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'V ^ 

LiNNEAN Society 



VOL. X. 

FOR THE YEA.R 1895. 









' 'Tl^ 




(Issued September 9th, 1895.) 


On a new Species of Enteropnensta ( Ptychodera australiensis) from 
the Coast of New South Wales. By Jas. P. Hill, Demonstrator 
of Biology, University of Sydney. (Plates i.-viii.) 1 

On a Platypus Einbrya from the Intra-uterine Egg. By Jas. P. Hill, 
Demonstrator of Biology, and C. J. Martin, M.B., B.Sc. (Lond.), 
Demonstrator of Physiology, in the University of Sydney. 
(Plates IX. -xm.) 43 

A Review of the Fossil Jaws of the Macropodidce in the Queensland 
Museum. By C. W. De Vis, M.A., Corresponding Member. 
(Plates XIV. -xviil) 75 

Presidential Address. By Professor T. W. E. David, B.A., F.G.S. 134 

Description of a Flycatcher, presumably new. By C. W. De Vis, 

M.A., Corresponding Member 171 

On the Specific Identity of the Australian Peripatus, usually supposed 

to be P. leuckarti, Sanger. By J. J. Fletcher ... . . ... 172 

Description of Peripatus oviparus. By Arthur Dendy, D.Sc, Pro- 
fessor of Biology in the Canterbury College, University of New 
Zealand 195 

Notes on the Sub- Family Brachyscdiuce, with Descriptions of New 

Species. Part iv. By Walter W. Froggatt. (Plate xix.) ... 201 

On a Fiddler (Trygonorhina fasciata), with abnormal Pectoral Fins. 
By Jas. P. Hill, Demonstrator of "Biology, in the University of 
Sydney. (Plate xx.) 206 

Office-bearers and Council for 1895 161 

Donations ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 163 

Notes and Exhibits 209 




(Isstied November 18th, 1895.) 


Oological Notes. By Alfred J. Noeth, F.L.S., Australian Museum, 

Sydney 215 

Note on the Correct Habitat of Patella (Scutellastra) hermadecensis, 
Pilsbry. By T. F. Cheeseman, F.L.S., Curator of the Auckland 
Museum. (Communicated by the Secretary) .. ... ... 221 

Descriptions of New Species of Australian Coleoptera, Part ii. By 

Arthur M. Lea ... 224 

On two new Genera and Species of Fishes from Australia. By J. 

Douglas Ogilby. {Communicated by the Secretary) ... ... 320 

Life-Histories of Australian Coleoptera. Part iii. By Walter W. 

Froggatt 325 

A Giant Acacia from the Brunswick River. By J. H. Maiden, F.L.S. 

(Plate XXL) 337 

Descriptions of some new Araneidce of New South Wales. No. 5. 

By W. J. Rainbow. (Plates xxii.-xxiii.) 347 

Notes on the Methods of Fertilisation of the Goodeniacece. Part ii. 

By Alex. G. Hamilton. (Plate xxiv.) 361 

On a new fossil Mammal allied to Hypsiprymnus, but resembling in 
some points the Plagiaulacidce. By Robert Broom, M.B., 
C.M.,B.Sc. [Title.] 373 

On some new or hitherto little known Land Shells from New Guinea 
or adjacent Islands. By C. F. Ancey, Administrateur- Adjoint, 
Dra-el-Mizan, Algeria. (Plate xxvi.) (Communicated by C. 
Hedley) 374 

Plants of New South Wales Illustrated. No. viii. Acacia lanigera, 
A. Cunn. By R. T. Baker, F.L.S. Assistant Curator, Techno- 
logical Museum, Sydney. (Plate xxvii.) .382 

Description of a new Species of Acacia from New South Wales. By 

J. H. Maiden, F.L.S., and R. T. Baker, F.L.S. (Plate xxvm.) 385 

Elections and Announcements ,. ... 211,343 

Donations 211, 343 

Notes and Exhibits 341 



(Isstied January 3Ut, 1806.) 


Anthropological Notes. By Richd. Helms. (Communkated hy the 

Secretary). (Plates xxix.-xxx.) 387 

kvLstrAmn Termitid(B. Parti. By Walter W. Frogoatt 415 

Meliola amphitricha, Fries. By D. McAlpixe. (Communicated hy 

J. H. Maiden). (Plate xxxi. Figs. 1-5) 439 

Notes on Uromyces amygdali, Cooke: A Synonym of Puccinia pruni, 
Pers., (Prune Rust). By D. McAlpine. (Communicated hy J. 
H. Maiden). (Plates xxxi. [lower division], xxxii.. xxxiii.) ... 440 

Puccinia on Groundsel, with Trimorphic Teleutospores. By D. 
McAlpine. (Communicated hy J. H. Maiden). (Plates xxxiv.- 
xxxvi.) 461 

On a New Species of Ekeocarpus from Northern New South Wales. 
By J. H. MaidExX, F.L.S., and R. T. Barker, F.L.S. (Plate 
XXXVII.) 469 

New Species of Cone from the Solomon Islands. By J. Brazier, 

F.L.S., C.M.Z.S 471 

On the Homology of the Palatine Process of the Mammalian Premax- 

illary. By R. Broom, M.B., CM., B.Sc 477 

The Silurian Trilobites of New South Wales, with References to 
those of other Parts of Australia. By R. Etheridge, Junr., 
Curator of the Australian Museum — and John Mitchell, Public 
School, Narellan. Part iii. The Phacopidce. (Plates xxxviii.- 

XL.) 486 

Botanical Notes from the Technological Museum. By J. H. Maiden, 

F.L.S., and R. T. Baker, F.L.S. No. iv. (Plates xli.-xlii.) ... 512 

Catalogue of the Described Coleoptera of Australia. Supplement, 
Part I. Cicindelidce and Carahidce. By George Masters.* 

Elections and Announcements ... ... ... ... ... 411, 474 

Donations 411, 474 

Notes and Exhibits 409,472 


(Issued April 29th, 1896 ) 


Notes on C2ca(:/a.s. By Walter W. Froggatt 526 

On the Dates of Publication of the Early Volumes of the Society's 

Proceedings. By J. J. Fletcher 533 

* Issued separately as a Supplement to the Part (the pagination of the Catalogue being 


PART. IV. (continued). 


Description of a Tree Creeper, presumably new. By C. W. De Vis, 

M.A., Corr. Member. [Title] 536 

The Grey Gum of the North Coast Districts (Eucalyptus p7-opinqua, 
sp.nov.) By Henry Deane, M.A , F.L.S., and J. H. Maiden, 
F.L.S. (Plate XLiii.) 541 

Jottings from the Biological Laboratory of Sydney University. By 
Professor William A. Haswell, M.A., D.Sc. No. 18. — Note 
on Certain Points in the Arrangement and Structure of the 
Ter\ta,cnlUerous hohes in Nautilus pompilius (Plate xlviii.) ... 544 

On the Occurrence of Diatomaceous Earth at the Warrumbungle 
Mountains, N.S.W. By Professor T. W. Edgewokth David, 
B.A., F.G.S. [Title] 548 

On some Developments of the Mammalian Prenasal Cartilage. By R. 

Broom, M.D., B.Sc. (Plate xliv.) 555 

On a small Fossil Marsupial with large Grooved Premolars. By R. 

Broom, M.D,, B.Sc. (Plates xxv. and xlv. ) 563 

On a small Fossil Marsupial allied to Petaurus. By R. Broom, 

M.D.,B.Sc. (Plate XLVi.) 568 

On the Organ of Jacobson in an Australian Bat (Miniopteims). By 

R. Broom, M.D., B.Sc. (Plate xlvii.) 571 

Note on the Period of Gestation in Echidna. By R. Broom, M.D., 

B.Sc 576 

Preliminary Note on the Occurrence of a Placental Connection in 
Perameles ohesula, and on the Foetal Membranes of certain 
Macropods. By Jas. P. Hill, Demonstrator of Biology in the 
University of Sydney. (Plate xlix.) .. 578 

Descriptions of some New Species of Plants from New South Wales. 
By J. H. Maiden, F.L.S., and R. T. Baker, F.L.S. (Plates 
L.-Liii.) 582 

Observations on the Eucalypts of New South Wales. Part i.— By 
Henry Deane, M.A., F.L.S., and J. H. Maiden, F.L.S. 
(Plates Liv.-LVii.) 596 

Stray Notes on Papuan Ethnology. By C. Hedley, F.L.S. 

(Plate Lvm.) 613 

Presidential Address. By Henry Deane, M. A., F.L.S 619 

Office-bearers and Council for 1896 668 

Elections and Announcements and Donations 522, 538, 551 

Notes and Exhibits 519,537,549,618 


Page 78, ia the last two lines — read 0. frenata and P. peniciUata. 

Page 84, line 27 — insert m. i between nip. ^ and m. 2 

Page 85, line 15 — add ; of the entire series of cheek teeth 98*5 (1). 

Page 87, line 26— /or premolars read the left premolar. 

Page 88, line 4 — for A second example, hinder portion, &c., read A second 

example — Hinder portion, &c. 
Page 89, line 15 — for orcas read oreas. 
Page 93, line 4 — after young add Cast of portion of a right maxilla with 

m.a m.i (10223); adult. 
Page 94, line 5 — The word but at the end of the line should have been 

Page 99, lines 17, 29 and 31 — for P. 4= read in each case P.* 
Page 100, line 2— for PA read PT 
Page 107, line 35— for lightly read slightly. 
Page 467, line 18 — for Puccini pruni read Puccinia pi-imi. 


VOL. X. 

(second series). 
Plates I. -\iu.—^Ptychodera australiensis, Hill. 
Plates IX. -XIII. — Platypus Embryo from the Intra-uterine Egg. 
Plates XIV. -XVIII. — Fossil Jaws of the Macropodidce. 
Plate XIX.— Brachyscelid Galls. 

Plate XX. — Trygonorhina fanciata with abnormal Pectoral Fins. 
Plate XXI. — Acacia, Baheri, Maiden. 
Plates XXII. -XXIII. — Australian Spiders ( Nephihi Fletcher i, N. Edwardsi, 

and N. ventricosa). 
Plate XXIV. — Fertilisation of the Goodeniaceoe. 

Plates XXV. and XLV. — A Fossil Marsupial ( Burr amy s parvus, Broom). 
Plate XXVI. — New Land Shells from New Guinea. 
Plate XXVII. — Acacia lanigera, A. Cunn. 
Plate XXVIII.— ^cacici piimila. Maiden et Baker. 
Plate XXIX. — Aboriginal Stone Implements. 
Plate XXX. — Aboriginal Grave. 

Plate XXXI. (upper division)— J/e/?'o^a amphitricha, Fries. 
Plate XXXI. (lower division)-xxxiii. — Prune Unst ( Pucci7iia pruni, Pers.) 
Plates xxxiv.-xxxvi. — Puccinia on Groundsel. 
Plate xxxvii. — Ekmcarpus Baeuerleni, Maiden et Baker. 
Plates xxxviii. -XL.— Silurian Trilobites of New South Wales. 
Plates XLi.-XLii.—A'?3^ocaZ2/a; Moorei, Oliv., and Cryptocarya niicroneura, 

Plate XLiii. — Eucalyptus propinqua, Deane et Maiden. 
Plate XLiv. — The Prenasal Cartilage of certain Mammals. 
Plates XLV. and xxv. — A Fossil Marsupial (Burraniys parvus, Broom). 
Plate XLVI. — Palceopetaurus elegans. Brown. 
Plate XLVii.— The Organ of Jacobson in Miniopterus. 
Plate XLViii. — Tentaculiferous Lobes of Nautilus pompilius. 
Plate XLix. — Foetal Bandicoot (Perameles ohesida) showing a Placental 

Plate L.-Liii. — New Species of Plants from New South Wales. 
Plates Liv.-LVii. — Eucalypts of New South Wales. 
Plate LViii. — Papuan Carving and Basket. 



3STE-\;^r SOTTTH ■^T^.-a^XjES. 

WEDNESDAY, NOVEMBER 28th, 1894, Continued. 


By Jas. p. Hill, Demonstrator of Biology, University of 


(Plates I. -VIII.) 

In a preliminary note communicated to this Society in Septem- 
ber of last year I recorded the discovery of a species of Enteroj^- 
neust at two widel}' sejDarated localities on the coast of New South 
Wales, viz., at the ocean beach nearly opposite that part of 
Broken Bay known as Creel Ba}', and also at Jervis Bay. Since 
the publication of the preliminary note I have found the same 
species on the beach nearly opposite Newport, N.S.W., and it may 
thus be looked for along the whole coast line of New South 
Wales. An examination of the form has shown that it is a new 
species belonging to the genus Ptychodera, and since it is the first 


recorded from Australia, I jiropose for it the specific name 

The pubKcation of Spengel's beautiful Monograph on the 
Enteropneusta"^ has rendered it unnecessary for me to enter into 
details of histology and the like, and also I do not propose, in 
this paper, to enter into the much discussed question of the 
affinities of the group. In the description, then, only points of 
specific difference are insisted on. I have adopted, generally, the 
terms proposed by Spengel, and my indebtedness to his mono- 
graph will be readily apparent from the sequel. 

The species occurs in considerable abundance in a rocky corner 
of the ocean beach nearly opposite Creel Bay and a little to the 
south of the well known Hole in the Wall. Since the discovery 
of the species there in August of last year I have made two 
subsequent expeditions to the locality for further supplies of 
material, once in January and again in May of this year, and 
only on my last visit did I succeed in finding sexualty mature 
individuals, so that the breeding season may, approximately, be 
given as the end of autumn. 

During my visit to the locality I was very kindly accommodated 
by Mr. Chas. Hastie, of Creel Bay, and I must here take the 
opportunity of expressing my thanks to him for this kindness, 
and also to his family for much help in collecting specimens. 
Further, I must again acknowledge my indebtedness to Herr W. 
Musmann for much assistance with the literature. 

Mode op Occurrence and External Characters. 

Like the other species of the genus Ptychodera, Pt. australiensis 
is littoral and confined to very shallow water. It is found, at low 
water, most abundantly in the loose gravelly sand at the bottom 
of the shallow pools, and especially in such sheltered situations as 
the gravelly sand under and around the large stones occup3dng 
the area included between high tide and half tide marks, very 
few specimens (if any) being found close to the low water mark. 

* Fauna und Flora des Golfes von Neapel. xvii. Monographic : Enterop- 
neusten, von Dr. J. W. Spengel. 


The largest specimen found during my last collecting trip in 
May was a sexuall}'' mature male, measuring, in the living condi- 
tion and when only very moderately extended, about 12 cm. in 
length with a breadth in the tail region of 7 '25 mm. In August 
of last year, I found another large specimen which measured in 
the contracted condition about 18 cm. In the fully extended 
condition, this specimen, now in the teaching collection of the 
Biological Department of 83Tlney University, reached a length of 
over 25 cm. The majority of the animals were, however, very 
much shorter and thinner. They are capaljle of very considerable 
extension; for examj^le, one specimen w^hose tail region had a 
transverse breadth of only 1*75 mm. reached in the fully extended 
condition a length of 11*7 cm. 

Proboscis : The proboscis is relatively short like that of Ft. 
iiiiniUa and Ft. sarniensis. It varies in shape and length during 
life; when the animal is progressing it is more or less elongated, 
and when at rest generally somewhat egg-shaped, the latter being 
the shape it almost invariably takes when the animals are 
preserved in chrom-osmic acid. The proboscis of the first large 
specimen referred to above had a length of about 1 mm. in the 
living condition. 

Collar: In the living animals the surface of the collar is smooth 
and in them, as well as in preserved specimens, it can readily be 
divided into the five characteristic regions (fig. 1). The first region 
includes slightly more than the anterior half of the collar, and is 
formed by the anterior free part of the latter. It spreads out 
anteriorly, investing the neck and base of the proboscis like a 
frill with margins crinkled as well during life as in preserved 
specimens. Behind the frill-like anterior region the collar is 
strongly contracted to form a well marked circular groove — the 
second region [figs. 1 and 15 (2)] — the anterior margin of which 
lies immediately above the mouth aperture. This groove is 
slightly more marked on the ventral side than on the dorsal. 

The groove is followed by a prominent circular cushion of a 
lighter colour forming the third region [figs. 1 and 15 (3)]. Behind 


this is found the t3^j)ical ring furrow forming the fourth region 
[figs. 1 and 15 (4)], and this is separated from the trunk by a 
narrow projecting circular rim— the fifth region — which forms the 
posterior boundary of the collar, and is somew^hat wider than the 
succeeding trunk section. The collar may reach a length of 
9 mm. with a transverse breadth in the third region of 9 mm. 
also, so that in the living animal the collar may l)e said to be 
aliout as broad as long, but in preserved specimens the transverse 
breadth, owing to the strong contraction of the longitudinal collar 
musculature, considerably exceeds the length, and also the ventral 
length slightly exceeds the dorsal. 


( 1 ) Branchio genital Region; This region may reach a length 
of from 36 to 40 mm. and a breadth of 7 mm. PL australiensis 
is especially characterised by the great development of the genital 
wings — the duplications of the dorso-lateral regions of the body in 
which the gonads are situated — and in this respect the species is 
to be associated with Pt. aperta, clavigera, gigas, and aurantiaca, 
in Spengel's provisional genus Tauroglossus. The anterior ends 
of the wings are continuous with the posterior rim of the collar, 
and immediately behind the latter their free edges may either 
slightly overlap each other or they may be infolded, and the wings 
then are in contact in the median line by their outer surfaces. 
The wings continue posteriorly in this condition and reach their 
maximum size somewhat posterior to the gill region. This con- 
dition is retained, in a slightly varying degree in different 
individuals, to within a short distance of the most anterior 
liver sacs, which are more or less completely hidden from view by 
the wings. Beyond this point the wings decrease raj^idly in size 
and form two ridges lying at first laterally to the liver sacs but 
which are finally covered by the outer overhanging ends of the 
laro-er liver sacs (fig. 24, gw.), and which disappear altogether in 
the posterior part of the hepatic region. 

When the wings have the position just described no part of 
the gill area is visible externally, and the most anterior small liver 


sacs are also concealed from view. The gonads in sexually 
mature animals are found in the wings almost immediately behind 
the posterior rim of the collar, and they extend in the ridges far 
into the hepatic region. In sexually mature individuals the gonads 
may distend the genital wings to such a degree that they stand 
out almost horizontally to the body (fig. 23, giv.) and leave the 
gill area exposed, but the usual condition is the one first descril)ed 
where the gill area is completely concealed. 

The gill area may reach a length of 15 mm., and is thus 
relatively very short. It is broadest just behind the collar, and 
narrows slightly posteriorly; laterally it is bounded by two longi- 
tudinal grooves which become gradually shallower posteriorly and 
terminate at the end of the gill area. Into these the gill pores 

(2) Hepatic Region: varies in length according to the 
size and age of the animal. In one of my largest preserved 
specimens it measured over 20 mm. in length with about 50 liver 
sacs on each side. The number of sacs averages between 40 and 
50 on each side, but there ma}^ be as many as 60. In fully 
extended animals the liver sacs present a distinctly paired 
arrangement in two longitudinal rows. They begin as small 
elevations in contact with each other, and covered by the genital 
wings; posteriorly they gradually' increase in size, and attain 
their maximum development just beyond the point where the 
genital wings are reduced to ridges. Behind this the sacs 
gradually decrease in size to the posterior end of the region, 
finally l^eing represented by two rows of small tubercles which 
become gradually reduced until they disappear altogether. Each 
«ac arises by a narrow^ base which widens out into an antero- 
posteriorly compressed end, which in the region of the larger sacs 
overhangs the reduced genital wings. The form of the sac in this 
region is shown in fig. 24, hep. 

Variation in Hepatic Region. The sacs are 
usually in close contact with each other by their anterior and 
posterior faces, but occasionally some of the c?eca present the 


appearance as if they were pressed out of position and overhang- 
the sides of the body more than the others, giving the rows 
a sHghtly irregular appearance. I have also met with two 
specimens in which as a further result of displacement two 
rows of alternating sacs were formed on each side in the middle 
part of the hepatic region. Both these specimens had lust 
the whole of the body anterior to the liver sacs, and a new 
proboscis was in course of formation at the anterior end of the 
hepatic region. In a third specimen the sacs were normal in 
arrangement up to the larger sacs, but the succeeding sacs 
presented a very irregular appearance, forming two lateral masses, 
composed of irregularly arranged sacs, on either side of the dorsal 
median line, and not showing the alternation of the sacs seen in 
the other two specimens. It might be that this irregularity in 
the result of regeneration of the posterior part of the l^ody. 

(3) Tail Region: varies greatly in length in different 
individuals, but is usually about three times as long as the hepatic 
region. Its outline varies according as it is empty or full of 
sand; in the former case it is flattened, and in the latter more or 
less tulailar. 

The median dorsal line in preserved specimens is occupied by a 
dark ridge extending to the posterior end of the body, and 
marking the position of the dorsal nerve stem; on the ventral side 
the ventral nerve stem occupies the bottom of a shallow longitu- 
dinal groove. The tail region in this species is especially 
characterised by the presence of two dorsally situated longitudinal 
epidermal stripes (fig. 2) running parallel with the dorsal nerve 
stem and at a short distance from it. Appearing in the hepatic 
region just external to the posterior small liver sacs they extend 
over about the anterior two-thirds of the tail region, and are 
situated immediately above the ciliated grooves of the intestine. 
The epidermal stripes can be distinctly seen not only in preserved 
specimens but also in the living animal. Indeed, I observed and 
fif^ured them in the latter before I knew of the existence of the 
two ciliated grooves in the intestine. The two epidermal stripes 
appear as two longitudinal interruptions of the island-like groups 


of epidermal gland cells. The groups occupying the dorsal surface 
of the body extend between the upper margin of the epidermal 
stripe and the dorsal median line, while those occupying the 
^■entro-lateral regions of the body terminate on its lower margin. 
According to Spengel, a similar epidermal stripe exists in Pt. 
minuta, but in correspondence with the single ciliated groove on 
the left side, only on that side, so that the presence of two 
epidermal stripes in PL australieiisis may be taken as a character 
of specific value. 

Behind the termination of the epidermal stripes the tail region 
l)ecomes gradually somewhat narrower to its posterior end, in 
which is situated the terminal anus of varying outline. 

Colouration: The sexually mature males and females can 
very easily be distinguished from each other by their different 
colouration. In both sexes the proboscis is of a light yellow 
colour, while the collar is of a slightly deeper yellow. In the 
males the testes are of a very deep yellow colour, or less frequently 
in some individuals of a deep orange. In the females the ovaries 
are of a very light yellow or almost whitish colour. The females 
are on the whole of a lighter colour than the males. 

The most anterior liver sacs are of a brownish colour which 
passes posteriori}' into slaty green, and this again into a deep 
lirown in the region of the larger cteca, this brown colour being- 
retained more or less completely in preserved specimens, while the 
other sacs lose their colour entirely. Posteriorly the sacs again 
assume a slaty green tinge. The tail region is whitish in colour 
and its walls transparent, readily allowing the sand particles in 
the intestine to show through. 

This species is destitute of any odour. Incidentally it ma}'- be 
here mentioned that a large proportion of the individuals of this 
species are infested by a parasitic C^opepod belonging to the genus 
Ives of Mayer, "^ but whether it is identical with the single 
member of the genus hitherto described, Ives balanoglossi, I am 

* Ein neuer parasitischer Copepode. Mitth. Zool. Stn. Neap. Bd. i. p. 


as yet in doubt. The large female with its attendant small males 
is usually found in a very prominent tubular enlargment of a part 
of the free edge of one of the genital wings. 


Proboscis : The epidermis of the proboscis (fig. 5, e^;.) is some- 
w^iat thicker than in the case of Pt. minuta measuring '11 mm. 
It is separated from the underlying musculature by the limiting 
membrane, composed of two layers, the outer attached to the 
nerve fibre layer of the epidermis, the inner to the circular 
muscular layer. Between these two layers run the capillaries of 
the vascular net of the proboscis (fig. 5, cup.). Below the limiting- 
membrane is the thin layer of circulai- muscle fibres, also some- 
what thicker than in the case of Pt. minuta, ^'iz., •023 mm. The 
circular muscular layer gradually l)ecomes thinner towards the 
neck of the proboscis, and finally thins out altogether. The 
delicate membrane limiting the circular muscular layer internally 
can readily be recognised especially in horizontal sections. On 
the inner side of the membrane, and at a little distance from it, 
there is an irregular cell layer, the nuclei of which are very 
distinct in h^ematoxylin preparations. 

From the outer side of this limiting membrane there pass 
through the circular muscular la3^er numerous fine fibres to the 
inner layer of the limiting membrane of the proboscis, while on 
its inner side the fibres of the longitudinal musculature are 

Tlie fibres of the longitudinal musculature are related in their 
mode of origin from the prol^oscis base and in their course from 
there exactly as in Pt. minuta, and they show^ the same separation 
in preserved specimens into radial masses (fig. 5, Im.). The 
muscle fibres are embedded in a very fine connective tissue which 
anterior to the j^roboscis organs occupies the central region of the 
proboscis, muscle fibres being there absent. The connective tissue 
here presents a spongy appearance with a few very small nuclei 
.situated in the course of the connecting strands or in the angles 
between the meshes. The splanchnic epithelium of the proboscis 


CMvlom (figs -i, 6, 7, 8, sp.) is related exactly as in the desciibed 
species. It appears, in my prepai-ations, when it comes to lie 
directly on the sides of the proboscis gut as a deeply staining 
layer with dark staining nuclei in its middle region (fig. 7, sp.), 
the cell l^odies of which are not recognisable. On the surface of 
the glomerulus it presents essentially the same appearance of a 
deeply staining granular layer with numerous dark staining nuclei 
on its inner face (fig. 6, sp.). 

On the outer side of the splanchnic epithelium there is a layer 
of tissue of a spongy appearance (figs. 6 and 7, ct.) which is 
directly continuous both above and below with the fine connective 
tissue of the proboscis coelom (fig. 4, ct.). This layer corresponds 
to the characteristic layer described by Spengel-'' on the surface 
of the glomerulus in Ft. sarniensis, and which he considers as 
the inner limiting layer of the connective tissue of the proboscis. 
Round the central proboscis organs there is always in sections, as 
in the described species, a space free from connective tissue and 
representing the proboscis cc^lom (figs. 5 and 8, phc). Posteriorly 
towards the proboscis neck the proboscis coelom is divided, as in 
the other species, on the dorsal side through the heart bladder 
into two dorsal proboscis pockets (fig. 9, c/p.), and on the ventral 
side through the ventral septum into two smaller ventral pro- 
boscis pockets (fig. 9, vp.). The ventral septum (figs. 3-5, 8, vp)s.) 
has in this species anterior and posterior free edges which run 
obliquely backwards, w^hile its dorsal and ventral edges are 
attached to the proboscis gut and the outer wall of the proboscis 
respectively so that the septum is here four-sided and not 
triangular as in Ft. ininuta. In its structure it is essentially 
similar to that of Ft. minuta. It consists of a central membrane 
carrying blood vessels, on either side" of which there is a laj^er of 
muscle fibres — the ventral portion of the fibres of the dorso- ventral 
muscle plate; on the dorsal side, the fibres of the same plate caii 
be distinctly recognised on the lateral walls of the heart bladder, 
below the splanchnic epithelium (figs. 3 and 5, else). 

" Loc. dt. p. 101. 


& » 1-: 



The splanchnic epithelium continues on the surface of the 
ventral septum which, as Spengel has shown, represents a median 
fold of the ventral proboscis wall, and is connected at intervals 
with the limiting membrane of the epidermis. The two ventral 
l^roboscis pockets separated from each other by the ventral septum 
are usually filled by a loose connective tissue; however, in some 
cases, a distinct space bounded by this tissue may appear (fig. 12, 
vp.) Behind the posterior free edge of the septum the ventral 
pockets unite to form the ventral unpaired portion of the proboscis 

Exceptionally two folds may arise from the limiting membrane 
of the epidermis to form the proboscis septum; the two folds 
enclosing a median pocket between them unite with each other 
along the mid-ventral line of the proboscis gut. Further pos- 
teriorly the point of union of the two folds gradually passes 
ventrally until the median pocket is obliterated, and the septum 
assumes the normal condition. On the dorsal side the two 
proboscis pockets separated by the heart bladder are in different 
individuals of this species very varied in their relations. The 
proboscis pore may be single or double, and occupy a median 
position or it may be single and situated on the right side of the 
median line. 

(a) In the majority of individuals the proboscis pore occupies a 
median position (fig. 12, p.) and it may then be formed in three 
ways — , 1 ) The two dorsal proboscis pockets may unite with each 
other behind the heart bladder to form a single median proboscis 
canal which opens by the median proboscis pore; (2) the left 
pocket alone may form a proboscis canal, the right ending blindly; 
(3) the right pocket may form the canal, the left ending blindly. 

{h) There may be two proboscis pores, the two dorsal pockets 
giving rise to two proboscis canals (fig. 10, pc.) which both open 
to the exterior (fig. 11, p.). 

(c) The proboscis pore may be single and open on the right 
side; in this case the left pocket ends blindly while the right 
continues posteriorly, taking an almost median position above the 

BY .TAS. P. HILL. 11 

heart bladder to form the proljoscis canal which opens on the 
right side. 

With regard to the ])ehaviour of the dorsal proboscis pockets, 
Pt. australiensis appears to Vje the most variable of all the 
Enteropneusts hitherto descril^ed. 

N to chord (Eichel-darm of Spengel) : In shape the notochord 
of this species essentially resembles that of Pt. minuta. Imme- 
diately anterior to the point of opening of the lumen of the 
notochord into the mouth or throat cavity, its narrow neck portion 
is dorso-ventrally compressed, wdth a convex dorsal wall and a 
concave thin ^^entral wall composed of a single layer of low 
columnar cells resting on the proboscis skeleton (fig. 16, div.). 
Anteriorly in the region of the proboscis neck the neck portion of 
the notochord is not so much dorso-ventrally compressed, but 
somewhat higher and with a more or less triangular lumen. The 
dorsal wall of the neck portion of the notochord is very much 
thicker than the ventral and is composed of long narrow epithelial 
cells which radiate outwards from the lumen and have central 
generally narrow rod-like nuclei. Between these elongated cells 
there occur numerous clear oval bladders which Spengel well 
regards as the secretory holders of gland cells. Some appear quite 
empty, others again show a network in their interior similar to 
that in the epidermal mucous glands and which stains in the same 
diffuse manner. They thus conform, as Spengel has shown, to the 
structure of the "goblet cells;" on the ventral side where the wall 
is composed of a single layer of columnar cells, these gland cells 
are entirely absent. The neck portion of the notochord is thus 
distinctly epithelial in character. 

Anteriorly the dorsal wall increases considerably in thickness, 
while the cells of the ventral wall lose their distinctly columnar 
quality. They become longer and narrower, gland cells appear 
between them, and they finally pass over into the chorda-like 
tissue forming the wall of the ventral l:)lind sac of the notochord. 
The lumen of the notochord extends obliquely downwards into 
the venti-al blind sac (fig. 14), then in this the lumen extends 



transversely outwards, reaucing the lateral walls of the blind sac 
to a thin layer, m hile the hind and middle portions of the wall 
are somewhat thicker, as in Ft. minuta. From the transverse 
lumen of the blind sac there passes forwards laterally a short horn 
on each side (fig. 9, lh.)\ a section passing through the proboscis 
neck just anterior to the passing down of the ventral blind sac 
lumen thus shows three cavities in the notochord (fig. 9), two ventro- 
lateral belonging to the horns of the ventral blind sac lumen and 
a median situated near to the dorsal side of the notochord, the 
main notochordal lumen now considerably reduced in size and with 
numerous gland cells opening into it. Anteriorly the lumen 
comes to occupy a more nearly central position (fig. S, div.)\ it 
finally becomes reduced to a narrow slit (fig. 4, div.), which can 
be traced to a slightly varying distance from the apex of the 
notochord (fig. 14, div.). The lumen varies somewhat in position 
and shape in different individuals, being in some situated nearer 
the dorsal side, in others nearer the ventral side of the notochord; 
its outline also varies — it may l)e circular or form a narrow 
vertical or horizontal cleft. The lumen in this species has on the 
whole a more median position than in Ft. minuta , and con- 
sequently the dorsal and ventral walls are more nearly equal in 
thickness. In fig. 14 the lumen of the notochord is represented 
somewdiat diagrammatically as a continuous wide canal, but as in 
Ft, minuta it is interrupted by occasional bridges of tissue, and 
also as in that species the dorsal wall of the lumen is smooth, 
Avhile into the ventral there project short processes of the lumen 
(fig. 14, div.). AVith the exception of the anterior part of the 
lumen numerous gland cells open into it, testifying to the epithe- 
lial nature of the whole structure. Numerous gland cells exist in 
the dorsal wall of the neck portion of the notochord and they 
extend for a considerable distance into the head region, l^eing 
specially abundant round the part of the lumen situated just 
anterior to the point of origin of the ventral ])lind sac lumen. 
The lumen is, in some jDreparations, almost filled up by a diffusely 
staining network, apparently derived from the secretion of the 
gland cells opening into it. Numerous elongated cells, between 

BY .IAS. P. HILL. 13 

which the gland cells are situated, radiate outwards from the 
lumen. They have elongated, rod-like nuclei situated at about 
their middle region, and on the dorsal side their outer ends come 
into connection with processes from an irregular layer with 
rounded nuclei situated immediately below the limiting membrane 
of the notochord. On the ventral side the passing over of these 
distinct epithelial cells into the chorda-like tissue can be distinctly 
recognised (figs. 9 and 12, dv.). 

In correspondence with the widely diverging legs of the proboscis 
skeleton the opening of the j^roboscis gut lumen into the mouth 
cavity, at first narrow, ])ecomes eventually a very wide transverse 
opening, in the anterior part of the mouth cavity. I have also 
encountered in the proboscis gut the yellow granules which 
Spengel regards as excretions. 

Proboscis Skeleton: it consists, as in the described 
species, of a main body, a keel-like ventral portion, and two 
posterior diverging legs (fig. 1-3). The anterior portion of the 
body is formed by the funnel-like " end plate " which invests the 
ventro-lateral regions of the ventral blind sac of the notochord. 
The lateral edges of this plate extend somewhat in front of the 
ventral, so that they appear first in sections as two thin plates 
investing the lateral faces of the blind sac (fig. 9, eps.). The 
anterior " end plate " gradually narrows posteriorly, its dorsal 
edges unite with each other in the median line, and it jDasses into 
the body proper. By the union of the dorsal edges of the " end 
plate " there is sometimes formed a blind canal continuing foi- a 
short distance into the bod}^ proper, and occupied by a prolonga- 
tion of the " chorda-like tissue " of the hind wall of the ventral 
blind sac. The " keel " first appears at a short distance behind 
the anterior edge of the " end plate " in the form of a small 
V-shaped structure with widely divaricated legs. It is separated 
from the end plate by a thin Imnd of " chondroid tissue." Then 
gradually the ventral apex of the keel thickens and gives rise to 
a distinct ventrally projecting tooth-like portion, the keel now 
having in section the form of a Y (fig. 10, kps.). The " body " 
has at first a semilunar outline, with the flat side immediately 


{tdjoining the ventral wall of the neck of the notochord and the 
curved side above the divaricated legs of the Y-shaped " keel." 
At this point there passes in the " chondroid tissue " between the 
" body " and "keel" a vessel connecting the two efferent proboscis 
vessels (fig. 10, cv.) Immediately behind this vessel the " body " 
becomes triangular in outline and its apex gradually approaches 
and finally fuses with the median portion of the "• keel " betw^een 
its divaricated legs which now give rise to two lateral " wings." 
Anterior to and at the point of fusion the body is much stouter 
than the keel, the " wings " of the latter only projecting a very 
little beyond the lateral surfaces of the body, but posterior to this 
the body gradually decreases in breadth and also in height, while 
the keel thickens greatly, forming in transverse sections much the 
Inofger half of the whole structure. The "wings" of the "keel " 
at the same time reach a greater lateral extension and form two 
distinct lateral projections below the middle region of the body 
when the entire skeleton is viewed from above (fig. 13). Poste- 
riorly the wings become gradually smaller and finally disappear, 
while the body becomes reduced to a narrow somewhat convex 
plate separated from the keel by two small vertical half moon- 
shaped masses with their convex faces touching each other. 
These are the first indications of the two " legs," and for them 
Spengel adopts Bateson's term " nuclei." After the first appear- 
ance of the " nuclei " the keel gradually becomes reduced in size, 
the "nuclei" at the same time becoming larger and more distinct. 
The place where the "nuclei" first touch in the middle line corre- 
sponds, as Spengel has shown, to the most anterior point the 
opening of the notochordal lumen into the mouth cavity has 
occupied. In transverse section the proboscis skeleton has, just 
after the proboscis neck has fused with tlie collar, a triangular 
shape, but gradually as the "keel" is reduced in size and the 
" nuclei " ))ecome larger and more distinct, the shape becomes 
quadrangular and the skeleton then consists of a dorsal plate, 
representing a continuation of the " body " and derived from the 
notochord, a middle portion formed ]:)y the two semilunar 
"nuclei" derived from the throat epithelium, and a ventral plate 

BY J AS. P. HILL. 15 

thicker in the middle — the continuation of the " keel " — derived 
also from the throat epithelium as the opening of the notochordal 
lumen gradually moved posteriorly (fig. 16, Ips'.). Towards the 
posterior end of the skeleton the "keel" disappears entirely, tlie 
two " nuclei " separate from each other ventrally, and the 
epithelium of the throat extends up into the cleft between them. 
The continuation of tlie body lying above the nuclei then thins 
out, and the "nuclei" separate completely from each other, giving 
rise to the " legs " proper which lie under a fold of the throat 
epithelium. The "legs" may pass out at once almost transversely, 
or they ma}- diverge more gradually in different individuals. 
They terminate considerably in front of the middle region of the 

The proboscis skeleton is composed of a cuticular substance 
which shows in this species a very distinct stratification, indicat- 
ing the mode of origin of the mass by the deposition of successive 
la3'ers, and the direction of these layers indicates very clearly 
from what source they are derived. As Spengel has shown, the 
"end plate" is derived from the ventral blind sac of the notochord, 
while the " body" is derived from the neck of the same. The 
" keel " on the other hand is formed from the epidermis of the 
proboscis neck, and its posterior continuation from the epithelium 
of the throat. 

In this species the " end plate " and the anterior portion of the 
" body " are separated from the keel by chondroid tissue, and the 
direction of the lines of stratification in these parts indicates 
clearly enough their distinct origin. The relations of the skeleton 
to the limiting membranes are essentially those of the described 
species. The l^ody passes over at its edges into the limiting 
membrane of the notochord, while the wings of the keel pass 
over into that of the epidermis. 

In the proboscis skeleton of this si3ecies there occur a few 
small oval cells with non-staining cell bodies and deeply staining 
small nuclei. They are situated between the layers of stratifica- 
tion. Such cells occur in the proboscis skeleton of Pt. clavigera, 
yiyas and aurantiaca, and with Spengel I believe they are cells 


which have become enclosed during the formation of the skeleton, 
and not cells which have immigrated later. 

" Chondroid tissue^'': As in the genus Ptychodera generally the 
" chondroid tissue " of the proboscis neck is not greatly developed, 
and the cell strands appearing generally in transverse sections as 
small isolated masses are derived as Spengel has shown mainly 
from the epithelium of the proboscis pockets. As in Pt. clavigera 
a band of " chondroid tissue " continuous with the lateral tissue 
is present between the "end plate" and "keel" of the proboscis 
skeleton. The cell strands of this ventral portion are very richly 
developed, and are derived from the epithelial cells lining the ventral 
proboscis pockets and behind the posterior edge of the proboscis 
septum from the continuation of the same epithelial cells lining 
the ventral unpaired portion of the proboscis coelom. 

Heart-bladder : The heart-bladder is esentially similar in its 
general relations to that of Pt. minitta. It is a completely closed 
sac, having no connection either with the vascular system or with 
the proboscis coelom. On its lateral walls the muscle fibres 
belonging to the dorso-ventral muscle plate are very well marked 
(fig. 5, dsc), but as in the other species of the genus they do not 
possess a musculature of their own. On the ventral wall there is 
present as in the described species a very distinct single layer of 
transverse muscle fibres which, so far as I have observed, are 
entirely confined to this wall. In this species the ventral wall of 
the heart-bladder is infolded into the cavity of the bladder in a 
very characteristic manner. In its posterior part the central 
blood space of the proboscis is a transverse cleft between the 
ventral wall of the heart-bladder and the proboscis gut just as in 
the species previously described, and varies in size according as it 
is filled with blood or empty. In its anterior region, however, 
the ventral wall of the heart-bladder is infolded into the cavity 
of the bladder along the median line so as to give rise to a tubular 
cavity which communicates with the central blood space by a 
narrow longitudinal slit (fig. 4, ivic). Then posteriorly to the 
infolding by the gradual receding of the two edges of the slit, the 

BY JAS. P. HILL. 17 

tubular cavit}'^ merges gradually into that of the central blood 
space. Anteriorl}^, however, the anterior end of the tubular 
infolding projects towards the end of the heart-bladder as a short 
free blind sac Avhicli extends into the cavity of the heart-bladder 
beyond the anterior end of the longitudinal slit placing the 
tubular cavity in communication with the proper cavity of the 
central blood space. Consequently in a series of transverse 
section this free end first appears as an apparently isolated cavity 
with muscular walls lying in the cavity of the heart-bladder and 
quite independent of its ventral wall (fig. 3, ivio.). 

The onl}^ parallel for this condition in other Enteropneusts 
appears to exist in Balanof/Jossus canadensis, which, according to 
Spengel, possesses a similar infolding of the heart-bladder wall, 
although it is still more complicated in other respects. 

According to Spengel the ventral wall of the heart-bladder 
serves to furnish the central blood space with the musculature by 
whose contraction the blood is forced out of the central blood 
space into the sinuses of the glomerulus, and thence into the 
efferent proboscis vessels. We have therefore to regard this 
infolding of the ventral heart-bladder wall into a tube free 
anteriorly, inasmuch as it increases the power of that wall, as a 
special modification to ensure the better performance of its pro- 
pelling function. I have found this condition' so frequently in 
this species that it may be taken as a character of specific value. 

In the interior of the heart-bladder a space exists in its greater 
extent (figs. 3, 4, 5 and 14, h), but at its anterior and posterior 
ends the cavity is obliterated by a cellular tissue. Anteriorly 
this tissue has the appearance of a spongy connective tissue with 
numerous nuclei in its connecting strands, and I have not been 
able to observe in this any distinction into two portions, one 
derived from the dorsal, the other from the ventral wall, such as 
Spengel describes for Pt. iiiinuta. An irregular cavity appears 
in the dorsal part of this mass, a short distance l)ehind the anterior 
end of the heart-bladder, and the loose tissue l^elow it gradually 
becomes reduced in size passing into an irregular layer of 
endothelial cells on the ventral wall of the heart-ljladder. These 



cells do not form in this species, so far as I have observed, a 
definite layer, but are irregularly disposed (figs. 4 and 5), and 
very frequently some of them are of an elongated form with one 
end attached to the heart-bladder wall. The portion of the 
anterior cell mass above the cavity continues as a narrow strand 
occupying the apex of the cavity of the heart-bladder, and limited 
from it by a very tender meml^rane (fig. 5). This dorsal strand 
of tissue passes on either side into the flattened endothelium 
which lines the lateral walls of the heart-bladder. The rounded 
nuclei of this endothelium can he readily recognised, placed at 
fairly regular intervals from each other, but the cell bodies are 
not distinct in my prejDarations. As the heart-bladder decreases 
in size posteriorly the cells of the dorsal strand unite wdth 
processes from the irregular endothelial cells of the ventral wall, 
and eventually the posterior part of the cavity is filled up as in Pt. 
minuta by a mass of tissue denser than that of the anterior end 
(fig. 9, A.), and through which there pass between the lateral 
walls of the heart-bladder fine transverse fibres which Spengel 
regards as muscular. 

Yellow granules may sometimes be observed in the cellular 
tissue in the heart-bladder. 

Glomerulus : The glomerulus will be dealt with in connection 
with the vascular system, and I need only mention here one point 
in connection with it. Lying on the splanchnic epithelium and 
internal to it between the glomerulus vessels I have observed, in 
some individuals of this species though not in all the series I 
have examined, some bundles of parallel muscular fibres (fig. 6, 
((hn.). They very often have the appearance of being inserted 
into the tender membrane forming the walls of the vessels of the 
net at the periphery of the glomerulus. The fibres also frequently 
project beyond the outer surface of the splanchnic ei3ithelium, 
and readily give one the impression that they were during life 
continuous with similar bundles which lie at the inner edges of 
the radial masses bounding the space surrounding the proboscis 
organs, and from which they are separated only by a A'ery narr<)\\- 
interval. These muscular fibres in the glomerulus of this species 

BY JAS. P. HILL. 19 

appear to correspond to the fibres Spengel has observed in 
Balanoqlossus canadensis and B. kupfferi, and which he regards 
as having been carried in, by the infolding of the splanchnic 

Collar : Tlie epidermis of the collar can, like that of the other 
species of Pti/chodera, he divided into five zones (fig. 15 [1-5]). 
Of these the first formed l)y the anterior free rim of the collar is 
the largest; the second occupies the region of the circular groove; 
the third, that of the circular projecting cushion; the fourth, the 
Ijottom of the typical ring furrow; while the fifth is formed by 
tlie narrow projecting rim forming the posterior boundary of the 
collar. The second and fourth zones are similarl}^ constituted; 
they stain darkly with ha^matoxylin, and as in Ft. ininnta the}' 
contain in their whole depth numerous gland cells; the remaining 
zones contain gland cells only in their outer regions, and stain of 
a lighter colour. 

Collar 7nusciLlature : It is in this species in its general relations 
essentially similar to that of Pt. nunida. 

In the outer wall of the anterior part of the collar there is the 
usual external layer of longitudinal muscle fibres (figs. 14, 16, Ifw.) 
which spring in the posterior part of the collar between the 
lonofitudinal muscle bundles of the inner wall. Internal to these 
there is the layer of circular fibres which terminate at the 
beginning of the second epidermal zone (figs. 14, 16, c/k'.). The 
longitudinal muscles of the inner wall of the collar springing from 
the region of the collar trunk-septum are, as in Pt. minitta, 
separated in the posterior part of the collar into distinct bundles 
by radial fibres passing between the outer and inner walls of the 
collar. The ventro-lateral bundles terminate behind the circular 
vessel fold of the collar, while those- more dorsally situated pass 
towards the neck of the proboscis, and are inserted, as in Pt. 
libinuta, mainly into the boundary membrane of the notochord 
(fig. 16, il/n.; fig. 11, ccp.). The dorsal portion of the longitudinal 
musculature extends, in the posterior region of the collar, round the 
lateral surfaces of the perihi^mal spaces, and partly_on to the dorsal 


surface of the collar cord. Anterior to the circular vessel fold 
there occurs a fairly thick band of muscle fibres which arise from 
the sides of the proboscis skeleton, and surround the mouth 
aperture circularl}^, and from this layer there pass up the longi- 
tudinal fibres of the fore wall of the collar (fig. 14, ifiv.). The 
radial fibres passing between the fore and outer walls of the 
anterior margin of the collar have the usual intercrossing arrange- 
ment (fig. 14, rf.). 

The extensions of the trunk ca?lom into the collar — the peri- 
lipemal and peripharyngeal spaces — are related essentially as in 
the known species of Ptychodera. As in Pt. sarniensis and aperta, 
the perihfemal spaces, with the exception of their anterior portions 
which are situated entirely below the collar cord (fig. 16, pits.), 
enclose between them a groove in which the ventral two-thirds of 
the collar cord is situated (figs. 17 and 18, phs.). The greater 
portion of their cavities is occupied by the longitudinal muscu- 
lature of the dorsal wall, w^iich is inserted anteriorly in greater 
part into the boundary membrane of the epidermis behind the 
proboscis canal. On the ventral wall of each space there is a 
single layer of longitudinal fibres, while between dorsal and 
ventral walls there pass radial filjres. The peripharyngeal space 
(figs. 17, 18, pps.) is related exactly as in Pt. minuta. As in that 
species, there pass across the circular fibres which it contains 
numerous connecting strands between its inner and outer limiting 
membranes. Anteriorly it terminates on the dorsal side about on 
a level with the opening of the notochordal lumen into the throat 
(fig. 14, p2^s.), while ventro-laterally it terminates along the point 
of origin of the circular vessel fold, 

CoUa7' Cmlom : In the anterior part of the collar the spongy 
connective tissue containing radial muscle fibres fills up the coelom 
almost completely, but posteriorly where the fibres are arranged 
in the form of radial strands there remain between adjacent 
strands spaces free from connective tissue just as in Pt. minuta 
(fig. 18, eve). Ventrally a longitudinal space exists, into which 
the ventral vessel fold projects, and on the dorsal side, just 

BY .IAS. P. IIILL. 21 

anterior to the internal openings of the collar canals, two distinct 
spaces exist. 

With regard to the division of the collar coelom into two halves, 
considerable variation exists in this species. Dorsal and ventral 
septa may be entirely absent, the two side halves of the ccelom 
then standing, as in Balanoglossus kiijjfferi according to Spengel, 
in open communication. 

The dorsal septum when present differs from the normal 
condition in Ft. minuta\\'\th regard to its relation to the "roots." 
In that species, according to Spengel, the dorsal septum only exists 
in the posterior part of the collar; two "roots" are situated 
anterior to it, and its anterior free edge always appears to corre- 
spond to one of the "roots." In this species the septum ma}^ arise 
in the anterior region of the collar and in front of the most 
anterior root as a fold projecting from the dorsal surface of the 
collar cord and with a free anterior edge, and which reaches the 
outer wall where the first "root" fuses with the collar epidermis. 
The septum then passes between the remaining "roots" to the 
posterior end of the collar. Over part of its course it may be 
interrupted: the ventral connection with the dorsal surface of the 
cord is lost, the septum at the point of interruption appearing as 
a free fold projecting from the inner surface of the outer collar 
wall. Further, in other individuals the front edge of the septum 
may coincide with either the first or the second "root." 

As to the ventral septum (fig. 19, vcs.) when present, it exists 
only in the most posterior part of the collar and there only for a 
very short distance. It may be present when the dorsal is absent. 
In fig. 18 a section passing just anterior to the ventral septum is 
represented. The vessel fold {sh.) arising from the subeiDidermic 
collar capillaries exists only for a short distance in the posterior 
region of the collar, and is not always so distinct as in the series 
from which this section is taken: posteriorly it unites with one of 
the longitudinal vessel folds to give rise to the ventral septum 
(fig. 19, vcs.). The collar canals and the collar-trunk septum are 
related in this species exactly as in Pt. minuta. 


Nerve Cord of Collar : The collar nerve cord (figs. 16, 17, 18, 
C7ZC.) varies in shape in transverse sections in different individuals 
and in different parts of the same individual, from band -shaped to 
almost circular. In its general features the cord of this species 
agrees with that of Ft. minuta as described by Spengel. An 
axial canal is not present in the cellular part -of the cord, and 
the "cord hollows" are not so numerous as in that species. Two 
lateral longitudinal rows of "cord hollows" exist, while smaller, 
less regularly arranged hollows may be present in the central 
region. The entire number of hollows appearing in one section 
is seldom greater than four. These "cord hollows" are related to 
each other exactly as in Pt. minvta. 

I have never observed an anterior insinking of the epidermis 
into the cellular part of the cord to form an anterior epidermal 
pocket, but a very short and narrow epidermal pocket may exist 
at the posterior end of the cord. 

As in all other known species of the genus, the fibrous laj^er of 
the cord completely surrounds the cellular portion. 

With regard to the histology of the cellular part of the cord, I 
have never been able to observe in any of my preparations the 
giant ganglion cells described and figured by Spengel. I can 
clearly distinguish, however, large granular nuclei, rounded or 
oval in form, and with distinct nucleoli, which belong probably tc^ 
what Spengel regards as the proper nerve cells. They occur 
especially above the ventral portion of the nerve fil)re layer and 
also in the middle region of the cord and below the thin dorsal 
portion of the fibre layer. Round these nuclei there may some- 
times be seen an ill-defined little staining cell body, apparently 

The "stalked cells," with their elongated, deeply staining, 
narrow nuclei can also be readily distinguished. They radiate 
outwards from the thin cuticular lining of the "cord hollows," 
and their fibre-like ends penetrate the nerve fibre layer. Also 
there occur throughout the cellular part of the cord, but especially 
above the ventral portion of the nerve fibre layer, numerous 
deeply staining rounded nuclei, with ill-defined cell l^odies. 

BY JAS. P. HILL. 23 

111 the iier^e fibre layer, lielow the cellular part of the cord, 
nuclei are found, with small oval non-staining cell bodies which 
are produced at either end into fibre-like processes. Clear oval 
spaces also occur in the fibrous layer, but I have not been able to 
convince myself that these form continuous tubes, and they never 
possess any j)rotoplasmic remains in their interior such as Spengel 
describes for the processes passing into the fibrous layer from the 
giant ganglion cells. These spaces appear to be simply lacunae 
between the ramifying fibres composing the fibrous la3''er. 

Roots : In this sjoecies the most anterior " root " may arise from 
the anterior region, i.e., in front of the middle point of the collar 
cord, contrary to Spengel's statement that the roots always spring 
from its middle or posterior end. Generally, however, the first 
root is situated about the middle region of the cord. The roots 
vary in number from one to foui-, the latter number being the 
usual one. In one series five roots arose from the collar cord, but 
I was unal:»le to find the dorsal point of union of the fifth with 
the epidermis. As in the described species, the roots vary greatly 
in direction; sometimes they pass straight between the collar cord 
and the epidermis, but generally they take an oblique course, 
forwards or backwards, to their point of union with the epidermis. 
In one series the first two roots fused with each other midway 
between the collar cord and epidermis, while in another series 
two of the roots arose from the collar cord by a short common 
stem. Each root consists as in the described species of an outer 
limiting membrane carrying l)lood vessels, and continuous at the 
one end with the limiting membrane of the dorsal cord, at the 
t)ther with the limiting meml^rane of the epidermis.' Internal to 
this is a thin fil^re layer continuous ventrally with the nerve fibre 
layer of the collar cord. The interior of the root presents a 
varying appearance at different parts; in some sections, and 
especially in those of the first root, a distinct central cavity may 
exist limited by a delicate membrane from which processes radiate 
outwards. These processes apparently belong to cells, the nuclei 
of which are situated just internal to the fibrous layer, the whole 
structure recalling the appearance of the stalked cells radiating 


from the " cord hollows." I have never been al)le to trace these 
hollows in the roots as continuous canals throughout the whole 
length of even the first "root," and am convinced that in none of 
the " roots " of this species does a continuous canal exist such as 
Spengel describes for the first "roots" in Pt. niiiiuta, clavig'^ra, 
aperta, and bahamensis. Similar though smaller hollows may 
exist in the " roots " succeeding the first, but just as in the first 
" root " the hollows do not stand in continuous connection, but 
are interrupted by anastomosing strands or in some cases by 
branching ceils with large nuclei. I have likewise never observed 
the " collar hollows " to pass into the roots. 

The roots end dorsally just as SjDengel describes (fig. 16, rt.). 
The outer limiting membrane and the fibrous layer of the root 
unite with the similar layers of the epidermis; while the cellular 
tissue of the root projects in a cone-like mass between the epidermal 
cells, the apex of the cone reaching to within a short distance from 
the outer surface. The apex of this cone-like mass of tissue is 
composed of a network of fine strands enclosing clear spaces, and 
with a few very small nuclei in the angles where the strands meet. 
Below this clear tissue and continuous with it, there occur more 
deeply staining branched cells which are directly continuous with 
the central tissue of the "roots." 

Nerve Stems of Trtink : These are related exactly as in the 
described species, and the circular commissure placing the fibrous 
layer of the collar cord in connection with that of the ventral stem 
can be readily seen in horizontal sections occupying the deep 
groove between collar and trunk. The cells covering the circular 
fibre ring are entirely destitute of gland cells, and consequently 
are sharply marked off from the adjacent epidermal cells. 

The dorsal stem in the branchial region is situated somewhat 
below the level of the adjacent epidermis (fig. 20, dnv.), but 
posterior to this region it forms a distinct ridge. The ventral 
stem, on the other hand, occupies over its whole extent the bottom 
of a shallow longitudinal groove (figs. 20, 24, vn.). The fibrous 
layer of the dorsal stem is, as in Pt. minuta, somewhat triangular 
in transverse section; it is thickest in the middle, and laterally 

BY JAS. P. HILL. 25 

tapers off gradually into the fibrous la3''er of the epidermis. That 
of the ventral stem is more band-like in form, and laterally passes 
over suddenly into the epidermic fibrous layer. In the cellular 
portion of the dorsal stem gland cells are comparatively few in 
number, while they are altogether wanting in the ventral. Of 
the two stems the ventral is the more strongly developed, and 
towards the posterior end of the body it remains more distinct 
than the dorsal. 

In my preparations, and especially in the ventral cord, the 
" stalked cells " of Spengel can readil}^ be distinguished. They 
are elongated fibre-like cells with generally long deeply staining 
nuclei. These cells are specially developed at the lateral margins 
of the ventral stem. Their fibre-like basal processes traverse the 
fibrous layer, while their outer ends converge towards the middle 
line of the stem, thus enclosing a central space largely occupied by 
the nerve cells. The nuclei of these latter are easily distinguish- 
able by their large size and rounded appearance; they do not stain 
very deeply, possess distinct nucleoli, and exactly resemble 
the nuclei of the nerve cells in the collar cord. The nerve cells 
lie immediately adjacent to the fibrous layer, and this fibrous 
la3''er as well of the collar cord as of the trunk nerve stems is to 
be regarded, according to Spengel, as made up of the ramified and 
interlaced processes of these nerve cells. Here, as in the collar 
cord, I have never succeeded in observing the giant ganglion cells. 


( 1 ) Branchial r e g io n : As in all known species of 
FtycJiodera. there is below the epidermis a delicate la3^er of 
circular muscle fibres, in this species onl}^ a single fibre in thick- 
ness. The longitudinal musculature internal to this is strongly 
developed and as in the described species is interrupted dorsally 
and ventrally by the vessel stems. The longitudinal musculature 
of the outer wall of the genital wings is considerably stronger 
than that of the inner wall. The latter is interrupted in the 
region of the sub-median lines in whose course the openings of 
the ducts of the gonads are situated. Numerous radial fibres 


pass from the limiting meml^rane of the epidermis through the 
muscular layers to be inserted into the ventro-lateral portions of 
the walls of the oesophagus and into the lateral regions of the gill 
pockets. Laterad of the oesophagus a free space is left as in the 
described species, and this contains in sections a coagulated fluid 
in which cells are embedded. The two halves of the trunk coelom 
are completely separated from each other ventrally by the ventral 
vessel which extends between the limiting membrane of the 
epidermis and that of the gut. On the dorsal side the dorsal 
vessel may occupy the whole height of the mesentery or only its 
dorsal half. 

Gut Canal of Branchial region: As in all the known species of 
the genus Ptychodera the gut canal in this region is separated 
into two passages — a dorsal or branchial canal (fig. 20, gg.) and a 
ventral or oesophagus (fig. 20, ce.). The}' communicate with each 
other by a narrower or wider cleft according as the two limiting- 
cushions (fig. 20, Ic.) are approximated to or remote from each 
other. Except for the much greater development of the genital 
wings in this species, a transverse section through its branchial 
region (fig. 20) agrees almost exactly with a similar section of 
Ft. minuta. The gill skeleton is composed of three-pronged forks 
which are related just as in Pt. minnta; the number of " Synap- 
tikels " (fig. 20, an.) varies from seven to ten. 

The epibranchial stripe forming the median dorsal boundary of 
the branchial canal is composed of numerous relatively very long 
and narrow cells ; and its middle region does not stain so deeply 
as the lateral regions in which gland cells are situated. The 
lateral regions pass over opposite the "gill tongues" into the high 
epithelium (fig. 21, gth.) of the "tongue back" (the inner wall of 
the tongue next the gut canal). The gland cells are specially 
abundant in the middle region of the epithelium of the "tongue 
back," and not placed nearer its front face as in Pt. minuta. This 
epithelium passes over into the narrow strand of "intermediate 
epithelium" (fig. 21, ies.) composed of small non-ciliated cells 
which furnishes the low epithelial covering of the "S3^naptikels." 
The lateral walls of the tongue and of the gill pocket are lined 

BY JAS. P. HILL. 27 

)>y a layer of columnar cells with long cilia just as in the described 
species, and the "tongue floor" composed of cells poor in proto- 
plasm is also, as in them, infolded into the cavit3^of the "tongue." 
This cavit)^ (fig. 21, ytc.) just as in Pt. minuta is lined by an 
irregular peritoneal layer, and also contains fibres which stretch 
across between its opposite walls at a short distance below the 
"tongue back." 

The gill jDores (fig. 20, gj).) are narrow slits slightly obliquel}'^ 
placed, which open into the longitudinal grooves bounding the 
"gill area" laterally, and as in the described species the longi- 
tudinal muscles lying laterally to the pores give off fine bundles 
which pass lietween adjacent pores to join the longitudinal 
muscles on the inner side of the gill pores. 

The aijterior ends of the gill rows project for some distance 
into the posterior region of the throat (fig. 18, ay.), but owing to 
the ol^lique direction of the most anterior gills the posterior rim 
of the collar forming the so-called "operculum" of Bateson covers 
at most only the first gill pore. The conditions are essentially 
the same as in ]H. clarigera since the genital wings do not possess 
free anterior edges, Ijut are united with the hind edges of the 
collar, thus enclosing between them and the "gill area" the space 
for which Spengel adopts the term "atrium." It is into the 
narrow anterior projection of this space below the posterior edge 
of the collar that the first gill pore opens. 

The number of gills varies according to the age of the animal, 
since new ones are being continually formed during life at the 
hind end of the gill region. As in Pt. minuta the number of 
gills never appears to exceed 40 pairs, but in the majority of 
individuals the number is ^'erv much less than this. The sill out 
is not closed blindly behind as in Pt. minuta, but passes directly 
over into the gut of the succeeding genital region. 

(2) P OS t-b r anchial r eg io n. — Genital 'region : The mus- 
culature and the dorsal and ventral vessel stems are essentially 
related as in the branchial region. The wall of the gut (fig. 23, /.) 
in this region is usually folded, and lies at a varying distance, 
usually small, from the longitudinal musculature, and there pass 


from its ventro-lateral region to the limiting membrane of the 
epidermis numerous radial fibres. The trunk coelom represented 
in the branchial region by the spaces situated laterally to the 
oesophagus is here considerably reduced and represented by 
irregular spaces. 

The lateral septa (figs. 22, 23, Is.) are related essentially as in 
the described Ptychodera species. In the middle of the genital 
region the septa are of considerable breadth, and pass between 
the dorsal corner of the gut and the submedian line, which is 
here situated at about the middle of the internal face of each of 
the genital wings (fig. 23, Ls.). Anteriorly the point of attach- 
ment of the septum to the gut gradually passes medianly (fig. 22, 
As.) until at the level of the last developing gill jDocket it passes 
over to the skin, to which it is then attached at both ends. In 
the branchial region the ventral point of attachment of the 
septum gradually approaches the lateral, which always remains at 
the submedian line until the two unite. Posteriorly to the 
middle of the genital region the submedian line gradually passes 
down from the mid-region of the inner face of the genital wing, 
and takes a position close to its base, and at the same time the 
septa are reduced gradually in l^readth and finally end with a free 
edge in the anterior portion of the hepatic region. The lateral 
se]3ta thus separate off from the main trunk c(elom two dorsal 
chambers which anteriorly end blindly in the posterior part of the 
branchial region, while ^posteriorly they communicate with the 
main trunk ctelom by their narrow openings. These dorsal 
chambers Spengel regards as blind-sac-like outgrowths of the 
trunk ccelom arising in the anterior part of the hepatic region. 

Gonads: The gonads begin in the "genital wings" immediatel}^ 
l)ehind the posterior rim of the collar and continue for a con- 
siderable distance into the hepatic region. As distinguished from 
Pt. miuKta, in which the gonads are simple unbranched sacs, they 
are in this species, in correspondence with the greatly developed 
"genital wings," much ])ranched, and are here more complexly 
branched than is usually the case in /H. clavigera. As in these 
species, only primary gonads and primary genital pores exist. In 

BY JAS. P. HILL. 29 

the branchial region, as is characteristic of the genus Plychodera, 
the gonads only exist laterally to the gill pores, and consist of 
dorsal and ventral gonad branches which are each again sub- 
divided into lesser lobes : the dorsal usually into two long lobes 
which occupy the uppermost portion of the cavity of the genital 
wings, the ventral into a number (3-4) of shorter and smaller 

In the genital region proper, as in Pt. ckivigera, each gonad 
consists of three main branches: (1) a dorsal (figs. 22, 23, cbjb.) 
occupying, as in the branchial region, the dorsal part of the cavity 
of the "genital wings," and divided into two long lobes or in some 
cases into two long lobes and one short one; (2) a ventro-lateral 
Ijranch situated on the outer side of the lateral septum, between 
it and the outer body wall, and also subdivided into two lesser 
lobes (figs. 22, 23, vgh.)', (3) a median lateral branch occupying 
the cavity of the dorsal chamber of the trunk coelom, enclosed by 
the lateral septum and extending in it alcove the gut towards the 
median dorsal line (figs. 22, 23, mg.). This median ventral 
branch is also subdivided into two. In this species, then, there 
are in connection with each genital pore at least six lesser 
branches. In fig. 23, a section from about the middle of the 
genital region is represented which has passed through one of the 
genital pores {gap.) filled up by a mass of spei-matozoa. The 
specimen from a series of which this section is taken was preserved 
while in the act of extruding the ripe spermatozoa in the form of 
whitish filmy masses. 

Structure of Gonads : According to 8pengel the wall of the 
gonads consists of three layers — an outer peritoneal layer, a middle 
limiting membrane and an inner germ layer. The outer peritoneal 
la3^er is in my preparations very indistinct, and represented by 
some small flattened nucleated cells"' more or less remote from 
each other and closely applied to the middle limiting membrane. 
In the latter there is situated a well marked blood sinus. I have 
never been able to observe a layer of longitudinal muscles in the 
wall of the gonads in this species. Also, I have not been able to 
distinguish the germ layer as a distinct layer, but certain small 


rounded cells lying in-egiilarly internal to the limiting meml)rane 
in young gonads doubtless belong to it. In the young gonads 
there is present a distinct central cavity filled up in some cases by 
a deeply staining homogeneous substance. As in the other species 
of Ptychodera, the gonads contain large nunil)ers of rounded or 
cubical masses of a peculiar substance which in the sexually 
immature animals fills up the gonads almost completely. It is 
found in the young gonads, both male and female, but it persists 
for a much longer time in the case of the ovaries than in the 
testes. Even in the mature ovaries traces of it remain, while in 
the mature testes no trace of it is left. Spengel regards this 
substance as nutritive in function, and the presence of tlie 
abundant deutoplasm in the ova readily accounts for its greater 
})ersistence in the ovaries. 

The ova of this species are essentially similar to those oi Ft. 
oninuta. They average about -^ nun. in diameter, and 
possess very abundant granular deutoplasm. The gei-minal 
vesicle is very large, and contains a spongy nucleoplasm in which 
there is situated one large nucleolus and several smaller masses. 
The ripe ovum is invested in a thick egg membrane attached to 
which there may be a few very small flattened nuclei apparently 
representing the follicular layer. The heads of the ripe sperma- 
tozoa are somew^hat ovoid or rounded in form, and the flagellum 
is ver}'' long and slender (fig. 26). 

H&patic region : With the exception of the presence of two 
ciliated bands in the gut, Spengel's description of this region in 
I't. minuta applies generally to that of this species. The li\er 
sacs (fig. 2-4, /<'?w.) communicate with the gut by narrow transverse 
clefts bounded by anterior and posterior lips. The wall of the 
gut is thrown into obli((uely transverse folds which are interrupted 
on the dorsal side by the two longitudinal grooves, while a well 
marked furrow^ occupies the median dorsal region of the gut. 

The liver sacs are lined by a layer of close-set long narrow cells 
with long nuclei in a row near their base (fig. 24, ehep.). The 
cells contain numerous yellowdsh-brow^n granules, which also occur 
less abundantly in the somewhat shorter but otherwise similar 

BY J AS. P. HILL. 31 

cells lining the gut. The cells of the liver gut possess distinct 
cilia, and in accurate sections through its lining epithelium which 
are met but seldom, the outer surfaces of the cells form a sinuous 
line, and no vacuoles are visible in them, so that, as vSpengel 
remarks, the vesicles he has observed in them are probably the 
result of the action of reagents. On the outer side of the epithe- 
lium of the liver sacs and the gut wall there is a rich system of 
capillary vessels. As in other species of Ptychodfira, except Pt. 
minuta and sarnlensiH, two ciliated grooves are present in this 
species, and they show the usual structure. Each consists of a 
special ciliated band of long columnar cells sunk below the level 
of the gut epithelium and l)ounded on its dorsal or median side 
by a projecting conical mass composed of elongated cells, the 
''covering pad." 

The ciliated grooves extend for a considerable distance into the 
genital region proper, and they are there situated somewhat below 
the jDoints of attachment of the lateral septa to the gut wall, and 
are separated from the epidermis by the thick layer of longitudinal 
musculature. Posteriorly, about the middle of the hepatic region 
where the liver sacs are largest, the genital wings are reduced to 
mere ridges, overhung by the outwardly extended ends of the liver 
sacs. In fig. 24, the left half of a section about the middle of the 
hepatic region is represented, and the ciliated groove (cgr.) is seen 
to lie just below the outer wall of the reduced genital wing {gvy.) 
and now quite close to the epidermis, being separated from it only 
by a thin layer of the longitudinal musculature which becomes 
thinner just at this point. The genital wings can be traced as 
mere elevations of the epidermis below which the ciliated grooves 
are situated to near the posterior end of the hepatic region. 

Hind Bodij : The course of the "ciliated grooves behind the 
hepatic region is marked externally by two longitudinal epidermal 
stripes which, commencing laterally to the posterior small liver 
sacs, extend over the anterior two-thirds of the hind-body region. 
The hind body can thus be divided into an anterior al^dominal 
region characterised by the j)resence of the two epidermal stripes 


and the underlying ciliated grooves, and into a posterior caudal 

In the abdominal region the ciliated grooves may be situated 
directly under the epidermal stripes or may be remote from it by 
a short distance, but always the portion of the longitudinal 
musculature between them is somewhat thinner than elsewhere. 
The cells of the epidermal stripes usually stain darker, and are 
somewhat lower than the adjacent cells, and in one case where the 
grooA'e was situated immediately under the epidermal stripe there 
existed what appeared to be a special differentiation of the cells 
of the latter in the form of a small mass of cells with rounded 
nuclei and distinct nucleoli. In other respects the abdominal 
region of this species closely agrees with that of Pt. minuta. The 
wall of the gut in this region (fig. 25, i.) is thrown into numerous 
somewhat irregular transverse folds, and it becomes further removed 
from the longitudinal musculature so that the coelom is very much 
more distinct than in the liver region and, as there, divided into 
two distinct halves only, however, in the anterior part of the 
region. The band-like cellular mass which 8pengel has found in 
Pt. minuta and sarniensis in connection with the dorsal vessel and 
lying along the dorsal median line of the gut also exists in this 
species. It has here the form of a low band of cells of varying 
height lying as in the described species between the two lamellae 
of the boundary membrane of the gut and not limited laterally. 
Between the dorsal vessel and the cellular mass there passes a 
short mesentery, and by the separation of this into two lamella? 
the cavity of the dorsal vessel comes into direct connection with 
the cellular mass. At these points the cells of the mass are not 
closely packed, and have a branching character exactly like the 
endothelial cells of the dorsal vessel with which they seem to be 

The caudal region of the hind body is essentially similar to that 
(jf Pt. minuta. As in the posterior part of the abdominal region, 
the two halves of the coelom here stand in connection below the 
dorsal vessel. On the ventral side the ventral vessel disappears 
as a distinct structure at the beginning of this region, while the 

BY JAS. P. HILL. 33 

dorsal vessel i-etains its lumen to near the posterior end of the 

As Spengel has found in Pi. minuta, the place of the ventral 
vessel is taken by the keel-shaped process of the gut epithelium. 
As in Pt. ndnutd, a very delicate musculature is found on the gut 
in this region, and as in that species a distinct sphincter derived 
from the circular musculature exists round the anus. 

Vascular Sy ste m. — Dorsal vessel : In the post-branchial 
region the dorsal vessel is related essentially as in Pt. minuta. 
It can be traced as a vessel with a distinct lumen to near the 
posterior end of the hodj; it appears, however, to end as a solid 
structure at its extreme posterior end just as in Pt. minuta. In 
the branchial region the dorsal vessel may occupy the whole of 
the mesentery or only its dorsal portion. Between the perihsemal 
spaces the dorsal vessel usually occupies the whole extent of the 
partition wall, but just as in Pt. minuta it may only occupy the 
dorsal half of it, and the ventral part of the wall may then either 
persist as a low wall of partition below the vessel, or it may 
disappear entirely and place the two perihsemal spaces in com- 

At the anterior end of the perihaemal spaces, the dorsal vessel 
opens, as in the described species, into a lacuna (figs. 11, 12, 14, 
cl.) betvreen the organs in the proboscis neck and which stands in 
connection with the central blood space of the proboscis by a 
narrow cleft. From the lacuna there passes away dorsally a vessel 
(fig. 10, oav.), the afferent skin vessel, which Spengel regards as 
carrying blood to the capillary net of the proboscis. Where two 
proboscis canals are present it passes between them (fig. 10); 
where there is only one canal, along one side of that. It then 
passes into the limiting membrane and runs in that anteriorly for 
a short distance, finally dividing as in the described species into 
two branches which divide up again to form the capillary net of 
the proboscis. 

Proboscis glomerulus : The glomerulus of this species essentially 
resembles that of Pt. minuta. It covers the anterior ends of the 


heart bladder and the proboscis gut, but just behind the anterior 
ends of these it becomes limited to two lateral masses l3^ing on the 
heart bladder and the notochord, and to a small median portion 
on the dorsal side of the heart bladder. This median portion 
which stands in connection with the lateral portions by vessels on 
the walls of the heart bladder posteriorly gives rise to two or 
three large longitudinal vessels which finally unite to form one 
main vessel (fig. 3, mgl.) which passes obliquely backwards and 
upwards along the dorsal edge of the heart bladder (fig. 5, esv.), 
and comes into connection with the capillary net of the proboscis. 
Yentrally, also, the lateral masses stand in connection with the 
capillary net by a network of vessels in the ventral septum of the 
proboscis. According to Spengel, these vessels, dorsal and ventral, 
probably act as the efferent skin vessels, i.e., they probabl}^ convey 
the blood from the capillary net of the proboscis to the glomerulus. 
The glomerulus vessels themselves are similar in their relations to 
those of Pt. minuta. As Spengel has shown, these vessels 
represent a honeycomb-like system. As in that species corre- 
sponding to the floor of the honeycomb there is a sinus on the 
lateral walls of the heart bladder which communicates with the 
central blood space by narrow clefts. From the sinus there 
radiate outwards vessels which, in longitudinal vertical sections, 
are readily seen to be connected in a net-like manner, and at the 
periphery of the glomerulus they give rise to a network of mucli 
larger vessels (figs. 3, 4, 5, 6, gl.). The latter opens into a 
longitudinal vessel occupying the ventral corner of each half of 
the glomerulus, and which in this species can be traced to near 
the anterior end of each half of the glomerulus (figs. 3, 4, 5, epv.). 
These vessels Spengel terms the efferent proboscis vessels, and 
according to him they arise at the posterior end of the glomerulus. 
In this species they certainly become distinct at the posterior end 
of the glomerulus (fig. 8, epv.), but they can be followed up from 
here as distinct vessels lying in the ventral corner of each half 
of the glomerulus to near its anterior end. 

From a comparative study of the glomerulus, and from its 
histology, Spengel is led to regard the glomerulus as a system of 

BY JAS. P. HILL. 35 

infolclings of the splanchnic epithelium, the spaces between these 
infoldings being filled with blood and representing the glomerulus 
vessels. For this view speaks the arrangement of the nuclei 
which occur more or less regularly along the course of the vessels. 
Round the nuclei an oval non-staining cell body can frequently 
be recognised, and they can in some j^laces, as Spengel has 
observed, pass directly over into the splanchnic epithelium. 

Efferent Proboscis Vessels : The efferent proboscis vessels after 
they leave the glomerulus are essentially similar in their course 
and disposition to those of Pt. minnta. However, as Koehler* has 
found in Pt. sarniensis, the two efferent proboscis vessels are 
connected with each other in the proboscis neck by a well-marked 
vessel (figs. 10, 14, cv.) which passes, in the "chondroid tissue" 
occupying the space between the anterior portion of the "keel" of 
the proboscis skeleton and the posterior portion of the "end plate." 
I have met this connecting vessel not only in transverse series, 
l^ut also in both vertical and horizontal longitudinal series, and 
there can, in my opinion, be no doubt as to its existence in this 
species. Spengel, however, asserts that the efferent proboscis 
vessels "never stand in connection with each other," and believes 
"Koehler has been apparently deceived through the intense 
colouration Avith carmine of certain parts of the skeleton which 
thereby become very similar to the blood fluid."! A series of 
transverse sections through an individual of the species under 
consideration, whose vessels were richly filled with coagulated 
blood, leaves me in no doubt on the matter, and the appearance 
presented by the vessel as seen in tw^o adjacent sections is 
represented in fig. 10 {cv.). The specimen was stained Avitli 
cochineal in 70 % alcohol with the result that the coagulated Ijlood 
stained a much deeper tint than the proboscis skeleton, allowing 
the two to he very easily distinguished, and moreover the 
coagulated blood in the connecting vessel could be distinctly seen 
to pass over at both ends into that in the efferent proboscis 

* Contribution a 1' etude des Ent^ropneustes Internat. Monatsschrift 
f. Anat. u. Histologie, Bd, iii. 1886, p. 174 

t hoc, cit, p. 633. 


vessels. Further, the "keel" and "body" of the proboscis skeleton 
are at this point quite distinct from each other and separated by 
the narrow ventral band of "chondroid tissue," and there is 
certainly no median prolongation anteriorly from the point of 
fusion of the "body" and "keel" of the proboscis skeleton which 
takes place just behind the connecting vessel, and which could be 
mistaken for the vessel in question. 

We may then take it as characteristic of Pt. australiensis, at 
least, that the efferent proboscis vessels are united by a connect- 
ing vessel passing in the "chondroid tissue" between the "body" 
and "keel" of the prol^oscis skeleton. 

Further, in this species the capillary net of the proboscis comes 
directl}' into connection with the efferent prol)Oscis vessels in 
the proboscis neck, and indeed anteriorly to the connecting vessel. 
In sections through the proboscis neck, in the region of the 
ventral blind sac, vessels are found in the here commencing 
"chondroid tissue" which, as Spengel has shown, is simply the 
thickened limiting membrane of this region into which cellular 
strands derived mainly from the proboscis pockets have penetrated. 
Some of these vessels enter the efferent proboscis vessels (fig. 9\ 
and they thus serve to place the capillary net of the proboscis 
directly in connection with the efferent proboscis vessels, while 
the dorsal and ventral efferent skin vessels, since they return the 
blood first to the glomerulus, do so indirectly. 

Vessels of Collar : The efferent proboscis vessels are continued 
into the collar, and are related there essentially as in the 
described species of Ptyclwdera. They appear on their entrance 
into the collar as clefts in the limiting membrane on either side 
of the proboscis skeleton, and have at first a longitudinal direc- 
tion. Very soon they diverge outwards in a fold of the limiting 
membrane and finally pass downwards round the mouth cavity in 
a fold of the limiting membrane of the inner wall of the collar — 
the circular vessel fold. Their dorsal portions are formed of 
single vessels (fig. 16, cvc.) which ventro-laterally give rise to two 
capillary nets (fig. 17, cvc'.') which unite in the mid- ventral line of 
the anterior part of the collar to form the longitudinal ventral 

BY JAS. P. HILL. 37 

vessels of the collar, formed by folds of the outer limiting mem- 
brane of the peripharyngeal space. 

The circular vessels stand in direct connection as in the 
described species with the capillary net in the outer limiting 
membrane of the peripharyngeal space, and also anterior to the 
line of termination of the latter with the capillary vessels below 
the epithelium immediately surrounding the mouth aperture. 

The ventral longitudinal vessels generally consist in this species 
of two distinct folds which may be secondarily branched (fig. 18, 
Ivc. ). The longitudinal \essels may, hoAvever, be represented by 
a single simple or much branched fold, or of three or four distinct 

As in the described species the ventral longitudinal vessel folds 
open at their posterior ends into a lacuna in the collar-trunk 
septum, into which the circular vessel passing in the septum 
immediately below the circular nerve ring opens laterally, and 
from which the ventral longitudinal vessel of the trunk takes its 

Capillary System of CoUar is related essentially as in the 
described species. On the dorsal side, the vessels in the limiting- 
membranes of the "roots" placing the outer and inner capillary 
nets in connection are strongly developed (fig. 15). Yentrally, in 
the hind half of the collar l)y the formation of a longitudinal fold 
of the limiting membrane of the epidermis, a median longitudinal 
subepidermic vessel (fig. 18, dv.) may in some cases be formed 
(jpposite the ventral longitudinal plexus. Posteriorly, the former 
fuses with one of the folds of the latter, and the capillary net of 
the inner collar wall is thus brought on the ventral side into 
direct connection with that of the outer. In some individuals, 
however, the ventral mesentery may be entirely absent, and no 
such connection established. 

The capillary net surrounding the dorsal cord is in this species 
strongly developed, and especially on its dorsal side (figs. 15 and 
17) well-marked vessels (fig. 17) pass off, from the dorsal side of 
the dorsal vessel, in the limiting membrane between the periha?mal 
spaces and the collar cord. These laterally pass upwards in the 


limiting membrane of the collar cord to form the capillary net on 
on its dorsal surface, and branches also pass downwards in the 
boundary membrane laterally to the perihaemal spaces and come 
into direct connection with the capillary net of the inner wall of 
the collar. Very few vessels leave the ventral side of the dorsal 
vessel in this species, and the capillary net of the inner wall of 
the collar thus appears to stand mainly in connection with vessels 
derived from the dorsal side of the dorsal vessel, in common with 
the capillary net of the collar cord. 

Ventral Vess'l of Trunk : The ventral vessel is related exactly 
as in Pt. minnta. It does not extend so far posteriorly as the 
dorsal, but disappears at the point of origin of the keel-shaped 
process of the gut. 

Lateral Vessels : The lateral vessels are essentially similar to 
those of the described species. In the branchial region they 
occupy the usual position just below the submedian lines (fig. 20, 
llv.). Then when the lateral septa appear, they run in these (fig. 
22, llv.). Towards the ends of the septa the vessels gradually 
pass downwards towards the point of attachment of the septa to 
the -gut, and then behind the termination of the septa they con- 
tinue as free vessels lying in the interior of the now greatly 
reduced genital wings (fig. 24, llv.) and which finally about the 
middle of the hepatic region pass over into the gut capillaries. 
In this part of their course the vessels possess, as in the other 
species, circular muscle fibres in their walls, and also from the 
latter there radiate outwards fine fibres (fig. 24, llv.), prolja])ly 
functioning as expansors. 

Gill Vessels : My observations on this very complicated set of 
vessels confirm, so far as they go, those of Spengel. The afferent 
gill vessels arising from the dorsal vessel vary according as the 
dorsal vessel occupies the whole of the mesentery or only its 
dorsal half. In the former case the afferent vessels pass off* 
directly from the ventral side of the dorsal vessel; in the latter 
they diverge outwards and downwards from its ventral side, the 
mesentery being apparently absent at this point. The afferent 

BY JAS. P. HILL. 39 

vessels arise from the dorsal vessel opposite the gill tongues. Each, 
according to Spengel, divides soon after its origin into two vessels 
— one of which passes into the tongue and divides again to form 
the two vessels running along the tongue prongs, the other passes 
to the gill septum in front of the tongue which received the first 
A'essel, and probal^l}^ becomes continuous with the septal vessel. I 
have not been able to make out from my preparations the above 
described connections to my complete satisfaction. Each of the 
afferent vessels seems to stand in connection with a vessel lying- 
just above the line of attachment of the gill tongue, and this 
vessel extends on to the dorsal edge of the succeeding septum, and 
is situated just above the dorsal end of the gill skeleton. Through 
this vessel there is doubtless established the connection between 
the blood flowing in the gill tongues and that in the septa. 

The vessels in the tongue are exactly as described by Spengel. 
In transverse sections through the branchial region the capillary 
net in the tongue situated immediately below the peritoneal 
covering of the tongue cavit}" (fig. 20, C7it.) can be distinctly seen, 
and especially in horizontal sections the larger vessels of the net, 
viz., the large vessel situated immediately under the epithelium of 
the "tongue back" and the two smaller vessels along the inner 
side of each tongue prong (fig. 21, tp.) can be distinctly recognised 
(fig. 21). In each of the gill septa the septal vessels (figs. 20, 21, 
tigs.) can readily be made out running just external to the septal 
prong (spr.). At their ventral ends the septal vessels stand in 
connection with the "limiting vessel" below the boundary cushion 
between the branchial canal and the oesophagus, and this "limit- 
ing vessel" stands in the usual connection with the capillary net 
on the wall of the oesophagus. 

Though none of m}'- preparations show a distinct capillar}'- net 
in the gill septa, in some I have observed small branches jDassing 
from the septal vessel, and these probal^ly represent part of the 
capillary net Spengel has found so richly developed in the gill 
septa of Pt. saymiensis. 



Reference Letters. 

ag. Projections of the anterior ends of the gill rows into the throat. 
av. Afferent skin vessels of proboscis, hps. Body of proboscis skeleton. 
hv. Limiting vessel of branchial region, chs. Central blood space of pro- 
boscis, ccp. Prolongations of collar coelom into the proboscis neck. cfv\ 
Circular musculature of outer wall of anterior rim of collar, cyr. Ciliated 
groove, ch. " Chondroid tissue." cz'^r. Capillary net of inner wall of collar. 
d. Cleft into which dorsal vessel opens, cm. Circular musculature of pro- 
boscis, cnc. Collar cord. cnp. Capillary net of proboscis, cut. Capillary 
net of gill tongue. av. Collar ca?lom. cn^'. Parts of collar coelom into 
•which collar pores open. cp. Covering pad. ct. Inner layer of connective 
tissue of proboscis on the splanchnic epithelium, cr. Vessel connecting the 
two efferent proboscis vessels in the proboscis neck. crc. Dorsal 
portion of circular vessel fold of collar, cvc'. Ventral plexus of circular 
vessel fold of collar. dgh. Dorsal gonad branches, div. Notochord. 
dn. Dorsal nerve stem of trunk, dp. Dorsal proboscis pockets, dsc. 
Fibres of dorso-ventral muscle plate, dv. Dorsal vessel of trunk, ehep. 
Epithelium of liver sac. ej^. Epidermis, epb. Epibranchial strand, eps. 
*' End plate " of proboscis skeleton, ejith. Epithelium of throat, epv. 
Efferent proboscis vessels, esr. Efferent proboscis skin vessels on front 
edge of heart bladder, g. Gonads, gap. Genital aperture, gc. Gill cleft. 
gg. Branchial canal, gl. Glomerulus, glm. Muscle fibres of glomerulus. 
gp. Gill pore. gs. Gill septum, gt. Gill tongue, gth. Epithelium of gill 
tongue back. (/ic. Gill tongue cavity, gr?^. Genital wings. A. Heart bladder. 
hep Cavity of liver sac. i. Intestine, ies. Intermediate epithelial stripe 
of gill tongue. ifw. Musculature of fore wall of anterior rim of collar. 
Urn. Inner longitudinal musculature of collar, ilm '. Portion of same passing 
to the proboscis base. hm\ Infolding of ventral wall of heart bladder. 
ivw'. Anterior projection of the same into the cavity of heart bladder. 
hps. " Keel " of proboscis skeleton. Ih. Anterior horn of blind sac lumen. 
lbs. Ventral blind sac of notochord. h\ Limiting cushions between 
branchial canal and oesophagus. Ifw. Longitudinal musculature of outer 
wall of anterior rim of collar, llv. Lateral longitudinal vessel. Im. Longi- 
tudinal musculature of proboscis. Imt. Longitudinal musculature of trunk. 
Imv. Longitudinal musculature of ventral wall of perihsemal spaces. Ips, 
"Legs" of proboscis skeleton. Ips'. "Nuclei" of proboscis skeleton. 
Is. Lateral septa of trunk. Ivc. Longitudinal ventral vessel folds of inner 
wall of collar, mg. Median gonad branches, mgl Vessel passing from the 
median dorsal portion of the glomerulus. nf. Nerve fibre layer, ni-g. 
Nerve fibre ring of proboscis neck. oav. Dorsal prolongation of the blood 
cleft in proboscis neck to form the afferent skin vessels, a. CEsophagus. 

BV .IAS. P. HILL. 41 

ol. Opening of lumen of notochord into the throat, p. Proboscis pore. 
phc. Proboscis cavity, pc. Proboscis canal. ph>^. Periha^mal spaces, pps. 
Peripharyngeal space. rf. Radial fibres passing between the outer and 
fore walls of anterior rim of collar. r(. "Roots." sen. Subepidermic 
capillary net of collar, slv. Median longitudinal vessel of the subepidermic 
capillary net in the posterior ventral part of the collar, sn. " Synaptikel." 
sp. Splanchnic epithelium of proboscis calom. sp7\ Septal prong of gill 
skeleton, thh. Throat or mouth cavity, tpr. Tongue prongs of gill skeleton. 
trc. Trunk coelom. vc-'i. Ventral collar septum. vgh. Ventral gonad 
branches. v(js. Septal vessel, vn. Ventral nerve stem. ip. Ventral pro- 
boscis pockets, vps. Ventral septum of proboscis. vv. Ventral vessel of 
trunk, vir. Ventral wall of heart bladder. 

Ptychodera australiensis. 
Plate I. 
Fig. 1. — Enlarged dorsal view of a small preserved specimen. 
Fig. 2. — Dorsal view of a portion of the abdominal region showing the two 

epidermal stripes. ( x 3. ) 
Fig. 3. — Central part of a transverse section of the proboscis passing 

through the anterior free projection of the infolded ventral 

wall of the heart bladder. Zeiss A., oc. 1., cam. luc. 
Fig. 4. — Transverse section slightly posterior to fig. 3, but from another 

series especially showing the infolding of the ventral heart 

bladder wall. Zeiss A., oc. 1., cam. luc. 

Plate II. 

Fig. 5. — Transverse section passing through about the middle region of 
the proboscis organs. Zeiss A., oc. 1., cam. luc. 

Fig. 6. — Portion of glomerulus in transverse section. Zeiss D., oc. 1., 
cam. luc. 

Fig. 7. — Transverse section of the splanchnic epithelium on the notochord. 
Zeiss D., oc. 1., cam. luc. 

Plate III. 

Fig. 8. — Transverse section through the beginning of the proboscis neck. 
Zeiss A., oc. 1., cam. luc. 

Fig. 9. — Transverse section of proboscis neck posterior to fig. 8 and pass- 
ing through the ventral blind sac of the notochord. Zeiss A., 
oc. 1., cam. luc. 

Fig. 10. — Transverse section of proboscis neck passing through the pro- 
boscis canals and the connecting vessel between the efferent 
proboscis vessels. Zeiss A., oc. 2., cam. luc. 


Plate IV. 
Fig. 11. — Transverse section of proboscis neck of an individual with two 

proboscis pores. Zeiss A., oc. 2., cam. luc. 
Fig. 12. — Similar section of an individual with a single median proboscis 

pore. Zeiss A., oc. 2,, cam. luc. 
Fig. 13. — Dorsal view of proboscis skeleton, (x about 30). 
Fig. 14. — Vertical longitudinal section (nearly median) through the point 

of union of the proboscis neck with the collar. Zeiss A 

(without lowest lens), oc. L, cam. luc. 

Plate v. 

Fig. 15. — Vertical longitudinal section through the dorsal region of collar 

Zeiss A., oc. 1., cam. luc. 
Fig. 16. — Dorsal median portion of a transverse section through the anterior 

region of collar. Zeiss A., oc. 1., cam. luc. 

Plate VI. 

Fig, 17, — Transverse section through the collar passing through the opening 
of the notochord into the throat and through the circular 
vessel fold. Zeiss A (without lowest lens), oc. 1., cam. luc. 

Fig. 18. — Transverse section through the posterior region of collar. Zeiss 
A (without lowest lens), oc. 1., cam. luc. 

Plate VII. 
-Transverse section of ventral part of collar slightly posterior to 

fig. 18, showing the ventral septum. Zeiss A., oc. 1., cam. luc. 
-Transverse section (slightly oblique) through the branchial region 

of a sexually immature individual. Zeiss A (without lowest 

lens), oc. 1., cam. luc. 
-Section of a single gill from a vertical longitudinal series. Zeiss 

C, oc. 1., cam. luc, 
-Transverse section of a sexually immature individual, just behind 

the branchial region. Zeiss A (without lowest lens), oc. 1., 

cam. luc. 

Plate VIII. 

Fig. 23. —Transverse section through the genital region of a sexually matui'e 

male, passing through a genital pore. Zeiss A (without 

lowest lens), oc. 1., cam. luc. 
Fig. 24. — Transverse section through the hepatic region. Zeiss A., oc. L, 

cam. luc. 
Fig. 25. — Transverse section through the abdominal region showing the two 

ciliated bands. Zeiss A., oc. 1., cam. luc. 
Fig. 26. — Ripe spermatozoa. Zeiss D., oc. 4., cam. luc. 











By Jas. p. Hill, Demonstrator of Biology, and C. J. Martin, 

M.B., B.Sc. (LoND.), Demonstrator of Physiology-, in 

THE University of Sydney. 

(Plates ix.-xiii.) 


The following paper is based on the examination of two embryos 
taken from the intra-uterine eggs of a Platypus. Beyond the facts 
that Monotremes are oviparous and the ovum is meroblastic the 
material collected by Caldwell in 1884 has afforded us very little 
information, and we have thought that a description of a 
Platypus embryo of this stage ma}'- not be unwelcome to 
zoologists. In this paper we necessarily confine ourselves to a 
description of the structure of the embryo lying before us. Next 
year, now that we know the exact breeding season of Platypus 
in certain convenient localities in New South. Wales, we shall 
endeavour to obtain the stages intermediate between the earliest 
we now possess and the embryo described in this paper. 

The female from the left uterus of which the two eggs were 
taken was shot on 1st October of this year. The general external 
characters of the e^g have already been sufficiently accurately 
described."^ The eggs were both exactly of the same size and 
spheroidal in shape. The egg shell is, as Caldwell described, of 
an opaque white colour and quite soft, presenting a general 
resemblance to the shell of a lizard's ege'. 

The eggs measured 18 mm. in their long and 13-5 mm. in their 
short diameter. They are thus somewhat larger than the eggs 
secured by Caldwell, who gives the measurements of the egg when 

* Caldwelb Phil. Trans. 1887, p. 473. 


laid as 1 5 mm. by 1 2 mm. Three other females were shot on the 
same date, and these had obviously just laid their eggs, as 
evidenced l^y the emptiness and large size of the left uterus and 
hj the jDresence and condition of corpora lutea in the ovary. 
Moreover, the mammary glands in all four females were of 
approximately the same size. The tubules were arranged in a 
fan-like fashion, radiating outwards from the, at this stage, very 
small bare area of the ventral abdominal wall, and measured 5 cm. 
in length. 

From the size of these eggs as compared with Caldwell's, and 
from the condition of the other three females shot on the same 
date, we may reasonably conclude that they were just ready to be 

The only other recorded measurements besides Caldwell's of the 
size of the Platypus eggs when laid are contained in a paper by 
Geoffroy KSt. Hilaire published in 1829.^' The eggs, nine in 
number, were found lying on a rough nest in a small burrow on 
the banks of the River Hawkesbury, N.S.W., and measured 
1| inches (34 mm.) long by f of an inch (19 mm.) broad. The 
eggs here described were probably not those of Platypus at all : 
as St. Hilaire himself afterwards pointed out, they could not on 
account of their size pass through the pelvis, and he then came to 
the conclusion that in Platypus the eggs must be hatched inside ! 

The eggs were opened immediately after the animal was shot 
and their contents joreserved in picro-sulphuric acid. The embryos 
were stained with borax-carmine, imbedded in paraffin and cut 
into serial sections with the Cambridge microtome. 

To our friend. Prof. J. T. Wilson, we are indebted not only for 
many valuable suggestions but for much kindly criticism during 
the course of our work, and we desire here to tender him our 
sincere thanks. We have also to thank Messrs. Shewen and 
Grant, assistants in the Physiological Laboratory, for much assist- 
ance in the preparation of the photo-micrograph accompanying 
this paper. 

* Ann. (les 8c. Nat. T. xviii. p. 162. 


General I)€SC7'iption of the Embryo as seen in Surface Vieio. 

On opening the egg, the embryo was found lying on the surface 
of a thin-walled vesicle, with its long axis corresponding to the 
long diameter of the egg. It extended over the surface of the 
vesicle almost from pole to pole. The vesicle completely filled 
the interior of the shell. It contained a thin whitish transparent 
fluid of an albuminous nature which was precipitated in picro- 
sulphuric acid. Immediately below the wall of the vesicle there 
appeared a thin layer of yolk granules which was somewhat 
increased over a small area at the ant-embryonic pole. The 
embryo measured 1 9 mm. from the anterior end of the medullar}'- 
plate to the extreme posterior end of the primitive streak. This 
hinder point of measurement is 1 -5 mm. behind the blastopore. 
A photo-micrograph of the embr3'o from the dorsal side magnified 
54 diameters is shown in PL ix. Outside the elongated and 
somewhat fiddle-shaped contour of the embryo is seen a lighter 
more transparent zone (PL ix. am. a.) corresponding to the amniotic 
area of other mammals. In the fresh condition no trace of a 
vascular area was visible, though in the hardened blastoderm 
developing vessels were indicated by a mottling l^oth in and 
around the amniotic area. Immediately in front of the anterior 
end of the embryo there was to be seen a lighter area — the 
proamnion — (PL ix., jyra.) into which the mesoderm had not j^et 
extended. The antero-lateral portions of the embryo were almost 
entirely occupied by two sharply limited patches situated one on 
either side of the anterior region of the medullary plate, opposite 
the position of the future first and second cerel)ral vesicles. The 
outer contours of these head plates are jDosteriorly in line with 
the forward continuations of the outer borders of the proto- 
vertebral zones of mesoderm. The outer margins of these head 
plates mark the lateral limits of a very considerable mesodermal 
thickening in this region, and we may for convenience of descrip- 
tion term them the head plates of mesoderm. Their relations to 
the general mesoderm will be described later. 

The commencing separation of the embryo from the vesicle is 
indicated b}^ the presence of a sulcus, the so-called head-fold, which 


passes back for a distance of approximately -17 mm. below the 
anterior end of the medullary plate and thus separates the latter 
from the underlying proamnion. This sulcus we must suppose 
has arisen as in other forms by the forward growth of the anterior 
end of the medullary plate over this bilaminar portion of the 

Lateral and tail folds are not yet developed. 

The medullary plate is still flat with the exception that along 
its mesial line a definite groove (the "Riickenfurche") is developed. 
Medullary folds are absent throughout except in the region of the 
future fore-brain. 

In the head region the three future cerebral vesicles are 
indicated by widenings of the medullary plate. The first is 
separated from the second by a well marked constriction, while a 
less marked constriction situated somewhat anterior to the 
posterior margins of the mesodermal head plates separates the 
second from the third. 

The upgrowths of the medullary folds in the lateral regions of 
the fore-brain are very apparent in the photo-micrograph as two 
dark lines (PL ix., md.f.). The continuation of these lines across 
the front of the medullary plate is produced by the thickening and 
duplication of the medullary plate at the head fold (PL xi., 
figs. 15 and 16 cp.). 

The medullary plate in the region of the hind-brain is especialty 
characterised by the presence on each side of four oblong meta- 
merically arranged opaque masses extending from the outer edges 
of the medullary plate to within a short distance of the mesial 
line. These, as will be shown later, are local thickenings of the 
medullary plate, and are therefore true neuromeres. The neuro- 
meres are arranged in bilaterally symmetrical pairs, and adjacent 
ones are separated from each other by well marked transverse 
constrictions. The first pair (PL ix., ?/.'.) are situated entirely in 
front of the auditory plates. They are narrow and transversely 
elongated. The second pair are not so distinct, and do not extend 
quite so far mesially as the first. The third pair are very distinct 
and somewhat broader than the first. They are directed slightly 


backwards. The fourth pair are much less distinct than the 
others, and in surface view are not so sharply limited from the 
medullary plate. 

In the anterior region of the mid-])rain, a pair of neuromeres 
(PL IX., N.) occur, ])ut they are much less distinct than those of the 
hind-brain, appearing merely as local thickenings of the medullary 
plate in that region, without any accompanying constrictions. 

Opposite the second and third neuromeres of the hind-brain 
there is on each side a somewhat triangular thickened patch of 
ectoderm — the auditory plate (PI. ix., aud.). The mesoderm in 
the region of the auditory plates is very thin, hence they stand 
out very distinctly. The anterior margin of each plate is on a 
level with the front edge of the second neuromere; indeed the 
greater portion of the plate is situated opposite this neuromere. 
Each plate is roughly triangular in shape, with the base of the 
triangle adjoining the medullary plate, and with a deep bay in 
the middle of its posterior margin. 

The hind-brain region narrows gradually posteriorly and passes 
into the medullary plate of the future spinal cord. The medullar}^ 
plate widens out towards the posterior end of the embryo into a 
well marked sinus rhomboidalis which completely surrounds the 
primitive streak. The primitive streak is just visible in the photo- 
micrograph (PL IX., pr. s.) as a faint linear thickening enclosing 
a whitish axial line — the primitive groove — at the posterior 
end of the embryo. The anterior end of the primitive streak 
exhibits a distinct thickening, to one side of which the blastopore 
(PL IX., hi.) is situated. This thickening is continued forwards 
as the head process of the mesoderm which passes into the hinder 
end of the notochord. The notochord is very distinct in the 
photo-micrograph as the longitudinal line running along the 
middle of the medullary plate. At its anterior end it broadens 
out, and terminates about the middle of the future fore-brain. 

The bilateral Anlagen of the heart are very noticeable in surface 
view (PL IX., /t.a.) as two tubular-looking structures lying external 
to the auditory plates, and extending backwards from them along 
the outer edges of the forward extensions of the lateral zones of 


mesoderm, nearly up to the first somite. They are thus situated 
in greater part opposite the hind-brain region. 

In the trunk region, on either side of and extending below the 
medullary plate there are seventeen pairs of somites : the first pair 
situated relatively far back with regard to the auditory plates, 
and separated by a considerable space from the last neuromere. 
The anterior somites are square in shape with their borders at 
right angles to the axial line. They become successively broader 
and shorter towards the posterior end of the embryo, where they 
are placed obliquely to its long axis. 

On each side just external to the outer edges of the somites 
(with the exception of the first three) and between them and the 
lateral zone of mesoderm there occurs a narrow intermediate 
zone containing the Anlage of the Wolffian body (PI. ix., tv.b.). 
Beginning as a faint line opposite the fourth somite, it becomes 
more distinct opposite the seventh, and from thence backwards as 
far as the fifteenth somite it exhibits an irregular linear thicken- 
ing. Over this posterior part of its course the Wolffian duct 
occurs as a distinct structure. Behind the fifteenth somite the 
intermediate cell mass extends backwards as a narrow strip some- 
what beyond the last somite. 

Caldwell"^ compared the Platj^pus embryo from an egg just laid 
to a chick of about 36 hrs., but beyond the number of somites 
being about the same in both, there is hardly any other point of 
comparison. In a chick of this age the medullary groove is 
closed right down to the sinus rhomboidalis, the head is covered 
by the amnion, the three cerebral vesicles and the optic vesicles 
are well developed, the heart is formed and already bent, the 
vascular area differentiated and the blood circulating; whereas in 
the Platypus embryo at about the time of laying, the medullary 
plate is practically flat, vascular area and amnion are non-existent, 
while the heart is represented by two lateral Anlagen at the 
periphery of the anterior extensions of the lateral plates of 

* Proc. Roy. Soc. N.S.W. Vol. xviii. 1884, p. 120. 


In fact we are not acquainted with any embryo which reaches 
the dimensions mentioned above and is possessed of such a number 
(17 pairs) of somites and which yet remains, with the exception 
of a sHght head fold, absolutely flat. 

Selenka's"^ figure (fig. 1 Taf. xxi.) of a three days' Didelphys 
embryo does however present considerable points of resemblance to 
the Platypus embryo under consideration, though it is very much 
smaller (4'5 mm.) and possesses only fourteen somites. 

In both embryos the medullary plates are practically flat, 
double heart Anlagen are present, and head fold formed. The 
appearance of the anterior end of the medullary plate of the three 
days' Opossum closely resembles that of the Platypus embryo; and 
further, in the region of the future mid-brain the same lateral 
mesodermal thickenings occur [vide Selenka's fig. 4, Taf. xx. y.) as 
we have described above, though in the Opossum they are not so 
marked as in our embr3^o. According to Selenka these mesoder- 
mal thickenings "gehoren offenbar zur Urwirbelplatte des Kopfes." 

In the Opossum embryo neither the Wolflian body nor the 
auditory plates are indicated, nor are there any neuromeres 
described. It however seems highly probable to us that the 
structures situated in the region of the hind-brain which Selenka 
regards as the anterior five somites are in reality not somites at 
all but true neuromeres. A comparison of his fig. 4, Taf. xx., 
which represents a slightly younger embryo, with the above- 
mentioned figure renders this view still more likely. In his 
figures the structures regarded as the anterior five somites extend 
inwards from the edges of the medullary plate to within a short 
distance of the mesial line, and in surface ^iew appear related 
essentially as are the neuromeres in our embryo; while the 
remaining somites of the trunk, instead of ending on a level with 
the edges of the medullary plate, extend out beyond them. 

Further, his transverse section (fig. 3, Taf. xxi.) through the 
region of the hind-brain and passing through one of these 
supposed somites shows no mesodermal differentiation which could 

^■" Studieii iiber Entwick. der Thier. iv. Lief, i Abt. 


give rise to the appearance seen in surface view. The mesoderm 
extends out as a continuous plate of uniform thickness beyond the 
edge of the medullary plate, whereas the medullary plate itself 
shows a very noticeable thickening as compared with that of the 
other sections figured. 

The marked retardation in the formation of the medullary folds 
and in the folding off of the embryo is one of the most character- 
istic features of the embryo at this stage. This may be due, as 
suggested by our friend Prof. J. T. Wilson, to the mechanical 
effect of the rapid imbibition by the ovum of nutritive fluid 
secreted by the uterine glands. 

The mature ovarian ovum, according to Caldwell,"^ measures 
only 2*5 to 3 mm. in diameter. After the entrance of the ovum 
into the Fallopian tube the shell membrane and proalbumen are 
added externally to the vitelline membrane, and at the same time 
the ovum is increasing in size by the absorption of fluid. The 
youngest stages in our possession are eggs in which segmentation 
has advanced to some extent ; they measure 5 mm. in diameter, 
and possess a distinct and resistent shell membrane separated 
from the vitelline membrane by a thin layer of proalbumen. As 
development proceeds this layer of proalbumen is soon wholly 
absorbed, and in the eggs under consideration the blastodermic 
vesicle tightly distended with fluid fitted closely around the inner 
surface of the fully formed shell, the vitelline membrane being no 
longer recognisable. During the rapid imbibition of fluid by the 
blastodermic vesicle, and the consequent increase in size of the 
whole ovum, the wall of the vesicle including the embryonal area 
is closely pressed against the surrounding vitelline and shell 
membranes. It therefore seems reasonable to suppose that under 
such conditions, only those structural features of the embryo are 
produced which do not involve any upgrowths of the wall of the 
vesicle. Once the definite shell is fully formed around the egg 
and no possibility exists of its obtaining a further supply of 
maternal nutritive material, the normal development of bodily 

* Phil. Trans. 1887. 


form by folding of the l^lastoderm is enabled to occur l^y the 
embryo making room for itself, so to speak, by the using up of 
the fluid contents of the vesicle. 

Against the view here put forward, it may be urged that in 
certain other forms there is a similar rapid increase in size of the 
I )lastodermic vesicle by the absorjation of fluid, and yet there is 
no retardation in development. In Didelphys, for example, the 
1 )histodermic vesicle, according to Selenka, increases in one day 
from a diameter of 6 mm. to one of 15 mm., and at the end of this 
time the embryo is folded oflf, the medullary groove is closed and 
the amniotic folds developed. All these processes can, how^ever, 
easily occur on an expanding blastodermic vesicle lying naked in 
the cavity of the uterus and devoid of any such mechanical 
obstacle as would be presented by the presence of a resistent shell 


The ectoderm forms a continuous covering for the whole of the 
l)lastodermic vesicle. It consists, except in the regions to be 
subsequently mentioned, of a single layer of polygonal cells. Over 
the greater portion of the embryonic area the cells are much 
flattened, while in the head region of the embryo and in the 
extra-embryonic region of the wall of the vesicle they appear 
cubical in section. 

Medullary plate. — The medullary plate is, as already 
mentioned, still practically flat. Medullary folds are only present 
in the anterior region of the future fore-brain ; their appearance 
in this region is probably to be associated with the very early 
appearance of the optic grooves. The plate consists of elongated 
cells, the nuclei of which are situated at different levels simulating 
the appearance of several layers of cells. The lateral portions of 
the plate are thickest, and are connected by a median much 
thinner portion which sends down a keel-shaped process in 
some parts to meet the notochord. Along the median portion of 
the plate there runs a distinct groove — the " Riickenfurche." 
Beiiinninf; as a shallow t^roove slightlv behind the anterior end of 


the medullary plate, it gradually becomes deeper posteriorly^ 
attaining its maximum depth just anterior to the 1st pair of 
somites, where it is distinctly Y-shaped (fig. 7, Behind 
this point it gradually becomes shallower again until in the region 
of the 8th somite the medullary plate is almost flat, and much 
thinner than anteriorly (figs. 9 and 10, md. p,). Posterior to the 
somites the plate gradually increases in breadth to form the sinus 
rhomboidalis which invests the i3rimitive streak. The extreme 
anterior end of the medullary plate is quite flat, destitute of a 
median groove, and separated from the underlying proamnion by 
the head fold. It therefore consists of two layers, a thicker 
upper and a thinner lower layer, separated from each other by a 
narrow space (figs. 1, 15 and 16). 

Immediately behind the anterior end of the medullary plate its 
margins become upturned to form the medullary folds which are 
conspicuous in the photo-micrograph as the two dark lines on 
either side of the future fore-brain. A transverse section through 
the middle region of the fore-brain is shown in fig. 2. In the 
middle of the section is a well-marked groove {d. fr.) separated by 
elevations of the medullary plate from two lateral grooves (op. gr.) 
bounded externally by the medullary folds which curve slightly 
inwards above the grooves. The median groove will form the 
future first cerebral vesicle, while the lateral grooves sve regard as 
the Anlagen of the future optic vesicles. Heape"^ figures a section 
very similar to our fig. 2 through the optic grooves of the Mole 
(Stage F.), and comments on their very early aj^pearance, while 
the medullary groove is still widety open. Posteriorly each optic 
groove deepens, becomes somewhat Y-shaped in section, and at 
the same time its floor thickens, eventually forming a hollow out- 
growth which arises from the bottom of the groove and proceeds 
outwards and downwards (fig. 3). An appearance similar to this 
has not been described, so far as we are aware, for an}^ other 
embryo, and from the evidence at our disposal it would be rash 
to speculate too far as to its jjrobable significance. The whole 

* Quart. Jour. Micros. Science, Vol. xxvii. 1887, fig. 16, Pi. xi. 


appearance somewhat suggests a precocious formation of the 
secondary optic cup, but whether this is so or not can only be 
settled b}^ the examination of older stages. We are convinced, 
however, from the examination of serial transverse sections 
through the region in question, that the appearance is not caused 
by any artificial folding. Longitudinal sections of our second 
embryo also exhibit a series of appearances contradicting such an 

N eur m ere s. — As already mentioned four distinct pairs of 
neuromeres are present in the hind-brain and a less marked paii- 
in the anterior region of the mid-brain. The mid-brain neuro- 
meres are not so distinctly marked off from the medullary plate 
as those of the hind-brain. It is, hov/ever, obvious in longitudinal 
section as a distinct local thickening of the medullary plate (fig. 
16, N.) corresponding to the region marked N in the photo-micro- 

In longitudinal section the neuromeres exhibit the character- 
istic arc-shaped form originally described by Orr* in the Lizard 
( Anolis), and afterwards by McCluref in the Chick, in Ambiystoma 
and Anolis, and by Watersf in the Cod. 

