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121st session. 

From November 1908 to June 1909. 









119th session. 

Feom November 1906 to Juke 1907, 


1907. K 





/on Af 



List of Publications issued iv 

Proceedings of the 119th Session i 

President's Address 19 

Obituaries . . 37 

Eeception : List of Exhibits 61 

„ Abstracts of Lectures 64 

Abstracts of Papers 73 

Letter from C. v. Linne to P. Arduino Zt, 

Manuscript List of the Linnean Herbarium 89 

Additions to the Library 127 

Donations 162 

Benefactions 163 

Index 171 


Publications of the Society issued during the period, 31st July. 
1906, to 31st July, 1907 :— 

Journal (Botany), No. 261, 18th Oct., 1906. 
„ 262, 1st Nov., 1906. 
„ 263, 11th July, 1907. ' 
„ (Zoolo«y), No, 195, 24th May, 1907. 

Transactions (2nd Ser. Botany), Vol. VII. Part v., March 1907. 
(2nd Ser. Zoology), Vol. IX. Part xi., March 1907. 

„ XII., July 1907. 

Vol. X. „ VI., Oct. 1906. 

„ VII., May 1907. 

Proceedings, 118th Session, from Nov. 1905 to June 1906: 
October 1906. 

List of [Fellows, Associates, and Foreign Members], 1906-1907. 




November 1st, 1906. 
Prof. W. A. HERDMAisr, F.E.S., President, in the Chair. 

Before proceeding to the business of the Meeting, the President 
called attention to the redecoration of the Meeting-room during 
the recess, and the new carpet which was the gift of one of our 
Fellows, Mr. Heebeet Deuce, for which the Council had passed a 
special vote of thanks. 

The Minutes of the General Meeting of the 21st June, 1906, 
were read and confirmed. 

Mr. Henry Eobert Knipe was admitted a Pellow. 

Mr. Morley Thomas Daw, Dr. Ailhur Thomas Masterman, and 
Mr. James Anthony Weale, were severally elected Fellows. 

Mrs. Harriet Isabel Adams, the Eev. Alfred John Campbell, 
Mr. James Drummond, Mr. John Stanley Gardiner, M.A. 
Mr. Joseph Jackson Lister, F.E.S., Mr. John Mastin, Mr. John 
Clark Newsham, Mr. Montagu Austin Phillips, Miss Harriet 
Eichardson, Miss Cora Brooking Sanders, and Mr. Walter Henry 
Toung, were proposed as Fellows. 

The Peesident exhibited spirit- specimens of young Plaice 

LIXIS'. SOC. PROCEEDCs'GS. — SESSION 1906-1907. 6 


hatched and reared in captivity at Port Erin, Isle o£ Man, and 
pointed out the different rate of growth occasioned by different 
surroundings at the station. 

Mr. George Talbot exhibited abnormal specimens of Equisetum 
maximum, Lam. (syn. E. Telmateia, Ebrh.), from Broxbourne, 
Herts, where they grew on dry ground and in a narrow area. 
They were characterised by the development of a fruiting zone on 
an otherwise typical sterile stem ; one specimen showed a prolon- 
gation of the stem bearing branches beyond the cone ; another 
showed an extremely reduced cone borne on the summit of a 

Mr. L. Boodle, F.L.S., made some observations on these speci- 
mens, which he supplemented by drawings from the fresh material, 
copies of figures from Milde and from Celakovsky. 

Prof. F. E. AVeiss, F.L.S., also sent three lantern- slides for 
exhibition, of specimens of the same species from one spot near 
Stockport which annually produces normal and abnormal cones 
from the same rootstock. 

Prof. J. W. H. Trail and Mr. W. C. Worsdell also spoke. 

The General Secretary exhibited a collotype print, 42 cm. x 
33 cm., two-thirds the size of the original portrait of Carl von 
Linne, by P. Krafft, which had been presented by Herr J. Ceder- 
quist of Stockholm. It had been prepared for the forthcoming 
200th anniversary of the birth of Carl von Linne, and was con- 
sidered an admirable specimen of collotype printing. 

The following papers were read and discussed : — 

Sir Dietrich Brandis, K.C.I.E., E.R.S., E.L.S.— " On the 

Structure of Bamboo Leaves." 
Dr. J. G. DE Man. — *' Crustacea from the Inland Sea of Japan." 

(Communicated by Dr. W. T. Calman, E.L.S., E.Z.S.) 
Prof. A. J. EwART, D.Sc, E.L.S.— " The Systematic Position of 

Hectorella c(xsj}itosa, Hook, f." 

November 15th, 1906. 

Prof. W. A. Herdman, E.R.S., President, in the Chair. 

The Minutes of the General Meeting of the 1st November, 
1906, %vere read and confirmed. 

Mr. William Erancis Cooper was admitted a Eellow. 

The President announced the death of Mr. William Mitten, 


The Rev. T. R. R. Stebbixg exhibited Mr. J. G. Filter's Chart 
of the Metric System, published by the Decimal Associatioa. He 
strougly commended the simplicity and clearness with which the 
system was presented by this graphic method, needing so few 
words of textual ex|)lanation. At the same time he thought that 
some of the technical terms were open to objection either in 
regard to spelling or formation. We have long had in English 
the word meter for measurements quite distinct from those of the 
comparatively recent French metre and millimetre. These and 
similar words, therefore, now to be borrowed from the French, 
should preferably I'etain their French terminations, following the 
English (though not the A.merican) usage in such words as centre. 
Further, the words hectogram, hectometer, hectoliter, were unfor- 
tunate and misleading, since they appear to come from the Greek 
eKTos, meaning "the sixth," whereas their real connection is with 
€KaTuv, meaning " a hundred," so that they ought to be respectively 
Tiecatoc/rara, hecatometre, hecatolitre. Are, for 100 square metres as 
the unit of surface measure, is not a particularly welcome addition 
to the English language, and hectare, for 100 ares, ought to be 
either hecatare or hecatoatare. Still, defects in the terminology 
should not divert attention from the importance of the system 
itself and the desirability that students of science should be fully 
acquainted with its character and merits. 

Dr. Rendle made some brief remarks on the Chart. 

On behalf of Mr. John Cryer, of Shipley, the General Secretary 
exhibited a series of 21 specimens of Polygula amarella, Crantz, 
selected to show its wide range of form under various conditions. 
The species was discovered at Grassington in May 1902, and spe- 
cimens were shown at the General Meeting, 4th December, 1902. 
In a communication which was sent with the plants, Mr. Cryer 
states that this species, which grows on the Great Scar Limestone, 
in the West Riding of Yorkshu'e, was to be seen the past season 
in great abundance over a large area. It could be fouud iu many 
situations and at various altitudes from Sweet Side, Grassington, 
to Buckden Pike, a distance of about nine miles as the crow flies ; 
from Buckden Pike to Arncliffe, four and a half miles; from 
Arncliffe to Gordale, live and a half miles ; and from Gordale 
through Bordley to Sky Home, four miles. These districts 
embrace an area, as measured on the Ordnance Map, of about 
thirty-six square miles. 

The first six specimens shown were from three to eight inches 
high, from an elevation of 75u feet ; as the elevation increased, the 
height diminished, till the plant became less than one inch high. 

Blue-flowered specimens were found well distributed over the 
whole area ; \vhite-flowered specimens aere unequally distributed ; 
rose-coloui*ed plants were only found in one locality, but there it 
was locally abundant. Spatliulate rosettes of root-leaves are the 
winter state of the plant. 

One characteristic of Polygala amarella is, that it can grow 



where there is but little soil for its support. Mr. Cryer has found 
it growing on what was almost bare rock ; it has the habit of 
thrusting its roots into the cracks and crevices of rocks or between 
the stones and rocky fragments. Wherever he has found it, with 
one exception, there has been little or no depth of soil. 

Mr. Cryer has compared P. austriaca, Crantz, a closely allied 
species in Kentish localities, and points out that the latter has a 
less condensed habit, with smaller, uniformly lilac-blue flowers, 
more scattered on the stem ; cauline leaves smaller, less pointed 
at the apex ; and only traces of a basal rosette of leaves. 

The Eev. John Gerard, S.J., and Dr. A. B. Eendle referred to 
certain interesting points raised by this exhibition. 

The paper of the evening was by Mr. Hoeace W. Mokcktox, 
Treas. & V.-P., "On the Fjaerlands' Fjord, Norway." 

During the past summer the Author spent a fortnight at 
Mundal on the Fjaerlands Fjord, and he had paid short visits to 
the same place in previous years. The fjord is a long arm running 
from the Sogne Ijord in a north-easterly direction, and snow- 
fields lie near the fjord on both sides, though at a considerable 
altitude above it. Mundal is about 90 miles from the open sea, 
but Fucus grows well on the rocks and foreshore and Mytilns and 
Gardinm floui'ish. 

In August 1898 the Author found a colony of Mya arenaria, 
Linn., living on the foreshore a little above low-water mark at the 
head of the fjord ; and he exhibited some specimens at the Meeting 
of the Society on January 19th, 1899 (Proc. Linn. Soc. 1898-9, p. 6). 
Last August he could not find any living shells, though they might 
possibly have been found had he been able to carry his examination 
below low-water mark. He, however, found a large number of 
dead shells remaining in the muddy sand in the position of life, 
with the valves united and filled with sand or mud. Fossil-beds 
with the shell in the position of life are occasionally met with. 
Mr. H. B. Woodward mentions an instance in the Crag at 
Bramerton Common, near Norwich (" Greolog_y of the Country 
around Norwich," Mem. Geol. Survey, 1881, p. 82); and the 
Author thought the Fjserland case a good example of such a fossil- 
bed in process of making. 

The Author then drew attention to the question to what extent 
the snow-fields and glaciers of Norway can be looked upon as relics 
of the Glacial Period, and in this connection he referred to a 
paper by Mr. J. Eekstad, of the Norwegian Geological Survey 
(" Skoggraenseus og sneliniens storre hoide tidligere i det sydlige 
Norge," Norges geol. Undersogelse, No. 3fi, Aarbog for 1903: 
Kristiania, 1903). Mr. Eekstad quotes several authors who have 
recorded the occuri'ence of trunks and relics of the Scotch Fir 
{Finns sylvestris) in bogs at a level much above the present top- 
most limit of that tree; and he infers that the topmost limit of 
the tree has sunk as much as 1100 feet in the central part of 
Southern Norway. The question then arises : If the limit of the 


Piue was so much higher than at present, must not the suow-Kne 
have been raised to a corresponding amount ? If, however, the 
suow-line were raised 1100 feet, the snow-fields woukl in most 
cases vanish and in a few others be very small, and the larger 
glaciers would probably cease to exist. Xow the bogs in which 
the fir-remains are found are almost certainly more recent than 
the main part of the Glacial Period — in short, post-Grlacial in the 
ordinary sense of the term ; and if the above inference be correct, 
the present snow-fields and glaciers can scarcely be called relics 
of the Grlacial Period, 

In conclusion the Author exhibited a series of photographs of 
the snow-fields and glaciers around the Pjaerlands Pjord. 

An animated discussion followed the reading of the paper 
(which was illustrated by numerous lantern-slides from the 
Author's photographs), in which the President, Col. Swinhoe, 
Sir H. Howorth, K.C.I.E., F.E.S. (visitor), Mr. W. Whitaker, 
P.E.S. (visitor), Dr. Treutler, and Prof. Dendy took part, 
Mr. Mouckton replying. 

December 6th, 1906. 

Prof. AV. A. Herdmax., Pi-esident, in the Chair. 

Tiie Aliuutes of the General fleeting of the loth November, 
1006, were read and confirmed. 

Colonel John "William Terbury was admitted a Fellow. 
Miss Mary Anderson Johnstone, B.Sc.Lond., was proposed as a 

The following were proposed for election as Associate in place 
of the late 3Ir. William :\Iitten, A.L.S. :— Mr. Herbert Clifton 
Chadwick, Mr. Wilham Holland, Mr. James Lomax, Mr. Arthur 
Patterson, and Mr. William Henry Pearson. 

The following were severally balloted for, and elected Fellows : — 
Mrs. Harriet Isabel Adams, the Rev. Alfred John Campbell, 
Mr. James Drummond, Mr. John Stanley Gardiner, 3I.A., 
Mr. Joseph Jackson Lister, F.E.S. , 3Ir. John Mastin, Mr. John 
Clark Xewsham, Mr. Montagu Austin Phillips, Miss Harriet 
Eichai'dson, Miss Cora Brooking Sanders, and Mr. Walter Henry 

The General Secretary having by desire of the President 
explained the foundation and constitution of the Linnean Medal 
in 1888, the President handed to Mr. H. C. Grueber, F.S.A., 
Keeper of the Department of Coins and Medals in the British 
Museum, a silver copy of the said Medal, for the National 
Collection under his charge. 3Ir. Grueber, in acknowledging the 


gift, referred to the difficulty his department experienced in pro- 
curing specimens of modern medals, which were usually restricted 
in number and rarely came into the market. 

The Eev. H. Pueefot FitzGebald, P.L.S., exhibited specimens 
and a water-colour drawing of Siegesbeckia orientalis, Linn., which 
has been recently described as a valuable external curative agent 
in skin diseases. (Abstract, p. 73.) 

Mr. A. O. Walkee, F.L.S., exhibited cut specimens of Clioisya 
ternata, H. B. K., which were now in full flower in his garden 
near Maidstone. These bushes had flowered normally last May, 
but the present flowering he attributed to the drought of last 
season acting as a resting-period to vegetation, which is usually 
performed by the cold of winter. 

Dr. A. T. Masteeman, F.L.S., showed an abnormal specimen of 
the common Dab with three eyes, which had been obtained from 
the Dogger Bank. He was unable to give a full account, as the 
specimen has not jQt been dissected. 

The following papers were read and discussed : — 

Prof. A. J. EwAET, D.Sc, F.L.S.— " The Physiology of the 

Museum Beetle, Anthrenus museorum (Linn.), Pabr." 
Mr. E. E. BuEDON, M.A., F.L.S.— " Note on the Origin of the 

name Chermes or Kermes.''' 
Messrs. E. W. L. Holt and L. Byene. — " Biscayan Plankton. — 

Part X. Pishes." (Communicated by Dr. G. Hbebeet 

Powlee, F.L.S.) 

December 20th, 1906. 

Lieut.-Col. Peain, C.I.E., P.E.S., Vice-President, in the Chair. 

The Minutes of the General Meeting of the 6th December, 
1906, were read and confirmed. 

Mr. John Mastin, Mr. George Stephen West, and Miss Cora 
Brooking Sanders were admitted Pellows. 

Mr. Charles Arnold Newman, B.A. (Cantab.), and Mr. Arthur 
William Garrard Bagshawe, M.B. (Cantab.), were proposed as 

Mr. WiLFEED Maek Webb, F.L.S., exhibited two specimens of 
albino woodlice, Oniscus aseVus, Linn. Prof. Poulton enquired 
whether either specimen had recently moulted, which would 
account for the absence of colour. Mr. Webb, in reply, said 
that was not the case iu one, at least, of the specimens shown. 


Mr. N. E. Beown, A.L.S., exhibited a photograph and dried 
specimens of Fockea capensis, Etidl., a plant of considerable interest 
on account of its great rarity and its apparent great longevity. 
It was originally described and figured by N. J. Jacquin, a hundred 
years ago, in his ' Fragmenta Botanica,' p. 31, t. 34. f. 5, as 
Cynanchum crispum, from a plant which had been introduced 
from South Africa and cultivated in the Imperial Garden at 
Schonbrunn. In 1838, Eudlicher, in his ' Iconographia Generum 
Plantarum," retigured the plant and generically separated it from 
Cynanclium on account of its remarkable structure. This self- 
same individual (from which both the above-mentioned figures 
were made) has been in cultivation at Schonbrunn from Jacquiu's 
time until now, and is the only example of the species known, 
since Dr. A. Zahlbruckner states that all attempts to propagate it 
have failed, and no collector appears to have refound it, the ouly 
dried specimen in existence, so far as known, being the one 
exhibited. The living plant was exhibited at the Botanical 
Congress held at Vienna in 1905, and in the Eeport of that 
Congress, p. 77, is a note concerning it, where it is stated that 
the age of the plant is probably about 150 years. But when 
Jacquin described the plant 100 years ago, he stated that the tuber 
was about 1 foot long and 6 inches thick ; at the present time, 
from calculations I have made from the photograph of the plant 
by comparing the length of the largest leaves on the dried speci- 
men \^'ith those of the photograph, I find that the tuber is about 
7-^ inches thick and stands about 12i inches above the ground. 
As this small increase in size during 100 years has been obtained 
under the conditions of cultivation, where the plant would obtain 
more moisture and be likely to groM- more rapidly than in the very 
dry climate of its natural habitat, it would appear conclusive that 
its growth is extremely slow, and that the actual age of the indi- 
vidual in question is probably much more than 150 years. Burchell, 
in a note with a dried specimen of the very closely allied i^.(7?a6ra, 
Decne., states that the tuber is sometimes as much as 2 feet in 
diameter, and, if as slow-growing as F. ccqoensis, this would imply 
that the plant must attain an age of several centuries. Xoue of 
the species of Fochea appears to be common, and as the tubers are 
eaten by the natives and do not seem to produce fruit freely, it 
it possible that they may be approaching extinction. 

Two other interesting plants are Babiana spathacea, Ker, and 
Eriosphcfva Ocvhi.s-cati, Less., which are exhibited further to 
illustrate how very rare or very local some of the South African 
plants are, since neither of these two has been collected by any 
botanical traveller since Thunberg found them in 1774, until 
these specimens were gathered. The Babiana was originally 
described as Gladiolus spathaceus, Linn, f., Suppl. p. 96, from a 
specimen collected by Thunberg. The type and the specimen 
here exhibited are identical with it. An account of the plant will 
be found in Hooker's ' Icones Plantarum,' vol. xxviii. t. 2710. 


The Eriosphcera was originally described as Gnaphalium Oculus- 
cati, Linn, f ., Suppl. 364, from a specimen collected by Sparrman ; 
a specimen of it in Thunberg's herbarium, upon which Lessiug 
founded the genus Eriosplicera, is figured by Harvey in his ' The- 
saurus Capensis,' vol. ii, p. 30, t. 149. 

A discussion followed. Prof. Poulton, Dr. E-endle, Dr. Stapf 
(who gave an account of the probable introduction of the photo- 
graphed specimen to Schonbrunn in 1758), and the Chairman 
took part. The last referred to the courtesy of the Vienna 
authorities in lending the only existing herbarium specimens of 
Fockea to Kew for a short time. 

The following papers were read atid discussed : — 

Dr. Alfred B, Eendle, M.A., F.L.S., and others. — " Report 
on the Botanical Results of the Third Tanganyika Expe- 

Messrs. W. F. CooPEE, F.L.S., and L. E. Eobinson. — " A New 
and Abnormal Species of 2ihipicep7iah(s" 

January 17th, 1907. 

Prof. W. A. Heedman, E.R.S., President, in the Chair. 

The Minutes of the General Meeting of the 20th December, 
1906, were read and confirmed. 

Tiie Rev. Alfred John Campbell, Mr. Walter Henry Young, 
and Mr, John Clark JNTewsham were admitted Eellows. 

Mr. Charles Edward Eryer was proposed as a Fellow. 

Miss Mary Anderson Johnstone, B.Sc.(Lond,), was elected a 

The President referred to the death of Mr, William Mitten as 
having caused a vacancy in the list of Associates, to fill which 
five candidates had been proposed on the 6th December, 1906 ; 
on balloting, Mr. William Heney Peaeson was elected an 

The Geneeal Seceetaet drew attention to the copy by Jean 
Haagen of the portrait of Carl von Linne, by J. H. Schetfel, dated 
1739, now preserved in the Linnean Museum at Hammarby, 
which had been presented to the Society by the University of 
Upsala. Mr. Carruthers and Dr. Murie having spolien, a special 
vote of thanks to the University for this most acceptable gift was 
voted unanimously. 


The following papers were read and discussed : — 

W. BoTTi>'G Hemsley, F.R.S., F.L.S. — '■'■ PJatantliera chlorantJia, 

Custor, \a.r. tricakarata." 
The late Mr. C. B. Clarke, F.R.S., F.L.S.—" Acanthaceae of 

insular Malava." (Communicated by Dr. Otto Staff, 

Eev. T. E. E. Stebbixg, F.E.S,, Sec.L.S.— " A Freshwater 

Isopod from Calcutta." 
]\Ir. Alexander Patiexce. — " On a new British Terrestrial 

Isopod." (Communicated by the Zoological Secretary.) 

February 7th, 1907. 

Lieut .-Col. Praix, CLE., F.E.S. , Vice-President, in the Chair. 

The Minutes of the General Meeting of the 17th January, 
1907, were read and confirmed. 

Mr. Frederick "William Cousens and Mr. Gregory Macalister 
Mathews were proposed as Fellows. 

Mr. Arthur William G arrard Bagshawe and Mr. Charles Arnold 
Xewman were elected Fellows. 

The Eev. Johx Gerard. S..T., F.L.S., brought forward " Some 
Observations on Climbing Plants," illustrating his remarks by 
lantern- slides from his own photographs from living plants and 
herbarium material. He began by pointing out the two opposing 
methods of describing spiral growth or torsion as viewed from the 
exterior or from the interior of the spiral, the result being that 
the " dextrorse " of the first is the " sinistrorse " of the second 
method. With or against the sun, ^yhich applies to the northern 
hemisphere, is reversed in the southern hemisphere, and for these 
reasons he preferred to use the terms " clockwise '' and " counter- 
clocku ise '' (shortened to " counterwise ") : the Honeysuckle 
(Lonkera Peridymenum) and the Hop {Hiunulus Lupulus) turning 
clockwise, and the Convolvulus {Convolvulus arvcnsis) and the 
Scarlet Eimner Bean (PJiaseolus vulgaris) twining counterwise. 
He showed the result of some experiments he had made b}' growing 
beans ( Vicia Faha) in opaque cylinders, to discover if possible 
whether the deviation of the twist were innate, or from the direc- 
tion of the light, the conclusion being drawn that the plant 
possessed an inclination resembling the instinct of animals, of 
proceeding in a given direction, and resented any attempt to force 
it otherwise. The Author concluded with some observations on 
the behaviour of tendrils, as those of Bn/onia dloica, displaying 
one specimen which had vax'ied the torsion four times, and showed 
ten turns in one direction against seventeen in the contrary. 


The discussion which followed was taken part in by Prof. Dandy, 
Mr. J. C. Shenstone, the General Secretary, Mr. Clement Eeid, 
Mr. T. A. Sprague, Dr. A. B. Eendle, Mr. A. P. Young, and the 
Chairman, who confirmed the statement, that in Dioscorea the 
direction of the twist indicated in advance the character of the 
fruit ; whether belonging to the typical group or the section 

Dr. A. B. Eendle exhibited, on behalf of Mr. W. Eose Smith, 
two volumes of four formed by a German collector, A. Euperti, of 
Halle in Westphaha, in 1698-1700. It was pointed out that this 
method of pasting down plants in a volume was the earlier plan, 
that of using separate sheets being a much later usage ; the 
question was raised, at what date was the book form practically 
discontinued ? 

The General Secretary and Mr. J. Burtt-Davy contributed a 
few remarks on this exhibition. 

The following papers were read and discussed : — 

Dr. Otto Stapf, E.L.S. — " New Plants from Malaya." 
Mr. P. Chapman, A.L.S. — " Tertiary Poraminifera of Victoria : 
The Balcombian Deposits of Port Phillip." 

February 21st, 1907. 

Prof. W. A. Heedman, P.E.S., President, in the Chair. 

The Minutes of the General Meeting of the 7th February, 
1907, were read and confirmed. 

Mr. Joseph Jackson Lister, P.E.S., and Mr. John Stanley 
Gardiner, M.A., were admitted Pellows. 

Mr. Harry Howard Bloomer, Mr. Charles John Cowper Mee, 
and Mr. George Penrose were proposed as Pellows. 

Mr. Charles Edward Pryer was elected a Pellow. 

The following papers of " The Percy Sladen Trust Expedition 
to the Indian Ocean in 1905 under Mr. J. Stanley Gardiner " were 
read : — 

Mr. J. Stanley Gaedineb, P.L.S., and Mr. C. Postee Coopee. — 
" Description of the Expedition. — I. Introduction. II. 
History and Equipment of the Expedition. III. Resume 
of the Voyage and AVork — Part 1. Colombo to Mauritius." 

The following papers were communicated by Mr. J. Stanley 
Gardiner, M.A., P.L.S. 

Mr. E. C. PuNNETT, M.A. — " Land-Nemerteans, with a Note on 
the Distribution of the Group." 


Mr, L. A. BoREADAiLE, M.A. — " Land and Freshwater Crustacea." 

Mr. P. Camerois". — " Hymenoptera." 

Mr, F. F. Laidlaw. — "Dragon-Flies," 

M. A. FoEEL, — " Fourmis des Seychelles, Amirantes, Farquhar 

et Chagos." 
Prof, G. H. Carpexter. — " Pycnogonida." 
Dr, H. F. Gadow, F.E,S., and Mr. J. Stanley Gardiner, 

F,L,S.— "Aves."' 

March 7th, 1907. 

Prof. W. A, Herdman, F.E.S., President, in the Chair, 

The Minutes of the General Meeting of the 21st February, 
1907, were read and confirmed, 

Mr. William Percival Westell and Mr. Eowland Edgar Nicholas 
were proposed as Fellows, 

Mr, Frederick William Cousens and Mr. Gregory Macalister 
Mathews were elected Fellows. 

The Meeting having been declared Special in accordance with 
the notice previously sent out as required by Bye-Laws, Chap. VIII. 
Sect. XL, the Fellows present proceeded to vote for a Zoological 
Secretary in the place of the Eev. Thomas Eoscoe Eede Stebbing, 

The Ballot being closed the President appointed Mr. Herbert 
Druce, Mr. John Hopkinson, and Mr. Henry Groves, Scrutineers : 
the votes having been cast up, the Scrutineers reported to the 
President, who thereupon declared that Prof. Arthur Dendy had 
been unanimously elected Zoological Secretary, 

The President then moved a vote of thanks to the retiring 
Secretary, which was spoken to by Mr, Horace W. Monckton, 
Dr, D. JH[. Scott, and Mr. B. Daydon Jackson, whereupon the 
vote was carried by acclamation. 

Dr, James MuErE, F.L.S., exhibited a portion of a human skull 
with a growth of Sahellaria alveolata and several hydroids upon it ; 
it had been dredged near the Black Deep in the Thames estuary. 
The President commented on the exhibit, and Dr, Murie replied, 

Messrs. H. & J. Groves, F.L.S., exhibited a series of specimens of 
Nitella ornithopoda, A. Braun, collected by the Eev. Canon Bullock- 
Webster. This rare species has only been found in a small 
district in the West of France, from Augouleme in the north to 
the south of Arcachon, and doubtfully in one locality in Portugal. 
The especial interest of the specimens exhibited, which were 


collected to the south of Arcachon in March and April 1906, was 
that they represented gatherings of the plant from very different 
habitats and showed great variations. The plants collected in 
shallow ditches were already in full fruit, while those from 
running water and those from Lake Cazan were quite immature, 
and so far sterile. Only a few specimens of this species have 
previously reached England, and the collection exhibited was 
probably by far the most extensive series of forms yet obtained. 

Braun recognised two forms — the more typical one almost 
resemblicig in habit some forms of our N. tenuissima (this form 
Avas called f . moniliformis by Prof. Migula), and the other var. laxa, 
which resembles N. gracilis. Among the specimens were some 
from roadside ditches near Arcachon, representing a third and 
very distinct form; this may be called var. rohusta. It is 4-5 in. 
high, very dark green, much more robust than the ordinary form, 
and with comparatively short ultimate rays to the branchlets, 
giving it the appearance of N. mucronata in miniature. 

N. orniiliopoda is interesting as representing, in Europe, Braun's 
section Polyabteeodactyl.e. The headquarters of the species in 
this section is Australasia, where there are eleven species, two 
reach north to Japan, and one occurs in India. Two or three are 
found in South America, and one in North America. Three 
species occur in Africa, one of which is also recorded by Dr. Nord- 
stedt from Portugal. It is not qiiite certain that N. ornithojrjoda 
is distinct from this last. 

The following papers were read and discussed : — 

Miss N. F. Layard, F.L.S. — " On the Ornamentation of the 

Frog-tadpole." (Abstract, p. 74.) 
Mr. S. B. Kemp, B.A.— " Biscayan Plankton. Part XI. Decapoda." 

(Communicated bv Dr. G. Herbert Fowler, F.L.S.) 
Prof. E. B. PouLTON, F.R.S., F.L.S.—" On the Colour-changes 

in South African Cliamaeleons." 
Mr. (x. Claeidge Druce, F.L.S. — " On the Occurrence of 

Speri/ularia atheniensis and Agrostis verticiUata in the 

Channel Islands." (Abstract, p. 76.) 

March 21st, 1907. 

Prof. W. A. Herdmax, F.E.S., President, in the Chair. 

The Minutes of the General Meeting of the 7th March, 1907, 
were read and confirmed. 

Mr. Richard Elmhirst was proposed as a Fellow. 

Miss Mary Anderson .Johnstone, Mr. Gregory Macalister 
Mathews, Prof. Eichard Henry Aapp, and Mr. Charles Arnold 
Newman were admitted. 


Mr. Hany Howard Bloomer, Mr. Charles John Cowper Mee, 
and Mr. George Penrose were elected Fellows. 

Mr. W. Cabruthebs, F.E.S., F.L.S., exhibited ou behalf of 
Mrs. Heleiv Waiid, of Slough, a series of 19 drawings of Alpine 
flowers, grouped according to their time of flowering, and intended 
to illustrate a forthcoming volume. 

Mr. J. Burtt-Dayy, F.L.S., showed 50 lantern-slides illustrative 
of the tree and bush vegetation of the Trausvaal ; the President, 
Prof. "Weiss, Miss Gibbs, and Mr. Carruthers joined in a discussion, 
to which Mr. Burtt-Davy replied. 

The following paper was read and discussed : — 

Mr. E. A. K'ewell Aebeb, F.L.S. — " On the Origin of Angio- 

April ISth, 1907. 
Dr. A. Smith Woodwaud, F.R.S., Vice-President, in the Chair. 

The Minutes of the General Meeting of the 21st March, 1907, 
were read and confii'med. 

Mr. William Holmes Burrell, Mr. Eobert Patterson, and Mr. 
Geoffrey Watkin Smith, M.A., wei-e proposed as Fellows. 

Mr. Eowland Edgar Nicholas and Mr. William Percival Westell, 
were elected Fellows. 

The following were proposed from the Chair as Auditors for 
the Society's Accounts for the financial year ending 30th April, 
and by show of hands were elected : — 

For the Council, Dr. Horace T. Brown and Dr. A. B. Rendle. 
For the Fellows, Mr. Herbert Druce and Mr. John Hopkinson. 

The follo\\'ing proposed new Section of the Bye-Laws was read 
for the first time from the Chair : — 

Chap. II. Section 2 a. — A Fellow, not in ai*rear with his Annual 
Conti'ibution, may, on giving proof of his age to the satisfaction 
of the Council, compound for all future Annual Contributions, 
according to a scale for age. Such scale sliall be fixed by the 
Council, and the Council shall have power to vary it from time to 

Mr. James Saun'dees, A.L.S., showed a series of lantern-slides 
of " Witches' Brooms," wliich he explained are usually caused by 


one of three agents — parasitic fungi (^cidium and Exoascus), 
parasitic insects, and gnarling. The illustrations shown were of 
trees affected by parasitic fungi, the mycelium of which permeates 
in the woody tissue of the diseased plants. They included Silver 
Fir, Norway Spruce, Common Elm, Hazel, Hornbeam, Birch, 
Elder, Hawthorn, and Wild Cherry {Primus avium). The Silver Eir 
was from Norfolk, but all the others came from South Bedfordshire 
and North Hertfordshire. 

Mr. John Hopkinson, Mr. G. S. Saunders, and Mr. A. O. 
Walker joined in the discussion which followed. 

The following papers were read and discussed : — 

Mr. J. C. Shenstone, E.L.S. — " On the (Ecologic Functions of 
Stolons and Cleistogamous Elowers." (Abstract, p. 78.) 

Mr. A. O. Walker, E.L.S. — "The Conservation of existing 
Species by Constitutional or Physiological Variation." 

Mr. Hugh Scott. — " On an Aberrant form of Coccidae.'"' (Com- 
municated by J. J. LiSTEE, E.E.S., E.L.S.) 

Prof. W. B. BoTTOMLEY, E.L.S. — " On some Eesults of Inocu- 
lation of Leguminous Plants." 

May 2nd, 1907. 
Prof. W. A. Heedman, E.E.S., President, in the Chair. 

The Minutes of the General Meeting of the 18th April, 1907, 
were read and confirmed. 

