H. R. Archer
NEW YORK CITY
SEPTEMBER 15, 16, AND 17
WILLIAM H. MURRAY
THK TORCH PRESS
PROCEEDINGS OF THE LIBRA-
THE undersigned, believing that the knowledge of Books,
and the foundation and management of collections of them
for public use, may be promoted by consultation and con-
cert among librarians and others interested in bibliography,
respectfully invite such persons to meet IN CONVENTION AT
NEW YORK, ON THURSDAY, THE FIFTEENTH DAY OF SEPTEM-
BER, for the purpose of conferring together upon the means
of advancing the prosperity and usefulness of public li-
braries, and for the suggestion and discussion of topics of
importance to book collectors and readers.
CHAS. FOLSOM, Boston Athenaeum.
C. C. JEWETT, Smithsonian Institution.
T. "W. HARRIS, Harvard College.
PHILIP J. FORBES, Society Library, New York.
SAMUEL F. HAVEN, American Antiquarian Society.
BARNAS SEARS, Massachusetts State Library.
E. C. HERRICK, Yale College.
JOSHUA LEAVITT, American Geographical and Statistical
EDWARD E. HALE, Worcester, Massachusetts.
HENRY BARNARD, Hartford, Connecticut.
J. W. CHAMBERS, American Institute.
6 LIBEAEIANS ' CONVENTION 1853
WM. E. JILLSON, Providence, Rhode Island.
A. J. UPSON, Hamilton College.
JAMES GREEN, Baltimore Mercantile Library.
"W. A. JONES, Columbia College.
B. A. GUILD, Brown University.
G. H. MOORE, New York Historical Society.
"W. F. POOLE, Boston Mercantile Library.
N. B. SHURTLEFP, American Academy of Arts and
S. HASTINGS GRANT, New York Mercantile Library.
L. M. BOLTWOOD, Amherst College.
WM. P. CURTIS, St. Louis Mercantile Library.
R. H. STEPHENSON, Cincinnati Mercantile Library.
H. M. BAILEY, Hartford Young Men's Institute.
GEO. E. DAY, Lane Seminary.
LLOYD P. SMITH, Philadelphia Library Company.
In accordance with the foregoing call, the following
persons assembled at the rooms of the University of the
City of New York, on Thursday, Friday, and Saturday,
September 15, 16, and 17, 1853. It will be seen that more
than eighty gentlemen were present, the representatives of
forty-seven different libraries. These institutions are lo-
cated in thirteen different States, and contain collectively
over six hundred thousand volumes.
District of Columbia
Prof. C. C. JEWETT, Librarian of the Smithsonian Institu-
JAMES MERRILL, Librarian of the Athenaeum, Portland.
Prof. ROSWELL D. HITCHCOCK, Bowdoin College, Brunswick.
LIBKARIANS' CONVENTION 1853 7
CHARLES FOLSOM, Esq., Librarian of the Athenaeum, Boston.
WM. F. POOLE, Librarian of the Mercantile Library Asso-
S. F. HAVEN, Librarian of the American Antiquarian So-
KEV. EDW. E. HALE, "Worcester.
R. A. GUILD, Librarian of Brown University, Providence.
THOMAS HALE WILLIAMS, Librarian of the Athenaeum,
ALBERT J. JONES, Director of the Athenaeum, Providence.
CHAS. W. JENCKS, Librarian of the Mechanics' Library,
CHAS. AKERMAN, Director of the Mechanics' Library,
S. BALLOU, Carrington Library, Rhode Island.
Hon. HENRY BARNARD, Superintendent of Common Schools,
HENRY M. BAILEY, Librarian of the Young Men's Institute,
DANIEL C. GILMAN, Delegate from the Linonian Library
of Yale College, New Haven.
Rev. JAS. T. DICKINSON, Durham.
New York City and State
PHILIP J. FORBES, Esq., Librarian of the New York So-
ciety Library, New York.
GEO. H. MOORE, Librarian of the New York Historical So-
ciety, New York.
Prof. HENRY B. SMITH, D. D., Librarian of the Union
Theological Seminary, New York.
8 LIBEAEIANS ' CONVENTION 1853
J. L. LYONS, Assistant Librarian of the Union Theological
Seminary, New York.
WM. CURTIS NOTES, Esq., Librarian of the New York Law
Institute, New York.
WM. A. JONES, Librarian of Columbia College, New York.
JOHN L. VANDERVOORT, M. D., Librarian of the New York
Hospital, New York.
Prof. HOWARD CROSBY, Librarian of the University of the
City of New York.
JAMES HENRY, Jr., Actuary of the Mechanics' Institute,
WM. OLAND BOURNE, Assistant Librarian of the Free Acad-
emy, New York.
E. A. HARRIS, Librarian of the American Institute, New
S. HASTINGS GRANT, Librarian of the Mercantile Library,
WM VAN NORDLIN, Representative of the Apprentices' Li-
brary, New York.
HENRY GITTERMAN, Assistant Librarian of the Hebrew
Young Men's Literary Association, New York.
J. DISTURNELL, Member of the American Geographical and
Statistical Society, New York.
Rev. ISAAC FERRIS, D. D., Chancellor of the University of
the City of New York.
Rev. THOMAS DE WITT, D. D., Vice President of the New
York Historical Society, New York.
DANIEL W. FISKE, Assistant Librarian of the Astor Library,
MAUNSELL B. FIELD, Esq., Recording Secretary of the New
York Historical Society, New York.
EDWIN WILLIAMS, of the Library Committee of the Amer-
ican Institute, New York.
LIBBARIANS' CONVENTION 1853 9
Rev. GORHAM D. ABBOTT, Principal of the Spingler Insti-
tute, New York.
Prof. BENJ. N. MARTIN, University of the City of New
Prof. JOHN TORREY, of the College of Physicians and Sur-
geons, New York.
Rev. SAMUEL OSGOOD, Delegate from the Providence Athen-
WM. C. GILMAN, Esq., New York.
Prof. GEORGE "W. GREENE, New York.
Rev. E. H. CHAPIN, New York.
JOHN BANVARD, New York.
CHARLES B. NORTON, Literary Gazette, New York.
AUG. MAVERICK, New York Times.
J. W. KENNADY, New York Express.
J. S. THAYER, Evening Post, New York.
JOHN J. SCHROEDER, New York.
EDWIN H. GRANT, M. D., New York.
S. S. PURPLE, M. D., New York.
Mr. PERRY, of the Astor Library, New York.
ROBERT DODGE, New York.
AUG. K. GARDNER, M. D., New York.
THOMAS J. SAWYER, New York.
JOSEPH F. NOYES, Librarian of the Athenaeum, Brooklyn.
GEO. H. STEBBINS, Principal of Public Schools, Brooklyn.
HAROLD HINDE, Brooklyn.
Capt. HENRY COPPEE, Librarian of the U. S. Military Acad-
emy, "West Point.
Prof. A. J. UPSON, Librarian of Hamilton College, Clinton.
H. P. FILER, Librarian of the Young Men's Association,
W. T. WILLARD, Librarian of the Lyceum of Natural His-
10 LIBBAEIANS ' CONVENTION 1853
ELIAS S. HAWLEY, Representative of the Young Men's As-
* C. H. RAYMOND, Buffalo.
Prof. G. M. GIGER, Librarian of the College of New Jersey.
Prof. W. HENRY GREEN, Librarian of the Theological Sem-
F. W. RICORD, Librarian of the Newark Library Associa-
Rev. C. R. V. ROMONDT, Librarian of Rutgers College, New
S. G. DEETH, New Brunswick and Washington, D. C.
WM. COOPER, Hoboken.
LLOYD P. SMITH, Librarian of the Library Company, Phil-
JOHN WM. WALLACE, Librarian of the Law Association,
JAMES GREEN, Librarian of the Mercantile Library Associa-
A. C. RHODES, Vice President of the Mercantile Library
ELIJAH HAYWARD, Librarian of the State Library, Colum-
R. H. STEPHENSON, Librarian of the Mercantile Library
W. P. CURTIS, Librarian of the Mercantile Library Asso-
ciation, St. Louis.
FREDERICK VINTON, St. Louis.
LIBBARIANS' CONVENTION 1853 11
JOHN L. SHEAFE, Librarian of the State Library of Louis-
iana, New Orleans.
B. F. FRENCH, Representative of the Fisk Free Library,
EDWARD E. DUNBAR, Delegate from the Mercantile Library
Association, San Francisco.
Apologies were also presented from the following gen-
tlemen, unable to be present:
Dr. Cogswell, of the Astor Library; Prof. Beck, of the
New York State Library; Dr. Harris, of Harvard College
Libary ; E. C. Herrick, Esq., of Yale College Library ; Dr.
Sears, of the Massachusetts State Library; George Liver-
more, Esq., of Boston; Prof. Johnson, of the New York
State Agricultural Society; Rev. Adolph Frost, of the
Burlington (N. J.) College Library, and Wm. MacDermott,
of Norristown Library, Pennsylvania.
The Convention was called to order by Charles Folsom,
Esq., of the Boston Athenaeum, and, upon motion, the fol-
lowing persons were chosen officers:
President Prof. CHAS. C. JEWETT, Smithsonian Insti-
tution, Washington, D. C.
Secretary S. HASTINGS GRANT, Mercantile Library As-
sociation, New York City.
Business Committee CHARLES FOLSOM, Athenaeum, Bos-
ton ; PHILIP J. FORBES, Society Library, New York ; J. W.
WALLACE, Law Association, Philadelphia; R. A. GUILD,
Brown University, Providence; R. H. STEPHENSON, Mer-
cantile Library Association, Cincinnati ; with the President
and Secretary of the Convention.
12 LIBBAEIANS ' CONVENTION 1853
OPENING ADDRESS OF THE PRESIDENT
Prof. JEWETT, upon taking the chair, acknowledged the
honor conferred upon him, and proceeded to remark as
It must be highly gratifying to those who signed the call for this
Convention to notice the response which it, this morning, receives. To
every one who knows the nature of a librarian's duties, the details
which consume his days, and render absence from his post impossible,
except at the cost of severe labor on his return, it must be manifest
that we have met at considerable personal sacrifice. We obey some
strong and wide-felt impulse in incurring the expense and the trouble
of this gathering.
The call for this Convention was not the result of a correspondence
among librarians, nor was it the subject of long and careful consider-
ation. It was, rather, a spontaneous movement. It was first, I think,
suggested a year ago, or more, in the Literary Gazette. Librarians
spoke to each other on the matter, when they happened to meet.
Every one was pleased with the idea. At length a formal call was
written, and signed by a few who happened to meet the gentlemen
having charge of the paper.
In compliance with such an invitation, we have assembled this
morning. It is not, so far as I know, proposed to accomplish any end
by this Convention, beyond the general one expressed in the call, of
"conferring together upon the means of advancing the prosperity
and usefulness of public libraries," and of seeking mutual instruction
and encouragement in the discharge of the quiet and unostentatious
labors of our vocation for which each, at his separate post, finds per-
haps but little sympathy for which each, when at home, must derive
enthusiasm only from within himself, and from the silent masters of
his daily communion.
We have no peculiar views to present, no particular set of measures
to propose. We meet without preparation. No order of business has
been arranged. Our proceedings must be spontaneous as our meeting.
It is not important that they be systematic and formal. We come to
receive and -to act upon suggestions. We are not here for stately de-
bate, for conspicuous action, much less for an exhibition of ourselves.
These things are foreign from our vocation, and not congenial with
our tastes. We meet for familiar, informal, conversational conference,
where each may take his part, and no one be prevented from contrib-
LIBEAEIANS' CONVENTION 1853 13
uting his share to the profits of the enterprise, by his inexperience in
public speaking, or his inability to make elaborate preparation. Those
gentlemen connected with the public press who honor us with their
presence, must have been attracted hither by a scholarlike sympathy
with our quiet pursuits, which lead them to appreciate our feelings
in this respect, in the reports which they may give.
It is indeed to be hoped that our meeting will have its influence
upon the public mind. If our discussions are natural and unrestrained,
suggested and shaped by right views of the position which we hold, or
ought to hold, in general society and in the republic of letters; if they
present to ourselves and to others the difficulties with which we have
to contend; if they elicit thought and information upon the collecting
of books for private culture, for public enlightenment, and for learned
investigations, and upon the best means of promoting the increase and
efficiency of such collections ; if we manifest here, while we talk of
books as material objects, and of books in their internal significance,
that respectful, dignified, and noiseless spirit inspired by the associa-
tions in the midst of which we live, the public will certainly feel and
acknowledge the beneficial influence of our meeting, and will desire
an official report of the progress and results of our deliberations.
