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Full text of "Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales"

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k 






THE 



lE^ROCEEIDinNTOS 






OF THE 



LINNEAN SOCIETY 



OP 



NEW SOUTH WALES. 



A-OL. II. 

WITH THIRTY-NINE PLATES. 



FOi^ THE YE^R 1887. 



SYDNEY : 

PRINTED AND PUBLISHED FOR THE SOCIETY 

BY 

F. CUNNTNGHAME & CO, 14G PITT STREET, 

AND 

SOLD BY THE SOCIETY. 

1888. 



SYDNEY : 

F. CL'NNIXGIIAME AXD CO.. I'R INTERS, 

146 PITT STREET. 




CONTENTS OF VOL. II. 

(SEConsriD see-iesj 



PART I. 

(Issued May ISth, 18S7.) 



PACE 

On an Unclescribed Dales from New Guinea. By E. P. Ramsay, 

LL.D., &c., and J. Douglas-Ogilby .. 4 

A Glance at the Flora of Mount Wilson. By the Rev. W. Woolls, 

Ph.D., F.L.S 6 

Catalogue of the Described Coleoptera of Australia. Pai't vii. By 

George Ma.ster8 13 

Note on Some Trilobites New to Australia. By F. Ratte, Ing. des 

Arts et Manuf., Paris. (Plates i. and ii.). ... ... ... ... 95 

Note on the Mode of Nidification of a Species of Pachycephala, 
supposed to be P. Gilbertii, from the Interior of N. S. Wales. 
By K. H. Bennett 103 

Flowering Seasons of Australian Plants. No. 3. By E. Haviland, 

F.L.S 105 

Notes on the ^^letliod adopted by the Female of the Common Fresh- 
water Tortoise, Chelodina longicollin, in the Excavation of the 
Burrows in which her Eggs are to be Deposited. By H. J. 
McCooEY 107 

Miscellanea Entomologica, No. in. The Scaritidiv; of New Holland. 

By William Macleay, F.L.S., &c 115 

Flowering Seasons of Australian Plants, No. 4. By E. Haviland, 

F.L.S 135 

Notes on some Australian Fossils. By Felix Rattk, M.E. : — 

(1) Salisbaria palmata, emend, from Jeanpaulia or Baiera 

pabnata, llatte ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 137 

(2) On the Muscular Impression of the Genus Notomija {Maeonia). 

(Plate III.) .. 139 

Note on a Kentarkable Example of Fracture in Kerosene Shale. By 

Felix Ratte, M.E. (Plate i v.) 140 

Notes on the Bacteriological Examination of Water from the Sydney 

Supply. No. iiL By Dr. Oscar Katz 151 

Contributions towards a Knowledge of the Coleoptera of Australia, 

No. IV. Description ot a new Genus and Species of Oedemcridce. 

By A. Sidney Olliff, F.E.S. 153 

On Some Additional Labyrinthodout Fossils from the Hawkesbury 

Sandstone of New South Wales. Second Note on Platycepa 

Wilkinsonii. By Professor Stephen.s, M. A., F.G.S. 156 

Additional Evidence on Fossil Sa/i'iburiw from Australia. By F. 

Ratte, M.E. 159 

On an Undescribed Shark from Port Jackson. By E. P. Ramsay, 

F.R.S.E., &c., and J. DOUGLA.S Ogilby ... 163 

List of Birds Collected at Derby, North-West Australia, by the late 

T. H. Boyer-Bower, Esq., with Notes, By Dr. E. P. Ramsay, 

F.R.S.E., &c 165 

Elections and Announcements ... ... ... ... ... 1, 111, 146 

Donations . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 1, 111,146 

Notes and Exhi its 109,141,174 



27770 



IV. CONTENTS. 



PART II. 



(Itisucd Awjiist SM, 1SS7.) PAOK 

Notes on the Genera of Australian J^'ishes. By E. F. Kam.say, 

F.R.S.E., &c., and J. Douglas Ogilby. Parti 181 

Flowering Seasons of Australian Plants. No. 5. By E. Haviland, 

F.L.S 185 

On an Improved Method of Cultivating Micro-organisms on Potatoes. 

By Dr. Oscar Katz 187 

Descriptive Record of two Plants additional to the Flora of Aus- 
tralia, and occurring also in New South Wales. By Baron 
VON Mueller, K.C.M.G., M.D., F.R.S 191 

Bacteriological Observations made at the Little Bay Coast Hospital. 

By Dr. Oscar Katz "203 

The Insects of the Cairns District, Northern Queensland. Part i. 

By William Macleay, F.L.S. , &c 213 

Description of a New Species of Ejnmachus, from the Astrolabe 

Range, S. E. New Guinea. By Dr. E. P. Ramsay, F.R.S.E., 

F.G.S., &c 239 

Descriptions of New Australian Fishes. By E. P. Ramsay, F.R.S.E., 

and J. DOUULA.S Ogilby 241 

Remarks on an Introduced Species of Land-Planarian apparently 

Bipalium Kewense, Moseley. By J. J. Fletcher, M.A., B.Sc... 244 
On a Trilobite from Reef ton, New Zealand, new to Australasia. 

By Professor F. W. Huttox, F.G.S 257 

A List of the Indigenous Plants of the Mudgee District. By 

Alexander G. Hamilton 259 

The Insects of the Cairns District, Northern Queensland. Part ii. 

By William Macleay, F.L.S., &c 307 

Notes on the Bacteriological Examination of Water from the Sydney 

Supply. No. IV. By Dr. Oscar Katz 329 

Preliminary Remarks on Phosphorescent Bacteria from Sea- Water. 

By Dr. Oscar Katz 331 

Notes on some Australian Polyzoa. By T. Whitelegge 337 

Flowering Seasons of Australian Plants. No. 6. By E. Haviland, 

F.L.S 348 

Notes on Australian Land-Planarians, with Descriptions of some 

new Species. Part i. By J. J. Fletcher, M.A., B.Sc, and 

A.G.Hamilton. (Plate v.) 349 

Notes on Australian Earthworms. Part in. By J. J. Fletcher, 

M. A., B.Sc 375 

On a new Hoplocejyhaliis from the Gulf of Carpentaria. By William 

Macleay, F.L.S., &c -103 

Notes on the Nests and Eggs of certain Australian Birds. By A. J . 

North •^05 

Elections and Announcements 177, 199, 252 

Donations ... ... ... ... ... ... ••• 1'"' 1^^> -^'^ 

Notes and Exhibits 196,250,412 



CONTENTS. \. 

PART III. 

(Istiued November oOth, 1SS7.) ^ , , 

Report on a small collection of Plants from the Aird River, obtained 
by Mr. Theodore Bevan during his recent Expedition. Submitted 
by Bakon von Mueller, K.C.M.G., M.D., Ph.D., F.R.S., &c. 
(Plates VI. and VII.) 41'J 

General Remarks on Protective Inoculation for Bovine Pleuro- 
pneumonia. By Dr. Oscar Katz 423 — 

On some new Trilobites from Bowning, N.S.W. By John Mitchell. 

(Plate XVI.) 435 

Contributions to the Oology of the Austro-Malayan and Pacific 

Regionsr By A. J. North 44 1 

Notes on a Species of Rat ( AIus TompsonU, Ramsay), now infesting 

the Western Portion of N.S.W. By K. H. Bennett 447 

Note on the Discovery of Peripatus in Gippsland. By J. J. Fletcher, 

M.A., B.Sc 450 

Notes on some Indigenous Sago and Tobacco from New Guinea. By 

J. H. Maiden, F.R.G.S 457 

Notes on Zelotypia Stacyi, and an Account of a Variety. By A. 

Sidney Olliff, F.E.S., Assistant Zoologist, Australian Museum 467 

A Revision of the Staphyliuid;e of Australia. Part iii. By A. Sidney 

Ollief, F.E.S., Assistant Zoologist, Australian Museum... ... 471 

Miscellanea Entomologica, No. iv. The Helaeides. By William 

Macleay, F.L.S, &c 513 

Description of Two new Species of Marsupials ( Peramdes and 
Anttchinus) and of a new Species of Mas ( M. Bwrtoni), from 
the neighbourhood of Derby, N.W.A. By Dr. E. P. Ramsay, 
F.R.S.E., F.G.S. (Plate XVII.) 551 

Descriptions of the Eggs of Two Species of Australian Birds. By A. 

J. North .. 554 

Descriptions of new Australian Fishes. By Dr. E. P. Ramsay, 

F.R.S.E., &c., and J. Douglas Ogilby 561 

Flowering Seasons of Australian Plants, No. 7. By E. Haviland, 

F.L.S 565 

On Micro-Organisms in Tissues of Diseased Horses. By Dr. Oscar 

Katz .. 567 — 

Observations on the Early Stages in the Development of the Emu 
(Drommis Nov(G-Hollandm). By William A. Haswell, M.A., 
D.Sc, F.L.S., Lecturer on Zoology and Comparative Anatomy, 
University of Sydney. (Plates viu.-xv.) 576 

Notes on Australian Earthworms, Part iv. By J. J. Fletcher, 

MA., B.Sc 601 

Elections and Announcements ... ... ... ... 416, 453, 55S 

Donations 416, 453, 559 

Notes and Exhibits 450,556,621 



VI. CONTENTS. 



PART IV. 



(Issued March 21st, ISSS.) PAGE 

Further Remarks on Pliosphorescent Bacteria. By Dr. O.scak Katz 627 

On a new Genus and Species of Labroid Fish from Port Jackson. By 

E. PiERrtON Ramsay, F.R.S.E., «S:c., and J. Douulas Ogilby ... 631 
Miscellanea Entoniologica, No. V. The Helffiides {continued). By 

William Macleay, F.L.S., &c 635 

Description of a new Species of Philemon from North-west Australia. 

By Dr. E. P. Ramsay, F.R.S.E., &c 676 

Description of a new Species of Gerygone from Lord Howe's Island. 

By Dr. E. P. Ramsay, F.R.S.E., &c 677 

Descriptions of tlie Eggs of Three Species of Sea-Birds from Lord 

Howe's Island. By Dr. E. P. Ramsay, F.R.S.E., F.L.S., &c. ... 678 

Note on a Species of Polyzoa {Poiina inversa, Waters) from Port 

Jackson, By T. Whitelegge 680 

On the Volcano of Taal. By the Rev. J. E. Tenison-Woojjs, F.G.S., 

F.L.S., &c. (Plates xviii. and XIX.) 685 

A Contribution to the Herpetology of (Queensland. By C. W. De 

Vis, M.A 811 

Descriptions of new Australian Rhopalocera. By E. Meyeick, B.A., 

F.E.S 827 

Revision of Australian Lepidoptera. By K. Meykigk, B.A., F.E.S. 

Part II 835 

Descriptions of Australian Micro-Lepidoptera. By E. Meykick, 

B.A., F.E.S. Part XIV. OeconhovidAe {conti'rued) 929 

The Inter-Coxal Lobe of Certain Crayfishes. By W. J. Mackay, B.Sc. 967 

Notes on the Nidification of S^Jhecothercs via.rillaris, (Lath.) and of 
Campephagii leucomeUma (V. and H.), with Descriptions of their 
Eggs. By R. D. Fitzgerald, Junr. 970 

Notes on some Scaritidie from Queensland, with Descriptions of two 

new Species. By William Macleay, F.L.S., &c. 972 

Note on a Leucite-Basalt from Central New South Wales. By Rev. 

J. Milne-Cukuan, F.G.S 974 

On a new Butterfly of the Family Satyrida;. By A. Sidney Olliff, 

F.ES 976 

Note on the Bacteria met with in a case of bovine Pleuro-pneumonia. 

By Dr. Katz 979 

Note on a Specimen of Peripatus found at Cassilis, N.S.W. By A. 

SiDXEY Olliff, F.E.S. 981 

Notes on the Nidification of certain Australian Birds. By A. J. 

North, F.L.S 985 

Report on a small Zoological Collection from Norfolk Island ... ... 989 

I. Introductory Remarks. By J. A. M. Millington ... 989 

II. Reptiles and Fishes. By J. Douglas Ogilby ... ... 990 

III. MoUusca. By John Bhaziek .. 993 

IV. Insccta. By A. Sidney Olliff 1001 



CONTENTS. 



vn. 



PART lY.—Contini(,ed. 

On a new Pidm from the Blue Mountains. By A. Sidney Olliff, 
F.E.S., and Henry Prince. (Plate xxxix.) 

Notes on Mr. Froggatt's Collections made during the year 18S7 in the 
Vicinity of Derby, King's Sound, N.W. Australia. By William 
Maoleay, F.L.S., &c 

Descriptions of two new Fishes from Port Jackson. By E. P. 
Ramsay, F.R.S.E., &c, and J. Douglas OoiLBY 

Note in Correction of certain Errors in Previous Papers. By Dr. E. P. 
Ramsay, F.R.S.E., &c., and J. Douglas Ogiley 

Jottings from the Biological Laboratory of Sydney University. By 
W. A. Haswell, M.A., D.Sc. 

No. 9. Notes on Tmesipteris and Psilotum. 
No. 10. On the Embryology of Vermilia ccpsjntosa, and 
Eupomalus elegans. 

List of Hepatica? collected by Mr. T. Whitelegge in New South 
Wales, 1884-85. By B. Carrington, M.D., F.R.S.E., and W. H. 
Pearson. (Plates xxii.-xxxvii.) 

Contributions to Conchology, No. I. By James C. Cox, M.D., 
F.L.S. (Plates XX., XXI.) 

On a Supposed New Species of Nototherium. By C. W. De Vis, M.A. 
(Plate XXXVIII.) 

Notes on a new Dipterous Insect belonging to the Family Ceci- 
domyiadfe infesting Grass. By F, A. A. Skuse ... 

A Note on Echinaster decanus, M. & T. By Professor Jeffrey Bell, 
M.A.', &c. 

Note on Danais Petilia, StoU, and D. chrijsippus, Linn. By George 
Masters 



page 



1015 



1017 



1021 



1024 



1025 



1035 
1061 
1065 
1071 
1074 
1076 



Notes on an Exhibit of Rocks and Rock-sections. By T. W. E. 
DA^^D, B.A., F.G.S.— 

(1) On the Occurrence of Basalt-glass (Tachylyte) in the Vege- 

table Creek district, New England ... ... ... ... 1078 

(2) Note on the Occurrence of Dacite at Moss Vale ... ... 1083 

(3) On a Pitchstone from Port Stephens, showing faint perlitic 

structure ... .. ... ... ... ... ... ... 1084 

(4) On the Occurrence of Chiastolite in a Stone Hatchet found at 

Strathbogie, near Vegetable Creek 1084 

Elections and Announcements 622,682,983 

Donations 622, 682, 983 

Notes and Exhibits 680,978,1074 

President's Address 1086 

Office-bearers and Council for 1888 1113 

Title-page, Contents, Index to Vol. II. (2nd Ser.), and Errata. 

Note.— Fignres 7-12 of Plate xvi., which appears in this Part of tJie 
Proceedings, are intended to illustrate a paper not yet published. 



* 



K> 



^> 



EREATA.-VOIj. II. 

(SECOND SERIES). 



Page 120, line 2— for punctata tn read punctulatum. 

Page 122, line ^2— for lacunatum read lacunosum. 

Page 169, line 11— /or Siticmatops read Stigmatops. 

Page 192, line 11— /o?'quadriforia read quadrifaria. 

Page 214, line 14— /or Dystipsidera read Distypsidera. 

Page 250, line 23— /or stome read stone. 

Page 297, line 16— /or Warmbea read Wurmeea. 

Page 306, line 19— /or strictus read stricta. 

Page 319, line !3—for Tomaxia read Tomoxia. 

Page 331, line 26— /or phospherescens read phosphorescens. 

Page 359, line 35— /or halves read parts. 

Page 365, line 23— /or sulphureus read sulphurea. 

Page 412, line 11— /or Sitella read Sittella. 

Page 504, line A— omit " a single male example." 

Page 566, line 15— /or Eusbiephus read Eustrephus. 

Page 685, last line— /or ecountry read country. 

Page 756, line 33— /or atro-pupurea read atro-puepurea. 

Page 781, line 8— /or infortunata read infoktunatum. 

Page 817, line 31— /or M. maindroni read H. maindroni. 

Page 820. line 14— /or H. mnstolina read M. mustelina. 



X 



■« 









lei^OCEEIDinSTG^S 



OF THE 



LINNEAN SOCIETY 



OF 



nSTE'^Tv^ SOTTTH -^T^r-^ILiES. 



WEDNESDAY, 26th JANUARY, 1887. 



The President, Professor W. J. Stephens, M.A., F.G.S,,in the Chair. 



MEMBERS ELECTED. 



The following gentlemen were elected Members of the Society : — 
Mr. William J. Mackay, Rooty Hill ; Mr. H. H. Lane ; 
Dr. Casement, Trial Bay Gaol ; Mr. Thomas Hewitt Myring ; 
Mr. E. Betche, Botanic Gardens, Sydney. 



The President announced that no excursion would be held 
during the ensuing month owinsf to the heat. 

o o o 



DONATIONS, 



" The Scottish Geographical Magazine." Yol. II , Nos. 11 and 12, 
(1886). From the Hon. William Macleay, F.L.S. 

" Zoologischer Anzeiger." Jahrg. IX., Nos. 238,2.39,(1886). 
From the Editor. 



# 



A DONATIONS. 

" The Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society, of London." 
Vol. XLII. Part 4 (No. 168), November, 1886. List of the 
Geological Society of London, 1886. From the Society. 

" Prodromus systematis naturalis regni vegetabilis." By A. P. 
de Candolle. Parts I-VI. From Baron Ferd. von Mueller 
K.G.M.G., Fits., ALB., d;c. 

Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London for the year 
1886." Part III. ; " Abstract of Proceedings."' November, 1886. 
From the Society. 

" Feuille des jeunes Naturalistes." No. 194, 1st December, 
1886, From the Editor. 

" Comptes Rendus des Stances de TAcademie des Sciences, 
Paris." Tome CIIL, Nos. 13-16. From the Academy. 

" Abhandlungen herausgegeben von der Senckenbergischen 
naturforschenden Gesellschaft. Bd. XIV., Heft. 1, (1886). From 
the Society, 

"Journal of Conchology." Vol. V., No. 4. October, 1886, 
From the C onchological Society of Great Bi'itain and Ireland. 

" Annual Report of the Curator of the Museum of Comparative 
Zoology at Harvard College." 1885-1886 ; " Bulletin." Vols. 
XII., No. 6, XIIL, No. 1, From the Curator. 

" Proceedings of the Canadian Institute, Toronto," 3rd Series, 
Vol IV,, Fasc. 1, (1886). From the Institute. 

" The Journal of Comparative Medicine and Surgery (New 
York)." Vol, VII., No. 4, (1886). From the Editor. 

"Pathological Mycology." By G. S. Woodhead, M.D., &c., 
and A. W. Hare. Section 1, Methods; "Hand Atlas uber alle 
Theile der Erde, &c. Herausgegeben von Adolf Stieler ;" Dr. 
Johannes Leunis' Synopsis der Pflanzenkunde," von Dr. A. B. 
Frank. (3 Bde.) From the Hon. William Macleay, F.L.S. 

" Our Antipodes : or Residence and Rambles in the Austra- 
lasian Colonies with a glimpse of the gold-fields." By Lt.-Colonel 



DONATIONS. 6 

Cx. C. Mimdy. (2 Vols.) ; " Geological observations in South 
Australia." By the Rev. Julian E. Woods, F.G.S., &c. ; " A 
Statistical Account of the British Settlements in Australasia, 
including the Colonies of New South Wales and Van Diemen's 
Land." By W. C. Wentworth. (2 Vols.); "Transactions of 
the Zoological Society of London." Vol. IX., Parts, 9, 11 ; 
Vol. XL, Part 5. General Index, Vols. I.-X. ; " Contributions 
to the Anatomy of the Centi'al Nervous System in Vertebrate 
Animals." By Alfred Sanders, M.R.C.S., &c. ; " The Voyage of 
Governor Phillip to Botany Bay, with an account of the establish- 
ment of the colonies of Port Jackson and Norfolk Island. From 
Dr. James C. Cox, F.L.S. 

"Kevue Coloniale Internationale." Tome IIL, No. 6, (188G). 
From V Association Coloniale Neerlandaise cb Amsterdam. 

" Naturhistorisches Museum zu Hamburg — Bericht des 
Direktor" (1885). From the Director. 

" Bulletin de la Societe Beige de Mici'oscopie." 13 me, Annee. 
No. 1. From the Society. 

"Memoires [Zapiski) de la Societe des Naturalistes de la 
nouvelle Russie." Tomes I-VIII. (1873-1883). Tome XL Part 1 
(1886 ) ; "Flora Chersonensis." By E. A. Lindemann. Vol. IL 
From the Society. 

" Journal of the Royal Microscopical Society of London." Ser. 
ii.. Vol. VI. Part 6. December, 1886. From the Society. 

" Descriptions of Sponges from the neighbourhood of Port 
Phillip Heads, South Australia." (Nine Pamphlets). By H. J. 
Carter, Esq., F.R.S. From the Autlior. 

" Victorian Naturalist." Vol. Ill, No. 9 (1887). From the 
Field Naturalists' Club of Victoria. 



PAPERS READ. 

ON AN UNDESCRIBED DULES FROM NEW GUINEA. 
By E. Pierson Ramsay, L.L.D., &c., and J. Douglas-Ogilby. 

(NOTES FROM THE AUSTRALIAN MUSEUM.) 
DuLES NITENS. Sp. IIOV. 

B. VI. : D. 10/11 : A. 3/11 : V. 1/5 : P. 14 : C. 17 : L. lat. 
51-53 : L. trans. 5/13 : Veit. 10/15. 

Length of head 4^, of caudal fin 45, height of body 3;^ to 3|^ in 
the total length. Eye — large, its diameter 2| to 2| in the length 
of the head, y of a diameter from the end of the snout, and | of 
the same apart. Interorbital space almost flat. Snout with a 
slight concavity ; occiput rugose, terminating posteriorly in an 
angular ridge. Lower jaw much the longer ; cleft of the mouth 
of moderate size, and oblique. The maxilla reaches to beneath the 
anterior third of the orbit, and is dilated and rounded posteriorly. 
Opercle with two flat pungent spines, the lower of which is the 
longer ; sub- and inter-opercle very finely serrated, the teeth 
becoming obsolete in old examples ; preopercle with fine denticu- 
lations on both limbs, those on the rounded and slightly produced 
angle the strongest ; lower edge of preorbital, and post-temporal 
bones finely serrated. Teeth — Yilliform on jaws, vomer, and 
palatines. Fins — dorsal spines moderately strong, increasing in length 
to the fifth, which measures | of that of the head ; from thence 
they decrease quickly in height to the ninth, which is about | of 
the last ; the rays are not nearly so high as the spines, but the 
base of the soft portion of the fin is 7 of the spinous, while that of 
the soft anal is rather more than the soft dorsal ; the dorsal 
commences above the 6th scale of the lateral line, and ends above 



ON AN UNDESCRIBED DULES FROM NEW GUINEA. O 

the Sitli, while the anal commences beneath the SSncl and ends 
beneath the 37tli ; the second anal spine is equally strong, but not 
so long as the third, which is rather more than I of that of the 
head : the ventral fin is strong, truncate behind, not quite reaching 
to the vent ; the pectoral fin is short, less than J of the total length, 
and reaches to the 13th lateral line scale : caudal forked. Scales — 
moderate, ctenoid, firmly adherent ; 11 rows between base of 
ventral fin and lateral line, 4 between the orbit and the preoper- 
cular angle, and 3 across the opercle ; dorsal and anal fins with a 
basal scaly sheath ; pectorals with a small basal patch outside ; 
caudal covered with minute scales almost to the tips of the 
lobes. Upper and under surfaces of the head, orbital ring, maxilla, 
and the margins of the opercle and preopercle scaleless. Lateral 
line — but slightly curved, its tubes simple. Fseudohranchice — well 
developed. Gill-rakers — long and slender, about 36 in number, 
the longest being almost ^ a diameter of the orbit. The length of 
the abdominal portion of the vertebral column is to that of the 
caudal as 1 to 1'72. Colors — uniform silvery, the back washed 
with green ; fins immaculate. 

The fishes from which the above description was taken are three 
in number, and measure individually from 9^ to 10| inches in 
length. They belong to a collection purchased by the Australian 
Museum from Mr. Cairns, and were obtained by him on the South- 
east coast of New Guinea. Register number of type specimen 
I. 945. 



b A GLANCE AT THE FLORA OF MOUNT WILSON, 

A GLANCE AT THE FLORA OF MOUNT WILSON. 
By the Rev. W. Woolls, Ph.D., F.L.S. 

The Mount Wilson platform which is 83 miles from Sydney and 
3,478 feet above the sea-level, stands at the termination of Bell's 
line from Richmond, and is about five miles westward of the 
mountain from which it takes its name. As, however, the 
country between tlie platform and the mountain is very rugged 
and impracticable, the road is somewhat circuitous and about len 
miles in length. In travelling towards the mountain, the formation 
is for the most part of Hawkesbury sandstone, and the plants are to 
the general observer rather iniinleresting when compared with the 
luxuriant vegetation of the disintegrated trap. The Eucalypts, so 
far as I had an opportunity of examining them along the road, are 
those known by the popular names of " Peppermint " {E. piperita, 
Sm.), " White Gum " [E. hcemastoma, Sm.), " Mountain Ash " 
{E. Sieberiana, F. v. M.), " Mountain White Gum " (E. jjauciflora, 
Sieb.), " Stringy Bark " {^E. capitella, Stn.), and a " Scrubby Gum " 
[E. stricta, Sieb.). With the exception of the last, which forms 
brushes on the elevated parts of the Blue Mountains, the other 
species are trees of moderate size, none of them attaining that 
which they do in more favourable localities. The Proteacese are 
well represented by numerous species oiHakea, Persoonia, Grevillea, 
Banksia, Symphyonema, Isopogon, Petrophila, Conospermum, 
Lomatia, Lamberiia, and the far-famed Telopea or Waratah. The 
fruits of Ilakea and Persoorda seemed larger than those on similar 
species in the low country, one of the former (apparently //. 
gihhosa, Gas.), measuring 2| inches in length, and more than 5 
inches in circumference ; whilst Grevillea laurifolia (Sieb.), with 
its trailing branches and crimson flowers appeai'ed in large patches 
here and there by the road side. Of the Rutaceae, I noticed the 
two forms of Boronia which by some are referred to B. p)innata 



BY THE REV, W. AVOOLLS, PH.D., F.L.S. 7 

(Sm.), and also Eriostemon ohovalis (A. Cunn.). The latter has 
very delicate flowers, which have sometimes been found double. 
As the season for flowering had nearly past (December), the 
Leguminous shrubs were not so conspicuous as they had been a 
month or so earlier ; but the species of Daviesia, Dilluoyniat 
Mirbelia, Indigofera, Pultencea, Gomj^holohium, and Sphcerolobium^ 
were evidently very numerous ; whilst five or six kinds of Acacia 
were in fruit. The interesting terrestial Mistletoe, Atkinsonia 
ligustrina, F. v. INI., (a ]:)lant ever to be associated with the name 
of the excellent lady who did so much to develop the natural 
history of the Kurrajong), was abundant on the sandstone. By 
some botanists, this plant has been supposed to germinate on the 
roots or decaying branches of trees, but so far as could be ascer- 
tained, A. ligustrina is an independent terrestrial shrub. The 
flowers are of a yellow or orange colour, the leaves occasionally 
opposite, and the fruit 8-ribbed, protruding into deep furrows, so 
as to give it the appearance of being 8-celled. In addition to the 
trees of the Myrtacefe already mentioned, several species of 
Leptospervium, Callistemon, Bceckia, Darwinia, and Kunzea were 
seen on the ridges, but none of them seemed to differ from the 
species near Sydney. Tetratheca ericifolia (Sm.), with which 
Baron Mueller unites T. thymifolia (Sm.), and T. pilosa, (Labill.), 
is on the mountains a solitary representative of an order widely 
distributed in Western Australia ; whilst Bauera rubioides 
(Andr.), of the Saxifragese, and Afonotaxis linifolia (Brongn.), of 
Euphorbiacese, were collected in moist places. Of the Santalaceae, 
Lep>tomeria acida (R. Br.), Omp)haGOineria acerba (A. DC), and 
Choretrum GandoUei (F. v. M.), were fi-equent, as well as several 
species of the Goodeniacese, Goodenia barbata (R. Br.), G. bellidi- 
folia fSm.), G. heterophylla (Sm.), Damjnera stricta (R. Br.), 
and D. Brownii (F. v. M.) / whilst of the Epacrids, EpacriSf 
Leucopogon, MonotocJ, and Brachyloma were represented by a few 
species. The terrestrial Orchids had nearly passed away, but I was 
able to recognise Prasophylluvfi flavum (R. Br.), (a much larger 
plant than that figured by Mr. Fitzgerald), P. nigricans (R. Br.), 
Orthoceras strictum (R. Br.), Cryptostylls leptocliila (F. v. M.), 



8 A GLANCE AT THE FLORA OP MOUNT WILSON, 

Dipodium punctatum (R. Br.), Gastrodia sesamoides (R. Br.), 
Microtis porrifolia (Spreng.), C'hiloglottis diphylla (R. Br.), and 
Thelymitra venosa (R. Br.), the last of which was in full flower. 
Mr. J. D. Cox informed me that he had noticed rather earlier 
several species of Diuris, Ccdadenia etc., etc. (1). Dianella cmrulea 
(Sims.), Ccesia jjarvijloy'a (R. Br.), Thysannttcs tuberosus (JR,. Br.), 
Geitonojylesium cymosum (A. Cunn.), Sowerbcea juncea (Sm.), 
and Stypandra ccesjntosa (R. Br.), were the only plants of the Lily 
family which I observed. The following species also may be 
enumerated, lonidiurn fioributidxim (Walp.), of the Violacese, 
Tracliymene ericoides (Sieb.) and T. Billardieri (F. v. M.) of the 
Umbelliferse, Lobelia gibbosa (Labill.) of the Campanulacece, 
Mitrasacme pilosa (Labill.), of the Loganiacete, »Sebcea ovata 
(R. Br.) of the Gentianefe, Pomaderris ledifolia (A. Cunn.) of the 
RhamnejB, and several species of Hibbertia of the Dilleniaceae. 
The composites are numerous, but the most remarkable wei'e 
Cassinia denticulata (R. Br.), C. aurea (R. Br.), Humea eleyans 
(Sm.), Senecio australis (Willd.), and Helichrysum elalum (A. 
Cunn.). The native grasses did not appear to be abundant, and 
the only species which I collected were Microlcena stipoides (R.Br.), 
Anisopogon avenaceus (R. Br), Cinna ovata (Kunth.), Amp)hi2)ogon 
strictus (R. Br.), Danthonia semiannularis (R. Br.), and Poa 
ccesjntosa (Forst.). Not far from the Road, I saw Gleichenia 
circinata (Sw.), and the Lycopods Lycopodium dens^iin (Labill.), 
and Selaginella tdiginosa (Spreng.), but these were not so fine as 
some I have found in the Manly swamps. Before I pass away 
from the Hawkesbury Sandstone, two species of Casuarina should 
be noticed, C. nana (Sieb.), and C. distyla (Vent.), both dwarfed 
plants, and also a Frenela, which Bai'on von Mueller considers a 
diminutive form of F. MupJleri (Parlat.), a pine found near 
Sydney and plentiful on the banks of George's River. 

As we reach the foot of Mount Wilson about 300 or 400 feet 
below the summit or table-land, the character of the vegetation 

(1) Mr. J D. Cox has lately sent me specimens of Dendrobium strlolatum, 
Prasophyllumfimhriatum, PterosUjlis parvifiora, P. peduncidata, P. nutans, 
Cryptostylis erecta, Acianthus fornicatus. 



BY THE REV. W. WOOLLS, PH.D., P.L.S. 9 

undergoes a remarkable change, and the traveller, as he ascends the 
Zig-Zig, passes through an avenue of trees and slirubs differing 
materially from those on the sandstone, though it must be observed 
that some of the plants which I have mentioned are common to 
that and the trap formation. Nothing can exceed the verdure and 
beauty of the scene, and though the species are for the most part 
common to Mount Wilson and Mount Tomah, yet no part of the 
Blue Mountains seems equal to the former in its natural features, 
or its suitability for the cultivation of European trees, shrubs, 
fruits, and grasses. On both sides of the road, the beautiful 
Prostanthera Insiantha (Labill.) was in full bloom. This is the 
largest of Labiates, and from the scent of its foliage is sometimes 
called the " Mint Tree," forming a pleasing relief to the darker 
shades of the shrubs, and a contrast to the semi-tropical character 
of the Tree-ferns which now begin to appear in great abundance. 
The fertility of the soil at Mount Wilson is evidenced not only by 
the indigenous vegetation, and the vigorous growth of cultivated 
plants ; but the rapid way in which European and Asiatic weeds 
are spreading is also an indication of the fact. Hypochmris glabra 
(Linn.), Galinsoga parvi flora (Cav.), Siegesheckia orientalis (lAxin.,), 
and Silene gallica (Linn.), are following the steps of cultivation; 
whilst the grasses Poa pratensis (Willd.), Dactylis glomerata 
(Willd.), Cynosurus cristatus (Willd.), as well as several foreign 
clovers, have already established themselves on the Mount. 

The Botany of Mount Wilson is very similar to that of Tomah, 
and as the observer views the gigantic Eucalypts, the graceful 
Tree- Ferns (Dicksonia antarctica, Alsoj^Jdla Australis, and J. 
Leichhardtiana), the robust climbers, and the epiphytal orchids of 
the sombre woods, he is forcibly reniinded of Allan Cunningham's 
trip to Mount Tomah in 1823, and of the plants which that 
■eminent Botanist discovered there (See Hooker's Journal of 
Botany, Vol. 4, p. 285). Cunningham tells us, that owing to the 
weakness of his horses and the difficulty of the track then recently 
found by a surveyor, he did not proceed to Cox's River as he had 
originally intended ; but, after having advanced a few miles 
further, he returned to his encampment at Tomah, which he adds, 



10 A GLANCE AT THE FLORA OF MOUNT WILSON, 

" from the permanency of its shade and the general humidity of 
the atmosphere on its elevated summit, rendered the peculiar 
character of its vegetation most interesting to him." After the 
lapse of more than half a century, little can be added to the 
account which Cunningham has furnished of the germination of 
Quintinia Sieberi (A. DC.) on the caudices of Dicksonia antarctica, 
of the eccentric climbing rooted-stemmed plant Fieldia australis 
(A. Cunn.), and the stupendous size and marvelloi;s contortions of 
the large climbei's ; but, in the progress of science, especially 
through the labours of Baron F. \on Mueller, the Eucalypts to 
which he refers have been duly classified, whilst many of the plants, 
which he knew but imperfectly, have been reduced to their proper 
places in the systematic arrangement. 

The highest trees on Mount Wilson are probably the Stringy 
Barks (E. onacrorhyncha, F. v. M.), some of which are pro- 
bably 150 feet high, with a circumference of 22 feet at the 
lower part of the butt. This species, though allied to the other 
Stringy Barks [E. eugenioides, Sieb. and E capitella, Sm.), is 
certainly distinct in the shape of its fruit, the quality of its 
wood, and its peculiar habit, i-ising as it does to a great height 
without sending forth a branch. Next in point of size are the 
" Messmate," and the Mountain form of the " Manna Gum" {E. 
amygdalina, Labill. and E. viminalis, Labill.). These trees have 
some points of resemblance, for the young trees have opposite 
sessile leaves ; and as the Messmate is not uniformly half-barked, 
they may be mistaken one for the other without careful observa- 
tion. The Messmate, however, differs in the ovate shape of the 
anthers, the divergent venation of the leaves, the crowded 
umbels of the flowers, and the usually inserted valves of the 
fruit. In the Manna Gum. the umbels have only three flowers, 
and the valves of the fruit are exserted or protrude. The wood 
of the Stringy Bark and of these Eucalypts is not esteemed either 
for practical purposes or for firewood. In the deeply shaded 
forests, Ceratopetidum ajyetalwni (Don), or as it is sometimes called 
" Gigantic Chi'istmas Bush," grows much larger than it does near 
Sydney, and under the name of " Coach wood " or " Lightwood," 



BY THE REV. W, WOOLLS, PH.D., F.L.S. 11 

it is used for many industrial purposes. The same may be said of 
Acacia melanoxylon (R. Br.), and A. elata (A. Cunn.), which rise 
to a considerable height, and afford excellent timber for carpentry 
and cabinet work. Doryphora sassafras (Endl.) is often 
characterised as a beautiful aromatic tree. Its wood, indeed, is 
flagrant but not durable, and an infusion of its bark is used as a 
tonic. Quintinia Sieberi is also a fine ornamental tree, growing in 
company with the pi*eceding trees, and its wood is useful for cabinet 
work. Eugenia Smithii (Poir.) or the " Myrtle," rises to the 
height of 40 or 50 feet in the chocolate soil : its timber is 
hard and close-grained, and useful for carpentry, handles, and 
staves. Myrsine variahilis (R. Br.), and Iledycarya angustifolia 
(A. Cunn.), though merely shrubs in many parts of the colony 
become trees of some size in the fertile soil of Mount Wilson, 
but their wood, especially that of the latter, is soft and of little 
value. Fieldia australis, which Cunningham first noticed at 
Mount Tomah, is very abundant on Tree-ferns and other trees ; 
and the climbers of which he speaks in general terms appear to 
be Vitis hypoglauca (F. v. M.), Lyonsia straminea (R. Br.). L. 
reticulata (F. v. M.), and Tecoma australis (R. Br.), Marsdenia 
rostrata (R. Br.), and Tyloplwraharhata (R. Br.), are smaller and 
twining plaiits. Some of the climbers seem to kill the young 
trees on which they ascended to others, and hang down from lofty 
branches as if they had attained their position by some unseen 
agency. In the shady woods I noticed the " Kangaroo Apple " 
Solanum aviculare (Forst.), Cojjrosvia Billardieri (Hook.), some- 
times called " Currant," and Sniilax australis (R. Br.), the 
" Australian lawyer." Of the epiphytal Orchids, Dendrohium 
teretifolium (R. Br.), D. pugioniforme (A. Cunn.), and Sarcochilus 
falcatus (R. Br.) were the only species which I was fortunate 
enough to see, but no doubt many more remain to be observed. 
I picked up on the ground a fragment of Viscum articulatum 
(Burm.) which must have fallen from one of the lofty trees, and 
also some leaves, as they appeared to be, of Litscea dealbata 
(Nees.), Eloiocarpus holopetalus (F. v. M.), and Banhsia integri- 
folia (Linn.), but of these better specimens are needed for 
identifying the species. 



12 A GLANCE AT THE FLORA OF MOUNT AVILSON. 

As Mr. P. N. Trebeck, in the Proceedings of the Linnean 
Society, Vol. I. pt. 2, (1886), has given a full account of the ferns 
of Mount Wilson, I need only add a few species which do not 
appear in his list. These are — 

Lomaria Capensis (Willd.) 
L. Pater soni (Spreng.) 
Asjndium Capense (Willd.) 
Pteris uinbrosa (R. Br.) 
Lindscea linearis (Sw.) 
PoIyp)odium serpens (Forst.) 
Trichomanes venosum (R. Br.) 
Tmesipteris Tannensis (Bernh.) Lycopod. 

In concluding this imperfect sketch of the Flora of Mount 
Wilson, I am aware that many species remain to be added 
to the list, and that there is yet a wide field for the discovery of 
minute Ferns, Lycopods, Mosses, Lichens, and Fungi. From what 
I saw of the lower Cryptogams, I believe that observers will add 
many species of the smaller forms to the lists already published 
by Baron F. von Mueller. 



CATALOGUE OF THE DESCRIBED COLEOPTERA OF 

AUSTRALIA. 

By George Masters. 

Part VIL 

Family. CHRYSOMELID^. 

Sub-Family. SAGRIDES. 

MEGAMERUS. W. S. Macleay. 

6229 KiNGi W. S. Macleay, King's Sui^v. Austral. App. 11. 

1827, p. 448 ; Boisd. Guer. Mag. Zool. 1835, CI. ix. 
t. 124; Lacord. Mon. p. 8. 

prionesthis Boisd. Voy. Astvol. Col. 1835, p. 530. 

Northern Queensland. 

DUBULAIA. Baly. 

6230 PLAViPENNis Baly, Trans. Ent. Soc. 1871, p. 382. 

W. Australia. 

6231 FULVA Baly, Cist. Ent. IL p. 45. 

W. Australia. 

6232 RUGOSA Baly, Cist. Ent. IL p. 46. 

W. Australia. 

PRIONESTHIS. Lacordaire. 

6233 FUKERARius Lacord. Mon. Mem. Soc. Liege, III. 1845, 

p. 10. 
Australia. 



14 CATALOGUE OF THE DESCRIBED COLEOPTERA OF AUSTRALIA, 

CHEILOXENA. Baly. 

6234 Westwoodi Baly, Trans. Ent, Soc. V. 1860, p. 255, t. 14, 

f. 1-2. 

N. S. Wales, and Victoria. 

CARPOPHAGUS. W. S. Macleay. 

6235 BAXKSiiE W. S. Macleay, King's Surv. Austral. App. II. 

1827, p. 447, t. B. f. 1; Gray, Griff. Anim. Kingd. 
Ins. II. p. 126, t. 67, f. 1 ; Boisd. Voy. Astrol. Col. 
1835, ]). 297 ; Lacord. Mon. p. 13. 

N. S. Wales. 

6236 EXCAVATUS Baly, Trans. Ent. Soc. 1871, p. 382. 

W. Australia, 

POLYOPTILUS. Gerniar. 

6237 Erichsoni Germ. Linn. Ent. III. 1848, p. 231. 

uber Newm. The Zoologist, 1851, p. cxxxix. 
xanthurus Newm. The Zoologist, p. cxxxix. 
S. Australia. 

6238 Lacordairei Germ. Linn. Ent. IIL 1848, p. 231. 

decolor Newm. The Zoologist, 1851, p. cxi. 
S. Australia. 

6239 PACHYTOiDES Baly, Cist. Ent. II. p. 47. 

W. Australia. 

6240 Pascgei Baly, Cist. Ent. IL p. 47. 

W. Australia. 

6241 Waterhousei Baly, Cist. Ent. IL p. 46. 

W. Australia. 

DIAPHANOPS. Schonherr. 

6242 Westermanni Bohem. Schonh. Gen. Cure. VIII. 2, 1845, 

p. 343. 
Rynchostomis curcidionides Lacord. Mon. p. 15. 
W. Australia. 



BY GEORGE MASTERS. 15 

MECYNODERA. Hope. . 

6243 Balyi Clark, Journ of Ent. II. 1864, p. 248, t. 12, f. 1 ; 

Westw. Trans. Ent. Soc. ser. 3, II. 1864, p. 271. 
N. S. Wales. 

6244 coxALGicA Boisd. Voy. Astrol. Col. 1835, p. 535; Lacord. 

Mon. p. 17. 
picta Hope, The Col. Man. III. 1840, p. 182, t. 2, f. 6. 
Spinolce Sturm. Cat. 1843, p. 357, t. 6, f. 7. 
var. Kingi Gray, GrifF, Anim. Kingd. Ins. III. t. 67, f. 2. 
N. S. Wales. 

AMETALLA. Hope. 

6245 Spinol^ Hope, The Col. Man. III. 1840, p. 180, t. 2, f. 5 ; 

Lacord. Mon. p. 88. 
Swan River, W. Australia. 

6246 STENODERA Lacord. Mon. Mem. Soc. Liege, III. 1845, p. 89. 

W. Australia. 

6247 W-NiGRUM Westw. Trans. Ent. Soc. ser. 3, II. 1864, p. 272. 

W. Australia. 

Sub-Family. CEIOCERIDES. 

LEMA. Fabricius. 

6248 BIFASCIATA Fabr. Syst. Ent. p. 120, 12 ; Oliv. Enc. Meth. 

VI. p. 199 3 Ent. VL 94, p. 734, t. 1, f. 11 ; Coqueb. 

111. Ins. III. p. 125, t. 28, ill. 
Australis Gmel. Ed. Linn. I. 4, p, 1721, 153. 
Australia. 

6249 CAMELUs Duviv. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1884, Bull. p. cccx. 

Australia. 

6250 FLAVosiGNATA Jac. Ann. Mus. Gen. XX. p. 190. 

Cape York, N. Australia. 

6251 FRONTALIS Baly, Ann. Nat. Hist. 1862, p. 17. 

Lizard Island, N. E. Australia. 



16 CATALOGUE OF THE DESCRIBED COLEOPTERA OF AUSTRALIA, 

6252 ocuLATA Fabr. Syst. Ent. 1775, p. 121 ; Syst. El. I. p. 458 ; 

Oliv. Enc. Meth. YL 1791, p. 200; Ent. VI. 94, p. 735, 
t. 1, f. 13 ; Lacord. Men. p. 541. 
Australia. 

6253 PURA Clark, Cat. Phyt. 1866, p. 27. 

immaculata Clark, Cat. Phyt. App. 1865, p. 38. 
Moreton Bay, Queensland. 

6254 RUFOTiNCTA Clark, Cat. Phyt. App. 1865, p. 36. 

K S. Wales. 

6255 TOGATA Lacord. Men. p. 343 ; W. S. Macleay, Dej. Cat. 

3 ed. p. 386. 
Australia. 

6256 UNiFASCiATA Fabr. Syst. Ent. 1775, p. 120; Syst. El. I. 

p. 476 ; Oliv. Enc. Meth. VI. 1791, p. 199 ; Ent. VI. 
94, p. 735, t. 1, f. 12 ; Lacord. Mon. p. 539. 
Australia. 

STETHOPACHYS. Baly. 

6257 FORMOSA Baly, Journ. of Ent. L 1860, p. 194. 

N. S. Wales. 

CRIOCERIS. Geoffrey. 

6258 Bakewelli Baly, Trans. Ent. Soc. n. ser. 1859, V. p. 151. 

N. S. Wales, and Queensland. 

6259 fuscomaculata Clark, Journ. of Ent. II. 1864, p. 249. 

N . S. Wales, and Queensland. 

6260 MULTIPUNCTATA Clark, Journ. of Ent. II. 1864, p. 249. 

N. S. Wales. 

6261 NiGRiPES Fabr. Syst. Ent. 1775, p. 120; Oliv. Enc. Meth. 

VI. p. 199 ; Ent. VI. 94, p. 733, t. 1, f. 10 ; Lacord. 

Mon. p. 573. 
Kovcu-Hollandia, Gmel. Ed. Linn. I. 4, p. 1722. 
Aitstralis Jac. Proc. Zool. Soc. 1876, p. 807. 
Australia. 



BY GEORGE MASTERS. 17 

MACROLEMA. Baly. 

6262 viTTATA Baly, Jouin. of Ent. I. 1861, p. 275 t. 13, f. 1. 

Moreton Bay, Queensland. 

Sub-Family. CLYTRIDES. 

DIAPHROMORPHA. Lacordaire. 

6263 CRYPTOCEPHALOiDES Lacord. Mon. Mem. Liege, 1848, p. 315. 

Australia. 

6264 SEXNOTATA Fabr. Syst. El. II. p. 31, 12 ; Oliv. Ent. VI. 96, 

p. 865, t. 2, f. 29; Suffr. Stett. Zeit. 1851, p. 216. 

Australia. 

Sub- Family. CRYPTOCEPHALIDES. 

LACHNABOTHRA. Saiinders. 

6265 BRACCATA Klug, Ent. Mon. p. 159, t. 6, f. 2, ^ ; Suffr. 

Gen. Col. X. p. 192, note 1. 

S. Australia. 

6266 Breweri Baly, Trans. Ent. Soc. 1871, p. 393. 

Swan River, W. Australia. 

6267 DisTiNCTA Baly, Trans. Ent. Soc. 1871, p. 393. V 

S. and W. Australia. 



6268 DuBOULAYi Baly, Trans. Ent. Soc. 1871, p. 399. 
W, Australia. 



L> # k; 



6269 HoPEi Saund. Trans. Ent. Soc. IV. 1847, p. 295, t. 15, f. 5 ; 

Suffr. Mon. XIII. p. 85; Baly, Trans. Ent. Soc. 1871, 
p. 392. 
Victoria. 

6270 INTEGRA Baly, Trans. Ent. Soc. 1871, p. 394. 

Adelaide, S. Australia. 

6271 Saundersi Baly, Trans. Ent. Soc. 1871, p. 397. 

Australia. 



18 CATALOGUE OP THE DESCRIBED COLEOPTERA OF AUSTRALIA, 

6272 Waterhousei, Baly, Trans. Ent. Soc. 1871, p. 396, 

Adelaide, S. Australia. 

6273 WiLSONi Baly, Trans. Ent. Soc. 1871, p. 395. 

Adelaide, S. Australia. 

PRASONOTUS. Suffrian. 

6274 FESTivus Suffr. Mon. Linn. Ent. XIII, 1859, p. 14. 

Victoria. 

6275 MORBILLOSUS Baly, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1877, p. 35 ; Chap. 

Journ. Mus. Godeffr. XIV. p. 75. 
W. Australia. 

6276 RUFiCAUDis Baly, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1877, p. 35. 

N. S.Wales. 

6277 suBMETALLicus Suffr. Mon. Linn. Ent. XIII. 1859, p. 12. 

W. Australia. 

BUCHARIS. Baly. 

6278 Chapuisi Baly, Journ. Linn, Soc. XIII. p. 462. 

S. Australia. 

6279 granulosus Baly, Journ. Linn. Soc. XIII. p. 462. 

Champion Bay, W. Australia. 

6280 MARTius Baly, Journ. Linn. Soc. XIII. p. 463. 

Moreton Bay, Queensland. 

TAPPESIA. Baly. 

6281 Saundersi Baly, Ann. Nat. Hist. ser. 4, XX. p. 379. 

S. Australia. 

ELAPHODES. Suffrian. 

6282 iENEOLUS Chap. Soc. Ent. Belg. XVIII. Bull. p. lxxxii. 

Australia. 

6283 ALBOHiRTUS Baly, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1871, p. 383. 

W, Australia. 

6284 AMicTus Chap. Soc. Ent. Belg. XVIIL Bull. p. lxxxii. 

Australia. 



BY GEORGE MASTERS. 19 

6285 CERViNus Suffr. Linn. Ent. XIII. 1859, p. 18. 

Victoria. 

6286 coNVEXiuscuLus Chap. Journ. Mus. GodefFr. XIY. p. 76. 

Peak Downs, Queensland. 

6287 DoHRNi Chap. Journ. Mus. Godeffr. XIY. p. 76. 

Gayndah, Queensland. 

6288 EPiLACHOiDES Chap. Soc. Ent. Belg. XVIII. Bull. p. lxxxii. 

Australia. 

6289 MURiNUS Chap. Journ. Mus. Godeffr. XIV. p. 75. 

Rockhampton, Queensland. 

6290 PILULA Chap. Soc. Ent. Belg. XVIII. Bull. p. Lxxxill. 

Australia. 

6291 RUFOVARius Chap. Soc. Ent. Belg. XVIII. Bull. p. lxxxii. 

Australia. 

6292 RUTiLTJS Chap. Soc. Ent. Belg. XVIII. Bull. p. lxxxii. 

Australia. 

6293 SANGUINOLENTUS Chap. Journ. Mus. Godeffr. XIV. p. 75. 

Gayndah, Queensland. 

6291: scuTELLARis Chap. Soc. Ent. Belg. XVIII. Bull. p. lxxxiii. 
Gayndah, Queensland. 

6295 siGNiFER Chap. Soc. Ent. Belg. XVIII. Bull. p. lxxxiii. 
Gayndah, Queensland. 

€296 TiGRiNus Chap. Soc. Ent. Belg. XVIII. Bull. p. lxxxiii. 
Gayndah, Queensland. 

6297 viTTiGER Chap. Journ. Mus. Godeffr. XIV. p. 75. 

Eockhampton, Queensland. 

6298 vulpinus Suffr. Mon. Linn. Ent. XIII. 1859, p. 20. 

Australia. 

DITROPIDUS. Erichson. 

6299 abdominalis Chap. Soc. Ent. Belg. XVIII. Bull. p. lxxix. 

Australia. 



20 CATALOGUE OF THE DESCRIBED COLEOPTERA OF AUSTRALIA, 

6300 ACicuLATUs Chap. Soc. Ent. Belg. XVIII. p. lxxviii. 

Australia. 

6301 ^NRiPENNis Boisd. Yoy. Astrol. Col. p. 588; Dej. Cat. 

3 ed. p. 449. 
Australia. 

6302 Albertisi Chap. Ann. Mus. Gen. IX. p. 337. 

Cape York, N. Australia. 

6303 AMABiLis Baly, Ann. Nat. Hist. ser. 4, XX. p. 383. 

Cape York, N. Australia. 

6304 angustifrons Chap. Soc. Ent. Belg. XYIII. Bull. p. lxxx. 

Australia. 

6305 ANTENNARius Chap. Journ. Mus. GodefFr. XIY. p. 76. 

Gayndah, Queensland. 

6306 ANTENNARius Baly, Ann. Nat. Hist. ser. 4, XX. p. 382. 

Moreton Bay, Queensland. 

6307 ANTHRACiNus Erichs. Wiegm. Arch. 1842, I. p. 234; Suffr. 

Mon. XIII. p. 34. 
Australia. 

6308 APiciFLAvus Chap. Soc. Ent. Belg. XVIII. Bull. p. lxxvii. 

Australia. 

6309 AURiCHALCEUs Suffr. Mon. XIII. p. 32. 

Victoria. 

6310 bacc^formis Chap. Journ. Mus. Godeffr. XIV. p. 76. 

Gayndah, Queensland. 

6311 bicolor Chap. Journ. Mus. Godeflfr. XIV. p. 76. 

Peak Downs, Queensland. 

6312 biplagiatus Baly, Trans. Ent. Soc. 1871, p. 389. 

Moreton Bay, Queensland. 

6313 Boops Suffr. Mon. XIII. p. 32. 

Melbourne, Victoria. 



BY GEORGE MASTERS. 21 

6314 CANESCENS Chap. Soc. Ent. Belg. XVIIT. Bull. p. lxxv. 

Australia. 

6315 CAviFRONS Chap. Soc. Ent. Belg. XVIII. Bull. p. lxxxi. 

Australia. 

6316 CARBON ARius Baly, Trans. Ent. Soc. 1871, p. 384. 

W, Australia. 

6317 ccERULESCENS Chap. Soc. Ent. Belg. XVIII. Bull. p. lxxviii. 

Australia. 

6318 coMANs Chap. Soc. Ent. Belg. XVIII. Bull. p. lxxv. 

Australia. 

6319 coMPTUs Chap. Soc. Ent. Belg. XVIII. Bull. p. lxxv. 

Australia. 

6320 CONCOLOR Saund. Trans. Ent. Soc. IV. ser. 4, 1847, p. 269. 

ater Saund. Trans. Ent. Soc. IV. ser. 4, 1847, p. 270. 

cistellus Germ. Linn. Ent. Ill, 1848, jx 242 ; Suffr. Mon. 

XIII. p. 28. 
Victoria and S. Australia. 

6321 CORNUTUS Baly, Ann. Nat. Hist. ser. 4, XX. p. 384. 

Australia. 

6322 cosTATUs Chap. Soc. Ent. Belg. XVIII. Bull. p. lxxii. 

Australia. 

6323 cosTATiPENNis Baly, Journ, Linn. Soc. XIII. p. 46.5. 

Champion Bay, W, Australia. 

6324 CUNEATUS Chap. Soc. Ent. Belg. XVIII. Bull. p. lxxvi. 

Australia. 

6325 CUPREUS Chap. Soc. Ent. Belg. XVIII. Bull. p. lxxviii. 

Australia. 

6326 Dawisi Saund. Trans. Ent. Soc. IV. 1847, p. 268, t. 

15, f. 4. 
S. Australia. 

6327 DiHiDiATUS Baly, Trans. Ent. Soc. 1871, p. 389. 

N. Austi'alia. 



22 CATALOGUE OF THE DESCRIBED COLEOPTERA OP AUSTRALIA, 

6328 DiSTiNGUENDUs Chap. Soc. Ent. Belg. XVIII. Bull. p. lxxix. 

Australia. 

6329 DoRi^ Chap. Ann. Mus. Gen. IX. p. 336. - 

Cape York, N. Australia. 

6330 DuBOULAYi Baly, Trans. Ent. Soc. 1871, p. 385. 

Champion Bay, W. Australia. 

6331 ELEGANTULUS Baly, Ann. Nat. Hist. ser. 4, XX. p. 381. 

Australia. 

6332 FACIALIS Baly, Journ. Linn. Soc. XIII. p. 466, 

S. Australia. 

6333 FASCiATUS Baly, Trans. Ent. Soc. 1871, p. 390. 

Champion Bay, W. Australia. 

6334 FRONTALIS Chap. Soc. Ent. Belg. XVIII. Bull. p. lxxx. 

Australia. 

6335 FUGiTivus Chap. Soc. Ent. Belg. XVIII. Bull. p. lxxvii. 

Austi'alia. 

6336 FULGiDus Suffr. Mon. XIII. p. 28. 

Australia. 

6337 FULVus Baly, Trans. Ent. Soc. 1871, p. 388. 

\V. Australia. 

6338 GAGATiNUS Erichs. Wie£;m. Arch. 1842, I. p. 234 ; Suffr. 

Mon. XIII. p. 35. 

Australia. 

6339 GEMiNATUS Chap. Soc. Ent. Belg. XVIII. Bull. p. lxxix. 

Australia. 

6340 GiBBULUs Suffr. Mon. XIII. p. 41. 

Australia. 

6341 GLOBUS Boisd. Voy. Astrol. Col. p. 589 ; Dej. Cat. 3 ed. 

p. 449. 

saprinoides Suffr. Mon. XIII. p. 47. 
Australia. 



BY GEORGE MASTERS. 23 

6342 GoDEFFROYi Chap. Journ, Mas. GoclefFr. XIV. p. 77. 

Peak Downs, Queensland. 

6343 HiRTicoLLis Baly, Trans. Ent. Soc. 1871, p. 384. 

W. Australia. 

6344 iMPERiALis Chap. Ann. Mus. Gen. IX. p. 335. 

Cape York, N. Australia. 

6345 Jacobyi Baly, Ann. Nat. Hist. ser. 4, XX. p. 380. 

S. Australia. 

6346 Jansoni Baly, Journ. Linn. Soc. XIII. p. 466. 

Rockhampton, Queensland. 

6347 LABiATUs Chap. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. XVIII. Bull. p. lxxx. 

A ustralia. 

6348 Lacordairei Chap. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. XVIII. Bull. 

p. LXXV. 

Australia. 

6349 LiETUS Baly, Journ. Linn. Soc. XIII. p. 464. 

S. Australia. 

6350 L^viGATUS Baly, Ann. Nat. Hist. ser. 4, XX. p. 380. 

N. Australia. 

6351 LAMINATUS Chap. Soc. Ent. Belg. XVIII. Bull. p. lxxix. 

Australia. 

6352 LATERiTius Chap. Journ. Mus. Godeffr. XIV. p. 76. 

Gayndah, Queensland. 

6353 LENTULUS Chap. Soc. Ent. Belg. XVIII. Bull. p. lxxxi. 

Australia, and Tasmania. 

6354 MACULicoLLis Chap. Soc. Ent. Belg. XVIII. Bull. p. lxxvi. 

Australia. 

6355 MACULiFRONS Chap. Soc. Ent. Belg. XVIII. Bull. p. lxxviii. 

Australia. 

6356 MAxiLLosus Suffr. Mon. XIII. p. 27. 

Victoria. 



24 CATALOGUE OF THE DESCRIBED COLEOPTERA OF AUSTRALIA, 

6357 NiTiDULOiDES Cliap. Journ. Mus. Godeflr. XIV. p. 76. 

Sydney, N. S. Wales. 

6358 NOBiLis CLap. Soc. Ent. Belg. XVIII. Bull. p. lxxxl 

Australia. 

6359 OBSiDiANUS Chap. Journ. Mus. Godeffr. XIV. p. 76. 

Gayndah, Queensland. 

6360 OBTUSus Chap. Soc. Ent. Belg. XVIII. Bull. p. lxxvi. 

Australia. 

6361 OCHROPUS Erichs. Wiegm. Arch. 1842, I. p. 233; Suffr. 

Mon. XIII. p 40. 
Tasmania. 

6362 Odewahni Baly, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1871, p. 387. 

S. Australia. 

6363 OPHTHALMICUS Suffr. Mon. XIII. p. 45. 

Australia. 

6364 OPULENTUS Chap. Soc. Ent. Belg. XVIII. Bull. p. Lxxvii. 

Australia. 

6365 ORNATUS Baly, Journ. Linn. Soc. XIII. p. 467. 

W. Australia. 

6366 OVATULUS Chap. Soc. Ent. Belg. XVIIT. Bull. p. lxxx. 

Australia. 

6367 PALLiDiPENNis Chap. Soc. Ent. Belg. XVIII. Bull. p. lxxvi. 

Australia. 

6368 Pascoei Baly, Ann Nat. Hist. ser. 4, XX. p. 381. 

Melbourne, Victoria. 

6369 pastus Chap. Soc. Ent. Belg. XVIII. Bull. p. lxxvil 

Australia. 

6370 PHALACROiDES Baly, Journ. Linn. Soc. XII I. p. 464. 

S. Australia. 

6371 PICTUS Baly, Ann. Nat. Hist. ser. 4, XX. p. 382. 

W. Australia. 



BY GEORGE MASTERS. 25 

6372 PUBEEULUS Chap. Soc. Ent. Belg. XVIII. Bull. p. lxxv. 

Australia. 

6373 puBicoLLis Chap. Soc. Ent Belg. XVIII. Bull. p. lxxv. 

Australia. 

6374 PULCHELLUS Baly, Journ. Linn. Soc. XIII, p. 468. 

S. Australia. 

6375 PUNCTULUM Chap. Soc. Ent. Belg. XVIII. Bull. p. lxxx. 

Australia. 

6376 PYRiFORMis Suffr. Mon. XIII. p. 45. 

Australia. 

6377 RUFESCENS Chap. Soc. Ent. Belg. XVIII. Bull. p. lxxvi. 

Australia. 

6378 RUPicoLLis Saund. Trans. Ent. Soc. ser. 4, IV. 1847, p. 269. 

Tasmania. 

6379 RUPiPES Saund. Trans. Ent. Soc. ser. 4, IV. 1847, p. 269. 

Tasmania. 

6380 RUFOcupREus Baly, Trans. Ent. Soc. 1871, p. 386. 

Champion Bay, W, Australia. 

6381 ScHMELZi Chap. Journ. Mus. Godeffr. XIV. p. 77. 

Peak Downs, Queensland. 

6382 SEMiciRCULARis Baly, Journ. Linn. Soc. XIII. p. 466. 

Australia. 

6383 SEMiNULUM Germ. Linn. Ent. III. p. 242 ; Suffr. Mon. XIIL 

p. 38. 
Adelaide, S. Australia. 

6384 SERENUS Baly, Journ. Linn. Soc. XIIL p. 468. 

S. Australia. 

6385 SPLENDiDus Chap. Soc. Eat. Belg. XVIII. Bull. p. Lxxviii. 

Australia. 

6386 STRIGOSUS Baly, Trans. Ent. Soc. 1871, p. 385. 

Champion Bay, W. Australia. 



26 CATALOGUE OF THE DESCRIBED COLEOPTERA OF AUSTRALIA, 

6387 suB^NEUs Chap. Soc, Ent. Belg. XVIII. Bull, p lxxix. 

Tasmania. 

6388 suBCYLiNDRicus Baly, Ann. Nat. Hist. ser. 4, XX. p. 385. 

W. Australia. 

6389 SUBMKTALLESCKNS Baly, Ann. Nat. Hist. ser. 4, XX. p. 383. 

Gawler, S. Australia. 

6390 SuFFRiANi Chap. Soc. Ent. Belg. XVIII. Bull. p. lxxviil 

Australia. 

6391 TARSATus Baly, Trans. Ent. Soc. 1871, p. 387. 

Champion Bay, W. Australia. 

6392 TIBIALIS Chap. Soc. Ent. Belg. XVIII. Bull. p. lxxix. 

Australia. 

6393 TRABEATUS Chap. Journ. Mus. Godeffr. XIV. p. 76, 

Peak Downs, Queensland. 

6394 XANTHOSTOMUS Suffr. Mon. XIII. p. 36. 

Australia. 

PLEOMORPHUS, Chapuis. 

5395 HiSTEROiDES Suffr. Mon. XIII. p. 31 ; Chap. Gen. Col. X. 
1874, p. 182. 
Australia. 

6396 FALLENS Chap. Journ. Mus. Godeffr. XVI. p. 77. 

Peak Downs, Queensland. 

6397 PUTRiDUS Chap. Journ. Mus. Godeffr. XVI. p. 77. 

Peak Downs, Queensland. 

COENOBIUS. Suffrian. 

6398 LUCiDULUS Chap. Ann. Mus. Gen. IX. p. 340. 

Cape York, N. Australia. 

POLYACHUS. Chapuis. 

6399 BicoLOR Baly, Ann. Nat. Hist. ser. 4, XX. p. 386. 

Gawler, S. Australia, 



BY GEORGE MASTERS. 27 

6400 GEMiNUS Chap. Soc. Ent. Belg. XVIII. Bull. p. lxxxi. 

N. S. Wales, and S. Australia. 

6401 MARGINICOLLIS Baly, Journ. Linn. Soc. XIII. p. 463. 

Swan River, W. Australia. 

CADMUS. Erichson. 

6402 ALTERNANS Chap. Soc. Ent. Belg. XV III. Bull. p. ci. 

Australia. 

6403 AMPLicoLLis Chap. Journ. Mus. Godeffr. XIV. p. 78. 

Rockhampton, Queensland. 

6404 ARROGANS Cliap. Soc. Ent. Belg. XVIII. Bull. p. xcix. 

Australia. 

6405 AURANTiAcus Chap. Soc. Ent. Belg. XVIII. Bull. p. xcviii. 

Australia. 

6406 AusTRALis Boisd. Voy. Astrol. Col. p. 584, t. 8, f. 15 ; 

Saund. Trans. Ent. Soc. IV. 1846, p. 202, t. 15, f. 2 ; 
SufFr. Mon. XIII. p. 52 ; Dej. Cat. 3 ed. p. 444. 
Australia and Tasmania. 

6407 BiFASCiATUS Saund. Trans. Ent. Soc. IV. ser. 3, 1846, p. 198, 

t. 15, f. 1. 
Australia. 

6408 cANALicuLATUS Chap. Soc. Ent. Belg. XVIII. Bull. p. c. 

Australia. 

6409 CARiosus Chap. Ann. Mus. Gen. IX. p. 342. 

N. S. Wales. 

6410 COGNATUS Saund. Trans. Ent. Soc. IV. ser. 3, 1846, p. 201, $. 

quadrituberculatus Suffr. Mon. XIII. p. 66, (J. 
Australia and Tasmania. 

6411 COLOSSUS Chap. Soc. Ent. Belg. XVIII. Bull. p. c. 

Austi"alia. 



28 CATALOGUE OP THE DESCRIBED COLEOPTERA OF AUSTRALIA, 

6412 CRUCicoLLis Boisd. Voy. Astrol. Col. p. 585; Sauiid. Ti'ans. 

Ent. Soc. IV. ser. 3, 1846, p. 198 ; Sufir. Mon. XIII. 

p. 73. 
var. crux-nigra Saund. Trans. Ent. Soc. IV. ser. 3, p. 199. 
var. Hopei Saund. I.e. p. 199. 
Australia, and Tasmania. 

6413 DORSALis Saund. Trans. Ent. Soc. IV. ser. 3, 1846, p. 204, 

t. 15, f. 3. 
var. Ewingi Saund. I.e. p. 204. 
Australia, and Tasmania. 

6414 EXCREMENTARius Suffr. Mon. XIII. p. 57. 

Australia. 

6415 FERRUGINEUS Fairm. Ann. Fr. 1843, p. 14, t. 1, f. 7-9; Suflfr. 

Mon. XIII. p. 89. 

foveicollis Saund. Trans. Ent. Soc. IV. ser. 3, p. 206. 
Australia, and Tasmania. 

'6416 FLAVOCINCTUS Saund. Trans. Ent. Soc. IV. ser. 3, 1846, 
p. 200 ; Sutfr. Mon. XIII. p. 78, $. 
cinnamomeus Suffr. Mon. XIII. p. 76, <^. 

N. S. Wales. 

6417 GiGAs Oliv. Ent. VI. p. 785, t. 4, f. 45. 

hifasciatus Saund. Trans. Ent. Soc. IV. ser. 3, 1846, p. 198, 

t. 15, f. I. 
Australia. 

6418 HiSTRiONYCUs Chap. Soc. Ent. Belg. XVIII. Bull. p. c. 

Australia. 

6419 Klugi Saund. Trans. Ent. Soc IV. ser. 3, 1846, p. 206. 

Australia. 

6420 LACERTiNUS Chap, Journ. Mus. Godeffr. XIV. p. 78. 

Rockhampton, Queensland. 

6421 LiTiGiosus Bohem. Res. Eugen. p. 155 ; Suffr. Mon. XIII. 

p. 55. 
N. S. Wales. 



BY GEORGE MASTERS. 29 

6422 LUCTUOSUS Chap. Soc. Ent. Belg. XVIII. Bull. p. xcvii. 

Australia. 

6423 LUTATUS Chap. Ann. Mus. Gen. IX. p. 342. 

N. S. Wales. 

6424 MACULICOLLIS Chap. Soc. Ent. Belg. XVIII. Bull. p. ci. 

Australia. 

6425 MONOCHRous Boisd. Voy. Astrol. Col. p. 585, t. 8, f. 16; 

Saund. Trans. Ent. Soc. IV. ser. 3, 1846, p. 201. 
Australia. 

6426 ORNATUS Chap. Soc. Ent. Belg. XVIII. Bull. p. xcviii. 

Austi'alia. 

6427 PACiFicus Suffr. Mon. XIII. p. 68. 

Australia. 

6428 PURPURASCENS Chap. Soc. Ent. Belg. XVIII. Bull. p. ci. 

Australia. 

6429 QUADRiviTTATUs Chap. Journ. Mus. Godeffr. XIV. p. 78. 

Rockhampton, Queensland. 

6430 RiNGENS Chap. Soc. Ent. Belg. XVI [I. Bull, p.xcix. 

Australia. 

6431 RUBiGiNosus Boisd. Voy. Astrol. Col. 1835, p. 587 ; W. S, 

Macleay, Dej. Cat. 3 ed. p. 444. 
gigas Suffr. Mon. XIII. p. 62. 

rugicoUin Gray, GrifF. Anim. Kingd. XV, p. 148, t. 67, f. 5 ; 

Saund. Trans. Ent. Soc. IV. ser. 3, 1846, p. 201. 
N. S. Wales. 

6432 RUFESCENS Saund. Trans. Ent. Soc. IV. ser. 3, 1846, p. 207^ 

Australia. 

6433 RUGOsus Suffr. Mon. XIII. p. 71 ; Dej. Cat. 3 ed. p. 444. 

Australia. 

6434 SALEBRosus Guer. Voy. Coquille, Ins. 1830, p. 143. 

Sydney, X. S. Wales. 



30 CATALOGUE OP THE DESCRIRED COLEOPTERA OF AUSTRALIA, 

6435 scuLPTiLis Chap. Soc. Ent. Belg. XVIII. Bull. p. xcix. 

Australia. 

6436 SCUTATUS Chap. Soc. Ent. Belg. XVIII. Bull. p. xcix. 

Australia. 

6437 SERicEUs Chap. Soc. Ent. Belg. XVIII. Bull. p. xcvn. 

Australia. 

6438 STRATioTicus Chap. Soc. Ent. Belg. XVII I. Bull. p. xcix. 

Australia. 

6439 STRiGiLLATUs Chap. Soc. Ent. Belg. XVIII. Bull. p. xcviii. 

Australia. 

6440 Tasmanicus Sauncl. Trans. Ent. Soc. IV. ser. 3, 1846, p. 205. 

Tasmania. 

6441 TRiSPiLus Chap. Soc. Ent. Belg. XVIII. Bull. p. ci. 

Australia. 

6442 VERRUCOSUS Chap. Journ. Mus. Godeflfr. XIV. p. 79. 

Gayndah, Queensland. 

6443 viBRANS Suffr. Mon. XIII. p. 59. 

Victoria. 

PARACADMUS. Baly. 

6444 LUCiFUGUS Baly, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1877, p. 228. 

Australia. 

CYPHODERA. Baly. 

6445 CHLAMYDiFORMis Germ. (Cadmus) Linn. Ent. III. 1848, 

p. 244 ; Suffr. Mon. XIII. p. 84 ; Baly, Trans. Ent. 
Soc. Lond. 1877, p. 25. 
S. Australia. 

CHARIDERMA. Baly. 

6446 PULCHELLA Baly, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1877, p. 29. 

W. Australia. 

CRYPTOCEPHALUS. Geoffrey. 

6447 ACicuLATUS Chap. Soc. Ent. Belg. XVIII. Bull. p. xcii. 

Australia. 



BY GEORGE MASTERS. 31 

6448 ^GER Chap. Soc. Ent. Belg. XVIII. Bull. p. xcvi. 

Australia. 

6449 ALBiLiNEA Sauiid. Trans. Ent. Soc. IV. 2, 1845, p. 145; 

Suffr. Mon. XIII. p. 104. 
marginicoUis Saund. I.e. p. 145, 2- 
Australia, and Tasmania. 

6450 ANTENNALis Chap. Soc. Ent. Belg. XVIII. Bull. p. xcvi. 

Australia. 

6451 APiCALis Saund. Trans. Ent. Soc. IV. 2, 1845, p. 154. 

Tasmania. 

6452 ARGENTATUS Chap. Soc. Ent. Belg. XVIII. Bull. p. xcii. 

Australia. 

6453 ATER Saund. Trans. Ent. Soc. IV. 2, 1845, p. 145. 

Tasmania. 

6454 ATTENUATUs Chap. Soc. Ent. Belg. XVIII. Bull. p. xcvii. 

Australia. 

6455 AusTRALis Saund, Proc. Ent. Soc. 1841, p. 56 ; Trans. Ent. 

Soc. IV. 2, 1845, p. 152, t. 9, f. 6. 
Swan River, W. Australia. 

6456 BELLA Baly, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1877, p. 225 (Idioce- 

phala). 
Cape York, N. Australia. 

6457 BELLicosus Chap. Soc. Ent. Belg. XVIII. Bull. p. xcv. 

Australia. 

6458 BiHAMATUS Chap. Soc. Ent. Belg. XVIII. Bull. p. xciv. 

Australia. 

6459 Bynoei Saund. Trans. Ent. Soc. IV. 2, 1845, p. 146. 

Australia. 

6460 CARNiFEx Suffr. Mon. XIII. p. 93. 

Australia. 

6461 CASTus Suffr. Mon. XIII. p. 120. 

W. Australia. 



32 CATALOGUE OP THE DESCRIBED COLEOPTERA OF AUSTRALIA, 

6462 Chapuisi Baly, Trans. Ent. See. Lend. 1877, p. 224, 

(Idiocephala). 
Rockhampton, Queensland. 

6463 CHRYsoMELiNUS Chap. Soc. Ent. Belg. XVIII. Bull. p. xc. 

Australia. 

6464 CLAvicoRNis Chap. Soc. Ent. Belg. XVIII. Bull. p. xcvi. 

Australia. 

6465 CONSORS Boisd. Voy. Astrol. Col. p. 588, t. 8, f. 17; SiifFr. 

Mon.XIII. p. 101. 

Roei Saund. Trans. Ent. Soc. IV. 2, 1845, p. 143. 
Australia, (Swan Biver, &c.) 

6466 coNVEXicoLLis Chap. Soc. Ent. Belg. XVIII. Bull. p. xci. 

Australia. 

6467 CRASsicoRNis Chap. Soc. Ent. Belg. XVIII. Bull. p. xcv. 

Australia. 

6468 CYANiPENNis Saund. Trans. Ent. Soc. IV. 2, 1845, p. 144. 

condensatus Suffr. Mon. XIII. p. 118 (Idiocephala). 
Australia. 

6469 CYANIPENNIS Chap. Soc. Ent. Belg. XVIII. Bull. p. xciii, 

Australia. 

6470 CYANOPHANUS Chap. Journ. Mus. Godeffr. XIV. p. 78. 

Gayndah, Queensland. 

6471 DiCHROus Chap. Soc. Ent. Belg. XVIII. Bull. p. xciii. 

Australia. 

6472 DiscoiDBUS Chap. Journ. Mus. GodefFr. XIV. p. 77. 

Peak Downs, Queensland. 

6473 EROSUS Saund. Proc. Ent. Soc. 1841, p. 56 ; Trans. EnL 

Soc. IV. 2, 1845, p. 153 (Ochrosopsis). 

6474 EUUDiTUS Baly, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1877, p. 30 (Ochros- 

opsis) 
S, Australia. 



BY GEORGE MASTERS. 33 

6475 EUMOLPHUS Chap. Soc. Ent. Belg. XVIII. Bull. p. xc. 

Australia. 

6476 FASCiALis Chap. Joui-D. Mus. Godeffr. XIV. p. 78. 

Gayndah, Queensland. 

6477 GRACiLiOR Chap. Soc. Ent. Belg. XVIII. Bull. p. xci. 

Australia. 

6478 H^MATODES Boisd. Voy. Astrol. Col. p. 586 ; Saund. Trans. 

Ent. Soc. IV. 2, 1845, p. 142. t. 9, f. 1 ; Suffr. Mon. 
XIII. p. 151. (Dicenopsis). 

6479 HispiDus Chap. Journ. Mus. Godeffr. XIV. p. 72. 

Gayndah, Queensland. 

6480 IRIDIPENNIS Chap. Ann. Mus. Gen. IX. p. 344. 

Australia. 

6481 jocosus Chap. Soc. Ent. Belg. XVIII. Bull. p. xcv. 

Australia. 

6482 Jacksoni Guer. Voy. Coquille, Ins. 1830, p. 143. 

Port Jackson, N. S. Wales. 

6483 L.EVICOLLIS Gebler, Ledeb. Reis. II. 3, 1830, p. 205. 

var. arennensis Weise, Naturg. d. Insect. Deutsch. VI. 1, 

p. 159. 
Australia. 

6484 MELANOCEPHALUS Saund. Proc. Ent. Soc. 1841, p. 57 ; Trans. 

Ent. Soc. IV. 2, 1845, p. 153 ; Suffr Mon. XIII. p. 107 
(Ochrosopsis). 
Australia. 

6485 NiGRTPENNis Baly, Journ. Linn. Soc. XIII. p. 459 (Idioce- 

phala). 
Rockhampton, Queensland. 

6486 PARENTHETicus Suffr. Mon. XIII. p. 96. 

Avistralia. 

6487 PERLONGUS Chap. Soc. Ent. Belg. XVIII. Bull. p. xciv. 

Australia and Tasmania. 
3 



34 CATALOGUE OP THE DESCRIBED COLEOPTERA OF AUSTRALIA, 

6488 pcEciLODERMUS Chap. Soc. Ent. Belg. XYIII, Bull. p. xcv. 

Australia. 

6489 PULCHELLUs Saund. Trans. Ent. Soc. lY. 2, 1845, p. 144; 

Suffr. Mon. XIII. p. 152, (Idiocepliala). 
Australia. 

6490 RUFESCENS Saund. Trans. Ent. Soc. IV. 2, 1845, p. 154. 

suhsulcatus Suffr. Mon. XIII. p. 116, (Ochrosopsis). 
Australia and Tasmania. 

6491 RUGiFRONS Chap. Soc. Ent. Belg. XVIII. Bull. p. xciii. 

Australia, 

6492 scABEOSUS Oliv. Ent. VI. p. 807, t. 5, £. 74 ; Suffr. Mon. 

XIII. p. 112. 
rugosus Saund. Trans. Ent. Soc. IV. 2, 1845, p. 146, 

(Idiocepliala). 
N. S. Wales. 

6493 siMiLis Saund. Trans. Ent. Soc. IV. 2, 1845, p. 147 ; Suffr. 

Mon. XIII. p. 115, (Idiocephala). 

N. S. Wales. 

6494 SPEClosus Guer. Voy. Coquille, Ins. 1830, p. 143 ; Icon. t. 

48, f. 7; Boisd. Voy. Astrol. Col. p. 587; d'Urville, 
Dej. Cat. 3 ed. p. 444, (Physicerus). 
Australia. 

6495 STiCTicus Suffr. Mon. XIII. p. 109. 

N. S. Wales. 

6496 SUBFASCIATUS Saund. Trans. Ent. Soc. IV. 2, 1845, p. 153, 

(Idiocephala). 
Australia. 

6497 TERMiNALis Chap. Journ. Mus. Godeffr, XIV. p. 78. 

Gayndah, Queensland. 

6498 VERMicuLARis Saund. Proc. Ent. Soc. 1841, p. 56 ; Trans. 

Ent. Soc. IV. 2, 1845, p. 152, (Ochrosopsis). 

6499 viRiDiNiTENS Chap. Soc. Ent. Belg. XVIII. Bull, p, xciv. 

Australia. 



BY GEORGE MASTERS. 35 

6500 viRiDis Saund. Trans. Ent. Soc. lY. 5, 1847, p. 294, t. 15, 

f. 6 ; Suffr. Mon. XIII. p. 166. 

N. S. Wales. 

PARACEPHALA. Baly. 

6501 FiLUM Chap. Soc. Ent. XVIII. Bull. p. xcv. 

Australia. 

6502 PECTORALis Baly, Trans. Ent. Soc. 1877, p. 223. 

Cape York, N. Australia. 

MITOCERA. Saunders. 

6503 TRICOLOR Fabr. Syst. El. II. 1801, p. 51. 

N. S. Wales. 

6504 viRiDiPENNis Saund. Proc. Ent. Soc. 1841, p. 54; Trans. 

Ent. Soc. 1845, p. 151, t. 9. f. 5 ; Suflfr. Mon. XIII, 
p. 157. 
Swan River, W. Australia. 

EUPHYMA. Baly. 

6505 ELEGANS Saund. Trans. Ent. Soc. lY. 2, 1845, p. 143, t. 9, 

f. 2 ; Suffr. Mon. XIII. p. 103 (Idiocephala) ; Baly. 

Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1877, p. 224, 
axillaris Sturm. Cat. 1843, p. 304. 
N. S. Wales. 

6506 FLAVivENTRis Saund. Trans. Ent. Soc. lY. 2, 1845, p. 147; 

Suffr. Mon. XIII. p. 123 (Idiocephala) ; Baly, Trans. 

Ent. Soc. Lond. 1877, p. 224. 
N. S. Wales. 

APOROCERA. Saunders. 

6507 APiCALis Saund. Proc. Ent. Soc. 1841, p. 53; Trans. Ent. 

Soc. lY. 2, p. 150, t. 9, f. 4. 
N. S. Wales. 

6508 BicoLOR Saund. Trans. Ent. Soc. lY. 2, 1845, p. 149, t. 9, 

f. 3. 

N. S. Wales. 



36 CATALOGUE OP THE DESCRIBED COLEOPTERA OF AUSTRALIA, 

6509 CATOXANTHA Saund. Trans. Ent. Soc. IV. 2, 1845, p. 150. 

Port Essington, N. Australia. 

6510 CHALYBEA Saund. Proc. Ent. Soc. 1841, p. 57 ; Trans. Ent. 

Soc. TV. 2, 1845, p. 150. 
Port Essington, N. Australia, 

RHOMBOSTERNUS. Suffrian. 

6511 ANTENNATUS Baly, Journ. Linn. Soc. XIII. p. 460. 

N. W. Australia. 

6512 ciCATRicosus Chap. Soc. Ent. Belg. XVIII. Bull. p. cii. 

Australia. 

6513 GRACiLicoRNis Baly, Journ. Linn. Soc. XIII. p. 461. 

N. W. Australia. 

6514 PRETiosus Baly, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1877, p. 226. 

Aiistralia. 

6515 SARTOR Suffr. Mon. Linn. Ent. XIIL 1859, p. 145. 

Australia. 

6516 Saundersi Chap. Soc. Ent. Belg. XVIII. Bull. p. en. 

Australia. 

6517 suLPHURiPENNis Baly, Journ. Linn. Soc. XIIL p. 459. 

S. Australia. 

6518 SUTOR Suffr. Mon. Lmn. Ent. XIIL 1859, p. 143. 

Australia. 

SCHIZOSTERNUS. Cliapuis. 

6519 albogularis Chap. Soc. Ent. Belg. XVIII. Bull. p. xliv. 

Australia. 

6520 cocciNEUS Chap. Journ. Mus. Godeffr. XIV. p. 79. 

Gayndah, Queensland. 

LOXOPLEURUS. Suffrian. 

6521 .eneolus Chap. Soc. Ent. Belg. XIX. Bull. p. xxxviii. 

Australia. 



BY GEORGE MASTERS. 37 

6522 .EREUS Suffr. Mon. Linn. Ent. XIII. 1859, p. 131 ; Sturm. 

Cat. 1843, p. 304. 
Australia. 

6523 ATRAMENTARius Chap. Soc. Ent. Belg. XIX. Bull. p. xli. 

Australia. 

6524 AURicuLATUS Suffr. Mon. Linn. Ent. XIII. 1859, p. 129. 

Australia. 

6525 CHALCEUS Chap. Soc. Ent. Belg. XIX. Bull. p. xl. 

Australia. 

6526 CHALYBEUS Chap. Soc. Ent. Belg. XIX. Bull. p. xliii. 

Australia. 

6527 cOLLARis Chap. Soc. Ent. Belg. XIX. Bull. p. xxxix. 

Australia. 

6528 coxJUGATUS Chap. Soc. Ent. Belg. XIX. Bull. p. xxxix. 

Australia. 

6529 coRRUscus Chap. Soc. Ent. Belg. XIX. Bull. p. xl. 

Australia. 

6530 CRASSicosTATUs Chap. Soc. Ent. Belg. XIX. Bull. p. xliii. 

Australia. 

6531 D^MONiACUS Suffr. Mon. Linn. Eut. XIII. 1859, p. 129. 

Australia. 

6532 Darwini Saund. Trans. Ent. Soc. IV. 2, 1845, p. 148. 
. sid>hrun7ieus Saund. I.e. p. 148 (Idiocephala). 

N. S. Wales. 

6533 DiFFiciLis Chap. Soc. Ent. Belg. XIX. Bull. p. xxxix. 

Australia. 

6534 ERYTHROTis Chap. Soc. Ent. Belg. XIX. Bull. p. xxxviii. 

Australia. 

6535 GENiALis Chap. Soc. Ent. Belg. XIX. Bull. p. xlii. 

Australia. 



38 CATALOGUE OP THE DESCRIBED COLEOPTERA OP AUSTRALIA, 

6536 GiBBUs Chap. See. Ent. Belg. XIX. Bull. p. xli. 

Australia. 

6537 GRAVATUS Chap, Soc. Ent. Belg. XIX. Bull. p. xli. 

Australia. 

6538 iMPRESSicoLLis Bohem. Res. Eugen. p. 160; Suffr. 

Mon. XIII. p. ] 39. 

N. S. Wales. 

6539 L^viuscuLus Chap. Soc. Ent. Belg. XIX. Bull. p. xlii. 

Australia. 

6540 LiBERTiNus Suflfr. MoH. Liuu. Ent. XIIT. 1859, p. 127. 

Australia. 

6541 METALLicus Chap. Soc. Ent. Belg. XIX. Bull. p. xl. 

Australia. 

6542 NiGRiTUS Chap. Soc. Ent. Belg. XIX. Bull. p. xli. 

A usti-alia. 

6543 OBTUSUS Chap. Soc. Ent. Belg. XTX. Bull. p. xli. 

Australia. 

6544 PAUPERCULUS Germ. Linu. Ent. III. p. 241 ; Suffr. 

Mon. XIII. p. 135. 
S. Australia. 

6545 PAuxiLLUs Chap. Soc. Ent. Belg. XIX. Bull. p. xliii. 

Australia. 

6546 piCEiTARSis Chap. Soc. Ent. Belg. XIX. Bull. p. xxxix. 

Australia. 

6547 PLAGicoLLis Chap. Soc. Ent. Belg. XIX. Bull. p. xxxviii. 

Australia. 

6548 PLAGiNOTUS Chap. Journ. Mus. Godeffr. XIV. p. 79. 

Rockhampton, Queensland. 

6549 PECTORALTS Chap. Journ. Mus. Godeffr. XIV. p. 79. 

Rockhampton, Queensland. 

6550 POSTREMUS Chap. Soc. Ent. Belg. XIX. Bull. p. xxxviii. 

Australia. 



BY GEORGE MASTERS. 39 

6551 RUFESGEXS Boliem. Res. Eugen. p. 161 ; Suffr. Mon. XTII. 

p. 137. 
N". S. Wales. 

6552 sEiricosTATus Chap. Soc. Eat. Belg. XIX. Bull. p. xliii. 

Australia. 

6553 Sturmi Chap. Soc. Ent. Belg. XIX. Bull. p. xxxvii, 

Australia. 

6554 SUBVIRENS Chap. Soc. Ent. Belg. XIX. Bull. p. XLii. 

Australia. 

6555 Tasmanicds Saund. Trans. Ent. Soc. lY. 2, 1845, p. 148 

(Idiocephala) 
Tasmania. 

6556 VERTiCALis Chap. Soc. Ent. Belg. XIX. Bull. p. xxxvili. 

Australia. 

DIANDICHUS. Chapuis. 

6557 ANALis Chap. Gen. Col. X. 1874, p. 165. 

Australia 

Sub-Family. EUMOLPIDES. 

NOD A. Chapuis. 

6558 PROXIMA Bohem. Res. Eugen. 1860, p. 164. 

N. S. Wales. 

6559 Tasmanica Jac. Proc. Zool. Soc. 1879, p. 777. 

Tasmania. 

ALITTUS. Chapuis. 

6560 FOVEOLATus Chap. Gen. Col. X. 1874, p. 243, note 2. 

Port Denison, Queensland. 

TERILLUS. Chapuis. 

6561 DuBOULAYi Baly, Journ. Linn. Soc. Zool. XIII. p. 471. 

W. Australia. 

6562 FOVEOLATUS Baly, Journ. Linn. Soc. Zool. XIII. p. 469. 

W. Australia. 



40 CATALOGUE OF THE DESCRIBED COLEOPTERA OF AUSTRALIA, 

6563 PERPLExus Baly, Journ. Linn. Soc. Zool. XIII. p. 470. 

W. Australia. 

6564 POEOSUS Jac. Proc. Zool. Soc. 1882, p. 54, 

Australia. 

6565 ROTUNDicoLLis Chap. Gen. Col. X. 1874, p. 244, note 1. 

King George's Sound, W. Australia. 

6566 SQUAMOSUS Baly, Journ. Linn. Soc. Zool. XIII. p. 470. 

W. Australia. 

6567 viTTATUS Baly, Journ. Linn. Soc. Zool. XIII. p. 471. 

Rockhampton, Queensland. 

COLASPIS. Fabricius. 

6568 sEMisTRiATA Oliv. Eat. VI. p. 890, t. 2, f. 25. 

Australia. 

6569 STRiATOPUNCTATA Boisd. Voy. Astrol. Col. 1835, p. 581. 

Australia. 

AGETINUS. Chapuis. 

6570 AusTRALis Boisd. "Voy. Astrol. Col. p. 583 (Colaspis) ; Lef. 

Rev. et Mag. de Zool. 1876, p. 295. 
Australia. 

6571 CORINTHUS Boisd. Voy. Astrol. Col. p. 582 (Colaspis) ; Lef. 

Rev. et Mag. de Zool. 1876, p. 295. 
Geloptera geniculata Baly, Journ. of Ent. I. 1861, p. 284. 
Australia. 

6572 JUGULARis Erichs. VViegni. Arch. 1842, p. 232 (Colaspis) ; 

Lef. Rev. et Mag. de Zool. 1876, p. 295. 
Tasmania. 

6573 SUBCOSTATUS Chap. Gen. Col. X. 1874, p. 252, note 1 

(Agetus). 
Adelaide, S. Australia. 

HYPODERES. Lefevre. 

6574 DENTiooLLis Lef. Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1877, p. 154. 

Geloptera vestita Baly, Journ. Linn. Soc. Zool. XIII. 

p. 473 ; Lef. Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1884, Bull. p. xlvi. 
Moreton Bay, Queensland. 



BY GEORGE MASTERS. 41 

GELOPTEEA. Baly. 

6575 Albertisi Jac. Ami. Mus. Civ. Gen. XX. 1884, p. 277. 

Cape York, N. Australia. 

6576 DuBOULAYi Clark, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1865, p. 417. 

Champion Bay, W. Australia. 

6577 IGNEONITENS Balj, Journ. Linn. Soc. Zool. XIII. p. 472. 

W. Australia. 

6578 NODOSA Clark, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1865, p. 418. 

Champion Bay, W. Australia. 

6579 TUBERCULATA Baly, Journ. of Ent. I. 1861, p. 284. 

Adelaide, S. Australia. 

DERMORHYTIS. Baly. 

6580 FEMORALis Jac. Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen. XX., 1884, p. 229. 

Australia. 

SPILOPYRA. Baly. 

6581 suMPTtJOSA Baly, Journ. of Ent. I. 1860, p. 25, t. 1, f. 3. 

N. S. Wales, and Queensland. 

TOMYPJS. Chapuis. 

6582 ELEGANTULA Lef. Mem. Soc. Liege, XL Cat. Eumolp. p. 64. 

Tasmania. 

6583 PROXiMA Erichs. Wiegm. Arch. 1842, p. 233 (Oclontionopa) ; 

Lef. Rev. Mag. Zool. 1876, p. 302. 
Tasmania. 

6584 PULCHELLA Chap. Gen. Col. X. 1874, p. 266, note 1, 

t. cxix. f. 2. 

K S. Wales (Sydney). 

6585 pusiLLA. Lef. Mem. Soc. Liege, XL Cat. Eumolp. p. 64. 

King George's Sound, W. Australia. 

6586 VIRIDULA Erichs. Wiegm. Arch. 1842, p. 232 (Odontioiiopa) ; 

Lef. Rev. Mag. Zool. 1876, p. 302. 
Tasmania. 



\ 



.':^\ 






42 CATALOGUE OF THE DESCRIBED COLEOPTERA OP AUSTRALIA, 

SCELODONTA. Westwood. 

6587 SiMONi Baly, Journ. Linn. Soc. 1877, p. 251. 

Rockhampton, Queensland. 

RHYPARIDA. . Baly. 

6588 APicALis Jac. Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen. XX. 1884, p. 207. 

Cape York, N. Australia. 

6589 BASALTS Baly, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1867, p. 168. 

Cape York, N. Australia. 

6590 CLYPEATA Jac. Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen. XX. 1884, p. 204 

Cape York, N. Australia. 

6591 DiDYMA Fabr. Sjst. Ent. p. 107 ; Don. Epit. Ins. N. Holl. 

1805, t. II. ; Oliv. Ent. VI. p. 789, t. 4, f. 51 ; Clark, 

Journ. of Ent. II. 1864, p. 252. 
yzx. fulvoiTilacjiata Jac. Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen. XX , p. 210. 
Cape York, N. Australia. 

6592 DiMiDiATA Baly, Journ. ot Ent. I. 1861, p. 286. 

Moreton Bay, Queensland. 

6593 FLAVA Clark, Journ. of Ent. II. 1864, p. 255 (Marseus) 

K S. Wales. 

6594 FULVO-LiMBATA Lef. Mem. Soc. Liege, XL 1885, Cat. Eumolp. 

p. 95, note 1. 
Sydney, N. S. Wales. 

6595 HowiTTi Baly, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1877. p. 41. 

Australia. 

6596 MACULicoLLis Baly, Journ. Linn. Soc. XIII. p. 473. 

Rockhampton, Queensland. 

6597 MiNUTA Jac. Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen. XX. 1884, p. 208. 

Cape York, N. Australia 

6598 MOROSA Jac. Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen. XX. 1884, p. 202. 

Australia. 



BY GEORGE MASTERS. 43 

6599 NIGROCYANEA Clark, Journ. of Ent. II. 1864, p. 258 (Mar- 

seus). 
N. S. Wales. 

6600 NiTiDA Clark, Journ. of Ent. II. 1864, p. 252. 

N. S. Wales. 

6601 RUFA Clark, Journ. of Ent. II. 1864, p. 253 (Marseus). 

K S. Wales. 

6602 RUFICOLLIS Clark, Journ. of Ent. II. 1864, p. 254 (Mar- 

seus). 
N. S. Wales. 

6603 RUFOFLAVA Clark, Journ. of Ent. II. 1864, p. 255 (Marseus). 

Australia. 

6604 viTTATA Blanch. Yoy. Pole Sud, IV. p. 327, t. xix. f. 4 

(Marseus) ; Clark, Journ. of Ent. II. 1864, p. 252. 
Northern Queensland. 

EUMOLPHUS. Weber. 

6605 viRiDiiENEUS Blanch. Voy. Pole Sud, IV. Zool. p. 327, t. 

XIX. f. 5. 
Raffle's Bay, N. Australia. 

COLASPOSOMA. Castelnau. 

6606 SELLATUM Baly, Joura. Linn. Soc. XIV. 1S77, p. 254. 

harhatum Har. Col. Heft. XVI. 1879, p. 229 ; Jac. Proc. 

Zool. Soc. 1881, p. 446. 
W. Australia, and Queensland. 

THAUMASTOMERUS. Clark. 

6607 viRiDis Clark, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond, ser. 3, II. 1865, 

p. 419. 
Champion Bay, W. Australia. 

OCNIDA. Lefevre. 

6608 PALLIDA Baly, Journ. Linn. Soc. XIV. 1877, p. 254 (Ocnus); 

Lef. Mem. Soc. Liege, XI. Cat. Eumolph. p. 111. 
W. Australia. 



44 CATALOGUE OF THE DESCRIBED COLEOPTERA OF AUSTRALIA, 

6609 viRiDis Clark, Trans. Ent. Soc Lond. 1865, p. 461. 

Champion Bay, W. Australia. 

EDUSA. Chapuis. 

6610 AUREOViRiDis Clark, Trans. Ent. Sjc. Lond. ser. 3, II. 1865, 

p. 419. 
Champion Bay, W. Australia. 

6611 CHRYSURA Germ. Lina. Ent. III. 1848, p. 239 (Colaspis). 

Adelaide, S. Australia. 

6612 EVANESCENS Bohem. Res. Eugen. p. 167. 

Sydney, N. S. Wales. 

6613 HiSPiDULA. Clark, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. ser. 3, II. 1865, 

p. 420. 
Champion Bay, W. Australia. 

6614 MUTICA Germ. Linn. Ent. III. 1848, p. 240 (Colaspis). 

Adelaide, S. Avistralia. 

G615 NIGRO-.ENEA Clark, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. ser. 3, II. 1865, 
p. 420. 
Champion Bay, W. Australia. 

6616 PUBERULA Bohem. Res. Eugen. p. 167 ; Chap. Gen. Col. X. 

p. 309 (Edusina). 
Sydney, N. S. Wales. 

6617 SETOSA Clark, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. ser. 3, II. 1865, 

p. 419. 
Champion Bay, W. Australia. 

6618 SUAVEOLA Germ. Linn. Ent. III. 1848, p. 240 (Colaspis). 

Adelaide, S. Australia. 

6619 suTURALis Chap. Gen. Col. X. p. 309, note 1 (Edusella). 

Australia. 

6620 VARiPES Boisd. Voy. Astrol. Col. 1835, p. 581 ; Latr. Dej. 

Cat. 3 ed. p. 432. 
Australia. 



BY GEORGE MASTERS. 45 

6621 viRiDicoLLis Lef. Eev. Mag. Zool. 1875, p. 131. 

Australia. 

6622 viRiDiPENNis Bohera. Res. Eiigen. p. 167. 

Sydney, N. S. Wales. 

CLEPTOR. Lefevre. 

6623 iNERMis Lef. Mem. Soc. Liege, XI. Cat. Eumolp. p. 115. 

Queensland. 

6624 RUFiMANUS Lef. Mem. Soc. Liege, XL Cat. Eumolp. p. 115. 

Port Denison, Queensland. 

NEOCLES. Chapuis. 

6625 suLCicoLLis Chap. Gen. Col. X. 1874, p. 231, note 1. 

Sydney, N. S. Wales. 

TYPOPHORUS. Erichson. 

P626 AusTRALis Bohem. Res. Eugen. p. 162. 
Sydney, N. S. Wales. 

EURYDEMUS. Chapuis. 

6627 GRANDis Baly, Journ. of Ent. I. 1861, p. 287 (Rhyparida) ; 

Journ. Linn. Soc. Zool. XIV. 1877, p. 259. 

insignis Chap. Gen. Col. X. 1874, p. 334; Lef. M6m. Soc. 

Liege, XL Cat. Eumolp. p. 156. 
Australia. 

CLEORINA. Lefevre. 

6628 PULCHELLA Lef. Mem. Soc. Liege, XL Cat. Eumolp. p. 145. 

Cooktown, N. Queensland. 

COLASPOIDES. Castelnau. 

6629 AusTRALis Jac. Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1879, p. 780. 

Queensland. 

6630 siMPLiciPENNis Jac. Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen. 1885, p. 20. 

Australia. 



46 CATALOGUE OF THE DESCRIBED COLEOPTERA OF AUSTRALIA, 

6631 XANTHOPUS Har. Col. Heft. XVI. 1879, p. 230. 

Queensland, 

Sub-Family. CHRYSOMELIDES. 

PLAGIODERA. Kedtenbacher. 

6632 LowNli Baly, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. ser. 3, 1863, p. 622. 

Sydney, N. S. \^ales. 

CYCLONODA. Baly. 

6633 PiLULA Clark, Journ. of Ent. II. 1864, p. 251, t. 12, f. 4 

(Chalcomela) ; Baly, Journ. Linn. Soc. Lond. 1878, 
XIII, p. 474. 
Swan River, W. Australia. 

6634 suBPUNCTATA Clark, Trans. Ent Soc. Lond. ser. 3, 11. 1865, 

p. 417 (Chalcomela). 
Champion Bay, W. Australia. 

^SERNOIDES. Jacoby. 

6635 NiGROPASciATus Jac. Ent. Month. Mag. 1865, XXL p. 223. 

S. Queensland. 

CHRYSOMELA. Limi6, 

6636 CARBONATA Boisd. Voy. Astrol. Col. 1835, p. 580. 

Australia. 

6637 cuPRiPENNis Baly, Trans. Ent, Soc. Lond. n. ser. III. 1856, 

p. 261 (Micromela). 
Melbourne, Victoria. 

6638 FULViLABRis Germ. Linn. Ent. IIL 1848, p. 238; Baly, 

Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. n. ser. IIL 1856, p. 247. 

Adelaide, S. Australia. 

6639 Jansoni Baly, Ann. Nat. Hist. ser. 3, XV. 1865, p. 33. 

(Carystea). 
Swan River, W. Australia. 



BY GEORGE MASTERS. 47 

6640 INORNATA Baly, Ann. Nat. Hist, ser 3, XV. 1865 p. 33. 

(Carystea). 
Swan River, W. Australia. 

6641 MiCANS Baly, Ent. Month. Mag. XIII. 1876, p.80 (Carystea). 

Champion Bay, W. Australia. 

6642 TRiLiNEATA Boiscl. Voy. Astrol. Col. 1835, p. 579 : d'Urville, 

Dej, Cat. 3 ed. p. 427. 
Australia. 

CYCLOMELA. Baly. 

6643 NITIDA Baly, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. n. ser. III. 1856, p. 257, 

t. 14, f. 9. 
More ton Bay, Queensland. 

CHALCOMELA. Baly. 

6644 EXIMIA Baly, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. n. ser. III. 1856, 

p. 260, t. 14, f. 7. 
Australia. 

€645 ILLUDENS Baly, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. n. ser. III. 1865, 
p. 259. 
Australia. 

6646 iNSiGNis Baly, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. n. ser. III. 1865, 

p. 259. 
Australia. 

6647 ORNATissiMA Baly, Journ. of Ent. I. 1862, p. 294. 

Queensland. 

6648 SULCATA Baly, Trans. Ent. Soc, Lond. 1856, n. ser. III. 

1856, p. 258, t. 14, f. 8. 
Australia. 

CLIDONOTUS. Chapuis. 

6649 GIBBOSUS Baly, Ann. Nat. Hist. ser. 3, X. 1862, p. 25 

(Australica) ; Chap. Gen. Col. X. 1874, p. 414. 
N. S. Wales, and Queensland. 



48 CATALOGUE OF THE DESCRIBED COLEOPTERA OF AUSTRALIA, 

STRUMATOPHYMA. Baly. 

6650 UNDULATiPENNis Clark, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. ser 3, IL 

1865, p. 415 (Clialcolampra) ; Baly, Trans. Ent. Soc. 
1871, p. 400. 
Swan River, W. Australia. 

6651 VERRUCOSA Clark, Journ. of Ent. II. 1864, p. 250, t. 12, 

f. 2 (Chalcolampi'a). 
N. Austi-alia. 

PHYLLOCHARIS. Dalmau. 

6652 ACROLEUCA Baly, Journ. of Ent. 1862, p. 291. 

Moreton Bay, Queensland. 

6653 CYANicoRNis Fabr. Syst. Ent. p. 99 ; Oliv. Ent. V. p. 541, 

t. 4, f. 46; Dalm. Ephem. eiat. p. 21; Baly, Trans. 

Ent. Soc. Lond. n. ser. III. 5, 1855, p. 171. 
var. Klugi W. S. Macleay, King's Surv. Austral. II. 1827, 

p. 453 ; Boisd. Yoy. Astrol. Col. p. 574 ; Blanch. Voy. 

Pole Sud, IV. Zool. p. 332, t. 19, f. 1. 
var. confluens Jac. Ent. Month. Mag. 1885, XXI. p. 225. 
Australia and Tasmania. 

6654 CYANIPES Fabr. Syst. Ent. p. 98 ; Oliv. Ent. V. p. 541, t. 4, 

f. 50 ; Blanch. Voy. Pole Sud, IV. Zool. p. 330, t 18, 

f, 18 ; Baly, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. n. ser. III. 1855, 

p. 172 ; Phytoph. p. 282. 
var. callizona Dalm. Ephera. ent. p. 22. 
var. cyanipennis Baly, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1855, p. 174, 

t. 14, f. 1 ; Gerstack. Wiegm. Arch. 1856, I. p. 204. 
Australia. 

6655 FLEXUOSA Baly, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. n. ser. III. 1855, 

p. 175. 

N. S. Wales and Victoria. 

6656 ExiMiA Baly, Ann. Nat. Hist. ser. 5, I. p. 39. 

Rockhampton, Queensland. 



BY GEORGE MASTERS. - 49 

6657 IMPRESSICOLLIS Jac. Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen. ser. 2, II. 18S5, 

p. 24. 
Australia. 

6658 Jansoni Baly, Ann. Nat. Hist. ser. 5, I. 1878, p. 39. 

Australia. 

6659 LEOPARDA Baly, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. n, ser. III. 1855, 

p. 173, 
Moretou Bay, Queensland. 

6660 MELANOSPiLA Baly, Journ. of Ent. I. 1862, p. 290. 

Moreton Bay, Queensland. 

6661 NIGRICORNIS. Fabr. Syst. Ent. p. 98 ; Donov. Ejut. Ins. N. 

Holl. t. 2 ; Oliv. Ent. V. p. 540, t. 4, f. 43 ; Baly, Trans 
Ent. Soc. n. ser. III. p. 175. 
Australia. 

6662 ORNATA Baly, Journ. of Ent. I. 1862, p. 290. 

Moreton Bay, Queensland. 

DIPHYLLOCEEA. Westwood. 

6663 GEMELLATA Westw. Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. ser. I, V. p. 214, 

t. 22, f. 1 ; Baly, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. n. ser. III. 
1855, p. 176. 
N. S. Wales, and Queensland. 

6664 STRIATA C. 0. Waterh. Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1875, p. 206. 

Port Bowen, Queensland. 

CHALCOLAMPRA. Blanchard. 

6665 iENEA Boisd. Yoy. Astrol. Col. 1835, p. 576 ; Dej. Cat. 3 ed. 

p. 419. 
acervata Germ, Linn. Ent. III. 1848, p. 238 ; Baly, Trans. 

Ent. Soc. Lond. n. ser. III. 1855, p. 184. 
convexa Blanch. Voy. Pole Sud, IV. Zool. p. 329, t. 19, f. 6. 
Australia, and Tasmania. 

6666 CHALYBEATA Baly, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. n. ser. III. 1855, 

p. 185. 

Adelaide, S. Australia. 
4 



50 CATALOGUE OF THE DESCRIBED COLEOPTERA OF AUSTRALIA, 

6667 CONSTRICTA Erichs. Wiegm, Arcli. 1842, I. p. 230; Baly^ 

Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. n. ser. III. 1855, p. 182. 
strigipe^mis White, Stoke's Voy. App. 1846, p. 512, t. 2, 

f. 9. 
Victoria, and Tasmania. 

6668 LATicoLLis Clark, Trans. Ent. Soc. ser. 3, II. 1865, p. 416. 

Champion Bay, W. Australia. 

6669 LUTEicoRNis Erichs. Wiegm. Arch. 1842, T. p. 231. 

Tasmania. 

6670 MARMORATA Baly, Ann. Nat. Hist. ser. 3, XY. 1865, p. 35. 

Moreton Bay, Queensland. 

6671 ocTODECiMGUTTATA Fabr. Syst. Ent. p. 100 ; Donov. Epit. 

Ins. N. Holl. t. 2 ; Boisd. Voy. Astrol. Col. p. 375 ; 
Baly, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. n. ser. III. 1855, p. 186 ; 
Phytoph. p. 281. 
Australia. 

6672 PACiFCA Erichs. Wiegm. Arch. 1842, I. p. 231. 

Tasmania. 

6673 PARALLELA Germ. Linn. Ent. III. 1848, p. 237 ; Baly, 

Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. n. ser. III. p. 183. 
S. Australia. 

6674 PUSTULATA Baly, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. n. ser. III. p. 181, 

t. 14, f. 6. 
Victoria. 

6675 REPENS Germ. Linn. Ent. III. 1848, p. 237: Baly, Trans. 

Ent. Soc. n. ser. III. p. 184. 
Victoria. 

6676 RUFiPES Jac. Ent. Month. Mag. 1885, XXL p. 225. 

Queensland. 

6677 SIMILLIMA Baly, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. n. ser. HE. p. 185. 

Swan River, W. Australia. 



BY GEORGE MASTERS. ' 51 

6678 THORACiCA Baly, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. n. ser. III. p. 183, 

t. 14, f 4. 
Adelaide, S. Australia. 

EULINA. Baly. 

6679 CuRTisi Baly, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. n. ser. III. 1854, 

p. 180, t. 14, f. 3. 
N. S. Wales. 

LAMPROLINA. Baly. 

€680 ^NEiPENNis Boisd. Voy. Astrol. Col. p. 574 ; Baly, Trans. 
Ent. Soc. Lond. n. ser. III. 1855, p. 177 ; Dej. Cat. 
3ed. p. 419. 

N. S. Wales. 

6681 DiscoiDALis Baly, Ann. Nat. Hist. ser. 3. XV. 1865, p. 34. 

Moreton Bay, Queensland. 

6682 GRANDIS Baly, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. n. ser. III. 1855, 

p. 178. 

N. S. Wales. 

6683 IMPRESSICOLLIS Baly, Cist. Ent. II. p. 49. 

Rockhampton, Queensland. 

6684 Jansoni Baly, Cist. Ent. IL p. 48. 

Rockhampton, Queensland. 

6685 PERPLEXA Baly, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. n. ser. III. 1855, 

p. 261. 

Richmond River, N. S. Wales. 

6686 PUNCTicoLLis Baly, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. n. ser. III. 1855. 

p. 179. 
R,ichmond River, N. S. Wales. 

6687 SIMILLIMA Baly, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. n. sei*. III. 1855, 

p. 178. 
Australia. 

6688 TJNicoLOR Jac. Ent. Month. Mag. 1885, XXI p. 225. 

Australia. 



52 CATALOGUE OP THE DESCRIBED COLEOPTERA OF AUSTRALIA, 

PARALEPTA. Baly. 

6689 FOVEicoLLis Baly, Journ. Linn. Soc. Lond. 1878, XIIL 

p. 475. 
K S. Wales. 

CALOMELA. Hope. 

6690 ^NEONiTENS Clark, Trans. Ent. Soc. ser. 3, II. 1865, p. 416 

(Australica). 
Champion Bay, W. Australia. 

6691 Bartoni Baly, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. n. ser. III. 1856. 

p. 245 (Australica). 
Victoria. 

6692 ciNGULATA Baly, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. n. ser. III. 1856, 

p. 245 (Australica). 
W. Australia. 

6693 ciRCUMFUSA Baly, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. n. ser. III. 1856, 

p. 251 (Australica). 
Australia. 

6694 CAPiTATA Jac. Ent. Month, Mag. 1885, XXL p. 224. 

Bockhampton, Queensland. 

6695 coLORATA Germ. Linn. Ent. III. 1848, p. 237 ; Gerstack. 

Wiegm. Arch. 1857, L p. 372. 

Macleayi Baly, Trans. Ent, Soc. Lond. n. ser. III. 1856, 

p. 244, (Australica). 
S. Australia. 

6696 CRASsicoRNis Fabr. Syst. Ent. p. 99 ; Oliv. Ent. V. p. 529, 

t. 4, f. 44, a-b ; Baly, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. n. ser. III. 

1856, p. 249, (Australica). 
sinuata Dej. Cat. 3 ed. p. 427. 
Moreton Bay, Queensland. 

6697 CuRTisi Kirby, Trans. Linn. Soc. XII. p. 473, t. 23, £. 12, 

(Chrysomela) ; Boisd. Voy. Astrol. p. 577 ; Baly, Trans. 
Ent. Soc. Lond. n. ser. III. 1856, p. 243, 



BY GEORGE MASTERS. ' 53 

indchella Dej. Cat. 3 ed. p, 426. 

var. joitwc^ipes Germ. Linn. Ent. III. 1848, p. 236. 

S. Australia and Victoria. 

^G98 DiGGLESi Baly, Ann. Nat. Hist. ser. 3, XV. 1865, p. 34. 
(Australica). 
Moreton Bay, &c., Queensland. 

6699 ERUDITA Baly, Ann. Nat. Hist. ser. 3, X. 1862, p. 24. 

(Australica). 
Dawson River, Queensland. 

6700 GENICQLATA Baly, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lend. n. ser. III. 1856, 

p. 246 (Australica). 
N. Australia. 

6701 INTERRUPTOFASCIATA Baly, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. ser. 3, I. 

1863, p. 620, (Australica). 

6702 lOPTERA Baly, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. n. ser. III. 1856, 

p. 246, (Au.stralica). 
S. Australia. 

6703 Macleayi Boisd. Yoy. Astrol. Col. p. 577, (Chrysomela) ; 

Gerstiick. Wiegm. Arch. 1857, I. p. 372; Dej. Cat. 
3 ed. p. 426. 
Australia. 

6704 MAcaLicoLLis Boisd. Voy. Astrol. Col. p. 577, (Chrysomela) ; 

Baly, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. n. ser. III. 1856, p. 246, 
(Australica); Motsch. Schrenck. Reis. II. 1860, p. 217 ; 
d'Urville, Dej. Cat. 3 ed. p. 426. 
Victoria. 

6705 NiTiDiPEXXis Boisd. Voy. Astrol. Col. p. 579, (Chry.somela) ; 

Dej. Cat. 3 ed. p. 426. 
Australia. 

6706 PALLIDA Baly, Tran.s. Ent. Soc. Lond. n. ser. III. 1856, 

p. 248, (Australica). 
Australia. 



54 CATALOGUE OP THE DESCRIBED COLEOPTERA OF AUSTRALIA, 

6707 PAROPSoiDES Clark, Journ. of Ent. II. 1864, p. 251, 

(Australica). 
N. S. Wales. 

6708 PULCHELLA Baly, Trans. Ent. Soc. n. ser. III. 1856, p. 250, 

(Australica). 
N. S. Wales. 

6709 PYRRiiocEPHALA Clark, Journ. of Ent. II. 1864, p. 251, 

(Australica). 
Australia. 

6710 RUFiCBPS Boisd. Yoy. Astrol. Col. 1835, p. 578, (Chryso- 

mela) ; Baly, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. n. ser. III. 1856, 
p. 247, (Australica); Motsch. Schrenck. Eeis. II. I860,, 
p. 201 ; W. S. Macleay, Dej. Cat. 3 ed. p. 426. 
Moreton Bay. Queensland. 

6711 SAPPHIRUS Fabr. Syst. El. I. p. 432 ; Boisd. Voy. Astrol, 

Col. p. 579, (Chrysomela). 
sapjihirina Schonh. Dej. Cat. 3 ed. p. 426. 
Australia. 

6712 SEXMACULATA Jac. Ent. Month. Mag. 1885, XXI. p. 224. 

Kockhampton, Queensland. 

6713 SUTURALIS Jac. Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen. ser. 2, II. 1885, p. 25. 

Australia. 

6714 TRANSVERSA Baly, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. ser. 3, I. 1863, 

p. 621, (Australica). 
Moreton Bay, Queensland. 

6715 viTTATA Baly, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. n. ser. IIL 1856, 

p. 250, (Australica). 

PLAT Y MELA. Baly. 

6716 STiCTicoLLis Baly, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. n. ser. IIL 1856, 

p. 241. 
Melbourne, Victoria, 

6717 UNiLiNEATA Baly, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. n. ser. III. p. 242. 

Moreton Bay, Queensland. 



BY GEORGE MASTERS. 55 

STETHOMELA. Baly. 

6718 CORNUTA Baly, Cist. Ent. 11. p. 50. 

Queensland. 

6719 FRATERjfALis Baly, Cist. Ent. II. p. 49. 

Queensland. 

6720 FULVicoLLis Jac. Ann. Mus. Civ. G-en. ser. 2, II. 1885, 

p. 27. 
Australia. 

6721 LiMBATA Baly, Cist. Ent. II. p. 50, 

Australia. 

6722 Parryi Baly, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. ser. 3, II. 1864, p. 227. 

Australia. 

6723 POROPTERA Baly, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. n. ser. III. 1856, 

p. 253. 
Richmond River, N. S. Wales. 

6724 PRASiNA Baly, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. n. ser. III. 1856, 

p. 252. 
Australia. 

6725 SUBMETALLICA Baly, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. n. ser. III. 

p. 252. 
Moreton Bay, Queensland. 

AUGOMELA. Baly. 

6726 ELEGANS Baly, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. n. ser. III. 1856, 

p. 256. 
Clarence River, N. S. vVales. 

6727 HYPOCHALCEA Germ. Linn. Ent. IIL 1848, p. 236, (Chry- 

somela) ; Baly, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. n. ser. III. 1856, 
p. 255. 
Adelaide, S. Australia ; Richmond River, N. S. Wales. 

6728 IRIDEA Baly, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. n. ser. III. 1856, p. 254. 

Moreton Bay, Queensland. 



56 CATALOGUE OP THE DESCRIBED COLEOPTEaA OF AUSTRALIA, 

6729 ORNATA Baly, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. n. ser, V, 1859, p. 156. 

Moreton Bay, Queensland. 

6730 PRETiosA Baly, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. n. ser. III. 1856, 

p. 256. 
Adelaide, S. Australia. 

6731 PYROPTERA Baly, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. n. ser. IIL 1856, 

p. 254. 
Richmond River, N. S. Wales. 

PAROPSIS. Olivier. 

6732 ABDOMiNALis Chap. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1877, XX. p. 71. 

Murrumbidgee, N. S. Wales. 

6733 AcicuLATA Chap. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1877, XX. p. 68. 

Australia. 

6734 ^GROTA Boisd. Voy. Astrol. Col. 1835, p. 563. 

Australia. 

6735 ^MULA Chap. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1877, XX. p. 84. 

Australia. 

6736 ^NEiPENNis Chap. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1877, XX. p. 82. 

Rockhampton, Queensland. 

6737 ^QUALis Chap. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1877, XX, p. 79. 

Gippsland, Victoria. 

6738 ^RARiA Chap. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1877, XX. p. 72. 

Rockingham Bay, Queensland. 

6739 AGRicoLA Chap. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1877, XX. j). 75. 

Tasmania. 

6740 ALBICANS Chap. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1877, XX. p. 80. 

Queensland. 

6741 ALTERATA Germ. Linn. Ent. IIL 1848, p. 232. 

Adelaide, S. Australia. 

6742 AMIGA Newm. The Entomol. 1842, p. 415. 

Australia. 



BY GEORGE MASTERS. 57 

6743 AMCENA Clark, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. ser. 3, II, 1865, p. 405. 

Champion Bay, W. Australia. 

6744 AMABiLis Chap. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1877, XX. p. 85. 

Queensland. 

6745 AMCENuiA Chap. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1877, XX. p. 85. 

Australia. 

6746 ANXiA Chap. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1877, XX. p. 85. 

■King George's Sound, W. Australia. 

6747 APICATA Clark, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. ser. 3, II. 1865, 

p. 405. 
W. Australia. 

6748 ARCULA Chap. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1877, XX. p. 90. 

Australia . 

6749 ASPERA Chap. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1877, XX. p. 91. 

Sydney, N. S. Wales ; Port Denison, Queensland. 

6750 ASPERULA Chap. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1877, XX. p, 95. 

Eockhampton, Queensland. 

6751 ATOMARiA Oliv. Ent. V. 1807, p. 598, t. 1, f. 1, a-b. 

Australia. 

6752 ATOMARIA Marsh. Trans. Linn. Soc. IX. 1808, p. 286, t. 24, 

f. 3. ; Boisd. Voy. Astrol. Col. p. 562 ; Baly, Journ. of 
Ent. IL 1864. p. 300. 
Australia. 

6753 ATROPUS Stal, Diagn. 1860, p. 465. 

Australia. 

6754 Australasia Fabr. Syst. El. I. p. 426 ; Oliv. Ent. V. 

p. 603, t. 1, f. 11. 
Australia. 

6755 BASALTS Chap. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1877, XX. p. 76. 

Sydney, N. S. Wales. 

6756 BASicoLLis Chap. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1877, XX. p. 88. 

Sydney, Clarence River, &c., N. S. Wales. 



58 CATALOGUE OF THE DESCRIBED COLEOPTERA OP AUSTRALIA, 

6757 BEATA JSTewm. The Entomol. 1842, p. 414. 

Victoria. 

6758 BiPLAGiATA Boheui. Res. Eugen. p. 173. 

Sydney, N. S. Wales. 

6759 BiPUNCTicoLLis Chap. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg, 1877, XX. p. 70. 

Australia. 

6760 BuiAcuLATA Oliv. Ent. V. p. 600, t. 1, f. 6. 

Australia. 

6761 BRUNNEA Marsh. Trans. Linn. Soc. IX, 1808, p. 291, t. 25,. 

f. 3. 
Australia. 

6762 CALiGiNosA Chap. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1877, XX. p. 92. 

Port Denison, Queensland. 

6763 CANCELLATA Chap. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1877, p. 95. 

Brisbane, Queensland. 

6764 CAPTIOSA Clark, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. ser. 3, II. 1865, 

p. 406. 
Champion Bay, W. Australia. 

6765 CARNOSA Baly, Journ. of Ent. II. 1864, p. 307. 

Adelaide, S. Australia. 

6766 CASsiDOiDES Boisd. Voy. Astrol. Col. p. 570. 

Australia. 

6767 OASTANEA Marsh. Trans. Linn. Soc. IX. 1808, p. 292, t. 25, 

f. 7. 
Australia. 

6768 CATENATA Chap. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1877, XX. p. 93. 

N. S. Wales and Victoria. 

6769 CERNUA Chap. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1877, XX. p. 81. 

Sydney, N. S. Wales. 

6770 Charybdis Stal, Diagn. 1860, p. 466. 

Australia. 



BY GEORGE MASTERS. , 59 

6771 ciiLOROTiCA Oliv, Ent. V. p. 604, t. 1, f. 13. 

Australia. 

6772 Circe Stal, Diagn. 1860, p. 464. 

Moreton Bay, Queensland. 

6773 ciRCUMDATA Nswm. TheEntomol. 1842, p. 415. 

Victoria. 

6774 ciTRiNA Chap. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1877, XX. p. 79. 

Sydney, N. S. Wales. 

6775 Cloelia Stal, Diagn. 1860, p. 464. 

Australia. 

6776 Clotiio Stal, Diagn. 1860, p. 464. 

Australia. 

6777 COADNUTA Chap. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1877, XX. p. 86. 

Sydney, N. S. Wales. 

6778 cocciNELLOiDES Oliv. Ent. V. p. 601, t. 1, f 7. 

Australia. 

6779 COMPLEXA Chap. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1877, XX. p. 74. 

Eclipse Island, N. E. Australia. 

6780 CONFERTA Chap. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1877, XX. p. 81. 

Adelaide, S. Australia. 

6781 coxJUGATA Chap. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1877, XX. p. 75. 

Adelaide, S. Australia. 

6782 CONSIMILIS Baly, Journ. of Ent. II. 1864, p. 306. 

Adelaide, S. Australia. 

6783 coNTRACTA Chap. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1877, XX. p. 70. 

Rockhampton, Queensland. 

6784 coNVExicoLLis Chap. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1877, XX. p. 93. 

Paroo Biver. 

6785 coRiARiA Chap. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1877, XX. p. 92. 

Melbourne, Victoria. 



60 CATALOGUE OP THE DESCRIBED COLEOPTERA OP AUSTRALIA, 

6786 CORRUGATA Chap. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1877, XX. p. 96. 

Sydney, X. S. Wales. 

6787 cosTiPBNNis Chap. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1877, XX. p. 96. 

Sydney, N. S. Wales. 

6788 CROCATA Boisd. Voy. Astrol. Col. p. 564. 

Australia, 

6789 DEBiLis Chap. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1877, XX. p. 80. 

King George's Sound, W. Australia. 

6790 DECOLORATA Chap. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1877, XX. p. 81. 

X. S. Wales, and Queensland. 

6791 DEFECTAChap. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1877, XX. p. 86. 

Australia. 

6792 DEFLORATA Chap. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1877, XX. p. 79. 

King George's Sound, W. Australia. 

6793 DELICATULA Chap. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1877, XX. p. 78. 

Tasmania and S. Australia. 

6794 DEPRESSA Chap. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1877, XX. p. 87. 

Queensland. 

6795 DIFFUSA Chap. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1877, XX. p. 91. 

Australia. 

6796 DILATATA Erichs. Wiegm. Arch. 1842, I. p. 226 ; Gerstjick. 

Wiegm. Arch. 1867, I. p. 293. 
Tasmania. 

'6797 DiMiDiATA Chap. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1877, XX. p. 89. 
Sydney, X. S. Wales. 

6798 DiscoiDALis Chap. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1877, XX. p. 82. 

Queensland. 

6799 ELLiPTiCA Chap. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1877, XX. p. 79. 

King George's Sound, W. Australia. 

6800 ERUDiTA Xewm. The Entomol. 1842, p. 415. 

Victoria. 



BY GEORGE MASTERS. 61 

6801 EXARATA Chap. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1877, XX. p. 93. 

Rockhampton, Queensland. 

6802 EXPLANATA Chap. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1877, XX. p. 94. 

Swan River, W. Australia. 

6803 FALLAX Newm. The Entomol. 1842, p. 415. 

Victoria. 

6804 FASTiDiosA Chap. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1877, XX. p. 81. 

Australia. 

6805 FERRUGATA Chap. Ann. Soc. Eat. Belg. 1877, XX. p. 92. 

Tasmania. 

6806 FESTivA Chap. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1877. XX. p. 83. 

Victoria. 

6807 FLAVBOLA Chap. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1877, XX. p. 80. 

Port Denison, Queensland. 

6808 FLAViTARSis Chap. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1877, XX. p. 75. 

Tasmania. 

6809 PORAMiNOSA Chap. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1877, XX. p. 73. 

Rockhampton, Queensland. 

6810 FORMOSA Chap. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1877, XX. p. 69. 

Sydney, N. S. Wales. 

6811 FRATERNA Chap. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1877, XX. p. 86. 

Australia. 

6812 FULVOGUTTATA Baly, Journ. of Ent. II. 1864, p. 298. 

Adelaide, S. Australia. 

6813 FusciTARSis Chap. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1877, XX. p. 85. 

Australia. 

6814 FuscoNOTATA Chap. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1877, XX. p. 94. 

King George's Sound, W. Australia. 

6815 FUSCULA Chap. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1877, XX. p. 85. 

Australia. 

6816 GEMINA Chap. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1877, XX. p. 76. 

Adelaide, S. Australia. 



62 CATALOGUE OF THE DESCRIBED COLEOPTERA OP AUSTRALIA, 

6817 GENicuLATA Boisd. Voy. Astrol. Col. p. 567 ; dUrville, 

Dej. Cat. 3 ed. p. 419. 
Australia. 

6818 GEOGRAPHiCA Baly, Journ. of Ent. II. 1864, p. 303. 

Adelaide, S. Australia. 

6819 GLOBATA Chap. Ana. Soc. Ent. Eelg. 1877, XX. p. 71. 

Queensland. 

6820 GLOBULOSA Chap. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1877, XX. p. 71. 

Australia. 

6821 GRANARiA Chap Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1877, XX. p. 95. 

King George's Sound, W. Australia. 

6822 GRANULOSA Boisd. Voy. Astrol. Col. p. 564 : d'XJrville, Dej. 

Cat. 3 ed. p. 419, 
Australia. 

6823 GRAPHiCA Chap. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1877, XX. p. 96. 

Sydney, N. S. Wales. 

6824 HAMADRYAS Stal, Diagn. 1860, p. 465. 

Tasmania. 

6825 HASTATA Chap. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1877, XX. p. 72. 

King George's Sound, W. Australia. 

6826 HECTiCA Boisd. Voy. Astrol. Col. p. 569. 

Australia. 

6827 HEMisPH^RiCA Chap. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1877, XX. p. 71. 

Australia. 

6828 Hera Stal, Diagn. 1860, p. 465. 

Tasmania. 

6829 IMPRESSA Chap. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1877, XX. p. 91. 

Sydney, N. S. Wales. 

>6830 INCARNATA Erichs. Wiegm. Arch. 1842, I. p. 226 ; Gerstack. 
Wiegm. Arch. 1867, I. p. 293. 
var. reticulata Baly, Journ. of Ent. II. 1864, p. 299. 
Tasmania. 



BY GEORGE MASTERS. 63 

€831 iNCERTA Chap. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1877, XX., p. 80. 

testacea Marsh. Trans. Linn. Soc. IX. 1808, p. 289, t. 24, 

f. 10 ; Boisd. Voy. Astrol. Col. p. 567, (nom, prseocc). 
Adelaide, S. Australia. 

€832 INCURVA Clark, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. ser. 3, II. 1865, 
p. 412. 
Chami)ion Bay, W. Australia. 

€833 iNFUSCATA Chap. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1877, XX. p. 93. 
Australia. 

€834 INSIGNITA Newm. The Entomol. 1842, p. 414. 
Victoria. 

6835 INSPERSA Newm. The Entomol. 1842, p. 415. 

Victoria. 

6836 INTACTA Newm. The Entomol. 1842, p. 414. 

Victoria. 

€837 INTERLITA Newm. The Entomol. 1842, p. 414. 
Victoria. 

€838 iNTERRUPTA Chap. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1877, XX. p. 84. 
N. S. Wales. 

€839 iNTERSTiTiALis Chap. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1877, XX. p. 80. 
Australia. 

€840 iNTERTiNCTA Clark, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. ser. 3, II. 1865, 
p. 411. 
Champion Bay, W. Aiastralia. 

6841 IRINA Chap. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1877, XX. p. 82. 
Port Denison, Queensland. 

€842 IRIS Chap. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1877, XX. p. 74. 
Eclipse Island. N. E. Australia. 

€843 IRRISA Newm. The Entomol. 1842, p. 415. 
Victoria. 

€844 IRRORATA Chap. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1877, XX. p. 69. 
King George's Sound, W. Australia. 



64 CATALOGUE OF THE DESCRIBED COLEOPTERA OF AUSTRALIA, 

6845 JUCUNDA Chap. Ann. Soc. Enl. Belg. 1877, XX. p. 84. 

Swan River, W. Australia. 

6846 Lachesis Stal, Diagn. 1860, p. 465. 

Tasmania. 

6847 LAESA Germ. Linn. Ent. III. 1848, p. 235. 

Adelaide, S. Australia. 

6848 LEPiDA Erichs. Wiegm. Arch. 1842, I. p. 230. 

Tasmania. 

6849 LIGNEA Erichs. Wiegm. Arch. 1842, I. p. 227. 

Tasmania. 

6850 LiNEATA Marsh. Trans. Linn. Soc. IX. 1808, p. 293, t. 25, 

f. 2 ; Erichs. Wiegm. Arch. 1842, L p. 118, note 3. 
Tasmania. 

6851 LiTiGiosA Chap. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1877, XX. p. 93. 

Port Denison, Queensland. 

6852 LiTURATA Marsh. Trans. Linn. Soc. IX. 1808, p. 292, t. 25, 

f. 5 ; Boisd. Voy. Astrol. Col. p. 566. 
Sydney, 'N. S. Wales. 

6853 LiviDA Chap. Ann. Soc. Eat. Belg. 1877, XX. p. 90. 

Adelaide, S. Australia. 

6854 LowNEi Baly, Journ. of Ent. IL 1864, p. 294. 

Sydney, N. S. Wales. 