Mr. Harrv Howard Bloomer and Dr. Arthur Thomas Master- 
man were admitted Eellows. 

Mr. Illtyd Buller Pole Evans, B.A., B.Sc, Mr. Frederick 
Ambrose Gardiner, and Mr. Frank Campbell McClellan, were 
proposed as Fellows. 

Mr. Eichard Elmhirst was elected a Fellow. 

Dr. G. Herbert Fowler, E.L.S. , exhibited a new closing-net, 
of light but effective construction, for tow-netting. The President, 
the Bev. T. R. R. Stebbing, and Dr. Murie contributed remarks 
on the subject. 

Prof. E. B. PouLTON, F.E.S., F.L.S., exhibited the probate of 
the Will of Richard Anthony SaUsbury (1761-1829), F.L.S., 
and manuscripts of Dr. W. John Burchell, E.L.S. , which had 
been recently presented to the University of Oxford by Mr. F. 
A. Burchell, of Rhodes University College, Grahamstown, South 

The General Secretary exhibited, on behalf of the owner, two 


portraits of John Eeaser, F.L.S., by John Hoppner and Sir George 
Raebarn ; the latter, he pointed out, was the unacknowledged 
source of the lithographed portrait in Hooker's ' Companion to 
the Botanical Magazine,' vol. ii. (1836) p. 300. The following 
note accompanied the exhibit : — 

"John Fraser (1750-1811) was born at Tomnacloich, Inverness- 
shire in 1750, and apparently came to London in 1770, when 
he married and settled as a hosier and draper at Paradise Row, 
Chelsea. Having acquired a taste for plants from visiting the 
Botanical Garden, Chelsea, then under the care of Forsyth, he 
sailed to Newfoundland in 1780 in search of new species, return- 
ing the same year. In 1784 he embarked for Charleston, whence 
he returned in 1785, only to start again the same year. His 
third, fourth, and fifth visits to North America were made in 1790, 
1791, and 1795, he having in the latter year established a nursery 
at Sloane Square, Chelsea, to which his discoveries were consigned. 
Having introduced various American pines, oaks, azaleas, rhodo- 
dendrons, and magnolias, in 1796 he visited St. Petersburg, where 
the Empress Catherine purchased a collection of plants from him. 
Revisiting Russia in 1797 and 1798 he was appointed botanical 
collector to the Czar Paul, and commissioned by him, returned to 
America in 1799, taking with him the eldest of his two sons. 

" In Cuba he met and was assisted by Humboldt and Bonpland. 
On his return the Czar Alexander declined to recognise his appoint- 
ment; by his predecessor, though Fraser made two journeys to 
Russia to obtain remuneration. 

" In 1806 he started on his seventh and last visit to America, 
again taking his son ; he returned with many new plants, in 1810, 
to his nursery, which however was never successful." 

He died at Sloane Square on 26th April, 1811. Walter's 
herbarium, which he possessed, was presented in 1849 to the 
Linnean Society, of which he was a Fellow, by his son ; but was 
disposed of in 1863. 

The following papers were read and discussed : — 

Mr. A. D. Daebishiee. — " On the Respiratory Mechanism in 

certain Elasmobranchs." (Communicated by Prof. A. Dendy, 

Prof. E. B. PouLTON, F.R.S., F.L.S.— On the Fauna and Flora 

of Abyssinia as compared with that of West Africa." 
Herr C. J. With. — " Pseudoscorpions." (Communicated by the 

Rev. T. R. R. Stebbing, F.R.S., F.L.S.) 

The Peesident then laid before the Society four papers of a 
proposed series on the Fauna of the Sudanese Red Sea ; they con- 
sisted of (1) An Introduction, by the President; (2) a narrative 
of Mr. Cyril Crossland's explorations; (3) Mr. Crossland's account 
of the formation of certain shore-cliffs in Egypt, and (4) of the 
Red Sea Coral Reefs ; with (5) Mr. E. R. Sykes's enumeration of 
the Polyplacophora collected. 


May 24th, 1907. 

Anniversary Meeting. 

Prof. W. A. Herdman, P.E.S., President, in the Chair. 

The Minutes of the General Meeting of the 2ad May, 1907, 
were read and confirmed. 

The Duke of Bedford and Mr. Charles Edward Pryer were 
admitted Pellows. 

Mr. Ealph Sneyd Pearson was proposed as a Pellow. 

The President read from the Chair the proposed new subsection 
of the Bye-Laws. 

The Treasurer then laid the Annual Cash Statement (p. 17), 
which had been duly audited, before the Fellows ; he pointed oat 
that the Society's investment in Consols had been sold, and 
reinvested in other securities returning a higher dividend. 

The Treasurer's report was received and adopted. 

The General Secretary's Eeport of deaths, withdrawals, and 
elections during the past year was read, as follows : — 

Since the last Anniversary Meeting 13 Pellows have died or 
their deaths been ascertained : 

Major E. Cary Barnard. Sir Michael Poster. 

Mr. Charles William Agnew 1 Prof. WilHam Pream. 

Bruce. Sir Thomas Hanbury. 

Sir Walter Lawry Buller. I Mr. George Darby Haviland. 

Mr. Edward Chapman. I Mr. Prederick Justen. 

Mr. Charles Baron Clarke. \ Prof. Harry Marshall Ward. 

Dr. S. M. Curl. ! Mr. William Waterfield. 

Associate (1). 
Mr. William Mitten. 

PoREiGN Member (1). 
Prof. Prans Eeinhold Kjellman. 

The following 9 Pellows have withdrawn : 

Lieut.-Col. Alfred William 

Mr. Herbert Goss. 
Mr. Prederick William Hildyard. 
Mr. Charles Plolme. 

Mr. Eichmond William Hullett. 
Eev. Andrew Bayne Morris. 
Mnjor E. G. Wardlaw Eamsay. 
Mr. J. Brooking Eowe ^ 
Mr. Harold Stuart Thompson. ^ 



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Mr. Harry Edward Heath Smedle^y has been removed from the 
List of Fellows, under the provisions of the Bye-Laws, Chapter II., 
Section 6. 

Thirty-two Fellows have been elected (of whom 30 have 
qualified), and one Associate. 

The Librarian's report was then laid before the Meeting as 
follows : — 

During the past year, 85 Volumes and 135 Pamphlets have 
been received as Donations from Private Individuals. 

From the various Universities, Academies, and Scientific 
Societies 287 volumes and 64 detached parts have been received 
in exchange and otherwise, besides 60 volumes and 20 parts 
obtained by exchange and as Donations from the Editors and 
Proprietors of independent Periodicals. 

The Council have sanctioned the purchase of 186 volumes and 
98 parts of important works. 

The total additions to the Library are therefore 618 volumes 
and 317 pamphlets and separate parts. 

The number of Books bound during the year is as follows : — 

In full morocco 5 volumes, in half-morocco 210 volumes, in half- 
calf 4 volumes, in full cloth 236 volumes, in vellum 53 volumes, 
in buckram 28 volumes, in boards or half-cloth 21 volumes. 
Relabelled (half-morocco and cloth backs) 62 volumes. Total 
619 volumes. 

The Secretary, Dr. D. H. Scott, then read the Bye-Laws 
governing the elections of the Council and Officers, consisting of 
Chap. VIII. Sect. 4-8 inclusive. 

The President then opened the business of the day, and the 
Fellows present proceeded to vote. 

The President then delivered his Annual Address as follows : — 




At the conclusion of my third year of office I thank you 
again for the opportunity you have given me of serving our 
Society, and I ask you to join me in thanking my fellow-oflScers 
who have taken their fulJ share of the responsibihty and the 

To the regret of us all, our honoui-ed Zoological Secretary, the 
Eev. T. R. E. Stebbiug, E.E.S., whose reputation as an original 
worker in Carcinology gave distinction to the office, intimated his 
intention of retiring during the present Session. We did what 
seemed possible to induce our colleague to remain in office at least 
until this anniversary meeting, but the claims of much unfinished 
work elsewhere weighed too heavily, and tlie Council after due 
consideration felt bound to respect Mr. Stebbing's undoubted 
wish, and to release him from duty. I am sure that I only 
express the opinion of all tlie Eellows when I say that Mr. 
Stebbing carries with him on retiring our most cordial thanks for 
his devotion to our affairs during the last four Sessions, our 
appreciation of his work, both on Council and at the meetings, 
and our earnest hope that he may long have health and strength 
to continue those admirable researches which have ad<led so much 
to our knowledge of systematic Invertebrate Zoology. Our 
personal loss, in this instance, is, it may be confidently expected, 
a gain to Science at large. 

The Society is fortunate in having found Prof. Arthur Dendy 
able and willing to accept office and take up at short notice the 
duties relinquished by Mr. Stebbing ; and, at our special meeting 
on March 7th, on the nomination of the Council, he was duly elected 
Zoological Secretary. As Prof. Dendy was already a Councillor 
his nomination and election to office created no vacancy, and 
consequently Mr. Stebbing was enabled to retain for the remainder 
of the Sessiou his seat upon our Council. 

We have enjoyed a normal, active and useful Session. Anyone 
attending the meetings with some regularity, or looking over the 
series of fortnightly abstract reports which are circulated to 
the Eellows and afterwards printed in the ' Proceedings,' wiU 
agree that we have received and discussed a number of very 
varied and interesting communications, ranging over most depart- 
ments of Botany and Zoolcgy. Amongst noteworthy papers may 
be mentioned Dr. Herbert Eov^ ler's series on Biscayan Plankton, 
Mr. Stanley Gardiner's on the Results of the first Percy-Sladen 
Trust Expedition to the Indian Ocean, and Mr. Crossland's on the 
Sudanese Eed Sea Fauna ; an important work by our late Fellow, 
Mr. C. B. Clarke, on Malayan Acanthaceae ; the paper on the 
Fauna and Flora of Abyssinia and West Africa, by Prof. Poultou ; 



and that on the Origin of Angiosperms, by Messrs. Newell Arber 
and J. Parkin, Avhich gave rise to an excellent discussion. 

The number of new Fellows we have elected this Session, 32, 
is unusually large, and includes active workers in both sides of 
our Science — whose closer co-operation we value. 

The death of Mr. William Mitten. A.L.S., the well-known 
Bryologist, left a vacancy which the Society filled up on January 
17th by electing Mr. W. H. Pearson as an Associate. Any 
Pellow examining the claims of the five men who were proposed 
on that occasion, could not fail to be struck by the high order of 
merit they all presented. It is a matter of congratulation that 
our Associateship is so highly prized by recognised workers in 
Science ; but still I think many of us felt some regret that we 
could give the honour to one only of five such excellent candidates, 
all of whom were well-qualified and worthy. 

The death of our Foreign Member Professor Frans Reinhold 
Kiellman, the successor of Linnaeus as occupant of the Chair of 
Botany at Upsala, was especially startling, occurring as it did only 
a few weeks previous to the great Linnean celebrations at his 
University. The vacancy thus created in our list has not yet 
been filled, but the matter will shortly come up before the Council 
for consideration. Our losses in ordinary Fellows, thirteen in all, 
have not been numerous this Session, but they include some 
notable figures — both veterans of Science, such as Sir Michael 
Foster and Mr. C. B. Clarke, and also younger men of high 
distinction, such as Prof. Marshall Ward, by whose work and 
counsel we might naturally have expected to profit for many 
years to come. Mr. Clarke served the Society as President from 
1894 to 1896, and he was a member of Council and a Vice-President 
up to within a few months of his death. The obituary notices 
of the deceased Fellows will be laid upon the table by the 
Secretaries as usual. 

The Council has awarded the Linnean Medal this year to the 
distinguished Botanist Dr. Melchior Treub, for many years 
Director of the State Botanic Gardens at Buitenzorg in Java, and 
in regard to whose services to Science I shall have something to 
say at a later stage in these proceedings. 

Our arrangements for publishing the scientific results of the 
first Percy-Sladen Trust Expedition were alluded to in my last 
Address, and you may now be interested to hear of the progress 
of that undertaking. The first seven of the reports were laid 
before the Society on February 21st along with the first half 
of the Introduction, including the Narrative of the Expedition 
from Ceylon to Mauritius by Mr. Stanley Gardiner and Mr. 
Forster Cooper. The second half (Mauritius to Seychelles) is 
now nearljr completed, and five additional reports, dealing with 
Lithothamnia, Ticks, Fishes, Stomatopoda, and Nudibranchiata, 
are already in our Secretary's hands. That on the Fishes in- 
cludes an account of 185 species, of which 51 ai-e new, requiring 
8 new genera. Most of the above-mentioned sections of the 


report are by tliis time in the press, and Pellows may reasonably 
expect to receive a first instalment of this special publication in 
our series of ' Transactions ' before very long. 

This is a notable Session, and to-day is a notable date in the 
annals of our own and all similar Societies. At this meeting we 
celebrate the 200th Anniversary of the birth of our eponymous 
hero, the illustrious Swedish Naturalist Carl von Linne ; and at 
this time the eyes of Linneans all the world over will naturally 
turn to Upsala, where the ancient University celebrates, yesterday 
and to-day, with fitting pomp and circumstance, an occasion with 
■\^hich we desire to express our most cordial sympathy and con- 
gratulations. This Society was officially invited to appoint a 
delegate to take part in the proceedings as a guest of the 
University, and our Council expressed the wish that if the President 
of the Society was unable to go to Sweden himself at this time, 
he should name a representative to take his place. Our present 
Anniversary Meeting and other duties in England prevented me 
from having the honour of representing the Society, and I had 
great pleasure in proposing to the Council the nomination of our 
Past-President, Mr. William Carruthers, P.R.S., whose well-known 
and long-continued studies on the history, work, and personal 
relics of Linnaeus rendered him a most suitable representative on 
the occasion. 

Mr. Carruthers, accompanied by our General Secretary, is 
now in Sweden, conveying both to Upsala and to Stockholm 
our messages of goodwill and congratulation ; and bearing for 
presentation to the University of Linnseus a special copy of our 
Linnean Medal. We shall hope to hear from our representative, 
at a future meeting, some account of the proceedings at this 
historic gathering in Sweden ; and 1 would now propose to you 
that, if you are agreeable, we should participate so far as we 
can in those proceedings by sending, at the conclusion of this 
meeting, to the Rector of the University of Upsala, a telegram of 
congratulation in the following terms : — 

Linnean Societi/ of London assembled at Anniversary 
Meeting congratulates University of Upsala on historic 
Linnean Celebration. 

Our Council has decided that, in addition to the recognition of 
the occasion at the present meeting, our own rejoicing on this 
200th Anniversary should take the form of a Conversazione, in 
these rooms, which we hope the Fellows and their friends and a 
few other representative men of Science will be pleased to attend. 
The date fixed is June 7th ; the invitations, as you are aware, have 
been issued, and we only regret that limitations of space prevent 
us from receiving a wider circle of scientific friends in this house. 
We expect on the occasion to have displayed in the Library and 
Council-room upstairs some exhibits of scientific interest and 


novelty, while in this meeting-room there will be, during the 
course" of the evening, a few brief illustrated lecturettes or 
demonstrations by Fellows of the Society. 

In my two previous Addresses I have dealt with the application 
of biological knowledge, from the time of Linnaeus onwards, to au 
economic problem of considerable importance — the production 
naturally and artificially of precious pearls in shell-fish. It may 
interest you to know that since I last spoke to you on the subject, 
another highly successful fishery has been held on the Ceylon 
pearl-banks, resulting in the capture of twenty-one millions of 
Oysters which have sold for £70,000. After a barren period 
of twelve years, during which these banks produced nothing, we 
have had since 1902 a series of five most successful seasons — the 
most profitable pearl-fisheries that, so far as is known, have ever 
been held — yielding in all to their fortunate possessors nearly 
half a million sterling, besides much benefit both direct and 
indirect to the native populations of India and Ceylon. The 
Government has taken what is probably, underall the circumstances, 
a very wise step in leasing the fisheries for a period of years at a 
fair rent on well-considered conditions of tenure. The banks are 
now being cai-efully cultivated, under scientific direction, and may 
confidently be expected, when they pass back into the hands of 
the Government at the conclusion of the lease, to prove even a 
more valuable property than they are at present. 

This is an example taken from one little corner of the vast 
field of useful work in Applied Science open to the modern 
biologist. I desire on the present occasion to deal briefly with a 
wider question of far greater importance from both the scientific and 
the administrative or economic points of view,— viz., the scientific 
investigation of the oceans of the world, and primarily of our own 
British coasts, in the interests of the sea-fisheries and other allied 
industries. The more enlightened of our administi-ators, as well 
as scientific men generally, are now becoming convinced of the 
necessity of studying the forces and resources of Nature as a 
means of subjugating the world to the human mind. The future 
undoubtedly belongs to that nation or race which comes to 
understand best the working of nature, and which can most 
skilfully and economically apply that knowledge to the welfare 
of man. 

Biology has been later than some of the inorganic sciences in 
entering this field of practical applications to industry, and as yet 
it has not been utilised to the same extent as, for example, 
Chemistry or Electricity. But the extension and recognition of 
the practical utility of our Science has of late been increasing 
by leaps and bounds, and the outlook at present is most promising. 
I need scarcely delay to remind you that Bacteriology and a great 
part of modern Medicine and Surgery are essentially applications 
of Biology. Cold storage, the canning trades, and many other 
industries and processes are based upon biological principlea. 


Even apart from questions of food-supply and public health, there 
are wide applications both in the trades and in the arts. Many 
industrial products of the sea of great value to man, such as tlie 
pearl, the coral and the sponge fisheries of the world, are wholly 
biological concerns susceptible of scientific treatment. The 
Japanese have recently started an important coral fishery — a 
fishery for the precious coral — on their southern coasts, where it 
is now a growing industr}^ And the first thing they did was to 
appoint two scientific men, well-known zoologists (Kishinouye 
and Kitahara), to investigate thoroughly the animals concerned 
and the conditions under which they hve, in order, to quote the 
words of the .Japanese report, to " prevent exhaustion and make 
it an endless source of profit." That is the action that an 
enlightened Government in a countr}^ of advanced civilisatioa 
will naturally take. 

Japan has an efficient Imperial Bureau of Fisheries and 
employs many scientific men. The United States similarly has a 
powerful Bureau of Fisheries, formerly the famous " Commission 
of Fish and Fisheries." Germany and other European countries 
have also well-equipped departments and institutions for fisheries 
research supported by the State. That being so, it is an extra- 
ordinary circumstance, and difficult to realise, that our own 
powerful and wealthy country, having perhaps a greater stake in 
the harvest of the sea than any other nation, has no adequate, 
scientifically equipped department prepared to deal comprehen- 
sively with sea-fisheries problems. Our Government department 
of Fisheries, once at the Board of Trade, now a constituent part 
of the Board of Agriculture and Fisheries, is admittedly not 
organised and not equipped and not provided with tlie material 
resources to undertake the necessary marine investigations. 

The Sea-Fisheries authorities around the coast, upon whom 
devolves the administration and promotion of the local fisheries, 
are subject in their actions to the supervision of the Central 
Government, but are not provided with any funds from the 
Treasury. It has been left to a few sea-coast Universities 
and Marine Laboratories (St. Andrews, Plymouth, Cullercoats, 
Liverpool) to conduct investigations on their own initiative and, 
in the main, at their own expense. Recently, an International 
scheme for the Exploration of the North Sea and adjoining waters 
has been conducted jointly by our own and other neighbouring 
Governments as a temporary agreement. 

As the period of five years for which this international engage- 
ment was made ends in July, and as the question whether such 
international work or a proposed national scheme of sea-fisheries 
research will best suit the needs of this country is to be made the 
subject of a Government enquiry, the present seems a fitting time 
for scientific men who are interested in fishery questions to look 
somewhat critically into the work that is being done, and determine 
if possible how far the methods employed are adequate and are 
calculated to vield reliable results. 


Five years ago, in 1901-02, au " Ichthyological Research Com- 
mittee," after sitting at the Board of Trade for nearly a year, 
taking evidence and discussing results, issued a report which has 
probably met with the fate of many Government publications 
vs'hen, decently shi-ouded in blue covers, they are laid to rest on 
shelves and buried in dust. In that forgotten report a plan 
of organisation of fishery research is outlined which, wdth 
modifications and elaborations, might be suitable for adoption 
at the present juncture. For I believe it will be pretty generally 
agreed in this country that the time has now come when the 
International scheme, having run for the five years of its appoint- 
ment, has served its purpose, and may with advantage give place 
in England to a National scheme somewhat on the lines of that 
put forward in 1902. Much has, however, happened in the last 
five years, many opinions on fishery matters have been expressed, 
and it may well be that some points in that scheme can now be 
improved, and that some new details should be added. 

So many of our fisheries experts in England, Scotland, and 
Ireland are, from their official connections or as a consequence of 
holding salaried posts, prevented from expressing a public opinion, 
that it may be useful if one who is a free-lance with no official 
position, no emoluments and no responsibilities that tie his hands 
or tongue, puts forth at this time, not as a member or represen- 
tative of any Council or Committee, but simply and solely on his 
own responsibility, a scheme v^hich may possibly find acceptance 
by the various bodies concerned, and in any case will serve as a 
basis for discussion. 

The first proposition I would lay down is that sea-fislieries 
investigation is worTc that ought to be undertaJcen, directed, and sub- 
sidised by the Oovernnient. If the nation accepts responsibility for 
the Ordnance Survey, for the Geological Survey, and for Agri- 
cultural enquiries, it is difficult to see on what grounds the closely 
related biological survey of our territorial waters can be repudiated. 
The scheme then ought to be a National one, and the Government 
Department — possibly changed, possibly enlarged, possibly under 
new auspices — but still a Government Department of Fisheries, must 
be regarded as the responsible centre or head. 

My second proposition is that, as a result of past history, there 
are now a number of more or less independent organisations 
carrying on useful work on different parts of the coast more or 
less uncontrolled and unsupported by the Government ; and it is 
clear that all these energies ought to be utilised and co-ordinated. 
The Sea-Fisheries Committees of England and Wales, the Marine 
Biological Association, the Liverpool Marine Biology Committee, 
the Fishmongers' Company, and the National Sea-Fisheries Pro- 
tection Association ought to be brought together around the 
Government Department in such a way that without losing their 
identity or independence their sea-fisheries work may be done in 
consultation, under control and at the expense of the State. 
Various University and marine laboratories — such as Plymouth, 


Lowestoft, Port Erin, Liverpool, Cullercoats, and possibly others — 
should be utilised either wholly or in part, either continuously or 
from time to time as may be found necessary. The men and the 
materials, the organisations and the institutions, are all in existence, 
they only require to be co-ordinated and subsidised to constitute 
an efficient National scheme embracing all parts of the coast. 

How, then, are they to be co-ordinated ? These various bodies 
are so independent and well-established that the only possible basis 
of co-ordination is adequate representation on the controlling board. 
The Ichthyological Research Committee recommended the forma- 
tion of a representative " Fishery Council for England,"' and after 
five years' further discussion of the matter I am still of opinion 
that such a body is the only possible solution of the problem. 
The head officials of the G-overnment Department would form a 
nucleus round which would be grouped representatives of marine 
laboratories and coastal authorities, meeting periodically at head- 
quarters for consultation as to the allotment of subsidies, the 
delegation and subdivision of work, the co-ordination of observa- 
tions, and the formulation of results. I would submit that it is 
eminently desirable that membership of this Fishery Council should 
be Honorary, and that no member should himself receive salary or 
grant for work done under the auspices of the Council. Members 
of such a Council must be absolutely independent and should have 
no vested interests. 

Some other details which may still be applicable ^^ill be found 
in the blue-book I have referred to, many other points will no 
doubt have to be arranged by an organising Committee of experts, 
but I feel confident that it is only some such scheme as this that 
will unite our independent authorities, satisfy conflicting interests, 
and end the present state of chaos. 

In addition to the organisation of Sea-Fisheries research there 
is, however, the still more fundamental question as to agreement 
in the methods of investigation ; and 1 have recently become 
deeply impressed with the necessity of investigating our methods 
before we investigate nature. At the time of the Ichthyological 
Research Committee and the commencement of the International 
North Sea work, I was one of those who held that the proposed 
observations were far too distant in time and space to yield 
reliable conclusions ; and I think it may be claimed that the 
course of events since, and the diff'erences of opinion now existing 
amongst experts as to the value of the results obtained, have 
justified our opinion. Before taking gatherings of marine 
organisms almost haphazard, and then proceeding to regard them 
as samples of large areas, we must find out what our gatherings 
really represent and what relation they bear to fair '• samples," 
also how these samples vary with changes in time, place, wind, 
depth, and other conditions — and all this can only be determined, 
I believe, by the intensive study of very hmited areas ituder various 


I have published elsewhere* during the last year some obser- 
vations that confirm me in the belief that the plankton in the 
ocean, which is directly or indirectly the food of fishes, has no 
such uniformity of distribution as is sometimes supposed. If, 
then, this uniformity does not exist over wide areas, how can we 
pretend to investigate such an enormous region as the North Sea 
by means of comparatively few and distant observations ? We 
must, in my opinion, learn the meaning and value of our work by 
the intensive study of areas such as the Firth of Forth, Kiel Bay, 
Plymouth Sound, or Liverpool Bay, before attempting the English 
Channel, the Irish Sea, or the Clyde Sea-area, and these again 
before tackling the relatively enormous North Sea, which is at 
least twenty times the size of the Irish Sea. 

Convinced of the fundamental importance of such work, I spent 
the greater part of the last summer vacation in experimenting 
day after day with various plankton nets under similar and under 
varying conditions in a limited sea-area oif Port Erin in the Isle 
of Man — with results that were startling in their diversity. It 
was obvious that the plankton Avas at that time very unequally 
distributed over the depths, the localities, and the dates. It 
seemed clear that one net might encounter a swarm of some 
organism which a neighbouring net escaped, and that a sample 
taken on one day might be very different in quantity from a sample 
taken imder the same conditions next day. 

I stopped this series of observations on September 17th. After 
a few days of Avind a spell of quiet, calm weather followed, during 
which I took some tow-nettings both inside Port Erin Bay and 
outside, both in the day and at night, and all of these differed 
entirely in character from the gatherings of the previous weeks — 
being composed mainly of Chcntoceros and other Diatoms. During 
this period of calms and Ught easterly winds the surface of the 
sea was smooth and the water was distinctly coloured by the 
abundance of Diatoms. When the weather broke again, at the 
end of September, another abrupt change took place, and gatherings 
taken at the beginning of October showed very few Diatoms but 
many Copepoda. It is evident that if any observer had been 
taking quarterly or even monthly samples of the plankton in that 
sea-area, he w-ould have obtained very different results, according 
to the exact date of his visit. On three successive weeks about 
the end of September he might have found evidence for as many 
different far-reaching views as to the composition of the plankton 
in that part of the Irish Sea. How it can be supposed that hauls 
taken miles apart and repeated only at intervals of months, or 
even weeks, can give any sure foundation for calculations as to 
the population of wdde sea areas, I fail to see. 

These conclusions need not lead us to be discouraged as to the 
ultimate success of scientific methods in solving what may be 
called world-wide problems, but they suggest that it might be 

* Trans. Biol. Soc. Liverpool, vol. xxi. p. 1. 


wise to secure by detailed local work a firm foundation upon which 
to build, and to ascertain more accurately the representative vahie 
of our samples before we base conclusions upon them. 

I do not doubt that in limited, circumscribed areas of ^^ate^, in 
the case of organisms that reproduce with great rapidity, the 
plankton becomes moi*e uniforml}- distributed, and a comparatively 
small number of samples may then be fairly representative of the 
whole. That is probably more or less the case with fresh-water 
lakes ; and I have noticed it in Port Erin Bay in the case of 
Diatoms. In spring, and again in autumn, when suitable weather 
occurs, as it did last year at the end of September, the Diatoms 
may increase enormously, and under such circumstances they seem 
to be very evenly spread over all parts and to pervade the water 
at all depths ; but that is emphatically not the case with the Cope- 
poda and other constituents of the plankton, and it was not the 
case even with the Diatoms during the present spring. 

With the view of testing plankton methods still further, at 
another time of year, I devoted a month this spring (March 28th 
to April 27th) to a systematic exploration, from the S.T. ' Lady- 
bird,' of the sea off Port Erin at the south-west corner of the Isle 
of Man. The region in which I worked measured (see map) 










/■ y' 




i U- Port 



o 1 2 3 






10 miles from east to west (out to sea) and rather less from nortli 
to south (along the coast), but the area investigated was really 
much more limited than these numbers indicate, since the samples 
were taken from only two " off-shore " stations, one 5 miles (I.) 
and the other 10 miles (II.) out from Bradda Head ; and frona 
three " along-shore " stations, one to the north (III.) tov ards 
Niarbyl, one to the south (IV.) towards the Calf Island, and 
one in the "southern sea" (Y.) off Spanish Head — all in water 
of much th<^' same depth, about 20 fatlioms. 


Whilst I was taking these samples in the open sea, almost daily, 
from the yacht, Mr. Douglas Laurie, with a crew of students from 
the Biological Station, simultaneously took similar samples inside 
Port Erin bay in comparatively sheltered water. In 23 working 
days I find that we took in all 276 samples, an average of 12 
per day. It will be readily understood by anyone who has carried 
on such work continuously, with varied weather, that it was a 
busy time ; and that on some days we were fairlj'- wet, without 
any time to get cold, from moi'ning till night. So much practical 
work could only be carried on with the wilhng help of several 
assistants. All on board the yacht helped in various ways, but I 
must thank especially Mr. Buchanan-Wollaston who assisted me 
in working the nets, Mr. Chadwick who preserved most of the 
material in the laboratory at the end of each day's work, and 
Mr. Andrew Scott, A.L.S., who has systematically examined the 
samples for me. A detailed account of these gatherings will appear 
elsewhere ; I propose at present to discuss only some of the more 
obvious features of the series — partly from my own records made 
at the time of collection and partly from Mr. Scott's notes. 

At each station, after taking the bearings and the depth, we first 
lowered two vertical nets, the Petersen-Hensen and the Nansen, 
to a depth of 20 fathoms, pulled them up slowly through 10 
fathoms, and then closed them by " messengers " run down the 
line. This gave us samples, taken vertically with these two very 
dilferent nets, of the organisms present in the w^ater between 10 
and 20 fathoms. After that three ordinary horizontal open tow- 
nets exactly alike in all respects (size, shape, mesh, age) were put 
over — one (A) with a weight attached was allowed to sink to a 
depth of about 10 fathoms, from which it gradually rose as the 
ship went slowly ahead ; while the other two (B and C), un- 
weighted, remained continuously at or just under the surface and 
worked side by side, like a pair of sharks or porpoises swimming in 
our wake. Tliese last two nets ought, if there is any uniformity 
whatever in the plankton even in the most limited areas, to give 
similar results, and of course they did so in most cases. My 
purpose in taking the two similar surface nettings side by side 
was to show this, and also to test the reliability of the sample ; 
for I would only consider it a trustworthy sample when these two 
nets agreed in their evidence. Where, under the circumstances 
stated above, the gatherings differed notably, there must have been 
some accident in the working of the nets or some abnormality in 
the distribution of the plankton, such as, no doubt, will sometimes 
be encountered when traversing the edge of a swarm of gregarious 
organisms ; and it is important to get some evidence as to how 
frequently such accidents or abnormalities may be met with. 
Por example, on April 2nd, at Station III., I find that the two 
surface-nets used together gave 17 cc. and 42*5 c.c. of material 
respectively; on April 9th, at Station I., 2-5 and 8 c.c. respectively; 
and on April 24th, at Station II., they gave 7 c.c. and 15 c.c. 


respectively. On most occasions of course thej were very similar 
and on some absolutely identical in their catch. 

The net A (which may be called the weight-net) is of: use as 
having traversed a wider range, to 10 fathoms, so as to sample 
all the water above the zone traversed by the vertical nets, and it 
freqiiently, and in fact usually, obtained a larger gatherino- and 
showed a greater variety of organisms than either the bottom 
(vertical) or the surface nets. 

On some occasions, at the "along-shore" stations (e. g., 2 miles 
off Bradda Head) hauls were taken with a new " shear-net " made 
on the principle of the Heligoland " Scherbrutnetz " {Conseil Inter- 
national — llapports et Proces-verh., vol. ii. p. 62, 1904). This was 
used as a mid-water net — being lowered to a depth of 5 to 10 
fathoms, where, through the action of the shearing plate, placed 
like a vertical otter-board, it remained even when the ship went 
ahead at a moderate speed, and so formed a most efficient instru- 
ment of capture in waters where the ordinary net cannot be towed. 
The mouth measured 9 feet in circumference, the net was over 
10 feet in length, and being formed of rather coarse mesh caught 
large quantities of the larger organisms of the plankton such as 
Sagitta, Medusae, Ctenophora, Zoeas, the larger Copepoda and 
some young fishes. 