The occasion is one of peculiar interest. This is the first conven-
tion of the kind, not only in this country, but, so far as I know, in the
There have, indeed, been bibliographical associations, but they have
been, for the most part, composed of dilettante, and not of practical
librarians and lovers of books. The gratification of a passion for
rare and curious books has generally been their object. Books were
too often valuable to them, only as they were worthless to the rest
of the world. Each member glorying in the possession of a unique
copy of some old work, was required to reprint it, with only copies
enough to give one to each member. One society has played the part
of bibliotaph by requiring that if a member dies, and his copy of one
of these reprints is to be sold by auction, it shall be bought by the
Society at any price it may be necessary to pay.
These associations have had their origin in a different state of
society from ours. We can at present have but little sympathy with
their principal design. We have none whatever with their selfishness.
We would not be supposed to chide the passion for book rarities,
where it exhibits itself simply in collecting and preserving what is
curious and costly, and not in its destruction or concealment. Why
14 LIBEABIANS ' CONVENTION 1853
should not a rich man spend his money in this way, as well as in a
thousand others which are harmless? We may go further, and assert
that a collection of rare books can scarcely be formed, without sub-
serving the interests of learning, whether made with such a design or
not. The public are not unfrequently surprised by results anticipated
only by the collector.
I may allude, in this connection, to a distinguished gentleman in
our own country, who made, at great expense, a collection of early-
printed books, without any regard to the subjects of which they
treated, the languages in which they were written, or their worth as
literary productions. By those who did not know his purpose, he was
called a bibliomaniac. He had however, a definite object in view,
which was, to investigate the early history of typography by its monu-
ments. Books which he never cared to read, were full of instruction
to him. He deduced from the close examination of them, many facts
new to the bibliographical world, and showed the unsoundness of
many generally received theories. For example, he satisfied himself
that books in the early days of typography, were never printed from
block letters, that is, from separate types of wood, or of wood faced
with metal. He proved, too, that many of these books were printed
one page at a time. It had been supposed that the early printers
must have had immense fonts of type. In many folios the sheets are
quired, and it was very naturally supposed that the type of every
page of the quire must have been set up before any was printed off.
But he traced a broken letter from page to page, and he found such
irregularities of register as could not have occurred, had the two
pages of the same form been printed at the same time; and he thus
demonstrated that these books were printed page by page, and that
consequently only a very small font of type was necessary.
Now, these are new, interesting, and valuable results; and they are
only specimens which occur to me at the moment, of deductions from
the examination of books, which an ordinary observer would say it
was infatuation to collect.
But our object, at present, is of a more manifestly and eminently
practical and utilitarian character. We meet to provide for the dif-
fusion of a knowledge of good books, and for enlarging the means of
public access to them. Our wishes are for the public, not for our-
In our assembling to-day we obey the impulses of our peculiar civili-
zation. We are pre-eminently a reading people. In Prussia the whole
LIBRARIANS' CONVENTION 1853 15
population are taught to read; but a distinguished citizen of that
country, who had traveled in the United States, once expressed to me
the difference between his own countrymen and the Americans, by
saying : ' ' Our people can read, your people do read. ' ' The general-
ly diffused love of reading, for the sake of gaining information, has
led to the establishment of a large number of libraries, so that, in the
number and general diffusion of small collections of books, we are
richer already than any other country in the world. Beading creates
the desire to read more, and select reading increases the desire to read
profitably. Hence, in every village the questions are asked: "How
shall we get good books? How shall we keep them? How shall we
use them?" To consult on the best replies to questions like these,
is one of the objects of our assembling to-day.
Another demand of our peculiar civilization is, for the means of
thorough and independent investigation. We wish to own no men
as masters. We intend to re-examine all history from our own Amer-
ican standpoint, and we must re-write it, where we find its facts have
been tortured to teach the doctrines of injustice and oppression. The
mental activity of this country is surveying every field of research,
literary, scientific, aesthetic, industrial, and philanthropic. It requires
to know what others have done and thought, that it may itself press
farther outward. This country, therefore, demands the means of the
amplest research, and this demand must and will be met.
These views have impressed themselves deeply upon our minds, as
we are the appointed custodians of the literary treasures of the coun-
try, and have led us to desire mutual assistance and concentration of
efforts in providing for these intellectual necessities of our American
life. For our present meeting it has been proposed to adopt the
simplest form of organization; to appoint, besides a president and a
secretary, a business committee to receive suggestions and proposi-
tions, and arrange the order of proceedings for each day's session.
I unite most cordially in the hope which I have heard expressed this
morning, that this Convention may be the precursor of a permanent
and highly useful association.
Invitations were received and accepted to visit the follow-
ing libraries: Astor, Society, Historical, Union, Theologi-
cal, Columbia College, Mercantile, American Institute, Me-
16 LIBRARIANS ' CONVENTION 1853
chanics' Institute, and Free Academy; also from the direc-
tors of the Crystal Palace, through T. Sedgwick, Esq., to
visit the Exhibition of Industry; from Mr. Bryan, to the
Gallery of Christian Art ; from Dr. Abbott, to the Museum
of Egyptian Antiquities; and from Mr. Banvard, to his
Panorama of the Holy Land.
An invitation to a social gathering at the Kemble House
was also presented by members of the Convention from the
city of New York.
REPORTS FROM LIBRARIES
Early in the Convention, reports were presented by the
different librarians present, in regard to the condition of
the institutions in their charge. These returns have been
incorporated, in an afterpart of this Register, with recent
information received from other libraries.
Among other remarks, the following were made by Capt.
Coppee, in regard to the Library of the United States Mili-
tary Academy, at West Point.
Mr. President and Gentlemen of the Convention:
The Institution which I have the honor to represent is certainly
peculiar and unique both sui juris and sui generis in that it is
under the control of the general government, and that its special
character is military and scientific.
You have read the ' ' Medecin malgre lui;" I may truly say that
when I was appointed Librarian of the Military Academy, I was a
librarian in spite of myself. The little service I had seen, and the par-
tial fondness for certain kinds of reading, had given me no knowledge
of the great progressive science of bibliography, a science nobler in
its results than simple authorship, in that it classifies and makes
available at one intelligent glance, masses of matter, rich specimens
of mental ore, which otherwise would lie hidden and useless to the
What, however, was received with reluctance, has been retained with
pleasure, and pursued with such ardor as the pressure of other duties
LIBBABIANS' CONVENTION 1853 17
The library of the Military Academy is sustained and increased by
an appropriation of $1,000 a year, which I regret to be obliged to say,
ia found insufficient to keep pace with the valuable publications in our
special branches. Some years, owing to a spirit of retrenchment in
Congress, this inadequate sum has been intermitted, and then, in mili-
tary phrase we ' ' mark time ' ' for a year, which is, in effect, retrograd-
ing to an alarming degree. "Not to advance," says a good maxim,
' ' is to fall back : ' ' the individual student and the public library alike
verify its truth.
When the appointment of Librarian was conferred upon me, I found
that, with a rigor at once ill-judged and ill-productive, almost all light
literature, poetry, fiction and some of those charming modern works,
which, verily, can only be characterized as lying between the two, a
delectable land of the heart and the imaginations, had been inter-
dicted. Since that time, careful additions of standard works of these
classes have been made; we ventured, sir, upon a set of the Waverly
Novels, and introduced the Corps of Cadets to the Great Magician
need I add, with perfect satisfaction to all concerned.
I have one word to add in favor of a popular direction to our pro-
ceedings. It is in accordance with the pervading spirit of our govern-
ment. The people, sir, are the rule; everything else, the exception.
Let our deliberations, then, not lose sight of this fact. Bare books
cost great prices, and are read afterwards by few, the scholars, the
great book-makers for future generations and these should not be
ngelected; but, first remember, that good current learning and knowl-
edge, facts and practical science for the million are within the reach
of small sums, the assessment of which will scarcely be felt by the
poorest, and the aggregate of which will astonish the people by its
greatness, and enlighten the world by its influence.
THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION AND ITS PLAN OP CATALOGING
Mr. Haven, of Worcester, having been called to the Chair,
an exposition was made in regard to the Smithsonian In-
stitution at Washington, by Prof. Charles G. Jewett.
He first presented the following table, which exhibits the
number of books and other articles added to the library
of the Smithsonian Institution during the year 1852, with
the sources from which they were received:
18 LIBRARIANS' CONVENTION 1853
THr Pnr/.Vinafl R4.1 Q1 8 1 5fi8 . 319.7
By Donations 1481 1935 171 10 1698 41 5336
By Copyright 476 96 26 15 10 692 9 19 1343
Totals 2598 2949 1765 25 1708 692 9 60 9806
The extent of the various collections in the library, at the
end of 1852, is shown by the following table :
FH S -
s i i i i i si i
pq PLI^H s^P ^H
By Purchase. 3873 957 1568 1335 2 7735
By Donations. 2657 3872 171 58 1725 30 41 8554
By Copyright 2304 213 26 24 51 1826 9 86 4539
Bv DGDOsit 873 . ^ r ^___ ___ . 873
Totals 9707 5042 1765 1417 1778 1826 39 127 21701
In answer to various inquiries, Prof. Jewett also stated
in this connection, that the average number of books an-
nually received under the copyright law was about 450.
He presumed that this was not more than one-third of all
the books copyrighted in the country. The laws regulat-
ing the deposit were defective. One copy is required to be
deposited with the District Clerk and by him to be trans-
mitted to the Department of State at Washington; one
copy is also required to be deposited in the Library of Con-
gress, and one in the Library of the Smithsonian Institu-
tion. A larger number of these books is probably received
at the Smithsonian Institution than in either of the other
libraries. The deposit in the State Department is regard-
ed as burdensome, and the President, in a recent message,
LIBEARIANS' CONVENTION 1853 19
recommended that the copyright business be transferred
from the Department. There ought to be somewhere a
complete collection of these books, as there is of models of
machines in the Patent Office. The protection of authors
and publishers requires that certified copies of their publi-
cations should be preserved. The public have also a great
interest in providing that one copy of everything issued
from the press should be preserved for future reference.
It was hoped that some modifications of the present laws
might be made, which would secure both these ends and
at the same time diminish the present requirements from
publishers. No provision was made by law for transmitting
these books to the places of deposit. Consequently many
of those deposited with the District Clerks never reach the
State Department. Some of those sent to the Smithsonian
Institution, cost twenty times what they are worth, being
sent, by mail, sealed, by publishers who suppose that the
Institution possesses the franking privilege.
Prof. JEWETT then proceeded as follows:
It is well known to you, Mr. Chairman, and to other gentlemen pre-
sent, that previous to the passage of the act of Congress establishing
the Smithsonian Institution, various propositions were from time to
time made to Congress, for the appropriation of the fund bequeathed
to the United States by James Smithson, "to found at Washington
an establishment for the increase and diffusion of knowledge among
men." One project was to establish an astronomical observatory,
another to form an agricultural school, another to found a National
University, another to place the money under the charge of the
National Institute, &c., &c. No one of the many plans suggested
met the approval of Congress, until Mr. Choate proposed, and in one
of his most brilliant and effective speeches advocated, the establish-
ment of a great central library of reference and research. His bill
met with general approval and passed the Senate, but was lost among
other unfinished business in the lower House. At the next session of
Congress, a select committee was appointed by the House of Eepre-
sentatives, upon the administration of the Smithsonian trust. The
members of this committee were divided in opinion. They finally
20 LIBRARIANS ' CONVENTION 1853
reported a bill, in which the Library was a subordinate but still an
important feature. When this bill came up for discussion, Mr.
Choate's plan was vigorously attacked by one of the leading members
of the committee; but it found powerful advocates. Mr. Marsh de-
fended the library in a speech of great learning, ability and elo-
quence. So strongly did the House approve of Mr. Marsh's views,
that when he introduced a series of amendments, designed, as he ex-
pressly stated, "to direct the appropriation entirely to the purpose
of a library," everything which he proposed was adopted. Congress
refused to limit the annual appropriation for the Library to 10,000,
or even to 20,000 dollars. By fixing the maximum of the annual
appropriation at $25,000, a sum nearly equal to the whole income
of the fund, Congress unequivocally indicated its intentions, had they
not been sufficiently clear by other votes.
The principal management of the Institution was intrusted to a
Board of Regents, composed of three Senators, three Representatives,
six citizens of the States, appointed by joint resolution, and three
members ex-officio, namely, the Vice President of the United States,
the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, and the Mayor of the City
of Washington. It was soon found that there were two prominent
parties in the Board not hostile parties, for there is nothing hostile
in such matters, but parties of different views in reference to the
objects to be pursued by the Institution. One party was in favor
of adhering to the library plan, stamped as it was with the approval
of Congress; the other was in favor of expending the income in
publications and scientific researches. After considerable discussion,
it was agreed to divide the income of the Institution permanently
between the two great departments: that of collections in literature,
science and art, and that of publications and scientific researches.
