short time until consumer 
acceptance of that technology and that design are relegated to the category of out- 
moded . . . having been replaced with something stronger ... or less expensive . . . 
or faster ... or more efficient ... or more reliable . . . and the cycle goes on. 


62 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 95 (1986) 

Today, the consumers know well that we are in a period of dynamic scientific 
growth and technological change. In an automotive example, which is on the market 
for the first time this year, the 1986 Buick Riviera has an optional electronic display 
instrument panel with only computer driven, "touch screen" controls on the car. The 
traditional knobs and switches are gone. While that car may not appeal to a number 
of the buyers in the market, it is likely to be very appealing to those who have "grown 
up" with computer screens and those who feel very comfortable in dealing with bank 
machines and other manifestations of that technology. Either way, it is an example 
of technology flowing into today's products in areas that were not possible only a 
few years ago. We need not dwell on the area of computers, because I think that 
there is a great deal of awareness of the advancements made in this computer age; 
the advances made in computing power, speed, and the reduction of computing costs 
during the last two decades. 

But, if we look also at medical instrumentation, office equipment, and manufac- 
turing and quality control processes, we see dramatic roles of technology in those fields 
of endeavor. This is equally obvious in many areas of biotechnology in which we are 
now witnessing an explosion of research and technology achievements in gene splicing, 
monoclonal antibodies, and so forth. And there are dozens of other important areas 
that are employing new technologies in the market place. 

A dramatically increasing percentage of us are involved in businesses in which 
change is no longer an option; but a requirement in order for the business to survive 
and to prosper. In the high technology environment in which I live, one of the most 
frightening problems I see is the high percentage of engineers, scientists and managers 
who are not aware of the technological threats to their company's future and the 
technological opportunities that are there to deal with them. They have not taken a 
good look at their future. They have not left the playing field and climbed up into 
the bleachers, and looked down on the game to see who is doing what to whom . . . 
to see what the opportunities are and what the problems are ... to evaluate what 
their competitors are likely to do ... to evaluate what changes in other industries 
might reduce or obviate the need for their business or their industry. 

In that context, I had the pleasure last week of participating in the dedication 
of a magnificent new technology building at Vincennes University. That building was 
built in the early 1800's. It is a five-story building with brick walls over three feet 
thick, with four inch cork installation in the center of those walls. It was built initially 
as an ice and cold storage facility in which ice blocks were cut from the river to serve 
the city for the rest of the year as a source for ice and a location for food storage. 
It is interesting to note that this company was put out of business, not because some- 
one else in the area had developed a better way to cut ice and store it to provide 
cooling, but it was put out of business by the invention and advancement of the 
mechanical refrigeration industry. 

There are many examples today of areas in which companies can be totally 
decimated as a result of technology advances in what appeared to them to be a totally 
unrelated industry. Our managers today need to be very aware of that potential, and 
the need to determine the probability of threats in that area. They need to identify 
action options for their companies. They need to evaluate their positions and make 
trade-offs. But, too many persons today are preoccupied with today's problems to 
take only five percent of their time to look at the future and what it means to them 
instead of for them, as the case may be. Many believe that high technology is for 
someone else, and not for them. 

Due to the capital intensive nature of our business operations today, most in- 

Luncheon Address 63 

dustries and businesses depend upon their engineers and scientists to lead the way through 
the technology maze that confronts them. They expect these engineers and scientists 
to lead the way; to avoid the untimely or wrong decisions; but, more important, to 
identify the correct paths at the correct times. But, with rapidly changing technology, 
many of our engineers and scientists are ill-equipped to provide this leadership. And, 
maybe even more serious, many managers do not realize that they are, in effect, piloting 
a corporate Titanic and some technology icebergs are dead ahead. 

Indiana is working hard to deal with this problem ... by providing more accessi- 
ble scientific and technical education ... by stressing that technical education cannot 
stop after graduation from school, but must continue at an ever increasing pace 
throughout the lifetime of the worker or manager ... by attempting to make more 
managers aware of the threats and opportunities relative to their businesses . . . and 
by making high technology more understandable for our people and our industries, 
including our important argiculture industry. 

Now regarding that grand experiment in Indiana, the State took a major step 
over two years ago when it created three new corporations ... the Indiana Institute 
for New Business Ventures to deal with the need to educate and train the medium 
and small business sectors regarding general business and financial matters ... the 
Corporation for Innovation Development to deal with our long standing venture capital 
shortage for support of new businesses and expansion of existing businesses . . . and 
the Indiana Corporation for Science and Technology, a $150 million commitment by 
the State of Indiana over a 10 year period to enhance the long-term economic base 
of the State through the development and infusion of high technology into Indiana 
businesses, industries and agricultural operations. 

In reading the history of the Indiana Academy of Science, I noted that the pur- 
pose of this organization as recorded in the 1880's was as follows: "The objects of 
said association are scientific research and the diffusion of knowledge concerning various 
departments of science". It is interesting to note that the definition in the 1880's util- 
ized the word diffusion, and "technology diffusion", in contrast to "technology 
transfer", has very recently been determined to be a more descriptive and appropriate 
term for use in the 1980's. 

When I look at your most recent constitution by-laws, written in 1985, they say 
in Section II, "The objectives of the Academy shall be to promote scientific research 
and the diffusion of scientific information: to encourage communication and coopera- 
tion among scientists, especially in Indiana; to prepare for publications such reports 
of investigation and discussion as may further the aims and objectives of the Academy 
as set forth in these articles; and to improve education in the sciences." ... a strikingly 
similar charter to that of the newly created Indiana Corporation for Science and 

CST's mission under its charter encompasses the protection of the traditional 
agricultural and industrial business base of the State, the start-up of technology-intensive 
businesses in the State, and the attraction of companies outside the State to Indiana 
through development and diffusion of advanced technology. In support of this mis- 
sion, the Corporation provides three basic services. The first is technological guidance 
and counsel, in which information regarding new technology developments is transmitted 
quickly and effectively to businesses in Indiana. In this area of endeavor, the Corpora- 
tion spends time protecting businesses and industries from the inappropriate applica- 
tions of technology, and assists them in locating appropriate technologies and apply- 
ing them correctly and effectively. A second function is business and financial guidelines 
and assistance. In this particular area, generic type financial and business advice is 
provided by the Institute for New Business Ventures, the sister Corporation which 
we discussed earlier. But, in those cases in which decisions are being made which are 

64 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 95 (1986) 

related directly to complex, high-technology elements of the business, that advice and 
counsel is provided by CST. The third primary CST endeavor is interim funding sup- 
port to bridge the gap between the ideas of the developer, inventor, or businessman, 
and their ability to attract funding from traditional funding sources such as banks, 
investment organizations, venture capitalists, initial public stock offerings, profit flow, 
etc. In this case, the Corporation for Science and Technology provides up to $10 million 
a year of funding for worthy applicants, and this funding is an investment in the future 
of the State of Indiana. The investment selections are based upon a thorough review 
of both the technological and the business aspects of the proposals. Funding is pro- 
vided to the recipients on a payback basis, in which the payback is based upon a percent- 
age of gross revenues for the product or process which has been funded wholly or 
in part by the Corporation for Science and Technology. This allows the funding to 
be returned to the Corporation for subsequent re-investment. 

It is worthy of note that we recently contacted the Principal Investigators of the 
thirty-five projects that were funded during the first two years of operations of the 
Corporation. During that period, $21.1 million was invested and the Principal In- 
vestigators of those 35 projects made possible by these critical CST investments in- 
formed us that over $410 million of non-CST funds were now programmed for invest- 
ment in these projects during the next three to five years. This indicates well over 
a 20 to 1 return on investment in these projects and indicates clearly that the "Pump- 
Priming" or catalytic elements of the CST program are working well. 

One thing is very clear, and that is if this nation is to regain it's competitive 
edge in the world markets, we will need to develop a better educated and more flexible 
work force. Change itself is likely to be the only constant factor in the American 
workplace in the years ahead. Education and training and rapidly unfolding scientific 
achievements will be required at an ever increasing pace. Our science must provide 
the basis for the development of improved technology tools that can be, in turn, used 
in the development of improved methods for research which will lead to an ever im- 
proving understanding of the basic laws of nature. These improved scientific research 
processes are badly needed to allow our scientists to achieve new scientific levels and 
our engineers to develop the technologies that will be critically needed for our nation 
to compete in the world market-place. 

Indiana is now in competition with the world for industries and jobs, and there 
is no form of economic isolationism that is likely to change that very much. But In- 
diana is very fortunate, as it has an outstanding roster of colleges and universities 
and an excellent stable of businesses and industries with a natural tendency to work 
things out together. Today, as never before in the State, we are seeing networking 
between scientists, engineers, industries, and agricultural operations in which they are 
using a team effort to achieve goals that they could not begin to achieve by themselves. 

Artificial intelligence technology now holds the promise for the reduction of the 
loss of knowledge that plagues us between generations, as it will soon allow us to 
"clone" some of the finest minds of each generation and to capture their thought 
processes and logic processes in specifically selected areas of endeavor. In this manner, 
the present loss of knowledge experienced by our industries, universities and businesses 
between generations and after retirement of key scientists, engineers, and managers 
may soon be significantly reduced. The use of artificial intelligence concepts will allow 
us to achieve a level of productivity in the development and transfer of new scientific 
foundational information and reasoning that has never been equalled in the history 
of the world. 

Then, what are the messages to us, as we look at this chain of happenings and 
developments that are all about us? 

Luncheon Address 65 

First, it is highly probable that the traditional roles of the scientist, the engineer, 
and technician, and the industries and businesses will survive and be strengthened, 
but they will be assisted by major productivity and communication advancements. 

The interface between these groups will be much tighter and more effective and 
the interface line will become much less distinct as information transition activities 
are improved. 

Organizations such as the Corporation for Science and Technology will continue 
to play a major role in this transition period, serving as catalysts among the ma- 
jor players; the universities, industries, daring entrepreneurs, investors, and a more 
informed and intelligent citizenry. 

We are already seeing the benefits of close networking between the scientists and the 
universities and industry here in Indiana and we believe that the best is yet to come 
in this area. 

We have insufficient time today to discuss CST's targeted technology categories 
that encompass thirteen technologies that hold high promise for the economic growth 
of the State; our plans for each of them; and our array of projects today and their 
promises, exciting as they may be. But I can suggest that if you wish to know more 
about this subject, you can request a copy of our recently released Annual Report 
of Operations. I can promise you that if you wish to become personally involved with 
CST and this exciting and grand experiment in science and technology and economics, 
you need only to share that desire with us and you will probably find yourself an 
addition to the roster of over 500 volunteers working with us in planning for tomorrow, 

Clearly, we are heading into an exciting era for science, technology and the in- 
dustries of Indiana ... an era in which those of us in the scientific community will 
play a vital role. I commend you for your support of science and its further develop- 
ment . . . and I commend you for the achievements of the Indiana Academy of Science 
during its first 100 years of operation. I sincerely hope that those who will stand here 
at the celebration of the 200th year of the Academy's operation will recognize our 
generation as that which put science and technology to work in a most effective manner 
for the development of additional scientific knowledge for the good of mankind. I, 
for one, believe that we can achieve that distinction. 

I wish you well in your journey into a very high-technology future and, based 
upon even the most conservative predictions, this should be a most interesting, challeng- 
ing and rewarding trip for us all. 

Thank you very much. 

"Acts of God and Climatic Expectation" 

Benjamin Moulton 
Indiana State University 

There is more than sufficient indication that in our courts today are cases involv- 
ing the concept of an Act of God versus a loss brought about my man or his works. 
The concept of an Act of God comes from the days of the past when ignorance and 
fear prevailed and man suffered from not knowing what brought about lightning, 
thunder, floods, earthquakes and destructive winds. At such early times man felt that 
the destructive forces were punishments for wrongs and the Gods were displeased. 
The extent of the losses were in direct proportion to the nature of the misdeeds. Such 
punishment and losses were accepted as a way of life. 

Ages later along with the development of civilization came the law and the ruling 
of that society by the law. In the American Jurisprudence System we now have sec- 
tions defining Act of God as it relates to losses suffered by society and the acceptance 
of the losses as an area for debate. Thus the definition of an Act of God as now 
recorded in American Jurisprudence is a natural event which is: 

1 . Sudden 

2. Unusual 

3. Unexpected 

4. Could not be reasonably predicted (1)(2) 

This force of nature, an Act of God, is generally thought to be difficult to guard 
against and difficult to resist. In order to make a judgement as to whether an event 
is an Act of God or the result of some other action two questions can be raised: 

1 . In consideration of the sophistication of current technology is reasonable and 
suitable forecasting of expected events being made available to those that need such 

2. In consideration of the records of past events is man using the information 
in building, planning, and providing protection against events similar to those of the past. 

If matters have not been complicated enough we must now also recognize that 
the technology that aids us against natural hazards also now provides information 
to the rest of the world of disaster within a short span of time. At the same time 
agencies dedicated to provide help to the needy become aware more rapidly than ever 
of the events. Government agencies develop programs to aid in the losses of "An Act 
of God". Thus it may well be that losses are accentuated, media information erroneous, 
and causes of losses misinterpreted. Along with societal effort to provide relief from 
losses, Acts of God or otherwise, has developed an increased activity to retrieve losses 
through court action. Since many of the cases involve climatic events it is to this theme 
the substance of this paper is directed. 

Climatic Events 

It seems to be an almost daily occurrence to read in the paper of some loss from 
wind, rain, snowfall or severe storm. Losses often occur in the millions of dollars 
and the loss of life is not uncommon. The question can be raised as to why these 
climatic events occurred, were they unusual? Will they be repeated and what can be 
done to protect society against them? Is society or the government to be expected to 
replace losses? The court docket indicates that some try to find solutions through court 
action. Some are widely publicized while there are countless numbers of cases that 


Presidential Address 67 

pass unnoticed except for the litigants. Some cases show a remarkable lack of ap- 
preciation for the nature of climatic events as energy systems in our environment. Normal 
potentials of rain, wind, snow, drought, and related features of floods, land slides, 
avalanches, and other events are ignored. In Indiana are some of these events that 
in court action have been described as unusual. 


Rainfall in Indiana has such a well developed pattern or regime that it is difficult 
to realize how anyone can avoid knowing it. Rain is water and water has weight and 
mass and flows down slopes; rain comes in drizzles, and drops and drops in what 
seems bucketfuls at times. Most of us experience rains that result in a quarter to half 
inch a day and several times a year a day with two inch rainfalls. Rainfalls in Indiana 
are often heavier. Rainfall of more than five inches in two days occurred in every 
month of the year and has been recorded in at least 30 classic or long time climatic 
stations. In 1860 6.50 inches of rain fell in one hour at Batesville. On June 26th in 
1934 Brazil had 3" in one half hour. A maximum 24 hour rainfall occurred in 1973 
when approximately 13" fell in the area of English, Indiana. Monthly rainfalls of over 
10" are not uncommon for any part of the state. Unexpected large amounts could 
hardly be considered an Act of God in the definition previously provided. A point 
in issue. A car traveling after dark in a rural area during a heavy rainfall (one expected 
several times a year) came into a flooded street and hydroplanes, and runs into the 
ditch and several people are hurt. A consequence is a suit against the county for not 
having the road properly drained so that ponding did not occur. (4) Work was being 
done on the road and construction signs were present. The county claimed reasonable 
precaution against the Act of God and the conditions that prevailed. There is no climatic 
station at the site of the accident, nor could it be expected that there would be one. 
Nearest climatic stations provide the basis for interpreting the rainfall as being about 
4" in 24 hours, not an unusual amount. In reality the driver of the car ignored the 
hazard of heavy rainfall and associated weather conditions, not an uncommon failure, 
and traveled too fast. The case also brings up the matter of how to interpret the ex- 
istence of "heavy rainfall" when no rainfall station is present. We now know that 
in any particular passing storm precipitation received at the surface can vary greatly 
within a relatively small area such as a county. Legal procedures frequently use the 
witness of a longtime resident, "a credible witness", as the basis of determining the 
unusual event. Thus a 40 year resident might be asked to recall similar past events. 
At issue is the frailty of the human mind and the length of time needed to establish 
a record of what might be expected. 

When rainfall occurs obviously its receipt at the surface is accepted in many ways. 
Hopefully necessary amounts provide ground water supplies and the balance reaches 
the streams to provide the supply for those water bodies. In reality an inch of rainfall 
provides about 109 tons of water for every acre whether it be corn field or shopping 
center parking lot. It is statistically impossible to estimate a 100 year flood scenario 
but this assumes that a certain amount of rainfall occurs within a certain area under 
average conditions. It doesn't consider the surface condition, the alterations to 
topographic forms by levee construction, road beds or other topographic changes. An 
average Indiana County for 400 square miles receiving an average rainfall is the reci- 
pient of an enormous volume and weight of water on its surface. It should not be 
unusual then to find that streams in flood can do severe amounts of damage. Recogni- 
tion of the potential damage should be the basis for sound planning and construction. 
Modern technology should leave little reason to consider rainfall an Act of God when 
it causes destruction. 

68 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 95 (1986) 


A few years ago the then Mayor of Terre Haute was challenged as to why the 
city had done such a poor job in removing the snow from the streets. He replied to 
the effect that God put the snow there and in due time would remove it. Behind such 
a story is the fact that snowfall is not traditionally heavy in the Terre Haute area 
or at least memory banks in the mind of its citizens don't recall the facts; at least 
a lackadaisical attitude toward snow prevailed. Since 1960 there have been three years 
of what was considered to be unusually heavy snows. During such periods snowfall 
may exceed 14" or more in one day. Such an amount may occur as frequently in the 
southern part of the state as well as the northern part of the state. The amount for 
one day may be equal to the amount many Indiana stations receive in one year or 
in the snowiest month for some stations. The last thirty years of records reveals the 
true potential of snowfall. In a case of litigation a contractor installed for a homeowner 
an add-on porch of glass and aluminum. The following winter a heavy snowfall of 
more than 12" brought about a collapse of the structure. The homeowner brought 
suit for recovery of loss from the contractor. The snow records although showing heavy 
snow would also prove it could be expected to be of the amount shown at least every 
ten years and thus not extreme. Snow twelve inches deep weighs from 4 to 5 pounds 
per cubic foot. A roof of normal house size under 12" snow may acquire a load of 
five to eight tons. Since snow may not dissipate until melting occurs, the weight may 
be a burden on a structure for a considerable period of time. Indeed the contractor 
erred in evaluating structural strengths. 

In a recent severe winter a railroad company that was in the process of abandon- 
ing a right-of-way contracted to have the rails pulled and ties removed. The task was 
a winter season task with a deadline. Heavy snows occurred and the contractor did 
not meet the deadline claiming the heavy snows interfered. When the railroad declined 
payment the contractor sued. Although the plea an Act of God was not proved, 
associated circumstances related to the acquisition of suitable moving equipment under 
the environmental conditions did result in the contractor recovering his monies. 

Further hazards associated with snow are created when displacement takes place 
and wind drifts accumulate to many times the depth of the snowfall accumulating 
more weight through compaction. On a national level we have seen several new struc- 
tures, namely sportsdomes, suffer snowstorm damage but also shopping centers with 
poor structural features destroyed more thorough disregard for reality and the urge 
to reduce costs in initial construction. 


Wind is an insidious feature of the climatic world because it is essentially invisi- 
ble in its appearance on the surface. As as agent in climate it is the great transporter 
of material. An early classic geology book claimed that as a result of wind action 
every square inch of the surface of the earth had a particle from every other square 
inch of the surface of the earth. Air moving from one area to another is a quickly 
initiated process as per the experience one feels when a cloud passes in front of the 
sun on a summer day, and wind action ranges from the gentle breeze to the intensity 
of winds estimated at over 225 MPH and not measured by traditional wind devices. 
In addition there are the winds associated with tropical storms and tornadoes. These 
localized storms will be commented on later. 

Although Indiana is not to be considered as a state characterized by excessive 
wind activity most areas will receive winds that will damage trees two or three times 
a year. This implies winds of forty miles per hour or better. Non-tornado winds of 
50 or 60 MPH and gustiness prevails when strong fronts pass through. Stronger winds 

Presidential Address 69 

are associated with tornadoes. Wind velocity in itself is not the lone potential hazard. 
A review of charts from the wind recording machine also indicates the rapidity and 
frequency that wind changes direction thus resulting in twisting and turning of limbs 
and other objects. Long recognized are the natural features of valleys and hills and 
other topographic forms that modify air movement and velocity into classic winds. 
Now we must recognize the features added by man in the form of structures, barns, 
buildings, highrises, and skyscrapers. These structures telescope winds modifying their 
velocity and direction. 

A case in point-in a construction project on a campus the contractor stacked 
plywood removed from a previous work site in a pile. A few days later in a period 
of a passing front, the sheets, 8 ft. x 4 ft. are tossed around by gusts of wind up 
to 60 MPH. A man is struck in the back by a sheet and suffers a lot of pain. He 
sues the contractor claiming carelessness for not taking precautions and preventing 
the wood from blowing around. The injured does not conceive the wind storm as an 
Act of God. The contractor disclaims responsibility claiming that it was an exceptional 
storm and therefore it was beyond what he would be expected to provide protection 
against, and any wind capable of moving standard sheets of plywood is highly unusual. 
A study of their records for the stations nearby would reveal that although 60 MPH 
winds are high they do occur with sufficient frequency to justify their expectation several 
times a year or more. In addition, since the construction site was associated with other 
nearby large buildings, winds were tunneled with increased velocity. Unfortunately in 
the site where the incident took place climatic statistics are not collected so the 
climatologist must provide knowledgeable interpretation of the site at the time the 
accident occurred. The situation does not warrant a conclusion that it was "An Act 
of God". It is a man-environment incident. 


Of the climatic happenings that take place in our environment. Tornadoes would 
fit most of the guidelines or requirements for an Act of God event since they are 
sudden and unusual. Perhaps, at least in Indiana. Tornadoes appear to be the most 
feared of our weather. Indiana, by record, has more than its share of tornadoes when 
compared with other states and it might appear that some areas in the state are more 
susceptible than others. There is no justification to believe that some areas are exempt 
from this hazard. Earlier, it was the custom of farm homes to have as part of the 
living facility a storm cellar, literally a hole in the ground, to wait out the storm. 
Today few such shelters are built unless associated with bomb shelters under a civil 
defense program. 

Agee et al(5) report only two counties in Indiana without a recorded tornado 
in the period 1916-1968 but at the same time a record high of 24 in Porter County 
for the same period. Where recorded, the path of surface contact for the tornado 
is well described and measured. The longest of record is 121 miles and is known as 
the Monticello tornado of April 3, 1974. That same date, Indiana also experienced 
20 other tornadoes, the record for any single day. 

Since 1968 tornado records now indicate that every county in Indiana has ex- 
perienced a tornado and Porter County continues to be the leader in the number of 
occurrences. Recorded injuries in tornado periods appears to reflect in part the disbelief 
of the energy of such a storm. 

In spite of the events in a tornado and the response of disbelief by people it 
is difficult today to consider even a tornado an Act of God. Weather bureaus, 
meteorologists, civil defense groups, storm watchers and scientific investigations have 
provided so much that the element of surprise and the nature and intensity of the 
storm as well as its approximate path is often known before it strikes. 

70 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 95 (1986) 

Other Climatic Hazards 

The hazards of climate include such features as fog, hail, blizzards, drought, heat, 
cold, windchill, and the yet to be measured effectively, anti-human regime including 
monotony. The latter item most would deny but in the practical way human behavior 
under certain climatic conditions (excessive cloudiness, lack of sunshine) can be related 
to retail sales, automobile accidents, anti-social actions and crime. 


A climatic event considered as an Act of God seems to be a way out for those 
wanting to ignore their obligations or failings. To those bringing such cases into litiga- 
tion it seems directed to an "either or situation". If the case can be judged that it 
is in no way a product of human action and no explanation or scientific interpretation 
can be provided to the court, "An Act of God" may well prevail. It is doubtful that 
some explanation can not be found but some wish to concede that all natural events 
are of a divine nature the acceptance of which is to be used at the convenience of 
those involved. 

From time to time judicial decisions have provided stepping stones to the under- 
standing of the place of climatic events as part of the environment and not part of 
a mystic. A decision has already been made that rainfall intensity is not an Act of 
God. For those in Indiana who have experienced a rainfall of 2" in five minutes this 
might cause some concern. 

In reviewing a number of cases in which the culprit might be considered some 
feature of climate it appears that several options might be involved: 

1 . Use of climatic statistics as background information of the environment in 
which an incident occurred. 

2. Use of climatic data to prove that climatic conditions was a contributing fac- 
tor to an incident. 

3. Use of climatic information to prove "An Act of God". 

Two events of national importance have surfaced in the courts relating to climatic 
events. The U.S. Weather Bureau and its personnel were ruled against in a multimillion 
dollar suit on the basis that they failed in providing sufficient warnings about a storm 
which resulted in the loss of life of two fishermen. In another case action is promised 
because sufficient warning was not provided of extreme turbulence. A plane flew into 
the disturbance and crashed, killing nearly all aboard. These cases would indicate 
whatever the cause of a storm, man is expected to know about it and has the facilities 
to make the observations and forecasts to protect life and property. Whether the storm 
was an Act of God or not, the implication is strong that man has the technology to 
provide sufficient warnings. 

Several hazards once considered as part of the Act of God have been handled 
by insurance companies in appropriate ways. Within reason, hurricane insurance is 
available as well as hail insurance in well defined areas. However, most purchasers 
of insurance covering property would do well to note that unless specifically stated 
many natural hazards are not covered. From the cases observed, it might well be bet- 
ter to remove the phrase "Act of God" from the law and update the wording to clearly 
identify natural hazards with a complete understanding of what the potential happen- 
ings could be. The proverbial remark "it's raining cats and dogs" may be a hazard 
of great improbability but is not "An Act of God". 


1 . American Jurisprudence pleading and practice forms the section devoted to Act 
of God has the essential features noted here. Earlier editions did not note the 

Presidential Address 71 

fourth item referring to the matter of expected warnings and forecasts by the 
usual government agencies. The tendency to hold them liable for forecasts or 
the correctness of forecasts. It is a recent development. 

2. Although the words unusual or unexpected are frequently used, their quantitative 
value is not defined and may well be at the convenience of those making 

3. In this section as in other sections, the referral to innumerable climatic statistics 
from a wide variety of sources would best be authenticated by noting that each 
worker would utilize publications available for his area. Long time records by 
the U.S. Weather Bureau, cooperative weather stations, NOAA publications and 
other papers. In Indiana one would inevitably turn to Visher, S.S., climate of 
Indiana (1944) as well as the large number of papers published in the proceedings 
of the Indiana Academy of Science. 

4. Although actual cases in which the author has been involved are cited here, the 
comments are the judgement of the author and therefore, exact names, places 
and dates are omitted. 

5. Keyser, Dennis, A., Agee, Ernest M. and Church, Christopher R., The Modern 
Climatology of Indiana Tornadoes 380-391 the proceedings of the Indiana Academy 
of Science Vol 87 1977. 

'Scientific Literacy: The Missing Link' 

Jane Butler Kahle* 

Departments of Biology and Science Education 

Purdue University 

West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 

The earth revolves with me, yet makes no motion, 
The stars pale silently in a coral sky. 
In a whistling void I stand before my mirror, 
Unconcerned, and tie my tie. 

(Aiken, 1953) 

Why Scientific Literacy? 

A senior student, preparing to teach science, recently responded to a question 
on the nature and evolution of science in the following way. "The nature of science 
involves categorizing and labeling." Another responded, "The nature of science is ex- 
planation. [Science] grows as men [sic] pour money into its development because they 
see an opportunity to control other men [sic]." The answers of these would-be teachers 
show little understanding of science — as an intellectual endeavor or as a process. In- 
stead they reveal a basic lack of scientific literacy. Yet, these students are science ma- 
jors; I shudder to ponder the responses of humanities, education, agriculture, or— 
even— engineering students. 

While you and I can appreciate the beauty of an elegant experiment, can ponder 
the interrelationship of science and technology, can argue the merits or virtues of ap- 
plied versus pure science, even we may have difficulty articulating a concise definition 
of scientific literacy. And without a precise conceptualization, we may question its 
importance. Yet, as we move toward a "technocracy" in which the opportunity — 
indeed the privilege — of employment as well as the quality of life is increasingly based 
on literacy in the sciences, its importance grows. 

Twenty-five years ago, C.P. Snow's small volume, The Two Cultures, alerted 
scientists and humanists alike to the existence of two cultures and to the schism be- 
tween them. He wrote: 

At one pole, the scientific culture really is a culture, not only in an intellectual 
but also in an anthropological sense. That is, its members need not, and of course 
often do not, always completely understand each other; biologists more often 
than not will have a pretty hazy idea of contemporary physics; but there are com- 
mon attitudes, common standards and patterns of behaviour, common approaches 
and assumptions. 

At the other pole, the spread of attitudes is wider. . . . But I believe the pole 
of total incomprehension of science radiates its influence on all the rest. That 
total incomprehension gives, much more pervasively than we realise, living in 
it, an unscientific flavour to the whole 'traditional' culture, and that unscientific 
flavour is often, much more than we admit, on the point of turning anti-scientific. 

(Snow, 1961, p. 10-11.) 

♦Indiana Academy of Science, "Speaker of the Year," 1985-86. 


Speaker of the Year 


Recently, the schism between the scientific and traditional cultures has widened to 
a chasm, and scientific literacy may be the only way to bridge the gulf. I maintain 
that scientific literacy can provide the "missing link" between the two cultures, enabl- 
ing the scientists and non-scientists to communicate intelligently and to act with wisdom. 
It also can provide the cognizance so that we no longer stand before mirrors and un- 
concerned, tie our ties. 

What is Scientific Literacy? 

To be literate is to be able to read and write, yet 12% of our population cannot 
do so. To be functionally literate is to be able to respond correctly to simple written 
questions about everyday modern life, yet 20% of American 17-year-olds fail such 
a task. To be scientifically literate is to be able to read about, comprehend, and ex- 
press an opinion on scientific matters, yet 70% of the public cannot do so. (Figure 1) 

^TTrnTTTTirTTTI 1 1 



— Read About 
- Comprehend 
Express an 
Opinion on 

Figure 1. Science Literacy. 

70% illiterate 

50% science terms 
40% science issues 

Scientific literacy is composed of three dimensions: 

* An understanding of the norms of science, 

* A knowledge of the major scientific constructs, and 

* An awareness of the impact of science and technology on society and the policy 
choices that must inevitably emerge. 

(Miller, 1983, p. 31.) 

How well does John or Jane Q. Public understand each of these three dimensions? 
A detailed National Science Foundation survey of adult attitudes toward science and 
technology included all of the items necessary to measure each of the three dimensions 
of scientific literacy and utilized a national probability sample from which valid 
generalizations might be made (Miller, 1983). The results revealed that fewer than half 


Indiana Academy of Science 

Vol. 95 (1986) 

of our adult population had a minimal facility with basic scientific terms, while only 
40 percent demonstrated a minimal level of competency with science issues. 

The situation becomes clearer if we compare scientific literacy with everyday 
"reading and writing" literacy. (Figure 2) In that context, answering a simple question 

Who is Literate? 

Have you read 

a work of 


Can you read? 

Can you describe 
the 2nd Law of 

What is mass? 

Levels of Literacy 

Figure 2. Levels of Literacy. 

Speaker of the Year 75 

such as "What is mass?" is equivalent to being able to read. At a more sophisticated 
level, we can equate the ability to read Shakespeare with the ability to describe the 
Second Law of Thermodynamics. Think for a minute, would our colleagues call us 
illiterate— if we had never read Shakespeare? Yet, do they apologize for not understand- 
ing physics? The situation was dramatized for me several years ago when I was the 
biology educator for a New York Zoological Society's expedition to the Galapagos. 
Each participant, lawyer, doctor, journalist, volunteer, was interested in nature, 
photography, and travel. Although affluent and highly educated, most claimed to be 
unable to understand science and steered clear of the geological and biological presen- 
tations that preceeded each landing. Yet, I was expected to discuss books, arts, and 
politics with a high degree of literacy and aplomb every evening at dinner. Who is 

The results of the National Science Foundation's survey divide the general public 
into two basic segments. (Figure 3) Approximately 82% of the general public is unat- 

Who Decides? 

I Decision— Maker 

// m_m\ - 

■ Policy Leaders 

Alarming MMOt W n ... .. _ ... 

m^^r^ ■ Attentive Public 

Situation r-] Nonattentive Publi 

Science and Technology Policy Formation 
Figure 3. Science & Technology Policy Formation. 

tentive to scientific and technological issues, while 1 8% of the public is attentive to 
science and technology policy formation (Miller, 1983). A smaller proportion of the 
attentive public are policy leaders and an even smaller proportion are the decision 
makers. Therefore, the general public has become dependent upon politicians and science 
journalists, at best, or idealogues and yellow journalists, at worst, to interpret scien- 
tific issues. This alarming situation is illustrated by considering the importance of scien- 
tific literacy in adjudicating the issues of scientific creationism in our schools. Judge 
Overton of the U.S. District Court of the Eastern District of Arkansas based his 1982 
decision on a definition of what constitutes science. His opinion, which prevented the 
infusion of scientific creationism into biology courses, illustrates the importance of 
scientific literacy. He wrote: 

76 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 95 (1986) 

More precisely, the essential characteristics of science are: 

(1) It is guided by natural law; 

(2) It has to be explanatory by reference to natural law; 

(3) It is testable against the empirical world; 

(4) Its conclusions are tentative, i.e., are not necessarily the final word; and 

(5) It is falsifiable. 

Creation science . . . fails to meet these essential characteristics. 

(Overton, 1982, p. 175). 

Although a non-scientist, Overton's scientific literacy enabled him to bridge the chasm 
between the two cultures. 

The problem of scientific literacy is compounded by a general lack of literacy 
concerning technology and computers. (Figure 4) Few traditionalists can distinguish 

What Do We Mean? < 

f Scientific literacy begins with the interaction between / 

( science and society 

Technological literacy suggests a grasp of the 
difference between science 8c technology, the 

effect of technology on both the quality and 
quantity of life, and the uses of technology 

Computer literacy differentiates between a problem 

a computer can and cannot solve; that is, the 
ability to tell tine computer what to do 

Figure 4. Definitions of Scientific, Technological & Computer Literacy. 

between science and technology, 1 let alone define technological literacy. And one only 
has to check on a computerized Visa account to realize that computers "think." 
However, basic literacy in all three areas will be prerequisites for employment in and 
understanding of our information-based society. As Frank Press has said, 

Literacy . . . does not mean that all students should be able to draw the structure 
of DNA. They should, however, have a basic understanding of the world of 
technology in which they will live and in which a rising proportion will make 
their living. They should understand what computers actually do and what their 
limits are. The world of the present decade will use a new language: robotics, 
CAD, CAM, integrated circuits, and the like. Those who do not understand that 
language are in for a difficult time. 

(Press, 1982, p. 1055.) 

Speaker of the Year 77 

Who Has Scientific Literacy? 

Although scientific literacy has been espoused as an educational goal, little is 
done to achieve it. As Graubard has written, 

If scientific illiteracy is common today, it is because America's schools and univer- 
sities permit the condition to exist, indeed perpetuate it. Until a more conscien- 
tious effort is made to understand how educational institutions, in collusion with 
students, tolerate the evasion of science, making science appear an arcane mystery, 
comprehensible only to a few, necessary only for certain occupations and profes- 
sions, the true extent of contemporary American educational disingenuousness 
will never be seen. . . . Modern science is thought to be beyond the intelligence 
of ordinary children, of whatever class or race. ... To teach science well, at 
any level, calls for great skill. To learn science, beyond the most rudimentary 
level, demands effort, attention, and precision. . . . Why, then, have schools and 
universities been so lax, so ready to accept illiteracy in science and in other equally 
demanding subjects? Why, in short, has the student mood been so relaxed for 
so long? Why does the condition persist today, despite the alarms increasingly 
sounded about the importance of academic achievement for job security, the grow- 
ing concern about 'downward mobility' for great numbers of middle-class youth, 
and the grim employment prospects for those condemned to live in urban ghettos, 
often forced to contend with racial prejudice as well as with insufficient training? 
Why do these several conditions— each affecting millions— not produce major 
political repercussions? 

The answer, quite simply, is that these conditions do not produce a 'crisis'; they 
do not announce an imminent upheaval. 

(Graubard, 1983, pp. 239-240.) 

Science is avoided, indeed evaded, by most students. Nationally, only about one- 
sixth of all secondary school students currently take junior and senior courses in high 
school science and mathematics, and this fraction has remained constant for several 
years. Even after the recent, well-publicized, science education "crisis," only thirty 
states require more than one year of science or math for high school graduation. In 
contrast, Soviet schools require five years of physics, four of chemistry, 5.5 of biology, 
and five of geography. In the U.S., few students who are not intent on science or 
engineering careers take science beyond 10th grade biology or mathematics beyond 
10th grade geometry, and the dropout rate from science and mathematics beyond the 
10th grade level is particularly severe for girls and for minority students. Recent figures 
indicate that only 9% of our students take one year of physics, 16% one year of 
chemistry, 17% one year of general science, and 45% one year of biology. Futher- 
more, the proportion of students enrolled in science courses has declined over the last 
20 years. Thus, in effect, at the age of 16 many students deny themselves the oppor- 
tunity to enter rigorous college level courses in science, mathematics, or engineering. 
In addition, the majority of students leave high school with neither the basic skills 
of science and technology nor an understanding of those disciplines. 

Unfortunately, this situation continues into college, where fewer than 25% of 
the students elect science majors, and where non-science majors take few, if any, 
laboratory science courses. (Figure 5) Our students demonstrate a lack of interest in 
basic science or in scientific issues while espousing strong opinions on science related 
issues. (Figure 6) How have they formed such opinions? What evidence have they used? 
Are they scientifically literate? 

Recently, Lafayette and Indiana lost a bid for a multi-million dollar Mitsubishi 
plant. In commenting on the situation, President Beering noted the lack of language 


Indiana Academy of Science 

Vol. 95 (1986) 

What Shall I Study? 

1 9% Business 

15% Health 8c Medical Science 
13% Engineering. 
1 0% Computer Science 
7% Social Science 
5% Education 

The College Board (1984) 
Student Descriptive 


Figure 5. Intended Majors of Incoming U.S. College Freshmen (1984). 

skills on the part of the Hoosier negotiating team and commented that students believe 
that they have to select between science and technology or the liberal arts. He stated, 
"It's not an either/or situation. It's a 'both' and an 'and' situation" (Brameier, 1985, 
p. 1). The "both" and "and" approach can lead to a scientifically literate population. 
Indeed, science is central in the liberal education of all students. In the future, "to 
be scientifically illiterate is to be uneducated" (Phillips, 1985, p. 97). 

How to Teach for Scientific Literacy? 

Two teacher scientists, Arnold Arons and John A. Moore, have thought and written 
about educating Americans for scientific literacy. I shall lean heavily on their writings 
as I search for the "missing link." Both begin with the nature of science and state 
that science cannot be taught by verbal inculcation; both investigate current science 
courses and suggest curricular changes; and both describe a scientifically literate person. 

Currently, there are two kinds of college courses that purport to cultivate scien- 
tific literacy in the non-science student. They are: 

* courses which in one quarter, one semester, or even one year attempt to provide 
insights into the major achievements of science, and 

* courses which in an equally restrictive time period focus on a narrow, but 
topical, area such as eugenics, environment, or energy. 

(Arons, 1983, p. 96.) 

Speaker of the Year 

Who Cares? 


Att/tudos of U.S. Co//oge Un/vors/ty Students 

The Chronicle of Higher Education (February 1, 1984) 

Figure 6. Attitudes of U.S. College/University Students. 

Such courses, like Halley's comet, appear briefly, receive rave student evaluations, 
and vanish rapidly to be followed by newer offerings, which continue to be both 
ephemeral and evanescent. 

In the first category, students, despite the good intentions of the young scientists 
who usually teach the courses, are invariably subjected to an incomprehensible stream 
of technical jargon, to a rapid-fired approach, and to an information overload. Accord- 
ing to Arons, 

[B]oth the pace and the volume of material preclude any meaningful reflection 
on the scope and limitations of scientific knowledge or of its impact on our in- 
tellectual heritage and view of man's [sic] place in the universe. The 'stream of 
words' courses have not solved, and will not solve, our education problem, however 
handsomely illustrated the texts and however liberally salted they may be with 
allusions to pollution, ethics, energy crises, stellar nucleosynthesis, black holes, 
and Kafka. 

(Arons, 1983, pp. 96 & 97.) 

Although such courses try to focus on essentials, in science today's essentials rapidly 
become tomorrow's trivia. With scientific knowledge doubling every five years, survey 
courses are dated before they are begun. 

Courses in the second category, on the other hand, offer what I call the 
smorgasbord approach to science— attractive nibbles with little substance. As an 
undergraduate at the University of Chicago, my son called such courses "cocktail 
science;" that is, courses which provided the gist for interesting cocktail conversation. 
In a more serious vein, Arons writes that 

intellectual integrity would demand that students acquire some genuine comprehen- 

80 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 95 (1986) 

sion of the scientific concepts, theories, and insights underlying the great topical 
problem being examined, and that students should not be encouraged to discourse 
vacuously on matters they essentially do not understand. 

(Arons, 1983, p. 97.) 

Most philosophers and teachers of science agree that the unique contribution of 
science in the education of scientists and non-scientists alike is the development of 
critical thinkers. Such students and citizens are able to distinguish between science 
and pseudoscience; are able to evaluate evidence; are able to discard old ideas and 
notions; and, most of all, are able to be moved by reason. How do we plan and teach 
courses to develop critical thinkers? 

Arons suggests that we must move students beyond declarative knowledge 
(knowledge of facts) to operative knowledge (understanding the source of facts). The 
following example illustrates the two types of knowledge: 

Declarative Operative 

The earth revolves about sun How do we know earth revolves around sun 

and why do we accept that view when ap- 
pearances suggest the opposite? 

Scientific literacy is only possible with a thorough grasp of operative knowledge in 
at least one area of science, and critical thinking requires a familiarity with criteria 
for assessing reasons (especially those concerned with empirical evidence) in several 
disciplines. (Siegel, 1985). 

One suggestion focuses on course content. That is, we should "back off," "slow 
down", and give students time to follow and absorb the development of a small number 
of major scientific ideas. For example, a course could concentrate on one or more 
of the following ideas. 

* Why do we believe the earth revolves around the sun? In what context and 
theory is this statement true? 

* Why do we believe that matter is discrete in structure; that is, what is the 
evidence for the atomic-molecular theory? 

* What do we mean by the concept 'electrical charge?' How does the concept 
originate? Is 'charge' a kind of substance? On what grounds do we believe 
that there are only two kinds of electrical charge? What (hypothetical) ex^ 
perience would force us to conclude we had discovered a third variety? 2 

* Why do we believe that living organisms have changed over time? What is 
the evidence? 

Another suggestion focuses on pedagogy. Courses to develop scientific literacy 
should be structured to promote "science as a way of knowing" (Moore, 1983). (Figure 
7). At the very least, students should be able to state the problem to be investigated. 
Second, they should use the common sense approach to make a preliminary "guess" 
as to what the answer may be. That step is similar to developing a hypothesis by in- 
duction and that hypothesis must be testable. Since the data must be verifiable, Moore 
(1983) suggests that science is a self-correcting way of knowing. Arons concurs with 
Moore stating that college students need to practice the above modes and that such 
practice should include opportunities to detect and correct errors. 

A third suggestion targets the curriculum. The barriers between the two cultures 
need to be broken down. As scientists who teach science we need to become more 
literate and articulate about the societal, historical, philosophical and epistemological 
aspects of our particular field. Since few of us were trained as generalists, such knowledge 

Speaker of the Year 
How Do We Know? 


as a way of knowing 

1 . Ask a question 

2. Develop a hypothesis 
by induction 

Make deductions from 
the hypothesis 

4. Test the deductions 

5. Use conclusions from 
the tests to validate 

or falsify the hypothesis 


Science as a 
self correcting 
way of knowing 

Moore. John A. (1984) 

Figure 7. Science As a Way of Knowing. 

will require deliberate effort. Likewise, instructors in the humanities must stop run- 
ning from science and see it as an ideal discipline to develop critical thinkers. The 
techniques proposed will cause frustration; it is easier to tell than to do science. The 
courses suggested must be viewed as a "raising up" rather than a "watering down" 
of science; for only with new pedagogy and new content can we help students under- 
stand the principles and concepts of science. 

What Are the Characteristics of Scientific Literacy? 

If we are successful in changing our courses and our methods of teaching, we 
will find that our students will be able to: 

* Recognize that scientific concepts are created by acts of human intelligence. 

* Recognize that a scientific concept involves first an idea and then a name 
and that technical jargon is not science. 

* Differentiate between observation and inference. 

* Understand the meaning of theory in the scientific context. 

* Develop a basic knowledge and understanding in one area of science which 
permits further learning without formal instruction. 

* Recognize the few specific instances in which scientific knowledge changed 
intellectual history. 

* Make decisions on issues concerning science and society. 

* Understand the similarity between certain modes of thinking in science and 


Indiana Academy of Science 

Vol. 95 (1986) 

other disciplines (history, political science, sociology, and economics); that 
is, hypothetico-deductive reasoning. 

(Arons, 1983). 

To develop a scientifically literate population mathematics, science and technology must 
become part of the core of liberal education. In addition, the science courses in that 
core must present "science as a way of knowing" in order to move students toward 
operative knowledge and critical thinking. 

In summary, our goal is "savvy" citizens. (Figure 8) For example, a person with 
street savvy might use probability in penny pitching, discuss statistics in football, and 

Who's Savvy? 






penny pitchinc 


street gangs 

Sawy separates outsiders from those in the know 

Figure 8. Science Savvy. 

understand territoriality through street gangs. While someone with science savvy would 
understand probability in genetics, use statistics in math, and discuss territoriality in 

By definition savvy citizens are not outsiders in their own society. Rather than 
being manipulated (or feeling manipulated) by forces beyond understanding and 
beyond control, the citizen 'in the know' can make the system work. 

(Prewitt, 1983, p. 54). 

Citizens who have "science savvy" can make the system work for them. They may 
lead enriched lives; they may hold better, or more permanent, jobs. In any case, their 
scientific literacy will provide a linkage between the two cultures in our society, enabl- 
ing them to be savvy citizens. 

Speaker of the Year 83 


Aiken, C. (1953). Collected Poems. New York: Oxford University Press. 

Arons, A. B. (1983, Spring). Achieving wider scientific literacy. Daedalus 1 12(2): 91-122. 

Atkinson, R. C. (1984, March 30). Education for an age of science. Science HZ: 1355. 

Brameier, R. (1985, Oct. 1). Japanese experience prompts call for foreign-language 
study. Journal & Courier, Lafayette, IN, p. 1. 

Graubard, S. R. (1983, Spring). Nothing to fear, much to do. Daedalus 1 12(2): 231-248. 

Hodson, D. (1985). Philosophy of science, science & science education. Studies in Science 
Education 12: 25-57. 

Hurd, P. D. (1985, Sept.). Science education for a new age: The reform movement. 
NASSP Bulletin 69(482): 83-92. 

Hurd, P. D. (1984). Reforming science education: The search for a new vision. 
Washington, DC: Council for Basic Education., Occasional Paper 33. 

Miller, J. D. (1983, Spring). Scientific literacy: A conceptual and empirical review. 
Daedalus 112(2): 29-48. 

Moore, J. A. (1984). Science as a way of knowing: Evolutionary biology. Journal 
of College Science Teaching 14: 29-36. 

Moore, J. A. (1983, Dec). Science as a way of knowing: Evolutionary biology. River- 
side, CA: Department of Biology, University of California. 

Nelkin, D. (1984). Science as Intellectual Property. AAAS Series on Issues in Science 
& Technology. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. 

Overton, W. (1982). Creationism in the schools: The Arkansas decision. The American 
Biology Teacher 44: 172-175. 

Philips, D. C. (1985). Can scientific method be taught? Journal of College Science 
Teaching 15: 95-107. 

Press, F. (1982). The fate of school science. Science 216: 1055. 

Prewitt, K. (1983, Spring). Scientific illiteracy and democratic theory. Daedalus 112(2): 

Science for Non-Specialists: The College Years. (1982). Washington, DC: National 
Academy Press. 

Siegel, H. (1985). Relativism, rationality, & science education. Journal of College Science 
Teaching 15: 102-105. 

Snow, C. P. (1961). The two cultures and the scientific revolution. New York: Cam- 
bridge University Press. 

Thomas, L. (1980, June). Commencement address. Stanford University. Palo Alto, 
CA: Stanford Observer, p. 2. 

Walberg, H. J. (1983, Spring). Scientific literacy and economic productivity in inter- 
national perspective. Daedalus 112(2): 1-28. 

Reference Notes 

1 . For the purposes of this paper, technology will be considered the branch of human 
experience that people can learn and use with predictable results. 

2. The first three examples are taken from Arons, A. B., 1983, p. 98. 


Chair: Diane E. Beynon 

Department of Anthropology 

Indiana University-Purdue University at Fort Wayne 

2101 Coliseum Boulevard East, Fort Wayne, Indiana 46805 (219) 482-5391 

Chair-Elect: Ronald Hicks 

Department of Anthropology 

Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana 47306 (317) 285-4927 


Evidence for Heat-treatment at the Wint Site (12B95), Bartholomew County, Indiana. 

C. Michael Anslinger, Anthropology Laboratory, Indiana State University, Terre 

Haute, Indiana 47809. An on-going analysis of the lithic assemblage recovered 

from the Wint Site (12B95), a multicomponent settlement with a major Riverton com- 
ponent located in Bartholomew County, indicates heat-treated cherts were used in the 
manufacture of certain tool types. Tools and debitage were categorized on the basis 
of chert type and reduction stage, and then examined for evidence of heat-treatment 
using the standard criteria of color, luster and fracture. Before doing so, however, 
a support collection consisting of raw, heat-treated and heat-fractured cherts was ac- 
cumulated by collecting raw cherts from the immediate and local site area, and then 
subjecting them to a series of controlled and uncontrolled heating experiments. Results 
indicate that while heat-treated cherts were frequently selected to manufacture certain 
tool types, they were less frequently or never selected for the manufacture of others. 
Information regarding the frequency of heat-treatment for different chert types and 
the stage at which heat-treatment was used within the overall lithic system also resulted. 
Finally, thermoluminesence (TL) determinations of select artifacts confirms the use 
of heat-treatment at the site. 

Pesticide Use: An Occupational Hazard in the Conduct of Archaeological Survey. 

Kristen Beckman, Department of Sociology and Anthropology, Indiana University- 
Purdue University at Fort Wayne, Fort Wayne, Indiana 46805. This paper ex- 
amines the latest information regarding the health effects of several of the pesticides 
most commonly used in the fields by the farmers of Northeastern Indiana. The explicit 
statement of the hazards which surround these agents necessarily leads to the explora- 
tion of what steps can and should be taken to minimize the risks to field workers 
who undertake pedestrian ground survey in order to locate archaeological sites. 

Archaic Adaptations in Northeastern Indiana: An Overview. Diane E. Beynon, Depart- 
ment of Sociology and Anthropology, Indiana University-Purdue University at Fort 

Wayne, Fort Wayne, Indiana 46805. This paper presents an overview of preliminary 

research results from three consecutive archaeological surveys in the Northeast Indiana 
area. Over eighty newly documented Archaic loci have provided information concern- 
ing settlement patterning in the Northern Moraine and Lakes Region of Indiana. Riverine 
Archaic and Lacustrine Archaic adaptations are compared and site selection processes 
are examined. The evidence indicates at this point in time an intensive and almost 
exclusive Archaic occupation of the biotically rich and circumscribed resource zones 


86 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 95 (1986) 

in the Northern Moraine and Lake Province of the state. The distribution of Woodland 
sites is in the more southerly oriented Tipton Till Plain along the edges of the southern 
end of the St. Joseph River and along the Maumee's Riverbanks. This phenomenon 
that of an almost exclusive Archaic region, also has been documented for similar areas 
in Northwestern Ohio. Large Archaic villages and small residential camps are located 
close to the waters edge at the location of large meander loops on rivers and on elevated 
beach ridges of lakes. Small resource extraction stations are located in the interior 
uplands. To people whose main economic strategy was the collecting of seasonal and 
scheduled resources and the distribution of those resources to a semi-permanent residen- 
tial population, the restricted yet biotically rich ecotones of the Northern Moraine 
and Lake Region of Northeastern Indiana provided an optimal environment. 

Jeffersonville Chert: A Problem in Provenience. Mark Cantin and C. Michael Ans- 
linger, Anthropology Laboratory, Indiana State University, Terre Haute, Indiana 

47809. In this paper the authors propose to name and define a chert type found 

to outcrop in southeastern Indiana. Through geostratigraphic means, the name sug- 
gested for this chert is to be "Jeffersonville" Chert. Through physical properties and 
fossil assemblages, an attempt is made to define it as geochemical and petrographic 
studies are still pending. This study was undertaken because of the lack of information 
in the geological and archaeological literature concerning this chert when provenience 
was sought after it appeared in artifactual form at the Riverton Wint Site (12B95). 

Hithertofore known vernacularly as "Coffee Creek" Chert after its potential source 
area in Jennings County, Indiana, it was believed to be a variant of the silurian-aged 
Laurel Chert. However, reconnaissance has demonstrated provenience in the devonian- 
aged Jeffersonville Limestone which warrants the new name for its more accurate 
lithologic, stratigraphic and temporal implications. 

The geological information demonstrates the necessity for provenience. This in- 
formation, in turn, can be applied to archaeological models of socio-technological and 
lithic procurement strategies of prehistoric peoples utilizing this chert. 

Early Archaic in the Upper Wabash Drainage: An Initial Assessment. Donald R. 
Cochran, Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana 47306. Since 1979 the Ar- 
chaeological Resources Management Service (ARMS) has been involved in researching 
the prehistory of a region defined by the Upper Wabash River drainage basin. This 
paper reports the results of a survey of early Archaic points from the region; the survey 
was initiated as a means of developing regional Early Archaic settlement patterns. During 
the project 171 Early Archaic points recovered from ARMS surveys were used to develop 
a regional chronology and to determine the density and distribution of Early Archaic 
materials within the region. Correlations of chert raw material types and point types 
were investigated to define the home range of the Early Archaic components present 
within the region. The project recorded a density of one Early Archaic artifact for 
every 37 acres surveyed. The majority of the points occurred singly and only 3 sites 
contained more than one point of the same type. Correlations of points and the major 
environmental zones present within the region revealed a definite preference for the 
till plain/valley and the lakes, marshes and bogs zones. Chert types employed in the 
manufacture of Early Archaic points suggested distinctly different home ranges for 
certain Early Archaic groups. Although the results of the project were not definitive, 
patterns relative to the Early Archaic settlement of the region were identified for testing 
during future projects. 

Anthropology 87 

Test Excavations at the Smith Site (12-Vi-86) in 1985, Vigo County, Indiana. Chris 
Jackson and Robert E. Pace, Anthropology Laboratory, Indiana State University, 

Terre Haute, Indiana 47809. Previous testing in 1984 established the presence of 

Late Woodland Albee and Mississippian Vincennes components. Alternative hypotheses 
being pursued view the components as representing (1) temporally and culturally separate 
habitations, (2) selective exchange between contemporary cultures in the region, or 
(3) rapid cultural assimilation of contemporary cultural traditions. Data having a bearing 
upon these hypotheses and upon subsistence, storage features and intra-site organiza- 
tion are discussed. 

Archaeological Investigation of the Early 19th Century Preston House, Terre Haute, 
Indiana. Misty Jackson and Mary Ellen Waite, Anthropology Laboratory, Indiana 

State University, Terre Haute, Indiana 47809. The Preston House, the earliest 

standing residential structure in Terre Haute, is listed on the National and State registers 
of Historic Places. Built by a former Louisiana resident between 1823 and 1826, the 
house is an example of the southern vernacular of French Colonial architecture. It 
is believed to be unique in Indiana, and perhaps the Midwest. In addition to an ac- 
count of the history and folklore of the house, archaeological methods employed and 
initial results of excavation are reported. 

An Archaeological Survey of Jay County, Indiana. Mary Lou James and Donald 

R. Cochran, Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana 47306. A sampling survey 

of Jay County, Indiana was undertaken to acquire data on prehistoric use of the en- 
vironmental zones present within the county. The survey covered 1,227 acres and recorded 
323 sites for a mean site density of one site for every 3.7 acres surveyed. Overall ar- 
tifact densities were relatively low, 4 artifacts per acre surveyed. Site densities were 
not appreciably greater in the edge zones, but artifact densities were; the edge zones 
contained a mean of 25 artifacts per site while the other environmental zones con- 
tained a mean of only 8 artifacts per site. The survey also compared artifact class 
distributions and chert raw material associations to derive settlement pattern data rele- 
vant to the remainder of the Upper Wabash drainage of central Indiana. 

Test Excavations at the Amini Site: A Late Archaic Settlement in Dubois County, 
Indiana, 1985. James Kendrick and Robert E. Pace, Anthropology Laboratory, Ind- 
iana State University, Terre Haute, Indiana 47809. The north perimeter of the 

Amini Site was examined during the summer of 1985. The site occupies a bluff spur 
overlooking the Patoka River, north of Huntingburg in Dubois County. An average 
of 45 cm of stained midden was encountered along with a fire hearth and mortuary 
features. Artifactual materials reflect minor occupations by terminal Archaic and Late 
Woodland peoples but the midden appears to be that of a Late Archaic population. 
Matanzas cluster points, hafted scrapers and incised bone pins, along with a radiocar- 
bon date, indicate a cultural association with French Lick Phase sites elsewhere in 
southern Indiana, and related Late Archaic phases in Kentucky and Illinois. 

Projectile Point Types of Northeastern Indiana. James August Mohow, Ball State 

University, Muncie, Indiana 47306. A presentation of projectile point types from 

surveys and excavations in northeastern Indiana. The artifacts analyzed are from regional 
archaeological research projects of Indiana University-Purdue University at Fort Wayne, 
Ball State University, the Indiana Department of Highways, the Maumee River Survey, 
and credible private collections. The point types identified are indicative of aboriginal 
occupations in the northeast Indiana region ranging from the Paleo Indian Period 
to Late Woodland times. The presentation stresses the importance of such comparative 

88 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 95 (1986) 

identification of chronologically sensitive artifacts, particularly in the northeastern quarter 
of the state where deeply stratified or undisturbed sites are rare. 

Arrowhead Arch (12Cr219), a Multicomponent Rockshelter Site in Southcentral Indiana. 

Mark Schurr and Ken Tankersley, Glenn A. Black Laboratory of Archaeology, 

Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 47405. Arrowhead Arch (12Cr219) is 

a large multicomponent rockshelter site in Southcentral Indiana. Although it is described 
as a "rockshelter," this unique site is actually a large sandstone cave with three en- 
trances. Test excavations conducted by Indiana University in 1984 sampled undisturbed 
cultural deposits which extended to a depth of 4.25 m. Cultural remains from the 
Late Archaic to Fort Ancient periods were recovered in stratified context. Of par- 
ticular interest were fragments of a Middle Woodland pipe manufactured from Wyan- 
dotte Cave speleothem aragonite associated with charcoal dated to 1795 ± 65 B.P. 
(UGa-5323). Anderson Phase Fort Ancient ceramics also were recovered providing the 
first documentation of these materials in Southcentral Indiana. 

The Present Status of Knowledge Regarding Petroglyphs, Markings, and Notable Graffiti 
in the State of Indiana. B. K. Swartz, Jr., Department of Anthropology, Ball State 

University, Muncie, Indiana 47306. Rock markings from nine Indiana localities 

are identified. A description of the exposure at the (Upper) Critchfield Cave site, 
12-Or-381 (AS-IU) is included. No attempt is made to record only incidental graffiti. 

Early Paleoindian Chert Exploitation in Indiana: A Preliminary Report. Kenneth B. 
Tankersley, Glenn A. Black Laboratory of Archaeology, Indiana University, Bloom- 
ington, Indiana 47405. The lithostratigraphic and geographic distribution of chert 

resources in Indiana recently have been identified. The petrologic composition of these 
chert source areas also have been identified and compared with those cherts which 
have been manufactured into fluted projectile points. The results of these analyses 
demonstrate the importance of Wyandotte, Attica, and Holland cherts in the exploita- 
tion strategies of early Paleoindians in Indiana. 

An Archaeological Excavation at the Alton Site, Perry County, Indiana. Curtis H. 

Tomak, Indiana Department of Highways, Indianapolis, Indiana. 46204. The Alton 

site is situated upon a terrace of the Ohio River in Perry County. A principal compo- 
nent of the site is Paleo-Indian, and a substantial amount of Paleo-Indian material 
has been found there. Included in that material are fluted points, unfluted points, 
and unifacial flake tools. The writer has been involved with the Alton site for the 
past few years and in 1984 conducted an excavation at the site. The excavation was 
funded by a research grant from the Indiana Academy of Science, and this paper 
discusses that research. 


Chair: Austin E. Brooks 

Department of Biology 

Wabash College, Crawfordsville, Indiana 47933 (317) 364-4350 

Chair-Elect: Gail E. Ruhl 

Plant Diagnostic Clinic 

Department of Botany and Plant Pathology 

Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (317) 494-4641 


Effect of Abscisic Acid on Phospholipid Bilayers. Blair Brengle, William Stillwell 
and Stephen Wassall, Departments of Biology and Physics, Indiana University-Purdue 

University at Indianapolis, Indianapolis, Indiana 46223. Our laboratory has been 

studying the effect of the plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) on phospholipid bilayer 
membranes. We previously have demonstrated that ABA increases bilayer permeabil- 
ity to the non-electrolytes urea, erythritol and glucose, to the cation Pr 3+ and to water. 
The permeability enhancement for erythritol is much greater with mixed component 
bilayers than with membranes composed only of phosphatidylcholine. We have used 
several sophisticated biophysical techniques to study the nature of these ABA-membrane 
effects. The hormone adversely affects lipid vesicle stability by enhancing aggregation 
and/or fusion. ABA does not appear to behave as a general bilayer perturbing agent 
as no ABA dependent change in acyl chain motion can be detected by l3 C-NMR of 
phospholipid vesicles or by ESR measurements of bilayers containing spin labelled fatty 
acids. The failure of ABA to alter 31 P-NMR relaxation furthermore implies that the 
hormone is not strongly interacting with the phospholipid head groups and no signifi- 
cant ABA induced perturbations of phase behavior can be detected by differential 
scanning calorimetry or by the ESR-Tempo spin label technique. These results indicate 
that although ABA does have a profound effect on bilayer permeability, it must be 
altering very small regions of the bilayer, perhaps through channel formation. 

The Algae of an Acid Lake. A.E. Brooks, W.N. Doemel and J.E. Miner, Depart- 
ment of Biology, Wabash College, Crawfordsville, Indiana 47933; and A.K. Konopka, 

Department of Biology, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907. 

Reservoir 29, an acidic strip mine drainage lake in the Green-Sullivan State Forest, 
is populated chiefly by three algal species that include: Chlamydomonas acidophila 
(chlorophyta), Euglena texta (euglenophyta) and Clorocloster pyreniger (chrysophyta). 
A diatom, Pinnularia is also present but in relatively small numbers. In 1984, the algae 
exhibited a major bloom late in the spring and a secondary peak late in the summer. 
Discrete sampling methods have revealed that the algae exist mainly in a five cen- 
timeter metalimnetic layer that seems to extend over a large area of the lake. Observa- 
tions also suggest that the algae exhibit a diurnal vertical migration. Isotopic carbon 
fixation experiments indicate that the algae are significant primary producers in this 
lake system. Preliminary experiments suggest that the algae may be carbon limited 
in the lake. High sulfide concentration in the hypolimnion also is thought to be impor- 
tant in regulating the vertical distribution of the algae. All three of the algae have 
been isolated and are being maintained in a simple salts medium supplemented with 
vitamin B and thiamine. 


90 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 95 (1986) 

Laticifer Differentiation in Embryoids Derived from Tissue Cultures of Asclepias 
curassavica (Asclepiadaceae). Kerry B. Dunbar and Kathryn J. Wilson, Depart- 
ment of Biology, Indiana University-Purdue University at Indianapolis, Indianapolis, 
Indiana 46223; Bruce H. Petersen, Eli Lilly Company, Indianapolis, Indiana 46202; 
and David D. Biesboer, Department of Botany, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, 
Minnesota 55108. Laticifers were detected in frozen sections of embryoids deriv- 
ed from callus cultures of Asclepias curassavica (blood flower) by an indirect fluores- 
cent antibody technique. Sections were treated with IgG fraction rabbit anti-latex an- 
tiserum, produced with mature Asclepias syriaca latex as a source of antigens, and 
with fluorescein-conjugated IgG fraction goat anti-rabbit IgG. Laticifers were iden- 
tified by their fluorescence in embryoids dissected from callus cultures. Stem explants 
from mature greenhouse plants were used to initiate callus on Murashige-Skoog (MS) 
medium supplemented with 1.0 mg/1 benzyl adenine, 5.0 mg/1 adenine, 2.0 mg/1 
2,4 dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), 0.1 g/1 myo-inositol, 0.4 g/1 casein hydrolysate, 
2.0% sucrose, and 0.9% agar, and adjusted to pH 5.8. Callus cultures were main- 
tained for one year by transferring callus tissue to fresh media every 2 to 3 months. 
Embryoids were initiated by transferring tissue to the same MS medium minus 2,4-D. 
After 3 months callus subcultured to the 2,4-D-free medium contained embryoids similar 
to globular, heart, torpedo, and mature zygotic embryo stages. Embryoids similar to 
late heart stage zygotic embryos possess laticifers detectable by fluorescent microscopy 
in and at the edge of vascular tissue. Laticifers cannot be detected in paraffin or cryostat 
sections without the specific fluorescent marker. Sections on control slides, treated 
with whole serum of IgG fraction from whole serum, both from an uninjected rabbit, 
contained no fluorescent cells. 

The Natural Reduction of the Acidity of Acid Polluted Stripmine Lakes. R.A. Gyure, 
W.N. Doemel, A.E. Brooks, A.K. Konopka, and J.E. Miner. Department of Biology, 
Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana; Department of Biology, Wabash Col- 
lege, Crawfordsville, Indiana, 47933. Acidic strip-mine lakes polluted by the 

bacterial oxidation of exposed iron pyrite have been observed to become less acidic 
with time. In one of these lakes, Reservoir 29, a dimictic lake located in the Greene- 
Sullivan State Forest, the pH of the water column is 2.8 through the metalimnion, 
but in the hypolimnion the pH increases gradually through the summer from pH 3.0 
to 3.5. This increase in pH is accompanied by a hypolimnetic increase in hydrogen 
sulfide to more than 1 mM. Cultural enrichments and isotope experiments with sulfur-35 
indicate the presence of a metabolically active population of sulfate reducing bacteria. 
These observations support the hypothesis that the observed decrease in the hypolimnetic 
acidity is a direct result of the activity of sulfate reducing bacteria. With the relative 
abundance of sulfate, the factor(s) limiting the reduction of sulfate in this sytem is 
the electron donor or the carbon source. 

The Black Cherry Rust in the Americas. R.M. Lopez-Franco and J. F. Hennen, 
Arthur Herbarium, Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, Purdue University, 
West Lafayette, Indiana 47907. Tranzschelia arthurii, the black cherry rust, describ- 
ed in the Soviet Union by Tranzschel & Litvinov in 1938 and based on specimens 
from Iowa and Michigan, has been overlooked, ignored or questioned by North 
American authors and confused with Tranzschelia pruni-spinosae (Persoon) Dietel, 
sensu lato. 

Using the name Puccinia pruni-spinosae Persoon, Arthur in 1905 reported ex- 
perimental innoculations that demonstrated heteroecism in this rust with spermogonia 
and aecia on Hepatica nobilis P. Mill. var. acuta (Pursh) Steyemark, and uredinia 

Botany 91 

and telia on Prunus serotina Ehrh. var. serotina. The following year he established 
the genus Tranzschelia for this and related rusts based on the kind of spermogonia 
and fascicled teliospore pedicels. 

Our preliminary study of the genus Tranzschelia revealed that T. arthurii is an 
easily identified taxon when teliospores are present. Its uredinia and telia occur on 
varieties of Prunus serotina and on P. virginiana L. in Canada, United States, Mex- 
ico, Guatemala, Colombia, Ecuador and Peru. The spermogonial and aecial stages 
are known only from Eastern North America. 

Our inoculation experiments have confirmed the heteroecism of this rust and pro- 
vided material for a developmental morphological study including light and scanning 
electron microscopy, which are included in this paper. 

Community Structure of an Indiana Gravel Hill Prairie with Special Reference to the 
State Endangered Besseya bullii. Eric S. Menges and Kimberly A. Wade, Holcomb 

Research Institute, Butler University, Indianapolis, Indiana 46223. In Indiana xeric 

gravel hill prairies support a biota that includes several species rare in Indiana. Com- 
munity composition at one such prairie, Wea Creek Nature Preserve, was determined 
in 1985 using 0.1 m 2 rectangular quadrats in four cover types: unburned prairie, 
spring- 1985-burned prairie, edge thicket, and dry woods. Additional quadrats were 
centered on randomly chosen individuals of the state endangered perennial herb Besseya 

Ordinations and classifications show that species composition of woods, edge 
thicket, and prairie are distinct. Prairie quadrats varied significantly in composition 
in relation to slope position, degree of disturbance to native turf, and edge effects 
from bordering woods. In particular, a shift in dominant grass species from Bouteloua 
curtipendula to Andropogon scoparius from upslope to downslope suggests Wea Creek 
Nature Preserve varies in soil moisture. The burning treatment has had very little ef- 
fect. The relatively low prairie diversity (4-10 species per quadrat) may reflect the harsh 
conditions of the prairie and a history of disturbance to the native sod. Species richness 
was greatest in the edge thicket, and varied little between burned and unburned prairie. 

Besseya individuals were found mainly in the edge thicket and in dry woods. 
Previously observed plants growing near an eroding cliff have disappeared. The lack 
of plants in the open, southwest-facing prairie is consistent with observations made 
by other investigators. We noted 66 individuals at Wea Creek N.P., and 24 of these 
were reproductive. Over 1/3 of all plants had less than three basal leaves. Reproduc- 
tive individuals have significantly more and larger basal leaves than non-reproducing, 
but the best predictors of the quantity of reproductive output are measurements of 
flowering scape size. We have not yet noted Besseya seedlings in the field, but have 
initiated laboratory and field germination experiments aimed at understanding seed 
and seedling behavior. 

Analysis of DNA Methylation in the Growth and Development of the Early Alaska 
Pea (Pisum sativum). L.A. Neeb and B.D. Allamong, Department of Biology, Ball 

State University, Muncie, Indiana 47306. The methylation of specific gene sites 

is thought to play a controlling role in gene expression in microorganisms, higher plants, 
and animals. The relationship between methylation of DNA and gene expression has 
been well documented in microorganisms and animals; however, the regulatory role 
of methylation in higher plants has remained relatively unresearched. The focus of 
this study was to investigate specific fluctuations in DNA methylation during the early 
development of the pea (Pisum sativum). 

Pea seeds were grown for 12 days in vermiculite in a growth chamber. Duplicate 
samples of 30 seedlings were harvested daily. The samples were pulse-labeled with S- 

92 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 95 (1986) 

Adenosly-L-methionine, (methyl-C3H 3 ) for 10 hours. The labeled methyl group was 
allowed to be incorporated into the DNA as the samples continued to grow and dif- 
ferentiate. The methyltransferase action was stopped by freezing. DNA was then ex- 
tracted, quantitated, hydrolyzed, and separated on thin-layer chromatography into its 
bases. Each methylated product was quantitated in the scintillation counter. 

Analysis of the location and fluctuation in the methylated DNA over the growth 
period of seedling differentiation was made. The percent of methylated base was quan- 
titated and compared to the DNA extracted for each day of growth over the 12 day 
period. Fluctuations of methylated DNA bases correlates to growth patterns observed. 
The results lend supporting evidence to the above stated hypothesis. It was concluded 
that differentiation in pea plants may be a product of methylated DNA masking the 
expression of selective genes. 

Azolla caroliniana and its Symbionts. Solomon Oyeleke and J.D. Schoknecht, In- 
diana State University, Terre Haute, Indiana 47803. The water fern Azolla caroli- 
niana Willd. is known as an important agent for nitrogen fixation in water and is 
used extensively in wet cropping to provide nitrogen for plant growth. Azolla ferns 
were collected from cypress swamps in Southern Illinois. These ferns were examined 
with scanning electron microscopy and electron microscopy. The leaflets are formed 
in pairs along a rachis. The lower leaf of the pair appears to function primarily as 
a float. It is flat and is two cell layers thick. The upper leaflet has a layer of palisade 
cells that function in photosynthesis, below the upper epidermis. The cells of the upper 
epidermis are inflated on their upper surface. These act to prevent wetting of the plants 
surface and trap air between the inflations. The fern is able by this morphology to 
maintain the photosynthetic surface on the surface of the water even if mechanically 
submerged. The lower epidermis is separated from the palisade layer by a pouch which 
contains a species of the cyanophyte, Anabaena and an Actinomycete. The symbionts 
have been isolated and are being characterized and analyzed for nitrogenase activity. 

Induction of Embryogenesis in Embryo-derived Callus of Ginkgo biloba L. Wesley 
Shanklin and Willard F. Yates, Jr., Department of Botany, Butler University, In- 
dianapolis, Indiana 46208. Callus can be induced from explants of almost any 

tissue of Ginkgo biloba L. on a relatively simple medium such as Murashige and Skoog 
(MS), Nitsch and Nitsch, Gamborg's B-5, etc. We have obtained callus from leaf discs, 
meristems, root tips, megagametophyte and microgametophyte tissues. Although many 
of the callus cultures were vigorous and rapid growing, attempts to obtain embryo 
formation were unsuccessful. 

In an effort to obtain callus with greater embryogenic potential, Ginkgo embryos 
were excised from mature seed and placed on a basal medium consisting of MS major 
and minor salts with minimal organics, 3% sucrose, 0.7% agar to which was added 
a range of kinetin (K) and napthalene acetic acid (NAA). Viability of the excised em- 
bryos approached 100%. All embryos developed callus at all concentrations of cytokinin 
and auxin. A 5 mg/1 kinetin and 2 mg/1 NAA concentration produced best results. 
Callus growth was produced on almost every embryo and appeared to be derived primarily 
from the base of the cotyledons. After 4 weeks, some callus cultures were transferred 
to reduced K and NAA concentrations. This pulse-transfer type treatment did not initially 
appear to effect embryogenesis, but may warrant further investigation. 

After 4-6 weeks dark green globular bodies appeared distributed throughout a 
much lighter and more friable tissue. These were determined to be somatic embryos 
in varying stages of development. The most mature embryos to date have initiated 
cotyledons. The most striking difference noted between the induced embryos and those 
derived from gametes seems to be the intense green color of the former. 

Botany 93 

Attempts to obtain mature somatic embryos as well as a continuous culture tissue 
with high embryogenic potential are continuing. 

Micropropagation of Black Locust: A Controlled Method to Study the Rhizobial/Legume 
Symbiosis. Henry Stelzer and Robert J. Reinsvold, Department of Forestry and 

Natural Resources, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907. The ability 

of Robinia pseudoacacia . L., black locust, to form a symbiotic association with the 
dinitrogen-fixing bacterium Rhizobium has been speculated as a primary factor con- 
tributing to its successful establishment on a diversity of sites. Due to the apparent 
ubiquitous nature of the rhizobia which can associate with black locust, it is often 
difficult to control against contaminating rhizobia in the non-inoculated controls. 
Another complicating factor in controlled experiments is the variability of the host 
genotype. The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of using 
micropropagated plantlets of black locust to more clearly understand the symbiotic 

Genetically identical shoot propagules were produced by placing excised, disinfested 
shoot apices from a single one-year-old coppice sprout on Lloyd and McCown's woody 
plant medium (WPM) supplemented with 4 /iM benzyladenine (BA) to stimulate axillary 
shoot production. A mean axillary shoot proliferation rate of six shoots per culture 
was achieved within six weeks. Rooting of the shoot propagules occurred within four 
weeks following the transfer back to WPM with no BA. In vitro plantlets were in- 
oculated with selected strains of Rhizobium. Dinitrogen-fixing nodules were successfully 
formed on the root systems. 

Some Algae of Hillside Seeps in Turkey Run State Park, 
Parke County, Indiana 

William A. Daily 
Butler University, Box 169 
Indianapolis, Indiana 46208 

The physical features of the Turkey Run State Park seeps are described in detail 
by Dr. John E. Ebinger and John A. Bacone (3). During their survey of the higher 
plants a charophyte was collected and identified as the rare Chara Bhttonii T.F. Allen. 

On April 17, 1981 , during the spring meeting of the Indiana Academy of Science, 
several of us were shown this area and besides the charads, an unusually large number 
of brownish mats of the blue-green alga, Scytonema Hofmannii Ag. were observed. 

Fay K. Daily and I returned on September 30, 1981, and Sept. 30, 1982, to col- 
lect algae. Then on October 9, 1985, Dr. John B. Patton and I visited the area for 
a habitat study and to procure Spirogyra for photographic purposes. 

The Seep 1 area measures about 37 m by 40 m and has a very small stream of 
water flowing through it. The surface is very wet and composed of a grayish-tan sandy 
glacial soil with a calcareous tufa top layer resulting from mineral-laden water evaporating 
at the surface. The glacial drift is resting upon an impermeable Pennsylvanian shale, 
causing ground water to emerge along the valley wall as a seep. 

The Algae 

Some of the algae found at the site are as follows: 


Achnanthes flexella (Kiitz.) Brun 
Cymbella laevis Naeg. 
Cymbella microcephala Grun. 
Fragilaha const ruens var. venter Grun. 
Mastogloia Smithii var. lacustris Grun. 
Navicula bryophila Ostr. 
Navicula Potzgeri Reimer 
Pinnularia viridis (Nitz.) Ehr. 
Surirella tenera Greg. 

The above taxa were identified by Dr. Charles W. Reimer, Academy of Natural 
Sciences at Philadelphia. Most of them are considered "alkaliphilous" and correlated 
with the alkaline and fairly cool seep water here. They all appear in the Cabin Creek 
Raised Bog diatom flora (4). 

Additions to this diatom list will be published by Reimer at a later date. 


Chara Bhttonii T.F. Allen 

This very rare charophyte was found in the Turkey Run seep area for the first 
time by Ebinger and Bacone and identified by Fay Kenoyer Daily. For a complete 
description of it and its distribution in Indiana see Fay K. Daily (1). Heretofore, it 
has been associated with bogs (broad sense) or fens. 

Chara contraria A. Br. 

The Chara contraria found here is mostly a very short, compact bog type which 
can be easily mistaken upon casual observation for the Chara Bhttonii. 


96 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 95 (1986) 


Cosmarium reinforme (Ralfs.) Archer 
Netrium digitus (Ehr.) Itz. & Rothe 

These desmids were very scarce in my collections. 
Rhizoclonium Heiroglyphicum (Ag.) Kiitz. 

This was the only alga collected from the Seep 2 area. 
Spirogyra sp. non-fruiting. 

Only one chloroplast per cell was seen in the 9 collections. The small, brightly 
green slippery masses were widely distributed over the entire surface of the seep area. 


Anacystis dimidiata (Kiitz) Dr. & Daily 
Anacystis montana (Light.) Dr. & Daily 
Anacystis thermalis (Menegh.) Dr. & Daily 
Nostoc commune Vauch. 

The ecophene, formerly N. microscopicum, was the only form seen here and it 
was very scarce. 
Scytonema Hofmannii Ag. 

This filamentous blue-green alga was found growing over the entire Seep 1 area 
in many variously sized mats up to nearly 30 cm in diameter (covering the top surface 
of a large glacial cobblestone). It develops here as a brownish velvety turf impregnated 
slightly with sandy calcareous tufa. The sheaths are twin and single branched. It has 
been collected in other localities in this park, but never in such abundance. 

The ecophene, formerly S. alatum (Carm.) Borzi, was seen only in 2 of the 31 
collections. This is the form with the more gelatinuous and much laminated sheaths 
and prominent ocreae. 

None of the blue-greens were abundant in the seep collections with the notable 
exception of Scytonema which is almost always unialgal. 

For specific names of the Myxophyceae used here see Francis Drouet (2). 

Location of Herbarium Specimens 

All collections are filed in the Ray C. Friesner Memorial Herbarium, Butler Univer- 
sity, and diatom slides are Filed at the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. 


I am indebted to the Indiana Department of Natural Resources for permission 
to study the seeps; to Mr. Calvin E. Higgens and Mr. Frederick P. Mertz, Lilly Research 
Laboratories, for the algal slides used in the oral presentation; to Mrs. Fay K. Daily, 
Butler University, Dr. John B. Patton, Indiana Geological Survey, Dr. Charles W. 
Reimer, Curator of the Diatom Herbarium, Academy of Natural Sciences of 
Philadelphia, and Mr. Ken Gregory, Naturalist, Turkey Run State Park for many kind- 
nesses rendered. 

Literature Cited 

1. Daily, Fay Kenoyer. 1953. The Characeae of Indiana. Butler University Bot. Stud. 
11: 5-49. 

2. Drouet, Francis. 1981. Summary of the Classification of Blue-green Algae. 
(Separate) J. Cramer, Germany. 72 p. 

Botany 97 

Ebinger, J.E. and John A. Bacone. 1980. Vegetation Survey of Hillside Seeps 
at Turkey Run State Park. Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. 90: 390-394. 
Reimer, C.W. 1961. Some Aspects of the Diatom Flora of Cabin Creek Raised 
Bog, Randolph County, Indiana. Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. 71: 305-319. 

Quick and Easy Methods for Collecting Coprophilous Fungi 

K. Michael Foos and Judith A. Royer 

Department of Biology 

Indiana University East 

Richmond, Indiana 47374 


Collecting dung as a source of fungi is not a task that invites enthusiasm. If 
given the choice, I don't think any one would pick collecting dung as a pastime. However, 
there are many very interesting fungi that grow upon and cause the decomposition 
of dung. These fungi can be used as research tools (6) and as models for classroom 
use (1, 2, 5). Quick and easy methods for collecting fungi growing on dung can make 
the task, while not totally inviting, at least, less of a chore. 

Methods and Materials 

The two different procedures described in this paper can be used to simplify the 
collection of coprophilous fungi. Using the first technique, collecting dung can be made 
relatively quick and easy, with very little fuss or mess. Using the second technique, 
one can provide an environment in which freshly collected organisms can be maintained 
for four to six weeks without losing viability. 

Collection of Samples 

Plastic baggies can be used to collect samples of dung. While plastic baggies are 
not sterile, they are aseptic and can be used to collect dung without fear of contamina- 
tion. Coprophilous fungi have a selective advantage on dung and most common con- 
taminates can not compete effectively with them (1). 

The inexpensive baggies with twist ties are the best to use. They are flexible and 
easy to turn inside out. The "zip-locked" baggies are rigid around the top and can 
not be inverted easily, and therefore are cumbersome and inconvenient. When prepar- 
ing to make a collection, the collector's hand is inserted into the open end of the 
baggy, much the same way a hand is inserted into a rubber glove. While wearing a 
baggy as a glove, it is easy to reach out and select samples of material to be collected. 
With the collection held in this manner one can use the other hand to pull the baggy 
over the collecting hand. This will turn the baggy inside out and enclose the sample. 
The baggy can now be closed tightly and fastened with a wire twist tie. 

Dropping a small paper tag with a collection number into the baggy before clos- 
ing it, or writing on the exterior of the bag with a waterproof marker makes record 
keeping simple and reduces the chance of misidentifying the collection. Specimens col- 
lected this way can be kept in baggies for several hours before transferring them to 
other, more suitable containers. While on a foray, it is possible to collect coprophilous 
fungi with no more equipment than a few baggies and a small notebook. It is not 
necessary to be weighted down with rubber gloves, whirl packs, and other cumber- 
some materials. Baggies are readily available, inexpensive, disposable, light weight, 
neat and clean. 

Maintenance of Samples 

When samples of dung containing coprophilous fungi have to be kept for more 
than a few hours they must be transferred to containers that will provide adequate 
aeration. A simple culture container can be made from everyday plastic drinking cups. 
This simple culture container can be constructed of two different sized transparent, 


100 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 95 (1986) 

plastic drinking cups with the same diameter, such as a Solo P-16, 16 oz cup, and 
a Solo TP-9, 9 oz cup, two sheets of filter paper, and a piece of masking tape. 

Filter paper is placed in the bottom of the larger (16 oz) drinking cup and moistened 
with water. A relatively small sample of dung (approximately 50 cc) is placed on the 
filter paper in the bottom of the cup. Then, the smaller cup is placed lip to lip on 
top of the larger one and the cups are fastened together with masking tape. 

This simple, homemade culture container is aseptic, easy to assemble, and can 
be constructed from materials available in almost any discount, grocery, or drug store. 


We have used plastic baggies to collect dung samples for research for a number 
of years in Ohio (3) and Indiana (4). In all of the scores of collections we have made, 
there have been no instances of contamination attributable to the plastic baggies. The 
use of baggies to collect dung to examine for coprophilous fungi seems to be much 
more convenient, yet no more prone to contamination than collecting dung using more 
sophisticated materials such as sterile rubber gloves, and whirl packs. 

The technique of using drinking cups to construct a culture container is a relatively 
new one. Recently, while collecting coprophilous fungi in Yellowstone National Park, 
it was necessary to maintain growing cultures for three to four weeks before returning 
to the laboratory. Of forty-three samples of dung collected and maintained in these 
simple culture containers 30 isolates of coprophilous fungi developed while there was 
no detectable bacterial or fungal contamination. 

Upon returning to the laboratory, these culture containers were retained, and 
cultures were maintained in them for yet another two weeks. Even so, there was no 
greater contaimination problem with these simple homemade plastic culture containers 
than with the glass culture dishes normally used in our laboratory. 


While neither the baggies nor the drinking cups are sterile, they are aseptic. Both 
the baggies and the drinking cups are manufactured under sufficiently aseptic condi- 
tions to be used to hold food for human consumption. Our experience has shown 
that contamination of dung samples is not a problem with these materials. Yet, they 
are very inexpensive and compact, and can be purchased from any of several sources. 

Whether collecting coprophilous fungi for research or for teaching, the methods 
described here are highly recommended. Ease of acquisition, convenience, and low 
cost of materials coupled with ease of use, compact storage, and utility make the com- 
bination of baggies for collecting and plastic cups for culture containers quick and 
easy methods for collecting coprophilous fungi. 

Literature Cited 

1. Bell, Ann. 1983. Dung fungi: an illustrated guide to coprophilous fungi of New 
Zealand. Victoria University Press. Wellington, New Zealand. 

2. Coble, Charles R. and Charles E. Bland. 1974. Pilobolus: the shotgun fungus. 
Amer. Biol. Teach. 36:221-224, 242. 

3. Foos, K. Michael and James B. Rakestraw. 1985. A survey of Pilobolus from 
Lake County, Ohio. Ohio J. Science 85 (3): 137-138. 

4. Foos, K. Michael and Judith A. Royer. 1985. Isolation of the coprophilous fungus, 
Pilobolus, from Wayne County, Indiana. Proceed. Indiana Acad. Science 

5. Richardson, M. J. and R. Watling. 1982. Keys to fungi on dung. The British 
Mycological Society. Kew, Surrey, England. 

6. Webster, J. 1970. Coprophilous fungi. Trans. Br. Mycol. Soc. 54 (2):161-180. 

Notes on the Bryophytes of Indiana: I. Additions to the Flora 

Bill N. McKnight 

Illinois Natural History Survey 

607 East Peabody Drive 

Champaign, Illinois 61820 


Since the publication of Mosses of Indiana by Welch in 1957 (9), it has been 
generally assumed that the bryophytes of Indiana were thoroughly surveyed. Field and 
literature studies during the past three years, however, have resulted in the discovery 
of 24 bryophyte species (5 liverworts and 19 mosses) new to Indiana and scores of 
new county records. Several of the new records were listed in a publication by McKnight 
& Sargent (5), but without collection data. 

The new reports are presented below in an annotated checklist. The collection 
numbers, unless otherwise indicated, are mine. Vouchers are housed in my personal 
collection (MCKN) at the Illinois Natural History Survey and/or elsewhere as indicated. 
Nomenclature follows Crum & Anderson (2) for the mosses and Stotler & Crandall- 
Stotler (8) for the liverworts. 

List of Species 


Bazzania denudata (Torr.) Trev. — Perry Co.: occasional, on moist shaded sandstone 
wall in association with Bryoxiphium norvegicum. Saalman (Rich Cave) Hollow, T4S 
R2W S12 NE; 21 Apr 1985; 4495. This population is a western range extension of 
a primarily Appalachian distribution. 

Cladopodiella fluitans (Nees) Joerg.— La Porte Co.: common, intermixed with other 
bryophytes, Pinhook Bog, T37N R4W S35; 1 Oct 1981; Moran 1859. This small, stringy 
liverwort is invariably confined to peat bogs where it is usually found submerged in 
open areas or at the base of hummocks. This relic population occurs at the southern 
edge of a circumboreal range. 

Kurzia sylvatica (Evans) Grolle — Crawford Co.: occasional, on north-facing sandstone 
walls, Yellow Birch Ravine Nature Preserve, T2S R1W S20 SE of SW; 20 Oct 1984; 
4266. Growing in association with Lycopodium porophilum and Syrrhopodon texanus. 
Kurzia sylvatica is a tiny, dull green species with cupped leaves that have 3-4 filiform 
lobes. The individual plants remind me of small bushy tails. It is an Appalachian- 
Coastal Plain species of shaded mesic areas and is a decided calciphobe. 

Lophozia bicrenata (Schmid. ex Hoffm.) Dum.— Putman Co.: occasional, on clayey 
soil in clearing above abandoned sandstone quarry, Fern Cliff, TUN R5W S33; 13 
Oct 1984; 4160. This weedy plant may be fairly common in Indiana as a pioneer on 
acidic, leached, sterile soil, especially in the southern half of the state. 

Mylia anomala (Hook.) S. Gray— La Porte Co.: occasional, at base of shrubs, Pinhook 
Bog, T37N R4W S35; 1 Oct 1981; Moran 1885. A robust, boreal liverwort which pro- 
duces clusters of light green gemmae at the tip of terminal leaves and an abundance 
of intertwining rhizoids which make separating the plants from the substrate and each 
other a challenge. The species is characteristic of acid bogs where it is almost con- 
stantly found in association with Cladopodiella and Sphagnum. This relic population 
represents one of the southernmost stations for Mylia in the Midwest. 


102 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 95 (1986) 


Anomodon rugellii (CM.) Keissl.— Fountain Co.: rare, on soil-covered sandstone along 
Bear Creek, Portland Arch Nature Preserve, T20N R8W S4 NW of NW; 25 Apr 1982; 
1639, 1641. Owen Co.: occasional, on limestone along stream, Owen-Putnam State 
Forest, TUN R4W S14; 24 Apr 1983; 2925b. This coarse, medium-sized, dark green 
calciphile is easily confused with the more common Anomodon minor, from which 
it differs in having leaves incurved-contorted when dry, an acute leaf apex, and an 
auriculate leaf base which is often fimbriate. 