6855 LUCiDULA Chap. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1877, XX. p. 81. 

N. S. Wales and Victoria. 

6856 LUTEA Marsh. Trans. Linn. Soc. IX. 1808, p. 286, t. 24, f . 4 ; 

Baly, Journ. of Ent. II. 1864, p. 304. 
Australia. 

6857 MACULicoLLis Clark, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. ser. 3, II. 1865, 

p. 407. 
Champion Bay, W. Australia. 



BY GEORGE MASTERS. ' 65 

6858 MARMOREA OHv. Eiit. V. p. 599, t. 1. f. 4 ; Baly, Joarn. of 

Eut. IT. p. 302. 

7naculata Marsh. Trans. Linn. Soc. IX. 1808, p. 287, t. 24, 

f. 5 ; Boisd. Voy. Astrol. Col. p. 566. 
Sydney, N. S. Wales. 

6859 MEDioviTTATA Clark, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. ser. 3, II. 1865, 

p. 404. 
W. Australia. 

6860 MELAxospiLA Chap. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1877, XX. p. 92. 

N. S. Wales and Victoria. 

6861 MERA Chap. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1877, XX. p. 74. . 

Port Denison, Queensland. 

6862 METALLiCA Motsch. Sclirenck. Reis. II. 1860, p. 192, note 1. 

Australia. 

6863 M-FuscuM Bohem. Res. Eugen. p. 174. 

Sydney, N. S. Wales. 

6864 MiLiARis Boisd. Voy. Astrol. Col. p. 566 ; Dej. Cat. 3 ed. 

p. 419. 
reticulata Chevrol. Dej. Cat. 3 ed. p. 419, 
Australia. 

6865 MINOR Marsh. Trans. Linn. Soc. IX. 1808, p. 289, t. 24, 

f. 9 ; Boisd. Voy. Astrol. Col. p. 572. 
hifasciata W. S. Macleay, Dej. Cat. 3 ed. p. 419. 
Austi'alia. 

6866 MiTis Chap. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1877, XX, p. 83. 

Australia. 

6867 MODESTA Chap, Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1877, XX. p. 83. 

King George's Sound, W. Austi-alia. 

6868 MORBiLLOSA Boisd. Voy. Astrol. Col. p. 562 ; Dej. Cat. 

3ed. p. 419. 

Australia. 
5 

It 



66 CATALOGUE OF THE DESCRIBED COLEOPTERA OF AUSTRALIA, 

6869 MORio Fabr. Mant. I. 1787, p. 66; Oliv. Ent. Y. p. 511, 

t. 4, f. 48. 
Tasmania. 

6870 MULTisERiATA Chap. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1877, XX. p. 90. 

Sydney, N. S. Wales. 

6871 NAvicuLA Chap. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1877, XX. p. 87. 

Australia. 

6872 NERVOSA Clark, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. ser. 3, II. 1865, 

p. 413. 
Champion Bay, W. Australia. 

6873 NiGERRiMA Germ. Linn. Ent. III. 1848, p. 231. 

Adelaide, S. Australia. 

6874 NiGRiTA Chap. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1877, XX. p. 82. 

Adelaide, S. Australia. 

6875 NiGRiTULA Clark, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. ser. 3, II. 1865, 

p. 411. 
Champion Bay, W. Australia. 

6876 NiGROCONSPERSA Clark, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. ser. 3, II. 

1865, p. 409. 
Champion Bay, W. Australia. 

6877 NiGROPiCTA Clark, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. ser. 3, IT. 1865. 

p. 412. 
Champion Bay, W. Australia. 

6878 NIGROSCUTATA Chap. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1877, XX. p. 68. 

Australia. 

6879 NiGROSTiLLATA Chap. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1877, XX. p. 77. 

Victoria. 

6880 NiGROViTTATA Chap. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1877, XX. p. 76. 

Australia. 

6881 NOBiLiTATA Erichs. Wiegm. Arch. 1842, I. p. 228. 

Tasmania. 



BY GEORGE MASTERS. 67 

6S82 NODOSA Chap. Aim. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1877, XX. p. 96. 
N. S. Wales, and Victoria. 

6883 NOTATA Oliv. Ent. V. p. 604, t. 1, f. 14. 

Australia. 

6884 NOTATiPENNis Chap. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1877, XX. p. 77. 

Sydney, N. S. Wales. 

6885 NUCEA Erichs. Wiegm. Arch. 1842, I. p. 227. 

Tasmania. 

6886 OBLiTERATA Erichs. Wiegm. Arch. 1842, I. p. 229. 

Tasmania. 

6887 OBLONGA Chap. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1877, XX. p. 72. 

Port Curtis, Queensland. 

6888 OBOVATA Chap. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1877, XX. p. 78. 

Tasmania, and Victoria. 

6889 OBscuRELLA Chap. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1877, XX. p. 90. 

Paroo River. 

6890 OBSOLETA Oliv. Ent. V. p. 600, t. 1. f . 5 ; Marsh. Trans. 

Linn. Soc. IX. 1808, p. 288, t. 24, f. 8 ; Boisd. Voy. 
Astro], p. 568; Baly, Journ. of Ent. II. p. 309; Dej. 
Cat. 3 ed. p. 419. 
Australia. 

6891 OCTOLINEATA Gory, Guer. Jc. regn. anim. 1845, p. 300, t. 49, 

f. 7. 
Australia. 

6892 ocroMACULATA Marsh. Trans. Linn. Soc. IX. 1808, p. 294, 

t. 25, f. 10; Boisd. Voy. Astrol. Col. p. 572. 
Australia. 

6893 OCTOSIGNATA Stal, Diagn. 1860, p. 465. 

Australia. 

6894 ORBICULARIS Chap. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1877, XX. p. 90. 

Sydney, N. S. Wales. 



68 CATALOGUE OF THE DESCRIBED COLEOPTERA OF AUSTRALIA, 

6895 ORXATA Marsh. Trans. Linn. Soc. IX. 1808, p. 288, t. 24, f. 7. 

Australia. 

6896 ORNATicoLLis Chap. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1877, XX. p. 75. 

Victoria. 

6897 ORPHANA Erichs. Wiegm. Arch. 1842, I. p. 229. 

orphanula Chap. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1877, XX. p. 78. 
Tasmania. 

6898 PACHYTA Chap. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1877, XX. p. 80. 

Sydney, N. S. Wales. 

6899 PALLIDA Oliv. Ent. V. p. 602, t. 1, f. 9. 

Australia. 

6900 PALLiDULA Chap. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1877, XX. p. 89. 

Adelaide, S. Australia. 

6901 PANTHERINA Eauv. Bull. Soc. Linn. Xormand. VII. 1862,. 

p. 177. 

Sydney, N. S. Wales. 

6902 Paphia Stal, Diagn. 1860, p. 464. 

Moreton Bay, Queensland. 

6903 PAPULENTA Chap. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1877, XX. p. 9L 

papulosa Stal, Diagn. I860; p. 465, (nom. prteocc). 
Tasmania. 

6904 PAPULiGERA Stal, Diagn. 1860, p. 465. 

Australia. 

6905 PAPULOSA Erichs. Wiegm. Arch. 1842, I. p. 228. 

Tasmania. 

6906 PARDALis Chap. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1877. XX. p. 97. 

Australia. 

6907 Parryi Baly, Journ. of Ent. II. 1864, p. 296. 

Australia. 

6908 PARTITA Chap. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1877, XX. p. 82. 
Australia. 



BY GEORGE MASTERS. 69 

6909 PEDESTRis Chap. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1877, XX. p. 71. 

Wide Bay, Queensland. 

6910 PERPARVQLA Clark, Trans. Ent. Soc. Loud. ser. 3, IT. 1865, 

p. 413. 
Champion Bay, W. Australia. 

6911 PERPLEXA Chap. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1877, XX. p. 73. 

Adelaide, S. Australia. 

6912 picEA Oliv. Ent. V. p. 599, t. 1, f. 3 ; Latr. Encycl. meth. 

X. 1825, p. 11; Motsch. Schrenck. Keis. II. 1860, 

p. 193. 
immaculata Marsh. Trans. Linn. Soc. IX. 1808, p. 291. 

t. 25, f. 4 ; Boisd. Voy. Astrol. Col. p. 565. 
Australia. 

6913 PicEOLA Chap. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1877, XX. p. 92. 

Australia. 

6914 PICTA Chap. Ann. Soc. Eut. Belg. 1877, XX. p. 74. 

Australia. 

6915 PiCTiPES Chap. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1877, XX. p. 68. 

Australia. 

6916 picTiPENNis Bohem. Res. Eugen. p. 173. 

Sydney, N. S. Wales. 

6917 PiCTURATA Chap. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1877, XX. p. 89. 

Australia. 

6918 PLUviALis Chap. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1877, XX. p. 77. 

Sydney, N. S. Wales. 

6919 POLYGLYPTA Germ. Linn. Ent. III. 1848, p. 232. 

Adelaide, S. Australia. 

6920 POROSA Erichs. Wiegm. Arch. 1842, L p. 226 ; Baly, Journ. 

of Ent. II. 1864, 1). 310. 
Tasmania. 

6921 PROPiNQUA Baly, Journ. of Ent. II. 1864, p. 306. 

Adelaide, S. Australia. 



70 CATALOGUE OF THR DESCRIBED COLEOPTERA OF AUSTRALIA, 

6922 PROxiMA Chap. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1877, XX. p. 80. 

Queensland. 

6923 PULCHELLA Chap. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1877, XX. p. 89. 

Australia. 

«924 PUNCTULATA Marsh. Trans. Linn. Soc. IX. 1808, p. 292, 
t. 25, f. 6 ; Boisd. Voy. Astrol. Col. p. 568. 
Australia. 

6925 PUNCTULATA Boisd. Voy. Astrol. Col. p. 571 ; Dej. Cat. 

3 ed. p. 419. 
Australia. 

6926 PURPUREOAUREA Clark, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. ser. 3, 18G5, 

p. 407. 
Champion Bay, W. Australia. 

6927 PURPUREOviRiDis Baly, Journ. of Ent. IT. 1864, p. 250. 

N, Australia. 

6928 REMOTA Germ. Linn. Ent. III. 184?, p. 234. 

Adelaide, S. Australia. 

6929 RETICULATA Marsh. Trans. Linn. Soc. IX. 1808, p. 285, 

t. 24, f. 2; Baly, Journ. of Ent. IL 1864, p. 299. 
sanguiriipennis Germ. Linn. Ent. III. p. 233. 
var. quadrimacidata Marsh. I.e. p. 287, t. 24, f. 6. 
Australia. 

6930 ROSEOLA Baly, Journ. of Ent. IL 18G4, p. 308. 

Adelaide, S. Australia. 

6931 RUBEOL.\ Chap. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1877, XX. p. 71. 

Adelaide, S. Australia. 

6932 RUBiGiNOSA Chap. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1877, XX. p. 88. 

Adelaide, S. Australia. 

6933 RUBROsiGNATA Boliem. Res. Eugen. p. 172. 

Sydney, K S. Wales. 

6934 RUFESCEiVS Chap. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1877, XX. p. 83, 

Sydney, N. S. Wales. 



BY GEORGE MASTERS. - 71 

6935 RUFiPEs Fabr. Syst. El. I. 1801, p. 430 ; Oliv. Ent. Y. 

p. GOl, t. 1, f. 8. 
Australia. 

6936 RUFO-NiGRA Chap. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1877, XX. p. 97. 

Australia. 

6937 RUFiTARSis Chap. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1877, XX. p. 68. 

Australia. 

6938 RUGOSAChap. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1877, XX. p. 91. 

Gippsland, Victoria. 

6939 RUGULOSA Boisd. Voy. Astrol. Col. p. 565. 

Australia. 

6940 SANGUiNEOTiNCTA Clark, Trans. Ent. Soc. Loud. ser. 3, 11. 

1865, p. 409. 
Champion Bay, W. Australia. 

6941 SCABRA Chap. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1877, XX. p. 91. 

Australia. 

6942 scALARis Chap. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1877, XX. p. 96. 

Gippsland, Victoria. 

6943 SCAPULA Chap. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1877, XX. p. 87. 

Sydney, N. S. Wales. 

6944 scuTELLATA Chap. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1877, XX. p. 86. 

N. S. Wales. 

6945 SEMIGLOBOSA. Chap. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1877, XX. p. 97. 

Adelaide, S. Australia. 

6946 SEMiPUNCTATA Chap. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1877, XX. p. 72. 

Clarence Biver, N. S. Wales. 

6947 SERiATA Germ. Linn. Ent. III. 1848, p. 234. 

Adelaide, S. Australia. 

6948 SEKPIGINOSA Erichs. Wiegm. Arch. 1842, I. p. 228. 

Tasmania. 



72 CATALOGUE OF THE DESCRIBED COLEOPTERA OF AUSTRALIA, 

6949 SEXPUSTULATA Marsli. Trans. Linn. Soc. IX. 1808, p. 293. 

t. 25, f. 8 ; Motsch. Schrenek. Reis. II. 1860, p. 193. 
Australia. 

6950 siDNEYENSis Fauv. Bull. Soc. Linn. Noruiand. VII. 1862, 

p. 179. 
Sydney, N. S. Wales. 

69bl siGNATA Boisd. Yoy. Astrol. Col. p. 571 ; Dej. Cat. 3 ed. 
p. 419. 
Australia. 

6952 sPECTABiLis Chap. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1877, XX. p. 88. 

Paroo River. 

6953 SPiLOTA Chap. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1877, XX. p. 94. 

Australia. 

6954 SPLENDENS W. S. Macleay, App. King's Surv. II. p. 452. 

Australia. 

6955 Stali Chap. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1877, XX. p. 70. 

Rockhampton, Queensland. 

6956 STICTICA Marsh. Trans. Linn. Soc. IX. 1808, p. 290, t. 25, 

f. 1. 
Australia. 

6957 STiLLATiPENNis Chap. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1877, XX. p. 85. 

Australia. 

6958 STRiGOSA Chap. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1877, XX. p. 97. 

Paroo River, 

6959 STYGiA Chap. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1877, XX. p. 73. 

Melbourne, Victoria. 

6960 sUBiENESCENS Chap. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1877, XX, p. 84. 

N. S. Wales. 

6961 suBAPiCALis Chap. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1877, XX. p. 86. 

Australia. 

6962 suBCOSTATA Chap. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1877, XX. p. 75. 

Tasmania. 



BY GEORGE MASTERS. 73 

6963 SUBFASCIATA Chap. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1877, XX. p. 85. 

Adelaide, S. Australia. 

6964 SUBLIMBATA Chap. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1877, XX. p. 94. 

Adelaide^ S. Australia. 

696.5 suBLiNEATA Boliem. Res. Eugen. p. 174. 
Sydney, N. S. Wales. 

6966 suBOVALis Chap. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1877, XX. p. 72. 

Gulf of Carpentaria, X. Australia. 

6967 SUBSTRIATA Chap. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1877, XX. p. 84. 

Australia. 

6968 susPiciosA Baly, Journ. of Ent. II. 1864, p. 297. 

Melbourne, Victoria. 

6969 suTURALis Germ. Linn. Ent III. 1848, p. 235. 

Adelaide, S. Australia. 

6970 suTURELLA Chap. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1877, XX. p. 89. 

Australia. 

6971 TASMANiCA Baly, Journ, of Ent. II. 1864, p. 294. 

Tasmania. 

6972 TENEBROSA Chap. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1877, XX. p. 73. 

Port Denison, Queensland. 

6973 TENELLA Chap. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1877, XX. p. 83. 

Australia. 

6974 TESSELLATA Clark, Trans, Ent. Soc. Lond. ser. 3, II. 1865, 

p. 408. 
Champion Bay, W. Australia. 

6975 TESTACEA Oliv. Ent. V. 1807, p. 602, t. 1, f. 10 ; Motsch. 

Schrenck. Reis. II. 1860, p. 194. 
Australia. 

■6976 TETRASPiLOTA Chap. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1877, XX. p. 89. 
Victoria, and S. Australia. 



74 CATALOGUE Or THE DESCRIBED COLEOPTERA OP AUSTRALIA, 

6977 TiGRiNA Chap. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1877, XX. p. 90. 

Sydney, N. S. Wales. 

6978 TRANSVERSOMACULATA Clark, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. ser. 3,. 

II. 1865, p. 410. 
Champion Bay, W. Australia. 

6979 TRiFAsciATA Boisd. Yoy. Astrol. Col. p. 568 ; Dej. Cat. 

3 ed. p. 419. 
Australia. 

6980 TRiMACULATA Chap. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1877, XX. p. 76. 

Australia. 

6981 TRiT^NiATA Stal, Diagn. 1860, p. 465. 

Tasmania. 

6982 TRiviTTATA Chap. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1877, XX. p. 76. 

Gippsland, Victoria. 

6983 TUBERCULATA Chap. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1877, XX. p. 94. 

Australia. 

6984 TURBATA Chap. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1877, XX. p. 87. 

Champion Bay, W. Australia. 

6985 UMBRATA Chap. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1877, XX. p. 70. 

Rockhampton, Queensland. 

6986 USTULATA Oliv. Ent. Y. p. 603, t. 1, f. 12; Boisd. Yoy. 

Astrol. Col. p. 571. 
Australia. 

6987 UMBROSA Chap. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1877, XX. p. 77. 

Sydne}', N. S. Wales, 

6988 VARIABILIS Chap. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1877, XX. p. 76. 

Adelaide, S. Australia. 

6989 VARiicoLLis Chap. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1877, XX. p, 82. 

Tasmania, and Yictoria. 

6990 VARIOLOSA Marsh. Trans. Linn. Soc. IX. 1808, p. 285, t. 24, 

f. 1; Germ. Linn. Ent. IIL 1848 p. 233; Baly, Joiirn. of 
Ent. IL 1864, p. 293. 
Melbourne, Yictoria. 



BY GEORGE MASTERS. • 75- 

6991 VENUSTA Ei-ichs. Wiegm. Avch. 18-]:2, I. p. 221: 

Tasmania. 

6992 VENUSTULA Chap. Ann. Soc. Enfc. Belg. 1877, XX. p. 84, 

Australia. 

6993 VERRUCicoLLis Chap. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1877, XX. p. 95. 

Sydney. N. S. Wales. 

6994 VERRUCiPEXNis Clark, Trans. Ent. Soc. ser. 3, II. 1865, 

p. 414. 
Champion Bay, W. Australia. 

6995 VERRUCOSA Marsh. Trans. Linn, Soc. IX. 1808, p. 290, t. 25,, 

f. 2. 

Australia. 

6996 viciNA Boisd. Voy. Astrol. Col. p. 570 ; Dej. Cat. 3 ed. 

p. 419. 
Australia. 

6997 viRENs Chap. Ann. Soc. Eat. Belg. 1877, XX. p. 83. 

Victoria. 

6998 viRiDULA Chap. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1877, XX. p. 84. 

Sydney, N. S. Wales. 

6999 viTTiPENNis Bohem. Res. Eugen. p. 172. 

Sydney, N. S. Wales. 

7000 VULGARIS Chap. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 187/', XX. p. 78. 

Australia. 

7001 Waterhousei Baly, Journ. of Ent. II. 1864, p. 296. 

Adelaide, S. Australia. 

7002 WiLsoNi Baly, Journ. of Ent. 11. 1864, p. 295. 

testacea Germ. Linn. Ent. III. 1848, p. 234, (nom. prseocc). 

Chap. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1877, XX. p. 68. 
Adelaide, S. Australia. 



76 CATALOGUE Or THE DESCRIBED COLEOPTERA OF AUSTRALIA, 



Sub-Family. HALTICIDES. 

NISOTRA. Baly. 

7003 BicoLOR Diiviv. Stett. Ent. Zeit. 1885, p. 385. 

Swan River, W. Australia. 

7004 Breweri Baly, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1877, p. 157. 

Bockhampton, Queensland. 

ARSIPODA. Erichson. 

7005 ACUMINATA Waterh. Trans. Ent. Soc. ser. 1, II. 1838, p. 132. 

suhstriaia Waterh. I.e. p. 132 (9). 
King George's Sound, W. Australia. 

7006 BICOLOR Waterh. Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. ser. 1, II. 1838, 

p. 132. 
Sydney, N. S. Wales. 

7007 bifrons Erichs. Wiegm. Arch. 1842, I. p. 236. 

Tasmania. 

7008 CiERULEATA Baly, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1877, p. 159. 

W. Australia. 

7009 CRASSICORNIS Waterh. Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. ser. 1, II. 

1838, p. 131. 
Sydney, N. S. Wales. 

7010 Erichsoni Baly, Ann. Nat. Hist. ser. 5, II. p. 232. 

Tasmania. 

7011 FERMORATA Baly, Ann. Nat. Hist, ser, 3, XIV. 1S64, 

p. 440. 
Adelaide, S. Australia. 

7012 FLAVA Clark, Journ. of Ent. IL 1864, p. 261, t. 12, f. 6. 

N. S. Wales, 

7013 FULvicoLLis Baly, Ann. Nat. Hist. 1864, p. 440. 
Adelaide, S, Australia. 



BY GEORGE MASTERS. 77 

7014 FULViPES Baly, Trans. Ent. Soc. Loncl. 1877, p. 284. 

Rockbampton, Queensland. 

7015 HiEMATODERA Baly, Trans. Ent. Soc. Loncl. 1877, p. 158. 

W. Australia. 

7016 HOLOMELiENA Germ. Linn. Ent. III. 1848, p. 243. 

Adelaide, S. Australia. 

7017 LowxEi Baly, Ann. Nat. Hist. ser. 3, XIV. 1864, p. 441. 

Sydney, N. S. Wales. 

7018 Macleayi Baly, Ann. Nat. Hist. ser. 3, XIV. 1864, p. 441. 

Sydney, N. S. Wales. 

7019 NiTiDA Waterli. Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. ser. 1, II. 1838, 

p. 131. 
King George's Sound, W. Australia. 

7020 OVATA Waterli. Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. ser. 1, II. 1838, 

p. 133. 
King George's Sound, W. Austi-alia. 

7021 PARVULA Jac. Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen. ser. 2, II. 1885, p. 34. 

Australia. 

7022 PiCEiPES Baly, Journ. Linn. Soc. 1878, XIIT. p. 477. 

W. Australia. 

7023 RUGULOSA Baly, Ann. Nat. Hist. ser. 3, XIV. 1864, p. 442. 

Melbourne, Victoria. 

7024 SMARAGDULA OHv. Ent. VI. p. 704, t. 4, f. 65. 

Australia. 

7025 VARIEGATA Waterli. Trans. Ent. Soc. ser. 1, II. 1838, p. 133. 

Tasmania. 

CREPIDODERA. Chevrolat. 

7026 DIMIDIATA Baly, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1876, p. 586. 

Australia. 

7027 PARALLELA Baly, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1877, p. 162. 

Sydney, N, S. Wales. 



78 CATALOGUE OF THE DESCRIBED COLEOPTERA OF AUSTRALIA, 

7028 SEMINIGRA Jac. Ann. Mas. Civ. Gen. ser. 2, 1885, p. 65. 

Australia. 

7029 VESTITA Baly, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1877, p. 162. 

S. Australia. 

PLATYCEPHA. Baly. 

7030 EXIMIA Baly, Journ. Linn, Soc. Lond. 1878, XIII. p. 476. 

W. Australia. 

SICYLLUS. Jacoby. 

7031 sPLENDiDus Proc. Zool. Soc. 1885, p. 928. 

Australia. 

HALTICA. Geoffroy. 

7032 SPLENDIDA Oliv. Ent. VL p. 691, t. 3, f. 41. 

Australia. 

LACTIC A. Erichson. 

7033 AusTRALis Duviv. Stett. Ent. Zeit. 1885, p. 388. 

Queensland. 

LONGITARSUS. Latreille. 

7034 scuTELLATUS Baly, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1877, p. 177. 

Hockhampton, Queensland. 

DOCEMA. Waterhouse. 

7035 COLLARIS Baly, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1877, p. 293. 

W. Australia. 

APHTHONA. Chevrolat. 

7036 FULVicoLLis Jac. Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen, ser. 2, II. 1885, p. 64. 

Australia. 

PHYLLOTRETA. Foudras. 

7037 BiviTTATA Waterh. Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. II. 1838, p. 133. 

King George's Sound, W. Australia. 

7038 FULVICOLLIS Jac. Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen. ser. 2. II. 1885, p. 60. 

Australia. 



BY GEORGE MASTERS. 79 

7039 LABiALis Waterh. Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. II. 1838, p. 183. 

(gen. dub.). 
Sydney, N. S. Wales. 

7040 PICEA Waterh. Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. II. 1838, p. 133. 

(gen. dub.). 
King George's Sound, W. Australia. 

CHAETOCNEMA. Stephens. 

7041 Albertisi Jac. Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen. ser. 2, II. 1885, p. 37. 

Australia. 

7042 AUSTRALiCA Baly, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1876, p. 597, 

(Plectroscelis). 
W. Austi-alia. 

7043 BREVicoRNis Baly, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1877, p. 317. 

W. Australia. 

7044 CARiNATA Baly, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1877, p. 174. 

W. Australia. 

7045 Erichsoni Baly, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1877, p. 175. 

Tasmania. 

7046 Pusco-MACULATA Baly, Trans. Ent. Soc, Lond. 1877, p. 174. 

W. Australia. 

7047 LATiCEPS Baly, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1877, p. 315. 

W. Australia. 

7048 LATicoLLis Baly, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1877, p. 316. 

W. Australia. 

7049 MEGALOPOiDES Baly, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1877, p. 174. 

Rockhampton, Queensland. 

7050 PROPiNQUA Baly, Trans. Ent, Soc. Lond. 1877, p. 314. 

Adelaide, S. Australia. 

7051 SUBMETALLESCENS Baly, Trans. Ent. See. Lond. 1877, p. 175. 

S. Australia. 



80 CATALOGUE OP THE DESCRIBED COLEOPTERA OF AUSTRALIA, 

7052 Waterhousei Baly, Trans Ent. Soc. Lond. 1877, p. 315. 

W. Australia. 

7053 WiLSONi Baly, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1877, p. 313. 

S. Australia. 

PODONTIA. Dalman. 

7054 maculatissima Baly, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. ser. 3, IT. 1865, 

p. 431. 
Port Essington, N. Australia. 

7055 NIGROVARIA W. S. Macleay, King's Surv. Austr. II. 1827, 

p. 453. 

Australia. 

CEDIONYCHIS. Latreille. 

7056 Howitti Baly, Journ. Linn. Soc. Lond. XIII p. 478. 

Sydney, N. S. Wales. 

SPHyEROMORPHA. Baly. 

7057 SiMONi Baly, Journ. Linn. Soc. Lond. XIII. p. 479. 

Rockhauipton, Queensland. 

DIBOLIA. Latreille. 

7058 ^NEA Waterh. Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. II. 1838, p. 134. 

Sydney, N. S. Wales. 

7059 ^NEONIGRA AVaterb. Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. II. 1838, p. 135. 

King George's Sound, W. Australia. 

7060 DuBOULAYi Baly, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1877, p. 182. 

W. Australia. 

7061 OCHRACEA Waterli. Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 11. 1838, p. 135. 

King George's Sound, W. Australia. 

7062 PYGMJ5A Waterh. Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. II. 1838, p. 135. 

King George's Sound, W. Australia. 

7063 SUB^NEA Waterh. Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. II. 1838, p. 135. 

King George's Sound, W. Australia. 



BY GEORGE MASTERS. 81 

PSYLLIODES. LatreiUe. 

7064 Breweri Baly, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1876, p. 601. 

W. Australia. 

7065 CHLOROPHANA Ericbs. Wiegm. Arch. 1842, I. p. 237. 

Tasmania. 

7066 SCUTELLATA Waterh. Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. II. 1838, p. 134. 

Sydney, N. S. Wales. 

7067 QUADRiDENTATA Baly, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1876, p. 601. 

W. Australia. 

ENNEAMERA. Harold. 

7068 AUSTRALis Baly, Ent. Month. Mag. XIII. 1876, p. 82. 

Rockhampton, Queensland. 



•">s 



Sub-Family. GALERUCIDES. ^> 

V 

\ - ^ 

OIDES. Weber. ■ . - A, «. rv 

7069 Albertisi Jac. Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1879, p. 788. '' *- K^ 

Australia. 

7070 antennalis Baly, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1881, p. 52. 

Queensland. 

7071 ciRCUMDATA Baly, Journ. of Ent. I. 1861, p. 296 (Adorium). 

Moreton Bay, Queensland. 

7072 DORSOSiGNATA Clark, Journ. of Ent. IL 1864, p. 258 

(Adorium); 
N. S. Wales, and Queensland. 

7073 Fryi Clark, Journ of Ent. IL 1864. p. 258 (Adorium). 

Queensland. 

7074 SEMiNiGRA Clark, Journ. of Ent. II, 1864, p. 258 

(Adorium). 

Australia, 
6 



82 CATALOGUE OF THE DESCRIBED COLEOPTERA OP AUSTRALIA, 

7075 SEXviTTATA Duviv. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. XXVIII. 1884, 

p. CXXXII. 

Australia. 

AULACOPHORA. Chevrolat. 

7076 ANALis Weber, Obs. ent. 1801, p. 55 ; Fabr. Syst. El. I. 

p. 482 ; Oliv. Ent. VI. p. 642, t. 3, f. 48. 
hilaris Boisd. Voj. Astrol. Col. p. 555 ; W. S. Macleay, 

Dej.Cat. 3ed. p. 402. 
Australia. 

7077 Cartereti Guer. Voy. Coquille, Zool. 1830, II. Col. p. 150 

Australia. 

7078 CYANURA Hope, Gray, Zool. Misc. 1831, p. 29. 

speciosa Dej. Cat. 3 ed. p. 403. 
Australia. 

7079 MELANURA Oliv. Ent. VI. p. 625, t. 2, f. 26 ; Boisd. Voy. 

Astrol. Col. p. 548. 
Australia. 

7080 NiGRivESTis Boisd. Voy. Astrol. Col. p. 548. 

Australia. 

7081 PUNCTATA Boisd. Voy. Astrol. Col. p. 556 ; Dej. Cat. 3 ed 

p. 403. 
Australia. 

7082 RELiCTA Boisd. Voy. Astrol. Col. p. 557. 

Austi'alia. 

7083 scuTELLATA Boisd. Voy. Astrol. Col. p. 558 ; Dej. Cat. 

3 ed. p. 402. 
Australia. 

AGELASTICA. Redtenbacher. 

7084 HUMERALis Baly, Ann. Nat. Hist. ser. 5, IV. p. 108. 

Moreton Bay, Queensland. 

7085 MELANOCEPHALA Baly, Ann, Nat. Hist. ser. 5, IV. p. 109. 

Australia. 



BY GEORGE MASTERS. 83 



GALERUCELLA. Crotcli. 



7086 AxjsTRALis Bohem. Kes. Eugen, p. 176; Dej. Cat. 3 ed. 

p. 401. 
Sydney, N. S. Wales. 

CYDIPPA. Chapuis. 

7087 Balyi Chap. Gen. Col. XI. 1875, p. 216. 

Australia. 

RUPILIA. Clark. 

7088 RUPicoLLis Clark, Journ. of Ent, II. 1864, p. 260, 1. 12, f. 3. 

N. S. Wales. 

7089 vmiDi^NEA Clark, Journ. of Ent. II. 1864, p. 260. 

Queensland. 

ELLOPIA. Chapuis. 

7090 PEDESTRis Erichs. Wiegm. Arch. 1842, 1, p. 234, (Galeruca) ; 

Chap. Gen. Col. XI. 1875, p. 218. 
Australia, and Tasmania. 

MENIPPUS. Clark. 

7091 CYNicus Clark, Journ. of Ent. II. 1864, p. 257. 

Port Denison, Queensland. 

SYNODITA. Chapuis. 

7092 BoRREi Chap. Gen. Col. XI. 1875, p. 232. 

Sydney, N. S. Wales. 

MONOLEPTA. Erichson. 

7093 CROCEicoLLis Germ. Linn. Ent. III. 1848, p. 243. 

Adelaide, S. Australia. 

7094 HUMERALis Weber, Obs. ent. I. p. 56. 

humeralis Fabr. Syst. El. I. p. 460 : Oliv. Ent. VI. p. 629, 

t. 3, f. 33; Boisd. Voy. Astrol. Col. p. 551. 
Australia. 



84 CATALOGUE OP THE DESCRIBED COLEOPTERA OF AUSTRALIA, 

7095 LABiiEPORMis Boisd. Voy. Astrol, Col. 1835, p. 553. 

Australia. 

7096 MELANOCEPHALA Fabv. Syst. Ent. 1775, p. 119; Oliv. Ent. 

VI. p. 622, t. 1, f. 3. 

Australia. 

7097 QUADRiPUNCTATA Fabr. Syst. El. I. p. 460 ; Oliv. Ent. VI. 

p. 664, t. 5, f, 88. 
Australia. 

7098 suTURALis Boisd. Yoy. Astrol. Col. p. 556 ; Dej. Cat. 3 ed. 

p. 407. 
Australia. 

Sub-Family. HISPIDES. 

LEUCISPA. Chapuis. 

7099 Odewahni Baly, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1869, p. 88 (Hispa); 

Chapuis, Gen. Col. XL 1875, p. 266. 
Gawler, S. Australia. 

APROIDA. Pascoe. 

7100 Balyi Pascoe, Journ. of Ent. II. 1863, p. 55, t. 2, f. 8. 

Pine Mountain, &c., Queensland. 

EURYSPA. Baly. 

7101 ALBiPENNis Germ. Linn. Ent. III. 1848, p. 246 ; Baly, Cat. 

Hispid. 1858, p. 86. 
Adelaide, S. Australia. 

7102 HowiTTi Baly, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1869, p. 90. 

Melboui-ne, Victoria. 

7103 NORMALis Baly, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1869, p. 89. 

Queensland. 

7104 viTTATA Baly, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1869, p. 86, t. 7, f. 1. 

Australia. 



BY GEORGE MASTERS, 85 

OXYCEPHALA. Gucjrin. 

7105 TESTACEA Fabr. Sjst. El. II. p. 25 ; Baly, Cat. p. 162. 

Australia. 

PROMECOTHECA. Blanchard. 

7106 CALLOSA Baly, Ent. Month. Mag. XIII. 1876, p. 128. 

Australia. 

7107 VARIPES Baly, Cat. Hispid. 1858, p. 88. 

N. Australia. 

EPJONISPA. Chapuis. 

7108 Badeni Chap. Gen. Col. XL 1875, p. 302. 

Australia. 

MONOCHIRUS, Chapuis. 

7109 australica Motsch. Schrenck. Reis. II. 1860, p. 239 

(Hispa). 

Australia. 

7110 COARCTATUS Chap. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. XX. 1877, p. 48. 

N, S. Wales. 

7111 FiMBRiATUS Chap. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. XX. 1877, p. 47. 

Tasmania. 

7112 Germari Chap. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. XX. 1877, p. 48, 

Gulf of Carpentaria, N. Australia. 

7113 MULTISPINOSUS Germ. Linn. Ent. III. 1848, p. 246. 

Adelaide, S. Australia. 



Sub-Family. CASSIDIDES. 
HOPLIONOTA. Hope. 

7114 dorsalis Waterh. Ann. Nat. Hist. 1877, p. 424. 
Queensland. 



86 CATALOGUE OF THE DESCRIBED COLEOPTERA OF AUSTRALIA, 

ASPIDOMORPHA. Hope. 

7115 AuSTRALASiiE Boisd. Voy. Astrol. Col. p. 537; Bohem. 

Mon. II. p. 283. 
Australia. 

7116 Badeni Wag. Mtb. Miincli. 1877, p, 64. 

Australia. 

7117 BoiSDUVALi Bohem. Mon. II. p. 283. 

Australia. 

7118 DEUSTA Fabr. Syst. Ent. p. 89 ; Oliv. Ent. YI. 97, p. 954, 

t. 1, f. 17 ; Bohem. Mon. II. p. 333. 
angulifera Blanch. Yoy. Pole Sud, lY. p. 324, t. 18, f. 17. 
corallina Boisd. Yoy. Astrol. Col. p. 541 ; \Y. S. Macleay, 

Dej. Cat. 3 ed. p. 398. 
Australia. 

7119 DouEi Bohem. Cat. Brit. Mus. IX. 1856, p. 110. 

Australia. 

7120 INTERRUPTA Fabr. Syst. Ent. p. 89; Oliv. Ent. YI. 97,. 

p. 953, t. 2, f. 34 ; Bohem. Mon. lY. p. 292. 
Australia. 

7121 Macleavi Bohem. Cat. Brit. Mus. IX. 1856, p. 117. 

Australia. 

7122 MACULATissiMA Bohem. Cat. Brit. Mus. IX. 1856, p. 117. 

Australia. 

7123 NiGRODORSATA Bohem. Cat. Brit. Mus. IX. 1856, p. 119. 

Australia. 

7124 RAMULOPiCTA Wag. Mth. Munch. 1877, p. 65. 

Brisbane, Queensland. 

7125 SEPTEMCOSTATA Wag. Mth. Miinch. 1881, p. 49. 

Rockhampton, Queensland. 

7126 TETRiCA Bohem. Cat. Brit. Mus. IX. 1856, p. 117. 

Australia. 



BY GEORGE MASTERS. 

7127 Westwoodi Boliem. Mon. II, p. 254. 

Australia. 

CASSIDA. Linn(5. 

7128 DENTicuLATA Bohem. Cat. Brit. Mus. IX. 1856, p. 137. 

Australia. 

7129 MERA Germ. Linn. Ent. III. 1848, p. 246. 

Adelaide, S. Australia. 

7130 NAvicELLA Bohem. Mon. IV. p. 331. 

Australia. 

7131 PERPUSILLA Bohem. Mon. IV. p. 335. 

Melbourne, Victoria. 

COPTOCYCLA. Bohemau. 

7132 AusTRALicA Bohem. Mon. III. p. 257. 

Australia. 

7133 COMPUNCTA Bohem. Mon. III. p. 290. 

Australia. 

7134 HoLMGRENi Bohem. Mon. IV. p. 465. 

Port Essington, N. Australia. 



87 



7135 Sappho Bohem. Mon. IV. p. 427. 
Australia. 



«^^' ^ 



Family. EROTYLIDJE. 
Sub-Family. LANGURIDES. 

LANGURIA. LatreiUe. 

7136 Albertisi Harold, MT. Miinch. ent. Ver. III. 1879, p. 81. 

Australia. 

7137 MiLiTARis Harold, MT. Miinch. ent. Ver. III. 1879, p. 80. 

Australia. 

7138 PICEA Harold, MT. Miinch. ent. Ver. III. 1879, p. 66. 

Somerset, Cape York. 

7139 VULGARIS Harold, MT. Miinch. ent. Ver. III. 1879, p. 90. 

Somerset, Cape York. 



88 CATALOaUE OF THE DESCRIBED COLEOPTERA OF AUSTRALIA, 

Sub-Family. EEOTYLIDES. 

EPISCAPHULA. Crotch. 

7140 AusTRALis Boiscl. Voy. Astrol. Col. 1835, p. 146 ; Lacord. 

Mon. p. 58; Dej. Cat. 3 ed. p. 137. 

Australia. 

7141 GRANULATA Lacord. Mon. Fab. Erotyl. 1842, p. 59. 

Australia. 

7142 OPACA Crotch, Cist. Ent. XIII. 1876, Revis. p. 36. 

Sydney, N. S. Wales. 

7143 piCTiPENNis Crotch, Cist. Ent. XIII. 1876, Revis. p. 35. 

Sydney, N. S. Wales. 

7144 RUDEPUNCTA Crotch, Cist. Ent. XIII, 1876, Revis. p. 34. 

Rockhampton, Queensland. 

THALLIS. Erichson. 

7145 BiFASciATA Crotch, Cist. Ent. XIII. 1876, Revis. p. 23. 

Rockhampton, Queensland. 

7146 COMPTA Erichs. Wiegm. Arch. 1842, I. p. 238; Germ. 

Linn. Ent. III. 1848, p. 244. 

Adelaide, S. Australia. 

7147 Erichsoni Crotch, Cist. Ent. XIII. 1876, Revis. p. 24. 

Sydney, N. S. Wales. 

7148 JANTHINA Erichs. Wiegm. Arch. 1842, I. p. 238. 

Tasmania. 

7149 INSUETA Crotch, Cist. Ent. XIII. 1876, Revis. p. 25. 

Queensland. 

7150 viNULA Erichs. Wiegm. Arch, 1842, I. p. 238. 

Tasmania. 



BY GEOEGE MASTERS. 89 

Family. ENDOMYCHID^. 

MYCELLA. Chapuis. 

7151 LiNEELLA Chap. Gen. Col. XII. 1875, p. 105, note. 

Rockhampton, Queensland. 

DAULIS. Erichson. 

7152 ciMicoiDES Erichs. Wiegm. Arch. 1842, I. p. 242, t. 5, f. 5 ; 

Gerstack. Mon. p. 207, t. 2, f. 44. 

Tasmania. 

Family. COCCINELLID^. 

COCCINELLA. Linnt5. 

7153 coNFORMis Boisd. Voy. Astrol. Col. p. 604; Muls. Spec. 

p. 261 ; Dej. Cat. 3 ed. p. 457. 
Australia. 

7154 KiNGi W. S. Macleay, King's Surv. Austral. II. 1827, 

p. 454. 
Australia. 

7155 LEONiNA Fabr. Syst. Ent. p. 87 ; Oliv. Ent. VI. p. 1059, 

t. 2, f. 21, a-b ; Muls. Spec. p. 128. 
Tasmani, White, Voy. Ereb. Terr. XI. 1846, p. 23. 
Australia and Tasmania. 

7156 TRANSVERSALis Fab. Spec. Ins. I. 1781, p. 97. 

var. contempta Boisd. Voy. Astrol. Col. p. 592. 
var. tricincta Erichs. Wiegm. Arch, 1842, I. p. 121. 
varians Fabr. Suppl. Ent. Syst. 1798, p. 78. 
Australia and Tasmania. 

HALYZIA. Mulsant. 

7157 Edwardsi Muls. Spec. Trim. Securip. 1851, p. 158. 

Queensland. 

7158 GALBULA Muls. Spec. Trim. Securip. 1851, p. 166. 

Australia. 



90 CATALOGUE Or THE DESCRIBED COLEOPTERA OP AUSTRALIA, 

7159 Mellyi Muls. Spec. Trim. Securip. 1851, p. 160. 

Australia. 

7160 Pascoei Crotch, Revis. Coc. 1874, p. 131. 

Australia. 

7161 VARicoLOR Muls. Spec. Trim. Securip. 1851, p. 154. 

Sydney, N. S. Wales. 

7162 VARiEGATA Fabr. Spec. Ins. I. 1781, p. 99. 

18-notata Oliv. Ent. VI. p. 1029, t. 6, f. 8G. 
Australia. 

NEDA. Mulsant. 

7163 BouRGEOisi De Kerville, Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr, (6), IV. p. 70, 

t. 4, f. 7. 
Australia. 

7164 DUPLiCATA Crotch, Revis. Coc. 1874, p. 161. 

N. Australia. 

7165 PRiNCEPS Muls. Spec. Trim. Securip. 1851, p. 278 ; Crotch, 

Revis. Coc. 1874, p. 169. 
Port Essington, N. Australia. 

7166 TESTUDiNARiA Muls. Spec. Trim, Securip. 1851, p. 300. 

Austi-alia. 

ALESIA, Mulsant. 

7167 FLAYOviTTATA Crotch, Revis. Coc. 1874, p. 176. 

Melbourne, Victoria. 

7168 FRENATA Erichs. Wiegw. Arch. 1842, I. p. 239; Muls. 

Spec. Trim. Securip. 1851, p. 362. 
liturata W. S. Macleay, Dej. Cat. 3 ed. p. 459. 
Tasmania, and Queensland. 

7169 FURCiFERA Guer. Voy. Duperrey, Zool. 1830, CI. II. Col. 

p. 152 ; Jc. regn. anim. t. 51, f. 1 ; Muls. Spec. Trim. 
Securip. 1851, p. 130. 
fiavolineala Muls. Mon. p. 113. 
Gauthardi Muls. Mon. p. 241. 
Australia. 



BY GEORGE MASTERS. 91 

7170 LINEOLA Fabr. Syst. Ent. p. 7'J ; Oliv. Ent. VI. p. 995, t. 3, 

f. 33 ; Crotch, Revis. Coc. 1874, p. 176. 

striola SchSnli. Syn. Ins. I. 2, p. 156 ; Muls. Spec. Trim. 

Securip. 1851, p. 367. 
var. strigula Boisd. Voy. Astrol. Col. p. 601, t. 8. f. 27 ; 

Muls. Spec. Trim. Securip. 1851, p. 366. 

var. ohlita Latr. Dej. Cat. 3 ed. p. 459. 
K S. Wales. 

CHILOCORUS Leach. 

7171 AusTRALASiiE De Kerville, Ann, Soc. Ent. Fr. (6) IV. 

p. 69, t. 4, f. 8. 
Australia. 

ORCUS. Mulsant. 

7172 Australasia Boisd. Voy. Astrol. Col. 1835, p. 593 ; Muls. 

Spec. Trim. Securip. 1851, p. 468; Dej. Cat. 3 ed. 
p. 460. 

var. numtmdaris Boisd. Voy. Astrol. Col. 1835, p. 594 ; 
Muls. I.e. p. 469 ; W. S. Macleay, Dej. Cat. 3 ed. p. 460. 
Australia and Tasmania. 

7173 BiLUNULATUs Boisd. Voy. Astrol. Col. 1835, p. 594 ; Muls. 

Spec. Trim. Securip. 1851, p. 467 ; Dej. Cat. 3 ed. 
p. 460. 

Australia. 

7174 CHALYBEUs Boisd. Voj. Astrol. Col, 1835, p. 595 ; Muls. 

Spec. Trim. Securip. 1851, p. 471 ; Dej. Cat. 3 ed, 
p. 460. 

cyaneus W. S. Macleay, Dej Cat, 3 ed, p, 460, 
Australia. 

7175 CYANOCEPHALUS Muls. Spec. Trim. Securip. 1851, p. 467. 

Port Essington, N. Australia. 

7176 Lafertei Muls. Opuscent. III. 1853, p. 63. 

Moreton Bay, Queensland. 



92 CATALOGUE OF THE DESCRIBED COLEOPTERA OP AUSTRALIA, 

7177 QUADRiMACULATus De KerviUe, Ann. Soc. Eat. Fr, (6), IV. 

p. 72, t. 4, f. 9. 

SCYMNUS. Kugelann. 

7178 TENEBRicosus Bohem, Res. Eugen. 1859, p. 209. 

N. S. Wales. 

NOVIUS. Mulsant. 

7179 CARDiNALis Muls. Spec. Trim. Securip. 1851, p. 906. 

Australia. 

7180 SANGUiNOLENTUS Muls. Spec. Trim. Securip. 1851, p. 943. 

Australia. 

HYPOCERAS. Chapuis. 

7181 MuLSANTi Chap. Gen. Col. XII. 1876, p. 226, note. 

Rockingham Bay, Queensland. 

RHIZOBIUS. Stephens. 

7182 BAJULUS Muls. Spec. Trim. Securip. 1851, p. 1003. 

Queensland. 

7183 Bakewelli Crotch, Revis. p. 297. 

Queensland. 

7184 BoucARDi Crotch, Revis. p. 297. 

Moreton Bay, Queensland. 

7185 Breweri Crotch, Revis. p. 298. 

Swan River, W. Australia. 

7186 CARNiPEX Muls. Spec. Trim. Securip. 1851, p. 1003. 
Jbveiventris Muls. Opusc. ent. III. 1853, p. 129. 

Queensland. 

7187 DISCOLOR Erichs. Wiegm. Arch. 1842, I. p. 240 ; Muls. 

Spec. Trim. Securip. 1851, p. 1004. 
Tasmania. 

7188 ELONGATULUS Crotch, Revis. Coc. p. 298. 

Queensland. 



BY GEORGE MASTERS. 93 

7189 EvANsi Mills. Spec. Trim. Securip, 1851, p. 1006, 

Adelaide, S. Australia. 

7190 HiRTELLUs Crotch, Revis. Coc. p. 298. 

Queensland. 

7191 suBMETALLicus Crotcli, Revls. Coc. p. 298. 

Swan River, W. Australia. 

7192 VENTRALis Erichs. Wiegm. Arch. 1842, I. p. 239; Muls. 

Spec. Trim. Securip. 1851, p. 1005. 

Adelaide, S. Australia. 

7193 XANTHURUS Muls. Spec. Trim. Securip. 1851, p. 1005. 

Victoria. 

PHARUS. Mulsant. 

7194 STRAGULATUS Ericlis. Wiegm. Arch. 1842,1. p. 240; Crotch,, 

Revis. p. 299. 

Tasmania. 

EPILACHNA. Chevrolat. 

7195 BoiSDUvALi Muls, Spec. Trim. Securip. 1851, p. 765. 

Australia. 

7196 GUTTATOPUSTULATA Fabr. Syst. Ent. p. 87; Oliv. Ent, VI. 

p, 1050, t. 3, f. 35; Muls. Spec. 1851, p. 716. 

var. Pandora Muls. Opusc. ent. III. p. 109. 

var. tasnianica Crotch, Revis. Coc. p. 78. 
Australia, and Tasmania. 

7197 SUFPUSA Crotch, Revis. Coc. p. 78. 

Australia. 

7198 UNDECiMVARioLATA Boisd. Yoy. Astrol. Col. p. 591. 

stigmula Muls, Spec. Trim. Securip. 1851, p. 782, 
Tasmania, 

7199 viGiNTiocTOPUNCTATA Fabr, Syst, Ent. 1775, p. 84. 

recta Muls. Spec. Trim. Securip. 1851, p. 836. 

Australia. 



94 CATALOGUE OF THE DESCRIBED COLEOPTERA OF AUSTRALIA. 

Family. CORYLOPHID^. 

CORYLOPHUS, Stephens. 

7200 FASCIATUS Erichs. Wiegm, Arch. 1842, I. p. 241. 

Tasmania. 

7201 THORACicus Erichs. Wiegm. Arch. 1842, I. p. 240. 

Tasmania. 



NOTE ON SOME TRILOBITES NEW TO AUSTRALIA. 
By F. Ratte, Ing. des Arts et Manuf., Paris. 

LiCHAS PALMATA Variety sinuata, emend, from L. sinuata. 

Lichas sinuata, Ratte, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. W., 1886, Vol. I, 
(2 ser.), p. 1065. 

(Plate I, fig. 6.) 

A t the meeting of November last, I announced the discovery of 
silicified pygidia of Lichas in the Upper Silurian Limestone of 
Wellington. During the printing of the paper it was suggested to me 
to name some of the fossils I had figured, as it was thought better 
to do so even at the risk of creating a synonym, than to leave 
them unnamed. I, therefore, decided to do so, ^;roz;mowa%, at 
least, for some of the fossils sufficiently represented, and in a 
footnote, (page 1065) I proposed the name of Lichas sinuata, in 
consequence of deep sinuses situated at the posterior angles of the 
four lateral ribs of the pygidiuro. I also remarked that our 
specimens strongly resemble Lichas hirsutus, Fletchei', and Lichas 
palmata, Barrande, both belonging to Upper Silurian Rocks. I 
indeed do not find much difierence between these two species, at 
least from the descriptions given (1). In both, the margin of 
the pygidium is raised sufficiently to form a prominent pad which 
joins with the two extreme spines and with the four lateral ones 
which are produced beyond of the margin. This character, how- 
ever, is very slightly, if at all, indicated in our fossil. If any 
of the figures at hand, in the absence of any other works, 



(1) In fact Barrande says, p. 602 : — "La forme figur^e par notre ami, M. 
'* Fletcher, de Dudley, sous le nom de Lichas hirsutus, nous parait 
"identique avec celle que nons d^crivons." 



96 NOTE ON SOME TRILOBITES NEW TO AUSTRALIA, 

leave any doubt as to the distinction to be drawn, it is the 
pygidium of Lichas palmata represented in fig. 9, pi. 28 inBarrande. 
For this reason it would perhaps be wiser to consider the 
Wellington fossil only as a variety. 

In order to show the differences and affinities above alluded to, 
I give sketches of the outlines of the species concerned. It will 
be seen that the sinuses, which are very exaggerated in our variety, 
are very distinct, if not so deep, in Barrande's above-mentioned 
figure. 

AciDASPis sp. near A. Dormitzeri, Cord. 

Barrande, Syst. Sil. 1852, p. 728, PL 38, fig. 22. 

(Plate II, figs. 1 and 1 bis.) 

The specimen here recorded is very nearly complete, and is 
remarkable for its minuteness, being exactly 5 mm. in length, not 
including the spines of the pygidium. 

It was found at Bowning by Mr. J. Mitchell, together with 
a great number of other trilobites, &c. 

Although nearly complete, and on that account deserving to be 
figured, still this specimen leaves doubt as to the ornaments of its 
frontal margin, as well as of some slight details in the pygidium, and 
in consequence of its minuteness it leaves also doubts about some 
other parts. As the figures of other species related to it can be 
seen in Barrande's work I will only quote them here without 
commenting at any length. They all have nine segments in the 
body. 

Acidaspis Leonhardi, Barr. p. 720, pi. 37, fig. 1, length 26 mm. 

Acidaspis Hoernesi, Barr. p. 723, pi. 38, fig. 30, length 20 mm. 

Acidaspiis Geinitziana, Cord. p. 725, pi. 39, fig. 45-49, length 
about 14 mm. 

Acidaspis Roemeri, Barr. p. 726, pi. 39, fig. 29, length 13 mm. 

Acidaspis mimita, Barr. p. 729, pi. 37, fig. 18, length 15 mm. 



BY F. RATTE, ING. DES ARTS ET MANUF., PARIS. 97 

Acidaspis ruderalis, Cord. p. 733, pi. 37, fig. 32, length 30 mm. 

With all of these, including A . Dormitzeri, our specimen exhibits 
some characters in common. Thus it resembles A. viinuta in 
regard to the pygidium and in some degree the rounded outline of 
the head ; while this species (A. minuta), difiei's from all others 
mentioned by having three tubercles instead of one, on the pleural 
ridges, not including one at the origin of the pleural spines. 

The pygidium does not seem to agree perfectly with that of any 
of those mentioned ; besides it is smaller, being at the utmost one 
eighth of the length, not including the spines; while in A. 
Dormitzeri and A. minuta it is one seventh of the length, and in 
the other more than that proportion. (1) 

The drawings being sufficiently enlarged to show all the visible 
characters, I shall abstain from a lengthy descrijjtion, and insist 
only on the principal features. 

The length of the head is less than one third of the whole lensrth 
not including the spines. The median part of the glabella is 
narrow, its width being a little less than one-fifth of the width of 
the head. The distance between the false grooves which limit that 
median part and the eye is a little more than the width of the 
median part of the glabella, leaving ample room for the internal 
triangle of the fixed cheek. This triangle includes on the specimen 
four or five tubercles which are visible on both sides of the lateral 
nodules of the glabella (those nodules, two on each side, are bounded 
by the median, the posterior and the occipital furrows). In A. 
Leonliardi, A. Hoernesi, A. (ji-einitziana, the above-mentioned 
triangle is considerably reduced, and in L. Roemeri is completely 
absent or replaced by a groove instead of an elongated nodule. 



(1) In fig. 22, pi. 38 of Barrande, the pygidium is certainly more than 
one seventh, say one sixth of the length, but I quote Barrande's text p. 728, 
" La tSte occupe un pen moins du tiers, et le pygidium un septieme de la 
longueur totale." As the author says totale, it is possible that in this case 
he included the spinal ornaments, although I doubt it. 
7 



98 NOTE ON SOME TRILOBITES NEW TO AUSTRALIA, 

The eyes in our specimen are prominent and much brought 
forwards compared with those in other allied species. What is 
missing is the fi-ontal margin, including the two triangular grooves, 
by which it is connected with the ocular ridges and the facial 
suture. This frontal margin, in some, is adorned with series of 
tubercles (A. minuta, A. Leonhardi, A. Roemeri), while in others 
it is smooth {A. Hoernesi). Barrande says that the head of A. 
Dormitzeri is similar to that of A. Leonhardi, but his (figure 22, 
pi. 38), of the former does not show tuberculations at the frontal 
margin. 

Fui'thei", the head of our fossil exhibits a more rounded outline 
than any of the other species considered. I will explain it 
simply. Let us draw a straight line parallel to the axis of the 
body and passing by the origin of one of the genal spines. In 
Acidaspis Dufrenoyi, Barr., (PI. 38, fig. 25), this line will form an 
angle with the external border of the movable cheek, which is 
nearly straight giving to the head the shape of a triangle. In 
some of the species mentioned such as A. Hoernesi, A. Dormitzeri, 
the angle will be smaller; in A. Roemeri still smaller; in A. 
minuta this angle will be reduced to nothing, as the line will be 
tangential to the head-border ; and lastly in our fossil, and still 
more so in A. Verneuili, Barr., (PL 38, fig. 5), the border will be 
cut by the parallel line. That border is adorned by a regular line 
of tubercles, each of which gives rise to a very fine spine, the 
impression of which has been left on the stone. The genal spines 
are bent nearly in a direction parallel to the outline of the body. 

The body has nine rings ; each pleura is terminated by a spine 
progressively incurved from the first to the last, which is nearly 
parallel to the axis. 

The pygidium is I'ather difl&cult to understand in so small a 
specimen ; it is much adorned with tubercles and shows distinctly 
eight spines, but whether the principals are the second or the third 
in order, ic is not easy to decide. 

In resume there are two strong characters in our fossil in favour 
of making it a difierent species from those represented in Barrande, 



BY F. RATTE, ING. DBS ARTS ET MANUF., PARIS. 99 

or with such figures as I could compare it ; 1st, the external outline 
of the moveable cheeks, and 2nd, the proportion that the length of 
the pygidium bears to the length of the body, which proportion is 
smaller than in any of the species brought into comparison with it. 
It therefore remains to be named, or to be identified with some 
species unknown to me. 

All the species mentioned above are placed by Barrande in his 
" Etage E, Faune III," except A. Iloernesi, which belongs to his 
" Etage, F, Faune, IV," and is found also in the next " Etage." 

On the same piece of rock with this minute Acidasjns is a hollow 
impression of Stan7-ocephalus with which I shall deal hereafter. 

AciDASPis near A. Leonhardi, Barr. 
Barrande, Syst. Sil. 1852, p. 720, PI. 37, fig. 1. 

(Plate II., figs. 2-4.) 

The remains of Acidaspis in the Bowning beds are rare indeed, 
compared with with those of Encrinurus, Phacops, Sjihcerexochus, 
Calymene, and Bronteus. (1) For the above reason, I will exhaust 
the materials I have in hand and represent three more specimens, 
two from Mr. Mitchell, and another given by him to the Museum. 

They all include the median part of the head only, and cannot 
be properly identified, although the resemblance of one (fig. 4) to 
A. Leonhradi is rather strong. The chief diflfei-ence is that in one of 
them especially (fig. 3), the internal triangle of the fixed cheek of 



(1) The eai'liest mention that I know of the genus in Australia is by 
Chas. Jenkins, Esq., of Yass, in Proc. Linn. Soc. Vol. III. pi. 17, where he 
represents A. Biightii from the lower part of the Hume beds. I find ^4. 
Brightii, Murch. from the Wenloch limestone, Dudley, figured in Murchison's 
Siluria, pi. 18. However, from these data only it seems hardly possible to 
ascertain this identification beyond doubt. [See also Barr. Sil, Syst. p. 752, 
and in Phil, and Salter, Mem. Geol. Surv. Gt. Brit. 1848, Vol. 2, part I. 
pi. IX). The pygidium of A. Brightii as represented by Mr. Jenkins, 
somewhat resembles that i-epresented by me in Proc. Linn. Soc. Vol. I. 
2 ser. pi. 15, fig. 12. (Subsequently I have been given to understand that 
this gentleman did not intend to insist on the identification. ) 



100 NOTE ON SOME TRILOBITES NEW TO AUSTRALIA, 

which I have ah-eady spoken, is broader than in A. Leonhardi. It 
would therefore come nearer to A. Dorniitzeri on that account, 
but, as I have already said (p. 98), although Bai-rande does not 
describe the head of the last species on the ground of its similarity 
to that of the former, still he does not represent the frontal 
margin of A. Dormitzeri with the granulation which exists in A. 
Leonhardi. These three specimens might belong to two or even 
three different species. 

One of the specimens being very well preserved, as regards the 
granulation of the glabella, I have represented it increased four 
times, viz., twice as much as the others, in order to show more 
exactly all the details. 

Staurocephalus near S. Murchisoni, Bai-r. 

Barrande, Sil. Syst. p. 812, pi. 43; Salter, Brit. Trilob. p. 84, 

pi. 7. 

(Plate II., figs. 5-9.) 

This genus was recorded from Australia, for the first time, 
by Prof, de Koninck, (in his Fossiles Paleozoiques Nouv.-Galles du 
Sud, 1876, p. 47, pi. 1, fig. 8), when he dedicated to the late Rev. 
W. B. Clarke, a beautiful species from Rock Flat Creek (Monaro), 
whence the doubtful Lichas 2)abnata which is spoken of by de 
Koninck, also comes. 

The specimens of Staitrocejihalus I am about to record and repre- 
sent here are from Bowning, and have already been referred to in 
the Proceedings by M. Mitchell under the name of S. Murchisoni ; 
but he acknowledges himself that they do not perfectly agree with 
the representations of this fossil by Salter and Barrande. 

Out of the five specimens, three show only the head, not unlike 
that of aS*. Murchisoni ; another specimen is a hollow cast of the 
head and pleurae (fig. 5) ; and the last, which is nearly complete, 
has been recently handed to me by Mr. Mitchell (fig. 6). 

I do not see any remarkable diflference between the heads repre- 
sented in our figures, and fig. 28 of Barrande's plate 43, except that 



BY F. RATTE, ING. DES ARTS ET MANUP., PARIS. 101 

the furrows of the glabella are not apparent in our specimens, and 
that the median part of the head seems also more slender, becoming 
narrower as it reaches the globular projection. 

The great difi'erence is in the pygidium, which, although com- 
posed of the same number of pleurae, is broader and has a nearly- 
flat surface, and only shows the origin of appendages on the outer 
margin,- where unfortunately the prolongations of these appendages 
are broken (fig. 6). The dimensions of the last specimen are as 

follows : — 

Length 17 mm. 

Breadth 10 mm. 

Length of head 6^ mm. 

Length of pygidium IJ mm. 

Width of pygidium 3 mm. 

One specimen, (fig. 7) which was lent to me from the Depart- 
ment of Mines for comparison, shows only the head, which is 
10 ram. in length, corresponding to about 26 mm. for the total 
length of the animal without the appendages of the pygidium, and 
1.5 to 16 mm. in breadth. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATES. 

(Plate I). 

Diagrams of pygidia. figs. 1-6. 

Fig. 1. — Lichas hirsutui, Fletcher (= L. palmata, Barr.) Journ. Geol. Soc. 

1850, pi. XXVII. , bis, fig. 2. x 2. 
Fig. 2.— Id. id. Loc. cit., pi. XXVIL, fig. 6. x 2. 
Fig. 3.— Id. id. Loc. cit., pi. XXVIL, fig. 5. x 2. 
Fig. 4. — Lichas palmata, Barr. Syst^me Silur. Bohem., pi. 28, fig. 1. 

Fig. 5. — Id. Loc. cit., fig. 9. This fig. is accompanied in Barrande's work by 
the following remai'k : — " Pygidium isol^, dont I'axe est tr^s- 
prolong6, et dont les tubercules spiniformes sont tres-d^veloppes 
sur le contour. " x 2. 

Fig. G,— Lichas palmata var. sinuata. x 3. 



102 NOTE ON SOME TRILOBITES NEW TO AUSTRALIA. 

(Plate II). 

Fig. 1. — Acklaapis near A. Dormitzeri, Corda. From Bowning (J. 
Mitchell, Esq.) x 10. 

Fig. 1. bis. — The same of natural size. 

Figs. 2 and 3.— Heads of Acidanpu. x 2. 

Fig. 4. — Head of Acidaspis near A. Leonhardi. x i. 

Fig. 5.—Staurocephahis near S. 31urchisoni, Barr. Hollow impression. 
X 2. 

Fig. 6. — Staurocephalus near S. Murchisoni, Barr. Complete specimen. 
X 2. 

Fig. 7.— Head of same. (Coll. Geol. Surv. N. S. W., from Bowning.). 
X 2. 

Fig. 8. — Head of same, x 2. 

Fig. 9. — Head of same showing denticulated border, x 2. 

N.B. — Unless otherwise stated, the specimens of Acidaspis and Stcmro- 
cephalus have been kindly lent by M. J. Mitchell, and are from Bowning. 



NOTE ON THE MODE OF NIDIFICATION OF A SPECIES 
OF PACHYCEPHALA, SUPPOSED TO BE P. GIL- 
BERTII, FROM THE INTERIOR OF N. S. WALES. 



By K. H. Bennett. 

Whilst riding across a portion of the Kilfern Station in the 
Western Division of the Colony, on the 24th of October last, my 
attention was attracted by observing the tail of a bird protruding 
from the upper surface of an old nest of a Pomatostonucs, placed in 
a small Mulga tree, some 12 feet from the ground. As I rode 
beneath the tree the bird flew off, and perched on a neighbouring 
branch. I at once recognised it as a bird that I had met with on 
two or three occasions previously in my wanderings, but which 
was extremely rare, and which I took to be a Pachycephala, but 
to what species referable I cpuld not say. Since then, however, 
I have examined the plates in Gould's Work on the " Birds of 
Australia," and have also carefully examined the species of 
Pachycejyhala, in the Sydney Museum, and am of opinion that the 
bird in question is P. Gilbertii. Having never previously come 
across the nest of this bird I was curious to see the esss, thousfh 
at the same time I was very doubtful about eggs being there 
at all, as the situation of the supposed nest was so different from 
that usually chosen by this family of birds. On ascending the tree 
I found that the bird had actually chosen that situation for its 
nest, but to my disappointment the bird was only building, as was 
evidenced by finding a newly made, somewhat cup-shaped nest 
within the old one of the Pomatostomus. On the 3rd of November, 
having occasion to pass within a few miles of the same place, I 
determined to gratify my curiosity as regarded the eggs, and made 
a detour for this purpose. On reaching the tree I again observed 



104 MODE OF NIDIFICATION OF A SPECIES OF PACHYCEPHALA. 

the bird's tail projecting from the nest, and on ascending was 
gratified to find the nest contained three eggs ; these I took, and 
also the nest in its entirety, and have forwarded them to Dr. 
Kamsay, for exhibition. The eggs are of a light creamy white 
with irregular zones of spots of slate and grey dots at the 
larger end. 



FLOWERING SEASONS OF AUSTRALIA.^ PLANTS. 



By E. Haviland, F.L.S, 



No. 3, — Plants Flowering in the neighbourhood of Sydney 

DURING THE MONTH OP SEPTEMBER, IN ADDITION TO THOSE 
ENUMERATED IN LISTS FOR JULY AND AUGUST, MOST OP 
WHICH ARE STILL IN FlOWER. 



Dilleniacese — 

Hibbertiafasciculata. 
Cruciferee— 

Cakile maritima. 
Violacese — 

Viola betonicifolia. 
Pittospore* — 

Marianthus procumhens 

Pittosporum undulatum. 
Polygalese — *■ 

Comesperma voluhile. 
Tremandrese — 

Tetratheca juncea 
,, ericoides. 
Rutacese — 

Correa sp)eciosa vax' canensis 

Philotheca australis. 
Linese — 

Linum marginale. 
Euphorbiacese — 

Phyllanthus thymoides 

Breynia ohlongifolia. 
Stackhousiacese — 

Stackhousia iiiuricata 
,, viminea. 



FicoideEe — 

Tetragonia exjxmsa. 
Leguminosse — 

Bossicea rnicrophylla 
Acacia stricta 
Pultencea Jlexilis 
,, retusa 
Daviesia ulicina 
Gompholob'ium 'minus 

,, latifolium 

Mirhelia reticulata. 
Myrtacese — 

Leptos2Jermjum parvi/olium 
„ attenuatum 

Bmckea crenulata 
,, diosmifolia. 
Rhamnacepe — 

Pomaderris lanigera 
„ elliptica 

Loranthacese — 

Nototliixos suhaureus. 
Proteacese — 

Grevillea laurifolia 

„ huxifolia 

Hakea dactyloides. 



106 



FLOWERING SEASONS OP AUSTRALIAN PLANTS. 



Compositse — 

Helichrysum diosmifolium. 
Goodeniaceje — 

Goodenia barbata. 
Plantaginese — 

Plmitago debilis. 
Solanacese — 

Solanum aviculare. 
Scroj)hularine8e — 

Veronica plebeia. 
Labiates — 

Plectranthus parviflorus. 
Epacridese — 

Styphelia triflora 

Monotoca scoparia. 



Orchideae — 

Caladenia testacea 

„ alba 
Thelymitra ixioides 
Diuris elongata 

Caleana major 
Calochil'us paludosus 
Glossodia tninor 
Praso2)hyllum elaluni. 

Iridese — 

Patersonia glabrata. 

Amaryllidese — 

Ilypoxis hygrometrica. 

Liliaceae — 

Burchardia umbellata. 



NOTES ON THE METHOD ADOPTED BY THE FEMALE 
OF THE COMMON FRESHWATER TORTOISE CHELO- 
DINA LONGICOLLIS, IN THE EXCAVATION OF 
THE BURROWS IN WHICH HER EGGS ARE TO 
BE DEPOSITED. 

By H. J. McCooEY, Blayney. 

1. Chelodina longicollis.- This strange-looking Freshwater Tor- 
toise ^vhich has been compared to a snake threaded through a 
turtle, is at the present time, midsummer, engaged in the processes 
of nidification and deposition of her eggs ; and I have taken the 
opportunity of watching the proceedings with j)articular attention 
during the last fortnight, in the neighbourhood of Blayney, with 
the following results, viz. : — 

(1st). The tortoises come out of the Balabula River and travel 
into the cultivation paddocks, a distance, in some instances, of 
fifteen chains to deposit their eggs. (2nd). They carry luith them 
a sujyply of loater which they vomit into the holes to soften the 
earth while they dig. They begin operations early in the morning 
by scratching a small hole about an inch deep, always using their 
hind claws. Into the depression thus made they vomit or squirt 
a quantity of water, and immediately resume the scratching 
process. Having cleared out the mud foi'med by the water, and 
being again on the dry surface, they again vomit water into the 
hole and again scratch out the mud. They continue in this 
manner until the hole has been sunk to the required depth, viz., 
about seven inches. The quantity of water they use in the 
operation of sinking or burrowing out one of these holes is quite 
surprising. As far as I can make out fully a pint is used. If 
the ground be extra dry and hard, and their supply of water run 



108 NOTES ON THE OVIPOSITION OF THE FRESHWATER TORTOISE. 

short, which in three itistances I have known to occur, tliey will 
return to the river and next morning again make their appearance 
with a fresh supply and complete the unfinished hole. 

I shall be glad to learn if this water-carrying peculiarity of the 
Chelodina longicollis has been observed by any other naturalist. 

2. Since my previous note on Chelodina longicollis, I found 
another in the act of using water in burrowing, and had an 
■excellent opportunity of watching her. She chose a hard, dry, 
dusty road for her operations. A surprising quantity of water 
was used — a continuous stream being kept running into the hole 
while she dug. In fact the water overflowed the hole and ran 
from it about two feet. She must have used considerably over 
a pint of water. The situation chosen was about three chains 
from the river, on the side of a steep incline, more than thirty 
feet above the level of the water. It is worthy of notice that 
the tortoises always choose gi-assless situations for their nests, and 
such situations are, of course, always the hardest they could choose. 
This is evidently to avoid the grass. When the hole is scraped 
out to a depth of seven inches they lay six eggs, over which they 
throw a covering of fine dust. Next day they return and lay six 
moi'e which they again cover over with fine dust. They continue 
laying six per day and covering them over^ until thirty-six are 
laid. They then cover the nest up level with the surface ; hut 
never above it. I have found as few as 15 eggs in their nests but 
never more than 36 ; and strange to say on thiee occasions I have 
tound exactly that number, viz., thirty-six. The eggs in the 
bottom of the hole or nest hatch first ; the young scramble out, 
and Strike a bee-line for the nearest point of the river. Farmers 
in this district frequently plough up the nests and find therein a 
number of young, and unhatched eggs. 



NOTES AND EXHIBITS. 109 



NOTES AND EXHIBITS. 

Mr. Smithurst exhibited the ulna, radius, and other bones of a 
gigantic Kangaroo from a deep deposit at Gulgong. Also, two 
specimens of Corals also from Gulgong ; one, Favosites Gothlandica, 
the other, a species of Jsastrcea evidently foreign to the district. 

Mr. Ogilby exhibited a coloured drawing by Mr. Irwin, of the 
beautiful fish Girella cyanea. 

Mr. A . Sidney OUiff exhibited a gigantic flea which he identified 
as Puleo: echidnce, Denny. The specimen was found by Mr. Pedley 
on the Australian Echidna together with the small species recently 
described in the ' Proceedings ' as Echidnopliaga amhulans. 

Mr. Masters exhibited a fine collection of Entomogenous Fungi, 
and read the following explanatory note : — 

" I have put together in the drawer I now exhibit some of the 
most conspicuous Entomogenous Fungi in the Macleay Museum. 
No. (1) labelled New South Wales, shows some large Lepidopterous 
larvae, with the stipes, rising from the tail, as long and as thick as 
the Caterpillai', and terminating in a double or sometimes single 
large oblong somewhat compressed club. (2) Specimens of the well- 
known New Zealand Isaria, the stipes springing from the head, 
and 10 inches in length. (3) Specimens from Ash Island of larvae 
of Rhyssonotus nebulosus in a similar state, the fungus rising from 
the head in a thin stipes and terminating in a small round club. 
(4) Some Cicada pupae similarly attacked (New South "Wales). 
(.5) Larva of an Elater with a number of thread-like growths on 
the sides of the body (New South Wales). (6) An Homopterous 
Insect, with fine thread-like growths from its tail (N. S. Wales). 
(7) Two Dipterous Insects from Cairns, with a short thick stipes 
terminating in a round club, springing from the base of each 
wing, evidently a Gordyceips. (8) Four different species of Hymen- 
optera from Cairns, but apparently attacked by the same fungus, 
which springs from all parts of the body in long, very thin, and 



110 NOTES AND EXHIRITS. 

hair-like filaments. (9) An Homopterous insect from Cairns, com- 
pletely enveloped beneath in a gi^owth of short bai'bed-looking 
spines. (10) In three Spiders, also from Cairns, shortish, thickish, 
and rather pointed growths spring from different pai"ts of the body. 
(11) Two Wasps from Cuba have a longish stipes rising between 
the anterior legs. I shall endeavour to have some of the most 
interesting of these exhibits illustrated for a future meeting. 

Dr. Ramsay exhibited a number of rare birds from the late Mr. 
T. H. Boyer-Bower's collection, for comparison with specimens of 
allied species from New South Wales : — Astur cruentus, Gould, 
W. A. ; uEgotheles leucogaster, Gould, W. A. ; Calamoherpe 
australis, N. S. W. ; C. longirostris, Gould, W. A, ; Loj)hophaps 
ferruginea, W. A. ; L. leucogaster, W. A. ; Ephthianura aurifrons, 
N. S. W. ; E. crocea, W. A. ; Myiagra latirostris, W. A. ; 
Estrelda hichenovii, Gould, N. S. W. ; E. annulosa, Gould, 
W. A. ; FoepMla acuticauda, W. A. ; P. atropygicdis, Centl. 
Aust. ; P. cincta, Queensland. 



WEDNESDAY, 23rd FEBRUARY, 1887. 



The Monthly Meeting of this Society was held in the Linnean 
Hall, Ithaca Road, Elizabeth Bay, on Wednesday evening, 23rd 
February, 1887. 

The President, Professor W. J. Stephens,MA., RG.S.,in the Chair. 



Mr. T. S. Rigg, and Mr. J. R. Reid, Bengal Civil Service, were 
present as visitors. 

]Mr. Henry J. Brown, Newcastle, was elected a Member of the 
Society. 



The President announced that the next Excursion had been 
arranged for Saturday, March 19th, Members to meet at the 
Redfem Railway Station, to proceed by the 8-13 am. train to 
the National Park. 



DONATIONS. 

" United States Commission of Fish and Fisheries." Parts 
I.-IX. " Reports of the Commissioner" for the years 1871-81, 
(9 Vols,) ; " Odontornithes : A Monograph on the Extinct Toothed 
Birds of North America." By Prof. O. C. Marsh ; " Key to 
North American Birds." By Dr. Elliott Coues ; "Birds of the 



112 DONATIONS. 

North-west : A Handbook of the Ornithology of the region 
drained by the Missouri River and its Tributaries." By Dr. 
E. Coues ; " Birds of the Colorado Valley." By Dr. E. Coues. 
Part I. ; " Monographs of North American Rodentia." By Dr. 
Coues and J. A. Allen ; " Monographies de Mamraalogie." Par 
C. J. Temminck, (2 Vols.) ; " The Parasites of Man, and the 
Diseases which proceed from them." By Prof. R. Leuckart, 
Translated by W. E. Hoyle, M.A. ; " Report of the Commission 
appointed to inquire into the methods of Oyster Culture in the 
United Kingdom and France." (1870) ; " Reports on the Crab and 
Lobster Fisheries of England and Wales, Scotland and Ireland." 
(1877) ; Also, Ten (10) Papers on Ichthyology. By Dr. Bleeker ; 
"The Scottish Geographical Magazine." Vol. III., No. 1, Jan_ 
1887. From the Hon. William Macleay, F.L.S., &c. 

" Forest Culture and Eucalyptus Trees." By Ellwood 
Cooper ; " Notes on Australian Plants," (Continued), (2 leaflets) ; 
and " On two Species of Sterculia, discovered by R. Parkin- 
son, Esq., in New Britain." By Baron von Muellei". From 
Baron von Mueller, K.G.M.G., F.R.S., Sc. 

"Proceedings of the Royal Physical Society, Edinburgh." 
Vol. IX., Part I. 1886. From the Society. 

" Zoologischer Anzeiger." IX. Jahrg. No. 240, 20th December, 
and Index 1886. From the Editor. 

" Abstract of Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London." 
December 21st, 1886. From the Society. 

" Plants Indigenous in the neighbourhood of Sydney." By Rev. 
W. Woolls, Ph.D., F.L.S. From Prof. Stephens, M.A., F.G.S. 

" Bulletin of the American Geographical Society," 1885. No. 3. 
From the Society. 



DONATIONS. 113 

" The Canadian Record of Science." Vol, II., No. 5. From 
the Natural History Society of Montreal. 

" The Victorian Naturalist" Vol. III., No. 10. Feb. 1887. 
From the Field Naturalists' Club of Victoria. 

" A History of the Fishes of Madeira."* By Richard Thomas 
Lowe, M.A. From Dr. Ramsay, F.R.S.E. 

" Revue Coloniale Internationale." Tome IV., No. 1. Jan., 
1887. From L' Association Coloniale Neerlandaise a Amsterdam. 

" Annalen des K. K. Naturhistorischen Hofmuseums." (Wien). 
Redigirt von Dr. von Hauer. Band I., No. 3. From the Director. 

" Memoirs of the Geological Survey of India :• — Palteontologia 
Indica." Ser. X., Vol. IV., Part II., and Addendum to Part I, 
By R. Lydekker, B.A., F.G.S. Froin the Director. 

"Feuille des Jeunes Naturalistes." No. 195, 1st Jan., 1887. 
From the Editor. 

" Comptes Rendus des Seances de L' Academie des Sciences, 
Paris." Tome GUI., Nos. 17-21, 1886, and " Tables des 
Comptes Rendus, &c," 2nde Semestre 1885. Tome CI. From 
the Academy. 

" Studies from the Biological Laboratory of the Johns Hopkins 
University, Baltimore." Vol. III., Nos. 6 and 7. May and 
June, 1886 ; " University Circulars." Vol. V., Nos. 49 and 50. 
May and June, 1886. From the University. 

" Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Phila- 
delphia." Part I. Jan. to March, 1886. From the Academy. 

" Transactions of the New York Academy of Sciences." Vol. 

v., Nos. 2-6. Nov. 1885 to March, 1886 ; "Annals of the New 

York Academy of Sciences." Vol. IIL, Nos. 9 and 10, Dec. 1885. 

From the Academy. 
8 



114 DONATIONS. 

" M6moires de L' Academie Imperiale des Sciences de St. 
Petersbourg." VII. ■"« Serie. Tome XXXIII., No. 5, 1885. From 
the Academy. 

" Mittheilungen der Naturforschenden Gesellscliaft iii Bern." 
Jahrg. 1870-1881, (12 Vols.), 1883, (Heft 2) to 1885, (Heft 2). 
From the Society. 



PAPERS READ. 

MISCELLANEA ENTOMOLOGICA, No. III. 

THE SCARITID^ OF NEW HOLLAND. 
By William Maclbay, F.L.S., &c. 

The ScaritidEe (or Bipartiti of Latreille), are very numerously 
represented in Au.stralia, and are certainly the most beautiful of 
all the groups of the Carabidse, their colours exhibiting infinite 
varieties of gem-like brilliancy and metallic lustre. It is perhaps 
also of all others the group which has been most completely 
worked up. Professor Westwood was the first to endeavour to throw 
some light upon these at that time very little known insects, he 
having described or redescribed all the species then known(19 species) 
of the genera Care^ium and ScarapJdtes in the " Arcana Entomo- 
logica," Vol. I, 1845, and the Trans. Ent.Soc. Lond. Vol. V. 1849. 

In January 1863, I published a paper (1) on the Scai'itidae in 
which I added considerably to the number, and gave descrip- 
tions of all the species previously known. My next paper read in 
March 18?4 (2), added 27 to the list of Australian Scaritidse. In 
a third paper (3), read in March 1865, I added 30 to the list, and 
introduced the new genus Euryscaphus for the reception of some 
large species which seemed to be intermediate between Carenum 
and Scaraphites. I also at the end of that paper gave a tabular 
list of all the species of Carenum, subdivided into numerous 
sections founded upon easily recognizable differences in form and 
sculpture. In 1867 Count Castelnau (4) described over thirty 
new species, formed a new genus,. Neocarenum, for the reception 
of some insects of which my Carenum elongatum is the type, and 

(1) Trans. Ent. Soc. N. S. Wales, Vol, 1, p. 55. 

(2) Trans. Ent. Soc. N. S. Wales, Vol. I. p. 1.S4. 

(3) Trans. Ent. Soc. N. S. Wales, Vol. I. p. 176. 

(4) Trans. Roy. Soc. Vict. VIII. p. 120. 



116 MISCELLANEA ENTOMOLOGICA, NO, IIL 

restored Newman's genus Eutoma for the group of which Carenum 
tinctilaticvi, Newm. is the type. In 1868, Baron de Chaudoir (1) 
reviewed the genus Carenum as ifc then stood, criticised the work 
done by Count Castelnau and myself, described six new species 
and formed three new genera — Monocentrum, ConoiJterum, and 
Carenidium. The Bai'on's paper was followed in 1869, by a fourth 
paper from me (2) in which 21 new species were enumerated and 
described. Since thenbutlittle has been done in this group. In 187 1 
I described eight new species in the " Insects of Gayndah," (3) and 
formed the genus Philoscaphus for the group of which Carenum 
tuberculahwi is the type, and in 1873, (4) I added eight more 
species to the list. In 1874, Bates described in the "Entomologists 
Monthly Magazine," nine species from West Australia, including 
a new genus, Teratidium. In 1883, I added (5) five new species 
from Queensland, and in December 1886, the Rev. T. Black- 
burn (6) described two South Australian species of the genus 
Euryscafhus. 

This makes the number of species in all 180, including a few 
■which have accumulated in my collection since I last wrote on the 
subject, and which I describe further on. 

My object in now reverting to this old and favourite subject, is 
because I find that the enormous increase in the number of the species 
of the group has so outgrown the old tabular arrangement of them 
which I made more than 20 years ago, that a fresh arrangement and 
classification has become very desirable if not necessary. I have 
been compelled in my efibrt to make my revision of the group as 
distinct and intelligible as it is in my power to make it, to add 
considerably to the number of genera, so that by my present pro- 
posed arrangement the genus Carenum of Bonelli, yields material 
for 14 genera. My definition of these, given below, is shoi't 

(1) Ann. Ent. Soc. Belg. Tom. XI. p. 137. 

(2) Trans. Ent. Soc. Is. S. Wales, Vol. II. p. 58. 

(3) Trans. B]nt. Soc. N. S. Wales, Vol. II. p. 96-99. 

(4) Trans. Ent. Soc. N. S. Wales, Vol. II. 319. 

(5) Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales, Vol. VIII. p. 411. 

(6) Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust. Vol. 1887. 



BY WILLIAM MACLEAY, F.L.S., &C. 117 

and not very definite, bat that I find unavoidable, as there are very- 
few marked distinguishing features in the group, and even these 
run into One another in the most puzzling manner. 

Group, Carenides. 

Mentum large, flat, carinated in the middle, the median tooth 
very strong. 

Labium cut squarely in front, the paraglossaj slightly passing it. 

Palpi more or less securiform. 

Maxillce straight, rounded at the apex. 

Mandibles strongly toothed on the internal side. 

Labrum short. 

Antennce short, compresssed, moniliform or filiform. 

Thorax and elytra of variable form. 

Anterior tibice strongly palmate and toothed externally. 

Tarsi simple in both sexes. 

Bod'i/ apterous. 

This group I propose to distribute into the following genera : — 

Monocentrum, Teratidlum, Carenidium, Conopterum, Neoca- 
renuin, Eutoma, CarenoscajjJms, Carenum, Calliscapterus, Platy- 
tliorax, Laccojiterum, Philosca2)hics, Etoryscaphus, and Scaraphites. 

Genus, Monocentrum, Chaud. 

Of very narrow elongate form. Head large, antennae short, 
robust, compressed, submoniliform ; labial palpi securiform. 
Frontal canals deep, diverging behind. Thoi'ax much longer than 
broad. Elytra narrow, cylindrical. Anterior tibife unidentate 
externally. Ventral segments impunctate. 

Three species have been assigned to this genus, all from 
Northern Queensland. M. megacephalum (Carenum megacep>halum) 
Westwood, M. grandiceps, Chaud. and 31. longiceps, Chaud. I 
have one specimen of the grandiceps from the Dawson River, the 
only one of the genus I have seen. 



118 MISCELLANEA ENTOMOLOGICA, NO. III. 

Genus, Teratidium, Bates. 

This genus seems not to differ from Monocentrum except in 
having the frontal canals very lightly impressed. The only 
s]iecies is T. macros of Bates from West Australia. I have never 
seen it. 

Genus, Carenidium, Chaud. 

Head very large, frontal canals deep and diverging behind, 
mandibles very strong, clvpeus and labrum emarginate. Antennae 
short, slender, attenuated at the apex. Palpi very broadly 
securiform. Thorax broader than the length. Elytra oblong- 
oval ; anterior tibiaj strongly bidentate externally. The abdominal 
segments with the two setigerous punctures except in C. gagatinxim. 

The insects referable to this genus are of large size and for the 
most part of great brilliancy. Baron de Chaudoir founded the 
genus on my Carenum gagatinum, and more recent discoveries 
have added to it — C. Damelii, Mad. ; Spaldingi, Macl. ; Kreus- 
lerce, Macl. ; lacustre, Macl. ; scqjj^hiriiium, Bates. My Carenuvi 
inucronatimi will also fall into this genus, as well as Carenidiiati 
Darlingense, Chaudoiri, septentriotiale and tropicale new species, 
tlie descriptions of which are given at the end of tliis paper. 

Genus, Conopterum, Chaud. 

This genus onl}^ differs from Oarenidiuin in the clypeus and 
labrum not or very little emarginate, the antennae less attenuated, 
the elytra more pointed towards the apex, and in having a strong 
erect horn springing from the inner tooth of the mandibles, most 
conspicuously on the left mandible. 

This genus was suggested by Baron de Chaudoir, but witliout 
any defined characters, for an insect from North Australia, to 
which he gives the specific name of insigne. He ascribes to the 
same genus two species described by Count Castlenau under the 
names of Carenum superhum and mnahile. To this I have 
to add my Carenum Riverinoi and the following new species 
described hereafter — Conopterum violaceum, littorale, Barnardiy 
and hicornutum. 



BY WILLIAM MACLEAY, F.L.S., &C. 119 

Genus, Neocarenum, Castelm 

Of elongate form and parallel-sided. Labrum short not emar- 
ginate, palpi slightly securiform. Antennae submoniliform. 
Anterior thighs and tibiae as in Eutoma, intermediate tibiae 
strongly unidentate at the outer apex, and serrate above. A row 
of sublateral punctures on the elytra. 

Count Castlenau established this genus on my Carenum elon- 
gatum. The species since added are Neocarenum cylindripenne, 
Bates ; Mastersi, Macl. ; retusum, Bates ; rugosulum, Macl., 
and singulars, Casteln. 

Genus, EuTOMA, Newman. 

Very narrow and of cylindrical form. Head large, profoundly 
bisulcate in front ; labrum not or scarcely emarginate, very 
short. Maxillary palpi triangular, labial securiform. Antennae 
submoniliform. Thorax longer than wide. Anterior tibiae strongly 
bidentate externally ; anterior thighs notched and angled beneath 
near the apex. 

The species of this genus are numerous and distinguished for 
brilliancy of colouring; they are for the most part of small size and 
were originally classed as one of the subdivisions of Carenum. 
They may be divided into those with two impressed punctures on 
the elytra, and those with four. 

The first division consists of — 

E. bipicnctaticm, Macl. E. Mastersi, Macl. 

cavipenne, Bates. Newmani, Casteln. 

cuprijyenne, INIacl. punctipenne, Macl. 

episcojyale, Castein. purpuratu^n, Casteln. 

filiforme, Casteln. splendidum, Macl. 

glaherrimum, Macl. suhrugosulum, Macl. 

loive, Casteln. suhstriatidum, Macl. 

Loddonense, Casteln. tinctilatum, Newm. 

undulatum, Macl. violaceum, Macl. 



120 MISCELLANEA ENTOMOLOGICA, NO. III. 

and a new species — E. punctatum — from Dawson River described 
hereafter. Those with four punctures are Eutoma D'lgglesi, Macl. 
and E. magnificum, and hrevvpenne, the two last new species 
described hereafter. 

Genus, Carenoscaphus. 

I propose this generic name for a number of species of Carenum 
which seem to be intermediate between Eutoma and Garemhm 
proper. The form is elongated and parallel-sided, broader and 
rather flatter than in Eutoma, the labrum not emai'ginate, the 
palpi moderately securiform, the antennae moniliform, the frontal 
canals nearly parallel, the thorax longer or as long as wide, the 
elytra quadri-punctate, the anterior tibiae bidentate externally, the 
anterior thighs slightly notched. 

The species formerly placed in Carenum, coming into this genus 
are — 

C scaritioides, Westw. C. suhquadratus, Macl. 
atronitens, Macl. striato-punctatus, Macl. 

ohlongus, Macl. coracinus, Macl. 

intermedius, Westw. gawlerensis, Casteln. 

nigerrimus, Macl. devastator, Casteln. 

ambiguus, Macl. angustipennis, Macl. 

I also place in this genus, though they look somewhat foreign to 
it, C. quadripunctatus, Macl., and G. sum^Jtuosus, Westw., and I 
describe further on a new species — C. lucidus, which must also be 
placed in this group. 

Genus, Carenum, Bonelli. 

Under this name I include the three groups of Carenum, of which 
C. Bonelli'i, C. marginatum and C. perplexum are respectively the 
types. The antennse are less moniliform than in the last, the 
labrum longer, the labial palpi less securiform, the frontal canals 
straight or nearly so, thorax broader than the length, the elytra and 
rather shortly oval convex, the anterior tibise bidentate externally. 



BY WILLIAM MACLEAY, F.L.S., &.C. 



121 



ft 

1 . Elytra with four punctures. 



Bonellii, Brulle. 
affine, Macl. 
viridipenne, Westw. 
anthracinum, Macl. 
interriq^tum, Macl. 
ohscurum, Macl. 
simile, Macl. 
Brishanense, Caateln. 
ebenimim, Casteln. 
Westwoodii, Casteln. 



C. Castelnaui, Chaud. 
sexpu7ictatum, Macl. 
cyanipenne, Macl. 
opacuni, Macl. 
triste, Macl. 
occultum, Macl. 
ovipenne, Macl. 
suhmetallicum, Macl. 
pusillum, Macl. 
purpureo-marginatum, n. sp. 



2. Elytra with two punctures. 

C tnarginatum, Boisd. C. convexum, Chaud 

Icevigatum, Macl. 
puncticolle, Macl. 
punctidatum, Macl. 
scituhom, Macl. 
Murrumhidgense, Macl. 
laterals, Macl. 
siobporcatuhim, Macl. 
striatopunctahim, Macl. 
frontale, Macl. 
carbonarizcm, Casteln. 

3. Elycra without punctures. 
G. politum, Westw. C. subcostatum, Macl. 

perplexum. White. De Visii, Macl. 

Icevipenne, Macl. ineditum, Macl. 

Genus, Calliscapterus. 

Head large, frontal canals short, only slightly diverging, palpi 
scarcely secui-iform, antennae moderately slender not moniliform, 
labrum biemarginate ; thorax broad and semicircular, elytra 
broadly ovate and convex, anterior tibise tridentate externally. 
This is a very showy and handsome group. The species hitherto 
classed with Carenuni which are referable to this erenus are 



Kingii, Macl. 
propinqiium, Macl. 
nitescens, Macl. 
viridi-marginatuin, Macl, 
politulum, Macl. 
2)lanipenne, Macl. 
svhplanalum, Bates. 
Batesi, Masters. 
Terroi-reginai, Macl. 
iantJmium, Macl. 



122 MISCELLANEA ENTOMOLOGICA, NO. III. 

Elytra with two punctui'es. 

C. coruscus, Macl. C. rufipes, Macl. 
smaragdulus, Westw. suhcyaneus, Macl. 

elegans, Macl. dispar, Macl. 

distinctus, Macleay. ordinatus, Macl. 

camjKstris, Macl. parvulus, Macl. 

splendens, Casteln. porphyreus, Bates. 

Odeivahnii, Casteln. hreviformis, Bates. 

Elytra with four punctures. 
C. cyaneus, Fab. 

Genus, Platythorax. 

Head transverse, the frontal canals short and straight, the 
antenna? slender, the palpi not securiform, the thoi'ax very trans- 
verse and rectangular, anterior tibiae less strong and palmate than 
in Carenum and with several smallish teeth externallj'. T have 
formed this genus for a very curious insect described by me many 
years ago under the name of Carenum rectangulare ; the Garenum 
transversicolle, Chaud., will also enter this genus. 

Genus, Laccopterum. 

The tyi)e of this genus is Carenum Spencei, Westw. The 
species are all of rather small size. The antennae are submonili- 
form, the palpi are triangular, the labrum short, the thorax wider 
than long, the elytra oval and more or less covered with large 
fovese, the anterior tibise are strongly tridentate externally and 
the intermediate have a strong spine on the outer apex. The 
species are — 

L. deauratum, Macl. L. variolosum, Macl. 

gemmatum, Westw. Darwiniense, Maci. 

foveigerum, Chaud. foveijyenne, Macl. 

foveolatiim, Macl. salebrosum, Macl. 

Spencei, Westw. lacunatum, n. sp. 

C. loculosum, Newm. 



BY WILLIAM MACLEAY, F.L.S., &C. 123- 

Genus, Philoscaphus. 

Head bi-oad, rather short, the frontal canals deep and short, the 
labrum a little emarginate, the palpi scarcely thicker towards the 
apex, antennte filiform. Thorax much broader than long, of semi- 
circular form. Elytra broad and tuberculate, with a sublateral 
carina. Anterior tibise tridentate externally, intermediate 
unidentate. The species are 

P. tubermdatus, Macl. P. costalis, Macl. 

Master si, Macl. carinatus, Macl. • 

P. lateralis, Macl. 

Genus, EtJRYSCAPHUS, Macleay. 

Head large, the frontal canals short and parallel, the antennae 
rather long and filifoim, the labrum large and transverse, the 
maxillary palpi very slightly triangular at the apex, the labial a 
little more so. Thorax transversal. Elytra as broad as long, 
convex, almost circular except at the Vjase which is excised. 
Anterior tibine strongly bidentate externally, intermediate uni- 
dentate and serrate. All the species of this genus are of large size 
and broad convex form. 

They seem to be exclusively insects of the interior parts of New 
Holland. 

The species known are — 

E. affinis, Casteln. E. Howittil, Casteln. 
angidatus, Macl. vmior, Macl. 

bipunctatus, Macl. obesus, Macl. 

carbonarius, Casteln. Waterhousei, Macl. 

dilatatus, Macl. Tatei, Bates. 

Hopei, Casteln. subsulcatus, Bates. 

Genus, Scaraphites, Westw. 

The insects of this genus are also of great size. The head is 

large, the fi'ontal canals very short or merely depressions, the 

labrum very transverse and rugose, the palpi filiform, and the 



■124 MISCELLANEA ENTOMOLOGICA, NO. III. 

antennae short and submoniliform. Thorax transverse ; elytra 
rather longer than wide, and broadest near the apex. Anterior 
tibise very strongly tridentate externally, intermediate very 
strongly unidentate. Species — 

S. Bacchus, Westw. S. latipennis, Macl. 

crenaticollis, Macl. Lenceus, Westw. 

gigas, Casteln. lucidus, Chaud. 

heros, Casteln. Macleayi, Westw, 

Jiirtipes, Macl. Martini, Westw. 

hmneralis, Casteln. Mastersi, Macl. 

inter niedius, Macl. 7-otundipennis, Dej. 

laticollis, Macl. Silenus. Westw. 
I subjoin descriptions of the new species. 

Cakenidium Darlingense, n. sp 

Black, nitid, thorax margined with green, elytra dark violet 
margined with green. Head large, subnitid, eyes large, promi- 
nent, preocular angles prominent and rounded, frontal canals deep 
and moderately diverging behind, the clypeus narrowly and retusely 
emarginate in the middle, with a prominent tooth on each side 
bounding the labrum. The labrum itself is short, about one-fifth 
of the width, and a little emarginate, with six large punctures. A 
large setigerous puncture occupies the angle caused by the bifur- 
cation of the frontal canals near the clypeus, and two others are 
placed one above the eye, the other a little behind the first. The 
thorax is very slightly broader than the head, narrowly margined 
on the sides and base, about as long as broad, slightly emarginate 
on the apex, rounded and narrowed behind into a short basal lobe 
very slightly emarginate in the middle, and with the median line 
not reaching the base or apex. Elytra elongate-ovate, the length 
three times the width, narrower than the thorax, narrowly margined 
except at the base, with, on each elytron seven or eight almost 
obsolete punctured striae, a cluster of five or six punctures on the 
base, a deep puncture near the base about equidistant from the 
t»ase, suture and humeral angle^ and a similar one near the apex. 



BY WILLIAM MACLEAY, F.L.S., &C. 125 

about equidistant from the suture and lateral mai-gin. The anterior 
tibia? are strongly bidentate, the intermediate are minutely toothed, 
each ventral segment has two setigerous punctures near the base, 
the apical segment has four. 

Length, 12 lines. 

Hah.- — Bourke District, Darling River. 



Carenidium Chaudoirii, n. sp. 

Of less elongate form than the last. The upper surface entirely 
of a greenish V>lue, the under surface, legs, antennse, and the parts 
of the mouth piceous. Head large, of a very minute shagreen- 
like sculpture, eyes prominent, preocular angles less prominent 
than in C. Darlingense, and the frontal canals moi'e diverging 
behind, clypeus much the same, the labrum short, semi-circular, 
and with four setigerous punctures. Thorax rather broader than 
the head ; decidedly broader than the length, broadly cordiform, 
rather broadly margined on sides and base, the basal lobe short 
and truncate, the median line well marked, but not reaching tlae 
base or apex, and the whole disk transversely scratched. Elytra 
oblong-ovate, a little narrower than the thorax, about twice as 
long as broad, minutely punctate and striate under a powerful 
lens, a chxster of about nine punctures at the base and a regular 
row of setigerous punctures along the latex"al margins. The anterior 
tibise ai-e bidentate externally, the teeth as well as the spurs on 
the inner side very strong and acute, the intermediate tibiae are 
very strongly ciliated. 

Length, 13 lines. 

Hah. — Endeavour River. 

I dedicate this species to the memory of the late Baron 

Maximilian de Chaudoir, who was the founder of this genus, and 

whose works on the A ustralian Carabidse have been both valuable 

and voluminous. 

Carenidium Damelii, Macl. 

Trans. Ent. See. N. S. Wales, Vol. II. p. 69. 
I described this species from a single specimen got at Cape 
York. I have since received a fine specimen from the Dawson 



126 MISCELLANEA ENTOMOLOGICA, NO. IIL 

River, and am enabled to give a fuller description than that 
originally given, 

A large species of a golden green colour, and of much broader 
form than C. ffagatinum. The labrum is of crescentic form, the 
clypeus largely emarginate and retusely declivous. The second 
puncture above the eye is distant from the first and nearer the 
centre. The elytra are oblong-oval, as broad as the thorax, 
obsoletely punctate-striate, with an impressed puncture near the 
humeral angle, another near the apex, seven punctures in a 
double row on the base, and a continuous row in the lateral 
margins. Length 16 lines. 

Carenidium septentrionale, n. sp. 

The under surface, head and legs black, the thorax and elytra 
greenish-black, with bright green margins. The head is a little 
narrower than the thorax, the frontal canals deep, curved and 
diverging behind, the eye pi'ominent, with a deep canal immedi- 
ately above it, the two setigerous punctures above the eye close 
together, the clypeus slightly emarginate scarcely retuse, the 
labrum short, broad, and subcrescentic with sixsetigerous punctures. 
The thorax is wider than the length, rather broadly margined, the 
anterior angles but slightly prominent, the sides roundly narrowed 
to the posterior angles, the basal lobe very short and recurved, the 
median line extending to the base, but not to the apex, the shallow 
depressions near the posterior angles distinctly marked. The 
elytra are narrower than the thorax, of a narrow oval form, 
extremely minutely punctured in equally minute strise, without 
any impressed punctui-e on the disc, but with a small transverse 
depression occupied by four punctures in a curved transverse line 
and one puncture above at the base, and a regular row of similar 
punctures on the lateral margins. The legs and under surface 
pi'esent no appreciable distinctive characters. 

Length, 10-^ lines. 

JTab. — Peak Downs. 



BY WILLIAM MACLEAY, F.L.S., &C. 127 

ft 

Carenidium tropicale, n. sp. 

Somewhat like C. Ghaudoiri, but much smaller. The upper 
surface is brilliant metallic green, the under surface, legs and 
parts of the mouth piceous. The head is slightly narrower than 
the thorax, prominently angled in froat of the eyes, the forehead 
near the clypeus with a transverse curved shallow depression, the 
clypeus broadly and shallowly emargiuate with on each side a 
strong prominent conical tooth, the labrum slightly ci'escentic with 
six setigerous punctures. Thorax much broader than the length, 
the sides and posterior angles almost semi-circularly rounded, the 
basal lobe recurved and slightly emarginate. Elytra oval, 
broadest near the middle and there as broad as the thorax, rather 
thinly covered with minute punctures, no impressed punctures on 
the disc, a row of punctures in the lateral margins and a slight 
depression at the base occupied by four punctures in a ti-ansverse 
row and others above on the external side. 

Length, 9 lines. 

Hah. — Endeavour River. 

Chaudoir's genus ConojJteriom is very doubtfully characterised, 
but there are some species resembling Conopterum insigrie, 
Chaud., which can scarcely be placed in Carenidium, and differ 
still more from Eutoma and Carenum. For these I shall adopt 
Chaudoir's name of Conopterum, and the following are the chief 
distinctive characters. Head like Carenidium but the labrum not 
deeply emarginate or declivous in front. Antennae like Care- 
nidum, but rather less attenuate towards the apex. Mandibles 
very strong with vertical horns. Elytra elongate, ovate, narrow- 
ing to the apex. 

Conopterum violaceum, n. sp. 

Upper sui'face violet black with green borders, under surface 
and legs brownish black, the whole very nitid. Head large, 
scarcely so broad as the thorax at its widest part, the frontal 
canals deep and diverging behind, the clypeus and labrum 



128 MISCELLANEA ENTOMOLOGICA, NO. III. 

truncate, the latter with several setiform punctures, the inner 
tooth of the mandibles strong blunt and bifid, on the left side 
elevated into a horn. The thorax is rather broadly margined and 
is more than semi-circular, being narrowed a little at the anterior 
angles, the apex is emai-ginate, the basal lobe recurved and 
slightly emarginate in the middle. Elytra elongate-ovate, widest 
a little behind the shoulders, gradually narrowing to the apex, 
very feebly striate-punctate, the punctures large, but only visible 
under a lens, a strongly impressed puncture near each humeral 
angle and another near the apex, a cluster of seven punctures in a 
shallow depression on the base, and a row of rather distant ones 
in the margin. The legs are like those of Carenidium. Abdominal 
segments punctigerous. 

Length, 10 lines. 

Hah. — Mudgee district. 



O" 



CONOPTERUM LITTORALE, n. Sp. 

Of rather more robust form than (J. violaceum. Greenish black 
above with green margins, black beneath, nitid all over. Head like 
the last, but the inner tooth of the left mandible is elevated into 
a large blunt slightly recurved tooth or horn. The thorax is also 
similar to the last, but is slightly less transverse, and the basal 
lobe is not emarginate in the middle. The elytra are elongate- 
ovate, but more broadly so than in the last, and are narrowed to 
the apex, feeble strise are visible on them under a lens ; there are 
no impressed punctures on the disc, an indistinct cluster of seti- 
gerous punctures at the base and a row of them on the lateral 
marerins. In all else like the last. 

Length, 10 lines. 

Hah. — Richmond River. 

CONOPTERUM BICORNUTUM, n. Sp. 

In form this insect resembles Eutoma, but the antennfe and 
mandibles are those of C onopterum. The colour is cyaneous 
above, black beneath. The head is as broad as the thorax, the 
frontal canals are deep and divergent behind, on each side of the 



BY WILLIAM MACLEAY, F.L.S., &C. 120 

clypeus there is a large prominent conical tooth or horn, the 
labrum is rather prominent in the middle, and a little emarginate 
on each side, with four large setigerous punctures ; both mandibles 
have horns on the inner tooth, but that of the left mandible is 
much the largest. The thorax is broader than long, scarcely 
narrowed at the apex and rounded behind with the basal lobe 
almost truncate. Elytra elongate, almost parallel-sided, rounded 
in front and behind and not narrower at the apex than at the 
base, without any impressed punctures on the disc, with a cluster 
of six on the base, and a row of them in the lateral margins. 

Length, 9 lines. 

Hah, — Endeavour River. 

CoNOPTERUM Barnardi, n. sp. 

Blackish-green, nitid, with the margin of thorax and elytra 
bright green. The frontal canals diverging much behind, and 
joined in front by a transverse depression, the clypeus modei'ately 
emarginate and declivous, a strong conical tooth sloping backwards 
on the left mandible. The thorax is about as broad as long, the 
anterior angles a little produced, the basal lobe narrow and recurved. 
Elytra elongate oval, obsoletely striate-punctate, an impressed 
puncture near the humeral angle, and another near the outer apex, 
a number of punctures on the base and a distinct row of them on 
the lateral margins. The prosternum is rounded at the apex, 
flattened beneath, and irregularly impi-essed in the middle. 

Length, 11 lines. 

Hob. — Dawson River. 

CONOPTERUM INCORNUTUM, n. Sp, 

I have some doubt as the genus of this insect. It differs from 
Garenidium in the shape of the labrum and clypeus, and from 
Conopterum in having the mandibles not horned ; this however may 
be only a sexual difference. The colour is a nitid black with green 
margin, the tarsi, antennae and palpi piceous. The head is finely 
acuducted, with some transverse striae near the clypeus, that and 
the labrum are scarcely if at all emarginate. The thorax is like 



> 






130 MISCELLANEA ENTOMOLOGICA, NO. III. 

that of the last species but more broadly margined. The elyti'a are 
as broad as the thorax at the base and narrowed to the apex, with a 
strong impressed puncture near the base, and another near the 
apex, both about equidistant from the sides and suture, two or 
three punctures on the base and a distant row of them on the 
sides. 

A longitudinal slit on the prosternum. 

Length, 1 2 lines. 

Hah. — Richmond River (Coll. Masters). 

EUTOMA PUNCTULATUM, n. sp. 

Black, nitid, the margins of the thorax and elytra violet. 
Head as broad as the thorax, the frontal canals deep and 
diverging behind, the clypeus with two small projecting teeth in 
the middle, the space between emarginate, and a larger tooth on 
each side bounding the labrum which is short, bi'oad, and deeply 
punctured. Thorax much longer than wide, truncate at the apex, 
and rounded at the posterior angles, with the median line rising a 
little distance from the apex in a distinct puncture. Elytra 
thrice the length of the width, narrower than the thorax at the 
base, and gradually widening a little to the apex, with a large 
puncture about 1/5 from the apex, a fovea with 3 or 4 punctures 
on the base near the humeral angle and a single puncture near the 
suture, and a distant row of punctures on the lateral margin ; 
very obsolete largish punctures in rows are discernible on the disk. 

Length, 8 lines. 

Hah. — Dawson River. 

EuTOMA MAGNIFICUM, n. Sp. 

Entirely of a brilliant violet-blue above, black beneath. Head 
as in E. punctulatum. Thorax scarcely longer than the width, 
with the anterior angles slightly prominent, otherwise like 
punctulatum. Elytra less elongate, flatter than in jjunctulatum, 



BY WILLIAM MACLEAY, F.L.S., &C. 131 

with a puncture a little below the humeral angle, and another 
near the apex, and a line of punctures on the base extending 
along the lateral margins. 

Length, 7 lines. 

Hub — Peak Downs. 



Etjtoma brevipenne, n. sp. 

Entirely black, moderately nitid, the elytra slightly margined 
with purple, Head as in pi(,nctulatitm. Thoi'ax as in punctu- 
tatum. Elytra elongate-oval, not twice the length of the thoi"ax, 
with a puncture a little behind the humeral angle, and another 
near the apex, a cluster of 3 or 4 punctures in a shallow depression 
on the base, and a few along the lateral margins. 

Length, 7^ lines. 

Hah. — Moreton Bay. 



Carenoscaphus lucidus, n. sp. 

Of elongate cylindrical form, and nitid black colour, with the 
thorax margined with green, and the elytra with a violet tint. 
Head large, transverse, the frontal canals deep and diverging 
behind. The clypeus emarginate and quadridentate. The thorax 
longer than wide, nearly truncate in front, the basal lobe short 
and rounded. Elytra very slightly narrowed at the base, three 
times longer than wide, a reflexed roundly pointed humeral angle, 
an impressed puncture behind the humeral angle, another near the 
apex, a row of punctures on the basal margins, beginning with a 
larger detached one near the suture, and a row of distant punc- 
tures in the lateral margin. The prosternum is longitudinally 
grooved. 

Length, 13 lines. 

Hah. — Dawson River. 



132 MISCELLANEA ENTOMOLOGICA, NO. IIL 

Carenum purpureo-marginatum, n. sp. 

Of broad sub-depressed form, black and sub-nitid with the 
thorax and elytra margined with bluish violet. The head has the 
frontal sulci almost parallel, and the clypeus thick and bi'oadly 
and lightly emarginate. The thorax is transverse, slightly broader 
than the head, and rounded at the base and posterior angles. 
The elytra are broad and oval and faintly striate with two 
strong punctures on each elytron as in C. Bonellii, a small cluster of 
punctures on the base near the humeral angles and a close row of 
them in the lateral margins. Legs very strong and much ciliated. 

Length, 11 lines. 

Hah. — Coonabarabran. 

Laccopterum lacunosum, n. sp. 

Like L. Spencei, but smaller ; the head as in that species ; the 
thorax black bordered with bluish green, transverse, the posterior 
angles a little emarginate and the base distinctly lobed. Elytra 
scarcely so broad as the thorax, about twice as long as wide, 
squared at the base, the humeral angles prominent and the sides 
nearly parallel, with four rows of distinct fovese on each elytron, 
each row of about six fovese, the sutural row of fovese smaller 
than the others, but all with a brilliant bright blue bottom, the 
rows are separated by slightly rounded costte, and there is a deep 
lateral groove occupied by a row of strong pimctures. 

Length, 7 lines. 

Ilab. — Coonabarabran. 

The other sub-family of Scaritidse^ that with curved and 
acutely pointed maxilla?, is not so numerously represented in 
Australia as the Carenides, and is moi'eover not so exclusively 
Australian. The described Australian species consist of 6 species 
of the genus Geoscaptus, a genus formed by Baron de Chaudoir 
for some insects closely resembling the true Scarites ; 3 species of 



BY WILLIAM MACLEAY, P.L.S., &C. 133 

Dyschirms ; 8 species of Scolyptus, Putzeys ; and 33 of Clivina, 
almost all described by Putzeys; in all 50 species. In Mr. Masters's 
Catalogue of Australian Coleoptera, the genus Gnathoxys of 
Westwood is included among the Scaritidae. It seems to me 
however, that that genus would be more correctly associated with 
the CnemacantJoidce, and in the vicinity of Promecoderus. I 
subjoin the description of a very distinct and curious form of 
the Family which Mr. Froggatt lately sent me from Russell River 
in the Cairns District of Northern Queensland. 



Genus, Steganomma. 

Mentum lai-ge, concave and corrugated on the lateral lobes, with 
a strongly carinated median tooth. Maxillse arcuated, and 
acutely pointed. Palpi long, slender and almost cylindrical. 
Mandibles arcuated, rather acute, bluntly bidentate on the inner 
edge. Labrum short, transverse, with four deep impressions in 
front. Antennae short, submoniliform, the first joint large, the 
last oval. Head nearly square, the eyes not visible from above, 
two deep impressions between the eyes, a nari'ow bead along the 
anterior margin. Thorax almost square. Elytra profoundly 
striate, and widening a little to the apex. Anterior tibiae triden- 
tate, intermediate unidentate. 



Steganomma porcatum, n. sp. 

Of rather elongate form, Vjlack and nitid. The head is wider 
than long, the frontal impression large with radiating corrugations. 
Thorax longer than broad, truncate in front, parallel-sided and 
slightly rounded at the base, with a transverse punctured stria 
near the apex and a deep median line from that to the base. 
Elytra about as long as the head and thorax together, narrower 
than the thorax at the base, a little ampliated towards the apex, 
with six deep sharply punctured striae on each elytron with the 
interstices smooth, convex, and gradually lessening towards the 



134 MISCELLANEA ENTOMOLOGICA, NO. IIL 

sides, and with a lateral groove thickly and minutely punctate. 
Abdominal segments minutely punctured in patches with a strong 
puncture on each side of the centre. The anterior tibiae are 
tridentate, the intermediate has one tooth near the outer apex. 
The presternum is flat on the under surface and broad and 
truncate at the apex. 

Length, 5 lines. 

Hah. — Russell River ; Cairns. 



FLOWERING SEASONS OF AUSTRALIAN PLANTS. 

By E. Haviland, F.L.S. 

No. 4. — Plants flowering in the neighbourhood of Sydney 

DURING THE MONTH OP OCTOBER, IN ADDITION TO THOSE 
ENUMERATED IN LlSTS FOR JULY, AuGUST, AND SEPTEMBER. 



Ranuiiculaceae — 

Ranunculus rivularis 
„ lajipaceus. 

Dilleniacene — 

Hibbertia diffusa 
,, 7iitida. 

Poly galeae — 

Comespenna retusum. 
Rutacese — 

Boronia serrulata 
,, pinnata 
„ 2^(''^'^'Jiora 
Aster olasia correifolia 
Eriostemon myoporoides. 

Sterculiacese — 

Lasiopetalum rufum 

„ parvijloruvi 

Rulingia ^yannosa, 
Euphorbiacese — 

Rseudanthus pimeloides. 
Stackhousiacese — 

Stackhousta linarifolia. 



Gary ophy I lese — 

Polycarpon tetraphyllum 

Stellaria flaccida. 
Polygon acea? — 

MupJdenbeckia gracillima . 
Leguminosifi — 

Oxylobium. cordifolium 

Viminaria denudata 

Daviesia corymbosa 

Gotnpholobium virgatum 

Pidtenoea scabra 

Acacia armata 

Bossicea prostrata 

Jacksonia scoiiaria 

Sphwrolobium vimineum. 
Myrtacese — 

Leptospermum stellatum 
„ lanigerum 

Kunzea capitata. 
Olacinese — 

Olax stricta. 
Proteacese — 

Isopogon anemonifolius 



136 



FLOWERING SEASONS OF AUSTRALIAN PLANTS. 



Proteacese (continued) — 

Xylomelum pyriforme 

Lamhertia formosa. 
Thymelese — 

Pimelea spicata. 
E-ubiacese — 

Asperula conferta. 
Compositse — 

Vittadinia scabra 
Stylidepe — 

Stylidium laricifolmm. 
Goodeniacese — 

Goodenia hellidifolia. 
Gentianeae — 

Sebcea ovata. 
Con. vol vulaceiB — 

Convolvulus Soldanella 
„ erubescens. 

Acanthacese — 

Ruellia australis. 



Epacridese — 

LeuGopogon Richei. 

Coniferse — 

Podocarpus spinulosa. 

Orchidese — 

Gastrodia sesamoides 
Caladenia Patersoni 
Galeola cassythoides 
Microtis porrifolia. 

Ainaryllidese — 

Hcemodorum planifolium, 

Liliaceae — 

DianeUa revoluta 
LaxDiannia gracilis 
Sowerbcea juncea. 

Najadese — 

Triglochin striata. 

Xerotidese — 

Xerotes filiformis. 



NOTES ON SOME AUSTRALIAN FOSSILS. 
By Felix Ratte, M.E. 

I. — Salisburia palmata, emend, from Jeanpaulia or Baiera 

PALMATA, Ratte. 

Jeanpaulia or Baiera i^oilmata, Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., 
2nd ser. Vol. L p. 1078, pi. XVII. 

When I described the above I had been able to consult only 
the first two volumes of de Saporta's " Terrain Jurassique " in 
" Paleontologie Fran§aise." Tome III, of this work published in 
1876-1879, deals with the Coniferous Plants. From the evidence 
here given, Jeanpaulia is no more to be considered as a fern. A 
great number of Jurassic species (1) have been described by M. 
Heer, and placed in the genus Salisburia, being, from their mode of 
fructification, generically identical with the actual Ginkgo biloba, 
Lin. {Salisburia adiantifolia, Sm.). Therefore this group of plants 
is dealt with by de Saporta under the heading 

Trib. I. SALiSBURiiE, I.e., p, 251. 

This author says, p. 253. . . . . . " ainsi 

que le remarque avec raison Mr. Heer, le type de ces Salisburia 
jurassiques s'ecarte tres-peu, sauf par la dimension plus petite et 
la forme plus ovoide des graines du Salisburia vivant, tandis que 
les especes wealdiennes et cretacees {Baiera), s'en ecartent bien 
davantage, circonstance qui explique pourquoi les afiinites legitimes 
de ces dernieres ont ete si longtemps meconnues " 

The figure given in Tome III. of Baiera {Jeanpmdia) Mi'mste- 
riana, Presl., the type of the genus Jeanpaulia, and which is very 



(1) From Cape Boheman (^Js/jonZ,— Isfjord.) 



138 NOTES ON SOME AUSTRALIAN FOSSILS. 

abundant in the schistose sandstone of the Rhajtic near Bayreuth^ 
are considerably more nearly related to our Salisburia palmata, 
than those formerly given by the same author in Tome I., and by 
Prof. Schimper in " Paleontologie Vegetale." Especially the 
figures represented in plates CLV., CLVI., CLVII., (1) will 
compare favourably with it. 

The author, page 256, says : " Malgre quelques traits speciaux 
les Jeanpmdia les mieux caracteinses : Jeanpaiolia Mdnsteriana, 
Presl. (^Baiera dichotoma, Fr. Br.), J. longifolia, Sap. (^Dicropteris 
longifolia, Pom.), etc., sont trop conformes, par leur consistance, 
leur nervation, et le mode de partition de leurs feuilles aux Salis- 
buria jurassiques et cretaces naguere designes soiis le nom de 
Baiera, pour ne pas leur etre relies a un titre quelconque. Les 
seules difterences sont les suivantes : les Baiera, du sous-type des 
Jeanpaulia ont des feuilles en coin (wedge) allonge, insensiblement 
attenuees a la base sur un petiole plus court et moins distinct ; les 
segments sont moins divergents, plus allonges et plus etroits, en 
lanieres (straps) une ou plusieurs fois divisees par dichotomies 
successives, etc.," . . . And at p. 262 ; " Les genres Baiera 
et Salisburia ont pi'edomine tour a tour dans le terrain jurassique; 
le second a partir de 1' oolithe ; le premier dans le Lias, et siirtout 
dans le Rhetien, ou les vestiges des Salisburia proprement dits 
sont rares ou tout a fait incertains." 

The two Permian genera Ginkgophyllum and Trichopitys, 
(Saporta, Comptes Rendus, t. LXXX. p. 1017, 1875,) repre- 
sented pi. CLII. (1) are the prototypical Salisburiacece according 
to this author. 

It will be remembered that our S. palmata is from the Hawkes- 
bury-Wianamatta formation, now settled as Triassic. 

Further discoveries will be anxiously expected which will allow 
the flowers of this beautiful plant to be known. In the meantime 
it seems evident that Jeanpaulia bidens of T. Woods, from Burnett 
River, referred by this author to the Rhsetic or Lower Lias, will 
have to be considered as a plant of the same group as Salisburia. 

(1) Saporta I.e. t. 1. 



> 



BY FELIX RATTE, M.E. 139' 



II. — On the Muscular impression of the Genus Notomya 

(MiEONIA.) 

(Plate III.) 

Notomya [Moionia) elongata, Dana; Etheridge, Catal. Aiistr. 
Foss. p. 73; de Koninck, Foss. Pal. Nouv. Galles &c. (1877),, 
Pt. 3, pi. 20, fig. 6, &c. 

The specimen of this fossil represented by de Koninck is from 
Illawarra, and those in the Museum from the same district, have 
been collected at Jamberoo. There, all the carboniferous marine 
fossils are in sandstone, and it is very rare to find their tests. 

However, de Koninck's figure does not show the remarkable 
peculiarities of the casts of these shells. The principal of these 
peculiarities is the fringed outline of the anterior muscular 
impression which, accoi'ding to Dana (Amer. Jour. Science, (1847), 
IV. p. 1.58) is a character of his original genus, as well as another 
small impression similar to that of Astarte. 

I give the figure of a good internal cast in the Museum, but as in 
this the fringed outline is rather defaced, I give separately the 
figure of the impression from another still better specimen. 



KOTE ON A EEMARKABLE EXAMPLE OF FRACTURE 
IN KEROSENE SHALE. 

By Felix Rattb, M.E. 

(Plate IV.) 

The figure that I give, of the specimen exhibited at this meet- 
ing will, I hope, afford material for the study of fracture. It 
involves questions of mineralogy, mechanics and geology. 

In minerals the form of the fracture depends generally upon 
ditferences of elasticity along different axes, and it is evident 
that, besides this, the greater the homogeneity of the mineral, 
the nearer the form of the fracture will be to that determined 
by theory. 

Some specimens of the so-called "Kerosene Shale" exhibit a 
perfect conchoidal fracture due to homogeneity. The fracture 
here represented is, no doubt, very complicated ; but I suggest 
that it might be due to vibration, the lines of fracture occuring 
along the nodal lines. I also suggest that, as some of the 
specimens of shale show a very distinct plane of easy fracture 
(stratification marked by fossil ferns), this might account for the 
existence of what is very nearly a plane of symmetry in the 
specimen. 

In order to show how the fracture might have been determined 
by the nodal lines I have represented a cross-section exhibiting 
undulating curves and their intersections. 

Little is known of the analytical problem raised as regards non- 
crystallized solids unless homogenous, and direct experiments 
would certainly throw some light on the subject, as well as on the 
molecular constitution of Torbanite or " Kerosene Shale." 



NOTES AND EXHIBITS. 

Dr. Ramsay exhibited a collection of insects from New England,, 
containing some rare and choice specimens, among which were 
noticeable two new species of Heteronyrti'pha, Heteronymiiiha 
2)liilero2ie, Ejnnephile Joanna, (Butl.), and Xenica lathoniella, and 
several apparently new Cicadce. Among the Coleoptera were some 
interesting species of Schizorhina, S. bakeioellii, atrojnmctata^ 
hassii, j)alniata, j)hillipsii, ocellata, frontalis, bestii, dorsalis, and a 
tine new species quite distinct from any other kind. Among the 
Buprestidaj were a bright blue and green Curis, a tine Melobasis, 
and some beautiful and rare species of Stigmodera, also two speci- 
mens of an apparently new form. Of longicorns there were 
Tragocerus lepidopterus, and a fine specimen of Bimia, which 
latter appears new. 

Mr. E, Haviland exhibited a specimen of the aquatic plant 
Ethulia conyzoides, found by the Rev. F. E. Haviland in a lagoon 
in the Richmond River district, and read the following extract 
from a letter from Baron von Mueller relative thereto : — " Your 
i:)lant is a highly interesting addition to the Australian flora. It 
is the Ethulia conyzoides of Linnaeus, the son^ who described it in 
1762, from an Indian specimen. Since then it has been traced to 
many parts of tropical Asia ; also to Madagascar and to Africa, 
from the entrance of the Nile to Senegal and Natal ; but it has 
never been found in Europe. If there is no reason to suppose 
that the plant has been inti'oduced through trafiic or cultui-al 
circumstances, perhaps you will send a note to the Linnean Society 
of N. S. Wales on its occurrence near you. It is a good instance 
to show how valuable any sendings may prove for extending our 
knowledge of the geographical distribution of plants, and is also a 
proof of the manner in which aquatic plants become overlooked on 
account of their inaccessibility." Mr. E. Haviland stated that, 
after careful enquiry, he is satisfied that the plant has not been 
introduced, but is indigenous to Australia. 



142 NOTES AND EXHIBITS. 

Mr. Deaue exhibited fresh specimens of a new species of Orchid, 
Prasophyllum Deanianum, Fitzg., iipon which he made the 
following remarks : — " No desci-iption of this species has yet 
been published, but it has been figured by Mr. Fitzgerald from 
a specimen obtained by me in 1885, and the plate will appear in 
the next number of the ' Australian Orchids.' The species belongs 
to the section Genoplesium of R. Brown's genus Prasophyllum, 
and it is remarkable for being closely allied to a plant named G. 
Baueri by Brown in his Prodromus, and of which Bauer obtained 
only a single specimen, which was however figured by him. 
Bentham in his remaiks on G. Baueri (see F. Aust. VI., 344) 
under P. ru^um, throws doubt upon the actual existence of 
Bauer's plant, and believes it to be an abnormal specimen of P. 
rufum, which Hooker referred to P. hrachystachyum. The 
discovery of the species found by me at Glades ville, on the 
Parramatta River, proves the existence of a plant similar to that 
found and figui'ed by Bauer, and it must be inferi'ed that Bentham 
and Hooker's views were incorrect and that Bauer's species has a 
real existence. Mr. Fitzgerald has obtained a copy of Bauer's 
drawing from the British Museum, and has reproduced it by the 
side of his figure of /*. Deanianum by which its analogies can be 
seen. The specimen exhibited is, it is evident, quite distinct from 
its nearest allies, P. nigricans and P. ru/um." 

Mr. Deane also read part of a letter from Baron von Mueller 
acknowledging the distinctness of the species. 

Mr. Deane also exhibited for Mr. Percy Williams fei'ruginous 
rib-like concretions found in pipe-clay at Mulgutherie, Lachlan 
River, evidently hardened remains of the shale whose decompo- 
sition produced the pipe-clay. 

Mr. Ratte exhibited a specimen of " kerosene shale" or torbanite, 
affording a good example of the mode of fracture, and remarkable 
for its fantastic shape. 

Mr. Masters exhibited specimens of the common opossum 
( Phalangista vulpina) from New South Wales, and several 



NOTES AND EXHIBITS. 143 

specimens from othei- pai'ts of the country of opossums which have 
been generally looked upon as local varieties ot that species. Mr, 
Masters pointed out the marked differences in three of those 
exhibited, leaving little doubt of their being distinct species. 

1. A specimen from King George's Sound of rather smaller size 
than P. vulpina, and with the tail shorter and the apical third 
white. 

2. A Port Darwin Opossum, less than half the size of P. vidjmia 
with the tail long, slender, and without conspicuous brush. 

3. One from the interior of King George's Sound, much smaller 
than P. vulpina, of much softer fur, darker and more uniform 
colour, and with the tail brushy along its whole length. 

Mr. Macleay exhibited, in connection with the paper read by 
him, a drawer of Austialian Scaritidse containing as he announced 
the largest and most complete collection of that group of insects 
in the world. 

Dr. Oscar Katz exhibited pure test-tube cultures (in nutrient 
gelatine, and agar-agar) of pathogenic and saprophytic bacteria, 
cultivations of which he had recently obtained from Prof. FKigge, 
University of Gottingen. Unfortunately other very interesting 
ones sent were, on arrival in Sydney, found to be no longer 
capable of development. A number of pathogenic micro-organisms 
ought to be obtainable in Sydney, as infectious and conta- 
gious diseases, both in man and in animals, are well represented 
here. The exhibited virulent cultivations were : — (1.) Staphy- 
lococcus pyogenes aureus, the commonest of the pyogenic micrococci, 
and thoroughly characterised by its cultivation-appearances and 
its pathogenic nature as regards man. (2.) Bacillus murisepticus 
(Koch), or bacillus of mouse-septictemia ; a very minute microbe, 
which occurs here and there in putrefying liquids, and kills house- 
mice in about two days. Its cultures in nutritive gelatine offer a 
most beautiful aspect. (3). Bacillus of Swine-fever or pig typhoid; 
this organism is the cause of that epidemic disease among swine in 
Europe, and is also fatal to mice, pigeons, and other animals. It 
resembles No. 2, in its morphological characters, and its pure cultures, 
(4). Bacillus crassus sputigenus (Krebohm), or bacillus of salivary 



144 NOTES AND EXHIBITS, 

septicaemia (mice, rabbits), occasionally found in human sputa 
and coating of the tongue. It kills common mice in about two 
days. (5). Micrococcus tetragenus (GrafFky), the misrococcus of 
septicaemia in white mice, occurring in human sputa, especially in 
cases of pulmonary tuberculosis. White mice inoculated with it 
die within 3-6 days. (6) Sarcina lutea and (7) Bacillus pyocyaneus^ 
both non-pathogenic. The former is present in the air, whence 
it sometimes appears, as contamination, on gelatine-plates for 
cultivating bacteria. The latter, a very delicate bacterium, 
produces the green-blue colour, which sometimes makes its 
appearance on the material used for dressing purulent wounds. 
This pigment, called pyocyanin, is also produced by the micro- 
organism in its artificial cultivations. All the above exhibits 
were accompanied by diagrams, showing the microscopical 
appearances of the bacteria, as examined qiute pure, or occurring 
in the blood etc. 

Dr. Foucart exhibited a large specimen of what in Australia is 
usually known as Meerschaum, from the Nambuccra River. It is 
a freshwater deposit of silicate of alumina, containing impressions 
of leaves. These appear to belong to the Cupuliferaj, and are 
therefore in all probability of the Eocene or Miocene peiiod. 

Mr. F, B. Kyngdon exhibited portions of shale from Mt. 
Piddington, near Mount Victoria, with impressions of Thinnfeldia 
odontopteroides, &c. Also, a concretionary bezoar from the stomach 
of a spermwhale. 

Dr. Cox exhibited a basketful of the fruit of the Rose Apple 
Uugenia Jainhosa, which is now in full bearing in several Sydney 
gardens. It has a very pronounced aroma and flavour of Conserve 
of Roses, and is used in the East Indies for sherbets and con- 
fectionery. Also a fine collection of Lepidoptera, made by the 
late Mr. Kunstler at Perak. 

Ml'. Percival Waddy, of Maitland, communicated an account of 
the flowering of a, plant of Oenothera Lamarckiana, which produced 
278 blossoms, each averaging from 3A to 3f inches in diameter. 



NOTES AND EXHIBITS. 145 

The President exhibited for Dr. Ramsay a block of Shale from 
the Gosford Cutting, on which there appeared, besides Phyllotheca 
and two fine examples of Cleithrolepis, a tadpole-like form about 
one inch long, and a quarter in greatest width. The head is 
remarkably similar to that of Platyceps Wilkinsonii from the same 
cutting, as described at a recent meeting, though it is not distinct 
enough for absolute identification. There are evident indications 
of a dorsal fin extending backwai'ds from the head ; and the 
posture of the animal compared with that of the accompanying 
fishes corresponds exactly with that of the other specimen. The 
whole aspect of the thing suggests the hypothesis that this is really 
an exceedingly early stage of some Labyrinthodont, perhaps of the 
very one previously described. 



10 



WEDNESDAY, MARCH 30th, 1887. 



The President, Professor W.J. Stephens, M.A., F.G.S., in the Chair. 



Mr. Riches, and Mr. G. Kyngclon were present as visitors. 



Mr. T. S. Rigg was elected a Member of the Society. 



The President announced that the next Excursion had been 
arranged for Saturday, April 23rd. Members to meet at the 
Redfern Railway Station, to proceed by the 7-10 a.m. train to the 
National Park. 



DONATIONS. 

"Mines and Minerals." By S. H. Cox, F.C.S., F.G.S., and 
F. Ratte, From F. Ratte, Esq. 

" The Australasian Journal of Pharmacy." Vol. II., No. 14. 
Feb. 1887. From the Editor. 