This plan was followed for a time, but at present a large propor-
tion of the fund is appropriated to other purposes than those of the
Library. During the last year only about 1,000 dollars were ex-
pended in the purchase of books, and during the present year a still
smaller sum will be thus devoted. It has seemed to me my duty to
state to you these facts, in order that you might understand the
precise position of the Smithsonian Library, the ground of the ex-
pectations which had been raised respecting it, and the reasons why
they had not been realised. I am happy to add to the statement
which I have made, tha't whatever may have been the feeling with
reference to the purchase of books, the ' ' active operations ' ' of the
LIBRARIANS' CONVENTION 1853 21
library department the collection and publication of statistics of
libraries, the increase and dissemination of bibliographical knowledge,
the development and support of the catalogue system, &c., have met
with cordial approval and support. This must be gratifying to those
who hear me. I doubt not that whatever may be the policy of the
Institution with reference to its own collections, it will do all that
its means will allow for the benefit of other libraries.
For myself I have always believed and still believe, that a large
central library of reference and research will be collected at the
Smithsonian Institution, if not by the erpenditure of the funds of the
Institution, by other means. The funds of the Institution are very
small, in comparison with the necessities of literature and science in
this country, and when we are obliged to choose among worthy ob-
jects, there will be sure to be different opinions. I feel, however,
that the formation of the library is a matter sure to be accomplished
if not immediately, yet before many years. A great central li-
brary is an important national object; as necessary, to secure the
literary independence of this people, as was the war of the Revolu-
tion to secure its political independence. It is an object which, be-
sides attracting donations and bequests from the rich, may receive
appropriations from our national treasury. Congress, having the con-
trol of the treasury of this rich, mighty, and intelligent nation, will
not, I believe, be backward in making appropriations for this ob-
ject, whenever it shall be suitably presented to them. Congress may
be regarded as liberal in matters of science and of learning, when-
ever they are sure that the money will be honestly and properly
expended. Many men do not believe this. But look at the action
for replenishing the desolated hall of the Library of Congress. Most
persons were of opinion that Congress could not be brought to make
an appropriation exceeding $30,000 for this purpose; but, when Mr.
Chandler proposed $75,000, it was readily granted. It would have
been had he asked $200,000, if they had thought that sum necessary,
and believed that it would be honestly and judiciously devoted to the
gathering of a good library.
There is one other remark I wish to make respecting the position of
the Smithsonian Institution among the other literary Institutions of
the country. So far as I know, it possesses claims, desires, no au-
thority or power of dictation. The principle has been established
and steadily pursued, of occupying, as far as possible, untenanted
ground. The position of the Institution at Washington, its connec-
22 LIBEAEIANS ' CONVENTION 1853
tion with the government, and its large fund, devoted by its donor
and by the act of Congress to the promotion of the cause of know-
ledge, give to it the means of doing much which could not otherwise
be accomplished for literature and science. In these efforts it needs
and relies on the cordial support of other institutions, which, I am
happy to say, it has always received. Whenever it is found that any
other society or any individual is ready and able to take up and carry
out its plans, they are immediately relinquished by us. I may here
give one instance, that of Mr. Norton's Literary Gazette. Mr. Nor-
ton had formed the plan of publishing the Gazette, without knowing
that a similar project had been recommended by myself for the bib-
liographical department of the Smithsonian Bulletin. He proposed
to give the bibliographical intelligence in connection with adver-
tisements, which he thought would eventually be profitable to him.
When he saw what I had written, he came on to Washington, and
offered to abandon his plan. But we were glad to find that he was
willing to undertake to accomplish the same purpose which we had
in view, and gave up the whole to him, offering him such assistance
as we could render, and encouraging him to believe that the enter-
prise would prove a profitable one. I am happy to know that this
expectation has been fully justified; and I hope that the prosperity of
this useful journal will continually increase.
In reference to these remarks, Mr. HAYWAED, of Ohio,
presented the following resolution, which was Adopted
Resolved, That the thanks of this Convention be presented to the
Board of Eegents and Officers of the Smithsonian Institution, for
their steady and effective efforts for the increase and diffusion of
knowledge among men, and particularly for the measures which they
have adopted for the encouragement and promotion of the public
libraries of our country; and we have great pleasure in looking to
that institution as the central establishment of the United States for
the furtherance of all such objects.
THE SMITHSONIAN CATALOGUE SYSTEM
Prof. JEWETT then proceeded to remark:
The catalogue system of which I intend to speak, is one of those
enterprises which could not have been carried into operation except
LIBBAKIANS' CONVENTION 1853 23
under the protection and guidance of the Smithsonian Institution;
nor can it be successful, unless it meets the hearty approval and co-
operation of other libraries. I wish, therefore, to present the matter
fully and explicitly to this Convention.
Few persons, except librarians, are aware of the nature and extent
of the difficulties which have been encountered in attempting to
furnish suitable printed catalogues of large and growing libraries;
difficulties apparently insurmountable, and menacing a common aban-
donment of the hope of affording guides, so important, to the literary
accumulation of the larger libraries of Europe.
While the catalogue of a large library is passing through the press,
new books are received, the titles of which it is impossible, in the
ordinary manner of printing, to incorporate with the body of the
work. Eecourse must then be had to a supplement. In no other way
can the acquisitions of the library be made known to the public. If
the number of supplements be multiplied, as they have been in the
library of Congress, the student may be obliged to grope his weary
way through ten catalogues, instead of one, in order to ascertain
whether the book which he seeks be in the library. He cannot be
certain, even then, that the book is not in the collection, for it may
have been received since the last appendix was printed. Supple-
ments soon become intolerable. The whole catalogue must then be
re-arranged and re-printed. The expense of this process may be
borne so long as the library is small, but it soon becomes burdensome,
and, ere long, insupportable, even to national establishments.
There is but one course left not to print at all. To this no
scholar consents, except from necessity. But to this alternative,
grievous as it is, nearly all the large libraries of Europe have been
More than a century has passed, since the printing of the catalogue
of the Eoyal Library at Paris was commenced. It is not yet finished.
No one feels in it the interest which he would, if he could hope to
have its completeness sustained, when once brought up to a given
Not one European library, of the first class, has a complete printed
catalogue, in a single work. The Bodleian Library is not an excep-
tion. It may be necessary to search six distinct catalogues, in order
to ascertain whether any specified book was or was not in that col-
lection, at the close of the year 1847.
This is, surely, a disheartening state of things. It has been felt
24 LIBRARIANS ' CONVENTION 1853
and lamented by every one who has had the care of an increasing
As a remedy for this evil, it is proposed to stereotype the titles
separately, and to preserve the plates or blocks in alphabetical order
of the titles, so as to be able readily to insert additional titles, in
their proper places, and then to reprint the whole 'catalogue. By
these means, the chief cost of republication (that of composition)
together with the trouble of revision and correction of the press,
would, except for new titles, be avoided. Some of the great diffi-
culties which have so long oppressed and discouraged librarians, and
involved libraries in enormous expenses, may thus be overcome.
The peculiar position of the Smithsonian Institution suggested the
application of this plan, on a wider scale, and for a more important
purpose, than that of merely facilitating the publication of new and
complete editions of separate catalogues.
It had been proposed to form a general catalogue of all the books
in the country, with reference to the libraries where each might be
found. The plan of stereotyping titles separately, suggested the fol-
lowing system for the accomplishment of this important purpose:
1. The Smithsonian Institution to publish rules for the preparation
2. Other institutions, intending to publish catalogues of their
books, to be requested to prepare them in accordance with these
rules, with a view to their being stereotyped under the direction of
the Smithsonian Institution.
3. The Smithsonian Institution to pay the whole extra expense of
stereotyping, or such part thereof as may be agreed upon.
4. The stereotyped titles to remain the property of the Smith-
5. Every library acceding to this plan, to have the right of using
all the titles in the possession of the Institution, as often as desired,
for the printing of its own catalogue by the Smithsonian Institution,
paying only the expense of making up the pages, of press-work, and
of distributing the titles to their proper places.
6. The Smithsonian Institution to publish as soon as possible, and
at stated intervals, a General Catalogue of all Libraries coming into
I have already presented to members of the Convention copies of an
unfinished work entitled the "Smithsonian Catalogue System." It
contains: 1. A detailed account of the system; 2. Rules for the
LIBRARIANS' CONVENTION 1853 25
preparation of Catalogues; 3. Examples illustrating the rules. As to
the first two matters, the work is complete. It was intended to print
as examples the titles of all the works, in the department of bibli-
ography and literary history, in the Smithsonian Library. These
titles, to the number of one thousand, are stereotyped and ready for
use. The progress of the work was interrupted by the sickness and
absence of two of the men on whom we relied. I have been able to
print off a few copies, by using the type for the last form of the
rules instead of the stereotype plates as in the rest of the book, by
limiting the number of examples and omitting the indexes. I hope
in a few weeks to be able to finish this book, and to present it
through the Smithsonian Institution to the public, as the first detailed
publication of the system. About three years ago I read a paper on
the subject before the American Scientific Association. I did not
present the matter before the public, till the practicability of stereo-
typing by separate titles had been demonstrated. Practical stereo-
typers had said that it could not be done. But the perseverance and
ingenuity of a gentleman now present, the Eev. Mr. Hale, of Wor-
cester, showed that it could be done by the electrotype process, and
even by the common stereotype process. This point once proved, we
sought the best method of executing the work. About this time, Mr.
Josiah Warren, of Indiana, called our attention to the new process
and material for stereotyping which he had patented. We gave them
a thorough trial, and at last adopted them. We have done much to
perfect the process, and we are now ready to show to experts in prac-
tical printing the results which we have attained. The perfecting
of this mode of stereotyping, the adaptation of it to our purposes,
and the arrangement of the practical details for the great work upon
which we are commencing, have consumed much time and demanded
great labor. The mechanical difficulties which we have had to meet
and overcome will be appreciated by printers and stereotypers. The
bibliographical difficulties will be fully understood by librarians. As
soon as the practicability of the system bad been established, as
fully as it could possibly be, before its actual application on a large
scale, and the value of it to the world of learning had been considered
and proclaimed by a commission of the most competent men to whom
the subject was referred by the Smithsonian Institution, the matter
was presented to the Joint Library Committee of Congress. They
considered it fully, and in the most liberal spirit, and finally recom-
mended to Congress an appropriation for the cataloguing of its li-
26 LIBBAKIANS ' CONVENTION 1853
brary upon this plan. This appropriation was readily granted. It is
sufficient to enable us to prosecute the work till next December or
January. It is not enough to finish the catalogue, but it is all that
was asked for. We wish to proceed cautiously demonstrating, step
by step, the practicability and usefulness of our operations. The
work on the catalogue of the Library of Congress is now in progress.
The system is therefore in actual operation.
The title of every book and of each distinct edition is stereotyped
upon a separate plate. The author's name also stands by itself.
Each plate shows at a glance the heading to which it belongs. It is
obvious that these plates may be placed together in alphabetical or
other order, as may be desired. They are mounted on blocks, for
printing like other stereotype plates. The great ends to be gained are :
1. To avoid the necessity of preparing, composing, and correcting
anew the titles once printed, when the Library has received accessions,
or the alternative of printing the titles of these accessions in supple-
ments, which are very inconvenient appendages.
2. To prevent the repetition of the work of preparation of titles,
composition and correction of press, for copies of the same book in
different libraries. The title once prepared and stereotyped, remains
at the Smithsonian Institution, to be used by any Library having the
3. To secure uniformity in the construction of catalogues, thus
greatly facilitating the researches of the student.
It is obvious that the cost of the first catalogue will be greater than
if it were not stereotyped. The work of preparation will also be
more expensive. But the additional cost of the first edition will be
more than saved in the first reprinting of the whole catalogue. It
will be further understood that the sum paid by the first Library is
not only for its own benefit, but for that of every other Library
hereafter adopting the plan, so far aa its books are the same. Con-
gress is therefore now conferring a great boon upon other Libraries,
while at the same time it is taking the course, in the end most econom-
ical, for the construction of the catalogues of its own library. There
will also be a great saving of the expense of paper and press-work
under this system. It is customary now to print off a larger number
of copies of every catalogue than are immediately wanted, because it
cannot be known how many may be required before the catalogue can
be reprinted. On this plan, when a new edition, with all additions
LIBBAEIANS' CONVENTION 1853 27
incorporated, can be had at any time, it will not be thought necessary
to print more copies than enough to meet the immediate demand.