Brachylema subulatum (P.-Beauv.) Schimp. ex Card. (= Cryphaea inundata) — This 
species was collected by Prince Maximilian von Wied from the Black, Fox, and Wabash 
rivers during a stopover at New Harmony; Nees von Esenbeck (6) [translated from 
Latin] "Fruiting on inundated branches. . .with mature fruits in December." Con- 
trary to Welch (10), the Black River is in Posey County, Indiana, not Illinois; Wied 
(11) p. 191, wrote ". . .Black River, a stream which falls into the Wabash, three miles 
from Harmony." Topographic maps for this area show a Black River on the east 
side of the Wabash River exactly three miles north of New Harmony; there is no Black 
River on the west side of the Wabash near New Harmony. Furthermore, the collection 
date, which is listed by Nees von Esenbeck and Welch as 1832, is inaccurate since 
Wied (11), p. 191, recorded the Black River trip as 5 January 1833. This North American 
endemic is most frequent in the southeastern coastal plain. It has not been found subse- 
quently in Illinois or Indiana. 

Calliergonella cuspidata (Hedw.) Loeske— La Grange Co.: common, on peat in Nasby 
Fen, Mongoquinong Nature Preserve, T37N R10E SI NE; 22 Jun 1985; 4599. This 
large, circumpolar calciphile is best recognized in the field by the cuspidate branch 
and stem tips which also tend to be lighter colored. Another good character useful 
for field identification are the inflated alar cells, which appear as hyaline areas at the 
basal angles of each leaf. The species is probably quite common in calcareous wetlands 
in northern Indiana. 

Catoscopium nigritum (Hedw.) Brid. — La Grange Co.: occasional, on stream cuts in 
marl flats, Nasby Fen, Mongoquinong Nature Preserve, T37N R10E SI NE; 22 Jun 
1985; 4589, 4596. The plants lack sporophytes. A rare, circumpolar calciphile which 
is usually found in wet places. It is regularly an associate of Drepanocladus revolvens 
var. inter medius and Scorpidium scorpioides in marl flats. Catoscopium was recently 
reported by McKnight (4) from Illinois on marl flats at the southwest end of Lake 
Michigan. The gametophytes, which grow in erect, compact tufts, look very much 
like the ubiquitous Ceratodon purpureus. 

Desmatodon plinthobius Sull. & Lesq. ex Sull.— Owen Co.: on limestone boulder, 
Romona Quarry, 1.5 miles NE of Spencer, T10N R3W S3 SE of SW; 23 Oct 1983; 
Allen 3779 (DPU and Allen's pers. coll.). The awned leaves of this diminutive limestone 
inhabiting species are diagnostic. Its primary range in North America is the southern 
and western United States. And, as the specific epithet implies, it is often found on 
manmade substrates such as concrete or mortar. 

Distichium capillaceum (Hedw.) BSG— Owen Co.: rare, on shaded limestone boulder, 
Romona Quarry, T10N R3W S3 SE of SW; 24 May 1983; 2931a; dup. ver. by H. 
Crum (MICH). A silky calciphile characterized by distichous branches with shiny white 
leaf bases. The only previous Indiana report for this species was a Pleistocene fossil 
report from Fayette County, Kapp & Gooding (3). The Owen County population is 
on a north-facing slope north of the Romona Quarry which has been inactive for at 
least 25 years. When the quarry was in operation, the culled boulders (grout) were 
dumped along this slope. The moist, cool air drainage between these boulders created 

Botany 103 

a peculiar habitat that remains perennially very much cooler than the ambient environ- 
ment. This type of habitat occurs naturally on talus slopes in the Driftless Area and 
is called an algific slope. Distichium capillaceum was recently found by McKnight (5) 
on an algific slope in extreme northwestern Illinois. 

Drepanocladus revolvens (Sw.) Warnst. var. intermedius (Lindb.) Cheney ex Wils. — 
La Grange Co.: common, on stream cuts in marl flats, Nasby Fen, Mongoquinong 
Nature Preserve, T37N R10E SI NE; 22 Jun 1985; 4588. A robust, glossy, yellow 
brown species, with strongly falcate-secund leaves. It has a circumpolar distribution 
where it is common in calcareous wetlands. This population is at the southern edge 
of the range for the species. 

Isopterygium distichaceum (Mitt.) Jaeg. & Sauerb.— Fountain Co.: rare, on sandstone 
ledges, Portland Arch Nature Preserve, T21N R8W S33 SW of SW; 4844. A shiny, 
complanate, pleurocarpous moss identifiable by its asymmetric leaves and the small, 
twisted, elongate, brood bodies clustered at the stem terminus. The species has a 
temperature distribution in North America. 

Orthrichum anomalum Hedw.— Monroe Co.: rare, on limestone along river, Cedar 
Bluffs Nature Preserve, T7N R1W S18; 21 Oct 1984; 4284. Owen Co.: rare, on limestone 
boulders along stream, Romona Quarry, T10N R3W S3 SE of SW; 24 May 1983; 
2934a; dup. ver. by H. Crum (MICH). A saxicolous calciphile distinguished from other 
local members of the genus by exerted capsules. The species is infrequent but widespread 
in North America, especially in the western mountains. This report extends the southern 
range of this species in the Great Lakes region. 

Philonotis capillaris (Hedw.) Brid. — Owen Co.: rare, on limestone beside creek, Up- 
per Cataract Falls, T12N R4W S26; 6 Jan 1983; 2528; dup. det. by H. Crum (MICH). 
As the name implies, this is a slender, moisture-loving species. It is widespread but 
most frequent in the North and southward into mountainous areas. 

Physcomitrium hookeri Hampe— Fountain Co.: rare, on soil in corn stubble, 0.5 mile 
SE of Fountain, T21N R8W S33 NE of SW; 4 Mar 1983; 2652b (also in axenic culture 
collection of M. Sargent, Univ. Illinois). This ephemeral grows well in culture. Ap- 
parently, this is one of the easternmost populations of this uncommon North American 
endemic which has a primarily upper Great Plains distribution. It is only a fraction 
the size of Physcomitrium pyriforme, an abundant species of similar appearance and 

Pohlia melanodon (Brid.) Shaw— Fountain Co.: occasional, on soil-covered sandstone 
boulder in stream, Portland Arch Nature Preserve, T20N R8W S4 SE of NW; 19 May 
1982; 1855, 1872; dups. det. by J. Shaw (DUKE). The red sporophytes produced by 
this small, tufted, dirty-green species are very attractive. The red stems are also 
characteristic. This moss is rarely collected, though probably not uncommon (Shaw, 
pers. comm.). 

Rhytidiadelphus triquetrus (Hedw.) Warnst. — Montgomery Co.: rare, on north-facing 
shale slope above Indian Creek, Pine Hills Nature Preserve, T17N R6W SI; 9 May 
1982; 1687. Visual confirmation of population on 2 Jul 1985. This is one of the largest 
bryophytes in North America. It grows in woodlands and has a primarily boreal distribu- 
tion. It is rare in the lower Midwest. The Pine Hills population is part of a postglacial 
relic assembledge along with Pinus strobus, Rhytidium rugosum, Taxus canadensis, 
and Tsuga canadensis. The habitat for the Pine Hills population, a moist, shaded, 
shale slope, demonstrates a habitat switch. The phenomenom of habitat switch for 
species at the edge of their range is not uncommon but is often overlooked. 

Sciaromium lescurii (Sull.) Broth.— Crawford Co.: occasional, on sandstone in stream 

104 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 95 (1986) 

bed, Yellow Birch Ravine Nature Preserve; T2S R1W S20 NW of SW; 20 Oct 1984; 
4227, 4232 (dup. MICH). A small to moderate-sized species forming a dull, dark green 
layer over sandstone in intermittent stream beds. The several rows of linear cells form 
a prominent leaf margin that serves to distinguish the species from Amblystegium tenax 
which is similar in appearance and habitat. Sciaromium apparently is widespread in 
eastern North America, especially in southern mountainous areas. 

Scorpidium scorpioides (Hedw.) Limpr. — La Grange Co.: occasional, in shallow water 
among sedges and on marl, Nasby Fen, Mongoquinong Nature Preserve; T37N R10E 
SI NE; 22 Jun 1985; 4591, 4593, 4597. The specimens lack sporophytes. This is one 
of the southernmost populations in North America for this rare, large, burgundy-colored 
calciphile. The plants are turgid and wormlike but they are also often covered with 
a limy deposit and then coarse and brittle. The curved branch tips look more like 
the dilated neck and head of an aroused cobra than a scorpion's tail as implied by 
the species name. This is another example of a circumpolar bryophyte at the edge 
of its southern range. 

Sphagnum fuscum (Schimp.) Klinggr. — Putnam Co.: in abandoned sandstone quarry, 
Fern Cliff, T14N R5W S33; 22 Oct 1983; 3593, 3611; dups. det. by H. crum (MICH). 
This species is characterized by brown leaves and stem. It is also reported by Andrus 
& Wilcox (1) from this site. Sphagnum is rare in the southern two-thirds of Indiana. 

Sphagnum russowii Warnst. — Putnam Co.: in abandoned sandstone quarry, Fern Cliff, 
TUN R5W S33; 22 Oct 1983; 3592; dup. det. by H. Crum (MICH). This species is 
characterized by reddish green leaves and green stems. It is also reported by Andrus 
& Wilcox (1) from Fern Cliff. 

Sphagnum squarrosum Crome — Putnam Co.: in abandoned sandstone quarry, Fern 
Cliff, T14N R5W S33; 22 Oct 1983; 3600, 3601; dups. det. by H. Crum (MICH). 
The previous state record report of Sphagnum wulfianum by McKnight & Sargent 
(5) is actually a misdetermined specimen of S. squarrosum. Andrus & Wilcox (1) also 
report S. wulfianum from Fern Cliff. Howard Crum has examined material that was 
field identified during the 1983 Midwest Bryophyte Foray (4) as Sphagnum wulfianum 
and which is the basis for the Andrus & Wilcox report. Crum indicated (pers. comm.) 
that it is "poorly developed" Sphagnum squarrosum— a robust, green species, usually 
easy to recognize in the field by narrow, wide-spreading leaves and prominent terminal 

Syrrhopodon texanus Sull.— Crawford Co.: occasional, on north-facing sandstone wall, 
Yellow Birch Ravine Nature Preserve, T2S R1W S19 SE & S20 SW; 20 Oct 1984; 
4266a (dup. MICH). The plants lack sporophytes. The species often has masses of 
brood bodies clustered at the leaf apices. The leaves are also quite distinctive 
microscopically. Although this North American endemic is found primarily in the Coastal 
Plain, disjunct populations have been reported by Reese (7) in the Midwest from three 
counties in southern Illinois (Gallatin, Johnson, Saline), Van Buren County, Arkan- 
sas, and St. Genevieve County, Missouri. This is another example of a species that 
exhibits a habitat switch at the edge of its range. According to Reese (pers. comm.) 
the principle habitat for this species in the Coastal Plain is on trees, decaying logs 
and stumps, and sandy stream banks. The habitat for the Indiana and southern Ill- 
inois populations is shaded sandstone. 


These 24 species bring the number of bryophytes reported from Indiana to 373 
(96 liverworts and 277 mosses). 

More than half of these new reports represent species at the southern or 

Botany 105 

northwestern edge of their range. A few of these range margin species exhibit the 
phenomenon! of habitat switching— the substrate and/or habitat is different from that 
typical for the species in the main part of its range. Furthermore, as is usually the 
case for range margin species, the plants are both less robust and less sexually fecund. 
Only a few of the taxa listed above can be considered rare in Indiana: Brachylema 
subulatum, Catoscopium nigritum, Mylia anomala, Orthotrichum anomalum, 
Physcomithum hookeri, Rhytdiadelphus triquetrus, Sciaromium lescurii, Scorpidium 
scorpioides, and Syrrhopodon texanus. Two-thirds of the mosses listed are calciphiles 
whereas all the liverworts reported are calciphobes. 

The results of this report illustrate the need for more extensive bryophyte field 
studies in Indiana— I estimate that at least 100 more species of bryophytes are as yet 
unreported from Indiana. 


I am grateful to Howard Crum and Jonathon Shaw for assisting with the deter- 
mination of some specimens and to Robbin Moran and Malcolm Sargent who accom- 
panied the author on many of the field trips. Special thanks are due James Aldrich 
and John Bacone, Indiana Department of Natural Resources, Division of Nature 
Preserves, and Denny McGrath, Indiana Chapter of The Nature Conservancy, for pro- 
viding collection permits and for funding some of the field work. 

Literature Cited 

1. Andrus, R.E. & D.A. Wilcox. 1985. New records for Sphagnum in Indiana. 
Michigan Bot. 24:147-152. 

2. Crum, H.A. & L.E. Anderson. 1981. Mosses of eastern North America. 2 Vol. 
Columbia Univ. Press, New York. 1328 p. 

3. Kapp, R.O. & A.M. Gooding. 1964. Pleistocene vegetational studies in the 
Whitewater Basin, southeastern Indiana. Jour. Geol. 72:307-326. 

4. McKnight, B.N. 1985. Notes on the Illinois bryophyte flora. I. Evansia 2:36-38. 

5. McKnight, B.N. & M.L. Sargent. 1984. The 1983 Midwest Bryological Foray. 
Evansia 1:4-6. 

6. Nees von Esenbeck, [Christian Gottfried Daniel]. [1834]. Verzeichniss der Pflanzen, 
welche der Prinz Maximilian von Wied von seiner Reise am obern Missouri mit 
zuruckbrachte; bestimmt und beschrieben von Nees von Esenbeck. [Published 
privately by author]. 28 p. 

7. Reese, W.D. 1984. Reproductivity, fertility and range of Syrrhopodon texanus 
Sull. (Musci; Calymperaceae), a North American endemic. Bryologist 87:217-222. 

8. Stotler, R. & B. Crandall-Stotler. 1977. A checklist of the liverworts and horn- 
worts of North America. Bryologist 80:405-428. 

9. Welch, W.H. 1957. Mosses of Indiana. An illustrated manual. The Bookwalter 
Co., Indianapolis. 478 p. 

10. Welch, W.H. 1960. A monograph of the Fontinalaceae. Martinus Nijhoff, The 
Hague, Netherlands. 357 p. 

11. von Wied[-Neuwied]\ Prince Maximilian [Alexander Philip]. 1839-41. Travels in 
the Interior of North America. (Trans, from German by H.E. Lloyd, 1843). In: 
R.G. Thwaites (ed.), Early Western Travels 1748-1846, Vol. 22, Part I of Max- 
imilian, Prince of Wied's, Travels in the Interior of North America, 1832-1834. 
Chap. 8, p. 163-197. Description of the country about New Harmony in Indiana, 
and winter residence there from October 19th, 1832, to March 16th, 1833. AMS 
Press, Inc., New York. 1966. 

Evidence of Genetic Recombination in Cyanidium caldarium 

Kenneth E. Nichols, Deborah Hall and William W. Bloom 
Valparaiso University, Valparaiso, Indiana 46383 


Cyanidium caldarium has attracted the interest of biologists since it was first de- 
scribed by Tilden in 1896. This thermoacidophilic alga has an optimum growing 
temperature of 45° C. and has been collected from the margin of hot springs where 
the acidity may fall below pH 2. In recent years there has been considerable research 
on C. caldarium, with more than one-hundred papers dealing entirely or in part with 
this organism published world-wide during the five-year period ending 1984. 

Much attention has been given to the classification of C. caldarium. Mary Belle 
Allen has traced the early attempts in the classification of this organism (1). She notes 
that Tilden in 1896 first considered it a blue-green alga, calling it Chroococcus varius, 
but later thought it better classified a green alga, naming it Protococcus botryoides 
f. caldaria. She further notes that Geitler in 1936 proposed a new genus of Cyanophyta 
for the alga and named it Cyanidium caldarium. Her own position in 1959 held it 
to be an anomalously-pigmented chlorophyte. Recent advances in technology have made 
possible many biochemical findings that are an aid in taxonomic studies. Continuing 
improvements in electron microscopy have made possible more detailed morphological 
observations. Still, the taxonomic position of this organism remains in question as 
reported by Ford in 1984 (3). Ford cites recent literature in support of three different 
taxonomic positions 1) that C. caldarium is an anomalously-pigmented rhodophyte, 
2) that it is a transitional form between the Cyanophyta and Rhodophyta, and 3) that 
it is a colorless, eukaryotic alga with an endosymbiotic cyanelle. 

Electron microscopic studies of C. caldarium reported by Ford (1984) reveal the 
presence of a definite nucleus, chloroplasts, mitochondria, ribosomes, vacuoles, and 
other fine details. De Luca, et al. have reported endospore formation (2). Moreover, 
differences in cell size, organelles, inclusions, and storage products led them to con- 
sider the complex to consist of two species. 

C. caldarium is characterized by chlorophyll a, carotenoid pigments, and two 
phycobilins, phycocyanin and allophycocyanin. In 1960 Nichols and Bogorad reported 
the isolation of several UV-induced mutants of this alga that varied in pigment forma- 
tion, including two used in this study (4). These are mutant III-C which synthesizes 
chlorophyll a and the carotenoid pigments but no measurable phycobilins, and GGB, 
a chlorophyll-less mutant producing only the carotenoid pigments and the phycobilins. 
Each is readily distinguishable in its coloration from the other and from the dark- 
green color of the wild-type cell. 

The authors know of no reports of genetic recombination in this species. The 
availability of these two mutants so easily identified by their distinct colorations seemed 
ideal material with which to attempt matings to determine if recombinations do occur. 

Materials and Methods 

Wild-type cells of C. caldarium and cells of the mutants III-C and GGB were 
grown separately in plates in the dark at 43° C. for 10 to 14 days on an agar medium 
previously described by Nichols and Bogorad (5). Plate cultures of the three types 
were then washed with a liquid medium into separate 250 ml flasks, 80 ml per flask. 
The cell suspensions were shaken at room temperature over fluorescent light until 
pigmented. Suspensions of III-C and GGB were mixed and the mixture redistributed 


108 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 95 (1986) 

equally between the original flasks. These mixed-cell suspensions as well as unmixed 
suspensions of the mutants and suspensions of wild-type cells were then shaken over 
light for an additional 7 to 10 days. 

Cell counts of the suspensions were determined using a hemocytometer and dilu- 
tions prepared to provide from 100 to 300 cells per 0.5 ml of the diluted suspension. 
Agar medium plates were inoculated with 0.5 ml aliquots of the diluted suspensions 
and the plates spun. The cultures were incubated at 43° C. in the dark for 10-14 days 
at which time nonpigmented colonies of cells could be seen distributed over the sur- 
face of the agar medium. The plates were then placed under fluorescent light at room 
temperature until pigmentation of the colonies permitted identification of the cell types. 


Following pigmentation of the cells, plates of the diluted, mixed-cell suspensions, 
exhibited three kinds of colonies. The majority of the colonies showed the pigmenta- 
tion characteristic of III-C or GGB-type cells. Some colonies on each plate were, however, 
unlike either III-C or GGB, showing the pigmentation characteristic of wild-type cells. 
The percent of colonies showing the dark-green coloration typical of wild-type cells, 
hereinafter called hybrid colonies, was variable, ranging generally from 8 to 12 per- 
cent. Numerous mixed-cell suspensions were diluted and plated during the course of 
the investigation; all showed similar results. 

Dilutions of unmixed III-C and GGB cell suspensions were also plated. When 
pigmented the colonies were of the parent cell types only, and showed no evidence 
of wild-type colonies. 

Cells of each of the three differendy pigmented colonies found on plates inoculated 
with the mixed-cell suspension were transferred to separate plates and cultured to pro- 
vide sufficient cells for spectrophotometric analysis. Whole-cell suspensions of each 
type were run on a Beckman DU-7 spectrophotometer interfaced with an Apple II 
computer which drove a Bausch and Lomb DMP-29 digital plotter. The absorption 
spectrum of cells of a hybrid colony is shown in Figure 1 , and is seen to be similar 
to the absorption spectrum of intact wild-type cells of this organism as shown here 
and as previously reported (5). The absorption maximum at 680 nm identifies chlorophyll 
a, while the absorption at 625 nm identifies the phycobilins. These observations are 
presented as possible evidence of genetic recombination between the two parent cells, 
III-C and GGB. Further studies are continuing to determine possible segregation of 
the pigmentation characteristics in subcultures of the hybrid. 


Genetic recombination in C. caldarium could provide an additional approach to 
the ultimate classification of this organism. Most efforts in its classification have dealt 
with ultramicroscopic studies of the cell's fine structure or biochemical studies of its 
pigments, storage products, and metabolism. Knowledge of the nature of recombina- 
tion whether by conjugation, syngamy, or other means, and the extent to which con- 
trol of pigment formation is nuclear or extrachromosomal, or shared between the two, 
could assist in its classification. 

The possibility of inducing genetic recombination between variously pigmented 
mutants of C. caldarium could also provide a means of securing further information 
of the synthetic pathway of pigment formation. 

Literature Cited 

1 . Allen, M. B. 1959. Studies with Cyanidium caldarium, an anomalously pigmented 
chlorophyte. Archiv fur Mikrobiologie, Bd. 32, S. 270-277. 

Botany 109 

De Luca, P., Gambardella, R., and Merola, A. 1979. Thermoacidophilic algae 

of North and Central America. Bot. Gaz. 140(4):4 18-427. 

Ford, T. W. 1984. A comparative ultrastructural study of Cyanidium caldarium 

and the unicellular red alga Rhodosorus marinus. Ann. Bot. (London) 


Nichols, K. E. and Bogorad, L. 1960. Studies on phycobilin formation with mutants 

of Cyanidium caldarium. Nature, Vol. 188, No. 4753, 870-872. 

Nichols, K. E. and Bogorad, L. 1962. Action spectra studies of the formation 

and photosynthetic participation of phycocyanin in wild and mutant-type cells 

of Cyanidium caldarium. Bot. Gaz. 124:85-93. 

Incorporation of a 75 Se Label into Agaricus bisporus 

Rosemary Rodibaugh, Connie Weaver and April Mason 

Department of Foods and Nutrition 

Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 


Since the 1950s selenium has been recognized as an essential animal nutrient and 
there is increasing evidence that it is also required for proper human nutrition. A ma- 
jor function of selenium in humans is the protection of cell membranes. In the form 
of selenocysteine, selenium functions at the active site of the enzyme glutathione perox- 
idase (7). This enzyme catalyzes the two electron reduction of hydroperoxides using 
glutathione as the reducing agent. Hydroperoxides can attack the double bonds of 
unsaturated fatty acids of phospholipids in cell membranes. The resulting lipid perox- 
ides can react further causing cellular free radical damage. Glutathione and glutathione 
peroxidase reduce the lipid peroxides preventing the cleavage of carbon-carbon bonds 
and disruption of cell membranes (8). 

Presently there is no recommended dietary allowance for selenium but there is 
a safe and adequate intake suggested by the Food and Nutrition Board of the National 
Academy of Sciences. A selenium concentration of 0.1 M g selenium per gram of diet 
is adequate for optimal growth and reproduction in all mammalian species studied. 
A range of 50 to 200 ^g per day is suggested as adequate and safe for adults (5). 
Selenium intakes in this range are not difficult to obtain when a varied diet is con- 
sumed. Human disease states that are associated with selenium deficiency and respond 
to selenium therapy have been identified. Keshans disease, a fatal cardiomyopathy, 
and Kaschin-Beck disease, a joint and muscle degenerative disease, occur among children 
and young women in the Keshan region of China where soil levels of selenium are 
low and intakes of the mineral are nearly zero (2,6). 

Plants grown where soil conditions are favorable for the uptake of selenium will 
accumulate the mineral but little is known about the chemical form of selenium in 
plants. The chemical form of selenium influences the biological availability of the mineral. 
Bioavailability is assessed in animal studies by comparing various food sources of 
selenium to selenite in the ability to restore blood and liver levels of selenium and 
glutathione peroxidase activities after a depletion diet. 

Selenium is found to be associated with protecin in foods. Some major food sources 
of selenium are seafoods, organ meats and muscle meats. Cereals are also an impor- 
tant source of dietary selenium in the United States and Canada (3). Mushrooms are 
of interest because they have been reported to have higher selenium contents than most 
foods in the fruit and vegetable categories (9). Little is known about the relative nutri- 
tional availability of selenium from these foods. 

Foods differ widely in their ability to regenerate glutathione peroxidase activity 
and raise selenium levels in blood and liver. This is suspected to be related to differing 
chemical forms of selenium in the foods. Selenium in wheat has been found to be 
83.0% as effective as selenite in restoring glutathione peroxidase activity (3), whereas 
selenium from mushrooms was only 4 to 28.0% as effective as selenite (1). 

Selenium in bacteria, plants, and animals has been found in proteins as analogs 
of the sulfur containing amino acids, cysteine and methionine. About half of the selenium 
in wheat is in the form of selenomethionine (10). Preliminary studies in our laboratory 
indicate that a high percentage of selenium in soybeans is associated with high molecular 
weight storage proteins. Currently, research is underway to determine the exact chemical 
form of selenium in soybeans. Researchers in Finland have shown selenium in mushrooms 


112 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 95 (1986) 

to be associated with protein and free amino acids (Piepponen, 1984 personal 

The purpose of the study reported here was to determine if Agaricus bisporus 
mushrooms could be grown successfully in a growth chamber and to see if a radioisotope 
of selenium could be incorporated into the mushrooms. This was a preliminary study 
to one in which the chemical form of selenium in Agaricus bisporus will be determined. 

Materials and Methods 

Three basic materials are necessary for mushroom growth. These include, 1) com- 
post, 2) spawn, and 3) casing soil to cover the beds after the spawn has grown through 
the compost (4). 

Compost was obtained from a commercial source (Cansco, Inc., Howe, Indiana). 
Agaricus bisporus spawn was obtained from Mushroom Science Labs, Avondale, PA. 
Forty grams of spawn were mixed with enough wetted compost to form a six to eight 
inch layer in the bottom of a five gallon bucket. The compost was tamped so that 
it was tight and the buckets were covered with black plastic. Growth chamber temperature 
was maintained at 24 °C while the spawn was colonizing the compost. The compost 
was watered as necessary with a light stream of deionized water. 

When more than half of the top of the compost was covered by mycelium, a 
one inch layer of autoclaved peat casing, pH 7.2, was spread over the compost. At 
this time two different treatments were initiated. The first treatment was the introduc- 
tion of 1 „Ci of 75 Se-sodium selenate in deionized water directly into the compost 
before it was cased. The second treatment was the introduction of the 1 JZ\ dose of 
75 Se-sodium selenate into the casing material before it was spread over the compost. 
Thereafter treatment of both groups was identical. The black plastic cover was re- 
moved and a small fan placed in the growth chamber to lower carbon dioxide levels 
near the beds. The casing was watered with a fine mist of deionized water to prevent 
packing of the peat. The temperature of the growth chamber was maintained at 24 °C 
for four days following casing. Thereafter the temperature was decreased slowly so 
that at the time of harvest air temperature was 16°C. 

The first pinheads appeared sixteen days after casing. The first mushrooms were 
harvested ten days later. Mushrooms were weighed and frozen until harvest was 

Results and Discussion 

Accumulation of 75 Se by mushrooms in the two treatment groups is shown in 
Table I. The compost-labeled mushrooms weighed 419g when cleaned and homogen- 
ized and incorporated 6.1% of the 75 Se dose. The casing-labeled mushrooms weighed 
21 lg when cleaned and homogenized and incorporated 2.3% of the 75 Se dose. 
Therefore, incorporation of a 75 Se label into Agaricus bisporus was most efficient when 
introduced into the compost. 

The mushrooms from the compost-labeled group had a smooth surface while those 
from the casing-labeled group had a cracked or scaley surface. This cracking is thought 

Table 1. Accumulation of 

75 Se by Agaricus bisporus mushrooms 



°7o Uptake of 
"Se dose 




Botany 113 

to be due to a draft created by the fan which was positioned closer to the casing la- 
beled bed. 

The lower efficiency of incorporation of the 75 Se label into the casing-labeled 
group may have resulted from poor transport of the 75 Se-sodium selenate to the com- 
post where nutrients are absorbed. After casing, the beds were watered with a fine 
mist and there may not have been enough water flow to carry the sodium selenate 
to the compost. The more rapid drying of the casing soil in this treatment due to 
the positioning of the fan may also have contributed to the water flow problem and 
decreased yield. Mushrooms are over 90% water and during fruit body formation large 
amounts of moisture are drawn from the compost. 

Results of this study show that a 75 Se label can be incorporated into Agaricus 
bisporus. The significance of this is that a radiolabel will aid in the purification of 
selenium-containing compounds in the mushrooms and in the identification of the 
chemical form of selenium in the purified compounds. Also, 75 Se labeled mushrooms 
can be incorporated into the diets of laboratory animals to study the bioavailability 
of selenium from this food source. Knowledge of the chemical form and bioavailabil- 
ity of selenium in mushrooms and other plant foods is necessary in order to assess 
the value of the foods as nutritional sources of selenium. 

Literature Cited 

1. Chansler, M.W., V.C. Morris, O.A. Levander, 1984. Bioavailability to rats of 
selenium in Brazil Nuts and Mushrooms. Federation Proceedings 42(4):927. 

2. Dongxa, Mo, 1984. Pathology and selenium deficiency in Kaschin-Beck disease. 
Third Int'l Symposium on selenium in Biology and Medicine, Beijing, P.R.C. 

3. Douglass, J.S., V.C. Soares, J.H., O.A. Levander, 1981. Nutritional availability 
to rats of selenium in tuna, beef kidney, and wheat. J. Nutr. 111:2180-2187. 

4. Foley, M.R., 1977. Commercial Mushroom Production. In Mushrooms and Man 
An Interdisciplinary Approach to Mycology. A.B. Walters, ed. Linn Benton Com- 
munity College Graphic Communications and Journalism Dept. Albany, Oregon. 

5. Food and Nutrition Board: Recommended Dietary Allowances, Ninth Revised 
Edition, 1980. Washington, D.C. National Academy of Sciences, National Research 

6. Keshan Disease Research Group of the Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, 
Beijing, 1979. Epidemiological studies on the etiologjc relationship of selenium 
and Keshan disease. Chin. Med. J. 92:477-482. 

7. Kraus, R.J., S.J. Foster, H.E. Ganther, 1983. Identification of selenocysteine 
in glutathione peroxidase by mass spectroscopy. Biochemistry 22:5853-5858. 

8. Metzler, D.E., 1977. Biochemistry The Chemical Reactions of Living Cells. 
Academic Press. 

9. Morris, V.C. and O.A. Levander, 1970. Selenium Content of Foods. J. Nutr. 

10. Olsen, O.E., E.J. Novacek, E.I. Whitehead, and I.S. Palmer, 1970. Investiga- 
tions on Selenium in Wheat. Phytochemistry 9:1181-1188. 

A Compilation of Plant Diseases and 
Disorders in Indiana — 1985 

Gail E. Ruhl, Paul C. Pecknold, Donald H. Scott and Richard X. Latin 

Department of Botany and Plant Pathology 

Purdue University 

West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 


The Plant Diagnostic Clinic in the Department of Botany and Plant Pathology 
at Purdue University is a service of the Cooperative Extension Service, Purdue 
Agricultural Experiment Station. Plant disease diagnosis and weed identification are 
gratuitous services offered by the clinic. Of the 1300 specimens received annually, ap- 
proximately 85% are submitted by county extension agents. The remainder of samples 
come directly from commercial growers, homeowners, private consultants and other 
interested persons. This paper is a summary of the major plant diseases and disorders 
which were diagnosed in the clinic and observed throughout the state in 1985. 


Plant specimens are submitted to the Plant Diagnostic Clinic from county exten- 
sion agents, homeowners, growers, nursery operators, consultants, and others. Specimens 
are diagnosed visually or by culturing the pathogen on selected media. Some virus 
diseases ae diagnosed by the leaf dip (negative stain) technique utilizing the electron 
microscope. Once a disease or disorder is diagnosed, appropriate control measures 
are suggested. A summary of the samples diagnosed from January 1 through November 
21, 1985 is given in Table 1. 


Numerous diseases were influenced by environmental conditions during the 1985 
growing season. Weather and site-related problems were commonplace. Very dry spring 
weather resulted in lower incidences of leaf diseases except in the southern half of 
the state. Both disease incidence and disease severity were more severe in the southwest 
portion of the state where spring rainfall was excessive. 

Shade and Ornamental Trees 

Diseases: Apple scab did not appear until late spring and then only caused moderate 
damage to the more highly susceptible crabapples. Anthracnose of sycamore, white 
oak, and ash was almost nonexistant due to the early dry conditons. Similarily, rust 
on hawthorn and crabapples was of minor importance. Diplodia tip blight continued 
to devastate pine plantings throughout the state. Austrian and scotch pine were especially 
susceptible. While early season applications of Benlate are reported to control the prob- 
lem, it is difficult to get homeowners and commercial applicators to spray early enough 
to be effective. Few new reports of pine wood nematode were recorded during the 
past year, however, extensive surveying for the disease was not done. Compared to 
1983 and 1984, white oak 'tatters' did not appear as widespread and prevalent. Surveys 
of two woods in Pulaski county found one woods without any 'tatters' when it was 
present on the trees in 1984 and a second woods having much less symptoms com- 
pared to 1984. Surveys of white oak plantations have found 'tatters' to still be 
predominantly confined to the northern third of the state. 'Tatters' has also been found 
on shingle oak, cherrybark oak, and hackberry. This is the first report of 'tatters' 


116 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 95 (1986) 

Table 1. Plant samples received in the Purdue Plant Diagnostic Clinic Jan 1 
through Nov 21, 1985. 

Number of 

Plant Specimen 






Insect 9 



















Small Grain 







Forage Grasses 

and Legumes 








Trees-Shade and 









Shrubs and 

















House plants 









Tree Fruit 








Small Fruit 




































1 Problems caused by an infectious disease causing agent, e.g. fungus, bacterium, virus, mycoplasma, nematode. 

; Problem caused by noninfectious environmental stress, e.g. wind, drought, heat, soil compaction. 

1 Problem caused by herbicide/pesticide misuse. 

4 Problem caused by a nutrient imbalance. 

' Problem caused by an insect. Does not include samples submitted to Entomology Diagnostic Clinic. 

6 "Other" includes the casual agent categories: No disease, and inadequate sample for diagnosis. 

being found outside the oak genus. The cause of 'tatters' is still unknown. Thrips 
have been suggested as a possible cause by the forest pest specialists from Vermont 
and Pennsylvania. 

Disorders: Numerous maple, oak and ash trees of all ages died or showed extensive 
decline over the past year. Injury was most extensive in northern Indiana counties 
but the problem occured state-wide. Cause of the death/decline in these and other 
trees is attributed to the successive summer drought periods over the past three year 
period. Another contributing factor has been the severe cold of the past two winters. 
Sassafras across the state were very slow to leaf-out again this spring. In some trees, 
dieback resulted. The cause of the dieback is attributed to the drought of 1983 and 
1984 and the following hard winters. These two events have combined to cause root 
and twig dieback that resulted in the slow flush of foliage. Winter desiccation was 
prominant on white and scotch pine. Many white pine in the Indianapolis area died 
of apparent winter injury in combination with summer drought stress. 


Diseases: Kabatina twig blight of juniper was recorded for the first time. It is most 
likely that Kabatina is not a new disease to Indiana but has been confused with 

Botany 117 

Phomopsis twig blight of juniper, a similar appearing disease. Botrytis blight of marigold 
and other flowers was common during May and early June in the extreme southern 
area of the state which experienced above normal rainfall during this period. Powdery 
mildew was severe during the late summer period on lilac, zinnia, dahlia and numerous 
other susceptible hosts. Bacterial blight of geranium (Xanthomonas pelargonii) was 
the most frequently recorded disease of greenhouse crops and continues to be of ma- 
jor concern to commercial growers. 

Disorders: Extensive browning and death of Arborvitae was widespread throughout 
middle and northern Indiana. Cause of injury was thought to be due to winter cold 
and desiccation. 

Tree Fruits * 

Diseases: Apple scab, cedar apple rust and fire blight were of minor occurrance due 
to persistant dry weather throughout the growing season. A number of cases of black 
rot (Phylospora obtusa) caused extensive cankering of apple trees in northern Indiana 
were reported. The increase in limb damage from black rot is correlated with extensive 
winter injury over the past two years. 

Disorders: Extreme winter cold caused extensive injury to peach bud and wood tissue 
and resulted in a complete crop loss except for a few protected locations. Substantial 
winter damage to trunks of several apple cultivars (Turley and Prima) was widespread 
in most all apple growing areas of the state. It is uncertain if the majority of trunk 
damage occurred this past winter or from the previous winter of 1983-84. 

Small Fruits 

Diseases: Orange rust of blackberries and raspberries was common during the late 
spring period. Leather rot of strawberry was frequently isolated from random plant- 
ings but did not cause extensive economic loss. 

Disorders: Extensive cold damage occurred to buds of French hybrid grapes, in some 
cases resulting in extensive dieback of canes. Cold injury was also common on many 


Indiana vegetable crops suffered many of the familiar diseases that occur each 
year (1,2,3,4,5) however, two diseases are worth special mention because of their severity 
and widespread occurrance in 1985 and the management problems these diseases pose 
for the future. 

Gummy Stem Blight of Muskmelons and Watermelons 

Gummy stem blight on cucurbits also is referred to as black rot on pumpkins 
and squash. In the previous five years this disease was diagnosed infrequently on melons, 
in south central Indiana. In 1985 gummy stem blight was identified on melons all over 
the state. It was first diagnosed on early muskmelons in mid-June in Knox and Sullivan 
counties. Because infected plants produce spores that are rain-splashed to other plants, 
the disease spread quickly to later planted muskmelon fields and to watermelon fields. 
Farmers who did not inlcude Benomyl in their periodic fungicide applications suffered 
serious losses. More than 90% of the melon fields in southwest Indiana were infected 
with gummy stem blight. Work is underway to determine the origin of the gummy 
stem blight epidemics in 1985. 

The gummy stem blight pathogen (Didymella bryoniae) overwinters on infested 
crop residue in the soil. Regardless of the source of initial inoculum for the 1985 

118 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 95 (1986) 

epidemics, sufficient amounts of primary inoculum will be availabe locally to incite 
future epidemics. In order to decrease the amount of effective initial inoculum, longer 
rotations (more than 3 years out of cucurbits) and fall plowing (moldboard) must be 
practiced. Periodic application of fungicides including Benomyl will become standard. 
Although genetic resistance to gummy stem blight currently is not well defined, incor- 
poration of inherant capacities to reduce disease increase should be part of a long 
term disease management strategy. 

Bacterial Canker of Tomatoes 

Although significant amounts of bacterial canker occurred within the processing 
tomato crop in 1985, the disease was diagnosed in more than 95% of the fresh market 
tomato fields. Reports of severe bacterial canker epidemics were received from Michigan, 
Ohio, Illinois and Iowa. Infected plants yield less, drop their fruit prematurely, and 
produce fruit with unappealing raised white blisters. A combination of three factors 
make bacterial canker a particularly troublesome disease for the future: 1) The disease 
is systemic, 2) the pathogen {Corynebacterium michiganense) enters the plant through 
wounds or natural openings which makes rapid spread possible and, 3) the bacteria 
can survive nothern winters on crop debris. Canker control is further confounded by 
the fact that the pathogen can be transmitted on or in tomato seed and, bactericide 
applications (such as copper) are not effective in stopping disease increase. 

Midwestern farms are being urged to take a very conservative approach towards 
management of bacterial canker. Longer rotations, fall plowing and greenhouse sanitation 
must be implemented while techniques are being sought to detect the presence of the 
pathogen in seed. 

Agrinomic Crops 

Diseases-Wheat: Several wheat diseases were prevalent in Indiana during 1985, however, 
yield losses were variable depending on amount of spring rainfall. Both disease in- 
cidence and disease severity were more severe in the southern half of the state, and 
especially in the southwest portion where spring rainfall was excessive. Powdery mildew, 
leaf rust and glume blotch {Septoria nodorwri) were the most significant fungus diseases. 
Leaf blotch {Septoria tritici) was also prevalent but did not develop to severe propor- 
tions. Tan spot was observed more frequently during 1985 than during any previous 
growing season. Trace amounts of stripe rust occurred in the central portion of the 
state. Loose smut was observed in trace amounts in several fields, and bunt occurred 
in scattered fields where untreated, home-grown seed was used. Take-all was severe 
in southern Indiana and moderately severe in northern Indiana in fields where wheat 
followed wheat and nitrogen stress occurred. The Barley Yellow Dwarf Virus was 
widespread throughout the state on both wheat and oats. The disease was especially 
severe in oats. 

Diseases-Soybean: Rhizoctonia root rot was observed throughout the state. The dry 
weather in the northern half of the state held Phytophthora root rot to relatively low 
levels. The soybean cyst nematode was recorded for the first time in Marshall county 
and continued to be identified in additional fields in northwestern Indiana. This has 
become the most serious pest problem in that area of the state. Brown stem rot occurred 
in the north while charcoal root rot occurred in the south. Sclerotinia stem rot was 
found in central Indiana in a few fields, and stem canker was observed in minor amounts. 
Foliar diseases such as brown spot, bacterial blight and downy mildew were prevalent 
in most areas, however, these diseases caused insignificant yield losses. 
Diseases-Corn: Common and southern rust of corn occurred in many areas in July. 
These diseases developed to damaging proportions in unsprayed seed production fields 

Botany 119 

planted with susceptible inbreds. Northern corn leaf blight, southern corn leaf blight 
and anthracnose leaf blight appeared relatively late in the season (mid-August) and 
after rainfall increased. 

Literature Cited 

1. Evans, G.E., D.H. Scott and P.C. Pecknold. 1980. A Compilation of Plant 
Diseases and Disorders in Indiana — 1980. Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 90:91-104. 

2. Evans-Ruhl, G.E., R.X. Latin, P.C. Pecknold, and D.H. Scott. 1981. A Com- 
pilation of Plant Diseases and Disorders in Indiana— 1981. Proc. Indiana Acad. 
Sci. 91:20-139. 

3. Pecknold, P.C, W.R. Stevenson, and D.H. Scott. 1974. A Compilation of Plant 
Diseases and Disorders in Indiana— 1974. Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 84:71-84. 

4. Ruhl, G.E., R.X. Latin, P.C. Pecknold, and D.H. Scott. 1982. A Compilation 
of Plant Diseases and Disorders in Indiana — 1982. Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 

5. Ruhl, G.E., R.X. Latin, P.C. Pecknold, and D.H. Scott, 1983. A Compilation 
of Plant Diseases and Disorders in Indiana — 1983. Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 


Chair: Robert J. Stark 

Department of Zoology 

DePauw University, Greencastle, Indiana 46135 (317) 653-4776 

Chair-Elect: John W. Munford 

Department of Biology 

Wabash College, Crawfordsville, Indiana 47933 (317) 364-4202 


Role of Dietary Fatty Acids in Murine Mammary Tumors. A.S. Bennett, M.L. 
Richeson, and A. Foust, Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana 47306, and Indiana 

University-Purdue University at Fort Wayne, Fort Wayne, Indiana 47306. Results 

of studies in our laboratory revealed that the latency period for the development of 
mammary adenocarcinomas in female Strain A/St mice was significantly increased when 
the dietary fat contained a high percentage of stearic acid (SA). The incidence of 
hyperplastic alveolar nodules (similar to preneoplastic structures) was increased in mice 
fed a diet rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids. 

The fatty acid compositions of prelactating mammary gland fat pads, in- 
traperitoneal adipose tissue, and non-lactating mammary glands of mice fed high fat 
diets containing stearic acid or linoleic acid (SAF) were compared to those of mice 
fed a low fat diet. All tissues of SAF fed mice contained a higher percentage of 18:2. 
Linoleic acid was significantly reduced in tissues removed from mice fed the SA diet. 
As much as 60% of fatty acids stored in adipose tissues from SAF fed mice was 18:2 
compared to <5% in SA fed mice. These results support our suggestion that the 
availability of 18:2 plays a significant role in the tumorigenic process. 

Lag Time of OH* Radical Production by Zymosan Stimulated Neutrophils. Br yon 

Bhagwandin, S.T. Barefoot and F.W. Kleinhans, Department of Physics, IUPUI, 
Indianapolis, Indiana, 46223 and Department of Medical Research, Methodist Hospital 
of Indiana, Inc., Indianapolis, Indiana 46202. The rapid metabolic burst and pro- 
duction of OH* by stimulated neutrophils makes early time observations necessary. 
The OH* can be detected by using spin trapping techniques in which the OH* is trapped 
and stabilized with dimethyle pyrroline oxide (DMPO) and detected via electron 
paramagnetic resonance (EPR). Past procedures involved mixing the neutrophils with 
stimulant (Zymosan A) and spin trap (DMPO) on a lab table and then moving them 
to the EPR cavity for observation. This process takes 75 seconds, making early time 
observations impossible. An injection system was developed to allow the neutrophils, 
stimulant and spin trap to be mixed as they are injected into the EPR cavity. Collec- 
tion of data is then possible from as early as 12 seconds after stimulation. Using this 
system we find that OH* production begins within 30 seconds after stimulation by 

Determination of OH* Production by Stimulated Neutrophils Using ESR Spectroscopy. 

Maureen Hill, F.W. Kleinhans and S.T. Barefoot, Department of Medical Research, 
Methodist Hospital of Indiana, Inc., Indianapolis, Indiana 46202 and Department of 
Physics, Indiana University-Purdue University at Indianapolis, Indiana 46223. 


122 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 95 (1986) 

The rate of OH* production by the neutrophil during the metabolic burst can be 
measured by ESR spectroscopy with the method of spin trapping. We report a method 
for quantitatively analyzing the ESR raw data and illustrate it with zymosan stimulated 
neutrophils. Peak ESR amplitudes for four concentrations of opsinized zymosan (ratios 
1:1/2:1/4:1/8) occur from 3 to 25 minutes. If the effects of signal decay are removed 
from the raw spectrum, however, the actual profile of OH» production can be seen. 
The four above concentrations are demonstrated to differ only in magnitude of peak 
OH* production, all peaking at a time of three minutes. The signal decay time is deter- 
mined assuming simple exponential decay of the ESR signal. The data, corrected for 
decay, can then be integrated to produce a cumulative OH» production curve. This 
permits comparison of OH» production data with that generated by spectrophotometric 
assays for superoxide. PMA (Phorbol 12-Myristate 13-Acetate) has also been used as 
a neutrophil stimulant and the effect of various sampling techniques and oxygen ten- 
sion on OH» production have been examined. 

Ultrastructural Organization of the Subcommissural Organ of Mongolian Gerbil 

Meriones unguicalatus. Mohinder S. Jarial, Center for Medical Education, Ball State 

University, Muncie, Indiana 47306. The subcommissural organ (SCO) of adult 

mongolian gerbil has been examined by light and electron microsocopy. It is a specialized 
area of tall columnar ependymal and adjoining hypendymal cells, located in the roof 
of the caudal end of the third ventricle immediately below the posterior commissure. 
A network of capillaries with associated nerve endings exists between ependymal and 
hypendymal cells. Two cell types, namely light and dark epithelial cells are present. 
The ependymal cells have no basement membranes and their apical ends which often 
protrude into the ventricular lumen bear numerous slender microvilli and a few cilia. 
The lateral plasma membranes are fused distally by desmosomes and tight junctions. 
The cytoplasm of both ependymal and hypendymal cells contain numerous mitochon- 
dria which occur fairly evenly throughout the cytoplasm. Comparatively large nuclei 
with eccentric nucleoli, prominent Golgi apparatus, smooth and rough surfaced en- 
doplasmic reticulum, secretory granules and lipid droplets are regular features of both 
cell types. The cells also display whorls and dilated cisternae of rough endoplasmic 
reticulum studded with widely spaced ribosomes, multivesicular bodies, dense bodies, 
lysosomes, vesicles and microtubules. A striking feature of the SCO is the presence 
of intercellular and intracellular canaliculi usually lined with microvilli and even cilia. 
Occasionally, membrane bounded granules and electron-lucent droplets apparently 
coalesce with membranes of these canaliculae and discharge their contents in their lumina. 
No quantitative differences were observed in the ultrastructure of the light and dark 
cells except for the density of the cytoplasm in the latter. They may represent the 
same cell in different stages of physiological activity. 

The ultrastructural features suggest that the SCO has a secretary function, and 
its product is transported into the cerebrospinal fluid where some of it may be incor- 
porated into the Reissner's fibre. 

Using Cultured Fetal Mouse Salivary Glands to Detect Teratogenic Potential of 
Chemicals. R. Douglas Lyng, Department of Biological Sciences, Indiana University- 
Purdue University at Fort Wayne, Fort Wayne, Indiana 46805. During develop- 
ment of the mouse salivary gland, a spherical bud is converted into a multilobed organ 
by the interaction of several processes. These interactions, and the possibility of quan- 
tifying development by counting lobe production, suggested that this system may be 
useful for testing the teratogenic potential of chemicals. Mouse salivary glands from 
day 13 embryos were cultured in the presence of three known teratogens and in an 

Cell Biology 123 

untreated control. A growth factor was determined by dividing the number of lobes 
at 48 hours by the number present at explanation. Cytochalasin B caused a growth 
reduction of over 75% at 1 ug/ml, the lowest concentration tested. Two niacin an- 
tagonists, 3-acetylpyridine (3-AP) and 6-aminonicotinamide (6-AN), showed a dose 
response reduction in growth. The most potent was 6-AN with over a 90% reduction 
in growth at 10"'M, but only a 25% reduction was found with 3-AP at 10"'M. These 
results indicate that this system has potential for testing chemicals for teratogenic prop- 
erties. Supported by NIH Grant RR00169 to the California Primate Research Center 
and Indiana Academy of Science Research Grant. 

A New Pharmacological Tool to Study Neurotransmitter Release at the Frog 
Neuromuscular Junction. Richard S. Manalis, Department of Biological Sciences, 
Indiana University-Purdue University at Fort Wayne, Fort Wayne, Indiana 46805. — 

Recent neurochemical studies have shown that the drug AH5183 

(2-(4-phenylpiperidino)cyclohexanol) blocks the incorporation of newly synthesized 
ACh into synaptic vesicles. The present experiments were undertaken because AH5183 
might eventually permit electrophysiological studies of synaptic transmission to 
discriminate between cytoplasmic and vesicular ACh release. Sciatic nerve-sartorius 
muscle preparations from the frog (Rana pipiens) were mounted in a water-jacketed 
chamber which rested on the stage of a compound microscope. Neuromuscular junc- 
tions were identified visually; intracellular microelectrodes were used to record EPPs. 
A microcomputer system was used to digitize, average, and store the EPPs; software 
was available which permitted the EPP amplitudes to be measured and plotted against 
time. Preparations were bathed in normal Ringer solution containing (in mM): NaCl 
(111); KC1 (2.5); CaCl 2 (2.0). The pH was buffered to 7.1-7.2 with tris maleate (4.0); 
the bath temperature was 12-14° C. d-tubocurarine chloride (3 x 10" 3 mg/ml) was pres- 
ent in order to record subthreshold EPPs. 2-4 fiM AH5183 lowered the EPP amplitude; 
in one experiment, the average EPP fell to less than 100 /*V within 40 min after the 
drug was first added to the bath. AH5183 was also shown to decrease facilitated transmit- 
ter release. EPP amplitudes were compared immediately before and after tetanic stimula- 
tion (30 sec at 20 Hz) of the muscle nerve first during the control period and then 
in the presence of the drug: the control EPP increased from 0.62 mV to 0.91 mV 
while the AH5183-treated EPP only increased from 0.62 mV to 0.70 mV. (AH 5183 
kindly supplied by Dr. S.M. Parsons.) 

Effect of Amiloride on Insulin-stimulated Sodium Efflux from Rat Skeletal Muscle. 

John W. Munford. Department of Biology, Wabash College, Crawfordsville, Indiana 

47933. Insulin has been shown to stimulate active sodium efflux and active 

potassium influx in a number of tissues. It has been hypothesized that the increase 
in these ion fluxes is mediated by stimulation of the sodium pump by insulin. However, 
the mechanism by which insulin stimulates the sodium pump is unresolved. In order 
to test the hypothesis that insulin stimulation of sodium pump activity is secondary 
to an insulin-stimulated increase in Na^/H" 1 " exchange, we investigated the effect 
of amiloride, a specific inhibitor of Na + /H + exchange, on the rate of insulin-stimulated 
22 Na efflux from rat soleus muscle. Insulin treatment of isolated soleus muscles in- 
creased the rate constant of 22 Na efflux by 18% compared to the rate constant of 
paired control muscles. The addition of 0.5mM amiloride to insulin-treated muscles 
reduced the degree of insulin stimulation of 22 Na efflux by approximately 30%. 
Therefore, it appears that only about one-third of the insulin-stimulated increase in 
sodium pump activity in rat soleus muscle is secondary to insulin stimulation of 
Na + /H + exchange. Supported by a grant from the American Diabetes Association, 
Indiana Affiliate Inc. 

124 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 95 (1986) 

Analysis of DNA Methylation in the Growth and Development of the Early Alaska 

Pea (Pisum sativum). L.A. Neeb and B.D. Allamong, Department of Biology, Ball 

State University, Muncie, Indiana 47306. The methylation of specific gene sites 

is thought to play a controlling role in gene expression in microorganisms, higher plants, 
and animals. The relationship between methylation of DNA and gene expression has 
been well documented in microorganisms and animals; however, the regulatory role 
of methylation in higher plants has remained relatively unresearched. The focus of 
this study was to investigate fluctuations in DNA methylation during the early develop- 
ment of the pea (Pisum sativum). 

Pea seeds were grown for 12 days in vermiculite in a growth chamber. Duplicate 
samples of 30 seedlings were harvested daily. The samples were pulse-labeled with S- 
Adenosyl-L-methionine, (methyl-C3H 3 ) for 10 hours. The labeled methyl group was 
allowed to be incorporated into the DNA as the samples continued to grow and dif- 
ferentiate. The methyltransferase action was stopped by freezing. DNA was then ex- 
tracted, purified, and quantitated. Included in the analysis was the quantitation of 
RNA. Each methylated product was quantitated in the scintillation counter. 

Analysis of the fluctuations in the methylated nucleic acids over the growth period 
of seedling differentiation was made. Methylated DNA was quantiated based on a 
comparison of radioactivity in DNA extracted versus the radioactivity contributed to 
the RNA extracted. Fluctuations of methylated DNA correlates to growth patterns 
observed. The results lend supporting evidence to the above stated hypothesis. This 
study indicated that differentiation in pea plants may be a product of methylated DNA 
masking the expression of selective genes. The results suggested that methyl group 
alterations on RNA follow the DNA cyclic pattern and also may play a significant 
role in gene expression. 

Effect of Dietary Fats on the Incidence of Preneoplastic Nodules in Mammary Glands 
of Strain A/St Mice. M.L. Richeson and A.S. Bennett Indiana University-Purdue 

University at Fort Wayne and Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana 47306. The 

effect of high-fat (14%) stearic acid (SA) (saturated), high-fat (15%) safflower oil (SAF) 
(polyunsaturated) and low-fat (5%) corn oil (CO) diets on the occurrence of preneoplastic 
nodules in the mammary glands of Strain A/St mice was determined. Mammary 

neoplasms develop in a three stage process: normal cells > preneoplastic nodules — 

-> malignant tumors. Hyperplastic alveolar nodules (HAN) have been shown to be 
pre-malignant. Dietary polyunsaturated fats, specifically linoleic acid, promote tumor 
formation whereas stearic acid decreases tumorigenesis. The mechanisms involved in 
the promoter or inhibitor action are not known. 

Mammary glands of 10 month old virgin females from the three dietary groups 
were stained, prepared in histologic whole mounts, and photographed with low power 
light microscopy. Morphological states of the mammary tissues were observed and 
numbers of HAN were recorded. Numbers of HAN in the SA fed mice was significantly 
lower than in either the CO or SAF fed mice. These results suggest that the tumor 
promoting effect of the dietary fat is at the normal cell to the preneoplastic transition. 

An Improved Method for Measuring Lysozyme. Steven C. Salaris and Steven T. 
Barefoot, Department of Medical Research, Methodist Hospital of Indiana, Inc., India- 
napolis, Indiana 46202. The neutrophil is a white blood cell that is important 

in host defense. During the killing of invading microorganisms, various enzymes are 
released, including lysozyme. Lysozyme is measured by observing a spectrophotometric 
decrease in the 515 nm absorbance of a Micrococcus Lysodeikticus suspension. Typically, 
this change in absorbance is assumed to a linear relationship. We have found that 

Cell Biology 125 

the rate of change may be better described by exponential decay. Changes in absor- 
bance of a Micrococcus Lysodeikticus suspension were measured in the presence of 
known lysozyme concentrations (0-20 ug/ml) for 10 minutes. The resultant graph of 
change in absorbance vs. time did more closely resemble exponential decay. A plot 
of the natural log of this data was nearly linear and therefore supported this concept. 
Using a standard curve generated by this new method is a significantly more accurate 
method of determining lysozyme concentration in a given solution. This new assay 
was applied to the determination of lysozyme released by stimulated neutrophils and 
was found to be a reliable accurate method of measuring lysozyme. 

Muscle Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Activity Following Various Durations of 
Eccentric Exercise. A.C. Snyder, S.B. Kaiserauer and S. Griffth. Human Perform- 
ance Laboratory, Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana 47306. Muscle inflam- 
mation has been shown to occur following activities which involve eccentric exercise. 
The purpose of this study was to determine if this inflammatory response was depen- 
dent on the eccentric exercise duration. METHODS: Five groups of male rats (mean 
body weight = 554.3 g) were run on a treadmill for 60 minutes. The groups differed 
in the percentage of time (0, 25, 50, 75 or 100%) of the run which was downhill (16 
degrees, an eccentric activity). For each group the remainder of the run was performed 
on the level. The inflammatory response was determined by analysis of the enzyme 
glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) activity in the soleus, plantaris, triceps 
brachii and vastus intermedius muscles 60 hrs. post-exercise. RESULTS: The plantaris 
G6PDH activity was significantly elevated following all eccentric exercise bouts, while 
that of the vastus intermedius was only elevated following the longer bouts of eccen- 
tric work. The soleus and triceps brachii muscles G6PDH activity was not significantly 
elevated above control values in any exercise group. CONCLUSION: Inflammation 
appears to occur following any eccentric exercise with the degree of inflammation depen- 
dent on the muscle fiber type and muscles involved. 

Effects of Ionophore A23187 on Acinar Cells of Mouse Parotid Salivary Glands. Robert 
J. Stark, Department of Biological Sciences, DePauw, University, Greencastle, In- 
diana 46135. The ionophore A23187 is frequently used to increase cytosolic calicum 

([Ca]i) to examine calcium's role in the regulation of cell function. In this study, ion- 
selective and conventional microelectrodes were used to measure the effects of A23187 
(10" \ 5x10" 7 , 10" \ and 10" 5 M) on [Ca]i, cytosolic sodium ([Na]i), and the 
basolateral membrane potential (Em) in parotid acinar cells from ICR mice. These 
concentrations of A23187 induced membrane hyperpolarizations of 0.9 ±0.1, 2.7 ±0.3, 
3.9 ±0.6, & 6.8 ±0.9 mV; increased [Na]i from 9.2 ±0.4 to 10.4 ±0.4, 11.3 ±0.4, 
13.4 ±0.4, & 14.9 ±0.6 mM; and increased [Ca]i from 0.44 ±0.04 to 0.63 ±0.01, 
0.98 ±0.04, 0.92 ±0.04, & 0.94 ±0.06 uM respectively. When these changes were com- 
pared to those induced by the natural secretagogue acetylcholine (ACh), both pro- 
duced similar Em hyper-polarizations but different dose-dependent patterns with regard 
to the increases in [Ca]i and [Na]i. This suggests the presence of a mechanism for 
limiting the increase in these ions during stimulation with ACh. This regulation was 
absent when the ionophore was employed indicating that the regulation may be associated 
with the ACh-receptor. (supported by grants from the Indiana Academy of Science 
and DePauw University). 

Absence of Dosage Compensation in the X-linked Acid Phosphatase Gene, 
Ap-6, in Drosophila pseudoobscura and D. miranda 

Teresa R. Forsyth 
Division of Natural Sciences 

Department of Biology 
Indiana University Southeast 
New Albany, Indiana 47150 


Drosophila pseudoobscura and D. miranda are two closely related sibling species 
(5). Interspecific hybrids can be produced in the laboratory between these species (2,3,16), 
however, hybrids have not been found in nature (4). 

Drosophila miranda has three, instead of two, sex-determining chromosomes (2), 
namely X', X 2 , and Y. The D. miranda females have X'X'X 2 X 2 plus three pairs of 
autosomes and the males have X'X 2 Y plus three pairs of autosomes. Drosophila 
pseudoobscura females have XX plus four pairs of autosomes, and the males have 
XY plus four pairs of autosomes. Dobzhansky and Tan (6) confirmed homologies 
between D. miranda and D. pseudoobscura chromosomes and noted the arrangements 
that had occurred. One homology demonstrated was between the miranda X' and 
pseudoobscura X. 

In species with an XY, ZW, or XO method of sex determination, the homogametic 
sex has twice the number of X-linked gene copies as the heterogametic sex. However, 
the levels of many X-linked gene products are equivalent in males and females. In 
Drosophila both X chromosomes function in all the somatic cells of females (10,14). 
Equilization of X-linked gene product in D. melanogaster was first described in 1922 
by Bridges (1) and termed "dosage compensation" by Muller in 1931 (17). Since then 
many genes on the X chromosome of D. melanogaster have been demonstrated to 
be dosage compensated (13). However, the molecular mechanisms of dosage compen- 
sation remain unknown (15). 

There are a few reports of the lack of dosage compensation. A noncompensated 
wildtype X-linked gene in D. melanogaster codes for the alpha chain of larval serum 
protein- 1 (19). The enzyme 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6-PGD) was shown 
to be Z-linked and not compensated in Heliconius females (9). In D. melanogaster 
6-PGD is X-linked and is dosage compensated (11). My research indicates that the 
acid phosphatase-6 (Ap-6) gene is not dosage compensated in D. pseudoobscura or 
D. miranda. The Ap-6 gene is X-linked in D. pseudoobscura (18) and due to homology 
is presumed to be X' -linked in D. miranda. 

Methods and Materials 

Species of Drosophila used to investigate the acid phosphatase enzymes (AP-6, 
AP-3, AP-1, and AP-Trace) were three D. pseudoobscura stocks (RivlOO from River- 
side, California, WWA-6, and WWA-7) and a D. miranda stock (S204 from Sisters, 
Oregon). The RivlOO and S204 stocks were obtained from the laboratory of Satya 
Prakash, University of Rochester, New York. The WWA-6 and WWA-7 stocks were 
from the Species Resource Center, Bowling Green State University, Bowling Green, 
Ohio. All fly cultures were reared at 18 °C on an instant potato-yeast-acetic acid medium. 

Reciprocal interspecific crosses were made between D. pseudoobscura RivlOO and 
D. miranda S204 for investigation of acid phosphatase gene expression. Newly eclosed 
flies were collected from the maintenance stocks, aged separately by sex for 5-7 days, 
and then mated to produce hybrid offspring. The viable F, hybrids produced from 


128 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 95 (1986) 

the reciprocal crosses have the genotype, A3/X 2 ,X/X', expressed in terms of the sex 
chromosomes and homologous chromosomes of the two species. The D. pseudoobscura 
autosome 3 (A3) is homologous to the D. miranda X 2 chromosome and the D. 
pseudoobscura X chromosome is homologous to the D. miranda X 1 chromosome. Other 
possible gentoypes from the interspecific crosses either had low viability (A3/X 2 ,X 
and X 2 /A3,X7Y) or did not eclose (A3.X/Y and A3,X/X'Y). Parental and F, flies, 
eclosing over an eight hour period (6:00 a.m. -2:00 p.m.), were collected daily and aged 
from one to 40 days at 18°C in groups of 50 flies or less per vial. Whole flies were 
homogenized at 10:00 a.m. on the same day that electrophoresis was conducted. 
Therefore, the homogenates were prepared from flies 0-40 days + - four hours. 

Intraspecific reciprocal crosses were made between the WWA-6 and WWA-7 strains 
of D. pseudoobscura. These strains were electrophoretically polymorphic for the Ap-6 
locus and were chosen to verify X-linkage of the Ap-6 locus. 

Flies were etherized and then weighed in groups of 10-20 individuals to an ac- 
curacy of 0.1 mg. Whole flies, placed in 250 pi Beckman or 1.5 ml Eppendorf microcen- 
trifuge tubes in an ice bath, were ground at a concentration of one fly per 4 or 5 
ftl of Tris-Borate (TB) grinding solution. This solution consisted of 100 ml 0.1 M 
tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane-borate (Tris-Borate) buffer pH 8.9-9.1, 6 gm sucrose 
and sufficient bromphenol blue to act as a tracking dye (8). The resulting homogenates 
were centrifuged in an Eppendorf 5412 Microcentrifuge at 15,600 x g for 1.5 minutes. 
After centrifugation, samples were stored on ice until they were layered onto acrylamide 

A vertical gel electrophoresis apparatus (EC490 from E-C Apparatus Corpora- 
tion) was used for separation of the enzymes in the fly homogenate supernatant. Six 
percent gels, consisting of 95 percent acrylamide (Sigma) and five percent 
N,Nl-methylene-bis-acrylamide (Sigma), were prepared by dissolving 19.95 gm of 
acrylamide and 1.05 gm of bis-acrylamide in sufficient 0.1 M Tris-Borate buffer (pH 
8.9-9.1) to attain a volume of 350 ml. After filtration, polymerization was achieved 
with the addition of 0.7 ml tetramethylethylenediamine (TEMED) and 1.75 ml ten 
percent ammonium persulfate per 350 ml gel solution. Tris-Borate (0.1 M, pH 8.9-9.1) 
was used in the gel box. 

Prior to electrophoresis, gels were cooled to -5°C and maintained at that 
temperature throughout electrophoresis. Five /tl of supernatant from the centrifuged 
fly homogenates were layered into the 24 gel pockets and electrophoresis was con- 
ducted at a constant 350 volts with each gel box drawing approximately 100 milliamperes 
for 2.5 hours. 

Following electrophoresis, the gels were stained for acid phosphatase by immediately 
immersing them in a staining solution. This solution consisted of a buffer mixture 
(90 ml 0.1 M sodium acetate buffer pH 5.0, 10 ml 20 percent NaCl, 5 ml 0.5 M 
MgCl 2 , and 0.5 ml 10 percent MnCl 2 ) to which was added immediately prior to gel 
immersion, 100 mg Fast Blue (BB-salt), 500 mg polyvinylpyrrolidone, and 100 mg a- 
naphthyl acid phosphate (Sigma). Since this stain is light sensitive, the mixing beaker 
and gel developing dish were shielded from light. 

Acid phosphatase bands began to appear within two hours of developing, but 
for maximum visibility, gels were stained overnight. Electropherograms were destained, 
fixed, and stored at room temperature in a solution of five parts methanol, five parts 
distilled water, and one part acetic acid prior to densitometric analysis. 

Electropherograms were densitometrically scanned using an EC910 Densitometer 
(E-C Apparatus Corporation) for documentation of the amounts of acid phosphatase 
in the electrophoretic separations. The gel was positioned to allow the light beam to 
pass successively through each of the 3 to 5 acid phosphatase bands per pocket lane. 

Cell Biology 


The transmitted light intensity, registered by a recorder, resulted in a densitogram for 
each separate homogenate sample (7). 

The area under each peak of the densitogram was determined. This area is a 
measure of the enzyme activity that was present in each electrophoretic separation 
of the acid phosphatases on the electropherograms. X-y coordinates, taken from the 
densitographic curves were transmitted to the DECsystem 10 computer (Digital Equip- 
ment Corporation, Maynard, Mass.) and analyzed using the MLAB program. MLAB 
was selected for its curve fitting program which adjusts the parameters of a model 
function to minimize the sum of squared errors (12). Curve analysis (or determination 
of area under each peak of the densitogram) was based on a mathmatical model of 
overlapping normal curves. 

Results and Discussion 

The interspecific cross of D. pseudoobscura females and D. miranda males (Cross 
A) and the reciprocal (Cross B) yielded vigorous sterile F, females which were col- 
lected for further analysis. These hybrid females have the genotype A 3 /X 2 ,X/X' in 
terms of sex chromosomes. The Ap-6 X-linkage in D. pseudoobscura was verified as 
follows: preliminary studies of WWA-6 and WWA-7 D. pseudoobscura strains 
demonstrated electrophoretically polymorphic Ap-6 loci. Strain WWA-6 has a double 
electrophoretic AP-6 band and strain WWA-7 has a single electrophoretic AP-6 band 
(Figure 1). The F, males from the mating of WWA-6 males and WWA-7 females elec- 

V At 

V V 



*** wn ^* 

123456 7 8 91011 
WWA-6 WWA-7 WWA-6 

Figure 1. Electropherogram demonstrating X-linkage of the Ap-6 locus in D. 
pseudoobscura. WWA-6 and WWA-7 are the D. pseudoobscura strains crossed. F, 
from a particular cross are placed between the parental flies. Pockets 1-6 contain flies 
of the cross WWA-6 6 x WWA-7 9 . Pockets 7-1 1 contain flies of the cross WWA-7 6 
x WWA-6 9- Arrows indicate F, male hybrids. 

130 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 95 (1986) 

trophoretically demonstrated only the single band due to the Ap-6 locus of the WWA-7 
female. In the reciprocal mating of WWA-7 males and WWA-6 females, the F, males 
show the double electrophoretic AP-6 band of the WWA-6 females (Figure 1). Therefore, 
the Ap-6 locus is on the X chromosome of D. pseudoobscura. In D. miranda Ap-6 
is presumed to be on the X' chromosome since X and X' are reported to be pre- 
dominantly homologous. The hybrid females are, therefore, carrying the pseudoobscura 
Ap-6 on the X chromosome and the miranda Ap-6 on X'. 

Electrophoresis detected four separate adult acid phosphatases in the Drosophila 
species studied: acid phosphatase-6 (AP-6), acid phosphatase-3 (AP-3), acid 
phosphatase- 1 (AP-1) and acid phosphatase-trace (AP-TR). The Ap-3 locus was elec- 
trophoretically polymorphic in the strains, RivlOO and S204, used. Therefore, three 
mobility bands appeared for AP-3 in the female hybrids (Figure 2). 


,;> ;, - IM 111 

AP-6 /AP-3F 


m m 

1 234 56 789 10 1112 13 

Figure 2. Electropherogram of D. pseudoobscura, D. miranda, and interspecific F, 
hybrids. The acid phosphatases are AP-6, AP-3 Fast (AP-3F), AP-3 Heterodimer 
(AP-3H), AP-3 Slow (AP-3S), AP-1, and AP-Trace (AP-Tr). Lane 1 is a A 
pseudoobscura male, lane 12 a D. miranda female, lane 13 a D. pseudoobscura female 
and lanes 2-1 1 are F, hybrid females labelled A and B corresponding to crosses A and B. 

Densitometry was used to determine the enzyme activity of the acid phosphatases 
studied. Densitometric measurement of the enzymes in each pocket lane of an elec- 
tropherogram produced a densitogram. Measurement of acid phosphatases in F, hybrid 

Cell Biology 


females generated single peaked curves for AP-6 and AP-1 (Figure 3). The tri-peaked 
curve for AP-3 corresponds to the fast, intermediate, and slow bands of AP-3 in the 
hybrid (Figure 3). 

Figure 3. Densitogram of a D. pseudoobscura and D. miranda interspecific cross 
B F, hybrid female. The amounts of acid phosphatases, AP-6, AP-3, and Ap-1, pre- 
sent in the F, hybrid correspond to the areas under the curve. 

Computer analysis of densitograms yielded a curve fit and a computation of area 
under each peak including those curves which overlapped. Mean proportions of AP-6 
(AP-6 per total acid phosphatase present per sample) were also generated by the com- 
puter program (Table 1). These mean proportions allowed for gel to gel comparisons. 

Variations in amounts of AP-6 occurred between and within species but not be- 
tween hybrids (Table 1). Analysis of variance indicated that the level of AP-6 was 
significantly different (p = 0.000) between the two species. D. pseudoobscura had a 
higher level of AP-6 than D. miranda (Table 1, Figure 4). However, there was no 
significant differnce (p> 0.842) between amounts of AP-6 present in the interspecific 
hybrids. Significant variation (p = 0.000) in AP-6 level occurred between parental males 
and females. In both species the females had a greater amount of AP-6 in terms of 
proportion of enzyme as did the males. AP-6 analysis of variance revealed no signifi- 
cant interaction (p = 0.453) where species and sex were the factors analyzed. This im- 
plied that the relationship of AP-6 levels of males to females was the same in the 


Indiana Academy of Science 

Vol. 95 (1986) 

Table 1. Mean proportions of acid phosphatase-6 activity per total AP measured 
in D. pseudoobscura , D. miranda, and interspecific F, hybrid females and calculated 
mean level activity per sex chromosome. Means are based on n samples per source 
of enzyme. S.D. =Standard Deviation. 

Source of Enzyme 

Mean AP-6 


D. pseudoobscura females (XX) 
D. pseudoobscura males (X) 
Mean level per X chromosome 

D. miranda females (X'X 1 ) 

D. miranda males (X 1 ) 

Mean level per X' chromosome 

Cross A hybrid (XX') 
Cross B hybrid (XX 1 ) 
Predicted hybrid level 

























1.0 ' 

Figure 4. The 
range and mean of 
proportions of acid 
phosphatase-6 in D. 
pseudoobscura, D. 
miranda, and in- 
terspecific hybrid F, 
females. Each ver- 
tical line indicates the 
range, the dot the 
mean, and the rec- 
tangle the standard 
error of the mean of 
acid phosphatase-6 
for each species' 
males and females 
and hybrids A and B. 





$ o» $ o» A B 

Cell Biology 133 

two species. Combining the relative proportions of AP-6 produced by the two X 
chromosomes in D. pseudoobscura females (0.587) and the one X chromosome in D. 
pseudoobscura males (0.379), a total level of 0.966 was obtained (Table 1). This in- 
dicated the production of a mean level of 0.322 per D. pseudoobscura chromosome. 
Therefore, the predicted relative proportion in D. pseudoobscura females would be 
0.644. The observed level in D. pseudoobscura females was 0.587. In D. pseudoobscura 
males, the predicted relative proportion of AP-6 would be 0.322 and the observed 
level was 0.379. Furthermore, in D. miranda the Ap-6 locus was assumed to be on 
the X' chromosome because a large proportion of the X 1 is homologous to the D. 
pseudoobscura X chromosome (6). The predicted relative proportion of AP-6 pro- 
duced by each X' chromosome would be 0.159 (Table 1). The observed level of AP-6 
in D. miranda females with two X 1 chromosomes was 0.345 and the observed level 
of AP-6 in D. miranda males with one X 1 chromosome was 0.143. T-tests validated 
the hypothesis that the relative proportion of AP-6 in females was equal to two times 
the relative proportion of AP-6 in males (0.4>p>0.05) in both species. 

A c/5-acting model of Ap-6 gene regulation is proposed for D. pseudoobscura 
and D. miranda (Figure 5). The males in both species produced one-half the amount 


U' ^ # x 




Interspecific hybrids A and B 

D. pseudoobscura and 0. miranda 
% and <r* 

Figure 5. Regulatory models of AP-6 production in D. pseudoobscura, D. miranda, 
and interspecific hybrids A and B. a) C/s-acting regulation of the Ap-6 loci in D. 
pseudoobscura and D. miranda males and females, b) Os-acting regulation of the Ap-6 
loci in interspecific hybrids A and B. 
Q-regulatory locus 
•-structural Ap-6 locus 

of gene product present in the females. Both c/s-acting modifiers are proposed to af- 
fect only their adjacent Ap-6 loci in the hybrid system (Figure 5). The D. pseudoobscura 
X chromosome hypothetical^ should produce a relative activity of 0.322 and the D. 
miranda X 1 hypothetical^ should produce a relative activity of 0.159. Therefore, the 
predicted hybrid activity would be 0.481 (Table 1). This value was not significantly 
different (0.7>p>0.6) from the measured activity of 0.473 in hybrid A or the measured 
activity of 0.477 in hybrid B (Table 1). Further elucidation of Ap-6 gene regulation 
could be obtained with a study utilizing AP-6 electrophoretic mobility variants so that 
enzyme activities could be separately measured in the hybrid. Also, additional studies 
utilizing heads or thoraces for evaluation of AP-6 activity would rule out the possibil- 
ity of high concentrations of that enzyme in female sex organs which could account 
for the difference in enzyme quantity between the sexes. Experiments are planned to 

134 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 95 (1986) 

discriminate the occurrence of AP-6 in various organs and body parts. Studies to be 
reported in coming publications on other acid phosphatases in D. pseudoobscura and 
D. miranda should further clarify Ap-6 gene activity. 

In conclusion, the proportions of AP-6 measured in the parental species and inter- 
specific hybrids substantiate lack of dosage compensation of the Ap-6 locus in D. 
pseudoobscura and D. miranda. The integrity of gene expression in the X and X 1 
chromosomes is maintained in the hybrid system, therefore, supporting a c/s-acting 
model of gene regulation. 


The author wishes to thank the Department of Biology, University of Louisville, 
Louisville, KY., for the use of their facilities and equipment. Special thanks go to 
Dr. Gary Cobbs for his helpful suggestions and comments throughout the research. 

Literature Cited 

1. Bridges, C.B. 1922. The origin of variations in sexual and sex limited characters. 
Am. Natur. 56: 51-63. 

2. Dobzhansky, Th. 1935. Drosophila miranda, a new species. Genetics 20: 377-391. 

3. Dobzhansky, Th. 1937. Further data on Drosophila miranda and its hybrids with 
Drosophila pseudoobscura. J. Genetics 34: 135-151. 

4. Dobzhansky, Th. 1970. Genetics of the Evolutionary Process. Columbia Univer- 
sity Press, New York, 505 pp. 

5. Dobzhansky, T. and C. Epling, 1944. Contributions to the Genetics, Taxonomy 
and Ecology of Drosophila psuedoobscura and Its Relatives. Carnegie Institution 
of Washington Publication 554, Washington, D.C., 183 pp. 

6. Dobzhansky, Th. and C.C. Tan, 1936. Studies on hybrid sterility. III. A com- 
parison of the gene arrangement in two species, Drosophila pseudoobscura and 
D. miranda. Zeit. i. A. V. 72: 88-114. 

7. Gaal, O., G.A. Medgyesi, and L. Vereczkey, 1980. Electrophoresis in the Separation 
of Biological Macromolecules, John Wiley and Sons. New York, 422 pp. 

8. Hubby, J.L. and R.C. Lewontin, 1966. A molecular approach to the study of 
genie heterozygosity in natural populations. I. The number of alleles at different 
loci in Drosophila pseudoobscura. Genetics 54: 577-594. 

9. Johnson, M.S. and J.R.G. Turner, 1979. Absence of dosage compensation for 
a sex-linked enzyme in butterflies (Heliconius). Heredity 43: 71-77. 

10. Kazazian, H.H., Jr., W.J. Young, and B. Childs, 1965. X-linked 
6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase in Drosophila: Subunit associations. Science 
150: 1601-1602. 

11. Komma, D.J. 1966. Effect of sex transformation genes on glucose-6-phosphate 
dehydrogenase activity in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics 54: 497-503. 

12. Knott, G.D. 1979. MLAB - A mathematical modeling tool. Computer Programs 
in Biomedicine 10(3): 271-280. 

13. Lucchesi, J.C. 1973. Dosage compensation in Drosophila. Ann. Rev. Genetics 
7: 225-237. 

14. Lucchesi, J.C. 1977. Dosage compensation: Transcription-level regulation of X- 
linked genes in Drosophila. Amer. Zoologist 17: 685-693. 

15. Lucchesi, J.C. 1983. The relationship between gene dosage, gene expression, and 
sex in Drosophila melanogaster. Dev. Genet. 3: 275-282. 

16. MacKnight, R.H. 1939. The sex-determining mechanism of Drosophila miranda. 
Genetics 24: 180-201. 

17. Muller, H.J., B.B. League, and C.A. Offerman, 1931. Effects of dosage changes 

Cell Biology 135 

of sex-linked genes, and the compensatory effect of other gene differences be- 
tween male and female. Anat. Rec. 51 (suppl.): 110. 

18. Prakash, S. and R.B. Merritt, 1972. Direct evidence of genie differentiation be- 
tween sex ratio and standard gene arrangements of X chromosome in Drosophila 
pseudoobscura . Genetics 72: 169-175. 

19. Roberts, D.B. and S. Evans-Roberts, 1979. The X-linked alpha chain gene of 
D. melanogaster larval serum protein- 1 does not show dosage compensation. Nature 
(Lond.) 280: 691-692. 

Evidence for a Transplasma Membrane Electron Transport System on 
Intact Ehrlich Lettre Ascite Tumor Cells 

P. Waranimman, I.L. Sun and F.L. Crane 

Department of Biological Sciences 

Purdue University 

West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 


A transplasma membrane redox enzyme, which transfers electrons from reducing 
agents in the cytoplasm to external impermeable oxidants, such as ferricyanide, is pre- 
sent in all cells which have been tested (2,3,19). It was first observed by Manyai and 
Szekely (15) that extracellular ferricyanide induced ATP synthesis inside erythrocytes. 
Subsequently it was observed that ferrocyanide induced ATP breakdown (18). Fur- 
thermore, Mishra and Passow (17) later proposed that ATP synthesis accompanied 
by ferricyanide reduction is due to the occurrence of a transmembrane electron flow. 
Aside from ATP synthesis, electron transport in the transmembrane enzyme system 
is accompanied by proton release from the cell (5,7,19). Several vital functions have 
been found to be related to this redox activity. This includes control and stimulation 
of cell growth (8,21), energizing amino acid transport (9), inducing proton release (13) 
and control of the activity of adenylate cyclase (14). There is good evidence that this 
redox enzyme is hormone sensitive (11,13). The sensitivity of this enzyme to hormones 
also indicates that this enzyme can have important role in the control of cellular func- 
tion. Recently, the action of the redox enzyme has been shown to promote cell attach- 
ment and replication of melanoma cells (8) and HeLa cells (20,21). 

In this study it is shown that ferricyanide stimulates growth of Ehrlich Lettre 
Ascite cells on serum-limited media, which indicates that transmembrane redox activ- 
ity can control cell growth. Other impermeable oxidants stimulate growth of Ascites 
cells as well; however, impermeable oxidants which do not interact with the electron 
transport system do not stimulate growth. Some anticancer drugs have inhibitory ef- 
fects on ferricyanide reduction by Ascite cells, which correlate with decreasing cell growth. 

Materials and Methods 

Ascites cells were grown in flasks using RPMI-1640 culture medium (Gibco) with 
sodium bicarbonate (lg/500ml) and 10% fetal calf serum. Cells were incubated at an 
initial density of lOVml for 3-4 days at 37 °C in a 5% CO : atmosphere (1). Cells were 
prepared for study by pelleting suspension cultures at 5000 rev./min. The pellet was 
diluted with TD-Tris buffer (NaCl 8g/l, KC1 0.34g/l, NA 2 HP0 4 0.1g/l and Trisma 
base 3g/l, pH 7.5) to a final concentration of 0.1 gm cells/ml. 

The rate of ferricyanide reduction by Ascites cells was determined in an Amino 
DW-2a dual beam spectrophotometer with a linear recorder, a cuvette stirrer, and a 
37° temperature controlled cuvette chamber. The assay of ferricyanide reduction was 
performed as described previously (4), except TD-Tris buffer was used instead of 0.05 
M sodium phosphate buffer, pH 7.0. Absorbance changes were measured with the 
dual beam at 420nm minus 500 nm. The extinction coefficient for ferricyanide reduc- 
tion at 420nm equals 1 mM 'cm '. Reduction of cytochrome c was determined in the 
TD-tris buffer with 15 mg/ml cytochrome c added instead of ferricyanide. Absorp- 
tion changes are measured at 550nm-540nm. Extinction coefficient is ^mM'cm' 1 . 
Reduction of hexaamine ruthenium III chloride and indigotetrasulfonate was measured 
coupling the dye reduction to reduction of ferric ions to form ferrous bathophenan- 



Indiana Academy of Science 

Vol. 95 (1986) 

throline sulfonate complex as described previously (21). The effect of anticancer drugs 
on Ascites cell ferricyanide reduction was performed using the procedure above. Anti- 
cancer drugs were added to cells for a preincubation (3 minutes) before the assay. 
0.03-0.10 grams wet weight (g.w.w.) cells were used per assay. 

Growth studies of Ascite cells were carried out with supplements in serum-limited 
(with 0.5% serum) or serum-free media. Cells were harvested with EDTA solution 
(0.02%, pH 7.0). Ferricyanide or other impermeable oxidants can slightly replace fetal 
calf serum as a growth factor for the replication of Ascite cells. A final concentration 
of 0.0033 mM - 1 .0 mM of ferricyanide or other oxidants were used as supplements 
for cell growth. After 2 days of incubation at 37° C cells were harvested and a cell 
survival count was taken immediately. Survival was determined by the eosin Y exclu- 
sion method as described by Mighell and Shrigi (16). The colorless viable cells were 
counted. Cell number was determined by counting with a hemacytometer. 


In order for cellular internal NADH to reduce the impermeable ferricyanide out- 
side the cell, a redox system is necessary to carry electrons across the membrane. The 
use of intact cells, therefore, provided the best assay of the transmembrane redox en- 
zyme activity. Figure 1 demonstrates the kinetics of ferricyanide reduction in Ehrlich 


CELL (0.02g) 




Figure 1. Reduction of ferricyanide by Ehrlich Lettre Ascite tumor cells. Spec- 
trophotometer tracing of A absorbance 420nm minus 500nm. 

Cell Biology 


Lettre Ascite cells. The rate of reduction increased in a hyperbolic manner with in- 
creasing ferricyanide concentrations. The maximum ferricyanide reducing activity was 
reached at 60 nmoles/min/g.w.w. cells (Figure 2). 

.10 .20 .30 .40 .50 .60 .70 .80 


Figure 2. Dependence of Ehrlich Lettre Ascites cells' ferricyanide reduction on ferri- 
cyanide concentration. 

Lineweaver-Burke reciprocal plots of the rate as a function of the ferricyanide 
concentration showed an apparent Km to be 0.08 mM and a V max to be 50 
nmoles/min/g.w.w., as indicated in Figure 3. 

Potassium ferricyanide, the impermeable electron acceptor, stimulates the growth 
of Ascite cells under conditions of serum limited (0.5%) media, as shown in Figure 
4. The optimum growth stimulation is at a concentration of .01 mM of ferricyanide, 
which shows about a 1 .9 fold increase in cell count over the control. At concentrations 
above 0.1 mM, ferricyanide became toxic to the cells, as shown by the reduction of 
cell counts. 

Reduction of other impermeable oxidants such as hexaamine-ruthenium III chloride 
and indigotetrasulfonate were also observed as shown in Table 1. 

Cells supplemented with hexaamine-ruthenium III chloride (0.033) show an in- 
crease of 20% in cell count over the control, while it is 13.6% when supplemented 
with indigotetrasulfonate (0.033). These impermeable oxidants increase oxygen uptake, 
which also stimulates cell growth. Inactive oxidants such as cytochrome C do not pro- 
mote cell replication (Table 2). 

Coupling of proton release to the transmembrane redox activity was found in 
Ascites carcinoma (Table 3). An average of 3.3 nmoles of protons were extruded per 
nmole of ferricyanide reduced, if both assays were done in the same media (sucrose- 
salt solution). 

Anticancer drugs, such as bleomycin, adriamycin and cis-diamine-dichloro-platinum 


Indiana Academy of Science 

Vol. 95 (1986) 

Figure 3. Lineweaver-Burke plot of relation between ferricyanide concentration and 
the rate of ferricyanide reduction by Ascites cells. 

II (cis-platin), partially inhibited (above 50%) the ferricyanide reduction by Ascites 
tumor cells (Table 3). 


The results indicate that stimulation of cell growth can occur in serum-free or 
serum-limited media supplemented by ferricyanide, an electron acceptor of transmem- 
brane redox system. It would appear that serum, which is necessary for cell growth, 
must contain factors which can stimulate transmembrane electron transport. Transfer- 
rin, for example, which is a component of serum, has been shown to replace serum 
in the growth of many cells (20). Transferrin can also act as an electron acceptor for 
the transmembrane dehydrogenase (Crane, unpublished). The effect of ferricyanide 
on growth could be to replace transferrin as an acceptor for the electron flow across 
the plasma membrane. The inhibitory effects of higher ferricyanide concentrations may 
be based on greater electron transport, which would deplete supplies of internal 

It has been previously shown that ferricyanide induced proton release across the 
membrane, which would increase the pH of the cytoplasm in HeLa cells (3,19). The 
release of protons from the cell, which accompanies the redox activity, may be related 
to control of cell division. It is possible that ferricyanide stimulates cell growth through 
the action described above, for alkalinization of the protoplasm has been shown to 
relate to mitogenesis (10). Other impermeable oxidants, which can accept electrons 
from the plasma membrane system, also give some growth stimulation, whereas ox- 
idants which do not accept electrons are inactive. The basis for stimulation of growth 

Cell Biology 



0.01 0.033 0.1 



Figure 4. Effect of ferricyanide concentration on the growth of Ehrlich Lettre Ascites 
cells in serum-limited media with 0.5°7o serum. 

by these oxidants may be the same as the basis for the ferricyanide stimulation of 
cell growth. 

Transmembrane redox enzymes involved in protonophoric electron transport can 
be coupled to the energy transducing adenosine triphosphatases which are known to 
support several vital functions, such as transport of amino acids into the cells (15). 
Control of amino acid transport can be another way that these enzymes can be involved 
in the control of the growth and development of cells (9). 

Table 1 . Redox Activity of Ehrlich Lettre Ascites Carcinoma Cells 

External Electron Acceptor 

Rate of reduction 

Specific activity 


Potassium ferricyanide (O.ImM) 
Hexaamine-ruthenium III chloride (O.ImM) 
Indigo-tetrasulfonate (O.ImM) 


•gww indicates gram wet weight of cells. 

142 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 95 (1986) 

Table 2. Effect of other Impermeable Oxidants on the Growth of Ehrlich Ascites Cells. 

Cell Count 

Addition No. cells/25cm 2 flask 

Control (no addition) 12,000 

Hexaamine-ruthenium HI 15,000 

Chloride (0.033 mM) 

Indigotetrasulfonate 14,200 


Cytochrome C (0.033mM) 11,000 

Cells were grown in a serum free media for 48 hr. 

Table 3. Comparison of Ferricyanide-induced Proton Release and the Rate of Ferri- 
cyanide Reduction by Ehrlich Lettre Ascite Cells. 

Rate of proton release Rate of ferricyanide reduction H + /e ~~ 

(nmoles of H + /min/g.w.w.) (nmoles ferricyanide/min/g.w.w.) 

52 15.6 3.3 

The redox activity and the rate of ferricyanide induced proton assay were both assayed in a sucrose-salt solution 
(sucrose 0.1M, NaCI 10 mM, KC1 10 mM, CaCh lOmM). Ferricyanide concentration was O.lmM. Proton release 
was measured by following change in pH of the external solution with a pH meter and glass electrode as previously 
described (19). 

Table 4. Effect of Anticancer Drugs on Ferricyanide Reduction by Ehrlich Lettre 
Ascites cells. 