" Proceedings of the Cambridge Philosophical Society." Vol. V. 
Part 6, 1886. Frmn the Society. 

" The Transactions of the Entomological Society of London for 
the year 1886." Part 4, Dec. 1886. From the Society. 

" Zoologischer Anzeiger." X. Jahrg. Nos. 241-244 (1887). 
From the Editor. 

Australian Museum Publications : — (1.) "Notes for Collectors." 
(2.) " Descriptive List of Aboriginal Weapons, &c." From the 
Trustees. 



DONATIONS. 147 

" Report from the Trustees of the Sydney Free Public Library 
for 1885-6." Froin the Trustees. 

"Oology of Australian Birds." Supplement, Part 3. By A. 
J. Campbell. From the Author. 

" A Catalogue of the Marine Polyzoa of Victoria." By Dr, P. 
H. MacGillivray. From the Author. 

" Bulletin de la Societe Beige de Microscopie." 13me. Annee. 
No. 2. From the Society. 

" Abstract of Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London." 
Jan. 18th, 1887. From the Society. 

"Memoirs of the Geological Survey of India — Palaeontologia 
Indica." Ser i., Vol. I, Part 1 ; Ser. x., Vol, III., Parts 7 and 8. 
Vol. IV., Part 1 and Supplement ; Ser. xii.. Vol. IV., Part 2 ; 
Ser. XIII., Vol. 1., Part 6 ; Title Page and Contents of Vol. I. of 
Ser. vn. and xiv. ; " Records of the Geological Survey of India." 
Vol. XX., Part 1, 1887 ; " Catalogue of the Remains of Siwalik 
Vertebi'ata contained in the Geological Department of the Indian 
Museum, Calcutta." Part 1, Mammalia. Part 2, Aves, Reptilia 
and Pisces. By R. Lydekker, B.A., P.G.S., &c. ; " Catalogue of 
the Remains of Pleistocene and Pre-Historic Vertebrata, con- 
tained &c." By R. Lydekker, B.A., F.G.S., &c. From tlie 
Director of the Geological Survey of India. 

"Revue Coloniale Internationale." Tome IV., No. 2, Feb. 1887. 
From L' Association Coloniale Neerlandaise a Amsterdam. 

" The Victorian Naturalist." Vol. III., No. 11, March 1887. 
From the Field Naturalists' Club of Victoria. 

" The Journal of the Cincinnati Society of Natural History." 
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PAPERS READ, 

NOTES ON THE BACTERIOLOGICAL EXAMINATION 
OF WATER FROM THE SYDNEY SUPPLY. No. III. 

By Dr. Oscar Katz. 

During the time from 30th December, 1886, till 17th March, 
1887, I was able to carry out seventeen bacteriological examin- 
ations of Sydney Water, which was in all the cases derived from 
the tap in the Laboratory of the Linnean Hall. The results of 
these different tests, as regards the quantity of bacteria in the 



water under 


consideration, can best 


be seen from the following 


table : — 












Date. 




Tpnin nf Wntpr Number of colonies Number of liquefjing^ 
lamp. Of Water. ^^ ^ ^^^^ colonies in 1 com. 


(1) Dec. 30, 


'86 


76^ 


' F. = 24*^ 


"C. 


177 62 = 35 p.c. 


(2) Jan. 4, 


'87 


77 


F. = 25 


C. 


32 18 = 56] p.c. 


(3) „ 10 




79 


F. = 26J 


c. 


159 88 = 551 p^j 


(4) „ 17 




73 


F. = 22l 


c. 


9 2 = 22^ p.c. 


(5) „ 20 




74 


F. = 23^ 


c. 


11 5 = ib,\p.c. 


(6) „ 25 




76 


F. = 24^ 


c. 


31 7 = 22^ p.c. 


(7) „ 31 




79 


F. = 26<i 


c. 


434 212 = 48,7 p.c. 


(8) Feb. 3 




74 


F. = 23i 


c. 


26 10 = 38 « p.c. 


(9) » 8 




74 


F. = 231 


c. 


417 194 = 461 p^. 


(10) „ 13 




75 


F. = 238 


c. 


195 125 = 64/0 p.c. 


(11) „ 18 




73 


F. = 22^ 


c. 


37 8 = 212 p(,_ 


(12) „ 22 




71-5F. = 22 


c. 


369 172 = 46 «j p.c. 


(13) „ 26 




73-i 


5F. = 23 


c. 


21 6 = 28^ p.c. 


(14) Mar. 2 




76 


F. =. 24^ 


c. 


164 80 = 48^ p.c. 


(15) „ 7 




75-; 


5F. = 24^ 


c. 


188 72 = 38? p.c. 


(16) „ 11 




76 


F. = 24* 


c. 





(17) „ 17 




72-i 


5F. = 22' 


c. 


528 204 = 38/i p.c. 



152 ON THE EXAMINATION OF WATER PROM THE SYDNEY SUPPLY. 

These data yield, for 1 ccm. of the water in question within the 
above period, an average number of 165 colonies, 76 of which 
( = 46 p.c.) caused liquefaction of the nutritive gelatine. 

Especially prominent or, so far as known, pathogenic microbes 
did not come under notice, nor so far could experiments be 
made in order to ascertain which, if any, of the cultivated bacteria 
belong to the group of the so-called "water-bacteria," distinguished 
from others by their power of multiplying in water in which no 
traces of organic matter can chemically be found. 

From the above it may be seen that the average number of 
bacterial colonies, namely 165, for the period stated, is by far 
lower than that obtained previously (cf these Proceedings, 2nd 
series. Vol. I. 1886, pp. 913, 1205), and this is the more interest- 
ing as the temperatures of the water for that period were, of 
course, considerably higher than those noticed on former 
occasions (I.e.). 



CONTRIBUTIONS TOWARDS A KNOWLEDGE OF THE 
COLEOPTERA OF AUSTRALIA. 

By a. Sidney Ollifp, F.E.S., 
Assistant Zoologist, Australian Museum. 

No. IV. — Description of a new Genus and Species op 

OEDEifEJtlDJE. 

The genus which I here describe is remarkable among the whole 
of the heteromerous Coleoptera for the peculiar construction of its 
antennae. It is allied to Nacerdes and Ananca, but ditfers from 
them, as it doe.s fi'om every other member of the family Oedemeridce 
known to me, in having certain joints of its antennse enormously 
dilated and the metasternum produced into two sharp spines 
posteriorly. The structure of the antennae is fully described 
below, but I would draw particular attention to the form of the 
seventh joint which is quite unlike anything I have observed 
before. In shape it is pyriform, cup-like, and of considerable depth ; 
but whether this structure is sexual or not is a question which 
cannot be determined at present. 

Unfortunately I have not been able to examine the mouth- 
organs and sexual characters as carefully as I could wish as I have 
only a single exponent of the species, which I captured, together 
with some new and interesting Clavicorns, at Longford, Tasmania, 
during January 1886, on the flowers of Leptospermum. 

Ithaca, gen. no v. 

Body elongate, finely pubescent. Head moderately large, 
transverse, broadly but not very deeply depressed between the 
eyes. Mentum transverse, narrowed behind, very feebly emar- 
ginate in front. Maxillary palpi 4- jointed, rather robust, the 



154 ON A NEW GENUS AND SPECIES OF OEDEMERIDiE, 

penultimate joint considerably shorter than the preceding one, 
the last joint dilated and obliquely truncated at the apex. Labial 
palpi short, 3-jointed. Eyes transverse, oval and entire. Antennae 
inserted near the front of the internal mai^gin of the eyes, 11- 
jointed ; the basal joint longer than the two following ones 
together, joints 2-4 of nearly equal lengths, 5-7 enormously dilated 
externally — the 5th irregularly pyriform and concave, the 6th 
broadly transverse and concave, the 7th longer than broad, cup- 
shaped, rounded behind and truncate in front — 8th joint much 
shorter and narrower, slightly dilated externally, 9th feebly dilated 
externally, 10th and 11th cylindrical, the latter about twice as long 
as the former. Prothorax longer than broad, narrowed behind ; 
the sides rounded in front. Scutellum rounded behind. 
Elytra elongate, parallel, rounded behind. Metasternum long, 
emarginate behind, with a sharp spine on each side of the emar- 
gination projecting over the posterior coxse. Abdomen with five 
visible segments, the last segment bilobed. Legs : all the tibiae 
with two apical spines ; the antei'ior and intermediate tarsi 5- 
jointed, the posterior tarsi 4-jointed ; the penultimate joint of all 
the tarsi strongly bilobed ; claws very slightly dilated at the base. 

Ithaca anthina, sp. n. 

Elongate, parallel, dark fuscous, somewhat shining, moderately 
closely covered with fine grey pubescence ; prothorax and anterior 
legs pale testaceous ; head, first two, and the 5th and 6th joints of 
the antennae pitchy black ; the 3rd, 4th, 7th (except the margin), 
and the dilated portions of the 8th and 9th joints reddish testa- 
ceous. 

Head transverse, closely, irregularly and moderately strongly 
punctured, broadly depressed in the middle, testaceous between 
and in front of the antennae ; mandibles, except at the tips, and 
palpi testaceous ; mentum pitchy black. Antennae almost as long 
as the entire insect. Prothorax considei-ably longer than broad, 
narrowed behind, moderately stx'ongly and irregularly pvmctured, 
somewhat depressed both in front and behind, with an indistinct 



BY A. SIDNEY OLLIFF, F.E.S. 155- 

fuscous spot near the anterior margin on eacli side of the middle ; 
anterior angles strongly rounded ; the sides slightly constricted 
behind the middle. Scutellum finely and not very closely jiunc- 
tnred. Elytra more than twice as long as the head and protliorax 
together, closely and moderately strongly rugulose-punctate ; each 
elytron with three obscure costal ; the external apical angles 
obtuse ; the internal angles rounded. Underside rather finely 
and closely punctured ; the presternum testaceous ; the mesoster- 
num, metasternum, and abdominal segments dark fuscous with a 
steel-blue tinge ; the metasternum thickly clothed with long grey 
pubescence at the sides, the space between the posterior processes 
without pubescence and finely aciculate. Legs moderately long ; 
the anterior pair testaceous with the bases of the femora and the 
tips of the tibiae fuscous ; the intermediate and posterior ])airs 
fuscous with the knees and the tips of the tibice dark reddish 
testaceous. Length 9i mm. 

Longford, Tasmania. 

A single specimen captured settling on the flowers of Leptosper- 

mum. Except for its antennae this remarkable species has the 

fades of the Telephoridce, but its heteromerous tarsi and spined 

metasternum are characters which at once distinguish it from the 

Malacoderms. 



156 ON SOME ADDITIONAL LABYRINTHODONT FOSSILS, N, S. WALES, 



ON SOME ADDITIONAL LABYRINTHODONT FOSSILS 
FROM THE HAWKESBURY SANDSTONE OF NEW 
SOUTH WALES. 

SECOND NOTE ON PLATYCEPS WILKINSONII. 

By Professor Stephens, M.A., F.G.S. 

The fossils which Mr. Wilkinson, Government Geologist, has had 
collected at Gosford, in the beds from which Platyceps Wilkinsonii, 
described in the last Volume of Proceedings, was obtained, were 
brought to Sydney at the beginning of this month of March. 

The collection contains liundreds of specimens of fish, of many 
genera and families, among which is a possible Ceratodus, many 
Belonostonius of all sizes, Gleithrolepis, (fee, and many which are at 
present quite unknown to Qie. They are chiefly if not altogether 
•Ganoids, and many quite new, at least to Australia. Some have 
been much broken in the quarry, others injured sul)sequently ; 
but all were otherwise in a wondeiful state of preservation. They 
had evidently been all killed at the same moment, and immediately 
buried. Some are quite straight and in their natural posture ; 
others convulsed and distorted. One large fish for example has 
the right pectoral fin thrown up on the same plane as the dorsal, 
with the underside of the head and fore quarter, and the right side 
of the rest of the body presented, showing both that the notochord 
was cartilaginous, and that the fish died suddenly in its struggles. 
Many others are twisted and bent double ; and all seem to 
corroborate the speculation, advanced in a previous paper, 
that they were killed by a sudden influx of ice-cold mud or 
muddy water into the tepid lagoon whei-e they had been living. 
There are also with them beautifully preserved ferns, Phyllotheca 
and the like, which had evidently undergone no decomposition 
before they were silted up, but had been buried at once in the mud 
of the torrent which had torn them away. Besides the fish and 
vegetable remains there are also two Labvrinthodont remains ; 
No. 1, almost entire, though not in good preservation, and No. 2, 



BY PROFESSOR STEPHENS, M.A., F.G.S. 15T 

which gives an imperfect head, with some of the details in a good 
state. Example No. 1 is a little over a foot in length, broken off 
at the tail end, and apparently made np to some extent about the 
snout. For the collector, afraid that the soft and perishable nature 
of the stone might lead to the obliteration of important details, has 
applied a kind of black japan to the surface, doing no harm in 
some cases, but in others, as in this, quite destroying the outlines, 
which very probably were originally faint, or perhaps injured in 
the quarry. This rendei's the mea.surements from the snout 
doubtful, though they cannot be far out. The orbits ai'e very 
distinct, and show that the fossil has been a little distorted by 
downwai'd and forv^^ard pressure from the right, lying as they do 
to the other side of their true position, and with the right orbit 
a little in advance of and rounder than the left. The post orbital 
bones are in good relief, ending in acute angles towards the back of 
the head. A flattish medial depression in the parietals seems to 
indicate the place of the foramen, which may probably be deter- 
mined by careful use of the knife, but which I cannot at present 
distinguish. The super-occipital is completely ossified, extending 
as far back as the anterior portion of the thoracic plates, and 
closing the intervening space shown in Vol. XI. pi. xxii. of our 
Proceedings. The quadrato-jugals are prolonged far to the rear of 
their position in the younger specimen, (ibid. p. 1182), and the 
branchial arches (if present) ai-e obscurely indicated between these 
backward processes and the clavicular plates. The vertebral 
column is represented by an indistinct ridge extending about half- 
way down the whole length of the fossil, and pushed a little 
towards the left. I can see no traces of ribs, limbs, nor of any 
structure more than has been mentioned, except that the dermal 
covering of the head seems to be preserved, presenting an irregu- 
gularly pitted or granulated surface, the ' grain ' averaging about 
1mm. across. As in the former example, it is the inner or upper 
surface of the thoracic plates that is presented, and the outer or 
upper surface of the head. 

It is curious that both this and the former specimen should 
have fared alike in this respect. Both of them preserve and 
expose the upper surface of the head, and both have lost all the 
structures overlying the Thoracic plates. The preservation of the 
head is no doubt owing to its more perfect ossification ; and the 



158 ON SOME ADDITIONAL LABYRINTHODONT FOSSILS, N. S. WALES. 

stripping or disappearance of the dorsal region may I suppose 
be due to the cartilaginous condition of the notochord. 

It is strange that no vestiges of limbs can be made out. But 
they may have been detached with the aforesaid dorsal structux*es, 
and escaped observation when the stone was split in the quarry. 

No. 2, from the inversion of the orbit ring, which is deeply 
sunk, instead of projecting boldly as in the other specimens, 
appears to be a cast of the upper surface of the head. But the 
paint with which it has been covered renders it difficult to feel 
certain upon this point. Radiating sculpture marks the centres 
of four of the bones, but their sutures are not to be discovered. 
They may perhaps be the Maxillaries and Premaxillaries. 

The principal measurements are as follows : — 

Dimensions of Head. 

No. 1. No. 2. 

Length Uncertain; perh. about 65 mm. pevh. about 72 mm. 

Breadth Ditto, ditto 55 Ditto 62 

Distance of orbit from base of skull 15 Ditto 25? 

Least width of interobital space 10 6 

Length of orbit 13'5 14 

Width 12 12 

Distance of parietal foramen from base 

of skull 12? 12 

From centre of occiput to posterior end 

of orbit 21 22-5? 

From tip of snout to anterior end of 

orbit 37 37 

Thoracic Plates. No. 1 only. 

Medial. Length 43 mm. 

Greatest breadth 27 

Centre of radiating sculpture in advance of gi'eatest breadth by... 7 

Length of each anterior margin 32 

Length of each posterior margin 19 

Laterals. Length from exterior angle (centre of radiation) to 

anterior margin 27 

Transverse breadth of the whole set from angle to angle 36 

It is not absolutely certain that these two fossils belong to the 
same species as that first described. But they appear to show no 
other differences than such as are known to be brought about in 
other genera of Labyrinthodonts by length of life and increase in 
size ; and I therefore, provisionally at any rate, regard them as 
the same. 



ADDITIONAL EVIDENCE ON FOSSII- SALISBURI^ 

FROM AUSTRALIA. 

By F. Ratte, M.E. 



> 



Jeanpaulia (?) palmata, Ratte, Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., Vol. I. 
(ser. 2), p. 1078; Salishuria palmata, Ratte, emend, from 
Jeanpaulia or Baiera palmata, Ibid. Vol. II. (ser. 2), p. 137. 

After the last meeting of the Society, when I suggested that 
the large palmate leaf found in the shale of the Wianamatta- 
Hawkesbury formation, should be referred to the genus Salisburia, 
I unexpectedly found in the French weekly paper " La Nature," 
an interesting contribution on the subject, by Marquis G. de 
Saporta. 

From that paper and the woodcuts given, I find that this 
author, and also Professor Heer of Zurich, give the name of 
Salisburia to a number of plants with coriaceous and persistent 
leaves, which, for the sake of giving a brief outline of their 
characters and distribution, I will enumerate as follows : — 





Locality. 


Jurassic. 


Cretaceous. 


«. Leaf entire, rhomboidal (transver- 








sally). 








Salisburia Antarctica. Sap 


Australia . . . 


Lower Lias ? 




b. Leaf entire, reniform. 
i Salisburia PRiMORDiALis. Hr 








S. Greenland 




Chalk 


c. Leaf fan-sliaped, ivith only a few 








incisions. 








Salisburia integriuscula. Hr 


Cape Bohe- 
man (Spitz- 
berg) 


Jurassic 





160 ADDITIONAL EVIDENCE ON FOSSIL SALISBURI^ FROM AUSTRALIA, 





Locality. 


Jurassic. 


Cretaceous. 


d. Leaf confusedly quadrangular, ir- 








regularly, not deeply suiuated, di- 








visions broad, irregidarly rounded 








at the apex. 








Salisburia DIGITATA(Brngt.) Hr. 


Scarborough, 
and Cape 
Boheman 


Middle Oolite 


* 


e. Leaf distinctly divided into twoprin- 








cipal symmetrical segments, more 








or less sinuated. 








Salisburia Huttoni (Sternbg.)Hr. 


Scarborough 


Middle Oolite 




S. pseudo-Huttoni (Hr.) Sap 


Kaj am iin- 
dung (East 
Siberia) 


Oolite 




/. Leaf palmate ; divisions numerous, 








deep, oval, rather broad; secondary 








siimations not very deep. Apices 








rounded or rather aciUe (S. 








Schmidtiana ). 








Salisburia pluripartita. Schimp. 


Westphalia 




Wealden 


S. ARCTICA. Hr 


S. Greenland 




Urgonian 


S. Schmidtiana. Hr 


East Siberia 


Oolite 




g. Leaf palmate ; divisions numerous, 








deep, oval, elongate ; secondary 








divisions deep. Apices rather more 








acute than roimded. 








Salisburia flabellata. Hr 


East Siberia 


Oolite 




S. lepida. Hr 


East Siberia 


Oolite 




h. Leaf palmate; divisions numerous, 








digitiform, broad, ro^^nded at the 








apex. 








Salisburia sibirica. Hr 


East Siberia 


Oolite 




S. sibirica var. pusilla (Hr.) Sap. 


East Siberia 


Oolite 




k. Leafjjalmate ; divisions numerous, 








digitiform, narrow. Apex rounded 








Salisburia concinna. Hr 


East Siberia 


Oolite 





The last two forms are most nearly related to our fossil. But 
even now, after this fresh evidence, the generic affinity does not 
seem perfectly clear. There are, besides Baiera, other genera 



BY F. RATTE, M.E. 161 

(Phcenicopsis, Trichojniijs, and Czekanowskia), allied to Salishuria, 
about which I have no litei^ature at hand ; and Marquis de Saporta, 
in the above-mentioned contribution, (1) even doubts whether 
Salisburia concinyia of Professor Heer, is really a Ginkgo, as its 
resemblance with tlie genus Baiera, might, according to this author, 
be due to a recurrence of form appearing in distinct and parallel 
groups, originally issued from a common ancestral stock. 

I will not follow the author in his sketch of the affinities and 
migrations of the different species ; I will simply quote, without 
translating, any paragraph dealing with the Australian fossil, 
Salisburia antarctica, or tracing the genus further back than our 
triassic species. 

At the same time, as a matter of reference, it will not 
probably be out of place to mention that IVIr. Feistmantel has 
described three species from the Gondwana series (Foss. Flora 
Gondwana, Vol. IV. p. 49, pi. III. &c.) 

Now, from Marquis de Saporta, I give the following extracts : 

" Un fait singulier est venu devoiler recemment 1' existence a 
r autre extremite du globe, sur le sol australien, d' un quatrieme 
point aloi's habite par le meme genre Salisburia. Le moment 
precis de cette colonisation, indice d'une tres-vaste diffusion 
anterieure due a la grande longevite du type, ce moment doit 
etre rapporte au lias ou meme au lias inferieur. On voit par la 
qu' a 1' exemple des Araucaria dans le pass6 et conformement a 
ce que le hetre (fagus) nous laisse voir maintenaut, les Salisburia 
etaient repandus a la fois dUns les deux hemispheres, vei's le 
milieu des temps secondaires, et qu'ils s' etendaient au-dela du 
tropique du Capricorne, aussi bien qu' a F interieur du cercle 
polaire arctique." (Loc. cit. p. 157.) 

And further :— 

" L'Australie a fourni une seule espece, que nous nommerons 
Salisburia antai'ctica" (Loc. cit. p. 203.) 

This Australian species thus, it appeal's, comes back to us 
indirectly, and is still unpublished at the time de Saporta writes ; 

(1) G. de Saporta. Les Variations morphologiques d'un typede Plantes. 
" La Nature " 26 Ao1it 1882, p. 203. 
11 



162 ADDITIONAL EVIDENCE ON FOSSIL SALISBURLE FROM AUSTRALIA. 

he only figures it (loc. cit. p. 204) ; and I think it belongs to the 
Proceedings to have it represented ; I therefore give a drawing of 
it (Plate 111). The author does not state where his specimen comes 
from, and more light on the subject will be highly interesting. 

However our Salisburia pahnaia, if it ought to be considered 
as such, is not the oldest of its genus, as de Saporta has named 
Salisburia ^;?'imi^ema, a plant discovered by Professor Grand' 
Eury in the Middle Permian of Jelovick, near Tchoussovskaia, 
in the Urals ; about which discovery he says : — 

" Jusqu'ici les Gingkos ne depassaient pas le rhetique, dans la 
direction du passe (in the past). En Europe le Salisburia crenata 
(Brauns) Nath., et, en Australie, le Salisburia antarctiea, Sap., 
espece encore inedite, marquaient les derniers jalons (land marks) 
qui aient ete signales." [Sur quelques types de vegetaux recem- 
nient observes a I'etat fossile. M. G. de Saporta, in Comptes 
Eendus Acad. Sciences, Ir. Semestre, 1882, page 922.] 

Before ending this note I beg leave to point out the importance, 
for our geological record, of ascertaining the precise locality whence 
Salisburia antarctiea, Sap. comes. Some clue to it might be 
found in Rev. T. Woods's elaborate paper on " The Coal Plants of 
Australia," as he places the Burnett River beds, where already 
Jeanpaidia (Baiera) biclens, T. Woods, has been found, as 
Infralias or Lower Lias (?) with a query. 



*- 



ON AN UNDESCRIBED SHARK FROM PORT JACKSON. 
By E. Pierson Ramsay, F.R.S.E., &c., and J. Douglas-Ogilby, 

Carcharias macrurus, n. sp. 

Form rounded, moderately tapering. Snout of moderate length, 
obtuse, thickly studded with minute pores. Eyes rather nearer to 
the end of the snout than to the anterior gill-opening. Cleft of 
mouth deep, its gape wide. A short, but deep groove behind the 
angle of the mouth. Nostrils obliquely transverse, much nearer 
to the mouth than to the tip of the snout. Teeth in both jaws 
serrated, in the upper oblique with the base swollen ; erect and 
smaller in the lower jaw. First dorsal fin situated much nearer to 
the tip of the snout than to the base of the caudal, and closer to 
the end of the base of the pectoral than to the origin of the 
ventral : second dorsal one-third of the size of the first ; the space 
between the dorsal fins being rather more than one-third of the 
distance between the end of the second and the base of the caudal : 
pectorals large and falciform, reaching to beneath the end of the 
first dorsal, its inner lobe two-ninths of the end of the outer. 
Ventrals small with the lower margin truncate. Caudal with 
basal pit above and below, its upper lobe one-fourth of the total 
length, and notched near the extremity. Skin rough. Colors — 
above plumbeous, below white ; tips of second dorsal, lower caudal 
lobe, and pectorals, black. 

Measurements : — 

Total length ... ... ... ... ... ... 34? in. 

Depth at origin of first dorsal fin 
Depth at root of caudal fin 
Circumference of body 
Breadth of body 



"^5 

14 
42 



164 ON AN UNDESCRIBED SHARK FROM PORT JACKSON. 

Measurements — continued : — 

Breadth of head immediately in front of gill-openings, 

nearly ... ... ... ... ... ... 4J 

Breadth of snout immediately in front of eyes, nearly ... 31 

Interorbital space ... ... ... ... ... ... 3^ 

Distance between tip of snout and mouth ... ... 2^ 

Distance between tip of snout and nostril, nearly ... 2 

Distance between tip of snout and eye, nearly ... ... 3 

Distance between nostril and mouth ... ... ... 1_^ 

Distance between outer angfles of nostrils ... ... 2 



3 



Distance between eye and first gill-opening ... ... 3^^, 

Width of mouth ... ... ... ... ... ... 21 

Depth of mouth ... ... ... ... ... ... Ig 

Origin of first dorsal to the end of the base of pectoral ... 5/,^ 

End of first dorsal to the origin of ventral ... ... 5^ 

Outer edge of pectoral ... ... ... ... ... 51 

Inner edge of pectoral ... ... ... ... ... 1\ 

Intradorsal space ... ... ... ... ... ... 8J 

Diameter of eye ... ... ... ... ... ... 1 

Length of longest gill-opening ... ... ... ... I3 

This Shark is said to be not uncommon on the New South Wales 
Coast, where it is called the " Whaler," and has been hitherto 
confounded with Dr. Giinther's Carcharias brachyurus, from which 
however it may be recognised at a glance by the shape of the mouth 
and the obtuseness of the snout. Type specimen in Australian 
Museum, I. 1155. 



LIST OF BIRDS COLLECTED AT DERBY, NORTH WEST 
AUSTRALIA, BY THE LATE T. H. BOYER-BOWER, 
Esq., with NOTES. 

By Dr. E. P. Ramsay, F.R.S.E., &c., &c. 

(Continued from Vol. I. (2nd ser.) p. 1100.) 

1. Gypoictinia melanosternon, Gould. 

One specimen similar to the eastern form of this species. 

2. Falco lunulatus, Latham. 

(Falco /rontattcs, Gould). 

One specimen is a rich slate-blue on the upper surface, and 
below has a deeper orange rufous tint than I have observed in 
any of the N.S. Wales examples. 

3. Circus assimilis, Jard. & Selb. 
(Circus jardinii, Gould). 

4. Circus gouldii, Honp. 
(Circus assimilis, Gould). 

5. AsTUR approximans, Vi(/. & Sots/. 
Quite similar to the N. S. Wales examples. 

6. AsTUR CRUENTUS, Gould. 

These are the fii'st examples I have seen of this species, which 
is undoubtedly a very distinct form from A. approximans; in 
plumage it closely resembles Accipiter cirrhocephalus. 

Total length male 13-5 in., wing 9-3 in., tail 7 in., tarsus 2-7 in. ; 
first joint of mid-toe 0-55 in. Female 15-5 in., wing 10 in., tail 
8-5 in., tarsus 2*9 in. ; first joint of mid-toe 0*7 in. 



166 LIST OF BIRDS COLLECTED AT DERBY, NORTH WEST AUSTRALIA, 

7. ACCIPITER CIRRHOCEPHALtJS, Vieill. 

(A. torquatus, Gould). 
Similar to N. S. Wales specimens. 

8. Haliastub INDUS, Vieill. 
Var. GIRRENERA, Sharpe. 

9. Haliastur sphenurus, Vieill. 

10. MiLVus AFPiNis, Gould. 

11. Falco melanogenys, Gould. 

12. HiERACIDEA OCCIDENTALIS, Gould. 

13. HiERACIDEA ORIENTALIS, Schl. 

{B. berigora, (iray). 

14. TiNNUNCULUS CENCHROIDES, Vig. & Rorsf. 

15. Pandion leucocephalus, Gould. 

16. Strix delicatula, Gould. 

17. NiNOX connivens-occidentalis, Rams. 
See P.L.S. N.S.W., Vol. I. (second series), p. 1086. 

18. ^gotheles leucogaster, Gould. 

This bird is very variable in its tints of plumage, especially on 
the upper surface. 

19. PoDARGUS GOULDii, Masters. 

Ramsay, P.LS. N.S.W., Vol. I. (2ad series), p. 1097. 

20. EuROSTOPODUS guttatus, Vig. & Rorsf. 
Ramsay, P.L.S. N.S.W., Vol. I. (2nd series), p. 1097. 

21. Merops orna-us, Lath. 

22. EURYSTOMUS PACIFICUS, Lath. 

23. Dacelo cervina, Gould. 

24. Halcyon macleayi, Jard. & Selb. 

25. Halcyon pyrrhopygius, Gould. 

This bird seems to be universally dispersed over the whole of 
Austi-alia. 



BY DR. E. P. RAMSAY, P.R.S.E. 167 

26. Artamus cinereus, Vieill. 

27. Cracticus picatus, Gould. 

28. Cracticus robustus, Lath. 
(C. nigrogularis, Gould). 

29. Graucalus melanops, Lath. 

30. Artamus minor, Vieill. 

31. Artamus leucopygialis, Gould. 

32. Pardalotus uropygialis, Gould. 

33. Cracticus torquatus, Latlo. 
(Barita destructor, Temm. ) 

34. Campephaga tricolor, Sivaiiis. 

35. Pachycephala falcata, Gould. 

36. COLLYRIOCINCLA BRUNNEA, Gould. 

37. COLLYRIOCINCLA RUPIGASTER, Gould. 

38. RiiipiDURA PREissi, Cah. 

39. Rhipidura setosa, Quoy et Gaim. 

40. Sauloprocta picata, Gould. 

41. Seisura nana, Gould. 

42. Myiagra concinna, Gould. 

43. Myiagra latirostris, Gould. 

The one speciaien obtained appears to be Gould's M. latirostrisy 
but may hereafter prove to be only a female of 31. concinna. 

44. Gerygone albogularis, Gould. 
Ramsay, I.e. p. 1098. 

45. Smicrornis flavhscens, Gould. 

46. Petr(eca picata, Gould. 

47. PCECILODRYAS CERYINIVENTRIS, Gould. 

Notwithstanding that several specimens were obtained, this bird 
does not appear to be common anywhere. Ramsay, I.e. p. 1089. 



168 LIST OF BIRDS COLLECTED AT DERBY, NORTH WEST AUSTRALIA, 

48. Malurus cruentatus-boweri, Ramsay. 
(1 Malurus cruentatus, Gould ; juv.) 

49. Malurus coronatus, Gould. 

Many specimens of this beautiful species were oV^tained during 
the months of September and October; judging from some young 
individuals they must have been breeding as early as June. 
During the first year the young males resemble the females in 
plumage with the exception of the ear-coverts. 

50. Malurus lamberti, Lath. 

These appear to be identical with the New South Wales birds. 

51. CiSTICOLA rupiceps, Gould. 

52. CisTicoLA sp. (1C. lineocapilla, Goidd.) 

53. Ephtiiianura crocea, Gastl. & Rams. 

This species extends as far eastwards as the Gulf of Carpentaria, 
where it was originally obtained by Mr. Gulliver during his 
travels in that district. 

54. CiNCLORAMPHUS CRURALIS, Vig. & Horsf. 

55. CiNCLORAMPHUS CANTILLANS, Gould. 

See previous remarks on these species. Ramsay^ I.e. p. 1098. 

56. Pten(EDUS rufescens, Vig. and Horsf. 

57. MiRAFRA HORSFIELDII, Goidd. 

58. Calamoherpe longirostris, Goidd. 

59. EsTRiLDA bichenovii, Vig. & Horsf. 

60. ESTRILDA ANNULOSA, Goidd. 

61. ESTRILDA CASTANOTIS, Gould. 

62. ESTRILDA RUFICAUDA, Gould. 

63. EsTRiLDA phaeton, Homh. & Jacq. 

64. DoNACicoLA pectoralis, Gould. 

This bird was found to be plentiful near Port Darwin; Mr. 
Gulliver also obtained specimens in the Gulf District. 



BY DR. E. P. RAMSAY, P.R.S.E. 169 

65. POEPHILA. ACUTICAUDA, Gould. 

Plentiful, many live specimens being also obtained. 

66. POEPHILA GOULDIiE, Gould. 

67. PoEPHiLA MiRABiLis, Jlomh. & Jacq. 
See previous remarks, I.e. p. 1091. 

68. Chlamydodera nuchalis, Jard. & Selh. 
Females only obtained. 

69. POMATOSTOMUS RUBECULUS, Goidd. 

70. Stigmatops subocularis, Gould. 

71. SiTiGMATOPS ocularis, Gould. \ 

72. Ptilotis vittata, Cuv. ^''v^ 

73. Ptilotis flavescens, Gould. 

74. Ptilotis notata, Gould. 

75. Stomiopera unicolor, Gould. 

This bird was originally obtained at Port Essington ; it has a 
wide range extending over the whole of the north, and north- 
western portions of the Continent. 

76. Entomophila albogularis, Gould. 

77. Entomophila rufogularis, Gould. 

78. Philemon argenticeps, Goidd. 

79. Philemon, Jity. (sp. ?) 

80. Myzomela pectoralis, Gould. 

81. Melithreptus albogularis, Gould. 
82 Melithreptus l^etior, Goidd. 

83. Myzantha lute a, Goidd. 

84. DiCiEUM hirundinaceum, Shaw. 
Universally dispersed over the whole Continent. 

85. Climacteris melanura, Gould. 



/ 



170 LIST OF BIRDS COLLECTED AT DERBY, NORTH WEST AUSTRALIA, 

86. SiTTELLA LEUCOPTERA, Gould. 

87. CucuLUS DUMETORUM, C?) Gould. 

88. Cacomantis pallida, Lath. 
{Cuculus inornatus, Gould). 

89. Cuculus flabelliformis, Lath. 

90. Mesocalius palliolatus, Lath. 
(Chalcites osculans, Gould). 

91. Chalcites basalis, Horsf. 

92. Chalcites minutillus, Gould. 

93. EUDYNAMIS CYANOCEPHALA, Lath. 

(^E. flmdersi, Gould). 

94. Centropus melanurus, Gould. 
Probably only a variety of C. phasianus, Latham. 

95. Cacatua gymnopis, Sclater. 

96. Cacatua roseicapilla, Vieill. 

97. Calyptorhynchus stellatus, Wagl. 
(C macrorhynchus, Gould). 

98. Calyptorhynchus naso, Goxdd. 

99. Calopsittacus nov^e hollandi^, Gmel. 

100. Ptistes coccineopteru.s, Gould. 

101. Trichoglossus rubritorquis, Yig. & Eorsf, 

102. Trichoglossus versicolor, Vigors. 



BY DR. E. P. RAMSAY, F.R.S.E 171 

103. Phaps histrionica, Gould. 

104. Lopo PHAPS ferruginea, Gould. 

This bird was found in immense numbers during the month of 
October, 1886. 

105. OcYPHAPS LOPHOTES, Temm. 

106. Phaps chalcoptera, Lath. 

107. Geopelia humeralis, Temm. 

108. Geopelia placida, Gould. 

109. Stictopelia cuneata, Lath. 

110. Syxoicus australis, Lath. 

111. Hemipodius velox, Gould. 

112. CEdicnemus grallarius, Lath. 

113. LOBIVAXELLUS MILES, Bodd. 

114. ^GiALiTis GEOPFROYi, Waglev. 
( Hiaticula inornata, Gould). 

115. ^GIALITIS NIGRIFRONS, Guv. 

116. Erythrogonys ciNCTUs, Gould. 

117. AcTiTis EMPUSA, Gould. 

118. SCH(ENICLUS ALBESCENS, Temm. 

119. LiMNOCINCLA ACUMINATA, Horsf. 

120. Glareola grallaria, Temm. 

121. TOTANUS SP. 

122. Eecurvirostra rubricollis, Temm. 



172 LIST OF BIRDS COLLECTED AT DERBY, NORTH WEST AUSTRALIA. 

123. HiMANTOPUS LEUCOCEPHALUS, Gould. 

124. Glottis glottoides, Linn. 

125. Gallinago australis, Lath. 

126. Geronticus spinicollis, Jameson. 

127. Threskiornis strictipennis, Gould. 

128. Platalea regia, Gould. 

129. Xenorhynchus australis, Lath. 

130. Ardea pacifica, Lath. 

131. Ardea Nov^HOLLANDiiE, Lath. 

132. Herodias ALBA, Linn. 

133. Herodias melanopus, Wagl. 
{A. yai'zetta, Linn.) 

134. Herodias intermedia, V. Hasselq. 
{H. plumiferus, Gould). 

135. Nycticorax caledonicus, Lath. 

136. Butoroides flavicollis, Lath. 

137. Porphyrio bellus, Gould. 

138. Tribonyx ventralis, Gould. 

139. FuLicA australis, Gould. 

These birds should be compared with a series of South-east 
Australian specimens ; there are probably two distinct species, 

140. Tadorna radjah, Gamot. 



BY DR. E. P. RAMSAY, F.R.S.E. 173 

141. Anas castanea, Eyton. 

142. Chlamydochen jubata, Lath. 

143. Nettapus pulchellus, Gould. 

144. Dendrocygna vagans, Eyton. 

145. Malacorhynchus membranaceus, Lath. 

146. PODICEPS GULARIS, Govld. 

147. Podiceps australis, Gould. 

148. Sterna anglica, Mont. 
{Gelohelidon macrotarsa, Gould). 

149. Sterna frontalis, Gray. 
(Sterna melanorhyncJia, Gould). 

150. Plotus NOV.E hollandi^, Gould. 

151. Gracultjs melanoleucus, Yieill. 

152. Gracultjs stictocephalus, Bp. 



174 NOTES AND EXHIBITS. 



NOTES AND EXHIBITS. 



Mr. Norton exhibited a specimen of one of the Myxomycetes, 
identified by Mr. Whitelegge as Stemonitis fusca, or ferruginea, 
Ehrenb., found on the trunk of a tree at Springwood. 

Mr. Wilkinson exhibited a selection from the Gosford Collection 
of Fossils, now amounting to about 400 specimens, comprising a 
number of new and remarkable forms of Fishes, and he pointed 
out the importance of the evidence which is now accumulating in 
favour of the view that the Hawkesbury formation is of Triassic 



age. 



Dr. Ramsay exhibited (1.) An Egg of the Top-knot Pigeon 
Lopholaimios antarcticus, (Shaw), taken from the oviduct by Mr. 
McLennan. The egg is nearly perfectly oval, being only slightly 
pointed at the thin end, white, and without any gloss ; length 
l'85xl'25 inches; (2.) Some very old diorite Stone Hatchets 
used by the Aborigines of the Lachlan district, where they were 
obtained by Mr. K. H, Bennett of Mossgiel ; (3.) Flint-fiakes used 
by the Aborigines of Tasmania; (4.) Slabs of Shale with Fossil 
Ferns (Bhacopteris, <&c.), from near Stroud, N.S.W. 

Mr. Palmer exhibited six silk egg-bags made by the same spider 
(species uncertain) at different times, and attached to a branch. 

Mr. Masters exhibited a living specimen of one of the " Sleeping 
Lizards " Cyclodus nigro-luteus, Q. and G., sent by Mr. J. D. Cox 
from Mt. Wilson — -a species which is rare so far north, though 
common in Victoria and Tasmania. 

Mr. Steel exhibited a specimen of Bomhyx from Fiji, quite 
overgrown by a fungus, sj^ringing from all parts of the body. 

Mr. Ogilby exhibited a living example of a rare Toad, Nota- 
den Bennettii, Gunth., recently forwarded from Cobar to the 
Australian Museum. Also an example of the rare snake Brachyu- 
rophis australis, Krefft, hitherto only recorded from the Clarence 
and Burdekin Rivers. The locality of the present specimen is 
-unknown. 



NOTES AND EXHIBITS. 175 

Mr, Maiden exhibited a collection of LeguminoscB indigenous 
in New South Wales comprising 25 genera and 75 species. Of 
the plants collected in the immediate neighbourhood of Sydney 
may be mentioned Acacia hispidula, A. lunata, A. decurrens A. 
oxycedrus, Aotus lanigera, Zornia diphylla, and some interesting 
species of Pultencua and Oxylohium. Some of the rarer Acacias 
from the Western Districts were also exhibited, together with 
some rare species of Paltencea, Bossicua, Oxylobium, &c., 
collected near the Victorian border, by Mr. Bauerlen. Each 
species was mounted on cardljoard and full particulars given. 
Also plants of Myriogyne mimita, Less., a composite plant 
with numerous synonyms, and known in the Southern Districts as 
" Sneezeweed." Dr. Woolls, a few months ago, drew attention to 
this plant as a remedy iu ophthalmia. Mr. Maiden said he would 
be able to give specimens of the herb to those who desired to test 
its properties in the direction indicated. 

Mr. Fletcher exhibited for Mr. A. G. Hamilton, of Guntawang, 
a large and remarkable frog, at present undetermined, recently 
captured by his son Charles, at Hartley, Blue Mountains, where 
it was found buried in the sand in the bed of a creek. It differs 
from any Australian frog at ])resent described, by having a row of 
spines on the dorsal surface of each of the first three fingers, the 
seventh and last spine on the first finger of each hand being 
conspicuously larger and more formidable than the others. 

At the close of the regular business the President drew the atten- 
tion ofMemberstoa commuuicationreceivedfrom Baronv. Mueller, 
in which, referringto the interesting Botanical discoveries made by 
Messrs. W. Sayer and A. Davidson on Mount Bellenden Ker, he 
suggests that the Society, or Members of the Society, should make 
an exploration of Mount Sea-view ; stating further that he had 
himself as far back as 1859 sent Dr. Beckler into the Hastings 
River district for that purpose. This attempt proved ineffectual 
owing to the absence of settlement in the neighbourhood. The 
Council of the Society, though not able to take action at once in 
the matter, applied to the best authorities for information. At 



176 NOTES AND EXHIBITS. 

present the principal points ascertained are, by the kindness of 
Mr. E. Herborn, L. S. 52 Castlereagh Street— That there are two 
mountains called Sea-view, one so-marked on the Government Maps 
at the head of the Hastings, the other marked as " Kippara " 
near the headwater of the Yesabah Creek. Mr. Herborn had 
Ijeen within a few miles of the former, and on the summit of the 
latter, which he considers to be, probably, the highest summit in 
the New England Range. He is not aware that the Hastings 
River mountain has ever been ascended, and would not advise 
that the attempt should be made except by a party of experienced 
bushmen. It was not likely that any efiort in this direction could 
be made during this autumn, especially after so extraordinary a 
rainfall as we have had. But all information on the subject 
would be thankfully received. 



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WEDNESDAY, 27th APRIL, 1887. 




The President, Professor W. J. Stephens, M.A., F.G.S., in the 
Chair. 



Mr. F. H. Thatcher, and Mr. Duncan Anderson were present as 
visitors. 



MEMBERS ELECTED. 

The following gentlemen were elected Members of the Society : — 
Mr. Hugh Dixson ; Rev. W. H. H. Yarrington, West Maitland ; 
Dr. Metcalf, Norfolk Island. 



The President announced that the next Excursion had been 
arranged for Saturday, May 14th. Members to meet at the 
Railway Station, to proceed by the 8'15 a.m. train to Brooklyn, 
Hawkesbury River Railway Terminus. Steamer and Refresh- 
ments will be provided. In order to facilitate an-angements. 
Members intending to be present are requested to notify the same 
to the Director by the preceding Thursday. 



DONATIONS. 

"The Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society." Vol. 
XLIII., Part 1 (1887). From the'Society. 

Bulletin de la Societe Beige de Microscopie." 13me. Annee, 

Nos. 3 and 4. From the Society. 
12 



178 DONATIONS. 

" The Transactions of the Entomological Society of London for 
the year 1886." Part 5. From the Society. 

" Bulletins du Comite Geologique, St. Petersbourg." Vol. V,, 
Nos. 9-11 (1886). De la part dib Comite. 

" Memoires (Sapiski) de la Society des Naturalistes de la 
nouvelle Russie." Tome XL, No. 2 (1887); "Sapiski Matema- 
tischeskago " &c., T. VII. From, the Society. 

"The Victorian Naturalist." Vol. III., No. 12 (April, 1887). 
From the Field Naturalists' Club of Victoria. 

" Journal of the College of Science, Imperial University, Japan." 
Vol. L, Part 1 (188G). From the Director. 

" Bulletin of the American Geographical Society." Nos. 4 and 
6 (1885). From the Society. 

" Bulletin of the Brookville Society of Natural History." No. 2. 
From, the Society. 

"Feuille des Jeunes Naturalistes." No. 197 (March, 1887). 
From the Editor. 

" Zoologischer Anzeiger." No. 245 (28th Feb., 1887). From 
the Editor. 

" Revue Coloniale Internationale." Tome IV., No. 3 (March, 
1887). De la 'part de V Association Coloniale Neerlandaise a 
Amsterdam. 

" Observations Publiees par LTnstitut Meteorologique Central 
de la Societe des Sciences de Finlande." Vol. I., liv. 1, Vol. II., 
liv. 1. From the Finland Society of Sciences. 

" Annalen des k.-k. Naturhistorischen Hofmuseums (Wien)." 
Redigirt von Dr. von Hauer. Band I., No. 4 (1886), Band IL, 
No. 1 (1887). From the Director. 



DONATIONS. ' 179 

■"Archives Neerlandaises des Sciences exactes et naturelles." 
Tome XXI., liv. 2me. (1886), et 3me. (1887). De la part de la 
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"Bulletin de la Societe Royale de Botanique de Belgique." 
Tome XXV., fasc. 2 (1886). From the Society. 

"Abstract of Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London." 
1 5 th Feb. , 1887. From the Society. 

"Notavisia Commentariura Phycologicum." Nos. 1-5. From the 
Publisher. 

" On the Fossil Mammals of Australia." Part Til. By Pro- 
fessor Owen, F.KS., <fec. From Dr. J. C. Cox, F.L.S., d-c. 

" Comptes Eendus des Seances de L'Academie des Sciences, 
Paris." Tome CIV., Nos. 4-7 (1887). From tlie Academy. 

" Annual Report of the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian 
Institution for the year 1884." Parts 1 and 2. From the Insti- 
tution. 

" Verhandlungen der k.-k. zoologisch-botanischen Gesellschaft 
in Wien." XXXVI. Band (1886). From the Society. 

" Mittheilungen der Naturforschenden Gesellschaft in Bern," 
Jahrg. 1885, III. Heft. From the Society. 

" Bulletin of the California Academy of Sciences." Vol. II., 
No. 5 (1886). From the Academy. 

"Proceedings of the Boston Society of Natural History " Vol. 
XXIII., Part 2 (March, 1884 to Feb., 1886). From the Society. 

"Bulletin de L'Academie laiperiale des Sciences de St. Peters- 
bourg." Tome XXX., No. 3, T. XXXL, No, 1 ; " Memoires." 
T. XXXIIL, Nos. 6-8 (1886), T. XXXIV., Nos. 1-4 (1886). 
From the Academy. 



180 DONATIONS. 

"The Australasian Journal of Pharmacy." Vol. II., No. 16 
(April, 1887). From the Editor. 

" Monatliche Mittheilungen des naturwissenscliaftl. Vereins des 
Reg.-Bez. Frankfurt." Jahrg. lY., Nos. 8 ik 9 (1886), 10 (1887). 
From the Society. 

" Bulletin de la Societe Zoologique de France pour I'annee 
1886." Nos. 5 & 6. From the Society. 

'•' Mittheilungen aus der Zoologischen Station zu Neapel." Band 
YII., Heft 1 (1886). From the Director. 

" Papers and Proceedings of the Royal Society of Tasmania for 
the year 1886." From the Society. 

'■' Report of the Trustees of the Sydney Free Public Library for 
1886-87." From the Trustees. 

" Report of the Auckland Institute and Museum for 1886-87." 
From the Council. 



PAPERS READ. 

NOTES ON THE GENERA OF AUSTRALIAN FISHES. 
By E. p. Ramsay, F.R.S.E., &c., and J. Douglas-Ogilby. 

Part I. 

(N'otes from the Australian Museum). 

In the following paper it is our intention to clearly point out the 
generic distinctions between certain groups of Australian Percoids ; 
and we wish to call special attention to the fact that, after an 
exhaustive examination of over fifty examples each of Lates cal- 
carifer and Lates colonorum, we have arrived at the conclusion that 
these fishes are generically separable, and we propose thei'efore the 
name Percalates for the southern temperate form. We have also 
examined a number of small fishes from the Murray near Denili- 
quin, belonging to Count Castelnau's genera Murrayia and 
Riverina, and are fully in accord with Dr. Khinzinger in consi- 
dering these names synonymous with Macquaria, Cuv. & Val., 
the characters which caused the Count to separate the fishes from 
that described by the latter authors, and excellently figured by 
MM. Lesson and Garnot in the " Voyage of the Coquille " 
pi. XIV. fig. 1, having doubtless been overlooked by the authors of the 
" Histoire Naturelle des Poissons"; whilst the presence or absence 
of an extra spine to the first dorsal, or of a few minute, and 
probably deciduous, palatine teeth cannot be considered as forming 
a valid reason for separating generically two species so exactly 
similar in all other characters as Murrayia guentheri and Riverina 
Jiuviatilis. It is worth mentioning that the Australian Museum 
possesses Castelnau's types of Murrayia guentheri and Dules (Cteno- 
lates) auratus, both having been obtained from precisely the same 
locality as our specimens. 



182 NOTES ON THE GENERA OF AUSTRALIAN FISHES, 

We hope at intervals to coatribute further papers on the genera 
of Australian fishes. 

Six genera are diflerentiated in this part, namely, Perca (intro- 
duced), Percolates, Lates^ Psammoperca, Ctenolates, and Macquaria. 
Their characteristics are as follows : — 

Genus Perca. 

Perca, sp., Artedi, Genera Pisciuni, 1738, Gen. 39, Syn. 66, 
sp. 74 ; Cuvier, Regne Anim. ; Cuv. & Val., Hist. Nat. des Poiss. 
1828, ii. p. 19. 

Branchiostegals seven : pseudob ranch ite present. Body oblong- 
ovate, and somewhat compressed. Opercle spiniferous : preopercle 
serrated on the vertical limb, and with denticulations pointing 
forwards on the lower limb. Teeth villiform on the jaws, vomer, 
and palatines ; tongue smooth. Two dorsal fins separated at their 
bases, the first with 13 or 14 spines; the anal with two. Scales 
rather small, ctenoid, absent on the upper surface of the head. 
Pyloric appendages few. 

Genus Percalates. 

Percalates, gen. no v. 

Branchiostegals six : pseudobranchise present. Body oblong- 
ovate, and somewhat compressed. Opercle with two spines : pre- 
opercle serrated on the vertical limb, denticulated on the angle and 
lower limb : preorbital and post-temporal bones serrated. Teeth 
villiform on the jaws, vomer, and palatines; tongue smooth. One 
dorsal fin deeply notched, with 9 spines : the anal with three. 
Scales moderate, ctenoid, absent on the upper surface of the head, 
and on the maxilla. Pyloric appendages in small numbers. 

Genus founded on Lates colonorum, Giinth. 

Genus Lates. 

Lates, Cuv. & Val., Hist. Nat. des Poiss. 1828, ii. p. 88. 
Pseudolates, Alleyne & Macleay, Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S. Wales, i., 
p. 262, (1875). 



BY E. P. RAMSAY, F.R.S.E., ETC., AND J. DOUGLAS-OGILBY. 183 

Brancliiostegals seven : pseudobranchise rudimentary. Body 
oblong, and somewhat compressed. Opercle with a small spine : 
l^reopercle serrated on the vertical limb, denticulated on the angle 
and lower limb. Teeth villiform on the jaws, vomer, and palatines; 
tongue rough. Two dorsal fins contiguous at their bases, the first 
with 7 or 8 spines : the anal with three. Scales moderate, finely 
ctenoid, extended on the head to immediately behind the eyes. 
Pyloric appendages few. 

Genus Psammoperca. 

Psammoperca, Richards., Voy. Erebus and Terror, Fishes, 
p. 115. 

Cnidon, Miill. and Trosch., Hor. Ichth., Hft. iii., p. 21. 

Branchiostegals seven : pseudobranchise absent. Body oblong, 
and somewhat compressed. Opercle with a small spine : pre- 
opercle serrated on the vertical limb, and with a strong spine at 
the angle ; lower limb entire. Teeth granular on the jaws, 
vomei", and palatines ; tongue smooth. One dorsal fin deeply 
notched, with 8 spines : the anal with three. Scales moderate, 
ctenoid, covering the upper surface of the head to the snout : 
small scales on maxilla. 

Genus Ctenolates. 

Ctenolates, Giinth., Proc. Zool. Soc. 1871, p. 320. 

Branchiostegals seven : pseudobranchiae present. Body oblong- 
ovate, and somewhat compressed. Opercle with two spines, the 
lower of which is frequently sul)-divided into two or more points : 
preopercle serrated on the vertical limb ; angle and lower limb 
with patches of coarser denticles. Teeth villiform on jaws, 
vomer, and palatines ; tongue smooth. One dorsal fin, moderately 
notched, with 10 spines : the anal with three. Scales small, 
ctenoid, present on the occiput. 

Genus Macquaria. 

Macquaria, Ouv. and Val., Hist. Nat. des Poiss. 1828, v. 
p. 377. 



184 NOTES ON THE GENERA OF AUSTRALIAN FISHES. 

Murrayia, Casteln., Proc. Zool. Soc. Vict. 1872, i. p. 61. 

Riverina, Casteln., I.e., p. 64. 

Branchiostegals six : pseudobranchise present. Body oblong- 
ovate, and somewhat compressed. Head with distinct muci- 
ferous channels. Opercle with two spines, either or both of which 
may be sub-divided into two or more points : edges of sub- and 
interopercles finely serrated, preopercle serrated on the vertical 
limb ; angle and lower limb with patches of coarser denticles. 
Teeth villiform on the jaws and vomer ; palatines with a minute 
anterior patch ; tongue smooth. One dorsal fin, moderately 
notched, with 11 or 12 spines : the anal with three. Scales 
moderate, ctenoid, present on the occiput. Bases of vertical 
fins scaly. Pyloric appendages in small numbers. 



■y 



FLOWERING SEASONS OF AUSTRALIAN PLANTS. 

By E. Haviland, F.L.S. 

No. 5. — Plants Flowering in the neighbourhood of Sydney 

DURING THE MONTH OP NOVEMBER, IN ADDITION TO THOSE 
ENUMERATED IN FORMER LISTS. 

Violacete — Myrtacete — 

Hyhanthus Jiliformis. Kunzea corifolia 

Hypericineae— Melaleuca thymifolia 

Hypericum Japonicum. „ nodosa 

Rutacea3 — „ linarifolia 

Philotheca Reichenhachiana. Backhousia myrtifolia 

Geraniacese — Angophora cordifolia 

Geranium dissectum. Leiitospermum scoparium 

Eupborbiaceaj — Bceckea hrevifolia 

Poranthera ericifolia. Callistemon saliymos, 

Stackhousiacese — Umbelliferae — 

Stackhousia monogyna. Aciinotus helianthi 

Ficoidese — Apiiuyn australe 

Mesembryanthemum cequi- „ prostratum 

laterale. Hydrocotyle hirta. 

Leguminosse — Proteaceae — 

Pidtencm paleacea Telopea speciosissima 

Desmodium varians. Persoonia salicina 

Saxifragese— „ ferruginea 

Ceratopetalum gummiferum Conospermum ellipticum 

„ apetalum „ tenuifolium. 

Callicoma serrati/olia. Thymelese — 

Haloragese — Wickstroemia Indica. 

Haloragis teucrioides Rubiacese — 

„ micrantha. Psychotria loniceroides 



186 



FLOWERING SEASONS OP AUSTRALIAN PLANTS. 



ilubiaceae — 

Galium Gaudichaudi 

Morinda jasminoides. 
Compositae — 

Cassinia longifolia 

Lagenophora Billardieri. 
Stylidese — 

Stylidium linear e. 
Goodeniacese — 

Sccevola 7nicrocarpa 
„ hispida 

Goodenia stelligera. 
Gentianese — 

Villarsia reni/ormis 

Erythrcea australis. 
Primulacese — 

Samolus repens. 
Myrsinese — 

JEgiceras majus. 
Jasmineae — 

Notelma lo7igifolia. 
Asclepiadeae — ■ 

Marsdenia suaveolens. 
Lentibularinese — 

Utricularia dichotoma. 



Labiatse — 

Scutellaria humilis 

„ mollis 
Prostanthera denticulata 
Pru7iella vulgaris. 

Epacridese — 

Melichrus rotatus. 

Orchidese — 

Lyperantlius ellipticus 
Cymbidium suave 
Thelymitra venosa 
DipodluTYi 2)unctatum. 

Liliacese — 

Dianella Icevis 
Blandfordia nohilis 
I'hysayiotus tuberosus 
Ccesia vittata 
Geitonojylesiicm cymosum 
Tricoryne simplex. 

Xvridese — 

Xyris complanata. 

Commelynacese — 

Commelyna cyanea. 

Juncacese — 

Xerotes longifolia 
,, multijiora 
,, Jlexifolia. 



ON AN IMPROVED METHOD OF CULTIVATING 
MICRO-ORGANISMS ON POTATOES. 

By Dr. Oscar Katz. 

(With two Figures in Wood-cut). 

la the first number of the first volume of the " Centralblatt 
fiir Bacteriologie und Parasitenkunde," edited by Leuckart, 
Loeffler, and Uhlworra, Jena (Gustav Fischer), 1887, pp. 26-27, 
Dr. E. Esmarch writes on the " Preparation of the potato as a 
culture-medium for micro-organisms." He calls attention to the 
universally recognised value of the boiled potato as a culture-soil 
for most vegetable micro-organisms, for the identification of some 
of which, especially the bacillus of typhoid fever (Eberth-Gaff"ky), 
it is, so far as known, an indispensable and the only reliable 
medium. 

The hitherto customary processes of preparing potatoes for this 
purpose are, as Esmai'ch rightly states, far from being satisfactory. 
He, therefore, proposes the following method. One or more small 
glass-capsules, of the appearance of the usual damp chambers for 
cultivating fungi, are sterilised by dry heat. A potato is then- 
peeled by means of a common kitchen-knife, and, after having 
been rinsed under the water-tap, divided by the same knife into 
slices about 1 cm. thick, which are next adapted to the diameter of 
the glass-dishes and placed in the same. These potato-slices 
prepared in the above manner, are then boiled by steam in the 
steam-steriliser for from | to 1 hour, and are shortly afterwards 
ready for use. 

This process in the preparation of potatoes, and their storage in 
small glass dishes with over-lapping lids is undoubtedly far 
superior to the old mode of px'eparation and preservation. 



188 METHOD OF CULTIVATING MICRO-ORGANISMS ON POTATOES, 

Yet there remain still some inconveniences which relate to the 
use of such reservoirs for the slices of potato, and which would 
seem to leave an improvement in this direction to be desired. 

I would now recommend a method that recently yielded quite 
satisfactory results, when I was, some time ago, on a short 
stay in the Coast Hospital at Little Bay, near Sydney, where I 
was principally engaged in making a series of cultivations from 
dejections in cases of typhoid fever, and from organs of persons 
who died of this disease. 

I take a number of shallow but spacious test-tubes, of about 
10"5 cm. height by 2-5 cm. diameter, which, having been supplied 
with a sufficiently deep cotton-wool stopper (figs. 1, 2), are then 
sterilised in the usual manner. The preparation of the potatoes 
is the same as in Esmarch's process. The potato-slices, cut out 
■of medium-sized, oval-shaped, perfectly healthy potatoes, and 
about 1 cm. thick {jj in fig. 1, front view; in fig 2, side view ; both 
natural size), are now placed, by aid of a clean pair of forceps, in 
the above described test-tubes, to the width of which they are 
made to fit. It is only advantageous if the slices press loosely by 
one or some points of their margin on the inner walls of the 
glass-tubes, and thus, resting either nt the bottom of these or a 
little separate from it, they are sufficiently fixed inside those glass- 
vessels. Then comes the steam-sterilisei', in which they remain for 
about 1 hour at 212° F. (100° C); the potatoes are hereafter 
thoroughly boiled and sterile. 

It is evident that in this way we arrive at a culture-medium 
which, as regards simplicity in its manipulation, convenience in 
the process of inoculating, and safety in keeping the desired pure- 
culture uncontaminated during the course of examination and 
observation, shares the same advantages with the nutrient 
gelatinous substances and coagulated blood-serum, or with any 
culture-soil kept in glass-tubes. A desiccation of the surfaces of 
the potato-slices will not so soon make its appearance ; as after 
boiling in the steam-steriliser there is at the bottom of the 
•culture-tubes a quantity of fluid large enough to keep the contents 



BY DR. OSCAR KATZ. 



189' 



of these, at an incubation of from 20°-25T. (68°-77°F.), 
sufficiently moist for a considerable length of time. At higher 





Fig. 1. 



Fig. 2. 



temperatures up to blood-heat the development of micro-organisms 
capable of cultivation of boiled potato is so much accelerated that 



190 METHOD OF CULTIVATING MICRO-ORGANISMS ON POTATOES. 

also in this case any appreliensions of the danger of desiccation 
must disappear. However, it is advisable, whenever we have a 
larger supply of such prepared potatoes, to put an indiai'ubber- 
•cap on the opening of the tubes over the cotton-wool stopper, 
or to tie some indiarubber-tissue round it. 

One thing still needs mention, namely, that we are able 
to avail ourselves of both the surfaces of the potato-slices since 
these are mounted so as to occupy a middle position in the lumen 
of the test-tubes (p. 189, fig. 2). We can inoculate both these 
surfaces either with one and the same microbe, taken from one 
and the same colony or cultui'e, or we can also easily cultivate on 
the one side one organism, on the other a difierent one. 

The latter mode may sometimes prove to be a matter of some 
convenience; for instance: in cultivations on plates of gelatine 
after Koch, or in test-tubes with gelatine after Esmarch, made 
from stools of typhoid fever patients, there appear after some time 
different kinds of non-liquefying colonies which grow nearly at the 
same rate, exhibit under high powers of the microscope similar 
forms, and which it must be desirable to cultivate on boiled 
potatoes in order to find out which ones appertain to the bacillus 
of typhoid fever. In this case, then, we might transfer to the one 
side of the potato-discs a minute quantity of one colony, to the 
other side, while still holding the glass tube in our left hand, a 
little of another, somewhat different-looking colony. 

In conclusion I may add that test-tubes of the above description 
seem also well adapted for the cultivation on and in gelatine after 
Esmarch's method (Zeitsch. f. Hygiene, herausgeg. von Koch und 
J'lugge, Band I., Heft 2, Leipzig, 1886, pp. 293-301). 



DESCEIPTIVE EECORD OF TWO PLANTS ADDITIONAL 
TO THE FLORA OF AUSTRALIA, AND OCCURRING 
ALSO IN NEW SOUTH WALES, 

By Baron von Mueller, K.C.M.G., M.D., F.R.S. 

Gentiana quadrifaria, 

Blume, Bijdr. 847 (1825). 

Annual, minute, glabrous ; stem leafy, very short ; leaves sessile, 
roundish-ovate, somewhat pointed, very thinly margined ; flowers 
generally solitary and terminal, sessile or on very short stalks ; 
calyx cylindric-campanulate, to J or nearly -I cleft in 5 or some- 
times 4 lobes ; its tube rather pale, membranous, slightly angular ; 
its lobes ovate, or narrow-semilanceolar-ovate, thinly margined ; 
corolla twice as long as the calyx, outside greenish, inside blue or 
white ; its tube gradually widened upwards ; its lobes about half 
as long as the tube, nearly semilanceolar- ovate, with minute 
deltoid pointed entire or sometimes bifid lobules intervening ; 
stamens about as long as the tube of the corolla ; filaments filiform, 
dilated towards the bases ; anthers erect, narrow-ellipsoid, quite 
blunt, basifixed ; ovary attenuated into a short style ; fruit mem- 
branous, on a rather long stipes, ovate, compressed, at last deeply 
bivalved ; seeds very minute, pale-brownish, tui"gid-ovate ; testa 
subtle-streaked. 

In the vicinity of the Genoa (W. Baeuerlen). 

Height of whole plant, according to Australian specimens, 3 
inches. Leaves ^^ inch long. Bracteoles none. Flowers ^ to 
hardly ^ inch long ; the lobule from each sinus of the corolla 
usually much shorter than the lobes, but sometimes fully half as 
long. Stamens adnate to the lower portion of the corolla. 
Anthers free, bursting longitudinally ; pollen yellow, consisting of 
smooth ellipsoid longitudinally dehiscent grains. Stigmata two, 



192 DESCRIPTIVE RECORD OP TWO PLANTS OCCURRING IN N. S. WALES, 

almost oval, recurved. Fruit hardly I inch long ; the stipes of 
nearly the same length. Seeds numerous, without any appendage. 
This species approaches G aquatica; it was hitherto known 
from Upper India, Ceylon, China and Java ; it is the second Aus- 
tralian Gentiana, the only other being G. saxosa, which is very 
variable, as shown in my " Vegetation of the Chatham Islands," 
pp. 40 and 41 (1864), it assuming in our alps and in our lowlands 
various forms of no specific value, just as in New Zealand, the 
Auckland and Campbell Islands and in the remotest South of 
America. G. quadriforia has with us probably been often passed 
unnoticed ; its extreme smallness and its external resemblance to 
some species of Lobelia tending to its eluding observation. In all 
probability it will yet be discovered in the Australian Alps, and 
in New England as a companion of Polygala Sihirica, Thesium 
australe, Lysimaclda Japonica, and some other plants common to 
the cooler regions of Australia and of South Eastern Asia. 

The specimens sent by Mr. Baeuei'len are all very small, and 
thus resemble much the G. squarrosa ; indeed they come also very 
near the Linnean G. aquatica. 

Incidentally may be here offered a few additional notes con- 
cerning Australian gentianeous plants. Sehaea alhidxflora occurs 
at the entrance of the Barwon (J. Bracebridge Wilson) ; on the 
Wimmera (D. Sullivan) ; near Lake Bonney (Mrs. Dr. Wehl). 
S. ovata extends to the Upper Brisbane River (Dr. Prentice). 
Erythraea australis is on the coast-meadows of Port Phillip, not 
rarely reduced to a one-flowered state, sometimes attaining only 
1|- inches in height. Canscora diffusa grows also on the Etheridge 
River (W. Armit), and near Trinity Bay (W. Sayer). The close 
affinity of Limnantlbemum, particularly in its section Villarsia, to 
Velleya, has already been pointed out in the Journal of the 
Pharmac. Soc. of Vict., 1858, p. 145. 

Limnanthemum hidicum has been found by Miss A. Edwards 
on the Richmond River ; the leaves attain a circumference of 
three feet. L. Gunnii extends to New Zealand (Petrie), but has as 
yet not been noticed in the Avtstralian Alps. 



BY BARON VON MUELLER, K.C.M.G,, M.D., F.R.S. 193 

Jacksonia Clarkii, n, sp. 

Almost glabrous ; branchlets rather slender, conspicuously 
angular ; flowers comparatively large ; stalklets about half as 
long as the calyces ; bracteoles near the middle of the stalklets ; 
flower- buds almost blunt, minutely pointed ; calyces divided to 
near the base, about as long as the corolla, the segments glabrous, 
except at the margin, soon deciduous ; petals of nearly equal 
length ; anthers ovate-roundish ; style setaceous, glabrous, 
deciduous ; fruit on a rather long stipes, lanceolar-elliptical, almost 
silky. 

On the Upper Hastings River (Dr. Herm. Beckler) ; on the 
Upper Delegate River (IVTr. A. Clarke). 

Nearest allied to this plant is the Jacksonia scoparia, which 
however is always more or less silky, has much smaller flowers 
upwards acutely attenuated while in bud, the bracteoles nearer to 
the calyx, the latter never glabrous, but long or even permanently 
persistent, the anthers narrower, the style at least partially silky 
and not deciduous, and the fruit smaller. 

J. scoparia is now also known from the Nepean River (Dr. 
Cox), Trial Bay (Betche), Shoalhaven River (Weir). 

J. thesioides has more recently been gathered on the Boyne 
River (A. Wentw. Watson), at Glenroy (Stafford), Goode Island 
(Powell), Cleveland Bay (H. Gulliver). 

J. nematoclada occurs between the Murchison River and Shark's 
Bay (F. v. M.). 

J. odontoclada grows also near the Lynd River (E. Palmer). 

J. Sternhergiana attains on the Greenough and Irwin River, a 
height of 40 feet. Pastoral animals browse on the branchlets ; 
wood of disagreeable odour. This species extends southward fully 
to the Serpentine River, northward to Port Gregory (F. v. M.). 

J. densijlora was found by the writer also near the Serpentine 

River, where the calyces attain a length of f inch ; the Hon. 

John Forrest collected it at Mount Samson. 
13 



194 DESCRIPTIVE RECORD OP TWO PLANTS OCCURRING IN N S. WALES, 

J. haJceoides reaches the Arrowsmitli River and Port Gregory 
(F. V. M.). 

J. lyteroclada was found by me on the Upper Irwin and Greenough 
River in a narrower state. 

J. racemosa occurs near Israelite Bay (Miss Brooke), and near 
Fraser's Range (Dempster). 

This is an apt moment for simultaneously giving publicity to 
another congener, discovered some years ago in Arnhem's Land, 
but left undescribed till now. 

Jacksonia Forrestii, n. sp. 

Grey-silky ; branchlets thin, angular, nearly erect ; flowers 
scattered along the upper part of the branchlets on very short 
stalklets ; calyx persistent, deeply divided into almost equal lobes ; 
style long-persistent, silky in its lower portion ; fruit almost 
sessile within the calyx, oblique ovate-ellipsoid, rather turgid, 
conspicuously pointed, hardly longer than the calyx, generally one- 
seeded. 

In the vicinity of the Humbert River (Alexander Forrest). 

This new tropical species difiers from J. cwpuUfera in stalklets 
much shorter than the calyx, in persistent calyx-lobes and style, 
in much smaller fruits not stipitate; from J. rhadinoclada already 
in silky vestiture, in more angular and not spreading branchlets, 
in not deciduous calyces, in somewhat longer and more pointed 
fruit ; from J. thesioides in dense and close indument, in more 
slender branchlets, in more deeply divided calyces with ampler 
tube, and probably also in the color of the petals, those of our new 
species being as yet unknown ; from J. vernicosa already in 
neither glabrous nor streaked nor viscid branchlets, in remoter 
bracts, in smaller and silky calyces with shorter tube, in less 
elongated style, and smaller bracteoles. 

This seems also a favourable opportunity for recording the 
N.S.W. species which have been added to the lists of those 
published in the " Census " of Australian plants, and in its three 
supplements : — 



BY BARON VON MUELLER, K.C.M.G., M.D., F.R.S. 195 

Hedraianthera porphyropetala (F. v. M.) 
Atriplex conduplicata (F. v. M.) 
Kochia lohostoma (F, v. M.) 
K. spongiocarpa (F. v. M.) 
Aizoon zygophylloides (F. v, M.) 
PuUencea mucronata (F. v. M.) 
Templetonia aculeata (Bentham) 
Neplunia raonosperma (F. v. M.) 
Acacia coriacea (De CandoUe) 
Acacia Murrayana (F. v. M.) 
Agonis Scortechiyiiana (F. v. M.) 
Eucalyptus Baileyana (F. v. M,) 
Hydrocotyle Javanica (Thunberg) 
Viscum angrdatum (Heyne) 
Grevillea Victorice (F. v. M.) 
Hakea Macrceann (F. v. M.) 
Fassijiora hrachystephanea (F. v. M.) 
Nertera reptans (F. v. M.) 
Ethulia conyzoides (Linne filius) 
Calotis anthemoides (F. v. M.) 
Helipterum laeve (Bentham) 
Ceratogyne obionoides (Turczaninow) 
Spartothamnus puberulus (F. v. M.) 
Najas major (Allioni) 

A few others have recently been described in the Proceedings of 
the Linnean Society of New South Wales. 



196 NOTES AND EXHIBITS, 



NOTES AND EXHIBITS. 



Dr. Ramsay exhibited living specimens of the following snakes 
from Louth, N.S.W. : — Aspidiotes Eamsayi, Macl., Dendrophis sp. 
(a beautiful snake with scarlet markings on the back), and a 
possibly new species of Hoplocephalus. 

Mr. Steel exhibited a number of specimens of a pond-snail 
{Physa gibbosa, Gld.) abundant just now in an iron tank supplied 
with city water on the roof of the Pyrmont Refinery. 

Mr. Haviland exhibited a sample of maize from Camden, com- 
pletely destroyed by the micro-fungus Ustilago carbo. 

Mr. Ogilby shewed a specimen of Solenognathus spinosissimus, 
presented to the Australian Museum by Mr. Dunlop, of Bondi ; 
and one of Macquaria Australasica referred to in the paper by 
Dr. Ramsay and himself. 

Mr. Maiden exhibited specimens of 35 of the rarer species and 
varieties of indigenous plants of such natural orders as are 
contained in Vol. I. of the ' Australian Flora.' 

The following note was read on behalf of Mr. John Mitchell of 
Bowning. " In Nicholson's ' Manual of Palaeontology ' it is stated 
that trilobites of the genus Acidaspis have the eyes smooth and 
the facial suture continuous. Some of the species occurring in 
the Bowning series do not conform to this rule, for two species 
have the eyes distinctly facetted and the facial suture apparently 
discontinuous. In each of the cases in which the eyes are facetted, 
these organs are circular and highly convex (conoid)." 

Mr. Macleay exhibited specimens of Ho2:)loce2)halus m'gi-escens, 
Gunth., and Uoplocephalvs collaris, Macleay, from Mount Wilson; 
also specimens of the same snakes from elsewhere, showing the 
great dissimilarity of colouring in the same species from different 
localities. The range of H. nigrescens he believed to be very wide, 
but the present was only the second specimen of H. collaris which 
he had seen ; the first, described by him some months ago in the 
Proceedings of this Society, having been taken in the neighbour- 
hood of Bega. 



NOTES AND EXHIBITS. 197 

Dr. Katz exhibited virulent preparations of the Bacillus of 
typhoid fever, obtained at Little Bay Hospital a short time ago. 
The exhibits consisted of pure cultures of this bacillus on and in 
nutrient gelatine, on nutrient agar-agar, and on potatoes. Occasion 
was also taken to demonstrate the process of cultivating in 
gelatine-test-tubes after Esmarch of Berlin. He showed also a 
drop-culture of this micro-organism in nutrient meat-broth under 
a high power of the microscope, where the active spontaneous 
movements of the bacillus could well be seen. In connection with 
the above subject Dr. Katz read the following note : — 

" The microbe which you have before you in different preparations 
is that which must be considered as the cause of typhoid fever, as 
it is constantly present in this disease, and never found in others. 
According to quite recent investigations made with regard to the 
transmissibility of the bacillus of typhoid fever to animals — mice, 
rabbits, guinea-pigs, and dogs — there can be no doubt that this 
micro-organism is able to make these animals sick, and to kill 
them under certain circumstances. This holds equally true with 
experiments carried out with cultivations in which the bacilli are 
killed by heat, but their poisonous products preserved. Taking 
everything into consideration, one must believe, with Fraenkel 
and Simmonds, that somehow or other the microbe in question 
does cause pathogenic effects of some kind in the above-named 
animals, but is not infectious to them. Moreover, no animals, 
not even those which are always about man, are hitherto 
found to be liable to typhoid fever or to such-like diseases. With 
relation to the biology of the bacillus a good deal of work still 
remains to be done ; and, a radical cure for the disease, 
or a possible protective inoculation being of course still a 
desideratum, special attention should be paid to the more prac- 
tical part of the life-history of this fungus, I mean especially 
to its behaviour in the dejections from typhoid-fever patients. 
These products naturally furnish, indirectly or directly, sooner or 
later, the principal sources of infection, and it is for this reason 
that the endeavours of experimenters should also be directed to 
this point." 



198 NOTES AND EXHIBITS. 

Dr. Katz also exhibited under the microscope the bacillus of 
leprosy in a preparation derived from blood from a leprosy-tubercle 
of a patient at Little Bay Hospital, and made the following remarks- 
^' This micro-organism is specific to leprosy in all its varieties ; it 
must be looked upon as the cause of the disease, although very 
little is known about its life-history. Cultivation experiments have, 
so far as I am informed, totally failed ; nor have experiments on 
the transmissibility of the microbe from tissues of lepers been 
sufficiently successful. It is to be hoped that more information 
about the Bacillus leprce will soon be forthcoming." 

The President exhibited a specimen of Archceocyathus sp., from 
Silverdale, near Yass. 

Mr. Brazier exhibited two specimens of Geratella fusca, Gray, 
obtained at Coogee Bay, March 7th, after an easterly gale, oae 
specimen being of a very dark brown colour, and 3 inches long 
the other of a light yellowish brown, 2^ inches long. 



WEDNESDAY, 25th MAY, 1887. 



Dr. James C. Cox, F.L.S., Vice-President, in the Chair. 



The Rev. Alexander Nicolls, Mr. Boultbee, and Mr. Godfrey- 
Rivers were present as visitors. 



MEMBERS ELECTED. 



Mr. T. G. Sloane, of Mulwala, N.S.W., Mr. F. A. Skuse, and 
Mr. Sutlierland Sinclair were elected Members of the Society. 



The Chairman announced that there would be no Excursion 
during the ensuing month. 



DONATIONS. 

I " Zoologischer Anzeiger." X. Jahrg. Nos. 246-248 (1887). 

From the Editor. 

"The Scottish Geographical Magazine." Vol. III., Nos. 3 and 
4 (1887). From the Hon. W. Macleay. 

Bulletin de la Societe Beige de Microscopie." 13me. Annee, 
No. 5. From the Society. 



200 DONATIONS. 

"Abstract of Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London." 
(1st and 15th March, 1887). From the Society. 

" On Tertiary Chilostomatous Bryozoa from New Zealand." By 
A. W. Waters, F.G.S. From the Author. 

"Bulletins du Comite G6ologique, St. P^tersbourg." Vol. VI.^ 
No. 1 (1887). De la jmrt du Comite. 

" Abhandlungen aus dem Gebiete der Naturwissenschaften 
herausgegeben vom Naturwissenschaftlichen Verein in Hamburg." 
IX. Band, Hefts 1 and 2. From the Society. 

" Comptes Rendus des Seances de L'Academie des Sciences, 
Paris." Tome CIV., Nos. 5-9 (1887) ; "Tables des Comptes, <kc." 
Premier Semestre (1886). Tome OIL From the Academy. 

" Abstract of Proceedings of the Royal Society of Tasmania." 
(19th April, 1887). From the Society. 

" Journal of the New York Microscopical Society." Vol. II., 
Nos. 9 and 9a (Supplemental Number), (Dec. 1886). From the 
Society. 

" Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvai-d 
College." Vol. XIIL, No. 2 (Dec. 1886). From the Director. 

"Feuille des Jeunes Naturalistes." No. 198 (1887). Frovi 
the Editor. 

"The Victorian Naturalist." Vol. IV., No. 1 (May, 1887). 
From the Field Naturalists' Club of Victoria. 

" Transactions of the Cambridge Philosophical Society." Vol. 
XIV., Part 2 (1887) ; "Proceedings." Vol. VI., Part 1 (1887). 
From the Society. 



DONATIONS. 201 

" Report of the Committee of Management of the Technological, 
Industrial, and Sanitary Museum of New South Wales for 1886."^ 
From the Curator. 

" The Annals and Magazine of Natural History." 2nd Series, 
Vol. IX., No. 52 (April, 1852), Vols. XI. -XX. ; 3rd Series, 
Vols. I. -VIII , Vol. IX. (Nos, 49-53), Vol. X. (Nos. 55, 56, 58, 
60) ; " Rhopalocera Africae Australis. A Catalogue of South 
African Buttorflies." By Roland Trimen. (Two Parts) ; Twelve 
Pamphlets on Ornithology. By E. L. Layard, C.M.G., &c. ; 
" Beitrag zur Natui'geschichte Bartgeiers der Centralalpenkette." 
Von Dr. A. Girtannei*. From the Hon. E. L. Layard, C.M.G., 
F.Z.S. 

"Societe GeologiquedeBelgique. — Proces-verbal de L' Assemble© 
Generale du 21 Novembre 1886." From the Society. 

"Journal of the College of Science, Imperial University, Japan.'" 
Vol. I., Part 2 (1887). From the Director. 

" Transactions and Proceedings and Report of the Royal Society 
of South Australia." Vol. IX. From the Society. 

" Plants Reputed Poisonous and Injurious to Stock." By 
F. M. Bailey, F.L.S., and P. E. Gordon. From the Chief Insinctor 
of Stock, Queensland. 

" Transactions and Proceedings of theRoyal Society of Victoria." 
Vol. XXIII. From the Society. 

" List of Members of the Geological Society of Australasia, &c." 
From the Society. 

" The Australasian Journal of Pharmacy." Vol. II., No. 17 
(May, 1887). From the Editor. 



202 DONATIONS. 



"Revue Coloniale Internationale." Tome IV., No. 4 (April, 
1887). From L' Association Coloniale N'eerlandaise a Amsterdam, 

" Abstract of Proceedings of tlie Royal Society of Tasmania." 
(lOtli May, 1887). From the Society. 



PAPERS READ. 

BACTERIOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS MADE AT THE 
LITTLE BAY COAST HOSPITAL. 

By Dr. Oscar Katz. 

It was not alone on account of my desire to obtain pure-cul- 
tures of the bacillus of typhoid fever (Bacillus typhi abdominalis, 
Eberth-Gaiffky), with the view of having them for some intended 
experiments on this micro-organism (1), but also for the sake of 
putting forward, by means of the demonstration of its constant 
occurrence in typhoid fever, fresh proofs of the etiological meaning 
of this microbe in a country where such experiments have not yet 
been made known, that I applied to Dr. H. N. MacLaurin, Medical 
Adviser to the New South Wales Government, to permit me to 
make a short stay in the Coast Hospital at Little Bay, a place 
admirably fitted for carrying out investigations of that kind. I 
gladly avail myself of this opportunity of tendering Dr. MacLaurin 



(I) Among a number of cultures of bacteria in agar-agar which Professor 
Fltigge had been kind enough to send to me at the end of last year, there 
was also the typhoid-bacillus. But unfortunately in this culture on its 
arrival life was extinct. In the test-tube it had only little expanded ; 
that it was no moi-e alive may be accounted for by the fact that the tube, 
together with others, had been sent away (via Bremen) immediately after 
their having been supplied with culture-material, at a time (end of 
November), when a formation of spores could not be expected. The bacilli 
very likely died from want of air, which had no access to the interior 
of the glass-tubes these having been provided with tightly fitting india- 
rubber-caps. 



204 BACTERIOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS MADE AT LITTLE BAY, 

my best thanks. Dui'ing the time of my residence in the above 
Hospital, Dr. W. Peirce, Medical Superintendent, and Dr. R. "W. 
Young, Resident Medical Officer, rendered me every possible 
assistance ; I have much pleasure in gratefully acknowledging 
this once more. 

My endeavours to cultivate the typhoid-bacilli extended, in the 
main, to organs of persons who died of typhoid fever, and to 
dejections from typhoid fever patients. 

It is well to say in advance that in order to get and to isolate 
the micro-parasite in question, I made use both of Koch's plate- 
process, and Esmarch's method of cultivating in test-tubes. About 
the former nothing more requires to be mentioned. Of the latter 
which I took occasion to demonstrate at the last meeting of this. 
Society, April, 1887, a detailed description by Esmarch is given in 
Zeitschrift filr Hygiene, Band I., Heft 2, Leipzig, 1886, pp. 293- 
301 ; an abstract in Fliigge's Microorganismen, Leipzig, 1886, 
p. 656. This method was given the preference later on, because 
the working after the same is connected with less consumption of 
time, does not require much apparatus, and if properly done 
yields quite good results. According to my experience very 
satisfactory cultivations after this process can be obtained in the 
following mannei". The test-tubes containing the liquefied inocu- 
lated gelatine (or agar-agar), which in the commonly used test- 
tubes should not be more than about 6 ccm. — I always employed an 
8 p.c. gelatine — are first supplied at the top as well as the bottom,, 
with tightly fitting caps of indiarubber. (Thus the tubes when 
laid on a level surface are also nearly level). The solidification of 
the still liquid gelatine (or agar-agar) takes place by means of iced 
water or at least sufficiently cold water in an ordinary soup-plate, 
to the bottom of which the tube in its length is loosely pressed by 
one hand, and quickly turned round its long axis by the other. In 
a very short time the inner walls of the test-tube show a thin equal 



BY DR. OSCAR KATZ. 205 

layei* of quite transparent solidified gelatine (or agar-agar). For 
stick-cultures I used a 6 p.c. nutrient gelatine ; for streak-cultures 
(on an inclined surface) the same, and occasionally a 1 p.c. nutrient 
agar-agar. 

Now it need scarcely be mentioned that, from the mere 
behaviour of pure cultures in stick and in streak of the typhoid- 
bacillus, from the appearance of its colonies in diverse nutritive 
substances either on macroscopical observation or on being viewed 
with low-magnifying powers, and then from the image of the 
individual bacilli out of such cultures or out of organs under high 
powers of the microscope, an exact inference as to their undoubt- 
edly belonging to the Bacillus typhi abdominalis cannot be drawn. 
With regard to the last-named point I can confirm the statements 
of others, namely, that the dimensions of the rods are not 
constant, and that these variations depend in the main on the kind 
of the nourishing material, out of which cultures of the microbe 
are microscopically examined. 

Even the staining reaction of the typhoid-bacilli which become 
discoloured after the method of Gram (see Fliigge, Microorganis- 
men, p. 643, or any book dealing with the methods of investigation 
in Bacteriology) cannot be any more maintained as being diagnostic 
of these schizomycetes, as a bacillus isolated by Escherich from the 
feeces of young children, and called by him Bacterium coli commune 
(Fliigge, Microorganismen, p. 269) exhibits the same peculiarity if 
treated after Gram's method. The only decisive means, so far as 
known, enabling us to distinguish typhoid-bacilli from all other 
bacteria, is rather their chai-acteristic growth on slices of boiled 
potatoes ; in the repeatedly named work of Fliigge full particulars 
may be had. By subsequent study of the bacilli, however, it has 
been noticed by several investigators that these do not always grow 
on the potato-surface in the shape of a coherent, resisting membrane 
which was considered as typical by GafFky, the first who worked 
with pure cultures of the bacilli, but that now and then they also 



206 BACTERIOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS MADE AT LITTLE BAY, 

form loose, somewhat visible vegetations, easily removable from the 
potato-surface. For such small deviations the quality of the used 
potatoes is made responsible; but it must also be borne in mind that 
the least possible quantities of seed material should be taken with 
which to sow potato-slices. Similar deviations have come under 
my notice, yet in all such cases it cannot be difficult to arrive at a 
correct diagnosis, if, besides also all the other features exhibited by 
typhoid-bacilli, microscopical appeai'ances, characters of cultures, 
and staining reactions, are duly considered. 

Quite recently Fraenkel and Simmonds have furnished some 
more data as to the cultivation of the typhoid-bacilli on potatoes ; 
these remarks seem to me to be sufficientl}? worthy of note that I give 
here a complete translation of them. They say (Zeitschrift f. 
Hygiene, Band II., Heft 1, Leipzig, 1887, pp. 140-141) :— 
" . . . . In continuing our investigations into the typhoid- 
bacillus, other far more important deviations have come under our 
notice, deviations which in the beginning made the purity of our 
culture appear doubtful to us. Sometimes when we had inoculated 
numerous potato-surfaces from one gelatine-culture at the same 
time, it happened that after three or four days some surfaces 
showed a quite peculiar appearance, besides other normal-looking 
potato-surfaces. There was on the surface an easily recognisable, 
grey, viscous coating, the margins of which were very distinctly 
visible. At those places which were not sown the potato 
exhibited a brownish colour, and the older the culture grew, the 
darker became the colour of the parenchym. No smell whatever 
w&s perceptible. On examination the normal-looking potato- 
surfaces were found to contain magnificent specimens of typhoid- 
bacilli with preference arranged in pseudo-filaments. The 
examination of the grey, viscous, easily removable cultures of the 
rest of the potatoes yielded, as result, the presence of an infinitely 
larger quantity of bacilli, yet these were so far behind their usual 
length and thickness that undoubtedly every observer, especially 



BY DR. OSCAR KATZ. 207 

by comparing the different modes of growth on the different 
potatoes with one another, would have thought of there being two 
absolvitely distinct micro-organisms. But still a mistake could not 
have occurred, because one and the same gelatine stick-culture had 
been used in all cases of that kind for the inoculation of the 
potato-surfaces ; in fact, any mistake was excluded, as something 
of those grey cultures being transferred to other potatoes resulted 
in yielding again ordinary, invisible cultures which microscopically 
showed again normal bacilli and pseudo-filaments. By and by we 
learnt to distinguish the different sorts of potato, and were thus 
able, now and then, to anticipate which ones would show invisible 
and which ones visible colonies. Thus, by mutual transmissions 
of cultures of one kind of potato to another kind we could 
occasionally obtain those cultures. All this proves most certainly 
that with the technic no fault was to be found. We might be 
permitted to state that in our experiments on animals we worked 
with the two different looking cultures separately, but the results 
being always alike in either case we considered later on such a 
separation as superfluous, and in our subsequent annotations these 
differences of the culture are no more taken notice of. We 
want purposely to lay special stress on these striking deviations 
of the potato-cultures, because, in disregard of this demeanour 
perhaps many an observer might have arrived at wrong conclusions. 
By this the value of the potato-culture for the identification of 
the typhoid-bacillus is by no means lessened, only it is advisable 
in all such-like cases where a growth corresponding to the one 
above-described makes its appearance, to transfer the questionable 
potato-culture to several other potato-surfaces before a decisive 
opinion should be formed." 

Such mal-formations are probably brought about in consequence 
of the use of bad, watery potatoes ; the quality of a potato which 
it is intended to take as nutrient soil for the cultivation of 
typhoid-bacilli or of any kind of micro-organisms, can easily be 



208 BACTERIOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS MADE AT LITTLE BAT, 

found out by the mode of preparation about which I supplied some 
data in these Proceedings, April, 1887, pp. 187-190. 

I would now state the results of my experiments in cultivating 
the typhoid -bacillus from organs of persons dead of typhoid. 

Unfortunately for my purposes, but reflecting no little credit on 
the mode of treatment in the Hospital, the rate of mortality from 
typhoid fever was here for the last season, in genei-al, exceptionally 
small, although the number of cases was by no means insignificant. 
For this reason I was only able to examine the organs of three 
corpses. The patients had died during the third week of the com- 
plaint ; the bacteriological examination of difierent organs — spleen, 
liver, mesenteric glands — always took place when these were still 
fresh. The search for typhoid bacilli yielded positive results in 
each of the three cases, in so far as there appeared, after less time 
than is commonly the case, (1) in or on the culture media colonies 
or vegetations of a micro-organism which was decisively proved 
by the potato-culture to be the Bacillus typhi abdominalis (Eberth- 
Gaflfky). In two of the three cases there was besides this no other 
micro-organism found ; in the third case where merely a puncture 
of the liver was possible, in addition to the numerous colonies of 
the typhoid-organism a few sulphur-yellow colonies of Sarcina 
developed. Whether these were attributable to some unintended 
contamination (the whole manipulation was done rather in a hurry) 
or not, I was unable to trace ; in fact, it seems a matter of no 
importance. 

I should have been glad to have had the opportunity of 
examining more than these three typhoid cases ; but there is 
not the least doubt that the result would have been always 
the same in cases of true typhoid fever, ( Abdominally phus of 



(1) The temperature rose on a few days up to somewhat more than 25° C. 
(77° F.) 



BY DR. OSCAR KATZ. 209 

the Germans), and provided the patients had succumbed before the 
ulcerations of the small intestine had completely disappeared, or 
before any such ulcerations were at all met with. The latter phe- 
nomenon, I am told, is often observed in severe epidemics, when the 
sick are carried off very rapidly. In a publication of recent 
date on this subject, Fraenkel and Simmonds say (Zeitschr, f. 
Hygiene, Bd. II., Heft 1, 1887, p. 138) that they have now come 
to look upon the results of the bacteriological examination of the 
abdominal viscera (spleen) as conclusive in all cases where the 
macroscopical features of the abdominal organs are insufficient to 
secure the anatomical diagnosis. They furnish a characteristic 
instance where the clinical observation admitted of a diagnosis 
other than typhoid, and also the result of the post mortem was in 
no way decisive until the disclosure of typhoid-bacilli put an end 
to every doubt. They give also as instance a striking illustration of 
a case which clinically looked very much like typhoid, and for 
which the post mortem failed to allow an undoubted answer as to its 
nature, till consequent upon the absence of colonies of typhoid- 
bacilli in gelatine-plates sown with spleen-pulp, this answer could 
be given in a negative sense. 

I now wish to say some words about the results of experiments 
made on dejecta from typhoid-patients with the view of finding, 
and isolating the typhoid-bacilli. I have carried out a good 
number of such experiments ; the evacuations coming from 
patients in different stages of the disease were examined quite 
fresh. Everybody who has made similar examinations knows 
that the diseased intestines contain enormous masses of bacteria, 
both in quantity and quality, and that for this reason only minute 
parts of the raw-material should be started from. I generally 
mixed a medium-sized platinum-loop full of the dejection with 
about 10 ccm. of a -6 p.c. sterilised salt solution in a test-tube, 
thence preparing two attenuations in nutritive gelatine by taking 
about three platinum-loops each time. The contents of the second 

gelatine-tube afterwards proved to be mostly fit for examination. 
U 



V 



210 BACTERIOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS MADE AT LITTLE BAY, 

Now it will not, I think, be surprising to hear that among the 
different colonies — they developed in a comparatively short time 
(see above) — such as belong to typhoid-bacilli could not always be 
detected. It must be remembered that, first, a plentiful occui-rence 
of typhoid-bacilli in the contents of the small intestine, and conse- 
quently in the faeces, depends on a certain phase in the coui'se of 
the disease ; that, secondly, the data of the patients with regard to the 
beginning of the fever are not always quite reliable ; and that, thirdly, 
after what Dr. Peirce was good enough to tell me, perhaps not all 
the cases under treatment, which furnished me with material, 
might have had to do with typhoid proper. I myself witnessed 
in the above Hospital a 2^ost mortem examination made by Dr. 
Young on a man who had been sent to that institution as suffering 
from pneumonia, presumably secondary to typhoid-fever ; the 
ileum, however, failed to show any traces of there having lately 
existed alterations of a typhoid character. In gelatine and agar- 
agar sown with pulp of spleen grew two kinds of colonies of 
micrococci which were not further examined. 

As already indicated in several cultivations, especially when 
the disease was in middle stages, colonies in more or less 
considerable numbers were found which actually proved to be 
the bacillus of typhoid fever. I may abstain here, just as I did 
above, from entering into a detailed description of the characters 
exhibited by the bacilli under cultivation in the different nutrient 
media, etc. ; those who are more especially interested in the 
matter will find every information in Flligge's Mici'oorganismen, 
Leipzig, 1886. What is besides necessary to know about 
variations in their mode of growth on boiled potatoes has been 
dealt with above (pp. 205-207). 

Time did not permit me to study the behaviour of the other 
bacteria from the dejecta more than was required for the in 
tended isolation of the typhoid-bacillus. As a rule such colonies 
as were liquefying the gelatine were quantitatively very few in 
comparison with non-liquefying ones. Among the latter group, 



BY DR. OSCAR KATZ. 211 

perhaps the commonest of all were colonies of bacilli which bore 
a certain resemblance to those of the typhoid-bacilli, and which 
are probably the same as Bacillus Neapolitanus (Emmerich) (1), 
The potato-culture each time revealed their non-identity with 
the Bacillus typhi ahdominalis. 

As a matter of curiosity rather than interest I may mention that 
I once found, on a plate of gelatine, a non-liquefying colony of 
slender bacilli which grew in the shape of a beautiful, greyish net 
work of delicate, much elongated ramifications ; such colonies bear a 
strong resemblance to those of Aficrococcus viticulosus (Fliigge- 
Microorganismen 1886, p. 178); the mode of growth on an inclined 
surface of nutrient gelatine is also similar. 

There was no opportunity for me to extend the search for 
typhoid-bacilli to blood from typhoid-patients. During my stay 
at the Hospital no well-marked cases of roseola-formation having 
occurred, I preferred to leave this kind of examination insuspenso. 
However, I tried some blood from a roseola-like spot with one 
patient, but without success. 

My wish to obtain some exact data as to the disinfecting and 
destroying powers of the commonly used disinfectants for typhoid 
dejections — carbolic acid, carbolised chalk, sulphate of iron, and 
some others ; and further to ascertain how the typhoid germs in 
such dejections are acted upon by pure lime and slaked lime, the 
efficiency of which substances on cultures of cholera-spii'ilia and 
typhoid-bacilli has lately been experimentally proved by Liborius 
(Zeitschrift f. Hygiene, Bd. II., Heft 1, 1887, pp. 15-51), has 
equally to be put off to some later date. 



(1) Flugge, I.e., p. 270-272. It is much to be regretted that a pnre-culture 
of this bacillus sent to me by Professor Flugge, with other cultures, did not 
survive the voyage. It is to this microbe that Emmerich attributes or 
attributed the cause of Asiatic-cholera. According to other observers, 
however, this microbe is a common appearance in the contents of the 
intestines of man and animals. 



212 BACTERIOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS MADE AT LITTLE BAY. 

Before concluding this report I may as well point out in a 
few words, that I commenced to go to see the leprosy-patients in 
the Asylum at Little Bay. In blood taken from three of them — 
two Chinamen, one native of Java — from spots which were free 
from leprous maculae or tumours, no bacilli were found, whereas 
in blood or serum derived from tubercles cut across, bacilli of 
leprosy, either single or aggregated in dense masses or bundles, 
were abundant. I hope to be able by-and-by to contribute a little 
to the knowledge of the biology of this interesting micro-parasite. 



THE INSECTS OF THE CAIRNS DISTRICT, NORTHERN 

QUEENSLAND. 

By William Macleay, F.L.S., &c. 

In the following pages I give descriptions of some of the 
novelties contained in a collection which I recently received 
fi'om Cairns and its neighbourhood. The collection was made 
during last year by Mr. W. W. Froggatt, the Naturalist of the 
New Guinea Expedition of the previous year ; and it contains a 
large number of species of all Orders of Insects hitherto unnoticed 
and unnamed. It is my intention to name and describe from time 
to time such of these novelties as I can find time to work up, and 
in doing so I shall take the groups and families in the order I find 
most convenient. On the present occasion I confine nayself to 
some of the Geodephaga, Lainellicornes, and Malacodei'ines. 

All the species named are from the Cairns district, and the 
special localities assigned to some of the insects, such as Barron 
River, Mossman River, Mulgrave River, and Russell River, are 
all more or less in the vicinity of Cairns. 

GEODEPHAGA. 
CICINDELID^. 

1. CiCINDELA FrOGGATTI. 

Of an opaque bronzy hue, with golden green reflections, Head 
densely acuducted. Eyes prominent and distant. Antennre with 
the first four joints golden-green, the remainder dull; the labrum 
of a pale yellow colour, rounded in front, with about 10 setigerous 
punctures ; the tips of the mandibles and tei-minal joints of the 
palpi green. The thorax is scarcely longer than wide, minutely 
and densely granulose-punctate, with two deep transverse depres- 
sions, one near the apex, the other near the base. The elytra are 



214 INSECTS OF THE CAIRNS DISTRICT, NORTHERN QUEENSLAND, 

covered with minute variolose punctures (each puncture showing 
a green centre), and have a long lunulate spot (the concavity 
inwards) on the humeral angle, a narrow lateral strip, and the 
margins of the broadly rounded apex, all yellow, there is also a 
round yellow spot on the disk about one-fourth of the length from 
the apex, and nearer to the side than to the suture, and a larger 
round spot of the same colour about the centre of the disk, placed 
in the middle of an obscure blackish longitudinal patch. In one 
of my specimens there is above this last spot, a rather indistinct 
golden one. 

Length, 3 lines. 

Hab. — Mossman River. 

2. Dystipsidera flavipes. 

Black, with coppery or brassy reflections. Head large, trans- 
versely acuducted behind and in front, longitudinally between the 
eyes, a transverse semilunar depression between the eyes, the first 
joint of the antennae, a spot below the insertion of the antennae, the 
outer side of the base of the mandibles, the middle of the labrum, 
and the palpi with the exception of the apical joint, yellow. 
Thorax about as wide as long, very deeply transversely divided 
near the apex, less deeply so near the base, the middle portion 
very transverse, and rounded on the sides ; the whole ti'ansversely 
striolate. Elytra broader than the thorax and more than twice 
the length, punctate and transversely striolate and rugose, with 
the base, a median somewhat wavy fascia not reaching the suture, 
and the apex, yellow ; the suture terminates in a minute spine. 
The legs, with the exception of a portion of the outer sides of the 
thighs, yellow or reddish yellow. 

Length, 8 lines. 

Hab. — Cairns. 

This species resembles D. ^mdulata, Westw., a species found in 
Northern New South Wales and Southern Queensland. Z>. 
undulata is, however, much coarser in the puncturation and 
sculpture generally. The legs are nearly black and more clothed 
with white setae, and the yellow markings on the elytra are quite 
diflfercnt. 



BY WILLIAM MACLEAY, F.L.S., ifec. 215 

3. DiSTYPSIDERA PaSCOEI. 

Cyaneous-black, the head and thorax a little coppery. Head as 
in the last-described species, but rather more hollowed between the 
eyes, without the yellow spot below the insertion of the antenna?, 
the striolation generally finer, and the outer side of the 
mandibles white nearly to the tip. The thorax is shaped like that 
of D. Jlavipes, but much more smoothly sculptured. The elytra 
are transversely rugose and thinly punctured. A round spot on 
the base near the suture, larger humeral spots with a lunulate 
extension towards the middle of the disk, and two spots about one 
third from the apex, narrowly joined together, one touching the 
lateral margin, the other not reaching the suture yellow. The 
apex of the suture is slightly pointed. The thighs are reddish 
yellow with a brownish tint on the outside and towards the apex, 
the tibife and tarsi are all somewhat brownish. 

Length, 7^ lines. 

Hab. — Cairns. 

This s])ecies seems to resemble Mr. Pascoe's species, D. Grutii, 
from Lizard Island, but Mr. Pascoe's description differs in some 
respects so much from the present insect, that they cannot possibly 
be the same. I have named it after that distinguished Ento- 
mologist. 

4. DiSTYPSIDERA PARVA. 

Brassy-green on the head and thorax, darker and bluish on the 
elytra, and cyaneous beneath with yellow legs. The head is large, 
finely acuducted, and less depressed between the eyes than in the 
other species ; the eyes are very lar'ge and prominent ; the labrum 
is sti'ongly toothed and white except an unusually narrow stripe 
on each side ; the palpi are entirely whitish-yellow. The thorax 
is much naiTOwer than the head, longer than broad, and trans- 
versely divided as in the other species, but the central section less 
rounded and nearly parallel-sided. Elytra broader than the thorax 
and twice the length, transversely rugose and rather densely 
punctate, rounded at the apex and slightly broader than at the 
shoulders, the basal third of a dull reddish-yellow, and about the 



216 INSECTS OF THE CAIRNS DISTRICT, NORTHERN QUEENSLAND, 

middle a slightly bent nearly uniformly thick yellow fascia, nearly 
but not quite reaching the suture. 

Length, 4 lines. 

llah. — Cairns. 

I find that in 1883 a M. Doukhtouroff published at St. Peters- 
burgh in a production of his own, named " Revue Mensurelle 
d'Entomologie," descriptions of two species of this genus said to be 
from Cape York, Those I have now described may possibly, 
though not probably, be identical with M. Doukhtourofl^'s species, 
but that cannot be determined without seeing his descriptions, 
and they are inacessible to Australians. If M. Doukhtouroff had 
published his descriptions of Australian Insects in any of the 
Scientific Societies' Journals of St. Petersburgh or Moscow, as was 
done by his countrymen Baron de Chaudoir and Motschulsky, there 
would have been no difficulty in getting access to them, but as he 
has chosen as his vehicle of publicity an entirely unknown and 
unprocurable book, he must not feel aggrieved if his work is 
altogether ignored by Australian Entomologists. 

CARABID^. 

5. Helluosoma viridipenne. 

Piceous-black, nitid, elytra metallic-green, tarsi beneath piceous- 
hairy. Head thinly punctate, the clypeus and labrum smooth. 
Tliorax rather broader than the head, transverse, cordiform, 
coarsely punctate, deeply impressed near the posterior angles, the 
base truncate. Elytra broader than the thorax and three times 
the length, punctate striate, the interstices broad, nearly flat, and 
rather rugosely but not densely punctate. The legs and all the 
upper surface of the insect clothed with a thin whitish pubescence. 

Length, 9 lines. 

Hah. — Cairns. 

The nearest species to this is //. cyanipenne of Hope. It difiers 
from it in having broader elytra, a less dense but coarser punc- 
tu ration, and in the colour of the elytra which is bright metallic 
green. 



BY WILLIAM MACLEAY, F.L.S., &C. 217 

6. Helluosoma LATIPENNE. 

Entirely piceous-black, with a thin whitish pubescence. Head 
thinly punctate and largely smooth in front. Thorax cordiforni^ 
roughly punctate, an oval longitudinal space on the median line 
bounded on each side by an irregular elevation. Elytra broader 
than the thorax, three times the length and paralled-sided, 
densely punctate and deeply striate, the interstices much more 
convex than in H. aterrimum, Macl., the species it most nearly 
aj^proaches. 

Length, 9 lines. 

Hob. — Cairns. 

7. Gigadema atrum. 

Black, uitid, elytra somewhat opaque. Head smooth, without 
punctures, deeply impressed on each side, terminal joint of palpi 
triangulai-, the labial almost securiform. Thorax cordiform, deeply 
marked on the median line, finely acuducted transversely. Elytra 
broad, long and flat, striated, the interstices broad and little 
convex, without distinct puncturation, but two rows of extremely 
minute punctures each bearing a very short decumbent seta or 
setiform scale, may be traced on each interstice ; the elytra are 
scarcely truncate behind. 

Length, 12 lines. 

Hah. — Russell River, Cairns District. 

This insect departs considerably from the typical species of the 
genus. The absence of puncturation, and the triangular palpi 
constitute its chief peculiarities. 

8. Demetrias rufescens. 

Entirely piceous-red or yellow, excepting the elytra which are 
piceous-brown, and very nitid on both surfaces. Head longer than 
broad, narrowed a little behind, an irregular longitudinal impres- 
sion on each side between the eyes, with a small impression in the 
middle, both palpi pointed but not acutely. Thorax rather 



218 INSECTS OP THE CAIRNS DISTRICT, NORTHERN QUEENSLAND, 

narrower than the head, longer than broad, not or scarcely nar- 
rower at the base than the apex, both truncate, anterior angles a 
little rounded, the sides a little rounded anteriorly and emarginate 
before the posterior angles which are very acute, the median line 
deeply marked, the lateral margins narrow. Elytra broader than 
the thorax and nearly three times the length, striate, the strise 
very minutely punctate, the interstices small and nearly flat, 
without punctures, but with a punctiform impression on the third 
towards the apex, which last is truncate in the middle and 
emarginate on each side. 

Length, 3 lines. 
Hah. — Cairns. 

This insect is undoubtedly a Demetrias, a genus hitherto unknown 
in Australia, if we except Chaudoir's species D. brachioderics, 
which I am inclined to believe should be placed in the genus 
Xantho23hoea. 

9. COLPODES MUCRONATUS. 

Flat, elongate-ovate, bluish-black, very nitid. The elytra of a 
brilliant bluish-purple. Head longer than broad, not narrower 
behind the eyes than in front. Eyes prominent, an irregular 
longitudinal impresssion on each side between the eyes, the 
antennae haii'y from the middle of the fourth joint. Thorax 
broader than the length, the apex a little emarginate, the anterior 
angles rounded; the sides rounded, widest in the middle and 
broadly and flatly margined, the base truncate and as wide as the 
apex, and the posterior angles acute and rectangular. The elytra 
are wide and flat, with about 8 very fine strise minutely punctate, 
the intei'stices quite flat and smooth, the sides margined and the 
apex emarginate on each side, and pointed with an acute spine at 
the suture. The under surface is piceous-black, the tibise and 
tarsi pale piceous. 

Length, 4 lines. 

Hab. — Mossman River. 



BY WILLIAM MACLEAY, F.L.S., &C. 219 



10. SCOPODES FASCIOLATUS. 

Coppeiy-bronze, with a more or less metallic lustre over the 
whole upper surface ; legs and palpi yellow. Head irregularly 
foveated in front. Thorax as wide as the head with the eyes, 
much wider than long, a little narrowed at the posterior angles, 
truncate in front and lobed behind, a little angular on the sides 
behind the anterior angles Lhe angle marked by a setigerous 
puncture, and a fovea on the disk on each side of the median line. 
Elytra broad and flat, striate, with the interstices convex, and a 
few small fovese on them ; a broad yellow lozenge-shaped fascia 
behind the middle, joining or nearly joining a larger one on the 
basal portion, occupy nearly the whole of the elytra. 

Length, l^ lines. 
Ilab. — Cairns. 

11. HOMALOSOMA OPACIPENNE. 

Elongate, narrow, black, very opaque. Head smooth and nitid ; 
a deep short impression on each side between and a little in front 
of the eyes, and a smaller and lighter impression on each side of the 
clypeus. Antennae and palpi piceous. Thorax rather longer than 
wide, the sides with a broad and thick reflected margin ; anterior 
angles rounded and produced, sides rounded and narrowed at the 
base, which is very slightly rounded ; the posterior angles not 
acute but nearly rectangular. Elytra narrower than the thorax, 
slightly widening from the shoulders to behind the middle, 
and conjointly rounded at the apex, each elytron having besides 
a sutural costa thi-ee sharp ridges with wide flat interstices and a 
double row of punctures on each ; the first and thii-d of these 
forming a junction near the apex, the second a little abbreviated, 
a very broad double groove occupies the lateral margins ; the base 
of the second costa forms an obtuse reflected tubercle at the 
humeral angle. Under surface nitid, black ; palpi, antennse and 
tarsi piceous. 

Length, 10 lines. 

Hab. — Mulgrave Eiver. 



220 INSECTS OF THE CAIRNS DISTRICT, NORTHERN QUEENSLAND, 
12. HoMALOSOMA OBSCUEIPENNE. 

Elongate-ovate, black, head and thorax nitid, elytra opaque. Head 
long, very smooth, a longitudinal impression on each side between 
the eyes, the clypeus equal in length to the labrura, with a deep 
puncture on each side. Thorax subcordiform, slightly broader 
than the head, and longer than broad, considerably narrowed at 
the base, moderately margined, with a transverse impression near 
the apex and base, a well-marked median line and a broad shallow 
depression near each posterior angle. Elytra elongate-ovate, 
widest in the middle, the humeral angles rounded, nowhere 
broader than the thorax, with seven faint irapunctate striae on 
each elytron, the interstices costate and of equal size and the 
ridges almost sharp. The legs, antennse and palpi are piceous 
black. 

Length, 12 lines. 

Hah. — Mossman River. 

These are not by any means all the new species of Carabidce in 
the Cairns collection, but the others are chiefly Feronidce, and I 
am unwilling to add to the already overwhelming numbers of that 
group, until some more explicit and intelligible system of subdi- 
vision is devised for them. 

LAMELLICORNIA. 

Family COPRID.E. 
13. Cephalodesmius cornutus. 
Shortly ovate, longer than broad, moderately convex, black, 
sub-opaque. Head broad, hemispherical, roughly-punctate, each 
puncture furnished with a minute cinereous scale ; the clypeus 
large, with the margin recurved, and a large horn abovxt I the 
length of the head, of flattened shape and slightly emarginate at 
the apex, springing from the centre of the apex, curving outwards 
and upwards, and with, one on each side of it, the clypeus sharply 
toothed and indented. Thorax transverse, convex, deeply emar- 
ginate in front to receive the head, the anterior angles rather 



BY WILLIAM MACLEAY, P.L.S., &C. 221 

rounded and flattened, the sides nearly straight, the base slightly 
rounded, a conspicuous puncturfl about the middle of the sides, and 
finely punctured all ovei", the punctures with minute scales as on 
the head. Elytra as broad as the thorax and broader than long, 
with about seven extremely fine strife on each, the interstices 
broad, perfectly flat, and irregularly marked with rows of extremely 
minute punctures, from which spring short decumbent setigerous 
scales. 

Length, 3 lines. 

Hah. — Mossman River. 

14. Merodontus squalidus. 

Of a dirty black or grey appearance all over, longer than broad. 
Head transvei-se, two minute tubercles between the eyes, the 
clypeus very slightly emarginate with three very minute teeth on 
each side. Thorax a little broader than long, much elevated in 
front by two ridges rising perpendicularly from the middle of the 
apex, on each side are two abbreviated ridges, and on the posterior 
part of the thorax six similar ones : the anterior angles are much 
enlarged and flattened. The elytra are flat, longer than broad, and 
about the width of the thoi'ax, the apex at the suture terminates 
in a squai-e prolongation of each elytron, while the posterior angles 
are roundly prolonged in a similar degree, leaving four deep narrow 
emarginations along the apical margin, the lateral edge presents a 
somewhat scolloped appearance, the disk is furnished with four 
rows of small velvety-looking tubercles on each, most numerous on 
the sutural rows, and least so on the lateral row, those on the other 
two rows are generally larger than the others. The spur on the 
under side of the posterior thigh is in this species in the middle, 
and the hind tibiae are less curved than in M. calcaratus. 

Length, 3 lines. 

Hab. — Cairns. 

15. Temnoplectron politulum. 

Broadly ovate, convex, black, very nitid. Head smooth, semi- 
circular in front with a nari-ow reflexed margin, two very minute 
teeth in the middle of the apex, and a small sharp notch on each 



222 INSECTS OF THE CAIRNS DISTRICT, NORTHERN QUEENSLAND, 

side under the eyes. Thorax much broader than the head and 
broader than long, smooth, convex, emarginate in front and 
rounded behind, showing under a lens a very minute puncturation> 
and with a short longitudinal impression near the middle of the 
sides. Elytra very slightly broader than the thorax, convex, 
about as broad as long, and rounded behind, with distant faint 
striae, and flat punctate interstices only traceable under a powerful 
lens. The pygidium is exposed and somewhat rounded. The 
legs are piceous and rather strong, the hinder tibiae are much 
curved, the anterior are serrated above the teeth. In one of my 
specimens the elytra are piceous. 

Length, 2^ lines. 

Hab. — Cairns. 

16. Epilissus globulus. 

Ovate, convex, black, nitid, the humeral angles obscurely piceous. 
Head smooth, very minutely punctate, the clypeus broadly rounded 
in front, with a small emargination in the middle, and a small 
tooth on each side of it. Thorax transverse, emarginate in front, 
rounded behind and on the sides, and minutely punctate, with a 
short impression near the middle of each side. Elytra wider than 
the thox-ax and widest in the middle, very convex and scarcely 
longer than wide, and very finely and faintly striate and punctate. 

Length, 1| lines. 

Hah. — Cairns. 

17. Onthophagus Froggatti. 

Black, very nitid, the head and thorax having a faint greenish 
tint. Head finely punctate, clypeus large, more densely punctured 
than the head, of triangular form, the apex slightly recurved and 
rounded, the back of the head produced into a broad plate from 
the apex of which rise two longish horns, parallel, close together 
and curving forwards. Thorax transverse and perfectly smooth, 
the anterior angles acute, the sides much bulged out in the middle, 
the base rounded, the anterior portion behind the head horns 
perpendicular and slightly retuse, with two small obtuse tubercles 
on the summit of the retuse portion. Elytra not so broad and 



BY WILLIAM MACLEAY, F.L.S., &C. 22^ 

rather shorter than the thorax and llattish on the back, with 7 or 
8 rows of distinct but rather small punctures on each elytron,, 
the punctures on the Gth row the largest. The pygidium and 
under surface cinereo-villose. Legs clothed with reddish hair. 

Length, 3| lines. 

Hab. — Cairns. 

This species most resembles 0. furcaticejjs, Masters. 

18. Onthophagus Walter:. 

Black, nitid, the head and thorax coppery -green. Head densely 
punctate at the ocular angles and on the clypeus, in the male 
a little triangular in front, and with a rather acute tubercle on 
each side of the forehead near the eye, in the female a strong 
transverse ridge immediately above the eyes. The thorax is very 
large, convex, rounded on the sides and transverse, and very 
minutely punctured in the male ; the apex is slightly retuse, and 
above it are two strong obtuse tubercles with a rather deep 
emargination between ; in the female there is less retuseness and 
no tubercles ; the median line is visible in both sexes. The elytra 
are not so broad as the thorax and slightly shorter, and are each 
marked with 9 punctured striae, with the interstices slightly 
convex. Pygidium coai'sely punctate, under surface thinly 
cinereo-villose. 

Length, 3|^ lines. 

Hab. — Cairns. 

19. Onthophagus parallelicornis. 

Black, subnitid. Head finely punctate in front, smooth behind^ 
extending into a square lamina truncate in the middle, with two 
upright parallel horns, one at each angle ; the clypeus is large, 
roughly punctate, and roundly pointed, and reflexed. Thorax 
transverse, smooth, nitid, finely punctate, without excavation or 
tubercle in front, the anterior angles advanced and acute, the sides 
much bulged out, with a fovea in the middle, the base largely 
rounded. Elytra scarcely so long and not so broad as the thorax^ 



224 INSECTS OP THE CAIRNS DISTRICT, NORTHERN QUEENSLAND, 

striate-punctate ; the interstices broad and rugose with numerous 
longitudinal scratches. Under surface lightly villose. Club of 
antennae yellow. 

Length, 4 lines. 

Hah. — Cairns. 

20. Onthophagus lobicollis. 

Black, very nitid, the head and thorax greenish-black. Head 
finely and rugosely punctate, in front broadly rounded, the clypeal 
suture raised, and a transverse ridge, triangularly emarginate in the 
middle and triangularly raised and curved outwards, near the back 
of the head. Thorax smooth, in front a large and prominent 
tubercle, emarginate in the middle of its apex, which is bisinuate, 
the sides jutting out into two strong pointed tubercles, and strongly 
striated behind, with a deeply excavated space on each side. 
The elytra quite smooth with fine striae rather thinly punctate, in 
other respects resembling the previously described species. The 
pygidium and under surface rather densely cinereo-villose. 

I have numerous specimens resembling this species in some 
respects, though very difierent in others, which may be females. 
In the absence of proof I cannot accept them as the females of 
this species, and it would be still worse without proof to describe 
them as distinct. 

Von Harold who has devoted much attention to the genus 
Onthopliagtts, has I regret to say neutralised much of the good 
work he has done, by his frequently forming new species out of 
his unmatched females. 

Length, 4 lines. 

Hah. — Oairns. 

21. Onthophagus emarginatus. 

Black, the head and thorax bronzy black, nitid, the elytra 
sub-opaque. Head sparingly punctate, the clypeus rounded, 
except at the apex which is a little emarginate, on the back of the 
head a transverse crescent-shaped ridge, the horns rather strong 
and sub-acute. Thorax slightly retuse in front, the anterior 



BY WILLIAM MACLEAY, F.L.S., &C. 



225 



angles advanced and rather acute, the sides not much bulged out, 
the base and posterior angles rounded, and the whole surface finely 
and rather thinly punctate. Elytra about as wide as the thorax 
but rather shorter, striated, the strife very fine and minutely 
punctate, the interstices opaque, flat, and very indistinctly punc- 
tate except near the sides, the humeral angles and the apical callus 
indistinctly rufopiceous. Pygidium coarsely and thinly punctate. 
Under surface very sparingly villose. 

Length, 2^ lines. 

Hah. — Cairns. 



Family MELOLONTHID^. 

22. Phyllotocus vittatus. 

Of rather elongate form, subdepressed, black, opaque. Head 
coarsely and thinly punctate, the clypeus narrowed and recurved 
in front. Thorax nearly square, subsericeous, thinly and coarsely 
punctate, the anterior angles acute and prominent; the sides 
almost angled before the middle, then running in a straight line 
to tha base, which is almost truncate. The elytra are little broader 
than the thorax, and about twice the length, strongly punctate- 
striate ; the interstices convex and smooth, the alternate ones a 
little larger ; a ferruginous vitta occupies the disk of each elytron, 
broad at the base and narrowing towards the apex which it does 
not quite reach. The legs and antennse are yellow, the hind tibiae 
black. Long thinly placed hairs extend along the lateral margins 
of the whole upper surface, the under surface is thinly clothed 
with the same. 

Length, 2 lines. 

Hah. — Mossman River, Cairns. 

The two following species are to all appearance of the genus 

Scitala, but cannot be placed in that genus on account of the very 

different antennae. Scitala is described as having 8-jointed 

antennae, the first joint long and much and suddenly swollen at 

the apex ; the 2nd rather thick and turbinate ; the 3rd somewhat 

long ; the ^th variable, sometimes as long as the 3rd ; the 5th 
15 



/ 






226 INSECTS OP THE CAIRNS DISTRICT, NORTHERN QUEENSLAND, 

very short ; the 6th, 7th, and 8th forming the club. In the 
genus which I now propose to name Platydesmus, the Ist joint of 
the antennae is large and abruptly swollen at the tip ; the 2nd is 
globular ; the 3rd, 4th, 5th and 6th are very short, and the club 
which is more elongate is composed of the 7th, 8th and 9th joints. 
In no other respect does it differ from the characters given to 
Scitala. 

23. Platydesmus sulcipennis. 

Oblong oval, black, sub-opaque ; elytra dull red. Head densely 
and roughly punctate, the clypeal suture indistinct, the clypeus 
in fi'ont rounded and narrowly recurved, the palpi and antennae 
piceous, the club of the latter as long as the rest of the antennas 
and slightly sinuate. Thorax transverse, a little convex, thinly 
punctate, the anterior angles acute, the sides a little rounded, and 
the base wider than the apex and a little rounded. Scutellum of 
rounded triangular form, and dull I'ed colour. Elytra a little 
•wider than the thorax, and more than twice the length, slightly 
rounded and ampliated on the sides, broadly rounded at the base, 
deeply striated, the striae punctate, and the interstices conve:^ and 
very sparingly minutely punctate. Legs strong, the hind tibiae 
broad and spinose ; the fore tibiae tridentate. Body beneath 
piceous and slightly cinereo-villose. 

Length, 4 lines. 

ZTafe.— Mossman River, Cairns. 

24. Platydesmus flavipennis. 

A larger and more convex species than the last, and very nitid. 
Head black, thinly punctate, the clypeus densely punctate, 
rounded as in the last species, with the suture more distinct, the 
palpi and antennae piceous red, the triphyllate club of the latter of 
great length and much curved. Thorax thinly punctate, trans- 
verse, in form like the last. Scutellum rounded behind. Elytra 
about the width of the thorax at the base, a little ampliated 
towards the apex which is very round, about three times the 
length of the thorax, of a pale luteous colour, lightly striated, the 



BY WILLIAM MACLEAY, F.L.S., «fec. 227 

striie punctate and the interstices almost flat, and irregularly and 
faintly punctate. Legs and under surface piceous red, in every other 
respect like P. sulcifennis. 

Length, 5| lines. 

Hah. — Mulgrave River, Cairns. 

25. Lepidiota Froggattl 

A very large convex species, of a nitid black colour, but so 
densely clothed with short setiform scales as to giA'e it an opaque 
dirty grey appearance. Head transverse, the eyes large and half- 
concealed by the thorax, clypeus very much broader than long, 
largely rounded at the angles and marginate and reflexed at the 
apex. Thorax transverse, much broader than the head, very 
densely scaled, emarginate on the anterior border w hich is ciliated 
with long hairs, a little rounded on the sides which are slightly 
crenulate, and bisinuate at the base which is broader than the apex. 
Scutellura transverse, rounded behind. Elytra as broad as the 
thorax at the base and gradually becoming wider towards the apex, 
where they are jointly a little emarginate, three times the length 
of the thorax, and rugosely punctate, with four rather smooth 
raised lines on each elytron, the two nearest the suture joining and 
forming a callus near the apex. The pygidium is rugosely punc- 
tate and moderately scaly. The sterna are clothed with cinereous 
hair, the abdominal segments with short setiform scales. The legs 
are strong, very coarsely and rugosely punctate, and armed with 
strong setae, the anterior tibise are strongly tridentate, the claws of 
all the tarsi are armed on the middle of the under surface with an 
acute strong curved tooth. 

Length, 17 lines. 

Hah. — Barron River. 

Family RUTELID^. 
26. Popilia flavomaculata. 
Ovate, moderately convex, brassy green on head and thorax, 
reddish-brown and very nitid on the elytra and legs. Head finely 
punctate and clothed with a short yellowish decumbent pubescence, 



228 INSECTS OF THE CAIRNS DISTRICT, NORTHERN QUEENSLAND, 

the clypeus broad, rounded at the angles and slightly so in front 
and reflexed a little. Thorax transverse, smooth, densely pubescent 
on the sides, all the angles acute and the base broader than the 
apex and slightly bisinuate. Elytra rather broader than the 
thorax, and twice as long, irregularly striated, coarsely punctured 
in the striae, the interstices very narrow, and adorned with 
numerous patches of yellow decumbent pubescence distributed on 
the base, apex, and in two bands of round spots crossing the elytra 
near the middle. The pygidium is densely pubescent or scaly, the 
legs and under surface less so, the anterior tibiae are strongly 
bidentate externally. 

Length, 3| lines. 

Hah. — Barron River. 

This is the only species of Popilia as yet described froni 
Australia. 

Family DYNASTID^. 

27. ISODON GLABRICOLLIS. 

Oblong oval, black, nitid. Head small, finely punctate towards 
the clypeal suture ; the clypeus rather rounded in front and 
reflexed, with a minute tubercle at the apex ; the mandibles 
strongly tridentate externally. Thorax scarcely broader than 
long, quite smooth and convex, the sides and apex thickly 
margined, the anterior angles acute and prominent ; the posterior 
rounded, and the base broader than the apex and slightly rounded. 
Scutellum broadly triangular, impunctate. Elytra not broader 
than the thorax, and nearly twice the length, covered with rows 
of square punctures, the first 7 rows from the suture having the 
punctures much larger and thinner than those on the sides and 
apex. The anterior tibise are very strongly tridentate, the 
posterior very thick and spinose. The sterna are fulvo-villose. 

Length, 5| lines. 

Hab. — Mulgrave River, 



BY WILLIAM MACLEAY, F.L.S., <feC. 229 

28. Chiroplatys inconspicuus. 

Oblong-oval, convex, black, subnitid. Head rugosely punctate, 
unarmed. Clypeal suture aimost straight, clypeus broadly rounded 
with a slight emargination in front. Thorax transverse, convex, 
rounded on the sides and punctate in front, with a large semi- 
circular excavation in the middle, and a short strong rather acute 
horn on the anterior edge of the cavity, nearly alike in both sexes. 
Scutellum of rounded triangular form, scarcely punctate, the 
median line marked on it. Elytra convex, not broader than the 
thorax and twice the length, marked with a deep sutural stria, 
rather crenulate-punctate, and a number of rows, scarcely forming 
striae, of small punctures. Legs very powerful. 

Length, 7^ lines. 

Hab. — Cairns. 

MALACODERMES. 

Family LYCID.E. 

29. Metriorhynchus elongatus. 

Entirely black, except the thorax and elytra which are red. 
Head nitid, the rostrum not longer than the width, the antennso 
broad, dentate and compressed. Thorax distinctly 7-areolate, nearly 
square, the posterior angles laterally rather prominent. Scutellum 
red, smooth, depressed in the middle and emarginate at the apex, 
the angles pointed. Elytra scarcely broader than the base of the 
thorax, parallel-sided, separately rounded at the apex, and six 
times the length of the thorax, with four larger and five smaller 
costJe on each, the smaller ones alternate with the others and most 
distinct near the base, the intervals transversely punctate, under 
surface very nitid, the abdominal segments longitudinally scratched. 

Length, 7 lines. 

Hah. — Barron River. 



230 insects of the cairns district, northern queensland, 

30. Metriorhynchus centralis. 

The coloration of this species exactly i-eserables the last except that 
it is perhaps of a more ochraceous red, it is also a broader looking 
species. The rostrum is more hirsute at the extremity, and the 
maxillary palpi are longer and more pointed, these being in the last 
species very short and stout. The thorax also is more rounded in 
front and more rugosely punctate in the areolets than in 
M. elongatus, and the central areolet which is rounded in front is 
blackish. The elytra are five times the length of the thorax and 
quadricostate, the intermediate smaller costte being less distinct 
than in the last species, the intervals transversely punctate. 

Length, 8 lines. 

Hah. — Cairns. 

31. Metriorhynchus serraticornis. 

Black, thorax and elytra red, the latter with the excreme apex 
black. Rostrum elongate, reddish on the sides, the palpi nearly 
of equal thickness throughout, and the joints of nearly equal length. 
Antennae compressed, each joint acutely produced at the inner 
apex ; the third joint longest, the rest about equal. Thorax as 
long as wide, the 7 areolets deeply marked, the anterior 4 rugosely 
punctate, the apex and interior angles rounded, the sides gradually 
widening to the base with a tooth-like angle a little behind the 
middle, and the base bi-emarginate, notched in the middle and 
acutely angled. Elytra elongate, quadricostate, the intervals 
densely packed with two rows of transverse quadrangular punc- 
tures, separated by minute ridges. Thighs red, in the anterior 
four to the knee joint, in the posterior at the base. 

Length, 6^ lines. 

Hah. — Mossman River. 

32. Metriorhynchus foliatus. 

Black, the thorax and elytra reddish-yellow excepting the 
middle of the thorax and the scutellar region which are black. 
Rostrum elongate, the palpi a little tumid at the apex, the 



BY WILLIAM MACLEAY, F.L.S., &C. 231 

antennae serrate, but the joints longer than broad, the third 
hirgest ; the basal joints have a reddish-bi-own tint, caused by a 
very short sericeous pubescence. The thorax has a broad recurved 
lamellate lateral margin ; the anterior angles are acute and 
pi'ominenfc, the apex emarginate on each side and roundly lobed in 
the middle, from the acute anterior angles the foliated sides 
extend outwards and upwards to an angle behind the middle, 
whence they run straight to the posterior angles, which are 
scarcely acute. Tlie base is biemarginate as usual, the disk is 
black from the base to the central anterior areolets ; the 7 areolets 
are less deeply and more rugosely marked than in the last 
described species. The description of the elytra is the same. 

Length, 5^ lines. 

Hab. — Mossnian River. 

33. Metriorhynchus hirtipes. 

This species differs very much from all the species of Metrio- 
rhynchus I have seen. Black, excepting the elyti'a and the foliated 
lateral margins of the thorax, which are red. Rostrum long, 
nearly cylindrical, maxillary palpi swollen at the apex. Antennae 
long, the 3rd joint much longer than the 4th ; from the 4tli to the 
10th the inner ajjical angles are much produced. Thorax widely 
foliated on the sides and in form an exaggerated resemblance to 
M. foliatus, but with the apex of the anterior angles rounded ; the 
anterior central areolets are rather confounded with the discal one, 
which is large and deep. The scutellum is black. The elytra are 
long and taper towards the apex ; the sculpturation like that of 
the other species. The legs are clothed benetith with long fulvous 
hair. The sides of the abdominal segments are whitish. 

Length, 6 lines. 

Hah. — Mossmau River, 

34. Xylobanus fumosus. 
Entirely of a smoky brown. Antennae broadly serrate, com- 
pressed, the third joint not longer than the fourth, the last joint 
the longest. Thorax a little broader than long, distinctly 7- 
areolate, the apex and anterior angles rounded, the sides almost 



232 INSECTS OF THE CAIRNS DISTRICT, NORTHERN QUEENSLAND, 

parallel ; the posterior angles scarcely acute, and the base lobed in 
the middle. Elytra long and rather pointed at the apex, with the 
sculpture of the genus, but with the small intermediate costeo 
more distinct at the base. The legs are short, much compressed, and 
have a slightly sericeous appearance. 

Length, 2f lines. 

Ilab. — Cairns. 

35. Xylobanus longicornis. 

Black, with the thorax and basal fourth of the elytra bright 
yellow. Antennae long (reaching nearly to the apex of the elytra) 
serrate, the third joint not longer than the others and all much 
longer than wide. Thorax transverse, 7-areolate, the areolets rather 
lightly marked, the anterior ones punctate, the apex rounded and 
slightly elevated, the sides widened gradually to the base, the 
posterior angles acute, and the base minutely lobed and notched in 
the middle. Scutellum oblong, emarginate in the middle of the 
apex, black with the tips of the apex yellow. The elytra are rather 
broad and well rounded at the apex, the sculpture presents nothing 
remarkable. The legs are less flattened than in X. fumosus, and 
the terminal segments of the abdomen are whitish on the sides. 