It should be mentioned as one of the most important advantages of
this system, that it affords the means of attaining great accuracy in the
catalogues. Every effort will be made to secure accuracy in the first
instance. Librarians will not, however, be surprised to find numer-
ous errors. This system offers the best means of detecting and cor-
recting these errors. Every time that a title is used for a new cata-
logue, it must be very carefully compared with the book itself. Every
mistake and variation will be reported in a friendly spirit, and im-
mediately corrected. The catalogue will thus be constantly under-
going a process of verification and improvement.
Upon all these topics I have dwelt more fully and systematically in
the pamphlet to which I have alluded. It may not be amiss for me
to notice one or two objections which may occur to the minds of prac-
tical printers against the use of these stereotype plates. One is, that
the plates, being used so often, will become worn, and that when new
plates are inserted, the difference between the new and old plates will
be observable on the printed sheets.
To this objection I can say in reply: First, the number of copies
required for each catalogue would be so small that it would be many
years before there would be any noticeable difference between the old
and new plates, were they made from common type metal. But, sec-
ondly, the material which we employ is harder than type metal, and
resists much longer the wear of the press. I presume that a run of
100,000 copies would not make any observable difference between the
old plates and the new.
Another difficulty which may suggest itself to some, is in keeping
the register and preserving the uniform length of pages. The
register, so far as the top and sides of the page are concerned, can
be kept most perfectly. Variations in the length of the pages cannot
be entirely avoided. But if some pages be longer or shorter by three
or four lines, it is not a very serious matter. It may offend a print-
er 's eye, but would not be noticed by the general reader. I may
remark, however, that there are several ways of reducing the in-
equalities. Very long titles may be stereotyped in two or three pieces.
The titles on a short page may be spread apart, making the matter a
little more open and thus elongating the page. The catalogue may
be printed in dpuble-column folio. This size is preferable for a
28 LIBEAEIANS ' CONVENTION 1853
catalogue on other accounts. It presents more titles to the eye at
once, and it also saves paper.
I would not be understood as insisting upon the catalogue being in
folio, nor, indeed, upon its being alphabetical. These are matters
not essential to the system. Each librarian can choose for himself;
the system possessing this great advantage, that it is equally ap-
plicable to the folio, quarto, or octavo size; to alphabetical and to
There is one other point which may be noticed. This kind of cata-
logue is not recommended for all purposes for which a catalogue or
list of books may be desirable. It is proposed as the standard cata-
logue for reference in every library containing works of permanent
value. It is proposed as the basis for all other apparatus, such as
indexes, shelf -lists, "finding catalogues," or short title catalogues,
which it may be thought that the peculiar circumstances of any li-
brary or every library require. From this catalogue all others may
easily be made. This is supposed to be, in general, the first and most
important of all the means for rendering a library serviceable to all
classes of persons who may consult it.
With respect to the rules for preparing catalogues, it may be
proper to make a few explanatory remarks. They were formed after a
careful study of those adopted for the preparation of the catalogue
of the British Museum. They were examined and discussed in detail
by the catalogue commission appointed by the Smithsonian Institu-
tion. They have been carefully revised to meet exigencies which
have occurred in the practical application of them. That they are
perfect and all-sufficient, is not, indeed, to be supposed. On many
points there would be a difference of opinion. An effort has been
earnestly and honestly made to frame the best possible code. But
whether it be absolutely the best or not, the great desideratum of
uniformity will be attained by the adoption of it.
The practical operation of the rules has been considered, no less
than the theoretical perfection of the catalogue. It is necessary to
frame such rules as we may reasonably expect to be able to follow.
I would gladly have required that the number of pages of every book
(distinguishing those of prefatory a.nd appended matter) and the
names of publishers should in all cases be given. But these would
require much additional time and labor, and would considerably in-
crease the bulk of the catalogue. It was thought best, therefore, to
omit them. We must endeavor to make the catalogue accurate so far
LIBRARIANS' CONVENTION 1853 29
as it goes. The examination of the book should be thorough. Addi-
tional particulars may hereafter be added in the form of notes, with-
out disturbing the work first done.
The work upon which we have entered is not the work of a day, nor
of a year. It demands long-continued, patient labor. Should it be
successful, as we have every reason to hope that it will be, its best re-
sults will be realized after we have ceased from our labors. But its
immediate results will amply reward our efforts. Some of them are
now almost attained. The catalogue of the Library of Congress will,
it is hoped, be a valuable gift to the bibliographical world. To the
list now nearly ready for publication, of the books in the department
of bibliography and literary history, belonging to the Smithsonian
Library, it will be easy to add those in other libraries not already
catalogued. We can then present to librarians a complete catalogue
of the bibliographical apparatus to be found in the country. Cata-
logues of books in other branches of knowledge are now in prepara-
tion. As we thus proceed from library to library, and from one de-
partment of learning to another, each work will be complete and use-
ful in itself, while it constitutes a finished portion of the general
At the conclusion of these remarks, Mr. Folsom presented
the following resolutions:
Resolved, That we have considered attentively the plan for con-
structing catalogues of libraries, and a general catalogue of the pub-
lic libraries of the United States, by means of stereotyped titles, pro-
posed and developed by the Smithsonian Institution. That we regard
it as an object of high importance to the interests of our public
libraries, and to the promotion of learning, and worthy to share in the
funds of the institution, and the zealous exertions of its officers; the
more so as it is an enterprise which cannot be successfully prosecuted
except under the protection, guidance and pecuniary support of this
central establishment, for the increase and diffusion of knowledge.
Eesolved, That we have learned with pleasure that Congress, on the
recommendation of the Library Committee, made an appropriation for
the practical testing of the plan in its application to the Library of
Congress, and that the work is now in successful progress.
Eesolved, That, as practical librarians and bibliographers, we take
pride and satisfaction in the fact that a measure of so great literary
utility has received the prompt and efficient support of our national
30 LIBRARIANS ' CONVENTION 1853
legislature, and we would express the earnest hope that this support
be extended to it liberally till its first great results, in the complete
stereotyped catalogue of the Library of Congress, shall be attained.
Mr. SMITH, of Philadelphia, said he had investigated
Prof. Jewett's plan with considerable interest, and could
heartily favor the resolutions. He thought the catalogue
of the British Museum even might be completed, and there-
by the scholars of the world be greatly benefited, by follow-
ing this system. He thought the result of this experiment
would be one grand catalogue of all the libraries of the
Mr. HAVEN, of Worcester, said he thought the resolutions
should contain some intimation that the idea was purely
American in its inception and perfection.
Mr. FOLSOM said the intent of the resolutions was to
stamp it as American.
The propriety of stating more clearly the fact, that the
invention of separate stereotyped titles was purely Ameri-
can, was advocated by Mr. Haven, Prof. Greene, and others.
Prof. JEWETT said that within the last few months he
had heard that a claim for this invention had been set up
in France, by the Chevalier de La Garde, an employee of
the National Library. After the speech he [Mr. J.] de-
livered before the American Scientific Association, M. de la
Garde published a letter in the Moniteur, in which he stat-
ed that he had formed a similar plan eighteen years prev-
ious, that he had published an account of it in 1845, and
that he had endeavored to secure its adoption. The plan
of the Chevalier de la Garde differed in many respects from
his own, but still it contained the idea of separate stereo-
type titles. Mr. J. stated still further, that this claim
was entirely unknown to him until long after he had fully
matured and had proposed his own system. He had never
heard of such a proposition from any source, till after he
LIBRARIANS' CONVENTION 1853 31
had suggested it. He certainly hoped that full justice
would be done to any earlier efforts than his own which
may have been made in this direction.
Mr. HAVEN remarked, that in every great discovery there
was always found a number of men who laid claim to be
the originators, but it was universally admitted that he who
carried a discovery to its successful application was the one
entitled to the credit as inventor.
Mr. FOLSOM said that the idea had struck him thirty
years ago, and therefore he had a better claim than the
French gentleman. Neither claim amounted to anything.
The idea had produced nothing practical and useful. He
would say, however, that though he had had the idea, when
Prof. Jewett mentioned it to him he said that its practical
development was " impossible. "
Mr. GUILD, of Providence, said he had at first entertained
serious doubts as to the practicability of the system. Those
doubts were now entirely removed, and he hoped the time
would soon come when every library in the land would
have its catalogue made out by means of separate stereo-
The first resolution was then amended as follows :
Resolved, That we have considered attentively the plan for con-
structing catalogues of libraries, and a general catalogue of the public
libraries of the United States, by means of separate stereotyped titles,
originated and proposed ~by Prof. C. C. Jewett, and developed by him
while librarian of the Smithsonian Institution, etc.
The three resolutions, as thus amended, were then unan-
Mr. VINTON, of St. Louis, then presented the following:
Eesolved, That a Committee of three be appointed by this Conven-
tion, to prepare a history of the invention of applying movable stereo-
type plates to the printing of separate titles in a catalogue ; and that
their report be embodied in a writen memorial, to be presented at the
32 LIBRARIANS ' CONVENTION 1853
next annual session of this Convention, in order that it may be printed
at the expense of the Convention.
The resolution was carried unanimously and Mr. Fol-
som, of Boston, Mr. Guild, of Providence, and Rev. Mr.
Hale, of Worcester, were appointed that Committee.
CENTRAL NATIONAL LIBRARY
Mr. FOLSOM offered the following resolutions, which
were adopted unanimously:
Besolved, That the establishment of a great central library for ref-
erence and research, while it is demanded by the condition of the
United States as to general civilization and intellectual advancement,
is especially interesting to this Convention from the bearing it would
have upon libraries throughout the country.
Besolved, That we deem such an establishment as being eminently
worthy of support from the national treasury, and that in no way
can the government better promote the progress of learning through
the whole country, than by placing a central national library under
the administration of the Smithsonian Institution.
The importance of popular libraries in every part of our
country, was introduced by Rev. S. Osgood, of New York,
in the following remarks:
I suppose, Mr. President, that no business is at present formally be-
fore the Convention, and that it is in order now for any member to
suggest topics of interest for the consideration of the Commitee just
chosen. I hardly feel entitled to speak at this early stage of the
proceedings, yet there may be something in my position, as a delegate
and not a librarian, which will allow me to speak of your valuable
profession, as one of yourselves, which you, with your characteristic
professional modesty, could not do. When I first saw the call for
this Convntion in the newspapers, the idea struck me as a capital one,
especially from its probable influence upon the public spirit of the
country, as well as upon the fellow-feeling of librarians as a pro-
fessional class. I little expected, however, to take any part in your
proceedings, until being surprised by an appointment from the Provi-
LIBRARIANS ' CONVENTION 1853 33
dence Athenaeum to represent its interest here, and thus renew with
that noble institution a relation so much valued years ago. It is
proper, therefore, for me to make some suggestions touching the
welfare of our popular class of libraries, as repesenting an institution
so pominent among them, and already numbering nearly twenty thou-
sand volumes of the choicest books within its possession.
May I not, however, say a word of congratulation at the appear-
ance of things thus far in your assembly. It is good to be here with
so large a class of men, so useful and laborious in one of the most
important callings on earth the keepers and the choosers of the
aliment that nurtures the mental life of the nation. Every man is
better for honoring his vocation, and I hope that it will be one of the
results of your deliberations to make you think more highly of your
work, and to bring to its labors a more cordial esprit du corps. The
profession to which I belong owes an especial debt of gratitude to
yours, so dependent are we, in all our more advanced states, upon the
treasures of which you are the custodians. I surely never felt more
disposed to acknowledge the obligation than now, when addressing a
chair occupied by one who has done such eminent service to the library
cause in this country. Some ten years since how we rejoiced in your
return to the city of Providence, from your European tour, backed by
a force of some ten thousand volumes of the choicest ancient and mod-
ern literature, to double the library of Brown University, and to
multiply the resources of my earnest scholars, more abounding in
the spirit than in the apparatus of liberal study. Much is said of
the power of foreign immigration, and often the most startling statis-
tics disclose the new elements of hope and peril that are landed every
year upon our shores. Such immigration as you have promoted is all
hopeful, and in nothing perilous. A blessing upon such arrivals of
thousands of authors embodied in their books, and not a single shabby
fellow among them all. What a great subject this matter of selecting
and diffusing of books opens upon us! How much light would be
thrown upon the inner life of the nation, if we could only trace the
influence of good books as they make their noiseless progress through-
out the land, spreading so much light, quickening so much energy,
checking so much, and beguiling so much pain and sorrow! Honor
to this movement that aims to help on the good cause. Too many
bad books make their stealthy advances, that need to be tracked to
their dens, even as the pestilence that walketh in darkness needs to
be hunted to its hiding-place. Honor to every man who circulates
34 LIBEAEIANS ' CONVENTION 1853
two good books where only one circulated before. Kemember Milton 's
noble words: "As good almost kill a man as kill a good book: who
kills a man, kills a reasonable creature God's image; but he who
destroys a good book, kills reason itself, kills the image of God as it
were in the eye."