The neuromeres in the hind-brain of Platypus exhibit very 
closely the characters described by Orr for those of the hind-brain 
of the Lizard. It must, however, l^e remembered that in the 
embryo Lizard, to which Orr's description applies, the medullary 
€anal is closed, while in the Platypus embryo the medullary plate 
is still flat, so that the outer surface of the medullary canal of the 
Lizard corresponds to the undersurface of the medullary plate in 
our emVnyo, and his inner surface to our upper surface. 

Each neuromere as seen in longitudinal section (fig. 16, N.) is 
formed by an arc-shaped bulging on the under side of the 
medullary plate. Adjacent neuromeres are separated from each 
other by w^ell-marked constrictions on the under side of the 

* Orr, Journ. Morphology, Vol. i, 1887, PI. xii. fi^. 5. 

t McClure, Journ. Morphology, Vol iv. p. 35-56. 

X Waters. Quart. Journ. Micros. Science, Vol. xxxiii. p. 4S1AT2,. 


medullary plate, while on the u^Dper side, opposite the constric- 
tions, there are slight transverse ridges. 

The elongated cells of which each neuromere is composed are 
distinct from those of its neighbours. The cells are arranged 
radially from the upper surface of the neuromere, and their nuclei 
are slightly more numerous just below that surface (fig. 18). In 
the hind-brain of the lizard, on the other hand, according to Orr, 
the nuclei are more numerous towards the outer surface of the 
neuromere, i.e., towards the undersurface in the medullary plate 

In transverse sections the first neuromere of the hind-brain 
appears as a thickening of the medullary plate with two bulgings 
on its ventral side — a smaller one situated near the middle of each 
half of the medullary plate, and a larger one at the outer edge of 
the plate [fig. 19 (2)]. The outer bulging projects considerably 
Ijeyond the lateral margins of the medullary plate in the inter- 
neuromeric region. 

The second neuromere [fig. 19 (4)] is less marked than the first^ 
but also possesses mesial and lateral bulgings. The third 
neuromere [fig. 19 (6)] is on surface view the most distinct of the 
four. It possesses a single large 1)ulging at its outer edge. The 
fourth neuromere [fig. 19 (8)] is the least distinct; it possesses, 
like the first and second, two enlargements of which the lateral 
one is the larger (fig. 17). Immediately behind the fourth pair of 
neuromeres of the hind-brain the medullary plate is thickened, l)ut 
the thickenings are not limited behind by constrictions, and for 
the present we leave it an open question whether these are to be 
regarded as a fifth pair of neuromeres or not. 

Neuromeres in the fore-brain were not observed. All that we 
can definitely say at present, then, is that in the head region of 
the Platypus embryo of this stage a single pair of neuromeres exist 
in the mid-brain and four distinct pairs in the hind-brain. As 
Locy* has observed in Squalus acanthias, and Ambiy stoma, so in 
Platypus the neuromeric segmentation appears very early, indeed 

* Anat. Anz. ix. Bd. p. 393-415. 


before the formation of the medullary folds. The same observer 
has also insisted on the fact that the neuromeric segmentation is 
primitively ectodermic and entirely independent of any meso- 
dermic segmentation — ^a view with which the conditions in 
Platypus are in complete agreement. 

Auditory plates : The auditor}^ plates are situated laterally to 
the neuromeric region of the hind-brain, their anterior edges being 
on a level with those of the second pair of neuromeres. Each 
consists of a thickening of the ectoderm which is distinctly 
grooved longitudinally (fig. 6, aud.). The appearance of the 
auditory plates in Platypus while the medullary plate is still flat 
is noteworthy. 

Cranial ganglia are not yet developed. However, in the 
interval between the third and fourth pairs of neuromeres and 
opposite the posterior portions of the auditory plates there occurs 
on each side a distinct downgrowth of the ectoderm just external 
to the outer edge of the medullary plate. This downgrowth is 
similar to the "Zwischenrinne" described by His"^ in 1879. Beard, f 
Rabl,:|: Chiurugi,^^ and others have observed a similar structure, 
but do not regard it as concerned with the development of the 
cranial ganglia, Goronowitsch,|| indeed, being of the opinion that 
it is an artificial production of the paraffin bath. . 

There remains to be noticed a longitudinal strand of cells on 
each side lying close beneath the ectoderm just external to the 
edge of the medullary plate and passing slightly inwards below 
its outer margin (figs. 8 and 9, le.). The strands are found in the 
trunk region of the embryo extending from the first pair of somites 
anteriorly to about the fourteenth pair posteriorly. They are 
much larger and more distinct anteriorly. Whether these strands 
are ectodermal in their origin and ganglionic in their significance 

* His, Untersuchungen iiber die erste Anlage des Wirbelthierleibes — 

i Beard, Quart. Journ. Micros. Sc. Vol. xxix. 

:|: Rabl, Morphol. Jahrb. Bd. xv. 
§ Chiurugi, Arch. Ital. de Biologie, Bd. xv. 
II Goronowitsch, Morph. Jahrb. Bd. xx. Heft 2, p. 201. 


could not with certainty be determined at this stage. They 
exhibit no cellular connection with their surroundings and may 
possibly represent the detached neural crest ("Zwischenstrang") of 
which no other representative is present. 


The entoderm of the embryonic area presents no very special 
features. It is a single layer of flattened cells, the nuclei of which 
are fairly close. Laterally the cells become more elongated and 
the nuclei consequently are further apart. Here and there in the 
embryonic area these flattened entodermal cells are interspersed 
with large cells distended by the presence in their interior of 
several yolk spheres (c/. fig. 22, vit. e.7it.). Further out these yolk- 
containing cells l:)ecome more numerous and eventually form the 
entire inner lining of the blastodermic vesicle. Their structure is 
described later in cc^niection with that of the vesicle. The only 
differentiation of the embryonic entoderm is found in the region 
of the future pharynx. The cells lying just internal to the amnio- 
cardial vesicles have assumed a cubical shape, and form a narrow 
thickened band on each side extending back to the region of the 
heart Anlagen (tig. 5, pmI. ph.). These two bands represent the 
pharyngeal entoderm of this region. 

N oto chord : The notochord in surface view is seen to 
terminate about the middle of the future fore-brain, and sections 
through this region show that the notochord is here represented 
by a thickening of the entoderm forming a median band with 
which the mesoderm is continuous laterally. Many of the cells 
in this anterior region of the notochord exhibit mitotic division 
(fig. 14, nch.). This median thickening as traced back becomes 
more marked and more sharply limited laterally though it is not 
yet distinct from the entoderm. It is in contact above and for 
some distance behind this point with the keel-shaped process of 
the medullary plate. Then just posterior to this the notochord 
becomes distinct as a small rounded mass closely connected with 
the entoderm below and in contact with the keel-shaped process 
of the medullary plate above (fig. 4). Then, from about the 


middle region of the mid-brain up to a short distance in front of 
the tirst somite, the notochord lies below the keel of the medullary 
plate and is connected with the entoderm by a thin cellular 
filament (fig. 5). Somewhat anterior to the first somite the 
notochord l^ecomes entirely free from the entoderm, and continues 
in this condition to its posterior end where it passes into the head 
process of the primitive streak. The notochord increases in size 
somewhat after Ijecoming entirely free from the entoderm. It is 
then distinctly rod-shaped, while anteriorly it is somewhat oval in 

The notochord is relatively of very small size in Platypus. 
Heape* has also noticed a similar condition in the Mole, and he 
regards it as due to the very early appearance of the nervous 


The mesoderm is at this stage established as two lateral wings 
distinct from the ectoderm and entoderm except at certain regions 
in the axial line, viz. :— -At the anterior flattened-out end of the 
notochord, in front of the blastopore in the region of the head 
process, and behind the blastopore in the region of the primitive 
streak. As already mentioned in the description of the surface 
view of the embryo, the mesoderm lying on either side of the 
anterior end of the embryo forms two sharply limited plates to 
which we have given the name of mesodermal head plates as dis- 
tinguished from the mesoderm of the rest of the body. 

The head plates of mesoderm (PI. ix., h.p. mes.) are lateral 
thickenings on either side of the future fore- and mid-brains, and 
show no signs of segmentation. Their outer contours are directly 
continuous with the forward continuation of the outer boundaries 
of the proto vertebral zones of mesoderm. Their very distinct 
posterior boundary is not due to the entire disa.ppearance of 
mesoderm at this point, l^ut to a very marked thinning of the 

Quart. Journ, Micros. Science, Vol. xxvii. 1887, p. 139. 


A transverse section through the middle region of the head 
plate is shown in fig. 4. Here, below the medullary plate, the 
mesoderm exists in the form of scattered stellate cells, while 
laterally to the outer edges of the medullar}^ plate the cells are 
more numerous and more closely packed, especially immediately 
below the ectoderm and at the outer rim of the head plate. This 
thickened rim marks the outer contour of each plate as seen in 
surface view. Beyond this rim the mesoderm is divided by the 
development of a ccelom into two layers, an upper thin layer of 
flattened somatic mesoderm cells and a lower thicker layer of some- 
what cubical splanchnic mesoderm cells. The narrow ccelomic 
spaces thus enclosed when traced posteriorly are found to be the 
most anterior parts of the body cavity, and for them we adopt 
Minot's* term amnio-cardial vesicles. 

The amnio-cardial vesicles extend forwards as two horns beyond 
the anterior end of the embryo. The}" converge towards the 
median line without, however, uniting, and practically limit a 
small area (the proamnion) in which mesoderm is absent. The 
proamnion is of very small extent and lies immediately in front 
of and below the anterior end of the medullar}^ plate (figs. 1 and 
15, 2jra.). Behind the posterior limits of the head plates the 
mesoderm becomes reduced to a very thin layer, and is absent 
altogether over a limited area just anterior to the outermost 
portion of each auditory plate (fig. 5), and here ectoderm and 
entoderm come into contact as in the proamnial region. The thin 
areas of mesoderm behind the head plates are very obvious in the 
photo-micrograph as the lighter areas in the middle of which the 
auditory plates are situated. These thin areas are wholly confined 
to the forward continuations of the protovertebral zones of meso- 
derm. Externally to the thin areas are the forward extensions 
of the lateral trunk zones of mesoderm, along the outer edges of 
which are situated the symmetrical heart Anlagen. 

The mesoderm in the hind-brain region is entirely destitute of 
segmentation. It consists, below the medullar}^ j^^^^^j of scattered 

* Human Embyology, 1S92, p. 198. 


stellate cells which become somewhat more compact below the 
ectoderm and nnmediately external to the edges of the medullary 
plate. The outer margin of this more compact portion of the 
mesoderm corresponds to the outer limit of the forward prolonga- 
tion of the protovertebral zone of mesoderm, and is visible in 
the photo-micrograph as the dark contour bounding this area. 
Be^'-ond this line the mesoderm is split into the somatic and 
splanchnic layers. The somatic layer is composed of a single 
layer of cells and is closely applied below the ectoderm; the 
splanchnic layer is thicker, especially where it is inbulged over 
the heart endothelium (figs. 5 and 6, spL). The two layers unite 
again into a single layer a little way external to the lateral heart 
Anlage. The lateral extension of the unsplit mesoderm beyond 
the heart Anlage is, however, very small, so that the lateral 
extent of the ctelom practically corresponds in this region with 
the lateral extent of the mesoderm. From this point backwards 
the mesoderm gradually extends more and more outwards until it 
reaches its maximum extension opposite the posterior end of the 

Behind the heart Anlagen proper the somatic layer of mesoderm 
becomes very much thicker than the splanchnic (figs. 7, 8, 10 and 
12), and it continues in this condition to the posterior end of the 
embryo. At the same time the two layers become more closely 
applied to each other and the ctelom is reduced to a narrow cleft. 

Just over the venous trunks leading to the heart Anlagen tlie 
two layers are unsplit, thus dividing the coelom into a more mesial 
and a more lateral portion. 

The splitting of the more mesially situated part of the lateral 
mesoderm becomes more indistinct posteriorly, so that opposite 
the anterior somites the mesial part of the ventral coelom is largely 
obliterated and there exists external to the somites a mass of 
unsplit mesoderm (fig. 8). 

The par-axial mesoderm immediately in front of the first pair 
of somites, though not transversely limited in front as a distinct 
segment, has essentially the same appearance in section as that of 
the first somite. It forms on each side a distinct and compact 


plate lying close below the ectoderm immediately external to the 
edge of the medullary plate. Beneath it there exist looser stellate 
cells which are continuous with it at both ends (fig. 7, mes. ax.). 

Mesodermic somites: The appearance of the seventeen pairs of 
somites as seen in surface view has alread}^ been described. With 
the exception of the first three and the last three the somites are 
practically identical. In transverse sections (figs. 8 and 9, Tti.s.) 
they present an oblong form compressed dorso-ventrally and 
extend some distance beneath the medullary plate. They possess 
in their whole breadth very distinct myotomic cavities bounded 
by dorsal and ventral walls composed of somewhat stellate cells. 
The cavity is sometimes interrupted by strands of cells passing 
between the two walls. 

The ventral walls of the first three pairs of somites have 
l)ecome converted into stellate mesenchyme cells, and in the first 
at least the myotomic cavity is no longer distinguishable (fig. 7). 
Their dorsal walls form a somewhat arched plate of closely 
compacted cells. 

The last three pairs of somites do not possess well marked 
cavities. They consist of al^out two layers of cells connected by 
cellular bridges (fig. 10, m.s.). 

Lateral trunk mesoderm and central cwlom : The lateral meso- 
derm appears directly continuous with the first three somites, 
without any intermediate cell mass, while from the 4th onwards 
a distinct intermediate cell mass is present l^etween the two (figs. 
8 and 9). 

Except op]30site the posterior somites the cleavage of the lateral 
mesoderm does not extend right w^ to the somites, the ccelom 
only appearing some distance out. The splanchnic layer is only 
one cell thick, while the main portion of the mesoderm continues 
out as a thick somatic layer. This gradually thins as it passes 
out, becomes reduced to a single layer of cells, and ultimately 
fuses with the splanchnic layer to constitute a single mesodermal 
layer marginally. 


The dark area in the photo-micrograph just external to the 
somites is the optical expression of this thick somatic layer of 
mesoderm. The outer limit of the dark area marks the place 
where the latter becomes reduced to a single layer. 

The ventral ccelom is, in the region of the 1st somite and just 
anterior to it, coextensive with the thickened portion of the 
somatic mesoderm seen in surface view, while posteriorly it 
extends out beyond the j^oint where the latter becomes thin. 
Further back still the ccelom gradually becomes reduced in extent 
until in the region of the 9th to the 13th somites the mesoderm 
is no longer split (fig. 9, mes.). 

Opposite the 14th or 15th somites the mesoderm again becomes 
split, the ccelom extending close up to the intermediate cell mass 
(fig. 10). 

Behind the somites the protovertebral zones of mesoderm are 
directly continuous with the lateral plates, while the splitting of 
the mesoderm does not occur until some distance out (fig. 12). 

The mesoderm continues some distance beyond the hinder end 
of the primitive streak, and here the ccelom ic cavities gradually 
extend inwards towards the mesial line and fuse with each other, 
so that the ccelom forms a continuous space. In this region the 
tail fold of the amnion will probably be develo^^ed. 

Primitive streak : In surface view the notochord is seen to 
become gradually thicker at its posterior end and to terminate 
finally in a distinct longitudinal thickening situated about the 
middle of the sinus rhomboidalis. The continuation forwards of 
this enlargement to join the notochord is the head process of the 
primitive streak, while behind it is the primitive streak itself, 
just visible in the photo-micrograph as a whitish line. 

Sections through the primitive streak show that mesodermal 
cells are being rapidly proliferated off from the ectoderm forming 
the floor of the primitive groove along its whole extent, and that 
the lateral wings of mesoderm are directly continuous with this 
axial streak of cells (figs.. 12, 13, and 24). At the anterior end 
of the primitive groove ectoderm, mesoderm and entoderm are 
fused together in the axial line (tigs. 23 and 24) and form the 


enlargement already referred to which projects as an elongated 
eminence composed of rounded cells at the anterior end of the 
primitive groove (figs. 11 and 23). In the hollow at one side of 
this eminence the l^lastopore (bl.) is situated. The blastopore 
leads into the blastoporic canal which runs forwards in the head 
process for a distance of 16 mm., and opens l^y a lateral 
opening into the cavity of the blastodermic vesicle (fig. 21, 
bl. op.). The inner opening of the blastoporic canal appears 
as a break in the entoderm. The walls of the canal are 
wholly composed of mesoderm. The lumen of the blastoporic 
canal is not a single one, but is divided up by bridges of 
cells into two or three smaller canals (fig. 22, bl. c). A similar 
duplication of the canal has Ijeen observed by Kolliker* in 
the rabbit, by Bonnetf in the sheep, by Zumstein:|: in the chick, 
and by Spee§ in the guinea-pig; hence the latter observer regards 
it as probably of general occurrence in the formation of the 
chorda in mammals. 

The head process runs forwards from the front end of the 
primitive streak, distinct from the ectoderm though closely applied 
below it. Laterally it is continuous at intervals witli the meso- 
derm, while below it exhibits traces of cellular connection with 
the entoderm. This connection with the entoderm is interesting 
in view of the observations of Carius|| that the head process is 
free at first and only subsequently unites with the entoderm. 
Just anteriorly to the inner opening of the blastoporic canal tlie 
head process is connected with the ectoderm by a narrow median 
strand exhibiting a similar appearance to that shown by Graf 
Speell for the guinea-pig. Two small lumina at this stage not 
continuous with the blastoporic canal occur in the head process 
just anterior to the inner opening of the canal (fig. 20, nch. c), 

* Sitzuiigsber. Phys-med. Gesellscliaft in Wiirzburg. 1883. 

+ His's Archiv. 1884. 

t Mesoderm. 8vo, Bern, 1887. 

§ Anat. Anz. iii. Jalirg. 1888. 

II Svo. Marburg, 1888. 

1i Anat. Anz. 1888, p. 319 (et fig. 2). 


while a short distance further forward a single distinct lumen 
occurs, but it is confined to one section. Apparently we have 
here to do with the last traces of the notochordal canal. 

The head process diminishes in thickness anteriorly and finally 
passes into the posterior end of the notochord. 

WoIffia7i duct and body : The appearance of the Anlagen of the 
Wolffian duct and body has already been described in surface 
view\ In sections of its anterior region from the 4th to the 7th 
somites the united Anlagen of the Wolffian duct and body appear 
as a solid cord of cells projecting from the intermediate cell mass. 
The greater part of the cord lies free betw^een the outer edges of 
the somites and the lateral mesoderm, while its dorsal surface 
approaches within a short distance of the ectoderm (fig. 8, w. h.). 
As the cord is traced backwards it is found to become gradually 
constricted in its middle region, while its dorsal portion broadens 
out, until it becomes somewhat dumb-bell-shaped in form. Its 
basal portion is now very distinctly connected with the lateral 
mesoderm on its outer side. On its inner side, how^ever, the 
connection with the somites is not now so well marked, and in 
places this connection is completely lost. At about the level of 
the 6th somite the constriction of the middle region of the cord 
is much more marked, and it here consists of a ventral larger 
rounded mass connected by a narrow isthmus with a dorsal much 
thinner flattened band. The upper portion is the Anlage of the 
Wolffian duct, while the lower is the Anlage of the Wolffian 
tubules. Then, by the gradual disappearance of the connecting- 
isthmus the mass comes to consist of a dorsal band-like Wolffian 
duct Anlage (tig. 25, to.a.)^ united at its mid-region to the under- 
lying Anlage of the tubules [tv.t.). Finally, opposite the 7th 
somite the narrow connection betweeii the duct Anlage and the 
Anlage of the tubules is lost altogether, and the two become 
separate (fig. 26). 

The outer edges of the duct Anlage lie close l)elow the ectoderm 
which, just over the duct, is very thin and delicate, and with very 
few nuclei as compared with the rest of the ectoderm. Very 


often it is broken in the process of section cutting — a feature 
Martin* has also met with in the case of the rabbit (c/. his fig. 7 
A-D. Taf. vii. in this respect with our figs. 25 and 26). 

The Wolffian duct Anlage is now distinct not only from the 
somites and lateral mesoderm, but also from the Anlage of the 
tubules. However, it does again become connected with the 
tubule Anlage, and also with the lateral mesoderm at its outer 
edge, over a very short distance. The Anlage of the tubules 
consists of a somewhat rounded mass in transverse section, with 
its cells arranged in a radial manner round its somewhat clearer 
centre. In this in some sections a distinct lumen occurs (fig. 26, 
10. t.) The tubule Anlage is now only distinctly connected with the 
lateral mesoderm, the connection with the somites being lost more 
or less completely. Some sections indeed (fig. 26) show the 
tubule Anlage as an isolated rounded mass, below which passes 
a thin layer of loose cells of the intermediate cell mass. 

The duct varies somewhat in width in different sections, and 
this gives rise to the irregular linear thickening previously 
mentioned as seen in surface view. As it is traced to its distal 
end the duct is found to be become gradually reduced to a thin 
flat plate somewhat thicker in the middle and thinning off 
laterally, and separated by a very small interval from the over- 
lying thin area of the ectoderm. At the same time the Anlage of 
the tubule becomes reduced in size and its differentiation from the 
rest of the intermediate cell mass largely disappears, though it is 
still distinguishable as a compact mass of rounded cells forming a 
projection from the loose cells of the mass. 

In its posterior region the outer edges of the now very thin 
Wolffian duct curve slightly upwards towards the ectoderm, and 
thus the entire Anlage has here a somewhat arc-shaped appearance. 
The duct is here of considerable width, though not more than two 
cells in thickness in its middle region. Finally, with the upturned 
edges of the Anlage, the ectoderm becomes continuous by means 
of fine but very distinct strands (fig. 27, w.d.), and there is thus 

* Archiv f. Anat. 1888. 


enclosed between the two a small space. Behind tlie point Avhere 
the connection of the edges of the Wolthan duct with the 
ectoderm is first seen, the duct rapidly becomes reduced in size 
and approaches closer to the ectoderm (fig. 2S, 7v.a). 

Finally it is reduced to a single cell, which passes directly over 
into the ectoderm (Mg. 29, u-.d.). 

From these observed facts we are inclined to believe that the 
Wolffian duct in Platypus has an ectodermal origin. We cannot 
assert this dogmatically from the examination of one stage; yet 
the balance of e^ idence is in favour of this view, and indeed from 
the facts at our disposal it is the only view we can put forward. 

The duct certainly does not grow backwards by jDroliferation 
from its posterior end as Martin states to ])e the case in the 
rabbit, for as opposed to the condition in that animal, where 
according to Martin the Wolffian duct at its extreme posterior 
end is thicker than just anterior to that point, in Platypus the duct 
gradually becomes thinner posteriori}^, and as we have described, 
passes directh^ over into the ectoderm. Nor can the duct grow 
backwards Iw the addition of cells from the mesoderm, for as w^e 
have shown the Wolffian duct is quite distinct posteriorly from the 
Anlage of the tul3ules and from the adjacent mesoderm. We are 
therefore inclined to believe that the Wolffian duct in Platypus 
grows backwards by separation or delamination of cells from the 

Just as the difierentiation of the Anlage of the Wolffian duct 
from the ectoderm is lost as it is traced posteriorly, so the 
differentiation of the Anlage of the tubules from the intermediate 
cell mass is also lost. The Anlage of the tubules can, however, 
be traced behind the termination of the" Wolffian duct as a narrow 
strand of rounded cells readily distinguishable from the looser 
branching cells of the rest of the intermediate cell mass. The 
relations of the Anlage of the tul^ules to the intermediate cell 
mass in Platypus is thus essentially the same as Martin has 
described for the rabljit. 

ijj LIBRARY ^\ 


In its topographical relations the Wolffian duct in Platypus 
agrees with the conditions described by Meyer"^ in man, where 
according to him the proximal part of the duct leads back from 
the mesoderm while its distal portion is connected with the 
ectoderm. Both Meyer and Martin agree in describing the 
proximal part of the duct as mesodermal in origin, but as to this 
we are not in a j)Osition to speak with certainty. However, in 
Platypus the proximal part of the united Anlagen of the Wolffian 
duct and tubules is related essentially as Martin describes for the 
corresponding portion in the rabbit, and it might well be that as 
in that animal the proximal portion of the Wolffian duct Anlage 
arises from the intermediate cell mass in common with the 
Anlagen of the Wolffian tubules. 

Vascu/ar System. 

Heart Anlagen: The symmetrically placed heart Anlagen have 
already been descril)ed in surface view as situated in greater part 
opposite the hind-brain region. Sections, however, show that 
their anterior ends extend somewhat beyond the posterior limits 
of the head plates of mesoblast, and we may therefore look upon 
these head plates as the regions in which the future aortic arches 
will be developed. 

The heart Anlagen at this stage in Platypus are essentially 
similar to those of a rabbit of about nine days. 

As the amnio-cardial vesicles are traced from their anterior 
ends backwards, they gradually increase in lateral extent, and at 
the same time towards the posterior limits of the head plates the 
thick splanchnic layer of mesoderm separates from the entoderm. 
In the space thus formed on each side, rounded vasifactive cells 
appear. Posteriorly these vasifactive cells have formed the 
vascular endothelium of the anterior cardiac region, and this lies 
in the gutter-like groove— open towards the entoderm — formed 
by the inbulging of the thick splanchnic mesoderm into the amnio- 
cardial ctelom. Each heart Anlage consists anteriorly of several 

* Arch. f. Mikr. Anat. Bd. 36, 1890. 


(2-3) endothelial tubes (fig. 5, lit. and ) which about the middle 
region of the Anlage unite into a single tube (fig. 6, ht. end.). 
Traces of a septum are, however, still present in the single tube, 
sliowing that it has arisen, as Rabl* has observed, by the fusion 
of at least two smaller ones. On the ventral wall of the single 
endothelial tube there is a distinct cell mass projecting into the 
cavity of tlie same (fig. 6) : it apparently represents the ventral 
part of the septum above mentioned. The endothelial wall is 
separated by a considerable space from the (splanchnic) meso- 
dermal wall of the heart Anlage. In the middle region of the 
Anlage the latter exists in the shape of a semi- tubular canal open 
ventrally (fig. 6, spl. ), while both in front and behind the groove 
becomes shallower and more closely applied to the somatic 

Posteriorly, at the same time the endothelial tube is reduced in 
size and is continued backwards as the Anlage of the sinus 
venosus and omphalo-meseraic vein, and with this other endothelial 
tubes unite. Near its posterior end each venous Anlage consists 
of one or two small vessels which disappear finally just anterior 
to the first somite. 

Endothelial vessels have already begun to appear in other parts 
of the embryonic region, e.g., in the mesodermal head plate and 
especially where that underlies the medullary plate (figs. 3, 4, 5 
and 6). These are not yet connected with the anterior prolonga- 
tions of the heart Anlage, nor do they appear to contain blood 
corpuscles. It is worthy of note that the endothelial vessels may 
also occur in the somatic mesoderm, between it and the ectoderm. 
Bonnetf has also observed vessels in the somatic mesoderm in the 
sheep, but according to him they soon disappear. As already 
mentioned, a vascular area was not visible in the fresh condition, 
l)ut sections reveal the presence of vasifactive cells and actual 
vessels in the extra-embiyonic region (figs. 10, 12, 30, vas. c, b.v.). 

Both the vessels and the vasifactive cells become more numerous 
opposite the posterior end of the embryo. The vessels exist in 

* Morph. .lahrb. Bd. xv. p. 226. 
t His's Archiv. 1889, p. 56. 


the form of endothelial tubes which may enclose a number of 
vasifactive cells. 

The vasifactive cells constituting blood islands occur in great 
numbers opposite the posterior region of the embryo between the 
more compact superficial layer of mesoderm and the entoderm 
(figs. 12, 30, vas. c). In the mesial portion of this region the 
vasifactive cells appear to be differentiating to form vessels, 
while further out they occur in larger or smaller undifferentiated 
blood islands. The vasifactive cells possess each a large rounded 
nucleus with a very thin surrounding laj^er of protoplasm (fig. 30, 
vas. c). 

Structure of Blastodermic Vesicle. 

The oval vesicle on which the embryo lies is comparable at this 
stage to a typical mammalian blastodermic vesicle, and forms in 
some respects a striking connecting link between the conditions 
oljtaining in the Sauropsida and in the Placental Mammals. 

The for the most part flattened ectoderm cells of the embryonic 
area pass into the more cubical cells forming the outer layer of 
the wall of the vesicle. Both ectoderm and entoderm form 
perfectl}^ continuous layers all round the vesicle (fig. 32). 

The vesicle, as already described, contained a thin albuminous 
fluid, while below its thin wall there existed a layer of yolk 
spheres. Sections and preparations of the wall of the vesicle 
mounted whole show that these yolk spheres are all intracellular. 
They are contained in large cells — vitelline entoderm cells — which, 
as has been already stated, are sparsel}'' present among the 
flattened entoderm cells of the embryonic area, and immediately 
outside this are more abundant; while throughout the rest of the 
non-embryonic portion of the vesicle they constitute the entire 
inner entodermic lining of the latter. 

The vitelline entoderm cells are of great size and are almost 
entirely occupied by large yolk spheres (figs. 30-33, vit. ent.). 
Each cell contains a large nucleus rendered somewhat irregular 
by internal compression by the yolk spheres. The nucleus is 
generally situated on the side of the cell next the ectoderm (fig. 


33). The greater part of the chromatin of tlie nucleus is con- 
tracted into a star-shaped mass in the centre, while smaller 
pai'ticles of chromatin occui- sparsely around this. 

The mesoderm extends round from a quarter to a half of the 
circumference of the vesicle in the posterior region of the embr3'o. 
The lateral extension of the mesoderm diminishes gradually as 
one proceeds forwards, so that in the region of the heart Anlagen 
it extends onl}^ a short distance laterally to them, while in the 
region of the head plates of mesoderm the amnio-cardial vesicles 
form its outermost limit. In front of the embryo Ijeyond the 
point where the amnio-cardial vesicles converge to limit the pro- 
amnion, mesoderm is entirely absent. 

Beyond the coelom there extends out a layer of flattened meso- 
dermal cells ])etween which and the vitelline entoderm is a layer 
of numerous rounded vasifactive cells (fig. 30, cas. c). Further 
out these two mesodermal layers are continued into a layer of some- 
what spindle-shaped cells with large rounded nuclei which forms 
the outermost portion of the extra-embryonic mesoderm (fig. 31, 
mfi,-<.). It is from the relatively very early great lateral extension 
of the mesoderm and from the presence of a very distinct yolk- 
containing entoderm that we regard the vesicle of the Platypus 
embryo of this stage as transitional between the yolk sac of 
8auropsida and the typical mammalian blastodermic vesicle. 

In the Sauropsida it is only after most of the yolk has Ijeen 
absorbed that the yolk sac is completely lined by discrete ento- 
dermal cells; in the higher mammalia, on the other hand, in the 
absence of yolk, the entoderm — the homologue of the yolk mass 
of Sauropsida — is very early able to completely enclose the cavity 
of the l)lastodermic vesicle — the homologue of the yolk sac cavity 
of Sauropsida. The ovarian ovum of the Platypus is as is well 
known a typical yolk-laden egg, yet at this stage the embrj^o, 
instead of overlying a mass of unsegmented 3'^olk, lies on the 
surface of a two-layered vesicle containing fluid, which is only 
distinguishable from a typical mammalian Ijlastodermic vesicle 
through the fact that instead of having a \^olk-free entoderm, it 
possesses an entoderm composed of large yolk-containing cells. 



Beference LMtr><. 

am. a. Amniotic area. amc. r. Amuio-cardial vesicle, and. Auditoiy 
plate, hi. Blastopore, hi. c. Blastoporic canal. hi. op. Internal opening 
of blastoporic canal. h.r. Blood vessels ca^. Coelom. d. Jr. Median 
sulcus of medullary plate ('" Riickenfurclie "). ect. Ectoderm, etit. Ento- 
derm, eat ph. Pharyngeal entoderm. ?i.a. Heart Anlage. h. j^r. Head 
process of primitive streak, hp. ones. Head plate of mesoblast. ht f:nd. 
Heart endothelium, le. Longitudinal strand of cells lying just external to 
the edges of medullary plate. m.s. Somite. m.s.c. Cavity of somite. 
nid. f. Medullary fold, md, p. Medullary plate. me,H. Mesoderm. ■m<'>'. 
ax. Paraxial mesoderm in front of Jst somite, mes. I. Lateral mesoderm. 
N. Neuromere of mid-brain, n'-n.^'^ Neuromeres of hind-brain. nek. 
Notochord. nch.c. Remains of notochordal canal, ojk gr. Optic groove. 
pra. Proamnion. p7'. g. Primitive groove, /n: s. Primitive streak, so???. 
Somatic mesoderm, sjil. Splanchnic mesoderm. I'as. r. Vasifactive cells. 
vit. enf. Vitelline entoderm, w. h. Anlage of Wolffian body. m. d. Anlage 
of Wolffian duct, i'k t. Anlage of Wolffian tubules. 

Plate IX. 

Photomicrograph of Platypus embryo from the egg just ready to be laid. 
From the dorsal surface, (x St ) 

Plates x.-xiii. 

The positions of the sections from which figs. 1-13 are drawn are indicated 
in the photo-micrograph by corresponding numbers. 
All the drawings were made with a Zeiss' camera lucida. 

Plate X. 

Fig. 1. — Transverse section through the anterior end of the medullary plate, 
showing its separation from the vesicle, the proamnion {pra.) 
underlying it and the amnio-cardial vesicles {amc. v. ) laterally, 
(x 70.) 

Fig. 2. — Transverse section of the middle region of the future fore-brain 
passing through the commencement of the optic groove [op. gr.). 
The median sulcus { will form the future medullary groove 
proper. ( x 70.) 

Fig. .3. — Transverse section slightly posterior to fig. 2 showing the hollow 
outgrowth from the floor of the optic groove. { x 70.) 


Fig. 4, — Transverse section passing through about the middle region of the 
head plate of mesoderm {hp. mes.j. The amnio-cardial vesicles 
[amc. c. V.) form its outer limit. ( x 70.) 

Fig. 5. — Transverse section between the posterior limit of the head plate of 
mesoderm and the auditory plate. The section passes through 
the anterior end of the lateral heart Anlage — the endothelium 
[ht. end.) of which here consists of two tubes. Mesially to the 
hear-t Anlage the pharyngeal entoderm [ent. ph.) is visible. 
Mesially to the latter the mesoderm is interrupted over a small 
area, (x 70.) 

Fig. 6. — Transverse section through the middle of the lateral heart Anlage. 
The endothelium here forms a single tube, though traces of a 
septum are still visible in it. The (splanchnic) mesodermal wall 
{spl.) of the heart has here a semitubular shape. The section 
also passes through the 3rd neuromere of the hind-brain {n'".) 
apparent as a thickening of the medullary plate and through the 
grooveil auditory plate [and.). ( x 70.) 

Fig. 7.— Transverse section through the region immediately in front of the 
1st somite. The paraxial mesoderm {mes. ax.) here exists in the 
torm of an arched plate, below which are numerous stellate cells. 
The lateral mesoderm is not completely split, the coelom being 
represented by several interrupted spaces. The median sulcus 
(Riickenfurche) [d. fr.) of the medullary plate is here very 
marked and the notochord is now quite free from the entoderm. 
(X 70.) 

Plate XI. 

Fig. 8. — Transverse section through the 6th somite. The somite somewhat 
oblong in section, is seen to extend mesially below the medullary 
plate and to possess a very distinct cavity [m. s. c). The somite 
is separated from the lateral mesoderm by the Anlage of the 
Wolffian body {w. h. ) Ventrally the latter is distinctly connected 
with the lateral mesodenn, while the connection with the somite 
is not so distinct. The lateral mesoderm splits sonie distance out 
into a thick somatic layer {-^om:) and a thin splanchnic layer 
(•s;;^.). The longitudinal strand of cells [le.) immediately 
external to the edge of the medullary plate and passing inwards 
below it is also visible. ( x 70.) 

Fig. 9. — Transverse section through the 7th somite. In this section the 
Anlage of the Wolffian duct (w;. d.) is seen to be distinct from 
the Anlage of the tubule [iv. t.) underlying it. The latter is 


more ov less distinct both from the somite and the lateral meso- 
derm. The lateral mesoderm is not split, the ventral ecelom 
being absent in this region. The other relations are the same as 
in fig. 8. (X 70.) 

Fig. 10. — Transverse section passing through both the 16fch and 17th 
somites owing to their oblique direction. The somites in this 
region no longer po'-scss distinct cavities — they consist of an 
upper and lower layer connected with each other by processes of 
the cells. Between the somites and the lateral mesoderm there 
is present the Anlagen of the Wolffian tubules in tlie form of a 
strand of cells {w. /.) slightly pi ojecting from the intermediate 
cell mass. The eoalom (ftf.) is of great lateral extent, and 
numerous endothelial vessels {h. r.) are visible in the outer part 
of the section. ( x 70.) 

Fig. 11. — Transverse section through the blastopore [hi.) which is situated 
to one side of a longitudinal eminence at the anterior end of the 
primitive gi-oove {rf. also fig. 23). The mesoderm is unsplit for 
a consideral)]e distance out. ( x 70 } 

Fig. 12. — Transverse section through the primitive groove {pr. g.) slightly 
behind fig. 11. (x 70.) 

Fig. 13. — Transverse section through the hinder region of the primitive 
streak [pr. s. ). ( x 70. ) 

Fig. 14. — Median portion of fig. 2 more liighly magnified. The section 
passes through the anterior end of the notochord where it 
spreads out and is represented by an axial thickening of the 
entoderm. With this thickening the mesoblast is continuous 
laterally, (x 280.) 

Fig. 15. — Longitudinal section of anterior end of embryo passing through 
the optic groove (op. gr.) and the head fold. ( x 180.) 

Fig. 16. — Longitudinal section of anterior region of the embryo, passing to 
one side of the median line, especially to show the mid- brain 
neuromere (xV.) and the four hind-brain neuromeres (7i'-?/,^'^). 
(x 70.) 

Plate XII. 

Fig, 17, — Transverse section through the anterior portion of the 4th 
neuromere showing the mesial and lateral bulgings on its under 
side— the lateral one much the larger of the two and projecting 
outwards, (x 180.) 

Fig. 18. — Longitudinal section through the 3rd and parts of the 2nd and 4th 
neuromeres especially to show their arc shaped form. ( x 280.) 


Fig. 19 (1-9). — Series of transverse sections through the ueuromeric region 
of the hind-brain. Sections 2, 4, 6 and 8 pass through the 
neuromeres {n'-n'''^-), while 1, 3, 5, 7 and 9 show the normal 
thickness of the medullaiy plate in front of and between the 
neuromeres. ( x 70. ) 

Fig. 20. — Transverse section through the anterior portion of the head 
process of the primitive streak. Three sections in front of the 
internal opening of the blastoporic canal. The lumina inch, c.) 
in the head process represent the last traces of the chorda-cauai. 
(X 340. j 

Fig. 21.--Tiansverse section through the internal opening of the blastoporic 
canal [bl, op ) into the cavity of the vesicle. ( x 340.) 

Fig. 22. — Transverse section through the head process of the primitive 
streak {h. pr.) - 9 sections behind fig. 21. The blastoporic canal 
is represented by three lumina (6^. c). The head process [ 
is distinct from the ectoderm, but shows traces of cellular con- 
nection with the entoderm. It is more or less continuous with 
the mesoderm laterally. ( x 340.) 

Fig. 23. — Tninsverse section through the blastopore (W. ). It opens to one 
side of a longitudinal projection at the front end of the primitive 
groove Ectoderm, mesoderm and entoderm are fused with each 
other in the axial line. ( x 340.) 

Plate XIII. 

Fig. 24. — Transverse section through the anterior end of the primitive 
groove [pr. g.) immediately behind fig. 24. As in that fig. the 
three germinal layers are continuous with each other axially. 
(x 340.) 

Fig. 25. — Transverse section through the united Anlagen of the Wolffian 
duct and tubule in the region of the 7th somite. The Wolffian 
duct Anlage (vr. d.) is semilunar in form and is connected at the 
middle of its ventral side with the tubule Anlage {w. t.). The 
latter possesses a small lumen and is distinct from the somite 
(m. s.), but connected with th^ lateral mesoderm (mes. /. ). 
(x 340.) 

Fig. 26. — Transverse section through the Anlagen of the Wolffian duct and 
tubule some distance behind fig. 25. The Wolffian duct Anlage 
(w. d.) now exists as a flattened band overlying and distinct from 
the rounded tubule Anlage. Its outer edges are closely 
approximated to the ectoderm which immediately over t 


Anlage of the duct is very delicate, and, as in the preceding 
figure, has been broken in the process of section cutting. The 
tubule Anlage is rounded in shape, and consists of radiating cells 
surrounding a small lumen. It is now free from both the somite 
and the lateral mesoderm. ( x 340.) 

Figs. 27, 28 and 29 represent three successive sections through the posteiior 
end of the Anlage of the Wolffian duct. As compared with fig. 
26, the Wolffian duct Anlage in fig. 27 is now considerably 
smaliei' and thinner, and is connected at its outer edges with the 
ectoderm. In fig. 28 the Anlage is still more reduced in size, 
consisting of a single layer of cells, while in fig. 29 it is reduced 
to a single cell, connected at both ends with the ectoderm. 
Behind the section from which fig. 29 is drawn there is no longer 
any trace of the Wolffian duct Anlage. The Anlage of the 
tubule in fig. 27 appears as a rounded projection of the inter- 
mediate cell mass, with radially arranged cells, but in figs. 28 
and 29 this radial arrangement is lost, and the Anlage appears 
as a slight elevation of the mass. ( x 340. ) 

Fig. 30. — Transverse section through the wall of the blastodermic vesicle 
some distance beyond the amniotic area, showing the ectoderm 
(ecL), vitelline entoderm {vit. ent.) and mesoderm. The latter 
consists of a layer of cells below which occur numerous 
vasifactive cells {vas. c.) ( x 320.) 

Fig. 31. — Transverse section of the wall of blastodermic vesicle some 
distance further out than fig. ,30. The mesoderm here consists 
of a single layer of spindle-shaped cells, while vasifactive cells 
have almost entirely disappeared, ( x 320.) 

Fig. 32. — Transverse section of wall of blastodermic vesicle at the ant- 
embryonic pole. Ectoderm and vitelline entoderm are alone 
present. ( x 200.) 

Fig. 33. — Vitelline entoderm cells of blastodermic vesicle drawn as seen 
through the ectoderm. They are filled up almost entirely by 
3'olk spheres ; their large and somewhat irregular nuclei are 
generally situated on the outer sides of the cells next the 
ectoderm. ( x 200. ) 



By C. W. De Vis, M.A., Correspoxdixc; Member. 

(Plates xiv.-xviii.) 

The motive to the present inquiry was a desire to ascertain 
whether additional light might not be thrown on an interesting 
portion of the Nototherian fauna by the large number of Macro- 
podine jaws, rescued from time to time from the drifts of the 
Darling Downs, which have been reduced to specitic order. It 
was a task attempted some years ago, and promptly laid aside : 
partly on account of the uncertainty attaching to the identifica- 
tion of specimens with the types described and figured by Owen : 
partly in view of the existence of species unknown to that 
author and the necessit}^ of giving them maturer consideration : 
partly in the desire to gather a larger body of illustrative 
material : partly in the hope that when the Volume of the British 
]\Iuseum Catalogue of Fossil Marsupials should be published the 
labour of determination would be greatly eased. As that hope 
has been in a measure realised, and as once fertile sources of 
accumulation have temporarily ceased to be productive, the local 
investigator, though still compelled to trust very much to his own 
material and his own judgment, ventures upon the work. 

Preparatory to tlie examination of so consideral:)le a number 
(over eleven hundred) of dissociated jaws and portions of jaws, 
wherein specitic differences are obscured by that general resem- 
Ijlance in molar form which pervades their several groups, it 
seemed judicious to ascertain, as far as possible, the nature and 
range of the variations, individual and specific, in living Macropods 
which are exemplified by the fossil jaws notwithstanding their 
imperfections. Provision has therefore been made of skulls of 
several kinds of Kaniraroos and Wallabies in number suflicient to 


yield reliable estimates of dimensional extremes and averages 
within the species, and accurate views of the extent of likeness 
and difference in form and size maintained among themselves In^ 
the species. Information of this kind has Ijeen obtained from 
479 skulls, namely, of Macropus (jigaideas 80, M. rufns 9, M. 
robnstus 39, Halinaturus parryi 55, //. agilis 29, IJ. dorsalis ^^, 
H. rvficollls 50, H. coxeni 9, H. thetidis 19, H. icilcoxi 2, B. 
stiyiiiaticus 3, //. uaiahatus 8, //. hroivni 1, Onychoyale frenata 4 
l^t^troyale penicillata 70, Dendrolayus lumholtzi 3. Furnished 
with this instruction and with a resolution to be chary of assuming 
anything of a fossil which may not l^e predicated of a similar 
living species, it may be possible to thread the maze ])efore us 
with more confidence in the progress made than would l)e per- 
missible were the clues less frequent. 

.Since the mutilations to which the fossil remains ha^e been 
subjected diminish in number the available points of comparison 
})etween them and recent jaws, those data only have been asked 
from the latter which are given with more or less constahc}^ by 
the former. 

As to measurements, the following are those which have ])een 
found the most useful in practice. The length of the full series 
of cheek-teeth and its width as represented 1)}^ that of ni'^, the 
niolar most frequently preserved in the fossil state : the length of 
the premolars, permanent and deciduous: the external length of 
the mandible from the edge of the masseteric fossa to that of 
incisive outlet: its internal length from the edge of the iiitermas- 
seteric foramen to the symphysis: its vertical height, anteriorly 
at the fore end of the tootli m^, and posteriorly immediateh^ 
behind ni"^ : and the thickness of the ])one below m'^. Of less 
frequent service are the length from the hinder end of the sym- 
physis to the incisive outlet, the length of the diastema, that of 
the basiocranial axis, the breadth of the palate, and the height of 
the ah'eolar process behind the orl)it. 

The following tables, which may be of some use to others 
enu'aa'ed in similar work, are summaries of the measurements 
taken under the headings which seemed most important. An 



intention to throw the sexes into separate tables was abandoned 
when it was found that although the mean size is less in the 
female than in the male, individual exceptions are so frequent 
and pronounced that such separation would afford no guidance in 
an attempt to discriminate between the sexes of the fossils. 

All measurements are in millimetres. 















.. 1 .. 

. 48-5 


.. 50-7 

.. 3 . 

. 49-2 



.. 1 .. 

.47 -4 1 


.. 53-3 

.. 4 .. 

. 47-0 



".". 30-5 . 

■.'. 37-5 

■■ 16 '.". 

". 35-9 


.'." 41-5 

''. 16 '' 

'. 39-0 


. 36-0 . 

.. 43-5 

.. 13 .. 

. 39-9 



.. 13 .. 

. 43-7 


.. 34-5 . 

.. 40-0 

.. 2 .. 

. 37-2 


.. 420 

.. 3 .. 

. 38-8 


., 29 . 

.. 35-3 

.. 20 .. 



.. 377 

.. 17 .. 

. 35-2 


.. 25-5 . 

.. 37-5 

.. 13 .. 



.. 40-7 

.. 14 .. 

. 38-7 


.. 30 . 

. 31-0 





.. 2 .. 

. 31-35 


'.'. 1 '.'. 


1 .. 

. 31-6 


.'. 29-2 ." 

.'. 32 

.. 6 .. 



'.'. 32-6 

.. 5 .. 

. 31-8 


.. 29-0 . 

.. 30-5 

.. 4 .. 

30-2 1 


.. 31 

.. 4 . 




.. 18 . 

. 23 . 

.. 3 .. 

20-8 1 


.. 34-5 

.. 2 .. 

. 30-1 



.. 28-5 . 


.. 17 .. 

30-0 ! 


.. 34-5 

.. 17 .. 

. 32-6 







,, agilis 
,, ualahatus 
,, dorsalis 
,, thetidis 
,, coxeni 
,, ruficollis 
,, irilcoxi 
,, stigmaticus 
O. frenata 
P. iJf.nicillata 

6-9 .. 
7-0 .. 
8-0 . 
5-4 .. 
5-7 .. 
60 . 
4-9 .. 
4-4 .. 
4-5 .. 
57 .. 
4-6 .. 
47 .. 
4-1 .. 
4-5 .. 

8-9 ... 
8-0 .., 
8-5 .. 
6-9 .. 
71 ... 
60 ... 
5-4 ... 
50 ... 
4-6 ... 
4-9 ... 
4-3 ... 
5-5 ... 









77 . 

. 10-2 ... 

41 . 

.. 87 


. 90... 

17 . 

.. 8-0 


. 10-5 ... 

5 . 

.. 10-1 

6-1 .. 

. 7-6 ... 

36 . 

. 70 

7-1 .. 

. 8-6... 

19 . 

. 7-8 

7-1 .. 

. 9-2 .. 

5 . 

. 7-8 

6 .. 

. 7-3 ... 

39 . 

. 67 

5 6 .. 

. 6-5 ... 

10 . 

. 5-9 

5-5 .. 

. 6-5 ... 

7 . 

. 6-3 

6-5 .. 

. 8-9... 

34 . 

. 7*5 

5-5 .. 

. 6-2 ... 

2 . 

. 5-9 

5-9 .. 

. 61 ... 


. 6-0 

5-5 .. 

6-3 ... 


. 5-9 

5-6 .. 

. 6-8... 

41 . 

. 6-5 






M. giganteus 

,, robustus 


6-3 .' 

.'! 87!! 

8 . 

. 77 

,, rufus 

1 .. 

. 6-8 

H. parryi 

'.'." 4-0 . 

.. 5-9 . 

.. 31 

..' 5-0 

5-1 '. 

!! 6-8 !! 

16 . 

. 57 

„ agilis 

.. 67 . 

.. 8-1 . 

.. 19 

.. 7-6 

87 . 

.. 10-2 .. 

13 .. 

. 9-2 

, , ualahatus 

.. 61 . 

.. 8-4. 

.. 4 

.. 7.1 


.. 9-9.. 

4 .. 

. 8-2 

,, dorsalis 

.. 5-0 . 

.. 6-5. 

.. 37 

.. 5-5 


.. 7-3.. 

39 .. 

. 6-5 

,, thetidis 

.. 4-2 . 

.. 6-0. 

.. 9 

. 5-3 

5-5 . 

.. 6-1 .. 

8 .. 

. 60 

,, coxeni 

.. 6-1 . 

.. 6-8 . 

.. 7 . 

.. 6-5 


.. 8-0 .. 

5 .. 

. 7-4 

„ ruficollis 

... 4-0. 

.. 50 . 

.. 24 

.. 4-5 

5-8 . 

.. 7-6.. 

26 .. 

. 6-6 

,, ivilcoxi 

.. 6-6. 

.. 7*5 . 

.. 2 

.. 7-0 

6-6 . 

. 7-5 ... 


. 7-0 

,, stigtnaticus 

1 . 

.. 6-0 

1 !! 

. 6-0 

0. frenata 

'.'.' 2-3 . 

.'.' 2-6 ". 

.. 2 . 

.. 2-4 

2-3 '. 

! 2-6 !!! 

2 .. 

. 2-45 

P. iMniciUata 

.. 5-1 . 

.. 6-7 . 

. 44 . 

.. 5*7 

5-8 . 

. 80... 

42 .. 

. 71 




M. giganteus . 

.. 20-2 . 

. 260 .. 

. 33 . 

. 23-6 

20-2 . 

. 28-5 ... 

41 .. 

. 24-6 

,, rohy.s(u,x 

.. 20-0 . 

. 25-5 . 

. 11 . 

.. 23-1 

18-0 . 

. 25-1 ... 

11 .. 


,, rufus 

.. 200 . 

. 26-6 . 

5 . 

. 23-0 


. 23-0 ... 

4 .. 


H. parryi 

.. 16-7 . 

. 20-0 . 

31 . 

.. 18-3 

15-0 . 

. 20-0 ... 

51 .. 


„ agilis 

.. 16-5 . 

. 21-1 . 

. 19 . 

. 187 

157 . 

. 21-1 ... 

13 .. 


,, nalahafus 

.. 14-3 . 

. 17-6 . 

. 5 . 

.. 15-7 

137 . 

. 15-8 ... 

4 .. 


,, dorsalis 

.. 12-0 . 

. 17-0 . 

. 40 . 

.. 14-6 

11-5 . 

. 17-5... 

.37 .. 


,, tliefidis 

.. 100 . 

. 13-5 . 

. 20 . 


10-4 .. 

. 13-5 ... 

9 .. 


,, coxeni 

.. 11-4 . 

. 13-4 , 

. 9 . 

. 12 2 

101 .. 

. 11-5 ... 



„ ruficollis 

.. 14-9 . 

. 19-4 . 

. 32 . 

. 16-2 

14-1 .. 

. 200 .. 

26 .. 


, , irilcoxl 

.. 11-4 . 

. 12-5 . 


. 11-9 i 

11-0 .. 

. 12-5 ... 

2 .. 


,, stigmaticus . 

. 10-5 .. 

. 12-8 .. 

.' 3 .' 

. 11-6 

10-5 .. 

. 12-4 ... 

2 .. 


,, hrowni 

. 1 . 

. 10-5 

0. frenata 

". 11-2'.'. 

'. 11-9 ." 

. 3 . 

. 1 1 -5 

9-0 .. 

! 11-0 !!! 

3 !!. 


P. 2^enirillata . 

. 12-0 .. 

. 16-0 . 

. 44 . 

. 14-0 1 

8-1 .. 

. 13-9 ... 

42 .. 



M. giganteus 

. 11-7 .. 

. 16-8 .. 

. 45 . 

. 14-4 


,, o'obustus 

. 11-0 .. 

. 14-1 .. 

. 19 . 

. 12-5 


,, rufus 

. 13-0 .. 

. 13-7 .. 

. 4 .. 

. 13-2 


H. parryi 

. 10-1 .. 

. 12-0 .. 

. 36 .. 

. Ill 



,, agilis 

. 10-1 .. 

. 14-2 .. 

. 18 .. 

. 12-5 


,, ualahatus . 

. 9-5 .. 

. 12-1 .. 

5 .. 

. 10-4 



,, dorsalis 

. 90 .. 

. 11-0.. 

37 .. 

. 10-0 

,, thetidis 

. 7-3 .. 

9-0 .. 

9 .. 

. 8-0 


,, coxeni 

. 71 .. 

8-0 .. 

7 .. 



,, ruficollis 

. 9-5 .. 

12-0 .. 

32 .. 

. 10-9 

,, vnlcoxi 

. 7-5 .. 

8-4 .. 

2 .. 

. 8-0 

,, stigmaiicus .. 

. 7-3 .. 

8-0 .. 

3 .. 

. 7-6 

,, hrowni 

1 .. 

. 7-6 


,, frenata 

.' 5-3 .'.". 

6-6 '.' 

3 .. 

. 5-9 


,, penicillata .. 

. 7-5 .. 

100 .. 

44 .. 

. 8-6 



c. w. 














M. qirjantevs 

... 8fi-0 . 


.. 27 .. 


62 3 . 

. 76-1 

.. 27 .. 

. 66-5 

,, robust lis 

... 75-5 . 

. 89-0 

.. 4 . 

.83 55 

57-3 . 

.. 71-6 

.. 4 . 

. 67-5 

,, rufus 

... 8.-7 . 

.. 97-0 

2 . 

. 91-3 

68-5 . 

. 72-7 

. 2 .. 


H. pari-yi 

... 61-1 

.. 73-1 

'.". 16 '. 

.. 66-2 

49-4 . 

. 56-6 

.. 16 .. 

. 53-6 

,, aijiHs 

... 68-2 . 

.. 78-0 

.. 13 . 

. 69-7 

38 . 

. 46-4 

.. 13 .. 

. 420 

,, ualabafus 

... 55 . 

.. 63-7 

.. 3 . 

. 59-1 

46-3 . 

. 54-8 . 

.. 3 .. 


,, dormlU 

... 50-4 . 


.. 20 . 

. 58-7 

42-5 . 

. 51-8 

.. 20 .. 

. 46-0 

,, thetidis 

... 42 5 . 

.. 490 

.. 4 . 

. 45-7 

34-6 . 

. 41-0 

.. 4 .. 


,, r-oxeni 

... 4-2-2 . 

.. 48-2 

.. 6 . 

. 44-5 

34-5 . 

.. 38-8 

.. 6 .. 

. 36-5 

,, rvfcoltiH 

... 00-0 . 

.. 70 8 

.. 14 . 

.. 65-1 

45-6 . 

. 56-7 

.. 14 .. 


,, u-ilroxi 

... 44-5 . 

.. 480 


. 46-2 

j 39 3 . 

. 41-0 

.. 2 .. 

. 40-2 

,, sti(/matui(s 

'.'. 1 ". 




. 35-0 

0. frenata 

..'. 41-1 . 

''. 43-5 

.. 3 . 


1 28-5 ". 

'. 36-2 

.. 3 .. 

. 32-4 

P. pewrillata 

.. 42-2 . 

.. 52-4 

18 . 

. 47-7 

35-5 . 

. 45-8 

.. 17 .. 

. 3S-8 

With respect to form and structure, attention has necessarily 
been paid to the shape and sculpture of the several premolars and 
to their periods of rise and fall in terms of the posterior molars : 
to the shape, properties and accessory furniture of the true molars: 
and to the form of the lower contour line of the mandible. 
Occasionally it has been found useful to notice the shape and 
direction of the lower incisor, the condition of the symphysis, the 
level of the inlet of the dental canal, the position of the internal 
orifice of the lachrymal canal, and status of the anteorbital 

A jaw is accounted adolescent in which appears the first trace 
of wear on the hind lobe of the penultimate molar; it is supposed 
to be adnit when the same state of wear obtains in the last molar. 

When the posterior surface of an upper molar is excavated 
vertically and the inner lip of the semifuniculate gorge resulting 
is raised, this lip in the antecedent teeth appears as an adpressed 

The term link is retained for the "longitudinal ridge linking 
together the several lobes, or the front lobes and their respective 
talons; valley is a term convenient in use to indicate the hollows 
which are constant between the lobes and frequent on the talons. 

The (][ualification elongate applied to molars implies that those 
of the lower jaw are on the average one half longer than broad, 
or thereabouts. 


With one exception the whole of the fossils haAe Ijeen collected 
at various points on the Darling Downs. 

On the ground that "the characters 1)}' which Kangaroos and 
Wallabies are separated from each other are neither sufficient!}^ 
constant nor important to found generic distinction upon," we are 
invited by Mr. Thomas to forego the admitted Ijenefit of keeping 
them apart. The ease and certainty with which the unlearned 
l)ushman distinguishes betw^een Wallabies and Kangaroos by their 
build, gait, and hal)its, are derived from a kind of evidence to 
which we are not accustomed to pay much heed, ))ut — that apart 
— it appears to the writer that in the Vjehaviour of the premolar 
we have a distinguishing character of sufficient constancy and 
importance for our purpose. It is rare to meet wdth an aged 
wallaby's jaw with fewer than the whole five cheek teeth in place 
at once. It is equally rare to find even a recently adult kangaroo 
jaw with all the cheek teeth together in place. In the one a 
strong progressive movement of the su])stance of tlie jaw carries 
forward all the teeth, and, unhindered by any fixed impediment 
on the brink of the diastemal declivity, hurries them over it: in 
the other the hinder teeth, propelled wdth far less force against 
the immo\able barrier set up by the premolar, are kept on duty 
throughout life, or, if an anterior molar ever be lost, it is so by 
lateral out-thrust or deca}' in .situ. The comparative unimportance 
of the premolar function in Jfacropus, expi-essed in the feeloleness 
and short duration of these teeth, especially of the so-called per- 
manent tooth, and its high functional value in Ilalmaturits, in 
which the latter is better developed than the deciduous tooth and 
is to old age one of the best preserved of the grinders, point to 
physiological differences l^etween the two groups important 
enough to render the constant transiency or permanency of the 
premolars a good diagnostic character. 

Allowing then the practical convenience of recognising the 
genus Halmaturus to outweigh a theoretical reason which seems to 
him to lack foundation, the writer proposes to retain that genus 
for the present. 

BY C. W. DE VIS. 81 

Palorchestes, Owen. 

Palorchestes, Owen, I."^ 1874, p. 797. 

Molars with talons anteriorly and posteriorly; the anterior of 
the ujDper and the posterior of the lower the longer; mid valleys 
of the up23er closed on the inner, or on both sides, by a raised 
basal rim. Lower molars elongate; their links continuous with 
the outer angles of the lobes. Anterior upper molars with vertical 
ridges and folds. Upper premolar triangular, nearly equilateral, 
transversely bicuspid, with a talon fore and aft; lower oblong, 
unicuspid, with a long posterior talon which is strongly linked to 
the lobe. Vascular foramen present in the mandible. Lower 
incisors procumbent, spatulate. Middle pair of upper incisiors 

Key to the sj^ecies. 

Size larger; cheek-teeth over llO'O in length, 
anterior talon of p^ short; lobe of p* indented 
intero-posteriorly azael 

Size smaller, cheek-teeth below 100*0 in lenjrth, 
anterior talon of p"* produced; lobe of p*^ exca- 
vated intero-posteriorly • parvus 

Palorchestes azael, Owen. 

P. azael, Owen, I. 1874, p. 798; Lydekker, IV. p. 237; 
Etheridge, V. p. 186. 

P. crassus, Owen, VIII. Vol. xi. p. 7, 1880. 

Anterior talon of upper premolar in the half w^orn state indis- 
tinct. The lobe of the lower premolar indented on the posterior 
surface near the inner side of the link; its area of abrasion sul)- 
quadrate, extended longitudinalh\ Size large. 

* Niunbers hke this after authors' names refer to the bibliographical hst 
at the end of the paper. 



Manclihtdar. — The length of the first three cheek-teeth is 66-1, 
of the premolar 17'0, of m."^ 29*5, of p.'% mp/, m.^, m.'-^ 60-0. 
The width of m.^ is 19-0. The anterior depth of the mandible is 
61 '5; the thickness 33 '5. 

Maxillary. — From figure and cast. The entire length of the 
cheek-teeth is from 11 7 '5 to 122*5, the premolar diameters 18-0 
X 18-0, m.i m.2 are 55-5, m.-^ 31-8. The width of m.^ is from 
20-5 to 23-1. The breadth of the palate is from 100-0 to 103-2. 

The lower molars are j)roportionately narrow, but not more so 
than in the existing Macropods, M. (/igantens, II. agilis, and II. 

Form of teeth. 

Maxillary. — The premolar p.* (PL xiv. fig. 5) is an almost 
regular equilateral triangle with convex sides and angles. From 
a narrow basal rim or talon, which however seems to be restricted 
to the inner side, the fore end of the crown slopes gently ujDwards 
to the horizontally abraded surface of the two cusps. Of these 
the smaller is placed over the intero-posterior angle, the larger 
over the middle of the outer side of the base. The cusps are 
defined by a deep indent between their posterior surfaces, anteri- 
orly by a depression in the inclined plane in front. The posterior 
basal talon runs from the outer angle to the middle of the hinder 
surface of the inner cusp. Opposite the posterior indent the 
talon is long, but behind the outer cusp where it is feebly linked 
to the middle of the base of that cusp, short. 

Afolars. — In these as they appear in the cast the anterior basal 
talons and their linking ridges are distinct, but in the anterior 
teeth appear chiefly on the inner side, the posterior talons appear- 
ing only on the outer; but on the free surface of m.^ (PI. xiv. fig. 
6) the hinder talon is seen to extend round to the inner end of 
the base and to send upwards a strong linking ridge towards the 
inner end of the crest of the lol^e before it. The mesial linlcs run 
from centre to centre of the lobes which cross the line of the 
teeth at an oblique angle. The indications afforded by the cast 

BY C. W. DE VIS. 83 

are confirmed and additional information aftbrded by the anterior 
molars of a young individual (PL xiv. fig. 3) in the comparatively 
unworn state which preceded the eruption of p.'*. The anterior 
talon of m. ^ is long and broad and its outer valley is subdivided 
])y a second fore link. The mesial Nalle}^ is closed on the inner 
side ]jy a raised basal rim and sul)divided by a low^ linking ridge. 
A broad tapering fold rises upon the face of the fore lobe flanking 
the outer valley and a feebler one on the opposed face of the hind 
lol^e. The posterior talon is very short, but, like the anterior, 
continuous from side to side; from its inner third a broad tapering- 
fold or link rises obliquely upwards on the lol)e to the inner end 
of its crest. M. ^ lias no secondary fore link and no folds rising 
from the outer mid valley, but in other respects repeats th(3 
characters of m. ^. In both teeth the inner side of the front 
talon is broader and deeper than the outer, hence its more per- 
sistent appearance in old age. 

Mandibular.— F.^ (PI. xiv. fig. 4). The fore end of the lobe 
has on its inner side a shallow indent terminating below in a 
small ledge w^hich represents an anterior basal talon. The hori- 
zontal surface of al:)rasion is almost wholly on the inner side of 
the central line. The link connecting the lobe with the basal 
talon is wide and elevated. There is a feeble impression behind 
the middle of the outer surface of the crown. 

P.-^ (PI. XIV. fig. 1) is oblong with a large basal talon simu- 
lating a posterior lobe; this is linked to the lobe proper, but the 
link is on the outer side ill-defined. Fore end of lobe so impressed 
on each side as to give it the appearance of possessing a basal 
talon with a high linking ridge. Crown suddenl}^ dilated over the 
intero-posterior angle, where a trans^e^'se field of dentine shows 
the part of the tooth in earliest use. 

Molars. — (PI. xiv. fig. 2). With strongly linked Vjasal talons 
fore and aft, the mesial and anterior links descending forwards 
from the outer angles of the lobe yield surfaces of abrasion peculiar 
in pattern. 


Succession of teeth. 

The two anterior true molars are still l^ut little affected by 
wear when p> has reached a forward stage of incubation, and in 
the lower jaw p.'^ is still in position and little worn when the 
hind lobe of m. "-^ is well advanced and its fore lol^e nearly in use. 
The upper premolar and last molar are half worn down simultane- 
ously, m.^ being at the same time reduced almost to a shell. 
From these data it would seem that the anterior true molars 
rapidly develop in the young jaw; that the upper premolar 
probably rises simultaneously with m.^, and that it persists to an 
advanced period of life. 

The immediate affinities of Palorchestes are with Halumturus 
rather than with Macropirs. 

Examqyles — ? tine. 

Maxillary.— K cast of the palato-maxillary region of the skull 
with all the cheek-teeth; original in the Australian Museum. Like 
the cast, which has the same history and is numbered M. 2573 in 
the British Museum Catalogue, it is inscribed " Macropus^^'' and 
is without an}^ doubt from the same mould — Portion of a right 
maxilla of a young example with m. ^, m.'- and the crypt of p.* 
— An isolated m.*, an isolated m.'"', and an isolated m.". 

Mandibular. — Portion of a left ramus, with p.*, m, ^, m. ^, 
aged, vascular foramen distinct — A left ramus with m.^ perfect 
and remains of m.- and m.^, adult, vascular foramen distinct — 
Part of an isolated m.* — Associated rami of a young mandible 
wdth i.^, p. '^5 mp.*, m.-, from the Peak Downs. 

Palorchestes parvus, n.s. 

Constantly smaller than F. azael, the cheek teeth measuring- 
less than 100-0. Upper fourth premolar with a distinct anterior 
talon, lobe of the lower fourth premolar deejDly emarginated on 
the posterior surface of the inner side, its area of abrasion narrow, 
angular, and extended transversely. 

BY C. W. DE VIS. 85 


Mandibular. — The length of the entire series of cheek-teeth is 
94-7 (1); of the series of true molars 80-0 (1); of the last three 
molars 58-3 (1); of the last two 39-4 and 41-6 (2); of the last 
22-0 and 22-1 (2); of m.-, m/^ 37-0 (1); of m.-^ 22-1 (1); of m.^ 
20-2 (1); of the premolar 15-0 (1); of mp.-^ 18-5 (1). The width 
of m.^ is from 12-3 to 14-2 (7). The anterior depth is 40*6 and 
48-3 (2); the posterior from 35*4 to 49-0 (10); the thickness from 
21-8 to 29-9 (10). 

Maxillary. — The length of the first four cheek-teeth is 55-9 (1); 
of the first two molars 37-6 (2); of the last two 37 9 (1); of m.^ 
21-2 and 21-5 (2); of m.^ 19-7 (1); of m.- 20-5 and 2M (2). 
The width of m."^ is from 15-8 to 16-6 (3). The length of the 
premolar is lo'O (1). 

The mean widths of m.'^, upper and lower, are to each other as 
13. 16-2, agreeing very nearly with those in H. agilis, H. ulahatus, 
H. stigmaticus, and 0. frenata. 

No gradations in size connect this species, which is rather 
numerously represented, with P. azael, to which it stands in much 
the same relation as does S. otuel to S. yoliah; its inferiority in 
this respect is therefore characteristic. Not only so, but the 
differences between two of its dimensions and the corresponding 
dimensions in P. azael transcend the range of individual variation 
in size which on the testimony of living Macropods can be allowed 
within a species. The mean widths of m."' in the two are 13 and 
18, or an excess in the latter approaching one-half of the former. 
The greatest living difference is found in P. penicillata, where it 
amounts to a third only; in H. dorsalis and H. loilcoxi it is still 
less. Again, the mean anterior depth of the mandible in P. 
IKtrvus 44*4 is in P. azael increased by more than one-half, and 
this far exceeds the nearest living approach to it which occurs in 
H. dorsalis where it is considerably less than one-half. Finally, 
the premolars (^f P. parvus are relatively much larger than those 
of P. azael. 



Maxillary. — Premolar (PI. xiv. fig. 8). The anterior talon is 
well developed. Commencing about the middle of the inner side 
and passing round the fore end, where it gives off a short but 
distinct linking ridge, it extends on the outer side, but is there 
interrupted by a fracture of that side of the crown. The inner 
cusp is defined by a sharp impression on the sloping anterior 
surface, and posteriorly by a slight vertical indent between it and 
the outer cusp. The hinder surface of both cusps descends 
vertically to the low and narrow posterior talon. 

Molars. — In a slightly worn tooth exemplified b}" m. ^ (PL xiv. 
fig. 7) the anterior talon is on the inner side of the fore link 
subdivided by a lofty but narrow vertical ridge; corresponding to 
this an oblique fold on the hinder surface of the fore lobe descends 
to the mid valley, making a sharp angle at its junction with the 
mid link; this again is opposed by a faint ridge on the anterior 
face of the hinder lobe, and is repeated in a similar oblique fold 
on the hinder face of the hind lobe. On the outer side of the 
latter is a very strong ridge or fold rising from the outer third of 
the basal talon to the outer end of the crest of the lobe. The 
mid valleys are closed at each end by a raised basal rim. In 
worn teeth the more or less abraded remains of the stronger of 
the several vertical folds are pretty constantly recognisable. The 
well developed talons fore and aft and the lateral basal rims give 
a quadrate, self-contained apjDearance to the teeth, which is 
i-etained to the last. 

Mandihulary. — -Premolar (PL xiv. fig. 9). The inner side of the 
fore end of the crown presents a broad groove, ending below in a 
tumid rim, simulating or representing a basal talon; the posterior 
surface of the lobe internal to the link is excavated, and the sur- 
face of wear encroached upon fore and aft is rendered narrow 
and angular, while it slopes obliquely inwards and rearwards. 
The hinder talon is long and concave on the inner side, but on 
the outer half it is nearly filled by the broad linking ridge, which 
rising upon it ascends with an inward curve upon the extero- 
posterior surface of the lobe. 

BY C. W. DE VIS. 87 

Molars. — The anterior talons are very short, the posterior 
moderately long and connected with their lobes by strong linking 
ridges. The fore and mid links run from the outer end of the 
crest of the lobes to the middle of the fore lobe and anterior 
talon respectively. The lobes are set obliquely to the line of the 
teeth, and this oblic(uity combined with the continuity of the end 
of one lobe with the middle of the next confers upon the series a 
facies peculiar to the genus. 

Upper incixors. — (PI. xiv, fig. 10.) The arch formed by the series 
is broad and flat; the teeth increase in breadth from the central 
pair outwards, but in the figure the relative width of the outer 
pair has not been duly represented by the artist. 

Succession of teeth. 

Of this nothing is known, except that the premolar is retained 
to old age. 

Examples — twenty-six. 

Maxillary. — A left maxilla with the first four cheek-teeth 
somewhat mutilated: aged; traces of the vertical ridges remaining 
— Part of a left maxilla with m,^, m.-; adult; vertical ridge 
distinct — A right maxilla showing the palate lobe entire; teeth 
m.^ m.-^; aged; teeth worn to the base — Part of a right maxilla 
with m.^, m. -; aged; teeth worn to the base— Fragment of a right 
maxilla with m.^, adult — Fragment of a right maxilla with m.^ 
— An isolated m.^, young — Part of an isolated m.". — Greater 
part of the base of a skull with all the teeth but the premolars 
well preserved. 

Mandibulary. — A left ramus with all the cheek-teeth; adult; 
vascular foramen large — A left ramus with all the molars, adult 
— Hinder half of a left ramus with m. ", m.'^, m."*^ — Hinder half 
of a right ramus with m."^, m. \; aged; vascular foramen — Hinder 
half of a right ramus with m.*^, m.*; aged; vascular foramen- 
Part of a left ramus with m.*^; aging; vascular foramen — Part of 
a left ramus with m.-, m.'^; adult — -Hinder half of a right ramus 
with m.'^, m.^ imperfect -Fragment of a left ramus with part of 


m.^ — A right ramus, teeth destroyed; vascular foramen — Part of 
a left ramus, teeth destroyed —Isolated tooth, mp.* — Isolated 
tooth, m." — Isolated tooth, m.* — A second example, hinder 
portion of a left ramus, with m.'^, m,^; aged. 

Sthenurus, Owen. 

Sthenurus, Owen, I. 1874, p. 264; Lydekker, IV. p. 231. 

Protemnodon, Owen, partim — Owen, I. 1874, p. 274. 

Procoptodon, Owen, — Owen, I. 1874, p. 788; Lydekker, IV. p. 


An amalgamation of Procoptodon with Sthenurus is demanded 
by their verisimilitude of tooth sculpture, and by the occurrence 
of forms of transition between the two. Owen's reference of the 
maxilla of Protemnodon anak to S. atlas has been accounted for 
by Mr. Lydekker (/.c. p. 231), 

Lower permanent premolar with an obliquely disrupted lobe 
forming the posterior moiety of the outer side, the cleft occupied 
by sinuous and papillary folds. Upper permanent premolar with 
a broad ledge on the inner side, its cavity traversed by erect 
folds. Molars short, with ascending tapering, spreading folds 
incumbent on their surfaces; posterior basal margins tumid but 
rarely forming distinct talons, mandibular symphj^sis generally 
anchylosed; lower incisors generally small, laterally compressed 
and much less incumbent than in other Macropods. A vascular 
foramen on the outer side of the mandible beneath one of the 
posterior molars. Posterior orifice of dental canal generally alcove 
the level of the teeth. Palate with large vacuities. 

The vascular orifice is in S. goliah frequently minute, penetrating 
the bone at the end of a delicate superficial groove; occasionally 
in this species it appears to be obsolete. Outside the genera 
Palorchestes and Sthenurics it has been observed in but two 
instances, in one Macropus and in one Halmaturus. 

BY C. W. DE VIS. 89 

Key to the species. 

Longitudinal links of molars elevated, with lateral 
Cheek-teeth from 82-5 upwards; hinder surface of 

molars with few but strong vertical folds goliah 

Cheek-teeth from 76-0 downwards; hinder surface 

of molars with numerous fine vertical ridges .... otuel 

Longitudinal links of molars nearly or quite obsolete. 
Length of first three cheek-teeth 55*0; links rudi- 
mentary; incumbent folds strong and numerous pales 

Length of first three cheek-teeth from 42*0 down- 
wards; links feeble; incumbent folds feeble. 
Incisor elevated, compressed; symphysis anchy- 

losed; mandible thick orcos 

Incisior procumbent, spatulate; symphysis 

lax; mandible slender atlas 

Sthenurus goliah, Owen. 

Procoptodon goliah, Ow.; Owen, XXIII. p. 59; Lydekker, IV. 

p. 2.34. 

P. rapha, Ow.; Owen, I. 1874, p. 788; Lydekker, IV. p. 234; 
Etheridge, V. p. 190. 

P. pusio, Ow., partini; Owen, I. 1874, p. 788; Etheridge, V. p. 


P. (joliaf.h, Etheridge, V. p. 190. 

Macropus yoliah, Owen, XXIII. p. 259. 

M. rapha, Flower, IX. part ii. p. 721. 

Molars with thick lobes, rounded angles, subrectilinear crests 
and (except as to the upper talons) elevated links. Inner aspect 
of links and lobes with strong folds, the largest and most constant 


of them being the outer one on the intero-anterior face of the hind 
lob? in the lower and intero-posterior face of the fore lobe of the 
upper teeth. Hinder surface of molars with strong ascending- 
folds, one or two on the lower, two or three on the upper (PI. XV. 
figs. 8-9). Upper premolar short with a broad ledge, not extend- 
ing beyond the posterior three-fifths of its inner side; its cavity- 
traversed by a longitudinal sinuous ridge. Lower premolar sub- 
triangular with a group of sinuous folds within the posterior cleft. 


Mandible. — The entire series of cheek-teeth varies from 82-5 to 
93-7 (6); p.*, m.\ m.^, m.^ measure 68-0 (1); m.^, m.^, m.'^ 53-0 
(2); m.i, m.2 34-2 (1); m.^, m.^, m.^ from 58-1 to 65-5 (2); m.* 22-2 
(1); mp.* 13-4 (1). The premolar is from 12-5 to 14-5 (5). The 
width of m.^ ranges from 15-0 to 19-8 (10); its length being from 
18-4 to 21-5 (10). The anterior depth of the mandible is from 
50-0 to 60-0 (7); the posterior depth from 37*0 to 52-5 (6); the 
thickness from 34*7 to 42*5 (7). The entire length fore and aft 
is 147-5 (1). 

Maxilla. — The molars m. -, m. *^,m.'^ measure together 51 -5 (1); 
m.-^ m.3 from 38-5 to 42-1 (2); p.^ mp.*, m^, m.^ 46-6 (1). , An 
immature premolar has diameters 12-0 x 9-4; the milk premolar 
is 9-2 in length. 

With one exception all these dimensions come well within the 
allowable limits of range in a species. The width of the teeth 
differs to an extent which is nearly a third of its minimum; this 
is sensibly greater than in the three living species which show the 
greatest latitude in this respect — M. gig aniens, H. agilis, and H. 
ruficollis — but the difference is too small to stand as a lone 
objection to the fusion of S. rapha with S. goliah. 

Form of teeth. 

Mandibular. — P.* (PI. xv. fig. 7.) Generally triangular, with 
rounded sides and angles, rarely an irregular suboval. Outer 
surface of crown impressed at its anterior two-fifths or thereabouts, 

BV C. W. DE VIS. 91 

the hinder with a narrow groove near the inner angle. In the 
3'oung tooth the impression and groove are the terminal limits of 
an oblique superficial cleft separating the extero-posterior angle 
from the rest of the tooth, which cleft is traversed and beset by 
enamel folds and processes; in teeth reduced to a horizontal 
surface these processes appear in section as a group of sinuous 
folds occupying most of the centre of the hinder portion of the 
tooth, and surrounded on the outer side by a long crescentic band 
of dentine. Diameters 12-7 x 11.1. 

Molars. — (PI. XV. fig. 9). The edge of the anterior talon is on 
the inner side double. From the inner side of both links low 
vertical folds descend to the valleys. Two or three strong vertical 
folds project from each face of the inner half of the fore lobe, a 
single fold from the anterior face of the hind lobe; a strong 
tapering fold rises upon the centre of the posterior surface of that 
lobe. The links are loft}^ and sharp. 

Maxillary. — P.^ (PI. xv. fig. 6). Extracted from its crypt in 
a forward stage of growth is irregular oblong, with convex angles, 
diameters 11-9 x 9-0. Outer side nearly straight, inner with a 
deep impression at its anterior two-fifths. Fore end sloping, with 
ol)lique folds. Intero-posterior region of crown much dilated, its 
surface depressed, concave; its edges at each end rising upon the 
side of the main lobe, and its posterior surface separated from 
that of the lobe by a wide cleft which does not descend to the 
base. The concavity of the ledge is traversed longitudinally b}'' 
a single sinuous ridge-like fold. On the hinder half of the outer 
side of the crown tapering ridges ascend to the crest. 

P.^ (PI. XV. fig. 5) much mutilated and worn down , to a field of 
dentine surrounding a patch of enamel, on the surface of which 
sinuous enamel folds still appear in -section. The inner side of 
the crown is impressed at its anterior fourth. Diameters 8*5 x 

Rise and fall of teeth. 

On this point the limited number of specimens afford sparse 
information. In the upper jaw the penultimate molar appears to 


assume its full functions with the change of the premolars. In 
the lower the permanent premolar wears down rapidly during the 
earlier part of its career; all its asperities have disappeared 
before the hind lobe of m. ^ is affected by use. Masticatory w^ork 
is afterwards done principally by the posterior grinders, as the 
premolar is l)ut little more reducerl in height, though the last molar 
is that of an aged individual. 

Examples — twenty-two. 

Mandibular. — The associated rami of a mandible with all the 
cheek-teeth perfect, the incisiors and left ascending process 
wanting; adult — An adult left ramus with all the cheek-teeth 
perfect, vascular orifice minute — Alveolar region of a left ramus 
witli all the cheek-teeth, several of them imperfect; aged — Two 
right rami with all the cheek-teeth perfect; foramen small; 
adolescent - -Cast of a right ramus with all the cheek-teeth but 
p.*, some imperfect; vascular orifice moderate; adult — A left 
ramus with all the molars and the fangs of the premolar; foramen 
small; adult — A left ramus with the first three molars well 
preserved; foramen small; adult — A right ramus with part of the 
ascending process and the last tln^ee molars; foramen large; aged 
—Cast of a portion of a left ramus with m. •', m^ well preserved; 
the originals of this and 10223 being in the Australian Museum — 
Alveolar portion of a right ramus with the first three molars and 
fangs of the premolar; foramen small; adult — Fragment of a right 
ramus with the last two molars and the premolar well preserved; 
adult — Fragment of a left ramus with part of m."*; adult — Frag- 
ment of a right ramus with m.* (105 IS); adult — An isolated tooth 
m.- (11118); adult — Outer wall of hinder half of a left ramus (A. 

Maxillary. — A left maxilla with the jugal process and the teeth 
m."', m.-, m. ^ (part) and fangs of p. ^; no trace of palatal process 
(10224); adult — ^A left maxilla with jugal process and the teeth 
m.-, m."^; no palatal process (10529); adult — Part of a right 
maxilla with the last three molars; no palatal process (10595); 

BY C. W. DE VIS. 93 

adult — A right maxilla with jugal process and teeth p.-^, mp."^, 
m. ^, m.'-; p.^ (extracted): palatal vacuity commencing at mp.* 
(11120); young. 

Sthexurus otuel, Owen. 

rrocoptodon otueJ, Owen, I. 1874, p. 784; Lydekker, IV. p. 236. 
Procoptodon pusio, Owen, partim; Owen, II. p. 455. 
Pachysiagon otuel, Owen, I. 1874, ^. 784. 

Lower molars with numerous attenuated ridges on the posterior 
surface; otherwise not diflfering from those of .S". yoiiah in structure, 
l)ut inferior in size. Lower premolar elongate-ovate with one or 
two oblique folds within the cleft. 


Mayidihdar. — The length of the full series of cheek-teeth varies 
from 65-5 to 76*0 (5); m.-, m.'% m.^ measure 51*0 (bis); m.^, m.- 
34-2; mp.^ 13-4. The premolar is from 9-3 to 9-9 (2). The 
width of m.-' ranges from 12'0to 14-4. The anterior depth of the 
mandible is from 38-5 to 41-5 (2); its thickness from 28-6 to 32-5 
(5). The diastema is 36-6 (1), the symplwsis 65*6 (1). 

The differences between the mean dimensions in this species 
and S. yoiiah afford in themselves no good reason for keeping 
them apart; they are all easily paralleled in modern species; but 
the difference between the greatest width of the teeth in S. goliah 
and the least in S. otuel is much greater than in any recent 
Macropod, and on this dimensional ground the present species 
would safely rest were the structural modifications exhibited bv 
it less weighty than they are. 


Mandibular. — In the molars the longitudinal links and vertical 
processes subsidiary to them do not specifically differ in number 
or disposition from those of S. goliah; the slender ridges wrinkling 
the hinder surfaces sometimes tend to fuse towards the middle of 
the base into a short rib. 


The lower premolar (PL xvi. fig, 1) before eruption simulates 
remarkably well the ledged upper tooth in several Macropods. 
The intero-posterior ledge-like cusp occup3dng half of the outer 
side is separated from the lobe posteriorly by a wide cleft, but 
within which a larger and a smaller oblique fold ascend on the 
inner side of the cusp; anteriorly the cusp joins the lobe by the 
incurving of its sharp edge, and anterior to this transverse sepi- 
ment are two cavities separated by a deep rib which ascending to 
the crest meets a corresponding one on the inner side of the 
crown, and with it forms a pronounced denticle on the crest. In 
the worn tooth (PI. xvi. fig. 4) the structure is still recognisable. 

Examples — eleven t. 

Mandibular. — An adolescent right ramus with all the cheek- 
teeth and with the incisor nearly entire (11126); accessory pro- 
cesses well marked — A right ramus with all the cheek-teeth but 
p.^ perfect (11119); remains of the accessory processes distinct; 
aged — The associated rami of an aging mandible (8876), with the 
greater jDart of the ascending limljs; accessory processes as before 
— Portion of a right ramus with the last three molars (8873), 
adolescent — Alveolar portion of a right ramus with all the teeth 
mutilated but m. ^, m. - (10409); processes nearly obsolete from 
wear; aged — Portion of a right ramus with the last three molars 
(10597); processes very distinct; adult — An adolescent right 
ramus with incisor and all the cheek-teeth but m.^, which has 
been broken off (11132); processes as before — A right ramus from 
a suckler with mp.* and m." in its crypt; the exposed socket 
of the incisor showing that it was procumbent (10226); the 
processes on mp.* well marked — Fragment of a left ramus with 
m.^j m.^, and part of m."^ (10596); processes as before; young — 
Both rami of an aged example all the teeth al^sent but the last 
three molars of the left side (11306). 

Sthenurus pales, n.s. 

Longitudinal links reduced to a tumescence on the floor of the 
mid valley and adjacent base of the fore lobe. Posterior basal 

BY C. W. 1>E VIS. 95 

rim forming a rather distinct talon with a rudimentary Hnk rising 
upon the lobe. Incumbent folds on the face of the lobes well 
marked. Ledge of upper premolar distinct and continuous fore 
and aft, a subsidiar}^ cusp on the hinder end of the outer side of 
the crowm. Size large, a])out equal to that of S. goliah. 


Mandibular. — The first three true molars are together 56*0 in 
length; the premolar 18-0. The width of m.-"^ is 18-0. The 
thickness of the mandible is not less than 27 '5. 

Maxillary. — The premolar is 21'0 x 14*1 in one example; 19 '6 
X 15-0 in other. 

Form of teeth. 

Mandibular. — P.* (PL xv. fig. 3). Elongate-ovate, diameters 
18-0 X 8 '2, structurally similar to that of >S'. goliah, but differing 
from it in form and size, and in the latter character agreeing with 
the upper premolar (10214 the type of the species). On the 
inner surface of the crown of this tooth are six distinct ribs, five 
of which form denticulations on the crest; these are not present 
in S. goliah. 

Molars. — (PL XV. fig. 1). The lobes of the molars are remark- 
ably thin and flat or even a little concave on the posterior surface 
their crests perfectly straight and^ their angles sharp. The 
incumbent folds are much the more numerous on the anterior 
lobes, the outermost of them being the largest and forming by its 
repetition a regular series in the line of the teeth. The hinder 
surfaces of the lobes are faintly sculptured into numerous obscure 
folds. In size the molars agree with those of S. goliah. 

Maxillary. — P* (PL xv. fig. 2). Elongate-ovate with the angles 
rounded and tumid; diameters 22-0 x 15*0. Crest central; 
mesial region of outer side of crown with a few vertical ribs. 
Inner side of crown a rectangular ledge from end to end connected 
with the lobe by numerous transverse ribs. To the end of the 
outer side of the crown is attached, as in the deciduous tooth of 


M. giganteus, a distinct cusp separated from the lobe before and 
behind by clefts, but connected with it by an apical link. 

Examples — -four. 

Mandibular. — The alveolar longitudinal moiety of a right ramus 
with the first three molars, of which each is somewhat imperfect, 
and the core of the premolar (8868); the vascular foramen is 
well marked; the portion of the socket of the incisor preserved is 
directed upwards at an angle of about 45° — A left premolar 
(10216); unworn. 

Maxillary. — A left premolar (10214), unworn — A second 
example (10215); shorter and subtriangular rather than ovate, a 
little worn but well characterised. 

Sthenurus oreas, n.s. 

Longitudinal links of lower molars low but distinct, continuous 
wdth the outermost of the incumbent folds which are fewer than, 
but as broad as, in ^V. pales; posterior basal rim bulging but not 
forming a talon. MaiicUhle thick, symphysis anchylosed, incisor 
highly inclined, posterior dental oritice level with the teeth. 
Upper 7nolars with rudimentary mid links continuous with the 
innermost and largest of the incumbent folds w^hich resemble 
those of the lower teeth but are on each face of the lobes; outer 
mid valley closed by a marginal fold proceeding from the outer 
end of each lobe (PL xvi. fig. 8). Upper premolar very like that 
of S. pales, but wants the subsidiary cusp. 


Mandibular. — The full series of cheek-teeth is 62-2 in length 
(1); the entire molar series 58*0 (1); the first three molars 41*5 
(1); m.3 14-6 (1); the premolar 11-9 (2). The width of m.-' is 
from 12-1 to 13 -2 (4). The anterior depth of the mandible is 
34-2, the posterior 35-5, the thickness from 22-5 to 25-8 (2). 

Maxillary. — The first three cheek-teeth measure 42-0; the first 
three true molars 40-2 in length; m.-, m." from 27*2 to 27'6; 

BY C. W. DE VIS. 97 

m"^, m.* 30'G: ;ui(l in.'"' l')-;!. Tlip width of m.'" is from 12-3 to 
13-9 (5). 

In dimensions of length this si:)ecies does not much exceed S. 
atlas, but the thickness of the mandible due to its external con- 
vexity, which commences at tho incisive outlet, combines with its 
symphysial anchylosis and the erection of its incisor to connect 
it with the larger species. 

In dental sculpture it is also scarcely to be distinguished from 
S. atlas; yet here again affinity with S. yoliah and otuel is shown 
by the incumbent fold which represents the anterior link sending 
a lateral process outwards and downwards. 

Examples — nine. 

Mandibular. — Associated rami of an adult mandible with all 
the cheek-teeth (11204); vascular foramen large; t3'-pe — A left 
ramus with all the molars, tooth-sculpture not so well marked as 
in the preceding (8841); adult — Portion of a left ramus with the 
teeth m. ^, m.-, m."'; adult; tooth-sculpture much abraded; 
vascular foramen large (8830) — Portion of a right ramus with 
m.'^ and part of m. -; adolescent (8842); tooth-sculpture very 
distinct; vascular foramen large. 

Maxill'iry. — Portion of a right maxilla with the first three 
molars; tooth-sculpture well marked (10262) — Portion of a left 
maxilla with m.'% m.^ (8055); adult; sculpture abraded — Portion 
of a right maxilla with m. -, m.' (8046); sculpture almost 
obliterated — Fragment of a right maxilla with m.-^ (8069); adult; 
sculpture distinct — Portion of a left maxilla with the premolar 
and m.^, m.- all in fine condition, and exactly fitting the mandible 

Sthenurus atlas, Owen; Owen, XXII. ii. p. 359. 

Macrojnis atlas, Owen (I.e.). 

Protcmnodon anak, Owen, parfi/n: Owen, I. 1874, p. 275. 

Dental sculpture nearly as in the preceding species, but the 
linking fold less distinct in the mid valley. Mandible thin, flat 



exteriorly, increasing in depth posteriorly. Lower contour line 
straight or arched upwards. Incisor proclivous, spatulate. 
Symphysis lax. 


Mandibular. — The full series of cheek-teeth is from 55*8 to 
58-6 in length (2); the first three molars 30-1 to 31-6 (2); the 
premolar 12-1 x 6-8 to 12-8 x 7(2). The Mddth of m."^ is from 
8-9 to 10-5. The anterior depth is from 26-1 to 28-5 (4); the 
posterior from 29*0 to 32-7 (4); the thickness from 14-8 to 15-6 


Man(lihulai\ — P.-^ (PI. xvi. fig, 9). This tooth as exemplified 
by the anterior two-thirds of its crown in a mandiliular fragment 
is structurally similar to its successor p.^, but the extero-posterior 
complicated region of the crown is not evidently marked off by an 
oblique cleft. On the outer surface of this region there is a 
distinct trace of an outstanding cusp corresponding to that in p. ^ 
of S. jmles. 

Molars. — Mr. Lydekker's statement that in Sthetuirus there are 
no " vertical folds " must be understood to refer only to the lateral 
processes of the longitudinal links, as the latter exist in S. gollnh 
and S. otuel. Of the presence in the type of the genus of tapering 
folds lying upon the anterior surface of the lobes as we have seen 
them in all the species now referred to it there is no doubt; there 
is indeed evidence of the fact in the figure of m.-^ in II. PL 82, fig. 
9, though no mention of it is made by Owen. In the mutilated 
tooth now figured (PL xvi. fig. 11) from a mandil)le having the 
characteristic premolar rising into place the incumbent folds are 
well marked fully in the hind lobe and by their bases in the 
broken fore lobe."^ 

* Complication of structure is more frequently found in the anterior 
molars than in the posterior; nay, even the fore lobe of the last molar 
rather than in tlie hind. It is therefore unsafe to pronounce teeth free 
from folds unless the young jaw is found without them, or to neglect the 
slightest trace of such folds which may remain in worn teeth. 

RY C. W. DE VIS. 99 

ExampJes — -Jive. 

Mandibular. — A left ramus with all the cheek-teeth in place; 
incimibent folds on m.'* distinct, on the other teeth almost 
obliterated by old age (10607); vascular foramen large — A left 
ramus with all the cheek-teeth (10726); distinct relics of the folds 
on the posterior molars; vascular orifice large; aging — A right 
ramus with the first three molars, sockets of p.* and m."^; folds 
distinct on all the teeth (8831); vascular orifice large; adolescent 
— A left ramus vvith all the cheek-teeth but the last; the rising 
premolar exposed (10233); vascular orifice moderate; young — A 
fragment of a left ramus with the anterior portion of the milk 

Key to fossil Halmaturi. 

AVidth of m."' 7 '6 and upwards. 

P."*^ with a large intero-posterior dilatation; lobes 

with folds vincPAis 

P. ^ with no large intero-posterior dilatation 

Crown of p.* with an anterior lobe partially 

divided off thor 

Crown of p. ^ without anterior lobe partially 
divided off 
Size larger; length of m.^, m.-, m.'^ 32*0 or up- 
wards aiiak 

Size smaller; length of m. ^, m. ^, m.^ 23 '5 

Intero-anterior surfaces of lobes smooth dnjas 

Intero-anterior surfaces of lobes with ac- 
cessory processes odia 

Width of m."^ 6*5 or less. 

P. ^ with a large intero-posterior cusp; crests of 

molars straight indra 

V.^ with a smaller intero-posterior cusp; fore 
valley of anterior molars with an accessory 
link siva 


P.^ with no large intero-posterior cusp. 

Molar crests rectilinear, wdth sharp angles and 

feeble links vishnu 

Molar crests curvilinear, with rounded angles 

and strong links cooperi 

]^.B. — As the lower jaw of H. minor, Ow., is unknown, its 
place in the above scheme remains to be ascertained. 

Halmaturus vinceus, n.s. 

Upper molars with a group of tapering folds in relief on the 
extero posterior face of each lobe, with the fore link nearly or 
quite obsolete and the mid link feeble. Lower molars with a 
vertical plate and folds in relief on the intero-anterior face of the 
lobes and with a posterior basal protuberance which is sometimes 
a distinct talon. Upper premolar broadly ledged posteriorly, 
narroMdy in front. Lower premolar cuneiform in front much 
dilated intero-posteriorly, J -shaped. 


Alandihdar. — In adults the entire series of cheek-teeth ranges 
in length from 58 to 64-1 (5); the first four 45-3 (1); the first 
three from 29-5 to 31-8; the first two 20-6 (1). The premolar 
from 11-0 to 15-6 (8); the last four molars from 48-5 to 49'4 (3); 
the last three from 34-0 to 38-0 (3); the last two from 25-5 to 
29-8 (3); m.* from 13-1 to l4-5 (2); m.^, m.^, m.^ from 26-2 to 
34-0 (3); m.i, m.- 23-2 (1); m.^ from 10-7 to 11-2 (2); m.^ from 
12-4 to 13-1 (3); m.^, m.^ from 23-7 to 25-6. The width of m.^ 
is from 9-8 to 13-0 (31). 

In young, p."^ m.^, m.-, m.-^ measure from 38-0 to 42 '0: mp.*, 
m.i, m.2 from 32-5 to 33-0; m." from 13-0 to 15-5 (5). 

The anterior depth of the mandible varies from 22*5 to 32-6 (13); 
the jDosterior from 21 -0 to 32*4 (17); the thickness from 15-1 to 
25-0 (23). 

Maxillary. — The length of the full series of cheek-teeth is from 
60-0 to 64-2 (3); of the first three 37*5 (1); of the true molars 
47-5 (1); of the last three molars from 31-9 to 37-0. 

BY C. W. DE VIS. 101 

Though the lower teeth are in proportion to the upper unusually 
brojxd, being scarcely a tenth narrower, the presence of similar 
accessory processes on corresponding parts of the masticatory 
surfaces assures us that in this instance molars of the upper and 
lower jaws are correctly referred one to the other. 


Maxillary. — P.* in the maiden state unknown. The worn 
tooth (PI. XVI. fig. 12) is irregularl}^ subtriangular, attenuated at 
the fore end, its ledge much dilated posteriorly, but narrow at its 
anterior junction with the lobe, and without traces of transverse 
ridges. Crest subcentral in front, over exterior fourth behind. 
Mesial three-fifths of outei* surface impressed, deeply at its posterior 
end : impressed surface with about four low vertical ribs; inner 
surface with traces of numerous narrow vertical ribs. On the 
intero-posterior angle remains of a cusp. Diameters 14*7 : 7 6; 
13--1- : 7*6. The tooth is equal in length to m.^. 

P.^ unknown. 

Molars.— (V\. xvi. fig. 14). With one or more short broad 
flame-like folds on the posterior face of each lobe within the 
hollow triangle contained by the descending edges of the lobe; 
not infrequently the folds become plates which- running together 
enclose the lower part of the inner half of the triangular space. 
The hind lobe of m.^ has no distinct processes. Traces of the 
folds are persistent in well worn teeth with varying distinctness. 

Mandibulary. — P.'*= (PI. xvi. fig. 13) elongate, narrow anteriorly, 
suddenly widening posteriorly; mesial diameters 11-5 x 4-3; 110 
X 4-0; 11-1 X 5.4. Crest central, posteriorly curving down- 
wards to the intero-posterior angle. Outer side of crown straight 
or slightly convex, with a more or le^ss distinct mesial impression 
bearing about three vertical ribs; inner side conchoidal posteriorly 
with three strong ribs; anterior cusp more or less expanded and 
well defined. 

P."^ is irregular, subelongate, tapering slowly to a pointed 
fore end. Crest on the inner side anteriorly, on the outer 


posteriorly, where it makes an open curve to the apex of a large 
intero-posterior cusp; outer surface of crown with a short im- 
pression faintly marking the limit of an anterior cusp; inner 
surface concave longitudinally, with two or three moderately 
strong ribs; in one example a deep depression between the 
extero-posterior angle of the lobe and its crest demarcating a sort 
of basal talon. Diameters 8-4 : 4-0. 

Molars. — (PI. xvi. fig. 15). At the point in which each obliquely 
descending revolute edge of a lobe becomes a longitudinal link 
there are one or two more or less compressed processes rising 
wdthin the inner side of the link; these either ascend upon the 
face of the lobe or stand out from it, and sometimes by confluence 
and extension upward and inward simulate on that side the 
oblique edge of the other side. These or traces of them are 
constant whenever the tooth is not too far gone in wear. The 
posterior talonal protuberance is also constant and occasionally 
rises obliquely on to the base of the inner side of the tooth. 

Rise and fall of teetJi. 

No precise information as to the relative periods of change of 

teeth can be gathered from the examples at present available for 


Examj) les — sevei i. ty-six. 

Mandibular. — Of adults: Five rami with the full series of 
cheek-teeth — ^Thirty-five rami or portions thereof with teeth in 
greater or less number. Of young : Four rami with p. '' and three 
following teeth — Eight without the deciduous premolar. 

Maxillary. — Three maxillae with all the cheek-teeth — One with 
all the true molars — Five with sundry teeth and a young maxilla 
with mp."^, m.i, m.-. Of fourteen supplementary — all are clearly 
identifiable by the characters peculiar to the species. 

Halmaturus thor, n.s. 

Molars with crests subrectilinear, lobes moderately thick, 
angles rather rounded and links feeble. 

BY C. W. DE VIS. 103 

Lower premolar elongate, bicuspidate, without intero-posterior 
cusp. Molars smooth or with accessory plates, without posterior 
groove or basal talon. Lower contour line of mandible a gentle 
curve throughout. 


Maiidibular. — The full series of true molars is 39-0 in length 
when aged \\); the tirst four cheek-teeth measure 38*0 (1); the 
first three 28*6 (1); the last three 30*5 (1); the last two 22-5 and 
23-5 (2). The premolar 7-5 and S'O (2). The width of m.^ is 
from 7'7 to 8-4 (6). The anterior depth is from 20-2 to 23-5 (4); 
the posterior from 18-4 to 22*0 (5); the thickness from 10-1 (aged) 
to 14-1 (5). The external length is 92-0; the internal 72'0. 

Thoucjh the thickness of the mandible has the same ran^e as in 
H. agiJis, which of modern wallabies has the stoutest underjaw, 
its length and depth are comparable with those of the kangaroos 
only. This is also the case with the length of the cheek-teeth, 
which may be estimated at 50 '0 in young adults, and with the 
width of the molars, but from the kangaroos it is at once 
distinguished by the structure both of premolar and molars. 

Mandibular.— V.^ (PL xvii. fig. 1) elongate, narrow, diameters 
8*0 X 3 4, bicuspid; crest a little to the inner side, deeply notched 
at its anterior two-fifths. Anterior cusp a well defined strongly 
compressed cone separated from the longer posterior part of the 
lobe by a deep gooove descending upon each side of the crown 
nearly to the base and by the notch in the crest; a slight incras- 
sation of the crown over the intero-posterior angle does not affect 
the general parallelism of the sides. Equal in length to m.^. 

Molars. — (PL xvii. fig. 2). These show a tendency to develop a 
single erect compressed process at the bottom of the inner mid 
valley— I.e., a rudiment of an accessory link similar to that in the 
upper teeth of Palorchestes and M. pan (infra.). This process 
occurs in two examples. 


Rise and fall oj teeth. 

The permanent premolar has risen to the crowns of its prede- 
cessors as the fore lobe of m. * has j)ierced the gum, the hind lobe 
of m.-"^, having then its edge bevelled off l^y wear; but it may be 
also fully in place and distinctly worn at an earlier period, in 
which the hind lobe of m."^ is almost untouched by wear. It 
remains in function at least till the last molar is well worn down. 

Examples — nine. 

Mandibular. — An adolescent right ramus with the first four 
cheek-teeth — An aged left ramus with base of incisor and the 
posterior true molars — An adult right ramus with all the true 
molars, m.^ worn to the base — An adult right ramus with the 
last three molars in fine preservation — ^An adolescent right ramus 
with the last two molars well preserved — A right adolescent 
ramus with the first three true molars and p. * exposed from above 
in its crypt, and fragments of a right adolescent ramus with the 
first three cheek-teeth. 

The species is well characterised by the form of its premolar in 
conjunction with a size superior to that of modern wallabies. 

Halmaturus anak, Owen, VI. Vol. xv. p. 185, 1859 
Protenuwdon anak, Owen, partim, I, 187-1, p. 275. 
F. og, Owen, I. 1874, p. 377. 
P. roichus, Owen, I 1874, p. 281. 
P. mimas, Owen, I. 1874, p. 278. 
P. anta^vs, Owen, I. II. p. 448. 
Sthenuriis atlas, Owen, pxiirtim, \. 1874, p. 265. 
8. hrehus, Owen, I. 1874, p. 272. 
Macro^ms minias, Flower, IX. pt. 2, p. 720. 
M. brehus, Lydekker, IV. p. 207. 

M. roichus, Owen, I. 1874, p. 281; Lydekker, IV- p. 212. 
M. anak, Lydekker, IV 214. 

BY C. W. DE VIS. 105 

Molars smooth, with rectiUnear crests, feeble links and sharp 
angles; upper molars without distinct anterior links, lower 
seldom without posterior talons. Premolars about as long as the 
lower last molar. Upper j^remolar with a long transversely 
ribbed ledge; lower without intero-posterior cusp. 


Mandibular. — In adults : The length of the full series of cheek- 
teeth ranges from 60-2 to 82-3 (34); of the first four from 48*2 to 
60-0 (16); of the first three from 32-1 to 41-2 (10); of the first 
tw^o from 22-2 to 27'4 (7); of the premolar from 14-0 to 18-2 (74); 
of the last four molars from 48*2 to 56-0 (11); of the last three 
from 40-3 to 53-0 (16); of the last two from 26-5 to 33-7 (19); of 
m.* from 14-5 to 19-0 (9); of m.^, m.", m.*^ from 37-0 to 45-6 (7); 
of m.i, m.- from 21-5 to 28-6 (16); of m.-. m.^ from 25-4 to 31-0 
(14); of m.i from 9-2 to 13-3 (9); of m.- from 12-5 to 18-3 (11); 
of m.-5 from 12'2 to 15-0 (5). 

In young : The length of p.-^, mp.*, m.^, m.^, m.'^ is from 54 1 
to 62-2 (3); of p.^ mp.S m.^, m.^ from 42-0 to 51-0 (7); of p."', 
mp.S m.i from 284 to 32-8 (5); of p.^, mp.* from 18-0 to 20-9 
(7); of p.« from 8-5 to 11-2 (23); of mp.S m.^, m.-, m."^ 57-8 (1); 
of mp.*, m.^, m.- from 33*6 to 35-2 (4); of mp.^, m.^ from 200 
to 23-5 (10); of mp.^ 10-2 (1). 

The width of m.^ in adults is from 10-0 to 13-6 (118). The 
anterior depth of the mandible is from 22*0 to 45-0 (82); of the 
posterior from 18-0 to 40-4 (72); the thickness from 13-6 to 23*5 
(89); the external length is from 100*0 to 155 0(13); the internal 
from 67-5 to 113-5 (11); the symphysis from 32-5 to 57*0 (15); 
the diastema from 31 1 to 57*0 (15). 

Maxillary. — In adults: The length--of the entire series of cheek- 
teeth is from 65-1 to 85-5 (17); of the first four 66-5 (1); of the 
first three from 38-5 to 45-5; of the first two from 24-6 to 27-1 (3); 
of the premolar from 14-4 to 20-4 (33); of the last four molars 
from 50-5 to 67*5 (8); of the last three from 40-0 to 51-5 (12): of 
the last two from 30-1 to 37 '0 (9); of the first three true molars 


from 33-1 to 39-9 (5); of the first two from 21-5 to 27-4 (7); of 
m.-^ m.3 from 28-0 to 34-1 (11); of m.^ 17 (1); of m.^ from 17-0 
to 18-4 (6); and of m.* 16-6 (1). The breadth of the palate is 
from 66-0 to 68-5 (2). 

In young: p.'^, nip.'^, m. ^ range from 28-6 to 37*0 (3); mp.^, 
m.\ m.2 41-7 to 44-4. 

The proportionate mean widths of m.'^ above and below are 
11-8 and 13-6. 

The degree of variation in the lenoth of the cheek-teeth found 
in this species is less than that shown by H. ruficoUis; and the 
premolar has a more restricted range of length than in most of 
the larger existing wallabies. On the other hand, the width of 
the teeth and the depth of the mandible have a somewhat greater 
range of measurement than in living species, and in thickness the 
ramus is decidedly more variable. But as in all the dimensions, 
the extremes are reached by insensible gradations, excess even in 
the width of the teeth must be considered a peculiarity of the 
sjDecies and one probably related to its inordinate vigour as shewn 
in its fecundity. It is quite the most abundant Macropod of its 

As no one of the several species added by Owen to the type of 
his genus Pr<jteuinoihn has a destinctive character other than a 
supposed differentiation in size, Lydekker has taken a step in the 
right direction in reducing their number to three — bi^ehus; rcechus 
and aiiak. With a fuller supply of material he would no doubt 
have felt perfectly safe in referring all the fossils of the Protem- 
nodont series to the single species anah. The essential unity of 
the species is shown not merely by graduation of difference affect- 
ing each part of each of three hundred and thirty individuals 
alike, but by that disproportionate difference between the parts 
which renders it impossible to lay down interspecific lines of 
demarcation anywhere. Detailed measurements of thirty-four 
entire mandibles of brehus, rcechus and anak, and a careful com- 
parison of their differences with those observed in the measurement 
of recent species fail to show that there is any sufficient reason 
for regarding them as distinct species. Constant differences of 
form there are none. 

BY C. \V. 1)E VIS. 107 


}faiidlhidar. — P.^ (PI. xvii. fig. (}) as it appears in a worn con- 
dition is elongate with mesial diameters 178: 56, oblong tectiform, 
ol)tusely pointed in front and not dilated posteriorly. Crest 
central, nearl}^ level, obtusely serrated. The mesial two-thirds of 
the crown compressed, l)ut more deepl}^ on the outer side, the 
surface of which has corrugations with much fainter ribs in the 
intervals; the inner surface similarly corrugated. Anterior cusp 
distinctly defined by the mesial compression, its point low and 
obtuse. Over the intero-posterior angle the crown is more tumid 
than over the outer angle. 

The tooth varies much in proportions and other respects. The 
diameters may V)ecome 161: 72 and the intero-posterior part of the 
crown so tumid as to cause the inner surface of the crown to be 
concave longitudinally, the tooth being then distinctly broader at 
its hinder end. The number, strength and disposition of the 
corrugations are all subject to varia.tion, and frequently under 
stress of wear disappear altogether. 

P.'^ (PL XVII. tig. 5) in its maiden state is irregularly oblong, 
with mesial diameters 103 : 51; its basal contour is arched on the 
outer side, nearly straight on the inner, its fore end obtusely 
pointed. Crest with tive low obtuse cusps, subcentral, curving on 
to the intero-posterior angle, which is sufficiently tumid to render 
the crown vertically concave on that side. Crown compressed, 
with three ribs on the outer and two on tbe inner side, the outer 
ribs graduated in length posteriorly. Anterior cusp moderately 

This tooth also \'aries in shape, jDroportions and corrugation. 
The intero-posterior angle may dilate sufficiently to render the 
general form subtriangular, the mesial diameters may vary to 106 : 
66, 89 : 86, the ribs maybe fewer in number or become indetinite. 
Under wear the ribs quickly vanish. 

Molars.— {V\. xvii. tig. 9). The longitudinal linking ridges are 
weak, the lobes but lightly convex posteriorly. Posterior 
basal talons are generally present as erect plates, raised rims or a 


mere, but decided, bulging of the base. The hind lobe of m* is 
in the mean of ten examples narrower than the fore lobe in the 
ratio 11: 12. 

The contour of the mandil)le forward of the hinder molars is 
nearly straight. The upward curve beneath the anterior molars, 
always faint, is occasionally reversed and a continuous curve 
produced f'^om the inflected angle to the symphysis. 