Bleomycin (50ug/ml) 
Bleomycin (75ug/ml) 
Adriamycin (10"'M) 
Adriamycin (10"'M) 
Adriamycin (5 x 10"M) 
Adriamycin (10"M) 
Cis-platin (5 x 10'M) 
Cis-platin (10"M) 

Anticancer drugs such as bleomycin and adriamycin inhibit the growth of HeLa 
cells (22,23). If the proton pumping redox system in the plasma membrane functions 
to stimulate cell division, then inhibitors of this enzyme should inhibit growth of the 
cells. It has been shown that these drugs inhibit the growth of other cells at concentra- 
tions which inhibit the proton pumping redox system (19,20,22,23). 


The work was supported by grants from NIH, POl CA36761 and a Career Award 
from NIH (FLC) GM-K6-21839. 

Ferricyanide Reduction 

Specific Activity 

% Inhibition 




















Cell Biology 143 

Literature Cited 

1. Cherry, J.M., MacKellar, D.J. Morre, F.L. Crane, L.B. Jacobsen and V. Schirr- 
macher. 1981. Evidence for a plasma membrane redox system on intact Ascite 
tumor cells with different metastatic capacity. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 634, 

2. Clark, M.G., E.J. Partick, G.S. Patten, F.L. Crane and G. Grebing. 1981. Evidence 
for the extracellular reduction of ferricyanide by rat liver: A transmembrane redox 
system. Biochem. J. 200, 565-572. 

3. Craig, T.A. and F.L. Crane. 1981. Evidence for a transplasma membrane elec- 
tron transport system in plant cells. Proceed. Indiana Acad. Sci. 90, 150-155. 

4. Crane, F.L. and H. Low. 1976. NADH oxidation in liver and fat cell plasma 
membrane. FEBS Lett. 68, 153-156. 

5. Crane, F.L., H. Robert, A.W. Linnane and H. Low. 1982. Transmembrane fer- 
ricyanide reduction by cells of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J. Bioenerg. 
Biomemb. 14, 191-205. 

6. Crane, F.L., H. Low and M. Clark. 1982. Transport and transplasma membrane 
redox system. Martonosi, A. ed; Membrane and Transport, Plenum Press, New 
York. Vol. 2 pp. 251-254. 

7. Dormandy, T.L. and Z. Zarday. 1965. The mechanism of insulin action: The 
immediate electrochemical effects of insulin and red-cell systems. J. Physiol. 180, 

8. Ellem, K.A.O. and G.F. Kay. 1983. Ferricyanide can replace pyruvate to stimulate 
growth and attachment of serum restricted human melanoma cells. Biochem. 
Biophys. Res. Commun. 112, 183-190. 

9. Garcia-Sancho, J., A. Sanchez, M.E. Handlogten and H.N. Christensen. 1977. 
Unexpected additional mode of energization of amino acid transport into Ehrlich 
cells. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 74, 1488-1491. 

10. Gerson, D.F., H. Kiefer and W. Eufe. 1982. Intracellular pH of mitogen-stimulated 
lymphocytes. Science 216, 1009-1010. 

11. Goldenberg, H. 1982. Plasma membrane redox activities. Biochem. Biophys. Acta 
694, 203-223. 

12. Hutchings, S.E. and G.H. Sato. 1978. Growth and maintenance of HeLa cells 
in serum-free medium supplemented with hormones. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 
75, 901-904. 

13. Low, H., F.L. Crane, G. Grebing, K. Hall and M. Tally. 1979. Metabolic milieu 
and insulin action. W.K. Waldhausl Excerpta Medica, Amsterdam pp. 209-213. 

14. Low, H. and S. Werner. 1976. Effect of reducing and oxidizing agents on the 
adenylate cyclase activity in adipocyte plasma membranes. FEBS Lett. 65, 96-98. 

15. Manyai, S. and M. Szekely. 1954. Die Wirkung von natriumflorid und mono- 
jodessigsaure und die glykolyse von menschlichen roten blutkorperche. Acta 
Physiol. Acad. Sci. Hung. 5, 7-18. 

15. Martonosi, A. 1982. ed; Membranes and Transport, Plenum Press, New York, 
Vol. 1 and 2. 

16. Mishell, B.B. and S.M. Shrigi, eds. Selected methods in cellular immunology, 
W.H. Freeman Co., p. 17. San Francisco (1980). 

17. Mishra, R.K. and H. Passow. 1969. Induction of intracellular ATP synthesis by 
extracellular ferricyanide in human red blood cells. J. Membr. Biol. 1, 214-224. 

18. Passow, H. 1963. Cell interface reaction (Brown, H.D. ed.). Scholars Library, 
New York pp. 57-67. 

19. Sun, I.L. and F.L. Crane, G. Grebing and H. Low. 1984. Properties of a 
transplasma membrane electron transport system in HeLa cells. J. Bioenerg. 
Biomemb. 16, 583-595. 

144 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 95 (1986) 

20. Sun, I.L., F.L. Crane and H. Low. 1985. Control of cell growth by 
transplasmalema redox. Expt. Cell Res. 156, 528-536. 

21. Sun, I.L., F.L. Crane, H. Low and G. Grebing. 1984. Transplasma membrane 
redox stimulates HeLa cell growth. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Communs. 135, 

22. Sun, I.L. and F.L. Crane. 1984. Effects of anthracycline compounds on transmem- 
brane redox function of cultured HeLa cells. Proceed. Indiana Acad. Sci. 93, 

23. Sun, I.L. and F.L. Crane. 1985. Bleomycin control of transplasma membrane 
redox activity and proton movement in HeLa cells. Biochem. Pharmacol. 34, 


Chair: Dennis G. Peters 

Department of Chemistry 

Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 47405 (812) 335-9671 

Chair-Elect: Stanley L. Burden 

Science Center 

Taylor University, Upland, Indiana 46989 (317) 998-5127 


Regiospecific Addition of Organocuprate Reagents to a, /^-Unsaturated Esters. M. 

Behforouz, J.L. Bolan and T.T. Curran, Department of Chemistry, Ball State Univer- 
sity, Muncie, Indiana 47306. A series of organocuprate complexes were made in 

situ by the reactions of Grignard reagents with cuprous thiophenoxides, and the reac- 
tions of these complexes with a, /3-unsaturated esters were studied. 

I I 
R-C = C-C0 2 Me + R'CuSAr - R-C-C-C0 2 Me 

II MgX || 

R' H 

Ar = C t H,-, o_ - MeOC 6 H 4 - , R = Aryl and Alkyl, R' = CH„I°, II ° and 111°. 

Excellent yields of saturated esters were obtained when R was an aryl group. No detect- 
able amounts of 1,2-adducts were obtained even with a hindered alkyl group. High 
yields of 1,4-addition products on methyl crotonate were also obtained for a number 
of Grignard reagents when cuprous 2-methoxythiophenoxide was used as the catalyst. 

b-Carbolines and Their Tetrahydro Compounds Derived from the Amino Acid /> 
Methyltryptophan. M. Behforouz, M.E. Ogle and H. Zarrinmayeh, Department 

of Chemistry, Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana 47306. In our research toward 

the total synthesis of antitumor and antibiotic agent, Lavendamycin, a number of 
/3-carbolines and their tetrahydro derivatives were prepared. These compounds have 
been shown to possess a number of psychological and neurochemical activities. 0-Methyl- 
tryptophan or its ester were condensed with aldehydes to give the corresponding 
tetrahydro-/3-carboline acids or esters. Esterification of the acids gave the correspond- 
ing esters which upon aromatization afforded /3-carbolines. 

Computerized Electronic Weighing. Stanley L. Burden, A. Griffin, K. Hartmen, 
G. Passon, D. Baxter, A. Pedersen, T. Ferris, P. VanVleet, B. Zimmerman, P. 
Clark and R. Phillips, Department of Chemistry and Computer Science, Taylor Univer- 
sity, Upland, Indiana 46989. A Cahn electronic balance has been interfaced to 

an Apple II Plus microcomputer using an ADALAB card. Software has been written 
to permit a user, among other options, to make up a standard solution and then prepare 
a series of dilutions from it without using any volumetric glassware. Typically only 
plastic bottles, a beaker and medicine dropper or graduated cylinder is all that are 
required to make a series of standards suitable for calibrating spectrophotometers, 
ion selective electrodes, etc. The system eliminates the need for tedious pipettings or 
the use of microburets to accurately deliver small volumes of solution. The software 
also has provisions for calibrating pipets and doing statistics such as average, range, 


146 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 95 (1986) 

standard deviation and confidence limits on series of replicate measurements. Both 
hardware and software will be discussed. 

Effects of Alkali Metal Cation and Crown Ether Ring Size and Rigidity on Binding 
Constants and Carbon-13 NMR Chemical Shifts in Napthalene-containing Crown Ethers. 

Christopher Colburn, Mark R. Johnson, John A. Mosbo and Lynn R. Sousa, 

Department of Chemistry, Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana 47306. 

Carbon-13 NMR spectra from six naphthalene-containing crown ethers ranging from 
a 22-crown-6 to a 14-crown-4 have been obtained in the presence of varying concentra- 
tions of alkali metal ions (Na+ , K + , Rb+ and Cs + ). Through use of a non-linear 
least squares computer program, the carbon-13 chemical shift data provided equilibrium 
constants for each combination of crown ether and cation. The values were dependent 
upon the sizes of the crown ether and cation, and upon the conformational rigidity 
of the ether ring. The least squares fitting also provided crown-cation complex limiting 
chemical shifts for essentially all carbon atoms. These ranged from no change upon 
complexation to shift differences of 4.6 ppm. Although not all chemical shift assignments 
could be made to specific carbons of the ether ring, assignments were made for the 
naphthalene carbons. In many cases, the chemical shift changes upon complexation 
could be rationalized in terms of charge density changes and changes in ether ring 

Corrosion of Some Copper Alloys and Metals in Thiosulfate and Tetrathionate Solu- 
tions. Shrhcrishna W. Dhawale and Linda J. Alexander, Department of Chemistry, 

Indiana University East, Richmond, Indiana 47374. The corrosion of copper and 

some copper base alloys was investigated in thiosulfate solutions and tetrathionate solu- 
tions. The work has shown that the copper and the alloys used corrode quite rapidly 
in such solutions. 

It was also observed that the metal copper or the copper base alloys destabilized 
the thiosulfate ions. The interaction of thiosulfate ions and the alloys was studied by 
the standard iodometric titrimetric procedures. It was found that there was faster change 
in the titer values in the presence of copper compared to that of copper alloys. It 
was also observed that the rate of change of titer values was much greater in the dilute 
thiosulfate solutions compared to the relatively concentrated ones. Some filtered solu- 
tions showed the presence of copper ions. 

In the tetrathionate solutions, the formation of thiosulfate ions was investigated 
by iodometric titrations. Copper and some of its alloys showed no conversion of 
tetrathionate to thiosulfate ions. However, iron and nickel showed such conversion 
appreciably. Further experiments on this conversion are in progress in our laboratory. 

Pilot Studies Directed Toward the Synthesis of Cucurbitanes-II Conversion of 
Hecogenine to 9,U-Dehydro-12-deoxyhecogenine. Jeffrey S. Duffy and Ben Nassim, 
Department of Chemistry, Indiana University Southeast, New Albany, Indiana 47150. 

A hecogenine derivative having the requisite functionalities to be utilized as a 

key intermediate in studies relating to Cucurbitane analogs has been synthesized. 

Hecogenine was dibrominated at the 1 1 and 23 positions in chloroform using 
bromine and catalytic amount of borontriflouride etherate. This dibrominated pro- 
duct was dehydrobrominated at the 11 -position in hot collidine. The 23-position was 
debrominated by treatment with zinc powder in refluxing ethanol. Then the 12-keto 
functional group was reduced by ketalization with 1 ,2-ethanedithiol followed by 
desulfurization with raney nickel to afford the desired product 9,ll-dehydro-12-deoxy- 
hecogenine. The synthesis along with spectral properties of the products will be discussed. 

Chemistry 147 

Pilot Studies Directed Toward the Synthesis of Cucurbitanes-I Generation of a 
Diosphenol System in the A ring of Hecogenine. Deke T. Gundersen and Ben Nassim, 
Department of Chemistry, Indiana University Southeast, New Albany, Indiana, 47150.— 

Two methods for generation of an a -diketone (diosphenol) system in the A-ring 

of steroids were examined. One procedure involved the use of CuCl 2 /HOAc in aqueous 
media and the other, molecular oxygen under basic condition. The latter process resulted 
in a cleaner product and higher yield and was selected as the method of choice. Thus, 
hecogenine was transformed into a 2,3-diketo (diosphenol) derivative with an approx- 
imate over all yield of 55%. This transformation included an initial oxidation of the 
3-hydroxy group of the hecogenine using Sarett reagent (CrOj/Pyridine) followed by 
treatment of a te/7-butanol solution of the resulting 3-oxo product with potassium 
/-butoxide and oxygen gas. The A l,2-2-acetoxy-3-keto derivative was obtained by the 
acetylation of the diosphenolic product with acetic anhydride and pyridine. 

Palladium Catalyzed /3-Arylation of Methyl Vinyl Ketone with Thallated Aromatics. 

Richard A. Kjonaas, Department of Chemistry, Indiana State University, Terre Haute, 

Indiana 47809. It is well known that the reaction of aryl halides with olefins in 

the presence of a palladium catalyst to give arylated olefins (the Heck Reaction) is 
useless when the olefin is a vinyl ketone. This is due to polymerization and other side 
reactions of the vinyl ketones under the harsh reaction, conditions required. A varia- 
tion of the Heck Reaction involving milder conditions and the use of arylthallium 
compounds instead of aryl halides has been reported for a variety of olefins. A thorough 
search of the literature, however, showed that the only known example of this reaction 
in which the olefin is a vinyl ketone involves heating at 120°C in dimethylformamide 
(a very inconvenient solvent). We have investigated the reaction at ISU using a variety 
of solvents, reaction conditions, and thallated aromatics. The reaction can be carried 
out at room temperature in ether or tetrahydrofuran to give good yields of benzalacetone 

Vibrational Predissociation of Linear Hydrogen Bonded Complexes. Shannon G. Lieb, 
Department of Chemistry, Butler University, Indianapolis, Indiana 46208, and J.W. 
Bevan, Department of Chemistry, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas 

77840. This investigation involves a preliminary study of the application of 

semiclassicaJ collision theory to the determination of predissociative lifetimes of hydrogen- 
bonded complexes. Linebroadening found in the rovibration spectra of the linear 
hydrogen-bonded complexes HCN-HF, HCN-HCN and OC-HF has previously 
been attributed to the lifetime of the vibrational^ excited complex. The energy of 
vibrational excitation H-X in the model complex A-B-H-X is in large excess of 
the hydrogen bond dissociation energy. The lifetime of the complex is thereby attributed 
to energy migration to the hydrogen bond and disposition of the remaining energy 
into vibrational, rotational and translational channels of the dissociated fragments. 
Several attempts at elucidation of the mechanism for linear complexes have not pro- 
duced lifetimes consistant with the linewidths of the rovibrational spectra of these com- 
plexes. The model proposed here is that a large portion of the H - X vibrational energy 
(in excess of the hydrogen bond dissociation energy) goes into the A - B fundamental 
stretch leaving only a small portion of energy for rotational and translational energy 
of the fragments. The mechanism proposed is dominated by a vibration-to-vibration 
energy transfer and assumes that this energy transfer can be calculated via semiclassical 
collision theory. A summary of the results is shown on the following table: 

Complex Calculated Lifetimes Experimental Lifetimes 

(a) (b) 

HCN HF 4.7x10-' 1.8x10"' I.7(5)xl0" " 

148 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 95 (1986) 

HCN-HCN 1.3x10" ' 6.0x10" * 1.9(4)xl0~' 

OC-HF 2.2x10-* I.9xl0 _g 8(5)xlO" ° 

(a) based on treatment due to H.K. Shin, J. Chem. Phys. 60, 1064 (1974). 

(b) based on treatment due to L. Sentman, Chem. Phys. Lett. 18, 493 (1973). 

The Syntheses of Fu fictionalized Aza Crown Ethers. Robert J. Morris, Mark M. 
McDonald, John A, Mosbo and Bruce N. Storhoff, Department of Chemistry, 

Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana 47306. An aza 17-crown-5 has been prepared 

from the reaction of HN(CH 2 CH 2 OCH 2 CH 2 OH) 2 with _p_ -C 6 H 4 (CH 2 Br) 2 . The puri- 
fication and subsequent identification of this new compound was accomplished by 
alumina column chromatography and spectroscopic measurements. Two additional crown 
ethers were synthesized from this aza compound. The N-allyl species has been obtained 
by reacting to the aza crown with allyl bromide in refluxing acetonitrile which con- 
tained sodium carbonate. A phosphine was obtained from the reaction of the crown 
with diphenylphosphine and aqueous formaldehyde in benzene. These compounds have 
also been characterized spectroscopically. 

A Quest for Flashy Crowns: Crown Ethers with Cation-enhanced Fluorescence. Lynn 
R. Sousa, Beth E. Beeson, Byungki Son, Stasia A. Barnell and Thomas E. Mabry, 

Department of Chemistry, Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana 47306. Several 

crown ether compounds containing both a fluorescent chromophore and a fluorescence 
quencher have been synthesized. These compounds have been designed to signal the 
presence of alkali and/or alkaline earth cations by an increase in fluorescence inten- 
sity. The synthesis of this new type of crown ether will be discussed, and the response 
of the fluorescence spectra of several chromophore-bearing crown ethers to cations 
will be described. Cation enhancements of fluorescence of 300 percent or more have 
been observed for several simple crown ether compounds. 

The Construction of Space-filling Models from Crystallographic Data. Alan Spott* 
and J.C. Huffman, Molecular Structure Center, Department of Chemistry, Indiana 

University, Bloomington, Indiana 47405. A specialized drill has been constructed 

to allow the construction of space-filling molecular models. Seamless methacrylate (or 
similar material) spheres of various diameters and colors are precisely drilled and cut 
to yield a molecular model in which the diameters of the intersecting spheres are pro- 
portional to the van der Waals radii of the corresponding element. A computer pro- 
gram (FORTRAN77) calculates the angles and the required depth of cut for each in- 
tersection. After the balls are drilled using a molecular model drill, a specialized mill- 
ing machine cuts the faces to the proper depth. 

The program, which runs on an IBM personal computer, and the specialized drills 
used to construct the models will be described, and the resulting models compared 
with those constructed using CPK models and those drawn by computer. 

* Participant, 1985 Indiana University High School Science Student Institute. 

Equilibria and Spectra of lodo Complexes of Copper (I) in Aqueous Solution. Kenneth 

L. Stevenson, Janet L. Braun, Rebecca A. Sparks and Melinda A. Stevenson, 
Department of Chemistry, Indiana University-Purdue University at Fort Wayne, Fort 

Wayne, Indiana 46809. Copper(I) iodide dissolves in aqueous solutions of sodium 

iodide, forming several complexes as shown by the reaction scheme: 

Cul(s) + 2P = Cul 2 - 
Cuir + I" = Cul, 2 " 
Culj 2- + r = Cul 4 3 " 

Chemistry 149 

2CuI 3 2 " = Cu 2 I 6 "-. 

A method has been developed for determining the ultraviolet spectra of several 
of these individual species by analyzing the spectra of equilibrated solutions at a variety 
of iodide and copper concentrations. The results of this analysis indicate that iodo 
complexes of copper(I) exhibit some striking similarities and some interesting differences 
from the spectra of bromo and chloro complexes of copper (I). Some of these prop- 
erties will be explained in terms of charge-transfer-to-solvent transitions and hard and 
soft acid-base theory. 

15-C 'rown-5 Systems with Sidearms Containing Additional Funtionalities. Kimberly 
K. Strouse, Neil Anthony, John M. Brumfield, LeRoy A. Kroll, John A. Mosbo 
and Bruce N. Storhoff, Department of Chemistry, Ball State University, Muncie, 

Indiana 47306 and Taylor University, Upland, Indiana 46989. The reaction of 

15-crown-5-CH 2 OCH 2 CH = CH 2 with 9-borabicyclo-[3.3.1]nonane (9-BBN) followed 
by oxidation and hydrolysis provided the primary alcohol, 15-crown-5- 
CH 2 OCH 2 CH 2 CH 2 OH. The tosyl derivative of the latter provided the nitrile upon reac- 
tion with sodium cyanide. Although coordinating solvents such as DMSO are usually 
used for these types of reactions, this reaction proceeded clearly, smoothly, and in 
high yield in benzene at room temperature. Presumably, the crown ether promotes 
this facile reaction by serving as an efficient phase-transfer agent. A phosphine derivative 
has also been synthesized by reacting the tosylate with lithium diphenylphosphide. Spec- 
troscopic data from the primary alcohol and derivatives were compared to those from 
the corresponding secondary alcohol products. 

Variable Temperature NMR Studies of the Association of Aliphatic Alcohols in Dilute 
Carbon Tetrachloride Solutions. Bert Thomas and Joe Kirsch, Department of 
Chemistry, Butler University, Indianapolis, Indiana 46208. Temperature depen- 
dent nmr spectroscopy is used to study the hydrogen bonding in a series of aliphatic 
alcohols with differing steric hindrance at the hydroxyl site. The Saunders and Hyne 
method was used to determine both the extent of the polymerization (n-mer) and 
the values of the equilibrium constants for the association process as a function of 
temperature. The enthalpy and entropy changes for the association process are calculated 
from the temperature dependent equilibrium constants. The extent of polymerization 
and the values of enthalpy and entropy changes are related to the steric hindrance 
at the hydroxyl site for the series of alcohols. 

The Effects of Retinoids on Phospholipid Model Membrane Phase Behavior. Stephen 
R. Wassajll, William Stillwell and Martel Zeldin, Departments of Physics, Biology 
and Chemistry, Indiana University-Purdue University at Indianapolis, Indianapolis, 

Indiana 46223. Retinoids (vitamin A and derivatives) are lipid soluble and are 

known to modify cell membrane properties, e.g. increase permeability. We are employing 
DSC (differential scanning calorimetry) to investigate the effects of retinol (vitamin 
A), retinoic acid (vitamin A acid) and retinal (vitamin A aldehyde) on the phase behavior 
of DPPC (dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine) model membranes. All three retinoids 
eliminate the pretransition at <5 mol% incorporation, and the main gel-liquid crystalline 
transition is broadened and its onset temperature lowered with increasing retinoid con- 
centration. The results are compared with the effects produced by introduction of other 
lipid soluble membrane components. Comparison with the influence of a-tocopherol 
(vitamin E) and fatty acids, in particular, is made. 

Flow Injection Analysis: An Investigation of N-Phenylbenzohydroxamic Acid 

Lisa Ann Blyshak 


A.J.C.L. Hogarth* 

Department of Chemistry 

DePauw University 
Greencastle, Indiana 46135 


Flow Injection Analysis (FIA) is a recent and innovative addition to the analyst's 
repertoire. It is a very flexible and versatile system, originally designed for undergraduate 
teaching 0,5 *, which has found its way rapidly to the forefront of research. 

Generally, FIA may be regarded as a method wherein a sample is injected into 
a continuous stream of reagent, the concentration of analyte being measured virtually 
uninterrupted by bubbles or other reactions. Samples pass through narrow bore tubing 
and are mixed with incoming reagents at various points, and then proceed through 
a cuvette, potentiometric cell etc., where the appropriate signal is monitored continuously. 
Recordings of these signals are made in the usual way. 

One major difficulty with continuous monitoring is the prevention of two con- 
secutive samples from mixing whilst they pass through the system; one ingenious, and 
frequently used, solution to the problem was developed by Skeggs U) . This involved 
segmentation of the liquid stream using bubbles, and such an artifice is used with 
the Technicon AutoAnalyzer. This device is one type of instrumentation which may 
handle many individual tests concurrently. 

Although a well-tried method for separating consecutive samples in a flow system, 
the bubble segmentation concept has a number of disadvantages. One of these is the 
necessity for removing the bubbles before the sample enters the system (Figure 1): 



Bubble Exit 

/ N 

' Flow Cell * 
* / 

'Skeggs" Flow Analysis 

I Flow Cell \ 
\ / 

Sample Spreading (axially) 
Flow Injection Analysis 
Figure 1 

•Current address: Ross Laboratories, 625 Cleveland Avenue, Columbus, Ohio 43216 



Indiana Academy of Science 

Vol. 95 (1986) 

a "debubbling" device has to be added; also another pump has to be inserted into 
the system specifically to introduce bubbles. Debubbling has to be accomplished effi- 
ciently otherwise the signal obtained would be intermittent and unsuitable for recording. 

Another disadvantage of the segmented system is that air is compressible, i.e.: 
when a sample or another air bubble is introduced, the other air bubbles tend to com- 
press slightly. This leads again to a slight oscillation of the measured signal. This disad- 
vantage is coupled also with that of bubbles in plastic tubes being electrical insulators, 
thus supporting the growth of an electrostatic charge on the tube. This has the effect 
of disturbing the signals developed by sensors, particularly potentiometric ones which 
are commonly used with FIA. 

FIA, however, has certain distinct advantages over the air segmentation system. 
In the first place the apparatus is considerably simpler often requiring only one pump 
for what could be quite an involved analysis (Figure 2). As the analyses become more 


Diagram of Fl 

Figure 2 

ow Injection Analysis System 

Manifold Manifold Reaction Coils 




/ * 

/ Detector n. 



complex it is a simple procedure to add more pumps and inlets as required. If reagents 
and analytes are required to flow at different rates, it is still possible to use the same 
pump in many instances merely by altering other parameters such as pump tube 
diameter (7) . Another clear advantage over the Skeggs system is that since the samples 
are injected into a continuous flowing stream of reagent, and no air bubbles are used 
to separate consecutive samples, the stream may flow directly through a detector cell 
without first having to pass through a debubbler. 

Consider now a major point with regard to both methods: sample-reagent mix- 
ing. In the air-segmented stream each individual segment of fluid may be regarded 
as a vessel separated from contiguous ones by an air bubble. Within each of these 
vessels the liquid is mixed by friction against the tubing walls (Figure la). Each of 



these containers, when debubbling is complete, contributes to an increase in the recorded 
signal until a stable one is produced. This method thus relies on complete mixing. 

In the case of FIA this is not so. The sample is injected into a continuously flow- 
ing stream, progression in which produces some mixing and a parabolic shape for 
the reaction zone (Figure lb). Here the mixing is incomplete, but because the mixing 
pattern for a given experimental arrangement does not change, the shape of the reac- 
tion zone is invariant. Often this method leads to rapid results for a determination, 
whereas time-delay coils are frequently used in the Skeggs system in order to facilitate 
equilibration before measurement. Merely by using microvolumes of samples and not 
waiting for complete equilibration increases the frequency with which the analysis may 
be made. 

In conclusion, this paper deals with the construction, testing and use of a very 
simple and inexpensive flow injection analysis system for a student research project. 

Equipment Design and Construction 

General: Figure 3 shows the arrangements of the various sections of the complete FIA 
system. Basically it may be broken up into a) a reagent pump; b) a reagent reservoir; 
c) an injection port; d) a spectrophotometric flow cell. Most items used in the con- 
struction are readily available in most chemistry departments. 

a) Reagent Pump: Several devices are available for this purpose, for example gas 
pumps (4) and peristaltic pumps (3) . The former was selected for its simplicity and 
availability. Figure 4a shows its detailed construction. The gas generator was a 
wide mouth plastic bottle (1 lb. capacity) containing dry ice and fitted with an 
appropriately bored rubber bung. One of the two holes in the latter was fitted 
with a safety rapid pressure release valve consisting of a piece of glass tubing at- 
tached to a piece of rubber tubing fitted with a Mohr clip. The whole bung assembly, 

Figure 3 
Flow Injection Photometric Analysis 







tl. <• — 

Flow Cell 

Flow Cell 


Indiana Academy of Science 

Vol. 95 (1986) 

Safety Valve 

Gas Exit 

Gas Entry 





Safety Valve 





Reagent Pump 

Reagent Reservoir 

Figure A 

after charging the bottle with dry ice, was wired in place. The supply lasted for 
at least fifteen hours of continuous use. 

b) Reagent Reservoir. Figure 4b shows the very simple construction of this item. The 
heavy-walled, glass two-liter bottle was fitted with a bored rubber bung containing 
an angled glass tube to receive gas from the pump, and a straight piece of glass 
tubing attached to a short length of rubber tubing. The latter was closed by means 
of a Mohr clip and acted as a safety valve and pressure control device. It too was 
wired in place. 

c) Injection Port: This was constructed of two pieces of clear plastic block (Figure 
5). The rough dimensions of the prototype blocks were: top Va in. wide, 1 Vi in. 
long, 3/8 in. thick; bottom 3 A in. wide, VA in. long, 1 1/8 in. thick. The top 
piece of plastic had two screw holes flanking a 3/64 in. dia. hole flush countersunk 
1/32 in. on one side to form a receptacle for a Vi in. dia. rubber septum. The 
lower portion was drilled vertically with a 3/64 in. hole to about two-thirds of 
its thickness, and then the top was flush countersunk by 1/16 in. to hold the rub- 
ber septum. This hole was drilled completely through the block to intersect with 
the lower end of the vertical hole. Each end of this hole was countersunk and 
tapped appropriately to hold polypropylene connectors for the Teflon tubing (0.047 
in. dia.). 

d) Spectrophotometric Flow Cell: Figure 6 shows the spectrophotometric flow cell which 
was constructed from a rod of 1 cm square section clear plastic. The rod was bored 
with a 1/8 in. dia. hole, and 3/64 in. holes were bored tangentially to carry the 
plastic tubing. Grooves 1/16 in. deep and wide were cut along the length of the 
rod from the entrances of the 1/16 in. diameter holes to hold the plastic tubing. 
The rod was long enough to just fit neatly into a square cuvette holder for a Bausch 
and Lomb Spectronic 20 spectrophotometer. The hole/light path was closed at each 
end by attaching a window of thin clear plastic sheeting. 



Reagent Flow In 



/ 22a^ 

Injection Port 
Figure 5 


Mixture Flow Out 


General: All chemicals used were of analytical grade; all solutions were made up with 
distilled water as the major solvent. The N-phenylbenzohydroxamic acid (PHB) was 

^ — 1 




i it i 


» » • 

1 J 

Light Source 



Solution Entry -^ 




Solution Exit 

J Photometri 


Flow Cell for Photometric Measurements 
Figure 6 


Indiana Academy of Science 

Vol. 95 (1986) 

obtained from Aldrich Chemical Company, Inc. and was recrystallized twice from dilute 
acetic acid, and stored in a desiccator. Triton X-100 was used as the surfactant. 

a) Testing the Apparatus: The apparatus was tested by injecting small volumes of 
bromothymol blue solution (0.440g in 25ml 96% ethanol + 75ml 10" 2 M borax) 
into a flowing stream of 10" 2 M borax. The wavelength was set at 620nm in order 
to monitor the dye. Flaws in the system such as air bubbles, leaks and blockages 
were rapidly detected and corrected. Reproducibility of the system was also tested 
at this stage (Figure 7b), and this will be discussed in the Results Section. 

b) Iron(III) Chloride as the Reagent: Iron(III) chloride and PBH were made up to 
be 0.01 M in 0.01 M hydrochloric acid. It was found that more concentrated solu- 
tions would induce precipitation. Test injections were made of the hydroxamic acid 
into iron(III) chloride as the reagent solution, after appropriate setting of the 
wavelength. Results are shown in Figures 7a and 7b. The wavelength used was 520nm. 

c) N-Phenylbenzohydroxamic Acid as the Reagent: Again, individual solutions of 
iron(III) chloride and PBH were made up to be about 0.01 M, and the hydroxamic 
acid was used this time as the flowing reagent. Test injections were made of vary- 
ing quantities of the iron(III) solution. The results are identical to those in Figures 
7a and 7b. The wavelength used was 520nm. 

d) Interferences: Using approximately 0.01 M N-phenylbenzohydroxamic acid as the 
flowing reagent and constant volume injections of iron(III) solution "spiked" with 
varying concentrations of copper(II), cobalt(II), nickel(II), chromium(III) and 
manganese(II), the interference of these metals, commonly found in steel alloys, 
was ascertained. The wavelength used was 520nm. 

Results and Discussion 

Visually the overall results obtained were similar to those of other FIA analyses 
using spectrophotometric detection (Figure 7a) (l ' 2) . The initial experiments with 

Rcsidcnce Time 

1 A A 




P S 
E I 



A G 
K N 



" L 




Inject / V^ 



Single Signal 

Multiple Signal 


Figure 7 


Chemistry 157 

bromothymol blue indicator gave a certain amount of practice to the operator in terms 
of "what to look for"; they also gave some data with regard to reproducibility i.e.: 
about ± 2°7o. This compares well with those data obtained with more sophisticated 
systems i.e.: about ± 1-2%. Naturally, however, this will vary from system to system 
and should be determined experimentally for each. 

When working with the iron(III)/N-phenylbenzohydroxamic acid system, it was 
shown that relatively low levels of either iron(III) or PBH could be determined depend- 
ing upon which was used as the reagent. The results for PBH as the reagent are quite 
interesting. Up to a concentration of 150ppm of iron(III), if peak height is plotted 
against concentration, an excellent straight line is produced (correlation coefficient 
> 0.985). Increasing the concentration range to about 1750ppm and plotting this against 
peak height as the analytical parameter, produces a graph of considerable curvature. 
This effect is due to the hydroxamic acid system becoming flooded with iron(III) ac- 
cording to the reaction: 

Fe J+ + 3PBH ^ Fe(PBH) 3 / 
light yellow reddish-violet 

A plot of peak width at half-height against concentration at this stage is a useful exer- 
cise because the injected iron(III) does diffuse with respect to a concentration gra- 
dient, and although the optical system may still be saturated, how long it remains 
so becomes important. Plotting peak width at half-height versus concentration pro- 
duces a graph in which a steady and quite linear increase is evident. There is an initial 
curvature to the graph, but this is due to the fact that the height is still increasing 
but the width is remaining essentially constant. Thus the linear portion of this graph 
occurs between about 150ppm and 1750ppm of iron(III), and at concentrations below 
150ppm it is more appropriate to use peak height as the analytical parameter. 

With regard to interferences, studies on solutions of iron(III) containing between 
zero and lOOOppm of copper(II), cobalt(II), nickel(II), chromium(III) and manganese(II) 
were made. Although in a few cases a certain overall decrease in signal was observed, 
this was seen to be a proportional decrease, i.e.: the signal decreased in the same pro- 
portion all along the curve also causing a decrease in the intercept. The latter effect 
was observed also when peak width at half-height was plotted against iron (III) con- 
centration. The slope of the graph did not change and so sensitivity was not affected, 
although it was noted that the results showed a little more scatter than just with iron(III). 


The authors wish to thank the Chemistry Department at DePauw University for 
the use of chemicals and equipment; the Johnson's Wax Fund, Inc. for equipment 
funding; and Wilbert C. McCluer for the gift of a research scholarship (LAB). 

Literature Cited 

1. Betteridge, D., Cheng, W.C., Dagless, E.L., David, P., Goad, T.B., Deans, D.R., 
Newton, D.A., and Pierce, T.B. 1983. An Automated Viscometer Based on High- 
precision Flow Injection Analysis. Analyst 108:1 

2. Faizullah, A.T. and Townshend, A. 1985. Application of a Reducing Column 
for Metal Speciation by Flow Injection Analysis. Analytica Chimica Acta 167:225 

3. Hansen, E.H. and Ruzicka, J. 1979. The Principles of Flow Injection Analysis 
as Demonstrated by Three Lab Exercises, J. Chem. Ed. 56:677 

158 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 95 (1986) 

4. Lown, J. A., Koile, R. and Johnson, D.C. 1980. Amperometric Flow-through 
Wire Detector: A Practical Design with High Sensitivity. Analytica Chimica Acta 

5. Ruzicka, J. and Hansen, E.H. Flow Injection Analysis. Wiley Interscience, New 
York, 1981 

6. Skeggs, L.T. 1966. New Dimensions in Medical Diagnoses. Anal. Chem. 38(6):31A 

7. Vanderslice, J.T., Stewart, K.K., Rosenfeld, A.G., and Higgs, D.J. 1981. Laminar 
Dispersion in Flow Injection Analysis. Talanta 28:11 

Substituted Derivatives of 3a, 4, 5, 6 Tetrahydrosiiccinimido|3,4,-b|acenaphthen-10-one' 

E. Campaigne and Richard F. Weddleton 

Department of Chemistry 

Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 47405 


3a,4,5,6-Tetrahydrosuccinimido[3,4-b]acenaphthen-10-one ( la ,R' = R 2 = H) was 
shown to be a potent anticonvulsant of low toxicity (5) but with some undesirable 
side effects (1). It was therefore of considerable interest to prepare and test for biological 
activity various derivatives of the title compound, with the objective of discovering 
compounds with more selective activity. We wish to report here the synthesis and 
preliminary testing of compounds of structure 1 (figure I). The compounds reported 
include a series where R 2 = H, and R 1 , substitution on the nitrogen, includes a variety 
of pharmacophoric groups such as dialkylaminoalkyl, acetonyl, and acetic acid, as 
well as simple alkyl, arylalkyl, etc. A second series includes the two compounds 
1 where R 1 = H, and R 2 is methyl or methoxyl. 


R 2 



R 1 




R 2 


H, R 1 = CH 2 C0 2 C 2 H 5 


R 2 



R 1 


CH 3 


R 2 


H, R 1 = CH 2 C0 2 H 


R 2 



R 1 


CH 2 CH=CH 2 


R 2 


H, R 1 = CH 2 SCH 3 


R 2 



R 1 


CH(CH 2 )i+ 


R 2 


H, R 1 = (CH 2 ) 3 CN 


R 2 



R 1 


CH 2 C 6 H 5 


R 2 


H, R 1 = CH2-3-C4H3S 


R 2 



R 1 


CH 2 CH 2 N(C 2 H 5 ) 2 


R 2 


H, R = CH 2 — 2 — Ci + H 3 S 


R 2 



R 1 


CH 2 CH 2 N(CH 2 ) 5 


R 2 


CH 3 , R 1 = H 


R 2 



R 1 


CH 2 CH 2 N(CH 2 ) t+ 


R 2 


0CH 3 , R 1 = H 


R 2 


R : 


CH 2 COCH 3 

Figure 1. 


The preparation of compounds lb and lc by alkylation of la has previously 
been reported (7). Compounds Id to lo were prepared in essentially the same way, 
by reacting the potassium salt of la with an appropriate organic halide, as described 
in the experimental section. Compound Ik was obtained by acid hydrolysis of the ester 
lj in good yield. 



Indiana Academy of Science 

Vol. 95 (1986) 

In order to prepare the ring-substituted compounds lp and lq, where R 2 was 
methyl or methoxy, it was necessary to construct the complete ring system in each 
case, starting with the appropriately substituted 1-tetralone (see Scheme 1). In the case 
of lp, the starting material, 7-methyl- 1-tetralone ( 2a) was commercially available, while 
7-methoxy- 1-tetralone ( 2b) was synthesized as previously reported (8). The synthetic 
scheme is similar to that reported for la (5). The appropriate tetralone ( 2a or 
2b ) was condensed with malononitrile to give the ylidenemalononitrile ( 3a or 
3b ) which was then cyclized in polyphosphoric acid, as previously reported (3), to give 
the corresponding 7-substituted 2-carboxamido-3,4-trimethyleno-l-indenones ( 4a or 
4b ). The yield in the case of 4b was distinctly lower, perhaps due to the activating 
effect of the methoxy group, which could enhance side reactions. 

ONH ; 



1p(R' = H,R 2 =CH 3 ) 
1q(R' = H,R 2 =CH 3 0) 

a) R 2 rCH 3 ; b) R 2 = CH 3 

Addition of cyanide to compounds 4 proceeded in good yield to give 5a or 
5b, and hydration of the 2a-cyano group in sulfuric acid, as reported for la (4) gave 
yields of 6a or 6b in excess of 90%. Treatment of 6a or 6b with a small amount of 
sulfuric acid in diethylene glycol caused formation of the imides lp and lq in good 

"VV Vv 


Pharmacological Results 

All of the compounds listed as structures 1 (a through q) have been submitted 
to Bristol Laboratories, Division of Bristol-Myers Co., Syracuse, New York, for phar- 
macological evaluation. 2 

Compound la had an ED 50 against electroshock of 35 mg/kg (mouse) and MED 
against electroshock of 10 mg/kg (mouse). The MED against metrazole-induced con- 
vulsions was 100 mg/kg (mouse) and the LD 50 was greater than 3000 mg/kg (5). Com- 
pounds lb- lo were screened for anticonvulsant activity in the mouse, and were devoid 
of activity at doses of 300 mg/kg. A further broad screen for antihypertensive, analgetic, 
anti-inflammatory, autonomic, anti-allergic, endocrine, antibacterial and antifungal ac- 
tivity revealed no activity in these tests. It therefore appears that a free imide hydrogen 
is required in 1 for biological activity. 

Chemistry 161 

Compounds Id and Jq were also screened for anticonvulsant activity in the 
mouse, and were found to be devoid of activity at doses of 300 mg/kg or below. 
This result was unexpected, but probably indicates that bulky groups at the 9-position 
of 1 interfere with receptor-site association. It would be interesting to test the activity 
of compounds 1 with groups at the 7- or 8-position. 


Melting points were determined in open capillary tubes in a Mel-Temp heating 
block and are corrected. A Perkin-Elmer Model 137 Infrared Spectrophotometer was 
used to record infra-red spectra in the range 2.5 to 15/x. Solids were measured in 
potassium bromide mulls, liquids as liquid films. Microanalyses were performed by 
Midwest Microlab, Inc., Indianapolis, Ind. 

N-Cyclopentyl-3a,4,5 ,6-tetrahydrosuccinimido[3,4-b]acenaphthen- 10-one. ( 1 d) 

Following the procedure previously reported for the alkylation of la (7), a mix- 
ture of 5g (21 mmoles) of la (5), 2.85 g (21 mmoles) of potassium carbonate and 
3.72 g (25 mmoles) of cyclopentyl bromide (Aldrich) was stirred in 25 mL of dimethylfor- 
mamide (DMF) at room temperature for 20 hr. The mixture was then poured over 
250 g of ice, and the resulting precipitate was collected, washed with water, and 
recrystallized from isopropanol, giving 3.1 1 g (48%) of white crystals melting at 1 15-1 17°. 
Anal. Cald. for C„H„N0 3 : C, 73.77; H, 6.19; N, 4.52. Found: C, 73.65; H, 
6.35; N, 4.53. 

N-Benzyl-3a,4,5,6-tetrahydrosuccinimido[3,4-b]acenaphthen- 10-one. ( le) 

Using the above procedure, except that 2.1 g (25 mmoles) of benzyl chloride was 

added as the organic halide, 4.45 g (64%) of le, melting at 127-128° was obtained. 
Anal. Calcd. for C 21 H 17 N0 3 : C, 76.11; H?5A7; N, 4.23. Found: C, 76.06; H, 

5.28; N, 4.37. 

N-Diethylaminoethyl-3a,4,5,6-tetrahydrosuccinimido[3,4-b]-acenaphthen-10-one. ( If) 

A mixture of 4.2 g (31 mmoles) of diethylaminoethyl chloride (prepared by the 

method of Burtner (2)), 7.5 g (31 mmoles) of la and 4.3 g (31 mmoles) of potassium 

carbonate in 25 mL of DMF, worked up as above, gave 9.6 g (91%) of colorless plates 

of ^f, melting at 103-104° after two recrystallizations from isopropanol: ir (cm -1 ) 

2900,^2790 (CH), 1770, 1720, 1700 (CO) and 1595 (C=C). 

Anal. Calcd. for C 20 H 24 N 2 O 3 : C, 70.56; H, 7.11; N, 8.23. Found: C, 70.16; H, 

6.97; N, 8.16. 

Compound Jf was converted into its hydrochloride salt by dissolving 5.0 g (14.6 
mmoles) in 80 mL of hot isopropanol, then adding 1.2 mL (14.9 mmoles) of aqueous 
concentrated hydrochloric acid. The resulting solution was cooled and 100 mL of ether 
added. Triturating the oil which precipitated with further cooling (ice bath) gave 4.9 
g (91%) of a white powder, which was collected and recrystallized from isopropanol 
as colorless prisms of Jf.HCl, m.p. 150-152°; ir (cm ') 2910 (CH), 2610 (NH + ), 
1770, 1710, 1690 (COMnd 1610 (C=C). 

Anal. Calcd. for C 20 H 2 ,ClN 2 O 3 : C, 63.57; H, 6.67; N, 7.42. Found: C, 63.72; 
H, 6.89; N, 7.36. 

N-(l-Piperidinoethyl)-3a,4,5,6-tetrahydrosuccinimido[3,4-b]-acenaphthen- 10-one. (\g) 
A mixture of 5 g (21 mmoles) of la, 5.70 g (42 mmoles) of potassium carbonate 
in 25 mL of DMF was stirred in an ice bath while 3.86 g (21 mmoles) of 1-piperidinoethyl 
chloride hydrochloride was added in small portions. The resulting mixture was stirred 
at room temperature for 20 hr, and then poured over 250 g of ice, yielding a white 

162 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 95 (1986) 

precipitate which was collected and recrystallized from isopropanol to give 6.65 g (90%) 
of \g as white crystals, melting at 151-153°. 

^ Anal. Calcd. for C 21 H 24 N 2 3 : C, 71.56; H, 6.86; N, 7.95. Found: C, 71.57; H, 
6.92; N, 8.18. 

N-(l-Pyrrolidinoethyl)-3a,4,5,6-tetrahydrosuccinimido[3,4,-b]-acenaphthen-10-one. ( lh) 
When 3.57 g (21 mmoles) of 1 -pyrrolidinoethyl chloride hydrochloride was reacted 

with la as in the above procedure, 3.06 g (41%) of lh was obtained as a crystalline 

hydrate, melting at 194-196°. 

Anal. Calcd. for C 2 oH 24 N 2 4 : C, 67.41; H, 6.74; N, 7.86. Found: C, 67.92; H, 

6.47; N, 7.67. 

N-Acetonyl-3a,4,5,6,-tetrahydrosuccinimido[3,4-b]acenaphthen-10-one. ( li) 

The procedure reported above for Id, but substituting chloroacetone (2.2 g, 24 

mmoles) for the alkyl halide, gave after two recrystallizations from isopropanol 4.86 

g (78%) of \\ as white crystals, melting at 196-198°. 

Anal. Calcd. for C^H.jNO,: C, 64.20; H, 4.38; N, 4.68. Found: C, 64.06; H, 

4.47; N, 4.61. 

N-Methylthiomethyl-3a,4,5,6-tetrahydrosuccini < rnido[3,4-b]-acenaphthen-10-one. ( 11) 
Using the procedure reported above for Id, but substituting 2.32 g (24 mmoles) 
of chloromethyl methyl sulfide (Aldrich) for the alkyl halide, a yield of 1.21 g (19%) 
of 11, melting at 149-150° after two recrystallizations from isopropanol, was obtained. 
™Anal. Calcd. for C^H.jNOsS: C, 63.78; H, 5.02; N, 4.65; S, 10.63. Found: C, 
63.37; H, 5.04; N, 4.93; S, 10.45. 

N-(3-Cyanopropyl)-3a,4,5,6-tetrahydroscuccinimido[3,4-b]-acenaphthen-10-one. ( lm) 
4-Chlorobutyronitrile (2.5 g, 24 mmoles) (Aldrich) was allowed to react with 5 

g of la and potassium carbonate, as above to give 5.04 g (78%) of white crystals, 

after two recrystallizations from isopropanol, of lm, melting at 118-119°. 

Anal. Calcd. for C„H, 6 N 2 0,: C, 70.12; H, 5.23; N, 9.11. Found: C, 69.90; H, 

5.36; N, 8.94. 

N-(3-Thenyl)-3a,4,5,6-tetrahydrosuccinimido[3,4,-b]acenaphthen-10-one. (l^n ) 

Following the above procedure, using 3.9 g (22 mmoles) of 3-thenyl bromide (6), 

a yield of 6.23 g (88%) of In, melting at 176-177° after two recrystallizations from 

isopropanol, was obtained. 

Anal. Calcd. for C„H l5 NOjS: C, 67.65; H, 4.48; N, 4.11; S, 9.50. Found: C, 

67.86; H, 4.61; N, 4.17; S, 9.36. 


2-Chloromethylthiophene (2.9 g, 22 mmoles), prepared as previously reported (9), 

was allowed to react with la as above, to give 2.69 g (38%) of jho, melting at 

149-150° after two recrystallizations from isopropanol. 

Anal. Calcd. for C„H 15 N0 3 S: C, 67.65; H, 4.48; N, 4.11; S, 9.50. Found: C, 

67.34; H, 4.76; N, 4.31; S, 9.47. 

7-Methyl-l-tetrylidenemalononitrile. ( 3a ) 

A mixture of 160 g (1.0 mole) of^-methyl-l-tetralone (Aldrich), 80 g (1.2 moles) 
of malononitrile, 8 g of ammonium acetate, 24 mL of acetic acid and 400 mL of 
benzene was heated to reflux under a Dean-Stark trap with stirring for 6 hr, allowed 
to cool and poured into 800 mL of water. The aqueous layer was separated and ex- 
tracted with 2 x 100 mL of benzene. The organic layers were combined, dried (sodium 
sulfate), evaporated and the solid residue recrystallized from 95% ethanol to give 119 

Chemistry 163 

g (57%) of 3a, melting at 87-90°. Two further crystallizations from ethanol gave 
yellow plates of analytical sample, melting at 92-94°: ir (cm"') 2880, 2800 (CH), 2200 
(CN) and 1600 (C = C). 

Anal. Calcd. for C„H 12 N 2 : C, 80.74; H, 5.81. Found: C, 81.04; H, 5.89. 

7-Methoxy-l-tetrylidinemalononitrile. ( 3b) 

A mixture of 17.6 g (0.1 mole) of 7-methoxy-l-tetralone (2b) prepared by the 
method of Johnson and Glenn (8), 8.0 g (0.12 mole) of malononitrile, 0.8 g of am- 
monium acetate and 100 mL of benzene were refluxed until one equivalent of water 
(Dean-Stark trap) was collected (24 hr), then worked up as described for 3a. Several re- 
crystallizations from 95% ethanol gave 8.74 g (39%) of yellow needles, melting at 
98-99°; ir (cm-), 2880, 2810 (CH), 2205 (CN) and 1600 (C = C). 

Anal. Calcd. for C, 4 H l2 N 2 0: C, 74.97; H, 5.40; N, 12.49. Found: C, 75.07; H, 
5.56; N, 12.43. 

2-Carboxamido-7-methyl-3,4-trimethyleno-l-indenone. ( 4a) 

A mixture of 5.0 g (24 mmoles) of 3a in 200 mL of polyphosphoric acid was 
heated on a steam bath for 5.5 hr (solution turned red, then purple), then poured 
into 1.5 L of ice water with stirring. Additional cold water (1.5 L) was added to the 
slurry of orange solid, and the mixture let stand for 2 days, then filtered to give 4.5 
g (82%) of orange solid, melting about 180° when dry. Two recrystallizations from 
methanol gave orange needles of 4a, melting at 200-202° (dec); ir (cm -1 ) 3380, 
3130 (NH), 1680 (CO), 1665 (CONH0 and 1590 (C = C). 

Anal. Calcd. for CuHnNO,: C, 73.99; H, 5.76; N, 6.16. Found: C, 74.00; H, 
5.78; N, 6.28. 

2-Carboxamido-7-methoxy-3 ,4-trimethyleno- 1 -indenone. (4b ) 

A mixture of 3.5 g (15.6 mmoles) of 3b and 70 mL of polyphosphoric acid, 
treated as above for the preparation of 4a, gave 1.54 g (41%) of 4b as orange needles, 
melting at 207-208° (dec); ir (cm") 3320, 3100 (NH), 2900, 2850 (CH), 1680 (CO), 
1650 (CONH 2 ) and 1590 (C = C). 

Anal. Calcd. for C 14 H„NOj; C, 69.12; H, 5.39; N, 5.76. Found: C, 69.08; H, 
5.50; N, 6.16. 

2-Carboxamido-2a-cyano-8-methyl-2a,3,4,5-tetrahydroacenaphthene-l-one. ( 5a ) 

A mixture of 15 g (66 mmoles) of 4a, 60 mL of water, 21 mL of tert. butyl alcohol 
and 6 g (0.12 mole) of sodium cyanide was stirred over a steam bath until a homogeneous 
clear orange solution was obtained (about 10 min), then let stand at room temperature 
for 1 hr. Some white precipitate was formed (probably the sodium salt of 5a), but 
dissolved when the solution was diluted with water to 750 mL. Addition of 23 mL 
of 20% sulfuric acid gave a light tan precipitate, and concentration of the filtrate to 
one-half volume gave additional precipitate. The combined solid was recrystallized once 
from 95% ethanol to yield 14.7 g (88%) of orange-yellow crystals of 5a, melting at 
193-196°. Two more recrystallizations gave pale tan prisms of 5a, melting at 195-197°; 
ir (cm-) 3350, 3120 (NH), 2900 (CH), 2220 (CN), 1710 (CO), 1675 (CONH 2 ) and 
1595 (C = C). 

Anal. Calcd. for C IS H I4 N 2 2 : C, 70.84; H, 5.55; N, 11.02. Found: C, 71.12; 
H, 5.78; N, 10.81. 

2-Carboxamido-2a-cyano-8-methoxy-2a,3,4,5-tetrahydroacenaphthen-l-one. ( 5b ) 

When a mixture of 2.1 g (8.7 mmoles) of 4b, 10 mL of water, 3.5 mL of tert. 
butyl alcohol and 1.0 g (20 mmoles) of sodium cyanide was heated on a steam bath 
for 15 min, the contents of the flask solidified (sodium salt of 5b). About 100 mL of 

164 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 95 (1986) 

water was added to give a clear yellow solution. Addition of 3 mL of 20% sulfuric 
acid with stirring gave a pale yellow precipitate, which after two recrystallizations from 
95% ethanol gave 1.9 g (82%) of colorless needles of 5b, melting at 238-240°; ir (cm' 1 ) 
3330, 3200 (NH), 2900, 2830 (CH), 2210 (CN), 1680 ^(CO), 1650 (CONH 2 ) and 1610 
(C = C). 

Anal. Calcd. for C„H 14 N 2 0,: C, 66.65; H, 5.22; N, 10.37. Found: C, 66.47; 
H, 5.40; N, 10.47. 

2,2a-Dicarboxamido-8-methyl-2a,3,4,5-tetrahydroacenaphthen-l-one. ( 6a ) 

Ten g (39 mmoles) of 5a was added in portions with stirring to 40 mL of cone, 
sulfuric acid maintained below 40° by intermittent cooling in an ice bath. The reaction 
mixture was then stirred at room temperature until a homogeneous red solution was 
obtained (1.5 hr), then poured over 200 g of crushed ice, yielding 10.5 g (98%) of 
a yellow precipitate which melted at 244-246° (dec), one recrystallization from 95% 
ethanol gave colorless microcrystals of 6a, melting at 247-248° (dec); ir (cm"') 3390, 
3100 (NH), 2910 (CH), 1700 (CO), 1670, 1645 (CONH 2 ) and 1600 (C = C). 

Anal. Calcd. for C„H 16 N 2 0,: C, 66.16; H, 5.96; N, 10.27. Found: C, 66.48; 
H, 6.16; N, 10.71. 

2,2a-Dicarboxamido-8-methoxy-2a,3,4,5-tetrahydroacenaphthen-l-one. ( 6b) 

A mixture of 2.88 g (10.67 mmoles) of 5b and 20 mL of cone sulfuric acid 

was treated as above for the preparation of 6a, to yield 2.8 g (92%) of colorless 

crystals of 6b, melting at 234-236° (dec); ir (enr 1 ) 3300, 3080 (NH), 1680-1600 (CO 

and CONH0? 

Anal. Calcd. for C 15 H 16 N 2 4 : C, 62.49; H, 5.59. Found: C, 62.20; H, 5.87. 

9-Methyl-3a,4,5,6-tetrahydrosuccinimido[3,4-b]acenaphthen-10-one. ( ^£ ) 

To a slurry of 5 g (18.4 mmoles) of 6a in 50 mL of diethylene glycol was 
added with stirring 1.5 mL of cone sulfuric acid. The mixture was then heated to 
120-130° for 45 min, and poured into 500 mL of ice water, yielding 3.7 g (79%) of 
white crystals, melting at 270-274°. Recrystallization from 95% ethanol gave colorless 
plates, melting at 276-278°; ir (cm") 3130 (NH), 3000, 2910, 2740 (CH), 1770, 1710, 
1695 (CO and CONH) and 1590 (C=C). 

Anal. Calcd. for C l5 H l3 NO } : C, 70.57; H, 5.13; N, 5.49. Found: C, 70.64; H, 
5.22; N, 5.38. 

9-Methoxy-3a,4,5,6-tetrahydrosuccinimido[3,4,-b]acenaphthen-10-one. ( lq ) 

A slurry of 2.5 g (8.7 mmoles) of 6b in 25 mL of diethylene glycol was 
stirred with 0.5 mL of cone sulfuric acid, and heated to 120-130° for 45 min. The 
solution was then poured into 250 mL of ice water, to give 1 .85 g (79%) of white 
solid, which twice recrystallized from 95% ethanol gave colorless needless of lq, melting 
at 266-267.5°; ir (cm") 3250 (NH), 2905 (CH), 1775, 1690 (CONH) and 1710 (CO). 
Anal. Calcd. for CH.jNO,: C, 66.41; H, 4.83; N, 5.16. Found: C, 66.31; H, 
4.73; N, 5.15. 


1. Taken in part from a thesis submitted to Indiana University by R.F.W. in partial 
fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy, June, 
1965. This work was supported in part by a grant from Bristol Laboratories, 
Syracuse, N.Y. 

2. We are indebted to Dr. M.H. Pindell of Bristol Laboratories for supplying selected 
preliminary test data. 

Chemistry 165 

Literature Cited 

1. Angrist, B.M., S. Gershon, and A. Floyd, 1968. Psycho-activating Effects of 
a New Anticonvulsant, CM-6. Current Therapeutic Res. 70:237-243. 

2. Burtner, R.R., 1949. The Liberation of Dialkylaminoalkyl Chlorides from Their 
Hydrochlorides. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 77:2578. 

3. Campaigne, E., G.F. Bulbenko, W.E. Kreighbaum, and D.R. Maulding, 1962. 
Ring Closure of Ylidenemalononitriles. J. Org. Chem. 27:4428-4432. 

4. Campaigne, E. and W.L. Roelofs, 1965. Reduction of 2-Carboxamidotetra- 
hydroacenaphthenone Derivatives. J. Org. Chem. 50:2610-2614. 

5. Campaigne, E., W. Roelofs, and R.F. Weddleton, 1968. 3a,4,5,6-Tetrahydro- 
succinimido[3,4-blacenaphthen-10-one. A Potent Anticonvulsant. J. Medicinal 
Chem. 77:395-396. 

6. Campaigne, E. and B.F. Tullar, 1953. 3-Thenyl Bromide. Org. Snytheses 35:96-98. 

7. Campaigne, E. and E.M. Yokley, 1980. Tetrahydropyrrolido-acenaphthene and 
Benzazapropellane Derivatives as Potential Analgetics and Narcotic Antagonists. 
Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. 59:136-141. 

8. Johnson, W.S. and H.J. Glenn, 1949. Intramolecular Acylation. II. The Inverse 
Friedel-Crafts Method. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 77:1092-1096. 

9. Wiberg, K.B. and H.F. McShane, 1955. 2-Chloromethylthiophene. Org. Syntheses, 
Coll. Vol. 3, John Wiley and Sons, New York. pp. 197-199. 

Succinimido(3,4-b]indan-8-one Derivatives 

E. Campaigne and Richard F. Weddleton 

Department of Chemistry 

Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 47405 


A few years ago 3a,4,5,6-tetrahydrosuccinimido[3,4-b]acenaphthen-10-one (1) 
was found to be a potent anticonvulsant of low toxicity (2). The high activity of 1 was 
thought to be due, at least in part, to its rigid structure. In order to test this hypothesis 
a series of succinimido[3,4-b]indan-8-ones (2) were prepared. These compounds 
are structurally very similar to 1 , but lack some of its rigidity due to the lack of the fused 
six-membered ring. 


Figure 1. 


Compounds 2 were prepared in a sequence of three steps from 3-substituted-2-car- 
boxamido (or 2-cyano)-l-indenones 3 (1). The Michael addition of cyanide ion to 
compounds 3 afforded the corresponding adducts 4. Treatment of compounds 4 
with concentrated sulfuric acid gave 3-substituted-2,3-dicarboxamido-l-indanones 5. 
Heating the diamides 5 with acidified diethylene glycol yielded the desired imides 2. The 
N-methyl derivative of 2d (6) was prepared by treating 2d with methyl iodide and 
potassium carbonate in dimethylformamide. The preparation and properties of com- 
pounds reported in this paper are summarized in Table. I. 

Scheme 1. 



a) R = C 2 H 5 , Z = CONH 2 ; b) R = i-C,H 7 , Z = CONH ; ; 
c) R = t-C«H„ Z = CN; d) R = C t H„ Z = CONH 2 



Indiana Academy of Science 

Vol. 95 (1986) 

The indanones 4 and 5 were soluble in aqueous sodium carbonate, gave positive 
ferric chloride tests, and their infrared and ultraviolet spectra indicated that they ex- 
isted to a large extent in the enol form. This is in agreement with the findings of 
Koelsch for a series of 2-carbethoxy-3-phenyl-l -indanones (4). 

Table 1. Yields and Properties of Compounds Prepared 



M.P., °C Formula 












C,H,.N,0 : 




















C, 4 H„N,0 










C,,H, : N,0 : 








45 b 

180-181.5 C„HuN.O, 









16S.5-170 CHJA 








20 c 


C,,H,,N ; 0, 



































































(a) The oil obtained was converted directly to 5a. 

(b) Overall yield from ^ 

(c) 2c also formed in 35% yield. 

Pharmacological Results 

Compounds 2a, 2b, 2c, 2d, 4d, 5d and 6 were evaluated for the following 

<W 'W -Vz-V -W 'W, "W "V 

actions: central nervous system, antihypertensive, analgesic, anticoagulant, anti- 
inflammatory, autonomic, anti-allergic, endocrine, reticulothelial, antibacterial and anti- 
fungal. The pharmacological screening data, summarized in Table II, are through the 
courtesy of Dr. M.L. Pindell, of the Bristol Laboratories, Division of Bristol-Myers 
Co., Syracuse, New York. The corresponding data previously reported (2) for 1 is 
included for comparison. 

The activities observed were the following: (2a,) hypotensive; 2b, smooth muscle 
relaxant in vitro; 2c, motor stimulant and analgesic; 2d, protectant against electrically 
induced convulsions and hypotensive. Of the compounds tested, therefore, only the 
imides 2 are active, the nature of the activity varying markedly with small changes 
in the substituent R. The phenyl derivative 2d is the only one having anticonvulsant 
activity, but this is only one-twentieth that of 1; the added rigidity afforded by the 
fused six-membered ring in 1 (as opposed to 2) thus seems necessary for high anti- 
convulsant activity. It is interesting to note that when the imide hydrogen of 2d was 
replaced by a methyl group, a compound ( 6) was obtained which was devoid of activity. 


Melting points were taken on a Mel-Temp capillary melting point apparatus and 

Chemistry 169 

Table 2. Summary of Pharmacological Screening Results 3 

Compound Activity MED/mg/kg 

^ CNS C 10 

CNS d I00 h 

^ Hyoptensive 




Autonomic^ 150 

J^ Motor stimulant 75 

Analgesic 100 

2^ CNS C 200 

Hypotensive 100 f 

(a) The pharmacological screening data are through the courtesy of Dr. M.L. Pindell, of Bristol Laboratories, 
Division of Bristol-Myers Co., Syracuse, NY. (b) The activities observed are listed together with the minimal effec- 
tive dose (MED) for oral administration. These compounds were evaluated for the following actions: central nervous 
system (CNS), antihypertensive, analgesic, anticoagulant, anti-inflammatory, autonomic, anti-allergic, endocrine, 
reticuloendothelial, antibacterial and antifungal, (c) A protectant against electrically induced convulsions, (d) A 
mild protectant against Metrazol-induced convulsions, (e) A smooth muscle relaxant in vitro (50 mcg/mL, bath 
concentration), (f) Two-thirds of the animals exhibited associated toxicity, (g) Devoid of significant pharmacological 
activity at 300 mg/kg. (h) Toxic dose >3050 mg/kg. 

are corrected. The microanalyses were performed by Midwest Microlab, Inc., India- 
napolis, Indiana. Infrared spectra were determined with a Perkin-EImer Model 137 
Infracord, using potassium bromide mulls or liquid films. 

2-Carboxamido(or 2-Cyano)-3-cyano-l-indanones 4). 

The method employed is similar to that of Koelsch (4) for the addition of cyanide 
ion to 2-carbethoxy-3-phenyl-l-indanone. A mixture of 5.0 g (20-30 mmoles) of a 
2-carboxamido-(or 2-cyano)-l-indanone 3 (1), 2.0 g (41 mmoles) of sodium cyanide, 
7 mL of /-butyl alcohol and 20 mL of water was heated on a steam bath with stirring 
until a homogeneous solution was obtained (10-30 min). This solution was poured 
into a mixture of 50 mL of 20% aqueous sulfuric acid and 100 g of ice with vigorous 
stirring. Except for 4a (an oil), the products were obtained as solid precipitates, 
which were recrystallized to materials with the properties shown in Table I. The 
recrystallizing solvents used were the following: 4b, ethyl acetate-hexane; 4c, benzene- 
petroleum ether; and 4d, ethyl alcohol. Similar results were obtained when this reac- 
tion was scaled up by a factor of ten. 

Compounds 4 exhibit a characteristic sharp nitrile absorption band at 2260-2210 
cm"' in their infrared spectra. 

2,3-Dicarboxamido-l-indanones ( 5). 

One gram of 4 was added in portions with stirring to 4 mL of concentrated 
sulfuric acid, with the temperature being maintained below 40° by the rate of addi- 
tion. The resulting solution was stirred at room temperature for 1.5 hr, poured onto 
40 g of ice and the mixture allowed to settle overnight, affording a precipitate. 5a and 
5d were recrystallized from ethyl alcohol, 5c from benzene-petroleum ether, and 
5b from ethyl alcohol, 30% aqueous ethyl alcohol and finally from benzene-petroleum 
ether. Similar results were obtained when this reaction was scaled up by a factor of 

170 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 95 (1986) 

After four days of standing at room temperature, 0.38 g (35%) of 2c precipitated 
from the filtrate of 5c. 


Succinimido[3,4-b]indan-8-ones ( 2). 

A slurry of 5 g of a diamide 5 in 50 mL of diethylene glycol was made and 
1 mL of concentrated sulfuric acid added with stirring. The mixture was heated with 
continued stirring to 120° and at 120-130° for 30 min. The resulting solution was poured 
onto 500 g of ice and the precipitate allowed to settle overnight. 2a and 2b were 
recrystallized from ethyl alcohol, and 2c and 2d from 50% aqueous ethyl alcohol. 
Similar results were obtained when this reaction was scaled up by a factor of four. 

Compounds 2 exhibit a characteristic sharp imide absorption band at 1785-1770 
cm"' in their infrared spectra. 

N-Methyl-3a-phenylsuccinimido[3,4-b]indan-8-one ( 6). 

The methylation of 2d was accomplished as previously reported (3) for similar 
imides. A mixture of 6.9 g (25 mmoles) of 2d, 4.47 g (32 mmoles) of methyl iodide, 
3.51 g (26 mmoles) of potassium carbonate and 20 mL of dimethylformamide was 
stirred at room temperature for two days. The solution was diluted to 200 mL with 
water and extracted with chloroform. The chloroform extract was washed with 100 
mL portions of water, 10% aqueous sodium hydroxide, then water, dried over sodium 
sulfate, and evaporated to dryness, yielding an oil, which crystallized from ethyl alcohol 
to give 4.9 g (67%) of colorless needles, m.p. 165-168°. Recrystallization from ethyl 
alcohol afforded material with the properties listed in Table I. 

Literature Cited 

1. Campaigne, E., G.F. Bulbenko, W.E. Kreighbaum, and D.R. Maulding, 1962. 
Ring Closure of Ylidene Malononitriles. J. Org. Chem. 27:4428-4432. 

2. Campaigne, E., W. Roelofs, and R.F. Weddleton, 1968. 3a,4,5,6-Tetrahydro- 
succinimido[3,4-b]acenaphthen-10-one. A Potent Anticonvulsant. J. Medicinal 
Chem. 77:395-396. 

3. Campaigne, E. and E.M. Yokley, 1980. Tetrahydropyrrolido-acenaphthene and 
Benzazapropellane Derivatives as Potential Analgetics and Narcotic Antagonists. 
Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. 59:136-141. 

4. Koelsch, C.F., 1960. Electrophilic Properties of Ethyl 3-Phenylindono-2- 
carboxylate. J. Org. Chem. 25:2088-2091. 


1 This work was supported by a grant from the Bristol Laboratories, Division 
of Bristol-Myers Co., Syracuse, N.Y., and is taken in part from the thesis submitted 
to Indiana University for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy by R.F. Weddleton, 
June, 1965. 

Derivatization of Biomolecules for Analysis 
by Fast Atom Bombardment Mass Spectrometry 

Rick A. Flurer and Kenneth L. Busch 

Department of Chemistry, Indiana University 

Bloomington, Indiana 47405 


Conventional ionization methods used in mass spectrometry are limited to samples 
sufficiently volatile to allow vaporization without thermal decomposition. In recent 
years, several new ionization techniques have been developed that are designed to cir- 
cumvent this sample volatility requirement. Perhaps the most popular of these new 
ionization techniques is fast atom bombardment (FAB) mass spectrometry. FAB is 
now routinely used in the analysis of nonvolatile and thermally labile compounds, 
and has expanded the scope of the analysis to compounds of biological interest. 

The usual procedure of analysis by FAB is dissolution of the sample in a suitable 
liquid matrix, commonly glycerol, followed by bombardment of the dissolved sample 
with a 2-7 keV beam of xenon atoms. The ions sputtered from the solution into the 
gas phase are analyzed to form the FAB mass spectrum. The ionization process in- 
volves two steps, (i) the transfer of material from the condensed phase to the gas phase, 
and (ii) ionization of the sample molecules by chemical processes occurring in the same 
time frame. Common characteristics of the mass spectra thus obtained include the 
rarity of odd electron molecular ions, and lower yields of cationized molecules such 
as (M + H) + and (M + Na) + relative to intact cations of ammonium, sulfonium, and 
other onium salts. This observation indicates that it would be advantageous to convert 
the sample molecules to an ionic form prior to analysis by FAB. The ionization pro- 
cess would then involve a single step, the sputtering of preformed ions from the sample 
surface. This single step process is much more efficient than the two step process above. 
This is confirmed experimentally, as the enhanced signal-to-noise ratio for ions from 
derivatized molecules decreases detection limits. Enhanced selectivity is also available 
if the derivatization procedure used is specific for a particular type of functional group. 

Methods and Materials 

FAB mass spectra were obtained on a Kratos MS80RFAQQ mass spectrometer 
of EBQQ geometry, using the intermediate detector. A resolution of 1000 was used 
to record all spectra. Xenon gas was fed into an Iontech gun to produce neutrals of 
7 keV energy. The sample mixture (2 uL) was loaded onto a copper platform which 
intercepted the primary beam at an angle of 45 degrees. The spectra shown are not 
corrected for background. 

Steroids, kanamycin sulfate, and 2-fluoro-l-methylpyridinium p-toluenesulfonate 
were used as received from Sigma Chemical Company. The reagent 2,4,6-trimethyI- 
pyrylium tetrafiuoroborate was used as received from Alfa Products. 

Results and Discussion 

One method of sample derivatization is the use of an ion attachment reaction 
defined as the formation of a bond between the neutral sample molecule and a charge 
carrier. Two examples of nonspecific ion attachment reactions are the protonation of 
a sample to form the corresponding (M + H) + ion, and the attachment of a sodium 
cation to an analyte to form the (M + Na) + ion. An abundance of functional-group- 
specific reactions that produce ionic products can be found in the literature of syn- 



Indiana Academy of Science 

Vol. 95 (1986) 

thetic organic chemistry and electrophoresis. For example, the reagent 2-fluoro-l-methyl- 
pyridinium p-toluenesulfonate reacts with hydroxyl functional groups, one of several 
functional groups commonly found in biomolecules, to form the corresponding N- 
pyridinium derivative bound through an ether linkage to R of the ROH analyte (3). 
This reagent reacts with the steroid corticosterone, leading to the FAB mass spectrum 
of the corresponding N-pyridinium salt in Figure 1 . An abundant intact cation is observed 









Figure I. FAB mass spectrum of the N-pyridinium derivative of the steroid 



at m/z 438 that is well removed from interfering background peaks due to the 
triethanolamine liquid matrix. The reagent 2,4,6-trimethylpyrylium tetrafluoroborate 
reacts with primary amine groups, another functional group commonly found in 
biomolecules, to again form an N-pyridinium salt (4). This derivatization results in 
the appearance of an abundant signal for the cation in the FAB mass spectrum for 
the N-pyridinium derivative. The signal appears at m/z (M+105), where M is the 
molecular weight of the primary amine. For example, Figure 2 is the FAB mass spec- 








J— *j k i, 1, 


Figure 2. FAB mass spectrum of the N-pyridinium derivative of the aminoglycosidic 
antibiotic kanamycin sulfate. 

trum of the derivative of the aminoglycosidic antibiotic kanamycin sulfate. An abun- 
dant intact action observed at m/z 590 is the sole abundant ion observed for the sample 
itself. Also observed are two background peaks at m/z 185 and 277 due to the glycerol 


Indiana Academy of Science 

Vol. 95 (1986) 

A second method of derivatization, charge transfer, is also under investigation. 
Charge transfer derivatization reactions are particularly useful in that the ion formed 
directly indicates the molecular weight of the sample, and further that many classes 
of compounds show a unique propensity to react via charge transfer complex forma- 
tion. When placed in a polar solvent, charge transfer complexes (D + A - ) consisting 
of electron donors (D) and electron acceptors (A) undergo dissociation into ions. Thus, 
charge transfer complexes should produce the radical ions D + and A - in the FAB 
mass spectrum. However, charge transfer derivatization reactions have been shown 
to be explicitly solvent dependent (2). As an example, usual FAB solvents, although 
polar enough to stabilize ion pairs essential to the reaction, also possess acid/base 
properties which dominate the production of secondary ions. Proton transfer reac- 
tions occur both in the gas phase as large sputtered cluster ions undergo desolvation, 
but also in the condensed phase. As a result of the acid/base properties of the solvent 
one must make a careful choice of liquid matrix to be used in the FAB analysis of 
charge transfer complexes. An alternate solution to the solvent-dependence problem 
is to eliminate the liquid matrix. The FAB mass spectrum of the anthrcene-picric charge 
transfer complex is shown in Figure 3 reflects a ten-fold increase in abundance for 


RA - 





OH " 
t 02M s >s s .N0 2 




50 63 






t r 


Figure 3. FAB mass spectrum of the anthracene-picric acid charge transfer complex. 

the intact radical cation at m/z 178 compared to the signal in the FAB mass spectrum 
of an equivalent amount of underivatized anthracene. Charge transfer derivatization 
reactions are useful for the FAB analysis of samples electronically but not chemically 
reactive, such as the polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. However, in general, charge 
transfer derivatization reactions lack the selectivity of functional group specific ion 
attachment derivatization reactions. 

Chemistry 175 


It has been found that charge transfer complexation reactions are useful derivatiza- 
tion reactions for the analysis of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons by FAB mass 
spectrometry. In most cases, the analysis should be done in the absence of a liquid 
matrix. Additionally, the selective analysis of biomolecules containing primary amino 
and hydroxyl functional groups is possible through the use of functional-group-specific 
ion attachment reactions. 

Literature Cited 

1. Bald, E.; Mazurkiewicz, B. Chromatographia 1980, 13, 295. 

2. DiDonato, G.C.; Busch, K.L. Anal. Chim. Acta 1985, 171, 233. 

3. Flurer, R.A.; Busch, K.L. In preparation. 

4. Katritzky, A.R.; Tetrahedron 1980, 36, 679. 

The Crystal and Molecular Structure of Oxysanguinarine Obtained from 
Sanguinaria canadensis L., Papaveraceae* 

Scott P. Horn, Kirsten Folting and J.C. Huffman 

Molecular Structure Center, Department of Chemistry 

Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 47405 


Bloodroot 2 is a common wildflower which blooms in early spring throughout 
Indiana and neighboring states. Its name is derived from the bright red excretion ob- 
tained when the tubular root is broken. The plant was used as a source of red dye 
by American Indians, and its extracts have been investigated for medicinal uses as well. 

The principal component of the dye, sanguinarine (/) has been characterized by 
degradation chemistry (3), although no definitive studies by X-ray crystallography have 
been reported. This project was undertaken to confirm the identity of the dye and 
to accurately determine its three dimensional structure. 




Approximately 400 grams of fresh root were collected and used in the separation 
process. Aqueous extraction followed by alumina column chromatography yielded a 
yellow fraction from which small red-orange crystals were obtained by repeated 
crystallizations. A suitable crystal was affixed to a glass fiber and transferred to the 
diffractometer for characterization. The diffractometer used was a Picker goniostat 
controlled by a locally designed automation package and has been described in detail 
elsewhere (1). 

A systematic search of a limited hemisphere of reciprocal space located a set of 
diffraction maxima with no systematic extinctions or symmetry. Statistical tests in- 
dicated the centrosymmetric space group Pi, and subsequent solution and refinement 
of the structure confirmed this choice. All data were collected at - 161°C. Cell data, 
based on a least squares fit of angular data from 30 carefully centered reflections, are 
a = 8.221(2), b = 11.950(4), c = 7.981(2) A, a = 101.28(1), = 107.09(2), y = 
81.85(2)°. A calculated density of 1.576 g/cm J for Z = 2 is reasonable for compounds 
of this type. A total of 1919 unique data were collected, of which 1615 were con- 
sidered observed 3 and used in the solution and refinement. 

The structure was solved by a combination of direct methods and Fourier 
techniques 4 , and refined by full-matrix least squares. Hydrogen atoms were refined 
isotropically, with all non-hydrogen atoms assigned anisotropic thermal parameters. 
Final residuals are R(F) = 0.047 and Rw(F) = 0.049. A final difference Fourier was 
featureless, with the largest peak being 0.3 e/A 3 . Final fractional coordinates and thermal 
parameters are given in Table 1, with the atom numbering scheme shown in the ORTEP 
drawing of Figure 1. Complete crystallographic details are available 5 . 


178 Indiana Academy of Science 

Table 1. Fractional Coordinates for Oxysanguinarine 

Vol. 95 (1986) 
















































- 1065(4) 




- 2204(4) 




- 2374(4) 



























- 1644(3) 





















- 1295(4) 











- 109(2) 

















- 2449(5) 




- 1259(3) 



























- 107(2) 








- 145(2) 



























'Fractional coordinates are xlO" for non-hydrogen atoms and xlO 1 for hydrogen atoms. 



Figure I: ORTEP drawing of molecule showing numbering scheme. All atoms are 
drawn at 50% probability, except for hydrogens which are assigned arbitrary fixed values. 



Results and Discussion 

As seen in the figure, the single crystal selected was shown by X-ray analysis 
to the oxysanguinarine. No attempt was made to determine if the oxysanguinarine 
is the component present in the root, or whether the separation techniques resulted 
in the oxidation of sanguinarine. Both the oxidized and reduced forms of the molecule 
have been reported to be the natural material (2). Principal bonded distances and angles 
for the molecule are given in Tables 2 and 3. The hydrogen atoms positions are well- 

Table 2. Bonded Distances In Angstroms. 











CO 6) 




1 379(4) 






1 .436(4) 


CO 6) 






CO 3) 






CO 8) 

1 .460(4) 











CO 8) 












CO 2) 






CO 7) 






CO 4) 






C(l 7) 




1 .429(4) 



1 .446(4) 




C(l 5) 

CO 6) 


C(l 7) 

CO 8) 


Table 3. Bonded Angles in Degress. 































CO 5) 




























CO 6) 




CO 6) 




CO 3) 




















CO 8) 




CO 8) 
















CO 2) 



CO 2) 

CO 7) 



CO 3) 




CO 3) 

C(l 7) 



Indiana Academy of Science 

Vol. 95 (1986) 

TABLE 3— Continued. 

C(l 4) 

CO 3) 

CO 7) 



C(l 4) 

CO 3) 



C(l 4) 

CO 5) 


C(l 3) 

CO 4) 

CO 5) 



CO 5) 

CO 4) 



CO 5) 

CO 6) 


CO 4) 

CO 5) 

CO 6) 



C(l 6) 




C(l 6) 

CO 5) 



CO 6) 

CO 5) 


CO 2) 

CO 7) 

CO 3) 


CO 2) 

CO 7) 

CO 8) 


CO 3) 

CO 7) 

CO 8) 



CO 8) 




C(l 8) 

CO 7) 



CO 8) 

CO 7) 










determined, with the average C-H distance being 0.94 A . All bond distances and angles 
are within the ranges normally expected. The molecule is approximately planar, although 
the steric interaction of the C(25) methyl with 0(26) and the hydrogen on C(l) results 
in a significant bending of the molecule. The space filling drawing of Figure 2 illustrates 
this interaction. 

Figure 2: A space filling representation of oxysanguinarine showing the steric in- 
teraction of C(25) with the neighboring atoms. 



This material is based upon work supported in part by National Science Founda- 
tion under Grant No. CHE-77-09496. 

Other common names for sanguinaria are red puccoon, red root, puccoon root 
and tetterwort. 

The data were considered observed if they met the criteria I > 2.0 x sigma(I), 
where sigma(I) is the estimated error of the intensity based on counting statistics. 
Programs used in this study included Main and Woolfson's MULTAN78, Johnson's 

Chemistry 181 

ORTEP, Smith's SPACFIL, various code adapted from the A. C. Larson Los 
Alamos series as well as locally developed programs. 

Complete crystallographic details are available in microfiche form from the 
Chemistry Library, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 47405. Request MSC 
Report #84200. 

Literature Cited 

Huffman, J. C, Lewis, L. N., and Caulton, K. C, 1980. A Donor Semibridge? 

Molecular Structures of Dicyclopentadienyldivanadium Tetracarbonyl 

Triphenylphosphine and Dicyclopentadienyldivanadium Pentacarbonyl. Inorg. 

Chem. 19: 2755-62. 

Shamma, Maurice, 1972. The Iosquinoline Alkaloids. Academic Press, New York, 

pp. 315-33. 

Spath, E., Kuffner, F., 1931. Uber Chelerythrin und Sanguinarin, sowie Eer- 

widerung auf die Bermerkungen von F. v. Bruchhausen und H. W. Bersch. Ber. 

64: 2034. 

Characterization of Some Liquid Phases for Fast Atom 
Bombardment Mass Spectrometry 

Kyle J. Kroha and Kenneth L. Busch 

Department of Chemistry, Indiana University 

Bloomington, Indiana 47405 


Fast atom bombardment (FAB) mass spectrometry is a desorption ionization tech- 
nique which requires sample dissolution in a liquid matrix (1). The matrix acts as a 
sample reservoir, providing a continual replenishment of sample to the surface under 
bombardment. It acts further as an energy buffer which lessens the severity and extent 
of irradiation damage by the energetic primary atom beam. Liquid matrices common- 
ly used in FAB share similar physical properties of chemical inertness, vacuum com- 
patibility, and a non-interfering background mass spectrum. However, these matrices 
differ considerably in their chemical properties, and in their more specific physical 
properties. A number of liquid matrices have been employed in the analysis of dif- 
ferent compound classes (2), each found to be "optimum" for that particular problem. 

Our work over the last few years has categorized the various solution processes 
which affect ion abundances in FAB mass spectra (Figure 1). The direct desorption 



c + 

Cn + 


(M*H) [ Sutoe 


Choga Transfer Gxnptexafcri 

Qjster Fcrmafcn 

Charge Sofcsfcn 

c ••• c* 

Figure 1 . Summary of the solution processes which affect the nature and abundances 
of the ions observed in a FAB mass spectrum. 

process is very efficient, reflecting the ease with which preformed ions can be liberated 
from the solvent into the gas phase. Concentration of the sample molecules and ions 
at the surface (surfactancy) also increases the abundances of the corresponding ions 


184 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 95 (1986) 

in the FAB mass spectrum. Processes of protonation and charge transfer complexa- 
tion both create preformed ions in the solvent matrix which can then be sputtered 
directly into the gas phase. The abundance of multiply-charged ions in the mass spec- 
trum is thought to reflect the charge solvation properties of the solvent. The measured 
extent of cluster formation evaluates a similar property, viz, the extent of intermolecular 
cluster formation in the solvent. Some of the ions observed in FAB mass spectra are 
the result of intromolecular reactions, and these processes must also be measured, using 
as test compounds molecules which are predisposed to so react. 

A characterization of FAB matrices is presented in which the mass spectra of 
a series of standard compounds, representing the processes described above, are quan- 
titatively compared as the solvent is varied. The data generated can be used in an 
informed choice of FAB solvent, rather than an empirical or intuitive selection as has 
been practiced to date. The correct choice of solvent is critical when only small amounts 
of sample are available. For purposes of mechanistic study, the quantitative evalua- 
tion of the standards and their behavior in the various FAB matrices stands on its 
own merits. 


Compounds used in the study were obtained from commercial sources and used 
without further purification. Sample concentrations in the FAB solvents were 2-10 
micrograms per microliter, with a 5 microliter aliquot loaded onto the FAB probe. 
Mass spectra were obtained on a Kratos MS80RFAQQ hybrid geometry mass spec- 
trometer, using the intermediate detector, an accelerating potential of 4 keV, a resolu- 
tion of 1,000, and a magnet scan speed of 10 s/decade. The FAB source was an IonTech 
saddle field gun, using xenon as the source of gas, an accelerating potential of 7 keV, 
and a regulated ion current in the gun of 30 microamps. A rigorously uniform sample 
introduction method is necessary for the reported reproducibility. Data is collected 
three minutes after introduction of the sample into the high vacuum of the source. 
Solvent degassing during the first few minutes of exposure to vacuum is a major con- 
tributor to sample-to-sample variability. 


A quantitative description of FAB solvents requires representative standards for 
specific solution processes, a uniform analysis protocol, and a uniform method for 
data reduction. The most difficult of these three requirements to meet is the selection 
of a satisfactory group of spectral standards. Our preliminary set of seven standards 
were tetraphenylphosphonium bromide (direct desorption), cetyltrimethylammonium 
bromide (surface concentration), methyl red (protonation), the complex between hex- 
anitrosobenzene and napthalene (charge transfer complexation), hemicholinium-3-hydrate 
(charge solvation), cesiumtrifluorobutanesulfonate (cluster formation), and carnitine 
hydrochloride (intermolecular reaction). Selection was based on several criteria, foremost 
among which was the assumption that each standard independently represents the solu- 
tion process indicated. Each standard had been previously analyzed by FAB or the 
closely related secondary ion mass spectrometry, and the mass spectrum of each con- 
tains an abundant ion that could be used for quantitation. All were readily available 
in high purity at reasonable cost. 

The absolute signal intensity, given as counts per microgram, for the characteristic 
ions is obtained from the mean value obtained from several scans. For example, measure- 
ment of the intensity of the intact cation 339+ of tetraphenylphosphonium bromide 
(TTPB) averages the signal for scans 4-8 inclusive. Figure 2 demonstrates the con- 
stancy of the absolute response value measured for TPPB over several scans for both 



Tetraphenyl Phosphonium 


O Glycerol 

Scan Dumbn 

* Dl«thanol*min« 

Figure 2. Reproducibility of the signal from the intact cation of 
tetraphenylphosphonium bromide in the solvents glycerol and diethanolamine. 

glycerol and diethanolamine. The figure also reflects the greater response obtained 
for this ion sputtered from glycerol as compared to diethanolamine. Data for this analysis 
repeated over several days is presented in Table 1. Reproducibility is within 10°7o for 
diethanolamine, and within 2°7o for glycerol. We feel that the difference in these values 
is due to the fact that our sample introduction method is optimized for glycerol. These 
values are attainable without the use of an internal standard, which from first prin- 
ciples might compromise the independence of the response values obtained. 

Table 1. Reproducibility of absolute response values for the intact cation of 
tetraphenylphosphonium bromide sputtered from glycerol and diethanolamine. 

Sample Amount (ug) 


Counts per ug 


1 10.0 


2 9.0 


3 9.0 


4 8.2 


5 15.5 



1 7.8 


2 13.8 


3 11.4 


4 11.4 



213 (2%) 

n - 4, mean 

604 +/- 59 (IO<"o) 

186 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 95 (1986) 

Table 2. Relative sensitivities for standard compounds in glycerol and diethanolamine. 




Tetraphenylphosphonium bromide 
Cetyltrimethylammonium bromide 
Methyl Red (M + H) + 
Hemicholinium-3-hydrate (M ! 
Carnitine hydrochloride (M ) 











The relative response values for all of the standards studied are summarized in 
Table 2 for glycerol and diethanolamine. The values given are normalized to the largest 
response obtained, that is, that for the surfactant standard in glycerol solvent; this 
is arbitrarily set to a value of 1000. The data in the table clearly reveal the ease with 
which surface-active molecules and performed ions are sputtered from the matrix. A 
surprising difference in the efficiency of direct desorption from the two solvents was 
noted, as this is generally conceded to be a solvent-independent process. Surfactancy 
may account for the observed difference in the response values. Interestingly, protona- 
tion of the methyl red molecule was observed in both the acidic and the basic solvents 
with near equal facility. Accordingly, another standard to represent the acidity of the 
solvent is being evaluated. Diethanolamine is indicated to be the preferred solvent for 
the analysis of multiply-charged ions, but this conclusion will have to be studied with 
additional standards before it can be generally verified. 


The quantiative evaluation of FAB solvents for the analysis of a series of stan- 
dard compounds is evaluated for the first time. A large data base which documents 
the behavior of an expanded group of standards in a number of the other commonly 
used FAB solvents is necessary before the response values measured can become generally 
useful. The reproducibility of the measurements is sufficient for the creation of this 
data, provided careful attention is given to the mechanics of sample introduction. 


The mass spectrometer was purchased with funds from the National Science Foun- 
dation (CHE-81-1 1957). Acknowledgment also is made to the donors to the Petroleum 
Research Fund, administered by the American Chemical Society, for partial support 
of this work. 

Literature Cited 

Barber, M., Bordoli, R. S., Elliot, G. J., Sedgwick, R.D., Tyler, A. N. 1982. 
Fast Atom Bombardment Mass Spectrometry. Anal. Chem., 54(4): 645A-657A. 
Gower, J. L. 1985. Matrix Compounds for Fast Atom Bombardment Mass Spec- 
trometry. Biomed. Mass Spectrom., 12(4): 191-196. 


Chair: Richard W. Miller 

Department of Zoology 

Butler University, Indianapolis, Indiana 46208 (317) 283-9328 

Chair-Elect: George R. Parker 

Department of Forestry and Natural Resources 

Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (317) 494-3574 


The Flora and Vegetation of the Big Chapman Lake Wetlands, Kosciusko County, 
Indiana. James R. Aldrich, Division of Nature Preserves, Indiana Department of 

Natural Resources, Indianapolis, Indiana 46204. A preliminary species list is 

presented and the natural communities of this outstanding northern Indiana wetland 
are discussed. The natural communities present here include an extensive cattail-bullrush 
marsh dominated by Typha latifolia and Scirpus acutus. Two small natural ponds 
dominated by yellow pond lily (Nuphar advena) occur within this marsh. Also present 
is the marl beach prairie dominated by shrubby cinquefoil (Potentilia fruiticosa), Cana- 
dian rush {J uncus canadensis) and twig rush (Cladium mariscoides) . 