I should be very glad at the fitting time to say my poor word in
behalf of the highest class of public libraries, and of the need of
bringing them up to a more adequate standard. Proud as we are
of our four or five great libraries, there is not one of them, not even
that of Harvard University, my own cherished Alma Mater, that
affords the requisite means for the thorough study of any one topic
of recondite learning, even, if of practical science. Any scholar
who tries to investigate any ancient or historical subject will find, to
his regret, that no library in the country has a plummet that can
sound its depths. What facilities the noble Astor Library may af-
ford, we can judge better when its merits are known and its treasures
There is no reason for being down-hearted at this state of things,
for we cannot expect soon to rival the great libraries of Europe, and
our present task is rather with the increase and improvement of
libraries for the people, than with great central institutions such as
the wealth of centuries only can endow. As the mass of the people
obtain a higher culture by means at hand in every town and city,
the demand for the highest class of books will increase, and the
hope of national collections will brighten. Now, what shall prevent
our America from leading all nations of the earth longo intervallo in
the number and value of our Popular Institutes and Athenaeums? We
are probably not much behind, if at all behind, any portion of Europe
in the number of books collected in our villages, and available to the
community at large. But not a tithe of the progress has been made
that should have been made. What prevents every community of a
thousand inhabitants from having its well-chosen library of a thou-
sand volumes? And if this ratio were to be carried out in all our
towns, how vast would be the increase and how noble the triumph
of a sound popular literature! May not this Convention do some-
thing, by its discussions and action, to call attention to this matter,
and rouse many a slumbering township to its imperative duty?
Who shall presume to estimate adequately the advantages coming
from the establishment of a good library in a community not before
LIBRARIANS ' CONVENTION 1853 35
so favored? The immediate vicinity and the whole nation share in
Many a thriving town needs some such centre of generous and elevat-
ing interest as an attractive library must be, and it should be consid-
ered but half civilized until such a centre is established. It should be
one of the first things to be pointed out to the traveler in new regions.
When in distant places, we yearn for some familiar objects, and we
feel at once at home when we hear the pleasant church bells, and see
the goodly company of stout men, fair women and sprightly children
on their way to the sanctuary. How this home feeling is deepened
when we enter some neat and well-filled library, and look upon the
array of good authors open to the perusal of the people, and feel a
new sense even of humane and religious fellowship, as we think of
the grand intellectual catholicity that unites the whole civilized world
in the same literary allegiance. The village library attracts to itself
every congenial ally, and tends to diffuse social refinement as well
as intellectual light. The Lyceum, often suggested by the tastes
formed by reading, repays the debt by popular lectures, whose pro-
ceeds often pay the expense of new books, and there is no more
cheering view of our Young America than that afforded by the
thousands and tens of thousands of young men, of generous and in-
quiring minds, who gather around the popular institute, with its
library and courses of lectures.
This Convention will not meet in vain, if it shall give the incen-
tive to form one new institution of the kind anywhere in the land.
Every such library tends to foster a worthy public spirit among citi-
zens of ample means. Many a successful merchant of the city, who
has thriven largely in some "sugar trade or cotton line," and who
abounds far more in generous impulses than literary attainments, would
rejoice to send to his native town or village some choice work of art,
or valuable selection of books, as a token of kindly remembrance,
if an institution existed that should suggest the hint and indicate
the method to the benefactor. It will be found that every well or-
ganized popular library has been much enriched by such donations,
none more so than that which I now represent, that Athenaeum so
nobly endowed by the heirs of Ives, so strengthened by the bequest
of Butler, and favored every year by the generosity of men less
abounding in wealth, yet not less wanting in the right spirit.
The whole country grows by such institutions, for they at once
36 LIBRARIANS ' CONVENTION 1853
collect the local and fugitive literature, so important to the natural
history, and they create a demand for the best class of books, secur-
ing of themselves an encouraging market for a good sized edition of
every work of undoubted value. I call your attention seriously to
the value of such enterprises, and urge you to do something to ex-
tend and improve them. Following the report prepared by yourself,
Mr. President, under the auspices of Congress, I find the number of
libraries, of a public character, containing 1,000 volumes and up-
wards, to be only 423, and the aggregate number of volumes in the
694 libraries reported, exclusive of school libraries, to be 2,201,623.
Now, sir, where is the town of any importance that should not at
once have its thousand of good books circulating among its people,
and what but the want of the true spirit shall prevent our two millions
of volumes from swelling to twenty millions, nay, reaching before
the year of the next census the full limit of our numerical population,
although it may exceed thirty millions? Sir, with your leave, I offer
the following resolutions:
Resolved, That while we maintain most decidedly the importance
of libraries of the highest class, in furtherance of the most advanced
literary and scientific studies, and rejoice in the rise and progress
of our few great collections of books for professional scholars, we are
convinced that for the present our chief hope must be in the estab-
lishment and improvement of popular libraries throughout the land.
Resolved, That the Business Committee be requested to call at-
tention to the desirableness of a popular Library Manual, which shall
embody the most important information upon the chief points in
question, especially upon
1. The best organization of a Library society, in regard to its of-
ficers, laws, funds, and general regulations.
2. The best plans for Library edifices, and the arrangements of
the shelves and books, with the requisite architectural drawings.
3. The most approved method of making out and printing cata-
4. The most desirable principle to be followed in the selection and
purchase of books, as to authors and editions ; with lists of such works
as are best suited for libraries of various sizes, from 500 to 1,000
volumes or upwards.
Resolved, That the Business Committee be requested to consider
the expediency of memorializing Congress to procure the preparation
of such a Manual, through the agency of the Smithsonian Institution.
LIBBABIANS' CONVENTION 1853 37
These resolutions were referred to the following commit-
tee, who are to take action upon them and report at the
next meeting of the Convention ; viz. : Rev. S. Osgood, Prof.
C. C. Jewett, and Mr. R. A. Guild.
Subsequently, Rev. GORHAM D. ABBOTT presented the
Besolved, That the time has now arrived when the extension of
well-selected public libraries, of 1,000, 5,000 and 10,000 volumes,
throughout the towns and villages, the associations, the institutions,
the schools of every kind in the United States, has becomes a matter
of the greatest importance to the future welfare of our country.
Eesolved, That a committee of three be appointed to report a
digested plan for the promotion of this object at the next meeting
of this Convention.
Mr. HALE seconded these resolutions, and hoped that
some means might be found to carry out the principle.
But he called the attention of his friend who moved it to
the danger which lurked in every such plan; that, so soon
as such a list of books was suggested, there started up a
bookseller's job, and the benefit of the list was lost in the
struggles of those who sought to be the only publishers who
could supply the libraries. The School Boards of the
various States have found this difficulty so incurable, that
they have refrained from suggesting any list of school books
as an official list to be followed. There was, too, always,
in every town, some peculiar want to be satisfied, which no
general list could meet.
He took the opportunity presented in this resolution, to
attempt some definition as to the real character of a "pop-
ular library:" the words had been frequently used in the
sessions of the Convention, but needed more accuracy in
their use than, out of the Convention, they always gained.
In fact, there were two distinct meanings of the word
"popular," and it is to one of these only that the resolu-
tion of his friend referred, or his support of it. That is
38 LIBRARIANS ' CONVENTION 1853
"popular" which at the moment is attractive, as the play
bills in the streets said Miss Julia Dean was a "popular"
actress. That is "popular" in another sense, which is of
real use to the whole people ; and it is in this sense only
that the resolution contemplates a popular library.
The great duty and the great difficulty of the trustees of
popular libraries is, to keep them true to this sort of pop-
ularity, and to turn as sternly as possible from the tempta-
tion to buy books which are popular, only because at the
moment attractive, for this last class of purchases becomes
the most costly possible. In a few years, in a few months
even, such books lose all their attraction, and the library
has bought them at the highest price, to give them shelf-
room afterwards, when they are worth really nothing at all.
A circulating library sold at auction, is a good index of the
worth, after a few years, of books "popular" in their day.
Mr. H. illustrated this view of the change of value of books
by one or two instances.
He then said, that the enterprise of the princely pub-
lishers of this city had relieved library purchasers of a
great part of the difficulty in balancing the two ' ' populari-
ties. " That magnificent enterprise which has made books
cheaper in America than in any country in the world,
makes it so easy for every man to get hold of the cheap
literature which is simply transitory in its character, that
there is really no need now to accumulate that in a public
library. At the same time, this very cheap literature,
which, with all its dangers, and they are great, was still
the greatest blessing to the training of this country, had
created, and would still create, the popular appetite for
books behind it, which the public library, if it was really
popular, ought to supply. The youngster who had bought
for a shilling the fascinating account of the Russian Cam-
paign, by Alexander Dumas, has a right to find in the pub-
LIBBARIANS' CONVENTION 1853 39
lie library the more fascinating pages of the Count Segur,
from which it is drawn. To-day, said Mr. Hale, the great
literary question seems likely to be, whether Napoleon was
the best, greatest, and most religious of men, or the worst,
meanest, and least religious of men. Now, the young men
and young women who are interested in that discussion,
have a right to claim of a public library, that when they
turn from Mr. Abbott's fascinating life of him in Harper,
they shall find the only reading about him, which is more
fascinating, in the details of his own dispatches, or the
memoirs of his own generals. For the popular life which
circulates a thousand copies in every large town, they need
not look to the public library : for the materials to which it
refers them they must look there ; and they have a right to
claim that they shall be found there. And this merit has
the purchase of such books, that every year their value in-
creases, while every year the value of books, which are
simply the talk of the day, falls off till they are worth
nothing at all.
The resolutions were adopted, and Messrs. Haven, of
"Worcester, Abbott, of New York, and Jewett, of Washing-
ton, appointed as the committee for reporting a plan at
the next annual meeting.
Mr. LLOYD P. SMITH, of Philadelphia, presented the fol-
Whereas, The documents published by order of the Congress of the
United States, are printed in large numbers at the public expense,
Whereas, It is desirable that they should be so distributed as to
be accessible for reference to all citizens, and at the same time pre-
served for posterity, therefore
Resolved, That a Committee of two be appointed to memorialize
Congress, on behalf of this Convention, requesting the passage of a
40 LIBRARIANS ' CONVENTION 1853
joint resolution, granting to the Smithsonian Institution, for distri-
bution among the principal Public Libraries throughout the United
States, copies of all such Journals of Congress, Senate Documents,
House Documents, Eeports of Committees, and other State Papers as
may hereafter be printed by order of Congress.
Mr. SMITH said it was necessary, with such an intelligent
audience as that before him, to expatiate on the importance
of the Public Documents and State Papers of the United
States. They were constantly wanted for reference, not
only by historians, but by lawyers, claimants on the Gov-
ernment, and citizens generally, seeking information. In
a word, they are invaluable.
He would rather say a few words on the right which he
conceived the Convention had, in its representative char-
acter, to call upon Congress so to distribute the Public
Documents that they may be forever accessible to their
constituents. These documents are printed at vast ex-
pense, which comes out of the pockets of the citizens gen-
erally. By the present mode of distribution to members
of Congress and a few favored libraries only, they become,
soon after publication, so scarce as to be practically useless,
whereas, by the proposed distribution to the public libra-
ries of the country, and for purposes of reference, (he pre-
sumed every library there represented was accessible to
all civil gentlemen,) they would always be at hand for the
use of those for whose benefit they were, in fact, printed.
The Convention did not, therefore, by passing these resolu-
tions, come before Congress in the attitude of beggars, but
rather as demanding, respectfully, but firmly, for the peo-
ple at large, their own.
Not that he would imply that there was, on the part of
Congress, the slightest indisposition to do what in it lay
for the "increase and diffusion of knowledge." On the
contrary, the facts just mentioned by the Librarian of the
LIBRARIANS' CONVENTION 1853 41
Smithsonian Institution, not to speak of the munificent
appropriation of something like $150,000 for a work which,
it was supposed, would be a history of the Indian Trihes,
showed that Congress was not indifferent to the claims of
learning. But there was a natural and proper dread of
jobbery and corruption in making these appropriations.