Maxillary. — P.^ (PL xvii. fig. 8). In a tooth recently come into 
position the general form is an isosceles triangle with the inner 
side irregular and the angles rounded. Diameters 191 : 100. 
crest subcentral, parallel with the outer side of the base. Mesial 
two-fifths of the outer side of tlie crown deeply impressed, w^ith 
three strong vertical folds rising to the crest. Ledge occupying 
mesial two- thirds of the inner side of the crown, with a raised 
basal rim commencing at the hinder end of the anterior cusp; 
within the rim the ledge is deeply concave and is traversed by 
four ribs ascending on the lobe to the crest. Intero-posterior cusp 
wide, joined to the side of the lobe; behind it to the outer side a 
deep transversely elongate pit, which is enclosed behind by the 
posterior surface of the lobe. 

By contraction of the intero-posterior cusp the form ma}^ become 
regularly oblong, the tooth being then scarcely broader behind 
and its diameter 178:75, or the like form may result from a 
dilatation of the fore end of the basal rim to an equality with the 
extent of the intero-posterior angle; the tooth in this case may 
present a gibbosity near the fore end of the inner side. The ribs 
of the outer side of the crow^n may be reduced to two in number. 
The basal rim of the inner side is generally Ijroken up into from 
two to five tubercles, usually one at the base of each vertical rib. 

P."^ (PL XVII. fig. 7) in a fresh condition is irregularly sub- 
triangular, with the fore end rounded. Mesial diameter 133 : 77. 
Crest well to the outer side of the central line, parallel with the 
outer side of the base. Mesial half of the outer side of the crown 
impressed, with two strong vertical folds. Ledge as in p.* but 
gradually dilating as it nears the intero-posterior cusp, Avhich is 

BY C. W. DE VIS. 109 

wide, joined by a rib to the lobe and separated from it posteriorly 
by a deep excavation. In a much worn tooth the basal rim may 
be almost entire and the diameters 125 : 76. 

Molars. — (PL xvii. fig. 10). Fore link obsolete or nearly so, and 
mid link weak: lobes l)ut slightly convex anteriorly. The base of 
the posterior concavity of m. * is enclosed by the descending inner 
edge; an adpressed fold is therefore seen on the hinder surface of 
the anterior molars. The difference between the widths of the 
lobes of m.^ is greater than in the lower tooth; their ratio is 13*5 
to 12-5. 

Ex(i7nples — three hundred and twenty-nine. 

Mawiibidar. — Of adults : Thirty-four rami with all the cheek- 
teeth, most of them with the incisor in place — One hundred and 
fifty-three rami or parts thereof with fewer than all the cheek- 

Of young : Twenty-four rami with p. '•' and some of the follow- 
ing teeth — Sixteen rami without p."'. 

Maxillary. — Of adults : Seventeen maxillae with all the cheek- 
teeth, five of them being each a part of a cranium more or less 
entire — Seventy-six maxillje or parts thereof with teeth in greater 
or less number. 

Of young : Nine maxilla? with various teeth. 

Halmaturus dryas, n.s. 

Molars with the upper fore link well developed. Upper ^yq- 
molar with a narrow ledge tubercular, but not transversely ribbed. 
Lower premolars, both permanent and deciduous, like those of 
//. anal'. Size inferior. 


Type maxillary. 

Maxillary. — In adults : The length of the entire series of cheek- 
teeth is 04 -9 (1); of the first four 46*2 (1); of the true molar 
series 47 '5 (1); of the first three 29-6 (1); of the premolar from 
11-.5 to 15-0 (3). The width of m.^^ is from 9-9 to 10-3 (5). 

Mandibular. — In adults : The full series of cheek-teeth ranges 
from 52-7 to 58*5 (3); the first four are 35-5 (1); the first three 


vary from 28-3 to 29'1 (3); the first two are 19-5 (1); the pre- 
molar measures from lO'O to 13*0 (8). The true molar series 
ranges from 40-0 to 48-1 (8); the last three from 34-3 to 41 -1 (9); 
the last two from 23-8 to 28-6 (12); the first three from 29-4 to 
38-1 (5); the first two from 20-5 to 22-6 (4); m.-, m/^ are 27*1 
(1); m.3 13-0 (1); m.-* is from 13-2 to 14-4(7). The width of 
m.'^ is from 8*0 to 10-5 (37). The anterior depth of the mandible 
varies from 22-0 to 30'0 (20); the posterior from 19-4 to 29-9 (21); 
the thickness from 12-7 to 18-8 (31). 

It will be apparent from these measurements that though tlieir 
maxima overlap in some cases the minima of H. anak the 
differences between their minima and the maxima of the other 
are far too great to be ascribed to the elasticity of a single species 
even were all the teeth indistinguishable. The existence of a 
dwarfed variety of H. anak conterminous and contemporaneous 
with it is too unlikely U) h<d worth considering. 

The probability that upjier and lower jaws are in this case 
rightly associated rests on the grounds of corresponding size and 
premolar structure. 


Mandibular.- — The premolar p.^ (PI. xvii. fig. 12) as extracted 
from its chamber in an advanced stage of growth is an elongate- 
ovate symmetrical tooth with a cuneiform crown and diameters 
10-7 : 4-4. The crown is compressed as to its mesial two-thirds, 
more deeply on the inner side. Three mesial ribs on each side 
form serrations on - the crest which is central. There is no 
dilatation or tumidity of the intero-posterior angle, but the end of 
the crest inclines slightly inwards. In the w^orn state these teeth 
can be distinguished from old teeth of //. anak only by their size. 

The deciduous j^remolar p. "^ (PL xvii. fig. 11) is very similar to 
that of //. anak, convex on the outer, nearly straight on the inner 
side, with a slightly developed intero-posterior cus23 which renders 
the inner side somewhat concave posteriorly. Diameters 7*0 x 

Maxilhry.- — The premolar p."* (PI. xvii. fig. 13) is elongate- 
triangular, with diameters 13 x 7*8 (basal). Crest central 

BY C. W. DE VIS. Ill 

anteriorly, parallel with outer side and not incurved posteriorly. 
A largely dilated intero-posterior cusp linked to the lobe apically, 
separated from it by a wide cleft posteriori}^ Ledge very narrow 
within a broadly tubercular basal rim which extends to the 
anterior fifth. Mesial two-thirds of the outer side impressed, 
with three strong short ribs, decreasing in length rearwards. 

Mnlars. — (PI. XVII. figs. 14-15). Mandibulary, with a narrow 
basal ridge posteriorly; hind lobe of m. ^ distinctly the narrower. 

Examples— seventy -three. 
MaxiUary. — Four adults. 
Mandibular. — Fifty-six adults, thirteen young. 

Halmaturus odix, n.s. 

Lower premolar unilobate, mesially corrugated, expanded but 
not developing a cusp on intero-posterior angle. Molars with an 
accessory process in relief on intero-anterior surface of lobes and 
with basal talons. Lower contour line undulated. 


Mavdihular. — The full series of cheek-teeth measures 46*7 in 
length (1); the first four 37*0 (1); the first two true molars 18-6 
(1); the last molar 12-4 (1); the premolar from 8-0 to 8-7 (3); 
m.- 10-8 (1). The width of m.^ 7-6 and 8-1 (2). The anterior 
depth is from 192 to 24-1 (3); the posterior from 16'1 to 23*8 
(3); the thickness from 11 to 12-5 (3). 


Mandibidar. — P.* (PL xvii. fig. 16) elongate; diameters 8-0 x 
4-0, gradually widening from the pointed fore end. Crest central; 
anterior and posterior cusps defined by a mesial compression of 
the crown, which has on each side three distinct and tv»-o obscure 
short ribs. Crest curving on to a small but distinct dilatation of 
the crown over the intero-posterior angle. Profile of fore end of 
crown gibbous. 


Molars. — (PL xvii. fig. 17). From the intero-anterior angle of 
each lobe a low fold descends obliquely to or towards the middle 
of the anterior base of the lobe, and on the triangular face of the 
lobe lies a small ascending fold similar to those in ^iheniorics. 
Previous knowledge of these folds is required for the recognition 
of traces of them left in the aging mandible. The basal talon is 
a distinct ledge-like protuberance. 

Exa7nples — six or aight. 

An adolescent right ramus with the first four cheek-teeth, the 
type — A right aging ramus with all the cheek-teeth — P.^ in a 
fragment of a right adolescent ramus — M. * in a portion of an aged 
left ramus— Part of an adult left ramus with m.^, m.- — And a 
portion of a young left ramus with m. -. To these may be added 
two maxillary fossils which perchance belong to the species. 

Halmaturus indra, n.s. 

Molars with crests moderately curved, angles subrotund, and 
links feeble. The lower permanent premolar sul)triangular, with 
a large intero-posterior cusp; the deciduous short, broad, convex 
exteriorly. Molars smooth, without posterior groove or distinct 


Mandibular. — Young: P."', mp.^ m. ^ measure 23'1; p. "^ 6'4; 
p. ^ immature 7*7. 

The long dimension of the teeth is the same as in //. cooperi. 


Mandibular. — P.^ (extracted) (PL xvii. fig. 19), subtriangular, 
with a large intero-posterior cusp, separated from the posterior 
surface of the lobe by a broad vertical groove. Outer surface of 
crown impressed and bearing a low broad mesial rilj; anterior end 
of crown with a horizontal groove between base and lobe. Crest 
central, not curving inwards posteriorly. 

P.'^ (PL XVII. fig. 18) short, broad, basal outline biconvex, 
diameters 6-4 x 4-5. Crest towards the inner and flatter side. 

BY C. W. DE VIS. 113 

Crown mesially compressed, with a distinct mesial rib on each 
side. Basal rim on each side tumid, subnodular, especially on 
outer side, obscurely continuous round fore end. 

Molars. — (PL xvii. fig. 20). Links high but narrow; on the outer 
side of the posterior base of m. ^ a rudimentary ledge-like talon. 

Sufficiently distinguished by the premolars from all other species 
recent and extinct. 

Halmaturus SIVA, n.s. 

Molars with curved crests, rounded angles and strong links. 

Lower premolar unilobate, narrow; intero- posterior dilatation 
moderate, consisting apparently of two flat folds tapering off 
above into vertical ribs; anterior cusp small and ill-defined. 

Molars smooth, with long anterior talons, and without posterior 
groove or basal talon. The inner valley of the anterior talon 
subdivided by an accessory link in the two anterior molars. 


Mandibular. ~T\\Q full set of adult cheek-teeth is 40'6 in 
length; the first three molars 24-4 and 24*9; the last three 28*8; 
the first two 17*2; the premolar 7*1. The width of m.'^ is from 
6*2 to 6 -4 (4). The anterior depth of the mandible is from 18-0 
to 23-0 (4); the posterior from 12-9 to 18-1 (4); the thickness 
from 11-3 to 12-0 (3). 

In general size it agrees with the larger wallabies of the 
present day. 


P.* (PL XVII. fig. 21) diameters 7*1 x 2-7; crest over inner edge 
anteriorl}'', nearly level, curving inwards posteriorly; anterior 
cusp scarcely differentiated from the^ rest of the crown ])y a slight 
mesial impression on the inner side; posterior to this the inner 
side is rendered more concave by two successive folds ending 
above in sharp plaits. 

Molars. — -(PL xvii. figs. 22-23). The anterior talons are in 
length nearly a third that of the entire tooth. 


Examples — eleven. 

A right adult ramus (11181) with all the cheek-teeth but m.^ — 
A second with all the cheek-teeth older, and a third with all the 
true molars aged — A left adult ramus with the last three 
molars— Two rami with the anterior three true molars — A 
fragment of a ramus with m.^, m. -. — A young ramus with the 
last three molars, and a second with the last two — A maxilla 
wdth the last three molars is also referable to this species. 

The tyj)e, 11181, could in the absence of the premolar be 
mistaken without any difficulty for a mandible of H. agilis; but 
in addition to the dental differences apparent on comparing it 
critically with mandibles of //. agilis of the same age, we may 
add that the diastema is much longer, and the anterior dental 
foramen further forward than in any example of the recent 


Molars with rectilinear crests, sharp angles and feeble links. 
Lower premolar unilobate, cuneiform, coarsely ribbed. Molars 
smooth. Anterior portion of lower mandibular contour straight. 


Mandihnlar. — The length of the full series of cheek-teeth is 
443; the true molars are from 33-4 to 35-6 in length (3); the last 
three 280; the last two 18-6 and 21-9 (2); the first three 23-5; 
the first two from 15*1 to 17-4 (4); m." 9'0; mp.-^, m.^, m.^ 17-4 
and 23-4 (2); the premolar p.'^ 9-2 and 9-6 (2). The width of 
m.'^ is from 6*5 to 7*6 (8). The anterior depth is from 180 to 
20-0 (4); the posterior from 15*4 to 16-5 (4); its thickness from 
10-1 to 12-2 (7); its internal length 58-0. 

The length of the dental series is surpassed by that of the 
kangaroos only, and is approached most nearly by that of II. 
agilis among the wallabies. In this latter species we find a 
maximum length of 43-5 with a mean of scarcely 40-0. But from 
//. agilis the extinct species is better distinguished by the length 
of the premolar, 9*2 minimum against a maximum of 8-1 in the 

BY C. W. DE VIS. 115 

living species; by the greater width of the molars, that of m. ■' 
averaging 7 1 against 6 --I in //. agilis; by its much feebler inter- 
lobular links; and by the straightness of the lower edge of the 
mandible. The same characters serve to separate it from //. 
ualabatii)<, which approaches it somewhat more nearly in the 
length of the premolar, but recedes further from it in the total 
length of the cheek-teeth. With no other recent species is it 
comparable as to the dimensions of teeth, though in the depth 
and thickness of the mandible it is occasionally exceeded by all 
the larger-sized modern wallabies. 


Mandibufar. — P. ^ (PL xvii. fig. 3) subelongate, oblong, cuneiform, 
diameters 96 x 4'4, sides parallel, fore end obtusely pointed. 
Crest a little to the inner side, with obtuse denticulations corres- 
ponding to coarse but indistinct corrugations on either side of the 
mesially compressed crown. A faintly marked nodular basal rim 
on either side is continuous round the fore end. In a second 
example with diameters 9*2 x 4 6 the mesial compression of the 
crown is stronger, and the crest curves slightly over to the intero- 
posterior angle, rendering the inner side of that end of the crown 
subconchoidal. Length equal to or rather less than that of m>. 

Mandible elongate, shallow, nearly straight from the posterior 
molar forward. 

Molars (PI. xvii. fig. 4) without accessory folds; with or without 
a rudimentary talon; links narrow and low. 

Persistence of teeth. 

The permanent premolar though much worn is still in the 
horizontal line of the molars, and shows no sign of ejection when 
the last molar has been some time in use; in another instance the 
roots of the broken tooth are in place, though m. ^ is much worn. 

Examples — sixteen. 

These consist of two adult mandibular rami with all the cheek- 
teeth, the premolar of one of them being imperfect; of three with 


all the true molars; nine with sundry molars, and two young 
rami with mp.^, m. ^, m.-. 

Halmaturus cooperi, Ow. 

Molars with curved crests, rounded angles and strong links. 

Lower jDremolars elongate, narrow, tumid on intero-posterior 
angle, but developing there no cusp; crest tridentate. Molars 
smooth without groove or basal talon posteriorly. Upper pre- 
molar ledged, with an intero-posterior cusp; molars smooth with 
adpressed folds posteriorly. Lower mandibular contour undula- 
tory. Palate entire. 


Mandibular. — The full series of cheek-teeth measures in adults 
from 38-6 to 42-5 (3); in adolescents from 44-4 to 507 (3). The 
true molars vary from 34*0 to 39*5 (5); m. ^, m."^, m.'^ from 28-5 
to 336 (9), but in an adolescent tooth reach 35*7; m. ^, m.* are 
from 20-5 to 25 (T); m ^ from 11-8 to 12 8 (4). The tlrst four 
cheek-teeth range [from 29-3 to 37*0 (15); the first three from 
29-3 to 38-4 (4). The premolar varies from 7-0 to 9-6 (6). The 
width of m.'^ ranges from 6*5 to 8 5, doubtfully to 9-6 (54). The 
anterior dej^th in adults is from 17-5 to 27*3 (17); in adolescents 
17 6 to 23-5 (17); the posterior in adults from 17*4 to 266 (18); 
in adolescents from 15-0 to 21-5 (6). The external length is from 
65-7 to 78-0 in adults (3). The internal from 532 to 66-7 (6); 
the thickness from 11*4 to 16 "2 (23). In the young the first 
three cheek-teeth are 23-1 and 24-0 (2); mp.^, m.^ 16-0; m.^ 9-9; 
m.i,m.Sm.» 26-6 and 295; m.\m.2 from 17-0 to 21-6 (4); m.-, 
m.3 from 20-0 to 22-8 (5); m.^ from lO'l to 12-5 (4); p.^ 6-8 and 
7-7 (2). 

Maxillary. — The entire set of cheek-teeth is 50-2; m.^, m - 
23-0; m.", m.^ 23-3; and p.* 10-5. Width of m.'' 9-5. 


Mandibular. — P.* (PL xvii. fig. 25) irregularly ovate, diameters 
8-5 X 3-1; crest subcentral, tridentate. Crown mesially com- 
pressed; the compression defining an anterior cusp. Mesial cusp 

BY C. W. DE VIS. 117 

small, formed by the coincidence of a rib in the middle of the 
compression on either side. Sides nearly parallel; fore end 
acuminate; intero-posterior angle a little expanded, but not l^earing 
a distinct cusp. About as long as m. ^ . 

P.-^ (PI. XVII. fig. 24) diameters 7'4 x 3 7, otherwise differing 
little from p. ^ . 

Molars. — (PL xvii, fig. 26). Subelongate, diameters of m.-"^ 112 
X 8-0. 

Maxillary. — P.^ (PI. xvii. fig. 28) elongate, pointed anteriorly, 
diameters 10*5 x 5"0. Ledge very narrow, continued to the fore 
end of the crown; an intero-posterior cusp connected with the lobe 
apically and separated from it posteriorly by a deep vertical 
gorge, crest tridentate; outer surface of crown mesially impressed, 
the impression strongly defining an anterior cusp. Median cusp 
connected with basal rim of ledge by a vertical rib. 

Molars. — (PL xvii. fig. 27). Subquadrate; diameters of m.^ 11*5 
X 9*5; the posterior hollow of m.'*= nearly closed in at the base 
by an elevated lip which on anterior teeth forms the adpressed 

Rise and fall of teeth. 

Mandibular. — The permanent premolar is ejecting its predeces- 
sor just before the hind lobe of m."^ comes into use; it is retained 
at least till the hind lobe of m."*^ is half worn down, and its per- 
sistence causes m. ^ to be thrust out of the line of the teeth or 
reduced to a mere shell. As Owen observes, this retention of the 
anterior cheek-teeth is inconsistent with the dental flux of a true 
Macropus . 

Examjjles — seventy-three. 

Mandibular. — Adults thirty-one; adolescents nineteen; young- 

Maxi la.ry, — One adult cranium with all the cheek-teeth; two 
portions of young maxillae. 

This, the most abundant of the species with teeth similar in 
size and form to those of the type of Owen's H. cooperi, is the 


most likely to have yielded that fossil, and is identified with it on 
that account alone; if in error, the fault must lie with the 
describer of an object not susceptible of sufficient description. 

Halmaturus minor, Ow, 
Silieniirus minor, Owen, VIL 1877, p. 353. 
Macropus minor, Lydekker, IV. p. 218. 

But seven examples of this species have been found; one is a 
maxilla in the same stage of growth as the t3^pe showing p.'*^, 
mp.'*^, m.^, m. -, and p.'^ exposed in its crypt. The premolars are 
similar to those figured by Owen. The other examples are an 
isolated p.*; a young maxilla with m. ^ m.- m"^ and the premolar 
ready to emerge; two adult rami with all the true molars and 
one young ramus with all the cheek-teeth, but with these unfit 
for description. (PI. xviii. figs. 1-2). 

Halmaturus sp. 

Molars with rectilinear crests, sharp angles and feeble links. 
Lower premolar elongate, apparently with an intero-posterior 
cusp. Molars without posterior grooves or distinct talon. 


Mandibular. — The length of the full series of true molars is 
28 '7; the premolar between 8-5 and 9-0 (estimated). The width 
of m.'^ is 5-8. The anterior depth of the mandible is 17*0; the 
posterior the same; the thickness 11*6. 

The length of the molar series being greater than the extreme 
length in //. dorsalis and all wallabies inferior to it in size, while 
its width is much less than the least in H. agilis and ualabatits, 
and the length of the premolar greatly exceeding that in H. 
ruficollis and M. parryi, and even those of H. agilis and ualahatus, 
it is clear that this mandible is not referable to any known 

In the only example extant the premolar is imperfect in length, 
and both it and the molars have been so long in wear as to 

BY C. W. DE VIS. 119 

<lestroy any diagnostic features which may have existed in earher 
life. It is worse than idle to confer on such a fossil names which 
cannot with certainty be extended to others. 

Halmaturus sp. 

A portion of a right mandibular ramus of an aged individual 
with the last three and major part of the first true molars. The 
estimated length of the molar series is 34-5; the last three teeth 
measure 27'1. The width of the series at m.-^ is 7-1. The mid 
depth of the mandible is 18-5; its thickness 10-9. 

The width of the teeth falls within the range of that in H . 
aiiilis, ualabafnii and rujicollis. The depth of the mandible would 
allow it to be referred either to agilis or rujicollis; its thickness 
to either of the large wallabies or to M. parry i. But the species 
is readily distinguished from H. ualabatus, to which, among 
modern kinds, it has the greatest resemblance by the greater 
length and width of the anterior talon, which forms a much 
larger portion of the whole than in the recent tooth. In conse- 
(juence of this amplification of the talon the tooth is elongated; 
selecting a mandible of H. ualabatus of the same age as the fossil, 
and with teeth of the same width, we find that the length of the 
series of true molars in the fossil is a tenth greater than in the 
living species, the talons being on the average a millimetre longer. 

Until the premolar is known the species may be left unnamed. 

Halmaturus sp. 

Molars with rather straight crests, subrotund angles, and 
moderately strong links; without posterior groove or talon; 


Ma'iidibular. — The last three clieek-teeth measure 25-1 in 
length. The width of m."^ is 5-9. Posterior depth 14*8; thick- 
ness ll'O. 

So far as it goes the fossil corresponds in size with H. dorsalis, 
and it is without any distinct marks of difierentiation from that 
species; but as it is equally without characters, apart from 


dimensions, which demand its identification with H. dorsalis, and 
as dimensions alone are a good servant but a bad master it would 
be a very rash step to announce on the evidence of this imperfect 
mandible the geological antiquity of the common scrub wallaby. 

Halmaturus sp. 

Molars with curved crests, rounded angles and strong links; 
smooth. Lower molars with an incipient posterior groove, but 
no talon. 


Alandihular. — The last two molars are 16-0 in length. The 
width of m.-^ 5*4. Thickness 8-7. 

These dimensions have no counterpart among known species. 


A portion of an adult left ramus with m.^, m.* — A portion of 
a young right maxilla with mp."^ (part), m.^, m." may be pro- 
visionally referred to the same sj^ecies. 

Halmaturus sp. 

The anterior portion of a young ramus with m.^ and relics of 
m. ^, the molars with rectilinear crests, angular lobes and feeble 
links, and the length of m. " barely 6'0 is insufficient for determi- 

Macropus magister, n.s. 

M. titan, Owen, partim — Owen, XXII. Vol. ii. p. 360; II. PL 82, 
figs. 17-18; Lydekker, IV. p. 225; Etheridge, V. 183. 

The validity of a new name for the paramount species among 
the kangaroos of the Nototherian Period depends on the proof to 
be adduced that the fossils referred by Ov/en to his species, M. 
titan, are by no means identical with it. The name M. titan was 
given by its author to a species represented by a portion of a 
young mandible with a single perfect tooth, m.^ (m.^ of II. PI. 
82, figs. 17, 18). With such straitened means of recognising the 
species in other examples it might have been supposed necessary 

BY C. W. DE VIS. 121 

for safe determination that these or some one of them should have 
the corresponding tooth at least in fair accordance with that of 
the type tooth as to shape and proportions. According to the 
"improved figure" of the t3^pe tooth (I.e.) its diameters are 14-5 
and 11; in adult life its length would be still less in proportion 
to its breadth. But in the adult mandibles identified with it by 
their describer the diameters of this tooth are respectively 14 and 
9-5, 15 and 9, 15-7 and 10, yielding as a mean ratio 14*9 and 
9-5; whereas, to maintain the typical proportions of even the 
3^oung tooth, the respective widths should be 10-6, 11-4 and 12-6, 
or in the mean 11.5. This difference in proportions is quite 
obvious to the eye, and so far exceeds the latitude in this respect 
taken by modern kangaroos as to be entirel}- prohibitory of the 
accepted identification. In no one of scores of specimens whose 
specific co-identity has been ascertained by tracing them through 
every phase of dentition, and whose identity with the supposed 
co-types of M. titan is beyond question, does the tooth show any 
tendency to exchange its normal elongate form for the compara- 
tively square shape notable in M. titan. The mean ratio of 
length to breadth deduced from ten adult examples taken at 
random is 14-5 : 9, and if we take mandibles equal in age with 
the M. titan type the difference is of course still more evident; in 
the young m.- the diameters are 14*8 and 8-8. A further proof 
of non-identity is the absence of a vertical groove from the hinder 
surface of the tooth in 31. titan. This groove is present in the 
mandibles considered co-specific by Owen, and is invariably so in 
locally preserved examples. 

Finall}^, the form and extent of the anterior talon of J/. 
titan are ver}'^ different from those of M. 7iiagister at the same 
ase ; that of M. titan is a semioval with a short minor 
diameter; that of M. magister is much longer, has straight con- 
verging sides and a short straight anterior edge. On these 
grounds Owen's identification of his Queensland examj^les of M. 
titan with his Wellington Valley type must be disallowed. It 
was a judgment, be it observed, delivered ex cathedra without 
reason assigned. y^' 



Molars smooth, elongate, with curvihnear crests, thick lobes, 
rounded angles and strong, directly longitudinal links. Base of 
re volute inner edge of hinder surface of upper molars elevated, 
forming an adpressed fold on the corresponding part of the 
anterior teeth; a vertical groove on the hinder surface of the 
lower molars. Upper premolar l^ilobate, with a small intero- 
posterior cusp; lower premolar bilobate, with a large intero- 
posterior cusp nearly confluent with the hinder lobe. 


Manflihular. — Adults : The entire series of cheek-teeth is 56 '6 
and 60-8 in length (2); the premolar from 6-4 to 7-6 (3). The 
series of true molars from 51*8 to 59 '3 (8); the last three from 
40-0 to 50-5 (33); the last two from 28-1 to 36-5 (39); m.^ from 
16-2 to 20-0 (26); the first three 357 and 38-5 (2); m.-,m.3 from 
26-1 to 28-5 (3); m.- from 13-7 to 16-7 (5); m.-'^ from 16-1 to 
17-6 (8); m.i 15-4 (1). The width of m.'^^ is from 9-0 to 11-6 (91). 
The anterior depth of the mandible is from 29*6 to 44*0 (60); the 
posterior from 26-6 to 41 (75); the thickness from 15*6 to 24-0 
(76). The external length varies from 127-0 to 142-0 (6); the 
internal from 80-0 to 98-0 (20); the diastema from 61-0 to 70-0 
(5); the symphysis from 56-0 to 69-0 (5). 

Adolescents : The first four cheek-teeth are 53-0 (1); the series 
of true molars 60*0 (1); the first three molars from 40*2 to 48*4 
(7); the first two 27-3 (1); m.- is 15-6 (1); m.^ 16-2 and 19-0 (2); 
m.-, m.-5 from 27-5 to 34-0 (11); m.'^ from 16-0 to 17-4 (8); m.^, 
m.^ from 29-0 to 35-0 (5); the premolar from 7-2 to &'6 (3). The 
width of m.-"^ is from 9-1 to 11-3 (33). 

Young: P.'% mp.^, m. ^ measure from 29-9 to 32-5 (7); mp.*, 
m.^ m.^ from 35-2 to 43-5 (7); mp.*, m.^, m.", m.'^ from 45-0 to 
50-0 (4); mp.'^,m.i from 22-1 to 29-1 (15); m.-,m.-" from 28-0 to 
31-5 (4); p.^ mp.^ from 18-9 to 19-6 (6); mp.^ from 10-5 to 11-0 
(3); m.i from 10-5 to 13-2 (8); m.- from 13-6 to 14-4 (3); m.-" 
from 15-5 to 16-0 (3); the premolar p.-^ from 7-1 to 9-0 (16). 

Maxillary. — Adults : The full extent of the cheek-teeth is from 
62-5 to 65.7 (4); of the true molars from 54-0 to 60-6 (12); of the 

BY C. W. DE VIS. 123 

last three molars from 41-5 to 45*0 (3); of the last two from 31-2 
to 34-1 (7); m.^ is 15-5 and 16-9 (2); the premolar from 9*0 to 
10-5 (5); the first four cheek-teeth from 43*7 to 46*7 (2); the first 
three molars from 40-0 to 45.0 (3); m-, m."^ from 30-1 to 32-0 (6); 
m.-5 from 15-6 to 17-6 (6); m.- 12-6 (bis.). 

Young: P.'^, mp.*, m.^, m.-, m.^ are 56*7 and 63-5 (2); p.^, 
mp.*, m.i, m - 45-2 and 45-4 (2); p. 3, mp.'^, m.^ are 35-5 (1); 
p.^ mp.-^ 20-4 (1); p.-^ from 9-0 to lO'O (6); mp.^ m.^, m.^ from 
35-4 to 38-7 (3); mp.\ m.^ 26-5 (1); m.i, m.- 25-8 and 27-7 (2); 
m.3 from 14-2 to 16-4 (3). 

The widths of the lower and uj)per teeth are as 13 to 14; in 
M. yiganteus the ratio is 7:8; in M. robustus 19:20; in most 
other recent species the difference is much greater than in M. 

Tn mandibular dimensions M. inayister has no special relation 
to either of the recent kangaroos. Though the length of its 
cheek-teeth is but little more than a fourth greater, the mean 
width of the series at m. ^ is more than twice as great, while the 
thickness of the mandible and its depth are only about one-half 
greater than in M. giganteus, rohustus and rujus. In range of 
depth it somewhat exceeds the greatest attained by a recent 
species, H. dorsalis, to wit. 


Mandibular. — P.* (PL xviii. fig. 12) is short, with mesial diame- 
ters 7-0 : 3-5. Anterior lobe the shorter, longitudinall}^ com- 
pressed, lancet-shaped; the posterior single, or with its anterior 
two-fifths forming a subdivision obscurely defined by a vertical 
groove on the outer side, and a notch in the crest. Crest curving 
without interruption on to the intero-posterior cusp, which is only 
separated from the lobe by a shallow vertical groove on the upper 
mesial part of the posterior surface, and forms with it anteriorly 
a concave intero-posterior face. 

P. 3 (PI. XVIII. fig. 11) is short, with mesial diameters 8*9 : 4-5, 
similar to p.* in structure, but larger in size. The anterior lobe 
is relatively larger; the intero-posterior cusp is higher than the 


hinder lobe, compressed, acuminate and separated from the lobe 
by a deep notch both superiorly and posteriorly. 

The vertical groove on the hinder surface of the molars is 
sometimes double; frequently its base is enclosed by an elevated 
rim which may bulge outward and convert the groove into a deep 

Maxillary. — P.^ (PL xviii. fig. 14) has a general resemblance to 
the lower premolar, but the anterior lobe is much shorter and lower 
than the posterior, the long compressed blade of which bears low 
down on its intero-posterior surface a small trihedral pointed cusp. 
On the intero-anterior base of the fore lobe is a tumid margin rt, 
representing perhaps the last trace of an inner ledge. Mesial 
diameters 10-5 x 4 -7. 

P. 3 (PI. XVIII. fig. 13) is almost equally bilobed; the maiden state 
of its surface is not exemplified, but from vestiges left in the worn 
tooth it may be safely said to have had a ledge running the whole 
length of its inner side and terminating in an intero-posterior 
cusp; the hinder lobe is furnished with a well developed extero- 
posterior cusp (a, PL xviii. fig. 15), a feature which occurs in the 
recent M. giganteus, but in one other instance only among 
extinct Macropods in Sthenuriis. 

Examples — two hiutdred and eighty-thrre. 

The collection embraces 134 adults, 40 adolescents, and 47 
young mandibles — 47 adult and 15 young maxilLe, besides 
isolated teeth in large number. The identity of young specimens 
has in the great majority of instances been established by extrac- 
tion of the permanent premolars from their crypts. 

It may be observed that Owen's JJ. tiiaii, from the Wellington 
Caves, has not been recognised among the fossils of the Darling- 

Macropus pan, n.s. 

Molars elongate with curved crests, rounded angles and strong 
links. Anterior upper molars with the outer midvalley divided 
by a vertical plate; all wath an adpressed fold posteriorly. Lower 

BY C. W. DE VIS. 125 

molars with a vertical groove posteriorly. Upper premolars 
unilobate with an internal ledge and intero-posterior cusp. 
Lower premolar unilobate, with an intero-posterior cusp. Size 
somewhat larger than M. magister. 

The types of the species are the maxillaries alone; there is at 
present no direct evidence showing that the mandibles are rightly 
associated with them. 


Maxillary. — Adult and adolescent : The first four cheek-teeth 
are in length 55-0 and 55-5 (2). The true molar series is 53 -(3 
and 61-5 (2); the last three molars 44*5 to 55*0 (4); the last two 
36-0 (1); the last 19-2 (1); the first three 41-3 (1); m.2, m.'^ from 
30-1 to 37-1 (5); p.^ is from 11-0 to 12-3 (3j. The width of m."^ 
is from 11-7 to 13-6 (14). 

Young: The series mp.^, m.""^, m.^ is 40*0 (1). 

Ma.ndihular. — Adult and adolescent : The cheek series varies 
in length from 61-0 to 70-0 (2); the last three from 42-7 to 54-0 
(4). The first four cheek-teeth are 52*2 in length, the first 
two true molars from 26-8 to 29-6 (3); the last two from 
35-5 to 39-5; the first three are 45-6 (1); m.- m.^ are 35-2 (1); 
m.i 12-0 and 12-5 (2); m.^ from 16-9 to 17-4 (3); m.^ from 17-5 
to 20-0 (8); m.^ from 18-7 to 20*5; p.'^ from 8-ato 10-0 (4). The 
width of m.'*^ is from 8*9 to 12*6 (24). The anterior depth of the 
mandible varies from 24-6 to 46-2 (13); the posterior from 23*5 to 
36-6; its thickness from 15-8 to 25-1 (27). The latter measure- 
ments much exceed the greatest amount of difierence in living 
species, and clearly indicate a confusion of two distinct species, 
but the means of distinguishing these otherwise than by size are 
as yet wanting. 

Form. „ 

Maxillary. — P. ^ (PI. xviii. fig. 8). Obovate with diameters 11-0 
and Q-^. Crest oblique, parallel with the outer side, notched at 
anterior third. An intero-posterior cusp a, separated from the 
lobe apical ly by a notch, posteriorly by a broad groove descending 
half way to the base, is connected with the fore end of the crown 


by a raised tubercular basal riin enclosing a concave ledge. Outer 
surface of crown impressed at anterior third, the impression 
defining the outer edge of an anterior cusp 6; on the posterior 
half of the impression are two very distinct vertical ribs. In a 
maxilla which seems to belong to this species the premolar (PL 
XVIII. fig, 8) is elongate obovate, with diameters 12-3 and 5*7 and 
a little contracted at the anterior third. The intero-posterior 
tubercle is more entirely separated from the lobe; and the whole 
tooth has a facies different from that of the preceding tooth, which 
may be taken as the type of the species. Yet as m. ^ in this 
maxilla has relics of the sepiment in its outer midvalley, and as 
the variation in the premolar may be paralleled among recent 
species, there is not at present sufficient ground for referring it to 
a separate species. 

Molars (PL xviii. fig. 10). — The posterior molars differ in no 
respect from those of M. iniayister save in somewhat superior size; 
m.- most frequently shows a vertical fold descending from the 
middle of the hinder surface of the fore lobe external to the mid- 
link, and meeting its fellow of the opposite side at the bottom of 
the valley h\ or as in the type specimen forming there an erect 
plate. In m. ^ this fold forms a more complete sepiment a from 
lobe to lobe; it is constant in occurrence, and traces of it are 
visible as long as the lobes persist. It is not a little remarkal:)le 
that this one of the structural characters of Palorchestes should 
reappear in a species of Macropus. 

Mandihular. — P.* (PL xviii. fig. 7) ovate, with the sides mesially 
contracted, and with diameters S'O and 4-0. Crest mesial; a very 
small intero-posterior cusp separated from the lobe apically and 
posteriorly; inner side of crown somewhat concave in front of the 
cusp, outer rather concave with one or two obscure ribs about the 
middle. The cusp disappears under wear. A series of four young 
teeth extracted from their crypts at an early stage of growth or 
exposed from above show^s that the tooth in its growth undergoes 
considerable change of form. At the earliest phase observed it 
resembles in shape the end of a cold chisel with a dent on each 

BY C. W. DE VIS. 127 

side of the middle of its edge, the mid-point being the termination 
of a rib on the outer side; the intero-posterior cusp is as yet 
obscurel}^ defined; in a somewhat older example the crown is 
thickened and rounded at each end, two ribs appear on the outer 
side, and the intero-posterior cusp is more distinct; when near 
emergence the tooth gains greater robustness, and the cusp 
becomes exserted from the lobe. 

Molars (PI. xviii. fig. 9) undistinguishable from those of M. 

The undulation of the lower contour line of the mandible is 

well marked. 

Rise and fall of teeth. 

Of this little is known; p.* is newly arisen, and p."^ is not 
entirely up when the hind lobe of m. ^ is coming into use; by the 
time that the hind lobe of m."* gets into w^ear, p."*^ is moderately 
worn and procumbent, whence we may infer that it is thrust out 
soon afterwards while still serviceable. 

Exa. inp les — -fifty -fovr. 

These include besides the young maxilla forming the type — 
Four adult maxillae; two with premolars, and all with m. ^ among 
the teeth preserved; twelve others in which m. ^ shows its cha- 
racteristic more or less perfectly : one with m.^, m.*;one with m.'^; 
and one with m.* referred to the species merely on account of 
similarity of size. 

In four adolescent mandibles the well-preserved premolars 
alone effectually prevent the molars behind them being ascribed 
to M. magister, as they might otherwise have been on seemingly 
sufficient grounds, and well illustrate the folly of positively 
identifying kangaroo mandibles by molars only. Twenty-seven 
others are provisionally determined by the dimensions of the 

Macropus faunus, n.s. 

Molars wdth curved crests, rounded angles and strong links. 
Upper premolar tricuspid, without ledge on the inner side, but 
with an intero-posterior member simulating the corresponding 


portion of the true molars. Molars smooth. Lower premolar 
tricuspid. Palate entire. Size large. 


Maxillary. — Length of the cheek-teeth 70-5 (estimated), of the 
first four 55-5 (1); of p.^ 11-0 (1). Width of m.^ 12-5 and 12-8 

Mandibular. — Length of the cheek-teeth 57 '0 to 62*6 (2); of 
p.-^ 7-0, 7-2 and 8-0 (3); of p.^ m^ 18-0 (1). Width of m.-^ 9-5 
to 10-1 (2); anterior depth 25-8 and 29*0 (3); posterior 28-0 and 
29-0 (2). Thickness 19-7 and 21-0 (2). Liternal length 82-0. 


Maxillary. — P.* (PL xviii. fig. 4) irregularly elongate-ovate, 
tricuspid; the mesial cusp the shortest, cuneiform; the anterior 
a compressed cone. The large inner portion of the posterior cusp 
is fused with the outer; its posterior base folds l^ackwards and 
outwards behind the base of the outer portion so that the posterior 
surface of the tooth has a remarkable resemblance to that of the 
molars of the kangaroos. The inner ledge is represented by a 
low basal tubercle opposite the interval between, the anterior and 
mesial cusp. Diameters ll'O and 4-6. 

Molars (PL XVIII. fig. 5) not distinguishable in form from those 
of M. magister and pan. 

Mandibular.— V"" (PL xviii. tig. 3). Diameters 8-0 and 3-4. 
Tricuspid, elongate-ovate. Crest parallel with outer side, curving 
inv/ards posteriorly; mesial cusp the shortest, cuneiform. Crown 
tumid on intero-posterior angle but not developing a distinct cusp. 

Molar^i (PL xviii. fig. 6) as in M. magister and 2^an- 

Lower contour line of mandible undulatory. 

Jxise and fall of teeth. 

The mandibular premolar is procumbent on the verge of the 
diastema when the hind lobe of m.* is just showing effects (^f 

BY C. W. DE VIS. 129 

Examj^Jes — six. 

The type maxilla with p."*, m. ^, m. -, m. -^ — -A portion of a left 
maxilla with m. ■^, m.^ (provisional) — A mandible with all the 
cheek-teeth and a portion of a second with p.*, m. ^ — A pair of 
mandibles, one with all the cheek-teeth, the other lacking only 
the premolar. 

The close similarity in form between the upper and lower 
premolars strongly suggests their co-specific origin. The molars 
accompanying them could not without them l^e dissociated from 
those of the other great kangaroos. 

Synaptodox, de Yis. 
Si/xajjtodon, de Vis, Proc. Roy. Soc. Queensland, Yol. v., p. 159. 
Molars distant at base, in contact by faceted projections 
(talons) fore and aft. 

Synaptodon .evorum, de Yis {I.e.). 

Dimensions of a molar 9-0 x 5-0; space between the teeth 
nearly equal to the length of the fore lobe. 


I. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. 

II. Owen, Pv., Researches on the Fossil Remains of the Extinct 
Mammals of Australia, 1877. 

Ill, Descriptive and Illustrated Catalogue of the Fossil 

Organic Remains of Mammalia and Aves contained in the 
Museum of the Royal College of Surgeons of England, 1845. 

IV. Lydekker, R., Catalogue of ihe Fossil Mammalia in the British 
Museum, Part 5, 1887. 
V. Etheridge, R. , Junr. , Catalogue of Australian Fossils, 1878. 
VI. Proceedings of the Geological Society of London. 

VII. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. 



VIII. Transactions of the Zoological Society of London. 

IX. Flower, W. H., Cat. Vert. Anim. in the Museum of the Royal 
College of Surgeons of London. 

X. Gray, J. R., List Spec. Mam. British Museum. 

XT. SHA\y, G., Naturalist's Miscellany. 

XII. General Zoology. 

XIII. Desmarest, a. G., Mammalogie. 

XIV. Illtger, C, Prodromus. 
XV. ScHREBER, K., Saugethiere, 

XVI. Zimmerman, E. A., Spec. Zool. Geol. 
XVII. Lesson et Garnot, Voyage de la Coquille, 
XVIII. Griffith, E., Auimal Kingdom. 
XIX. Grey, Sir G., Australia. 
XX. Gould, J., Monograph of the Macropodidae. 
XXI. Chaklesworth, E., Magazine of Natural History. 

XXII. Mitchell, Sir T., Three Expeditions into Australia, 2nd ed., 1838. 

XXIII. Waterhouse, G. R., Mammalia. 

XXIV. Proceedings of Linn fan Society of New South Wales. 


Plate XIV. 

Palorchestes azael, Ow. 

Fig. 1 — Lower deciduous premolar. 
Fig. 2 — First lower true molar — young. 
Fig. 3 — Anterior upper molars — young. 
Fig. 4 — Lower permanent premolar. 
Fig. 5 — Upper permanent premolar. 
Fig. 6— Last upper molar. 

Palorchestes parvus. 

Fig. 7 — First upper molar — young. 
Fig. 8 — Upper molar series. 
Fig. 9 — Lower molar series. 
Fig. 10— Upper incisors. 

BY C. W. DE VIS. 131 

Plate XV. 

Sthenurus pales. 

Fig. 1 — First three lower molars. 

Fig. 2 — -Upper premolar. 

Fig. 3 — Lower premolar. 

Fig. 4 — Hinder surface of third lower molar. 

Sthenurus goliah, Ow. 

Fig. 5 — Upper deciduous premolar — imperfect. 
Fig. 6 — Upper permanent premolar in crypt. 
Fig. 7 — Lower permanent premolar. 
Fig. 8— Hinder surface of first upper molar. 
Fig. 9 — Hinder surface of last upper molar. 

Plate XVI. 

Sthenurus otuel, Ow. 

Fig. 1 — Lower permanent premolar. 

Fig. 2 — Lower third molar. 

Fig. 3 — Upper permanent premolar. 

Fig. 4 — Upper third molar. 

Sthenurus oreas. 

Fig. 5 — Lower permanent premolar. 

Fig. 6 — Lower third molar. 

Fig. 7 — Upper permaneut premolar. 

Fig. 8 — Upper third molar. 

Sthenurus atlas. 

Fig. 9 — Lower deciduous premolar— imperfect. 
Fig. 10 — Lower permanent premolar. 
Fig. 11 — Last lower molar— imperfect. 

Habnaturus vinceus. 

Fig. 12 — Upper permanent premolar. 
Fig. 13 — Lower permanent premolar. 
Fig. 14 — Upper third molar. 
Fig. 15 — Lower third molar. 

Plate XVII. 

Habnaturus thor. 

Fig. 1 — Lower permanent premolar. 
Fig. 2 — Lower third molar. 



Hahnahirus visJniu. 

Fig. 3 — Lower permanent premolar. 
Fig. 4 — Lower third molar. 

Halmaturus anak, Ow. 

Fig. 5 — Lower deciduous premolar. 
Fig. 6 — Lower permanent premolar. 
Fig. 7 — Upper deciduous premolar. 
Fig. 8 — Upper permanent premolar. 
Fig. 9 — Lower third molar. 
Fig. 10 — Upper third molar. 

HalmatnriiH dry an. 

Fig. 11 — Lower deciduous premolar. 
Fig. 12 — Lower permanent premolar. 
Fig. 13 — Upper permanent premolar. 
Fig. 14 — Lower third molar. 
Fig. 15 — Upper third molar. 

Halmatwus odin. 

Fig. 16 — Lower permanent premolar. 
Fig. 17 — Lower third molar. 

Habnntnriis indra. 

Fig. 18 — Lower deciduous premolar. 
Fig. 19 — Lower permanent premolar. 
Fig. 20— Lower first molar. 

Halmatiirus siva. 

Fig. 21 — Lower permanent premolar. 
Fig, 22 — Lower third molar. 
Fig. 23— Upper third molar. 

Halmaturus cooperi, Ow. 

Fig. 24 — Lower deciduous premolar. 

Fig. 25 — Lower permanent premolar. 

Fig. 26 — Lower third molar. 

Fig. 27 — Upper third molar. 

Fig. 28 — Upper permanent premolar. 

BY C. W. DB VIS. 133 

Plate XVIII. 

Halmaturus minor, Ow. 

Fig. I — Lower permanent premolar. 
Fig. 2 — Lower third molar. 

Macropns /minus. 

Fig, 3 — Lower permanent premolar. 
Fig. 4 — Upper permanent premolar. 
Fig. 5 — Upper third molar. 
Fig. 6— Lower third molar, 

Macropus pan. 

Fig. 7 — Lower permanent premolar. 
Fig. 8 — Upper permanent premolar. 
Fig. 9 — Lower third molar. 
Fig. 10 — Upper third molar. 

Macropus magister. 

Fig. 11 — Lower deciduous premolar. 
Fig. 12 — Lower permanent premolar. 
Fig. 13 — Upper deciduous premolar. 
Fig. 14 — Upper permanent premolar. 
Fig. 15 — Lower third molar. 
Fig. 16 — Upper third molar. 


Page 78, in the last two lines — read 0. frenata and P. penicillata. 

Page 84, line 27 — insert m.^ between mp.* and m.^ 

Page 85, line 1£ — add ; of the entire series of cheek teeth 98 "5 (1). 

Page 87, line 2Q—for premolars read the left premolar. 

Page 88, line 4 -/or A second example, hinder portion, &c,, read A second 

example — Hinder portion, &c. 
Page 89, line 15 — for orcas read oreas. 
Page 93, line 4 — after young add Cast of portion of a right maxilla with 

m.3 m.4 (10223) ; adult. 
Page 94, line 5 — the word but at the end of the line should have been 

Page 99, lines 17, 29 and 31— /or P.^ read in each case PT* 
Page 100, line 2— for P.* reat/ P7 
Page 107, line .35— /or lightly read slightly. 


WEDNESDAY, MARCH 27x11, 1895. 


The twenty-first Annual General Meeting of the Society was 
held in the Linnean Hall, Ithaca Road, Elizabeth Bay, on Wed- 
nesday evening, March 27th, 1895. 

The President, Professor David, B.A., F.G.S., in the Chair. 

Miss Anderson, Mr. J. G. Anderson, M.A., and Mr. R. L. Jack, 
E.G.S., of Queensland, were present as visitors. 

The Minutes of the last Annual Meeting were read and 


The twentieth year of the Society's history, notwithstanding 
the still prevalent depression and continued " hard times," was 
one of almost unwonted activity. Sixty papers requiring a more 
liberal allowance of illustrations than usual were contributed at 
the nine Monthly Meetings of the Session. Five Parts of the 
Proceedings, including a legacy of arrears of three Parts from the 
previous year, were issued, while Parts 3 and 4 of the Vol. for 
1894 have been issued since the commencement of 1895. These 
complete a Volume of average size, with more than the average 
number of plates; but they do not include three lengthy and 
important papers requiring illustrations, read at the November 
Meeting. To prevent delay and to distribute expenditure, these 
have accordingly been held over, and will without avoidable loss 
of time be issued as Part 1 of the Proceedings for 1895. Ever 
since the Macleay Memorial Volume was put in hand, four years 
ago, the Society has been uninterruptedly in the printer's hands, 

president's address. 135 

a state of things which — with the matter held over from 1894 
still for some time Hkely to occupy attention — even under favour- 
a])Ie circumstances must continue for another year before we can 
hope to become quite free from the toils of arrears. The issue of 
five Parts instead of the usual four per annum means of course 
extra payments, and introduces a disturbing element into both the 
publishing arrangements and the finances for the year. Under 
these circumstances, therefore, it has become highly desirable that 
by the beginning of next year existing arrears should be cleared 
off in order that the Society may again revert to its normal 
condition; even though if necessary this should involve an unusual 
discrimination in accepting matter for publication during the 
coming Session. 

By the operation of Rule ix. the Members' Roll has been 
depleted to the extent of forty-five names of Members whose 
annual subscriptions have continued in arrears. Some at least of 
these, it may be hoped, will take advantage of the last clause of 
Rule ix., and by the discharge of arrears again qualify themselves 
for Membership. 

During the year five new Members were elected, two forwarded 
their resignations, and we have to lament the death of one — Dr. 
Craig Dixson — who was a prominent member of the Medical 
Profession in Sydney, and like his brother Dr. Thomas Dixson, to 
whose services on our Council we are all much indebted, was 
always a consistent supporter of our Society. For the reasons 
given above, and more particularly through the continued wide- 
spread commercial depression — ^though for this the Council is 
desirous of making all possible allowance — the number of effective 
Members on the Roll is at present smaller than it has been for 
some years — a fact which I commend to the consideration of the 
Members generally, in the hope that^ such a state of affairs may be 
only of a temporaiy character. 

In the hope of encouraging a larger attendance of Members at 
the Monthly Meetings the Council early in the year decided as an 
experiment to hold the Meetings from June to Noveml^er in town, 
at the University Chambers, kindly placed at our disposal by 

136 president's address. 

Professor Pitt-Cobbett. The results either in the way of increased 
attendance or accessions to Membership were not of a striking- 
character; and as an accompaniment of music practice in a 
contiguous building, and the absence of our books of reference 
were not found to enhance the interest of the Meetings, the 
Council has decided to return to our home at Elizabeth Bay. 
The inauguration of a new line of 'buses from the Railway 
Station to the top of William-street, via Oxford-street, providing 
for the convenience of residents in the western suburbs, and of 
the cable-tram to Ocean-street will be found to offer new and 
hitherto unattainable facilities of access to the Society's Hall. 

Three vacancies on the Council occurred during the year through 
the successive retirement, on account of pressure of official duties, 
of Dr. Cobb, Mr. E. G. W. Palmer, and Mr. R. Etheridge, junr. 
In accordance with the provisions of the Act of Incorporation, 
the Council filled two of these vacancies for the unexpired portions 
for the then current 3^ear by electing Mr. A. H. S. Lucas, M.A., 
B.Sc, and Dr. Fick— who was, however, on the eve of leaving 
for Europe, and therefore unable to act — and whose place was 
thereupon filled by the appointment of Dr. C. J. Martin : the 
third ^-acancy occurring later in the year was left unfilled until 
the Annual Meeting. Mr. Henn, one of the Auditors, being- 
absent on a visit to India, Mr. E. G. W. Palmer has been elected 
in his place. 

As there arise from time to time questions of priority in the 
matter of species described in the first seven Volumes of our 
Proceedings which were issued undated, it is desirable that the 
effort should be made to ascertain the exact dates with a view to 
their publication in the Proceedings. Unfortunately the Society's 
official records for the period covered by Yols. i.-vi., and Parts } 
and 2 of Vol. vii., were entirely destroyed in the Garden Palace 
Fire. The Secretary, however, hopes by the co-operation of the 
Librarians of the various Sydney Libraries to be able to ascertain 
at least the dates on which the publications were received at 
those Institutions — which would be approximately those of publi- 
cation. Old Members who are in a position to afford information 
are also cordially invited to do so. 

president's address. 137 

With regard to the bequest of the late kSir WiUiam Maclea}^ of 
£12,000 for the founding of a Chair or Lectureship in Bacteriology 
at the University of Sydney, or (failing the acceptance of the 
bequest b}-- the University) for providing the salary of a bacterio- 
logist to the Linnean Society of New South Wales and equipping 
a laboratory, the Senate accepted the bequest upon the terms and 
conditions mentioned in the will and memorandum. The Senate, 
however, of the University considering the fourth clause of the 
will rather stringent approached the Council of the Linnean 
Society with a view to obtaining a c.y pres modification of this 
fourth clause. The fourth section of the memorandum provided 
that — " It shall be necessary for ever}'- student before being 
admitted to a Science or Medical degree at the University to 
attend a six months' course of bacteriology." The reply of the 
Council of the Linnean Society to the letter of the Senate was to 
the general effect that it declined to be a party to an}'- scheme for 
modifying the late Sir William Macleay's will. The Senate then 
carried the matter into the Court of Equity, making the Linnean 
Society defendants. 

As only a resume has appeared in the newspapers, and the 
matter is one in which the Society is interested, I think it right 
that the full text of the decision of Mr. Justice Owen, Chief 
Judge in Equity, should be placed on record in the Society's 
Proceedings. It is as follows : — 

Judgment of His Honour the Chief Judge in Equity. 

In The Supreme Court of New South Wales. 
IN equity. 

Between The Universit}^ of Sydne}^, 
Plaintiff^ and Her Majesty's 
Attorney General for New South 
Wales and the Linnean Society of 
New South Wales, Defendants. 

" This is a suit to obtain the declaration of the Court as to the 
construction of the will of the late Sir William Macleay. 

138 pkesidext's address. 

The testator bequeathed a sum of £12,000 to the vSenate of the 
University of Sydney in these terms :— " To be held upon trust 
for the foundation of a chair or lectureship of bacteriology subject 
to the conditions set out in a memorandum on the subject 
wliich I intend to leave with my will to be read as part thereof, 
but if the said Senate shall not, within one month after being 
notified by my executors of this legac}^, accept the conditions set 
forth in such memorandum, then the said legacy shall )3e void, 
and I give the said sum of £12,000 to the Linnean Society of 
New South Wales." 

The memorandum referred to in the will is in these words : — 

" To my Executors, 

" This is the memorandum as to the legacy of twelve thousand 
pounds for a chair or lectureship of bacteriology referred to in my 
will of even date — I desire that the following conditions be 
strictly insisted on before handing over to the University the 
sum of twelve thousand pounds bequeathed in my will for the 
endowment of a chair of bacteriology : 

" First the Senate must agree to accept the said sum for the 
purpose of providing from the interest of the same a salary for a 
lecturer or professor of bacteriology and whose duty shall be to 
give instructions practical and theoretical in the morphology and 
physiology of the Schizomycetes and Saccharomycetes : 

" Secondly the bequest if accepted by the Senate shall be used 
for the abovementioned j)urpose and no other and the lecturer 
shall not have additional duties imposed upon him : 

" Third the appointment of a professor or lecturer of bacteriology 
shall be made by the Senate and not delegated to people in 
England or elsewhere who know little of the country and care 

" Fourth it shall be necessary for every student before being- 
admitted to a science or medical degree at the University to 
attend a six months' course of bacteriology. 

" My reasons for insisting upon these conditions being observed 
are that I am very deeply convinced of the extreme importance 

president's address. 139 

of the study of these minute vegetable organisms 'ootli to the 
biologist and the physician ])ut I am by no means sure that the 
importance is as yet sufficiently recognised by scientific men and 
I am unwilling to trust the fate of my bequest to the very 
uncertain views of the Senate on the sul^ject. I therefore wish 
my executors to procure very distinct pledges from the Senate 
upon all the points above mentioned. Should the Senate decline 
all or any of these conditions I empower my executors to hand 
over the aforesaid sum of twelve thousand pounds to the Linnean 
Society to provide a sufficient salary by the year to a competent 
bacteriologist who shall be called the bacteriologist to the 
Linnean Society and whose duties shall be to conduct original 
research in the laboratory of the Society and to give instruction 
to one or two people at the discretion and under the orders and 
control of the Council of the Society any surplus to be applied to 
laboratory requirements." 

The plaintiff prays for a declaration — 

1st. Whether or not the words " science degree'' in the fourth 
condition mean a degree in science generally or in biological 
science or other sciences analogous thereto; and 

2ndly. Whether or not the w^ords "a six months' course of 
bacteriology" in the fourth condition mean any and if so what 
definite amount of lectures or teaching or whether the words 
mean such amount of lectures or teaching as shall from time to 
time be prescribed by the Senate. 

The will and memorandum bear date the 23rd December, 1890. 

In the argument before me it was admitted that the "science 
degree" must be limited to a degree in biological science or other 
sciences analogous thereto, as the study of bacteriology would 
have no place in the curriculum for other science degrees, such as 
engineering, &c., and as the testator In the memorandum refers to 
the importance of such study to the biologist and the physician, I 
have therefore no difficulty in declaring that the "science degree" 
must be construed with such limitation. 

The question as to the meaning of the words "a six months' 
course of bacteriology" presents greater difficulties. If those 



words are to be construed according to their ordinary or 
grammatical meaning, they mean only that the studies are to 
extend over a period of six months and two academical ferms, but 
it is contended that they have a technical meaning and imply a 
course of 100 lectures. 

If that construction is to be put on the words, the Senate 
points out that such a course of lectures would in the present state 
of the science of bacteriology be only a waste of time to students 
both in medicine and science, and that the lectures for the most 
part would be mere repetitions of the few topics with which such 
lectures could deal. 

The question, therefore, whether the Senate could properl}^ 
comply with the condition or ought to reject the legac}^ depends 
on the construction of these words. 

From the year 1875 up to the time of his death Sir William 
Macleay was a member of the Senate, and doubtless acquainted 
with its by-laws. Between the years 1875 and 1882 (before the 
School of Medicine in this University was fully organised), the 
by-laws in connection with the Faculty of Medicine required the 
candidate for the degree of Bachelor of Medicine to furnish 
evidence (amongst other things) that he had attended certain 
specified classes, "each for a course of six months." Between the 
years 1882 and 1884 the by-laws provided that the undergraduates 
in medicine should attend a six months' course of dissections, but 
I cannot find that the amount of instruction in such six months' 
course is anywhere laid down or defined. So far as I can 
ascertain, the expression "six months' course" nowhere else occurs 
in the by-laws of the University and is never used in connection 
with one course of study in science. From the year 1884, the 
expression appears to have dropped out of the by-laws, and from 
that year to the present the fourth Ijy-law relating to the Faculty 
of Medicine provides for a "long course" and a "short course," to 
denote respectively a course of 100 hours' instruction extending 
throughout two terms; and of 50 hours' extending throughout 
one term. 

president's address. 141 

I cannot see, therefore, from the by-laws that any such 
technical meaning as is contended for has been affixed to the 
expression "a six months' course," so that I must construe the 
words of the testator in that meaning. Indeed, if I am to suppose 
that the testator had in his mind the provisions of these by-laws 
when he drew wp this memorandum, and intended students to 
attend a course of 100 lectures, I would have expected him to use 
the words "long course,'' which alone are defined as meaning a 
course of 100 hours' instruction extending throughout two terms. 

Then it is said that at Edinburgh the expression "six months' 
course" is used to denote a course of instruction in medicine 
similar to the "long course" of the by-laws of the Sydney 
University; and that as the testator had in his j^outh been a 
student of medicine in that University, he used those words in 
the remembered sense of his early days. But I think I am right 
in stating that Sir William Macleay never took his degree in 
medicine, and that from early youth till his death at a very 
advanced age he resided in this colony, where he was for the last 
15 years of his life an active member of the Senate of the Sydnej^^ 

It appears to me, therefore, that a circumstance so far distant 
from the time when this will was executed ought not to compel 
the Court to hold that the testator used these words in the sense 
they bore in the University of Edinburgh. 

Again, the evidence before me does, in my opinion, bear out 
the contention of the Senate, that in the present state of the 
science of bacteriology a course of 100 lectures on that subject 
could not benefit students, but would be a mere waste of time 
which could otherwise be more profitably employed — but as that 
science advances, a more extended course could from time to time 
be prescribed. If that is so, it must have been well known to 
the testator, and it is most improbable that he would have tried 
to force the Senate to give at the present time and under all 
circumstances such an extended course of lectures as would be 
useless to the students. 

142 president's address. 

It is contended that the memorandum shows that the testator 
attached much greater importance to the study of bacteriology 
than the Senate did, and that that consideration shows that he 
must have intended to secure a maximum number of lectures on 
that subject, 

I do not think that necessarily follows. The passage in the 
memorandum refers to all the conditions which certainly bind the 
Senate to give great prominence to the study of bacteriology in 
the degrees of medicine and science, but it does not at all follow 
that the testator meant himself to prescribe for all time the actual 
number of lectures to be delivered on the subject, especially when 
the evidence before us shows that so great a number of lectures 
as is contended for would at present be useless. 

I gather from the by-laws that the Senate, on a report from 
the different faculties, determines from time to time the number 
of lectures to be delivered on each subject during the terms. And 
from the evidence of Professor Liversidge the number of lectures 
varies considerably. That course of procedure I must presume 
the testator, as a member of the Senate, was aware of. 

It appears to me that in prescribing a six months' course of 
bacteriology, the testator did not mean to take from the Senate 
the power from time to time to prescribe the number of lectures 
to be given on the subject, but only to provide that each student 
for the degree of medicine or science should devote two terms to 
that particular study under a competent professor or lecturer. 

I therefore declare that the words "a six months' course of 
bacteriology" mean such an amount of lectures or teaching 
throughout two terms as shall from time to time be prescribed by 
the Senate, having regard to the great importance which the 
testator attached to that study. 

I think those last words ought to be added to the declaration 
of the Court, not through any fear that the Senate would in any 
way seek to evade the conditions, but as more fully expressing the 
intention of the testator. 

The costs of all parties will be paid out of the legacy as between 
solicitor and client." 


The Council of the Linnean Society decided, after due con- 
sideration, not to appeal against this decision. ]Mr. H. M. 
Makinson and Mr. J. J. Fletcher, as executors of Sir William 
Macleay, subsequently stated in a letter to the Daily Telegraph, 
of November l-tth, 1894, that had they been parties to the suit 
they would certainly have appealed. In arriving at the decision 
not to appeal, the Linnean Council were actuated, partly by the 
desire for peace and quietness, but chiefly b}^ the consciousness of 
lack of funds to enable them to carry on a protracted legal 
contest, which might in the end have involved the Society in 
heavy expenditure. 

Subsequent to this decision by the Court of Equity, the Senate 
appointed a committee consisting of the Chancellor, the Vice- 
Chancellor, Dr. MacLaurin, Sir Arthur Renwick, Dr. Sj^dney 
Jones, Professor Liversidge, Mr. H. C. Russell, and Professor T. 
P. Anderson Stuart to advise them further on the subject. As 
recommended by this committee, the Senate sent circular letters 
to the principal European and American Universities, asking for 
as full information as possible on the subject of the teaching of 
Bacteriology. Replies to these circular letters are now being 
received. It is hoped that it will be possible to have an appoint- 
ment made to the Chair of Bacteriology by the beginning of the 
Academic year in 1896. 

Australian Museum. 

Dr. E. P. Ramsay, owing to continued ill health, was forced 
last year to resign his position as Curator, after over 20 years' 
service. Mr. R. Etheridge, junr., who had for a considerable 
time previous been discharging the duties of acting Curator, has 
been appointed his successor. 

The lack of funds during 1894 very much retarded the general 
work of the Museum, the efforts of the staff being chiefly confined 
to the preservation, and in some cases the rearrangement, of the 
existing collections, with the view of making room for future 
additions in the already overcrowded cases. The Mammalia have 
been enriched by the addition of examples of the second Australian 

144 ■ president's address. 

species of Tree Kangaroo (Dendrolagas benettianus, De Yis). 
jSTumerous nest-groups showing birds, nests, and eggs, and often 
the young, with natural surroundings, have been added to the 
Bird collection. The Reptilia and Batrachia were to a great 
extent withdrawn from exhibition, consequent on substitution of 
specimens and rearrangement in more appropriate cases. In con- 
nection with the lizards, this work had to a considerable extent 
progressed. A series of coloured casts of snakes have also been 
introduced. The general collections of Insects, Mollusca, and 
other Invertebrates were entirely transferred from their former 
resting places to the uj)per gallery of the new hall, and are at 
present undergoing a complete revision. Tl^e two latter are now 
practically completed. A ^'ery valuable addition to the Ethno- 
logical Collection was made by the presentation by the N.S. 
Wales Commission World's Columbian Exposition of a fine set 
of weapons and implements of the Alligator River Tribes, Port 
Darwin, and numerous urns and vases from the burial mounds of 
Arkansas, U.S.A. 

The addition of the year, however, was the presentation by the 
Government of the "Cook Relics." These relics of the great 
circumnavigator, Capt. James Cook, R.jST., F.R.S., were chiefly 
purchased, on a statutory declaration, from the surviving relatives 
of Mrs. Elizabeth Cook, relict of Caj^t. Cook. The declared value 
of these specimens is .£1100. The entire general collection of 
Minerals and Rocks has been transferred to the lower gallery of 
the new hall, rearranged and re-labelled, to the number of about 
5000 specimens. From causes it is unnecessary to mention, little 
palpeontological work has been accomplished. The sttiff remains 
on its retrenched basis. 

Geological Museum, Department of Mines and Agriculture. 

Mr. G. W. Card has been working hard at the displaying and 
arranging of the mineral and palaeontological collections. Im- 
portant additions, chiefly of silver ores and opals, have been made 
to the collection during the past year. The pah^ontological collec- 
tions have lieen classified by Mr. R. Etheridge, junr., and Mr. W. 
S. Dun. 

presidents address. 145 


At the Biological Laboratory of the University, Mr. J. P. Hill 
is working at the development of the teeth of the bandicoot. At 
the laboratories of the Medical School Professor Wilson is 
studying the same subject in collaboration with Mr. Hill, and 
also the development of the teeth of the platypus. Dr. C. J. 
Martin is still continuing his investigations on the subject of snake 
poison, and is working out the general development *of the 
platypus. At the Macleay Museum Mr. George Masters is still 
employed at his task of classifying the collections of foreign 
Orthoptera and Coleoptera, and has mounted on ground glass all 
the collections of Australian and foreign birds' eggs and a large 
number of marine and land mollusca. 

Scientific Papers, kc. 

It would, of course, be quite beyond the scope of this address 
to review the principal papers of scientific interest which were 
published by Australian Societies last year. A few publications, 
however, relating to my own subject will be referred to. The 
very important paper by ]Mr. R. L. Jack, at the Brisl^ane meeting 
of the Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science, 
showed that his geological surve}^ of the intake beds of the 
cretaceous formation proved that the supply of rain water 
draining into the beds was fully forty times as much as had been 
previously estimated. On the assumption, therefore, that a total 
of about one hundved million gallons flow now daily from the 
Queensland artesian bores, it should be possible to draw at least 
forty times as much as the above amount of water out of the beds 
without encroaching on the supply. The geological explorations 
by Mr. E. F. Pittman, the Government Geologist, during the past 
year, on the cretaceous rocks of the Upper Darling and in the 
Parish of Bidura, Balranald district, have shown that it is very 
probable that the artesian basin may extend far to the south-west 
of Wilcannia, possibly underneath the overlying Tertiary deposits 
of West Victoria and South-East South Australia to the coast. 


146 president's address. 

During 1894 the Department of Mines and Agriculture have 
published Parts I. and II. of Vol. TV. of the Records of the 
Geological Survey of New South Wales and Part III. No. 8 of 
the Palaeontology Series of the Memoirs. The last-mentioned is 
entitled " Contributions to a Catalogue of Works, Reports, and 
Papers on the Anthropology, Ethnology, and Geological History 
of the Australian and Tasmanian Aborigines," and should prove 
of great service to workers in that branch of science. A very 
interesting memoir by Mr. A. S. Woodward, of the British 
Museum, on the subject of the beautifully preserved fossil fish, 
discovered at the Talbragar River, has just been received by the 
Government Geologist, and will shortly be published. The repu- 
tation of the Survey is well sustained in these publications. 

Mr. R. Etheridge, junr., and Mr. W. S. Dun, assistant palaeon- 
tologist and librarian, contribute (op. cit. Part II. pp. 68-99) 
"The Australian Geological Record for the Year 1893, with 
Addenda for 1891 and 1892." This is an invaluable work, and 
no geological library in Australasia should be without it. 

Mr. W. S. Dun, who has been assisting Mr. R. Etheridge in 
his palaeontological work for several years, was this year 
appointed definitely to the position of assistant palaeontologist to 
the Geological Survey. 

Mining Notes. 

I am informed that the " Sydney Harl^our Collieries Company" 
has been successfully floated in London, and that arrangements 
are being made to purchase Kurraba (Karubah) Point, between 
Neutral Bay and Shell Cove, and also for the sinking at this spot 
of a pair of shafts, which should reach the Bulli Coal Seam at 
approximately the same depth below sea level as that at which 
the seam was struck in the No. 2 bore at Cremorne, namely, 2774 
feet, or probably a trifle deeper. The sinking of these shafts will 
afford good opportunities for obtaining a series of observations on 
underground temperature. 

The output of gold for 1894 was 324,787 ozs., valued at 
iBl,156,717, as I am informed by the Honourable the Minister for 

president's address. 147 

Mines and Agriculture. This is nearly doul)le the quantity 
raised in 1893, the amount for that year being 179,288 ozs., 
valued at £651,28."), 

Of the amount of gold raised last year the new goldfield of 
Wyalong contriliuted 9649 ozs., valued at £35,946, and Garan- 
gula 1205 ozs. 

As representing the subject of geography as well as geology at 
the University of Sydney, I trust I may be allowed to say a little 
about recent research in the Arctic and Antarctic regions. The 
latter region in particular touches very nearly the work of our 
Society, and the pro])lem of the possible biological relations of the 
Australian fauna to that of the old fauna of the Antarctic 
continent of New Zealand and South America has already 
engaged the attention of one of our most active members, Mr. 

Arctic Exploration. 

At least three expeditions last year were malting for the North 
Pole. Nansen, the hero of the " First Crossing of Greenland," 
strong in will and liml), was, and we hope still is, drifting with 
his thirteen men in his wooden ship the Fram in the ice pack, 
from N.E. Siberia towards the strong ocean stream flowing south 
between Spitzbergen and Greenland, to which he trusts for 
carrying his ship over the North Pole. Nansen, v/hen he bade 
good-bye to Dr. John Murray, who had expressed some doubt as 
to whether he should ever see again Nansen's ship, the Fram, 
said, " I think you are wrong. I believe you will welcome me on 
this very deck, and after my return from the Arctic, I will go to 
the South Pole, and then my life's work will be finished." 

The American naval engineer. Lieutenant Peary, with a party 
of fourteen, including Mrs. Peary and her maid, started in July, 
1893, for Whale Sound, on the west coast of Greenland. The 
chief object of the expedition was to complete the map of Green- 
land, but he also intended to reach the highest northern latitude 
available. He landed at Bowdoin Bay on March 6, 1894, and 
started overland with dogs and sledges for Independence Bay. 

148 president's address. 

After pushing north for over 200 miles very severe weather 
compelled him to return. The temperature at times was 40° to 60° 
below zero. The sledges had to be abandoned, and only twenty- 
six dogs out of the ninety taken with him returned alive. 
Professor Chamberlin accompanied the expedition, and the 
publication of his observations on Greenland glaciers is being 
eagerly awaited by geologists in all parts of the world. 

Mr. Walter Wellman, a journalist of Washington, attempted 
last year to attain a high northern latitude, north of Spitzbergen. 
He took with him aluminium boats, made at Baltimore, weighing 
about 450 lbs. each, 18 ft. long, 6 ft. wide and 2 ft. deep, capable 
of carrying nineteen men. The aluminium plates were riveted 
together Clinker fashion, being onl}^ one-tenth of an inch thick. 
Ash runners were fitted on to the l)ottom of the boat, so that it 
could be used as a sledge. Well man's expedition failed in its 
attempt, so far as the attaining of a high northern latitude was 
concerned. Four days after he had left his ship (the Ragnvald 
Jarl) on his journe^^ across the snow, she was crushed by ice, and 
only some of the stores were saved. Wellman and his party, after 
making some interesting geographical explorations, returned to 
Tromsoe on August 15th, 1894. 

An English expedition, known as the Jackson-Harmsworth 
expedition, was fitted out last year at the private expense of Mr. 
A. C. Harmsworth, for Arctic exploration. Mr. T. G. Jackfeon 
sailed from the Thames on July 11th, 1894, in the Windivard, a 
wooden steamship of 321 tons. She is barque-rigged, and 
strongly fortified for ice-work. He has taken a whaling boat, 
a copper boat with collapsible canvas gunwales altogether 
weighing less than 200 lbs., a light boat of Norwegian pine and 
an aluminium boat built in three sections, with a duplicate of the 
middle section, and a birch bark canoe, together with sledges and 
twenty-four pairs of ski in lieu of snow-shoes. He takes a 
number of scientific instruments, travelling tents, sledges, four 
ponies and thirty dogs. It is hoped that scurvy, the bane of 
Arctic explorers, will ])e avoided by the frequent use of fresh 
meat, of which large supplies have been taken. A series of 

president's address. 149 

depdts are to be established from Franz-Josef Land towards the 
North Pole, which should constitute well- stocked larders for the 
travellers as they return. Seven men, each of special skill or 
scientific attainments, accompany Mr. Jackson on this well found 

The latest news of it which has reached me is to the 
effect that, towards the end of August, the Windward was 
seen by the captain of the walrus-sloop Betsy in latitude 75° 45' 
N., and longitude 44° E., "steaming in the direction of Franz- 
Josef Land without let or hindrance, the ice being in this locality 
brashy and rotten, the Windward actually steaming up a lead of 
which no termination northward was visible.""^ 

A somewhat no v^el proposal, which is likely to lead to the actual 
fitting out of an expedition to carry it into execution, comes from 
the famous Arctic explorer Julius V. Payer. He proposes to send 
an artistic expedition to paint the North Pole.f 

The expression to " paint the town red " is a familiar one, but 
Payer does not propose to do anything so frivolous. No attempt 
has ever yet been made to do justice to the beauties of Arctic 
scenery, of which he gives a glowing account in the article just 
referred to. He proposes to take, on a 400 ton ship, two land- 
scape painters, an animal painter, and a photographer. Movable 
glass studios lighted Ijy electricity supplied by benzine or petroleum 
motors are to be provided, and oils which remain liquid at very 
low temperatures may be used instead of water colours. Cape 
Franklin, at the entrance of the little-explored Kaiser-Franz-Josef 
Fiord in East Greenland may be selected as the first camping 
ground. It is proposed that the expedition should start in June, 

Antarctic Exploration. 

Just now Dr. John Murray, of Challenger renown, has strongly 
stirred the hearts of the English people to fit out an expedition 
to the South Pole on somewhat similar lines to the great exploring 

* The Geogr.. Journ. Feb. 1895, Vol. v. No. 2, p. 173. 
t The Geogr. Journ. Feb. 1895, Vol. v. No. 2, pp. 106-112. 


expedition under Sir James Ross and Captain Crozier in the 
Erehus and Terror in 1839-1843. 

Dr. Murray remarked in his address to the Royal Geographical 
Society last year that it was now nearly two thousand five hundred 
years since the Phcenicians sent out the expedition under the 
command of Necho into the Southern Hemisphere. They arrived 
at the Cape of Good Hope, about 600 B.C., and reported that 
when rounding the Cape, heading westwards, they had the sun 
on their right hand, a statement of which Herodotus says, " This 
for my part I do not believe; but others may." Since the time 
of this voyage of the Phcenician sailors in their frail craft, Ave 
have no reason to be proud of the rapidity of geographical 
exploration in the Southern Hemisphere. 

Until the beginning of this year only three exploring parties 
had passed beyond the limit of 70" S. lat., Cook in 1773, Weddell 
in 1823, and Ross in 1841 and 1842. This year, however, the 
whaler Antarctic, which has just returned to Melbourne, has had 
the honour of being the first ship for the last 52 years to penetrate 
beyond the 70th parallel, reaching lat. 74° S., in long. 171° E. 

As a result of his explorations, Cook, as quoted by Murray, 
was convinced that "the greater part of this Southern Continent 
must lie within the Polar circle, where the sea is so pestered with 
ice that the land is thereby inaccessible. The risque one runs in 
exploring a coast in these unknown and icy seas is so very great 
that I can be bold enough to say that no man will ever venture 
further south than I have done." To prophecy thus is also risky, 
as both Weddell and Ross did su])sequently venture much further 
south, as already stated. 

The explorations of Ross, the discoverer of the North Magnetic 
Pole, stand pre-eminent in the record of Antarctic work. In his 
case the path of duty was the way to glory. His orders were to 
try and discover the Magnetic Pole, and accordingly he steered as 
straight as he could towards where j^revious observations showed 
that the Magnetic Pole probably lay, and this proved to be also 
the best direction for successful geographical exploration. Sir 
Joseph Hooker, one of the only two members now surviving of 

president's address. 151 

Ross' expedition, thus describes Ross' forcing a passage through 
the ice"^ — 

" He steered for the position of the Magnetic Pole, and, after 
passing through much loose ice, met the main pack, al)out lat. 67° 
S. and long. 174|° E. It was a formidable pack. Neither he 
nor any of the Arctic officers or men, of whom there were not a few 
in the ships, had ever seen anything like it in the north. Never- 
theless, Ross determined to try it, and in doing so the boldest 
held his breath for a space. In four or five days he pushed 
through it and entered comparatively open water." This proved 
to be a huge ocean pool 600 miles across, with a magnificent chain 
of extinct volcanoes, and one active volcano, bounding it on the 
east, the highest peak. Mount Melbourne, being estimated to be 
15,000 feet high. The sun often shone brilliantly on those 
stupendous snow-clad peaks as Ross and his men fought their way 
gallantly southwards until they reached the great ice barrier 
rising in a sheer cliff 150 feet to 200 feet above the sea, and 
barring further progress to the South. On the East the ice pack, 
composed partly of floe ice (frozen sea water), partly of fragments 
of icebergs, hemmed them in, and they were compelled to return 
by the way they came. Speaking of the hardships endured by 
Ross and his men, during the third year of his commission. Hooker 
says (op. cit. p. 28), " It was the worst season of the three, one of 
constant gales, fogs and snowstorms. Officers and men slept with 
their ears open, listening for the look-out man's cr}^ of ' Berg- 
ahead !' followed by 'All hands on deck!' The officers of the 
Terror told me that their commander (Crozier) never slept a night 
in his cot throughout that season in the ice, and that he j^assed it 
either on deck or in a chair in his cabin. They were nights of 
grog and hot coffee, for the orders to splice the main l)race were 
many and imperative, if the crew ^^ere to be kept up to the strain 
on their nerves and muscles." 

Ross' dredging showed that animal life was abundant right up 
to the edge of the great ice barrier; and the observations made 
during the Challenger Expedition quite confirmed this conclusion, 

* The Geogr. Jouru. Vol. iii. No. 1, January, 1894, p. 27. 

152 president's address. 

for it was found that tetrasporce were so abundant over wide 
areas as to give the sea a peculiar green colour, and "diatoms 
were frequently in such enormous abundance that the tow nets 
were filled to the brim with a yellow-brown slimy mass, with a 
distressing odour, through which various crustaceans, annelids and 
other animals wriggled." 

One of the most recent Antarctic explorations was made in the 
Jason in 1893-1894. During the voyage of the Jasori (Captain 
C. A. Larsen) to the Antarctic lands the discovery was made of a 
new active volcano, named by Captain Larsen Christensen 
Volcano, lat. 65° 5' S., long. 58° 40' W.^ 

" The volcano had the shape of a sugarloaf and was of con- 
siderable height. The ice was melted for a considerable distance 
around it. It presented a remarkable aspect, as round the top 
and on the slopes there were funnel-like holes, from which a ver}^ 
black and thick smoke issued from time to time, covering the top 

It is also stated (op. cit. p. 342) that to W. by IST. from 
Christensen Volcano there are five islands, one of which is very 
high, and all probably volcanic, as their tops were free from snow, 
whereas those of the mountains on the mainland are snow-clad. 
On the sketch chart accompanying this paper the active volcano 
of, Sarsee is shown in the same neighbourhood, and also Linden- 
berg Volcano [extinct (?)]. 

The Jason also visited Paulet Island, once an active volcano 
(op. cit. p. 344). It was quite clear of snow, its steep red cliffs 
thrown into relief by the grey background of the interior of the 
island, giving it a striking appearance. The most important 
discovery of the Jason, from a scientific point of view, was that 
of Lower Tertiary fossils iyi situ, at Cape Seymour. These were 
Cucullma, Natica, Cytherea and pieces of petrified wood, all of 
course indicating a former climate much warmer than that which 
now prevails. 

As regards climate, and distribution of animal and plant life, 
the Antarctic regions are in strong contrast with the Arctic. 

* The Geogr. Journ. Vol. iv. No. 4, Oct. 1894, pp. 340-341. 

president's address. 153 

In the Address to the Royal Geographical Society in July, 1894, 
))y Clements R. Markham, C.B., F.R.S., it was stated (p. 9) that 
"from Payer's furthest point in 82° 5' K, a water sky made its 
appearance in the north, the temperature rose, and the rocks 
were covered with thousands of auks and guillemots. From a 
height Payer looked down on a dark sheet of open water dotted 
with icebergs." On April 12 the thermometer was at 54° Fahr. 
In the discussion following the reading of Dr. Murray's address, 
Mr. W. S. Bruce, of the Jason, said (op. cit. p. 36) that as far 
north as man has penetrated in Arctic regions "he has found 
reindeer, flowers and bees, brilliant sunshine, and the country 
green; but in midsummer in the Antarctic no plant grows — the 
summer sun is not sufficient to melt the snow. The temperature 
observations on our voyage show that in the height of summer 
the average range of the thermometer is below 32°, and that in 
the latitude corresponding to the Shetland and Faroe Islands in 
the north. "^ 

Dr. Murra}?- also states that " No land animal, and no trace of 
vegetation — not even a lichen or a piece of seaweed — has been 
found on land within the Antarctic circle."! 

Briefly summarised, what is known at present about the 
Antarctic Continent is this: — A. Its outline is probably something 
like that shown on the map exhibited, enlarged from Dr. Murray's 
map. That there really is a continent there and not merel}' a 
group of islands is proved by the following facts :— 

(1) The great ice barrier is a vast land glacier which must 
have a gathering ground of continental proportions, 
estimated b}^ Dr. Murray as being slightly larger, 
perhaps, than that of Australia, namely, about 4,000,000 
square miles. 

* These observations, however, do not agree with those recently made by 
Mr. C. E. Borchgrevink of the whaler Antarctic. See Note 1, at end of 
this address. 

+ See Note 2, at end of this address. 

154 president's address. 

(2) Granite and various ancient crystalline rocks have been 

proved to occur in sit a at the South Slietlands and 
Trinity Land, and granite and gneiss occur in situ, 
forming nine small islands off Terre Adelie, as observed 
by the French corvettes Z' Astrolabe and La Zehe/^ 
Drift fragments of granite, dioritic rocks, quartzites, 
clay shales, itc, were dredged by the Challenger not 
far from the supposed Termination Land of Wilkes. 
Ross dredged a large piece of coarse granite off Victoria 
Land, and Dr. McCormick, the surgeon of the Erehus, 
frequently found fragments of granite in the crops of the 
penguins. His researches constantly proved that the 
penguins were invaluable as collectors of geological 
specimens. Granite is almost always characteristic of 
continents or of islands bordering continents, but is 
usually absent from oceanic islands. 

(3) Glauconite in the blue muds near the Antarctic barrier 

is probably indicative of the proximity of a continent. 

(4) Commenting on the fact that the observations during the 

Challenger expedition showed that 162 new species out 
of 398 identified are peculiar to Antarctic regions. Dr. 
Murray states (oj?. cit. p. 22), "It is most probal^le, indeed 
almost certain, that the floor of the ocean, as well as all 
pelagic waters, have been peopled from the shallow waters 
surrounding continental land, and here in the deep 
waters of the Antarctic we appear to have very clear 
indications of the existence of the descendants of animals 
that once inhabited the shallow water along the shores 
of Antarctica, while in the other regions of the ocean 
the descendants of the shallow water organisms of the 
northern continents prevail." 

* Voyage au Pole Sad et dans 1' Oceanie. Sur les Corvettes L' Astrolabe 
et La Z6l^e, ex6cut^ pendant les Annies 18.37-40. Geologic, Min^ralogie, 
et Geographie physique du Voyage, Vols, xxii.-xxiii. Paris, 1848. 

president's address. 155 

There are numerous volcanoes in the Antarctic Regions. 
Altogether there are about five active and seventeen dormant 
or extinct volcanoes, as far as I can learn from the somewhat 
imperfect information at my disposal. The volcanoes of 
Victoria Land show a tendency to linear arrangement. From 
Mount Sabine, 9,500 feet high, to Mt. Melbourne, 15,000 feet, 
the trend is sou-sou-westerly. Mount Erebus, 12,367, an active 
volcano, and Mount Terror, 10,884 feet, extinct, lie almost 
due South of Mount Sabine. Further north from Mount 
Sabine the great earth-fold, on the septum of which this chain 
of volcanoes is situated, probably bends a little westwards, as 
shown partly by the soundings, partly by the position of 
Balleny's Isle, an active or dormant volcano, estimated V)y 
Balleny to be about 12,000 feet high.* North-west of Balleny's 
Island the great fold trends perhaps to the knotting point between 
the Tasmanian axis of folding, described in my address last year, 
and that of New Zealand, the former perhaps running through 
Royal Company Island, and the latter through or near Auckland 
Island and Macquarie Island. The knotting point would pro- 
bably be somewhere (approximately) near the intersection of the 
60th parallel of south latitude with the 150th meridian of longitude 
east from Greenwich. It would thus join the line of extinct 
volcanoes along East Australia on the west,- and perhaps the 
active volcanic zone of the North Island of New Zealand, or at 
all events the fold which bounds that continent, on the east. 

Traced in the opposite direction, the volcanic zone probably 
runs through Seal Islands, the active volcanoes of Christensen 
and Sarsee, and through Mount Haddington, an extinct volcano 
in Trinity Land, to Paulet and Bridgman Islands, active volcanoes. 

*Mr. C. E. Borchgrevink of the Avhaler Antarctic informs me that when 
he was in the vicinity of this island in 1895 he saw no trace of the volcano 
being in eruption. Sir James Ross, however, states (Voyage to the Southern 
Seas, Vol. i. p. 272), quoting from the log of the Eliza Scott, " as we stood 
in for it [Balleny's Isle, T.W.E.D.] we plainly perceived smoke arising 
from the mountain tops. It is evidently volcanic, as specimens of stone, or 
rather cinders, will prove." 

156 president's address. 

The volcanic zone bends easterly from here on account of the 
easterly trend in the fold, which appears to make a loop towards 
South Georgia before it swings back towards Cape Horn. That 
there is a real easterly trend in the earth-fold at Trinity Land 
and the South Shetlands is proved by the observations made by 
the Astrolabe and Zelee expedition, which record a strike in a 
N.N.E. and S.S.W. direction for the greyish-white limestones and 
phyllite-schists at the South Orkneys."^ Towards Cape Horn from 
near South Georgia the fold probably trends west-nor-westerly, 
then follows an approximately meridional direction parallel with 
the chain of the Andes. It may be noted, however, that whereas 
the Erehus chain of Victoria Land is on the east side of the fold, 
the Christen sen-Bridgman groujD are apparently on the opposite 
side. This may be due to the fact that at the latter locality the 
eastern slope of the fold is steeper than the western, as seems 
i:)robable from the presence of the deep ocean abyss east of 
Graham's Land, as shown on Dr. Murray's map. The volcanoes 
of the Antarctic are thus situated on the same great earth-fold 
which has determined the position of the Cordillera and coast 
line of South America, and form part of that great " girdle of 
fire " which runs round about the earth, from the Andes along 
the west coast of North America and the Dominion of Canada 
through the Aleutian and Kurile Islands towards Japan, thence 
through various volcanic islands of the Pacific, including 
Krakatoa, towards the north-east extremity of New Guinea, to 
the Tonga Islands, and thence back to the White Island of New 
Zealand. It is probable, therefore, that the volcanic chain of 
Victoria Land will continue towards the South Pole, probably 
bending somewhat to the eastward, and will thence change its 
position to the fold on the other side of the Antarctic continent, 
so as to run through the Christensen-Bridgman line of volcanoes. 
In any case it is almost certain that high land, covered of course 
more or less by snow and glaciers, will be found at the South Pole. 
It may be mentioned here that the gneissic rocks in the small 
islands off Terre Adelie strike in an east and west direction. 

Loc. cit. p. 32. 

president's address. 157 

This seems to prove the presence of a subsidiary fold trending 
easterly along the coast of Antarctica till it joins what may be 
termed the federated folds of New Zealand and Australia, near 
their knotting point. It will be important for future exploring 
expeditions to trace by a systematic series of soundings the 
position of these folds on the ocean floor, southerly from Tasmania 
and south by west from New Zealand. 

That one, perhaps two,t well organised expeditions may shortly 
be expected in Antarctic regions is extremely probable, as may 
be judged from the following facts :— The Royal Geographical 
Society, after Dr. Murray's address in 1894, appointed an 
Antarctic committee. This committee moved the Council of the 
Royal Society to advocate strongly the need for further Antarctic 
exploration, and last December the Council of the British Associa- 
tion passed a resolution strongly in favour of the work being- 
undertaken, and various scientiiic bodies, as well as the Agents- 
General of the Australasian colonies, have been approached op. the 
subject. It is proposed to send a Belgian expedition into the 
Antarctic next September, the expedition to extend over eighteen 
or twenty months. It would be fully equipped for scientific 
observation, and the route suggested is one to the east of 
Graham's Land, in the direction of the recent discoveries of the 

With reference to the lines on which Dr. Murray would suggest 
that an expedition to Antarctica should be conducted, he states 
(o/?. cit. p. 25) : — "A dash at the South Pole is not, however, what 
I now advocate, nor do I believe that is what British science, at 
the present time, desires. It demands, rather, a steady, con- 
tinuous, laborious and systematic exploration of the whole 
southern region with all the appliances of the modern investigator. 
This exploration should be undertaken by the Royal Navy. Two 
ships not exceeding one thousand tons should, it seems to me, be 
fitted out for a whole commission, so as to extend over three 
summers and two winters. Early in the first season a wintering 

+ Reference to a third proposed expedition is given in note 3, at the end 
of this paper. 

158 president's address. 

party of about ten men should be landed somewhere to the South 
of Cape Horn, probably about Bismarck Strait at Graham's Land. 
The expedition should then proceed to Victoria Land, where a 
second similar party should winter, probably in Macmurdo Bay, 
near Mount Erebus. The ships should not become frozen in, nor 
attempt to winter in the far south, but should return towards the 
north, conducting observations of various kinds along the outer 
margins of the ice. After the needful rest and outfit at the 
Falk lands or Australia, the position of the ice and the temperature 
of the ocean should be observed in the early spring, and later the 
wintering parties should be communicated with, and, if necessary, 
reinforced with men and supplies for another winter. During the 
second winter the deep-sea observations should be continued 
northwards, and in the third season the wintering parties should 
be picked up and the expedition return to England. The winter- 
ing parties might largely be composed of civilians, and one or two 
civilians might be attached to each ship ; this plan worked 
admirably during the Challeriger exjDedition." 

" What, it may be asked, would be the advantages to trade and 
commerce of such an expedition '? It must be confessed that no 
definite or very encouraging answer can be given. We know of 
no extensive fisheries in these regions. For a long time seal and 
sea-elephant fisheries have been carried on about the islands of 
the Southern Ocean, l)ut we have no indication of large herds or 
rookeries within the Antarctic Circle. A whale fishery was at one 
time carried on in the neighbourhood of Kerguelen, but this 
right whale, if distinct from or identical with Balcena aicstralis, 
appears to have become nearly, if not quite, extinct. Some 
expressions of Ross would lead one to suppose that a whale cor- 
responding to the Greenland right whale inhabits the seas within 
the Antarctic ice, but we have no definite knowledge of the exis- 
tence of such a species. Although "sulphur-bottoms" (Balcf^- 
'noptera musculus), " finbacks" {Bahenoptera Sihhaldn), and 
" humpbacks" (Megaptera boops) are undoubtedly abundant, they 
do not repay capture. Ross and McCormick report the sperm 
whale within the Antarctic ice, but there is still some douljt on 

president's address. 159 

this point. Though penguins exist in countless numbers they are 
at present of no commercial value. Deposits of guano are not 
likely to be of great extent. But it is impossible to speak with 
confidence on the commercial aspects of such an expedition — the 
unexpected may quite well happen in the way of discovery." 

With regard to the whales seen by Ross in the Antarctic ocean, 
Sir William H. Flower said {(>p. cit. p. 34) : " The only right 
whale which has hitherto been found in the south is the l)lack 
whale, which, if it exists in sufficient numbers, is profitable, and 
has yielded a great deal in former times, and was dififused pretty 
nearly all around the Southern Hemisphere, l^eing once abundant 
off the Cape of Good Hope, Australia, and ISTew Zealand, and I 
have no doubt is the species seen in Sir James Ross' expedition 
further south." 

Dr. Murray thus sums up the work of a modern Antarctic 
expedition : "To determine the nature and extent of the 
Antarctic continent, to penetrate into the interior, to ascertain the 
depth and nature of the ice-cap, to observe the character of the 
underlying rocks and their fossils, to take magnetic and meteoro- 
logical observations both at sea and on land, to observe the tem- 
perature of the ocean at all depths and seasons of the j^ear, to 
take pendulum observations on land, to bore through the deposits 
on the floor of the ocean at certain points to ascertain the condi- 
tion of the deeper layers, and to sound, trawl, dredge, and study 
the character of marine organisms." 

Professor Neumayer says : " It is certain that without an 
examination and a survey of the magnetic properties of the 
Antarctic regions, it is utterly hopeless to strive, with prospects of 
success, at the advancement of the theory of the earth's 
magnetism." It is certain also that without a knowledge of the 
geograph}^ and meteorology of the Antarctic regions no weather 
predictions for any part of the globe, much less for the Southern 
Hemisphere, can be considered absolutely reliable, however 
wisely they may have been forecasted. 

All these expressions of opinion on the part of leaders of 
modern scientific thought as to the desirability of an expedition 

160 president's address. 

being sent to the Antarctic regions to learn more about its 
meteorology, more about its biology, more about its physics, 
geography, and geology, the Linnean Society of New South 
Wales will, I feel confident, most heartily endorse. That the last 
great work of geographical, biological, and geological exploration 
in the world should be undertaken by the people of the British 
Empire is a consummation devoutly to V)e wished for ; and it 
would be a very worthy end of the grand work begun and con- 
tinued by the great Challenger expedition. 

There is more than mere political glory and problematical guano 
to be gained l^y such an expedition as that which is now con- 
templated to Antarctica. There is the good of humanity and the 
cause of truth. Scientific Societies have been appealed to to help 
on this enterprise, and we all can help, if not with our money at 
all events with our minds. If the Linnean Society of New South 
Wales cannot contribute men or money, I hope most sincerely 
that it will at least contribute a very hearty sympathy. 


1. Mr. C. E. Borchgrevink, who accompanied the whaler 
Antarctic on its voyage to Balleny's Island and Victoria Land, 
stated in his lecture delivered in Sydney on April 24:th that 
the shade temperature was by day as high as 46° Eahr., and the 
mean temperature for January, 1895, was 32.5° Fahr. 

2. Mr. C. E. Borchgrevink obtained land plants (which Mr. J. 
H. Maiden, F.L.S., F.C.S., informs me are probably lichens) from 
Possession Island, and from Cape Adair, on the mainland of 
Victoria Land. 

3. While the proofs of the above Address were being revised 
the following announcement in the Scientific Amei'ican, March 
30th, 1895, p. 202, has been brought under my notice by Mr. H. 
C. Russell, the Government Astronomer : — " Dr. Frederick A. 
Cook, the well-known explorer, has recently declared his intention 
of leading a small but well-equipped bod}'- of scientific men on an 
exploring expedition to the Antarctic regions. The time for 
leaving New York has been fixed for September 1st, 1895, and it 

president's address. 161 

is expected that the voyage will last for probably three years. 
The party intend to sail in two small sailing vessels, each of about 
100 feet in length and of from 100 to 200 tons burden. Each 
vessel will be of the type known as ' Sealers,' and will be manned 
by five men. ... A fine pack of Esquimaux sledge dogs will 
also be provided. The scientific corps will consist of five men, 
who will carry with them such equipments as will assist them in 
carrying out their various lines of investigation. It is expected 
that it will take about three months to reach the Gulf of Erebus 
and Terror, where the expedition will probably disembark. A 
substantial wooden house will then be erected to be used as the 
headquarters. Later on, sledging parties will be sent out from 
this point to penetrate as far south as possible." 

On the motion of the Rev. J. Milne Curran, seconded by Mr. 
T. Steel, a very heart}^ vote of thanks was accorded to the Presi- 
dent for his ver}^ interesting Address. 

The Hon. Treasurer being detained by Parliamentary business, 
Mr. P. N. Tvebeck presented and read on his behalf a satisfactory 
financial statement, and also the Auditors' report. 

On the motion of Mr. Trebeck, seconded by Mr. R. Etheridge,* 
junr., the statement and report were adopted. 

The following gentlemen were elected 


President : 
Henry Deane, M.A., M.I.C.E. 

Yice-Presidents : 

James C. Cox, M.D., F.L.S. 

Professor W. A. Haswell, M.A., D.Sc. 

Professor T. W. E. David, B.A., F.G.S. 

Honorary Treasurer :' 
The Hon. James Norton, LL.D., M.L.C. 

162 president's address 

Council : 

John Brazier, RL.S. J. H. Maiden, F.L.S., F.C.S. 

Cecil W. Darley, C.E. C. J. Martin, M.B., B.Sc. 

Thomas Dixson, M.B., Ch.M. Perceval R. Pedley. 

J. R. Garland, M.A. P. N. Trebeck, J.P. 

Arnold U. Henn, RE.S. Thomas Whitelegge, P.R.M.S. 

A. H. S. Lucas, M.A., B.Sc. Professor J. T. Wilson, M.B., 


Auditors : 
Hugh Dixson, J.P. E. G. W. Palmer. 

Mr. Henry Deane having taken the Chair, returned thanks for 
his election. He announced that Part 4 of the Proceedings for 

1894 would be issued on the following day; also that the Council 
had decided to hold over to form Part 1 of the Proceedings for 

1895 three lengthy papers requiring illustrations, read at the 
Meeting in November ; and as these were sufficient to keep both 
printer and lithographer occupied for the next two months at 
'least, the Monthly Meeting had been given up on this occasion. 

The Meeting then closed. 


WEDNESDAY, APRIL 24ih, 1895. 

The President, Mr. Henry Deane, M. A., M.I.C.E., in the Chair, 


(Received since the Meeting in November, 1^9 J/..) 

Pharmaceutical Journal of Australasia. Vol. vii. (1894), Nos. 
11-12; Vol. viii. (1895), iSTos. 1-3. From the Editor. 

Perak Government Gazette. Vol. vii. (1894), Nos. 25-31 and 
Index; Vol. viii. (1895), Nos. 1-6. From the Government Secre- 

Zoologischer Anzeiger. xvii. Jahrg. (1894), Nos. 459-464 and 
Index; xviii. Jahrg. (1895), Nos. 465-470. From the Editor. 

Royal Microscopical Society — Journal, 1894, Parts 5-6; 1895, 
Part 1. From the Society. 

Madras Government Museum^ — Bulletin, No. 2 — "Notes on 
Tours along the Malabar Coast (1894)." From the Sujjerintendent. 

Societe d' Horticulture du Doubs, Besancon — Bulletin. n.s. 
Nos. 46-50 (Oct., 1894-Feb., 1895). From the Society. 

Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom — 
Journal. New Series. Vol. iii. Nos. 3-4 (1894). From the 

Smithsonian Institution — Proceedings of the U.S. National 
Museum. Vol. xvi. (1893). From the Museum. 


Smithsonian Institution — Annual Report of the Board of 
Regents for the year ending June 30th, 1892. Froin the 

American Naturalist. Yol. xxviii. (1894), Nos. 335-336; Vol. 
xxix. (1895), Nos. 337-339. From the Editors. 

American Geographical Society — Bulletin. - Vol. xxvi, No. 3; 
No. 4, Part 1 (1894). From the Society. 

American Museum of Natural History — Bulletin. Vol. vi. 
(1894), Sheets 18-24 (pp. 273-368), and Index; Vol. vii. (1895\ 
Sheets 1-2 (pp. 1-32). From the Museum. 

Hamilton Association — Journal and Proceedings for Session 
1893-94. No. x. From the Association. 


Natural Science Association of Staten Island — Proceedings. 
Vol. iv. Nos. 8, 10, 12-14 and Special No. 19 ^1894-95). From 
the Association. 

Victorian Naturalist. Vol. xi. Nos. 8-12 (Nov., 1894-Marcli, 
1895). From the Field Naturalists^ Club of Victoria. 

Indian Museum — Indian Museum Notes. Vol. ii, Nos. 5-7; 
Vol. iii. Nos. 1-3 (1891-94): Monograph of the Asiatic Chiroptera. 
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Royal Society of London — Proceedings. Vol. Iv. No, 335; 
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New South Wales during 1893. From H. C. Eussell, B.A., 
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Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland — 
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By C. W. De Yis, M.A., Corresponding Member. 

Arses lorealis. 

Arses sp., with the lower surface entirely white in the male, 
ochreous in a band on the lower throat in the female, and with 
white lores in both sexes. 

Adult male. — Head, face and ear-coverts glossy black; lore 
white, with the bases of its feathers black; mantle, wings and 
rump dusky brown; feathers of the rump tipped with white; tail 
brownish-black; lesser wing-coverts and upper tail-coverts black; 
all beneath, cheeks and under wing-coverts, nuchal collar, feathers 
of lower mantle and scapulars white; thighs dusky-grey; bill 
black; tarsus and foot dusky horn-brown; orbital wattle blue. 
Length 147 mm., wing 79, tail 83, culmen 10-5, tarsus 20. 

Female. — Head, face, ear-coverts and lores as in the male, but 
with the black less glossy; mantle, upper wing-coverts and rump 
brown, the mantle darkened here and there b}^ the dusky centres 
of the feathers; nuchal collar white, its feathers barred or spotted 
with black near the tips, scapulars on both webs and the 
secondaries on the outer web edged with rufous; tail brownish 
black; beneath, cheeks and under wing-coverts white; feathers of 
of a l)and across the lower throat broadly tipped with pale buff. 
Bill paler than in the male. Leng;th 140 mm., Aving 77, tail 80, 
culmen 8 5, tarsus 19-5. 

Hab. — Cape York; coll. K. Broadbent, March; habits and 
haunts similar to those of A. kaiqyi, Gld. 



By J. J. Fletcher. 

In his well known Monograph (p. 153) Mr. Sedgwick remarks 
that Peripatus "was reported from Australia in 1869 by Saenger." 
It is generall}^ supposed also that this was the first intimation of 
an Australian Peripatus. As a matter of fact there is an earlier 
notice which has been lost sight of, Professor Leuckai't having 
reported it in 1862. 

The second species of tlie genus to be made known was P. 
brevis with 14 pairs of claw-bearing legs. One specimen was 
obtained on Table Mountain in 1829, from w^hich De Blainville 
described the species in 1837. During the stay of the "Novara" 
at the Cape, Frauenfeld discovered a second South African species 
of which he subsequently gave a short account in a paper entitled 
" Aufenthalt am Cap d. g. Hoffnung wiihrend der AVeltfahrt der 
k. k. osterreichischen Fregatte Novara.""^ This paper also has 
been overlooked, nor is it mentioned in the bibliographical lists of 
either Sclater {P.Z.S., 1887, ^. 133) or Sedgwick (Monograph, p. 
209). It was to his record of this paper that Prof. Leuckart 
appended his introductory notice of the Australian Peripatus. 

Frauenfeld says : " Der interessanteste Fund warein Peripatus 
unter Steinen . . . Wenn nicht in der neuesten Zeit irgendwo 
beschrieben, ist derselbe jedenfalls neu, da er in der Fusszahl, 17 
Paare, mit keiner der wenigen alterbekannten Arten iiberein- 
stimmt." Leuckart's short abstract runs as follows: " Frauenfeld 
beobachtete am Cap der guten Hoffnung eine neue Art des sonder- 
baren Gen. Peripatus mit 17 Paar Beinen. A. a. O. S. 88. (Ref. 

*Verh. der k.k. zoolog.-botan. Gesellsch. in Wien, Jahrg. 1S60, pp. 77-92. 


kann den bis jetzt bekannten Arten dieses Geschlechts gieichfalls 
eine neue Form aus Australien mit 16 Beinpaaren hinzufiigen).* 

It is to be noted that in mentioning the Cape species as " mit 
17 Paar Beinen,"t Leuckart was simply quoting Frauenfekl, who 
had seen the animal alive, had witnessed the copious discharge of 
tenacious slime, " aus dem abgestutzten Ende der beiden kurzen 
unten den Stirnfiihlern liegenden Mundfiihlern," and who, there- 
fore, excluded the oral papillae — as Moseley afterwards called them 
— when counting the legs. But in regard to the Australian 
Peripatus, it seems evident that Prof. Leuckart intentionally 
included the oral papillae among the 16 pairs, but without indi- 
cating the fact. For, some years later in noticing Button's paper 
he remarks of P. novce-zealandice that like P. leuckarti, Sang., it 
possesses "15 Beinpaare." Now Hutton had expressly said 
" fifteen pairs of ambulatory legs, and a pair of oral papillae." 
Allowing for this, however, there would still seem to have been 
some misapprehension on Prof. Leuckart 's part as to the exact 
number of claw-bearing legs possessed by his specimen — as the 
sequel will show. 

Subsequently Prof. Leuckart entrusted his specimen of the 
Australian Peripatus to H. Sanger, who embodied a description 
of it in a paper dealing in some detail with the anatomy of P. 
capensiii, contributed to the " Moskauer Naturforscherversamm- 
lung " in 1869. Unfortunately Sanger chose the Russian language 
as his medium of publication, and in consequence his paper for 
some twenty-five years has been practically buried. Indeed 
but for two brief references to it l^y Prof. Leuckart in the Archiv 
f. Naturgeschi elite, its existence even, as well as its contents, 
might very well have remained unknown to this day. The bulky 

*Ai-chiv f. Naturgescb. Jahrg. xxvii., 1862, ii Bd., p. 235. 
tFrauenfeld's specimens were afterwards dealt with by Grube, who 
described them as P. capeiiftis (" Reise der Novara"). He says there were 
three specimens, two with 17 pairs of claw-bearing legs, the third with IS 
pairs. He did not attach specific importance to the difference in the num- 
ber of legs, whence the " pedes uncinigeri utrinque 17 vel 18 verrucosi " of 
his description. 


quarto volume containing the paper bears the date 1870 on the 
title page, but 1871 on the paper cover. Leuckart's first mention 
of it was founded on a preliminary notice or abstract in the 
"ProtocoUen der Mosk. Naturforscherversamml." He says: 
"Verf. untersuchte zwei Arten, den P. capensis, Gr., und eine 
neue schon vor mehreren Jahren vom Ref. in diesen Berichten 
erwahnte neuhollandische Art, die A^om Yerf. als P. Leuckarti 
bezeichnet wird."* Acting on the hint given in this passage I 
looked through the earlier volumes of the Archiv seriatim until I 
found the introductory notice, to which reference has been made. 

On the publication of the ]3aper itself Leuckart added his oft- 
quoted second notice,! giving the brief resume of the characters 
of the species which has hitherto had to serve as the only avail- 
able guide to the contents thereof. Leuckart says : " Die neue 
Art, die aus Neu-Holland stammt, wird folgendermaassen 
beschrieben : Fiinfzehn Paar Fussstumel, von denen das letzte 
Paar die Geschlechtsoffnung zwischen sich nimmt. Auf der 
iTnterseite der Piisse drei Erhebungen, von denen die eine lang 
und bogenformig ist, wahrend die zwei andern kurz und gerade 
sind. Lange 21 mm., grosste Breite 3*05 mm." 

This, it will be seen presently, is substantially a translation of 
the short summary which Sanger added at the end of his des- 
cription, and from the description itself it is evident that the 15 
pairs were intended to include the oral papillae, though beyond 
the exceptional use of the suggestive term " Fussstumel " instead 
of Leuckart's more usual expressions " Beinpaaren " or " Paar 
Beinen," no intimation of this is given in the summary or the 
translation. When the context is not left out of account the 
summary is quite satisfactory; wholly detached there from it is 
not free from ambiguity. When Peripatus was rediscovered in 
Australia, and all the specimens forthcoming for some time were 
found to possess 15 pairs of walking legs, a wrong interpretation 
was put on the expression "15 Paar Fussstumel" of Leuckart's 

*Aich. f. N. XXXV. Jahrg. ii. Bd. 1869, p. 277. 
tic. xxxvii., ii. Bd., 1871, p. 407. 

•.[?' <. A 

BY J. J. FLETCHER. 1 75 

abstract. Forthwith naturalists took Sanger's name, unwittingly 
but unwarrantably^ fitted it out with new characters, and all the 
time thought they were strictly following the leader, or only legiti- 
mately supplementing his work. Fortunately nothing very much 
worse has resulted than some considerable confusion of nomen- 
clature, which has not however passed beyond the bounds of 

Sanger's paper has seemed in danger of permanent consignment 
to oblivion; all the more so, perhaps, under the delusion that of 
late years observers had supplemented what little was known of 
it with all that was necessary for the exact identification of the 
species. It happily occurred to Prof. Spencer when on a visit to 
England recently, that the satisfaction of knowing exactly what 
Sanger had said on the subject might possibly prove to be 
sufiicient compensation for the expenditure of the trouble necessary 
to get at it. He therefore took the matter earnestly in hand, and 
with the co-operation of Prof. Howes, Mr. H. M. Bernard, and a 
friend of the latter's, he at length became possessed of a trans- 
lation of that part of Sanger's paper descriptive of the Australian 
Peripatus. I have to thank Prof. Spencer not only for a copy of 
the translation, but also for his permission to make use of it. 
Before considering the translation, one or two other matters may 
be noticed. 

Some years before the re-discovery of Peripatus in Australia, 
the New Zealand species came to light. During the stay of 
H.M.S. ''Challenger" at Wellington in July, 1874, Mr. Travers 
brought specimens to Mr. Moseley, who says that he was unable to 
refer to special publications at the time, and he thought that it 
was- " already certainly named;" afterwards on his return to 
England press of work prevented his giving further attention to 
the matter. Very shortly after it came under Grube's notice, 
who refers to it in a paper read in 1875. I am unable to consult 
this paper * which is thus noticed by Leuckart : " Grube 

* Ber. der schles, Gesellsch. f. Cultur u.s.w. aus dem Jahre 1875. 
Naturwiss. Ber. S. 52. 