The Roles of Disperal and History in Amphibian Communities. Spencer Cortwright, 

Department of Biology, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 47405. 

Competition and predation frequently are studied as important factors determining 
the relative abundance of species in natural communities. The roles of history and 
dispersal are studied less often. The discrete nature of amphibian pond communities 
(where larval interactions take place) and terrestrial dispersal of juveniles and adults 
make them ideal for the study of dispersal and history. In south central Indiana, man- 
made ponds are common in oak-hickory-maple forests. The study site consists of 32 
ponds (31 permanent). Twenty-nine ponds are 20 years old. Three ponds are at least 
50 years old. One old pond contains reproducing populations of four species of am- 
phibians relevant to this study. Three species are salamanders (Ambystoma jeffer- 
sonianum, A. maculatum, and Notophthalmus viridescens) and one is a frog (Rana 
sylvatica). Ponds radiating from this old pond contain no clear pattern of abundance 
for three species (all except A. maculatum). These three species have dispersed throughout 
the area and may be adjusting population size to the biotic and abiotic conditions 
of individual ponds. Ambystoma maculatum progressively declines, including the other 
two old ponds, both in numbers of adults and densities of larvae until the furthest 
ponds have no, or non-detectable, populations. The equilibrium relative abundance 
of species, if one exists, must await dispersal and history to unwind in this metacom- 
munity of amphibian ponds. Nonetheless, deterministic predictions can be made. For 
example, ultimate densities of A. maculatum are predicted to be greater than A. jeffer- 
sonianum in ponds with predators since embryonic and early larval predation appears 
higher on A. jeffersonianum. Experiments are proposed to test this aspect of com- 
munity structure. 

Does the Starvation of Red-winged Blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus) Nestlings Benefit 
the Surviving Nest Mates? James D. Hengeveld, Department of Biology, Indiana 
University, Bloomington, Indiana 47405. The brood reduction hypothesis suggests 


188 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 95 (1986) 

that when there is not enough food to raise an entire brood in healthy condition, selec- 
tive starvation of the smallest nestling(s) reduces the brood to a size that matches parental 
food-gathering ability. In an Indiana population of Red-winged Blackbirds, the loss 
of young through starvation is substantial. However, chicks surviving from nests that 
have experienced starvation leave the nest significantly lighter than chicks from starvation- 
free nests. To determine if the loss of a nestling is beneficial to its surviving nest mates, 
the critical issue is not a comparsion between young from reduced and complete broods, 
but rather a consideration of whether survivors of reduced broods grow better than 
they would have had their sibling(s) not starved. During the 1984 and 1985 breeding 
seasons, I addressed this question by substituting healthy young of the appropriate 
age for starved young in half of the nests in which brood reduction occurred. Chicks 
from experimental nests (nests with substitutions) fledged at lower weights than chicks 
from control nests indicating that the loss of the nestling(s) through starvation may 
permit siblings to gain more weight while in the nest and perhaps survive better out 
of the nest. (Supported in part by a grant from the Indiana Academy of Science.) 

A 1984 Diet Evaluation for Salmonids from Indiana Waters of Lake Michigan. Thomas 
S. McComish, Department of Biology, Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana 

47306. Stomach contents were examined for salmonids caught by sport fishermen 

from May through September in Indiana waters of Lake Michigan. Most samples were 
collected during fishing derbies or times of significant fishing activity. The 1984 data 
on salmonid food habits were compared to 1970 data (McComish and Miller 1976) 
for the same species and sample area. This project was part of a lake-wide Sea Grant 
investigation to document possible changes in salmonid diets involving alewives (Alosa 
pseudoharengus) . 

A total of 129 coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) stomachs were collected. 
Their food was composed mainly of alewives (33%), rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) 
(36%), and yellow perch (Perca flavescens) (20%). By contrast, in 1970 they consumed 
almost exclusively alewives. 

More chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) stomachs were collected 
(n = 255) than any other salmonid. They consumed alewives (58%), yellow perch (26%), 
and bloater (Coregonus hoyi) (8%). In 1970 they consumed exclusively alewives. 

A total of 166 steelhead (Salmo gairdneri) stomachs were collected. Their food 
included about equal quantities of alewives (50%) and yellow perch (49%). No com- 
parative data were available for 1970. 

Fewer lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) stomachs (n = 98) were collected than 
any other salmonid. They ate mainly alewives (57%), rainbow smelt (25%), and yellow 
perch (18%). This compares with a 1970 diet composed exclusively of alewives. 

No size selection of prey items was found when comparing length of forage species 
consumed with length of salmonid species. It is apparent that salmonids are consum- 
ing forage without discriminating by size. 

The Lake Michigan predator and prey relationships are in an obvious state of 
change in Indiana waters. The future of the salmonid sport fishery probably depends 
on the ability of the salmoinds to utilize changing forage base. 

The Non-calling Male Tactic in the Northern Cricket Frog, Acris crepitans. Michael 
Magier and Stephen Perrill, Department of Zoology, Butler University, Indianapolis, 

Indiana 46208. Non-calling male behavior is described for the northern cricket 

frog, Acris crepitans. This non-calling behavior has been identified in a number of 
anurans and is referred to as the satellite tactic. Two hypotheses have been suggested 
for the function of this tactic: 1) non-calling males are waiting for call sites to be 

Ecology 1 89 

vacated by the calling males, and 2) non-calling males are waiting to intercept females 
on their way to calling males. To test the second hypothesis we 1) located a satellite 
association, 2) observed the association for ten minutes or longer to be sure it was 
a stable relationship, and 3) released a gravid female 50 cm from the association, at 
a point equidistant from the caller and non-caller. Five of these field experiments were 
performed with four of the non-calling males attempting to amplex a female and two 
of these successfully amplexing a female. 

Mating Behavior and Sexual Selection in the Gray Treefrog (Hyla chrysoscelis). Molly 

R. Morris, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 47405. The mating behavior 

of Hyla chrysoscelis was examined in terms of sexual selection. Both the selection of 
mates by females (female choice) and male-male competition for mates can play im- 
portant and confounding roles in determining mating patterns observed in the field. 
The purpose of this study was to ascertain the importance of sexual selection in deter- 
mining mating patterns by either demonstrating female choice, and identifying the fac- 
tors influencing this choice, or by determining factors important in male-male com- 
petition. Two populations of gray treefrogs were observed for the breeding season 
of 1984 and 1985. The location and behavior of marked males were monitored nightly. 
The results indicate that females are choosing the largest male from within a small 
subgroup of closely associated males. The size distribution of males found at the pond 
varied from night to night, and larger males were more highly represented both early 
and late in the season. The implications of analyzing mating patterns at the appropriate 
level will be discussed. 

Can Diets Affect Frog Distributions? Craig E. Nelson. Department of Biology, In- 
diana University, Bloomington, Indiana 47405 Many frogs are food generalists 

and diet may have little effect on their distributions. In contrast, 23 of 29 species 
of New World microhylines studied were food specialists. Specializations include: 90% 
of prey were ants or termites; these were usually 24 mm in length; larger ants eaten 
were usually stingless and without powerful bites; and, usually, only one or two species 
were eaten in one bout (suggesting feeding at aggregations). These species were specialists 
over a broader size range, showed little geographic variation in diet, and were altitudinally 
and latitudinally restricted. 

Why Should a Flower Scare its Pollinators? G. A. Romero and Craig E. Nelson, 

Department of Biology, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 47405. 

Catasetum is a neotropical orchid genus pollinated by euglossine bees. It has separate 
male and female flowers and it presents perhaps the most striking case of sexual dimor- 
phism in advanced insect pollinated flowers. Male flowers forcefully place a large com- 
pound structure (the pollinarium) on their pollinators. The pollinarium includes two 
pollen masses and an adhesive disk. Evidence shows that this forceful emplacement 
leads to pollinators avoiding visually similar flowers. Morphologically distinct female 
flowers, then, increase the probability of pollination. The placement of a second 
pollinarium on a bee is likely to disable the first one. Consequently, we propose that 
forceful emplacement is maintained because it decreases competition between male 
flowers and that this has lead to the development of sexual dimorphism. 

The Relationship between Weed Community Development and Tillage Type in Grant 
County, Indiana Field Corn Plantings. Edwin R. Squiers and Cynthia J. Krauss, 
Department of Biology and Environmental Science, Taylor University, Upland, 
Indiana 46989. The relationship between tillage type and weed community develop- 

190 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 95 (1986) 

ment was investigated in corn plantings on the experimental fields of the Miller Pur- 
due Agricultural Center 2 miles east of Upland, Indiana during the summer of 1985. 
The conservation tillage techniques of paraplow and no-till were compared with tradi- 
tional moldboard plowing on a pair of 360 ft. x 1200 ft. fields. A randomized com- 
plete block design was established with four replicates of each of the three tillage types. 
The weed community was assessed using four strip samples of ten plots each within 
each of the replicates yielding 480 plots across the experimental design. Analysis of 
variance was used to compare weed species frequency data within and between tillage 
types. The results indicated significant differences in the weed communities that develop 
in response to each tillage type; for example, Taraxicum officinale was significantly 
more abundant under both conservation tillage types, while Digitaria sp. was more 
abundant under moldboard cultivation. This study suggests that new weed control 
strategies may be required as farmers move to adopt the variety of new conservation 
tillage methods. 

Density-dependent Mortality and Distribution of Eggs by the Goldenrod Gall Fly, 

Eurosta solidaginis. Rod Walton, Department of Biology, Indiana University, Bloom- 
ington, Indiana 47405. Eurosta solidaginis females despoit eggs singly on grow- 
ing tips of Solidago altissima during a brief period in the spring. After hatching, first 
stage larvae burrow into the meristem of the plant and initiate the formation of a 
spherical stem gall. The larvae within galls develop over the remainder of the year, 
during which time they are extremely vulnerable to predation and parasitism. Insofar 
as predation on larvae may depend on gall density, we might expect the gallmaker 
to distribute eggs in space in such a way as to minimize the effectiveness of the searching 
predator. In order to address this question, a study of E. solidaginis distribution 
and sources of mortality was undertaken. The major source of mortality for the 
gallmaker was unidentified larval death. Some possible causes are discussed. Next in 
importance was predation by Mordellid beetle larvae, and in some years, winter preda- 
tion by downy woodpeckers. Two Hymenopteran parasitoids, Eurytoma gigantea, and 
E. obtusiventris were always present, but in very low density. A weak trend toward 
a maximum predation rate at intermediate densities was found for the major predators 
and for total predation. Mapping studies and statistical analysis of the distribution 
of galls in two areas of southern Indiana during 1982-84 suggest that female gallmakers 
do in fact avoid placing eggs in densities at which predators are maximally efficient. 
These results are discussed in light of Fret well's ideal free distribution model: organisms 
are expected to adjust their distribution so as to equalize fitness at all locations. In 
this study, the survival component of fitness was found to conform to the prediction. 

Acoustical Signals in the Northern Cricket Frog, Acris crepitans. Stacia Ycon and 
Stephen Perrill, Department of Zoology, Butler University, Indianapolis, Indiana 
46208. The acoustical signals of the male cricket frog (Acris crepitans) are com- 
plex. We analyzed the standard mating call and correlated features of the call with 
temperature, time of night, frog size and mating behavior. In addition, calls were 
recorded and compared under three conditions: 1) undisturbed, spontaneous calling; 
2) solicited calling response to broadcasted conspecific calls; 3) solicited calling given 
when a gravid female was released under a calling male. The behaviorial roles of various 
features of these signals are considered with regard to male fitness. 

Notes on the Caddisflies of the Kankakee River in Indiana 

Greg R. Bright 

Indiana State Board of Health* 

Indianapolis, Indiana 46206 


The Kankakee River in Illinois has long been noted for its remarkable caddisfly 
(Insecta: Trichoptera) fauna. Ross (6) stated that "of all the rivers in Illinois, the 
Kankakee is the most unusual from the standpoint of the caddisfly fauna." He noted 
that the river supported 12 species found nowhere else in the state. More recently Brigham 
et al. (1) collected a total of 62 species of caddisflies from the river. They counted 
at least 72 species known from the Illinois segment of the Kankakee and concluded 
that "the Kankakee River caddisfly fauna remains among the most diverse and unusual 
in Illinois." 

Ross (6) attributed the uniqueness of the river's caddisfly community to the presence 
of unusual habitat. He observed that the river was clear and cold. Three long, swift 
rapids over dolomite bedrock were noted to be especially good collecting sites for cad- 
disflies. The Kankakee River in Illinois is also a naturally meandering stream and is 
essentially unchannelized. 

In contrast, almost all of the main channel of the Kankakee and its tributaries 
in Indiana have been artificially straightened. The drainage basin prior to 1918, when 
channelization was essentially completed, was mostly wetland. This "Grand Marsh" 
encompassed 400,000 acres and consisted of numerous oxbow lakes, sloughs, and 
backwaters gently flowing westward. The huge channelization project shortened and 
deepened the river channel in Indiana and nearly doubled the average slope. Water 
velocity increased proportionately. Straight, artificial channels predominate in the Indiana 
segment of the Kankakee today and very little of the natural character of the Grand 
Marsh remains. 

Macroinvertebrates from two sites in the Kankakee River are collected by biologists 
from the Indiana State Board of Health (ISBH)' for monitoring water quality (2). 
During the course of these studies, it became apparent that, despite its highly chan- 
nelized nature, the Kankakee River in Indiana still supports one of the most diverse 
caddisfly communities in the state. This paper lists the caddisflies collected from the 
river since 1978, notes their relative abundance, and compares the fauna to that of 
other similarly monitored rivers in Indiana. Probable reasons for the unusual diversity 
are noted. 


Macroinvertebrates (including caddisfly larvae) were collected during late sum- 
mer on Hester-Dendy artificial substrates. The Hester-Dendy samplers resemble the 
snag habitat which appears to provide the major substrate for colonization by cad- 
disflies in the Kankakee River. These collections, which occurred approximately every 
other year since 1978, were made at the LaSalle Fish and Wildlife Area at the Indiana- 

current address: Indiana Department of Environmental Management, 5500 Bradbury, 
Indianapolis, Indiana 46241 

'All references to ISBH now pertain to the Indiana Department of Environmental 


192 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 95 (1986) 

Illinois state line (river mile 65) and at the Kingsbury Fish and Wildlife Area (river 
mile 125). The keys of Ross (6) and Schuster and Etnier (8) were used for identifying 
the larvae. Voucher specimens are located in the collection at the Indiana State Board 
of Health in Indianapolis. 

The caddisflies collected were grouped into three categories of abundance. Those 
listed as "abundant" were numerous in every sample at both locations. Those listed 
as "common" were present in small numbers at both locations in at least three samples. 
Those listed as "rare" occurred in only one or two samples in small numbers. 

Results and Discussion 

The caddisflies collected at the two Kankakee River sites and their relative abun- 
dance are shown in Table 1. The list includes at least 17 species in four families. Although 

Table 1. Kankakee River Caddisflies Collected from 1978 to 1984. 

A = abundant, C = common, R = rare (see text). 


Pot amy ia flava—R 
Macrostemum zebratum—C 
Cheumatopsyche spp.— A 
Hydropsyche orris— A 
Hydropsyche simulans—A 
Hydropsyche cuanis — R 
Hydropsyche betteni—R 
Hydropsyche venularis—R 
Ceratopsyche sparna—R 
Ceratopsyche cheilonis or bifida- 
Ceratopsyche slossonae—R 


Polycentropus remotus — R 
Polycentropus sp.— C 
Neureclipsis crepuscularis—C 


Brachycentrus numerosus — C 


Pycnopsyche sp.— R 

the artificial substrate samplers used in this study do not collect all caddisflies in a 
river system, similar samples from other rivers provide a basis for comparison. Thus, 
the 17 species collected from the Kankakee River is much higher than the number 
collected from the Wabash River (11 species at 5 sites), the St. Joseph River system 
(8 species at 2 sites), the Maumee River system (7 species at 2 sites) or the White 
River system (13 species at 5 sites) during the same time period (ISBH, unpublished 
data). Six species from the Kankakee River (Hydropsyche cuanis, H. venularis, Cerato- 
psyche sparna, C. slossonae, Polycentropus remotus, and Pycnopsyche sp.) were not 

Ecology 193 

collected on artificial substrates at any other Indiana locality, and one species (H. 
venularis) is a new record for Indiana. 

The number of caddisflies present on the samplers ranged from 42 to 3330 nr 2 . 
Average density was about 1200 nr\ which was lower than the density at most other 
sites in Indiana and is indicative of low nutrient inputs (2). The most common cad- 
disflies present at both locations on the Kankakee were Cheumatopsyche spp., Hydro- 
psyche simulans, and H. orris. These species also are the dominant caddisflies in medium 
to large rivers throughout Indiana (12). 

The geology of the Kankakee basin in Indiana probably accounts for much of 
the observed diversity of the caddisfly fauna. The basin is an outwash and lacustrine 
plain, lying in a low and poorly drained area underlain by sand deposits (7). These 
features allow groundwater to contribute much of the surface flow of the river and 
its tributaries. Therefore, the Kankakee has both a higher sustained flow (10) and cooler 
water temperatures (9) than other Indiana rivers of similar size. 

The high sustained flow and lower flow variability provide a relatively stable en- 
vironment, including a dependable food supply. This is especially important to the 
filter feeding caddisflies which dominate the fauna (Table 1). The filter feeders pro- 
bably benefit from this flow stability and have been able to diversify because of it. 

The large groundwater contribution to flow also keeps water temperatures relatively 
low. Water temperatures seldom rise over 22° C at the upstream site or over 24° C 
at the downstream site (4). Cool water genera such as Ceratopsyche (Symphitopsyche), 
Brachycentrus, and Pycnopsyche (3) can therefore inhabit the Kankakee but are ex- 
cluded from most other rivers in Indiana, where water temperatures regularly reach 
or exceed 25° C (9). 

There are few significant wastewater dischargers in the watershed and water quality 
in the Kankakee River is relatively high (5). Good water quality enhances community 
diversity in streams (13) and helps sustain the diverse caddisfly fauna. Intolerant genera 
such as Brachycentrus, Pycnopsyche, and Ceratopsyche (especially C. slossonae) can 
exist only where there is little organic pollution or siltation (3). 

Finally, the size of the Kankakee River probably enhances its aquatic diversity. 
The Kankakee is a medium-sized river (fourth order at the upstream site and fifth 
order at the downstream site). Maximum diversity often occurs in such streams because 
both large river and small stream species can exist there (11). In the Kankakee, typically 
large river forms such as Hydropsyche simulans and H. orris are found together with 
small stream forms such as H. betteni and Ceratopsyche slossonae. 

In summary, the Kankakee River has been severely channelized during the last 
hundred years, and agricultural drainage has become an important use of the river. 
However, the Kankakee is far from being biologically dead. The combination of steady 
flow, cool temperatures, and good water quality in a medium-size river allows an unusual 
and diverse caddisfly community to exist there. Thus, the Kankakee River provides 
an aquatic habitat unlike any other in Indiana. 

Literature Cited 

Brigham, A. R., L. B. Suloway, and L. M. Page. 1981 . The effects of sedimenta- 
tion on aquatic life of the Kankakee River. 111. Nat. Hist. Survey. Document 
No. 81/37. 16 p. 

Bright, G. R. 1981. Macroinvertebrate sampling and water quality monitoring 
in Indiana. Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. 91:320-327. 

Harris, T. L. and T. M. Lawrence. 1978. Environmental requirements and pollu- 
tion tolerance of Trichoptea. EPA-600/4-78-063. Cincinnati. 309 p. 

194 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 95 (1986) 

4. Indiana State Board of Health. 1978-1984. Water quality monitoring-rivers and 
streams. Annual water quality reports. Indianapolis. 

5. Indiana State Board of Health. 1984. Untitled report (1982-1983 305(b) Report) 
on water quality in Indiana. Indianapolis. 96 p. 

6. Ross, H. H. 1944. The caddisflies, or Trichoptera, of Illinois. Bull. 111. Nat. Hist. 
Survey. 23:1-326 

7. Schneider, A. F. 1966. Physiography. In: A. A. Lindsay [ed.] Natural Features 
of Indiana. Ind. Acad. Sci. Indianapolis, pp. 40-56. 

8. Schuster, G. A. and D. A. Etnier. 1978. A manual for the identification of the 
larvae of the caddisfly genera Hydropsyche Pictet and Symphitopsyche Ulmer 
in eastern and central North America. EPA-600/4-78-060. Cincinnati. 129 p. 

9. Shampine, W. J. 1977. Indiana stream-temperature characteristics. U.S. Geol. 
Survey. Water-Resources Investigation 77-6. Indianapolis. 55 p. 

10. Stewart, J. A. 1983. Low-flow characteristics of Indiana streams. U.S. Geol. 
Survey. Open-File Report 82-1007. Indianapolis. 277 p. 

11. Vannote, R. L., G. W. Minshall, K. W. Cummins, J. R. Sedell, and C. E. Cushing. 
1980. The river continuum concept. Can. J. Fish Aquat. Sci. 37:130-137. 

12. Waltz, R. D. and W. P. McCafferty. 1983. The caddisflies of Indiana (Insecta: 
Trichoptera). Purdue Univ. Agric. Exp. Sta. Bull. 978. 25 p. 

13. Wilhm, J. L. 1970. Range of diversity index in benthic macroinvertebrate popula- 
tions. J. Water Poll. Contr. Fed. 42:R 221-R 224. 

Summer Distribution and Population Trends of Gray Catbird, Brown Thrasher 
and Northern Mockingbird in Indiana 

John S. Castrale and Leslie Donaldson 

Indiana Division of Fish and Wildlife 

Mitchell, Indiana 47446 


Few attempts have been made to analyze population trends and distributions of 
birds in Indiana. Keller et al. (9), Mumford and Keller (14), and Webster (17) com- 
pared recent records of abundance and regional occurrence with assessments made 
by Butler (2) in the late 1800s. Webster (16, 17) classified the distributions of bird 
species based on county nest records for 1930 to 1979. Results of Summer Bird Counts 
(8), May Day Bird Counts (7), and Christmas Bird Counts (13) are published annually 
in the Indiana Audubon Quarterly. Although these 3 surveys are on a large scale and 
are able to detect changes in distributions and numbers, they suffer from uneven 
statewide coverage and variable sampling effort among years and survey areas. They 
have been established nonrandomly and most are greatly affected by local weather 

Of the various organized surveys, the federal Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) seems 
most suited for determining population trends and distributions. It was initiated in 
Indiana in 1966 and continues. Castrale (4) presented population trends of 17 species 
for the period 1966-1983 using BBS data. BBS records were also summarized for birds 
listed as endangered, threatened, and of special concern by the Indiana Division of 
Fish and Wildlife (5). 

This study analyzes BBS data for the family Mimidae. The group was chosen 
because there are 3 species of this family common and widely distributed in Indiana. 
All are highly vocal and easily detected, and the ecotonal habitats they favor are well 
represented on BBS routes. 


In 1966, 42 BBS routes were established in Indiana by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife 
Service (Figure 1). Three or 4 routes per 1° latitude/longitude block were originally 
located along 40 km of secondary roads using random starting points and directions. 
Volunteer cooperators survey routes once during the month of June. Surveys begin 
at the designated starting point 30 minutes before sunrise and the number of birds 
heard or seen within 0.4 km of each stop is recorded during a 3-minute period. Each 
route consists of 50 stops spaced at 0.8-km intervals, so 4.0-4.5 hours are required 
to complete a survey. In its initial year, 16 Indiana routes were surveyed and 13-36 
surveys (mean = 19.2) have been conducted each year. Sixteen routes are considered 
long-term surveys because they have been conducted at least 16 of the 19 years. Begin- 
ning in 1981, the number of routes covered was increased substantially and only 4 
of the 42 routes have never been surveyed. Four physiographic regions (Figure 1) are 
useful in analyzing BBS data in Indiana: Great Lakes Plain (sometimes referred to 
as northern Indiana in this paper), Tipton Till Plain (central), Highland Rim (south- 
central), and the Lexington Plain (southwest and southeast). References to southern 
Indiana utilize combined data from the Highland Rim and Lexington Plain. Addi- 
tional information about Indiana BBS can be found in Castrale (4). Limitations of 
the BBS have been discussed by Bystrak (3). 

Copies of BBS data were supplied by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service or ob- 
tained directly from BBS cooperators (1984 data). Annual population indices were 



Indiana Academy of Science 

Vol. 95 (1986) 

Figure 1. Locations of BBS routes in Indiana relative to physiographic regions: Great 
Lakes Plain (GLP), Tipton Till Plain (TTP), Highland Rim (HR), and Lexington Plain 

calculated using changes in totals from comparable routes between each pair of suc- 
cessive years. Least squares regression was used to determine linear trends for the 19-year 
period. Mean numbers of birds per route were calculated for the first and last 5 years 
of survey data. Means for long-term routes were subjected to paired t-tests and sign 

Ecology 197 

tests to determine statistical differences in abundance between these 2 periods. Calculated 
means for the 1980-1984 period were utilized to examine present species distribution. 
Regional differences were tested with Kruskal-Wallis tests followed by Mann-Whitney 
tests. Least squares regressions of route means with latitudes of starting points were 
conducted. Statistical significance of all tests was at the 95% level unless otherwise 


The Gray Catbird (Dumetella carol inensis) was the most common mimid species, 
being detected on 96% of the 365 surveys conducted in Indiana from 1966-1984 at 
a rate of 5.7 birds/survey. Brown Thrashers {Toxostoma rufum) were detected at a 
lesser rate (5.0 birds/survey) but on a similar frequency (97%) of surveys. Northern 
Mockingbirds (Mimus polyglottos) were also commonly noted (4.5 birds/survey) but 
were less often (67% of surveys) found. 

Gray Catbird 

Numbers of catbirds recorded on BBS were highest in south-central Indiana and 
lowest in the Tipton Till Plain (Figure 2a). Statistically, two similar regions are in- 
dicated. Numbers recorded on routes in the Highland Rim (x = 10.1) and Great Lakes 
Plain (x = 8.7) were similar, but differed from the Tipton Till Plain (x = 5.1) and 
Lexington Plain (x = 6.3) regions. Although catbird abundance differed by region 
(Kruskal-Wallis T = 10.74, df = 3, P < 0.05), there was no consistent latitudinal 
trend evident (r = 0.02, df = 36, P > 0.05). 

During the 1 966- 1 984 period, catbird numbers showed a statewide increase that 
approached statistical significance (r = 0.43, df = 17, 0.05 < P < 0.10). Numbers 
detected on northern routes showed a significant upward trend (r = 0.65, df = 17, 
P < 0.01), while those in central Indiana increased at a rate that approached statistical 
significance (r = 0.42, df = 17, 0.05 < P < 0.01). Catbirds in southern Indiana 
exhibited no consistent trends (r = -0.04, df = 17, P > 0.05). Long-term routes 
showed a significant increase (t = 3.00, df = 15, P < 0.01) between the periods 
1966-1970 and 1980-1984. Fourteen routes showed increases, 1 declined, and 1 remained 
unchanged (sign test, P < 0.001). 

Brown Thrasher 

Thrasher numbers were also greatest in south-central Indiana (x = 6.6) and lowest 
in central Indiana (x = 5.0). However, regional differences were not significantly dif- 
ferent (Kruskal-Wallis T = 1.02, df = 3, P > 0.05). Latitudinal trends in abundance 
were also lacking (r = -0.10, df = 36, P > 0.05). 

Population trends for 1966-1984 were not evident on a statewide basis (r = -0.09, 
df = 17, P > 0.05), although a population decline in northern Indiana (Figure 2b) 
approached statistical significance (r = -0.40, df = 17, 0.05 < P < 0.10). Regres- 
sion lines for central Indiana exhibited a nonsignificant increase (r = 0.23, df = 17, 
P > 0.05), while those for southern Indiana declined somewhat (r = -0.23, df = 
17, P > 0.05). The mean number of birds recorded on long-term routes during 1966-1970 
was not statistically different from those recorded during 1980-1984 (t = 0.40, df = 
15, P > 0.05). Nine routes increased and 7 declined (sign test, P > 0.05). 

Northern Mockingbird 

Mockingbirds were recorded in greatest numbers in the Lexington Plain (x = 
9.2) of southeastern and southwestern Indiana and lowest in northern and central Ind- 
iana (x = 1.2). These regional differences were statistically significant (Kruskal-Wallis 


Indiana Academy of Science 

Vol. 95 (1986) 



3 6 -> 

S 3 

Gray Catbird 

i i i i i i i i » i » > i i i i i i i 

66 68 70 72 74 76 78 80 82 84 




Brown Thrasher 

i t t » i » i i i i i i > t i i » 

66 68 70 72 74 76 78 80 82 


Figure 2. Regional population trends of the gray catbird (a), brown thrasher (b), and 
northern mockingbird (c) using Indiana BBS data, 1966-1984. Regions are designated 
by circles (south), squares (central), and triangles (north). 



T = 15.78, df = 3, P < 0.01). Unlike catbirds and thrashers, this species exhibited 
a strong negative correlation with latitude (r = -0.60, df = 36, P < 0.001). 

During the 1966-1984 period, population levels of mockingbirds declined (r = 
-0.49, df = 17, P < 0.05), although numbers recorded in northern (r = 0.47, df 
= 17, P < 0.05) and central (r = 0.52, df = 17, P < 0.05) Indiana increased signifi- 
cantly (Figure 2c). The statewide decline was primarily due to a statistically nonsignifi- 
cant decline in southern populations (r = -0.29, df = 17, P > 0.05). Statewide, 
the mean number of mockingbirds on long-term routes did not differ significantly 
between 1966-1970 and 1980-1984 (t = - 1.84, df = 15, P > 0.05). Ten routes declin- 
ed, 4 increased, and 2 remained unchanged (Figure 3; sign test, P > 0.05). 

Figure 3. Mean number of northern mockingbirds detected on Indiana BBS routes 
for the periods 1966-1970 and 1980-1984. Asterisks indicate surveys were not conducted. 

200 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 95 (1986) 


Although catbirds, thrashers, and mockingbirds are widespread and common in 
Indiana and frequent similar habitats, they exhibit differences in regional abundance 
patterns and recent population trends. All are highly insectivorous in summer, but 
they switch to a diet of small fruits in winter and at other times when this item is 
available (6). Habitat differences are subtle; all 3 species inhabit ecotonal 
woodland/shrubland. Catbirds are most often found along woodland edges or in dense, 
brushy thickets. Thrashers and mockingbirds are typically found along fencerows, with 
the latter species more tolerant of open areas. 

A major difference among these species is their degree of migratory movement. 
Mockingbirds are the least migratory, while few catbirds and thrashers winter in Ind- 
iana. Most catbirds winter in southeastern U.S. and Mexico; most thrashers in 
southeastern U.S. (1). The relative abundance of these species in the winter is reflected 
by results of Christmas Bird Counts in Indiana for the period 1981-1984 (10, 11, 12, 
13). The ratio of mockingbirds to thrashers to catbirds was approximately 60:4:1, and 
the number of counts reporting these species was 54%, 20%, and 8%, respectively. 
Thus, mockingbirds, wintering in large numbers in Indiana, are most subject to im- 
pacts of winter weather. This is evident in Figure 2c, where population lows on southern 
and central Indiana routes occurred during the late 1970's when there were 3 con- 
secutive years of exceptionally harsh weather. Thrashers and catbirds did not exhibit 
these patterns (Figure 2a, 2b). Winter weather in conjunction with habitat may restrict 
the distribution and abundance of mockingbirds in the state. Evidence for this is the 
expansion of the population of the mockingbird northward (Figure 2c). Range expan- 
sion by the mockingbird in the United States is well recognized, and has been cor- 
related with the establishment of nonnative fruit-producing shrubs, especially multiflora 
rose (Rosa multiflora) (2, 14, 15, 16). 


Nineteen years of data from Breeding Bird Surveys were analyzed for the three 
species of Mimidae found in Indiana. Gray Catbird populations were greatest in north- 
ern and south-central Indiana, while Brown Thrashers were uniformly distributed 
throughout the state. Northern Mockingbirds were most common in southeastern and 
southwestern Indiana. Catbirds increased in recent years, primarily in northern Ind- 
iana. Mockingbirds, the least common of the three species considered, decreased dur- 
ing 1966-1984. Regional analyses, however, showed increases in numbers of this species 
for northern and central Indiana. Population lows for mockingbird coincided with 
the series of severe winters in the late 1970's. Thrasher numbers displayed no consis- 
tent statewide or regional trends. 

Literature Cited 

1. American Ornithologists' Union. 1983. Check-list of North American Birds, 6th 
ed. A.O.U., Washington, D.C. 877pp. 

2. Butler, A.W. 1898. Birds of Indiana. Indiana Dept. Geol. Nat. Res. Ann. Rept. 

3. Bystrak, D. 1981. The North American Breeding Bird Survey. Pages 34-41 in 
C.J. Ralph and J.M. Scott, eds. Estimating the numbers of terrestrial birds. Stud. 
Avian Biol. 6. 630pp. 

4. Castrale, J.S. 1985a. The Breeding Bird Survey in Indiana: eighteen years of 
overlooked data. Indiana Audubon Quart. 63:15-30. 

5. Castrale, J.S. 1985b. Endangered and threatened birds of Indiana: population 
information from Breeding Bird Surveys. Indiana Audubon Quart. 63:134-147. 

Ecology 201 

6. Graber. R.R., J.W. Graber, and E.L. Kirk. 1970. Illinois birds: Mimidae. Ill- 
inois Nat. Hist. Surv. Biol. Notes 68. 38pp. 

7. Hopkins, E.M. 1984. Results of the 1984 Indiana Audubon Big May Day Bird 
Count. Indiana Audubon Quart. 62:120-135. 

8. Jackson, S.F. 1985. Indiana Audubon Society 1984 Summer Bird Count. Indiana 
Audubon Quart. 63:64-85. 

9. Keller, C.E., S.A. Keller, and T.C. Keller. 1979. Indiana birds and their haunts. 
Indiana Univ. Press, Bloomington. 214pp. 

10. Mason, J., and A. Mason. 1982. The 1981 Christmas Bird Count. Indiana Audubon 
Quart. 60:34-48. 

11. Mason, J., and A. Mason. 1983. The 1982 Christmas Bird Count. Indiana Audubon 
Quart. 61:46-62. 

12. Mason, J., and A. Mason. 1984. The 1983 Christmas Bird Count. Indiana Audubon 
Quart. 62:76-94. 

13. Mason, J., and A. Mason. 1985. The 1984 Christmas Bird Count. Indiana Audubon 
Quart. 63:95-110. 

14. Mumford, R.E., and C.E. Keller. 1984. The birds of Indiana. Indiana Univ. Press, 
Bloomington. 376pp. 

15. Stiles, E.W. 1982. Expansions of mockingbird and multiflora rose in the north- 
eastern United States and Canada. Amer. Birds 36:358-364. 

16. Webster, J.D. 1966. The birds. Pages 452-473 in A.A. Lindsey, ed. Natural features 
of Indiana. Indiana Acad. Sci., Indianapolis. 600pp. 

17. Webster, J.D. 1980. The distribution of Indiana's birds and birdwatchers. Proc. 
Indiana Acad. Sci. 89:68-81. 

Change in Community Attributes Due to High Water Damage in Spicer Lake 
Nature Preserve, St. Joseph County, Indiana. 

Lane A. Geyer 

113 N. Notre Dame Ave. 

South Bend, Indiana 46617 


Evelyn Kirkwood 
Bendix Woods County Park 

32132 State Road 2 
New Carlisle, Indiana 46552 

The 16 ha Spicer Lake Nature Preserve is located in the extreme northwest corner 
of St. Joseph County, Indiana. Bordered by State Line Road on the north and County 
Line Road on the west, the preserve lies approximately 3.5 miles north of New Car- 
lisle, Indiana (NW'/i, SW'/i, Sec. 10, T38N, R1W, New Carlisle, Indiana, 7.5 ' USGS 
Quadrangle). Lindsey et al. (3) formally recognized the area in 1969 as one of Ind- 
iana's 150 outstanding natural areas. Currently administered by the St. Joseph County 
Parks and Recreation Department, the area has long been recognized for its intrinsic 
value as representative of a natural ecosystem. 

Spicer Lake lies within the southeastern boundary of the Valparaiso end moraine 
formed approximately 15,000 years ago by the Lake Michigan lobe of the Wisconsin 
Ice Sheet (6). Most of the preserve lies within a partially filled, level basin. Of the 
total 16 ha preserve areas, approximately 14.5 hectares are terrestrial. The major soil 
type (approximately 10 ha) is Houghton muck. Other soil types within the preserve 
include Palms muck, Washtenaw silt loam and Milford silty clay loam. These are all 
poorly drained soil types which have high year-round water tables within the preserve 
area (1). 

The major plant communities within the study area are red maple swamp forest, 
a small sedge marsh and succession zones surrounding the open waters of Spicer Lake. 
The majority of our study was conducted in the undisturbed red maple forest which 
presently exhibits heavy understory growth of jewelweed (lmpatiens capensis Meerb.) 
and beggars ticks (Bidens sp.) arising from a recent increase of light at the forest floor 
level. Red maple (Acer rubrum) dominates the canopy layer. A more detailed survey 
of the major plant types within the Spicer Lake Nature Preserve area can be found 
in Riemenschneider (4). 

Spicer Lake lies within the headwater basin of Dowling Creek. In 1925 the Cir- 
cuit Court established Sandmeir Ditch, a hand dug channel from Spicer Lake to Dowl- 
ing Creek, as a legal drain. The main portion of the ditch extended approximately 
2,440 m and was dug with 1.22 m of fall. Since its establishment, the ditch has not 
been maintained causing a slowing of drainage from the lake area. 

During 1981 and 1982 increased precipitation caused extensive flooding of the 
Spicer Lake Nature Preserve. The objectives of our study were to describe the present 
forest community and to determine the impact of high water levels on the community 
and individual tree species. 


Circular plots were used for the study with the plot coordinates being chosen 
from a random numbers table. A grid for the study area was established by using 
the north and west preserve boundary lines and the surveyor's mark in the intersection 
of State Line and County Line Roads as the point. Those random points falling 



Indiana Academy of Science 

Vol. 95 (1986) 

within the lake area or within 30 meters of the study area edges were discarded. Plots 
were located using a pocket transit and 50 m tape measure. The locations of the plots 
sampled are shown in Figure 1. 

gtate Line Road 

Figure 1. Location of 12 circular, 0.1 ha random plots and plant communities in Spicer 
Lake Nature Preserve, St. Joseph County, Indiana. Symbols indicate plant communities 
as follows: AP, pond lily - swamp loosestrife; FD, upland forest; MG, sedge marsh; 
OFh, herbaceous old field; OFw, woody old field; SF, old swampforest (s - Swampy, 
d - drier), SFY, young swamp forest; and Sh, shrub. 

Each plot was marked in the center and at each cardinal point with a fiberglass 
rod and a flag bearing the plot number. Each plot had a radius of 17.84 meters. Plots 
were inventoried during the period from fall 1983 through fall 1984, and all the stand- 
ing stock with a dbh equal to or greater than 5 cm was recorded. Both live and dead 
stock were recorded in order to determine high water impact through comparisons 
of statistics for alive and dead individuals. Also, data collected prior to flooding in 
the southern one-half of the preserve provided an additional reference. The species, 
status (alive or dead), and dbh were recorded for each individual. The field data were 
transcribed to a computer disk for storage and analysis. 

Ecology 205 

Results and Discussion 

The summary statistics for the 12 random plots inventoried are shown in tables 
1 through 3. The statistics given are for alive (Table 1), dead (Table 2) and combined 
(Table 3) species. 

Table 1. Community parameters for living individuals 5 + cm dbh in twelve random 
quadrats in Spicer Lake Nature Preserve, St. Joseph County, Indiana. 


ation altr 

ibutes (2) 

Species (1) 



















































































1. Acru, Acer rubrum; Fagr, Fagus grandfolia; Fram, Fraxinus americana; Frni, Fraxinus nigra; Litu, Lirioden- 
dron lulipifera; Nysy, Nyssa sylvalica; Prse, Prunus serotina; Saal, Sassafras albidum; Ulmu, Ulmus americana 
and U. rubra. 

2. Attributes are: Dl, density in numbers per meters squared; Bl, basal area in meters squared per ha; Fl, fre- 
quency in percent; D2, relative density; B2, relative basal area; F2, relative frequency; IV, importance value. 

Table 2. Community parameters for standing dead individuals 5+ cm dbh in 12 ran- 
dom quadrats in Spicer Lake Nature Preserve, St. Joseph County, Indiana. 

Vegetation attributes (2) Percent total stems (3) 

Species (1) Dl Bl Fl Density Basal Area 





































Totals 203.3 12.2 3Q 43 

1 . Acru, Acer rubrum; Frni, Fraxinus nigra; Prse, Prunus serotina; Quru, Quercus rubra; Saal. Sassafras albidum; 
Ulmu, Ulmus americana and Ulmus rubra. 

2. Attributes arc: Dl, density in number per meters squared; Bl, basal area in meters squared per ha; Fl, fre- 
quency in percent. 

3. The two columns under this heading represent the percent of standing stems or standing basal area that was 
dead at time of inventory. 

As is shown by the importance values given in tables 1 through 3, red maple 
and elm (Ulmus sp.) clearly dominated the plots sampled. As indicated by the fre- 
quency data in table 3, red maple was present in all plots sampled while elm occurred 
in 91 percent of the sampled plots. Other species occurring in over half the plots in- 
clude black ash (Fraxinus nigra) and wild black cherry (Prunus serotina). Individuals 

206 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 95 (1986) 

Table 3. Combined community parameters for all standing stems 5+ cm dbh in 12 
random quadrats in Spicer Lake Nature Preserve, St. Joseph County, Indiana. 


tion attributes (2) 

Species (1) 
























































































1. Acru, Acer rubrum; Fagr, Fagus grandfolia; Fram, Fraxinus americana; Frni, Fraxinus nigra; Litu, Lirioden- 
dron tulipifera; Nysy, Nyssa sylvatica; Prse, Prunus serotina; Quru, Quercus rubra; Saal, Sassafras albidum; Ulmu, 
Ulmus americana and Ulmus rubra. 

2. Attributes are: Dl, density in umber per meters squared; Bl, basal area in meters squared per ha; Fl, frequency 
in percent; D2, relative density; B2, relative basal area; F2, relative frequency; IV, importance value. 

of beech (Fagus grandfolia), white ash (Fraxinus americana), tuliptree (Liriodendron 
tulipifera), blackgum (Nyssa sylvatica), red oak (Quercus rubra) and sassafras (Sassafras 
albidum) were present in less than half the plots. Red oak occurred only in the dead 
stem calculations. 

Comparison of our data to the pre-flood data shown in table 4 indicates that 
a drop in basal area has occurred for red maple since the flooding period. In the pre- 
flood data a basal area of 19.9 was shown versus the 13.7 basal area shown in our 
study. However, even though there is a drop in the basal area, the change in densities 
indicates that the red maple is replacing itself with individuals in the lower size classes. 
Pre-flood density for red maple was 196.4 compared to a density of 230.8 in our study. 
Elm is showing much replacement also. Although there is a decrease in the basal area 
of this species since the point quarter study, a large increase is seen in its density. 
Pre-flood density for elm was 19.2 compared to the density 188.3 shown in our study. 

Table 4. Community parameters for 14 random point quarter plots collected in 1979 
in Spicer Lake Nature Preserve, St. Joseph County, Indiana. 

Vegetation attributes (2) 

Species (1) 
































































1. Acru, Acer rubrum; Fram, Fraxinus americana; Frni, Fraxinus nigra; Prsu, Prunus serotina; Quru, Quercus 
rubra; Saal, Sassafras albidum; Ulmu, Ulmus americana and Ulmus rubra. 

2. Attributes are: Dl, density in numbers per meters squared; Bl, basal area in meters squared per ha; Fl, fre- 
quency in percent; D2, relative density; B2, relative basal area; F2, relative frequency; IV, importance value. 

Ecology 207 

Of the major species within the study area, wild black cherry exhibited the greatest 
damage due to flooding. It originally occurred in half the plots sampled, but exhibited 
an almost 100 percent die-off and, as shown in table 2, formed the largest density 
of the dead species even though it is present almost entirely within the northeast sector 
of the preserve. This area, besides being better drained, also suits the wild black cherry's 
preference to soil which is deep (2). 

The range of the high water impact is also evident through calculations of the 
percentage of dead standing stock for the major species. Red oak shows the highest 
percentage of standing dead stock at 100%, followed by wild black cherry with 93.0%, 
red maple with 25.9%, sassafras with 25.9% and black ash with 22.7%. The one ex- 
ception among the major species is elm which shows a standing dead stock of 6.8%. 
However, elm is represented primarily in the lower size classes and has increased since 
the flooding period. Also interesting is that of the live standing stock 83 percent is 
represented in the 10 cm or under size classes. The percentage still alive of the total 
stems then drops to 55 percent or less for size classes of 20 cm and above. 

Schmeltz and Lindsey (5) reported that past disturbance is indicated by major 
deviations from a straight line in a log of number of individuals versus size class graph. 
The density versus size class graph for Spicer Lake (Figure 2) indicates at least one 
major disturbance in the past. High water, as indicated in present study, is only one 
of several factors that may explain past disruptions in community structure. 

From studies conducted on other natural areas in Indiana it can be noted that 
the Spicer Lake Nature Preserve exhibits a species distribution common to systems 
of similar type. This is evident when one compares the data from our study to data 
collected on the L. Bender Preserve in central Indiana, a preserve which is also swamp 
forest on muck soil (3). Since the study area exhibits a common species distribution, 
high water onset in areas of similar soil structure would probably result in similar 
selected species die-off and replacement. 


Flooding of the Spicer Lake Nature Preserve located in St. Joseph County, Ind- 
iana has caused some selected species die-off. The species most affected by the flooding 
was the wild black cherry. Also showing a large amount of damage from the flooding 
was red maple. Other species within the study area exhibited selected changes in their 


The assistance of Dr. Victor Riemenschneider of Indiana University at South Bend 
and Louie Leets of the Bendix Woods County Park staff is gratefully acknowledged. 

Literature Cited 

1. Benton, Hezekiah Jr. 1977. Soil Survey of St. Joseph County, Indiana. U.S. 
Department of Agriculture, Washington, 101 p. + maps. 

2. Fowells, H. A., ed. 1965. Silvics of Forest Trees of the United States. U.S. Depart- 
ment of Agriculture, Washington. 

3. Lindsey, Alton A., Damian V. Schmeltz and Stanley Nichols, 1969. Natural Areas 
of Indiana and Their Preservation. American Midland Naturalist, Notre Dame, 
Indiana, 594 p. 

4. Riemenschneider, V. 1978. Flora and Plant Communities of Spicer Lake Nature 
Preserve, St. Joseph County, Indiana. Unpublished, Indiana Univ. South Bend. 

5. Schmeltz, Damian V. and Alton A. Lindsey. 1965. Size-Class Structure of Old 
Growth Forests in Indiana. Forest Science 11:258-264. 

Indiana Academy of Science 

Vol. 95 (1986) 


Figure 2. Density distribution of standing woody individuals equal to or greater than 
5 cm dbh in Spicer Lake Nature Preserve by 5 cm size classes. Total includes both 
the alive and dead stems while lower curve represents alive stems. 

6. Wayne, W.J. 1966. Ice and land, p.21-39, In A. A. Lindsey ed. Natural Features 
of Indiana, American Midland Naturalist, Notre Dame, Indiana, 597 p. 

Herpetological Notes from the Buffalo Flat Natural Area 

Michael J. Lodato 

925 Park Plaza Drive 

Evansville, Indiana 47715 


The Buffalo Flat area in Dubois County is perhaps the finest wetland of any 
significant size remaining in southern Indiana (Anon. TNC Newsletter, 1984). The area 
first came to the attention of botanists associated with the Indiana Natural Heritage 
Program in 1982. In the spring of 1983 the Western Cottonmouth, Agkistrodon 
piscivorus leucostoma was discovered at Buffalo Flat, one of the most significant In- 
diana herptetological records in the recent past (Wilson & Minton, 1983; Minton, List, 
Lodato, 1983). This record is of interest on a larger zoogeographic scale in that it 
represents one of the northernmost extant records for the species in North America. 
Only an isolated Livingston County Missouri record (Anderson, 1965) appears to be 
known from a more northern latitude and the present status of that colony is uncer- 
tain. At the present time the Buffalo Flat colony is the only verifiable colony of the 
cottonmouth in Indiana. It occurs there is an isolated, disjunct relict population. 

(There have been several reports of this species over the years from Indiana, mostly 
hearsay, but including some that were reportedly supported by specimens. I have in- 
vestigated many of these reports and have concluded that none of them represent col- 
onies of this species in Indiana, based on field visits to sites, examination of specimens, 
discussions with collectors and an analysis of topography, ecology and known sym- 
patic species from the site. I believe it is best to regard reports of the cottonmouth 
other than the Buffalo Flat colony as "accidental" or "erroneous." The recently reported 
(Claude Baker, personal communication) Harrison County specimen (Indiana Univer- 
sity Southeast, New Albany, Cat.No.277) is certainly A. p. leucostoma, but its provenance 
remains in doubt, because the circumstances of collection are poorly documented. The 
lack of additional or subsequent specimens to verify a colony is difficult to overlook 
since the snake bears a 1968 collection date. The author has surveyed the collection 
site and environs annually for nearly twenty five years without any evidence of the 
species and it was not known by residents in the area. 

Since its discovery the Buffalo Flat area has generated a good deal of interest 
from botanists and naturalists, as well as from conservation and preservation oriented 
organizations. While the cottonmouth is only one of the many floral and faunal elements 
of interest it is without question the most intriguing resident so far discovered there. 
Minton (1983 a) traced the history of the ultimate discovery of the cottonmouth in 
Indiana. Because of its minute range and small population size the snake is presently 
on the state's list of endangered and threatened species.' The purpose of this paper 
is to report on a study of Agkistrodon piscivorus at Buffalo Flat commissioned by 
the Indiana Natural Heritage Program. The specific objectives of the study were: (1) 
to locate hibernacula used by the species on or adjacent to Buffalo Pond; and (2) 
to estimate the population size and status at the site, (3) to report observations on 
habits, behavior, and life history of the Indiana cottonmouth at Buffalo Flat and (4) 
to report other amphibians and reptiles encountered at the site. 

General Site Description 

At the request of the landowner and in the interest of protection for some of 

1 See Section 6; l.A.C. 3-3-6— Discretionary Order No. W-12 dated Aug. 31, 
1984. Endangered, Threatened and Special Concern Wildlife. 


210 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 95 (1986) 

the rare, endangered, or threatened plants and animals, the specific location of the 
site has been intentionally omitted in this report. The Buffalo Flat area proper consists 
of something less than a square mile, or approximately 500 acres. The area is bounded 
on the north by cropland and pasture, on the east by a paved county road, the Patoka 
River, and Southern Railway line. On the south the area is bordered by some cropland 
and light industrial development. A new east-west road was constructed near the southern 
edge of the tract in 1984. On the west there is a steeply sloping bluff that rises some 
60-70 feet above the surrounding floodplain. For the most part, this bluff is heavily 
forested. Some sections show considerable sandstone outcrop and where the bluff faces 
the south and southeast, it is quite dry and open. Other sections, with a more northerly 
exposure or that are recessed, have moist soils and are shaded by a more dense canopy 
of trees. The top of the bluff is largely pasture, with some urban development toward 
the southwest. The "flat" itself consists of a broad alluvial wooded floodplain, lying 
between the sloping bluff on the west and the Patoka River on the east. The dominant 
feature of this tract is a large semi-permanent or seasonally wet swamp approximately 
300 acres in size. The margin of the swamp is dominated by mixed hardwoods. The 
wettest parts of the swamp are fairly open are dominated by red maple, black willow, 
pumpkin ash, and swamp cotton-wood. There are dense thickets of buttonbush and 
stands of swamp loosestrife are common. The water in the swamp is clear and there 
is much emergent aquatic vegetation, the most conspicuous of which is arrow arum. 
Buffalo Creek to the west of the swamp has a mud and sand bottom and its water 
is usually turbid with a heavey load of silt. Although the area retains much natural 
character for such a site in modern day Indiana, signs of disturbance are common. 
There has been construction of drainage canals and dikes, logging has periodically 
occurred, and there is considerable agricultural, urban, and industrial encroachment. 
Buffalo Creek has been dredged and straightened on occasion (including late 1983) 
and two oil wells are in operation on sites immediately adjacent to the swamp. The 
interior of the swamp shows little or no sign of human activity. 


Field studies for this report were conducted from 1983 to 1985, but primarily 
in 1984. Eight visits occurred in 1984, the earliest April 2 and the latest October 14. 
Few visits were made in May or June, normally the peak months of herpetofaunal 
activity. All field observations were during daylight hours. Field visits averaged be- 
tween three and four hours duration. 

Survey technique consisted of forays along the edge of and into the interior of 
the swamp, as well as along the margins of Buffalo Creek. An intensive search was 
made along the steeply sloping wooded bluff to the west of the swamp. A long handled 
rake was used to turn logs, bark, and stones, to uncover hiding animals. Binoculars 
were used to identify basking animals. Many amphibians and reptiled were captured 
for identification and promptly released. No animals were sacrificed or preserved for 
voucher specimens. Note was made of each amphibian or reptile encountered. 
Photographs were taken of the cottonmouth as well as one hibernating site. 


The cottonmouth or "water moccasin" found in Indiana is the western form, 
Agkistrodon piscivorus leucostoma (Troost), one of three recognized subspecies. The 
species is generally southeastern in distribution but leucostoma is restricted to the Gulf 
coastal plain and Mississippi Valley (Conant, 1975). The author has collected or observed 
this species in all sixteen states where it is known to occur. The Indiana snakes, based 
on my small sample to ten individuals, appear to be typical of the western race in 

Ecology 211 

adjacent states, with the exception of a marked tendency toward a lighter ground color 
in adults. Two individuals were very large, exceeding four feet in length. The nearest 
records are to the south and southwest in Daviess County, Kentucky at Crane Pond 
Slough near the headwaters of Panther Creek (Joe Ford, Owensboro Area Museum, 
personal communication) and Union County, Kentucky, near Henshaw (Lodato and 
Burnley, 1974). There is an old record from Mt. Carmel, Illinois, opposite the con- 
fluence of the White and Patoka with the Wabash River (Smith, 1961). In the northern 
perifery of its range. A. p. leucostoma is decidely disjunct in its distribution. Most 
often, disjunct colonies occur where a swamp or other wetland is adjacent to higher 
ground with a southern exposure. The high ground is used for hibernating while the 
wetland provides food and cover during the active months (Barbour, 1956). Cotton- 
mouths at Buffalo Flat use the bluff at the southern and western end of the tract 
for hibernation. On April 20, 1984, I found four cottonmouths, two adults and two 
young-of-the-year, that were undoubtedly born the preceding fall. The snakes were 
silt and dust covered and had just emerged from hibernation from under an old rotten 
stump at the base of the bluff. I had passed this spot earlier that day (around 10:00 
a.m.) and had observed no snakes. I returned to this area around noon and found 
one large adult and two juveniles completely exposed sunning themselves. Another 
smaller adult had partially emerged from the base of the stump. After emergence Buffalo 
Flat cottonmouths apparently disperse quickly. I returned to this den site on April 
22 and only a single medium sized adult was to be seen at midday. The season of 
activity for cottonmouths in Indiana, based on my field experience, apparently parallels 
that of its close relative, the copperhead, which has been observed in Indiana between 
April 20 and October 16 (Minton, 1972). The cottonmouth at Buffalo Flat was observed 
from April 20 until October 14. The season of activity for this species in Indiana, 
based on my field experience, is undoubtedly shorter than in adjacent states. In western 
Kentucky I have seen these snakes as early as April 7 in Union County (adjacent to 
Indiana) and in late March in Fulton County (adjacent to Tennessee). On October 
14, 1984, I returned to the den site and found an extremely large adult of undetermined 
sex basking in leaf litter adjacent to the tree stump used as a hibernaculum and two 
brightly marked newborn young with sulfur yellow tails. These small snakes camouflage 
very well in leaf litter and are extremely difficult to locate. It is possible others were 
nearby and were overlooked. Based on this observation, it is apparent that cotton- 
mouths at Buffalo Flat mate in the spring, probably shortly after emergence from 
hibernation and at the one site prior to dispersal. I did not observe any copulation, 
however, and it is possible that at least some fall mating occurs. The finding of young 
at the den site spring and fall is significant. It strongly suggests that gravid females 
return to the den sites to have their young so that the juveniles become "marked" 
for later "homing" and seasonal orientation at the Buffalo Flat locale. No other hiber- 
nating groups or individuals were located. 

After dispersal from hibernation the cottonmouth invades the swamp east of Buf- 
falo Creek to forage and feed throughout the summer. They were found in Buffalo 
Creek, the swamp interior, and along a dike (cast skin) east of the bluff after June. 
How much of Buffalo Pond occupied by the snakes after they have emerged from 
hibernation is uncertain. I have observed only ten individual cottonmouths at the site, 
and these were predominantly at the southern and western end of the swamp. None 
were observed at the nothern or eastern portions of the swamp, but this could reflect 
seasonal bias and or poor sampling. The snakes observed away from hibernating sites 
were in or near water. With the exception of the very small young-of-the-year snakes, 
those encountered away from water were pugnacious. When first approached they lie 
perfectly still, but further advance puts them into the well known defensive pose; body 
drawn together, mouth agape (showing white interior), tail rapidly vibrating, and the 

212 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 95 (1986) 

glands at the base of the tail emitting scent. After this they thrash wildly and escape 
if possible. In the defensive pose they are easily captured. 

The cottonmouth at Buffalo Flat is undoubtedly an opportunistic feeder, and 
its diet probably parallels that of its counterparts in adjacent states: fish, amphibians, 
reptiles (including other snakes) and mammals (Klimstra 1959; Barbour 1956). A sub- 
adult individual from Buffalo Flat kept throughout the summer months of 1984 fed 
readily on fish (Cyprinidae) and small frogs (Rana, Pseudacris), a snake (Thamnophis), 
and a small mouse (Mus). A small lizard (Eumeces) from the site was refused. Food 
items (small vertebrates) appear plentiful at Buffalo Pond and adjacent woodlands. 

When not active or during cool weather these snakes retreat to hiding places under 
a fallen log, tangled tree roots, or mammal burrows. Two were found under such 
situations. In September of 1984 I found the cast skin of a large cottonmouth at the 
mouth of a muskrat burrow in the east-west dike that runs the southern edge of the 
swamp. It is likely the snake had spent some time in the burrow. Because of the small 
number of observations, it is difficult to estimate the population size or density of 
the cottonmouth at Buffalo Flat. Based on the number of encounters per unit of time 
spent in the field, and my experience with the species elsewhere the population is un- 
doubtedly quite small — perhaps no more than two dozen animals exist. The status 
of the population is also uncertain. Very large adults and very small juveniles are 
encountered — medium sized adults are a rarity. I do not know if this is a significant 
observation on the population dynamics or if it merely reflects a difference in habits 
and behavior for different age classes of the snake. I suspect that the population has 
fallen dramatically within the very recent past due to habitat alteration and destruc- 
tion and from other types of human encroachment. The swamp is smaller than it once 
was and a portion of the south facing slope is now permanently inundated by an im- 
poundment, eliminating hibernating sites. 

Other herpetofauna encountered at Buffalo Flat: 


1. Small-mouthed salamander, Ambystoma texanum. Regularly encountered 
throughout the year under logs in the flatwoods. In the spring when the water is high 
it may be found ascending dead trees under bark. 

2. Red-backed salamander, Plethodon cinereus. Several found on wooded slopes. 

3. Slimy salamander, Plethodon glutinosus. Several on wooded slopes. 

Frogs and Toads 

1. Cricket frog, Acris crepitans blanchardi. Moderately common. 

2. Western chorus frog, Pseudacris triseriata. Frequently heard in April. 

3. Spring peeper, Hyla crucifer. Occasional, spring and fall. 

4. Gray tree frog, Hyla chrysocelis. Occasional. 

5. Green frog, Rana clamitans melanota. Frequent. 

6. Bullfrog, Rana catesbiana. Uncommon. Overwintered larva in ponded areas. 

7. Leopard frog Rana utricularia. Abundant. Frequently seen well away from 
water. Encountered under cover in late summer when swamp is dry. 

8. Fowler's toad, Bufo woodhousei fowleri . Only one found. Its apparent rarity 
difficult to explain as it is normally one of the most conspicuous amphibians in Indiana. 


1. Snapping turtle, Chelydra serpentina. One seen. 

2. Eastern box turtle, Terrapene Carolina. Five located. 

Ecology 213 

3. Midland painted turtle, Chrysemys picta marginata. Abundant in Buffalo 

4. Musk turtle, Sternotherus odoratus. Probably abundant. Several plastrons 
and carapaces found along Buffalo Creek, apparently the victims of wire mesh crayfish 


1. Five-lined skink, Eumeces facsiatus. Common on dry slope west of Buffalo 
Creek, including many young-of-the-year in fall. Not found in the wetland, but present 
in flatwoods between bluff and swamp. 

2. Broad-headed skink, Eumeces laticeps. Single female captured. 


1 Southern black racer, Coluber constrictor priapus. Common in drier areas. 

2. Rat snake, Elaphe obsoleta obsoleta. One seen. 

3. Black kingsnake, Lampropeltis getulus niger. Two found. 

4. Rough green snake, Opheodrys aestivus. Two located, fall. 

5. Eastern garter snake, Thamonophis sirtalis. Infrequent. 

6. Ribbon snake, Thamnophis sauritus. Ribbon snakes are generally rare 
throughout southwest Indiana, and those at Buffalo Flat were the first I'd seen from 
this part of the state in nearly a decade. They seem to be good indicators of environmen- 
tal quality, often disappearing quickly with even moderate habitat alteration. They 
were tentatively assigned to the subspecies septentrionalis based on typical morphological 
characters (Rossman 1963). Mike Homoya of the Indiana Natural Heritage Program 
showed me a photographic transparency of Thamnophis sauritus from Wening-Sherritt 
seeps, also Dubois County, found in the fall of 1982. This snake, based on color and 
pattern, also suggests septentrionalis, although on geographic grounds (Minton 1972) 
one might expect sauritus here. One from Gibson County, taken in 1975 was assignable 
to that race, as are several from Henderson County, Kentucky immediately southwest 
of Evansville. The Dubois County ribbon snakes may be intergrades between sauritus 
and septentrionalis. Six ribbon snakes were found, five adults and one young-of-the- 
year. Some were on the east side of the swamp during spring high water. Others were 
at waters edge between the creek and swamp. The newborn was found in the fall on 
high dry rocky ground on the steeply sloped bluff. The shed skin of another juvenile 
was found near rock fissures in the bluff. This suggests that some ribbon snakes return 
to the bluff from the wetland in the fall for hibernation and to bear young. 

7. Midland banded water snake Nerodia sipedon pleuralis. Infrequent, although 
seen on most visits. 

8. Northern copperbellied water snake, Nerodia erythrogaster neglecta. Seems 
to be thriving at Buffalo Flat. On spring visits it was the most frequently encountered 
snake. Its sympatry with Agkistrodon piscivorus is notable. At many sites in Ken- 
tucky, N. erythrogaster is absent or uncommon at localities inhabited by cottonmouths 
(Barbour 1956). 

I did not observe these snakes until April 6 when five were seen. They were covered 
with mud and had apparently just emerged from hibernation. All were basking on 
dry ground at the base of the bluff west of the swamp. It appeared that they had 
hibernated below the tangled roots of old stumps and fallen trees. Copperbellies ap- 
pear to disperse quickly after hibernation. I counted six erythrogaster, sub-adult as 
well as fully grown snakes, basking on overhanging vegetation east of Buffalo Creek 
on April 13. A copulating pair was found April 20 on matted vegetation in the swamp 
interior. Mating was reported on April 22 and May 7 in Ohio (Conant 1934). It is 
noteworthy but inexplicable that no copperbellies were seen during late summer or 

214 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 95 (1986) 

fall visits. This species had declined markedly in Indiana and elsewhere in the midwest 
in recent years. It is presently listed as threatened by the I.D.N.R. and is very much 
in need of protection. 

SUMMARY: Fifteen reptiles were encountered at Buffalo Flat — four species of 
turtles, two lizards, and nine snakes. Eleven speices of amphibians were encountered— 
three salamanders and eight anurans. Three species are of particular interest— all are 
snakes. Nerodia erythrogaster neglecta and Agkistrodon piscivorous leucostoma because 
of their threatened status, and Thamnophis sauritus because of its general rarity in 
southern Indiana and because this species serves as an indicator of the high natural 
quality of the site. 

Conservation and Management 

The Indiana Natural Heritage Program and the. Indiana Chapter of the Nature 
Conservancy have done much to insure the preservation of the Buffalo Flat tract. More 
needs to be done to protect the plant and animal communities there. The following 
is recommended: 

1. Acquire additional acreage including: (a) the steeply sloping wooded bluff 
west of Buffalo Creek either side of the oil well access road that descends the slope. 
This must include the crest of the slope to its bottom and south and west at least 
to the juncture of the slope with the eastern dam for the impoundment just west of 
Buffalo Flat; (b) the cultivated land between the dikes on the south and Buffalo Creek 
to the north and the bluff to the northwest. It is apparent that this open unprotected 
area is being used by Agkistrodon piscivorous migrating from hibernating sites and 
the swamp. 

2. Post land and label it as a protected nature preserve. 

3. Restrict or prohibit further dredging of Buffalo Creek. Considerable damage 
was done to Buffalo Creek in 1983 posing a real threat to water level and water quality 
in the adjacent swamp. 

4. Restrict further oil exploration or production at the site. Two currently pro- 
ducing wells threaten potentially irreparable damage to Buffalo Flat. In 1984 a large 
"slick" from an oil well at the south end of the tract had dispersed over a wide area 
covering the ground and vegetation. 

5. The cottonmouth should be re-classified from threatened to endangered as 
this is the only known Indiana population and its viability is unceratin. Unless both 
conservation and management practices are enacted the continued existence of the cotton- 
mouth as part of the Indiana fauna is questionable. 

This investigation was supported by the Indiana Natural Heritage Program and 
the Indiana Department of Natural Resources. Jim Aldrich and Mike Homoya of 
I.N.H.P. (now with the I.D.N.R.— Division of Nature Preserves) were particularly 
helpful. Sherman A. Minton, Jr., provided constructive comment, and generously shared 
his knowledge and experience. Occasional help in the field was provided by my son 
Joseph, and Sharman A. Minton, Jr. Bob Ballard and Tom Hulvershorn identified 
many plants. My wife Patti, Teresa Allen and Judy Jerome helped prepare and type 
the manuscript. 

Literature Cited 

Anderson P., The Reptiles Of Missouri, University of Missouri Press, Columbia, pp. 330. 
Anon., 1984, Fish Creek Fen, Buffalo Flat, James-Tippy Addition, Pokagon Addition 

Acquired. The Nature Conservancy Indiana Newsletter, No. 3, pp. 1-6. 
Barbour, R. W., 1956, A Study of The Cottonmouth, Ancistrodon piscivorous 

leucostoma, in Kentucky. Transactions of the Kentucky Academy of Science 


Ecology 215 

Conant, R., 1934. The Red Bellied Watersnake, Natrix sipedon eryt hrogaster (Forster) 

in Ohio. Ohio Journal of Science, 34:21-30. 
Conant, R., 1975, A Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians of Eastern and Central 

North America. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston Mass., pp. 429. 
Klimstra, W. D., 1959, Food Habits of the Cottonmouth in Southern Illinois. Chicago 

Academy of Science Natural History Miscellanea 168. pp. 8. 
Lodato, M. J. and Ben Burnley, 1974. The Kentucky Herpetologist, A New Locality 

for Agkistrodon piscivorus in Kentucky. Vol. V, Nos. 4 and 5. 
Minton, S. A., Jr., 1972. Amphibians and Reptiles of Indiana. Indiana Academy of 

Science Monograph (3): 1-346. 

, 1983 (a), "Cottonmouth", Outdoor Indiana, Vol. 48, No. 7, pp. 14-19. 

, and J. C. List and M.J. Lodato, 1983 (b), Recent Records and Status of Am- 
phibians and Reptiles in Indiana. Proc. Ind. Acad. 5c/., Vol. 92, pp. 489-498. 
Rossman, Douglas A., 1963, The Colubrid Snake Genus Thamnophis: a revision of 

the sauritus group. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum, 7 pp. 100-178. 
Smith, P. W., 1961, The Amphibians And Reptiles Of Illinois. Illinois Natural History 

Survey Bulletin. 28:1-298. 
Wilson, A. B., and S. A. Minton, Jr., 1983, Geographic Distribution: Agkistrodon 

piscivorus leucostoma. SSAR Herpetological Review 14(3). 

Gap Phase Dynamics of a Mature Indiana Forest 

George R. Parker and Paul T. Sherwood 

Department of Forestry and Natural Resources 

Purdue University 

West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 


The classic view of forest succession has been subjected to increasing scrutiny 
in recent years with research focusing on the spatial and temporal dynamics of forests. 
Forested ecosystems are characterized by change and equilibrium is rarely if ever achieved 
(13,14). In recent years research has focused on disturbance, both internal and exter- 
nal to the ecosystem, and its role in determining species distributions within forest 
communities (1,5,15). The effects of such large scale exogenous disturbances as wildfire, 
flooding, and clearcutting on forest compositional change have been well documented 
for many regions in the country, but only recently has attention shifted toward en- 
dogenous perturbations such as single and/or multiple canopy tree falls resulting from 
senescence and death or minor, localized wind forces. 

The fall of a dominant or codominant canopy individual, for whatever reason, 
creates a gap in an otherwise closed canopy which increases solar radiation to the forest 
floor. Increased light levels favor the release and subsequent growth of previously sup- 
pressed, shade tolerant individuals and may provide conditions favorable for coloniza- 
tion by new individuals of early to mid-seral species. Thus, these dynamic gap replace- 
ment processes may be the key to understanding species abundance and distributions 
within forested ecosystems (10,12,16). 

The long-term dynamics of the Eastern Deciduous Forest are not well understood, 
and this is especially true of the Central Hardwoods Region which includes the till 
plain region of central Indiana, Ohio, and Illinois. Most stands are dominated by various 
Quercus species in the canopy while understories are comprised largely of Acer sac- 
charum, Fagus grandifolia and Ulmus species (2,3,4,7,11). The purpose of this study 
is to attempt to relate canopy gap replacement processes to this apparent composi- 
tional change by determining species composition and diameter class distributions within 
canopy light gaps. 

Study Area 

The Davis-Purdue Research Forest (Figure 1) is located in Randolph County in 
east-central Indiana (Section 23, T21N, R12E). This old-growth forest, dominated by 
Quercus species, is registered as a National Natural Landmark by the National Park 
Service and has been recommended for State Nature Preserve status by the Indiana 
Department of Natural Resources, Division of Nature Preserves. It is one of the largest 
(20.6 ha) remaining old-growth deciduous forests on the Tipton Till Plain and has 
not been significantly disturbed since 1917 when it was donated to Purdue University 
by the Davis family. Some removal of dead or dying trees did occur during the middle 
part of this century, and grazing by domestic livestock probably occurred prior to 
1917. Specific details on the history, topography and soils of this stand are given 
elsewhere (6,7). 


In 1926, Professor Burr N. Prentice of Purdue's Department of Forestry divided 
the Davis-Purdue Research Forest into fifty-five quadrats (most an acre in size) and 
mapped all stems which were greater than 4 in (10.2 cm) dbh (diameter at breast height 



Indiana Academy of Science 

Vol. 95 (1986) 





Figure 1 . Computer map of Davis-Purdue Research Forest showing the location of 
Gaps 1 and 2. 

= 1.37 m aboveground) within each quadrat. Each tree was numbered, measured for 
diameter and height, described in detail by species, and tagged (8). In 1976 forty-six 
of the original quadrat corners were relocated, and the remaining twenty five were 
approximated with a staff compass and 100 ft tape. Within the central 21 quadrats 
(8.5 ha) all stems greater than or equal to 10 cm dbh were measured for diameter 
by species and mapped to the nearest meter. Trees were then classified as ingrowth, 
survivors, or mortality based on a comparison of map location in 1926 vs. 1976 and 
the presence of a 1926 tag. Ingrowth were those individuals not tagged in 1926 but 
at least 10 cm dbh in 1976 (6,7). 

During the summer of 1985 two canopy gaps were located in the central 8.5 ha 
of the Davis-Purdue Research Forest (Figure 1). Canopy gaps were defined as open- 
ings in the canopy created by the fall of a dominant or codominant individual or canopy 
openings created by crown breakup of dead dominant or codominant individuals which 
were still standing (snags). The boundary of the canopy gap was defined to be the 
boles of the surrounding perimeter trees whose crowns formed the outer perimeter 
of the light gap. Thus, the entire canopy gap area was defined to be the area of the 
light gap opening in the canopy plus the expanded gap area to the boles of surround- 
ing perimeter trees (9). 

Within the gap, all individual stems which were greater than or equal to 0.5 cm 
at dbh were measured for diameter and tallied by species. Selected individuals of the 
surrounding perimeter trees were cored with an increment borer for annual ring analysis 



in the laboratory. In order to determine the date of gap formation, and thus gap age, 
annual rings were analyzed with the aid of a Henson Incremental Measuring Machine 
to determine differential release in annual ring growth as a response to increased light 

Results and Discussion 

Gap 1 is located on a well drained, mesic upland site with a north to south orienta- 
tion and a total area of 0.0942 ha (Figure 2). This gap was formed by the death of 








N r 






Figure 2. Computer illustration of Gap 1 showing: perimeter trees with 1926 dbh-1976 
dbh, gapmaker trees, and the mapped location of all stems 10 cm dbh or greater. 

two Quercus alba individuals, still standing at the time of sampling. Gap perimeter 
trees, 70 percent of which are Quercus species, are shown with their 1926 and 1976 
diameters. The location of all subcanopy individuals, 10 cm dbh or greater, which 
were alive at the time of sampling or had died since 1926 are also given in Figure 
2. Living stems are well distributed over the gap area. 

Acer saccharum is dominant across all occupied diameter classes in Gap 1 with 
a relative density of 48% for stems 10 cm dbh or greater and 64% for stems 0.5 cm 
dbh to 9.9 cm dbh (Table 1). This species also occupies the largest diameter class for 
all stems found within the gap. Ulmus americana occupies a secondary position in 
this gap, being confined to the mid to lower diameter classes with a relative density 
of 26% in the 10 cm dbh or greater classes and only 4% for stems 0.5 cm dbh to 
9.9 cm dbh. Ten other tree species, two subcanopy tree species and one shrub were 
sampled in this gap. Most of the individuals found growing within the gap boundary 

220 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 95 (1986) 

Table 1 . Number of Stems/HA by species and diameter class for Gap 1 . 

Diameter Class (CM, Lower Limit) 


0.5 2.5 5.0 7.5 10.0 12.5 15.0 17.5 20.0 22.5 25.0> 

Acer saccharum 



Aesculus glabra 



Fagus grandifolia 


Prunus serotina 

Tilia americana 

Fraxinus americana 


Carya cordiformis 

Carya glabra 


Celtis occidentails 

Acer negundo 


Ulmus americana 



Ulmus rubra 


Carpinus caroliniana 


Ostrya virginiana 



Lonicera sep. 







1923 553 




are normally classified as late serai, shade tolerant species. No Quercus species were 
found growing in the gap. 

Gap 2 is located partly in a moist depressional area with a small drainage way 
running through one corner of the gap (Figure 3). This gap has an east to west orientation 
with a total area of 0.0909 ha. Two Quercus rubra individuals and one Quercus bicolor 
individual are the gapmakers on this site, and all three of these individuals are down 
as a result of windfall. Eighty percent of the gap perimeter trees are Quercus species 
with Quercus rubra making up 40%; Quercus macrocarpa making up 30%, and Quercus 
muehlenbergii making up the remaining 10%. Figure 3 shows no apparent clumping 


0. 0S09 HA 

O = 


D = 


A = 


O = 


+ = 





56CM-71CM C 


Figure 3. Computer illustration of Gap 2 showing: perimeter trees with 1926 dbh-1976 
dbh, gapmaker trees, and the mapped location of all stems 10 cm dbh or greater. 



pattern for individuals 10 cm dbh or larger growing within the gap boundary although 
there is a conspicuous absence of Acer saccharum in the eastern section of the gap. 
Ulmus americana appears to be randomly distributed throughout the gap. 

Ulmus americana is dominant on this site across the middle to upper diameter 
classes with no individuals found occupying the 0.5 cm and 2.5 cm diameter classes 
(Table 2). This is reflected by the reduction in relative density for this species from 

Table 2. Number of Stems/HA by species and diameter class for Gap 2. 

Diameter Class (CM, Lower Limit) 






Acer saccharum 






Aesculus glabra 





Fagus grand i folia 


Fraxinus americana 




Carya cordi forms 



Fraxinus nigra 



Carya ovata 


Quercus muehlenbergil 



Prunus serotina 

Celtis occidentalis 


Acer negundo 





Ulmus americana 




Ulmus rubra 




Carpinus caroliniana 




Asimina triloba 


Crataegus spp. 



Cornus racemosa 


Lindera benzoin 



12.5 15.0 17.5 20.0 22.5 25.0> 




1364 495 

99 209 

57% for the 10 cm dbh or greater diameter classes down to 3% for the 0.5 cm dbh 
to 9.9 cm dbh classes. In contrast to Gap 1, Acer saccharum on this site is confined 
to the middle and lower diameter classes with a relative density in the 10 cm dbh or 
larger diameter classes of only 7% while comprising 33% of the 0.5 cm dbh to 9.9 
cm dbh diameter classes. Only two small diameter individuals of Quercus muehlenbergil 
were found in this gap. There is an increase in species richness, from 15 species occupying 
Gap 1 to a total of 18 species occupying Gap 2, with an associated increase in the 
relative abundance of moist site shrubby species. 

The increase in the relative abundance of moist site shrubby species in Gap 2 
(i.e. Asimina triloba 11% and Lindera benzoin 29%) probably preempts space which 
would otherwise be occupied by Ulmus americana. We might expect therefore that 
if these shrubby species were removed from this site there would be an associated in- 
crease in the relative abundance of Ulmus americana in the lower diameter classes. 
Although Ulmus americana occupies a dominant position on this site, it is not ex- 
pected that any individuals of this species would mature to reach canopy status. Past 
studies in this forest have shown that Dutch elm disease and elm yellows (phloem 
necrosis) attack this species before individuals can reach canopy status, and only early 
reproductive maturity and shade tolerance allow Ulmus americana to persist as an 
important component though restricted to the smaller diameter classes (6). 

Determining gap age, based on analysis of increment cores taken from selected 
gap perimeter trees, proved to be very difficult. Eight cores were analyzed in order 

222 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 95 (1986) 

to determine differential increase in diameter growth as a result of increased light levels 
on the crowns of gap perimeter trees. For Gap 1, increment cores taken from four 
individuals of Quercus alba were analyzed along with a core from a Fraxinus americana 
individual. Increment cores from three individuals of Quercus rubra were anlayzed 
for Gap 2. In no case was a sharp increase in growth of annual rings discernable, 
although in several cases small gradual increases in annual ring growth were detected. 
This is probably attributable to the general lack of vigor of these large diameter perimeter 
individuals which is reflected in their inability to respond to crown release. Based on 
the detected small increases in annual increment, Gap 1 was aged at approximately 
5 years, and Gap 2 was aged at approximately 12 years in the east section and approx- 
imately 1 to 2 years in the west section. This estimate for the west section correlates 
with the general lack of decay in the two Quercus rubra windfall individuals. Based 
on the above results, future age determination for canopy gaps will be accomplished 
by coring larger diameter individuals growing within the gap and sectioning individuals 
in the gap to determine release dates. This method would also provide the necessary 
data to determine whether stems occupying the gap are previously suppressed individuals 
or opportunists which colonized the opening after gap formation. 


An earlier study in the Davis-Purdue Research Forest has shown that despite its 
old-growth appearance, this forest has undergone major structural and compositional 
change since 1926. For individuals 10 cm dbh and larger, early and mid-seral species 
are gradually being replaced by the more shade tolerant, late serai and climax species (7). 

Although the sample size is small, the present study on gap replacement pro- 
cesses in the Davis-Purdue Research Forest supports this earlier conclusion with data 
on species replacement patterns within two canopy gaps. While 70% of the dominant 
perimeter individuals surrounding Gap 1 are Quercus species, no Quercus species in- 
dividuals were found growing within the canopy gap. Acer saccharum accounts for 
64% of stems less than 10 cm dbh, 48% of stems 10 cm dbh or larger, and the largest 
diameter individual in the gap. Although preliminary at best, we might expect Acer 
saccharum to maintain dominance in this opening and attain canopy status. 

Of the 10 dominant individuals surrounding Gap 2, 80% are Quercus species 
while only two small diameter Quercus muehlenbergii individuals were found growing 
within the gap. On this moist site, preemption of space by shrubby species dominates 
the smaller diameter classes. Ulmus americana accounts for 57% of all stems 10 cm 
dbh or larger while Acer saccharum comprises 33% of all stems less than 10 cm in 
diameter. Although dominant on this site, it is doubtful whether Ulmus americana 
individuals will ever reach canopy status due to disease. This species should, however, 
maintain itself on this site and remain an important component, possibly excluding 
other species from reaching canopy status. Acer saccharum will probably dominate 
the better drained western section of this gap and perhaps reach canopy status. 

The findings of this study support the hypothesis of a shift in species dominance 
in this forest. While the canopy of this old-growth forest is made up mostly of mid- 
tolerant Quercus species dominants, the composition of the replacement individuals 
is mostly shade tolerant Acer saccharum with Ulmus americana remaining an impor- 
tant understory component. As single tree and group selection cuts closely emulate 
single and multiple treefall canopy gaps, it is doubtful whether these silvicultural methods 
actually favor Quercus species reproduction. Most likely, as shown in this study, late 
serai, shade tolerant species like Acer saccharum are favored by these methods. 


The authors wish to thank the Indiana Academy of Science for providing grants- 

Ecology 223 

in-aid support for this project. We also thank Jeffrey S. Ward for his valuable assistance 
in gathering field data, and for his critical comments in the preparation of this 

Literature Cited 

1. Bormann, F.H., and G.E. Likens. 1979. Catastrophic disturbance and the steady 
state in northern hardwood forests. Amer. Sci. 67:660-669. 

2. Callahan, J.C., and B.C Fischer. 1982. Economic and silvicultural potentials of 
23 harvested Indiana woodlands. Station Bulletin No. 362, Agricultural Experi- 
ment Station, Purdue University, 23 p. 

3. Johnson, H.S., J.S. Berkebile, and G.R. Parker. 1974. An ecological inventory 
of Bryan Nature Preserve. Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 83:167-172. 

4. Lindsey, A. A., and D.V. Schmelz. 1965. Comparison of Donaldson's Woods in 
1964 with its 1954 forest map of 20 acres. Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 74:169-177. 

5. Oliver, CD. 1981. Forest development in North America following major distur- 
bances. For. Ecol. Mange. 3:153-168. 

6. Parker, G.R., and D.J. Leopold. 1983. Replacement of Ulmus americana L. in 
a mature east-central Indiana woods. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 110:482-488. 

7. Parker, G.R., D.J. Leopold, and J.K. Eichenberger. 1985. Tree dynamics in an 
old-growth, deciduous forest. For. Ecol. Mange. 11:31-57. 

8. Prentice, B. 1927. Forest survey No. 1. Herbert Davis Forestry Farm. Unpublished 
report to the Department of Forestry and Conservation, Purdue University, 
Lafayette, IN. 

9. Runkle, J.R. 1981. Gap regeneration in some old-growth forests of the eastern 
United States. Ecology 62:1041-1051. 

10. Runkle, J.R. 1982. Patterns of disturbance in some old-growth mesic forests of 
eastern North America. Ecology 63:1533-1546. 

11. Schlesinger, R.C. 1976. Hard maples increasing in an upland forest stand, pp. 
177-186. In James S. Fralish et al. (ed). Central Hardwood Forest Conference. 
Dept. of Forestry, So. Illinois Univ. at Carbondale. 

12. Shugart, H.H. 1984. A Theory of Forest Dynamics. Springer-Verlag, New York, 
N.Y. 278 p. 

13. Sousa, W.P. 1984. The role of disturbance in natural communities. Ann. Rev. 
Ecol. Syst. 15:353-391. 

14. Watt, A.S. 1947. Pattern and process in the plant community. J. Ecol. 35:1-22. 

15. White, P.S. 1979. Pattern, process, and natural disturbance in vegetation. Bot. 
Rev. 45:230-299. 

16. Williamson, G.B. 1975. Pattern and serai composition in an old growth beech- 
maple forest. Ecology 56:727-731. 

A Comparison of Trees and Tree Growth on Unreclaimed 1949 Indiana Coal 
Spoil Banks in 1964 and 1981 

John Richard Schrock 

Association of Systematics Collections 

Museum of Natural History 

University of Kansas 

Lawrence, Kansas 66045 


Jack R. Munsee 
Department of Life Science 

Indiana State University 
Terre Haute, Indiana 47809 


Over 95,000 acres of Indiana land were stripmined before modern reclamation 
laws were in place (5). While Indiana has a long history of coal stripmine reclamation 
research, nearly all of the early research was directed at reforestation techniques, primar- 
ily the survival of tree plantings, and spoil amendments. Research since 1970 has been 
solely on the ecology of sites re-topsoiled and re-contoured under the new reclamation 
requirements. The considerable acreage of early barren spoils abandoned to develop 
a new topsoil and revegetate by natural processes have been left unstudied. This is 
probably because 1) there is no current commercial incentive to study the abandoned 
sites as an applied problem and 2) as a pure science problem, the succession on spoil 
banks is too slow to yield results in one person's doctoral program. 

In 1964, Munsee (25) studied the ecology of ants on relatively barren unreclaimed 
Indiana spoil banks originally deposited in 1949-51. In 1981, Schrock (31) repeated 
the methodology at the same 21 sites, now mostly revegetated. While the primary focus 
of both studies was the surface-active insect populations (32), extensive samplings of 
both the soil and vegetation at each site were used in analyses to explain the distribu- 
tion of selected insects. Of these major factors studied by Munsee and Schrock — soils, 
herbaceous vegetation, trees, and insects — this paper summarizes the tree data. These 
studies, 17-years apart, constitute the first and probably the last possible real-time 
comparison of changes on unreclaimed humid Midwestern spoil banks over a substan- 
tial period of time. 

Some studies have assumed that successional changes over time could be studied 
at one point in time on a series of multi-aged spoil banks, but this approach has been 
shown to be very limited by short-distance variation in spoils and microclimate (18, 32). 

Bauer (2) observed that trees appearing on excavated mines in Germany were 
". . .a chance combination of species without regard to natural plant associations. . ." 
and ". . .competition begins to play a role in the determination of the final associa- 
tion. . .after the vegetational cover is closed or after the microclimate has changed 
due to shading by trees." 

Neumann (26, 27) defined this importance of trees in altering spoilbank 
microclimate in his study of succession of soil fauna on West German reclaimed coal 
dumps. Neumann's sites were actively reforested and developed a closed canopy be- 
tween the 7th and 11th year. Using continuous recording equipment, he measured 
temperature, relative humidity and cumulative evaporation. The peak daily temperature 
dropped dramatically between sites of these ages. Relative humidity no longer fell 
drastically through the stressful afternoon hours under the closed canopy, but the 
younger, open 7-year plantation closely resembled the spoils. Soil moisture remained 


226 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 95 (1986) 

depressed through the seventh year, but by the eleventh year had risen to the general 
level of the undisturbed forests. Neumann found that populations of millipedes and 
isopods dramatically increased with canopy closure and there was a switch in the ground 
beetle population from open to woodland species. Although food supply and migra- 
tion distances were also involved, he proposed that microclimate was the controlling 
factor in the observed invertebrate succession on reclaimed spoilbanks. 

In another study by Van der Aart (36), spider populations on a dune area were 
studied for correlations with environmental factors twice, ten years apart. Both times, 
the 12 species at 28 sites distributed themselves according to a main environmental 
factor described by principal components analysis. Of 26 environmental characteristics, 
the amount of light penetrating the vegetation came closest to approximating this main 
environmental factor. 

In contrast, Vogel and Berg (37) found that plant competition did exist between 
black locust seedlings and dense herbaceous vegetation and also used treatments to 
confirm that tree growth was held back by lack of N and P in coal spoils. 


In 1964, Munsee selected an ecological study area in the old Sunspot Mines. The 
location of the stripmines is south of Centenary in Vermillion County, Indiana, in 
Township 14N, Section 24 (10) and physical site descriptions are detailed in Schrock 
& Munsee (32). According to Lindsey et al. (19), the sites would have been classified 
as beech-maple forest in pre-settlement Indiana. 

The spoilbanks resulted from surface coal mining by Ayrshire Colleries from 1949 
to 1951. Ayrshire sold about 300 acres of the spoilbanks to the Clinton Chapter of 
the Isaac Walton League. The protection provided by the League and the relative inac- 
cessibility of the research site prevented disturbance of the research site over the past 
41 years. All seed dispersal is therefore natural. 

Site Descriptions 

Twenty-one research sites, 19 on mined spoilbanks and two in an adjacent un- 
mined area, were selected by Munsee in 1964 with guidance from Dr. Leland Chandler 
from Purdue University. The plots were selected to provide an assortment of exposures 
and slopes (32). 

The size and shape of plots varied due to topography (Figure 1). Plots were oriented 
to avoid problematic areas and sampled a variety of tops, slopes and bases of ridges. 

Site Designation 

In 1964, Munsee designated his research sites by letters, beginning with "Site 
A" in the south end of the area and working north along the mined ridges and west 
to east when sites cut across ridges. "Site A" was an unmined site and later, Munsee 
added an unmined woodland site, "Site W", south of site A. Therefore, sites labelled 
by letters close together in the alphabet are physically closer together on the research 
area, with the exception of site W which is off the spoilbanks from site A. Therefore, 
tabular data are presented in the order "W, A, B, C, D. . .T." 

Tree Survey 

In 1964, Munsee tallied all trees greater than 2.54 cm (one inch) diameter measured 
at 137 cm (4.5 ') height ( = dbh) at each site. Note that not all plot sizes are the same 
in area or dimensions (Figure 1). There were no stems that qualified by these stan- 
dards on sites B, D, I, L-O, P, Q and T in 1964. Of the 149 stems counted on the 





Figure 1. Variation in size of representative vegetation and tree plots in 1964, repeated 
in 1981 with a change in vegetation sampling pattern only. The smallest plot was at 
site N (upper right) and the longest was site L-O (left background). 

other sites, two-thirds were on the unmined sites W and A. By 1981, all mined sites 
harbored trees within the 1964 defined plots. 

In 1964, Munsee used both a folding yardstick as calipers and a tape to measure 
tree diameters, depending on the tree size. In 1981, all diameters were taken from 
tape measures of circumference. Diameter values were converted to basal area in square 
feet using Munns' forestry tables (23) both years. For multiple-stemed trunks, Munsee 


Indiana Academy of Science 

Vol. 95 (1986) 

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Ecology 233 

noted that ". . .each stem was measured separately and the measurements were grouped 
so that all basal area values could be taken as one." This was repeated in 1981. 