Length, 5 lines. 

Hah. — Russell River. 

36. Xylobanus miniaticollis. 

Black, with the thorax cinnabar-red, that colour extending a 
little on the cost^ of the elytra. Antennae very broadly serrate, 
the joints wider than long, the third not longer than the others. 
Thorax transverse, distinctly 7-areolate, the 4 anterior areolets 
with a deep impression at their base, the apex slightly rounded, 
the anterior angles nearly rectangular, the sides parallel, the 
posterior angles a little produced laterally, and the base lightly 
lobed in the middle. Elytra very deeply sculptured, the four 
costse well-defined and without trace of intermediate costae. 

Length, 4 lines. 

Sab. — Barron River. 



by william macleay, f.l.s., &c. 233 

37. Xylobanus ampliatus. 

Of an opaque black, with the exception of the thorax and basal 
fourth of the elytra which are reddish-yellow. Antennse long, 
serrate, the third joint rather longer than the fourth, the terminal 
joint longest and acuminate. Thorax broader than long, rounded 
in front, widened behind, the anterior angles obtuse, the posterior 
acute, 5-areolate, the discal areolat narrow and extending to the 
apex. Elytra of the usual quad ricos bate sculpture, and considerably 
widened towards the apex. Legs short and moderately stout, the 
sterna and the base of the four anterior thighs are yellow. 

Length, 4 lines. 

Hab. — Barron River. 

38. Xylobanus ater. 

This species might be more properly placed in another genus. 
The colour is entirely opaque black. The head is small, and shows 
distinctly in front of the thorax, the eyes are very prominent, 
the antennae are strongly serrated, the third joint scarcely longer 
than the fourth. The thorax is transverse, the apex almost 
truncate, the sides widening towards the base, the posterior 
angles very acute, the discal areolet raised and well marked, 
the other areolets indistinct, but their positions marked with 
depressions, and the colour is of a somewhat nitid black. The elytra 
are strongly quadricostate, with the transverse lines also distinct. 
The legs rather slight. 

Length, 3 lines. 

Hah. — Barron River. 

39. Xylobanus Froggattl 
Black, the thorax and elytra orange-red. Antennae serrate, the 
third joint equal to the fourth, all longer than broad and nearly 
truncate. Thorax as long as wide, the apex and base nearly 
truncate, the latter much wider, the posterior angles very acute, 
the discal areolet joined to the anterior margin by a carina, the 
rest of the disk uneven. Scutellum with the posterior margin 
truncate and thick, with a deep impression in front of it. Elytra 



234 INSECTS OP THE CAIRNS DISTRICT, NORTHERN QUEENSLAND, 

quadricostate with intermediate very fine costae most distinct 
towards the base. Legs flattened, the coxge and extreme base of 
the thighs reddish-yellow. A trace of black sometimes shows on 
the extreme tip of the elytra. 

Length, 5 lines. 

Hah. — Cairns. 

Mr. Waterhouse would probably place this species in his genus 

Bulenides, 

40. Xylobanus atripennis. 

Opaque black, the thorax red. Antennae serrate, the third joint 
a little larger than the fourth, all much flattened and longer than 
broad. Thorax transverse, rounded in front, notched and rounded 
at the anterior angles, widened a little on the sides towards the 
base ; the posterior angles acute, the base lobed in the middle, with 
a notch in the middle of the lobe ; the discal areolet only marked,, 
the rest of the surface unequal. Elytra widening to the apex,, 
quadricostate with two rows of punctures in the interstices. 

Length, 4 lines. 

Hah. — Barron River. 

41. Cladophorus posticalis. 

Black, the thorax and basal two-thirds of the elytra red. 
Antennae serrate, in the male flabellate, the third joint not longer 
than the fourth ; all the joints except the apical are broader than long. 
Thorax broader than the length, rounded in front, not or scarcely 
wider at the base than the apex ; 7-areolate, the middle one 
lanceolate extending from base to apex, the others very faintly 
defined. The elytra have the usual sculpturation, but it is of a 
less deep and rough character, and the intermediate lines in the 
interstices between the costse are more distinct. The legs are 
short and flat. 

Length, 4 lines. 

Hah. — Cairns and Barron River. 

42. Cladophorus testaceicollis. 
Of a dull brownish-black colour, with the thorax testaceous red. 
Antennse with the branches from joints 3 to 10 very much longer 



BY WILLIAM MACLEAY, F.L.S., &C. 235 

than the joints themselves. Thorax slightly transverse, a little 
rounded in front, a little constricted in the middle, expanded into 
an acute angle at the posterior angles, lobed in the middle of 
the base, and 7-areolate on the disk, the middle one confined to 
the basal half, the others not very perfectly defined. The elytra 
are strongly quadricostate and punctured. 
Length, 3 lines. 

ITab. — Cairns. 

43. Cladophorus miniatus. 

Black, the thorax and elytra deep red. Antennae strongly 
branched, the branches quite twice the length of the joints. Thoi-ax 
transverse, rounded in front, not widened behind, biemarginate and 
lobed at the base, 7 areolate, the middle one lanceolate, almost 
reaching the anterior margin, the others rather distinctly defined. 
Elytra with numerous fine costse, the alternate ones larger, 
the interstices closely punctured, the punctures somewhat quad- 
rangular. 

Length, 4| lines. 

ffab. — Barron River. 

44. Trichalus angustulus. 

Black, nitid, narrow, the thorax, elytra, coxae, and base of thighs 
yellow. Antennse scarcely serrate, the joints longer than wide, 
rostrum short. Thorax rather longer than wide, almost truncate 
in front, sides gradually widening to the base with acute angles, a 
short narrow median areolet, and a deep depression on each side 
of it. Elytra narrow, strongly costate, four costse on each elytron 
at the base, three only on the apical three-quarters, with the 
interstices minutely costulate and quadrangulai'ly punctured. 

Length, 4 lines. 

Hab. — Barron River. 

Family TELEPHORID^. 

45. Telephorus Mossmanni. 

Head, thorax, elytra, prosternum, the basal part of each 
abdominal segment, the coxae and base of thighs and the palpi 



236 INSECTS OF THE CAIRNS DISTRICT, NORTHERN QUEENSLAND, 

reddish-yellow ; all the rest of the body, the legs and the antennse, 
black. The antennae are inserted almost under the eyes : all the 
joints from the second are of about equal size ; the front of the 
head is vertical and broadly but lightly depressed in the middle. 
Thorax nearly twice broader than long, quadrangulai-, margined on 
all sides, the apex truncate, the base a little rounded, and all the 
angles rather rounded, with two fovete on each side, and without a 
median line. Elytra about five times the length of the thorax, 
and scarcely wider than it, parallel-sided, broadly almost semi- 
truncately rounded at the apex, densely clothed with a very minute 
silky yellow pubescence, (which is found on all parts of the insect, 
but less dense) and minutely and densely rugose-punctate, with 
a few obsolete longitudinal lines. The body is thick, the feet 
slender, the eyes small and pi'ominent. 

Length, 3 lines. 

Hah. — Mossman River. 

46. Telephorus rubriceps. 

Head, thorax, elytra excepting the apex, and the presternum 
reddish-yellow, the rest black. Head without frontal depression, 
antennpe taking their rise between the eyes ; the first joint large, 
the third shorter than the fourth. Thorax broader than long, the 
margins more expanded and the angles more rounded than in T. 
Mossinanni, and the fovese on the sides less distinct ; the median 
line is distinctly marked. The elytra are rounded and tipped with 
black at the apex, sculpture and clothing are much the same as in 
T. Mossmanni, but the puncturation is still more minute and 
obsolete. 

Length, 3|^ lines, 

Hah. — Mossman River. 

47. Telephorus rufivbntris. 
Of broad robust form, the head, thoi-ax, elytra excepting the 
apical fourth, the abdomen, the sterna and the coxse and base of 
the thighs reddish-yellow. The head is longitudinally impressed 
in front, the antennae are inserted almost beneath the eyes, are 
thick and rather short, the third joint shorter than the fourth, the 



BY WILLIAM MACLEAY, F.L.S., &C. 237 

mandibles are large and tipped with black. The thorax is very- 
like that of the last si)ecies, T. rubricej)s, but the median line is not 
so continuously canaliculate. The elytra are less densely pubescent, 
and more deeply tipped with black than in the preceding species, 
the minute rugose puncturation is more distinct and the whole 
sui'face more nitid. 

Length, 4 lines. 

Hah. — Mossman River. 

47. Telephorus Froggatti. 

Black, the thorax red, the elytra lurid brown. Antennae inserted 
almost under the eyes, slightly serrate, the apex of each joint 
truncate, the third about equal in length to the fourth. Head 
nearly covei'ed by the thorax. Thorax much broader than long,, 
quadrangular, margined, and deeply impi-essed on the median line. 
Elytra blackish at the base and apex, with a yellowish brown 
tinge towards the suture and a sericeoiis pubescence and dense 
minute puncturation over the whole. The coxae and the sides of 
the abdominal segments are of a yellowish colour. 

Length, 2| lines. 

Hah. — Mossman River. 

48. Selenurus apicalis. 

Head black, elongate, perpendiculai-, forming a short snout ; the 
antennae, inserted in front of the eyes on a yellow patch, filiform, 
the third joint much shorter than the fourth. Thorax testaceous 
yellow, rather narrower than the head with the eyes, much longer 
than broad, margined all round, not wider behind than in front, 
rounded at the angles, rounded and reflexed at the apex and base, 
and unevenly foveated on the disk. Scutellum with a small black 
depression at the apex. Elytra rather wider than the thorax at 
the base, and narrowing to the apex where they are nearly acute 
and very dehiscent, rather shorter than the wings and body, of a 
yellowish-brown on the basal region, and a dull black behind, with 
a yellow apex to each elytron ; the sculpture is rough and 
exceedingly minute, and there is a very small longitudinal i-idge 



238 INSECTS OP THE CAIRNS DISTRICT, NORTHERN QUEENSLAND. 

along the middle of each. The meso- and metasterna are black, 
the coxse and half the thighs are yellow, the rest black ; the 
abdomen is a nitid black with the apex of each segment bright 
yellow. 

Length, 4 lines. 

Hah. — Mossman River. 

49. Selenurus annulatus. 

This species much resembles the last. The chief differences are 
as follows : — The antennae are inserted each on a yellow spot ; the 
thorax has a large square black or brown patch in the middle of 
the anterior half. The elytra are black at the base, yellow for 
some distance behind, the yellow colour extending backwards 
along the suture, black for some distance further, and yellow on 
the tip of each elytron ; the dehiscent apices are more rounded 
and less acuminate than in the preceding species. The abdomen is 
ringed and spotted on each side with yellow. The legs are long, 
slender and ringed with yellow. 

Length, 4 lines. 

Mob. — Mulgrave River. 



^i->* 



50. Selenurus viridipennis. 

Head black, minutely striolate, a small yellow tubercle at the 
insertion of the antennse, a slight depression on the forehead, and 
a deep corrugated impression between the eyes. Thorax red, 
flatter than in the last species and not so much longer than broad, 
and uneven on the suiface with a black patch in the centre of the 
disk. Elytra broader than the thorax, narrow and dehiscent at 
the apex, nearly as long as the body, of a dark, dingy green colour, 
and very densely and minutely punctate, with a veiy fine raised 
longitudinal line in the middle of each elytron. The legs, the 
middle of the sterna, and the apical segment of the abdomen are 
black, the rest of the under surface is yellow. 

Length, 5 lines. 

Hah. — Russell River. 



DESCRIPTION OF A NEW SPECIES OF EPIMACHUS, 
FROM THE ASTROLABE RANGE, S. E. NEW GUINEA. 

By Dr. E. P. Ramsay, F.R.S.E., F.G.S., kc. 

EpIMACHUS MACLEAYANiE, Sp. nOV. 

Ad^dt J/a^e.— Total length, 3ft. 6 in. ; tail, 2ft. 7-3 ; wing, 7-2 j 
tarsus, 2-2 ; bill from forehead, 3*2 ; from gape, 3-1 ; along the 
curve of the culmen from the forehead, 3"3 ; height of bill at base, 
03; width at gape, 0-6; at nostril, 04] the longest side chest 
plumes, 4-7 by 2-1 in breadth at the tip ; flank plumes, 6-2 ; the 
long decomposed flank plumes, 8"6 inches. The head, throat, back, 
wings, rump, and all the upper surface velvety black, all except 
the neck, wings and rump, with rich metallic glossy scale-like 
feathers with steel-blue, green, and violet reflections ; rump and 
upper tail-coverts velvety black with steel-blue tips to the feathers, 
two centre tail feathers, long, narrow (3-5 in width), black, with 
blue and purple reflections, the others black without any sheen or 
gloss. The chest, breast, and all the under surface olive-brown, 
with rosy mauve reflections, plumes on side of the chest, broadly 
margined with steel-blue green and violet reflections, in shape 
somewhat triangular, being greatly expanded at the tips, the lower 
side-plumes shorter, margined and tipped with rose-mauve, puce 
and violet reflections, the longer plumes nearest the flanks with 
the outer webs only, mauve ; the loose and somewhat decomposed 
elongated flank-plumes reaching to beyond the under tail-coverts, 
light brown or of a pale fawn-brown tint, thighs black ; upper tail- 
coverts and tail below, black; legs, feet, and bill black ; there is a 
rich sheen of rosy-mauve over the whole of the under surface from 
the lower part of the neck to the flanks, which shows a rose-lilac 
tint in certain lights, and is slightly deeper in tint on the lower 
side-plumes. 



240 DESCRIPTION OF A NEW SPECIES OP EPIMACHUS. 

This fine species which was obtained at the foot of the Astrolabe 
Range, is in some respects allied to E. magnus, but is very distinct 
from that species in the length of the tail, in the colour of the under 
surface, and in the rosy tint of the side and flank-plumes. 



DESCRIPTIONS OF NP]W AUSTRALIAN FISHES. 

By E. p. Ramsay, F.R.S.E., and J. Douglas-Ogilby. 

( Notes from the Australian Museum). 

Ch(eeops macleayi, sp. nov. 

D. 13/7: A. 3/10: Y. 1/5: P. 18: C. 14: L. lat. 29: 
L. trans. 4/10. 

Length of head 3|, of caudal fin 5, height of body 3|^ in the 
total length. Eye — Diameter 3§ in the length of the head, 1^ in 
that of the snout, and | of a diameter apart. The interorlntal 
space and upper profile of the head are convex, the cleft of the 
mouth small, not quite reaching to the front margin of eye. 
Preopercle minutely serrated (probably entire in large examples). 
Teeth — Four strong curved canines in front of each jaw ; lateral 
teeth confluent, the extreme tips only being free ; no posterior 
canine. Fins — The dorsal commences above the opercular flap ; 
its spines are strong, the last the longest, 5 of the length of the 
head, but not so high as the rays ; the base of the soft dorsal is 
I of that of the spinous. The anal commences beneath the 10th 
dorsal spine ; its last spine is the longest, \ of the length of the 
head. The ventral fins do not quite reach to the vent. The 
pectorals, which are rounded posteriorly, reach to opposite the 
11th scale of the lateral line, and are % of the length of the head. 
Caudal rounded. Scales — Large, thin, cycloid, and adherent on 
the body ; small and non-imbricate on the cheeks ; opercle with 
four rows ; base of dorsal fin scaly, that of anal not so. Colors — 
Uniform reddish-brown. 

The specimen from which the above description was taken 
measures nearly b\ inches, and was obtained in Port Jackson, a 
16 



242 DESCRIPTIONS OF NEW AUSTRALIAN FISHES, 

locality very far south of the usual tropical habitat of the genus. 
We have taken this opportunity of naming the species after the 
Hon. William Macleay, a gentleman who has done so much 
towards the elucidation of our Australian Fish Fauna, and the 
promotion of natural science in general ; and in whose collection 
the type specimen is contained. 

Labrichthys cyanogenys, sp. nov. 

B. vi. : D. 9/11: A. 3/10: V. 1/5: P. 13: C. 14: L. 
lat. 25 : L. trans. 3/9. 

Length of head 3f , of caudal fin 5^, height of body 3^ in the 
total length. Ui/e — Diameter 5^ in the length of the head, 2 
diameters from the end of the snout, and Ig apart. Interorbital 
space convex : upper profile of head abruptly convex before the 
eyes : jaws equal ; maxilla extends to beneath middle of orbit. 
Teeth — Lower jaw with a row of strong conical teeth, the anterior 
pair very large, the others growing smaller posteriorly, 13 on each 
ramus ; a row of similar, but much smaller, teeth behind these : 
upper jaw with a similar dentition, except that the two posterior 
teeth in each ramus are rather larger than those immediately 
preceding them, and the hinder row is irregularly duplicated : 
posterior canine strong. Fins — Dorsal spines rather weak, the 
last the longest, ^ of the length of the head, and much shorter than 
the rays. Anal commences beneath the second dorsal ray, the 
third spine is the longest, about g of the length of the head, and 
half that of the longest ray. Pectorals sinuous posteriorly, reaching 
to opposite the 8th scale of the lateral line, and f of the length of 
the head. Ventrals about equal in length to the pectorals, and 
reaching to the vent. Caudal rounded. Scales — Large, thin, 
cycloid, and adherent. Cheeks with two vertical rows of small 
scales behind the eyes. None at the base of the vertical 
fins. Gill-rakers — Short, broad, and divided at the tip ; their 
length fi of the diameter of the eye. Air-bladder — Large 
Colors — Reddish-brown with two broad transverse lilac bands, 
the first between the anterior rays of the soft dorsal and anal 



BY E. P. RAMSAY, P.R.S.E., AND J. DOUGLAS-OGILBY. 243 

fins ; the second, not so well defined, on the free portion of 
tlie tail. Head greenish-blue above ; opercles and cheeks lilac ; 
intermandibular space indigo-blue. Dorsal and anal fins violet, 
the spinal part of the former tinged with yellow ; caudal dull 
yellowish-brown, with the webs purple, and the outer angles 
brighter yellow. Ventrals and pectorals orange, the latter with a 
broad dark blue basal band. Irides golden. 

The magnificient Lahrichthys which we here describe, measures 
over 18 inches, and was captured in Broken Bay on the 12th 
instant. The stomach was crammed with the broken fragments of 
shells, including small oysters, Patella, and Tapes. Its fiesh, even 
though laboui-ing under the disadvantage of having been skinned, 
was excellent Register number, I. 1245. 



244 REMARKS ON AN INTRODUCED SPECIES OF LAND-PLANARIAN, 



REMARKS ON AN INTRODUCED SPECIES OF LAND- 
PLANARIAN APPARENTLY BIPALIUM KEWENSE, 
MOSELEY. 

By J. J. Fletcher, M.A., B.Sc. 

In 1878 Mr. Moseley described a species of Land-Planarian 
( Bipalium Kevjense) from a specimen found in one of the hot- 
houses at Kew Gardens(l). Recently Professor Bell has recorded 
his observations on another specimen, apparently of the same 
species, found among broken flower-pots in a garden in Sussex ; 
he also gives a nuniber of good figures of the animal (2). 

The same species, seemingly, has become acclimatised in Sydney 
and its environs, and, probably finding the climate more like that 
of its native habitat, instead of appearing in occasional ones or 
twos it has increased so abundantly that, during the warm rains 
of the last few weeks, numbers made their appearance in gardens, 
on verandahs, and even on the public footpaths, in quite a 
remarkable manner. During the last five weeks I have myself 
seen about thirty specimens, and I have heard of quite as many 
others. 

As in the case of the English specimens so with Sydney ones,, 
nothing is known of their original habitat, or of the exact 
circumstances under which they came into the country, but there 
can be little doubt that they have been brought with foreign plants 
to gardens and nurseries, whence they have afterwards strayed, or 
have been distributed. There can also be little doubt that here 
the species has become thoroughly well-established, but whether 
Sydney gardens have been stocked from Kew Gardens, or vice 
versa, or whether both have been directly stocked from the 
original habitat, it is needless to speculate, since as in the case 

(1) Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. Vol. I, ser. 5, 1878, p. 238. 

(2) P. Z. S. 1886, p. 166, pi. 18. 



BY J. J. FLETCHER, M.A., B.SC. 245 

of the nursery referred to below, for example, plants have been 
brought here from, and sent heuce to, many parts of the world for 
the last fifty years or more. 

Dr. Ramsay informs me that he remembers their being found 
under pieces of wood, &c., in the Australian Museum grounds, and 
at Dobroyde, as far back as 1874. In the Macleay Museum there 
are specimens of thi.s, and of another possibly introduced species, 
found by Mr. Masters some years ago in IVEr. Macleay's hothouse. 
But individuals appear never to have been so conspicuously 
numerous as they have been during April and May of this year. 

Last February Mr. Masters kindly allowed me to examine a 
number of specimens of various worms collected, in the course of 
about six weeks, at one of the Sydney nurseries by Mr. James, in 
response to a request for worms of any sort. As illustrating the 
way in which the nurseries become possible foci for the distribution 
of certain introduced animals, it is worth while recording the 
contents of the bottle, as follows : four examples of planarians 
belonging to two indigenous species ; seventeen specimens of 
introduced planarians belonging to two species, among which were 
eleven specimens of B. Kewense ; together with a large number 
of earthworms belonging to three species all introduced. Of 
one introduced species of planarian, and of two of the intro- 
duced species of earthworms, the only other examples besides 
these which I have seen were from the Hon. William Macleay's 
garden, to which also plants have been brought fi-om many parts 
of the world. 

As I was working at earthworms at tlie time, the planarians 
were put aside for further examination, when my attention was 
again drawn to them by quite unexpectedly finding a very fine 
specimen of the Bipaliuin crawling on my doorstep on the evening 
of April 14th. After this I began to kee|) a look out. and subse- 
<][uently on each of three different occasions within a few feet of the 
same spot I found another example (I). In the meantime I had 
begun to notice their slimy tracks, as well as injured or dead 

(1) During the fortnight after the reading of this note I found three other 
living specimens on diflerent evenings in the same situation. 



246 REMARKS ON AN INTRODUCED SPECIES OP LAND-PLANARIAN, 

specimens on the public asphalt footpaths at Stanmore. Shortly 
after Mr. Whitelegge told me that he too had noticed them on the 
footpaths at Surry Hills and in Hyde Park, and in the Australian 
Museum grounds. After this on several occasions I noticed 
examples on the paths in the Park, and also in Darlinghurst 
Road ; in the latter locality Mr. Mastei's also one morning counted 
six specimens dead on the footpath. On again comparing notes 
with Mr. Whitelegge he told me that on rolling over a cask in the 
Museum grounds he found twelve specimens, and that on another 
occasion Mr. Ogilby had found six under a piece of wood. Mr. 
Haswell also found specimens in the University Grounds ; and 
quite recently I have received one found under a piece of wood at 
Marrickville. 

That these planarians should have appeared almost simultane- 
ously in so many places is probably due to the same cause, but it 
is not clear whether this was merely a desire to obtain drier 
quarters, or whether the damp warm weather had tempted them 
forth in search of each other for reproductive purposes, this 
possibly being with them, as it certainly is with indigenous 
planarians, about the time of the breeding season. A small 
species of slug was very abundant about the same time in similar 
situations. 

The specimens I saw in Hyde Park had evidently strayed from 
the enclosure about Capt. Cook's statue, which has been stocked 
with plants from the Botanic Gardens, where B. Keioense has 
doubtless obtained a footing. Those I saw elsewhere were, with 
few exceptions, in the vicinity of gardens, but in one or two cases 
they must have travelled considerable distances. 

Their appearance on the pavements in the moi-nings in a 
moribund or dried-up condition — and all that I saw on the asphalt 
footpaths were in one or other of these states — may have been due 
to some injurious effect arising from contact with the asphalt, or 
the planarians may simply have wandered on until they were 
lost, and injured either by chilling due to the radiation of heat 
from the pavement towards morning, or by their exposure to the 
sunlight after dawn. 



BY J. J. FLETCHER, M.A., B.SC. 247 

In respect of size some of our specimens are as large, if not 
larger than Professor Moseley's example, which was 9 inches long. 
I measured a living one, which, when extended, was 14 inches 
long. Eleven spirit specimens from the nursery referred to were 
from 4'2 to 12 cm. long and from 3-5 mm. broad anteriorly, 
diminishing posteriorly by about 1 mm. 

In regard to colour, Sydney specimens agree with those 
examined by Professors Moseley and Bell in having the same 
number and arrangement of longitudinal bands, &c., but I notice 
in different living examples, and usually in different portions of 
the same animal, a considerable variation in the intensity of the 
colouring, as well as in the width of some of the stripes. Usually 
the stripes are uniformly darker and more intensely coloured in the 
anterior half or third of the body, and may frequently be described 
as black. The median stripe is sometimes a very fine line ; at other 
times, even in the same animal, it becomes as wide as the first 
lateral band on each side. Further back, all the bands may 
uniformly become paler and dimmer, and assume a brownish tint, 
or the median and outer lateral bands may be conspicuously 
darker, while the inner bands fade to a darker shade of the 
ground colour or are hardly perceptible. In a young living 
specimen (46 mm. long and 2 mm. broad when extended) the 
outermost bands vanished altogether in the posterior region of 
the body. In one case the ground colour between the median 
and first lateral stripe on each side was of a conspicuously darker 
colour. 

The anterior margin of the cheese-cutter-shaped head when the 
animal is \;rawling sends off inferiorly, sensory, papilla-like pro- 
longations with which it touches the surface on which it is 
crawling, just as Humbert and Moseley describe in other species. 
In his remarks Professor Bell points out that, when the animal is 
in a state of torpid quiescence, the head is contracted and obtusely 
pointed, and he insists rather emphatically on this variation 
from the cheese-cutter form of the head which characterises the 
genus Bipalium. I have recently had the opportunity of examin- 
ing a large number of land-planarians belonging to some twenty 



248 REMARKS ON AN INTRODUCED SPECIES OF LAND-PLANARIAN, 

species and four or possibly five genera, including a number of 
spirit specimens of Bipalium kewense, and it seems to me that the 
variability in the form of the head is hardly likely to be of s>ich a 
misleading character as might be inferred from the Professor's 
remarks. 

In the specimens I have seen, though the body does taper 
gradually posteriorly, the attenuation is hardly so conspicuous as 
in Professor Bell's figures, or as mentioned in Professor Moseley's 
description. 

I have not noticed the oral and generative apex-tures in living 
specimens, nor the latter even in spirit specimens in which 
the almost always everted, folded pharynx forms a conspicuous 
rosette-like structure situated at about one-third, or a little 
moi-e, of the animal's length behind the anterior extremity. In 
two examples taken at random measui-ing 12 cm. and 9-3 cm., 
respectively, the oral apertures were 42 cm. and 3-6 cm. 
respectively from the anterior extremities. 

The almost white ambulacral line on the under side of the body 
bordered on each side by an almost black stripe, is very conspicuous; 
the relatively long and strong cilia on either side of the ambulacral 
ridge are readily seen when the under surface of a young specimen 
in an inverted watchglass is viewed under the microscope ; else- 
where the cilia are more difficult to make out. 

The first living specimen I obtained was placed in a glass jar 
with damp rotten wood, on April 15th. In a day or two I 
noticed that it had begun to divide transversely into fragments 
from about ^ inch to 2 inches long, which were to be seen coiled 
round on the pieces of wood, or on the sides of the jar. A second 
specimen was put into the jar on April 29th. 

I kept the jar under observation from day to day, and on 
May 25th I turned out its contents, when I found five frag- 
ments of varying lengths with developing cheese-cutter-shaped 
extremities, two portions without any indication of them, the 
remains of several portions which had died, together with the larger 
portion of the second specimen which had lost the anterior portion 
of its body ; this however was readily distinguishable from the 



BY J. J. FLETCHER, M.A., B.SC. ' 249 

fragments which were developing new heads by its larger cheese- 
cutter-shaped portion, its more intensely pigmented upper surface, 
and the two black patches just behind the head formed by the 
fusion of the most anterior portions of the lateral stripes. The 
autei'ior portion of the first specimen was wanting, and was pro- 
bably one of the dead portions. Thus such of the fragments as 
had not too recently separated, had acquired fairly well-developed 
new cheese -cutter-shaped heads in about thirty days ; whether 
in each case a new mouth and genital orifice had also formed was 
not apparent. A third specimen kept for several weeks main- 
tained its bodily integrity. 



250 NOTES AND EXHIBITS. 



NOTES AND EXHIBITS. 

Dr. Ramsay exhibited the new Bird of Paradise described by 
him, and a specimen of each sex of Paradisornis Rudolphi, Finsch> 
which differs from all other species of the family in having rich 
ultra-marine blue wings and flank plumes ; also examples of the 
orange-crested bower-bird ( Amhlyorids suhalaris, Sharpe), and of 
Charmosyna Josephince. The exhibits, which were obtained near 
the base of the Astrolabe Kange, and were brought from the S. E. 
coast of New Guinea by Mr. Goldie, have been secured for the 
Australian Museum. 

Mr. Brazier exhibited photogi'aphs of two species of Polyzoa 
{Idvionea Milneana, and /. interjuncta) from Green Point, Port 
Jackson, (8 fathoms), taken by Mr. Arthur W. Waters. 

Mr. A. Sidney Olliff of the Australian Museum, exhibited 
specimens of Alectoria superba, Brunner von Wattenwyl, a 
remarkable genus of Orthoptera having a large thoracic crest pro- 
duced over the base of the elytra ; those exhibited were obtained 
by Mr. K. H. Bennett, at Mossgiel, in the Western district. The 
species «v^as originally described by Brunner from examples obtained 
at Peak Downs. 

Mr. C. S. Wilkinson exhibited for Mr. Lockyer a piece of lime- 
stome found at Murwillumbah, Tweed River, attached to the side 
of a live box-tree six feet above the ground. It would appear that 
the lime had been taken up in some peculiar manner by the tree, 
and had been thrown off in the form of a wort or excrescence 
forming a stalactite. Also four 'water-crystals,' one a magnificent 
specimen an inch in diameter and containing a teaspoonful of fluid, 
found on the Richmond River ; and finally a collection of agates 
and chalcedony, together with a carboniferous fossil, found on the 
mound of an aboriginal's grave at the head of the Tweed River, 
the blacks in that locality having had a custom of placing peculiar- 
looking and beautiful stones on the graves of their relatives and 
friends. 



NOTES AND EXHIBITS. 251 

Mr. Palmer exhibited specimens of the spicier, at present unde- 
termined, which fabricates the remarkable egg-bags, examples of 
which he had exhibited at the March Meeting of the Society. 

Mr. Whitelegge exhibited examples of what were represented as. 
early stages of the truffle, which had been sent by Mr. A. H. 
Cooper of Double Bay. 

Mr. Macleay exhibited the fifty species of Insects described in 
his Paper. 

Mr. Macleay also exhibited some grass infested by a minute grub, 
which lived in the stem and caused a thickening of it. He stated 
that the grass had been sent for examination under the belief that 
the prevalence at the present season of large niimbers of worms in 
sheep, might in some way be traceable to the minute worms in the 
grass. A microscopical investigation by Dr. Katz had shown 
however that the worms in the grass were not Entozoa but maggots 
of minute Dipterous Insects, probably Cecidomyiadce or gall gnats, 
or possibly minute Muscidse of the Oscinides group. The habit of 
the insect somewhat resembled that of Cecidomyia destructor, Say, 
the "Hessian Fly," so destructive to wheat crops in America. 

Mr. Macleay also exhibited for Professor Stephens a lemon 
grown by Mr. Long of Hyde, in which the carpels were separated 
as in the fingered orange, and another approaching the Horned or 
Navel Orange in having a supernumerary row of carpels. 

Mr. Fletcher exhibited living specimens of Bipalium kewense 
referred to in his note. 



WEDNESDAY, 29th JUNE, 1887. 



The Hon. W. Macleay, F.L.S., in the Chair. 



MEMBERS ELECTED. 



Mr. William Lovegrove, 109 Pitt St. ; and Mr. Nicholas 
Lockyer, were elected Members of the Society. 



The Chairman announced that there would be no Excursion 
during the ensuing month. 



The Chairman also read a letter from the Hon. Secretary of 
the Royal Society of South Australia, conveying a cordial invitation 
from the Council to Members of the Linnean Society of N.S.W., 
to visit Adelaide at the end of August 1887, when it is proposed 
to hold meetings and excursions, partly in conjunction with, and 
partly in addition to, the Meeting of the Medical Congress. 
Arrangements are being made to allow those who take part in these 
meetings to travel at reduced railway fares. Further particulars 
will be furnished shortly, and in the meantime the Director will 
be glad to receive the names of Members wishing to attend. 



DONATIONS. 253- 



DONATIONS. 

" bulletin de la Societe Zoologiqvie de France pour I'annee 1887." 
Parti. From the Society. 

"Comptes Rendus des Stances del'Academie des Sciences, Paris. "^ 
Tome CIV. Nos. 10-12 (1887). From the Academy. 

•' Zoologischer Anzeiger." X. Jahrg., Nos. 249-251 (1887). 
From, tJie Editor. 

"Feuillo des Jeunes Naturalistes." No. 199 (1887); " Cata- 
logue de la Bibliotheque." Fasc. No. 1. From the Editor. 

"The Canadian Record of Science." Vol. II., No. 6 (1887). 
From the Natural History Society, Montreal. 

" The Journal of the Cincinnati Society of Natural History." 
Vol. X., No. 1 (1887). From the Society. 

" Journal of the Elisha Mitchell Scientific Society for the year 
1885-86." From the Society. 

" Proceedings of the Canadian Institute, Toronto." 3rd Ser. 
Vol. IV., Fasc. 2 (1887). From the Institute. 

"Bulletin of the American Geographical Society for 1886, 
No. 3;" Vol. XIX., No. 1 (1887). From the Society. 

" Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard 
College." Vol. XIII., No. 3 (1887). From the Curator. 



254 DONATIONS. 

" The Journal of Comparative Medicine and Surgery." Vol. 
VIII., No. 2 (1887). From the Editor. 

"Report of the Trustees of the Australian Museum for 1886." 
From the Curator. 

" Mittheilungen des Vereins fiir Erdkunde zu Leipzig." 1884 
and 1885. (Two Vols.). From the Society. 

"Archives Neerlandaises des Sciences exactes et naturelles." 
Tome XXT., Liv. 4me (1887). From La Societe Hollandaise des 
Sciences a Harlem. 

" Journal of the Royal Microscopical Society, 1887." Part 2 ; 
Vol. VI., 2nd Ser. Part 6a. (Supplementary Number, December, 
1886). From the Society. 

" The Transactions of the Entomological Society of London for 
the year 1887." Part 1. From the Society. 

" Abstracts of Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London." 
5th and 19th April, and 3rd May, 1887. From the Society. 

" Hausbau, Hauser und Siedelungen an der Siidostkiiste von 
Neu-Guinea;" "Canoes und Canoebau in den Marshall Inseln ;" 
" Catalog der Ausstellung fiir vei'gleichende Volkerkunde der 
westlichen Siidsee besonders der Deutschen Schutzgebiete." From 
the Author, Dr. 0. Finsch. 

" Videnskabelige Meddelelser fra den naturhistoriske Forening 
i Kjobenhavn for Aarene 1884-86." From the Society 

" Socifet6 Royale Malacologique de Belgique — Procfes- Verbal " 
(Aug. to Dec. 1886). From the Society. 



DONATIONS. 255 

"The Scottish Geographical Magazine." Vol. III., No. 5 (May, 
1887). From the Hon. W. Macleay. 

"The Victorian Naturalist." Vol. IV., No. 2 (June, 1887). 
From the Field Naturalists' Club of Victoria. 

" Nova Acta der Ksl. Leop.-Carol. Deutscben Akademie der 
Naturforscher." Band XLVI. (No. 4), XL VII. (Nos. 2 and 3), 
XLVIII. (No. 1), L. (Nos. 1 and 2) ; " Leopoldina." 21 Heft, 
Jahrg. 1885. From the Academy. 

"The Australasian Journal of Pharmacy." Vol. II., No. 18 
(June, 1887). From the Editor. 

" Report on the Tarawera Volcanic District." By Prof. F. \V. 
Hutton, F.G.S. From the Author. 

" Bulletin de la Society Imperiale des Naturalistes de Moscou." 
Annee 1886, No. 3. From the Society. 

"Zur Kenntniss der Mammarorgane der Monotremen" von Prof. 
Carl Gegenbaur. From Dr. 0. Katz. 

" Proceedings and Transactions of the Queensland Branch of the 
Royal Geographical Society of Australasia." 2nd Session (1886-7). 
Vol. II., Part 2. From the Society. 

" Geological and Natural History Survey of Canada — Annual 
Report." (New Series) Vol. I. (1885), with Maps and Sections. 
From tJie Director. 

" The Fifteenth Annual Report of the Board of Directors of 
the Zoological Society of Philadelphia." From the Society. 



256 DONATIONS. 

" The American Museum of Natural History — Annual Report 
of the Trustees, and List of Members for the year 1886-7." From 
the Trustees. 

" Bulletin de la Societe Beige de Microscopie." 13me Annee., 
No. VI. From the Society. 

"Records of the Geological Survey of India." Vol. XX., 
Part 2 (1887). From the Director. 

" Lunacy in Many Lands." By G. A. Tucker. From the 
Author. 



PAPERS READ. 



ON A TRILOBITE FROM REEFTON, NEW ZEALAND, 
NEW TO AUSTRALASIA. 

By Professor F. W. Hutton, F.G.S. 

I have obtained from Mr. R. Helms of Greymoutb, a very fine 
Trilobite belonging to the genus Homalonotus, which was found 
near Reefton, and, as it appears to be new to New Zealand, I give 
a description of it. The specimen is rolled up, and the anterior 
portion of the cephalic shield, as well as the posterior end of the 
pygidium are absent. It is filled with brown chert which cannot 
be scratched with a knife, but the exoskeleton is black. 

The body is elongate, tubercled, broadest at the base of the 
cephalic-shield thence gradually tapering backwards to a point. 
The greatest breadth is 3-25 inches, and the total length was 
probably about eight inches or rather more. 

Cephalic- Shield. — The apex is gone, the posterior angles are 

broken and the surface of the glabellum and fixed cheeks is much 

rubbed, so that the description of this part is necessarily deficient. 

The shield itself is broadly triangular, the ratio of length to breadth 

being about 2 : 3. The glabellum is distinctly lobed, but the 

surface is entirely rubbed away. The cheeks are inflated and 

bend suddenly down outside the eyes, the exterior margins are 

also incurved ; the surface is covered with scattered granules 

which are placed more closely together on the fi-ee cheeks and are 

esi^ecially close and coarse on the incurved exterior margins. The 

eyes are situated on lai-ge rounded swellings of the cheeks, but 
17 



258 ON A TRILOBITE FROM REEFTON, N. Z., NEW TO AUSTRALIA. 

their surfaces are rubbed off. The facial suture is well marked, 
but as the posterior angles of the shield are broken off, it is 
impossible to say whether it ran out exactly at that angle or a 
little in front of it. 

The Thorax is very indistinctly trilobed, and consists of thirteen 
segments, all of which are more or less tubei-culose along a trans- 
verse rib on the posterior half of each segment. There are about 
seven or eight tubercles on the tergal portion of each segment and 
several smaller ones on the pleurse. The tergal portion is smooth 
and very finely pitted, but the anterior portion of each pleura is 
coarsely granulated, resembling the granulations on the margins of 
the free cheeks. The tubercles are irregularly placed. The length 
of the thorax is rather more than four inches. 

Pygidium. — Six segments only remain, each has about ten 
small tubercles on the tergal part and five or six on each pleura. 
The surface is smooth, except towards the margin where there are 
scattered granules. The margin itself is incurved and coarsely 
granulated like that of the cheeks. Its length may have been 
about an inch and a-half. 

This species very closely resembles, and is perhaps identical 
with Honnalonotus Uerschelii (Murchison), from S. Africa, 
described and figured by Mr. Salter (Trans. Geol. Soc. 2nd 
Series, Vol. VII., p. 215, pi. 24, figs. 1-7). The differences appear 
to be that our specimen is broader in proportion and the thoracic 
segments are flatter and with more tubercles. However, until the 
rostral and caudal portions are known it is impossible to give a 
decided opinion on this point. At any rate it belongs to a group 
highly characteristic of the Lower Devonian. 



A LIST OF THE INDIGENOUS PLANTS OF THE 
MUDGEE DISTKICT. 

By Alexander G. Hamilton. 



In my list of tlie Orchidese of this district (Proc. Linn. Soc. of 
N.S.W., Vol. I., 2nd Ser. 1886, p. 865), I promised at some 
future time to furnish a list of the phsenogamous plants and 
the ferns. That promise I now fulfil in the hope that it may be 
of some use in the elucidation of the question of the geographical 
distribution of species. 

The remarks that applied to the distribution of orchids in this 
■district, apply equally to the other families The sandstone found 
on the Dividing Range supports the plants that are typical of the 
sandstone elsewhere. But there is, among the remaining families 
a greater proportion of species differing from the coast forms than 
is found among the orchids. These differing forms however, 
appear to be representatives of the coast plants. 

In one or two sheltered spots there are many species not 
occurring elsewhere about Mudgee. For example, in a deep 
gully at Mullamuddy are found Fittosjjorurn undulatum, Eucalyj)- 
tus globulus, Nicotiana sioaveolens, Sambucus xanthocarjm, Sturmia 
re/lexa, Dendrobium sjieciosicm, and Pteris aquilma, none of which 
occur generally over the district, although the last three grow at 
Cooyal, on the Dividing Range. Some other plants, rare else- 
where, are common in this ravine. 



260 A LIST OF THE INDIGENOUS PLANTS OF THE MUDGEE DISTRICT, 

Regarding the occurrence of Eucalyptus globulus so far from its 
head quarters, I am of opinion that it is a survival froni a cooler 
and moister climate. The ti'ees— about a dozen and some 
saplings — grow only in a deep rocky glen surrounded on three sides 
by precipitous walls of igneous rock. Possibly at one time the 
tree was common all over the surrounding countiy, and, as the 
climate changed, it gradually died off, leaving only a few survivors 
in the most sheltered situations. In support of this view, I may 
mention that I have since seen specimens of the tree from the 
Mei'oo, procured in a deep gully there, but higher and moi'e south- 
ward than Mudgee. 

Mullamuddy, where Mr. J. D. Cox and myself discovered it, is 
over 2,000 feet above sea level. The only other locality in New 
South Wales where it has been collected is Araluen, which is 
about 230 miles south from Mudgee as the crow dies. There, the 
Rev. R. Collie tells me, it grows, not in a deep shady gully, but on 
the top of a hill. This may be accounted for by the more southern 
latitude, and the nearer approach to the sea moderating the 
climate sufficiently to allow it to exist in a moi-e exposed situation. 
As far as I know it has not been collected between 3ludgee and 
Araluen, or between the latter place and its Victorian habitat, but 
should it be discovered in either gap, it would, I think, be strong 
evidence in favor of the survival theory. Mr. J. D. Cox agrees 
with me in this view, and in thinking it improbable that the 
trees have come from bird-carried seeds. This might be inferred 
from there being trees 60 feet or more high and 2 feet in diameter, 
side by side with younger trees and saplings. Another circum- 
stance at variance with the supposition of bird-carried seeds, is the 
occurrence of the above-named plants in this limited spot, and the 
fact that the insects differ from those of the district in general. 

I particularly noticed a large Pieris with brilliant underwings 
feeding on the blossoms of the Pittosporum. This insect I had 
previously seen about Sydney frequenting the same species of tree, 
and also orange trees. 



BY ALEXANDER G. HAMILTON. 261 

Roughly speaking, the district I have collected over might be 
described as extending from Appletree Flat to Reedy Creek, and 
from the Dividing Range at Cooyal to the top of the Ridge 
separating the Meroo Creek from the Valley of the Cudgegong 
River. The average height of the district might, 1 think, be fairly 
taken as that of the Mudgee Railway Station, which is 1,635 feet 
above sea level. The highest point within these limits is pro- 
bably Buckaroo or Big Hill, (from which the Mullamuddy Gully 
runs), which as measured by Mr. Cox is 1,640 feet above river 
bed — probably 3,000 feet above the sea. The geological formation 
is principally Silurian, with occasional patches of granite, as near 
Home Rule, limestone (at Canadian and Mt. Frome), and basaltic 
outflows. The coal measures extend down the valley of Reedy 
Creek from Cooyal ; and at Guntawang a shale with Glossopteris 
and other fern impressions occurs at a small depth below the 
surface. The shale also extends to Beaudesert. The district is 
well-known as being highly auriferous. 

The annual mean temperature is 61*8° F. ; the mean for three 
summer months (Decern., Jan. and Feb.) is 72-7° F. ; winter 
mean (June, July and August) 49-5° F. In 1886 the highest 
observed temperature was 103'6° F. in February, and the lowest 
21-6° F. in July. (1.) The average rainfall is 25-24 inches, 
September being usually the wettest month. The six years ending 
1885 were below the average, but 1886 was 9-26 inches above, 
and 1887 promises to be a very wet year, 31 "81 inches having 
fallen up to March 31. 

A few of the plants named in the folio vying pages I have not 
collected myself, but their names were supplied to me by Dr. 



(1) The above extremes of temperature would give a rather incorrect 
impression of the Mudgee climate, but a consideration of the following 
means for each month (kindly supplied by Air. Lenehan, Acting Government 
Astronomer), will show its equability : — 

Jan. 74-r F. April, 65-7° F. July, 474° F. Oct. 56-4° F. 
Feb. 74-3 May, 58-9 Aug. 48-8 Nov. 67-2 

Mar. 71-6 June, 52-3 Sept. 55-1 Dec. 69-8. 



262 A LIST OF THE INDIGENOUS PLANTS OF THE MUDGEE DISTRICT, 

Woolls, to whose untiring kindness I owe a great deal of help in 
this and other botanical matters. I am indebted to Mr. Percy 
Williams for a note on the occurrence of Styphelia viridis at 
Cooyal. 

In collectins: towards the west and north-west — towards Cob- 
bora for instance — a slight change is noticeable in the character of 
the vegetation, showing an approximation to the flora of the 
plains ; but it is not at all marked till Cobbora is passed, which is 
far beyond the limits of the Mudgee district. Eastward from 
Mudgee the change to the sandstone vegetation is very sudden, 
the ordinary forms occurring right up to the foot of the Dividing 
Range. 

The remarks I made on the gradual extinction of some species 
of orchids apply with equal force to the plants in this list, culti- 
vation, clearing, and the influx of introduced plants being the 
principal factors concerned in their disappearance. The last is 
very noticeable in land ringbarked or cleared, the sudden appear- 
ance and growth of aliens being then very marked. Drought is 
not so potent an agent as might be thought. About six years ago 
I collected Euphrasia scabra in a cleared paddock near my own 
residence. As it was so near, I neglected to preserve specimens, 
and during the five dry years which followed, not one plant was 
to be found. The moist summer of 1886 however, brought it up 
again in the same limited locality, so that the seeds must have 
existed with unimpaired vitality through five years' droughts, 
during which the paddock was more than once burnt. This 
remark also applies to Centrolepis fascicularis, which sprang up 
after the same long interval in that locality. 

It will be seen that I have included the orchids in this list 
although I have already given a paper on the subject. But I 
thought it would be better not to break the regular sequence of 
the orders by leaving them out. 

I hope soon to give a list of the introduced plants of the district. 

The nomenclature and arrangement adopted is that of the 
Systematic Census of Australian Plants by Baron F. v. Mueller. 



BY ALEXANDER G. HAMILTON. 



263 



After the specific names, habitat, and period, month or 
season of flowering, the figures which follow are meant to indicate 
where the plant is found elsewhere besides the District of Mudgee. 
1.— KS.W. 2.— V. and N.S.W. 3.— N.S.W. and Q. 4.— V., 
N.S.W., and Q. 5.— T., V., N.S.W. and Q. 6.— S.A., T., V., 
N.S.W., and Q. 7.— N.S.W., Q., and N.A. 8.— S.A., V., 
N.S.W., and Q. 9.— W.A., S.A., T., V., N.S.W., and Q. 10.— 
W.A, S.A., T., v., N.S.W., Q., and N.A. 11.— T., V., and 
N.S.W. 12.— W.A., S.A., and N.S.W. 13.— W.A., S.A., V., 
N.S.W., Q., and N.A. 14.— S.A., N.S.W., Q., and N.A. 15.— 
W.A, S.A., v., N.S.W., and Q. 16.— S.A. and N.S.W. 17.— 
S.A., v., N.S.W., Q., and N.A. 18.— T. and N.S.W. 19.— S.A., 
v., and N.S.W. 20.— S. A., T., V., N.S.W., Q., and N.A. 21.— 
W.A., S.A., N.S.W., Q., and N.A. 22.— S.A., N.S.W., and Q. 
23.— v., N.S.W., Q., and N.A. 24.— T.,V., N.S.W., Q., and N.A. 
25.— S.A, T., v., and N.S.W. 26.— W. A., S.A., T., V., and 
N.S.W. 27.— W. A., S.A., V., and N.S.W. 28.— W. A., S.A., 
v., N.S.W., and N.A. 29.— W. A., V., N.S.W., and Q. 30.— 
W.A. and N.S.W. 31.— W.A., N.S.W., and Q. 32.— W.A.,V., 
N.S.W., Q., and N.A. 33.— W.A., S.A., T., and N.S.W. 

DICOTYLEDONE^. 





CHORIPETALE^ 


HYPOGYN^. 


1. 


RANUNCULACEiE. 


15. 


GsRANIACEiE. 


2. 


DlLLENIACE^. 


16. 


Malvaceae. 


3. 


Laurace^. 


17. 


Sterculiace^. 


4. 


PAPAVERACEiE. 


18. 


Euphorbiace^. 


5. 


CRUCIPERiE. 


19. 


CJrticace^. 


6. 


YlOLACEiE. 


20. 


Casuarine^e. 


7. 


PiTTOSPOREiE. 


21. 


SAPINDACEiE. 


8. 


DROSERACEiE. 


22. 


STACKHOUSIEiE. 


9. 


ELATINE.E. 


23. 


PORTULACEiE. 


10. 


HyPERICIN/E. 


24. 


Caryophylle^ 


11 


POLYGALEiE. 


25. 


AMARANTACEiE. 


12. 


RUTACEiE. 


26. 


SALSOLACEiE. 


13. 


Zygophylle^. 


27. 


Polygonace^. 


14. 


LlNE^. 


28. 


NYCTAGINEiE. 



264 A LIST OF THE INDIGENOUS PLANTS OF THE MUDGEE DISTRICT, 

RANUNCULACE^ 
Clematis, Linn. 

ARISTATA, R. Br. All over the district on hills ; common ; 6. 

MICROPHYLLA, DO. Same habitat and range as last; common; 
August ; 9. 

Ranunculus, Linn. 

LAPPACEUS, Sm. Common all over the district ; Spring and 
Summer ; 9. 

RivuLARis, Bks. & Sol. Common on river banks; Spring; 6. 

HIRTUS, Bks. & Sol. ; 4. 

PARViFLORUS, Linn. On river flats and uplands ; common ; 
Spring ; 6. 

DILLENIACE^. 
HiBBERTiA, Andr. 

STRiCTA, R. Br. On uplands and hills all over district ; 

common ; Spring and Summer ; 9. 
AcicuLARis, F.v.M. Beaudesert, Cooyal ; on gravelly hills ; 

rare ; Spring; 6. 
PEDUNCULATA, R. Br. ; 2. 
LINEARIS, R. Br. Cooyal ; 4. 

DIFFUSA, R. Br. Everywhere ; common ; Spring ; 2. 
DENTATA, R. Br. On foothills at Guntawang ; common ; 

Spring and Summer ; 4. 

LAURACE^. 
Cassytha, Linn. 

GLABELLA, R. Br. Semiparasitic, generally on Casuarina, or 
epacrids ; on hills everywhere ; common ; always in 
flower ; 10. 

PAPAVERACE^. 

Papaver, Tour. 

ACULEATUM, Thunb. All over the district, but rare; Oct.; 6. 



BY ALEXANDER G. HAMILTON. 265 

CRUCIFER^. -v. 

Nasturtium, R. Br. 

TERRESTRE, R. Br. Common on lowlands ; Spring ; 6. 
Cardamine, Tour. 

HIRSUTA, Linn. Common on lowlands ; Spring ; 9. 

Lepidium, Tonr. 

RUDERALE, Limi. Common on lowlands ; Spring; 10. 

VIOLACE^. 

Viola, Tour. 

BETONiciFOLiA, Sm. All Over district but not common ; 

September ; 6. 
HEDERACEA, Labi] I, Cooyal only ; Spring to Autumn ; 6. 
Hybanthus, Jacq. 

PiLiFORMis, F.v.M. Cooyal and Home Rule ; Spring and 
Summer ; 4. 
Hymenanthera, R. Br. 

Banksii, F.v.M. Cooyal, and here and there along bank of 
river ; rare ; IL 

PITTOSPOREiE. 

Pittosporum, Bks. 

undulatum, Andr. A few trees at MuUamuddy ; October 

and November ; wood suitable for engraving ; 5. 
phillyroides, DC. Two Mile Flat; rare; early Spring; 13. 
BuRSARiA, Cav. 

SPINOSA, Cav. Everywhere common; Summer; commonly 
called "Black-thorn;" wood tough and said to be suitable 
for wood-engraving ; 10. 
Marianthus, Hueg. 

PROCUMBENS, Benth. On stony ridges, Biraganbil, Beau- 
desert, MuUamuddy, Cooyal ; not common ; September 
and October ; 5. 
Billabdiera, Sm. 

scandens, Sm. Common on rocky hills ; Spring ; 6. 



266 A LIST OF THE INDIGENOUS PLANTS OP THE MUDGEE DISTRICT, 

Cheiranthera, Cunn. 

LINEARIS, Cunn. Common on rocky hills ; handsome flower 
and worthy of cultivation ; Spring ; 8. 

DROSERACE^. 
Drosera, Linn. 

BINATA, Labill. On moist and dripping rocks at Cooyal . 
Summer ; 6. 

AURIC UL AT A, Backh. Everywhere ; Spring ; 25. 

PELT AT A, Sm. Same as preceding species. All the plants of 
this family are said to be poisonous to stock, but I have 
never known animals to eat them, and as they only grow 
freely in moist seasons when other vegetation is plentiful? 
I imagine losses from this cause must be rare ; 6. 

ELATINE^. 

Elatine, Linn. 

Americana, Arnott. On wet flats and on the margin of 
Cudgegong River; December, January and February; 9. 

HYPERICINS. 

Hypericum, Tour. 

Japonicum, Thunb. Everywhere ; common ; all the year 
round ; 10. 

POLYGALES. 

POLYGALA, Tour. 

SiBiRiCA, Linn. Beaudesert Hills ; rare ; Spring ; 4. 
Comesperma, Labill. 

SPHiEROCARPUM, Steetz. Cooyal ; Spring ; 3. 
ericinum, DC. Cooyal ; Spring ; 5. 

RUTACES. 
Zieria, Sm. 

CYTisoiDES, Sm. Cooyal ; 5. 



BY ALEXANDER G. HAMILTON. 267 

BORONIA, Sm. 

PINNATA, Sm. Cooyal ; Spring and Summer ; 6. 

Philotheca, Rudge. 

AUSTRALis, Rudge. Cooyal ; two varieties, one narrow and 
the other wide-leaved ; Spring ; 3. 
CORREA, Sm. 

SPECIOSA, Andr. Home Rule, Cooyal, Goodaman; Spring; 6^ 

Geijera, Sch. 

SALiciFOLiA, Sch. Two Mile Flat ; 3. 

ZYGOPHYLLE^. 

Tribulus, L'Obel. 

TERRESTRis, L'Obel. Everywhere on river flats ; Burrs known 
as " Bulldogs " from their strength and penetrating- 
powers ; late Summer and Autumn ; 13. 

LINE^. 

LiNUM, Tour. 

MARGINALE, Cunn. Everywhere on hills ; very subject to a 
parasitic fungus (Uredo lini) ; Spring and Summer ; 9. 

GERANIACE^. 

Geranium, Tour. 

Carolinianum, Linn. Everywhere ; almost all through the 
year ; 9. 

Erodium, L'Hei'. 

CYGNORUM, Nees. Everywhere on low grounds; Spring to. 
Autumn; good feed ; 13. 

Pelargonium, L'Her. 

AUSTRALE, Willd. Cooyal ; Spring ; 9. • 
Oxalis, Linn. 

corniculata, Linn. Everywhere ; all the year ; 9. 



268 A LIST OF THE INDIGENOUS PLANTS OF THE MUDGEE DISTRICT, 

MALVACE^. 
Plagianthus, R. & G. Forst. 

PULCHELLUS, A. Gv.j 11. 

SiDA, Linn. 

CORRUGATA, Linn. On flats and uplands ; Spring and Sum- 
mer ; 13. 
Pavonia, Cav. 

HASTATA, Cav. On river banks and flats ; in Spring it bears 
inconspicuous, and in Summer coloured flowers ; 3. 
Hibiscus, Linn. 

trionum, Linn. Guntawang, on basaltic soil ; all Summer ; 
often has green or inconspicuous flowers, as well as the 
ordinary coloured blossoms ; 14. 

STERCULIACE^. 

Brachychiton, Sch. & Endl. 

POPULNEUM, R. Br. Hills ; Summer ; used as forage in 
droughts ; produces a gum like Tragacanth ; 4. 

EUPHORBIACE^ 

Euphorbia, Linn. 

Drummondii, Bois. Everywhere ; all the year ; said to be 
poisonous to sheep ; 10. 
Poranthera, Rudge. 

CORYMBosa, Brongn. Guntawang ; Spring ; 2. 
MiCROPHYLLAjBrongn. Widelyspread; Spring & Summer; 10. 
Pseudanthus, Sieb. 

DiVARiCATissiMUS, Benth. Reedy Creek ; April ; 2. 
Bertya, Planch. 

ROSMARiNiFOLiA, Planch. Cudgegong River near Appletree 
Flat; early Summer ; rare; 18. 
Phyllanthus, Linn. 

Gastrobmii, J. Muell. Common everywhere ; Spring and 
Summer; 3. 



BY ALEXANDER G. HAMILTON. 269 

Phyllanthus, Linn. 

AUSTRALis, J. Hook. Common everywhere ; Spring and 

Summer ; 18. 
THYMOIDES, Sieb. Rocky places ; Spring and Summer ; 19. 

Adriana, Gaud. 

TOMENTOSA, Gaud. On banks of rivers and creeks ; Summer ; 
eaten by cattle and horses ; sometimes called " Castor 
Oil;" 13. 

URTICACE^. 
Ficus, Tour. 

RUBIGINOSA, Desf. Home Rule, Warrable Hills, Mulla- 
muddy, Cooyal, on mountains ; 3. 
Parietaria, Tour. 

debilis, G. Forst. Rocky places ; rare ; 10. 
Urtica, Tour. 

INCISA, Poir. Mullamuddy and Applet ree Flat ; 6. 

CASUARINE^. 

Casuarina, Rumph. 

glauca, Sieb. On hills ; 8. 

STRICTA, Ait. 

suberosa, Otto & Diet. On hills ; 5. 

CuNNiNGHAMlANA, Miquel. At river ; February and March ; 

in hard seasons all the species are cut down for feed for 

stock ; 3. 
DISTYLA, Vent. Reedy Creek, Biraganbil ; Feb. and Mar. ; 26. 

SAPINDACE^. 

Dodonaea, Linn. 

TRIQUETRA, Wendl. Biraganbil, CuUenbone, Cooyal ; known 

as " Wild hops ;" 4. 
viscosA, Linn. Biraganbil and Beaudesert ; 10. 
LOBULATA,F.v.M. CuUenbone; Spring; a very local species; 12 

STACKHOUSIEiE. 

Stackhousia, Sm. 

LINARIFOLIA, Cunn. Guntawang ; Spring and Summer ; 6. 



"270 A LIST OF THE INDIGENOUS PLANTS OP THE MUDGEE DISTRICT 

Stackhousia, Sm. 

MURiCATA, Lindl- As previous species ; 7. 

VIMINEA, Sm. Guntawang ; Spring and Summer ; 23. 

PORTULACE^. 

PORTULACA, Tour. 

OLERACEA, Linn. Everywhere; Spring and Summer; used as a 
vegetable, and eaten by stock ; 13. 

CARYOPHYLLE^. 
Stellaria, Linn. 

PUNGENS, Brongn. On rocks ; Summer ; 25. 
GLAUCA, With. Everywhere ; Spring to Autumn ; 6. 
FLACCiDA, Hk. A s previous species ; 1 1 . 
MULTiFLORA, Hk. A s previous species ; 26. 

■Sagina, Linn. 

APETALA, Linn. Everywhere ; early Spring ; 25 ; not re- 
corded from N.S.W. in Census or Suppls. 
ScLERANTHUS, Linn. 

BiFLORUS, J. Hk. Everywhere ; Spring ; 5. 
Spergularia, Pers. 

RUBRA, Cambess. Guntawang, Home Rule; Spring and 
Summer ; 26. 

POLYCARPON, Loefl. 

tetraphyllum, Loefl. Everywhere; Spring and Summer; 
suspected of killing lucerne by some farmers in New- 
England ; 9. 

AMARANTACE^. 

Altebnanthera, Forsk. 

TRIAKDRA, Lam. Common everywhere all the year ; 10. 

Ptilotus, R. Br. 

OBOVATUS,F.v.M. Cullenbone and Home Rule; Summer; 13. 

EuxoLUS, Raf. 

Mitchellii, F.v.M. 22. 

INTERRUPTUS, Moq. 7 ; not hitherto recorded from N.S.W. 

MACROCARPUS,Benth. General, but not common; Summer; 4. 



BY ALEXANDER G. HAMILTON. 271 

SALSOLACE^. 
Rhagodia, R. Br. 

HASTATA, R. Br. Everywhere; Spring to Autumn : good feed ; 
in bad seasons this and the two following plants are 
only to be found near fences, or in other places where 
they are protected from stock ; 4. 

NUTANS, R. Br. As previous species ; 6. 

LINIFOLIA, R. Br. As previous species ; 3. 

Chenopodium, Tour. 

TRIANGULARE, R. Br. Everywhere ; Summer ; 3. 
CARiNATUM, R.Br, Every where J Summer; 15. 

Atriplex, Tour. 

SEMIBACCATUM, R. Br. Every where ; Summer to Autumn ; 15. 

POLYGONACE^. 
Rumex, Linn. 

Brownii, Camp. Marshy places ; common ; all the year ; 6. 

FLExuosus, Sol. Same as last species ; 16. 

Polygonum, L'Obel. 

PLEBEJUM, R. Br. Everywhere ; a troublesome weed ; nearly 

all the year ; 1 7. 
prostratum, R. Br. River banks; Summer and Autumn; 9. 
hydropiper, Linn. Damp places ; Spring to Autumn ; 8. 



NYCTAGINE^. 
Boerhaavia, Vaill. 

DIFFUSA, Linn. Everywhere; springs up in dry seasons, and 

for this reason is valuable, being liked by stock ; 13. 



272 A LIST OF THK INDIGENOUS PLANTS OF THE MUDGEE DISTRICT, 

CHOEIPETALE^ PERIGYN^. 

1. Leguminos^, 6. Halorage^. 

2. RoSACEiE. 7. MYRTACEiE. 

3. Crassulace^. 8. Rhamnace^e. 

4. OnAGRE^E, 9. ARALIACEiE. 

5. SALICARIEiE. 10. UmBELLIFER^. 

LEGUMINOS^. 
OxYLOBiUM, Andr. 

ELLiPTicuM, R. Br. Cooyal ; November and December ; 5. 

TRILOBATUM, F.v.M. Cooyal ; November and December ; 3. 

Daviesia, Sm. 

latifolia, R. Br. Biraganbil, Cooyal ; Summer ; known as 

" Wild hops" and used as a bitter ; 11. 
CORYMBOSA, Sm. Guntawang ; Two Mile Flat ; early Sum- 
mer ; 8. 
SQUARROSA, Sm. General ; Spring ; 3, 
ULiciNA, Sm. General ; Spring ; 6. 
genistifolia, Cunn. Beaudesert Hills, Cullenbone; Spring; 8. 

PULTENiEA, Sm. 

SCABRA, R. Br. Var. biloba ; 2. 

MiCROPHYLLA, Sieb, ; 3. 

TERN ATA, F.V.M. General on liiUs J Spring and Summer ; 4. 

styphelioides, Cunn. ; 2. 

INCURVATA, Cunn. Cooyal ; 1. 

DiLLWYNIA, Sm. 

ERICIFOLIA, Sm. Everywhere ; Spring and early Summer; 6. 
JUNIPERINA, Sieb. Two Mile Flat, Reedy Creek ; Spring ; 4. 

BossiiEA, Vent. 

PROSTRATA, R. Br. Everywhere ; Spring ; 6. 
HETEROPHYLLA,Vent. Generally distributed over the district, 
but not common ; Spring ; 4. 



BY ALEXANDER G. HAMILTON. 273 

HOVEA, E. Br. 

LINEARIS, R. Br. Cooyal ; Spring; 1, 

HETEROPHYLLA, Cuiin. A comiiion plant everywhere ; early 

Spring ; 6. 
LONGiFOLiA, R. Br. Reedy Creek ; Spring ; 20. 
LONGIPES, Benth. Munghorn and Cooyal ; Spi'ing ; 3. 

Lotus, Tour. 

AUSTRALis, Andr. Crooked Creek ; Spring ; 10. 

PsORALEA, Linn. 

PATENS, Lindl. On river banks and flats ; Summer ; 13, 

Indigofera, Roy. 

AUSTRALIS, Wild, Everywhere through the district ; eaten 

by horses, although it has the reputation of being a very 

poisonous plant ; Spring ; 9. 
brevidens, Benth. On rocky ground; Spring & Summer; 21. 

SwAiNSONA, Salisb. 

GALEGiFOLiA, R. Br, Home Rule and Cooyal ; Spring and 
Summer ; 3, 

>CORONiLLiFOLiA, Salisb. Generally distributed through the 
district ; Spring and Summer ; said to be poisonous to 
sheep, affecting the brain ; the seeds are poisonous to 
fowls, and in one instance I knew of thirty fowls dying 
from eating the seeds; 3. 

PHACOIDES, Benth. Common everywhei'e ; Spring and Sum- 
mer ; 13, 

PHACIFOLIA, F.v.M. ; 19, 

OROBOiDES, F,v.M, Everywhere ; Spring and Summer ; 22. 

MONTICOLA, Cunn. As last species ; 3. 

Fraseri, Benth. Eurunderee, BurrunduUa, Mount Frome ; 
Spring ; 3. 

ZoRNiA, Gmel, 

DiPHYLLA, Pers. Everywhere ; Spring to Autumn ; 7. 
Desmodium, Desv, 

BRACHYPODUM, A. Gray ; 3. 

varians, Endl. Guntawang, Cullenbone ; Spring ; 5. 
18 



274 A LIST OF THE INDIGENOUS PLANTS OF THE MUDGEE DISTRICT, 

Desmodium, Des. 

RHYTiDOPHYLLUM, F.v.M. Cullenbone, Beaudesert Hills ;. 
Spring to Autumn ; 3. 

Lespedeza, CI. Rich. 

CUNEATA, G. Don. Two Mile Flat, Guntawang, Cullenbone ; 
Summer ; flowers vary much in size and appearance ; 4. 

Glycine, Linn. 

CLANDESTINA, Wendl. Everywhere ; almost all the year ; 9. 

Kennedya, Vent. 

MONOPHYLLA, Vent. Everywhere ; July to October or later; 
usually called " Sarsaparilla" and used in the same way 
as a bitter, Sinilax the true Sarsaparilla not extending 
to this district ; 6. 

Cassia, Tour. 

LAEVIGATA, Willd. I have not collected this plant myself^ 
but Dr. Woolls found it in the district ; 3. 

SoPHERA, Linn. This plant although common on the rivei 
fiats at Wellington (45 miles distant), until lately was 
not found here ; but when the railway was completed to 
Wellington a good deal of traflic began passing through 
Guntawang from Wellington, and very soon the plant 
made its appeai-ance by the roadside, apparently intro- 
duced ; it does not appear to thrive here as it does at 
Wellington, where it is a nuisance ; 22. 

AUSTRALis, Sims. Two Mile Flat, Currangural ; Spring and 
Summer ; 23. 

AcACiA, Tour. 

SicuLiFORMis, Cunn. Everywhere ; September ; 24. 
JUNIPERINA, Willd. Reedy Creek; rare; 5. 
asparagoides, Cunn. ; 1. 

ARMATA, R. Br. Everywhere ; April to end of June ; 15. 
VOMERIFORMIS, Cumi. Reedy Creek ; rare ; 25. 
LEPROSA, Sieb. Guntawang, Reedy Creek ; October ; 2. 
STRiCTA, Willd. ; 24. 
FALCATA, Willd. ; 3. 



BY ALEXANDER G. HAMILTON. 275 

Acacia, Tour. 

GLADIIFORMIS, Cunil. ; 1. 

AMOKNA, H. L. Wendl. Havilah, Mullamuddy ; September 
and October ; 2. 

HAKEOIDES, Cunn. ; 1 9. 

SUAVEOLENS, Willd. Cooyal ; 6. 

LiNiFOLiA, Willd. ; 3. 

LUNATA, Sieb. ; Guntawang ; 4. 

BRACHYBOTRYA, Beilth. ; 19. 

MYRTiPOLiA, Willd. One plant on the Beaudesert Hills is all 

I have ever seen of this species ; 9. 
ELONGATA, Sieb. ; Cooyal ; 4. 
HOMALOPHYLLA, Cimn. The wood being sought after, only a 

few plants remain near Morrowolga, Two Mile Flat ; 19. 
IMPLEXA, Benth. ; 4. 

BINERVATA, DC. ; 3. 

TRiPTERA, Benth. Reedy Creek ; 3, 

LONGIFOLIA, Willd. ; 6. 

GLAUCESCENS, Willd. ; 3. 

SPECTABiLis, Cunn. Cooyal ; 3. 

DISCOLOR, Willd. All over district ; August and Sept.; 24. 

DECURRENS, Willd. Not at all plentiful, and it is rare to 
find it more than two or three inches in diameter ; a few 
large trees in one of Mr. Rouse's paddocks near Gunta- 
wang ; 6. 

ROSACEiE. 
RuBUS, Tour. 

MOLUCCANUS, Linu. Common ; rarely fruits ; 23. 

Ac^NA, Mut. 

oviNA, Cunn. Rare ; 9. 

SANGUisoRBiE, Vahl. Common in moist place ; 6. 

CRASSULACE^. 
TiLL^A, Mich. 

VERTICILLARIS, DC. ; 9. 

PURPURATA, J. Hook. ; 26. 
EECURVA, J. Hook. ; 9. 



276 A LIST OF THE INDIGENOUS PLANTS OF THE MUDGEE DISTRICT, 

ONAGRE^. 
Epilobium, Dill. 

TETRAGONUM, Liiin. Spring to Autumn ; 9. 

JussiEUA, Linn. 

REPENS, Linn. In the river ; Spring ; eaten by cattle ; 8. 

SALICARIE^. 

Lythrum, Linn. 

SALiCARiA, Linn. In moist places by the river ; late in Sum- 
mer ; 6. 

HALOKAGE^. 

Haloragis, K. & G. Forst. 
ELATA, Cunn. ; 8. 
ceratophylla, Zahlb. In stony places on hills ; December 

and January ; 20. 
HETEROPHYLLAjBrongn. Moist placcs^ Spring to Avitumn; 8. 
TEUCRioiDES, A. Gr. ; 26. 

Ceratophyllum, Linn. 

DEMERSUM, Liuu. In the river ; Spring and Summer ; 8. 

Callitriche, Linn. 

VERNA, Linn. ; 9. 

MYRTACE^. 

Calycothrix, Labill. 

TETRAGONA, Labill. Common at Cooyal and Home Rule, 

but I know only of one plant elsewhere, at Biraganbil ; 

Spring and Summer ; 9. 

B^CKEA, Linn. 

CuNNiNGHAMii, Benth. A small group of plants on the flats 
near Biraganbil ; 1. 
Leptospermum, R. & G. Forst. 

LjEVIGATum, F.v.M. Cooyal ; Summer ; 25. 

SCOPARIUM, R. & G. Forst. Cooyal ; Summer ; 6. 
Callistemon, R. Br. 

lanceolatus, DC. Cooyal; Summer; 4. 



BY ALEXANDER G. HAMILTON. 277 

Callistemon, R. Br. 

SALiGNUS, DC. Yar. angustifolius. Crooked Creek, Stoay 
Creek near Two Mile Flat, Biraganbil; late in Summer; 6, 
Melaleuca, Linn. 

thymifolia, Sm. Cooyal, Home Rule, Reedy Creek ; Sum- 
mer ; 3 . 
NODOSA, Sm. Reedy Creek : 3. 
Angophora, Cav. 

intermedia, DC. Everywhere ; timber rarely used ; the 
majority of the trees flower in alternate years, generally 
about February ; 4. 

Eucalyptus, L'Her. 

stellulata, Sieb. I include this tree among our flora on the 
anthoiity of Mr. C. Moore in an article on " Timbers of 
N.S.W." in " Industrial Progress of N.S.W.," 1870. It 
is also mentioned as from Mudgee in Mr. Arvid Nilson's 
"Timber Trees of N.S.W.," 1880; 2. 

MACRORRHYNCiiA, F.v.M. The stringy-bark commonest in 
the district ; 2. 

capitellata, Sm. Only found on sandstone as at Cooyal 
and Reedy Creek, and the Warrable Hills, Home 
Rule; 19. 

eugenioides, Sieb. Recorded as from Mudgee by Dr. 
WooUs in a paper on " Eucalypts of County of Cumber- 
land" in P.L.S. N.S.W. Vol. "v. p. 491 ; 2. 

h^mastoma, Sm. Var. micrantha. " Spotted Gum ;" not 
common ; 5. 

leucoxylon, F.v.M. " Red Ironbark ;" common on slaty 
ridges ; flowers usually red, but sometimes creamy 
white ; 8. 

melliodora, Cunn. "Yellowbox;" common, but appears to 
flourish best on the river flats and uplands ; timber good, 
invaluable as fuel ; 2. 

polyanthema, Sch. " Slaty-Gum ;" common on ridges, 
where it does not attain a great size, but on flats at 
Tallewang it runs up into splendid trunks, which are 
much used in bridge-building, etc., the timber being 
considered very durable ; bark smooth ; 2. 



278 A LIST OF THE INDIGENOUS PLANTS OF THE MUDGEE DISTRICT, 

Eucalyptus, L'Her. 

POPULIFOLIA, Hook. Dr. Woolls informed me that this tree 
occurs in our district ; 3. 

LARGIFLORENS, F.v.M. " Fuzzy-Box ;" Two Mile Flat; 8. 

HEMiPiiLOiA, F.V.M. "White-Box;" two distinct trees in 
this district are known as white-box, but one having 
smooth shining dark green leaves is sometimes called 
" green white-box " or " green-box ;" this grows on flats 
and has small seed vessels : the other which has pow- 
dery bluish leaves and larger fruits is named in contra- 
distinction " grey white-box ;" it frequents stony hills. 
On the lower foot hills both may sometimes be found. 
No. 1 flowers in April and May, and has different leaves 
in the young plants, and No. 2 flowers in June and July. 
It is probably E. alhens (Mig.) which I believe is now 
united with E. hemlphloia, but I cannot help thinking 
they are distinct : the only point of resemblance is the 
bark. Both afford desirable timber, and excellent 
fuel; 8. 

SIDEROPHLOIA, Benth. " White Ironbark ;" Reedy Creek j 
considered by some timber-getters the better of the two 
ironbarks ; but others hold an opposite opinion ; 2. 

GLOBULUS, Labill. Only at MuUamuddy ; the Meroo, from 
whence I have seen other specimens, lies outside the 
boundaries I have mentioned ; only seeds and buds on 
the trees in October ; the seeds collected germinated 
freely; 24. 

GONIOCALYX, F.V.M. On the authority of Dr. Woolls, who 
mentions it in his work, " The Plants of N. S. Wales," 
1885 ; 19. 

Stuautiana, F.V.M. Known in vicinity of Mudgee as 
"Peppermint," and at Cooyal as "Woolly Butt ;" timber 
not good ; makes very bad fuel, but when burnt, 
excellent charcoal ; 25. 

viMiNALis, Labill. " White Gum ;" Home Rule, Cooyal, and 
more sparsely all over the district ; 25. 



BY ALEXANDER G. HAMILTON. 279 

Eucalyptus, L'Her. 

DEALBATA, F.v.M. Tliis, Dr.Woolls says, is regarded by some 
as a variety of the preceding, but I have little doubt that 
it is a good species. It is known as " White," or " Cab- 
bage-gum"; useless for timber as it chips off and warps so 
much that, if bolted dowu, the bolts sink into the wood 
as it curls ; Cooyal, Home Rule, Biraganbil. 

BOSTRATA, Schl. " River Gum," " Yarrah ;" grows only on 
river flats ; some of the old trees of this species are 
perfect studies for the landscape paintei", and a portfolio 
might be filled with "bits" of the most delightful kind 
on the Menah Flat alone, where the trees have a gnarly 
character with drooping foliage that I have not observed 
elsewhere ; timber good, but in large logs almost impos- 
sible to burn ; 13. 

TERETICORNIS, Sm. " Blue Gum ;" Reedy Creek, Two Mile 
Flat, Home Rule. Whatever doubts may exist as to the 
capabilities of the Mudgee district in other respects, it 
must be admitted to be unrivalled in the production of 
wool, and few districts, as will be seen from list above, 
excel it in producing hardwood. I think there is a great 
future before Mudgee in the matter of timber production, 
and those who have seen its forest-clad hills will, I arn 
sure, agree with me ;* 4. 

Metrosideros, Bks. 

GLOMULIFERA, Sm. Collected by Dr. Woolls ; 3. 

RHAMNACE.^. 

POMADERRIS, Labill. 

LANiGERA, Sims. Cooyal ; Summer ; known to settlers by 
the curious name of "Wild Quince ;" 24. 

* In addition to the above Eucalypts, I have in my list E. hotryoides, 
Sm., and E. obllqua, L'Heritier, but as I have for^^otten the authority for 
including them, and can find no references to them in my notes, I thought 
it best not to include them, especially as both are coast-loving trees. 



280 A LIST OP THE INDIGENOUS PLANTS OP THE MUDGEE DISTRICT, 

Cryptandra, Sm. 

AMARA, Sm. Everywhere ; in early spring ; easily trans- 
planted but rarely lives more than one season in a 
garden ; 6. 

COLLETIA, Comm. 

PUBESCENS, Bi'ongn. On basaltic soil, Guntawang; very rare; 
24. 

ARALIACE.^. 
Panax, Linn. 

SAMBUCiFOLius, Sieb. Near Appletree Flat, and at MuUa- 
muddy ; very rare ; 5. 

UMBELLIFER^. 

Hydrocotyle, Tour. 

LAXIFLORA, DC. The only species I know in the district, 
but Dr. Woolls in an article on the vegetation of this 
district in Sydney Morning Herald fifteen years ago, 
mentions having collected three others (Avhich however 
he does not name); known to some as "native migno- 
nette ;" grows everywhere ; 8. 
DiDiscus, DC. 

iNCisus, Hook. Cooyal only; 3. 
Xanthosia, Rudge. 

PILOSA, Rudge. Cooyal only ; 5. 
Actinotus, Labill. 

helianthi, Labill. Beaudesert, Mudgee Hills, Reedy Creek, 
Cullenbone, etc.; on stony ground ; in summer, but a 
few blooms may be found up to April ; near Mudgee 
this year there was a patch of several acres which could 
be seen quite white on the hills for miles ; 4. 

Eryngium, Tour. 

rostratum, Cavan. General, but not common; January; 15. 

Apium, Tour. 

leptophyllum, F.v.M. In most places ; common ; 4. 



BY ALEXANDER G. HAMILTON. 281 

Crantzia, Nutt. 

LINEATA, Nutt. In marshy spots and along edge of th& 
river; 6. 
Daucus, Tour. 

BRACHiATUS, Sieb. Common but not plentiful ; 9 



SYNPETALE^ PERIGYN^. 

1. OlACINE^E. , 7. CAPRIFOLIACEiE. 

2. Santalace^e. 8. Composite!;. 

3. LORANTHACEiE. 9. CaMPANULACE^. 

4. Proteace^. 10. Candolleace^. 

5. ThYMELE^. 11 GOODENIACE^ 

6. RUBIACEiE. 

OLACINE^. 
Olax, Linn. 

STRICTA, R. Br. Cooyal ; 3. 

SANTALACE^. 
Santalum, Linn. 

LANUEOLATUM, R. Br. ] 21. 

OBTUSiFOLiuM, R. Br. Crooked Creek, Guntawang ; Feb. ; 2. 
Choretrum, R. Br. 

LATERIFLORUM, R. Br. ; 2. 

Candollei, F.v.M. ; 3. 
Leptomeria, R. Br. 

ACIDA, R. Br. ; 4. 
Omphacomeria, Endl. 

ACERBA, A. de Cand. These 4 species are all known as. 
" Native Currant ;" scarce, rarely bearing fruit ; 2. 
ExocARPUs, Labill. 

CUPRESSIFORMIS, Labill. Everywhere ; fruit ripe in February 
and March ; 9. 

STRICTA, R. Br. Cullenbone ; rare ; October and on ; 25. 



282 A LIST OF THE INDIGENOUS PLANTS OF THE MUDGEE DISTRICT, 



LORANTHACE^. 

NOTOTHIXOS, Oliv. 

INCANUS, Oliv. On Cuirajong trees (Sterculia) ; always in 
flower ; 3. 
LoRANTiius, Linn. 

CELASTROiDES, Sisb. On Eucalypts ; 4. 

LONGIFLORUS, Desr. ; 7. 

EXOCARPi, Behr. ; 13. 

LiNOPHYLLUs, Fenzl. Var. parviplorus ; on CalUtris; 13. 

PENDULUS, Sieb. ; 13. 

PROTEACE^. 
ISOPOGON, R. Br. 

PETiOLARis, Cunn. Cooyal and Home Rule ; 1. 
Pbrsoonia, Sm. 

LINEARIS, Andr. Guntawang; 4. 
PiNiFOLiA, R. Br. Guntawang ; 1. 
REVOLUTA, Sieb. Guntawang ; 1 . 
CuNNiNGHAMii, R. Br. Cooyal ; 1. 
CHAMiEPEUCE, Lhot. Guutawang ; 2. 
Grevillea, R. Br. 

iLici FOLIA, R. Br. I find this given as from Mudgee by Dr. 
Woolls in the list of Mudgee Plants published in Sydneij 
Morning Heraldin 1872. In the Census of Australian 
plants, however, its distribution is limited to South Aus- 
tralia and Victoria. It may perhaps be a misprint, or 
synonym. 
FLORiBUNDA, R. Br. Culleiibone only, and thei'e in oiie 

limited locality and rare ; 4. 
CINEREA, R. Br. Cooyal ; 1. 
SERICEA, R. Br. Cooyal ; 1 . 
TRiTERNATA, R. Br. Reedy Creek, Cooyal ; 2. 
RAMOSissiMA, Meiss. Everywhere, but not plentiful ; 1. 
Hakea, Sohr. 

MiCROCARPA, R. Br. Cooyal ; 24. 



BY ALEXANDER G. HAMILTON. 283 

LOMATIA, R. Br. 

ILICIFOLIA, R. Br. Cooyal ; 2. 

SILAIFOLIA, R. Br. Cooyal ; called by settlers " Flowering 
fern;" 3. 
Banksia, Linn. 

MARGINATA, Cav. Cooyal ; 25. 

THYMELE^. 

PiMELEA, Bks. & Sol, 
GLAUCA, R. Br.; 6. 
COLLINA, R. Br.; 4. 
LINIFOLIA, Sm.; 5. 
CURVIFLORA, R. Br.; 6. 

These four species are generally distributed. 

RUBIACE^. 

Opercularia, Gaert. 

HispiDA, Spreng. Beaudesert Hills and Cullenbone ; 2, 

DiPHYLLA, Gaert. Cullenbone; both flower in early Summer; 3. 

POMAX, Sol. 

UMBELLATA, Sol, Everywhere on stony hills ; Spring; 8. 

ASPERULA, Dod. 

OLiGANTHA, F.v.M. Everywhere ; 6. 
Galium, Dod. 

UMBROSUM, Sol.; 25. 

CAPRIFOLIACE^. 
Sambucus, Tour. 

XANTHOCARPA, F.v.M. Only in MuUamuddy gully ; Nov.; 4. 

COMPOSITE. 

Lagenophora, Cass. 

SOLENOGYNE, F.V.M. Everywhere ; all the year round ; 3. 
Brachycome, Cass. 

DiVERSiFOLiA, Fisch. and Mey. ; and var. humilis. Every- 
where ; early spring ; 25, 



284 A LIST OF THE INDIGENOUS PLANTS OF THE MUDGEE DISTRICT, 

Brachycome, Cass. 

MELANOCARPA, Sond. and F.v.M. Reedy Creek ; all the 
year ; 19. 

PACHYPTERA, Turc. J 27. 

SCAPIGERA, DC. ; 2. 

GRAMINEA, F.V.M. Everywhere common all the year ; 25. 

DECIPIENS, J. Hook. Only collected at Crooked Creek, 

CuUenbone and Reedy Creek ; in Spring and again in 

Autumn ; 25. 
STRICTA, DC. ; 11. 

ciLiARis, Less. Common everywhere ; Summer ; 26. 
CALOCARPA, F.V.M. ; 19. 
MARGINATA, Benth. Guntawang ; Beaudesert ; Goree ; 3. 

MiNURIA, DC. 

LEPTOPHYLLA, DC. ; 15. 

CuNNiNGHAMii, Benth. On hills; Spring; 19. 

Calotis, R. Br. 

CUNEIPOLIA, R. Br. Everywhere ; common ; always in 

flower ; 8. 
LAPPULACEA, Benth. As previous species ; 15. 

Aster, Tour. 

STELLULATUS, Labill. ; 6. 
RAMULOSus, Labill. ; 25. 
MiCROPHYLLUS, Pers. ; 25. 

Vittadinia, a. Rich. 

AUSTRALis, A. Rich., and var. tenuissima ; 9. 

SCABRA, DC. ; 3. 
Gnaphalium, Linn. 

LUTEO-ALBUM, Linn. ; 10. 

Japonicum, Thunb. ; 9. 

PURPUREUM, Linn. ; 3. 

Podolepis, Labill. 

acuminata, R. Br. Stony hills ; August to October ; 6. 



BY ALEXANDER G. HAMILTON. 285 

Leptorrhynchos, Less. 

SQUAMATUS, Less. Common everywhere in Spring ; 25. 
ELONGATUS, DC. Biraganbil J rare; 26. 

Helipterum, DC. 

ANTHEMOiDEs, DC. Beaudesart Hills, Home Rule, Cooyal; 6. 
INCANUM, DC. On stony ground all through the district ; 6. 
DiMORPHOLEPis, Benth. Spreads rapidly on cleared ground ; 
September and October ; 27. 

Heliciirysum, Vaill. 

LUCIDUM, Henck. Everywhere on stony ground ; Spring to 

Autumn ; 1 0. 
ELATUM, Cunn. ; 4. 

APICULATUM, DC. Everywhere; Spring & early Summer; 10. 
SEMiPAPPOSUM, DC. As last species ; 9. 

Cassinia, R. Br. 

ACULEATA, R. Br. ; 25. 
L^vis, R. Br. ; 22. 
ARCUATA, B. Br. ; 27. 

Ammobium, R. Br. 

ALATUM, R. Br. Common in Spring on River flats ; has a 
tendency to spread in cultivated ground ; 3. 
Angianthus, Wendl. 

TOMENTOSus, Wendl. Guntawang ; rare ; 28. 

STRICTUS, Benth. Guntawang; rare; 27. 

Gnaphalodes, a. Gr. 

ULIGINOSUM, Spring ; discharges its ripe seeds from a minia- 
tui'e mortar like a flight of rockets. The contrivance by 
which this is accomplished is worthy of attention ; 15. 

Craspedia, G. Fors. 

RiCHEA, Cass. In Spring common everywhere ; 9. 

SlEGESBECKIA, Linn. 

OUiENTALis, Linn. ; 15. 
EcLlPTA,Linn. 

PLATYGLOSSA, F.v.M. ; 17. 



286 A LIST OP THE INDIGENOUS PLANTS OP THE MUDGEE DISTRICT^ 

Glossogyne, Cass. 

TENUIPOLIA, Cass. ; 14. 
CoTULA, Linn. 

AUSTRALis, J. Hook. A troublesome weed ; 9. 
Centipeda, Lour. 

ORBICULARIS, Loiir. TMs plant, which flowers herein autumn, 
is the one to which Dr. Woolls has lately directed atten- 
tion as a remedy for " blight ;" made into an infusion 
(loz. to a pint of water), it is said to be of great service 
in reducing inflammation ; 10. 

CUNNINGHAMI, F.V.M. j 27. 

Senecio, Tour. 

latjtus, Sol. ; 9. 
VAGUS, F.V.M. ; 2. 
AUSTRALIS, A. Rich. ; 25. 

Erechtites, Raf. 

ARGUTA, DC; 9. 

Cymbonotus, Cass. 

Lawsonianus, Gaud. August and September ; 26. 
Centaurea, Linn. 

AUSTRALIS, Benth. & J. Hook. Rare ; Summer ; 4. 
Crepis, Linn. 

japonica, Benth. Everywhei'e ; a troublesome weed ; 3. 

CAMPANULACE^. 
Lobelia, Linn. 

siMPLiciCAULis, R. Br. On hills ; Summer ; usually forms a 
thick stem in Spring, and then when the heat of Summer 
comes on, having but slight root-hold, it draws upon the 
store of nutriment in its stem to enable it to blossom ; T 
have often collected it with the roots so dry that they 
would crumble in my fingers, and yet it was quite fresh 
and bright looking in its blossoms and leaves above the 
thicker stem ; 25. 



BY ALEXANDER G. HAMILTON. 287 

Lobelia, Linn. 

PURPURASCENS, R. Br. Common on banks of river and 
creeks ; 8. 

ISOTOMA, R. Br. 

AXILLARIS, Lindl. Home Rule and Cooyal in crevices of rock ; 
easily transplanted and makes an admirable basket 
or rockwork plant, flowering freely for months ; 4. 

FLUVIATILIS, F.v.M. On creek and river banks; always in 
flower ; 6. 

Wahlenbergia, Schr. 

GRACILIS, A. DC. Everywhere; always in flower ; 10. 



CANDOLLEACE^. 

Candollea, Labill. (Stylidium Sw.). 

GRAMINIFOLIA, Sw. ; 6. 

LINEARIS, Sw. ; both common everywhere; early Spring; 1. 
LARICIFOLIA, Rich. Cooyal ; 3. 

Leewenhoekia, R. Br. 

DUBIA, Sond. Common on uplands in early Spring ; 26. 

GOODENIACE^. 

Dampiera, R. Br. 

STRICTA, R. Br. Cooyal ; Summer ; 25. 

GOODENIA, Sm. 

decurrens, R. Br. ; 1. 

GENicuLATA, R. Br. Cullenbone ; Crooked Creek ; 9. 
hederacea, Sm. Guntawang, on banks of river ; 4. 
HETEROPHYLLA, Sm. Guntawang, on banks of river ; 3. 
heteromera, F.v.M. Common everywhere ; 19. 
PANICULATA, Sm. Cooyal, Biraganbil, Home Rule ; 4. 



288 A LIST OF THE INDIGENOUS PLANTS OF THE MUDGEE DISTRICT, 

Velleya, Sm. 

PERFOLIATA, R. Br. Cooyal ; usually considered alpine in its 
habitat, but it certainly cannot be considered so here, as 
the ranee on which it occurs is not moi-e than 2,000 feet 
above the sea, and it is found from top to bottom of it, 
beins more luxuriant in the latter situation on account 
of the more abundant moisture ; 1. 

PARADOXA, R. Br. Common everywhere : always in flower ; 6. 

MACROCALYX, DeVr. As last species ; 3. 



SYNPETALE^ HYPOGYN^. 

1. GENTIANEiE. 7. SCROPHULARINEiE. 

2. Plantagine^. 8. Bignoniace^. 

3. PrIMULACE^. 9. AsPERIFGLIiE, 

4. MYRSINACEiE. 10. LaBIAT^. 

5. CONVOLVULACE^. 11. VerBENACE^. 

6. SOLANACE^. 12. MyOPORIN^. 

13. EPACRIDEiE. 

GENTIANE^. 

SEBiEA, Sol. 

OVATA, R. Br. Common everywhere ; Spring ; both this 
species and the next contain a bitter principle, and are 
sometimes used in cases of diarrhoea and dysentery ; 9. 

Erythr^a, Pers. 

AUSTRALis, R. Br. Flowers a little later than the preceding 
species, and up till April ; 10. 

PLANTAGINE^. 

Plantago, Tour. 

VARIA, R. Br. Common everywhere ; Spring ; 9. 



BY ALEXANDER G. HAMILTON. 289 

PRIMULACE^. 

Samolus, Tour, 

Valerandi, Linn. On river banks and in moist places ; 
Spring; 4. 

MYRSINACE^. 
Myrsine, Linn. 

VARIABILIS, R. Br. Cooyal ; 4. 

CONVOLVULACE^. 

Convolvulus, Tour. 

ERUBESCENS, Sims. Common everywhere ; Spring to Au- 
tumn ; 9. 
DicHONDRA, R. and G. Forst. 

REPENS, R. and G. Forst. Common everywhere ; 10. 

SOLANACE^. 
SoLANUM, Tour. 

NIGRUM, Linn. Common everywhere ; Spring to Autumn ; 

spreads in cultivated ground ; 10. 
AVICULARE, G. Forst. ; 6. 
VERBASCIFOLIUM, Linn. ; 3. 

STELLIGERUM, Sm. ; 3. 

CAMPANULATUM, R. Br. ; 3. The last two species I have 

found only at Mullamuddy. 
CINEREUM, R. Br. Everywhere, but not common ; 3. 
NicOTiANA, Tour. 

SUAVEOLENS, Lehm. Only at Mullamuddy ; October; 13. 

SCROPHULARINE^. 
MiMULUS, Linn. 

GRACILIS, R. Br. On banks and creeks all through the 

district ; Spring to Autumn ; 17. 
REPENS, R. Br. Biraganbil, muddy flats ; 9. 
PROSTRATUS, Benth. Biraganbil, in moist places ; 8. 
Oratiola, Rupp. 

PEDUNCULATA, R. Bl'.; 15. 

19 



290 A LIST OF THE INDIGENOUS PLANTS OF THE MUDGEE DISTRICT, 

Gratiola, Rupp. 

Peruviana, Linn. Both in marshy spots near river's edge; 10. 

I.IMOSELLA, Linn. 

aquatica, Linn. In lagoons and on river banks ; 26. 

Veronica, Tour. 

perfoliata, R. Br. On stony hills throughout the district ; 

September and October ; said to be a mark of auriferous 

formations ; 2. 
plebeja, R. Br.; 5. 
serpillifolia, Linn. On flats ; September and October ; I 

believe this is considered an alpine plant, but hei'e it 

grows luxuriantly on flats at a height of not more than 

1500 or 1600 feet above sea-level ; 2. 

Euphrasia, Tour. 

Brownii, F.V.M.; 9. 
SCABRA, R. Br.; 9. 

BIGNONIACE^. 

Tecoma, de Juss. 

australis, R. Br. Two Mile Flat, Beaudesert, MuUamuddy ; 
September and October ; 17. 

ASPERIFOLI^. 
Myosotis, Rupp. 

australis, R. Br.; 26. 

SUAVEOLENS, Poir.; 11. 

Cynoglossum, Tour. 

SUAVEOLENS, R. Br.; 25, 

australe, R. Br.; 6. 

LABIATE. 
Plectranthus, L'Herit. 

parviflorus, Willd. Crooked Creek, in stony ground ; 
Summer ; 17. 



BY ALEXANDER G. HAMILTON. 291 

Mentha, Tour. 

LAXiFLORA, Benth.j 2. 

AUSTRALIS, E,. Br. J 20. 

SATUREJOIDES, R. Br.; 9. 
All grow on low grounds and all alike known as " Pennyroyal." 
Lycopus, Tour. 

AU3TRALIS, R. Br. Among reeds on bank of river; Summer; 6. 
Salvia, Linn. 

PLEBEJA, R. Br.; 4. 
Scutellaria, Herm. 

MOLLIS, R. Br. In stony places ; Spring and Summer ; 2. 
Prostanthera, Labill. 

linearis, R. Br. Two Mile Flat ; I have seen only one plant 
of this species ; Dr. WooUs collected three species of this 
genus at Cooyal, but does not give names ; 1. 
Ajuga, Linn. 

AUSTRALIS, R. Br. Everywhere on hills ; 6. 

VERBENACE^. 

Spartothamnus, Cunn. 

junceus, Cunn. Reedy Creek and Cooyal ; 3. 
Verbena, Tour. 

OFFICINALIS, Linn. In moist places everywhere ; August to 
May; 6. 

MYOPORIN^. 

Myoporum, Bks. & Sol. 

tenuifolium, G. Forst.; 23. 

montanum, R. Br. On hills ; Spring and Summer; 13. 

DEBILE, R, Br. On stony foothills ; 3. 

EPACRIDE^. 

Styphelia, Sol. 

LiETA, R. Br. April to August ; known as "Five Corner;" 1. 
viRiDis, Andr. Cooyal only, collected by Mr. Percy 
Williams ; 3. 



292 A LIST OF THE INDIGENOUS PLANTS OF THE MUDGEE DISTRICT, 

Styphelia, Sol. 

TUBIFLORA, Sm. Cooyal only ; 1. 

HUMIFUSA, Pers. Reedy Creek ; 26. 

URCEOLATA, F.v.M. Eveiy where ; 4. 

SAPIDA, F.v.M. Everywhere ; 1. 

STRIGOSA, Sm. Everywhere ; 6. 

MiCROPHYLLA, Spreng. Cooyal, Reedy Creek ; 1. 

viRGATA, Labill. Cooyal ; 25. 

ATTENUATA, F.V.M. Cooyal ; 1. 

ERicoiDES, Sm. Cooyal ; 6. 

ELLiPTiCA, Sm. Cooyal; 5. 

SCOPARIA, Sm, Cooyal ; 5. 

Brachyloma, Sond. 

DAPHNOiDES, Beiith. Everywhere ; September & October; 6. 

Epacris, Cavan. 

crassifolia, R. Br. On wet rocks, Cooyal ; nearly always 

in flower ; 1. 
apiculata, Cunn. Cooyal ; 1. 

Dracophyllum, Labill. 

SECUNDUM, R. Br. Cooyal ; 1. 



APET A LE^ GYMNOSPEKME^. 

1. CoNIPERiE. 2. CyCADE^. 

CONIFERS. 

Callitris, Vent. 

VERRUCOSA, R. Bi\ Everywhere on hills ; 1 3 
COLUMELLARIS, F.V.M. Cooyal ; 3. 

CYCADE^. 

Encephalartos, Lehm. 

spiralis, Lehm. Everywhere on bills ; 



BY ALEXANDER G. HAMILTON. 293 



MONOCOTYLEDONE^. 
CALYCES PERIGYN^. 

1. ORCHIDEiE. 3. HYDROCHARIDEiE. 

2. Irweje. 4. Amaryllide.e. 

ORCHIDE^. 

Sturmia, Reich. 

reflexa, F.v.M. Cooyal and Mullamuddy ; June to Sep- 
tember ; 3. 

Dendrobium, Sw, 

speciosum, Sm, Cooyal, Mullamuddy ; October and Novem- 
ber ; 4. 
TERETIFOLIUM, R. Br. Cooyal ; 3. 

DiPODiuM, R. Br. 

PUNCTATUM, R. Br. Cooyal ; December and January ; 20. 
Var. Hamiltonianum, Bailey. Guntawang; November to 
January; 3. 
Cymbidium, Sw. 

SUAVE, R. Br. Collected by Dr. Woolls ; 3. 
Thelymitra, R. (fe G. Forst. 

longifolia, Forst. Common everywhere ; September and 
October ; 9. 

megcalyptra, R.D.F. Generally distributed ; September 

and October ; 1. 
NUDA, R. Br. ; 5 
DiURIS, Sm. 

AUREA, Sm. September and October ; 3. 
MACULATA, Sm. Everywhere ; September and October ; 6. 
PEDUNCULATA, R. Br. Everywhere ; August & Sept. ; 25. 
ABBREViATA, F.V.M. A liiU-loving species; October and 
November ; 3. 



294 A LIST OP THE INDIGENOUS PLANTS OF THE MUDGEE DISTRICT, 
DiURIS, Sm. 

SULPHUREA, R. Br. On the low country ; September and 
October ; 25. 

TRICOLOR, R. D. F. Another hill-form ; middle of August to 
October ; 1. 

ELONGATA, R. Br., and var. longissima. Everywhere ; from 
middle of September to December; 19. 

DENDROBioiDES, R.D.F. Guntawang J September; 1. 

Calochilus, R. Br. 

CAMPESTRis, R. Br. Rocky Hills ; September ; 5. 

Prasophyllum, R. Br. 

FLAVUM, R. Br. Reedy Creek ; Cooyal ; November ; 1. 

elatum, R. Br. Collected by Dr. Woolls ; 26. 

brevilabre, J. Hook. On hills &, flats; August to October ; 5. 

PATENS, R. Br., and var. truncatum, Lindl. ; 6. 

FUSCUM, R. Br. and var. grandiflorum ; 6. 

alpinum, R. Br. Grows on the hills; November. 

RUFUM, R. Br. On flats and creek banks ; May and June ; 5. 

Microtis, R. Br. 

PORRiFOLiA, Spreng. ; 9. 

parviflora, R. Br. October to December. 

CORYSANTHES, R. Br. 

Hamiltonii, R.D.F. Beaudesert Hills ; rare ; July and 
August ; 1. 

Pterostylis, R. Br. 

CONCINNA, R. Br. Moist gullies ; June to September ; 8. 
STRIATA, R.D.F. Beaudesert Hills; rare; July; 1. 
CURTA, R. Br. July to October ; 6. 
ACUMINATA, R. Br. September and October ; 2. 
NUTANS, R. Br. Cooyal, Mullamuddy, Biraganbil ; June and 
July; 6. 



BY ALEXANDER G. HAMILTON. 



295 



Pterostylis, K. Br. 

CLAViGERA, R.D.F. Biraganbil Hills ; September ; 1. 
REFLEX A, R. Br. Common everywhere ; March to July ; 27. 
OBTUSA, R. Br. Only found at Cooyal ; April ; 11. 
PARVIFLORA, R. Br. Common everywhere ; March to Junej 5. 
MUTiCA, R. Br. Common everywhere ; August to October ; 6. 
CYCNOCEPHALA, R.D.F. Common ; August and September ; 1. 
RUFA, R. Br. General ; July to November ; 9. 
MiTCHELLi, Lindl. Common everywhere ; September to 



November. 

SQUAMATA, R. Br. 

November. 

WooLLsii, R.D.F. 



On rocky hill-sides ; September to 



Eastern side of Beaudesert Range ; 
October, November and December; 1. 

LONGiFOLiA, R. Br. In shady gullies ; June to September ; 25. 

Caleya, R. Br. 

MINOR, R. Br. Biraganbil; November; 18. 

AciANTHUs, R. Br. 

FORNiCATUS, R. Br. Everywhere ; April to September ; 3. 

Cyrtostylis, R. Br. 

reniformis, R. Br. Common; August to October; 9. 

Lyperanthus, R. Br. 

suaveolens, R. Br. Beaudesert Hills, Biraganbil ; September 
to November; 11. 



Eriochilus, R. Br. 

AUTUMNALIS, R. 

May; 6. 
Caladenia, R. Br. 



Br. Common everywhere ; March to 



CLAVIGERA, A. Cunn. Goree, Guntawang, Biraganbil ; 
rare; September and October; 11. 

DiLATATA, R. Br. Common everywhere ; September to 
November ; 1 2. 



296 A LIST OP THE INDIGENOUS PLANTS OF THE MUDGEE DISTRICT, 

CaladeniA; R. Br. 

ARENARiA, R.D.F. Beauclesert Hills ; October and Novem- 
ber; rare ; 1. 
FiLAMENTOSA, R. Br. Common on rocky hills ; August and 

September ; 33. 
cucuLLATA, R.D.F. Guntawang, Cooyal ; October ; 1. 
CARNEA, R. Br. Everywhere ; August to October ; 6. 
ALBA, R. Br. Cooyal ; September j 3. 
c^RULEA, R. Br. Common ; August to October ; 25. 

Chiloglottis, R. Br. 

FORMiciFERA, R.D.F. Cooyal ; September; 1. 

TRAPEZiFORMis, R.D.F. Guntawang, Cooyal, Mullamuddy, 
Cullenbone ; September and October ; 1. 

Glossodia, R. Br. 

MAJOR, R. Br. Everywhere ; August to October; 6. 

IRIDE^. 

Patersonia, R. Br. 

SERiCEA, R. Br. On low hills ; 4. 

HYDROCHARIDE^. 

Halophila, Thou. 

OVATA, Gaud. In River ; 6. 

Ottelia, Pers. 

OVALIFOLIA, L. C. Rich. In River; 13. 

Vallisneria, Linn. 

SPIRALIS, Linn. In River ; 20. 

AMARYLLIDE^. 

Hypoxis, Linn. 

HYGROMETRiCA, Labill. In lowlands ; flowers almost any- 
time after rain ; 6. 



BY ALEXANDER G. HAMILTON. 297 

CALYCES HYPOGYN^. 

1. LiLIACEiE. 5. AlISMACE^. 

2. Typhace>e. 6. Commeline.«. 

3. LeMNACE.E. 7. JUNCE^. 

4. Fluviales. 8. Kestiace^. 

LILIACE^. 
Dianella. Lam. 

longifolia, R. Br. ; 6. 
revoluta, R. Br. ; 9. 
CiERULEA, Sims. ; 3. 

Eustrephus, K Br. 

Brownii, F.v.M. Cooyal ; Summer ; 4. 
Geitonoplesium, Cunn. 

CYMOSUM, Cunn. Cooyal ; 4, 
Warmbea, Thun. 

DioiCA, F.v.M. Everywhere ; two varieties ; August ; 9. 
Bulbine, Linn. 

BULBOSA, Haw. Common everywhere ; August to October 
or later ; 6. 

Thysanotus, R. Br. 

Patersoni, R. Br. On hills ; Summer ; rare ; 26. 

JUNCEUS, R. Br. Everywhere; November to January ; L 
CiESiA, R. Br. 

VITTATA, R. Br.; 6. 
Tricoryne, R. Br. 

elatior, R. Br. Everywhere ; Spring and Summer ; 9. 
Stypandra, R. Br, 

glauca, R. Br. Flowers in spring on rocky hills ; 29. 



298 A LIST OF THE INDIGENOUS PLANTS OF THE MUDGEE DISTRICT, 

Arthropodium, R. Br. 

PANICULATUM, E. Br.j 6. 

MINUS, R. Br.; 25. 

STRICTUM, R. Br.; 6 

LAXUM, Sieb.; 19. 
Bartlingia, F.v.M. 

GRACILIS, F.V.M. Common on flats ; August to April ; 4. 
Xerotes, R. Br. 

LONGiFOLiA, R. Br.; 6. 

Brownii, F.V.M.; 17. 

Thunbergii, F.V.M.; 8. 

PLEXIFOLIA, R. Br. All on poor soil ; Summer ; 1. 

LEUCOCEPHALA, R. Br. On flats ; Winter, beginning early 
in May ; 8. 
Xanthorrhcea, Sm. 

ARBOREA, R. Br. On rocky ranges ; Summer; 3. 

TYPHACE^. 
Typha, Tour. 

ANGUSTiFOLiA, Linn. On margin of river ; Spring ; 10. 
Sparganium, Tour. 

ANGUSTiFOLiUM, R. Br. On margin of river ; Spring ; 4. 

LEMNACEiE. 

Lemna, Linn. 

OLIGORRHIZA, Kurz.; 17. 
POLYRRiiiZA, Linn.; 2. 

FLUVIALES. 

Triglochin, Riv. 

procera, R. Br.; 10. 

POTAMOGETON, FucllS. 

NATANS, Linn.; 9. 

ALISMACEiE. 

Damasonium, Tour. 

australe, Salisb. In dams and lagoons ; 15. 



BY ALEXANDER G. HAMILTON. 299 

COMMELINE^. 

COMMELINA, Plum. 

CYANEA, R. Br. On sandy banks of rivers, and in one instance 
on a basaltic point near Guntawang ; late in Summer ; 7. 

JUNCE^. 
LUZULA, DC. 

CAMPESTRis, DC. On lowlands ; Spring ; 9. 

JuNCUS, Tour. 

BUFONius, Linn.; 9. 
HOMALOCAULIS, F.V.M.; 19. 
COMMUNIS, E. Mey. ; 9. 
PALLiDus, R. Br.; 9. 
PRISMATOCARPUS, R. Bi".; 9. 

RESTIACE^. 

Centrolepis, Labill. 

FASCicuLARis, Labill.; 25. 

ACALYCE^ HYPOGYNEJE. 

I. CYPERACEiE. 2. GRAMINEiE. 

CYPERACE^. 

Kyllingia, Rottb. 

MONOCEPHALA, Rottb.; 22. 

Cyperus, Tour. 

GRACILIS, R, Br.; 8. 
DIFPORMIS, Linn.; 13. 
CONCINNUS, R. Br.; 4. 
VAGiNATUS, R, Br.; 13. 
FULVUS, R. Br.; 22. 
CARiNATus, R. Br.; 7. 
ORNATUS, R. Br.; 3. 
congestus, Vahl. ; 30 



300 A LIST OF THE INDIGENOUS PLANTS OP THE MUDGEE DISTRICT^ 

Gyperus, Tour. 

LuciDus, R. Br. ; 20. 
EXALTATus, Retz. ; 17. 

Heleocharis, R. Br. 

ATRiCHA, R. Br. On margin of river ; 7. 

FlMBRISTYLIS, Vahl. 

COMMUNIS, Kunth; 17. 
SciRPUS, Tour. 

SETACEUS, Linn. ; 9. 
SCHOENUS, Linn. 

iMBERBis, R. Br. ; 2. 

Brownii, Hook. 

BREViFOLius, R. Br. ; 15. 
Cladium, R. Br. 

TERETiFOLiUM, R. Br. In water at river's edge : Spring ; 3. 

microstachyum, F.v.M. ; 2. 
Caustis, R. Br. 

flexuosa, R. Br. Known as " Curly Cane " and used for 
brooms ; Cooyal only ; 23. 
Carex, Rupp. 

inversa, R. Br. ; 9. 

paniculata, Linn. ; 9. 

Pseudo-cyperus, Linn. ; 9. 

GRAMINE^. 

Eriochloa, Humb. 

ANNULATA, Kuutli ; Reedy Creek ; April ; 22. 
Paspalum, Linn. 

DiSTiCHUM, Linn. ; 31. 

Panicum, Tour. 

sanguinale, Linn. ; 32. 
leucoph^um, Humb. ; 8. 
flavidum, Retz. ; 7, 
Crus-galli, Linn. ; 13. 
atro-virens, Trin. ; 4. 



BY ALEXANDER G. HAMILTON. 301 

Imperata, Cyr. 

ARUNDiNACEA, Cyr. On river banks j 10. 

Erianthus, L. C. Eich. 
FULVUS, Kunth ; 21. 

Hemarthria, R. Br. 

COMPRESSA, R. Br. Cullenbone, Gulgong ; rare ; 9. 

Andropogon, Roy. 

SERicEUS, R. Br. ; 13. 
REFRACTUS, R. Br. ; 23. 
MONTANUS, Roxb. ; 23. 
HALEPENSis, Sib. & Sm. ; 31. 
AUSTRALis, Spreng. ; 23. 

Anthistiria, Linn. 

CILIATA, Linn. fil. This year this grass has attained a luxuri- 
ance seldom seen ; I collected numbers of stalks over 
7 feet in height; 10. 

Alopecurus, Linn. 

GENicuLATUS, Linn. ; 9. 
Aristida, Linn. 

Behriana, F.v.M. ; 8. 
Stipa, Linn. 

semibarbata, R. Br. ; 9. 

DiCHELACHNE, Endl. 

CRiNiTA, J. Hook. ; 9. 

sciUREA, J. Hook, ; 6. 
EcHiNOPOGON, Palis. 

OVATUS, Palis. Rare ; 9. 
Pappophorum, Schr. 

COMMUNE, F.V.M. ; 13. 
Sporobolus, R. Br. 

ViRGiNicus, Humb. & Kunth ; 13. 

iNDicus, R. Br. ; 15. 

LiNDLEYi, Benth. ; 15. 
Agrostis, Linn. 

SOLANDRI, F.V.M. ; 9. 



302 A LIST OF THE INDIGENOUS PLANTS OF THE MUDGEE DISTRICT, 

Danthonia, DC. 

PENICILLATA, F.V.M.J 9. 

NERVOSA, J. Hook. ; 26. 
Cynodon, L. C. Rich. 

Dactylon, L. C. Rich.; 15. 
Chloris, Sw. 

truncata, R. Br.; 8. 
PoA, Linn. 

CiESPiTOSA, G. Forst.; 9. 
Eragrostis, Palis. 

tenella, Palis.; 17. 
leptostachya, Steud. ; 3, 

BROWNii,Nees, vars.iNTERRUPTUS and patens. Of late the last 
of these two varieties has sprung up here, spreading more 
each year ; at present large patches of the river-flats are 
covered with it, but neither sheep nor cattle seem to like 
it; 13. 
setifolia, ISTees ; 21. 
Agropyron, Gaert. 

SCABRUM, Palis. ; 9. 
Arundo, Tour. 

Phragmites, Dod. Forms dense beds in river wherever 
the water is shallow ; eaten by stock in bad seasons ; 6. 



ACOTYLEDONE^. 

ACOTYLEDONE^ VASCULARES. 

1. RniZOSPERMiE 2. FiLICES 

RHIZOSPERM^. 

AzoLLA, Lam. 

PINNATA, R. Br. ; 8. 
Marsilea, Linn. 

QUADRIFOLIA, Linn. ; 13. 



BY ALEXANDER G. HAMILTON. 303 

FILICES. 

Ophioglossum, Tour. 

VULGATUM, C. Bauh. On basaltic fla,ts, Guntawang ; fruit in 
winter ; 20. 

Hymenophyllum, Sm. 

TuNBRiDGENSE, Sm. Cooyal and Mullamuddy ; very rare ; 5. 

Gleichenia, Sm. 

CIRCINATA, Sw. On moist rocks at Cooyal ; 20. 
FLABELLATA, R. Br. At " The Drip " Cooyal ; 5. 

OSMUNDA, Tour. 

BARBARA, Tliunb. Cooyal, in swampy ground and on sand- 
stone rocks ; 6. 

Davallia, Sm. 

PYXIDATA, Cav. Growing in crevices of sandstone rocks, 

Cooyal ; 4. 
DUBiA, R. Br. General in valleys at Cooyal ; 5. 

Adiantum, Tour. 

Aethiopicum, Linn. Generally distributed but not plentiful; 9. 
AFFINE, Willd. Cooyal ; very rai'e ; 3. 
HiSPiDULUM, Sw. Cooyal ; rare ; 4. 

Cheilanthes, Sw. 

DISTANS, A. Br. Everywhere ; common ; 15. 
tenuifolia, Sw. Common everywhere, but most luxuriant 
on a hill near Beaudesert ; 10. 

Pteris, Linn. 

FALCATA, R. Br. Beaudesert Hills, Mullamuddy, Cooyal ; 5, 

ARGUTA, Ait. At Springfield in old diggers'-holes and wells, 
at Cooyal and Mullamuddy, in crevices of rocks ; 5. 

AQUILINA, Linn. Mullamuddy, Warrable Hills, Reedy 
Creek, Cooyal ; 9. 

INCISA, Thunb. Cooyal; 6. 

COMANS, G. Forst., and var. Endlicheriana. Cooyal only ; 5. 



304 A LIST OP THE INDIGENOUS PLANTS OF THE MUDGEE DISTRICT, 

LOMARIA, Willd. 

DISCOLOR, Willd. Cooyal ; 6. 

Capensis, Willd. Cooyal; 6. 
Blechnum, Linn. 

CARTILAGINEUM, Sw. Cooyal ; 4. 

LJEVIGATUM, Cav. Cooyal ; 1. 

WOODWARDIA, Sm. 

ASPERA, Mett. Cooyal ; 4. 
CAUDATA, Cav. Mullamuddy and Goree ; 24. 
AsPLENiUM, Linn. 

FLABELLiFOLiUM, Cav. Everywhere ; 9. 
PoLYPODiUM, Tour. 

SERPENS, G. Forst. Cooyal on sandstone rocks, and Mulla 

muddy ; 4. 
PUNCTATUM, Thunb. Cooyal — " The Drip ;" rare ; 6. 
Grammitis, Sw. 

RUTiFOLiA, R. Br. Everywhere ; common ; 9. 
LEPTOPHYLLA, Sw. Boaudesert Hills and Biraganbil, in shady 
spots ; 26. 
Platycerium, Desv. 

ALCICORNE, Desv. I was rather surprised to find a splendid 
clump of this plant growing on a large sandstone rock at 
Cooyal ; since I first saw it, it has been all removed for 
gardens, etc., so that I suppose it is now extinct in the 
district ; 3. 

Comparing the above list with Dr. Woolls's "Plants Indigenous 
to the Neighbourhood of Sydney," it will be seen that in the 
County of Cumberland the numbers stand as follows (leaving out 
Characete which are not included in my list) : — 

ORDERS GENERA SPECIES 

Dicotyledons 83 327 804 

Monocotyledons 21 137 334- 

Acotylbdons 3 29 70 

Totals 107 493 1,208 



BY ALEXANDER G. HAMILTON. 305 

while in Mutlgee there are only : — 

ORDERS GENERA SPECIES 

Dicotyledons 63 196 401 

Monocotyledons 14 79 164 

Acotyledons 2 17 '' 31 

Totals 79 292 "596 

The following 28 Orders occur in Cumberland, but not in 
Mudgee •.—Nymflmceoi, Magnoliacece, Anonacece, Monimiacece, 
Menispermece, Tremandrece, Meliacece, Tiliacece, Vinifercn, Celas- 
trinece, Ficoidece, Saxifragece, Passiftorece, Ciocurhitacece, Loyani- 
acece, Sapoiacece, Fbenacece, Jasvmiece, Apocynece, Asclepiadece, 
Lentibularinem, Acanthacece, Fhilydrece, Xyridece, Palmce, Ai'oidece, 
Friocaulece, and Lycopodinece. 

There are only two Orders found in Mudgee which do not 
extend to Cumberland, viz., Nyctaginece and Zygophyllece. 

Cumberland has 209 Genera not found in Mudgee, while 
Mudgee has but 24 not found in Cumberland, as follows : — 
Cheiranthera, Tribulus, Sagina, Trichinium, Euxolus, BoerUaavia, 
Psoralea, Ceratop]bylh(,m, Golletia, Daucus, Crantzia, Gnaphaloides, 
Minuria, Ammohium,Angianthus, Centaurea, Crepis, Leewenhoehia, 
Spartothamnus, Deyeuxia, Soi'ghum, Frianihus, Alopecurus, and 
Osmunda, having in all 28 species. 

In the following leading Orders the numbers of Mudgee and 
•Cumberland species are as indicated : — 

MUDGEE CUMBERLAND 

LEGUMINOSiE 67 113 

Orchide^ 59 77 

CoMPOsiT.E 54 65 

Gramine^ 38 73 

Filices. 29 58 

Myrtace.e 28 80 

Liliace^ 23 28 

CYPERACEiE 23 83 

Epacride^ 17 38 

Proteace^ 16 51 

scrophularine^ 11 9 

20 



306 A LIST OF THE INDIGENOUS PLANTS OF THE MUDGEE DISTRICT. 

The last is, I believe, the only order in this district with more 
species than in Sydney. 

Among the orders not mentioned above, the following are more 
strongly represented in Cumberland in the proportions indicated. 
RuTACE^ ... ... ... ... 32 to 5 



Labiate 
euphorbiace^ 
e.hamnace.e 
Sterculiace^ 
Lauraceje ... 



24 to 9 
21 to 9 
11 to 3 
10 to 1 
7 to 1 



The following species are extremely local in their occurrence 
here : — Plttosporum undulatum. Acacia amcena, Eucalyptus glob- 
ulus, Sambucus xanthocarjm, Solanum stelligerum, S. campanu- 
latum, Nicotiana suaveolens, Woodwardia caudata at Mulla- 
muddy ; Pittosjyorum phillyroides, Geijera salicifolia, and Prostan- 
thera linearis at Two Mile Flat ; Acacia lunata, Corysanthes 
Hamiltonii, Pterostylis striata and Caladenia arenaria, in the Beau- 
desert Hills ; Baeckia Cunninghamii and Pterostylis clavigera at 
Biraganbil ; Dodonoia lobulata, Exocarpus strictus, and Grevillea 
Jlorihunda at Cullenbone ; and Acacia triptera and Melaleuca nodosa 
at Reedy Creek. Cooyal has about 92 species not found else- 
where in the district. 

Doubtless there are many more species both at Cooyal and all 
over tlie district which T have not succeeded in collecting, but if 
I should meet with such I will include them in a supplementary 
paper at some future time. 

If any member of the Linnean Society would compile a list of 
the indigenous plants round Wellington and Dubbo, it would be 
very interesting to compare with the above, and would undoubtedly 
be of great service in making out the geographical range of Aus- 
tralian plants. More would be learned from a comparison of two 
local floras not far removed, than in the comparison of two with 
such a wide gap between them as those of Cumberland and 
Mudgee. 



THE INSECTS OF THE CAIRNS DISTRICT, NORTHERN 
QUEENSLAND. Part II. 

(Continued from page 238). 

By William Macleay, F.Ij.S., &c. 

HETEEOMERA. 

Family TENEBRIONID^. 

Sub-Family HEL^IDES. 
51. PTEROHELiEUS PUSILLUS. 

Ovate, moderately convex, black ; the legs^ palpi and antennae 
piceous. Head subnitid, showing under a powerful lens minute 
punctures ; the clypeus large, somewhat elevated and convex at 
the apex, and almost semi-cii-cular behind, with the suture rather 
indistinct except at the sides. Thorax sulmitid, very minutely 
punctured, twice as broad as long, narrowly beaded all round, 
semi-circularly emarginate in front, the anterior angles produced, 
the sides roundly widening to the base and largely and rather 
flatly margined, the posterior angles acute, the base lightly 
bisinuate and fitting exactly to the base of the elytra, with a short 
transverse depression on each side of the middle near the base. 
Elytra of a dull black, very little wider than the base of the 
tliorax, and about thrice its length, coarsely punctured; the 
punctures placed very irregulai-ly in generally double rows with 
some of the intei-stices slightly elevated ; the foliate recurved 
lateral margins without punctures but minutely rugose. The 
abdominal segments are nitid and longitudinally rugose, the 
terminal segment is piceous. 

Length, 4^ lines. 

Hah. — Barron River. 



308 INSECTS OF THE CAIRNS DISTRICT, NORTHERN QUEENSLAND, 

Sub-Family CYPHALEIDES. 

52. Platyphanes elongatulus. 

Oblong, very nitid, brassy-black. Head densely and finely 
punctate, the clypeus rounded in front except a slight euiargination 
in the middle, and a little thickened and recurved at the sides and 
without distinct suture. Thorax less densely and finely punctate 
than the head, broader than long, largely emarginate in front ; 
the anterior angles slightly prominent, the sides rounded and 
widening a little to the base, the posterior angles a little acute, 
and the base bx'oadly lobed in the middle with on each side of it a 
circular depression. Elytra wider than the thorax, more than 
tJiree times the length, and convex, with on each elytron 10 rows 
and an abbreviated scutellar one of large deeply impressed 
punctures, becoming smaller and indistinct towards the apex 
The basal portions of the metasternum and abdominal segments 
are rugosely punctate. The last joint of all the tarsi is longer 
than the other three combined. 
Length, 8 lines. 

Hah. — Mossman River. 

This species seems to approach nearest to Platyfhanes ohlongus 

of Waterhouse. 

Genus Paraphanes. 

Eyes free from the thorax. Prosternum shai-ply and prominently 
keeled along its entire length. Mesosternum deeply and semi- 
circularly incised in front. Epipleurse of the elytra incomplete. 
Antennte of medium length, the joints from the 5th to the apex 
broader than the others. In other i-espects like Platyiohanes. 

With all my anxiety to avoid adding to the number of genera 
in a group already, as I feel inclined to think, overloaded with 
them, I am compelled to form this genus for the insect described 
below. Mr. Pascoe, who has given much attention to the 
Cyphaleides, has sub-divided them into genera founded upon 
certain anatomical differences, and accepting, as I do, his plan of 
sub-division as correct, and his sub-divisions as of sufficient generic 



BY WILLIAM MACLEAY, F.L.S., &C. 309 

value, I had no alternative but to add another genus. Beyond 
the characters given above of the genus, there are other pecu- 
liarities in the insect, which might claim to be of generic import- 
ance, but I am and always have been averse to limiting too much 
the range of a genus by giving it a too limited definition. But 
all these peculiarities are included in the following specific 

description. 

53. Paraphanes nitidus. 

Oblong, convex, brassy-brown, very nitid. Head finely punc- 
tate; eyes large, transverse, touching, but not covered by, the thorax, 
not approximate in front, the clypeal suture almost straight, the 
clypeus transverse, broadly and slightly rounded in front and 
recurved on the sides where it is produced a little over the eye ; 
labrum short, transverse. Antennse longer than the head and 
thorax united, the first joint rather large, the second about one- 
third the length of the third, the third nearly twice the length of 
the fourth, the rest of about equal length but broader and flatter. 
Thorax transverse, minutely punctate, much emarginate in front, 
the anterior angles produced and rounded, the sides slightly 
rounded and margined, the margins flattened out at the anterior 
and posterior angles where they are coarsely punctured, the 
posterior angles very acute and the base broader than the apex 
and lobed in the middle. Scutellum curvilinearly triangular, 
depressed in the middle and minutely punctate. Elytra of the 
same width as the base of the thorax, and more than three times 
the length, convex in the middle, besinuate at the base, narrowed 
a little to the apex, and covered with numerous rows of small 
rather irregular punctures becoming less distinct towards the apex 
and with a deep impression near each side a little behind the 
humeral angle. The under surface is nitid and minutely punc- 
tate, and very minutely rugose. The legs are moderately stout, 
the thighs much swollen towards the apex, the tibiae densely 
punctate, the punctures setigerous ; the last joint of the tarsi as 
long as all the others united. 

Length, 6 lines. 

Hah. — Mossman River. 



310 insects of the cairns district, northern queensland, 

54. Chartopteryx glaber. 

Oblong, verj nitid, black, elytra amethystine black, legs piceous. 
Head finely punctate, clypeus short and broad, labrum large, palpi 
strongly securiform. Antennae elongate, slender, these and the 
palpi piceous. Thorax about twice as broad as long, very smooth, 
anterior angles very prominent, posterior acute, sides slightly 
rounded and broadly margined, the base a little wider than the 
apex, broadly lobed in the middle and slightly emarginate on each 
side of the lobe. Scutellum rounded behind. Elytra broader 
than the thorax and nearly four times the length, convex and 
covered with rows of rather large irregular punctures, some 
running into one another, and some of the middle rows joining 
others a little short of the apex. The epipleurfe of the elytra are 
very coarsely punctured. There is a deep depression immediately 
beneath the mentum. The abdominal segments are veiy finely 
rugose. The incision on the apex of the mesosternum is V-shaped. 
The hind tibiae are long and slender, and the first joint of the 
posterior tarsi is scarcely as long as the other three united. 

Length, 7 lines. 

Hah. — Mossman River. 

55. Decialma striatopunctata. 

Of rather elongate form, moderately convex, nitid, black, the 
elytra purplish black. Head minutely punctate, rounded in front ; 
eyes distant. Antennae short, yellowish-red, the last six joints 
broader than long. Thorax broader than long, minutely and 
rather thinly punctate, the anterior angles very little produced, the 
sides lightly rounded and narrowly margined, the posterior angles 
squai'e, and the base slightly broader than the apex, and lightly 
biemarginate and lobed. Scutellum small and triangular Elytra 
o6 the width of the thorax and three times the length, the base 
fitting exactly the base of the thorax, with a short sutui-al and 
eight distinctly punctured striae on each elytron. The prosternum 



BY WILLIAM MACLEAY, F.L.S., &C. 311 



has an elongate oval groove along its whole length, there is an 
impressed line in the middle of the metasternum, the abdominal 
segments are finely pnnctate, the tarsi and tips of the tibiae are 
yellow and pubescent. ^ 

Length, 4^ lines. 

Hab. — Russell River. 

56. Decialma viridipennis. 

This species very much resembles the last. It is much smaller, 
rather more convex, and is elongate-ovate. The head is black and 
densely and finely punctate, the clypeus nearly as long as the head 
and smooth ; the antennae reddish and like those of D. striato- 
punctata. Thorax transverse but less so than in the previous 
species, in other respects resembling it. Elytra dark metallic 
green with purplish reflections, very nitid, 8-striate, the striai 
regularly punctate, a short sutural stria. The under surface like 
D. striatopunctata, the tarsi less yellow and less pubescent. 

Length, S^ lines. 

Hab. — Mossman River. 

Sub-Family CNODALONIDES. 

57. Cholipus atroviridis. 

Oblong, narrow, black, veiy nitid, the elytra brilliant greenish 
black. Head very minutely punctate, the clypeal suture semi- 
circular^ the clypeus truncate in front, and rounded on the angles 
with a short transverse depression in the middle near the suture, 
labrum transverse, thickened in front. Antennae not quite reaching 
the base of the thorax, of a piceous colour, the last six joints 
broader and more compressed than the others Thorax veiy 
minutely and thinly punctate, rather convex, nearly square, the ante- 
rior angles rounded, the sides slightly so, and margined, — ^narrowly 
in front and on the sides, and rather strongl yon the base — with 
a broad transverse depression near the base, and parallel-sided. 
Elytra broader than the thorax nearly three times the length and 



\ 



312 INSECTS OP THE CAIRNS DISTRICT, NORTHERN QUEENSLAND, 

striate-pimctate. The prosternnm is broad and prominent 

between the fore legs, declivous in front and not produced, and 

depressed and broad behind, the surface marked with two deep 

strise. The legs are rather short and strong, the thighs swollen, 

the tibiae a little curved, the posterior ones much bellied above the 
middle, the tarsi reddish pubescent. 

Length, 5 lines. 

Hab.—Mossman River. 

Family CISTELIDvE. 

Genus Synatractus. 

Head produced, narrowly necked, clypeus large, square, emar- 
ginate in the middle, labrum a little transverse, emarginate like 
the clypeus. Eyes very large, not approximate. Antennae 
extending to the first third of the elytra, the first joint large, the 
second short, the rest all of the same length till the apical one, 
which is elongate and thrice the length of any of the others ; the 
maxilliary palpi are acutely cultriform. The thorax is of the 
width of the head, a little longer than wide, rounded at the 
anterior angles, not broader behind than in front, with a deep 
constriction at the base, and with the margin behind it sharply 
refiexed and showing a minute tooth on each side. Elytra much 
Avider than the thorax, and widening somewhat to near the apex. 
Legs slender, the tibiae not spurred. 

58. Synatractus variabilis. 

Of elongate aiid rather flattened form. Head with some 
irregular depressions between the eyes, the clypeal suture deeply 
impressed and nearly straight, the labrum narrower and shorter 
than the clypeus. Thorax entirely smooth. Elytra four times 
the length of the thorax, widening from the humeral angles back- 
wards, densely punctate striate, with a short scutellar stria. The 
colour varies very much, from yellowish-red all over to reddish- 
brown, the elytra sometimes even dark brown or varied with 



BY WILLIAM MACLEAY, F.L.S., &C. 313. 

brown blotches, the legs also of all shades of red and brown, and 
the antennpe similarly variegated. 

Length, 5 lines. 

Bab. — Mossman River, Russell River, Cairns. 

59. Atractus flavipes. 

Elongate, oval, brownish-black, opaque, the elytra nitid brassy- 
brow Ji, the legs yellow. Head finely granulate, a slight serui- 
circular depression between the upper portion of the eyes, the 
clyi)eus short, the labrum nearly square, the palpi and antennae 
reddish, getting darker towards the apex. Thorax dark brown, 
longer than wide, very slightly widening to the base, — both that and 
the apex truncate, — and finely granulate. Elytra wider than the 
thorax, narrowing towards the apex, punctate-striate, the inter- 
stices minutely rugose-punctate. The thighs are tumid and of a 
pale yellow, the rest of the legs are of a reddish yellow. One 
male specimen. 

Length, 3 lines. 
Hab. — Russell River. 

60. Atractus vittipennis. 

Elongate, narrow, acuminate behind, nitid throughout. Head 
black, finely punctate, clypeus broad, thick-edged and short, the 
clypeal suture nearly straight, the labrum large, widest at the apex, 
slightly emarginate, setigerous, and separated from the clypeus by 
a yellow membrane, the apex of the palpi and mandibles and the 
antenna? excepting the three basal joints, and the third from the apex 
which are yellowish, black. Thorax reddish-yellow, very smooth 
and nitid, much longer than broad, not wider behind than in front, 
parallel-sided, the angles rather rounded, and the apex and base 
truncate. Elytra of the same reddish-yellow nitid colour as the 
thorax, but the suture and lateral margins more or less broadly 
margined with black, the whole rather finely punctate-striate- 
The under surface is black, as well as the legs excepting the thighs. 