'4v J- 


lierichtet iiber zwei Peripatusarten, von denen die eine, aus Neu. 
Seeland, mit P. Leuckarti, Sang., stimmt, die andere aber unter 
der Bezeichnung P. peruanus neu beschrieben wird."* Captain 
Hutton says that he sent specimens to Dubhn, without any result. 
Finally in 1876, Hutton himself described the species as P. iiovct- 
zealandice. Now at this time Hutton evidently was unaware of 
any record of an Australian Peripatus; nor, under the circum- 
stances, is that at all surprising, seeing that he was at least as badly 
off for literature as Moseley during the " Challenger's " visit to 
Wellington. Of Hutton's paper Leuckart remarks : — " Hutton's 
Abhandlung ' On Peripatus novoi-zealandcB^ (Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. 
(4) xviii., Nov., 1876, pp. 361-369, PI. xvii.) macht uns mit einer 
Form bekannt, die 15 Beinpaare besitzt, wie der von Sanger 
(J.-B. 1870, S. 410) beshriebene P. Leuckarti., der unserm Yerf. 
freilich unbekannt geblieben ist, obwohl seine neue Art vielleicht 
damit zusammenfallt. Jedenfalls ist nicht der P. novce-zealandio' , 
sondern der P. Leuckarti die erste Art des Gen. Peripati(.s, die aus 
Australien kommt."t 

When it is borne in mind that at this time only a single speci- 
men of the Australian Peripatus was known, and that a female t 
whose jaw blades were not examined, Sanger not being at libert}^ 
to dissect the unique example at his disposal; also that, even in 
the light of up-to-date knowledge the most striking differences 
between the allied Australian and New Zealand species — /'. 
insignis, Dendy, being left out of consideration for the present — 
are furnished by the outer jaw blades, and the secondar}^ sexual 
characters of the males, it would be interesting to know more 
definitely what it was that suggested the agreement between or 
possible identity of the two species. Perhaps Grube's paper would 
settle this point. Was it that too little was known for accurate 

* Arch. f. Naturgesch. Jahrg. xliii., 1887, ii. Bd. p. 510. 
iL.c. p. 509. 
* The sex of the type specimen is not mentioned in the description; 
but in JSanger's fig. 81 the genital aperture is lettered vL, just as in his fig. 
of an undoubted female of P. rapennis. 


compariso]i; or was it that the authors mentioned thought that in 
each case the number of claw-bearing legs was the same; or that 
they knew that the numbers were not identical but regarded the 
difference as not of specific importance 1 Moseley's remark penned 
in 1879, "In the Australian and New Zealand species the number 
(jf feet seems fixed " — would, under the circumstances mentioned, 
seem without force if the last condition held. 

On the re-discovery of the Australian Peripatus, first in 
Queensland (in 1886)- not improbably first in Tasmania, though 
no record of it was made at the time — then in Victoria (in 1888), 
and in the same year in New South AVales, and all the specimens 
met w^ith for several years were found to have 15 pairs of walking 
legs, it was imagined that these were correctly identified as P. 
leuckarti in supposed agreement with the " funfzehn Paar Fuss- 
stumel " of Leuckart's abstract of Sanger's paper. In 1890 Dr. 
Dendy met with a Victorian Peripatus, with 14 pairs of walking 
legs, and without an accessory tooth at the base of the fang of 
the outer jaw Ijlades; and this he quite justifiably considered to 
be sufficienth' distinct to be regarded as a second Australian 
species, which he accordingly described as I\ insigrds. In 189:^ 
Prof. Spencer obtained similar examples in Tasmania. 

We may now turn to 

^'"Sanger's original Diagnosis of Peripatus Leuckartii.^'' 

" Found in New Holland, north-west from Sydney. Fifteen 
pairs of legs, one pair without claws, fourteen with. This 
character also found in P. brevis, described by Blanehard. 21 mm. 
long. Sexual opening between the last pair of appendages, herein 
flitfering from P. Edivardsii and P. capeiisis. Colour very nearly 
black dorsally, greyish ventrally. Papilhe distributed dorsally 
and ventrally : those on the ventral surface, however, are longer 
and stand outwards laterally. Between each pair of appendages is a 
light oval spot without papillae; this spot corresponds with the 
dark pits in P. capensis, under which occur the glands already 
described. The papilla?, as in F. caj^ensis, are either small and 
black or large and red, but there are more black than red. Along 


the back runs a longitudinal median line, which consists only of 
black j^apilla^ but this line is comparatively faint. The papillae 
along the back are arranged in fairly accurate trans^-erse rows, 
and each row is separated from the next by a furrow. The skin 
between the papillae is dark grey. The papillae on the legs are 
fairly wide apart. The legs have "soles," which, as in F*. Cfipensisy 
consist of three segments, but the shape of these segments is 
very different from those of P. capensis. The first proximally is 
black and strongly curved and considerably narrower than the 
following. The second and third segments are reddish yellow and 
much shorter but broader than the first. The claw-bearing joint 
which follows these segments, is distinguished by its four-cornered 
appearance, due to a pair of papillae at its outer corners, one on 
each side {P. caj)ensis has three papillae). The claws are smaller 
than those of P. capensis. The structure of the mouth is the same 
as that in other genera [? species] only the soft parts surrounding 
the mouth and sexual organs are white and not yellowish, but 
this may be due to the action of alcohol. In addition to this des- 
cription of the outer appearance of the animal, I give the more 
important dimensions of the described specimen. Body length 
21 mm.; greatest breadth 3*03 mm.; length of antennae from 1-6 
to 1 -73; width of antennae at base 0-389; in the middle of antennae 
0-26; length of the oral aperture, including the soft parts 
surrounding it, 0*952; length of the legs from the top 2-16; width 
at base 0-86, but this varies; length of claw-bearing joint 0*26; 
diameter of sexual opening with soft parts surrounding it 0.65; 
diameter of eye 0-11; diameter of papillo3 from 0-04 to 08; 
length of claw 0-15; width of same at base 0-105." 

" This specimen is in the possession of Professor Leuckart after 
whom I have named it by permission. A short diagnosis may be 
given as follows : fifteen pairs of legs; sexual organs between last 
pair; the " sole " consists of three segments, one long and curved, 
and two short and straight. New Holland, Australia." 

By way of comment on the above it may be remarked : — 
(1) Though neither the exact habitat, nor the name of the 
collector has yet transpired, " North-west from Sydney " is some- 


what less unsatisfactory than New Holland. I should take it to 
mean that the type specimen was found within the limits of New 
South Wales, somewhere between Sj^dney and Cassilis — at which 
place Mr. Olliff obtained the otherwise first recorded specimen 
from this colony — or thereabouts, but not much further to the 
west or north-west of the latter. It is hardly probable that over 
thirty j^ears ago Peripatus was found in the then newly separated 
colony of Queensland at any spot in a direction N.W. from 
Sydney, say to the north of Bourke. Not only would such a 
locality then have been ver}^ much less easy of access to a 
zoological collector than it is now; but it would, I should think, 
be one with a climate altogether too dry for Peripatus. This 
being so, it is a curious fact — not however without a parallel, — 
that so long ago somebody should have casualty found somewhere 
in this colony a single specimen of Peripatus with 14 pairs of 
walking legs, but that similar specimens, whether from New South 
Wales or Queensland, notwithstanding much collecting, should 
still be desiderata. Sedgwick has probably had to do with more 
individual specimens of Peripatus than all other naturalists 
put together ; and yet among the specimens — " more than a 
thousand from the Cape Peninsula" — which came under his 
notice, F. brevw, de Blainv., was conspicuously absent, and in the 
flesh was unknown to him at the time the Monograph was written. 
In the Macleay Museum is a specimen of a Peripatus with 15 
pairs of walking legs, labelled Tasmania, to which Mr. Masters 
directed my attention in 1890 (P.L.S. N.S.W., 2nd Ser., Vol. v., 
p. 469). At that time Mr. Masters considered that it had been 
at least ten years in the collection, and he still thinks that the 
correctness of the reputed locality is not open to question. The 
label is in his own writing, but he is unable to recall the exact 
circumstances under which the specimen came to hand. Recentlv 
Prof. Baldwin Spencer was successful in finding Peripatus in 
Tasmania, but some fifteen specimens ol)tained had 14 pairs of 
claw-bearing legs apiece. 

(2) It was not Prof. Leuckart's intention to furnish a technical 
description of his specimen. On the other hand Sanger's descrijD- 
tion was about as full as it could be expected to be under the 


circumstances; the situation of the genital aperture, the number 
of the spinous pads (soles), and the arrangement of the 
primary papilla" on the claw-bearing joints of the legs, all being 
duly noted. Moreover, he gives six figures of various parts of the 
specimen. His examination of it was therefore of a more or less 
minute character, and it is hardly possible that he should have 
incorrectly counted the number of the walking legs. 
(3) The only reference to the description of P, brevis, de Blainville, 
[not Blanchard] given by Sclater and Sedgwick — besides de 
Blainville, " Dictionnaire des Sciences Naturelles," Supplement, 
T. i., p. 237, Paris, 1840, which I am unable to consult — is the 
footnote to Gervais' paper " Etudes pour servir a I'histoire 
naturelle des Myriapodes " in the Ann. Sc. Nat. (2), vii., p. 38, 

1837. This, however, is but the abbreviated description, quoted 
by Sedgwick (Monograph, p. 168), which mentions " pourvu de 
quatorze j^aires de pattes," but does not disclose what view de 
Blainville took of the oral papilla-, nor exactl}^ what the fourteen 
pairs were to be understood as comprehending. In Gervais' paper 
" Sur le Genre Perij)ate"'^ is incorporated a detailed description 

* Ann. Francaises et Etrangeres d' Anat. et de Physiol. T. ii, p. 309, 

1838. Abstract in Revue Zoologique, par la Soc. Cuvierienne, Ann(^e, 
1838, pp. 264-265. 

In the same paper (pp. 314 and 310) Gervais says " celui qu' a vu M. 
Macleay strait de Cuba," having previously stated " et M. Macleay, qui en 
parle d' une maniere transitoire dans un note publie depuis plusieurs ann^es, 
dit aussi qu' ils ont des rapports avec les vers et en nieme temps avec les 
Myriapodes (Zoological Journal)." Sedgwick {I.e. p. 197) remarks, "Blan- 
chard refers to a Peripatus found in Cuba by Mr. Macleay. He regards 
it as belonging to the species juliformU. I have been unable to find any 
account of this Cuban species." 

The only reference to Peripatus by W. S. Macleay I can find in the 
Zoological Journal is contained in a postscript to a letter written from 
Havanna to Mr. Vigors (Vol. iv. p. 278). It takes exception to Guikling's 
view of Peripatus as a mollusc, suggests other affinities, and adds "There is 
a specimen in my father's collection " [at that time in Australia]. But it 
seems to me to offer no ground for associating the record of a Cuban species 
with W. S. Macleay's name. 


jf P. hrevis communicated by de Blainville, and given in his own 
words. From this it appears that the " quatorze paires de pattes" 
has reference only to claw-bearing legs. The oral pajDillte he thus 
describes — " Quant aux appendices : la tete est pourvue d'une 
paire de tentacules simples. . . . On remarque a la partie externe 
de leur base, et par consequent de chaque cote, un stemmate ou un 
jDoint pseudo-oculaire forme par un petit disque corde, un peu 
convexeet simple." Upon this Gervais remarks: "M. Wiegmann 
considere comme des pattes atrophiees les deux organes que MM. 
Guilding, de Blainville, Audouin et Edwards signalent comme 
des yeux." 

(4) There is nothing remarkable about the colour of the sjDeci- 
men. I have seen specimens (with 15 pairs of legs), from Queens- 
land and New South Wales, which might be descril^ed in very 
similar or identical terms. 

(5) I do not understand the statement that " the claw-bearing 
joint which follows these Segments [spinous pads], is distinguished 
by its 4-cornered appearance due to a pair of papillce at its outer 
corners, one on each side (P. capensis has three)." The statement 
as to P. capensis is borne out by Sanger's figures; and both are in 
harmony with the quite independent observations and figures of 
Sedgwick, who says that there are two primary papillae on the 
front or anterior side of the distal end of the foot, close to the 
socket in which the claws are placed, and one on the posterior 
side. In the Australian and New Zealand species the distal end 
of the foot also has three primary papillae, but they are differently 
arranged, one being anterior, one posterior, and one median and 
dorsal. At least two of his figures (figs. 32, 33 and perhaps 34) 
show that Sanger correctly recognised this character in the Aus- 
tralian Peripatus. His fig. 35 is certainly very satisfactorily 
4-cornered, three of the corners being furnished by the three 
papillse in question, while the fourth is apjDarently an equally 
conspicuous similar primary papilla which is median and ventral; 
but with which the Australian Peripatus has not been credited 
by any other observer. Even so, the statement " a pair of papillae 
at its outer corners, one on each side," hardly seems to express 


this arrangement very intelligibly. What I find is a pair of 
elevations at the distal end of the ventral aspect, one on each 
side of the median line, and each of them without about two 
spines; they are comparable with the similarly situated but more 
extensive groups of "inconspicuous pale elevations, bearing 
spines" in P. capensis referred to Ijy Sedgwick {I. c. p. 163). 
Sanger, too, noticed them in that species, but in his fig. 5 they are 
represented like a jDair of primary papilljs, each bearing one spine. 

Since then the type of P. leuckarti, Sang., has 14 jDairs of 
walking legs, a question which naturally offers itself for considera- 
tion is— hov/ ought the common, more widely distributed Austra- 
lian Peripatus with 1 5 pairs of walking legs to be designated ? 
Some months ago I had the opportunity of discussing the question 
with Dr. Dendy in the light of Prof. Spencer's translation. As 
the variation in the number of claw-bearing legs, as far as was 
then known, appeared to be correlated with a variation in the 
character of the outer jaw blades it seemed not unreasonable to 
regard the Peripatus with 15 pairs of walking legs as distinct 
from P. leuckarti, Sang., and entitled to a new name; Dr. Dendy 
even considering himself justified in regarding the larger Victorian 
Peripatus as sufficiently distinct from that of New South Wales 
to merit independent specific rank. And we intended to act 

Quite unexpectedly, only last week, I received from Mr. A. M. 
Lea, of West Australia, a small consignment of specimens from 
that colony, the examination of which, as it seems to me, throws 
important light on the question propounded above, and has com- 
pelled me to modify my views. Each of five specimens has 15 
pairs of walking legs, and the jaw-blades removed from one of 
them are without an accessory tooth at the base of the fang of 
the outer blade. Under the old regime it would have seemed to 
be a moot point whether they should be called P. insignis, Dendy, 
var. with 15 pairs of legs, or P. leuckarti, Sanger, var. with- 
out an accessory tooth; indeed in the absence of males they might 
almost have been referred to P. novce-zealmidice, Hutton. If the 


eastern form is to be regarded as a species distinct from what we 
must now consider to be P. huckarti, Sang., then the western form 
also, as it seems to me, ought to be so regarded. I would prefer 
to consider the latter an intermediate form, as at present Austra- 
lia would, I think, be over-supplied with- as many as four species. 
Seeing that many more specimens have had their legs counted, 
than have had the jaw blades examined, and that in two examples 
from New South Wales, in one or both outer blades there is more 
than one accessory tooth, — in one case three on the jaw blade 
of one side; in another the accessory tooth, longer and blunter 
than usual, is followed b}^ several serrations; in both examples 
the peculiarities are reproduced in the reserve teeth — it seems 
probable that unlooked for variation, may be found. Further, 
Dr. Dendy has recently recognised as a var. of P. noiice-zealandiw 
a New Zealand Peripatus with 16 pairs of walking legs"^; so that 
the idea that in this species the number of feet is " fixed," must 
noAv be given up. Therefore the most satisfactory arrangement, 
in ni}^ opinion, w^ould be to consider all the known Australian 
specimens of Peripatus as referable to one comprehensive species 
with four varieties as follows : — 

Peripatus leuckarti, Sang. 

With 14 or with 15 pairs of claw-bearing ambulatory legs. 
Outer jaw-blades without or with an accessory tooth, occasionally 
more, at the base of the main tooth. Males smaller than the 
females; with a pair of (accessory gland) pores close together, 
situated between the genital papilla and the anus; with a white 
or sometimes bluish tubercle — on which opens the crural gland— 
on each leg of the first pair only, or of the last pair only, or of all 
or only some of the pairs with the exception of the first, or of the 
first five. 

Colour varying from dark blue or almost so, so dark sometimes 
as to appear blackish, with a still darker median dorsal line in 
the centre of which lies a fine unpigmented groove; to alternate 

* Ann. Mag. N. H. (6) Vol. xiv., Dee. 189i, p. 401. 


longitudinal stripes of blue and orange or their equivalents — three 
of the former and four of the latter; or red with two of the dark 
stripes represented only by blackish blotches and discontinuous 
irregular patches. With an interesting series of more or less 
gradational colour-varieties arising from some modification of the 
following pattern : the dorsal surface is a mosaic of three longi- 
tudinal series of roughly hexagonal or lozenge-shaped areas 
outlined in dark upon a lighter background, bordered on each side 
b}'- a light longitudinal stripe immediately above the insertion of 
the legs; the lozenges of the median series are confluent, the 
boundaries between them having disappeared, they correspond 
with the legs, and down the middle of the series dividing it 
symmetrically is a dark — blue, black, or rarely red — line often 
presenting as it were a knot-like enlargement in the middle of 
each lozenge, the dark line having down the centre of it a fine 
unpigmented sometimes interrupted groove. From the relative 
proportions of l^lue and orange or their equivalents present, from 
the partial or more or less complete disappearance of the dark 
reticulate pattern, or from the subdivision of the median series of 
lozenges into two sets of four-sided or diamond-shaped areas result 
some very interesting and, without a series for examination, some- 
times very puzzling combinations. The legs sometimes aj^pear as 
if inserted on a dark longitudinal stripe. The colour of the 
ventral surface is paler, but not less varied than that of the dorsal 
surface; generally speaking, it presents shades of the predominant 
tints of the dorsal surface. A discontinuous median series of 
small pale areas devoid of papillae down the middle of it (ventral 
organs), one or sometimes two to each pair of legs. 

As in P. novoi-zealayidice, the generative opening is between 
the legs of the last pair; the claw-bearing legs have three spinous 
pads; and a primary papilla projects from the median dorsal 
portion of the foot. 

Hah. — In suitable situations in the table-land and coastal 
regions of Queensland and New South Wales, widely distributed 
but not abundant; Victoria; Tasmania; and West Australia. 


1. P. LEUCKARTI, Siing,, var. typiea 

P. leuckarti, .Sang., non auct.: P. in^ir/nis, Dendy, Vict. Kat. 
Vol. vi. No. 12, April, 1890, p. 173; Spencer, Proc. Roy. Soc. 
Vict. 1894, p. 31. 

With 14 pairs of claw-bearing legs; outer jaw blades without 
an accessory tooth. 

Hab. — New South Wales, Victoria, Tasmania. 

The re-discovery of this variety in New South Wales is a matter 
to be desired, as the jaw characters of the tj^pe are unknown. I 
have seen only Tasmanian specimens — six (three of each sex) 
kindly lent me by Prof. Spencer. Two of them are dark without 
any definite pattern; the others have more orange red and show a 
dark median line with nodosities, not always opposite the legs, and 
a pattern of secondary diamonds, much like some N.S.W. speci- 
mens of var. orieiitaJis. The males are remarkable b}^ the absence 
of white tubercles from the legs of the first five pairs; they are 
present on all or nearly all the others. 

2. P. LEUCKARTI, Siing., var. occidentalis, var. nov. 

With 15 pairs of walking legs; outer jaw-blades without an 
accessory tooth. 

Hah. — Bridgetown, inland from Perth, W.A; (Mr. A. M. Lea). 

The specimens, which were put straight into spirit, are small 
(the largest but slightly exceeding 15 mm.) even allowing for the 
contraction due to the method of preservation. There is nothing 
specially remarkable about the coloration, which is mainly blue 
with a smaller amount of orange. The}^ would pass muster in 
this respect very well among a collection of similarly preserved 
eastern specimens. 

The males have white papillae on-most of the legs, but not on 
those of the first pair. One of the females obtained and jDreserved 
on March 30th last contained about ten advanced embryos varying 
slightly in age, of which the proximal one has the body more 
pigmented than is usually the case with the newl}' born young of 
the eastern form. As in the latter, the embryos are contained 


within a thin hyaline membranous shell. The breeding season, at 
any rate as to its termination, would seem to be in agreement in 
the two cases. 

Several living example* forwarded at the same time, unfortu- 
nately in the same enclosure as the spirit specimens, miserably 
perished on the journe}^ 

3. P. LEUCKARTI, Siing., var. orientalis. 

F. leuckarti, Sang., of authors, but not of Sanger; nor the 
larger Victorian Peripatus of Dendy. 

With 15 pairs of walking legs; outer jaw-blades with one 
accessory tooth or with several. Length of largest specimens 
extended after drowning — 9. 50 mm.; ^. 29 mm. (the antennae 
being excluded). 

J I ah. — [Queensland*]; New South Wales (not yet found west 
of the Dividing Range). 

I now possess a fine series of specimens from this Colony, but it 
does not include a single specimen normally with 1 4 pairs of claw- 
bearing legs. Of one specimen the legs of the fourteenth pair are 
without claws, while the fifteenth jmir is represented by a pair of 
small white symmetrical stumps, between which, however, the 
generative aperture is placed : I should suppose that this specimen 
was recovering from some injury to the hinder end of the body. 
I have several times seen a specimen with one leg on one side 

My series presents a very remarkable variety of colour and 
pattern. The specimens might very well be sorted out into 
something like ten distinguishable, but more or less gradational, 
lots. If the whole of the median series — with the exception, of 
course, of the very dark median line — be filled in with red, the 
mosaic of lozenges then becomes very distinct, as in that case the 

* My remarks must be understood as applying more particularly to the 
Peripatus of New South Wales, as I have had the opportunity of examining 
only a few Queensland specimens ( S 's), and no observations on the breeding 
habits of the Queensland Peripatus are known to me. 


stripes above the legs will be almost entirely red, contrasting well 
with the intervening series. Interesting variations of this pattern 
arise by the partial filling in of the lozenges of the median series; 
the red ma}'- be aggregated in a little patch on each side of the 
nodose enlargement on the median dark line, or it may just fill 
in the lateral apices of each lozenge. The most complicated pattern 
arising from a secondary arrangement of (four-sided) diamonds 
may be described as follows : Two lines intersecting in each 
nodose enlargement of the median dark line cut off from a lozenge 
a pair of small diamonds, one on each side of the median line 
corresponding with the legs; and an anterior and posterior portion 
which, with the posterior portion of the lozenge preceding, and 
the anterior of the succeeding one, make up two of a single 
median interrupted series of larger diamonds, each of which 
corresponds with the interval between the legs^ : the former are 
sometimes filled in with red; the latter jDartially. Sometimes 
the dark boundaries disappear, leaving only the patches of red. 
The light longitudinal stripe above the insertion of the legs is 
usually very distinct, but sometimes there are only indications of 
it, or it is a discontinuous series of orange or red patches above 
the intervals between the successive legs of each side. Its light 
tint may be due to the presence of light blue both in the ground 
colour, and on the primary papillae with the exception of their 

I have seen onl}^ a very small series of the larger Victorian 
Peripatus, but as far as it goes the following slight differences 
attract my notice. The median dark longitudinal line is either 
wanting or is not so marked a feature as in our variety; and the 
unpigmented median groove is rather more conspicuous. The 
line of demarcation between the median and each lateral series of 
the mosaic is better defined; that between the lateral series and 
the longitudinal stripe is not, I think, quite so definite. The 
longitudinal stripe above the legs, except in specimens with a 
very large amount of red, is not so clearly indicated as is usually 

* That is, the interval between two consecutive legs of the same side. 


the case in ours. These differences, however, are not more 
striking than those which may be presented by a nmnber of 
individual specimens from New South Wales found in the same 

Such slight local variations, as well as in the secondary sexual 
characters of the males, are not uncommon. I have had a good 
deal of experience now with the Peripatus of New Soutli Wales, 
but I never yet met with longitudinally striped examples such as 
Mr. Helms got at Mt. Kosciusco, and Mr. Lea on the northern 
Tableland. On the other hand, some of my own examples are 
unlike any I have seen among those collected by others in 
localities which I have not myself visited. From one district my 
specimens are characterised by a red tail. Illawarra specimens 
commonly have a well-marked nodose median dark line, each 
nodosity standing in a rather triangular patch .of red, but with 
little or no indication of a lozenge pattern; and in these specimens 
the median ventral series of white patches (ventral organs) are 
very inconspicuous indeed. It was such specimens as these that 
iirst came under my notice; and the relation of their colour- 
pattern to the diamond pattern of the Victorian Peripatus 
described by Dr. Dendy failed to suggest itself. I have now 
examples from other localities in New South Wales which show 
the chequer pattern as characteristically as Victorian examjDles. 

The males usually have papilhe on all or most of the legs after 
the first pair, but among specimens from one district I find males 
with papillae on the legs of the first pair only to predominate, 
though in two other examples there is also an additional papilla 
on one leg of the second pair. In the first case crural glands 
appear to be absent from the legs of the first pair; and 
of the remainder when papilhie are wanting on some of the 
legs crural pores may still be recognisable. In the second 
case crural glands seem to be present only in the legs of 
the first pair — rarely an additional one in one leg of the 
second pair. I have seen at least thirty males with papillae 
on the legs of the first pair only. Two of these Mr. J. P. Hill, 


Demonstrator of Biology, Sydney University, ver}^ kindly section- 
ised for me. Tlie legs did not all cut in an equally satisfactory 
manner; but allowing for this, beyond a large pair of crural 
glands in the two papilla-bearing legs, I can see no indication of 
their presence in the others. I have not seen any specimen with 
papillcie on the legs of the last pair only. When papillae are 
present on the legs of the last pair they are situated nearer the 
base of the leg than in the case of the others. This, however, is 
because the legs of the fifteenth pair are shorter, and consequently 
have fewer transverse papilla-bearing ridges. The papillae still 
occupy the normal portion — namely, on about the fifth papilla- 
bearing ridge above the innermost spinous pad. 

In a previous paper (P.L.S.N.S.W. 2nd Ser. v. p. 484) I referred 
to the presence in some females of longitudinal slit-like depressions 
or pores situated a little below the nephridiopores, and suggestive 
of rudiments or relics of crural glands. They are not, however, 
the representatives of the crural glands of the males, for I now 
have specimens of the latter, both with numerous crural papilliTe and 
with only one pair which show the same character. In the males 
they are situated between the nephridiopore and the papilla when 
present, or the position it would occupy if present. Occasionally, 
even in the females, a little white coagulated secretion is left in 
the aperture. Unless these represent a second series of crural 
glands which were possessed by both sexes, but are now becoming 
more or less aborted, I do not at present know what they can be. 

The ova are large, and have a considerable amount of yolk. 
As in P. capensis, the egg-shell is a thin transparent membrane; 
not a thick chitinous covering as in P. novcE-zealandicE, and in the 
larger Victorian Peripatus. 

There is some difference in detail in respect of the breeding 
habits of the New Zealand Peripatus and that of New South 
Wales as known to me; and in neither case is it so easy, as in 
that of P. capensis, to fix definitely the length of the period of 
gestation, or the exact limits of the breeding season; and, I should 
imagine, for a similar reason. 


Of P. capensis, Sedgwick says : " The period of gestation is 
thirteen months; that is to say, the ova pass into the oviducts 
about one month before the young of the preceding year are 

born The young are born in April and May " 

(Monograph, p. 165). 

Of F. 7iovce-zeala7idice, Captain Hutton says that it appears to 
breed all the year round; and that he found the uterus crowded 
with embryos in September and November. The views of Mr. 
Sedgwick and Miss Sheldon are summed up by the latter as 
follows : — " Probably the ova pass from the ovary into the uterus 
in December, and the young are born in July, the development 
thus occupying a period of about eight months. This, though 
apparently usually the case, cannot be universal, since in each lot 
there were one or two females which contained embryos ready for 
birth, and also the embryos in one female vary somewhat in age." 

Sclater, therefore, hardly satisfactorily states the case when he 
says of both the South African and the New Zealand Peripatus 
that " the development of the embryos, though going on all the 
year round, commences at one particular season, so that all the 
embryos found in the uterus of the female are approximately of 
one age." (Studies from the Morph. Lab. Cambridge, Vol. iv. p. 
215, 1889.) 

Of the Neotropical species, Sedgwick remarks : — " Embryos 
of very different ages in same uterus, and births probably taking 
place all the year round"; and of P. Edwardsii — "The uterus 
contains embryos in all stages of development, and the young, 
which are fully developed at birth, are presumably born at 
different times of the year." (Monograph, pp. 184 and 190.) 

The Australian Peripatus with which I am familiar seems in 
these matters to occupy an intermediate position between P. 
capensis and the Neotropical species. If one cannot say of it 
that it breeds all the year round, or that the uterus contains 
embryos in all stages of development, still less can one definitely 
particularise any single month as par excellence the breeding 
season; or assert that embryos of approximately one age only are 
to be found in pregnant specimens. And, so far as I can judge, 


I should think the New Zealand Peripatus is not widely different 
in this respect from ours. 

I have examined females of the common Peripatus of New 
Wales at intervals during the greater part of the year. There 
are still a few^ important blanks in my series when certain details 
are wanted, which I hope soon to be able to fill. I shall, there- 
fore, postpone a full consideration. But I have seen enough to 
show the general trend of matters. 

Of the first lot of specimens I ever had, one specimen was kept 
from June 16th to the last week in October : a few days before 
her death she produced four young ones. In July an embryo 
which had about half completed its development was removed 
from another female of the same batch, and preserved by 
Professor Haswell. I still have this specimen. 

In 1892 I had specimens under observation from April until 
the following March; the first 3^oung one was noted on November 

In 1893 I got a fine series in the last week of July. A single 
unusually early young one was noticed on August 15th. A few 
others were noticed on September 22nd. By November the 
females were breeding freely, sixty young ones being noted on 
November 22nd. From 15th-18th of August seventeen females 
of this batch in process of being drowned extruded 83 young 
embryos (from 1-14 each) : these vary slightly in age, and com- 
prise specimens at about the same stage, and also at a little more 
advanced stage, than the New Zealand embryo figured by Miss 
Sheldon (Studies, Yol. iv. PL xxvi. figs. 25-26) ; that is to say, 
the longitudinal ridge along each side of the body from which the 
appendages take their origin, shows rudiments of from about half 
a dozen pairs to nearly the full number. During the following 
week three females were opened; they contained 23, 30 and 37 
very similar stages, together with j^ounger ones and a few ova. 
In the first week in October five females of the same lot when 
being drowned extruded eight embryos; these are much more 
advanced than those extruded six weeks earlier, the full number 
of claw-l)earing legs being present. The following week two 


females were opened; each of these contained about 39 very similar 
old embryos, a few of the proximal ones having the tentacles 
noticeably pigmented. 

Two lots obtained early in January at the same locality in 
different years began to produce young towards the end of the 
month, young being especially numerous during FelDruary. 

On April 2nd, 1893, I obtained a small batch of specimens; 
within the next fortnight six young ones were observed. 

I have seen newly-born young in every month from August 
(only one sj^ecimen) to the early part of May. I have never seen 
them during the latter part of May, or in June and July, and in 
August only one surprisingly early specimen; and I should be 
surprised to find our Peripatus breeding during the winter 
months. Thus, while it will be seen that according to my experi- 
ence, one cannot say of our common New South Wales that it 
breeds all the year round, yet it certainly does during the greater 
part — about three-fourths — of the year. The majority of the 
young I should say were born during a period of six months — 
say from October to March; but the progeny of a few early 
breeders and a few late breeders add another three months. But 
if it cannot be said to breed quite all the year round, still less can 
any particular month by itself be selected as the breeding season. 
And as to the contents of the uterus, I do not find in the same 
female embryos in all stages of development, nor yet embryos 
which are all of the same age. 

The earliest date at which I have happened to examine females 
containing ova which had recently passed into the uterus 
is about the middle of April; the latest about the middle of 
October. In both cases, as well as in a female opened in the first 
week in August, there were also enlarging ovarian ova in various 
stages. Further observations will, I have no doubt, slightly 
extend this period during which at intervals ova mature and pass 
into the oviducts. From about the middle of March, or in 
exceptionally early cases towards the end of February or 
beginning of March, to about the middle of November or 


exceptionally a little later, will very probaV)ly prove to be not very 
wide of the mark. 

If the unusually ear]}' August young one referred to above was 
developed from an ovum which passed into the oviduct about 
the middle of Februar}- ; the October young from April ova ; 
and the young born towards the end of April or early in May 
from ova which left the ovaries in October or ISTovember preceding 
— as may very well have been the case^then the period of 
gestation is about six months; not less, probably a little more; 
l)ut from 6-7 months will, I believe, prove to be a ver}^ close 
approximation to the truth. 

The largest number of New Zealand Peripatus embryos met 
with by Captain Hutton was 26 (18 + 8); by Mr. Sedgwick or 
Miss Sheldon 18 (12 + 6). The largest number I have found in 
our Peripatus is 53, in a female opened on November 21st. They 
form a lineh^ gradational series of old embryos — the youngest 
with claw-bearing legs, the proximal half dozen or so with pio-- 
mented tentacles. Females with from 30-40 embryos or ova are 
not uncommon in certain months.* Whether the contents of the 
uteri show any ver}^ marked differences in the stages of de^ elop- 
ment reached depends a good deal on circumstances. About the 
time when the breeding season usually ends one may find females 
containing a few old embryos not differing very noticeably, or 
nothing, or a few old embryos together with a few ova which have 
recently passed into the uteri, or only some of the latter. Still 
later in the season one may find an increased number of young 
embryos together with fresh ova. But my experience is that if 
the contained series is a large one, as a rule it presents no very 
abrupt ])reaks, but one gets a finely graduated series of old or of 

* On the other hand, when the supply of material has been short, and 
small and therefore young specimens — possibly even commencing to breed 
for the first time— have had to be utilised, the numbers have been very 
small compared with what might be expected to occur in large examples 
opened at the same time of year. In two such cases the numbers were only 
two and one respectively. 


young stages varying slightly in age. Also that in differenc 
females one may find at different times of the year separated by 
an interval of as much as six months embryos at the same stage 
of development. 

On several occasions I have found a few embryos which had 
been prematurely extruded by females living in captivity. 

[4. The Victorian Peripatus to be dealt with by 
Dr. Dendy. 

Hah. — Victoria and Tasmania (probably — for a specimen in the 
Macleay Museum)]. 



By Arthur Dendy, D.Sc, Professor of Biology in the 
Canterbury College, University of New Zealand. 

In my presidential address to the Biological Section of the 
Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science, at the 
meeting recently held in Brisbane, I pointed out certain facts 
which had lately come to light with regard to the literature of 
the Australian species of Peripatvs, and which might render 
necessary certain alterations in the nomenclature. At the same 
time I still refrained from attaching a specific name to the 
oviparous Victorian species, pending further evidence. After my 
address was w^ritten I had the opportunity of talking over the 
matter with Mr. J. J. Fletcher in Sydney, and found that he had 
independently arrived at conclusions very similar to those con- 
tained in my manuscript. Mr. Fletcher suggested that we should 
each contribute a paper on the subject to the next meeting of 
this Society, and that in my contribution I should confine myself 
to the egg-laying Victorian species, which we agreed should now 
receive a name. In accordance with this suggestion I now submit 
a description of the species in question, for which I propose the 
name Peripatus oviparus. 

Very fortunatel}^ while I was in New South Wales, my friend 
Mr. Thos. Steel, F.C.S., was successful in finding a large number 
of the viviparous species with fifteen pairs of claw-bearing legs. 
These I was able to examine both alive and by means of dissec- 
tion, and I have thus satisfied myself that the oviparous Victorian 
form is certainly worthy of a distinctive name. 


Peripatus OVIPARUS, n.sp. 

Peripatus huckartii (probably in all cases where this name has 
hitherto been applied to specimens from Victoria with fifteen 
pairs of claw-bearing legs, especially in earlier papers of the 
present writer, but not where the name has been applied to 
specimens from New South Wales). 

A good-sized female specimen, when crawling, measured 39 mm. 
in length, exclusive of the antennae. Full-grown females preserved 
in spirit and contracted in the usual manner (not extended l^y 
drowning) measure about 20 mm. in length (exclusive of the 
antennae) by 4*5 mm. in greatest breadth (exclusive of the legs). 
The males seem to ])e commonly somewhat smaller than the adult 
females, but the evidence at present forthcoming is not sufficient 
to justify a generalization on this point. 

There are fifteen pairs of claw-bearing legs. Each leg has three 
pale-coloured spinous pads on its ventral surface. On the fourth 
and fifth legs the proximal and largest pad is divided transversely 
into three parts, the median part being much the smallest and 
bearing a white papilla. Each foot bears three large primary 
papillse, one anterior, one posterior, and one dorsal, overhanging 
the pair of claws. 

The jaws consist as usual each of two blades, the inner blade 
has about vseven teeth and the outer one consists of a single well- 
developed tooth with a very small accessory tooth at its base. 

The integument is as usual transversely furrowed, with rows of 
papillae of varying size on the intervening ridges. Along the 
mid-dorsal line there is a deep narrow groove; the integument 
lining the floor of this groove is devoid of pigment and thus gives 
rise to a very narrow median white line, which may be hidden by 

The predominant colours of the skin are red and indigo blue, 
the former passing into yellow and the latter into black in some 
specimens. The characteristic pattern of the dorsal surface 
consists chiefly in a series of segmentally arranged, diamond- 
shaped patches in which the red colour is predominant. Each 


patch is made up of two triangular halves whose bases face one 
another on each side of the mid-dorsal line, while their apices lie 
over the legs and at about one-third of the distance from the mid- 
dorsal line to the insertion of the legs. The separation of the 
diamonds from one another is by no means complete, so that there 
are two continuous bands of red, one on each side of the mid- 
dorsal line, the outer margins of which bands are deeply indented. 
The edges of the mid-dorsal groove are commonly darkly pigmented, 
and may give rise to an apparently single median dark line when 
the lips of the groove are closed together. There is commonh'- 
also a dark edging to the red diamonds, forming a zig-zag longi- 
tudinal stripe. This typical pattern may be almost if not quite 
obliterated by the replacement of the red pigment by the dark 
indigo blue; but even in very dark specimens it may still be 
represented by a row of small, pale yellow or red spots, each 
occupying the position of the apex of one of the red triangles in 
typical specimens. The ventral surface is paler than the dorsal, 
and there is in the middle line a row of still paler areas placed one 
between the legs of each pair but the last. Patches of dark 
indigo blue are usually present on the under surfaces of the legs 
near to their bases. 

In the adult female, in place of the usual genital papilla, there 
is a veiy conspicuous organ which may be called an ovipositor. 
This, when contracted, is an ovoid bod}^ of a pale yellow or orange 
colour, projecting backwards from between the legs of the last 
(loth) pair. In adult specimens ordinarily contracted in spirit 
the ovipositor is as large or larger than the legs between which it 
lies. It is, however, capable of great extension. Its surface is 
uniformly ornamented with minute, spine-bearing papilla?, and at 
its apex it bears a large slit placed parallel to the long axis of the 
body of the animal. 

The internal reproductive organs of the female are arranged as 
follows : — The ovary consists of right and left halves united in 
front and behind and attached by a mesentery to the pericardial 
septum in the mid-dorsal line. The oviducts are long and con- 
voluted; they have a common origin from the posterior end of the 


ovar}^, to which they are attached. Near to its point of oriojin each 
bears an oval receptaculum seminis with two ducts. It is very 
important to observe that each oviduct is divided into three parts. 
All three parts are narrow except where swollen by the contained 
eggs. The first is very short and extends from the point of 
attachment to the ovary to about the level of the receptaculum; 
its wall its greatly folded and provided with little excrescences on 
the side opposite to the receptaculum. The middle and last 
portions of the oviduct are of about equal length. The middle 
portion is very thick-walled and apparently glandular. The last 
portion has very thin, transparent, membranous walls. At their 
hinder ends the oviducts unite in a thick-walled triangular sac, 
whose posterior angle is continued into the ovipositor. 

I have found eggs in both the middle and last portions of the 
oviduct, but much more abundantly in the last. Their number 
varies greatly. In one specimen, for example, there were three 
eggs in each oviduct; in a second there were seven in one and six 
in the other; in a third there were eight in one and nine in the 

The eggs at the time of laying show no appearance of eml^ryos 
within them, but each consists of a quantity of milky fluid, con- 
taining numerous yolk granules, enclosed in a very thick, tough, 
but rather soft envelope of a pale yellow colour and beautifully 
sculptured on the outside. The sculpturing consists of little 
crumpled papillae, somewhat resembling worm-casts, arranged at 
fairly regular intervals over the surface, and with much finer 
meandering ridges occupying the spaces between them. The eggs 
are oval in shape and measure about 1*9 by 1 '5 mm. 

A careful re-investigation of my material has led me to tlie 
following conclusions with regard to the egg-envelope. The 
envelope really consists of three membranes. (1) A very thin 
transparent membrane immediately surrounding the yolk and 
prolmbly to be regarded as a vitelline membrane. (2) A very 
thick membrane which is apparently formed as a secretion in the 
thick-walled part of the oviduct. In sections of a female contain- 
ing eggs in the oviduct this membrane is very clearly shown, and 


is seen to have a thickness of about 0-036 mm. It is of a pale 
yellow colour when fresh, and has a very finel}^ granular appear- 
ance. In a former paper I erroneously stated that this membrane 
or shell is smooth, or nearly so, Avhile still m utero. It is true 
that the complete sculpture is not formed till the time of laying, 
but my recent observations have shown conclusively that the 
foundations of that sculpture are already present when the eggs 
are lying in the thin- walled part of the oviduct. These foundations 
consist of a number of little rounded protuberances regularly 
distributed over the surface of the thick membrane. They are 
not very obvious in fresh specimens and require careful looking 
for, but in specimens which have lain for a long time in alcohol 
previous to dissection the thick egg-membrane assumes a rather 
dark brown colour, and the protuberances may become conspicuous 
in surface view as much darker, well-defined circular areas about 
0"04mm. in diameter. In addition to these protuberances the 
thick membrane frequently, perhaps always, exhibits longitudinal 
striations of an ill-defined character. (3) The fortunate discovery 
of an <dgg partially extruded from the greatly distended ovipositor 
in a specimen preserved in alcohol indicates the formation of a 
thin, transparent membrane outside the thick one just described. 
This membrane appears to be formed as a secretion, probably by 
the walls of the triangular sac at the base of th-e ovipositor. The 
abnormal conditions in the case under notice have prevented its 
even deposition, and the amber-coloured, chitinous (?) material is 
mostly collected in a large plug attached to what was the inner 
end of the ^gg. I have little doubt that the wrinkling of this 
chitinous (?) membrane as it dries upon the already embossed 
under-lying membrane gives rise to the complete sculpture of the 
perfect egg-shell, for the smooth papillae of the thick middle 
membrane exactly correspond in arrangement with the crumpled 
papillse of the perfect shell. , 

The development of the embryo within the egg-shell appears to 
be a very lengthy business, for, as I have stated in a previous 
paper, one of the eggs laid in ra}'- vivarium in Melbourne hatched 
out after an interval of a year and five months from the time of 

lrtYi»\ii\ Tho liu\o vxt lioxoU^^niiowi twaw lunvovor. Imvo Uvn pi\v 
Kxn^ijtHl Uy tiu^ oxjH^uiv to tuiitioirtl <\MulitiiM\.>v Pho Oi^ii^i won^ 

In tho uuvU^ !ht> >*tMut«vl jv»[>iUrt is j^itxi^l^ni in the siunv> iw^uuni 
a* it\ tht^ t\nn{vU\ Uut is «\uoh Uvss ^uxMuinont. Oii oithor sidt^ of 
it^ iw tht^ «u\^W Wt\\>>t^ix the lej* aiui UhUn is h whito ^v^xiUa K\mi\ii 
th<^ rt^wtxuv vxlf v^ix «t\^\<sixrY glrtinls IVhiuii it iwui just in fix^Jit 
of tho junis aiv a ^viir vMf ;4|Hn*t\u\\s lH^loi\iiit\iir to otht^r avxtv^si^^'v 
iiUndss l>«\^ iiltuuls iKVttr iu all th<> U\iss t\\\»u tht> st\\\iul to 
tht^ tlxivttvnth. juui ^h^s^xWy als^^ in du* lfK>urttvnth. Tlu> ajxniinv 
^^* tht> orwiul ^laxui is sitWsH<\i vm the unvitnvsurJfavv ixf tho lo^» 
juui tht^ nt^jUwivlial aj>tH*tttiv Ut\s insiiie it^exivpt in tht^ Iknirth juui 
tifth W^^ Tlu^ whit*^ Iv^jxiUa which \>^\^i"s tht» a^vrtuiv v\£ tho 
orum) ^k^ui nxav W oitht^r ^xi\xminwxt or sunk in a de^xi\\^iixn» 
av\\n\U<\ij to tht> statt^ ol' v\MXtmotii>Ji» tuui ht^nw tho numK^r irf 
tht^st^ whito j^jxilW ixn tht> undtn^^uvtav>>64 <\f iho U>^ inav apj>t\xr 
to varv in iiitK>ry^i4t s^^vimo^xs. I hav<;> l>«?tm unalxle to find any 
ox^ux'a.l iiliuuis in tht^ ftnn«tlt\ 

I havt^ a numl*t>r vxf n\alt\i in nxy jxv*:s^\*:sivm» ami I a^ume that 
thtA' Whv»x^^ to tht* saiut^ sjHvitvji Kvaus*» th«*Y w<?ro lk>uiHi iu th*» 
$a)no KKvxlititNs «xs the ov ijv^r\H\s itxnniih>s» while no vivi^virvHis ftnvialt^ 
with tlfttvn trail's vMt le^ have wt Uvn fv^umi in Viotoria. The 
uxalt^s exhiWt the same lun^ in patt«*m aiul wloumtion as tin^ 

It is unni\"t>ssa»*Y in this jikja^v to litNsvriW tli*^* §sene«J iuten\al 
anat\>iny i4^ /Vr4/t««#M«' i»r«/>«tr««;ji,^ su^w it t^> say that il e1i>t\l^>nns 
eU^^Y to the usual ev^ition as iit>s\^nK\l in other speeiesv 


l)ES(^IMI>'ri()NS OF NKW SPTXM FS. — Fakt TV. 

r>v Wai/pku \V. I<'iu)<i(;A'i"r. 

(Plato XIX.) 

In't'oi-c (It'sci-il)iiii;- several new siKH'ics obtained (liii-iiit;- last year, 
T propose to rectify some ei'roi's in my previous papei-s on tiui 
i^all-makini:; eoi'cids with regard to tiieir classilication. 

In liis last eonti-il)ution to the study of the family Cocclda'* 
Mr. Maskell, when dealing with the nomenelatun^ of the sul)- 
families, formed tlio sub family IdlococcitHV for th(^ n^'option of 
his j^-enera. Sp/nrrococctis, Ci/fiiidrocorcus, and Frrtirhii(. Many 
memluM's of tlic above "^onera form ri'^ular j^alls, but others only 
waxy tests, while none of their <!;alls are of the Holid woody con- 
sistency of those of the I hachyscelid coccids; and the female 
coccids themsehes (hirer stiaicturally from the femah^s of the latter. 
The Fucaly[)tus-<,Mll coccids consisting of Schrader's three genera 
Brachyscelis, Opislhoscelis, and Asceiis coming into the sub-family 
BrachynceHna: form another very natural group of tlu^ family 
Cocci da'. 

When re-describing Opisthoscelis suhrofurida, Sell., in my earlier 
paper t, 1 stated that the larva had tarsi terminating in two 
claws, which, as Mr. Maskell has pointed out, would remove them 
from the Coccifce into the fainih' Psi/llldcv; what T mistook for 
the second claw, J find upon more careful examination to be the 
lower digitule, appendages like tine spines springing from the 
extremity of the tarsi. 

* Maskell, Trans. N.Z. Inst. Vol. xxv. p. 2.S6, 1892. 
t NotcB on tho Family Brachyscelidte, P.L.S. N.S.W. (2 8er ) Vol. viii., 
p. 209, 1893), 


Brachyscblis dipsaciformis n.sp. 

. (Plate XIX., fig. 1.) 

9. Gall 6 lines high, 4| in diameter, generally oval but 
sometimes rounded at base, black to dark reddish brown in colour; 
produced upon the twigs of a slender-leaved eucalypt, sometimes 
solitary but chiefly in jDunches of two or three; they grow out at 
the base like a small button, with the spines forming an erect mass 
on the upper surface, but as the gall matures it gradually forms a 
round solid centre with these spines turning downwards into a 
regular prickly covering, which reminds one of a small teasle. 
The walls of the galls are thin and solid; the chamber oval; the 
apical orifice small and circular, with the spines surrounding it 
often broken away or aborted into little woody bracts. 

9. Coccid dull yellow, short and stout, very hairy; the legs 
short with very small tarsal claws; dorsal side, the abdominal 
segments each bearing a row of very long slender spines, and 
thickly fringed with long hairs, increasing in density towards the 
tip where they form a regular brush; the anal appendages black, 
short, stout, and cylindrical, with a distinct median division and V- 
shaped cleft at the tips, which are slightly pointed. Upon the 
ventral side the hairs are of a pale golden yellow and much longer 
than the anal appendages. The coccid here described was dead 
and partially dried up when taken out of the gall. 

^. Gall and coccid unknown. 

Hab. - North Queensland (Mr. F. M. Bailey). 

I am indebted to my friend Mr. J. G. O. Tepper, of the Adelaide 
Museum, for the opportunity of describing this curious little gall, 
which he informs me was forwarded to him from Brisbane by the 
Government Botanist (Mr. F. M. Bailey), with the information 
that it came from North Queensland. 


Brachyscelis sessilis n.sp. 

(Plate XIX., fig. 2.) 

^. Gall forming a rounded or oblong swelling on the branch, out 
of the centre of which springs up a tubular gall from 2 to 4 lines 
in height above the excrescence on the branchy 4 lines in diameter 
and perfectly flat on the truncated apex, with the exception of tlie 
small cone-shaped projection in the centre, encircling the minute 
apical orifice. The walls of the galls are stout and solid, containing 
a chamber rounded at the base and pointed towards the apex; 
each of these galls is distinct from the large swelling upon the 
branch from which they project, and can be detached without 

5. Coccid dull 3"ellow, 4 lines in length, broad and round at 
apex, central lobe with two ver}^ small antennae and short fore- 
legs, the second pair rather large, with the hind pair largest, the 
first joint swollen and almost globular; the last thoracic segment 
broad, the first four abdominal ones regular, and tapering sharply 
to the tip, the anal segment, bearing the anal appendages, rounded. 
Dorsal view, head, and thoracic segments covered with very fine 
scattered tubercles, but bearing no regular spines; first abdominal 
segment with short irregular black spines along the apical margin, 
on the second segment increasing in numbers and regularity until 
on the last two forming a close regular ridge of stout black spines; 
anal appendages black, very short, broad at the base, conical and 
almost in contact at the base until near the apex, opening into a 
V-shaped angle; the whole coccid lightly covered with hairs, 
thickest towards the extremity of the abdomen. 

^. Gall and coccid unknown. 

Hab. — Wallsend, near Newcastle. On a small rough-barked 
Eucalyptus sp. 


Brachyscelis Thokntoxi, Froefft. 

In my description of this species in a previous paper"*^ I have 
confounded two very distinct species, a collection of fresh material 
which I collected last 3^ear at Wallsend having convinced 
me of my mistake. The former description will stand for the 
female gall in an immature state (also figured in the plate), but 
that of the male gall mass as there described must be withdrawn. 

The male gall mass of this species is very variable in shape and 
size, often much curved and distorted, covered with warty 
excrescences and the edges broken and irregular, but the coccid 
tubes always coalesce and are not sejoarated or distinct by them- 

It is one of the most prolific species; I have seen some trees 
about Wallsend which are simply one mass of these galls; the 
more mature galls become more oval and lose the very pronounced 
ribs so conspicuous in the very young ones. 

Brachyscelis ros.eformis, n.sp. 

(Plate XIX., fig. 3.) 

9. Gall 9 lines in length, not more than 1| lines in diameter at 
the base, gradually swelling out to three lines at the apex; brown 
to pale red; rather wrinkled on the surface; walls of the cham- 
ber thin, the chamber tubular, extending from the base to the 
tip; apical orifice small, circular, apex of gall truncate; sometimes 
the gall stands straight out from the leaf, but more frequently 
hangs downward along it. 

(J. Gall forming a wrinkled irregular mass, growing from the 
side of the female gall close to the tip, swelling out into a rugose 
reddish brown mass, with the upper surface slightly concave, 
IJ inches across at the widest diameter and about a quarter 

* P.L.S. N.S. W. (2 Ser.) Vol. vii., p. 371-72, 1892. 


of an inch in thickness, containing over 1000 pale pink larval 
tubes, each of which is a distinct individual tube separated from 
any other at the tip. 

^a6.^Wingham, Manning River (Mr. William Allan). 

The specimen from which this is described was received with 
the note that it was not uncommon in that district. It consisted 
of single large Eucalyptus leaf carrying five female galls, sur- 
mounted with gall masses nearly as large as the one descril^ed, 
with several smaller ones, all of which sprang from the edge of 
the midrib of the leaf. 

I have another variety of this gall obtained l^y the Rev. T. W. 
Alkin near Campbelltown, which is much more uniform in shape 
than the former; in this specimen there are six bright pink coloured 
galls springing from either side of the midrib of a very slender 
Eucalyptus leaf; the female gall is not more than half the length, 
the male gall mass much more funnel-shaped, containing on an 
average about 100 male tubes in each mass. 

The gall described as the male of B. Thorntoni is another 
variety close to the Campbelltown one, of which I have had four 
specimens from around Wallsend. 


Brachyxcelis dipsadform is. 
Fig. 1. — Female galls upon twig. 

B. sessilis. 
Fig. 2. — Female galls growing out of a branch. 

B. rosa'formis. 
Fig. 3. — Female galls, each with its attq-ched mass of male galls; towards 
the tip of the leaf are other immature galls. 



By Jas. p. Hill, Demonstrator of Biology, in the 
University of Sydney. 

(Plate XX.) 

Some little time ago there came into my possession through the 
kindness of Mr. J. Has tie, Broken Bay, N.S.W., a specimen of 
the Fiddler-ray {Trygonorhinafasciata), with markedly abnormal 
pectoral fins. The specimen presented so peculiar and striking 
an appearance that it was picked out by the fishermen when 
looking over the contents of their net after a haul and kept as a 
curiosity. On describing the specimen to my friend. Prof. G. B. 
Howes, he referred me to a note"^ by Dr. Traquair on an abnormal 
Thornback {Raia clavata). Dr. Traquair very kindly furnished 
me with a copy of his note, and I am now enabled to give a 
description of this specimen. 

The Fiddler in question is a young male, measuring 2 6 '9 cm. in 
length, and 11-2 cm. across the broadest part of the pectoral fins. 

From the illustration accompanying this note it will be seen 
that the pectoral fins are markedly abnormal, and give the fish a 
very striking appearance. On each side the anterior portion of 
each pectoral fin is separated by a wide and deep notch from the 
head. The notch on the left side is, as in Dr. Traquair's Thorn- 
back, deeper than that on the right, causing the animal to have a 
very asymmetrical appearance. On the right side the notch 
extends backwards from the anterior end of the pectoral fin for a 
distance of 3 cm., and terminates almost on a level with the 
posterior border of the spiracular cleft. On the left side, however, 
the notch extends back for a distance of 4*5 cm., terminating at 

* Note on an abnormally developed Thornback {Raia clavata), Ann. of 
Scottish Nat. Hist. Jan., 1892. 

BY JAS. P. HILL. 207 

the point of articulation of the propterygium with the shoulder 
girdle. The entire anterior portion of the left fin, supported by 
the propterygium and its rays, is thus entirely free from the body. 
On both sides, and especially on the left, the propter3^gia are 
directed markedly outwards. 

The only parallel for this condition among living Elasmo- 
branchs appears to be found in the Angel-fish {Rhina squatina). 
In that form, as is well known, the anterior ends of the expanded 
pectoral fins extend forward as two short horns supported by the 
propterygia, and entirely free from the body wall. On the left 
side of our specimen, except for the greater forward extension of 
the fin, the condition in Bhina is essentially realised. 

In the abnormal Thornback described by Dr. Traquair the 
anterior extremities of the pectoral tins projected as two short 
processes, one on either side of the snout. I have found a similar 
condition in one of a series of twelve young taken from a single 
female Hypnos suhnigrum. In this specimen, w^hich measured 
6*1 cm. in length, the anterior ends of the pectoral fins projected 
as tw^o blunt horns, one on the outer side of the anterior portion 
of each electric organ. 

Similar cases of the non-adherence of the anterior extremities 
of the pectoral fins to the head have been recorded by Yarrell"*^ for 
Raia clavata, by Dayl: for R. clavata and R. hatis, and by 
Bureau; for R. asterias. All these cases are of the same nature, 
and of all recorded instances of this abnormality that of the 
Trygomwhina herein described is perhaps the most marked. The 
meaning of this variation, to which some slight importance may 
be attached from its occurrence in three distinct Batoid genera, 
is not far to seek. Prof. Howes, in his paper§ on the fin-skeleton 

* Yarrell. British Fishes, ed. by Richardson, 1859, Vol. ii. p. 585 and 
p. 384. 

t Day. British Fishes, Vol. ii. p. 345, PI. clxxi. fig. 2, and p. 337. 

X Bureau. Bull. Soc. Zool. France, 1889, xiv. p. 313, and fig. (References 
from Bateson. Materials for the Study of Variation, p. 540.) 

§ Observations on the Pectoral Fin-skeleton of Batoid Fishes. P.Z.S. 
1890, p. 680. 


of Batoids, says " that the Batoid type of fin has been derived 
from a shorter Selachoid one by forward rotation and general 
enlargement is sufficiently clear from known facts of development.'^ 
It is in these facts, viz., that the pectoral fin of Batoids undergoes 
a forward growth in the embryo and only secondarily fuses with 
the cephalic integument, that these cases of non-adherence in the 
young or adult find their explanation. This is fully borne out by 
the examination of a uterine embryo of Urolojjhus testaceus, 3 cm. in 
length, in the teaching collection of the Biological Department of 
this University. In this embryo in which distinct external gills 
are present and the cranial flexure is well marked, the broadly 
expanded pectoral fins extend forward beyond the mouth as two 
blunt processes separated by a cleft from the head, and are at 
this stage comparable with the adult condition of the pectoral 
fins in Rhina. 

From these facts of development we are led to regard the non- 
adherence of the anterior portions of the pectoral fins in Trygono- 
rhina and the incomplete adherence of the anterior ends of the 
fins in the other recorded cases as retentions more or less complete 
of an embryonic or ancestral condition — as reversions in fact, for 
if there is any truth at all in the law of recapitulation there can be 
little doubt but that the free condition of the anterior portion of 
the pectoral fin of Batoids was the primitive one. It is interesting 
in view of this to find this feature of non-adherence most marked 
in the Rhinobatid genus Trygonorhina, the Rhinobatids being 
in many points transitional between the Batoidei and Selachoidei. 

In conclusion I have to express my indebtedness to Mr. Robert 
Grant for the photograph from which the accompanying drawing 
was made. 


Dorsal aspect of an abnormal specimen of Trygonor-hina fasciata — 
reduced about 2j times. 



-Mr. Froggiitt exhibited specimens of the galls mentioned in his 
paper, together with drawings of the same. Also two hazel hoops 
taken from powder kegs on board one of the powder hulks in 
Sydney attacked by the larva? of Gracilia j^ygmcea, Fal)r., a 
small European longicorn beetle, specimens of which were 
shown, and which had been evidently introduced in the wood. 
The larvie burrow under the Imrk of the hoops. As many as over 
40 specimens were bred from two hoops. Also the remains of a 
lar\a of the Australian silk worm moth (Anthercea eucalypti) 
destroyed by parasitic hymenoptera (Fam. Braconidoa) which had 
produced a remarkable mass of white cotton-like substance 2^ 
inches long and \\ inch in width, enveloping a double row of 

Mr. jSIaiden sent for exhibition some specimens of fire-sticks 
used by the natives on the ranges behind Cardwell, N. Queens- 
land. They are tied up in bundles with a board on which the 
sticks are rubbed, painted and carved to represent some animal. 
Also some pearl-shell fishhooks cut into slender curved points, 
with modernised editions made from iron nails picked up on the 
sea shore in which the old form is repi;oduced, used by the natives 
of Hinchinl)rook Island. Also a shell forehead ornament from 
the same place. 

Mr. Garland slujwed a miscellane(jus gathering of fragmenta 
from an aboriginal kitchen midden iu a cave shelter at Pittwater, 
comprising spines of various fishes, Ijones of mai-supials, itc, 
together with a pointed bone, probaljly in use as a piercer in 
sewing skins. 

Mr. Brazier exhibited a varied collection of zoological and 
botanical specimens found by F. C. Brazier at Nelson Bay Beach 
(Bronte), Waverley, during the southerly gales of April 11-1 3t]i 
last, comprising Sejna apama, Gray, common; ^. elomjata. Orb., 
rare, one imperfect specimen; S. capensis, Orb., thirty specimens; 
S. australis, Orb., eight specimens in very fair condition; laidhina 


caerulata, Reeve, two hundred living specimens; /. fragilis, Lam., 
eight living specimens; Spirula Peroni, Lam., five imperfect 
specimens, with portion of the animal attached to the shells; 
Lepas HUH, Leach, on ^iejna apa-nia, Gray, on slag from furnace 
fires, and a large nut from Pacific Islands; L. pectinata, Spengler, 
on Sjnrula Per^oni, Sepia capensis, laidhina caerulata, on corks, 
pieces of packing cases, and slag from furnace fires; three species 
of fishes; two species of crabs; numerous specimens of candle nuts 
Aleurites trilohata; and the fruit probably of Borriyiytonia 

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PL. XX. 

Try^ on orhin a FadCiaict, M.&H. 

211 r 

WEDNESDAY, MAY 29th, 1895. 

The Ordiiicary Monthly Meeting of the Society was held in the 
Linnean Hall, Ithaca Road, Elizabeth Ba}^, on Wednesda}^ even- 
ing, August 28th, 1895. 

Mr. P. N. Trebeck, J. P., in the Chair, 

Mr. John MacPherson, M.A., Sydney Universit}'-, and Dr. R. 
Broom, B.Sc, Taralga, N.S.W., were elected Members of the 


Geological Survey of India — Records. Vol. xxviii. (1895), 
Part 1. From the Director. 

Zoological Society of London — Abstract. 5th March and 2nd 
April, 1895: Transactions. Vol. xiii. Part 10: Proceedings, 1894, 
Part iv. From the Society. 

Madras Government Museum— Bulletin. No. 3. Second 
Edition, revised. From the Supervntendeyd. 

Perak Government Gazette. Vol. viii. (1895), Nos. 7-10. 
From the Government Secretary. 

K.K. Zoologisch-botanische Gesellschaft in Wien — Verhand- 
lungen. xlv. Bd. (1895), 2-3 Hefte. From the Society. 


Indian Museum — Natural History Notes. Series ii. No. 18. 
From the Superintendeiit. 

Australasian Journal of Pharmacy. Vol. x. Nos. 112-113 
(April-May, 1895). From the Editor. 

Agricultural Gazette of N.S.W. Index to Vol. v. (1894); Yol. 
vi. (1895), Parts 3-4. From the Hon. the Minister for Mines and 

American Museum of Natural History — Bulletin. Yol. vii. 
(1895), Sig. 3-4 (pp. 33-64). From the Museum. 

Johns Hopkins University Circulars. Yol. xiv. Nos. 115, 117 
and 118 (Nov., 1894, March and April, 1895). Fro7ii the 

American Geographical Society — Bulletin. Yol xxvi. (1894), 
No. 4, Part 2; Yol. xxvii. (1895), No. 1. From, the Society. 

Societe Scientifique du Chih— Actes. Tome iv. (1894), 4°^^Liv. 
From the Society. 

Canadian Institute — Canadian Journal. First Series. Yols. 
ii.-iii. (1853-55); Second Series. Yols. i.-ix. and xii.-xiv. (1856-75): 
Third Series (Proceedings). Yol. i. Fasc. 2-5; Yol. ii. Fasc. 3; 
Yol, iii. Fasc. 2-3 (1885-86). From the Institute. 

Societe Royale Linneenne de Bruxelles — Bulletin. xx"^®. 
Annee ( 1895), Nos. 4-6. From the Society. 

Societe Imperiale Mineralogique de Russie — Yerhandlungen. 
xxxi. Bd. (1894). From the Society. 

Societe Hollandaise des Sciences a Harlem— Archives N^er- 
landaises. Tome xxviii. 5'^'^^ Liv. (1895). From the Society. 

Pharmaceutical Journal of Australasia. Yol. viii. No. 4 
(April, 1895). From the Editor. 

Societe d'Horticulture du Doubs, Besangon — Bulletin, n.s. 
No. 51 (March, 1895). From the Society. 


Zoologischer Anzeiger. xviii. Jahrg. Xos. 471-4:73 (March- 
April, 1895). From the Editor. 

Australian Orchids. By R. D. Fitzgerald, F.L.S. Yol. ii. 
Parts 3-5 (1888-94). From the Government Printer. 

American Naturalist. Vol. xxix. No. 340 (April, 1895). 
From the iSoeiety. 

U.S. Department of Agriculture— Division of Entomology — 
Insect Life. Yol. vii. No. 4 (1895). From the Secretary of 

Hooker's Icones Plantarum. Yol. iv. Fourth Series. Part 3 
(April, 1895). From the Director, Royal Gardens, Kew. 

Department of Mines and Agriculture, Sydney — Records of 
the Geological Survey of N.S. Wales. Yol. iv. Part 3 (1895). 
From the Hon. the Minister for Mines and Agriculture. 

Yictorian Naturalist. Yol. xii. No. 1 (April, 1895). From 
the Field Natnralists^ Club of Victoria. 

Societe Beige de Microscopie — Annales. Tome xix. P'' Fasc 
(1895). From tlic Society. 

Cambridge Philosophical Society — Proceeding?^ Yol. viii. 
Part iv. (1895). From the Society. 

Zoologische Station zu Neapel — Mittheilungen. xi. Bd. 4 Heft 
(1895). From the Director. 

Oxford University Museum — Catalogue of Books added to the 
Radcliffe Library during the Year 1894. From the Radcliffe 

Museum d' Histoire Naturelle, Paris — Bulletin. Annee 1895. 
Nos. 1-2. From the Museum.. 

Societe Imperiale des Naturalistes de Moscou — Bulletin. 
Annee 1894. No. 4. From the Society. 


Naturwissenschaftlicher Yerein fiir den Reg.-Bez. Frankfurt a. 
O. — Helios, xii. Jalirg. (1894), Nos. 7-12: Societatum Litterae. viii. 
Jahrg. (1894), Nos. 10-12; ix. Jahrg. (1895), Nos. 1-3. From the 


Academie Imperiale des Sciences de St. Petersbourg — Bulletin, 
v^ Serie. Tome ii. No. 2 (1895). From the Academy. 

Free Public Librar}^, Sydney — Report from Trustees for 1894. 
From the Trustees. 

Naturhistoriske Forening i Kjobenhavn — Videnskabelige Med- 
delelser for Aaret 1894. From the Society. 



By Alfred J. North, F.L.S., Australian Museum, Sydney. 

With the exception of an immature egg of Eudynaniis cyano- 
cephala previously described by me,"^ the eggs of the following 
species are now, so far as I am aware, described for the first time. 


Elinder's Cuckoo is freely distributed during the spring and 
summer months throughout the coastal scrubs of Eastern Aus- 
tralia, its range also extending around the northern and extreme 
north-western portions of the continent and to New Guinea and 
Timor. In New South Wales it generally arrives during the 
latter part of September, and is more frequently met with in the 
tropical and luxuriant brushes of the northern coastal rivers; 
localities where the wild fig, native cherry and numerous other 
fruit and berry-bearing trees and shrubs abound, and which 
afford this species an abundant supply of food. It does not 
confine its diet entirely to wild fruits and berries, for in the high 
table-lands of the New England District it freely enters gardens 
and orchards in search of food, committing great depredations 
among cultivated fruits, especially plums and cherries. About 
the end of February it retires northwards again. Hitherto the 
only egg of this parasitic Cuckoo I had ever seen was an imma- 
ture one obtained by Mr. George Masters at Gayndah, Queensland, 
on the 25th of November, 1870. Having shot at a female and 
broken her wing, while pursuing her on the ground the egg was 
dropped. For an opportunity of examining a normal e>gg of this 
Cuckoo I am indebted to Mr. S. W. Jackson, who recently watched 
and waited while one of these parasites deposited her egg in the 

* Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S. VV. Vol. ii. 2nd Series, p. 544 (1887). 


deep cup-shaped nest of the Green-backed Oriole ( Mimeta viridis), 
one of the most notorious orchard marauders in New South Wales, 
From Mr. Jackson's letter accompanying this egg, I have extracted 
the following information : — 

"While collecting on the 31st of October, 1894, in a scrub 
near South Grafton I heard the loud and peculiar " coo-ee " of 
Flinder's Cuckoo, and upon approaching a large "Box-tree" 
(Eucalyiotus robusta), I observed in it a pair of Eudynamis 
cyanocejiliala, the female being perclied close to a nest of Mimtta 
viridis. Thinking perhaps that the Cuckoo had laid in it, I 
climbed the tree, and found that the nest contained three fresh 
eggs of the Oriole; these I left and descended to the ground. The 
female Cuckoo, which I had frightened away when starting to 
climb the tree, now returned, and calling to her mate both sat 
near the nest. After watching them for a few minutes the male 
flew away, and to my joy the female took possession of the 
Oriole's nest. I did not leave the spot, but sat down in the shade 
of the Eucalyptus, and after waiting about half-an-hour got up 
and suddenly clapped my hands, but she would not leave the 
nest. I started again to climb the tree, when off she flew and 
never returned. Upon reaching the nest, and making a further 
examination of its contents, I was greatly delighted to find that 
in addition to the three eggs of the Oriole it now contained the 
previously unknown egg of Flinder's Cuckoo. During the time 
the Cuckoo had possession of the Oriole's nest both the male and 
the female of the latter sat in the tree, but did not interfere with 
the occupant of the nest." 

The egg of Fudywcmis cyanocephala is oval in form and of a 
pale reddish-salmon ground colour, minutely dotted and spotted 
with different shades of reddish and purplish-brown, the latter 
colour predominating and appearing as if beneath the surface of 
the shell; the smaller end of the egg is more sparingly marked, 
but towards its thicker axis are a few small blotches of umber 
brown. There are many indistinct underlying blotches and 
smears of dull purplish- brown, of which the largest is a longitu- 
dinal marking measuring I'l inch in length by 0-4 inch in 


breadth. The egg measures 1-36 inch in length by 1-02 inch in 
breadth, and without its underlying blotches and smears some- 
what resembles those of the Friar Bird ( Tropidorhynchus corni- 

The Oriole's eggs from the above nest are of the usual variety 
found, being of a creamy-brown ground colour, minutely dotted 
and boldly blotched all over with different shades of umber-brown, 
intermingled with underlying markings of deep bluish-grey. 
Length, (A) 1-35 x 0-98 inch; (B) 1-4 x 1-03 inch; (C) 1-43 x 
1-01 inch. 

It will be observed that the Qgg of Flinder's Cuckoo is the same 
size as those of Mimeta viridis, although as a rule the eggs of 
Australian Cuckoos are larger than those of the birds in w^hose 
nests they are deposited. In the choice of a foster-parent for its 
young Kudynantis cyauocephala has, however, exercised great 
discrimination in selecting a species that, like itself, depends 
entirely on fruits and berries for its subsistence during the spring 
and summer months. 

Megalurus galactotes, Temminck. 

Although the range of the Tawny Grass-bird extends over the 
greater portion of Northern and Eastern Queensland, and Northern 
New South Wales, it is of so shy and retiring disposition that it 
is a species seldom met with, and only on one occasion have I 
heard of its nest and eggs being found. The late Mr. George 
Barnard, of Coomooboolaroo, Queensland, shortly before his 
decease informed me that v/hile collecting specimens of Micro- 
lepidoptera on his station on the 26th of October, 1893, he flushed 
one of these birds from the rush-bordered bank of a dry creek, 
and, after a diligent search, succeeded in finding its nest at the 
bottom of a tuft of long rushes. The nest was a deep cup-shaped 
structure, slightly domed or narrowed at the top, and was out- 
wardly composed of dried swamp grasses, lined inside with 
feathers, and contained three fresh eggs, tvv^o of which he unfortu- 
nately broke. The remaining egg has recently been forwarded 
to me for examination by Mr. Charles Barnard. It is precisely 


similar in colour and markings to those of its southern congener 
M, gramineus, but is slightly larger, being of a reddish-white 
ground colour, freckled all over with purplish-red markings, which 
predominate as usual on the thicker end of the egg. Length, 
0-8 X 0-58 inch. 

Platalba melanorhyncha, Reichenbach. 

The Black-faced Spoonbill is generally distributed in favourable 
situations over the north-eastern and northern portions of the 
Australian Continent, its range extending also to the Aru Islands, 
w^here several examples were procured by the late Mr. S. White, 
and which are now contained in the Reference Collection of the 
Australian Museum. In New South Wales it is a comparatively 
rare species, and is seldom met with except on the mangrove flats 
and swamps adjacent to the northern coastal rivers, but recently 
it has been found breeding on an inland swamp near the extreme 
southern boundary of the colony. For an opportunity of examin- 
ing and describing the eggs of this species I am indebted to Mr. 
James Kershaw, of the National Museum, Melbourne, who has 
kindly forwarded me a set, together with the following note : — 
" The eggs of Plaialea melanorhyncha I sent you last week were 
obtained by Mr. H. G. Evered, who has supplied me with the 
following information relative to the taking of them : — ' W^hile 
duck shooting on Christmas Day, 1893, on one of the swamps 
along the banks of the Murray River, about sixty miles above 
Echuca, and when nearing an Ibis rookery, the man who was 
poling the boat drew my attention to a bird flying with the White 
Ibis ( Threskiornis strictipenttis) which we had disturbed; at the 
same time informing me that the bird was almost a stranger in 
those parts, and that he had not seen a specimen for the previous 
four or five years. As it would not leave the spot, but continued 
flying in a circle, we thought there might possibly be a nest near 
at hand, so we concealed our boat in a bed of reeds and watched. 
After a little while all the Ibis, and lastly the bird which I now 
recognised to be a Spoonbill, settled in an adjacent bed of reeds. 
We now approached as noiselessly as possible, and when within 


about forty yards it again rose with the Ibis, and I was successful 
in shooting it. Upon examining the place, we found the nest of 
the S^DOonbill built amongst those of the White Ibis; it was an 
open flat structure, composed of broken down reeds and twigs, 
measuring two feet across, and was placed al30ut three feet above 
the water. The eggs, three in number, were in an advanced state 
of incubation. All the nests of the White Ibis contained young 
birds from one to two weeks old." 

The eggs of Plaf.alea melanorkyncha are similar to those of its 
near ally P. leitcorodia, of Europe and Southern Asia; they are 
elongate-oval in form, slightly pointed at the smaller end, and of 
a dull chalky-white ground colour, with ill-defined blotches and 
smears of yellow- and pale reddish-brown almost uniformly distri- 
buted over the surface of the shell; one specimen (C) is more 
sparingly but distinctly marked, and has a few bold darker 
blotches on the large end. Length, (A) 2-73 x 1-73 inch; (B) 
2-65 X 1-68 inch; (C) 2-6 x 1-7 inch. 

It is remarkable the partiality Spoonbills have for breeding in 
company with Ibises. Mr. Hume in his "Nests and Eggs of 
Indian Birds" records Platalea leucorodia breeding on trees in 
company with the Pelican-Ibis (Tantalus leucocephalusj, also near 
colonies of the Shell-Ibis (Anastomus oscitans). 

Ardetta pusilla, Yieillot. 

Though a comparatively rare species the Minute Bittern is 
widely distributed in suitable localities over most parts of Eastern 
Australia. In New South Wales it still frequents the neighbour- 
hood of Sydney, specimens having been recently presented to the 
Trustees of the^ Australian Museum that were procured on the 
marshy grounds at the mouth of Cook's River during January, 
1895. A freshly shot specimen was also received in the same 
month from a correspondent at Narromine, a pastoral and agri- 
cultural district, situated on the banks of the Macquarie River, 
and about 300 miles west of Sydney. It appears, however, to be 
more freely distributed on the swamps in the vicinity of the 
Murray River, for on several occasions Mr. Evered has been 



successful in finding its nests and eggs near Mathoura. Mr. 
Kershaw, to whom I am also indebted for the loan of the eggs of 
this species for description, has kindly sent the following note 
relative to the taking of them: — "Mr. H. G. Evered found the 
nest of the Minute Bittern, containing four fresh eggs, in a swamp 
near Mathoura, New South Wales, during November, 1893. It 
was an open nest, composed of dead leaves of aquatic plants, and 
grasses and herbage growing about the swamp, and was fastened 
to several reeds just above the surface of the water. The bird 
was seen on the nest, and one was captured alive." 

The eggs of the Minute Bittern are oval in form and pure 
white, the texture of the shell being very fine and the surface 
dull and lustreless. Length, (A) M3 x 0-98 inch; (B) 1-26 x 
1 inch. Like the eggs of all birds laid in similar situations, they 
soon become dirty and nest-stained. 



By T. F. Cheeseman, F.L.S , Curator of the Auckland Museum. 

(Communicated by the yecretary.) 

Some months ago, Prof. F. W. Hutton drew my attention to a 
communication from Mr. Brazier printed in the Proceedings of the 
Linnean Society of New South Wales (Vol. ix., 2nd Ser., p. 183) 
in which it is stated that South Africa is the true habitat of 
Paleli'i hermadecensis, and that Mr. Pilsbry was mistaken in 
supposing that his specimens came from the Kermadec Islands. 
Apparently, Mr. Brazier arrives at this conclusion from the fact 
that a specimen in his possession, originally obtained from a New 
Zealand dealer notoriously inaccurate in the localities assigned to 
his specimens, has adhering to it two individuals of Patella 
G'ichlear, Born , a species known to inhabit the Cape of Good 
Hope. He also considers it extremely improbable that such a 
large and conspicuous species as that described by Mr. Pilsbry 
should have been overlooked by the late Mr, John MacGillivray, 
the naturalist attached to H.M.S. " Herald," which ship, under 
the command of Capt. Denham, in the year 1851:, made a stay of 
nearly four weeks at Sunday Island, the largest of the Kermadec 

As Mr. Pilsbry 's t}T)es were collected by myself at Sunday 
Island, I wrote a few lines with the intention of forwarding them 
to the Society. Just at that time, however, I received the 
following part of the " Proceedings," in which I noticed that Mr. 
Hedley had, on the strength of information furnished by my 
friend Mr C Spencer, again asserted the claims of the Kermadec 
Islands (see Yol. ix., 2nd Ser., p. 465). Thinking that this was 


sufficient to set the matter at rest, I threw aside what I had 
written. Unfortunately I did not then notice a subsequent 
communication from Mr. Brazier printed in the same number 
(p. 566), in which, while granting that Patella kermadecensis 
might have been collected at Macaula}^ Island, one of the smaller 
islands of the group, he still declined to admit its nativity in 
Sunday Island. Perhaps I may now be allowed to mention what 
must be regarded as conclusive evidence on the point. 

In July, 1887, the New Zealand Government despatched the 
steamer " Stella " to the Kermadec Islands for the purpose of 
annexing them to the colony, and I was kindly granted permis- 
sion to accompany the expedition. My time was mostly given to 
an examination of the botany of the group; but while engaged in 
this work I was able to pay some attention to the fauna. We 
first landed on Sunday Island on the north side, and I then 
noticed (as in fact all the members of our party did) that the 
rocks in the vicinity of the landing place were covered with large 
limpets, four or five inches in diameter. Attempts were made to 
collect some of them, but they could not be reached from the 
boat, and the violent surf breaking on the rocks made it impos- 
sible to get at them from the shore. Two days later, we landed 
at Boat Cove, on the eastern shore of the island. In this locality 
the limpets were even still more plentiful, and as it was low water at 
the time I was able to knock several off the rocks with a spade. 
While I was on shore botanising our boatmen collected quite a 
large number, most of which were given to me. The next day 
they were seen in profusion on Meyer Island, an outlying rock 
on the north side of Sunday Island. In short, we noticed them 
on every part of the coast that was at all suitable; and I have no 
hesitation in saying that in calm weather it would be quite pos- 
sible to load a small vessel with them, so numerous are they. 
Afterwards, we found that they were equally plentiful on the shore 
of Macaulay Island and the other small islands of the group. 

Soon after my return to Auckland, I forwarded specimens to 
several of the New Zealand Museums, and to private collectors, 
both in New Zealand and abroad. Among others, several 


specimens were sent to Mr. E. W. Roper, of Revere, Massa 
chusetts, and two of these were given by him to Mr. Pilsbry. 
Upon these the original description printed in the "Nautilus" is 

Since my visit, great numbers of the Patella have been brought 
to New Zealand by the officers and crew of the " Hinemoa," 
which vessel now regularly visits the group once a year. On one 
occasion a sackful was brought to me at the Museum, and olBfered 
for a few shillings. Having a stock sufficient for my requirements, 
I did not purchase, and the sack Avas eventuall}^ sold to the dealer 
alluded to by Mr. Brazier. Doubtless the shell has passed into 
the hands of many collectors from this source. 

As Mr. Brazier remarks, it is somewhat curious that such a 
conspicuous species was not noticed by Mr. MacGrillivray. But I 
believe that the landing place principally used during the visit of 
the " Herald " was Denham Bay, on the west side of the island. 
This is sandy, and of course anyone landing there would fail to 
see the Patella. The "Herald," too, had remarkably rough 
weather during almost the whole of her stay, and that would 
effectually prevent the rocky beaches from being searched, as our 
own experience with the "Stella" amply proved. 

I may conclude by saying that the presence of a large Patella 
in the Kermadec Group was alluded to in my account of the botany 
of the Group (Trans. N.Z. Institute, Yol xx., p. 165) and in Mr. 
Percy Smith's official report to the New Zealand Government 
("The Kermadec Islands, their capal^ilities and extent," p. 27). 



By Arthur M. Lea. 

Part II. 

D Y T I S C I D ^. 

LaNCESTES ocularis, 11. sp. 

Subconvex, highly polished. Piceous-black; head with a testa- 
ceous blotch in its middle; anterior half of prothorax testaceous, 
except behind the emargination and a narrow indistinct stroke at 
the middle; each elytron with eight narrow longitudinal stripes — 
1st and 2nd joined and barbed at apex, open behind, 3rd and 4th 
joined at base and apex, 5th l)ifurcate at its base, joined to the 
6 th at about a third from the apex, between the 5th stripe and 
the base is an irregular circle with an extension behind, 7 th and 
8th soldered at the shoulders — near apex connected with 4th; 
legs, antennas and palpi reddish, the posterior legs tinged with 
piceous. Above very densely and extremely minutely punctate ; 
head with two transverse punctures on each side; prothorax with 
a row of feeble closely connected punctures near apex, with some 
almost obsolete on each side near base; elytra with two very 
feeble rows ; sterna indistinctly wrinkled ; intermediate femora 
with a row of feeble punctures. 

Head very smooth ; without impressions at sides of eyes ; 
antennae thin, passing intermediate coxte. Prothorax widely 
transverse, narrower in front than behind ; widely emarginate at 
apex, base feebly bisinuate ; angles acute, the posterior but little 
produced; prosternal keel narrow, lanceolate, basal half margined, 
received into a narrow mesosternal excavation. Elytra wider 
than prothorax, widest about the middle; not quite covering 
abdomen. Tibias with seta? and spurs at their apices, spurs to 


posterior long and thin — the longest three-quarters the length of 
the first tarsal joint. Length 8|, width 4 J mm. 

Ilab. — Donnybrook, West Australia. 

I have two specimens — both females — which agree in all 
particulars. Besides the markings, the present species differs 
from L. lanceolatiM in being shorter and broader, the sterna more 
feebly wrinkled, and prosternal keel broader at base, mesosternal 
excavation less sharp. 

M Y C E T P H A G I D yE. 

Triphyllus multiguttatus, n.sp. 

Suboval, slightly convex, above feebly, undersurface moderately 
shining. Above dark brown; head in front obscure red, eyes 
black; prothorax with the margins, and an irregular spot on each 
side of the base, elytra with the margins and numerous spots, 
testaceous; these spots are elongate, somewhat irregular in 
number (from eleven to fourteen on each elytron), an oblique one 
on each side of the scutellum, behind it with its apex at the 
middle is an irregular spot, sometimes II- but oftenest T-shaped, 
the spots behind the middle sometimes uniting to form a very 
irregular transverse fascia, a large round spot near the apex 
(sometimes united with it); undersurface ferruginous-red, legs 
paler. Tibiae tipped on the outer apex with short black setae, the 
inner with a narrow spur. Above densely and obsoletely, under- 
surface very minutely punctate; elytra very feebly striate. 

Head triangular; eyes large, coarsely faceted; antennae inserted 
immediately in front of the eyes, not reaching base of prothorax. 
Prothorax broadly transverse; apex widely and shallowly emar- 
ginate, base feebly bisinuate; posterior angles acute. Scutellum 
small, widely transverse, semicircular. Elytra about twice as 
long as head and prothorax combined, at their widest near the 
base, where they are slightly wider than prothorax; base truncate, 
shoulders feebly rounded. Femora and tibiie flattened. Length 
2f2|, width 11-11 mm. 
''/ya^.—Richmond River, N.S.W. 


Differs from 2\ intricatus by its darker colour, different pattern, 
smaller size, less distinct puncturation, more prominent eyes, 
longer antennae, and broader femora. 

Triphyllus minor, n.sp. 

Suboval, slightly conxex, shining. Above and the legs reddish- 
testaceous, undersurface darker; head piceous-brown (in some 
specimens paler at apex); prothorax testaceous-red (occasionally 
brown) : elytra with three irregular brown fasciae, the two posterior 
sometimes connected along the suture and lateral margin, the 
basal oftenest represented by a large spot on each side of the 
scutellum, and a smaller spot on the shoulder; median fascia 
largest near the sides, sometimes obliquely connected with the 
basal; apical sometimes appearing as two spots and sometimes 
occupying almost the entire apex: palpi and antennse testaceous, 
the latter darkest at apex. Clothed all over — sparsest on proster- 
num — with short, yellowish pubescence; tibiae with a number of 
spurs at their apices, some of them appearing to be obtusely 
serrate. Above densely covered with small, deep punctures; 
elytra feebly punctate-striate ; undersurface irregularly trans- 
versely strigose, and obsoletely punctate. 

Head transverse, apex rounded; eyes rather small and promi- 
nent; antenna inserted a little distance in front of the eyes, 
reaching anterior coxae. Prothorax broadly transverse; apex 
almost truncate, base truncate; posterior angles acute. Scutellum 
small, widely transverse, apex almost truncate. Elytra scarcely 
twice as long as head and prothorax combined, widest at the base; 
base truncate, shoulders very feebly rounded. Femora and tibise 
flattened. Length 2, width 4 mm. 

Hah. — Sydney, Pitt Town, Inverell, Forest Reefs, Tweed, 
Richmond, Clarence, and Hawkesbury Rivers, N.S.W. (Lea). 
Brisbane, Queensland (Mr. A. J. Coates). 

This species in general appearance and pattern closely resembles 
T. intricatus, from which species it may be distinguished by its 
much smaller size (subject to but trifling variation), apex of 


pro thorax wider and less deeply emarginate, head darker, tibite 
differently spurred, somewhat feebler puncturation, and its more 
sober colour. My Pitt Town specimens (three) were taken from 
the nest of a Diamond Sparrow, and some of the Sydney ones 
from the nests of a Processionary Moth. 


Subparallel, subdepressed, shining. Dark brownish-red, elytra 
dark red, legs bright red. Above with long yellowish pubescence, 
longest at the sides, much shorter and sparser on the undersurface; 
tibiae with short spurs and set?e at their apices. Head densely 
and strongly, prothorax as strongly but not so densely punctate, 
with several rows of quadrate punctures at the sides; elytra 
striate - punctate, the punctures large, quadrate, interstices 
minutely punctate; sterna with large shallow punctures; abdo- 
minal segments minutely punctate. 

Head transverse (when at rest); eyes moderately prominent; 
antennae widely separated, scarcely reaching base of prothorax, 
two basal joints rather large, middle joint of club widely trans- 
verse, much wider than basal, apical subcircular. Prothorax 
transversely oblong; apex widely and feebly emarginate, base very 
feebly — if at all— bisinuate; posterior angles almost rectangular; 
sides narrowly margined and narrowly bicostate'; base feebly im- 
pressed in the middle. Scutellum very narrowly transverse. 
Elytra about one and a half times as long as head and prothorax 
combined, base truncate, shoulders rounded, scarcely wider than 
prothorax. Basal segment of abdomen with two oblique lines on 
each side. Legs short, tibiae straight and widening to apex. 
Length 2 J, width 1 (vix) mm. 

//a5.— Richmond River, N.S.W. 

From D. fasciatus, the present species may be distinguished by 
its narrower, more parallel outline, absence of elytral fascia 
(though in that species it is sometimes almost obsolete), less convex 
form, shorter antennae, with short«»^ '^lub, more sober colour, and 
somewhat feebler puncturatio'^ 



Short, thick, subdepressed, shining. Chocolate-brown; lower 
surface, legs, and antennte paler. Clothed all over with moderately 
long pubescence, longest and blackest above, shortest and yellowish 
beneath. Very minutely punctate all over; the head with dense 
and rather small punctures, larger and sparser on prothorax; 
elytra seriate-punctate, the punctures moderately large and sub- 
quadrate at base, feebler towards apex; sterna distinctly and not 
very densely punctate. 

Head transverse; eyes prominent; antenna? widely separated, 
not passing anterior cox?e, two basal joints of club transverse — 
the middle wider than basal, apical joint circular. Prothorax 
broadly transverse, very little wider behind than in front; sides 
slightly rounded, apex feebly and widely emarginate, sides 
narrowly margined and with traces of costpe. Scutellum very 
small, widely transverse. Elytra about twice as long as head and 
prothorax combined, not twice as long as wide; base truncate, 
shoulders scarcely rounded, sides sul^parallel to near the apex. 
Basal segment of abdomen with two oblique lines on each side, 
both commencing at the middle of the base, the first straight and 
terminating at the apex; the second curvilinear, terminating before 
the apex. Legs rather short and flat; tibite dilating towards 
apex; claw joint of posterior tarsi as long as the others combined. 
Length 2|, width IJmm. 

Uab. — Donnybrook, W.A. 

Proportionately broader than any species known to me. 

D E R ]M E S T I D .E. 

Antheenus socius, n.sp. 

Subparallel, subdepressed, shining. • Black; undersurface 
piceous-black, margined v/itli dull red at the base and sides of the 
prothorax, and at the apex of the abdominal segments (except 
the apical), legs also dull red; club of antennae and palpi ferru- 
ginous. Above covered with short blackish hair, very short on 


the head, sparse on the prothorax (each hair rising from a 
puncture), and rather dense and longest on elytra, on which also 
there are a few very indistinct grey hairs on the basal two-thirds; 
on the undersurface the pubescence is very short and greyish- 
black. Above densely and not very minutely punctate, the 
punctures strongest on elytra, sparsest on prothorax, and densest 
on head; the whole surface covered with microscopic punctures, 
m3st visible on scutellum; undersurface and femora densely and 
shallowly punctate, punctures densest on prosternum. 

Head rather dull, transverse, feebly transversely impressed 
between the eyes and antennse, and with a very indistinct median 
line; antennse short, immersed in prothorax to about the middle 
of its sides, 1st and 2nd joints somewhat large, between the 2nd 
and club the joints are very short and transverse; club slightly 
longer than the rest of antennse, composed of three joints, of 
which the 2nd is strongly transverse, it is about half the length of 
the 3rd (which is scarcely transverse), the 1st is transverse. 
Prothorax polished, strongly transverse, the sides narrowly 
margined, feebly depressed along the base; anterior angles slightly 
prominent, giving the apex a feebly emarginate appearance, which 
otherwise would be truncate; base shallowly bisinuate. Scutellum 
small, transverse, curvilinearly triangular. Elytra parallel-sided 
to near the apex, about one and a half times as long as wide, 
shoulders rounded, base feebly depressed on each side, suture 
feebly depressed at apex. Prosternum with antennal grooves 
broad, feebly strigose (to the naked eye appearing highly polished); 
keel narrow, feebly carinate. Metasternum with a feeble impres.- 
sion down its middle. Legs — especially the tarsi — slender- 
Length 2i, width 1} (vix) mm. 

II a b . — Syd ney . 

I obtained my unique specimen under a stone in the nest of a 
small black ant; there were numerous larvse and a few pupfB, 
most of which I left, hoping to procure some additional imagines on 
a future occasion. 



Lycaon Mastersi, Macl. {Hemiopsida, MacL), Mast. Cat. Sp. No. 


This species was described by Sir William Macleay as belong- 
ing to the Elatbrid^. It certainly belongs to the genus Lycaon, 
and is, I think, the species described by Bonvouloir as L. novus. 

D A S C I L L I D ^. 

Helodes scalaris, n.sp. 

Subdepressed, shining. Above piceous-black, undersurface 
piceous-red. Above densely clothed with short ashen pubescence, 
densest on the head; on the undersurface .the pubescence is very 
short. Densely and minutely punctate all over. 

Head broad, flat, several shallow irregular impressions in the 
middle; eyes large, prominent, finely faceted; antennae flattened, 
reaching posterior coxae, 1st joint large, thick, 2nd very small, 3rd 
longest of all, 4th-10th gradually decreasing in length, 11th 
slightly longer than 10th. Prothorax about three times as broad 
as long, narrowly margined all round, widely emarginate in front, 
the middle scarcely lobed; base feebly bisinuate; anterior angles 
scarcely reaching the middle of the e3^es. Scutellum triangular, 
flat, its sides straight. Elytra at base slightly broader than 
prothorax, scarcely widening to middle, and then as gradually 
decreasing to near apex, narrowly margined; four cost?e on each 
elytron— running from near base to near ajDex, the lateral one 
shortest and least distinct. Abdominal segments (except apical) 
with a shallow fovea on each side. Tibiae grooved outwardly, the 
sides minutely serrate. Length 11, width 7 mm. 

//a6._Galston, KS.W. (Mr. D. Dumbrell). 

The above is the description of my largest specimen; I have 
two others which are much smaller, the smallest measuring 7 x 
4 mm. ; it differs also in being more shining, paler beneath; in the 
antennae which are much longer (reaching apex of abdomen), and 


having the apical joint fully as long if not longer than the third, 
the head and abdominal segments without impressions. Mr. 
Dumbrell informs me that he captured the three specimens 
whilst crawling out of the same burning log. 


Selenurus granulatus, n.sp. 

^. Elongate, shining, depressed. Testaceous-red; head with a 
small oblique brown marking close to eyes, palpi black, basal 
joints of antennas more or less diluted with red, the rest black; 
prothorax with the apical third black — except on a slight inter- 
ruption in the middle; elytra coppery green; tip of femora, apical 
half of tibia; and the tarsi black; abdomen with the segments 
having on the undersurface black markings at the sides, the 
apical only entirely black, on the upper surface there is in addition 
a black macula in the middle of each ; eyes dark brown. Covered 
all over — densest on elytra — with short white pubescence; the 
upper surface in addition with short black setiform hairs — most 
noticeable on prothorax. Minutely punctate all over. 

Head feebly transverse; eyes moderate, not very prominent ; 
antennas slender, reaching or slightly passing posterior coxae. Pro- 
thorax feebly transverse; wider than head, not much wider at 
apex than at base; irregularly and shallowly depressed ; base 
margined, sides feebly reflexed. Elytra not twice as long as head 
and prothorax combined, each somewhat wedge-shaped; the whole 
surface densely covered with small, shining, rounded elevations, 
giving it an embossed appearance. Legs moderately long, femora 
thickened, posterior tibiaa bent. Length to apex of elytra 5 J, of 
abdomen 6 J; width limm. 

^. Differs in being larger, broaden, head narrower, with shorter 
antennae; the black of prothorax appearing as lateral maculae; the 
disk smoother, &c. Length to apex of elytra 6, of abdomen 7f ; 
width 1^ mm. 

Hab. — Bunbury, West Australia. 


I have beaten numerous specimens into the umbrella from 
several dwarf Kncalypts growing almost on the sea-l^each; for a 
long time, even on hot days, they feign death, rolling up the 
abdomen, tucking in the antennae, and then lying on their sides. 

Selbnurus tricolor, n.sp. 

,;3 . Elongate, feebly shining, depressed. Head black, sides im- 
mediately in front of the eyes testaceous; prothorax testaceous, a 
large black blotch — occupying most of the upper surface — irregu- 
larly W-shaped ; scutellum black ; elytra dark bluish-green ; 
abdomen testaceous, the lower surface having the 1st segment 
immaculate, 2nd with a small spot on each side, 3rd with the 
middle of base, 4th with entire base, the 5th (except apex) and 
the entire 6th and 7th black, the markings on the upper surface 
are somewhat different, there being more black towards the sides; 
meso-, and metasternum, except sides, legs and antennae black; base 
of coxpe testaceous. Clothed all over — sparsest in the middle of 
meso- and metasternum — with short pale pubescence. Very 
minutely punctate all over, except on the elytra where they are 
dense, rugose, and shallow, but obliterated at apex. 

Head not much longer than wide; eyes rather large and promi- 
nent; antennae slender, reaching posterior coxa3; 1st joint as long 
as 2nd-3rd combined, 2nd very short, 4th as long as 1st, 4th-llth 
equal or very slightly diminishing to apex. Prothorax the width of 
head ; irregularly depressed ; strongly rounded in front, sides 
constricted near base, base feebly sinuate. Scutellum small, 
truncate, a shallow depression in its middle. Elytra not one and 
a half times the width of prothorax ac base, and about one and a 
half times the length of head and prothorax combined; each 
wedge-shaped ; margins and suture thickened — especially towards 
apex; with traces of costie (visible to the naked eye, but much 
confused with a Coddington lens). Penultimate segment of 
abdomen widely emarginate. Legs long and thin. Length to 
apex of elytra 6, of abdomen 8|; width If mm. 

ZTa^.— Blackheath, N.S.W. (Mr. G. Masters). 


One specimen has much less black about the abdomen and 
sterna, and there is a small testaceous macula situated near the 
apex of, and common to both elytra. The species comes closest 
to *S'. variegatus, which Mr. Masters also captured in considerable 
able numbers. 

Heteromastix bicolor, Bohem.; Mast. Cat. Sp. No. 3389. 

Of this species onl}^ the male has been described. I have several 
pairs obtained in copula. The female differs in having the antenna? 
less thick, the tenth joint similar in shape to the ninth, and in the 
apical joints being piceous, only the first three or four joints being 

Heteromastix gagaticeps, n.sp. 

$. Oblong, shining, subdepressed. Black; pro thorax, mandi- 
bles, ti]3 of femora, basal fourth of posterior, basal two-fifths of 
intermediate, and almost the entire anterior tibi£e testaceous; 
antennae with the three basal joints — and the fourth beneath — 
testaceous, the others black; palpi and tarsi piceous; claws 
reddish; eyes blackish-brown. Head and prothorax sparsely 
clothed with short yellowish pubescence, that on the head very 
short; elytra more densely clothed with short sub-erect pubes- 
cence; on the undersurface it is yellowish-grey and rather dense 
(sparsest on abdominal segments). Head and prothorax minutely, 
elytra densely, shallowly, and somewhat rugosely punctate, punc- 
tures almost obliterated at base; undersurface and legs densely 
and minutely punctate. 

Head transverse, a shallow transverse impression on each side 
between the eyes; eyes large, prominent; antennae inserted equi- 
distant from each other and from the middle of the eyes, reaching 
posterior coxae, joints rather thick, 1st as long as 3rd-4th com- 
bined, 2nd about half as long as 3rd, 3rd-9th obconic, subequal or 
very gradually diminishing, 10 th stouter, its apex obliquely 
truncate, 11th as long as 9th-10th combined, somewhat dumb- 
bell shaped, apex pointed. Prothorax broadly transverse, slightly 
widest near the apex; apex truncate, base somewhat rounded; all 


the angles rounded; margins narrowly reflexed. Scutellum small, 
curvilinear ly triangular. Elytra parallel-sided almost to extreme 
apex, shoulders feebly rounded; more than twice as long as head 
and prothorax combined; in certain lights with feeble traces of 
costse. Penultimate segment of abdomen deeply and narrowly 
excised. Legs compressed, moderately long, anterior tibiae some- 
what bent, penultimate joint of tarsi deeply cleft, in the anterior 
the lobes widely diverging. Length 5 J, width IJmm. 

9. Differs in being slightly broader, in having shorter and 
simple antennae, lobes to penultimate joint of anterior tarsi not 
widely divergent; the colour is the same, except the amount of 
paleness of the four posterior tibiae. 

^^5._Syclney, Galston, Clifton, N.S.W. 

From the description of H. dilaticollis, the present species 
appears to differ in the colour of the legs, and in the dilatation of 
the prothorax. 

Heteromastix McDonaldi, n.sp. 

^. Oblong, shining, subdepressed. Black; prothorax clear 
testaceous, first two joints of antennae testaceous beneath, piceous 
above; mandibles dull red; palpi testaceous, apical joint piceous; 
anterior legs with the apex of femora and the base of tibiae 
obscure red. Head almost glabrous; prothorax sjDaringly pubes- 
cent; elytra moderately densely clothed with short semi-upright 
ashen pubescence; on the undersurface the pubescence is darker 
than on the elytra and very short, except at apex of abdomen. 
Head strongly punctate, the punctures as deep but not quite as 
wide at the base as in the middle, almost obliterated at apex; 
undersurface and legs densely and minutely punctate. 

Head transverse, an irregular impression and a feeble carina 
between the eyes; eyes rather small, prominent; antennae inserted 
equidistant from each other and from the middle of the eyes, 
reaching the middle of elytra, 1st joint not as long as 2nd-3rd 
combined, 2nd more than half the length of 3rd, 3rd-8th obconic, 
subequal, 9th suboval, broader and nearly as long as 7th-8th 
combined, emarginate at its outward apex, 10th slightly longer 


and narrower than 8th, 11th elongate-ovate, about one and a half 
times as long as 10th, Prothorax transverse; apex truncate, base 
rounded; anterior angles scarcely, posterior moderately strongly 
rounded; sides sul^parallel; margins narrowly reflexed; median line 
feebl}^ traceal)le. Scutellum small, depressed in the middle, 
truncate at apex. Elytra about two and a half times as long as 
head and prothorax combined; parallel-sided almost to extreme 
apex, shoulders feebly rounded; without traces of cost?e. Penul- 
tima,te segment of abdomen semicircularly excised. Legs slender, 
tibise straight, penultimate joint of tarsi deeply cleft, in the 
anterior the lobes widel}- diverging. Length 4|^, width IJmm. 
^a6.— Armidale, N.S.W. (Mr. D. McDonald). 

Heteromastix mirabilis, n.sp. 

J". Oblong, shining, subdepressed. Black; head, prothorax and 
scutellum clear testaceous, antennae with the entire basal and the 
second joint beneath testaceous, palpi piceous; anterior legs 
testaceous, apex of tibiae infuscate, tarsi piceous; four posterior 
legs piceous, their cox^e and trochantins obscure testaceous. Head 
glabrous, prothorax almost so; elytra moderately densely clothed 
with ashen suberect pubescence; undersurface and legs with 
shorter, denser and paler pubescence than on elytra. Head and 
prothorax highly polished and microscopically punctate; elytra 
very shallowly and obsoletely punctate, especially at base and 
apex; undersurface and the legs densely and minutely punctate. 

Head almost as long as the width across eyes, shallowlj^ im- 
pressed between them; eyes rather small, prominent, and quite 
round; antenna? short, thick, reaching intermediate coxae; the 
distance between them greater than that between them and the 
middle of the eyes, 1st joint as long or slightly longer than 2nd 
3rd combined, 2nd about two-thirds the length of 3rd, 3rd one 
and a half times longer than 4th, 4th-6th subequal, 6th slightly 
transverse, 7th-10th obliquely transverse, all of them different in 
shape, 10th large, rounded on its outer and hollowed on its inner 
apex, 11th large, flattened, base oblique, its outer edge rounded, 
and about half as long as the inner (which is constricted in the 



middle), hollowed internally, its extreme length equal to that of 
the three preceding joints. Prothorax broadly transverse, about 
as long as the head; apex truncate, base rounded; angles obliquely 
rounded; widest and somewhat angularly produced near the apex; 
lateral margins rather broadly reflexed, the others narrowly; 
median line feebly traceable at base. Scutellum triangular, 
almost concealed by the overlapping prothorax. Elytra parallel- 
sided almost to extreme apex, not two and a half times as long 
as head and prothorax combined; shoulders feebly rounded, each 
with, traces of about three costaj. Penultimate segment of abdo- 
men deeply and semicircular 1}^ excised. Legs slender, anterior 
tibiae very feebly bent, lobes of penultimate joint of anterior tarsi 
widely diverging. Length 4 J, width IJmm. 

Hab. — Barron Falls, North Queensland (Mr. Albert Koebele). 

The extraordinary antennae of this species will at once dis- 
tinguish it from any of its congeners. 

Heteromastix crassicornis, n.sp. 

^. Black; prothorax, muzzle and undersurface of head, under- 
surface of basal two- thirds of antenna?, and the entire basal joint, 
anterior legs, except tarsi, intermediate trochantins, apical half 
of femora, basal half of tibite, and posterior knees, testaceous; 
rest of the legs piceous-black or brown; eyes dark brown. Elj'-tra, 
sterna, and abdomen moderately densely clothed with short 
greyish pubescence. Elytra densely, minutely, and obsoletely 
punctate, meso- and metasternum minutely but visibly punctate. 

Head — excluding mandibles — widely transverse, eyes rather 
large and prominent; antennae thick, increasing to apex, reaching 
posterior coxn?, Lst joint slightly longer than 2nd-3rd combined, 
2nd about half the length of 3rd, 3rd slightly longer than 4th, 
4th-9th subequal, lOth-llth very large and thick, their combined 
length equal to 4th-9th combined, closely joined, 10th excavated 
beneath for the reception of the base of the 11th, 11th with 
depressions at its base above and on the sides, its upper edge as 
long as 10th, its lower twice as long. Prothorax about twice as 
wide as long, sides and Imse narrowly reflexed, sides feebly pro- 


ducecl near the middle. Elytra parallel-sided or very slightly 
increasing almost to apex, about twice as long as head and 
prothorax combined, in some lights with very feeble traces of 
costse. Apex of penultimate segment triangularl}- excised. Tibije 
straight. Length 4 J, width IJmm. 

9. Differs in being less robust, v/ith shorter, thinner and simple 
antennae, and in being dingier in appearance. 

Hah. — Cairns, N. Queensland (Macleay Museum). 

Helcogastbr foveiceps, n.sp. 

^. Depressed, suboblong, shining. Black; head (except sides 
behind the eyes, extreme base, and the middle of the base beneath), 
antennae (except joints 4th-7th), prothorax, apical third of four 
anterior and tip of posterior tibia?, reddish-testaceous; four 
posterior tibiae and tarsi piceous, anterior somewhat paler; eyes 
dark brown. Head moderately densely and shallowly punctate, 
prothorax more feebly; elytra, abdomen, and undersurface obso- 
letely punctate. Above with sparse greyish hairs, a few at the 
base of the head, short on prothorax, longest on elytra and sides 
of abdomen; undersurface with moderately long straggling hairs, 
densest on abdominal segments; tibiae moderately densely clothed 
with whitish pubescence. 

Head transversely suboblong; two wide impressions occupying 
most of upper surface, separated in front by an irregular elevation 
(which Yy-hen looked at from behind appears three-pointed), a fovea 
on each side behind it; eyes moderate, lateral, scarcely prominent; 
antenna? scarcely reaching posteriar coxae, inserted almost at apex, 
equidistant at their bases with the middle of the eyes, 1st joint 
scarcely as long as 2nd-3rd combined; 2nd scarcely shorter than 
3rd, 3rd-10th subequal, 11th not as long as 9th-10th combined. 
Prothorax transverse, scarcely as wide as head; apex truncate, 
base rounded, sides widest in front; anterior angles scarcely, 
posterior moderately rounded; median line feebly traceable, a 
transverse impression at base. Scutellum almost concealed by 
prothorax. Elytra about one and a quarter times as long as head 


and prothorax combined, slightly wider than head and consider- 
ably wider than prothorax at base; shoulders feebly rounded, sides 
gradually widening to near the apex, ajDex almost truncate. Legs 
slender, tibia? straight, first joint of anterior tarsi large, and con- 
cealing the second. Length to apex of elytra 1 J, of abdomen 2|; 
width I mm. 

9. Differs in having only the muzzle, four basal joints of 
antennae and the knees reddish-testaceous, anterior tibi?e piceous- 
red. Head scarcely transverse, densely and strongly punctate, 
with a number of shallow impressions; antennae shorter, prothorax 
less transverse, basal impressions very shallow, median line 
invisible, simple tarsi, &g. 

Hah.— Sydney. 

From the description of H. impressifrons (of which the male 
only is described) the male of the present species differs in the 
colour of the palpi, in having more joints of the antennae reddish, 
in the colour of the elytra, and in several structural details. I 
have a specimen in which the elytra have an indistinct greenish 
tinge. I have a pair obtained in cojnda, so can be certain 
of the sexes; there are several species in which both male and 
female strongly resemble the female of the above. 

Helcogastbr gagatinus, n.sp. 

(J. Elongate, flat, shining. Black; basal third of antennae and 
anterior legs obscure testaceous. Above with sparse and rather 
long black hairs. Almost impunctate. 

Head about as Ions: as wide; two longitudinal foveae commenc- 
ing on a level with the middle of the eyes, approximating and 
becoming shallower in front; foveae of undersurface moderatel}'' 
large, almost united ; antennae rather thin, scarcely reaching inter- 
mediate femora. Prothorax about as long as wide, narrower than 
head; almost without impressions at base; base narrowly margined. 
Elytra longer than head and prothorax combined, slightly wider 
than head, sides subparallel, apex conjointly feebly rounded. 
Basal joint of anterior tarsi large, a curved comb on its inner 
edge. Length to apex of elytra 1|, of abdomen 2 J; width i mm. 


9. Differs in being broader (especially the abdomen), with only 
the base of the antennae testaceous, the head with several very 
shallow indistinct impressions in front. Length to apex of elytra 
li, of abdomen 3|; width J mm. 

Hah. — Galston, S3^dney, Forest Reefs. 

I can be certain of the sexes of this species, having three pairs 
beaten from the same bush at Galston. 

HelcocxASTer ruficornis, n.sp. 

J. Elongate, flat, shining. Black; elytra piceous black; head, 
except basal half of upper surface, antenna?, apex of prothorax, and 
knees, obscure reddish-testaceous. Elytra sjDarsel}^ pubescent, rest 
of the surface almost glabrous. Almost impunctate. 

Head strongly rounded, transverse; depressed in front; an 
excavation between the eyes, triangularly ojDen behind almost to 
base; seen from in front with four very feeble tubercles; fovese of 
undersurface moderately large; antennie scarcely reaching inter- 
mediate cox*, equal in thickness throughout. Prothorax decidedly 
transverse, as wide as head, apex truncate; a feeble impression at 
base; middle of apex slightly raised. Elytra not much longer 
than head and prothorax combined, at base wider than head, 
gradually increasing to apex; each feebly separately rounded. 
Basal joint of anterior tarsi moderately large, a curved comb on 
its inner edge. Length to apex of elytra If, of abdomen 2|; 
width I mm. 

Hah. — Sydney. 

I undoubtedl}^ possess females of both this and the following 
species, ])ut cannot satisfy myself as to their identity, as they are 
equally common. The present species differs from the preceding 
in being less parallel, in its differently coloured head and antennse; 
and also b}^ the impressions of the head; from the following it 
differs in the colour of the prothorax, and in its more rounded 
head, with somewhat different impressions. 

Helcogaster canaliculatus, n.sp. 

^. Elongate, flat, shining. Black, muzzle testaceous; knees 
obscurely brownish-testaceous; antennie obscure testaceous-brown. 


the basal and apical joints lighter; eyes dark brown. Elytra 
sparsely pubescent, rest of the body almost glabrous. Almost 

Head decidedly transverse, depressed in front; a canal extending 
almost from base to apex, its sides in the middle marked by a small 
tubercle; seen from in front with four feeble tubercles; fovea? of 
undersurface small, and rather widely separated; antennse passing 
intermediate cox?e, equal in thickness throughout. Pro thorax 
decidedly transverse, scarcely the width of head, apex truncate; 
a feeble impression at base; middle of apex slightly raised. Elytra 
not much longer than head and pro thorax combined, at base 
slightly wider than head, gradually increasing to apex; each feebly 
separately rounded. Basal joint of anterior tarsi not very large. 
Length to apex of elytra IJ, of abdomen 2h; width 1 mm. 

ffab.—l^ew South Wales. 

Helcogaster marginicollis, n.sp. 