As a vertical closing net I greatly prefer the Nansen to the 
Petersen-Henseu. It is lighter and less complicated (a matter of 
some importance in a rough sea), more easily manipulated, less 
liable to failure in action, costs less and seems to catch more for its 
size of opening. 

The localities to be sampled, all within a ten-mile radius of 
Port Erin, were — the two "off-shore" stations, No. I., 5 miles, and 
No. II., 10 miles, from Bradda Head respectively, and three "alono-- 
shore " stations, No. III. towards Niarbyl, No. IV. towards the 
Calf Island, and No. V. off Spanish Head. The nets to be com- 
pared were: — two vertical deep-water, the Nansen and the Petersen- 
Henseu, and three horizontal, one weighted and the other two 
surface. In addition a shear-net gathering was taken on occasions 
from intermediate waters. Each haul was a 15 minutes one. 

I shall append (pp. 32-33), in tabular form, my first statement of 
results, which may require to be modified in detail or supplemented 
later on, but which may be taken as substantially correct. Whether 
one looks at the hauls Avith the same net at the one locality on 
different days, or at neighbouring localities on the same day, the 
want of uniformity both in quantity and in quality is striking. 
The range for all nets is from 0-5 c.c. to 164 c.c, and it is the same 
for the Nansen ; for the Petersen-Hensen it is from O'o to 04-5 c.c, 
for the weighted open net from 5*5 to 41 c.c, for the surface 
nets from 1 c.c to 42'5 c.c, and for the shear-net from 11 to 
78-5 c.c. 

One or two broad features of the collection are obvious. la the 
earlier part of the time, up to about the middle of April, Diatoms 



were abuadant, and nearly all the gatherings bad a greenish tinge. 
Durino' that period the plants were more abundant in the bottom 
waters, and the animals at the surface. 

Day after day we found that the two closing vertical nets hauled 
up from 20 to 10 fathoms were of a brownish-green colour and 
contained (especially the jSTanseu) an abundant gathering of Diatoms. 
The surface nets during this time contained more Copepoda. On 
April 15th and 19th, however, when the change in plankton was 
taking place, the Diatoms were found to be mainly on the surface 
and the Copepoda below. As an example of wide distribution I 
may cite April 10th, when the nets gave consistent results all the 
afternoon at three localities north of Port Erin, the Diatoms being 
in all cases more abundant at the bottom and the Copepoda on 
the surface. 

AVe were fortunate enough on one occasion to obtain incontro- 
vertible evidence of the sharply defined nature of a shoal of 
organisms, forming an instructive example of how nets hauled 
under similar circumstances a short distance apart may give very 
different results. On the evening of April 1st, at the " alongshore" 
station III., north of Port Erin, off the " Cronk " one mile out, I 
took 6 simultaneous gatherings in both surface and deeper waters. 
Two of the nets were the exactly similar surface townets which I 
have called B and C. At half-time, as the result of a sudden 
thought I hauled in B, emptied the contents into a jar, and 
promptly put the net out again. This half gathering was of very 
ordinary character, containing a few Copepoda, some Diatoms and 
some larvae, but no Crab Zoeas. At the end of the 15 minutes, 
when aU the nets were hauled on board, aU the gatherings, in- 
cluding B, showed an extraordinary number of Crab Zoeas render- 
ing the ends of the nets quite dark in colour. B was practically 
the same as C, although B had only been fishing for 7 minutes. It 
Avas evident that at about half-time the nets had encountered a 
remarkable swarm of organisms which had multiplied several times 
the bulk of the catch and had introduced a new animal in enormous 
numbers. Had it not been for the chance observation of the 
contents of B at half-time, it would naturally have been supposed 
that, as all the nets agreed in their evidence, the catches were fair 
samples of w^hat the water contained over at least the area traversed 
— whereas we now know that the Zoeas were confined to, at most, 
the latter half of the traverse and may have been even more 
restricted. Under these circumstances, an observation made solely 
in the water traversed during the first 7 minutes would have given 
a very different result from that actually obtained ; or, to put it 
another way, had two expeditions taken samples that evening at 
what might well be considered as the same station, but a few 
hundred yards apart, they might have arrived at very different 
conclusions as to the constitution of the plankton in that part of 
the ocean. 

The bearing of such observations as these upon some recent 


speculations as to the fisli-population of the sea, and even as to 
the amounts of food-matters present in the waters of large areas, 
is obvious. Nothing in the economics of the sea could be more 
important than such speculations in regard to what I have 
proposed should be called the " hylokinesis " * of the ocean, if we 
could be certain that our conclusions are correct, or even that 
thev are reasonably close approximations. 

it is possible to obtain a great deal of interesting information 
in regard to the hylokinesis of the sea without attempting a 
numerical accuracy which is not yet attainable. The details of 
measurement of catches and of computation of organisms become 
useless and the exact figures are non-significant, if the liauls from 
which they are derived are not really comparable with one another 
and the samples obtained are not adequately representative of 
nature. If the stations are so far apart and the dates are so 
distant that the samples represent little more than themselves, 
if the observations are liable to be affected by any accidental factor 
■which does not apply to the entire area, then the results may be 
so erroneous as to be useless — or worse than useless, since they 
may lead to deceptive conclusions. 

If the biologist then has great opportunities in the application 
of his science to important human industries, he has also gi'ave 

In pure science, erroneous conclusions are of comparatively 
little moment. They are evanescent, and it has been argued that 
they may even be useful in stimulating further research which 
will inevitably lead to their overthrow. Charles Darwin has said 
of false views they " do little harm, for everyone takes a salutary 
pleasure in proving their falseness ; and when this is done, one 
path towards error is closed, and the road to truth is often at the 
same time opened." t 

But 1 would submit that it is very different in the case of 
conclusions that may be applied to industries. In such cases we 
have no certainty that the conclusions will be received with 
scientific caution and made the subject of further investigation. 
They may be taken blindly and may be applied wrongly without 
being exposed to scientific criticism. It is necessary then for the 
scientific man who deals in practical applications to be doubly 
careful. Much may depend upon the results of his work. Private 
enterprise, public opinion, local regulations, and even imperial 
legislation may all be affected by his decisions. He must not 
lightly come to conclusions upon weighty matters. Of all the 
varied lines of research in modern biology, none present problems 
more intricate than some of those connected with our fisheries — 
none are more interesting and none more important in their 
bearing upon the welfare of mankind. 

* In place of " metabolism " which is an inappropriate term (see Trans. 
Biol. See. Liverpool, vol. xxi. p. 19). 

t ' Descent of Man,' 2nd edit, 1882, p. 606. 


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Dr. Albert C. L. G. Gunxheb then moved : — " That the 
President be thanked for his excellent Address, and that he be 
requested to allow it to be printed and circulated among the 
Fellows " ; which was seconded by the Eev. T. E. R. Stebbing 
and carried unanimously. 

On the motion of the President, a telegram of congratulation 
was sent to the Rector of the University of Upsala in the 
following words : — 

" Linnean Society of London assembled at Anniversary 
Meeting congratulates University of Upsala on historic 
Linnean Celebration." 

The ballots for Council and Officers having been respectively 
closed at the times required by the Bye-Laws, the President 
appointed Mr. Henry Groves, Mr. John Hopkinson, and Mr. George 
S. Saunders Scrutineers. The votes having been counted and 
reported to the President, he declared the result as follows : — 

For the Council : — Vernon H. Blackman, M.A., Leonard 
Alfred Boodle, Esq., Prof. Gilbert C. Bourne, Pi-of. Arthur 
Dendx, D.Sc, Eev. Canon Fowler, M.A., Dr. G. Herbert 
Fowler, Prof. W. A. Herdman, F.E.S., ProF. James Peter Hill, 
B. Datdon Jackson, Esq., Horace W. Monckton, F.G.S., Prof. 
F. W. Oliver, F.E.S., Prof. E. B. Poulton, F.E.S., Lt.-Col. D. 
Prain, F.E.S., Dr. A. B. Eendle, M.A., Miss Ethel Sargant, 
Dr. DuKiNEiBLD H. Scott, F.E.S., Dr. Otto Stape, Eoland 
Trimen, F.R.S., Prof. Frederick Ernest Weiss, and Dr. A. Smith 
Woodward, F.E.S. ; the retiring Councillors being E. Asshbton, 
M.A., Dr. Horace T. Brown, F.R.S., Clement Ebid, F.E.S., 
Arthur Everett Shipley, F.E.S., and the Eev. T. E. E. 
Stebbing, F.E.S. 

The President then appointed the same Scrutineers to examine 
the ballot for the Officers, and the votes having been cast up and 
reported to the President, he declared the result as follows : — 

President : Prof. William Abbott Herdman, D.Sc, F.E.S. 

Treasurer : Horace Woollaston Monckton, F.G.S. 

Secretaries : Dr. D. H. Scott, M.A., F.E.S., 
Prof. Arthur Dendt, D.Sc, and 
Mr. B. Datdon Jackson. 

The Secretary then laid before the Meeting, the following papers 
specially prepared for the celebration of the 200th Anniversary of 
the birth of Linnaeus on the 13/23rd May, 1707. 

1. A copy of a letter from Linnaeus to Professor Pietro Arduino 
at Padua, with an introduction by Dr. G. B. De Toni, Hon.F.E.M.S. 
Communicated by Dr. D. H. Scott, F.E.S., Sec.L.S. 


2. On a MS. List of the Linnean Herbarium prepared by 
Linnaeus in 1753-5, with a Catalogue of the genera now existing in 
the Herbarium, by Benjamin Daydon Jackson, General Secretary. 

The Pbesident then addressed Mr. Van Royen, Councillor of 
the Netherlands Legation, and in presenting the Linnean Medal 
to him for transmission to Dr. Melchiob, Tkeub, P.M. U.S., &c., 
specified as follows the services to science which had weighed with 
the Council in making this award. 

The President said : — 

SiE, — It is my privilege, in announcing the award of the 
Linnean Gold Medal this year to Dr. Melchior Treub, of 
Jjuiteuzorg, to add, as the mouthpiece of this Society, a few 
sentences as to the high claims of your distinguished countryman 
in Java whom we now delight to honour. The Council have 
selected Dr. Treub from among the Botanists of the world as the 
man whom they regarded as most deserving of the highest 
distinction it is in their power to bestow. They hope he may be 
gratified by this tribute from his fellow-workers in this Society, 
whereby his name is enrolled in the short list of Botanical 
recipients of the Linnean Medal extending from Sir Joseph Hooker 
in 1888 to Prof. Strasburger in 1905. 

Dr. Melchior Treub succeeded the late Dr. E. H. C. C. Scheffer 
as Directeur van 's Lands Plantentuin at Buitenzorg, Java, in 
November 1880*. Under his administration this renowned 
Botanical Garden has grown much in material resources and in 
scientific importance. Dr. Treub has been able especiall}'- to add 
to the Herbarium and the Museum organised by his predecessor a 
series of well-equipped laboratories for scientific and technical 
research. One of his earliest acts was to persuade his enlightened 
Government, with wise liberality, to found a special laboratory 
reserved for foreign botanists who might visit Java to undei'take 
original research and study the living flora of the Eastern tropics. 
We have only to recall the names and the work of some of these 
investigators — Graf zu Solms-Laubach, Goebel, Warburg, Madame 
Weber van Bosse, A. P. W. Schimper, Karsten, A. J. Ewart, 
Stahl, Haberlaudt, Heioricher are a few from among the many 
able botanists who have profited by this generous hospitality — to 
form an estimate of the debt that Botany owes to our present 
Linnean Medallist. 

Dr. Treub's great administrative gifts have been utilised to the 
full by the Government of the Dutch East Indies, and his work 
as an organiser has culminated in the establishment in Java of a 
really scientific " Departement van Landbouw," whereof the 
Botanical establishment over which he had so ably presided for a 

* I am indebted to our Vice-President Colonel Prain and to our Ectanioal 
Secretary, i)r. Scott, for information as to Dr. Treub's career and puDlished 




quarter of a century forms au integral part. With widened 
powers and an ampler Held for the exercise of his administrative 
skill, Dr, Treub, as " Directeur van Landbouw," is now in charge 
of this important State department. 

But in spite of the engrossing nature of his official duties and 
of the exacting character and extraordinary amount of his 
administrative work, Dr. Treub has found time to undertake much 
original research, and to bring to completion a large number of 
scientific studies of great importance and value. Among the more 
notable of these have been the following : — 

His early work on the meristem of the root in Monocotyledons 
and in the higher Pteridophytes (1876-78) is an elaborate inves- 
tigation in which a wide view is taken of the questions of affinity 
involved. In his works on the nucleus (1878-80), Treub first 
proved the occurrence of multinucleate cells (bast-fibres and lati- 
ciferous tubes) in the higher plants, and demonstrated the process 
of fragmentation ( = amitosis). His joint paper with Mellink on 
the embrj^o-sac (1880) though short was a valuable contribution 
to fundamental questions of morphology then much disputed. 

From the time of his appointment to Buitenzorg all Ti'eub's 
principal work has appeared in the '• Annales du Jardin Botanique," 
a splendid publication of which he has long been the editor. 
Beginning in 1882 with his classical investigation of the pollen- 
sac, ovule and embryo of the Cycads, and of the remarkable 
embryology of the parasitic family Loranthaceae, he went on to 
equally striking researches of biological interest, on the extra- 
ordinar}^ myrmecophilous plant Myrmecodia, and on the pitchers 
of the epiphyte Dischidia, and about the same time he described a 
new category of climbing plants (Hook-climbers, e. g. Ancistrodadus). 
From 1882 to 1884 he continued his investigations of the ovule 
and embryo in a number of peculiar types, and in the latter year 
he began the publication of a series of studies of the most funda- 
mental importance on the Lycopodiaceae, discovering and inves- 
tigating in the most complete manner the prothallus and embryo 
in a number of tropical species of Lycopodiura, and thus filling 
what had until then been one of the most serious gaps in our 
knowledge of the Higher Cryptogams. This work extended to 
1890, and in the following year Treub, returning to the morphology 
of Flowering Plants, astonished the Botanical world by the 
discovery, in Casiumna, of a totally new method of fertilisation, 
the pollen-tube penetrating the tissues at the base of the ovule 
(chalazogamy) instead of entering by the micropyle. 

Another important series of investigations by our medallist has 
elucidated various cases of parthenogenesis or apogamy, in the 
parasite Balanopliora, in a species of Fig, and in the Urticaceous 
genus Elatostema (1898-1905). 

In Physiology, Treub's work on the role of hydi'ocyanic acid as 
the first product of the assimilation of nitrogen by the green plant 
(1896 and 1904) has been of fundamental importauce. No other 
Botanist has ever made such splendid use of the opportunities 


afforded by a great Botanical Garden in the Tropics for purposes 
of scientific investigation. All Treub's work is characterised by 
admirable clearness and by sound judgment, his memoirs are 
beautifully illustrated by drawings entirely from his own hand, 
and he is distinguished among Botanical writers by his perfection 
of treatment and style. 

I ask you, Sir, to receive this medal for transmission with our 
most cordial sentiments and good wishes to your distinguished 
countryman in Java. 

The Medal having been formally handed to Mr. Van Royen, 
that gentleman made a suitable reply, undertaking to transmit the 
medal to Dr. Treub. 

The Secretary having laid the Obituaries of deceased Fellows 
before the Meeting, the proceedings ended. 


Major Egbert Cart Barnard was born at Cbeltenliam on 
13th December, 1827, but was brought up at Bartlow in 
Cambridgeshire, where his father lived. He received his 
education first at private schools, then at Winchester under 
the Kev. G. Moberly. 

In 1847 he received a commission in the 41st Regiment, and 
served ten years. He went out to the Crimea, but was attacked 
with fever at Scutari and was invalided home, and on his return 
to the seat of war operations were over. 

On his retirement from the army with the rank of Major, 
he married and went to ]Sew Zealand, intending to settle there ; 
but the death of his wife, two months after their landing ni 
the colony, determined his return home. He then entered at 
Emmanuel College, Cambridge, and took his degree in Natural 
Science the first year degrees were granted in that Tripos. Whilst 
at Cambridge lie became acquainted with Professor J. S. Hensiow, 
whose youngest daughter, Anne, he married in 1859. 

He settled in Cheltenham and received pupils for the army, 
besides teaching at Cheltenham College. Ten years later he 
moved into a house he had built and named Bartlow, after the 
scene of his boyhood; and there he resided till his death. He 
busied himself in local work, was a member of the Leckhampton 
Local Board, was a founder of the Cheltenham Public Library, 
and took part in the work of the Cheltenham Natural History 
Society, and was recognised as a leading local botanist and 
archaeologist. He became a widower in 1899 ; and in October 
1906 the sudden death of his eldest daughter, who was his 
housekeeper, caused a shock from which he never recovered. 
Two months later he was seized by influenza, and after three 


weeks' suffering he died on 22nd December, 1906, a few day» 
after completing his 79th year, leaving seven children and nine 

He was elected a Fellow, 4th April, 1861. [B. D. J.] 

Sir Walter Lawry Buller, K.C.M.Gt., F.K.S., D.Sc, vi-as 
born in 1838 and died at Pondtail Lodge, Meet, Hants, on 
July 19th, 1906. His father was the Eev. James Buller, of 
Canterbury, New Zealand. He vi'as educated at Auckland and 
studied afterwards under the well-known naturalist, William 
Swainson, F.R.S., who was living in the colony. While still 
young he took an active part in the affairs of the Colony and. held 
various official appointments, in which his thorough knowledge of 
the Maori language was of much service. When he was thirty- 
three years of age he came to London as Secretary of the New- 
Zealand Agency. Li 1873 he published his celebrated and 
magnificently illustrated monograph on the Birds of New Zealand, 
of which a second edition appeared in 1888. His name will 
always be remembered as that of one of the great pioneers 
of New Zealand Natural History, He was elected a Fellow of 
the Linneau Society, 21st January, 1858. [A. D.] 

Edward Chapman, who died at Hill-end, Mottram in Longdendale, 
Cheshire, on the 25th July last, was the son of John Chapman, M.P., 
and was born on the 12th October, 1839. He matriculated at his 
father's college (Merton) in 1860, where he had as contemporaries 
W. C. Sidgwick and (Bishop) Creighton. Li 1863 he married 
Elizabeth Beaudoe, daughter of F. Grundy of Mottram, and took 
his degree the following yeai- — First Class Honours in Natural 
Science. Following this he became Tutor in Natural Science in his 
own college. The development of the Manchester, Sheffield, and 
Lincolnshire Railway (in which he had an hereditary interest) into 
the Great Central Bail way compelled him at a later period to 
withdraw from academic life and residence ; but Magdalen College 
in 1867 re-elected him " Fellow without emolument," a position 
he highly valued, as enabling him to keep touch with old Oxford 
friends. His chief scientific work was done in the Daubeny 
Laboratory at Magdalen, one of his old pupils, Mr. E. T. Giinther, 
succeeding him as Tutor. 

The causes which compelled him to remove from Oxford con- 
tinued opei-ative during the rest of his life. He was Deputy- 
Chairman of the Great Central Railway, Lord of the Manor of 
Hattersley, Chairman of Aarious local bodies. Justice of the 
Peace, and Member of Parliament for the Hyde Division of 
Cheshire from ]900 to 1906. He was elected Fellow of the 
Linnean Society, 2ud May, 1872. [B. D. J.] 

No loss during the past Session has inflicted so deep an 
impression on this Society as the unexpected death of Charles 
Baron Clarke last summer. The eldest son of Turner Poulter 


Clarke, he was born on 17th June, 1832, at Andover, a town he 
loved to term " the Metropolis '* and boast of the many notable 
worthies it had produced. He obtained his early education at 
King's College School, thence going up to Cambridge, at lirst 
at Trinity College, migrating later to Queen's College. Amongst 
his contemporaries were Henry Pawcett, Leslie Stephen, John 
Eigby, and one whom he ever regarded as the chief of his set, 
Edward Turner, whom weak health and the management of a 
large estate debarred from showing the abilities with which he 
was endowed, to the world at large. He graduated in 1856, and 
was bracketed Third Wrangler in that year; in 1857 he became 
Fellow of Queen's College, and for nearly ten years remained at 
Cambridge as College Tutor in Mathematics. In 1858 he was 
called to the Bar in Lincoln's Inn, but never practised in the 
Courts, till in 1866 he left for India to join the uncovenanted 
staff of the Education Department, at first at the Presidency 
College, afterwards as Inspector of Schools. For two years, from 
1869 till 1871, he was Acting Superintendent of the Eoyal 
Botanic Garden at Shibpur, near Calcutta, filling the interval 
caused by the death of Dr. Thomas Anderson until the appoint- 
ment of the then Dr. George King. He resumed his education 
work till 1877, in which year he returned to Europe on two years' 
furlough. Before this he had made his first essay in botanic 
literature by printing a list of Andover plants, at Calcutta, in 
1866 ; and H. C. Watson, in a review in the ' Journal of Botany,' 
v. (1867) pp. 51-59, made sport of the "Price Threepence," — a 
review which was resented by Clarke, who extorted an apology by 
threatening legal process, and published his rejoinder in the same 
journal, vi. (1868) pp. 215-218. His second book was the folio 
• Commelinaceae et Cyrtandracese Bengalenses,' in 1874, at Cal- 
cutta, and a third his ' Compositae Indicse,' in 1876, which he had 
to correct on his up-country journeys, much to his annoyance, as 
expressed in the preface. He had found the want of a handy 
volume on the flora of India, and accordingly reprinted Eoxburgh's 
' Flora Indica ' verbatim in 1874. On the termination of his 
leave in March 1879 Clarke was put on special duty at Kew, to 
elaborate some portion of Sir J. D. Hooker's ' Flora of British 
India ' ; and in the second volume of that work appear about 
284 pages from his pen, beginning with Saxifragacese and closing 
with Cornacese. These were issued in 1878-79. In the next 
volume he was responsible for 244 pages, from Caprifoliacea) to 
Salvadoracese, in 1880-82 ; the fourth volume a still larger share, 
ending with Yerbenaceae, in 1885. Concurrently with this 
he prepared and issued through our 'Transactions' the three parts 
of his '' Eeview of the Ferns of Northern India " (ser. ii. Bot. 
vol. i. pp. 425-611, pis. 49-84). 

He returned to India in 1883, and in 1885 was transferred 
from Bengal to Assam, where he remained till his retirement in 
1887 at the age of 55. 

From an early period Clarke had collected plants, in England, 



Scotland, Switzerland, and Madeira. In India he threw himself 
into the pursuit with immense energy. Tor a full account of his 
Indian journeys, reference should be made to the ' Kew Bulletin,' 
1906, n. 7, pp. 272-274, where Lieut.-Colonel Prain has di-awn up 
a statement showing the use made of long holidays to explore 
distant parts of India, from Assam to Kashmir and from Sikkim 
to Madras. His field-numbers were extensive : his first herbarium 
contained 25,000 plants in 5000 species, and he appended field- 
tickets each evening giving full particulars, so that his specimens 
possess a very high value. He presented the whole to the Royal 
Botanic Gardens, Kew — the first part in 1877, the last in 1888. 

On his final home-coming in 1887, he settled at Kew, living 
with his brother, Poulter Clarke, and working assiduously all day 
in the Herbarium. Trom this time onward his attention became 
concentrated on the Cyperaeeae, though not exclusively, for he 
still continued to work at Acanthaceae, and two memoirs on these 
plants are awaiting publication. 

On Cyperacese he had become an acknowledged authority, and 
foreign collections came to be named, and herbaria containing 
types were freely lent to Kew for his examination. The fruits 
of these labours appeared from time to time in papers on sections 
of floras, of which the principal may be mentioned, as follows : — 
In our own issues, ' Transactions ' : the I^erns of Northern India, 
in 1880, as previouslv mentioned ; the Cyperacese of the Malay 
Peninsula (1893), Mt.Kinabalu (1894), and Matto Grosso (1895) ; 
also the Commelinacese of the last region (1895). In our ' Journal' : 
the Commelinacese of Bengal (1870) ; Indian Gentianacese (1875) ; 
Botanic Notes from Darjeeling to Tonglo (1876) ; Indian Begonias 
(1880); Madagascar Species of Cyperus (1883); Hemicarex of 
Bentham (1883); Indian Species of Cyperus (1884); Plants of 
Kohima and Muneypore (1889) ; authentic Cyperacese of Linnseus 
(1894); the Subsubareas of British India [=on distribution of 
Cyperacese] (1898) ; the Cyperacese of the Chinese Plora (1903-4) 
and Carices of Malaya (1904), In our 'Proceedings,' his two 
Presidential Addresses (1895-6). The ' Philosophical Trans- 
actions,' B. (1892) : on Biologic Regions and Tabulation Areas, 
with map. In the ' Journal of Botany ' : a revision of Leea 
(1881) ; Eleocliaris of Europe (1887) ; and 17 smaller papers and 
reviews. Engler's ' Botanische Jahrbiicher ' (1901-6) contain 
three papers, the longest on Chilian Cyperacese ; the ' Botanisk 
Tidsskrift ' also three ; ' Bulletin de I'Herbier Boissier ' eight, the 
chief being Clarke's determination of Hassler's Sedges (1903). 
He was also responsible for Acanthaceai and Commelinacese in the 
' Cape Flora'; and with Mr. J. G. Baker worked up the Gesneracese 
for ' Tropical Africa,' and completed the Acanthacese, which had 
been begun by Mr. Burkill, for the same work, from p. 44 to p. 262. 
A detailed list will be found in the ' Kew Bulletin ' already men- 
tioned, pp. 276-281. The last memoirs of his to see the light are 
his posthumous " Cyperacese of the Philippines : a List of the 
Species in the Kew Herbarium," in the ' Philippine Journal of 
Science : Botany,' vol. ii. April 1907, pp. 77-110 ; and the 


CyperaceiB iu A. Chevalier's " Xovitates liorse Africanse " iu Bull. 
Soc. Bot. Fr. liv. (1907) Mem. 8, pp. 26-29. Two treatises oa 
Malayan Acanthacese are to be issued this autumn, the first in the 
' Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal,' and the second in our 
own 'Journal.' 

He was President of our Society from 1894 to 1896, and served 
on our Council almost continuously from 1880-1906, and Vice- 
President similarly from 1881-1905. Assiduous iu his attendance, 
he was ever ready to bear his part in the discussion of papers read 
before the Society ; and his wide and long experience of men 
enabled him to intervene with peculiar and happy results. He 
was a delightful man iu private talk, ready and willing to converse 
on various matters, scientific, litei-ary, or controversial. This is 
not the place to enlarge on his ultra-scientific labours ; but he 
wrote and distributed many pamphlets on topics of the day, and 
took a very active part in electioneering for Henry Pawcett. An 
irksome delay on one of his Indian journeys was beguiled by his 
sitting down to compile an arithmetic book for Bengalis ; and he 
also drew up manuals of geography for school use. The large 
output to be credited to him was due to his writing much of his 
work in the evening ; but this did not prevent his being up 
betimes the next morning, for a run before breakfast. In the 
last few years he had taken to bicycling, and his favourite course 
was a spin round liiclimond Park. He was a sturdy and almost 
tireless rider ; ouce mounted he would ride to Andover, 60 miles, 
without dismounting, yet he never acquired a mastery of his 
machine. He could not look round, raise his hand from the 
handles, or get on or off on the level. He never rode except in 
broad daylight, and never carried a lamp, bell, or brake on his 
machine : yet he never had a serious mishap. 

He was elected a Pellow of our Society, 5th December, 1867 ; 
of the Eoyal Society in 1882 ; and of tlie Geological Society in 
1868. Next to botanising, he enjoyed the excursions of the 
Geologists' Association, where his powers of walking were shown 
to advantage. His character is well epitomised in the sympathetic 
notice contributed by an intimate friend to the ' Journal of 
Botany ' for November last (p. 375), where it is said : — " Clarke, 
particularly as he advanced in years, became very catholic as 
regards channels of publication. His earlier papers are frequently 
piquant, not to say pungent, as well as clear. He grew old with 
inlinite grace ; and v^hile the pungency largely disappeared from 
his contributions, the lucidity remained. The kindest of men, 
the most modest and the most unselfish, he was always ready to 
help others, was a charming host, and a staunch friend." In the 
same memoir is the latest portrait taken of our deceased Fellow, 
which is strikingly like, though it did not please the sitter ; it is 
fall face, and without spectacles, which may account for this 
judgment, as it must be remembered that Clarke's sight, though 
very strong, was very short. 

The writer recalls the painful shock when, travelling home from 
his summer holiday in the north, he procured a London news- 


paper, and in that a brief paragraph told of the end of a career 
which four weeks earlier seemed so full of promise for an old age 
of prolonged work. He came of a long-lived family : both his 
uncles, Fellows of this Society (Mr. Benjamin Clarke of Hamp- 
stead and IMr. Joshua Clarke of Saffron AValden) attained a great 
age, as did many others of his family. In August he visited 
Andover on his bicycle ; the return was made on a hot day, and 
he seemed overpowered by the heat and drank tea eagerly. The 
night did not bring its usual sound sleep ; so in the morning he 
rode round Richmond Park, with difficulty. On reaching home-, 
he went to bed and sent for a doctor, who pronounced him to be 
suffering from paresis of the lower bowel. An operation was 
performed that day, but though the' strong constitution of our late 
colleague withstood the shock of the operation at the time, after 
ten days of suffering he passed away on Saturday, 25th August, 
1906 in the 75th year of his age. He was buried at Andover 
five days later. 

It is compvited that the voluminous manuscripts he left at bis 
death, containing the enormous mass of detailed examination 
of material from every quarter and from books, would amount to 
more than 3000 pages : whether this can ever be printed is 
problematical. Amongst these are 144 plates, printed chiefly in 
collotype, from selected drawings made under his close super- 
vision. It is to be hoped that these at least may be issued, 
as they illustrate his views of genera, accompanied as they are by 
printed descriptive text. 

His completion of the Eev. E. T. Lowe's ' Elora of Madeira ' is 
practically ready for press : at the time of his death he was 
getting together materials for a life of the author. [B. D. J.] 

Professor Sir Michael Tostee, Iv.C.B., was born at Huntingdon 
on 8th March, 183G ; he died, almost suddenly, in London on the 
early morning of 29th January, 1907. Between these dates lay a 
life full of activity and one which made an impression upon the 
scientific thought of the age. Poster was educated at Huntingdon 
Grammar School, and later, from 1849 to 1852, at University 
College School, London, and then at the College, from which he 
took the B.A. degree with a Scholarship in Classics at the London 
University. In 1858 he passed the London M.B. Examination, 
and took his M.D. the following year. During the next two years 
he continued his medical education, partly at Paris, and found 
time for some original research. In 1861 he settled down to 
practise his profession in Huntingdon, but six years later he 
abandoned medicine and returned to University College, first as 
Teacher in Practical Physiology, and in 1869 as Professor of the 
same subject. Before coming to Huntingdon he had some 
symptoms of pulmonary trouble, which, however, soon disap- 
peared, and for them he was recommended to take a voyage on 
the steamship 'L^nion ' to the Eed Sea. 

Poster's intimate friendship with Huxley had a marked influence 


upou his career. Together with. Eay Lankester and Eutherford 
he acted as demonstrator in 1870 to Huxley's first practical course 
of Biology held at South Kensington ; he succeeded Huxley as 
Pullerian Professor at the Eoyal Institution, and as Biological 
Secretary of the Eoyal Society, and it was largely due to Huxley's 
recommendation that in 1870 Foster left London and came to 
Cambridge as Praelector in Physiology at Trinity College. 

The mark made by Poster on the thought and on the science of 
his times falls, broadly speaking, under three heads. He was a 
great teacher, profoundly influencing those who came into personal 
contact with him. He was a great Mriter and the author of a 
classical text-book which spread his influence far beyond the walls 
of his lecture -room and Laboratory. He was a most capable 
organizer, and first at Cambridge, and later in London, he initiated 
and carried to a successful issue many important schemes for the 
advancement of Science. 

When he first came up to Cambridge the L^niA^ersity was able to 
assign him only one room, now part of the Philosophical Library, 
and this served him both as laboratory and as lecture-room. Here 
he gathered around him a small band of pupils, stimulated by his 
enthusiasm to devote their lives to his science. Amongst these 
may be mentioned Walter Gaskell, Prank Balfour, J, N. Langley, 
A. "Sheridan Lea, A . G. Drew-Smith, H. Newall-Martin, A. Milnes 
Marshall, S. H. Vines, and, later, many others. His principle of 
teaching involved much practical work. He held " that a student 
must see and do things for himself in order to gain a real and 
lasting hold on any scientific subject." He was always ready to 
discuss difficulties and to suggest solutions to difiicult problems. 
At his coming to Cambridge the Medical School, fostered by the 
care of Sir George Paget and Sir George Humphrey, was already 
flourishing ; but it now grew to be one of the largest Faculties in 
the University, and Foster was soon lecturing to large audiences. 
At his prime, Foster was a remarkable lecturer, deliberate, slow, 
reasoning out his siibjects as he went along, and, avoiding dog- 
matic statement, he made his audience think. He had an admirable 
skill in making histological sketches with but few lines, and always 
with three coloured chalks. He used little gesticulation, stood 
very still, rolling the chalk in his hands, and occasionally giving 
forth most gravely some humorous thought which was punctuated 
by a little up-look at the class, and sometimes by his characteristic 
half-suppressed chuckle. 