Munsee used Fernald (13) and Harlow (16) as chief references in determining 
tree species. Schrock used Mohlenbrock (22) and Gleason and Cronquist (15). Some 
tree leaves from both 1964 and 1981 were deposited with the Indiana State University 
Herbarium by both researchers. 

Quantitative Methods for Trees 

In addition to total tree numbers and tree basal areas, an importance value was 
calculated for each tree at the site. The importance value (I.V.) was defined here as 
a measure of the influence that each species exerts upon the community. If only one 
species is present, it comprises 100% of the basal area at the site and 100% of the 
density. The sum of these relative percentages (each x 100 first) yields an I.V. of 200 
for all sites with trees. The following formulae were used in 1964 and 1981: 

_,,.,. . basal area of species A inn 

Relative basal area species A = r — -. ? — £ : — x 100 

basal area of all species 

_ . . . . , density of species A v ,«« 

Relative density of species A = ^ ^ — j—--. ■. x 100 

3 density of all species 

Importance value of species A = Relative basal area + Relative density 

The ecological value of an abstract "importance value" constructed from precisely 
partitioned density and basal areas is difficult to show in spite of its extensive use 
in forest community studies beginning with Curtis and Mcintosh (8). However, it may 
have limited validity here because: 1) by reducing values to proportions, it partially 
compensates for the varying plot sizes and 2) it is biologically reasonable that because 
of its size, a single tree on a small plot would influence much of the area if alone 
but have less influence if among other trees. 

Clustering Methods, Correlations and Principal Components Analyses 

Chambers (6) defines the serious shortcomings of diversity indices and rank cor- 
relations for direct comparisons between communities but finds several similarity in- 
dices appropriate and ". . .well-suited for evaluating mined land diversity." 

To detect the complex patterns of similarity between sites based on trees, a cluster 
analysis was performed using each site as a case. For this task, BMDP statistical pro- 
gram P2M was used as modified to run on the Kansas University Computing Center 
Honeywell DPS-3/E. 

The distance between two cases of data is defined as the chi-square test of equal- 
ity of the two sets of frequencies. The computer program begins by comparing each 
pair of cases and using this chi-square test, joins the closest two cases. When two 
cases are joined, a new centroid is formed by averaging each variable. In the next 
round of searching for the shortest distance, this centroid is compared with other can- 
didates for membership to the next larger cluster. The number of cases (or pseudo- 
cases) is reduced by one at each step until all are clustered, forming a dendrogram. 

Cluster analyses were performed for the 1964 sites with trees, for all 1981 sites, 
and for all of these sites taken together. The methodology described above was ap- 
plied to tree numbers, tree occurrence, tree basal areas and tree importance values. 


Indiana Academy of Science 

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In addition, individual trees on each stripmine plot were compared in 1964 and 
1981. Annual growth was calculated for trees present both years and this was com- 
pared with average growth for the same species from Smith and Shifley's (33) data 
on Indiana and Illinois trees for the same time period. Since their diameter growth 
data is cumulative and trees grow slowly at first, it was necessary to calculate the 
average growth for the final 17-year increment to compare with the observed 1964-81 
growth. Trees were then designated as growing faster ( + ) or slower (-) than trees 
in forest settings. All stripmine trees were arrayed by species according to the average 
pH of their plot. Trees present in 1964 but dead or disappeared (D) by 1981 were 
arrayed by 1964 site pH. Trees new to the site in 1981 (N) were arrayed by 1981 pH. 









Figure 2. Dendrograms clustering sites by tree number in 1964 and 1981, 






Figure 3. Dendrograms clustering sites by presence and absence of trees in 1964 and 

238 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 95 (1986) 


Figure 4. Dendrograms clustering sites by tree basal area in 1964 and 1981. 


Fully two-thirds of the trees in 1964 were on the unmined sites W and A (Table 
1). Hickories, dogwoods and oaks dominated site W while site A was a young woodland 
of hawthorns, elms and white ash. Red ash, silver maple, jack and Virginia pines and 
a few sycamores, spotted the spoilbanks with rare occurrences of other species. By 
1981, site W was found to still be maturing as reflected by a nearly universal reduction 
in tree numbers (Table 2) and an increase in basal area (Tables 3 and 4). At site A, 
white ash, American elm and hawthorns were declining in numbers although hawthorns 
that survived increased in total basal area. This young woodland still saw additions 
of stems over 2.54 cm. (1 in.) dbh of white oak, black oak, sassafras, tulip poplar, 
black walnut and shagbark hickory. In 1964, site W led in total basal area, but by 
1981 the addition of many young trees boosted basal area far beyond that for W. 
On the mined sites, red ash occurred everywhere except at sites B, C and S and had 
become 22 percent of the total tree population. Other species successful on spoilbanks 
include silver maple, jack, Virginia and white pines, black cherry and hawthorns. Species 
richness increased by seven species and site H in 1981 supported more basal area than 
site A in 1964. New species included one tulip poplar and one beech. However, the 
first occurrence of black willow on the sheltered banks nearest the stripmine lakes 
may indicate that these sites were the only moist sites within dispersal range of black 
willow stands off-site to the north. 

Importance values, a composite figure reflecting each species percent contribu- 
tion to each plot in both numbers and basal area together, are given in Tables 5 and 
6. While one tree assumes total importance on sites C and M in 1964, by 1981 no 
tree stands alone in its defined site. While red ash assumes great importance across 
most strip mine sites, the two red ash trees present on site C in 1964 are no longer 
present in 1981. 

All tabular data reflect only the woody stems that survive to be one inch dbh 
or greater, and in both years many stems may have existed just below this point to 
go unrecorded only to appear later as important elements of the new community. 
Sites without trees in 1964 are excluded from the dendrograms (B, D, I, L-O, 
P, Q and T). According to tree numbers, the unmined sites W and A are separate 
and distinct from the spoilbanks although tree basal area of site A is still closer to 



Figure 5. Dendrograms clustering sites by tree importance values in 1964 and 1981. 

the spoilbanks than the forest (Figure 4). By 1981, site A is most similar to forest 
site W, the relative amalgamation distance having decreased for their similarity based 
on both numbers and basal area (Figures 2 and 4). The stripmine sites, all represented 
by trees in 1981, are more disparate among themselves than A is from W, a reversal 
over 1964 (Figure 2). Sites B, C, and G, while closer to W and A in number of trees, 
are still closer to the spoilbanks in basal area produced in 1981. 

That tree associations, even small ones, are laboriously slow in changing com- 
position, is illustrated in the joint dendrogram of tree numbers in Figure 6. Sites for 
1981 generally cluster very close to their 1964 positions indicating that the sites have 
not generally moved on to become like other sites. This pairing is probably more 
noticeable than shown since sites without trees in 1964 and trees less than 2.54 cm. 
(1 in.) dbh are excluded. Site W has changed less than site A during these 17 years. 
Sites N, F, H, M, G and J have undergone minor changes. Major shifts have occurred 
at sites T, S, P, B, C and I. 

8 6 868888868868686888668668618868 


— i — 


1964 & 1981 

Figure 6. Dendrogram clustering 1964 (W6, A6, B6. . .T6) and 1981 (W8, A8, B8. .T8) 
sites together on number of trees of 2.54 cm (1 inch) dbh or greater. 


Indiana Academy of Science 

Vol. 95 (1986) 



1964 & 1981 

Figure 7. Dendrogram clustering 1964 and all 1981 sites together on presence and 
absence of trees of 2.54 cm (one inch) dbh or greater. 

By general appearance, sites B, C, and T in 1981 appear most forest-like. These 
sites cluster with the forested unmined sites based on the importance values of trees 
(Figure 5). Sites W and A are very distinct from spoilbanks based only on presence 
and absence of trees in 1964 or 1981 (Figure 3). However, the anticipation that tree 
species would cluster by site proximity in the occurrence cluster is not met either study 
year. With respect to tree occurrence, sites W and A are little changed in amalgama- 
tion distance over 17 years, while the spoilbanks show much greater variation and 
greater amalgamation distances in 1981. 

Combined 1964 and 1981 tree occurrence data (Figure 7) yield a dendrogram similar 
to combined tree number data (Figure 6). Again, many 1981 sites remain generally 
closer to their 1964 composition than to other sites (W, A, F, H, N and M, G and J). 


Natural tree invasion of humid midwestern coal spoils varies widely on 32-year- 
old sites, from extremely limited growth on acidic banks to a closed canopy on banks 
within the normal local soil pH. 

Among the workers who have appraised planted and naturally dispersed tree sur- 
vival on coal spoilbanks are: Arnott (1), Indiana planted; Brewer and Triner (4), Ill- 
inois natural; Croxton (7), Illinois planted; Davidson (10), central U.S. planted; DenUyl 
(12), Indiana planted; Limstrom and Deitschman (18), Indiana planted; Stiver (34), 
Indiana planted; and Tarbox (51), Indiana planted. 

The ash Fraxinus pennsylvanicus was the most widespread volunteer on the 
spoilbanks and is the most tolerant early colonizer. It has been considered a good 
survivor (1, 4, 10, 12, 18) although Miles et al. (21) found ". . .little growth or vigor 
after 4 years." This same ash is a successful survivor on coal spoils extending to semi- 
arid North Dakota mines (9). 

Cottonwood has been found to be a good (7, 12, 17, 34) or fair (1, 18) survivor 



Figure 8. Occurrence of tree species on spoilbanks. (N) = new in 1981. (D) = present 
in 1964 but died or disappeared in 1981. A plus indicates growth between 1964 and 
1981 exceeded expected growth in forest stands (33). A minus indicates growth be- 
tween 1964 and 1981 was less than expected. 

on spoilbanks and has generated the hope some spoilbanks could eventually produce 
pulpwood commercially. Cottonwood was a rare colonizer in this study. 

Black locust, considered ". . .the No. 1 tree for its widespread adaptation to all 
spoil groups and its rapid growth and quick cover. . ." (12) and considered a good 

242 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 95 (1986) 

survivor (1, 12, 17, 35) but poor by Davidson (10), was conspicuously absent on these 
study sites in spite of seed supplies nearby. Observations by Sawyer (29) suggest locust 
is subject to insect attack and is not a good competitor once reforestation is underway. 
This is also confirmed by Boring and Swank (3) where locust only dominates early 
forest regeneration and yields rapidly to other dominants. 

Sycamore stands out as one tree which consistently fails to equal or exceed growth 
rates expected in Indiana forests. Miles et al. (21) also detected lack of vigor and growth 
but attributed its poor performance on spoils to the seedlings not being from a local 
source. Others found sycamore a good (1, 4, 7, 17) or fair (12, 18) survivor but did 
not compare its growth with non-mined rates. 

While white pine failed to become established when direct seeded on banks by 
Miles et al. (21), it spread on eight sites in this study. White pine has previously been 
considered a fair (18) and good (17) spoil survivor. Compared to other pines, white 
pine has shown the best survival on all spoil texture classes (28). New red pines ap- 
peared on only a few sites. Survival has been considered poor (18) and it has the lowest 
seedling survival rate on spoils among pines tested by Plass (28). Sawyer (30) con- 
cluded that slopes were far more favorable than graded level areas, with Virginia, Jack 
and pitch pine survival being 80% and 25% respectively. Pines in this study survived 
equally well on all aspects. 

Sweet gum was rated a poor survivor in Miles et al. (21), fair in other studies 
(1, 17, 18) and good in two studies (12, 35). Several trees invaded our study site with 
better-than-forest growth. 

Limstrom (17) concluded stripmine tree studies showed ". . .little or no differences 
in tree survival among aspects and between upper and lower slopes." This was sup- 
ported by sites K, H, F and G in this study facing N, W, S and E respectively, showing 
no unique tree associations. Nor do sites with similar aspects, soil textures or pH, 
cluster consistently in similarity dendrograms based on tree numbers, occurrence, basal 
area or importance value. 

Overall, competition should also result in tree death or less-t nan-normal growth. 
But deaths and decreased growth are inconsequential in this measurement from 15 
years to 32 years after mining, and suggest competition as detected by Vogel and Berg 
(37) occurs much later or on reclaimed sites. Competition with smaller trees less than 
one inch dbh may occur similar to the suppression of close-planted black walnut on 
spoils described by Geyer and Noughton (14). 

The clustering of sites based on chi-square similarity produces nonrigid dendrograms 
which can be rotated to orient the sites from the forest site W to the near-barren 
spoilbank D. While some internodes can still rotate, clusters are forced into intermediate 
positions that correspond to successional stages for coal stripmine spoils. Four dif- 
ferent "counts" used for clustering were based on different assumptions. "Tree oc- 
currence," based on the presence or absence of trees, presumed the number and size 
of trees is unimportant or chance. . .the important factor being whether the tree species 
survive on the site. (Sites with 1 and 5 trees of species A are similar, different from 
a site with none.) "Tree number" minimizes this threshhold effect and weighs the 
number of trees of each species regardless of their basal area. (Sites with and 1 
trees of species A are similar, different from a site with 5 trees.) "Basal area" clusters 
on productivity visible above 1 " dbh and "Importance Value" measures similarity on 
an average of percentages of density and basal area per species per site. Each count, 
based on a different premise, yields a different dendrogram. Nevertheless, the old field 
site A always remains distinct from the stripmine sites and associated with the matur- 
ing forest, and the more densely revegetated spoils fall in intermediate positions. 

Although only trees greater than one inch dbh were "visible" in this analysis, 
the assortment of trees appeared to support Bauer's (2) proposal that they were merely 

Ecology 243 

a ". . .chance combination of species. . ." able to survive on the spoils. The fact that 
1981 stripmine sites clustered nearest or very near to their 1964 position when pooled 
together indicates that competition from herbaceous vegetation as described by Vogel 
and Berg (37) was insufficient to change these tree communities in any single direction. 

In 1959, DenUyl (12) measured 10 hardwoods planted on Indiana spoils in 1949, 
six of which naturally invaded the spoils in this study. All six species in DenUyPs 
study exhibited a normal range of variation in diameter growth over 1 1 growing seasons, 
the mode for all six being clearly greater than in-forest growth for these species in 
Indiana as later measured by Smith and Schifley (33). The accelerated growth on the 
unshaded spoilbanks for most species was confirmed in this study and represents 
"release" from the shaded forest environment. 

In 1925, McDougall (26) subjectively described the spoilbanks one county west 
of this study site as originally a typical bottomland forest association which ". . .under 
favorable conditions. . .is reestablished in about 24 years." In contrast, this study reveals 
unreclaimed Indiana coal spoils, 32-years old, to be a highly variable and highly 
fragmented assemblage, likely to be determined by chance dispersal and tolerance to 
pH and aridity, unlikely to yet be shaped by competition. . .and far too premature 
to be considered a reestablished forest. 


The Clinton Chapter of the Isaac Walton League graciously granted permission 
for the 1964 and 1981 studies. Without their ongoing efforts over the last 34 years, 
this specific site of naturally revegetating spoil banks would not have existed undisturbed. 
Munsee designed the original 1964 study and carried out the 1964 fieldwork. Schrock 
conducted the 1981 fieldwork, the between year comparisons, and wrote this text. We 
would like to thank our wives who were financially supportive throughout the research 
period. We are indebted to Dr. Leland Chandler, Purdue University, and Dr. Edward 
Martinko, University of Kansas, who served as major professors in the respective studies. 

Literature Cited 

1. Arnott, Jr., D. 1950. Initial Survival of Planted Hardwoods on Strip Mine Spoil 
Banks of Indiana. M.S. Thesis, Dept. of Forestry, Purdue University, West 
Lafayette, IN. 61 p. 

2. Bauer, H.J. 1973. Ten years' studies of biocenological succession in the excavated 
mines of the Cologne lignite district. In Hutnik, R.J. and G. Davis (eds.) Ecology 
and Reclamation of Devastated Land. Gordon and Breach, Inc., NY. 

3. Boring, L.R. and W.T. Swank. 1984. The role of black locust (Robinia 
pseudoacacia) in forest succession. J. Ecol. 72:749-766. 

4. Brewer, R. and E.D. Triner. 1956. Vegetational features of some strip-mined land 
in Perry County, Illinois. 111. Acad. Sci. Trans. 48:73-84. 

5. Byrnes, W.R. and J.H. Miller. 1973. Natural revegetation and cast overburden 
properties of surface-mined coal lands in southern Indiana. In Hutnik, R.J. and 
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Inc., NY. 

6. Chambers, J.C. 1983. Measuring Species Diversity on Revegetated Surface Mines: 
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7. Croxton, W.C. 1928. Revegetation of Illinois coal-stripped lands. Ecology. 

8. Curtis, J.T. and R.P. Mcintosh. 1951. An upland forest continuum in the prairie- 
forest border region of Wisconsin. Ecology. 32:476-496. 

244 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 95 (1986) 

9. Darris, D.C., E.T. Jacobson and R.J. Haas. 1982. Performance and adaptation 
of 20 trees and shrub species for surface mine revegetation in North Dakota. 
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10. Davidson, W.H. 1979. Results of tree and shrub plantings on low pH stripmine 
banks. Northeastern For. Exp. Stat. Res. Note NE-285. 5 p. 

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12. DenUyl, D. 1962. Survival and growth of hardwood plantations on strip mine 
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13. Fernald, M.L. 1950. Gray's Manual of Botany. 8th ed. revised. American Book 
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14. Geyer, W.A. and G.G. Naughton. 1979. Black walnut (Juglans nigra Linnaeus) 
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15. Gleason, H.A. and A. Cronquist. 1963. Manual of Vascular Plants of Northeastern 
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Ecology 245 

Spoil Banks in Indiana. Ph.D. Dissertation. University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS. 
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Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN. 136 p. 

36. VanderAart, P.J.M. and N. Smeenk-Enserink. 1975. Correlations between distribu- 
tions of hunting spiders (Lycosidae, Ctenidae) and environmental characteristics 
in a dune area. Neth. J. Zool. 25:1-45. 

37. Vogel, W.G. and W.A. Berg. 1973. Fertilizer and herbaceous cover influence 
establishment of direct-seeded black locust on coal-mine spoils. In Hutnik, R.J. 
and G. Davis (eds.) Ecology and Reclamation of Devastated Land. Gordon and 
Breach, Inc., NY. 

Galls of J uncus scirpoides Formed by Li via maculipennis (Liviidae, 

Peggy J.M. Wier 

Sunnyside Junior High School 

Lafayette, Indiana 47904 


During a study of the vascular flora of the Indiana State University Field Cam- 
pus at Brazil, Clay Co., IN, a member of the Juncaceae, Juncus scirpoides, was found 
to have abnormally large flower structures which turned out to be galls. Identification 
of infested individuals within this population as J. scirpoides would not have been 
possible except that a few heads had both infested and normal flowers. Dissection 
revealed nymphs of Livia maculipennis (Fitch) (Liviidae, Psylloidea, Homoptera) within 
the flowers. Juncus scirpoides is common around the pond at the entrance to the field 
campus. A small uninfested population occurs at another lake closest to the pond. 

Juncus scirpoides is described by Britton and Brown (1913) as an erect rush growing 
20 to 100 cm high from horizontal rootstocks. Its numerous flowers appear in 2-30 
globose heads per plant. The 4-7 mm flowers are complete with six perianth parts, 
stamens, and a one-celled pistil. 

The Psylloidea have five nymphal instars and the nymph stages are plant host 
specific (Hodkinson & White, 1979). Most of the psylloids infest one or two plant 
species within a genus. The adults commonly use the host plant for feeding, but may 
use other plants. The species of Psylloidea are dioecious and the ratio when the adults 
emerge is 1:1. Field ratios are often weighted toward the females, since they usually 
live longer. Most species have a single generation per year, but one species has three 
and another takes two years for one generation. 

In Britain the life cycles fall into four categories (Hodkinson & White, 1979): 

1 . Overwintering in egg stage in dormant buds of host plant. Development begins 
in spring with bud burst. 

2. Overwintering as nymphs on the host plants. 

3. Overwintering as adults on the host plant with ovipositing occurring in late 
winter to early spring. 

4. Overwintering as adults by moving to a shelter plant in autumn, moving 
back to host plant in spring to oviposit and possibly mate. A wide variety 
of evergreens serve as host plants. 

Hodkinson and White (1979) reported several psylloids forming galls or pseudo- 
galls in several species of British plants. Tassel galls are formed by Livia juncorum 
(Latreille) on seven species of Juncus, roll leaf galls are caused by Psyllopsis fraxini 
(Low) on Fraxinus excelsior, and pit galls are formed by Trichochermes walkeri (Forster) 
on Rhamnus, spp. and Trioza remota (Foerster) on Quercus, spp. 

Members of the Psylloidea infest many plant species. Best-known in this country, 
because of their economic importance, are Psylla pyricola (Foerster? and P. mali 
(Schmidberger) pests of pear and apple respectively. The common gall on hackberry, 
Celtis occidentalis, is formed by the psyllid Pachypsylla celtisdismamma (Riley) (Bor- 
ror, et. al., 1981). 

The major purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between the psylloid 
and Juncus scirpoides and the effects of the psylloid on the plant. Specific objectives 
were to (1) identify the psylloid and its life stages and (2) determine the effects of 
the psylloid on the plant, particularly as related to plant height, number of flower 
heads, number of flowers per head, and flower length. 



Indiana Academy of Science 

Vol. 95 (1986) 

Figure 1 . Normal Flower Head of Juncus scirpoides 


The study was carried out along the 177 meters of unmowed shore of a pond 
at the north end of the Indiana State University Field Campus (east of the entrance 
road), south of Brazil, Clay County, Indiana. The lawn is kept mowed to about 10 

Ecology 249 

meters from the pond. The unmowed area includes Typha latifolia and several species 
of Cyperaceae and Graminae. The pond is approximately 190 meters in circumference. 

The affected plants were discovered on 31 July 1984 and the first detailed obser- 
vations were made on 2 and 3 August 1984. The study was continued in 1985 from 
22 July to 3 August. 

The total population of plants the first year was quite large, perhaps 350 plants. 
The plants were too numerous to examine every one, thus the shore line was measured 
and marked at 5 meter intervals, and six locations, 25 m apart, were chosen for sampling. 

At each 25 meter location, the closest 20 individuals of J. scirpoides plants were 
examined and 1) categorized as infested or normal (any plant with at least one abnor- 
mal flower was counted as infested), 2) measured for height (total height of plant, 
not the location of the head), and 3) the number of heads on each plant was counted. 

The closest normal and infested plant at each of the 25-meter locations was taken 
for laboratory observation. These 12 plants (6 normal, 6 infested) were used to count 
the numbers of flowers per head and measure the length of the flowers. Only one 
plant was infested externally with adult psylloids, and this was quite heavily so. This 
plant was also collected for further study. 

Three normal plants were randomly selected from the six to determine the average 
number of flowers per head. Fifteen normal flowers were measured for length. The 
flowers in each flower head were counted, the length and width of the flowers were 
measured and dissected to count nymphs in all six infested plants. Some heads of in- 
fested plants had normal flowers. These were also counted and measured. 

During the second year, the population of J. scirpoides was greatly reduced (157 
plants total) and it was possible to examine all plants to determine the degree of 


The insect causing the gall has been tentatively identified as Livia maculipennis, 
(Fitch) (Liviinae, Psyllidae, Homoptera) (Crawford, 1914). This has been confirmed 
by I.D. Hodkinson, Liverpool Polytechnic, Liverpool, England. 

Degree of Infestation 

In 1984, 55 of the 120 plants examined were infested, for a frequency of 45.8%. 
In the second year the population was reduced and all 157 plants were examined; of 
which 127, or 80.9%, were infested. 

Plant Height 

The height in 65 normal plants averaged 64.45 cm, with a range of 35 to 149 
cm, SD = 22.86 cm; whereas the height of the 55 infested plants averaged 21.02 cm, 
with a range of 5 to 69 cm, SD = 14.75 cm. The infested plants averaged about one- 
third the height of the non-infested plants. This reduction was significant (t = 12.11, 
95% conf. level, 118 df). 

Number of Flower Heads 

Flower heads numbers were assessed with the same 120 plants. Sixty-five normal 
plants had 194 heads and ranged from 1 to 8 heads per plant with a mean of 2.98, 
SD = 1.67; while 55 infested plants had 64 heads and ranged from 1 to 6 heads per 
plant with a mean of 1.16, SD = 0.76. This reduction by more than half was also 
significant (t = 7.44, 95% conf. level, 118 df). 

In 1984, the closest infested plant to each of the 25-meter locations was used 
to determine the number of flowers per head and measure flower length. Since only 


Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 95 (1986) 

Figure 2. Gall formed by Livia maculipennis on J uncus scirpoides. 



37 normal plants were observed the second year, every seventh plant was taken to 
measure flower reduction. The five plants averaged 4.4 heads per plant. The average 
number of flowers per head ranged from 48 to 186 with a mean of 98.5, SD = 38.62. 
The six infested plants (each had one head) ranged from 1 to 15 flowers per head 
with a mean of 6.7, SD = 6.12. This ten-fold reduction of flowers per head was also 
significant (t = 5.73, 26 df). 

Length of Flowers 

Fifteen normal flowers ranged from 5 to 6 mm (X = 5.6 mm, SD = .51 mm). 
Forty infested flowers ranged from 6 to 100 mm (X = 30.8 mm, SD = 20.68 mm). 
Thus the infested flowers were of much greater and of much more variable length. 
This six-fold increase in flower length was also significant (t = 4.69, 53 df)- 


The overall effect of Livia maculipennis on Juncus scirpoides has been found 
to be significant in four areas, summarized in Table 1 . The height of the plant is reduced 

Table 1 . Summary of information of Livia maculipennis infesting Juncus scirpoides 

Type of Effect 



Frequency of infestation (1984) 
Frequency of infestation (1985) 
Plant Height (mean) 
Flower heads per plant (mean) 
Flowers per flower head (mean) 
Flower length (mean) 

64.45 cm 


5.6 mm 


21.02 cm 
30.8 mm 


by two-thirds, the number of flower heads per plant is reduced by more than half, 
the number of flowers per head is reduced about ten fold, and the flower length is 
increased about six times. 

The enlarged flowers of the infested plants have many tepal-like bracts, while 
normal flowers have just six tepals. It appears that the gall is formed by incorporating 
parts, including bracts, of several nearby developing flowers in the head, making it 
appear as one flower. This is confirmed by Weiss and West (1922) who reported that 
the floral parts were aborted and bracts of the inflorescence increased to many times 
normal size and form closely imbricated structures. 

Infested flowers lacked reproductive floral parts, had a reduced number of flowers 
per head, and a reduced number of heads per plant; thus Livia maculipennis is ob- 
viously greatly reducing the reproductive ability of the plant. 

The degree and increase of infestation over the two year period seems to indicate 
that L. maculipennis is radically eradicating itself in this population through eradicating 
its host plant. The estimated population in 1984 was around 350 plants. Approximately 
20 plants were removed that year, so at least 330 plants ought to have been present 
the next year, but only 157 plants remained. The estimated mortality is then 173. It 
is likely that the decrease in the J. scirpoides population from one year to the next 
could have been caused by the L. maculipennis infestation. The frequency of infesta- 
tion the first year was 45.8%. If none of the infested plants returned the theoretical 
mortality would be 151 (330 X .458). If the L. maculipennis population had to infest 

252 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 95 (1986) 

the same number of plants to maintain itself and none of the infested plants. from 
the previous year returned, the frequency of infestation would become larger. 

Heslop-Harrison (1949) reports that the overwintering females of Livia juncorum 
lay their eggs in the shoot of the plant as it is emerging in the srping. This happens 
before the inflorescence appears, but the inflorescence is the affected part of the plant. 
The significant height reduction shown in the present study supports this. 

Future studies could include a full-year study observing the life cycles and over- 
wintering methods of Livia maculipennis and Juncus scirpoides, how the presence of 
the developing nymphs effect the plant tissue growth, and the determination whether 
a relation exists between the number of nymphs developing in the gall and the size 
of the gall. It was also observed that there seems to be two types of infestation: 1) 
short plants with one large-flower galls and 2) regular-sized plants with many small- 
flowered galls. This possibly could be a matter of whether Livia maculipennis infested 
the plant in the early stage or infested after the plant had reached full height and 
the inflorescences were beginning to form. Additional study could test this hypothesis. 

Literature Cited 

1. Borror, D.J., D.M. DeLong, and C.A. Triplehorn, 1981. An Introduction to 
the Study of Insects. Saunders College Publishing. 827 pp. 

2. Britton, N.L. and A. Brown. 1970 (1913). An Illustrated Flora of the Northern 
United States and Canada, Vol. I. Dover Publications. 680 pp. 

3. Crawford, D.L. 1914. A monograph on the jumping plant lice or Psyllidae of 
the New World. Bull. U.S. natn. Mus. 85:1-182. 

4. Heslop-Harrison, G. 1949. The subfamily Liviinae Low, of the Homopterous family 
Psyllidae— Part 2. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (12) 2:241-270. 

5. Hodkinson, I.D. and I.M. White. 1979. Homoptera: Psylloidea. Handbooks for the 
Identification of British Insects, Vol. II, Part 5(a). Royal Entomological Society. 
98 pp. 

6. Weiss, H.B. and E. West. Notes on Livia maculipennis (Fitch) (Homoptera, Cher- 
midae). Psyche. 29:nos. 5-6, pp 226-229. 


A study was conducted on the effects of Livia maculipennis (Liviidae, Homoptera) 
on Juncus scirpoides (Juncaceae). Livia maculipennis causes galls on several species 
of Juncus in North America. The closely related L. juncorum causes tassel galls in 
Juncus spp. in Great Britain. 

The present study was conducted at a pond at the Indiana State University Field 
Campus near Brazil, Clay Co., IN July, 1984 and 1985. 

Livia maculipennis on Juncus scirpoides causes the height of the plant to be reduced 
by up to two-thirds, the number of flower heads per plant to be reduced by more 
than half, the number of flowers per head to be reduced about ten fold, and the flower 
length to be increased about six times. 


Chair: Warren W. Bowden 

Department of Chemical Engineering 

Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology, Terre Haute, Indiana 47803 (812) 877-1511 

Chair-Elect: David D. Chesak 

Department of Physics 

St. Joseph's College, Rensselaer, Indiana 47978 (219) 866-7111 


The YVilsak Thodos Equation of Stale: Its Use and Applicability. Warren W. Bowden, 
Department of Chemical Engineering, Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology, Terre 
Haute, Indiana 47803. Wilsak and Thodos* invented a new and different equa- 
tion of state based primarily on experimental PVT data on argon. 
The form of this equation is as follows: 

7T = ar + (3 (tf + T -7, )( 7 7i ) (1) 

where tt = P R - P°, r = T R - T° 

P° and T° are the coordinates of a reference condition. The quantities a, /3 and \p 
are functions of volume only as follows: 

Z c P R + 1 2 


- - x _^B_ (1 + P R + P R 2 )) (2) 

+ P R « 

1 + aP R " 

(P R -l) 2 [b + c(P R -D : ] (3) 

where P R = P/P Q = reduced density. 

Wilsak and Thodos found that equation(l) represented the PVT behavior of Argon 
very accurately. In a generalized form it represented the PVT behavior of other com- 
pounds well. 

This paper a) explains how this equation is used to obtain density ( p ) or volume 
(V) given P, and T; 

b) explains some of the problems encountered when it is used to 
evaluate fugacity or residual enthalpy; and 

c) gives the results of evaluating the residual volume at zero pressure 
using equation (1). 

*R. A. Wilsak and George Thodos, AICHE J, 31 (#5), 729-790 (1985) 

Development of a Microcomputer Based System for On-line Behavioral Experiments. 

David D. Chesak, Department of Mathematics and Physics, Saint Joseph's College, 
Rensselaer, Indiana 47978. A microprocessor based controller developed by Palya 


254 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 95 (1986) 

and Walters has been extensively studied for use as a controller and data gathering 
tool to operate an experimental animal chamber. The low cost of the device permits 
a unit to be dedicated to each chamber. Each controller is a stand-alone computer 
in its own right and is programmed in a special subset of BASIC computer program- 
ming language to provide ease of program modification. To assure adequate speed 
of response, the machine simultaneously operates in a background mode as well as 
a foreground mode so that accurate timing of the experimental parameters is possible. 
A number of these controllers, each driving a separate animal chamber, is con- 
nected in a satellite network with a central minicomputer controlling the entire net- 
work. The system offers greater overall reliability in that the failure of one unit does 
not immobilize the entire system. Modifying a controller's operating strategy is simply 
accomplished by down-loading a different program from the central minicomputer 
storage facility to the controller. This planetary system with "intelligent" controllers 
allows experimental data to be processed in real time by the controller's microprocessor 
or the data can be stored in the controller's memory and later transferred to the minicom- 
puter for computation. Overall, the system affords greater flexibility, reliability and 
economy than has been possible previously. 

Correlation of the Volumetric Properties of Compressed Liquids. Chung-Ming Lin 
and Warren W. Bowden, Department of Chemical Engineering, Rose-Hulman In- 
stitute of Technology, Terre Haute, Indiana 47803. Havward (1967) proposed the 

Tait equation (below) for predicting the PVT behaviors of compressed liquids. The 
Tait equation has the form: 


K = - — = f(Tr.Pr,W) 


Where p = pressure Ps = saturated pressure Pc = critical pressure 

V = volume Vs = saturated volume Tc = critical temperature 

Tr = T/Tc Pr = P/Pc W = acentric factor 

Our objective is to find a form of the function f which fits the experimental 
data well. We have found that the form 

K = cl + c2/Tr + c3*Tr -I- c4*Tr 2 + c5*Pr/Tr + c6*Tr*Pr + c7*PrVTr 
+ c8*Pr 2 + c9*Tr 2 *Pr 2 

fits the experimental data on CH4 very well. The data on ethane, propane, butane 
are also being fitted to the same form. The results from these fitting will serve as 
the basis for the prediction of the PVT behavior of other compressed liquids. 

Heat Efficiency of a Passive Solar Greenhouse. Rosalie J. Kramer, Indiana Univer- 
sity East, Richmond, Indiana 47374. The purpose of this project was to recyle 

parts from a conventional greenhouse and use as many of them as possible to con- 
struct a passive solar greenhouse that would be used as a demonstration and research 
unit for the efficiency of passive solar energy. 

The original proposal projected 75% efficiency of the passive solar system for 
this region of the country (central Indiana). It was projected that no supplementary 
heat would be needed if an outside mean temperature of 30.5° F were maintained. 
This figure was based on an estimated 70% cloud cover during December-February 
for our region. 

Heat data was to be collected on a chart recorder using termistors placed in a 

Engineering 255 

variety of locations. This apparatus recorded outside and two inside temperatures plus 
indicated when the auxiliary heat turned on and off. Data was analyzed by a com- 
puterized system. 

Auxiliary heat was used on an average of 1.82 times per hour during February, 
1984. The duration of the heat cycle averaged six minutes at night or approximately 
11 minutes per hour. 

It was shown that no auxiliary heat was needed at night if outside temperatures 
stayed above 25° F, and if days had been clear and sunny. If days were cloudy, (allow- 
ing less heat to be stored), nighttime temperatures (outside) of less than 40° F were 
sufficient to turn on the auxiliary heat system. 

Overall, we feel the greenhouse has more than met our expectations in terms 
of heat efficiency. 

Application of Finite Time Thermodynamics to a Simple Power Cycle. S. Leipziger 

and B. Lewis, Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology, Terre Haute, Indiana 47803. 

Finite time thermodynamic analysis uses methods which take into account the irrever- 
sibilities necessary to drive a process in real time (i.e. heat exchangers require nonzero 
temperature differences between fluids) and provides a mechanism for process optimiza- 
tion with respect to particular criteria. It further allows the calculation of traditional 
efficiencies during that operation. 

Results are developed here for the conventional steady-state continuous power 
cycle with optimization criteria of: 1) maximum power production, 2) maximum ther- 
mal efficiency, and 3) minimum entropy production during operation. 


Chair: James D. Haddock 

Department of Biological Science 

Indiana University-Purdue University at Fort Wayne 

2101 Coliseum Boulevard East, Fort Wayne, Indiana 46805 (219) 482-5254 

Chair-Elect: Gene Kritsky 

Department of Biology 

College of Mount St. Joseph, Mount St. Joseph, Ohio 45030 (513) 244-4401 


Aphid Feeding Behavior and Resistance to Barley Yellow Dwarf Virus in Agropyron 
Species. David Lampe, Richard Shukle and John Foster, Department of Entomology, 
and Richard Lister, Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, Purdue University, 

West Lafayette, Indiana 47907. Various Agropyron species have been tested for 

resistance to the PAV, MAV, and RPV strains of barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV). 
Virus content in plants was assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) 
and resistance to the strains of BYDV tested for was identified in the Agropyron species. 
Probing/ingestion behavior of the two major aphid vectors of BYDV, Rhophalosiphum 
padi and Sitobion avenae, on the Agropyron species was also monitored electronic- 
ally. By evaluating vector probing behavior on the grasses tested it was possible to 
determine if resistance in seedling plants was due to structural characteristics that 
prevented aphids from infecting plants by contacting phloem or was due to failure 
of virus to establish itself within the plant even though phloem contact was made by 
the vectors. Results indicate that several Agropyron species are resistant to the PAV, 
MAV, and RPV strains of BYDV and that resistance in the seedling plants was due 
to failure of virus to establish itself within the plant and not to failure of aphids to 
contact phloem. 

Surplus Killing in Toxorhynchites (Diptera: Culicidae). Raymond Russo, Department 
of Biology, Indiana University-Purdue University at Indianapolis, Indianapolis, In- 
diana 46223. Toxorhynchites are predators on container-breeding mosquitoes during 

their larval stage. They also exhibit an interesting behavior called surplus killing where 
they attack, but do not consume a prey larva. We have found 3 distinct patterns of 
predation in Toxorhynchites differentiated by the characteristics of surplus killing. The 
first pattern is an early onset of surplus killing with increasing intensity as develop- 
ment proceeds. The second pattern is one of late onset with a low intensity of surplus 
killing, typified by Tx. rutilus and Tx. theobaldi. The third pattern shown by Tx. 
splendens is one of late onset of surplus killing, but an intensity which rivals the first 
group. In no case do any of these species display surplus killing before their popula- 
tions have achieved the minimum weight required for pupation. 

Lcdysteroid Levels throughout Larval Development of Two Species of Toxorhynchites 
(Diptera: Culicidae). Anne Westbrook and Ray Russo, Department of Biology, In- 
diana University-Purdue University at Indianapolis, 1125 East 38th Street, Indianapolis, 

Indiana 46223. Ecdysteroids are steroid hormones which occur in larval insects 

and are best known for their role in the control over processes associated with molting. 
Ecdysteroid levels were measured using a radioimmunoassay in two species of predatory 


258 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 95 (1986) 

mosquitoes of the genus Toxorhynchites. The two species investigated were Tx. am- 
boinensis and Tx. rutilus. A high level of ecdysteroids is found in first instar larvae, 
then the level decreases. The quantity of hormone is found to increase prior to each 
larval-larval molt. The amount of ecdysteroids also increases to a high level just prior 
to the larval-pupal molt. The levels of ecdysteroids and the temporal pattern of hor- 
mone fluctuations are similar to insects from other orders. However, the specific tim- 
ing of each pulse is different in the two species studied. These differences are accounted 
for possibly by differing lengths of time required to complete larval development. 

Selection of an Insect Pathogen. Harold L. Zimmack, Department of Biology, Ball 

State University, Muncie, Indiana 47306. The purpose of the present work is to 

determine a list of characteristics necessary for a microorganism to be used in biological 
control of a given insect. The European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis, is known to 
be infected by three microorganisms: Beauveria bassiana, a fungus, Nosema pyraustae, 
a protozoan, and Bacillus thuhngiensis, a bacterium. A study revealed these three 
microorganisms all have the following characteristics: 

1. spore-forming resistant stage 

2. aerobic and/or facultative anaerobe 

3. produce exotoxin and/or protease 

4. optimum growth range between 30° - 37° C 

5. optimum pH range between 6-8 

6. harmless to man and vertebrates 

A number of bacteriological research laboratories (American Type Culture Col- 
lection, Special Bacterial Pathogens Laboratory, and Culture Collection Research-USDA) 
have specified eight additional bacterial species which possess the characteristics given 
above. These bacteria will be examined in the insect pathology laboratory, Ball State 
University, to determine their biological control potential for the corn borer. Should 
this technique prove successful, insect pathologists could identify the characteristics 
of microorganisms which have biological control for other destructive insects. 

Insects and Other Arthropods of Economic Importance in Indiana in 1985 

Robert W. Meyer 

Department of Entomology 

Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 


The winter preceding the 1985 cropping season started with a warmer than average 
November and December, and a cooler than average January and February. The four 
months all had days with maximum temperatures higher than 65 degrees Fahrenheit; 
January also had minimums for short periods of time from minus 19 to minus 29 
degrees (depending on where in the state the thermometer was) to make up for those 
balmy days. February also had cold days — in fact between them the peach crop was 
destroyed. Snow cover was minimal, with the cover seldom lasting long. 

Cropping season rainfall was uneven. In the northern half of the state, topsoil 
moisture was adequate to surplus until the end of April; it remained short through 
May and much of June and July. This made for early soil preparation and planting: 
97% of the corn was planted by 26 May, 3 weeks ahead of normal. Some drought 
damage occurred especially on lighter soils, but it can't have been much if the October 
estimate of corn yield — 124 bushels/acre — is any indication. The southern half of the 
state lagged behind in planting due to excessive rainfall which lasted until mid-June. 
Wheat ripened early; harvest was virtually completed by 14 July — 2 weeks ahead of 
schedule— making possible double cropping in much of the central districts where it 
normally at best is risky. 

In 1985 49% of the crop soils were prepared by moldboard plow, 43% by conser- 
vation tillage and 8% no-till. An estimated (1 Oct. estimate) 6,300,000 acres were planted 
in corn, 4,500,000 in soybeans, both up slightly from the previous year. Both corn 
and soybean (40 bushels/acre) yields estimates were above those of 1984. 

Insect problems in field crops were generally fewer than in average years. And 
woollybears (Arctiidae), which were very numerous in 1984, were virtually absent in 1985. 

(Weather and cropping information cited above were obtained from "Indiana 
Weekly Weather and Crops.") 

Corn and Small Grains 

The western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera) is Indiana's most costly 
pest of field crops in terms of crop protection since a relatively high percentage of 
the growers routinely use pesticides on their corn crop, and more corn is grown than 
any other crop in the state. It is estimated that 40% of the corn planted is treated, 
which this year was about 2,500,000 acres. 

The insect developed more rapidly than usual this year. First instars were ob- 
served as early as 16 May in a Tippecanoe Co. field regularly surveyed for several 
years. The earliest take of first instars previous to this was 30 May. The same field 
yielded 2nd instars by 27 May and thirds on 3 June. The first adult collected in a 
bait trap appeared on 24 June, also early. The first sticky trap catch occurred between 
25 June and 1 July. The total catch on 10 sticky traps in the same field was about 
6,000, one-third the 1984 catch and half that of the previous 2 years. A state-wide 
survey between 15 July and 6 August put the average number of beetles/stalk at 0.61, 
exactly that of an 8 year average and nearly the same as 1984. The northwest corner 
of the state had the highest average— 0.89/stalk. and the southwestern corner had the 
lowest— 0.29. Complaints about silk clipping were few, and overall the amount of 


260 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 95 (1986) 

goosenecking seemed no greater than last year. Nevertheless there were fields with 
damaging populations, especially in the NW district. 

The northern corn rootworm (Diabrotica longicornis barberi) has been relegated 
to minor pest status, averaging in 1985 0.05 adults/stalk, its lowest average in 8 years. 

The European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis) was probably the second most costly 
field crop pest, but an average of only 33.7% of the plants were infested this year 
and there was an average of only 50.8 larvae/ 100 plants at the time of the fall corn 
survey. The 25 year average is 61 larvae/100 stalks. What was unusual about this year's 
European corn borer population was its distribution. The southern fourth of the state 
had a higher population than the northern fourth, and the southwestern corner of 
the state averaged 148 larvae/100 plants, the highest in the state and nearly twice any 
others. Moth flights to black light traps were relatively light at all traps, never reaching 
100/day and seldom reaching 50. The southernmost trap— in the southwest corner- 
recorded the most consistent flight, almost without interruption from 13 June when 
it was put into place until 23 August when it was turned off. 

About half the larvae had pupated in Cass Co. by 6 May, by which time an 
adult was reported from the southern districts. By 15 May adults were sighted in Ran- 
dolph Co., and egg masses were present in Warren Co. by 20 May. 

Japanese beetles (Popillia japonica) were common in corn fields especially in the 
NW district, where they clustered on the silks. Frequently however they came too late 
to adversely influence pollination. Japanese beetle larvae were occasionally responsible 
for some damage to roots of corn. 

An adult black cutworm (Agrotis ipsilon) was collected in a pheromone trap in 
Tippecanoe Co. by 11 April, and 8 more were taken from 14 to 16 April. Fifth instar 
larvae were reported by 8 May. About 500 acres were reported treated for this insect 
in Boone Co.; other reports involved few acres and scattered locations. It was prob- 
ably about average in activity and involved fewer than 1000 acres all told. 

Other pests reported as occasional were sod webworms, white grubs, birds (feeding 
on seed corn at field edges) and wire worms. 

Corn leaf aphids (Rhopalosiphum maidis) were at normal levels this year, in- 
significant economically except in occasional drought stressed fields in the NW district. 

Brown stink bugs of the genus Euschistus are being blamed for anomalies seldom 
noted before last year in Indiana corn fields. Symptoms include excessive tillering (so 
many "suckers" that the primary ear stalk is suppressed), severe stunting and malformed 
leaves. Several species are believed responsible; unfortunately the species also hybridize, 
making certain determination difficult. It is believed that the occurrence of this anomaly 
at this time is due to the growing use of no-till operations. In planting in narrow slits 
the soil does not always fill in around the seed. When the seed sprouts, therefore, 
it is possible for insects to reach parts that would normally be subterranean. Another 
factor which may be important is the amount of land idled by the government "pay- 
ment in kind" program. Many of these idled acres were permitted to grow up in weeds 
and may have supported large numbers of these insects. The anomalies may have been 
present in years past but were so infrequent that they were not noted. 

Surveys conducted jointly by the Indiana Crop Improvement Association, the 
Agriculture Research Service of the USDA and the Entomology Department of Purdue 
University of 458 wheat fields in 62 counties resulted in the following. Mean percent 
infestation by Hessian fly (Mayetiola destructor) for all varieties surveyed was 1.3, 
mean puparia/100 stems was 1.8 and 28% of the surveyed fields had at least some 
Hessian fly puparia. The percentage of fields with 10% or higher infestation rate was 
only 1.9 (it was 4.4 in 1984). Wheat with the H6 source of resistance, the most com- 
monly planted wheat, had only a 0.5% infestation rate while wheat with no resistance 

Entomology 261 

averaged 2.1% infested. Only 2 counties (Dubois and Hamilton) had fields with an 
infestation rate of 20% or more. 

None of the common pests of wheat— the English grain aphid (Sitobion avenae), 
the bird-cherry oat aphid (Rhopalosiphum padi), and the armyworm (Pseudaletia 
unipuntta) — was a problem in 1985. Adult cereal leaf beetles (Oulema melanopus) were 
swept from small grains in Harrison Co. on 23 April in trace numbers only (1/10 
sweeps) and trace numbers of larvae were present on 30 April. By 14 June summer 
generation adults were fleeing the ripening wheat to nearby corn fields, where they 
were seen at lower than usual numbers (36/100 stalks). The insect was not economic 
on either crop, of course. 

Forage Legumes and Soybeans 

Alfalfa weevil (Hypera posticd) larvae were somewhat more numerous this year 
than last. In the NW district about 30% of the growers should have treated their fields 
or harvested early. In addition adults were numerous enough in a few fields in the 
same district to significantly retard regrowth after the first cutting. Economic damage 
was the exception rather than the rule however. Single, scattered fields with silvering 
were seen in most districts, but aside from those, treatments would have been pro- 
fitable in fewer than a fourth of the fields. The dry weather that plagued the NW 
district increased the damage there while the adequate or more than adequate moisture 
of the southern half of the state helped the alfalfa grower. One WC grower scalped 
his field after the first frost in the fall of 1984, growth this spring was retarded and 
his field was badly damaged by the weevil. This was seldom seen in the same district 
where alfalfa had normal growth. A number of SW district fields were damaged, while 
only occasional SC fields were. In a few SC fields a disease again greatly reduced 
the weevil population, but not until the larvae were fairly large. In the SW and SC 
districts by 1 May alfalfa averaged about 50 cm, with about 60% of the stems showing 
tip feeding. At that time about 15% of the stems were budding. 

Alfalfa was treated for potato leafhopper (Empoasca fabae) in only about 20% 
of the fields in the NW district, and on only one cutting. Less was treated in the 
southern half of the state. 

For the second year no adult Mexican bean beetles (Epilachna varivestis) were 
swept from alfalfa early in the spring. Alfalfa serves as a food source for the beetle 
until soybeans are available. The hot summer of 1983 dealt this insect such a blow 
that even at this late date there are few signs of their recovery. Adults were seen in 
only 4 or 5 soybeen fields this year, and then only in trace numbers. Adults were 
seen by 7 June, eggs by 12 June in a Lawrence Co. field. Late instar larvae were 
present by 8 July in a Vigo Co. field. Second generation adults were fairly numerous 
in a field in Lawrence Co. shortly before leaf drop. 

There were a few reports of damage to soybeans, primarily the edge rows, by 
the twospotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae) in the areas most seriously affected 
by the drought — the northern third of the state. 

Bean leaf beetles (Cerotoma trifurcata) were swept from alfalfa fields as early 
as 10 May, in numbers ranging from 1-15/100 sweeps, and emerging soybean plants 
generally had some been leaf beetle feeding, but almost always at less than economic 

Japanese beetles were often numerous in soybean fields from the northern por- 
tions of the state as far south as Vigo Co. While feeding was often conspicuous, there 
were no instances of economic damage. 

A soybean leafminer (Odontota horni) adult was seen on 8 May, larvae were 
present at least by 26 June and pupation had begun by 17 July. One field had about 

262 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 95 (1986) 

10 adults/row foot on 7 August, but only on edge rows. The insect is common in 
only a few fields each year in the NW district and is seen in trace numbers only in 
the surrounding districts. 

The soybean nodule feeder (Rivellia quadhfasciata), a platystomatid fly, was col- 
lected on 10 sticky traps in a Tippecanoe Co. corn field at the rate of 1165 adults 
in one week at peak catch — the week ending 15 July. Samples from all of the traps 
were examined to determine species composition and sex. All were of this species, 
and 80% were males. The catch dropped to 492 the next week, and was negligible 

Vegetable Insects 

There were no consistently damaging insects in gardens this year — at least there 
were few complaints from the general public — aside from the usual complaints about 
the squash vine borer (Melittia satyriniformis); adults, eggs and small larvae were pre- 
sent during the week ending 19 July. 

Fruit Insects 

The USDA Fruit Laboratory in Vincennes, which for years has been providing 
trapping data on fruit moth activity, was closed down early in 1985. Thus there will 
be no figures on peach insects. Pheromone trapping results for Tippecanoe Co. follow. 
The year's total catch in 5 pheromone traps for each of the species will be compared 
with the catch of the previous 8 years. The codling moth (Cydia pomonella) catch 
of 213 moths is above the 190 moth average, is the third highest catch in 9 years 
when the catch ranged from 38 in 1977 to 458 in 1981. The redbanded leafroller (Argyro- 
taenia velutinana) catch of 1306, better than the 9 year average of 1143 and the third 
highest catch in a range from 321 in 1979 to 2359 in 1980. The obliquebanded leafroller 
(Choristoneura rosaceana) total was only 49, below the 9 year average of 81 and sixth 
in the 9 year totals which ranged from 22 to 187. 

A leaf miner, (Phyllonorycter sp.) was collected in large numbers in a Tippecanoe 
Co. pheromone trap about 22 July and two days later in a LaPorte Co. trap there 
were similar numbers. 

Early instars of the European red mite (Panonychus ulmi) were present in an 
Elkhart Co. orchard by 26 April. Plum curculios (Conotrachelus nenuphar) were ob- 
tained by jarring on 22 April in Tippecanoe Co. 

Insects of Forests and Ornamentals 

Virgil Knapp of the office of the Indiana State Entomologist forwarded the follow- 
ing data on the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar). In a combined state and federal ef- 
fort, a total of 12,102 pheromone traps were put in place in Indiana in 1985. As a 
result 8 counties were added to the list of counties from which this pest has been col- 
lected: Jay, Jennings, Pike, Porter, Posey, Randolph, Steuben, and Wells. All had 
but single moths/trap catches except Porter and Steuben. Other counties with moth 
catches this year, counties from which moths had been collected in earlier years: Allen, 
Brown, Elkhart, Fulton, Hamilton, Kosciusko, Lagrange, LaPorte, Marion, St. Joseph, 
Washington, Wayne, Whitley — a total of 21 counties from which at least 1 moth was 
collected this year. Of these, Kosciusko Co. is this year's hot spot, with multiple catches 
in several traps. The control method of choice— mass trapping— which has been quite 
successful with populations of the size found in Indiana, will be used at the Kosciusko 
Co. site— a small woods near Lake Tippecanoe. It may be necessary also to trap at 
the Allen Co. site. 

Virgil Knapp also forwarded the nursery inspectors' list of the insects mosi 

Entomology 263 

commonly encountered this year during nursery inspections. First place is occupied 
by the Japanese beetle. Two scales — which cannot readily be separated using field 
equipment — share second place: the pine needle scale (Chionaspis pinifoliae) and the 
pine scale (C. heterophyllae). Third is the oystershell scale (Lepidosaphes ulmi). The 
fall webworm (Hyphantria cunea) is fourth, and the bronze birch borer (Agrilus anxius) 
is fifth. Fletcher scale (Lecanium fletcheri) is sixth and the maple bladdergall mite 
(Vasates quadripes), seventh. Three insects tie for eighth place: honesuckle aphid 
(Hydaphis tartaricae), Taxus mealybug (Dysmicoccus wistariae) and the black vine weevil 
(Otiorhynchus sulcatus). Ninth and tenth places go to the apple aphid (Aphis pomi) 
and the yellownecked caterpillar (Datana ministra). 

Insects of Man and Animals 

Medical Entomologist Dr. Michael Sinsko, Indiana State Board of Health, who 
keeps track of those things, provided figures on the insects of health importance. By 
31 October there had been reported 7 confirmed cases of La Crosse encephalitis, 4 
of Rocky Mountain spotted fever and one of Lyme disease. There have been cases 
of Lyme disease before in Indiana, but the victims could reasonably have contracted 
it outside Indiana. And even in this instance, although the victim never left the state, 
there is the possibility that the vectoring tick may have come from out of state. Arbo- 
viral cases were fewer this year than last. The water deficit accumulated over the past 
years reduces ponding and thus harborage for mosquito vectors. Tick numbers on 
the other hand appeared to be near the average. 

Lice, primarily head lice, remain at high levels, while scabies, which tend to be 
cyclic, are on the down grade. 

Both Dr. Sinsko and the entomologists at Purdue University noted that com- 
plaints about the baldfaced hornet (Dolichovespula maculata) were up this year while 
complaints about yellowjackets of the genus Vespula were fewer. 

Counts have been made for 5 years of horn flies (Haematobia irritans) and face 
flies (Musca autumnalis) on a farm in Warren Co., and the figures have been made 
available by Cheryl Vail. Horn flies this year averaged 55.6/side during the 14 weeks 
that counts were made: this was slightly above the 5 year average. The high average 
of 98.8 was in 1981, the low, 23.3, in 1983. Face flies this year averaged 11.1/face 
over the 14 weeks, which is average. Earlier averages ranged from a high of 17.4 in 
1982 to a low of 8 in 1984. 

Some early season biting records: Aedes canadensis canadensis by 16 April (Jackson 
Co.), A. sticticus by 22 April (Dubois Co.), A. vexans by 23 April in Jackson Co. 
and A. trivittatus on a dog in Tippecanoe Co. by 1 May, Chrysops callidus in Morgan 
Co. by 14 May, C. niger in Johnson Co. by the same date, and C. pikei in Dubois 
Co. by 20 May. 

Beneficial Insects 

The Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) of the USDA divided 
8,000 Dibrachoides dynastes among Fulton, Henry, LaPorte, Lawrence and Ripley 
Counties, and 1 ,200 Microctonus colesi among Bartholomew, Fulton and Henry Coun- 
ties. These are parasitoids of the alfalfa weevil. Microctonus aethiopoides, a parasitoid 
of the adult weevil, was released in trace (i.e. below minimum release requirements) 
numbers in Bartholomew and Henry Counties. M. colesi had been collected in Har- 
rison Co. before any releases, and in LaPorte Co. In summary, M. aethiopoides, 
Bathyplectes anurus, B. curcu/ionis, and Anaphes ( = Pa(asson) /una (an egg parasite) 
are established, M. colesi is present and Tetrastichus incertus and D. dynastes have 
been released but never recovered. 

264 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 95 (1986) 

The alfalfa weevil larval parasites Bathyplectes anurus and B. curculionis together 
parasitized about 13% of the weevils of the northern two-thirds of the state, 27% 
of the SW, and 61% of the SC (too few were reared from the SE district to be con- 
sidered in this context.) (A total of 3679 larvae was reared.) One of the reasons for 
the higher rate in the southern third of the state is the presence of B. anurus which 
accounts for much of the parasitism in the southern districts but is rather uncommon 
elsewhere. Parasitism by both species is down from that of last year. 

Adult alfalfa weevils were taken in numbers great enough to test parasite rates 
(only overwintered adults were tested). A total of 330 adults was reared and 46% proved 
to be parasitized by Microctonus aethiopoides, with the northern third more heavily 
parasitized than the rest of the state. 

Coleomegilla maculata, the convergent lady beetle (Hippodamia convergens), the 
thirteenspotted lady beetle (//. tredecimpunctata) and Cycloneda sanguinea, relatively 
common red lady beetles, are counted each year as they come to the 10 yellow sticky 
traps in a Tippecanoe Co. corn field. The most common of these, C. maculata, was 
taken 424 times, down from last year. The ratio of the 4 species this year was 57:5:0:38. 
The same ratio among the red coccinellids seen during the annual corn insect damage 
survey was 87:10:0:3. Only 119 C. maculata were seen. 

In both instances no mention has been made of the red coccinellid newcomer, 
Coccinella septempunctata, the sevenspotted lady beetle. It was first officially reported 
in 1984, from Harrison Co., but Dr. N. M. Downie recently reported having collected 
it as early as 1977 from Porter Co. This is probably the more likely advent of the 
insect as it was widely reported this year from all over the state, but especially from 
the northern half of the state, where it was often collected in numbers. Beside the 
Harrison Co. find in 1984, later in the same year it was collected from Shelby Co. 
In 1985 it has been reported from the following counties as of 31 October: Adams, 
Allen, Blackford, Boone, Brown, Cass, Clay, Clinton, Daviess, DeKalb, Delaware, 
Elkhart, Gibson, Grant, Hamilton, Hancock, Hendricks, Henry, Howard, Huntington, 
Jackson, Jay, Johnson, Knox, Kosciusko, LaGrange, Lake, LaPorte, Madison, Marion, 
Marshall, Morgan, Newton, Noble, Putnam, Randolph, St. Joseph, Starke, Steuben, 
Tippecanoe, Tipton, Wabash, Warren, Wayne, Wells, White, and Whitley. Together 
with earlier records from Harrison, Porter and Shelby counties, that's a total of 50 
counties. The insect had previously been released in Michigan near Indiana's LaPorte 
Co., in Ohio near Wayne Co., and in Illinois near Warren Co., but it was never released 
in Indiana. 

Revision of the Checklist of Indiana Ants 
with the Addition of Five New Species (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) 

Jack R. Munsee and Wilmar B. Jansma 

Department of Life Sciences 

Indiana State University, Terre Haute, Indiana 47809 


John R. Schrock, Department of Entomology, 

Kansas University, Lawrence, Kansas 66044 


In 1967, the list of Indiana ants by Morris (4) was revised and expanded to in- 
clude nine species not previously reported from the State (7). In 1979, an extensive 
revision of the catalog of the Hymenoptera in America (which includes two supplements) 
was published by Krombein, Hurd, et al (3). Because of the 1979 revision of the Catalog 
and the collecting by Schrock of five species of ants new to the State, it was felt that 
a revision of the checklist of Indiana ants was in order, as well as offering some infor- 
mation about Schrock's five species of ants. 

Morris (4) included 92 species in his annotated list of ants. When revised in 1967, 
the resulting list included 85 species (7). The present list again includes 92 species of 
ants believed to occur in Indiana. 

Methods and Materials 

By comparing the names of ants on the 1967 list (7) with corresponding names 
in the 1979 Catalog (3), it was possible to make the necessary corrections. Although 
the 1967 checklist used Morris' order of names, the present paper lists the species of 
ants according to the 1979 Catalog (3). With each species name, the Catalog page 
number is given. 

During the summer of 1981, Schrock collected ants using pitfall traps placed in 
the same 20 stands of a stripmine study area that was previously used in 1964 to col- 
lect ants (6). The purpose was to compare the 1981 collections with those done in 
1964 (8). Schrock collected five species not taken in 1964. Here, the attempt is made 
to reveal some of the diagnostic characteristics of these five ants for the purpose of 
assisting in identification. For this, scanning electron microscope photos were used. 
The results follow the checklist given below. 


A Checklist of Indiana Ants 

Numbers preceding species names correspond to page numbers in the "Catalogue 
of Hymenoptera in American North of Mexico", Volume 2, Apocrita (Aculeata) by 
K. V. Krombein, P. D. Hurd, Jr., D. R. Smith et al 1979 (3). 

# Collected by J. R. Schrock, 1981. New State record. 

* Name change in the checklist of 1967 (7). See the 1979 Catalog. 

1331 Neivamyrmex nigrescens (Cresson) 

1335 Amblyopone pallipes (Haldeman)* 

1338 Proceratium pergandei (Emery)* 

1339 Proceratium silaceum Roger 

1342 Ponera pennsylvanica Buckley* 

1343 Hypoponera opacior (Forel)* 
1348 Myrmica americana Weber* 


266 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 95 (1986) 

1348 My r mica e. emery ana Forel* 

1349 Myrmica incompleta incompleta Provancher* 

1349 Myrmica incompleta sulcinodoides Emery*, (Invalid subspecies— some 

1 349 Myrmica lobicornis fracticornis Emery 

1350 Myrmica pinetorum Wheeler 

1350 Myrmica punctiventris Roger* 

1351 Myrmica spatulata M. R. Smiths 
1358 Stenamma brevicorne (Mayr) 

1358 Stenamma diecki Emery 

1359 Stenamma meridonale Smith 
1361 Aphaenogaster fulva Roger 

1361 Aphaenogaster mariae Forel 

1362 Aphaenogaster rudis rudis (Emery) 
1362 Aphaenogaster tennesseensis (Mayr) 

1362 Aphaenogaster texana carolinensis Wheeler 

1363 Aphaenogaster treatae treatae Forel 
1367 Pheidole bicarinata bicarinata Mayr* 
1372 Pheidole pilifera pilifera (Roger) 
1378 Crematogaster cerasi (Fitch) 

1378 Crematogaster clara Mayr 

1379 Crematogaster lineolata (Say)* 

1382 Monomorium minimum (Buckley) 

1383 Monomorium pharonis (Linnaeus) 
1387 Solenopsis molest a (Say) 

1392 Leptothorax ambiguous ambiguous Emery 

1392 Leptothorax curvispinosus Mayr 

1393 Leptothorax longispinosus Roger 

1394 Leptothorax schaumi Roger 

1396 Leptothorax pergandei pergandei Emery 

1397 Leptothorax muscorum (Nylander) 

1398 Harpagoxenus americanus (Emery)# 

1399 Myrmecina americana Emery 

1400 Tetramorium caespitum (Linne) 

1406 Smithistruma abdita (L. & R. Wesson)# 

1406 Smithistruma filitalpa Brown 

1411 Trachymyrmex septentrionalis (McCook) 

1415 Dolichoderus mariae Forel 

1416 Dolichoderus plagiatus (Mayr) 
1416 Dolichoderus pustulatus Mayr 

1419 Iridomyrmex pruinosus analis (Andre) 

1419 Iridomyrmex pruinosus pruinosus (Roger) 

1420 Conomyrma insana (Buckley)* 

1421 Tapinoma sessile (Say) 

1424 Brachymyrmex depilis Emery 

1425 Camponotus americanus Mayr 

1425 Camponotus ferrugineus (Fabricius) 

1426 Camponotus novaeboracensis (Fitch) 

1427 Camponotus pennsylvanicus (DeGeer) 

1428 Camponotus castaneus (Latreille) 
1431 Camponotus caryae caryae (Fitch) 
1431 Camponotus caryae discolor (Buckley) 

Entomology 267 

1432 Camponotus nearcticus Emery 

1433 Camponotus subbarbatus Emery 

1433 Camponotus (Colobopsis) mississippiensis Smiths 

1436 Lasius neoniger Emery 

1436 Lasius niger (Linnaeus) 

1438 Lasius minutus Emery 

1439 Lasius umbratus (Nylander) 

1440 Acanthomyops claviger (Roger)* 

1441 Acanthomyops inter jectus (Mayr)* 

1441 Acanthomyops latipes (Walsh) 

1442 Paratrechina longicornis (Latreille) 

1443 Paratrechina arenivaga (Wheeler)* 

1444 Paratrechina parvula (Mayr) 

1445 Prenolepis imparts imparts (Say) 

1450 Formica neogates Emery 

1451 Formica pallidefulva nitidiventris Emery 
1451 Formica pallidefulva pallidefulva Latreille* 

1451 Formica schaufussi schauffusi Mayr 

1452 Formica fusca Linnaeus 
1454 Formica montana Emery* 
1456 Formica exsectoides Forel 

1456 Formica ulkei Emery 

1457 Formica dakotensis Emery 

1458 Formica Integra Nylander 
1460 Formica obscuripes Forel* 

1460 Formica obscuriventris obscuriventris Mayr 

1463 Formica postoculata Kennedy & Dennis 

1463 Formica querquetulana Kennedy & Dennis 

1465 Formica puberula Emery 

1465 Formica rubicunda Emery 

1465 Formica subintegra Emery 

1465 Formica subnuda Emery 

1466 Polygerus breviceps Emery* 

1467 Polygerus lucidus lucidus Mayr* 


Brief descriptions of the five ants collected by Schrock (8) follows. The reader 
is directed to the literature for additional information. The attempt is made to use 
scanning electron microscope photographs to supplement verbal descriptions of cer- 
tain key characteristics of these five ants. 

Myrmica pinetorum Wheeler. (3.5 - 4.0 mm). This ant was taken by pitfall trap- 
ping in 19 of 20 stands. It did not appear in traps placed in the sole bareground stand 
which has remained as such since formed in 1950. The Wessons (12) reported that 
this species was common in pine woods on sandy soil in Ohio. There, colonies built 
carton turrets from the soil up through the pine needles. They also found the ant 
commonly in dry oak openings. Apparently this ant occupies more diversified habitats 
here. Characteristic of this species are the strongly convex or angular frontal lobes, 
also the frontal area (above the clypeus) which is crossed by rugae; at least, never 
completely smooth and shining (Figure 1). In addition, the insertions of the antennae 
are hidden by the strongly convex frontal lobes as shown in the figure. Figure 2 depicts 
some of the features of the Genus Myrmica showing the strong sculpturing composed 


Indiana Academy of Science 

Vol. 95 (1986) 


Figure 1. Myrmica pinetorum Wheeler. Head, dorsal. Frontal lobes obscuring antennal 
insertions. Frontal area with rugae. (X90). 

Figure 2. Myrmica pinetorum Wheeler. See text. (X26). 



of rugae and interrugal structure. Note the long epinotal spines, and lack of promesonotal 

Myrmica spatulata M. R. Smith. (4.3 - 4.6 mm). All stands yielded this ant which 
Creighton (2) noted ranges from Mississippi to Illinois. M. R. Smith, who described 
this species, collected specimens from a nest in the soil of a low, heavily wooded area 
in Mississippi (10). Although Smith designated this ant as a variety of schenki, Creighton 
(2) dropped the latter name and raised spatulata to specific status because "there are 
so many outstanding characters shown by the worker caste". He noted that the very 
large spatulate lamina on the antennal scape varied widely in size and chose the structure 
of the frontal lobes as being unique and more consistent than the laminae. Figure 
3 shows the base of the right antenna and the spatulate lamina; also shown are the 

Figure 3. Myrmica spatulata M. R. 
scape, showing large lamina. (X290). 

Smith. Head, dorsal. Base of right antennal 

frontal lobes which Creighton considered more consistent in a structure than the laminae. 
Note the frontal lobes which are narrow and hardly project above the antennal fossa 
(Figure 4). The frontal area is obscured by rugae as in the preceding species. 

Harpagoxenus americanus (Emery). (2.5 - 2.75 mm). Ants representing this species 
were taken once in each of three adjacent spoilbank stands. According to Smith (11), 
Leptothorax curvispinosus Mayr is the preferred host ant of H. americanus. The latter 
species is widely distributed throughout the eastern half of the United States, but not 
as widely distributed as its host. L. curvispinosus is a common species of the spoilbanks. 
Smith (11) correctly observed that "Intensive collecting will reveal the presence of this 
slave-making species in localized spots ..." Characteristic of H. americanus are the 
antennal scrobes which are longer than the scapes. Figure 5 shows the broad impression 
in the clypeus with a small lobe at either end. Also, note the large apical tooth of 
the mandible and the basal degenerate teeth. The mandibular structure suggests evolution 


Indiana Academy of Science 

Vol. 95 (1986) 

Figure 4. Myrmica spatulata M. R. Smith. Head, dorsal. Antennal insertions visible. 
Frontal area with rugae. (X100). 

■ ; ' • : '•' " '■':.'. 



Figure 5. Harpagoxenus amehcanus (Emery). Head, front. Clypeal impression with 
lobes or blunt teeth laterally. Well-developed apical tooth of right mandible. (XI 80) 



in the direction of the type of mandible found in the more advance species of Polygenes 
another slave-making ant of the spoilbanks. 

Smithistruma abdita (L. & R. Wesson). (2.6 - 2.52 mm). Like S. filitalpa Brown, 
also collected in the spoilbanks, 5. abdita is an ant of open areas. The pitfall traps 
in neither of the two wooded stands have yielded these ants. The 1981 collections (8) 
revealed that the latter species is much more widely distributed within the study area 
Both are small ants not likely to be taken by usual collecting methods. Dacetine ants 
according to Brown (1) have less than 6 segments in the antennal funiculus (except 
males); white spongy-like appendages or thin-layered lateral wings on one or both sides 
of the pedicel; or have heads that are flattened and pear-shaped, narrowed anteriorly 
with a broad, deep occipital cleft; mandibles linear, each with 2 or 3 large apical teeth 
also a hidden tooth or spine at the inner border; or having a combination of the foregoing 
characteristics, the large spoon-shaped hairs which in this species are confined to the 
area of the clypeus are visible (Figure 6). Other species traits are the 4 stout principal 
teeth of the mandible and less than 7 spoon-shaped hairs on either side of the midline 
of the clypeal border. 


Figure 6. Smithistrum abdita (L. & R. Wesson). Large spoon-shaped hairs on clypeus. 
four principal teeth, each mandible. (X700). 

Camponotus (Colobopsis) mississippiensis M. R. Smith. Ants of the Subgenus 
Co/obopsis are unique since the major workers and females have their heads margined 
and truncated anteriorly. Smith reported that C. mississippiensis commonly nests in 
the twigs of white ash, Fraxinus americanus (9). He observed that the ants fed mostly 
if not exclusively on honey dew excreted by aphids, scale insects, etc. Examination 
of white ash saplings in the stand where only one specimen, a dealate female, was 


Indiana Academy of Science 

Vol. 95 (1986) 

taken revealed no evidence of nesting by this species of ant. Since the nests are in 
trees, the usual methods of collecting ants would not likely recover this species. The 
truncated heads of the major workers and females are shaped like small stoppers which 
exactly fit circular openings of the nest. Unwelcome ants as well as other insects are 
thereby prevented from entering when the "stoppers" are in place. Figure 7 is a dorsal 

Figure 7. Camponotus (Colobopsis) mississipiensis M. R. Smith. Head, dorsal, trun- 
cated anteriorly. Note margin separating truncated part from rest of head. (X100). 

view of the head showing the anterior truncation; Figure 8, a frontal view showing 
the upper margin of the truncation at the anterior border of the frontal lobes. When 
the head is placed in the nest opening, only the clypeus, mandibles, and cheeks are 
visible from the outside by a would-be intruder. This specimen was identified by Dr. 
W. E. LaBerge, Illinois Natural History Survey. 

Pitfall trappings for ants has the advantage of collecting a diversity of species. 
The original trapping in 1964 (6) yielded 34 species from the study area which is less 
than one-quarter mile square. This represents about one-third of the total species recorded 
for the State. However, there are many advantages to collecting at nest sites. Unanswered 
questions about the Camponotus (Colobopsis) mississippiensis dealate female could 
have been answered had the specimen been taken at the nest. As it is, we can only 
speculate as to its nest location, if any; or whether it was in the process of founding 
a nest, or blown here by the wind, or carried by train, plane, or automobile. Having 
shed wings, it is possible that nest founding could have occurred. In 1923, Smith (9) 
described the species from Mississippi. It has since been taken in Illinois. Therefore, 
it is not unreasonable to suspect its presence in Indiana. 


We gratefully acknowledge Dr. Wallace E. LaBerge, Illinois Natural History Survey, 



Figure 8. Camponotus (Colobopsis) mississippiensis M. R. Smith. Head, front showing 
clypeus, cheeks, and upper margin of truncation. (X63). 

for determining the dealate female ant, 
M. R. Smith. 

Camponotus (Colobopsis) mississippiensis 

Literature Cited 

1. Brown, W. L. Jr. 1953. Revisionary studies in the ant tribe Dacetini. Amer. 
Midland Natur. 53:79-80. 

2. Creighton, W. S. 1950. The Ants of North America. Bull. Mus. of Comp. Zool. 
Vol. 104. Harvard, Cambridge, Massachusetts. 585 p. + 57 pi. 

3. Krombein, K. V., P. D. Hurd Jr., D. R. Smith et al 1979. Catalogue of 
Hymenoptera in America North of Mexico. Vols. 1-3. Vol. 2, Apocrita (Aculeata). 
Smithsonian Insitution Press. Wash., D.C. 

4. Morris, R. L. 1943. An annotated list of the ants of Indiana. Proc. Indiana Acad. 
Sci. 52:203-224. 

5. Muesebeck, C. F. W., K. V. Krombein, H. K. Townes et al 1951. Hymenoptera 
of America North of Mexico. Synop. Cat. USDA Agr. Monogr. no 2; Krombein, 
K. V. 1958. 1st Suppl; Krombein, K. V. and B. D. Burks 1967. 2nd Suppl. U.S. 
Gov't Print. Off. Wash., D.C. 

6. Munsee, J. R. 1966. Ecology of ants of strip-mine spoilbanks. Unpublished Ph.D. 
Dissertation, Purdue University. 

7. Munsee, J. R., 1967. Nine species of ants (Formicidae) recently recorded from 
Indiana. Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. 77:222-227. 

8. Munsee, J. R. and J. R. Schrock. 1982. A comparison of ant faunae on unreclaimed 
stripmines in Indiana. Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. 92:257-261. 

9. Smith, M. R. 1923. Two new Mississippi ants of the subgenus Colobopsis. Psyche 

274 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 95 (1986) 

10. Smith, M. R. 1930. Descriptions of three new North American ants, with biological 
notes. Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 23:564-568. 

11. Smith, M. R. 1939. The North American ants of the genus Harpagoxenus Forel, 
with the description of a new species (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Proc. Ent. Soc. 
Wash. 41(5):165-172. 

12. Wesson, L. G. Jr. and R. G. Wesson. 1940. A collection of ants from south- 
central Ohio. Amer. Midland Natur. 24:93. 

Epitoky in Hypogastrura (Cyclograna) horrida Yosii, 
(Hexapoda: Collembola: Hypogastruridae) 


R.D. Waltz 

Department of Entomology 

Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 


J.W. Hart 

Indiana University East 

Richmond, Indiana 47374 

Collembolan polymorphism of the type in which sexually immature individuals 
differ morphologically from mature individuals by the exhibition of unique character 
states that are not associated with secondary sexual characters is termed epitoky. This 
phenomenon has been documented previously in the collembolan familes 
Hypogastruridae (1, 2, 3, 4), Isotomidae (5, 7), and Onychiuridae (6, 7). Fjellberg 
(7) suggested that epitoky was possibly a universal phenomenon in Collembola. 

Morphological differences were observed in preadult and adult individuals of H. 
horrida that are attributable to epitoky including the size of the cephalic setae sd 5 
and d, (Figures I, 2), the size and shape of the dorsal setae (Figures 3, 4) and in 
the size and shape of the mucro (Figures 3, 4). 

Figures 1-4. Hypogastrura horrida Yosii. 1. Head capsule of preadult specimen with 
expanded cephalic setae d, and sd 5 . 2. Head capsule of adult. 3 Furcula of preadult 
specimen. 4. Furcula of adult specimen. [Figures modified from Fjellberg (8)) 

Slides of seven males and three females of the 58 specimens studied present the 
best evidence for epitoky. Females were considered to be sexually mature based on 


276 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 95 (1986) 

their size, the development of their genital openings and accompanying setae. Males 
were considered to be sexually mature when the bulbous structure of the developing 
spermatophores were observable internally. 

Although adult specimens as defined above lack expanded cephalic setae (Figure 
2), display straight unexpanded dental setae and possess small mucros (Figure 4), preadult 
individuals may differ radically in form. Early instars may show little or no enlarge- 
ment of cephalic setae and may show variability in the size and shape of dental setae 
and in size of the mucro. Individuals nearing maturity (apparently one or two molts 
from the adult form) differ strikingly from adult forms in the possession of prominent 
but variably developed cephalic setae d, and sd, (Figure 1) and enlarged dental setae, 
of which the inner four are expanded and bent, and large mucros (Figure 3). 

Such striking differences in morphology between adult and preadult forms as 
described above frequently have led to confused taxonomy regarding many species 
of Collembola in various families. It is possible that epitoky may be found in many 
other species of the large genus Hypogastrura (s.l.). 

Literature Cited 

1. Bourgeois, A. 1973. Polymorphisme et epitoquie chez Ceratophysella tuberculata, 
Rev. Ecol. Biol. Sol 10:489-601. 

2. . 1974. Nouveaux cas d'epitoquie chez les Collemboles Hypogastruridae. 

Pedobiol. 14:191-195. 

3. . 1981. L'epitoquie chez les Collemboles Hypogastruridae: Ceratophysella 

bengtssoni. Bull. Soc. d'Hist. Natur. Toulouse 117:196-202. 

4. Bourgeois, A. and P. Cassagnau. 1972. La differenciation du type ceratophysellien 
chez las Collemboles Hypogastruridae. Nouv. Rev. Entomol. (II), 271-291. 

5. Fjellberg, A. 1973a. New records of Vertagopus sakarensis (Wahlgren, 1906) from 
Northern Scandinvia (Collembola, Isotomidae). Ent. Scand. 4:241-248. 

6. 1973b. Observations of Onychiurus nervosus Stach, 1954 (Collembola, 

Onychiuridae) in Eastern Norway. Norsk. Ent. Tidsskr. 20:263-265. 
7. 1977. Epitoky in Vertagopus species (Collembola, Isotomidae), Rev. Ecol. 

Biol. Sol 14:493-495. 
8. 1985. Arctic Collembola I - Alaskan Collembola of the families Poduridae, 

Hypogastruridae, Odontellidae, Brachystomellidae and Neanuridae. Entomol. 

Scand. Suppl. 21, 126 pp. 


Chair: H. Fred Siewert 

Department of Natural Resources 

Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana 47306 (317) 285-5790 

Chair-Elect: Peter Hippensteel 

Department of Biology 

Tri-State University, Angola, Indiana 46703 (219) 665-3141 Ext 276 


The Technical Basis of an Indiana Groundwater Quality Policy: The Marion County 
Experience. William Beranek, Jr. and Elizabeth Dusold, Indianapolis Center for 

Advanced Research, Indianapolis, Indiana 46204. Indiana groundwater has a wide 

variety of uses, including drinking, irrigation and industrial. Sources of groundwater 
contamination include transportation, agriculture, business, industry and residences. 
Controlling the level of contamination — by protection or regeneration — at concentra- 
tions which do not produce environmental stress or affect public health or other end 
uses is a complex policy problem. Actual Marion County data will be presented as 
a case study for understanding the technical basis of an adequate Indiana groundwater 
policy. Issues discussed will include the quality of technical information about ground- 
water and the toxicity and environmental fate of chemicals as they relate to policy 

Survey of Indiana Streams for Sensitivity to Acid Deposition. Brad H. Carter, Mary 
Lou Fox, Richard W. Miller, Robert A. Pribush, Michael J. Stevenson and Mark 

Westfall, Butler University, Indianapolis, Indiana 46208. The purpose of this 

study is to determine what effects, if any, acidic deposition has on stream chemistry 
in Indiana. Twelve streams in southern Indiana (six south of Lake Monroe, three south 
of St. Croix and three north of New Albany) were chosen for this purpose. The selec- 
tion criteria consisted of soil characteristics (e.g., non-calcareous soil), land usage of 
the watershed (no agriculture, grazing, feedlots or urbanization) and accessibility of 
the headwaters. 

From mid-July to mid-August six samples were taken from each stream. 
Measurements included alkalinity, flow, temperature, pH, and conductivity. 

The concentration of a number of anions and cations, including sulfate, nitrate, 
calcium, and magnesium, were determined by ion chromatography and atomic ab- 
sorption spectroscopy. 

All of these variables were then analyzed for correlation with rainfall events and 
emissions inventory. 

Evaporation Rates of Organic Liquids at Wind Speeds and Liquid Temperatures. H. 

E. Dunn, B.P. Miller, G.P. Lutz and J.M. Little, Departments of Chemistry and 

Physics, University of Southern Indiana, Evansville, Indiana 47712. The evaporation 

rates or organic liquids at various air speeds and temperatures are necessary for deter- 
mining downwind concentrations after chemical spills. Through the use of a wind tun- 
nel which regulates air speeds and temperatures, the rates of evaporation of organic 
solvents were measured. An extrapolation to zero wall height of the evaporation dish 
was employed to represent the equivalent rate for a surface pool of liquid. The results 


278 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 95 (1986) 

were correlated by an empirical relation between the evaporation rates, wind speeds, 
and temperatures using a power curve fitting computer program. 

Acid Effects on Mortality, Light Sensitivity and Regeneration of Fresh Water Planaria. 

Larissa Godish and Thad Godish, Department of Natural Resources, Ball State Univer- 
sity, Muncie, Indiana 47306. Organisms such as planaria which inhabit fresh water 

environments of low-buffering capacity may be affected adversely by pH changes 
associated with acid enhancement and with acid deposition processes. Planaria were 
selected to study the effects of acid enhancement on mortality over the pH range of 
3 - 6.6. In addition to mortality the effects of pH on photosensitivity and regeneration 
also were studied. At pH three, mortality was 100%; increases in mortality also were 
observed at a pH level of 4 and 5. Increased light sensitivity was observed at pH levels 
of 4 and 5. These levels were observed also to both inhibit generation and to observe 

Metabolically-enhanced CO z Levels in Classroom Environments in a Variable Air Volume 
Climate Controlled Building. Thad Godish, Jerome Rouch and David McClure. 

Department of Natural Resources, Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana 47306. 

Carbon dioxide, at levels above background values, are common in indoor environments 
because of metabolical generation and subsequent release of C0 2 . Levels are indicated 
of both indoor population density and ventilation effectiveness. These studies were 
designed to measure C0 2 levels in high population density environments (university 
classrooms) and to relate measured levels to the effectiveness of the building's ventila- 
tion system, which in a major portion of these studies was a variable air volume HVAC 
system installed in a new classroom building. Depending on class size, frequency of 
use, time of day, and individual days, C0 2 levels ranged from just above background 
(circa 330 ppm) to 240 ppm. Highest reported values were close to exceeding the 2500 
ppm ASHRAE standard for indoor air. C0 2 levels peaked in mid to late afternoon 
and declined in early evening. 

Gas Chromatography as a Screening Tool for Total Volatile Organics in Groundwater 
and Surface Water Samples. Robert Morse and Jerry Papenmeir, Marion County 
Health Department, Indianapolis, Indiana, and Jack E. Leonard and William 
Beranek, Jr., Indianapolis Center for Advanced Research, Indianapolis, Indiana 
46204. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are an important class of water con- 
taminants. The total identification of the full range of VOCs in a sample is a difficult 
and expensive procedure. However, a valuable screening tool can be derived using 
well-established gas chromatographic techniques to determine the quantitative difference 
in the levels of contamination of water samples. The use of this tool will be illustrated 
with groundwater and surface water data from a recent Marion County survey. 

Chemical Analysis of Two Lakes in Vigo County, Indiana for Specific Components. 

Joseph R. Siefker and Anthony P. Neidlinger, Department of Chemistry, Indiana 
State University, Terre Haute, Indiana 47809.— The surface waters of Isaac Walton 
Lake and Green Valley Pond were sampled weekly for twelve weeks. The concentra- 
tions of ammonium, aluminum, copper, iron, barium, manganese, chloride, fluoride, 
phosphate, bromide, cyanide, sulfate, and sulfite ions were determined. Also the color, 
turbidity, and pH were measured. In addition, the water level of the lakes was deter- 
mined along with the precipitation amounts on a weekly basis. Maximum, minimum, 
and average values were calculated. 

An Investigation of Phytoplankton Sedimentation in the Middle Wabash River 

N.J. Parke and J.R. Gammon 

Department of Biological Sciences 

DePauw University 

Greencastle, Indiana 46135 


Clean water is becoming less abundant because of excessive human neglect and 
misuse. In recent years there has been an increasing concern about the abuse of this 
natural resource by Electrical Generating Stations (EGSs), especially ones without cooling 
towers. The majority of EGSs in the United States utilize once-through cooling, where 
surface water is taken in and expelled after being elevated in temperature after travel- 
ing once through the EGS. Whether or not EGSs of this type provide adequate protec- 
tion against thermal damage to the aquatic communities is an issue that has not been 
clearly resolved. 

Of principal interest in this study are the effects of heated water on the structure 
of phytoplankton communities in the Wabash River. Four possible changes that can 
occur within an aquatic community due to heat are: 1) diversity alteration (Pierce, 
1973) 2) redistribution (Teppen, 1975) 3) growth (Miller, et ai, 1975) and 4) death 
(Miller, et al., 1975; Gammon, 1976). 

The Cayuga EGS on the Middle Wabash River served as an excellent study site 
since a great deal of background data was available. The problem of low dissolved 
oxygen (D.O.) in one section of the river was a focus of concern (Gammon and Reidy, 
1981; Anonymous, 1977). As a result of the low D.O. problem in 1977 numerous physical 
and chemical determinations in the water column were performed by many researchers. 
This latter data did not offer an adequate explanation for the severe D.O. depletion 
that occurred. Low D.O. concentrations occurred in the same section of the river in 
both 1977 and 1983. As a result, in situ and laboratory tests for Sediment Oxygen 
Demand (SOD) were performed. SOD data revealed that this area had a high rate 
of oxygen uptake in the sediment (Bell, 1983). It is believed that high SOD may be 
correlated with low D.O. in the water column (Barceolona, 1983; Smith, Laver and 
Brown, 1983), and that high SOD is characteristic of sediment containing high levels 
of organic matter. From these relationships, it was hypothesized that organic loading 
of the sediment was due to phytoplankton death at low flow conditions and that the 
loading was responsible for the low D.O.s (Anonymous, 1984). 

Questions addressed in this study are: 1) Are phytoplankton a major contributor 
to the organic matter deposits or are there other organic contributions? 2) Is the Cayuga 
EGS responsible for the increased organic loading in this area? 3) Does river mor- 
phology play a role in the problem? 


The portion of the Middle Wabash River studied extended from above the mouth 
of the Big Vermillion River (River Mile 257.8) to Montezuma, Indiana (River Mile 
239.8), a distance of 28.6 km (17.8 miles) (Figure 1). Three series of collections at 
14 sites were made in the month of July 1984 as the river discharge was falling. When 
the river reached near critical low flow conditions in August 1984, 2 more series of 
collections were made at 16 sites (Table 1). 

The stream solids trap used in this study was a design originating from a study 
that was conducted by the Sunoco Products Company, Hartsville, S.C. (Anonymous, 



Indiana Academy of Science 

Vol. 95 (1986) 

tan Island 
Mill Creek 

Sugar Creek 


Figure 1. Map of sampling locations on the Middle Wabash River. 

1982). The traps were built and supplied by the Indiana State Board of Health, In- 
dianapolis, Indiana. The mouth of each collecting device measured 19.86 cm 2 (3.079 
in 2 ). The traps were suspended 0.25 - 0.30 m from the river bottom by plastic floats 
anchored by concrete or iron weights. The sites used in this investigation were situated 
7.6 - 12.2 m (25 - 40 ft) from the river banks where the water velocity was less than 
30 cm/s as measured with an Oceanics Model 2035 flow meter 0.4 - 0.5 m from the 
river bottom. Conductivity and pH measurements were made with a Hydrolab 4041 
series 4000 unit at the time of trap installation. Secchi disc water depth readings were 
also taken at this time. 

At the end of the sampling period (approximately 24 hours) the traps were removed, 

































Environmental Quality 281 

Table 1. Key to the study area sampling sites. 

Site River Mile Description or Landmark 

0.1 mile above Big Vermillion River 

0.1 mile above Coal Creek 

0.6 mile above Cayuga EGS intake 

0.1 mile above Cayuga EGS intake 

Before the eroding bank starts at the beginning of the oxbow 

0.1 above Cayuga EGS effluent 

between Cayuga EGS and Inland Container Corp. discharges 

0.1 mile below Inland Container discharge 

0.2 mile below Mill Creek 

0.1 mile above Little Vermillion River 

0.3 mile below Little Vermillion River 

1.0 mile below Little Vermillion River 

0.1 mile above Sugar Creek 

1.0 mile below Newport Ammunition Plant 

1.0 mile above US 36 bridge in Montezuma 

0.2 mile below US 36 bridge in Montezuma 

the bottom caps were carefully removed, and the solids were flushed from each trap 
with distilled water into labeled plastic screwtop jars. These samples were diluted up 
to a final volume of 500 ml with distilled water. The samples were packed in ice for 
transport to the laboratory where triplicate analyses for total nonfiltrable residues (solids), 
total nonfiltrable volatile residues (solids), chlorophyll-a and paeophytin were performed 
according to Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater (15th 
Edition, 1980). All chlorophyll-a and phaeophytin determinations were performed spec- 
trophotometrically at Purdue University in the Department of Environmental Engineer- 
ing. Dissolved oxygen and water temperature readings were taken with a YSI Model 
57 meter at the time of trap removal. 

In addition to sampling matter that was settling out of the water column, samples 
of river water were made at the time of trap trap removal with a DH40 Hand Sampler 
according to Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater (15th 
Edition, 1980). These samples were transported to the laboratory where single analyses 
were performed as were previously described for total nonfiltrable solids and triplicate 
analyses for chlorophyll-a and phaeophytin. 