In the case just mentioned the money had better have been
thrown into the Potomac than that the Government should
be disgraced. How much better had the $150,000 been
spent in building, on the foundation of the Congress Li-
brary, or that of the Smithsonian Institution, a great Na-
tional Library, which should be for this country what the
British Museum, the Bibliotheque du Roi, the Royal Li-
brary of Berlin, and other national institutions are for the
scholars of the old world. And this led him to speak of
the plan of distribution which, by these resolutions, was
recommended to the wisdom of Congress. If a list of
libraries was recommended by this Convention to the favor
of Congress, those Senators and Representatives whose con-
stituents were not included, would either oppose the resolu-
tions, or, by adding amendment after amendment, endanger
their passage; or if they should be passed, no provision
would be made for libraries hereafter to be founded. No
objection, he thought, could be made in any quarter, to
handing over, every session, say at least 300 copies of all
Public Documents to the Regents of the Smithsonian In-
stitution, to be, at their discretion, distributed to such
libraries as would be likely to use them for the greatest
benefit of the country.
Mr. HALE was very glad to see this subject brought up.
He looked upon it as the most important subject that could
be brought before them. The government of the United
States did more for the encouragement of Literature than
any government of the world, but still, through some mis-
42 LIBEABIANS ' CONVENTION 1853
take at Washington, the documents printed at the public
expense were not circulated as generally as they ought to
be. A complete collection of all the public documents of
the United States could not now be found anywhere.
The above resolutions were unanimously adopted. Messrs.
Smith, of Philadelphia, and Folsom, of Boston, were ap-
pointed the Committee.
The president also was subsequently added.
Mr. WALLACE, of Philadelphia, offered the following
resolutions, which he introduced with a few appropriate
remarks. The resolutions were unanimously passed:
Besolved, As a sense of this Convention, that the completeness of
public law libraries throughout the country, and the interest of Amer-
ican jurisprudence, would be promoted by having, in each incorporated
or public law library of the United States, a complete set of the
Statutes at large of every State of the Union, in their original and un-
abridged condition. And that, as these volumes appear only from year
to year, as they are not often on sale by law booksellers, nor easily
procured from year to year by application, therefore, that this Con-
vention respectfully suggests to the Governors, Secretaries of State,
Legislatures or other public authorities having power to distribute
these volumes, to make some permanent orders for transmitting to
the Smithsonian Institution, at Washington, for disribution to the
library of the Law Association at Philadelphia, and to the other pub-
lic or incorporated law libraries throughout the United States, a cer-
tain number of copies of their statute laws, as published from year
to year by the Legislatures of the respective States, in the original
and unabridged condition.
Besolved, That the Secretary of the Law Association of Phila-
delphia, be requested, with leave of that body, to transmit a copy of
this resolution to the respective Governors and Secretaries of State
throughout the Union, with any remarks he may see proper to make
on the subject.
The following, which was presented by Mr. GUILD, was
Besolved, That the members of this Convention cordially recom-
mend the mutual interchange, so far as may be practicable, of the
printed catalogues of all our public libraries.
LIBRAEIANS ' CONVENTION 1853 43
INDEXES TO AMERICAN LITERATURE
Mr. EDWIN WILLIAMS presented the following plan for
an Index to American Newspapers :
Proposed Index of American Newspapers, and Chronology of Impor-
tant Events for the last 125 years
The undersigned, as a member of the New York Historical Society,
brought before one of the regular meetings of that institution a pro-
posal, for causing to be made an index of the principal American
newspapers on their files, extending over a period of one hundred and
twenty-five years, in so many serial volumes. The proposal was
favorably received by the Society, and referred to a special committee,
of which the undersigned is chairman, with power to carry the same
into effect; and he desires an expression of the opinion of this Con-
vention on the subject, believing that it is important to the interests
of Historical Literature, as it must open new sources of information,
particularly to those engaged in researches either for literary or bus-
The plan proposes an index and chronological arrangement of the
most important matters relative to American history, which may be
found in the newspapers in the library of the Historical Society,
principally those published in the city of New York, commencing in
or about the year 1728, and continued to the present year; the index
to include also the volumes of the National Intelligencer, which has
been published at the city of Washington for the last half century.
It might also embrace the volumes of Niles' Register, published in
Baltimore, from 1811 to 1849, to which there is a semi-annual but
no general index, except for the first twelve volumes.
The proposed index would probably comprise two octavo volumes of
about one thousand pages, arranged on the plan of Holmes' American
Annals, which comprise two volumes of chronology, from 1492 to 1826.
Five or more persons could be employed in the work of preparing the
index, under the auspices of the committee of the New York Historical
Society, and the time required need not exceed two years. The Society
would then publish the work in two volumes, in an edition of one thou-
sand or one thousand five hundred copies. The total expense is esti-
mated at ten thousand dollars; one-half for the preparation, and one-
half for printing and binding.
To provide for the payment of the expense, it is proposed to obtain
two hundred subscribers, at fifty dollars each, and the volumes, when
44 LIBEARIANS ' CONVENTION 1853
published, to belong to the subscribers, each receiving five copies of
the work for his share of fifty dollars. EDWIN WILLIAMS.
Mr. HAVEN presented the following resolution in rela-
tion to this subject, which was adopted:
Besolved, That this Convention approve the plan of the proposed
index and chronology of American newspapers, belonging to the New
York Historical Society, on the plan submitted by Edwin Williams,
and referred, for the purpose of being carried out, to a special com-
mittee of that Society, and that we recommend the proposition to the
favorable consideration and support of the friends of literature
throughout the United States, particularly to libraries and other
A copy of a new index to the Periodical Literature of
England and America was exhibited to the Convention,
and, on motion of Mr. Folsom it was unanimously
Resolved, That we have examined the work entitled "Index to
Periodicals," by W. F. Poole, Librarian of the Mercantile Library of
Boston, and that we approve of its plan and execution, and we rec-
ommend that a similar system of indexing be extended to the trans-
actions and memoirs of learned societies.
The following plan for a Catalogue of Standard Works
relating to America was presented by Mr. DISTURNELL, and
referred to the Business Committee :
STANDARD WORKS ON AMERICA, showing its Hitsory, Geography,
Also, a Catalogue of Works relating to American History, Geog-
raphy, and Statistics of Population, Emigration, Agriculture, Com-
merce, Manufactures, Internal Improvements, Minerals, Coinage, and
The Historical and Geographical Works, including Maps and Charts,
to date from the first discovery of America, by Columbus, to the pres-
ent time. The Statistical Works to date from the first enumeration of
the population of the United States, in 1790 or 1800, to the present
period. "Statistics," although of modern date, the subject having first
been brought forward and matured by Sir John Sinclair, of Scotland,
LIBEABIANS ' CONVENTION 1853 45
during the last half and first part of the present century, is no doubt
destined to become one of the most important sciences for the ad-
vancement of the human race. Enough is already known, from of-
ficial and reliable statements, to form correct conclusions in regard
to the working of different systems, whether relating to governments
or domestic relations. Everything that can be numbered, weighed, or
measured can be made the subject of minute inquiry and careful reg-
istry. What were formerly considered pure accidents, and so exempt
from close examination, or beneath notice, have been shown, under
the statistician's arrangement, to be the products of general laws,
and to have a real and systematic bearing upon the welfare of man.
As the Science of Statistics is of so recent date, it is necessary to
unite History and Geography in order to make the chain of knowledge
perfect from the first discovery of the American continent, or its
islands, in 1492, to the present period.
A complete list of Standard WorTcs on information relating to the
above kindred subjects, with the date of first publication, whether in
bound volumes, manuscripts, public documents, pamphlets, or separate
articles in magazines, &c., giving the names of compilers and author-
ities as far as possible, would afford great assistance to the seeker
after useful knowledge, aid in the formation of private and public
libraries, and thus be a lasting benefit to the present and future gen-
CLASSIFICATION OF WORKS INTO CATALOGUES
The following letter from M. Merlin, of Paris, was pre-
sented to the Convention by Mr. C. B. Norton :
PARIS, 29th August, 1853.
DEAR SIR In promising to send to your Convention a slight bib-
liographical offering, I felt that I have not consulted my strength nor
my time, and I must beg you to judge indulgently of these pages,
traced in haste, and with the sole desire of expressing to you, as well
as to the learned gentlemen who will assemble, my sympathy with
I am happy to learn that one of the questions likely to be proposed
at your bibliographical meeting is, the choice of some plan of classifi-
cation proper to be adopted by the Libraries of the United States.
Having been long impressed with the insufficiency of the different
46 LIBRAKIANS ' CONVENTION 1853
methods in use or proposed, I have made this important question the
object of my study, and I have in press, at the Imperial Printing Of-
fice, a work in which, after having reviewed, analyzed, and estimated
all that has been done up to the present time, especially in Prance, I
now propose a new method, and give you herewith its principal points.
I have already made use of this system of classification in several
catalogues. That of the rich library of the celebrated Orientalist,
Sylvestre de Sacy, edited by me, in 3 vols., 8vo, Paris, 1843 to 1847,
shows the application of my system, and has some explanations in
In my opinion every systematic bibliographical classification should
be based upon the logical classification of the sciences. I have there-
fore sought, in the first place, for the most natural order of arranging
the different branches of human knowledge, independently of all
application to bibliography, and it is from that order that I have
deduced my bibliographical system.
It is very difficult, I am aware, to judge correctly of a system from
these detached portions. Nevertheless, I do not hesitate to transcribe
for you some passages from my forthcoming work, which I think will
give you an insight into my plan. If there are any obscure or doubt-
ful passages, I trust that they will be explained by the work itself on
"According to my views, a system of bibliographical classification
is a logical chain of great classes and their subdivisons, whose forma-
tion and order are the result of a few principles, which serve as a base
to the system. The great object of bibliographical classification is to
assist the memory, by presenting information which will facilitate
the inquirer in his search after books that he already knows exist, and
impart to him information concerning those with which he is unac-
quainted. This is almost the same as presenting the literary history
of each science in a synoptical form. This result can only be attained
by bringing together all the works that treat on the same subject, and
by arranging them in such order that the mind shall pass naturally
from each subject to that which should follow or precede it; and in
this way the place where any subject is found will be a sort of
definition of its nature, and its distinctive characteristics. . . It is
from this double operation, that is to say, from the bringing together
similar subjects in their special groups, and determining the order
which should be given to these groups, that their logical connection
LIBBAEIANS ' CONVENTION 1853 47
will be made manifest, and great assistance be given to the memory
and mind. . .
"But in order that this logical connection shall really assist the
memory and the mind, it must be easy to comprehend and bear in
mind the principles according to which the subjects have been brought
together, and their order determined. . .
"If principles are adopted from merely abstract considerations, the
classification will fail of accomplishing its end; it will be intelligible
only to the minds of the few, and the best memory will fail to retain
it. . .
' ' If, on the contrary, the divisions are taken from the nature of the
objects to be classified, and their order is based upon those great laws
of nature which may be daily noted, the system will become intel-
ligible to all, and every one's memory will be assisted.
General Classification of the Sciences, independent of Bibliography
"Therefore the Sciences have been generally classified according
to arbitrary or metaphysical considerations, as that of the progress of
the Sciences, their comparative value, the relation which they bear to
each other, their various applications, the nature of the moral fac-
ulties, the sources of human knowledge. . .
"Throwing aside these abstract considerations, I would rest upon
principles which I consider less subject to discussion and more easy to
be understood. . .
"According to my view, the first element of scientific classification
should be taken from the subjects treated. Compare the Sciences with
each other, and you will not fail to see that the most certain and the
most unchangeable characteristic which distinguishes one from the
other is the subject itself, and their position is, therefore, to be
decided upon according to the nature of the subject treated. It is
from this subject that they almost always take their name; but the
same subject may be considered under different views, and may thus
give rise to several Sciences connected with each other by the iden-
tity of the subject, but distinct according to the point of view from
which each is considered. . .
"Thence result two principal and distinct things to be considered;
first, the general subject, which will serve to separate these Sciences
into groups; second, the point of view which will distinguish the
Sciences of each group from one another. . .
"The subject has given us the distinctive character, according to
48 LIBEAEIANS ' CONVENTION 1853
which our divisions will be formed; it will also give us the order of
these divisions. Since each group of Sciences represents a special
subject, it is evident that the order of these groups should be modeled
from the subjects which they represent. . .
"Notwithstanding the indefinite variety of the subjects of human
knowledge, all are material things, or are connected with material
things by ties more or less direct, more or less intimate. If, then,
we can find the most natural order for the productions of Creation,
we shall have found the most natural order for the subjects of human
knowledge, and, consequently, for human knowledge itself. . . It is
not difficult to discover this order; it is seen by us at all times; it
is that which the Creator himself has traced in his works, by grad-
uating with such admirable regularity the organization of all beings,
from the stone up to man.