During the early years at Cambridge, and before in London, 
Foster published several original memoirs, which are enumerated 
by Professor Langley in his article in the 'Journal of Physiology'*. 
Later the pressure of other work prevented his investigating him- 
self, but he was the cause of much research in others, and he took 
the keenest and deepest interest in the work carried on by his pupils. 

Foster's ' Text-book of Physiology ' is a classic. The first edition 
appeared in 1876, and there were many editions until, growing as 
* Vol. XXV. 1907, p. 233. 


the subject grew, it necessarily split into several volumes, and as 
the aid ot other writers became imperative it lost something in 
the unity of treatment, and eventually became too large for the 
ordinary medical student. As in his lectures so in his text-book 
he avoided dogmatic statements. He gave the various views, dis- 
cussed them, pointed out the difficulties, and sometimes — but not 
always — summed up in favour of one view. His graphic literary 
style gave distinction to the work, and some chapters rise to a 
high level of eloquence. The book was a great success and was 
translated into several of the chief European languages ; its philo- 
sophic breadth of view greatly helped the recognition of Physiology 
as a complete and independent science. The charm and humour 
of Foster's style are jjerhaps best shown in his short memoir on 
Claude Bernard, and especially in his • History of Physiology 
during the 16th, 17th, and 18th Centuries,' which embody the 
lectures he gave at the Cooper College, San Francisco, in 1900. 
Foster published several other books and many articles, all of them 
characterised by an admirable clearness and felicity of expression. 
He also founded, in 1878, the ' Journal of Physiology,' and edited 
it until 1891. In this connection it may also be mentioned that 
Foster was exceptionally happy as an after-dinner speaker, a post 
in which his sense of humour was allowed full play. As an 
oi'ganizer Foster did an immense work in starting and guiding 
many of the modern movements in Biological teaching. Botany, 
Animal Morphology, and Physiology as taught in England owe 
much of their present methods to him. For many years he took 
an active part in University affairs, and sat upon the Council of 
the Senate from 1886 to 1890, but the increasing demands of the 
Eoyal Society and of various Commissions which compelled him 
to be more and more in Loudon gradually left him but little time 
for affairs in Cambridge. 

In 1881 Foster succeeded Huxley as Biological Secretary of the 
Eoyal Society, and from that date onwards he gave an immense 
amount of time and energy to its affairs. He widened the basis 
of the activities of the Society, advocated its more intimate relation 
with the Government, and was the trusted adviser of the Treasury 
in scientific matters. He took a considerable part in starting the 
JSTational Physical Laboratory, the International Congress of 
Geodesy, the International Catalogue of Scientific Papers, and the 
International Association of Academies. To him was largely due 
the founding of the Physiological Society, over which he presided 
in 1898 at the Cambridge Meeting. He served on the Eoyal 
Commission on "Vaccination," on that of the "Disposal of Sewage," 
was Chairman of the Treasu.ry Departmental Committee on 
" Botanical Work and Collections at the British Museum and at 
Kew," 1900-1, and was Chairman of the " Tuberculosis " Com- 
mission at the time of his death. For nearly forty years Foster 
was a member of the Linnean Society. He was elected Jan. 16, 
1868 ; he also sat on several Departmental Committees, served 
on our Council in 1870-71, and again in 1880-81. 


Fostei' was an active member of the British Association, taking 
his full share of the secretarial work of both the Sections and the 
Council. He was President of Section L (Physiolog)-) at the 
Toronto Meeting in 1S97, when he delivered an address on the 
salient features of physiological activity in recent years, and Presi- 
dent of the Association at the Dover Meeting in 1899. In that 
year he was created a Knight Commander of the Order of the 

In 1900 he was elected to Parliament as Eepresentative of 
London University, and sat as its Member till Mr. Balfour's 
Government resigned, Postei' was not a party man, but he most 
faithfully represented the world of science, and when he s])oke his 
words were weighty. Still, as things are now, a Member of 
Parliament who puts the State above the party is apt to receive 
cold looks from the official managers, and on seeking re-election, 
in 190G, Poster lost his seat by twenty-four votes. 

Foster was one of the men who counted during the last half of 
Queen Victoria's reign. To him education owes much, and through 
his pupils his influence is an ever-widening one. He initiated 
many new organisations for co-ordinating and advancing science, 
and through these his name will be pei'petuated. He was wise in 
council, sound in judgment ; very helpful and encouraging to his 
])upils : very persuasive. AboA^e all, he had a gift for friendship 
which to many has made the world a poorer place since, last 
January, they heard the news of his sudden death. 

[A. E, Shipley.] 

Feederick Ebnest Geant was born at Farlesthorpe, Lincohi- 
shire, on 23rd March, 1866, and died at Sydney, Australia, 31st 
January, 1907. In 1883 he emigrated to New Zealand. Five 
years later he entered the service of the Union Bank of Australia. 
While stationed at the Auckland branch he formed a collection of 
natural history, and gained a good knowledge of the local fauna, 
especially of the mollusca. 

When the Bank transferred him to the Melbourne office, he 
much appreciated the wider intellectual horizon which life in a 
large city opened for him. He became an active member of the 
local scientific societies. At first geology was his chief hobby. 
From 1901 he published, in conjunction with Mr. E, Ihiele (now 
Govt, Geologist of Nigeria, Africa), several articles on geologv in 
the ' Proceedings of the Eoyal Society of Victoria.' Remarking 
that no local student had undertaken investigations in Crustacea, 
he adopted the vacant field of carcinology. With Mr, S. W. Fulton 
he wrote in the Trans. Eoy. Soc. of Victoria a series of papers 
entitled " Some little-known Victorian Decapod Crustacea, with 
Descriptions of new Species '" (1901-G), and a '■ Census of the 
Victorian Decapod Crustacea." of which one part only ^ has 
appeared. It was in 1901 that Messrs. Fulton and Grant re- 
ported the curious fact that they had found the common shore- 
crab of Great Britain living in Port Phillip, Victoria. 


In 1902 Mr. Grant re-visited England and took the opportunity 
of studying the carcinological collection of the British Museum. 
He attended several Meetings, and was elected a Fellow of the 
Linnean Society, 18th December, 1902. 

On his return to Australia, the Bank transferred him to the 
Sydney office. He immediately took an active share in the scientific 
life of that city, and was elected to the Council of the Linnean 
Society of New South Wales. In 1904 he joined an expedition 
organised by Mr. C. Hedley for biological work on the Great 
Barrier Reef. With the assistance of Mr. A. R. MacCulloch he 
reported on the Crustacea obtained by the party. He also accom- 
panied two deep-sea dredging-expeditions. In the ' Proceedings 
of the Linnean Society of New South Wales ' he published an 
account of the Crustacea obtained by the first, and was engaged 
in writing up that of the second at the time of his decease. A 
posthumous paper on the Crustacea of Norfolk Island will appear 
shortly. He leaves a widow and three children. [C. Heulby.] 

Sir Thomas Hanbuby, K.C.V.O., Avho was born at Clapham, near 
London, 21st June, 1832, and who died on the 9th March, 1907, 
belonged to a family who had for several generations been members 
of the Society of Friends. Sir Thomas spent nearly twenty years in 
Shanghai, where he was a leading merchant, much beloved by the 
Chinese commercial community on account of his kind and sympa- 
thetic, but at the same time just, treatment of them. During a visit 
paid to England in the year 1867 he acquired by purchase the Palazzo 
Orenga, situated on a beautiful spot on the Italian Riviera, about 
four miles from Mentone on the west, and about twice as far from 
Bordighera on the east. This house had been in former times the 
property of the Oi'enga family of Ventimiglia. With the house 
he acquired also the extremely picturesque ridge which extends 
from the village of La Mortola to the sea, into which it projects 
as a long narrow promontory of about 50 acres in extent. Re- 
tiring from China and relinquishing his business career a few years 
later, Sir Thomas settled in the Palazzo, which he enlarged con- 
siderably, and it remained his home until his death. For many 
years he occupied himself in transforming the La Mortola ridge 
into one of the most picturesque gardens in Europe. Full ad- 
vantage was taken of the natural features of the ground so as to 
secure good landscape effects, and the views along the coast 
stretching from Bordighera to Mentone were perfectly charming. 
There was a total absence of vulgarity, and no suggestion what- 
ever of carpet- or ribbon-bedding and other undesirable forms of 

The La Mortola ridge is bounded on the east by a picturesque 
ravine, the further side of which lies within the Principality of 
Monaco. Here is a tract of country which, in times past, had been 
almost entirely denuded of its natural vegetation by the ravages 
of goats in search of food and by peasants in search of fuel. A 
piece of this bare tract was leased by Sir Thomas and was most 


strictly preserved by him, not a single twig being allowed to be 
cut, or a single bird or mammal to be shot or suared. It was Sir 
Thomas's desire to allow the normal vegetation to recover, and 
thus to restore that area to its natural condition. Very little 
planting was therefore done within this protected area, and the 
few species which were selected for introduction were of sorts 
little likely to hybridise with indigenous species. 

The soil of the La Mortola ridge is very poor and its rainfall 
is scanty. The plants which were most suitable for introduction 
on it were naturally those of Southern Europe, the Levant, the 
South and West of Africa, Mexico, and Australia. A large pro- 
portion of these are succulents, and some of the specimens of 
these, such as Agave and Aloe, are particularly fine. La Mortola 
was cultivated by Sir Thomas on the lines of a Botanic Garden, 
and a free and most generous distribution and exchange of seeds, 
living plants, and specimens was regularly carried on with gardens 
all over the world. The grounds were, moreover, thrown open to 
the public on two days a week, and were frequented by numerous 
visitors. The present Curator, Mr. Alwyn Berger, is an excellent 
botanist, who has for some years been engaged in the preparation 
of a series of monographs of succulent plants, the first of which 
(on the Eupliorbias) was issued a few months prior to Sir Thomas's 
death. Two editions ot an excellent popular account of the 
Botany and Zoology of the Biviera by a friend writing under the 
initials " C. C." [Comerford-Caseyj were printed at Sir Thomas's 
expense. The second edition of this most useful work is profusely 
illustrated. Located in a building within the grounds is aa 
excellent Herbarium of plants grown in the garden, and also of 
those indigenous in its neighbourhood ; and in another building is 
preserved a collection of Eoman antiquities found in the district. 

Although resident in England for only a few months in each 
year. Sir Thomas's interest in English Horticulture remained very 
keen, and this led him, in the year 1903, to buy from the heirs of 
the late Mr. G. E.Wilson the well-known garden at Wisley, where 
that enthusiastic gentleman had brought together his splendid 
collection of rare and interesting species. Sir Thomas also bought 
sixty acres of laud adjoining the garden proper, and presented the 
whole to the Eoyal Horticultural Society of England. He also 
presented to the Pharmaceutical Society of England the mag- 
nificent collections of specimens of drugs and the library of books 
on Pharmacy (some of them very rare) which iiad been bequeathed 
to him by his late brother, Daniel Hanbury, E.R.S., author (in 
conjunction with Professor Fliickiger, of Strassburg) of the well- 
known ' Pharmacographia.' These latter gifts are now located 
in the Society's Museum in Bloomsbury Square. Sir Thomas's 
benefactions to Italy were numerous and varied. He founded 
and endowed the Hanbury Botanical Institute in the University of 
Genoa ; he also founded and supported the Prehistoric Museum 
near Mentone, in which are preserved the most interesting of the 
fossil and prehistoric remains dug out of the caverns in the high 


cliffs oji the coast near Mentone; But, besides these benefactions 
of a scientific nature, Sir Thomas's works of charity and benevo- 
lence were unbounded, and many of them had the great merit of 
being practically done in secret. The neighbouring ancient town 
of Ventimiglia was indebted to hiiu for the rescue and re-habili- 
tation of a valuable and ancient library which for years had lain 
forgotten in the cellars of a convent ; for schools, avenues of trees, 
gardens, and for much aid to its hospital. His reputation for 
generosity and goodness of heart Avas hnown to the inhabitants of 
every valley in the mountains to the northward of Ventimiglia and 
Meutone, and to the cry of the poor and distressed among them 
his ear was ever open. The love and reverence with which he 
A^as regarded was strikingly shown at his funeral, several thousands 
of peasants having followed the hearse which conveyed his body to 
San Kemo to be cremated. He will be terribly missed by the poor 
for whom he had done so much. 

Sir Thomas was created by the Government of Italy a Com- 
mendatore of the Orders of SS. Maurizio e Lazzaro and of 
the Cross of the Crown of Italy, and soon after the succession 
of Edward YIT. to the throne of England he was made a Knight 
of the Eoyal Victorian Order. He became a Eellow of this 
Society, 5th December, 1878. [GEOiiaE King.] 

Eeej)Erick Justen was born at Bonn on the 29th Eebruary, 1832, 
and there began his acquaintance with the business of a book- 
seller. On the recommendation of an English visitor to that 
town, he came to London, and entered the house of Dulau & Co., 
as German assistant ; in course of time he succeeded to the 
proprietorship of the business. When, in 1863, Wilham Pamplin, 
A.L.S., retired from the business which he carried on in succession 
to Huuneman, who died in 1839, the natural history department 
of Dulau's receiA'cd an impetus which resulted in Mr. Justen's 
subsequent and close connection with the heads of the various 
Departments of the British Museum. By his means the depart- 
mental and general libraries at the Natural History Museum, 
Cromwell Eoad, assumed their admirable equipment. A friend of 
Dr. AVelwitsch, he became one of his executors, and had to 
encounter a lawsuit brought by the Portuguese Crown to recover 
the whole of Dr. Welwitsch's Angolan Collections : in the end a 
compromise was effected ; the Portuguese Government acquired 
the title to the collections, and gave the second set to the British 
Museum, with a full copy of the notes by the collector, and the 
law costs of the whole litigation. 

Mr. Justen w^as elected Eellow, 16th December, 1886, and 
was a regular attendant at the Meetings ; the splendid copy of 
L'Heritier's ' Stirpes Novae,' with its cabinet now exhibited in the 
Library, x^as a gift fi-om our late Eellow, who preferred to place 
it in a secure position, rather than it should be sold after his 
death. His son predeceased him, but he leaves a daughter and 
grand-daughter. He died at his house in Soho Square on the 
20th November, 1906, aged 74. [B. D. J.] 


The death of Mr. William Mitten ou July 27th, 1906, has 
severed one of the few remaining links connecting the botanists 
of the first half of the nineteenth century with those of the 
present day. He was elected an Associate of the Linnean Society 
on Jan. 19th, 18-17.. and was, at the time of his death, the 
oldesC on the list of Associates. He was born at Hurstpierpoint, 
in Sussex, on Nov. 30, 1819. He was appi^enticed to a chemist, 
named Saxby, at Lewes, and it was during this period that he 
evinced a decided taste for natural history, devoting all his spare 
time to the study of various branches of British botany. After 
leaving Lewes he stayed in London for a time as assistant with 
a wholesale chemist named Yates, and it was apparently during 
his residence there that in May 1843 he sent his first contribution 
to the ' Phytologist ' concerning the discovery of BapUurum tenu- 
issimum at Highgate. This was followed by the finding of Carex 
montana at Eridge, and the rare fructification of the moss Aula- 
eomnioti androgynum in Abbey Wood. He settled at Hurstpier- 
point, Sussex, soon after this period. As a keen observer and 
gifted with unusually critical faculty in discriminating between 
closely allied species, he early attracted the attention of William 
Borrer, who resided at the neighbouring town of Henfield. 

Mr. Borrer took great interest in his work, allow^ed him the 
use of his valuable library and gave him an excellent microscope, 
and probably introduced him to Sir AVilliam Hooker. On Dec. 19, 
1844, Mr. Mitten married Miss Ann Jordan at Abbots Kipton, 
Huntingdonshire. His first letter to Sir William Hooker, in 
Dec. 1846, was in connection with a paper on the parasitism of 
Thesiuin, which appeared in Hooker's ' London Journal of Botany ' 
in 1847, and was evidently considered to be of unusual interest, 
since it was repeated in the ' Annales des Sciences Natui'elles.' 
In 1848 he published descriptions of new British plants in the 
same Journal, and wrote for the Supplement to 'English Botany ' 
the description of Gymnomitrium odustum (t. 2925) and Lolium 
linicola (t. 2955). About this date his attention was especially 
directed to Musci and Hepaticae, for although he had begun their 
study in 1843, it was not until after the death of Thomas Taylor 
in Eebruary 1848, who had been associated with the Hookers in 
working at the various collections received at Kew, that he 
published much in these branches of botany, but from 1851 
onwards he became recognised as the British authority on Musci 
and Hepaticse. Sir William Hooker desired to retain his services 
and offered him the post of Curator of the Herbarium in place 
of J. E. Planchon, but Mitten declined for financial reasons, 
preferring to carry on his botanical studies in such limited time as 
could be spared from work in his pharmacy. Eor many years 
the collections of Musci and Hepaticae received at Kew from 
all parts of the world were handed to him for identification and 
description. His first important contribution, apart from short 
notes, was a Catalogue of the Cryptogamic plants collected by 
Jameson in the vicinity of Quito, published in the ' Kew Journal 

LINN. see. PEOCEEDINGS. — SESSION 1906-1907. C 



of Botany ' in 1851, pp. 49-57 and 351-361, and tlie last was 
published conjointly with C. H. Wright, of the Kew Herbarium, 
on the Muscineae of Mt. Kinabalu in North Borneo, in our 
' Transactions,' ser. 2, Bot. iv. (1894) pp. 255-261. His numerous 
contributions to our Journal began in 1859, and his most compre- 
hensive work, the ' Musci Americani,' containing Latin descriptions of 
1745 species, including many new ones, which took up the whole of 
the twelfth volume, was published in 1869. The work of Mitten in 
Bryology may be compared to that of De Candolle on Phanerogams, 
since he was the first to arrange them in strictly natural groups. 
Up to the date of the publication of Mitten's paper on the " Musci 
Indise Orientalis" in 1858, mosses were classified principally 
according to the character of their spore-cases, although C. Miiller, 
in his ' Synopsis Muscorum,' had already, in 1849, utilised the 
leaf-structure in the characters of tribes and genera. In this 
paper (Jom-n. Linn. Soc, Bot. iii. (1859) Suppl. pp. 1-6) Mitten 
pointed out the greater importance of the structure of the leaf for 
purposes of classification and relegated to the second place the 
characters derived from the peristome. This new method of 
classificatio]! was followed by Dr. Braithwaite in his classical 
' British Moss Flora,' and in the ' Popular Science B,eview,' 1871, 
p. 374, he remarks concerning it : " Believing these views to be 
strictly in accordance with facts derived from careful study of the 
plants themselves and therefore true to nature, I feel bound to 
adopt them, though I have ventured to deviate a little from the 
arrangement, believing that the retention of the acrocarpous and 
pleurocarpous system is certainly convenient." It has also been 
adopted by Dixon and Jameson in their popular ' Handbook of 
British Mosses,' with slight alterations, which are convenient, 
rather than in accordance with the principle outlined by Mitten. 
The extraordinary amount of work accomplished by Mitten during 
a long series of yeai's, without neglecting his work in the pharmacy, 
must have puzzled many of his correspondents. Those. to whom 
he was personally unknown probably regarded him as a bad 
correspondent, for he never wasted a moment in unnecessary 
replies to enquiries made by those who wished to save themselves 
the trouble of examining specimens, as so many dabblers in botany 
do ; but anyone who sent a specimen, probably new, or showing 
that time and trouble had been expended on it by the sender, 
received a prompt and courteous reply. By thus limiting his 
cori'espondence, and utilising all spare moments for work with his 
microscope, he was able to do an astonishing amount of literary 
and scientific work and to spare a little time for horticultural 
experiments. During his later years he was much assisted by his 
daughter Flora, who qualified herself, by passing the Examination 
of the Pharmaceutical Society, to carry on the work of the 
pharmacy. One of his greatest pleasures was to sift the mosses 
sent from foreign countries for chance seeds to try and grow them. 
He thus obtained several plants from remote islands visited by 
the ' Challenger ' Expedition. His few hybridising experiments 


resulted in a hybrid Oampanula with variegated I'ohage, which was 
taken up by a neighbouring florist, and in a hybrid pink between 
Diantlius alpimis and D. Gardnerianus, and possibly others. But 
his garden was always an interesting one to visit on account of the 
number of rare British plants that found a congenial home there. 
Although he rarely visited London and was almost unknown in 
botanical circles, owing to his modest and retiring disposition, he 
was highly respected in his native town, and his advice was con- 
stantly sought by his fellow townsmen in all important public and 
even private personal matters. He was gifted with a strong vein of 
quiet humour and very keen perception, but he had a kind and 
lovable disposition, and was never known to make an unkind remark 
concerning anyone, preferring to be silent when nothing good 
could be said. The late Bishop Haunington and Dr. H. M. 
Holman were his most intimate friends, and with the former he 
made njany botanical excursions in Devonshire and elsewhere. 
Mr. Mitten retained his faculties to the last, and shortly before 
his death described a new species of Scalemoss, Loijliocolea alata, 
which he had detected in 1875 in North Devon, and allowed 
Miss C. E. Larter, who was interested in ]S!"orth Devon botany, 
to publish. 

An excellent portrait of Mitten is given in the October number 
of the 'Journal of Botany ' for October 1906. He leaves a widow 
who is 93 years of age, and still in the full possession of her 
faculties, a daughter who is the wife of the famous naturalist 
Dr. A. R. Wallace, and two unmarried daughters, one of whom 
still carries on the Pharmacy at Hurstpierpoint. 

Mr. Mitten's entire collection ot Mosses and Hepaticse were at 
his request offered to Mrs. JN". L. Britton, a keen American 
bryologist, who had made his acquaintance some years previously. 
The collection, at her instigation, was purchased for the Herbarium 
of the New York Botanical Gardens. Details of the Collection 
are given in the ' Journal of the New York Botanical Gardens ' for 
February 1907, pp. 28-32. The entire collection abounds in 
beautiful di-awings, which as well as memoranda and original 
descriptions, were usually laid in the covers with the specimens. 
Dr. A. R. Wallace has stated concerning the collection : — " I am 
inclined to think that they constitute the richest, or nearly the 
richest, private collection of these groups in existence, whilst it is 
doubtful if any public collections are much richer. Of all the 
collections he received to name and describe he received sets for 
himself, and thus accumulated an enormous collection. The loss 
of the collection to this country is much to be regretted, but it is 
understood that Mrs. Britton will return the British specimens to 
England, whei'e they will doubtless speedily find a suitable home." 

Mr. Mitten was an Honorary Member of the Linnean Society 
of New South Wales and of the New Zealand Institute, of the 
South-Eastern Union of Scientific Societies, and of the Brighton 
Natural History Society. [E. M. Holmes.] 




1 . On the Economy of the Roots of Theskim linoplnillum. Hooker, 

London Journ. Bot. vi. (1847) 146-148, t. 4; Ann. Sci. Ts^at. vii., 
Bot. (1847) 127-128: Phytologist, ii. (1847) 807-808. 

2. Descriptions of some Plants new to the Britisli Flora. Hooker, 

London Journ. Bot. vii. (1848) 528-533. 

3. Description of a Species of Fumaria {F. agraria) new to Britain. lb. 


4. Some Remarks on Mosses, with a proposed new Arrangement of the 

Genera. Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 2, viii. (1851) 51-59. 

5. A List of all the Mosses and Hepaticae hitherto observed in Sussex. 

lb. 305-324, 362-370. 

6. Catalogue of Cryptogamic Plants collected by W. Jameson in the 

Vicinitv of Quito. Hook. Kew Journ. Bot. iii. (1851) 49-57, 

7. [Musci and Hepaticfe in] Dr. Y. Welwitsch, Some Notes upon the 

Crvptogamic Portion of the Plants collected in Portugal (1842- 
1850). London (1853), 14-24. 

8. [Hepaticaj in] J. D. Hooker, Flora Novse-Zelandise, ii. (1855) 125- 


9. On some Undescribed Species of Musci belonging to the Genera 

Mniuvi and Bryuvi. Hook. Kew Journ. Bot. viii. (1856) 230- 

10. A List of the Musci and Hepaticae collected in Victoria, Australia, 

by Dr. F. MiiUer. lb. 257-266. 

11. A List of some Mosses and Hepaticae collected by the Rev. Charles 

Parish at INEoulmein. lb. 353-357. 

12. [Hepaticae of Panama in] B. Seemann, The Botany of the Vovage of 

H.M.S. ' Herald ' (1845-1851). London (1852-1857), 245-246. 

13. A few Notes on some New or Rare British Mosses. Phytologist, ii. 

(1857-8) 1771-80. _ 

14. Musci Indiae Orientalis : an Enumeration of the Mosses of the East 

Indies (18.58). Journ. Linn. Soc, Bot. iii. (1859) Suppl. 1-171, 

15. [Hepatica; in] J. D. Hooker, Flora Tasmanife, ii. (1860) 221-241. 

16. Descriptions of some new Species of Musci from New Zealand 

and other parts of the Southern Hemisphere, together with an 
Enumeration of the Species collected in Tasmania by Wilham 
Archer, arranged upon the plan proposed in the Musci Indiae 
Orientalis (1859). Journ. Linn. Soc, Bot. iv. (1860) 64-100. 

17. Musci et Hepaticae Vitienses. Bonplandia, ix. (1861)365-367; x. 

(1862) 19-20. 

18. Hepaticae Indiae Orientalis (1860). Journ. Linn. Soc, Bot. v. (1861) 


19. On some new Species of Musci and Hepaticae in the Herbarium of 

Sir W. J. Hooker, collected in Tropical Africa, chiefly by the 
late Dr. A^ogel and Mr. Barter (1860). Trans. Linn. Soc xxiii. 
(1862) pp. 51-58. 

20. On the Musci and Hepaticae from the Cameroon Mountains and from 

River Niger. Journ. Linn. Soc, Bot. vii. (1863) 147-169. 

21. JTt/pmim abietinum, Linn. Journ. Bot. i. (1863) 356-357. 

22. On Anisostichimn, a proposed new Genus of Musci. Journ. Linn. 

Soc, Bot. vii. (1863) 119-120. 

23. A new Genus of Hepaticae [Adela7ithus]. U). (1864) 243-244. 

24. Some Observations on the Moss known to British Bryologists as 

Hypnum pratense. Journ. Bot. ii. (1864) 122-123. 


25. Descriptions of new Britisli Mosses : Hypnmn imponetis, Funnria 

microstoma, Sellffcria culcicolu, S. calcarea, S. pusilla. Joum. 
Bot. ii. (1864) 193-196.. 

26. Contributions to Ciyptogamic Flora of the Atlantic Islands (1863). 

JoLirn. Linn. Soc, Bot. yiii. (1865) 1-10. 

27. The Bryologia of the Siu-vey of the 49th Parallel of Latitude. lb. 


28. On some new Species of Musci and Hepaticae, additional to the 

Floras of Japan and the Coast of China. lb. 148-158. 

29. A few Notes on some British Mosses allied to Tortula fallax, Hedw. 

Journ. Bot. v. (1867) 324-329. 

30. New or Kare Britisli Mosses : Trichostomumjlavovirens, T. diffractum, 

T. littorale. lb. vi. (1868) 97-99. 

31. A List of the Musci collected by the Rev. Thomas Powell in the 

Samoa or Navigator's Islands (1867). Journ. Linn. Soc, Bot. xi. 
(1869) 166-195. 

32. Musci Austro- American!, sive enumeratiomuscorum omnium Austro- 

Americauorum mihi hucusque cognitorum, eorum praecipue in 
terris Amazonicis Andinisque a Ricardo Spruceo lectorum (1868). 
lb. xii. ^1869) 1-632. 

33. [Musci, IlepaticEe in] F. Du Cane Godman's Natural History of the 

Azores. London (1870), 288-328. 

34. Observations of the Species of Puttia allied to P. truncata, with 

descriptions of Three new Species : P. littoralis, P. asperula, 
P. viridifolia. Journ. Bot. ix. (1871) 2-5. 

35. Descriptions of new Species of Musci collected in Cevlon by 

Dr. Thwaites (1872). Journ. Linn. Soc, Bot. xiii. (18t3) 293- 

36. [Muscinese in] B. Seemanu, Flora Vitiensis. London (1873), 378- 


37. On the Aloina Section of the Genus Tortula. Journ. Bot. iii. (1874) 


38. [Mosses of the Island of St. Paul] (1874). Journ. Linn. Soc, Bot. 

xiv. (1875) 480-482. 

39. [Muscineaj in] J. C. Melliss, St. Helena (1875), 357-374. 

40. The Musci and Hepaticfe collected by H. N. Moselev, Naturalist to 

H.M.S. ' Challenger' (1875). Journ. Linn. Soc, Bot. xv. (1877) 

41. List of the Musci and Hepaticse collected in Kerguelen's Island by 

the Rev. A. E. Eaton (1876). lb. 193-197. 

42. List of Hepaticse collected by the Rev. A. E. Eaton at the Cape of 

Good Hope (August and September, 1874) (1877). lb. xvi. 
(1878) 187-196. 

43. [Mosses and Jungermannise in] Sir G. S. Nares, Narrative of a Voyage 

to the Polar Sea, during (1875-76); 2nd Edit. vol. ii. Appendix, 
no. 14. London (1878), 313-319. 

44. [Musci Maroccani in] J. Ball, Spicilegium Florae Maroccanse (1877). 

Journ. Linn. Soc, Bot. xvi. (1878) 737-739. 

45. [Transit of Venus Expedition, 1874-75] Enumeration of the Plants 

hitherto collected in Kerguelen Island, &c. : ii. Musci, iii. Hepaticae. 
Phil. Trans. 168 (Extra Vol.) (1879), 24-45. 

46. [ Collections from Rodriguez] Musci, Hepaticas. lb. 388-401. 

47. Record of new Localities of Polynesian Mosses, with Descriptions of 

some hitherto undefined Species (1882), New South Wales. Linn. 
Soc Proc vii. (1883) 98-104. 

48. [Musciueae in] Mason and Theobald's Burma, its People and 

Produetions, vol. ii. Hertford (1883), 36-55. 


49. Australian Mosses. Trans. & Proc. Roy. Soc. Victoria, xix. (1883) 


50. [Muscinese in] W. B. Hemslev, Report on Botany of H.M.S. 

' Challenger,' i. (1885) 88-93, &c. 

51. Notes on the European and North American Species of Mosses of the 

Genus Fissidens (1885). Journ. Linn. Soc, Bot. xxi. (188(3) 

52. Some new Species of the Genus Metzgeria (1886). lb. xxii. (1887) 


53. The Mosses and Hepaticae collected in Central Africa by the late 

Rig-ht Rev. James Hannington, Bishop of Mombasa, F.L.S., 
r.G.S., &c., with some others, including those gathered by Mr. H. 
H. Johnston on Kilimanjaro. Ih. (1887) 298-329. 

54. [Musci in] W. B. Hemsley, Report on the Vegetation of Diego Garcia. 

lb. 339-340. 

55. Musci of Roraima Expedition of 1884. Trans. Linn. Soc. ser. 2, 

Bot. ii. (1887) 296-297 (1887). 

56. [Muscinese in] I. B. Balfour, Botany of Socotra, in Trans. Rov. Soc. 

Edinburgh, vol. xxxi. (1887) 330-336. 

57. An Enumeration of all the Species of Musci and Hepaticoe recorded 

from Japan (1889). Trans. Linn, Soc. ser. 2, Bot. iii. (1890) 
With Charles Knight, F.L.S. : 

58. Contributions to the Lichenographia of New Zealand ; being an 

Account with Figures of some new Species of Graphidete and allied 
Lichens (1860). lb. 101-106 (in collaboration with Charles 
With William Wilson, F.L.S. : 

59. Enumeration of the Mosses collected in India by Dr. J. D. Hoolcer 

and Dr. T. Thomson, with their Habits, Elevations, and the 
Numbers under which they have been distributed (written in 
collaboration with W. W. Wilson). Hook. Kew Journ, Bot. 
ix. (1857) 289-300, 321-333, 363-370, 
With Charles Henry Wright, A.L.S. : 

60. [Muscinefe in] Dr, O. Stapf's On the Flora of Mount Kinabalu, in 

North Borneo (1903). Trans. Linn. Soc, ser. 2, Bot. iv. (1894) 
255-261 (in conjunction with C. H. Wright). 

Although failing health during the last two years had warned 
the numerons friends of Habrt Marshall "Ward that his life 
was approaching its term, yet the news of his death at Torquay 
on Sunday night, the 26th August, came as a shock to many. 