\ 



•314 INSECTS OF THE CAIRNS DISTRICT, NORTHERN QUEENSLAND, 

to the knees and the anterior two-thirds of the tibiae which are 
yellow. Some small specimens, which I take to be males, are of a 
darker colour throughout, there being no reddish colouring on the 
antennae, and the red of the elytra being reduced to a small vitta 
in the middle. 

Length, 6 lines. 

Hob. — Russell River. 

61. Hybrenia subvittata. 

Oblong-oval, dark brown, sub-opaque, cinereo-pubescent. Head 
minutely punctate, the clypeal suture close in front of the eyes 
and deeply impressed. Thorax finely and densely punctate, trans- 
verse, broader at the base than in front, the anterior angles 
rounded ; the posterior square, and the base and apex truncate. 
Scutellum small and triangular. Elytra moderately convex, 
rather wider than the thorax, pointed at the apex, and densely 
and rugosely punctate with eight striae on each elytron, the suture, 
and the 5th and 8th interstices of a dark brown, the rest reddish 
brown. Posterior tibiae with a hooked spur at the inner apex. 

Length, 7 lines. 

Hah. — Cairns. 

62. Hybrenia laticollis. 

Elongate-oval, moderately convex, black, nitid. Head very 
thinly punctate and carinated between the eyes, which are very 
large and close together. The antennae are long and slender at the 
apex, the four apical joints reddish and pubescent, the last longer 
than the preceding. Thorax nearly twice as broad as long ; thinly 
punctate, not broader at the base than in front, the anterior angles 
round, the posterior square and acute, the basal margin grooved 
and very roughly punctate ; the median line very deeply impressed 
with the disk convex on each side of it. Scutellum rounded 
behind. Elytra wider than the thorax, five times the length and 
pointed towards the apex, with eight complete striae and one 
scutellar abbreviated one on each elytron deeply marked, and with 



BY WILLIAM MACLEAY, F.L.S., &C. 315 

convex interstices, each stria marked with hxrge squai-e punctures 
on the basal half. The legs are piceous, the tibise roughly punc- 
tate and setose, the sterna thinly punctate^ the last abdominal 
segment large and deeply excavated. This last is no doubt a 
sexual character. 

Length, 10 lines. One specimen, a male. 

Hob. — Mossmau River. 

63. Hybrenia angustata. 

Of narrower form than the last described species, black, sub- 
nitid, palpi and tarsi reddish. Head punctate, eyes contiguous, palpi 
very broadly triangular, the last joint of the antennae not larger 
than the preceding one. Thorax about as long as broad, densely 
punctate, rather convex, rounded at the anterior angles, rectan- 
gular behind, narrowly margined and nearly truncate at the base 
and with three shallow transverse depressions close to the base. 
Elytra a little wider than the thorax, pointed at the apex, elongate, 
with eight deep striae on each elytron and a short sutured one 
(shorter than in ff. laticollis), each stria tilled with deep square 
punctures most deeply marked on the basal portion. The under 
surface is more densely punctate than in H. laticollis. 

Length, 7 J lines. 

Hab. — Cairns. 

64. Hybrenia suBLiEvis. 

Oblong, oval, black, nitid. Head finely but not densely punc- 
tate, eyes close, not contiguous. Thorax about as broad as long, 
very thinly punctate, rounded at the antei'ior angles, square at the 
posterior, lightly transversely impressed near the base, and 
bisinuate at the base. Elytra broader than the thorax and four 
times the length, convex, irregularly and ragosely punctate, with 
eight lightly marked fine striae on each elytron The legs are 
densely punctate and shortly setose. 

Length, 7 lines. 

Hah. — Cairns. 



316 insects of the cairns district, northern queensland, 

65. Allecula flavicornis. 

Oblong-oval, brown, covered with a short yellowish pubescence, 
the antennae, palpi, clypeus, labrum, tibiae and tarsi, yellow. Head 
finely punctate, the eyes large and rather approximate. Thorax 
densely punctate, slightly transverse, widening much from the 
apex to the base, that slightly sinuate. Elytra at the base the 
width of the base of the thorax, ampliated a little to behind the 
middle and punctate striate. The under surface finely and thinly 
punctate, the thighs black. 

Length, 5 lines. 

Mab. — Mossman River, 

This species ought perhaps to be placed in the genus Eyhrenia. 

Family LAGRIID^. 

66. Lagria ruficeps. 

Oblong, red, nitid, elytra dark metallic green. Head punctate 
with a round depression between the eyes, the antennae brownish 
from the third joint. Thorax oblong, scarcely wider at the base 
than the apex, roughly punctate with an indistinct transverse 
impression near the apex, and another near the base. Scutellum 
reddish, triangular. Elytra much broader than the thorax, rather 
squarely shouldered, ampliated behind, irregularly and rugosely 
punctate, and clothed with a thin short whitish pubescence. The 
under surface and the thighs are reddish, the knees, tibige and 
tarsi brown. 

Length, 3^ lines. 

Hah. — Russell River. 

67. Lagria albovillosa. 

The legs, antennae and all the upper surface brown and sub- 
nitid, with a slight bronze lustre, the under surface piceous red, 
the whole upper surface densely and rugosely punctate, and clothed 
rather densely with long soft whitish hair, the under surface 



BY WILLIAM MACLEAY, F.L.S., &C. 317 

smooth and nitid. The antennae are proportionally shorter than 
in the last described species, and the elytra are more ampliated. 
It most resembles the Lagria tomentosa of Western Australia. 

Length, 6 lines. 

Hab. — Mossman River. 

68. Lagria purpureipennis. 

Like L. albovillosa, but smaller, less roughly punctate, and 
less thickly villose. The head and thorax are of a dark metallic 
green, the elytra of a ruddy purple, the under surface of a dark 
red and smooth. 

Length, 4 lines. 

Hab. — Mulgrave River. 

Family MORDELLID^. 

69. MORDELLA PULVERULENTA. 

Black, sub-opaque, subsericeous. Head clothed with a very 
short whitish pubescence Thorax margined in front with 
white pubescence and with several irregular small spots on the 
middle and hinder parts. Elytra covered with many small 
white spots, some of them joining so as to form a small fascia near 
the apex. The pygidium is rather strongly pointed, the abdo- 
minal segments and sterna are slightly dusted with whitish pube- 
scence. The anterior legs are piceous. 

Length, 2 lines. 

Hab. — Mossman River. 

70. MORDELLA NOTABILIS. 

More elongate than the preceding, black, opaque, subsericeous. 
Head whitish-pubescent except on the vertex. Thorax margined 
with a white pubescence except on the middle of the apex, a little 
behind the anterior angles a transverse semi-circular line of the 
same colour, and in the same line near the centre small spots, 



318 INSECTS OF THE CAIRNS DISTRICT, NORTHERN QUEENSLAND, 

■with smaller spots behind, the base more deeply white at the 
emarginations. Elytra each with a white spot at the scutellum, 
another behind nearer the side, a third at the middle near the 
suture, a fourth between that and the apex and further from the 
suture ; pygidium very acute and long. Flank of thorax and 
abdomen white-spotted. 

Length, 4 lines. 

Hah. — Barron River. 

71. MORDELLA OVALISTICTA. 

Black, opaque, sericeous. Head bordered behind except in the 
middle with whitish pubescence, thorax with a rather faint trans- 
verse band of white nearer the apex than the base, two short 
longitudinal lines behind it, and a broader band along the basal 
border. Elytra each with an oval oblique spot near the base, a 
shorter oval spot near the suture about the middle, and a smaller 
one behind further from the suture. The pygidium strongly and 
bluntly pointed, the flanks white spotted. 

Length, 6 lines. 

Hab. — Mossman River. 

72. MORDELLA UNDOSA. 

This species is of a rather short oval form, the thorax less 
transverse than usual and the pygidium strongly but not largely 
pointed. The thorax has four narrow lines of white pubescence, 
two of them lateral. The elytra have three very thin wavy fasciae 
of the same kind, one at the base not reaching the sides, one about 
the middle complete from side to side, the third near the apex 
incomplete. All the rest jet black. 

Length, 1 line. 

Hah. — Mossman River. 

73. MORDELLA HAMATILIS. 

Also a short oval form, black, subnitid. Base of thorax mar- 
gined with whitish pubescence. On each elytron an elongate 



BY WILILAM MACLEAY, F.L.S., &C. Sl^ 

whitish spot behind the scutellum, a long hook-shapod spot on 
each side, four distinct round spots placed transversely about one- 
third from the apex and two similarly placed near the apex, white. 
Pygidium short and acutely pointed. This might be a Tomaxia. 

Length, 1^ lines. 

Hah. — Mossman River. 

74. MORDELLA NIGRANS. 

Oval, black, subnitid, sericeous. Head and thorax scarcely 
pubescent. Elytra without distinct mark, but showing in some 
lights a very faint oblique longitudinal vitta. Under surface 
unspotted. Thorax scarcely transverse. 

Length, 2 lines. 

Hab. — Mossman River. 

75. MORDELLA OBSCURIPENNIS. 

Of oblong form, sericeous, subnitid, reddish yellow with the 
elytra and abominal segments brown. The antennae are rather 
long and very slender and filiform, the head has a small smooth 
line on the vertex only visible under a lens, and the pygidium is 
long, slender and very acute. 

Length, 1 J lines. 

Hah. — Mossman Rivei*. 

76. MoRDELLA FLAVICANS. 

Of a more oval form than the preceding, entirely pale reddish- 
yellow, with the exception of the apex of the elytra which 
is brownish, sericeous, and sub-opaque, the antennpe are thicker 
and more dentate than in M. obscuripennis, the pygidium slight 
and acute. 

Length, 1 line. 

Hab. — Mossman River. 



■320 INSECTS OF THE CAIRNS DISTRICT, NORTHERN QUEENSLAND, 

77. MORDELLA STJBVITTATA. 

Elongate-ovate, chocolate brown, subnitid, Thorax as long as 
broad ; elytra with a broad not well-defined oblique vitta of 
whitish pubescence extending from each humeral angle to the apex 
where they meet. The pygidium is long and very slight and acute. 

Length, IJ lines. 

Rah. — Russell River. 

78. MORDELLA ELONQATULA. 

Elongate, black, opaque. Head covered with a golden pubes- 
cence, excepting a broad space on the top of the head. Thorax 
broader than the elytra and of a bright golden pubescence excepting 
a broad median vitta, almost interrupted in front of the middle. 
Elytra with a large rounded triangular patch occupying the 
middle of the base, excepting a spot on each side of the suture, 
and a spot behind common to both elytra, a broad golden fascia 
behind the middle and the apical portion golden. The under surface 
golden pubescent, and the pygidium long and acute j the anterior 
legs red. 

Length, .5 lines. 

Hab. — Mossman River. 

I believe there are other species of Mordella in the Cairns 
Collection. The number of species throughout all Australia, and 
particularly from the north, is wonderful. I have not been able to 
study the group sufliciently to qualify me to pronounce with any 
■certainty between what are species and what are not, and therefore 
I have, in giving names in my Cabinet to those of the group 
received from the Cairns District, carefully avoided describing 
any specimens which I had not satisfied myself were distinct 
and undescribed. The whole Family however, wants revision, 
but, as it is a Family numerously represented in other parts of 
the world besides Australia, I am veiy much indisposed for a 
task requiring such extended research. 



BY WILLIAM MACLEAY, F.L.S., &C. 321 



Family RHIPIPHORID^. 

79. Emenadia cucullata. 

Black, subnitid. Head much elevated on the vertex into a 
narrow transverse ridge, in front vertical and densely punctate, 
between the antennse a smoothish impression, a deep median 
impression on the clypeus and labrum. Thorax very minutely 
and densely granulose punctate, with a tubercle on the basal lobe 
from which a fine carioa extends along the median line and back of 
the head up to the elevated vertex. Elytra with the usual sculp- 
ture of the genus, but short, acute and dehiscent, the colour black, 
with inconspicuous piceous red spots on the apical third. Beneath 
nitid and minutely punctate. 

Length, 4 to 7 lines. 

Hah. — Mossman River. 

81. Pelocotomoides marmoratus. 

Brown, covered with a rather short decumbent cinereous pubes- 
cence. Head punctate, eyes large, approximate in front, receding 
behind, snout produced. Thorax about as long as the width at the 
base. Elytra of the width of the thorax at the base, more than 
three times the length, and gradually narrowed to the apex, the 
pubescence is interrupted in several transverse patches, giving a 
fasciated appearance. The under surface is thinly pubescent. 

Length, 5 to 7 lines. 

Hah. — Mossman River. 

82. Pelocotomoides aureotincta. 

Of a light chocolate-brown above and beneath, and clothed with 

a rather thin silky pubescence. Head with the pubescence golden, 

the eyes rather distant. Thorax lobate and emarginate on each 
21 



322 INSECTS OF THE CAIRNS DISTRICT, NORTHERN QUEENSLAND, 

side of the lobe at the base, with the posterior angles very acute 
and produced backwards. Scutellum rounded behind and parallel- 
sided. Elytra not broader than the thorax and more than twice 
the length, the pubescence along the middle having a distinct 
golden tinge. Under surface sparingly pubescent, the apex of the 
abdominal segments ciliated. 

Length, 3 lines. 

Hah. — Mossman River. 

83. Pelecotomoides serraticornis. 

This insect is almost identical with the preceding, the difference 
may possibly be only sexual. It is of a darker brown and more 
densely sericeo-pubescent, the scutellum is more elongate, the 
antennae more strongly serrate, and the under surface more densely 
pubescent and of a reddish colour. 

Length, 3 lines. 

Hah. — Mossman E,iver. 



Family PEDILID^. 

84. Egestria hirtipennis. 

Very dark brown, subnitid, very roughly punctate and clothed 
with soft, erect, cinereous hairs. Head square, eyes prominent, 
labrum very short, antennae slender, the last joint longer than the 
others, maxillary palpi long, the joints triangular with the apical 
angle pointing inwards, the last joint largest. Neck narrow and 
well-defined. Thorax transverse, rounded at the anterior angles, 
truncate behind. Elytra broader than the thorax, and more than 
three times the length. Base of thighs, tibiae, tarsi and palpi 
yellow. 

Length, 2 lines. 
Hah. — Russell River. 



BY WILLIAM MACLEAY, P.L.S., tfcc. 323 

85. Egestria rubicunda. 

Head, thorax and under surface black, legs and elytra piceous. 
red and nitid, the whole upper surface roughly punctate and 
clothed with soft cinereous hair. Head large, square, labrum 
very short and slightly emarginate, palpi thicker and shorter than 
in E. hirtipennis. Mandibles prominent, acute and unarmed. 
Antenna rather long, slender, compressed, the last joint much the 
longest. Neck much constricted. Thorax elongate, of globular 
shape, not broader than the head. Elytra broader than the 
thorax, about three times the length and parallel-sided. Sterna 
and abdomen nitid and slightly pubescent. 

Length, 3| lines. 
JIab. — Cairns. 

Family CANTHARID^. 

86. Pal^strida coxcolor. 

Elongate, black with the back of the head, the thorax, and 
the elytra deep red, finely punctate and of a plush-like lustre, and 
the parts of the mouth and the presternum yellow. Head small, 
eyes small and prominent, the space between the eyes depressed 
and of a blackish colour. Maxillary palpi rather long, the 
last joint slightly securiform. Antennae rather broadly compressed, 
serrate, the joints slightly longer than broad, the second very 
small, the third and fourth joints equal, the last elongate-oval. 
Thorax about as long as broad, rounded on the sides, not broader 
behind than in front, with three broad longitudinal impressions, 
and raised interstices, these last showing a few small nodular- 
looking irregularities. Scutellum black, nearly square. Elytra 
broader than the thorax and five times the length, a little 



324 INSECTS OF THE CAIRNS DISTRICT, NORTHERN QUEENSLAND, 

ampliated towards the apex, finely and densely granulate-punctate 
and pubescent with three rather indistinct costse on each elytron. 
The legs, which are short, meso- and metasterna and the abdomen 
are nitid and very slightly punctate and pubescent. 

Length, 5 lines. 

Hah. — Russell Kiver. 

87. Pal^strida flabellicornis. 

Black, opaque, densely granulose-punctate, the back of the head, 
the thorax, the base of the elytra and the sterna, orange with a 
plush-like lustre and texture. The head resembles that of P. 
concolor, but the antennae are more elongate, reaching to the apical 
third of the elytra, and from the outer apex of each joint from the 
third to the tenth, a branch extends of greater length than the 
joint itself. The thorax also resembles the last species, but the 
width is slightly moi'e.than the length. The scutellum is orange. 
The elytra are broader than the thorax, and five times the length 
and ampliated behind with three rather indistinct costse on each 
elytron. The bases of the thighs are reddish yellow. 

Length, 5 lines. 

Hab. — Russell River. 

88. Pal^strida nigripennis. 

Entirely black, excepting the thorax, prosternum and labrum. 
In sculpture it resembles exactly the two foregoing species, the 
antennae however are not branched as in P. Jiahellicornis, and are 
more acutely serrated than in P. concolor. The thorax also in 
this species is not broader than long. The scutellum is black. 

Length, 5 lines. 

Hah. — Mossman River, 

These three species clearly belong to the same genus, but whether 
they actually belong to the genus Palcestrida vixdij be doubtful. 



BY WILLIAM MACLEAY, F.L.S., ifcc. 325 

The genus has never been properly characterized, but the original 
species P. bicolor seems to resemble them much. 

/ 

89. ZONITIS PALLIDA. 

Entirely pale yellow above, black beneath. Head very minutely 
punctate, antennae and palpi black, the latter with the last joint 
not widened at the apex. Thorax minutely punctate, longer than 
broad, slightly broader behind than in front. Elytra broader than 
the thorax, four times the length, and very densely and minutely 
transversely punctate, with three obsolete longitudinal lines on 
each elytron. Legs entirely black, excepting the claws of the 
tarsi, which are reddish. 

Length, 5 lines. 

Hah. — Barron River. 



Family CEDEMERID^. 

90. AnANCA LATERALIS. 

Pale yellow, covered with a dense short pubescence, densely 
and minutely punctate, and clouded a little with brown on the top 
of the head and on the thorax, and with an indistinctly defined 
vitta of the same colour on the elytra near each lateral margin. 
The thorax is longer than broad, and broader in front than 
behind, with two large shallow depressions on the anterior half. 
Elytra broader than the thorax at the base, and four times the 
length, with four obsolete longitudinal lines on each elytron. 
Under surface yellow excepting the four first abdominal segments 
which are black or dark brown. 

Length, 5 lines. 

Hob. — Mossman River. 



326 INSECTS OF THE CAIRNS DISTRICT, NORTHERN QUEENSLAND, 

Family EROTYLID^. 

91. Languria australis. 

Black, very nitid, the thorax and head bright red. Head quite 
smooth and nitid. Thorax smooth and nitid, much longer than 
broad, scarcely wider than the head, the base and apex of 
equal width and the sides a little rounded in the middle. Elytra 
at the base not wider than the middle of the thorax, gradually 
narrowed to the apex, about four times the leng-th of the thorax, 
a deeply impressed stria on each side of the suture and eight very 
fine stride densely and finely punctate on each elytron, the inter- 
stices smooth. The under surface is very finely and thinly 
punctured, the sterna reddish. 

Length, 4 J lines. 

Hah. — Cairns. 

92. Episcaphula gigas. 

Oblong-oval, black, subnitid. Head very thinly punctate, semi- 
circularly impressed between the antennae on the clypeal suture, 
clypeus rounded and thickened at the apex, labrum very short, 
rounded in front, the third joint of the antennae twice the length 
of the fourth. Thorax transverse, strongly margined at the sides, 
emarginate in front, bisinuate behind, the anterior angles acute 
and prominent, the posterior square, a large shallow depression at 
the base on each side of the median lobe, filled with coarse 
punctures. The colour is black with a dark red broad zig-zag 
fascia occupying the sides and most of the centre. Scutellum 
transverse, rounded behind. Elytra very little wider than the 
thorax and about four times the length, faintly striate-punctate, 
black with a patch at the base surrounding the humeral angles, 
and a fascia near the apex, not touching either the side or suture, 
of a deep dull red. The under surface is black, and very sparingly 



BY WILLIAM MACLEAY, F.L.S., &C. 327 

punctate, the prosternum is flat, triangular and acutely pointed 
in front, the apex of the tibiae and the tarsi beneath clothed with 
golden hair. 

Length, 9 lines. 
Hah. — Cairns. 

93, Episcaphula bifasciata.. 

Oblong-oval, black, nitid. Head very finely punctate, clypeal 
suture not visible, the third joint of the antennae longer than the 
fourth. Thorax less transverse than in the last species, anterior 
angles acutely produced, base slightly bisinuate, a small fovea on 
each side of the middle lobe, and a large red spot at the apex on 
each side of the median line. Elytra of the width of the base 
of the thorax and about three times the length, moderately convex 
and narrowing to the apex, and finely striate-punctate, with a 
yellow wavy fascia near the base and another near the apex, 
neither reaching the suture. Under surface black, legs pitchy 
red. Prosternum not pointed in front. 

Length, 4 lines. 
Hah. — Russell River. 

94. Episcapha Froggatti. 

Oblong. Head black, minutely punctate without transverse 
impression, clypeus convex and rounded. Thorax much broader 
than long, the anterior angles slightly prominent, the base and 
sides thinly and coarsely punctate, of a red colour with a large 
square black spot in the middle of the base. Elytra about the 
width of the base of the thorax, a little narrowed towards the 
apex, finely striate-punctate, and of a red colour, with a square 
spot on the humeral angle, a larger one at the scutellum, a broad 
median fascia, a smaller one not reaching the suture between that 
and apex, and the apex black. Under side red, legs, meso- and 
metasternum black. 

Length, 3|^ lines. 

Hah. — Cairns. 



328 INSECTS OP THE CAIRNS DISTRICT, NORTHERN QUEENSLAND. 

95. THALLIS BIZONATA. 

Oblong, black, nitid, with a red fascia near the base and another 
near the apex of each elytron. Thorax nearly square, strongly 
margined on the sides and very finely punctate. Elytra scarcely 
tapering behind, very faintly striate-punctate. The scutellum is 
transverse and rounded behind. 

Length, 2 lines. 

Hah. — Barron River, 




NOTES ON THE BACTERIOLOGICAL EXAMINATION 
OF WATER FROM THE SYDNEY SUPPLY. No. IV. 

By Dr. Oscar Katz. 

Having been interrupted for about six weeks I was not able to 
take up again the bacteriological examination of Sydney water 
until the 29th of last April. From this date up to the 26th inst., 
however, I examined sixteen samples of this water, derived again 
in all the cases from the tap in the Laboratory of the Linnean 
Hall. The following table will best convey an idea of the results 
obtained so far as the quantity of bacterial colonies, referred to 
1 ccm. of the water under consideration, is concerned. 



Date. 


Temp. 


n( Wafer Nuiiiber of colonies 
ot Water. j^ ^ ^^^^^^ 


Number of liquefying- 
colonies in 1 ccm. 


(1) Apr. 29, '87 


66° F. 


= 18°«C. 


140 


35 = 25 p.c. 


(2) May 2 


66^ F. ■ 


= 191 C. 


461 


48 = 10^ p.c. 


(3) „ 6 


64 F. 


= 17^ C. 


465 


66 = 141 p(j^ 


(4) „ 10 


62 F. 


= 16^ C. 


125 


22 = 17i p.c. 


(5) „ 16 


59 F. 


= 15 C. 


41 


5 = 12^ p.c. 


(6) „ 19 


58| F. 


= 14i C. 


17 


7 = 411 pc. 


<7) „ 22 


58 F. 


= 14^ C. 


108 


4= 32 p.c. 


(8) „ 26 


61 F. 


= 161 Q^ 


73 


16 = 2111 p.c. 


(9) „ 30 


61 F. 


=161 Q_ 


148 


8= 5i2 p.c. 


(10) June 3 


617oF. 


= 161 C. 


92 


12 = 13 p.c. 


(11) „ 7 


56foF. 


= 131 C. 


212 


27 = 12i^ p.c. 


(12) „ 11 


55i F. 


= 13 0. 


491 


54=11 p.c. 


(13) „ U 


54^ F. 


= 12| C. 


164 


19 = 11^ p.c. 


(14) „ 18 


555 F. 


= 13 C. 


99 


10 = 10ip.c. 


(15) „ 22 


bllF.. 


= 14 C. 


152 


36 = 23| p.c. 


(16) „ 26 


555 F. 


= 13 C. 


25 


6 = 24 p.c. 



330 ON THE EXAMINATION OF WATER PROM THE SYDNEY SUPPLY. 

The mean number of colonies out of these figures, for 1 ccm. of 
water, is 176, among which there are 23 or 24 colonies = to about 
13^ p.c, which caused liquefaction of the nutrient gelatine. 

Save a few interruptions these bacteriological examinations of 
Sydney Tap- Water extend now over nearly oae year (see these 
Proceedings, September 1886, December 1886, March 1887), and 
taking into consideration the average numbers of bacterial colonies 
obtained each of the four times, we arrive at a mean of 246 for one 
cubiccentim., out of which 67, or about 27J p.c, were such as 
liquefied the gelatine. At the beginning it was my intention to 
describe all kinds of bacteria met with ; but by-and-by the number of 
these became so large that from want of time and opportunity I 
had to give the idea up. In order to have a practical bearing, the 
investigation of every kind of bacterium found in potable waters 
has to deal with its principal biological properties, and, as already 
mentioned previously, it has to be ascertained which of the forms 
cultivated are so-called "water-bacteria," and which ones must 
be looked upon as merely accidental. But without having been 
able to do this I trust that the results of my examinations, in the 
form offered, will not be quite devoid of interest. The bacillus 
of typhoid fever I have not yet come across in Sydney water, 
although now and then bacteria came under notice which were not 
unlike it in several points. By that I do not mean to say that 
the true microbe of typhoid fever might not occasionally be 
present in this water ; it mxast be borne in mind that, after all, 
the chances to obtain it from this source will be bat slight in face 
of the fact that comparatively only minute portions of it, up to 
1 ccm., can be taken for each individual test. However, when 
there is a strong suspicion of its being grossly contaminated with 
the germs of typhoid fever, the chances to actually demonsti'ate 
these out of the water, naturally increase, and on such occasions 
the carrying out of bacteriological examinations will prove to be 
of special value. 



PRELIMINARY REMARKS ON PHOSPHORESCENT' 
BACTERIA FROM SEA- WATER. 

By Dr. Oscar Katz. 

Influenced by a memoir recently published by Dr. Fischer, on 
a light-producing bacteri>im found in sea-water near the Danish 
Island of St. Croix, in the West Indies (1), and also by his state- 
ments on another kind of fission-fungus derived from dead marine 
fish out of the Baltic Sea and the Berlin Aquarium (2), I com- 
menced to look for phosphorescent schizomycetes which might 
occur in the sea-water of our vicinity (Sydney). My endeavours 
have hitherto proved so far successful that up to now I have been 
able to obtain three kinds of this \ery interesting group of micro- 
organisms, which are capable of cultivation in various nutritive 
substances, which can be transferred to marine animals (fish, crus- 
taceans), so as to show what often happens spontaneously (so- 
called self-phosphorescence of fishes, <kc.), and which on being added 
to common sea-water are able to render this luminous in such a 
way that it pi-oduces an effect similar to certain kinds of what is 
known under the general name of phosphorescence of sea-water. 



(1) " Bacteriologische Untersuchungen auf einer Reise nach Westindien " 
von Dr. Fischer, Mariuestabsarzt. II. " Uebereinen lichtentwickelndeu ia 
Meerwasser gefundenen Spaltpilz, Zeitschrift f. Hygiene, Bd. II., Heft 1, 
Leipzig, 1887, pp. 54-92. 

(2) Addendum to the above publication, pp. 92-95. A paper by Dr. 0. 
Hermes on, as I must believe, the same bacterial species, which he has 
named Bacterium jjhospherescens, I have not yet seen. A short note of it is. 
given in "Nature," February 17, 1887, p. 377. 



.^32 REMARKS ON PHOSPHORESCENT BACTERIA FROM SEA-WATER, 

I. 

The first kind appertaining to the above group of bacteria was 
derived by me indirectly from sea-water, inasmuch as I obtained 
it from dead marine fish, which were procured fresh at the 
-Sydney Fish Markets, and which after some time became luminous 
by themselves. From sea- water itself I have not succeeded yet in 
cultivating it ; its regular appearance on various marine fish which 
are being kept moist and at a moderate temperature, goes to show 
that its habitat is sea- water. 

This microbe to which I have given the name of Bacillus smarag- 
•dino-2)hosphorescens, forms, in its adult state, short thick rods of 
about -001 mm. width, and is about double as long as wide. 

The extremities are rounded ofi". It is not motile and does not 
show filaments so far as I could see. After treatment with 
aniline dyes the bacilli are very distinctly seen to be stained only 
at their peripheral parts, while a central spot, similar to a "vacuole," 
x'emains unstained. 

They grow on and in nutrient gelatine without liquefying it. 
Full particulars relative to their mode of growth will be given at 
another time, here I may state that they spread themselves on the 
gelatine but little, the ultimate size of their colonies being not very 
considerable. 

The temperature at which this micro-organism develops best is 
about 20° C. (68° F.), or a little higher, and it is then that the light 
which its cultures emit is strongest. The colour of this light is a 
wonderful emerald green. 

At temperatures between 13° C. and 15° C. (55r-59° F.) the 
bacillus grows rathw slowly, and the emitted light is then less 
•conspicuous and intense than that of cultures kept at the above 
temperatures. 

Whether this bacterial species is identical with that described 
by Dr. Fischer (I.e., pp. 92-95), and the Bacterium phosphorescens 
of Dr. Hermes (I.e.), is still doubtful ; a satisfactory answer can 
be arrived at when more information in consequence of continued 
•observations shall be available. 



BY DR. OSCAR KATZ. 333 

II. 

The second kind of phosphorescent bacteria, to be named 
Bacillus ai^genteo-jyhosphorescens, was repeatedly obtained by me 
from sea-water at Elizabeth Bay, Port Jackson, Sydney. On 
gelatine, after having been mixed with 10 drops of this water, 
there would appear, among a considerable number of other colonies, 
an average number of no more than two luminous colonies which 
belonged to the above-named species. 

Under high powers of the microscope it exhibits slender rods, 
which are tapering at their extremities and commonly slightly 
curved. Intheir adult state they measure about -0025 mm. in length, 
and are about three times as long as broad. They are motile, and 
form, so far as I can judge, no filaments. 

For alkaline methylene-blue they seem to have little affinity; for 
they do not take up this dye so eagerly as is done by most bacteria. 
Aniline-fuchsin or aniline-gentian-violet yield Ijetter results. 

On and in nutrient gelatine they develop to characteristic 
colonies of which a detailed description will be given shortly. 
They do not liquefy the gelatine, and spread themselves on it far 
more than can be noticed in the case of Bacillus No. I. 

Bacillus argenteo-phosphorescens grows best at temperatures of 
from 14° to about 23° C, and between these limits there is also 
the ojjtivittm of its luminosity, this optimum, however, inclining 
rather to the lower than to the upper of these temperatures. The 
light, emitted by its cultures in the dark, is of a mild, silvery 
appearance, and less brilliant than that of Bacillus smaragdino- 
2}hosphorescens and of the following one. 

III. 

The third kind of bacteria alluded to, which I propose to name 
Bacillus cyaneo-phospihorescens, I oVjtained, on the 6th of this month 
(June), from sea- water at Little Bay, 10 miles to the south of 
Sydney. In a tube of nutritive gelatine mixed with 10 drops of 
this water, and solidified after the manner of Esmarch, I noticed 
a few days aftei-wards, besides a good many other colonies, two 
luminous ones, which were made up of the above bacillus. 



334 REMARKS ON PHOSPHORESCENT BACTERIA FROM SEA-WATER, 

This kind is represented by straight rods, measuring about 
•002-6 mm. in length, and being about 2^ times as long 
as broad. They are rounded off at their extremities; they 
show spontaneous movements, and are often found as diplo- 
bacillus, not so often in chains. These are commonly bent, 
attaining here and there a considerable length. With alkaline 
methylene-blue they stain fairly well, but a small central portion of 
them remains unstained. Yet this appearance is not so striking 
as in Bacillus smaragdino-jjhosphorescens, which shows the differen- 
tiation between a well-coloured peripheral and an uncoloured inner 
part in a very characteristic manner. 

Bacillus cyaneo-phos})horescens grows rather slowly on and in 
nutritive gelatine which gradually becomes liquefied by it. In 
this regard it differs widely from the two other kinds which, as 
mentioned, cause no liquefaction of the gelatine. It thrives far 
better on nutrient agar-agar, where after a comparatively short 
time, it forms a substantia], greyish-white, sticky layer. 

The optimum of growth as well as of luminousness for this 
microbe is between 20° C. and 30° C. ; a temperature fluctuating 
between 13° and 15° C, however, does not seem at all unfavour- 
able to its propagation or deleterious to its power of luminosity, 
although higher temperatures as above intensify both growth and 
phosphorescence. The colour of the light emitted in the dark or 
at least in sufiiciently dark surroundings is of a decidedly bluish 
tint, and seems to stand, as regards its degree, between those of 
Bacillus No. I. and No. II. 

Comparing Dr. Fischer's description of the West Indian Bacillus 
p)hosphorescens with what I have already ascertained about the 
bacillus from Little Bay, I am almost inclined to consider these 
two organisms as identical. However, I hesitate to pronounce a 
definite opinion until I have made a larger number of individual 
observations. 



In giving, as has been done above, a few preliminary remarks 
on these three kinds of light-producing bacteria from sea-water — a 



BY DR. OSCAR KATZ. 335 

more elaborate paper on this subject I am going to prepare for 
a futui-e Meeting — I wish to call attention to this interesting 
subject, as the question of the cause of certain kinds of phos- 
phorescence of sea-water, for the explanation of which nothing 
certain as yet has been advanced, will now, it is to be hoped, soon 
be solved. Pf liiger (quoted from Dr. Fischer's Treatise, I.e., p. 55), 
already suggested, a number of years ago, that micro-organisms of 
the group Bacteria participate in the production of phosphorescence 
of sea-water, and the experiments recently made by Fischer with 
pure cultures of luminous schizomycetes on ordinary sea-water, 
convinced him of the striking resemblance which an artificially 
produced luminosity of sea-water bears to that magnificent 
phenomenon described by English writers as " milky sea." The 
direct proof, he says, that such an appearance is brought about by 
bacteria of the above nature, is still a desideratum, but by means 
of continued researches it is sure to succeed. For my part 
I have not the least doubt that this will be the case, to judge from 
what I have read and heard about "milky seas" — I have not yet 
been fortunate enough to come across such a phenomenon — and 
from experiments made by me on sea-water with pure cultures of 
the three species of bacteria mentioned. A systematic or occasional 
search for such like sea-water bacteria at different places of the 
globe, may no doubt add to the number of kinds already found, 
although I believe the number of them will not become very large. 
Those forms which are now known belong to the aerobic class 
of micro-organisms, that is to say, they neither grow nor emit light 
without the presence of air (oxygen). Whether or not phosphores 
cent bacteria of the anaerobic class, propagating only with the 
exclusion of oxygen, may be detected in sea-water, either directly 
or indirectly (in marine animals), and whether or not such micro- 
organisms may play a part in certain kinds of phosphoresence of 
sea-water, all this is still an open question. There is on record 
the statement by two investigators, Bancel and Husson, (1) 



(1) Surla phosphorescence de la viande de homard. Comptes rendm, 1879, 
Vol. 88, pp. 191-192. 



336 REMARKS ON PHOSPHORESCENT BACTERIA FROM SEA-WATER. 

namely, that besides an aerobic form at the mucous surface of 
luminous lobster-flesh, they found inside this mucus an anaerobic 
one of extremely small dimensions, a micro-organism which, they 
say, produces carburetted and phosphoretted hydrogen, by the 
combustion of which phosphorescence is produced. Then Lassar (1) 
suggested the idea that perhaps the phosphorescence of some of the 
numerous phosphorescent marine animals might be brought about 
by parasitic micro-organisms. It is after all not impossible that 
anaeorbic forms may be found to be the cause of the luminosity of a 
number of luminous marine animals, which would then contribute 
only mediately to the phosphorescence of sea-water. 



(1) Quoted from Fischer, I.e., p. 92. 



NOTES ON SOME AUSTRALIAN POLYZOA. 

By T. Whitelegge. 

( Notes Jrom the Australian Museum). 

In the British Museum Catalogue of Marine Polyzoa, Part II, 
(1 854), the late Mr. Busk, F.R.S., described two species of Polyzoa 
from the Philippine Islands, which he referred to the genus 
Lunitlites, at the same time remarking that they were " curious 
forms and would appear to constitute a peculiar group." In the 
years 1879, '80, and '81 the Rev. J. E. Tenison- Woods, Mr. W. A. 
Haswell, and the Rev. T. Hincks published papers describing 
several species which are closely allied to those described by Mr. 
Busk. The various species have been assigned to four or five 
genera. I intend in this paper to show that the undermentioned 
species form a very distinct group having little in common with 
those with which they have usually been associated except habit 
or form : — 

Lunulites Philipjnnensis, Busk. 
,, cancellata, Busk. 

Cupularia crassa, Tenison-Woods. 

C onescharellina depressa, Haswell. 

Lunulites angulopora, Tenison-Woods. 

C onescharellina conica, Haswell. 

Lunulites incisa, Hincks. 

Eschara umhonata, Haswell. 

Flahellopora elegans 1 d'Orb. 
Mr. A. W. Waters in a paper on some fossil Polyzoa from New- 
Zealand (Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. Feb. 1887, p. 71), states that he 
had received recent specimens of the last-named species from 
N. S. Wales, " which is either Lunulites cancellata, Busk, or very 
closely allied to it." 



338 NOTES ON SOME AUSTRALIAN POLYZOA, 

The published descriptions and figures show that the species in 
the above list have not as yet been fairly understood, nor has the 
opercular-bearing aperture, or the very exceptional method of 
growth been fully described. Nearly all the figures representing 
zoceocial characters are the wrong side up, whilst the peristomial 
orifice has been described as the true oral aperture, and a special 
pore situated above the mouth has been mistaken for the sinus in 
the lower lip. 

Mr. "Woods figures the oral aperture in Cupularia crassa but he 
omits to mention details in his description. Mr. Waters (Quart. 
J. Geol. Soc. 1882), gives figures of LunuUtes cancellata in which 
the oral aperture is shown, but these are also the wrong side up, 
and in his description he simply refers to it as a secondary 
orifice with a proximal sinus. It is in my opinion clear that he 
did at the tune recognise the true significance of this "secondary 
orifice." Another prominent feature which is figured by Mr. 
Woods, and well-described by Mr. Has well as "a narrow semi- 
lunar slit with the concavity directed outwards" has in most cases 
been overlooked, and its true import hitherto unnoticed. 

The facts as to the actual structure of the species already men- 
tioned have been derived from an attentive study of specimens in the 
collection of the Australian Museum, Mr. Woods's types in the 
Macleay Museum, and some lent to me by Mr. J. Brazier. 

The structural features presented by the various species of this 
group are of such an exceptional character that it will be necessary 
to remove them altogether from the family Selenariadce in which 
most of the species have been placed. In fact they appear to 
possess characters which are either unknown, or rarely found in 
other species of polyzoa ; and possibly when they have been fully 
investigated they may form the nucleus of a new family. 

The method of growth (not habit or form) or increase in size of 
the zoarium by the addition of new zooecia is intercalary taking 
place on the surface between cells already formed, and not at the 
outer margin as in most other known Polyzoa. The only instances 



BY T. WHITELEGGE. 339 

of intercalary growth, as far as I have been able to ascertain, 
are recorded by Mr. Hincks, but in these cases it is confined to 
the ovicelligerous cells of Schizoporella hyalina, and S, linearis. 

The formation of new zooecia does not appear to be confined to 
any particular part, but may take place at any point between the 
centre and the margin ; when near the latter the zocecium is formed 
in the space intervening between two, and when nearest to the 
former in the intervening space bounded by four zooecia. The 
direction of the zocecia is also apparently reversed, from the fact 
that the free distal edge of the opercu^lum is nearest to and 
directed towards the apex in those of a conical form, and to the 
apparent base in those which are flattened ; while the hinged end 
or proximal is nearest to the outer margin of the zoarium. 

The manner in which the peristomial orifice is formed appears 
to be just the opposite to what obtains in other peristomiate 
Polyzoa, and there is a special feature of an important character 
which, if not new to the class is exceedingly rare, and so far I have 
searched in vain for the record of a similar structural element. 

The first indication of the formation of a new zooecium appears 
on the upper surface of the zoarium as an elevated or depressed 
round spot bordered on one side by a thin layer of epitheca. At 
this point the "semilunar slit with the concavity directed out- 
wards " is formed, and by the gradual extension of this slit to a 
circular form a piece of the calcareous lamina is cut out, the 
resulting oi^ening being that of the peristome, and at a short distance 
below the true oral aperture is seen to be also in a fully formed 
condition. It is the rule to speak of the opercular-bearing aperture 
as the primary, and of the peristomial as the secondary orifice ; 
but in this case it appears doubtful which ought to rank as primary 
or secondary. 

In a median line above the mouth close to or upon the margin 
of the peristome there is a circular or subcircular pore usually 
covered by a membrane. It is this pore, when in an imperfect or 
broken state, that has been mistaken for the proximal sinus in the 
lower lip of the oral aperture ; but the true oral sinus is much 
wider, and at the opposite end of the mouth to that of the pore. 



340 NOTES ON SOME AUSTRALIAN POLYZOA, 

The shape of the oral aperture generally approaches that of 
Cellej)ora eatonensis as figured by Busk in the "Challenger' 
Polyzoa, PI. XXIX., fig. 5b, but the sinus varies in width so 
much that in some cases the aperture might be described as oval 
with two lateral denticles at the base. 

It is evident that the seven species already enumerated are 
closely allied to each other, and can no longer remain in the 
various genera to which they have been referred. They do not 
belong either to the genus Lunulites or to Gupularia ; and the 
genus Conescharellina as at present defined would not admit them • 
the same may also be said of Flabellopora. Mr. A, W. Waters in 
referring to Lunulites incisa H. says it "is a species of the 
Schizoporellicke." Nevertheless to whatever family they may 
ultimately prove to be related, at present I venture to make a new 
genus for their reception. 



BiPORA, n. g. 

Zoarium uni-or bilaminate, conical, or forming lobate or flab- 
ellate expansions ; growth intercalary ; zocecia immersed, erect, 
side by side, with their bases resting on a cancellated lamina, 
forming alternating rows directed to the primary part of the 
zoarium ; oral aperture with a well-marked sinus in the lower lip. 
A special pore above the mouth ; peristomial orifice formed by 
the gradual extension of a narrow slit and the removal of a portion 
of the calcareous lamina. Ocecia external, globose. 

(1.) BiPORA CANCELLATA, Busk. 

Lunulites cancellata, Busk, Brit. Mus. Cat. Polyz. 1854, Part 
II, p. 101, pi. CXIII, figs. 4-5-6-7. 

Zoarium conical, plane or slightly convex beneath ; zooecial 
apertures I'ounded above, with a distinct sinus below ; peristome 
elevated above, depressed below, with a circular pore on its upper 
border • an avicularium on each side of the mouth, with a sub- 
circular mandibular space. 



BY T. WHITELEGGE. 341 

I have examined several fossil examples of this species which 
appear to agree with Busk's description and figures, and which 
may be identical with the form figured as L. cancellata, Busk, by 
Mr. "Waters in his paper on Fossil Bryozoa from Bairnsdale, but, 
both in this species and in the next, the identity can only be 
definitely settled by comparison with the types. 

Loc. — (living) Philippine Islands; (fossil) Muddy Creek, Victoria. 

(2.) B. Philippinensis, Busk. 

Lunulites Philippinensis, Busk, op. cit. Part II, p. 101, pi. 
CXIII, figs. 1-2-3. 

Zoarium depressed, conical, plane or convex beneath, usually 
about I" of an inch in diameter ; zooecial orifice elongate, rounded 
above, and with a wide rounded sinus below ; operculum oval ; 
peristomial orifice ovate, the margin produced above at the sides 
then suddenly depressed below, with a subcircular pore on the 
upper border ; an avicularium with a subcircular mandible on each 
side and sometimes one in front below the mouth, a number of 
.similar aviculai'ia on the under surface of the zoarium, some on 
rounded elevations and others in circular depressions. Ocecia 
external, globose, smooth, with a faint fimbriated stigma in front. 

Loc. — Poi't Jackson. 

This species is frequently to be met with in some parts of Port 
Jackson, and I have examined a fair number of specimens. The 
surface of the zoarium is covered with a thin yellowish epitheca ; 
and the semilunar slits which indicate the growth of new zocecia 
are to be seen in all stages of development, especially in the young. 
It is by a careful examination of this species that I have been 
enabled to work out the structure of the others. The zoarium, 
when seen in longitudinal section shows the concave side as having 
a cancellated layer of varying thickness, from which the zocecia 
take their origin ; each zocecium is narrowed at the base and very 
slightly bent inwards ; its direction from this point is outwards, 
with a gentle curve upwards, at nearly right angles to the cancellate 
layer. 



342 NOTES ON SOME AUSTRALIAN POLYZOA, 

When the zoojcia are seen in transverse section the outline of 
each zooecium is irregularly pentagonal. 

The anterior pore, when seen from within, appears as a flask- 
shaped projection on the cell-wall, and is about as long as the 
shorter diameter of the mouth ; in some tliere appears to be an 
opening, and in others the base is well rounded without any opening ; 
it may possibly be the retreat of a protrusible sensitive organ, but 
in no case have I seen anything at the upper extremity which 
would indicate the presence of an external vibracular organ. The 
cancellate structure, which exists more or less in all the species, may 
originate by the lower portion of the zocecia being continually 
partitioned off as the zoarium increases in size. 

In some of the specimens lent by Mr. Brazier the ooecia are 
fairly abundant, but, except the zoarium is broken into two halves 
or set on its edge, the orifice cannot be seen. From this fact it 
will be evident that they are in the usual position above the mouth, 
and nearest to the primary part of the zoarium. 

(3.) B. DEPRESS A, Haswell. 

Gonescharellina depressa, Hasw. Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W. 1880, 
Part I, Vol. y, p. 41, pi. Ill, fig. 4. 

Zoarium biconvex, slightly flattened beneath ; oral aperture 
elongate, rounded above, with a sinus below, about half the 
diameter of the mouth ; or ovate with a sub-triangular denticle on 
each side near the base. Operculum ovate with a very slightly 
thickened border and two circular spots on the upper half . 
peristome much elevated above, and on each side to below the 
mouth, then suddenly depressed ; an avicularium with an elongate 
triangular mandiljle situated on a low elevation on one side of the 
mouth. 

" Under surface of zoarium perforated by close-set circular pores, 
each occupied, either at the surface or at a varying depth, by a thin 
translucent covering perforated by several minute porules, usually 
with a rather larger one in the centre." 

Loc. — Port Denison. 



BY T. WHITELEGGE. 343 

I have only seen some 5 oi- 6 specimens of this species, all of 
which are immature, and probably when obtained in the adult 
state the zoarium will be found to be concave beneath. I have 
seen one specimen in which the base is concave, but it is too 
imperfect to be certain as to its identity. The figure given by 
Mr. Haswell is upside down, but the outlines of the peristomial 
oi-ifices are correct. The outer row of zooecia are very prominent, 
and without avicularia. 

(4.) B. CRASS A, Tenison- Woods. 

Lunulites {Ciqni^aria) crassa, Ten.-Woods, Trans. Phil. Soc. 
Adelaide, 1879-80, p. 5, pi. I, figs. la> lb, Ic. 

I have examined the type specimens in the Macleay Museum, 
which resemble the last species in the peristomial characters, the 
mai'gin being produced^ and very much thickened at the sides, 
hiding to a great extent the oral aperture, which lies in a depression 
below. 

The avicularia however have a subcircular mandible, and the 
pore over the mouth is large. I have no doubt of its being a good 
species. Mr. Waters when speaking of the plates which accompany 
Mr. Woods's paper mentions the fact that the whole of the species 
figured are the wrong side up, which is certainly true of all the 
species except two ; but even these were intended to represent the 
same aspect as the others. The figure of B. ci'assa is after all tlie 
right side up, and gives an accurate view of the oral aperture with 
the special pore above. Tt is also probably the first published 
figure which exhibits the form of the true opercular-bearing aperture. 

I have no doubt Mr. Woods saw the important structural 
diflference between this species and those belonging to the 
Selenariadce. 

Loc. — Ofi" Cape Three Points, and Port Stephens (70 to 80 
fathoms). 

(5.) B. AXGULOPORA, Tenison-Woods. 

Lunulites angidopora, Ten.-Woods, op. cit., p. 7, pi. I, fig. 
3a-3c ; Conescharellina conica, Hasw. Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., 



344 NOTES ON SOME AUSTRALIAN POLYZOA, 

1880, Yol. V. Part I, p. 42, pi. Ill, figs. 7-8; Lunulites incisa, 
Hincks, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. 1881, Vol. VIII, 5 series, p. 127, 
pi. IV. figs. 1-3. 

Zoarium conical, plane or slightly concave beneath ; zooecia in 
alternating rows, sometimes with an incomplete row of four or five 
cells near the base ; oral aperture immersed, rounded above and a 
sinus below which is about ^ the diameter of the mouth ; oper- 
culum ovate, constricted (?) near the base, with two circular spots 
on the upper half ; peristome elevated on each side, depressed 
below the mouth, orifice ovate with a pore on the upper margin ; 
avicularia forming elevated rows between the zooecial orifices, 
mandibles triangular with an acute point ; under surface of zoarium 
when perfect covered by a calcareous lamina, with a number of 
avicularia some on elevations and others in circular depressions ; 
on the summit of the zoarium there is usually a cluster of irregular 
avicularia bearing cells with long acute mandibles. 

Log. — Holborn Island, Port Stephens, and Bass's Straits. 

The question of priority in this species is I think in Mr. Woods's 
favour. His paper was read in September 1879, and would 
probably be published early in 1880. Mr. Has well's was read in 
January 1880, and would probably be issued in April or March, 
while that of Mr. Hincks did not appear until August 1881. 

The figures of the zocecia given by Mr. Haswell, and those 
also of Mr. Hincks, are, I think, upside down, judging from the 
shading and the very narrow sinus shown, but which is really more 
like the pore above the mouth than the true oral sinus ; the latter 
is in perfect specimens about \ the diameter of the mouth. The 
zooecial apertures in Mr. Woods's figure are badly drawn ; still it 
is the right side up, and shows a correct view of a " semilunar slit 
with the concavity directed outwards," and an avicularium below 
pointing downwards. It will also be interesting to note that it is 
on the elevated ridge which carries the avicularia ; and further it 
shows the intercalary method of growth, as well as the formation 
of an incomplete row of zocecia. Altogether this figure gives the 
general features of what really takes place in the species. 



BY T. WHITELEGGE. 345 

The slit which indicates the formation of a new cell invariably 
has an avicularium below, with the mandible pointing downward 
at first, but as growth goes on this is usually forced to one side of 
the moutli, though occasionally it remains in front. 

(6.) B. UMBONATA, Haswell. 

Eschara umhonata, Haswell, op. cit., p. 41, pi. II, figs. 5-6. 

Zoarium free, bilaminate, flat, simple or forming trilobate ex- 
pansions, " surface ornamented with numerous rounded knobs of 
various sizes," zooecia immersed, directed towards (what appears to 
be the base) the primary part of the zoarium. Oral aperture 
rounded above, and a wide sinus below ; peristomial orifice nearly 
round, margin slightly elevated, with a subcircular pore on the 
upper border ; an avicularium on each side of the mouth, frequently 
a third one in front, mandible triangular generally pointing up- 
wards. 

Zoc— Holborn Island, (20 fathoms). 

There are three specimens in the collection of the Australian 
Museum, one a flat piece ^ of an inch by ^ of an inch : the other 
two have each three lobes ; the central one in the larger specimen 
is fg from base to summit, and the lateral lobes ^ of an inch in 
length, and nearly as wide ; all the lobes taper a little outwards. 
The " semilunar slit " is not seen in any of the specimens, but the 
peristomial opening is, I believe, formed in the same manner as in 
the others ; several of the zooecial openings are closed by a calcar. 
eous plate, and have the appearance of young zooecia ; the plate is 
seen to be thinner at the margin ; probably the slit-like opening is 
not formed. 

Mr. Haswell's description of the mouth of this species clearly 
shows that it was the anterior pore which he mentions as the sinus 
in the lower lip. He says " mouth varying in form, the lower lip 
sometimes straight, sometimes with a small sinus, sometimes with 
a rounded central lobe." This exactly describes the appearance 
of the anterior oi^al pore in various stages of perfection. The 
peristomial orifice with the pore broken down closely resembles the 



346 NOTES ON SOME AUSTRALIAN POLYZOA, 

figure given on pi, 45, fig. 3, in Hincks's " Brit. Marine Polyzoa," 
of Schizoporella hyalina, and it was only after repeated exatnination 
that I saw the true oral aperture, owing to a belief that the pore 
and the opening represented it. Although the true aperture is 
not deeply immersed, it is difficult to see at first on account of the 
peristome obstructing the view, but when once seen it presents a 
well formed sinus in the lower lip at the opposite end of the mouth 
to that of the pore. It is from the apparent double character of the 
mouth that the name Bipora is given to the genus. 

(7.) Bipora {V) elegans. 

Flaldlofora elegans, d'Orb., Waters, Quart. J. Geol. Soc. Feb. 
1887, p. 71. 

Zoarium free, bilaminate, flabelliform in large examples, | an 
inch wide by f of an inch deep, with a projecting nodule in the 
centre on the concave side ; zooecia wholly immersed, erect, side by 
side, their bases separated by a thin cancellated layer, forming 
alternate rows, and directed towards the projecting nodule ; oral 
aperture rounded above, with a rather wide sinus below ; peristome 
slightly higher above the mouth than below ; orifice nearly round 
with a median pore above, a depressed avicularium on each side, 
usually below the mouth, occasionally another in front ; mandibles 
subcircular pointing upwards and outwards, a number of irregular 
avicularian cells on the nodular projection similar to those on B. 
angulopora. 

Log. — Port Jackson. 

If this species should prove to be difierent (as I think it will) 
from the fossil form described by d'Orbigny as Flahellofora elegans^ 
it can remain as B. elegans, Waters. D'Orbigny's figure (Paljeont. 
Frang. Bryoz. Tom. V. pi. 661) certainly resembles the recent form. 
The same may be said of B. umhonata, which comes nearest to 
d'Orbigny 's species ; if it were not for the elevated nodules, the 
last-named might pass for the fossil species. I have examined about 
nine specimens in all, two of them being less than ^ of an inch in 
their greatest diameter, which when placed on their convex edges and 



BY T. WHITELEGGE. 347 

viewed from above greatly resemble B. angidojiora, and if a little less 
compressed might be mistaken for that species at first sight. The 
avicularian cells are present in both specimens on the nodular 
projection, and the similunar slits on various parts of the zoarium. 
The slits can be seen even in very old specimens scattered about 
on the surface. It is not difficult to trace the stages by which the 
conical form might be changed into the flabellate, and afterwards 
into the lobate form, and which has probably taken place. If we 
imagine the internal cancellated layer to become less developed, 
accompanied by a gradual compression, and the addition of a few 
more rows of zocecia towards the outer margin, we can easily see 
that we should have a form like B. elegans, which is in reality only 
a flattened cone with the base widely extended, and in B. umhonata 
the flabellate form is changed into a lobate one by the non-devel- 
opment of a portion of the colony. So that the broad non- 
divided end of the last-named species and the nodular portion of 
the former correspond with the apex of the cone. 

Postscript. — Since the foregoing was written I have been fortu- 
nate in obtaining some living examples of Bipora Fhilipjnnensis, 
Busk, which I have had under observation for three days. Nearly 
every specimen possesses a pair of tubular filaments inserted on 
each side of the zoarium, about mid-way between the margin and 
the summit on the upper surface ; each tube is about ^ an inch 
lono- and in some cases attached to the tubes of an annelid, and 
in others to fragments of shell. Some of the specimens have 
besun to form new attachment tubes which are about thi'ee times 
the height of the ooecia Each tube is seen to be lined with a 
layer of sarcode similar to that seen in the growing oftshoots in 
Victorella 2}avida, S. Kent, consisting of granular and fisiform 
bodies which form a kind of net-work. The tube appears to grow 
out of an avicularium either at the side or in front of the zooecial 
orifice. After repeatedly counting the number of tentacles, I find 
that they vary from 13 to 15. The pore above the mouth is 
covered by a membrane, and the marginal x'ow of zorecia have 
the peristome produced below into an acute triangular hyaline 
point. 



348 



FLOWERING SEASONS OP AUSTRALIAN PLANTS. 



FLOWERING SEASONS OF AUSTRALIAN PLANTS. 



By E. Haviland, F.L.S. 



iq'o. 6. — List op Plants flowering in the neighbourhood op 
Sydney during the month op December, in addition to 

THOSE enumerated IN FORMER LiSTS. 



Rutacepe — 

EriosteTnon hispidulus 
Euphorbiacefe — 

Monotaxis linifolia 
Dilleniaceje — 

Hibhertia saligna 
Myrtacete — 

Tristania nereifolia 

Angophora lanceolata 

Myrtus tenuifolia 

Leptospermi(,m arachnoideum 

Eucalyptus obtusifolia 
Proteacefe — 

Persoonia hirsuta 

Grevillea sphacelata 

Lomatia silaifolia 
Compositae — 

Olearia dentata 

Cotula australis 
Stylidese— 

Stylidium graminifolium 



Lentibularinese — 

Utricularia lateriflora 
„ cyanea 

Campantilacese — 

Isotoma fluviatilis 
Xyridepe — 

Xyris operculata 
Labiatse — 

Prostanthera linearis 
Urticacese — 

Tvetna aspera 
Scropliularinese — 

Gratiola pedunculata 
Liliacese — 

Blandfordia nohilis 

Dianella ccerulea 
Orchidefe — 

Prasophyllum flavum 

Caleana minor 
Philydraceae — 

Philydrum lanuginosum 
Najadeae — 

Triglochin procera 



NOTES ON AUSTRALIAN LAND-PLANARIANS, WITH 
DESCRIPTIONS OF SOME NEW SPECIES. Part I. 

By J. J. Fletcher and A. G. Hamilton. 

(Plate v). 

This paper is a preliminary one inasmuch as it does not deal 
with the anatomical characters of Australian Land-Planarians. 
This is intentionally the case because to have rendered this part of 
the subject at all complete would necessarily have delayed its 
publication, whereas we are anxious to profit by the eminently 
favourable season for acquiring additional material. Owing to the 
prolonged damp weather land-planarians are more than usually 
abundant this year, and by calling the attention of members of 
this Society living in country districts to this fact, and offering a 
resume of what is known of this much-neglected group, we hope 
that some of the more local species which are in danger of exter- 
mination, may be obtained for examination and description. 

During the voyage of H.M.S. 'Beagle' Mr. Darwin collected 
Land-Planarians at the various places visited, and among them a 
species from Tasmania. A general account of them is given in 
*' The Voyage of a Naturalist " (p. 26), and they were subsequently 
described in the " Annals and Mag. of Nat. Hist." (Vol. XIV. 
1884, p. 244), the Tasmanian species under the name Planaria 
Tasmaniana. 

Mr. Moseley likewise during the voyage of H.M.S. ' Challenger ' 
assiduously collected Land-planarians as opportunity offered, three 
species being obtained from the neighbourhood of Parramatta and 
Camden, N.S.W. These were afterwards described (Quart. Jour, 
Micro. Sc. 1877, p. 285), a new genus CcBnojylana being instituted 
for them. 



350 NOTES ON AUSTRALIAN LAND-PLANARIANS, 

These four species, we believe, include all the Australian Land- 
planarians at present described. 

For some time past we have, both jointly and independently, 
collected planarians from the neighbourhoods in which we reside, 
and from such places as we have been able to visit during 
vacations. In this way we have obtained specimens from various 
places in the County of Cumberland, from the Blue Mountains as 
at Springwood (1,200 ft.) Hartley Vale and Mount Wilson 
(3,400), from near Capertee (2,600 ft.), and in the Capertee 
Valley, from various localities in the Mudgee District where one 
of us is resident, and from Burrawang (2,000 ft.). Though we 
have been able to go further afield than Mr. Moseley's short visit 
permitted him to do, yet relatively to the area which planarians 
may reasonably be supposed to inhabit even supposing this to be 
chiefly the coastal districts, we have, after all, only been able to 
glean in a few places. Nevertheless we have now obtained 
sufiicient material to enable us to describe a number of new 
species, to announce the occurrence of a second genus characterised 
by the possession of two eyes, hitherto unrecorded from Australia, 
and to adduce reasons for merging the genus CcBnoplana of 
Moseley in Geoplana, F. Miill. Tn addition the Hon. William 
Macleay has kindly allowed us to examine the planarians in his 
Museum ; Mr. Olliff has given us specimens of two species from 
the Hunter River district, and Mr. Froggatt specimens of another 
species from Victoria, so that we are able to add some 
particulars about geographical distribution. Finally we have to 
thank Mr. Masters for a quantity of material obtained from one 
of the Sydney nurseries. 

Of the sixteen species of which we have now examined 
examples, not one of them can be referred to the genus 
Cmnoplana of Moseley. Six of them are characterised by 
the possession of two instead of many eyes, and, pending histo- 
logical examination to which we have not yet been able to attend, 
they are referred to the genus Rhynchodemus of Leidy. The 
other ten may be referred to the genus Geoplana as at present 
defined. 



BY J. J. FLETCHER AND A. G. HAMILTON. 351 

Eight of these are new, but the remaining two species agree so 
well as regards their external characters with the descriptions of 
Ccenojilana ccerulea and C. siobviridis of Moseley, except in the 
matter of eyes on the anterior extremity, that we cannot but 
think that they are identical with them, but that Mr. Moseley, 
possibly fi'om an insufficient or inditierent supply of material, or 
from the study only of spirit specimens overlooked the presence of 
eyes on the anterior extremity. That Mr. Moseley had too much 
to occupy his attention dui'ing his short stay here to permit of 
studying the Australian planarians in the living condition is very 
probable from the fact that, in the same volume of the Journal 
which contains the paper already referred to, there is an earlier 
one, " On the Colouring Matters of Various Animals, and 
especially of Deep-Sea Forms dredged by H.M.S. Challenger" 
(op. cit. p. 11) in which the following passage occurs: "At 
Parramatta, near Sydney, N.S.W., two large species of Rhyncho- 
demus ai-e tolerably common, one of which is of a uniform 
Prussian blue colour, whilst the other is a uniform red." From 
this passage it would appear that when this earlier paper was 
written Mr. Moseley had investigated only the colouring matters 
of the Australian planarians, otherwise he would not, even provi- 
sionally, have referred these two many-eyed species to a genus 
characterised by the possession of two eyes , the descriptions of 
Austi'alian planarians were thus probably drawn up at a later 
period, and therefore from spirit specimens. This being so, we 
can from our own experience with spirit specimens readily under- 
stand how the over.sight might have occurred ; as though we have 
spirit specimens of some species in which the eyes on the anterior 
extremity are perfectly visible with a lens, we have others in 
which without having seen living or better preserved specimens 
should be very sorry to be obliged to give a decision on this point. 

In his description of the Tasmanian form Mr. Darwin says : 
" ocelli scattered round the entire margin of the foot, but most 
frequent at the anterior extremity." In his description of 
Ccenoplana Mr. Moseley says : " eyes absent from the fi"ont of the 
anterior extremity, but present in lateral elongate crowded patches 



352 NOTES ON AUSTRALIAN LAND-PLANARIANS, 

placed just behind the anterior extremity and scattered sparsely 
on the lateral margins of the body for its entire extent." 
Accordingly in the list of the known genera and species of land- 
planarians given in Mr. Moseley's valuable paper, he places the 
planarian described by Darwin among the species of Geoplana, 
with the remark that " this (species) will possibly prove allied to 
the Australian genus Ccenojilana." Further in the same paper in 
his description of Geoplana Traversii from New Zealand Mr. 
Moseley says : " numerous eye-spots are present ; these are placed 
in a single row composed of twelve or more along the front 
margin of the head and in an elongate patch on either side of the 
head made up of two or three rows placed one above another and 
containing about forty eye-spots. Eye-spots are further scattered 
more sparsely on the lateral margins of the body, along its entire 
length posteriorly to this patch." Now in all our species with 
numerous eyes this is substantially the condition that we meet 
with. Thus in a young specimen of one of our species, G. 5-lineaia, 
shortly after its emergence from the cocoon, and when it measured 
about 4 mm. long and 1 mm. broad, it was easy to count all the 
eyes, of which there were about 40 in each of the crowded patches, 
two, three or even four deep, and these were connected antei'iorly 
by a single closely set row of about 16, of which 7 Avere on the ^ 
very tip of the anterior extremity ; posterior to the patches there 
were about 20 on each side scattered at more or less considerable 
intervals (1). The total number of eyes, as well as the numbers 
of eyes and of rows of them in the crowded patches vary with the 
the size of the animal, and appear not to be of specific importance. 
They are very numerous in the adults of this species, which 
sometimes show six or seven or even more rows of eye- 
spots in the crowded patches extending upwards on to the 



(1) The actual number of eyes that can be counted just on the tip itself 
varies of course with the amount of contraction of the body ; when fully 
extended the anterior extren.ity of even a large planarian will hardly if at 
all exceed 1 mm. in width, and then there may be only from three to five 
eyes in this space. 



BY J. J. FLETCHER AND A. G. HAMILTON. 353 

dorsal surface and lying dorsad of the outermost dorsal stripe. 
The eyes are readily discernible with a lens both in living and 
usually in well-preserved specimens of most of the species ; in the 
blue-tipped variety of G. ccbrulea, and in G. rubicunda, however, 
they are more difficult to make out even in living specimens, 
though under a low objective they can be seen to have the usual 
arrangement. In G. ruhicimda the eyes are more inconspicuous, 
smaller, and in the crowded patches in the specimen examined 
only about two rows deep. In the other species it is the dark 
colour of the back-ground which makes it difficult to see them. 

If our supposition be correct that Professor Moseley from the 
examination of indifferent spirit material overlooked the presence 
of eyes on the anterior extremity of the Australian land-planarians 
examined by him, it seems unnecessary, in the present state of our 
knowledge, to sepai'ate these forms as a distinct genus Ccenojjlana 
on purely anatomical grounds (the arrangenient of the muscles, 
and of the lateral organs). No doubt eventually it will be found 
necessary to take anatomical characters into account in defining 
the genera, and in establishing his two new genera CcBnoplana and 
Dolichoj)la7ia Mr. Moseley did so. But we cannot find such defini- 
tions of Geoplana and Rhynchodemus. Moreover, the genus 
Geoplana already comprises 28 species (26 of which are enumerated 
in Moseley 's Catalogue, with G. Whartoni, Gulliver, from the 
Island of Rodriguez, and G. Moseleyi, Hutton, from N. Zealand, 
since described) whereas the anatomy of only about two species is 
satisfactorily known (1). Under these circumstances therefore, 
and as all the many-eyed Australian species we have met with 



(1) Speaking of the whole family Mr. Moseley says : "Of the Geoplanidm 
the complete anatomy including that of the generative organs is known as 
yet only in the case of certain species of Bhi/nchodemus and Blpalium 
from Ceylon, and in Geoplana Traversii of New Zealand. The arrangement 
of the muscles and of tlie lateral organs (nervous systems or primitive 
vascular systems ?) of the Ehynchodemus of the Cape, of a Geoplana 
of Brazil, of the Australian Canoplanas, and Manilla Dolichoplanas has been 
determined, and it appears that tlie Geoplauidie form a very natural 
family" (I.e. p. 291). 
23 



354 NOTES ON AUSTRALIAN LAND-PLANARIANS, 

may be referred to the geni;s Geoplana as at present defined, we 
venture to express the opinion that the retention of Ccenoplana is 
unnecessary. 

Of the habits of Australian planarians we have as yet been able 
to learn very little. Thirty years ago Fritz Miiller, writing to 
Schultze about Brazilian planarians, says : " They like moderately 
moist places, under wood, bark, and stones, and between leaves of 
the Bromeliace£e. They appear to rest by day, and to crawl about 
dui'ing the night." (1) Omitting the reference to the Bromeliacese 
these remarks are applicable to Australian planarians, and we 
have little to add to them. Mr. Moseley, both in Ceylon and in 
Brazil, found planai^ians under fallen leaves and resting beneath 
the sheathing leaves of the banana plants ; in Brazil also crawling 
on palm stems in the daytime in very rainy weather, but in places 
where there was very little light ; at the Cape on American 
Agaves ; and in Australia " they were found during the day coiled 
up in cavities under fallen logs, and at night observed with a 
lantern, crawling on the trunks of Eucalypts, especially about 
wounds from which sap was exuding." Most of our specimens 
have been obtained by turning over logs, pieces of wood and bark, 
and stones, when the planarians were found either on the ground, 
or adhering to the undersurface of the logs, &c., sometimes in the 
cracks and crevices even of charred logs. Once at Mt. Wilson 
towards the close of a wet day we discovered a specimen of 
G. ccBTulea crawling across the road. On another occasion we 
found a specimen crawling on a dead tree under loose bark ; 
several times crawling over stones in damp weather, and in one 
case a specimen of G. viridis on a blade of grass exposed to 
sunshine ; but we have not yet met with them abroad at night. 

In dry weather they probably burrow in the ground. We have 
frequently found them in the soil, and at first in trying to keep 
living ones in confinement one of us tried placing them in inverted 



(1) Abhancl. der Naturf. Gesell. in Halle, Vol. IV, 1857. Translated in 
Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (2), xx, 1857, p. 3. 



BY J. J. FLETCHER AND A. G. HAMILTON. 355 

glasses pressed down on earth in llower-pots, from which at night- 
time they invariably escaped without difficulty by burrowing. 

The situations in which we have found them are various. On the 
Blue Mts., at Mt. Wilson (3,400 ft. above the sea), as well as near 
Guntawang, we have found them on the tops of ridges, on the 
slopes leading down to gullies, and in the gullies ; on the banks 
of the Cudgegong River, and on the edges of swamps ; fi^equently 
on the edges of clearings, on lightly timbered land, or in scrub 
land ; but we do not know yet whether they live in the thick 
brushes, where if they do occur the sheathing fronds of ferns like 
Plaiij cerium, or Asplenium nidus might furnish them with I'esting 
places. On the summits and slopes of the ridges and in the more 
open gullies where there is no vegetation of this sort but only 
the ordinary forest trees and scrub, they seem to adopt them- 
selves to circumstances and manage very well without it. 

Some of the species are pretty widely distributed, one extending 
to Queensland and another to Victoria ; others as far as we know 
at present are very local. We have not had them from further 
inland than the Mudgee district on the other side of the Dividing 
Range, and we should be glad to know if they are to be found in 
the interior. From the County of Cumberland we have obtained 
specimens belonging to six species, all occurring elsewhere ; from 
Springwood six species, of which one G. ruhicunda has not been 
found by iis elsewhere, but there are some examples of it in the 
material given us by Mr. Masters ; from Hartley Yale six species, 
three of which are local ; from Mt. Wilson six species of which 
one has been found nowhere else ; and in the Mudgee district 
seven species of which three ai'e local. Individually, except in 
favoured localities or under very favourable circumstances, plana- 
rians cannot be said to be very abundant, and it usually involves 
a considerable expenditure of time and trouble to obtain many 
specimens. Nevertheless, in the Mudgee district one of us 
believes that he could sometimes have obtained a hundred speci- 
mens without much trouble. Elsewhere however, we have had to 
be content with a dozen specimens for a day's work. But, as a 



356 NOTES ON AUSTRALIAN LAND-PLANARIANS, 

rule, our experience is that, anywhere where logs and pieces of wood 
are plentiful, provided there is moisture, one may expect to find 
them. 

Of the nature of their food we know absolutely nothing. 
Darwin was of opinion that the planarians he observed were 
vegetable feeders and fed on rotten wood. Schultze and Moseley, 
however, doubt this, and believe them to be carnivorous, the 
former having found the palate and jaws of a snail in the 
alimentary canal of a planarian which he examined. Fritz 
Miiller also describes a species, G. subterranea, which lives in 
company with a species of earthworm and he says, ..." the 
earthworms are devoured, or rather sucked by the planarians. 
That this was the mode of nourishment, was easy to see, from the 
colour of the contents of the intestine. But I have also met with 
Geojylanm which were holding a young Lumhricus with their 
protruded probosces, and whose intestines were beginning to be 
filled with fresh blood " (I.e. p. 6). 

It is quite possible that the nature of the food may be difi'erent 
in ditFerent species. If ours are carnivoi-ous it is difiicult to 
understand what animals furnish them with food, as often no 
traces of earthworms or snails are seen where planarians occur, 
though both may sometimes be found. On the other hand 
planarians are certainly to be found under logs which are not 
rotten, and in gardens and bush-houses where there is a scarcity 
of rotten wood in the immediate vicinity, so that one is led 
to wonder whether, like earthworms, they are able to extract 
nutriment from the soil. 

But whether Darwin's opinion be correct or not, we know of no 
better plan than his of keeping these creatures in confinement, 
namely, of putting them in a tin or jar with damp rotten wood, 
and not unnecessarily exposing them to the light. At the present 
time we have several specimens which have been kept in this way 
for from one to neai'ly two months, and which seem none the 
worse for it. Possibly, as has been suggested to us, under these 
circumstances they may obtain some nutriment from Myxomycetes 
which probably develop in the damp wood. 



BY J. J. FLETCHER AND A. G. HAillLTOK 357 

Those belonging to the genus llhynchodemus seem to be much 
more delicate than the species of Geoplana ; it is much more 
difficult to keep them alive for any length of time, and even 
when handled in the most careful manner, using a feather in 
moving them, they frequently break up into pieces in the most 
provoking manner when touched, or on exposure to the light during 
examination, while in dealing with the species of Geoplana we 
have had little or no trouble. Though they evidently dislike 
exposure to strong light, yet sometimes when the tin in which we 
keep them has been incautiously left uncovered for a short time 
they have braved the consequences in their efforts to escape. 
Some have got right away, while others were found by following 
up their slimy tracks, a few feet off, dried up on the table partly 
through the dust on it. 

We know nothing definite concerning the enemies whose attacks 
they have to withstand. In turning over logs in search of 
planarians, one cannot help noticing the numbers of centipedes, 
scorpions, spiders, ants, and predaceous beetles which are exposed 
to view, and of suspecting some or all of them of being at 
enmity with the planarians. 

Nearly all our species of Geoplana, like many found elsewhere, 
are conspicuously marked, and some of them brightly and variously 
coloured. Thus one is blue with a white stripe, two are red, one 
is grass-green with reddish strijies, another bright yellow with 
dark stripes, and so on. This is the more remarkable in that they 
are essentially nocturnal animals. Darwin himself points out that 
in the case of hermaphrodite creatures such as planarians " the 
colours do not serve as a sexual attraction, and have not been 
acquired through sexual selection " (Descent of Man, p. 260). 
Nor, avoiding the light as they habitually do, is it clear how their 
colours can be of use to them as a protection either by assimilating 
them to the colour of their surroundings, or as in the case of 
gaudy caterpillars by serving as a warning to their enemies that 
they are distasteful, or that they are provided with defensive 
structures in the shape of urticatiug organs (rod cells). On the 



358 NOTES ON AUSTRALIAN LAND-PLANARIANS, 

other hand all the Australian species characterised by the possession 
of two eyes are dull-coloured and very inconspicuous, yet they 
live under similar conditions, and in similar and often in the 
same situations as the many-eyed species of Geoplana ; "we have 
found examples of both genera under the same log. 

The anterior portion of the body when the animal is crawling, 
is raised from the surface on which the animal rests, and its under 
surface is distinctly arched or concave ; in some of them from the 
edges of the concave portion sensory, papilla-like prolongations are 
frequently put forth, which touch the surface on which the animal 
is crawling, just as is the case with the inferior margin of the 
cheese-cutter-shaped extremity of Bipalium. In spirit specimens 
the arching disappears, but the margins of the under surface then 
show a slight but noticeable ridge on each side of a dijSerent colour; 
we hope later to investigate these structures by means of sections. 
Mr. Moseley was the first to describe the cocoons or egg- 
capsules of land-planarians, which were previously unknown, from 
specimens brought to him by Mr. Travers of Wellington, N.Z., 
during the first week of July. His description of them is, " they 
were perfectly spherical and varied in diameter from 6mm. to 4^ 
mm., being as large as an ordinary pea. Their walls were firm and 
resistant, and of very dark brown or almost black colour. The 
walls are composed of a thin continuous sheet of a dark brown 
chitinous substance, which is highly elastic, and rolls up into 
scrolls when torn into fragments. The brown substance shows no 
definite structure, but only fine granules partly scattered evenly 
through a homogeneous base, partly gathered into patches in it. 
The egg capsules were found to contain from 4 to 6 embryos 
which lay quite free within the cavities of the capsules and closely 
packed together, being curved up to accommodate themselves to 
confinement" (I.e. p. 279). 

Australian land-planarians also breed during the winter 
months, and fabricate similar cocoons. Thus we have met 
with cocoons from the first week in April up till the 
present time (end of June). Some of these were deposited by 
specimens living in confinement, but quite recently one of us in 



BY J. J. FLETCHER AND A. G. HAMILTON. 359 

the Muclgee district on one occasion found a cluster of ten under 
a piece of wood, and on another occasion twenty-four cocoons from 
all but one of which however the young had hatched. These were 
the capsules of G. quinqueliyieala, the only species of which we 
have yet seen the newly-hatched young, but we have a few 
cocoons of other species which are still under observation. The 
cocoons met with vary slightly in size and shape ; usually they 
are spherical, and 3 or 4 mm. in diameter ; others have one axis 
longer than the other, about 5x3 mm. When freshly de- 
posited they are yellow or orange-coloured, but in the course of 
a day or two the colour changes to a dark reddish-brown or 
even black. The number of young which come out of a cocoon is 
about three or four. In two instances the young hatched out in 
five weeks or a day or two longer, after the deposition of the 
cocoons. The latter usually rupture and when empty collapse, 
but in one case the young emerged from a small circular hole 
without the cocoon rupturing or collapsing. Sometimes the 
cocoon ruptures a few days before the animals leave it ; at other 
times they come out very soon after. The newly-hatched young 
of G . qidnquelineata, vary slightly in size, from 2*5 to 4 mm. long 
and 1*5 mm. wide, or even longer when fully extended ; they are 
striped just as are the adults, except that the outermost stripe on 
each side is either very faint, or altogether absent ; both stripes 
and ground-colour are in some cases brighter and pinker than is 
usually the case in adults, but the colours are extremely variable 
in this species, though it is perfectly well characterized, by its five 
dorsal, linear stripes. As yet we have not met with the young 
ones of any other species. 

In addition to the sexual mode of reproduction, planarians 
frequently divide spontaneously by transverse fission into portions 
which are capable of acquiring the characters of complete animals. 
Mr. Darwin gives an interesting account of an experiment he 
made with one of the Tasmanian planarians, which he cut into two 
nearly equal halves ; these, in the course of twenty-five days, 
were all but indistinguishable, when the increased heat on 
approaching the equator put a stop to his observations (Voy. of a 



360 NOTES ON AUSTRALIAN LAND-PLANARIANS, 

Nat. p. 27). We have frequently noticed specimens in various 
stages of constriction, and after the division had taken place. 

The volume of the Journal containing Mr. Moseley's paper is, 
at the present time, wanting in most of the scientific libraries 
in Sydney accessible to students, and quite beyond the reach of 
any one in the bush. We, ourselves, have found it a serious 
inconvenience to have to journey to the Public Library to consult 
it, instead of having it always at hand for reference. In what 
follows, therefore, we have included the descriptions of Mr. 
Darwin and Professor Moseley, partly for the sake of making the 
list complete, but chiefly because we hope to enlist the co-operation 
of some of our country members in collecting and observing these 
interesting animals, as the species are readily determinable from 
the descriptions. Such large tracts of country have now been, 
and are being yearly cleared and burnt over, a procedure which 
means extermination to animals of feeble locomotive powers, like 
planarians, that unless residents in the country help in this matter 
it is almost certain that some of the more local species will never 
otherwise be rescued from oblivion. Insects, land mollusca, and 
other terrestrial invertebrates have been collected from very early 
times in the history of the colony, and before whole districts had 
been more or less completely modified by the clearing of the land, 
and the wholesale destruction of the timber ; but this is not the 
case with planarians. The northern coastal river districts of this 
colony especially will probably yield a very rich harvest to any 
one in a position to search for them systematically. We shall be 
glad therefore to receive any information on the subject, or 
specimens sent alive by post, or put while alive into good methy- 
lated spirit (1). 



(1) In sending living plancarians by post, as we find by experience can be 
done, the best plan is to put them in a small (not too small however) tin 
box with a geranium leaf and a small piece of damp cotton-wool or moss, 
fixed under the leaf so as not to shake about. A piece of paper should be 
pasted round the edge of the lid, otherwise, as they can flatten themselves 
in an astonishing manner, the planarians are apt to escape. 



BY J. J. FLETCHER AND A. G. HAMILTON. 361 

GEOPLANA (altered from Stimpson). 
" Corpus depressum, vel depressiusculum, elongatum vel lineare, 
capite contiuuo. Ocelli numerosi, marginales, vel submarginales ; 
vel in parte anteriori corporis solum, vel passim circa corpus, 
singulatim plerumque, nonnunquam in acervos dispositi" (1). 

1. Geoplana Tasmaniana, Darwin. 

Planaria Tasmaniana, Darwin, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 1844, 
XIV, p. 246 ; Geojilana Tasmaniana, Schultze I.e. p. 7 ; G. Tas- 
inaniana, Moseley. I.e. p. 289. 

" Mouth-sucker widely extensile : alimentary orifice [)laced 
neai'ly in centre of the body ; genital orifice /„ inch posteriorly, but 
when the animal crawls it is f^j inch distant. Genital orifice very 
distinct submar2;ined. Ocelli scattered round the entire margin of 
the foot, but most frequent at the anterior extremity. Both 
extremities pointed. Colour dirty honey-yellow with a central dark 
brown line bordered on each side with a broader line of j)ale 
uraber-brown : foot quite white. Length when crawling Ifg, when 
contracted ^^ inch." 

Bab. — Beneath decayed trees in the woods of Yan Diemen's 
Land : frequent in February (Darwin). 

2. Geoplana c^rulea, Moseley. 

(Plate v, fig. 1). 
Ccenoplana ccBviolea, Moseley, Quart. Jour. Micro. Sc. 1877, 
p. 285. 



(1) Gulliver, Phil. Trans. Vol. 168, p. 562. 

The following is Mr. Moseley's definition of the genus Ccenoplana : — 
" Body long and wormdike, much rounded on the back, flattened on the 
under surface, witlmut an ambulacral line ; external longitudinal muscular 
bundles largely and evenly developed over both dorsal and ventral regions ; 
lateral organs as in Rhynchodemus ; eyes absent from the front of the 
anterior extremity, but present in two lateral elongate crowded patches 
placed just behind the anterior extremity, and scattered sparsely on the 
lateral margins of the body for its entire extent ; mouth nearly central, 
pharynx cylindrical. " Hob. — N.S.W. 



362 NOTES ON AUSTRALIAN LAND-PLANARIANS, 

" Entire body of a dark Prussian blue colour somewhat ligliter 
on the under surface of the body and with a single, narrow, 
mesial, dorsal, longitudinal stripe of white. Length, 5 cm. ; 
extreme breadth, 4 mm. Mouth central ; generative aperture 
8 mm. posterior to mouth " (Moseley). 

nab. — Sydney, Parramatta, Ryde, Spring wood, Mt. Wilson, 
Hunter River, N.S.W. ; Cairns, N. Queensland. 

The specimens of this planarian that we usually find, when 
alive have the immediate anterior extremity for a short distance 
orange-red, darker towards the tip ; in such cases the eyes are readily 
visible with a lens ; the colour more or less completely disappears 
in spirit. Quite recently, however, on three difFei-ent occasions we 
have found on the pavement in Hyde Park alongside the enclosure 
at Captain Cook's statue a number of blue planarians (about four- 
teen altogether), which are without the red tip, and in which the 
median stripe varies from a dirty white to a distinct yellow, 
changing to white in spirit. In these the eyes on the anterior 
extremity against the dark-blue background are only readily visible 
under a low objective, and in living specimens. The enclosure 
referred to has probably been stocked with these planai'ians 
from the Botanic Gardens, but we do not know from what 
locality. The differences in living specimens in the two cases 
seem to be constant, and are sufficiently marked to make one a 
variety of the other, if not to separate them as distinct species. 
In spirit specimens, however, the difference is sometimes imper- 
ce|)tible, and we do not know whether Mr. Moseley examined 
both or not. As Mr. Moseley does not mention the red tip, and 
we have not had the specimens without it (with a single exception 
among the material given us by Mr. Masters) from anywhere but 
the Park, we are not even sure which of them ought to be con- 
sidered the tyi)ical form. From its common occurrence we should 
suppose the former, with the addition to the description of the 
reference to the brightly coloured anterior tip. 

When alive and looked at from above in both cases two tints of 
blue are visible, just the lateral portions of the body being of a 
lighter colour. 



BY J. J. FLETCHER AND A. G. HAMILTON. 363 

The largest specimen we have had when alive and crawling was 
11-5 cm. long. The Queensland specimens are in the Macleay 
Museum, and were collected by Mr. Froggatt, who, however, did 
not find any other species. Mr. Moseley's locality is " Parra- 
matta, under the bark of a species of Eucalypt." The rest we 
have added. 

3. Geoplana sanguinea, Moseley. 

Ccenoplana sanguinea, Moseley, op. cit. p. 285. 

" Closely resembles G. ccerulea, with the exception that it is 
coloured of a uniform light red, which is lighter upon the under 
surface of the body. Actual length living, 7 cm. ; bi-eadth, 
4 mm." 

JJab. — " Parramatta, amongst earth at the roots of a Eucalyptus 
stump " (Moseley). 

We have never met with an example of this species. 

4. Geoplana subviridis, Moseley. 

(Plate V, figs. 2 and 2'). 

Ccenoplana subviridis, Moseley, op. cit. p. 285. 

" Ground colour of the body greenish-yellow beneath. In 
mesial line of the dorsal surface is a broad band of the ground 
colour, bordered on either side by a somewhat narrower but very 
sharply defined intensely black band. Beyond the black bands 
externally on either hand lie bands of the ground colour of equal 
breadth to them ; and beyond these again is a very broad band 
which extends outwards nearly to the lateral margin of the body, 
which band is composed of a shading of fine longitudinal streaks 
of reddish-brown, and is bordered on either side by a narrow, dark, 
nearly black margin, the inner border being more intensely 
pigmented of the two. The bands and lines become narrower 
and more indistinct towards the posterior extremity and eventually 



364 NOTES ON AUSTRALIAN LAND-PLANARIANS, 

blend. The immediate anterior extremity of the animal is of a 
bright burnt sienna colour, darker towards the tip. Leugth of 
largest specimen when living and crawling, 16 cm. ; breadth, 4 mm.; 
length of smaller specimen when crawling, 12-5 cm." (Moseley). 

Hob. — Parramatta and Camden {Moseley), Seven Hills, Hunter 
River, Hartley Vale, Mullamuddy near Mudgee. 

Mr. Moseley says of his specimens " under dead logs, and on 
bark of Eucalypts." We have had specimens both larger and 
smaller than those mentioned above ; the largest 20 cm. long, 
when living and extended. 



'& 



5. Geoplana variegata, n. sp. 

(Plate V, figs. 3 and 3'). 

Undersurface white or cream-coloured in the centre, changing 
to greenish-yellow at the margins. In the median line of the 
dorsal surface is a very narrow linear longitudinal stripe of pale 
yellow or greenish-yellow, bordered on either side by a slightly 
wider but still narrow linear stripe of dark brown or greenish- 
brown, its inner margin the straighter and better defined ; 
external to each of which again is a stripe of pale or greenish- 
yellow, twice or three times the width of the median one j these 
in turn are each bounded externally by a very bi-oad band 
extending outwards nearly to the lateral margin of the body, 
which baud consists of an inner very dark and well-defined portion 
in width about i- of the whole, an outer marginal portion well 
defined but less intensely coloured, and an intermediate portion 
consisting of numberless fine irregular wavy lines and streaks, 
with blotches and patches of the yellowish ground colour shewing 
through ; beyond each of the broad bands is a narrow band of 
pale or greenish yellow. The median stripe, except for a short 
anterior portion where its bounding lines fuse, is very well defined 
throughout ; its bordering dai'k lines are lost quite anteriorly in 
the red or bright sienna colour of the extreme tip, while just 
posteriorly they become confluent with the corresponding dark 
bands. 



BY J. J. FLETCHER AND A. G. HAMILTON. 365 

Length of largest specimen when living and crawling 17 cm.; 
breadth 5 mm.; the same in spirit L3'8 cm. long, 7 mm. broad ; 
length of smaller specimen 2'6 cm., breadth 2 mm.; we have had 
various intermediate sizes. In a specimen 7-5 cm. long the oral 
aperture is 25 mm. behind the anterior extremity, and the genera- 
tive aperture 13 mm. posterior to the mouth. 

It is difficult to express accurately the exact tints of the 
dark bands in living specimens ; they appear of various shades of 
brown yet tinged with dark green ; sometimes they are almost 
sage green. In spirit specimens all the yellow and green tints are 
lost ; the ground colour becomes wdiitish or cream colour, and 
the dark bands various shades of brown. 

Mob. — County of Cumberland, Springwood, Mt. Wilson, Hartley 
Vale, Capertee, Burrawang. 

This fine species resembles C suhviridis in the general character 
of the markings, but differs in their arrangement, the narrow median 
stripe with its narrow bordering dark stripes in the one case, 
markedly contrasting with the broad median stripe with its 
intensely dark and relatively broader stripes in the other. The 
new species has also the dark inner margin of the broad bands 
wider. 

6. Geoplana sulphureus, n. sp. 

Ground colour above and below of a unifoi-mly bright gamboge- 
yellow. In the median dorsal line a narrow band of ground colour 
bordered on either side by a dark reddish-brown line as wide as the 
median stripe ; external to each of them is a band of ground 
colour about as wide as the median stripe and its two dark 
bounding lines taken together ; beyond which again on either 
side is an intensely black band, about as wide as the stripe of 
ground colour which it bounds externally : the bands become more 
or less confluent just at the posterior extremity, while just 
anteriorly they are obscured by the orange-red tint which colours 



366 NOTES ON AUSTRALIAN LAND-PLANARIANS, 

the anterior extremity. In spirit the ground colour is discharged 
and imparted to the spirit, but the dark stri})es remain. Length 
of two spirit specimens 32 and 40 mm., 3 mm. wide. 

Eab.—Mt. Wilson, Hartley Vale, N.S.W. 

7. Geoplana quinquelineata, n. sp. 

(Plate V, figs. 4, 5, 15, 16). 

Undersurface whitish. Ground colour above presents consi- 
derable variations, pale yellow or nearly orange, dull olive-green, 
ochreous-brown, reddish-brown, sometimes almost brick-red. The 
dorsal surface divided into six longitudinal bands by five longi- 
tudinal lines, also varying in colour, sometimes a darker and more 
intense tint of the ground colour, from dark brown almost black 
to warm brown or red, their margins irregular when viewed with 
a len,s, arranged as follows : usually a very fine daik line occupies the 
median line, external to which on each side is anarrowband of ground 
colour; outside of which again on either side is a line of brown 
or red usually slightly broader and better defined than the mesial 
line ; each of these again is bordered by a band of ground colour one 
and a-half times or twice as wide as the inner stripe on each side ; 
beyond each of which is the outermost brown or red line of the same 
width as the first on each side but sometimes narrower, and each 
of these is followed by a narrow band of ground colour extending 
outwards to the lateral margin of the body. At the anterior 
extremity the lines blend in the red tip. The ground colour, and 
the reddish tint of the anterior extremity usually disappear more 
or less completely in spirit, while the bands become brown or 
sometimes black. 

Largest living specimen 10 cm. long. In two contracted spirit 
specimens 42 and 23 mm. long respectively^ the apertures of the 
mouth are 20 and 12 mm. respectively behind the anterior 
extremity ; in a third specimen 26 mm. long the genital orifice is 
4 mm. anterior to the hinder extremity. In none of our specimens 
are both apertures visible. 



BY J, J. FLETCHER AND A. G. HAMILTON. 367 

Young specimens on emerging from the cocoon are 2*5 to 4 mm. 
long. In these and sometimes in larger ones the colour of the 
anterior portion of the body is more intense. In very young 
specimens also the lines are brighter, but the outermost one on 
each side is only faintly indicated, or absent. 

Hob. — Near Parramatta, near Springwood, near Capertee, 
Guntawang, Beaudesert Hills, Biraganbil Hills, N.S.W. ; Sand- 
hurst, Victoria. 

This is one of our commonest species, and notwithstanding the 
variations in the tints it is easily recognised by the five linear 
stripes. At present we are unable to distinguish varieties, or 
more than one species by definable characters, but when we have 
been able more systematically to compare adults and young ones 
from various localities it may be possible to do so. For three 
Victoria specimens we are indebted to Mr. Froggatt. They 
resemble some of our N.S. Wales examples in having the ground 
colour rather dark both above and below, and in having the 
median line as broad as the others, and more intensely coloured, 
almost black. 

8. Geoplana viridis, n. sp. 

(Plate V, figs. 6, 13, 14). 

Ground colour below pale greenish-yellow or in some specimens 
pinkish ; above bright grass-green. In the mesial line of the dorsal 
surface is a fairly broad band of ground colour bounded on either 
side by a fine line of bright burnt sienna ; external to which on 
either side is another band of ground colour about of equal width 
with the mesial band ; beyond each of these again another sienna 
line sometimes consisting of separate dots of pigment, so that 
these lines as compared with the inner ones are not so intense in 
colour or are even broken ; external to each of them is another band 
of ground colour extending outwards to the lateral margin of the 
body, slightly narrower than the median band. The lines converge 
slightly towards the centre, and those of each side become confluent 
just at the anterior extremity, and of a slightly brighter colour, and 



368 NOTES ON AUSTRALIAN LAND-PLANARIANS, 

the two patches thus foi-med also become continuous across the back 
for a short distance just behind the row of eyes. The tip not 
otherwise sienna-coloured. The median green stripe continues 
nearly to the tip. 

Length of largest living specimen 11-19 cm. long; 1 cm. wide; 
largest spirit specimen 7-5 cm. long, 6-5 mm. wide; mouth 
posterior to anterior extremity 3-5 cm.; genital orifice behind 
mouth 12 mm. 

Some spirit specimens retain the colour fairly well, but it is 
usually more or less completely taken up by the spirit ; the lines 
fade considerably. 

Hab. — Guntawang, N.S.W. 

From the banks of an anabranch of the Cudgegong River. 

We have a number of specimens answering to the above 
description ; in addition we have met with two variations. 
Firstly, we have a few specimens in which the outer sienna line 
on each side is wanting. Secondly, we have a few specimens in 
which the ground colour is pale greenish-yellow, with two or 
four sienna lines. Some of these however, may be only immature 
specimens, as the few young ones so far met with are pale yellow 
or pale greenish above, and have the two inner stripes complete 
and distinct only anteriorly, while posteriorly they, as well as 
the outer lines when present, are broken and indistinct. 



9. Geoplana CRN at A, n. sp. 

(Plate V. fig. 7). 

Undersurface very pale yellowish. Ground colour of dorsal 
surface pale sienna. A median dorsal well-defined line of a darker 
shade of the ground coloui-, in some cases and in some portions of 
its course apparently double when viewed with a lens ; beyond it 
on each side a wide band of ground colour marked with short 
longitudinal stripes of a darker tint, and bordered externally by a 



BY J. J. FLETCHER AND A. G. HAMILTON. 369 

somewhat interrupted line of the same width and tint as the 
median stripe; beyond which again is a narrowband of ground 
colour of a paler shade sometimes bordered extei-nally by an inter- 
rupted line like that previously mentioned, extending outwards to 
the lateral margin of the body ; the sides of the body a paler shade 
of ground-colour marked with darker dots. Except that of the 
iindersurface, the colours are fairly well retained in spirit speci- 
mens. 

A living specimen alive and extended 5-5 cm. long, 3 mm. 
broad. 

^a6.— Hartley Yale, N.S.W. 

10. Geoplana virgata, n. sp. 

Iindersurface pale brownish yellow. A narrow median longi- 
tudinal stripe of umber ; on each side of which lies a band of a lighter 
tint, and of about twice or thrice the width, marked with narrow 
broken longitudinal lines, and bounded externally by a darker 
broken line ; outside the latter on either side a narrow band of 
pale brown free from longitudinal markings, and bounded ex- 
ternally by another darker broken line, outside which again is a 
band marked with short fine longitudinal markings. 

Crawling and extended about 2'5 cm. long, 3 mm. wide. 

Hah. — Hartley Vale. 

From under logs on a swampy flat. 

11. Geoplana munda, n. sp. 
(Plate V. fig. 8). 

Iindersurface greyish in centre, yellowish towards the margins. 
Above there is a narrow median dorsal line of pale olive-brown, 
bounded on either side by a very fine dark line, external to which 
is a broader band of a slightly darker brown, and this is bor-dered 
externally by a very dai-k brown line which gradually merges into 
a rather broad baud of very dark brown which fades gradually 
towards it outer margin. 

This pretty little planarian retains its colours in spirit very well 

but the undersurface becomes quite white. The single specimen 
24 



370 NOTES ON AUSTRALIAN LAND-PLANARIANS, 

obtained measured when alive and crawling, 2*5 cm. long, and 
3 mm. broad. In spirit it measures 15 mm. long, 4 mm. broad, 
the mouth 6 mm. behind the anterior extremity, and the 
generative aperture 2 mm. behind the mouth. 

Hab. — Hartley Vale. 

From under a log and almost in the water on a swampy flat. 

12. Geoplana rubicunda, n. sp. 

Body tapering gradually anteriorly, more abruptly posteriorly, 
convex dorsally, flat ventrally (or somewhat concave in the median 
line), thin, much depressed, contrasting markedly with G.ccerulea in 
this respect. Dorsal surface of a bright brick-red, somewhat darker 
in the anterior portion of the body and in the median line, other- 
wise fairly uniform ; no indication of any stripes ; undersurface of 
a lighter tint ; in spirit the colours fade considerably. Eyes 
smaller and more diflicult to make out than usual. 

Length of a living specimen extended 60 mm., breadth 2 mm. ; 
the same specimen in spirit 38 mm. long, 3-5 wide, aperture of 
mouth not visible, the genital aperture 28 mm. behind the anterior 
extremity ; length of a second (spirit) specimen 52 mm., breadth 
3-5 mm., the mouth 32 mm. behind the anterior extremity, and 
the genital aperture 7 mm. behind the mouth. 

Six other spirit specimens from 4-9-5 cm. long, and 3-6-5 mm. 
wide ; in three of them 9-5, 69, and 6-5 cm. long respectively, the 
oral apertures are 6-5, 4-2, and 4 cm. respectively behind the 
anterior extremity, while the generative apertures are 8-5, 6-5, and 
6 mm. respectively still further back. 
Bab. — (Sydney), Springwood, IST.S.W. 

The six specimens above-mentioned were among a number of 
planarians obtained at one of the Sydney nurseries, and given to 
us by Mr. Masters. When previously referred to {antea p. 245) 
we thought they were possibly not indigenous, They appear 
however to belong to the same species as two subsequently found 
in a gully at Springwood. Like these they have the body rela- 
tively broad and depressed (very noticeable in the largest 
specimens), and the oral aperture further back than usual. They 



BY J. J. FLETCHER AND A. G. HAMILTON. 371 

have lost the red tint, and are fulvous. More or less of the under- 
surface in all the specimens is concave in the median line, but this 
may perhaps be due to contraction, though we have not noticed a 
similar effect in other species. 

We do not think this can be Moseley's G. sanguinea, as it cannot 
be said to closely resemble G. ccerulea, the body being more 
depressed, and the oral aperture further back than in that species. 

Genus RHYNCHODEMUS. 

Rhynchodemus, Leidy, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc. Philad. v, 1851. 
" Corpus elongatum, sub-depressutu, antrorsum attenuatum, 
utrinque obtusum. Ocelli duo subterminales." 

13. Rhynchodemus Moseleyi, n. sp. 

(Plate V. figs. 9 and 10). 

Undersurface whitish. Entire upper surface dark olive-green 
almost black. A very narrow mesial dorsal black line bounded on 
either side by a much wider stripe of ground colour ; external to 
each of these stripes a black line slightly broader than the median 
one, beyond which again the ground colour extends to the lateral 
margin of the body. The ground colour is so dark that that the 
longitudinal lines are difficult to detect. 

Length living 3* 3 cm. long, 3 mm. broad. 

Hah. — Beaudesert Hills, Guntawang N.S.W. 



»' 



14. Rhynchodemus Coxii, n. sp. 

Above shining black with two narrow longitudinal azure- 
blue lines enclosing a very narrow median longitudinal stripe of 
the ground colour ; viewed with a lens the ground colour is seen 
to be dotted with minute azure-blue specks, while the azure lines 
have their margins ill-defined and somewhat irregular, and appear 
as if dotted with black ; the lines continue right to the posterior 
exti-emity, but begin some little way behind the anterior one 
which is not coloured reddish. In spirit the lines become white. 



372 NOTES ON AUSTRALIAN LAND-PLANARIANS, 

UndersiTrface much lighter in cclour and showing two whitish 
lines, one on either side of the oral and genital orifices. Length 
crawling 33 mm. 

Hab.—Mt. Wilson. 

We are glad to associate this pretty little species with the name 
of our friend, Mr. J. D. Cox, who found the only specimen yet 
seen, and to whom w e owe the opportunities we have had of visiting 
Mt. Wilson, and whose enthusiastic help in looking for Planarians 
we gratefully acknowledge. The specimen lived only for a few 
days and died unexpectedly before its examination was complete, 
the anterior extremity breaking off, so that we do not yet know 
the characters of its eyes. Tt may therefore be a species of 
Geoj)lcma, but as we cannot see any eyes in the portion of it now 
in spirit, it is provisionally placed here, until we can obtain fresh 
examples. 

15. Rhynchodemus obscurus, n. sp. 

Undersurface almost white. Dorsal surface shining, dark ashy- 
grey shading to black, darkest in small specimens, lighter in very 
large specimens in which the colour is slightly darker in the 
anterior portion of the body ; with a more or less distinct median 
darker longitudinal line ; the lateral mai'gins of the body much 
lighter, gradually shading into the white of the undersurface. 
In spirit the colour changes to dull drab. When quiescent the 
body is relatively broad and flattened ; when fully extended it is 
quite slender, and then the posterior extremity is more pointed 
than the anterior one. No ambulacral line, the animal using the 
whole undersurface as a sole. 

Length of two of the largest specimens alive and extended 
8 cm. and 5 "4 cm. respectively, 3 and 2 mm. broad ; the former in 
spirit 39 mm. long, 3 mm. broad ; a smaller specimen alive and 
crawling 3 "8 cm. long, 2 mm. broad ; in spirit 18 mm. long, 
3 mm. broad, the mouth 11 mm. behind the anterior extremity, 
and the generative aperture 4 mm. posterior to the mouth. 

Hah. — Ryde ; near Springwood ; near Guntawang, N.S.W. 



BY J. J. FLETCHER AND A. G. HAMILTON. 373 

16. Rhynchodemus guttatus, n. sp, 

Undersurface much spotted irregularly with numerous small 
blackish dots on a whitish ground. In the median line of the 
dorsal surface is a very narrow jet black stripe bordered on either 
side by a slightly wider but narrow white linear stripe sparingly 
dotted here and there with minute black spots visible with a 
lens ; external to each of these again is a broad band of shining 
black, towards and at the extremities much broken up into 
numberless small black spots and blotches ; beyond each of these 
is a narrow lighter blotched band on the side of the body. The 
margins of all the bands and stripes somewhat ragged : the white 
stripes disappear near the extremities. 

Two specimens alive and extended 4 cm. and 2 cm. long respec- 
tively, 2 mm. broad ; the former in spirit is 14-5 mm. long, 3 mm. 
broad, the mouth 8 mui. behind the anterior extremity, the genital 
orifice 3 mm. posterior to the mouth. 

Hah. — Springwood, N.S.W. 

We have twice seen at Mt. Wilson what we believe to be a 
specimen of this species, but on both occasions it disappeared 
before it could be examined. Another specimen sent us by Mr. 
Cox is damaged, and we are therefore doubtful about their 
identity. The white stripes at once distniguish this species from 
any of the others. 

17. Rhynchodemus trilineatus, n. sp. 
(Plate V. figs. 11 and 12). 

Undersurface whitish flecked with black spots. The dorsal 
surface with a broad shining dark purplish-brown almost black 
band, which shows a median, and on each side a marginal, linear 
longitudinal black stripe ; beyond which on each side a narrow 
lighter band, the lines of demarcation formed by the marginal 
stripes very conspicuous, and anteriorly at the level of the eyes. 
Length crawling and extended 3 cm., broad 2 mm. 

Hah. — Guntawang. 



374 NOTES ON AUSTRALIAN LAND-PLANARIANS. 

18. Rhynchodemus niger, n. sp. 

Dorsal surface shining intense black ; sides and undersurface 
black (fading to violet in spirit) but less intense, and duller, or the 
undersurface black with a faintly indicated lighter stripe on either 
side of the median line. 

Length of a living extended specimen 35 mm., breadth 2 "5 mm. 

Hah. — Guntawang. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE V. 

All the figures are of the natural size and from living specimens unless 

otherwise stated. 
Fig. I. — Geoplana ccerulea (blue-tipped variety). 
Fig. 2. — G. subviridis, from a small spirit specimen. 

Fig. 2.' — ,, ,, (enlarged diagram shewing the pattern of the stripes). 

Fig. 3. — G. variegata, from a small extended living specimen. 
Fig. 3.' — ,, ,, (diagram shewing the pattern of the stripes). 
Fig. 4. — G. quinquelata, from a very large living specimen. 
Fig. 5. — ,, ,, from a small spirit specimen. 
Fig. 6. — G. viridis. 
Fig. 7. — G, ornata. 
Fig 8.— G. mimda. 
Fig. 9. — Rhynchodemus Mosehyi. 

Fig. 10. — ,, ,, anterior extremity ( X 2), 

Fig. n. — R. trilineatiis. 

Fig. 12. — ,, ,, anterior extremity ( x 5). 
Fig. 13. — G. viridis, anterior extremity of spirit specimen shewing the eyes 

(x2). 
Fig. 14. — G. viridis, anterior extremity of young specimen with fewer eyes 

(x2). 
Fig. 15. — G. qwinquelineata, anterior extremity ( x5). 
Fig. 16. — ,, „ anterior extremity of young specimen with 

fewer eyes ( x 5). 



Note. — Fig. 1 is too black ; in fig. 7 the lithographer has filled in a portion 
of the marginal stripe on each side with transverse lines instead of dots ; in 
fig. 8 the median stripe is too light ; in fig. 15 the rows of eyes in the 
crowded patch are too regular. 



NOTES ON AUSTRALIAN EARTHWORMS. Part III. 



By J. J. Fletcher, M.A., B.Sc. 



Since my last paper appeared I have been able to see the papers 
of H. Ude (1) and Dr. Rosa (2). The former mentions (pp. 133 
and 134) his having received from Sydney, N.S.W., specimens of 
Allolohojihora fcetida Sav., and A. turgida Eisen. (3) The latter 
points out that the species which, for lack of opportunity of con- 
sulting any of the papers in which it has been described, I at first 
supposed was the Lumbricus Novce-Hollandice of Kinberg, and 
which, subsequently finding this not to be the case, from its wide 
distribution in this colony I supposed was indigenous, and referred 
to it in ray second paper as A. australiensis n. sp., is the same as 
one of these mentioned above by Ude, namely the European species 
A. turgida, Eisen. Therefore, if we except Kinberg's doubtful 
species, no indigenous anteclitellian worms are known as yet from 
Australia, the three species of such worms which have already 
become established in various parts having been introduced. Of 
these, A. turgida is spreading with extraordinaiy rapidity and has 
completely outstripped the other two. Indeed taking into account 
its feebler powers of locomotion, and that it was not intentionally 
introduced, the rapid distribution of this worm is as remarkable as 
that of any of our interlopers. In this colony I have examples of this 
worm from almost every locality from which I have obtained or 
received earthworms, with the exception of a few favoured spots 



(1) " Ueber die Riickenporen der Terricolen Oligochaeten," in Zeitschrift 
fiir wiss. Zool. Band XLiii, 1885, p. 87. 

(2) "I Lumbricidi Anteclitelliani in Australia," in Bol. dei Musei di 
Zool. &c. R. Universita di Torino, Vol. i, No. 18. 

(3) Incorrectly referred to as Allohophora in my two previous papers. 



376 NOTES ON AUSTRALIAN EARTHWORMS 



like Burrawang, which are distant from towns, and where so little 
is done in the way of aesthetic gardening that few opportunities 
have presented themselves to this species of spreading to them. It 
is common on the Blue Mts. at Springwood and the Valley. 
It has crossed the Dividing Range and flourishes in the Mudgee 
District. It is very abundant in the Hunter Biver District on 
the north, as in the southern districts it is also at Braidwood and 
Wagga Wagga. It has long since escaped from gardens and has 
taken to bush land which has never been cultivated. And where 
it has become established my experience is that the worms of this 
species are more abundant than indigenous ones. It has also 
established itself in the other colonies, as recently Mr. Froggatt 
brought me specimens of it from Sandhurst, Victoria, and Professor 
Rennie has also sent me a number of examples of it from his garden 
at Adelaide, Tide states that he has also received specimens of 
it from'^Milwaukee U.S.A. and Mexico. It is possibly the worm 
referred to by an American writer in "Nature" (1884, p. 503), 
extracts from whose letter are quoted in a footnote on p. 528 of 
my first paper. On the occasion of my last visit to Mount Wilson^ 
though I have never met with anteclitellian worms there before, 
on turning over a patch of cowdung by the road side on the 
sandstone country and at some distance from cultivated land, 
Mr. Cox noticed thirty or forty small worms which may also 
belong to this species. I took ten specimens at random, and 
though the largest of them (in spirit) is only 36 mm. long, they 
all have girdles commencing with xxv or xxvi and including xxxr 
or XXXII (in one case xxiv-xxviii). 

The other two species of Allolohojohora which occur here do not 
seem to have spread beyond the gardens of the Australian capitals. 
Ude received examples of A . fcetida Sav. from New Zealand and 
Sydney. All the examples I have seen yet are from Sydney 
or Melbourne gardens, from the latter locality brought me by 
Mr. Froggatt. 

Of the third species I have seen examples only from the Hon. 
William Macleay's garden at Elizabeth Bay where it is abundant, 



BY J. J. FLETCHER, M.A., B.SC. 377 

from one of the Sydney nurseries, and from one of the enclosures 
in Hyde Park. It does not agree exactly with any of the descrip- 
tions I can find, but seems to come nearest the A. prqfuga of 
Rosa. 

From two of these gai'dens I have numerous specimens of a 
species of Perichseta (P. peregrina) which is supposed to have 
come from the Mauritius, and which I have already described. 
In this paper I describe another possibly introduced species only 
known to me at present from specimens from Mr. Macleay's 
garden in Sydney, from some which Professor Rennie has sent me 
from Adelaide, and from Mulwala. It differs from any other worm 
I have yet seen from Australia in having the male pores on the 
seventeenth segment. 

In what follows I give descriptions of ten new species of indige- 
nous worms, as before taking note of the more prominent 
anatomical characters, but, in the hope of acquiring additional 
types, leaving the consideration of morphological details until I 
come to revise the whole. Of these all but two belong to the 
genus Perichceta the most abundant Australian type, of which 
I have previously described several species. They comprise species 
from N. Queensland, New South Wales, and South Australia, and 
one of them (P. canaliculata ) collected by Mr. Froggatt in N. 
Queensland is especially interesting because it is intra-clitellian. 
Of another species from Mt. Wilson, which I here desci-ibe, all the 
specimens obtained were postclitellian with a solitary exception 
which was intraclitellian. These two species therefore are of con- 
siderable interest because they add additional strength to the view 
put forward by Beddard, who has met with a similar experience to 
mine, in the case of the species of Acanthoclrilus, that while 
Perrier's distinction between anteclitellian and the other two 
groups into which he has subdivided earthworms is valid enough? 
his division between the intraclitellian and postclitellian groups is 
too artificial to be permanently retained, even though in the present 
state of our knowledge of these animals it may be convenient for 
the time being to make use of it. 



378 NOTES ON AUSTRALIAN EARTHWORMS, 

Tlie remaining two species are postclitellian, with eight rows of 
setae. One from the Hunter and Ilawkesbury districts is a 
new type for which is established the new genus Ferissogaster, 
characterised by the presence of three gizzards, but it differs 
fundamentally from Benham's recently instituted genus Trigaster 
in the characters of the generative organs. 

The other species is an interesting little worm I have recently 
found at Mt. Wilson, in which I have as yet been unable to find 
either gizzard or spermathecse. As I wish to avoid multiplying 
genera 1 provisionally refer it to the genus Gryptodrilus, which 
at present consists of a somewhat heterogeneous collection of 
species whose common characters so far appear to be that they are 
postclitellian ; have eight rows of setse, not in pairs, and frequently 
at considerable intervals apart ; a single (or no) gizzard : and 
that they have the male pores opening on the eighteenth 
segment. 

I have to acknowledge the valuable assistance I have received in 
various quarters. For entirely new material, or for the oppor- 
tunity of obtaining it I have especially to thank Mrs. "Windeyer 
of Raymond Terrace, the Hon. W. Macleay, Kev. K. A. Corner, 
Mr, J. D. Cox, Mr. A. G. Hamilton, Professor Rennie, Dr. E. C. 
Stirling, Dr. E. P. Ramsay, Mr. Masters, and Mr. T. G. Sloane. Not 
less am I indebted to Mr. J, D. Ogilby, Mr. Whitelegge, and 
several other gentlemen for specimens of worms which, though not 
new, were from new localities. 

EUDRILUS (1) DUBIUS, n. Sp. 

The largest (moderately contracted spirit) specimens measure 
60 to 65 mm. long, 4 mm. broad, and comprise about 110 segments ; 
several smaller specimens comprising about 85 segments are about 
45 mm. long. 

Colour pallid, except where as at the anterior extremity and in 
the dorsal region the bloodvessels showing through the thin integu- 
ment give a red tinge ; clitellum of a yellow hue. 



BY J. J. FLETCHER, M.A., B.SC. 379 

Body cylindrical, and of nearly uniform girth, but tapering 
slightly just near the extremities. 

Prostomium pear-shaped, dividing the buccal ring for a little 
more than half its width ; the buccal I'ing as wide as the following 
segments, which are more or less conspicuously tri-annulate, 

Clitellum comprising three complete segments, xiv-xvi, and 
including more or less of xiii and xvii : of xiii sometimes almost 
the whole of it ; of xvii only just the anterior margin, or enough 
to include the male pores, but in no specimen was the whole of it 
included ; thick and complete all round, usually hiding both the 
setae and the boundaries of the segments. 

Setse of the ordinary character, about -39 mm. long, with a slight 
enlargement at about J from the free tip, in eight longitudinal 
rows, of which on each side two are ventral, one lateral, and one is 
dorsal ; the first row on each side about as far from the median 
ventral line as the second row is from the first ; the interval 
between the second and third rows somewhat less than twice that 
between the first and second ; the fourth row about midway 
between the median dorsal line and the third row, the interval 
between the third and fourth wider than that between the first 
and second, but not so wide as that between the second and third. 
From about segment xxi or xxii forwards the setse of the second 
row on each side stand gradually successively closer to the corres- 
ponding setse of the first row until on segment xviii the interval 
between the two rows has diminished to about half ; on xvii the 
first and second setae on each side not visible ; from xvi the second 
rows diverge again until at about segment xii the setse stand 
at the ordinary distance apart. 

The two male pores are on two slight elevations on segment xvii, 
not conspicuous, hardly noticeable without a lens, just dorsad of the 
first row of setae. The two oviducal pores are on xiv, in front of and 
in line with the first seta on each side. Spermathecal apertures 
and dorsal pores not visible. Nephridiopores very distinct, a row 
on each side commencing after segment iv, close to the anterior 
margins of the segments, and a little ventrad of the third row of 
setee. 



380 NOTES ON AUSTRALIAN EARTHWORMS, 

Alimentary canal : the buccal mass and pharynx occupy about 
five segments ; the portions of the alimentary canal in vi vii and 
VIII straight and thin- walled ; a gizzard I have been unable to 
make out ; in each segment from ix to xiii the alimentary canal is 
globularly dilated and very vascular, less marked in xiii, (and 
slightly also in xiv and xv) probably representing the calciferous 
glands though separate pouches on each side are not pinched ofi' ; 
inxvi it suddenly increases in calibre to form the sacculated 
large intestine which continues to the end of the body. 

Genitalia : two pairs of small white racemose testes in segments 

XI and XII, attached to the posterior face of the mesenteries 

between x and xi, and xi and xii, on each side of the alimentaiy 

canal (1); the two vasa deferentia commencing with two pairs of 

ciliated funnels in x and xi immediately in front of the posterior 

mesenteries, and joining the short genital ducts a little way from 

the prostates ; the prostates ai"e two small narrow bodies in xvii, 

transversely placed, the short duct of each coming off from the inner 

(lower) extremity, and joined about half the distance from the gland 

by the posterior portion of the vas deferens ; just in front of the 

proximal extremity of the genital duct is a pair of small delicate 

sacs lying in contact with one another and with the inner portion 

of the prostate ; when separated they are seen to be attached just 

in front of the genital duct ; each of tliem contains two slightly 

curved penial setae, one about '85 mm. long, the free end faintly 

striate but not spinose or with the ti[) bifid, the other developing ; 

the ovaries have the usual situation in xiii ; the oviducts commence 

opposite to them in the same segment and open to the exterior in 

the next one, and present nothing unusual ; the spermathecse I 

have so far been unable to discover. 

(1) Following the example of Perrier I speak of these bodies and of 
similar ones in the other species described in this paper as testes. Their 
real nature I intend to investigate specially subsequently. If they are 
vesiculae seminales both their situation (attached to the mesenteries) and 
their relation to the ciliated rosettes are remarkable, as each pair of the 
bodies is always in a different segment to the pair of rosettes receiving 
their products . 



CY J. J. FLETCHER, M.A., B.SC. 381 

The last pair of hearts is in segment xii ; in this and also in x 
and XI they are very large, and oi'iginate in part from the supra- 
intestinal vessel in these segments. The segmental organs com- 
prise a pair of coiled tubules in each of the segments but a few 
of the anterior ones. 

Hah. — Sydney, Mulwala, N.S.W, ; Adelaide S. A. (possibly 
introduced) . 

It is uncertain whether this worm is indigenous, as so far I have 
had specimens only from gardens. Those from Mulwala, sent by 
Mr, Sloane, were from a garden to which at one time plants had 
been brought from Melbourne. It is a remarkable little worm, 
which as it has a pair of male pores on segment xvir, and I 
can find no spermathecie of the ordinary character, is referi-ed to 
Perrier's genus Eudrilus ; but it differs in several points from any 
of the three or four species of this genus yet described, as for 
example in having no bursa copulatrix, and in not having the 
spermathecfe connected in a remarkable manner with the oviducts. 
At present I can identify neither a gizzard nor spermathecae in any 
of my specimens. The distinction between intraclitellian and 
postclitellian is a very fine one indeed in the case of this species, as 
in none of my specimens is the segment which bears the male pores 
wholly included in the clitellum, though the pores themselves are 
more or less completely ; so that while the worms are always 
unsatisfactorily postclitellian yet they are often not altogether 
satisfactorily intraclitellian. 

Ceyptodeilus eubens, n. sp. 

A good (spirit) specimen is 55 mm. long, 4 mm. wide ; comprising 
114 segments. The pear-shaped prostomium divides the buccal 
ring for more than half its width. 

Colour of the anterior portion of the body dark red, most 
noticeable in front of the girdle, in the posterior half of the body 
as well as on the under surface the colour much lighter. 



382 NOTES oy Australian earthworms 

The girdle comprises three segments, xiv to xvi, and is thick and 
complete all round, the setae and intersegmental boundaries just 
visible. 

Setae of the ordinary shape, about '45 mm. long, in eight longi- 
tudinal rows, not in pairs ; first row on each side ventral, a 
little to one side of the median line, the second row also ventral, 
the third lateral, the fourth dorsal ; the first and second rows stand 
closer to each other than do the third and fourth ; the interval 
between the third and fourth about equal to that between second 
and third, and about twice that between the first and second. 

On XVIII a pair of conspicuous somewhat conical elevations mai'ked 
with several circular groves; on the summit of each a small median 
papilla (perhaps only the everted terminal portion of the genital 
duct) on which are the male pores about in line with the second 
row of setse ; a second and third smaller and less conspicuous 
papillae, one immediately in front, the other immediately behind 
the median one, each with a pore through which probably the 
penial setae are extruded. Oviduct pores two on xiv. Sperma- 
thecal pores not determinable. Dorsal pores absent. Nephridi- 
pores not visible. 

Alimentary canal : the buccal mass and pharynx extend through 
about the first four segments ; in vi and in vii a thin-walled 
globular portion either or both of which may perhaps be a gizzard ; 
calciferous glands in segments x-xiii, the last pair very large 
and conspicuous ; the intestine is quite narrow in the next two 
segments, while in xvi the large intestine suddenly commences, 
and continues throughout the rest of the body. 

Genitalia : a single pair of testes only visible in xii, white 
racemose bodies independent of each other, attached to the 
posterior face of the mesentery between xi and xii ; an anterior 
pair possibly overlooked ; ciliated rosettes in x and xi ; vasa 
deferentia not visible ; prostates a pair of long narrow transversely- 
disposed bodies in xviii, sometimes folded on themselves, with a 
rather long much-bent duct coming off from near the inner (lower) 
end of the gland, gradually increasing in diameter : the two 



BY J. J. FLETCHER, M.A., B.SC, 383 

ovaries have the usual situation in xiii ; the oviducts commence 
opposite them in the same segment and open to the exterior in 
XIV ; spermathecse not visible. Lying beside each genital duct are 
two small sacs each containing two penial setae about "7 mm. long 
gradually tapering to a fine point. 

The last pair of hearts is in xii. 

Segmental organs consisting of a pair of convoluted tubules in 
each of the segments with the exception of a few anterior ones. 

Hah.—Mt. Wilson. 

This interesting little worm is the only one with eight rows of 
setae as yet forthcoming from this locality. When alive it resembles 
in appearance the small perichfete worms. So far I have been 
able to examine only a few small spirit specimens, a number of 
living specimens which I brought down after my last visit having 
unfortunately died before I could examine them. The sperma- 
thecse and gizzard may have been overlooked, but so far I have not 
been able to find them, 

Perissogaster excavata, g. et sp. n. 

Three (spirit) specimens from the Hunter are 69 mm., 195 mm., 
and 250 mm. (a softer specimen) long i-espectively, and 3 mm., 
13 mm., 15 mm. broad respectively, and comprise about 160 to 175 
segments. A (spirit) specimen from the Hawkesbury is 334 mm. 
long, 15 mm. broad, and comprises 195 segments. 

Prostomium wide, slightly depressed, ribbed by about five 
somewhat irregular longitudinal grooves, dividing the anterior 
annulus of the buccal ring. The latter is ribbed anteriorly by 
longitudinal grooves ; superiorly and laterally it is marked with a 
slight transverse furrow at about J from its anterior margin, 
incompletely dividing it into two annuli, and limiting the prosto- 
mium posteriorly. Segments broadest in the antei-ior region of 
the body, especially from about iii to xvii ; the first three segments 
bi-ann\ilate, ii and iii with the setae towards the posterior margin 



384 NOTES ON AUSTRALIAN EARTHWORMS, 

of the anterior annuli ; after iv for some distance the segments 
are tri-annulate with the setae on the middle annuli, sometimes a 
faint indication of four annuli ; behind the girdle the segments 
are narrower, tri-annulate, or sometimes bi-annulate, or quite 
posteriorly even smooth. 

Setse with a slight sigmoid flexure, about 0-7 mm. long, with a 
slight enlargement about J from the free end, the width again 
increasing slightly a little further back, then diminishing gradually 
a very little towards the imbedded end ; in eight longitudinal rows 
forming two pairs, those of each outer pair a little further apart ; 
the first row on each side about 2 mm. from the median ventral 
line ; the second row about 1 mm. from the first ; the third about 
3 mm. from the second ; the fourth about 1-5 mm. from the third ; 
thus even the outer pairs are scarcely or only just lateral in 
position. 

Clitellum absent in the smallest specimen ; in the others com- 
mencing with the posterior annulus of xiii and taking in just 
the anterior margin or nearly the whole of xviir, complete all 
round except for the fossa presently to be mentioned ; in one 
specimen not so thick as to obscure the setfe and annular and 
intersegmental grooves, but in two other cases so tliick as com- 
pletely to do so. The ventral surface of segments xviii to xxi 
is thickened and flattened ; and immediately behind the junction 
of XVII and xviil but on the anterior annulus of xviil and within 
the limits of the clitellum in two of them is a long narrow shallow 
depression or fossa, 8 or 9 mm. long, and about 1 mm. wide, 
placed transversely, and extending outwards nearly to the third 
row of setse on each side, its margins thickened ; on the anterior 
annuli of xix, xx and xxi similar but shallower depressions, or 
only the ends of these may be shewn, the intervening portions 
being more or less filled up, or marked only with a groove. The 
genital ducts are in segment xviii, and judging from the situation 
of their proximal portions the first of these f ossce ought to carry the 
male pores near its extremities, but they are not visible externally 
in any of the specimens. The others appear to be of the nature 



BY J. J. FLETCHER, M,A., B.SC. 385 

of accessory copulatory organs, and also appear to carry indistinct 
pores. In the smallest specimen none (or perliaps the anterior one 
only) are visible. Thus two of the specimens are intraclitellian, 
but one of the others with a not fully developed girdle is not so. 

Oviducal pores two, 2 mm. apart, on either side the median 
line on xiv, and close to the posterior edge of the anterior 
annulus of this segment. Spermathecal pores two pairs, opening 
into the grooves between vii and viii and viii and ix, but situated 
on the anterior margins of viii and ix, in line with the first row 
of setse, ventral in position. 

Dorsal pores none ; nephridiopores not discernible. 

Alimentary canal : the buccal mass and pharynx occupy the first 
four segments, the pharynx anteriorly and superiorly coated with 
a glandular mass possibly salivary glands, bounded posteriorly by 
the first recognisable mesentery between iv and v, the pharyngeal 
muscular bands very strong and numerous, those from the latero- 
posterior region arranged in four more or less complete circular 
rows, and passing through the first second or third or all three 
mesenteries to their insertions on the body walls in segments v, vi 
or VII ; in each of the segments just mentioned is a globular 
gizzard, the three gizzards and the pharynx connected by short 
pieces of oesophagus ; from viii or ix to xiv the piece of intestine 
in each segment shews a very vascular globular dilatation, 
probably calciferous glands, though lateral diverticula seem not to 
be separated off ; the large intestine commences suddenly in xvi, 
and though of larger calibre than the preceding portion, part 
of it being coiled in cork-screw fashion, this appears at first sight 
in a contracted worm to be much greater than it really is ; 
unprovided with caeca. 

Genitalia : two pairsof racemose testes (in the specimen dissected 
5 mm. long, by 1-5 wide) the anterior pair in ix attached to the 
anterior surface of the mesentery between ix and x, the posterior 
pair in xii attached to the posterior surface of the mesentery between 
XI and xii, those of each pair quite independent of each other, one 
25 



386 NOTES ON AUSTRALIAN EARTHWORMS, 

on either side of and arching above the alimentary canal ; ciliated 
rosettes two pairs in x and xi, the whole vacant space in these two 
segments crammed with masses of fully formed and developing 
spermatozoa, apparently enclosed in very thin-walled sacs with the 
ciliated rosettes in each segment, but in too friable a condition to 
make out their relations thoroughly ; prostates two, lobed masses 
each consisting of an anterior broader portion and a posterior 
narrow and longer portion, much bent on itself so as lie in 
two segments xviii and xix, or as on one side in xviii only ; a 
short duct conies off at about the junction of the broad and narrow 
portions of the gland ; the posterior portions of the vasa deferentia 
were not visible : the two ovaries occupy the usual position in xiii ; 
the two oviducts commence opposite to them in the same segment 
and open to the exterior in the next segment ; spermathecse two 
pairs in viii and ix, stalked pear-shaped pouches opening ante- 
riorly, each with a short wide caecum placed anteriorly and which 
may be more or less bifid or even trifid at the free extremity. 

The mesenteries after the first two or three complete ones as far 
back as that between xiii and xiv are enormously thick, and con- 
nected by interseptal bands ; the posterior one of xiv is thinner, 
but much thicker than the succeeding ones. 

There are hearts from v to xii, the last three pairs the largest, 
and these arise by two trunks, one from the dorsal vessel and one 
from a small supra-intestinal trunk ; I could see no sub-nervian 
trunk, but in addition to the supra-nervian one there are two 
lateral vascular trunks in the anterior region of the body. 

The segmental organs are apparently the small tufts of tubules 
attached to the coelomic wall immediately in front of and behind 
the mesenteries, and most conspicuous in some of the anterior 
segments. 

Hah. — Morpeth, and Hawkesbury River District, N.S.W. 

This species cannot be referred to the genus Trigaster recently 
established by Mr. Benham for the reception of a West Indian 



BY J. J. FLETCHER, M.A., B.SC, 387 

earthworm with three gizzards, (1) because, among other points of 
difference, the latter has two pairs of male pores. For the speci- 
mens from the Hunter River I am indebted to the kindness of the 
Rev. K. A. Corner of Morpeth. For the opportunity of examining 
the single specimen from the Hawkesbury I have to thank Dr. 
Ramsay. I have had no information about the habits of these 
worms, which were probably obtained in both cases from the rich 
soil of the alluvial flats. (2). 

PERICHiETA EXIGUA, n. sp. 

Three specimens (from the Blue Mts.) comprising 107-115 
segments are about 6 cm. long, and 3-3-5 mm. broad ; four others 
(from Randwick) comprising about 120 segments are from 4 to 
5-3 cm. long, and 2-5-3 mm. broad; two others (from Manly Beach) 
of about the same dimensions, but both wanting the posterior 
portion of the body. Colour when alive bright red, lighter below. 
Prostomium nearly divides the buccal ring, the latter with a faint 
longitudinal groove in the median ventral line. 

Clitellum of thi^ee complete segments, xiv-xvi, and slightly 
involving xvii in the lateral and dorsal regions, thick and complete 
all round in breeding worms so as to obscure setoe and dorsal 
pores. 

Setse commence with 20 per segment ; this number may con- 
tinue fairly constant, increasing a little way back to 21 or 22, or 
in a few specimens quite in the posterior region it may increase 
even to about 30 per segment ; there is a well-marked median ventral 
interval throughout devoid of setse ; a dorsal interval is less well- 
marked though perceptible anteriorly, but in the hinder region 
of the body it is very little if any wider than the ordinary interval 
between two setee. 



(1) Quart. Jour. Micro. Sc. No. cv, August 1886, p. 94, pi. ix, figs. 31-42. 

(2) After this paper was read the Eev. K. Corner seat me au additional 
and larger supply of these worms, which came too late to be utilised in 
drawing up the above description. They will however enable me to sup- 
plement it on a future occasion, when figures of this and of several other of 
the species referred to in this paper, will be given. 



388 NOTES ON AUSTRALIAN EARTHWORMS, 

Male pores on papillae on xviii, about in line with the 
2nd or 3rd row of setaj on each side, or with the interval 
between them. Oviducal pores close together on xiv. Spermathe- 
cal pores a single pair, between vii and viii, corresponding with 
the interval between the 3rd and 4th rows of setse on each side. 

Dorsal pores after segment v. 

Accessary copulatory structures comprise ventral thickening on 
X and XI ; and on some or all of xvi xvii xix and xx there are 
other structures which are slightly different in the specimens from 
the three different localities : thus in Springwood specimens the 
ventral surface of xvii only, or of this and xix, is thickened and 
marked with a somewhat elliptical fossa extending outwards on 
each side to the second seta, with a well-marked rim, and some- 
times a raised central portion, and apparently with a pair of pores. 
In four Randwick specimens the fossae are on xvii and xx, while 
on XIX in front of the interval between first and second row of 
setse there appears to be a pore. In two Manly specimens the 
fossa is on xvi, while on xvii and xix there are two pairs of small 
papillfB with pore-like depressions, extending from the first to a 
little way beyond the second setee. 

Alimentary canal : the gizzard is in v ; four pairs of calciferous 
pouches in x to xiii with perhaps an additional one in ix ; the 
large intestine begins in xvi. 

Genitalia : two pairs racemose testes attached to the anterior 
mesenteries of segments xi and xii ; two pairs ciliated rosettes in 
X and XI ; the prostates are white compressed bodies, incised 
superiorly so as to be 3- or 4-lobed, a lobe in each of segments 
xviil-xx or XXI, the first and second lobes also partially divided by 
an incision from below, and from the groove so formed emerges 
the genital duct, the rest of which is bent in horse-shoe fashion, 
the limbs lying close together, and with the concavity of the bend 
looking backwards : the ovaries and oviducts have the usual 
situation and arrangements ; the single pair of spermethecse 
are in viii, opening anteriorly, each consisting of a large pear- 
shaped sac with a distinct stalk, and a club-shaped csecum only 
about half the length of the principal pouch. 