(J. Depressed, suboblong, shining. Plead black, all around the 
centre obscure red; undersurface and palpi testaceous, mouth parts 
black; antennae black, four basal joints testaceous; prothorax 
reddish-testaceous, the sides in the middle piceous; elytra piceous, 
an oblique pale stripe extending from the shoulders to the suture 
at less than half its length; abdomen black; four posterior legs 
piceous, their femora diluted with testaceous, anterior tibiae and 
apex of femora testaceous. Head with short sparse greyish 
pubescence, and with a few straggling hairs; prothorax on the 
disk with a few short pale hairs, the sides and front with long 
straggling blackish hairs; elytra with sparse moderatel}^ long hairs, 
a few long ones at the sides in front; abdomen more densely 
clothed with blackish hairs, longest at the sides and apex; meso- 
and metasternum with sparse greyish hairs; tibia? densely pubes- 
cent. Head densely and minutely, rest of the body obsoletely 

Head subquadrate; a deep circular impression in its middle, 
which is interrupted in front by a two-horned elevation (the horns 
short, posterior longer); eyes small, scarcely prominent, in the 


exact middle of the sides; antennae inserted close to apex, equi- 
distant at their bases with the front of the eyes, 1st joint slightly 
longer than 2nd-3rd combined, 2nd a trifle longer than 3rd, 3rd- 
10th subequal, 11th not quite as long as 9th-10th combined. Pro- 
thorax sliglitly longer and narrower than head, subquadrate, base 
and apex feebly rounded, angles scarcely rounded, sides parallel; 
base narrowly margined. Scutellum small, broad. Elytra at base 
slightly wider than head, not once and a quarter as long as 
head and prothorax combined; shoulders rounded, sides gradually 
widening and narrowly margined from about the basal fourth, 
each separately rounded. Legs slender, posterior tibiti? feebly 
bent, two short thin spurs at their apices, the other til^ias with 
very short spurs. Length to apex of elytra H, of abdomen 2^; 
width I mm. 

9. Differs in having the head almost concolorous, with two 
shallow impressions in front — a feeble carina separating them, — 
and by having shorter antenna?. 

Hah. — Galston (Dumbrell and Lea). 

Helgogaster parallelus, n.sp. 

9. Very elongate, subparallel, flat, shining. Black; base of 
antennae and knees feel^ly diluted with red. Above and sides of 
alxlomen with sparse and rather long black hairs. Almost im- 

Head longer than wide, feeljly depressed in the middle, a feeble 
elevation on each side in front, feebly corrugated at base, sides 
and undersurface ; fove?e of undersurface deep, longitudinal, 
narrowest and approximating in front: antennae slender, reaching 
posterior coxse. Prothorax distinctly longer than wide, scarcely 
the width of head across eyes, feebly constricted towards base; a 
broad and rather sudden impression near base. Elytra ver}^ little 
longer than head and prothorax coml^ined, but distinctl}^ wider; 
sides gradually increasing to apex, each feebly separately rounded. 
Length to apex of elytra 2, of abdomen 3|; width 4 mm. 

Hah. — King George's Sound, AV.A. (Mr. G. Masters). 


I have but a single specimen which, though a female, I have 
described, as its large size — in comparison with those species 
possessing a black prothorax — should render it distinct. 

Helcogaster concaviceps, n.sp. 

^. Depressed, shining. Black; head (except at base), pro- 
thorax, femora (except apex of posterior), and two basal joints of 
antennae, red; elytra dark steel-blue (almost black); nine apical 
joints of antennae, four posterior tibiae, all the tarsi, and the palpi, 
piceous-black; trochantins rejidish-brown, their bases lighter, 
posterior femora tipped with piceous, anterior tibiae reddish, their 
bases darker; eyes dark brown. Head, prothorax, and elytra 
with long blackish hairs at the sides, the latter with a few on the 
disk, the last two with a few small hairs; abdomen with a few 
longish hairs at the apex; above with sparse minute pubescence, 
undersurface more sparsely still; meso- and metasternum with a 
few short hairs, tibiae with minute whitish pubescence, and a few 
straggling hairs. Head rather densely and minutely punctate; 
prothorax minutely punctate, most noticeable at apex; elytra 
irregularly, abdomen above minutely, undersurface more sparingly 
punctate; meso-, metasternum and legs minutely but distinctly 

Head transverse; two wide and deep excavations between the 
eyes, an indistinct carina separating them; eyes small, moderately 
prominent; antennae slender, not reaching base of elytra, equi- 
distant at their bases with the front of the eyes, 1st joint almost 
as long as 2nd-4th combined, 11th one and a half times as long 
as 10th. Prothorax longer than wide, apex slightly rounded, 
base truncate, angles equally rounded, sides and base "^'ery 
narrowly margined, sides subparallel; an indistinct longitudinal 
impression on each side in front, and a broad transverse one at 
the base. Scutellum almost concealed by the prothorax, the part 
which is visible widely transverse. Elytra about as long as 
head and prothorax combined, much wider than prothorax, and 
wider than head across eyes, base truncate, shoulders square, the 
sides dilating to about the basal fifth, each separately rounded. 


Basal segments of abdomen broad. Legs slender, tibia3 straight, 
first tarsal joint large (externally minutely serrate), concealing 
the second joint. Length to apex of elytra 2, of abdomen 3^; 
width 4 mm. 

^. Differs in being broader, prothorax transverse, the head 
with less red, and less rugosely sculptured, posterior femora 
piceous, intermediate reddish on apical half only, anterior tibia^ 
reddish-brown and with simple tarsi. 

Hah.— Galston. 

Helcogaster major, n.sp. 

^^. Rather robust, shining, slightly convex, parallel-sided. 
Reddish-testaceous, apical joints of antenna slightly infuscate; 
four posterior coxa3 and base of posterior femora infuscate; meso-, 
metasternum and abdomen black; elytra black, with a faint 
coppery-blue tinge. Above with sparse and rather long black 
hairs, undersurface with short sparse pubescence. Elytra densely, 
minutely, and very shallowly punctate. 

Head — excluding mandibles — transverse; anterior half deeply 
excavated, the sides of the excavation near the eyes marked by a 
raised tubercle, and in front and close to the antennae very s^lightly 
raised, the head when viewed from behind appearing to possess 
four short horns; feebly corrugated at base, sides and under- 
surface; fovese of undersurface approximate, rather large, open 
behind; antennae almost reaching apex of elj^tra, 2nd joint slightly 
longer than 3rd, 5th-9th strongly serrate internally. Prothorax 
strongly rounded, transverse, about the width of head, a feeble 
depression at base and a still feebler interrupted one at apex. 
Elytra not much longer than head and prothorax combined, at 
base scarcely wider than head, very feebly increasing to apex, 
each separately rounded. Basal joint of anterior tarsi large, a 
black curved comb inwardly, a few sliort black set?e to posterior 
tibiae. Length to apex of elytra 3 J, of abdomen b\; width Hmm. 

9. Differs in being less robust, with simple antennae, and tarsi 
more obscurely coloured; the head longer, much more shallowly 
depressed, with two shallow fovea?, and without elevations. 

Hah. — North West Australia (Macleay Museum). 



There is in the Macleay Museum a male — also from the North- 
West — which differs from the above (of which I have three males 
under examination agreeing in all particulars) in having the 
antennae, except base, the femora, except apex, and all the tarsi 
brown; the antennae appear to be shorter, and the head less deeply 
sculptured; possibly it is a distinct species, but at present I can 
only regard it as a variety. 

Helcogaster fuscitarsis, n.sp. 

(J. Elongate, shining, depressed. Black; head, except base, 
four basal joints of antennae and undersurface of 5th, apical half 
of anterior and two-thirds of four posterior femora, tibiae, and 
base of tarsi, testaceous; shoulders very feebly diluted with 
testaceous. Above with sparse and moderately long blackish 
hairs, elytra and abdomen with sparse short and obscure greyish 
pubescence. Head and elytra densely, very minutely and obso- 
letely punctate. 

Head longer than wide; eyes moderately large; a deep and 
somewhat circular excavation in front, commencing a little behind 
the eyes, its sides from in front of the eyes marked by a slight 
carina, which between the antennae is directed backward and 
terminates in a feeble tubercle in the middle; base, sides and 
undersurface feebty corrugated; foveae rather large, round, rough- 
walled, approximate; antenme almost reaching posterior coxae, 
feebly thickest in the middle, the two apical joints equal in 
length. Prothorax a little longer than wide, not the width of 
head; a broad shallow impression at base; base narrow^ mar- 
gined. Elytra about one and a quarter times as long as head and 
prothorax combined, at base decidedly wider than head, increasing 
to apex, each separately rounded internally, and obliquely truncate 
externally. Basal joint of anterior tarsi not very large. Length 
to apex of elytra 21-. of abdomen 4; width 1 J mm. 

Hah. — Sydney. 

Helcogaster brachypterus, Bohem.; Mast. Cat. Sp. No. 3441. 

Only the male of this species has been described; the female 
differs in having the head narrower and entirely black, the pro- 


thorax smaller and less brightly coloured, knees more obscurely 
coloured, antennae shorter and thinner; and the whole insect is 


(J. Elongate, depressed, shining. Black; head, except at base 
and a median line beneath, prothorax, the entire anterior, base of 
four posterior tibiae, and tips of femora, reddish- testaceous; elytra 
with the shoulders testaceous, the marking continued on the sides • 
antennae piceous-black, four basal joints testaceous-red, the two 
following not as dark as those following them; palpi and tips of 
mandibles piceous, eyes dark brown. Head with short, rather 
dense, blackish hairs, longest over excavations; prothorax and 
el3^tra with a few long hairs, abdomen with sparse hairs, rather 
long at sides and apex, meso- and metasternum with sparse short 
hairs, tibiae rather densely pubescent. Head densely and shallowly 
punctate, base feebly transversely strigose, jDrothorax and elytra 
obsoletely punctate; scutellum minutely and distinctly punctate; 
abdomen with sparse, moderately strong punctures; legs densely 
and minutely punctate. 

Head obliquely quadrate, with six excavations — three occupying 
the space between the eyes, of which the central one is smallest, 
the two outer being rounded, a large one in front, the sides of 
which are sharply margined, a very small one on each side at its 
base; eyes moderately large and prominent; antenna scarcely 
reaching apex of elytra, equidistant at their bases with the apices 
of mandibles and middle of eyes, 1st joint as long as 2nd-3rd 
combined, 2nd-10th subequal, 11th about once and a half as 
long as 10th. Prothorax longer than wide, and narrower than 
head, apex truncate, base feebly rounded, angles almost equally 
rounded, sides subparallel; a broad transverse impression at the 
base, base narrowly margined. Scutellum small, broadly trans- 
verse, apex truncate. Elytra about one and a quarter times as 
long as head and prothorax combined, wider than head, shoulders 
feebly rounded, sides gradually widening, and narrowly margined 
from near the base, apex conjointly rounded, almost truncate 
Legs moderate, posterior tibia? feebly bent, with two thin spurs at 


their apices. Length to apex of elytra 2^, of abdomen 4 J; width 

9. Differs in having the head narrower and almost entirely- 
black, a feeble carina separating two shallow impressions in front, 
a shallow transversely carinate fovea behind it, antennae thinner, 
legs with less red. 

ffab. — Queanbeyan, Sydney, Clifton, Tamworth, Forest Eeefs, 

I have a male (from Sydney) which has the antennae piceous, 
and with the five basal joints reddish; a female almost without 
impressions on the head; another specimen (from Clifton) has the 
elytra entirely black, the middle discal impression on the head 
very feeble, and the two lateral ones larger than in the type, the 
whole insect smaller in size (2 mm. to apex of elytra). 


I have from Tamworth a number of specimens which agree 
with the type except in having the elytra entirely testaceous, the 
female with the posterior fovese scarcely traceal^le, and the male 
with the excaA^ations slightly different. As, however, T have a 
number of close intermediate forms I have thought it advisable 
not to 2:ive them more than a varietal name. 

Helcogaster tuberculatus, n.sp. 

(^. Elongate, shining, depressed. Head reddish-testaceous, 
apical two-thirds of antennae infuscate, prothorax reddish- 
testaceous, the anterior half — except near the sides — black; elytra 
black with — in some lights— a faint purplish reflection; abdomen 
black; legs brownish-black, trochantins and base of femora more 
or less reddish-testaceous; eyes dark green. A very few longish 
hairs at the sides of prothorax and abdomen. Almost impunctate, 
the elytra very obsoletely. 

Head transA^erse; largely, deeply and transversely excavated, 
with four distinct sinuosities; in front with a distinctly raised 
tubercle, flat on its anterior, feebly divided on its posterior edge, 


a small tubercle in the exact centre of the head; foYe?e of under- 
surface moderately large, appro xmiate, rough-walled; antenna3 
slender, reaching intermediate coxae. Prothorax slightly longer 
than wide, not the width of head across eyes; somewhat mortar- 
shaped; convex in front; a broad and rather deep impression at 
base. Elytra no longer than head and prothorax combined, sides 
parallel, base and apex parallel. Basal joint of anterior tarsi not 
very large. Length to apex of elytra 21, of abdomen 4; width 
4 mm. 


Hah. — Sydney. 

A very peculiar species, abundantly distinct from any here 
described. I have another species somewhat resembling it but much 
narrower, and having eyes which, when wet, are of a most 
brilliant emerald green ; unfortunately it has lost its elytra, so I 
refrain from describing it. 

Carphurus CRIST atifroxs, Fairm., Mast. Cat. Sp. No. 3421. 

Onl}'^ the male of this species has been described; the female 
differs in being broader, without elytral armature, the head much 
smoother and with slenderer antenme. 

I have specimens from Galston. 

Carphurus Blackburni, n.sp. 

(J. Elongate, shining, depressed. Black; elytra with an obscure 
purplish reflection; muzzle, two basal joints of antennae, prothorax, 
apex of elytra, apex of penultimate abdominal segment, anterior 
tibiae, the four posterior more obscure, reddish-testaceous. 
Clothed all over — densest on abdomen, sparsest on sterna — with 
long blackish hairs. Head near the eyes rather strongly punctate; 
prothorax sparsely and minutely, elytra densely, not very minutely 
and obsoletely punctate; undersurface indistinctly punctate. 

Head much longer than wide ; eyes small, prominent, the sides 
rapidly decreasing in width behind them; a small fovea on each 
side in front; a short ridge behind them, obliquely behind them is 
a shallow depression, a very narrow impression between the eyes 
terminating at the ridge; antennae reaching posterior coxae, 1st 


joint longer than 2nd-3rd combined, 2nd not much shorter than 
3rd, 3rd-10th subequal, serrate internally, 11th scarcely once and 
a half as long as 10th; base and sides finely corrugated; fovete 
of undersurface moderate in size, almost connected, walls feebly 
wrinkled. Prothorax oblong, as wide as head (excluding eyes), 
angles slightly rounded ; a broad shallow impression at base, and 
a shallower interrupted one at apex. Sides of elytra emarginate 
at a third from the apex, at the posterior end of this emargination 
a short stalk — carrying a small globule — projects outwards and a 
little forwards; this globule is somewhat different in colour to the 
apex; each separately rounded. Anterior tarsi with basal joint 
small, not much longer than second. Length to apex of elytra 3, 
of abdomen 4 J; width l^-mm. 

9. Differs in having the elytra simple, shorter and thinner 
antennae, and smaller head. 

Hah. — Adelaide (Messrs. Blackburn and Masters); Mt. Lofty, 
S.A. (Lea). 

The colour of this species is very distinct from either of its 
armed congeners. 

Carphurus carinaticeps, n.sp. 

^. Elongate, shining, depressed. Black; prothorax with a 
faint purplish reflection and indistinctly diluted with brown; basal 
third of antennae and prothorax dull red; undersurface of head, 
knees, and apices of coxae obscure red. Above with a few long 
blackish hairs, undersurface almost glabrous. Head densely, 
minutely but distinctly punctate; the prothorax and el3^tra sparsely 
and obsoletely, flanks of meso- and metasternum minutely, 
abdomen indistinctly punctate. 

Head strongly transverse, with three distinct longitudinal 
carinse — one on each side directly behind antennae and close to the 
eyes, the third in the middle — commencing at the clypeus and 
terminating slightly before the others, from some directions all of 
them appear to be double; antennae short, reaching posterior coxae, 
1st joint as long as 2nd-3rd combined, 2nd-10th subequal, 2nd sub- 
cylindric, 3rd-10th broadly obconic, 11th acuminate, as long as 


9th- 10th combined; corrugate at the sides; fovea3 of undersurface 
almost connected. Prothorax decidedly longer than wide, at its 
widest the width of the head (excluding eyes); angles rounded, a 
distinct and rather wide transverse impression at base, none at apex; 
base narrowly margined. Elytra strongly dilating towards apex, 
where the width is not much less than their length, each almost 
obliquely truncate. Length to apex of elytra 2, of abdomen 3; 
width 1^ mm. 

Hab. — Sydney. 

A small species, which should be easily recognised by the 
carinate head. 

Carphurus impunctatus, n.sp. 

9. Elongate, subparallel, shining, strongly depressed. Head 
and prothorax reddish, with obscure brownish blotches — -in the 
former towards the sides, in the latter on apical half; antennae 
reddish, apical third infuscate; elytra black, the basal fourth 
testaceous, the two colours distinctly separated; abdomen black, 
base and margins of the second segments reddish; legs brownish- 
black, tarsi testaceous; undersurface of coxa?, of anterior portion 
of intermediate, and base of posterior femora, diluted with testa- 
ceous. Sparsely clothed with not very long blackish hair, under- 
surface almost glabrous. Head with a few small punctures, none 
visible elsewhere. 

Head slightly convex, rounded, very slightly longer than wide; 
an impression commencing almost at base, continuous almost to 
middle, and then becoming circular, the circle enclosing a low 
elevation (invisible from some, and appearing tuberculate from 
other directions) ; antennae slender, subcylindrical, almost reaching 
apex of el3^tra, 1st joint slightly longer than 2nd-3rd combined, 
2nd not much shorter than 3rd, 3rd-5th gradually, 6th-10th per- 
ceptibly increasing in length, 11th once and a half as long as 
10th; fovese of undersurface deep, smooth- walled, almost connected. 
Prothorax mortar-shaped, much longer than wide, wider than head, 
truncate at base and apex; anterior two-thirds strongly convex; 
base with a deep and wide impression, no trace of one at apex. 


Elytra about as long as head and prothorax combined, about one 
and a half times as long as the width at base, each feebly 
separately rounded (almost truncate), shoulders very feebly 
rounded. Length to apex of elytra 2^, of abdomen 5^; width 
1 mm. 

Bab.— Forest Reefs, N.S.W. 

A very distinct species, unlike any other known to me; it 
should perhaps constitute the type of a new genus. 

Carphurus fasciipennis, Fairm., Mast. Cat. Sp. No. 3426. 

This is a somewhat common species in Northern Queensland. 
The elytral fascia is subject to considerable variation; some speci- 
mens have it occupying almost the entire surface, in others it is 
small, appearing as a dark sutural macula, and in others again it 
is entirely obsolete. Some specimens are twice as large as others. 

Carphurus angustatus, n.sp. 

9. Very narrow, parallel-sided, depressed, feebly shining. 
Black; first three antennal joints beneath, palpi (excej)t apical 
joint), a semicircle at base of undersurface of head, and pro- 
thorax, red; elytra dark green (in some lights with an obscure 
purplish reflection); base of cox?e diluted with red. Covered all 
over with long blackish hair, and — except on prothorax — with short 
pale pubescence. Head densely — especially at sides — and minutely 
punctate; prothorax sparsely and obsoletely, the elytra densely, 
not ver}^ strongly, and somewhat rugosely punctate; sides of meso- 
and metasternum distinctly but minutely, the abdomen very 
minutely punctate. 

Head longer than wide; eyes small, moderately prominent; a 
depression on each side forming an oblique ridge behind the base 
of the antenna?, a very shallow impression on the disk (from 
behind appearing as a small fovea); antennae slender, almost 
reaching apex of elytra, joints cylindrical, 1st fully as long as 2nd- 
3rd combined, 2nd distinctly shorter than 3rd, 3rd-10th gradually 
increasing in length, 11th acuminate, scarcely one and a half 
times as long as 10th; base and sides feebly corrugated; fovea? of 



undersurface deep, their sides slightly wrinkled. Pro thorax 
strongly rounded, decidedly longer than wide, wider than head; a 
feeble impression at base, and a still feebler interrupted one at 
apex ; base narrowly margined and feel^ly sinuate. Elytra 
gradually dilating towards apex, each feebly separately rounded. 
Length to apex of elytra 3 J, of abdomen 6f; width l^mm. 

Hah. — Tam worth. 

A very narrow species, in colour strongly resembling C. cyanop- 
terus, but the width of that species at once separates them. 

Carphurus alterniventris, Fairm., Mast. Cat. Sp. No. 3412. 

I have a pair (obtained in copula) of this species from the 
Tweed River. The male has the elytra conoolorous, whilst in 
the female they are diluted with red along the base and basal 
margin; the head in the latter is without markings, while in the 
former there is a distinct black blotch connecting the eyes. 

Carphurus basiventris, n.sp. 

9. Elongate, shining, depressed. Head, basal joint of antennae 
and undersurface of two following, prothorax, extreme tip of 
femora, tibia?, and basal joint of tarsi, reddish-testaceous ; elytra 
very dark purple; abdomen with the basal segment, apex of second, 
apical, and base of penultimate, diluted with. red. Above and 
the legs covered with long black hair, densest and shortest on 
elytra; sterna with very indistinct pubescence. Head rather 
densely, irregularly and minutely, prothorax sparseh' and minutely 
punctate; elytra densely and strongly punctate, at the base less 
strongly than elsewhere; undersurface very indistinctly punctate. 

Head much longer than wide; eyes small, prominent; a broad 
and very shallow depression on each side between eyes; mandibles 
prominent; antennae scarcely passing base of prothorax, the joints 
flat, 1st slightly longer than 2nd-3rd combined, 2nd scarcely the 
length of 3rd, 3rd-10th subequal, 4th-10th serrate inwardly, 11th 
not one and a half times as long as 10th; corrugated at base, 
sides and undersurface; fovese small, open behind, the space behind 
them distinctly corrugated. Prothorax a trifle longer than wide, 


scarcely if at all wider than head, apex strongl}^ rounded, base 
truncate and narrowly margined its entire length; a broad shallow 
impression at base and traces of another at apex. Elytra almost 
parallel-sided, each feebly separately rounded. Length to apex of 
el3'i:ra 4 J, of abdomen 7; width IJ nim. 

Hah. — ^Como, near Sydney. 

Very similar in shape to C. alterniventris and, except for the 
ventral segments, similar in colour; there are several other feeble 

Carphurus longicollis, n.sp. 

(J. Elongate, shining, depressed. Black; prothorax with a faint 
purplish reflection, head (except eyes, apex and cutting edges of 
mandibles, and a brownish blotch on the undersurface), three first 
joints of antennae, prothorax, and two apical segments of abdomen, 
red. Covered all over — sparsest on head, densest towards apex of 
abdomen — with long blackish hairs; elytra and sterna at the 
sides with obscure, sparse, pale and rather short pubescence. 
Head and prothorax with sparse minute punctures; elytra densely, 
minutely and obsoletely punctate ; undersurface indistinctly 

Head much longer than wide; eyes small, prominent; the width 
across them much greater than at base; a shallow depression on 
each side behind the antennae; mandibles rather prominent; 
antennae rather flat, passing intermediate coxae; 1st joint slender, 
arcuate, a trifle longer than 2nd-3rd combined, 2nd subglobular, 
not quite the length of 3rd, 3rd-10th broad, subequal, 11th very 
little longer than and not quite the length of 10th; feebly corru- 
gated at base, sides and undersurface; foveae rather small and 
rough-walled. Prothorax much longer than wide, as long as head, 
and at its widest slightly more than head across eyes, widest near 
apex, angles rounded; a distinct and rather deep impression at 
base, and a shallower interrupted one at apex; base narrowly 
margined. Elytra rather strongly dilating towards apex, not 
more than one and a quarter times as long as the width at apex, 
each obliquely truncate. Anterior tarsi with basal joint narrow, 


as long as three following combined. Length to ajDex of elytra 
3Jj of abdomen 5|; width l|^mm. 

9. Differs in being somewhat dingier, with slenderer antennu3 
and narrower elytra. 

Hah. — Gosford, Sydney, Galston. 

Yery similar in colour to the preceding, differing in having 
narrower ventral segments, and in the colour of the two apical 
ones; it is besides much smaller in size. 

Carphurus latipennis, n.sp. 

(J. Rather broad, slightly convex, shining. Head black; muzzle 
testaceous, antennae black, four basal joints and undersurface of 
fifth testaceous; prothorax reddish-testaceous; scutellum black; 
elytra dark coppery green; abdominal segments black, narrowly 
margined — except apical — with testaceous; legs testaceous, four 
posterior cox^e and trochantins blackish, femora with more or less 
black, the intermediate almost encircled near apex. Covered all 
over — densest on abdomen — with long blackish hair, elytra and 
sterna in addition with rather short whitish pubescence. Head, 
prothorax and scutellum sparsely and minutely, elytra densely, 
equally and rugosely punctate; flanks of meso- and metasternum 
distinctly but minutely, abdomen very minutely punctate. 

Head large, strongly transverse (excluding the mandibles); 
eyes large, not at all prominent, the sides behind them almost 
parallel; a semicircular impression between the eyes, the horns of 
which terminate close to the clypeus and bases of antennse; near 
the base a very shallow impression (invisible from some direc- 
tions); antenna3 slender, reaching intermediate cox?e, joints sub- 
cylindric, gradually narrowing, 1st as long as 2nd-3rd combined, 
2nd not as long as 3rd, 3rd-7th subequal, 8th-llth perceptibly 
increasing in length; undersurface of head faintly corrugated; two 
small elongate fove^e in the middle, the space between them dis- 
tinctly corrugated. Prothorax slightly longer than wide, sub- 
quadrate, angles feebly rounded, wider than head across eyes; 
a shallow irregular impression at base, traces of another at apex; 
apex distinctly emarginate, base feebly margined and very feebly 


sinuate. Elytra subparallel for a third of their length, then 
dilating towards apex, each feebly rounded towards suture — 
stronger outwardly. Tibiae with blackish setae at their apices; 
anterior tarsi w^ith basal joint as long as three following combined, 
and with a black comb inwardly. Length to apex of elytra 6, of 
abdomen 9|; width 2| mm. 

Hah.— Forest Reefs. 

I have another specimen — also a male — which has the anterior 
edge of prothorax entire, but I can find no other difference. 

Carphurus testaceipes, n.sp. 

(J. Elongate, shining, depressed. Head, prothorax and legs 
clear testaceous; part of the 1st joint of anterior tarsi and posterior 
trochantins blackish; elytra blackish, with a coppery-green 
reflection; scutellum, meso- and metasternum black; abdomen 
black, the basal segments margined; apical half of the antepen- 
ultimate, and the two apical, red. Covered all over —sparsest on 
head and sterna — with long blackish hair, a few long hairs at 
base of 1st antennal joint; elytra with rather dense whitish 
pubescence, very sparse on meso- and metasternum. Head and 
prothorax with sparse minute punctures; on the elytra they are 
stronger, denser and somewhat rugose; flanks of meso- and 
metasternum minutely, the abdominal segments very minutely 

Head with feeble corrugations at base and sides, longer than 
wdde; eyes small, not very prominent; antenna3 rather thick, 
passing intermediate coxae, 1st joint large, thick, feebly emargi- 
nate on its upper and slightly inflated on its lower edge, as long as 
2nd-4th combined, 2nd equal in length to 4th, and slightly longer 
than 3rd, 6th-llth perceptibly increasing in length, 6th-8th 
rather broad, 9th-llth almost cylindric; a depression on each side 
behind antennae, feebly connected posteriorly, a low broad ridge 
—behind which is a small fovea — separating them; undersurface 
with two shallow transverse impressions, the longest extending 
between eyes, the other a short distance behind it. Prothorax 
strongly rounded, about as long as wide, as wide as head; a broad 


shallow impression at base, and a shallow interrupted one at apex; 
base narrowly margined. Elytra almost parallel-sided, each 
separately rounded. Anterior tarsi with basal joint as long as 
the three following combined, and having a black comb inwardly. 
Length to apex of elytra 4, of abdomen 6^; width 14 mm. 

Hah. — Forest Reefs. 

Possibly the male of C. cyciJiipennis, of which I have seen but 
females (five specimens). The antenna entirely testaceous, and the 
very large and abnormally shaped basal joint render this species 
peculiarly distinct. 

Carphurus lepidus, n.sp. 

^. Elongate, shining, depressed. Head, two basal joints of 
antennae, prothorax, base of elytra, anterior legs (apex of tibiae 
and tarsi infuscate), and intermediate coxae, testaceous; apical 
three-fifths of elytra purplish-black, the basal portion a little 
paler than prothorax; meso- and metasternum black; abdomen 
testaceous, the two apical segments black; intermediate trochan- 
tins and knees, posterior trochantins and basal half of tibiae, 
diluted with testaceous. Covered all over with long thin blackish 
hair (sparsest on head, prothorax and elytra); elytra and sides of 
meso- and metasternum — to a less extent — with sparse, short, pale 
pubescence. Head and prothorax sparsely and minutely punctate, 
the elytra very densely and rather minutely; flanks of meso- and 
metasternum with minute, the abdomen with very minute j^unc- 

Head longer than wide; eyes moderately large, jDrominent, 
between them very shallow irregular impressions (from in front 
appearing to be separated by a trident-shaped elevation); antennae 
scarcely reaching posterior coxae, 1st joint scarcely as long as 2nd- 
3rd combined, 2nd shorter than 3rd, 3rd-5th triangular, to the 
10th becoming subpectinate, 11th slightly longer than the inner 
edge of 10th; sides ver}' feebly corrugated; foveae of undersurface 
small, smooth, connected posteriorly. Prothorax rounded, much 
longer than wide, the width of head (excluding e3''es); a very 
shallow interrupted impression at both base and apex; base 
narrowly margined. Elytra gradually widening to apex, each 


separately rounded. Anterior tarsi with basal joint thick, longer 
than three following combined, and having a black comb inwardly. 
Length to apex of elytra 4, width 1^ mm. 

Hah. — Galston. 

Differs from C. scajyulatus in having the head concolorous, 
the testaceous marking of the elytra much larger, and by its 
differently coloured legs. My unique specimen has the abdomen 
considerably shrunken. 

Carphurus pictipbs, n.sp. 

9. Elongate, shining, depressed. Black; muzzle, undersurface 
of first three antennal joints, prothorax, anterior coxse, knees, 
half of posterior tibise, and basal joint of tarsi, testaceous. Covered 
all over — sparsest on middle of meso-, metasternum and head — 
with short pale pubescence; above with blackish hair, sparsest on 
prothorax, longest on abdomen. Head and prothorax sparsely 
and minutely, elytra very densely, minutely and obsoletely punc- 
tate; flanks of meso- and metasternum minutely, abdomen very 
minutely punctate. 

Head scarcely longer than wide; eyes rather large, not very 
prominent, a foveate impression on each side between them (from 
some directions appearing as two, in others as four longitudinal 
fovea3); antennae reaching posterior coxa?, 1st joint scarcely as 
long as 2nd-3rd combined, 2nd decidedly shorter than 3rd, 3rd- 
10th subequal in length, 4th-5th triangular, 6th-10th subpecti- 
nate, 11th elongate-ovate, as long as the inner edge of 10th; sides 
and undersurface corrugated; fove?e rather large, round, rough- 
walled, open behind. Prothorax strongly rounded, longer than 
wide, not the width of head; an extrejnely shallow and very 
indistinct impression at base, a stronger interrupted one at apex; 
base very feebly margined, and feebly sinuate. Elytra one and a 
half times as long as head and prothorax coml^ined, sides gradually 
widening to apex, each feebly separately rounded. Length to 
apex of elytra 4 J, of abdomen 6; width If mm. 

Eab. — Como, near Sydney. 


Close to C. rhagonychimis, differing in the colour of its legs and 
by having a broader head and prothorax, 

Carphurus apiciventris, n.sp. 

^. Black; elytra with an obscure purplish reflection; muzzle, 
two basal joints of antennae and undersurface of third, prothorax, 
3rd and 4th abdominal segments, anterior legs, and intermediate 
cox£e, clear reddish-testaceous; scutellum dull red; basal half of 
four posterior tibiae impure testaceous, apical half and tarsi piceous. 
Sparsely clothed with longish brown hair — densest on abdomen 
and elytra; flanks of meso- and metasternum with short, pale 
pubescence. Head and prothorax sparsely and minutely, elytra 
very densely and not very minutely punctate; sides of meso- and 
metasternum with minute, abdomen with very minute punctures. 

Head transverse; eyes large, prominent, between them very 
shallow irregular impressions (from in front appearing to be 
separated by a trident-shaped elevation); from in front there 
appears to be a small transverse fovea between the eyes, near the 
base a very shallow transverse impression; antennas scarcely 
reaching posterior coxae, 1st joint scarcely as long as 2nd- 3rd 
combined, 2nd subglobular, decidedly shorter than 3rd, 3rd-4th 
triangular, 5th-10th subpectinate, 11th fully as long as the inner 
edge of 10th; undersurface of head with a shallow transverse 
impression. Prothorax decidedly longer than wide, as wide as 
head at base of eyes, angles rounded; a feeble impression at base 
and traces of a still feebler one at apex; base narrowly margined^ 
Elytra gradually widening to apex, each rather strongly rounded. 
Anterior tarsi with basal joint thick, longer than the following 
joints combined, and having a black comb inwardly. Length to 
apex of elytra 4|, of abdomen 6|; width H mm. 

Hah. — Galston. 

Of the shape of C. rhagonychinHs and the preceding, JDut the 
red ventral segments will at once distinguish it from either of 

var. DUBius. 

Differs from the above in having the head almost concolorous, 
having only a small trans\'erse spot extending from the eyes 


and not reaching the middle, the two apical segments only of the 
abdomen black, and all the legs testaceous, tarsi except basal 
joints black. 

As upon a careful comparison of my two specimens —both 
males — I can find absolutely no difference in shape, I have con- 
sidered it advisable to describe the most strongly marked specimen 
as a species, ranking the other as a variety. I captured them at 

the same time. 

Carphurus bifoveatus, n.sp. 

(J. Elongate, shining, depressed. Head black; undersurface of 
basal joint of antennae and almost the entire second reddish; palpi 
obscure red; prothorax red; elytra dark violet-blue, meso- and 
metasternum black; abdominal segments black — the first almost 
entirely, and the others except apical margined with red. Mode- 
rately densely clothed all over with long blackish hairs. Head 
and prothorax sparsely and minutely punctate, elytra with minute 
and almost obliterated punctures, apex and sides of meso- and 
sides of metasternum minutely but distinctly punctate, the abdo- 
men very minutely. 

Head about as long as wide; a longitudinal excavation on each 
side near the eyes (from some directions appearing as foveas); 
antennae short, scarcely passing intermediate coxae, 1st joint large, 
as long as 2nd-3rd combined, 2nd short, globular, 3rd obconic, 4th- 
10th subpectinate, 11th as long as the inner length of 10th; 
feebly corrugated; foveas of undersurface large, rough-walled, 
approximate. Prothorax strongly rounded, a little longer than 
wide, the width of head across eyes; a shallow transverse impres- 
sion at base, and a still shallower one at apex. Elytra feebly 
dilating towards apex, each feebly separately rounded. Anterior 
tarsi with basal joint rather wide, and fully as long as claw joint. 
Length to apex of elytra 3, of abdomen 5|; width 1 mm. 

TTab.—Gnliiton (Mr. D. Dumbrell). 

A distinct and very pretty little species. 

C. CYANiPENNis, Macl.; Mast. Cat. Sp. No. 3422. 

j/ah. — Tamworth, AVhitton (Lea). S. Australia (Macleay 


C. ELONCxATUs, MacL; Mast. Cat. Sp. No. 3424. 
Hah. — Tweed River, Sydney, Forest Reefs, Whitton. 

C. PALLiDiPENNis, MacL; Mast. Cat. Sp. No. 3430. 
Hah. — Rockhampton (Macleay Museum). 

C. APicALis, MacL; Mast. Cat. Sp. No. 3413. 
Hah. — Richmond River. 

C. SCAPULATUS, Fairm.; Mast. Cat. Sp No. 3433. 
Hah. — Galston (Dumbrell). 

C. MARGiNiVENTRis, Fairm.; Mast. Cat. Sp No. 3428. 
Hah. — Gosf ord. 

C. RHAGONYCHiNUS, Fairm.; Mast. Cat. Sp. No. 3432. 
Hah. — Sydney, Galston. 

C. FACIALIS, Fairm.; Mast. Cat. Sp. No. 3425 
Hah. — Sydney. 

C. ARMiPENNis, Fairm.; Mast. Cat. Sp. No. 3414. 
Hah. — N. Queensland (Macleay Museum). 

C. EASiPENNis, Fairm.; Mast. Cat. Sp. No. 3417. 
Hah. — S. Australia (Macleay Museum). 

C. CYANOPTERUS, Bohem.; Mast. Cat. Sjd. No. 3442. 
Hah. — Blackheath (Masters). 

I append a tabulation of all the species known to me, which, 
though artificial, and largely dependent on colour, may prove to 
be useful : — 

Elytra armed in the male. 

Armature near base directed backwards ay^mipennis, Fairm. 

Armature near apex directed forwards. 

Sharp-pointed cristatifrons, Fairm. 

Globular Blackburni, n. sp. 



Elytra unarmed in the male. 

Antennae simple or at the most slightly serrate 

Head carinate carinaticeps, n. sp. 

Head with a small tubercle in the middle... impunctatus, n.sp. 
Head with various impressions in front. 
Scutellum testaceous or reddish. 
Two intermediate segments of abdomen 

black alternivPMtris, Fairm. 

Apical segments only black apicalis, Macl. 

All the segments clouded with black 

at their bases fasciipennis, Fairm. 

Scutellum black. 
Prothorax with blackish markings at 
the sides. 

Posterior tibiae black marginiventris, Fairm. 

All the tibiae testaceous. 

Elytra immaculate pallidipennis, Mad. 

Apical half (or third) of elytra 

black elom/atvs. Macl, 

Prothorax immaculate. 
Legs black. 

Abdomen black. 

Large and moderately robust.... cyanopterus, Bohem 

Narrow and elongate anrjmtatus, n.sp. 

Apex of abdomen red lonf/icoUis, n.sp. 

Legs variously coloured. 

Head reddish hasiventris, n.sp. 

Head black ha-npennis, Fairm. 

Muzzle reddish. 

Large, robust elytra greenish, 

abdomen narrowly bordered... latipenni-H, n.s^. 
Smaller, elytra greenish, abdo- 
men broadly bordered cervicalis, Germ. 

Smaller, elytra without a green- 
ish tinge, abdomen unicolorous facialis, Fairm. 
Legs testaceous. 

Antennae thick, entirely testaceous testaceipes, n.sp. 
Antenna3 rather slender, base only 

testaceous cyanipeni^is M-dcl. 


Aiitemiffi subpectinate. 

Abdomen testaceous, apical segments black. 

Scutellum black ■•^cajyidatna, Fairm. 

Sc'itellum testaceous or reddish. 

Elytra with the base testaceous lepidiis, n. sp. 

Elytra concolorous apiciventris, n. sp. 

Abdomen black. 

Legs testaceous rhagonychiniis, Fairm. 

Legs black, with testaceous markings pictvpe>i, n.sp. 
Abdomen black, basal segments with more 

or less red hifoveatus, n.sp. 

Balanophorus Mastersi, Macl.; Mast. Cat. Sp. N'o. 3440. 

This species ranges down the entire east coast and for some 
distance inland; specimens are in the Macleay Museum from Cape 
York to Melbourne. The male possesses a most peculiar comb; 
it is situated on the inner edge of the first joint of the anterior 
tarsi, and consists of about sixty closely set elongate teeth; it 
commences at the base and is continuous round the aj^ex almost 
to the outer margin; under a Coddington lens it appears as a 
black margin, but a moderately low power of the microscope 
renders it visible. As will be noticed I have described a number 
of species of Carphurus and Helcog aster as possessing combs; there 
is a somewhat similar comb on the intermediate tibia3 of a species 
of Staphylinidce in the Collection of the Rev. R. L. King (now in 
the Sydney Museum). 

Balanophorus Macleayi, n.sp. 

^. Elongate, shining, subdepressed. Testaceous; apical two- 
thirds of antennae, meso-, metasternum, two aj^ical segments of 
abdomen, four posterior femora and apex of tibise black; apical 
two-fifths of elytra dark purple. Head, prothorax, abdomen and 
legs with sparse blackish hair; elytfa and sterna with sparse, 
short, pale pubescence. Head and prothorax sparsely and min- 
utely, elytra not very densely, minutely, and obsoletely punctate; 
undersurface almost impunctate. 

Head transverse; eyes very large and prominent, their com- 
bined width being more than half the total width of head; a 


feeble depression on each side — commencing near the middle of 
the eyes, and terminating slightly in advance of base of antennae; 
antennae passing posterior coxae, 1st joint as long as 2nd-3rd 
combined, 2nd scarcely half the length of 3rd, 3rd-10th pectinate, 
the tooth of 3rd short, about half the length of 4th, 5th-llth 
very long, all of them with long curved blackish hair; foveae of 
undersurface very small, situated in a shallow depression, the 
space behind them finely but distinctly corrugated. Prothorax 
much longer than wide, more than the width of head at base of 
eyes, apex rounded, sides dilated near apex, constricted near base 
— which is sinuate; a broad shallow impression at base. Scutellum 
about twice as wide as long. Elytra parallel for a fourth their 
length, then dilating to apex, each rounded from the suture, and 
then obliquely truncate. Anterior tarsi with basal joint as long 
as three following combined, and having a black comb inwardly. 
Length to apex of elytra 5, of abdomen 7 J; width 2J mm. 

Q. Differs in being larger, antennae subpectinate, head longer 
than wide, eyes much smaller, less black on elytra, simple anterior 
tarsi, &c. 

J/ab. — North- West Australia (Macleay Museum). 

A most beautiful species, somewhat resembling, but abundantly 
distinct from, B. Mastersi; the large eyes of the male are a very 
distinctive feature, whereas in the two sexes of Mastersi the}^ are 
equal; there are besides numerous other differences in colour and 

B. jANTHiNiPENNis, Fairm.; Mast. Cat. Sp. No. 3439. 

11 ah. — Sydney. 

P Y T H I D ^. 

Trichosalpingus ornatus, n.sp. 

Depressed, derm feebly shining. Testaceous, elytra, legs and 
antennae paler than head and prothorax; prothorax with an 
obscure brownish blotch at the sides; each elytron with an 
ol^lique black stripe — gradually increasing in width — commencing 
on the shoulder, and a little longer than prothorax, its outer apex 


equidistant from side and suture; an obscure narrow fascia about 
the middle, almost obsolete towards the sides, oblique towards the 
suture; undersurface reddish-brown, with obscure piceous blotches. 
Above densely clothed with rather long pubescence, a little paler 
than the derm on which it rests, densest on elytra; sides of 
sterna pubescent as prothorax; abdominal segments densely 
clothed with moderately short pubescence. Above very densely 
and minutely punctate; on prothorax the punctures almost con- 
cealed by pubescence; sterna densely and minutel}^, the abdominal 
segments very minutely punctate. 

Head about as long as wide; eyes rather large, not very promin- 
ent; antennae short, not reaching anterior coxse. Prothorax 
very feebly transverse, a little the widest about its middle, where 
it is fully as wide as head, truncate at base and apex; base feebly 
margined, an oblique impression from each side of the base. 
Elytra about two and a half times as long as head and prothorax 
combined, at the base about once and a third the width of 
base of prothorax, shoulders rounded, sides widening to beyond 
the middle. Legs rather short, not very thick. Length 34, 
width l^^mm. 

Hah. — Gosford. 

Trichosalpixgus pallipes, n.sp: 

Depressed, derm shining. Testaceous, elytra not much paler 
than head and prothorax, legs and antennae decidedly joaler than 
elytra; prothorax with an obscure brownish blotch at the extreme 
sides; elytra with a moderately large blotch about the middle, 
moderately sharply defined at its anterior edge, much less so at 
the posterior; undersurface a little darker than head, without 
blotches. Above covered with very short pale pubescence, 
moderately dense on elytra; undersurface extremely minutely 
pubescent. Above very densely and minutely punctate, punctures 
most noticeable at base of elytra, becoming feebler towards apex; 
undersurface very minutely punctate, punctures most visible on 
pro-, meso- and sides of metasternum. 


Head about as long as wide; eyes not very large, prominent; 
antenna? short, not reaching anterior cox£e. Prothorax quadrate, 
very little wider in front than behind, not the width of head, 
truncate at base and apex, base narrowly margined, an oblique 
impression commencing at each side of the base — where it is 
distinct — afterwards becoming shallower and obliterated. Elytra 
about two and a quarter times as long as head and prothorax 
combined, at the base about one and a half times the width of 
prothorax at base, shoulders rounded, sides widening to beyond 
the middle. Legs rather short, not very thick, tarsi slender. 
Length 3, width 1^ mm. 

Bab— Galston (Mr. D. Dumbrell). 

Differs from the preceding in being smaller,. in having prominent 
eyes, thinner antennae, narrower prothorax, with basal impressions 
more distinct, sjDarser pubescence, different markings of elytra, 
paler undersurface and legs, &c. I have but one specimen of 

Trichosalpingus lateralis, n.sp. 

Depressed, shining. Testaceous-brown; elytra — except at sides 
— a little paler than head and prothorax, undersurface darker 
than above; sterna and femora stained with piceous. Above 
clothed with very short pale pubescence; sides of sterna with 
minute pubescence. Head and prothorax very densely and 
minutely punctate, on the elytra at the base the punctures are 
not as dense, but are larger, becoming smaller and obliterated 
towards apex; undersurface minutely but distinctly punctate, 
punctures largest on pro-, meso- and sides of metasternum. 

Head transverse; eyes rather large, not very prominent; 
antenna? short, reaching anterior coxce Prothorax transverse, 
slightlv wider than head, a little wider in front than behind, 
angles feebly rounded; base narrowly margined, an impression at 
the base close to the sides. Elytra about two and a half times as 
long as head and prothorax combined, at the base not much wider 
than prothorax at apex, shoulders rounded, sides feebly widening 
to beyond the middle; a very feeble depression about scutellum 


and behind the base. Legs rather short and thick. Length 4|^, 
width Ih mm. 

Hab. — New South Wales (probably from about Sydney). 

M E L A N D R Y I D ^. 

Orchesia saltatoria, n.sp. 

Short, robust, convex, shining. Dark castaneous, legs and 
antennae slightly paler. Moderately densely clothed all over with 
short brownish-yellow pubescence, shortest at apex of elytra, 
longest on prothorax. Feebly transversely punctate-strigose all 

Head somewhat triangular in shaj)e; antennae thickening to 
apex, passing intermediate coxae, 1st joint one and a half times as 
long as 2nd, 2nd-3rd subequal, longer than those following, 4th- 
6th short, subcylindrical, 7th-llth broader, flat, 11th about twice 
as long as 10th. Prothorax much wider behind than in front; 
broadly and feebly bisinuate, and with a shallow depression on 
each side of the base; median line invisible. Scutellum small, 
broadly transverse. Elytra about two and a half times as long- 
as wide, a very feeble depression on each side of suture, most 
visible towards apex. Posterior tibiae short, thick, their spurs 
stout, almost equal, as long as themselves, and about three- 
fourths the length of first tarsal joint; tarsi with the basal joint 
distinctly longer than tibiae, or the three following joints com- 
bined. Length 3|, width 1| mm. 

Hah. — Forest Reefs. 

I have nine specimens under examination, in the size of which 
there is but very little difference. I suppose I must have the 
sexes, but I cannot distinguish them; the species comes closest to 
0. Macleayi, but its much smaller size, broader form, &c., will 
easily separate it from that species. All my specimens were taken 
on tops of posts at dusk; they hopjDed immediately the hand was 
brought near them, and in this way I lost many others. 



Elongate, convex, shining. Dark piceous-brown, muzzle, apex 
of prothorax, apex of elytra, and spurs indistinctly paler; each 
elytron with two small macul?e — the first and largest situated 
about a fourth from the base, and midway between side and 
suture, elliptic or ovate in shape, and very slightl}^ oblique; the 
second situated about a third from the apex, a little closer to 
suture than to side, and transversely rounded. Moderately 
clothed with very short greyish pubescence, a little more densely 
on abdominal segments than above. Head, prothorax and sterna 
densely and minutely punctate; elytra at base feebly transversely 
punctate-strigose; rest of elytra and abdominal segments very 
minutely punctate. 

Head round; antennte somewhat flattened, reaching to midway 
between intermediate and posterior coxc\^, 1st joint not as long as 
2nd-3rd combined, 2nd more than half the length of 3rd, 3rd-10th 
subequal, 11th not once and a half as long as 10th, 9th-llth 
slightly concave inwardly. Prothorax subquadrate, base narrowly 
margined and almost truncate; median line very feebly traceable, 
a distinct but rather small fovea marking its base. Elytra about 
four times as long as wide, shoulders rounded, sides parallel to 
about a third from the apex, traces of a number of costte on basal 
half, entirely obsolete on apical. Posterior tibiae feebly depressed, 
serrate on their outer edge; spurs very short, not quite equal; 
basal joint of tarsi twice the length of the following, the two 
combined as long as tibiae. Length 4^, width 1 mm. 

Eab.— Glen Innes, N.S.W. 

I think my specimen is a male, as I have seen others which 
were considerably larger and broader. 


Q. Elongate, convex, subcylindrical, subopaque. Dark piceous- 
brown, prothorax with the margins very little paler; elytra with 
base, margins and suture obscure ferruginous, each with two pale 
testaceous markings — the first, and smallest, irregularly ovate. 


situate at about a third from the base, and midway between side 
and suture; the second lunulate, situate at about a fourth from 
apex, not quite touching side or suture; abdominal segments in 
some Hghts appearing wholly ferruginous, in others only their 
apices, basal joints of antenn^ie, palpi and legs brownish- testaceous. 
Head, prothorax, basal half of elytra and sterna densely, minutely 
and transversely punctate-strigose, the shoulders most distinctly; 
apex of elytra and the abdominal segments minutely punctate. 
Moderately densely clothed all over with short greyish pubescence, 
somewhat sericeous on prothorax, scutellum and lower surface. 

Head rounded; antennae slender, cylindrical, reaching about 
half way between intermediate and posterior coxie, 1st joint 
almost as long as 2nd-3rd combined, 2nd not much shorter than 
3rd, 3rd-10th very gradually decreasing, lOth-llth equal. Pro- 
thorax subquadrate, with the base — except for the slightly 
produced angles — truncate, base with a very feeble depression, 
and narrowly margined; median line distinct at base, feebly 
traceable towards apex. Scutellum transverse, feebly emarginate 
at apex. Elytra more than three times as long as wide, shoulders 
feebly rounded, sides very gradually narrowing to near the apex, 
a narrow depression on each side of the suture, a very feeble 
depression near shoulders, with feeble traces of stria?. Legs 
slender, four posterior tibi?e depressed-serrate- externally, spurs 
to the posterior unequal, the longest a little more than one-third, 
the length of the first tarsal joint, the shortest a1)out a fourth; 
intermediate and anterior spurs very short; posterior tarsi with 
the basal joint almost as long as the following combined, the two 
basal as long as tibiae. Length 10 J, width 2 J mm. 

^. Differs in being smaller and narrower. Length 3, width 
4 mm. 

Hab. — Donnybrook, W.A. 

Several trees were riddled by this species, of which I could 
have taken hundreds; the markings are constant, but the size is 
extremely variable (I have given the extremes); the larvae are 
largely destroyed by two species of Hymenopterous parasites. 


P E D I L I D yE. 

Macratria intermedia, n.sp. 

(J. Narrow, subparallel, subdepressed, shining. Head, pro- 
thorax and undersurface dark, or brownish-red; elytra dark red, 
becoming piceous at apex; legs and antennae testaceous, apical 
joint of antennae darker; abdominal segments paler than sterna. 
Above densely clothed with silky yellowish pubescence, longest 
on elytra (when seen from behind apparently in lines); on the 
undersurface the pubescence is much shorter and denser; the legs 
are somewhat densely pubescent. Head minutely punctate, pro- 
thorax more densely and strongly; elytra seriate-punctate, the 
punctures shallow, interstices minutely punctate; undersurface — 
except the flanks of the mesosternum which are distinctly — 
minutely punctate. 

Head longer than wide, almost truncate at base; eyes large; 
antenna? slender, reaching intermediate coxse, 1st joint about as 
long as 2nd-3rd combined, 2nd as long as and thicker than 3rd, 
3rd slightly longer than 4th, 4th-8th subequal, 9th- 10th slightly 
longer, 11th as long as 7th-10th combined. Prothorax much 
longer than wide, and wider than the head, widest near the apex; 
apex rounded, base margined and truncate. Elytra very gradually 
narrowing to near the apex, shoulders moderately rounded, each 
elytron separately rounded at apex; suture slightly raised except 
at base, where it is feebly depressed. Metasternum deeply sulcate, 
apical segment of abdomen shallowly emarginate at apex. Legs 
long; femora thickened, the anterior their entire length, inter- 
mediate for the apical two-thirds, posterior for the apical 
half; tibiae straight, longer than tarsi, minutely spurred at apices, 
posterior spurs the longest; basal joint of posterior tarsi nearly 
twice as long as the following combined, the four anterior little 
more than half as long. Length 3h, width | mm. 

5. Differs in being somewhat larger (3|mm.) and darker, in 
having the piceous colour more advanced on the elj^tra (leaving 
only the base dark red), apical joint of antennae only as long as 


the two preceding combined, apical segment of abdomen entire, 
and the spurs to posterior tibit\3 shorter. 
Hah. — ^Cairns (Macleay Museum). 

Differs from J/, aherrans, in being narrower, and without trace 
of median hne; in size it is intermediate between that species and 
J/, cmstralis. 

Macratria axalis, n.sp. 

$. Narrow, subparallel, subdepressed, shining. Reddish-brown; 
head Hghter in colour than prothorax or elytra, the latter with a 
piceous tinge about scutellum and suture; antenna? testaceous, 
apex slightly infuscate; sterna a little darker than prothorax: 
coxye coloured as prosternum, legs testaceous-red, four anterior 
femora and apical segment of abdomen pale testaceous. Above 
clothed with yellowish silky pubescence, shorter and paler beneath. 
Head minutely, prothorax densely and a little more strongly 
punctate; elytra punctate-striate, the punctures irregular tow^ards 
suture, more distinct towards sides, and obsolete on apical third; 
sterna minutely, abdominal segments very minutely punctate. 

Head not much longer than wide, base feebly rounded; eyes 
large, not prominent; antenme slender, inserted close to eyes, 
reaching intermediate coxse, slightly thickening towards apex, 
11th joint a little longer than 9th-10th combined and feebly 
constricted in the middle. Prothorax longer than wide, near apex 
wider than head, at base wider than head at base of eyes; apex 
strongly rounded; sides constricted near base, base truncate and 
narrowly margined; median line traceable on basal two- thirds- 
Scutellum transverse, truncate at apex. Elytra wider than pro- 
thorax, feebl}^ diminishing towards apex, shoulders rounded, suture 
feebly depressed near base, and feebly elevated near ajDex. Meta- 
sternum sulcate on apical two-thirds, deeply on apical third. 
Apical segment of abdomen feebly depressed in the middle, its 
sides at the apex feebly emarginate — allowing the tips of two 
small discs to appear. Legs long and rather thick; femora thick, 
the four posterior only on their apical half; tibia? straight, 
minutely spurred at apex; basal joint of posterior tarsi much 


longer than those following combined. Length 3|, width i mm. 

II ah. — Tamworth. 

This species comes closest to the preceding, from which it may- 
be distinguished by its larger size, broader prothorax— with more 
deeply constricted base — thicker antennae, shorter and paler pubes- 
cence, feebler elytral jDunctuation, and more distinct scutellum. 

A N T H I C I D ^. 

Narrow, elongate, dej^ressed, subopaque above, shining on 
undersurface. Brow^n; undersurface, coxae, base of femora, four 
anterior tibite and tarsi, and antennte pale; elj^tra with two 
transverse white fasciae — -the first near the base and parallel, 
except for a triangular encroachment at the suture behind, the 
posterior close to apex, straight in front, narrowing to suture from 
behind. Covered all over with very short, rather pale pubescence, 
with a few short erect hairs on elytra. Covered all over with 
extremely minute punctures, densest on head. 

Head longer than wide, scarcely obovate; eyes small, prominent, 
placed slightly before the exact middle; antennae slender, reaching 
anterior fascia, inserted considerably in front of eyes, 1st joint 
not as long as 2nd-3rd combined, 2nd not much shorter than 3rd, 
4th-10th slightly decreasing in length and as gradually thickening, 
11th not one and a half times as long as 10th. Prothorax not 
twice as long and scarcely as deep as wide; strongly rounded in 
front, constricted near the base, base narrowly margined: an 
almost obliterated tubercle on each side. Elytra scarcely longer 
than head and prothorax combined, slightly widest at the middle, 
base rounded as apex; without impressions. Legs — especially 
the posterior — -very long and thin, femora scarcely thickened, 
tibiae straight, longer than tarsi; 1st joint of posterior tarsi 
scarcely as long as the following combined, 2nd as long as 4th 
(including claws), 1st joint of intermediate as long as 2nd-3rd 
combined, of the anterior shorter. Length 3, width | mm. 

Hab. — North- West Australia (Macleay Museum). 

BY ARTHUR M. LEA. • 271 

The feature of this species is its very long posterior legs, which 
are longer than the entire body. From F. australis, which it 
somewhat resembles, it differs in being longer, slenderer, lighter 
in colour and more opaque, differently shaped prothorax, longer 
legs, and in numerous other particulars. 

Anthicus rectifasciatus^ n.sp. 

Depressed, shining. Head, prothorax and undersurface red, 
elytra testaceous, base somewhat darker, a broad median band — 
very feebly connected with apex along sides and suture — black; 
legs, palpi and antennae testaceous, the latter becoming darker 
towards apex; abdominal segments clouded with piceous at the 
sides. Above not very densely clothed with yellowish suberect 
pubescence, on the undersurface the pubescence is shorter and 
denser. Head densely punctate, prothorax more densely and 
minutety, elytra strongly punctate at the base, the punctures 
becoming feebler towards apex; undersurface minutety punctate. 

Head transverse, base truncate; eyes large, coarsely faceted; 
antennse slender, reaching median fascia, 1st joint slightly longer 
than 2nd-3rd combined, 2nd short, 3rd longer, 4th-10tli gradually 
decreasing in length, 11th longer than 10th and as long as 8th. 
Prothorax slightly longer, and at its widest not quite as wide as 
the base of head, subcordate, longer than wide, rounded in front, 
truncate and margined behind. Elytra nearh^ twice as long as 
head and prothorax combined, much wider than prothorax at 
base, and wider than head across eyes; shoulders slightly rounded, 
sides subparallel to near the apex; suture feebl}^ depressed at base. 
Legs slender, femora slightly thickened, tibiie straight, longer 
than tarsi, minutely spurred at their apices. Length 3|^, width 
1^ mm. 

Hah. — Fitzroy Island, Queensland (Macleay Museum). 

Anthicus scutellatus, n.sp. 

Of the form of A. brevicoUis; subdepressed, shining — especially 
the head and undersurface. Reddish -testaceous, elytra paler than 
prothorax, which is paler than head; sides of abdominal segments 


obscure: eyes black; tip of mandibles piceous. Above not very 
densely clothed with yellowish decumbent pubescence, with a few 
erect short hairs— a few of which project laterally on prothorax 
— densest on prothorax, sparsest on head; on the undersurface 
the pubescence is sparser, and — except on abdominal segments — 
longer than above. Head distinctly but not very densely punc- 
tate; prothorax densely, elytra shallowly and not very densely 
punctate; sterna scarcely distinctly, the abdominal segments very 
feebly punctate. 

Head sliort, transverse, base feebly emarginate; eyes large, 
occupying more than half the side of head between antennse and 
base; mandibles prominent; antennae short, scarcely reaching base 
of prothorax, 1st joint as long as 2nd-3rd combined, 2nd short, 
3rd-4th narrowest, 4th-10th gradually decreasing in length, 11th 
about once and a quarter as long as 10th, acuminate at apex, 
2nd and 6th-10th globular. Prothorax subcordate, transverse, 
broader and longer than head, sides rounded; base constricted 
and narrowly margined, middle of the apex narrowly produced 
and margined. Scutellum small, triangular, distinct. El3^tra 
almost twice as long as head and prothorax combined, and about 
twice as long as the width at base, shoulders feebly rounded, the 
base near them very feebly impressed. Legs short; femora 
thickened; tibice straight, a minute spur at their apices. Length 
3 J, width 1 J mm. 

Ilab. — North-west Australia (Macleay Museum). 

My specimen is damaged, all the tarsi with the exception of 
one of the anterior and an antenna being missing. It may be 
distinguished from A. luridus by its longer pubescence, kc. 

Anthicus inglorius, n.sp. 

(J. Shaped somewhat as A. hrevicollis; subdepressed, shining. 
Prothorax reddish-testaceous, head darker, elytra paler; under- 
surface brownish-testaceous, antennse, palpi, anterior legs, four 
posterior tibi?e and tarsi, and base of femora paler; eyes black; 
tip of mandibles piceous. Above sparsely clothed with short 
pale pubescence, with rather long hairs projecting laterall}^ from 


prothorax and elytra; head almost glabrous; undersurface with 
sparse straggling pubescence. Above sparsely and minutely 
punctate, punctures sparsest and rather strong on head; not much 
feebler at apex than at base of elytra; undersurface almost 

Head scarcely transverse, base feebly emarginate; eyes large, 
occup3'ing about half the side of head between antennae and base; 
antennae short, reaching base of prothorax, the joints as in A. 
scutellatus, a shallow depression on each side in front. Prothorax 
transverse, very slightly broader and longer than head, broadest 
near apex, narrowing — but not suddenly — to base; base margined, 
middle of apex feebly produced and margined. Scutellum small, 
transverse, apex rounded. Elytra not twice as long as head and 
prothorax combined (2J-lJmm.), about twice as long as wide, 
shoulders feebly rounded, the base near them feebly impressed. 
Legs rather short, femora feebly thickened, tibiae straight, the 
anterior slightly curved at apex, posterior spurred at apex. 
Length 4, width 1 J mm. 

9. Differs in being paler beneath, and by having concolorous 

Hah. — Darling River (Macleay Museum). 

May be distinguished from A. scutellattts by its more elongate 
form, somewhat differently shaped prothorax, long legs, shinier 
derm, sparser pubescence, ifec. 

Anthicus triangularis, n.sp. 

Of the form of A. hrevicollis; depressed, shining. Head, pro- 
thorax and undersurface red; elytra testaceous, a large subtrian- 
gular macula — which is somewhat variable in size — on each side 
at the middle, and the apex piceous-brown, an obscure red triangle 
about the scutellum; abdominal segments stained with brown; 
legs and antennae testaceous, the latter becoming brown towards 
apex. Head and prothorax almost glabrous, elytra sjDarsely 
pubescent, undersurface with shorter and denser pubescence. 
Above not strongly punctured, the punctures sparsest and 
broadest on head, denser and not much feebler on prothorax, 


denser at base and shallowest at apex of elytra; undersurface 
minutely punctate. 

Head longer than the width at base, and — excluding the eyes 
— triangular in shape; eyes large, prominent, coarsely faceted, 
placed midway between antennae and base; antennte reaching 
beyond base of elytra, 1st joint slightly longer than 2nd-3rd com- 
bined, 2nd-10th equal in thickness, 2nd not much shorter than 
3rd, 4th-10th gradually decreasing, 11th slightly narrower than 
10th, and nearly as long as 9th-10th combined. Prothorax sub- 
cordate, feebly transverse, as broad as, and slightly longer than 
head, widest in front, constricted behind, base margined. Scutel- 
lum triangular, distinct. Elytra about one and a half times as 
long as head and prothorax combined, shoulders feebly rounded, 
the base near them feebly impressed, sides feebly widening to 
about the middle, apex broadly rounded. Legs rather short; 
femora moderately thickened; posterior tibiae feebly bent, spurred 
at apex; tarsi shorter than tibiae. Length 21, width f mm. 

Hah North- West Australia (Macleay Museum). 

May be distinguished from A. brevicoUis by its flatter form, 
laro-er head, sparser pubescence, &c.; A. Wollastoni is a species 
with somewhat similarly marked elytra, but otherwise very 
different. I have recently taken two specimens at Perth which 
differ from the types in being darker, in having a complete median 
fascia, the dark marking at apex of elytra larger, the scutellar 
marking darker and continued on to shoulders; the pubescence 
also is denser; as, however, they belong to a group the members 
of which are very variable I have not thought it advisable to 
describe them as distinct. 

Anthicus lemodioides, n.sp. 

.Elongate, subdepressed, shining. Head and prothorax chocolate- 
brown; elytra reddish-testaceous, a moderately broad piceous fascia, 
interrupted at suture, across the middle; lower surface paler 
than prothorax; legs paler than elytra. Above not densely 
clothed with short pubescence, with longer hairs at the sides; 
undersurface with minute pubescence. Head and prothorax 


rather shallowly punctate; the elytra densely, strongly and seri- 
ately punctate; sterna densely and strongly, abdominal segments 
not very mmutely punctate. 

Head rather small, transverse; eyes moderately large, placed 
behind the middle; antennae not very slender, subequal in width, 
reaching apex of intermediate coxae, 1st joint nearly as long as 
2nd-3rd combined, 2nd-3rd equal, 11th not as long as 9 th- 10th 
combined. Prothorax longer than wide, wider than head, trans- 
versely globose in front, deeply constricted near base, base 
truncate; a tubercle on each side at base; median line distinct. 
l)ecoming feeble near apex, and ha\ ing a small fovea near tubercles. 
Scutellum extremely small. Elytra not one and a half times as 
long as head and prothorax combined, not much wider than 
anterior portion of the latter, shoulders feebly rounded, sides 
parallel to near apex; a feeble impression on each side between 
suture and shoulders; suture very feebly raised near aj^ex. Legs 
rather short and thick; four posterior femora arcuate; til^iai rather 
short, posterior feebly bent. Length 24, width 1 mm. 

Hah. — Forest Reefs; crawling over fences at night time. 

Anthicus cancellatus, n.sp. 

Elongate, subdepressed, shining. Reddish-testaceous; head 
and prothorax darker than elytra, the latter with a small obscure 
piceous blotch about the middle; lower surface a little paler than 
elytra; legs and palpi pale testaceous. Above — except head — 
densely clothed with rather long pubescence, longest on elytra: on 
the undersurface the pubescence is short. Head and prothorax 
densely and obsoletely, elytra densely and strongly, gullet coarsely, 
sterna and abdominal segments not very strongly punctate. 

Head rather small, transverse; eyes moderately large, placed 
behind the middle; antennae rather slender, passing intermediate 
coxae, 1st joint nearly as long -^as 2nd-3rd combined, 2nd 
decidedly shorter than- 3rd, 11th a little longer than 9th-10th 
combined. ProthoraK not much longer than wide, wider than 
head, transversely globose in front, deeply constricted near base, 
base truncate; traces of a tubercle on each side at base; median 


line very shallow and indistinct, obsolete towards apex. Scutellum 
small, transverse, moderately distinct. Elytra about once and a 
third as long as head and prothorax combined, not much 
wider than anterior portion of latter, sides almost parallel, apex 
almost truncate, a feeble dej^ression on each side of suture towards 
apex. Femora thick, tibiae straight. Length 2|, width 1 mm. 

Hah. — Forest Reefs; on fences at dusk. 

The above somewhat resembles the preceding and the following- 
species; from the former it may be distinguished by its colour 
and puncturation being a little different, by its thinner legs and 
less plainly marked median line; from the latter by being a little 
more elongate, a little less convex, median line distinct, thicker 

legs, etc. 

Anthicus pignerator, n.sp. 

Not very elongate, slightly convex, shining. Obscure reddish- 
testaceous, elytra very little paler than head and prothorax; 
lower surface concolorous with elytra, and darker than legs. 
Pubescence as in the preceding. Head shallowly, prothorax very 
densely and shallowly, elytra densely and strongly, sterna densely, 
abdominal segments minutely, punctate. 

Head rather small, transverse; eyes moderately large, placed 
close to base; antenna^ moderately slender, passing intermediate 
cox?e, the width separating them equal to the distance to base of 
eyes, 1st joint about once and a half longer than 2nd, 2nd a 
little shorter and thicker than 3rd, 11th about as long as 9th-10th 
combined. Prothorax not much longer than wide, wider than 
head, transversely globose in front, constricted near base, base 
truncate; a transverse impression at base and a shallow circular 
one on each side of the middle; no median line. Scutellum indis- 
tinct. Elytra about once and a third as long as head and pro- 
thorax combined, not much wider than anterior portion of latter, 
shoulders feebly rounded, sides subparallel to near apex, a feeble 
depression on each side of suture about middle. Legs rather 
slender; femora not very thick; posterior tibi?e ^er}^ feebly bent 
inwardly. Length 21, width 4 mm. 

Hah. — Forest Reefs; on a fence at dusk. 

1]Y ARTHUK M. LEA. 277 


Elongate, narrow, feebl}^ shining. Head dark reddish-bro^\ n, 
prothorax and elytra dark, undersurface somewhat 
paler, legs and antennte testaceous-red. Elytra and abdomen not 
very densely covered with short pale pubescence; rest of bod}^ 
very sparsely clothed. Head extremely densely and somewhat 
rugosely punctate; prothorax, sterna and basal segment of abdo- 
men very densely and not minutely punctate; elytra densely 
punctate, punctures becoming feebler towards apex, abdominal 
segments — except basal — minutely, femora shallo\yly punctate. 

Head longer than wide, base rounded; eyes small, prominent, 
coarsely faceted, placed in front of the middle; antennae inserted 
close to the eyes. Prothorax longer than wide, longer and about 
the width of the head, subcordate, apex slightly rounded, liase 
constricted and truncate; an indistinct tubercle on each side at 
the base; median line feebly traceable at base and apex. Elj^tra 
not once and a quarter as long as head and prothorax com- 
bined, shoulders rounded, parallel-sided to near apex, or very 
feebly widening to about the middle, without depression. Legs 
slender; femora scarcely thickened; tibiji; straight, minutely 
spurred at their apices; four anterior longer, the posterior as long 
as tarsi, basal joint of posterior tarsi as long as the others com- 
bined, intermediate as long as 2nd-3rd, anterior short. Length 
2-L, width ^ mm. 

Hah. — ^ISTorth-West Australia (Maclea}' Museum). 

I do not know any species with which this very distinct one 
can be satisfactorily compared. 

Antiiicus simulator, n.sp. 

Elongate, subdepressed, highly polished. Black; base of pro- 
thorax obscure piceous, each elytron with two small testaceous 
macuhie, one near the shoulder transversely triangular, the other 
about a third from the apex, parallel-sided, directed a little 
oljliquely towards and truncate near suture; these macuhe are 
sometimes indistinct (especially the po-;terior); lower surface of 


head and prosternum dull red; cox£e, base of femora — the posterior 
infuscate towards apex — and tarsi obscure testaceous; antenna? 
piceous. Elytra very sparsely pubescent, rest of the body almost 
glabrous. Above minutely, beneath indistinctly punctate. 

Head a little longer than wide, rounded; eyes, small, prominent; 
antennae slender, inserted midway between eyes and apex of 
mandibles, reaching intermediate coxse, 1st joint about once and 
a half longer than 2nd, 2nd a little longer than 3rd, 11th 
about the length of 9th-10th combined. Prothorax scarcely the 
width of head, longer than wide, transversely globose in front, 
strongly constricted near base; a small tu])ercle on each side at 
base. Elytra about as long as head and prothorax combined, 
about two and a half times as long as wide, base truncate, 
shoulders feebly rounded, sides feebly widening to beyond middle; 
a very feeble impression behind the base (only visible when 
viewed sideways). Legs slender; femora thickening towards apex, 
tibise straight. Length 1^, width |-mm. 

riab. — Bridge Town, W.A. Between the leaves of cabbages. 

I have a specimen from Donnybrook in which the whole of the 
prothorax is dull red. The species closely resembles A. strictus 
and A. hemhidioides; from the former it differs in being narrow^er, 
with thicker antennae, and by its more parallel elytra; from the 
latter by its differently shaped prothorax, w4th more prominent 
tubercles, and by its head being a little smaller. 

Anthicus geminatus, n.sp. 

Narrow, elongate, subdepressed, shining. Testaceous, prothorax 
darker than elytra; head and apical half of el3'tra — except along 
suture — tinged with piceous, lower surface coloured as prothorax, 
legs i^aler, abdominal segments — except basal — piceous. Elytra 
moderately, head and prothorax very sparsel}^ clothed with short 
pale pubescence, lower surface almost glabrous. Above densely 
and not very minutely punctate, each puncture carrying a small 
hair; sterna indistinctly punctate. 

Head rounded, a little longer than wide; e3"es small, prominent, 
in exact middle of sides; antennae slender, slightly thickening 



towards apex, reaching intermediate coxa?, 1st joint about once 
and a half as long as 2nd, 2nd-3rd equal. Prothorax fully 
as wide as head, longer than wide, rounded in front, constricted 
towards base; base smooth. Elytra about once and a quarter 
as long as head and prothorax combined, more than twice 
as long as wide, base truncate, shoulders feebly rounded, sides 
gradually widening to beyond the middle; feebly depressed on 
each side of suture towards apex. Legs not very long; femora 
thickened, posterior arcuate; tibiae straight. Length 24, width 


Hah. — Bridge Town, W.A. 

A second specimen from Bridge Town is a little smaller and 
paler, and has the elytral marking confined to an indistinct 
fasciate blotch across the middle. The species is similar in shape 
and colour to A. exiguus, differing in being larger, more feebly 
punctured, prothorax a little different, kc. Both my specimens 
were taken (in company wdth many other small beetles) under a 
stone, where they had retreated for protection against a fire. 

Anthicus ovipennis, n.sp. 

Slightly convex, shining. Testaceous-red; elytra testaceous, 
and with a thin obscure piceous fascia across the middle, the apex 
faintly tinged with piceous; legs and abdomen pale testaceous, 
Ijasal segment of the latter tinged with joiceous. Elytra moder- 
ately clothed with short pale pubescence, denser and shorter on 
head and prothorax, rest of l^ody almost glabrous. Head and 
prothorax shallowl}^ punctate; the elytra densely and rather 
strongly, sides and sutures of sterna and basal abdominal segment 
minutely but (under microscope) distinctly punctate. 

Head moderately large, subquadrate, eyes very small and 
prominent, placed a little in front of the middle; antennae thin, 
ver}'" slightly thickening to apex, "scarcely reaching intermediate 
coxa?, 1st joint thick, not much longer than 2nd, 2nd a little 
longer than 3rd, 11th almost as long as 9th-10th combined. 
Prothorax fully as wide as head, longer than wide, rounded in 
front, constricted towards base; base with traces of tubercles. 


Scutellum very small, semicircularly triangular. Elytra no longer 
than head and prothorax combined, ovate, the shoulders strongly 
rounded, without impression. Femora thick, tibiae straight. 
Length 2, width | mm. 

Ilab.—Bmihurj, W.A. 

The short ovate elytra of this species should render it distinct; 
in colour it somewhat resembles the preceding. 

Anthicus delicatulus, n.sp. 

Elongate, depressed, shining. Head testaceous-brown, pro- 
thorax pale reddish-testaceous; elytra pale testaceous, a darker 
marking about scutellum and apex, each with a triangular macula, 
the apices of which meet at suture; sterna coloured as prothorax, 
legs paler, abdomen — basal segment excepted — stained with 
piceous. Clothed all over, sparsest on head, with very short pale 
pubescence. Head, prothorax and sterna sparsely and very 
minutely, elytra minutely punctate. 

Head not very large, strongly rounded, a little longer than 
wide; eyes rather small and prominent, placed in the exact middle 
of sides; antennae slender, feebly thickening to apex, inserted 
midway between eyes and apex of mandibles, reaching inter- 
mediate coxae, 1st joint not as long as 2nd-3rd combined, 2nd a 
little thicker and shorter than 3rd, 11th not as long as 9th-10th 
combined, its apex rounded. Prothorax longer than wide, no 
wider than head across eyes, apex rounded, sides narrowing to 
beyond middle, and then feebly increasing to base; feeble traces 
of tubercles at base. Elytra not much longer than head and 
prothorax combined, wider than head, base truncate, shoulders 
feebly rounded, sides gradually widening to beyond the middle; 
suture depressed at base, a very feeble depression near shoulders. 
Femora thick, tibite straight. Length 24, width 4 mm. 

Hab. — North- West Australia (Macleay Museum). 

A narrow pale species, not very close to any known to me. 
Another specimen is smaller, paler, and with the elytral markings 
very obscure. 


Syzetoxinus parallelus, n.sp. 

(J. Elongate-ovate, subdepressed, shining. Black; elytra and 
lower surface ver}^ slightly paler than prothorax; legs and antennae 
obscure testaceous, the latter infuscate towards apex. Sparsely 
clothed with short obscure pubescence. Above very densely and 
strongly punctate, feeblest on head, strongest at base of elytra; 
sterna moderately densely and strong!}'-, abdominal segments 
minutely punctate. 

Head small, closely joined to prothorax, strongly transverse; 
eyes moderate!}^ large, not very prominent, placed close to base; 
antennpe reaching intermediate cox?e, 1st and 2nd joints large, 
thick, the 2nd equal to the swollen portion of 1st, 3rcl equal in 
length to 2nd, but narrower, 3rd-10th gradually decreasing in 
length, 3rd-6th decreasing in width, 7th-llth thickening, 9th 
subquadrate, 10th transverse, 11th not as long as 9th-10th com- 
bined. Prothorax feebly transverse, as wide as head at base, 
truncate at base Pcnd apex, sides slightly rounded; a broad semi- 
circular interrupted impression extending almost across base, and 
a shallow impression across middle, the centre of which is plainly 
marked. Scutellum very small, narrowing towards and truncate 
at apex. Elytra more than twice as long as head and jDrothorax 
combined, base truncate, shoulders scarcely rounded, sides 
parallel to near apex; the base with a depression on each side 
and at suture, behind it a very shallow depression. Legs rather 
long and slender, posterior femora very slightly thickened, all the 
tibiae straight. Length 1 J, width | mm. 

Rab.— Bridge Town, W.A. 

Differs from S. inconsjncutis Id}^ l^eing a little more parallel, 
and in having darker elytra, a little feebler puncturation, some- 
what different antennte, kc. 

Syzetoxinus basicornis, n.sp. 

fj. Oblong-oval, subdepressed, feebly shining. Head and pro- 
thorax black, elytra piceous-brown, the apex obscurely paler, base 
narrowly testaceous, lower surface piceous-brown, legs— especially 


the anterior — and all the tarsi paler. Above sparsely clothed 
with short pubescence, longest and most distinct on apical half 
of elytra; lower surface with very minute pubescence. Head and 
prothorax very densely and rather strongly punctate; elytra 
coarsely and densely, sterna not very strongly, abdominal 
segments minutely punctate. 

Head rather small, closely joined to prothorax, strongly trans- 
verse; eyes large, not prominent, placed close to base; antenna; 
inserted close to apex, lst-5th joints cylindrical, 1st arcuate, as 
long as 2nd-3rd combined, 2nd thick, transverse, not half the 
length of 3rd, 3rd slightly bent, as long as 3rd-4th combined, 4th 
narrowest of all, 4th-10th subequal in length and gradually 
increasing in width, 9th-10th feebly transverse, 11th large, thick, 
apex strongly rounded, about the length of 3rd. Prothorax 
transverse, as wide as base of head, truncate at base and apex, 
sides feebly rounded; an oblique elliptic impression on each side 
at base. Elytra shaped as in the preceding. Legs long, posterior 
femora slightly thickened, posterior tibiae ver}^ feebly bent 
inwardly. Length 14, width 4 mm. 

Hah. — Forest Reefs. (On a fence at dusk.) 

The shape of the basal joints of the antennae renders this species 
exceedingly distinct. 

P Y R O C H R I D ^. 

Lemodes elongata, n.sp. 

Elongate, parallel-sided, subdepressed, the derm shining. Red 
(in some lights with a faint purplish gloss), undersurface — except 
mesosternum which is darker — very slightl}^ paler than above; 
scutellum and eyes black; antenn* black, two basal joints red, 
third reddish-piceous, apical joint white. Above densely clothed 
with moderately long pubescence, which is almost concolorous 
with the derm; on the elytra it is placed in a wavy manner, 
causing them to appear indistinctly patterned; the whole upper- 
surface is rather sparsely clothed with long semiujDright hairs, 
densest on elytra; undersurface, legs and antennae with rather 


short pubescence, tibi;e with a few long hairs, antennse with 
blackish seta^ and rather long outstanding hairs. Head and pro- 
thorax with large shallow punctures, almost concealed l:)y 
pubescence; elytra seriate-punctate (in about ten rows), the 
punctures large and coarse at base, becoming obliterated towards 
apex; mesosternum densely and strongly punctate; metasternum 
and abdominal segments densely and minutely punctate, the 
former with large scattered punctures; legs very densely and 
minutely punctate. 

Head truncate at base, about as long as the width across eyes; 
eyes rather large, prominent and finely faceted; antenna? rather 
stout, not quite reaching apex of metasternum, the distance 
between their bases slightty less than between them and the apex 
of mandibles, composed of tw-elve joints, 1st small, globular, dis- 
tinctly separated from 2nd, 2nd larger, about the size of 7th, 3rd 
narrowest, 3rd-llth subequal in length and increasing in width, 
12th not quite as long as lOth-llth combined, its basal half about 
the size and shape of 11th, decreasing then to apex. Prothorax 
wider than, long, longer and slightly wider than head, strongly 
constricted towards and truncate at base, apex transversely 
globose; median canal distinct but shallow in the middle, obsolete 
at base and apex. Scutellum triangular, considerably longer 
than wide. Elytra parallel-sided to near apex, fully twice as long 
as head and prothorax combined, about once and a half as 
wide as the latter at base, base scarcely truncate, shoulders feebly 
rounded; a feeble depression near the base (only visible when 
viewed sideways). Margins of mesosternal keel finel}^ carinate. 
Legs long, tibise almost straight. Length 51, width Ih mm. 

Zra6.— Blackheath, N.S.W. 

May be distinguished from either L. cocciiiea or L. 2 faster si by 
its much more elongate form, less, angular prothorax, longer 
scutellum, longer pubescence, distinctly twelve- jointed antennae, 
(fee; in both of those species the scutellum is tranvserse, in 
Mastersi rounded, and in coccinea truncate at apex. Members of 
this genus are subject to considerable alteration of colour if 
immersed for any time in spirits, the head and prothorax 


frequently turning dark-brown, or almost black, the legs darker; 
the white joints of the antennte in coccinea vary in number from 
one to three. The type is in the possession of Mr. George 
Masters, who has kindly given me another specimen, labelled 

Lemo^^es corticalis, n.sp. 

Elongate, subparallel, slightly convex, the derm shining. 
Ferruginous, elytra — except at base and suture— slightly darker 
than prothorax; undersurface paler than above; legs and palpi 
testaceous; antenna reddish-testaceous. Above covered with 
short silky pubescence, densest on elytra, and with longer upright 
hairs; undersurface, legs and antennc^ with very short and pale 
pubescence, the latter with a few outstanding hairs. Anterior 
half of head densely and not strongly punctate, base almost 
impunctate; prothorax with strong, sparse, and with smaller and 
more numerous punctures; elytra densely and strongly punctate, 
the punctures strongest and arranged in rows at the base, becom- 
ing feebler and irregular towards apex, the whole surface covered 
with very minute punctures; undersurface of head polished; pro- 
and mesosternum moderately strongly, metasternum and abdo- 
minal segments minutely punctate. 

Head with a distinct neck, triangular in shape (excluding neck), 
wider than long; eyes large, prominent; antennae not very thick, 
passing intermediate coxas, eleven- join ted, 1st large, as long as 
2nd-3rd combined, and as long as 11th, 2nd-10th very slightly 
increasing in length, 2nd-5th subcylindric, 6th-10th obconic, 11th 
subcylindric, scarcely the length of 9th-10th combined. Prothorax 
feebly, if at all, transverse, wider in front than behind, anterior 
angles widely rounded, base truncate, sides deeply constricted 
near the base; median canal distinct but shallow, obsolete at apex. 
Scutellum ^'ery small and strongly transverse. Elytra not quite 
covering pygidium, parallel-sided almost to apex, about twice as 
long as head and prothorax combined, twice and a half as 
long as wide; base truncate, shoulders feebly rounded; a feeble 
depression midway between shoulders and suture. Legs long, 
tibic\3 straight. Length 4J-5J, width 1-|-1 J mm. 

Ilab. — Forest Reefs. 


The colour of this species will at once distinguish it from any 
of its described congeners; in shape it comes closest to the preced- 

M O R D E L L I D .E. 

Many of the species of this family are difficult to satisfactorily 
describe, as almost the only characters that can be given are the 
size, colour and pattern of the markings. So far as I have 
noticed, the colour of the derm (with very few exceptions) a^Dpears 
to be reliable; the legs (especiall}^ the four anterior) and the 
antennaa are subject to sexual variation of colour; the pattern is 
not always to be relied upon, especially in old or greasy specimens 
(without reckoning abrasion); the colour of the pubescence is very 
apt to be affected by age or immersion in spirits (especially the 
white markings of the abdomen). I have fresh specimens of M. 
multiguttata and J/, leucosticta, in which the maculae are decidedly 
white, and older specimens in which they are as decidedly yellow; 
and similarly with other species. Many species are sexually 
constant as to size, but others are very variable. We have many 
species that are almost entirely black; they are moderately easily 
distinguished in the cabinet, but their specific distinctions are 
very hard to point out; in consequence I have delayed describing 
a number of uniques. 

Many of my species were obtained from the. flowers of tall 
Eucalypts, felled for the purpose of obtaining flowering, and after- 
wards dead-leaf beetles; and I believe there are many more species 
which can onl}^ be obtained in this manner; a few sj^ecimens were 
taken at night-time while crawling over old logs and stumps. 
Mr. Masters, on a recent trip to Blackheath, captured many 
hundreds of specimens by beating bushes into a sheet before 
sunrise; they were then very torpid, and were easily captured. 


$. Black; tarsi piceous-black, base of antennae, palpi and 
posterior spurs piceous-red. Head with pubescence which in some 
lights appears whitish, in others — especially at the base — having 
a piceous look; from some directions apparently with a white 


median line. Sides of prothorax very narrowl}^ edged with white; 
apex a httle more broadly, from its middle a narrow stripe 
extending a little more than a third from the apex, there is also 
a small spot on each side; there are ten free or nearly free spots 
— -four at the base, of which the two inner are the smallest; two 
on each side of the narrow stripe in front, in a line with each 
other, and one on each side of the middle behind it. Elytra not 
bordered at the base, each with seven small spots — one close to 
the scutellum, the smallest spot between it and the shoulder, two 
in a line behind them, th-e inner one not close to the suture; the 
outer close to the side (forming with a sjDot on the meso- and 
another on the metasternum a small triangle), a round spot close 
to the suture at about the exact middle, the largest spot in a 
straight line behind about a fourth from the apex, the last is 
close to and a little behind it at the side, the two forming an 
nterrupted irregular oblique S. Each of the abdominal segments 
with four white spots, the two inner of each of which are narrow, and 
but little separated. Meso- and metasternum (excejDt at the sides) 
pubescent as the head. A little white at the Imse of the aculeus. 

Aculeus long, narrow; aj^ex ver}^ sharply pointed, margined 
almost to the apex. Posterior spurs equal, about two-fifths of the 
length of the first tarsal joint. Length 12, w^idth 3| mm.* 

Hah. — Galston; on flowers of Bursaria spinosa (Dumbrell and 

From M. multiguttata the present species may be distinguished 
by its broader form, more distinctly margined aculeus, more 
elongate abdominal spots; by its smaller elytral spots, those near 
the apex nearly separated or not at all joined together as in that 
species; the small spot forming a triangle with the two behind the 
basal ones is wanting in this species; the spots on the prothorax 
also cover much less surface. 


Black, legs scarcely lighter in colour. Head with silvery-grey 
pubescence which is parted in the middle. Prothorax with 

* The lengths given are to the apex of aculeus. 


silvery pubescence, enclosing on the apical two-fifths four equal- 
sized spots, extending in a narrow line from the middle of each 
of the two central ones about half-way to the base, sides narrowly 
margined, base narrowly margined and trisinuate, the middle sinus 
equal in width to the two lateral combined. Each elytron with 
numerous small silvery spots, two oblique ones at the base, one 
along suture, another near the middle, at its base close to the 
first but their apices v>ddely separated, a very indistinct spot on 
shoulder, behind the middle spot and almost touching its apex 
there is a round one, at a short distance behind this is an oblique 
spot, outside this and slightly in advance of it and on the side is 
a small spot, slighth^ before the middle and close to suture an 
ovate spot, behind and midway between this sjjot and the apex is 
an irregular spot, which, with another one close to it, form an 
irregular interrupted ololique S. Undersurface with silvery-grey 
pubescence, more silvery at the sides, and leaving on the sides of 
the metasternum and abdominal segments small triangular patches. 
Aculeus with silvery pubescence at its base. 

Aculeus rather long, broad at the base, moderately sharplv 
pointed, strongly lessened about the middle. Posterior spurs 
unequal, the longest slightly curved, and fully half the length of 
the first tarsal joint. Length 4|, width 11^ mm. 

Hah. — Forest Reefs. 

A pretty, very distinct and rather robust little sjDecies, the 
markings of which are more in character with those of the larger 
species than among those of its own size. The markings of the 
prothorax — if always visible (I have l)ut two sjDecimens to judge 
from) — should render its identification easy. 


Black; antenna? and anterior femora reddish-piceous. Head 
with obscure griseous pubescence; prothorax at its apex and sides, 
and the scutellum with dirty pale yellow pubescence. Elytra with 
similarly coloured pubescence narrowly bordering the base, cover- 
ing the shoulders from which a stripe (not, however, always 
present) runs obliquely towards the suture, close to which it 


terminates in a moderately large spot, at about a third from the 
apex a moderately large irregular transverse spot. Meso-, sides 
and middle of metasternum, and abdominal segments, and of 
aculeus with griseous pubescence. 

Scutellum with a shallow depression at its base. Aculeus 
rather long, very broad at the base, suddenly triangularly lessened, 
apical half almost parallel-sided, truncate at apex. Posterior 
spurs unequal, the longest half as long as first tarsal joint, and 
fully twice as long as its fellow. Length 4J-5, width 14. 

Hah. — North West Australia (Macleay Museum). 

A broad rol^ust species with a very broad head. I have 
examined seven specimens, but they have all been very dirty; 
the species is very distinct, and an examination of fresh specimens 
would probably discover additional markings. 

MoRDELLA AUSTRALis, Boisd. (?); Mast. Cat. Sp. No. 4314. 

Black; muzzle, base of antennae, anterior legs and intermediate 
femora testaceous. Head with greyish pubescence at the base on 
each side appearing almost bare. Prothorax with silvery pubes- 
cence, with a median and two lateral vittse. Elytra at the base 
with four stripes, one on each side of the suture projecting out- 
wardl}", the others midway between suture and sides; a narrow 
zigzag fascia at the middle composed of three Vs, the central one 
somewhat irregular; near the apex a narrow fascia — not always 
complete. Meso-, sides and apex of metasternum, sides and 
middle of abdominal segments, and base of aculeus with greyish 

Aculeus moderate, suddenly lessened at about its middle, apex 
pointed. Posterior spurs unequal, the longest not quite half as 
long as the first tarsal joint. Length 2|-3J, width 4-14 mm. 

The above is the description of a widely distributed species 
which I take to be M. australis; it is the species labelled by the 
late Sir W. Macleay as such in his own museum (though not the 
species he named as such from Gayndah). Boisduval's description 
is very brief (12 words), certainl}^ insufficient for its positive 



Black; palpi, base of antenna?, anterior legs and posterior spurs 
obscure testaceous. Head with obscure pubescence which is 
parted in the middle. Prothorax with dull silvery pubescence, 
leaving an elongated vitta and two lateral sj^ots. Elj^tra with 
pubescence as prothorax; it narrowly borders the base on each 
side, emitting three stripes, the first about the middle, one at the 
extreme side, and one between them; a zigzag fascia about the 
middle — not quite reaching the sides — forming two irregular Ws; 
a crescent-shaped spot on each side about a fourth from — and with 
its con^^ex sides towards — the apex; the pubescence extends along 
the suture from the scutellum to the fascia (one specimen has the 
elytral pubescence extending from base to apical sjDots, these latter 
conjoined and irregular in shape). Undersurface with silvery- 
grey pubescence, leaving a spot on each side of the abdominal 
segments, and the greater part of aculeus. 

Aculeus short, broad; apex broad, truncate. Legs rather 
slender; posterior spurs equal, and little more than a third the 
length of the first tarsal joint. Length 3|, width 1 J mm. 

Hab. — South Australia (Rev. T. Blackburn). 

Resembles the species I suppose to l^e M. mist r alls: differs in 
being larger, narrower, the markings l)roader and not so clearly 
cut, without the divergent scutellar stripes, thinner femora, some- 
what different aculeus, etc. IMr. Blackburn tells me that he thinks 
this species an extreme variety of M. comiminis; with this opinion, 
however, I cannot agree; none of my specimens of that species 
approach it in pattern. 

MoRDELLA BELLA, Waterh. ; Mast. Cat. Sp. No. 4315. 

This is an extremely variable and widel}^ distributed species. 
I have specimens from many parts of New South Wales, and 
there are specimens in the Macleay Museum from Queensland 
and South Australia. Mr. George Masters at Blackheath recently 
obtained several hundreds of specimens, all of which, together 


with my own specimens, I have carefully examined. The pro- 
thoracic macula? are sometimes distinctly marked, often indistinct, 
and frequently entirely absent; frequently the entire basal half of 
the elytra is covered with golden, grey, or occasionally silvery 
pubescence; where the basal half is not so covered there is often 
to be seen an indistinct fascia similar to the middle one, occasion- 
ally appearing as indistinct elongate spots; the middle fascia is 
always of the shape described by Mr. Waterhouse, though varying 
in thickness; the apical fascia varies in thickness, being often 
straight, sometimes complete, often divided into transverse, and 
occasionally into sublunulate spots; the size also is subject to 
considerable variation. 

MoRDELLA LiMBATA, Waterh.; Mast. Cat. 8p. No. 4325. 

This is a somewhat variable species, many specimens having 
the elongate black spot of each elytron almost obliterated; others 
again have it touching the suture, the pubescence behind it being 
lunulate in shape; the prothoracic maculae are often very indis- 
tinct; the pubescence in man}^ is bright silvery; it is sometimes 
very difficult to decide whether a specimen belongs to this species 
or to M. bella. 

llah. — Rope's Creek (Mr. G. Masters); Braidw^ood, Galston 


Black; muzzle (palpi in ^), base of antennae and spurs oljscure 
testaceous. Head with obscure jDubescence, which is feebl}^ parted 
in the middle. Prothorax with obscure yellowish pubescence 
bordering the base, and forming some very ol^scure longitudinal 
stripes (there are traces of three maculae in somie specimens). 

Elytra with greyish-yellow pubescence, not bordering, but 
extending in a short triangle from the middle of each side of the 
base; extending close on each side of suture from the scutellum 
to a little beyond the middle, at the base and apex of these almost 
conjoined stripes there are two very short conjoined elongate 
spots (sometimes free), which cause the whole to appear as an 
H or a broad-footed T, almo:it touching each other on each sid ) 


of the suture near the apex is an elongate narrow stripe. Meso-, 
middle and sides of metasternum and abdominal segments, and 
base of aculeus with obscure pubescence. 

Aculeus moderately long, broad at the base, strongly lessened 
from there to beyond the middle, then narrow, apex pointed. 
Posterior spurs unequal, longest about two-fifths the length of the 
first tarsal joint. Length 3|-5, width lf-1 J mm. 

Ilab. — Forest Reefs. 

The markings of the elytra are suflicient to render this species 
easy of identification; at first sight it resembles 21. limhata, than 
which it is slightly broader. 

MoRDELLA COMMUNIS, Waterh.; Mast. Cat. Sp. No. 4317. 

From New South Wales I have numerous specimens which 
agree in all particulars with the descriptions of this species; they 
are all dingy, many of them having a greasy look, caused by a 
sprinkling of gre3dsh pubescence; the elytral macule are often 
obsolete, and they are never very clearly defined. 

MoRDELLA FELIX, Waterh.; Mast. Cat. Sp. No. 4321. 

I have this species from Blackheath (Masters), and Forest 

Reefs (Lea). Mr. Waterhouse in describing ' it says: — "Head 

with a distinct longitudinal hnpressed line";' this should 

read " pubescence i^artecl in the middle," a character common to 

most species; very few have an impressed line. 

MoRDELLA TRiviALis, Waterh.; Mast. Cat. Sp. No. 4334. 

I have two specimens — one from Galston and the other from 
Newcastle — which agree ver}^ well with Mr. Waterhouse's des- 
cription of this species; he omits to mention the colour of the 
posterior spurs; in my specimens they are piceous-black; in the 
Newcastle specimen the anterior femora are reddish-testaceous, 
the intermediate somewhat darker; in the Galston sj^ecimen all 
the le^'s are concolorous. 





Black; palpi and basal joints of antennae piceous-red. Head 
with griseous pubescence, which is not parted in the middle. 
Prothorax with base and apex extremel}^ narrowl}^ bordered with 
greyish pubescence. Scutellum in some lights silvery, in others 
black. Elytra with two narrow fasciae — which when looked at 
from the apex are scarcely visible, from in front appearing bright 
silvery — the first is almost in the exact centre, and is zigzag in 
shape, appearing in front as two irregular Ws, at the back as 
two perfect M's; the other fascia is about a fourth from the apex, 
and is composed of two united spots, the apical edge straight, 
concave internally. Sides of meso-, and metasternum, abdominal 
segments and base of aculeus with pubescence as elytral fasciae, 
anterior femora as head. 

Posterior spurs unequal, longest about half the length of the 
first tarsal joint. Length 7|, width 2| mm. 

Hah. — Forest Reefs. 

MoRDELLA Raymondi, n.sp. 

Entirely black. Head with griseous pubescence, which is 
feebly parted in the middle. Silvery pubescence on upper surface 
as follows : — narrowly edging prothorax, distinct at its l^ase, 
obscure at apex and sides; scutellum covered or not; each elytron 
with three extremely short obscure stripes (frequently absent), the 
most distinct touching scutellum, one in the middle of the base, 
the other on the shoulder, a small spot behind the base equidistant 
from it, the side and suture, at the middle a V (the two when 
looked at from the base forming a perfect W), near the apex and 
close to the suture (sometimes touching it) an irregularly shaped 
sjDot. All the margins of meso- and metasternum, sides of abdo- 
minal segments and upper base of aculeus with silvery pubescence. 

Posterior spurs unequal, longest about two-fifths the length of 
the first tarsal joint. Length 5|, width IJmm. 

Hah. — Mt. Kosciusko (Mr. W. Raymond). 


The pubescence of the elytra and undersurface of this species is 
similar in character to the preceding, but it is never so brilliantly 


Differs from J/, fugitiva in being smaller, narrower, the elytral 
pubescence less strongly marked, two small spots near apex of 
elytra, base of antennae obscurely piceous; posterior femora 
piceous-black, but distinctly lighter in colour than al^domen; and 
by the aculeus. Length 7, width 2 J mm. 

Hab. — Mt. Kosciusko (Mr. W. Rajmiond). 

As the four preceding species strongly resemble each other it 
may be as well to point out their chief differential characters. 
31. trivialis has the head and prothorax densely and equally 
covered with griseous pubescence, the aculeus long, narrow and 
nowhere suddenly lessened. The other three species have the 
head only covered with griseous pubescence, and that not so 
bright as in triviali<i. J/. Raymondi has the aculeus shorter than 
in trivialis, strongly lessened about its middle, then very gradually 
decreasing in width to apex, which is truncate. J/, fugitiva has 
the aculeus short, suddenly lessened at about its middle, rather 
broad and parallel-sided from there to apex, the apex truncate. 
J/, aumda has the aculeus fully as long, but not so narrow as that 
of trivialis, its sides very feebly diminishing iii width from base 
to apex, apex sharply truncate. 


Black; posterior spurs testaceous. Covered all over with 
greyish pubescence, paler and shorter on the undersurface; on the 
elytra there are very indistinct traces of markings towards the 

Aculeus long, from the base to about the middle decreasing in 
width as the elytra, from the middle narrow, apex sharply pointed. 
Posterior spurs subequal, about two-fifths the length of the first 
tarsal joint. Length 3J-4;|, width 1-1 ;\ mm. 

Hah. — Rope's Creek (Mr. G. Masters). 


An elongate and rather pretty little species, having pubescence 
somewhat similar in character to that of M. inusitata. 

In dedicating this species to JNIr. George Masters, our veteran 
entomologist, I would like to place on record my gratitude to him 
for the very great kindness he has always shown me, in giving me 
advice on collecting and preserving, in giving new and rare 
species which I could never otherwise have obtained, in comparing 
species with those in his own and the Macleay Museum Collections, 
pointing out the variations of different species, and in many other 
ways being of considerable service to me. 


Black; antennte testaceous at base, piceous-brown towards apex; 
palpi testaceous, brown at apex; four anterior tibise and tarsi 
piceous-black, posterior spurs testaceous. The pubescence is 
purplish — on the elytra with a shifting, steel-blue gloss (most 
noticeable when a light is thrown on the apex). White hairs; 
sparse on the head; narrowly bordering the prothorax; sparse on 
the shoulders; and forming three short, rather feeble, very narrow 
lines down the middle of each elytron, the inside one of which is 
feebly traceable on to the shoulders, the middle one the shortest; 
a few white hairs also down the suture; undersurface as the head. 

Aculeus short, wider than deep, apex truncate. Posterior 
spurs unequal, the longest more than twice the length of its 
fellow, and about three-quarters the length of the first tarsal 
joint. Length 3^^, width 1| mm. 

Hah. — Galston. 

A short, robust species, wider than deep (1§ x 1^ mm), the 
elytra not narrower at apex than at base. It is proportionately 
broader than any species known to me. 


Black; antenna© and palpi testaceous, the former slightly darker 
towards the apex; anterior legs testaceous, basal half of femora 
and tarsi piceous; four posterior legs black; spurs to posterior 
reddish. Above with silvery-grey pubescence, pure on the head, 


mixed with soot}' on the disk of prothorax; elytra with more 
sooty than grey hairs, tlie grey most numerous at the base, 
becoming sparsely sprinkled and disappearing before the apex is 
reached. Undersurface with silvery-grey pubescence with a 
yellowish tinge, densest on the legs; abdominal segments — except 
at their bases — with sooty pubescence. 

Scutellum subquadrate, slighth^ depressed in the middle. 
Aculeus narrowly margined, base rather broad, gradually decreas- 
ing to the apex, which is truncate. Posterior spurs equal, about 
two-fifths the length of the first tarsal joint. Length 6J, width 
IJ mm 

Hah. — Sydney. 

Proportioned much the same or a little broader than 21. setipes, 
and with a broader aculeus. I have a number of specimens 
recently taken by Mr. Masters at Rope's Creek which agree in all 
respects with the above description, except that the colour of the 
base of the antenniie and anterior legs is very obscure. 


Black; antennas piceous, basal joints piceous-red, mouth 
ol^scurely red, anterior legs with femora and tibi?e piceous-red or 
reddish-piceous, tarsi piceous, posterior spurs obscure red; head 
(in some lights) with a steel-blue tinge. Head densely covered 
with silvery-yellow pubescence (which when looked at from the 
side appears to be parted in the middle, and one side darker than 
the other), pubescence on prothorax somewhat darker (in some 
specimens ver}^ obscure), at the base wath traces of three very 
indistinct maculpe (these can sometimes be followed, when the 
middle one appears almost parallel-sided, and continuous from 
base to apex). Scutellum — and elytra narrowly at the base — 
pubescent as the head, shoulders as the prothorax, the rest of the 
elytra appearing sooty, but when a light is thrown on it somewhat 
purplish. Undersurface pubescent as head; sides of metasternum, 
aculeus and abdominal segments (including a small jDart of the 
basal) with purplish pubescence, sides of the basal segment lighter 
than in the middle. 


Head with a very shallow depression in front. Aculeus short, 
thick, wider than deep, truncate at apex. Posterior spurs equal, 
not much more than a third the length of the first tarsal joint. 
Length 5-6J, width 2-2J mm. 

Hah. — Braidwood, on flowers of Bursaria spinosa; Forest Reefs- 

A robust, dirty looking species (closely resembling the preced, 

ing), more densely pubescent on the undersurface than above; the 

scutellum when viewed from some directions appears almost 



Black; base of antennae, femora, and base of four anterior tibia? 
and posterior spurs, testaceous-red. Head and prothorax with 
very obscure greyish pubescence, the latter with feeble traces of 
maculae; scutellum in some lights appearing whitish; base, 
shoulders, and the suture for a short distance, with obscure 
pubescence: undersurface with dirty-grey pubescence, forming no 
distinct markings. 

Aculeus short, broad at base, nowhere suddenly lessened, apex 
very narrow but truncate. Posterior spurs scarcely equal, longest 
little more than half the length of the tirst tarsal joint. Length 
3-31 width li mm. 

Hah. — Inverell. 

Differs from M. aterrima in being smaller, narrower, with a 
narrower and somewhat differently shaped aculeus, and by its 
impure pubescence. Living specimens of M. aterrima have very 
pretty purplish and steel-blue reflections, which, to a great extent, 
they lose shortly after death. 


Black; anterior tarsi piceous-black; antennae piceous, basal 
joints somewhat paler; posterior spurs obscure red. Above with 
sooty-yellow pubescence, sparse and very minute on head, and 
narrowly marking the suture, sooty on the rest of elytra; sterna 
and legs pubescent as above; abdominal segments with soot}^ 
pubescence, the three basal with an obscure whitish sj)ot at the 


Scutellum very small. Aculeus rather long, l)asal two-fifths 
narrowly margined, unmargined portion much narrower, apex 
truncate. Posterior spurs unequal, the longest twice the length 
of its fellow, and not half the length of the tirst tarsal joint. 
Length 4 J, width 1| mm. 

Ilab.—Mt. Kosciusko (Mr. W. Raymond). 

The elytra have an indistinct steel-blue reflection when a light 
is thrown on to them, the reflection on the head becoming greenish. 
From M. alerrima it may be distinguished b}'- its more shining 
derm and sparser pubescence, but in particular by its aculeus, 
which is much narrower, especially at the apex. 


Black; posterior spurs testaceous {^ with anterior legs and base 
of antennte obscurely reddish). Equally covered all over with 
obscure greyish pubescence (sometimes with a yellowish tint). 

8cutellum very small. Aculeus rather long and sharp pointed, 
a))out as wide as deep, nowhere suddenly lessened. Posterior 
spurs equal, a little more than half the length of the first tarsal 
joint. Length If-^l, width |-| mm. 

Ilab. — Galston, on flowers of freshly felled " White Gum," 
8ydney, Como, Forest Reefs. 

T suspect this is the species spoken of by the Rev. T. Blackburn 
as occurring in Sydney and the Blue Mountains, and as very 
likely to be distinct from J/, haldiensis. At Galston I could 
have taken thousands of specimens; the branches when beaten 
into an umbrella appeared to rain them. 


This species would, I think, l)e^ best described by comparison 
with the preceding species, which it strongly resembles. From it, 
it differs in being somewhat Vjroader; aculeus much shorter; four 
anterior legs testaceous, the femora stained with piceous; posterior 
femora black, their apices, the tibite and tarsi testaceous-red, 
tibise and tarsi tipped with ])lack; posterior spurs unequal in 


length, longest slightly bent, about half the length of first tarsal 
joint. Length lf-2|, width |nim. 

Ilab. — Sydney. 

In some lights there appears to be a dark stripe down the 
suture. The colour of the posterior tarsi is the distinctive feature 
of this species. 


Head, prothorax and undersurface piceous-l^lack; elytra, 
antennae, legs (one specimen has the posterior femora black), the 
apex of metasternum and abdominal segments piceous-brown; 
sf)urs to posterior tibite testaceous. Rather sparsely covered all 
over with yellowish-grey pubescence. 

Aculeus moderately long, broad at the base, strongl}^ nairowed 
about the basal third; apex sharply pointed. Posterior legs thick, 
spurs equal and half the length of the first tarsal joint. Length 
3, width I mm. 

Hah. — Forest Reefs, Tamworth. 

Somewhat resembling M. setipes in appearance, differing from 
it in being more robust, smaller and somewhat differently coloured. 


Castaneous, four anterior legs and antennae paler, abdominal 
segments with their margins narrowly paler; four posterior til^iie 
and posterior tarsi tipped with piceous; posterior tibire and tarsi 
with stiff compressed piceous set;©. Covered all over with 
yellowish pubescence, densest on elytra, longest on sides of meso- 
and metasternum. 

Aculeus rather long, broader than deep, l)asal half narrowly 
margined. Longest spur of posterior tibiae about the length of 
the first tarsal joint, shortest not a fourth. Length 4-5^, width 

Hah. — Galston, Tamworth, Forest Reefs, Sydney; beaten from 
drying leaves of Eucalypts not long felled. 

An elongate, very shining species, varying slightly in colour. 
I have several small specimens from S3^dney which I cannot 
separate from this species. 


MoRDELLA HUMERALis, Waterh.; Mast. Cat. Sp. No. 4322. 

This is another common and variable species. In many speci- 
mens the 3^ellow elytral stripe does not turn up to join the suture; 
sometimes the stripe is bare, sometimes covered with yellowish 
pubescence, which occasionally extends right across; the two 
connected stripes often appear as a cleanly cut W, more frequently 
the outer edges are jagged or rounded; the spots near the apex 
of each elytron are often joined, appearing as a narrow crescent, 
which has its convex side towards the apex, sometimes as a single 
moderatel}^ large spot, and — rather rarely — all are united to form 
a transverse fascia; the yellowish pubescence frequently extends 
along the suture from the base to in line with the apical spots. 
The prothoracic macula? are often distinct, and equally as often 
entirely obsolete. I have a specimen in which the elytral pubes- 
cence ajDpears as four distinct maculae. The size is somewhat 

Ilah. — Blackheath (Mr. G. Masters); Tamworth, Forest Reefs, 
Sydney (Lea). 


Black; abdomen bright red, aculeus piceous-black at apex; four 
anterior coxie, femora and the palpi brownish-testaceous, tibite 
and tarsi darker; antennae reddish-piceous, at the testaceous; 
spurs to posterior tibiae testaceous. Head and prothorax not 
very densely clothed with somewhat silvery pubescence, on the 
latter three indistinct black macula?, the largest extending from 
near the base to near the apex, the lateral ones ol^lique, almost 
touching the central. Elytra with silvery pubescence as follows : 
between the suture and sides an elongate somewhat triangular 
spot, narrowly joined to the suture at the base; on the shoulders 
a rather indistinct spot, which ca^n hardly be separated from the 
inner one; two transverse zigzag fasciae, one slightly before the 
middle, the other before the apex, the one in the middle very 
narrow at the sides, broadest at the suture, from the sides (on its 
anterior edge) running obliquely backwards, then up, down, up, 
and then semicircularly to the suture, its posterior edge triangular 


at the suture; the hinder fascia straight at its posterior edge, 
trisinuate in front; suture from the anterior, and margin from the 
posterior fascia, with a few silvery hairs. Undersurface with 
silvery pubescence, partly denuded on meso- and metasternum; the 
abdominal segments when looked at from almost every direction 
with the sides at the apex apj^arently semicircularly denuded. 

Aculeus short, broad, basal two-thirds narrowly margined; apex 
narrow, truncate. Posterior spurs unequal, the longest about 
two-fifths the length of the first tarsal joint. Length 4|, width 
li mm. 

Hab. — Sydney. 

This is a rare and very pretty species, easily distinguished by 
its red abdomen in striking constrast to the general colour. 


Pale testaceous, elytra slightly darker, their apices darker still; 
abdominal segments jDiceous, their apices and sides and the aculeus 
piceous-red; eyes black; antennee — except at base — slightly darker 
than head; posterior tibiae and tarsi tij^ped with piceous, inter- 
mediate to a less noticeable extent, anterior not at all. Covered 
all over (but shortest and sjDarsest on meso- and metasternum) 
with short, yellowish, silky pubescence. Meso- and metasternum 
distinctly punctate. 