Born in 1854 at Hereford, his early years were spent in the 
country, M'here he acquired a love of botany in the field. Early 
in the seventies he came under the influence of Darwin's researches, 
and in 1874 he began attending the biological course under 
Prof. Huxley at the School of Science, South Kensington, in 
succession to his early education at Owens College, Manchester. 
The following year, a course of practical botany, perhaps the first 
in modern sense arranged in this country, was carried out by 
Professor (now Sir) W, T. Thiseltou-Dyer and Professor Vines, 
Both were struck by the promise of one of the pupils, and at 
their suggestion, in the spring of 1876, he became a candidate 
for an open scholarship in natural science at Christ's College, 


Cambridge, and succeeding, lie went into residence in October of 
that year. He found himself amongst congenial companions, 
amongst them Professor F. O. Bower, Dr. Hail (now Master of 
Downing College), Professor Hillhouse, and Dr. Walter Grardiner, 
attending physiological and morphological zoology under the late 
Sir Michael Poster and P. M. Balfour. 

The opportunity of residence at the University came about 
under singular circumstances. An anonymous letter came to him 
saying that if he would enter at Cambridge he would find a 
sufficient sum to pay his expenses at Mortlock's Bank. His 
success in winning his scholarship thus assured him of means to 
pursue his studies, and very shortly after tliis, in November of 
the same year, the unknown benefactor died at sea ; but having 
provided in his will for the conthiuunce of the subsidy, he 
proved to be a young pupil of Huxley's, Mr. L. A. Lucas, who 
had evidently observed the promise of distinction shown by Ward. 
A first class in the natural history tripos brought his Cambridge 
undergraduate cai-eer to a close in 1879. 

We may rejoice that one of the earliest results of investigation 
was a paper on the embryo-sac, which was read before this Society, 
20th jVovember, 1879, and published in the 'Journal' (Botany, 
vol. xvii. (1880) 519-546, pis. 17-25). 

Por some months he worked at Wiirzburg under Sachs, and 
then in 1880 he was commissioned to proceed to Ceylon to 
investigate the coffee-leaf disease which was causing havoc in the 
coffee estates in that colony. 

The outcome was another paper read on 1st June, 1882 
(Journal, Bot. xix. (1880) pp. 299-335), followed by one on a 
bve-product on an epiphyllous lichen, which appeared in our 
' Transactions '(ser. 11. Bot. ii. (1884) 87-119, pis. 18-21). It 
was during his work in Ceylon that he formed views on the para- 
sitism of Pungi, which largely influenced his succeeding labours. 

In 1882 he was elected Berkeley Pellow at Owens College, 
becoming assistant to Professor Williamson, and staying there till 
1885, in which year he removed to Cooper's Hill, as Professor of 
Botany, in the Forestry Department of the Eoyal Indian 
Engineering College. 

During the ten years he remained at Cooper's Hill, much of 
his most striking work was accomplished. In 1887 appeared 
a paper in the ' Philosophical Transactions' on the tubular 
swellings on the roots of Vicia Faba, this paper contributing 
some important facts in the biology of the case, proving that these 
nodules were of parasitic origin, and that the parasite, since 
known to be a bacterium, enters by the roat-hairs. The subject 
was summed up in a kuninous article in the ' Annals of Botany ' 
then just started. The same volume also contained' a joint paper 
by him and Mr. T. Dunlop on the origin of rhamnin, the yellow 
pigment of " Prench Berries" from Rhamnus by a ferment in the 
testa of the seed. Another paper on a ferment, this time in a 
lily, appeared in the following volume. A memoir on the relations 


between host and parasite in certain epidemic plant diseases was 
published in the ' Proceedings of the Eoyal Society ' in 1&90, and 
led to his being selected as Croonian Lecturer in that year. 

A sbort paper on Craterostigma jyuinilum in our ' Transactions ' 
(Bot. V. (1899) 348-355, pis. 34, 35), while interesting for its 
account of the colouring-matter contained in the root, reads 
curiously as to the first part, where the steps are detailed by 
which tiie determination of the plant was made, sho\\ ing that the 
brilhant investigator was not equally at home on taxonomic 
points. The symbiotic life of the organism known as the " Ginger- 
beer plant " was set out in the ' Philosophical Transactions ' in 

A laborious series of investigations on the "Water Research 
Committee of the Eoyal Society in 1893-6, in conjunction with 
Professor Percy Prankland, showed Ward's powers of working 
out the life-history of no fewer than eighty bacterial organisms 
found in the river Thames, bis fifth report in 1897 summing up. 
Bacterial subjects occupied much of bis attention about this time, 
as shown by his " Characters in Classifying the Schizomycetes " in 
the 'Annals of Botany,' 1892; "Action of Light on Bacteria," 
Phil. Trans. 1895 ; " Some Thames Bacteria " and " A Violet 
Bacillus from the Thames" (Ann. Bot. 1898). 

Whilst these researches were being carried on, Professor C. C. 
Eabington, Professor of Botany at Cambridge, passed away, and 
Ward was appointed his successor, at the same time becoming 
professorial Pellow of Sidney Sussex College. Transferred into 
this more congenial atmosphere, he succeeded in giving a fresh 
impulse to the progress of his science in his own University, 
The Botanical School acquired so much importance that the 
University allowed a large share of the benefaction fund to the 
erection of a new botanical institute, which was opened by L[is 
Majesty the King in the spring of 1904. 

The Uredine fungi became the dominant interest of Ward's 
later investigations. The Brown Busts on Brome Grasses were 
shown to be physiological species, forms morphologically identical, 
but showing varying powers of infection, or even of inability to 
attack certain species of Bromus. He became involved in a 
controversy on the mycoplasm theory, which, after long in- 
vestigation, he considered he had shown to be untenable. 

His principal original papers have only been briefly touched 
upon, but this notice cannot pass by his other contributions to 
botanic literature, as his translation of Sachs's ' Physiology of 
Plants,' 1884 ; 'Timber and some of its Diseases,' 1889 ; 'The 
Oak,' 1892 ; a revision of Laslett's ' Timber and Timber Trees,' 
1894; 'Diseases of Plants,' 1889 ; 'Grasses,' 'Disease in Plants,' 
both in 1901 ; ' Trees,' of which three parts have appeared, 
1 902-6. A paper which appeared in our ' Transactions ' a few 
years ago by one of his pupils was unobtrusively condensed and 
rearranged for publication by Ward. 

Marshall Ward was elected Pellow of our Society 6th May, 


1SS6, and of the Eoyal Society in 1888, receiving a Eoyal Medal 
in 1893, and strviug a term on the Councils of both Societies. In 
1897 he was elected Honorary i'ellow of Christ's College, and was 
Sc.D. of Cambridge, and D.Sc. of Victoria University, Manchester, 
besides many other honorary distinctions. 

He died at Torquay, as mentioned previously, and was buried 
at the Huntingdon Eoad Cemetery, Cambridge, on 3rd September, 
1906, Professor Vines and Lieut.-Colonel Train representing our 
Society, He leaves behind him the reputation of a brilliant 
investigator, a masterly expositor, a genial companion, a whole- 
hearted devotee to the work of his life. The work he accomplished 
and its high quality testify to the consuming enthusiasm of the 
man who compressed so much into litlle more than halt-a-century 
of existence. [B. D. J.] 

"William "Waterfield was born at The Cloisters, Westminster, 
on 14th August, 1832, and went to Westminster School in 1843, 
was elected head into College (i. e., gained a scholarship) in 1846, 
was Captain of the School in 1849-50, and became a " major- 
candidate,'"' i. e., underwent the examination necessary for his 
election to the University, but withdrew his name befoi-e the 
electors came to decide on the merits of the candidates. He so 
distinguished himself during the examination as to elicit the 
universal approbation of the electors ; and the Dean of Christ 
Church (with whom lay the first choice) expressed his regret and 
disappointment that he could not seciu'e so prortiisiug a student 
for Christ Church. 

Mr. Waterfield, however, preferred an appointment to a Bengal 
Writership, and accordingly went to Haileybury, then the training 
college for service under the East India Company. At Haileybury 
he maintained the reputation he had obtained at Westminster 
and gained many prizes and medals for classics, mathematics, 
and English essays, &c., and for Sanskrit, Persian, Hindustani, 
Hindi, and Bengali. 

He left Haileybury in 1852, being head of his Term, and went 
out to India, where the College of Fort Wilham was then still in 
existence in Calcutta. Here he obtained medals for Oordoo, 
Bengalese, Hindee, Persian, and Ai'abic, and so distinguished 
himself that the Grovernor-General, Lord Dalhousie, presented him 
with his Degree of Honour in person. Mr. Waterfield was the 
last student to obtain the Degree of Honour, the College being 
abolished in 1854. 

He was posted to Bengal, where he served mainly in the Eevenue 
and Survey Department from 1852 to 1859, devoting his spare time 
to a study of the natural history of the tracts of country which he 
visited in the course of his official duty. In 1859, on the transfer 
to the Crown of the government of India, he \\as appointed Eirst 
Assistant to the Accountaut-General for India, a charge of great trust, 
for which mathematical attainments conjoined with marked capacity 
for business specially fitted him, and from that time until his 


retirement from service in India he held successive posts under 
the Finance Department, in the Southern Presidencies largely ; 
and on return from leave hotne in 1874 was confirmed as Aceoun- 
tant-General at Allahabad for the Government of what are now 
known as the LTnited Provinces of Agra and Oudh. It was the 
writer's good fortune to be his fellow-passenger in the autumn of 
1874 on the voyage to Bombay, and be never missed a fair oppor- 
tunity of interesting those whose work and interests were to be 
bound up, for the best years of their lives at least, with India, in 
the history and products, and especially the flora, of that country. 
With the flora he was well acquainted, though the pressure of 
official responsibilities seems to have precluded him from making 
any public contribution to botanical literature ; while his knowledge 
of the plants reared for use or ornament in gardens, differing as 
these necessarily do widely in the different parts of India, was as 
remarkable as it still, unfortunately, is exceptional. He was also 
a keen student of astronomy, a pursuit to which it was perhaps 
more easy to attract beginners than to field-botany, which, even 
in the Nilgiris or Himalaya, demands considerable sacrifice. 
"VVaterfield was elected a Fellow of the Linnean Society on 
6th April, 1876. From 1877-1880 he was Comptroller-General 
in India, the highest post in the domain of finance outside the 
Viceroy's Council, and on leaving India finally retired from the 
public service in 1881. On returning to this country he settled 
at Starcross in Devon, and became a Justice of the Peace for that 
county, and engaged in local work and cultivating botanic rarities 
in his garden. 

The writer has to thank Mr. Philip G. Waterfield for the infor- 
mation given above of the early career of our late Fellow. 

[J. R. Deummond.] 

June 6th, 1907. 

Prof. W. A. Heedman, F.E.S., President, in the Chair. 

The Minutes of the Anniversary Meeting of the 24th May, 
1907, were read and confirmed. 

Mr. F'rank Arthur Stockdale was proposed as a Fellow. 

Mr. Wilham Holmes Bnrrell, Mr. llltyd Buller Pole Evans, 
Mr. Frederick Ambrose Gardiner, Mr. Frank Campbell McClellan, 
Mr. E-obert Patterson, and Mr. Geoffrey Watkin Smith were 
elected Fellows. 

The President announced that he had appointed as Vice- 
Presidents for the ensuing year : — Mr, Horace W. Monckton, 
Prof. E. B. Poulton, Lieut.-Col. Prain, and Dr. A. B. Eendle. 

A telegram was despatched to Stockholm, from the meeting, to 
congratulate His Majesty the King of Sweden on the occasion of 
Their Majesties' golden wedding. 


111 accordance with the anuounceuient made on the 18th April, 
a new subsectiou to Chap. II. of the Bye-Laws was read a third 
time from the Chair, and, by Ballot, approved by 24 votes in 
favour, with 1 against, and 2 abstentions. 

The Pbesident invited Dr. W. Caeruthers, T.E.S., the repre- 
sentative of the Society at the recent Linnean celebrations in 
Sweden, to make a report, upon which Dr. Carruthers gave an 
account of the proceedings, beginning on the 21st May at Land, 
where the Eector of the University received the visitors, and, 
after a lunch, the excursion by special train to Rashult, the return 
to Elmhult for supper, the further journey soutli to Hessleholm 
to meet the train from Malmo, and the subsequent night journey 

Obverse and Eeverse of the special Linnean Gold Medal ; the Eeverse had the 
following inscription on the space in continuation of that round the edge : — 
" Univ. Kegiae Upsaliensi dat amicitiae pignus, X Kal. Jun. MCMVII." 

to Stockholm and Uppsala. Next he described a special journey 
toLinne's Hammarby with his travelling companion Mr. (now Dr.) 
B. Daydon Jackson, and Lieut.-Colonel Praiu, T.E.S. The events 
of the two following days were then recounted — the students' 
greeting at the railway station on the morning of the 23rd May ; 
the celebration in the Aula of the University, where he presented 
the special Linnean Gold Medal aud the Societj^'s Address ; 
next the reception of the foreign delegates by the Prince Regent, 
the decoration of Prof. Poulton and the General Secretary by the 
Prince on behalf of the King with the insignia of the Polar Star ; 
the Students' Concert in the afternoon, in the Botanic Garden; and 
the Hector's dinner, at which only three toasts were proposed, 
one being that of " The Linnean Society," to which the represen- 
tative responded, and a reception afterwards in the University. 
I'riday 24th opened with a salute of 21 guns from the castle ; 
the great bell of the Cathedral rang from 8 till 8.15 ; at noon the 
procession from the University started to the Cathedral, and he 


described the scene of the Promotion, the Promotor in each case 
being the Dean of his respective Paculty : Divinity, Law, Medicine, 
and Philosophy. Mr. F. Darwin, the General Secretary, and 
himself, Fellows of the Society, had the honorary degree of Doctor 
of Philosophy conferred upon them. Artillery was fired during 
the granting of the degi'ees, and soon after 3.0 p.m. the audience 
dispersed, the new doctors to gather on the steps of the University 
to receive the homage of the students with their banners, presi- 
dent, and chorus. The dinner was in the Aula, followed by a 
students' ball, which was attended by the General Seci-etary. 
Early on Saturday the delegates left for Stockholm, but the special 
train was late in reaching Stockholm, too late to permit of the 
Bergielund Botanic Garden being visited. At 2.0 p.m. the event 
of the day took place at the Kungl. Musikaliska Akademi, where 
Count Mcirner, President of the Kungl. Svenska Vetenskaps 
Akademi, after eulogising Linnseus, spoke in English and an- 
nounced that the Bicentenary Medal of the Academy had been 
awarded to Sir Joseph Hooker. A dinner at Hasselbacken closed 
the day's doings, and a garden party at the Palace the following day 
put the seal on the festivities. No one who was present during 
that momentous week would ever forget it, but must always look 
back upon it as a most delightful episode, to be treasured in 
memory to the end of life. 

The General Secretary added a few supplementary remarks, 
pointing out on a map on the screen the position of the places 
named, and then showing lantern-slides of Lund University, the 
obelisk at Eashult, the Cathedral at Uppsala (three views), and a 
students' procession in front of Uppsala University. 

Mr. G. C. Druce, E.L.S., showed a specimen of Orohanche Bitro 
from the Channel Islands, which had been named var. hypochceroides 
by Glinther von Beck ; also fresh specimens of Bromus interrupius 
from N.AV. Northants, and Orchis Simia, gathered the previous day. 

Mr. G. Glover exhibited a small portrait of William Kirby, 
the entomologist, painted on xicademy board. The Rev. T. R. II. 
Stebbing recalled the early history of the celebrated Introduction 
to Entomology from the pens of " Kirby and Spence.'' 

The following papers were read and discussed : — 

Prof. A. Dendy, D.Sc, Sec.L.S., and E. Hindle.— " Some 
Additions to our Knowledge of the ISew Zealand 

Prof. W. A. Haswell, E.L.S. — " Australasian Polyclads." (Com- 
municated by Prof. A. Dendy, D.Sc, Sec.L.S.) 

Mr. C. Tate Eegan. — " Marine Fishes collected by Mr. J. Stanley 
Gardiner in the Indian Ocean." 

Prof. Neumann. — " Ixodidae collected in the same Expedition^' 
(Communicated by the Zoological Secretary.) 


Eeception by the Presidext and Couxcil in the Eooms of the 
Societs', BurUngton House, on Friday, 7th June, 1907, from 
8.30 to 11.0 P.M., in honour of the 200th Anniversary of the 
Birth of LixxMUS, on the 13/23 May, 1707. 

The guests were received by the President, Professor W. A. 
Herdman, D.Sc, F.K.S., and Mrs. Herdman, in the Library ; 
about tliree hundred were present, nearly one-half being ladies. 
Amongst those present were His Excellency Count Wrangel, the 
Swedish Minister, other members of the Legation, and several 
Swedish visitors. Sir Thomas Elliott, Iv.C.B., Secretary to the 
Board of Agriculture and Eisheries ; Sir Archibald Geikie, Presi- 
dent of the Geological Society and Secretary of the Royal Society; 
Sir "William Eamsay, K.C.B., President of the Chemical Society; 
Sir John Murray, K.C.B., were also present, and other eminent 
men of science. 

A special feature of the exhibition was a display of manuscripts, 
books, personal relics, medals, &c., of the great Swedish Naturalist, 
which belong to the Society ; and the beautiful Inlander medallion 
was surrounded by a wreath of laurel (which had been used in the 
conferment of the degree of Phil. Dr. at the recent celebrations 
at Uppsala) formed of leaves gathered from a bay-tree planted 
by Linnaeus himself, and lent by the General Secretary ; whilst 
the Swedish flag formed a background to the small model of 
Kjellberg's statue of Linnaeus in the Library. 

In the Library the follo\Aing were shown : — 

1. From tlie LixxEAX Relics in the possession of the Lixneax 
Society of Loxdox. 

(a) Selection of drawers containing Fishes, Lepidoptera, 
Coleoptera, Shells, &c. 

(h) Portrait of Linnteus by C. F. Inlander; copy of the same 
in alabaster ; iMedals struck in his honour, including 
the Linnean Society's Annual award, and the Bicen- 
tenary Medal of the Royal Swedish Academy of 

Photogi'aphs of his father, and his only brother 
Samuel ; Wood blocks formerly belonging to Linnjeus, 
engraved for the elder Rudbeck. 

(c) Dried Plants (Zwi?iOBa and BroivalUa) from the Linnean 
Herbarium to show the method of mounting and 
naming ; the number at foot refers to the same 
number in the ' Species Plantarum,' ed. 1. 

{d) Letters from Lixx^eus to Johx Ellis, F.R.S., and in 

(e) Interleaved volumes.— 1st and 2nd editions of the 
' Species Plantarum,' with copious manuscript additions ; 


also of 'Cent. I. Plantariun/ showing the alterations in 
naming Dianthus sujyerbus and its final shape in the 
' Amoenitates Academicfe,' iv. p. 272. 

(/) Manuscripts, including ' Iter lapponicum,' his Auto- 
biography, ' Iter dalecarlicum,' ' Spolia botanica ' of 
1729; works on assaying, ' Systema morborum,' 
walking-stick, pencil-case, seals, &c. 

(g) Manuscript list of his Herbarium in 1755, with a 
memoir on the same, prepared for the 200th anni- 
versary of Linnseus's birth. Books showing additional 

{h) Letters written by Linn^us (a) to Ehret, the botanic 
draughtsman, and (b) to Haller, the latter a short 
but interesting letter which healed the breach between 
the two. (Latter lent by the General Secretary.) 

(i) Carved rhinoceros horn, mentioned in ' Amoenitates 
Academicpe,' iv. p. 234, and figured in the life of 
Sir J. E. Smith, ii. p. 230. 

2. Dr. Tempest Anderson, F.L.S. 

Photographs showing growth of vegetation since the 
eruption of 1902 in St. Vincent. 

3. Dr. C. W. Andrews, F.R.S. 

Model of the skull and mandible of Prozenglodon atrox, 
Andrews, one of the forms intermediate between the 
Oreodont Carnivora and the Zeuglodonts. The three- 
rooted premolars and molars and the comparatively 
forward situation of the nostrils are the chief primitive 
characters. Collected by Mr. H, J. L. Beadnell in the 
Middle Eocene beds of the Fayum, Egypt. 

4. Miss Margaret Benson, D.Sc, F.L.S. , and Prof. F. W. Oliver, 

F.R.S., F.L.S. 
Preparations of the Palasozoic Seeds, Lagenostoma 
ovoides and Physostoma elegans, showing bodies pre- 
sumed to be Spermatozoids. 

5. Mr. A. D. Darbishire, M.A. 

Specimens showing the result of crossing diflerent 
varieties of the culinary Pea, Pisum sativum, as 
illustrative of Mendelian phenomena of inheritance. 
During the evening some actual cross-fei'tilizations 
were made. 

6. Prof. A. Dendy, D.Sc, Sec.L.S. 

{a) Microscopic preparations of the Egg-shell of Ooperi- 
patus oviparios, Dendy, showing the sculptured pattern. 

{b) Microscopic preparation of the Integument of Ooperi- 
p>atus viridimaculatus, Dendy. 

(c) Microscopic prepaiutions of Fossil Sponge-Spicules from 
the 0am aru Siliceous Earth of New Zealand. Pre- 
pared by H. Grayson. 


(d) Diagram of the Evolution of Tetraxonid Siliceous 

7. Prof. J. Brexlaxd Farmer, F.R.S., F.L.S. 

Preparations showing the phenomena of Apogamy, the 
asexual production by budding of new plants from a pro- 

8. The President, Prof. Herdmax, D.Sc, F.R.S., F.L.S. 

(«) Photographs and specimens illustrating the Oyster 
Fisheries of Ceylon, and (b) A series of Plankton gatherings 
illustrating both quantitative and qualitative vaiiation, 
according to locality, date, and net used. 

9. Mr. Frederick Keeble. M.A. 

The infecting organism of Convoluta roscoffensis. 

10. ]\[r. Francis J. Lewis, F.L.S. 

Plant-remains, Seeds, Leaves, ifec. from the Peat. 

11. Prof. F. W. Oliver, D.Sc, F.R.S., F.L.S. 

Charts and Photographs to illustrate a stage in the 
development of a Salt- Marsh. (From the Erquy Station.) 

12. Mr. J. A. We4le. 

Photographs of transverse sections of Castanea vesca 
and Aristolochia Sipho. 


13. Mrs. D. H. Scott, F.L.S. 

Animated photographs of Plant-life shown by the Kam- 

East Gallery. 

14. Copies of addresses sent by («) The Linnean Society of 

London, and (5) The Royal Society, to the Royal University 
of Uppsala and The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, 
Stockholm, i-espectively. 

North Gallery. 
1.5. Prof. J. P. Hill, D.Sc, F.L.S. 

Photographs and drawings illustrating the development 
and life-history of the Native Cat {Dasyurus viverrinus), 
one of the pouched mammals or Marsupialia of Australia. 

The photographs and drawings exhibited represented (1) a 
practically complete series of developmental stages beginning in 
the unsegmented e^x^: and ending in the newly-born yoimg, and 
(2) the subsequent growth of the young in the pouch dui-ing a 
period of three months. 

Attention was directed to the micropbotographs of segmenting 
e^§?'. and to the drawings showing the recently born young just 
before and j ust after the attachment to the teat. 

South Gallery. 
16. Mr. J. Stanley Gardixer, M.A., F.L.S. 

Photographs taken during his recent voyage in the Indian 
Ocean in H.M.S. ' Sealark,' for the Percy Sladen Trust. 


In the Meeting Room four lectures and lantern-demonstrations 
were delivered, beginning at 9.0, when Professor E. B. Poulton, 
r.R.S., gave a brief account, illustrated with many slides, on 
Dr. Burchell and his travels in South Africa. 

William John Burchell was born on July 23rd, 1781 or 1782, 
the eldest son of Marthew Burchell, proprietor of the celebrated 
Nursery Gardens at Fulham. He received a fine education at the 
Kayleigh House Academy, Mitchatn. In 1805 Burchell sailed for 
St. Helena, and landed on the island December 13th. In 1807 
a young lady, to whom Burchell had been engaged in Fulham, set 
out in order to join him in the island : she landed April 17th, 
1808, but refused to marry him. There can be no doubt that the 
bitter disappointment influenced Burchell's character and whole 
career. After a stormy and uncomfortable sojourn in St. Helena 
he sailed for Cape Town, landing November 26th, 1810. This 
point marks the beginning of his great work ' Travels in the 
Interior of Southern Africa,' w hich comes to an abrupt conclusion 
on August 3rd, 1812, the day on which he brought to an end his 
first visit to Litakun, the capital of the Bachapin nation. Burchell 
had intended to travel N.W. and reach the W. coast, but wns 
compelled by the fears of his men to turn back on October 27th, 
1812, after reaching furthest north at the " Maadji Mountain," 
in British Bechuanaland, on nearly the same latitude as Maretsani 
siding on the railway and as Johannesburg. At this part of his 
journey, during which great hardships were endured, Burchell 
discovered the so-called " White Rhinoceros," afterwards described 
by him and named R. simus. Burchell returned S. on a track to 
the W. of his former route, which he rejoined near Kuruman 
Station, thence retracing his steps to Klaarwater (the existing 
Griquatown). He then struck S.E. to the mouth of the Great 
Fish Eiver, which he left October 25th, 1813, for a leisurely 
journey westward along the S. coast to Cape Town. He arrived 
about the middle of April, 1815 ; we know that on the 15th of 
the following September he was at St. Helena on his voyage home. 
During the next ten years Burchell lived with his family at 
Churchfield House, Fuihara, naming and arranging his great 
botanical and zoological collections and writing his classical work, 
of which the first volume was published in 1822, the second in 
1S2'J. On March 10th, 1825, he again started for a great journey, 
this time in the New World. On the way to Rio he collected for 
two months near Lisbon, for a day in Madeira and two in Tenerife. 
Burchell reached Rio, January 18th, 1825, and remained until 
September 10th, 1826, making two excursions of about a month 
each into Minas Geraes and the Organ Mountains. Pinally, on 
September 10th, he sailed for Santos and began his great three- 
years' journey northward to Para, through the heart of Eastern 
Brazil. Burchell's father died on July 12th, 1828, but such was 
the difficulty in communicating with him that he did not know of 
his loss until October 15th, 1829, four months after his arrival at 


Para, on June 10th. He sailed from Para ou Pebruarv 10th, 
1830, arriving at i\ilham March 25fch. 

The Honorary Degree of D.C.L. was conferred upon Burchell 
by the University of Oxford on May 8th, 1834. Although this 
great natui-alist had some intimate friends he lived a secluded life, 
and tended as years went on. to withdraw himself more and more 
from his scientific colleagues, and indeed from all except the 
members of his family. During the long period which intervened 
between his return from Brazil in 1830 and his tragic death bv 
his own hand on March 23rd, 1863, at the great age of 81 or 82, 
Burchell expended immense labour on the arrangement and 
labelling of his collections. He travelled in England and on the 
Continent from time to time, making sketches and doing a little 
coUeciing. His great Herbarium with a splendid set of manuscript 
notes is at Kew ; his tine collection of insects, and as much of his 
other zoological collections as remained in 1863, at Oxford- 
(Something has been done to publish his wonderful records, and 
when the whole is before the world it will be realised that he was 
one of the greatest of travellers and observers. 

The lecturer desired to thank Sir Joseph Hooker for his constant 
kindness and help in all the earlier parts of his investigations into 
the history of this grear man. In consequence of his own lecture 
in Cape Town (Eep. Brit, and S. Afr. Assoc. 1905, vol. iii. pp. 57- 
110), August 17th, 1905, Professor Poulton was brought into 
communication with a grand-nephew of ihe great explorer, Mr. 
Francis Augustus Burchell, of the Ehodes University College, 
Grrahamstown, and both he and the Rev. Evan Davies, of Springs, 
Transvaal, had been »:»xtremely kind in permitting the study of 
drawings, letters, journals, and other records. 

The second address was by the Presidekt (Prof. "W. A. Herd- 
MA^, E.R.S.), who said :— 

Before passing to the Ceylon Pearl Fisheries, upon which it has 
been arranged that I am to make some remarks and to show you 
some lantern illustrations, I desire to say a very few words in regard 
to the occasion and the manner of our gathering here to-night. 

Briefly it is in honour of Linnaeus and in commemoration of his 
work. The celebration of the 200th birthday of our eponymous 
hero, the illustrious Swedish naturalist, Carl von Linne, has been 
made the occasion of congratulatory meetings in Sweden and 
elsewhere throughout the civilized world — wherever the JN^atural 
Sciences are cultivated and the debt of the Naturalist to Linnaeus 
is gratefully acknowledged. 

On our anniversary meeting, a fortnight ago, held on the reputed 
birthday of Linnseus, the occasion was formally dealt with in the 
Presidential Address, and a congratulatory telegram was despatched 
from our meeting to the L^niversity of L^psala. 

This Society was represented at the celebrations in Upsala and 
Stockholm by our Past-President, Dr. William Carruthers, as the 
official delegate, accompanied by our General Secretary, Dr. Daydon 



Jackson. Dr. Oarrutbers conveyed our formal addresses to the 
University and the Academy of Sciences, and also a copy of our 
Linnean Gold Medal, specially struck for the occasion and pre- 
sented to the University in which Linnaeus was a professor. 

These more formal celebrations of the ainiiversary are now past ; 
and, moreover, it is recognized that our very existence in this 
Society is in honour of Linnseus, and that all our corporate life 
and work may be said to be devoted to the exposition and the 
further advancement of the undying labours of the founder of the 
sciences of Descriptive Botany and Zoology. Cousequently, it has 
been decided by our Council that the present further commemo- 
ration of this noteworthy year in the annals of our own and all 
kindred societies should take the informal shape of a social 
gathering, and that — apart from this brief statement, which I have 
been requested to make — our time together this evening should 
be devoted to profitable conversation, to the inspection of the 
many Linnean and other scientific exhibits upstairs, and to the 
short demonstrations which will be given from time to time in 
this Meeting Eoom ; it being understood that all that we do, and 
our very presence here this evening, is in honour of Linnaeus and in 
commemoration of the foundations he laid in the Sciences we 

The President then proceeded to show some illustrations of the 
celebrated Pearl Fisheries of Ceylon — probably the most important, 
the most famous, and the most ancient of pearl fisheries in the 
world. Photographic slides were exhibited showing the location 
of the Pearl Pisheries in the Gulf of Manaar, the characteristic 
scenery of the coasts, and the manner in which a temporary town 
of perhaps 40,000 inhabitants and miles of streets was run up in 
a few days at Marichchukadde, near the mouth of the Modragam 
river. At the conclusion of the fishery this great population melts 
away again in a few hours, and the site of " Pearl towai " becomes 
once more a solitary sandy waste. 

The vessels composing the fishing fleet were then described and 
illustrated, and the divers and their habits and mode of life were 
shown. These men are mainly Indians from the Adam's Bridge 
district and Arabs from the Persian Gulf. No diving suits or 
mechanical appliances are used, and the divers rarely stay down 
more than a minute and a half and do not dive in water deeper 
than about 9 fathoms. 

The pearl-oysters {Margaritifera vulgaris) were then shown, and 
their life-history from the egg to the adult was briefly traced. 
The enormous numbers of the "spat" and the possibihties of 
wholesale destruction at various stages by organic enemies and 
inorganic agencies was shown to afford man an opportunity of 
averting calamity to the fisheries by transplanting, cultching, and 
other measures of artificial cultivation. 

The structure of Mother-of-pearl and of the Orient pearl was 
illustrated ; and the question of pearl-production, and its relation 


ill the Cevlon pearl-oyster to the presence of larval Cestodes of 
th(i genus Tetyarhi/nchiis, was briefl)' discussed : photographs of 
different stages in the process were shown. 

Finally, photographs were shown illustrating some of the ancient 
customs of the fishery, which have probably existed since pre- 
historic times with little or no change ; and some of the ancient 
temples and buried cities of the north of Ceylon, which date back 
to the same early times and which were erected by native princes 
who obtained their pearls from the Gulf of Manaar centuries 
before the Cliristian era. 

Lieut.-Colouel Praix, F.R.S., V.P.L.S., then delivered the third 
of the series, epitomised thus : — Botanical studies, if purely syste- 
matic, though perhaps uninviting to outsiders, are engrossing to 
the initiated. Those other botanical studies that are termed, 
somewhat pragmatically, scientific are as interesting to their 
votaries as they are varied in themselves. We are not uo\a-, 
however, concerned with either, but with botanical studies of still 
another class, those economic ones that appear often as uninviting 
to the systematic worker as systematic studies appear to the 
botanist whose " science " excludes taxonomy. The economic 
botanist, humble-minded soul, cannot indulge in airs and graces ; 
his work can only go on with the help of his scientific colleagues; 
it can only begin if his taxonomic colleagues have provided him 
with a sure foundation. Humility is not the only virtue he has 
to cultivate. He must be patient too. The natural law which he 
finds least irregular in its application is that our knowledge of a 
vegetable product varies inversely with its importance. He 
cannot, like the taxonomist, decline to deal with a subject because 
the material before him is incomplete ; he often has to be content 
with what he can get, and is sometimes driven to make the most 
of rather scrappy samples. 