"I would accordingly classify human knowledge by the objects of
which it treats, either directly or indirectly, all arranged in the or-
ganic scale of being, and graduate this scale according to the chron-
ological order of creation; that is to say, rising from the most simple
to the most perfect.
"As to the subjects which treat of intellectual abstractions, of the
moral world, or considerations of the social state, we shall see, by
what follows, how they take their place in the outline that I have just
"I will proceed by analysis, showing the whole before the sections,
the entire plan before the details, things in general before those in
"In the universality of beings we see, as a first division, on one
side the Creator, on the other the Creation. All the ideas that relate
to God, to whatever opinion or religion they may belong, will form
a principal group, that I shall designate by the title of THEOLOGICAL
"The Sciences and Arts which treat of the whole or any portion
of those myriads of created beings, shall be comprised under the
common title of COSMOLOGICAL SCIENCES.
' ' Since cause is before effect, the science which treats of God should
be before all other sciences, and it would be so in my classification,
without the principles of analytical exposition by which my system is
arranged, and according to which every science which embraces several
LIBRARIANS' CONVENTION 1853 49
objects ought to precede that which treats only of those objects.
Now Theology has only God for its object, and there is another sci-
ence which treats of God and the Creation, that is PHILOSOPHY; not
Psychology, which only describes the human soul, not Moral Philos-
ophy, which lays down rules for social life, but Philosophy, as known
to the Ancients, treating of first causes, of the Essence of Being, of
the Creator and created things; in a word, embracing everything in
an encyclopedic manner; Philosophy will then precede Theology, and
after it will come the Sciences which relate to created things."
From this order spring three great divisions,
II. THEOLOGICAL SCIENCES.
III. COSMOLOGICAL SCIENCES.
1. MATHEMATICAL SCIENCE.
2. PHYSICAL ' '
3. ASTEONOMICAL ' '
4. GEOLOGICAL ' '
5. MlNERALOGICAL ' '
6. PHYTOLOGICAL ' '
7. ZOOLOGICAL ' '
8. ANTHROPOLOGICAL ' '
As to the sciences which relate to Man, their division and order are
not less simple or less natural. I consider Man under two heads,
Individual Man and Man in Society. Individual man presents me
with two divisions, Physical Man and Moral Man. Society also fur-
nishes me with two divisions, the Social or Political Sciences and the
This is, sir, the outline of my classification of the Sciences without
the Bibliographical application. Ths application changes nothing of
importance, it only adds numerous subdivisions and another class,
I should be very much honored if my method were judged by your
learned librarians worthy of being applied to the literary collections
which are made all over America. But, whatever may be the judg-
ment passed upon it, I shall be always delighted, sir, with the cir-
cumstance which has procured for me the opportunity of making your
acquaintance, and to prove to you the great respect with which I am,
sir, Your very devoted servant, R. MERLIN.
Mr. Charles B. Norton.
50 LIBRARIANS ' CONVENTION 1853
A Paper on the Classified Index of the Catalogue of the
Philadelphia Library Company, prepared for the Librar-
ians' Convention, by LLOYD P. SMITH, ESQ.:
GENTLEMEN: It has occurred to me that a short account of the
manner of arranging and cataloguing the books of the Library Com-
pany of Philadelphia, might give rise to a discussion on those sub-
jects which would be mutually instructive.
The Philadelphia Library has been in existence 121 years, and now
numbers 65,000 vols. The books are arranged on the shelves accord-
ing to a plan perhaps somewhat peculiar; that is, simply according to
size. There are four sets of numbers, viz. : of folios, quartos, octavos,
and duodecimos. This plan has some advantages as well as some dis-
advantages. It gives a neat and uniform appearance to the books as
they stand on the shelves, and it makes it easy to ascertain at once
whether a book is "in" or not. There is one exact spot where each
volume ought to be ; if it is not there it must be ' ' out. ' ' It has the
disadvantage that the works on the same subject are not together.
This is, however, less important with us than in those libraries where
the cases are open to the public or to members for inspection. The
books in the Philadelphia Library are always kept under lock and
key, the titles on the backs being, however, visible through the wires
which protect them. When a book is wanted, the catalogue indicates
the number and size, and, on the principle of "a place for everything
and everything in its place," it is readily found.
It is obvious that, in our system, this strict dependence (where the
librarian's memory is at fault) on the Catalogue makes a good one
of the greatest importance.
When I took charge of the Library, in Jan., 1849, the state of the
Catalogues was this:
All the books acquired by the Library before 1835 were included in
one general Catalogue in two volumes. Those added from 1835 to
1844 were embraced in the First Supplement, and those from 1844 to
1849 in the Second Supplement.
The great Catalogue of 1835 was arranged, according to subjects,
into the usual five grand divisions of Eeligion, Jurisprudence, Sciences
and Arts, Belles Lettres, and History. These chief heads were sub-
divided with considerable minuteness, each subdivision being ar-
LIBEAEIANS' CONVENTION 1853 51
ranged alphabetically by authors' names, and anonymous books being
placed at the end. Of the remarkable accuracy and judgment (indi-
cating extensive acquirements in the compiler) with which the titles
of books are classified in this Catalogue, I cannot forbear speaking.
It is the work of George Campbell, Esq., from 1806 to 1829 the
Librarian of the Institution, and still, I am happy to say, its Secre-
' ' Thank God for the makers of dictionaries ! " a pious Oxford stu-
dent was overheard to ejaculate; and I think, gentlemen, those who
use the collections under our care have reason to be equally grateful
that there are such persons as the makers of catalogues.
But however admirable may be the arrangement of a Systematic
Catalogue, it constantly happens that those who use it are at a loss
under what head to look for a particular work. An alphabetical
Index, therefore, especially of authors' names, becomes necessary;
and such an Index, but partial and so incomplete as not to be de-
pended on, was extemporised as the Catalogue of 1835 was going
through the press, and added to it as an Appendix. The Supple-
ments of 1844 and 1849 are totally destitute of such an index. To
make sure that a book is" not in the Philadelphia Library, it is neces-
sary, therefore, to look through three Catalogues; and if, as con-
stantly happens, it is doubtful under what head a book would fall,
or, again, if the title of a book is known, but not the author's name,
the search is a very tedious one, and sometimes hopeless.
To remedy these evils, I conceived the following plan, viz.: to con-
solidate the two Supplements, together with the MS. list of works
added since 1849, into one Catalogue, classified like that of 1835, and
to be called vol. 3, the paging to run on continuously from vol. 2,
which itself follows that of vol. 1. It is not proposed to consolidate
the whole into one complete Catalogue, on account of the expense,
which would be about $5,000. But most of the advantages of such
a consolidation, together with some others not attainable by that
process, will be secured by an alphabetical INDEX to the whole, on
which I have been now more than two years engaged.
In making this Index the plan is, to take for a basis the present
imperfect Index to the Catalogue of 1835, and going over each title
again in that Catalogue.
I. To examine whether the author's name (if any) is already in-
dexed, if not, to index it on a slip of paper, adding a short title of
the book and the page of the Catalogue on which it is to be found.
52 LIBRARIANS ' CONVENTION 1853
II. To index the translators' and annotators' names.
III. To take the most important word or words of the title, and
index it by them, as well as, in some cases, by some other word more
likely to be referred to as the subject.
It will sometimes happen, therefore, that, on this plan, a book will
be indexed five or six times, or even more : e. g., ' i 6,411, O. The Spy
Unmasked; or, Memoirs of Enoch Crosby, alias Harvey Birch, com-
prising many interesting anecdotes never before published. By
H. L. Barnum. New York, 1828."
This work (like all biography, poetry, and sermons) is not at pres-
ent indexed at all. By the plan proposed it will be found under either
of the following references:
Barnum, H. L. Spy Unmasked 924
Spy, Unmasked 924
Crosby, E., Memoirs of 924
Birch, H., Memoirs of 924
Again, take the folowing title:
"2,112, D. A History of Three of the Judges of King Charles the
First, Major General Whalley, General Goffe, and Colonel Dixwell,
who, at the restoration in 1660, fled to America, and were concealed in
Massachusetts and Connecticut for near thirty years; with an account
of Mr. Theophilus Whale, supposed also to have been one of the
Judges. By President Stiles. Hartford, 1794."
Here, besides the proper names Stiles, Whalley, Goffe, Dixwell, and
Whale, I would index the word Regicides, under which, though it
does not occur on the title-page, the book is likely to be looked for.
In a word, my system amounts to a copious multiplication of cross
For using the Index, therefore, the following simple rule will be
prefixed to it. "If the author's, translator's, or annotator's name
is known, turn to it. If the title only of a book is known, and not
the author's name, or if it is anonymous, turn to the most important
word, preferring of two words equally important that which stands
first in the title. Otherwise, turn to the subject.
"Having found a book in this Index, the number in the outer
column indicates that page in the Catalogue, to which turn in order
to find the full title of the work, together with its number and size,
which latter indicates to the Librarian its position on the shelves. ' '
I flatter myself that when this plan is carried out, the Library
LIBRARIANS' CONVENTION 1853 53
Company of Philadelphia will possess a Catalogue unsurpassed for
facility of reference by any in the world.
The labor of Indexing the larger Catalogue of 1835 is nearly com-
pleted. It remains to consolidate the titles of books added since 1835
into a third volume, classified on the same plan as vols. 1 and 2, to
index this third vol., and finally to arrange the whole Index matter
alphabetically to form an Appendix. Volume 3, therefore, and Index,
will probably be published about January, 1855.
The following communication, from Mons. Vattemare,
was laid before the Convention by Mr. C. B. Norton :
PARIS, August 22, 1853.
DEAR SIR: I take this opportunity to send you the accompanying
series of tables, submitted some months ago to the Emperor, and pre-
pared by order of his majesty.
The whole of my system is there; its origin and progress, and the
results obtained up to the year 1853.
But since these tables were presented to the Emperor, the Ex-
changes have considerably increased. Yet the above statement will
give you an idea of what the result will be, the moment the system
shall have been universally adopted and established upon a large and
permanent basis; above all, when you consider what has been accom-
plished by so humble an individual as myself.
What I aim at is, the establishment of a regular and permanent
system of exchange between governments, of not only the useless
duplicates of their public libraries, but everything emanating from
the genius of a nation, so as to form, in the Capitals of the civilized
nations, public international libraries that would become a permanent
exhibition of the intellectual power of each of them, a lasting World's
Fair of the genius of nations. Hence, my constant and humble re-
quest has always been while addressing myself to the government of
your noble country, "whenever you shall be in want of a European
book, buy an American ; " in Europe I make the same invitation.
Let us have a central agency on each Continent, which shall be in
connection with each other to negotiate these exchanges; let us have
a monthly publication in English, French, and German, which shall
publish the proceedings of the agency, and the titles of the books or
objects exchanged, or to be exchanged. Would not such a plan power-
54 LIBRARIANS ' CONVENTION 1853
fully contribute to the diffusion of knowledge and international good-
will, and to the realization of the republic of letters, the peaceful
confederation of republics, kingdoms, and empires? Could a greater
assistance be given to the Book Trade than the adoption of such a
The political events that have transpired since 1847, have brought a
temporary prejudice to my system. On my return from America, I
found the administration almost entirely renewed. I have had to do
with officers entirely unacquainted with my mission, and uninterrupted
changes and alterations in the different ministerial departments have
rendered my task very difficult and extremely laborious. This is one
only of the causes why the results have not been exactly what they
promised to be when I left France for my mission to the United
States; but a little patience, and things will take their proper course.
The moment there shall be the slightest relaxation in the political
excitement, attention will be immediately turned towards our system.
You know what Prince Napoleon said in your presence: that twice
already he had had about our system a conversation with the Em-
peror, who told him that he appreciated the system most highly, and
was only waiting for a moment of leisure to examine it thoroughly,
and devise the means of realizing it.
Meanwhile, the Minister of Public Instruction, on the proposal of
his colleague, the Minister of Public Works, has addressed a circular
letter to the other members of the Cabinet, inviting them to form a
kind of association to give to the system all the support it deserves.
But before giving an official answer to this proposal, a general in-
vestigation is now taking place in all the departments, the public
libraries, museums, &c., to ascertain what has already been received,
and the results to be anticipated from the system.
The Minister of Public Instruction told me, some time ago, that
this system would be of no value to the world, unless it be established
upon a large scale; that, heretofore, all I had done, although very
considerable, was a mere gleaning.