BY J. J. FLETCHER, M.A., B.SC. 389 

The last pair of hearts is in segment xii, the posterior three 
pairs much lai'ger than the others. 

Hah. — Springwood (Blue Mts.), Randwick and Manly Beach 
(near Sydney), N.S.W. 

The specimens from these three localities agree very well except 
in regard to the accessory copulatory structures, which by them- 
selves are of too variable a character to be relied on for purposes 
of classification. I therefore put them all in one species, though 
when more specimens are examined it may be possible to separate 
one or more varieties. 

The only other worms with a single pair of spermathecae that I 
have seen, were sent to me by Mr. T. Gr. Sloane from Mulwala on 
the Murray. They comprise six (spirit) specimens from 54-91 mm. 
long, and 2-3 mm. broad, consisting of from 88-125 segments. 
They are not sufficiently well-preserved for very satisfactory 
determination, nevertheless I have been able to make out that they 
are closely allied to the above-described species but may be distin- 
guished as 

Var. MURRAYANA, 

Differing from the typical form of P. exigua in having (1) the cgeca 
of the spermathecae very long, almost filiform but slightly dilated 
distally, much longer than the principal pouches, (2) the testes in 
IX and XII instead of in consecutive segments, (3) the prostates 
narrower, less incised ; and the genital ducts shorter, thicker, and 
less markedly bent in horse-shoe fashion. There are also 
slight diff'erences in the details of the accessory copulatory struc- 
tures, in regard to which however the specimens differ among 
themselves. 

Eab.—Mulwixla, N.S.W. 

Mr. Sloane tells me that this species is common in spring about 
the edges of lagoons and marshes after the floods in the Murray 
subside, but is scarce at other seasons when the ground becomes 
dry. 



390 NOTES ON AUSTRALIAN EARTHWORMS, 

PERICHiETA MONTICOLA, n. Sp. 

The two largest (contracted) spirit specimens comprising 124 
and 151 segments are 12-7 cm. and 15*5 cm. long respectively, 
and 7 mm. wide. The colour above is dark reddish brown, darkest in 
front of the clitellum (which is lighter) and for some distance 
behind it, and gradually becoming lighter posteriorly ; below 
lighter, greyish. Prostomium divides the buccal ring almost 
completely. 

Clitellum of three complete segments, xiv to xvi, and involving 
a portion of xiii or of xvii, or of both. 

The number of setse varies considerably in different regions of 
the body, and slightly in different specimens, so that I have not 
found two exactly alike in detail. The setigerous segments up to 
about XIII normally appear to have 16 setse per segment, though 
after the first three or four there may be 17, 18 or even 20; on 
the girdle this number may increase to 22 or 24, or in one case 27; 
a few segments further back there may be 24-28 ; the number 
eventually increasing in the posterior region to 34 or 36, or in one 
case 50. In front of the clitellum the intervals devoid of setse 
are very broad in this species, the dorsal one especially so. 
Behind the girdle the ventral one narrows gradually but remains 
distinct throughout, whereas the dorsal one gradually narrows so 
much as to become hardly noticeable. The setse from the anterior 
region are thicker and longer than those from further back. 

The male pores are on papillee on xviil, about in a line with 4th 
row of setae. The oviducts open close together on a depression on 
XIV. The two pairs of spermathecal pores are between vii and viii, 
and VIII and ix, just ventrad of the first row of setse. The accessory 
copulatory structures not or scarcely noticeable except when the 
worms are breeding, comprise — a pair of slit-like depressions on a 
swollen area in the line of setae but in the interval devoid of them on 
the ventral surface of ix ; a pair of 8-Iike swollen masses on ventral 
surface of x, with four depressions perhaps pores ; on the flattened 



BY J. J. FLETCHER, M.A., B.SC. 391 

ventral surface of xvii a pair of pores ventrad of the innermost 
setae ; a second pair on small papillae just ventrad of the papillae 
carrying the male pores ; a third pair on minute papillae on xix, in 
front of the line of setie, and corresponding with the interval 
between the first and second setae. 

In other respects this species is like P. australis, except that 
there is an additional pair of calciferous pouches in xiii, and that 
the genital duct is differently disposed, as previously mentioned. 

In a fresh specimen the calciferous pouches and the portion of 
the intestine in xiv presented a white and glistening appearance, 
the contents consisting chiefly of minute granules which effervesced 
on the addition of acid. 

Hah.—Mt. Wilson. 

I have already referred to this species in speaking of P. aus- 
tralis, from which, after having examined additional material, 
1 find it to be readily distinguishable (1) by the greater breadth of 
the dorsal interval devoid of setae in front of the clitellum and 
a corresponding decrease in the number of setae, (2) the ventral 
position of the spermathecal apertures, (3) the presence of an 
additional pair of calciferous pouches, (4) the diiferent position of 
the bend of the genital duct, (5) as well as apparently by accessory 
copulatory structures, which were absent in all the specimens of 
P. australis yet examined. 

Perich.eta canaliculata, n. sp. 

Thirteen (spirit) specimens varying from 9 cm. long and 8 mm. 
broad to 14-5 cm. long and 8 mm. broad; number of segments 
from about 120-160. Body cylindrical, tapering just anteriorly, 
and more gradually for a considerable distance posteriorly. Colour 
even in spirit specimens purplish or reddish-brown, paler below. 
Prostomium dividing the buccal ring very slightly ; marked ante- 
riorly and inferiorly by several (three or more) irregular longi- 
tudinal markings ; superioi'ly with a median longitudinal groove, 
continuing sometimes across the buccal ring, or not on to this, or 



392 NOTES ON AUSTRALIAN EARTHWORMS, 

on to the succeeding segments as far back as the first dorsal pore. 
It may then be present on all the succeeding segments of the body. 
Thus the grooving may be absent from all the first six or seven 
segments, or present on the first one and absent from the others 
up to about the twelfth segment, but from this backwards it is 
present in every one of the specimens, commencing at the dorsal 
pore on the anterior margin of the segment and terminating at the 
pore on its posterior margin, so that it may be said that all or the 
greater part of the body is marked in the median dorsal line by a 
longitudinal linear groove interrupted at the dorsal pores. In 
addition all the specimens show a similar but shallower and fainter 
median ventral grooving on the posterior half of the body, com- 
mencing at a variable distance (in one case at segment xx) behind 
the girdle. 

Segments in front of the girdle widest, usually bi-annulate. 

Setae on a conspicuous ridge just behind the annular groove, fre- 
quently the ridge not limited by grooves ; a median dorsal and a 
median ventral interval devoid of setje, the latter well-defined 
throughout, its bounding rows of setse straight, between two and 
three times the width of the interval between two setae, a little wider 
anteriorly ; the dorsal interval at first very broad, sometimes but few 
dorsal setse in this region, further back the interval is narrower, but 
throughout owing to gaps in the half-circles of setae its bounding 
lines are very irregular and sinuous : the first two or three seti- 
gerous segments appear normally to have 16 setae per segment, the 
next few 24, increasing shortly to 34, eventually increasing in the 
most posterior segments to about 50 per segment. The details are 
liable to considerable variation as not only arc there gaps in the 
half-circles of setae, but especially in the anterior dorsal region 
portions of the setigerous ridges disappear leaving the surface quite 
smooth ; so that in a genei'al way the pre-clitellar segments may 
be said to have any number of setae from 14 to 38, though after 
the first few the number 24 sometimes occurs pretty regularly ; 
sometimes more setae are visible on one side of a segment than on 
the other. 



BY J. J. FLETCHER, M.A., B.SG. 393 

Clitellum complete in one specimen ; slightly developed and 
recognisable in two others ; absent in all the rest ; comprises five 
complete segments xiv to xviii, and in addition takes in small 
portions of xiii and xix ; as the male pores are on xviii the species 
is therefore intraclitellian. 

Male pores on two prominent papillae about 5 mm. apart, in 
line with about the 5th or 6th rows of setfe, or with the interval 
between them ; setae not visible on the ventral surface between 
the pores. Oviduct pores two, in the interval devoid of setpe, on 
segment xiv, close together, just in front of the line of setse. 
Spermathecal pores three pairs, between segments vi and vii, vii 
and VIII, and viii and ix, about in line with the 5th row of setce. 

Dorsal pores after segment v. Nephridiopores not discernible. 

No trace of any accessory copulatory structures. 

The alimentary canal comprises a buccal mass and muscular 
pharynx with its strong pharyngeal muscles occupying the first 
four segments, a long piece of cesophagus several times bent on 
itself, of which a short anterior portion is in v, and a much longer 
piece with the large gizzard in vi, the latter having immediately 
behind it the posterior mesentery of this segment, but pushing 
back it and the next two or three succeeding mesenteries which 
thus — in a contracted worm — come to lie close to each other, and 
causing a considerable displacement in these segments; in segments 
IX to XV the small intestine presents calciferous glands, the portions 
in these segments being very vascular, globularly dilated, inter- 
nally shewing ridges, but distinct pouches are not pinched off ; 
the portion in xvi is narrow, while in xvii the large intestine 
suddenly commences ; this is without cseca, and being coiled in 
cork-screw fashion its apparent calibre is greater than it really is. 

The first noticeable mesentery, thin and incomplete, is that 
between iv and v ; from about viii to xvi the mesentai'ies are 
somewhat thicker than elsewhere. 

Genitalia : two pairs of testes in xi and xii, small white bodies 
(2*5 mm. long, and about 1 mm. wide in a specimen 12*5 cm. 



394 NOTES ON AUSTRALIAN EARTHWORMS, 

long, in which the clitellum was not developed) adherent along 
their whole length to the posterior surfaces of the mesenteries 
between x and xi, and xi and xii, quite independent of each other, 
one on each side of and on a level with the intestine : two pairs 
of ciliated rosettes in x and xi, in one specimen the whole width 
of the floor in each of these segments occupied bj a white mass 
sending up a prolongation visible on each side of the intestine, 
consisting of spermatozoa apparently enclosed in a delicate sac 
along with the ciliated rosettes ; in a second specimen there was a 
considerable mass of spermatozoa on each side in each segment 
but the ciliated rosettes appeared to be quite free, though if so it 
may have been accidental, or judging from the girdle in conse- 
quence of the cessation of the breeding function ; prostates two, 
in segment xviii, each consisting of a larger upper lobe, and a 
smaller lower one from which the prostatic duct comes off; this is 
joined at some distance from the gland by the posterior portion of 
the vas deferens; the genital duct then continues straight for 
some distance, but just its proximal portion is bent round sharply 
forming a small horse-shoe, the convexity of which looks inwards : 
ovaries two, in the usual position in xiii ; oviducts apparently not 
in any way remarkable ; spermathecse three pairs, opening anteri- 
orly, in segments vii to ix, shortly-stalked pear-shaped pouches, 
each with a very short but conspicuous club-shaped csecum. 

Attached to the posterior surface of the mesentery between xii 
and XIII, one on each side, in a position nearly corresponding with 
that of the two pairs of testes in xi and xii, and some distance above 
the ovaries, I found in both specimens dissected a pair of smooth 
white sacs, from their situation looking much like a third but 
rather larger pair of testes. From the difterence in their contents 
however they have nothing to do with the genitalia. They showed 
only granules, granular cells, and encysted parasites. I have 
met with something similar in F. Barronensis, but at present I do 
not know what these bodies really are, as their symmetrical 
arrangement is remarkable if they are merely parasitic out- 
growths. 



BY J. J. FLETCHER, M.A., B.SC. 395 

Segmental organs consist of a pair of conspicuous coiled tubules 
in each segment except the first two or three ; each tubule con- 
sisting of three well-marked portions, a short and tolerably straight 
portion, an enlarged vesicular portion, and a long convoluted narrow 
distal portion. The last two pairs of hearts in xi and xii are very- 
large. 

Hah. — Mossman River, Cairns District, X.Q. {Macleay Museum). 

This is a remarkable and interesting species, the study of which 
I intend to take up again later on. Notwithstanding that it is 
normally intraclitellian it cannot be referred to Megascolex Tempi, 
(redefined by Beddard) from which it differs among other things 
in having fewer setse, and spermathecse provided with caeca. On 
the other hand except for the girdle its characters are paralleled 
in some or other of the numerous described species of Perichceta, 
and it should not in my opinion be placed in a genus separate from 
them, I am inclined to think that it will eventually be desirable 
to restrict the genus Perichceta to the typical pei'ichsete worms with 
complete cii'cles of setae and intestinal casca, and to make a 
separate genus for the pleurochsete worms without caeca like the 
worm under consideration. At present I regard the latter as an 
example of what Beddard has already met with in Acanthodrilus, 
and as strengthening his view that Perrier's classification in so far 
as it relates to the separation of the Postclitelliani from the 
Intraclitelliani is too artificial to be ultimately retained. 

Perich^ta Stirlingi, n. sp. 

Five (spirit) specimens from 10 cm. to 20 cm. long, 8-11 mm. 
broad, comprising from about 130-140 segments. The anterior 
doi'sal portion of tlie body much darker, but the colours are 
bleached by the spirit. 

Prostomium depressed, concave below, with a median longi- 
tudinal groove, and a transverse one at about half the distance 
from its anterior margin ; divides the buccal ring for about f of its 
width. 



396 NOTES ON AUSTRALIAN EARTHWORMS, 

First two or three segments without annulations, after which as 
far back as the girdle they may be triannulate ; behind the girdle 
the segments are narrower and are tri- or they may be quadii- 
anmilate. 

Setae of the usual character, about "35 mm. long, inconspicuous 
on the dorsal region making it difficult to count them ; somewhat 
less numerous on the anterior segments, apparently from 30 to 40 
per segment ; a well-defined ventral interval devoid of them, about 
thrice the width of the interval between two setse ; the dorsal 
interval very irregular owing to its bounding rows of setae not 
being straight, and to the gaps in the rows of setse in this region. 

Clitellum in the largest specimen comprising segments xiv-xvil 
together with the posterior half of xiii except on ventral surface ; 
complete all round ; indicated in the others only by the darker 
colour of these segments. 

Male pores on xviii, about in line with the interval between 
third and fourth rows of setae on each side ; pores of oviducts two, 
close together, about 1 mm. apart on xiv ; three pairs of sperma- 
thecal pores, lateral, about in line with 6th row of setse, between 
VI and VII, vii and viii, viii and ix. 

Accessory copulatory structures well developed ; a pair of 
circular or elliptical papillae at the junction of xvi and xvii, closer 
together than those further back, in line with the interval between 
first and second rows of setae on each side ; a second and third 
pairs at the junctions of xviii with the preceding and succeeding 
segments, one immediately in front of, and the other immediately 
behind, and in line with the male pores ; five additional pairs 
of small elliptical elevations similarly situated at the junctions 
of the following five segments ; in the specimens without girdles 
either only the anterior ones, or moi'e or fewer of them are only 
faintly indicated. 

Alimentary canal : the muscular pharynx occupies about the 
first four segments ; a very short oesophagus and the large gizzard 
are in v, the latter displacing the two mesenteries behind it and in 



BY J. J, FLETCHER, M A., B.SC. 397 

this way occupying vi and part of vii ; in each segment from viii 
to XIV the alimentary canal shows a globular dilatation, very 
vascular, probably functioning as calciferons glands, though lateral 
diverticula are not visible ; the portions of the intestine in xv-xvii- 
are very thin-walled ; the large intestine suddenly commences in 
XVIII, and is without caeca. 

Mesenteries : a thin incomplete one between iv and v, a com- 
plete but very thin one between v and vi, the next one thicker, 
the followins; seven as far back as the one between xiii and xiv 
very much thicker, the remaining ones very thin. 

Genitalia : two pairs testes, in xi and xii, narrow elongate 
racemose or lobulated white bodies attached to the posterior faces 
of the mesenteries between x and xi and xi and xii, one on each 
side of the intestine, quite independent of each other ; ciliated 
rosettes in x and xi, quite free and unenclosed in any sacs (from 
other considerations the specimen dissected was evidently not 
breeding), the posterior portions of the vasa deferentia not 
discernible ; prostates a pair of long narrow rather flat bodies 
transversely disposed in xviii, with a thick short genital duct 
coming off from the inner (lower) end ; just in front and for some 
distance behind the genital duct the floor of the body shews white 
elevations, accessory copulatory glands : the ovaries occupy the 
usual position in xiii ; the oviducts not determinable the worm 
being in rather too soft condition ; spermathecas three pairs, in 
vii-ix, stalked pouches, opening anteriorly, the posterior pair the 
largest, each with a small but conspicuous club-shaped caecum 
nearly as long as the stalk of the principal pouch. 

The last pair of hearts is in xiil ; from viii-xiil a second supra- 
intestinal longitudinal vessel is apparent, from Avhich in part arise 
the four posterior pairs of hearts. Very minute tufts of tubules 
attached to the ccelomic wall appear to represent the segmental 
organs. 

As in P. canaliculata in the specimen dissected there was a pair 
of symmetrically-placed stalked bodies on the posterior surface of 



398 NOTES ON AUSTRALIAN EARTHWORMS, 

the mesentery between xii and xili, not racemose and smaller than 
the testes, of which from their situation they look at first sight 
like a third pair. 

Hah. — Lofty Ranges near Adelaide, S.A. 

For specimens of this very distinct species, the first recorded 
from South Australia, I am indebted to Professor Rennie, and to 
Dr. Stirling from whose garden they came. 

PERICHiETA RaYMGNDIANA, n. Sp. 

Two spirit specimens comprising 103 and 135 segments respec- 
tively, were 19 and 26 cm. long, and 8 and 9 mm. broad respec- 
tively. When alive evidently of a very dark red above, lighter 
below. The prostomium all but divides the buccal ring, is 
superiorly marked with a longitudinal median groove, and with a 
transverse one at a distance of about \ of the width of the buccal 
ring from its anterior margin ; the buccal ring not grooved 
inferiorly in the median line. 

Clitellum well developed in both specimens, the body much 
constricted in this region ; comprises nearly five segments, xiii to 
XVII, in one specimen not taking in the anterior portion of xiii and 
the posterior portion of xvii, but in the other except that their 
ventral portions were less modified both segments may be said to 
be included. 

Male pores on small papillse on xviii, corresponding with the 
interval between the first and second setae on each side. Dorsad 
of, but contiguous and at right angles to each papilla is a ridge- 
like eminence running nearly across the breadth of the segment, 
but no pores are visible on it. There are accessory copulatory 
structures on the ventral portion of xvii and xviii, consisting of 
ellipsoidal thickenings each with an obscurely-indicated pair of 
pores ; the ventral interval devoid of setae in some of the segments 
in front of the girdle is also thickened. The two ovarial 
apertures are close together on an ellipsoidal area on xiv. The 



BY J. J. FLETCHER, M.A., B.SC. 399 

three pairs of spermathecal pores are between vi and vii, vii and 
VIII, VIII and ix, in line with the second seta on each side. The 
dorsal pores commence after segment v. 

Setfe of the ordinary shape but with the sigmoid flexure not 
quite so marked as usual, less numerous, thicker and twice as long 
(0*93 mm.) and further apart in the anterior region ; at first 28 
per segment (sometimes 24) increasing posteriorly to about 36 ; 
a narrow space devoid of setse in the median dorsal line, at first 
about twice the width of the interval between two setae, but 
gradually diminishing posteriorly ; in the median ventral line a 
slightly wider interval conspicuous throughout. 

In regard to the divisions of the alimentary canal, the number 
and situation of the various reproductive organs, the vascular 
system, and the segmental tufts, this species sufficiently closely 
resembles P. austrina as not to call here for detailed description. 
The gizzard is in segment v as it is in that species, and not in 
VI as previously stated. 

Nine mesenteries from the posterior one of vi to the posterior 
of xiv are very thick and muscular. Segments x and xi were 
crammed with masses of spermatozoa enclosed with the ciliated 
rosettes in each segment in a delicate membranous sac. 

Hah. — Raymond Terrace, Hunter River, N.S.W. 

With two specimens of this species I received several other 
perichsete worms, one at least of a difierent species, but too small 
and too soft for satisfactory determination at present ; also a 
large number of specimens of Allolohophora turgida, all from the 
same neighbourhood, and for which I am indebted to the kindness 
of a lady. 

Perich^ta Hamiltoni, n. sp. 

A good (moderately contracted) spirit specimen comprising 1 48 
segments was 14'3 cm. long, and 5 mm. broad : three other speci- 
mens out of a number found dead after a flood in the Cudcresfong 
River, less contracted and softer, were 28, 30 and 35 cm. long 
respectively and 6-8 mm. wide ; the largest one comprising about 
150 segments. 



400 NOTES ON AUSTRALIAN EARTHWORMS, 

Setae of the ordinary shape, stouter, twice as long (about 0"7 mm.) 
and further apart in the anterior region ; on the first setigerous 
segments 16 per segment, increasing to 20 for a number of 
segments, while behind the girdle the number is from 28 to about 
30 ; the dorsal interval at first very broad, about four times the 
width of the interval between two sette, gradually diminishing until 
it is no broader than an ordinary interval ; the ventral interval 
not quite so wide, noticeable throughout. 

The male pores are on papillse on xviii, apparently also a second 
pair of 2)apill£e on this segment but without pores (the large speci- 
mens have the ventral portion of xvii-xix swollen and the male 
pores on circular papillae); papillae with pores on xvii and xviii ; 
only indistinct swellings on ix and x. 

In other respects this species is like P. austrina and requires 
no further description here, 

Hab. — Guntawang, N.S.W. 

Mr. A. G. Hamilton of Guntawang, who sent me specimens of 
this species, informs me that three of them were samples of some 
hundreds found dead in an anabranch of the Cudgegong River, in 
December 1886 after a flood, the first for fifteen years. Apparently 
during a succession of dry seasons the worms had betaken them- 
selves to what, in wet seasons, is the bed of the anabranch, whence 
they had been dislodged, and drowned by the flood. The speci- 
mens sent had been dead some time before they were noticed, 
hence they are not in very good condition for examination ; but 
though the paj^illse carrying the male pores and the accessory 
cojjulatory structures are slightly different, they appear to belong 
to the same species as the other specimen which was dug out of 
the river-bank. 

PERICHiETA WiLSONIANA, n. Sp. 

Largest of eight (spirit) specimens 94 mm. long, 4 mm. broad ; 
comprising about 120 segments. Clitellum of three complete 
segments, xiv-xvi, together with more or less of xvii, but in one 
case including sviii, xix and part of xx ; this specimen therefore 



BY J. J. FLETCHER, M.A., B.SC. 401 

is intraclitellian. Setse at first 20 per segment, further back 
usually 24, and quite posteriorly sometimes about 28 ; ventral 
interval devoid of setae conspicuous throughout, about twice the 
width of the interval between two setse ; dorsal interval at first 
wider than an ordinary interval, but posteriorly not so. 

Two pairs of papillae on xviii, and a pair of copulatory papillae 
on XVII and on xix ; on x a pair of rectangular raised areas with 
a groove between them, extending outwards to about 4th seta on 
each side. 

There is apparently a fourth pair of calciferous pouches in xill. 

In other respects this species is like P. austrina. 

Mab.—Mt. Wilson. 

Perich^ta fecunda, n. sp. 

Two (spirit) specimens from different localities are 74 and 65 mm. 
long, 3"5 and 3 mm. broad, and comprise 108 and 115 segments 
respectively. Body cylindrical, tapering slightly anteriorly, and 
more gradually posteriorly ; colour darker above, especially anteri- 
orly ; when alive an iridescent steel-blue. Prostomium nearly 
divides the buccal ring, the latter inferiorly marked with a median 
longitudinal groove. 

Setse for about the first three setigerous segments 20 per segment, 
increasing to 24 just about the clitellum, with 28 a little way 
behind it, and about 30 per segment in the posterior region. 
Sometimes a few more setse are visible on one side of a segment 
than on the other. Ventral interval devoid of seta? noticeable 
throughout, about twice the width of the space between two setse ; 
the dorsal interval anteriorly a little wider than that between two 
setse, posteriorly not noticeable. 

Clitellum complete, comprising three entire segments xiv to xvi 
and slightly involving xiii and xvii (in one case about half). 

Male pores on xviii, about in line with the interval between 

first and second setse on each side. Oviduct pores two, close 
26 



402 NOTES ON AUSTRALIAN EARTHWORMS. 

together on xiv, in front of the line of setse, Spermathecal pores 
four pairs, intersegmental from segments v to ix, in line with or 
slightly dorsad of the second row of setae on each side. 

Dorsal pores after segment iv. Nephridiopores not visible. 
The accessory copulatory structures are slightly different in detail 
in the two specimens ; they comprise swollen areas with pits or 
pores on the ventral surface of x and xi (in one case circular and 
extending outward from the first to the sixth seta on each side), 
while the ventral surface of segments xvii to xx or xxii is much 
thickened, flattened, and some of these shew a trailsverse shallow 
depression, and a pair of indistinct pores. 

In one of the specimens dissected the gizzard was in v, calci- 
ferous pouches in x-xiv, the large intestine commencing in xvi, 
without caeca. Testes two pairs in ix and xii, ciliated rosettes in 
X and XI, prostates two, in xvili and xix ; ovaries in xili, sperma- 
thecae four pairs, in segments vi to ix, opening anteriorly, the 
club-shaped cseca nearly as long as the main sacs. The posterior 
pair of hearts is in xili. 

Eah. — Mt. Wilson, and Lawson, N.S.W. 



ON A NEW HOPLOCEPHALUS FROM THE GULF OF 

CARPENTARIA. 

By William Macleay, F.L.S., &c. 

HOPLOCEPHALUS CARPENTARIiE. 

Scales in 15 rows. 
Abdominal Plates 183, 
One Anal Plate. 
Sub-caudals 31. 
Length, 20 inches. 
Tail, li2 inches. 

Of slightly depressed form. Head a little broader than the 
neck, body not much enlarged towards the middle, tail short, 
tapering to a fine point. Anterior frontal shields less than half 
the size of the posterior, a little emarginate in front to receive 
the rostral shield, and in contact with two-thirds of the nasal 
shield. The posterior frontals 5-sided, the anterior side in contact 
with the anterior frontals, the lateral with the hinder third of the 
nasal shield, the external posterior side with the preocular and 
superciliary shields, the internal with the vertical shield, and the 
inner side in contact with each other. The vertical shield is 
6-sided and triangular in front and behind. The snperciliaries 
are considerably shorter than the vertical and about half the 
width. There are two postocular and one preocular shields. The 
nasal shield is elongate and pointed behind. There are six upper 
and lower labial shields. The eye is of moderate size, the pupil 
almost round, and is in contact with six shields — the parietal, the 
two posterior oculars, the anterior ocular, and the third and 
fourth upper labials. The place of the loreal shield is occupied by 



404 ON A NEW HOPLOCEPHALUS FROM THE GULP OP CARPENTARIA. 

the contact of the angular points of the anterior ocular, posterior 
frontal, and nasal shields with the middle of the upper side of the 
second upper labial shield. The colour is entirely olive-brown 
above, and yellowish-white below. The head and nape are of a 
rather darker brown, the brown in each margined by a distinct 
black stripe which extends along the upper side of the rostral, 
nasal, and upper labial shields to behind the mouth, beneath 
which all is white. There is also a small black spot on the upper 
angle of the anterior ocular shield. 

I am indebted to Dr. Cox for this very distinct species, which 
was captured near Normanton, Gulf of Carpentaria, a few months 
ago. 



NOTES ON THE NESTS AND EGGS OF CERTAIN 
AUSTRALIAN BIRDS. 

By A. J. North. 

Artamus melanops, Gould. 

This species is found plentifully dispersed throughout the 
interior of South Australia, and the Darling and Albert districts 
of New South Wales. The nest is a round, open structure, 
composed of fibrous roots, lined inside with grasses, and placed in 
a low bush. Eggs four in number for a sitting, varying consider- 
ably in the character of their markings, 

A set taken by Mr. K. H. Bennett at Mossgiel, on the 17th of 
October, 1886, are of a fleshy- white, thickly freckled and spotted 
with irregularly shaped markings of reddish-brown, and others of 
a bluish-grey tint appearing as if beneath the surface of the shell. 
Length (A), 0-87 x 0-69 inch ; (B), 0-9 x 0-67 inch ; (C), 0-85 x 
0'67 inch ; (D), 0-89 x 0-68 inch. 

Another set of a reddish-white ground colour are heavily 
blotched all over, but particularly towards the larger end, with 
bright red and a few indistinct obsolete spots of deep bluish-grey. 
Length (A), 0-82 x 0-68 inch ^ (B), 0-87 x 067 inch; (C), 0-89 
x 0-67 inch; (D), 0-87 x 0-68 inch. Taken by Mr. James 
Ramsay at Tyndarie, November •2nd, 1879. 

The months of September, October, and November constitute 
the breeding season of this species. 

Strepera intermedia, Sharpe. 

A single egg of this species in the Dobroyde collection, taken at 
Mount Gawler, South Australia, in 1860, is similar in colour and 
markings to the egg of the Tasmanian species, S. arguta. Long 
diameter 1*77 inch, short diameter LI 7. 



406 ON THE NESTS AND EGGS OP CERTAIN AUSTRALIAN BIRDS, 

Strepera melanoptera, Gould. 

This bird is found breeding in South Australia, It constructs a 
large open nest of sticks and twigs, lined inside with fibrous roots 
and grasses, and usually placed in the topmost branches of a 
Eucalypt. Two eggs of this species in the Dobroyde collection, 
taken by Mr. Gardner in 1863, are similar in form to those of 
aS*. arguta ; they are of a light purple or rich vinous-brown ground 
colour, with large irregularly shaped markings of slaty-brown 
evenly dispersed over the surface of the shell. Length (A), TG x 
M8 inch; (B), 1-65 x M9 inch. 

Rhipidura diemenensis, Sharpe. 

Two eggs taken near Hobart in October, 1885, are of a dull 
white colour, thickly freckled all over with creamy-brown mark- 
ings, but more particularly towards the larger end. Length (A), 
0-61 X 0-47 inch; (B), 0-6 x 0-47 inch. 

Malurus cyanochlamys, Sharpe. 

Specimens of this bird were obtained on the Herbert River, 
Queensland, in November, 1868, together with the nest and eggs. 
The nest is a dome-shaped structure, with an entrance in the side, 
constructed of dried grass intermingled with spiders' webs, and lined 
inside with feathers, hair, &c. ; it M^as placed in a thick bush 
close to the ground. Eggs four in number for a sitting, fleshy- 
white sprinkled all over with pale reddish-brown markings ; in 
one specimen (A) forming a coalesced patch on one end. Length 
(A), 0-68 X 0-5 inch; (B), 0-68 x 0-5 inch; (C), 0-66 x 0-51 
inch; (D), 0-67 x 0-48 inch. 

Acanthiza inornata, Gould. 
This bird is found in the southern portions of Western and 
South Australia, being particularly abundant in the neighbour- 
hood of King George's Sound in the former colony, where Mr. 
Masters succeeded in obtaining a number of specimens during 
1868, likewise the nest and eggs. 



BY A. J. NORTH. 407 

A nest of this species now before me, taken from the Australian 
Museum collection, is a dome-shaped structure composed of the 
dried wiry stems of a Drosera, and the flowering portions of the 
Banksia cones, spiders' webs, &c., all matted up together, and 
lined inside with the white downy seeds of some composite plant. 
It measures exteriorly four and a-quarter inches in height, by 
three inches in width ; the aperture which is oval and near the 
top being one inch high, by one and a-quarter inch in width. 
The nest is firmly packed in the upright forked branches of a 
Banksia, and was placed about five feet from the ground ; it 
contained two eggs of a fleshy-white ground colour, freckled all 
over with irregularly shaped markings of a reddish-brown, par- 
ticularly towards the larger end where they form a well-defined 
zone. Leng-th (A), 0-7 x 0-52 inch ; (B), 0-69 x 0-52 inch. 

I have described the above nest and eggs upon the authority of 
Mr. Geo. Masters, who assures me there is not the slightest doubt 
about them, he having personally taken them on the 3rd of Dec, 
1868, at King George's Sound, Western Australia. 

Mr. Gould in his ' Handbook to the Birds of Australia,' Yol. I., 
p. 371, writes of the nest of this species, as being "composed 
of grasses lined with a few feathers, and the eggs five in number, 
of a white colour, slightly tinged with greenish grey." 

I am inclined to believe that Mr. Gould has described the nest 
and eggs of some other bird, probably one of the Ploceidce family, 
as neither the materials of which the nest is composed, nor the 
number and coloixr of the eggs, agree with what obtains in the 
case of the other members of the genus Acanthiza. 

ACANTHIZA UROPYGIALIS, Gould. 

For the eggs of this species I am indebted to Mr. K. H. Bennett, 
who procured them at Mossgiel, on the 15th of October, 1886. 
The nest, he informs me, was similar to that of A. fyrrhopygia, 
and was built in a low thickly-foliaged tree about five feet from 
the ground. Eggs three in number for a sitting, of a delicate 
fleshy-white, minutely freckled all over with light reddish-brown 



408 ON THE NESTS AND EGGS OP CERTAIN AUSTRALIAN BIRDS, 

markings, but cliiefly towards the larger end, where they 
form an ill-defined zone. Length (A), 0-65 x 0*5 inch ; (B), 
0-65 X 0-48 inch; (C), 0-66 x 048 inch. 

POEPHILA ACUTICAUDA, Gould. 

Of this handsome bird, the late Mr. Boyer-Bower procured a 
tine series, while collecting in North Western Australia. It breeds, 
like its ally P. cincta of the Eastern Coast, in the long grass and 
low bushes, building a flask-shaped nest of grasses, and laying 
usually five eggs for a sitting. Eggs white, somewhat lengthened 
in form, measuring as follows : — Length (A), 0-68 x 0-48 inch; 
(B), 0-65 X 0-4 inch; (C), 0-69 x 0-46 inch; (D), 071 x 0-48 
inch; (E), 65 x 0-43 inch. 

September and the three following months constitute the 
breeding season of this species. 

ACANTHORHTNCHUS DUBIUS, Gould. 

Some ornithologists do not consider this a good species ; Mr. 
Gould, himself, who first pointed out the difference from the 
Northern and Eastern Australian Continental forms, inclining to 
believe them identical ; but as the Tasmaniau bird is smaller in 
all its admeasurements, and much richer and deeper in the tints 
of the under surface, I give the description of a set of eggs taken 
near Hobart, in October, 1885. 

Eggs two in number for a sitting, of a pale bufi", approaching a 
light saturnine red on the larger end, where they are minutely 
spotted with irregularly shaped markings of deep chestnut-brown, 
and a few nearly obsolete spots of bluish-grey. Length 
(A), 0-73 X 0-53 inch; (B), 0-75 x 0-54 inch. 

ZosTEROPS PLAVOGULARis, Masters. 

This very distinct and well-marked species was found tolerably 
abundant at Cape York and the adjacent islands, by the members 
of the ' Chevert' Expedition in 1875. 

A nest of this species now before me, taken by Mr. George 
Masters at Warrior Island on the 27th of June, is a deep 



BY A. J. NORTH. 409 

cup-shaped structure composed of the dried skeletons of leaves, 
held together with spiders' webs, and neatly lined inside with fine 
wiry grasses, the whole exterior surface being covered with thin 
broad strips of perfectly white semi-transparent paper-like bark of 
a Melaleuca, which gives it a very beautiful appearance. Ex- 
terior diameter three one-eighth inches, depth two inches ; internal 
diameter one and thi-ee-fourths inch, depth one and a-half inch. The 
nest was attached by the rim to the thin branches of a shrub, 
about five feet from the ground. The eggs were two in number, 
but four is the full complement for a sitting, of a uniform pale 
bluish-green, both specimens giving exactly the same measure- 
ments, viz.: 0-72 inch in length, by 0*5 inch in breadth. 

Through the kindness of the Hon. Wm. Macleay, I have been 
permitted to examine and describe a number of nests and eggs in 
the Macleayan Museum, from which the above description is 
taken. I am also indebted to Mr. George Masters, the Curator, 
for supplying me with all the available information relative to 
the taking of the same. 

SiTTELLA PILEATA, Gould. 

For the nest and eggs of this species, together with the bird 
shot therefrom, I am indebted to Mr. James Hill, of Kewell, 
Victoria, who procured them on the outskirts of the Mallee 
country in the Wimmera district, in September, 1882. The nest 
was built in the upright fork of a Casuarina about fifteen feet 
from the ground, and is similar in every respect to that of aS'. 
chrysojMra ; hence its description would be merely a repetition of 
that of the nest of the latter species. Eggs three in number for a 
sitting, the ground colour darker, and the blotches heavier, than 
in S. chrysojJtera, being a deep bluish-white, with long slaty-black 
markings, while appearing underneath the surface of the shell are 
large superimposed blotches of dark lilac, which in some instances 
are confluent ; the markings on the under surface are much larger 
and more numerous than on the outer surface of the shell. 
Length (A), 0-66 x 0-51 inch ; (B), 0-66 x 0-53 inch ; (C), 0-67 
X 0"54 inch. 



/ 



410 ON THE NESTS AND EGGS OF CERTAIN AUSTRALIAN BIRDS, 
SCYTHROPS NOV.E HOLLANDIiE, Lath. 

This bird is universally distributed over the whole Continent of 
Australia, and one or two stragglers have even been found in 
Tasmania. 

Dr. Hurst has kindly permitted me to describe an egg of this 
species from his collection, which, he informs me, was taken from 
the oviduct of a bird shot at Kempsey on the Macleay River, 
during: the first week in November, 1884. and which he exhibited 
at a Meeting of this Society in the same month. 

Ground colour dull white, with faint washed-out pinkish spots 
and minute dots, also some of a light yellowish-brown tinge ; 
appearing as if beneath the surface of the shell at the apex of 
the thick end are others of a light purplish-brown, becoming 
confluent, and forming a very indistinct patch, intermingled with 
some of a brownish shade. All the markings are very ill-defined, 
and the egg closely resembles a very large and washed-out speci- 
men of the egg of Grcdlina australis. Length, TS x 1-05 inch. 

Megaloprepia assimilis, Gould. 

The Allied Fruit Pigeon is universally dispersed over the Cape 
York Peninsula, and as far south as the neighbourhood of 
Rockingham Bay. 

A nest of this species found at Cape York by Mr. George 
Masters, on the 17th of September, 1875, from which the bird 
was flushed, and procured, was simply a few dried sticks placed 
cross-wise on a horizontal branch of a tree about eight feet from 
the ground ; it contained two eggs, perfectly white, rather elong- 
ated in form and pointed at the smaller ends, in a very advanced 
state of incubation. An average specimen measures 1-4 inch in 
length, by 0*95 inch in breadth. {From the Macleyan Mus. Coll.). 

Pezoporus formosus. Lath. 
Dr. Ramsay informs me this bird used to breed freely in the 
neighbourhood of Appin in the long tussocky grass, during the 
months of September, October, and November, and that the 
young birds aff'orded excellent sport about the end of January. 



BY A. J. NORTH. 411 

A nest before me is composed of rushes and wiry grass, bitten 
into suitable lengths, and bent round and interwoven here and 
there into a platform of about half an inch in thickness ; a piece 
of Lycopodium also being worked into it. The diameter of the 
nest is 4*5 inches. Eggs white, and three in number for a 
sitting, shell smooth. Length (A), 1-03 x 0-85 inch; (B), 
1-01 X 0-85 inch ; (C), 1-06 x 0-85 inch. {Dohr. Mus. Coll.). 



412 



NOTES AND EXHIBITS. 



NOTES AND EXHIBITS. 



Mr. Whitelegge exhibited a number of slides of Polyzoa in 
illusti'ation of his paper. 

Mr. MacDonnel] showed the saw of a species of Pristis from W. 
Australia, said to have been obtained from fresh-water. 

Mr. North exhibited the eggs of the following species of Birds, 
Artamus melanops, Gld., Strepera intermedia, Gld., .S^. melanoptera, 
Old., Rhijndura diemenensis, Sharpe, Malurus cyanochlamys, Sh., 
Acanthiza inornata, Gld., FoepJdla acuttcatcda, Gld., Acantho- 
rhynchus dubius, Gld., Sitella pileata, Gld., Zosterops Jiavogularis, 
Masters, and Megalojyrepia assimilis, Gld. 

Mr. A. Sidney OllifF exhibited the insects obtained by Messrs. 
W. A. Harper and J. A. Millington, during a short residence in 
Norfolk Island. He called attention to Pa2nlio liioneics, Don., 
Danais pkxipjms, Linn., Pyrameis Ilea, Fabr., a Pierid new to the 
Australian fauna, several introduced species of Heterocera, and 
among the Coleoptera, to some Longicorns belonging to the genus 
Xyloteles ; but he refrained from entering into particulars as he 
intended on some future occasion to submit to the Society a 
detailed report on the collection. 

The Hon. James Norton exhibited two pieces of wood carved in 
a remarkable manner, in the one case by a Black Cockatoo in ex- 
tracting a grub, in the other by white-ants. 

Mr. Mitchell exhibited and made remarks upon a number of 
fossils from the Bowning series, as follows : — 

(a) Pleurodictyum sp. : this specimen was found in the Bowning 
beds associated with Ccdymene Blumenhachii, and two species of 
Acidasjyis, one of which is closely allied to if not identical with 
A. Leonhardi, to which, from the study of the head andpygidium, 
it has been referred by M. Ratte (Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W. II. 
Ser. 2nd, p. 99). As far as I have been able to ascertain, up to 



NOTES AND EXHIBITS. 413 

this time Pleurodictyum lias not been recorded from N.S.W., and 
the only species recorded from Australia is that mentioned by- 
Prof. McCoy (1) ; and 1 am able to support his contention that it 
occurs in Silurian formations in Australia. The specimen now 
exhibited has cells over half an inch in diameter, and the whole 
specimen measures two inches across. The period of time during 
which Pleurodictytim flourished in the Bowning area was relatively 
a short one, the total thickness of the stratum in which it 
oocurs being only a few feet. T have not seen P. megastoma, but 
I am aware that beds similar to the Bowning beds occur in 
Victoria: it is, therefore, likely that the specimen under notice 
may be identical with that species, (b) Calymene Blumenbachii : 
this fossil also makes its appearance towards the close of the 
series, and the species flourished during a relatively short period, 
as it is found in a stratum about one foot thick. There appears 
to have been a remarkably sudden invasion on the part of 
numerous individuals of this species, followed by as sudden a 
retreat. Immediately below the stratum from which this specimen 
was obtained, Pliacops fecundus (?), the two species of Acidasjns 
referred to above, and a species of Proetus are found. On the 
invasion of C. Blumenhacliii these species, from some cause not 
evident except the presence of C. Blumenbachii, altogether 
disappeared, (c) Stipjyosed Fish-Sjnnes: these are usually found in 
pairs and mostly in the same relative position to each other, 
lying side by side but separated at their bases by distances 
varying from 3 to 9 lines, and gradually approaching to contact 
at their apices, which taper to very fine points. They have a 
slight curve throughout which increases towards the apical points, 
and their greatest diameter is near the middle. The pair exhibited 
are four inches in length, and their greatest diameter is one line, but 
they are incomplete. They are found associated with Acidaspis Leon- 
hardi(?), Acidaspiss^). C?), Phaco^^s fecimdus (?), and P. caudatus, 

(1) Annals and Magazine of Nat. Hist. 1867, Vol. XX. p. 201, in a foot- 
note as follows: — "It is worthy of remark that, as on the continent of 
Europe the Devonian genus Pleurodictyum has now been found in Silurian 
strata, so in these beds in Victoria, I find a new species (P. me<]astoma, 
McCoy) with cells half an inch in diameter." 



414 NOTES AND EXHIBITS. 

(d) Cromus sp, .- this specimen resembles C. Beauvionti, but differs 
from any figures I have seen of it in having y^edunculated eyes and 
unspined pleurte. The specimen now exhibited is complete, and 
is the first so found, as far as 1 am aware, though it is not 
uncommon to get specimens perfect in every particular except the 
presence of the free cheeks and eyes, (e) Turrilepas sp. ; the 
fragment now exhibited is referred to Turrilepas by Mr. Etheridge, 
F.G.S., Government Palseontologist, and is the first recorded from 
Australia, (f) Psilophyton sp. : the specimen shown is provisionally 
referred by Mr. Etheridge to this genus. Its occurrence in 
Australia has not before been recorded. At Bowning it is found 
associated with Phacops caudahcs, P. fecundus (1), Acidaspis 
Leonhardi (1), and another Acidaspis. 

Specimens of Crustacea belonging to the genus Entomis were 
also exhibited. In concluding, Mr. Mitchell alluded to the 
absence of many important palseontological works from the 
libraries ia this colony, and the consequent difficulty in many 
cases of getting fossils identified. 

Mr. Macleay exhibited two fine and unusually large-sized 
specimens of the very remarkable fish LeptocepTialus tcenia, 
obtained by the Rev. Tenison- Woods in the China Sea. He also 
exhibited the Insects and Snake described by him, 

Mr. Trebeck called attention to the report of a deputation to 
the Colonial Secretary of Queensland in reference to the desira- 
bility of cultivating the virus of pleuro-pneumonia for protective 
inoculation, and expressed the hope that Dr. Katz would turn his 
attention to the matter. In reply Dr. Katz stated at the next 
meeting of the Society he would read a paper on the subject. 

Mr. Fletcher exhibited living and spirit specimens of a number 
of indigenous land-planarians, as well as some of their egg- 
capsules ; also specimens of the species of earthworms described 
in his paper. 

Dr. Katz exhibited in connection with his paper on phosphor- 
escent bacteria, an interesting series of pure cultures of these 



P.L.Sn s.w Vol.11 (2"'' Ser) 



Pl.V. 



nil 



11 



8(X2) 




U0(x2) 



12(x5l 




I3(x2) 




15(x5) 




14'(x2) 



16 (x 5) 



A.G.H.del' 



S.Sed^/ieid luh. 






t 



# 



KOTES AND EXHIBITS. 415 

bacteria, which he had put up in the adjoining Laboratory. He 
showed cultivations on various gelatinous nutritive substances, in 
meat broth, and on boiled marine animals (fish, crustaceans). 
Those on fishes (whiting, bream) especially, offer a most beautiful 
aspect, and the light emitted by them is very intense. He also 
demonstrated that ordinary sea- water can be rendered phosphor- 
escent by adding to it cultures of the above micro-organisms. 
There were three aquaria, two containing between 11 and 12 
gallons each, and one 2^ gallons of sea-water. These quantities 
of sea-water became highly phosphorescent by the addition of 
mass-cultures of the luminous organisms, so as to resemble what 
is known under the name of " milky sea." 

Mr. Masters exhibited for Mr. Prince a specimen of a very 
beautiful Wood Moth of .an undescribed species of Pielus taken at 
Lawson (Blue Mountains) a short time ago. The Insect is five 
inches across the wings, the upper wings reddish-brown with 
bright silver markings, the underwings deeply purple. Dr. Lucas 
remarked that he had seen a specimen of this Insect from Gripps 
land, Victoria. 




27 



WEDNESDAY, 27th JULY, 1887. 



The Hon. James Norton, M.L.C, in the Chair. 



Mr. C. T. Musson was present as a visitor. 



Mr. W. Kershaw, Melbourne ; and the Hon. W. H. Suttor, 
M.L.C, Bathurst, were elected Members of the Society. 



The Chairman announced, that the next Excursion had been 
arranged for Saturday, August 13th. Members to meet at the 
Redfern Railway Station to proceed by the 8-15 a.m. train to the 
watering-station beyond Berowra, Hawkesbury Line. 



DONATIONS. 

" On the Honeydew of Coccidse and the Fungus accompanying 
these Insects ;" " Further Notes on New Zealand Coccidse ;" "On 
the Freshwater Infusoria of the Wellington District." By W. 
M. Maskell, F.R.M.S. From the Author. 

" Comptes Kendus des Seances de I'Academie des Sciences, 
Paris." Tome CIV., Nos. 13-17 (1887). From the Academy. 

" Jaarboek van de Koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen, 
Amsterdam," 1885 ; " Verslagen en Mededeelingen der Konink. 
Akad." Derde Reeks, Deel II. From the Academy. 

"The Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society." Vol. 
XLIIL, Part 2 (No. 170, May 1887). Fro7n the Society. 



DONATIONS. 117 

"Bulletins du Comite Geologique, St. Petersbourg, 1887." Tome 
VI., Nos. 4 and 5. From the, Committee. 

" Abstract of Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London," 
(17th May, 1887). From the Society. 

" Abhandlungen herausgegeben vom naturwissenschaftlichen 
Vereine zu Bremen." IX Band, Heft 4 (1887). From the 
Society. 

" Zoologischer Anzeiger." X Jahrg. Nos. 252 and 253 (1887). 
From the Editor. 

"Feuille des Jeunes Naturalistes." No. 200 (June, 1887). 
From the Editor, 

"The Scottish Geographical Magazine." Vol. II., No. 6 
(June, 1887). From the Hon. W. Macleay. 

" Proceedings of the Geographical Society of Australasia, New 
;South Wales and Victorian Branches." 2nd Sess. (April to Dec, 
1884), Vol. II. From the Society. 

"The Victorian Naturalist." Vol. IV., No. 3 (July, 1887); 
"Seventh Annual Eeport 1886-7, List of Members," etc. From 
the Field Naturalists' Club of Victoria. 

"Kevue Coloniale Internationale." Tome IV., Nos. 5 and 6 
(May and June, 1887). Fro7n l' Association Coloniale Neerlandaise 
a Amsterdam. 

" Elements of Pharmacology." By Dr. Oswald Schmiedeberg. 
Translated by Thomas Dixson, M.B. From Dr. Dixson. 

" Verhandlungen des Vereins f iir naturwissenschaftliche Unter- 
haltung zu Hamburg, 1883-5." Band VI. From the Society. 

" Bulletin de la Societe Imperiale des Naturalistes de Moscou." 
Annee 1887, No. 2. From the Society. 

' Nieuwe Naamlijst van Nederlandsche Schildvleugelige In- 
secten.' By Dr. Ed. Everts. From (he Dutch Society of Sciences 
in Haarlem. 



418 DONATIONS. 

" Horae Societatis Entomologicae Rossicae." Tome XX (1886). 
From the Society. 

" The Transactions of the Entomological Society of London for 
the year 1887." Part II. (June). From the Society. 

"Journal of the Royal Microscopical Society, 1887." Part 3, 
(.June). Fo'om the Society. 

" Oversigt over det Kongelige Danske Videnskabernes Selskabs 
Forhandlinger, 1884-6." From the Academy. 

" The Australasian Journal of Pharmacy." Vol. II., No. 19 
(July, 1887). From the Editor. 

" The Sydney University Calendar, 1887." Fromthe University. 

" Natuurkundig Tijdschriffc voor Nederlandsch-Indie." Deel 
XLVI, (1887). From the Kon. Natuurkundige Vereeniging in 
Ned.-Indi'e. 



PAPERS READ. 

REPORT ON A SMALL COLLECTION OF PLANTS FROM 
THE AIRD-RIVER, OBTAINED BY MR. THEODORE 
BE VAN DURING HIS RECENT EXPEDITION ; 

Submitted by Baron von Mueller, K.C.M.C, M.D., Ph.D., 

F.R.S., &c. 

(Plates VI and vii.) 

Among the plants entrusted to the writer's examination, two 
prove new to science, and of these two now the descriptions are 
offered. Besides species of the following genera occur in the 
collection : — Myristica, Pittosporum, Quercus, Mucuna, Manilloa, 
Voacanga {OrchiiJeda), Dischidia, Fagrcea, Selaginella, Trichomanes, 
Davalia, Asplenium, Aspidmm, Polypodium. 

The Manilloa is the M. grandiflora of Scheffer. Mr. Bevan 
remarks, that it attains about 15 feet in height, that the stem 
is bare, that the colour of the floral leaves is salmon-pink, and 
that they bend downwards in bell-shaped masses. 

Mussaenda Bevanl 

(Plate VI.) 

Branchlets glabrous ; leaves nearly orbicular, only along their 
costate nerves hairy ; racemes few-flowered, almost corymbose ; 
peduncles, bracts, pedicels and calyces rather densely beset with 
appressed brownish hairlets ; lobes of the calyx often isomorphous, 
during anthesis longer than the tube, deltoid-semilanceolar, acumi- 
nate, early deciduous, the fifth calyx-lobe (if changed) extremely 
large, conspicuously stalked, pale, ovate-orbicular, almost glabrous ; 



420 ON A SMALL COLLECTION OF PLANTS FROM THE AIRD RIVER, 

corolla many times longer than the calyx, rather densely short- 
hairy outside, its lobes narrowly semi-lanceolar, hardly half as long 
as the throughout slender tube, inside minutely papillular- hairy ; 
stamens reaching nearly to the summit of the coi-olla-tube ; 
filaments extremely short ; anthers linear, pointed, almost half as 
long as the tube of the corolla, narrowly but conspicuously bilobed 
at the base ; stigmas setaceous-linear, thrice shorter than the 
style ; ova.ry short. 

Near the Aird-River (Theodore Bevan, Esq.). 

The small branchlet obtained bears only one leaf, which evi- 
dently is diminutive, so that the rounded form may not be 
normal ; the inflorescence may also, perhaps, become more 
elongated, than shown by our material. 

The broader calyx-lobes but narrower corolla-lobes, further the 
shorter filaments, the longer anthers and the extremely narrower 
stigmata distinguish this new Papuan species already from all 
forms of J/ussaenda frondosa, the only congener hitherto recorded 
from New Guinea. The form of the leaves (so far as known), the 
shortness of the tube of the calyx at flowering time, the whiteness 
of the vestiment of the corolla-tube upwards inside, and the not 
ovate corolla lobes separate our new plant easily from M. Forsteniana. 
Close aifinity to any other species could not be traced out, 

1 most gladly connect with this beautiful and probably fragrant 
plant the name of the explorer, through whose bi-avery and skill 
the regions of the Aird-River system have now become opened up 
to civilization and commerce, with the additional hopeful pros[)ect 
of ready access to high and likely salubrious main ranges for 
mining and rural enterprises. 

Begonia Sharpeana. 

(Plate vii.) 

Leaves large, obliquely cordate-orbicular, slightly acuminate, at 
the margin and beneath along the nerves minutely fringed, above 
imperfectly conspersed with minute depressed papillular corpuscles, 
on both pages subtle-dotted, and when young partially red-tinged ; 



SUBMITTED BY BARON VON MUELLER, K.C.M.G. 421 

petioles densely beset with lax spreading compressed hair ; 
cyme dichotomously branched, many-flowered, glabrous ; bracteoles 
comparatively large, quite petaloid, roundish, situated closely 
under the calyx, entire, deciduous, as well as the calyx-lobes and 
petals rosy-red ; lobes of the calyx petaloid, renate-orbicular ; 
petals of the staminate flowers two, of the pistillate flowers one ; 
lanceolate- or ovate-elliptical; stamens i-ather numerous (25-30). 
anthers roundish with cuneate base ; filaments connate only near 
their base ; styles three, very short, almost free ; lobes of the 
stigmas much twisted ; fruit three-celled ; membranes from two of 
its angles almost dimidiate-orbicular, the membrane from the 
third angle nearly as broad as its own length, almost truncate at 
the summit, but thence outward not acutely protracted, all three 
appendages somewhat rigid, extending at both ends beyond the 
fruit-cells, but only slightly decurrent ; placental plates two in 
each cavity of the fruit ; seeds very minute, almost ovate, pale- 
brownish, somewhat furrowed. 

In the vicinity of the Aird-River (Theodore Be van, Esq.). 

This handsome plant, which should readily enter into horticul- 
ture, has been chosen to perpetuate in the vegetation of the great 
Papuan Island also the memory of the Rev. Mr. Sharpe, who 
recently succumbed as a martyr of Christianity, while carrying the 
gospel to the wild regions of New Guinea. 

Bego7iia Sharpeana agrees with £. sinuata to some extent in the 
form of its leaves, in its inflorescence, in the size of its flowers 
and in the form of its anthers ; but the petioles are not glabrous, 
the leaves are larger and far more inequilateral, the petals of the 
fruit-bearing flowers seem always reduced to one, the styles are 
three in number and so the fruit cells, the appendages of the fruit 
are much more unequal, reach beyond the cavities and are angular 
at the summit ; besides all this the occurrence of a pair of broad 
petaloid bracteoles under the flowers is quite unusual in the genus 
Begonia. This new species should systematically be placed in 
the section Knesebeckia near B. scutata. The characteristics of the 
stem and root remain as yet unknown, so the stipules and the 



422 ON A SMALL COLLECTION OP PLANTS FROM THK AIRD RIVER. 

manner of fruit-dehiscence ; the dried leaves are tender-mem- 
branous and not much paler beneath. 

This seems an apt opportunity to record some other plants, 
previously unknown from New Guinea, though not oVjtained 
thx'ough Mr. Bevan's Expedition : — Triumfetta rhomboidea, N. 
Jacquin ; Tristania suaveolens, Smith ; Notothixos subaureus, 
Oliver; Panax fruticosa, Linne fil. ; Alsomitra Muelleri, 
Cogniaux ; Scaevola oi^positifolia, Miquel ; Ipomoea chryseides, 
Ker. ; Uria Kingii, F. v. M. ; Gyperus digitatus, Roxburgh ; Mono- 
granwia dareocarpa, Hooker ; Lejndozia Wallichiana, Gottsche ; 
Phragmicoma Novo- Ouineensis, Stephani ; Marasmius crinis-equi, 
F. V. M. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATES. 
(Plate vi.) 

MUSSAENDA BeVANI. 

Fig. 1. — Expanded flower. 

Fig. 2. — Portion of corolla-tube laid open. 

Fig. 3. — Calyx with style and stigmas. 

(Somewhat magnified). 

(Plate vii.) 

Begonia Sharpeana. 
Fig. L — Front-, side-, and back view of stamens. 
Fig. 2. — Styles and stigmas. 
Fig. 3. — Transverse section of fruit. 
Fig. 4. — Seed. 

(All magnified, but not to the same extent). 



I 



GENERAL REMARKS ON PROTECTIVE INOCULATION 
FOR BOVINE PLEURO-PNEUMONIA. 

By Dr. Oscar Katz. 

Having been requested by a Member of this Society at its last 
meeting to turn my attention to the movement that is going on in 
Queensland, and I may add, to no less extent in this country, 
as to the subject of protective inoculation for bovine pleuro- 
pneumonia at large, and a satisfactory and practical modus of such 
a procedure in particular, I have tried to put together in the 
following lines a concise general review of what may be gathered 
and followed from our knowledge about the subject in its present 
state. 

Touching the history of the practice of inoculating cattle as a 
preventive treatment against lung-plague, or, as it is more com- 
monly called, pleuro-pneumonia, I may mention that it was first 
introduced by Dr. Willems, of Hasselt (Belgium), as far back 
as 1852. To my knowledge it represents the first case in which a 
kind of vaccination was on a large scale applied to animals. Since 
that time an almost universal attention has been and is still directed 
to this specific prophylactic ; there is, in fact, every reason for 
attempting to suppress and to get rid of this plague which at 
the present day is met with more or less in every part of the globe, 
and has involved and continues to involve most serious pecuniary 
losses. For instance, since the supposed introduction of the disease 
into Australia in 1858, the damage caused by its devastation and by 
the measures employed for mastering it, amounts to something 
enormous. Queensland alone which possesses about four million 



424 PROTECTIVE INOCULATION FOR BOVINE PLEURO-PNEUMONIA, 

head of cattle, that is nearly as much as the other Australian 
colonies together, is estimated to have participated therein to the 
extent of £5,000,000, and the annual losses entailed are calculated 
to be about £500,000. 

In looking at the position which protective inoculation for thia 
cattle disease occupies at present in those countries where the 
latter is prevalent, and the rearing and preservation of stock a 
matter of vital importance, we find that most of them are in favour of 
this treatment being adopted. These are principally : Scotland, Bel- 
gium, The Netherlands, Finance, South Africa, and last but not 
least, the Colonies of Australasia. I may be permitted to quote 
some figures. As the result of an official inquiry in 1875, into the 
state of preventive inoculation for pleuro-pneumonia in New South 
Wales, it turned out, that a strong majority of graziers pronounced 
a favourable verdict. Of 282 cattle-owners who were in the habit 
of inoculating, 234 were favourable, 19 opposed to the measvii-e, i.e., 
in proportion 12 or 13 for, to 1 against it, while 1 1 entertained 
doubts, and 7 stated nothing. Among 272 owners who did not 
practise inoculation, 54 were for, 50 against, 13 being doubtful, 
and 155 oflTeiing no opinion. 

These figures, supporting so decidedly as they do, inoculation, 
claim our full consideration, so much the more as some of the 
operators must undoubtedly have encountered greater difficulties 
in carrying out the operation than there would have been, could 
it have been performed by experienced veterinarians, or perhaps 
under more favourable circumstances. Thus the prospect of 
success must, after all, have been smaller in the former case than 
in the latter. 

But still the method of inoculation has its opponents, who 
rather incline to the adoption of other preventatives such as the 
so-called "stamping-out system." In one point, however, there 
seems to be a general agreement, namely, that a cure of the disease 



BY DR. OSCAR KATZ. 425 

is altogether olijectionable from a practical standpoint as well as 
from an economical one, and that consequently, all therapeutics 
have to be thrown overboard. Nothing then remains but the 
employment of prophylactic measures, of which protective inocu- 
lation is one. We have now to enter upon a consideration of the 
nature of this subject, and to see whether the results of such a 
consideration can be bi'ought into harmony with the seemingly 
favourable results claimed by the advocates of the system. 

The notion " protective inoculation " in connection with any 
disease, hence also in the cattle disease under notice, pre- 
supposes that it belongs to the group of infectious diseases which 
by means of a " contagium," are capable of transmission from 
individual to individual, at least under certain circumstances. 
That bovine pleuro-pneumonia is one of this kind, or in other 
woi'ds, that it presupposes a contagium in the shape of an 
organised something, of a microscopic being, is regarded as 
a settled question, to judge from the present standpoint of 
science, and from practical experience. For a full understanding 
of the disorder, as well as for the mode of combating it (taking 
special reference to protective measures), it must, however, 
appear very important to know at the very outset, how the disease 
spreads. There are two principal possibilities. (1) It may be 
caused by germs which represent so-called obligate parasites, that 
is to say, which for their propagation need the body of cattle 
(or perhaps of some other animals). These germs again might 
be of two descriptions. On the one hand they might lose their 
power of infecting by having been exposed to external agencies, 
tlius resembling, as it were, the pathogenic factors in human 
syphilis, in regard to which we are compelled to accept the view 
that it cannot be communicated but by immediate contact. On 
the other hand they might also, after having left the animal 
body, but if so without being able to propagate, possess the 
faculty of infection. An instance of such a kind we have in 



426 PROTECTIVE INOCULATION FOR BOVINE PLEURO-PNEUMONIA, 

tuberculosis, the microbes of which represent the vehicles of 
both direct and indirect infection, the latter taking place by 
germs (their spores) which exist in our surroundings, and hold 
out there for a considerable length of time. (2) The disease, 
as such, might be attributed to so-called facultative parasites, 
i.e., micro-organisms which feed, multiply, and may form resting 
stages on or in various dead organic substances, but transferred 
to the living animal body manifest themselves as parasites. 
The best known instance of such a case is furnished by anthrax or 
splenic fever. The pathogenic agents of this infectious disease, the 
antlhrax bacilli, are not necessarily bound to live in animals or in 
man ; on the contrary they are originally harmless saprophytes, 
Ijiit, when occasionally gaining access to the blood-system of living 
beings, they unfold a most pernicious activity. 

It is evident that a decision of which of the above conditions is 
fulfilled with regard to boviue pleuro-pneumonia, nmst have a 
legitimate bearing on the question of the kind of protective means 
to be adopted against the disease. If this is inaugurated after 
the manner of syphilis, and therefore, the scope of its spreading 
very much limited and easily traceable, then it would be most 
questionable whether some preventive vaccination should be pre- 
ferred to other prophylactics. If on the other hand there are far 
more dangerous doors oi:)en to the propagation of the disease, and 
if we have reason to suppose that it depends on a contagium like 
that of tuberculosis or of splenic fever, then, of course, the subject 
of protective inoculation claims a greater interest. 

Unfortunately our knowledge of the exact manner in which 
pleuro-pneumonia makes its appearance and spreads, is as yet far 
from being certain ; nor are we warranted in arriving at a satisfac- 
tory answer so long as the causal factors of the plague are not 
yet thoroughly recognised and their biological properties studied. 
What we may gather from practical observations is not sufficient 



BY DR OSCAR KATZ. 42T 

for a final decision, since opinions differ widely as to that point. 
Yet we are warranted in saying a priori that, in a similar way as 
it has been pronounced by von Pettenkofer for epidemic cholera, 
the outbreak of an epidemic of pleuro-pneumonia must have been 
preceded by an infection en masse. Infection of this description 
could best be brought about by micro-oi'ganisms of the type of 
facultative parasites (see above). In epidemics of anthrax and of 
typhoid fever we cannot but trace such a course of things ; besides, 
the statistic observations on the mode of spreading of cholera, 
anthrax, and typhoid-fever, are altogether in concordance with the 
results of laboratory experiments on the infectious nratter of these 
diseases. On pleuro-pneumonia we fail to bring to bear such 
powerful help ; for it is premature in this direction to draw 
definite conclusions from the results of investigations by Peels and 
Nolen, who have designated a certain micrococcus as the vera 
causa of that bovine disease (^The Veterinarian, March 1887, pp. 
143-157). In the interest of the matter itself their experiments 
require expansion, and the results as yet obtained corroboration. 

Returning after this digression to onr subject proper we must 
try to obtain a definite view of its essential characters. 

In its present shape protective inoculation for bovine pleuro- 
pneumonia occupies a peculiar position among the other modern 
inoculations or vaccinations. It is a matter sui generis. The 
procedure is as follows : when the disease is stated to be present 
in a herd, the vaccin is procured by killing one or more of the sick 
individuals, and collecting the serum out of the diseased lungs, or 
the pleural exudations. A definite portion of such liquids is then 
ti'ansferred — the modtcs operandi differs — to the subcutaneous 
connective tissue near the end of the tails of healthy, or we have 
reason to add, apparently healthy individuals. This operation 
gives rise to a localised swelling which is considered to be a repeti- 
tion in a milder form of what takes place in lungs and pleurae in the 



428 PROTECTIVE INOCULATION FOR BOVINE PLEURO-PNEUMONIA, 

virulent form of the disease. After this local afi'ectiou is over, the 
animals are said to be proof against lung-plague. 

From this generalising report on the mode in which protective 
inoculation for the cattle-disease under treatment is being prac- 
tised, you will at once perceive its peculiarities. Take as object 
of comparison the ideal of the modern preventive inoculations, 
vaccination against variola. Vaccination in the human species is 
admittedly followed by the intended result only when it is carried 
out before the disease (variola, small-pox) has taken possession of 
the individuals that are to be protected. It is a genuine preventive 
treatment which will not admit of the incursion of the disease. 
The same principle is adhered to in the preventive inoculations for 
<;ertain animal plagues, for anthrax or splenic fever in sheep and 
•cattle, for symptomatic anthrax (or " black-leg " or "quarter-ill ") 
in cattle, for fowl-cholera, and swinefever. In all these cases the 
■employment of the preventive precedes, must precede the appear- 
ance of the respective disorder, and not the other way. The ordinary 
method of protecting cattle against " pleuro," however, does not 
always seem to be guided by that principle. We have briefly 
mentioned that inoculation will be performed after the plague 
has already commenced its work. This being the case we are well 
justified in assuming that, besides quite normal and healthy indi- 
viduals, some, be they few or many, which have already taken up the 
virulent agents of the disease, will be inoculated. Such an event 
•could have occurred without having set up any reliable symptoms. 
It must be remembered that, the auscultation of a bovine chest 
being in itself no easy task, especially for non-experts, the difficul- 
ties must accumulate when a cattle-owner has to inoculate, say, 1,000 
head. The risk of inoculating individuals already but inperceptibly 
infected, is moreover enhanced by our not knowing anything 
exact about the period of incubation, and the precise course of the 
disease. Yet it would appear as if the period of incubation is 



BY DR. OSCAR KATZ. 429 

siibject to considerable fluctuations, thus rendering the question of 
making a correct diagnosis a matter of considerable embarrassment 
In view of such facts, the above factor in connection with inocu- 
lation for " pleuro " is pre-eminent ; it must be looked upon 
as a very strong objection to the measure in its pi-esent state, 
unless experiments can show beyond every doubt that immunity 
through inoculation is also bestowed UDon such animals as are 
already infected. Otherwise the manipulation, instead of pre- 
venting the disease from spreading, would tend to preserve and 
propagate it, by allowing vaccinated but previously affected indivi- 
duals to pass as being safe. It is true that in the most modern 
protective inoculation, namely Pasteur's treatment of hydrophobia, 
we find an instance which seems to correspond to a postulate of 
the above kind. Pasteur applies his method not until his patients 
have been bitten by a rabid animal, and, consequently are already 
impregnated with the deadly virus. For the present, however, it is 
advisable to view Avith some reserve Pasteur's results so far as 
rabies is concerned. 

Another point that calls for our attention is this. How is it that 
in pleuro-pneumonia the material to be inoculated has the shape of 
a virus, taken directly from the diseased oi-gans, and in this condi- 
tion applied to the subcutaneous cellular tissue of the tail, that is to 
say, to spots which have nothing to do with the chief seats of the 
malady 1 With one exception (see below), there is no analogy to 
this extraordinary case in the other protective inoculations 
which have been made known. Here vaccins are used which 
although morphologically very similar to, or, as a rule, quite the 
same as the virulent agents, are weakened, partly naturally, 
partly artificially, to such a degree that they are no longer able to 
kill the individual species for which they are intended. The 
vaccine-lymph for small-pox vaccination represents the virulent 
material of vaccine or cow-pox, but such a material or, if you like, 
bacterial life and its pi'oducts, although extraordinarily alike to 



430 PROTECTIVE INOCULATION FOR BOVINE PLEURO-PNEUMONIA, 

that of vai'iola or small-pox, cause, when transferred to man, only 
slight alterations, after which any attack of the virulent factors of 
this disease will be frustrated. With regard to protective inocu- 
lations of animals we may take as example that of anthrax. Here 
the generally used cultures of micro-organisms are attenuated by 
means of higher temperatures, so as to have lost their power of 
infecting, while at the same time their morphological characters do 
not differ from those of the virulent bacilli. Experience has 
further shown that the inoculation-material prepared in the des- 
cribed manner, must enter into a communication with those organs 
or tissues which are the principal seat of the disease present, and 
in which they have to call into existence symptoms, analogous 
to those exhibited in the virulent form of the disease, but only 
modified and often scarcely perceptible. The attenuated anthrax- 
virus is transmitted through the subcutaneous connective tissue to 
the blood, which is the seat of splenic fever. 

Nothing similar seems to take place with reference to pro- 
tective inoculation for pleuro-pneumonia. In this case both the 
kind of virus employed, and the part of the body where it is 
applied, ai'e altogether contrary to those facts. There is, how- 
ever, one cattle-disease, namely symptomatic anthrax ("quarter-ill," 
" black-leg "), in which we find something analogous to pleuro- 
pneumonia. "With regard to the foi'mer it has been proved beyond 
doubt that, by means of direct injections of unweakened virus (e. g. 
sap of diseased muscles) into the veins of healthy individuals, these 
can be rendered immune, although the blood-system as such is not 
the place where the contagium of the disease (the symptomatic 
anthrax bacilli) settles, and carries on destruction. (The usual way, 
however, in the practice of inoculation against this plague, is by 
means of artificially weakened virus, applied subcutaneously). It 
stands to reason that the same may possibly hold true with the 
mode of protection against pleuro-pneumonia, for a liquid carrying 
the infective matter in the shape of microscopic organisms, has, if 
inoculated underneath the skin, every chance to be taken up by the 
blood, and thus carried to the lungs and other organs. Bui in 



BY DR. OSCAR KATZ. 431 

symptomatic anthrax we have a well-studied disease, the etiology of 
which is perfectly known. Not so in bovine pleuro-pneumonia. For 
this reason we have to be careful not to generalise without further 
information, and it must rest with future researches to decide 
ui)on this hitherto dark question in the mode of inoculation against 
pleuro-pneumonia. 

Even if, for the sake of argument, we admit that inoculation 
against pleuro-pneumonia in the customary shape does protect, we 
are not yet thoroughly informed as to how long the protection will 
last. This is, of course, an important factor, which must necessai'ily 
influence the discussion of the whole question. Human vaccination 
is known to bestow a long-continuing immunity, and re-vaccination 
is held to be a powerful aid in securing the intended effect. The 
question of the period of immunity after inoculation against 
animal-plagues, is as far as we know, more uncertain than in the 
■case of human vaccination. For instance, the pi'otective power 
of anthrax-inoculation in sheep extends to about one year, 
while for cattle the period of protection is as yet uncertain. Such 
an uncertainty has, among other things, rendered the last-men- 
tioned kind of inoculation, and others objectionable, and it is, 
therefore, not to be wondered at, if the present practice of inocu- 
lation against " pleuro " is for the same reason judged in a similar 
m annex*. 

In addition to the above statements I must point out in a 
few words that opinions do not agree as to whether inoculated 
animals are able to infect uninoculated ones or not. This point, 
of course, is one of paramount importance, and if it could be 
unmistakably proved that the inoculation in its present shape can 
yield the means of infection to unprotected individuals, the whole 
procedure must appear in a most doubtful light. Now, what 
might happen if a herd of fresh-inoculated cattle, travelling 
from one end of the Australian Continent to the other, came on 
their road in contact with other herds that were not inoculated ? 
Well, they would no doubt give a fair chance to these to contract 

pleuro-pneumonia, which had not existed there before, and the 

28 



432 PROTECTIVE INOCULATION FOR BOVINE PLEURO-PNEUMONIA, 

latter herds, in their turn, or at least the vaccinated members of 
the same, would repeat the same play. 

It might seem as if I am somewhat exaggeratins", by reporting 
things which are not yet actually demonstrated ; but I only state 
here what we want to know with certainty ; and the importance of 
the whole question of protective treatment requires us to take an 
unprejudiced view of it. When the Netherlands Government 
introduced inoculation for the disease, they ordered the inoculated 
cattle to be isolated for some time, thus preventing their mixing 
so soon with others not inoculated ; everybody admits that this 
was a wise act, and people at that .time knew about protection 
against pleuro-pneumonia not much less than they do now-a-days. 
Whether the scheme adopted by the Netherlands, could with 
advantage be imitated by Australia, I cannot tell. 

Finally it is an acknowledged fact that, when the plague has 
appeared in a herd, and inoculation has to be resorted to, owners 
often experience difficulties in finding the proper vaccin, in pre- 
serving it for some time, or by lacking the manual skill required 
for performing the operation. Thus consequences may result, as 
they in fact do, which were not intended. The story of tailless 
cows and oxen is too well-known to Australians to need its 
relation on this occasion. It simply shows how miserably a 
measure, otherwise and in itself of a harmless nature, can be 
abused in the hands of ignorant persons, who may even do 
more harm by imparting diseases, e. g. tuberculosis, to originally 
quite healthy animals. Although, in my opinion, not too much 
weight ought to be attached to this obstacle in the practice of 
inoculation, because care and experience can reduce it to a 
minimum, yet the whole procedure is, from the above reason alone, 
liable to become discredited in the same way as human vaccination 
has been, and is still to some extent, discredited by the very fact, 
that it has been occasionally the means of introducing a host of 
anything but desirable skin and other diseases. 

Let us now briefly review what has been dealt with above. We 
see that, on the one side, a majority of men and countries advocate 



BY DR. OSCAR KATZ. 435 

and encourage protective inoculation for pleuro-pneumonia ; while 
on the other side, by analysing its proper nature, we cannot admit 
of its being free from objections. These are partly, as has been 
shown in the foregoing lines, of a serious character, and thus by no 
means compatible with the verdict given by that majority. But I 
repeat distinctly that the objections raised relate to the protective 
arrangement such as it is found to exist at present. One thing is 
clear. The prophylactic measures employed in one country against 
the invasion of animal-plagues need not necessai'ily be the same in 
others, and what may be the case with the treatment of bovine 
pleuro-pneumonia in one part of the earth, need not hold good for 
that adopted in another one. Countries in which the disease is 
little prevalent, the relative number of cattle inconsidei^able or at 
least where large herds do not exist, and where, I may add, the 
means of communication, as for instance railway traffic, are well- 
developed, may reasonably arrest the spread of the disorder by the 
" stamping-oiit system," and subsequent sanitary measures. But 
to adopt this system in Australia would be absurd, nor could or 
would its most tenacious defender recommend its being applied here, 
as things now are. It has been tried in Australia, with what success 
you may perceive by looking at the prevalence of the plague for 
the last years. If at present such a system was adopted here, 
which means not only the destruction of the infected individuals, 
but also a wholesale slaughter of all those which have been exposed 
to these, it would be equivalent to the loss of half the present 
stock of cattle. 

Even then the measure would turn out to be utterly futile, 
unless the whole of the Continent acted in a uniform manner, and 
then again thei^e will be no full guarantee of success until the 
origin and spread of the disease is traced beyond every doubt. At 
all events the colony of Queensland has done well by admitting 
that a reform in the way of px'otective means against lung-plague 
of cattle is absolutely necessary, and it is also easily understood 
that, as a preventive treatment by means of a rational inoculation 
seems to promise good results, the principal attention has been 
directed to this point. 



434 PROTECTIVE INOCULATION FOR BOVINE PLEURO-PNEUMONIA. 

The wliole question, then, amounts to this. The necessary steps 
will have to be taken for a thorough investigation of the subject, 
in order to place it on a more scientific basis. "What has already 
been done in this direction is scarcely more than a mere begin- 
ning, and a great many more experiments will have to be made, 
until we are entitled to say the etiology of the disease is as cleai'ly 
known as, for instance, that of anthrax, and the question of 
protective inoculation against the disease regarded as solved. The 
present movement here and in Queensland evidences that these 
countries have come to the conviction that they will have to go and 
follow up their own way, instead of waiting till other countries are 
pleased to lay the desired remedy before them. 



ON SOME NEW TRILOBITES FROM BOWNING, N.S.W. 

By John Mitchell. 

Bronteus longispinifex, n, sp. 

(Plate XVI. figs. 1 and 2.) 

Head-shield semicircular as far as can be judged from the 
specimens obtained, much granulated, the granulations of varying 
sizes. 

Glabella greatly dilated in front, axial and neck furrows distinct, 
the front lateral groove feeble, second one strongly marked, facial 
suture from the eye lobe to the outer mai'gin about parallel with 
a line drawn longitudinally through the centre of the shield. No 
spine visible on the genal angle, but from the character of the 
pleurpe it is probable that it may bear one. The greatest transverse 
measurement of the glabella about equal to the length of the head. 
The eye is slightly pedunculated. Length of head-shield one and 
a-third times (3) that of the pygidium. 

The thoi-ax is the most remarkable feature of this species, the 
axis being very wide, moderately distinct and slightly arched ; 
axial furrows visible and intensified by an increase of thickness at 
the base of each segment, and an opposing tubei'cle at the base of 
of each pleura ; the segments have a decided curve forward ; width 
at the fifth segment -1354 inch (J^ in.), and this is probably the 
greatest width. From the sixth the width gradually diminishes, 
and the last is only about half the width of the fiith and sixth 
segments. The side lobes are very narrow, the pleurae being only 
about one-quarter as long as the axis is wide at its fifth and sixth 
segments. From each pleura projects a flat spine more than three 
times its own length ; these carve backwai-ds more and more 
until the last three are parallel or nearly so with the axis ; along 



436 ON SOME NEW TRILOBITES PROM BOWNING, N.S..W., 

the centre of each is a row of fine punctations not visible to the 
unaided eye. The granulation of the thorax is not nearly so 
marked as that of the buckler and pygidium ; but each pleura 
beai-s two conspicuous granules, one on each extremity, the one 
on the basal extremity helping as before stated to make the axial 
grooves more marked. 

The pygidium is shorter than the cephalic shield, much 
granulated, and sub-semicircular ; that is, if it be transversely 
sected so as just to remove the part bearing the rudimentary 
axis, the remainder forms a semicircle. Along the margin are 
several (6 are visible with a lens) concentric, or nearly concentric 
striae, similar in character to those on the pygidium of B. Partschi, 
Barr. The ribs are thirteen in number, separated from each 
other by well-defined sutures. The medial rib is a little wider 
than the luiited width of the three adjoining ones on either side 
of it at their junction with the rudimentary axis, and about as wide 
as the other three together. The second from the medial rib is 
very narrow. The length of the medial rib equals about Jths that 
of the one (first) which runs by the side of the thorax. Each rib, 
except the medial one, is traversed longitudinally by a central ridge, 
and the medial one by two such ridges, one on each edge. Each 
of these carries a row of tubercles of larger size and more regularly 
placed than the others. In this feature the spines of the pleurae 
of the thorax resemble the ribs of the i)ygidium. The number 
visible with a lens in each row on the spines is 5, and on most of 
the ribs of the pygidium about the same number. These tubercles 
are plainer on the cast than on the fossil. The medial rib ter- 
minates in a somewhat spear-shaped point, the shaft oblong. The 
line of articulation of the pygidium with the thorax is straight. 
The rudimentary axis may be ranked semicircular, rather convex, 
its axial furrow visible. The whole pygidium is slightly convex. 

Dimensions — Head long ^ in. (4 mm. nearly). Thorax : axis 
wide at 5th and 6th segments ^' in. (3'385 mm.). Length of six 
segments attached to the pygidium equal to the width, and, as 5th 
and 6th segments are each about twice as wide as the last segment 
and wider than either of the posterior segments, it is probable that 



BY JOHN MITCHELL. 437 

the four anterior and missing segments of my specimen would 
have a length equal to the six that are present, which would 
make the axis twice as long as wide. Pleurte long g'^gths in. 
(■781 mm.). Length of spine iuths in. (2-6 mm.). Pygidium 
long ^ths in. (2-86 mm. nearly), wide J*ths in. (3"6 mm.). 
Rudimentary axis wide |; (about) or ^ the total width of 
pygidium. Total length of specimen t^ths in. (12.4 mm. nearly). 

The subrudimentary chaiacter of the pleurae of the thorax, their 
long spines, and the great proportionate width of the axis are the 
striking features of this species, and distinguish it from all I am 
acquainted with, and certainly from either of those yet recorded 
from Australia. The specimen here described, which is of immature 
growth, has six segments of the thorax with pygidium attached 
nearly perfect. The four front segments have l)een obliterated 
by the head which has been turned backwards upon them. Some 
heads which I have obtained have double the dimensions of this 
specimen, and would therefore belong to individuals more than 
1 inch long. 

The test of the thorax and pygidium of this species must have 
been of a delicate character, for though heads are numerous, it 
is rare to obtain even a fragment of these two parts. 

This fossil occurs in the lower Trilobite Bed of the Bowning Sei'ies, 
associated with representatives of the genera Acidaspis, Encrimirtis, 
Proetus, Cromus, Ilarpes, <kc. Two of the associated species have 
been identified by F. Batte, Esq., as Acidaspis VerneuUi (?), and 
Proetus Ascanius (?), vide Proc. Linn. Soc. of N.S.W. 1886, 
pp. 1066-7. (1) 

Locality. — Bowning. From a specimen in ray collection. 



(1) When I submitted the fragments of A. VerneuUi, which are here 
described by Mr. Ratte, I had not obtained a pygidium tliat beyond doubt 
belonged to the same species as the head and fragment of thorax here referred 
to ; but since then I have obtained several pygidia attached to fragments 
of the thorax of this species ; and they agree in character with the descrip- 
tion given of the pygidium of A, VerneuUi by Barrande. Hence the doubt 
which Mr. Ratte had on account of the absence of a pygidium, must I think, 
be set Ht rest ; and Mr. Ratte's identification of A. VerneuUi for the 
species, be confirmed. 



438 ON SOME NEW TRILOBITES FROM BOWNING, N.S.W., 

Cyphaspis Bowningensis, n. sp. 
(Plate XVI. fig. 3.) 

The specimen here described is nearly complete, and was obtainetS 
by me from the upper Trilobite Bed of the Bowning group. 

Head- shield apparently semicircular, though as the specimen 
is slightly contorted, and one of the free cheeks is absent, that is not 
certain. 

The glabella is pyriform, very convex, circumscribed lobe small,, 
axial furrow distinct and deep in front; anterior portion of the 
facial suture dii-ected outwards at an angle of about 30°, the 
posterior portion cuts the side lobes in about the middle. The 
eye is crescentic. The genal angles terminate in spines about 33 in. 
long (1-6 mm. nearly) ; limb strongly curved downwards in front, 
and the edge upwards. 

The thorax is about as wide as long, the axis very prominent, 
with 11 or 12 segments ; its greatest width ^ in. (1-6 mm. nearly) 
across the first three segments, from thence it gradually diminishes to 
about one-half of that width at its articulation with the axis of the 
tail. The side lobes as wide, or a little more, as the axis, strongly 
curved at the sides. Medial suture of pleurjB visible, and not 
extending exactly to the ends. Axis of tail very prominent, first 
two segments well-defined ; first two pleural of side lobes similarly 
well-defined, and the sulcus visible. Contour of tail semicircular or 
triangular, and twice as wide as long. No granulation distinguish- 
able, but this may ai'ise from imperfect preservation. 

Dimensions— Head H in. (4-233 mm.) long ; glabella long J^ in. 
(2-91 mm.); thorax long '§ in. (6-6 mm.); tail long ^ in. 
(1-83 mm.). Total length l in. (12-7 mm.). 

This species is found associated with two species of Acidaspis, one 
of which bears a resemblance to A. Leonhardi ; two species of 
Froetus ; two species of Phacops, like P.fecundus and P. caudatus ; 
several species of Orthoceras ; and some lamellibranchs and gaster- 
opods not yet made out. 

Locality. — Bowning. From a specimen in my collection. 



BY JOHN MITCHELL. 439 

Proetus Bowningensis, n. sp. 
(Plate XVI. figs. 4-6.) 

Head evidently semicircular. Grlabella large, semi-conoid and not 
distinctly marked off by the axial grooves, the lateral furrows 
feebly present, neck fuiTOW shallow *nd wide, width between the 
eye lobes nearly equal to the length of glabella, fixed cheeks rudi- 
mentaiy, facial suture rather straight cutting the outer margin 
nearly at right angles, and the posterior margin rather near to the 
glabella. The glabella and tail are about equal in length. Eye 
crescentic. Of the thorax I have only distinguished fragments. 
In these the sulcus is strongly marked, and terminates short of the 
extremity. 

Pygidium semi-elliptical, about | as long as wide, the axis very 
conspicuous, sides rather perpendicular, top arched or convex, 
with 7 or 8 rings visible, those towards the extremity indistinct. 
The 8 rings are only seen in the largest specimens. Side lobes 1^ 
times as wide as axis at widest part; they are fairly convex on some 
pygidia, and in others i-ather flattened (but I think that the convex 
is the normal character), margin fairly large. Four pleurae of the 
pygidium strongly indicated in which the sulcus is wide and 
shallow. 

I give some of the dimensions of one of the specimens figured 
(fig. 4), which is fairly complete ; but unfortunately it has the head 
turned back on the thorax and almost covering that part. 

Glabella long ^^in. (6'35 mm.) ; pygidium long ^ in. (6'35 mm.), 
wide ^ in. (9-5 mm.). Another pygidium (fig. 5) has a length 
of ^ in., and width of f^, so that the proportion of length to width 
is variable, arising probably from different degrees of compression 
suffered by the different specimens. 

This species is obtained from the lower Trilobite Bed of Bowning, 
associated with several species of Fhacops, Acidasjns, and a Cyphas- 
2ns, probably identical with the one described above. One of the 
first-named is either P. longicaudatus or very closely allied to it. 

Note. — Since writing the above description I have examined a 
larger pygidium of the Bronteus, and find that the second rib from 



/' 



\ 



440 ON SOME NEW TRILOBITES PROM BOWNING, N.S.W. 

the medial one is not narrower than the adjoining rib. The 
compressed state, therefore, of this rib in the specimen described, 
may be only characteristic of young specimens. 

In conclusion I have to express my obligations and thanks to 
Mr. E, Etheridge, F.G.S,, who has kindly helped me with sugges- 
tions and advice. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE. 

Fig. 1. — Brontcus longispinifex — Pj'gidium and 6 segments of thoi-ax ( x3). 
Fig. 2.— ,, „ Head and one free cheek. (Nat. size). 

Fig. 3. — Cijphaspls Boivningensis { x 2). 
Fig. 4. — Proetus Boivniiigensis—^ygid'mm and head, the latter turned back 

on the thorax. (Nat. size.) 
Figs. 5 & 6. — Proetus Boioningensis— Another head and pygidiuni. (Nat. 

size.) 



CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE OOLOGY OF THE AUSTRO- 
MALAYAN AND PACIFIC REGIONS. 

By a. J. North. 

Under this heading I purpose to describe the eggs of svich 
species from the above-named regions, as I may consider of 
sufficient interest to Oologists ; such will necessarily be from 
various sources, and in the jjresent instances I am indebted to the 
courtesy of the Trustees of the Australian Museum, the Hon. 
Wm. Macleay, and Messrs. Ramsay Bros, of Dobroyde, for access 
to their collections. 

Strix lulu, Peel. 

This egg was obtained by Mr. Boyd at Ovalau ; it is similar in 
foi'm to that of the Australian species, *S'. delicatula, pitre white, 
shell slightly rough. Length, 1-53 x 1'22 inch. 

Macropteryx mystacea. Less. 

A single egg of this species taken at New Britain by Mr. 
Parkinson, is oval in form, pure white, shell smooth, but without 
any gloss; long axis 1-3 inch, short axis 0'83 inch. The parent 
birds were also procured. 

Merops ornatus, Lath. 
Specimens of this bird together with the eggs procured at New 
Britain by Mr. Parkinson, are similar to the Australian forms, 
differing only in their smaller admeasurements. Eggs rounded, 
white and glossy. An average egg measures — long axis 0'85 inch ; 
short axis 77 inch. 

Halcyon sacra, Ginel. 

This bird was found by Mr. J. A. Boyd, breeding freely at 
Ovalau, tunnelling in the nests of the white ants. Eggs five in 
number for a sitting, globular in form, pure white, the texture of 



442 OOLOGY OF THE AUSTRO-MALAYAN AND PACIFIC REGIONS, 

the shell being fine, but without any gloss. Length (A), 1 "07 x 
0-93 inch; (B), 1 inch x 0-87 inch; (C), M3x0-91 inch; (D), 
1-1 X 0-92 inch; (E), 1-03 x 0'88 inch. 

Lalage terat, Bodd. 

Nest similar to that of the Austi'alian species, L. tricolor. Eggs 
two in number for a sitting, of a deep bluish-green, streaked all 
over with irregularly-shaped markings of wood-brown, and light 
purplish-brown, a few nearly obsolete clouded blotches of the latter 
colour appearing beneath the surface of the shell. Length (A), 
0-87 X 0-67 inch; (B), 0-86 x 0-67 inch. Taken at Ovalau by 
Mr. Boyd. 

Pachycephala icteroides, Peel. 

This species was found breeding in the New Hebrides by Mr. 
J. A. Boyd. The eggs are remarkably handsome, being of a rich 
cream colour, with a band of large irregularly-shaped confluent 
blotches of rich umber-brown around the centre, and obsolete 
markings of the same colour appearing beneath the surface of the 
shell; the remaining portion of the surface is sparingly dotted 
with a paler tint. Length 1-09 x 075 inch. 

Myiagra rufiventris, Elliot. 
A nest of this species taken by Mr. Boyd at Ovalau, is cup- 
shaped in form, outwardly composed of thin wiry grasses, and 
beautifully ornamented on j,the outside with lichens ; there is 
a slight lining of fibrous roots inside. Exterior diameter two inches 
and a quarter, depth one inch and a-half ; internal diameter one 
inch and seven eighths, depth one inch. Eggs two in number for 
a sitting, white with a zone of light purplish-brown and greyish 
lilac spots encircling the larger apex of the egg. Some of the 
markings appear as if beneath the surface of the shell. Length 
(A), 0-75 X 0-57 inch ; (B), 075 x 0-58 inch. 

Piezorhynchus chalybaeocephalus. Gam. 

These eggs, together with the birds, were procured by Mr. 
Parkinson when on a collecting tour in New Britain ; they are 
two to three in number for a sitting, oval in form and rather 



BY A. J. NORTH. 443 

pointed at the smaller end, of a pale greenish-grey becoming darker 
towards the larger end, where they are encircled with a well-defined 
zone of small black spots, and clouded slaty -grey blotches, the latter 
colour appearing as if beneath the surface of the shell. Length 
(A), 0-86 X 0-61 inch ; (B), 087 x 0-57 inch ; (C), 0-84 x 0-6 inch. 

MoNARCHA LESSONi, Homb. et Jacq. 

A nest of this species taken at Ovalau by Mr. J. A. Boyd, is 
cup-shaped, outwardly composed of shreds of bark and mosses, and 
neatly lined inside with dried grasses and very fine fibrous roots ; 
external diameter two inches and a-half, depth two inches ; internal 
diameter one inch and three quarters, depth one inch and a-half. 
Eggs three in number for a sitting, oval in form, white, with a 
broad band of very minute bright reddish spots. Length (A), 
0-71 X 0-57 inch ; (B), 0-74 x 0-54 inch ; (C), 073 x 0-57 inch. 

MUNIA MELAENA, /Sclat. 

This bird was found breeding freely at New Britain by Mr. 
Parkinson, who obtained a number of specimens as well as the eggs. 
Eggs six in number for a sitting, oval in form, pure white. 
Length (A), 0-67 x 05 inch ; (B), 0-64 x 0-5 inch ; (C), 0-65 x 049 
inch ; (D), 0-62 x 0-47 inch ; (E), 0-63 x 0-42 inch. 

Pitta NOViE-HiBERNiiE, Ramsay. 
These eggs were jjrocured and also the birds at the Duke of 
York group by Mr. Parkinson ; they are four in number for a 
sitting, varying in form from slightly swollen into lengthened ovals, 
of a pale creamy-white, blotched all over with irregularly-shaped 
markings of light purplish-brown, and obsolete spots of purplish- 
lilac and bluish-grey, the latter colour appearing beneath the 
surface of the shell. Length (A), 1-13 x 0-87 inch ; (B), MS x 0'88 
inch ; (C), 1-2 x 0-85 inch ; (D), M9 x 0-86 inch. 

Calornis metallica, Temm. ; 
(var. nitida, Gray.) 
Eggs closely resembling those of the Australian species {C. 
metallica), of which this bird is only an insular form. They 

/ 



444 OOLOGY OF THE AUSTRO-MALAYAN AND PACIFIC REGIONS, 

are from three to four in number for a sitting, varying in form 
from swollen to elongated ovals, of a greenish-white, minutely- 
spotted, and heavily blotched with light purplish-red markings, 
chiefly towards the larger end; one specimen (A), has only a few 
indistinct spots on the larger end. Length (A), 0*97 x 0-7T 
inch ; (B), 1-09 x 0-76 inch ; (C), 1-09 x 0-73 inch. 
From the Duke of York Island. 

Philemon cockerelli, Sclat. 

A very handsome set of eggs procured, together with the birds,. 

by Mr. Parkinson at New Britain, are in form pointed ovals, of 

a deep reddish salmon colour, heavily blotched all over with 

irregularly-shaped markings of a darker tint, but more particularly 

towards the larger end, intermingled with others of a light 

purplish-grey, which appear as if beneath the surface of the shell. 

Length (A), 1-31 x 0-93 inch; (B), 1-38 x 0-93 inch;(C), 1-34 x 

0-94 inch. 

CiNNYRis CORINNA, Salvad. 

A nest of this species taken at New Britain, is a dome-shaped 
structure with a small entrance in the side, over which a hood is 
formed, from the top of which the nest gently tapers to a point ; it 
is outwardly composed of the dried skeletons of leaves, bark fibre 
and spiders' webs neatly woven together, and lined inside with the 
white down from the seeds of a cotton plant ; it is attached to the 
thin stems of a climbing plant, and measures as follows — total length 
of nest nine inches, height of aperture one inch and a-half, width 
one inch, length from top of the nest to lower ])ortion of the hood 
four inches and a-half, from the lower portion of the entx'ance to 
the extremity of nest three inches ; width two inches and a-half. 

The eggs were two in number, of a light greenish-grey richly 
covered with minute markings of wood-brown, which at the larger 
end form a bi'oad clouded zone. Length (A), 0-67 x 0'46 inch ; 
(B), 65x0-45 inch. 

Centropus ateralbus, Less. 

Specimens of this bird, together with a single eorg, were received 
from Mr. Parkinson when at New Britain. Egg dull white, shell 
slightly roughened. Long axis 1-6 inch, short axis 1*23 inch. 



BY A. J. NORTH. 445 

ECLECTUS POLYCHLORUS, ScOjy. 

An egg of this species in the Australian Museum Collection, 

taken by Mr. Golclie in New Guinea, on the 26th of April, 1880, 

is pure white, rather pointed at the end, the shell being slightly 

rough, and without any gloss. Length 1-7 inch x 1"7 inch in 

breadth. 

Carpophaga latrans. Peel. 

Eggs of this species taken by Mr. Boyd at Ovalau, are oval in 
form swelling gradually towards the centre, pure white, shell 
smooth without any gloss. Long diameter 1-77 inch; short 
diameter 1'28 inch. 

Chrysoena luteovirens, Bomb, et Jacq. 

Eggs two in number for a sitting, white, elongated in foi'm. 
Length (A), 1-26 x 0-85 inch; (B), 1-32 x 0-83 inch. Taken at 
Ovalau by Mr. Boyd. 

Ptilopus mari^. Gray. 

Two eggs of this species taken at Ovalau by Mr. Boyd, are in 
form elongated ovals, pui'e white. Length (A), 1'26 x 0'86 inch ; 
(B), M5x0-81 inch. 



Demiegretta sacra, Gmel. 

Eggs of this species are of a uniform pale greenish-white. 
Length r95xl'3 inch. Taken by Mr. Boyd at Ovalau on the 
1st of September, 1879. 

Ardea javanica, Rorsf. 

An egg of this bird taken at Ovalau, is oval in form, of a pale 
bluish-green. Length 1-45 x 1'05 inch. 

Phlegoenas stairi. Gray. 

This species, which feeds so largely upon chilies that its flesh 
is scarcely palatable, lays one egg only, pure white, elongated in 
form. Length 1*22 x 0-9 inch. Taken at Ovalau, November 11th, 
1879. 



446 OOLOGY OF THE AUSTRO-MALAYAN AND PACIFIC REGIONS. 

Ianthenas vitiensis, Qtioy et Gaim. 
Eggs of this species taken by Mr. J. A. Boyd at Ovalau, are 
pure white, in form of a lengthened oval, the texture of the 
shell being fine, and the surface slightly glossy. Long diameter 
r6 inch ; short diameter 1-15 inch. 

Amaurornis moluccana, Wallace. 

A set of the eggs of this species, taken by Mr. Parkinson while at 
New Britain, are oval in form, of a dull white thickly spotted with 
small irregularly-shaped reddish-chestnut markings, intermingled 
with others of a deep bluish-grey appearing as if beneath the 
surface of the shell, which predomirate chiefly towards the larger 
end. Length (A), 1-57 xM5 inch; (B), 1-64 x M5 inch; (C), 
1-6 X M7 inch ; (D), 1-67 x M4 inch ; (E), 1.65 x M6 inch. 

Specimens of the birds were also pi'ocured at the time of taking 

the eggs. 

Gallinula ruficrissa, Gould. 

A single egg of this species in the Dobroyde Collection, is of a 
dull white ground colour, finely freckled all over with light chestnut- 
red markings, a few nearly obsolete spots of the same colour 
appearing as if beneath the surface of the shell more particularly 
towards the larger end. Long axis 1'6 inch, short axis 1'2 inch. 

Tadorna radjah, Garnot. 

A set of the eggs of this species taken from the hollow branch 
of a tree, are five in number, of a rich creamy-white, the texture 
of the shell being fine and the surface smooth. Length (A), 2 "2 
inches x 1'63 inch; (B), 2-2 inches x l"58 inch ; (C), 2-2 inches x 
1-59 inch; (D), 2-13 inches x 1-61 inch; (E), 2-17 x 1-58 inch. 
(Dob. Mus.J 

(To be continued) 



NOTES ON A SPECIES OF RAT (MUS TOMPSONII, 
RAMSAY), NOW INFESTING THE WESTERN POR- 
TION OF N.S.W. 

By K. H. Bennett. 

These rats made their appearance in the Ivanhoe district in 

February of the present year, but at that time only as scattered 

individuals. By the middle of Api'il the whole country west of 

the main road from Booligal to Wilcannia was swarming with 

them, all travelling in a southerly direction ; and so numerous 

were they that on loose sandy spots, and along dry dusty roads 

(trending south), the tracks of horses, sheep, and vehicles were 

nightly as completely obliterated by the foot-prints of the passing 

swarms, as if the surface of the soil had been swept with a broom. 

On one occasion at an out-station on Kilfera Run, a large number 

of sheep had been put through a gate near the house on the 

afternoon of my arrival, and of course thousands of tracks or 

foot-prints of sheep were visible on the dry dusty soil through and 

around the gate ; but the next morning not a track was to be seen, 

and the whole gror.nd was as smooth as if swept by a broom or a 

sti'ong wind, although the night was perfectly calm. A close 

insjjection, ho'vever, soon revealed the cause which was entirely 

owing to the swarms of rats that had passed during the night, 

millions of tiny foot-prints comj)letely smoothing the dusty soil. 

These journeys were always performed during the night, the rats 

liiding in the day time in rabbit-warrens, deep fissures in the 

ground, or amongst dense masses of herbage. Their food consists 

chiefly of seeds of various kinds, and the soft succulent stems of a 

]ilant locally known as " pigweed," which owing to the good season 

is extremely plentiful; but I am inclined to think that their diet is 

not exclusively confined to vegetable substances, as I have been 
29 



448 ON A SPECIES OF RAT INFESTING PORTION OF WESTERN N.S.W., 

informed by several rabbiters that they devour the young rabbits 
caught in their ti-aps. For this reason and from the fact that in 
many places more rats than rabbits are caught in the traps — 
although the latter animals are nu.merous — they are held in 
detestation by the rabbiters. When I left the Ivanhoe district 
about the middle of May. the main body had passed on in a 
southerly direction, but nuraei'ous stragglers still remained. On 
my arrival here (Tilpa, Middle Darling) towards the end of that 
month, I found them tolerably numerous along the river, and for 
some shoi't distance out, but in the back country towards Cobar 
they seem to be almost unknown. Within the last few days 
(July 12th) I have returned from a trip in that direction, and I 
find that they have become much more numerous along the river, 
and spread further out. Whether this is another invasion taking 
a more easterly direction than the preceding one, I am unable to 
say. I notice here that, in addition to living in deep fissures, 
masses of herbage, &c., they have constructed numerous burrows 
as if they intended to remain for some time, and they have already 
proved a great pest in the way of destruction to stores, &c. For 
some months previous to their appearance at Ivanhoe I had heard 
of their advance in a southerly direction from Western Queens- 
land. At the time of their arrival on the Darling that river was 
in high flood, and the water extended out for miles, but strange to 
say this did not stop the onward march, for they soon appeared on 
the opposite side, much to the grief of some rabbiters who, 
thinking to pass off their skins for those of young rabbits, were 
detected in the fraud, and sentenced to a long term of imprison- 
ment. At the time of their appearance at Ivanhoe the Willandra 
Creek — an anabranch of the Lachlan River — was also in high 
flood, but this did not stop them ; and when I left they were in full 
march for the Lachlan. In the year 1864 — a similar season to the 
present — there was a similar invasion of rats throughout this same 
country — the Darling being then in high flood — but although I 
then saw numbers of them, after this lapse of time I am \inable to 
say whether they were identical with the present species or not ; 
though in one respect they certainly seem to difler, for in addition 



BY K. H. BENNETT. 449^ 

to making numerous burrows like the present animal, they also 
constructed large heaps of sticks, the rotting remains of which 
are after so many years still observable. Beneath these heaps 
they made large nests of soft dried grasses, the nests being placed 
in a shallow central hollow on the surface of the ground which 
was reached by burrows or tunnels from the outside beneath the 
pile of sticks. This invasion was accompanied by hundreds of 
hawks [Elaims scriptus), and various species of owls, which preyed 
on the rats. On this occasion neither hawks or owls have accom- 
panied them. 

In 1874 whilst on an exploring trip in search of sheep country 
in the Barrier Ranges, T come across numbers of these heaps 
tenanted by rats, and on setting fire to them as many as a dozen 
rats would run out, but as I did not take much notice of them I 
am unable to say whether they wei'e identical with the present 
species or not. The hawks (B. scrijJtus) and owls were there in 
great numbers. 



450 NOTES AND EXHIBITS. 



NOTES AND EXHIBITS. 

Mr, Fletcher exhibited a specimen of Periixdus from (^lipps- 
land, and in reference to it read the following note : — 

" Until its rediscovery in Queensland last year, the Australian 
species of Peripatus seems to have been known only from the type 
specimen (or^specimens) described by Sanger in 1869; at any rate 
subsequent writers who refer to it do not lead one to suppose that 
they had seen specimens of it. Sanger's paper even to the 
explanation of the plates, is in the Russian language, but in the 
abstract of \tinArchivfilrNaturgesch. (XXXVIl Jahrg., II. Bd.) 
the locality for P. Leuckartii is vaguely given as New Holland. 
Following closely on the discovery of Perijoatus in Queensland, its 
occurrence in the S.E. portion of the Continent is of sufficient 
interest and importance to be recorded as showing its wide distri- 
bution, at any rate in Eastern Australia. The specimen which I 
exhibit this evening was given to me a fortnight ago by my friend 
Mr. E. T. Baker of Newington College, who had obtained it a 
few days previously either in or under a rotten log at Warragul, 
Gippsland, Victoria. It has fifteen pairs of claw-beai-ing append- 
ages, and has nearly the same dimensions as are given in the 
abstract referred to ; it is therefore in all probability an example 
of P. Leuckartii, Sanger. At present I have not been able to 
compare mine with Queensland specimens. At the April Meeting 
of the Royal Society of Queensland Mr. H. Tryon gave an account 
of the occurrence of Peripatus in the northern colony, and from 
the abstract given in the Brisbane Courier for April 16th, 1887, 
it appears that specimens had been obtained both at Cardwell and 
Brisbane." 

Mr. Masters exhibited specimens of Platycercus eximius, Vig, 
and Horsf., and P. Pennantii, Gld., and a specimen of what he 
believed to be an undoubted hybrid between these species. This 
bird, which was shot at Wingelo near Goulburn out of a flock of 
P. Penriantii, has the general plumage of P. eximius with the 
blue cheeks and broad bill of the other species. 



NOTES AND EXHIBITS. 451 

Dr. Ramsay exhibited the following birds : — Collocalia 
spodiopygia, Peale, with its nest, from New Guinea ; Acanthylis 
Novce-Guinece, from the Aird River, collected during Mr. 
Bevan's recent Expedition ; Pycnoptilus floccosus, Gld., from near 
Sydney ; and a remarkable variety of Amadlna Lathami, Grid., 
with the upper tail-coverts orange, also from the neighbourhood of 
Sydney. 

Mr. North exhibited the eggs of twenty-six species of birds, 
referred to in his paper. 

Mr. Macleay exhibited for the Rev. J. E. Tenison-Woods, some 
specimens of edible birds nests from Culion, Calamianes Group, 
Philippines. The nests were the pi'oductions of a small swallow — 
Collocalia Philippina, and the collection of them for the Chinese 
market, formed an important industry of the races inhabiting 
these Islands. Also, a massive specimen of Stibnite (Sulphide of 
Antimony), procured by Mr. Tenison-Woods on the Island of 
Sado, North Borneo. Also, a fine collection of Coleoptera, Hemij)- 
tera and Orthoptera from Perak, Malay Peninsula, and some 
gigantic specimens of Scorpions and Julus from the same locality. 
Mr. Macleay stated that these exhibits were all from extensive 
collections made by the Rev. J, E. Tenison-Woods during four 
years of travel and exploration in Java, the Malay Peninsula, 
China, Japan, the Philippines and Borneo. He regretted to say 
that the reverend gentleman's health had suffered very much from 
his prolonged stay in these unhealthy countries, and that he was 
utterly unable for the present to attend the meetings of this 
Society. 

Mr. Macleay also exhibited specimens of a species of Ascaris 
from the stomach of a Kangaroo. He stated that with the 
exception of the Ascaris tentaculata of Rudolphi, which inhabits 
the cfecum of the American opossums (Didel})hys), no Ascaris had 
ever been described as parasitic in Marsupials, but Dr. Cobbold 
mentions having seen two undescribed species, procured from the 
stomachs of an Halmaturus and Macropus. It would be interesting 
to know if this Ascaris ever became parasitic in sheep and cattle. 
He would be glad to receive specimens of all Entozoa found in any 
of the graminivorous animals. 



452 NOTES AND EXHIBITS. 

Mr. A. Sidney OUiff exhibited a specimen of Upidesmia tricolor, 
Westw., a rare moth which he had recently captured at Double 
Bay. On several occasions specimens of this moth have been 
taken in Mr. Macleay's garden, at Elizabeth Bay, but Mr. Olliff 
said that he believed it had not been seen for some years past. 

Mr. Whitelegge exhibited a beautiful preparation of Tuhularia 
gracilis, R. v. L., showing the polyps fully expanded ; and speci- 
mens of the stalked larvae of an undetermined species of Gomatula 
from Port Jackson. 



WEDNESDAY, 31st AUGUST, 1887. 



The President, Professor Stephens, M.A., F.G.S., in the Chair. 



A letter was read from the Secretary of the Royal Society of 
Adelaide, expressing regret that the proposal to have Special 
Meetings and Excursions in Adelaide during this month (see 
our Abstract for 29th June) had been abandoned. Members of 
this Society able to visit Adelaide will nevertheless be cordially 
welcomed, and efforts will be made to make the ordinary Meetings 
and Excursions especially interesting. 



The President announced that two Excursions had been arranged 
for the ensuing month : — 

(1.) September lOtli — Members to meet at the Redfern Rail- 
way Station, to proceed by the 8-15 a.m. train to the 
watering-station beyond Berowra, Hawkesbury Line. 

(2.) September 24th — Members to meet at the Redfern Rail- 
way Station, to proceed by the 9 a.m. train to St. Mary's. 



DONATIONS. 

"Bulletin of the American Geographical Society, 1886." Nos. 
4 and 5 ; Vol. XIX., No. 2 (1887). From the Society. 

" Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard 
College." Vol. XITL, No. 4 (1887). From the Curator. 

" Comptes Rendus des Seances de lAcadeniie des Sciences, 
Paris." Tome CIV, Nos. 18-23 (1887) ; " Tables des Comptes," 
etc., Second Semestre, 1886. Tome CIII. From the Academy. 



454 DONATIONS. 

I 

"The Journal of Conchology. " Yol. V., No. 6 (April, 1887). 
From the Gonchological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. 

" Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London for the year 
1886." Part IV. "Abstracts of Proceedings of the Zoological 
Society of London." (7th and 2.3rd June, 1887). From the Society. 

"Monatliche Mittheilungen des naturwissenschaftl. Yereins des 
Reg.-Bez. Frankfurt." Jahrg. lY., Nos. 11 and 12 (1887). From 
the Society. 

"Jahreshefte des Yereins fiir vaterlandische Naturkunde in 
Wiirttemberg." Jahrg. XLIII. (1887). From the Society. 

"Catalogue of Books added to the PtadclitFe Library, Oxford 
University Museum, during the year 1886;" "List of Donations 
(1886)." From the Library. 

" Journal and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New South 
Wales." Yol. XXL Part 1 (1887). From the Society. 

Abstract Report on the Progress of the Geological Survey of 
New Zealand during 1868-9;" "Report on the Geology of the 
District traversed by the New Zealand Midland Railway." By 
P. W. Hutton, F.a.S. From Professor Button. 

" The Miscellaneous Botanical Works of Robert Brown, Esq., 
D.C.L., F.R.S." (Published by the Ray Society) ; " A Yoyage to 
Terra Australis ; undertaken for the purpose of completing the 
discovery of that vast country, and prosecuted in the years 1801, 
1802, and 1803, in H.M.S. " Investigator." By Mathew Flinders. 
(Two Yols.). From John Sangster, Esq., through L. F. Heydon, Esq. 

"Archives Neerlandaises des Sciences exactes et naturelles." 
Tome XXL, Liv. 5me. (1887). De la part de la Societe Hol- 
landaise des Sciences a Harlem. 

"Feuille des Jeunes Naturalistes." No. 201 (July, 1887). 
From the Editor. 

"Journal of the College of Science, Imperial University, Japan. ' 
Vol. I. Part 3 (1887). From the Director. 



DONATIONS. 455 

"Zoologischei' Anzeiger." X Jalirg., Nos. 254, 255 and 25G 

(1 887). From the Editor. 

" Results of Rain and River Observations made in New South 
Wales and Part of Queensland during 1886;" "Notes upon the 
History of Floods in the River Darling ;" " Notes upon Floods in 
Lake George;" "Results of the Meteorological Observations 
made in New South Wales during 1885, under the Direction of 
H. C. Russell, B.A., F.R.S., &c." By H. C. Russell, B.A., 
F.R.S., &c. From the Government Astronomer. 

" Report of Board of Trustees of the Queensland Museum for the 
year 1886." From the Curator. 

" South Australia, — Report on the Progress and Condition of 
the Botanic Garden during the year 1886." By R. Schomburgk, 
Ph.D. From the Director. 

"The Victorian Naturalist." Vol. IV., No. 4 (August, 1887) 
From the Field Nuturalists' Club of Victoria. 

" Abstracts of Proceedings of the Royal Society of Tasmania," 
(14th June and 11th July, 1887). From the Society. 

" Revue Coloniale Internationale." Tome V., No. 1 (July, 
1887). De la part de V Association Coloniale Neerlandaise d, 
Amsterdam. 

"Zehnter Bericht des Botanischen Vereines in Landshut 
(Bayern) (1886-7)." Frovi tlie Society. 

"The Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society." Vol, II., 
Nos. 1 and 2 (1887). From the Society. 

" Sinopsis de Familias y Generos de Plantas Leiiosas de Filipinas; 
Introduccion a la Flora Forestal del Archipielago Filipino," redac- 
tada por Don Sebastian Vidal Y Soler. (Text and Atlas). From 
the Rev. J. E. Tenison- Woods, F.G.S., F.L.S. 

" Bollettino dei Musei di Zoologia ed Anatomia comparata della 
R. Universita di Torino." Vol II., Nos. 19-26 (1887). Fromthe 
University. 



456 DONATIONS. 

" Bulletin de la Societe Royale de Geographie d'Anvers.*' Tome 
XI., 4e Fascicule (1887). From the Society. 

" The Scottish Geographical Magazine." Vol. III., No. 7 
(July, 1887). From the Hon. W. Macleay. 

" Some New South Wales Tan-Substances." Part I. By J. H. 
Maiden, F.R.G.S. From the Author. 

"The Australasian Journal of Pharmacy." Vol. II., No. 20. 
(August, 1887). From the Editor. 

"The Journal of Comparative Medicine and Surgery." Vol. 
VIII., No. 3 (1887). From the Editor. 

'^The Canadian Record of Science." Vol. II., No. 7 (1887). 
From the Natural History Society of Montreal. 

" The Journal of the Cincinnati Society of Natural History." 
Vol. X., No. 2 (1887). From the Society. 

" Transactions of the Wagner Free Institute of Science Phila- 
delphia." Vol I. (1887). From the Institute. 

" Catalogue of the Lizai-ds in the British Museum, (Natural 
History)." Vol. III. (1887) ; " Catalogue of the Fossil Mam- 
malia." Part IV. (1886); "Guide to the Galleries of Reptiles 
•and Fishes," (1887) ; " General Guide," (1887). From the Trustees. 

" Handbook to the Ferns of Queensland." By F. M. Bailey. 
From Rev. J. E. Tenison- Woods, F.L.S. 



PAPERS READ. 

NOTES ON SOME INDIGENOUS SAGO AND TOBACCO 
FROM NEW GUINEA. 

By J. H. Maiden, F.R.G.S., 
Curator of the Technological Museum, Sydney. 

SAGO. 

This sample of Sago meal or flour was brought by Mr. Theodore 
Bevan from Evorra village. Jubilee River, 16 miles north-east of 
Bald Head. This locality had never, in all human probability, 
been visited by a white man before. 

It is of course of native manufacture, and is from indigenous 
sago (? Sabal Adansonii which forms forests in New Guinea and 
New Ireland, or possibly Sagus Konigii and S. Iceve). Mr. Bevan 
took a photograph of natives engaged in the operation of making 
sago. (1) Tlie following description, taken from Balfour's Cyclo- 
paedia of India, of the process as carried on in the Archipelago, 
serves fairly for a description of that which obtains in the interior 
of New Guinea, as described by Mr. Bevan to me, and as depicted 
in the photograph alluded to. 

"A tree is cut down close to the ground, the leaves and leaf- 
stalks cleared away, and a broad strip of the bark taken otf the 
upper side of the trunk. This exposes the pithy matter, which is 
of a rusty colour near the bottom of the tree, but higher up pure 



(1) At page 349, Vol. X. Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., Miklouho-Maclay says 
that sago Sagus sp. (" Buam"), is regarded as a luxury on the Maclay coast, 
and is not used commonly as food. Mr. Bevan, however, reports sago to be 
plentiful in the district he visited. 



458 



INDIGENOUS SAGO AND TOBACCO FROM NEW GUINEA, 



white, and about as hard as a dry apple. The pith is cut or broken 
down into a coarse powder (1) by means of a club of hard and 
heavy wood, having a piece of sharp quartz rock (2) firmly 
imbedded into its upper end. By successive blows, narrow strips 
of the pith are cut away till it falls down into the cylinder formed 
by the bark, leaving only a skin not more than half an inch in 
thickness (3). These pith-strips are then put into a washing- 
trough made of the large sheathing vases of the leaves, and the 
strainer is the fibrous covering from the leaf-stalks of the young 
cocoa-nut. Water is then poured on the mass of pith which is 
pressed against the strainer, and kneaded until all the starch is 
dissolved {suspended, sago, like any other starch, being insoluble 
in cold water, J.H.M.), and passes through into a trough with a 
depression in its centre, into which it is deposited, the surplus 
water trickling away. When the trough is nearly full, the mass 
of starch, which has a slightly reddish tinge, is made up into 
cylinders, wrapped up in sago leaves, and is the raw sago or 
sago meal." 

Notes on the above description (communicated to me verbally 
by Mr. Bevan) : — 

(1) Chips or small lumps would be better. The men form a 
heap, and the women gather it up. 

(2) No stone was used by the natives Mr. Bevan saw in the act of 
making sago, only wooden flails or adzes. The chopping is done 
by men ; the women do the whole of the remainder of the sago- 
process. 

(3) The remainder of the process may be described thus. — A 
spathe of sago-palm or cocoa-nut is supported, the broad end 
uppermost, on a wooden fork. The women take the chopped pith 
(see 1) put into the funnel-shaped cavity of the spathe, knead it 
well with the hands, at the same time allowing water to pass 
through the mass to carry ofi" the grains of sago which are set free 
by the operation of kneading. 



BY J. H. MAIDEN. 459 

The following slightly different account of the operation of sago 
manufacture, as carried on in New Guinea, is taken from " A 
Voyage to New Guinea, &c," by Capt. Thomas Forrest, 2nd ed., 
1780, p. 39, et seq. 

" The sago or libby tree has, like the coco nut tree, no distinct 
bark that peels off, and may be defined as a long tube of hard 
wood, about two inches thick, containing a pulp or pith mixed 
with many long fibres. The tree being felled, it is cut into lengths 
of about five or six feet. A part of the hard wood is then sliced 
off, and the workman^ coming to the pith, cuts across (generally 
with an adze made of hard wood called aneebong) the longitudinal 
fibres and the pith together, leaving a part at each end uncut, so that, 
when it is excavated, there remains a trough, into which the pulp 
is again put, mixed with water, and beat with a piece of wood ; 
then the fibres, separated from the pulp, float on top, and the flour 
subsides. After being cleared in this manner by several waters, 
the pulp is put into cylindrical baskets, made of the leaves of the 
tree, and, if it is to be kept some time, those baskets are generally 
sunk in fresh water to keep it moist." 

Another allusion to New Guinea sago (and this refers to a 
spurious one) is in Hassall's "Food and its Adulterations," in 
which occurs the passage : — " Pareira also states that he received 
from Professor Guibourt samples of " Sagou des Maldives de 
Blanche, donne par lui, and, Sagou de la Nouvelle Guinea 
donne par lui" and that he found them to be factitious sagos 
prepared from potato starch. The grains of the New Guinea sago 
were bright red on one side and whitish on the other." 

It is well-known that France and Germany first taught Eui'ope 
how to manufacture " peai'l sago " out of potato starch, but the 
sample now before you is undoubtedly unsophisticated New Guinea 
sago, procured from a village the natives of which are probably 
ignorant of the arts of adulteration, which belong only to civiliza- 
tion. 



460 INDIGENOUS SAGO AND TOBACCO FROM NEW GUINEA, 

In appearance and texture it reminds one strongly of the 
" Bath brick " so much used in England by domestics for polishing 
purposes. It is of a light buff colour, crumbling readily in the 
fingers into a flour. On keeping, it becomes of a light brown, or 
even a rusty colour, on the outside. 

Mi\ Bevan tells me the sample was moist and soft and capable 
of beins cut with a knife when he received it. In that state it is 
ready to undergo the operation of granulating or "pearling." 

This refinement, introduced at Singapore in 1819 by Chinese 
workmen, but in use in Malacca for many years previously, was 
known to New Guinea natives at least as early as 1777, Captain 
Forrest then describing the process in use, Balfour {loc. cit.) says 
that the Malays learnt the art from the natives of Bukit Batu 
(Siak). It therefore becomes interesting to learn how and when 
the operation became known to the natives of New Guinea, or 
whether in fact, the invention is owing to them. 

Every writer on the subject of sago speaks iu superlative terms 
as to the value of the palms as a crop. The matter is so frequently 
referred to that there is no difiiculty in getting particulars on the 
suliject. I will content myself with quoting one recent and 
eminent authority, viz : Mr. W. B. Pryer, Her Majesty's Consular 
Agent for Sandakan (Borneo) and Resident in the Service of the 
British North Borneo Company, who referred to the matter on the 
25th October last, at a conference at the Colonial and Inrlian 
Exhibition. After alluding to the fact that three trees yield more 
nutritive matter than an, acre of wheat, and six trees more than an 
acre of potatoes, he goes on to say : — " The main drawback to the 
investment of capital in sago planting is the length of time that 
elapses before the trees are ready to cut ; but it must be under- 
stood that when they once commence yielding, they go on con- 
tinually without cessation, so that the only expense attending their 
cultivation, when once they are in bearing, is the upkeep of fencing 
to keep out pigs. It is also to be added that the expense of 



BY J. H. MAIDEN. 461 

planting is very small compared to the returns when once they 
begin to come in. It has been calculated that a plantation of 2000 
acres would give a profit of <£15,5G0 a-year. Since this calculation 
was made the price of sago has declined, but there is no chance of 
its not yielding a good profit to the grower. It is also to be 
remembered that the sale value of a newly planted sago plantation 
would rise heavily yearly." 

The soil and climate of Borneo are very similar to that of New 
Guinea. Does not everything point to New Guinea as suitable for 
sago planting ? The systematic culture of sago and tobacco in this 
new colony is worth trying, I would suggest ; and at present 
this seems to be the most feasible method of utilizing; its resources. 



*o 



Hygroscopic Moisture. 

The mean of my experiments gives 13-29 as the percentage of 
moisture which can be driven off at a temperature of 100^ C. 

Starch. 
It contains 91 "03 per cent of starch. 

The method adopted has been that of Siegert, and consists in 
the conversion of the sago-starch into Dextrose (Dextro-glucose) 
by ti-eatment with dilute sulphuric acid, and the estimation of this 
sugar by means of Fehling's Solution in the usual manner. 

Another method adopted was that of Bungener and Fries, which 
consists in boiling the sago with 1 ° solution of salicylic acid ; in this 
way all the starch is dissolved out. This gave 95-16 of starch, 
there being left 4-84: per cent, of a brownish flocculent 
insoluble substance which was not further examined. This 
method cannot be considered so satisfactory as the dextrose 
jn-ocess, and to ensure absolute accuracy the salicylic solu- 
tion should be treated with dilute acid and the dissolved starch 
converted into dextrose. Its simplicity however recommends it. 

The above experiments were determined upon the sago dried at 
100° C. 



462 INDIGENOUS SAGO AND TOBACCO FROM NEW GUINEA, 

The only allusion to the quantity of starch in sago, I can find, 
is in Prof. Church's " Foods," in which he gives the percentage 
for sago (presumably ordinary pearl sago) tapioca, arrow-root, 
cornflour, and maizena at 83 (evidently an approximation, and only 
intended as such). This result refei-s to sago at the ordinaxy 
temperature of the air, and, taking 12 as the percentage of 
hygrometric moisture, we find the percentage of starch in ordinaiy 
sago to be 9 4* 3 2 (calculated on the substance dried at 100° C). 

Microscope. 

This sago as seen under the microscope presents a very similar 
appearance to that depicted at fig. 116 of Hassall's " Food and its 
Adulterations." The hilum is well marked, the rings though faint 
are evident, the shape of the grains oval, oblong-oval, truncate- 
oval, and a few sub-triangular. I cannot resist comparing the 
shape and markings of some of the granules to fragments of 
earthworms snipped off with a pair of scissors. 



TOBACCO. 

Obtained by Mr. Theodore Bevan the explorer, in April last, from 
natives belonging to the village of Tumu, 50 miles north of Cape 
Blackwood, Gulf of Papua, New Guinea. It is plentiful. 

It is wrapped in portion of a spathe of a sago palm, is sun- 
cured, and was prepared for local use or tribal barter by natives 
who, in all human probability, had never seen a white man. It 
consists of the leaves and petioles but of no other portions of the 
plant. 

I submitted the sample to Mi'. Hugh Dixson, one of our mem- 
bers, than whom, I suppose, there is no higher authority on the 
subject in New South Wales. He says: — " The specimen is 
evidently, as you surmise, the same species as the tobacco of com- 
merce ; if it has been at all crossed by an indigenous speciesit is to 
an imperceptible extent. The variety is that grown in the Eastern 



BY J. H. MAIDEX. 463 

Seas and China, of which the best is Manila (1) tobacco. It is 
essentially a cigar tobacco in contradistinction to a manufacturing 
tobacco, having a very decided cigar-tobacco flavour ; the sti-ength 
of this flavour is remarkable, considering, as you say, and as it 
bears evidence of, being sun-cured, 

"As a merchantable article it is next to useless, but more than 
interesting as a specimen, as it is almost certain that where that 
srew, an article would s;row that would have at least a fair market- 
able value in England and the Continent." 

There is no doubt whatsoever that New Guinea, in common 
with some other islands of the Eastern Archipelago, is capable of 
growing tobacco of high quality. I may cite the Report on the 
specimens of raw tobacco exhibited by the colony of North Borneo 
at the Colonial and Indian Exhibition, because the climate and 
soil of Borneo are so very similar to that of New Guinea. The 

(1) East ludian, Manila and Turkish tobaccos are the produce of 
Nicotiana rustica, Linn. American tobaccos are the produce of N. Tabacum, 
The leaves of N. Tahncum are tapering oval-hinceolate and sessile, those of 
N. rustica being ovate, cordate and stalked. Of these two species the 
former seems much the liardier, and in most countries when it is cultivated 
to any extent, has become acclimatised, springing up in great profusion, 
self-sown. The latter form, on the other hand, is rarely found to do this, 
and is thus met only under cultivation. See Reports on the Colonial and 
Indian Exhibition, Art. "Tobacco." 

The species of the genus Nkotiana are all indigenous in America, except 
our N. suaveolens, which is to be found all over Australia. The lamina of 
the largest leaf of the New Guinea tobacco now under examination has a 
length of 9 inches, while the petiole is 2 inches long. The average length 
of the laminre is, however, 7 inches. They are all ovate-lanceolate, rather 
obtuse and none subcordate, which latter characteristic is mentioned by 
Asa Gray (Syn : Flora North America) as belonging to N. riistka. The 
presence of a longish petiole at once excludes this tobacco from N. Tabacum, 
and of all the species described by Asa Gray it certainly comes nearest to 
N. rustica. It is not very remote (I speak of the foliage alone) from our 
N. suaveolens with its spathulate leaves, but in all the specimens of that 
species I have examined, the lower portion of the leaf tapers far more into 
the petiole than is the case with any leaf of this New Guinea tobacco. It 
is to be hoped that Mr. Bevan or some other explorer will procure whole 
plants of this far-inland tobacco in flower and fruit. 
30 



464 INDIGENOUS SAGO AND TOBACCO FROM NEW GUINEA, 

Report states, " The specimens were of a very superior quality, 
both in aroma and appearance. They are well-adapted for cigar- 
making, and were considered amongst the best in the Exhibition." 
I have alluded elsewhere to the desirability of testing New 
Guinea for the growth of tobacco, and I cannot do better than 
make the following extracts fi'om the Experts' Report to which I 
have above alluded. 

" There is perhaps Jio more patent fact than that it is practically 
immaterial what seed is used ; it is the chemistry of the soil that 
can alone ensure good tobacco. Not only does the tobacco I'aised 
in one country differ from that obtained in another, from the self- 
same seed, but this variation may be as great between the pi'oduce 
of one field and another within the same district. It is the merit 
of one country to produce mild and aromatic tobacco, of another 
strong tobacco, and even with the most careful manuring it may 

not be possible to overcome these distinctions 

When seed is imported, a mongrel crop is produced the first 
season, partly flavoui*ed with the soil. In the second year the crop 
is truer to the seed. The leaves keep in better preservation when 
ripe. They should not be green nor dead, nor should they be left 
open, but pressed to preserve the flavour." 

For other particulars as to planting, cultivation, and preparation 
of the leaf, see the admirable Report referred to, also " New 
Commercial Plants," Part i. (Christy), Mr. Christy's paper being 
translated from a Constantinople original. As in this instance, so 
in others, I have referred to Turkish tobacco (in the absence of 
authentic information about Manila), because the species yielding 
it is probably identical with that from New Guinea- 

Note. — All my results have been obtained with the tobacco 

dried at 100° C. 

Hygrometric Moisture. 

My experiments give the hygrometric moistui'e in this tobacco 
during the first fortnight of August in Sydney, at between 8-11 
(1) and 10-55 per cent. 

(1) This low result was obtained during a w eek of dry westerly winds. 



BY J. H. MAIDEN. 465 

It is obvious that these figures teach but little, and cannot 
rigidly be compared with otheis unless the hygrometric state o£ 
the atmosphere at each place of experiment be given in all cases. 

Nevertheless it will be interesting to compare the following: 
figures for hygrometric moisture: — Turkey (Dr. Letheby), 12 4 
per cent ; his other figures fluctuating between 10-8 for German 
and 13-4 for Maryland. Professor Church give the average per 
centage of moisture in tobacco at 13 per cent. These results have 
doubtless all been obtained in the more humid atmosphere of 
England. 

Extract (water). 

It yields 49-36 percent of extract to water at 100° C. 

Dr. Letheby gives the yield of extract of Turkey tobacco at 
60-6, and hissample contained 12 -4 percent of hygrometric moisture. 
Calculated upon the dry leaf this would of course give a percentage 
of 68-1 . The other percentages he gives (on the tobacco at 60° F.) 
vary between 43-4 for Virginian to 64*4 for Maryland. 

Swedish tobacco is said to yield 50-64 per cent, of extract of 
(Dingl : Poly tech : Journ : CCXXV. 615). 

Extract (Ammoniacal Ether). 

Hygrometric moisture... ... 10-55 

Chlorophyll and fat ... ... 6-2 

Nicotine 1-8 



Total per cent soluble in ether... 18*55 

Ash. 

It yields 18*7 per cent of ash. 

Dr. Letheby gives the percentage of ash in Turkey tobacco at 
10-6, and Watts' Diet, at from 17-23. In this work we have 
the ash of good Havana 16-16-8 (Letheby 18*6), inferior 
sorts, 17'8-19-4 ; Letheby's figures also give German the maximum 
of 22-6. Professor Church (" Foods," the South Kensington 
Museum handbook) gives the ash of tobacco at from 13 to 28 jDer 
cent. 



466 INDIGENOUS SAGO AND TOBACCO FROM NEW GUINEA. 

The nature of the soil has of course much to do with the per- 
centage of ash, as also of the ash-constituents ; no information 
is forthcoming as to the soil on which the sample now under 
examination was grown. 

Nicotine. 

The tobacco contains 1'8 per cent of Nicotine. 

The process adopted was that of Schlcesing, and consists in 
exhausting the leaf with ammoniacal ether in a suitable apparatus. 
The solvent is then evaporated, and the quantity of alkaloid 
determined by observing the amount of standard sulphuric acid it 
is capable of neutralising. 



NOTES ON ZELOTYPIA STACYI, AND AN ACCOUNT 

OF A VARIETY. 