Aculeus very short, rather flat, truncate at apex. Posterior 
spurs unequal, longest nearly three-fourths the length of the first 
tarsal joint. Length 2J, width J (vix) mm. 

//ab. — Galston; on flowers of "White Gum." 

A species easily recognisable by its pale colour, with dark 
abdomen and the absence of maculie, and by the great length of 
its posterior spurs. 

MoRDELLA Waterhousei, n.sp. 

Testaceous; elytra with a zigzag fascia slightly behind the 
middle — forming three Y 's in front and four behind (one specimen 
has it broader, more confused, and extending slightly in front of 
the middle) — and the apical fourth piceous-brown; abdominal 


segments and posterior tibise and tarsi tinged with brown; aculeus 
piceous-brown. Covered all over (except on elytral markings) 
Avith 3^ellowish silk}^ j^ubescence, which is longest above; posterior 
tibise and tarsi edged with blackish sette. Prothorax with three 
rather indistinct maculae, the median rather narrow and lanceolate 
in shape, the outer ones small. 

Aculeus rather short and broad, strongly lessened about the 
middle: apex narrow, feebly rounded. Posterior spurs unequal 
in length, the longest fully half the length of the first tarsal joint. 
Length 2|, width 1 mm, 

//a6.— Blackheath (Mr. G. Masters). 


Reddish-testaceous; prothorax with a faint piceous spot in the 
middle; elytra black, the shoulders reddish-testaceous, an oblique 
stripe extending from them to the suture at a little more than 
half its length, becoming very indistinct as it approaches the 
suture, the two forming an elongated Y. Metasternum stained 
with piceous at the sides; abdominal segments black, narrowly 
edged with obscure red; four posterior tibiae and tarsi tipped with 
piceous; antennio piceous, the two basal joints testaceous. 
Covered with greyish pubescence, silvery on elytral stripe and 
basal segment of abdomen. 

Aculeus long, narrow (but wider than deep), apex sharply 
pointed. Posterior spurs unequal, the longest about half the 
length of the first tarsal joint. Length 2^, width 4 mm. 

Hab. — Galston (Lea); Blackheath (Mr. G. Masters). 

I have two specimens which in all structural details agree 
exactly with the types of the above species; the markings are 
somewhat different, but an examination of a number of specimens 
would probably discover intermediates. For the present I think 
them deserving of varietal rank. 

var. VEXUSTA. 

Black; muzzle, prothorax, an oblique humeral stripe (Inroad at 
the base, narrowing and almost touching suture at its middle), 


four anterior legs and posterior femora testaceous-red; posterior 
femora and abdominal segments dark piceous-brown; antennae 
reddish, apical joints infuscate. Elytra with yellowish pubescence 
along humeral stripe, and a rather large spot near apex of each 
(apparently concealing an obscure reddish spot). 
//rt6._Blackheath {Mr. G. Masters). 

var. MODESTA. 

Black; muzzle, prothorax (its middle infuscate), a squarish 
patch on shoulders and four anterior legs testaceous-red; posterior 
tibiae and tarsi obscure red; abdominal segments piceous-black; 
antennae brown, basal joints paler. Elytra with yellowish 
pubescence on humeral spots and along suture. 

fJab. — Forest Reefs. 


Black; a squarish patch on shoulders, four anterior legs and 
posterior tarsi obscure testaceous-red; posterior femora and 
abdominal segments dark piceous-brown; antennas testaceous-red 
at base, darkening to brown at apex. Humeral maculte, under- 
surface and legs with obscure greyish pubescence. 

Aculeus moderately long, rather wide at base, and moderately 
sharjDly pointed, strongly narrowed near the base. Posterior 
spurs hardly equal, the longest not quite half the length of the 
first tarsal joint. Length 2J, width 1 (vix) mm. 

Hab. — Blackheath (Mr. G. Masters); Forest Reefs (Lea). 

A species with a larger prothorax than is usual among its 
congeners. The humeral spots should be a very distinctive 


Black; elytra with a testaceous-red stripe extending from the 
shoulders almost to the apex; four anterior legs testaceous, 
posterior tibiae and tarsi somewhat darker, their apices piceous, 
posterior femora black; antennae testaceous-red, apical joints 
darker. Head and prothorax somewhat sparsely clothed with 
silvery-yellow pubescence, elytra with golden — sometimes almost 


connected --i^ubescence on the stripes; the pubescence on the 
iindersurface is similar to that on the head and prothorax, on the 
a])dominal segments (except the basal) and the aciileus it is sparse 
and purplish. 

Aculeus rather long, as wide as deep, margined on the basal 
half. Posterior femora and tibiae rather short and thick, spurs 
unequal, the longest not half the length of first tarsal joint. 
Length If -3, width 4-4 mm. 

//rt6.— Galston, on flowers of "White Gum,"' Como, Sydney 
(Lea); Blackheath (Mr. G. Masters); Jenolan Caves (Mr. J. C. 

A rather narrow species, which may be distinguished from M. 
nigrmis by its much smaller size and by the colour of its legs, 
that species having them entirely black. 


^. Reddish-testaceous; elytra with the suture narrowly black 
its entire length, the sides from near the shoulders stained with 
brown, which gradually encroaches upon, but never completely 
darkens the surface near the suture (when looked at from a little 
distance there appear to be two narrow rather dull testaceous 
vittse extending the whole length of the elytra), abdominal seg- 
ments and aculeus piceous-brown, their apices obscurely reddish; 
antenme — except basal joints — brownish, posterior tibise and tarsi 
red, their apices darker. Above with yellowish pubescence, on 
the elytra only at base and on each side of but not on the suture, 
the rest of its surface being covered with obscure purplish 
pubescence; posterior tibite and tarsi edged with blackish seta^. 
Prothorax with three macula?, the central one large and feebl}^ 
marked, the outer ones very indistinct. 

Aculeus long, narrow and sharjD-pointed; posterior spurs unequal 
in length, the longest more than half the length of the first tarsal 
joint. Length 3-3|, width | (vix) mm 

Hub. — Forest Reefs. 

9. Differs in being very slightly broader, aculeus broader and 
shorter and the abdominal segments scarcely stained. 


An elongate species, having a more parallel outline than any 
other species (except M. elo7igatula) known to me. 

M. LEUCOSTiCTA, Germ.; Mast. Cat. Sp. No. 4324. 
Hah. — Tamworth, Queanbeyan, Forest Reefs, kc. 

M. CUSPID ATA, Macl.; Mast. Cat. Sp. No. 4318. 
Hah. — Tarn worth. 

M. ATERRiMA, Macl.; Mast. Cat. Sp. No. 4313. 

This species is widely distributed in New South Wales and 

M. MULTiGUTTATA, Waterh.; Mast. Cat. Sp. No. 4237. 

Hah. — Sydney, Forest Reefs (Lea), Jenolan Caves (Mr. J. C. 

M. RUFicoLLis, Waterh.; Mast. Cat. Sp. No. 4322. 

Hah. — Blackheath (Mr. G. Masters), Mossman's Bay (Macleay 

M. OBLiQUA, Waterh.; Mast. Cat. Sp. No. 4328. 
//f^6.— Rope's Creek (Mr. G. Masters). 

M. iNUSiTATA, Blackb.; T.R.S.S.A. 1893, p. 136. 
Hah. — Sydney, Galston. 

M. CARA, Blackb.; T.R.S.S.A. 1893, p. 137. 
Hah. — Sydney, Galston (Lea), Rope's Creek (Mr. G. Masters). 

M. Sydneyana, Blackb.; T.R.S.S.A. 1893, p. 137. 
Hah. — Queanbeyan, Tamworth, Forest Reefs, Galston. 

M. Baldiensis, Blackb.; T.R.S.S.A. 1891, p. 341. 

Hah. — Braidwood, Forest Reefs, Galston (Lea), Rope's Creek, 
Blackheath (Mr. G. Masters). 


C U R C U L I N I D .5:. 


Short, thick, rough, opaque. Black; claws feebl}^ diluted with 
red. Extremely minutely punctate all over. Base of head and 
antenna? with small griseous scales, smaller, sparser and duller at 
sides of jDrothorax, undersurface and legs. 

Head short, thick; with short set*; a moderately large tubercle 
close to the eyes; rostrum excavated, at its apex a triangular and 
raised emargination. Disk of prothorax with three excavations, 
the central one continuous from base to apex, and oj^en at both 
ends, the lateral ones a little shorter, semicircular outwards, 
closed at apex, irregularly and narrowly open behind; on the 
summits of the excavations and the sides there are a number of 
large, shallow setose punctures, some of them in the centre of a 
feebly raised tubercle; sides angularly produced in the middle. 
El3'tra not twice the length of head and prothorax combined; the 
disk very feebly striate-punctate, each puncture carrying a small 
seta, at the sides the striae are five in number and very feeble, 
but the punctures are rather large and distinct; the 3rd and 6th 
interstices strongly raised, costiform and setose, the 3rd slightly 
produced at the base, interrupted towards and tuberculate at 
apex; the 6th produced at the shoulders, extending for about a 
fourth the length of prothorax, interrupted towards and tuber- 
culate at apex; in consequence of the interruptions of these costce 
there is a transverse row of four tubercles; these when looked at 
from behind appear as short conical elevations, the two outer 
more obtuse; apical third declivous, with rows of rather strong 
punctures, the strongest close to suture. Sterna irregularly 
punctate, apex of mesosternum with three transverse rows of 
strong punctures. Abdominal segments obsoletely punctate. Legs 
rather short, setose, the coxae irregularly punctate and densely 
setose. Length 10|, width 4|^ mm. 

Hab. — Queanbeyan, IS'.S.W. 


I have a specimen from Cootamundra, which is a Kttle shorter 
and narrower, and which has the elytra densely covered with 
small, round, griseous-brown scales. 

Glochinorrhinus evanidus, n.sp. 

1^. Thick, oj)aque, rounded in front and behind. Black; pro- 
thorax with a narrow margin anteriorl}'- and the antenniv, piceous- 
red. Above covered with small ashen scales, densest and palest 
on rostrum; on the sterna the scales are more distinct and paler, 
they are densest and elongate behind the prosternal canal; on the 
abdominal segments there are short, round and elongate, paler 
scales, densest on the basal and apical, and forming three lines on 
the intermediates; legs — especially tibige — densely scaly. Head 
with short dark seta?, becoming setose hairs on rostrum; prothorax 
setose, the setne short and dark on the disk, pale and elongate at 
the sides; elytra sparsely setose. Densely and very minutely 
punctate all over; apex of rostrum coarsely and densely punctate, 
undersurface more sparingly and feebly; prothorax at sides with 
rather large shallow punctures, elytra seriate-punctate, punctures 
large and round, deepest at the sides. 

Head with a shallow fovea between eyes; antenn e short, sub- 
shining; rostrum subparallel, slightly widest at apex, minutely 
granulate, obtusely carinate from the base to between bases of 
antennje, the sides slightly in front of the middle with a strong 
recurved spine, behind that a shorter curved spine, behind that 
again there are a number of small tubercles, there is also a 
tubercle in the middle immediately in front of eyes; undersurface 
highly polished, obtusely carinate down the middle, impressed 
towards the sides at base, a short tubercle behind the antennal 
scrobes. Prothorax slightly longer than wide, and wider than 
deep, base narrowly margined, the middle produced, the sides 
behind the eyes broadly emarginate, much narrower in front than 
the middle or behind; median line feebl}^ marked till near the ajDex, 
where there is a short shining carina. Scutellum short, rounde'd, 
transverse. Elytra at base scarcely as wide as prothorax at its 
widest, and about once and a third as long; gradually 


narrowing to near apex, at the base wider than deep, becoming 
deeper than wide at posterior coxae; each elytron with a row of 
about ten small shining tubercles close to suture, the second 
interstice bearing the largest tubercle, irregularly shaped, close 
to the base and equidistant from suture, behind it there are a 
number of irregular, obsolete setose tubercles, forming a slightly 
elevated costa which terminates at more than a third from the 
apex. Legs long; tibice flattened and spurred at apex, a few setai 
on the other side causing them to appear bispinose; Imsal joint of 
tarsi elongate, grooved beneath. Length 11 (rostr. excl.), width 
ih mm. 

5. Differs in having the rostrum smooth, nar]'ow, without 
scales or seta3, and almost impunctate, tibiae shorter, &c. 

Hah. — North Queensland, Barron Falls (Mr. A. Koel^ele); 
Cairns (Mr. W. W. Froggatt). 

This species is much the form and size of G. Douhledayi, from 
which it may be readily distinguished by its somewhat broader 
form, nontubsrculate and feebl}^ carinated prothorax, the el^^tra 
with almost obsolete tubercles, shorter legs, differently coloured 
scales, etc. Both the gentlemen named obtained numerous 

Tychreus fasciculatus, n.sp. 

Short, ovate, convex. Black; beneath piceous-black, claws 
reddish. Above, and the legs, densely covered with ashen — 
intermingled with brown— scales, which completely cover the 
shining derm, except the basal half of the prothoracic median 
line; on the undersurface the scales are sparse. Rostrum densely 
covered with elongate punctures; elytra striate-punctate, the 
punctures large but almost hidden; meso- and metasternum 
caarsely and densely punctate at the sides, sparsely punctate in 
the middle; abdominal segments with stroni*', elongate and rather 
sparse punctures; legs densely and minutely — the coxse more 
strongly — punctate. 

Prothorax trisinuate; the scales at the side of the median Ijne 
with a reddish tint, a pale, oblique, rather indistinct line. 


on each side, then two oblique, small white spots; the sides 
broadly marked with whitish scales, edged immediately beneath 
with ochreous; three fascicles on each side of the median line, the 
basal small and dark, intermediate reddish and with a few short 
setae, apical composed of elongate set?e, which slightly project 
over the head. Scutellum small, round. Elytra with a few 
whitish scales towards the apex, each with a number — about ten 
— of small irregularl}^ placed, sparsely setose tul^ercles, and a 
large one about the middle — equidistant from each other and the 
sides — covered with long setae, paler in the middle, darker and 
shorter at apex. Legs with irregular rings of whitish scales, and 
with whitish and brownish setae; femora thick, keeled beneath, 
the keel terminating abruptly at a third from the apex; tibiae 
flattened, arcuate (especially the intermediate), a short spur at 
their apices. Length 5, width 2| mm. 

Hah. — Sydney. 

I have but one specimen, and do not care to scrape it too much, 
where I have scraped off the scales on the elytra, the derm is seen 
to be shining, and covered with very minute punctures; the 
shining median line is very conspicuous. 

C R Y L o P H I D ^. 

This family appears to l)e numerousl}^ represented in Australia, 
although but two species have been hitherto described. Most of 
the following species were obtained during floods, others by 
searching decaying vegetal^le matter, and a few b}^ beating drying 
boughs of Eucalypts and other plants. All of them have the 
prothorax strongly rounded in front and entirely covering the 
head; with a few of the species I have not been able to examine 
the head; in all that I have the eyes are coarsely faceted. They 
are all shining and sliglitly convex, a few moderately convex; in 
most of them the pubescence is of a yellowish colour, where it is 
otherwise I have specified it. The lengths given are those from 
apex of prothorax to apex of elytra; where I have had numerous 
specimens I have taken an average-sized one. 


Sericoderus mint'tus, n.sp. 

Broad. Testaceous; protliorax more clear than elytra, and 
with a piceoiis mark at its ai3ex; undersiirface somewhat darker 
than above; legs, muzzle and base of antennte jDale testaceous, 
rest of antennpe brown; abdominal segments slightly paler towards 
apex. Elytra with moderately long pubescence, slightly sparser 
on prothorax, undersurface densely clothed with rather short 
pubescence. Prothorax microscopically, elj^tra densely and min- 
utely, underneath visibly punctate. 

Prothorax with the base widel}' rounded, angles largely pro- 
duced, acute. Scutellum slightl}^ transverse, semicircularly 
triangular. Elytra at the base almost as wide as long, apex 
almost conjointly rounded. Femora somewhat thickened, distance 
between posterior greater than their length. Length |, width 
I" mm. (vix). 

II ab. — Sj^dney, Galston, Forest Reefs, N.S.W. 

Sericoderus comp actus, n.sp. 

Very broad. Piceous, prothorax (except at apex, which is 
dark dull red) indistinctly lighter than elytra; muzzle, legs and 
antenme pale testaceous. Above equally • clothed with rather 
short greyish pubescence, undersurface more sparsely. Above 
with minute punctures, densest on elytra; metasternum minutely 

Prothorax feebly depressed at Ijase, bisinuate, angles largel}^ 
produced, acute. Scutellum small, Ijroadly transverse, semi- 
circularly rounded. Elytra as wide as long, narrower than pro- 
thorax, narrowing from base to almost extreme apex, each feebly 
separately rounded. Femora moderate, distance between posterior 
less or equal to their length. Length |, width 4 nim. 

Z^rt 6. -—Clarence Kiver, N.S.W. 

Differs from the preceding in Ijeing darker, broader, with a 
more transverse scutellum, and somewhat different pubescence. 


Sericoderus Coatesi, n.sp. 

Broad. Testaceous; prothorax more clear than elytra, and 
with a piceous mark at its apex; metasternum and basal segments 
of abdomen darker than above; legs, muzzle, palpi and base of 
antennae pale testaceous, apical joints of antennsie infuscate, 
abdominal segments edged with a paler colour. Above with 
rather sparse and njot very long pubescence, sparsest and shortest 
on prothorax; undersurface rather more finely and densely pubes- 
cent. Prothorax microscopically, elytra densely and minutely 
punctate; undersurface indistinctly punctate. 

Prothorax very feebly bisinuate at base, angles produced, acute. 
Scutellum as long as wide, semicircularly rounded. Elytra 
slightly longer than wide, each feebly separately rounded. Femora 
moderately thickened, distance between the posterior greater than 
their length. Length ^, width 4 (vix) mm. 

//ab. — New South Wales: Inverell, Tweed River (Lea). 
Queensland : Brisbane (Mr. A. J. Coates). 

The character of the scutellum, distinctl}^ as long as wide, will 
separate this species from either of the preceding. 

Sericoderus obesus, n.sp. 

Broad. Testaceous; elytra narrowly at base, prothorax narrowly 
at base and a small mark in front, piceous-black; undersurface 
darker than above; legs and base of antennae pale testaceous, 
apical joints slightly darker. All over with moderately long 
pubescence, sparsest on prothorax and head. Above minutely, 
undersurface indistinctly punctate. 

Prothorax with the base feebly rounded in the middle, angles 
produced and acute. Scutellum transversely triangular. Elytra 
wider than base, where they are wider than long, apex truncate. 
Femora thick. Length 1, width | mm. 

//a6.— Tamworth, KS.W. 

Differs from the preceding, which it strongly resembles, in 
being slightly larger and broader, angles of prothorax more 
strongly produced, scutellum slightly different, and by the dark 
marking of the suture of prothorax and elytra. 


Sericoderus inconspicuus, n.sp. 

Broad, Testaceous, with a piceous mark at apex of prothorax; 
metasternum somewhat darker than above; legs pale testaceous; 
antennae testaceous-brown, basal joints paler. Elytra with mode- 
rately long and rather dense pubescence, sparser and shorter on 
prothorax, beneath the pubescence is finer and somewhat denser. 
Prothorax microscopically, elytra densely and minutely punctate; 
on the undersurface the punctures are very indistinct. 

Prothorax rounded and bisinuate at base, angles largely pro- 
duced, acute. Scutellum moderately large, transverse, semi- 
circularly rounded. Elytra slightly longer than wide, each 
separately rounded. Femora moderately thickened, distance 
between the posterior somewhat greater than their length. 
Length 1 (vix), width f (vix) mm. 

Nab. — Sydney. 

Differs from S. Coatesi in being somewhat darker, slightly 
larger, a trifle more convex, and with a more transverse scutellum. 
This species closely resembles in shape and colour the European 
*S'. lateralis (for a sjDecimen of which I am indebted to the Rev. T. 
Blackl)urn), but differs in being slightly broader, more feebly 
punctate, with somewhat denser pubescence, scutellum a trifle 
larger, and its prothoracic angles more acute. 

Sericoderus piceus, n.sp. 

Broad. Piceous-brown, elytra somewhat darker than prothorax, 
undersurface coloured as elytra, apex of abdominal segments 
somewhat paler, legs and antennae pale testaceous, posterior legs 
darker. Above clothed with moderately long pubescence, sparsest 
on prothorax. Above sparsely and minutely, undersurface indis- 
tinctly punctate. 

Prothorax bisinuate, angles moderately largely produced, acute. 
Scutellum broadly transverse, semicircularly rounded. Elytra 
longer than wide, decreasing in width from base to apex, each 
feebly separately rounded. Femora rather stout, distance between 
posterior less than their length. Length 4, width | mm. 

//«6._Clifton, KS.W. 


Of the same size and shape as ^'. Coatesi, but much darker, with 
longer pubescence, the scutellum smaller and much more trans- 
verse, and with less distance between posterior femora. 

Sericoderus Hardcastlei, n.sp. 

Broad. Piceous-brown; prothorax (except an obscure mark at 
apex) somewhat paler than elytra; metasternum piceous, somewhat 
darker at the sides; muzzle p.nd abdominal segments dark 
testaceous-red; legs and antennse testaceous, the latter slightly 
infuscate towards apex. Elytra with moderately long greyish 
pubescence, sparser on prothorax, abdominal segments more 
densely clothed with shorter pubescence, longer and sparser on 
metasternum. Prothorax sparsely and minutely, elytra more 
densely and strongly punctate, metasternum minutely punctate. 

Prothorax bisinuate, broadly rounded in the middle of the base, 
angles largely produced, acute. Scutellum transverse, semi- 
circularly rounded. Elytra longer than wide, narrowing from 
base to apex, each distinctly separately rounded. Femora not 
very thick, distance between posterior about equal to their length. 
Length 1^, width § mm. 

J/ab. — Sydney, Inverell, Forest Reefs, Tam worth (Lea); Armi- 
dale (Mr. D. McDonald); Hillgrove (Dr. C. Hardcastle). 

Sericoderus basipennis, n.sjD. 

Broad. Reddish-testaceous; prothorax with a piceous mark at 
apex, elytra rather more obscurely coloured than prothorax and 
scutellum, the base more or less broadly clouded with black; head 
(except muzzle), meso-, metasternum and basal segments of abdo- 
men piceous-red; legs and antennae pale testaceous, the latter 
slightly infuscate towards apex. Above equally densely clothed 
with moderately long pubescence (shortest on prothorax), under- 
surface with rather longer and sparser pubescence. Above very 
minutely punctate (strongest on elytra), metasternum distinctly 

Prothorax feebly depressed at base, bisinuate, angles largely 
produced, acute. Scutellum broadly transverse, semicircularly 


rounded. Elytra as wide or slightly wider than long, each 
distinctly separately rounded. Femora moderately thickened, 
distance between posterior less than their length. Length 1, 
width § mm. 

H<ih. — Windsor, Sydney, N.S.W. 

The colour of the base of the elytra will at once distinguish 
this somewhat abundant species. 

8ericoderus apicalis, n.sp.* 

Broad. Testaceous above and l^elow; prothorax with a piceous 
mark at apex (sometimes very indistinct); apex of elytra edged 
with black; head — -except muzzle — brown; legs, palpi and base 
of antennse pale testaceous, apical joints piceous. Elytra with 
rather long and not very dense pubescence, shorter but equally 
as dense on prothorax; undersurface — excei3t head — as densely 
pubescent as above. Etytra densely and minutely punctate, on 
the undersurface the punctures are very indistinct. 

Prothorax. feebly depressed and rounded in the middle of base, 
angles largely produced, acute. Scutellum transverse, semi- 
circularly triangular. Elytra longer than wide, considerably 
wider at base than at apex, each distinctly separately rounded. 
Length 1|-, width ^ mm. 

//«&.— Sydney. 

The colour of the apex of the elytra at once distinguishes this 

Sericoderus coxcolor, n.sp. 

Broad. Reddish-testaceous, legs very slightly paler; antennae 
brown at apex. Elytra with long and rather dense pubescence, 
prothorax sparsely clothed; on the undersurface (except abdominal 
segments) the pubescence is very fine. Elytra and undersurface 
densely and not very minutely punctate. 

Prothorax bisinuate at base, base widel}' rounded in the middle, 
angles produced, acute. Scutellum widely transverse, semi- 
circularly rounded. Elytra longer than wide, apex conjointly 
rounded. Femora not very stout. Length If, width | mm. 

;^«6.— Richmond River, N.S.W. 


Almost of the same bright colour as the preceding species, but 
without a trace of darker colour on prothorax or elytra. 

Sericoderus politus, n.sp. 

Very broad, moderately convex, highly polished. Dark piceous- 
brown; muzzle, legs and base of antennae clouded-testaceous; 
anterior legs paler than four posterior. Above glabrous, under- 
surface moderately densely clothed with greyish pubescence. 
Above densely, extremely minutely and shallowly punctate; under- 
surface densely and minutely punctate, or very feebly transversely 

Prothorax feebly bisinuate, angles produced, acute. Scutelhim 
feebly transverse, semicircularly triangular. Elytra slightly wider 
than long, widest behind the base, slightly wider than prothorax, 
each separately rounded. Legs rather slender, distance between 
posterior femora less than their length. Length |, width | mm. 

Bab.— Windsor, N.S.W. 

The convex form, glabrous upper surface and dark colour of 
this species will serve to distinguish it; the head is easily with- 
drawn from the prothorax. I have numerous specimens, but am 
not quite certain as to whether I have referred this species to its 
correct genus, or whether a new one should be formed for its 

Clypeaster collaris, n.sp. 

Moderately elongate. Reddish-testaceous; prothorax with a 
small piceous mark at apex, on each side of which is an indistinct 
pale testaceous marking, narrowly margined with piceous at base; 
head — except muzzle— blackish-brown; undersurface — except 
abdominal segments — darker than above, legs and antennse 
testaceous. Above equally clothed with rather short and dense 
pubescence, undersurface rather sparsely pubescent. Above 
equally densely and not very minutely punctate, undersurface 
rather more feebly; underside of head minutely transversely 

Prothorax feebly depressed at base, feebly bisinuate, angles 
not at all produced. Scutellum small, transversely triangular. 


Elytra longer than wide, wider than prothorax, widest behind the 
))ase, apex conjointly rounded. Femora thick. Length 1 1, 
width J mm. 

Ihoh. — Richmond River. 

Clypeaster pulchella, n.sp. 

Rather elongate. Prothorax bright red, with a piceous mark 
at its apex; elytra black, a broad bright red fascia across the 
middle, which is seemingl}^ composed of two large semilunar spots 
having their convex sides towards the base, metasternum — except 
middle of apex — and sides of basal abdominal segment piceous- 
black, other segments piceous at sides, but decreasing to apex; 
head and antennae brown. Elytra with rather short and sparse 
pubescence, still sparser and shorter on prothorax, undersurface 
with longer and sj)arser pubescence than above. Prothorax 
extremely minutely, elytra and metasternum very minutely 

Prothorax shallowly bisinuate, angles scarcely produced. Scutel- 
lum transverse, semicircular ly rounded. Elytra considerably 
longer than wide, widest behind the base and wider than pro- 
thorax, not much narrower near apex than at base, each separately 
rounded. Femora not very thick, distance between posterior 
gi-eater than their length. Length IJ, width 4 (vix) mm. 

//ai.— Sydney, Forest Reefs. 

Easily recognisable by the red fascia on the elytra; G.fasciatiis 
(from Tasmania) is described as having deep punctures on the 
elytra, and the legs differently coloured — ^characters not possessed 
by the present species. 

Clypeaster Axdersoxi, n.sp. 

Moderately elongate. Dark redf prothorax with an indistinct 
piceous mark at apex, base feebly tinged with piceous; elytra 
with a brownish blotch about scutellum; a piceous tinge at the 
junction of the meso- and metasternum and about all the coxse; 
antenn?e brown. Above equally clothed with not very long 
pubescence, the pubescence on he undersurface sparser and 



rather longer. Prothorax with minute scattered punctures, elytra 
densely and minutely, metasternum feebly but distinctly jDunctate. 

Prothorax rounded and feebly depressed at base, angles slightly 
produced. Scutellum slightly longer than wide, semicircularly 
rounded. Elytra considerably longer than wide, widest behind 
the base, and slightly wider than prothorax, each feebly separately 
rounded. Femora not very thick; distance between posterior 
more than their length. Length 1^, width | (vix) mm. 

Hub — Clarence River. 

Differs from C. collaris in being larger, in having the punctures 
on the prothorax stronger but less dense, its l^ase somewhat 
different, and l)y the blotch about the scutellum. I have dedicated 
the species to Mr. H. C. L. Anderson, formerly Director of the 
New South Wales Department of Agriculture. 


Moderately elongate. Red; prothorax with a piceous mark at 
apex, elytra with a brownish blotch about scutellum, the apex 
picsous, the extreme apex lighter; metasternum darker than 
above, muzzle and legs reddish-testaceous, apical joints of antennae 
piceous-brown. Above with moderately long and not dense 
pubescence, sparse on prothorax, sparser on the undersurface. 
Alcove very densely and extremely minutely punctate, and with 
minute scattered punctures; metasternum visibly punctate. 

Prothorax feebly depressed and almost truncate at base, angles 
very slightly produced. Scutellum rather small, feebly transverse, 
semicircularly rounded. Elytra longer than wide, widest behind 
the base, and slightly wider than jDrothorax, each separately 
rounded. Femora rather thick, distance between the posterior 
greater than their length. Length 1, width \ mm. 

//a6.— Tweed River, N.S.W. 

Differs from C. collaris in being smaller, l^y the dark markings 
of the elytra, prothoracic punctures much sparser and feebler, 
and its base somewhat different; in this last respect it resembles 
the preceding, but its much sparser puncturation and smaller 
size will distinguish it from that species. 


Clypeaster Blackmorei, n.sp. 

Elongate. Piceous; sides of apex of prothorax obscure red; 
suture and apex of elytra obscure dark red; abdominal segments 
paler than metasternum; the legs reddish-testaceous; antennae 
brownish-testaceous, basal joints and the muzzle somewhat paler. 
Above with rather sparse and moderately long pubescence, on 
the undersurface the pubescence is still sparser, but rather longer. 
Above moderately densely and rather minutely, metasternum 
distinctly, punctate. 

Prothorax very shallowly bisinuate, angles very feebly pro- 
duced. Scutellum small, longer than wide, semicircularl}^ triangular. 
Elytra much longer than wide, widest behind the base, where it 
is slightly wider than prothorax, not much wider at base than 
near apex, each distinctly separately rounded. Femora moderate, 
distance between the posterior greater than their length. Length 
IJ (vix), width I mm. 

Hah. — Galston, Forest Reefs. 

Clypeaster nitida, n.sp. 

Moderately elongate. Piceous-brown; sides of apex of jDro- 
thorax obscure pale testaceous; suture and sides of elytra indis- 
tinctly paler than disk; undersurface somewhat darker than 
above, tibiae and tarsi paler than femora; antennae obscure 
testaceous, apical joints feebly infuscate. Above almost glabrous, 
the pubescence being very short, sparse and dark; undersurface 
with moderately long and dense pubescence, longest down the 
middle of metasternum. Above with moderately dense and not 
very minute punctures, undersurface densely and extremely 
minutely punctate, metasternum with large shallow punctures. 

Prothorax feebly depressed in the middle of the base, very 
shallowly bisinuate, angles very feebly produced. Scutellum 
broadly transverse, semicircularly rounded. Elytra considerably 
longer than wide, widest behind the base, slightly wider than 
prothorax, base scarcely wider than apex, apex almost conjointly 


rounded. Femora moderate, distance between posterior about 
equal to their length. Length 1, width J (vix) mm. 

Hab. — Sydney. 

Differs from the preceding in being broader and more convex, 
in its different puncturation and pubescence, and its differently 
shaped scutellum. 

'Jlypeaster Olliffi, n.sp. 

Moderately elongate. Piceous-brown; prothorax at the sides 
in front narrowly pale testaceous, or obscurely semitransparent; 
undersurface darker than above, legs and antennae testaceous, the 
latter slightly infuscate towards apex. Above almost glabrous, 
the pubescence being extremely short and sparse, undersurface 
rather more densely but still sparsely clothed. Above very densely 
and extremely minutely punctate, and with moderately dense 
shallow punctures; metasternum indistinctly punctate. 

Prothorax feebly depressed at base, very feebly if at all bisinu- 
ate, angles not produced. Scutellum transverse, semicircularly 
triangular. Elytra longer than wide, wider than prothorax, 
widest at the middle, as wide near ape k as at base, each separately 
rounded. Femora not very thick, distance between posterior 
slightly greater than their length. Length |-, width h mm. 

Hah. — -Windsor, Sydney, Tamworth. 

The peculiar puncturation of this rather plentiful species renders 
it very distinct. 

Clypeaster squalida, n.sp. 

Moderately elongate. Piceous-brown; elytra obscurely piceous 
at apex and sides; a piceous mark at apex of prothorax, on each 
side of which is a small semitransparent obscure testaceous mark; 
legs, muzzle and antennae testaceous; antenn;e infuscate tow^ards 
apex. Above equally clothed with rather short greyish pubes- 
cence, the pubescence on the undersurface as dense but some- 
what finer. Above minutely and not densely, metasternum 
minutely punctate. 

Prothorax very narrowly depressed at base, shallowly bisinuate, 
angles slightly produced. Scutellum feebly transverse, semi- 
circularly triangular. Elytra longer than wide, slightly wider 


than prothorax, widest near the middle, feebly separately rounded. 
Femora moderate, the distance at their bases equal to or slightly 
greater than their length. Length 1 (vix) width h mni. 

Ilab. — Sydney. 

Very similar in size, shape and colour to the preceding, but 
differing in its puncturation, which closely resembles that of C. 
Andersoiiij but is otherwise distinct. 


Elongate, moderately convex. Prothorax red, a piceous mark 
at apex; elytra piceous-black, with an indistinct dark red mark 
at the apex, and very indistinct near the sides; undersurface 
dark red, the metasternum piceous, legs and antennae — which are 
concolorous — bright red, posterior femora somewhat darker. 
Elytra clothed with rather long pubescence, as dense but somewhat 
shorter on prothorax; the pubescence on the undersurface 
sparser, finer and darker than above. Elytra densely and 
extremely minutely punctate, and with small moderately dense 
punctures (sparsest on prothorax), metasternum minutely punctate. 

Prothorax feebly depressed in the middle of the base, shall owty 
bisinuate, angles scarcely produced. Scutellum feebly transverse, 
semicircularly triangular. Elytra much longer than wide, widest 
-behind the base, where it is slightly wider than prothorax, not 
much wider at base than near apex, each sejDarately rounded. 
Femora moderate, distance between posterior about equal to their 
length. Length 1§, width 1 mm. 

//a 6.— Clarence and Richmond Rivers, N.S.W. 

This is a very distinct and rather rare species, much larger 
than any as yet recorded from Australia. 



By J. Douglas Ogilby. 

( C ommunicatPAl by the Secretarij ). 


Centropercis, gen.nov. 

Branchiostegals (f) five ; pseud obranchife present. Body elongate- 
oblong, compressed; head conical; cleft of mouth wide and mode- 
rately oblique; lower jaw the longer; eye lateral, partially directed 
upwards; gill-openings wide; gill-rakers stout, of moderate length, 
few in number; bones of head armed or radiate. Jaws, vomer 
and hyoid bones with well-developed, fixed teeth; palatine and 
pterygoid bones edentulous. Two dorsal fins, the first with six 
spines; the second more developed, similar to the anal; no semi- 
detached spines in front of the anal; ventrals thoracic; all the 
pectoral rays branched. Scales small, poriferous, those of the 
head cycloid, of the body ctenoid; body with regularly arranged 
series of naked bands. 

Centropercis nudivittis, sp.nov. 
B. V. (?) D. 6 1/20. A. 1/17. V. 1/5. P. 13. C. 15. 

Length of head four and one-third, height of body six and 
one-fourth in the total length; Avidtli of head two-thirds of its 
height and two-fifths of its length. Diameter of eye four and 
two-fifths in the length of the head: premaxilla trilobate, snout 
emarginate, in front; the latter a little longer than the diameter 
of the eye; interorbital space grooved, three-fifths of the diameter 

HY J. DOUfiLAS Of.ILBY. 321 

of the eye. Nostrils simple, lateral, situated at the opposite ends 
of a shallow fossa. Lower jaw the longer; cleft of mouth wide 
and moderately oblique; the maxilla truncated and expanded 
posteriori}'', extending backwards beyond the hinder margin of 
the eye; upper profile of head flat. Preorbital armed with 
three strong spines; preopercle finely denticulated on both limbs, 
and with a strong, acute, elongate, curved spine at the angle; 
three short stout spines on the subopercle; opercle and interopercle 
with prominent ribs, each of which terminates in a free flexible 
point; a spinose ridge runs from the front of the snout to the 
postero-superior angle of the orbit, where it is subdivided, a short 
branch passing downwards along the upper portion of the hinder 
margin of the eye, Avhile the main l^rancli is continued along the 
occiput; beneath the termination of the latter a similar ridge 
commences, and traversing the temporal region ends in a pair of 
strong post-temporal spines; a short sj^inose ridge on the occij^ut 
below the middle of the occipital ridge: a short simple ridge j^asses 
outwards from the centre of the posterior margin of the eye. 
Jaws with a single series of slender cordiform teeth, those in 
front being strongly hooked; two or three smaller teeth between 
each pair of elongate ones; three strong and a few small teeth on 
either side of the head of the vomer; two short parallel patches, 
composed of three series each, of stout recurved teeth behind the 
base of the tongue, the outer row the strongest; all the bones of 
the hyoid arch dentiferous. Dorsal fins separated by a consider- 
able interspace; the spines weak and flexible, the second the 
highest, two-fifths of the length of the head, and two-thirds of the 
anterior and highest rays: the anal commences beneath the third 
dorsal ray, and is similar to but not so high as the soft dorsal 
fin: ventral elongate and pointed, the fourth ray the longest, 
reaching to the vent, its length three-fourths of that of the head : 
pectoral small, about half the length of the ventral, its base 
situated at a considerable distance behind that of the ventral: 
caudal emarginate, small, its length six and a half in the total 
length. Scales of the head simple, circular, non-imbricate, each 
furnished with a central pore; head entirely scaly, with the excep- 


tion of the posterior third of the opercle and the greater part of 
the subopercle, the scales on the latter being arranged in a 
narrow basal band on its upper half, from the extremities of 
which short, broad bands are produced backwards; below this 
there is a free angular band; scales of body similar to those of 
the head, but strongly ctenoid; eighteen enlarged tubular scales on 
the lateral line, with from six to eight normal scales in the space 
between each pair; between each tubular scale and the base of 
the dorsal there is a naked band about two normal scales in width, 
which is continued across the lateral line to the depth of two 
scales; sides of abdomen and base of the anal fin with more or 
less corresponding naked fasci*. Upper surface of head and body 
olive-green, lower surface pale yellowish- white, the two colours 
being abruptly divided; a series of seven olive-green spots along 
the middle of the sides, the last encircling an enlarged tubular 
scale at the base of the caudal; fins immaculate. 

The unique specimen from which the above diagnosis has been 
drawn up was washed ashore, in a perfect though dying condition, 
at Maroul^ra Bay, near Sydney, and was shortly afterwards lent 
to me by its discoverer, Mr. Thomas Whitelegge, for identification 
and, if necessary, description. In length the type specimen 
measures 78 millimetres, and it has since been added to the 
collection of the Australian Museum, Sydney, its register number 
being I. 3396. 

A T H E R I N I D .E. 

Tropidostethus, gen.nov. 

Branchiostegals six; pseudobranchiai present. Body strongly 
compressed, rhombo-fusiform, the tail attenuated; dorsal profile 
straight, ventral convex and acute. Cleft of mouth oblique, 
extending to beneath the front margin of the eyes; jaws not 
protractile. A single series of teeth in the jaws and a short 
curved row on the palatine bones; no vomerine or lingual teeth. 
Spinous dorsal small; anal moderate; ventrals minute, situated 
far behind the pectorals. Scales of moderate size, thin, cycloid, 


Tropidostetiius rhothopiiilus, sp.nov. 

B. vi. D. 4. 1/15. A. 1/23. Y. 1/5. P. 14. C. 17. Vert. 

Length of head five to five and a half, height of body five in 
the total length. Eye situated near to the dorsal profile, its 
diameter three to three and a half in the length of the head, 
and four-fifths of the flattened interorbital space; snout obtuse 
and convex, rather less than the diameter of the eye in length; 
the upper jaw slightly projecting. Spinous dorsal situated above 
the vent, and midway between the tip of the snout and the base 
of the caudal fin; soft dorsal commencing above the anterior third 
of the anal; caudal forked, its length six and three-fifths to six 
and three-fourths in the total. 

General colour gray (pale straw-yellow in spirits), so closely 
dotted with minute brown specks as to give it a brownish appear- 
ance when nevv^ly caught; a broad silvery lateral band, margined 
above by an emerald streak; the ventral edge faintly tinged with 
green. Occiput with a large cuneiform emerald spot, the acute 
portion extending forwards between the eyes; a brown spot con- 
tained within its anterior half; nostrils pierced in an emerald 
spot; supraorbital region tinged with pale green. 

These little Atherinids were first observed by Mr. Thomas 
A¥hitelegge at Maroubra Bay* during the month of March, 1893, 
but the specimens Avhich he brought back to the Museum, being 
considered immature, were not critically examined on that 
occasion. Their reappearance, however, in large shoals along the 
coast during March of the present year induced us to investigate 
more closely their habits, mode of life, and such other points in 
their economy as could be observed; this difficult task has been 
al3ly carried out by Mr. Whitelegge, with the result that though 
the shoals have been on the coast from March until the date of 
writing — July 31st — there is no appreciable difference in size. 

* Between Port Jackson and Botany Headj 


thus proving, what from a prior examination we had inferred, 
that the fishes are adult; no signs of breeding have, however, as 
yet been discovered. 

They are essentially surf-fishes, coming in with the waves, and 
being swept up into the gulches and pools on the reefs; they 
never descend to the bottom, but swim here and there, keeping 
but a few inches beneath the surface; the pectoral fins are always 
kept fully expanded, at right angles to the body, and motionless, 
being utilised in fact solely as balancing media; the caudal fin 
and pedicle have a distinct downward curvature when the fish is 


Part III. 

By Walter W. Froggatt. 

This paper contains my contribution to the study of the 
habits of our Coleoptera for the season 1894-5, and is really a 
continuation of previous notes on this subject; for the observa- 
tions of one year run into the next, and some of the insects have 
to be watched for over twelve months before the larva can be 
correlated with the perfect insect. 

As before, I am indebted to the Rev. Thos. Blackburn for the 
determination of some of my beetles, and to Mr. R. T. Baker for 
the verification of the botanical names of some of their food 

Aphanasium australe, Boisd. 

Larva short and stout, pale yellow, with well-defined abdominal 
segments; jaws black, and truncated at the tips, mouth parts 
raised upon a slightly lobed projection, the basal portion of the 
head forming an encircling fold, slightly overhanging in front; on 
the lower edge of the forehead are four irregular yellow patches; 
thoracic segments narrow, legs small, short, ferruginous; on the 
dorsal surface the first five segments flattened, of regular size, 
produced into an elongate oval, slightly impressed in the centre, 
with a patch of reddish-brown hairs on either side, 6th and 7th 
rather larger and rounder, Sth small, 9th also short, terminating 
in a short obtuse point; on the ^ventral side the segments are 
comparatively flat. 

The larvae feed upon the stems of Hakea acicularis, growing 
in the neighbourhood of Sydney, a number always boring into the 
shrub at one place, causing the branches to wither and snaj) off- 
perhaps nearly a dozen grubs will feed in a single branch gnawing 


out parallel chambers, but never breaking into each other's mine. 
The dying foliage is noticeable early in January, their attacks 
causing the limb to become swollen and covered with exudations 
of gum. The beetles come forth in the first week in November; 
I have never taken the beetle at large, but it is evidently common 
on this shrub at certain seasons of the year, though ver}^ effectually 
concealed in the dense prickly foliage. The beetle is 10 lines to 
an inch in length, with very large prominent eyes and long slender 
antennae; thorax* finely rugose, produced into a stout blunt spine 
on either side; elytra rounded at the shoulders, of a uniform width 
to the tips, which are round, not quite covering the tip of the 
abdomen; the whole insect is of a uniform chestnut-brown, the 
central portion of the wing covers being much lighter than the 
edges, and the whole of them covered with close, fine, fawn- 
coloured down. 

Hah. — The neighbourhood of Sydney. 

Strongylurus thoracicus, Hope. 

Larva dirty white, with rather large head, armed with stout 
black jaws, broad at the tips; body short and corrugated. Dorsal 
view: forehead large, flattened, projecting slightly in front, 
creamy- white with a large blotch of bright yellow on either side, 
covered with stout reddish hairs; thoracic segments narrower 
than the head; first four abdominal segments bearing two corru- 
gated lobes on the summit; the 5th, 6th and 7th with two rounded 
tubercles divided in the centre; all the segments distinctly divided 
from each other at the apical margins; the last two segments 
rounded. Ventral view: thoracic segments much flattened, legs 
very small, short and ferruginous, the margins of all the segments 
fringed with fine hairs. 

The larvae attack the stems of the common garden Pittosj)orums 
(/*. revolutum and P. undulatum) growing in sul^urban gardens. 
In the neighbourhood of Croydon, where most of my specimens 
were ol^tained, they completely disfigured a large shrub of the 
former species, large branches three and four inches in diameter 
being cut off; over a dozen of the lower limbs fell during last 


season, while little streams of dust could be seen falling from the 
holes where they had gnawed through the bark; most of the 
fallen branches are hollowed out before they l^reak off, but the 
larva nearly always remains behind in the stump of the l)ranch 
feeding into the green wood, which dies down below where it 
pupates. They take some time to reach maturity, certainly not 
before the second year, as . I have kept larvae over that time 
without any sign of their pupating. 

Mr. Geo. Masters tells me that at Elizabeth Bay, Syniphyletes 
nigro-virens feeds upon the garden Pittosporums; while Strongy- 
hiriis thoracicus confines its attacks to the white cedar (Jfelia 
composita), cutting off the branches in exactly the same manner. 

The beetle is 10 lines in length, with dark l^rown head clothed 
with coarse brown hairs, an elongate spot of silvery white hairs 
between the eyes; antennae toothed on the outer apical margin of 
each joint; thorax dark reddish-brown, deeply and coarsely 
punctured, with three large round patches of white hairs on 
either side, with another smaller one in front of the scutellum; 
elytra ferruginous on the shoulders, paler towards the tips, deeply 
punctured for about two-thirds of their length, but almost smooth 
towards the apex; a row of 4 small black spots across the 
shoulders, with an irregular black horseshoe-like band on either 
side; the tips of the wing covers and the apical margins black; 
the whole of the upper surface clothed with scattered grey down; 
underside clothed with greyish hairs, with a patch of white hairs 
forming an oval mark on the side of each segment. 

The larv?e were most active in the early summer months after 
the new year, the beetles breeding out early in December. 

Aterpus cultratus, Fabr. 

Larva 5 lines in length, short, -and obese, lying with its back 
arched and the tip of the abdomen curved towards the head; dull 
white, with dark chocolate-l)rown head, truncate at the base, 
mouth parts rather prominent, and with a median groove lightly 
impressed down the centre of the head; a dark brown transverse 
line in front of the first thoracic segment; on the dorsal surface 


the segments are of uniform size, each forming a double fold at 
the apex, and divided into three distinct lumps or warts on either 
side, the ventral surface flat, with a fringe of long reddish hairs 
along the marginal folds of each segment. 

The larvae feed upon the stem of Melaleuca stellatuTn, com- 
mencing on the bark and then gnawing out an elongate oval 
cavity in the side of the branch underneath the loose bark; in 
this cavity they form a rough rounded cocoon of gnawed wood 
early in July. The infested stems were cut off", and in captivity 
the beetles bred out early in September. They were very plentiful 
at Rose Bay (Sydney). 

Two years ago I bred a single specimen taken at Manly, which 
had formed a similar pupa case on the stem of Eiicalyptus 
corymhosa. The beetle is generally found upom small gum trees, 
and often comes to the stump of a freshly cut down tree, probably 
for the exuded sap. 

It is 5 lines in length; head, legs, and apical portion of el3'tron 
hocolate-brown; thorax black, deeply and regularly punctured, 
with a stiff brush of black down on either side towards the head; 
the basal portion of the wing covers black, regularly and deeply 
striated, with the punctures in regular rows; carrying a double 
pair of tufts of black down on each shoulder, with a corresponding- 
single one on either side towards the apex, where the elytron 
slopes down with deep regular striations towards the tip, and is 
ornamented with two much smaller black tufts. 

This beetle has a wide range over Australia, and is a rather 
common weevil about Sydne}^ 

EuRHYNCHUS L^viOR, Kirby. 

Larva 10 lines in length, slender and of uniform length, rounded 
on the dorsal surface; of a dull yellow colour; head almost 
spherical, flattened in front, deep reddish-brown, slightly rugose, 
fringed in front with a few scattered long hairs; jaws black, 
truncate at the tips, palpi very short, and the labrum very small 
and wedge-shaped; thorax with 1st segment ochreous-yellow, 
smooth and shining, 2nd and 3rd pale yellow, covered on the 


summit with a patch of very fine reddish spines; on the ventral 
surface flattened and corrugated, each bearing a pair of very 
short conical legs : abdominal segments slightly smaller than the 
thorax, corrugated and clothed with similar line spines as the 
thoracic segments. 

The larvae feed upon the stems of Persoonia lanceolata; entering 
through the bark a few inches above the surface of the ground, 
they bore holes towards the centre of the trunk, then turning 
upwards and hollowing out parallel chambers several inches long, 
and pupating at the end of the last chamber. I found one nearly 
perfect beetle, and several full-grown larva? early in July, at 
Hornsby. The beetle is about 7 lines in length, of a general 
slender and ver}" graceful form compared with most of the weevils; 
black, but having a greyish tint from the fine clothing of grey 
hairs covering both dorsal and ventral sides. The snout is long, 
slender, and smooth, the thorax rugose, the elytra also rugose, 
with close deeply punctured striae. 

It is not a very common beetle, but is generally found in pairs, 
about i*^ovember, clinging to the twigs of small bushes. 

AxiDES DORSALis, Pascoe. 

Larva pale yellow, about 3|^ lines in length when uncurled; 
when met with is nearly always lying with its back arched and 
the head nearly touching the tip of the abdomen; head oval, 
ferruginous, with two pale ochreous lines in the centre giving it a 
variegated appearance; jaws black, short, and angular; first 
thoracic segment small, 2nd and 3rd with the first seven abdominal 
segments of a uniform size; 8th and 9th forming a short broadly 
rounded tip. 

The larvae are very plentiful in^May and June in the stems of 
Astrotricha Jioccosa; they bore from the surface into the soft 
pithy centre, forming short cylindrical burrows, sometimes only 
one or two being together, but oftener in little colonies of ten or 
a dozen; their attacks cause the limb to swell and exude a lot of 
sticky strongly smelling aromatic resin, which burns very readily; 


this, together with the castings, forming irregular excrescences 
upon the branches. 

The beetle is 2| lines in length, of a general creamy buff colour, 
due to a dense growth of fine hairs' covering the dark chocolate 
coloured elytra, the natural colour visible only on the snout; 
the centre of the thorax and from the shoulders for about two- 
thirds of the back pale reddish-brown, thickly interspersed with 
fine black spines or bristles commencing on the thorax, and 
increasing in number towards the middle of the elytra, where 
they form a dark patch. The thorax is further ornamented with 
two pairs of small downy plumes on the sides, and the elytra are 
broadly impressed with coarsely punctured striae. 

The beetle is found at large upon its food plant early in 
November; most of my specimens were obtained on a large patch 
of the bushes at the head of the Double Bay Valley. 


Larva 2 to 21- lines in length; pale yellow, with the apical 
portion of the abdomen slightly ferruginous; head small and 
orbicular, partly hidden by the thorax; jaws small, with the tips 
divided into two pointed teeth, with a larger and more angular 
one on the inner edge; segments rounded, the abdominal ones 
forming a double fold along the sides, the under fold smallest, tip 
of the abdomen curled inwards, and the whole larva clothed with 
long hairs. 

The larv?e feed in the interior of lumpy reddish-brown galls, 
produced in the first instance, I think, by the attacks of lepidop- 
terous larvae, upon the tips of the branchlets of Acacia decurrens; 
the galls or rather after-growths upon the twigs become dead and 
dry up in Februar}^; and at this season nearly every gall is 
tenanted with a little grub, covered with woody dust. 

The beetle, about 3 lines in length, dark brown in colour and 
covered with greyish down, was found in the box containing the 
galls about a week after they were collected. It has a peculiar 
way of jumping w^hen touched. 


The life-history of this beetle is of importance, as the insect is 
a well-known orchard pest. The species was described by Mr. 
A. Sidney Olliff from specimens received from Mr. C. French; 
they had attacked the apples near Melbourne, and by puncturing 
them caused them to shrivel up before they were ripe. 

Mr. French has given an account of this pest and its ravages, 
with a plate containing figures of it in all stages, in his Hand- 
book of the Destructive Insects of Victoria"^ under the name 
of Doticus pestilens, the apple beetle. 

Ha h . — ITeathcote. 


The description of the larva of the previous species will serve 
also for this, except that it is slightly larger when full grown. 
The larvae live in the thick bark of Eucalyptus rohusta, where they 
pupate; the beetle comes out in September and October, and will 
be found in crevices, or under loose bark on the trunks of the 

This beetle is slightly larger than M. tibialis, having the same 
uniform coloration; the flanges in front of the head more angular, 
with the edges curved upward, and the back of the head and 
thorax very finely and closely punctured, so that the outer edges 
have a fine serrate appearance; the elytra covered with fine close 
deeply punctured parallel striae; the whole of the dorsal surface 
covered w^ith very minute scale-like hairs scattered over the head 
and thorax; on the elytra forming regular lines along the ridges 
of the parallel striae. 

/y«6.— Botany, N.S.W. 

M^CHiDius TIBIALIS, Blackbum. 

Larva dirt}^ white, rather lo'ng " and slender, the head pale 
yellow, with short ochreous-yellow labrum, and stout short jaws 
of the same colour; thoracic segment more constricted than the 
first abdominal segments; legs short, covered with short golden 

* Part I. Chap. xiii. p. S3. 


yellow hairs, which are also sparsely scattered along the sides of 
the body; tarsal claw black, small and sharply pointed; all the 
segments along the dorsal surface except the last two covered 
along the summit with short brownish spines. 

The larvae, together with the perfect beetles, were found in the 
nests of the large mound-building Termite; they were very 
numerous in several nests opened, most of the larvse being in the 
outer walls, but others were in the interior of the nest, while the 
beetles were crawling about all parts of the termitarium, the 
swarming hosts of white ants seeming to take no notice of them. 

The beetle is 4|^ lines in length, dark brownish-black, with the 
head produced into two shell-like flanges in front of the eyes; 
thorax finely punctured; elytra traversed with deeply and closely 
punctured parallel strife. 

if«6.— Shoalhaven, N.S.W. 

Melobasis iridescens, L. &■ G. 

Larva white, slender and flattened on the underside; jaws small; 
head globular, much broader than the thoracic segments ; pale 
yellow, with two ferruginous lines crossing the head and coming 
to a point at the forehead; first and second thoracic segments 
rounded and narrow; third thoracic and the first six abdominal 
segments rounded on the margins, but square at the apex, which 
projects over the following segment on either side; seventh and 
eighth much smaller, while the anal segment is produced in a 
curious forked tail, divided into a rounded lobe at the base, 
terminating in a slender tail on either side. 

The larva feeding between the bark and sap wood forms a series 
of parallel wavy tunnels in wood that is just beginning to wither; 
when nearly full grown it bores in the sap wood to pupate. 

The beetle is about 4 lines in length, of a bright metallic green 
colour, with the head and thorax very finely punctured; elytra 
irregularly striated, with the strife bearing punctures; with the 
ridges between them also punctured; apical edges of the wing 
covers very finely toothed. Bred from infested branches of Acacia 
lo7igifolia obtained at Rose Bay. 


M. iridescPMs is given in Masters' Catalogue as a variety of M. 
ciipriceps, but it is very distinct both in form and habits from the 
beetles determined by Mr. Blackburn as the latter. 

M. cupriceps is nearly a third longer, of a more delicate pale 
green colour, with decided golden tints upon the shoulders, and it 
is more boat-shaped upon the back, with the serrate edges of the 
elytra very deep and slender. The abdominal strife are very fine 
and regular, and sparingly punctured, while the spaces between 
them are perfectly smooth. 

This beetle is rather common about Sydney, feeding upon the 
foliage of Viminaria denudata early in the year; but I have 
never taken M. cupriceiys on an Acacia. 

Melobasis splendida, Donov. 

I have not been able to identify the larva of this beautiful 
little Buprestid; but in chopping the dead stems of Acacia longi- 
folia I have come upon several fully developed in an irregular 
chamber at the end of a tunnel leading from under the bark into 
the sapwood; and have bred as many more from infested wood 
kept in boxes. 

The beetle is 4 lines in length, bright metallic-green, with two 
parallel bands of dark purple across the thorax; and a brilliant 
fiery coppery-red pattern formed by two bands commencing behind 
the thoracic bands, leaving a bright green patch round the 
pronotum and joining just below, occupying all the centre of the 
back, and after projecting out on either side into two sharp 
angles, runs round the tip of the wing covers, and forms a narrow 
stripe along the apical part of the margins not quite up to the 
hind legs; all the underside is bright green. 

//rt6.— Rose Bay, N.S.W. 


A score of specimens of this beetle have been bred, in October, 
from dead branches of Acacia lonyifolia collected at Rose Bay, 
and kept in closed boxes; others were obtained in November and 
December, feeding on the leaves of the same Acacia at Manly. 


The beetle is about 3 lines in length, the front of the head 
bright green, the thorax and shoulders bright metallic-bronze, the 
centre of the wing covers black with metallic reflections, and the 
tips fiery red colour. Underside of thorax and legs green, with 
the abdominal segments bronzy-red. 


Larva very pale yellow, with small mouth parts and jaws; 
head large and globular; 1st and 2nd thoracic segments small, 
rounded on the edges; the 3rd thoracic and the first six abdominal 
segments more or less rounded on their extremities, the last three 
tapering to a small rounded tip. 

It feeds in a very similar manner to that of Jlelobasis iindescens; 
at first under the bark, but finally pupating in the sapwood 

The beetle is 4^ lines in length, the head and thorax bright 
metallic-green; the elytra fiery coppery-red and finely granulated, 
all the underside green. 

This is not a common species; I have bred three individuals 
from infested branches of Acacia lonyifolia obtained at Rose Bay. 

Cadmus flavocinctus, Saund., Trans. Ent. Soc. 1846. 

Larva 4 lines in length, pale yellow, with a cylindrical black 
rugose head, truncate and perfectly flat in front, with short 
3-jointed antennae projecting on either side and the jaws almost 
hidden; 1st thoracic segment covered on the dorsal side with a 
dark brown coriaceous plate slightly curved in front; legs very 
long, slender, armed with a sharp tarsal claw; the rest of the 
segments of uniform size, pale yellow, clothed on the sides with 
long scattered hairs, thickest towards the tip of the abdomen, the 
legs also covered with long hairs. 

The larva constructs an elongate oval cocoon with a jug-like 
neck, of a stout woody nature, smooth, hard, and dark brown; the 
grub by protruding its head and fore legs can crawl about on the 
ground, or among the loose bits of dead bark at the butts of the 
gum trees in a similar manner to the case moths; but from the 


remarkable resemblance of these cocoons, when in a qiiisscent 
state, to the castings of some of the large wood-eating lamellicorn 
beetles, they are ver}^ easily passed over. 

When the larva is full grown it forms a concave lid over the 
top of the opening, and remains on the ground generally under 
logs or fallen timber until it is read}^ to emerge. 

Like nearly all the members of this genus the beetles feed upon 
the foliage of the young Eucalypts. 

The beetle is about 4 lines in length, reddish chocolate-brown, 
with irregular black blotches upon the thorax and upper half of 
the elj^tra; thorax and wing cases very rugose, the former verv 
finely punctured; the latter deeply ribbed with parallel stria?, 
closely and finely punctured. 

Hah. — Not common in the neighbourhood of Sydney, l3ut 
plentiful in the Shoalhaven District. 

Epilachxa 26-puxctata, Dejean. 

Eggs pale yellow, placed in patches of thirt}- or forty upon the 
underside of the leaves; elongated and pointed at the apex; 
having a beautiful granulated appearance under the lens. The 
larva on emergence and after each moult pale yellow. 

Larva short and stout, 5 lines in length and 3 in breadth, pale 
yellow. Dorsal view : head completely hidden by the folds of the 
thorax; 1st thoracic segment covered with a blackish patch from 
which spring up four black spines, each of them with several finer 
radiating spines growing from their sides; white at the tij)s; 2nd 
and third thoracic segments wdth a blackish patch on either side, 
with two similar feathery spines springing out from them; with 
another black patch on either side just above the legs out of 
w^hich a single feathered spine grows; the following six abdominal 
segments have a double feathered spijie in the patch on the centre 
of the back, with two smaller blotches on either side, each 
producing a spine, 7th abdominal segment bearing 4 sj^ines, the 
8th and anal one two. 

Yentral side : pale yellow; head small, l)lack and rounded 
behind, elongated towards the jaws, wdiich are short and toothed; 


palpi long and drooping; legs stout, long and mottled with black; 
the inner edge of the tarsi fringed with fine white hairs; tarsal 
claws ferruginous, the central ridge of the abdominal segments 
marked with a line of small blackish brown spots. 

The larva attaches itself to the underside of the leaf, when the 
larval skin splits and turns down over the pupa, remaining in 
this position about ten days. 

This is one of the commonest ladybirds about Sydney. Both 
beetle and larva feed upon the leaves of Solanaceous plants, 
gnawing the epidermis off in little wavy lines, causing dead 
patches all over the leaves. They were also very plentiful upon 
the leaves of Datura stramonium, on the seashore at Botan}^; a 
number that I took home were let out of the box, and a few days 
later they were busy at work eating the leaves of the tomato 

It is a handsome little beetle of a deep yellow colour mottled 
with irregular black spots; all the members of this genus, unlike 
others of the family, are phytophagous. 

In "Insect Life," 1891, Yol. iii. Ejnlachna corrupta is stated to 
have destroyed fully half the bean crop of New Mexico. 

An African species, E. hirta, is very destructive to potatoes 
and tomatoes. 



By J. H. Maidex, F.L.S. 

(Plate XXI.) 

Acacia Bakeri, sp.nov. 

Attains the dimensions of a large forest tree, measuring up to 
160* feet in height, and from 2 to 4^ feet in diameter; stem some- 
times buttressed. It is, as far as at present known, exclusively 
confined to brushes, as distinct from open forest. Branchlets at 
first terete but at length flattened, glabrous. Phyllodia sessile, 
broadly lanceolate, narrowed at each end, obtuse, mostly 3 to 4 
inches long and 1 inch broad, but occasionall}'- 6 inches long and 
3 inches broad when they are acuminate and broad at the base; 
3-nerved, with sometimes a short one terminating in a gland a 
little removed from the base, penniveined between the nerves, 
margins thickened and undulate, thinly coriaceous. Peduncles 
slender, 6 lines long, mostly in clusters of 3 to 10, forming 
numerous axillary racemes mostly exceeding the phyllodes, bearing 
a small loose head of few, pale coloured flowers, rarely as many 
as 20, mostly 4-merous. Calyx short, pubescent or softly villous, 
eventually separating into spathulate lobes. Petals pubescent, 
softly villous. Pod long, straight, flat, usually 8 inches long and 
6 lines broad, thin, contracted somewhat between the seeds, 
shining. Seeds flat, ovate, longitudinal; funicle short and fili- 
form, neither folded nor enlarged. 

* A road party recently cut down one of these trees on Mullumbimby 
Creek, and it was found by measurement to be 140 feet high, and 3 feet 
8 inches in diameter. The collector adds " On Tengoggin Mountain there 
are qdenty of trees 20 or 30 feet higher." 


Hah. — Tengoggin Mt. (1000 ft.), near Mullumbimby, Brunswick 
River, N.S.W.; also Mullumbimby Creek, a tributary of the 
Brunswick (W. Bauerlen). 

According to Bentham's classification this Acacia belongs to the 
series Phiritierves, sub-section Dimidiatce. 

This is probably one of the largest of all the Acacias. It has 
been found in the Mountains measuring over 160 feet, with a 
trunk from 50-60 feet clear of limbs, and a diameter from 2 to 4 
feet, and on the banks of creeks 140 feet high, and in some 
instances " so high that the leaves could not be seen " (dis- 

The flowers are small, in loose racemes with fairly long pe- 
duncles. Branches pendulous. Phyllodes vertically flattened and 
also twisted towards the base, thin, quite glabrous. The pods 
are very difficult to procure owing to their ripening and falling in 
what is usually the wettest part of the year. In many instances 
pods were caught while falling from the trees when every seed 
was found to have begun to germinate. 

They are very variable both in length and breadth, some being 
very broad and a little constricted between the seeds, w^iile others 
from the same tree are very narrow and much constricted, the 
valves are all very thin. 

The bark is quite distinct from A. binervafa, its nearest ally. 
It is inclined to be smooth and exudes very little gum, as far as 
seen, and is reputed to be poor in tannin. 

The timber is pale coloured right to the heart, as far as seen. 
It will be described subsequently. 

The flowers, bark, seeds and timber all emit an alliaceous odour 
when fresh, reminding one of Dysoxylon rufum. 

Its closest affinity is with A. binervata, which it resembles in 
the penniveined reticulations of the phyllodes and in the flowering 
racemes, but differs from it in individual flowers, pod and seed. 

It ranks wdth A. excel sa in size and the shape of the seed and 
aril, but diff'ers in the nervation of phyllodes, peduncles and 

BY J, H. MAIDEN. 339 

Its botanical position is perhaps between A. hiuervata and A. 
Jlavescenti, which latter it approaches in nervation of its ph341odes. 
From the great size of this tree it was at first thought to be -4. 
excelsa, but the nervation, size and shape of phyllodes as well as 
the inflorescence and pods do not agree with that species. 

Analysis Showing A(fi.nities to and Differences from Cognate 



Size : A large forest tree. Branchlets terete, glabrous. Phyl- 
lodes oblong, falcate, obtuse, inucronate, narrowed at the base, 2 to 
3 inches long, J to | inch broad, thinly coriaceous, 5- to 7-nerved 
or faintly veined between them. Inflorescence : Peduncles solitary 
in pairs or clusters. Floivers 20 to 30, petals distinct, smooth; 
sepals distinct; 5-merous. Pod 3 lines broad. Seed ovate, longi- 
tudinal; funicle short and filiform, neither folded nor enlarged. 


Size : A tree. Brancldets scarcely angular. Phyllodes obliquely 
ovate-oblong, 7-8 nerved, emarginate at the apex, and oblique at 
the base. Inflorescence : Peduncles usually solitary. Pod falcate, 

A. Bakeri. 

Size : A large brush tree. Branchlets flattened, angular. 
Phyllodes obtuse, broadly lanceolate, narrowed at both ends, 2 to 
6 inches long, \ to 3 inches broad, thinly coriaceous, 2- or 3-nerved, 
pinnately veined, margins thickened between the veins. Ivflor- 
escence : Loose, elongated panicles or racemes, peduncles in clusterfi. 
Flowers few, never more than 20, petals villous, sepals villous, 
spathulate, 4:-merous. Pod nearly 6 lines liroad, thin, straight. 
Seed ovate, longitudinal, funicle short and filiform, neither folded 
nor enlarged. 

A. binervata. 

Size : A tree. Branchlets terete. Phyllodes as in A. Bakeri^ 
but 3 nerves predominate. Inflorescence : Axillary racemes. 


Flowers about 20, petals smooth, sepals glabrous. Pod J inch 
broad. Seed obovate, longitudinal, funicle folded and dilated 
under seed. 


Size : A small tree. Branchlets angular. PhyUodes oblong, 
falcate, 3-nerved, 2-3 inches long, J to 1 inch broad. Inflorescence : 
Racemes short. Flowers 30, globose, petals smooth. Pod hard, 
3 to"5jinches long, \-\ inch broad. Seed elongated, arillus almost 
encircling the seed in a double fold. 

expla:nation of plate. 

Plate XXI. 

Acacia Bakeri. 

Fig. 1. — Flowering twig. 

Y\g. 2. — The large form of phyllocle, common in this species. 

Figs. 3 and 4.— Individual flowers in progressive stages. 

Fig. 5.— Pistil. 

Fig. 6.— Pod. 

Fig. 7. — Seed in dtti. 

Fig. 8. — Seed in longitudinal section. 

(Figs. 3, 4 and 5 enlarged.) 




Mr. Edgar R. Waite exhibited a number of living "Waltzing 
Mice, quite recently received from Japan, where these curious 
animals appear to have originated. They were first made known 
in Europe b}^ M. C. Schlumberger, in 1893. Last year he pul)- 
lislied a description with figures copied from Japanese ivory 
carvings representing these mice (Mem. 8oc. Zool. de France, 189-I-, 
p. 63). M. Schlumberger's mice and also Mr. Waite's are white 
variegated with black; the exliibitor had bred some entirely 
white but with discernible faint fawn marks indicating what 
portions would normally be l^lack. These mice are constantly 
rotating, and this trait constitutes the peculiarity which gives to 
them their trivial name. 

Mr. Maiden showed a series of botanical specimens in illustra- 
tion of his paper. 

Mr. Froggatt exhibited specimens of the beetles described in 
his paper, and drawings of six of them in different stages of their 
life-history. Also, some pine resin from the stems of FreneUa 
rohu^ta, collected near Wagga, X.S.W., and sent to the Techno- 
logical Museum, in which are enclosed and beautifully preserved 
a, large number of insects, at least eight difi'erent species of 
Fonnici'Jice, MiUilla sp., Chalcis sp., besides about twenty different 
.species of Coleoptera. 

Mr. Masters exhibited a very attractive collection of 420 species 
of Coleoptera collected b}^ him during a stay of five days at Black- 
heath, Blue Mts. 

Mr. Fred. Turner sent for exhil^ition flowering and fruiting 
specimens of a plant ( Adriana a&erifolia, Hook.) suspected of 
poisoning cattle. He also communicated the particulars of two 
cases in each of which the patient had been authoritatively pro- 
nounced by two medical men to be suffering from hydatids, and 
an operation recommended, but, it was asserted, relief had been 
otherwise obtained from tlie use of a decoction prepared from 


tlie leaves and stems of Goodenia ovata, Sm., locally called 
"Native Hops." 

Mr. North sent for exhibition the eggs described in his paper. 

Mr. Fletcher exhibited specimens of a Land Nemertine obtained 
by Mr. R. Helms at Pretty Point, Mt. Kosciusko Plateau, pro- 
bably Geonemerles aitstixtUensis, Dendy. Also specimens collected 
by himself near Gosford, of a richer darker red than even the 
reddest examples of Geoplana sanguinea, Moseley, for which when 
quiescent the animal otherwise might on casual examination 
fairly pass. The only other record for New South Wales, is of 
a similar red specimen obtained by Mr. R. Helms in the Rich- 
mond River District some years ago."^ Professor Spencer had 
obtained some Tasmanian examples which were longitudinall}'' 
striped with red; but all the examples from New South Wales yet 
seen, with the excejDtion of those from Mt. Kosciusko, are still 
more pigmented. 

P.L.S.N.S.W. 1891. Second Series. Vol. vi., p. 16^ 


WEDNESDAY, JUNE 26th, 1895. 

The Ordinary Monthly Meeting of the Society was held in the 
Linnean Hall, Ithaca Road, Elizabeth Bay, on Wednesday even- 
ing, June 26th, 1895. 

Professor T. W. E. David, B.A., E.G.S., Vice-President in the 

Mr. J. Jennings and Mr. J. B. R. Garland were introduced as 


Pharmaceutical Journal of Australasia. Vol. viii. (1895), No. 
5. From the Editor. 

University of Melbourne — Examination Papers : Final Honour, 
Degrees, &c., February, 1895; Matriculation, May, 1895. From 
the University. 

Society Hollandaise des Sciences a Harlem — Archives Neerlan- 
daises. T. xxix. V Liv. (1895). From the Society. 

Societe Royale de Geographie d'Anvers — Bulletin. T. xix. 4"^® 
Fasc. (1895). From the Society. 

Societe d'Horticulture du Doubs, Besangon — Bulletin, n.s. 
No. 52 (April, 1895). From the Society. 

Department of Agriculture, Brisbane — Botany Bulletin. No. 
X. (May, 1895); Bulletin. Second Series, No. 5 (April, 1895). 
From the Secretary for Agriculture. 


University of Sydney — Calendar for 1895. From the Uni- 

College of Science, Imperial University, Japan — Journal. Yol. 
vii. Part 4 (1895). From the Director. 

Comite Geologique, St. Petersbourg — Ivlemoires. Tome xiv» 
No. 1 (1895) : Bulletin. T. xiii. Nos. 4-7 et Supplement au T. 
xiii. (1894). From the Committee. 

Soci^te Beige de Microscopie — Bulletin. T. xxi. Nos. 4-6 
(1894-95). From the Society. 

Royal Microscopical Society— Journal, 1895. Part 2 (April). 
From the Society. 

Entomological Society of London — Transactions, 1895. Part 
1. From the Society. 

Journal of Conchology. Vol. viii. No. 1 (January, 1895). 
From the Conchological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. 

Department of Mines and Agriculture, Sydney — Annual Report 
for 1894. From the Hon. the Minister for Mines ana Agriculture. 

Victorian Naturalist. Yol. xii. No. 2 (May, 1895). From 
the Field Naturalists' Club of Victoria. 

Royal Society of London — Proceedings. Yol. Ivii. Nos. 342- 
344. From the Society. 

Geological Society of London — Quarterly Journal. Yol. li. 
Part 2, No, 202 : Geological Literature. June-December, 1894. 
Fro7n the Society. 

Senckenbergische Naturforschende Gesellschaft in Frankfurt 
a/ M. — Abhandlungen, xviii. Bd., iii. Heft (1894). From the 

Naturhistorischer Yerein der Preussischen Rheinlande, West- 
falens und des Reg. Bez., Osnabriick — Yerhandlungen. Jahrg. 
li. Erstes Halfte. From the Society. 

Archiv fur Naturgeschichte. 1891, ii. Bd., 3 Heft; 1894, i. 
Bd. 3 Heft; ii. Bd. 2 Heft. From the Editor. 


Perak Government Gazette. Vol. viii. (1895), Nos. 10-11. 
From the Government Secretary. 

Zoologischer Anzeiger. xviii, Jahrg. No. 474 (May, 1895). 
From the Fditor. 

Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard College — Bulletin. 
Vol. xvi. No. 15 (1895). Yol. xxv. No. 12 (1895) Vol. xxvi. 
No. 2 (April, 1895). From the Curator. 

Asiatic Society of Bengal — Journal. Vol. Ixi. Part i., Extra 
No. (1892); Vol. Ixiii. Part i., No. 4; Part ii., No. 4 (1894): Pro- 
ceedings, 1894. Part x. (Dec); 1895, Nos. i.-iii. (Jan.-Mar.) 
From the Society. 

Agricultural Gazette of N.S.W. Vol. vi. (1895), Part 5. 
From the Hon. the Minister for Mines and Agricidture. 

Royal Society of New South Wales — Journal and Proceedings. 
Vol. xxviii. (1894). From the Society. 

Australasian Journal of Pharmacy. Vol. x. No. 114 (June, 
1895). From the Editor. 

State Board of Fish Commissioners, Michigan — Eleventh 
Biennial Report (1895). From the Commission. 

Royal Society of Queensland — Proceedings.' Vol. xi. Part 1 
(1895). From the Society. 

Pamphlet entitled "Australian Hepialidie." By A. Sidney 
OlHfF. From the Author. 

Zoological Society of London — Abstract, 7th May, 1895. From, 
the Society. 

Naturwissenschaftlicher Verein zu Bremen — Abhandlungen. 
xiii. Bd., 2 Heft (1895); xv. Bd., 1 Heft (1895). From the Society. 

Societe Linneenne de Normandie — Bulletin. 4® Serie. Vol. 
viii (1895). Froyn the Society. 

American Naturalist. Vol. xxix. No. 341 (May, 1895). From 
the Editors. 


American Museum of Natural History — Bulletin. Vol. vii. 
Sig. 5-9, pp. 65-144 (1895). From the Museum. 

Societe Royale Linneenne de Bruxelles— Bulletin, xx"^® Annee, 
No. 7 (May, 1895). Froia the Society. 

Australian Museum — Report of Trustees for the year 1894. 
From the Museum. 

Pamphlet entitled " On the Significance of the Proliferated 
Epithelium in the Foetal Mammalian Jaw." By R. Broom, M.B., 
B.Sc. From the Author. 



By W. J. Rainbow. 

(Plates xxii.-xxiii.) 

Family EPEIRIDvE. 

Genus N e p h i l a, Leach. 

Nephila Fletcheri, sp.nov. 

(Plate XXII. figs. 1, la.) 

9- Cephalothorax, 8 mm. long, 5 mm. broad; abdomen, 12 mm. 
long, 6 mm. broad. 

Cephalothorax dark mahogany-brown, thickly clothed with 
hoary hairs; caput elevated, rounded on sides and upper part, 
deeply compressed at junction of cephalic and thoracic segments, 
forming deep, sublateral indentations; these latter only thinly 
furnished with short, hoary hairs; at posterior extremity of 
cephalic segment there are two coniform tubercles of dark 
mahogany colour. CI y pens broad, moderately convex, clothed 
w4th hoary pul^escence, indented laterally; a deep, broad, trans- 
verse groove at centre; indentations and grooves sparingly pubes- 
cent. Marginal, hand narrow, fringed with hoary hairs. 

Eyes of an opaline tint, placed on dark rings; the four cential 
eyes are seated on a moderately convex eminence, and form an 
almost quadrangular tigure; of these- the front pair are somewhat 
the smallest, and are separated from each other by about twice 
their individual diameter; the posterior pair are also divided l)y 
a distance equal to twice their individual diameter; the lateral 
pairs are much the smallest, and are placed obliquely on small 
tubercles, Vjut are not contiguous. 


Legs long, slender, yellow-brown; trochanters sparingly pubes- 
cent, few short spines; femora thickly clothed with long yellow 
hairs, and armed with rather short spines; tibial joints armed with 
sliort spines and bristles; metatarsi and ta,rsi dark brown, thickly 
clothed with short dark brown bristles; superior tarsal claws 
moderately long, curved and pectinated; inferior cla^v sharply 
curved. Relative lengths of legs 1, 2, 4, 3; of these the third pair 
are much the shortest. 

Falces dark brown, approaching bistre, somewhat conical, diver- 
gent at apex; the margins of the furrows of each falx are armed 
with a row of five teeth. 

MaxiUce yellow-brown, outer margins bistre, rather longer than 
broad, divergent; few coarse dark hairs. 

Labium yellow-brown, longer than broad, about half the length 
of maxillae; furnished with a few short dark hairs. 

Sternum yellow-brown, shield-shaped, outline sinuous; surface 
uneven, sparingly clothed with white pubescence. 

Abdomen ovate, moderately convex, projecting over base of 
cephalothorax; superior surface sparingly pubescent, yellow-brown, 
somewhat darker towards posterior extremity; ornamented with 
17 spots, and, from near centre to posterior extremity, five indis- 
tinct parallel, though somewhat uneven, lines; of the former there 
are six conspicuous spots and 1 \ minute ones; the larger ones are 
distributed in three pairs, the first of which is seated well forward; 
between the individuals comprising the first pair there is a minute 
spot; below the first pair there are six minute spots, arranged in 
two rows, the first of which contains four individuals, and is 
slightly curved; the second pair are placed near the centre, and 
each spot of the first and second pairs are relieved by an almost 
circular yellow patch or disc, rather more than its own diameter; 
the third pair are seated lower down, but are not nearly so dark 
as those of the first and second pairs, nor are they relieved in like 
manner; towards the posterior extremity there are two smaller 
and less distinct pairs; the parallel lines or markings commence 
at a point above second pair of spots, and run midway between 

BY W. J. RAINBOW. 349 

them; at their commencement the design represents a bifurcated 
figure, the two outer lines forming a junction just between the 
spots referred to, from whence they suddenly open out; the centre 
line commences below^ junction of outer lines, and terminates at a 
point rather lower down at posterior extremity than its neigh- 
bours, the tw^o other lines start at a point about midway between 
second and third pairs of spots, from whence they open out, and 
intersect the outer and centre lines; in addition to the lines 
described, there are also faint oblique and transverse uneven 
markings both above and below^ third pair of distinct spots; sides 
yellowish, mottled with brown, dark brown patches in places; 
ventral surface dark brown, interspersed with yellow; a broad 
transverse yellow band, uneven in outline, extends immediately 
below branchial opercula, the band is curved posteriorly; above 
the region of spinnerets there is a second, transverse, yellow band, 
but this is much narrower and more even in outline than the 
former; this band is much more curved than the former, the 
curvature being directed forward; there are also two yellow 
patches closely contiguous to base of spinners. 

ffab.—^ew England District, N.S.W. 

I have very much pleasure in associating this specimen with 
the name of my esteemed contemporary, J. J. Fletcher, Esq., 
M.A., B.Sc, to whom I am indebted, not only for the one herein 
described, but also for other interesting specimens, as well as 
much valuable assistance in other directions. 

Nephila Edwardsii, sp.nov. 
(Plate XXII. figs. 2, 2a.) 

9. Cephalothorax, 8 mm. long, 5 mm. broad; abdomen, 14 mm. 
long, 7 mm. broad. 

Cephalothorax and eyes similar to '^N. Fletcheri. 

Legs long, slender, brown with yellow annulations at joints; 
trochanters moderately hair}^ few short spines; femora thickly 
clothed wnth rather long dark hairs and spines; tibial joints^ 
yellow annulations at commencement, below dark brown, approach- 
ing sepia, thickly furnished with long dark hairs or bristles and 


spines; tnetatarsi and tarsi dark brown approaching sepia, thickly 
clothed with dark bristles; superior tarsal claws moderately long, 
curved and pectinated; inferior claw sharply curved. Relative 
lengths 1, 2, 4, 3; of these the first pair are the longest, the 
second and fourth pairs coequal; third pair much the shortest. 

Palpi moderately long, similar in colour and armature; terminal 
claw slightly curved, and armed with four teeth near the base on 
the underside. 

Falces dark brown, vertical, somewhat conical, divergent at 
apex; the margins of the furrows of each falx armed with a row 
of five teeth. 

MaxillcE dark brown, approaching bistre, rather longer than 
broad, divergent, fringed with rather long black hairs. 

Labium dark brown, longer than broad, about the length of 

Sferfiuni shield-shaped, sparingly hairy, tubercular, yellow- 
brown; dark brown patch at centre. 

Ahdomen ovate; moderately convex, projecting over base of 
cephalothorax; superior surface pubescent, light brown, orna- 
mented by a large number of symmetrically disposed punctures, 
six of the largest of which are situated tolerably well forward, 
forming a somewhat triangular figure; immediately above these 
there are 12 smaller punctures forming an arch, and immediately 
underneath seven minute ones arranged in the following order : — 
1, 2, 1, 2, 1; in addition to these there are 11 other punctures as 
large as those comprising the triangular figure, disposed in three 
rows, each slightly curved, the curvature being directed forward; 
of these the first row, which is situated near the centre, contains 
three, and the second and third four each; besides the punctures 
herein described the posterior portion of the abdomen is further 
ornamented by four tolerably distinct longitudinal parallel lines 
or markings; each lateral line commences at the centre of the 
lateral punctures of the first row of three, and running to the tip 
of the abdomen intersects each lateral puncture of the second and 
third rows; the inner lines commence as a single one at a point 

BY \y. J. RAINBOW. 351 

above the centre puncture of tlie first row, intersecting it, and 
continue as such until near the two inner punctures of the second 
row, where it opens out and forms two Unes; from thence they 
proceed to the extremity of the abdomen, intersecting each punc- 
ture; laterally the colour, towards the dorsal surface, is a shade 
darker, but low^er down a rich nut-l)rown colour prevails; the sides 
are ornamented with yellowish wavy markings; ventral surface 
dark brow^n, with 3^ellowish lateral and transverse markings. 
Epigyne a transverse, oval, dark brown eminence, concave within. 

Hab. — Sydney. 

The specimen described above was obtained by Dr. C. A. 
Edwards, M.D., M.R.C.S., Edin., of Waverley, and it affords me 
great pleasure in connecting his name with it. To the same 
gentleman I am indebted for many other interesting specimens 
and much valuable information as the result of personal and 
independent observation. 

Kephila ventricosa, (J. Pt 9., sp.nov. 

(Plate XXIII. figs. 1, la, 2, '2a.) 

(J. Cephalothorax, 2 mm. long, 1 -5 mm. broad; abdomen, 2 mm. 
long, 1 -5 mm. broad. 

Cephalothorax convex. Caput yellow, furnished with few short 
yellowish hairs, normal grooves and indentations indistinct. 
Clypeus dark brown. 

Eyes prominent, glossy black, the four centrals form a somewhat 
quadrangular figure; lateral pairs much the smallest, placed 
obliquely on minute tubercles; not contiguous. 

Legs long, slender, tapering to a point, yellowish, furnished 
with rather long hairs and spines; superior tarsal clans long, 
curved and pectinated; inferior clair sharply curved. Relative 
lengths 1, 2, 4, 3; the second and fourth pairs are coequal, or 
nearly so, while the third pair is by far the shortest. 

Paljn: humeral joint slender, yellow, few black hairs and 
slender bristles; nearly twice as long as cubital and radial joints 


together; of these two latter, the radial is rather the longer, and 
each is similar in colour to humeral joint; two large bristles 
project from radial joint, the shorter directed outwards, and 
curving slightly backward, the longer and stronger one curved 
and directed forward; digital joint twice as long as the three 
former, dark brown, hairy; palpal organs simple, bulb large, hairy 
on upper-side, glossy underneath, terminated by a long tiagellum; 
bulb hair}^, concave on inner side; curving over bulb from basal 
end is a long, stout, dark process. 

Falce^i yellowish, long, vertical, divergent at apex. 

MaxiUce yellowish, outer margins dark, longer than broad, 
divergent, few coarse dark hairs. 

L'lhium yellow, longer than Ijroad, rather more than half the 
length of maxillae. 

Sterauni yellow, shield-shaped, furnished with few rather long 
coarse hairs. 

Abdomen ovate, moderately convex, hairy, projecting over base 
of cephalothorax, dark ]:)rown, mottled with 3^ellow. 

I/ab. — Sydney. 

9. Cephalothorax, 9 mm. long, 7 mm. Inroad; abdomen, 22 mm. 
long, 13 mm. broad. 

Ci'pJtnlotliiyrax black, clothed with hoary hairs. Caput ele\'ated, 
rounded on sides and upper part, truncated in front, "sides furnished 
with hoary hairs, apex glossy Ijlack; at junction of cephalic and 
thoracic segments there are two coniform tubercles. CI 11 feus 
broad, moderately convex, thickly clothed with hoary hairs; there 
are central and lateral depressions, the former sensibly the deepest; 
depressions black and devoid of hairs. Marginal band rather 
broad, clothed and fringed with hoary hairs. 

Eyes with pearl-grey lustre; distril)uted as in ^V. Fletcher i and 
N . Edvmrdsii. 

Legs long, yellow, annulated with dark brow^n, furnished with 
rather long hairs and short spines; the former are longest at the 
sections where the annulations occur; the tibial joints, metatarsi., 

BY W. J. RAINBOW. 353 

and tarsi dark brown, approaching sepia; tarsal claws as in N. 
Fletcher I and N. Edwardsii. Relative lengths 1, 2, 4, 3. 

Palpi moderately long; humeral and cubital joints yellowish, 
the others dark brown, approaching sepia; similar in armature to 

Falcc^ black, glossy, vertical, divergent at apex; armed with a 
row of five teeth along each margin of the furrow of the falx 
wherein the fang lies concealed when at rest. 

Maxilk^ sepia, inner margins yellowish, longer than broad, 
diA'ergent; a few coarse dark hairs on outer margins. 

Labium dark, glossy, yellowish patch in centre, about half the 
length of maxilla?; furnished with few rather long dark hairs. 

Stamum orange-yellow, dark irregular transverse band at 
middle, shield-shaped, tuberculate. 

Abdomen ovate, exceedingly convex, projecting over base of 
cephalothorax, pale yellow^, somewhat darker at jDosterior extremity, 
clothed with minute hairs; dorsal surface ornamented with a 
curved row of 10 minute dark spots towards anterior extremity; 
seated lower down are two other dark spots, much larger than 
those of the curved series, and each is relieved by a circular pale 
3"ellow patch or disc at the upper margin, in a somewhat lateral 
position; from the lower lateral margin of each spot there extends 
in an outw^ard ol^lique direction a short slightly curved line, 
terminating wdth a minute spot ; immediately between the 
curved lines there is a short straight longitudinal line; at the 
centre of dorsal surface there are other two dark spots, more 
widely removed than former pair, and each is also relieved by a 
circular pale yellow patch or disc; midway between these two 
latter spots, and connecting them, is a series of longitudinal 
parallel and curved markings, which proceed therefrom and termi- 
nate at posterior extremity (vide fig. 2, PL xxiii.); near posterior 
extremity, and inside lateral longitudinal lines, there are two 
small yellow discs separated from each other by two parallel lines; 
laterally the abdomen is much darker, and is ornamented witli 
four broad white irregular bands; ventral surface dark brown. 


ornamented about midwa}^ between branchial opercula and 
spinnerets with a yellowish transverse, slightly curved band, the 
lateral extremities of which are somewhat abruptly directed 
towards posterior extremity. Epigyne a dark brown, glossy, 
transverse oval eminence, concave within. 

Hab. — -Sydney. 

The spiders of the genus Nephiia are undoubtedly one of the 
most interesting groups of Australian orb-weavers, l^oth as regards 
their size, beauty and webs. Representatives of the genus abound 
in tropical and sub-tropical regions, often occurring in communi- 
ties, and constructing their webs closely together, occasionally 
within reach, but not infrequently from 10 to 20 feet from the 
ground, and always in a position exposed to the rays of the sun. 
The snares are bright yellow, and so remarkably viscid as to 
follow the point of a needle; they vary in diameter from three 
feet upwards, while the supporting lines or guys sometimes 
measure from 10 to 12 feet."^ 

So strong are these snares that small birds are occasionally 
entrapped by them. The writer on one occasion saw a young 
bird that had been newly caught in the web of a Nepldla in the 
vicinity of Sydney. It was in vain the unhappy bird struggled 
to free itself from the toils; the more it fought, the more hopeless 
became its position, while the damage inflicted upon the web was 
considerable. And the spider itself was evidently afraid of the 
victim. It had taken its position in the usual spot — the centre — 
its huge legs spread out, covering a space of four or five inches. 
Occasional!}^ it ran from the centre towards the struggling bird, 
but speedily retraced its steps. All this time the spider was 
throwing threads around the body of the victim, and rapidh' 
enveloping its head and wings. As a result the struggles became 
less desperate, until at length they ceased, death resulting ap- 
parently from exhaustion. Bushmen have assured the writer 

* According to Graffe, a large species of Epe'ira occurs in the Fiji 
Islands, which constructs a strong web often 30 feet or more in diameter. 
Verh. Zool. Bot. Ges. in Wien, xvi. p. 500. [Doubtless one of the Nephila\ 
— W.J.R.] 

BY W. J. RAIX130AV. 355 

that, riding through the l)ush in the autumn, they have seen 
skeletons of small birds hanging in the webs of " triantelopes," as 
they are pleased to call them. Mr. J. A. Thorpe, of the Australian 
Museum, Sydne}^, has informed the author that at Madden's, near 
Belle Plains, he has met with specimens of the emu wren [Stipi- 
tariis malachunis) entangled in the sticky meshes of the webs of 
:spiders of the genus JVephila; also at Cape York, he had seen 
.several of the blue-warblers, notably Malurus amabilis, Gould, 
and J/. B7'oivn{i, Vig. et Horsfield, that had fallen victims in a like 
manner. It must be noted, however, that it is only young birds 
•or those of a weak wing-power that are so captured. An Indian 
writer states that in many unfrequented dark nooks of the jungle 
the traveller comes across most perfect skeletons of small birds 
•caught in the powerful snares of the Neq^Jdke, the strong folds of 
which prevent the delicate bones from falling to the ground after 
the wind and weather, together with other agencies, have dispersed 
the flesh and feathers. Further, a naturalist, writing under the 
nom-de-pluiiie " H. A. H.,'' from Cashar, to the Asia7i, stated that 
he had "received from a neighbouring planter an adult female 
of the three-toed Kingfisher which was found entangled in a 
spider's web. Although true Kingfishers, these lovely birds feed 
largel}^ on insects. Curiously enough," continued the writer, "the 
stomach of the last bird I preserved contained a large brown 
spider. Doubtless the bird went either for the spider or some 
insect caught in the web, and got entangled in the sticky 

Some writers on this subject have supposed, and even boldly 
asserted, that birds so caught were devoured by the spiders in 
whose webs they had become entrapped, but this conclusion is in 
my opinion erroneous. In 1834 the late AV. S. Macleay, F.Z.8., 
in a paper* communicated to the Zoological Society, London, 
wrote : — " Now, it is certainly possible that the net of Nephila 
should, in accord with Labat's account, accidentall}^ arrest such 
small birds as are several species of TrochUidce; but I do not^ 

* Trans. Zool. Soc. 1834, pp. 192-3. 



believe that a spider would touch them. My garden, I repeat, is 
full of these NephilcE in autumn, and I tried to regale one of them 
with a small species of Sphmrio dactijlus by putting it into 
her net. The spider on feeling the threads vibrate with the 
struggles of the lizard instantly approached and enveloped it in 
her web. As soon, however, as it was thus disabled, my Nephila 
seemed to become aware of her mistake, and losing no time in 
cutting the lines, allowed her prisoner to fall to the ground." 
This conclusion, however, Mr. Macleay felt called upon six years 
later to withdraw, for in a letter to W. E. Shuckard, Esq.,"^ dated 
Sydney, 7th April, 1840, he stated that: — "In the vicinity of 
Sydney he had met with a true bird-catching spider, he having 
himself found one of the Epeiridw actually devouring one of the 
young of the Zosterops that had recently flown from the nest; and 
which is not a solitary instance, as his father, A. Maclea}'-, Esq., 
had previously observed a similar fact." 

It is abundantly clear from the foregoing that the snares of 
certain spiders arrest the young of certain birds, as also those of 
a weak wing-power, but the author is decidedly of opinion that 
the spiders in question do not obtain or receive nourishment from 
their ornithological victims. The webs are not set with the object 
of catching an}^ such game. Each snare is placed in its position 
by the unerring instinct of the sj)ider, simply because the situation 
is such as will assure abundance of food in the shape of insects, 
and it is merely an accident when a bird becomes ensnared in the 

I do not deny that a Nephila has been observed with its fangs 
plunged in the body of an ensnared bird, but that is not evidence 
ipso facto that it was making a meal. It is more than likel}^, 
indeed, that it attacks the bird, when it can safely do so, for the 
purpose of injecting its poison, thus hastening death, and prevent- 
ing the victim from too seriously injuring its web. Moreover, it 
must be noted that when an}'- insect becomes entangled in the web 
of a Nephila the spider rushes upon the intruder, and plunging 

* Lardner's " Cabinet Cyclopsedia," p. 382. 

BY W. J. RAINBOW. 357 

her fangs therein, maintains her grasp until death ensues; there- 
upon she envelopes the body in her thread and bears it to a quiet 
spot, where she can devour in peace her spoil. This scene could 
hardly be enacted by the largest Nejyhila on the smallest bird 
known. Such, however, is my belief, and I feel certain that any 
who will observe for themselves, and closely watch the subject, 
will ultimately bear out my view of the case. It is, unhappily, 
too often a fact that observers are in many instances prone to 
hasty conclusions, and in recording these, render unsatisfactory, 
or even useless, observations that might otherwise be of immense 
value as data. 

The webs of these spiders are composed of two kinds of silk; 
one yellow, exceedingly viscid, and elastic; the other white, dry, 
and somewhat brittle. The latter is used in the construction of 
the framework, guys, and radii, and the former the concentric 
rings or spirals. The spirals are exceedingly numerous, and as a 
rule somewhat less than one-third of an inch distant from each 
other. Between every eight or ten of these circles there is a 
white thread, which, however, does not form a complete circle, but 
is looped up and returned in an opposite direction to a corres- 
ponding point on the other side of the web. These white lines 
are put in before the yellow ones are constructed, and doubtless 
serve to strengthen the huge mesh. 

As the result of experiments with the American species, 
Nephila pliimipes, Professor Wilder proved"^*" that these spiders 
have the power of regulating the thickness of the thread voided, 
and also that they can produce either yellow or white silk at will, 
and he even succeeded in drawing off both by artificial means. The 
Professor wound off silk from the species mentioned for an hour 
and a quarter, at the rate of six feet per minute, making a total 
of 450 feet, or 150 yards. This he afterwards removed from the 
quill for the purpose of ascertaining^ its weight, and it was found 
to be one-third of a grain. It was ascertained that it was impos- 
sible to reel off more than 300 yards of silk from a spider at one 

* Proc. Bost. Nat. Hist. Vol. x. p. 200. 


time; but this evidently did not exhaust the supply, for on opening 
the abdomen the glands were found to be still partially filled. 
Further experiments led this enthusiastic naturalist to believe 
that N. plujnipes could be bred in large numbers and utilised for 
its silk, and for this purpose he suggested that each spider be 
kept by herself in a wire ring surrounded by water, fed with flies 
bred for the purpose from old meat, and milked each day of her 
silk. Every day or two each spider should be t?Jven down, put 
into a pair of stocks, and milked of its thread until it no longer 
yielded. By adopting this plan an ounce of silk might be obtained 
from each spider during the summer. The silk thus reeled off is 
much smoother and more brightly coloured, as well as finer 
than that of the silkworm. Several threads would have to be 
twisted together to obtain one of workable thickness. Although 
the yellow silk when present in the web is so remarkably viscid 
and flexible, the same material when drawn ofT artificially is quite 
dry and far less elastic. 

Now, while it is possible to breed spiders of this or any other 
genus, and to obtain silk in the manner suggested, the difficulties 
in the way are far too great for any serious effort in the direction 
indicated by Wilder, as the space needed for keeping each spider 
by herself, and the amount of labour necessary to provide them 
with living food, and to draw off the silk, would render the 
product too expensive for use. 

Spiders of the genus Nephila, when in captivity, become quite 
tame, and soon learn to distinguish their attendant. I have kept 
numbers of them, and have noticed that, although at first very 
shy, they quickly learned to take food from the hand, and also 
water when offered to them on a small camel-hair brush. Exceed- 
ingly voracious naturally, they can nevertheless exist for many 
days without either food or water. 

The males of this genus are veritable pigmies in comparison 
with the females, though in proportion to their size, the legs of 
the latter are considerably longer; the markings of the male, while 
similar in many cases to that of the female, are not as distinct, 
but run together and appear darker. 

BY \S\ J. RAINBOW. 359 

In autumn these spiders pair. The sexes usually inhabit the 
same web for a considerable time, the female occupying her 
customary position in the centre, and the male taking up quarters 
on the upper edge of the web. Before running down to the 
female he tries the tension of the web with his feet, after which 
he proceeds nimbly and lightly, so as not to attract her attention 
or disturb her in any way, climbs upon her back, and contents 
himself for a while in moving about in a seemingly objectless 
manner. During these proceedings she is not all resentful, but 
apparently disdains all notice. Emboldened b}^ her apparent 
indifference he endeavours to climb down to the underside of her 
abdomen, whereupon she immediately shows fight. In an 
encounter with an adversary of such prodigious proportions in 
comparison with himself, it is obvious he would be no match; he 
therefore scrambles oS as quickly as possible, and dropping out of 
the web, remains suspended in the air, or resting upon an adjacent 
leaf or branch for some time, after which he renews the attack. 
It not infrequently happens that he has to repeat his efforts 
several times, and from these he rarely retires scathless, often 
losing two or three legs. Ultimately, however, he succeeds in 
attaching himself in the requisite position, and performing the • 
necessary act of fecundation. 

Towards the end of April or the beginning of May, the 
cocoons are constructed. In jYephila Edwai^dsii, the ovisac is 
about y% in. in length, oval, bright golden yellow, and surrounded 
by an immense quantity of loose silk of a like colour. The cocoons 
contain from 500 to 1000 eggs. After hatching the spiderlings live 
together for two or three weeks, spin a web in common, and eat 
one another or any small insects that may come their way. After 
this the survivors separate, and each constructs a web on her 
own account. 

The following is a list of the described Nephilce. of Australia 
previous to the publication of the jjresent paper. Those species 
marked with an asterisk have been described and figured by Koch 
in Band I. of his admirable work, " Die Arachniden Australiens." 
Localities outside Australia are in italics : — 


N. vPAiosa,^ pp. 148-9, T. xii. figs. 1, la; Brisbane, Port Mackay, 
and Oval cm. 

JV. victor lalis* pp. 150-1, T. xii. figs. 3, 3a, oh\ Rockhampton. 

N. nigritai'sis* pp. 152-3, T. xii. figs. 4, 4«, 46; Rockhampton 
and Port Mackay. 

N. Jiarjellaiis* pp. 153-6, T. xii. ^. figs. 5, 5rt, bb; 9. figs. 6, 6a; 

JV. fuscipes,"^ pp. 156-7, T. xiii. figs. 1, la; Port Mackay, Rock- 
hampton, Bowen, and Pelewinseln. 

N. imperatrix* pp. 159-60, T. xii. 3, 3a, 36, 3c; Rockhampton. 

N. aurosa* pp. 160-2, T. xiii. fig. 4; Port Mackay. 

N . procera,'^ pp. 162-3, T. xiv. fig. 1; Port Mackay. 

N. suJjthurosa^^ pp. 163-5, T. xiv. fig. 2; Port Mackay. 

iV. tenuipes,'^ pp. 165-6, T. xiii. figs. 5, 5a; Port Mackay. 

N. Cunninghamii (W. S. Macleay), King's "Survey of Australia," 
Vol. II. pp. 468-9. [Locality not given.] 

Note.— In Yol. VIII. (Series 2nd), P.L.S.KS.W., pp. 292-3, 
PI. X. figs. 4, 4a, 46, 4c, 4c?, 4c, 4/, under the title of " Descriptions 
of Some New Araneidse of New South Wales (No. 3)," I described 
and figured a new species of Stephanopis, for which I proposed 
the name hirsuta. Since the publication of the paper referred to, 
I find I have inadvertently used a preoccupied name. I now 
propose that the species described shall l^e known as S. hispida. 

Plate xxii. 
Fig. 1. — Nephila Fletcheri. 
Fig. la. — ,, ,, profile of abdomen. 

Fig. 2. — ,, Edwarchii. 
Fig. 2a. — ,, ,, profile of abdomen. 

Plate xxiii. 

Fig. 1. — Nephila ventricosa S- 

Fig. la.— ,, ,, maxillary palpus ^, 

Fig. 2. - „ „ ?. 

Fig. 2a.— ,, ,, profile of abdomen. 



Part II. 

By Alex. G. Hamilton. 

(Plate XXIV.) 

The interesting genus Dampiera is entirely Australian, an.l is 
remark abl}^ distinct and easily determined. 

The calyx-tube is adnate to the ovulary, which is in nearly 
every case 1 -celled. The corolla- tube is deeply slit; the two upper 
lobes stand well above tlie lower three, and are closely pressed 
together, the posterior margins folding in between the lobes, and 
forming a cavity or auricle which encloses the style and indusium, 
and which is of various degrees of complexity in diiferent species. 
The auricle may be taken as characteristic of the genus, for 
although it is found in Goodenia, Velleya, and Anthotium, 3^et in 
its highest development in those genera, it does not approach the 
simplest form in Dampiera as regards completeness of structure. 
The anterior margins of the upper lobe also fold under into the 
tube of the corolla, projecting in such a manner as to cause the 
auricles to separate w^ien an insect forces its way into the tube. 
The three lower lobes are spreading and usually broadly winged; 
at their base the wings are narrower and puckered up by the close 
approach of the lobes, forming guiding lines to the nectar. The 
throat is always glabrous and free from hairs. The anthers are 
connate round the st3de, although in very young buds they are 
sometimes free, but the growth of the anthers locks them together 
later on. The style is always glabrous, and often deeply coloured; 
the indusium is never hairy on the outside as in every other genus 
except Brunonia (and even in this there are hairs in the early 


stages, which are deciduous), and rarely ciliate on the lip. The 
lip of the indusium is shallow, and usually divided into two, or 
sometimes four, by notches. The indusium and stigma are in 
most species of a very dark colour. The stigma rarely grows out 
to project beyond the indusium lips, which is also the case in 
other plants of the order. The j)lants, with the exception of D, 
diversifolia, De Vr., are always clothed with silky, cottony, woolly, 
stellate or branching hairs on the calyx, and the outside of the 
corolla (excejDt the wings) and sometimes on the stems and leaves. 
The flowers are almost always blue or purple. In the remarks on 
the genus in Flora Australiensis [1] the colour is said to be blue, 
purple, red, white, or rarely 3^ellow. This latter colour I have 
not seen in any fresh specimens (except in the tube), and in dried 
plants it is very difficult to make out the colour. But from an 
analysis of the descriptions in Flora Australiensis, it appears that 
of the 34 species described, 23 are blue or purple, 1 white, and 1 
(D. rosmarinifolia, Schl.) is said to be white, blue or red; while 9 
have no colour mentioned. 

The characteristic features by which they may be recognised 
are the solitary ovules, connate anthers, the auricles, and the 
hairless style and indusium. 

From their dense covering of hairs they have the aspect of 
desert plants, and judging by the number of species collected by 
the Elder Expedition, they are plentiful in the arid interior of 
Australia as compared with other genera of the order. And 
many of the species of other genera occurring there are alsa 
tomentose. The Census of Australian Plants [2] gives in all 38 
species of the genus, which are distributed as follows : — West 
Australia has 29 species, 26 of Avhich are endemic; South Australia 
5 species, none endemic (this number would probably be much 
higher were the central parts of the colony collected over); 
Victoria has 5 species, none endemic; Tasmania has 1 species 
found elsewhere also; New South Wales has 7 species, 1 being 
confined to the colon}^; Queensland has 6 species, 2 endemic; 
and North Australia 1 species, o ?curring elsewhere also. From 
this it will be seen that the head-quarters of the genus is in West 


Australia, and a close examination of all the species there would 
doubtless reveal some interesting indications of the line of evolu- 
tion. One or two such facts came under my notice in working- 
out some species from that colony. 

I have to thank ]Mr. C. Moore, F.L.S., Director of the Botanical 
Gardens, and Mr. C. T. Musson, F.L.S., for specimens of several 
New South Wales Dampieras and other Goodeniads, and through 
the kindness of Mr. J. H. Maiden, F.L.S., Director of Technical 
Education, and Mr. J. J. Fletcher, I have been enabled to 
see and analyse the species of Dampiera collected by the 
Elder Expedition, and presented to the herbaria of the Techno- 
logical Museum and the Linnean Society. It is these and some 
fresh New South Wales species that I propose to treat of in the 
following notes. 

1. Dampiera Brownii, F.v.M. 

In the young buds the stigma is button-shaped, no indusium 
being visible, but a slight fosse shows across the top (Fig. 1). In 
the next stage the indusium shows as a thin wall of irregular 
height all round, but with a notch at each end, and at right 
angles to the line of the stigmatic groove. During these stages 
the whole pistil is green. At the next stage the indusium is 
grown up level all round (Fig. 2), except at the notches, and both 
indusium and stigma are coloured deep purple, but the style 
remains green; the purple colour appears first on the stigma, and 
spreads afterwards to the indusium. The style still continues to 
elongate and passes into the auricle, the top of the style bending 
over so as to bring the opening over the junction of the two 
auricles. During this period the indusium closes by the oj)posite 
segments (divided by the notches) approaching, and at last there 
is only a small circular opening. The indusium has been packed 
with pollen by growing up through the anthers while the mouth 
was wide open, and when the stigma begins its outgrowth at this 
period it forces the pollen out in a small worm-like string, which 
when exposed to the air falls in powder into the auricles, where it 
lies. An insect forcing its way into the tube of the flower presses 


against the fold of the anterior margin and so moves the auricles 
apart, when the pollen falls in a small shower on its thorax and 
head. All these contrivances point towards insect-fertilisation, 
but to complete the process one would imagine that the stigma 
should now grow beyond the lips of the indusium and project as 
has been described in SccEvola and Selliera [5]. But in at least 
ninety-five per cent, of the flowers the stigma does not project at 
all beyond the mouth, and in many it does not grow up to the 
level. Examination of large number's of flowers just withering 
showed the outside of the indusium, the stigma, and between the 
stigma and the inner side of the walls of the indusium coated 
evenly with pollen all over, and this was apparently caused by the 
close fit of the auricles round the style applying the pollen, and 
not by insect agency at all. I can onl}'- conjecture that the plant 
is ordinarily self-fertilised, although occasionally cross-fertilisation 
may occur from insect visits when the stigma is outgrown or near 
the mouth of the indusium. Erom the firmness of the hold whicli 
the auricles have upon the style, any insect would, in forcing its 
way in, press hard against the style and might thus deposit pollen 
upon the stigma, even though it was only at the mouth of the 
indusium, instead of projecting as in other genera. It is usual to 
find the auricles full of pollen where the flower and even the 
style is withered, so that insects do not commonly exhaust the 
pollen. The flowers are very sweetly scented, and there is a 
considerable amount of moisture at the base of the petals, in 
which, however, I could not detect any sweetness. As already 
pointed out, the membranous edges of the three lower petals are 
closely pressed together in the tube, and pucker so as to form 
guiding ridges (Fig. 3). The flowers are much frequented by 
Thrips. The auricles in the early bud are green, without any 
deep concavity, and with a pale red spot where the deepest colour 
occurs in the mature flower; this is indicated by the dotted oval 
in Fig. 4, which represents a young auricle. In this stage it 
resembles tlie mature auricle in D. linearis (Fig. 12). It gradually 
darkens till it is a fine purple-red with the central part a purple- 
black of wonderful intensity. This bears out Dr. A. R. Wallace's 


theory that the parts of an organism that have undergone tlie 
most modification also show the greatest depth of colouring. The 
flower-stalks and undersides of the leaves are densely covered 
with stellate hairs; the upper-sides of the leaves are less thickly 
covered, and the edges are armed with short thick conical hairs. 
The calyx and lobes of corolla (but not the membranous wings) 
are covered with dark olive-green branching hairs, resembling 
those of D. luteiflora (Fig. 14). 

Referring to this genus, Mr. Bentham says [3] : " In Dampiera 
the summit of the style, when short in the buds, has the appear- 
ance of an ordinary peltate stigma, except that it is not yet 
papillose, flat and nearly circular, with the rudiment of the stigma 
across the centre. It soon rises, the margins are raised into a 
short almost two-lipped indusium; but I do not And that it carries 
any pollen with it, and the stigma does not assume the perfect 
appearance till the whole indusium and the stigma has ensconced 
itself between the two upper petals, which closely embrace it by 
means of two thickened concave appendages, requiring some 
external agency to open them and give access to the pollen." 

This is a perfectly accurate description of the mechanism of the 
flower, except that the pollen is carried by the up-growing style. 
Indeed, in reading the paper I was struck with the correctness of 
the descriptions of the process in all the genera; and it is all the 
more remarkable when it is remembered that the author had 
only dried plants to deal with. 

After finishing the above account of D. Broivyiii, I observed a 
fact which I had previously missed, but which is of great import- 
ance. A very large proportion of the flowers of this species are 
resupinate, so that the auricles are on the lower side and the three 
other petals on the upper side of the flower. When a flower is 
in this position it is manifestly impossible for the pollen accumu- 
lated in the auricles to drop out on the insect. But on the other 
hand, an insect visiting such a flower would be smeared on the 
underside by the projecting stream of pollen coming out of the 
indusium, and in visiting another flower in which all the pollen 
had been exuded the pollen from other flowers would be left on 


the indusium and would so have a chance of reaching the stigma, 
even if that organ did not grow out. It is remarkable, however, 
that in the same plant some flowers should be resupinate and 
others in the ordinar}^ position. So far as I know of the other 
genera only Leschenaultia has resupinate flowers. 