In general, however, the human interest of his studies relieves 
bis work of the monotony that might be anticipated, and the by- 
paths into which he is enticed often lead him to unexpected places 
and result in reciprocal greetings with workers whose field of study 
seems at first sight foreign to botany. 

A few stray instances taken from experience gained in the 
course of Indian economic enquiries may serve to indicate the 
interest of such collateral results. A study of the distribution of 
the races of Wheat in Eastern India shows that, although it is 
impossible to hope for a good crop in any part of Lower Bengal 
in any year, on account of " rust," the cultivation of this cereal, 
so widely grown in Upper India, does not stop short when the 
western margin of the unsuitable region is reached, but extends in 
a narrow belt through Central into Eastern Bengal. We are thus 
brought in contact with the history of the progress of the Mogul 
power eastward. The wheat-consuming conquerors, not content 
with the rice which is the staple food of those they overcame, 
must needs persist in growing their favourite grain. 



IE we consider the distribution of the races of Mustard culti- 
vated ill the same region, we tiud that our familiar Bras^slca is 
known iii Behar as it is elsewhere in Upper India as ' Sarson.' 
In the Lower Gangetic Plain, where the language is Bengali, the 
corresponding word is ' Sarisha.' But while, as a matter of 
linguistics, the two names are identical, we find that the Hindu 
* Sarson ' and the Bengali ' Sarisha ' are entirely distinct plants, 
and the incidence of the two names never varies in either region. 
The striking feature in this case is that both plants are equally 
widely grown and equally well known in the two areas, but that 
in Bengal the Hindu ' Sarson ' is termed ' Dhepo,' in Behar the 
Bengali ' Sarisha ' is termed ' Latni.' We learu then that, though 
linguistically two names may be the same and though the general 
siguifieance of the two may be similar, their specific application 
may be quite distinct. 

in North-Eastern Bengal one finds that, while there as elsewhere 
in this alluvial rice-swamp the staple monsoon field-crop is almost 
necessarily Oryza saliva, in the winter months the people grow as 
garden rather than as field crops a number of plants unknown in 
cultivation elsewhere in India. These include among others a 
chrysanthemum yielding an oil-seed ; a cabbage ; mustard ; a 
mallow, elsewhere a field-weed, here a deliberately cultivated 
mucilaginous vegetable; a form of China-grass, grown for its 
fibre, so as to supply strong ropes for the haulajje of country boats 
against the stream in the summer floods. The climate even in 
winter is not particularly well suited for any of these, and the 
conclusion to wliich one is irresistibly led is that we see here, even 
if the people themselves be unaware of it, a parallel to the efforts 
of European denizens in India to grow, in the winter months, 
wallflowers, stocks, violets, and the like, not because these plants 
can be grown easily or grown well, but because they are associated 
with "home." Hindu as to faith, Bengali in speech, it Avould 
surprise these people if it were suggested that racially they are 
entirely unlike their Bengali neighbours south and west of the 
Ganges. But when it is realized that the winter garden crops in 
question are Chinese and not Indian ones, the idea suggests itself 
that the people who grow them also came into India across the 
north-eastern frontiers. Here, then, the economic botanist finds 
himself in contact with the ethnologist, and in this particular 
instance can apply evidence confirmatory of a hypothesis suggested 
by the facts obtained from head-measurements. 

These are but instances to show that economic botanical studies, 
apart from their direct interest, which in itself may be sufficiently 
fascinating, particularly when the material available admits of 
their being cai-ried to completion, may lead to results that are of 
interest to the historian, the scholar, the ethnologist. But before 
leaving the subject it may be permissible to allude to an instance 
where a botanical study — this time, however, scientific, and not 
economic — seems to supply food for thought to those interested 
in folk-lore. 

In the garden of a native gentleman near Calcutta occurs a 


Ficiis which exhibits the pecuharity of having all its leaves modified 
into hypoascidial cups. The alteration of leaves into cups is not 
an uncommon phenomenon, but it rarely extends to all the leaves 
of an individual plant, and in no other known plant are the leaves 
hypoascidial. A sustained enquiry failed to show whence this 
particular tree had originally come or to indicate that another tree 
with foliage of this kind occurs elsewhere. After some trouble 
two rooted cuttings of the original tree were established in the 
nurseries of the iioyal Botanic Cxarden at Calcutta. But, though 
nothing of the kind had ever been seen or heard of elsewhere, the 
rooted cuttings in question, which were a soiave of great interest 
to the native gardeners of the establislunent, at once evoked a 
myth of the most circumstantial character, in which an incident 
in the life of Rama was made to account for the appearance oi 
these supernatural cups. Nor did the matter end hex'e. When, 
a couple of seasons later, one of the two cuttings had become 
sutticiently large to admit of its being planted out in the public 
part of the garden, where it again excited great interest among a 
wider and often much more highly educated class, another myth 
as circumstantial as the first was evolved to explain the occuri'ence 
and shape of the leaves. But the incident and the explanation 
were altogether different, and the supernatural power required to 
account for the existence of the cups was attributed to Krishna, 
not to Kama. The inference from the existence of a myth in 
connection with a natural phenomenon, that therefore the pheno- 
menon which the myth endeavours to explain has been long known, 
is in this case precluded ; while the fact that in the instance under 
review not one myth only, but two, were promptly forthcoming, 
seems to show that, given a child-like and imaginative people, 
a phenomenon only requires to be sutticiently striking to ensure 
the impromptu evolution of a mythical explanation. 

The last lecture was delivered by Mr. Fbakcis J. Lewis, F.L.S., 
on the Plant-remains in British Peat-mosses ; he said : — 

I have been asked to say a few words this evening on the 
succession of vegetation in the peat of Britain ; a deposit of some 
interest, inasmuch as many peat-bogs contain, buried in their 
depths, a complete story of the vegetation which has existed over 
such spots since the Glacial period. 

The interest of a peat-moss depends upon the fact that it shows 
definite stratification. A few slides «ill make this evident. If 
the stream channels of many mosses are walked through, the stems 
and roots of large trees are often seen exposed as the bank is 
gradually cut back by the stream at its base. 

When the peat is deep and the stream has cut its way dow^n to 
the underlying soil, the tree-roots and stems are seen to occur in 
a definite layer — sometimes one, more frequently two, and occa- 
sionally three such forest layers can be recognized, separated by 
thick beds of peat quite free from tree-remains. 

Two such forest zones can be I'ecognized in Britain. 



Slides exhibited. 

1. The Upper Forest, Caithness-Sutherland border, 

2. Upper Forest exposed by denudation. Cairngorms. 

3. Upper Forest. Kells. 

The arctic zone between the forest beds. 

4. Arctic zone. Merrick-Kells. 

The sequence in the Southern Uplands. 

5. Sequence in Merrick-Kells. 

Turning noiv to a district far north of this, that ivas examined 
two years later, the same features appear. 

6. Sequence in Shetland. 

When Highland areas are examined the upper beds remain in 
general cliaracters the same, but the beds below the intercalated 
arctic are missing. 

7. Sequence of Spey-Findhorn. 

8. The areas examined. Map. 

The meaning of the missing basal beds in Highlands. 

9. "Ways in which peat may be removed. Coire Bog torrent beds. 

10. Photo of actual example. 

11. Merrick-Kells, general view. 

12. Shetland. Burn of Dale. 

13. Cape Wrath district. 

14. The Lews mosses. 

15. The denudation of peat universal, except in boulder clay-basins 

in lowlands. Cross Fell peat-bogs. 

16. JSr. Uist denudation. 
1(3 a. Denudation in Lews. 

17. General view of Cross Fell deposits. 

18. Peat running up to limestone outcrop. Cross Fell. 

19. The Upper Forest. Cross Fell. 

20. The altitudinal hmits of an arctic alpine flora and forest 

vegetation at successive stages since the Glacial period. 

21. Doubling of pine zone (Upper Forest). Spey-Findhorn v\ ater- 


22. Stonechrubie, Assynt. No arctic plants at the base. 

23. Eannoch Moor. Presence of arctic plants at base and 

doubling of Upper Forest. 

24. A section on banks of Sma Lochs. , 

25. Peat coming up to base of limestone. ■ 

26. The character of the zones — Empetrum. ■ 

27. Moraines on which southern upland peat rests. The glacial 



June 20th, 1907. 

Prof. AV. A. Hebdman, P.E.S., President, in the Chair, 

The Minutes of the General Meeting of the 6th June, 1907, 
\^ere read, and confirmed. 

Mr. Geoffrey Watkin Smith, Mr. Montagu Austin Phillips, and 
Mr. Frederick Ambrose Gardiner were admitted Fellows. 

Mr. Walter Henry Baker, Mr. Keginald Evelyn Child Beale, 
and Dr. John Tanner were proposed as Fellows. 

Mr. Balph Sneyd Pearson was elected a Fellow. 

The President read a letter congratulating Sir J. D. Hookee on 
his sixty-five years of Fellowship of the Linnean Society, and the 
approaching completion of his ninetieth year, which was signed 
by the Fellows present, for transmission to the veteran botanist. 

An acknowledgment from the principal secretary of H.M. the 
King of Sueden, in reply to the telegram sent on the 6th June 
on the occasion of his golden wedding, was read by the General 

The Rev. T. E. E. Stebbing, F.E.S., F.L.S., referred to the 
recent Eeception (7th June) and hoped that the lectures delivered 
then would be printed in the ' Proceedings ' ; a reply was given by 
the President, and further remarks made by Mr. J. C. Shenstone. 

3Ir. W. C. WoKSDELL, F.L.S., exhibited some remarkable cases 
of carpellody of the inner stamens of Papaver convnutatum, selected 
from a bed of plants at Kew so labelled, with one specimen of 
P. orientule showing the same peculiarity of separate carpels sui'- 
rounding the capsule. 

Dr. Scott and Mr. J. C. Shenstone spoke on this exhibit. 

The GENEEAii Secretary exhibited two photographs he had 
received that morning from Prof, yak Leersum: of Leiden, of two 
pages from the audience book of Herman Boerhaave, showing the 
signature of Carl Linnaeus on eachj^^ith many other signatures of 
men who afterwards became famous. 

Dr. A. B. Eendle mentioned the celebrated letter of Boerhaave 
introducing Linnaeus to Sloane, which was now on view at the 
British Museum (Natural History). 

The following papers were read and discussed : — 

The late Dr. Maxwell T. Masters, F.E.S., F.L.S.— " On the 
Distribution of Conifers in China and neighbouring 

Mr. J. Stanley Gardiner, M.A., F.L.S. — " Introduction, 
part II., of the ' Sealai'k ' Expedition." 


Mr. E. E. Green. — " Coccidse." (Communicated by Mr. J. 

Stanley Gardiner, M.A., E.L.IS.) 
Herr M. Eoslie. — " Lithothamnia." (Communicated by the 

Mr. L. A. BoRRADAiLE, M.A. — " Stomatopoda." (Communi- 
cated by Dr. W. T. Calman, E.L.S.) 
Mr. A. W. Waters, E.L.S. — " Species and Ovicells of Tuhu- 

Mr. Clement Eeid, E.E.S., E.L.S., & Mrs. Eeid.— " On the 

Pre-Glacial Elora of Britaui." 
Dr. W. E. HoiLE. — " Cephalopoda of the Sudan." (Communi- 
cated by the President.) 
Mr. E. A. Newell Arper, M.A., E.L.S. — " Triassic Species of 

Zamites and Pieroj)hyHmn." 
Messrs. E. G. Baker, E.L.S., S. L. Moore, E.L.S., and A. B. 

PiENDLE, M.A., D.Sc, E.L.S.— " Descriptions of Plants 

from JVIount Euwenzori." 
Dr. E. E. Eritsch, E.L.S. — " The Anatomy of the Julianiacese." 
Mr. G. S. West, E.L.S. — "On certain critical EreshwaterAlga?." 
Dr. 11. jS^orris Woleendek, E.L.S. — " Eeport on the Kesults 

obtained during the cruise of the Tacht ' Silver Belle.' " 
Mr. W. M. Tattersall. — " Amphipoda." (Communicated by 

Rev. T. E. E. Steering, E.E.S., E.L.S.) 
Mr. G. F. Earran. — " Fyrosoma sjnnosum." (Communicated by 

Dr. R. A. Woleenuen, E.L.S.) 
Messrs. E. W. L. Holt & L. Byrne. — " Rare or little-known 

Fishes taken by the ' Silver Belle.' " (Communicated by 

Dr. A. GtJNTHER, E.R.S., E.L.S.) 



A Note on Siec/esheclia orientaUs. 
By the Eev. H. Pueefoy JFitzgerald, F.L.S. 

[Bead 6th December, 1906.] 

My chief object in sending the exhibit and note of Siegesbecl-ia is not 
to convey any tresli information but to gain it, and to invite evidence 
of its medicinal virtues from any wiio are acquainted with it. 

Last spring, my friend M. Sers from Reunion supplied me with 
seed, askuig vxhether I would try and raise it in this country ; he 
also sent some to Jvew Gardeus, and a large crop has been grown 
near San iVancisco for experimental purposes. M. Sers tells me 
that the natives in Reunion make very great use of the plant 
for all kinds of skni diseases ; it is there known by the name 
Guerit-vite (the quick-cure). He tells me also that he has seen 
a dog, which w as so bad with mange that it was ordered to be 
killed, cured in three weeks by being washed with water ni which 
this plant had been boiled. Siegeshechia oritntalis is a native of 
India, but Lieut.-Col. Prain, the Director of Kew Gardens, tells 
me he has never heard of its being used for any purpose in India, 
and this is confirmed by Sir George Watt, the authority on Indian 
economic plants. 

In the 2nd vol. of the ' Pharmacographia Indica ' (Dymock, 
Warden & Hooper) there is a short account, of some of the uses 
to which the plant has been applied in the islands of Mauritius 
and Reunion, and it is further stated that it appears to have been 
known for a long time in Chiua as a remedy for agite, rheumatism, 
and renal colic. 

The account further states : — " In Reunion it {SiegesbecJcia 
07'ientalis) has a considerable local reputation as a sialologue 
(exciting saliva), vulnerary, tonic, aperient and depurative ; it is 
aajingredient in Perichon's 8irop depuratif vegetal, which is used 
as a remed}^ in scrofulous affections. The juice of the fresh herb 
is used as a dressing for wounds, over which, as it dries, it leaves a 
varnish-like coating. A decoction of the leaves and young shoots 
is used as a lotion for ulcers and parasitic skin diseases." 

Undoubtedly, then, in Reunion the plant is largely used for 
various purposes, and it seems likely that, if it retains its peculiar 
virtues when grown in other countries, it may turn out to be a 
plant of much value. 

The whole of my crop has been sent to a skin hospital, where it 
is being experimented with in various ways, but sufficient time 
has not yet elapsed for any statements to be made. 

I have supplied a decoction to a woman who has for years 
suffered from an extremely irritable sort of erysipelas, and she 
has found considerable relief by using it. 


Sieqeshechia orientalis is an erect, branclied annual herb, one oi: 
the Compositae, growing about 3 feet high, be.iring opposite, 
broadly triangular, coarsely toothed leaves. The flowers are 
insignificant, yellow in colonr, the ray florets strap-shaped and 
pistil-bearing, the disk florets being tubular and perfect. It is 
quite hardy and bears seeds abundantly. 

The bitter principle of the plant was discovered in 1885 by 
M. Auffray, and named Darutyne ; a specimen of the white crys- 
talline scales was shown in the Indian and Colonial Exhibition, 
London, 1886 (' Pharmacographia Indica"). 

I should be glad if this note brings forth any further informa- 
tion from the Fellows of this Society who have come across it and 
have seen it used for any specific purpose. 

Lieut.-Col. Prain, Director of Kew, has very kindly lent me tlie 
dried specimens and the painting ; the latter will probably be of 
more use than the former, in showing the main features of the 


The Ornamentation of the Frog Tadpole {Rana ienq^oravia). 
By Nina P. Layaeb, P.L.S. 

[Read 7th March, 1907.] 

"When the young tadpole frees itself from its jelly covering it is 
entirely black, but by the time it is ten days old, or possibly 
before, gold spots begin to appear sparsely sprinkled over the 
dusky skin. Very rapid changes in coloration then begin to take 
place, and the following notes are from a daily diary kept while 
these appearances were being carefully observed. 

On the tenth day after the tadpole had broken away from its 
envelope, a thin sprinkling of gold spots was observed. At first 
the spots are disposed singly and in no apparent order, except 
that on the upper part of the ridge of the tail they form a more 
or less regular line. There were more spots on the upper than 
on under part of the tadpole, and a few, perhaps three or four, 
irregularly scattered over the eye. 

On the eleventh day the spots had increased in nulnber, and by 
the twelfth were alternately arranged in two lines on the ridge 
of the tail, and were thickly sprinkled over the eye. On the 
thirteenth and fourteenth days the only noticeable change was a 
slight yellowness about the nose. Two days afterwards, when 
the tadpole was sixteen days old, a sudden and curious change 
was observed in the eye. The spots had cleared away from the 
centre, and now formed a golden iris, arranged in perfect order, 
though a few were still sprinkled over the ball outside the 
iris. At the same time, the lines of spots on the ridge of 
the tail had broken up into groups composed gf three or four 


spots each. By the seventeenth day the skin of the tadpole 
presented a very beautiful appearance under the microscope. On 
a black background were thickly sprinked groups of golden spots, 
strangely resembling a midnight sky with its groups of starry 

Choosing a portion of the skin to which I could be guided by 
the junction of the tail with the body, 1 made a map of a few 
groups that were specially defined, but they had so altered their 
positions during the night, that I could recognize none of them 
on the following day. Meanwhile the tail had assumed a very 
elegant leaf-like shape, of a pale brownish hue, fretted with spots 
of darker brown. On the twentieth day 1 again made a map of 
the gold spots as they appeared on the ridge of the tail at 12 p.m., 
but by 20 minutes to eleven on the following day it was impossible 
to identify any of the groups. On May the 9th, which was the 
twenty-sixth day, I made a drawing of some spots which were 
seen on the eye outs'de the iris, and although tlie next day the 
groups could be recognized, certain changes had begun to take 
place. Above and beJow the lowest pair of spots gold bars had 
appeared, and a triangular gold blotch at the lelt had disappeared. 

The twenty-third day showed constant alterations in tlie dis- 
position of the groups ; and by the twenty-fourth day all the 
spots distributed over the body, from being circular had in one night 
become starry, or perhaps they would now be more accurately 
described as " rosettes,'"' such as are seen on the flanks of the 
leopard, but golden instead of black. At this time also, the 
uniform blackness of the underlying skin gave place to a 
yellowish-brown about the nose and surrounding the eyes ; and 
four days later the M'hole of this portion, which comprehends 
almost half the body of the tadpole, had turned to burnished gold, 
spotted with black, while the rest of the body remained black, but 
literally crusted over with gold spangles. A black mark shaped 
like a spear-head now appeared on the elevated ridge between the 
eyes, and the tail became reddish in the centre, and speckled 
with red and black spots. 

By the thirtieth day the frog-tadpole had perhaps attained its 
highest degree of perfection as regards ornamentation, and 
although it went through many subsequent changes, all beautiful 
in their way, I will conclude my notes with a description of it at 
this age, when I think it could hardly be surpassed in brilliancy of 
decoration by any other creature. 

During the three days which had elapsed since it was last 
sketched, several changes had taken place. It was still more 
thickly spangled with gold, and a second fainter mark had 
appeared in advance of the spear-head marking between the eves. 
Around the spear-mark spots of a brilliant torquoise-blue had 
grouped themselves, and the effect of these spots, surrounded as 
they were by gold, was very jewel-like and striking. Finally, the 
tail was very transparent, only slightly speckled, and frilled near 
the end. It is perhaps impossible to exaggerate the splendour of 

76 rEOCEEDixGs or the 

a frog-tadpole at tbe age of one month. As this tadpole unfor- 
tuuatel_y died the day after the last drawing was made, I have 
wondered whether the blue spots were possibly the result of an 
niihealthy condition, but I have not had the opportunity of 
repeating the observations. 

Note. — In Miss Hinckley's "Notes on the Development of 
Rana sylvatica" which appeared in the ' Proceedings ' of the 
Boston Natural History Society, she mentions the continual change 
of colour taking place in the skin of the frog. So rapid were these 
changes, that she found it almost impossible to secure a correct 
representation. She found that within lifteen minutes the frog, 
if placed in a glass on white paper, would turn from the ordinary 
shade of brown to light ashy fawn. 

Schnetzler beheved that " the privation of light diminished and 
stopped the foruiation of the colouring matter of the skin," and 
according to his experiments frogs reared in green glasses remained 
very black. 


On the Occurrence of Ar/rostis verticillata, Vill., and Alsine 
atheniensis, nobis, in the Channel Islands. By (x. Clauidge 
Dkuce, M.A., E.L.S. 

[Read 7th March, 1907.] 
Ageostis tebticillata, Vlllars, in the Channel Isles. 

A. verticillata, Yillars, Prosp. PI. Dauph. p. 16 (3 779), et His- 
toire, ii. p. 74 (1787) ; not of Thuih. PI. Par. ii. p. 36 (1790). 
— A. stolonifera, Linn. Herb, (not of the 'Species Plantarum'); 
Eichter, PI. Europ. p. 42 (^1690). — A. aquatica, Pourr. in Act. 
Toul. in. p. 306 (17b3).— ^. densa, M. Pieb. PI. Taur. Cauc. 
i. p. 56 (1S09).— .4. refracta, Moench, Meth. Suppl. p. 60 
(1794). — A, alba, Chaix in Vill. I. c, not ot Linn. — A. rivu- 
laris, Brot. Pi. Lusit. p. 75 (lb04). — A. VUlarsii, Poir. Euc. 
Meth. Supph i. p. 251 (1810). 

Vilfa stolonifera, Presl, Cyp. & Gram. Sic. p. 22 (1820). 
Inhabiting South Europe and Portugal ; adventitious in Western 

Prance and Hamburg. 

Descr. Stoloniferous. Stems 6-20 inches, geniculate, ascend- 
ing; leaves flat, soft, glaucous; ligule short, truncate; panicle 
1-4 inches long, compact, thyrsoidly-lobate ; branches rough, 
remaining open after llo\^erillg, garnished tvith spikelets to their 
base, greyish-green or purphsh-red ; glumes subobtuse, puberously- 
scabrid over the whole surface; pales equal, obtuse. 

This species greatly resembles Agrostis alba (the variety of 
which in Britain we know as A. stolonifera, and is perhajis 
identical with var. 'prorepens, Ivoch) in habit and general appear- 
ance, but may be kno^\n by the bianchlets being garnished with 


spikelets to the base, whereas in alha and its varieties they are 
bare of spikelets. 

Last July, when in the company of Mr. E. D. Marquand, I saw 
•growing plentifully in the excavated soil near the Vale Castle in 
(guernsey a grass which was different from any British form 
known to me, and subsequently found it covering an extensive 
area and in considerable quantity, not only in such situations, 
but also by the sides of roads and other dry bare places in the 
northern portion of Guernsey and also extending westwards to 
the Grande Mare, where it grew by the roadside. On my visit to 
Alderiiey I found it' growing on made soil in Braye Bay and on 
quarry debris farther east. I have also detected a small piece 
among some grasses gathered at St. Luke's, Jersey, in the pre- 
vious June, but this was on some I'ecently disturbed ground, 
where alien plants were present. In Corbiere's ' Xouvelle Tlore 
de Normandie' he reports it as a southern species naturalized for 
upwards of 40 years at Cherbourg, espec-ially about the ditches of 
the western port. From the fact of its not being a native of 
Western Erance, it may be held to be also adventitious in the 
Channel Islands, and in a country so disturbed by the operations 
of man as these small islands, it must be very ditlicult to decide. 
On the one hand, there are the facts of its absence from the 
opposite coast of France as a native species, and that no botanist 
has hitherto recorded it from the islands, while the geographical 
range is not strongly in favour of its being native in the Channel 
Islands ; yet, on the other hand, it may be urged that it extends 
up the western coast as 7ar as Spain and Portugal, that it is 
extremely similar to A. alha var. stolonifera in appearance and 
chooses the same situations, and may thus have escaped observa- 
tion, while in its undoubtedlv native area it prefers ground which 
has been disturbed by man, and that it is now at any rate abundant 
and widely spread ; moreover, the recent discovery of Sperfjidaria 
atheniensis in Jersey (a distinctly Mediterranean species) supports 
the possibility of its being native. 

Curiously it represents A. stolonifera in the Li nnean Herbarium, 
and for that reason Eichter in the ' Plautse Europoeae ' puts it 
under that name. But as Linnaeus bases his stolonifera on the 
plant described in the ' Flora Suecica,' ii. p. 66 and i. n. 61, it 
evidently cannot refer to this Mediterranean species. Indeed, 
some authors have thought it refers to A. vulgaris. With. ; but 
since this plant represents A. stolonifera in his herbarium it would 
apj)ear more probable that the well-known form of A. alha, which 
mimics this plant so closely, is really the Linnean stolonifera. 

Alsii^'e atheniensis, nohis, in Jersey. 

Spergularia atheniensis, Ascherson ex Schweinfurth, Beitr. Fl. 
^Ethiop. p. 267 (1867), nomen tantum ; JSyman, Consp. 
p. 123 ; Halacsy, Consp. Fl. Graec. i. p. 25 L — /S'. 7'uhra var. 
atheniensis, Heldr. & Sart. in Heldr. Herb. Graec. Xorm, 


n. 590.— >S'. cnmpestris, Heldr. Herb. Graec. Norm. n. 831 (not 

oi: Ascherson); Willk. & Lange, Prod. Fl. Hisp. ii. p. 165.— 

SiMrgularia diandm, Boiss.M. Or. i. p. 733 ; and Index Kew. 

ii. p. 956. 

Descr. Annual or biennial. Glandular-viscous, prostrate or 

ascending, nearly leafless at the base. Leaves long, linear, flat. 

Stipules subtriangular, broader than long, and overlapping at the 

base, dull greyish-yellow. Elowers numerous, in dense leafless or 

nearly leafless cymes, the pedicels shorter than the capsules. 

Sepals lanceolate, with scarious margiu. Petals obovate, as long 

or a little shorter than the sepals. Stamens from 5 to 10, usually 

about 7 or 8 in number. Capsule slightly exceeding the calyx. 

Seeds wingless, greyish-brown, larger than those of -S'. rubra. 

From S. ruhra it may easily be distinguished by the absence of 
the basal rosette of leaves, and by the short, broadly-ovate, dull- 
coloured stipules, so different from the long, narrow, lanceolate, 
glistening silvery-white stipules of -S'. ruhra. From the more 
closelv allied S. diandra, with which it is united or confounded by 
Lebel", Kindberg, and ' Index Kewensis,' and under which as a 
subspecies it is placed by Nyman, Alsine atlicniensis may be known 
bvits more robust appearance and by the more numerous stamens, 
S. diandra, as its name im])lies, having 2 or 3 only. 

Alsine atheniensis is found in sandy places on or near the coast 
of the Mediterranean from Phaleron, near Athens, where I have 
seen it, westwards to Spain, and it also occurs in Corsica. S. 
diandra is recorded by Nyinan from Portugal. 

The above description has been drawn up from the Jersey 
plant, which I found last June growing on loose sand at and near 
St. Hehers. Its occuri^ence in Jersey, where there is, I suppose, 
no reason to doubt its being indigenous, although it grew on 
ground near the coast railway, is especially interesting from its 
ijeing a Mediterranean species unrecorded for the coast of 
Western Prance, although, as we have seen, the closely-allied 
S. diandra is reported from Portugal. The presence of the 
Mediterranean element in the flora of the Channel Isles at present 
awaits a perfectly satisfactory explanation, although Mr. Lester- 
Garland, in 'Flora of Jersey,' offers an ingenious suggestion. 


On the CEc'ological Functions of Stolons and Cleistogamous 
Flowers. By J. C. Shenstone, F.L.S. 

[Eead 18th April, 1007.] 

The colonies of plants formed by means oT rhizomes, creeping 
stems, offsets, runners and suckers, or by the self-planting of seeds 
in the immediate neighbourhood of the parent plant, are familiar 
to us all, but an important service which this habit of forming 
colonies affords to the species appears to have been overlooked. 
It is self-evident that a more or less dense colony of plants has 


a much better chance of holding its own, when sm-rounded bv 
hixuriaut vegetation, than single individuals would have. Colon- 
ization aho often affords important service by rendering the 
pollinizatioii of the ovule more certain than would be the case if 
the plants were thinly scattered as isolated individuals. In the 
case of rock-loving plants, the cushion-like colonies, so frequent 
among our rock flora, retain moisture by collecting debris and 
dust round the thickly-matted offsets. 

It may be well to recall some familiar examples illustrating the 
advantages secured by this habit of colonization. 

The common daisy {BeUis perennis) affords us a tj-pical example 
of a plant w hich would certainly be smothered if it grew in a con- 
dition oi: isolation. Those who have watched this little plant 
gradually taking possession of their lawn, must have noticed the 
first unfolding of its rosette of stifl' leaves, either in some thin 
place upon the lawn, or at an earlier period of the season, before 
the surrounding herbage has commenced to grow. Having secured 
its foothold, it quickly sends up offsets which soon clear a com- 
paratively large space, thus securing an abundance of light and air. 
The colony rapidly spreads, neighbouring colonies join their forces, 
until a large portion of the lawn is occupied by our humble friend. 

The short, thick rhizome of the iris {Iris Pseudncorus) co-oper- 
ates with the rigid sword-shaped leaves to secure light and air for 
a plant growing under very different circum>tances. Even the 
rank riverside vegetation is quite unable to resist the force of the 
growth of these thick rhizomes crowned by rigid leaves. IVor 
must we overlook the important service rendered by colonies of 
grasses and sedges on our sand-dunes, in holding the sand together 
by their matted roots ; but for these matted offshoots no plant 
could live upon these sands. 

Amongst the wind-fertilized plants, the perennial mercury 
{MercariaUs jyerennis) illustrates the service rendered by colonies. 
The seedling plant quickly forms comparatively thick colonies by 
means of underground stems, and the inflorescence is developed 
in the early spring before the woodland vegetation has appeared ; 
orherwise the wind-blovATi pollen of this plant would be obstructed 
in its passage from colony to colony. One colony produces stami- 
nate flowers exclusively, another colony produces pistillate flowers 
only. The colony of staminate flowers sends out clouds of pollen, 
whilst the pistillate flowers unfold their stigmas gradually, and are 
thus for a long period ready to catch the pollen as the clouds pass 
in their direction. It is clear that pollination would be more pi-e- 
carious if the pollen was produced in small quantities by isolated 

The common stinging-nettle ( Urtica dioica) also forms colonies 
hi/ mca7is of underground stems, and these likewise send out clouds 
of pollen which fertilize flowers of neighbouring colonies. 

The wild thyme (Thymus Serpyllum) may be cited as an example 
of a plant which secures the fertilization of its ovules by the 
formation of dense colonies. Its flowers would have small chance 


of attractina; visitors required for cross-fertilization, if its slender 
stems lost themselves amongst surrounding vegetation, instead of 
forming dense tufts covered with bright flowers. These tuFts also 
send out much larger volumes of tl>e odour so characteristic of the 
plant than isolated stems would do, and thus afford an additional 
attraction to insects. 

In the pretty little moscatel ( Moschatellhia) we have a 
rare instance of an entomophilous plant emitting a slight odour, 
secreting nectar, and yet being devoid of the brightly coh)ured 
corolla which we associate with such distinctly entomophilous 
plants. Grrant Allen tells us that no reason Ciin be given for the 
green corolla of this plant, but I would suggest that the formation 
of colonies of these bright green plants bjf undert/round stems 
renders them very conspicuous in contrast with the brown colora- 
tion of our woodlands in spring, and thus bright-coloured corollas 
are not necessary. 

I would now direct attention to the two most characteristic 
cleistogamic flower-producing plants of our British flora. Careful 
observation will show us that these cleistogamous flowers not only 
serve the plants by producing mature seeds without the aid of 
wind or insects — an important service, but also by keeping the 
colonies of plants dense in their very centres, and by this means 
enabling the colonies to maintain themselves against outside attack 
for much longer periods. 