By a. Sidney Ollipf, F.E.S., 
Assistant Zoologist, Australian Museum, 

The magnificent Hepialid which the late Mr. A. W. Scott 
described under the name Zelotypia Stacyi from imperfect speci- 
mens found at the Manning River and in the neighbourhood of 
Newcastle, has been obtained in some numbers during the last 
few years by the Newcastle miners. As the insect is rarely found 
in the perfect or imago condition the larva has to be sought for 
and reared, a matter of no little difficulty as it lives, like those of 
the allied genus Charagia, in cylindrical burrows which it makes 
in the interior of the stems or branches of trees, sometimes near 
the surface of the ground and sometimes at a height of fifty or a 
hundred feet. By searching for these burrows and i-earing the 
larvse or pupfe when found, a considerable number of specimens 
have been obtained by the miners, but I am informed that the 
supply is by no means equal to the demand. (1) Sometime ago Mr. 
R. Thornton, who has reared a number of the lignivorous lepidop- 
tera, ti-ansmitted to the Australian Museum the larva and pupa of 
this species preserved in alcohol, and subsequently he brought for 
my inspection a male Zelotypia which he thought might prove to 

(1) Since this article was written I have paid a visit to the mining district 
in the neighbourhood of Newcastle and have made enquiries as to the time 
of year when the perfect insect makes its appearance. I am told that when 
a fully grown larva or pupa is found its precise position is carefully noted, 
and the locality revisited in December or early in January according to the 
season. The portion of the limb or sapling containing the animal is then 
cut and brought home, the end being placed in damp sand to prevent 
shrinking. The moth usually makes it appearance in February and March. 



468 NOTES ON ZELOTYPIA STACYI, AND AN ACCOUNT OF A VARIETY, 

be a distinct species as it differed materially from any he had 
previously seen. These specimens form the subject of the following 
notes. 

Larva — Length 122 mm.; width of head 11 mm. 

The larva of Z. Stacyl is long, cylindrical, and fleshy, pale 
yellow above ; the divisions between the segments inclining to 
reddish brown ; the first three segments rather bright i-ed, the 
following segments, with the exception of the last two, provided 
■with three pale testaceous spots in the middle and two on each 
side ; of these the middle spots are transverse, one being placed in 
front of the two others which are much smaller and situated near 
the posterior margin ; the head is black and finely rugose j legs 
small, the claws black ; stigmata of the usual number. 

The larva makes its burrow in the limbs, or occasionally in the 
trunk, of the Eucalypt {E. tireticornis] locally known as the grey 
gum. It is veiy active, and like the Charagire, forms a bag-like 
covering of triturated bark about the opening of its burrow, which 
it closes before pupating with a thick pad resembling a gun-wad. 

Pupa — Length 96 mm. 

The pupa is very long and cylindrical, slightly thickened towards 
the anterior extremity, with the segmentation, particularly of the 
thorax, unusually well-marked ; the abdominal segments beyond 
the ex;tremity of the wing-coverings provided with a transverse 
serrate horny ridge near the anterior margins ; below the 7th to 
10th segments are provided with similar but less prominent 
ridges ; the anal extremity armed, both above and below, with 
small sharp spines. 

The likeness between Zelotypia and Charagia is as apparent in 
this stage as in the larval condition, and the wonderful activity 
of the pupa in its burrow is equally noticeable in both genera. 
The power of rapidly ascending or descending the precipitous 
walls of the burrow, which, as Mr. Scott has pointed out (1), 
these pupse possess to a remarkable degree, appears to be due to 
the serrate structure of the abdominal rings. 

(1) Austr. Lepid. p. 4 (1864), and Trans. Ent. Soc. N. S. Wales, II. p. 27 
.(1867.) 



BY A. SIDNEY OLLIFF, F.E.S. 469 



Zelotypia Stacyi var. sinuosa. 

(J Antennae reddish brovvn. Head, front of thorax, and 
abdomen salmon red ; the thorax with two broad streaks of 
white scales, one on each side, which meet behind ; abdomen with 
the last two segments greenish black. Forewing dark fawn 
colour, the basal half and the apical extremity silvery white, the 
former dusted with fawn colour, a large ocellus very indistinctly 
encircled with brown at the end of the discoidal cell, beyond this 
a moderately broad and very clearly defined silvery white fascia 
obliquely crosses the entire width of the wing ; within this fascia, 
between veins 1-5, and near the inner mai'gin, the ground colour is 
more pronounced ; the space between thefascia and the hind-margin, 
which is also deeper in colour, occupied with five or six series of 
iri'egular bar-shaped markings ; these markings are at right angles 
to the veins within which they are contained ; costa marked with 
three or four rather obscure patches of white. Hindwing salmon 
red, darker externally. All the wings crumpled at the extremities. 
Expanse of wings 166 mm. (1) ; length of body 64 mm. 

Although I have examined a considerable number of Zelotypise 
this is the only one I have seen answering to the above description. 
The points in which it differs from the typical Z. Stacyi are at 
once perceptible and may be summarized as follows : — The ocellus 
without the white margin and only obscurely surrounded with 
bi'own, the oblique fascia much more pronounced with the edges 
clearly defined, the presence of peculiar bar-like markings near 
the hind-margin (very unlike the thin, wavy lines on the typical 
form), and the dull fawn coloured, obscurely marked costal margin, 
not to mention the deeper ground colour of the whole of the 
external half of the wing. 



(1) The largest female Z. Stacyi I have seen Is fully ten inches across the 
wings, measured according to the approved method, i.e. from the tip of the 
forewing to the middle of the thorax doubled. 



470 NOTES ON ZELOTYPIA STACYI, AND AN ACCOUNT OF A VARIETY. 

The specimen was reared from a larva found in the trunk of a 
black apple tree (1) some three or four feet from the ground, and the 
only peculiarity observed during its transformation was that the 
pad with which the larva when fully grown closed the entrance to 
its burrow was much smaller and less dense in texture than is 
usually the case. Possibly this specimen may indicate a species 
distinct from that of the grey guui, but in the absence of more 
information I prefer to regard it as a variety. 

In conclusion it may be of interest to add that the name ' bent- 
wing' has been conferred upon this moth by the miners. 



(1)1 am not aware if this is Achrasamtralis, which usually passes under 
that name. 



A REVISION OF THE STAPHYLINID^ OF AUSTRALIA. 

By a. Sidney Olliff, F.E.S., 
Assistant Zoologist, Australian Museum. 



Part III. 



Sub-Family III.— STAPHYLININ^. 

Protlioracic stigmata conspicuous, sometimes hidden by a corneous 
plate. Antennae 11-jointed, inserted upon the anterior margin of 
the epistoma. Mandibles furnished on the inner side with a 
membrane which is partly free. No ocelli. A membranous space 
underneath the prothorax. Abdomen strongly margined laterally. 
Anterior coxai large and conical ; the posterior sub-conical. t*os- 
terior trochanters prominent. Tarsi 5-jointed, except in Tany- 
gnathus which has only four. 

This subfamily contains the largest and most brilliantly coloured 
members of the section, many of which are eminently predatory in 
their habits. Xantholinus and the allied genera are composed of 
very long and narrow species, and the true Staphylinina mostly of 
more robust forms ; of the latter Greophilus, Actinus, Mysolms, 
and the species which I have characterized under the name 
Colonia regalis, are the most conspicuous types. 

The different species are found under stones, under bark, in 
carrion or any decaying animal or vegetable matter, in moss, and 
occasionally in ants' nests. To the third tribe of the subfamily 
belongs the curious parasitic species Qmdius dilataius, which is 
found in Europe living in hornets' nests, but no species with 
similar habits has yet been detected in Australia. 



472 A REVISION OF THE STAPHYLIKID^ OF AUSTRALIA, 

Tribe 1, XANTHOLININA. 

Antennte inserted near the middle of the anterior margin of 
the front, near together. Prothorax with the lateral margin 
double ; the prothoracic stigmata uncovered. 

30. DiocHUS. 

Erichvson, Gen. Staph, p. 300 (1840) ; Lacordaire, Gen. Col. 11. 
p. 65. 

Mentum very broad. Ligula membranous, short, rounded 
and slightly emarginate in front. Paraglossae distinct. Maxillary 
palpi with the Ist and 3rd joints nearly equal, the last joint 
subulate. Labial palpi with the 2nd joint a little shorter than 
the 1st, the terminal joint very small and subulate. Maxillte with 
the inner lobe ciliated internally ; the external lobe ciliated at its 
extremity. Mandibles very short. Labrum small, transverse, 
sinuate in front. Head elongate, narrowed anteriorly, connected 
with the prothorax by a very slender neck. Eyes small, rounded. 
Antennfe short, very robust, straight, 1st joint a little larger than 
the others, 2nd and 3rd joints sub-equal, obconical, 4th to 10th 
transverse. Prothorax with the angles rounded. Elytra truncate 
behind. Abdomen parallel-sided. Legs short ; intermediate coxse 
near together ; tibi?e finely spined ; anterior tarsi slightly dilated, 
the 1st joint longer than the others. 

A widely distributed genus. 

113. DiOCHUS OCTAVII. 

Diochus Octavii, Fauvel, Ann. Mus. Genov. X. p. 235 (1877). 

Niger, nitidus, antennis brunneo-piceis, articulis 3 ultimis 
palpisque testaceis ; segmenti 6 \ margine pedibusque obscure 
I'ufis ; antennis elongatis, articulis 3-5 parum decrescentibus, 6-9 
subaequalibus, 11? elongato, acuminato ; capite elongato, ovali, 
tertia parte mandibulis exceptis longiore quam latiore, lateribus 
parallelis, postice omnino rotundato, punctis 3 utrinque disco, tertio 
postico remoto, punctisque aliis parce lateribus basique notato ; 



BY A. SIDNEY OLLIFF, F.E.S. 473 



thorace majore, basi capite duplo fere latiore, oblongo, convexo, 
antice fortiter angastato, angulis omnibus fortissime rotundatis, 
seriebus dorsalibus tripunctatis, oblique iiiter apicem niediumque 
sitis, punctis 2 aliis post angiilum anticuni sitis ; elytris basi 
thorace paulo latioribus, circa apicem latioribus, serie suturali 
discoidalique utraque punctis 6 subtilissimis impressis ; abdomine 
dense subtilissime fusco-pubescente, subopaco, omnium creberrime 
subtilissime, apice pavcius, piinctulato. Long. 5 mm. (Fvl.) 
Wide Bay, Queensland ; Victoria. 

114. DiOCHUS DIVISUS. 

Dioclms divisus, Fauvel, Ann. Mus. Genov. X. p. 235 (1877). 

A praecedente magnitudine minor, thorace piceo, antennis vix 
medio infuscatis, ore, elytrorum dimidia parte apicale, segmentorum 
marginibus, sexti dimidia parte apicali, septimo toto pedibusque 
rufo-testaceis ; antennis brevioribus ; capite minore, breviore, 
subtriangulari, antice sat fortiter angustato, basi minus rotundato ; 
thorace antice paulo minus angustato ; elytris seriebus vix fortius, 
abdomine adhuc subtilius densiusque punctatis. Long. 4 mm. 
{FvL). 

New South Wales. 

31. Leptacinus. 

Erichson, Kaf. Mark, L p. 429 (1837); Gen. Staph, p. 333 
(1840) ; Lacordaire, Gen. Col. IL p. 69. 

General characters of Xantholinus. Ligula slightly emarginate 
in front. Palpi, both maxillary and labial, with the last joint 
small and acicular ; the labial palpi with the 2nd joint a little 
longer than the first. Labrum deeply sinuate ; the lateral margins 
membranous. Antennae filiform. The intermediate coxae 
moderately distant or contiguous ; the anterior tarsi sometimes 
simple, sometimes dilated. 

A genus of world-wide distribution resembling Xayitholinus in 
fades. 



474 A REVISION OP THE STAPHYLINIDiE OP AUSTRALIA, 



115. Leptacinus LURIDIPENNIS. 

Leptacimts lui'idijjennis, Macleay, Trans. Ent. Soc. N.S.VV. II. 
p. 137 (1871). 

Elongate, piceous, shiaing, finely and sparingly pubescent ; 
prothorax, antennae and legs reddish testaceous ; elytra with the 
apical half pale testaceous. 

Head large, slightly narrowed in front, truncate behind, 
moderately strongly and not very closely punctured ; the 
punctures extend to just before the middle on each side 
leaving an impunctate median surface ; frontal sulci 
moderately distinct ; the posterior angles strongly rounded. 
Antennae with joints 4-10 strongly ti'ans verse, the 11th large, 
acuminate at the extremity. Prothorax somewhat convex, 
slightly narrowed behind, sinuate behind the middle, a dorsal 
series of ten punctures on each side of the middle ; the sides not 
very strongly and sparingly punctured ; anterior and posterior 
angles rounded. Scutellum piceous. Elytra a little longer than 
the prothorax, narrowed anteriorly, moderately strongly, irregu- 
larly, and not very strongly punctured. Abdomen finely 
punctured. Length 4|mm. 

Gayndah, Queensland. 

After an examination of the type specimen I have come to the 
conclusion that the species should be retained in the genus 
Lejitacinus, a jiosition from which it was removed by M. Fauvel 
without sufficient evidence. 

116. Leptacinus parumpunctatus. 

Staphylinus jjancmpimctatus, Gyllenhal, Ins. Suec, IV, p. 481 
(1808) — Leptacinus parumpunctatus, Erichson, Gen. Staph, p. 335 
(1840); Fauvel, Ann. Mus. Genov. XIII, p. 537 (1878). 



BY A. SIDNEY OLLIFF, F.E.S. 475 

Black, shining, finely pubescent ; head strongly punctured on 
each side ; prothorax with a dorsal series of five or six punctures 
on each side ; elytra piceous or i-eddish testaceous, the outer apical 
angles pale testaceous. 

Head densely and strongly punctured behind the eyes, the disc 
smooth. Antennae a little longer than the head, reddish brown, 
the 3rd joint almost shorter than the 2nd. Prothorax broad, 
short, strongly rounded in front, a little narrowed behind, with a 
dorsal series of five or six strong punctures, and a lateral series of 
five punctures on each side. Scutellum with two or three impres- 
sions. Elytra with irregular rows of fine punctures. Legs 
reddish testaceous. Length 5^-7 mm. 

Melbourne, Vict^oria ; a cosmopolitan and introduced species. 



117. Leptacinus Novae Hollandiae. 

Leptacinus Novae Hollandiae, Fauvel, Ann. JNIus. Genov. X, 
p. 236 (1877). 

Elongatus, niger, nitidissimus, ore, antennis pedibusque rufis, 
thorace, scutello, elytrorumque basali parte piceis, his caeterum 
ffegmentisque 6-7 apice pallide testaceis ; antennis articulis 4-10 
brevissimis, duplo latioribus quam longioribus, 11° magno, oblongo- 
acuminato ; capite magno, mandibulis exceptis tertia parte longiore 
quam latiore, sat convexo, subparallelo, basi subtruncato, parum 
dense sat fortiter punctato, linea longitudinali laevi^ angulis 
posticis rotundatis ; thorace elongato, gracili, capite tertia fere 
parte angustiore, dimidio fere longiore quam latiore, basi quam 
antice angustiore, post medium sat fortiter coarctato, basi truncate, 
seriebus dorsalibus subtiliter 12, externis duplicibus, circiter 
6-punctatis, non confusis ; elytris thorace duplo latioribus, vix 
longioribus, sat dense subtilius seriatim, abdomine utrinque sat 
pares subtiliter punctatis. Long. 4 mm. {Fvl.) 

Rockhampton, Queensland ; Victoria ; West Australia. 



476 A REVISION OF THE STAPHYLINIDiE OP AUSTRALIA, 

118. LepTACINUS LINEARIS. 

Staphylinus linearis, Gravenhorst, Col. Micr., p. 43 (1802) — 
Leptacinus linearis, Jacq. Duv., Gen. Staph, p. 12, f. 59. 

Pitchy black, shining, finely pubescent ; prothorax with a dorsal 
series of eight or ten punctures on each side ; elytra uniformly 
dark brown. 

Head with the sides more finely and less closely punctured 
than the allied L. hatychrus, the lateral rows of punctures more 
regular. Antennae reddish testaceous. Scutellum smooth. Legs 
pitchy. Length 4-5 mm. 

Port Lincoln, South Australia, 

A common European species which has recently been recorded 
from South Australia by the Rev. T. Blackburn. It is probably 
introduced. 

119. Leptacinus picticornis. 

Leptacinus jncticomis, Blackburn, Trans, Royal Soc. S. Aus- 
tralia, 1887, p. 7. 

Robustus, nitidus, niger, antennarum articulo primo apice, 
secundoque toto testaceis, articulis 4-11 fusco-rufis, palpis mandi- 
bulis tarsisque rufescentibus ; capite elongato-quadrato, utrinque 
sparsim fortiter punctato ; prothorace vix elongato, seriebus 
dorsalibus 6-7 punctatis ; elytris prothorace vix longioribus, con- 
fuse-lineatim punctatis ; abdominis lateribus punctatis, disco laevi. 
Long. 6-7 mm. 

The antennae are short, joints 4-10 strongly transverse; the 
forehead has only two longitudinal furrows (which are strongly 
punctate), the external ones of the usual 4 being obsolete. In 
most specimens the knees, and in some the tibiae, are pitchy red. 
In some specimens also the elytra and apex of the hind body are 
of a dull reddish tint. (Blk.) 

Adelaide, Port Lincoln, South Australia. 



by a. sidney olliff, f.e.s. 477 

120. Leptacinus filum. 

Leptacinus filum, Blackburn, Trans. Royal Soc. S. Australia, 
1887, p. 7. 

Angustus ; parallelus ; nitidus ; niger ; antennis, palpis, pecli- 
bnsque piceis ; elytris iionnullis exemplis apicem versus dilutiori- 
bus ; antennarum articulis 4-10 sat fortiter transversis ; capite 
elongato ; crebre subtilius punctato, fronte longitudinaliter obso- 
lete bifoveolato ; prothorace tertia parte longiore quam latiore, 
subtiliter crebrius vix lineatim punctato, disco laevi ; elytris pi'o- 
thorace vix longioribus, crebrius subtiliter confuse punctatis ; 
abdomiue subtilissime nee crebre punctato. Long. 5-5^ mm. (Blk.) 

Port Lincoln, South Australia. 

This species is said to have the fades and essential characters 
of Leptacinus, but to differ from all the other species in having 
slightly impressed frontal fovese and the dorsal series of thoracic 
punctures confused with the lateral punctures. 

32. Metoponcus. 

Kraatz, Nat. Lis. TI. p. 651 (1857)— Fauvel, Fn. Gall.-Rhen., 
in. p. 379. 

General characters of Leptacinus. Maxillaiy palpi with the 
last joint narrow at the base, subulate. Antennae geniculate, 
very short, the joints large and depressed. 

This genus is remarkable for the bright colouring of many of 
of the species. Its distribution is world wide. 

121. Metoponcus cyaneipennis. 

Leptacinus cyaneijyennis, Macleay, Trans. Ent. Soc. N.S.W. II. 
p. 137 (1871) — Metoponcus cyaneipennis, Fauvel, Ann. Mus. 
Genov. X, p. 237 (1877). 



478 A REVISION OF THE STAPHYLINID^ OP AUSTRALIA, 

Elongate, black, shining, finely and sparingly pubescent ; pro- 
thorax and 6th abominal segment red ; elytra bright steel-blue ; 
1st and 2nd abdominal segments and legs testaceous. 

Head large, much longer than broad, slightly narrowed in front, 
truncate behind, with four foveolate punctures near the base of 
the antenna;, two on the disc on each of the middle, one near the 
posterior angle, and two on the posterior margin ; the ocular sulci 
are very oblique and conspicuous ; the inner orbital margin of the 
eye impressed and provided with a distinct puncture. Antennae dark 
reddish testaceous, the terminal joint inclining to pale testaceous. 
Prothorax slightly convex, a little narrowed posteriorly, sinuate 
behind the middle, truncate at the base, very sparingly and finely 
punctured, with a series of four moderately distinct dorsal punc- 
tures, two on each side of the middle ; anterior and posterior 
angles rounded. Scutellum rufous. Elytra rather shorter than 
the prothorax, slightly narrowed in front, extremely finely and 
sparingly punctured. Length 6-9 mm. 

Barron River, Mackay, Gayndah, Wide Bay, Pine Mountains, 
Queensland ; Clarence River, Port Macquarie, Upper Hunter, 
Sydney, Port Hacking, lUawarra, New South Wales ; Lord Howe 
Island. 

122. Metoponcus enervus, sp. n. 

Elongate, pitchy, shining, moderately closely covered with 
pubescence ; antennae and legs reddish testaceous. 

Head large, much longer than broad, narrowed in front, truncate 
behind, very strongly and rather closely punctured, with two 
obscure foveolate punctures on each side ; the frontal sulci 
moderately distinct ; the inner orbital margin of the eye impressed. 
Antennte clothed with fuscous puliescence, the terminal joint 
testaceous, joints 4-10 transverse. Prothorax somewhat convex, 
narrowed behind, strongly sinuate just behind the middle, truncate 
at the base, very strongly and not very closely punctured at the 
sides ; the punctation extending on each side to just before the 
middle, where it terminates in a dorsal series, leaving the median 



BY A. SIDNEY OLLIFF, F.E.S. 479 

sni'face impunctate ; anterior and posterior angles rounded. Elytra 
about as long as the prothorax, narrowed anteriorly, moderately 
strongly and closely punctured. Abdomen rather finely punctured. 
Length 6| mm. 

Lottah, Gould's Country, Tasmania (^Simson). 

A very distinct species differing from all the species known to 
me in its uniform colour and strongly punctured head and pro- 
thorax. 

33. Xantholinus. 

Serville, Encycl. Meth. X. p. 475 (1825) ; Lacordaire, Gen. CoL 
11. p. 68. 

Mentum very short. Ligula small, entire, rounded in front. 
Paraglossse large, acuminate. Maxillary palpi filiform, joints 2-4 
nearly equal, the last slightly acuminate. Labial palpi filiform, 
the joints gradually increasing in length, the terminal joint 
acuminate. Maxillise with the internal lobe shorter than the 
other, coriaceous, and ciliated internally; the external lobe corneous, 
ciliated above. Mandibles very short, falciform, dentate in the 
middle of the inner side, membranous and ciliate at the base. 
Labrum corneous, transverse, bilobed, with the sides membranous. 
Head more or less elongate, connected with the prothorax by a 
rather narrow neck. Eyes small, rounded. Antennoe short, 
strongly geniculate, rather robust, 1st joint moderately elongate, 
the 2nd and 3rd obconical, joints 4-10 short, pubescent, the 
terminal joint sub-acuminate at the extremity. Prothorax 
elongate, often a little narrowed towards the base, which is 
rounded ; the anterior angles usually a little produced. Elytra 
truncate behind. Abdomen parallel-sided. Legs short ; the inter- 
mediate coxae distant ; tibiae spined, the anterior pair a little 
thickened ; tarsi simple, the first two joints nearly equal. 

This genus contains a large number of species from all parts of 
the world, many of which are brightly coloured. They are found 
in moss, decaying vegetable matter, and under bark. 
31 



480 a revision of the staphylinid^ of australia, 

123. Xantholinus erythropterus. 

Xantholinus erythropterus, Erichson, Gen. Staph, p. 320 (184:0); 
Fauvel, Ann. Mus. Genov. X. p. 240 (1877) — Xantholinus 
cervinipennis, Macleay, Trans, Ent, See. N.S.W. II. p. 138 
(1871). 

Pitchy black, shining ; elytra, anus, and legs reddish testaceous; 
prothorax with a dorsal series of four or five punctures on 
each side. 

Head sub-quadrate, rather broader than the piothorax, truncate 
at the base, with a few strongly impressed punctures on each 
side, the frontal sulci short and terminating internally in a 
foveolate puncture ; sides nearly straight ; posterior angles 
rounded. Antennte piceous, a little longer than the head, the 1st 
joint reddish piceous, the 3rd elongate, about twice as long as the 
2nd, joints 4-10 cylindrical, slightly transverse, the last joint 
ferruginous at the apex, Prothorax rather long, a little narrower 
than the elytra, considerably narrowed behind, with a series of 
four or five rather strong punctures on each side of the middle, 
and five or six less strongly marked punctures near the lateral 
margins. Scutellum moderately strongly and sparingly punc- 
tured. Elytra a little longer than the prothorax, rather finely 
and sparingly punctured, lateral margin free from punctures. 
Abdomen very finely and sparingly punctured, finely pubescent, 
the apex of the penultimate, and the whole of the terminal seg- 
ment dark reddish testaceous. Length 10-14 mm. 

Mulgrave River, Rockhampton, Gayndah, Moreton Bay, 
Queensland ; Manly, Sydney, Noav South Wales ; Victoria ; 
Adelaide, South Australia. 

An abundant species which may be found, frequently in com- 
pany with Hololepta, between the fronds of almost every decaying 
grass tree (Xanthorrhoea). 



by a. sidney olliff, p.e.s. 481 

124. Xantholinus Lorquini. 

Xantholinus Lorquini, Fauvel, Ann. Mus. Genov. X. p. 241 
(1877); I. c. XII. pi. 1, tig. 25 (1878). 

X. auriceps major et latior, parce longitis fulvo-pubescens, 
aiigerrimus, nitidissimus, elytris laete, palpis pedibusque sub- 
obscure rutis ; antennis articulis 3 primis piceis, laevibus, 4-10 
transversis, opacis, ultimo brevi, conico, apice vix testaceo ; capite 
thorace tertia parte latiore, planioi-e, subtriangulari, fronte pro- 
funde 4-sulcata, sulcis externis transversis, puncto terminatis, 
sulco oculari puncto etiam terminato, punctoque alio prope adjecto 
plagam punctatam appropinquante ; lateribus subtusque, praeter 
plagam mediam laevem, dense subtilius rugose punctatis, basi 
grosse parce punctato, medio obsolete sulcato, angulis posticis 
obtusis ; thorace convexo, subtrapezoidali, antice oblique truncato, 
postice parum angustato, lateribus vix sinuatis, angulis posticis 
parum obtusis, puncto magno prope angulum anteriorem, serie in 
margine laterali parum punctata, puncturaque parca in margine 
anteriore notato, basi sulculo brevissimo vix impresso ; elytris 
thorace tertia parte latioribus, nee longioribus, parce fortitei', intra 
humerum triseriatim, margine inflexo subtilius densiusque, abdo- 
mineque utrinque subtilissime disperse punctatis ; alis fuscis. 
Long. 17 mm. (Fvl.) 

Caims, Duaringa, Wide Bay, Brisbane, Moreton Bay, Queens- 
land ; Clarence River, Newcastle, Currajong, New South Wales ; 
also found in New Guinea, the Moluccas and Celebes. 

Appears to be an abundant species. 

125. Xantholinus rufitarsis. 

Xantholinus rujitarsis, Fauvel, Ann. Mus. Genov. X. p. 241 

(1877). 

X. Lorquini sat vicinus ; niger, nitidissimus ; palpis anten- 
nisque praeter basin piceis ; tibiarum spinulis tarsisque ruiis ; 



482 A REVISION OF THE STAPHYLINIDiE OF AUSTRALIA, 

elytris rufo-testaceis ; abclomine subaeneo ; antennis multo graci- 
lioribus, artieulis 4-10 fortissime transversis, 11° brevi, conico ;, 
capite minore, magis convexo, puncto antico utrinque ocnlo pi'O- 
piore, postico oculo ipso contigno, angulis posticis magis rotundatis, 
supra lateribusque onininm subtilissime puncfculato ; thorace 
capitis fei'e latitudine, ut in Lorqidni, antice vix minus producto- 
sinuato, ibique vix punctulato, puncto prope angulum auticum 
nullo ; scutello multo subtilius densiusque punctato ; elytris bre- 
vioribus, vix longioribus quam latioribus, multo subtilius puncta- 
tis, punctis secundum suturam iri'egularibus, sat numerosis, serie 
intra humei-ali obliqua punctis 14 vel 15, lateribusque inflexis sat 
dense subtilius punctatis ; abdomine densius fortiusque quam 
in Lorquini punctato, densius piloso, segmentis basi profunde 
trans versim sulcatis. Long. 15 mm. (FvL) 

Gayndah, Rockhampton, Queensland ; Sydney, New South 
Wales. 

126. Xaxtholinus haemorrhous. 

Xantholinus haemorrhous, Fauvel, Ann. Mus. Genov. XIII. 
p. 538 (1878). 

Forma rujltarsis, sed minor et gracilior, elytris testaceis, palpis, 
antennarum picearum artieulis 3 primis, segmentis 6-7 totis 
pedibusque rufis, caeterum niger, abdomine subirideo ; antennis 
longioribus et gracilioribus, articulo 11° elongate, acuminato, apice 
flavo ; capite longiore, basi rectius truncato, oculis dimidio fere 
minoribus, inter antennarum basim biarcuatim fossulato, sulcis 
subobsoletis, oculariis ab oculis magis distantibus ; post oculos 
supi'a punctis 3 vel 4, basi summa circiter 8 notatis, sulco sub- 
tilissimo a basi ultra medium longitudinaliter impresso ; thorace 
minora, antice magis truncato, ante medium profunde sinuato, 
angulis omnibus fortiter rotundatis, ante anticos et collum multi- 
punctato, punctis 2 vel 3 lateralibus, seiie dorsali 3-punctata, 
sulculo brevissimo basali ; scutello elytrisque subtilius sat dense 
aequaliter, abdomine densius subtiliusque punctatis, densius 
breviusque pubescentibus, illis paulo longioribus. Long. 12i mm. 
(Fvl) 

Rockhampton, Queensland, 



by a. sidney olliff, f.e.s. 483 

127. Xantholinus piioemcopterus. 

XanthoUnus 2}hoeriicopterus, 'Erichson, Gen. Staph, p. 314(1840). 

Niger, nitidus, tarsis piceis, elytris rubris, purpureo-nitentibus, 
triseriatim punctatis, capite oblongo, laevi. 

Statuva omnino A', analis, uigerrimus, pernitidus. Antennae 
capite paruin longiores, articalo tertio elongate, secundo duplo 
longiore, nigrae. Palpi picei. Caput thoracis latitudine, latitudine 
paulo longius, antrorsum subangustatimi, lateribus rectis, angulis 
posterioribus rotundatis, punctis iitrinque singulo maiusculo ad 
interiorem, binis approximatis, oblique positis, ad superiorem 
oculi marginem, paucisque irregulariter transversim positis verticis 
impressum, ceterum praeter sulculos anticos ordinaries laevissimum. 
Thorax coleopteris paulo angustior, longitudine paulo longior, 
basin versus modice angustatus, lateribus medio vix sinuatif, apice 
utrinque oblique truncatus, angulis anterioribus obtusis, modice 
prominentibus, parum convexus, intra angulum anteriorem 
utrinque puncto maguo profundo et in margins anteriore punctis 
utrinque nonnullis impressus. Scutellum punctulatum. Elytra 
thorace paululum longiora, punctorum seriebus tribus sat regulari- 
bus notata, prima suturali, secunda in medio dorsi, tertia marginali, 
rubra, nitore purpureo resplendentia. Abdomen parallelum, 
parcius subtilitei punctulatum, nigrum, pernitidum, immaculatum. 
Pedes breves, nigri, tarsis piceis. Alae fusco-hyalinae. Long. 
10-14 mm. (Hr.) 

Port Darwin, Cape York, Somerset, PortDenison, Rockhampton, 
Brisbane, Queensland ; Gundagai, Murrumbidgee, Wagga Wagga, 
Sydney, New South Wales ; Princetown, Melbourne, Victoria ; 
Nuriootpa, Adelaide, Port Lincoln, South Australia ; King 
■George's Sound. 

An abundant species. 

128. Xantholinus chloropterus. 

Xantholinus chloropterics, Erichson, Gen. Staph, p. 311 (l840). 
Niger, capite triangulari laevi thoraceque opacis, elytris viri- 
<libus, abdomine nigro-subaeneo, nitidulis. 



484 A REVISION OP THE STAPHYLINIDiE OP AUSTRALIA, 

X. chalybeo longitudine aequalis, at gracilior, corporis habitu 
potius X. glahrati Antennae capita vix longiores, articulo 
tertio elongato, secundo duple longiore, 4-10 crassitie aequalibus, 
at sensim paulo brevioribus, nigrae, ultimo apice subferrugineo. 
Palpi nigri, apice rufo-picei. Caput thoracis longitudine et basi 
eius apici latitudine aequale, antroi-sum angustatum, oblongo- 
subtriangulare, basi et lateribus perparum, angulis posterioribus 
fortiter rotundatum, supra leviter convexum, puncto maiusculo 
singulo ad interiorem, alteroque itidera singulo ad superioreni 
oculi margineni impresso, ceterum praeter sulculos anticos 
ordinaries laeve, nigrum, subopacum. Thorax apice coleop- 
terorum latitudine, basin versus modice angustatas, latitudine 
antica paulo lougior, lateribus rectis, apice utrinque oblique 
truncatus, angulis anterioribus subrotundatis, modice prominenti- 
bus, leviter convexus, longe intra apicem puncto singulo im- 
pressus, ceterum laevissimus, niger, subopacus. Scutellum 
medio punctatum, nigrum, parum nitidum. Elytra thorace vix 
longiora, triseriatim punctata, serie prima suturali, secunda 
dorsali, tertia marginali, margine inflexo summoque apice vage 
punctatis, viridia, nitidula. Abdomen elongatum, parallelum, 
parce subtiliter punctatum, parce tenuiterque nigro-pilosellum, 
nigro-subaenium, nitiduluiu. Corpus subtus nigro-subaenium, 
nitidum. Pedes nigri. Long. 17-14 mm. (Er.) 

Duaringa, Queensland ; Liverpool Plains, Mount Wilson, 
Mount Victoria, Blue Mountains, Sydney, Monaro, New South 
"Wales ; Princetown, Melbourne, Victoria ; Adelaide, Port 
Augusta, South Australia ; Launceston, Lottah, Gould's Country,, 
Tasmania. 

The elytra and abdomen of this species are somewhat variable 
in colour, 

129. Xantholinus orthodoxus, sp. n. 

Black, shining ; elytra cyaneous or bronze green ; abdomen 
bronze green ; legs black. 



BY A. SIDNEY OLLIFF, F.E.S. 485 

Head narrowed in front, extremely finely and not very closely 
punctured, a row of punctures on the posterior margin, two 
punctures on the inner orbital margin of the eye ; frontal sulci 
sti-ongly marked, nearly parallel. Antennae longer than the head, 
joints 4-10 finely pubescent, 11th joint with the apex ferruginous. 
Prothorax considerably narrowed behind, truncate in front, with 
a conspicuous foveolate puncture near the anterior angles ; sides 
very slightly sinuate behind the middle ; the posterior angles 
rounded. Scutellum rather strongly punctured. Elytra with 
three rows of moderately strong punctures, one near the suture, 
the second about the middle, and the third at the side ; lateral 
and posterior margins sparingly punctured. Abdomen sparingly 
and not very strongly punctured, the pubescence black. Length 
13-15 mm. 

Sydney, Port Hacking, New South Wales. 

This species is intermediate between Xantholinus chloropterus 
and X. cyanopterus. From the former it may be distinguished, 
apart from its smaller size and different colour, by having tlie 
prothorax more narrowed behind, and the punctuation of the 
elytra comparatively stronger ; and from the latter by the shape 
of the head and prothorax, which are elongate and nearly parallel- 
sided, as well as in colour. From X. chalcopterus it differs in 
having black legs. 

130. Xantholinus cyanopterus. 

Xantholinus cyanopterus, Erichson, Gen. Staph, p. 311 (1840). 
Nigerrimus, nitidus, elytris subtiliter triseriatim punctatis,. 
chalybeis. capite oblongo, laevi. 

Antennae capite parum longiores, articulo tertio secundo duplo 
longiore, ultimo apice ferrugineo. Palpi apice picei. Caput 
thoracis latitudine, Jatitudine paulo longius, basi et lateribus 
leviter, angulisposterioribus fortiter rotund atis,antrorsum paululum 
angustatum, supra convexum, subtilissime punctulatum, punctis 
utrinque tribus in capitis margiue postico, duobus ad oculum 



486 A REVISION OF THE STAPHYLINIDiE OP AUSTRALIA, 

utrumque impressum, sulculis duobus anticis intermediis parallelis. 
Thorax coleoptevis paruni angustior, latitudine paulo lougior, basin 
versus subangnstatus, apice truncatus, angulis anterioribus lateri- 
busqiie subrectis, leviter convexus, puncto atrinque singulo intra 
angulum anterioreru sat prof undo irapressus. Scutellum obsolete 
4-punctatum Elytra thorace paulo longiora, triseriatim punctata, 
serie prima suturali, secunda dorsali, tertia marginali, omnibus sat 
regularibus, margine apicali et lateribus inflexis vage punctatis. 
Abdomen parce punctatum, parce nigro-pilosura. Pedes nigri, 
tarsis piceis. Long. 12-14 mm. (Er.) 

Melbourne, Victoria ; Launceston, Lottali, Gould's Country, 
Tasmania. 

The broad convex prothorax and brilliant colour of this species 
will prevent its being confused with any other. 

131. XaNTHOLINUS SIDEaALIS. 

Xantholinus sideralis, Fauvel, Ann. Mus. Genov. XIII. p. 539 
(1878). 

A caeteris elytris totis sat dense aequaliter punctura du[)lici, 
altera forti, altera subtili, notatis, serie licet intrahumerali distincta 
et abdomine nigro notabilis ; cyanoptero statura minore et angus- 
tiore, antennis articulo 2° breviore (caeteri desunt), capite minore, 
angustiore, magis parallelo, niagis convexo, post oculos crebi^e sub- 
tiliter punctato, angalis posticis magis indicatis, punctis 3 supra 
ad marginem oculi posticum ; thorace circa basin profundius 
sinuato, magis angustato, punctis 2 utrinque fossulatis, altero 
prope angulum anticum, altero medio, punctis 2 uti-inque disco 
obsoletis ; abdomine parcius subtiliusque punctato. Long. 12- 
13 mm. {Fvl) 
West Australia. 

132. Xantholinus chalcopterus. 

Xantholinus cludmpterus, Erichson, Gen. Staph, p. 312 (1.840) — 
Xantholinus cyaneipennis, Macleay, Trans. Ent. Soc. N.S.W. 
XL p. 139(1871). 



BY A. SIDNEY OLLIFP, F.E.S. 487 

Niger, nitidus, elytris tiiseriatim punctatis, cyaneo-aeneis, pedi- 
bus lufo-fulvis, capite oblongo, laevi. 

Habitu omnino A', fulgidi, at duplo maior, niger, peinitidus. 
Antennttt capite paulo longiores, articulo tertio secundo plus sesqiii 
longiore, nigrae, articulo secundo tertioque basi rufo-piceis, ultimo 
apice ferrugineo. Palpi picei. Caput thorace paulo latius, 
latitudine longius, basi cum angulis posterioribus rotundatis, 
lateribus subrectis, antrorsum baud angustatum, sub-depressum, 
omnium subtilissime obsoletissimeque punctulatum, puncto maius- 
culo singulo ad iuteriorem, duohus approximatis ad superiorera 
utriusque oculi marginem, pluribusque irregulariter transversim 
positis verticis impressum. sulculis duobus anticis intermediis 
prope parallelis. Thorax latitudine paulo longior, basin versus 
angustatus, lateribus pone medium subsinuatis, basi coleopteris 
angustior, parum convexus, puncto singulo ad angulum utrumque 
anteriorem impressus. Scutellum parumpunctatum. Elytra 
thorace paululum longiora, subtilius triseriatim punctata, serie 
prima suturali, secunda in medio dorsi, tertia marginali, omnibus 
sat regularibus, cyaneo-aenea, nitida. Abdomen parce vageque 
punctulatum, tenuiter pilosum. Pedes omnes cum coxis anteri- 
oribus rufo-fulvi. Long. 10-13 mm, {Er.) 

Rockhampton, Gayndah, Wide Bay, Brisbane, Queensland ; 
Clarence River, Upper Hunter, Singleton, Parramatta, Sydney, 
New South Wales ; Melbourne, Victoria ; Adelaide, Nuriootpa, 
South Australia ; Swan River, West Australia. 

A careful comparison of the type of Xantholhius cyaytevpennis 
with Erichson's description of X. chalcojiterus, and with West 
Australian specimens which I have identitied with that species, 
leads me to the conclusion that the former name must be regarded 
as a synonym.. 

133. Xantholinus coelestis. 

Xantholinus coelestis, Fauvel, Ann. Mus. Genov. XIII. p. 510 
(1S78). 



488 A REVISION OF THE STAPHYLINIDiE OF AUSTRALIA, 

Inter species elytris caeruleis forma depressa et abdomine vix 
aenescente, segmentorum basi crebre fortiter punctata facilliine dis- 
tinguendus; forma potius cAa^copieW ; niger, nitidissimus, elytris 
caeruleis, pal pis apice rulis ; a, cyanoptero statura minore, antennis 
vix validioribus, capite angustiore et longiore, depresso, lateribus 
parallelis, angulis posticis multo fortius rotundatis, punctis 2 
contiguis intus prope oculi marginem posticum ; basi densius 
punctulata ; thorace multo minore et angustiore, ti-apezoidali , 
planiusculo, circa basin multo fortius angnstato, lateribus magis 
sinuatis, antice multo minus truncato, licet angulis omnibus magis 
indicatis ; elytris l)revioribus, depressis, abdomine utrinque fortius 
densiusque punctato. Long. 12-13 mm. (Fvl.) 

Melbourne, Victoria. 

134. Xantholinus holomelas. 

Xantholinus holomelas, Perroud, Ann. Soc. Linn. Lyon, XL 
p. 84 (1864)— Fauvel, Ann. Soc. Ent. France, 1874, p. 436; Ann. 
Mus. Genov. X. p. 244 (1877). 

X. anachoreta, Er. paulo major, latior et robustior, niger, niti- 
dus, ore, antennis articulis 3 primis basi pedibusque rufo-piceis. 
vel piceis, abdomine dense grosseque punctato, aeneo, antennarum 
articulo ultimo apice testaceo ; capite maris magis orbiculari quam 
in anachoreta, sulcis anticis brevioribus, subtus tantum prope oculos 
subtilissime punctulato, supra post oculos punctis binis impresso ; 
thorace majore, lateribus minus angustato et sinuato, angulis. 
anticis minus, posticis multo magis rotundatis ; scutello grosse 
4-punctato ; elytris thorace paulo longioiibus latioribusque, ali- 
quando piceis, subaeneis, circa suturam canaliculatam lateribusque 
subtiliter dense punctulatis, stria profunda obliqua, disco fortiter 
punctata, stria laterali subhumerali 6-punctata ; abdomine robus- 
tiore ; ^ capite minore, thoracis vix jatitudine, longiore, ovato. 
Long. 11-1 4 mm. (Fvl.) 

Port Mackay, Queensland ; Bogolong, Wagga Wagga, Sydney, 
New South Wales ; Adelaide, South Australia ; King George's 
Sound ; also recorded from New Guinea, New Caledonia, Samoa, 
Aru, &c. 



KY A. SIDNEY OLLIFF, P.E.S. 489 



135. Xantholinus Albertisi. 



XanthoUmis Albertisi, Fauvel, Ann. Mas. Genov. X. p. 246 
(1877) ; I. c. XII. pi. 1, fig. 26 (1878). 

Colore iustabilis, abdomiue aeneo, thorace vel aeneo, vel aeneo- 
violaceo, capite saepius aureo-violaceo hoc, saepe elytrisque summa 
basi aureo-viridibus, elytris vel violaceo viridibus, latoribus 
rufulis, vel vix cupreis cum palpis, antennarum mandibularumque 
basi rufis, his apice coxisque piceolis, antennarum articulis 4-10 
transversis, opacis 11° brevi, acumiuato, 3, 4, vel 5 ultimis testaceo- 
albidis ; pedibus totis aliquando brunneis, vel piceis ; capite maris 
maximo, deplauato, subti'ansverso, breviter ovato, fronte omnium 
subtilissime strigosula, sulcis duobus antennariis minus, oculariis 
magis profundis, his I'ecte transversis, puncto terminatis, punctis 
duobus aliis intus prope oculi marginem posticum, quinque aliis 
utrinque basi, lateribus totis subtusque anguste subtiliter dense 
punctato rngoso, infra strigosulo, quadriimpresso ; thorace elytris 
sat angustiore, subtrapezoidali, omnium subtilissime punctulato, 
puncto magno circa angulum anteriorem, lateribus vix strigosulis, 
ad marginem inflexum serie punctorum notatis ; scutello aeneo, 
circiter 8-punctato : elytris thorace vix longioribus, crebre fortiter, 
lateribus densius, punctatis, serie intrahumerali punctorum ma- 
jorum impressa ; abdomine grosse sat dense utrinque punctato ;, 
alis fulvo-violaceis ; 9 capite multo minore, thorace angustio)'e, 
breviter ovato, sulcis ocularibus fere nullis, puncto post-oculai-i 
unico, utrinque ad oculorum mandibularumque basim parum dense 
fortius punctato. Long. 12-13 mm. { Fvl.) 

Cape York, Somerset, Russell River, Mulgrave River, North 
Queensland. Also recorded from Ternate, New Guinea, Aru 
Islands, and the Celebes. 

This species is said to vary considerably in colour and punctua- 
tion, and has been divided by M. Fauvel into three geographical 
forms ; the first, from Ternate, has the anterior half of the head 
and the sides of the prothorax very finely striolate, the last three 
pints of the antennae testaceous, the elytra and the abdomen 



490 A REVISION OF THE STAPHYLINID^ OF AUSTRALIA, 

bronze-green, tinged with violaceous, and the legs pitchy black ; 
the second, from Australia, has the head metallic L'olden STeen. 
the prothorax more or less violaceous, the sides of the elytra 
reddish, the legs pitchy, the striolation of the head less marked, 
and the last three or four joints of the ancemife testaceous ; the 
third, from New Guinea, Aru, and the Celebes, has the head 
metallic golden, the prothorax violaceous, the elytra reddish, the 
legs reddish or pitchy, and the last five joints of the antennae 
testaceous. 

Of these forms the second or Australian type I have identified 
from Northern Queensland, the others are unknown to me. 

136, Xantholinus socius. 

Xantholinus socius, Fauvel, Ann. Mus. Genov. X. p. 247 (1877). 

Minoribus A', jn^ictulati speciminibus magniturliue et facie 
similis, niger, subnitidus, vix alutaceus, elytris non alutaceis, 
magis nitidis, cum ore, anteniiis, articulo 1° excepto, segmentorum 
marginibus pedibusque piceis ; antennis capite vix longioribus, sat 
incrassatis, avticulis 5-10 breviter transversis, IFconico; capite 
subquadrato, quarta jjarte longiore quam latiore, antice parum 
angustato, angulis posticis subobtusis, utrinque vage fortiter 
punctato, sulcis 2 anticis brevibus, subarcuatis, puucto antico 
magno inter sulcum oculumque impresso, huic sulculo conjuncto; 
thoi-ace antice capitis latitudine, tertia parte longiore quam latiore, 
postice sat fortiter angustato, medio sinuate, angulis omnibus 
rotundatis, .seriebus dorsalibus rectis 7, lateralibus incurvis 8- 
punctabis ; scutello bipunctato ; elytris thorace parum latioribus, 
nee longioribus, dorso subtiliter triseriatim, suturaque confusius 
punctatis ; marginibus inflexis seriatim subtilissime, abdomine sub- 
cupreo sat dense subtilissimepunctatis. Long. 5l-6i mm. (Fvl) 

Rockhampton, Queensland ; Victoria ; South Australia ; King 
George'.s Sound. 

137. Xantholinus cuibratus. 

Xantholinus cribratus, Fauvel, Ann. Mus. Genov. XIII. p. 540 
(1878). 



BY A. SIDNFA- OLLIFF, F.E.S. 491 

Forma et statura linearis, niger, minus nitidus, thoi-ace 
elytrisque nigro piceis, ore, antennis, ano pedibusque rufulis ; 
antennis paulo gracilioribus, articulo 1 1 ° apice dilutiore ; capite 
multo crebrius sat fortiter punctato, spatio angusto a disco ad 
sulcorum autennariorum basim angustulo ; sulcis profundioribus ; 
basi rectius truncata ; thorace multo angustiore, circa basin fortius 
angustato, lateribus profunde sinuatis, antice magis oblique 
truncato, dense sat fortiter utrinque punctato, linea laevi angus- 
tiore ; elytris creberrirae subtiliter et aequaiiter, abdomine sub- 
tilius crebriusque punctatis. Long. 7 mm. (Fvl.) 

Victoria. 

Tribe 2. STAPHYLININA. 

Antennfe inserted on the anterior margin of the front, inside 
the base of the mandibles, anl distant from each other. Pro- 
thorax with the lateral margin double ; prothoracic stigmata 
uncovered. 

34. Creophilus. 

Mannerheim, Brachel. p. 20(1830) — Staphylinus {?>\xhg.) Erich- 
son, Gen. Staph, p. 347 (1840); Lacordaire, Gen. Col. II. p. 77. 

Mentum very short. Ligula small, eraarginate in front. Para- 
glossa3 coriaceous, ciliate internally. Maxillary palpi tiliform, 4tli 
joint shorter than the 3rd, sub-acuminate. Labial palpi filiform,. 
3-jointed. Maxillfe with the internal lobe ciliate internally ; the 
external lobe a little longer, narrowed at the base, ciliate above. 
Labrum corneous, transverse, bilobed. Head sub-quadrate, con- 
nected with the prothorax by a distinct neck. Antenniie greatly 
thickened towards the extremity, the 1st joint moderately long ; 
joints 7-10 transverse, gradually thickening. Prothorax trans- 
verse, rounded in front, truncate behind, with the anterior angles 
distinct, deflexed. Elytra obliquely truncate at the extremity. 
Abdomen parallel-sided. Mesosternum transverse, very much 
rounded above. Legs moderately long, rather robust , the inter- 
mediate coxae near together ; the intermediate and posterior tibife 
spined ; the anterior tarsi dilated. 



492 A REVISION OF THE STAPHYLINIDiE OP AUSTRALIA, 

Widely distributed throughout the old world. 

The different species are found in carrion, in decaying vegetable 
matter, or flying in the sunshine. There is, I believe, only one 
species at present known from Australia. 

138. Creophilus erythrocephalus. 

Staphylmios erythrocephalus, Fabricius, Syst. Ent. p. 265 ; 
Erichson, Gen. Staph, p. 351 (ISiO).— Creophilus erythrocejjhalus, 
Nordmann, Symb. Staph, p. 23 (1837). 

Black, depressed ; head red, with a large round black spot in 
the front on the disc ; prothorax shining; elytra tinged with blue. 

Head shining, extremely finely and sparingly punctured, a 
setigerous puncture on the inner orbital margin of each eye. 
Antenntie greatly thickened towards the extremity; joints 4-6 
slightly transverse, 7-10 more decidedly transverse, gradually 
widening, 11th much longer than the preceding, compressed at the 
apex. Prothorax broadly transverse, somewhat narrowed behind, 
the sides sinuate behind the middle ; the posterior angles strongly 
rounded. Scutellum densely punctured, thickly clothed with lon» 
black pubescence. Elytra black, tinged with steel-blue, somewhat 
shining, moderately strongly and closely punctured, covered with 
black pubescence ; the shoulders rather prominent, shinino-, 
impunetate. Abdomen irregularly and rather closely punctured, 
the pubescence distinct. Legs black. Length 14-19 mm. 

Barron River, Gayndah, Brisbane, Queensland ; Mossgiel, 
Darling River, Lithgow, Penrith, Sydney, Kiama, Mulwala, New- 
South Wales ; Melbourne, Victoria ; Adelaide, Ardrossan, 
Fowler Bay, South Australia; King George's Sound, Swan 
River, West Australia ; Lord Howe Island ; Norfolk Island ; also 
recorded from New Caledonia, Tonga, &c. 

An abundant and widely distributed species resembling the 
European Creophilus maxillosus in habits. 

var. LANio, Erichson, Gen. Staph, p. 352 (1840). 



BY A. SIDNEY OLLIPF, F.E.S. 493 

Black ; head red, with a large black spot in front on the disc • 
prothorax shining, the posterior angles slightly rounded ; elytra 
black, not tinged with blue. 

Lithgow, New South Wales ; Melbourne, Victorian Alps ; 
Lottah, Gould's Country, Port Frederick, Hobart, Tasmania. 

The latter form has usually been regarded as distinct 
from Creophilus erythocephalus, but after an examination of a 
large number of specimens from all parts of the country I have 
come to the conclusion that it can only be regarded as a variety. 
The most noticeable differences, namely the colour of the elytra 
and the slightly -rounded hinder angles of the prothorax, are 
characters of little importance, and in this instance of no geo- 
graphical significance, as both the typical form and the variety are 
sometimes found in the same locality. A series of specimens 
which I have received from Lithgow, in the Blue Mountains, 
contains both black and blue forms as well as several exhibitino' 
intermediate stages ; of these one with black elytra (var. lanio) 
has the hinder thoracic angles as strongly rounded as the typical 
form, a fact, I think, in itself sufficient evidence of the specific 
identity of the two forms. 

The New Zealand form C oculatus, has been recorded as Aus- 
tralian by M. Fauvel, but as the locality is vaguely stated to be 
Eastern Australia and no special reference is made to it, I think 
more evidence is necessary before admitting the species into 
our lists. 

35. CoLONiA, gen. nov. 

Mentum broadly transverse, the anterior margin straight. 
Ligula very small. Maxillary palpi moderately long, the basal 
joint very short, the 4th joint acuminate, about as long as the 2nd, 
distinctly longer than the 3rd. Labial palpi like the maxillary in 
form, the last joint much longer than the 2nd. Maxillae with the 
lobes distinct, the internal one shorter than the other and ciliated 
internally ; external lobe narrowed at the base, ciliated above. 



494: A REVISION OF THE STAPHYLINIDiE OF AUSTRALIA, 

Labrum transverse, bilobed, with a membranous border. Man- 
dibles very strong, toothed on the basal half of the inner margin. 
Head transverse, sub-orbicular, narrowed behind into a moderately 
distinct neck. Eyes not very prominent. Antennae short, slightly 
thickened towards the extremity; the basal joint long and sinuous, 
the following joints short and gradually decreasing in length, the 
terminal joint acuminate. Prothorax transverse, rounded behind, 
truncate in front, with the anterior angles distinct and refiexed. 
Elytra obliquely truncate at the extremity. Abdomen sub- 
parallel. Intermediate coxee widely separated. Legs rather short, 
robust ; the tibiae spined ; the tarsi moderately long, the anterior 
pair strongly dilated, the intermediate and posterior pairs filiform, 
with the basal joints rather longer than the three following ones. 

The division which I have here ventured to propose is very 
nearly allied to CreopJiilus and Ocyj)us, but differs from the former 
genus in having the antennae longer and more slender, the head 
very broad, the elytra smooth and almost free from pubescence ; 
from Ocypus it is distinguished by having the intermediate coxae 
widely lemote. 

139. COLONIA REGALIS, Sp. 11. 

Pitchy black, shining, very robust ; prothorax narrower than the 
head, the posterior angles rounded ; elytra dull black ; abdominal 
segments tinged with green. 

Head very broad, obscurely and rather sparingly punctured on 
the disc, more strongly punctured between the antennae, with two 
setigerous punctures on the inner orbital margin of the eyes, and 
another less conspicuous puncture near the base of each antenna ; 
the sides regularly rounded. Antennae moderately robust, black, 
joints 5-11 clothed with fine fuscous pubescence. Prothorax 
slightly narrowed in front, very obscurely and not very closely 
punctured, with a row of punctui'es on the anterior margin near 



BY A. SIDNEY OLLIPF, F.E.S. 495 

each shoulder and another on each side. Scutelluni pointed 
behind, strongly and not very closely punctured. Elytra as broad 
as the prothorax, slightly sinuate before the middle, obscurely and 
sparingly punctured ; the suture somewhat raised. Abdomen rather 
strongly and sparingly asperate-punctate ; 6th segment margined 
with flavous posteriorly. Legs piceous. Length 1 8-20 mm. 

9 The head much narrower ; the 7th abdominal segment entire 
and not emarginate below as in the other sex. 

Lismore, Eichmond River, New South Wales. 

Two specimens of this very distinct form are in the collection of 
Mr. G. Masters. 

36. AcTiNus. 

Fauvel, Ann. Mus. Genov. XII. p. 250 (1878). 

Mentum short, transverse. Ligula entire. Maxillary palpi with 
the 4th joint parallel, a little longer than the 3rd. Labial palpi 
filiform, the last joint a little longer than the 2nd. MaxilljB 
similar to those of Philonthus. Head large, transverse, connected 
with the prothorax by a slender neck. Antennte sub-geniculate, 
short, thickened towards the extremity. Prosternum acute above. 
Metasternum sinuately rounded in front. Legs short ; tibiae 
spined ; anterior tarsi dilated in the $ ; posterior tarsi short, the 
1st joint much longer than the 5th, joints 2-4 gradually shorter, 
sub-triangular. 

Allied to Philonthus, but distinguished by the structure of its 
antennae and tarsi. 

Two species are known, one from Australia, and one from New 
Guinea. 

140. AcTiNus Macleayi, sp. n. 

Elongate, moderately robust, black, shining, sparingly clothed 

with long pubescence ; head and prothorax brassy, highly polished ;. 

elytra iridescent purplish green, the sides and apex brassy ; the 

apical half of the 6th and the 7th abdominal segments, and the 

legs, except the coxae, reddish testaceous. 
32 



K 



/ 



496 A REVISION OF THE STAPHYLINID^ OP AUSTRALIA, 

Head modei'ately strongly and sparingly punctured, with a few- 
larger punctures behind and near the inner margin of the eyes, a 
conspicuous depression in the middle just behind the antennae. 
Antennae somewhat thickened towards the extremity, the first 
four joints shining, the first two reddish testaceous, 4th joint 
nearly quadrate, joints 5-9 transverse, 10th and 11th yellowish 
white, the former transverse, the latter elongate and pyriform. 
Prothorax strongly convex, moderately strongly and not very 
closely punctured, with six rather deeply impressed punctures on the 
disc, three on each side of the middle ; anterior angles conspicuous, 
reflexed ; the sides strongly sinuate ; posterior angles obtuse. 
Scutellum rather strongly and very closely punctured in the middle, 
the sides almost impunctate. Elytra considerably longer than the 
prothorax, widening posteriorly, rather closely and strongly rugose- 
punctate. Abdomen narrowed behind, strongly and not very 
closely asperate- punctate on each side of the middle which is 
smooth. Legs reddish testaceous. Length 19-22 mm, 

(J Differs from the female in having the head much larger and 
nearly quadrate, the anterior tarsi more strongly dilated, and the 
7 th abdominal segment acutely emarginate. 

Johnstone River, Cairns, North Queensland. 

This beautiful species is allied to Actinus imperialis described 
from New Guinea by M. Fauvel. In colour it agrees precisely with 
a specimen of that species from Port Moresby in the Macleay 
Museum, but it is readily distinguished by its much less strongly 
and closely punctured head and prothorax, less strongly rugose- 
punctate elytra, and by having the last two, instead of only the 
terminal, joints of the antennae yellowish white. 

A specimen of this species obtained during October at the 
Johnstone River was sent to me nearly a year ago by Mr. Henry 
Tryon, of the Queensland Museum, and recently Mr. Macleay, to 
whom the species is dedicated, has received a large series from 
Cairns. 



BY A. SIDNEY OLLIFF, F.E.S. 497 



37. Mysolius. 



Fauvel, Ann. Mus. Genov. XII, p. 255 (1878). 

General characters of Philonthus. Maxillary palpi very 
slender, the 4th joint acicular, much longer than the 3rd. Labial 
palpi also slender, the 2nd joint ciliate internally, the 3rd fusi- 
form. Head connected with the pro thorax by a slender neck. 
Eyes not prominent, scarcely lateral. Antennae elongate^ rather 
slender. Prothorax with a lateral line joined before the anterior 
angles. Presternum px'oduced above. Metasternum rounded an- 
teriorly, not produced. Legs slender ; tibiae spined ; anterior 
tarsi dilated in the ^ ; posterior tarsi elongate, the 1st joint 
equal to the 5th, joints 2-4 gradually shorter. 

Allied to Philonthus, but easily separated by the form of the 
palpi and prosternum, and by having the transverse impression on 
the neck, which borders the head, interrupted in the middle. 

A single species is known from New Guinea and an allied form 
from Australia is here added. 



141. Mysolius chalcopterus, sp. n. 

Robust, black, shining ; antennae with the last three joints 
white ; elyti-a bright coppery, sometimes with a tinge of purplish, 
densely clothed with golden pubescence ; abdomen black, tinged 
with purplish ; legs reddish testaceous. 

Head rather broad, sub-quadrate, strongly convex, narrowed 
behind the eyes, with four or live irregular impressions in front, a 
row of moderately strong punctures on the inner orbital margin 
of each eye, and another row extending obliquely from behind the 
eye to the middle of the posterior margin, strongly and rather 
closely punctured about the posterior angles, which are rounded. 
Antennae with the first four joints reddish testaceous, 5-8 fuscous, 
the last three white ; the basal joint elongate, the 2nd short, 3rd 



498 A REVISION OF THE STAPHYLINIDiE OF AUSTRALIA, 

twice as long as the preceding one, the last joint obliquely emar- 
ginate at the extremity. Prothorax convex, rather strongly nar- 
rowed behind, slightly sinuate behind the middle, with a sei'ies of 
four moderately strongly impressed punctures on each side of the 
middle, and an oblique series of four or five punctures at the 
shoulders ; the anterior margin and the sides strongly punctured 
and pilose ; the posterior angles rounded. Scutellum moderately 
strongly and closely punctured. Elytra considerably longer than 
the prothorax, widening posteriorly, rather closely and finely 
rugose-punctate. Abdomen narrowed behind, strongly asperate- 
punctate on each side of the middle, which is smooth. Legs 
reddish testaceous. Length 18-23 mm. 

(J Differs in having the head much larger, the anterior tarsi 
more strongly dilated, and the 6tli and 7th abdominal segments 
more strongly emarginate. 

Mulgrave River, North Queensland. 

Allied to Mysolius aurichalceus from New Guinea, but distin- 
guished by the different punctuation of the head and prothoi'ax, 
and by having the legs uniformly reddish testaceous. The species 
is represented in the Macleay Museum by a series of both sexes. 

38. Cafius. 

Stephens, 111. Brit. Ent. V. p. 245 (l8S2)—Philonthus 
(subg.) Erichson, Gen. Staph, p. 427 (1840); Lacordaire, Gen. 
Col. IL p. 8L 

General characters of Philonthus. Mentum very short. Ligula 
membranous, entire, rounded in front. Paraglossse ciliate in- 
ternally, acuminate in front. Maxillary palpi short, the last three 
joints equal. Labial palpi filiform, the joints gradually increasing 
in length. Mandibles obtusely dentate in the middle. Labrum 
transverse, emarginate in front, the margins membranous and 
ciliate. Head large, connected with the prothorax by a moderate 
neck. Eyes small. Antennte short, pubescent, the 1st joint 



BY A. SIDNEY OLLIFF, P.E.S. 499 

moderately long, the last oval, slightly acuminate. Prothorax 
oblong-ovate. Elytra truncate behind. Abdomen large. Metas- 
ternum strongly produced anteriorly. Legs moderately long ; the 
tibee slightly spined ; anterior tarsi rather strongly dilated in the 
male, pubescent ; posterior tarsi with the 1st joint longer than 
the 5th, joints 2-4 pyriform or cordiform. 

The genus appears to be composed of species which are found 
on the sea-shore, or near the mouths of rivers, where they are 
usually to be found under decaying sea-weed. The group is well 
represented in Australia. 

142. Cafius areolatus. 

Cafius areolatus, Fauvel, Ann. Mus. Genov. X., p. 251 (1877). 

^ In genere statura maxima formaque satis Hadrotem simulante 
maxime distinctus ; niger, nitidus, capite thoraceque vix aeneis, 
abdomine dense griseo-sericeo ; palpis, antennis praeter basin 
tarsisque piceis ; elytrorum margine inflexo latius, apicali anguste 
segmentorumque marginibus supra subtusque ferrugineis ; antennis 
minutis, brevibus, articulo 3° 2° longiore, 4-10 moniliformibus, 
parum incrassatis, 4-5 subquadratis, 6-10 sensijn brevioribus, 
transversis, 11° parvo, obtuso ; capite transversim subquadrato, 
antice parum angustato, subdepresso, antennarum basi utrinque 
sinuato, fronte vix triangulariter impressa, postice punctis 2 parum 
di stantibus notata, circa angulos posticos subtrancatos basique 
punctis grossis, punctis aliis subtilibus in margine oculorum 
antico notato ; thorace capite paulo angustiore, paulo latiore 
quam longiore, ante medium antice arcuatim, postice sinuatim angus- 
tato, subconvexo, angulis posticis obtusis, circa angulos anticos sat 
fortiter dense punctato, punctis 2 vel 3 quasi foveolatis ; scutello 
crebre sat fortiter punctato ; elytris thorace sat latioribus, quarta 
parte longioribus, breviter apice aureo ciliatis, vix nigro piceis, 
summa basi depressa, sat fortiter crebre punctata, disco toto 
punctis grossis parce, marginibus punctis densis multo subtilioribus 
notatis, et in fundo subtilissime reticulato-striolatis ; abdomine 
elytris vix angustiore, segmentis omnibus lateribus sextoque apice 



500 A REVISION OF THE STAPHYLINIDiE OF AUSTRALIA, 

creberrime subtiliter, dorso parcius fortiter punctatis, linea loiigi- 
tudinali sublaeviore ; tarsis anticis fortiter dilatatis ; segmentis 3-6 
siibtus sensim latius emarginatis ; 5^ apice, 6° disco toto impressis ; 
7° profunde lateque triangulariter inciso, incisura basi marginato- 
impressa. Long. 13^ ram. {Fvl). 

Bondi, Manly (ou the sea-shore under decaying sea-weed), 
Sydney, Murrimbula Point, New South Wales ; Princetown, 
Victoria ; Port Frederick, Tasmania. 

A common species. 

143. Cafius australis. 

Ocyims australis, Redt., Reise Novara, Zool. II p. 28 (1867) — 
Cafixis australis, Fauvel, Ann. Mus. Genov. X, p. 251 (1877). 

Magnitudine et facie Ocypi fuscati ; rufo-testaceus, thoracis 
disco nigricante, capite, scutello, pectore basique segmentorum 
abdominalium nigris ; capite quadrangulari, non longiore quam 
latiore, nitido, polito, angulis posticis rotundatis tantum punctatis, 
punctis aliquot majoribus post oculos ; antennis capite paulo lon- 
gioribus, ab articulo 4° moniliformibus, 11° ovato-globoso, nigris 
basi rufo-testaceis ; ore terrugineo, palporum maxillarium articulis 
2 ultimis longitudine aequalibus ; thorace non longiore quam 
latiore, vix capite latiore, postice rotundato, antice truncato, 
angulis maxima obtusis, laevissimo, angulis posticis punctis aliquot 
notatis ; scutello dense punctato ; elytris non longioribus quam 
latioribus, thorace paulo latioribus, disco rufo-testaceo, punctis 
sparsis majoribus, punctis in margine inflexo flavo densis notatis ; 
abdomine dense supra, parce subtus punctato, sat dense longeque 
griseo-pubescente ; segmento 7° subtus profunde triangulariter 
inciso; tarsis anticis fortiter dilatatis. Long. 11^; larg. 3 J mm. 
{lit. tr. Fvl.) 

Sydney, New South Wales. 

M. Fauvel suggests that this description, which has not yet 
been identified, may have been drawn up from an immature male 
Cafius allied to C. areolatus. 



by a. sidney ollifp, p.e.s. 501 

144. Cafius sabulosus, 

Cafius sahulosus, Fauvel, Ann. Mus. Genov. X. p. 253 (1877). 

Prope crihratum collocandus, sed dimidio minor, facie Philonlh. 
cephcdotes, et omnino distinctus ; nigro-piceus, capite thoraceque 
plus minusve cupreis, nitidis ; elytris abdomineque opacis, illis 
parce pilosis, apice albido ciliatis, hoc dense cinereo-sericeo ; anten- 
narum articulis 4-11, coxis anticis subtus, tibiis plus minusve, 
tarsis, elytrorumque sutura post scutellum et apice vix ferrugineis ; 
his margine inflexo ferrugineo-testaceo ; thorace saepius piceo ; 
antennis brevibus, articulis 4-10 sensim magis transversis ; capite 
convexo, ^ quadrato, thorace latiore, ^ hoc paulo angustiore, lon- 
giore, parcius omnium subtil issime punctulato, punctis antice 
prope oculos verticeque fere toto majoribus parce notato, duobus 
medio fronte summa, hac in J" breviter obsolete sulcata ; thorace 
subcylindrico, in ^ paulo, in ^ tertia parte longiore quam latiore, 
sub-parallelo, lateribus antice pai"um sinuatis, punctis aliquot 
prope angulos anticos subrectos notato, angulis posticis fere 
rotundatis ; scutello alutaceo, subtilius punctulato ; elytris thorace 
sat latioribus, non longioribus, alutaceis, dense fortiter rugose, 
abdomine creberrime subtiliter punctatis ; ^ segmento 6° subtus 
apice latius sat profunde, 7° profunde triangulariter incisis. 
Long. 6^-8 mm. (Fvl.) 

Cape York, Port Denison, Mackay, Gayndah, Queensland ; 
Manly (on the sea-shore under sea-weed), Botany, Sydney, Port 
Hacking, New South Wales. 

An abundant species. 

145. Cafius laetabilis, sp. n, 

Pitchy black, shining ; head and prothorax tinged with bronze 
green, the latter with a series of four punctures on each side ; 
elytra inclining to fulvous, shining. 

Head somewhat convex, impressed in front, with two moderately 
large punctures between the eyes one on each side of the middle. 



502 A REVISION OF THE STAPHYLINID^E OF AUSTRALIA, 

sparingly and rather strongly punctured near the posterior angles, 
which are rounded. Antennte fuscous, rather short, joints 4-10 
transverse. Prothorax sub-parallel, very slightly sinuate in front, 
with a series ot four moderately strong punctures on each side of 
the middle, a few punctures near the anterior angles, one or two 
near the sides, and two or three less conspicuous ones on the 
posterior margin. Scutellum rather finely and closely punctured. 
Elytra a little longer than the prothorax, moderately strongly and 
not very closely punctured, the jjunctures less distinct at the 
apex. Abdomen pitchy, finely pubescent, and sparingly punctured. 
Legs with the femora pitchy, the tibiae and tarsi reddish testaceous. 
Length 8 mm. 

2 Differs from the male in having the head and prothorax 
narrower, and the former much less distinctly impressed in front. 

Port Lincoln, South Australia ; Hobart, Tasmania. 

Allied to Cqfius sabulosus, but easily distinguished by the 
punctuation of the prothorax and the uniform colour of the elytra. 
The prothorax is sparingly clothed with pubescence at the sides, 
and the elytra are much less closely punctured. 

146. Cafius amblyterus, sp. n. 

Black, shining ; the head and prothorax tinged with bronze 
green, the former narrow, the latter with five foveolate punctures 
on each side ; elytra feiTuginous, sometimes tinged with purplish. 

Head narrowed in front, very strongly and irregularly punctured 
behind the eyes, slightly impressed in front, with two distinct 
punctures between the eyes ; the posterior angles strongly rounded. 
Antennae moderately long, piceous, the first three joints elongate, 
shining, 4th joint a little longer than broad, 5th to 10th gradually 
decreasing in length. Prothorax moderately convex, slightly 
narrowed anteriorly, with a longitudinal series of four or five 
punctures on each side of the middle, and one or two less distinct 
ones nearer the sides; anterior angles deflexed, rounded ; posterior 



BY A. SIDNEY OLLIPF, F.E.S. 503 

angles rounded. Scutellum finely and densely punctured. 
Elytra widening posteriorly, about as long as the prothorax, 
finely and rather closely rugulose-punctate, thickly clothed with 
grey pubescence. Abdomen moderately broad, rather closely 
asperate-punctate, and densely clothed with long pubescence. 
Legs piceous. Length, 11-13 mm. 

Launceston, Hobart, Tasmania. 

Differs from Cafius laeits, to which it is nearly allied, in having 
the prothorax decidedly narrower in front, the punctures of the 
dorsal series placed at regular intervals, and the punctuation 
near the posterior angles much more irregular. The three 
specimens I have examined appear to be females as they have the 
terminal segment of the abdomen entire. 

147. Cafius laeus, sp. n. 

Black, shining ; the head and prothorax tinged with bronze 
green, the latter with five foveolate punctures on each side ; elytra 
dark ferruginous. 

Head sub-quadrate, very strongly and sparingly punctured 
behind the eyes, the disc smooth, three conspicuous punctures in 
front ; the posterior angles strongly rounded. Antennse moderately 
long, dark piceous ; the first three joints elongate, the 2nd and 3rd 
with the apex testaceous, 4tli a little longer than broad, 5th to 10th 
gradually decreasing in length, 11th acuminate. Prothorax 
moderately convex, slightly narrowed behind, a little narrower 
than the head, with a longitudinal series of five punctures on each 
side of the middle, of which the second and third punctures 
appi'oach one another, and one or two less distinct punctures near 
the shoulders ; anterior angles strongly deflexed ; posterior angles 
obtuse. Scutellum finely and densely punctured. Elytra sub- 
quadrate, somewhat convex, about as long as the prothorax, finely 
and moderately closely rugulose-punctate, thickly clothed with 
cinereous pubescence. Abdomen broad, closely punctured and 
densely pubescent; in the $ the terminal segment acutely 
emarginate beneath. Legs piceous. Length 1 1 mm. 



504 A REVISION OF THE STAPHYLINIDiE OP AUSTRALIA, 

Sydney, New South Wales ; Adelaide, South Australia ; Laun- 
ceston, Tasmania. 

A single male example. 

148. Cafius littoralis. 

Gafius littoralis, Fauvel, Ann. Mus. Genov. X. p. 254 (1877). 

A praecedentibus \sahulosus\ thorace seriato elytrorumque mar- 
ginibus non dilutis, a sequentibus elytris abdomineque nitidulis, 
niulto parcius fortiusque punctatis distinctus ; niger, capite thorace- 
que nitidis, femoribus plus minusve rufis ; antennis longioribus, 
sat robustis, articulis omnibus longioribus quam latioribus, 11° 
oblongo-acuminato ; capite quadrato, paulo longiore quam latiore, 
utrinque inter et post oculos basique punctis grossis subfossulatis 
notato, angulis posticis subrotundatis vix squamose punctulatis ; 
fronte antice discoque medio laevibus ; thorace antice capitis fere 
latitudine, tertia parte longiore quam latiore, subtrapezoidali, 
circa basin sat fortiter angustato, sinuato, angulis posticis obtusis ^ 
seriebus duabus dorsalibus grosse 12 punctato-impressis, punctis 2 
extus in tertia parte antica sitis, serie altera confusa prope latera 
impressa, punctisque prope angulum anticum subtilioribus ; elytris 
thorace plus quam tertia parte latioribus, paulo longioribus, dense 
fortius rugulose, abdomine subtilius sat dense punctatis, parcius 
fusco-puberulis ; $ segmento 5° subtus vix, 6° latius parum pro- 
funde, 7° late triangulariter incisis, incisura basi impresso-mar- 
ginata. Long. 7i-8J mm. (FvZ.) 

Wide Bay, Queensland ; Manly (on the sea-shore under sea- 
weed), Sydney, New South Wales ; Melbourne, Yictoria ; Laun- 
ceston, Hobart, Tasmania ; King George's Sound. 

149. Cafius pacificus. 

Fhilonthus parAficus, Erichson, Gen. Staph, p. 501 (1840) — 
Cafius pacificus, Fauvel, Ann. Mus. Genov. X. p. 254 (1877). 

Elongatus, niger, abdomine subtus, elytrorum margine inflexo 
et summo apicali pedibusque ferrugineis, capite oblongo-sub- 



BY A. SIDNEY OLLIFF, P.E.S. SOS' 

quadrate, thorace seriebus dorsalibus 11-punctatis, lateribus parce 
punctatis. 

Statura elongata subdepressa omnino Ph. fucicolae. Antennae 
capite sesqui longiores, apicem versus haud incrassatae, articulo 
tertio secundo tenuiore et sesqui longiore, 4-10 sensim brevioribus, 
penultimo ci'assitie vix longiore, ultimo ovato, apice truncatulo et 
infei'ne acuminato, fuscae, articulis tribus primis nigris. Palpi 
picei, articulo ultimo rufo. Mandibvilae piceae. Caput thorace 
paulo latius, oblongo-subquadratum, parvim convexum, utrinque 
crebrius vage fortiter profundeque punctatum, spatio medio longi- 
tudinali inaequali laevi, nigrum, nitidum. Thorax coleopteris plus 
dimidio angustior, latitudine sesqui longior basin versus leviter 
angustatus, basi et lateribus ante medium leviter rotundatis, his 
pone medium subsinuatis, apice truncatus, angulis anterioribus 
rotundatis, posterioribus obtvisis, leviter convexus, sei^iebus dor- 
salibus sat regulai'ibus, lineae leviter impressae impositis, circiter 
11-punctatis, lateribus punctis praeter marginalia utrinque fere 
10, partim subseiiatis, impressus, niger, nitidus, margine summo 
apicali et laterali inflexo sanguineo. Scutellum crebre punctatum, 
nigrum, opacum, subtiliter nigi'o-pubescens. Elytra thorace 
sesqui longiora, confertissime subtilius punctata, subrugulosa, 
nigra, opaca, limbo laterali inflexo et margine summo apicali fer- 
rugineis, subtiliter nigro-pubescentia, apice cinereo-ciliata. 
Aljdomen crebrius subtiliter punctatum, subnitidum, supra 
nigrum, segmentis 4 primis macula obsoleta, quinto apice, sexto 
toto subferrugineis, subtus totum ferrugineum, tenuiter sub- 
tilitei'que supra nigro-, subtus ferrugineo-pubescens. Pectus nigrum. 
Pedes ferruginei, coxis intermediis leviter distantibus, tibiis 
omnibus subtiliter spinulosis. Long. 11| mm. {Er.) 

Tasmania. 

150. Cafius seriatus. 

Cafius seriatus, Fauvel, Ann. Mus. Genov. X. p. 255 (1877). 
Praecedenti \littoralis\ facie puncturaque corporis antici propin- 
quus, sed caeteris omnino alius : nigro piceus, minus nitidus. 



506 A REVISION OF THE STAPHYLINID^ OF AUSTRALIA, 

antennis bi'evioribus, articulis minus elongatis, 4-1 1 ferrugineis ; 
capite panic densius minusque fortiter punctate, angulis posticis 
minus rotundatis ; thorace obscure rufo-maculato, latiore 
brevioreque, angulis anticis magis rotundatis, seriebus dorsalibus 
circiter 14-punctatis, punctis anticis extus quatuor lateralibusque 
minus grossis, magis Qumerosis ; scutello elytrisque omnium 
subtilissime creberiime, abdomine adhuc subtilius vix rugosule 
punctulatis, opacis, creberrime subtiliter fuseo sericeis, segmentis 
.2-4 medio utrinque ferrugineo maculatis ; pedibus rufo-piceis. 
Long. 8 mm. {Fvl.) 

Victoria ; Swan Rivei-, West Australia. 



151. Cafius catenatus. 

Cajius catenatus, Fauvel, Ann. Mus. Genov. X. p. 256 (1877). 

C. seriato vicinus, sed totus niger, antennis gracilioribus et 
brevioribus, capite minus nitido, minus quadrato, paulo longiore 
quam latiore, sat angustiore, angulis posticis rectioribus, thorace 
angustiore, angulis anticis non rotundatis, subrectis, posticis recte 
indicatis, seriebus dorsalibus circiter 18-punctatis, lateribus totis 
confuse fortiter punctatis, subopacis, non impresso seriatis ; elytris 
abdomineque vix minus subtiliter punctulatis sericeisque. Long. 
8 mm. {Fvl) 

Sydney, New South Wales. 



152. Cafius velutinus. 

Cafius velutinus, Fauvel, Ann. Mus. Genov. X. p. 256 (1877). 

C. sericeo paulo major, praecedenti vicinus, sed triplo minor, 
angustior, magis depressus, capite quadrato, utrinque posticeque 
densius mu.ltoque subtilius punctato ; thorace piceo, vel rufo 
obscure maculate, angulis anticis rotundatis, seriebus dorsalibus 
lateribusque subtiliter densius punctatis, punctis lateralibus fere 
omnino saepius cum seriebus conf usis, praecipue basi apiceque ; 



BY A. SIDNEY OLLIFF, F.E.S. 507 

elytris abdomineque piceis, omnino cinereo-sericeis, opacis, 
obsolete creberrimeque punctatis, potius alutaceis, pedibus rufis, 
tibiis piceis; $ segmento 6° subtus apice obsolete em arginato, 7° 
late profundeque tviangulariter inciso, incisura basi impresso- 
marginata. Long. 6 mm, (Fvl.) 

Middle Harbour, Manly (under sea-weed in both localities), 
Sydney, New South Wales ; Victoria ; Swan River, West 
Australia. 

153. Cafius densiventris. 

Cafius deiisiventris, Fauvel, Ann. Mus. Genov. X, p. 258 (1877). 

C. nautico maxime vicinus, niger, elytris abdomineque vix nigro- 
piceis, opacis ; pedibus i-ufis ; capite thoraceque fere densius sub- 
tiliusque, elytris densius minusque fortiter, abdomine praesertim 
quadruple crebrivis subtiliusque, segmento 7° tantum nitidulo 
parce, punctatis ; abdomine multo densius subtiliusque fusco- 
pubescente, segmentis subtus utrinque vix piceo-marginatis. 
Long. 81-9 mm. (Fvl) 

Port Mackay, Queensland ; also found in Aru. 

154. Cafius sericeus. 

Remus sericeus, Holme, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. II. p. 64 (1837) 
— Philonthus sericeus, Erichson, Gen. Staph, p. 509 (1840) — Cafius 
sericeus, Fauvel, Ann. Mus. Genov. XIII. p. 542 (1878). 

Black, somewhat opaque ; the elyti'a and abdomen clothed with 
golden yellow pubescence. 

Head rather closely and deeply punctured. Antennae pitchy red. 
Prothorax closely and strongly punctured on each side, with a 
raised median line. Elytra one half longer than prothorax closely 
and finely punctured. Abdomen rather closely punctured. Legs 
pale pitchy. Length, 3|-4 mm. 

Adelaide, South Australia ; Swan River, West Australia ] also 
in Europe, Madeii'a, &c. 

A variable species. 



508 A REVISION OF THE STAPHYLINIDiE OP AUSTRALIA, 



155. Cafius occidentalis. 

Cafius occidentalis, Blackburn, Trans. Royal Soc. S. Australia, 
1887, p. 13. 

Niger ; elytris abdomineque plus minusve nigro-piceis, his apice 
dilutioribus ; ore antennis pedibusque rufis vel piceo-i'ufis • 
an tennis capiti prothoracique conjunctis longitudine subaequalibus 
sat gracilibus ; capite antice medio longitudinaliter sulcato, 
utrinque crasse seriatim punctulato ; prothorace sat elongato, 
disco subtilius biseriatim punctulato, spatio intermedio lato 
<;onvexo, lateribus punctis sat crebris subseriatim instructis ; 
elytris creberrime subtilissime subrugulose punctulatis, prothorace 
sat longioribus, parce sericeo-pubescenti. Long. 4^-5^ mm. [Blk ) 

West Australia. 

Mr. Blackburn states that this species closely resembles Cafiiis 
sericeus in form and colour, but diflfers in being less opaque, in 
having the punctuation of the elytra less smooth, and in having 
the dorsal series of punctures on the prothorax widely separated 
and composed of fifteen punctures. 



39. Hesperus. 

Fauvel, Fn. Gall.-Rhki., III. p. 426. 

General characters of Philontlius. Ligula entire. Maxillary 
palpi very elongate, the last joint slender, aciculate. Metasternum 
triangularly produced in front. The posterior tarsi with the 1st 
and 5th joints equal, joints 2-4 oblong. 

156. Hesperus haemorrhoidalis. 

Philonthus haemorrhoidalis, Macleay, Trans. Ent. Soc. N.S.W., 
II. p. 140 (1871). — Hesperus mirahilis, Fauvel, Ann. Mus. Genov. 
X p. 260 (1877). 



BY A. SIDNEY OLLIPF, P.E.S. 509 

^ H. rufipenni paulo major ; nitidissimus, parce longe nigro 
pilosus, capite, thorace elytrisque laete cupreis, abdomine nigro, 
vix irideo ; ore, antennis articulis 3 primis, thoracis marginibus 
subtus, elytris humeris margineque laterali, abdominis segmento 
6° apice 7° que toto, pedibusque cum coxis anticis rufis ; antennis 
sat incrassatis, ]iilosis, caeterum nigris, articulis 3 vel 4 ultimis 
flavis ; capite sat fortiter transverso, subquadratim orbiculari, 
angulis posticis rotundatis, fronte antice subimpressa, bi'eviter 
longitudinaliter sulcata, punctis binis utrinque ad impressionem, 
alio extus majore in margine oculi, 3 vel 4 aliisprope oculiangulum 
posticum interiorem, caeterum post oculos subtilius parum dense 
punctato ; thorace convexo, subquadrato, tertia fere parte longiore 
quam latiore, capitis latitudine, circa basin vix angustato, basi 
fortiter rotundato, antice truncate, angulis anticis subrectis, seriebus 
dorsalibus duabus 10 vel 12 fortiter punctatis, punctis aliis saepius 
minoribus utrinque dispersis ; scutello creberrime subtilissimeque 
punctulato, virescente ; elytris fere transversim quadratis, thorace 
tertia parte latioribus, parum brevioriljus, subconvexis, parce sat 
fortiter subsquamose, abdomine vix fortius, basi parce, apice 
crebrius, subtus dense punctatis ; segmento 6° subtus apice sinuato, 
7° subtriangulariter sat late profundeque inciso ; tarsis anticis 
fortiter dilatatis. Long. 11^ mm. (FvL) 

9 latet. (Fvl.) 

Barron River, Pine Mountains, Gayndah, Wide Bay, Brisbane, 
Moreton Bay, Queensland ; Clarence River, Upper Hunter, 
lllawarra, New South Wales. 

I think there is no doubt that the above synonymy is correct. 
M. Fauvel's very accurate description, which I have quoted in full, 
agrees in every detail with the type of Hesperus haemorrJioidalis 
in the collection of the Australian Museum. 

157. Hesperus pacipicus, sp. n. 

Black, shining, very sparingly clothed with long black pubes- 
cence ; head, prothorax, and elytra bronze-green ', antennae with 
the last joint testaceous ; abdomen with the apex of the 6th and 
the whole of the 7th joint reddish testaceous; legs pitchy. 



510 A REVISION OF THE STAPHYLINIDiE OF AUSTRALIA, 

Head rather strongly transverse, somewhat impressed in front, 
longitudinally sulcate in the middle, with two rather strongly 
impressed punctures on each side of the middle, and two on the 
inner orbital margin of the eye ; strongly and rather closely 
punctured behind the eyes, and near the posterior angles. An- 
tennae somewhat thickened towards the extremity, the first three 
joints scarcely paler than the rest, joints 4-10 pilose. Prothorax 
rather convex, narrowed towards the base, truncate in front, 
rounded behind, with a dorsal series of ten or eleven strongly im- 
pressed punctures on each side of the middle, between these dorsal 
series and the margins strongly and sparingly punctured, an irre- 
gular row of punctures at the anterior angles. Scutellum rather 
finely and densely punctured. Elytra inclining to brassy green, 
finely pubescent, slightly convex, a little shorter than the pro- 
thorax, narrowed in front, rather strongly and not very closely 
punctured, the punctui-es more dense and less strong at the base, 
very irregularly punctui'ed at the sides ; all the angles rounded. 
Abdomen strongly and moderately closely asperate-punctate, 
rather thickly clothed with long black pubescence. Legs pitchy. 
Length 10 mm. 

Lord Howe Island. 

This species may be distinguished from Hesperus haemorrhoidalis, 
to which it is nearly allied, by the colour of the antennae, which 
have only the terminal joints testaceous, and by the punctuation 
of the prothorax ; the elyti-a ai-e without a trace of red at the 
sides, and the legs are much darker. 

It is probable that this form is a modification of H. haemorrhoi- 
dalis, the result of long isolation. Like the typical form found 
on the mainland it is provided with ample wings. 

158. Hesperus australis. 

Philonthus australis, Macleay, Trans. Ent. Soc. N.S.W. 11. p.. 
139 (1871) — Hesperus australis, Fauvel, Ann. Mus. Genov. X. 
p. 260 (1877). 



BY A. SIDNEY OLLIFF, F.E.S. 511 

Black, shining, sparingly pubescent ; antennae with the last 
three joints testaceous ; elytra dark reddish testaceous ; abdomen 
with the apex of the 6th and the whole of the 7th joint reddish 
testaceous ] tibise and tarsi reddish testaceous. 

Head rather strongly transverse, somewhat impressed in front,, 
with two rather strongly impressed punctures on each side of the 
middle, strongly and rather closely punctured behind the eyes and 
near the posterior angles. Antenni« thickened towards the 
extremity ; joints 4-7 elongate, gradually decreasing in length. 
Prothorax rather convex, narrowed towards the base, truncate in 
front, rounded behind, with a dorsal series of ten or eleven very 
strongly impressed punctures on each side of the middle, the space 
between these dorsal series and the margins very strongly and 
sparingly punctured . Scutellum rather finely and densely punc- 
tured. Elytra slightly convex, finely pubescent, shorter than 
the prothorax, narrowed in front, moderately strongly and closely 
punctured ; anterior and posterior angles rounded. Abdomen 
tinged with violaceous, moderately strongly and rather closely 
punctured. Legs with the femora pitchy ; the tibia; and tarsi 
reddish testaceous. Leng-th lO-ll^ mm. 

Gayndah, Queensland ; Parramatta, Sydney, New South Wales. 
The black head and prothorax, and red elytra at once dis- 
tinguish this species from its allies. 

159. Hesperus semirufus. 

Hesperus semirufiis, Fauvel, Ann. Mus. Genov. XIII. p. 543 
(1878). 

H. australi latior, laete rufus, nitidus, longius parce nigro 

pilosus, femoribus piceis, tibiis fere totis albidis, antennis articulis 

4-10 nigricantibus, abdomine praeter segmenti 6 J apicem 7"™ que 

testacea toto nigro-irideo ; antennis brevibus, validis, articulis 6-10 

brevissimis, maxime transversis, 11° lato, oblique truncate; capita 

transversim orbiculato, fronte media foveolata, intero culos trans- 

versim 4-punctata, post oculos parce fortiter, basi summa utrinque 
33 



512 A REVISION OF THE STAPHYLINID^ OP AUSTRALIA, 

subtiliter punctate, caeterum laevi ; thorace late, brevi, convexo, 
capite latiore, quarta ])arte longiore quam latiore, disco utrinque 
parce fortius, lateribus vage subtilius, longe ante basin late laevem 
fossulato ; scutello elytrisque ut in mirabili, abdomine praesertim 
basi densius fortiusque punctatis. Long. 12 mm. (Fvl.) 

^ latet. 

Cairns, Port Denison, Queensland. 

A very distinct species. 

160. Hesperus Pulleinei. 

Hesperus Pulleinei, Blackburn, Trans. Royal Soc. S. Australia, 
1887, p. 7. 

Niger, nitidus, parce nigro-pubescens, clypeo, palpis, antennis et 
abdominis segmentis ultimis 2 laete testaceis (his aureo-pubescen- 
tibus), elytris violaceo-caeruleis ; capite fortiter transversim 
quadrate, crasse punctate, disco laevi ; protherace transverso, 
antice truncate, crasse punctate, disco longitudinaliter laevi ; 
elytris protherace vix lengieribus, subtilius squamese nee crebre 
punctatis ; abdomine subtilius nee crebre punctate. Long. 12mm. 
(Blk.) 

Burnside, Adelaide, South Australia ; m stercore hovis. 



MISCELLANEA ENTOMOLOGICA, No. IV. 

"THE HEL^IDES." 

By William Macleay, F.L.S., &:c. 

In this Paper I undertake the revision of a group of the large 
Family of Tenebrionidfe, remarkable for its eccentricity of form. 
Under the name of " Hela^ides, " Lacordaire in his " Genei-a 
Coleopt. Vol. V." includes some genera of Heteromerous beetles, 
all more or less resembling in general characters the typical genus 
Helceus, and all exclusively of Australian parentage. 

Until the year 1842, but little was known of these insects, a 
very few species only having been described by Olivier, Kirby, 
and Boisduval, but iu that year a monograph of the group was 
published by the Marquis de Breme, entitled " Essai INIonogr. et 
Iconogr. de la Tribu des Cossyphides." In this monograph the 
number of species noticed or described, amounted to 37, spread 
over four genera. In the year 18 4G (1) the Rev. F. W. Hope 
published descriptions of eight additional species. Since then the 
chief additions to the group have been made by Mr. Pascoe, and 
the number of his contiibutions may be inferred from the fact 
that the number of species recorded in Masters' Catalogue of 
Australian Coleoptera, published last year in the Proceedings of the 
Linnean Society of New South Wales, had risen to 97. 

The characters of the Heheides, in addition to those common to 
all the Tenebrionidaj, are given below. 

(1) Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. Vol. V. p. 52. 



514 MISCELLANEA ENTOMOLOGICA, NO. IV. 

Sub-family HEL/EIDES. 

Labial palj)! strongly separated at the base. Inner lobe of the 
maxillje armed or not with a corneous hook. The last article of 
the maxillary palpi strongly securiform. Mandibles bifid at the 
apex. Head short, deeply sunk in the thorax — the clypeus square, 
rarely narrowed in front, and separated from the forehead by an 
arched groove or suture. Antennae slender, the third joint very 
elongate, the rest obconic, the last three, four or five joints 
moniliform, perfoliate, forming an indistinct mass. Prothorax 
emarginate in front, and foliaceous on the sides ; elytra for the 
most part similarly margined. Scutellum large, curvilinearly 
triangular. Anterior haunches cylindrical and transversal, anterior 
tibiae almost always terminated by a single spur, the intermediate 
and posterior by two short and in general strong spurs ; the tarsi 
ciliated or pubescent beneath. Intercoxal projection variable. 
Metasternum of varying length, the episterna narrow, parallel^ the 
epimera distinct. — -The mesothoracic epimera large, closing on a 
large extension of the intermediate cotyloid cavities. 

Lacordaire, from whom the foregoing description is translated, 
divides the Helieides into those with foliaceous margins to the 
thorax and elytra (Heleides vrais), and those without these dilated 
margins {Nyctozdilicles). The first of these sub-divisions only forms 
the subject of my present paper. His other sub-division (the 
Nyctozoilides) consists of several genera, mostly Australian, but 
departing so largely from the true Helfeus form and habit, that I 
cannot regard them as properly entering into the same group. 

The Helgeides jjroper then or true Helaeides, are insects of lai'ge 
size, of flat, rotund form, with broad foliate mai-gins to the elytra 
and thorax ; the genei^a into which they are divided however, 
showing considerable departures from all these characters, which 
reach their extreme development in the typical genus Helceus. 
They naturally form two easily recognizable sections. 1st., Those 
with wings, and consequently with an elongate metasternum, 
containing the genera Encara and Pterohelceus. 2nd., Those without 
wings, and with a short metasternum, the genera Helceus, Syvipetes, 



BY WILLIAM MACLEAY, F.L.S., &C. 515 

and Saragus. The distinctive characters of these genera and their 
peculiarities of habit will be found under the descriptions attached 
to each, as far as they are known, but that unfortunately is very 
little. The larvteseemto be quite unknown, though no doubt they are 
chiefly, if not altogether, feeders on decaying wood, but the perfect 
insects are found some on the ground under logs and stones, others 
under the bark of living trees, and, as a rule, it may be said, that 
those found on or near the ground are of the apterous genera, 
while the winged genera are inhabitants of trees. 

I give descriptions of all the species which have not been pre- 
viously printed in the Proceedings of this Society. 

Genus Encara, Gemminger. 

Col. Heft. VI. 1870. Syn. Encephalus^ Breme. Mon. Cossyph. 
1, p. 23. 

Head entirely sunk in the emargination of the thorax, small, 
square. Eyes very large, almost contiguous above, widely separated 
beneath. Antennae shorter than the thorax, the three last joints 
depressed, forming a small indistinct mass. Thorax strongly 
transversal, ])arabolically arched on the sides, rather narrowly and 
profoundly emarginate in front, imperfectly contiguous to the 
elytra and cut almost squarely at the base, with a broad but 
slightly projecting median lobe ; the foliaceous margin very broad 
and flat. The elytra broadly and regularly ovate, rounded behind 
and convex on the disk with the foliate margin broad and flat. 
Legs long and slender ; tibiae sniooth, their spurs almost invisible. 
Metasternum elongate. Mesosternum horizontal, forked. Pros- 
ternal projection compressed, obtusely carinated, penetrating into 
the emargination of the mesosternum. Body orbiculai'ly-ovate, 
winged. 

The insects falling into this genus were placed by De Breme in 
the genus Encephahts, under the impression (evidently a mistake), 
that Kirby had applied that name to the species now named 
Encara Westwoodii, Boisd. Gemminger substituted the jiresent 
name as Encejjlialus is the name given by West wood to a genus of 
the Staphylinidee. 



516 MISCELLANEA ENTOMOLOGICA, NO. IV. 

1. Encara Westwoodii, Boisd. 

Syn. Cilihe Westumodii, Boisd. Voy. Astrol. II. 1835, p. 262; 
Encephalus gibbosus, De Breme, Mon. Cossyph. 1, 1842, p. 23, 
pi. V. fig. 5. 

Tleddish bvown, smooth, nitid, broadly ovate. Head broad, 

sub-quadrate, sliglitly punctate, the angles of the epicranium and 

the lateral borders of the clypeus a little elevated, forehead 

depressed between the eyes, which are veiy close togethei*. 

Thorax transverse, convex, a little sinuated behind, smooth 

and somewhat irregularly gibbous on the disk, which is 

nearly black, margins broad and flat, with the anterior angles a 

little rounded and not reaching the front of the head, the ])osterior 

angles salient and acute. Elytra of oval form and a little elongate at 

the apex, strongly and bluntly raised, forming a boss towards the 

apex, and two other small oblique bosses towards the shoulders ; 

the margins broad and of a redder brown, feebly folded above on 

the border. On each elytron are two raised, nitid, longitudinal 

ribs, disappearing and approaching posteriorly ; and interrupted 

by slight gibbosities ; the interstices have numerous series of 

impressed punctures rather thickly placed ; the suture is elevated 

into a carina. The body beneath and legs nitid brown. 

Long. 11 lines, lat. 8^ lines. 

I cannot give the exact habitat of this species. Boisduval the 
oiiginal describer of it, merely says " New Holland," and De 
Breme adds to that only " Collection of M. Hope." I have never 
seen the insect. I am pretty contident that it is not an inhabitant 
of New South Wales or Queensland. 

2. Encara submaculatum, De Breme. 

Eyicephalus snbinaculatus, De Breme, Mon. Cossyph. 1, p. 25. 
pi. VII, tig. 4. 

Of a nitid testaceous brown. Head as in E. Westwoodi, the 
labrum less advanced. Thorax transverse, slightly convex, nitid, 



BY WILLIAM MACLEAY, P.L.S., «fec. 517 

finely punctate, rounded on the sides, scarcely sinuate at the Vjase ; 
the margins broad, flat, and of a lighter reddish yellow, the 
anterior angles as in E. Westvjoodi, the posterior less prominent. 
Elytra rounded laterally, rather pointed at the apex, an oblique 
boss on each side near the shoulders ; each elytron has a small 
elevation or gibbosity about the middle of the length on the groove 
separating the disk and margin, and four black spots, two near the 
base, another large one about the middle near the suture, and a 
fourth behind and near the margin, the suture elevated. The disk 
of the elytra is strongly punctate, the margins are broad, flat, 
narrowing to the apex, impunctate, a little folded above on the 
border and of the same colour as the margin of the thorax. The 
undersuiface of the body, the legs and the antennae of a nitid 
brown. 

Long. 6i lines, lat. 5 lines. 

Mab. — New South Wales. 

In the Atlas to Lacordaire's Gen. Col. t. 55, fig. 3, a figure of 
what is called Eucephalus suhmaculatus is given; it appears to me,, 
however, to be undoubtedly intended to represent Eacara 
Lacordairei, a species described further on. The mistake is readily 
accounted for. Encara suhinaculatum has long passed in most 
collections in Australia and elsewhere as Encara Westwoodii, and 
the name Westwoodii being thus appropriated, the only other 
species known in N. S. Wales was generally accepted as E. 
submaculatum. This insect is by no means common, though it 
has a wide raiage, being found over most parts of New South 
Wales ; it is generally found on trees, or posts on warm sunny days. 
When first taken it is, as in the rest of the genus, covered with 
a whitish secretion, filamentous or powdery, but apparently 
never to the degree seen in a species from Queensland, E. floccosum, 
Pascoe, mentioned hereafter. 

3. Encara Bremei, Hope. 

IlelcBus Bremei, Hope, Trans. Ent. Soc. London, 1846, Yol. V, 
p. 54. pi. VI. tig. 5. 



518 MISCELLANEA ENTOMOLOGICA, NO. IV. 

Orbicular, testaceous brown, the antennae yellow. Thorax 
convex in the middle and dyed with a blacker colour. Elytra 
testaceous, subluteous, smooth, under a lens very densely punctu- 
late. Body beneath of the same colour, legs pitchy red. 

Long. 6^ lines, lat. 4f lines. 

Hah. — Swan River, W. Australia. 

This is all the description given by the Rev. F. W. Hope of 
this insect, and I have never seen it myself, but I have little doubt 
that it has been rightly placed in this genus, even though its 
author seems to regard it as having affinity to the genus Cilibe. 

4. Encara floccosum, Pascoe. 

Saragus Jlocaosus, Pascoe, Ann. Nat. Hist. 4thser. Vol. V. p. 100. 

" Broadly ovate, moderately convex, fulvous-testaceous, minutely 
punctulate ; head small, eyes nearly contiguous ; antennae ferru- 
ginous ; prothorax short, very transverse, brownish-testaceous, 
the apex narrowly aud deeply emarginate ; elytra not carinate, 
the suture raised, the expanded margins rather narrow ; body 
beneath and legs dark brown, shining ; margins of the elytra 
beneath broad, glossy-testaceous, minutely punctulate" (Pascoe). 

Long. 6 lines, lat. 5 lines. 

Hah. — Wide Bay, Queensland. 

This insect is winged and cannot therefore be a Saragus, and 
it has all the characteristics of the genus Encara, not the least 
noticeable being the flocculent growth or secretion which entirely 
covers it, a peculiarity which exists in a lesser degree throughout 
all the species of the genus Encara. 

Mr. Pascoe states, on the authority of Mr. Currey, that the 
flocculent clothing of this insect is a fungus belonging to the 



'o 



genus Isaria of Persoon ; and Mr. Masters observed that the 
trunks of the trees on which he always found them were covered 
•with a vegetable growth of a similar appearance. 



BY WILLIAM MACLEAY, P.L.S., &C. 519 

5. Encara Lacordairei, n. sp. 

Testaceous-brown, nitid, broadly ovate, the margins of the 
thorax and elytra of a paler hue. Head like that of E. suh- 
maculatum but not sunk so deeply in the thorax ; thorax dark 
brown on the disk, slightly uneven on the surface, and not or 
scarcely sinuate on the base. The scutellum and base of thorax 
carinate. Elytra flat, coarsely and densely punctate, rounded 
behind, the surface rather uneven, suture slightly elevated, three 
costee more or less of a dark brown colour on each elytron, the one 
next the suture most distinct and very crooked, the next scai'cely 
traceable except towards the apex ; the third very indistinct, and 
joined to the mai-gins behind the middle by a wavy brown fascia ; 
the humeral callus is also brown. The undersurface and legs are 
of a nitid brown, minutely punctate and pubescent. 

Long. 5^ lines, lat. 4| lines. 

Rah. — Coast districts New South Wales. 

This is a much rarer species than E. submaculatum. Mr. Masters 
has never observed it except in the Illawarra district, where it is 
found like the last species on the sunny side of trees. 

Genus Pterohel^us, De Breme. 

Head immersed in the thorax up to the insertion of the antennfe, 
slightly narrowed and broadly truncate or sinuate in front. Eyes 
more or less prolonged in front but not contiguous. 

Antennae as long or a little longer than the thorax, their four 
or five last joints nearly orbicular and forming an inconspicuous 
mass. Thorax very strongly transversal, parabolically rounded 
on the sides, broadly and strongly emarginate in front, contiguous 
to the elytra, and slightly bisinuate at the base, its foliaceous 
part moderately broad aiid flat. Elytra large, moderately convex, 
sometimes oblong, sometimes broadly oval, and in the first of these 
cases the foliaceous mai'gin is narrow and raised ; in the second it 
is large, as in the thorax. Legs long ; tibiae smooth, aciculate ; 
one spur on the anterior and two very small ones on the four 



520 MISCELLANEA ENTOMOLOGICA, NO. IV, 

posterior tibiae. Metasternum long. Mesosternum horizontal an(J 
narrowed behind, declivous and semicircularly concave in front. 
The prosternal prominence flat, two-grooved, lanciforni and 
declivous behind. Body oval or oblong, winged. 

This genus is numerous in species, and seems to be pretty 
evenly distributed throughout Australia. They are flat insects, of 
pitchy or black colour, and are, I believe, invariably found under 
the loose bark of living Gum trees. 

The species are not easily identified, and the difficulty 
is much increased by the doubt which exists as to the 
identity of some of the old typical insects described by Boisduval 
and De Breme. I find that in the Australian collections to 
which I have had access, the wrong names have been in many 
cases affixed to the wrong insects. The reason, no doubt, is that 
there are few entomologists here who have seen the Marquis De 
Breme's Monograph, and fewer still who can get access to Bois- 
duval's "Faune del'Oceanie." I cannot say, however, that I regard 
the inaccessibility of Boisduval's work as a misfortune, for a worse 
describer of Coleoptera I never met with. Under the genus 
Gilibe he gives descriptions of nine species of this group, none of 
which are recognizable from his descriptions. 

I propose to divide the insects of this genus into two sections, 
founded on marked differences in form. 1st., Those of broadly 
ovate form, and broad expanded margins in both thorax and 
elytra. 2nd., Those of more elongate form, and with the margins 
of the elytra less broad, or narrow. 

The second of these sections is much the most numerous in 
species, and I propose to simplify the identification of them by 
further sub-divisions founded on the sculpture of the elytra — 

1. Elytra seriate-punctate, the interstices costate. 

2. Elytra seriate-punctate, the interstices granulose. 

3. Elytra seriate-punctate, the interstices plain or slightly 
convex. 

4. Elytra irregularly punctate. 



BY WILLIAM MACLEAY, F.L.S., (tc. 52 1 



Section I, 

Species of broadly ovate form, and largely expanded margins to 
both thorax and elytra. 

6. Pterohelaeus Walkeri, Breme. 

Mon. des Cossyph. Part 1. p. 27, pi. II. fig. 4 ; Lac. Gen. Atl. 
t. 54, f. 3. 

Nitid black, oval, slightly convex. Head faintly rugose, sub- 
transversal, the lateral angles of the epicrauium raised and exserted, 
the clypens slightly convex, and rounded on the sides, front 
depressed, antenna about the length of the prothorax, that 
rounded, strongly transversal, smooth, somewhat sinuated poste- 
riorly, with the margin broad and flat, its anterior angles rounded 
and reaching to half the length of the head. Elytra oval, slightly 
dilated posteriorly, very nitid, the humeral region raised into a 
knot, margins smooth, flat, as large as those of the thorax, but 
narrowing behind. The disk of the elytra has nine raised longi- 
tudinal ribs or lines, and in the interstices between these, two rows 
of small impressed punctures, both the punctures and ribs becoming 
almost obliterated towards the apex. Thighs dilated, the legs and 
under surface of the body of a nitid blackish-brown. Abdomen 
flattened, faintly longitudinally striated. 

Long. 25, lat. 16 millim. 

The above is a translation of De Breme's description of the 
species. There are other species so resembling it in form and 
sculpture, as to make a more detailed description very necessary, 
biit I think it better to point out the distinctive features in the 
difierent species as I arrive at them. I may mention one pecu- 
liarity of all De Breme's descriptions, he invariably applies the 
term " disque " to the margins of the thorax and elytra ; this I 
have of course always corrected in my translations. 

Found under the loose bark of gum trees in all parts of New 
South Wales. 



522 MISCELLANEA ENTOMOLOGICA, NO. IV. 

7. PTEROHELiEUS CORNUTUS, n. sp. 

In form, size and sculpture like P. Walkeri, but differs in having 
the lateral angles of the epicranium more elevated and distinctly 
terminating in a tooth. The sculpture of the elytra also differs in 
having the double row of punctures in the interstices placed close 
on each side of the costse, giving them a crenulated appearance, 
and with scarcely a trace of the intermediate costge, which are just 
traceable in P. Walkeri. The thighs of this species are evidently 
more dilated than in P. Walkeri. 

Long. 10 lines^ lat. 8 lines. 

Hah. — Wide Bay, Rockhampton. 

8. PxEROHELiEUS Bremei, Macleay. 

Trans. Ent. Soc. N.S. Wales, Vol II., p. 281. 

Broadly ovate, black, sub-opaque. Head large, sub-quadrate, 
truncate in front and rounded at the angles, with a broad shallow 
canaliculation between the eyes. Thorax transverse and largely 
emarginate in front, with large flat margins, a little raised and 
thickened on the border towards the anterior angles, and with the 
posterior angles sub-acutely pointed backwards. Scutellum trans- 
versely and curviliuearly triangular and transversely impi-essed 
in the middle. Elytra not longer than the breadth, as broad as 
the thorax at the base, and rounded at the apex, with a broad 
smooth margin — broadest at the humeral angle, and becoming 
narrower to the apex — raised on the border, the disk with eight 
strong costfe, the second from the suture the largest, and the 
later alones resembling continuous rows of nodules, the intervals 
rather obliterately punctate in double rows. Abdomen sub-nitid, 
and marked with longitudinal striohe. Antennte, palpi, and tarsi 
piceous. 

Long. 10 lines, lat. 6-^ lines. 

Hah. — Gayndah, Queensland. 



BY AVILLIAM MACLEAY, F.L.S., &C. 523- 



9. PtEROHEL^US RIVERINiE, n. Sp. 

A species remarkably like P. Walkeri, but smaller, the clypeal 
suture more distinctly mai-ked, the lateral angles of the head round 
and nearly flat, the eyes more apart, the thorax slightly less 
transverse, and the elytra more convex, more nitid and more 
strongly costate. 

Long. 10 lines, lat. 6^ lines. 

Hab. — Murrumbidgee. 

In form and stature like F. Walkeri. 



10. Pterohel^us spinicollis, n. sp. 

Broadly ovate, black, moderately nitid. Head sub-opaque, very 
minutely punctate, the surface flat, the angles scarcely reflexed. 
Thorax also sub-opaque, very minutely punctate, transverse, very 
largely emarginate in front, the anterior angles advanced and spini- 
form, the margins very broad and smooth. Scutellum transverse, 
curvilinearly triangular, somewhat depressed at the base. Elytra 
each with 17 rows of strong punctures, the interstices for the 
most part slightly elevated, the fourth and eighth distinctly so, 
the margins broad, flat and smooth, and the sutural apex termi- 
nating in a dehiscsnt spine. 

Long. 10 lines, lat. 8 lines. 

Mab. — Endeavour River. 



11. PtEROHEL^US ACUTICOLLIS, n. sp. 

This species differs from P. sjnnicollis in being of less size, in 
having the anterior angles of the thorax acutely advanced but not 
si)inigerous, and in the elytra not mucronate. The form and 
sculpture is in every i-espect the same. 

Long. 8 lines, lat. 6 lines. 

Ilab. — Endeavour River. 



•524 MISCELLANEA ENTOMOLOGICA, NO. IV. 



12. Pterohel^us piceus, Kirby, 

Melceus piceus, Kirby, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. XII. 1818, j). 
468. 

Pterohelceus piceus, Breme, Mon. Cossyph. 1842, p. 28, pi. II. 
fig. 5. 

Like P. Walkeri but smaller. Colour piceous- brown, nitid. 
Broadly oval ; head scarcely visibly punctate, labrum prominent, 
.sides of the epicraniuma little raised; thorax strongly transversal, 
slightly convex, rounded on each side and smootli, almost straight 
at the base ; the margin broad, slightly curved up at the border ; 
the anterior angles reaching half the length of the head. Elytra 
slightly convex, oval, abossor callus on the humeral region, margins 
smooth, as large as those of the thorax, equally concave and reddish 
coloured, and narrower towards the apex. On the disk of each 
elytron are numerous slightly elevated cost^e (17) more distinct near 
the suture, with a distinct line of punctures in each interval, the last 
line next the margin of much larger punctures. Last joint of the 
antenme I'ed. Legs and under surface of body are as in P. Walkeri, 
the hinder border of the abdominal segments red. 

Long. 8h lines, lat. 5| lines. 

ffab. — N. S. Wales, S. Australia, &c. 

This species seems to have a wide range. I have specimens of 
it, or closely resembling it, from all parts of New South Wales, 
from South Australia and from Queensland. These insects are 
generally found under bark. 



13. PTEROHELiEus Pascoei, Macl. 

Trans. Ent. Soc. N. S. Wales, Vol. II. 1872, p. 282. 

Broadly ovate, black, opaque. Head scarcely enlarged before 
the eyes, broadly rounded in front, finely canaliculate between the 
eyes, and with a semicircular line or suture extending across, and 



BY WILLIAM MACLEAY, F.L.S., <kc. 625 

to the front of, the head before the eyes. Thorax with a broad 
flat margin, and a lightly marked median line. Scutellum curvi- 
linearly triangular. Elytra broadly margined — the margin of a 
reddish hue, slightly enlarged towards the middle, narrow at the 
apex, and marked off from the disk by a row of strong punctures — 
and densely punctate in numerous rows, the punctures small and 
sub-obliterate, the interstices also sub-obliterate, but a few showing 
a more costiform appearance than the others. Body beneath sub- 
nitid, sub-striolate. Antennae, palpi, and tarsi of a reddish brown. 

Long. 9 lines, lat. 6 lines. 

Sab. — Gayndah, Peak Downs. 

This species is quite of the P. piceus type. 

14. Pterohel^us arcanus, Pascoe. 

Ann. Nat. Hist. Ser. 4, Vol. V, 1870, p. 98. 

" Broadly ovate, brownish pitchy, slightly nitid ; head im- 
punctate ; the clypeus, marked off by a fine line, broad and rounded 
anteriorly ; prothoi'ax veiy short, deeply and narrowly emarginate 
at the apex, the middle of the disk with two conspicuous fovese ; 
scutellum transversely triangular ; elytra moderately convex, with 
broad foliaceous margins raised and thickened at their edges, each 
elytron with a glossy elevated ridge or line near the suture, termin- 
ating posteriorly in a number of small granules, a series of about 
six more or less elevated longitudinal lines, dotted with granules, 
on the rest of the elytron, one of these between the suture, which 
is also marked by a similar line, and the ridge, the remainder, of 
which the second and fourth are the most prominent, externally, 
the intervals of the lines minutely punctured in two rows ; body 
beneath and legs glossy chestnut-brown" (Pascoe). 

Length, 9 lines. 

Hah. — Port Denison, Cleveland Bay ; (" under bark"). 

I have specimens from Cleveland Bay not exceeding 7 lines in 
length. 



526 MISCELLANEA ENTOMOLOGICA, NO IV. 

15. Pterohel^eus pruinosus, Pascoe. 

Journ. of Ent. II. p. 461 

" Allied to P. piceus, Kiiby, but broader, and the sides more 
parallel, covered with a fine uniform whitish exudation, and, 
under the lens, a scattered greyish squamosity ; elytra striate- 
punctate, with only three very slightly raised lines on each ; 
body beneath reddish-chestnut ; antenna? and legs ferruginous" 
(Pascoe). 

Length, 9 lines. 

Hah. — North Australia. 

I have never seen this species. 

16. Pterohel^us costatus, n.sp. 

Of the P. Walkeri form and sculpture, black, sub-nitid. Unlike 
P. Walkeri, the angles of the epicranium are quite flat, the labrum 
is more porrect, the base of the thorax is more bisinuate and the 
posterior angles more produced behind. The elytra are very 
broad and broadly margined, the costae, seven in number, are 
distinct, regular and smooth, but not prominent ; the intervals 
faintly impressed with two rows of small punctures, a single 
strong row of punctures on the outer side of the 7th costa. In all 
else the same as P. Walkeri. 

Length, 10 lines, lat. 7 lines. 

Hah. — Port Darwin. 

Seemingly abimdant. 

17. PTEROHELiEUS SINUATICOLLIS, n. sp. 

Broadly ovate, black, nitid. Head minutely punctate, rounded 
a little in front, the sides rounded and slightly turned up, eyes 



BT WILLIAM MACLEAY, F.L.S., &C. 527 

neai'Iy contiguous. Thorax very transvei'sal, the disk convex, the 
margins broad, and a little recurved, the sides narrowing much to 
the apex, and slightly bisinuate, the anterior angles round but 
prominent, the base slightly bisinuate. Scutellum transversal, 
rounded behind. Elytra moderately convex with broad flat lateral 
margins, the disk with 17 rows of distinct punctures on each 
elytron, the interstices scarcely raised and nearly equal, the fourth 
and eighth very slightly more raised near the base, also a raised 
callus near the shoulder and an inequality about the middle close 
to the margin. The undersurface and legs are piceous bi'own and 
nitid, the prosternum is rather sharply carinated along the entire 
length, the spui-s on the extremity of the anterior tibise are short, 
stout and pointed. 

Length, 9 lines, lat. 6 lines. 

Hah. — Cape York. 

18. PTEROHEL.EUS DaRWINIENSIS, n. Sp. 

Broadly ovate, convex, black, sub-nitid. Head very minutely 
punctate, flat at the lateral angles, broadly rounded in front, eyes 
rather distant. Thorax transverse, smooth, narrowly and deeply 
emarginate in front, receiving the head up to the eyes, the lateral 
margins moderately broad and thickened on the edges, moderately 
bisinixate on the base. Elytra rather broader than the thoi'ax, 
narrowly margined, each elytron faintly costate, the 2nd, 4tli 
and 6th most conspicuous, the intervals with a double row of 
punctures. Undersurface and legs nitid, the prosternum flat and 
roundly prodixced behind, the spur on the anterior tibise rather 
long and acute, and slightly curved. 

Long. 8 lines, lat. 5^ lines. 

Hah. — Port Darwin. 

This species, though in form and sculpture resembling the 
insects of this section, shows also in the narrow margins of the 
elytra a decided affinity to those I place in the 2nd section. 
34 



V:\ 



528 MISCELLANEA ENTOMOLOGICA, NO. IV, 



19. Pterohel^us insularis, De Breme. 

Mon. Cossyph. 1, p. 30, pi. III., fig, 6. 

Dull brownish-black, oval; head prominent, rounded, sub-convex, 
smooth. Thorax smooth, slightly convex, transverse, rounded on 
the sides, sinuate behind, the margin narrow, flat, the anterior 
angles not reaching the middle of the head, the posterior prominent 
and curved a little behind. Elytra oval, sinuate at the base, 
feebly narrowed towards the apex, slightly convex, with a number 
of slightly visible raised costse, and between them two rows of 
punctures slightly impressed, the margins smooth, flat and as large 
a^ those of the thorax ; suture smooth. Antennae short, the last 
five joints large and flattened. Legs brown, nitid. Thighs 
dilated ; undersurface and body of an opaque brown. 

Long. 7 1 lines, lat. 4^ lines. 

Hab. — Rafile's Bay, N. Australia. 

I have never seen this insect. Like the last described .species, 
which it seems somewhat to resemble, it shows afiinity to the 2nd 
section of the genus. 

20. Pterohel^us laticollis, Pascoe. 

Ann. Nat. Hist. Ser. 4, Vol. III., p. 285. 

" Dark glossy-brown, the expanded margins of the elytra and 
pi'othorax considerably paler ; head rather narrow behind the 
antennary ridges, concave between them ; the eyes rather large 
and approximate ; clypeus very convex, except at its anterior 
angles, its suture indistinct ; prothorax short, broader than the 
elytra at its base, minutely punctured, the margins broad and only 
very slightly reflected, the basal fovefe strongly impressed ; 
scutellum curvilinearly triangular ; elytra gradually and rather 
rapidly narrowing from the base, seriate-punctate, the alternate 
intervals of the rows forming slightly elevated lines, the suture 



BY WILLIAM MACLEAY, F.L.S., &C. 529 

strongly elevated from below the scutellar striola, the punctures 
rather small, the expanded margins, owing to a contraction of 
the sides of the disk, broadest at the middle, behind very distinctly 
reflected ; body beneath and femora very glossy chestnut-brown ; 
antennae, tibisB, tarsi, and epipleurse of the elytra reddish ferru- 
ginous" (Pascoe). 

Length, 10 lines. 

Bab. — Melbourne. 

It is with some doubt that I place this and the two following 
species in this section. I have never seen any of them. They are 
described by Pascoe, as being intermediate between P. Walheri 
and P. silphoides in form, but no indication is given of their relative 
length or breadth. I think they must approach very nearly to some 
of the insects grouped in the next section. 

21. PTEROHELiEUS HEPATICUS, PaSCOe. 

Ann. Nat. Hist. Ser. 4, Vol. III. p. 285. 

" Dark brown (or sometimes light reddish brown), paler at the 
margins, less glossy than the last ; head rather narrow behind the 
antennary ridges ; the clypeus very convex, its suture above 
indistinct, but forming a well marked groove on each side ; 
the eyes widely apart ; prothorax not broader than the elytra at 
their base, much longer and nari'ower than in the last, the basal 
foveoe represented by a large shallow depression on each side ; 
scutellum transversely triangular, the sides curvilinear ; elytra 
gradually narrowing from the base, the sides of the disk not 
contracted, seriate-punctate, the intervals of the rows not raised, 
the punctures rather small, the expanded margins of nearly equal 
breadth, or only very gradually narrowing behind, the suture 
raised as in the last ; body beneath and legs glossy chestnut-brown ; 
antennae glossy ferruginous" (Pascoe). 

Length, 8| lines. 

Hah. — Melbourne. 



530 MISCELLANEA ENTOMOLOGICA, NO. IV. 

22. PTEROHELiEUS DISPAR, PaSCOe. 

Ann. Nat. Hist. Ser. 4, Vol. III. p. 286. 

" Shortly elliptic in the male, oblong-obovate in the female^ 
shining pitchy brown, the margins much paler ; head rather 
narrow in front ; clypeus convex, its suture rather indistinct ; the 
eyes not remote ; prothorax shorter proportionally in the male, 
the basal fovese shallow, between them opposite to the scutellum 
an indistinct groove ; scutellum triangular ; elytra nearly parallel 
at the sides, and not broader than the prothorax in the female, 
broader in the middle in the male, finely seriate-punctate, the 
intervals without raised lines, the suture not elevated, the expanded 
margins of nearly equal breadth at the sides, and a little reflected 
at the edge ; body beneath and femora dark chestnut-brown^ 
shining ; antennse, tibise, and tarsi paler" (Pascoe). 

Length (^), 7 lines, ($) 9 lines. 
Hab. — Swan River. 

Section II. 

Form elongate or oblong-oval, the elytra more or less narrowly 
margined. 

This section includes a large number of species differing 
considerably in sculpture. The identification of them will be 
simplified by classing them in sub-sections founded upon the 
sculpture of the elytra. 

Sub-section I. 
Elytra seriate-punctate, the interstices more or less costate, 

23. PTEROHELiEUS ELONGATUS, Macleay. 

Trans. Ent. Soc. N. S. Wales, II. 1872, p. 282. 

Oblong, oval, black, sub-opaque. Head transverse, punctate, 
widened in front of the eyes, rounded at the anterior angles, and 



BY WILLIAM MACLBAY, F.L.S., tfec. 531 

almost truncate in front, with a narrow recurved margin. Thorax 
with a broad lateral margin a little reflexed at the anterior aneles. 
and only slightly bisinuate at the base. Scutellum triangular, 
punctate. Elytra nitid on the disk, nearly twice as long as the 
width, narrowly and equally margined, and marked on each elytron 
with eight costiform crenulated elevations alternating with smaller 
ones some of which are scarcely traceable, with the intervals 
coarsely and profoundly punctate. Under surface nitid, rugosely 
striolate. Antennae, palpi, and tai'si piceous, the spur of anterior 
tibia short and obtuse. 

Long. 10 lines, lat. 4^ lines. 
Hah. — Gayndah, Queensland. 

24. Pterohel^us Reichei, Breme. 

Mon. Cossyph. I. p. 35, pi. II. fig. 2. 

Oblong, smooth, of a dull reddish-brown colour. Head prominent, 
finely punctate. Clypeus convex, the lateral angles prominent but 
rounded, the front convex. Thorax transverse^ scarcely sinuate 
behind, convex, smooth, rounded on each side but very little 
sinuated at the anterior angles of the margins, those large, concave, 
with a very small and nitid border ; the anterior angles about a 
third of the length of the head. Elytra convex laterally, 
depressed above, sub-parallel, rounded towards the apex, and a little 
pointed terminally ; humeral regions scarcely prominent ; on each 
elytron are numerous rather indistinctly raised costse, becoming 
obliterated laterally and towards the apex ; the intervals furnished 
with rows of profound punctures. The five last joints of the 
antennae are round but a little flattened, velvety and of a testaceous- 
brown ; undersurface of the bod^ of a deep dull brown, the legs of 
a nitid brown. 

Long. 10 lines, lat. 5 lines. 

Hah. — New Holland. 

I have never seen this species. 



532 MISCELLANEA ENTOMOLOGICA, NO. IV. 

25. Pterohel^eus hirtus, n. sp. 

Oblong, black, sub-nitid, the upper surface rather thickly clothed 
with erect soft haii's. Head rugosely punctate, clypeus broadly 
rounded, smooth and slightly rellexed, eyes about their diameter 
apart. Thorax transverse, thinly punctate, the anterior angles 
produced and angularly rounded, the margins broad, thinly 
punctate, narrowly raised on the edge, and of a piceous colour, the 
posterior angles acute and slightly pointed backwards, the base 
bisinuate, with a transverse canal on the central lobe, and a deep 
fovea at the middle of the emarginate part on each side of it ; 
the disk is moderately convex with the median line rather faintly 
marked, and a shallow groove marking the line of separation 
between the disk and the margin on each side. Scutellum slightly 
transverse, triangular, rounded behind. Elytra of the width of, 
and three times the length of the thorax, parallel-sided for two- 
thirds of the length, and then narrowing to the apex, the disk very 
closely seriate-punctate, the punctures large, deep and crowded in 
17 rows, every second interstice costate and smooth, the lateral 
margins narrow, uniform in width throughout, and smooth with 
reflected edge. Undersurface of body nitid, striolate-punctate 
and thinly clothed with decura.bent hair of a yellowish colour ; 
the prosternum terminates in a lai-ge flat process, rounded at the 
apex and fitting into the mesosternum, which is longer than usual 
in the genus. The legs are stout and setose, the tarsi very short, 
the three first joints very broad, bilobed and largely padded with 
masses of red hair. 

Long. 10 lines, lat. 5^ lines. 

Hab. — New South Wales. 

The form of the tarsi is the most remarkable thing in this, in 
many respects, curious insect. It might very properly be con- 
stituted into a genus. 



BY WILLIAM MACLEAY, F.L.S., &C. 533 

26. PTEROHELiEUS ALTERNATUS, PaSCOe. 

Ann. Nat. Hist. Ser. 4, Vol. III. p. 284. 

" Rather narrowly oval, black, shining, somewhat depressed ; 
head finely punctui-ed ; clypeus scarcely emarginate in front, its 
suture nearly obsolete ; prothorax minutely punctured, a broad 
shallow fovea on each side at the base, no groove, the expanded 
margins not recurved ; scutellum curvilinearly triangular ; elytra 
flattish at the middle and base, finely seriate-punctate, the alter- 
nate intervals of the rows raised, the fourth, eighth, twelfth, and 
sixteenth much more so than the others, the expanded margins 
broad at the base, gradually narrower to the apex ; body beneath 
and legs black, slightly glossy, tibiae covered with short spinous 
hairs ; antennae short, not reaching to the end of the prothorax, 
black " (Pascoe). 

Length, 8 lines 

Hah. — Interior of Australia. 

Unknown to me, apparently resembling the following species. 

27. Pterohel^us depressiusculus, n. sp. 

Oblong-oval, black, sub-nitid, sub-depressed. Head finely punc- 
tate, dull, clypeus slightly emarginate, clypeal suture distinct at the 
sides, depressed in the middle, a longitudinal impression on the 
forehead, eyes distant. Thorax rather dull, minutely punctate, 
the anterior angles reaching to the eyes, the margins broad and 
slightly concave, the base slightly bisinuate and profoundly 
bifoveate, the disk a little convex with the median line visible 
throughout. Scutellum triangular, the sides slightly rounded. 
Elytra very slightly broader than the thorax, and rather more than 
twice the length, nitid, parallel-sided and rounded towards the 
apex, seriate-punctate ; the punctures disposed in close not very 
regular rows, and small, except near the sides when they become 
larger ; the interstices four, eight, twelve, and sixteen, marked 



534 MISCELLANEA ENTOMOLOGICA, NO. IV. 

with broad, smooth, slightly elevated costse ; the margins are 
narrow and reflected, a little broader and square at the shoulder, 
the sculpture becomes obsolete at the apex. The under surface is 
much striolated, the legs are rather slender, the tarsi long, the 
presternum presents a prominent rounded keel along its whole 
length. 

Long. 10 lines, lat. 5 J lines. 

Mah, — South Australia. 

28. Pteeohel^us squalidus, n. sp. 

Of a very dull opaque-black, and densely covered with minute 
asperities all over. Form oblong, flat. Head flat, without clypeal 
suture, clypeus broadly emarginate, eyes well apart. Thorax 
transverse, semi- circularly emarginate in front, slightly bisinuate 
behind and with the lateral margins broad and a little reflected. 
Scutellum transverse and rounded behind. Elytra scarcely broader 
than the thorax, three times the length, marked with eight distinct 
costse consisting of prominent almost contiguous granules, the 
intervals occupied by two very minute rows of very minute 
punctures mixed with very minute granules, margins narrow. 
Body beneath sub-nitid and finely punctured. Legs sub-nitid, the 
five last joints of the antennae rather dilated. 

Long. 7 lines, lat. 3^ lines, 

^a&._ Queensland (Mr. Masters' Collection). 

This species has much the general appearance of an Aaida; it 
perhaps should be placed in the following sub-section. 

29. Pterohel^us crenulatus, n. sp. 

Oblong, brown, sub-opaque. Head densely punctate, a little 
emarginate in front, without clypeal suture, and a little recurved 
at the lateral angles, eyes very transverse. Thorax transverse, 
deeply emarginate in front, bisinuate behind, densely and minutely 



BY WILLIAM MACLEAY, P.L.S., &C. 535 

rugosely punctate, the mai'gins broad and flat. Elytra a little 
broader than the thorax and more than twice the length, with a 
number of close rows of deep square closely placed punctures, the 
interstices alternately larger and forming nodular costae, the 
whole having a crenulate and chlathrate appearance. Body 
beneath nitid. 

Long. 5 lines, lat. 2 J lines. 

Hah. — Port Darwin. 

Sub-section II. 
Elytra seriate-punctate, the interstices granular. 

30. PTEROHELiEus GuERiNii, Breme. 

Mon. Cossyph. I. p. 36, pi. II. fig. 3. 

Oblong, dull, blackish brown ; head very prominent ; clypeus a 
little emarginate, front convex. Thorax very transverse, sinuate 
behind and rounded on the sides, convex and moderately punctate ; 
the margins broad, a little turned \ip, of a less dull brown, the 
anterior angles reaching beyond the middle of the head. Elytra 
parallel-sided for two-thirds of the length, rounded posteriorly, the 
disk convex and punctate in serrated rows, towards the apex the 
interstices are furnished with some very small granules ; the suture 
is smooth, the margins very narrow, with a small border. 

Long. 8 1 lines, lat. 6^ lines. 
Hab. — Australi a. 

I have not, to my knowledge, seen this species. In Australian 
collections the name has been affixed to another and very different 
insect. 

31. Pterohel^us granulatus, Germar. 

Cilihe grmiulata, Germ. I-inn. Ent. Stettin. Band III., p. 197. 
Near P. peltatus, Erichs., but longer. Head punctulate, black, 
the antennae and palpi piceous. Thorax very minutely and 



536 MISCELLANEA ENTOMOLOGICA, NO. IV. 

dispersedly punctate, black, the lateral margins dilated, scarcely 
reflected, smooth, piceous and more or less diaphanous. Elytra 
finely but densely striate-punctate, the alternate interstices finely 
and remotely seriate-granulate, the granules more or less elevated, 
in the large specimens for the most part less distinct, black, the 
lateral margins somewhat piceous and diaphanous. Body beneath 
blackish -piceo as, legs lighter. 

Long. 6|-7 lines, lat. 3^ and 3| lines. 

Hob. — South Australia. 

32. Pterohel^us tristis, German 

Cilibe tristis, Germ. Linn. Ent. Stettin. Band 3, p. 197. 

Entirely black, subnitid, the tarsi somewhat piceous. Head 
densely punctate, thorax densely and very finely punctate, 
the punctures rather large and scattered, the sides broadly 
flattened, sub-elevated and finely transversely striolate. Elytra 
profoundly and densely seriate-punctate, the marginal stria 
almost foveate, the interstices towards the apex and sides 
remotely and finely granulate, the fifth interstices somewhat 
elevated. 

Long. 8^ lines, lat. 5 lines. 

Hah. — South Australia. 