The most general equations estimating sedimentation rates entail calculating the 
amount of material settling per unit area per unit time. The specific form of calcula- 
tion used in this study compensates for the river water that was originally introduced 
into the trap at the start of the collecting period. Neglecting water velocity, the sedimen- 
tation rate equations take the following forms: 

TSt x 500(ml)/Aliquot size(ml) - TSc x 0.4(1) 
TS SR = 

19.86(cm 2 )/T 

VSt x 500(ml)/ Aliquot size(ml) - VSc x 0.4(1) 

VS SR = -- ----- 

19.86(cm 2 )/T 
Chit x 0.5(1) - Chic x 0.4(1) 

Chi SR = - 

19.86(cm 2 )/T 
Pht x 0.5(1) - Phc x 0.4(1) 

Ph SR = 

19.86(cm 2 )/T 


Indiana Academy of Science 

Vol. 95 (1986) 

Table 2. List of symbols. 


















Sedimentation rate 

Total infiltrable solids 

Total nonfiltrable volatile solids 



Total nonfiltrable solids from the sediment trap 

Total nonfiltrable volatile solids from the sediment trap 

Chlorophyll-a from the sediment trap 

Phaeophytin from the sediment trap 

Total nonfiltrable solids from the water column 


Chlorophyll-a in the water column 

Phaeophytin in the water column 

Length of time the sediment trap was sampling 

ug or mg/cm'/hr 


The symbol definitions are given in Table 2. 

Percentages of chlorophyll-a and total pigments (chlorophyll-a and phaeophytin) 
from the sediment trap and water column data were calculated for each collecting date. 

Water column data provided an overall view of the health of phytoplankton com- 
munities. Sites with ratios of chlorophyll-a to phaeophytin plus chlorophyll-a values 
less than 0.77 were considered stressed or unhealthy. 

Further analyses indicated the need to divide the study area into four reaches 
based on major sources of input. These were: Reach 1) the Big Vermillion River, Reach 
2) the Cayuga EGS effluent, Reach 3) the Little Vermillion River, and Reach 4) Sugar 
Creek. Reach 1 was classified as the upstream or control area, whereas reaches 2, 
3 and 4 were considered downstream or impacted areas. Differences between upstream 
and downstream were compared by two-sample t-tests. 


The water temperature of the study area showed a definite pattern because of 
the Cayuga EGS was elevating water temperature above upstream values (Figure 2). 




1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 

Figure 2. Water temperatures (C) at times of sampling. 


■ l/i 

: l\ /- 

i " — -^y / ,/' / 

/ / .•■■"' 
- ^ J/""" 


: ~ X N__^-/ 

i 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 

; — Iiv™::!"'/ 

July 11 
July 19 
July 25 
Aug. 26 
Aug. 30 

Environmental Quality 



Figure 3. Dissolved oxygen concentrations at sampling stations expressed as percent 

Upstream values varied from 22.7 - 26.9 C, while downstream variability was an even 
greater 24.5 - 31.8 C. The mean temperature difference between upstream and 
downstream for all five collections was 4.1 C. 

Dissolved oxygen measurements were converted to percent saturation values to 
eliminate the effects of temperature (Figure 3). The patterns on July 11 and 19 did 
not reveal any noticeable differences throughout the study area, but on July 25 there 
was an increase in the percent saturation value in the Little Vermillion River area followed 
by a distinct decrease (less than 70% saturation) on August 26 and August 30. 

PH readings ranged from 7.7 to 8.3 with slightly higher values in downstream 
areas. Conductivity readings were almost uniform throughout all collections in the 
study area. 

Secchi disc water transparency readings were lowest on July 10 when the river 
discharge was 191.7 mVs (6,770 cfs). In August, water transparency increased by 15% 
from the Cayuga EGS effluent to Sugar Creek when the river discharge had fallen 
to 42.1 mVs (1,485 cfs) (Figure 4). Water transparency was negatively correlated with 

Figure 4. Secchi depth (cm) at sampling stations. 


Indiana Academy of Science 

Vol. 95 (1986) 

TNFS (mg/1) 

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 

Figure 5. Total nonfiltrable solids (mg/1) in Wabash River water. 

the amount of total nonfiltrable solids in the water column (r = 0.69). A 31.4% decrease 
in the total nonfiltrable solids in the water column occurred in the area from the Cayuga 
EGS to Sugar Creek in the August series (Figure 5). 

On August 30, downstream chlorophyll-a concentrations in the water column 
decreased significantly (-37.4%) relative to upstream values as the river discharge 
continued to decrease (Figure 6). Ratios of chlorophyll-a to total pigments (phaeophytin 
plus chlorophyll-a) were close to the suggested health index for phytoplankton of 0.77 
except for the July 1 1 series which was lower. As the river discharge decreased sedimen- 
tation rates increased over the entire study area, particularly in areas below the Cayuga 
EGS and Little Vermillion River. 

Percentages of chlorophyll-a and total pigments in relation to total nonfiltrable 
solids from the river water and sediment traps for August 30 are shown in Figure 

CHL-a (ug/1) 



y //, 



s^j July 




£od Au 9 ■ 



Aug . 



1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 


Figure 6. Chlorophyll-a (ug/1) in Wabash River water. 

Environmental Quality 


River Water 

X Total Pigment 
River Water 


Sediment Traps 


X Total Pigment 
Sediment Traps 

1 2 3 4 4a 4b 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 
Figure 7. Chlorophyll-a and total pigments as a percent of total suspended solids 
in river water and sediment trap material on August 30, 1984. 

7. When river discharge was 42.1 mVs (1,485 cfs), both chlorophyll-a and total pigments 
were lost from the water column and appeared in the sediment traps in increased 

Discussion and Conclusions 

The sedimentation rates and water transparency both increased between the Cayuga 
EGS and the mouth of Sugar Creek during low flow in August 1984. Phytoplankton 
density and sedimentation rate increased as discharge decreased and phytoplankton 
became an increasingly important component of settled organic matter in this par- 
ticular part of the river. The percent saturation of dissolved oxygen also decreased 
in this same area at the same time. No other upstream data differed significantly from 

The sedimentation data provided information on where and in what proportions 
materials were settling, and a mass balance analysis was used to estimate the total 
quantities of suspended material removed from the water column. The daily rate of 
deposition in reaches 2 and 3, where D.O. saturation was depressed, was estimated 
by subtracting the average suspended solids concentration in reach 4 from that in reach 
1 . Table 3 summarizes the estimated daily quantities of total nonfiltrable solids, total 

Table 3. Deposition of total nonfiltrable solids, total nonfiltrable volatile solids, 
chlorophyll-a and phaeophytin (kg/day) between the Cayuga EGS effluent and Sugar 





July II, 1984 





July 19. 1984 





July 25, 1984 





August 26, 1984 





August 30. 1984 





•Note: TNS 

= Total nonfiltrable solids 

= Total nonfiltrable volatile solids 

Chi = Chlorophylls 
Ph = Phaeophytin 

286 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 95 (1986) 

nonfiltrable volatile solids, chlorophyll-a, and phaeophytin being deposited in the 10.1 
km (6.3 mile) section between the Cayuga EGS discharge canal and Sugar Creek. 

The daily deposition of total nonfiltrable solids and total nonfiltrable volatile 
solids increased to a maximum on July 25 and then declined in August. On the other 
hand, chlorophyll-a and phaeophytin deposition increased steadily through this period 
with the exception of the August 26 estimation for chlorophyll-a. These trends are 
consistent with the sediment trap data which also indicates an increased phytoplankton 
contribution to the sediment through time as river discharge decreases. 

Since total nonfiltrable volatile solids include all types of organic matter, it was 
not possible to accurately estimate the deposition of all carbonaceous biochemical oxygen 
demand (cBOD) material. It was possible, however, to estimate the cBOD attributable 
to chlorophyll-a, a minor proportion of the total organic matter. Since 10 ug of 
chlorophyll-a is equivalent to 1 mg of cBOD (Anonymous, 1984), it was estimated 
that approximately 2,312 kg of cBOD material settled out of the river as phytoplankton 
on August 30. This is almost 1 .7 times the amount of cBOD that enters the river from 
West Lafayette, Indiana (Anonymous, 1984). 

The deposition and subsequent decomposition of this large quantity of 
phytoplankton, in addition to the other decomposable organic matter, could profoundly 
reduce the dissolved oxygen concentration of the river between the Cayuga EGS and 
Sugar Creek at times of low discharge. The rate of decomposition would be expected 
to increase because of elevated water temperatures downriver from the Cayuga EGS. 

It was originally hypothesized that at low river discharge phytoplankton entrained 
by the Cayuga EGS are killed and then deposited downstream as decomposing matter 
which, in turn, depletes the dissolved oxygen (Anonymous, 1984). If this occurs, the 
ratio of chlorophyll-a to total pigmens in the water column should decrease downstream 
from the Cayuga EGS. There is no evidence to support this contention. 

For Ohio River phytoplankton, Miller, et al. (1975) found that algae productivity 
was normal after passage through a power plant when temperatures were 34 C or less. 
At higher temperatures, productivity was sometimes reduced. The heated effluent from 
the Cayuga EGS did not exceed 31.8 C, and it seems unlikely that high temperature 
is killing phytoplankton. 

What then is responsible for the settling of suspended solids between the Cayuga 
EGS and Sugar Creek? The Indiana State Board of Health (ISBH) surveyed this par- 
ticular segment in September 1983 and found that the cross-sectional area averaged 
168.6 m 2 (1,815 ft 2 ) in the Little Vermillion River area (River Mile 246.3), compared 
to 133.9 m 2 (1,441 ft 2 ) in the section above the Cayuga EGS. In July 1985, a more 
detailed survey of the study area at low flow revealed that the average cross-sectional 
area between the Cayuga EGS and Sugar Creek was 164.0 m 2 (1,765.5 ft 2 ), compared 
to 110 m 2 (1,184.2 ft 2 ) above the Cayuga EGS effluent, a 49% increase. 

The increased cross-sectional area is caused by a gravel bar at the mouth of Sugar 
Creek (River Mile 244.9) which dams the river at low flow and extends the length 
of this natural settling basin. An additional factor which could enhance settling is the 
decrease in water viscosity caused by higher water temperatures, but this is probably 
a relatively unimportant influence. 

The periods of severe oxygen depletion in both 1977 and 1983 occurred when 
the river discharge reached 34.0 mVs (1,200 cfs). The lowest river discharge reached 
in 1984 was 42.1 mVs (1,485 cfs) and the beginning of a dissolved oxygen sag curve 
was observed. Had the river discharge continued to decrease, it is quite likely a pro- 
nounced D.O. sag would have developed. 

There are a number of interacting factors which influence the observed phenomena. 
The extent to which each is individually influential remains to be determined. There 
is no doubt that the elevated temperatures downstream from the Cayuga EGS hasten 

Environmental Quality 287 

the decomposition and lower the dissolved oxygen, but to what extent? Most of the 
sediment deposited to the bottom of the river is nonphytoplankton BOD. How in- 
fluential is this material in causing lowered dissolved oxygen concentrations? Where 
does the organic matter originate from and in what quantities? 

The Wabash River is dominated, in a sense, by an abundant phytoplankton com- 
munity, supported by nutrients entering the river from communities and agricultural 
fields. During much of July and August, chlorophyll-a content of the river water was 
about 150 - 160 ug/1 and on August 30 it exceeded 200 ug/1. For the Wabash River 
assemblage of phytoplankton, this is equivalent to over 100,000 cells/ml (Anonymous, 
1984). A modeling effort which included nutrient inputs might reveal some interesting 
interrelationships between the nutrient loading to the Wabash River and the D.O. sag 
phenomena. Midwestern agriculture stands on the brink of a new era; conservation 
tillage has the potential for reducing nutrient runoff from fields and this, in turn, 
could lead to reduced phytoplankton densities. 

The sediment traps indicated variable sedimentation with some areas having high 
sediment loading and others low. According to the sediment trap values for August 
30, chlorophyll-a deposition averaged 23.08 ug/cmVhr in reaches 2 and 3, compared 
to only 1.12 ug/cmVhr derived from the mass balance estimates, assuming equitable 
settling throughout reaches 2 and 3. This is a 20.6 fold increase and may be a result 
of sediment trap placement in the river channel. Theoretically, the sedimentation rate 
should be higher near the river banks where the water velocities are lowest. The data 
collected in this study suggest that the sedimentation rate near the river banks is far 
greater than the expected average sedimentation rate. There is a need for more detailed 
work with sediment trapping devices in riverine systems so that accurate assumptions 
can be made about where materials settle in relation to river channel morphology. 


This work was supported through research grants from Public Service Indiana 
and Eli Lilly and Company. We are most grateful to Steve Boswell and the Indiana 
State Board of Health for the use of the sediment traps; to the DePauw University 
River Research Crew for providing assistance in the field work; and to Dr. John Bell 
and the Purdue University Department of Environmental Engineering who performed 
the chlorophyll-a and phaeophytin analyses. 

Literature Cited 

Anonymous. 1977. Wabash River survey report, July to September, 1977. Biological 

Studies and Standards Section, Indiana State Board of Health, Indianapolis, 

Anonymous, 1980. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. 

15th Ed., APHA-AWWA-WPCF. 
Anonymous. 1983. Middle Wabash River Mapping survey report. September 17, 1983. 

Water Pollution Division, Indiana State Board of Health, Indianapolis, Indiana. 
Anonymous. 1984. Unpublished Manuscript: Dissolved Oxygen Analysis of the Wabash 

River. HydroQual, Inc., 1 Lethbridge Plaza, Mahwah, N. J. 
Barceolona, M. J. 1983. Sediment Oxygen Demand Fractionation and Reduced Chemical 

Substances. Water Res., 17(9): 1081-1094. 
Bell, John. 1983. Unpublished Report on Sediment Oxygen Demand in the Middle 

Wabash River. Purdue University, Department of Environmental Engineering, 

West Lafayette, Indiana. 
Gammon, J. R. Measurement of Entrainment and Predictions of Impact on the Wabash 

288 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 95 (1986) 

and Ohio Rivers. Third National Workshop on Entrainment and Impingement. 
L. D. Jensen, Ed., 1976:159-176. 

Gammon, J. R. and J. M. Reidy. 1981. The Role of Tributaries During an episode 
of Low Dissolved Oxygen in the Wabash River, Indiana. Warmwater Streams 
Symposium, pp. 396-407. 

Miller, M. C, G.R. Hater, T. W. Federle and J. P. Reed. Effects of a Power Plant 
Operation on the Biota of a Thermal Discharge Channel. Manuscript of a presen- 
tation at: Second Thermal Ecology Symposium, Savannah River Ecology 
Laboratory, April 2-5, 1975, Augusta, Georgia. 

Pierce, Steven T. 1973. The Effects of Thermal Enrichment on the Macroinvertebrate 
Populations of the Wabash River. M. A. Thesis, DePauw University, Greencastle, 

Smith, K. L., Jr., M. B. Laver and N. O. Brown. 1983. Sediment Oxygen Consump- 
tion and Nutrient Exchange in the Central and Eastern North Pacific. Limnol. 
Oceanogr., 28(5):882-888. 

Teppen, Terry C. 1975. Distribution and Abundance of Fish Populations in the Middle 
Wabash River. M. A. Thesis, DePauw University, Greencastle, Indiana. 

Monitoring Air Pollution for Its Potential Impact on Agricultural Crops in SW Indiana 

James E. Simon, Michael Simini, Dennis R. Decoteau, William McFee, 

Ken Scheeringa and James E. Newman 

Departments of Horticulture and Agronomy 

Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 


During recent years severe foliar injury has been observed on the commercial 
muskmelon and watermelon crops of southwestern Indiana. The injury resulted in a 
significant loss of marketable fruit from the region. Air pollution was suspected of 
causing part of the damage since some of the visible symptoms resembled ozone and 
sulfur dioxide induced injury found on other plant species (8,9). 

Ozone (Oj), sulfur dioxide (S0 2 ), and nitrous oxides (NO x ) are the most prevalent 
gaseous air pollutants. Ozone has been reported to be the most injurious air pollutant 
to crop plants nationwide with damage resulting with and without visible symptoms 
(13). A recent study by Loehman and Wilkinson (11) predicted that significant losses 
are occurring in Indiana due to 3 stress. Ozone, produced during the daylight hours, 
is generated when sunlight reacts with NO x and hydrocarbons released into the at- 
mosphere as by-products of the combustion of fossil fuels (13). A photolytic reaction 
reduces N0 2 , producing an oxygen atom which spontaneously reacts with molecular 
oxygen, forming 3 . Sulfur dioxide is released directly into the atmosphere as a by- 
product from the combustion of fossil fuel containing sulfur. 

Indiana is one of the leading states in S0 2 emissions, releasing > 500,000 tons 
of S0 2 annually into the atmosphere. Some of Indiana's largest industrial sources of 
S0 2 are located in SW Indiana, with several in the vicinity of the major melon grow- 
ing areas in Knox, Sullivan, and Gibson counties (Table 1). The same stationary sources 
that burn coal, oil, natural gas or other fuels releasing S0 2 , can also contribute to 
the formation of NO x , the precursor to 3 . Regional climatological conditions result 
in prevailing winds from the west, southwest, south and southeast during the summer 

Table 1. The Major Sources of Sulfur Dioxide Emissions in Indiana. 






IKEC Clifty Falls 

Alcoa Generating Corp. 

PSI Cayuga 

I PL Petersburg 

l&M Tanners Creek 

PSI Gallagher 

l&M Breed 

SIGECO Culley 

IPL Stout 

NIPSCO Bailly 

NIPSCO Michigan City 

PSI Wabash River 

Hoosier Ratts 

IPL Pritchard 

291,724 Near Princeton, Gibson Co. 

227,559 Madison, Jefferson Co. 

145,783 Newburgh, Warrick Co. 

114,213 Cayuga, Vermillion Co. 

100,539 Petersburg, Pike Co. 

76,545 Lawrenceburg, Dearborn Co. 

73,085 New Albany, Floyd Co. 

69,253 Fairbanks, Sullivan Co. 

67,132 Yankeetown, Warrick Co. 

60,120 Indianapolis, Marion Co. 

57,867 Near Chesterton, Porter Co. 

55,136 Michigan City, LaPorte Co. 

48,043 Terre Haute. Vigo Co. 

36,163 Petersburg, Pike Co. 

24,092 Centenon. Morgan Co. 

Data provided by the Indiana State Board of Health, Indianapolis, IN. Based on 1983 E1S Update (1983 Emissions). 



Indiana Academy of Science 

Vol. 95 (1986) 

Table 2. Percentage of wind rose for each wind direction from June, July, and August, 
1965-1974 at Evansville, IN. 




Quadrant Avg. 



















































































months (Table 2), which may also transport potential air pollutants into SW Indiana 
from such urbanized centers as Louisville, Kentucky and St. Louis, Missouri. 

Seasonal weather conditions reveal that 1984 was slightly drier than normal with 
near normal temperatures, and 1985 was a cooler than normal season with slightly 
above normal rainfall (Table 3). These seasonal weather summaries are based on monthly 
data from 13 NOAA Climatological "A" network stations in the 12 southwestern 
counties plus the NOAA-NWS-WSO at Evansville, Indiana for May, June, July, and 

Table 3. Climatological data during the 1984-85 growing season in SW Indiana.' 






Air Temperature 














+ 3.6 

+ 0.6 


1 .42 " 















Air Temperature 








76.7 °F 






+ 1.2 

- 1.8 












+ 1.03 


+ 1.55 

The climate data is computed from the following stations: Crane Naval Depot, Dubois (SIPAC), Elliston, Evansville 
AP, Evansville (City), Freelandville, Jasper, Mt. Vernon, Princeton, Shoals, Spurgeon, St. Meinard, Vincennes, 

Environmental Quality 291 

A research study was designed to determine the relationship of air pollution and 
the occurrence of melon injury, by first quantifying the presence and geographical 
extent of specific air pollutants in the affected region. This paper describes the monitoring 
system established in SW Indiana to determine the ambient rural concentrations of 
Oj, S0 2 , and precipitation composition. The actual pollutant levels and the pH of 
the precipitation in SW Indiana were monitored as an indicator of the presence of 
air-borne pollutants that affect the chemistry of precipitation. A biomonitoring ap- 
proach using plant cultivators known to exhibit characteristic foliar injury or abnor- 
mal growth when exposed to air pollutants was also used to characterize the geographical 
area in which air pollution was present. The use of sensitive plants or plant bioin- 
dicators for determining the presence of air pollution has been well documented and 
previously described (3,4,5,6,12). 

Site Selection 

Two monitoring sites were selected to measure the rural ambient concentrations 
of Oj and S0 2 during the 1984 and 1985 growing seasons. Site selection was based 
upon predicted air pollution levels and regional meteorological conditions. The first 
site (see Fig. 1, site #11) was in a melon field where severe foliar damage on melons 
had been observed in previous years. This site was located 1 mile east of SR 41 on 
Old Decker Road in Decker, downwind from stationary sources of S0 2 and predicted 
to receive the potential maximum air pollution, with respect to S0 2 , from local point 
sources such as the Gibson Power Plant. Local growers confirmed that the melon crops 
in this area sustained considerable damage yearly since the phytotoxicity symptoms 
were first observed. The second site located 24 km north of site #11, at the Southwest 
Purdue Agricultural Research Center (SWPAC), approximately 7 km north of Vincen- 
nes, was expected to receive less air pollution because of its location relative to pollu- 
tant sources and since melon damage had been observed to a lesser extent. 

Four sites were selected for bulk precipitation collection in or adjacent to melon 
producing fields. Two of these sites also have wet-dry precipitation collectors and are 
located with the 3 and S0 2 monitoring sites. 

Bioindicator monitoring sites were established in 13 commercial and experimen- 
tal melon fields in a multi-county area (Figure 1). Sites were selected based on their 
location relative to known industrial sources of S0 2 . These sites were located in the 
major areas of melon production. To correlate injury on bioindicators with actual 
ambient air pollution levels, two of the bioindicator sites (Decker, site #1 1 and SWPAC, 
site #5) were located at the same site where air quality was monitored (Figure 1). 

Materials and Methods 

Ambient Oj concentrations were measured continuously with a Bendix 8022 
chemiluminescent and a Dasibi ultraviolet (UV) photometric analyzer at the SWPAC 
and Decker sites, respectively. Ambient S0 2 concentrations were measured continuously 
by UV stimulated fluorescence and pulsed fluorescence at the SWPAC and Decker 
sites, respectively. All recorded data was quality assured by the Indiana State Board 
of Health, Air Pollution Division. 

The pH of the precipitation was collected by two methods. Wet-only precipita- 
tion collections were made using an aerochemetrics wet-dry collector following the Na- 
tional Atmospheric Deposition Network (NADP) procedures (15) at SWPAC and a 
similar collector with similar procedures except collections were twice weekly at the 
Decker site. The values presented here are from the wet-side collections only. At both 
locations the dry-side collector was removed and rinsed with a 250 ml aliquot of distilled 
water. The rinse water was then analyzed following the same procedures used for the 


Indiana Academy of Science 

Vol. 95 (1986) 




5 miles 







'10 9 


White R, 


C/>| uj 
oq i *: 


Figure I. Map of study area. Numbers indicate bioindicator sites in 1984. 

precipitation samples. Bulk precipitation was collected twice weekly at both locations 
using 6 inch (15.24 cm) diameter polypropylene funnels attached to 1 liter bottles. 
There were 3 replications at each site. All precipitation samples were analyzed for pH 
and conductivity and weighed upon arrival at the laboratory. The samples from the 
NADP collector at SWPAC were submitted directly to the national central analytical 
laboratory for analysis after pH and conductivity were recorded at the site. 

Bioindicator plants were grown in melon fields and visually rated for pollution- 
like symptoms. Plant species selected for use as indicators of ambient air pollution 

Environmental Quality 293 

and used successfully in similar studies (3,4,5,6) included: tobacco (cvs. Bel W3 and 
Bel B); beans (Bush Blue Lake [BBL] 290); Pinto 1-1 1; Oregon State University [OSU] 
1604; soybeans, cv. Cutler); and Early Summer Yellow Crookneck Squash. The soy- 
beans and squash are sensitive indicators of S0 2 , while the remaining species are 
0,-sensitive (4,8,9). In 1984, at each of 13 sites (Figure 1), seeds of [BBL] 290, OSU 
1604, soybeans and squash were sown in a randomized complete block design with 
2 to 3 replications at each site. At the Decker and SWPAC field sites, Pinto I- 11 and 
tobacco were also evaluated. Tobacco was transplanted to the field at the same time 
all other plants were seeded. Plant spacings differed for each species, but rows were 
1 m apart, with a minimum of 7 plants per plot. Standard planting and cultural prac- 
tices were followed throughout the growing season (10). All sites were planted within 
one week of June 19, 1984. Plants were irrigated for 3 to 4 weeks to facilitate plant 
emergence and stand establishment. Field sites were visited weekly for maintenance 
of plots and to record plant injury based upon a visual rating system of 0-10, in- 
dicating all leaf area injured and 10, absence of leaf injury, respectively. Foliar injury 
was recorded starting 2 weeks after plant emergence from the soil and included only 
injury typical of that induced by air pollution. Final injury ratings for bioindicators 
were made during the last week of August (the approximate end of the melon growing 
season). The appearance of pollution-like foliar systems was used as an indication of 
the presence of air pollution. In 1985, five sites were used in the bioindicator study 
as outlined above. 

Soil samples were taken 3 times during the growing season to determine if foliar 
injury could have been influenced by low pH soil. Recently, acid soil conditions have 
been reported to induce manganese toxicity and/or magnesium deficiency in melons 
in this region (17). Plant tissues were also sampled periodically for nutrient analyses. 


Diurnal variation of mean hourly ambient Oj concentrations over the entire 1984 
and 1985 growing seasons showed that Oj levels were in excess of 0.050 ppm daily 
for 10 hours in 1984 and 7 hours in 1985 (Figure 2). In 1984, average Oj concentra- 
tions exceeded 0.070 ppm for several hours daily. Ambient Oj concentrations for 1984 
are shown on a monthly basis in Figure 3. Ozone concentrations were higher in July 
than in May, June, or August (which had similar Oj levels). Percentage of total hours 
with specific hourly average 3 concentrations (Table 4) illustrate that in 1985, O, 
concentrations were higher at the Decker than at the SWPAC site. 

Table 4. Percentage of total hours with hourly average ozone concentrations in given 
ranges during the 1984 and 1985 experimental growing seasons for melons in southwestern 









. . (<7o of total hours) 

0.000 - 0.009 




0.010 - 0.019 




0.020 - 0.029 




0.030 - 0.039 




0.040 - 0.049 




0.050 - 0.059 




0.060 - 0.069 




0.070 - 0.079 




0.080 - 0.089 




0.090 - 0.099 









Indiana Academy of Science 

Vol. 95 (1986) 



Figure 2. Mean hourly ozone concentrations from May 1 to August 31, 1984 & 1985 
at Southwest Purdue Agriculture Center. 

The diurnal patterns of hourly mean concentrations of S0 2 from May 1 to August 
31 (Figure 4) indicate that S0 2 concentrations were also higher in 1984 than 1985. 
Sulfur dioxide concentrations were highest during the daylight hours when the 3 
concentrations were high. During each of the summers of 1984 and 1985, ambient 

Environmental Quality 


























.04 0- 
.0 20 
.0 00- 



H h 

2 4 

H 1 1 1 1 1 

6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 

g am ^ pm » 

Figure 3. Mean hourly ozone concentrations during May, June, July, and August, 
1985 at Southwest Purdue Agriculture Center. 

S0 2 concentrations above 0.025 ppm occurred for a greater number of total hours 
in June and July than in August at SWPAC (Table 5). In 1984, the Decker site was 
exposed to these levels for a greater number of hours in each of June, July, and August 
than was the SWPAC site. Further, the hourly mean concentration of S0 2 was higher 
in July and August at the Decker site. 

The acidity of the precipitation during the growing season at SWPAC and Decker 
was quite high and consistent throughout the entire season with the pH of the rain 
at SWPAC between 3.7 and 4.4 in all but 3 weeks throughout the growing season 
(Figure 5). The pH of rain at Decker was generally as acidic but was somewhat more 

Table 5. Concentrations of sulfur dioxide (ppm) recorded at SWPAC (Vincennes) 
and Decker, Indiana during the summers of 1984 and 1985. 







SO., (ppm) Levels 

00.025 ppm) 















0.05 1 































Represents numbers of hours with hourly mean SO., concentrations > 0.025 ppm. 


Indiana Academy of Science 

Vol. 95 (1986) 








•am >*< 

•p m- 

Figure 4. Mean hourly sulfur dioxide concentrations from May 1 to August 31, 1984 
& 1985 at Southwest Purdue Agriculture Center. 

variable with several of the collections exceeding a pH of 4.5 (Figure 6). The two 
high pH values were from contamination in the sampler. The average pH values observed 
at these two stations during the growing seasons indicate the acidic nature of the precipita- 
tion and is in the range similar to those summarized for the midwest in the NADP 
data summary for 1982 (14). 

Foliar damage to bioindicators was observed at all sites located throughout the 
entire survey area in 1984 (Table 6) with similar results in 1985 (data not presented). 
The visible damage to each plant species was characteristic of ozone induced injury 
(8,9). Differences in the amount of injury were noted among species and sites. Tobacco 
(Bel W3) and beans (Pinto 1-1 1) showed more injury than any other bioindicator; soy- 
beans (cv. Cutler) exhibited very little foliar injury. Foliar 3 induced injury to tobac- 
co consisted of characteristic flecking (necrotic lesions) on the upper surface of mature 
leaves (Figure 7). Ozone induced injury was more severe on the tobacco cv. Bel VV3 
than Bel B, which is in agreement with the reported relative sensitivity of both cultivars. 
Foliar injury of the bean species (BBL 290, OSU 1604 and Cutler soybeans) consisted 
of a stippling of the upper leaf surface often preceeded by chlorosis of the interveinal 
leaf tissues (Figure 8). Foliar injury of squash consisted of a premature chlorosis or 
reddish-brown stipple of upper leaf surfaces which were "leathery" in texture. Some 
marginal and interveinal necrosis was observed on all bioindicators. 

Environmental Quality 





DECKER 1985 







i ^ 

3 6 10 13 17 20 24 27 4 18 22 2 6 8 15 

Figure 5. Acidity of rain during the growing season of 1985 at Decker, IN. Wet- 
only collections were made twice each week. 





SWPAC 1985 







7 14 21 28 4 11 18 25 2 9 16 23 30 6 13 20 27 

Figure 6. Acidity of rain during the growing season of 1985 at the Southwest Pur- 
due Agriculture Center. Wet-only collections were made each week as a part of the 
NADP Network. 

298 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 95 (1986) 

Table 6. Foliar injury ratings of bioindicators in commercial melon fields, 1984. 





Bel W3 

Bel B 



Site #' 






OSU 1064 

BBL 290 































































































Plants were rated during the last week of August using a rating scale of to 10 with 
leaf area exhibiting foliage injury, 10 = absence of leaf injury. 
'Site locations 1-3: Sullivan County; 4-11: Knox County; 12-13: Gibson County. 
Site 5 = SWPAC; Site ll = Decker. 

approximately all 


Results from this study indicate that air pollution is present in SW Indiana in 
sufficient concentrations to cause injury to sensitive agricultural crops. This conclu- 
sion is supported both by the recorded readings of high concentrations of air pollutants 
and by the acidic nature of the precipitation at both monitoring sites. A regional air 

Figure 7. Upper surface "flecking" on leaf of tobacco cv. Bel W-3 caused by ozone. 

Environmental Quality 299 

Figure 8. Upper surface "stippling" on leaf of bean cv. OSU 1604 caused by ozone. 

quality problem is also suggested by the number of sites in which the bioindicator 
plants exhibited foliar injury induced by air pollution. This is in agreement with the 
recent study by Decoteau et al. (2) who identified ozone as the principal cause of the 
foliar damage to watermelons in SW Indiana. 

Bioindicator plants in the southern section of the region exhibited less foliar in- 
jury than plants in the northern sites. Differences in plant injury among fields and 
sites may be due to differences in soil type and pH, and growing conditions between 
sites. However, although differences in soil pH were recorded among the sites, the 
visible injury was caused by air pollution and not by low pH soil or biotic stress. 
Tissue analysis indicated normal concentrations of manganese and magnesium in the 
bioindicators. Muskmelon and watermelon plants grown in the same region in low 
pH soils (pH <5.5) have exhibited foliar chlorosis and necrosis due to toxic levels 
of manganese and deficient levels of magnesium (17). 

Visible injury on S0 2 -sensitive squash and soybeans and an 3 -sensitive beans 
(BBL 290 & OSU 1605) was indicative only of 3 damage (i.e. upper surface stippling 
and chlorosis) with little to no classical S0 2 injury (bifacial necrosis) observed. The 
high levels of ozone that persisted for several hours during the summer months caused 
injury to these air pollution sensitive plants. Concentrations of 3 that can induce 
observable foliar injury on 3 -sensitive plants are estimated to be > 0.050 ppm for 
2 to 4 hour periods (13). In SW Indiana, 30-36% of the total mean hourly 3 concen- 
trations exceeded > 0.050 ppm. In comparison, Brennan and Rhoads (1) reported signifi- 
cant oxidant injury on field-grown beans in New Jersey when only 3% of the total 
mean hourly 3 concentrations exceeded > 0.050 ppm. While most of the plant injury 
appears characteristic of 3 -induced injury, the role of S0 2 as an injury-inducer is 
not known. Ozone and S0 2 in experimental exposures with other plant species have 
been shown to act synergistically in causing enhanced plant injury (16). The resulting 
visible injury can mimic that caused by O, alone. While S0 2 concentrations were not 
high enough to cause direct foliar injury alone, the measured concentrations, which 

300 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 95 (1986) 

occurred during daylight hours, could enhance the ozone-injury symptoms and the 
interaction of Oj and S0 2 warrants further study. Short periods of measurable S0 2 
concentrations did exist during the 1984 and 1985 growing seasons with sulfur dioxide 
concentrations being greater during 1985. The duration of levels above background 
was longer at the Decker site than at SWPAC. Direct foliar injury due to acidic precipita- 
tion was not observed during the 1985 growing season. Only one collection, a pH 
of 3.24 at SWPAC, is in the range where foliar injury to sensitive plants has been 
noted in controlled studies of acid rain (7). Analysis of the precipitation for anions 
and cations would allow the estimation of the total acidic deposition as well as the 
deposition of important nutrients (S, Ca, Kg, K, and N) and should be examined. 
This study has determined that air pollution is present in SW Indiana, and that 
ozone is in concentrations sufficiently high to result in visible injury to air pollution 
sensitive plant species. Further research is necessary to determine specific effects and 
synergistic effects of 3 , NO x , S0 2 , and the pH of precipitation and soil. The role 
of S0 2 , 3 and acidic deposition in predisposing agricultural crops to nutrient stress 
and infectious diseases warrants further investigation. Finally, continued studies are 
necessary to determine the effect of air pollution on the actual growth, yield, and 
economic impact to the agricultural and horticultural crops of Indiana. 

Literature Cited 

1. Brennan, E. and A. Rhoads. 1976. Response of field-grown bean cultivars to 
atmospheric oxidant in New Jersey. Plant Dis. Reptr. 60:941-945. 

2. Decoteau, D.R., J.E. Simon, G. Eason and R.A. Reinert. 1986. Ozone-induced 
injury on field-grown watermelons. HortScience (In press). 

3. Goren, A.I. and A.E. Donagi. 1980. Assessment of Atmospheric Ozone Levels 
in Israel Through Foliar Injury to Bel-W3 Tobacco Plants. Oecologia (Berl.) 

4. Heck, W.W. 1966. The use of plants as indicators of air pollution. Int. J. Air 
and Water Poll. 10:99-111. 

5. Heck, W.W., F.L. Fox, C.S. Brandt, and J.A. Dunning. 1969. Tobacco, A Sen- 
sitive Monitor for Photochemical Air Pollution. U.S. Dept. Health, Education 
and Welfare. Nat. Air Poll. Contr. Assoc. Cincinnati, Ohio. No. AP-55. 23 pp. 

6. Horsman, D.C. 1981. A Survey of ozone in Melbourne using tobacco as an in- 
dicator plant. Envirn. Poll. (Ser. B) 2:69-77. 

7. Irving, P.M. 1983. Acidic precipitation effects on crops: A review and analysis 
of research. J. Environ. Qual. 12(4): 442-45 3. 

8. Jacobson, J.S. and A.C. Hill (ed). 1970. Recognition of Air Pollution Injury 
To Vegetation: A Pictorial Atlas. Air Poll. Contr. Assoc, Pittsburg, PA. 

9. Lacasse, N.L. and M. Treshow (ed). 1976. Diagnosing Vegetation Injury Caused 
by Air Pollution. Applied Science Associates. Air Pollution Training Institute. 

10. Latin, R.X., J.E. Simon and D.L. Matthew (ed). 1984. Indiana Vegetable Pro- 
duction Guide for Commercial Growers. Purdue Univ. Coop. Ext. Serv. ID-56. 
69 pp. 

11. Loehman, E. and T. Wilkinson. 1983. Ozone damage to field crops in Indiana. 
Purdue Univ. Agric. Exp. Sta. Bull. No. 426. 38 pp. 

12. Middleton, J.T. and A.O. Paulus. 1956. The identification and distribution of 
air pollutants through plant response. Arch. Ind. Health. 14:526-532. 

13. National Research Council. 1977. Ozone and other photochemical oxidants. Na- 
tional Academy of Sciences. Washington, DC. 719 pp. 

Environmental Quality 301 

14. NADP. 1985. NADP Annual Data Summary, Precipitation Chemistry in the United 
States, 1982. Natural Res. Ecol. Lab., Fort Collins, CO. 

15. NADP. 1982. NADP Instruction Manual, Site Operation. Natural Res. Ecol. Lab., 
Fort Collins, CO. 

16. Reinert, R.A. 1984. Plant response to air pollutant mixtures. Ann. Rev. Phytopath. 

17. Simon, J.E., G.E. Wilcox, M. Simini, O.M. Elamin, and D.R. Decoteau. 1986. 
Identification of manganese toxicity and magnesium deficiency on muskmelon 
and watermelon grown in low pH soils. HortScience. (In press) 


This research was supported in part by the United States Department of Agriculture 
(Cooperative Agreement Research Grant No. 58-5114-4-6001), the Purdue Agricultural 
Experiment Station, Public Service Indiana, Inc., the Indiana Electric Association, 
and the Indiana State Board of Health. The authors wish to acknowledge Drs. Richard 
Reinert and Walter Heck, USDA/ARS National Air Pollution Control Division, Raleigh, 
NC, for their valuable comments during this study; Ken Ritter, Stan Paulsel, Richard 
Edmonds, and Rod Thompson of the Indiana State Board of Health, Division of Air 
Pollution Control for their assistance in monitoring air quality. We greatly appreciate 
the assistance of Lori Smith, Mary Overley, Meb Lang, Christina Decoteau, and Dar- 
rell Daniels, in data collecting and maintaining the bioindicator plots. We thank Public 
Service Indiana for establishing an S0 2 monitoring station in Decker and providing 
us with S0 2 monitoring data from that site. Acknowledgment is also made to Dexter 
Bloebaum, Enos Ellerman and the other melon growers in southwestern Indiana who 
shared with us their valuable observations and allowed us to conduct our studies on 
their farmland. 


Chair: Donald W. Ash 

Department of Geography and Geology 

Indiana State University, Terre Haute, Indiana 47809 (812) 232-6311/2188 

Chair-Elect: Akhtar Husain Siddiqi 

Department of Geography and Geology 

Indiana State University, Terre Haute, Indiana 47809 (812) 232-6311/2441 


Ground-water Basins and Statewide Ground-water Monitoring — Indiana as an Example. 

Konrad J. Banaszak, U.S. Geological Survey, Indianapolis, Indiana 46254. 

Designation of aquifers in the past generally has been by rock or sediment type, such 
as the Silurian-Devonian carbonate aquifer in Indiana. An accurate representation of 
an aquifer's function, i.e., the conveyance of ground-water from recharge to discharge 
zones, indicates that ground-water basins are the proper monitoring unit. There are 
at least seven ground-water basins in the Silurian-Devonian rocks, only two of which 
are completely in Indiana. Similarly, four ground-water basins are proposed for the 
Mississippian, twelve for the highly transmissive surficial deposits, and eight for the 
till-dominated deposits. 

Once the ground-water basins have been delineated, the flow system within each 
ground-water basin needs to be understood. The recharge, natural discharge to 
evapotranspiration, streams, and other aquifers, and anthropogenic stresses, such as 
from wells or sewers, should be quantified. Knowledge of the flow system can be used 
to assess the needs for measurement of aquifer and ground-water properties. The strategy 
for measurement in both space and time could be deterministic or statistical. Sug- 
gested properties of the aquifer material to be monitored include the physical 
characteristics of saturated thickness, porosity, and permeability, and the chemical prop- 
erties of mineralogy and adsorbed constituents. Suggested properties of the ground 
water are also physical, such as temperature, pressure, and density and chemical 
characteristics, such as the concentrations of trace elements and organic compounds. 

An understanding of the basic hydrologic functioning of Indiana aquifers in ground- 
water basins leads to suggested monitoring strategies. In the well defined glaciofluvial 
aquifers, data collection can be based on flow paths. For the difficult to define till- 
bound sand and gravel aquifers, statistical definition of aquifer properties and water 
quality probably is the proper course. 

Weather Types Related to Extreme Maximum Temperature. Mark Binkley, Depart- 
ment of Geography and Geology, Indiana State University, Terre Haute, Indiana 

47809. This study examined anomalous maximum temperatures and their associated 

synoptic components. Weather data from Indianapolis, Indiana for the months of 
January, April, July, and October (representing each of the four seasons) for the period 
1960-1969 were examined utilizing a synoptic approach to determine the correlation, 
if any, between certain synoptic situations and the anomalous data. 

This research on climatic anomalies focused on deviations from climatic normals. 
The mean (or climatic normal) for each variable was used along with the standard 
deviation. The criterion for a value to be considered anomalous was that it is greater 
than or less than two standard deviations from the mean. These few variables could 
be considered the true anomalies in each of the categories. 


304 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 95 (1986) 

The data required to perform this research included both surface weather condi- 
tions at Indianapolis and corresponding surface weather patterns. Analysis of the sur- 
face data using a computerized statistical package provided the information described 
above. Extensive examination of Daily Weather Maps led to a system for classifying 
synoptic conditions on the basis of identified criterion. 

The conclusions of the research confirm the validity of the alternative approach 
to developing a surface synoptic climatology. Although the backward, analyzing the 
data before the maps, approach cannot be accepted or rejected conclusively, the con- 
clusions do indicate its usefulness in a base study. 

Evidence of Fossil Algae in the Upper Ordovician of Southeast Indiana and Southwest 
Ohio. Will H. Blackwell, Departments of Botany and Geology, Miami University, 

Oxford, Ohio 45056. The Ordovician (Cincinnatian) sediments of southeastern 

Indiana and southwestern Ohio are well known for their rich invertebrate fossil fauna. 
In contrast, fossil algal material has been considered variously as extremely sparse 
or else lacking altogether. It is only logical though that some of the invertebrates must 
have grazed on algal material. Spurred in part by information associated with museum 
specimens, a reasonably extensive field search has yielded evidence of fossil algae in 
several formations, including the Elkhorn, Whitewater and Saluda fms. Both calcareous 
(skeletal) and noncalcareous forms may be found. Of particular interest are oncolotic 
occurrences of calcareous algae such as Girvanella (cyanophytes) and Soloenopora 
(rhodophytes). In some cases, the Solenopora specimens occur as crust-like masses 
or even as rhodoliths. The Girvanella oncalites may have developed around the perimeter 
of brachiopod/bryozoan colonies. Both Solenopora and Girvanella colonies accumulated 
in a shallow marine environment. Further search is quite likely to yield additional 
evidence of fossil algal material in Upper Ordovician (Richmondian) strata. 

Surficial Water Flow Patterns in Fistulipora sp. (Bryozoa) (Chesterian, Mississippian). 

Annie Carson, Broadripple High School, Indianapolis, Indiana, Paul Chojenski, Gavit 
High School, Hammond, Indiana and Mark E. Patzkowsky, Indiana University, 

Bloomington, Indiana 47405. Colony-wide water currents in marine bryozoans 

serve important ecologic functions that probably have high adaptive significance. 
Although Anstey (in press) has suggested that variations in water flow among fossil 
bryozoans have important evolutionary implications, this important function has not 
been rigorously studied in many fossil bryozoan taxa. A preliminary investigation of 
the colonial development of water flow in specimens of Fistulipora sp., a fossil en- 
crusting bryozoan from the late Mississippian in eastern United States, indicates a 
systematic developmental pattern. Initially, water flow was centripetal, converging on 
a macula that marked the ancestrular area of the colony. As the colony grew larger, 
new maculae were added and flow around these new maculae was initially unidirec- 
tional (bypassed flow) but became more centripetal with time. 

Macular diameters and intermacular distances increase as colony size increases. 
Monticules develop in larger colonies and, in our specimens, form a weak association 
with maculae. Thus, colony-wide water currents became more locally concentrated 
around maculae presumably to maintain efficient flow for feeding and disposal of 
waste and reproductive products. The well-integrated centripetal flow around each macula 
as described by Anstey (1981) is not present in our specimens, however, our materials 
do not include specimens as large as Anstey described. 

Measurement of Slope Erosion. J. Fan and C.W. Lovell, School of Civil Engineer- 
ing, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907. A rainfall simulator was 

Geology and Geography 305 

used for field erosion studies on plots 10 ft wide x 35 ft long or longer. The plot 
steepness ranged from 0°7o to 50%. The footings and the frames were designed for 
wind speeds as high as 20 mph. Extra inflow was introduced to simulate excess runoff 
from highway pavements or upslope lengths. Variable intensities of rainfall in time 
and in space can be programmed for the simulator. 

A comparison is made between predicted and measured distributions of rainfall 
intensities on these steep slopes. 

Ice-marginal Drainage along the Glacial Boundary in Southeastern Indiana. Henry 

H. Gray, Indiana Geological Survey, Bloomington, Indiana 47405. In southeastern 

Indiana a pre-Wisconsinan ice sheet at its maximum confronted the massive Knobstone 
Escarpment along almost its entire perimeter. In most places the ice surmounted the 
escarpment. Much of the melt water from this ice sheet flowed directly away from the 
ice margin and into southwestward-flowing preexisting major drainageways. No in- 
tegrated ice-marginal drainage system was formed, but as the ice sheet wasted, melt water 
formed interbasin cols that remain as features of the postglacial landscape and as clues 
to the direction and level of drainage. Minor drainage parallel to the ice margin is 
indicated mainly along the southernmost part of the margin where the ice did not 
overtop the Knobstone Escarpment. This is in contrast to ice-marginal conditions in 
southwestern Indiana where a series of features that apparently represent a single in- 
tegrated drainage system of low gradient lie along the glacial boundary for almost 
its entire extent. 

Paleontology of the Waldron Formation (Silurian; Wenlockian) from near Muncie, 
Indiana. Harvey Henson, Department of Geology, Southern Illinois University, Car- 
bondale, Illinois 62901 and Trent A. Dewees and Richard H. Fluegeman, Jr., 

Department of Geology, Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana 47306. A diverse 

fauna of Silurian age has been collected from the DeSoto Quarry of the Irving Materials 
Corporation 3 km northeast of Muncie, Indiana. The fauna was collected from rocks 
assigned to the Waldron Formation. Lithology of the Waldron at this locality consists 
of a basal, medium bluish-gray (5B5/1) oolitic grainstone, 3 m thick followed by an 
interval of interbedded, light bluish-gray (5B7/1), wackestones and very thin clayshales 
1.8 m thick. These lithologies are in stark contrast to the classic Waldron exposures 
of southeastern Indiana where shale is the dominant lithology. Despite the difference 
in lithology, the fauna from the DeSoto Quarry is a distinct Waldron fauna with all 
34 species being previously described from classic Waldron localities. The fauna is 
dominated by articulate brachiopods with 12 species being recorded. Additionally, species 
of trilobites, ectoprocts, corals, bivalves, gastropods, cephalopods, sponges, and crinoids 
are also present. 

The presence of Waldron species in a different lithofacies implies that the fauna 
was not substrate specific and that other ecologic conditions such as salinity, temperature, 
and availability of nutrients may have been more homogeneous south of the Michigan 
Basin during Wenlockian time than was previously suspected. 

The Microearthquake Storm of 1984 Recorded in Terre Haute, Indiana. Gerald J. 

Shea, Terre Haute, Indiana 47802. Microearthquakes have been observed in the 

vicinity of Terre Haute for over 30 years. In 1984, an unusual series of events occurred 
during a three month period which can be called a microearthquake storm. During 
this time period 33 events were carefully studied and upon analysis were identified 
as of techtonic origin. Screening these events out from mine blasts was accomplished 
by a critical investigation of the P..S, and G waves. The velocity and depth of focus 
also was critical to the identification. 

306 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 95 (1986) 

The exact cause of the microearthquake storm is at present unknown. Some possible 
causes considered during the study are: injection wells in operation causing an uplift 
in the strata; erosion and shifting of soil deposits along the Wabash River basin resulting 
in base rock strata adjustments; and, deep well operations removing mineral or water- 
gas resources resulting in adjustments of the strata. 

Whatever the origin may have been, and it may be a long time before a plausable 
explanation is determined, the resultant microearthquake storm of July, August, and 
September 1984 was a unique geologic process. It deserves a very careful investigation 
to determine the important factors involved such as cause, effect and origin. The final 
results could be very interesting, perhaps for those yet to come, in the 21st Century. 

Engineering Geology of Indiana Lake Bed Deposits and their Effect on Coal Mining. 

Terry R. West, Department of Geosciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, In- 
diana 47907. Lake bed deposits overlie Pennsylvanian bedrock in 15 or more 

counties in southwestern Indiana. At many of these locations mineable coal occurs 
within the Pennsylvanian section. 

The lake bed deposits in this area consists of intertonguing and interrelated un- 
consolidated sediments resulting from glacial action, but generally deposited beyond 
the glacial boundary. These beds were deposited in standing water adjacent to upland 
areas composed primarily of Pennsylvanian bedrock. Outwash, dune sand and loess 
deposits are directly associated with the lake beds and in some areas till is also in- 
volved. The lacustrine deposits themselves consist of layers of silt and clay plus thin 
sands, organics and marl. Overall stratigraphy of the system is extremely complex. 

Lacustrine materials pose problems for coal strip mines. Instability in both the 
high wall and cast over piles have been evaluated in graduate research projects at Purdue 
University (Greengold, 1981; Oschman, 1984). Driller's logs from coal company ex- 
ploration does not provide adequate detail to decipher the detailed stratigraphy of 
these deposits. Subsidence of thick deposits of lacustrine clays over underground coal 
mines is another concern. When underground coal mining becomes more active in 
the future, these concerns must be faced. 

Studies are underway to determine the detailed stratigraphy of the lake bed deposits 
and determine engineering properties of the distinct layers of material. Borehole 
geophysics and groundwater data are being accomplished as well. 

Type Section for Indian Creek Limestone Beds in the 
Sie. Genevieve Formation of South Central Indiana. 

Garre A. Conner 

Conner Petroleum Company 

Evansville, Indiana 47701 


Indian Creek Limestone Beds is introduced as a new name in rock-unit stratigraphy 
designated for the lower half of the Levias Member within the Ste. Genevieve Forma- 
tion at Indiana exposures. This name is selected for the exposures in streams, caverns, 
and quarries in the karsted headlands of Indian Creek throughout Monroe and Lawrence 
Countys. The abandoned Webster Quarry 3.5 miles southwest of Springville in Lawrence 
County is designated type section exposure for the Indian Creek Beds, Figure 1 . The 

Figure I 








Indiana Academy of Science 

Vol. 95 (1986) 

thin even bedding, distinctive lithographic texture, and fracture habit contrast this unit 
from the overlying oolitic and bioclastic beds, and from the subjacent sandy oolitic 
and dolostone beds. 

The present investigation with field work in 1982 through 1985 revisited previous- 
ly published Ste. Genevieve exposures throughout the Crawford Upland and Mitchell 
Plain physiographies of Indiana, C. A. Malott (1922, p. 59-256). This region extends 
95 miles from Owen to Harrison Countys in Indiana. More than 30 new measured 
sections have been completed in related investigations to further reveal the Indian Creek 
Beds and their variations of stratigraphic expression. 

Cordial acknowledgment is accorded to Richard Powell and John Bassett of Geo- 
science Research Associates, and to Henry Gray of the Indiana Geological Survey who 
have provided suggestions and guidance which have benefited this investigation. 

History of Nomenclature 

The middle Mississippian Ste. Genevieve Formation is continuous throughout the 
eastern flank of the Illinois Basin extending across southwestern Indiana as a major 
oil productive carbonate unit, Figure 2. C. A. Malott divided the Ste. Genevieve 
Limestone of Indiana exposures (1946, p. 322-326) at the cataracts on Mill Creek in 
Owen County. The names Levias, Rosiclare, and Fredonia became the divisions in 
conformity with the Illinois standard section then. A major field reconnaisance describing 
the Ste. Genevieve exposures in Indiana was accomplished by C. A. Malott (1952, 
p. 1-105) and T. Perry and N. Smith (1958, p. 1-1 10) prior to an episode of refinement 
of the Mississippian column and correlation adjustments proceeding from sophistica- 
tion of carbonate systems models and improved correlation control across the Basin. 

H. Gray, R. Jenkins, and R. Weidman (1960, p. 48) established the Blue River 
Group assigning the Ste. Genevieve Limestone to the middle. N. Smith (Shaver, et 
al. 1970, p. 143-144) discussed the dual and conflicting uses of the terms Levias, 
Rosiclare, and Fredonia and their rank as Members in the Ste. Genevieve Formation 
of Indiana. 


Rock Unit Stratigraphic Position 

Figure 2 

Aux Vases Fm. 

Ste. Genevieve 

do St. Louis Fm. 

Pqq I i L ime stone 

X Brya nt svill e B recc ia Bed 
Levias Member 

Indian Creek Beds 

Rosiclare Member 

( Spar Mounta in 

Fredonia Member 

Lost River Chert Beds 

11/15/85 GA.C. 

Geology and Geography 



The abandoned Webster quarry (S/2 NE/4 Sec. 31, T6N R2W) in Lawrence County 
is herein designated type section for the Indian Creek Beds. The rock units serialed 
nos. 7, 8, and 9, (Fig. 3) from C. A. Malott's original description (1952, p. 85) com- 
prising a total thickness of 27.5 feet are identified as the type exposure. The terms 
lithographic, silty, and dense as Malott applied them are sufficient to recognize the 
Beds. The top is located 28 feet below the base of the Bryantsville Breccia Bed at 
the quarry. The massive granular unit 10 overlying the Indian Creek Beds marks a 

2 8 Ft. 

Figure 3 

16 Bryantsville Breccia Bed 


Webster Quarry 
and Road Cut 
S/2 NE/4 

Sec. 31 T6N, R2W 

Stratigraphic column drawn from description 
by Malott (1952, p. 85); original unit numbers. 

II - 15 - 85 

G. A. C. 

310 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 95 (1986) 

gradational transition to the oolitic beds above. The base of the Indian Creek Beds 
is below the level of the quarry floor and exposed along the roadside east of the quarry 
at an altimeter elevation of 581 feet msl. The base of the Beds rest conformably on 
a calcareous shale, unit 6, marking the contact with the Rosiclare Member below. 

The Indian Creek Beds are thin and evenly bedded in units 8 and 9, with beds 
ranging 0.2 to 0.9 feet thick. This lithographic limestone has a homogenous matrix 
of cryptocrystalline micrite composed of translucent calcite or aragonite crystals. The 
white color is yellow stained from the clay intercalations (less than Va inch thick), 
black from organic carbon, or tan from the terra rosa regolith. Green stains surround 
small vugs and fractures filled with chloritic clays. Sparse birdseye structures and nests 
of productid brachiopods and gastropods are common in the Beds. Few styolites are 
present in the Indian Creek Beds in the quarry. Stratified nodular chert in the Beds 
was not described by Malott (1952, p. 86) who remarked of units 7, 8, and 9 resembl- 
ing the "rubblestone" of the Spencer Quarry in Owen County; thus making a correla- 
tion of the Beds based on the lithological characteristics. The term rubblestone as ap- 
plied to the lithographic beds was adopted from Sweitzer (Collet, 1876, 315, 329-330). 
It was used by Malott (1952, p. 1-105) in reference to beds now named Indian Creek 
Beds and more frequently another stratigraphic position above in the Bryantsville Breccia 
Bed where a lithographic limestone host to the breccia appears rubbly as a result of 
algal laminations and subaerial laminated crust. 

The "Old Tunnel Section" (NW/4 Sec. 35, T8N R2W) in Monroe County described 
by C. A. Malott (1952, p. 57) is an excellent reference exposure for the Indian Creek 
Beds. Malott's unit 2 is in the Beds and further investigation measured 14 feet of 
lithographic limestone with the top of the Beds coincedent with the tunnel ceiling. 
Although much debris fills the tunnel it clearly was excavated within the entire thickness 
of the Indian Creek Beds for a distance of 150 feet. Numerous styolites in the Indian 
Creek Beds and in the oolitic beds above were described by Malott and previously 
by J. Beede (1915, p. 208-209). 

The upper falls of the cataracts on Mill Creek (SE/4 NW/4 NE/4 Sec. 35, T12N 
R4W) in Owen County is a reference exposure described by C. A. Malott (1952, p. 
33) where he divided the Ste. Genevieve Limestone (1946, p. 322-326). Although the 
Beds are generally recognizable at the cataracts thickness is only 6 feet, Malott's unit 
7, (1952, p. 33). Several miles southwest the Beds are closer to .30 feet with individual 
beds averaging 0.9 to 1.2 feet in thickness. Some older churches and government buildings 
in Spencer are constructed of Indian Creek Beds. 

Subsurface reference sections for the Indian Creek Beds are found in the follow- 
ing cores in the collections of the Indiana Geological Survey. SDH No. 155, Leininger 
farm, (SW/4 NW/4 NE/4, Sec. 7, T8N R2W) in Monroe County; depth 168 to 180 
feet below a surface of 905 feet msl. SDH No. 330, Munsen farm, (150'NL 845'EL 
NE SW Sec. 22, T7N R2W) in Monroe County; depth 104 to 122 feet below a surface 
of 883 feet msl. Corehole #S-3 from Martin County State Forest (SW SW SE, Sec. 
24, T3N R3W) drilled in 1953, has the Indian Creek Beds at a depth of 402 to 419 
feet below a surface of 791 feet msl. The base of the unit rest upon a bed of calcite 
sand at the top of the Rosiclare Member. 


Tentatively the Indian Creek Beds are considered equivalent to the lower portion 
of the Karnak Member of the Ste. Genevieve Formation in Illinois (Swann, 1963, p. 
28-29). This correlation is favored on the assumption that the Indian Creek Beds rest 
upon the Rosiclare Member in Indiana which is generally accepted as the correct Spar 
Mountain equivalent in Illinois. Precise paleontological observation is beyond the focus 

Geology and Geography 3 1 1 

of this investigation, however a review of Malott (1952) and Perry and Smith (1958) 
finds the Indian Creek Beds within the range of Platycrinus penicillus and below the 
range of Talerocrinus. Difficulty in correlating the Basin Valmeyeran formations with 
the Indiana out-crops arises from the subtly of Valmeyeran unconformities and com- 
plex lithofacies relationships in models composed of a few simple lithotypes. Reference 
horizons are either thin and discontinuous or in the case of the Paoli Limestone have 
not been conclusively correlated. 

Recognition and mapping of the Indian Creek Beds in Indiana is an effort to 
establish a reliable reference horizon in the Ste. Genevieve Formation which will be 
recognized in the subsurface allowing progress to be made with the Aux Vases and 
Renault Formations. Altimeter structure mapping along the Indian Creek Beds out- 
crops in Monroe County resulted in prediction of that horizon in an exploratory oil 
test at Solsberry in Greene County. A fair correspondence between drill cuttings and 
Schlumberger Induction log signatures suggests the Indian Creek Beds are present far- 
ther into the Basin in Indiana and possibly are interbedded with dolomitic micrite facies. 
Extension of the Indian Creek Beds to the Basin center is not anticipated. Area restric- 
tion may be limited pending interpretation that the Beds were chemically precipitated 
at a relatively rapid rate in low energy shallow water conditions. 

Literature Cited 

1. Beede, J.W., 1915. Geology of the Bloomington Quadrangle: Indiana Dept. 
Geology and Nat. Resources, Ann. Rept. 39, p. 190-312, 4 pis. 

2. Collett, J., 1876. Geology of Owen County: 7th. Ann. Rept. of the Geological 
Survey of Indiana, p. 601. 

3. Gray, H., Jenkins, R., and Weidman, R., 1960. Geology of the Huron area, 
south-central Indiana: Indiana Geol. Survey Bull. 20, 78 p., 2 pis., 4 figs., 7 tables. 

4. Malott, C. A., 1922. The physiography of Indiana: Handbook of Indiana geology, 
Indiana Dept. Conserv. Pub. 21, pt. 2, p. 59-256, 3 pis., 51 figs. 

5. Malott, C. A., 1946. The geology of Cataract Falls, Owen County, Indiana: Jour. 
Geology, v. 54, p. 322-326, 2 figs. 

6. Malott, C. A., 1952. Stratigraphy of the Ste. Genevieve and Chester formations 
of southern Indiana: Ann Arbor, Mich., Edwards Letter Shop, 105 p. 

7. Perry, T. and Smith, N., 1958. The Meramec-Chester and intra-Chester bound- 
aries and associated strata in Indiana: Indiana Geol. Surv. Bull. 12, 110 p., 6 
pis., 1 fig. 

8. Shaver, R. et ah, 1970. Compendium of rock-unit stratigraphy in Indiana: Ind. 
Geol. Surv. Bull. 43., 229 p. 

9. Swann, D., 1963. Classification of Genevievian and Chesterian (late Mississip- 
pian) rock of Illinois: Illinois Geol. Surv. Rept. Inv. 216, 91 p., 1 pi., 23 figs. 

A Birdfoot Delta in (he Subsurface Pennsylvanian of Sullivan County, Indiana 

John B. Droste, N. Gary Lane and Christopher G. Maples* 

Department of Geology, Indiana University 

Bloomington, Indiana 47405 


We here describe a small, birdfoot delta of fluviatile sandstones and mudstones 
deposited contemporaneously with and between marine embayments of the Alum Cave 
Limestone Member of the Dugger Formation, uppermost unit of the Middle Penn- 
sylvanian in Sullivan County, Indiana. During the Pennsylvanian Period Indiana was 
situated in low southern latitudes near the plaeoequator (5 to 15 degrees South) and 
north of the paleosoutheast Tradewind Belt (1). The preserved record of Pennsylvan- 
ian rocks indicates that Indiana was the locus of deposition of predominantly terrigenous 
sand and mud in valley flat and delta plain environments. Coal-forming environments 
prevailed during short intervals, and scores of named and unnamed coals are laterally 
and vertically distributed throughout the sequence. Only about five percent of the 
preserved rocks record deposition in marine to marginal marine settings, and it is our 
purpose to interpret the general patterns of sedimentation that occurred during one 
of these marine episodes in Sullivan County (Figure 1). 


Pennsylvanian rocks of the Illinois Basin are characterized by many close-spaced 
vertical and lateral changes in lithology, and local and regional rock unit correlations 
are made primarily on the position of major coal beds and partly on the position 
of moderately persistent limestone units. 

One of the most exploited and widespread coals of the Illinois Basin, the 
Springfield, or No. 5, coal, marks the top of the Petersburg Formation in Indiana, 
near the middle of the Desmoinesian Series. The Alum Cave Limestone Member and 
associated rocks that directly overlie the Springfield Coal form the base of the Dugger 
Formation in Indiana. The Alum Cave of Indiana correlates with the St. David Limestone 
Member of the Carbondale Formation of Illinois and is known by miners in Kentucky 
as the Pennywinkle rock. The type section of the Alum Cave is near the site of the 
former town of Alum Cave, Sullivan County (2). Although limestone beds of the Alum 
Cave are not everywhere present in the subsurface of Sullivan County, their stratigraphic 
position and laterally equivalent rocks are recognizable throughout the county. 

Studies along the outcrop belt in Indiana described marine, marginal marine, and 
lower delta nonmarine environments in which Alum Cave rocks were deposited (3). 
A typical section above Springfield Coal in Sullivan County is approximately 1 to 8 
feet of brackish-water black shale that marks the onset of marine deposition and then 
1 to 5 feet of limestone with or without interbeds of richly fossiliferous gray shale 
that record the full development of marine environments. A highly bioturbated transi- 
tion unit of calcareous gray shale 1 to 2 feet thick is situated between the underlying 
black shale and the overlying limestone. At some places above the coal and laterally 
equivalent to the marine sections sands and muds were deposited in fluvial environments. 

The well-developed coal and limestone beds generally have characteristic electric- 
log signatures and are correlated easily from well to well. The thick fluvial sandstones 
generally have characteristic electric-log signatures, but these bodies are not as persis- 
tent as are the coal and limestone. Well samples are needed usually to distinguish be- 
tween fluvial shales and marine shales that are not interbedded in limestone. 



Indiana Academy of Science 

Vol. 95 (1986) 

Figure 1. Map showing Sullivan and adjacent counties in Indiana and sedimentary 
facies above Coal 5 in Sullivan County. 

Geology and Geography 315 

Well records for Sullivan County on file in the Petroleum Section, Indiana 
Geological Survey provided the data for this study. No coal company mine maps and 
core logs were used. A total of 250 wells provided information in the form of well 
samples, electric logs and well samples, or only electric logs. The 10 to 20 feet of 
rocks directly above Coal 5 record the events resulting from flooding of the coal swamp 
by the sea. Most drillers in Sullivan County have taken samples at 10-foot intervals 
so at least two samples are available for interpretation. 

Alum Cave and Associated Rocks 

The swampy environment in which the Springfield Coal formed was very exten- 
sive, perhaps the most extensive of all Illinois Basin coal swamps. Here and there streams 
flowed across the swamp, and fluvial deposits, especially channel sands, accumulated 
at the same time as the peaty vegetation. Two channel sandstone systems have been 
identified in Sullivan County as having accumulated at the same time as the Springfield 
Coal peat (4). These streams entered the county from the east and flowed southward 
out of the county. As marine waters invaded, the streams aggraded, the water table 
rose, and less sand was delivered to the lower part of the distributory system. As the 
plants died the lowest topographic sites in the swamp became the locii of deposition 
of organic-rich black muds in poorly oxygenated, brackish water. 

Marine waters deepended, became more widespread, and better circulation pro- 
vided a habitat in interdistributary bays for a marine fauna dominated by brachiopods, 
bryozoans, and echinoderms. The most distal parts of the distributary system were 
drowned, and fluvial sedimentation as channel and overbank deposits was restricted 
to near-channel locci (Figure 1). Lobes of a small birdfoot delta separated adjacent 
bays in Sullivan County. The delta occupied parts of eight townships in Sullivan County 
(Figure 1). Individual delta lobes were narrow and elongate, ranging from one-half 
to two miles in width and two to eight miles in length. In other areas where streams 
were larger, their higher discharges and loads reduced the size of the bays, and marginal 
marine and nonmarine sedimentation prevailed. Eventually the fluvial regime became 
widespread throughout the Illinois Basin. 

In studies of surface rocks by Maples (3), the macroinvertebrate and trace fossil 
faunas of inner and outer bays and estuaries can be differentiated. We postulate that 
in these subsurface rocks interdistributary bay waters became less saline toward the 
delta apex and increasingly saline distally. 

The shape and size of the birdsfoot delta indicates that sandsize terrigenous elastics 
were in relatively short supply, being confined to narrow strips along distributary chan- 
nels. This limited distribution probably indicates that the stream supplying the delta 
had a low gradient and a distant sand source. The delta is strongly asymmetric, with 
long lobes on the south side and short lobes to the north. This asymmetry may be 
due to relative supply of sand to the two sides by a generally southwest-flowing river. 
Alternatively, this difference could be due to differences in strength of waves, cur- 
rents, or tides on the two sides of the delta. We note that the delta was situated within 
a large area of marine rocks to the west that represents a marine embayment along 
the west edge of the Illinois Basin. 

The regional subaerial delta plain herein is named the Vermilion Lowland (Figure 
2) after Vermilion County, Illinois, and Vermillion County, Indiana where extensive 
nonmarine strata throughout the stratigraphic interval between Coal 2 and Coal 7 have 
been described (6). The small delta built seaward in Sullivan County, Indiana, is named 
the Sullivan Delta. The Sullivan Delta is bounded on the north by the Coalmont Sound, 
named for Coalmont, Greene County, Indiana, which is the town (figure 1) nearest 
to the Alum Cave type section. The Sullivan Delta is bounded on the south by the 
Oaktown Sound, named after a town (Figure 1) in northern Knox County, Indiana. 

Limestone and shale 

Shale and limestone 

Shale and siltstone 
Sandstone and siltstone 

Figure 2. Map showing paleogeography in Alum Cave time. 

Finally, we suggest that the Springfield coal that underlies the freshwater distributary 
delta lobes may have a lower sulfur content than does the coal underlying the marine 
interdistributary bays. 


Donald L. Eggert and Denver Harper, geologists in the Coal Section, Indiana 
Geological Survey, discussed stratigraphic and environmental interpretations with us 
during the study. Harper kindly allowed us to use his recent unpublished map of Sullivan 
County showing the structure on top of the Springfield coal. 

Geology and Geography 317 

Literature Cited 

1. Scotese, C.R. and others. 1979. Paleozoic base maps, Jour. Geology, 87, pp. 

2. Shaver, R. H. and others. 1986. Compendium of Paleozoic rock-unit stratigraphy 
in Indiana— a revision, Indiana Geological Survey, Bulletin 59, XXXp. 

3. Maples, C.G. 1985. Paleontology, paleoeconogy, and depositional setting of the 
lower part of the Dugger Formation (Pennsylvanian: Desmoinesian) in Indiana, 
unpub. Ph.D. thesis, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN, 442 p. 

4. Eggert, D.L. and S.C. Adams, 198X. Distribution of fluvial channel systems con- 
temporaneous with the Springfield Coal Member (Middle Pennsylvanian) in 
southwestern Indiana, in Economic Geology: Coal, Oil and Gas, A.T. Cross, 
Ed., 9th International Congress of Carboninferous Geology, Proceedings v. 4, 
pp. xxx-xxx. and Ghose, S.N. 1983. Rod characteristics of Springfield (No. V) 
Coal in Indiana, Indiana Acad. Sci. 82, 1983, pp. 287-294. 

5. Wier, C.E. 1952. Distribution, structure, and mined areas of coals in Sullivan 
County, Indiana. PMC No. 2, Indiana Geological Survey. 

6. Jacobson, R. J., J. H. Goodwin, and W. A. White. 1980. Stratigraphy and mineral 
resources of Pennsylvanian strata in Vermilion County, Illinois, in Middle and 
Late Pennsylvanian strata on margin of Illinois Basin, R. L. Langenheim, Jr. 
and C. J. Mann, Eds., 10th Ann. Field Conf., Great Lakes Section, Soc. Econ. 
Paleont. Mineral, pp. 159-178. 

Indiana Coal Mine Information Project 

Paul N. Irwin, Licia A. Weber, Donald D. Carr and 

Walter A. Hasenmueller 
Indiana Geological Survey, Bloomington, Indiana 47405 

In 1981 the Indiana Geological Survey (IGS), in cooperation with the Indiana 
Division of Reclamation (DOR), accelerated its mapping of active and abandoned coal 
mines in the state. This project was undertaken to organize and document all available 
mine information and make it easily accessible to users. 

The IGS, as well as industry, private citizens, and other government agencies, 
is interested in the location of coal mines because the mines affect: (1) exploration 
for and develoment of coal, petroleum, and other mineral resources; (2) construction 
of highways, bridges, and public works; (3) construction and maintenance of homes 
and buildings; and (4) coal-resource calculations. The Indiana Bureau of Mines and 
Mining (IBMM) is concerned with how mines affect the health and safety of coal miners; 
the DOR is concerned with the effect of mines on reclamation and on safety and en- 
vironmental hazards. 


Coal has been mined in Indiana for more than 150 years. Thomas Wilson, an 
early State Mine Inspector, reported that the first coal was mined in 1825. It was strip- 
ped from an outcrop on Little Pigeon Creek east of Newburgh in Warrick County 
by Mr. Alpha Frisbee (5). Other sources report mining as early as 1765 (3). The American 
Cannel Coal Co., which mined coal near the present town of Cannelton in 1837, was 
the first company to be granted a charter by the Indiana State Legislature (1,8). Before 
1915 Indiana coal was produced almost entirely by underground mines. After 1915 
surface mining grew steadily in importance (Figure 1) and by 1939 displaced underground 
mining as the principal method of production (2). 

Collection of mine information by Indiana state agencies began with the Geological 
Reconnoissance of the State of Indiana by David Dale Owen (1837). Collection of 
mine information on an annual basis began with the report of the State Coal Mine 
Inspector in 1879. The 1898 report of the Department of Geology and Natural Resources 
(1) was the most complete compilation of Indiana coal mining to that date, and it 
is the primary source of early mine information. Publication of mine information by 
the IGS began in the early 1950s with the release of the Preliminary Coal Map series. 
Coal companies are now required by law to file copies of their underground workings 
with the IBMM. By 1976 IBMM files contained more than 1,600 maps documenting 
about 500 active and abandoned mines. 

Underground mines 

In 1976 the IGS began the project of mapping underground coal mines by com- 
piling existing in-house mine maps, which included maps collected during the course 
of various projects and photographs of mine maps from various county recorders' 
offices. To create more comprehensive and accessible documentation of underground 
coal mining, the IGS, in cooperation with the IBMM and the U.S. Bureau of Mines 
(USBM), transported all the maps on file at IBMM to the USBM facilities in Pitts- 
burgh, Pennsylvania, for microfilming. 

The microfilm file documents not only abandonment maps but also maps filed 
annually by coal companies as required by Indiana law. It was necessary to pick the 
abandonment map or the map showing the most recent workings for use in this pro- 



Indiana Academy of Science 

Vol. 95 (1986) 




1950 1960 





Figure 1 . Graph showing total coal production and production by underground and 
surface mining in Indiana, 1917-84. Data from 3, 4, and 6. 

ject. An 8'/2- by 11-inch photograph of each mine map was printed from the microfilm, 
then each mine map was converted to a scale of 1:24,000 (the scale of U.S. Geological 
Survey 7 Vi -minute quadrangle maps) before plotting. The procedure for map scaling 
and transfer, which was similar to that discussed by Urhin (7), involved the use of 
a digitizer and a computer, both of which were available at the IGS. The published 
Coal Map series (1 inch to 1 mile scale) (Figure 2) was then compiled from these 1:24,000 

Problems related to working with old mine maps on the microfilm format in- 
clude: (1) lack of a common scale (7), (2) poor quality of some maps due to age or 
damage, (3) lack of surface information necessary to locate a mine, (4) duplication 
of mines in the file, that is, a single mine with two or more names, and (5) incomplete 
information about the mine itself, such as mine name, company name, location, and 
seam of coal mined. Although many maps were found to lack sufficient data for plot- 
ting because of one or more of the reasons listed above, almost all mines could be 
properly identified and plotted by using information from other mine maps and available 

Surface mines 

The IGS has maintained a set of 1:24,000 quadrangle maps showing the locations 
of surface mines for a number of years. These maps have been updated several times. 

In preparing for the mapping of surface mines. The IGS purchased sets of aerial 
photographs from the U.S. Department of Agriculture for the counties that had sur- 
face mining. These photos were taken between 1972 and 1981. Available county soil 
surveys from the Soil Conservation Service were also obtained. 

Geology and Geography 








































Figure 2. Index map of Indiana showing location of counties covered in the Coal 
Map series for underground mines. 

Older aerial photos dating from 1937 were invaluable in plotting many of small 
mines that were totally overgrown on more recent photos. The annual affected-area 
maps, which show the extent of land affected by mining, were on file at the DOR. 
These maps were photographed, and 8'/2- by 11-inch prints of them were made. 

Mylar overlays were made for each quadrangle, and the information from the 
different sources was then scaled and plotted on the overlays. Information from the 
soil maps was used to check on the other plots and also to locate on the photos small 
mines that would have been missed otherwise. The outlines completed from the various 
sources were compared with aerial photos, and the best mine outlines were transferred 
to U.S. Geological Survey 7 Vi -minute quadrangle maps. 

It was necessary to use the photos in combination with the affected-area maps 
to plot mine outlines for areas mined after 1976. The recent mines were difficult to 
distinguish on the photos because of the high quality of reclamation in the Indiana 
coalfield. Areas mined subsequent to the most recent aerial photographs were mapped 
entirely from affected-area maps. 

Both sets of 7 Vi -minute quadrangle maps, surface and underground, were then 
photographed, and three 1 to 1 film-positive prints were made of each map from both 
sets. Both the IGS in Bloomington and the DOR in Jasonville maintain a set of these 
prints on open file. The various seams and mined areas were differentiated by using 

322 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 95 (1986) 

different colors of film overlays on two of these prints. The third set was left un- 
colored and is on file at the IGS for use in making reproductions on request. 


The IGS began accumulating coal-mine information in the late 1940s. As the size 
of the files increased and requests for detailed information became more frequent, 
it became apparent a computer database was desirable. 

Currently the mine database uses the Scientific Information Retrieval (SIR) 
Database Management System (DBMS). SIR has the capability to handle blank variable 
fields as well as multiples of the same variable. These capabilities are necessary because 
of the variable nature of the mine-file information. The mine database has now been 
in use for about three years. 

The following types of information, if known, are included in the database for 
each mine: number of the source map(s), name(s), dates of mine operation under this 
name, pit name(s), company name(s), county(ies) location(s), U.S. Geological Survey 
7!/2-minute quadrangle(s) location(s), township(s) and section(s) location(s), dates of 
operation, type of mine, method of mining, method(s) of transportation, major con- 
sumers), coal seam(s) mined, thickness of seam(s), depth of coal seam(s), elevation 
of coal seam(s), lithology of roof, lithology of floor, IGS coal sample(s) taken in the 
mine, production by year (in tons), source(s) of production figures, and production 
by seam (in tons). This database currently contains over 66,000 lines of information 
about more than 7,000 mines and pits. Each surface-mine pit is treated as an individual 

SIR and the database of mine information make possible a variety of inquiries. 
For example, we can retrieve information about all underground mines in Sullivan 
County that produced more than 50,000 tons per year, mined the Springfield Coal 
Member (Petersburg Formation), and operated between 1900 and 1950, or we can retrieve 
information about all mines in Indiana that mined the Survant Coal Member (Linton 
Formation) where it was more than 3.5 feet thick. 

The quality of existing mine information varies greatly, but documentation of 
large underground mines is fairly complete since the establishment of the IBMM and 
the agencies that preceded it. Information on surface mines is much less complete. 
Much of the data in existing IGS files on early (pre- 1950) surface mines was obtained 
from the Indiana Coal Association. Identification of surface-mine pits is complicated 
by the general practice of considering the tipple location to be the mine location. This 
practice causes a great deal of confusion for an area where several large mines had 
a number of pits. Therefore, each surface pit has been treated as a mine. Little infor- 
mation is available on most small mines, both surface and underground, that operated 
before the early 1950s. 


A wide range of users have requested information made available by this project. 
The DOR uses the information extensively in its Abandoned Mine Lands Program. 
Operations involving the use or extractions of subsurface resources, such as coal, oil 
and gas, industrial minerals, and ground water, require the use of coal-mine informa- 
tion. Mine maps also aid planners and developers in areas where building or road 
and bridge work is intended. Mine information assists government and industry in 
making resource-reserve calculations. 

The contributions of this project to current users have proved substantial; future 
use and value are foreseeable in projects presently in the planning stage. These maps 
will be of importance if the underground production of Indiana coal once again in- 

Geology and Geography 323 

creases. Mining laws in Indiana require drilling 20 feet laterally in advance of the mine 
workings when approaching within 200 feet of the boundaries of abandoned works. 
The U.S. Office of Surface Mining has initiated a program to encourage states to 
form a mine subsidence insurance program. Products of the coal mine information 
project should be very valuable in assessing subsidence risks both in establishing the 
program and in assisting individual property owners in deciding if the insurance is 
necessary for them. As more individuals become aware of the availability of coal- 
mining data, the use and benefits of these data will increase. 

The importance of compiling reliable and accessible information was stressed more 
than 100 years ago by the first Indiana State Coal Mine Inspector, Herbert H. Richards: 

"I cannot exaggerate the importance of having correct plans. When our pre- 
sent mines are abandoned and filled with water, these maps will have to guide 
us in future mining operations, and if they are misleading we should be much 
better without them, for they may cause much destruction of life." (5) 


This project was financially supported by the Indiana Division of Reclamation. 
We would like to thank the many student workers at Indiana University who con- 
tributed a great deal to the project, especially David Burke, Pat Davis, Jennifer Gilles, 
Lori Jelenick, Ronald Strauser, Lisa Thulstrup, and Amy Roberts. 

Literature Cited 

1. Ashley, G. H. 1899. The Coal Deposits of Indiana: Indiana Dept. Geology and 
Nat. Resources Ann. Rept. 23, p. 1-1573. 

2. Harper, Denver. 1981. Trends in Underground Coal Mining in Indiana: Indiana 
Geol. Survey Occasional Paper 33. 

3. Indiana Bureau of Mines and Mining. 1981-1985. Annual Reports 1980-1984: State 
of Indiana. 

4. Indiana Coal Association. 1955. Report of Indiana Coal Production during Calen- 
dar Years 1917 to 1954. 

5. Indiana Inspector of Mines. 1880. Annual Report 1879-80: State of Indiana. 

6. Powell, R. L. 1972. Coal Strip-Mined Land in Indiana: Indiana Geol. Survey 
Special Report 6. 

7. Uhrin, D. C. 1977. Correlating Microfilm Mine Maps with Topographic Maps: 
United States Bureau of Mines Information Circular 8762. 

8. Wier, C. E. 1973. Coal Resources of Indiana: Indiana Geol. Survey Bull. 42-1. 

Petrographic and Trace Element Characteristics of the Hymera (VI) Coal in Indiana 

Haydn H. Murray, Richard P. Heberton and Roland S. Merkl 

Department of Geology, Indiana University 

Bloomington, Indiana 47405 


The Hymera (VI) coal is one of the more important commercially mined coals 
in southwestern Indiana. This coal is traceable from Vigo County south through Sullivan, 
Greene and Knox Counties where it thins and to the south is believed to correlate 
with the Lower Millersburg coal in Pike, Gibson, and Warrick Counties (Wier, 1973). 
The Hymera coal member is part of the Carbondale group of Desmoinesian age and 
is in the Dugger formation (Figure 1). 

Figure 1. Stratigraphic section of 
Pennsylvanian rocks in southwestern 


326 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 95 (1986) 

The Hymera coal was originally referred to as coal VI (Ashley, 1899) and is a 
bright-banded bituminous coal ranging from about 1 to 11 feet (15 cm to 330 cm) 
in thickness. The coal contains numerous thin shale and pyrite partings and is normal- 
ly overlain by gray, silty shale, or fine-grained sandstone. A thin underclay usually 
occurs below the coal. 

The stratigraphic correlation of the Hymera coal member with coals in Illinois 
has been uncertain. The lateral inconsistency displayed by the cyclic deposits in the 
Pennsylvanian in the Illinois basin is the root of this correlation problem. For many 
years it was believed that the Hymera correlated with the Herrin coal in Illinois but 
Shaver (1970) suggested that it correlates with the Jamestown coal which is above the 

In order to provide more information on the Hymera coal that might be helpful 
in this correlation problem, a study of the petrography and trace elements was under- 
taken. These results are reported in this paper from coal samples collected from loca- 
tions in Sullivan, Knox, Pike, and Warrick counties in southwestern Indiana (Figure 2). 


The maceral composition of the Hymera coal member was determined from 
polished sections. Macerals are the fundamental building units of coal and are analogous 
to minerals in rocks. However, a mineral is characterized by its definite chemical com- 
position and structural arrangement whereas a coal maceral varies widely in chemical 
and physical characteristics. Maceral composition directly influences the ultimate utiliza- 
tion of the coal. Also it, in combination with mineral and trace element analyses, per- 
mits better paleoenvironmental and sedimentological interpretations. 

Maceral groups occur in humic coals in characteristic associations called 
microlithotypes. In this study the classification established by the International Com- 
mittee for Coal Petrology was used (Int. Handbook of Coal Petrography, 1971). Details 
of the method used are given in a masters thesis at Indiana University by Merkl (1985). 
Table 1 shows the ICCP petrographic nomenclature used in this study. 

Table 1. Macerals and Microlithotypes (ICCP, 1971) 

Microlitholype Group 

Group Maceral 











Semi Fusinite 








Mineral Matter 




The macerals of coal rarely occur in association with only the same type but 
rather they are usually associated with macerals of the same or the other two maceral 
groups. Depending on their abundance, they are organized into three groups: 
monomaceral, bimaceral, and trimaceral microlithotypes, based on the percentage of 
a maceral in a microlithotype (Stach et al, 1982). 

Vitrite is usually derived from stems, branches, and liquified tree roots where 
trees were protected from oxidation by high water level. The association vitrite and 
clarite, particularly exinite poor clarite, suggests a strongly decomposed forest litter 

Geology and Geography 


Figure 2. Map of 
southwestern Indiana 
showing sample locations 

of wood and bark which was degraded to humic detritus. Exinite rich clarites are derived 
from reed peat and reed lignites intermingled with subaquatic deposits. Clarites often 
display microlayers and suggest formation under wet conditions normally associated 
with vitrinitic carbargillites and syngenetic pyrite. Durites are derived from a subaquatic 
ooze of oxidized peat characterized by a low spore content and low water table. Vitriner- 
tites are characteristic of frequent swamp dessication. 

Trimacerites, transitional microlithotypes between clarites and durites, have dif- 
ferent histories of formation, depending on their composition which can vary between 
clarite and durite. Maceral group composition, type, and condition of preservation 

328 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 95 (1986) 

of macerals, mineral matter, and texture all contribute to a genetic explanation of 
a microlithotype. 

The Hymera coal member is characterized by the maceral group content as shown 
in Table 2. This is based upon 30 bench samples. 

Table 2. Mean maceral group content of the Hymera coal member 













Other minerals 


The vitrinite occurs predominantly as the structureless variety collinite. Stopes 
(1935) defined collinite as a reprecipitated gel contributed from decay of plants. Stach 
(1982) concluded that the lack of plant structure in coal is because the original cellular 
structure is masked as a result of the cells being filled with colloidal humic gel precipitated 
from solutions. Exinite macerals consist of waxes, resins, fats, and oils of vegetable 
origin (Stach et al, 1982). Exinites, usually sporinites, commonly occur in durites and 
trimacerites as thin discontinuous elongated stringers. The inertinite group with the 
macerals semifusinite, fusinite, macrinite, and micrinite occurs in smaller amounts as 
isolated particles. 

Microlithotype analyses were also made for each bench sample and the results 
are shown as Table 3. 

Table 3. Mean microlithotype content of the Hymera coal member 

















The Hymera coal member has a high vitrite and clarite microlithotype content. 
Broad vitrite bands are usually derived from stems, branches, or liquified tree roots 
and are abundant in a forest swamp (Stach et al, 1982). Clarite was exinite poor which 
forms from forest peat detritus consisting of decomposed wood and bark which degraded 
to humic detritus (Stach et al, 1982). Teichmueller (1952) pointed out that a clarite 
with dominant vitrinitic composition is characteristic of coal in which branches and 
trees formed the more vitrinitic layers whereas finer material such as leaves, twigs, 
and rootlets with minor amounts of spores and protobituminens contribute more to 
the formation of clarite. The low content of semifusinite and fusinite indicates a con- 
stant water level in which anaerobic conditions prevailed with little exposure to oxida- 
tion or fungal activity. 

Trace Elements 

Interest in the abundance of trace elements in coal began early in this century 
and the first comprehensive study was by V. M. Goldschmidt (1935), who was the 
first geochemist to call attention to the relationship between certain elements and the 

Geology and Geography 


inorganic or organic portions of the coal. Zubovic et al (1964) reported that high con- 
centration of trace elements at the base of a coal seam represented those taken up 
from the original subsoil by the first plants. The main portion of the coal seam received 
trace elements syngenetically with the accumulation of organic matter from sources 
outside the swamp. He also reported that the enrichment of trace elements in the top 
of the coal seam is probably caused by leaching from overlying strata and then they 
are absorbed or precipitated in the top layers of the coal seam. 

Zubovic et al (1960) studied the geochemical factors that controlled the affinity 
of certain elements that formed complexes with organic matter and those that are 
associated with the inorganic fraction of coal. Trace elements are incorporated in coals 
in four major ways: 1) organic-metal complexes (chelates); 2) adsorption or absorp- 
tion by both the inorganic minerals and the organic matter; 3) presence within minerals 
deposited syngenetically with peat accumulation; and 4) reduction and subsequent 
precipitation usually in sulfides. 

Some 40 samples of the Hymera coal member were analyzed using an ICP (In- 
ductively Coupled Plasma Spectrometer). The sampling and analytical procedures are 
explained in detail in a masters thesis by Heberton (1983). The raw data was analyzed 
statistically and is shown in Table 4. The trace element results are given in parts per 
million (ppm) while the major and minor elements are given in weight percent of their 
oxide. The geometric means of the major and minor elements were recalculated to 
ppm concentration of the element in order to facilitate comparisons. 

As shown in Table 4 the relative abundances of nearly all elements are depleted 
in the Hymera coal member on a whole coal basis. Only germanium and lead show 
enrichment. Figure 3 compares the geometric means of some trace elements in the 


Ba Cr Cu Mo Ni Sr Pb 

~ too 



H C 

H C 


3417 1 3 x 10* 

H C I AH Al H C 
Ge Ti 

H C 

Figure 3. Comparative trace element concentrations between the Hymera Coal (H), 
the average crustal abundance (C), and the Illinois basin coals (I) 


Indiana Academy of Science 

Vol. 95 (1986) 

Hymera with other Illinois basin coal samples and the average crustal abundance (Clarke 
value). The geometric means of the other Illinois basin samples closely approximate 
those of the Hymra coal. The means are generally within 33 percent of each other. 
Three exceptions are barium, zinc, and molybdenum. Barium is twice as concentrated 
in the Hymera as in the other Illinois basin coals while molybdenum is five times and 
zinc four times as concentrated in the Illinois coals over the Hymera coal. 

Table 4. Chemical and trace element composition of Hymera coal member. 

Arithmetic Geometric 









Calc. ppm 

(Air-Dry Whole Coal Basis) 





















































































(Weight <7o of Oxide) 





1 .08-4.92 




























.021 -.205 


4.45xl0 ! 





.040. 519 














.052-. 251 


7.67xl0 ! 