As for our American collection, you know, likewise, the opinion of
Prince Napoleon, who considers it as "a great monument to the
genius of a great people, and of its friendly feeling towards France, ' '
He thinks, also, that the place now ready to receive it, in the building
of the Chamber of Commerce, is not becoming its importance, and he
told me, in your presence, that he would himself see the new Prefect,
to manage that matter with him to the honor of America and the
LIBKARIANS' CONVENTION 1853 55
gratification of the public. The projected arrangement is to give to
each State a certain number of alcoves or shelves, in accordance with
its intellectual riches and liberality, each one severally distinguished
with its coat of arms and date of incorporation.
As for the system, it is gaining ground rapidly in Europe. By a
letter dated St. Petersburg, 29th July last, received the same day I
had the pleasure of seeing you, His Excellency the Baron de Korff,
Counsellor of State, and Director of the Imperial Library of St.
Petersburg, acknowledging the receipt of the Natural History of the
State of New York, informs me that, after mature consideration,
convinced of the important services our system of exchange is likely
to render, he sends me the list of a series of most valuable duplicates
of incunabula in the Imperial Library, to be placed at my disposal.
The Danish Government has also presented, through its minister here,
a list of splendid ancient works. The librarians of some of the cele-
brated Universities of Germany have made similar communications.
I am waiting with the greatest anxiety for the official answer of the
French administration, to be able to begin the publication of our
Bulletin of international exchanges, to publish all those lists of most
You have seen the fine series of ancient and modern books they were
selecting for me at the Imperial Library. The little time you spent
in my office was yet sufficient to give you an idea of what may be
obtained from our system. You saw all the nations side by side, re-
publicans and imperialists holding each other by the hand to help
the realization of our great and peaceful Kepublic of Letters.
Let me close this letter by expressing my grateful acknowledgment
towards the States and institutions of the Union, that have so readily
and so nobly given a helping hand to my efforts, and tell them that, in
my conviction, the time is not distant when they will reap the advan-
tages of that generous and persevering support; that the little that
has been done to this time is only the earnest of what is yet to
come. As for the private individuals who have seconded my labors,
the number is too great to mention them here, and they have already
found in their conscience and patriotism the reward of their acts.
Yet allow me to mention one of them. I consider it to be my duty
to name particularly, in order to express to him my sincerest gratitude
for his constant and unrelaxed attention to our interests. I refer to
Mr. E. Irving, of the Sample Office, New York. This gentleman,
since my departure from America to the present time, has generously
56 LIBEAEIANS ' CONVENTION 1853
devoted his time, energies, and labors as agent, to receive and trans-
mit the objects exchanged between our two Continents, without receiv-
ing the slightest compensation.
I would feel most happy, dear sir, if the Convention of American
Librarians should consider the tables here annexed worthy of their
attention, and I will be very thankful to you, if you will be kind
enough to communicate to me their opinion. Have the kindness to
say to these learned gentlemen, how happy I would have been to have
found myself among so many distinguished savants, many of whom
have shown themselves so benevolent to me, and in a country whose
generous and fraternal hospitality I shall never forget.
Eemain assured, dear sir, of the sentiments of esteem and friend-
ship of your devoted friend, ALEXANDEE VATTEMARE.
Mr. C. B. Norton.
List of establishments which have participated in the
benefits of the system of exchanges:
University of Heidelberg.
All the Ministerial Departments.
Koyal Academy of Science.
City of Brussels.
City of Antwerp.
City of Liege.
Geographical establishment of Brussels.
All the Ministerial Departments.
Library of the General States.
University of Leyden.
Chamber of Commerce of Rotterdam.
Chamber of Commerce of Amsterdam.
All the Ministerial Departments.
Chamber of Peers (Senate).
LIBBABIANS' CONVENTION 1853 57
Chamber of Deputies (Legislative Body).
Court of Cassation.
Court of Accounts.
Imperial Academy of Science.
Imperial Academy Moral and Political Sciences.
Imperial Academy of Medicine.
Imperial Museum of Natural History.
School of Mines.
School of Fonts et Chausses.
Society of Encouragement.
Library of the Louvre.
Library of the Sorbonne.
Private Library of the Emperor.
Imperial Printing House.
City of Paris.
City of Bordeaux.
City of Marseilles.
City of Metz.
City of Nantes.
City of Havre.
City of Kouen.
Imperial Botanical Garden.
University of Tubingen.
UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
All the Departments of the Federal Government.
The Presidential Eesidence.
Library of Congress.
58 LIBRARIANS' CONVENTION 1853
Office of Topographical Engineers.
U. S. Military Academy, West Point.
U. S. Naval Academy, Annapolis.
National Observatory, Washington.
Supreme Court of the United States.
Military Academy of South Carolina.
Academy of Science and Art, Boston.
National Academy of Design of New York.
Institute of Albany (N. Y.).
American Institute of New York.
Mechanics' Institute, New York.
University of Georgetown (D. C.).
University of Hanover (N. H.).
University Harvard (Mass.).
College of Brunswick (Me.).
College of Waterville (Me.).
College of Burlington (Vt.).
College of New Haven (Ct.).
College of Columbia (N. Y.).
College of Geneva (N. Y.).
College of Kutgers (N. J.).
College of Annapolis (Md.).
College of Charlotteville (Va.).
College of Chapel Hill (N. C.).
College of Ann Harbor (Mich.).
Brown University, Providence (B. I.).
Union College (N. Y.).
Society of Natural History of Portland (Me.).
Society of Natural History of Boston.
Society of Natural History of St. Louis (Mo.).
Mercantile Library of Boston.
Mercantile Library of New York.
Mercantile Library of Springfield.
Agricultural Society of Massachusetts.
Agricultural Society of Boston.
Agricultural Society of Wilmington (Del.).
LIBRARIANS' CONVENTION 1853 59
Apprentices Library of South Carolina.
Historical Society of Brunswick (Me.).
Historical Society of Boston.
Historical Society of Worcester (Mass.).
Historical Society of Hartford (Ct.).
Historical Society of New York.
Historical Society of Trenton (N. J.).
Historical Society of Baltimore.
Historical Society of Richmond (Va.).
Historical Society of Savannah (Ga.).
Historical Society of Upper Alton (111.).
Historical Society of St. Louis (Mo.).
Historical Society of Louisville (Ky.).
City of Washington (D. C.).
City of Bangor (Me.).
City of Portland (Me.).
City of Boston.
City of Lowell (Mass.).
City of New York.
City of Albany (N. Y.).
City of Philadelphia (Pa.).
City of Baltimore (Md.).
City of Trenton (N. J.).
City of Hartford (Ct.).
City of Burlington (Vt.).
City of Providence (E. I.).
City of Eichmond (Va.).
City of Ealeigh (N. C.).
City of Charleston (S. C.).
City of New Orleans (La.).
City of Savannah (Ga.).
City of Indianapolis (la.).
Chronological table of official acts, documents, etc., by
which several Governments have accepted the principle or
regulated the application of the system of exchange, from
1832 to 1853 :
January 22, 1832. Letter from M. Lichsenthaler, Director of the
Eoyal Library of Munich.
LIBRARIANS' CONVENTION 1853
December 6, 1833.
January 27, 1834.
January 27, 1834.
August 1, 1836.
March 6, 1836.
March 26, 1836.
December 5, 1837.
May 5, 1838.
February 2, 1839.
February 17, 1840.
March 26, 1840.
May 7, 1840.
July 17, 1840.
February 6, 1841.
March 14, 1841.
Letter from Count Maurice Diedrichstein, Di-
rector of the Imperial Museum and Library
Letter from Count Charles de Bruhl, superin-
tendent general of the Museum at Berlin, in
the name of the King.
Letter from M. Hahn, in the name of the King
Letter from Mr. Alexander Mordwinoff, for
General Count de Benkendorff, in the name
of the Emperor of Eussia.
My first petition is reported, approved and re-
ferred to the Minister of Public Instruction
by the Chamber of Deputies.
Same reception by the Chamber of Peers,
who refer it to the Ministers of the Interior
and Public Instruction.
Letter from Mr. Glover, librarian to the Queen
of England, in the name of her majesty.
The British Parliament receives favorably my
petition; the British Museum authorized to
open intercourse of exchanges with foreign
My second petition reported, approved and re-
ferred by the two French Chambers, to the
Minister of Public Instruction and the
President of the Council of Ministers.
Deliberation of the Royal Patriotic Society of
Havana adopting the system of exchange.
Vote of $3,000, for international exchanges,
by the Senate of Louisiana.
Senate of New York approves the system of
Bill of Congress, authorizing the exchanges of
50 extra copies of every document printed
by Congress, to be printed and bound for
Sanction of the Governor General of Canada.
Bill of the Legislature of the State of Maine,
50 extra copies of documents are to be
LIBRABIANS' CONVENTION 1853 61
printed and bound for international ex-
April 9, 1842. My third petition is reported, approved and
referred, by the Chamber of Deputies, to
the Ministers of Foreign Affairs, Interior
and Public Instruction.
April 29, 1842. Same reception by the Chamber of Peers, as
above, and referred to the same ministers.
December 21, 1842. Deliberation of the Municipal Council of Paris.
1847. Appropriation of 3,000 fr., for international
exchanges, voted to the Department of Pub-
1847. Appropriation of a similar sum to the commit-
tee on the library of the Chambers of
June 26, 1848. Bill of Congress.
June 30, 1848. Another bill of Congress of the United States,
sanctioning the bill of 1840, and granting
an appropriation to help on the system.
July 25, 1848. Eesolutions of the Committee on the Library
of Congress, in relation to the same.
April 1850. Presentation of several objects of exchanges to
the Chambers of Chili, through A. Vatte-
April 1852. Decision from the Minister of the Interior of
the Netherlands, appointing A. Vattemare
agent of the kingdom.
May 1852. Decision of the Minister of Finance of Belgium.
July 29, 1853. Letter from his Excellency, Baron de Korff,
member of the Imperial Privy Council, Di-
rector of the Public Library of St. Peters-
July 15, 1853. Letter and programme from the central com-
mittee for international exchange, appointed
by the Minister of the Interior.
Seventeen States of the Union have adopted similar laws
to that of Congress, viz. : Maine, March, 1841-44-48 ; Mary-
land, March, 1842; Indiana, January, 1844-48; Michigan,
March, 1844-48; Massachusetts, February, 1845-49-50;
LIBKABIANS' CONVENTION 1853
Rhode Island, January, 1846; New York, October, 1847;
Vermont, November, 1847; New Jersey, January, 1848;
Pennsylvania, August, 1848; Virginia, September, 1848;
South Carolina, December, 1848 ; New Hampshire, January,
1849; North Carolina, January, 1849; Delaware, March,
1849 ; Connecticut, May, 1849 ; Florida, October, 1850, and
Table of the operation of the system of exchanges, from
1847 to 1851, inclusive:
The United States of America
Total amounts I 61,011 I 3,096 I 1,0271 1,883
To the above must be added, as received and distributed :
From France, the collection of weights and measures of
France, 173 prepared birds, several cases of minerals, fos-
sils, and seeds.
From the United States, the collection of weights and
measures of the U. S. ; six models of vessels and three of
dry docks; samples of the manufactures of Lowell, living
animals, prepared birds, minerals, specimens of woods,
seeds, the plaster cast of the head of a mastodon, fossils,
a large specimen of oxydulated iron from the Iron Moun-
tains of Missouri.
The following resolutions were presented by Mr. GUILD,
and unanimously adopted :
Kesolved, That this Convention be regarded as preliminary to the
formation of a permanent Librarians' Association.
Eesolved, That a Committee of five be appointed to draft a Consti-
LIBBAEIANS' CONVENTION 1853 63
tution and By-Laws for such an Association, and present them at the
next meeting of the Convention.
Besolved, That when this Convention adjourn, it adjourn to meet in
Washington City at such a time as the said Committee of five may
Eesolved, That this Committee be requested, with reference to this
adjourned meeting, to suggest topics for written communications or
free discussion, and also to make such other arrangements as shall,
in their judgment, be best adapted to meet the wants of the public,
in regard to the whole subject of Libraries and library economy.
In accordance with these resolutions, the following gen-
tlemen were appointed on the Committee for Permanent
Organization: Prof. C. C. Jewett, of Washington; Mr.
Chas. Folsom, of Boston ; S. Hastings Grant, of New York ;
Elijah Hayward, of Ohio, and R. A. Guild, of Providence.
At the close of these deliberations the Convention ad-
journed, to meet in "Washington, upon the call of the above
UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA LIBRARY
This book is DUE on the last date stamped below.
UC SOUTHERN RE
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