33. PxEROHELiEUS BULLATUS, PaSCOe. 

Journ. of Ent. Vol. 11. p. 462. 

" Narrowly oblong, reddish brown or dark brown, slightly 
shining; head finely punctured; prothorax with very minute 
punctures, the emargination at the apex very shallow ; elytra 
rather finely lineate-punctate, the alternate lines slightly elevated 
(about nine on each elytron) and garnished with small glossy 
pustular or bubble-like granules placed at irregular intervals on 
those lines ; body beneath dark chestnut-brown, or paler ; legs 
also varying from reddish to brown, and shining " (Pascoe). 

Long. 8 lines, lat. 2>\ lines. 

Hah. — New South Wales, South Australia, Queensland. 



BY WILLIAM MACLEAY, F.L.S., &C. 537" 



34. PxEROHELiEUS GRANULIGER, n. Sp. 

Oblong-ovate, black, sub-nitid, sub-depressed. Head finely 
punctate, clypeus broad, slightly convex, clypeal suture a little 
depressed and not marked in the middle, eyes rather distant. 
Thorax finely punctate, rather opaque, the anterior angles ad- 
vanced, reaching to the front of the eyes, margins broad and 
slightly rugose, the base bisinuate, its central lobe slightly reflected 
on the margin. Elytra of the width of the thorax, and three 
times the length, parallel-sided to near the apex, seriate-punc- 
tate in 17 rows, the punctures deep and of moderate size, the 
interstices a little raised (the fourth and eighth very slightly more 
than the others) and all rather closely studded with bright bead- 
like granules ; the margins are very narrow, concave, thinly 
punctate, and a little reflected at the humeral angles. Body 
beneath nitid and striolate : legs nitid and rather long and slight • 
prosternum broad and four-grooved between the legs, terminating 
behind in a flat triangular extension. 

Long. 10| lines, lat. 5 J lines. 

Hah. — Murrumbidoree 



•'»'- 



35. PxEROHELiEUS SUBGEMINATUS, n. sp. 

Oblong-oval, black, sub-opaque. Head very minutely punctate, 
plain, without clypeal suture. Clypeus a little swollen in front, 
that and the labrum slightly emarginate, eyes distant. Thorax 
transverse, very minutely but not densely punctate, the anterior 
angles not produced, the apex slightly emarginate, the lateral 
margins rather broad, concave and of a reddish colour, the base 
bisinuate. Elytra scarcely broader than the thorax, and three 
times che length, with about 17 crowded rows of minute punctui-es, 
disposed somewhat in pairs, the interstices perfectly flat and 
furnished near the apex with some minute granules, the margins 
very narrow and recurved. Body beneath and legs reddish, nitid,. 



538 MISCELLANEA ENTOMOLOGICA, NO. IV. 

finely striolate, the thighs are short and compressed, the tibiae and 
tarsi long and slender. The last five joints of the antennae broad 
and compressed. 

Long. 4 lines, lat. 2 lines. 

Hah. — Port Augusta, S. Australia (Mr. Masters' Collection). 

36. PTEROHELiEUS NITIDIUSCULUS, n. sp. 

Oblong-oval, black, nitid, of depressed form. Head very 
minutely punctate, clypeus slightly emarginate and thickened and 
convex in front, eyes distant. Thorax transverse, deeply emar- 
ginate in front, the anterior angles reaching as far as the front 
of the eyes, the margins broad, concave, turned up on the edge, 
and of a reddish hue, the base lightly bisinuate, the disk very 
lightly and shallowly foveate at the base and extremely minutely 
punctate. Elytra scarcely broader than the thorax, and neai'ly 
three times the length, parallel-sided to near the apex, very nitid, 
closely and densely seriate-punctate (17 or more rows of minute 
punctures), the interstices not raised, and fui-nished with glossy 
granules, sparingly towards the base, more thickly towards the 
apex, the mai'gins are very narrow and concave. The body 
beneath and legs are nitid and piceous, the abdominal segments 
are very minutely punctate and striolate, the thighs are longer 
and less dilated than in the last species, the prosternum is obtusely 
pointed behind. 

Long. 5i lines, lat. 2| lines. 

Hah. — South Australia. 

Both this and the preceding species, resemble P. peltahcs of 
Erichson veiy much in form and general appearance. 

Sub-section III. 

Elytra seriate-punctate, the interstices flat or slightly raised and 

narrow. 

37. Pterohel^us silphoides, Breme. 

Cilibe silphoides, Breme, Mon. Cossyph. I. p. 42, pi. III. fig. 3. 
not C. silphoides, Latr. and Boisd. 



BY WILLIAM MACLEAY, F.L.S., &C. 539 

Brown, smooth, ovate ; antennse rather long, brown, the last 
joints flattened, the terminal one oval ; head punctate, narrowed 
at the anterior angles, labrum porrect, narrow, clypeus convex, 
anterior angles of the epicranium rounded but prominent and 
slightly raised. Thorax scarcely visibly punctate, opaque, sinuate 
behind, margins broad, flat, the borders folded upwards, the 
anterior angles reaching the middle of the head, the posterior 
curved backwards ; an oblique "sillon" at base between the disk and 
the margin. Elytra ovai, opaque, very feebly dilated towards the 
middle, and pointed posteriorly, sinuate at the base, where they 
are less convex than towards the apex, they have numerous series 
of large impressed punctures. 

Long. 7 1 lines, lat. 4^ lines. 

ffab. — Australia. 

I believe I have never seen this species, it is clearly not the 
C. silphoides of Boisd, which may be a Cilibe ; De Breme placed 
this insect in the genus Cilibe, but Pascoe (1) asserts positively 
that it is winged. 

38. Pterohel^us servus, Pascoe. 

Journ. of Ent. Vol. II. p. 462. 

" Oblong, dull brown, narrower than C. sili^hoides, De Breme 
with the prothorax a little wider than the elytra, its apex more 
deeply and squarely emarginate, not semi-circular, and the nar- 
rowly impressed line in the middle more strongly marked ; elytra 
striato-punctate, the striae approximate ; body beneath and legs 
glossy chestnut-brown ; sides of the abdominal segments wrinkled" 
(Pascoe). 

Length, 7 lines 

Hah. — Victoria. 

39. Pterohel^us memnonius, Pascoe. 
Journ. of Ent. Vol. IL p. 462. 

" Oblong, glabrous, black, slightly nitid ; head finely punctured, 
narrowed ; the eyes large and sub-approximate, the distance 

(1) Journ. Ent. Vol. II. p. 462, Note. 



"540 MISCELLANEA ENTOMOLOGICA, NO. IV. 

between them in front being rather more than the length of their 
shortest diameter; prothorax finely punctured, its margins minutely 
waved ; elytra closely lineate-punctate, the punctures well-marked 
the margins very narrow ; body beneath and legs black, shining ; 
itarsi and lip with ferruginous hairs" (Pascoe). 

Length, 11 lines. 

Hah. — South Australia. 

40. Pterohel^us pusillus, Macl. 

Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales, Ser. 2, Vol. IT. p. 307. 
Hah. — Barron River, N. Queensland. 

41. Pterohel^us nitidissimus, Pascoe. 

Ann. Nat. Hist. Ser. 4, Vol. III. 1869, p. 282 ; P. striato- 
punctatus, Breme, Mon. Cossyph. I. p. 31, pi. II. fig. 6. 

" Oval, moderately convex, very glossy deep black ; head finely 
and closely punctured, clypeal groove broad and shallow ; prothorax 
very minutely and rather closely punctured, rounded at the sides, 
the edge of the expanded margin anteriorly recurved, an irregular 
well-marked groove at the base interrupted in the middle ; scu- 
tellum curvilinearly triangular ; elytra a little contracted behind 
the shoulders, very finely seriate-punctate, the punctures less regu- 
larly arranged near the suture ; body beneath and legs very glossy, 
black, propectus opaque, granulate ; antennae reaching to the base 
of the prothorax, third joint half as long again as the fourth" 
(Pascoe). 

Length, 5-5 1 lines. 

Hah. — South Australia. 

This is a common South Australian species. Mr. Pascoe 
changed De Breme's name, as Boisduval had given it previously 
to what is evidently a very difierent species. 



BY WILLIAM MACLEAY, F.L.S., &C. 5il 

42. PxEROHELiEus vicARius, Pascoe, 

Ann. Nat. Hist. Ser. 4, Vol. III. 1869, p. 283. 

"Rather broadly oval, brownish-black, shining; head thickly 
and roughly punctured, clypeal groove well defined, narrowly and 
shai'ply limited, the transverse portion above curved downwards ; 
prothorax minutely but not very closely punctured, rounded at 
the sides, the expanded margins not recurved, the irregular basal 
groove on each side nearly obsolete ; scutellum broadly triangular, 
its apex rounded ; elytra a little contracted behind the shoulders, 
finely, but not minutely, seriate-punctate, the punctures less 
regularly arranged near the suture and base ; body beneath and 
legs glossy brownish-black, the propectus opaque, granulate ; 
antennae short, third joint nearly twice as long as the fourth" 
(Pascoe). 

Length, 6-7 lines. 

JIab. — New South Wales, Victoria, and Queensland, 

43. Pterohel^us litigiosus, Pascoe. 

Ann, Nat. Hist. 4 Ser. Vol. III. p. 283. 

" Rather narrowly oval, rusty-brown, shining ; head finely 
punctured, a little concave in front ; clypeus broadly emarginate 
anteriorly, separated from the front by a narrow indistinct line ; 
prothorax very minutely punctured, a short longitudinal groove near 
the apex, none at the base, the expanded margins not recurved ; 
scutellum transversely triangular ; elytra callous at the base, 
rather finely seriate-punctate, the intervals of the rows .slightly 
raised, the foui-th and eighth intervals rather more so than the 
others, the expanded margins narrow ; body beneath, legs, antennae, 
and margins of the prothorax and elytra reddish-ferruginous" 
(Pascoe). 

Length, 7 lines. 

ffab. — Sydney, 



542 MISCELLANEA ENTOMOLOGICA, NO. IV. 

44. PTEROHELiEUS ASELLUS, PasCOe. 

Ann. Nat. Hist. Ser. 4, Vol. V. 1870, p. 99. 

" Oval, the outline equally rounded and rather obtuse at both 
extremities, the sides a little incurved, moderately convex, blackish- 
brown, scarcely shining ; head and prothorax covered with ex- 
ceedingly minute punctures, the margins of the latter gradually 
passing into the disk ; scutellum transversely and curvilinearly 
triangular ; elytra linearly punctured, the punctures rather small, 
the fifth and eighth intervals between the lines a little broader 
than the rest, and the margins concolorous, narrow, of equal 
breadth throughout, and agreeing with those of the prothorax ; 
body beneath and legs glossy-brown ; antennae short, the last joint 
nearly circular" (Pascoe). 

Length, 4:^-5 lines. 
Hab. — Queensland, 

45. PxEROHELiEUs AGONUS, Pascoe. 

Journ. of Ent. Vol. II. p. 461. 

"Ovate, blackish-brown, slightly nitid; head very finely punctured ; 
antennae and palpi ferruginous ; prothorax nearly impunctate, very 
short, broadly emarginate at the apex, the posterior angles slightly 
produced ; scutellum sub-triangular ; elytra lineate-punctate, the 
punctures small, the lines rather widely apart ; body beneath and 
legs black, shining ; tarsi ferruginous" (Pascoe). 

Length, 5-6 lines. 

Sab. — Interior of Australia. 

46. PTEROHELiEUS PARALLELUS, Breme. 

Mon. Cossyph. I. p. 33, pi. II. fig. 7. 

Entirely of a deep, nitid, blackish-brown colour ; head rounded ; 
clypeus convex ; epicranium a little turned up laterally ; labrum 



BY WILLIAM MACLEAY, F.L.S., &C. 543 

prominent. Thorax moderately transverse, not sinuate behind, 
finely punctate, convex, and rounded laterally ; margins broad and 
wrinkled, punctate and of a less deep brown ; the anterior angles 
extending a little beyond the half of the head. Elytra convex, 
parallel, somewhat feebly compressed at the humeral region (which 
is also raised into a boss), rounded behind, strongly punctate (these 
impressed punctures are disposed in very close lines) ; the margins 
very narrow, but quite visible and turned up. Antennse fulvous, 
velvety ; legs and undersurface of body ; deep shiny-brown. 

Long. 7 lines, lat. 3^ lines. 

Hah. — Swan Rivei*. 

47. PTEROHELiEUS ovuLUM, Haag-Rut. 

Journ. Mus. Godef. Heft 14, p. 115, taf. 7, fig.l— Verh. Ver, 
fiir naturw. Unterh. in Hamburg, III. p. 97. 

Regularly oval, blackish brown, opaque ; head dispersedly 
punctate ; thorax scarcely punctate, three times broader than long, 
much narrowed in front ; elytra broader than the thorax, little 
convex, the margins flattened out, with the suture and eight 
costse slightly elevated, and the intervals regularly punctate. 
Body beneath rather nitid, sparingly punctulate and striolate. 

Long. 6|-7 lines, lat. 4^ lines. 

Hah. — Gayndah, Queensland. 

This species is found over a great part of North Queensland. 
It is not unlikely that there are more than one species of the type 

48. Pterohel^us confusus, Macleay. 

Trans. Ent. Soc. N. S. Wales, Vol. II., p. 283. 

Ovate, black, sub-nitid. Head a little widened and elevated in 

front of the eyes, and scarcely emarginate in front, with the 

central canaliculation minute, the semicircular clypeal suture well 

marked, and a transverse raised line near the apex of the clypeus. 

35 



544 MISCELLANEA ENTOMOLOGICA, NO. IV, 

Thorax sub-convex, with a broad reddish reflexed margin, and the 
median line scarcely traceable. Scute! lum transversely and 
curvilinearly triangular. Elytra sub-convex, the lateral margins 
reddish, nearly as broad as those of the thorax at the humeral 
angles, and becoming narrower to the apex, with the disk covered 
with numerous rows of small punctures, becoming obliterated 
towards the apex, the alternate interstices faintly costate and 
quite obliterated behind. Under side of body nitid, striolate. 
Legs piceous, antennae and tarsi reddish. 

Long. 7 lines, lat. 4 lines. 

Mah. — Gayndah, 

49. PTEROHELiEUS PUNCTIPENNIS. n. sp. 

Ovate, moderately convex, black, nitid. Head punctate, im- 
mersed in the thorax up to the anterior angles, eyes moderately 
distant. Thorax more than twice broader than the length, 
minutely punctate, very deeply emarginate in front, slightly 
bisinuate behind, with the margins very broad and finely rugosely 
punctate. Elytra as wide as the thorax at the base, rounded and 
a little narrowed behind, the margins broad, flattened, smooth at 
the shoulders, becoming rapidly narrower to the apex, the disk 
covered closely with sharp, deep punctures, disposed in very close 
rows, Body beneath piceous and striolate ; legs piceous red, short, 
thighs dilated. 

Long. 4 lines, lat. 2 lines. 

Hah. — Queensland (Mr. Masters' collection). 

50. Pteroheljeus opatroides, n. sp. 

Very small, oblong, depressed, piceous-brown, very opaque. Head 
minutely roughly punctate. Thorax transverse, deeply emai^ginate 
in front, lightly bisinuate behind, densely and minutely rugose- 
punctate, with the margins broad and a little reflected. Elytra 
of the width of the base of the thorax and nearly three times the 



BY WILLIAM MACLEAY, P.L.S., &C. 545 

length, with nari'ow reflected Literal margins, the disk densely- 
punctate in numerovis close strise, the punctures deep, close and 
somewhat square, the interstices a little raised and very narrow. 
Body beneath piceous, nitid. Sterna coarsely punctate. 
Length, 3 lines, lat. 2 lines. 

Hab. — Clyde River. 

51. PTEROHELiEUS PELTATUS, Erichs. 

Cilihe 23<iltata, Erichs. Ai'chiv fiir ISTaturg. Jahrg. VIII, Bd. I, 
p. 175. 

Oblong-oval, sub-depressed, piceous, sub-opaque. Head im- 
punctate, clypeus dilated, truncate at the apex. Thorax lightly 
bisinuate at the base, twice as broad at the base as the length, the 
sides rounded, the apex deeply emarginate, iriipunctate, slightly 
convex on the disk, the margins broadly flattened, obscurely red, 
and reflected on the edge. Elytra slightly convex, densely seriate- 
punctate with two of the interstices slightly raised, the margins 
broad, smooth, and obscurely reddish. 

Length, 5-5|^ lines. 

Hab. — Tasmania, Victoria. 

52. PTEROHELiEUS CEREUS, n. Sp. 

Broadly ovate, black, nitid, of a waxy gloss. Head rugosely 
punctate, the clypeus slightly reflected in front, the lateral angles 
more so. Thorax very transverse, much narrowed and emarginate 
in front, bisinuate behind, minutely punctate on the disk and 
margins, the disk rather convex, with the median line showing on 
the anterior half, the margins broad and reflected in front, broader 
and flat towards the posterior angles. Elytra rather broader than 
the thorax, disk rather convex, and covered with tolerably regular 
close rows of smallish punctures, the mai'gins tolerably wide, 
widest a little behind the shoulders, then narrowing to the apex, 
and transversely rugose. 

Long. 6 lines, lat. 3^ lines. 

Hab. — West Australia. 



546 MISCELLANEA ENTOMOLOGICA, NO. IV. 

63. PxEROHELiEUS STRIATO-PUNCTATUS, Boiscl. 

Cilihe striato-pionciafa, Boiscl. Faun, cle I'Oceanie; Erichs, p. 26&. 

Elongate, oval, black. Thorax smooth, elytra elongate and 
covered with medium-sized punctures arranged in strise. 

Hab. — Kangaroo Island. 

I have not to my knowledge seen this insect, and M. Boisdu- 
ral's description, which I have translated in full, is of very little 
use. I place it here because 1 see that Mr. Pascoe recognises it 
as a species. 

54. Pterohel.^us peltoides, n. sp. 

? P. peltatus, De Breme, Mon. Cossyph. I. p. 34, pi. II. fig. 4. 

Oblong-oval, black, opaque. Head minutely punctate, clypeus a 
little convex or tumid, broadly truncate orvery slightly emarginate; 
the lateral angles of the head rounded, prominent, and very 
slightly reflected, the eyes distant. Thorax transverse, scarcely 
visibly punctured, the anterior angles advanced and much rounded, 
the base very slightly bisinuate, the lateral margins broad, smooth, 
flat, and of a dull reddish black colour. Elytra not broader than 
the thorax at the base, parallel-sided to near the apex, excepting a 
slight emargination a little behind the shoulder, the disk covered 
with small well-marked punctures in 17 complete rows, — the inters- 
tices not visibly elevated, and a short sutural stria, the lateral 
margins rather broad, smooth, of a reddish hue, and narrowing to 
the apex. Body beneath and legs nitid, the prosternum granulate. 

Long. 7 lines, lat. 4 lines. 

i/a6.— New South "Wales, Victoria. 

A very common species and of wide range. I verily believe it 
to be F. i^eltatus of De Breme, a species difiering entirely from 
P. jyeltatus of Boisduval. Whether I am right in this supposition 
01" not, the name of 2>dtatus can only be used for Erichson's species 
which has undoubtedly priority. 



BY WILLIAM MACLEAY, F.L.S., ikc. 547 

Sub-section IV. 
Elytra irregularly punctate. 

55. Pterohel^us Kollari, Breme. 

Mon. Cossyph. Vol. I. p. 32, pi. VII. fig. 3. 

Nitid brown, smooth, very convex ; head broad, prominent, 
strongly punctate j thorax notably transverse, sinuate behind, 
rounded laterally and very finely punctate, the margins narrow, 
flat and smootli, the anterior angles scarcely reaching half of the 
head, the posterior angles prominent and acute. Elytra sinuate 
at their base, pai-allel-sided for two-thirds of their length, rounded 
towards the apex, and a little pointed ; the disk nitid, very convex 
and finely and irregularly punctate, the margins scarcely notice- 
able. Body beneath nitid brownish-black. 

Long. 7 lines, lat. 4J lines 

Hah. — Swan River. 

56. PterohelvEus glaber, n. sp. 

Ovate, black, nitid, convex. Head rugosely punctate, deeply 
immersed in the thorax, the lateral angles raised. Thorax twice 
as broad as long, very finely punctate, the mai-gins rather broad, 
minutely rugosely-punctate, and much reflected, especially at the 
anterior angles, the posterior angles pointed backwards. Scu- 
tellum curvilinearly triangular, with a few small punctui-es. 
Elyti-a of the width of the thorax and three times the length, 
convex, parallel-sided, covered with minute rather thinly distri- 
buted punctures scarcely showing a trace of oi-der or striation, the 
margins narrow, concave, with a reflected edge, a slight compres- 
sion on the side of the disk behind the shoulders, not showing on 
the margin. Undersurface nitid and slightly striolate, presternum 
granulose, carinate from the apex. 

Long. 7 lines, lat 3^ lines. 

Hah. — Darling River. 



548 MISCELLANEA ENTOMOLOGICA, NO. IV. 

57. Pterohel^us minimus, Pascoe. 

Ann. Nat. Hist. ser. 4, Vol. III., p. 284. 

" Oblong-oval, pitchy brown, sub-nitid, the margins of the 
prothorax and the elytra, and the anterior part of the head, paler, 
yellowish-brown ; head densely punctured, the clypeal groove very 
indistinct ; prothorax rather short, covered with fine oblong 
punctures, the intervals very narrow, and in certain lights causing 
the surface to assume a delicately corrugated appearance, the 
expended margins narrow and slightly reflected ; scutellum trans- 
versely triangular ; elytra minutely and irregularly punctured, with 
scattered minute tubercles, especially near the suture, the expanded 
mai-gins very narrow, body beneath and legs glossy reddish 
testaceous ; antennse inclining to testaceous" (Pascoe). 

Length, 3|- lines. 

Hah. — Cooper's Creek. 

58. Pterohel^us obliteratus, n. sp. 

Oblong-oval, black, nitid, sub-convex. Head rugosely punctate, 
particularly on the depression of the clypeal suture, the lateral 
angles reflected, the eyes transverse and rather approximate. 
Thorax very thinly and minutely punctate on the disk, the margins 
broad, flat, and very minutely punctate and striolate, emai'ginate 
in front and bisinuate behind. Elytra of the breadth of the 
thorax at the base, and three times the length, moderately densely 
covered with distinct deep punctures irregularly placed, or only 
partially regular, becoming gradually smaller towards and finally 
quite efiaced at the apex, the lateral margins rather narrow and 
smooth. 

Long. 7 lines, lat. 4 lines. 
Hah. — Peak Downs. 



BY WILLIAM MACLEAY, P.L.S., &C. 54^ 

59. Pterohel^us dispersus, n. sp. 

Oblong-oval, black, sub-opaque, rather depressed. Head rouglily 
punctate, the clypeal suture distinct at the sides, the apex ti'uncate. 
Thorax transverse, very thinly and minutely punctate; very broadly 
margined, the margins reflected in front, and bisinuate behind, 
with two deep fovese in the centre of the disk. Elytra not broader 
than the thorax, irregularly and thinly punctate, the punctures 
rather small and disappearing towards the apex, the lateral 
margins narrow and smooth, a shallow fovea on the inner side 
of each humeral callus. Body beneath very nitid and finely 
striolate. 

Long. 5|- lines, lat. 3-1 lines. 

Hah. — Lower Murrumbidsjee, 



"o^ 



60. Pterohel^us convexiusculus, n. sp. 

Ovate, black, sub-nitid, convex. Head rugosely punctate, the 
clypeal suture well marked, the apex broadly and very slightly 
emarginate, the lateral angles a little prominent and reflected. 
Thorax scarcely punctate, the median line rather faintly marked, 
the margins broad, flat and faintly striolate. Elytra of the width 
of the thorax ; parallel-sided and convex, punctured irregularly 
as in the preceding species but more densely, with two large f ovese 
at the base. Body beneath nitid, the presternum carinate from 
the apex. 

Long. 7 lines, lat. 4 lines. 

Hah. — Murrumbidojee. 



"O^ 



61. PTEROHELiEUS THYMALOIDES, PaSCOe. 

Saragus thymaloides, Pascoe, MS. 

Ovate, reddish-brown, sub-nitid, very convex. Head very 
minutely punctate, a small fovea in the middle of the vertex, the 
clypeus truncate with rovmded angles and a slightly recurved 



550 MISCELLANEA ENTOMOLOGICA, NO. IV. 

border. Thorax narrow in front, broad and nearly truncate 
behind, very minutely punctate, the margins expanded, not 
reflexed. Elytra broader than the thorax and not much longer 
than broad, convex, faintly and confusedly striate, and densely 
rugoSe-punctate all over, the margins narrow, almost disappearing 
towards the apex. The under surface and legs brown, nitid and 
striolate. 

Long. 3 lines, lat. 2 lines. 

Hah. — South Australia. 

I received the name of this insect from Mr. Pascoe, years ago, 
but I cannot find that he ever described it. 

I have now, I think, recapitulated all the known species of 
Pterohelceus with the exception of P. planus of Blissington-^- of 
which species I have never seen a description. I have also added 
largely to the number of new species, but I believe there are 
many yet remaining to be described. 

The remaining genera of the Helseides, Helcms, SymiJetes and 
Saragus will form the subject of another Paper. 



*Hor. Soc. Ent. Ross. 1861, p. 90, t. 4, fig. 1. 



DESCRIPTION OF TWO NEW SPECIES OF MAPtSU- 
PIALS {PERAMELES AND ANTECHINUS), AND 
OF A NEW SPECIES OP MUS (M. BURTONI), FROM 
THE NEIGHBOURHOOD OF DERBY, N.W.A. 

By Dr. E. P. Ramsay, F.R.S.E., F.G.S., &c., &c. 

(Plate XVII.) 

For the pleasure of describing the above-named Marsupials, I am 
indebted to the Hon. \V. Macleay, who obtained them from one 
of his collectors (Mr. Froggatt), from Derby, N. W. Australia. 
The Mus I received from the late Thos. Boyer-Bower Esq., from 
the same locality. 

Perameles auratus, sp. nov. 

Total length, 8*5 inches (without tail); fore foot, 1 inch; hind foot, 
2 inches; from tip of snout to .centre of the eye, 1"4 inch ; from 
tip of snout to base of the ear, 2*2 inches ; length of ear 0'7 
inch, width at base 0-5 inch, greatest width 0'7 inch ; tail 
wanting, {represented hy small tubercle 0"5 incli long, probably a 
malformation.) 

General color rich golden brown pencilled with black, on the 
sides of a clearer tint, passing on the throat and belly into white. 
The whole of the upper surface of the body, head and sides pen- 
cilled with narrow black lines formed by the black portions of the 
stiff flattened hairs. Hair of two kinds, the fur next the skin is 
of an ashy white, soft and silky ; the outer hairs flattened, stiff, 
almost spiny ; on the throat, belly, and inner parts of the legs 
white ; on the upper parts of head and back black and rufous; some 
hairs barred alternately, others all black or all rufous, giving a 
pencilled or striated appearance of black and rufous to the upper 
surface ; the ears proportionately broad and short, although con- 
spicuous. There is no trace of bai's on the body. Incisors, 3I3 ; 
Canines, \z{; Premolars, 3Z3; Molars, \z\. 



552 ON TWO NEW SPECIES OP MARSUPIALS FROM DERBY, N.W.A.^ 



Antechinus (Podabrus) froggatti, sp. nov. 

Tail thickened at the base, spindle-formed, gradually tapering 
to the tip. Total length to the root of the tail from the snout, 
3 inches ; from the snout to eye, 0'5 inch ; from tip of snout to 
the ear, 0*8 inch ; length of ear 04 inch, breadth at base 
0'3 inch; fore feet from wrist with nails, 0"3 inch; hind feet 
with nails, 0*55 inch ; greatest diameter of tail about one 
fourth of an inch fi'om the rump 2 inch, its entire length 
2*7 inches ; fur dull mouse-color next the skin. 

General color above light ashy-grey pencilled with black hairs, 
alternately banded or tipped with ashy-grey and black ; sides of 
the head ashy tinged with brown ; forehead and a narrow triangular 
stripe to the nose pencilled with black like the back ; hair behind 
the ear ashy, round the base tinged with tawny rufous ; ears ashy. 
broAvn, almost bai^e ; sides of the -body, chin, throat and all the 
under surface white ; forearms and hands white ; hind legs ashy- 
brown on the thighs, remainder white ; a narrow white line round 
the margin of the mouth ; tail ashy- white, clothed to the tip with 
short hair, and scaled as in other members of the genus ; feet 
lielow almost covered with hair. 

Dentition. — There are two anterior incisors above, larger and 
stronger than the three on either side of them, from which they are 
separate, three below on either side ovate, rounded on their upper 
edge, narrowed at their bases ; canines one on either side above and 
below comparatively large, a space between themand the three lateral 
incisors ; three premolars on either side above and below, rather 
small but increasing in size towards the true molars, which are 
four on either side above and below, the fourth or last being the 
smallest and almost tubercular ; formula. Incisors, gZ^ ; Canines,, 
iZi ; Premolars, sZil ; Molars, 



4—4 
4-4' 



BY DR. E. P. RAMSAY, F.R.S.E., &C. 553 

MUS BURTONI, Sp. 710V. 

(Plate XVII.) 

General color of a uniform dull ashy-grey or mouse-colour, fur 
dense, close, thick and soft, of one kind, almost woolly, slightly 
browner above than on the under surface, which is of a light grey 
tint ; head rather short ; ears moderate ; tail naked, not quite the 
length of the body ; whiskers black reaching to behind the ears ; 
from snout to eye, 0'7 inch ; from snout to ear, 1*2 inches ; 
length of ear 0'65 inch, greatest width 0"45 inch ; forearm, 
0'7 ; hand, 0*45 ; hind foot, 1 inch; tail, 4:"1 inches ; total length 
from snout to tip of tail, 8"9 inches. 

The chief characteristic in this species is its remarkably woolly 
and soft fur, and uniform colour. The skull being broken and only 
the anterior parts with a portion of tne dentition being left I 
can make no notes thereon ; the very accurate figures, however, 
will help in its identification. I have named this species after 
Mr. Burton who accompanied the late Thos. Boyer-Bower, Esq., 
as taxidermist to North West Australia. 



554 ON THE EGGS OF TWO SPECIES OF AUSTRALIAN BIRDS, 



DESCRIPTIONS OF THE EGGS OF TWO SPECIES OF 
AUSTRALIAN BIRDS. 

By a. J. North. 

No. 1. Mblanodryas picata, Gould. 

This bird has a wide range over the Continent of Australia, 
specimens having been procured together with the nest and eggs 
by Mr. James Ramsay in October, 1876 near Bourke, New South 
Wales ; and last year both Mr. Cairn and the late Mr. T. H. 
Boyer-Bower obtained several specimens about 80 miles inland 
from Derby, North- Western Australia. The nest is a small shallow 
structure, composed of strips of bark, grasses, and roots, held 
together on the outside with cobwebs, and placed on the dead 
branch of a tree within a few feet of the ground. Eggs two in 
number for a sitting, one specimen (A) being of a dark asparagus 
green faintly tinged with brown on the larger end ; the other (B), 
with the exception of the smaller end which shows the asparagus 
green ground coloui', is shaded over all with rich brown, more 
particularly towards the larger end, which is entirely capped with 
a darker tint of the same colour. Length (A), 0*8 x 0-59 inch ; 
(B), 0-78 X 0-6 inch. {From the Bohr. Mus. Coll.) 

No. 2. EuDYNAMis CYANOCEPHALA, Latham. 

(E. flindersi, Gould). 

Mr. George Masters obtained an egg of this species at Gayndah, 
Queensland, on the 25th of November, 1870. Having shot a 
female and broken her wing, while pursuing it on the ground the 
egg was dropped. It is a pointed oval in form, of a dull white 



BY A. J. NORTH. 555 

niinutelj spotted with light brown, together with a few faint 
blotches here and there of pnrplish-brown, the smaller end being 
entirely devoid of markings. Whether this is the normal colovir 
of the egg is yet to be proved, as the egg being dropped by the 
bird when wounded, and the markings very faint, it is probable 
that it may not have been quite ready for laying. Long diameter 
1*4 inch, short diameter 1"05 inch. (From the Atis. Mus. Coll.) 

A photograph of this egg, sent by Dr. Geo. Bennett, F.Z.S., of 
Sydney, was exhibited at the June meeting of the Zoological 
Society of London, 1873. See P.Z.S., 1S73, p. 519. 



556 KOTES AND EXHIBITS. 



NOTES AND EXHIBITS, 



Mr. Maiden exhibited specimens of the Sago and Tobacco referred 
to in his paper, together with a specimen of the New South Wales 
Nicotiana sttaveolens for comparison. Photographs taken by Mr. 
Bevan, shewing the method of preparing the sago, were also shown. 

Dr. Katz exhibited pieces of a Ham in which were foimd 
scattered small white, irregularly shaped nodules consisting of 
carbonate of lime. Microscopic examination revealed nothing 
of the existence of parasites at these spots. It was not im- 
probable that these calcareous deposits had originated from the 
presence of a kind of vegetable micro-organism (Actinomyces)^ 
which has lately been described by Dunker and Hertwig, and 
which is said to occur frequently in certain muscles of the pig, 
whei'e it forms small whitish corpuscles. It gives rise to patho- 
logical changes in the flesh afiected, so as to make it unfit for 
human food. 

Mr. Macleay exhibited two Snakes which Mr. Froggatt had 
lately sent him from Port Darwin, (1) Brachysoma si7nile, 
Macleay, and (2) Furina textilis, Dum. <fe Bibr. This last species, 
he stated, had been described by Dumei'il and Bibron many years 
ago as Australian, but had been omitted from Krefft's and sul)se- 
quent lists, from a mistaken idea originating, he believed, with Mr. 
KrefFt, that it was identical with the young barred specimens of 
the common brown Snake Diemenia stiperciliosa. This redis- 
covery of the species by Mr. Froggatt terminates all doubt on 
this subject. 

Mr. Macleay also exhibited a small .ffoplocephalus from Cooma, 
almost identical in appearance with llojylocephalus Jlagellum, 
M'Coy, a Melbourne species, but differing in the number of sub- 
caudal plates, and in the form of the head shields. It would be 
necessary to examine a number of specimens before A'enturing to 
constitute it a distinct species. 



NOTES AND EXHIBITS. 557 

The President exhibited a Fairy Stone, or siderite concretion, 
■of a singularly artificial appearance, which was probably due to 
the axis of the concretion being perpendicular to the plane of 
stratification of the shale in which it had been formed. 

Also a rude Stone Axe or Mogo from the lower Namoi, the 
material of which was a kind of Quartzite formed partly of 
rounded and transparent sand grains, and partly of angular quartz. 
It appeared to have been formed by the deposit of siliceous matter 
in a bed of river sand by the percolating water of a hot spring. 

Mr. Fletcher exhibited a small collection of plants collected by 
Mr. Froggatt at Derby, N. W. Australia. 

Mr. North exhibited the eggs described in his paper. 

Mr. Masters exhibited a collection of Insects from Derby, 
King's Sound, made by Mr. Froggatt in May last. Of Coleoptera 
there were 240 species, more than half of them new, but, with 
very few exceptions, of typical Australian genera. Small Cara- 
bidce were numerous, but Buprestidce, Getoniidce and other antho- 
philous beetles were very few. 

He also exhibited from the same collection some Orthoptera, 
Hemiptera and Homoptera of peculiar form and appearance. 



WEDNESDAY, 28th SEPTEMBER, 1887. 



The Yice-President, Dr. J. C. Cox, F.L.S., in the Chair. 



Mr. J. C. Neill was present as a visitor. 



MEMBER ELECTED. 



The Rev. Robert Collie, F.L.S., was elected a Member of the 
Society. 



The Chairman announced that the following Excursions had 
been arranged for the ensuing month : — 

(1.) October 1st — Members to meet at the Botany Tram 
Terminus, at 10-30 a.m. for a walk via La Perouse to 
Long Bay. {Note. — A tram leaves Bridge Street for 
Botany at 9-20 a.m.) 

(2.) October 8th — Members to meet at Manly at 11 a.m. 
to proceed to Narrabeen. 

(3.) October 15th — Members to meet at Lucasville, near 
Zig-zag, on the arrival of the train leaving Sydney at 
9 a.m. 

(4.) October 22nd — Members to meet at Botany Pier on the 
arrival of the 9*20 a.m. tram from Bridge Street. Steamer 
provided. 



DONATIONS. 559 



DONATIONS. 

" Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London for the year 
1887." Parti. From tJie Society. 

" Mittheilungen aus der Zoologischen Station zu Neapel." Band 
YII., Heft 2 (1887). From the Director. 

"Comptes Eendus des Seances de I'Academie des Sciences, 
Paris." Tome CIV., Nos. 24 and 25 (1887). From the Academy. 

" Diagnoses d'Especes Nouvelles et Catalogue des Especes 
Frangaises de la Tribu des Armadilliens, (Crustaces Isopodes 
Terrestres)" par Adrien Dollfus. From the Author. 

" Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute, 
1886." Vol. XIX. From the Institute. 

" The Victorian Naturalist." Vol. IV., No. 5 (September, 
1887). From the Field Naturalists' Club of Victoria. 

" Zoologischer Anzeiger." X Jahrg., Nos. 257, 258 (1887). 
From the Editor. 

" Descriptions of some new Queensland Plants." By F. M. 
Bailey, F.L.S., &c. From the Author. 

"Revne Coloniale Internationale." Tome V., No. 2 (August, 
1 887). De la part de V Association Coloniale Neerlandaise a Amster- 
dam' 

" Feuille des Jeunes Naturalistes." No. 202 (August, 1887). 
From the Editor. 

Nomenclature of Japanese Plants in Latin, Japanese, and 
Chinese ; (Nippon Shokubutsumeii"). By J. Matsumura. From 
the Rev. J. E. Tenison-Woods, F.G.S., dx. 

" Woods and Forests of Tasmania — Annual Pteport, 1886-7." 

By George S. Perrin, F.L.S., Conservator of Forests. Fro7n the 

Conservator of Forests. 
36 



560 DONATIONS. 

" Bulletins du Comity Geologique, St. Petersbourg, 1887." Tome 
VI., Nos. 6 and 7 ;" " Supplement au Tome VI. des Bulletins du 
Comit6 Geologique," (1887) ; " Memoires du Comite G^ologique." 
Tome IV., No. 1 (1887). De la jyart du Comite. 

"Bulletin de la Societe Royale de Botanique de Belgique. 
Tome XXVI., Fasc. 1 (1887). Frotn tlie Society. 

" Journal of the Boyal Microscopical Society, 1887." Part 4 
(August). From the Society. 

•'The Scottish Geographical Magazine." Vol. III., No. 8 
(August, 1887). From the Hon. W. Macleay, F.L.S. 

"Bulletin de la Societe Beige de Microscopie." 13me. Annee 
No. VIII. F7-om the Society. 

" Register of Papers published in " The Tasmanian Journal " 
and the Papers and Proceedings of the Royal Society of Tasmania, 
from the year 1841 to 1885," Compiled by Alexander Morton, 
Assistant Secretary and Librarian. From the Society. 

** The Australasian Journal of Pharmacy." Vol. IL, No. 21 
(September, 1887). From the Editor. 

" Supplementary Catalogue of Books added to the Parliamentary 
Library, Adelaide, from August 1st, 1886, to July 31st, 1887." 
From the Parliamentary Librarian. 



PAPERS READ. 

DESCRIPTIONS OF NEW AUSTRALIAN FISHES. 

By E. p. Ramsay, F.R.S.E., &c., and J. Douglas Ogilby. 

[Notes from the Australian Museum). 

Opisthognathus inornatus, sp. nov. 

B. VI. : D. 12/16 : A. 2/14: V. 1/5 : P. 21 : C. 14. 

Length of head 3, of caudal fin 5, height of body 4^ in the 
total length. Eye — diameter 3^ in length of head, ^ a diameter 
from the end of snout, and \ of a diameter apart. Greatest 
width of head equals I of its length. The maxilla is dilated and 
rounded posteriorly, it does not quite reach to the preopercular 
angle, and is j of the length of head. Opercles with two weak 
spines. Teeth — jaws with an outer row of strong curved teeth : 
behind these in the upper jaw is a band of similar but much 
smaller teeth, the inner row being slightly the largest, while the 
small teeth extend back in a gradually narrowing band as far as the 
■enlarged outer row : in the lower jaw the inner band only extends 
a short way on each side of the symphysis, and its inner row is 
almost as well developed as the outer. Fins — dorsal spines 
weak ; the posterior rays about twice the height of the highest 
spine. Pectoral fin 7, ventral * of the length of the head. 
Scales — very small. The lateral line ceases beneath the ninth 
dorsal ray. Colors — uniform brown. 

We received two examples of this species from Derby, whence 
they were brought by Mr. C. Lees. Their respective measure- 
ments are 9|^ and 11 inches. Register numbers, I. 841,-2. 

COSSYPHUS BELLIS, Sp. nOV. 

B. VI : D. 12/11 : A. 3/12 : V. 1/5 : P. 17 : C. 14 : L. lat. 32. 
L. tr. 5/13. 

Length of head 3J, of caudal fin 51, height of body 3| in the 
total length. Uye — Diameter 4^ in the length of the head, 1| in 



562 DESCRIPTIONS OF NEW AUSTRALIAN FISHES, 

that of the snout, and 1^ apart. The greatest height of the head 
is equal to its length without tlie snout. The maxilla extends to 
the vertical from the anterior mai^gin of the orbit. Teeth — Both 
jaws are armed anteriorly with two pairs of canines, the inner 
pair of the lower jaw being much smaller than the outer, while 
the corresponding pair in the upper jaw are rather larger : a lateral 
row of strong compressed svibulate teeth, inside of which are 
several irregular rows of minute granulose teeth. A posterior 
canine. The vertical limb and angle of the preopercle finely- 
serrated. Fins — Dorsal spines strong, the last the longest, i of 
the length of the head ; the rays (5-8) much longer than the 
spines. The third anal spine slightly longer than the twelfth 
dorsal ; all three very strong. Pectoral fin rounded posteriorly, f 
of the length of the head ; ventrals shorter than the pectorals, 
none of the rays produced ; caudal emarginate. Scales — Six rows 
on the opercles, seven on the cheeks. Colors — Pale i^ed on the 
back and sides, yellowish below ; each scale with a darker longi- 
tudinal mark forming narrow bands along the sides ; two broader 
bright red bands take their rise from the posterior margin of the 
eye, and gradually diverge till opposite the middle of the spinous 
dorsal, whence they run parallel to oj)posite the middle of soft 
dorsal where they cease ; they are interrupted, forming oblong 
spots ; axil blight red. 

This beautiful fish was obtained at Shoalhaven during the last 
week of July, and sent from there to the Sydney market, whence 
it passed into our hands. It measured nearly eleven inches, and 
showed no signs of spawning. Register number, T. 1362. 

Triciiiurus coxii, sp. nov. 

B. VII. : D. 140 : P. 11 : Ccec. pyl. 25. 

Length of head 8, height of body 16| in the total length. 
Eye — diameter 6|^ in the length of the head, and rather more 
than two diameters from the end of the snout. Interorbital 
space flat, 5 of a diameter of the eye. Lower jaw much the 
longer ; the maxilla reaches to the vertical from the middle of the 
eye. Occiput with a shai'p central ridge terminating behind in a 



BY E. P. RAMSAY, F.R.S.E., &C., AND J. DOUGLAS-OGILBY, 563 

prominent point. Teeth — upper jaw with two pairs of strong 
barbed anterior canines, and eight siiarp compressed teeth in each 
ramus ; twelve similar teeth in the lower jaw, those immediately 
behind the first pair being much smaller than the postei'ior ones : 
a band of minute teeth on the palatines. Fins — the dorsal com- 
mences above the preopercle ; its greatest height is equal to the 
distance between its base and the lateral line : pectoral short, 
obliquely truncate behind, rather less than \ of the length of 
head. The free portion of the tail exactly equals the length of 
the head. The distance between the snout and the anus is ^^ of 
the total length. Colors — silvery : a black blotch between 1st 
and 4th dorsal rays ; the outer half of the dorsal fin dark grey 
throughout its entire length. Pectoral fins blackish, except near 
the base. Inside of mouth black, Iiides silvery. 

We are indebted to Dr. James Cox for the specimen above 
described, which was sent to him from Broken Bay, during the 
month of July last, and measured 37^ inches. Register number, 
I. 1342. 

Neopempheris pectoralis, sp. nov. 

B. VI. : D. 4/17 : A. 3/26 : V. 1/5 : P. 17 : C. 17 : L. 1. 74 : 
L. tr. 11/10.* 

Length of head 55, of caudal fin 4?, height of body 3^ in the 
total length. Eye — diameter Sg in the length of the head, with 
well developed adipose lids, the posterior of which passes beyond 
the edge of the iris, while the anterior does not quite reach it ; 
snout obtuse, about f of the diameter of the eye, and a trifle less 
than the interorbital space, which is slightly convex, as is also 
the upper pi'ofile of the head. The greatest width of the head 
equals % of its length, and its lieight is but little less than the 
same. The maxilla reaches considerably beyond the hinder 
margin of the eye, and is concealed beneath the preorbital during 
the anterior three-fifths of its length, the posterior two-fifths 
being falciform. Preopercular angle slightly produced ; the lower 
limb feebly serrated. Teeth — both jaws with numerous rows of 

* Counted from origin of dorsal fin to base of anal. 



564 DESCRIPTIONS OP NEW AUSTRALIAN FISHES. 

small cardiform teeth, which are of equal size in the upper jaw^ 
but in the lower increase in size from without, the inner row 
being much the strongest and inclined backwards : vomer, palate, 
and tongue with patches of villiform teeth. Fins — the dorsal 
commences much nearer to the base of the caudal than to the tip 
of the snout ; its anterior rays are highest, but little shorter than 
the head, the last seven rays of about equal length, giving a 
deeply concave appearance to the outer edge of the fin : the 
anterior anal rays are half the length of the base of the fin, which 
commences in front of the origin of the dorsal : ventrals short, 
reaching half-way to the origin of the anal ; an elongate pointed 
scale at the outside of the base, and a single similar scale between 
them ; pectoral rather shorter than the head, reaching to the 
vertical from the 24th scale of the lateral line ; its posterior 
margin slightly concave ; caudal deeply emarginate. Scales — 
rather small, finely ctenoid, and firmly adherent ; entire head, except 
a small patch on the snout, covered with scales ; dorsal, anal, and 
pectoral fins scaly to their tips : there are fourteen rows of scales 
between lateral line and vent. Lateral line — sinuous to above 
the vent, from whence it runs straight to the middle of the base 
of the caudal. PseudobrancMce — well developed. Gill-rakers — 
of moderate length, and slender. Colors — silvery, the back 
with brilliant blue reflections ; fins dusky. 

The single specimen which we possess, and from which the above 
description is taken, was obtained during the recent expedition to 
New Guinea, led by Mr. T. Be van, by jumping into their boat, 
the locality being about thirty miles up the Aird River from its 
mouth. Register number, I. 1308. 

Though undoubtedly having a very close resemblance to the 
previously described Neopemjiheris 7'amsayi, Macleay, from 
Rockingham Bay, the type of which is also in the Australian 
Museum, this species differs in many particulars from the older 
form, and may be distinguished from it at a glance by the absence 
of the black doi"sal spot so conspicuous in Mr. Macleay's fish ; 
while the shape of the lateral line and the much larger pectoral 
tins of our fish also furnish easy distinguishing characters. 



FLOWERING SEASONS OF AUSTRALIAN PLANTS. 



By E. Haviland, F.L.S. 



No. 7. — List op Plants flowering in the neighbourhood of 

Sydney during the months op January, February, and 

March, in addition to those enumerated in former 

Lists. 

January. 

Umbelliferse — 

Siebera stephensonii 
ericoides 



Menispermese — 

Ste2')hania hernanclifolia 
Pittosporese — 

Bursaria spinosa 
Droseraceee — 

Drosera hinata 

spathulata 
Polygalefe — 

Comesperma defoliatum 
Meliacepe — 

Melia coviposita 
Tiliacese — 

Elceocaiyus cyaneus 
Viniferse — 

Vitis hypoglauca 
LeguminosK — 

Zor7iia diphylla 

Desmodium hrachypodium 
Rosacese — 

Bubios parvi/lorus 
Myrtace^e — 

Melaleuca styphelioides 

Tristania laurina 



Hydrocotyle vulgaris 
Santalacese — 

Exocarpus cupressi/ormis 
Loranthacese — 

Loranthus celastroides 
Compositse — 

Senecio vagus 
Goodeniacese — 

Scoivola suaveolens 

Goodenia ovata 
Scrophularinese — 

Herpestis monnieria 

Mimulus repens 
Lentibularinese — 

Utricularia uniflora 
hiloha 
Epacrideas — 

Leucop)og(yn virgatus 
Orchidese — 

Cryptostylis erecta 

Orthoceras strictum 



566 



FLOWERING SEASONS OF AUSTRALIAN PLANTS. 



February. 



Malvaceae — 

Sida rhombifolia 
Viniferse — 

Vitis clematidea 
Salsolacese — 

Suceda maritima 
Amarantacese — 

Alternanthera denticulata 
Polygonaceae — 

Polygonum strigosum 
suhsessile 
Legiiminosse — 

Desmodium rhytidophyllum 
Myrtacese — 

Eugenia Smithii 
Rhamnacefe — 

Cryptandra ericifolia 



Umbelliferse — 

Daucus brachiatus 

Xa7ithosia loilosa 
Santalacese — 

Exocarpus stricta 
Compositse — 

Cassinia aurea 
Scrophularinese — 

Gratiola peruviana 
Acanthaceae — 

Eranthemum variahile 
Liliaceae — 

Eusbiephus Brownii 
Orcliidese — 

Spii'anthes australis 



March. 



Meliaceae — 

Synoum glandulosum 
Sapindacese — 

Dodoncea triquetra 
Leguminosse — 

Lotus australis 
IJmbelliferfe — 

Siebera Billardieri 



Santalaceee — 

Leptomeria acida 
Verbenacese — 

Avicennia officinalis 
Epacridefe — 

TrocJiocarpa laurina 



^ 



ON MICRO-ORGANISMS IN TISSUES OF DISEASED 

HORSES. 

By Dr. Oscar Katz. 

Under date March 22nd last, Mr. E. Stanley, Veterinary Surgeon 
to the Government of New South Wales, reported on a disease 
which broke out among horses in the south-west of this colony, 
causing an alarming mortality among them. It would seem as if 
the disease was first noticed at Mingary, South Australia, early in 
December, 1886, but it is uncertain whether the horses attacked 
came from that colony or from New South^Wales. It commenced 
to spread through railway contractors' teams, of which 40 animals 
out of 150 succumbed. There was at the time plenty of horse- 
labour employed, owing to the construction of a railway from Peters- 
burgh (S.A.), to Silverton (N.S.W.), as well as to the extensive 
mining industries along the Barrier Ranges, and horse-owners 
not knowing anything about the character of the sickness and its 
treatment, being also anxious to escape the infected spots, caused 
the disorder to invade remote districts on the River Darling, and 
to 20 down to the south as far as Port Pirie. It is also said to have 
been carried by sea to Albany, Western Australia. At Silverton, 
a town in one of the silver-mining districts of the Barrier Ranges, 
it made its appearance on January 12th, 1887>and it was to this 
place that. Mr. Stanley went to investigate it. 

He describes it as an " epizootic contagious fever," the conta- 
gious matter of which, given off by the diseased through serous 
discharges from the body-orifices, principally those of the head, 
and through the faeces, is taken up by healthy individuals through 
contaminated food (water included). It does not affect other 
animals or man. Although resembling, to some extent, certain 



568 ON MICRO-ORGANISMS IN TISSUES OF DISEASED HORSES, 

horse-diseases known under the terms of "epizootic cellulitis," 
" rheumatic influenza," " pinkeye," " purpura haemorrhagica," 
"epizootic pneumonia," it difiers from all of them considerably. 

" The disease shows a disturbance of the vascular system, with 
alterations in the character of the blood which cause obstructions 
in the capillary vessels, followed by haemorrhagic spots, accom- 
panied by organic complications, more or less severe." 

The characteristic symptoms are : rapid pulse and breathing, high 
body-temperature, highly inflamed eyes, swollen head and limbs, 
rapid loss of flesh, associated with great debility. 

Mild forms of the fever occur ; convalescence after severe attacks 
progresses very slowly. The mortality was about 10 to 15 per 
cent, during the inquiry. 

About the period of incubation the report says : — " From the 
time of exposure to infection, from three days to three weeks " 
(that means to say, as I understand it, from the moment of expo- 
sure, which may in a number of cases cover the moment of infection, 
till the first symptoms are discovered). 

The pathological anatomy is as follows : — 

" Hfemorrhagic spots and stellate patches of inflammation are 
difl'used over both serous and mucous surfaces, effusions of serous 
lymph, and adhesive inflammation of the coverings of the lungs, 
heart, liver, and spleen ; also serous efiusions into cellular tissues 
of the limbs and head. In fatal cases, the inflammation is so 
intense as to obstruct the circulation ; local mortification is speedily 
followed by death." 

Post mortem examinations were made on four cases, with the 
following result : — 

1. "Coach horse. Putrid lungs." 

2. " Teamster's hack. Pleuritic inflammation and gelatinous 
effusion covering the pei'icardial sac ; also slight enlargement and 
inflammation of the spleen." 



BY DR. OSCAR KATZ. 569 

3. " Teamster's mare, 5 years old. Ill three or four weeks. 
The spleen was very much enlarged and honey-combed, with puru- 
lent matter, and the lymphatic glands genei'ally inflamed." 

4. " Hack mare, 3 years old, foal at foot, ill about three weeks, 
with a spleen in the same condition." 

" The small intestines in every case were healthy." 
In two (Nos. 3 and 4) out of these cases Mr. Stanley preserved 
some pieces of spleen and some lymphatic (mesenteric) glands ; 
besides he secured in capillary tubes, which were afterwards closed, 
samples of vein-blood, withdrawn from the living animal during 
the height of the fever. All these specimens were handed to me 
for examination from the Department of Stock, some time ago.. 
I communicated my report to the Chief Inspector of Stock, but 
being of opinion that the subject under notice might be of some 
interest to members of this Society, and that a somewhat fuller 
account published in its Proceedings, might help in either 
identifying the disease as a possibly known one, or recognising it, 
if not so, in case it should make its appearance elsewhere, I wish 
to say what follows. 

The fragments of spleen and the lymphatic glands were — so I 
was informed on inquiry — secured immediately after the death of' 
the patients, and at once transferred to methylated spirits. About 
three months having elapsed wlien I obtained for examination 
these specimens, which were pretty well hardened, I did not think 
it necessary to try to cultivate any micro-organisms out of them ;. 
and I may as well state beforehand that the character of the micro- 
organisms found in sections, did not admit of any positive result. 
So I proceeded to prepare a series of sections, some time after 
having changed the methylated spirits for absolute alcohol. 

1 shall speak first of the result of the examination of the 
mesenteric glands. 

Sufiiciently and uniformly stained sections (for instance by 
Loeffler's alkaline methylene blue or by bismarck brown) exhibited 



570 ON MICRO-ORGANISMS IN TISSUES OF DISEASED HORSES 



under high powers of the miscroscope, at first glance, two morpho- 
logically different forms of bacteria. Their relative number to one 
another was not the same in all the preparations made ; in this 
section the one, in that section the other was predominant ; 
in others again both were nearly equally distributed. Gener- 
ally speaking, their numbers were enormous throughout, notably 
in the surrounding tissue or capsule of the organs in ques- 
tion, where they were packed in dense masses. Tn the interior 
of the gland they were found partly detached or in short lines, 
partly grouped in small colonies, or forming elongated, straight or 
curved tracts, an appearance which would make it probable that 
they were located in capillary vessels. 

The first of these bacterial forms is very conspicuous by its size 
as well as by its behaviour when treated with aniline dyes. It is 
a bacillus, about "OOS-'OOiS mm. long, (that is on the average 
somewhat more than half the diameter of a human red blood- 
corpuscle), and about '001 mm. wide. It has cylinder-shape, 
rounded ofi" at the extremities ; some few specimens show the central 
part or that part towards one of the ends very slightly thickened 
or swollen. On being stained and mounted lege artis, the bacilli 
offer a most peculiar appearance. There are two portions or 
divisions easily distinguishable in them. The one, of from a third 
to a half of the length of the entire rods, stands out very promi- 
nently by being deeply stained ; it occupies the one end of the 
latter, and it is only seldom that this portion is situated some little 
distance away from the end part of that half of the rods. The 
other portion or division proves to be stained only at its periphery, 
and only very faintly. In this way the organisms appear as capitate 
rods, yet the width of the chromatophilous heads does not exceed 
that of the rods in general. One might also say, these microbes 
appear, in the coloured preparations, under the image of a sheath 
which contains that intensely coloured portion at one end. This 



BY DR. OSCAR KATZ. 571 

portion cannot be a spore, because it can be stained by the 
ordinary aniline dyes within a short time, and without further 
trouble. 

Noteworthy is that these bacilli retain the colour on being 
treated after Gram's method (solution of aniline water and gentian- 
violet ; solution of iodine in iodide of potassium; absol. alcohol). On 
being stained with aniline water — gentian-violet, or — fuchsin, and 
then transferred to a solution of hydrochloric acid (as used in 
staining tubercle-bacilli), they give off the colour again. Double 
or contrast stains may easily be obtained. Tolerably fair prepara- 
tions were obtained by a dilute solution of gentian-violet, and by 
after-staining with picro-lithion-carmine. Far better results, 
however, were derived from transferring the sections first to a 
solution of picro-lithion-carmine for -^-| of an hour, at about 
30°C., next, after having been washed a short while in dilute 
alcohol, to aniline-gentian-violet (s. above), for half-an-hour at the 
same temperature ; hereafter rinsing a little with alcohol, then 
allowing Gram's solution of iodine to act for about one minute and 
a-half ] absol. alcohol; oil of cloves; Canada balsam.* The micro- 
organisms then appear dark blue on a pinkish underground. Ecpally 
satisfactory and very instructive preparations are obtainable by 
first colouring the section with aniline-gentian-violet for about | 
of an hour at about 30°C. ; washing a moment in alcohol, then 
using the iodine-solution for one minute and a-half ; absol. alcohol 
until colour is no longer given off; dilute watery solution of eosine 
for 1-2 minutes ; mixtvire of absol. alcohol and oil of cloves ; oil 
of cloves; Canada balsam. f After this process the organisms 
come out deeply blue, while the tissue-elements (and another form 
of bacteria, s. below), assume a handsome pink colour. 



*Cf. Biondi, Die pathogenen Micro-organismen des Speichels. Zeitschr. 
f. Hygiene. Band II., Heft 2, Leipzig, 1887, p. 201. 

tCf. Biondi, I.e. 



•572 ON MICRO-ORGANISMS IN TISSUES OP DISEASED HORSES, 

Finally, after having stained the sections after Gram (see 
above), I have tried successfully a contrast stain by means 
of dilute solutions of vesuvin or bismarck-brown, in which 
•the sections were kept about one minute. Afterwards I found 
the bacilli under consideration again of an intense blue, the 
tissue yellowish brown. Among the bacilli there were, here and 
there, specimens in which that portion showing but a faint colour 
reaction, and losing this little of colour by Gram's method, presents 
now a distinct though faint brownish or yellowish tint, in contra- 
distinction to the other portion with its intense blue colour. 

The second form of bacteria are also bacilli of the same leusth. 
but as a rule, of only about one-half to two-thirds of the width of the 
former. As regards their outlines and their relation to the tissue, 
they behave in much the same way as those, with which they are 
either mixed or not. But their protoplasmic contents do not 
exhibit that peculiar differentiation into two portions as seen there ; 
here and there, it is true, specimens occurred which presented a 
granular or fragmentary protoplasmic interior. 

Without attempting to utter a definite opinion as to whether 
this bacterial form No. II. is a kind by itself, or merely represents 
a certain stage in the development of the other. No, I., I surmise 
that the latter is the case, seeing that the staining reaction of 
Bacilkis II. resembles that of part of Bacillus I., and finding also, 
■on close examination, apparently transition-forms between the two. 
In sections which were stained after Gram's process, and after- 
wards by brown colours (see above), I noticed that a great many 
bacilli, which otherwise resembled No. I., differed from them by 
having the chromatophilovis portion less distinct, and now taken 
possession of by a brownish colour. 

The question whether these bacteria occurring in the mesenteric 
elands, must be regarded as the cause or one of the causes of the 
horse-disease at issue, or whether they had made their appearance in 
those organs after the appearance of the disease, but during the life 



BY DR. OSCAR KATZ. 573 

of the respective individuals, cannot be definitely settled by what 
I was able to ascertain. However, it is not at all impossible, and 
I rather incline to that view, that as in typhoid fever, the 
occurrence of these micro-oi'ganisms in the mesenteric glands 
may be interpreted. I do not think it probable for them to be 
merely accidental. I want especially to draw attention to the 
peculiar morphological features of the bacteria, which I do not 
remember to have ever seen in preparations or figures, or noticed 
in descriptions. 

Sections out of the fragments of spZeew, which oflfered on the 
cut-surface a marbled or "honey-combed" appearance, caused by 
greyish-dirty necrotised masses alternating with brownish-red tissue 
(as seen in alcohol), yielded no such bacteria as did the mesenteric 
glands, but more or less numerous aggregations of another kind. 
It consists of streptococci. They readily stain with aniline dyes, 
for instance Loeffler's alkaline methylene-blue. On employing 
Oram's method (s. above), one finds them to remain coloured, and 
it is in this way that one procures the finest and most instructive 
preparations. In a section thus prepared one sees, at a low amplifica- 
cation (for instance of 70 diam.), a number of deep-blue foci amid 
the yellowish-grey tissue of the spleen, and irregularly distributed in 
the same. In some preparations they were very plentiful, in 
others scarce. They are of an irregular, roundish or elongated 
shape, in the latter case up to '3 mm. long, whereas the smallest 
groups measure '01 mm. and still less. Under high powers these 
groups or foci are found to be made up of aggregations of minute, 
about -00045 mm. large, isodiametrical cocci (hence they are about 
the fourteenth part of the diameter of a human red blood-corpuscle). 
As a rule, they form more or less elongated stx'ings or chains, 
which are interlaced with one another in different ways. Such 
chains are especially distinct at the margins of the aggregations ; 
in the interior of the latter, particularly if dense, the micrococci are 
often isolated or in two's. Besides these masses which, as such, can 



574 ON MICRO-ORGANISMS IN TISSUES OF DISEASED HORSES, 

be rendered visible by low magnifications, one observes in going 
over the sections with an immersion-lens, detached chains in large 
numbers. They look very delicate, are bent differently, and 
embrace in some cases up to 30 links. These do not touch each 
other immediately, but are separated from each other by bright 
interspaces o£ about half the diameter of the cocci. 

Their occurrence in the spleen extends not only to the necrotic 
parts, but also, though apparently less numerous, to the tissue 
which still contains well colourable nuclei; in sections stained 
with alkaline methylene-blue there were some groups of the 
streptococci undoubtedly disintegrated or about to disintegrate. 
We are, I think, pretty well justified in assuming that the presence 
of these necrotic masses in the spleen is due to the action of the 
described micrococci. We have analogies enough of this kind. 
But whether or not these micro-organisms are identical with 
one of the kinds of streptococci already known as infectious to 
man and animals {e. g. Sirejjtococcus pyogenes) is impossible to 
decide after the mere morphological appearances of the concerning 
micro-organisms. Although the size of the streptococci under treat- 
ment is larger than that of the known kinds of infectious strepto- 
cocci, yet this criterion cannot be regarded as absolutely decisive. 

Finally a few words about the sample of blood alluded to in the 
beginning. 

This blood had been withdrawn from a living individual while 
in the acute stage of the fever, into capillary tubes, which were 
afterwards hermetically closed. When I went to examine it for 
micro-organisms, it had been in the tubes for about four months. 
To the naked eye it appeared as a homogeneous liquid. 

One portion of it I stained, and examined it under the microscope 
with the result that a moderate number of micrococci were found, 
which were arranged in small heaps without forming chains 



BY DR. OSCAR KATZ, 675 

These organisms, being besides a little lai-ger than the strep- 
tococci in the spleen, are therefore morphologically different 
from the latter. 

Another portion of the blood was used for cultivation purposes. 

On being transferred on an inclined surface of nutrient gelatine 

in test-tubes, it gave rise to a pure culture of micrococci similar to 

those in the blood. The cultures grew but slowly, being at the 

beginning greyish, then orange, and ultimately assuming a bright 

coral-red colour. The cultures did not liquefy the gelatine. They 

resembled to some extent, Micrococcus cinnahareus (Fliigge, Micro- 

organismeu; Leipzig, 1886, p. 174), and had, so to say, not the look 

of being infectious. Still I inoculated with such gelatine-cultures 

of the first, second, and third generations, six house-mice subcutane- 

ously, of which four died, one of them after somewhat less than 

twenty-four hours, one within 30-44 hours, the third after forty-five 

hours, and the fourth after ten days. I doubt whether the inoculated 

culture had anything to do with the death of this latter animal. 

With some heart-blood of the first-mentioned mouse, which died 

in less than twenty -four hours, another mouse was infected ; it died 

after about twenty-four hours. In this way I continued to inoculate 

from mouse to mouse in two other cases ; death each time ensued 

after about the same time (twenty-four hours). Want of mice 

caused me to interrupt those experiments. There were no 

characteristic or constant pathological changes noticeable in the 

organs of the dead animals. A microscopic examination of, and 

cultivation experiments with, blood and sap of organs yielded 

negative results. The inoculated micrococci were never found 

there ; however from the place of inoculation these micro-organisms 

were obtained. According to this result, no infection had taken 

place in the mice experimented upon, and the fatal results with 

most of them must be considered due to some toxic substance or 

substances elaborated by the multiplying organisms. Tliese, then, 

ai-e not infectious, at least not for mice ; no doubt they were 
37 



576 ON MICRO-ORGANISMS IN TISSUES OF DISEASED HORSES. 

derived from germs which, as contamination, found their way into 
the capillary tubes, somehow or other, when the sample of blood 
was collected. Here they grew for some time till the supply of 
oxygen present was exhausted. It is remarkable that they 
revived, after four months' imprisonment in the hermetically sealed 
tubes, on being transferred onto fresh nutrient material. I may 
mention, without any further going into details of the behaviour 
of this kind of micrococcus^ that, when some of the original 
blood containing it, was uniformly distributed in liquefied gelatine 
(1*5 p.c. grape sugar in it), which was then solidified, colonies 
made their appearance only at the gelatine-surface, and a little 
below it ; but here they remained insignificant. Thus this pigment- 
producing microbe furnishes another example of exclusively aerobic 
bacteria. 



OBSERVATIONS ON THE EARLY STAGES IN THE 
DEVELOPMENT OF THE EMU {DROM^US NOYJE- 
UOLLANDI.E) 

By William A. Haswell, M.A., D.Sc, F.L.S., Lecturer on 
Zoology and Comparative Anatomy, University of Sydney. 

(Plates viii.-xv.) 

The number of works and papers on the development of birds 
is so great that an apology would almost seem to be required for 
adding one more to the list. But while the common fowl, pigeon, 
sparrow, thrush, nightingale, red-breast, canary, tit, lapwing, 
thick-knee, plover, duck, goose, tern, sea-gull, and some others 
have been dealt with as regards their embryology in whole or in 
part, there are no recorded observations on the development of any 
member of the great Ratite or Struthioid sub-class ; and I have 
therefore thought it worth while to place on record the results of 
a study of the early development of the Emu, on which I have 
been engaged during the last few months. 

In what follows there may seem to be a little which may be 
regarded as a threshing-out anew of a well-threshed subject ; but 
when it is considered how wide is the diversity of opinion even at 
the present time among embryologists as to the significance of 
certain of the facts of avian embryology, it may be acknowledged 
that the reconsideration of certain of these in the case of a type 
so widely removed from those ordinarily studied may be of some 
value. 

I have to acknowledge here my great indebtedness to my friends 
Dr. R. L. Faithfull, of Lyons Terrace, Sydney, and Dr. Eric 
S. Sinclair of Gladesville Asylum, to whose kindness I owe my 
supply of material for this research. 



578 ON THE EARLY STAGES IN THE DEVELOPMENT OP THE EMU 



It will be superfluous to preface the account of these observations 
with any general resume of previous investigations and theories on 
avian embryology. This has been done with sufficient thoroughness 
from different standpoints by Kolliker, Balfour, Wolff, Koller, 
Duval, and others ; and I shall merely allude in their place to such 
points in the literature of the subject as are suggested by these 
observations on the emu. 

For comparison I have used only the common fowl ; and for 
the most part the methods employed were the methods of treat- 
ment and preparation followed in the study of that bird*, with 
such modifications as were rendered necessary by the larger size 
and different consistency of the yolk. The eggs of the emu were 
incubated at a temperature of from 35° to 40° C. Under this 
treatment there was a very considerable range of variation in the 
stage to which a given period of incubation would bring different 
eggs ; but there were in one of the two sets of eggs at my disposal 
no indications of any abnormalities, and there is every reason to 
believe that the temperature employed was about the natural one. 
The period of incubation of the emu is three months, as contrasted 
Avith the four weeks of the fowl, and the time which elapses 
before any one of the principal events of the development takes 
place in the former is nearly a corresponding multiple of the time 
which elapses in the case of the chick. 

An average egg of the emu is twenty-one ounces in weight, 
and measures rather over four inches in length by three and a 
half in breadth. Of these about forty may be laid in a season ; 
when about fifteen have been laid the male bird proceeds to 
incubate them, and perseveres in this duty until the first set of 
young ones are hatched, when he is succeeded by the female bird, 
whicli has now for some time ceased laying. 



• See particularly Dr. C. O. Whitman's admirable "Methods of 
Research in Comparative Anatomy and Embryology," and the introductory 
part of the memoir by Duval, quoted below (XII.). 



BY WILLIAM A. HASWELL, M.A., D.SC. 579 

The various parts of the egg have precisely the same relations as 
in the fowl ; the white is rather less in proportion to the yolk ; but 
there is no other dift'erence of importance. The yolk is about seven 
and a-half centimetres in its long, and seven in its short diameter; 
the long axis coincides with that of the egg ; and usually there are 
discernible a broad end and a narrow end corresponding with the 
broad and narrow ends of the egg itself. 

The embryo was usually found to lie with its long axis at 
right angles with the long axis of the yolk and of the egg ; 
but not unfrequently the position was oblique, though never 
longitudinal. 

The unincubated blastoderm was of nearly the same size and 
appearance as in the fowl, and was not made the subject of special 
examination. In eggs incubated for from about forty-seven to fifty 
hours the entire blastoderm was about a centimetre in diameter ; 
the area pellucida was two millimetres in diameter, and with a 
dark patch, the 'embryonic shield,' in the middle. 

A blastoderm of fifty-one hours was the eai'liest of which a 
thorough study was made. The entire blastoderm was a centi- 
metre in breadth and the area pellucida three millimetres in its 
greatest diameter. The area pellucida presented two regions — an 
anterior which was rounded and rather broader than long, and a 
posterior, which had the appearance of a very short and narrow 
bay of the anterior part. This postei'ior bay (the ' Zuwachsstiick' 
of His) is the commencement of the primitive-streak region, and 
presents an indistinct dark axial band which is tlie commencement 
of the primitive streak. In no part was there a trace of a primitive 
groove. When examined in sections this blastoderm was found to 
consist throughout of only two completed layers — an upper and 
a lower. In the anterior larger part of the area pellucida these are 
separated throughout by a well-marked interval. In the posterior 
bay they are confluent along the middle line — forming the 
primitive streak. A little distance in front of the anterior end of 
the primitive streak the lower layer presents in the middle a slight 
thickening of no great extent. This is the earliest rudiment of 



580 ON THE EARLY STAGES IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE EMU, 

the so-called * head-process ' (Kopffortsatz) of the primitive streak, 
the significance of which will be discussed later on. It begins 
very gradually in front and passes behind without interruption 
into the primitive streak. In this ' head process ' as well as in the 
region of the primitive streak (plate XII. fig. 9) the lower layer 
presents below, here and there, a flattened cell. These flattened 
cells are very far at this stage from forming a complete layer in 
this part of the blastoderm ; but there can be no doubt that they 
are the first-formed elements of the definitive hypoblast produced 
by modification of some of the lower-layer cells. In the middle 
of the primitive-streak region those cells are more numerous, and 
for a short distance form a complete layer ; but not even there are 
theyseparable from the rest of the lower layer except by their shape. 
The two lateral halves of the primitive streak are completely 
coalescent, there being at no point any indication of the "suture 
or of the canals which are to be seen at a later stage. The primi- 
tive streak is continued backwards for some little distance over 
the area opaca as a thickening of the epiblast. It is noteworthy 
that there is no appearance of a ' sickle', which if it existed as in 
the chick and some other carinate birds, would be recognisable in 
this series of sections. 

In a specimen which had been incubated for seventy hours, in which 
the entire blastoderm was about two centimetres in diameter, the 
area pellucida (plate VIII, fig. 1), four or five millimetres in length, 
had attained a shape very unlike that which it presents at this 
period in the fowl. It consisted, as in the previous stage, of two 

parts an anterior part, which was nearly circular, and a 

posterior part, which had the form of a narrow prolongation of 
the anterior part. This posterior prolongation is now of con- 
siderable length. On its surface, and extending forwards towards 
the centre of the rounded part of the area pellucida, was the 
primitive streak, having running along its axis a well-developed 
primitive groove, which became lost behind on the inner margin 
of the area opaca. The primitive streak ended in front in a not 



BY WILLIAM A, HASWELL, M.A., D.SC. 581 

very well-defined border, in front of which is a transverse dark 
space with a convex anterior border and shading off behind into 
the pi-imitive streak proper. 

In the anterior part of the ai'ea pellucida of this specimen, as 
seen in sections, there are only two layers — epiblast and lower 
layer. The cells of the latter have not here yet taken on their 
flattened form, but are irregular and amoeboid, many of them 
thickly loaded with granules, arranged in a single layer. The 
epiblast consists in the middle of several layers of cells containing 
in many instances large granules : at the sides it consists of a 
single layer. The mesoblast has not yet extended into this 
region. As we pass backwards the cells of the lower layer 
gradually lose their amoeboid character and become more 
flattened, though still irregular in shape — the change in their 
form beginning in the middle line. 

The "head-process " (plate XII., fig. 10) is now larger than in 
the preceding stage, and its cells have assumed an irregular, 
sometimes stellate, form ; here and there, as before, there is a 
flattened cell foreshadowing the hypoblast, but the majority of the 
cells are manifestly assuming the form of stellate mesoblast cells. 
Behind, as in the last stage, the head-process passes without 
interruption into the axial plate. In the primitive streak itself 
(plate XII., figs. 11 and 12) there is the usual axialiplate continuous 
with the surface epiblast, its lateral wings extending outwards 
between the ejnblast and the hypoblast, which latter has now in 
this region become developed into a continuous layer of somewhat 
flattened cells. The mesoblast extends outwards far beyond the 
termination of the hypoblast in the germinal wall. 

In the hinder part of the primitive streak region (fig. 13) there 
is below the primitive groove what appears like an imperfectly 
united longitudinal cleft or suture in the axial plate. The hypo- 
blast below this is continuous across the middle line, but in the 
centre, just below the " suture," the ordinary hypoblast cells are 
replaced by a large cell filled with coarse granules. Though this 
is a fresh formation since the last stage, we have here an 



582 ON THE EARLY STAGES IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE EMU, 

indication of the lips of the anterior part of the blastopore, the 
connection of which with the marginal portion has long been lost. 

Below the blastoderm proper in this specimen are a number of 
large cells (n, figs. 10-12) mostly of rounded form, filled with large 
granules. These are present also in the last stage, but not so 
definitely arranged. In the blastoderm now being described they 
become very numerous below the head-process, where they form a 
broad axial band. A few of them are to be observed in the sub- 
stance of the lower layer itself. In the primitive-streak region 
they are arranged for the most iiart in a double row, one running 
along below each lateral limit of the developing mesoblast. These 
are evidently the bodies termed formative cells by Balfour, 
globules of Ecker by Duval. They have been found to be derived 
from segmentation nuclei which appear on the floor of the seg- 
mentation cavity. It would seem probable from their arrangement 
as above described that their special function is the conveyance of 
nutriment directly or through the cells of the hypoblast to the 
developing mesoblast. At a stage when the mesoblast is well 
established they are no longer traceable. 

Blastoderms resembling that above described, were obtained 
several times ; with slight variations in minor points all presented 
the peculiar narrow posterior prolongation of the area pellucida 
forming the primitive streak region. 

In a specimen incubated for sixty -six hours (plate VIII. fig. 2,, 
the posterior prolongation was broader and less strongly marked off 
from the rest of the area pellucida ; the head-process had a more 
definite outline, and there was a semicircular groove which marked 
the position of the anterior boundary of the future medullary 
plate. On examining this blastoderm in a series of transverse 
sections, it is found that the head-process is much larger than in 
the preceding stage. It begins very gradually in front as a 
proliferation of lower-layer cells ; but attains a considerable 
thickness behind. In front there is no hypoblast distinguishable 
in it ; but behind a hypoblastic layer becomes more evident, though 
not sharply marked ofi" in any part. Behind, the head-process 



BY WILLIAM A. HASWELL, M.A., D.SC. 583 

passes without interruption into the axial plate, and here a well- 
formed hypoblast becomes first clearly marked off. In the region 
in front of the primitive streak and behind the crescentic groove — 
the region that is of the future medullary plate — the epiblast is 
thicker than in the surrounding parts of the blastoderm, and its 
cells have a more regular foi-m. The suture in the primitive streak 
referred to nbove, has now altogether disappeared, and the two 
halves are closely united throughout their length. 

A study of the three stages which have been described, renders 
it evident that the primitive streak cannot grow forwards from 
the posterior border of the area pellucida, as it is generally 
described as doing ; but that it is formed from before backwards 
simultaneously with an extension backwards in the form of a 
narrow bay, of the area pellucida. The sub-germinal cavity, that 
is to say, sends an axial bay backwards, the posterior part of the 
germinal wall bends backwards at the same time along the border 
of this bay, and there is thus formed a narrow posterior prolonga- 
tion of the area pellucida, on the surface of which the primitive 
streak appears. Its first rudiment is apparently an axial thickening 
of the upper layer on the region of the area opaca which is to be 
converted into this bay ; and as the bay extends back the lower 
layer also thickens, the two thickenings uniting. The area pellucida 
has meantime been extending itself by growth in all directions, 
with the result that the anterior end of the primitive streak comes 
to be situated not far behind the middle of the anterior circular 
part of the area 2}dlucida. That there is, however, a certain 
forward growth of the anterior end of the streak after it has 
become formed, seems probable when we compare figures 1 and 2 
in plate ; it is, however, of much less extent in the emu than in ' 
the fowl. 

The accompanying woodcuts are designed to illustrate the history 
of the formation of the primitive streak in the emu. Only a part 
of this history is traceable in the ontogeny of the individual, and 
much less than at the outset I had hoped to find, — little more in 
fact than in the chick, save that the mode of growth of the 



584 ON THE EARLY STAGES IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE EMU, 

primitive streak region is more readily traceable in the emu, and 
that the relations of the primitive streak are not complicated by 
the formation of a sickle or of a sickle-groove. The eai'liest stages in 
the development of the blastoderm I assume to be similar to those of 
the embiyos of carinate birds as described by Duval.* Fig. I 




represents a blastoderm of a stage in which the continuity of 
upper and lower layers (represented by the thickened line 6^)^has 
become restricted to the posterior border. Fig. 2 repi'esents 
dia grammatically the infolding of this border by reason of the 



XII. p. 100, &c. 



BY WILLIAM A. HASWELL, M.A., D.SC. 585 

rapid extension of the blastoderm in all directions. In fig. 3 the 
two halves of this border have come together to form the axis of 
the primitive streak. This stage, in which the lateral halves of 
the primitive streak, meeting along the middle line in a sort of 
suture, run from the posterior border of the area pellucida to that 
of the area opaca, has not been observed, and possibly does not 
occur in the ontogeny of any bird. In figure 4 the area pellu- 
cida is represented as beginning to send backwards a narrow pro- 
longation, on the surface of which the primitive streak becomes 
revealed. The posterior part of the suture, i.e., that part which 
traverses the area opaca, is not represented in the emu, so far as 
I have been able to ascertain, even by a posterior notch such as 
is not rare in the fowl* ; the primitive streak would appear in 
fact (in the history of the individual) to be formed on the surface 
of the area pellucida as the latter extends backwards, and to be 
only foreshadowed in the area opaca by a median thickening of 
the upper layer, which does not extend far back. The re- 
maining two figures are intended to illustrate the manner in 
which, as pointed out by Duval, the anterior end of the primitive 
streak comes in its later stages to be situated so far forwards 
simply by the considerable extension of the area pellucida on 
all sides. 

The ' head-process,' to which repeated allusion has already been 
made, has been, as regards its relations in the chick, the subject 
of some discussion. By Kollikerf it is described as being a 
prolongation forsvards from the anterior end of the primitive 
streak ; and, in accordance with his view of the origin of the primi- 
tive streak, he regards it as derived from the epiblast ; he is of 
opinion that it probably gives rise to the whole of the head. 

GerlachJ describes it as a thickening of the endoderm, and 
as separated from the cells of the primitive streak behind by an 

* Whitman describes (XXXII) an abnormal blastoderm of the chick in 
which this line of coalescence is represented on the area opaca by a con- 
tinuation backwards of the primitive groove to the posterior border. 

+ XXIV., p. 107. 

J XVI., p. 45. 



586 ON THE EARLY STAGES IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE EMU, 

oblique cleft. There is no trace of any such break in any of my 
series of sections ; the axial plate in fact is completely continuous 
with the head-process. It is very difficult, however, to say 
whether or not the thickening constituting the ' head-process ' is 
brought about by an invasion of cells from the primitive streak. 
The former (which is more correctly described as medtdlary plate 
of lower layer) is continuous with the latter by a process of cells, 
but whether cells travel forwards through this process and add to 
the thickness is hardly capable of being decided. It seems proba- 
ble that the ' head-process ' is merely the continuation forwards 
for a short distance of that axial thickening of the lower layer, 
which, as above described, accompanies the formation of the 
primitive streak, and, except that it does not coalesce with the 
epiblast, the history of the lower layer is the same here as further 
back ; a layer of flattened hypoblast is derived from the lowest of 
its cells, and the rest is converted into mesoblast. 

It may be useful to sum up here the history of the formation of 
the mesoblast in the emu. When the primitive streak is first 
formed there are only two layers in the blastoderm. These two 
layers — upper and lower — both become thickened along the axial 
line of the area pellucida in its posterior prolongation, and there 
coalesce — the coalescence f>^t^s t^^e thickenings constituting the 
primitive streak. Thethickening of the lower layer extends forwards 
a short distance in front of the anterior end of the primitive streak 
to constitute the 'head-process.' The lowermost cells of the 
lower laver about the time of the first appearance of the primitive 
streak begin to be differentiated into a series of flattened cells 
which afterwards unite to form a continuous layer of cells — the 
hypoblast. This becomes a complete layer much later in the 
region of the ' head-process ' than in the region of the primitive 
streak. In the lateral parts of the area pellucida, where the 
lower layer is thin, its cells become entirely converted into the 
single layer of hypoblast cells. In the middle the cells which 
remain after the hypoblast has become formed go to form the 
earliest rudiment of the mesoblast ; the hypoblast becomes 
separated from this rudimentary mesoblast, and the latter from 



BY WILLIAM A. HASWELL, M.A., D.SC. 587 

its close connection with the epiblast has the appcaranee, 
especially after the pi'imitive groove has become formed, of being 
an outgrowth from an involution of the epiblast. The mesoblastic 
plates are formed by outgrowth from this primitive mesoblast of 
the primitive streak extending outwards between the epiblast and 
the hypoblast. The union of the primitive mesoblast with the 
epiblast in the axial line of the primitive streak being complete, it 
is very difficult to say that the epiblast has no share in the growth 
of the lateral plates ; probably the union exerts some influence on 
the activity of the primitive mesoblast cells ; but I think we may 
safely say in view of the facts adduced above, that the foundation 
of the mesoblast of the whole embryo is laid by the cells of the 
lower layer, and that no part of it up to this point is formed 
directly from the epiblast. 

The above account of the formation of the mesoblast in the 
emu is in substance the same, so far as I can ascertain at second- 
hand from Keller's summary*, as that put forward by His 
for the fowl. It is the view also maintained by Rauberf, 
by Dissej, and by Duval §. On the other hand Kolliker|| 
regards the mesoblast as formed by ingrowth from the epiblast 
along the line of the primitive streak. Gerlach H also describes 
the mesoblast as of epiblastic origin, and also Roller, who, 
however, regards the participation of the hypoblast as probable, 
but not certainly ascertained. Balfour** maintains that part of 
the mesoblast of the primitive-streak region is derived from the 
epiblast. 

In connection with this subject it has to be noted that the chick 
as described by Balfour and others, difters from the emu, in that 



* XXII. 


p. 


202 




t XXVIII. 






t XI. p. 


86 






§ XII. p. 


115. 




II XXIV. 


P- 


93, 


&c, 


IT XVI. 








** III. 









588 ON THE EARLY STAGES IN THE DEVELOPMENT OP THE EMU, 

in tlie former the hypoblast is present as a distinct layer in the 
hinder part of the area pellucida before the formation of the 
primitive streak, and it is this, apparently, that has given rise to 
the view so widely maintained that the mesoblast in the region of 
the primitive streak is mainly derived from the epiblast, or that 
the whole mesoblast is so derived. 

During the ensuing few hours the blastoderm increases rapidly 
in size, its diameter nearly doubling itself in a comparatively short 
time ; the area pellucida, however, does not increase in dimensions 
in the same proportion. In a specimen which had been incubated 
for seventy-eight hours, the area-pellucida (plate IX., fig. 3) was 
still only about four millimetres in length. A little in front of 
the middle is a rounded elevation, the head elevation, which slopes 
away gradually behind, but in front is circumscribed by a well- 
defined strongly convex border — the border of the head-fold. 
Running along the axis of this elevation is a narrow and deep 
fissure, which reaches from close to the convex anterior border to 
about the middle of the area pellucida, ending apparently abruptlv 
at both ends. This fissure — the medullary groove — is bounded by 
a pair of low rounded medullaiy folds which deci-ease in height 
gradually behind. A little distance behind its posterior end is the 
beginning of a second longitudinal fissure, the primitive groove, 
which appears to begin in front in a slight enlargement, but loses 
itself insensibly behind. 

In the region in front of the head-fold the blastoderm still 
consists only of two layers of cells — the epiblast and a single layer 
of irregular amoeboid cells — the mesoblast not appearing in this 
region till somewhat later. Immediately in front of the head-fold 
the hypoblast takes on its definite flattened character, and in the 
head-fold itself the mesoblast makes its appearance and extends a 
considerable distance outwards. The head-fold has been carried 
sufiiciently far back to have resulted in the formation of a short 
rudiment of the[fore-gut (plate XIII. figs. 15-17.). The notochord is 
distinguishable through a few sections only (plate XIII. fig. 18) as 
a, median rounded group of cells, having exactly the character of 



BY WILLIAM A. HASWELL, M.A., D.SC. 589 

the mesoblast cells of the lateral plate. Without examining series 
of sections of a somewhat earlier stage than this it would be im- 
possible to say positively that the notochord does not here arise 
from the hypoblast, but from the mesoblastic portion of the lower 
layer after the hypoblast has become separated from it as a definite 
layer of flattened cells : yet the similarity in character between the 
cells constituting this early rudiment of the notochord, together 
with the special character of the hypoblast cells and the absence 
of any transition forms between the two, would seem to strongly 
favour such a supposition. 

There is no demarcation in the series of sections between 
the medullary groove and the primitive groove — the one 
passing insensibly into the other (plate XIV. fig. 19.). Where the 
axial groove becomes shallower behind the head-swelling the 
axial part of the mesoblast becomes continuous with the epiblast 
at the bottom of the groove and with the hypoblast below ; 
and this coalescence of the three layers alone mai-ks the passage 
from the embryonic region to the region of the primitive streak 
(fig. 20.). At its posterior end the primitive streak is elevated in 
the form of a ridge along the middle of the anterior part of which 
runs the primitive groove. In this region there are still only two 
layers — upper and lower. 

In the next stage examined (plate IX. fig. 4) (in which, however, 
incubation had only gone on for 69 hours) the blastoderm was 
about five centimetres in diameter, the head-fold had become con- 
siderably further advanced, the medullary groove had become 
greatly increased in length, and the medullary folds much more 
prominent, though they had not yet begun to unite, and were 
only closely approximated in the cephalic region. There are five 
pairs of protovertebrte. At this stage there is no appearance of a 
neurenteric canal ; the notochord passes directly behind into the 
substance of the axial plate, which is still of considerable extent. 
There is no mesoblast in the region in front of the head. The 
head-folds of the splanchnopleure have become united in the 
region of the head to form a short fore-gut. In the diverging 
splanchnopleure folds there is yet no rudiment of the heart. 



590 ON THE EARLY STAGES IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE EMU, 

A comparison of this blastoderm with the preceding one, and a 
comparison of corresponding stages in the fowl will show that the 
notochord extends backwards much more rapidly than the whole 
embryonic region ^^^tts the primitive-streak region increases in 
size. This it can only do at the expense of the cells of the axial 
plate, with which it is continuous behind. Since, however, the 
notochord is never found to extend backwards in this axial plate, 
it follows that as the former grows backwards the cells of the 
latter become detached from the epiblast and spread out, so as to 
resemble in their arrangement the mesoblast cells in front of them. 
There is in this way a progressive separation from before back- 
wards of the deeper part of the axial plate from a surface layer of 
epiblast. Thus, in a sense, the primitive streak takes part in the 
formation of the hinder part of the embryo, becoming at the same 
time gradually reduced, till it occupies at last only an extremely 
small space at the posterior end of the embryo. In this manner 
the anterior part of the primitive streak becomes the pos- 
terior part of the medullary plate, and the primitive 
groove in its anterior part is not separate from the medul- 
lary groove, and really becomes converted into the posterior 
part of the latter. This will account for the great length of the 
primitive streak ; it does not entirely represent the coalesced lips 
of the blastopore, but the anterior part is the foundation of the 
embryonic area. 

This is substantially the same as Kolliker's* account of the 
origin and history of the notochord and the destiny of the primi- 
tive streak in the chick ; and Braunf gives a similar account 
for the Melopsittacus. It is not, however, that given by the 
majority of embryologists, who differ greatly not only as to the 
mode of formation of the chorda, but as to its subsequent mode 
of o-rowth, and the share which the primitive streak has in further 
development. J 

* XXIV. 
+ X. 

X See the memoirs of Balfour, HoiTmami, and Gerlach cited below. _ For 
a summary of opinions as to the part taken by the primitive streak in the 
formation of the embryo, see Kolliker, XXIV, pp. 134-138. 



BY WILLIAM A. HASWELL, M.A., D.SC. 591 

In the next stage observed, the head has become distmctly folded 
off, there is a rudiment of the tail-fold, and there are two pairs of 
protovertebrse ; the anterior or cephalic fold of the amnion is 
rising up around the head, and the caudal fold is distinguishable, 
though not prominent. The neural canal is closed throughout 
except a very small portion at the posterior end ; the cerebral 
vesicle presents no trace of subdivision, and the medullary canal 
is not prolonged backwards as it is at a subsequent stage. 

The next stage (plate X, fig. 5) was from an egg which had been 
incubated for sixty-five hours. The whole blastoderm was seven 
and a half centimetres in diameter. The medullary canal was 
closed throughout, the primary vesicles of the brain distinguish- 
able, with rudiments of the optic vesicles and a commencing 
division of the hind-brain into two. 

In an embryo of ninety-four houi's, which corresponds very 
closely with a thirty-six hours' chick, there are sixteen pairs of 
protovertebrae and the primaiy vesicles of the bi'ain are distinguish- 
able ; the heart has the form of an S-shaped tube, and " blood- 
islands" have begun to make their appearance on the future vascular 
area. The medullary canal is nearly completely closed ; behind 
(plate X. fig. 6) it is continued backwards in the form of a pear- 
shaped structui'e — the remains of the primitive streak, such as is 
often to be seen in a corresponding stage in the chick. At this 
point, as is seen from sections, the notochord terminates by 
becoming merged in what remains of the primitive streak ; the 
hinder end of the medullary canal sends a short prolongation 
downwards into the mass of cells constitutins: the remains of the 
primitive streak, but this downward prolongation is short and ends 
blindly below. It is the only representative of the neurenteric 
canal found at a later stage. Behind it the three layers are all 
united in the middle line for a short distance. 

There is still only a very thin layer of mesoblast in the region 

in front of the head. The fore-brain presents the merest rudiments 
38 



592 ON THE EARLY STAGES IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE EMU, 

of optic lobes, and its ventral wall is still incompletely united 
along the middle line. The intermediate cell mass is very clearly 
distinguishable, but there is as yet no indication of the Wolffian 
duct. The notochord is continuous behind with the floor of the 
medullary canal ; at this point it is continuous with the hypoblast 
at the sides. 

In an egg which had been incubated for a hundred and eighteen 
hours, the blastoderm was found to be about seven and a half centi- 
metres in diameter; the vascular area, still without developed blood- 
vessels, was eight millimetres in length, thus being smaller than the 
last. There were nineteen protovertebr^e. The heart and splanchno- 
pleure folds were not further advanced in development ; the optic 
lobes had just begun to bud out, and the amnion invested the 
whole head end of the embryo. The neurenteric canal is not yet 
distinguishable. From the hinder end of the medullary canal 
(plate X. fig 7) there leads backwards a narrow passage which 
opens on the surface by a rounded opening close to the posterior 
termination of the area pellucida. In front of the opening are 
two unsymmetrical rounded lobes. Just behind the posterior end 
of the notochord there is a complete continuity betv/een the three 
germinal layers. 

In an embryo of a hundred and fifteen hours (plate XL fig. 8) the 
blastoderm was found to have spread over about a third of the 
yolk ; the vascular area, which was twelve millimetres hi length, 
was marked with numerous 'blood-islands' ; the area pellucida 
was 7 mm. ; there were twenty-four pairs of protovertebrae, and 
the cranial flexure was beginning to be distinct ; the optic vesicles 
were prominent, and the head of the embryo was beginning to be 
turned, so as to lie on the left side. 

The posterior end of the neural axis exhibited very nearly the same 
general appearance as in the preceding stage, but the pear-shaped 
vesicle terminated more abruptly behind. Some little distance in 



BY WILLIAM A. HASWELL, M.A., D.SC. 593 

front of this there is a very distinct neurenteric canal, which is 
readily discernible wlien the embryo is looked at from the ventral 
•aspect. In front of it, where the notochord ends posteriorly, there is 
a complete continuity of epiblast, mesoblast, and hypoblast, and 
the notochord is continuous with the hypoblast. 

A s will be seen from the series of sections figured (plate XIV. 
figs. 21-23), the passage is a very direct and open one, leading 
from the posterior end of the completely closed neural canal 
behind the extremity of the notochord (?4. ch.) into the enteric 
cavity. The wall of the passage has the same structure as that 
of the neural canal, but the passage cannot be regarded as strictly 
a bending downwards of the posterior end of the neural canal, the 
latter being continued backwards behind it, though only for a 
very short distance. At this stage the notochord has become 
separated from the mesial thickening of tha primitive streak, with 
which it was at first continuous, by the intervention of the neuren- 
teric canal, and its posterior end appears as a thickening of the 
hypoblast, It remains separate from the floor of the medullary 
canal, in front of the neurenteric passage, though it may be said 
to pass into it round the sides of the latter. 

An embryo of a hundred and twenty-one hours, though in- 
cubated for three hours longer than that just described, had 
apparently scarcely attained the same stage of development, since 
the posterior end of the medullary axis presented exactly the same 
appearance as in the case of the embryo of a hundred and fifteen 
hours ; and there was an evident, though very narrow, neurenteric 
canal. 

The neurenteric canal above described is the equivalent of that 
first described by Gasser in the goose, and subsequently noticed by 
Balfour and by Hoffmann in the chick, of the first (more anterior) 
of those described by . Braun in the duck and the wagtail," and of 
the one described by the same author in the pigeon and fowl and 
in MelojysittacK^s uiidulatus. 



594 ON THE EARLY STAGES IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE EMU, 

The only later stage examined was an embryo of seven days,, 
which had attained to about the same grade of development as a 
60 hours' chick, with well developed vascular area, heart bent 
upon itself, viscei-al arches and clefts, cranial flexure well marked, 
lens-involution still connected with the epiblast, auditory sac still 
opening on the exterior, and with the amnion completel}' covering 
the whole surface with the exception of a small key-hole-shaped 
aperture above the posterior end of the medullary canal. 

Tn this specimen (plate XV, figs. 24-28) there is in the caudal 
region, just behind the posterior end of the notochord a passage 
(neurenteric canal) from the hinder end of the medullary canal to 
the hind gut. This corresponds in position to the neurenteric 
canal already described at a much earlier stage ; but whether it is 
the same canal or a fresh formation is uncertain. It is the equivalent 
seemingly of a canal which has sometimes been observed in the 
fowl in the middle of the third day of incubation.* 



LITER ATURE.t 

I. — Balfour, F. M. A Treatise on Comparative Embryology. 

II.— Balfour, F. M., and Foster, M. Elements of Embryology. 

III.^Balfour, F. M., and F. Deightok. A renewed Study of the 
Germinal Layers of the Chick. Quart. Journ. Micro. Sci. 
XXIL, 1SS2, and Studies from the Morph. Lab. of Cambridge 
University ; and Works, Memorial P^dition, Vol. I., p. 854. 

IV. — Balfour, F. M. The Development and Growth of the Layers 
of the Blastoderm. Q. J. Micro. Sci. XIL, 1873 ; and Works, 
Memorial Edition, Vol. I., p. 29. 



* Rauber, XXIX. p. 147. 

t This is not intended as a complete biblioarraphy, including as it does only such works 
and papers bearing on the subject as 1 have been able to consult. In a good many instances 
in whicli the publications are not represented in Sydney Libraries, I have gained a general 
knowledge of their contents from the abstracts in the ' Zoologischer Jahresbericht,' and as I 
have had to refer to these, I ha\e entered them, adding the number of the voliune of the 
' Jahresbericht ' in parenthesis. 



BY WILLIAM A. HASWELL, M.A., D SC. 595 

V. — Balfour, F. M. On the Disappearance of the Primitive Groove 
in the Embryo Chick. Q. J. Micro. Sci. XIII., 1873; and 
Works, Memorial Edition, Vol. I., p. 41. 

VI. — Balfour, F. M. A Comparison of the Early Stages in the 
Development of Vertebrates. Q. J. Micro. Sci. XV., 1875 ; 
and Works, Memorial Edition, Vol. I., p. 112. 

VII. — Balfour, F. M. On the Early Development of the Lacertilia, 
together with some Observations on the nature and relations 
of the primitive streak. Q. J. Micro. Sci. XIX., 1879, and 
Works, Memorial Edition, Vol. I,, p. 644. 

Vni. — Bellonci, G. Blastopore e linea primitiva dei Verbebrati. Atti 
Accad. Line. Mem. (3j. Vol. 19. [Abstract in Zool. Jahresber., 
1884, IV.] 

IX. — Braun, M. Aus der Entwickelungsgeschichte der Papageien. 
Bericht d. 52 Vers, deutsch. Naturf. u. Artze zu Baden-Baden 
(1879), and Verb. Phys. Med. Ges. Wilrzburg, 14 Bd. (1880). 
[Abstracts in Zool. Jahresb., 1879, II., and 1880, IV.] 

X. — Braux, M. Die Entwickelung des Wellenpapageies (Melop- 
sittacus undulat'us). Arbeit, a. d. Zool.-Zoot, Institut zu 
Wilrzburg, V. [Abstracts in Zool. Jahresb., 1879, II., and 
1881, IV]. 

XI. — DissE, J. Die Entwickelung des mittleren Keimblattes im 
Huhnerei. Arch. f. mikr. Anat. XV. (1878). 

XII. — Duval, M. De la formation du blastoderme dans 1' oeuf 
d' Oiseaux. Ann. des Sciences Nat. Zool. (6rae serie), tome IS 
(1884). 

XIII. — Duval, M. Etude sur la ligne primitive de 1' embryon du 
poulet. Ann. Sci. Nat. VII. (1879). 

XIV. — Gasser, R. Der Parablast u. der Keimwall der Vogelkeim- 
scheibe. Sitz. Ber. Nat. Ges. Marburg, Nr. 4. [Abstract in 
Zool. Jahresber., 1883, IV., p. 136]. 

XV. — Gasser, E. Beitriige zur Kenntnis der Vogelkeimscheibe. 
Arch. f. Anat. u. Phys. 1882. Anat. Abth. 4/6 Heft, p. 
359-398. [Abstract in Zool. Jahresber., 1882, IV.] 

XVI. — Gerlach, L. Die entodermale Enstehungsweise der Chorda 
dorsalis beim Hiihnchen. Biol. Centralbl. I. Nr. 1, pp. 21-25 
and Mr. 2, pp. 38-49. 



596 ON THE EARLY STAGES IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE EMU, 

XVII. — GoETTE, A. Beitriige ziir Entwick. der Wirbelthiere, II. Die 
Bildung der Keimblatter und des Blutes im Huhnerei. Arch . f . 
mikr. Anat. X, (1874). 

XVIII. — Hensen, V. Embryologische Mittheilungen. Arch. i. mikr^ 
Anat. III. (1867). 

XIX. — Hoffmann, C. K. Ueber die Entwickelungsgeschichte der 
Chorda dorsalis. Festschrift fiir Henle. [Abstract in Zool. 
Jahresber., 1882, IV]. 

XX. — Hoffmann, C. K. Die Bildung des Mesoderms, die Anlage der 
Chorda dorsalis und die Entwickelung des Canalis neurenteri- 
cus bei Vogelembryoiien. Verb. Akad. Amsterdam, Deel 23. 
[Abstract in Zool. Jahresber., 1883, IV., p. 137]. 

XXI. — Janosik, J. Beitrag zur Kenntnisdes Keimwulstes bei Vogeln. 
Sitzungsber. Wien. Acad. 84 Bd., 3 Abth. [Abstract in Zool. 
Jahresber., 1882, IV]. 

XXII. — Koller, C. Untersuchungen lib. d. Blatterbildung im Hllhner- 
keim. Arch, fiir mikr. Anat. XX. (1882). 

XXIIl. — Roller, C. Beitriige zur Kenntniss des Hiihnerkeims im 
Beginn der Bebriitung. Sitzber. d. Wien. Akad. d. VVissensch. 
1879. [Abstract in Zool. Jahresber., 1880, IV]. 

XXIV. — KoLLiKER, A. Entwickelungsgeschichte des Menschen und der 
hoheren Thiere. Leipzig, 1879. 

XXV. — KuPFFER, K. Die Gastrulation an den meroblastichen Eiern 
der Wirbelthiere und die Bedeutung des Primitivstreifens. 
Arch. f. Anat.u. Phys. 1882, Anat. Abth 2/3 Heft. [Abstract in 
Zool. Jahresber., 1882, IV]. 

XXVI. — KuPFFER, K. Die Eutstehung d. AUantois u. d. Gastrula d. 
Wirbelthiere. Zool. Anz., II. (1879). 

XXVII. — Oellacher, J. Beitriige zur Geschichte des Keimbliischens im 
Wirbelthierei. Archiv f . mikr. Anat. VIII. 

XXVIII. — Ratjber, a. Primitivrinne u. Urmund. Morph. Jahrb. v. Gegeu- 
baur, II. (1876). 

XXIX. — Rauber, a. Noch ein Blastoporus. Zool. Anz. VI., pp. 143- 
147, 163-167. 

XXX.— Rauber, A. Die Lage der Keimpforte. Zool. Anz. II. (1879) . 



BY WILLIAM A. HASWELL, M.A., D.SC. 597 

XXXI. — Spoof, A. R. Beitrage zur Embryologie u. vergleichenden Ana- 
tomieder Kloake.u. Urogenitalorgane bei den hoheren Wirbel- 
thieren. [Abstract in Zool. Jahresber., 1883, IV., p. 140]. 

XXXII. — Whitman, C. 0. On a rare form of the Blastoderm of the 
Chick. Quart. Journ. Micro. Sci. Vol. XXIII. 

XXXIII. — WiJHE, A. VAN. Ueber den vorderen Neuroporus und die 
Phylogenetischen Function des Canalis neurentericus der 
Wirbelthiere. Zool. Anzeiger VII. 

XXXIV. — Wolff, W. Ueber die Keimblatter des Huhnes. Archivf. mikr. 
Anat. XXI. (1882). 



EXPLANATION OF PLATES. 
Plate viii. 

Fig. 1. — Blastoderm of emu after 70 hours' incubation, with well-advanced 
primitive streak and primitive groov 3 f'^w'.^ on a narrow posterior 
prolongation (p.) of the area pellucida (ap.) The letter h. 
points to the slightly convex anterior border of the mesoblast 
extending forwards towards the region of the future head of the 
embryo, ao. area opaca. From fresh specimen. 

Fig. 2. — Blastoderm of 66 hours ; rather further advanced than the pre- 
ceding ; the posterior prolongation of the area pellucida no 
longer sharply marked off from the rest, a crescentic groove (h.) 
marking the anterior limit of the mesoblast and of the medullary 
]Aa.tQ (m.p.), 2:»;-. primitive streak and groove. From prepared 
specimen. 

Plate IX. 

Fig. 3. — Blastoderm of 78 hours, with advanced head-fold f'/f.^ and rudi- 
mentary medullary groove and medullary folds (m.). From 
fresh specimen. 

Fig. 4. —Blastoderm incubated for 69 hours, considerably further advanced 
than that represented in fig. 3, with well-marked head (h.) and 
five pairs of protovertebras. The medullary folds have become 
prominent and have almost met in the middle region of the head : 
the primitive groove is still of considerable extent, h.a. head- 
fold of amnion. Sp. splanchnopleure. From prepared specimen. 



598 ON THE EARLY STAGES IN THE DEVELOP.ME.VT OF THE EMU, 



Plate X. 

Fig. 5. — Embryo of 65 hours with eleven pairs of protovertebrse and 
developing vascular area. The vesicles of the brain have become 
differentiated, with slight rudiments of the optic vesicles of the 
fore-bi"ain (f.h.), the hind-brain (li.h.) beginning to divide into 
two parts. The cleft in the fore-brain has become artificially 
enlarged. ht, heart, v. vitelline vein. 

Fig. 6. — Hinder part of embryo of 9-t hours, with seventeen pairs of pro- 
tovertebrse. pr. remains of primitive streak. 

Fig. 7. — Hinder part of embryo of 118 hours with nineteen pairs of proto- 
veitebrse, in which there is a narrow canal leading from the 
posterior end of the medullary canal and opening by a small 
pore (o.) on the surface. From fresh specimen. 

Plate XI. 

Fig. 8. — Embryo of 115 hours with twenty-four pairs of protovertebrse, 
with well-developed optic vesicles and S -shaped heart. The 
dark spot (n.) marks the position of the neurenteric canal, pr. 
hinder end of remains of primitive streak. From fresh specimen. 

Plate XII. 

Fig. 9. — Transverse section of blastoderm with a rudimentary primitive 
streak (incubated for 51 hours) in the anterior part of the primi- 
tive streak, showing union of upper and lower layers in their 
thickened middle part. ep. epiblast. hy. developing hypoblast 
cells, ins lower layer cells which will become converted into 
stellate mesoblast. 

Fig. 10. — Transverse section of 70 hours' blastoderm (fig. 1), passing throut^h 
the head process, ep. epiblast. I. lower layer cells of head 
process, some of which are being converted into stellate mesoblast 
cells, and others (hy.) into flattened hypoblast cells, n. 
nutrient corpuscles. 

Fig. 11.— Section of the same blastoderm at the anterior end of the primi- 
tive streak, ep. epiblast. ms. mesoblast cells developed from 
lower layer (compare with fig. 9). hy. hypoblast cells, n, 
nutrient corpuscles. 



BY WILLIAM A. HASWELL, M.A., D.SC. 599 

Fig. 12. — Section of the same a little further back, with complete hypoblast 
layer (hy. ) 

Fig. 13. — Section of the same showing secondary cleft in primitive streak. 
pr. primitive groove, ms. mesoblast. ep. epiblast. «. x-emark- 
able granular cell in hypoblast below the cleft. 



Plate XIII. 

Fig. 14. — Section of the same at the extreme posterior end of the primitive 
streak. 

Fig. 15. — Transvei'se section through the head-swelling of embryo of 78 
hours (fig. 3). 7ng. anterior part of medullary groove, ep. 
epiblast. ms. mesoblast. fy. commencing fore-gut. 

Fig. 16. — Section of the same a little further back ; letters as before. 

Fig. 17. — Central part of the same section more highly magnified. 

Fig. 18. — Section of the same blastoderm passing through the hinder part 
of the medullary plate, with the rudimentary notochord (n. ch. ) 
separated from the lateral plates of mesoblast (ms.). 



Plate XIV. 

Fig. 19. -Section showing the transition from the medullary plate to the 
region of the primitive streak : the notochord (n.ch.J passing 
into the axial plate. 

Fig. 20. — Section a little further back behind the termination of the noto- 
chord. 

ig. 21. — Section of 115 hours' embryo (fig. 8) just in front of the neuren- 
teric canal, showing the continuity of the hypoblast (hy.) with 
the notochord (n.ch.) at this point, m. medullary canal. 

Fig. 22. — Section of the same a little further back, passing through the 
neurenteric canal. 

Fig. 23. — Section of the same embryo a little behind the neurenteric canal. 
Letters as before. 



600 ON THE EARLY STAGES IN THE DEVELOPMENT OP THE EMU. 



Plate XV. 

Figs. 24—28 are a series of sections through the hinder end of a seven 
days' embryo showing the neurenteric passage, and the relation 
of the hinder end of the notochord at this stage to the hypoblast 
of the hind gut. 

Fig. 24. — Section just in front of the neurenteric canal, with separate 
hind gut (hg.), notochord (n. cli.J, and medullary canal (m.J. 
7ns. lateral plates of mesoblast. am. amnion. 

Fig. 25. — Section a little further back at a point where the notochord has 
united with the wall of the hind gut. 

Fig. 26. — Section showing union of wall of hind gut and of medullary 
canal. 

Figs. 27 and 28. — Sections passing respectively through the anterior and 
the posterior parts of the neurenteric passage. 



NOTES ON AUSTRALIAN EARTHWORMS. Part IV. 
By J. J. Fletcher, M.A., B.Sc. 

Quite recently through the kindness of Messrs. R. T. Baker, 
Alex. Morton, and H. J. Fletcher, I have received most valuable 
additional material enabling me in this paper to give a pi-eliminary 
account of six new species of earthworms, of which four are from 
Gippsland, Victoria, one is from Tasmania, and one from New 
South Wales. Two of these especially comprise individuals of such 
fine and robust proportions as to present very favourable subjects 
for detailed examination. At present I merely give diagnoses of 
the species, such as I hope will enable them to be satisfactorily 
identified, reserving a fuller account of them until I come to 
review the whole. This course, I think, advantageous because 1 
have not yet exhausted my stock of material, and certain charac- 
ters — for instance those of the segmental organs, calciferous 
glands, spermathecse — which, when only a few species had been 
examined, seemed likely to furnish characters of importance in 
discriminating genera, present, as more species come under notice, 
such more or less considerable variations within the limits of a 
single genus as to make it advisable to refrain from generalizations 
and detailed comparisons until a genei'al knowledge has been 
gained of as many species as possible. 

Three of the new species — two from Gippsland and one from 
Tasmania — are referable to the genus Notoscolex, of which two 
species, both from New South Wales, have been hitherto described. 
Now that it is shewn to extend to Tasmania and Victoria, and 
comprising as it does the largest and finest Australian earthworms 
yet recorded — with the exception of Megascolides australis of 
McCoy — it bids fair to rank as one of our most characteristic 
genera. Further search will probably show it to be of still wider 



602 NOTES ON AUSTRALIAN EARTHWORMS, 

distribution, and it is not unlikely that the large, as yet unde- 
scribed, worms known to occur in Queensland and on the Manning, 
to which reference has already been made, also belong to it. 

Another of the new species (Cyptodrilus mediterreus ) inhabits 
the north-western interior of this colony, my specimens having been 
found on the banks of the River Darling between Bourke and 
Brewarrina. No species has hitherto been I'ecorded from so far 
inland as this ; and its occurrence is of interest as showing that 
the dry interior, at any rate in proximity to rivers, is not destitute 
of earthworms, though remote from them, as far as I can learn at 
pi'esent, worms seem to be very scarce or are entirely wanting. 

Owing to the large size of the Tasmanian and the largest G-ipps- 
land worms, and to their very favourable condition for examina- 
tion — the breeding functions being in abeyance — what I take to 
be the true testes were found Avithout any difficulty ; and subse- 
quently, knowing what to look for, similar bodies were recognised 
in the smaller species (doubtfully in the Cryptodrilus) though in 
these in all the specimens examined the testes wei'e obscured by 
masses of spermatozoa crowding the somites which contain them, 
whereas in the largest worms these segments were clean and 
•empty. In the Tasmanian Notoscolex, of which I had the oppoi'- 
tunity of examining fresh specimens, the testes are two pairs of 
small cellular masses, each made up of an inner solid portion 
attached at one point to the mesentery, and of an outer portion 
consisting of numerous short radiating filaments. In the Gipps- 
land worms they were evidently of a similar character though, in 
the specimens dissected, flattened and squeezed out of shape owing 
to violent contraction. The testes are in segments x and xi, 
attached low down to the posterior faces of the mesenteries 
between ix and x, and x and xi, corresponding in position with the 
ovaries in xiii, each pair situated opposite to, in front of, and in 
all the specimens dissected quite free from, the pair of ciliated 
rosettes in the same segment. 

A re-examination of the other Australian species will probably 
■show that a similar ai'rangement obtains in all of them. The 
bodies referred to with some doubt in my previous descriptions as 



BY J. J. FLETCHER. 603' 



cc 



testes," therefore, should now in all probability be regarded as 
vesiculfe serainales. Their usually racemose character, their situa- 
tion and remoteness from the ciliated rosettes, together with the 
fact that when the worms are sexually active the segments con- 
taining the ciliated rosettes are crammed with spermatozoa, have 
previously helped to leave me in doul)t as to their real nature, and 
to overlook the true testes. 

I have to thank the gentlemen already named for their kindness 
and trouble, and also Mr. Hugh Copeland, Junr., who lent Mr. 
Baker a helping hand. 

NOTOSCOLEX GiPPSLANDICUS, n. Sp. 

A young (spirit) specimen is 37 cm. long, 13 mm. broad ; a large 
but very soft adult specimen is 4 feet 1 inch (1-23 metre) long and 
17 mm. broad ; number of segments about 500.* 

Prostomium broad, depressed, marked anteriorly and inferiorly 
with about seven somewhat irregular grooves, not dividing the 
buccal ring but looking like a forward projection of its superior 
region. The buccal ring all round divided right across by a 
number of longitudinal grooves, giving it a ribbed appearance ; 
divided into two annuli, the anterior annulus again subdivided in 
the dorsal region by two shallow transverse grooves just behind the 
prostomium. Body cylindrical ; superiorly especially anteriorly 
of a darker colour ; clitellum still darker (purplish). 

* These large worms are so brittle that it is difficult to extract whole 
specimens from their burrows ; hence the above-mentioned two are my only 
complete specimens. The following are the measurements of other incom- 
plete examples : — 

No. of segments. Length. Breadth. 

(a) Fragment (very soft) 460 3ft. 

{])) Complete all butpreclitellar segments 

(very soft) 468 3ft. 9in. 

(c) Young specimen, nearly complete... 402 11 in. 

(d) Fragment of a large specimen 335 43-2 cm. (17 in.) 22 mm, 

(e) „ „ ,, „ 451 63-5 cm. (25 in.) 22 mm. 

(f) Young specimen, nearly complete ... 490 36-2 cm. 13 mm. 
Hence it would appear that very large individuals are from 2-3ft. long 

when contracted, and, probably, from 4-6ft. long when living and extended. 



•604 NOTES ON AUSTRALIAN EARTHWORMS, 

The buccal ring rather broad (from before backwards) ; the 
second segmeat narrower, ribbed like the buccal ring, and faintly 
bi-annulate ; each of the next three segments broader (from 
before backwards) than the one which precedes it ; all of them 
divided into two principal "annuli by a well-marked groove, 
the anterior annuli less distinctly again sub-divided into two ; 
from segments vi to about xiv the maximum of length is 
reached, and these segments a)-e usually veiy conspicuously tri-an- 
nulate, or some or all of the annuli may be subdivided into two, 
giving altogether six annuli to a segment ; the next seven seg- 
ments successively diminish slightly in breadth (from before 
backwards), after which they are of nearly uniform width for the 
rest of the body, and are faintly tri-annulate. 

Clitellum wanting in the smallest specimens, fairly developed 
in one specimen, and distinctly indicated in all the large speci- 
mens by a difference of colour and by a slight glandular develop- 
ment ; commencing with the middle or posterior annulus of xiii 
and including xxi (that is eight complete segments in addition to 
part of xiii) ; complete all round except for the intersegmental 
areas on the posterior ventral portion now to be mentioned. 
Between xvii and xviii, extending on to the posterior margin of the 
former and the anterior margin of the latter is a slightly swollen 
ai*ea or ridge of a lighter colour, about 2 mm. in width from before 
backwards (as it appears in an ordinary spirit specimen), and 
about 13 mm. from side to side extending outwards a little beyond 
(about 2mm.) the second seta on each side; at the junction of 
xviii and xix a somewhat similar but broader (from before back- 
wards) and more depressed area separated from the preceding one 
•by a narrow portion of the middle annulus of the segment, and 
near its extremities shewing two very slight papilhe which are 
about 9 mm. apart, and about in line with the setse of the second 
row on each side ; at the junction of xix and xx an area similar 
to the tirst-mentioned one. 

Setae of the ordinary shape, with a slight sigmoid Hexure, about 
•49 mm. long, with a slight enlargement at about J from free tip ; 
in eight longitudinal I'ows forming four series of pairs, the setse 



BY J. J. FLETCHER. 605 

of tlie two outer pairs further apart (about twice) than those of 
the inner pairs ; the first row on each side about 3 mm. from the 
median ventral line, the second about 1 mm. from the first, the 
third about 3 mm. from the second, the fourth about 2 mm. from 
the third. The setae are easily seen with a lens, and are usually 
plainly visible to the naked eye. 

Male pores two, on xviii on slight papillte about 9 mm. apart and 
about in line with the second setse. The two oviduct pores 
are on xiv, leather close together, (3 mm. apart), in front but consi- 
derably ventrad of the inner rows of setse. Spermathecal pores 
two pairs, ventral in position, between vii and viii, and viii and 
IX but just on the posterior margins of vii and viii, about 7 mm. 
apart, and just dorsad of the second row of set?e on each side. 

Dorsal pores commence between about xix and xx ; the first two 
or three less distinct than the others and sometimes hardly notice- 
able; nephridiopores not discernible. 

Alimentary canal : the very muscular pharynx occupies the first 
four segments and has immediately behind it the first complete 
mesentery ; the very short cesophagus and the gizzard are in seg- 
ment y ; in segments xii-xviii the lumen of the canal is dilated 
and its walls are very vascular, but there are no diverticula ; the 
large intestine commences in xix. 

Genitalia : true testes two pairs, in segments x and xi, small 
filamentous cellular masses attached low down to the posterior 
faces of the mesenteries between segments ix-x and x-xi and 
corresponding in position with the ovaries in xiil ; opposite the 
testes, and therefore in segments x and xi, but quite free and 
independent of them in both the specimens dissected (in which 
evidently the breeding functions were in abeyance) are the two 
pairs of ciliated rosettes lying immediately in front of the posterior 
mesenteries of the segments which contain them ; in segments xii 
and XIII (not the antei'ior pair in ix or xi as usual) two pairs of 
racemose vesiculse seminales, membranous sacs containing sperma- 
tozoa in various stages of development, attached to the antei'ior 
mesenteries of the segments on each side of the intestine, (a third 
pair of somewhat similar-looking but very much smaller bodies in 



606 NOTES ON AUSTRALIAN EARTHWORMS, 

a corresponding position in xiv, whose identification is at present 
doubtful) ; the prostates are two long narrow pinkish bodies in 
segment xviii, each of themseveral inches long when unravelledand 
straightened out, convoluted and folded transversely with the 
long axis into a compact flat mass from which anteriorly comes off 
the genital duct which is fairly long and convoluted and entirely 
sheathed in a membranous envelope which extends on to and 
sheaths the prostate also, binding the transverse folds together, 
and two parallel bands of which in appearance almost like addi- 
tional but incomplete mesenteries pass to the floor of the seg- 
ment, the genital ducts lying between them ; no penial setee 
were met with, nor were the vasa deferentia visible in any part 
of their course. 

The ovaries occupy the usual position in xiii; the oviducts com- 
mencing opposite to them in the same segment open to the exterior 
on the floor of the next one ; the two pairs of spermathecae are 
in VIII and ix, and each of them presents externally three or four 
divisions, (1) a short proximal portion or stalk, (2) a middle very 
much dilated portion (3), a distal much narrower and shorter 
portion, (in one of the two specimens dissected this portion was not 
distinguishable), and. (4) a rudimentary rather broad caecum coming 
off" from the stalk, its tip slightly serrate with four or five minute 
notches. 

Mesenteries : the first ten complete mesenteries from the poste- 
rior one of segment iv to the posterior one of xiil are enormously 
thickj their anterior faces rather deeply concave, in contracted 
worms overlapping like a pile of saucers or cups, braced together 
and to the body wall by strong bands ; the next two or three are 
a trifle thicker than those which follow, which are thin and trans- 
par-ent. 

There are nine pairs of transverse hearts, the last pair in xiii, 
those of this and the preceding two or three pairs commencing 
superiorly by two narrow trunks, one from the dorsal vessel, and 
one from a supra-intestinal vessel. 



BY J. J. FLETCHER, t GOT 



^ 



The segmental organs are minute tnfts of glandular tubules 
distributed over the walls of the body-cavity, a hundred or so to a 



segment. 



ffab. — Warragul, Gippsland, Victoria. 

For the opportunity of describing this and the other three 
Yictorian species I have to thank my friend and late colleague 
INIr. H. T. Baker of Newington College, who made a special visit 
to Gippsland in order to obtain material for me. 

From Jlegascolides australis, a species described by Professor 
McCoy*, from the same district, and comprising individuals 
quite as large as those of Notoscolex Gippslandicus, the latter 
difters in the following, among other particulars : — the clitellum 
is complete all round and is situated more anteriorly ; the setae 
of the ventral pairs are not closer together than those of the outer 
pairs, and are of the ordinary character, not tapering throughout 
towards the free tip as in McCoy's figure ; the dorsal pores 
commence after about segment xix, that is to say considerably in 
advance of segment XL. 

I have heard from residents of Gippsland that these large 
worms were able to produce sounds, and Mr. Baker, whose 
attention I directed to this matter, tells me that in passing over 
the sround where these worms occur one does hear noises, which 
he considers may perhaps be due to friction of their bodies against 
the sides of the burrows, or to the sudden and forcible ejection 
of tluid from the dorsal pores, perhaps also to the suction of the 
air caused by a piston-like movement of their bodies, when the 
worms are disturbed by the vibration of the ground. 

Notoscolex Tasmanianus, n. sp. 

A living specimen held up by the tail 1ft. 10|in. (57'2 cm.) 
long; the same specimen crawling on the table 19in. long 
(48 -.3 cm.) by about 12 mm. average breadth; after being killed 
with chloroform 24-5 cm. long, breadth from 12-21 mm. Very 



* Prodromus of the Zoology of Victoria, Dec. I, (1878), p. 21, pi. 7. 
39 






608 NOTES ON AUSTRALIAN EARTHWORMS, 

large living worms when fully extended ai'e orer 2ft. long. A 
dozen r.ither contracted spirit specimens are from 20-25 cm. long, 
with a breadth of 19-24 mm. Number of segments about 200. 

In living specimens four differently coloui-ed regions may be recog- 
nised, (1) the flesh-coloured preclitellar region, (2) the yellower 
inclining almost to orange clitellum, (3) the greater part of the 
remainder of the body ]iurplish or bluish white or grey, the inter- 
segmental furrows purplish, (4) a posterior region tinged with 
brown ; spirit specimens may appear more or less tinged with 
brown throughout. 

Body cj'lindrical ; when strongly contracted both extremities 
very obtuse ; when extended tapering steadily anteriorly from 
about segment ix forward. 

Pi'ostomium slightly depressed, divides the buccal ring for al^out 
I, marked with two or three longitudinal grooves anteriorly and 
inferiorly so as to give it a ribbed appearance. The buccal ring 
ribbed all round. Up to about the ninth the segments become 
gradually broader (from before backwards), after xiii diminishing 
again for a few segments and then remaining constant ; the second 
segment bi-annulate, the rest triannulate, but in the first three or 
four of these the anterior annular groove uiore or less incomplete 
and less conspicuous than the posterior one ; the preclitellar 
segments especially in the region where the mesenteries are thick, 
better defined, broader and more distinctly annulate, the body- 
wall in this region enormously thick and muscular. 

Setfe of the ordinary character, stouter and a little longer 
(0 66 mm.) than in the preceding species, the free portion faintly 
cii-cularly striate ; in eight longitudinal rows of which the inner- 
most on each side is about 2 mm. from the median ventral line; the 
second on each side 2mm. from the first; the third on each side 
about 4 mm. from the second ; the sette of these six rows, which 
are straight and fairly parallel, a little closer together in the 
anterior portion of the body ; the fourth row on each side in 
nearly every specimen variably sinuous, sometimes extremely so, 
the setaa from 3-8 mm. from the corresponding ones of the third 



BY J. J. FLETCHER. GOQ' 

rows, sometimes alternating irregularly, sometimes a few nearly- 
straight, at other times forming an ascending series of five or six 
the amount of the sinuosity varying within considerable limits in 
the different individuals ; in one specimen these rows are, however, 
nearly straight. 

Clitellum absent in some specimens, partially developed in 
others, and enormously thick in a few, including segments 
xiv-xxir, and in addition part of xiii, usually its middle and 
posterior annuli ; when only partially developed, the glandular 
development is wanting in the median ventral line for a space 
extending outwards on either side a little beyond the second row 
of setse, but in other cases the ventral surface not occupied by the 
ridges is modified so as more or less completely to surround 
these, but for which the clitellum would be complete all 
round. Between xiv and xv, and between each pair of suc^ 
ceeding segments as far back as xxi-xxii is a lighter-coloured 
ridge taking in the last annulus of the anterior and the first annulus 
of the posterior of tlie two segments between which it occurs, 
and extending outwards on each side a little beyond the second 
row of setse and to the ventral margins of the girdle, except in 
the case of the fourth and fifth which do not extend outwards 
so far and between which is a slight ridge on which are situated 
the two small papillae carrying the male pores, which correspond 
in position with the intervals between the first and second setae 
on each side, or are slightly ventrad of the latter. 

The two oviduct pores on xiv, in front and a little ventrad of 
the first seta on each side, and about 3 mm. apart. 

Spermathecal pores five pairs, a pair between each two segments 
from IV to IX, venti'al in position and in line with the first seta on 
each side. 

Dorsal pores commence between xii and xiir. 

Nephridiopores form a sinuous series of pores situated close to 
the anterior margins of the segments commencing with segment 
II ; on the whole they may be said to be dorsad of the fourth row 
of setse, but as both the setse of this row and the nephridiijpores. 



€10 NOTES ON AUSTRALIAN EARTHWORMS, 

independently form sinuous series, the latter may on some 
segments be in line with or ventrad of the outermost setse on these 
segments, and in a few instances the nephridiopores were in line 
with the third seta on each side. Some of them are as much as 
5 mm. dorsad of the fourth seta, and not very far from the median 
dorsal line ; sometimes they alternate irregularly for some distance, 
at other times they form short ascending and descending series. 

Alimentary canal : the very muscular pharynx and the short 
oesophagus occupy about the first four segments ; the large 
gizzard is in v ; in the next two segments the small intestine is 
narrow and white, while in segments viii to xvi, especially in the 
last two or three of these, the portion in each segment is globu- 
larly dilated and very vascular, some of them probably functioning 
as calciferous glands (in one specimen white masses effervescent 
on the addition of acid were found in all but the first of these 
segments), but there are no kidney-shaped diverticula as in i\^. 
camdenensis ; the large intestine commences about xix, without 
any very marked increase in calibre, much folded and convoluted 
in contracted worms. 

Genitalia : vesiculse seminales two pairs of racemose sacs, a 
pair in each of segments ix and xii, the first pair attached 
to the anterior face of the mesentery between ix and x, the hinder 
pair to the posterior face of that between xl and xii ; testes in x 
and XI, in each of which segments also is a pair of ciliated rosettes ; 
prostates two, in xvill, or partly in this and partly in the 
next segment, long and narrow, a few times folded, proximally 
continuous with the short genital duct ; no penial setse were met 
with, nor were the vasa deferentia visible. Ovaries in the usual 
position in xiii ; the oviducts commence opposite them in xill and 
open to the exterior in the next segment : spermathecfe five pairs, 
one pair in each of segments v-ix, pear-shaped stalked pouches 
without cseca, opening anteriorly. 

There are nine pairs of "hearts" of which the last pair is in 
XIII, this and the three preceding pairs very large and arising 
partly from a secondary small supra-intestinal vesspl commencing 
in IX. 



BY J. J. FLETCHER. 611 

From the posterior one of v to the posterior one of xil the 
mesenteries are very thick ; they are braced together and to the 
body wall by very thick cords, very noticeable in the case of the 
first complete one — the anterior one of v. 

The segmental organs comprise a pair of coiled tubules in each 
segment after the second, each tubule consisting of a proximal 
fairly straight thick- walled portion longer (sometimes twice 
as long or even more) in some segments than in others accord- 
ing to the position of the pore, a shoi-t vesicular middle portion 
whose distal end lies close to the nerve cord, and a long ciliated 
glandular distal portion folded on itself and convoluted so that 
the loop reaches outwards a little beyond the commencement of 
the middle portion, while its ciliated anterior extremity, which is 
without any conspicuous "funnel," lies somewhere near the 
junction of the middle and distal portions. 

Hah. — Thomas's Plains, N. E. Tasmania. 

For all my examples of this fine species I am indebted to Mr. 
Alex. Morton, Curator of the Tasmanian Museum, who very- 
kindly sent me both living and spirit specimens, discovered by M r, 
Bernard Shaw, Inspector of Police. The worms of this species 
are readily distinguishable by the five pairs of spermathecse, and 
the numerous clitellar ridges ; they are remarkable for their thick- 
ness, for while they are much shorter than, and comprise less than 
half the nuuiber of somites met with in, the big Notoscolex from 
Gippsland, they fairly rival it in thickness ; and are much more 
robust and massive than the worms of the smaller Notoscolex, than 
which they have fewer somites. 

ISlOTOSCOLEX TUBERCULATUS, n. Sp. 

A dozen (spirit) specimens vary from 9 cm. (a young individual) 
to 25 cm. in length, .5-7 mm. in breadth ; the number of segments- 
from about 250-280. 

Colour (in spirit) uniformly pale flesh-coloured ; body cylindrical.. 



'612 NOTES ON AUSTRALIAN EARTHWORMS, 

Prostomiiim broad, slightly depressed, only partially dividing the 
buccal ring (about half). Segments ll-iv biannulate, after which 
they are tri-annulate, the anterior annular groove for a few seg- 
ments less conspicuous. 

Setfe in eight longitudinal rows, forming four series of couples ; 
the two innermost rows about 3 mm. apart ; the second row on each 
side slightly less than 1 mm. from the first ; the third about 2 mm. 
from the second ; the fourth about 1 mm. from the third, the 
distance between these slightly greater than that between the 
setae of the first couple. 

Clitellum (in one case) commences with xiii, (the anterior 
or even this and the median annuli not included in all of 
them) and includes the first and second annuli of xviil (pro- 
bably the whole of this segment when the worms are breed- 
ing), thick and complete all round except for the fossae on 
its posterior ventral portion ; absent altogether in some of the 
specimens, and among some of the others in various stages of 
development as regards thickness, and the amount of xiii included 
in it. In specimens in which the girdle is not fully developed on 
the ventral surface of the anterior annuli of segments xvii-xxii 
there is a dumb-bell-shaped fossa extending outwards a little 
beyond the inner couple of setfe on each side ; in worms in which 
the girdle is better developed these areas come to occupy nearly 
the whole breadth (from before backwards) of the segments, their 
rims are thickened and in each of the large extremities there is a 
papilla probably with a pore ; the second and third of these fossae 
do not extend so far outwards as the others and their extremi 
ties become confluent, leaving a central eminence. 

Male pores on two slight papillae on the middle annulus of xviil, 
not conspicuous (in my specimens), about in line with the intervals 
between the inner couples of setae. Oviduct pores two, in front 
and ventrad of the first seta on each side. 

Spermathecal pores two pairs, close to the posterior borders of the 
anterior annuli of viii and ix, just dorsad and in front of the fii'st 
seta on each side. 



BY J. J. FLETCHER. 613 

Dorsal pores commence between xii and xiii, not always visible 
on the clitellum ; nepliridopores not visible. 

Alimentary canal : the pharynx occupies about the tirst four 
segments ; the short cesophagus leads to the large gizzard in 
V ; in segments v and vi are two pairs of conspicuous tufts of 
tubules which may be salivary glands ; calciferous pouches seem to 
be absent l)ut i