.007. 149 


1.13xl0 : 

Low-Temp. Ash 







Germanium, chromium, nickel, vanadium, and yttrium are enriched in the top 
and bottom of the coal seam compared to that present in the middle of the seam. 
The reasons for this concentration are probably those given by Zubovic (1964) as dis- 
cussed earlier in this section. Calculation of the ratio of the mafic and felsic trace 
elements abundance in coals 5 and 6 of Illinois and the Hymera coal member of In- 
diana resulted in confirming Shaver's et al (1970) belief that the Jamestown coal of 
Illinois is equivalent to the Hymera coal member of Indiana. Potter and Siever (1956) 
pointed out that the trace element character of sediments being washed into the Il- 
linois basin changed with time during the Pennsylvanian. Utilizing this concept and 
calculating the mafic to felsic ratios gave the following values: Illinois coal 5 (3.9); 
Illinois coal 6 (6.9) and Hymera coal VI (8.3). This indicates that the Hymera was 
deposited after Illinois coal 6 and because the Jamestown is the first coal deposited 
after coal 6 it most probably correlates with the Hymera coal member. The exact pro- 
cedure used is given by Heberton (1983). 


The Hymera coal member was deposited in forest peat swamps under brackish 
water influence as indicated by the presence of syngenetic pyrite and the abundance 

Geology and Geography 331 

of vitrite and clarite. The trace elements show a depletion in most trace elements com- 
pared to their "Clarke" values except for germanium and lead. No trace element was 
present in quantities that were high enough to consider commercial recovery. A calcula- 
tion of the mafic to felsic ratio using trace elements indicate that the correlation of 
the Hymera coal member with the Jamestown coal of Illinois is probably correct. 

Literature Cited 

1. Ashley, G. H. 1899. The Coal Deposits of Indiana. Indiana University Depart- 
ment of Geology and Natural Resources Annual Report 23, 1573 pp. 

2. Goldschmidt, V. M., 1935. Rare Elements in Coal Ashes. Ind. Eng. Chem., V. 
27, p. 1100-1102. 

3. Heberton, R. P., 1983. Trace and Minor Element Analyses of the Hymera Coal 
Member of Indiana (Coal VI). Masters Thesis, Indiana University, 107 pp. 

4. International Committee for Coal Petrology 1963, 1971. International Handbook 
of Coal Petrography, 2nd ed. Centre National de la Recherche Scient. Figue, Paris. 

5. Merkl, R. S., 1985. Petrographic and Depositional Characteristics of the Hymera 
and Danville Coal Members in Southwestern Indiana. Masters Thesis, Indiana 
University, 67 pp. 

6. Potter, P. E., and Siever, R., 1956. Sources of Basal Pennsylvanian Sediments 
in the Eastern Interior Basin: Part 1. Cross-bedding. Journal of Geology, Vol. 
64, p. 225-244. 

7. Shaver, R. H., et al, 1970. Compendium of Rock Unit Stratigraphy in Indiana, 
Indiana Geological Survey Bull. 43, 229 pp. 

8. Stach, E., 1965. Basic Principles of Coal Petrology: Macerals, Microlithotypes 
and Some Effects of Coalification. In Coal and Coal Bearing Strata, Inter-Univ. 
Geol. Congress 13, Murchison, J. and Westall, T. (eds.). Univ. of New Castle- 
Upon-Tyne, p. 19-29. 

9. Stach, E. et al, 1982. Stach's Textbook of Coal Petrology, 3rd ed. Gebrueder 
Bormtrueqeu, Stuttgart. 

10. Stopes, M. C, 1935. On the Petrology of Banded Bituminous Coals. Fuel 14 
London, p. 4-13. 

11. Teichmuller, M., 1952. Vergleichende Mikroskopische Unter Suchungen Vers- 
teinerter Torte der Ruhr Karbons und der daraus Enstandenen Steinkohlen. Compte 
Rendu 3, Congr. Stratig. Geol. Carboniferur, Heerlen, p. 607-613. 

12. Wier, C. E., 1973. Coal Resources of Indiana. Indiana Geological Survey Bull. 
No. 42-1, 40 pp. 

13. Zubovic, P. 1960. Minor Element Content of Coal From Illinois Beds 5 and 6, 
and Their Correlatives in Indiana and Western Kentucky. U.S. Geol. Survey Open 
File Report No. 79, p. 1. 

14. Zubovic, P. T., 1964. Distribution of Minor Elements in Coal Beds of the Eastern 
Interior Region. U.S. Geol. Survey Bull. 1117-13, 41 pp. 

Trace Elements of the Springfield (V) Coal and Characteristics of Associated Rocks 

Haydn H. Murray, Stephen C. Smith and Martin G. Yates 

Department of Geology, Indiana University 

Bloomington, Indiana 47405 


The Springfield (V) coal member is an important commercial coal in Indiana and 
the Illinois basin where the Illinois Harrisburg (5) coal and the Kentucky #9 are 
stratigraphically equivalent to the Springfield. This coal accounts for some 30% of 
the coal reserves in the Illinois basin (Malhotra, 1977). In Indiana the Springfield coal 
(V) member accounts for 35% of the annual coal production (Ault et al, 1979). It 
is a high volatile bituminous coal with an average heat value of 11,500 BTU's per 
pound, an average ash content of 12%, and an average sulfur value of 3.3%. 

The Springfield coal extends from Vermillion County to Warrick County and 
ranges from 3 to 13 ft. in thickness. Coal V is at the top of the Petersburg formation 
which is the middle formation of the Carbondale group (Figure 1). The Petersburg 

Figure 1. Stratigraphic section of 
Pennsylvania rocks in southwestern Indiana 



Indiana Academy of Science 

Vol. 95 (1986) 

formation consists mainly of shales and sandstones and in places the Springfield coal 
(V) member is partially or completely cut out by sandstone channels. These fresh water 
deltaic distributory channels apparently represented quite a different microenviron- 
ment from the backswamp region flanking them. The sulfur value of coal deposited 
near a channel is often considerably lower than that of the rest of the seam (Eggert, 1983). 
Samples were collected from areas near a sandstone channel in Pike County, In- 
diana, and Wabash County, Illinois, and in backswamp areas distant from the chan- 
nels (Figures 2 and 3). Samples were collected from the Old Ben Coal Company mines 
in Pike County, Indiana, and from the Underground Amax mine in Wabash County, 
Illinois. The coal seam was divided into thirds and channel samples of each third were 

Coal Petrography and Mineraology of Associated Rocks 

Vitrinite is the most abundant maceral comprising about 90% of the samples 
which is indicative of a forest swamp environment (Murray and Mathews, 1981). In- 

\S J \ 


/PIKE CO. r^ 



I l.l I I l_ 

Figure 2. Sample locations in Pike County, Indiana 

Geology and Geography 


Figure 3. Sample locations in Wabash County, Illinois 

tertinite and exinite comprise the remainder of the maceral content and are present 
in about equal proportions. The coal swamp is populated primarily by the tree ferns 
and lycopoda (Ault et al, 1977), the woody parts of which are the parent material 
for vitrinite. Inertinite is a product of the same types of materials that produce vitrinite 
except that intertinite was subjected to oxidation during the peat formation. Exinite 
is comprised of more resistant material, such as spore exines and leaf cuticles. 

The mineral matter in coal V is comprised largely of quartz, kaolinite, illite, and 
pyrite along with anhydrite, feldspar, calcite, and siderite. The highest percentage of 
mineral matter was in the top and bottom thirds of the coal seam (Murray and Mathews 
1981). The highest concentration of pyrite was where the coal was overlain by black 
shale and the least amount was found when the coal was overlain by gray shale. 

The mineralogy of the associated rocks reflects their lithology. In the underclay 
the major minerals are kaolinite, illite, a mixed layer smectite-illite, and quartz. The 
black fissile shale contains quartz, kaolinite, illite and chlorite with minor amounts 
of feldspar, pyrite, siderite, and calcite at locations 1 and 2. At location 3 a light 
gray shaly sandstone is comprised largely of quartz along with kaolinite, illite, and 

336 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 95 (1986) 

chlorite with minor amounts of feldspar, calcite, and pyrite. At locations 4 and 5 a 
blocky gray shale above the coal contains kaolinite, illite, chlorite, and quartz along 
with feldspar, calcite, and siderite. The dominant minerals in each rock type are illite 
and kaolinite in the underclay, illite in the black, fissile shale, quartz in the shaly sand- 
stone, and illite and kaolinite in the gray blocky shale. 

Trace Elements in Coal V 

Goldschmidt (1935) was one of the first to recognize that coal incorporated cer- 
tain trace elements including germanium in concentrations well above their crustal 

Many trace element studies have been performed on coals including studies by 
Zubovic et al (1960), Yudovich et al (1972), Rich et al (1974), Gluskoter et al (1977), 
Abernethy et al (1969), and Kuhn et al (1980). The following generalizations have been 
made concerning trace elements in coal. 

1. Trace elements are commonly enriched in the upper and lower most parts 
of coal seams. 

2. Certain trace elements vary in concentration with the amount of inorganic 
mineral phases present. 

3. Several trace elements including Ge, Zn, Ni, and Pb are enriched well above 
their normal crustal abundance ("Clarke" value). 

4. The concentration and distribution of certain trace elements are often related 
to the provenance of the sediment and the paleodrainage patterns. 

Zubovic et al (1960) believed that the concentration in coals of elements V, Ni, 
Cu, Nd, Co, which are commonly enriched in mafic rocks, show the composition of 
the sediment source. Because mafic minerals weather readily under near surface condi- 
tions, younger coals should be more enriched in these trace elements over sialic trace 
elements such as Be, B, Ga, Ge, Mo, Y, and La. 

Samples of coal V were chemically analyzed for Al, Fe, Mg, Ca, Na, K, Ti, P, 
Ba, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Sr, V, Y, Th, and Zn using an ICP spectrometer. Low temperature 
ashed samples were analyzed colorimetrically for Ge. The analyses show all elements 
are present in lower concentration than their crustal average except for Ti and Pb. 
Table 1 shows the statistics for elements in coal V and Table 2 shows enrichment fac- 
tors compared to their "Clarke" value. 

The fraction of the coal into which a particular element partitions is a function 
of the chemical affinity of the element for that fraction. Elements with strong affinity 
for silicate minerals are preferentially incorporated into clay minerals in the coals. 
Aluminum, potassium, and titanium are the most strongly associated with silicate 
minerals in these samples but the correlation analyses shows chromium, strontium, 
and yttrium are also associated with the silicates (Yates, 1984). Copper, barium, and 
vanadium correlate with the lithophite elements and with the percentage of clay in 
the samples but they also have strong affinities for other sites in coal. 

The correlation between the chalcophile elements iron, zinc, lead, copper, and 
nickel with the pyrite percentage in these samples is low. Iron has a weak correlation 
with pyrite but the other chalcophile elements do not correlate with the amount of 
pyrite or with each other. Nickel and germanium correlate with each other and are 
enriched strongly in the upper and lower most parts of the seam. Both of these elements 
have strong organic affinities and are probably incorporated into organic material in 
these coals. 


The Springfield coal (V) member was deposited in a large deltaic swamp and 

Geology and Geography 337 

Table 1. Statistics for Trace Elements in Coal V 



Table 2. Comparison of Trace Elements of Coals in the Illinois Basin with the 
"Clarke" Value 











































1 1 .4299 



































































1 .7222 




















































was derived largely from decomposed wood and bark as evidenced by the very high 
percentage of the maceral vitrinite. The associated sediments above the coal correlate 
with the sulfur content of the coal. Black fissile shale above the coal indicates a high 
sulfur value and a gray blocky shale indicates a low sulfur value in the coal. Only 
Ti and Pb are enriched in the coal relative to their "Clarke'* value whereas the others 
are depleted. 

338 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 95 (1986) 

Literature Cited 

1. Abernethy, R. F., Peterson, M. J., and Gibson, F. H. (1969). Spectrochemical 
Analysis of Coal Ash for Trace Elements. U.S. Bureau of Mines, Report of In- 
vestigations 7281, 30 pp. 

2. Ault, C. H. et al 1979. Geology of the Springfield Coal Member (V) in Indiana— A 
Review. In Palmer, J. E. and Dutcher, R. R. editors, Depositional and Struc- 
tural History of the Pennsylvanian System of the Illinois Basin, Part 2: Field 
Trip Ninth International Congress of Carboniferous Stratigraphy and Geology, 
p. 43-49. 

3. Eggert, D. L. 1983. A Fluvial Channel Contemporaneous with Deposition of 
Springfield Coal (V) Member, Petersburg Formation, Northern Warrick County, 
Indiana: Indiana Geological Survey Special Report No. 28, p. 1. 

4. Gluskoter, H. J. et al, 1977. Trace Elements in Coal: Occurrence and Distribu- 
tion. Illinois Geological Survey Circular No. 499, 154 p. 

5. Goldschmidt, V. M., 1935. Rare Elements in Coal Ashes. Ind. Eng. Chem. V. 
27, p. 1100-1102. 

6. Kuhn, J. K. et al 1980. Abundance of Trace and Minor Elements in Organic 
and Mineral Fractions of Coal. Illinois Geological Survey Environment Note No. 
88, 67 pp. 

7. Malhotra, R., 1977. Market Potential for the Illinois Basin. Illinois Geological 
Survey Minerals Note No. 67, 60 pp. 

8. Murray, H. H. and Mathews, J. E., 1981. Mineral Matter and Petrography of 
Microenvironments in the Springfield Coal (V) in Southwestern Indiana. Indiana 
Acad. Sci. 

9. Ruch, R. R., Gluskoter, H. S., and Shimp, N. F., 1974. Occurrence and Distribu- 
tion of Potentially Volatile Trace Elements in Coal — a Final report. Illinois 
Geological Survey Environmental Note No. 72, 96 pp. 

10. Yates, M. G., 1984. Major and Trace Elements Content of the Springfield V 
Coal in Southwestern Indiana. Masters thesis, Indiana University, 143 pp. 

1 1 . Yudovich, Y. E. et al, 1972. Mean Trace Element Contents in Coals. Geochemistry 
International Vol. 9, p. 712-720. 

12. Zubovic, P. 1960. Minor Element Content of Coal from Illinois Beds 5 and 6, 
and their Correlatives in Indiana and Western Kentucky. U. S. Geological Survey 
Open File Report No. 79, p. 1. 

The Backbone Limestone (Lower Devonian), a Potential Reservoir in Southern Indiana 

John A. Rupp 

Petroleum Section, Indiana Geological Survey 

Bloomington, Indiana 47405 


Evaluation of Lower Devonian rocks (New Harmony Group), which are present 
only in the subsurface of southwestern Indiana, indicates that conditions exist for the 
presence of hydrocarbon bearing reservoirs. Moderate depths and multiplicity of possible 
trap configurations make this group of rocks an economically favorable exploration 
target. Because the units are present only in the subsurface, limited data are available 
for use in making paleoenvironmental reconstructions, evaluating sedimentary struc- 
tures, and interpreting the diagenetic history. Detailed knowledge about the distribu- 
tion and the composition of these Early Devonian sediments is still lacking, but renewed 
interest in the group is producing data that will help better define the physical and 
chemical characteristics of these rocks. 

Early in the drilling history of the Illinois Basin, rocks found along the eastern 
margin of the Illinois Basin below the Middle Devonian carbonate sediments 
(Muscatatuck Group) were interpreted to be Silurian in age. Following the work of 
Freeman (11) and Collinson and others (7) a clearer understanding of this wedge of 
carbonate and siliceous dolomitic sediments emerged. Following the recognition of Lower 
Devonian faunal assemblages in a core from White County, Illinois, Becker (3) defined 
and mapped the extent and internal stratigraphy of Lower Devonian rocks in 
southwestern Indiana. Through the work of Becker (3) and Becker and Droste (5) 
the regional distribution of the major lithostratigraphic units within the group (Grassy 
Knob Chert, Backbone Limestone, and Clear Creek Chert) was recognized. The com- 
plex lateral and vertical lithofacies relationships between these units are documented 
by the cross sections and thickness maps in studies by Becker (3), Becker and Droste 
(5), and Droste and Shaver (10). Readers are referred to the aforementioned publica- 
tions for details pertaining to the regional stratigraphy and facies distribution. 

Backbone Limestone and Silurian Reefs 

The Backbone Limestone is a carbonate grainstone that is best developed along 
the eastern margin of the Lower Devonian rocks within the Illinois Basin. The area 
in which the thickest accumulation of Backbone lithofacies (type-2 carbonate rocks 
of Becker and Droste (5)) occurs is the far southwest corner of Indiana. These clean 
coarse-grained bioclastic carbonate sediments were deposited along the eastern flank 
of the Paleozoic Vincennes Basin (8) while lateral facies-equivalent rocks, the fine- 
grained siliceous carbonates of the Grassy Knob and Clear Creek Cherts, were syn- 
chronously deposited in the deeper part of the Vincennes Basin (Figure 1). Because 
of the complex intertonguing relationship between the Backbone lithofacies and time- 
equivalent cherty carbonate rocks (type-3 carbonate rocks of Becker and Droste (5)), 
an arbitrary vertical cutoff exists to separate the Backbone Limestone as a formation 
from lateral-equivalent rocks. The basal carbonate horizon in this sequence is informally 
termed the "Ozora" limestone in Illinois Basin subsurface terminology. This unit is 
corelative with the Flat Gap Limestone of Tennessee (20). Thinning of the Backbone 
sediments to the east is attributed to erosional truncation along the pre-Muscatatuck 
surface (Figure 2). Although the Backbone is clearly bounded both above and below 
by unconformities along its eastern extent, this relationship probably does not hold 
farther west, deeper into the basin because of continuous deposition (Figure 2). Most 



Indiana Academy of Science 

Vol. 95 (1986) 

Figure 1 . Map of southwestern Indiana showing location of Late Silurian deposi- 
tional areas. Zero line is the eastern limit of the New Harmony Group subcrop. Modified 
from Droste and Shaver, 1980; in prep. 

of the Backbone was probably deposited in a shallowing subtidal to intertidal environ- 
ment. Cleanliness of the preserved carbonates indicates an energy regime high enough 
to winnow fine-grained terrigenous siliciclastic and autogenous carbonate muds out 
of the depositional area, possibly into the deeper parts of the basin as pelagic sediments. 
Variations in Backbone thickness, composition, and grain size due to differences 
within the primary depositional environment are difficult to define due to extensive 

Geology and Geography 




Datum: Base of Middle Devonian 

Backbone Ls 




15 Miles 
25 Km 


Figure 2. East-West stratigraphic cross section across the eastern margin of the Vincen- 
nes Basin. Datum is the base of the Middle Devonian Muscatatuck Group. See figure 
1 for the location of the cross section A-A'. 

diagenetic changes, erosional removal of the original sediments, and lack of detailed 
subsurface control. A general scheme of cleaner and coarser grained material being 
concentrated in shallower environments is postulated. In addition to the regional shallow- 
ing in an easterly direction toward the basin margin, localized centers of shallower 
water encouraged higher energy sedimentation to be developed over positive topographic 
high areas on the Early Devonian sea floor. These positive areas were the result of 
Silurian carbonate buildups or reefs projecting higher from the sea floor than the sur- 
rounding contemporary interreef and basinal sediments (Figure 3). 

The large arcuate archipelago of reefs that range in size from small free-standing 
digitate pinnacle reefs to larger lower relief reef masses and atolls rings the eastern 
margin of the Vincennes Basin and is collectively termed the Terre Haute Bank (fig. 
1) (4,5,6,8,9,10). The Terre Haute Bank forms the basinward edge of a large regional 


Datum: Top of Muscatatuck Group 


Figure 3. Diagramatic northeast-southwest cross section showing possible configura- 
tions of Silurian reefs in the Terre Haute Bank in relation to the overlying sediments 
of the Lower and Middle Devonian sequence. Datum is the base of the Upper Devo- 
nian New Albany Shale. 

342 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 95 (1986) 

shallow-water shelf termed the Wabash Platform (Figure 1) (8). Although the pre-New 
Harmony unconformity probably removed and modified much of the Late Silurian 
paleotopography, as evidenced by the easterly regional thinning of the Silurian units 
(1,6), the erosional influence decreased rapidly basinward to the west. Most all of what 
is now defined as the main part of the Terre Haute Bank was affected to some degree 
by pre-Backbone erosion, but in the deeper more basinward setting isolated pinnacle 
reefs may not have been unaffected by erosion. There is probably a wide variety in 
the degree of preservation of the Late Silurian reefal buildups. Figure 3 illustrates 
some of the many types of configuration of preservation that can be observed and 
postulated for Silurian reefs. 

In addition to pre-New Harmony (Lower Devonian) erosion, a pre-Muscatatuck 
(Middle Devonian) erosional event also modified topographically high Silurian sediments 
and New Harmony units (fig. 3). This event may have removed much of the Backbone 
carbonate section that was located over upward-projecting Silurian reefs, as evidenced 
in the Iva East Reef of northeastern Pike County, where Middle Devonian rocks lie 
directly over Silurian reef rocks. This reef is west of the regional pinchout in an area 
where Backbone sediments were deposited. 

Structural Configuration 

Structural doming on many of the Paleozoic horizons that overlie Silurian reefs 
may be the result of numerous factors that include: (A) differential compaction due 
to contrasting initial compositions and diagenetic histories of reef and nonreef sediments 
(9), (B) buoyancy effect of the porous reef framework relative to the more dense sur- 
rounding sediments, (C) drape of subsequent sediments over a topographically high 
and rigid reefal substrate (14), and (D) possibly tectonic movements (21) that were 
localized at reef sites. Whatever the causes for the structural relief, it is clearly 
documented throughout the Illinois Basin, in many places propagating upward through 
large regional unconformities (e.g. Mississippian-Pennsylvanian systemic boundary) over 
more basinward digitate or pinnacle reefs. Higher relief and more pronounced struc- 
tures may be produced over basinward digitate or pinnacle reefs, and at the same time 
the significance of the pre-Muscatatuck unconformity, which becomes increasingly in- 
fluential in an easterly direction toward the basin margin, may be important in dampening 
the structural effect on the overlying sediments. 

Presently the Terre Haute Bank as defined on the basis of subsurface samples, 
geophysical logs, and structural analysis stretches from Vigo County on the northern 
flank of the Vincennes Basin to southern Dubois County on the eastern margin of 
the basin (Figure 1). The bank does not retain its shallow-water, platform characteristics 
as it is projected farther to the south. A complex interfingering of basinal facies (Bailey 
Limestone and Moccasin Springs Formation) and interreef platform facies (Liston Creek 
and Mississinawa Shale Members of the Wabash Formation) is equivalent to the coalesced 
reef bodies that make up the well-defined bank father to the north (Figure 4). Regional 
investigations south of the Ohio River show very limited platform lithologies and a 
predominance of basinal rocks within the Silurian section (11,19,20). 

Diagenetic Model 

It is within the interface between the known Terre Haute Bank and the deeper 
water portions of the Vincennes Basin that the occurrence of isolated distal pinnacle 
reefs may have been influential in creating conditions favorable for the development 
of reservoir-quality rocks in the overlying Backbone Limestone. Where the Terre Haute 
Bank extends beyond the eastern limit of the Lower Devonian subcrop, porosity is 
commonly developed in the Middle Devonian limestones and dolomites, which directly 

Geology and Geography 




Datum: Base of Middle Devonian 




Maquoketa Group 


Figure 4. North-South stratigraphic cross section along the southeastern margin of 
the Vincennes Basin. Datum is the base of the Middle Devonian Muscatatuck Group. 
See figure 1 for the location of the cross section B-B'. 

overlie the Silurian reefs. An examination of the structural drape-induced fields of 
the Terre Haute Bank demonstrates that the Middle Devonian carbonate section is 
almost exclusively the reservoir facies north and east of the regional subcrop limit 
of the Lower Devonian rocks (Vigo, Clay, Greene, and southern Sullivan Counties). 
South and west of this subcrop oil and gas fields produce from younger Mississippian 
reservoirs (Daviess, Dubois, and Pike Counties) (Figure 1). Undiscovered reserves basin- 
ward of the subcrop limit await testing in the porous Backbone carbonate rocks, which 
would directly overlie the Silurian reefs. 

A proposed diagenetic model for the formation of reservoir-quality porosity over 
reefs in the Backbone Limestone consists of four stages. 

(A) Localized topographic relief formed on reef masses in Late Silurian to Early 
Devonian time. The extremely porous and rigid framework cores were cemented and 
preserved as the siliceous and argillaceous reef flank and basinal sediments dewatered 
and compacted. Water expelled by the surrounding flank and basinal sediments may 
have carried sufficient magnesium concentrations to dolomitize the reef cores (13,15) 
(Figure 5). An influx of meteoric water for Dorag or schizohaline dolomitization ap- 
pears unlikely for these more distal reefs as no known evidence for subaerial exposure 
currently exists this far into the basin. Similarly, dolomitization schemes that require 
subaerial concentration of brines by evaporation (sabbka) or evaporative pumping ap- 
pear inappropriate. 

(B) Following the initiation of Lower Devonian deposition, coarse-grained car- 
bonate sediments of the Backbone Limestone were deposited along the margin of the 
Vincennes Basin. Deposition was influenced by the topography of the basin margin. 
Areas in which higher energy regimes operated, including reef induced topographically 
higher localities, favored clean carbonate production, while fine-grained carbonate muds 
and siliceous sediments were deposited in the lower energy, deeper waters. Sedimenta- 
tion of Backbone carbonates aided the continuation of burial diagenetic events in the 
underlying Silurian sediments. Continued brine expulsion by the flank sediments and 
brittle deformation (fracturing) within the reef cores occurred, which facilitated fur- 
ther dolomitization and additional development of structural relief (Figure 6). 



Sea level 

Indiana Academy of Science 

Vol. 95 (1986) 


Figure 5. Diagramatic cross section showing Silurian reef deposition and initial 
diagenesis of reef core sediments. 

(C) As Lower Devonian sedimentation came to a close, the pre-Muscatatuck ero- 
sion moved westward toward the basin center, and Early Devonian sediments were 
exposed and eroded. Backbone sediments over reefs were possibly subaerially exposed 
as these topographically higher areas became emergent. Bioclastic, coarse-grained 
sediments with high primary porosity and permeability acted as aquifers, a condition 
that allowed the influx of meteoric water (Figure 7). The mixing of ocean-derived brines 
and fresh ground water is proposed for dolomitization in a manner similar to the Dorag 
model for dolomitization in a manner similar to the Dorag model for dolomitization 
proposed for Middle Ordovician carbonates exposed in Wisconsin (2). Dolomitization 
of Backbone sediments along the shallower eastern margin of the basin may be restricted 
to positive, emergent areas, some of which coincide with reef-induced structures. 



Sea level 


^Mg 2 + ^> 
Mg 2 + S 

Mg 2 + 

T^ N 

= I =f=EZH 





^^^yj, i_ 

J V ^J^ V ' L 


fe^Mg 2+ ^^ A - 
Mg 2 + 


, —r 

0> n 




- — — 

— - -L- 

Figure 6. Diagramatic cross section showing Lower Devonian deposition and con- 
tinued diagenesis of Silurian reef cores. 


Sea level 

Geology and Geography 

Meteoric H ? 



Meteoric H?0 

Figure 7. Diagramatic cross section showing Pre-Middle Devonian unconformity and 
diagenesis of Lower Devonian sediments. 

(D) After the erosion and selective dolomitization of the Backbone limestones, 
continued sedimentation and subsidence of post-New Harmony rocks caused accen- 
tuated draping and fracturing of sediments over rigid reef cores and steeper dips along 
the basin margin. As the reef flank and basinal source rocks (Bailey Limestone, Moc- 
casion Springs Formation and, Clear Creek and Grassy Knob Cherts) became more 
deeply buried, favorable conditions for hydrocarbon maturation developed. A suitable 
combination of adequate elevated temperature and time allowed for the generation 
of liquid hydrocarbons. As compaction continued, primary migration of oil from source 
rocks into fractures and porous sediments of the Lower Devonian aquifer occurred. 
Flow probably followed a general hydrologic gradient out of the deep basin and entered 
into radial flow patterns when nearing reefs. Secondary migration and final filling 
of reservoirs also probably occurred under radial flow conditions (15). Dense carbonates 
sediments of the lower Middle Devonian section formed the seal over the reservoir. 

In addition to reef-induced structures, two types of potential stratigraphic traps 
may exist: (a) within facies boundaries between the dense, impermeable part of the 
basinal New Harmony rocks and the more porous, shallower water facies and (b) along 
the eastern limit of the New Harmony Group (Figure 8), where a regional truncation 
of predominantly coarse-grained, possibly dolomitized Backbone sediments becomes 
a porosity pinchout because of the angular unconformable erosional relationship with 
the overlying sediments (Figure 8). 


Although the petroleum-producing potential of the Backbone Limestone has yet 
to be fully evaluated in the eastern Illinois Basin, recent data indicate that the unit 
could be commercially productive. 

There are numerous examples of Devonian carbonate rocks being highly produc- 
tive reservoirs in similar geologic settings. An analogous situation exists on the Eastern 
Shelf of the Midland Basin in west Texas where a regional pinchout of Silurian-Devonian 
dolomitized carbonates rocks has recently developed into a significant productive play 

Figure 8. Diagramatic cross section showing hydrocarbon filled Lower Devonian reef- 
induced reservoir. Two types of stratagraphic accumulations as described in the text, 
(a) and (b) respectively, are also shown. 

(12,18). The Bois d'Arc Limestone (Devonian) is a prolific reservoir on the eastern 
flank of the Anadarko Basin of central Oklahoma (17) where the section is erosionally 
juxtaposed against Pennsylvanian sediments over structural highs. In south-central Ken- 
tucky, regional truncation of the Lower Devonian section has created numerous 
strateigraphic traps (16). 

A more thorough understanding of the primary depositional environments and 
the subsequent diagenetic changes within the Lower Devonian section will facilitate 
better and more successful exploration programs for these carbonate reservoirs. 

Literature Cited 

Ault, C. H. and others. 1976. Map of Indiana showing thickness of Silurian rocks 
and location of reefs and reef-induced structures. Indiana Geological Survey 
Miscellaneous Map 22. 

Badiozamani, K. 1973. The Dorag dolomitization model— application to the Middle 
Ordovician of Wisconsin. Journal Sedimentary Petrology 43:965-985. 
Becker, L. E. 1974. Silurian and Devonian rocks in Indiana southwest of the 
Cincinnati Arch. Indiana Geological Survey Bulletin 50. 83 pp. 
Becker, L. E. and Droste, J. B. 1976. General sedimentological history of the 
Late Silurian and Early Devonian events in southwestern Indiana (abs). American 
Association Petroleum Geologists Bulletin 60:1618. 

Becker, L. E. and Droste, J. B. 1978. Late Silurian and Early Devonian sedimen- 
tological history of southwestern Indiana. Indiana Geological Survey Occasional 
Paper 24. 14 pp. 
Becker, L. E. and Keller, S. J. 1976. Silurian reefs in southwestern Indiana and 

Geology and Geography 347 

their relation to petroleum accumulation. Indiana Geological Survey Occasional 
Paper 19. 11 pp. 

7. Collinson, C. H. and others. 1967. Devonian of the north-central region, United 
States. In Alberta Society Petroleum Geologists, International Symposium on the 
Devonian System 1:933-971. 

8. Droste, J. B. and Shaver, R. H. 1975. Jeffersonville Limestone (Middle Devo- 
nian) of Indiana: stratigraphy, sedimentation, and relation to Silurian reef-bearing 
rocks. American Association Petroleum Geologists Bulletin 59:393-413. 

9. Droste, J. B. and Shaver, R. H. 1980. Recognition of buried Silurian reefs in 
southwestern Indiana: application to the Terre Haute Bank. Journal Geology 

10. Droste, J. B. and Shaver, R. H. in prep. Upper Silurian and Lower Devonian 
stratigraphy of the central Illinois Basin. Indiana Geological Survey Special Report 

• PP- 

11. Freeman, L. B. 1951. Regional aspects of Silurian and Devonian stratigraphy 
in Kentucky. Kentucky Geological Survey Series 9, Bulletin 6. 565 pp. 

12. Hanson, B. M. 1985. Truncated Devonian and Fusselman fields and their rela- 
tionship to Permian Basin reserves (abs). American Association Petroleum 
Geologists Bulletin 69:144. 

13. Illing, L. V. 1959. Deposition and diagenesis of some upper Paleozoic carbonate 
sediments in western Canada, in 5th World Petroleum Congress, Proceedings, 
Sec. 1, New York, N.Y.:23-52. 

14. Indiana University Paleontology Seminar. 1976. Constitution, growth, and 
significance of the Silurian reef complex at Rockford, Ohio. American Associa- 
tion Petroleum Geologists Bulletin 60:428-451. 

15. Jodry, R. L. 1969. Growth and dolomitization of Silurian reefs, St. Clair County, 
Michigan. American Association Petroleum Geologists Bulletin 53:957-981. 

16. McGrain, Preston and Sutton, G. S. 1973. Economic geology of Warren County, 
Kentucky. Kentucky Geological Survey Series 10 County Report 6. 28 pp. 

17. McGee, D. A. and Jenkins, H. D. 1946. West Edmond oil field, central Oklahoma. 
American Association Petroleum Geologists Bulletin 30:1797-1829. 

18. Munn, J. K. 1971. Breedlove Field, Martin County, Texas. American Associa- 
tion Petroleum Geologists Bulletin 55:403-412. 

19. Schwalb, H. R. 1975. Oil and gas in Butler County, Kentucky. Kentucky Geological 
Survey Series 10 Report of Investigations 16. 65 pp. 

20. Seale, G. L. 1985. Relationship of possible Silurian reef trend to Middle Paleozoic 
stratigraphy and structure of the southern Illinois Basin of western Kentucky. 
Kentucky Geological Survey Series 11 Thesis Series 3. 63 pp. 

21. Stevenson, D. L. 1973. The effect of buried Niagaran reefs on overlying strata 
in southwestern Illinois. Illinois Geological Survey Circular 482. 22 pp. 

Using the National Coal Resource Data System to Assist 
Coal Resource Investigations in Indiana 

Christopher E.K. Schubert, Victoria L. Warren, 

Walter A. Hasenmueller and Donald D. Carr 

Indiana Geological Survey, Bloomington, Indiana 47405 

Coal is present in the Pennsylvanian rocks of west-central and southwestern In- 
diana. This area is part of the province known as the Illinois Basin (Figure 1). 

Figure 1. Map of the Illinois Basin (modified from Spencer (1)). 

Numerous estimates of Indiana's coal resources have been compiled since coal 
mining began in the state in the early 19th century (Figure 2). These estimates were 
assembled by various methods and laboriously calculated by hand. 



Indiana Academy of Science 

Vol. 95 (1986) 


Billions of Short Tons 

20 30 40 















i , i 




Figure 2. Graph showing coal resource estimates for Indiana. 

The first comprehensive estimate of coal resources in Indiana was calculated by 
G. H. Ashley in 1898. He used a simple method of multiplying the estimated areal 
extent of a coalbed (acres) by the estimated thickness (feet) and then multiplying the 
product by a factor intended to represent the weight (tonnage) of coal per unit volume 
(acre-foot). Workable coal-tonnage figures were calculated by multiplying the total 
seam weight by a factor of 0.5 (50 percent), which represented an estimate of the 
amount of coal that could be extracted by underground mining. 

In 1909 Ashley revised his earlier estimates to include additional mine and ex- 
ploratory data (1). Four years later, M. R. Campbell (1913) further modified Ashley's 
estimates by assuming a greater tonnage per acre-foot (1). In the subsequent 40 years, 
surface mining slowly replaced underground mining as the predominant method of 
extraction. During these years increased private and public drilling developed an abun- 
dance of coal data. In 1953 F. D. Spencer employed this new information to recalculate 
the estimates of coal resources according to the standardized U.S. Geological Survey 
(USGS)-U.S. Bureau of Mines (USBM) classification system. The USGS-USBM system 
(Figure 3) includes measured, indicated, and inferred coal resource estimate categories, 
each of which reflects the geologic assurance that economically recoverable coal exists 
in that category (2). Measured estimates consist of coal within a quarter of a mile 
radius from the point of thickness measurement, indicated estimates consist of coal 
from one-quarter to three-quarters mile, and inferred estimates consist of coal from 
three-quarters mile to 3 miles. 

In 1965 C. E. Wier used revised interpretation of Spencer's coalbed correlations 
and knowledge gained from newly collected and compiled coal data to produce new 
estimates of measured coal resources. This investigation was the most recent attempt 
to estimate coal resources in Indiana. 

Geology and Geography 


(4.8 KM) 

c a^r 








Figure 3. Diagram showing resource categories based on distance from the point 
of measurement (modified from Wood and others (2)). 

Since Wier's study the Indiana Geological Survey (IGS) has continued to collect 
coal data. Types of data currently available at the IGS include coal-mine maps, geologic 
work maps, published coal maps, miscellaneous coal publications, IGS coal chemical 
analyses, and coal-drilling logs. 

Because data on Indiana coal resources are expanding, frequent review and refine- 
ment of geologic interpretations and resource estimates are necessary. A data- 
management system is required to facilitate new interpretations and evaluations of this 
expanding data resource. The digital computer is an ideal tool for this kind of work. 

The National Coal Resources Data System (NCRDS) was developed by the USGS 
and the USBM in the early 1970s to assess the quantity and quality of coal resources 
of the United States by using the standardized classification system. NCRDS is a com- 
puterized storage, retrieval, and display system designed to analyze coal data collected 
from federal and state agencies, universities, and the private sector. As a computerized 
system, NCRDS readily accommodates an expanding data base and subsequent geologic 
interpretations to serve current and future coal-resource inventories and analyses. 

The USGS is responsible for investigating the coal resources for the 38 coal-bearing 
states. To meet this national responsibility, the USGS has initiated coal resource assess- 
ment programs in cooperation with state agencies. In 1975 the IGS entered into a 1-year 
cooperative agreement with the USGS to collect coal samples for chemical analysis, 
and in 1982 it began a 5-year cooperative agreement to enter coal data from the IGS 
files into the NCRDS. 

352 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 95 (1986) 

Several data bases are available to NCRDS users. They include published coal- 
resource estimates for the coal-bearing states (USCOAL, BMRESBAS), USGS and 
USBM chemical analyses of domestic and foreign coal samples (USALYT, BMALYT, 
ICHEM), petrographic analyses (USPET), and stratigraphic data (USTRAT). These 
data can be tabulated or merged with coal-extent information and then plotted and 
contoured for isoline maps. 

This IGS is currently entering coal-thickness information into the stratigraphic 
data base. The data is coded on standardized USGS stratigraphic-entry forms and plotted 
along with the coal boundaries and mined-out areas of 7.5 minute quadrangle maps. 
These data are then entered into the computer for analysis. Coal-thickness values and 
stratigraphic information are typed into the stratigraphic data base (USTRAT). Data- 
point locations, coal-extent information, and mined-out areas are digitized, processed, 
and submitted on magnetic tape to the USGS. 

Coal-resource estimates are made by the IGS by using programs developed for 
NCRDS. First, the data points are given the digitized data point location coordinates. 
Next, the USTRAT data base is searched by using the program PACER to retrieve 
a subset of data points relevant to the area and coalbed under consideration. Finally, 
coal resources are calculated by using the program GARNET. GARNET uses an evenly 
spaced grid of thickness values produced by the computer to contour the isopach map 
of the coalbed and to compute resources. Original coal resources are computed by 
terminating the resource calculations at the outcrop, subcrop, or lateral stratigraphic 
extent. Remaining coal resources are computed by terminating the calculations at the 
surface- and underground-mine boundaries as well as at the coal-extent boundary. Coal 
resources can be calculated for specific thickness or over-burden categories by restrict- 
ing the computations to the area between contours of the thickness or overburden map. 

The products of the analysis include a valuable set of work maps that represent 
a consolidation of all the coal thickness and extent information available at the IGS 
as well as tables of original and remaining coal-resource tonnages. Computer-generated 
contour maps, such as isopach maps and structure maps, can be used to aid the geologist 
with interpretations or to present final results. Coal-resource maps are generated to 
show the areas included in resource calculations. Other products of the computer analysis 
include stratigraphic cross sections consisting of columnar sections and three-dimensional 
displays. Besides resource-tonnage tables and computer-generated maps, the system 
is capable of computing various statistical parameters that include the minimum, max- 
imum, mean, sum, variance, standard deviation, slope, intercept, and correlation 

The IGS is using NCRDS to prepare summaries of coal resources and quality 
for each of the counties in the Indiana coalfield. The system will also be used to refine 
the estimates of designated areas or to delineate areas that have specific coal thickness 
or quality characteristics. 

Literature Cited 

1. Spencer, F. D., 1953. Coal resources of Indiana: U.S. Geol. Survey Circ. 266, p. 12. 

2. Wood, G. H., T. M. Kehn, M. D. Carter, and W. C. Culbertson, 1983. Coal 
resource classification system of the U.S. Geological Survey: U.S. Geol. Survey 
Circ. 891, p. 2. 


Chair: Gerald R. Seeley 

Department of Civil Engineering 

Valparaiso University, Valparaiso, Indiana 46383 (219) 464-5135 

Chair-Elect: Barbara Ann Seeley 
805 Hastings Terrace, Valparaiso, Indiana 46383 (219) 465-1948 


Evolution and Morality as Interpreted by T. H. Huxley and Herbert Spencer. Elizabeth 

Hunt, Department of Biology, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 47405. 

Thomas Henry Huxley (1825-1895) and Herbert Spencer (1820-1903), biologists and 
Darwin critics, were both renowned as moralists during their lifetimes. Huxley, Darwin's 
staunch supporter, addressed himself often to the meaning of morality in humans whom 
he saw as products of evolution by natural selection. Huxley's work as a biologist 
and his particularly interesting idea of morality have been overshadowed by his reputation 
as "Darwin's bulldog." Because ideas originally developed by Darwin are paramount 
in biology today, Huxley's impact upon evolutionary thought is worth serious con- 
sideration. Spencer, whose idea of evolution was founded upon other principles than 
that of natural selection, was a tremendously prolific moralist. Spencer's life-work, 
Synthetic Philosophy, is a five-part treatise on biology, psychology (a discipline Spencer 
founded), sociology and morality. Spencer's understanding of evolution was not merely 
the crux of his biological theories; Spencer also felt that this evolutionary mechanism 
was the driving force in society and morality as well. How science has influenced our 
ideas of morality (and the reverse) in the 19th century is apparent in the works of 
Huxley and Spencer. 


"There Were Giants in Those Days:" A Symposium on the 
founders of the Indiana Academy of Science 

Survey of the Lives and Careers of Three Charter Members of the 
Indiana Academy of Science: Theophilus A. Wylie, Richard Owen and Harvey W. Wiley 

Harry G. Day 

Department of Chemistry, Indiana University 

Bloomington, Indiana 47405 

Seventy-one persons, all men, were the founders of the Indiana Academy of Science 
and are recorded as the charter members. They include Theophilus Wylie, Richard 
Owen and Harvey Wiley. The first two were outstanding faculty members at Indiana 
University and the latter had a signal role in the development of chemistry at Purdue 
University during its first decade. However, in 1883, two years before the Academy 
of Science was founded, Wiley left Purdue and the state of Indiana to become chief 
chemist in the Chemical Division of the United States Department of Agriculture. Six 
years before the founding, Owen retired from the University, becoming professor 
emeritus, and one year after the founding Wylie became Professor emeritus. Both Owen 
and Wylie were the same age and in the year the Academy began to function they 
were each 75 years of age. Wiley was 34 years younger. Thus by 1885 Wylie and Owen 
had become virtually too old and preoccupied with other interests to be actively in- 
volved in the development of the new Academy. But Wiley, although he no longer 
lived in Indiana, gave support in various ways almost as long as he lived. 

T. A. Wylie 

Theophilus Wylie was a scholar of the old school who devoted practically all 
his productive life to Indiana University and the Bloomington community. His only 
publication of substantial merit was his "Historical Catalogue" (1) that covers the 
record of Indiana University from its founding in 1820 to 1890. From 1837 until his 
death in 1895 he was connected with the institution and lived in Bloomington except 
for the years 1852-54 when he was on the faculty of Miami University. He retired 
in 1886. His knowledge and understanding of chemistry and physics was self-taught. 
Because his education and family background had prepared him in theology and the 
classics he remained deeply interested in theology and in preaching throughout his 
life. He came to the struggling university as Professor of Natural Philosophy and 
Chemistry. Most of his years on the faculty were devoted to these subjects, but at 
one time or another he served in various other capacities. 

As his colleague and friend Judge David Banta stated (2) at the time of Dr. Wylie's 
death in 1895: 

"No other man in the State ever had so long in one place a teaching service 
as he, and few in this or any other State, found so warm a place in his students' 
hearts. No more scholarly man was ever connected with the institution than was 
Dr. Wylie." 

Perhaps the best characterization of Wylie and his status toward the end of his 
teaching was written by one of his students (3), of the class of 1876. In part he wrote: 

"He was a gentle, lovable man, affectionately called 'Pap' Wylie by our 
class, perhaps because his son Brown was a member. We had one year of 
Olmstead's Philosophy (physics), a truly formidable book, packed with knotty 


356 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 95 (1986) 

mathematical problems as well as mechanics, sound, light, heat, and electricity. 
Chemistry had been made a separate department under Dr. Van Nuys. Our last 
year was spent in the study of astronomy. Although Kirkwood was an astronomer 
of first rank and Wylie was not I am sure that so far as instruction goes, we 
fared better under the latter. He had nearly every desirable quality that a teacher 
could have." 

In addition to his teaching and willing participation in various responsibilities 
of the University, in private Wylie devoted time to sketching and painting. His diaries 
contain many excellent sketches that illustrate concepts and appearance of things of 
special interest to him. These included flowers, sun spots, rings of Saturn, and the 
constellations. An impressive picture by Wylie of the old campus had been proudly 
on display in University Chancellor Wells' office for many years. 

Theophilus Wylie and Daniel Kirkwood, as well as Richard Owen, were close 
friends during especially the time that they were together as faculty colleagues. Kirkwood 
was four years younger than the other two, who were less than a year apart in age. 
It is remarkable that Wylie and Kirkwood died only a few days apart (4). Both are 
buried in Rose Hill cemetery in Bloomington. Owen is buried in the old cemetery at 
New Harmony. 

Wylie began to keep a diary in 1832. It was continued until 1892, three years 
before he died (5). This unheralded record of 60 years obviously was not written with 
the intention that any part would become available to scholars or the public. It was 
his way to make habit serve him periodically in quietly recording ideas, observations, 
and experiences that he needed to think about at the time or for future reference. 
His personal and unfettered notations constitute a wealth of on-the-scene reporting 
that at least greatly complements other sources of information and ideas about the 
time in which he lived. Unfortunately the volumes covering about eighteen years ap- 
parently have been lost and were never in the possession of the University Archives. 

Although Wylie recorded various important observations about the University's 
move to the present campus in 1885 there is no reference to the Indiana Academy 
of Science which held its first meeting in the same year. However, in August 1881 
he wrote fairly extensively concerning his attendance at the national meeting of the 
American Association for the Advancement of Science in Cincinnati. The meeting lasted 
eight days and he was there for everything. 

The tragedy of the great fire at I.U. on 12 July 1883 was starkly described at 
some length in the diary. Apparently the burning of the ten year old Science building 
was caused by lightning, but at first this was not realized by Wylie. He and his family 
lived in the now historic Wylie house which is a little more than two blocks from 
the site of the building. His first entry in the diary following the disaster was on July 
15. With obvious heaviness of heart he wrote in part: 

"... about 10 O'C the college bell rang the alarm of fire. I immediately 
ran through the rainstorm ... & found the New College building afire ..." 

After recording the lamentable losses, he wrote: 

"The fire seemed to have originated in my room thus I will be more implicated 
perhaps than any other as the occasion of the loss ... I feel that it is more 
than I can bear." 

From out perspective it was perfectly obvious that this major loss on a campus 
already too small should be followed by rebuilding on a new site — one that would 
permit continuing growth and development. But Wylie and several of his colleagues 
saw no need to take such a bold and, in their view, expensive step. To the great credit 

History of Science 357 

of the Board, by a narrow vote, steps were quickly taken to move the University to 
the present site, then called Dunn's woods. 

During the many months of active decision making and building on the new cam- 
pus Wylie's thoughts were frequently expressed in his diary. Finally on 5 September 
1885 he wrote: 

"College opened in the new building, last Thursday— new arrangement, new studies, 
new teachers, new modes of teaching give me much anxiety." 

Concerning the high honor of being memorialized in the naming of the larger 
of the first two buildings, the diary is notably diffident. On the recommendation of 
President Moss in 1884 the larger building was named Wylie Hall "in honor of the 
first President of the University and of the present Professor of Physics." The laying 
of the cornerstone and naming occurred on 10 June 1884 during Commencement week. 
The only reference to this in the diaries is in two entires, the first as follows: 

"Last night I acted as chaplain— to morrow have something to do— & the next 
day at the laying of the cornerstone." 

At the bottom of the page he had written some time later "Strange I was not more 
particular about the cornerstone as I rep d the Faculty." Then 5 days after the laying 
of the cornerstone and the Commencement that followed he simply wrote "Commence- 
ment over." The rest of the entry was largely concerned with family matters. 

Many issues such as possible conflicts between science and religion were thought 
about and commented by Wylie. Always his views and analyses were thoughtful and 
showed that he had an inquiring mind. For example, in April 1886 concerning a lec- 
ture on evolution by Professor John M. Coulter then of Wabash College, he wrote: 

"An eloquent lecture which held the audience. Darwin presented as the leading 
man in the Science of Biology. Prof. C. took a correct view of evolution, me 
judice. He did not ignore the Deity. It was God's mode of creating." 

Such views were frequently expressed to students and colleagues on campus and 
in the community. 

Respect and appreciation for Wylie was not limited to Indiana. Miami University 
gave him an honorary D.D. degree and such degrees were also awarded by Monmouth 
College and Princeton University. His Alma Mater the University of Pennsylvania 
awarded him an honorary LL.D. degree. 

Richard Owen 

When Col. Richard Owen joined the Indiana University faculty on 1 January 
1864 he was 54 years of age but teaching was not new to him. His notable years in 
military service and surveying were in addition to his teaching of elementary school 
pupils, soldiers in a military institute, and his public lecturing. By the end of 1863 
the prospects for victory in the Civil War seemed assured. He and his family had 
been for years the core of the New Harmony community and there were already strong 
bonds with Indiana University. As his biographer Victor Lincoln Albjerg wrote in 1946 

"He was primarily a scholar, a philosopher, and a humanitarian, and when In- 
diana University offered him a professorship in the natural sciences, he put away 
the military toga and donned the academic gown." 

Soon he beloned to the outstanding group which became known as the "Big Four." 
The others were Professors Ballantine, Kirkwood, and Wylie (3). 

During his first four years he was Professor of Natural Philosophy and Chemistry. 

358 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 95 (1986) 

From 1867 to his retirement in 1879 the title was Professor of Natural Science and 
Chemistry. As stated by Wylie (1), 

"During these fifteen years he gave instruction principally in Geology, Mineralogy, 
and Chemistry, and during vacancies in the Modern Language Department he 
taught German and French." 

During the first several years on the faculty he accepted other responsibilities 
outside Indiana in making geological surveys. Much of Owen's training in geology 
was obtained through his experience in surveys for the federal government in which 
his noted brother David Dale Owen was the director. His formal education, all in 
Europe, focused on natural sciences, especially chemistry and physics (6). Nearly all 
his published work was on geological subjects. As indicated in the titles, none of the 
publications had any particular reference to chemistry. However Owen was the first 
teacher of chemistry, physics, or geology at Indiana University to publish scientific 

Concerning Owen's effectiveness as a teacher there are very credible analyses by 
some of his students, his biographer Professor Albjerg, Wylie, and others. Professor 
Albjerg compared him favorably and at length with the best. In part he wrote (6): 

"As a class room manager he was superb. He maintained an atmosphere of dignity 
and scholarship. Raucous hilarity springing from demagogic stimuli was entirely 
absent. To him the classroom was not a place for entertainment, light bantering, 
or exhibition of the instructor's personality, but rather for the revelation of a 
theory or the exposition of a principle ..." 

One of Owen's great interests for nearly a decade was the location and develop- 
ment of a land-grant college following the enactment of the Morrill Act in 1862. Shortly 
after joining the faculty at Bloomington he drafted a comprehensive plan for the 
organization of an agricultural and normal school to function in connection with In- 
diana University (6). He travelled and spoke extensively throughout Indiana in favor 
of his plan. 

Of course it is a matter of record that the "Indiana Agricultural College," was 
located at Lafayette. Its new Board of Trustees designated Owen to be the first presi- 
dent. But neither the Board nor President Owen moved promptly to organize the new 
university. He remained in residence on full time service at Indiana University. One 
year later he returned to Lafayette and gave the Board his tentative plan on the pur- 
pose and organization of the institution. Much objection to his plan arose. In the 
meantime the Board at Indiana University gave him the additional responsibility of 
being the curator of the exceptionally valuable Owen Cabinet or Museum to be housed 
in the planned Science Building, which was completed in 1873. He promptly resigned 
from Purdue. 

A major turn in Owen's thoughts and practices concerning religion soon occur- 
red after he joined the faculty at Bloomington. He became devoutly and rationally 
religious. As his biographer wrote (6), "he was permeated with a deep spirituality." 
Wylie wrote in his history of the university (1) that ". . . he professed his faith in 
the Divine Savior and became a member and an office-bearer in the Presbyterian 
Church." Also, Wylie frequently commented in his diary regarding Owen's chapel 
talks. In those years the daily chapel services were a significant feature of campus 
life. Owen's talks were generally Bible-based and admonitory concerning uprightness 
in living and in personal responsibility for health and good citizenship. His Sunday 
School class was a discussion group which considered a variety of topics such as religion, 
morality, economics, politics, ethics, frivolity, and family relations. 

In 1879, owing to his impaired hearing, Dr. Owen retired and returned to New 

History of Science 359 

Harmony where he worked primarily on seismology (7). Also he kept up an active 
correspondence with many professional friends in this country and abroad. The many 
topics included views on socialism, tornadoes, geology, and physics. He lectured ex- 
tensively and he was in demand as a commencement speaker. Occasionally he preached 
in the New Harmony Methodist Church and he conducted the funeral services of many 
residents, some of whom were his close friends. Occasionally former colleagues from 
Bloomington visited in the Owen home. Among them was David Starr Jordan after 
he had become President of Indiana University (6). 

Owen participated in absentia at the first scientific meeting of the Indiana Academy 
of Science. In the first published report on the meeting, Prof. A. W. Butler stated (8): 

"In the absence of Dr. Richard Owen the secretary read that gentleman's sketch 
of work accomplished for natural and physical science in Indiana. It was an ex- 
haustive paper, treating of scientific research in this State from the earliest period 
to the present." 

If there are current concerns that some papers in the Academy's programs are 
extraordinarily long it needs to be noted, as reported by Butler, that the "reading 
(of Owen's paper) took up a great part of the afternoon exercises, and was discon- 
tinued until further along in the session, to allow the presentation of other papers." 

Among the high honors to Owen was the naming of Owen Hall for him and 
his brothers Robert and David. This occurred on 10 June 1884 at the time the corner- 
stones for this building and Wylie Hall were put in place (1,7). Also, in 1874 he received 
an honorary degree, LL.D., from Wabash College. 

Another honor of high distinction was initiated in 1985 by the Indiana University 
Department of Geology. This is the Richard Owen Award (9). It is to be presented 
annually to two distinguished alumni from the Department. 

Harvey W. Wiley 

Harvey W. Wiley, unlike T. Wylie and R. Owen, was born in Indiana. The begin- 
ning was in humble, rural circumstances, in Jefferson county. However his father, 
like the fathers of T. Wylie and R. Owen, was much interested in education, both 
for himself and others. As Wiley wrote in his autobiography the father "even mastered 
Greek, at least sufficiently to read the New Testament in the original." 

In 1867, when he was 23, Harvey Wiley graduated from Hanover College, which 
was only five miles from his home. His education had been interrupted by his limited 
service with the 137th Indiana Volunteers in the Civil War. 

The upward bound graduate taught for a term in a Hoosier public school (Lowell) 
and in free time he read medicine with a local doctor in whose home he had a room. 
After the term ended he spent several months in Kentucky. While there he read medicine 
and served a physician as a medical apprentice. During the following year he taught 
in the preparatory department at Northwestern Christian University, now Butler Univer- 
sity. His interest in medicine was advanced by the opening of Indiana Medical Col- 
lege, a new proprietary school in Indianapolis. He taught chemistry in the morning 
hours and studied medicine in the afternoons and evenings. Soon, in 1871, he received 
a Doctor of Medicine degree. 

There were frustrations concerning the professional direction he should take. 
Resolution of the uncertainties began to occur when in the same year he attended a 
meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science held that year 
in Indianapolis. His career as a scientist dates from that time. He gave up any interest 
in practicing medicine. Before the end of 1871-72 he was teaching chemistry in both 
the Indiana Medical College and at Northwestern Christian University. 

360 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 95 (1986) 

Wiley's interest in chemistry, kindled at Hanover, led him to enroll as a special 
chemistry student at Harvard in September 1872. After three months he returned to 
the Indiana Medical College to teach his classes for almost four months. Then he resumed 
his studies in chemistry at Harvard having been assured that if he passed all the special 
examinations he would be given a degree. The examinations were in general chemistry, 
chemical philosophy, French and German, mineralogy, qualitative and quantitative 
analysis. At the Harvard commencement exercises in June 1873 he received the B.S. 
in chemistry cum laude. His total time at Harvard had been less than six months. 

Soon the rising chemist was named professor of chemistry and mineralogy at 
Northwestern Christian. In addition, he agreed to teach chemistry at the Medical Col- 
lege. He overworked and almost died. After months of convalescence in August 1874 
he was named Professor of chemistry at Purdue, the first teacher of chemistry in that 
new institution. This fruitful connection continued until 1883 when he moved to 
Washington, D.C. 

Wiley's only known connection with Indiana University occurred briefly about 
one week following his graduation from Harvard. At Bloomington, as a representative 
of the Indiana Medical College, he made a presentation to the Board of Trustees of 
the University which expressed the desire of the Medical College to continue its modest 
affiliation with the University. Such affiliation was continued in varying degrees of 
effectiveness until 1909 when Indiana University took full responsibility for all medical 
education in Indiana. 

While in Bloomington on this mission in 1873 Wiley attended the laying of the 
cornerstone of the new building, Science Hall. 

At Purdue one of Wiley's first notable actions was the encouragement and direc- 
tion of students in the preparation of many chemical compounds as a part of their 
training. A collection of the compounds was made and exhibited by Wiley at the World's 
Fair in Philadelphia in 1876 (11). 

Coincidentally, T. Wylie attended the Fair, which was the centennial of this 
country's birth. Also, he had supervised the preparation of an exhibit sponsored by 
Indiana University. 

At Purdue Dr. Wiley emphasized laboratory work as the principal feature of in- 
struction in chemistry. His focus in teaching was on analytical chemistry. This was 
parallel with the action of Dr. T. C. Van Nuys who was the first full time chemist 
at Indiana University. Van Nuys began his connection with Indiana University in 1874, 
immediately after the first adequate chemical laboratories had been provided. His strong 
emphasis was also on analytical chemistry. 

Before moving to Washington Wiley had gained a reputation as a sound and 
practical specialist in the efforts to establish a domestic sugar industry. Although his 
responsibilities were largely on the technical side, the strong political forces that operated 
gave him problems. The extensive efforts to develop sorghum as a good sugar source 
failed, but a useful side effect was the improvement of sorghum as feed for farm 
animals. Also, much progress was made in the cultivation of sugar beets. A solid con- 
tribution was the introduction of chemical methods in research, development, and quality 
control (12). 

For a long time in Washington Wiley gave much attention to the development 
of analytical methods largely to control the adulteration of foods. Bulletins from his 
laboratories reported in detail the normal characteristics of food products, dealt with 
appropriate analytic methods, and described common adulterations. His publications 
became the technical foundation of the developing pure food movement. A major 
support for the movement was Wiley's establishment of the Association of Official 
Agricultural Chemists (AOAC). The resultant three-volume treatise "Principles and 

History of Science 361 

Practice of Agricultural Analysis" won widespread recognition of it as a standard works 
on methods. 

In these endeavors Wiley became a vigorous participant in the strengthening of 
the new American Chemical Society. A major step in making it truly national and 
strong occurred in 1892 when Wiley became president of the Society. His leadership 
was so strong and effective that he served two terms. 

Through the basic advances he had made in promoting the development and use 
of improved and uniform analytical methods exact knowledge instead of guesswork 
was possible in greater degree in the establishment of food standards and deviation 
from the standards. In 1895 Wiley headed a Committee on Pure Food Legislation. 
Some of the states, especially New Jersey, had begun to enact good legislation. But 
bills prepared by the Committee and introduced in the Congress were quietly opposed 
with strength and made no progress. 

As summed up by his principal biographer (12): 

"With a shrewd sense for publicity, Wiley tested the effects of chemical 
food preservatives on the health of a panel of volunteers, the 'Poison Squad.' 
He spoke at countless meetings, recruited workers and allies, sought to consolidate 
support for specific proposals, and worked closely with Congressional leaders, 
supplying information and helping to draft legislation. He deserves the lion's share 
of the credit for the Pure Food and Drugs Act of 1906." 

Although the new law and mechanisms for its enforcement had grievious im- 
perfections, at long last, food safety was being promoted on a national level. Wiley 
quickly became embroiled in controversies concerning enforcement. Finally in 1912 
he resigned from the government and changed to the private sector where he cam- 
paigned on behalf of food and drugs safety. As director of the Good Housekeeping 
Bureau of Foods, Sanitation, and Health he continued his long term battles. 

One of the signal honors in memory of Dr. Wiley was the issuance of a United 
States commemorative postage stamp on which his picture was prominent. This occur- 
red in 1956, the 50th anniversary of the passage of the Pure Food and Drugs Act. 
Wiley appears to be the only member of the Academy ever so honored. 

In 1985 Good Housekeeping magazine established the Harvey Wiley Award to 
recognize outstanding accomplishments in public policy, consumer education, and 
research related to nutrition and health. 

AH of H. Wiley's relations with the Indiana Academy of Science occurred after 
he had moved from Indiana. Although he obviously was interested in the Academy 
and scientific matters in Indiana, the Academy is neither mentioned in his autobiography 
nor in the definitive biography by Anderson. Of course the very succinct record of 
his several connections are in Daily and Daily's excellent History of the Indiana Academy 
of Science. (13). 

In addition to Wiley's contributions to the Academy in 1902 as its president, 
he addressed the organization several times. At the celebration of the 25th Anniver- 
sary of the Academy in 1909 Wiley gave an address on "Recent Progress in Chemistry." 
In 1916 the Academy participated in the celebration of the centennial of the State. 
Wiley spoke on "The Early History of Chemistry in Indiana." (11) He returned in 
1921 and in 1925 to address Spring meetings and in 1923 to speak at the fall meeting. 
Apparently his last expression of interest in the Academy was in 1927, three years 
before his death. This was a letter of greetings read at the spring meeting which was 
held at New Harmony. 

Wiley was obviously in failing health and judgment at least a year before he died. 
Almost from the time "his" Pure Food and Drugs Act was passed in 1906 he con- 
tinuously found fault with its enforcement. In his latter years he became less tactful, 

362 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 95 (1986) 

dogmatic, and embittered. Much of this was expressed in 1929 in his book "The History 
of a Crime Against the Food Law." The book was acrid in tone and word. Some 
times great contributors to science and its applications do not relax and retire soon 
enough. That was Wiley's problem. 

After his death the dedicated reformer and Veteran of the Civil War was buried 
amongst a host of other veterans in Arlington National cemetery. 

History has proved that Theophilus Wylie, Richard Owen, and Harvey Wiley 
were giants in earlier days and Indiana continues to benefit from their lives and work. 


I am indebted to the Indiana University Archivist Dolores M. Lahrman for ex- 
cellent cooperation and to Elizabeth M. Greene for her very capable personal secretarial 
work over many years and especially for her expertise and persistence in transcribing 
the entirety of the T. A. Wylie diaries preserved in the University Archives. 

Literature Cited 

1. Wylie, Theophilus A., 1890. Indiana University, Its History from 1820, When 
Founded, to 1890. Burford, Indianapolis. 

2. Daily Telephone. 1895. Judge Banta talks of the work of Dr. Wylie. June 11, 
Bloomington, Ind. 

3. Carpenter, Charles T. 1928. In the days of Ballantine, Kirkwood, Owen, and 
Wylie. Ind. U. Alumn. Quart. 15, 157-167. 

4. Daily Telephone, 1895. Kirkwood! Death of the venerable astronomer. June 11, 
Bloomington, Ind. 

5. Diaries of Theophilus A. Wylie, Thirteen books from 1832 to 1892. Archives 
Indiana University, Bloomington. 

6. Albjerg, Victor Lincoln. 1946. Richard Owen. Scotland 1810 - Indiana 1890. The 
Archives of Purdue, Number 2, March. 

7. Woodburn, J. A. 1940. History of Indiana University Vol. 1 1820-1902. Published 
by Indiana University. 

8. Butler, Amos W. 1886. The Indiana Pharmacist 4, 267-268. 

9. Kibbey, Hal. 1985. Richard Schrock Recipient of I.U.'s First Owen Award. The 
Herald-Telephone, Bloomington, Ind. 10 October. 

10. Wiley, Harvey., 1930. An Autobiography. The Bobbs-Merrill Co., Indianapolis. 

11. Wiley, H. W. 1917. The Early History of Chemistry in Indiana. Proc. Ind. Acad. 
Sci. 32, 178-185. 

12. Anderson, Oscar E., 1958. The Health of a Nation. University of Chicago Press. 

13. Daily, W. A. and Daily, F. K. 1984. History of the Indiana Academy of Science 
1885-1984. Published by The Indiana Academy of Science, Indianapolis. 

Daniel Kirkwood 

Frank K. Edmondson 

Department of Astronomy, Indiana University 

Bloomington, Indiana 47405 

Kirkwood Avenue, Kirkwood Hall and Kirkwood Observatory are visible memorials 
to Daniel Kirkwood. He must have been an important person to merit such recogni- 
tion, but very few people today know why he was important. This symposium gives 
me an opportunity to do something to revive public appreciation for this man. 

This talk will have four major parts: 1) Indiana University prior to Kirk wood's 
arrival, 2) Chronology of Kirkwood's life, 3) Daniel Kirkwood at Indiana University 
and his work as a scientist, and 4) Daniel Kirkwood and the Indiana Academy of Science. 

I.U. had three faculty members after Andrew Wylie became President in 1829, 
and one of them offered instruction in Astronomy. Daniel Kirkwood was 15 years 
old at this time. The faculty had grown to about half a dozen by the time Kirkwood 
arrived and numbered about a dozen when he retired. Astronomy was listed in the 
course of instruction as a Senior Year Course in both the Regular and Scientific Courses 
in 1856. In 1880 it was listed in all three curricula: Ancient Classics, Modern Classics, 
and Science. 

Daniel Kirkwood was six years old when the Indiana State Seminary was found- 
ed in 1820. He was 42 years old when he joined the I.U. faculty in 1856. Table I 
gives selected dates and events in his life. His first U.S. demonstration of the Foucault 
Pendulum in 1851 only a few months after it was demonstrated in Paris is an example 
of his pioneering spirit, inquiring mind, and knowledge of contemporary science in 
Europe. The honorary degree from the University of Pennsylvania a year later recognized 
this. He was Professor of Mathematics and Astronomy at Delaware College, and also 
its President, when he was called to Indiana University in 1856. He served under five 
I.U. Presidents and retired in 1886 at the age of 72. Kirkwood Hall was dedicated 
a year before he died in 1895 at the age of 81. The Kirkwood Observatory was dedicated 
five years after his death. 

Table I. Daniel Kirkwood 

1814, Sept. 27 Born in Harford Co., Maryland. 


1829 Andrew Wylie became the first President of INDIANA COLLEGE. 

1833 Took charge of a country school at Hopewell, York County, Pennsylvania. 

1834 Entered York County Academy, York, Pa. 

1838 "First assistant and mathematical instructor", York County Academy. 

1838 Name changed to INDIANA UNIVERSITY. 

1843-48 Principal. Lancaster City High School 

1848 Teacher and Principal at Pottsville Academy. 

1849 MA. from Washington College. 
1851 Andrew Wylie died. 

18SI Foucault Pendulum, Pantheon, Paris. 

1851, May 15 & June 7 Kirkwood gave first public demonstration of Foucault Pendulum in U.S. at 

Schuylkill Haven, Pa. Repeated June 14 at Pottsville Court House. 

1851 Elected a Member of the American Philosophical Society, Philadelphia. Member, A.A.A.S 

1851 Professor of Mathematics, Delaware College. 

1852 LL. D. from Univ. of Pennsylvania. 
1854-56 President of Delaware College. 

1856-86 Professor of Mathematics, Indiana University (at Washington and Jefferson College 1866-67). 


364 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 95 (1986) 

Table I— (continued) 

Indiana University Presidents 
1853-58 William M. Daily 
1859-60 John H. Lathrop 
1860-75 Cyrus Nutt 
1875-84 Lemuel Moss 
1885-91 David Starr Jordan (Prof, of Biology 1879-85). 

1889 Moved to Riverside, California to live with a nephew. 

At opening of Stanford University he was appointed Non-resident Lecturer in Astronomy. 

1894 Kirkwood Hall was erected. 

1895 Died. Buried in Rose Hill Cemetery, Bloomington. His wife and daughter are also buried there. 

Elisha Ballantine had been appointed Professor of Mathematics in 1854. He was 
transferred to the Professorship of Languages in 1 856, and Daniel Kirkwood was elected 
Professor of Mathematics by the Trustees by a vote of 5 to 2 on Sept. 5th. He was 
not able to arrive in Bloomington for the opening of classes and a Faculty meeting 
on September 26. Henry W. Ballantine was appointed to fill the vacancy until his 
arrival. He was presented to the Faculty at a Faculty Meeting on October 31st. 

Kirkwood was a teacher-researcher in the tradition of the present day. As a teacher 
and person he was beloved by students and townspeople alike. Two quotations from 
a biographical sketch in the American Mathematical Monthly for May 1894 illustrate 
this. "The admiration, almost reverence they have for him is admirably illustrated 
in this statement made by one of his students years ago, "When I die I want to go 
where Dr. Kirkwood goes." "The writer well remembers his first visit to Bloomington. 
He went into a barber shop ... By chance the conversation turned to men. Every 
man present found his ideal in Daniel Kirkwood. No man ever received a higher tribute 
of praise." As a research scientist he was the first I.U. faculty member to achieve 
a significant international reputation. Two other quotations from the above mentioned 
article illustrate this. "Proctor was making a lecture tour of the United States, he 
lectured in Indianapolis. After the lecture he was approached by a delegation from 
Greencastle requesting him to lecture there the next evening. He said, "no I cannot 
do so. I came from England to America to see Daniel Kirkwood. Tomorrow is my 
opportunity and I am going to Bloomington to see him." "His is truly a great name 
in science, with a world wide renown." So wrote Professor P. Piazzi Smyth, Astronomer 
Royal for Scotland in 1885. He who knows Dr. Kirkwood either personally or through 
his contributions to science, gladly gives assent to the Astronomer Royal's eulogy." 

His bibliography lists 109 publications, including three books. One of the books 
and 25 articles were published after he retired in 1886 at the age of 72. His last paper 
was published when he was 79, two years before he died. His publications reflect his 
strong interest in comets, meteors, and asteroids. Five years after he came to I.U. 
he suggested that periodic meteors are the debris of disintegrated comets, an idea that 
is universally accepted today. 

Daniel Kirkwood's scientific immortality comes from his discovery of the gaps 
in the distances of asteroids from the sun corresponding to periods of Vi y l A, etc. 
of the period of Jupiter. This was a major, basic discovery, and the "Kirkwood Gaps" 
are frequently referred to by that name in textbooks and in present day asteroid research 
literature (i.e. Physics Today, Sept. 1985, p. 17-20). Only four asteroids had been 
discovered at the time of Kirkwood's birth, and 42 had been discovered by the time 
he came to I.U. His discovery of the "Kirkwood Gaps" (Figure 1) was based on the 
data for the first 50 asteroids. His book "The Asteroids" was published in 1888, two 
years after he retired. 

History of Science 365 

1000 800 600 400 


Klrkwood gaps are clearly seen in this distribution of orbital frequencies for several 
thousand cataloged asteroids in the asteroid belt. The fractions above the histogram indicate 
frequencies that correspond to simple fractions of Jupiter's 1 1 .9 year orbital period. These 
commensurable periods are clearly depopulated by some sort of resonant interaction with 
Jupiter. The prominent "3/1 Kirkwood gap," for example, is labeled V 3 here to indicate that its 
orbital period is % that of Jupiter. 

Figure 1 . Kirkwood Gaps (used by permission from PHYSICS TODA Y / September 
1985, page. 17. 

Daniel Kirkwood was one of the 71 Charter Members of the Indiana Academy 
of Science. His name is one of nine listed in the Dedication and Foreward of the "History 
of the Indiana Academy of Sciences 1885-1984" as those "without whose enthusiastic 
support the endeavor would have failed." He retired the year after the founding of 
the Academy, but remained in Bloomington for another three years before moving 
to California. He was the first to be given the status of Honorary Member. "There 
were giants in those days" and Daniel Kirkwood was a "giant among giants." 

John Merle Coulter, Botanist 

Charles B. Heiser, Jr. 

Indiana University 

Bloomington, Indiana 47405 

It is most fitting that John Merle Coulter be honored in this symposium, for 
in addition to being a founding member of the Indiana Academy he served as its sec- 
ond president in 1887, was one of the editors of the Proceedings in 1892, president 
of Indiana University from 1891 to 1893, and had long associations with both Hanover 
College and Wabash College. During his lifetime he was one of the leading botanists 
in the world. His brother, Standley Coulter, should be mentioned also, for he, too, 
was a founding member of the Academy, served as its president in 1896, and was 
dean of the School of Science at Purdue from 1905 to 1926. My task of preparing 
this talk has been relatively simple, for Andrew Denny Rodgers wrote a biography, 
entitled John Merle Coulter, Missionary in Science, which was published by the Princeton 
University Press in 1944, and nearly all of the material that follows comes from it. 

John Finley Crowe, the grandfather of John Merle, came to Hanover, Indiana 
in 1823 where he founded Hanover Academy, which was to become Hanover College 
in 1832. Moses Standley Coulter arrived at Hanover in 1844 and after graduation he 
married Caroline Crowe and went to Ningpo, China as a missionary. John Merle was 
born there on November 20, 1851. Two years later and before the birth of Standley, 
Moses Standley died, and in 1854 Caroline and her children returned to Indiana. In 
1865 or 1866 John Merle enrolled at Hanover where his greatest interest was Latin. 
When he was a junior he studied botany with Frank H. Bradley, who was primarily 
a geologist. Soon thereafter, Bradley left Hanover College. The story was that he had 
admitted "that the geologic record indicated an origin of the earth not entirely consis- 
tent with an infallibly literal interpretation of the biblical story of creation." That 
was enough for the trustees of the college. He was replaced by Edward Thomas Nelson 
who became another influence in developing John Merle's interest in plants. 

Coulter was graduated at the head of his class in 1870 with Latin still his greatest 
interest, and he went to teach Latin at a Presbyterian girls' school where his mother 
was teaching. He didn't stay long, however, for Bradley, who was now chief geologist 
of the United States Geological and Geographical Surveys of the Territories, asked 
him to serve as assistant geologist. On May 24, 1872 he found himself in Utah. The 
flora in the West, so different from that of Indiana, immediately fascinated him, and 
when his work in geology was finished for the day, he collected plants. Later he was 
made official botanist of the expedition, and he came into contact with Thomas Con- 
rad Porter, a leading botanist of the time, who was also to influence his development 
as a systematic botanist. The result of his collecting was their publication of a Synop- 
sis of the Flora of Colorado in 1874. 

Coulter returned to Hanover in 1874, not as botanist or geologist but in the chair 
of Latin. However, in the same year he also became acting professor of natural sciences 
and through his own request he was transferred to that position. Coulter was now 
a full time botanist. His first new endeavors were devoted to the flora of Indiana, 
and in 1875 he established a journal, the Botanical Bulletin, whose name was changed 
to Botanical Gazette two years later. It is still being published at the University of 
Chicago, making it one of the oldest botanical journals in the country. He continued 
to serve as editor until the time of his death, and Coulter's editorials and papers in 
it through the years allowed him to have a prominent role in the development and 
interpretation of botany in the United States. 


368 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 95 (1986) 

In July, 1879 just before Hanover had made arrangements to purchase his her- 
barium, Coulter announced that he had accepted a position at Wabash College. Wabash, 
like Hanover, was a Presbyterian school. It has been suggested that one of the reasons 
he left Hanover was "to aid the school financially," because the increase in the number 
of teachers and their salaries was putting a financial strain on the school. 

Coulter's research had been entirely in systematics until this time, and in the summer 
of 1879 he went to Harvard for studies. He was already acquainted with Asa Gray 
of that institution and he had used his book as a student at Hanover. He enjoyed 
a lively exchange of letters with Gray through the years. Gray was without question 
the leader in botany in the United States, and Coulter had great respect for his opin- 
ion. That summer, however, he studied anatomy and physiology with George Lincoln 
Goodale. He returned to Wabash in the fall and returned to Harvard again the next 
year where he served as Goodale's laboratory assistant. 

His interest in morphology, for which he is most famous, had already developed, 
and his earliest contribution in this area, "Development of Dandelion-Flower," was 
given at the meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science 
in 1893; he had begun very early the practice of attending scientific meetings whenever 
possible. His taxonomic work still continued, however. He is perhaps best known for 
his contributions to the Umbelliferae, the carrot family, done with his former student, 
Joseph Nelson Rose. In 1887 he wrote Gray, "As you know for a year now I have 
been eating, drinking and sleeping Umbelliferae." In the next year Coulter and Rose's 
"Revision of the North American Umbelliferae" appeared. Shortly afterwards came 
several floristic works, the second edition of the Manual of Botany of the Rocky Moun- 
tain Region, the sixth edition of Gray's Manual done with Sereno Watson and the 
Flora of West Texas, which had been commissioned by the United States Department 
of Agriculture. His taxonomic treatments were typical of those of that age, but he 
was aware that taxonomy was not static. In 1890 in a talk he stated that "the real 
systematic botany is to sum up and utilize the results of all other departments." The 
other departments, of course had little to offer at that time. Later he was to emphasize 
the importance of using an experimental taxonomy, but he was never to carry out 
such studies himself. 

For his presidential address at the Indiana Academy in 1887 he spoke on "Evolu- 
tion in the Plant Kingdom." His views on the subject had changed somewhat since 
he had given a similar address at Hanover ten years earlier. Evolution and phylogeny 
were to be two of his greatest interests the rest of his life. 

When David Starr Jordan left Indiana University to go to Stanford in 1891, Coulter 
was offered the presidency. In 1884 he had received an honorary doctor of science 
degree from Indiana University, and in the next year they had sought him as professor 
of botany, but he had elected to stay at Wabash. This time, however, he accepted 
the offer. After Jordan had failed to persuade him to accompany him to Stanford, 
he was his choice to replace him. 

His stay at Indiana University was all too brief, for in 1893 he accepted the presiden- 
cy of Lake Forest College at Lake Forest, Illinois. The details as to why he left In- 
diana University so soon are not known. It could have been that he did not like delivering 
official addresses, entertaining legislators to ask for money, and all the administrative 
details that the position demanded. Lake Forest was a smaller school so perhaps he 
expected to find more time for botany. He was also to receive a larger salary and 
would be free of politics. Moreover, Lake Forest was a Presbyterian school. The her- 
barium which he had taken from Wabash to Indiana University went to Lake Forest 
with him, "cases and all." 

In 1894 he also became a lecturer at the University of Chicago. Charles J. 
Chamberlain had come to Chicago in 1893 as a student. He had been promised that 

History of Science 369 

a course in botany would be offered and none was, so he went to the president of 
the university and protested, threatening to go to a Chicago newspaper with the story. 
As a result Coulter was brought in to give lectures on Saturday mornings and about 
40 students attended. In 1896 he resigned from his position at Lake Forest to accept 
an appointment as head professor of botany at the University of Chicago where he 
was to spend most of the rest of his life. 

At Chicago he built a truly great department with a faculty made up of people 
trained at Harvard or Chicago. His first group of students at Chicago received their 
Ph.D.'s in 1898. The emphasis now was on physiology and ecology in addition to 
morphology. In 18% Henry Chandler Cowles, accompanied by Coulter and other 
students, had begun to classify the vegetation of the sand dunes, and Cowles' thesis 
"The Ecological Relations of the Sand Dunes Flora of Northern Indiana," was one 
of the pioneering efforts in the new field of ecology. By 1916, 80 students had received 
their doctorates in botany at the University. 

Taxonomy never developed at Chicago because of the lack of time and the lack 
of money, more and more of which was going to purchase experimental equipment. 
In 1907 the university's herbarium, including Coulter's own specimens, about 30,000 
mounted and 14,000 unmounted sheets, was deposited at the Field Museum, and in 
1932 it was made a gift to the Field Museum. At the turn of the century Coulter 
had largely given up taxonomic work. He had always wanted to make a more detailed 
study of the cacti but he realized that field work in the Southwest would be necessary 
and that the demands on his time would not allow it. Since his early days in Indiana 
and the West, he had done little field work, most of his taxonomic studies having 
been conducted from others' herbarium collections. 

While at Chicago Coulter's reputation continued to grow, and he received many 
honors. Among them were election to the National Academy of Science in 1909, the 
presidency of both the American Association for the Advancement of Science and 
American Association of University Professors in 1918, and the receipt of an LL.D. 
from Indiana University in 1920. In addition, there were honors from foreign countries. 

He was always in great demand as a lecturer, not only on research but on educa- 
tion, religion, and the role of botany in the public's welfare. At the celebration of 
the 25th Anniversary of the Indiana Academy he spoke on "Recent Progress in Botany." 

He loved to write and he was most prolific. In addition to his editorials in the 
Botanical Gazette and his numerous scientific papers, he published a number of text- 
books, both for colleges and high schools. To give some idea of his versatility he also 
published a book, Fundamentals of Plant Breeding, in 1914, and with his son, Merle, 
a Plant Genetics in 1918. To my way of thinking, his greatest work was the Mor- 
phology of Gymnosperms, co-authored with Chamberlain, and first published in 1910. 
It is this work in the revised edition with which I am most familiar. 

The last book he wrote, Where Evolution and Religion Meet, written in collabora- 
tion with his son Merle was published in 1925. Coulter was a deeply religious man 
but he never saw science as being hostile to religion. Although a strong believer in 
evolution, his faith in God was never shaken. He wrote frequently on the subject. 
Some of the titles of his articles — "What Biology has Contributed to Religion," "The 
Making of Religious Citizenry through Biology," the "Religion of a Scientist," and 
perhaps the most famous of all, "The Proper Use of Science by the Pulpit" published 
in 1899, give an idea of his contributions in this area. 

In 1920 Coulter met with Col. W. B. Thompson to help plan for a foundation 
for plant research. Coulter called upon his former student, William Crocker for aid. 
The eventual result of this was the founding of the Boyce Thompson Institute at Yonkers, 
N.Y. and Crocker became the Director in 1924. The next year Coulter retired from 
the University of Chicago at the age of 74 and became chief scientific adviser of the 

370 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 95 (1986) 

Boyce Thompson Institute. He devoted most of his remaining days to publicizing the 
work of the Institute and the role of botany in the service of humanity. He died at 
Yonkers on December 23, 1928. 

The Giants of Zoology: Jordan, Eigenmann and Payne 

Frank N. Young 

Department of Biology, Indiana University 

Bloomington, Indiana 47405 

For over half a century, from 1885, when botany and geology were separated 
until 1948, zoology at Indiana University had only three teacher-leaders. The depart- 
mental organization of the curriculum which is still largely intact was introduced in 
1885 when David Starr Jordan became president. After a period of experimentation 
with a divisional organization of the life sciences, zoology and botany reunited and 
joined microbiology to form a biology department. Carl Eigenmann followed Jordan 
as leader of the zoology department, and was succeeded in 1927 by Fernandus Payne. 
These three brought zoology at Indiana University to national if not international pre- 
eminence. During the period from 1885 to 1948, the number of zoologists multiplied 
from one to eleven, and the courses diversified to cover all phases of the modern study 
of animals. In the meantime, the umlaut had disappeared from zoology. 

Carl H. Eigenmann (1863-1927) was born in Germany, but came to Indiana in 
1880 and was educated at Indiana University and Harvard. In 1891 he was called back 
to Indiana University to assume the professorship of zoology vacated by Jordan's move 
to Stanford University. He later served many years as dean of the graduate school. 
Eigenmann, like Jordan, was a life-long student of freshwater fish. He published more 
than 200 papers on fish and other vertebrates during his lifetime. At Indiana Univer- 
sity he initiated the modern period of zoology. At the time of his death, in 1927, 
the zoology faculty included: Will Scott, Fernandus Payne, and Alfred C. Kinsey. 
Under Eigenmann's direction zoology and graduate studies flourished during the early 
years of the 20th Century. He was president of the Indiana Academy of Science in 1899. 

Eigenmann was succeeded as chairman of zoology by Fernandus Payne (1881-1977). 
Payne came to Indiana University as a student in 1902, and later completed graduate 
work with E.B. Wilson at Columbia University. Under his administration zoology and 
the graduate school flourished, and at the time of his retirement from departmental 
administration in 1948, the department of zoology included on its staff H.J. Muller 
(Nobel Laureate), T.M. Sonneborn, W.E. Ricker, A.C. Kinsey, T.W. Torrey, W.R. 
Breneman, Louis A. Krumholz (1909-1980), Shelby Gerking, W.J. van Wagtendonk, 
and Sears Crowell. Robert L. Kroc and Lamont C. Cole were also associated with 
zoology at Indiana University during Payne's tenure as chairman. Payne also served 
during his chairmanship of zoology as dean of the graduate school. He was president 
of the Indiana Academy of Science in 1932. In several discussions Payne told me that 
he considered the Indiana Academy especially important in encouraging the growth 
of science in Indiana. 

David Starr Jordan (1851-1931) was the first leader of a department of zoology 
at the same time he was president of the University. He was appointed professor of 
natural sciences in the university in 1879, but immediately went on a year-long study 
of the fishes of the west coast. Jordan was a man of great charisma. On his return 
he soon made himself known as a progressive and intellectual professor. He immediately 
began teaching courses in several areas of natural history, but it must have seemed 
to him to be a vacation after his experience at Lombard University in Galesburg, Il- 
linois. There, in 1872, he taught classes in zoology, botany, geology, minerology, 
chemistry, physics, political economy, Paley's "Evidences of Christianity", and in- 
cidentally German and Spanish. He also had charge of the weekly "literary exercises" 
which consisted of oratory and the reading of essays. For good measure, he says (1922: 


372 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 95 (1986) 

105) he also had a Sunday school class to teach, and pitched for the school baseball 
team against Galesburg rival Knox College. Jordan was instrumental in several changes 
in the educational system even before becoming president, including the elective system 
and the major professor. When he became president in 1891 he quickly put into effect 
other changes including the departmental arrangement. 

Jordan's educational innovations were not entirely unique. He was strongly in- 
fluenced by two men in his development as a scientist and an educator. The first of 
these was Louis Agassiz (1807-1873), the Swiss born scientist who revolutionized the 
teaching of biology and geology in America. Jordan greatly admired Agassiz, and their 
association at Penikese Island, the predecessor of Woods Hole biological station, was 
important in forming many of Jordan's views on science and education. Fortunately, 
he did not adopt Agassiz' attitude toward the then new theory of evolution, but ad- 
mired Agassiz' stress upon thoroughness in investigation and direct contact with nature. 
"Study nature not books!" was Agassiz great adage. 

The second great influence in Jordan's early development came through Andrew 
Dickson White (1832-1918), the first president of Cornell University. White's cardinal 
principles of education according to Burns (1953) were almost identical with those 
which Jordan put into effect at Indiana University and later at Stanford. These were 
1) the complete separation of education from sectarian influences; 2) an equal place 
for the natural sciences and technical arts alongside the humanities; 3) equal rank for 
modern and classical languages and literature; 4) the .substitution of free choice of 
courses for the old "cast iron: curriculum; 5) the treatment of university students as 
adults and responsible members of a community of scholars. 

It is difficult to find anything new to say about David Starr Jordan. He was 
the author of 1,818 essays, poems, scientific papers, books, and articles including a 
two volume autobiography "The Days of a Man," running over 1600 pages. Alice 
N. Hays' bibliography of Jordan's writing (1952) published by Stanford University 
Press attempts to include everything he wrote and all the multiple publications of some 
articles. Jordan's "Manual of the Vertebrates of the Northern United States . . ." 
went through 13 editions, the last published in 1929. His "Fishes of North and Middle 
America" with Barton W. Everman (1853-1932) a former student, is a classic work 
on fishes. 

Jordan was an incredibly productive writer of scientific and socially oriented essays 
and articles. He ignored the dictum, "Do something supremely well" (James W. Nor- 
man, 1884-1969), and tried to do every thing supremely well. It is therefore not sur- 
prising that in some areas even his great intellect failed. There was at the time, indeed, 
not enough factual evidence concerning the nature of man for his social theories to 
have any firm foundation. 

Jordan's life was in many ways an idyll through a wonderful world of beauty 
and grace. His accounts of experiences with the trout in our western mountains scin- 
tillate with his excitement and pleasure. His long collecting trips in which he covered 
nearly every fish bearing stream in Japan, California, the Yellowstone, and elsewhere 
read like the accounts of William Bartram, a century earlier, describing The virgin 

His life, however, was not untouched by tragedy. He lost his first wife in 1885 
after ten years of marriage, and later two of his beloved children. His childhood was 
shadowed by the death of a much admired older brother who enlisted in the Union 
Army at the start of the Civil War and who died shortly afterwards of "army fever." 

Jordan was an early supporter of Charles Darwin's theory of evolution. Sometime 
shortly before 1909, Henry Fairfield Osborn (1857-1935) made the statement that "No 
American university could have produced a Darwin." Jordan took an opposite view 

History of Science 373 

and in his presidential address to the Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) 
in 1910 he challenged the statement. He pointed out that the three prerequisites of 
a Darwin were as fully available in American as in Europe. He held that prerequisites 
were first the human material, second the contact with nature, and third an inspiring 
teacher. The first Jordan said was a matter of inheritance not nature, and was equally 
present in the American stock as elsewhere. The second prerequisite was even more 
abundantly present in America where contact with nature was inevitable, and the third 
element of an inspiring teacher was surprisingly well represented in American colleges 
and universities. 

In fact, he pointed out, Darwin himself had written that at Edinburgh he had 
listened to lectures on geology so incredibly dull that he made a resolve never to read 
a book on the subject — a resolve which he fortunately later abandoned. Jordan said, 
"Once secure the fortunate combination of germ plasm, the necessary Darwin stuff, 
and the rest is easy for America affords an exuberance of nature, and always a choice 
of Henslows as companions and interpreters" (1922; 103-104). 

Edmund McNall Burns in his biography of Jordan (1953:226) writes: "In the 
realm of social theory Jordan's contributions were also of no minor significance. He 
was one of a comparatively few Americans in the last quarter of the nineteenth cen- 
tury who rejected Social Darwinism in favor of the contention that altruism is as fun- 
damental a part of human nature as egoism. So strongly convinced was he of the 
truth of this that he wondered if the principle of love was not the master key of the 
universe. He did not mean by this, however, that nobility of purpose alone could make 
an act good. The test of mortality was to be found in consequences, not in intentions. 
He anticipated John Dewey in attempting to ground the whole subject of ethics on 
an empirical or scientific basis, and he prefigured the work of a large number of 
therapists of physic disorders in emphasizing purposeful and helpful activity as an 
antidote to pessimism and unhappiness. 