The sweet violet (Viola odorata), growing in woods and hedges 
surrounded by luxurious vegetation, would soon be smothen^d if 
growing as isolated plants or in straggling colonies. Tlie plant 
thrusts the capsules, produced by the cleistogamous flowers 
abundantly in the autumn, to the ground close to the parent 
plant; thus a number of vigorous young seedlings are introduced 
into the colonies, reinvigorating them at their centres, whilst the 
creeping stems spread outwards and extend the colonies in a 
centrifugal manner. The seeds produced by the jierfect flowers, 
which serve to start new colonies, are very sparingly produced, 
hence it is important to the plant that the colonies, when once 
established, should hold their own for a lengthened period. 

It is noteworthy that the dog violet (Viola canina), growing in 
more open situations and surrounded by less luxuriant vegetation, 
relies much more u])on its perfect flowers for the reproduction of 
the species. These perfect flowers are produced later in the 
season, when insects are more abundant, and consequently pro- 
duce an abundance of seed. They thrust the capsules produced 
by these perfect flowers well above the surrounding vegetation 
and scatter their seeds very widely. The plant appears to realize 
that it lives under different conditions to those under which its 
near relative the sweet violet has to struggle, and takes full 
advaTitnge of the more favourable conditions. Nevertheless it 
develops cleistogamic flowers, and plants the seeds produced by 
them inside the colonies, though relying less upon them. It is 


noteworthy also that whilst the wood violet relies upon its strong 
perfume for drawing the few insects which fly in the spring to its 
flowers, not attempting to raise its flowers above the vegetation 
surrounding it ; the dog violet raises its flowers and makes itself 
conspicuous by their light violet colour, dispensing with perfume 

The wood sorrel {Oxalis Acetosella), like the wood violet, flowers 
in very early spring, and forms colonies of bright green small 
plants by means of underground stems in shady situations in 
woods. It selects situations where at this early period of the 
year vegetation is not abundant, and when the contrast between 
these colonies of bright green plants serves to attract the few 
insects on wing from some distance ; its delicately-tinted corolla 
serving as a sign to insect visitors that nectar may be found 
within. This has likewise small, inconspicuous cleistogamous 
flowers, which carefully bury the capsule in the ground ; the 
mature capsules being surprisingly large. These serve to re- 
invigorate the colonies, but the perfect flowers of these plants 
raise their capsules high up in the air, and are pi'ovided with 
mechanism serving to shoot the seeds to a great distance, a feat 
which later in the season \a ould be impossible — the seeds would 
then be obstructed by other plants. 

It is noteworthy that in the above plants both tho stolons and 
the cleistogamous flowers co-operate with the other organs in the 
very important function of enabling the species to contend against 
the competition in the environment in which it lives. The manner 
in which the cleistogamous flowers supplement the action of the 
creeping stems in producing dense colonies is peculiarly instruc- 
tive. The important function served by these organs appears to 
have been overlooked by botanists. 

It appears to me doubtful whether, the bisexual process of 
reproduction having been perfected, the less perfect method by 
offshoots, or degenerate cleistogamous flowers, would survive, 
unless they showed some important secondary functions beyond 
the reproduction of the species. 




AT Padua, 


Dk. G. B. DE TONI, Hon.P.R.M.S. 

(Communicated by Dr. D. H. Scott, F.R.S., 

Secretary of the Linnean Society.) 

gontbjbuted to the anniversary meeting of the linnean 

Society of London, 24th May, 1907, in commemoration of 

THE 200th Anniversary of the birth of Carl von Linnb. 

(Born ^ May 1707 ; died 10 Jan. 1778.) 


A Letter from Caul von Linnk to Pietro Arduino. 
Contributed with an Introduction by Dr. G . B. De Toni, 

(Commuuicated by Dr. D. H. Scott, F.R.S., Sec.L.S.) 

I HAVE the honour of taking part in the celebration by the Linnean 
Society of London of the 200th anniversary of the birth of the 
great systematist Carl von Linne, by contributing a letter * which 
the Swedish naturalist despatched on the 3rd November 1764 from 
Upsala to the Italian botanist, Pietro Arduino, at Padua f. 

This letter, which Mr. S. Morpurgo, director of the National 
Library in Florence, has been so kind as to have transcribed from 
the original preserved in the " Collezione Autografi, fondo Gronnelli, 
Cart. 21, no. 113," furnishes several particulars of considerable 
interest as to the relations existing between the two botanists 
with regard to certain plants which Arduino had sent by special 
request to Linne. 

In this letter the Swedish botanist gives expression to his great 
regret at the loss of Porskal, the explorer of Arabia, one of his 
pupils, who, previous to his death in 1763 +, had communicated 

* With regard to the correspondence of Linn^ with the naturalists of his 
time, reference may be made to : — Gr. A. Pritzel, 'Thesaurus hteraturise botanicse,' 
Lipsise (Brockhaus), 1872, 4<', p. 188 ; ' Linnseana in Nederland aauwezig,' 
Amsterdam (Scheltema & Holkema), 1878, 8", pp. 42-45; to which may be 
added, ' Lettere inedite di Carlo Linneo a Giovanni Antonio Scopoli ' (published 
under the editorship of Messrs. Gr. de Cobelli and 0. Delaiti), Eovereto 
(V. Sottochiesa), 1889, 8" ; and A. Alberg, ' The Floral King ; a Life of Linnaus,' 
London (Allen & Co.), 1888, 80. 

t Pietro Arduino, born at Caprino (Verona), 18th July 1728, Professor of 
Agriculture at the University, and Director of the Botanic Garden at Padua, 
where he died, loth April 1805. For biographical notices, see P. A. Saccardo, 
' La botanica in Italia,' Venezia (M. Ferrari), 4"; Parte 1. 1895, p. 17 ; Parte II. 
1901, p. 12. 

\ Pehr Forskal, born at Calmar (Smaland) in 1736, died at Jerim (Arabia), 
nth July 1763, and not 1768, as indicated by G. A. Pritzel, Thes. hot. p. 110, 
and following him by Saccardo, op. cit. p. 74. Evidently this is due to a 
blunder in copying, for an old work gives 1763 as the true year of the death of 
the botanical traveller ForskSl ; see 0. Sprengel, ' Historia rei herbarisB,'Tomu3 ii. 
p. 420, Amstelodami, 1808. 


some observations on the plants collected in the region through 
which he was travelHug. 

The following is the Latin text of Linne's letter : — 

Vtro Clarissimo 
D. Peteo Ardttino 

s. p. d. 
Car. a Linne, Equ. 

Epistolam quam ad me pridie calend. Julii exarabas, rite accepi ; 
at fasciculum simul missum nondum. Tabellarius enim 6 nummos 
aureos (Ducatos aureos) pro fasciculo exigebat, quod mihi videbatur 
nimis pretiosum. Solvuntur enim heic omnes epistolae secundum 
uncias ; et pro quavis uncia exoticarum tabellario renumeratur 
■|- pars Ducatus. Si, vir amicissime, inscripsisses fasciculo, uti 
antea monui * Societati Eegiae Scientiarum Upsalise, tum habu- 
issem eundem absque impensis. Scribebam Holmiam ad magnates 
quibus tabellarii res paret, nee respousum accepi. Solvi antea hoc 
anno ultra 40 ducatos pro Uteris ; nunc delassatus proposui non 
redimere literas quae constant ultra unum ducatum. 

Astragalus chinensis mihi duplex est ; tuus erit sine dubio parvus 
acaulis purpureus quem habeo una cum Velio pseudocytiso t et 
Nolana prostrata. 

Prsepropera fata Porskahlei mei in Arabia felici multo me affecere 
dolore ; habui literas paulo ante eius mortem de genere opobalsimi 
[sic] cum ejus charactere octandra 1-gynia tetrapetala +. Tandem 
accepi in hortum verissimum Ehabarbarum quod est Ehabarbarura 
palmatum nee non Actaeam cimicifugam quam diu avidissime 
exoptavi ; at hsec non dum mihi floruit, spero proximo anno 

* For reasons of economy, Linn6 was accustomed to beg his correspondents 
to send letters and packets to the ' Societas Eegia Scientiarum Upsalise ' ; the 
same request will be found in letters addressed to Scopoli and published by 
Cobelli et Delaiti. 

t Gen. Vella, L. (1737). Cruciferse. Sp. Vella Pseudocytisus, L. 

+ It is obvious that he is referring to Amyris Opobalsammn, described in the 
posthumous work of Forskal, 'Flora Aegyptiaco-Arabica sive descriptiones 
plantarum, quas per Aegyptum inferiorem et Arabiam felicem detexit, illustravit, 
Petrus Forskil, post mortem auctoris edidit Carsten Niebulir,' p. 79, Haunise, 
Ex off. MoUeri. 4°. 


Floruit mihi hoc tempore tua Salvia cum minutis floribus, divers- 
issima ab americana, quam putaveram quondam eandem fuisse. 
Mirer quod potueras videre stamina Salviae in hac, tani parva, 
tamen genuina. Videtur mihi fore perennem plan tarn. 

Dabam Upsahse 1764 d. 3 Novembris. 

Viro Amplissimo 

j)iio pj;rpEo Aeduino, 
Professori Publico, 


Care yon Linne, Knight, 

with cordial greeting 

to the distinguished Pietro Aedfino. 

I have duly received the letter which you wrote to me on the 
3rd June, but not yet the packet sent at the same time. The 
postman demanded 6 rixdollars (gold ducats) for the packet, 
which seemed to me excessive. They charge all letters so much 
per ounce, and for each foreign letter the postman charges one- 
third of a rixdollar per ounce. If, my dear friend, you had 
addressed your packet, as I have previously advised, to the Royal 
Society of Sciences at Upsala, I should have received it free of 
charge. I wrote to the postal authorities at Stockholm, but have 
received no reply. I have during the present year paid more than 
40 rixdollars for letters ; I am now tired of this, and propose not 
to take in letters which cost more than one rixdollar. 

My Astragalus chinensis has two forms ; yours is doubtless the 
small stemless purple one which I have, with VeTla pseudocytisus 
and Nolana prostrata. 

The untimely fate of my pupil Forskal in Arabia felix has 
occasioned me much grief ; I had letters from him shortly before 
his death, about the genus Opohalsamum, with its characters, eight 
stamens, one style, four petals. At last I have received into my 
garden the true E-habarbarum which is Rhabarhanim [recte Rheum] 
palmatum, together with Actcea cimicifuga which I have long 
ardently wished for, but the latter has not yet flowered with me, 
though I hope it will next year. 


At the present time your Salvia with small flowers is flov^ering 
with me ; it is very different from S. americana, which at one 
time I thought to be the same. I am surprised that you were 
able to see the stamens in this Salvia, true stamens though so 
diminutive. It seems as though it may be a perennial plant, 

TJpsala, 3rd NoTeinber, 1764. 

To Professor P. Abdfino, 







175 5. 



General Secretary of the Ltnnean Society 
OF London. 

To which is appended a Catalogue of the Genera 
in the Herbarium, with the numbers of sheets 
of specimens. 

Pmbpambd for the Annivessamt Meeting of the Linnean 
Society of London, 2lfTH May, 190T, in celebration of thb 
200th Anniversary of the birth of Carl von Linne. 


No portion of the Linnean Society's collections is so frequently 
consulted as the Linnean Herbarium, Suggestions have been 
frequently made that a full catalogue of this Herbarium should be 
printed and issued by the Society, but the difficulties in the way 
of complying with such suggestions have hitherto proved in- 
superable. In the original cabinets are contained nearly 14,000 
sheets, which would need a thick octavo volume merely to record 
the names of the species and accompanying notes. So brief a 
catalogue would be of very little service to the botanists who refer 
to the Herbarium, while a complete critical enumeration of every 
specimen is at present quite unattainable. A host of specialists 
would be required, and as the specimens naturally are not allowed 
to be taken from the Society's rooms, nor tampered with in any 
way, it would mean that these experts would have to perform 
their task under disadvantageous conditions ; they would have to 
rely upon their recollection and not upon their power to match 
species by placing specimens side by side. 

There have been numerous references to special genera and 
species scattered throughout the literature of descriptive botany, 
from the days of Sir J. E. Smith to the present time, but we may 
say that only five considerable portions of the Herbarium have 
hitherto been adequately examined and the reports published. 
These are : — 

1. Haetman (C). — " Anteckningar vid de Skandinaviska 

viixterna i Linnes Herbarium." Handl. K. Sv. Vet.- 
Akad. Stockholm, 1849 (1850) pp. 145-191 ; ibid. 1851 
(1853) pp. 211-426. 

2. MuNEO (W.). — " On the Identification of the Grasses of 

LinnsDus's Herbarium . . ." Journ. Linn. Soc, Bot. vi. 
(1861) pp. 33-58. 

3. Anderson (T.). — " On the Identification of the Acanthaceae 

of the Linnean Herbarium . . ." Journ. Linn. Soc, Bot. 
vii. (1863) pp. 111-118. 

4. ScHiMPEE (W. P.). — " Synonymia Muscorum herbarii 

Linnseani . . ." Journ. Linn. Soc, Bot. xi. (1869) 
pp. 246-252. 

5. Claeke (C. B.). — " On certain authentic Cyperaceae of 

Linnaeus." Journ. Linn. Soc, Bot. xxx. (1894) pp. 299- 

By the foregoing statement it will be understood how small a 

hnxi;an society of londox. gx 

portion of the Herbarium has been investigated by experts, and 
how large a portion remains only partially explored. 

The mere cataloguing of the sheets offers considerable difficulty : 
it can only be accomplished by some person adequately equipped 
with a knowledge of the handwTiting of the various persons who 
contributed the plants to Carl von Linne ; a transcriber only 
would be useless. 

Though the perfect catalogue is to be hoped for rather than 
expected, the Liuuean Society has two catalogues which supply 
some information, and the present paper is concerned with these. 
In the Banksian collections, formerly at the British Museum, at 
Bloomsbury, and now at Cromwell Eoad, South Kensington, there 
exists a copy of Linne's ' Species Plantarum,' first edition, marked 
by either Solander or Dryander (probably the latter) with a short 
stroke under the running number of each species, showing what 
species at some unstated date were represented in the Linnean 
Herbarium (see Journ. Bot. xxxiv. (1896) pp. 359-362). These 
references were copied by Mr. "W". Carruthers into a copy of the 
' Species Plantarum ' which he gave to the Eoyal Botanic Gardens, 
Kew, in 1871, which copy also contains the suppressed pages 
reprinted in facsimile by Herr von Piatt in the ' Botanisches 
Centralblatt,' Bd. Ixvi. (1896) pp. 218-219. It was formerly 
supposed that these marks M^ere inserted during the winter of 
1784-5, when the Linnean Herbarium was compared with that 
belonging to Sir Joseph Banks (Proc. Linn. Soc. 1887-88 (1890) 
pp. 27-28), but this is probably an error, for amongst the Linnean 
books, one of the two interleaved and annotated copies of the first 
edition of the ' Species Plantarum ' is marked in the same manner; 
it seems certain that from this Dryander copied his notes. 

Notwithstanding the interest attaching to this copy and its 
secondary copies, another list exists of a somewhat later date, and 
fuller in details. It consists of a small quarto volume, 20 cm. x 
16 cm., without title or heading, in contemporary binding with 
calf back and corners, and sides covered with sprinkled paper ; it 
contains 39 leaves written on both sides in double column 
(except the last page) of all the names of plants then known, with 
a mark against such as were in the Herbarium. This mark was at 
first an underscore as in the ' Species Plantarum,' but from the 
sixth page onwards the mark consists of a dot placed before the 
figure in front of each name, as shown in the specimen page 
annexed (p. 95). A blank leaf was left between each written leaf, 
but at some later period three of these blank leaves were roughly 



torn out, and the remainder used for drafts oE specific descriptions 
by the younger Carl von Liane. 

The age of the list may be placed about the middle of 1755 for 
the following reasons: — 

The significant mark is changed in the course of transcription 
from an underscore to a dot, apparently an afterthought when 
copying from the book record. Another proof of the relative ages 
of the two records may be found in this, that the supplementary 
part of the ' Species Plantarum' (pp. 1190-1200), and two pages 
added without pagination after ' Nomina trivialia,' are inserted in 
their proper sequence, e. g. Thalia, p. 1193, is placed in the MS. 
list under MonandriaMonogynia hQiweenKcerapferia and Boe^^havia, 
and the three species of Fllago from the end, are correctly placed. 
Too much reliance must not be placed on this, for Boerhavia diandra 
(p. 1194) is interpolated on the first page of the MS. thus 

3 scandens, 
5 diandra, 

4 repens. 

Again, in the list as originally drawn up we find some species 
which were published afterwards, occupying their proper position, 
thus seeming as if the plants were known to the compiler but 
were awaiting their opportunity to be published. For possibly 
two years the author seems to have added names chiefly from the 
theses ' Demonstrationes plantarum ' resp. J. C. Hojer, Oct. 1753, 
' Herbarium Amboinense ' resp. O. Stickman, Maii 1754, and 
' Centuria plantarum I.' resp. A. D. Juslenius, Febr. 1755 ; from 
' Centui'ia plantarum II.' resp. E. Torner, Jun. 1756, I find only 
one entry, and from the fact that practically all the species from 
Cent. I. are entered and practically none from Cent. II., we may 
conclude that the entries ceased soon after the former was printed, 
that is in the spring of 1755, to which period I would assign this 

The list offers many points of interest, but I must confine my 
remarks to a few only. It was written without special care, for 
I find no fewer than eighteen species published in the ' Species 
Plantarum ' which were overlooked and inserted afterwards, such 
as the BoerJiavia diandra previously mentioned. Some of the in- 
terpolations are incorrect ; the following are referred to as from 
the ' Cent. I.,' but they will be found as noted in parentheses — 
Bupleurum semicompositum (Dem.), Cistus liirta (Sp. PI.), Aniir 
rhinum sparteum and A. molle (both Sp. PL), and Trifolium 
Cherleri (Dem.). It must be noted that these citations are from 


the original theses, and not from the reprints in ' Amceuitates 
Academicse,' iv. pp. 261-296, where several names were changed, 
e. g. Antirrhinum siictrteum and A. molle became A. junceum and 
A. glaucum respectively, and Potentilla heptaphyUa is changed to 
P. opaca. Further, Dianihus hyssopifolius was changed in ' Am. 
Acad.' to D. superbus, Oeranium versicolor became G. striatum, 
and Hieramim tomentosmn was renamed ^ncZr^aZa lanata. Several 
names also occur which were not published with diagnosis till 
later ; such are Convolvulus Dorycnium, Silene quadrijida, Psidium 
Cujavus, Myrtus Leucadendra, Dolichos tetragonolohus and D. 
'prunens, which appeared in the tenth edition of the ' Systema' in 
1759, the last four being mentioned only by name in ' Herb. 

There remain three names in the list deserving of special 
attention : (1) Sison ammoides, a manuscript and unpublished name 
for Seseli ammoides, Sp. PI. ; (2) Lupinus stoloniferus, Cent. I., was 
not brought forward in ' Am. Acad.' and proves to be L. hirsutus, 
Sp. PL ; and (3) Trifolium retusum, which has escaped all recog- 
nition in later works, proves to be that species described in 
' Demonstrationes plantarum,' p. 21, in a footnote as " Trifolium 
capitidis fructus imbricafis, calycibus reflexis patulis corolla lonr/i- 
oribus. Habitat in Hispania, Loefl." etc. [These seven lines as 
well as the name " retusum," were not reprinted in ' Am. Acad.' 
iii. p. 419 (1756).] This is the " Trifolium retusum album, caly- 
cibus reflexis patidis" of Loefling's ' Iter hispanicum,' Stockholm, 
1758, p. 88. A reference to the Linnean Herbarium shows the 
specimen, as unfortunately is so often the case, without any note 
of its origin, to be Trifolium stnctum, Linn. ! the word '^retusum" 
being written by Linne at the base of the specimen. 

In concluding these remarks on the volume specified, I may 
perhaps be permitted to refer to the Herbarium itself. It 
must not be allowed to escape our minds that the Linnean 
Herbarium differs in many respects from the modern idea of an 
herbarium. Carl von Linne in a multitude of cases described his 
species from the books of his predecessors, and his dried plants 
were frequently used to modify the diagnoses of the previously 
described species. It was only when he was strictly confined to 
a single specimen that Linne was forced to keep to the plant 
actually under his eyes, and to describe it as would now be done 
with newly found plants. 

I have formerly set forth the method by which the Linnean 
Herbarium came into being, and how it grew (Proc. Linn. Soc. 



1887-88, pp. 18-22). That account may be supplemented by the 
statement that the Herbarium appears to be practically as it was 
on the death of the elder Linne, the bulk of his son's accretions 
being incorporated in the herbarium of Sir J. E. Smith, also in 
the possession of the Linnean Society. The collection may be 
said to consist of three series of plants — («) those cited in the two 
editions of the ' Species Plantarum ' ; (b) those omitted from that 
work, but named by Linne himself, and probably acquired at a 
later date or intentionally set aside, amongst these being the plants 
of the ' Mantissse ' and the ' Supplementum ' ; and (c) various 
additions, some of which perhaps never came under the scrutiny 
of the elder Linne, but were put in by the son. The plants which 
Smith gave to Banks, 81 in number, were duplicates, as I have 
satisfied myself (Proc. Linn. Soc. 1902-3, p. 10). 

A transcript of the catalogue of the genera contained in the 
Linnean Herbarium is appended ; it was drawn up by order of the 
Council of the Linnean Society, 21st May, 1836, and consists of, 
firstly, an enumeration of the genera in the Linnean order with 
a running number prefixed, and followed by the number of sheets 
under each genus ; and, secondly, an alphabetic arrangement, with 
reference to the running numbers, so that any required genus can 
be as readily found as a page in a book by its index. 

A comparison of this list of genera with the Linnean manuscript 
catalogue shows a few discrepancies ; thus Linne enumerates the 
following which will not be found in the appended catalogue : — 

Leucadendron ; inerged in Protea. 

Diodia ; wanting. 

Cupania ; wanting. 

Sciirrula ; merged in Loranihus. 

Barreria ; proves to be A(/athosma imbricata, Willd., and 

the type-sheet is in the Diosma cover. 
Calamus ; wanting. 
Bartramia ; merged in Trmmfetta. 
Daliharda ; is Ruhus Dalibarda. » 

Sarracenia ; cover empty. 
JVejifnthes ; wanting. A small unmarked sheet in Smith's 

herbarium may be this. 

I have searched Smith's herbarium under each of these missing 
genera, but, with the possible exception mentioned under Nepenthes, 
I have found nothing to throw any light on the omissions, which 
cannot have occurred since the collection came into the possession 
o£ the Linnean Society. 



[Recto of Leaf 45 of the MS. Catalogue.] 

Lupinus •! perennis 

stoloniferus Cent. 
■2 albus 
•3 varius 
•4 hirsutus 
'5 angustifolius 
•6 luteus 

RoMnia -1 Pseudo Acacia 
•2 grandi flora 
•3 Carjigana 
L -4 frutex * 
•6 pjgmaea 

Colutea •! arborescens 
L '2 frutescens * 
•3 herbacea 

Phaseolus •! vulgaris 

nanus Cent. 
•2 coccineus 
3 lunatus 

4 inamoenus 

5 farinosus 

6 vexillatus 

7 helvulus 

8 alatus 

9 Caracalla 
•10 radiatus 
•11 Max 

Dolichos "1 Lablab 

2 unguiculatus. 

3 ensiformis 

4 minimus 

•5 scarabaeoides 
•6 erosus 
•7 trilobus 

8 regularis 

9 lignosus 

10 polj'stachyos 

11 Soja 

12 biflorus 
pruriens A7nb. 




1 sativum 

2 arvense 

•3 maritimum 
•4 Ochrus 

•1 Lathy roides 
•2 hirsutus 
•3 luteus 
4 vernus 
•5 tuberosus 
•6 angustifolius 
•7 niger 

sylvaticus Cent. 
8 pyrenaicus 

1 Aphaca 
•2 Nissolia 
•3 amphicarpos 

4 Cicera 

5 sativus 

6 inconspicuus 
•7 setifolius 

•8 angulatus 
•9 bithynicust 

•10 articulatus 

•11 odoratus 
annuus Dem 

•12 hirsutus 

•13 tiniiitanus 

•14 Clymenum 

•15 tuberosus 
16 pratensis 

•17 sylvestris 

•18 latifolius 

•19 heterophyllus 

•20 palustris 

•21 pisiformis 

* The prefixed letter L may mean LoeBing 

t Afterwards struck out ; = Vicia bithynica, Linn. Syst. ed. X. (1759). 






1. Systematically aeeanged aftee the Linnean System, in 

1292 genera, with 13753 sheets of specimens. 

2. Alphabetically aeeanged, giving the running numbers of 

the genera as index numbers. 















Canna 5 

Eenealmia 1 

Amomum 6 

Costus 2 

Myrisma 1 

Maranta 3 

Curcuma 4 

Ksempferia 3 

Boerhavia 9 

Salicornia 13 

Hippuris 3 


Corispermum 3 

Callitriche 3 

Blitum 4 

Cinna 2 



Nyctanthes 6 












Jasminum 7 

Lignstrum 2 

Phillyrea 6 

Olea 6 

Chionanthus 1 

Syringa 4 

Dialium 1 

Eranthemum 1 

Circaea 2 

Veronica 67 

Psederota 5 

Justicia 34 

Dianthera 4 

Gratiola 12 

Schwenkia 1 

Calceolaria 3 

Pinguicula 3 

Utricularia 9 

Verbena 20 

Lycopus 5 

Amethystea 1 

Cunila 8 

Zizyphora 4 

Monarda 7 

Rosmarinus 2 




Salvia 73 

Collinsonia 1 

Morina 1 

G-lobba 3 


Anthoxanthum . 





Valeriana 25 

Tamarindus 3 

Cneorum 1 

Melothria 2 

Rotala 1 

Ortegia 3 

Loeflingia . 1 

Polycnemum 3 

Crocus 2 

Witsenia 1 

Ixia 39 

Grlacliolus 33 

Antholyza 10 

Iris ..". 33 

Morsea 7 

Dilatris 3 

Wachendoriia ..... 1 

Commelina 20 

Callisia 2 

Xyris 2 

Scbcenus 17 

Kyllinga 12 

Cyperus 76 

Seirpus 85 

Eriophorum 4 

Nardus 9 

Pommereulla 2 

Lygeum 1 


Cnrnucopiae 4 

Saccharum 7 

Phalaris 14 

Paspalum 11 

Pauicum 73 













1 10 
1 12 





Phleum 7 

Alopecurus 11 

Milium 8 

Agrostis 49 

Aira 23 

Melica 10 

Poa 78 

Briza 10 

Uuiola 7 

Dactylis 8 

Cynosurus 23 

Festuca 36 

Bromus 60 

Stipa 12 

Avena 35 

Lagurus 2 

Arundo 18 

Aristida 11 

Loliuin 11 

Elymus 15 

Eottboellia 11 

Secale 2 

Hordeum 9 

Triticum 20 


Eriocaulon 9 

Montia 2 

Proserpinaca 1 

Triplaris 1 

Holosteum 3 

Koenigia 1 

Polycarpon 2 

Mollugo 9 

Minuartia 16 

Queria 2 

Lechea 6 



Protea 40 

Globularia 5 

Cepbalantbus 2 

Dipsacus 4 

Scabiosa 44 

Knautia 6 

Allionia 1 

Hedvotis ......... 13 




















Scabrita 2 

Spermacoce 13 

Sherardia 3 

Asperula 15 

Houstonia 4 

Galium 50 

CrucianeUa 5 

Rubia 7 

Ixora 3 

Pavetta 3 

Petesia 2 

Mitcbella 1 

Callicarpa 4 

Samara 2 

Sirium 2 

Polvpremum 1 

Penaea 10 

Blaeria 5 

Buddleia 4 

Exacum 4 

Plantago 32 

Scoparia 3 

Rhacoma 1 

Centunculus 1 

Sanguisorba 3 

Cissus 7 

Epimedium 1 

Cornus 13 

Fagara 2 

Ptelea 2 

Ludwigia 3 

Oldenlandia 6 

Ammanuia 5 

Isnardia 3 

Trapa 2 

Cometes 1 

Elaeagnus 4 

Santalum 1 

Hti'uthiola 6 

Rivina 3 

Salvadora 2 

Camphorosma 6 

Alchemilla 5 


Aphanes 3 

Bufonia 2 

Hamamelis 2 

Cuscuta 10 















Hypecoum 5 

Gomozia 1 


Ilex 3 

Coldenia 2 

Potamogetoii 16 

Ruppia 2 

Sagina 5 

Till^a 6 



Heliotropium 14 

Myosotis 12 

Lithospermum .... 13 

Anchusa 8 

C^'noglossum 11 

Pulmonaria 10 

Symphytum 4 

Cerinthe 2 

Onosma 7 

Borago 6 

Asperugo 2 

Lycopsis 6 

Echium 24 

Messerschmidia .... 1 

Tournefortia 7 

Nolana 1 

Diapensia 1 

Aretia 4 

Androsace 12 

Primula 17 

Cortusa 5 

Soldanella 1 

Dodecatheon 1 

Cyclameo 2 

Menvauthes 5 

Hottonia 3 

Hydrophjllum .... 4 

El'lisia . ." 2 

Lysimachia 13 

Anagallis 8 

Retzia 2 

Spigelia 3 

Ophiorhiza 5 

Virecta 2 

Lisianthus 3 




Eaudia 1 

Azalea 7 

Plumbago 3 

Phlox 13 

Couvolvulus 71 

Ipomoea 16 

Polemonium 6 

Campanula 83 

Eoella 2 

Phyteuma 2 

Trachelium 3 

Samolus 2 

Xauclea 2 

Macroeuemum .... 1 

Portlandia 1 

Scsevola 1 

Cinchona 2 

Psychotria 7 

Coffea 1 

Chiococca . 6 

Hamellia 1 

Lonicera 16 

Morinda 3 

Conocarpus 3 

Kuhnia 2 

Mussaenda 3 

Mirabilis 3 

Coris 2 

V^erbascum 12 

Datura 5 

Hyoscyamus 9 

Nicotiana . . 5 

Atropa 7 

Physahs 17 

Solanum 65 

Capsicum 7 

Strychnos 1 

Ipinatia 2 

Chironia 14 

Cordia 9 

Ehretia 2 

Varronia 3 

Laugeria 1 

Brunfelsia 1 

Cestrura 7 

Lycium 13 

Chi-ysophyllum .... 1 

Sideroxylon 10 

llhamnus 45 


















Phylica 16 

Ceanothus 8 

.t\rduina 2 

Biittneria 2 

Myrsine 1 

Celastrus 8 

Euonymus 8 

Diosma 39 

Brunia 18 

Cyrilla 2 

Itea 3 

Cedrela 2 

Escallouia 1 

Mangifera 5 

Plectronia . 2 

Eibes 9 

Aquilicia 3 

Kedera 3 

Vitis 11 

Lagcecia 1 

Sauvagesia 2 

Roridula 2 

Clay tonia 4 

Heliconia 5 

Achyranthes 12 

Celosia 12 

Chenolea 3 

Illecebrum 30 

Glaux 1 

Tbesium 20 

Eauvolfia 4 

Paederia 3 

Carissa 3 

Cerbera 4 

Gardenia 12 

AUamanda 2 

Vinca 5 

Nerium 3 

Plumeria 2 

Echites 13 

Cameraria 1 

Tabernaemontana . . 4 

Ceropegia 4 


Pergularia 3 

Periploca , 11 

Cynanchum 14 

-Apocynum 9 

A 2 













Asclepias 52 

Stapelia 2 

Herniaria (i 

Chenopodium 30 

Beta 3 

Salsola 51 

Anabasis 7 

Cressa 2 

Steris 1 

Gomphrena 3 

Bosea 1 

Ulmus 7 

Nama 3 

Linconia 2 

Schrebera 1 

Heuchera 1 

Velezia 2 

Swertia 6 

Gentiana '18 

Vablia 3 

Phyllis 1 

Eryngium 12 

Hydrocotyle 20 

Sanicula 2 

Astrantia 4 

Bupleurum 33 

Echinopbora 2 

Tordylium 7 

Caucalis 17 

Artedia 2 

Daucus 14 

Amrai 5 

Bunium 2 

Conium 7 

Selinum 28 

Athamanta 13 

Peucedanum 10 

Grithmum 4 

Hasselquistia 4 

Cachrys 11 

Ferula 7 

Laserpitium 3 5 

Heracleum 15 

Ligusticura 9 

Angelica 9 

Slum 11 

Sison 11 

Bubon 3 

Cuminum 1 













(Enanthe 7 

Phellandrium 3 

Cicuta . . ., 4 

^thusa 7 

Coriandrum 2 

Scandix 10 

Chaerophyllum .... 14 

Imperatoria 1 

Seseli 36 

Thapsia 5 

Pastinaea 3 

Smyrnium 8 

Anethum 7 

Carum 2 

Pimpinella 16 

Apiiim 3 

TEgopodium 1 

Cussonia 1 


Semecarpus 1 

Ehus 29 

Viburnum 12 

Cassine 9 

Sambucus 5 

Staphylea 2 

Tamarix 4 

Turnera 7 

Telephium 1 

Corrigiola 1 

Pharnaceum 9 

Alsine 5 

Drypis 1 

Basella 1 

Sarothra 1 


Parnassia 1 

Evolvulus 7 


Aralia 7 

Statice 37 

Linum 41 

Aldrovanda 1 

Drosera 7 

Gisekia 2 

Crassula 45 

Sibbaldia 4 







. 1 



Tillaudsia 7 

Burmannia 2 

Lachenalia 2 

406 iTradescantia 8 

407 Poutederia 6 

408 H^emanthus 3 

409 I Galanthus 3 

410 Leucojum 3 

411 iTalbaghia -i 

412 j Xarcissus 1-1 

413 j Pancratium 5 

414 Massonia 2 

415 Criuum . 7 

416 1 Amaryllis 9 

417 j Biilbocodium 1 

418J Aphyllanthes 2 

419 Allium 42 

42o|lAliuin 9 









Fritillaria 3 

Uvularia 4 

Gloriosa 2 

Erythronium 2 

Tulipa 4 

Albuca 4 

Hypoxis 19 

Ornithogalum 22 

Scilla 15 

Cyanella 5 

Asphodelus 6 

Anthericum 27 

Leoutiee 5 

Asparagus 19 

Dracaena 5 

Convallaria 8 

Polianthes 1 

Hyacinthus 17 

Phorraiura 3 

Aletris 5 

Yucca 2 

Aloe 2 

Agave 2 

Alstroemeria 2 






Gethyllis 1 

Hemerocallis 2 

Acorus 1 

Orontium 1 

Juncus 60 

Achras 2 

Richardia 1 

Prinos 5 

Berberis 7 

Capura 1 

Loranthus 7 

Canarina 1 

Frankenia 9 

Peplis 3 

Gahnia 2 


Oryza . 