2. Dampieea stricta, R.Br. 

This species on the whole resembles D. Brownii in its mechanism, 
but with some minor differences. It grows in patches in swamp}^ 
ground, and flowers very freely, so that the masses are ver}^ 
conspicuous. The colour is bright blue with a yellow eye. The 
indusium has four notches (Fig. 6), and closes more completely 
than in the last species (Fig. 7); the edges are not even, but 
slightly ragged, and the shoulder of the indusium is papillose, as 
shown in the figure. The auricles resemble those of D. Broiimii, 
but have a fringe of sticky crimson hairs along the posterior 
margin (Fig, 8) which are generally longer on the left-hand lobe 
(looking from behind the flower). In this it resembles D. erio- 
cephcda. Guiding ridges are present in the tube of the* corolla, 
which is 3^ellowish. The stem, calyx and centre of the outside of 
the corolla-lobes are hairy, the hairs being either stellate or 
branching. In the latter case they are very curious in form (Fig. 
9). I am at a loss to imagine what can be the function of the 
trichomes on the edge of the margin, unless they are to exclude 
small creeping insects, or to prevent moisture from gaining access 
to the pollen, as mentioned later on. The}^ certainly do not keej^ 
Thrips out. The stigma rarely grows out level with the mouth 
of the cup; the auricles are usually full of powdery pollen, and 
the style and indusium evenly coated with it. The flowers spread 
out in a horizontal plane. The process of fertilisation is as in 
the last species so far as I can see — that is to sa}^, usually self- 
fertilisation obtains. 

3. Dampiera linearis, R.Br. 

Of this species I have examined only dried specimens. The 
calyx and corolla are covered with hairs resembling those of D. 

BY A. a. HAMILTON. 367 

hiteijlora. The inclusium is not two-lipped but continuous all 
round, and shows an approach to ciliation (Fig. 11). The stigma, 
in perfect flowers, is very near the mouth as shown in the figure. 
As I had flowers only to examine, I do not know how it is placed in 
the bud. The auricle (Fig. 1 2) shows little differentiation, the wing 
which forms it being merely folded inwards, and slightly hollowed 
for the reception of the indusium. It is not coloured. In the 
imperfect ciliation, it forms a link between SccBvola and Goodenia 
on the one hand, and the more complicated arrangements of the 
typical Dampieras on the other. The margin indeed resembles 
that of Sccevola ovalifolia in early bud, where the cilia at first 
exist as a thhi membrane continuous all round the indusium, 
which afterwards breaks up into separate cilia. The plant is 
obviously well adapted for insect-fertilisation, as a pollen-coated 
insect, pressing into the tube, could scarce^ fail to leave pollen on 
the stigma. 

4. Dampiera sjd *? 

An unnamed species from Yeodamie, W.A., in the Techno- 
logical Museum Herbarium, has the auricle more developed (Fig. 
13) and coloured, but not deeply; the indusium also is pale in 
tint, and, as in D. linearis, there is an approach to ciliation of 
the margin of the indusium. This species is closely covered with 
cottony hairs. Like the last, it is probably insect-fertilised. 

5. Dampiera luteiflora, F.v.M. 

I have seen only dried specimens. The calyx, corolla and 
stems are thickly covered with yellow hairs, mostly branching 
(Fig. 14). The indusium is very short and two-lipped (Fig. 16). 
I did not see an outgrown stigma, or even one level with the 
mouth, but the amount of material at my disposal was so small 
that it cannot be said certainly that it does not do so. But from 
the shallowness of the indusium, this would be a matter of less 
importance, and would not, as in some other species, l^e any 
impediment to the deposit of pollen on the stigma by insect 
agency. The shoulder of the indusium is papillose as in D. 
stricta. The auricle (Fig. 15) is rather simple. The indusium is 
invariably full of pollen, and it is present also in the auricles. 

368 fertilisation of the g00den1ace^¥., 

6. Dampiera Linschotenii, F.v.M. 

Dried specimens only were examined. The plant is hairy on 
the calyx and corolla, the hairs being branched. The indusium 
is markedly two-lipped (Fig. 20), deep, and full of pollen. 
The stigma in the one flower I had for examination was not 
outgrown. The indusium is deeply coloured, and the colour runs 
down the style a short distance. The auricles (Fig. 21) are 
deeply coloured, and are considerably differentiated. This species, 
therefore, falls in the group like D. Brownii, the members of 
which are not perfectly adapted to insect visitors. 

7. Dampiera eriocbphala, De Yr. 

I have seen only dried specimens of this species. The plant is 
remarkably hairy, being clothed, even on the leaves, with long 
silky hairs, which are all simple, and usually pure white. The 
tube of the corolla is bright yellow, and has guiding ridges. The 
auricles are well developed (Fig. 19), and deep purple in colour. 
They hp^ve trichomes (Fig. 18) on the posterior margin, as in D. 
stricta. These are felted together at their bases, and there are 
deep crimson, the free extremities being pink. Outside of these 
the long silky hairs of the calyx are tangled together. The 
indusium is dark coloured, but the style below is yellow. The 
remarkable feature is that the indusium consists of very short 
cilia, so that the stigma is exposed to the touch of any insect 
forcing the auricles apart. From this circumstance it is very 
well adapted for insect-fertilisation, resembling D. linearis and D. 
luteiflora in this respect. I found all the stigmas I examined 
coated with pollen, though none showed any outgrowth. But from 
the small amount of material I had it would not be safe to infer 
that it does not grow out. 

8. Dampiera loranthifolia, F.v.M. 

I have seen dried specimens only. The calyx and exterior of 
the corolla are thickly coated with white hairs. The petals form 
ridges in the tube. The auricles are very complex, and very rich 

BY A. (i. HAMILTON. 369 

crimson. The indusium is deep, two-lipped and dark red. The 
stigma was not outgrown in any 'flowers I had, and pollen was 
present in every instance. 

9. Dampiera juncea, Benth. 

I have seen only a dried specimen, which was hairy all over, 
although in Flora Australiensis it is described as " glabrous 
except the flowers or the young shoots, white tomentose." In 
the one flower which I have had an opportunity of seeing the 
corolla was missing, but it is described by Bentham as rather 
large. The indusium was remarkable for its small size, being 
little greater in diameter than the style; the stigma was outgrown 
in a crescent. Neither indusium nor style was coloured. From 
the outgrowth of the stigma, it is evidently adapted for fertilisa- 
tion by insects. But it is scarcely safe to infer that the stigma 
is always outgrown, as, in even D. Brotimii, it sometimes does so, 
and in this instance it might be an exceptional case which 
presented itself. 

10. Dampiera adprbssa, A. Cunn. 

Covered with long silvery hairs in all parts; these, however, 
disappear from the leaves as they grow older. The auricles are 
well developed. The indusium is deep, and two-lipped. The lips 
flatten over the stigma when the cup is filled with pollen. Ko 
outgrowth was seen in any flowers examined. This appears to 
fall within the group in which self-fertilisation occurs mc^re 
usually than cross-fertilisation. 

11. Dampiera lan'ceolata, A. Cunn. 

The plant is hairy, the hairs on the calyx and exterior of the 
corolla being branched. The corolla is purple, the tube being 
yellow, and this colour extends to the wider part of the petals so 
that there is a very decided eye. The margins of the petals in 
the tube are ridged to form guiding lines. The auricles are well 
developed, resembling those of D. stricta, and, as in that species, 
there are trichomes on the posterior margins, which are not, 


however, deeply coloured. The colour is very deep purple. The 
indusium is two-lii3ped, and in mature flowers closes, except for a 
small central opening. In all the older flowers I examined the 
indusium was full of pollen, and the auricles lined with a sheet of 
adhering grains. The indusium and stigma are purple, the style 
below green. In no instance did I see the stigma outgrown, 
or even so near the opening as to be capable of receiving pollen 
from a visiting insect, so that this species also falls within the 
group not fully adapted for insect-fertilisation; this is therefore 
another species wuth arrangements for fertilisation complete 
except at one point. 

Summing up, it appears that in Dampiera there is a complex 
mechanism directed towards the accomplishment of cross-fertilisa- 
tion by insects, and yet most species examined stop short of 
completeness, from the stigma's not growing out so as to be exposed 
to the touch of pollen-laden visitors. Those examined may be 
divided into two groups; those having either a shallow indusium 
so that the stigma may be reached by insects; and those in which 
the indusium is deep, and from the stigma's not growing out, 
incapable of being insect-fertilised. In the first of these groups 
are D. linearis, sp. (?), eriocephala and juncea; in the latter D. 
Brnwnii, striata, luteijiora, Linschotenii, loranthifolia, lanceolata, 
and adpressa. 

The various species I have examined show a gradation in the 
comj)leteness of adaptation of the various parts. Thus in the 
auricles there is a progression from the simple fold with a slight 
hollow in the centre {D. linearis) to the most complex arrange- 
ment of folds, hairs and trichomes as in D. stricta and D. Brozvnii. 
And in those species which show this gradual increase of adapta- 
tion, there is also a regular augmentation of colour in the auricles, 
from the simplest with a patch of faint colour in the centre, to 
the deep purple spread all over the auricle in the most complex 
forms. This is also the case in the style, which varies from green 
to purple, and the indusium, from pale red to purple. The stigma 
is always coloured, in which the genus cliifers from almost every 
other member of the order. The indusium also varies from the 


shallow and simple ring of cilia to the perfectly closed and pro- 
tected cup in D. BroiJonii^ or D. stricta. This makes the fact that 
the simplest and most open indusium (which may be looked upon 
as the ancestral form of the genus or near it) is the more remark- 
able, as it is best adapted for pollination by insects. 

Grant Allen points out [4] that a high development of flower 
usually goes with a reduction of the number of carpels or seeds, 
because the plant is certain to be fertilised and so the seeds more 
likely to arrive at maturity. This theory would appear to be 
supported by D ampler a. The theory, strongly advocated by the 
same author, that blue denotes the highest development in a 
family, agrees well with the facts. Dainpiera is certainly one of 
the highest developed, if not the very highest, of the order, and 
as already pointed out blues and purples prevail in the genus. 
The auricles, too, which are the nivost highly differentiated organs, 
show the greatest dej^th of colour, and as this colour is hidden 
from insects and cannot be intended as an attraction, I think it 
may be fairly inferred that it is a concomitant of the high 
develojDment. It is significant that the indusium, and the auricles, 
when present, in other members of the order, often show deep 
tints of brown, red, and purple. 

The pollen of all the species examined was small, round, and 
after exposure to the air, dusty, and so is well adapted for falling 
from the auricles in a shower on a visitor. 

The genus, I think, gives a clue to the purpose of the hairs on 
the style, and the exterior of the indusium (not the cilia, which 
have a well defined function as pointed out in a previous paper 
[5]) in the plants of the Goodeniacete. They occur in Velleya, 
Goodenm, Sccerola, SeMiera, Leschencmltia, and, slightly, in Bni- 
nonia. Now in all these the st3de is wholl}^ (or in those species 
with auricles, partly) exposed to the -air, rain and dew. But the 
drops collecting in the flower are prevented by the hairs from 
reaching the indusium and thus damaging the pollen, or clogging 
it so that it could no longer fall freely. Even in those which 
have auricles, rain falling on the style would run along to the 
indusium but for the hairs. But in Dampiera only, the whole 


style and indusium is closely — very closely — boxed up between, 
the auricles, and the line of junction covered by a closely pressed 
clothing of hairs. It is possible that the trichomes on the 
posterior margins of the auricles of D. stricta, D. eriocephala, and 
D. lanceolata subserve the same purpose. At any rate, I think 
that the hairy styles occurring in flowers which are open to rain, 
etc., and the glabrous ones in those which are perfectly protected, 
is somethino- more than a coincidence. 


(1) Bentham and Mueller. Flora Australiensis, Vol. iv. p. 106. 

(2) Mueller, F.v. Second Systematic Census of Australian 

Plants, p. 146. 

(3) Bextham, G. " Note on the Stigmatic Apparatus of Goode- 

novicv,'' Journ. Linn. Soc. Botany, Yol. x. p. 205. 

(4) Allen, Grant. " Colours of Flowers," Nature Series, 1882, 

pp. 38 and 39. 

(5) Hamilton, A. G. "Notes on Methods of Fertilisation of 

Goodeniacea?;' Part L P.L.S.N.S.W. (2), Vol. ix. p. 201. 


Dawpiera Brownii, F.v.M. 

Fig. 1. — Top of style in early bud; a, from above. 

Fig. 2. — -Indiisium when fully developed. 

Fig. 3. — Guiding ridges in corolla. 

Fig. 4. — Young auricle. 

Fig. 5. — Mature aiiricle. 

Drmipiera ntricta, R.Br. 

Fig. 6. — Indusiu)n open, from above. 
Fig. 7. — Indusium closed, side view. 
Fig. 8. — Trichomes on edge of auricles. 

Fig. 9. — Calyx hairs. 

Fig. 10. — Auricles, showing trichomes. 


Dampiera linearis, R.Br. 

Fig. 11. — Indusium showing stigma. 
Fig. 12. — Auricle. 

Dampiera sp. (?) 
Fig. 13.— Auricle. 

Dampiera luteijlora, F.v.M. 

Fig. 14. — Hairs from calyx. 
Fig. 15. — Auricle. 
Fig. 16. — Indusium. 

Dampiera eriocephala, De Vr. 

Fig. 17. — Indusium. 
Fig. 18. — Trichomes. 
Fig. 19.— Auricle. 

Dampiera Linschotenii, F.v.M. 

Fig. 20.— Auricle. 

Fig. 21. — Top of indusium. 




By Robert Broom, B.Sc, M.B., CM.* 

(Plate XXV.) 

* This paper, by permission of the Council, has been withdrawn, to allow 
of the incorporation of observations on some important, and in some 
respects more perfect, material discovered shortly after it was read. The 
new paper will appear in a later Part of this Volume. Plate xxv. , in 
illustration thereof, is held over for the present. — Ed. 





By C. F. Ancey, Administrateur-adjoint, Dra-el-Mizan, 

(Communicated by C. Hedley ) 

(Plate XXVI.) 

Some time ago I received from a German dealer, under probably 
unpublished names, the following land shells belonging to the 
Papuan fauna. Although the exact localities of most of them 
are unknown, they are, I think, from the German possessions of 
New Guinea. 

L Papuina Hedleyi, E. A. Smith. 

(Fig. 1.) 

Helix {Geotrochus) Hedleyi, Smith, Journ. of Conchology, Yol, 
vii, 1892, p. 72, = Helix Cnnefriana, Dohrn, Cat. Staudinger 
(unpublished). * 

I take the opportunity of giving a figure of this little known 
and very remarkable form from a specimen in my possession. 
Smith's description applies perfectly well to it, and the dimensions 
given are just the same. My unique specimen appears, however, 
to be of a darker colour, and the aperture is dark within; the 
tuberculous columella is stained with pale violet or white in this 
example, and the infra-sutural line is conspicuous in the penulti- 
mate whorl as well as on the last, but fades on the upper ones. 
I failed to detect any spiral impressed lines on the surface of the 

* This synonymy is supported by Sykes. Journal of Malacology IV. 
p. 51 [c.H.] 

BY C. F. AXCEY. 375 

body whorl, which is, as Mr. Smith reiiicarks, an individual rather 
than specific character. 

Log. — (German'?) New Guinea, ^/^Ve 0. Staudinger. 

Judging from its affinities, Mr. Smith declared it to come from 
New Guinea; this statement is confirmed here. 

2. Papuina Tuomensis, n.sp. 
Helix Tuomensis, Bttg., Cat. Staudinger (unpublished?). 

(Plate XXVI., Fig. 3.) 

Testa imperforata, depresso-conica, subtrochiformis, sat tenuis, 
nitida, superne tenuissime spiraliter striata, prope aperturam lineis 
obsoletis et parum regularibus, antrorsum oblique descendentibus 
exarata, suljtus lineis spiralibus undulatis exiliter rugosa. Spira 
late conica, summo Inevi, obtuso, concolore. Anfractus 41, convexi, 
sutura lineari, parum impressa; ultimus magnus, rotundatus, initio 
vix subangulatus, infra convexus, antice breviter et subito deflexus. 
Apertura obliqua, sinuata, diagonalis, nigrolimbata, margine 
supero sinuato, turn extus impresso et interne late subtuberculato, 
extero obtuse rostratim producto, columellari lato, appresso, oblique 
in lineam rectam inflexo, ad linem obsolete tuberculifero. Peri- 
stoma reflexum, nigrum (pariete aperturali albo). Supra griseo 
albida, dehinc in penultimo anfractu alba, deinde flavida, circa 
umbilici regionem albescens. Ultimus anfractus atro-castaneo 
bizonatus in medio, zona supera in penultimo prolongata, prseteria 
fascia exiliore suturali ejusdem coloris exornatus. 

Diam. maj. 23 J, min. 18|^, alt. 15 mill. 


(Plate XXVI., Fig. 4.) 

Paulo minor (diam. maj. 221, ^^Qin. 18|, alt. 15 J) et giobosior, 
lineis tantum incrementi obliquis obsolete striatula, multo nitidior, 
micans; superne pulchre roseo-purpurea; ultimus anfractus laste 
flavidus medio basique albicans, praeter vestigium fasciae suturalis 
et maculis duabus castaneis prope aperturam efasciata, his, sicut 


ac in typo, in apertura transmeantibus. Paries aperturalis pallide 


Prfficedenti statura forma et absentia sculpturae similis, sed typo 
fasciis vicina. Superne atro-violacea, dehinc pailidior, denique 
late flava, fasciis 2 periphericis ornatae, supera latiore, siiturali 
prope apertiiram tantum conspicua, mox evanescenti. Paries 
aperturalis et pars ultimi infra purpureo tincta. 

Log. — "Tuom," probably in German New Guinea, or Bismarck 
Archipelago. From the same locality I received at the same 
time Helicina suprafasciata, Sowerby. 

Shell imperforate, trochiform, rather thin. Spire conic, obtuse. 
Whorls less than 5, convex, regularly increasing, suture linear, 
simple; the last one large, rounded at the periphery. Sculpture 
faint, obsolete growth lines slightly decussated by fine crowded 
lines, spirally impressed above and below (where they become 
somewhat wavy and irregular), and obliquely running towards 
the aperture on the upper part of the last whorl. Surface more 
shining in the varieties, differing also from the type in being 
entirely smooth or nearly so, the only sculpture consisting in 
obsolete growth lines, and in colour. The whorls also appear to 
be a trifle more convex. Colour (in the type) greyish above, 
fading into milky white and finally into intense yelloAv on the last 
whorl; the latter is, on its middle, ornamented with two broad 
chestnut-black zones, the upper one extending on the penultimate 
whorl; painted besides with a finer sutural band of the same hue, 
also ascending on the penultimate. All these bands are con- 
spicuous in the interior of aperture. The latter is diagonal, 
shortly and abruptly deflected in front. Lip intense black, 
reflected, roundly beaked at the peripher}^, flexuous above, then 
dented without and somewhat tuberculate within. Columella 
broad, adherent to the base, very slightly tuberculous at the end 
on the inner edge. 

This interesting novelty belongs, like the following species, to 
the group of Papuiim Tayloriana, Ad. and Reeve, but is desti- 
tute of any carina on the last whorl, and recalls to mind Papuina 

BY C. F. ANCEY. 377 

Millicentce, Cox, from the Louisiades, which has nearly the same 
form, but not the same style of colouring. 

3. Papuina Kubaryi, Mollendorff. 
Helix Kubaryi, von Miill., Cat. Staudinger. 

(Plate XXVI., Fig. 5.) 

Testa imperforata, depresso-conica, subtrochiformi:^, modice 
solida, subnitida, undique tenuissime rugulosa, rugulis, irregularibus, 
infra dispositionem spiralem prasbentibus. Spira late conoidea, 
summo minuto, obtuso, hevi. Anfractus 4J, convexi, sutura 
lineari impressaque divisi, celeriter accrescentes, ultimus magnus, 
rotundatus, initio obscure angulatus, infra convexus, antice baud 
abrupte deflexus. Apertura obliqua, sinuata, extus rostrata 
(rostro sat minuto, erecto obtuso), nigrolimbata, diagonalis, margine 
supero leviter lateque sinuato, turn extus subimpresso, dehinc in 
rostrum prolongato; columellaris appressus, mediocris, oblique in 
lineam rectam declivis, baud tuberculatus, cum basali arcuato 
absque angulo junctus. Peristoma supra anguste, basi magis 
reflexum et expansum, atrum. Paries aperturalis violaceus. 
Apex nigro-violaceus; anfractus supremi grisei, inferne (ad 
suturam) late purpurei, penultimus pallide stramineus, punctis et 
lineis griseo-pellucidis adspersus; ultimus prope aperturam pulchre 
luteus, pone peristoma carneo-rubellus, seriebus 2 punctorum seu 
macularum nigrorum in fascias dispositis et plus minusve in 
penultimo e\'anescentibus egregie picta. Faux fuscula, fasciis 
tran smeantibu s . 

(a) Diam. maj. 25, min. 19, alt. 16 mill. 

(h) Diam. maj. 23 J, min. 18, alt. 15 mill. 


Testa lactea, concolor, peristomate albo, griseo exiliter rare 
passimque substrigata vel punctulata, casterum typo simillima. 
Diam. maj. 25, min. 20, alt. 17 mill. 
Loc. — (German T) New Guinea. 


This very pretty and interesting Papuina is evidently very 
close to Mr. Brazier's Helix Gorenduenais (Proc. Linn. Soc. New 
South Wales, 3rd April, 1886, p. 841), and I first thought they 
might be identical. However, Papuiyta Kuharyi has not 5 whorls, 
and, judging from Mr. Brazier's description, also differs in several 
other particulars. No mention is made by the latter of the 
disposition of the small spots, which, in Gorenduevsis, are 
"pinkish," not grey nor blackish towards the aperture. Mr. 
Brazier says hk shell is " flesh-tinted a cream colour," while 
Kxfharyi is yellowish cream-colour, reddish-pink behind the 
peristome. The aperture, in this, is intense black on the lip, 
violet-purple on the parietal margin, and purple-brown within the 
throat, while in Gorenduensis, "the interior is bright pink, the 
peristome blackish-purple," and the " margins joined with a thin 
pink callous entering spirally into the interior of the aperture." 
I therefore suppose the two species are really different from each 

4. Hemiplecta granigera, n.sp. 

Testa subsolida, depressa, orbiculata, aperte uml^ilicata, oblique 
confertim striata et undique minute spiraliter granulata (granulis 
in ultimo valid ioribus, circa umbilicum magis obsoletis), vix 
nitida, sordide fusca, medio obtuse angulata, infra angulum zona 
obscuriore per testam conspicua diffusaque cincta, subtus pallidior. 
Spira depresso-conoidea, obtusa. Anfractus 6 subconvexi, sutura 
parum profunda, simplici; ultimus haud descendens, superne et 
pn«sertim infra angulum medianum obtusum pallidum convexus. 
Apertura ampla, obliqua, lunata, transverse subovalis. Peristoma 
simplex, acutum, rectum, marginibus remotis, callo tenui nitido 
concolore junctis, margine columellari late arcuato, vix expansius- 
culo, umbilicum (pro genere magnum, anfractus omnes ostenden- 
tem) nullomodo obtegente. 

Diam. maj. 43, min. 35, alt. 22 mill. 

PjOC. — (German?) New Guinea. 

This species should perhaps be referable to Rhysota, but is 
more nearly related, from the general appearance of the shell, to 

BY C. F. ANCEY. 379 

such Heniiplecta as Blainvilleaaa, Hitmjyhreysiana and Fouilloyi. 
I received it under the latter name, but it is certainly utterly 
distinct. The Fouilloyi is a large and more globose shell, more 
narrowly umbilicated. In this respect the present shell is more 
like Rhysota Achilles, Braz., but is smaller, has a thin aperture 
and more numerous volutions. The sculpture may be the same 
in both species. 

5. PupiNA Beddomei, n.sp. 

Fujnna Beddomei, Bttg., Cat. Staudinger. 

Testa ovata, tenuis, pellucida, hyalina, nitidissima, griseo- 
albicans. Spira oblonga, obtusiuscula; anfractus 6 levissime 
convexi, sutura callosa zona exili pellucida cincta divisi; ultimus 
descendens, ad aperturam breviter ascendens, antice subdepressus. 
Apertura basi antice provecta, rotundata, bicanaliculata, scilicet; 
canali supero peristomate non extus exciso et lamina parietali 
arcuata sat valida intrante constituto, et canali altero ad basin 
columellfe excis?e, extus in foramen rotundatum terminato. 
Peristoma intus incrassatum, leviter patulum. 

Long. 7, diam. 3|-; long, apert. 2| mill. 

Loc. — Bismarck (or New Britain) Archipelago. 

This species is more slender than Pupina speciUiun, Tapparone- 
Canefri (Fauna Malac. Delia Nuova Guinea, 1883, p. 270, PI. x. 
figs. 14-15), and indeed more nearly related to Pupina difficilis, 
Semper, of the Pelew Islands. From the last named species it 
differs in being a trifle larger, light ash-coloured, and chiefly in 
the characters of the aperture, which is vertical in difficilis, also 
furnished with a more robust superior lamina and more excised 
columellar margin in Pupi7ia Beddomei. The same characters, 
although not ver}^ striking, will also without much difficulty 
distinguish Pupina Beddomei from the complanata, Pease, which 
occurs in the Kingsmill and Caroline groups. They are very 
constant in the several specimens before me. 

I am happy to give this species the name of my distinguished 
correspondent Mr. C. F. Beddome. 


6. Cyclophorus Kubaryi, Mollendorff. 
Cycl )pho7'us Kubaryi, v. Moll., Cat. Staudinger. 

(Plate xxvL, Fig. 6.) 

Testa solida, opaca, rugosa, parum nitens, turloinato-globosa, 
profunde sed (pro genere) minute umbilicata, umbilicus ad 
terminationem leviter excentricus, superne atro-fusca, in medio 
ultimi anfractus luteo plus minusve distincte bifasciata, subtus 
circa umbilicum flava vel jDallida. Spira conoidea, elevata, obtusa. 
Anfractus 5^, convexi, sutura infra subirregulari discreti, baud 
valde turgidi; ultimus relative (pro genere) parum amplus, rotun- 
datus, altus, prope aperturam leviter subdeflexus. Apertura 
subobliqua, fere circularis, ad insertionem subangulata, extus 
leviter sinuata, sordide lutea. Peristoma acutum, baud expansum 
nee reflexum, vix patulum, ad columellam paulo magis incrassatum 
et expansiusculum, umbilicum baud tegens. Lineis incrementi 
sub lente irregulariter exarata et rugis undulatis ad apicem 
evanescentibus, basi tenuioribus peculiariter et eximie sculpturata, 
quasi vermiculata. Operculum tenue, rubellum, multispiratum, 
centro minute concavum. 

Diam. maj. 28, min. 23, alt. 24, alt. apert. 14 mill. 

Log. — (German?) New Guinea. 

There is no form known to me that I might compare with this. 
The operculum is red, thin and c3^clophoroid, while the shell 
itself resembles in shape, as far as I can suppose from the figure 
given by Mr. M. M, Schepman, Cyc^otus K'^oemhaeuAs, of the 
Island of Soemba (Indian Archipelago). The description of the 
latter applies nevertheless to a true Cyclotus of the section 
I'seudocyclopJiorus, Martens. (See Notes from the Leyden Museum, 
Vol. xiv. p. 158, PL 6, fig 3, 1892.) The remarkable sculpture 
of Cyclophorus Kubaryi is quite peculiar for the genus as well as 
the general " tout ensemble " of the shell, and the simple, not 
reflected, lip. The former, obsolete beneath, is very much marked 
above, and recalls that of Helix Qtioyi and maniilla, although it 
may be termed as more vermiculous. The whorls are more tightly 

BY C. F. AXCEY. 381 

coiled and the apex more globular, less mamillar than in any 
Cyclophorus I am acquainted with. No shell from New Guinea 
is like this, and I feel confident altogether that when the animal 
is known it may be considered the type of a new genus. Pro- 
visionally, a sectional name may be given to it, and I should 
propose for this object that of Fapuoct/chos, as the only species 
known till now of this section belongs to the Papuan fauna. To 
my knowledge the large typical Cyclophori are still unknown from 
New Guinea or neighbouring isles. — Algeria, Feb. 1st, 1895. 


Fig. 1. — Hemiplecta granigera, Ancey. 

Fig. 2.--Papiiina Hedleyi, Smith. 

Fig. 3. — ,, fuomeiins, Ancey. 

Fig. 4. — ., ,, var. heterochroa, Ancey. 

Fig. 5. — ,, Kubaryi, Mollendorflf. 

Fig. 6. — Gydoxihorus Kubaryi, MiJllendorff. 

.Vote hy C. He 

About the date on which I received the manuscript of the 
above, there reached me an article by Dr. O. von Mollendorfi", 
"On a Collection of Land Shells made by Mr. I. Kubary in 
German New Guinea," Proc. Malac. Soc. Vol. I. Pt. Y. PL xv. 
pp. 23J:-240. Dealing with similar material, Mr. Ancey's paper 
has been partially anticipated by the j^rior descriptions of P. and 
C. Kuharyi. Since, however, Mr. Ancey's independent obser^'a- 
tions extend beyond those of his predecessor, and since the inter- 
vention of time and space do not allovv me to refer the paper back 
to the author, I have judged it best to offer it intact to the 



No. viii. — Acacia lanigera, A. Cimn.; B.Fl. ii. 324. 

By R. T. Baker, F.L.S., Assistant Curator, Technological 
Museum, Sydney. 

(Plate xxvii.) 

A rigid shrub of several feet, the branches terete, branchlets 
often angled and mostly woolly. 

Phyllodia lanceolate, falcate, rigid, thick, dark green, tapering 
to a pungent point, li to rarely 21 inches long, mostly 2 to 3 
lines rarely 4 lines broad, in some specimens woolly but in others 
glabrous ; nerves very prominent, occasionally anastomosing, 
marginal gland rarely found, except in southern specimens. 

Stipules subulate, about IJ lines long, often persistent, woolly. 

Peduncles axillary, short, weak, solitary, clustered, bearing a 
globular or elongated head of about 25 flowers, mostly 5-merous. 

Bracts at the base of the peduncles ovate, acuminate, ciliate, 

Calyx campanulate, with obtuse, thickened, ciliate lobes, not 
half as long as the corolla. 

Petals smooth, united to the middle. 

Pod about 3 i7iches long, 3 ^o 4 lines broad, very woolly, much 
twisted, margins not thickened, slightly contracted between the seeds. 

Seeds longitudinal, oblong in the centre of the "pod, the funicle 
short, with 3 folds, the last fold short, but not thickened under the 

BY R. T. BAKER. 383 

Hab. — Coonabarabran, (S. Lyndon), Muclgee and Rjdstone (R. 
T. B.); Cobar (Rev. J. M. Curran); Blue Mountains, Lachlan 
River and to Southward (A. Cunningham, Eraser, Huegel, 
Mitchell and others, teste Bentham). 

I feel privileged in being able to complete the description, and 
to give a satisfactory figure of this s]3ecies, and I hope now that 
these notes will remove any difficulties that may have existed in 
connection Avith its determination. 

I have not seen A. Cunningham's description in Field's Geo- 
graphical Memoirs on New South Wales, but I take it that Don's 
transcription of it is a correct one, judging from the numerous 
specimens that have come under my observation, and the very 
brief description of the pod is correct as far as it goes. 

In the Bot. Mag. t. 2922, published in 1829, no pods are 
figured or described; and the illustration itself is of very little 
help in identifying the species. 

Bentham's description of the pod in the Flora Australiensis 
(Yol. ii. p. 325) is referred to by Baron von Mueller in Proc. 
Linn. Soc, 2nd Series, Vol v. p. 19, in these words: — " . 
Bentham placed the pods of Acacia Oswaldi with A. laniyera " 
so that this error has perhaps been the cause of the recent 
confusion surrounding this species, and a debt is due to Baron 
von Mueller for so important a note. 

But to me it appears that Bentham must have had some 
pod other than A. Oswaldi before him, as the description under 
A. laniyera. does not agree with the pod of A. Oswaldi in Baron 
von Mueller's Iconography of Australian Acacias, 6th Decade, 
and which figure agrees in every detail with all sj^ecimens of the 
fruit of A. Oswahli that have come under my notice. 

In Baron von Mueller's note above quoted he gives A. venulosa 
and A. Whanii as synonyms of this species. 

This latter species I have not seen, but from the imperfect 
specimens of A. venulosa collected by me, I am inclined to think 
that A. vemdosa of Bentham is a good species. 


Plate xxviL 


Fig. 1. — Flowering twig. 

Fig. 2. — Part of a branch enlarged, to sliow bracts and stipules at the base 

of the peduncle. 
Fig. 8.— Bud. 
Fig. 4. — Expanded flower. 
Fig. 5.— Pistil. 
Fig. 6. — Cluster of pods. 
Fig. 7. — Seed in situ. 
Fig. 8. — Individual phyllode. 
Fig. 9. — Portion of phyllode enlarged. 

(Figs. 2, 8, 4, 5 and 9 enlarged.) 



By J. H. Maiden, F.L.S., and R. T. Bakeh, F.L.S. 

Acacia pumila, sp.nov. 

(Plate XXVIII.) 

A diffuse, virgate, pubescent shrul) under afoot Iiioli as far as seen; 
})ranches and l^ranchlets terete. Phyllodes narrow, falcate, taperin^' 
into a recurved pungent point, narrowed at the base, trinerved, not 
clecjirrent <is hi xi. trino.rvata ^ and less articulate, 6 lines long and 
1 line l)road, with scattered glandular hairs on nerves and edges. 
Stipules prominent, subulate, hairy, over 1 line long. Peduncles 
silky-hairy, short, scarcely 2 lines long, recurved, solitary, l^earing 
a small head of not more than i^-^y^o?6'e7'6' mostly 5-merous. Calyx 
more than half as long as the corolla, vnth acnte almost subulate 
lohes, prominently ribbed especially in the bud, ciliate. Petals 
narrow, Jree, glabrous, very prominently ribbed, very marked in the 
})ud. Pod 1 line broad, 12 lines long as far as seen, slightly 
contracted between the seed, margins thickened. Seeds oblong, 
longitudinal; funicle dilated from the base into a club-shaped aril 
and consisting of about 4 ft)lds. 

/fab. — Kenthurst (R. Helms). 

Systematically this species approaches A. trinervata; but it is a 
much smaller shrub, with a pubesc-nce on the branches and underside 
of phyllodes; and the ph3dlodes are smaller, also falcate (not rigid) 
with recurved points, and slightly pubescent; the peduncles are 
also much shorter and weaker, and there are fewer flowers in the 
heads. The characters of the cal3'^x and petals are entirely distinct 
from th<)s(» of that species. 

The oAary is also hairy, and the stipules which are minute in 
A. trinervata are very distinct in this species. The phyllodes and 
the shortness of the peduncles give it some affinity to A. lanigera. 
It differs from both, however, in the size of the pod. 


It belongs to the Pungentes series of Bentham, and sub-series 
Plurinerves, viz. : — Phyllodia 2- or more nerved, linear-lanceolate. 

Peduncles short. Pod 4 to 5 lines broad... A. lanigera. 

Peduncles mostly recurved, 1-2 lines long. 

Pod 1 line broad A. pumila, n.sp. 

Peduncles slender, ^ inch long. Pod 1 to 2 

lines broad A. trinervata. 


Acacia 2)iimila. 
Fig. I. — Flowering twig of plant. 
Fig. 2. — Fruiting twig of plant. 
Fig. 3.— Bud. 

Fig. 4. — Individual flower. 
Figs. 5 and 6. — Bracts. 
Fig. 7.— Pistil. 
Fig. 8. — Phyllode magnified. 
Fig. 9.— Pod. 
Fig. 10. — St-ed with arillus. 

PLS N5.W(2"'^5er,3V0LX. 


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PLS NSW.(2"''5er)V0LX. 


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ACACIA PUMILA Maiden el- Baker 


Bv PviciiD. Helms. 

(Commttnicdtpd hij the Secretary.) 

(Plates xxix.-xxx.) 

Introductory Remarks. 

The following notes are to a great extent compiled from com- 
munications I ha\ e from time to time received from old settlers 
who in their early days frequently came in contact with the 
Aborigines inhabiting the neighbourhood of their settlements, and 
who remember the habits and customs of these extinct or 
decaying tribes. Special thanks I owe to Mr. John Barry, Senr., 
who settled on the Mowamba Ri^er more than forty years ago, 
aiid from whose store of vivid recollections I have drawn a great 
many of the facts now set down. 

It is to be regretted that the narratives are but fragmentary 
yet I consider them sufficiently interesting to be recorded, more 
especially on account of the comparisons that may be drawn 
between the manners described and those of other Australian 

I do not intend to dilate upon this subject, but merely wish 
to remark that, viewing the manners and customs described from 
a general aspect, it l^ecomes apparent that they are very similar, 
and that they originated in common with those of the great bulk 
of the other Australian aboriginal tribes. The tribes here spoken 
of differed from most of their compatriots in the neglect of some 
widespread customs rather than in the practice of peculiar rites. I 
am alluding to the rites of circumcision and of the mika operation, 
neither of which were practised by the tribes that lived in the 



south-western parts of New South Wales or the north-eastern of 

The Omeo Blacks. 

This tribe, once numbering upwards of 140 to 150 souls, is now 
extinct. They can still be remembered by some of the old 
settlers, who not much more than 30 years ago saw them a 
vigorous tribe in its fullest expansion. It is a lamentable fact 
that through contact with Europeans within the time of one 
generation, whole tribes of considerable numbers have entirely 
vanished. This does not only apply to the tribe in question, 
but is equally applicable to their neighbours, whether friends or 
foes. The Monaro tribe, for instance, is also nearly extinct, and 
of their once numerous hordes only two or three half-civilised, 
demoralised individuals remain. Between 30 and 40 years ago 
some of the old settlers have seen on special occasions as many as 
500 to 700 aborigines of all ages and sexes assembled together, 
but their grandchildren will know the blacks only from hearsay 
and by what remains of their less perishable implements of war, 
i.e., a few stone hatchets that may occasionally be turned up 
during ploughing, or otherwise discovered. 

The Omeo Tribe occupied the north-western corner of Victoria, 
and were friendly with the Buffalo Tribe (Ovens district) on their 
side of the Murray, and on the other side of the river with the 
Monaro and Queanbeyan Tribes. Probably the customs of these 
four tribes were identical, because they lived in frequent inter- 
course and combined against their common enemies. These 
were the Braidwood, the Twofold Bay, the Gipj^sland Tribes, and 
those living near the borders of the Murray from below Albury. 

A nearly constant feud was waged between these tribes, and 
bloody contests frequently occurred. The mode of attack as a 
rule was as follows : — After watching the enemy during the day- 
time, and spying out their camping place, a couple of warriors 
would stealthily sneak round it at night to reconnoitre the position 
and its surroundings. If not detected, a raid would be made 
upon it at the dawn of day by the whole of the attacking party, 
who generally yelled loudly and made a fearful noise when close 


to the camp. The surprise mostly caused a stampede amongst 
the suddenly aroused sleepers, and those who did not escape by 
immediate flight, whether young or old, would be speared or 
knocked down with nulla nullas. After burning the spears and 
other war implements that were left behind, the attacking party 
returned as quickly as possible to their own district, probably to 
meet with a similar fate at some future time when the enemy had 
rallied and was reinforced. 

The oldest man of the tribe was recognised as a kind of chief, 
but whenever an attack on some enemy was planned, the ablest 
warrior as a rule was chosen to lead, and his advice then received 
the endorsement of the old men. 

Personal disputes were also not infrequent, and were generally 
settled by a fight, either with spears or cluljs. In each case the 
shield served for warding off the spears or the blows of the nulla. 
Fighting with stone tomahawks was not permitted in these duels, 
and was suppressed if in the heat of the combat the assailants 
should resort to these murderous weapons. In fact most of their 
fights, if single combats, were regulated by the onlookers, who 
frequently interfered when one of the parties was seen to get 
weak and it was noticed that he was unable to ward off the blow^s 
with the necessary dexterity. Some of their fights were regulated 
so that the combatants alternately hit the "hielaman" held by the 
opponents with the left hand above the head till the arm would 
gradually get weak and sink so that the nulla would fall on the 
head instead of the shield. The first hit on the head would end 
the fight as a rule, and frequently — if, for instance, one of the 
duellists was a much older man than the other— the fight might 
probably be stopped just before the club fell upon the skull, and 
the combat declared satisfactorily finished. 

During the quarrel the opponents used to gather their beards in 
the mouth, which, together with the grimaces they assumed, gave 
them a ferocious expression. 

They recognised the tribal rights to certain grounds, but the 
boundaries were not always particularly respected, as it happened 
frequently that they were overstepped during hunting excursions. 


When about to convey important communications to another 
tribe, such as to summon the warriors for a hostile invasion of the 
territory of their common enemies, or for a friendly meeting 
with the object of performing rites of a ceremonial nature, &c., 
two men were generally sent. Whilst the one slept the other 
kept watch to avoid being surprised by enemies during the 
journey, or being taken and slain as such whilst asleep by some 
friendly natives in mistake. 

When on the war-f)ath, as well as during the performance of 
their rites of initiation and at their dances and corrobories, they 
liked to appear ornamented, which they accomplished by painting 
the fronts of their bodies. The colours used were white, red, and 
black. For the first they used pipeclay, for the second raddle, 
and for the black charred seedstalks of the grasstree. The 
powdered charcoal they mixed with grease, forming a pigment 
that would stick on for months. 

They had two distinct ceremonies to raise the male members of 
the tribe from childhood to manhood. 

At about the age of from 14 to 16 years the young man was 
made " Kurrunong," which was done by knocking out one of his 
upper central incisors. This removed him from the care of his 
mother and the influence of the women, and so to say raised him 
from boyhood to the state of youth. 

At the age of 18 or 20, that is when his beard had started to 
develop properly, he was made "Wahu." To initiate him into 
this state, the following ceremon}"- was performed by the men, the 
women being excluded : — All the hair of the head was singed off 
close to the skull by means of some burning fibrous bark. This 
was a somewhat slow procedure, and had to l^e done ver}^ 
gradually, the hair being lit continually and blown out before it 
flared up too much. Whilst the young man submitted to this in 
silence, the onlookers and operators would carry on a lively con- 
versation or some chanting. When all the hair had been removed 
and the singing was over, three of the old men came running 
towards the newly initiated witlf green boughs in their hands, 
which tJiey waved in succession several times over his head. 


After this the men would run some distance awa}^ and returning 
swing the boughs with a swishing sound in a certain direction, 
mentioning at the same time the name of the district towards 
which they were pointing. This was repeated three times for 
each of the various directions they might point to. Each name 
mentioned was preceded b}^ the emphasised exclamation of "Wau- 
Wau !" For instance, " Wau-Wau ! Tumut ;" " Wau-A¥au ! 
Queanbeyan," &c., &c., which was followed at times by an exhorta- 
tion or malediction. This indicated that the Wahu may go to these 
districts as a friend and may have luck, or on the other hand that 
in some of these directions lived the tribes with whom he would 
have to carry on the hereditary feuds, for from henceforth he 
Avas to be considered as being raised to the position of a warrior 
in his own tribe. 

As soon as the initiation was completed, the women were again 
admitted to the presence of the men, and dancing and corrobories 
were held during the evening for the amusement of all, and more 
particularly for the benefit of the visitors, of whom there were 
generally a number present on these occasions. 

Manhood having now been conferred upon the newly initiated, 
the respect due to a man (which meant a warrior in case of need 
and not a mere huntsman as hitherto) was shown him, and in 
commemoration of the event a special privilege was accorded to 
him. This consisted in the permission being given to the newly 
made Wahu to choose any woman of the tribe he liked, his blood 
relations excepted, and cohabit with her for the night. But such 
a privilege was extended to him for that night only. At any 
other time sexual intercourse was regarded as adultery or fornica- 
tion, as the case might be, the punishment for which was a severe 
beating with waddies, sometimes inflicted with sufficient severity 
to cause death. 

They had no special marriage ceremonies, but when a wc)man 
w^as to be given to a man to cohabit with him for the first time, her 
female relations and the other women of the tribe would build a 
*' gunyah " of l^oughs, dense enough to prevent being overlooked, 


and place the woman therein to wait the arrival of her affianced 

A girl was frequently betrothed to someone by the parents at 
her birth, and was handed over to her affianced man when she 
arrived at puberty. 

Polygamy was customary and was not restricted ; the more 
wives a man had, the richer he was considered.* As a rule the 
women were a free gift, but at times a remuneration had to be 
offered in the shape of weapons or other useful utensils. The man 
who had a number of sisters whom he might promise, or over 
whom he possessed some influence through his parents, stood the 
best chance of having many wives. 

It was not considered adulter}^ for a brother to have sexual 
intercourse with the wife of a brother, and it would frequently 
occur that one brother would lend a wife to another who had 
none of his own. During the absence from the district (when, for 
instance, on a visit to a friendly tribe) the wife or wives were left 
in charge of a brother who assumed the part of husband for the 
time being. If the absentee had no brother, this duty would fall 
upon the nearest relative. The husbands of two sisters were 
considered to be l)rothers. 

Marriage between blood relations was strictly forbidden. They 
firmly believed that if closely related people had carnal connection^ 
both offenders would be bitten by " jidjigongs " (snakes); this was 
a constant dread to them, as it might not take place till after 
many years. 

The same punishment was also supposed to follow looking at or 
speaking to mothers-in-law, which was forbidden before as well as 
after marriage. 

Young people were strictly forbidden to indulge in carnal 
intercourse. If detected at such an offence, they would receive a 
severe beating from the other members of the tribe. In case a 

* My informant (Mr. Barry) told me that he had known some men to 
have as many as five wives. 


woman of mature age should have clandestine connection with a 
much younger man than herself, she was sometimes killed. 

Whenever adultery was discovered, the punishment was in most 
cases death. The woman's friends as a rule attacked the offending 
man, and the man's friends killed the woman. Although this 
was the generally adopted custom and law, it was often the cause 
of a general intertribal fight and the origin of a prolonged family 

A man who received a girl in promise endeavoured to obtain a 
lock of her hair, which he would keep, and if she refused him 
afterwards he would sometimes wrap an eagle-hawk's feather in 
the hair and throw the tuft in some waterhole. As the hair 
decomposed, the woman would sicken and ultimately die. 

Up to about the fourth year a child got almost anything it 
liked to eat, but at a later age it was forbidden certain things. 
They were made to believe that if anyone ate of forbidden food 
he or she would sooner or later be killed by lightning. This 
superstition was so firmly ingrafted into them that some would 
endure severe starvation rather than partake of forbidden 
food. From some individuals the restriction of eating certain 
animals was removed earlier than from others, but it seems that 
the flesh of an emu was never allowed to be eaten till some time 
after the arrival at the age of manhood. When this time had 
arrived, the man who was for the first time to eat of this specially 
reserved dish would sit down between two fires and have the emu 
placed in front of him. He could then eat as much as he liked, 
but was not allowed to go to sleep when he was satisfied, and was 
forcibly kept awake the whole night whenever he became drowsy. 

They cooked their food either on the fire, or when they had a 
great deal of it and were not in a hurry, in a kind of oven in the 
ground. For this purpose they dug "a suitable hole and filled the 
bottom of it with stones over which a fire was lighted. As soon as 
the stones had been well heated, the fire and ashes were removed 
and the game was placed upon the stones. This was covered with 
bark and green bushes over which the hot ashes were heaped, and 
the whole left undisturbed till the meat was cooked. 


The food supply was as a rule abundant in the district during 
favourable seasons. It consisted of all kinds of game, birds and 
birds' eggs, reptiles, fishes, and insects. Amongst the first 
the opossum furnished probably the most frequent meal, because 
it occurred very abundantly; and amongst the insects the 
" Bugong "* supplied numbers of the natives with a fattening diet 
for months. How this unique and remarkable food supply, found 
always on the highest mountains, was procured deserves a detailed 
description : — As early as October, as soon as the snow had 
melted on the lower ranges, small parties of natives would start 
during fine weather for some of the frost-riven rocks and procure 
" Bugongs " for food. A great gathering usually took place 
about Christmas on the highest ranges, when sometimes from 500 
to 700 aborigines belonging to different friendly tribes would 
assemble almost solely for the purpose of feasting upon roasted 
moths. Sometimes these natives had to come great distances to 
enjoy this food, which was not only much appreciated by them 
but must have been very nutritious, because their condition 
was generally improved by it, and when they returned from the 
mountains their skins looked glossy and most of them were quite 
fat. Their method of catching the insects was l^oth simple and 
effective. With a burning or smouldering bush in the hand the 
rents in the rocks were entered as far as possible, when the heat 
and smoke would stifle the thickly congregated moths, that 
occupied nearly every crack, and make them tumble to the bottom 
of the cleft. Here an outstretched kangaroo skin or a fine net 
made of kurrajong fibre would receive most of the stupefied and 
half-sinsred insects, which were then roasted on hot ashes. This 
process required some care and attention in order to prevent the 
bodies of the moths getting scorched, and therefore the ashes 
required to be not too hot and had to be free from large glowing 
embers. The insects were thrown upon the ashes and well mixed 
with them, and then the whole was stirred with sticks till the 
wings and legs had broken away and the body was cooked, when 

* See also the note at the end of the paper (p. 40G). 


it generally shrivelled to the size of a grain of wheat. The mass 
was freed of the ashes by dropping it by degrees into some vessel 
or on a skin and allowing the wind to sift it; the food was still 
further cleansed from adhering particles of dust and other 
unpalatable substances by gently rubbing it between the hands, 
and rolling it backwards and forwards from one to the other 
whilst blowing from the mouth. The taste of the roasted bodies 
of the " Bugongs " is, according to some Europeans who tried 
them, sweetish and nut-like and rather pleasant eating."^ 

This unique food supply is restricted to the highest mountains 
of Australia, but here it can always be found in abundance during 
the summer months. It is a marvel that the highest and stoniest 
ridges, on which snow lies for fully five and sometimes six months 
of the year, with a naturally scanty though rapidly growing 
summer vegetation, should harbour such enormous numbers of an 
insect (the caterpillar of which is known to be ver}^ voracious) 
which was at one time the means of fattening a congregation of 
over 500 aborigines every season. 

* After the above was written, I met with Dr. George Bennett's 
work, " Wanderings of a Naturalist in New South Wales, &c.," wherein 
the earliest account of this food supply is given. Dr. Bennett set 
out for "Gunundery" (the "Big Bugong " Mountain) from the Upper 
Tumut, but he did not meet the blacks reported to camp there 
"Bugonging." His report is consequently from hearsay, and not from 
personal observation. After describing the cooking of the moths, vs^hich 
corresponds with the method described by me, he continues: — "They 
are then eaten, or placed in a wooden vessel called a Walbuu, or Culibun, 
and pounded by a piece of wood into masses or cakes resembling lumps of 
fat, and may be compared in colour and consistence to dough made from 
smutty wheat mixed with fat. The bodies of the moths are large, and tilled 
with a yellowish oil, resembling in taste a sweet nut. These masses (with 
which the " Netbuls " or " Talabats " of the native tribes are loaded during 
the season of feasting upon the "Bugong") will not keep above a week, 
and seldom even for that time ; but by smoking they are able to preserve 
them for a much longer period. The first time this diet is used by the 
native tribes, violent vomiting and other debilitating effects are produced ; 
but after a few days they become accustomed to its use, and then thrive 
and fatten exceedingly upon it." (Vol. i. pp. 271-272.) 


The crows fattened rapidly on the moths and were also highly 
prized as food. They were consequently much pursued by the 
nati% es during their bugonging pic-nics. 

The fine nets made of kurrajong fil^re mentioned above seem 
to have been especially designed for the purpose of collecting the 
" Bugong." They had very fine meshes and were manufactured 
with great care, and being attached to a couple of poles they 
could be readily folded up when they had to be withdrawn from 
the crevices. A shrub, ( Pimella sp.) growing abundantly in 
places by the river sides to a height of three to four feet, furnished 
the fibre. The bark of this bush was stripped and allowed to dry, 
was then placed in water, and weighted down with some stones 
for several days till the non-fibrous portions were partly rotted. 
It was then taken out of the water and spread in the sun to 
dry till it was quite crisp, after which the fibre was freed by 
beating with sticks or flat stones. All this was the women's work, 
and they managed to produce a tenacious material from it 
that could be spun into the finest threads.* 

They kindled fire by friction, and for this purpose procured two 
pieces of the seed stalk of the grass tree ( Xanthorrlicea). One of 
the pieces was flattened and laid on the ground, and the other, 
pared to a point, was pressed against the flattened surface and 
rapidly twirled between the flat hands. The friction soon 
produced sufficient heat to cause some of the fine particles that 
were loosened by the rotatory motion at the point of contact to 
glow, which was, with the addition of some powdered charcoal 
and dry pounded bark fibre, fanned into a flame. 

* Among the white people of Australia the name kurrajong is applied to 
a tree ( Br achy chiton), but the natives in most parts give it a diii'erent name 
and say that kurrajong is white fellow name. It seems to me that the tree 
obtained its name through a misunderstanding because it yields a fibre that 
is frequently used by aborigines for making nets. This fibre is called 
kurrajong by some natives, which seems to have led to the name being 
applied to the tree. On the other hand, as the Omeo blacks called their 
bush as well as the fibre kurrajong, such may possibly be the case with 
the Brachychiton tree in some tribal dialects. 


To make a signal, a tire was lit by the side of a dry tree and 
green bushes were heaped upon the flames when these had made 
a good start. The smoke would then rise alongside of the tree as 
if it were forced from a furnace."^ 

Their habitations were simply shelters made of a few sheets of 
bark put against a pole on the windy side. 

Their wearing apparel, for both sexes, consisted of two bundles 
of narrow strips of skin suspended, one in front and the other 
behind, from a belt round the waist. During wet and cold 
weather, however, they wore an opossum cloak or a mat made of 
kangaroo skins, which otherwise served for carrying the umigong, 
nulla nulla, boomerangs and hielaman in, when folded. 

The belt worn round the middle of the body consisted of a 
number of closely laid coils of string, made of twisted opossum 
fur, which was from 12 to 15 feet long. To put it on, they 
fastened one end to a tree and holding the other end to their body 
they turned round and round till it was completely wound. 

Over the forehead, and very tightly fastened round the head, a 
band about an inch to an inch and a half wide w^as generally 
worn by most of them. This was neatly plaited with fine twists 
made out of the bark of kurrajong, and esteemed as an adornment. 

A woman having her menses would bind a string round both 
arms, as a sign that she was to be avoided by the men. Should 
she step across some stream of flowing water whilst in this state, 
no one would drink below the place where she crossed it. She 

*It is often asserted that the natives of Australia communicate by means 
of smoke. By the manner in which the smoke is made to ascend and by 
the volume as well as by the number of columns, Ac, &c. , they are 
supposed to have formulated a generally understood system of telegraphy. 
No doubt they are very expert in making smoke ascend, and carefully 
consider the state of wind and weather, understanding how to choose the 
proper material (green or dry) and how to take advantage of special local 
features, and watch the proper time of day when the signals are likely to 
attract attention. But everything is done in accordance with preconcerted 
arrangements. No generally acknowledged code exists. In my opinion 
too much has been made of the supposed elaboration of a telegraphic 
system by means of smoke signals. 


had therefore to be cautious and avoid polluting any water when 
travelling in company. 

When about to give birth the women retired to a secluded 
place and usuall}^ managed the confinement without assistance 
from other females. 

The children generally received a name after something remark- 
able that happened at the time of their l^irth or after something 
in connection with the locality of it. 

As a rule the children were a good deal indulged and were 
allowed to have things their own way, but were supposed to be 
obedient to their parents. If they disobej^ed, they were taught 
they would be punished during later years by getting bad rashes 
and sores on their body and limbs, caused through the influence 
of a fiendish spirit. A disease of this kind was often the cause of 
death amongst them. It began with an itch like a scab that was 
dry on the surface but festering below the skin, and at an 
advanced stage smelled very offensively and sometimes caused the 
flesh to rot away. Some who were only lightl}^ afflicted with it 
would perhaps be cured, but when the disease became general and 
severe it was mostly fatal. As a cure the natives ate a kind of 
yam^ cooked in hot ashes or roasted on stones, as well as other 
vegetable food and certain herbs. 

Whenever a native became ill he imagined that "Jakkandibbi" 
(the suj)j)osed evil spirit) had taken his " gurai " (kidney fat). It 
was believed by them that they may recover from it, but if 
Jakkandibbi was to take the gurai the third time it would be 
followed by death. The blackfellow's belief was that he would 
live for ever were it not for the evil one who robbed him of his 
life; even if a spear were thrust through his heart, it would not 
be the spear that killed him but it would be Jakkandibbi. 

* From the desciiptioa received of the plant, I believe these to be the 
tubers of a liliaceous plant. The disease, from the description and its cure, 
seems to be scurvy of a severe natuie, or a similar atfiiction, caused no 
doubt through unhealthy meat or want of a variety of food. 


The303elieved that an enemy could secretly throw a "gibba" 
(stone) which would enter the body of the person it was to hurt 
and cause pain in the place it had entered."^ 

If therefore anyone felt a pain in the l)ody or any of his limbs 
the " Karaji " (doctor or wizard) of the tribe would bite or suck 
the place and generally produce a stone after a few minutes 
which he professed to have removed from the sore part. Some- 
times they even managed to show blood on the stone. As a rule, 
the jDatient would soon recover after this display of crafty fraud. 

These " Karaji," besides possessing these curative powers, were 
supposed to l^e able to work all sorts of miracles and charms, but 
generally each of them was noted for some special power. Some, 
for instance, were expert in making rain. For this purpose eagle- 
hawk feathers were rubbed between the palms of the hands in 
connection with various manoeuvres and gesticulations, invented 
and differently performed by each individual conjurer. Every one 
tried to inspire the onlookers with his special power and used his 
own methods to deceive the credulous. 

The dead were buried in different ways: either in a hollow tree, 
if the corpse could be dropped down from the top, or in a sitting- 
position in a hole dug in the ground, or a cavity was made at the 
bottom of a deep hole where the corpse was pushed in and some 
stone slabs placed against it before the hole was filled up. In 
each case the body was tied up in some fibrous bark with the 
knees drawn towards the abdomen and the limbs firmly lashed 
together. Great wailing and lamenting preceded the burial for 
several days; the relations, and more particularly the women, 
chopped and gashed their heads with stone tomahawks till 
blood flowed freely. AVhen the body was disposed of, they 
smeared pipeclay over their heads and faces as a sign of mourning. 
This outward sign of sorrow was retanied for some time, but as a 
rule much longer by the women than by the men. But as soon 
as the flesh of an enemy was eaten, even if this were on the day 

* This superstition is evidently the same as 1 he "pointing of a bone, 
believed iii by most of the Australian indigenes, in another form. 


following the burial, all grief was banished and the mourning 
signs were removed. 

They firmly believed that the dead would not stay in the grave 
but would come to life again in another form, which might take 
the shape of a fish, bird or animal, or anything else; their ideas 
were, however, not very clear on this subject. The}^ also Ijelieved 
that the dead would leave the grave sometimes during the night 
and go hunting. Owing to this belief, no doubt, all personal 
property was buried with them, as well as other things they might 
require. The name of the dead was never mentioned by them on 
any account, and if anyone mentioned it inadvertently they 
stopped their ears and asked not to be reminded of the dead. If 
dogs had been owned by the deceased, these were sent to some 
friendly tribe that their sight might not remind them of the 
departed. They carefully avoided the graves.* 

The Omeo Blacks (as well as the neiglibouring tribes) were 
inveterate cannibals, and at every opportunity would eat the flesh 
of their enemies, but especially their kidney fat. They would, 
however, not eat a member of their own tribe. 

Their weapons consisted of clubs (nulla nullas), boomerangs, 
shields (hielaman), stone tomahawk (umigong), and three or four 
kinds of spears, which were made of reeds, seedstalks of the grass- 
tree, boxtree, or if procurable, ironbark. The reed and grasstree 
spears were thrown with the wommera, but the heavier and larger 
wooden spears were thrown with the hand after l^eing well 
balanced by holding them near the middle. The boomerangs 
were different also; the larger sort was used for fighting, and a 

* Mr. Barry on one occasion noticed two bandicoots near a native grave and 
told some blacks of it who were camping a short distance from the place. 
Snow was lying on the ground at the time and the natives were hard 
pressed for food, but they would not touch the "bandies" because they 
believed them to be the dogs of the dead. When ]\lr. Barry shifted some 
of the boughs that were lying over the grave, under which the animals hid 
themselves, to convince the natives that they were bandicoots and not dogs, 
they implored him to desist, adhering to it that the animals were "dog of 
poor fellow." 


smaller sort, which was more curved than the other, they threw 
at birds. This if thrown against the wind would return to the 
thrower after making one or two circles in the air. The com- 
monest implement was the 3"am stick, a plain stout cudgel about 
four feet long, sharpened and hardened in the fire at one end. 
It was used for dio'oinc: out roots and other food from the ground, 
and in case of need served for defensive purposes. 

For carrying water they made a vessel out of bark in the shape 
of a small canoe. For this purpose they thinned a suitable piece 
of bark at both ends and placed it in hot ashes to make it soft 
and pliable, and whilst in this state the ends were folded and tied. 

Their canoes were mostl}^ made of bark which was gathered in 
folds at both ends, after these had been sweated in hot ashes, and 
fastened together with withes and wooden pins. They chose a 
convenient crooked tree and stripped the bark from the bent part 
of it that "svas already naturally shaped like a canoe. To prevent 
leaking, a good-sized lump of clay was pressed in at both ends, 
and if through running on a snag or some other accident, leaks 
occurred, these were as a rule also stopped with clay. Such canoes 
did not usually last for a great length of time on account of their 
fragile nature and the rather rapid decay of the material, but 
they were more frequently used than those made of wood l^ecause 
the}^ could easil}^ be replaced if destroyed by an enemy. The 
wooden canoes were made out of a suitable log, and their manufac- 
ture demanded a great deal of labour. The}^ had to be entirely 
worked with stone implements, assisted b}" lighting a fire inside, 
which when carefuU}^ managed would destroy the bulk of the 
wood to be removed. Generally they adopted a partly hollow 
tree for this purpose. 

Besides the casual ornamentation of painting, they used to mark 
their body with tattoo scars. These were produced b}^ means of 
some sharp stones with which the flesh was incised. To stop the 
blood and to form the scars they lay down on a heap of fine ashes. 
Ashes w^ere also applied if at an}^ future time the bleeding should 
start again. This was all that was used to raise the scars above 
the surface of the skin. At the age of 17 to 20 years were made 


these tattoo scars which were from an inch and a half to two inches 
long as a rule. It took some time to make the whole series of 
them, as they allowed those made first to heal before they started 
others. In this way first the back and then the chest and arms 
were operated upon in rotation. The women were also tattooed 
on the chest and arms, but not to such an extent as the men. 
The marks were supposed to indicate their family descent as well 
as tribal connection. 

Both the men and the women had the septum of the nose 
pierced to carry a piece of polished kangaroo bone. A woman 
considered herself looking her best when she had about six or 
eight inches of bone pushed through her nose. The reason for 
this habit was that, in addition to its being considered ornamental, 
when they returned on earth again after death, either as a swan, 
duck or fish, &c., they would then have a hole ready made for the 
purpose of breathing. 

A FEW Notes on the Monaro Tribe of AboricxInes, with a 
Description of some of their Stone Implements. 

The once numerous tribe inhabiting the Monaro District, com- 
prising the south-western highlands and tablelands of New South 
Wales, is nov/ almost extinct. The last typical specimen is 
incarcerated in Goulburn gaol for killing his gin a little more than 
two years ago, and besides him I believe only another fullblood 
(young and civilised) native of the tribe exists, who is at present 
living near Buckley's Crossing. The only one of them I ever saw 
was " Bonny Jack," the " King " of Monaro, whom I met five 
years ago. He was a short, rather broad shouldered man with an 
open countenance and a merry disposition. At the time of our 
meeting he had not long buried his gin, " Polly, ""^ and intended 
to go across the border, if I remember right, with the intention of 

* From a correspondent I hear that he " interred " her in a hollow tree 
by the side of Spring Creek Lake, not far from Berridale. He derived some 
consolation, or pretented to do so, from the belief that his Polly would 
" jump up white lady by and by." 


trying to get another from a friend who had still two left. He 
complained bitterly to me that " white fellow " destroyed all the 
" possum," a gTievance, I was later informed, he was constantly 
harbouring and generally ventilated to new acquaintances. He 
died recently at Cooma, and with him it may be said the last 
remnant of the real old stock of manl}^ savages belonging to this 
tribe disappeared, reaching a good old age and weathering the 
tempest of vice and demoralisation foisted U2:)on these unhappy 
people b}^ civilised whites. 

I have been told a few stories of individuals who have been 
illtreated and even murdered by white blackguards, but these 
isolated instances are nothing compared to what the rum bottle 
and diseases have accomplislied towards wrecking these tribes. 
Forty years ago they could muster several hundred individuals, 
although from time immemorial they had been in constant and 
bloody contentions wath most of their neighbours, and to-day, 
after such a short span of time, owing simply to altered conditions, 
they have all disappeared but two. 

Not far below Jindabyne, where the valley of the Snowy River 
somewhat narrows between rather rugged hills, used to be in 
olden times a favourite camping place of the natives who assembled 
here (even within the knowledge of some settlers) in considerable 
numbers, mainly for the purpose of making stone implements. A 
shingle bed near one of the bends in the river furnished excellent 
and abundant material for tomahawks amongst the flattish and 
more or less oval j^ebbles. 

Many half finished tomahawks and pel^bles, the shaping of 
which had just been commenced, have from time to time been, 
picked up near this locality, and some may still be found there. 
The blacks were not likely to encumber themselves with too much 
weight, and therefore only the finished articles were carried away, 
the unfinished being left behind to be taken in hand again on the 
next return to the place. 

Plate xxix. represents three such pieces of stone showing- 
the commencement of the work, and one finished tomahawk. The 

A A 


first three were found by me at the place described, and the last 
was discovered not far from it near the Crackenback River. 

It seems that the first thing in shaping a tomahawk, after 
selecting a suitable pebble, was simply to beat another stone 
against it and chip the edges to a slanting face that would produce 
a sharp angle with one of the planes of the stone. This is all 
that has been done to the first three specimens represented, the 
rock of which is a fine grained felspathic quartzite of dark grey 

The finished implement is made of a similar material, but 
somewhat lighter in colour. It is a well finished weapon 
or tool with a sharp cutting edge and highly polished bevelled 
sides. The other part of it is dressed smooth by being beaten 
with another stone. By this method also the indented hollows 
for fingerholds on the broadest surfaces of it are evidently pro- 
duced. The implement seems to have been only intended 
to be held with the hand when it Avas in use, and is in 
reality an adze rather than a tomahawk. It weighs, twelve 

A Native Burial Place. 

During my visit to the Monaro District in the early part of 
1889, I opened a grave near Cobbin (situated between the Snowy 
Kiver and its tributary the Mowamba River) that was pointed 
out to me by Mr. Thompson, the owner of the run. To this 
gentleman I owe the particulars I am about to communicate con- 
cerning the individual whose remains I undertook to disturb. 

It had been an old man who for several years prior to his death 
was carried by the tribe from place to place when they shifted 
their camp, because owing to some hip disease he was unable to 
walk. The wailing and lamentations over his death lasted for 
three nights and three days, and a great many natives assembled 
to assist in the funeral ceremonies. A number of half deca3'ed 
sticks still lying in a semicircle about twenty yards from the grave 
marked the place where some brushwood had been heaped up to 
form a shelter against the wind, and some charcoal indicated the 
spots where the fires had been lighted during the nights. 


The grave was situated in an elevated position on a low rise 
consisting of coarse gritty and clayey soil. The dry situation and 
the natural compactness of the soil no doul^t greatly helped to 
preserve the grave, which could be distinguished quite plainly 
although it was over seventeen years since it had been formed. A 
circular mound rose about two and a half feet from a base which 
was upwards of five feet in diameter, irregularly flattened out at 
the edges and strewn with sparsely imbedded rock fragments. In 
the centre of the mound there were three posts. 

In removing the soil and stones I found that the grave must 
have been dug over six feet deep in the solid ground, and seemed 
to have had an oblong shape of about four feet in length by two 
and a half feet wide. At the bottom a dome-like excavation 
about three feet long and nearly two feet high had been made in 
one of the longest sides of the hole, into which the corpse had 
been pushed. The opening had been covered by bark and grass, 
against which flat stone slabs had been placed. The hole was 
filled with granite slabs carefully laid down, with grass in the 
interstices, for some distance, and over this with stones and earth. 
At each end of the grave had been placed a strong sapling that 
rose from the bottom by the side of the cavity in which the bod}'- 
rested to about four feet above the surface of the ground, and 
a third one was placed midwa}^ between them after a few feet 
had been filled in. These were the posts that rose from the 
mound, and which guided me to the cavity containing the corpse. 

Although the death took place seventeen years before I opened 
the grave, I found no difticulty in determining the method in 
which the body had been prepared for interment. The knees had 
been drawn up to the abdomen and lashed with bast, the elbows 
had been laid close to the sides, and the hands were placed flat in 
front of the face. Although nothing but the bones of the man 
remained, their position left no doubt that the limbs were placed 
as described. It was evident that the body had been lashed 
together into the smallest possible compass by bast being coiled 
round it in all directions. After being tied up it had then been 
Avrapped in a blue blanket, perished fragments of which still 


remained, and then in thick fibrous bark that was well lashed 
round it. 

The bones were still very solid, although discoloured. The 
skull seemed to me of a much lower type than most skulls I have 
seen, and by no means indicated intellectual power, which might 
have been expected from the way the individual had been revered 
by his tribe. The forehead receded very much and was strongly 
developed over the orbits, and the jaws were extremely powerful, 
forming a protruding chin that gave the whole face a receding 

Both hip bones were considerably swollen towards the upper 
margin and showed a distinct honeycombed character which was 
unmistakably the result of necrosis. From the appearance of 
these bones it cannot be doubted that the man was unable to 
walk during the advanced stage of the disease, and he must have 
suffered a great deal of pain judging from their abnormal 


Unless seen it is scarcely credible what an enormous number 
of the Bugong moths inhabit the crevices and clefts of the rocks 
on the highest ridges of the mountains. The crows have become 
the principal exterminators since the blackfellow has disappeared, 
and they do their work effectively by entering the narrowest 
apertures. Thousand of crows may be seen swarming during the 
whole of the summer about the rocks feeding upon nothing else 
but the moths. The enormous number of these birds congre- 
gated at the highest peaks can only be appreciated by 
approaching them under cover, as I did in February, 1893, when 
on a visit to the Australian Alps, and surprising them in their 
secret pursuit on one of the rugged peaks. As soon as I was 
observed by one of them, a caw of alarm was raised, which was 
rapidly repeated \)j others, and from ever}^ crack and cranny 
their black plumage burst forth. Soon thousands of crows rose 
in the air almost like a cloud, making the environs resound again 


with their mingled caws of terror and surprise. On land I have 
never seen such a number of birds rise together as I saw at Mt. 
Tate; it could only be compared to the incalculable number of 
seafowl that rise when they are disturl>ed at their lonely rock-isle 
1)}' a sudden shot from a passing vessel. 

It is almost impossible to form an estimate of the number of 
the insects that are annuall}'^ devoured by the crows; just as 
difficult as it is to form an idea of the masses formerly consumed 
by the blacks. The figure in each case must, however, reach 
high into the millions. Like the dusky coloured men, the 
birds are fonder of this food than anything else, and will not 
touch even dead or dying sheep, I am informed, whilst plenty of 
*' Bugongs " are to be found. My own observations confirm this 

The Dingo, as well as the Native Cat, it is stated, feed upon 
the moths. 

Dr. R. von Lendenfeld (Report on the Gold Fields of Victoria, 
1886, p. 72), speaking of the Bogong Range, states : — *'The high 
tablelands which constitute the nucleus of this range are inhabited 
by a species of moth belonging to the Noctuina. The caterpillars 
of it are exceedingly abundant, and formed, half-roasted, at certain 
seasons, a favourite food of the Australian natives. The natives 
call these caterpillars ' Bogong,' which name was afterwards 
applied to the habitat of the Bogong," &c. 

The statement as to the caterpillars having been eaten is 
incorrect. The larvae of Agrotis spina, Gn., like the imago, are shy 
of light. They are night feeders, and hide during the day, like 
all other species of the genus, in the ground or at the base of 
plants, and iDesides are protected by their colour. Their habits, 
as well as their protective colour, prohiVjits a collection in numbers 
sufficient to serve as food for whole tribes of natives. 

The accompanying sketches I owe to the skill of my young 
friend, Mr. Claude Fuller, whose valuable assistance was readily 
given and is deserving of my warmest thanks. 


Plate xxix. 

Figs. 1-3. — Flat stones chipped at the margins, showing the first prepara- 
tion for the production of a sharp edge. 

Fig. 4. — Finished tomahawk, or adze; the asterisks indicate the position 
of the circular depressions or fingerholds (§ nat. size). 

Plate xxx. 

Grave of an Aboriginal ; with sections of the same, showing the body 
as placed in the cavity, and the manner in which the hole was filled. 



The newspapers of 1st inst. reported that at Wilcannia nearly 
an entire flock of sheep had been poisoned through eating raven- 
ously of "grey bush," resulting in the deaths of 3700. Mr. Fred. 
Turner exhibited a specimen of the plant implicated, which turns 
out to be Kochia jyyTamidata, Benth. As this is not a poisonous 
plant, the fatal results were more reasonably attributable to 
mechanical irritation and inflammation arising from eating too 
voraciously of the indigestible twiggy branches. A photograph 
of the defunct sheep as they lay in camp was also shown, 
and extracts were read from a letter from Mr. A. J. Esau, of the 
"Western Grazier," which confirmed the diagnosis given above, 
and added that the sheep were in xery low condition, almost at 
starvation point, and that when the opj)ortunity came they simply 
gorged themselves with "grey bush." 

Mr. Maiden and Mr. Baker exhibited specimens to illustrate 
their papers, 

Mr. Maiden also exhil^ited specimens of a very young cocoanut 
plant, showing the early growth of leaves and roots, from 
Aneityum, New Hebrides. Also, from the same island, a native 
drill consisting of small quartz crystals fastened to a round stick 
about 2 ft. long. A piece of perforated rock and loose crystals 
also accompanied the exhibit. 

Mr. Hedley exhibited a valve of Cardiimi Jiavum, Linn., from 
Port Jackson. 

Mr. Masters exhibited a collection of 170 species of named 
Coleoptera, lately received from Mr. Arthur M. Lea, of Western 
Australia, containing types of all the species described by him in 
his last paper. The following f^amilies were represented : — • 
Malacoder^nidce 59 species, Pythidfe 3, Pedilidce 5, Fyrochroidm 2, 
MycetophagidcH 4, Curcidionidce 3, Melandryidce 6, Mordellidce 47, 
Anthicidce 15, Cm-ylophidce 20, and a few others. 

Professor David exhibited (1) a number of transparent rock 
sections, prepared by Mr. Brook, of Sydney University, of an 
oolitic limestone from the Manning River, New South Wales. 


The limestone contains numerous foraminifera, and abundant 
remains of small organisms, the precise nature of which has not 
yet been determined. The specimen from which the sections 
were cut was presented by Mr. C. W. Darley, M. Inst. C.E. The 
rock is probably of Carboniferous age. (2) A specimen of fossil 
algae C?), collected by Mr. C. Jenkins, from the Yass District, and 
now in the Geological Collection at the University of Sydney. 

Mr. Mitchell, Narellan, exhibited some fossils from the Wiana- 
matta Series, in the neighbourhood of Narellan, consisting of 
insect remains and impressions of a plant apparently belonging to 
the Tceniopteridce. Mr. Froggatt, of the Technological Museum, 
had determined the insect remains to be referable to the Families 
Blattid(e and BupreMidcE. Of the former there were impressions 
of fragments of wings, and of the latter of an elytron. Mr. 
Etheridge, Curator of the Australian Museum, to whom the 
specimens had been submitted, confirmed Mr. Froggatt's opinion. 
The plants consisted of fragments of leaves showing rows of 
papillae along each side, or in some cases along one side, of the 
midrib on the basal portion, which may be sori. The fossil 
Orthoptera are from a railway cutting on the Great Southern line 
at Glenlee; the Buprestid and plants from the Great Road about 
a mile N.E. of Narellan. Mr. Mitchell also exhibited some oolitic 
limestone found in a sample of lime from Marulan. 


WEDNESDAY, JULY 31st, 1891. 

The Ordinary Monthly Meeting of the Society was held in the 
Linnean Hall, Ithaca Road, Elizabeth Bay, on Wednesday even- 
ing, July 31st, 1895. 

The President, Mr. Henry Deane, M.A., M.I.C.E., in the 


Dr. James Froude Flashman, B.Sc, Hospital for the Insane, 
Parramatta, was elected a Member of the Society. 

The President said that he had to announce with regret the 
death, on the 9th inst., of a member. Dr. P. H. MacGillivray, M. A., 
of Sandhurst, Victoria, well known for his important series of 
contributions to a knowledge of Australian Polyzoa, covering a 
period of more than thirty-five years. 


Geological Survey of India — Records. Vol. xxviii. Part 2 
(1895). From the Director. 

Perak Government Gazette. Vol. viii. (1895), Nos. 12-17. 
From the Government Secretary. 

New Zealand Institute — -Transactions and Proceedings, 1894. 
Vol. xxvii. From the Institute. 

Pharmaceutical Journal of Australasia. Vol. viii. (1895), Nos. 
6-7. From the Editor. 

Zoologischer Anzeiger. xviii. Jahrg. Nos. 475-477 (May-June, 
1895). From the Editor. 

University of Melbourne — Calendars for the Years 1894 and 
1895. From the University. 


Boston Society of Natural History — Proceedings. Yol. xxvi. 
Parts 2-3 (1893-94): Memoirs. Yol. iii. No. xiv. (1894). From 
the Society. 

New York Academy of Sciences — Transactions. Yol. xiii. 
(1893-94). From the Academy. 

California Academy of Sciences — Proceedings. 2nd Ser. Yol. 
iv. Part 1 (1894). From the Academy. 

American Academy of Arts and Sciences — Proceedings. Yol. 
xxix. (1893-94). From the Academy. 

Cincinnati Society of Natural History — Journal. Yol. xvii. 
Nos. 2-3 (1894). From the Society. 

American Philosophical Society — Proceedings. Yol. xxxiii. 
No. 145 (1894). From the Society. 

Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia — Proceedings, 
1894, Part ii. From, the Academy. 

Nova Scotian Institute of Science — Proceedings and Transac- 
tions. Second Series. Yol. i. Part 3 (1893). Fro^n the Institute. 

Smithsonian Institution, Washington — Annual Reports of the 
Board of Regents for the years ending July, 1892, and July, 1893. 
From the Institution. 

Bureau of American Ethnology — Tenth Annual Report, 
1888-89: Bibliography of the Wakashan Languages. By J. C. 
Pilling: The Maya Year. By C. Thomas: Pamunkey Indians of 
Yirginia. By J. G. Pollard. From the Director. 

U.S. Department of Agriculture — Report of the Secretary, 
1893: Division of Entomology — Insect Life. Yol. vi. No. 5; 
Yol. vii. Nos. 1-3 (1894): Bulletin. No. 32 (1894). From the 
Secretary of Agriculture. 

Gesellschaft fiir Erdkunde zu Berlin — Yerhandlungen. Yol. 
xxi. (1894), Nos. 7-9: Zeitschrift. Yol. xxix. (1894), Nos. 3-5. 
From the Society. 

Naturhistorisches Museum in Hamburg — Mitteilungen. xi. 
Jahrg. (1893). Fro7n the Museum. 


K.K. N'aturhistorisches Hof-Museum, in Wien — Annalen. Bd. 
viii. ^^os. 1-2 (1891): Bd. ix. Nos. 1-2 (1894). From the 

Kongl. Bohmische Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften — Sitzungs- 
berichte, 1892-1893 : Jahresbericht fiir die Jahre 1892-93. From 
the Society. 

K.K. Zoologisch botanische Gesellschaft in Wien — Yerhand- 
lungen. xliv. Bd. 1-2 Quartal (1894): xlv. Bd. 4 Heft (1895). 
From the Society. 

Yerein fiir Yaterlandische Naturkunde in Wiirttemberg— 
Jahreshefte. L. Jahrgang (1894). From the Society. 

JSTaturforschender Yerein in Briinn — Yerhandlungen. xxxi. 
Bd. (1892) : xi. Bericht (1893). From the Society. 

Academie Imperiale des Sciences de St. Petersbourg — Bulletin. 
Nouvelle Serie. T. iv. (xxxvi.), Nos. 1-2 (1893-94) : Memoires. 
T. xxxix. Seconde Partie (1893); T. xli. Nos. 8-9 (1893); T.- 
xlii. Nos. 2 and 11 (1894). From the Academy 

Yictorian Naturalist. Yol. xii. No. 3 (June, 1895). From 
the Field Naturalists^ Club of Victoria. 

Medicinisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Gesellschaft zu Jena — ■ 
Jenaische Zeitschrift. xxix. Bd. 3-4 Heft (1895). From the 

Yerein fiir Erdkunde zu Leipzig — Mittheilungen, 1894. From 
the Society. 

Societe d' Horticulture du Doul3s, Besan9on— Bulletin, n.s. 
No. 53 (May, 1895). From the Society. 

Zoological Society of London— ^Abstract, 21st May, 1895 : 
Proceedings, 1895. Part 1. From the Society. 

Entomological Society of London — Transactions, 1895. Part 
ii. From the Society. 

American Naturalist. Yol. xxix. No. 342 (June, 1895). 
From the Editors. 


Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard College — Bulletin. 
Vol. xxvii. No. 1 (May, 1895). From the Director. 

Zoological Society of Philadelphia — Twenty-third Annual 
Report (1895), From the Society. 

Natural Science Association of Staten Island — Proceedings. 
Vol. iv. No. 15 (March, 1895). From the Association. 

Royal Society of South Australia — Transactions. Vol. xix. 
Part 1 (1895). From the ^^oc'iety. 

Journal of Conchology. Vol. viii. No. 2 (1895). From the 
Conchological Socinty of Great Britain and Ireland. 

Societe Royale de Geographie d' Anvers — Bulletin. T. xix^ 
5™« Fasc. (1894-95). From the Society. 

Geelong Naturalist. Vols, i.-iii., iv. Nos. 3-4. Fro7n the Gordoyi 
Technical College and Museum. 

Societe Geologique de Belgique — Annales. T. xx. 3^ Liv.; T. 
xxi. 3^ Liv.; T. xxii. V^ Liv. From the Society. 

Johns Hopkins University Circulars. Vol. xiv. No. 119 (June, 
1895). From the University. 

American Museum of Natural History — Bulletin. Vol. vii. 
Sig. 10-12 (pp. 145-192). From the Museum. 

Australasian Journal of Pharmacy. Vol. x. No. 115 (July, 
1895). From the Editor. 

Agricultural Gazette of N.S. Wales. Vol. vi. (1895), Part 6 
(June). From the Hon. the Minister for Mines and Agriculture. 

Museum d' Histoire Naturelle, Paris — Bulletin. Annee, 1895, 
No. 3. From the Museum. 

Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom — 
Journal.- Vol. iii. (New Series), Special Number (1895). From 
the Association. 

L'Academie Royale des Sciences, etc., de Danemark, Copen- 
hague — Bulletin. Annee 1894, No. 3; Annee 1895, No. 1. 
From the Academy. 



Part I. 

By Walter W. Froggatt. 


These notes on white ants were first undertaken with the 
intention of working out the economic aspect of their life-history, 
more especially their partiality for certain timbers more than 
others, and the best methods of exterminating them. 

There is no family of insects in the warmer and tropical por- 
tions of the earth's surface whose members wage such ceaseless 
warfare against man's handiwork. From their countless numbers, 
subterranean habits, and insidious manner of attack, none are 
more difficult to cope with; for often it is not until the damage is 
complete that their presence is even suspected. In Australia 
alone thousands of pounds worth of property is annually destroyed 
by these voracious pests. Having started on this subject, I found 
both material and notes accumulate so rapidly that I determined 
(without losing sight of the earlier phase of the question) to 
expand my notes into a more pretentious work, namely, the study 
of the habits and life-histories of all the Australian species 
obtainable, recording my observations when possible from living 

With this end in view, I obtained the sanction of the Curator 
of the Technological Museum (Mr. J. H. Maiden), who has also 
greatly assisted me in many ways at" this work, to print and issue 
a circular from the Museum, asking for specimens and giving 
brief instructions to residents of termite-infested country how to 
collect them. 

It is from the generous way in which my valued correspondents, 
many of them personally unknown to me (specimens and notes 


upon their habits having coine to me from all quarters), that I 
am enabled to enlarge my observations and add much to our 
general knowledge of their distribution and habits. 

I have also had the advantage, in earlier years, of travelling 
over a considerable portion of the interior of Australia, and after- 
wards round the whole coast, and therefore start with a personal 
knowledge of these pests in many phases of camp life, and a fair 
idea of their distribution over this great island. 

Part I. — Distribution. 

In going into the literature on " white ants," I have consulted 
a great number of works of voyages and travels, as well as the 
scientific papers available; and during these investigations I have 
been much struck with certain interesting facts relating to the 
geographical distribution of termites. Therefore, before dealing 
with the Australian species, I propose to glance at those from 
other parts of the world. 

In the fossil fauna of the Old World termites are very well 
represented; evidently in bygone epochs, as now, at certain 
seasons of the year the winged forms swarmed in myriads out of 
the nests. Fluttering about in their generally aimless manner, 
many of them alighted upon the soft resin coating the trunks of the 
pine trees, and became entombed. It is a noticeable fact that 
nearly all the fossil species have been described from winged 
forms, no soldiers or workers of most of them being met with. 
The resin changed to amber has retained the remnants of the 
prehistoric insect world, and it is to its preservative powers that 
we owe most of our knowledge of the fossil termites, though 
others have been described from other formations both from 
Europe and America. 

In 1848 Professor Heer published his "Ueberfossile Ameisen"* 
describing the fossil insects from the Tertiary beds of Oeningen 
and Radoboj. This, the first systematical study of the fossil 

* Afterwards translated and published in the Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. 
London, vi. 1850. 


insect world, was followed in 1852 by Dr. Hagen's"^ work deal- 
ing with the fossil termites of the same localit}^; after describing 
the different species he states that the climate of Europe must 
have been much warmer in the Tertiary age than at present to 
have supported such an extensive insect world, and that out of 
sixty known species of termites nearly a third of them were fossil. 
During the years 1855-60 Dr. Hagenf brought out his Monograph, 
in which he worked out all the then known species, both fossil and 
recent, among others a fossil species (Termes grandcevus) from 
England, the exact localit}^ not being given. This work still 
retains its place as the text book on matters relating to the 
classification of the Termitidce. 

In 1861 three species were noticed by Hagen in some Sicilian 
amber obtained by Hope for the Oxford Museum. | 

In 1878 Sterzel described another for which he formed the new 
genus Mixotermes, from the carboniferous of Lugau.§ 

In 1883 Scudderll published an account of his studies of the 
fossil termites of the Florissant Tertiaries of Colorado; in this 
interesting paper he gives a general account of all the fossil 
termites known from other places, and describes six new species, 
forming the genus Parotermes, to contain the first three, while of 
the others one comes in the genus Hodotermes and two in 

BrongniartH has made a magnificent addition to our knowledge 
of fossil termites in his Monograph upon the study of fossil 
insects, published last year. 

* Ueber die Lebensweise der Termiten und ihre Verbreitung. Konigsb. 
Naturwiss. Unterhalt., ii. 3, 53-75. 

+ Monographie der Termiten. Linntea Entomol. x. (1855), pp. 1 and 
270; xii. (1858), 1.; xiv. (1860), 73. 

t Hagen, H.A. Eutom. Weekly Intel!. 10, 151, 168, London, 1861. 

§ Sterzel, on Fossil Termites. Ber. Ges. Chemn. 1878-80. 

Ii Sendder, S. H. The Fossil White Ants of Colorado. Proc. Amer. 
Acad. Arts and Sciences, 1883, pp. 133-145. 

H Brongniart, C. Recherche pour servir a 1' Histoire des Insectes Fossiles 
des Temps Primaires, &c. Bull. Soc, dTndus.iMinerale. 1893, vii. (3), 
p. 127. 


At the present time three species of termites are found in 
Europe, and though they are chiefly distributed along the coast 
of the Mediterranean and the warmer portions of Southern 
Europe, one species has been recorded from as far north as 
Odessa, Russia, where it is said to have done a considerable 
amount of damage. Of the three species now acclimatised in 
Southern Europe, only one is said to be indigenous, Termes 
lucifugus, which was known to exist in France at a very early 
date, though it was not until 1853 that it was reported to have 
committed any noticeable depredations."*^ Early in this year they 
appeared everywhere as a regular plague in the city of Rochelle, 
and not content with eating up the wood, found their way into 
the city archives and destroyed many of the State documents. 

This species now ranges over the whole of the southern pro- 
vinces of France, through the Spanish Peninsula, Italy, Sicily, 
Sardinia, the Morea, Turkey, Cypress, Egypt and Madeira. 

A good deal has been written about this species, the latest 
being Professor Grassi and Dr. Sandias' splendid Monograph on 
the termites of Catania,! containing an exhaustive account of this 

The second species, T. flavicollis, Fab., was originally a North 
African termite found at Barbary and Algiers, from whence it 
has made its way along the European side of the Mediterranean, 
being found in most of the localities infested by the previous 

The third, T. JIavipes, is the common North American species, 
which has been introduced into Europe, probably in the first 
instance with logs of timber, and has been discovered as far east 
as the Bath House of Schoenbruin at Vienna. 

Many instances have been recorded of small colonies of 
termites having been introduced into botanical gardens and hot 

* A. de Quatrefages. Notes on the Termites of Rochelle. Ann. Sci, 
Nat. (8e s^r.) Zool. xx. 1853. pp. 16-21. 

t Prof. B. Grassi and Dr. A. Sandias. Atti dell' Accademia Gioenia 
di Sc. Nat. in Catania. Ser. 4, Vol. vi. 1894. 


houses in specimens of foreign timbers; in 1874 such a family was 
<:lisco\ered in the pahii house at the Royal Gardens at Kew, 
where they were isolated and kept under observation for some 
time, specimens being exhibited by Mr. R. McLachlan^" at a 
meeting of the Entomological Societ}'- of London in 1874. 

Turning to Africa, we find that termites are very generally 
distributed, about twenty species having been catalogued in 
Hagen's list from this part of the world; of these two are peculiar 
to the Isle of France, and one to Madeira; some species are very 
local and confined to small areas, while others have a very wide 
geographical distribution. The famous Temnes bellicosus, immor- 
trviised by Smeathmanf in the earliest and most complete account 
of mound-building termites, according to Hagen, ranges round 
the whole coast line of Africa. 

As might be expected, the nearer to the equator the more 
plentiful the termites; and nearly all equatorial travellers have 
something to say about these pests. Paul Du Chaillu| gives a 
general account of several species on the west coast in his popular 
works of tra^'el; Oates.§ notices those in Matabele Land, and 
figures one of their larger nests; while Professor Drummond|| deals 
extensively with those found in the Lake jS^yassa country. 
Though termites are so plentiful on the main land, I can find no 
species recorded from Jiadagascar. 

The hold that the white ants have obtained on that rock-bound 
island, St. Helena, is a remarkable instance of accidental coloniza- 
tioji. It is stated on good authority that before the year 1840 
white ants were unknown on this island; but at this date a 
captured slaver was condemned and dismantled at Jamestown, in 

* R. McLachlan. Proc. Ent. Soc. p. xiii. 1874. 

t H. Smeathman. On the Termites of Africa and other hot climates. 
Pliil. Trans. Koyal Soc. London (Abridged Edition), Vol. xv. p. 61, 1781. 

t P. du Chaillu. Explorations and Adventures in Equatorial Africa, p. 
314, 1868; and My Apiugi Kingdom, pp 115-142, 1871. 

§ Frank Gates. Matabele Land and the Victoria Falls. London, 1881, 
p. 134. 

;; H. Drummond. Tropical Africa, chap. vi. London, 1889. 
B B 


the timbers of which there was introduced a South American 
species (Eutermes tenuis, Hagen) common in Brazil. So 
destructive did they become that several Royal Commissions 
were appointed to consider the best methods of dealing with them. 
MeUiss^ states that they have destroyed over £60,000 worth of 
property in this island. 

Passing into Asia, none are recorded from the northern and 
central countries. Crichtonf says that in some i^arts of Arabia 
they are very destructive to young trees, which the Arabs pro- 
tect by coating the trunks with sheep dung. Two species are 
catalogued by Hagen from Schiraz, on the Persian Gulf, beyond 
which until we reach India is a blank. In the latter country; 
particularly in the southern provinces, white ants are numerous 
and destructive, though there are apparently not a great number 
of species among them. Termes tajwohmies, one of the commonest, 
is very plentiful in Ceylon, also extending into Borneo, Sumatra 
and Java, all of those islands having several other sjoecies recorded 
from them. 

In the PhilipjDine Islands they are well known. Seoanej gives 
an interesting account of a Spanish man-of-war which was com- 
pletely destroyed by Termes dives while lying in the Port of 

Doderlein§ has described a species from Japan. Mr. Knower, 
of the Johns Hopkins University, U.S.A., a well-known worker 
on the Termites, tells me that the common American species, 
Termes flainpes, is recorded from Japan, but I presume it has been 
introduced into the latter countr}^ 

Peel|| has given an account of those from Assam, and Romanis^ 
observed them and noted the ha])its of a species (probably Termes 

'" Melliss, J. C. St. Helena, pp. 17M76, 1S75. 
+ A. Crichton. History of Arabia, Ancient and Modern. Edinb., 1883, 
p. 461. 

% V. L. Seoane. C.E. Ent. Belg. xx. pp. xiv.-xv. 1879. 

§ L. Duderlein. Mitth. Ges Ostasiens, iii. pp. 211-212, 1881. 

II S. E. Peel. Nature, xxvi., p. 843, 1882. 

IT R. Romanis. Entomologist, xvi. pp. 214-215. 


taprohanes) in Rangoon. In the Zoology of the No vara Expedi- 
tion, Brauer has described two species from the ISTicobar Islands; 
while Forbes* noticed them on the Cocos Keeling Islands, where 
he says they were introduced some years before; this is the only 
instance in which I have been al^le to find them recorded from a 
coral island. 

Extending down into the Australian region, there is no record 
of any species from the mainland of New Guinea, though I have 
made special enquiries. D'Albertisf mentions them twice on 
Yule Island, no great distance from the mainland, and it is most 
likely that the}' occur inland; for at the present time most of the 
known portions of New Guinea are either river delta country or 
mountain ranges, neither of which is suitable for their hp.bitations. 

Three species are known from New Zealand, four from Tas- 
mania, and six from Australia. 

I have been unable to come across any reference to Termites 
being found in any of the Pacific Islands, but within this last 
month I have received some from the New Hebrides. They 
belong to a ver}^ large species and were sent from Aneityum in a 
bottle full of insects by the Rev. J. H. Lawrie to the Techno- 
logical Museum. In the Hawaiian Islands Blackburn | found 
two species very plentiful, both of which are American forms and 
may possibly have been introduced. 

The home of the white ant, however, appears to be South 
America, and its headquarters Brazil; from which country alone 
tw^enty-seven species are known. Many of these were collected 
by Bates § on the Amazons, who recorded the habits of 
several species; while Fritz Muller]| has contributed largely to our 

* H. G. Forbes. A Naturalist's Wanderings in the Eastern Archipelago. 
Lundon, 1885. 

t D'Albertis. New Guinea, Vol. i. pp. 355-401. 1881. 

% R. McLachlan. On the Termites collected by the Rev. Thos. Black- 
burn. Ann. Nat. Hist. (5), xii. p. 221, 1883. 

§ H. W. Bates. Naturalist on the River Amazon, Lond. 1863; and 
Proc. Linn. Soc. Vol. ii. 1854. 

II Fritz Miiller. Beitrage zur Kenntniss der Termiten. Jen. Z. Nat. vii. 
pp. 337, 451, 1873; and I.e. 1875 avd 1887. 


knowledge of these insects in working out the life-histories of 
those found in the vicinity of Santa Catherina. White ants have 
been described from Banda Oriental and the Argentine Republic 
on the east to Chili on the west. 

All the West Indian Islands are more or less infested with 
them. Cuba has several species. Hubbard"^ has described the 
habits of those found in Jamaica, of which the tree nest building 
Eutermes rip'pert/ii is the most plentiful; Maynardr has noted them 
on the Bahamas, and Moseleyj on the Yirgin Islands, while 
Hagen has catalogued them from St. Domingo and St. Thomas, 
and Marshall§ has studied the habits of Eutertnes destructor in 

Central America is very thickly infested with them, and during 
the construction of the Panama railway line they did an immense 
amount of damage to the rolling stock and wood work of the 
houses. Two officers of the company, Messrs. Dudle}'- and Beau- 
mont, |I kept a number in captivity and discovered some interest- 
ing habits of the commonest species. 

The common species in North America is Termes flavijyes, 
which is distributed nearly all over the United States, with 
several others more local in their habits. Scudderll has recounted 
their ravages in Florida. Buckley*"^ has described two species from 

* H. G. Hubbard. Notes on the Tree Nests of Termites in Jamaica. 
Proc. Best. Sec. xix. pp. 267-275, 1878. 

t Mavnard. Notes on the White Ants in the Bahamas. Psyche, v. 
pp. 111-118, 1888. 

X H. N. Moseley. Notes by a Naturalist on H.M.S. Challenger, p. 12, 
New Edit. 18^4. 

§ T. A. Marshall. On the Habits of some species of Termites in Antigua. 
Proc. Ent. Soc. p. xxxiv. 1878. 

II P. H. Dudley and J. Beaumont, ObservatioDS on the Termites or 
White Ants of the Isthmus of Panama. Trans. New York Acad, of Science, 
Vol. viii. 1889. 

1[ S H. Scudder. Ravages of White Ants in Florida. Canadian Ento- 
mologist, xix. p. 217, 1887. 

** S. B. Buckley. Descriptions of two new species of Terniites from 
Texas. Philad. Entom. Soc. Proc. 1861-63, pp. 212-215. 


Texas; they are known in Mexico; and Osten-Sacken"^ has studied 
the habits of those in CaHfornia. In the Southern States along 
the Mississippi they do a great deal of damage at times, while in 
1879 Hagenf reported that they appeared in great numbers, at 
Cambridge, Mass., but disappeared the following season. The 
most northern limit of the white ant is Manitoba, whence one 
species (Termopis occidentalis) has been recorded by Treherne. % 

To give an accurate account of their geographical distribution 
in Australia is no easy matter, as much of the country has been 
very cursorily examined as regards its insect fauna; and few of 
the naturalists on overland expeditions have collected white ants 
unless they were very much in evidence. However, all along the 
eastern coast line, which is mainly forest country, termites are 
plentiful; in southern Gippsland they are a well-known pest, and 
more northward in the Goulburn Valley (Victoria) we have 
several accounts of their attacks upon vines and fruit trees. In 
the northern parts of Victoria several species are found, but never 
in great numbers, and seldom forming distinctive nests. Coming 
into New South Wales, in the Shoalhaven district there are two 
common species constructing nests, many of the larger nests being 
from six to seven feet in height. These tall nests are dotted all 
over the fiats, but are seldom met with on the higher hills; they 
are formed by our common yellow-headed termite, which though 
common in the neighbourhood of Sydne}^ does not make any kind 
of nest, but lives under logs and stones or in old timber. North 
of Sydney, towards Newcastle, white ants are common among the 
dead timber, the arboreal Eutermes building their nests up the 
trees being the prevailing species. A resident of Cape Hawke 
informs me that they are \'ery bad in that neighbourhood. I have 
several species from Uralla where there are plenty of the yellow - 

* G. E. Osten-:?aoken. Observations on Termes found in California. 
Proc. Boston, ."roc. xix. p. 72, 1877- 

+ A. H. Hagen. Notes on a Great Cloud of Termites appearing in 1878* 
Proc. Bost. 8oc. N. H. xx. p. 118, 1879. 

i H. S. Treherne. Notes on species observed in Manitoba. Proc. Bost* 
Soc. N. H. xix. p. 74, 1877- 


headed termites' tall nests; they are generally scattered over the 
northern districts of New South Wales and southern Queensland. 
North of Rockhampton they begin to be noticeable as a pest, 
though the large nests are not very common; from Mackay I 
have at least five species; towards Townsville they increase in 
numbers, and about Charters Towers and northward are a very 
serious trouble. It is only here and there, however, that the 
large mound nests appear; but the arboreal nesting Entermes, 
though not always building on the trees, seem to be found all 
over the country. From Cooktown and all over Cape York the 
nests are large and numerous; the magnetic nest so well-known 
in Port Darwin l)eing found on the Bloomfield River, north of 

At Somerset (Cape York), there is one of the most remarkable 
termite cities in the world; viewed from the sea, and looking up 
beyond the old Government Residency, now occujDied by Mr. 
Frank Jardine's homestead, it aj^pears as if the plain for a mile 
or more in extent is covered with pointed pillars six or seven feet 
in height, broad at the base and tapering to the summit, forming 
regular symmetrical pyramids. They are thickly dotted over the 
plain, often only a few yards apart; the effect is much heightened 
if the grass has been freshly burnt off, as it had been the lirst 
time I passed Somerset. 

Several writers have noticed this city of the termites. 
Moseleyt likens them to kiln chimneys; he says that it gives the 
country the appearance of a pottery district in miniature, and 
states that many of them are ten feet high. D'Albertis,! writing 
of this place, says: — "Termite nests, both on the hills and plains, 
measured often ten feet in height and thirteen feet in circum- 
ference at the base"; he found upon opening them that many were 
attacked and often almost exterminated by large black ants. 

* D. Le Soeuf. A visit to the Bloomfield River. Victorian Naturalist, 
Vol xxi. 1894, p. 25. 

+ H. N. Moseley, 1. c. p. 302. 
+ D'Albertis, I.e. p. 229, Vol. i. 


On Thursday Island and the many islands round Cape York, 
the same form of nest is met with; turning down into the Gulf 
country and to the watershed of the Flinders River and its 
tributaries, we find one of the most termite-infested localities in the 
world. Nothing is too hard or dry for them; stockyards, fences 
and houses only last for a few years in spite of all precautions; 
a branch is attacked as soon as it is dead, and in many places no 
stumps or dry wood is left in the scrubby forests; everything is 
swept up as it were by these underground gnomes, who as forest 
scavengers do their duty tliorouglily. If one cuts some grass for 
a bed and leaves it lying upon the ground for 2 J: hours, anywhere 
on the lower Flinders, one will find it cut up into fine chaff" by the 
termites which have come up from the earth beneath, and if one is 
inexperienced enough to leave his blankets on the top of it, he 
will find all the lower folds riddled with holes. Earth scoops and 
carts that had been left in the paddocks for a while at Cambridge 
Downs Station were brought in with the felloes of the wheels 
(hard seasoned timber) gnawed to a shell, while things in the 
store had to be constantly turned over, as they even carried their 
clay up into the cases of soap, jams and meats, which not only 
destroyed the boxes but caused holes to rust in the tins and spoil 
their contents. At a hut on this station where I used to camp, 
the sides were 'ouilt of upright saplings about six inches in 
diameter; the termites had worked their way up these, reducing 
each to a simple pipe of bark. In the silence of the night I have 
often lain awake listening to the sound of the millions of tiny 
jaws gnawing at these timbers, voices of the night as strange and 
uncanny as one could well imagine. 

Passing from Norman ton towards Port Darwin, we are still in 
thickly infested country, and about ten miles out from Palnierston 
are some of the tallest termite nests in the world. I am indebted 
to Mr. N. Holze, the Curator of the Botanic Gardens there, for 
photographs and specimens from these and the magnetic nests, 
which will be dealt with in detail later on, together wdth the 
species that form them. 

In that portion of JSTorth-western Austi-alia stretching across 
from Cambridge Gulf to Roel^uck Bay, known as the Kimberley 


district (where I spent over twelve months), and probably as far 
as the De Grey River, all through the oi:)en forest flats and along 
the edge of the sandy "Pindan" country are found numbers of 
large broad nests, from five to six feet in height, rather constricted 
at the base, but swelling out on the sides in rounded masses, 
where additions have been made, while the summit is broad and 
rounded, giving them somewhat of a mushroom-like appearance. 

As there are few or no trees over a belt of country to the 
westward of the De Grey River for over three hundred miles, the 
termites apparently disappear, nor can I find that they construct 
nests or are at all noticeable in any other part of Western 
Australia, but they have recently been reported as having 
attacked the telegraph poles between York and Coolgardie. This 
also applies to South Australia, though it must be remembered 
that scattered bands of termites may l^e found in almost any part 
of Australia which ma}^ attack an odd plank or tree, but they are 
not in evidence as a serious pest. 

In the vast tracts of dry and sparsely timbered country in 
central Australia, termites are naturally scarce, and probably 
wanting altogether in many parts of it. I never remember seeing 
a mound nest west of the Darling or even in the northern districts 
of Riverina, but with further observations from my many corres- 
pondents, I hope to enlarge our knowledge of their distribution 
and supplement this necessarily rough sketch. 

Termitaria and their Structure. 

Broadly sjDeaking, termites' nests may be separated into three 
different typical forms, each of which undergoes several important 
modifications in outward appearance, but always has the same 
internal structure. The first may be called the turret or regular 
mound nests, varying from eighteen feet in height to a little 
pinnacle only a few inches above the surface, and sometimes 
simply a bald patch upon the ground. In these abnormally high 
ones the clay is generally carried up the face of a dead tree, which 
is gradually sheathed with this coating, while the trunk l)eneath 
is changed nto triturated wood which in time becomes converted 


into a hard papier-mache-like substance. The foundations of the 
smaller mound nests are commenced at the base of a stump or 
thrown up from under a fallen log. A correspondent in Ivim- 
berley, W.A. (W. O. Manbridge), tells me that a species there 
forms its nest over the spinifex bushes. I have examined a great 
number, all of which give proof of this, and they can be found in 
all stages of growth. Though later writers have doubted the fact, 
Hooker* as early as 1855 wrote that the Indian species always 
commenced their nests over decaying woody or vegetable matter. 

That the different species have peculiar ways of their own when 
forming their mounds must be allowed, but the internal archi- 
tecture of all of them is based upon one uniform plan, and as 
an illustration of this I will describe the commonest large earth 
covered nest found in New South Wales. 

During a visit to the Shoalhaven district towards the end of 
last year I had ample opportunities of examining a number 
of these large nests, which are scattered thickl}^ over all 
the open forest countr}^ along the river, but are seldom 
found towards the top of the ranges, the nests of the smaller 
Eutermes taking their place. Roughly speaking, the average 
is about one nest varying from three to seven feet in height 
to every four ■ acres. They vary a little in outward shape, 
but a well-designed nest about six feet in diameter at the base 
will run up nearly the same height, with a slight slope on the 
sides to the apex, w^hich is dome-shaped, not more than three feet 
in diameter. The enveloping walls consist of the surface soil only 
(a pale yellow sandy-brown) very hard on the w^eatherworn 
surface, but much softer when cut into. The basal portion of the 
walls are very much thinner than the dome-shaped summit, the 
lower portion of the wall often not being more than a foot in thick- 
ness, while the summit has a two-foot wall over it. All this earth 
is gathered from the surface by the termites and not mined from 
below, as many popular writers have asserted. In this locality 
this is plainly demonstrated, for three inches below the surface 

* J. D. Hooker. Himalyan Journals, London, 1855, Vol. i. p. 18. 


there is nothing but coarse gravel of which the large nests of the 
common reddish-brown ant {Iridoyyiyrmex 'purpureus), also common 
in this district, and which construct large underground chambers, 
are wholly composed. 

The foundation of the termite nest rests upon the suiface and 
is complete in itself, and if you cut one round the base and then 
insert a lever under the edge it is very easy to overturn the whole 
nest; underneath the ground is smooth and hard with only a few 
insignificant passages leading below. 

Under normal conditions the enveloping earthy walls contain 
very few insects, though there are always a few winding passages 
running upwards and traversing them at irregular intervals; upon 
the removal of this outer wall you expose a pyriform mass of 
roughly granulated woody sulistance in contact with the covering 
wall at the base, but gradually receding from it tow-ard the apex, 
where a space of several inches divides them. The summit of the 
mass on the outside can be easily l>roken off in lumps, but as you 
cut into it it becomes harder and more solid; galleries run all 
round these masses and form irregular mazes of roadways lower 
down, giving the termites access to all parts of the structure. 
This portion of the nest (all the inner portion enclosed in the 
earthy dome) is organic and is chiefly composed of triturated wood 
which has at one time l:)een gnawed up by the termites and then 
evacuated by them; each of these granulated lumps shows a dis- 
tinctly foliated structure as if it had been formed in thin coats; 
no doubt when the fresh wood supplies are used up, this part of 
the nest is again eaten. 

Immediately in the centre of the nest, about six inches above 
the base, is a rounded mass about as big as a man's head, formed 
of very thin layers of woody matter like brown paper, full of fine 
chambers and passages, the layers very close together and folding 
round each other towards the centre. This is the "nursery" of the 
termitarium, and generally contains thousands or rather millions 
of delicate white larvte, many of them no larger than a pin's head. 
I have never seen any signs of fungi growing in these nurseries as 
mentioned by many writers, but the walls have a curious mottled 



appearance and are full of very fine perforations; and the centre 
of this structure, which is very brittle and crisp, has a distinctly 
higher temperature than the outside. 

On either side of this nursery where the ordinary galleries lead 
out of the finer central cells, the eggs are found piled up in Uttle 
heaps like little grains of sand, white and rather elongated; 
perhaps as much as a big tablespoonful being found on one patch, 
and there may be several heaps close together. The formation 
now becomes slightly terraced just beyond the eggs still on a 
level with the nursery, and after breaking through a number of 
very stout terraced cham])ers we came upon that containing the 
queen; the floor of the chamber is perfectly flat and smooth, with 
the roof forming a low dome over her, about six inches in circum- 
ference, not unlike the cavity under an inverted saucer or watch 
glass. Though in many popular descriptions of termitaria it is 
invariably stated that there is a male with the gravid queen, I 
have never found one in a fully developed nest, though frequently 
finding a pair under stones or logs where they are evidently just 
commencing to found a community. Sometimes they were so 
much alike that it would be impossible to say which was king or 
queen, but in others found in similar situations the body of the 
queen was beginning to show the enlargement of the pregnant or 
gravid state and the difference of the sexes was discernible. As 
Fritz Miiller"^ has shown, in the first stages of the winged adults 
when the insects are leaving the nest the sexual organs of the 
males and the ovaries of the females are very rudimentary, and it 
is not until the act of copulation that they become perfected. 

On the evening of the 5th of October, while opening out nests 
on the Shoalhaven flats, I came upon a large nest scarred with 
narrow cuts, which upon examination proved to be slit-like 
openings about a line or more in height and an inch or less in 
length. These were all over the outside of the termitarium, and 
in each slit, with their heads level with the surface of the termi- 
tarium, but not showing beyond, was a regular row of soldier 

* Fritz Mitller. Beitrage zur Kenntniss der Termiten. Jen. Z. Nat. 
vii. pp. 337-451, 1873. 


termites guarding the openings and not letting anything come out. 
Upon cutting down the walls these openings were found to run 
into low but broad roadways extending right through into the 
heart of the nest thronged with winged termites waiting until 
the withdrawal of the guards at the gateways. As soon as a 
breach was made in the walls they commenced to swarm out from 
all parts of the nest, and we were soon enveloped in a cloud of 
black winged termites buzzing about and dropping all round, 
causing quite a distinct noise, audible at a distance of several 
feet, an immense number falling to the ground. These winged 
specimens were found in chambers and passages all over the nest. 
Previously in the vicinity of Sj^dney I had noticed larvfe with 
rudimentary wings in the early part of the year, but in their 
earlier stages the wings grow very slowly until after the winter 
months are over. Termites were noticed flying about near Sydney 
on the 2nd and 3rd of November in great numbers. 

As to the age of these large termitaria, it could only be positively 
ascertained by the extended observations of a resident in termite 
infested country. But out of a great number I have opened out 
I have only found one deserted, and it was only on cutting a 
portion of it down that I discovered this fact, for to all outward 
appearance it did not differ from the inhabited nests. 