"In common with that of all mortals the intellectual life of David Starr Jordan 
had imperfections. He tried to encompass too many fields— to be not only a prophet 
of peace and democracy but a scientist, an educator, a political economist, an eugenist, 
and a philosopher of religion and ethics. Only an Aristotle or a Leonardo da Vinci 
could have succeeded with so much. It seems obvious that this striving for universality 
led him into such errors as the acceptance of Aryanism and the assumption that Anglo- 
Saxons embodied virtues which most other peoples could never hope to attain. It is 
no extenuation to say that racial myths were included in the intellectual baggage of 
nearly every American in his time. By the end of the nineteenth century at least two 
authorities— Franz Boas and William Z. Ripley— had made cogent criticisms of the 
prevailing assumptions of ethnic superiority. 

"Yet, with full allowance for his deficiencies, the Stanford educator remains as 
one of the most fertile and inspiring geniuses of his age. In view of the applicability 
of many of his teachings to problems of the present, he can be justly considered as 
a prophet not merely for his own day but for our times as well." 

As a scientist, educator, and social reformer Jordan was, indeed, a giant in the 
earth. As a pacifist he gave many inspired lectures on the harm and horror of war. 
As a social reformer he was less successful partly because of the inadequacy of the 
knowledge of his time. His thinking in regard to the genetic basis of such traits as 
honesty, integrity, and morality were reflections of the general beliefs of his days. 
Despite his admiration for the northern European, the chosen people, to form the 
great societies of the earth, he rejected the concept of the Teutonic superman. Let us 
conclude by saying, he was a man of his age, even as we are people of our own. 

374 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 95 (1986) 

Literature Cited 

Burns, E.M. 1953. David Starr Jordan, Prophet of Freedom. Stanford Univ. Press, 

Stanford, CA., vii + 243 pp. 
Hayes, A.N. 1952. David Starr Jordan, a Bibliography of His Writings 1871-1931. 

Stanford Univ. Press, Stanford, CA., xv + 195 pp. 
Jordan, J.S. 1896-1900. The Fishes of North and Middle America. A Descriptive 

Catalogue of the Species of Fish-Like Vertebrates Found in the Waters of North 

America, North of the Isthmus of Panama (with Barton W. Evermann), Parts 1-4. 
. 1922. The Days of a Man. Vol I, 1851-1899, World Book Co., Yonkers-on- 

Hudson, New York, xxviii + 710 pp., ill. 
1922. Ibid. Vol. II, 1900-1921, xxviii + 906 pp., ill. 

Notes on the History of the Paleontological Collection, Department of Geology, 

Indiana University 

Alan Stanley Horowitz 

Department of Geology, Indiana University 

Bloomington, Indiana 47405 


In the past, paleontologic papers, especially those printed prior to 1930, com- 
monly did not indicate the repository of the collections on which the published record 
was based. Workers generally assume the collections reside at the institution to which 
the author was associated as either student or faculty. Some early workers were not 
associated with any academic institution, and early collections have been scattered or 
destroyed. Because inquiries are made frequently to Indiana University concerning both 
the University and Indiana State Geological Survey collections, this paper provides 
some general information on earlier collections insofar as is presently known. 

According to Wylie (36), the records of Indiana University prior to 1883 were 
largely destroyed by fire. Wylie (36:31) quoted statements concerning geological col- 
lections from as early as 1852 in legislative acts affecting the University, e.g., "The 
Lecturers were also to make geological examinations, and collect mineralogical specimens 
for the cabinet by volunteer donations." No attempt has been made to reconstruct 
possible paleontological collections, other than the Owen collection, based on any ex- 
tant University catalogues or Reports of the President of Indiana University published 
prior to 1883, and I assume that any geological collections or catalogues prior to this 
date were lost in the 1883 fire reported by Wylie (36:83). 

The Owen Collection 

Our knowledge of the Indiana University Department of Geology (IUB) paleon- 
tological collections begins with the collection of David Dale Owen. Owen collected 
fossils and minerals during his lifetime from all the areas in which he had initiated 
geological surveys (Indiana, Kentucky, Arkansas, Iowa, Wisconsin, Minnesota, the 
Dakotas, and Nebraska). During Owen's lifetime the collections were housed in New 
Harmony, Indiana, in a succession of four buildings, the last of which was a laboratory 
and museum constructed for this purpose. The famous English geologist Sir Charles 
Lyell visited New Harmony and examined the collection on his second trip to North 
America (21:270-271). On Owen's death the collections contained 85,000 items (18:136). 

D. D. Owen died in 1860, and his heirs asked Richard Owen, D. D. Owen's 
younger brother, to dispose of the collection. Richard Owen, also a geologist, and 
one who had worked under his brother on geological surveys of Indiana, proposed 
in 1861 that the laboratory and museum collections of his brother be offered to the 
Indiana State Board of Agriculture in order to form the basis of a college or mining 
school. No action was taken on this proposal, perhaps due to the Civil War, and the 
museum collections were sold to Indiana University in 1870 (18:136-137). 

According to Wylie (36:80), the Owen collection filled several (railroad) cars and 
was stored in a warehouse until 1873 when a new building was erected to house the 
collection and the University library. Winchell (34:139) reported that additions were 
made to the collections by purchase and that Richard Owen arranged and labeled 
specimens. Winchell also indicated that the only collections saved from the fire were 
a "few type specimens, which were in separate portable cases." 

D. S. Jordan, then president of Indiana University, arranged for the remaining 
material to be sent to the United States National Museum (USNM) (letter of J. S. 


376 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 95 (1986) 

Kingsley to J. W. Powell, October 1, 1887). J. C. Pilling of the United States Geological 
Survey, wrote a memorandum recommending that the USNM obtain the types but 
that it was necessary to send someone to Bloomington to relabel the collection and 
check it. This was apparently done and the USNM (Accession No. 19889, December 
2, 1887) received the part of the Owen collection rescued from the 1883 fire. 

According to the USNM accession cards, the remains of the Owen collection com- 
prised three boxes of fossils containing types of 22 species described by Owen (24) 
and 327 specimens representing 42 genera and 65 species of Silurian, Devonian, and 
Carboniferous fossils from various localities in the northwest (the upper Mississippi 
Valley region). The accession card was prepared by C. D. Walcott. Five types from 
Owen (25) were also part of the collection. All of these types appear in the Schuchert 
et al. (1905) catalogue of the USNM collections. 

The Owen collection now comprises about 110 numbers (USNM 17856-19755, 
20242-20253) in the USNM catalogue. Twenty-two specimens or catalogue numbers 
are marked in the catalogue as having been returned to Indiana University, apparently 
as part of the arrangement made by D. S. Jordan. The Owen collection at Indiana 
University is catalogued as IU697, 705-715, and 2533. However, no specimens are now 
preserved for IU707. The following Owen specimens now in the Indiana University 
collections are types, that is, specimens figured or otherwise cited in Owen's published 

697 Lonchocephalus hamulus Owen, 1852, p. 576, Table IB, fig. 12. Syntype. 

703 Dikelocephalus minnesotensis (?) Owen, 1852, p. 574, Table 1A, fig. 3. Syntype. 

704 Dikelocephalus minnesotensis Owen, 1852, p. 574, Table 1A, fig. 1. 

Lonchocephalus hamulus Owen, 1852, p. 576, Table 1A, fig. 8. Syntypes of both 
species on different sides of same slab. 

708 Dikelocephalus minnesotensis Owen, 1852, p. 574, Table II, fig. 9. Syntype. 

715 Ungula pinnaformis Owen, 1852, p. 583, Table IB, figs. 1, 8. The figured syn- 
types are on opposite sides of the same slab, which has apparently been altered 
so that figures 4, 6 and part of 8 can no longer be identified. 

Echinoderm specimens published by Owen and Shumard (26; 27; 28) are now 
in the Field Museum of Natural History (University of Chicago) collections as reported 
by Springer (33:7) and are cited in the published catalogues of that museum (14; 15). 

Twentieth Century Collections 

Some early collectors apparently donated materials to the IUB departmental col- 
lections, but only a very few specimens obtained from M. N. Elrod and G. K. Greene 
can now be documented. The great bulk of the present collections begins with the 
work of E. R. Cumings, who was Chairman of the Department of Geology for more 
than 40 years (1901-1943), his colleagues, and students. 

At present, the earliest Indiana University catalogue of paleontological specimens 
consists of 3 x 5 cards and contains numbers 1-2215. The first cards were hand writ- 
ten, perhaps by J. W. Beede and E. R. Cumings. Cumings did not remember who 
had prepared the cards when I asked him about departmental catalogues in October 
1965. Some of the early cards contain a second typewritten card with the same infor- 
mation, and most of the last half of the card catalogue is typewritten. Beede apparently 
made the notations on the Owen specimens in the Indiana University collections. 

In conjunction with his research on Paleozoic Bryozoa, Cumings and his students 
prepared more than 6000 thin sections, which are housed in approximately 250 boxes, 
each containing 25 sections. The boxes now comprise the catalogue sequence 
IU9101-9250. Cumings and J.J. Galloway kept a card file (Lists of thin section numbers 

History of Science 377 

under each taxonomic name) of their bryozoan thin sections, but this information was 
never converted into a formal catalogue listing. Consequently, one must rely on cryp- 
tic locality labels, some of which were published by Cumings (7), in order to obtain 
fuller stratigraphic and geographic information on the specimens from which the thin 
sections were obtained. On the basis of handwriting, Cumings probably prepared the 
cards for the first hundred boxes and Galloway prepared the cards for subsequent 
boxes of bryozoan thin sections. This thin section collection was the basis of a number 
of papers by Cumings and his students, but box and thin section numbers were cited 
explicitly only in the papers of Coryell (3), Cumings (8), and Cumings and Galloway (11). 
In October 1965, discussions with John Huddle, a student of Cumings, revealed 
that the bound catalogue entry book in the departmental collections was initiated in 

1932 or 1933 after J. J. Galloway returned to Indiana University. Huddle helped make 
some of the original entries, but many entries were made with National Youth Ad- 
ministration help at 35 cents per hour. Catalogue numbers 2216-7000 were made from 

1933 to 1964, after which the present system of catalogue sheets was adopted. 
The general contents of the IUB collections have been summarized by Glenister 

et al. (13). The collections contain more than 600 primary types and 2200 referred 
specimens cited in approximately 150 published works, including the following studies 
in which IUB is not explicitly indicated as the repository: Ausich, Kammer, and Lane 
(1); Beede (2); Cumings (4); Cumings (5); Cumings (6); Cumings (7); Cumings and 
Galloway (9; 10); Frey and Cowles (12); Greene (16); Gutschick (17); Shaver (31); 
and Shrock (32). 

In general, the IUB collections do not include materials published before 1900 
in the volumes of the Indiana Geology and Natural History Survy. These collections 
were reposited in the Indiana State Museum, and their history has been summarized 
by Richards (29:483). From the salvaged collections obtained by Indiana Geological 
Survey personnel (29:483) the following published specimens have been identified and 
are reposited at IUB. 

8995-434 Bellerophon gibsoni White, 1882, p. 360-361, pi. 41, figs. 4-6. Text and figures 
reproduced in Cumings (6: pi. 24, figs. 5, 5a, b). Holotype. 

8995-435 Gomphoceras minum Hall. Kindle, 1901, p. 740, pi. 25, fig. 8. Hypotype. 

8995-436 Aethocystites sculptus Miller, 1894, p. 264, pi. 2, fig. 2. Holotype. 

8995-437 Platyceras multispinosum Meek. Kindle, 1900, p. 723, pi. 17, fig. 3. Hypotype. 

8995-438 Ceraurus (Crotacephalus) niagarensis Hall. Kindle and Breger, 1904, p. 483, 
pi. 23, fig. 1. Hypotype. 

8995-439 Goniasteroidocrinus tuberosus Lyon and Casseday. Miller, 1892, p. 661, pi. 
9, fig. 11. Hypotype. 

During the past 20 years several requests concerning the Silurian specimens described 
and figured by Kindle and Breger (20) have been directed to the Indiana University 
Department of Geology. Most of these materials, which apparently were part of E. 
M. Kindle's personal collection, were donated to the USNM in 1916 and presently 
comprise USNM numbers 53933, 62258-62369. 

Indiana Geological Survey Collections 

Since 1964, paleontological collections obtained and published by Indiana 
Geological Survey (IGS) personnel have been curated as part of the IUB collections. 
The published IGS localities 1G-7G are now assigned to IU 8251-8257 respectively, 
and the separate InGS number sequence is assigned to IU 8995. Note that individual 
specimen numbers within localities (catalogue numbers) remain as before; only the 
locality number has changed. 

378 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 95 (1986) 


I thank N. G. Lane, J. B. Patton, and R. H. Shaver for their comments on 
earlier versions of this paper. G. A. Cooper provided access to the archival informa- 
tion on the Owen collection at the U. S. National Museum of Natural History. 

Literature Cited 

1. Ausich, W. I., T. W. Kammer, and N. G. Lane. 1979. Fossil communities of 
the Borden (Mississippian) delta in Indiana and northern Kentucky. Journal of 
Paleontology, 54:1182-1196. 

2. Beede, J. W. 1916. New species of fossils from the Pennsylvanian and Permian 
rocks of Kansas and Oklahoma. Indiana University Studies, 3(29): 1-15. 

3. Coryell, N. H. 1921. Bryozoan faunas of the Stones River Group of central Ten- 
nessee. Proceedings of the Indiana Academy of Science 1919, 35:261-340. 

4. Cumings, E. R. 1901. A section of the Upper Ordovician at Vevay, Ind. The 
American Geologist, 28(6):361-381. 

5. Cumings, E. R. 1902. A revision of the bryozoan genera Dekayia, Dekayella, 
and Heterotrypa of the Cincinnati, The American Geologist, 29(4): 197-21 8. 

6. Cumings, E. R. 1906. Description of the Bryozoa of the Salem Limestone of 
southern Indiana. Indiana Department of Geology and Natural Resources Thir- 
tieth Annual Report: 1274-1296. 

7. Cumings, E. R. 1908. The stratigraphy and paleontology of the Cincinnati Series 
of Indiana. Indiana Department of Geology and Natural Resources, Thirty-second 
Annual Report:605-1190. 

8. Cumings, E. R. 1912. Development and systematic position of the monticuliporoids. 
Bulletin of the Geological Society of America, 23:357-370. 

9. Cumings, E. R., and J. J. Galloway. 1912. A note on the Bastostomas of the 
Richmond Series. Proceedings of the Indiana Academy of Sciences 1911:147-167. 

10. Cumings, E. R., and J. J. Galloway. 1913. The stratigraphy and paleontology 
of the Tanner's Creek section of the Cincinnati Series of Indiana. Thirty-seventh 
Annual Report of Department of Geology and Natural Resources Indiana:353-479. 

11. Cumings, E. R., and J. J. Galloway. 1915. Studies of the morphology and histology 
of the Trepostomata or monticuliporoids. Bulletin of the Geological Society of 
America, 26:349-374. 

12. Frey, R. W., and J. G. Cowles. 1972. The trace fossil Tisoa in Washington and 
Oregon. The Ore Bin, 34(7):1 13-1 19. 

13. Glenister, B. F., et al. 1977. Fossil invertebrates— collections in North American 
repositories 1976. A Report of the Paleontological Society Ad Hoc Committee 
on North American Resources in Invertebrate Paleontology (CONARIP). The 
University of Iowa, 67 p. 

14. Golden, Julia, and M. H. Nitecki. 1971. Catalogue of type and referred specimens 
of Crinozoa (Blastoidea) in Field Museum of Natural History. Fieldiana Geology, 

15. Golden, Julia, and M. H. Nitecki. 1972. Catalogue of type and referred specimens 
of fossil Crinozoa (Eocrinoidea, Paracrinoidea and Crinoidea) in Field Museum 
of Natural History. Fieldiana Geology 27:1-266. 

16. Greene, F. C. 1908. The development of a Carboniferous brachiopod, Chonetes 
granifer Owen. The Journal of Geology, 16(7):654-663. 

17. Gutschick, R. C. 1965. Pterotocrinus from the Kinkaid Limestone (Chester, 
Mississippian) of Illinois and Kentucky. Journal of Paleontology, 39(4):636-646. 

18. Hendrickson, W. B. 1943. David Dale Owen, pioneer geologist of the Middle 
West. The Indiana Historical Bureau, Indianapolis, 180 p. 

History of Science 379 

19. Kindle, E. M. 1901. The Devonian fossils and stratigraphy of Indiana. Indiana 
Department of Geology and Natural Resources Twenty-fifth Annual 
Report:529-758, 773-775. 

20. Kindle, E. M., and C. L. Breger. 1904. The stratigraphy and paleontology of 
the Niagara of northern Indiana Part II. Paleontology. Indiana Department of 
Geology and Natural Resources Twenty-eighth Annual Report :428-486. 

21 . Lyell, Charles. 1849. A second visit to the United States of North America. John 
Murray, London, v. 2, 385 p. 

22. Miller, S. A. 1892. Palaeontology. Indiana Department of Geology and Natural 
History Seventeenth Annual Report :6 11-705. 

23. Miller, S. A. 1894. Palaeontology. Indiana Department of Geology and Natural 
Resources Eighteenth Annual Report :237-356. 

24. Owen, D. D. 1852. Report of a geological survey of Wisconsin, Iowa, and Min- 
nesota and incidentally of a portion of Nebraska Territory. Lippincott, Grambo 
& Co., Philadelphia, xxxviii + 638 p. 

25. Owen, D. D. 1860. Second report of a geological reconnaissance of the middle 
and southern counties of Arkansas. Made during the years 1859 and 1860. 
Philadelphia, C. Sherman & Son, Printers, 433 p. 

26. Owen, D. D., and B. F. Shumard. 1850. Descriptions of fifteen new species of 
Crinoidea from the Sub-carboniferous Limestone of Iowa, collected during the 
U. S. Geological Survey of Iowa, Wisconsin, and Minnesota, in the years 1848-49. 
Journal of the Academy of Natural Science of Philadelphia, series 2, 2:57-70. 

27. Owen, D. D., and B. F. Shumard. 1852a. Descriptions of seven new species of 
Crinoidea from the Sub-carboniferous Limestone of Iowa and Illinois. Journal 
of the Academy of Natural Science of Philadelphia, series 2, 2:89-94. 

28. Owen, D. D., and B. F. Shumard. 1852b. Descriptions of one new genus and 
twenty-two new species of Crinoidea, from the Sub-carboniferous limestone of 
Iowa, in D. D. Owen, Report of a geological survey of Wisconsin, Iowa, and 
Minnesota and incidentally of a portion of Nebraska Territory, Appendix, Article 

29. Richards, R. L. 1984. The Pleistocene vertebrate collection of the Indiana State 
Museum with a list of the extinct and extralocal Pleistocene vertebrates of In- 
diana. Proceedings of the Indiana Academy of Science, 93:483-504. 

30. Schuchert, Charles, W. H. Dall, T. W. Stanton, and R. S. Bassler. 1905. Catalogue 
of the type and figured specimens of fossils, minerals, rocks and ores in the Depart- 
ment of Geology, United States National Museum Part I. Fossil invertebrates. 
United States National Museum Bulletin, 53(1): 1-704. 

31. Shaver, R. H. 1953. Ontogeny and sexual dimorphism in Cytherella bullata. Journal 
of Paleontology, 27(3):47 1-480. 

32. Shrock, R. R. 1928. A new graptolite fauna from the Niagaran of northern In- 
diana. American Journal of Science, fifth series, 16:1-38. 

33. Springer, Frank. 1920. The Crinoidea Flexibilia. Smithsonian Institution Publication 
2501, text 486 p., plates 150 p. 

34. Winchell, N. H. 1890. A sketch of Richard Owen. American Geologists, 6:135-145, 

35. White, C. A. 1882. Fossils of the Indiana rocks (No. 2). Indiana Department 
of Geology and Natural History (Eleventh Annual Report):347-401. 

36. Wylie, T. A. 1890. Indiana University, its history from 1820, when founded, to 
1890, with biographical sketches of its presidents, professors and graduates, and 
a list of its students from 1820 to 1887. Wm. B. Burford, Indianapolis, 472 p. 

Charles Darwin on Animal Rights 

Gene Kritsky 

Department of Biology 

College of Mount St. Joseph 

Mount St. Joseph, Ohio 45051 

Charles Darwin, the founder of the theory of evolution by natural selection, still 
stirs controversy as the public tries to grapple with his theories of selection and their 
implications for our species and its future. Yet as controversial as evolution by natural 
selection was, Darwin never publicly debated his views, rather he relied on colleagues 
and letters to newspapers to be his forum. However, there was one subject that so 
moved Darwin that he appeared before a Royal Commission of Parliament to discuss 
his views. Views so strong, that his son Francis said his father would become so angry 
that he hardly could trust himself to speak. The subject was animal rights (Darwin 1897). 

Animal rights, or vivisection as it was called in England at the time, concerned 
the use of animals in scientific experiments. This was a subject that not only concerned 
Charles Darwin, but also several members of his family. Darwin one time cautioned 
his friend, George Romanes, not to bring up the subject in front of the family to 
avoid an uncomfortable situation. 

The Darwin family's disdain for suffering was not restricted to animals but also 
included human suffering. The Darwin's had long been opposed to slavery. On the 
voyage of H.M.S. Beagle, Charles' letters to home vividly show his disgust with the 
practice (Burkhardt and Smith 1985). 

With regard to animals, Darwin had a reputation in Downe such that carriage 
drivers would slow their horses when they past Darwin's estate. According to one report, 
if a driver whipped his horse or drove too fast Darwin would be out chastising him 
(Darwin 1897). 

Darwin was a member of the Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to 
Animals. But he was also a scientist with an appreciation for what the scientific use 
of animals could mean to human suffering. On the other hand, he was, in his youth, 
an avid hunter who anxiously waited for the hunting season to begin. So it is clear 
that Darwin recognized the double standard being applied by society. Here was England, 
a population of hunters, meat eaters, animal trainers, etc. trying to claim that scien- 
tific research was the cause of animal suffering. Indeed, Thomas Huxley in 1890 summed 
up the inconsistencies in English society when he wrote that nobody should be against 
vivisection if they eat meat, drive a castrated horse, kill rats, fleas, bugs, and other 
vermin. Huxley pointed out that the antivivisectionists should also be against war (Huxley 
1901)! Evidence indicates that this sentiment was consistent with Darwin's views. 

The controversy about the use of animals for experimental purposes came to the 
forefront in 1874 and a Royal Commission was appointed to take testimony. Darwin 
was called to give testimony before the Commission by his friend and Commission 
member Thomas Huxley. Darwin was called because he had been associated with a 
series of resolutions that was introduced as a bill before Parliament. The resolutions 
were presented to the Commission by the President of the Royal College of Surgeons, 
Sir James Paget. According to the Report of the Commission the resolutions were 
passed at the meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science in 
Edinburgh in 1871. These resolutions were: 

(I.) No experiment which can be performed under the influence of an anesthetic 
ought to be done without it. (II.) No painful experiment is justifiable for the 
mere purpose of illustrating a law or fact already demonstrated; in other words, 


382 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 95 (1986) 

experimentation without the employment of anesthetics is not a fitting exhibition 
for teaching purposes. (III.) Whenever, for the investigation of new truth, it is 
necessary to make a painful experiment, every effort should be made to insure 
success, in order the sufferings inflicted may not be wasted. For this reason, no 
painful experiment ought to be performed by an unskilled person, with insuffi- 
cient instruments and assistance, or in places not suitable to the purpose; that 
is to say, anywhere except in physiological and pathological laboratories, under 
proper regulations. (IV.) In the scientific preparation for veterinary practice, opera- 
tions ought not be performed upon living animals for the mere purpose of ob- 
taining greater operative dexterity (Anonymous 1876). 

The resolutions' list of supporters reads like a who's who of British scientific 
society. The Commission report reads, "Sir James Paget proceeded to say that these 
resolutions had received his entire approval. The principle of them was adopted in 
a petition signed by Mr. Darwin, Professor Owen, Mr. Huxley, Sir William Gull, Sir 
William Jenner, the President of the College of Physicians, and several more leaders 
in science (Anonymous 1876). 

Darwin presented his testimony on Wednesday, November 3, 1875. Emma Darwin, 
Darwin's wife wrote to their son Leonard five days later, "Father went to the Vivisec- 
tion Commission at 2. Lord Cardwell came to the door to receive him and he was 
treated like a Duke. They only wanted him to repeat what he had said in his letter 
... it was over in 10 minutes, Lord C coming to the door and thanking him (Litch- 
field 1915)." 

The transcript of the testimony is revealing about Darwin's views not only on 
animal rights but how he responds under pressure. The following is Darwin's testimony: 

Wednesday, 3rd November 1875. 

The Right Hon. Viscount Cardwell, in the chair. 

The Right Hon. Lord Winmarleigh 
Sir J. B. Karslake, M.P. 
Thomas Henry Huxley, Esq. 
John Eric Erichsen, Esq. 
Richard Holt Hutton, Esq. 

N. Baker, Esq., Secretary. 

Mr. Charles Darwin called in and examined. 

4661. (Chairman.) We are very sensible of your kindness in coming at some 
sacrifice to yourself to express your opinions to the Commission. We attribute 
it to the great interest which we know you take in the subject referred to us, 
both on the score of science and also on the score of humanity?— Yes, I have 
felt great interest in it. 

4662. I think you took part in preparing the resolutions of the British Associa- 
tion at their meeting in Edinburgh in 1871?— No; I had nothing to do with that. 
I was very glad to see them, and approved of them; but I had nothing to do 
with the framing of those resolutions; I did not attend the meeting. 

4663. But you signed a petition which embodied them?— When they were 
sent to me I may have done so. I do not remember it; but if my signature is 
attached I must have given it; I had forgotten it. 

4664. But you cordially approved of them?— I cordially approved of them. 
I had occasion to read them over lately at the time when this subject was begin- 
ning to be agitated. I read them over with care and highly approved of them then. 

History of Science 383 

4665. I think you took some part in the preparation of a Bill which is ultimate- 
ly laid before the House of Commons by Dr. Lyon Playfair?— In the steps 
preparatory to that Bill, but the Bill itself did not exactly express the conclusions 
at which after consultation with several physiologists we arrived; I apprehend 
that it was accidentally altered. 

4666. But in the main you were an approving party? — In the main. 

4667. You have never, I think, yourself, either directly or indirectly been 
connected with the practice of trying experiments upon living animals?— Never. 

4668. Will you have the kindness to state to us the views which you desire 
to lay before the Commission in connection with it? — The first thing that I would 
say is, that I am fully convinced that physiology can progress only by the aid 
of experiments on living animals. I cannot think of any one step which has been 
made in physiology without that aid. No doubt many surmises with regard to 
the circulation of the blood could be formed from the position of the valves in 
the veins, and so forth, but certainly such as it required for the progress of any 
science can be arrived at in the case of physiology only by means of experiments 
on living animals. 

4669. Then I need hardly ask you what your opinion is as to the notion 
of prohibiting them all together? — In my opinion it would be a very great evil, 
because many reasons, mostly general, but some special, may be assigned for 
a full conviction that hereafter physiology cannot fail to confer the highest benefits 
on mankind. Many grounds, I think, can be assigned for this conviction. 

4670. Is it your opinion that most of the experiments can be performed while 
the animal is entirely insensible to pain?— That is my belief; but I ought to state 
that I have no claim to rank as a physiologist. I have, during many years, read 
largely on the subject, both general treatises and special papers, and in that respect 
I have gained some general knowledge, but as I have said, I have no claim to 
be called a physiologist, and I have had nothing to do in teaching physiology; 
but from all I can learn, the exceptions are extremely few in which an animal 
could not be experimented on in a state of entire insensibility. 

4671. Then to hesitate to perform experiments, though painful in their nature, 
when the animal was rendered insensible, would not be, in your opinion, a judicious 
course to recommend to the Queen and Parliament?— Certainly not. It is unintelligi- 
ble to me how anybody could object to such experiments. I can understand a 
Hindu, who would object to a animal being slaughtered for food, disapproving 
of such experiments, but it is absolutely unintelligible to me on what ground the 
objection is made in this country. 

4672. Now with regard to trying a painful experiment without anesthetics, 
when the same experiment could be made with anesthetics, or, in short, inflicting 
any pain that was not absolutely necessary upon any animal, what would be your 
view on that subject? — It deserves detestation and abhorrence. 

The witness withdrew (Anonymous 1876:234). 

It is clear that Darwin did recognize the value of animals for experimental pur- 
poses, but his testimony is important for what it reveals about Darwin and his ability 
to speak off the cuff. His series of short answers are not the responses we would 
expect from a firebrand. This is consistent with his refusals to speak at meetngs. He 
used to present papers to the Geological Society in his younger days but these would 
make him quite ill. Here is an issue about which he felt real compassion and his public 
testimony was rambled and short. This is not meant as a criticism of Darwin. It is 
just good that he did not have to go on the lecture circuit and defend evolution by 
natural selection! 

384 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 95 (1986) 

The controversy on animal rights erupted again for Darwin just a year before 
his death. A letter he had written to Frithiof Holmgren a Professor of Physiology 
in Upsala, Sweden was published in the Times and prompted a rebuttal by a Miss 
Frances Power Cobbe. This in turn forced Darwin to respond and try to rebut her 
rebuttal point by point. Indeed, Darwin continued private correspondence about vivisec- 
tion until a few weeks before his death in 1882 (Darwin 1903). 

Why did Darwin feel such compassion for the suffering of animals? What caused 
this conversion of a man who years earlier hunted birds for enjoyment? Ronald W. Clark 
(1984) in his book, The Survival of Charles Darwin, claims that evolution gave animals 
a new place in nature. No longer did man have dominion over creation. Clark maintains 
that Darwin's views of animals may be linked to his loss of religious faith. The link 
between Darwin's views on animal suffering and religion can be found in his autobio- 
graphy (Barlow 1958:90) where he wrote, "A being so powerful and so full of knowledge 
as a God who could create the universe, is to our finite minds omnipotent and omniscient, 
and it revolts our understanding to suppose that his benevolence is not unbounded, 
for what advantage can there be in the sufferings of millions of the lower animals 
throughout almost endless time?" 

Darwin's compassion for animal suffering, however, predates his loss of religious 
faith. Indeed, it is possible that his recognition of suffering in nature led him to the 
mechanistic frame of mind that allowed him to formulate evolution by natural selection. 

Literature Cited 

1. Anonymous. 1876. Report of the Royal Commission on the practice of subject- 
ing live animals to experiments for scientific purposes; with the minutes of evidence 
and appendix. Viscount Cardwell, Chairman; and Nathaniel Baker, Secretary. 
London, Her Majesty's Stationary Office. 

2. Barlow, Nora. 1958. The Autobiography of Charles Darwin 1809-1882. New York, 
W. W. Norton and Co. 

3. Burkhardt, F. and Smith, S. 1985. The Correspondence of Charles Darwin, Vol. 
1, 1821-1836. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. 

4. Clark, Ronald W. 1984. The Survival of Charles Darwin. New York, Random 

5. Darwin, Francis. 1897. The life and letters of Charles Darwin. New York, D. 
Appleton and Co. 2 vols. 

6. 1903. More letters of Charles Darwin. London, John Murray. 2 vols. 

7. Huxley, Leonard. 1901. Life and letters of Thomas Henry Huxley. New York, 
D. Appleton and Co. 2 vols. 

8. Litchfield, H. E. 1915. Emma Darwin, a century of family letters, 1792-1896. 
New York, D. Appleton and Co. 2 vols. 

William VV . Borden and the Borden Collection 

N. Gary Lane 

Department of Geology, Indiana University 

Bloomington, Indiana 47405 

William W. Borden (1823-1906) played an important role in the early geological 
and educational development of southern Indiana. He gathered together a large collec- 
tion of minerals, ores, fossils and archeological items, as well as a large library, all 
of which were dispersed after his death. 

Borden was born of a pioneer Indiana family. His father, John Borden, first 
came to Indiana from Rhode Island in 1816 and purchased land in Clark County (1). 
He returned in 1817 and established the village of New Providence, named after the 
capitol of his home state. Two years later his wife, Comfort, came to Indiana but 
their infant son, Thomas, remained in Rhode Island. One or two other small children 
may have been left behind as well (2). Comfort died in 1820, 18 months after arriving 
in Indiana (3). John Borden married Lydia Bellows in 1822. He was engaged in farm- 
ing, blacksmithing and built a small brick inn along the New Albany-Salem road through 
New Providence. Their eldest son, William W., was born the next year, and a younger 
son, John, was born in 1825, 6 months after his father had died at age 36 or 38. 

Lydia Borden was left a 27-year-old widow with a two-year-old son and an un- 
born child. She took over the inn that her husband had established and ran it until 
her death (4). She never married again. She made sure that both of her sons had an 
excellent education for the time. William W. attended the local New Providence school, 
then the Washington County Seminary at Salem, leaving that school at age 12. Four 
years later, at age 16, he entered Indiana University as a sophomore in 1839 and was 
a senior three years later, although he never graduated from the university (5). John 
Borden entered Indiana University as a sophomore in 1841, age 16, and was still a 
sophomore the next year, in 1842. There is no record of him as a student at I.U. 
in 1843, although he did write a letter to his mother from Bloomington in that year. 
He ultimately entered and graduated from Harvard Law School, so he may have been 
reading law in Bloomington before moving to Cambridge. At the time the two Bordens 
attended Indiana University there were four faculty members and about 40 students 
per year class. 

The first evidence of William W. Borden's interest in geology occurred in 1844, 
when he was 21 years old and made his first trip to Rhode Island to visit his father's 
relatives and his half-brother, Thomas. He records that he collected rocks and fossils 
on that trip (6). 

For 15 years, from 1841, his last year at Indiana University, until 1856 when 
he married, William Borden lived as a bachelor in New Providence where he farmed 
the family acres and managed his mother's property (7). Their tax bill for 1843 applied 
to 1133 acres and 37 lots in New Providence. His mother, Lydia Borden, died in 1851 
at age 54. During this time William Borden became increasingly interested in geology 
and fossils. He records that a Dr. Reid of Salem, Indiana sparked his interest in fossil 
crinoids in 1862. In 1871 and 1872 he exchanged fossils with Jams Hall of Albany, 
New York, with O. W. Corey of Crawfordsville, Charles Dyer and Paul Mohr of 
Cincinnati and R. P. Whitfield of New York (6). 

In 1873 Borden was appointed an assistant State Geologist, with duties to prepare 
geological reports and maps for six south-central Indiana counties— Clark, Floyd, Jef- 
ferson, Scott, Jennings, and Ripley. These reports were published in 1874 and 1876. 
Borden was especially interested to learn about iron ore deposits, represented by ironstone 


386 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 95 (1986) 

(iron carbonate) in the shales of a unit that he named, the New Providence Shale. 
Iron furnaces were never established in the area (8). Borden's reports were distinguished 
especially by the quality of geologic maps that he produced. On these maps he drew 
lines demarcating the boundaries between different geologic rock units. This is the 
same procedure used on all modern geologic maps but most of the early county reports 
of the Indiana Geologic Survey included maps where different rocks types were only 
vaguely indicated and lines marking the boundaries of occurrence of different rock 
types were never delimited. 

As Borden became increasingly interested in and proficient in geology his per- 
sonal life surely went awry. He had married Lizzie F. Shaw in April 1856. They had 
no children, nor was Borden to have children by two later wives. After 19 years of 
marriage, in 1875 they had a fight on a train and on the street in New Albany that 
was reported in the local paper and in July Lizzie Borden filed for divorce, which 
was granted later that year. She married J. C. Dunn in 1876. Borden continued his 
geological interests and prepared exhibits of Clark and Floyd counties agricultural and 
geological specimens for the national Centennial in Philadelphia. 

At age 55, after over 30 years of life on the family property in New Providence, 
Borden left for the silver mines of Leadville, Colorado in 1878. He went at the urging 
of his younger brother, John, who had become a successful Chicago lawyer and co- 
investor with Marshall Field and Horace Tabor in Colorado silver mines. Borden 
associated with his brother, Field and Tabor in the Borden, Tabor Co., and made 
a great deal of money in a short period of time. The company owned several very 
successful mines, including the Chrysolite, Little Pittsburg, and New Discovery mines. 
Borden's nephew, William, was an expert assayer for the company and largely respon- 
sible for its success. The fact that both uncle and nephew had the same name was 
responsible for some confusion as to the importance of Borden's role in the company 
(9). Borden stayed in Leadsville less than one year and returned to New Providence 
with his wealth intact (10). 

Shortly after returning to Indiana he married Idumea (incorrectly spelled Indumea 
in some sources) Harrod of Canton , Indiana. She was 20 years old, Borden was 56. 
Idumea's father was the local doctor in Canton and had a large collection of fossil 
crinoids, especially ones he obtained from the Ramp Creek Formation near Canton. 
The young Mrs. Borden died tragically two years after they were married when she 
was thrown from a buggy in 1881 when a horse was frightened by lightning (2). Three 
years later Borden marred again, on Nov. 13, 1884, to Emma Dunbar, who was 18 
at the time. In the same year he founded the Borden Institute, a private high school, 
in New Providence. A Normal School has been established the previous year in New 
Providence, April 2, 1883 and incorporated Jan. 10, 1884 (11,12). The institute was 
essentially a high school, the primary purpose of which was to train students as elemen- 
tary school teachers. There were no public, tax-supported high schools in Indiana at 
this time. The normal school was converted to the Borden Institute with Borden's 
offer to construct a building for the school. He became known as Professor Borden 
even though he did no teaching at the institute and held no degree. The new building 
for the institute was dedicated July 4, 1885. Room and board at the institute was 
$2.50 per week and tuition was $8.00 per ten week term. The curriculum included 
a two-year teacher's course, a three-year scientific course, a law course and a one-year 
business course. Borden built a student dormitory and a home next to the institute. 

With his newly acquired wealth Borden began to acquire large fossil and archeolo- 
gical collections. To house these collections he built a two story museum addition onto 
the front of the old brick inn that his father had built and that the Widow Borden 
had tended for so many years (Figure 1). In 1885 he bought a fossil collection from 

History of Science 


Figure 1. Interior of the Borden Museum before the collections and library were 
dispersed. Photograph probably taken prior to 1932, and recently discovered in the 
attic of the Indiana State Museum. (Photo courtesy of Ronald L. Richards, Indiana 
State Museum.) 

James Knapp of Louisville, Kentucky. He purchased Dr. Harrod's crinoid collection 
in 1888. He bought a lot of Pleistocene bones from Big Bone Lick, Kentucky from 
Dr. C. C. Graham in 1889 and an archeological collection from a Dr. Lavette in 1889. 
In 1897 he purchased a collection of southwestern U.S. archaeological materials and 
in 1898 a Tennessee mound-builders collection from G. L. Barnes of Chattanooga 
(6). All of these specimens were arranged for display in his private museum in New 
Providence. While this was going on Borden has arranged to have the name of the 
village of New Providence changed to Borden, in honor of his father who had found- 
ed the settlement. This was officially changed by the U.S. Postal Service on Jan. 9, 
1891 (13). 

In addition to geological and archaelogical specimens Borden put together a large 
library that was used, in part, by the institute's students. He travelled to Europe to 
obtain books for the library, which included some notable rare volumes (11). Begin- 
ning in 1893 Borden employed an outstanding teacher at the institute, H. A. Buerk, 
who later was associated with the New Albany school system for many years. Borden 
closed the institute for one year in 1900 to allow Buerk to catalog his extensive museum 
collections. This catalog was published in 1901 (6). Some copies of the catalog included 
a short, very incomplete, autobiography of Borden. In 1901 Borden purchased crinoids 
and other fossils from G. K. Greene, a private collector in New Albany. In this same 
year he installed an electric generator in Borden for street and house lighting. The 
institute was closed again from 1903 to 1905 and in December, 1906, William W. Borden 
died. Shortly thereafter Buerk resigned as head of the institute, resulting in its final 
closure. At the time of his death Borden was 83, his wife was 40. Four months after 
Borden's death, his widow Emma married George W. Robb. 

388 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 95 (1986) 

Borden left a complicated, holograph will that was not entirely clear as to his 
intentions. His widow contested the will in 1907 and the will was declared null and 
void, with the estate going entirely to his widow (15). There clearly was strong feeling 
regarding the disposition of the estate (16). William Nelson, one of the appointed trustees 
of the estate, explained to Frank Springer, a wealthy collector who was undoubtedly 
interested in purchasing the Borden fossil collection, as follows: "April 1, 1907. The 
Museum was left to Mrs. Borden during her life time, then to go to the people of 
Borden under the care of numerous trustees, among whom are the heads of various 
institutions of learning of the State of Indiana. The will was drawn by the Professor's 
own hand, and contains several obscure points as well as many things impossible of 
fulfilment, as the head of Indiana University is to be a trustee when there is no such 
university in Indiana. 

For the purpose of clearing up these points, Mrs. Borden has bought suit against 
the trustees named, of whom I am one, and the end may be that she be given absolute 
control instead of a life estate in the Museum. This, I sincerely trust, will be the case, 
for the people of Borden have so acted during the Professor's lifetime as to be unwor- 
thy of any such attention." (16). 

Mrs. Robb retained the institute, land and building, the museum, library and 
some collections for 23 years after Borden's death. All of the invertebrate fossils and 
crinoids were donated to the Field Museum of Natural History in 1923 (17). Standi- 
ford (11), writing shortly after the transaction took place, says that an "offer" was 
made to Mrs. Robb by the muesum, but the collection was clearly presented to the 
Field Museum as a gift. In 1929 she presented the Borden Institute building and ad- 
joining acreage to the local school corporation. Three years later, in 1932, she died 
at age 65. The library and collections were left to her husband, George Robb. The 
museum building was left to her brother, James W. Dunbar, who donated the building 
to the school corporation in 1933. In that same year George Robb began selling off 
the collection and library that Mrs. Robb had retained so carefully and so long after 
William Borden's death. The library and archeological collections were purchased in 
June, 1933 by Eli Lilly and the Indiana State Library. Lilly was an ardent amateur 
archeologist and had a large collection of specimens, of which the Borden materials 
became a part. This large collection ultimately was donated to Indiana University where 
it now forms part of the Black Archeological Laboratory collections (18). The laboratory 
is named after Mr. Black, Mr. Lilly's longtime associate and colleague. Some archeolo- 
gical specimens were donated to the Children's Museum by Thomas A. Hendricks, 
the attorney who negotiated the sale for the Lilly and the State Library (19). 

The library was dispersed in several ways. The Indiana State Historical Society 
purchased an Audubon elephant folio of the Birds of America, which is on display 
in the foyer of their library. Several rare books, an early Chaucer for instance, were 
sold separately to dealers, presumably to recover part of the purchase price. The state 
library retained certain materials relating to the early history of Indiana. Many school 
texts and other books used largely in the operation of the institute were disposed of 
through several used book dealers. The state library retains a file of original holograph 
materials relating to the Borden family in Indiana (20). The whereabouts of rock, 
mineral, and ore specimens collected by Borden, especially in the Leadville district 
of Colorado, remains unknown. In addition, the original collection included war relics, 
guns, china, and supposedly Daniel Boone's shot-pouch (11). George Robb disposed 
of all Borden collections, there being none remaining in the museum building in Borden, 
Indiana. The building is maintained by the local historical society. 


I am especially indebted to Ruth Ann Kramer of the New Albany-Floyd County 

History of Science 389 

Public Library for much valuable assistance. Others who assisted include Joanne Bailey, 
Indiana Univeristy Archives; Melanie A. Roesser, Jeffersonville; Donald J. Orth, U.S. 
Board of Geographic Names, Reston, Virginia; Carolynne L. Miller, Indiana State 
Library; James H. Kellar, Glenn A. Black Archaeological Laboratory; Lois Heiser, 
Librarian, Department of Geology, Indiana University; Sylvia G. Foley and Walter 
L. Grantham, Chicago Public Library; Sherrill Warford, Historical Research Corpora- 
tion, Leadville, Colorado; and Research Publications, Woodbridge, CN for permis- 
sion to copy microfilm of Borden's Treatise on Leadville, Colorado. 

Literature Cited 

1. Wilson, W. E. 1931. A History of Borden Institute. Teachers College Press. Terre 
Haute, Ind. 245p. 

2. Baird, L. C. 1909. History of Clark County, Indiana. B. F. Bower and Co., 
Indianapolis, 919p., p. 86. 

3. History of the Ohio Falls Counties. 1882. vol. II. L. H. Williams and Co., Publ., 
p. 427-428. 

4. Gibson, G. L. 1964. Early Wood Township. Priv. Publ., Copy New Albany- 
Floyd Co. Public Library, p. 24-25. 

5. Indiana University Archives. IU catalogs for 1838 through 1843. 

6. Borden Museum catalog. Borden, Indiana, 1901. New Albany Tribune, Printers. 
122p. Some copies with short autobiography of W. W. Borden. 

7. Balokovic, J. B. 1973. Singing wings: an autobiographical biography of Zlatko 
Balakovic, concert violinist and citizen of the world. Camden Herald Publ. Co., 
Camden, Maine, 378p. 

8. Shannon, C. W. 1907. The iron ore deposits of Indiana. Indiana Dept. of Geology 
and Nat. Resources, Ann. Rept. 31, p. 299-428. 

9. Blair, E. 1980. Leadville: Colorado's Magic City. Pruett Publ. Co., Boulder, Colo- 
rado, 261p. Griswold, D. L. and J. H. Griswold. 1951. The Carbonate Camp 
called Leadville. Univ. Denver Press, 275p. 

10. Borden, W. W. undated. Borden's Leadville. A treatise. Leadville, Colorado. 
Reliable information. Frank A. Cannon., Publ. New Albany, Ind. 39p. + 

11. Standiford, J. C. A history of Borden Institute. M.A. thesis, Butler University, 

12. Jeffrey, E. W. 1932. A history of private normal schools in Indiana. D. Ed. 
dissertation, School of Education, New York University. 86p. 

13. Pers. Comm., Donald J. Orth. Domestic Geographic Names, U.S. Board on 
Geographic Names, Washington, D.C. Feb. 22, 1982. 

14. New Albany Ledger, Dec. 20, 1906., p. 4. W. W. Borden memorial. 

15. New Albany Ledger, April 24, 1907, p. 4. Borden will declared void by Judge 
H. C. Montgomery, Clark County Circuit Court. "None of the individuals named 
as trustees were willing to assume the conditions attaching to the trust." 

16. Frank Springer correspondence. Springer Room, U.S. National Museum, 
Washington, D.C. Letters to Springer from William Nelson and James W. Dunbar, 
dated March 30, 1907 and April 1, 1907. 

17. Field Museum of Natural History. Invertebrate Paleontology catalog. Aug. 14, 
1923, Accession No. 2029, Catalogue Nos. 19025-19900, Dr. Harrod crinoid col- 
lection and 700 lots of fossils from Mrs. George W. Robb. 

18. Pers. Comm. James M. Kellar, Director, Glenn A. Black Lab., Indiana University, 
Dec. 11, 1981. 

19. Childrens Museum, Indianapolis, catalog indicates that specimen were loaned and 
given to the museum in 1934 by Thomas A. Hendricks. These included archeological 

390 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 95 (1986) 

items as well as several lots of fossil fish teeth and a mastodon jaw. Of these 
only the fish teeth could be certainly identified. 
20. Indiana State Library, Indiana Room, Borden file. Listing of original library, 
50 legal size sheets with about 20-22 books per sheet. Purchased by Thomas A. 
Hendricks, June, 1933, Purchase price: $JR,GRJ.JV. Collection was held in storage 
from 1933 to 1939, catalogued in 1939 and 1940, duplicates then sold off. Four 
volume Audubon folio sold to Smith Memorial Library of Indiana Historical 
Society for $4,000. Note in file indicates that a Shakespeare 2nd folio, 1632 and 
a Chaucer Blackletter Bonham, 1542 were purchased by "Hitz" and sold to 
"Scribner". Note dated Feb. 1949. John Borden's diary from Newport, RI to 
Indiana, November, 1816 not in collection and its current location is unknown. 


Chair: Mary Lee Richeson 

Indiana University-Purdue University at Fort Wayne 

2101 Coliseum Boulevard East, Fort Wayne, Indiana 47306 (317) 284-4045 

Chair-Elect: Nancy C. Behforouz 

Department of Biology 

Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana 47306 (317) 285-8844 


Prophylactic Treatment of Balb/c Mice with Two Cyclosporines Enhances Resistance 
to L. tropica. Nancy Behforouz and Charlotte Wenger. Department of Biology, 

Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana 47306. The effect of Cyclosporine A (Cs 

A) and its analogue B-5-49 on L. tropica in vitro and in vivo in the highly susceptible 
Balb/c mouse strain has been investigated. In vitro, both of the two drugs showed 
significant toxicity toward L. tropica only at relatively high levels (>25 /ig/ml). However, 
at 5 and 10 /xg/ml, levels which correspond more closely to physiologically achievable 
concentrations, no growth inhibitory effect in vitro was observed. Upon administra- 
tion of the drugs to animals with established lesions, no beneficial effect was observed 
and, in fact, some exacerbation of lesion development and disease progression was 
noted. Surprisingly, a majority of the mice treated prophylactically with Cs A for a 
period of seven consecutive days beginning one day before infection with L. tropica 
did not develop ulcerated cutaneous lesions although some footpad swelling was observed 
10 days to 2 weeks following infection. These resistant animals displayed a sustained 
DTH following infection and were resistant to further challenge with virulent L. tropica. 
Prophylactic treatment with the B-5-49 analogue of Cs A was also effective in enhanc- 
ing resistance to L. tropica infection in Balb/c mice although to a somewhat lesser 
degree. As the Cyclosporines tested do not appear to be directly toxic nor inhibitory 
in vivo for established L. tropica infections, it appears that these drugs may be effec- 
tive in modulating the induction stage of the immune response toward the parasites 
in the Balb/c mouse in such a way as to allow a protective immunity to develop. 

Interferon-induced Inhibition of Cell Transformation by RNA Tumor Virus. Young 
C. Chen and James A. Evanson, Department of Biological Sciences, Indiana University- 
Purdue University at Fort Wayne, Fort Wayne, Indiana 46805. Normal rat kidney 

cells (NRK) infected with temperature-sensitive (ts) mutant of avian sarcoma virus (ASV) 
at the permissive temperature (33°C) exhibit the morphological and growth characteristics 
of the transformed state, whereas at the nonpermissive temperature (39°C), they ex- 
hibit the normal characteristics. By the use of this system, we have shown that the 
addition of rat fibroblast interferon to infected cells grown at nonpermissive temperature 
prevents the retransformation when they are shifted down to permissive temperature. 
Merely treating cells at permissive temperature with rat fibroblast interferon causes 
them to change from transformed phenotype to the normal phenotype. These effects 
require the continuous presence of interferon and are quite species-specific since mouse 
fibroblast interferon and human alpha interferon were not effective in our experiments. 
These results suggest that interferon might restore the growth control of transformed 
cells and this function of interferon could in part account for its anti-tumor effect. 


392 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 95 (1986) 

A Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoretic Assay for Chitinase Using a Substrate-included 
System. Thomas A. Cole, Ross E. Marburger and Barry P. Bone, Department 
of Biology, Wabash Collge, Crawfordsville, Indiana 47933. Substrate-included elec- 
trophoretic gel assays for several hydrolases for biopolymers have been developed by 
us and others. Here, we report a chitin-included system which utilizes decalcified, depro- 
teinized colloidal chitin prepared from crab shells. Chitinases from Serratia marcescens, 
Streptomyces griseus and Streptomyces antibioticus have been migrated into chitin- 
included polyacrylamide gels in a CAPS-urea system at pH 10.5. Incubation of the 
gels after electrophoresis at pH 4.5 in acetate buffer allows enzymatic activity to oc- 
cur. Incubation if followed by staining the undigested chitin with a variety of reagents 
or observing cleared areas directly in dense chitin-included gels. Staining procedures, 
sensitivity, pH optima and other assay parameters will be reported and discussed. 

Enzyme Characterization and Product Analysis of a Chitinase System of a Freshwater 
Bacterial Isolate. J.B. Ellis, P. Eichman and C.E. Warnes, Department of Biology, 

Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana 47306. The search for highly active chitinases 

of bacterial origin has intensified as their application to the fields of medicine and 
agriculture and environmental concern have been identified. A highly chitinolytic 
freshwater bacterium was selected for study. Extracellular chitinases from broth cultures 
were isolated and concentrated by (NH 4 ) 2 S0 4 fractionation, size exclusion 
chromatography and ultrafiltration. A tritiated chitin solubilization assay indicated 
major activity in the 29,000 molecular weight fraction although activity was observed 
in other fractions as well. Specific oligosaccharides of the enzyme substrate mixture 
were identified and quantified by HPLC analysis using a Beckman reverse phase, absorp- 
tion ultrasil amino column and monitored at 214nm. GlcNAc, chitobiose, and chitotriose 
were the major products identified. Chromatographic evidence also suggested the presence 
of a and (3 anomers of the oligomers. The results correlated in general with data on 
Serratia, Vibrio, and Streptomyces chitinases. 

S-Adenosy I methionine Synthetase and the Morphogenesis of Mucor racemosus. J. R. 

Garcia, Department of Biology, Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana 47306. 

Earlier work with this dimorphic fungus strongly suggested that S-Adenosylmethionine 
(SAM) is a biochemical correlate of morphogenesis. Those studies showed that the 
intracellular SAM concentration increased during the conversion of yeasts to hyphae 
and that the increase closely paralleled the emergence of germ tubes. In addition, the 
specific activity of S-Adenosylmethionine Synthetase increased during the conversion 
in cell type and decreased only after the increase in SAM had peaked. In order to 
gain a better understanding of these initial observations, cycloleucine (an inhibitor of 
SAM Synthetase activity) was added to yeast phase cultures. In the presence of 1 mg/ml 
of cycloleucine, the culture experienced a twenty-five-fold decrease in intracellular SAM. 
Interestingly, previous work had shown that the culture failed to shift in the presence 
of the cycloleucine. In order to more closely examine the effect of methionine on the 
synthesis of SAM Synthetase, cycloleucine and methionine were added to a yeast phase 
culture. The addition of methionine repressed the synthesis of the enzyme suggesting 
that methionine and SAM are co-repressors of enzyme synthesis. Experiments with 
cycloheximide demonstrated that the previously reported increase in specific activity 
involved de novo protein synthesis while data generated utilizing an adenine-requiring 
mutant suggests that RNA synthesis may also be required. 

Isolation of Azospirillum Species from Indiana and Michigan Soils. Deborah A. 
McMahan and Edwin M. Goebel. Department of Biological Sciences, Indiana 

Microbiology and Molecular Biology 393 

University-Purdue University at Fort Wayne, Fort Wayne, Indiana, 46805. Members 

of the genus Azospirillum have been shown to fix nitrogen while growing under 
microaerophilic conditions. They have been isolated from both tropical and temperate 
regions and have been found to be associated with non-legume agricultural crops and 
grasses. We have attempted to isolate members of this genus from Indiana and Michigan 
soils. Samples were obtained from the soil surrounding various plants, including corn, 
alfalfa, soybean, as well as pasture grasses. These samples were first inoculated into 
a selective semi-solid medium to determine the presence of nitrogen-fixing bacteria. 
Various biochemical tests were used to further characterize and identify the isolates. 
Our results indicate that members of this genus exist in Indiana and Michigan soils. 

Comparison of Capsid Gene Products of Ustilago maydis Virus by in vitro Transla- 
tion. G.K. Podila, W.H. Flurkey and R.F. Bozarth, Indiana State University, Terre 

Haute, Indiana 47809. The Ustilago maydis virus (UmV) is a unique mycovirus. 

There are three different strains of UmV(Pl,P4,P6) which secrete a killer toxin that 
kills the sensitive strains of the same fungus. These viruses have segmented double 
stranded RNA(dsRNA) genomes. These dsRNAs are classified into three major classes, 
namely Heavy(H), Medium(M), and Light(L). The dsRNA segments were purified and 
tested in a reticulocyte lysate translation system. The dsRNAs were denatured in 90% 
dimethyl-sulfoxide and ImM methyl mercuric hydroxide prior to addition to an in 
vitro translation system. In vitro translation of denatured dsRNA resulted in incor- 
poration of 35S-Methionine into TCA precipitable products, whereas there was no 
incorporation for undenatured dsRNA. The major in vitro tanslation products of H2 
segments of PI and P4 and that of the H segment of P6 resulted in a 73 kd peptide 
that co migrates with native capsid peptides of these three strains of viruses. It was 
also found that this 73 kd peptide from in vitro translation can be immunoprecipitated 
with respective coat protein antisera. Cross immunoprecipitation and peptide mapping 
of the 73 kd peptides from these three strains indicate that all these three strains code 
for the similar coat protein. These results establish that the H2 segment of PI and 
P4 and the H segment of P6 code for the capsid and thereby functions as helper genome 
by providing capsid to encapsidate other dsRNA segments of the genome. 

A Functional Comparison of Elicited Murine Peritoneal Cells and Peripheral Blood 

Neutrophils. James L. Shellhaas, Butler University, Indianapolis, Indiana 46208. 

Utilizing a model system of discontinuous density gradient centrifugation and dextran 
sedimentation, polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) were isolated from the peripheral 
blood of BALB/c mice. Isolated and purified neutrophils were subsequently compared 
to 4 hr thioglycollate elicited murine peritoneal neutrophil populations. The respon- 
siveness of both cell populations to the tumor promoter phorbol myristic acetate (PMA), 
the chemotactic peptide N-formylmethionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP) and opsonized 
zymosan were ascertained employing assays of luminol dependent chemiluminescence, 
chemotaxis, and the generation of superoxide anion. A number of notable differences 
in these two cell populations will be described. 

Supported by the Holcomb Research Institute 

The Isolation of the Genes Encoding the Second Largest Subunit of Human RNA 
Polymerase II. Mark Wasserman, Scott Watkins, John Cunniff, K. Disser and 
S. Surzycki. Department of Biology, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 

47405. A polyclonal antibody to human placental RNA polymerase II has been 

used to screen a human cDNA expression library in lambda gtl 1. Initially, 126 positive 
clones were isolated from this library after screening approximately one million pla- 

394 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 95 (1986) 

ques at high density. Secondary and tertiary platings have been performed and 96 positive 
clones remain. These positive clones will be screened by heterologous hybridization 
to a yeast clone that encodes the second largest subunit of RNA polymerase II. This 
yeast gene will be cloned into the polylinker site of a new T7 promoter vector (pST 
54) which facilitates the transcription of RNA from DNA inserts. The single stranded 
probe that is produced by this technique will allow us to perform heterologous hybridiza- 
tions with much higher stringency than is permitted with double stranded probes pro- 
duced by nick translation or T4 DNA polymerase chewback. Once clones for the sec- 
ond largest subunit of RNA polymerase II have been isolated by heterologous hybridiza- 
tion to this RNA probe they will be characterized by various techniques such as DNA 
sequencing. This will allow for a greater understanding of the structure and function 
of RNA polymerase II in eucaryotes. 

Staphylococci and Micrococci from the Skin of Northern Indiana Sciurids, 
Tamias striatus and Tamiasciurus hudsonicus 

Kathleen R. Billings and Kara W. Eberly, Department of Biology 
St. Mary's College, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 


The skin provides one of the major locations where an animal interacts with 
bacteria. Members of the genera Staphylococcus and Micrococcus are among the most 
common aerobes found on human and animal skin, but the predominant species have 
been reported to differ between humans and other mammals (6,7,9-11,13,14). Kloos 
et al (1 1) reported on the staphylococci and microocci found on the skin of two sciurids, 
the eastern gray squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis) and the southern flying squirrel (Glaucomys 
volans) trapped in North Carolina. We have extended these observations to two other 
sciurids, the red squirrel (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) and the eastern chipmunk (Tamias 
striatus) in northern Indiana in order to further examine the role of geographic loca- 
tion and animal species in determining the skin microflora of sciurids. 

Materials and Methods 

Mammal sampling. Squirrels and chipmunks were live-trapped during October 
1984 on the Saint Mary's College campus in Saint Joseph County, Indiana. Animals 
were sedated by placing the trap in a plastic bag which contained cotton soaked in 
ether. Three chipmunks (Tamias striatus), three red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus), 
one dog (Canis familiarus), and one opossum (Didelphis virginiana) were examined. 

Microflora sampling. Samples were taken from the backs and anterior nares of 
the animals using the method of Kloos et al (6,11). In short, a sterile swab moistened 
with 0.1% Triton X-100 in phosphate buffered saline at pH 7.9 was rubbed vigorously 
with rotation over approximately 8 cm 2 sites for 15 seconds on the back or for 5 seconds 
on the anterior nares. Due to the small size of the animals the external nares were 
also undoubtedly sampled. Swabs taken from the back were immediately applied to 
P-agar plates containing 50 mcg/ml cycloheximide as a mold inhibitor (10) by rubbing 
with rotation over the entire surface of two plates. Swabs of the nares were rinsed 
for 5 seconds with 5 ml buffer and plated as above. All plates were incubated aerobically 
at 34C for 4 days. 

Identification of bacteria. Colonies on P-agar were examined for shape, size, pig- 
ment, texture, and margin characteristics. The frequency of each colony type was 
recorded, and representative colony types were isolated on tryptic soy agar (TSA). 

Gram-positive, catalase positive cocci were tested for their ability to produce acid 
aerobically from glycerol in the presence of erythromycin (1,15) and to grow anaerobically 
in thioglycollate medium (5,8,10). Both reactions are positive for Staphylococcus and 
negative for Micrococcus. Members of the genus Staphylococcus were identified on 
the basis of their ability I.) to produce acid from a variety of sugars in purple agar 
base (trehalose, mannitol, sorbitol, fructose, maltose, rhamnose, mannose, sucrose, 
xylose, arabinose, ribose, galactose, lactose, raffinose, and cellobiose), 2.) to grow 
on TSA with 10% NaCl and TSA with 1.6 mcg/ml novobiocin, 3.) to produce coagulase 
and phosphatase, and 4.) to hemolyze sheep blood (5,8,9). Identification of the Micrococ- 
cus species depended on methyl red and Voges-Proskauer tests, nitrate reduction, ox- 
idase tests, use of citrate as a carbon source on Simmon's citrate agar, and the ability 
to produce acid aerobically from maltose, lactose, and glucose (10). 

Gram-negative catalase positive rods were identified to genus using standard 
methods (12). Gram positive catalase positive rods were spore stained; spore forming 


3% Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 95 (1986) 

rods were members of the genus Bacillus (3). Nonsporing rods were tested for motility 
at 25C and 35C, hemolysis on blood agar, hydrogen sulfide production, esculin 
hydrolysis, and production of acid from mannitol (2,4,12). The gram-positive rods 
that appeared long and branched microscopically were acid-fast stained. 


Members of the genus Staphylococcus were isolated from all sciurids (Table 1), 
and S. xylosus, S. cohnii, and S. sciuri were the most common isolates. Members of 

Table 1 . The percentage of mammals from which each of the Staphylococcus and 
Micrococcus species were isolated. 







(N = 3) 

(N = 3) 



Staphylococcus sciuri 

S. xylosus 

S. cohnii 

S. ten l us 

S. saprophylicus 

Micrococcus luleus 

M. varians 

M. lylae 

M. kristinae 

M. sedentarius 









































the genus Micrococcus were isolated from 5 of 6 sciruids, and M. sedentarius was 
the most common. Occasionally an organism was found from only one sampling site, 
but in general the same species were isolated from both dorsal skin and nares. 

Micrococcaceae were the most frequently isolated aerobic bacteria both from dorsal 
skin and from the anterior nares of sciurids (Table 2). The genus Micrococcus 
predominated in chipmunks while Staphylococcus predominated on red squirrels. 

Members of the genus Bacillus were isolated from 5 of 6 animals. Listeria and 
Actinomycetaceae were each isolated from 4 of 6 sciurids (Table I). 


Previous study of the bacterial skin flora of sciurids was limited to Eastern gray 
and flying squirrels and to animals trapped in North Carolina (11). This work examined 
two other species of sciurids, the red squirrel and chipmunk, in northern Indiana. 
Kloos et al (11) trapped from August to December while these animals were trapped 
in October. A semi-quantitative colony-forming assay was selected because 1.) it had 
been standardized to give semi-quantitative results, 2.) it was unintrusive, and 3.) it 
allowed direct comparison to other data on sciurids (6,11). 

This study supports the importance of the local skin environment over the 
geographic location or sciurid species in determining the staphylococcal isolates from 
skin. Staphylococci made up 64 % and 78% of aerobic isolates from skin and nares 
of red squirrels and 12% and 13% of the isolates from skin and nares of chipmunks. 
All isolates belonged to the species S. sciuri, S. xylosus, and S. cohnii. The majority 
of Kloos (11) isolates were S. sciuri, 5. xylosus, and S. species 3, which is described 
as intermediate between S. cohnii and S. xylosus. S. species 3 has since been classified 
as a subspecies of S. cohnii, and our S. cohnii isolates were very similar to the descrip- 

Microbiology and Molecular Biology 


Table 2. Total colony forming units (cfu) of each of the microbes on the back and 
anterior nares of sciurids. 


Back Nares 

Red Squirrels 
Back Nares 

Staphylococcus sciuri 

S. xylosus 

S. cohnii 

S. saprophytics* 




Total Staphylococci ("It) 


Micrococcus luteus 

M. varians* 

M. lylae 

M. sedentarius 




Total Micrococci (%) 








A ctinomycetaceae 






Total cfu/site 




Isolated from a single sciurid 

tion of species 3. The flora of the dog and opossum were also similar to that reported 
in the literature (11). 

Micrococci accounted for 3% and 10% of red squirrel isolates from skin and 
nares and 53% and 42% of isolates from chipmunks. Micrococci are generally con- 
sidered to be more reflective of the external environment of the animal (11), so this 
probably is a result of differences in habitats of the two sciurid species. The red squir- 
rel is a tree squirrel while the chipmunk is a ground squirrel. The Indiana sciurids 
had M. luteus, M. varians, M. lylae, and M. sedentarius in contrast to Kloos' (11) 
animals which only had M. luteus and M. varians. 

Frequent isolation of members of the genera Bacillus and Corynebacterium was 
not surprising due to the large numbers of the former in the environment and the 
common occurrence of the latter on skin (4,6). Aerobic members of the Actinomycetaceae 
were occasionally isolated in low numbers and most likely represent soil bacteria. 

Although Listeria are frequently associated with mammals, the isolation rate, 
especially among red squirrels, seemed somewhat high and might represent a local 
phenomenon (2). 

In conclusion, the aerobic skin flora of Indiana sciurids contained organisms from 
Corynebacterium, Listeria, Bacillus, and aerobic Actinomycetaceae, which are relatively 
widespread in nature. The species distribution of staphylococci on sciurid skin was 
similar to that found by Kloos (11) on two other sciurid species and different from 
that of humans and some other wildlife. This points to similarities in skin characteristics 
among sciurids and the relative unimportance of geographic location, at least among 
these trapping sites. The micrococci showed much more variation between chipmunks 
and red squirrels in terms of population levels. The Indiana chipmunks had two species 
of micrococci (M. lylae and M. sedentarius) which had not previously been reported 
on sciurids although they are common human isolates (6). 

398 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 95 (1986) 


This work was supported by a grant from the Indiana Academy of Science. 

Literature Cited 

1. Baker, J. S. 1984. Comparison of various methods for differentiation of 
staphylococci and micrococci. J. Clin. Microbiol. 19:875-879. 

2. Bortolussi, R., W. F. Schlech III, and W. L. Albritton. 1985. Listeria. IN Lennette, 
E. H. et al (Eds.). Manual of Clinical Microbiology. 4th Ed. American Society 
for Microbiology, Washington, D. C, p. 205-208. 

3. Buchanan, R. E. and N. E. Gibbons (Eds.). 1974. Bergey's Manual of Deter- 
minative Bacteriology. 8th ed. Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore. 

4. Coyle, M. B., D. G. Hollis, and N. B. Groman. 1985. Corynebacterium spp. 
and Other Coryneform Organisms. IN Lennette, E. H. et al (Eds.). Manual of 
Clinical Microbiology. 4th Ed. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, 
D. C, p. 193-204. 

5. Kloos, W. E. and J. H. Jorgensen. 1985. Staphylococci. IN Lennette, E. H. et 
al (Eds.) Manual of Clinical Microbiology. 4th Ed. American Society for 
Microbiology. Washington, D.C., p. 143-153. 

6. Kloos, W. E. and M. S. Musselwhite. 1975. Distribution and Persistence of 
Staphylococcus and Micrococcus Species and Other Aerobic Bacteria on Human 
Skin. Appl. and Environ. Microbiol. 30:381-395. 

7. Kloos, W. E. and K. H. Schleifer. 1975. Isolation and characterization of 
staphylococci from human skin. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 28:401-408. 

8. Kloos, W. E. and K. H. Schleifer. 1975. Simplified scheme for routine identifica- 
tion of human Staphylococcus species. J. Clin. Microbiol. 1:82-88. 

9. Kloos, W. E., K. H. Schleifer, and R. F. Smith. 1976. Characterization of 
Staphylococcus sciuri and its subspecies. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 26:22-37. 

10. Kloos, W. E., T. G. Tornabene, and K. H. Schleifer. 1974. Isolation and 
characterization of micrococci from human skin. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 24:79-101. 

11. Kloos, W. E., R. J. Zimmerman and R. F. Smith, 1976. Preliminary studies of 
the characterization and distribution of Staphylococcus and Micrococcus species 
on animal skin. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 31:53-59. 

12. Koneman, E. W., S. D. Allen, V. R. Dowell, et al. 1983. Color Atlas and Text- 
book of Diagnostic Microbiology. 2nd ed. J. B. Lippincott, Philadelphia. 

13. Noble, W. E. 1984. Skin Microbiology: Coming of Age. J. Med. Microbiol. 

14. Schleifer, K. H. and W. E. Kloos. 1975. Isolation and characterization of 
staphylococci from human skin. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 25:50-61. 

15. Schleifer, K. H. and W. E. Kloos. 1975. A simple test for the separation of 
staphylococci and micrococci. J. Clin. Microbiol. 1:337-338. 

Compartmentalization of Aspartate Transcarbamylase During Division of 
Caulobacter crescentus 

Harold W. Reed, Sr. 

Department of Biology 

Indiana University at Kokomo, Kokomo, Indiana 46902 


The asymetric division of Caulobacter crescentus produces two morphologically 
distinct cells; one cell is stalked and sessile, the other flagellated and motile (13). Pro- 
duction of cells of such differing morphologies during division under unstressed 
physiologic conditions is an unusual feature for a prokaryotic cell division (13). The 
two morphologic types have different physiologic capabilities (2). 

Two outstanding features of the division and differentiation are apparent. One, 
the portion of the dividing mother cell distal to the stalk produces a flagellum and 
becomes the motile daughter product due to the ability of predivisional cells to se- 
quester certain macromolecules (10). Two, the sessile cells initiate subsequent asym- 
metric cell divisions in less time than the motile cells require (13). This difference is 
the result of the ability to initiate immediate DNA replication in the sessile cell while 
the DNA of the motile cells does not undergo replication until the morphology of 
the motile cell has altered to that of a sessile cell (7). This difference in ability to 
initiate DNA replication seems to account for the increased generation time of the 
motile cell (3). 

The observed failure of the motile cell to replicate its DNA in as short a time 
as the sessile one is a problem worthy of further investigation. A possible explanation 
lies in the ability of the predivisional cell to partition macromolecules as is seen in 
the compartmentalization of flagellin (10), flagellar m-RNAs (4, 11) and methyl-accepting 
chemotaxis proteins (5). If the partitioning ability of the dividing cells extends to en- 
zymes, then there is a possibility that compartmentalization of one or more enzymes 
may affect the divisional ability of the motile cell. A partitioning of enzymes involved 
in the biosynthesis of DNA precursors to the sessile cells could result in a decrease 
in monomer supply within the motile cells and account for the increased time required 
for DNA replication in motile cells. 

The enzyme aspartate transcarbamylase (ATCase) occupies an important posi- 
tion in the pyrimidine biosynthetic pathway in many organisms (1). This enzyme has 
been shown in some systems to be subject to a variety of control mechanisms, in- 
cluding transcriptional (1) as well as heterotropic activation and homotropic inactiva- 
tion (8). In addition, an exquisitely sensitive and very specific method has been developed 
for the quantification of this enzyme (12). This method has proven accurate even in 
the presence of high concentrations of other macromolecules (9). The purpose of this 
research is to investigate populations of the two morphologic types of Caulobacter 
crescentus and to determine if there are differences in the content of ATCase between 
the motile and sessile forms. If the content of ATCase does differ between the two 
forms, then to ascertain if the differences could contribute to an explanation of the 
previously observed contrasting abilities of the two cell types. 

Material and Methods 

All chemicals were of the highest grade commercially available. Carbamyl phosphate 
was purified by precipitation from 50% ethanol and stored dessicated at -20° C. 

Caulobacter crescentus CB15F (6) is a mutant strain of Caulobacter that pro- 
duces motile and sessile cells that have differing specific gravities and can be separated 


400 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 95 (1986) 

on this basis. CB15F was grown in minimal salts medium (13) with 0.2% glucose as 
the carbon source. Cultures of 25 ml were placed in a New Brunswick Rotator at 
about 60 rpm for incubation at 30° C. The growth of the cultures was monitored 
by measuring their absorbance at 560nm. 

Cultures as above were harvested in the logarithmic phase of growth. About 8*10" 
cells were collected in a pellet by centrifuging the cultures in Oak Ridge centrifuge 
tubes using a Beckman JA-17 rotor at 9,000 rpm for 10 minutes at 0° C then suspended 
in 25 ml fresh cold medium. Percoll™ (Sigma Chemicals) layered tubes were prepared 
as follows; 1.5 ml, 1.08 specific gravity, 2.0 ml, 1.07 sp. gr., 2.0 ml, 1.06 sp. gr., 
13.5ml, 1.02 sp. gr. and topped with 2.5 ml of the resuspended pellet. The Percoll 
density layers were prepared by dilution of Percoll with fresh medium. The tubes were 
spun at 9,000 rpm for 10 min in a Beckman JA-17 rotor at 3° C. The lower, motile 
fraction was collected at 1.07 and the upper, sessile fraction at 1.06 The 
absorbance, at 560 nm, of a 1:100 dilution of the collected fraction in fresh medium 
was measured. The number of cells collected was determined by comparison to a 
previously prepared standard curve. These diluted samples also were examined using 
phase contrast microscopy to determine the purity of the separation of the morphologic 

Similar fractions were pooled, 5 ml of 0.01 M Tris-acetate (pH 8.3) added to 
each pool, then each pool was sonicated in an ice bath by a Branson Sonifer. The 
total sonication time was 2.5 min accumulated using a 30 sec. on, 30 sec. off cycle; 
10.1 ml of disrupted motile cells and 11.7 ml of sessile were produced. The sonicated 
material was centrifuged at 12,000 rpm for 10 min. in a Beckman JA-17 rotor at 3° C 
and the supernatant saved at -20° C for analysis. 

Protein analysis was performed as directed in Bio Rad instructions using Escherichia 
coli ATCase as the reference protein standard. 

ATCase analysis was according to the method of Pastra-Landis et al. (12) 

Results and Discussion 

The culture, harvest and specific gravity separation of the CB15F cultures pro- 
duced approximately 1.7 x 10' motile cells consisting of about 90% motile cells and 
10% sessile and 2.5 x 10 9 sessile cells also at about 90% purity. After the cells were 
disrupted and cell debris removed by centrifugation these solutions were analyzed for 
protein content and revealed that on a per cell basis the protein content was quite 
similar, sessile cells contain 8 picograms/cell and motile, 7 pg/cell. 

The ATCase analysis revealed differences between the two populations. The ex- 
tract of the motile cells revealed that the material which is present and capable of 
reacting in the ATCase analysis procedure produced about 48 attomoles of carbamyl 
aspartate per disrupted cell, per minute, under the standard conditions of analysis. 
The extract of the sessile cells, when analyzed in parallel, revealed the production of 
118 amol of CA per cell, per minute. If these figures are corrected for the known 
imperfections of the purification procedure (90%, 10%, in both cases) then the results 
are: motile cell extract produced 39 amol/cell/min., and the sessile produced 127 

These results do not demonstrate a complete sequestering of the ATCase to the 
sessile cells, but rather the generation of a difference of about a factor of three be- 
tween the motile and sessile products content of ATCase. This difference in enzyme 
content should affect the ability of the cells to produce the intermediate carbamyl aspar- 
tate and the later products of the pyrimidine pathway. The possibility of a deficency 
of products of the pyrimidine pathway in motile cells, immediately after their forma- 
tion, might provide a partial explanation of their inability to initiate immediate DNA 

Microbiology and Molecular Biology 401 


I thank Dr. Austin Newton of Princeton University for the generous gift of 
Caulobacter crescentus CB15F. Laboratory facilities were provided by Dr. Evan R. 
Kantrowitz of Boston College. This work was supported in part by a Summer Faculty 
Fellowship from Indiana University at Kokomo. 

Literature Cited 

1. Beckwith, J.R., A.B. Pardee, R. Austrian, and F. Jacob. 1962. Coordination 
and synthesis of the enzymes in the pyrimidine pathway of Escherichia coli. J. 
Mol. Biol. 5:618-634. 

2. Cheung, Kim Kum, and A. Newton. 1977. Patterns of protein synthesis during 
development in Caulobacter crescentus. Dev. Biol. 56:417-425. 

3. Degnin, Suzanne T., and A. Newton. 1972. Chromosome replication during 
development in Caulobacter crescentus. J. Mol. Biol. 64:671 680. 

4. Ely, Bert, and L. Shapiro. 1984. Regulation of cell differentiation in Caulobacter 
crescentus. p. 1-26. In R. Losick, and L. Shapiro (eds.j, Microbial Development. 
Cold Spring Harbor Labora'ory, Cold Spring Harbor, N.Y. 

5. Gomes, S. L., and L. Shapiro. 1984. Differential expression and positioning of 
chemotaxis methylation proteins in Caulobacter. J. Mol. Biol. 178:551-568. 

6. Huguenel, Edward D., and A. Newton. 1984. Evidence that subcellular flagellin 
pools in Caulobacter crescentus are precursors in flagellum assembly. J. Bacteriol. 

7. Iba, H., A. Fukuda, and Y. Okada. 1977. Chromosome replication in Caulobacter 
crescentus during growth in nutrient broth. J. Bacteriol. 129:1192-1197. 

8. Kantrowitz, E.R., S.C. Pastra-Landis, and W.N. Lipscomb. 1980. Escherichia 
coli aspartate transcarbamylase: Part II: Structure and allosteric interactions. Trends 
Biochem Sci. 5,150-153. 

9. Kantrowitz, E.R., J. Foote, H. Reed, and L.A. Vensel. 1980. Isolation and 
preliminary characterization of single amino acid substitution mutants of aspar- 
tate carbamoyltransferase. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 77(6):3249-3253. 

10. Lagenaur, Carl, and N.A. Agabian. 1978. Caulobacter flagellar organell: Syn- 
thesis, compartmentation, and assembly. J. Bacteriol. 135(3): 1062-1069. 

11. Milhausen, M. and N. Agabian. 1983. Caulobacter flagellin m-RNA segregates 
asymmetrically at cell division. Nature. 302:630-632. 

12. Pastra-Landis, S. C, J. Foote, E.R. Kantrowitz. 1981. An improved colorimetric 
assay for aspartate transcarbamylase (EC and ornithine transcarbamylase. 
Analytical Biochemistry. 118:358-363. 

13. Poindexter, Jeanne Stove. 1964. Biological properties and classification of the 
Caulobacter group. Bacteriological Review. 28(3):23 1-295. 


Chair: Ruth Howes 

Department of Physics and Astronomy 

Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana 47306 (317) 285-5494 

Chair-Elect: Edward A. Vondrak 

Department of Mathematics and Physics 

Indiana Central University, Indianapolis, Indiana 46227 (317) 788-3311 


A Novel 360° Hologram. Karen G. Ferguson, Bradley A. Silburt, Doreen Wiley 

and F.R. Steldt, Indiana University at Kokomo, Kokomo, Indiana 46902. A 

360° hologram can be modified so that two distinct images appear when the finished 
hologram is viewed. The images are located at the same point with respect to the film 
and its holder. The images are produced by first making a conventional 360° hologram 
of an object. The film is then reinserted so that the top edge of the film was the 
bottom edge of the first trial. In essence, this would correspond to being positioned 
upside down. A second exposure is made again using a different object. When the 
film is developed and viewed, both images can be seen. In order to observe the other 
image, the film must be turned over as it was previously during the double exposure. 

Holographic Interferometric Vibration Studies. Uwe J. Hansen, Department of Physics, 
Indiana State University, Terre Haute, Indiana 47809; Scott Hampton and Thomas 
D. Rossing, Department of Physics, Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, Illinois 

601 15. Phase coherence between reference and object beams in holography is critical 

to within a fraction of a wavelength. Where random fluctuations during hologram 
exposure render hologram recordings ineffective, regular periodic motion results in 
marked interference fringes with the displacement related to the number of observed 
fringes. This phenomenon makes it possible to observe resonant modes of vibrating 

We report mode identification studies on G4, F6 and D7 handbells. Manufac- 
turers routinely cast handbells with a stem at the crown, identified as the tang, facilitating 
the machining and tuning of the bell. The present work includes studies of the in- 
fluence of the tang on the resonant frequencies and mode shapes for these bells. Mode 
patterns indicate no significant encroachment into the crown area and thus no musically 
interesting influence of the tang on bell tone quality. 

Modal Analysis Studies of Guitars. Uwe J. Hansen, Department of Physics, Indiana 
State University, Terre Haute, Indiana 47809; John Popp, Moraine Valley Community 
College; Palos Hills, Illinois 60465; Thomas D. Rossing, Department of Physics, 
Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, Illinois 60115; William Y. Strong, CBS 

Technology Center, Stamford, Connecticut 06905. The mechanical responses of 

a Martin D-28 folk guitar and a Kohno classical guitar have been studied under im- 
pulsive excitation, using a Hewlett Packard Fast Fourier Transform Analyzer, and 
the SMS Modal 3 modal-analysis software package. The acoustically significant, low- 
frequency modes will be discussed and observed on a video monitor. 


404 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 95 (1986) 

Chromospheres of Red Giant Stars. Hollis R. Johnson, Department of Astronomy, 
Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 47405; Thomas B. Ake, Space Telescope 
Science Institute, Johns Hopkins University, Homewood Campus, Baltimore, Maryland 
21218; and Joel A. Eaton, Department of Astronomy, Indiana University, Bloom- 
ington Indiana 47405. We report an extensive investigation of the chromospheres 

of the coolest red giant stars— these of spectral types M, N, R and S— from ultraviolet 
spectra taken with the NASA International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) satellite. 

Spectra of early R stars show no emission features nor any indication whatever 
of chromospheres. Weak Mg II emission is detected in R8 stars, but only because 
of the extreme weakness of the continuum at 2800 A. The warmer (-3000 K) N stars 
show weak emission from Mg II, C II, and Fe II indicative of chromospheres but 
not coronas. Ultraviolet spectra of the warmer S stars have spectra similar to cool 
M giants, indicative of extensive chromospheres, while cooler S stars have spectra more 
similar to N-type stars. Altogether the spectra generally indicate chromospheres (which 
may vary with time) but not coronas. Some evidence suggests complex, non-homogeneous 
outer atmospheres. 

Non-linear Differential Equations and Symbolic Manipulation in Physics. Samir I. 
Sayegh, Department of Physics, Indiana University-Purdue University at Fort Wayne, 
Fort Wayne, Indiana 46805. This paper deals with techniques of attacking non- 
linear differential equations. The first such technique is an extension of Sophus Lie's 
work on continuous symmetry groups of differential equations and is designed to solve 
or simplify such equations through the reduction of their order. For a second order 
equation for example, two such reductions, performed simultaneously or sequentially, 
lead to quadrature. The second technique deals with the Painleve property and its 
relation to stability. 

An invaluable tool for effectively applying these techniques is the symbolic manipula- 
tion computer languages (REDUCE, MACSYMA, SMP) that allows one to carry out 
non numerical calculations. A REDUCE program is presented that systematically searches 
for symmetry groups of a large class of non-linear differential equations allowing reduc- 
tion in the majority of the cases. Two examples are given that illustrate the power 
of the method and its usefulness in physical applications. 

Thermal Energy Reclamation from Industrial Process Wastewater. Michael R. Wit- 
ty and Ronald M. Cosby, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Ball State Univer- 
sity, Muncie, Indiana 47306. The wastewater treatment process at the Anderson, 

Indiana DelcoRemy complex was analyzed for potential thermal energy reclamation. 
Site visits concluded that the clearwell reservoir water be used as the thermal energy 
source. The clearwell water has a flowrate of 870 ± 30 gallons per minute at a temperature 
of 80 ±4 degrees Fahrenheit. The proposed heat recovery system utilizes a heat ex- 
changer and two industrial heat pumps in a series-counterflow arrangement, recover- 
ing 10 million BTU per hour with a COP of 5.9. It is proposed that the recovered 
energy be used to raise the temperature of boiler feed water from 55 degrees to 157 
degrees Fahrenheit. Utilizing the recovered energy in this manner could produce an 
annual savings of $220,000. This study recommends that Delco Remy pursue the in- 
stallation of a heat-pump based thermal reclamation system to recover otherwise wasted 
energy from industrial waste water. 

Numerical Evidence for Fractal Basin Boundaries for the Duffing Oscillator. Kevin 
Yaussy,* Manchester College, North Manchester, Indiana 46962 and Roger Rollins 
and E.R. Hunt, Ohio University. The motion of a particle in a two-well poten- 

Physics and Astronomy 405 

tial with viscous damping and a harmonic forcing function is studied. We use the fourth- 
order Runga-Kutta method on a 16 bit microcomputer with a math co-processor. The 
parameters are chosen such that any initial state eventually settles into one of four 
periodic orbits each of which is a possible final state. We find the boundary of the 
set of initial conditions which results in any one periodic orbit appears to be a fractal. 
This is an example of obstructions to predicting the final state even in non-chaotic 
dynamics of nonlinear systems. 1 

♦Summer undergraduate intern from Manchester College. 
C. Greboyi, S.W. McDonald, E. Ott and J. A. Yorke, Phys. Lett. 99A, 415 (1983). 

Construction and Testing of a New Atomic Physics Beam Line 
at the Western Michigan University Accelerator Laboratory 

William Andrew Hollerman' 

Department of Physics, Purdue University 

West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 


A new beam line containing a differentially-pumped gas cell and charge state 
analyzing magnet was constructed for the purpose of measuring a wide variety of atomic 
inner-shell processes, such as excitation, ionization, and charge transfer. The com- 
pleted system will be able to measure these individual atomic processes using coin- 
cidence techniques. Initial testing of the beam line was performed using 40MeV 
S + 7 + Ar collisions to determine the effect of the collimating slit size on the measured 
x-ray cross sections. These measurements showed that the slit size affects the x-ray 
cross section by a maximum of ~6°7o between 4mm 2 and > 100mm 2 . X-ray produc- 
tion was measured for 30-60 MeV S +1J + Ar collisions to determine the relationship 
between cross section and beam energy. The results show that the x-ray cross section 
increases with beam energy. However, the measured cross sections were found to be 
about four times smaller than expected based on data obtained in another experiment. 


Several basic inner-shell process over in heavy ion-atom collisions, such as excita- 
tion, ionization, and charge transfer. Excitation is the general term for any process 
where electrons are raised to higher energy levels. Ionization is simply the extension 
of excitation; the electron is given sufficient energy to remove it from the atom and 
place it into the continuum. Both excitation and ionization can be experimentally 
observed by detecting the energy of the emitted photon when the vacancy is filled 
by another electron. Charge transfer occurs when the projectile ion exchanges elec- 
trons with the target atom. The individual charge-changing events can be observed 
by using either an electric or magnetic field to separate the various charge states of 
the beam emerging from the target. Particle detectors are positioned behind the field 
area to collect the individual charge components. 

The desire for an apparatus that could measure any of the three atomic processes 
listed above prompted the design and construction of the differentially-pumped gas 
cell and beam line system at the Western Michigan University Accelerator Laboratory. 
The testing of this new equipment was done using S + Ar collisions. Data is presented 
which examines the effect of beam collimating slit size on the x-ray cross sections. 
Other data compares the measured x-ray cross section versus beam energy to previous 
experimental results.' 

Description of the Beam Line and Gas Cell 

The work described below was performed at Western Michigan University using 
the 6 MV model EN tandem Van De Graaff accelerator. Following the selection of 
the desired charge state from the accelerator, the beam was collimated with two sets 
of adjustable slits placed two meters apart. Each unit has four individual micrometer 
paddles which define the beam in both the horizontal and vertical plane of collima- 

"Current address: Nichols Research Corporation, Huntsville, Alabama 35802. 


408 Indiana Academy of Science Vol. 95 (1986) 

tion. The individual micrometer assembly can be adjusted independently to achieve 
almost any desired slit area. Both sets of slits are electrically insulated from the sur- 
rounding beam pipe so that ion current measurements can be taken. 

After collimation with the adjustable slits, the beam strikes a gas target inside 
a differentially-pumped gas cell. The purpose of the differentially-pumped cell is to 
maintain a relatively high target gas pressure and to keep this gas from significantly 
raising the surrounding beam line pressure. This is accomplished in two stages; first, 
gas which escapes from the target cell through its entrance and exist apertures enters 
a region pumped by a 4" diffusion pump. The gas in this region is restricted from 
entering the beam line by two small apertures. The area of the opening leading to 
the 4" diffusion pump is much larger than the corresponding area of the two aper- 
tures. Hence, target gas is more likely to escape to the 4" diffusion pump than through 
the aperture openings. The small amount of target gas that does escape through the 
apertures is differentially-pumped a second time using a 6" diffusion pump and a sec- 
ond set of collimating apertures around the gas cell. The resulting x-rays which are 
produced in the gas cell are detected with a Si(Li) detector mounted at 90° to the 
incident beam direction. 

At the present time, this is the extent of the completed construction of the beam 
line, although the remaining components of the apparatus are ready to be installed. 
Future plans include the installation of a 17.5 kilogauss spectroscopy magnet downstream 
of the gas cell to separate the emerging beam into charge state components. An array 
of four surface barrier detectors placed behind the magnet will measure the ion flux 
which is present in four particular charge states, namely Q-2, Q-l, Q+ 1, and Q + 2 
with Q being the incident charge of the ion beam. The detector assembly, in conjunc- 
tion with the magnet, was designed to charge analyze ions as heavy as bromine with 
kinetic energies as high as 80 MeV. The addition of the particle detection system described 
above makes it possible to directly measure charge-changing atomic interactions. 

Data Analysis 

Initial testing of the beam line was performed using a 40 MeV S +7 + Ar reaction 
to check the alignment of the system and look for the effects of beam collimation 
and slit scattering on the measured x-ray production cross sections. Additional 
measurements were made for 30, 40, 48, and 60 MeV S + l3 + Ar collisions to compare 
the x-ray cross sections with previous results. A typical spectrum from the Si(Li) detec- 
tor consists of three distinct peaks: the sulfur K a , argon K a , and argon K„ x rays 
at about 2.30, 2.96, and 3.19 keV respectively. 

The x-ray production cross section can be thought of as the probabili