Smeathman and Savage, writing on the celebrated Terynes 
hellicosus, state that the fullgrown queen lives for five years, the 
former being responsible for the statement that she lays 60 eggs 
a minute and never stoj)s (presumably during the five years). 
Though he produces no evidence for this statement, it has been 
copied into nearly all the popular works and text books on 
entomology up to the present date, even appearing in Kirby's 
Text Book, published in 1885. As the working community of 
the termitarium have a fresh supply of females to come forth 
every season, and also very often a number of supplementary 
queens in the nest (I have obtained 10 specimens of these queens 
from one nest, which are I believe perfectly distinct from the 
ordinary winged queens, as they are not recruited from the winged 
forms but produced directly from the egg); it is therefore pretty 


evident that the fate of the community does not hang upon the 
prolongation of the gi-avid queen, as it is not at all a difficult 
matter to replace her with a young and vigorous successor when 

From my own observations I do not think that the queen of 
any Australian species either laj^s eggs so rapidly or lives so long. 
I have on several occasions unearthed a queen in a very sickly 
looking condition, with her abdomen yellow and wrinkled, and 
Avith her antennae and most of the tarsi broken oiF, though the 
nest from wdiich she was taken was swarming wdth life and 
apparently in the height of prosperity. 

I should not be surprised to find that many of the larger mound 
nests last for a great number of years, and that white ants may also 
exist in their nests long after they have destroyed all the woody 
matter they contain, for in the tropical parts of Australia before 
the wet season sets in (about the middle of December) they stored 
food supplies. When examining some of the large rounded 
termite mounds near King's Sound (N.W. Australia) I found on 
cutting into them that all the outer galleries w^ere full of bits of 
grass cut up like fine chaff', wdiich ran out in little streams to the 
ground as soon as the passages were opened. 

Professor Drummond"^ in his account of African termites pre- 
viously quoted, notices the immense amount of clay carried up the 
trunks of trees by these insects, which, he suggests, w^hen it is 
sw^ept down by the tropical rains and is scattered over the 
surrounding land is a great agent towards fertilizing the soil, and 
that termites probably take the place of the earthworms of more 
temperate regions. This statement requires confirmation, for in 
the first instance the soil used by the termites is gathered from 
the surface of tlie ground, and whenever a large mound has been 
destroyed in this country I have always noticed that nothing 
grew upon or near it for a long time, Ijut it had a dry, barren 
appearance as if the clay had been burnt. 

" Drunimond. Tropical Africa, I.e. 


The remarkable fineness of the earth collected by the termites 
for their nests is put to a practical use by the natives of Ceylon,* 
who use the clay to make moulds in which to cast the finer 
specimens of silversmith's work; and it is also made into plastic 
material for fashioning some of their earthenware gods, while in 
India it is also used for polishing purposes. 

In Australia the large mounds are often demolished for the 
sake of the clay they contain; it is mixed up with water and made 
into sun-dried bricks for building houses, while beaten up into 
mortar it makes excellent floors; both here and in South Africa 
the smaller ones are turned into baker's ovens after the interior 
has been burnt out. 

Another remarkable thing about the termites is that no matter 
how dry the season, or parched up the country, if a nest is 
broken no time elapses before it is mended with damp clay, while 
the nest always contains a certain amount of moisture, without 
which the termites could not exist. The question then arises, how 
do they manage to retain this humidity in a rainless and dewless 
country "? Dr. Livingstone! remarking on this in South Africa, 
gayy; — "Can it be that they have the power of combining the 
oxygen and h3^drogen of their vegetable food l^y vital force so as 
to obtain water ?" 

The internal structure of the "Magnetic Nests" of Port 
Darwin, the large round topped ones of the North- West, and the 
pyramidal shaped ones of Cape York, though differing very much 
in their external architecture, all, with slight modifications, agree 
with the Shoalhaven termitaria in their internal structure. 

The next group of termite nests are formed by the members of 
the genus Futer77ies, which form a very distinct group, in which 
the soldiers, instead of having double scissor-like jaws, are pro- 
vided with heads prolonged into pike-like foreheads which gives 
them the name of "nasuti" soldiers. It was at one time a 

* Sir J. Emerson Tennant. Sketches of the Nat. History of Ceylon, 
chap. xi. 1861. 

+ Dr. Livingstone. ^Missionary Travels and Researches in South Africa, 
London, 1857. 


common idea that some nests contained hoth pike-headed and 
scissor-jawed soldiers, but it is now known that this is not the case, 
the Eutermes communities being quite distinct from those with 
double-jawed soldiers. 

The Eutermes build two kinds of nests, or rather similar nests 
in different situations, either terrestrial or arboreal. Those built 
on the ground are most common about S3^dney, and are formed 
over a small stump, ne%'er more than two to three feet and a half 
in height, perfectly round at the base, with the summit rounded 
and dome-shaped. They are generally dark brown or black, e^en 
the outer surface being an admixture of earthy and woody matter, 
and often ^vith hardly any earth in their composition. There are 
no enveloping walls. The true nest starts from the surface, the 
whole being full of cells and chambers, though they are fewer and 
the nest much harder and tougher on the surface; working 
towards the centre the soft papery structure (similar to that of 
the large nests) is found — "the nursery." The queen and eggs are 
not very far away from the nucleus, but the terraced portion is 
not of the same regular formation as that of the large nests, and 
there is virtually no distinct " royal chamber," but the queen is 
found about the centre of the low, flat chambers. In one nest I 
found three well-developed queens, all laying eggs, and w^ithin three 
or four inches of each other l^ut separated by overlying terraces. 
The bulk of all these nests is almost all woody matter which has 
been passed through the bodies of the termites and been voided by 
the workers; yet if a terrestrial nest be cut down on one side they 
will rebuild it with grains of sand or earth cemented together with 
excreta. Ridley,^" speaking of the Malay Peninsula, says that 
the termites do not live in the sandy soil. This is not the case 
in Australia, for I have found Eufprmes nests in almost pure sand 
at Botany Bay, near Sydney, which though when first opened 
were constructed of wood}^ matter, yet two months afterwards one 
was re1:>uilt with sand cemented together into a solid mass. 

* H. N. Ridley. The Flora of P:a.stern ISIalaya. Trans. Linn, Soc. Vol. 
(2nd Ser.) ill. p. 270, 1893. 


Another nest was found upon the summit of a rock at Manly, 
near Sydney, apjDarently built over the stump of a small tree that 
had been growing in a cleft of the rock. A number of covered 
galleries led down over the face of the rock into the ground, and 
in several places where they passed over a sharp angle the 
cohered ways were transformed into tubular bridges from point to 
point; these galleries averaged from ^ to a J of an inch in breadth 
and were constructed entirely of vegetable matter. When one of 
the galleries was broken the soldiers rushed out in a small body, 
scattering on either side of the damaged roadway; after hunting 
about on the surface of the rocks, the}' then retreated to the 
breach, which they all entered and formed a rank along either 
side, standing just far enough apart to touch the tips of each other's 
antennpe. While they stood in this regular line with their heads 
up and their antennng moving backwards and forwards, the 
workers appeared, each carrying in its mouth a l^it of wood or 
fragment from the wall, and, passing between the soldiers who 
were standing guard, deposited its l)urden upon the edge of the wall 
and turning round evacuated a small drop of dark brovrn liquid 
from its anus upon the top of its brick- and then disappeared, the 
next one taking his place and going through exactl}^ the same 
joerformance, an endless gang of workers following each other and 
rapidly reducing the size of the hole; a gap about an inch long 
and half an inch deep was rebuilt in half an hour. Unlike 
the two-jawed termites, which never rebuild their nests in the 
daytime, the Eutermes do not seem to dislike the light, but will 
expose themselves in the hottest sunlight when mending their 

The nest upon the rock at Manly was partly demolished and a 
small queen obtained from the centre in February, and about 
three months afterwards was found rebuilt, the material being all 
woody matter, crisp and thin, and cutting up like shell. I 
have seen one of these nests built on the top of a gate post, 
another upon the top of a pile in a bridge, the termites having 
formed it under the iron cap in the cavity between it and the top 
of the pile; it lifted off in a single mass like a small cheese. 


Many of the Eutermes nests are built in trees, sometimes upon 
a dead tree, the dead branch of a live one, the rough-barked 
Eucaly23t being generally chosen, as the galleries coming up from 
the ground are skilfully hidden in the inequalities of the bark, 
though when they do come to a bare surface they go straight 
ahead, forming a regular uniform cohered way. Not only is there 
a constant stream of workers and soldiers passing up and down 
the galleries, but the enormous amount of life one of these 
arboreal nests contains is something astounding; there seem to 
be more termites than nest material when they are first Ijroken 

The dark, almost black, colour of the nests makes them very 
conspicuous objects on a bare leafless tree. Arboreal-nesting 
species of this genus have been described from many parts of the 
world; in Brazil the nests are known as " negro heads." Moseley* 
gives a description of them at St. Thomas (Virgin Islands) and 
states that they are often as big as a small hogshead. Hubbardf 
has worked up the arljoreal species of Jamaica; and Miss Ormerodj 
has noted from British Guinea large spherical nests encircling 
the branches of trees. 

In the third group of termites I include those that do not build 
mound nests, but live in communities under logs, stones, and all 
sorts of dead wood and timber. A number of our species 
never appear to build any well-defined nest, but like wandering 
gypsies, pitch their settlement in any suitable place, like the 
common American species, Ternies Jiavipes, the real nest and 
queen of which are yet unknown. While some of them form 
regular little families distinct in themselves, others ai^e predatory 
bands which find a suitable place to form an encampment and 
devour everything they can find; tKe}^ are frequently connected 
with a large nest at some distance, to which they all retreat when 

* H. N. Moseley. Notes by a Naturalist on H.M.8. Challenger, p. 12, 
n. ed. 1892. 

t H. G. Subbard. Proc. Bost. Soc. xix. p. 267, 1878. 

t Miss E. A. Ormerod. Proc. Ent. Soc. 1881. 
c c 


However, different localities seem to give them different 
habits, for the mound builder of the Shoalhaven district is the 
same species as that which does most of the damage to the wood- 
work of the houses about Sydney, yet I have never been able to 
find a mound formed by them within thirty miles of Sydney^ 
though it is the commonest species of this neighbourhood, being- 
found under stones, logs, bark, and in tree trunks. 

About the middle of last year it was discovered that the white 
ants were in the floor of the Record Room in the oflices of the 
Dej^artment of Education in Bridge-street, where I had an oppor- 
tunity of seeing the inethod of attack. 

I found that the floor, which was old and attaclced with dry rot 
in j)laces, had been riddled all along the hard gum (probably iron- 
bark) joists for a distance of 15 to 20 feet all round what had evidently 
been the centre of the nest, as a great mass of clay had l^een raised 
up from the ground between two joists round which the timbers 
were perfectly honeycombed. The nest and timbers round it were 
full of soldiers, workers and young winged forms, but I saw no 
sign of a queen, though as the floor had been uncovered the night 
before this was hardly to be wondered at. This nest, I should 
think, had been under the floor for some years; and it was only 
from their beginning to eat through the hardwood flooring boards 
tliat the termites were noticed. 

On several other occasions I have obtained specimens taken out 
of buildings, and it has always proved to be the same species. 
Sometimes they attack only a single board or joist and then leave 
the place, but at other times they eat on till disturbed. Mr. 
Chisholm, of Torrens Creek, North Queensland, tells me that they 
are easily frightened by thumping against the board or wall they 
are destroying, and run back, huddling together like a flock of 
frightened sheep. No timber is really termite-proof unless pro- 
tected, for though they have a marked preference for some woods, 
yet if they cannot get what they lik e they take the nearest; thus 
in Norman ton Melaleuca is said to be ant-resisting, yet further 
down the Flinders they show a marked preference for it. The 
Jarrah (Eucalyptus maryinata) of Western Australia is another 


reputed termite-proof, but I hav^e a portion of a plank, received 
from Mr. C. French, of Melbourne, which has been half consumed 
by them. The Leichhardt tree of Queensland is also quoted, 
but at Dalrymple, N.Q., I ha^'e seen large logs taken out of an 
old house riddled with their holes. About Sydne}^ when attacking 
houses they will seldom touch red wood if there is any clear pine. 
I have seen a piece of red wood that was nailed to a clear pine 
board, the latter being only a shell while the former was only 
slightly grooved by them on the outer surface. 

I have noticed that about the neighbourhood of Croydon 
while nearly every old hardwood fence shows their ravages more 
or less, they seldom seem to attack soft wood picket fences. But 
the hardness of wood is no impediment to them. They show 
a marked preference for the stumps and logs of dead Eucalypts over 
those of wattle, Casuarina, and the smaller forest trees. Near 
Hornsby I found them at work on the trunk of a large dead 
white gum that was as hard and solid as bell metal; they had 
come up from the ground beneath the roots and just below the 
surface, boring straight into the w^ood and then turning upwards, 
cutting a clean cylindrical tunnel a quarter of an inch in diameter. 
It is therefore not surprising that the}'' sometimes gnaw holes in 
sheet lead, which is much softer than many woods attacked by them. 

White ants are in many instances introduced into buildings in 
the city and suburbs by means of fire- wood; during this last 
season I have exhumed three large family parties, containing 
enough soldiers, workers and immature winged specimens to found 
a very respectable colony; these insects would remain in the log 
probably until the early jDart of the summer and then migrate to 
more roomy quarters. They will live for several months in a 
tightly closed up tin or tube without any further attention, and 
though they cannot live more than two hours in sea water and a 
little longer in fresh, yet in the heart of a dead log they might 
float or drift a considerable distance without l^eing destroyed. 

In conclusion, I must tender my thanks to the following cor- 
respondents : — Messrs. G. McD. Adamson, of Uralla; Norman 
Ethridge, Colo Yale; F. B. Miller, Moree; S. Russell, Bowral; H. 
Eumsey, Barber's Creek; J. Mitchell, Narellan; and my father 


(G. W. Froggatt), Shoalhaven, from all of whom I have received 
notes and spechnens. From Victoria, Mr. G. S. Perrin (Conser- 
vator of Forests); Mr. J. L. Billingshurst, Castlemaine, and the 
Curator of the National Museum have assisted me. For Queens- 
land species I am indebted to Mrs. Black, Lolworth Station; Mr. 
J. R. Chisholm, Torrens Creek; H. E. S. Stokes, Norman ton; Mr. 
Gilbert Turner, of Mackay; and Mr. De Vis, the Curator of the 
Brisbane Museum. 

From the Northern Territory I am in receipt of photographs of 
the nests and the species forming them taken b}^ Mr. N. Holtze, the 
Curator of the Botanical Gardens at Port Darwin; while Museum 
S]3ecimens have been forwarded by Mr. J. G. 0. Tepper, of Adelaide. 

I have had a great numl3er of promises of assistance from various 
residents in Western Australia, but as yet have only received one 
lot, but a very interesting collection; from Mr. W. O. Mansbridge, 
the Warden at Hall's Creek, Kimberley, N.W. Australia. 

Though two species are described from Tasmania, I have been 
unable to enlist anybody to collect specimens. 

From New Zealand I am indebted to Captain Hutton and Mr. 
T. F. Cheeseman for placing me in communication with Captain 
Broun (the Government Entomologist), who has sent me speci- 
mens of two species described by Brauer. 

From America I have been generously assisted with named 
specimens from Mr. L. O. Howard (the State Entomologist) and 
Mr, H. McE. Knower, of the Johns Hopkins University, while 
Mr. S. S. Scudder, Dr. Packard and Mrs. Dudley have forwarded 
me papers on these insects. 

Mr. D. Alcock, of the Indian Museum, Calcutta, sent me 
specimens of Terines taprohanes. The Director of the K. K. 
Naturhistorisches Hofmuseum in Wien sent me co-types of F. 
Brauer's named species from Australia, collected b}^ the Novara 
Expedition in 1868. 

I have Professor B, Grassi and Dr. A. Sandias' splendid 
Monograph upon the Termites of Catania sent me by the authors, 
while Mr. AV. F, Kirby, of the British Museum, has examined a 
series of specimens sent to him, and promised me an}'- assistance 
in workinsi' them out. 



By D. Mc Alpine. 

(Coinmunicaf.ed by J. H. Maiden.) 

(Plate XXXI., figs. 1-5 of the upper division of the Plate.) 

Spot-like, sooty patches on leaf-stalks, stalklets, and upper and 
undersurface of leaflets, usually separate, occasionally run 

Mycelium chestnut-brown and hyphiTe thick-walled, septate, 
branched, 7 /x broad, with short, stout, ultimate l^ranchlets. 
Appendages dark chestnut, thick-walled, rigid, erect, bluntly 
pointed and septate, the septa not always distinctly seen on 
account of the thickness of the walls. 

Perithecia black, globose, slightly warted, about 200 yi in dia. 

Asci roughl}^ fig-shaped, two-spored, transparent. 

Sporidia grub-like, usually 4-septate, constrictedj chestnut-brown, 
37-45 X 14-17 /z. 

On leaves of Dysoxylon ritjnm, Benth., from Richmond River, 
New South Wales (Maiden). 

The sporidia of this specimen are rather shorter and stouter 
than the normal, but otherwise the characters agree with those 
of the above species. 

This species is new for New South Wales. 


Fig. ]. — Lower surface of leaflet, showing spot-like mycelium (uat. sizj). 

Fig. 2. — Peritheciuiu burst { x 115). 

Fig. 3. — Appendage ( x 115). 

Fig. 4. — Hyaline ascus with slit ( x 115). 

Fig. 5.— Sporidia ( x 600). 





By D. McAlpine. 

(Communicated hy J. 11. Maiden.) 

(Plates XXXI., lower division, xxxii. and xxxiii.) 

I have purposely placed the synonym first, because the fungus 
which it represents is still considered by Dr. Cooke, one of the 
authors of the name, a new one, and it will be part of the object 
of this paper to show that the Australian species thus named in 
Dr. Cooke's " Handbook " is really the same as that described by 
Persoon in his "Synopsis Methodica Fungorum" towards the end 
of last century. 

This leaf-rust is of great economic importance, since it attacks 
such valuable fruit trees as the peach and nectarine, plum and 
apricot, cherry and almond, causing them prematurely to shed 
their leaves, and, as a consequence, either to bear no fruit or only 
small quantities of an inferior kind. As the peach-tree forms its 
fruit on the previous season's wood, it is evident that the succeed- 
ing crop will be affected as well, hence it is highly desirable to 
know the true nature and the right affinities of this fungus, 
thereby to be the better able to follow its life-history and to 
prevent its further spread. 

History of Name. 

The Australian fungus to which Dr. Cooke assigned the name 
of Uromyces amygdali was collected by H. Tryon, Government 
Entomologist of Queensland, in February, 1886, on peach and 
almond leaves, and forwarded almost immediately to Dr. Cooke 
for identification. As indicated in his " Handbook of Australian 
Fungi," this name had previously been used by him in Ravenel's 
"Fungi Americani Exsiccati," issued between 1878 and 1882. 

BY D. McALPINE. 441 

The same name had also been used by Passerini in his " Erb. 
Critt. Ital." issued in 1873, and Cooke regards this fungus as 
identical with the one named by him. However, Passerini* sub- 
sequently in 1887, on further consideration, pronounced this to 
be the stilbospore condition of Fuccinia pruni, Pers. This name 
of Uromyces amygdali is now being used in the different Colonies, 
having such a high authority at the back of it, but as we shall 
presently see, it is a misnomer, or rather a synonym of Fuccinia 
pruni, Pers., as already decided by Passerini. 

Fuccinia pruni-spinosce was tirst employed by Persoon in his 
*' Synopsis Methodica Fungorum," published in 1797, the specific 
name being derived from the host-plant, Frunus spinosa or black- 
thorn, but as the fungus is now known to have different hosts 
belonging to the genus Prunus, the spinoscn is dropped as a matter 
of convenience. 

Next, Link in his " Species Fungorum,'"' published in 1825, 
named the same fungus Fuccinia primorum. Uromyces prunoriim, 
Lk., var. amygdali, Yize, was applied by J. E. Yizet to a Calif or- 
nian specimen on peach leaves in 1878, and the same name was 
used by the Rev. C. Kalchbrenner; for a fungus on peach leaves 
from Caffraria in 1882. Next, in 1883, Dr. Cooke§ recorded 
Faccinia prunoram, Lk., for Victoria, then in 1886 Uromyces 
amygdali, Cooke, for Queensland, and finally in his " Handljook 
of Australian Fungi " for Queensland, Victoria and New South 
Wales on peach and almond leaves in 1892. It was suggested 
in Tryon's " Report on Insect and Fungus Pests "|| that this 
fungus belonged to Fuccinia pruni, but Dr. Cooke repudiates the 
suggestion in the " Handbook," and with dogged determination 
sticks to his point in the following note : " We decline to accept 
this as agreeing with any form oi'^Faccinia pruni with which it 
is commonly associated." 

* Nuovo Giornale Botanico Italiano. Vol. x. p. 255, 1887. 

+ Grevillea, Vol. vii. p. 12, 1878. 

: Ibid. Vol. xi. p. 19, 1882. 

§ Ibid. Vol. xii. p. 97, 1883. 

II p. 98, 1889. 


In order to make sure that we were dealing with the same 
fungus, I have examined peach leaves with the fungus named V)y 
Cooke himself in the Herbarium of the Government Botanist, 
and there is no doubt as to the identity of the specimens. 
Further, JNIr. Trj^on has ver}^ courteously sent me specimens of 
peach leaves similar to those formerly submitted to Dr. Cooke, 
and on which the name was based, with this important difference, 
however, that the original specimens were collected in February, 
while these are dated June. 

In addition to this, specimens on peach, plum, apricot and 
almond leaves had been sent from South Australia to the United 
States Division of Vegetable Pathology, and it was reported in 
the Journal of Mycology for 1890 that these specimens agree in 
every particular with those of Puccinia pinmi, Pers., on peach 
and i^lum hosts in the United States, nevertheless his own name 
was still retained by Dr. Cooke. 

As the leaf-rust is unfortunatel}^ becoming, or rather has 
become, very prevalent and a very serious pest to the fruit- 
grower, it is at least advisable to agree upon some common name, 
to have uniformity of nomenclature in the different Colonies, so 
that when dealing with it therapeutically we may be agreed as to 
the cause of the disease dealt with. And not only so, but the 
name here has an important bearing when it enables us to 
recognise the useful fact that the rust in our orchards and the 
rust in our wheat-fields are but different species of the same 
genus (Puccinia), and that whatever prevents the disease in the 
one case is likely to be efficient in the other. 

A further necessity exists for accurate scientific determination 
of this fungus from the fact that it is very commonly called 
" Peach Yellows " on account of the yellow blotches or freckles on 
the upper surface of the leaf, but it has no connection with the 
dreaded American disease so-called, which is believed to be, after 
years of investigation, due to Bacteria. 

In the plum the spots assume a much darker colour, and the 
numerous pustules on the undersurface of the leaf sometimes 
give it the appearance of being coated with brown mud. 

BY D. McALPIXE. 443 

First Appearance in the Colonies. 

It is interesting niid useful to trace the first appearance of any 
disease in our midst, to serve as a lesson for the future. Since 
1891, when my first report was made upon it, this disease of the 
peach and allied trees has been constantly under notice. In 
certain fruit-growling districts it was only observed during season 
1890-91 for the first time, but Mr. Neilson, of the Royal Horti- 
cultural Gardens, Burnle}', informs me that the disease was 
observed there al^out 1887, and he had heard of it in the Fern- 
tree Gully district about 1885 or 1886. In the season of 1887-88 
it was also rejDorted for New South Wales, and in season 1889-90 
it affected a large numl)er of peach trees there, as stated in Dr. 
Cobb's article upon it in Ag. Gaz. K.S.W. Vol. i. Pt. 1, 1890, 
and the disease has been spreading ever since. 

I am informed by Mr. Molineux, F.L.S., Secretary to the 
Agricultural Bureau of South Australia, that the first public 
reference to this disease was made by the late Frazer Crawford 
during May, 1890, in the "Garden and Field," as having been 
observed for the Jirst time on peach trees, and he had little doubt 
that it occurred some time before, but on plum trees. The 
reference in Garden and Field, Yol. xv. p. 134, 1890, is worthy 
of quotation : — " This season for the first time I observed it (i.e., 
Puccinia prun.i) on a peach tree — or at least what I take to be 
the same fungus. The lower two-thirds of a large Peach tree has 
everj^ leaf spotted by it, and as they are very numerous and 
bright yellow they give a variegated appearance to the foliage. 
Strange to say, in a neighbour's garden, which has a 
number of plum trees all more or less attacked, there are a couple 
of peach trees untouched." 

It is also present in Tasmania, although Mr. Thompson, the 
Govt. Entomologist,'"" does not refer to its first appearance there, 
and Mr. Tryon's discovery of it in Queensland in Feliruary, 1886, 
is undoubtedly the first definite record of its appearance in the 

* A Handbook to tlie Insect Pests of Farm and Orchard. Depart, of 
Agriculture, Tasmania, Bull. i. p. 29, 1892. 


It is highly probable that the disease has been with us for 
some time and gradually gaining ground before attracting atten- 
tion to its cause, for I have even known its effects to be con- 
founded with the tints of autumn, and this seemed all the more 
plausible as it is usually associated with the shedding of the 

Time of Occurrence. 

The time of appearance varies in different seasons, and the 
later it is the less damage it does. It also varies in its virulence 
according to the nature of the season. Thus in the Royal Horti- 
cultural Gardens the attack was very mild in 1888-89, then very 
bad in 1889-90, not very bad in 1890-91, and speaking for the 
Colony generally the past season was favourable to its spread. A 
grower in the Goulburn Valley writes: — "This season (1894-95) 
owing no doubt to the continued rains of the spring and the very 
heavy downpour in January, the attacks of this fungus have been 
very serious, causing a very large proportion of the leaves of the 
peaches to fall prematurely. Many acres of trees were thus laid 
bare for about 18 inches from the crown, only the younger wood 
surviving, and as a consequence nearly all the fruit for the coming 
season must come from near the top. Plums and prunes suffered 
severely, many trees being completely denuded of foliage by 
March." Thus, the disease seems to be intermittent in its 
character according to the prevailing weather. The following 
table shows the rainfall for the critical months : — 
Average for 

1888. over 
November 0-62 in. 

•30 years. 
2 -50 in. 





, 2-54in. 

December 2-72 









January 4*22 









6 -84 in. 

7 -49 in. 

. 6-86in. 

Disease at ) 

Hort. I Mild. 
Gardens... ) 



BY D. McALPINE. 445 

The abo\e table shows that it is not a mere matter of moisture 
which settles the greater or less prevalence of the disease, but 
other conditions, such as accompanying heat or cold, will also 
influence it. 

Generally the spores are plentifully produced about the 
beginning of the year, and the leases have usually all dropi)ed off 
by April. It is very noticeable how the leaves fall away from 
the lower ends of the branches, leaving only a small tuft of leaves 
at the top, wdiich ma}^ be regarded as the expiring effort of nature 
to renew the foliage of which the tree is prematurely deprived 

Hosts and Parts Attacked. 

I have found the fungus in Victoria on the leaves of the peach 
and its smooth-skinned variety the nectarine, the j^lum, the 
apricot and the almond. It is most prevalent on the plum and 
peach and comparatively rare as yet on the apricot and almond. 
In other parts of the world the disease is found on other species 
of Prunus. In California it attacks the cherry in addition to the 
above, and in the old world it is found on the sloe or blackthorn 
( I'runus i<pinosa^ and other species. Although this fungus has 
only been know^n elsewhere to attack the leaves, I had a specimen 
sent from AVangaratta in which the fruit was ' affected. It was 
ver}'- noticeable that only one side was attacked, and presented 
the appearance of a number of pimples or blisters of a brownish 
colour. The fungus was evidently not so far advanced as on the 
leaves, so that the conspicuous rusty colour was not so apparent. 

In South Australia the disease has been found on the peach, 
plum, apricot and almond leaves, as well as on the fruit of the 
apricot. The latter specimen was kindly sent to me by J. G. O. 
Tepper, F.L.S., for determination, and he was naturally surprised 
to find the leaf-rust become a fruit-rust. It is rather peculiar 
that no previous record of such a comparatively common rust 
should be known on fruit outside of the Australian colonies, but 
it only shows what a glorious climate we have for luxuriant 
growth, that of fungi included, and it points to the grave danger 
of allowing fungus pests to run rampant, for they may attack 


quite a variety of fruits here to which they were formerly 

As might be anticipated, this fungus has its pecuUarities of 
attack. In my own garden, for instance, the peach and plum 
trees were badly affected, while an apricot whose branches inter- 
laced with an affected peach tree had not a speck upon it. In 
the Royal Horticultural Gardens, Burnley, apricot and almond 
trees are as yet unaffected, and in 1890-91 not even plums were 
attacked, only peaches. J. G. O. Tepper, of Adelaide, informs 
me that in his garden the apricots are very badly affected year 
after year, peaches to a slightly less extent, and a plum tree with 
the branches touching other diseased trees is wholly unaffected. 
In contrast to this, there is the case already mentioned where the 
peach trees were unaffected and the plum trees more or less 
attacked. No doul^t the variety of the respective trees will have 
an important influence on the immunity from or liability to 


Varieties most Affected. 

In the Ro}al Horticultural Gardens, Burnley, where so many 
different varieties are grown, I was able, with the assistance of 
Mr. Neilson, to select some of those most affected. Kerr's Slip- 
stone, Royal George and Crimson George are very liable among 
peaches, and Darwin and Dante among nectarines. Seedling 
peaches are also badly attacked. 

Plums such as Late Harvey and Imperial Ottoman were pretty 
bad, and it was very noticeable that all those provided with 
thorns, such as the French Cherry Plum, seemed to enjoy com- 
parative immunity from the disease. 

This disease has a very wide distribution, possibly co extensive 
with the cultivation of the peach and allied fruits . It has actually 
been found in Britain, France, Germany, Italy, Austria, Belgium, 
Switzerland, North America, Canary Islands, India, Cape Colony 
and Australia. As regards its local distribution in Victoria, it 
extends from the Murray to the sea — from Rutherglen in the 
north to Warrnambool in the south. 

BY D. McALPINE. i47 


I have examined a large number of specimens this season from 
different districts and have found the fungus, as ah^eady stated, 
on peach, nectarine, plum, apricot and almond. I have also 
specimens from the Herbarium of the United States Department 
of Agriculture, through the courtesy of B. T. Galloway, Chief of 
the Division of Vegetable Pathology, and these may be taken as 
a starting point. 

On the leaves of Prunu^ americana, the plum of North 
America (3rd Oct., 1889), there is nothing to be found but two- 
celled teleutospores, while on the leaves of another species of 
Prunus (28th Sept., 1889) there are a few uredospores, but the 
great majority are teleutospores. Fig. 1 shows (a) the uredospore 
which is yellowish-brown in colour, (6) paraphysis which is of a 
pale lemon-yellow colour, and (c) teleutospores which are of a 
dark brown, the lower equallj^^ so with the upper, but in many 
cases paler. There is no doubt but this fungus is Pnccinia prnni, 
Pers. In the Victorian specimens the presence of two-celled 
teleutospores will settle the point that the fungus is not a 
Uromyces, and the teleutospores are common enough, so that it is 
a Puccinia. But if the peach leaf is examined in the summer 
season and even up to July in many cases, onl}^ one kind of spore 
w^ill 'be found — the uredospore. And even on the plum leaf in 
the month of March I was unable to find a single teleutospore. 

On the peach leaves sent from Queensland by Mr. Tryon I 
found both uredospores and teleutospores (figs. 2 and 3). The 
uredospores were of the normal shape and varying in size from 28 
to 31 /x long X 14 to 16jLi broad. The teleutospores were also 
normal, varying from 25 to 34: /^ long x 17 to 20 /x broad, and the 
pedicels were short and transparent. By gentle pressure the two 
cells of the teleutospore can be readily separated, and in fact they 
often fall asunder in the process of mounting. The upper cell 
seems to be more brittle than the lower, as it is often l^roken up 
under slight pressure, while the other usually remains intact. I 
have drawn a lower cell (fig. 2c) separated by gentle pressure, 


and it looks so rounded at the point of junction with tlie upper 
cell that one might readily mistake it for an independent, uni- 
cellular, stalked spore. 

It would appear, however, that on the continent of Europe the 
teleutospore form is the prevailing one, for De Bary'' speaks of 
Puccinia pruui l^elonging to the Micropuccinia, as teleutospores 
only are known. 

No doul^t the absence of teleutospores helped to mislead Dr. 
Cooke in his determination, and such a case emj^hasises the 
necessity for continuous observation of many of these fungi on 
the spot, in order to determine accurately their affinities, for at 
certain seasons only the uredospores are present, as in this 
instance, or it may be that the teleutospores only are present as 
in the case of Puccinia burchardict determined by Dr. Saccardo 
where I had to supplement the description with that of the 
uredospores. f 

A few brief notes may now be given on each of the Victorian 
hosts mentioned, in order to show that it is the same fungus 
disease which affects them all. Puccinia pruni, Pers., has to be 
recorded as new to Victoria for the apricot. 

Peach. — Leaf-rust on the peach has been very prevalent this 
season, and yet the teleutospores are comparatively rare in the 
specimens which I have examined even in the. month of July. A 
number of leaves were examined from peach trees in my own 
garden, but no teleutospores were found, only uredospores (fig. 6). 
In one instance the uredospore had germinated on the leaf still 
attached to the tree as shown in fig. 5. On some peach leaves 
from the Royal Horticultural Gardens, teleutosj)ores were found, 
but not in great quantity, along with uredospores. I have just 
examined (July 3rd) some leaves from young trees of Bid well's 
Late, Improved China Flat, Red Ceylon, <kc., and while there is 
abundance of uredospores there are no teleutospores The pustules 
containing teleutospores and uredospores mixed may be readily 

* Comp. Morpb. and Biology of the Fungi, p. 285 (1887). 
t Vict. Nat. X. 192 (1894). 

BY D. Mc ALPINE. 449 

recognised by the dark broAvn almost black appearance in contrast 
to the rusty-l)rown pustules containing uredosj^ores alone. 

Nectarine. — On the leaves of a nectarine (Dante) from the 
Royal Horticultural Gardens teleutospores were found, agreeing 
closely with those on peach (fig. 6) as well as on the variety called 

Flam. — On plum leaves from the Gardens, only comparatively 
few uredospores were found, while teleutospores were plentiful 

A specimen of plum leaf with rust upon it, plucked on May 
19th, was sent from Hobart by Mr. Rodway, and l^oth uredospores 
and teleutospores were found upon it (fig. 8). 

Apricot. — The rust on the apricot leaf is still comparatively 
rare in Victoria. I am indebted for specimens to an indefatigable 
worker, Mr. G. H. Robinson, of Ardmona, who sent them as far 
back as June 23rd, 1(S9-1-. The teleutospores were not numerous 
among the uredosjDores, and one is shown in tig. 9. 

In Mr. Tepper's specimen on the fruit forwarded earh^ in 
January, only uredospores were found ('fig. 10). The skin of the 
apricot had small yellowish to brownish iDlotches over it, and the 
uredospores are seen to be of the normal type, but sometimes 
rather elongated, even attaining a length of 44 /i. On the other 
ha,nd, the}^ are sometimes excessively shortened, and the extremes 
of length, 26 to 44 /x, were met with in this one specimen. They 
are, however, in relatively small quantit}^ and I am inclined to 
think that the close-set, downy hairs interfered with their proper 
development. When a microscopic section of the skin is made, 
onh^ a few uredospores are seen with difficulty among the hairs, 
attached to the matrix. 

Almond. — As in the case of the apricot, the fungus is also very 
scarce as yet on the almond in Victoria, On June 17th of last 
year, Mr. Robinson found at Ardmona only a few leaves, and each 
with one pustule containing uredosjDores which are shown in fig. 11. 

I had also specimens from Xetherby in December, 1893, and 
the undersurface of the leaves had quite a rusty appearance, owing 


to the numerous pustules, which contained teleutospores as well 
as uredospores (fig. 1:^). Curiously enough the almond leaves 
sent in June from Ardmona in the Goulburn Valley contained 
only uredospores and these sparingly, wdiile almond leaves from 
Netherby in the extreme west of the Colony, but practically in 
the same degree of latitude, contained both uredospores and 
teleutospores in al^undance. 

After diligent search in the Royal Horticultural Gardens, 
Burnley, I cannot find any trace of the fungus on the almond 
leaves there, and nine different varieties are grown. 

From a comparison of the uredospores and teleutospores on the 
above different species of Pru7ius, there can be no doubt of their 
identity or of their being Fuccinia jjruni, Pers. 

Further, the summer-spores (uredospores) are jDroduced in great 
profusion, commencing as a rule in December and January, 
succeeded by the winter-spores (teleutospores) in Ma}^ and June, 
which represent with us the end of autumn and the beginning 
of winter. In the uredospores the apex is not perforated by a 
single germ-pore as in Uromyces, but there are at least two lateral 
germ-pores. The teleutospores as noted in the British species 
are apt to separate at the septum, so that numerous unicellular 
spores are often to be seen, which might easily on a cursory 
glance be mistaken for something else. Hitherto the teleutospores 
are to be found most plentifully on plum leaves in Victoria, and 
much more sparingly on the others. 

Germination of Spores. 

Both uredospores and teleutospores have been kept for some 
time in a moist chamber and only uredospores have germinated. 
This is in keeping w4th what we already know of this fungus, 
that it belongs to the group Heitiipncchiia, having uredospores 
and teleutospores, the latter only germinating after a period of 
rest. No nutritive solution was used to stimulate germination, 
only water (fig. 13). 

There was an average temperature of from 10° to 12° C. 

The fate of the teleutospores has not yet been traced. As show- 
ing the practical importance of studying the life-history of these 

BY D. McALPINE. 451 

parasitic fungi and the utility of such knowledge to the grower, 
I cannot do better than quote from a letter recently received from 
Mr. George Quinn, Inspector under " The Vine, Fruit and 
Vegetable Protection Act," South Australia. He writes (May 
28th, 1895) : — " The disease {Pvccima pruni) has been very preva- 
lent in our orchards in all parts of the Colony in the season just 
closing, and I am somewhat in doubt as to how its spores exist 
over the winter, for in orchards where the peach or plum trees 
have been thoroughly sprayed with Bordeaux Mixture, with 
excellent results, as far as the 'curl leaf is concerned on the 
former, and I am perplexed as to where the S23ores find refuge 
until the autumn when the pustules begin to show on the foliage 
of the trees. Do you think it possible for the spores which have 
fallen either before or with the diseased leaves to be ploughed 
into the soil and then be turned up again with the summer 
cultivator to rise with the dust among the foliage, and, the condi- 
tions being suitable, germinate ? Do you think the spores of the 
various parasitic fungi which injure our fruits would lose their 
vitality completely if ploughed beneath the soil for a winter ? 
Would they not keep, like the seeds of some more highly organized 
vegetables, for a considerable time T 

To answer the above question, I am testing during the forth- 
coming season, 1st, if the uredospores retain their vitality and 
germinating pov/er during the winter, both when lying on the 
surface of the ground and when buried to a depth of four or five 
inches; 2nd, at what time teleutospores are capable of germination 
and how they are affected by being buried in the ground four or 
five inches deep; and 3rd, if they can produce the disease in an 
otherwise healthy tree. The answer to these questions will till 
up gaps in our knowledge concerning the life-history of this 
parasite and enable us the more effectually to cope with it. 

That the peach leaf rust of Australia is not due to a Uromyces 
should now be conclusively proved, because of the two-celled 
teleutospores and the uredospores having a transverse band of 
germ-pores instead of a single apical germ-pore. 

D D 

452 notes on uromyces amgydali, cooke, 


The treatment must be preventive, and spraying with ammoniacal 
solution of copper carbonate and modified eau celeste has been 
found successful in the United States. The improved form of 
Bordeaux Mixture, as given in Guides to Growers, No. 15 (see 
Literature at end), has been found effectual with us, and since the 
lower surface of the leaves is affected, the spraying should be 
specially directed there. 

There is another preventive measure which should never be 
neglected, and that is the burning as far as possible of the 
affected leaves in order to destroy the winter spores. So important 
and so generally applicable is this advice, that the remarks of the 
late Baron von Thuemen on this particular disease may be quoted 
in full : — " The surest and most effectual means of combating this 
rust, as well as other rust fungi, is to destroy the resting-spore 
generation as far as possible. The purpose of the special spore 
appearing in the autumn is to tide the species over the winter. 
On the leaves lying on the ground, even if they are decayed and 
decomposed, the spore-clusters remain for the most part com- 
pletely safe. So when the trees put forth their young leaves next 
year they are infected afresh from the soil, by means of the spores 
present there in unlimited quantities, on little bits of the leaves 
hardly recognisable. These spores, on account of their tenacity 
of life, have received the name of 'resting-spores.' Hence the 
imperative necessity for the fruit groM^er to destroy the leaves 
covered with heaps of spores, in order to prevent fresh infection. 
This is best done in the autumn when all the leaves have fallen 
from the tree, and they may then be carefull}^ collected and 
burnt. Or if this is impracticable, the land under the trees 
should be deeply dug so that all affected leaves may be buried 
deeply in the soil, where they can do no further mischief." 

Since writing this paper I have seen the Report of Professor 
Scribner^' for 1887 on "Leaf Rust of the Cherry, Peach, Plum, 

* Report of the Commissioner of Agriculture, U.S.A., for 1887, pp. ^)58 
to 355. 

BY D. McALPINE. 453 

etc. — Puccinia pruni-spinoscE, Pers.," and have incorporated some 
of his references in the literature of the sul)ject. There are 
several points in it worthy of comment, as showing the different 
behaviour of the same fungus under different conditions of 
existence. After noting that the fungus has been described 
under several different names, he remarks : — " Some confusion 
has probably arisen from the fact that the uredo stage alone 
occurs upon the peach and from the resemblance of the uredo- 
spores to the teleutospores of Uromyces.^'' Both the uredo-stage 
and teleuto-stage, as we have seen, occur upon the peach in 
Australia, nevertheless the latter is comparativeh^ rare and has 
undoubtedly led to misunderstanding of the true nature of the 
fungus from the absence of two-celled teleutospores. The uredo- 
spores are certainl}^ suggestive of Uromyces on a superficial view, 
but their germination, not by a single apical pore, but by a l^and 
behind the apex, excludes the idea. 

Again he states : — " The uredospores may or may not be present 
on the plum, but on the specimens examined a few have been 
found in all cases mingled with the teleutospores." In specimens 
of plum leaves described by me in Bulletin xiv. of the Victorian 
Department of Agriculture in ]March, 1891, only uredospores were 
present at that time, while on specimens examined by Professor 
De Bary only teleutospores were present and no uredospores. 

Again he remarks : — " Teleutospores have never yet been found 
upon the peach, and it is probable that they do not occur upon it 
at all, since specimens gathered in Texas as late as December 26th 
failed to show any." 

It is rather a strange and striking fact that teleutospores 
which are commonly regarded as winter spores should occur upon 
the peach in a climate such as ours und not in America. 

To show the thorough agreement between American specimens 
of Fnccini'i pruiii, Pers., and Australian so-called Uromyces 
amygdali, Cooke, I have reproduced some of Professor Scribner's 
drawings for comparison (fig. 14). They prove conclusively the 
identity of the two forms and disprove, if such were needed, and 
in spite of Dr. Cooke's pertinacity, the Uromyces-character of 


the form under consideration. His Uromyces amygdali is simply 
the uredo-stage of Puccinia p^'uni. 


It only remains now to conclude with a description of the 
fungus as found in Australia. 

Uredosj>ores. — Sori hypophyllous, small, light brown to rusty 
brown, roundish, scattered but grouped in patches, often con- 
fluent, soon naked, pulverulent, seated on yellow^ spots corres- 
ponding to those on upper surface. 

Uredospores variable in form, from elongated-ovate to almond- 
shaped, usually shortly stalked, but sometimes 22 ^ in length, 
closely echinulate, yellowish, apex yellowish-brown, thickened, 
with spines less prominent, bluntly conical or rounded, with at 
least two opposite germ-pores situated just* behind thickened apex, 
26-44 X 12-20 /i, intermixed with numerous capitate, jDale yellow, 
long-stalked paraphyses, sometimes attaining a length of 60 /x. 

Teltutoayores. — Sori scattered or confluent, isolated or in 
groups, punctulate, puh^erulent, seal-brown, known from the other 
by their da,rk almost black apjDearance. 

Teleutospores composed of two spherical cells, apparently 
flattened at their junction, lower usually smaller and paler than 
upper, but sometimes similar in size and colour, sharjDly con- 
stricted in the middle and cells readily separating. Epispore 
uniformly thick, dark l)rown, thickly studded with short stout 
■spikes, 25-37 X 17-21 /x. Pedicels short, hyaline, deciduous or 
persistent, from 4 to 8 ju long. 

On leaves of j^each, nectarine, plum, apricot and almond, and 
occasionally on fruits of peach and apricot : December to June. 
New South Wales, Victoria, Queensland, 8. Australia and 


Puccinia ]rni7ii-i<pinosf8, Pers. (1797). 
Uredo pru7iastri, DC. (1805). 
Puccinia prunor nil), Link (1825;. 

BY D. McALPINE. 455 

Uro7ni/ces pncnoriim, Fckl. (1869). 

Uromyces aniygdali, Pass., (1873), and Cooke (1878-1882). 

Uromi/ces 2?runoruni, var. amygdali, Vize (1878). 


Cooke— Rust, Smut, Mildew and Mould. 1st Ed. p. 201, 1865. 
Paccinia pr'iL7ioruni, Lk., or plum tree brand, described as 
common in Britain on plum trees. 

FucKEL — Symbolse Mycologica?, p. 50, 1869. 

Peck ~ Twenty-fifth Report of the Regents of the University of 
the State of New York, p. 116, 1873. 

Leaves of wild cherry, Prutius serotina, Ehrh. This 
species seems to be rare. 

VizE — Californian Fungi. Grevillea, Vol. vii. p. 12, 1878. 
Uromyces prunorLim, Lk., var. amygdali, on peach leaves. 

Frank — Die Krankheiten der Pflanzen, p. 468, 1881. 

Fuccinia prinioricm, Link, on leaves oi' Prunus persica, P. 
domestica, P. insititia, P. artneniaca and P. amygdalus. 

Kalchbrexner— Fungi Macowaniani. Grevillea, Vol. xi. p. 19, 

Uromyces prunorum, v. amygdali on Prunus persica. 

Cooke — Australian Fungi. Grevillea, Vol. xi., p. 97, 1883, 
Paccinia prunorum, Link, Victoria. 

Farlow — Notes on some species in -the 3rd and 11th centuries of 
Ellis's North American Fungi. Proc. Am. Acad. Arts and 
Sci. Boston, xviii. p. 82, 1883, 

" As far as my experience goes, the uredospores of P. 
primorum, Lk., are much less common near Cambridge than 
the teleutospores, l)ut in the Southern States they are 


Winter— Die Pilze, Yol. i. p. 193, 1884. 

Teleutospore of Puccinia pruui, figured after Corda at p. 13G. 

BuRRiLL— Parasitic Fungi of Illinois. Part i. Uredineae in Bull. 
Illinois State Laboratory, ii. p. 177, 1885. 

SoRAUER — Handbuch der PHanzenkrankheiten, Vol. ii. p. 226, 1886. 
Fuccinia 'pruni-spinosce, Pers., on Prunus persica, P. 
artneniaca, P. spinoaa, P. insititia and P. doniestica. 

Trelease— Preliminary list of the parasitic fungi of Wisconsin. 
Trans. Wisconsin Acad. Sci. Arts. vi. p. 24, 1886. 

Uredo- and teleutospores recorded on leaves of seedling 
Pritnus ainericana, Marsh, as well as on older leaves of 
same species and of P. viryiniana. 

De Bary — Fungi, Mycetozoa and Bacteria, p. 285, 1887. 

Pucciiiia p7mni given as belonging to Micropuccinia, in 
which only teleutospores are known. 

Arthur — Bulletin of Iowa Agricultural College, p. 159, 1887. 

ScRiBNER — Report of the Commissioner of Agriculture, U.S.A., 
for 1887 — ^Section of Vegetable Pathology, jDp. 353 to 355. 
Description and drawings of Puccinia pruni-spinobce, Pers. 
— Leaf-rust of the cherry, peach, plum, etc. 

DiETEL— Verzeichnis samtlicher LTredineen nach Familien ihrer 
Nahrpflanzen geordnet. Leipzig, p. 31, 1888. 

Puccinia irruni-spinoscf,, Pers., on Primus persica, P. 
spinoaa, P. armeuiaca, P. insititia, P. domestica, P. viryini- 
ana, P. americana and P. serotina. 

Saccardo — Sylloge Fungorum, Vol. vii. p. 648, 1888. 

Puccinia praiii, Pers., described and Synonyms given as 
Uroniyces arnyydali, Pass., in Erb. Critt. Ital., tfec. On 
Prunus amyydalus, P. domestica, P. arine7iiaca and P. pe7'sica. 

Von Thuemen — Die Pilze des Aprikosenbaumes (Armeuiaca 
vulya-jis, Lam.) — Eine Monographie. Klosterneuberg, pp. 8 
and 9, 1888. 

BY D. McALPINE. 457 

Puccinia prunoruin, Lk., on apricots and plums, the uredo- 
or stylospore form occurring in the height of summer, and, 
some time after, the teleutospores, 

Bailey — Second Supplement to Synopsis of the Queensland Flora, 
p. 126, 1888. 

UromyC' s amy(j>hili, Cooke, on almond and peach leaves. 
Halsted — Bulletin Iowa Agricultural College, 1888. 

Farley and Seymour — A provisional Host-Index of the Fungi of 
the United States. Vol. i. p. 32, etc., 1888, and Vol. iii. 
p. 197, 1890. 

Synonym}^ and Hosts of Puccinia 'prani given. 
Plowright — British Uredine^ and Ustilaginete, p. 192, 1889. 

Puccinia pruni, Pers., on Prunus spinosa, P. domestical 
and Khamnus catliarticus, 

Tryon Report on Insect and Fungus Pests, Brisbane, p. 97, 

&c., 1889. 

Uroniyces amygdali^ Cooke, a new fungus determined by 
Dr. Cooke, on peach and almond leaves, Queensland. 

Brunk— Bordeaux Mixture for the Plum Leaf-blight. Journal 
of Mycology, p. 38, 1889. 

Peach and plum trees affected with Puccinia pruni-spinosoi. 

Annual Report — State Board of Horticulture of California for 


Earle — Experiments with Fungicides for Plant Diseases. Bull. 
ii. Veg. Path. Sec. U.S.A., p. 38, 1890. 

Notices injury to peach and plum leaves from Bordeaux 
Mixture applied for rust : Pucciitia j^rimi, Pers. 

Anderson — Notes on certain Uredinese and Ustilaginese. Journal 
of Mycology, p. 125, 1890. 

Uroniyces aniygdali, Cooke, agrees in every particular with 
Puccinia pruw^ Pers., on peach and plum hosts in the 
United States. 


Cobb — Peach-rust in Orchards. Ag. Gaz. N.8.W. Yol. i. Pt. 1, 
p. 93, 1890. 

Uroniyces amygdali, Cooke, identical with Paccinia 2)runi, 

Mc Alpine — Report on Peach and Plum-leaf Rust (Puccinia 
pruni, Pers.). Bull. xiv. Dept. of Ag. Victoria, pp. 138-147, 
2 Plates, 1891. 

Nature of fungus and remedies given. 

Cobb — Remedies for Peach-rust. Ag. Gaz. N.S.W. Vol ii. Pt. 3, 
p. 157, 1891. 

Burning leaves, spraying and apphcation of potash manures 

Cooke — Handbook of Australian Fungi, p. 331, 1892. 

Uromyces amygdali, Cooke, in Rav. Fung. Amer.; Pass, in 
Erb. Critt. Ital., on Peach and Almond leaves, Queensland, 
Victoria, New South Wales. 

Thompson — A Handbook to the Insect Pests of Farm and 
Orchard. Depart, of Ag. Tasmania, Bull, i., pp. 29 and 30? 

Description and treatment given of Puccinia i)ru7ii. 

Galloway — Report of the Chief of the Division of Vegetable 
Pathology for 1892 : U.S. Dept. of Ag. p. 232. 

Puccinia pruni-spinosce on peach, nectarine, apricot, cherry, 
almond and plum. 

Smith — Field Notes, 1891, in Journal of Mycology, p. 92, 1892. 
Uromyces 2jruni-spinosce, Pers., appears to prefer thickly 
planted nursery stock. 

Bailey — A review of the Fungus-blights which have been 
observed to injure living vegetation in the Colony of Queens- 
land. Report of Fourth Meeting of Aust. Assoc. Adv. 
Science, p. 400, 1892. 

BY D. McALPINE. 459 

Uromyces amygdali, Cooke, very abundant of late years 
on the foliage of the peach and allied trees in Southe^-n 
Weed — Fungi and Fungicides. New York, p. 65, 1894. 

Plum-leaf Rust — Paccinia pricni-spLnos(E. Only men- 
tioned on plum leaves. 
Pierce — Prune Rust : Journal of Mycology, vii., No. 4, p. 354, 
1894. Affecting prune, plum, peach, nectarine, apricot, 
cherr}^ and almond. 

Ammoniacal copper carbonate effectual for treatment. 
McAlpine — Spraying for Fungus Diseases. Guides to G-rowers, 
No. 15. Dept. of Agriculture, Victoria, p. 8, 1894. 

Improved form of Bordeaux Mixture a preventive for 
this rust. 


(Magnified 600 dia. except fig. 14.) 

Plate XXXI. (lower division of Plate). 

Fig. 1. — Pitccinia pruni, Pers., from Prnnus sp. , United States. 

a, uredospore yellowish-brown, closely echinulate; h, paraphysis, pale 
lemon yellow and long-stalked: c, deep dark brown teleutospores 
studded with short bluntish spines. 
Fig. 2. — Uredospores and teleutospores on peach leaf from Queensland — 
a, uredospore, yellowish-brown, average twice as long as broad; h, 
teleutospore, dark browa, but somewhat translucent; c, lower cell of 
teleutospore detached, showing rounded top. 
Fig. 3. — Uredospores and teleutospores of same, mounted dry. 

a, group of uredospores, individuals" selected from diflferent parts 
of field; 6, group of teleutospores found together. 

Plate XXXII. 

Fig. 4. — Uredospores (a) with persistent pedicels and paraphyses (&) from 

peach leaf in own garden — June. 
Fig. 5. — '.Termiii iting uredospore from peach leaf in own garden— June. 

Thoe are two germ-tubes, but one is in abeyance. 

Ayos ^ / 



Fig. 6. — Teleutospore from nectarine — June. 

Fig. 7. — Ureclospores (a) and teleutospores (6) from plum leaf — May. 

Fig. 8. — Ureclospores (a) and teleutospores (b) from plum leaf, Tasmania 

Fig. 9. — Teleutospore from apricot — June — showing top cell detached and 

Plate XXXIII. 

Fig. 10. — Group of uredospores from skin of apricot — showing the widest 
extremes in length. 

Fig. 11. — Uredospores from almond leaf — June. 

Fig. 12. — Uredospores (a) and teleutospores [h) from almond leaf — Decem- 

Fig. 13. — Germinating uredospores from plum leaf, Tasmania — plucked 

May 19th. 

a, after nearly 5 days (4 days 21 hours) in moist chamber; h, contents 

of germ tube vacuolated, and contents of spore turbid; c, contents of 

spore as usual, but contents of tube with minute particles aggregated 

at intervals; d, germ-tube curving upon itself. 

Fig. 14. — Uredospores from peach and plum, and teleutospores from plum 

(after F. L. Scribner). 

a, uredospores from peach, stalkless and echinulate; h, germiaiating 

uredospore from plum, with germ-tube on one side; c, teleutospores 

from plum in surface view showing markings; d, the same in optical 




By D. McAlpixe. 

(Communicated hij J. H. Maiden.) 

(Plates xxxiv.-xxxvi.) 

A specimen of Oroundsel Rust was sent to me by Mr. Rod way, 
of Hobart, Tasmania, and found by him there on the 21st April 
of the present year. The aecidial-stage of the Groundsel Rust is 
common enough, at least with us at the Royal Horticultural 
Gardens, Burnley, but as he informs me this is the first and only 
instance in which he has found the black rust with teleutospores. 
At present, and indeed throughout the year, there is plenty of 
Groundsel with aecidia at the Royal Horticultural Gardens, but 
I have hitherto failed to find any teleutospores, and they are 
here recorded for the first time in Australia on Groundsel. But 
last year* I described a Facciaia on Erechtiies, a. genus closely 
allied to Senecio, received from Mr. Robinson, of Ardmona, and 
on comparing the two forms I find that the Groundsel Rust is 
very similar. 


I. Aecidiospores. — Aecidia forming blister-like swellings on stem 
and l^ranches, on upper and undersurfaces of leaves, on flower- 
head stalks and involucre, causing discolouration and distortion 
and usually surrounded by paler green tissue; the}^ are disposed 
in clusters without any definite order. 

Pseudoperidia round, sometimes oval, with white, scolloped 
everted edges; before opening tubercular. 

Aecidiospores spherical, oval or angular, orange-coloured, 
smooth, average 14-16 /x in dia. or 14-17 x 12-16 fx. Very com- 
mon all the year round, except during middle of summer. 

* Proc. Roy. Soc. Vict. Vol. vii. N.S. pp. 214-221 (1894). 


II. Uredospores — not known. 

III. Teleutospores. — Sori for a long time covered by epidermis, 
then bursting through and epidermis usually thrown off, or 
remaining in shreds and patches, intermixed or running parallel 
with aecidia, black, convex, often confluent in elongated lines, 
causing swelling of stems, branches, leaves and flower-head stalks 
and attacking flower-heads. 

Teleutospores chestnut-brown, pedicellate, elongated, slightly 
constricted at middle, variously shaped but usually elongated 
clavate; upper cell deep chestnut-brown, rounded or somewhat 
oval, scoop-shaped or truncated, and thickened at apex, 17-32 x 
15-25 /x; lower cell usually paler in colour, rounded at base or 
tapering, often elongated relatively to upper, 18-38 x 12-20^. 

Size of teleutospore, 36-63 x 15-5-25 /x. 

Unicellular and tricellular teleutospores occasionally found. 

Unicellular — elongated oval or somewhat elliptical, apex 
rounded or pointed and usually thickened, smootli, stalked, 
varying in colour from pale yellow to golden yellow and chestnut- 
brown, and sometimes colourless at apex. 29-44 x 13-17^. 

Pedicel colourless, persistent and somewhat longer than spore. 

Tricellular — elongated club-shape, and generall}^ resembling 
ordinary teleutospores except in size. 48-73 x 22-25 //. 

Pedicels decidedly persistent, pale yellow tint to transparent, 
sometimes longer than spore, occasionally 63 p., usually stoutish, 
5 to 9 /i broad. 

Aecidiospores on stems and branches, extending from base of 
stem to topmost flower-head, on upper and undersurface of leaves. 

Teleutospores on stems, branches, leaf-stalks, leaves and flower- 

On Senecio vnlyarls, L. Aecidiospores all the year round. 
New South Wales, Victoria, Tasmania. Teleutospores April, 
Domain, Hobart, Tasmania (Rodway, 64). Aecidiospores almost 
all the year round and teleutospores, April to July only in Vic- 

I. The average size of the aecidiospores from Victorian speci- 
mens of Groundsel is rather more than from Tasmanian specimens, 

BY D. McALPINE. 463 

which, howeA'er, are accompanied by teleutospores. It is not to 
\)e inferred on that account that the production of teleutospores 
intermixed has any influence upon the size of the spores, for I 
find that the uredospores of Paccinia pruni, Pers., are just as 
large on a leaf producing them alone as when intermixed with 

The late Dr. Ralph in a paper "On the Aecidium affecting the 
Senecio vulgmn^, L., or Groundsel,"* stated that he was able to 
trace by the use of strong carbolic acid the fine yellow sporular 
matter into the covering of the seed, the seed itself and the hairs 
of the pappus. It is interesting, as he points out, to find this in 
the fruit and its appendages, since the hairy pappus surmounting 
it would thus carry the fungus far and wide. I have found 
yellow colouring matter in the hairs of the plant, but have been 
unable to associate it with the fungus. 

The suggestion in the same paper that the source of I'ust in 
cereals may be found in the Groundsel, taking the place of the 
Barberr}^ bush in other countries, is rendered highly improbable 
from the fact, apart from other considerations, that the teleuto- 
spores proper to itself ha^e now been found on tlie Groundsel, 
along with the aecidiospores. 

III. It has been shown by Dr. P. Dietelf in the case of an 
allied fungus, Puccinia senecionis, Lib., that both kinds of spores 
— aecidiospores and teleutospores — are produced from one and 
the same mycelium, just as in Puccinia graminis, Pers., the 
uredospores and teleutospores are similarh^ produced, so that 
prol^abl}' here too aecidiospores and teleutospores have a common 


This fungus belongs to the group Pucciniopsis, Schroet., having 
aecidiospores and teleutospores on the same host-plant, and the 
question naturally arises as to what species of Puccinia it belongs, 
seeing that the Compositae have such a wide distribution, 

* Vict. Nat. viii. Xo. 2, IS (1890^. 
t Zeitsch. f. Pflanzk. Vol. iii. Pt. 5, 258 {\H)^). 


and the common Groundsel is likely to have some well-known 
rust upon it. Groundsel is an imported weed, probably from 
Britain, and j&t curiously enough the very common Groundsel 
rust of the old countr}^ (Coleosporium senecionis, Fries) has not 
yet been met with here. 

In Plowright's " Monograph of the British Uredinese and 
Ustilaginese " the following three Puccinias are given as occurring 
on species of Senecio, but none of them on S. vulgaris — 

P. qlomerata, Grev., (thought to be the typicalP. expansa, Link). 
P. senecionis, Lib. 
P. schoeleriana, Plow. &. Mag. 
The two former belong to the Micropncciiria or those which 
have teleutospores only, and the latter to the HpAero-p'iccinia, in 
wdiich there are the three kinds of spores, the aecidiospores being 
on one host-plant and the uredospores and teleutospores on a 
different host-plant. Assuming that the complete life-histor}^ of 
the above species is known, our fungus belongs to a different 
group, but on the Continent of Europe P. senecionis is known to 
produce aecidiospores as well,"^ and therefore it might l^e a similar 
species to ours. But the sori are brown, not black, and that 
excludes it, while on- P. g i orufivata the teleutosj^ores are too small 
for the present species, and the colourless papilla surmounting the 
upper cell is absent from ours. So that there appears to be no 
corresponding fungus on British species of Senecio. 

Turning now to Farlow and Seymour's " Host-Index of the 
Fungi of the United States," the following are given on species of 
Senecio there, and here again S. vulgaris has only the common 
British rust already mentioned : — 

Afcifiium compositai'um, Mart, 
A. senecionis, Desm. 
/'uccin.ia conglomerata, Schm. ct Kze. 
The Puccinias (for there are several) of which A. compositarum 
is regarded as a stage, belong for the most part to the Hefero- 

* See Dietel ia Zeitsch. f. Pflanzenk. Vol. iii. Pt. 5, 259 (1893). 

BY D. McALPINE. 465 

pucciiiia, and may therefore be dismissed, so that P. conglomerata 
has only to be considered; of which A. senecionis is the recognised 
aecidial stage. This aecidium is given by Dr. Cooke in his 
" Handbook of AustraHan Fungi (p. 342) for New South Wales 
and Victoria " for Senecio, but no species is mentioned; still the 
presumption is that we have here its Puccinia-stage and so 
resemblances and differences will have to be carefully noted. The 
principal points of difference in the aecidial stage are that the 
aecidia of the Groundsel rust are on pale green spots, not on 
brown, and are not margined with black, but otherwise there is 
general agreement, except that their spores are rather smaller. 
It is in the Puccinia-stage, however, that the differences are most 
marked, and for convenience may be shown in tabular form : — 

P. conglomerata. P. erechtitis. 

Length of teleutospore 24-52 fi 36-63 /x. 

Breadth „ 14-26 /x 15-25 /li. (agree). 

( surmounted by j 
Apex ,, < pale or colour- - none. 
I less papilla I 

T- 11! T 1 ( short or moder- f , 
Lengch of pedicel j .^^^j^ ,^^g -j long. 

Persistence ,, very deciduous .. . decidedly persistent 

Thickness ,, very slender moderately stout. 

Colour „ hyaline often j^ellow tint. 

While a solitary character, such as the relative length of the 
stalk, or its persistence, would not justify specific rank, still the 
aggregate of relatively fixed characters, such as the apical papilla, 
the length and persistence of the stalk, form specific distinctions. 

Finally, Dr. P. Dietel gives critical notes on all Puccinias 
occurring on Senecio and allied Composite in his paper on 
^^Puccinia conglomerata und die auf Senecio und einigen ver- 
wandten Composites vorkommenden Puccinien."* He remarks 
there that recent writers have placed many different species in P. 
conglnmerata and considers that P. senecionis, Lib., and P. expansa, 

'' Hedwigia. Bd. xxx. 291 (1891). 


Link, should be raised to specific rank. The Puccinias which he 
enumerates as occurring on Senecio are : — P. conglomc.raia, P. 
senecionis, P. expansa and /'. uralensi)*; P. tranzsr.hdU is also 
given, but it is now regarded as a variety of P. cou'/lornerata. In 
P. urahjisis'^ the sori are hypophyllous, the teleutospores are much 
shorter (36-43 /x), and no aecidiospores are known, so that the 
distinctness of this species is still maintained. When the proper 
season comes round, infection experiments will ]^e carried out 
mutually on Senecio vulgaris and Erechf.ites qva-Irvieutata. 

Trimorphic Teleutospores, 

There are three forms of teleutospores in this species, as 
already stated — normal or uniseptate, aseptate and biseptate. 

A similar case was recorded by W. B. Grovef in Pucciuia 
betonicce, DC, belonging also to the Pucciidopsin, in which he 
found one-celled, two-celled and three-celled teleutospores. Since 
then several similar cases have been ]:)rouglit to light, and e^'en 
four-celled spores have been observed in Fuccinia (jramiuin, Pers. 
In Pucciuia saccardoij Ludw., an Australian species on Goodnuia 
gp/niculata, Dr. Ludwigj records the occurrence, among the 
normal teleutospores, of unicellular and tricellular spores, some- 
times of enormous size, and occasionally singular horn-like 
])ranching spores, resembling those of PJiva inddium ohtusiim. 
The w^hole subject is very fully and sMy discussed by Dr. P. 
Dietel in his paper on " Beitrage zur Morphologie und Biologie 
des Uredineen."i^ The one-celled spores are commonly known as 
mesospores, and various views are held as to their meaning. 
Winter! I regards them simply as unicellular teleutospores and 
Sorauerll considers them as transition forms between uredospores 

* Zeitsch. f. Pflanzk. Vol. ii. Pt. 2, 104 (1892). 

t Gardener's Chronicle, Vol. xxiv. p. 180 (1885). 

+ Hedw. xxviii. pp. 362, 303 (1890). 

§ Hot. Centralb. Vol. xxxii. (1887). 

il Die Pilze, Vol. i. p. 133 (1884). 

H Pflanzenkrk. Vol. ii. p. 213 (1880). 

BY D. McALPINE. 467 

and teleutospores, but on this view they ought to be more general 
and not confined to individual species. 

P. Magnus* considers, on the other hand, that the uredospores 
have developed out of teleutospores on account of their better 
adaptation for germination and dissemina.tion, and that those 
species which have no uredospores never acquired the property of 
forming them. 

Dr. Plowrightf considers them as morphologically analogous to 
the teleutospores of Uromyces, somewhat similar to the view of 
Tulasne,! who regards them as reduced teleutospores, the reduc- 
tion being brought about by the abortion of the lower cell and 
thus the genus Uroniyces, characterised by such spores, is to be 
considered a degraded form of Fuccinia. There are other con- 
siderations, however, such as the nature of the host-plants, which 
would seem to point to the Uromyces as being rudimentary and 
not reduced forms of Puccinia. 

In Puccini pruni, Pers., the two cells of the teleutospores 
readily separate and the lower cell is often imperfectly developed, 
so that the connection between Uromyces and Puccinia seems to 
be shown here. In fact, it would appear that even the eminent 
mycologist Dr. Cooke was misled by this resemblance when he 
named this very species, sent from Australia on peach and 
almond leaves, as Uromyces amygdali. And if this relationship 
is accepted, then the term mesospore, as indicating a transition- 
form between two other kinds of spore, is inappropriate, as it is 
really between the two genera. 

Just as the unicellular or Uromyces-\\\ie spore links the 
Puccinia on to lower but not necessarily earlier forms, so the 
multicellular spore foreshadows the more advanced forms of the 
Uredines, such genera as Triphragmium in which the teleutospore 
is normally three-celled, and Phragmidlum, in which it may 
consist of from three to ten superimposed cells. And thus close 

* Ker. Deutsch. Bot. (4esell. ix. (1891). 
+ Brit. Ured. and Ustilag. p. 39 (1889). 
: Ann. Sci. Nat. 4 Ser. Vol. ii. p. 145 (1851). 
E E 


and constant observation of the exceptional forms of spores, just 
as the methodical investigation of exceptional forms of plants 
or animals may throw light upon the origin of certain phases of 
life and show that what is abnormal and exceptional at one stage 
and under certain surroundings, may become the normal under 
different conditions of existence. 


Puccinia on (Iroundsel. 

(All figui'es except figs. 7 and 10 magnified 600 diameters.) 

Plate xxxiv. 
Fig. L — Various shapes and sizf^s of aecidiospore. 
Fig. 2. — Various forms of teleutospore. 
Fig. 3. — Group of teleutospores. 

Plate XXXV. 
Fig. 4. — Unicellular spores. 
Fig. 5.— Three-celled teleutospore. 
Fig. 6. — Aecidiospores. 
Fig. 7. — Teleutospores ( x 115). 

Plate XXXVI. 

Fig. 8. — Teleutospores. 

Fig. 9. — Group of teleutospores. 

Fig. 10. — Unicellular spore : the same ( x 115). 

Fig. 11. — Tricellular spores. 


By George Masters. 

Issued separately as a Supplement to the Part. 



By J. H. Maiden, F.L.S., and R. T. Baker, F.L.S. 

El.eocarpus baeuerlexi, sp.nov. 

(Plate xxxvii.) 

A large tree (height 80-100 feet, and a trunk diameter of 2-3 
feet as seen), the branchlets silky hairy or hoary pubescent, the 
young leaves very hairy. 

Leaves or petioles usually 2-2 1 inches long, lanceolate to 
elliptical-lanceolate, acuminate, rounded at the base, scarcely 
shining above, up to 6 inches long, 1 inch broad, crenate, reticula- 
tions distinct on both sides, but more marked on the underside, 
slightly paler and glabrous underneath, but more or less silky 
hairy above, the young foliage densely so, occasionally foveolate. 

Petiole silky pubescent, channelled above, slightly thickened 
at the two extremities. 

Racemes terminal and over 5 inches long in specimens 
examined, silky pubescent, many-flowered. 

Bracts persistent, silky pubescent, spathe-like, 3 to 4 lines long. 

Pedicels 4-5 lines long. 

Sepals silky pubescent, subtriangular, 2 to 3 lines long, valvate, 
with a prominent mid-rib on the inner surface. 

Petals with a few scattered hairs or glabrous on the back, ciliate 
and very silky hairy on the inside" especially towards the base 
divided into 16-20 acute equal lobes, mostly united into fours. 

Stamens numerous (30), silky pubescent within the glandular 

Anthers linear, tipped with a sul)ulate appendage. Filaments 

Ovary glabrous, style sul3ulate, 2-celled, with 2 ovules in each 


Drupe ovoid, 3 to 4 lines long, green, the putamen rugose. 

Albumen not ruminate. 

The affinities of this species apparently lie between E. serico- 
petahis, F.Y.M., and E. immiiiatus, F.v.M. Briefly, its relative 
position may be shown thus : — 

E. sericojjetalus. — Leaves 2J to 3| inches long, glabrous, not 
foveolate, slightly crenate. Stamens 40-50; silky petals minutel}^ 

E. Baeuerleni, sp.nov. — Leaves 3 to 5 inches long, 1 inch broad, 
lanceolate, much reticalate, acuminate crenate, occasionally 
foveolate. Stamens 30; petals lobed, bracts persistent. Fruit 

E. ritviinafuft.—-lje8ives 2 to 4 inches long, 1^ inch broad, 
shining on both sides, petioles glabrous, shortly acuminate, penni- 
veined. Stamens 20-25. Fruit globular. 

Rah. — Tengoggin (Chincogan) Mountain, Mullumbimby, Bruns- 
wick River, N.S.W. 

This species is dedicated in honour of Mr. William Baeuerlen, 
botanical collector to the Technological Museum, Sydney, who first 
obtained it. 


Fig. L — Twig of plant showing foliage. 

Fig. 2. — Flowering twig. 

Fig. 3.— Bad. 

Fig. 4.— Flower. 

Fig. 5. — Section of flower. 

Fig. 6.- -Sepal. 

Fig. 7.-PetaL 

Fig. 8.— Stamen. 

Fig. 9. — Pistil and glandular ring. 

Fig. 10.— Drupe. 

Fig. 11. — Putamen. 



By J. Brazier, F.L.S., C.M.Z.S. 

CoNUS Waterhouse.e, sp.nov. 

Shell somewhat solid, oblong, coronated; spire slightly raised, 
apex obtuse; whorls 8, having white nodes, the interspaces with 
dark brown spots, spirall}'- sulcated with 6 rather narrow and deep 
grooves, having 2 closer together near the base showing faint little 
punctures like a thimble; colour yellowish-brown with whitish 
longitudinal flexuous streaks or blotches; columellar base very 
dark brown mingled with white; lip straight, whitish, interior of 
the aperture dark violet. 

Long. 30; diam. maj. 15; aperture, 25 mm. 

Hah. — Solomon Islands (Mrs. G. J. Waterhouse). 

This very prett}^ Cone came from the Solomon Islands, but the 
exact island is not known. It has been in Mrs. Waterhouse's 
collection for the last twelve months. The specimen is in a good 
state of preservation; the spiral sulcations visible a little below 
the crown are very fine, and those near the base are deeply 
engraved, showing minute punctures or pits like those on a 
thimble; the colour markings are also peculiar, being of a 
yellowish-brown with whitish longitudinal flexuous streaks. 

The only specimen I have at present seen has been lent me for 
description by Mrs. G. J. Waterhouse, after whom I have the 
pleasure of naming the species. 

The type is now in the collection of Mrs. Agnes Kenyon, of 
Richmond, Victoria. 



Mr. Brazier exhibited a fine specimen of the ringed snake 
( VermiceUa annulata) found under a large stone at the foot of 
the Waverley cemetery by Mr. Worth. 

Mr. Brazier also exhibited a specimen of Cardium vertehratum, 
Jonas, from Keppel Bay, N. Queensland, and he contributed a 
Note on the geographical distribution of the species. 

Mr. A. H. Lucas exhibited specimens of Honey Ants (Cam- 
27onotus inflafus), and Lizards collected by Prof. Baldwin Spencer 
in Central Australia, during the breeding season of 1895, com- 
prising both sexes of Amjyhibolurus pictus, A. maculatus, and A. 
reticulaUis, showing the sexual colouring; Moloch horridus (9). 
Also specimens of Egernia stokesii and E. dejyressa, the latter from 

Mr. Steel called attention to a recent interesting paper by Mr. 
T. W. Hogg, on the immunity of some low forms of life from lead- 
poisoning (Journ. Soc. Chem. Industry, 1895, p. 344). The 
presence of 1 •5-2-5 per cent, of lead, calculated as PbO, in an 
averao-e dried sample, was found not to militate against the 
occupation of the waste bark heap of the Elswick Lead Works by 
various organisms, including earthworms. 

Mr. Froggatt showed, in illustration of his paper, spirit speci- 
mens of a number of Termites, photograj^hs of remarkaV)le termi- 
taria, portions of nests, and specimens of timbers variously 

Mr. Maiden exhibited specimens of the new Elceocajyus described 
by Mr. Baker and himself. 

Mr. Pedle}^ showed a highly ornamented hielaman or aboriginal 
shield recently received from the Narran River, N.S.W. 

Mr. North exhibited a series of specimens of Zosterops 
cceruhscens, and pointed out the seasonal variations in the plumage 
of this species. Z. cceridescens of Latham, (Z. dorsalis, Gould, 


Birds of Australia, Vol. iv. pi. 81), with the deep tawny-buff 
flanks and the grey throat shows the autumn and winter attire, and 
Z. (Dacnis) westernensis, Quoy and Gaimard (Voyage de FAstro- 
labe, T. i. p. 216, and Atlas, plate 11, fig. 4) with the bright 
olive-yellow throat and very pale tawny-brown flanks, the spring 
and summer livery. Among the specimens exhibited by Mr. 
North and bearing out his statements was one captured in his 
garden at Ashfield on the 26th inst., which shows a transition 
from the winter to the spring j)lumage, the grey throat being 
faintly washed with olive-yellow, and the flanks nearly as pale as 
specimens obtained in the summer. Z. wesfernensis, Quoy and 
Gaim., and other writers must therefore become a synonym of the 
older name Z. cwrulescens, of Latham. 


WEDNESDAY, AUGUST 28th, 1895. 

The Ordinary Monthly Meeting of the Society was held in the 
Linnean Hall, Ithaca Road, Elizabeth Bay, on Wednesday even- 

ing, August 28th, 1895. 

Mr. Cecil W. Darley in the Chair. 


Hooker's Icones Plantarum. Fourth Series. Vol. iv. Part 4 
(June, 1895). From the BentJiam Trustees. 

Royal Microscopical Society — Journal, 1895, Part 3 (June). 
From the ^Society. 

Societe d' Horticulture du Doubs, Besan^on — n.s. No. 54 (June, 
1895). From the Society. 

L'Academie Imperiale des Sciences de St. Petersbourg. v° 
Serie. T. ii. Nos. 3-4 (March- April, 1895). From the Academy, 

Zoological Society, London — Abstract, June 18th, 1895. From 
the Society. 

K.K. Zoologisch-botanische Gesellschaft in Wien — Verhand- 
lungen. xlv. Bd. (1895), 5 Heft. From the Society. 

Zoologischer Anzeiger. xviii. Jahrg. Nos. 478-479 (June-July, 
1895). From the Editor. 

College of Science, Imperial University, Japan — Journal. Vol. 
vii. Part 5 (1895). From the Director. 


Societe des Naturalistes de la ]S'ouvelle Russie — Memoires. 
Tome xix. Parts 1-2 (1894-95). From the Society. 

Agricultural Gazette of N.S. Wales. Vol. vi. (1895), Part 7 
(July). From th'^- Hon. the Minister for Mines and Agriculture. 

Perak Government Gazette. Vol. viii. (1895), Nos. 18-19. 
From the Gocenunent Secretary. 

Department of Mines, Victoria — Annual Report of the Secre- 
tary for the year 1894. From the Department. 

American Museum of Natural History — Bulletin. Vol. \-ii, 
(1895), Sigs. 13-15 (pp. 193--i56). From the Museum. 

Johns Hopkins University Circulars. Vol. xiv. ISTo. 120 (July, 
1895). From the Utaversity. 

Indian Museum, Calcutta — "Materials for a Carcinolosical 
Fauna of India." No. 1 — The Brachyura Oxyrhyitcha. By A. 
Alcock, M.B., C.M.Z.S. : Figures and Descriptions of Nine 
Species of SquillvUe from the Collection in the Indian Museum. 
By the late James Wood-Mason. 4to. (1895). From the 

Pamphlet entitled "Notes on the Hydatid .Disease in New 
South Wales." By G. L. Mullins, M. A., M.D F'rom the Author. 

Victorian Naturalist. Vol. xii. No. 4 (July, 1895). From 
the Field Naturalists Club of Victoria. 

Societe Royale des Sciences, Upsal — Nova Acta. Seriei iii. 
Vol. XV. Fasc. 2 (1895). From the Society. 

Zoologische Station zu Neapel — Mittheilungen. xii. Bd. 1 
Heft (1895). From the Zoological Stcition. 

American Naturalist. Vol. xxix. No. 343 (July, 1895). From 
the Editors. 

Geological Survey of Canada — Annual Report, 1892-93. New 
Series. Vol. vi. From the Director. 

Societe Hollandaise des Sciences a Harlem — Archives Neer- 
landaises. T. xxix. 2™^ Liv. (1895). From the Society. 


Societe Royale Linneenne de Bruxelles — Bulletin, xx^"^ Annee 
No. 8 (June- July, 1895). From the Society. 

University of Melbourne — Calendar for 1896. From the 

Linnean Society of London — Proceedings. November, 1893- 
June, 1894 : List of Fellows, &c., 1894-95. From the Society. 

Societe Royale de Geographie d' Anvers — Bulletin. T. xx. 
pi' Fasc. (1895). From the Society. 

Eight Conchological Pamphlets. By Edgar A. Smith, F.Z.S. 
From the Author. 

Australasian Journal of Pharmacy. Yol. x. No. 116 (August, 
1895). From the Editor. 

Gordon College Museum, Geelong — The Wombat. Vol. i. No. 
1 (Aug. 1895). From the Museum. 

Pamphlet (from the Ibis, July, 1895). From the Author, A. J. 
North, Esq., F.L.S. 



By R. Broom, M.B., CM., B.Sc. 

In typical mammals the premaxillaiy l^one may be divided into 
two more or less well marked parts. There is the anterior and 
outer part ]3earing the incisor teeth and forming the outer wall 
and floor of the na,sal cavity at its anterior part, and there is 
generally an elongated delicate process of bone passing backwards 
into the palatine region — the palatine process of the premaxillary. 
Throughout the Mammalia the tooth-bearing part of the pre- 
maxillary varies comparatively little; but in the palatine process 
even in closely allied forms we have the most striking variations. 
Among Marsupials, for example, in the genus Trlcliosiorus the 
palatine process is exceedingly long, while in the closely allied 
Phascolarctus it is only slightly developed. 

Opinion seems to be considerably divided as to whether the 
premaxillary is a single structure, or whether it is in reality 
composed of two distinct elements. Albrecht,* Suttonf, and 
Parker I have shown that the palatine process may be distinct in 
origin from the body of the premaxillary through becoming early 
united with it, and Howes.^ states as the result of a special 

* P. Albrecht, " Sar la Feute niaxiilaire double sousmuqueuse et les 4 os 
intermaxillaires de r Ornithoihynque adulte normale." (Briixelles, 1883). 

P. Albrecht, " Die morphol. Bedeutung4e»' seitlichen Kieferspalte, &c." 
Zooi. Anzeiger, 1879. 

t .1. B. Sutton, " Observations on the Parasphenoid, the Vomer and the 
Palato-pterygoid Arcade." Proc. Zool. Soo. 1884, p. 566 

t W. K. Parker. " On the Structure and Development of the Skull in 
the Mammalia," Pt, ii. Edentata ; Pt. iii. Insectivora. Phil. Trans. Koy. 
Sue. Lond. 1885. 

§ G. B. Howes, " On the Probable Existence of a Jacobson's Organ among 
the Crocodilja, &c." Proc. Zool. 8oc. 1891. 


investigation by Mr, R. H. Burne that the palatine process is 
distinct from the premaxillary in an embryo Rabbit as large as 
8 cm. Furthermore, Albrecht and Sutton have both maintained 
that the palatine process is a distinct element from the pre- 
maxillar}'- proper, though owing to their evidence being largely 
pathological their views have not been generally accepted. Sutton 
holds that the palatine process is the homologue of the " vomer " 
of the fcJuhf/opsida, and that the mammalian vomer is represented 
by the parasphenoid in the lower forms. Whether he is correct 
or not in his Ichthyopsidian homologies I am not in a position to 
definitely determine; but I think there is very strong evidence in 
favour of the homology of the mammalian palatine process of the 
premaxillary with the so-called " vomer " of at least the lizard 
and snake, and in the present paper I shall bring forward a few 
facts from Comparative Anatomy and Embryology in favour of 
such a view. 

For some time I have been engaged in the study of the compara- 
tive anatomy of Jacobson's Organ, and having studied the anterior 
nasal region of a very large number of mammals and reptiles by 
means of microscopic sections, I have come across a number of 
interesting facts in connection with the ^^I'esent subject. 

In mammals the organs of Jacobson, as is well known, are 
supported by the " recurrent cartilages" — developments of the 
trabecular cornua, and as the cartilages are almost invariably 
developed to a similar degree to the organs, the close connection 
between the two is manifest. Furthermore, the cartilaginous 
f ramew^ork of each organ rests on a bony support curved to fit the 
cartilage, and Avhich is almost invariably anchylosed to the pre- 
maxillary forming its palatine process. When the organ of 
Jacobson is well developed and much elongated, its bony support 
is correspondingly long, while when the organ is rudimentary the 
palatine process is short or absent. So that not only is there a 
close connection existing between the organ and the cartilage, but 
also an intimate association l^etween the cartilage and the 
supporting bone. 

BY R. BROOM. 479 

An examination of the earh^ development of the parts shows 
that this close connection is not accidental, but that the support- 
ing bone is developed as a splint to the cartilage. If a mammary 
fcetus of the common Phalanger {Tricliosnriis viilpecuJa) 18 mm. in 
length be examined, it will be found that the body of the pre- 
maxillary is already fairly well ossified. The recurrent cartilages 
will be seen in section as two plates, slightly diverging below, 
lying, on either side of the middle line below the base of the 
cartilaginous nasal septum. About the middle of the inner side 
of each recurrent cartilage and close to it is a tract of active 
cells, in the centre of which is a ver}- delicate spicule of bone. 
This spicule, it must be admitted, is directly connected with the 
premaxillary, though as the tract of bone-jDroducing cells in con- 
nection with the recurrent cartilage is practically similar to that 
which a little posteriorly lies around the base of the septum nasi 
and gives rise to the vomer, it is highh^ probable that there is a 
distinct osteogenetic tract in connection with the recurrent 
cartilage, and that owing to the early development of the pre- 
maxillary it is prematurely ossified by invasion from that bone. 
In P'-ranielf's and DriK,,iirus the recurrent cartilage tract is 
similarly ossiKed by a bony process from the premaxillary. In 
many of the higher mammals (^^.r/., Erinacenn, Tahtxia) it would 
appear that the ossification in connection with the recurrent 
cartilage maintains for some time its independent existence, 
though uniting later with the premaxillary to form its palatine 
process. In a few mammals ('?.'/., Ornit]ioi]iynchus and Miniop- 
terus) the ossification remains as a distinct bone throughout life. 

Prof. Kitchen Parker,"^ who has done more than anyone else 
to elucidate the development of the skull, does not seem to have 
arrived at any certain conclusions with regard to the nature of 
the palatine process of the premaxillar}*. His researches show 
that he discovered supporting the cartilages of Jacobson a distinct 
bone which he called the "anterior paired vomer," but it is 
probable that, as Howes has pointed out, in tr^dng to draw a 

* Loc. cit. 


distinction between this bone and the palatine process of the 
premaxillary he has involved himself in contradiction. In his 
beautiful sections of the head of the ftetal Tatusia he shows the 
supporting bones of Jacobson's cartilages, and in his description 
of section 7, says : — ^" The cartilages [protecting Jacobson's organs] 
themselves have an osseous counterpart protecting them on the 
inner side and having their shaj)e and direction; these are the 
anterior paired vomers (v'), bones well known for their large 
development in the Opliidia and Lacertilia " He further recog- 
nises that these are not parts of the true vomer, and evidently 
considers them as quite distinct from the premaxillary. In his 
description of the head of the young Erinareus, he further refers 
to the intimate association of the recurrent cartilages and their 
supporting bones or anterior paired vomers. In referring to the 
recurrent cartilages as seen in the dissected skull of the 3'oung 
embryo, he says : — " Each leafy part is supported by a bone the 
form of which it dominates, so that each tract is also hollow on 
the face that looks towards the cur^'ed inner edge of the cartilage; 
it lies on the inside, back to back to its fellow : these are the 
front paired vomers, and answer to the paired ^^omers of the 
Snake and Lizard among the Reptiles." These bones which he 
calls " anterior paired vomers " are almost without doubt the parts 
which, becoming anchylosed with the premaxillaries, form their 
palatine processes. Parker, however, seems to consider that there 
are palatine processes in addition to the anterior vomers, but 
as the cartilages of Jacobson at their anterior part are in contact 
with the body of the premaxillary there is reall}^ no space for a 
palatine process distinct from the ossification in connection with 
Jacobson's cartilage, and if in any form there appears to be a 
palatine process in addition to an anterior vomer it is probably 
due to the anterior portion of ossific tract of Jacobson's cartilage 
becoming ossified by invasion from the premaxillary. 

A study of the comparative anatomy of the prenasal region 
gives very strong confirmatory evidence that the bone supporting 
the cartilage of Jacobson is not morphologically a j^art of the 
premaxillary, though generall}^ anchylosed with it. 

BY R. BROOM. 481 

There is one interesting group of mammals — the CJieiroptera — 
in which the condition of parts has not, I think, been ver}^ care- 
fully observed, and from which we find considerable assistance in 
the solution of the present problem. In the insectivorous bat 
common in this district (JliniojHerus Schreibersii, Natt.) the 
organ of Jacobson is well developed, but is unlike that of the 
typical mammal in being unusually short compared with its 
breadth. The premaxill?e are moderately well developed, though 
they do not quite meet in the middle line, but they do not 
possess even a trace of palatine process. The cartilages of 
Jacobson are supported on the inner side by a small median bone 
which is quite unconnected with either the premaxillae in front 
or the vomer behind. It is situated immediately in front of the 
anterior end of the vomer and clearly belongs to the same class 
of bones as the vomer proper, though instead of being closely 
related to the septal cartilage, it supports the cartilages of Jacobson 
throughout almost their whole length. In front where the 
capsules are moderately close together, a transverse section 
reveals two bon}^ plates supporting them anchylosed in their 
lower halves. Posteriorly the capsules are considerably apart, 
and the bone is here found as a flat plate stretching from the one 
to the other. 

In the common Australian flying-fox (Pteropus poliocephahis, 
Tem.) the condition is very different, but peculiarly interesting. 
The premaxilliTe are as well developed as in the Garnivora, though 
they do not quite meet in the middle line. The organ of Jacob- 
son as apparently in most insectivorous bats is here entirely 
absent, though the recurrent cartilages are fairly well developed 
as a pair of almost vertical plates. There is, however, no distinct 
supporting bone as in Minioptf.riis, nor a trace of palatine processes 
from the premaxillaries; but, on the other hand, the vomer is 
well developed, and from it a process of bone passes forward into 
the region corresponding to that occupied by the palatine process 
in ordinary mammals, though, unlike the palatine process, it onlj^- 
supports the posterior part of the cartilage. Whether in the 
foetal condition this process is ever distinct, I have not had the 
opportunity of ascertaining. 


In man a somewhat similar condition exists, though he differs 
from Pteropus in having a rudimentary organ of Jacobson. Here 
there is no palatine process to the premaxillary, and the rudi- 
mentary recurrent cartilage — ^the plough-share cartilage of Huscke 
— is not supported by a distinct bone; but in a human foetus of 
10 weeks I have found on the inner side a small tract of osteo- 
genetic cells very similar in position to those in s, but 
here ossified by an invasion from the vomer. 

In Ornithorhyvchus we find still further evidence of the 
vomerine nature of the bony support of Jacobson's cartilage. 
Here in the adult we find the capsule of Jacobson's organ 
supported by the median " dumbbell -shaped bone " — a structure 
which bears a very marked resemblance to the little median bone 
lying between the organs in the ])at. Since its first discovery 
this peculiar dumbbell-shaped bone has been the subject of very 
considerable discussion as to its true nature. Three different 
opinions have been expressed with regard to it, but as one of 
them — that homologising it with the prenasal bone of the pig — 
has been abandoned by its author, and is known to be founded 
on a misconception, only the other two need be discussed. The 
view which has received almost universal support — that of 
Rudolphi, Meckel and Owen — is that it is the inner part of the 
premaxillary and the homo/o;/ue of the palatine process of the 
premaxillary in the higher mammals. In more recent times 
Albrecht,* Turner,! Flower t and Symington^ have advocated the 
same view, and have adduced arguments which practicall}^ amount 
to conclusive proof of the correctness of their position. The other 
view which has been expressed as to its nature is that recentlj^ 

* Loc. cit. 

t \V. Turner, " The Dumbbell-sliaped Bone in tlie palate of the Ornitho- 
rhynchus compared with the Prenasal Bone in the Pig." Journ. Anat. and 
Phys. Vol. xix. 

X W. H. Flower, " Osteology of the Mammalia." .Srd Ed. Lond. 1885. 

§ J. Symington, "The Nose, the Orgun of Jacob.son, and the dumbbell- 
shaped bone in Ornithorhynchus." Proc. Zool. Soc. 1891. 

BY R BROOM. 483 

advocated by Wilson."^ In his paper published by this Society 
he gives a very accurate and minute description of the bone and 
its relations, and gives reasons for considering the bone to be a 
true vomerine element and no part of the premaxillary. His 
main arguments may be briefly summarised as follows : — (1) That 
as the posterior part of the palatine plate of the dumbbell bone 
rests on the " cartilage of the nasal floor " it is on a higher plane 
than the maxillary palate ; (2) that the vertical part is prolonged 
l)ackwards for a considerable distance dorsad of the maxillary 
l^, and " that a bone which is so prolonged backwards on a 
higher plane than the maxillary palate cannot be regarded as 
developed in the same morphological plane with it "; and (3) that 
the posterior spur is separated from the maxillary palate by 
a peculiar hiatus. These arguments afford practically con- 
clusive proof that the dumbbell-shaped bone belongs to the 
vomerine category and is no part of the premaxillary; and to 
Wilson thus belongs the credit of having first clearly recognised 
the vomerine nature of the bone. But on the other hand, while 
the above arguments show that the bone is not part of the pre- 
maxillary, they rather support than disprove its homology with 
the element usually called "palatine process of the premaxillary," 
and Wilson himself recognises the weight of evidence in favour 
of this homology; and when once it becomes recognised that the 
palatine process of the premaxillary is itself a distinct vomerine 
element anchylosed or formed in connection with the premaxillary 
the difficulty of reconciling the two views at once disappears. 
W. N. Parker,! in his recent paper on Echidna, gives a section 
-of a young rnithorhynchus skull which shows the dumbbell- 
shaped bone developing as bony splints to the cartilages of 
Jacobson in exactly the same manner as Kitchen Parker has 

• J. T. Wilson, " Observations upon the Anatomy and Relations of the 
dumbbell-shaped bone in Ornilhorhi/nchvs, with a new theory of its 
homology, &c." Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W. 1894. 

t W. N. Parker, "On some points in the Structure of the Young of 
JEchidna aculeata." Proc. Zool. Soc. 1894. 
F F 


figured his anterior paired vomers developing in Erinaceus; and 
the only difference in the mode of development of the palatine 
process of the premaxillary in the yoimg marsupial is that in it 
the bony splint of Jacobson's cartilage is while developing united 
anteriorly to the premaxillary. 

There is one other bone to which reference need be made in 
this connection — the so-called " vomer " of the lizard. Most 
anatomists have regarded this as the homologue of the mammalian 
vomer. Kitchen Parker, however, though generally referring to 
the large paired bones in the front of the palatal region in the 
acertilian skull as "vomers," evidently later recognises their 
homology with the anterior paired vomers in Erinaceus, and not 
with the mammalian vomer proper, as will be seen from the 
passage already quoted. With this homology I entirely agree. 
It is universally admitted that the organ of Jacobson in the lizard 
is the true homolgue of that in the mammal, and there can be as 
little doubt but that the cartilaginous supports, both being 
developments of the trabecular cornu, are also homologous, so 
that the homology of the Ijones developed as splints on the median 
sides of these cartilages in similar situations cannot well be denied. 
In lizards, moreover, the premaxillary has no palatine process, 
and the so-called vomer bears a similar relation to the pre- 
maxillary as does the palatine process in the mammal. In the 
snake this " vomer " passes up the septum nasi, and even slightly 
overlaps the capsules of Jacobson; but this is exactly what occurs 
in Ornithorhynchus, and to a less extent in some rodents. 

It will thus be seen that there is a distinct osseous element 
developed as a splint on the median side of the cartilage of 
Jacobson, which in lizards and snakes like the organ of Jacobson 
itself is well developed and distinct, but which in mammals, 
probably owing to the great development of the premaxilla in 
connection with the well formed incisor teeth, usually becomes 
early anchylosed with that bone, and in many cases even develop- 
ing in connection with it, forming its palatine process, only 
remaining distinct in a few forms such as Ornithorhynchus and 
Miniopteriis. For this ossification which in different forms has 

BY R. BROOM. 485 

gone under a variety of designations, I would propose the name 
of Prevomer as more in harmony with the general terminology 
than " Anterior Vomer," and also as Kitchen Parker evidently 
regarded his " Anterior Paired Vomer " as an element quite 
distinct from the palatine process of the premaxillary and only 
exceptionally present in the mammalian skull. 

The following table gives the chief synonyms and homologies 
of the Prevomer :— 

Prevomer (Broom) = Palatine process of premaxilla in mammalia generally, 
rr Dumbbell-shaped bone, or Os paradoxum in Ornitho- 

= Anterior vomer, in Ornithorhynchus (Wilson). 
= Anterior paired vomer, in foetal Insectivora, dbc. 

= Prepalatine lobe of vomer, in Caiman (Howes) 
= Vomer, in Lacertilia a,nd Ophidia {Owen, Parker, &c.) 

Further research may extend the homology to the " vomer " in 
Amphibia and fishes, but this I have not had an opportunity of 

In conclusion I must acknowledge my indebtedness to Prof. 
Wilson for various kindnesses; to Messrs. Etheridge and Waite 
of the Australian Museum for identifying for me the bat and 
flying-fox examined; and to my father, Mr. John Broom, for 
making abstracts of papers, not otherwise accessible to me. 





By R. Etheridge, Junr. — Curator of the Australian Museum 
— AND John Mitchell, Public School, Narellan. 

Part III. 

(Plates XXXVIII. -XL.) 

The family of the Phacopidae is one of the most important to 
be met with in our Lower Palaeozoic rocks, both on account of 
the wide distribution of its members geographically — being met 
with in the Silurian rocks of both N.S. Wales, Victoria, and Tas- 
mania — and their close connection with those of similar deposits 
in the Old World. 

The literature of the family is very limited, and is confined to 
the description by Sir F. McCoy of species referred* by him to the 
following : — 

L Odontochile caudatns, Briin., sp. 

2. Portlockia fecundus, Barr., sp. 

and by Mr. A. F. Foerstef to — 

3. Phacops serfritus, Foerste. 

The horizons yielding these fossils are : — 

a. Olive mudstones of Broadhurst's Creek, near Kilmore, Vic- 

toria — No. 1. 

b. Arenaceous beds of Yerring, Upper Yarra, Victoria — No. 2. 

c. Olive-brown mudstones of the Bowning District, N.S. 

Wales— No. 3. 

* Prod, Pal. Vict. 1876, Dec. iii. pp. 13-16. 
t Bull. Sci. Lab. Denison Univ. 1888, iii. 


We do not notice incidental references to other localities, when 
unaccompanied by descriptions, nor catalogue names in the same 

The Tasmanian forms are at present undescribed. 

The Phacopidce is represented throughout Australian Silurian 
rocks, so far as we can ascertain with certainty, by two genera 
only — Phacops, Emmrich, and Hausmannia, Hall and Clarke. 
During our researches we have not met with any Trilobites that 
could be referred to either of the following : — Acaste, Goldfuss; 
Chasmops, McCoy; Pterygomietopiis, Schmidt; TrimeroQephalus, 
McCoy; Portlockia, McCoy; CryphcBiis, Green; Coronura, Hall 
and Clarke; Odontocephalus, Hall and Clarke; or Cori/cephalus, 
Hall and Clarke. 

We imply a doubt because the subject of our PI. xxxix. tig. 12, 
appears to foreshadow a third section or genus, but the material 
is too scanty to enable us to pass a definite opinion. 

Genus Phacops, Emmrich, 1839. 

Phacops in its restricted sense, following the researches of 
Salter^ and Schmidt,! and to some extent of Barrande| also, omit- 
ting other minor characters, is distinguished from other members of 
the Phacopidag chiefly by the presence of the two anterior pairs of 
glabella furrows, generally linear in character, and of which the 
first or anterior pair frequently consists of two branches. The 
fore part of the glabella, formed by the frontal and lateral lobes, 
is, as a whole, cut off from the neck segment by the intervention 
of a supplementary ring, termed by Barrande the " intercalary 
ring " (anneau intercalaire)§. Barrande used this feature as one 
of the chief distinguishing points between the only two genera 
recognised by him in the Bohemian Silurian rocks, Phacops and 
Dahna7iia (vel Dalmanites). This eminent author considered 

* Mon. Brit. Sil. Trilobites, Pt. 1, pp. 13 and 14. 
t Mem. Soc. Imp. Sci. St. Petersb. 1881, xxx. (7), No. 1. 
X Syst. Sil. Boheme, 1852, i. p. 498. 
§ Loc. cit. p. 505. 


that Phacops possessed the three ordinary pairs of glabella 
furrows, whilst Salter viewed the first pair as consisting of two 
parts, a feature in which Schmidt seems to agree with him, i.e., 
Salter's first pair is equal to Barrande's first and second. The 
arguments for and against the respective views of these authors 
are too long to be introduced here, but looking at the matter 
dispassionately there appear to be good grounds for supporting 
the opinions of Salter and Schmidt. 

The presence of the intercalary ring we regard as of very 
considerable importance in the limitation of Phacops proper. It 
is the "linear lobe" of Salter,^ and the groove separating the 
ring from the glabella proper is the " maxillary furrow " of 
McCoy f. The intercalary ring is, in fact, formed by the con- 
fluence of the third pair of glabella furrows, with small circum- 
scribed lobes at the outer ends. It appears to mark off a series 
of species, including Phacops latifrons, Bronn, the type of the 
genus, P. cephalotes, Corda, P.fecaudiis, Barr., and some others, 
from the remaining sections, sub-genera, or genera, whichever the 
reader prefers to regard them, usually associated under the 
broader name of Phacops of older writers. We therefore adopt 
Phacops as limited and defined more especially by Salter, and 
followed in many particulars by Schmidt. This restriction also 
has the advantage of comprising within it Emmrich's type of his 
genus, P. latifrons, Bronn. 

As regards species, we have succeeded in establishing the 
presence of three in the Silurian rocks of N.S. Wales, viz. : — 
Phacops Crossltii, nobis. 
,, Iatige7ialis, nobis. 
,, serratus, Foerste. 
And two in Victoria, viz. : — 

Phacops Sweeti, nobis. Q P. focundus McCoy, 7ion^&Tr.) 
„ mansfieldensis, nobis. 
If, however, P. fecundus, McCoy, be distinct from our P. 
Stveeti, then three forms are known from Victoria. 

* Mon. Brit. Sil. Trilobites, Pt. 1, p. 21. 
t Prod. Pal. Vict. 1876, Dec. iii. p. 15. 


Phacops Crossleii, sp.nov. 

(PL XXXIX., figs. 9-11.) 

Sp. Char. — Body — oblong-oval. Head-shield or cephalon — Semi- 
circular, rather flattened above, sides abruptly depressed; glabella 
large, subpentagonal, greatly contracted behind, highest between 
the eyes, very slightly arched in front, overhanging the front 
border, rounded so that taking for centre the middle point of the 
confluent basal pair of glabella furrows, the curve forms the arc 
of a circle with radius equal to the length between the point 
mentioned and its front, tolerably inflated, sides straight, inclined 
inwards at an angle of 60°, greatest width equal to length 
including neck ring, coarsely granulate; intercalary furrows dis- 
tinct, deep (in casts) at sides and close to the neck furrow, with 
which they communicate, thus forming prominent ' basal lobes; 
second pair linear, feeble and falcate, and seem, in some speci- 
mens, to communicate with the basal pair, and with the axial 
grooves; first or frontal pair linear, faint and feeble, arising from 
the axial furrow at the front corners of the glabella, and 
traversing it in a very widely Y-shaped manner, the inner portion 
being shortest and slightly falcate; frontal lobes very large, 
second pair cleaver-shaped, third pair suboblong, fourth pair 
nodular; neck furrow very distinct, continued across the side 
lobes with equal distinctness; and faintly along the inner edge of 
the border of the free cheeks to the front of the axial groove; 
neck ring robust, strongly arched, granulate, one large granule in 
the middle line; axial grooves very distinct, deep and wide; fixed 
cheeks small; genal lobes'*^ moderately arched, granulate and 
separated from the palpebral lobes by distinct shallow furrows, 
which pass posteriorly round and under the eyes, giving relief to 
those organs. Ej^es large, equal in length to half of the longi- 
tudinal length of the cheek, anteriorly scarcely reach the front 

* That portion of the fixed cheek between the palpebral lobe and axial 
furrow and bounded posteriorly by the lateral extension of the neck furrow. 


angles of the glabella, posteriorly in a line with the basal glabella 
furrows; curve of lentiferous face front to back semicordioid, 
apically inclined inward at an angle of about 50'; lenses very 
convex, the normal number of vertical rows is seventeen, with 
five lenses in each, except the terminal rows at each end; the first 
row in front has usually three, the next four, then follow twelve 
rows of five lenses, their three posterior rows having four, three 
and two respectively, making a total of seventy-six lenses for each 
eye, which are separated by minute spaces, but no partitions are 

Thorax — Square, sides almost perpendicular; axis distinct, sul> 
semic3dindrical, about two-thirds as wide as the contour measure- 
ment of the pleurie, ends of each segment nodular, posterior 
segments distinctly arched forward ; pleura? between axial furrow 
and fulcra horizontal, then intensely deflected, forming almost 
perpendicular sides, extremities procurved and flattened; pleural 
furrows distinct on horizontal portions, gradually diminishing on 
the deflected parts and ceasing about midway between the fulcra 
and extremities, making the front ridges distinctly triangular, 
posterior ridges ver}^ robust and continuous, with diminishing 
intensity to the rounded extremities, posterior edges of pleurse 
traversed (in decorticated specimens) by a fine groove which shows 
most distinctly on the deflected portions, evidently marking the 
thickness of the test. 

Pygidium. — Roughly semicircular, highly convex, anterior 
margin nearly straight; axis very prominent, composed of eight 
segments, the first and second segments very distinct, and strongly 
arched forward; each succeeding segment diminishes in distinct- 
ness so that the Ijlunt terminal piece is hardly separable from the 
thickened border, and is half the width of the anterior portion; 
axial furrows moderately distinct; lateral lobes very tumid, sharply 
deflected, consisting of six or seven pleurae, furrows of first pair 
like those of the thoracic pleurae, each succeeding pair becoming 
fainter till the seventh is rarely discernible and do not reach 
the edges; sutures distinct; in decorticated specimens a distinct 


smooth border is exposed bounded on outer edge by a linear 

Obs. — This species in some respects resembles P. fecundus^ 
Barr., with which we were inclined on first inspection to consider 
it to be identical. Closer examination, however, has revealed 
sufficient differences between them to justify us in separating it 
from that species. 

In the first place, in our species the greatest length of the 
glabella, including the neck ring, equals its greatest width. In 
P.fecujidus the glabella furrows are distinct on immature indi- 
viduals, but rarely so on mature ones, which is just the opposite 
to the case in our species. Again, the eyes of the latter have, so 
far as we have been able to observe in all our numerous speci- 
mens, a constant number of seventeen vertical rows of lenses, and 
never more than five lenses in a row, except in rare cases where 
a rudimentary lens occurs at the top. 

The lateral extension of the neck furrow around the edge of 
the border of the side lobes is not nearly so distinct in our species 
as in P. fecn7idus, Barr., and it ceases in front of the eye instead 
of joining the furrow passing round the frontal base of the 

Between the thoraces of the two sjDecies there appears little 
difference, except that the thoracic test of ours seems to have 
been smoother, and the sides more perpendicular. 

The pygidium of our species is more nearly semicircular, and 
its axis is not sunk between the side lobes, with an almost 
constant number of seven segments, and rarely if ever eight. The 
side lobes are divided into six or, doubtfully, seven pleurae. 

To sum up, our species is separated from P. fecundus by having 
a much smaller eye, the features of Mdiich remain constant in all 
mature individuals, a less distinct furrow separating the glabella 
in front from the rudimentary limb, by a smaller number of 
divisions in the axis and side lobes of the pygidium; and 
apparently a much thinner test, which was less distinctly granu- 
lated on the thorax and pygidium. 


F. Crosshii agrees very closely with P. rana, Hall, from 
which it differs in the number of lenses in, and position of the eye; 
and the absence in the latter of lateral furrows on the glabella. 

From our P. latigenalis it is separated by the greater propor- 
tional length and height of the eyes, and by the constant linear 
character of the glabella furrows, by the smaller space between 
the bottom of the eye and the cheek border, the more upright 
glabella cheeks, and wider axial furrows between the glabella and 
fixed cheeks. The glabella is also less expanded in front trans- 
versely. The pygidium has a more semicircular contour, and its 
axis differs from P. latigenalis by contracting more gradually 
from front to back, and in not being sunk between the side lobes. 
The head shields of young specimens of the two species do not 
show the differences in so marked a manner, nor are the thoraces 
of the two separable from each other in a decorticated state; but 
when the mature specimens of each species are compared the 
differences noted above are evident. 

Such a variation may be expected even were P. latigenalis the 
progenitor of this species, for they are separated by 3000 ft. to 
4000 ft. of strata, chiefly consisting of mudstone shales, which 
must represent a long geological period. 

From P. fecundus, McCoy, it is at once separated by the very 
much smaller eye, greater posterior contraction of the glabella, 
deeper and wider axial furrows of the cephalon, and by some 
differences in the pygidium. P. Crossleii is a smaller species than 
either of the others described in the present paper, or P. fecundus^ 
Barr., none of our specimens exceeding two inches in length. 

It has been specifically named after Mr. R. Crossley, of White- 
field, Bowning, in recognition of much valuable assistance 
rendered by him to one of us in the collection of specimens. 

Log. and IIorizo7i. — Bowning Village, Co. Harden. Upper 
Trilobite Bed, Bowning Series ( = IIume Beds, Jenkins, and I'ass 
Beds, David)— ^ Wenlock. Coll. Mitchell. 


Phacops latigenalis, sp.nov. 
(PI. xxxix., figs. 3-6; PI. xl., figs. 2-6 and 9.) • 

Sp. Char. — Body. — Oblong ovate. Head-shield or cephalon. — 
Subsemicircular, but a little wider than twice the length. Glabella, 
including neck ring, wider than long, the proportion being about as 
4-3, highly tumid in large specimens, expanded transversely, 
slightly overhanging in front, and separated from the rudimentary 
limb by a fairly distinct groove which communicates with the axial 
furrows, strongly granulate, granules subconical, and nearly 
uniform in size, sometimes coalescing and forming ridges or 
wrinkles; glabella grooves very distinct, deep, and in large speci- 
mens the first and second pair are overhung by frontal and second 
lobes very decidedly, intercalary groove wide; second pair gently 
curved or falcate, and in mature decorticated specimens seem to 
communicate with the axial furrows; first pair widely Y-shaped, 
the inner branch being subfalcate, passing into the axial furrows 
at the front angles of the glabella; frontal lobes very large, 
occupying more than two-thirds of the glabella; second i^air small, 
subdeltiform; third pair small and suboblong; intercalary ring 
nodular; axial grooves deep; neck furrow very deep and con- 
tinuing with equal distinctness across the side lobes to the inner 
edges of the borders of the free cheeks and thence faintly to the 
front of the eye, where it is interrupted by the lobe on which the 
eye rests; neck ring intensely arched, rather narrow, ends nodular; 
fixed cheeks small; genal lobes deltiform, arched, granular; 
palpebral lobes lunate, separated from genal lobes by shallow 
but distinct furrows, which continue posteriorly round and under 
the eyes, adding to the prominency of those organs; anteriorly they 
pass into the axial grooves; free cheeks practically smooth, 
coalesced, extended towards the genal angles, border wide, thick, 
genal angles flattened, forming large triangular facets on which 
the first pleur?e imbricate. Eyes half as long as greatest length of 
cheeks, slightly overhanging, subsemicardioid or lunate; perpen- 
dicular height small compared with that of most species of the 


genus; the>4iumber of vertical rows of lenses in each eye is 
seventeen, and the greatest number of lenses in a row is 
five^ and this number only in a few rows, the other rows having 
four, three, and two; lenses prominent and not closely packed, 
cups proportionately small, attachment processes visible, cornea 
present as partitions between the oblique rows; as far as we 
have been able to observe, the number of lenses in each eye is 73. 

Thorax — Length about equal to width; axis very prominent and 
semitubular, width throughout almost the same, and equal to that 
of the side lobes: fore rings arched forward, outer ends strongly 
nodular; lateral lobes horizontal between the axial grooves and 
the fulcra; at fulcra deflected at an angle of GS^'-TO", width of 
horizontal portion about two-thirds that of the deflected portion; 
pleural furrows deep, vanishing about midway between fulcra ends 
in decorticated specimens; pleurae recurved, facets large and 
procurved, anterior ridges triangular, posterior ones robust and 
merging into the facets. 

Pygidium. — About twice as wide as long, subtriangular, with 
a slight transverse central arch ; axis conspicuous, slightly 
depressed between the side lobes, eight rings present; anterior