Falckia . 

462 Atraphaxis 3 


463 Flagellaria 1 

464 1 Eumex 47 

465 : Scheuchzeria 2 

466 j Triglocbin 3 

Melantbium 17 

Medeola 3 


469 i Trillium 3 




Colcbicum 2 

Helonias 2 


Petiveria 2 

473 Alisma 9 





Trientalis . 
Disandra . 
tEscuIus . 


477 JLimeum 2 
























Saururus 1 

ApoDOgeton 3 


Septas 3 



Tropaeoluin 8 

Osbeckia 1 

Ehexia 8 

(Enothera 10 

Gaura 1 

Epilobium 11 

Antichonis 1 

Melicocca 1 

Gruarea 1 

Amyris 2 

Ximenia 1 

Mimusops 2 

Memecvlon 1 

Chlora' 3 

DodoQsea 6 

Lawsonia 2 

Vaccinium 22 

Erica 125 

Ophira 4 

Daphne 18 

Dirca 1 

Gnidia 17 

Stellera 1 

Passerina 16 

Baeckea 1 


Schmidelia 1 

Galenia 3 

Weinmannia 2 

Moehringia 1 


Polygonum 45 

Coccoloba 3 

Paulliuia 11 

Cardiospermum .... 3 

Sapindus 6 











Paris 1 

Adoxa 1 

Elatine 3 



Laurus 25 

Cassyta 3 


Kheum 5 


Butomus 1 



Sophora 22 

Anagyris 2 

Cercis 2 

Bauhinia 6 

Hymenaea 1 

Parkinsonia 2 

Cassia 41 

Poinciana 5 

Csesalpinia 2 

Guilandina 7 

Guaiacum 4 

Cynometra 1 

Anacardium 2 

Codon (drawing). 

Dictamnus 2 

Euta 5 

Hsematoxylon 2 

MuiTsea 2 

I Adenanthera 2 

j Trichilia 1 

Swietenia 2 

Melia 3 

Zygophylluui 7 

Quassia 4 

Fagonia 1 

Tribulus 5 

Bergera 2 

Turraea 1 



Limonia 6 

Monotropa 3 

Jussia3a 5 

Quisqualis 2 

Dais 2 

Diouaea 1 

Bucida 1 

Copaifera 2 

Samyda 2 

Melastoma 16 

Kalmia 2 

Ledum 2 

Rhododendron .... 6 

Andromeda 23 

Epigaea 1 

Gaultheria 1 

Arbutus 7 

Clethra 1 

Pyrola 9 

Styrax 3 


Eoyena 9 

Cunonia 2 

Trianthema 4 

Hydrangea 2 

Chrysosplenium .... 2 

Saxifraga 64 

Tiarella 2 

Mitella 2 

Scleranthus 3 

Gypsophila 26 

Saponaria 10 

Dianthus 28 


Cucubalus 24 

Silene 76 

Stellaria 17 

Arenaria 72 

Cherleria 3 

Garidella 1 

Malpighia 18 

Banifiteria 6 

IViopteris 1 

Erythroxylon 2 


Averrhoa 4 










Spondias 1 

Cotyledon 8 

Sediim 11 

Penthorum 1 

Bergia 2 

Suriana 3 

Grrielum 2 

Oxalis 44 

Agrostemma 3 

Lychnis 16 

Cerastium 33 

Spergula 6 

Forskohlea 3 


JS'eurada 1 

Phytolacca 5 



Asarum 2 

Boccouia 2 

Bassia 1 

Ehizophora 3 

Blakea 2 

Befaria 2 

Vatica 2 

Gai'cinia 2 

Halesia 3 

Decumaria 2 

Winterania 1 

Cratseva 4 

Triumfetta 3 

Peganum 2 

Hudsonia 1 

Dodecas 1 

Nitraria 2 

Portulaca 6 

Lythrum 20 


Heliocarpus 1 

Agrimonia 5 


Reseda 29 

Euphorbia 98 

















660 1 


Glinus 1 


Semperviram 3 



Cactus 7 

Philadelphus 1 

Psidimn 8 

Eugenia 5 

Myrms 23 

Punica 2 

AiDTgdalas 7 

Prunus 26 

CkrysobaJanus 3 

Plinia 2 


Crataegus 20 


Sorbus 6 

SesuTium 1 


MespaJus 25 

Pyrus 9 

Tetragonia 4 

Mesembryanthemum . 17 

Aizoon 6 

8pir»a 25 


Bosa 47 

Enbos 24 

Fragaria 22 

Potentilla 47 

Tormentilla 2 

Geum ... 7 

Dryas 3 

Comarum 1 

CalycanthuB 2 








1 Sheets. 

Marcgravia 1 

Temstroemia 2 

Alstonia 2 

Capparis 10 

Actiea 3 

."^anguinaria 2 

Podophyllum 2 

Cheiidonium 7 

Papaver 10 

Argemone 1 

Ca m bogia (in Asclep. ). 1 

Muntingia 2 

Sarrac^enia (empty). 

Xymphaea 8 

Bixa 1 

Mammsea 3 

Calophyllum 3 

Sparmannia 3 

Yallea 1 

Tilia 3 

Lsetia 1 

Eljeocarpus . 2 

Lecythis 1 

Delima 2 

Lagerstroemia 2 

... 4 

... 1 

... 1 

... 78 

... 1 


Mentzelia . 



Prockia . . . 

Corchorus 10 


692 Paeonia 4 

693 ^ Pothergilla 3 


694 Delphinium 13 

695 Aconitum 9 


696 "Wintera 

697 Tetracera 

698 Cimicifuga 

mrsxAsr societi of LoyDOx. 













AqaOegia ... 5 

Nigelk 8 

Beaamutia 1 

Bnthys 1 


Stratiotes 2 


Uliciiuii 1 

liriodendron 1 

Magnolia 4 

MirlM^liai 5 

Anona 13 

Unona .... 2 

Anemone 35 

AtragenB 7 

dematis 17 

Thalictrom 31 

Adonis 9 

Bannncahis 78 

TroUius 2 

Isop jnun 1 

HeUeborus 8 

Gdtlia 2 



I Ajoga . 12 

Taicriam 43 

ISatnreja 13 

Thyrabia 2 

Hjssopus ....... . 4 

^epeta 31 

Larandula 8 

Hediosma [g. ined.]. . 3 

Sideritis 22 

Mentha 25 

Perilla 3 

Gledioma 1 

Lamiom 12 

GaLeopsis 5 

Betonica 7 

Stadiys 32 

Ballota 8 






752 !i 

753 I 


Mannbiiim 15 

Leonoras 8 

Phiomis 22 

Molaooella . 5 

Clinopodimn 4 

Origaiuim 16 

Tfa jmus . . 23 

Melissa 9 

Draooeephalum .... 20 

Sorminom 2 

Melittis 1 

Ocjmiim 20 

Tnchostema 3 

ScoteUaria 18 

PmneDa 6 

Ckonia 2 

Prasinm 5 

Phijma 3 

I AireiofiPiauiUL. 

756|Bartsia 4 

757 jCastilleja 2 

758 { Bhifumtfins 12 

759 ! Eaphiasia 7 

760 MehmpjTum 6 

761 Lathnea 3 

762 ToKzia 2 

763 Pedicolaris 33 

764 Gerardia 9 

765 Cliel«ie 3 

766 Gesneria 3 

767 Ajntirriiiniim 76 

768 Cymbaiia 1 

769 Maiijnia 3 

770 Torenia 5 

771 iBeaJexit 3 

772 I BCemimeris 6 

773 Scrophulana 20 
774>Gelsia - - 6 

775 Digitalis 10 

776 Bignonia 12 

777 [ Otharexjlon 6 

778|HaDeEui 1 

779 i C^«9oeiitia 2 

780 Gmeliaa 3 

781 i Petrea I 

Premna 6 

TiMitana 10 

Ooniiitia 2 







785 Capraria 6 

786 Selago 17 

787 Manulea 17 

788 Hebenstretia 10 

789 Erinus 5 

790 Buchnera 16 

791 Browallia 3 

792 Linnsea 2 

793 Sibthorpia 6 

794 Limoseila 3 

795 Vaudellia 3 

796 Lindernia 3 

797 Sternodia 3 

798 Orobauche 12 

799 Hyobanche 4 

800 I Dodartia 3 

801 ILippia 3 

802 iSesamum 4 

803 Mimulus 1 

804 i Euellia 27 

805 Barleria 14 

806 DLuanta 3 

807 Ovieda 2 

808 1 MilliDgtonia 2 

809 1 Volkameria 6 

810 Clerodendrum 9 

8ii(Vitex 9 

812 Bontia 1 

813 Avicenniii 3 

814 Columnea 1 

8i5iThuubergia 2 

816 , Acanthus 13 

817 iPedalium 2 

SiSjMeiianthus 4 



819 Myagrum 19 

820 Vella 3 

821 ! Anastatica 3 

822 'Subularia 2 

823lDraba 14 

824iLepidium 28 

825!Thlaspi 16 

826 Cochlearia 8 

827 llberis 15 

828 i Alyssum 30 

829 Peltaria 4 

I Sheets. 

830 IClypeola 5 

8;; 1 1 Biscutella 8 

Lunaria 2 




















Eicotia 6 

Dentaria 4 

Cardamine 18 

Sisymbrium 64 

Eiysimum 10 

Chamira 1 

Cheiranthus 33 

Heliophila 12 

Hesperis 6 

Arabis ]5 

Turritis 4 

Brassica 23 

Sinapis , 21 

Raphanus 7 

Bunias 16 

Isatis 2 

Crambe 5 

Cleome 24 


Gralaxia 6 


Lerehea 2 

Waltheria 4 

Symphonia 1 

Hermannia 23 

Melochia 8 


Connarus 1 

Hugonia 2 

Geranium 101 

Brownea 5 


Pentapetes 1 

Plagianthus 1 


Adansonia 1 

Gustavia 4 











873 I 











Barringtonia 1 

Carolinea 1 

Sida 39 

Malachra 1 

Althaea 4 

Alcea 3 

Malva 34 

Lavatera 11 

Malope 1 

Urena 10 

Gossypium 7 

Hibiscus 42 

Stewartia 4 

Gordonia 2 

Camellia 1 

Mesua 1 



Saraca 1 

Fumaria 15 


Polygala 50 

Securidaca 4 


Nissolia 4 

Abrus 1 

Dalbergia 4 

Pterocarpus 7 

Erythrina 6 

Piscidia 1 

Borbonia 2 

Spartiuui 17 

Genista 30 

Aspalathus 57 

Amorpha 2 

Crotalaria 42 

Ononis 38 

Anthyllis 18 

Lupinus 8 

Phaseolus 13 

Dolichos 22 

Glycine 26 

Clitoria 6 

Pisum 3 

! Sheets. 

904 Orobus 10 

905 Lathyrus 28 

906 Vicia 37 

907 Ervum 8 

908 Cicer 2 

909 Arachis 1 

910 Liparia 12 

911 Muellera 1 

912 Cytisus 26 

913 Robinia 9 

914 Colutea 9 

9 1 5 Ulex 3 

916 Glycyrrhiza 5 

917 Coronilla 16 

918 Ornithopus ........ 6 

919 Hippocrepis 5 

920 8corpiurus 4 

921 Hedysarum 79 

922 ^schynomene 18 

923 ludigofera 27 

924 Galega 12 

925 Pbaca 20 

926 Astragalus 88 

927 Biserrula 1 

928 Psoralea 27 

929 Ebenus 2 

930;Trifoliuni 69 

931 Lotus 36 

932 Trigonella 19 

933 Medicago 27 


Theobroma 4 


Abroraa 2 



Monsonia 5 


937 i Citrus 6 


938 Glabraria 1 

939 Muenchhausia .... 3 

940 Durio 1 

941 Melaleuca 6 
















Hopea 3 

Hypericum 51 

Ascyrum 3 



Geropogon 3 

Tragopogou 10 

Scorzonera 14 

Picris 5 

Sonchus 19 

Lactuca 10 

Choudrilla 7 

Pi-euaathes 9 

Leontodon 18 

Hieracium 64 

Crepis 28 

Andryala 10 

Hyoseris 13 

Seriola 1 

Hypochaeris 6 

Lapsana 4 

Catananche . . 3 

Cichorium 4 

Scolymus 5 

Arctiam 3 

Serratida 21 

Carduus 50 

Cnicus 7 

Onopordum 2 

Cynara 2 

Cai'lina 11 

Atractylis 10 

Barnadesia 1 

Carthamus 8 

Spilautlius 7 

Bidens 15 

Cacalia 26 

Ethulia 5 

Eupatorium 34 

Ageratum 3 

Pteronia 20 

Staehelina 6 

Chrysocoma 18 

Tarchouanthus .... 5 

Galea 4 

Sautolina 6 

Athanasia 24 










Tanacetuin 11 

Artemisia 61 

Gnaphalium 114 

Xeranthemum .... 25 

Carpesiura 2 

Baccharis 10 

Conyza 38 

Erigerou 30 

Tussilago 33 

Senecio 85 

Aster 82 

Solidago 22 

Inula 46 

Cineraria 42 

Arnica 9 

Doronicuui 7 

Perdicium 6 

Mutisia 1 

Helenium 2 

Bellis 5 

Bellium 2 

Leysera 6 

Tagetes 3 

Uuxia 1 

Pectis 2 

Chrysanthemum .... 28 

Matricaria . . . . : . . 9 

Cotula 33 

Auacyclus 3 

Anthemis 32 

Achillea 29 

Sigesbeckia 2 

Zinnia 2 

Eelipta 7 

Verbesina 13 

Buphthalmum .... 10 

Amellus 3 


Helianthus 17 

Rudbeckia 9 

Coreopsis 14 

Gorteria 13 

Zoegea 2 

Osmites 7 

Centaurea 83 



I Necessaeia. 


1031 JMilleria 5 

1032 jSilphium 9 

1035 1 Polymnia 5 

io34!Melampodium .... 1 

1035 1 Calendula 9 

io36!Arctotis 30 

1037 j Osteospermum .... 20 

1038 ! Othonna 28 

io39jHippia 7 

1040 Eriocephalus 4 

1041 Pilago ... 9 

1042 Micropus 3 




Elephantopus 4 

Sphaeranthus 4 

Echinops 6 

Jungia 1 

1047 ICEdera 3 


Stoebe 11 


1049 . Seriphium 8 

1050 ' Jasione 1 

105 1 Lobelia 54 

1052 Viola 25 

1053 Impatiens 9 








Orchis 52 

Satyrium 10 

Ophrys 40 

Serapias 9 

Limodorum 2 

Arethusa 4 

Disa 2 

Cypripedium 4 

Epidendrum 25 

Gunnera 2 


Sisyrincbium . . . . 








I 1077 
i 1078 









Gluta 1 

Ayenia 2 

Passiflora 27 


Aristolochia 14 

Pistia 2 





Cytinus . . . . 


Grewia 8 

Xylopia 1 

Ambrosinia 1 

Arum 19 

Dracontium 3 

Calla 2 

Potbos 2 

Zostera 4 



Artocarpus . . 


Phyllachne . , 
Casuarina . 
-Slgopricum . . 


Lemna. . 


Sparganium , 


Tripsacum . 


1 1 00 
I lOI 
I 102 
I 104 

I 106 

I 107 

1 no 

1 117 



Olyra i 

Carex 98 

Axj'ris 6 

Omphalea 1 

Tragia S 

Heruandia 4 

Phyllauthus 14 


Serpicula 2 

Littorella 2 

Cicca 2 

Betula 15 

Buxus 1 

Urtica . . 27 

Morus 10 


Xanthium 4 

Ambrosia 4 

Parthenium 2 

Iva 3 

Amaranthus 36 

Leea 9 

1 1 24 







Ceratophyllum . . . 




















1 1 40 

1 1 42 

1 143 

1 1 46 



1 1 50 







1 1 64 



Cupressus 4 

Dalecharapia 4 

Acalypha 7 

Croton . . .' 25 

Jatropha 16 

Ricinus 2 

Sterculia 1 

Hura 2 

Agyneja 7 

Hippomanes 4 

Srilliugia 1 

Grnetum 2 


Trichosauthes 1 

Momordica 13 

Cucurbita 5 

Cucumis 14 

Bryonia 17 

Sicyos 3 


Andrachne 3 




Vallisneria 2 

Salix 125 

Cecropia 3 


Empetrum 2 

Osyris 4 

Excoecaria 2 

Caturus 1 

Kestio 25 


Tropins 1 

Viscum 13 

Motitinia 2 

Hippophae 3 

Myrica , . . 13 





iiyolPistacia 12 

1 1 7 1 Zanthoxylum 6 

1 1 72 I Canariuin 1 

Antidesma "2 

Spinacia 2 

Iresine 1 

Acnida 2 

Cannabis 2 

Humulus 3 

Zanonia 1 

Fevillea 1 






Tamus 3 

Smilax 20 

Rajania 1 

1 1 84 Dioscorea 9 




1 190 




Populus . . . 
Ehodiola . . . 


Mercui'ialis . 









Euclea 3 

Menispermum 4 

Datisca 5 


Cliffortia 7 


Juniperus 11 

Taxus 4 

1200 1 Ephedra 5 

1 201 Adelia 4 

1202 1 Cissampelos 3 



























Napsea 2 

Myristica 1 

E-uscus 6 

Clutia 15 



Musa 2 

Opbioxylon 2 

Celtis 5 

Veratrum ..... 3 

Andropogon 32 

Holcus 16 

Apluda 6 

Iscbsemum 8 

Manisuris 2 

Spinifex 5 

Cenchrus 14 

.^gilops 12 

Valantia 13 

Parietaria 9 

Atriplex 35 

Terminalia 2 

Brabejiim 2 

Clusia 5 

Acer 19 

Gouania 2 

Hermas 3 

Mimosa 117 












Gleditsia 7 

Fraxinus 4 

Diospyros 8 

Nyssa 3 

Antbospermum .... 6 

Stilbe 4 

Arctopus 1 

Pisonia 4 

Panax 7 

Chrysitrix 3 


Ceratonia 3 

Eicus 20 











Equisetum 9 

Onoclea 3 

Ophioglossum 5 

Osmunda 15 

Acrostichum 24 

Pteris 25 

Blechnum 4 

Hemionitis 3 

Loncbitis 1 

Aspleuiura 28 

Polypodiuna 73 

Adiantum 26 

Trichomanes 9 

Marsilea 6 

Pilularia 1 

Isoetes 3 


Lycopodium 34 

Sphagnum 3 

Buxbaumia 4 

Pbascum 8 

PontiDalis 12 

Splachnum 17 

Polytrichum 10 

Mnium 35 

Bryiim 118 

Hypnum 137 








Jungermannia 79 

Targionia 1 

Marcbantia 14 

Blasia 2 

E-iccia 3 

Antboceros 4 

Lichen 314 

Fucus 175 

Ulva 32 

Tremella 7 

Conferva 60 

Byssus 20 


Agaricus 21 

Boletus 10 

Hydnum 4 

Phallus 3 

Clathrus 4 

Helvella 4 

Peziza 7 

Clavaria 6 

Lycoperdon 12 

Spbseria 3 

Mucor 9 


Mauritia 1 

Phoenix 22 

Cvcas 1 




Abrus 885 

Abroma 935 

Acalypba 1 139 

Acanthus 816 

Acer 1225 

Achillea 1017 

Achras 450 

Achyranthes 287 

Acnida 1 1 7 6 

Acoiiitum 695 

Aconis 447 

Acrostichum 1245 

Actaea 665 

Adansonia 862 

Adelia 1201 

Adenantbera 540 

Adiantuiu 1252 

Adonis 714 

Adoxa 516 

^Egilops 1218 

^gopodium 375 

JEgopricum 1091 

^scbynomene 922 

tEscuIus 476 

^Ethusa 362 

Agariciis 1279 

Agave 443 

Ageratum 979 

Agrimonia 62S 

Agrostemma 601 

Agrostis 84 

Agyneja 1145 

Aira 85 

Aizoon . . 650 

Ajuga 721 

Albuca 426 

Alcea 869 

Alchemdla . 166 


Aldrovanda 397 

Aletris 440 

Alisma 473 

Allamanda 298 

Allionia 122 

Allium 419 

Aloe 442 

Alopecurus 82 

Alsine 388 

Alstonia 663 

Alstroemei'ia 444 

Altheea 868 

Alyssum 828 

Amarauthus 1117 

Amaryllis 416 

Ambi'osia 1 1 14 

Ambrosinia 1078 

Amellus 1023 

Amethystea 37 

Ammannia 156 

Auimi 341 

Amomum 3 

Amorpha 894 

Amygdalus 639 

Amyris 490 

Anabasis 316 

Anacardium 534 

Anacyclus 1015 

Auagallis 208 

Anagyris 523 

Anastatica 821 

Ancbusa 182 

Andrachue 1 1 55 

xlndromeda 563 

Andropogon ... 1 2 1 1 

Androsace 197 

Andryala 956 

Anemone 710 

.— SESSTo^f 1906-1907. 



Anethum . . 371 

Angelica 354 

Anijuria 1092 

Auona 708 

Anthemis 1016 

Anthericum 432 

Anthoceros 1272 

Antholyza 60 

Anthospermum 1233 

Anthoxanthum 46 

Anthyllis 897 

Antichorus 487 

Antidesma ii73 

Antirrhinum 767 

Aphanes , 167 

Aphyllanthes 418 

Apium 374 

Apluda 1213 

Apocynum 309 

Aponogeton 479 

Aquilicia 279 

Aquilegia 699 

Arabis 842 

Arachis 909 

Aralia 394 

Arbutus 566 

Arctium 964 

Arctopus 1235 

Arctotis 1036 

Arduina 265 

Arenaria .... 585 

Arethusa 1059 

Aretia 196 

Argemone . 670 

Aristida 98 

Aristolochia 107 1 

Arnica looi 

Artedia 339 

Artemisia 988 

Artocarpus 1087 

Arum 1079 

Arundo 97 

Asarum 608 

Asclepias 310 

Ascyrum 944 

Aspalathus 893 

Asparagus 434 

Asperugo . 189 

Asperula 127 

Asphodelus ... 43 ^ 

Asplenium 1250 

Aster 997 

Astragalus 926 

Astrantia 334 

Athamanta . .' 345 

Athanasia 986 

Atractylis 971 

Atragene 711 

Atraphaxis 462 

Atriplex 1221 

Atropa 246 

Avena 95 

Averrhoa 592 

Avicennia 813 

Axyris iioi 

Ayenia 1069 

Assalea 215 

Baceharis 992 

Baeckea 505 

Ballota 737 

Baiiisteria 589 

Barleria 805 

Barnadesia 972 

Barringtonia 864 

Bartsia 756 

Basella 390 

Bassia 610 

Bauhiuia 525 

Befaria 613 

Begonia 1125 

Bellis 1006 

Bellium 1007 

Berberis 453 

Bergera 548 

Bergia 597 

Besleria 771 

Beta 314 

Betonica 735 

Betula 1 109 

Bidens 975 

Bignonia 776 

Biscutella 831 

Biserrula 927 

Bixa 674 

Blaeria 141 

Blakea 612 

Blasia 1270 

Blechnum 1247 

Blitum 14 



Boceonia . . . , 
I5oerhavia ... 




Borbonia . . . . 


Brabejum . . . . 





Browallia . . . . 
Brownea . . . . 
Brunfelsia. . . . 





Buchnera . . . . 


Buddleia . . . , 


Bulbocodium . , 



Bupleurum . . 
Burmaunia . . 
Butomus . . . . 
Biittneria . . . . 
Buxbaumia . . 

















Cauibogia {cf. Asclepias). 











I no 












Camellia 878 

Cameraria 303 

Campanula 221 

Camphorosma 165 

Canarina 456 

Canarium 1172 

Canna i 

Cannabis 1177 

Capparis 664 

Capraria 785 

Capsicum 249 

Capura 454 

Cardamine 835 

Cardiospermum 513 

Carduus 966 

Carex ; . . . 1 1 00 

Carica 1190 

Carissa 295 

Carliua 970 

Carolinea 865 

Carpesium 99 1 

Carpinus 1131 

Carthamus 973 

Carum 372 

Caryophyllus 686 

Cassia 528 

Cassiue 380 

Cassy ta 519 

Castilleja 757 

Casuarina 1090 

Catauauche 961 

Caturus 1 1 63 

Caucalis 338 

Ceanothus 264 

Cecropia 1^59 

Cedrela 274 

Celastrus 268 

Celosia 288 

Celsia 774 

Celtis 1 209 

Cenchrus 1217 

Centaurea 1030 

Centunculus 147 

Cephalanthus 118 

Cerastium 603 

Ceratocarpus 1086 

Ceratonia 1239 

Ceratophyllum 1122 

Cerbera 296 

Cercis 524 




Cerinthe i86 

Ceropegia 305 

Oestrum 258 

Chserophyllum 365 

Chamaerops, cf. 1291, No. 1. 

Chamira 838 

Chara 1088 

Cheiranthus 839 

Chelidonium 668 

Chelone 765 

Chenolea 289 

Chenopodium 313 

Cherleria 586 

Chiococca 233 

Chionanthus 21 

Chironia 252 

Chlora , . . . 494 

Chondrilla 951 

Chrysantheiuum 10 12 

Chrysitrix 1238 

Chrysobalanus 641 

Clirysocoma 982 

Chrysophyllum 260 

Chrysosplenium 574 

Cicca 1 108 

Cicer 908 

Cichorium 962 

Cicuta 361 

Cimicifuga 698 

Cinchona 230 

Cineraria 1000 

Cinna 15 

Circsea 25 

Cissampelos 1202 

Cissus 149 

Cistus 689 

Citharexylon 777 

Citrus 937 

Clathrus 1283 

Clavaria 1286 

Claytonia 285 

Clematis 712 

Cleome 850 

Cleonia 753 

Clerodendrum 810 

Clethra 567 

Cliffortia ii97 

Clinopodium 742 

Clitoria . 902 

Clusia 1224 

Clutia 1 206 

Clypeola 830 

Cneorum 50 

Cnicus 967 

Coccoloba . . . .' 511 

Coehlearia 826 

Codou 535 

Coffea 232 

Coix 1098 

Colehicum 470 

Coldenia 174 

Collinsouia 43 

Columnea ., 814 

Colutea 914 

Comarum 659 

Cometes 159 

Commelina 65 

Conferva ^277 

Couium 343 

Connarus 856 

Conocarpus 237 

Convallaria 436 

Convolvulus 218 

Conyza 993 

Copaifera 557 

Corchorus 691 

Cordia 253 

Coreopsis 1026 

Coriandrum ^62, 

Coriaria 1192 

Coris 241 

Corispermum 12 

Cornucopiae 76 

Cornus 151 

Cornutia 784 

Coronilla 917 

Corrigiola 386 

Cortusa . 199 

Corylus . . . . , 1 132 

Costus 4 

Cotula 1014 

Cotyledon 594 

Crambe 849 

Crassula 400 

Crataegus 643 

Ci'ataeva 619 

Crepis 955 

Crescentia 779 

Cressa 317 

Crinum 415 



Crithmum 347 

Crocus 56 

Crotalaria 895 

Croton 1 1 40 

Criicianella 130 

Cucubalus 582 

Cucumis 1152 

Cucufbita 1151 

Cuminum 358 

Cunila 38 

Cunonia 571 

Cupressus ii37 

Curcuma 7 

Cuscuta 1 70 

Cussonia 376 

Cyaiiella 430 

Cycas 1292 

Cyclamen 202 

Cymbaria 768 

Cynanchum 308 

Cynara 969 

Cynoglossum 1 83 

Cynoinetra 533 

Cynomorium 1084 

Cynosurus 91 

Cyperus 70 

Cypripeclium 1061 

Cyrilla 272 

Cytinus 107 5 

Cytisus 912 

Dactylis .... 90 

Dais 554 

Dalbergia 886 

Dalechampia 1 138 

Daphne 500 

Datisca 1 196 

Datura 243 

Daucus 340 

Decuraaria 617 

Delima 683 

Delphinium 694 

Dentaria 834 

Dialium 23 

Dianthera 29 

Dianthus 581 

Diapeasia 195 

Dictamnus 536 

Digitalis 775 

Dilatris 6t 

J^jonaea 555 

Dioscorea 1 1 84 

Diosma 270 

Diospyros 1231 

Dipsacus 119 

Dirca 501 

Disa 1060 

Disandra 1175 

Dodartia 860 

Dodecas . 623 

Dodecatheon 201 

Dodonaea 495 

Dolichos 900 

Doronicum roo2 

Draba 823 

DracaBua 435 

Dracocephalum 746 

Dracontium 1 080 

Drosera 398 

Dryas 658 

Drypis 389 

Duranta 806 

Durio 940 

Ebenus 929 

Echinophora 336 

Echinops 1045 

Echites 302 

Efliium .... 191 

Eclipta 1020 

Ehretia 254 

Elseagnus. 160 

Elseocarpus 681 

Elatine 517 

Elephantopus 1043 

Ellisia 206 

Elymus 100 

Empetrum 1 160 

Ephedra 1 200 

Epidendrum 1062 

Epigsea 564 

Epilobium 486 

Epimedium 150 

Equisetum 1241 

Eranthemum 24 

Erica 498 

Erigeron 994 

Erinus 789 

Eriocaulon 105 

Eriocephalus 1040 



Eriophorum 72 

Ervum 907 

Eryngiura 331 

Erysiniiim 837 

Erythrina 888 

Erythronium 424 

Erythroxylon . , 591 

Escallonia 275 

Ethulia 977 

Euclea 1 194 

Eugenia 6^6 

Evolvulus 393 

Euonymus 269 

Eupatorium 978 

Euphorbia 630 

Euphrasia 759 

Exacum 143 

Excoecaria 1 1 62 

Fagara 152 

Eagonia 546 

Eagus II 30 

Falckia 461 

Eerraria 1065 

Ferula 350 

Festuca 92 

Fevillea 1 1 80 

Ficus 1240 

Filago 1041 

Flagellaria 463 

Fontinalis 1261 

Forskohlea 605 

Fothei'gilla 693 

Fragaria 654 

Frankenia 457 

Fraxinus 1230 

Fritillaria 42 1 

Fucus 1274 

Fumaria 881 

Grahnia 459 

G.ilanthus 409 

Galaxia 851 

Galega 924 

Galenia 507 

Galeopsis 734 

Galium 129 

Garcinia 615 

Gardenia 297 

Garidella 587 

Gaultheria . . 565 

Gaura 485 

Geuista 892 

Gentiana . . . ., 328 

Geranium 858 

Gerardia 764 

Geropogon 945 

Gesneria 766 

Gethyllis 445 

Geum 657 

Gisekia 399 

Ghibraria 938 

Gladiolus 59 

Glaux 291 

Glechoma 732 

Gleditsia 1229 

Glinus 631 

Globba 45 

Globularia . 117 

Gloriosa 423 

Gluta 1068 

Glycine 901 

Glycyrrhiza 916 

Gmelina 780 

Gnaphalium 989 

Gnetum 1148 

Gnidia 502 

Goraozia 172 

Gomphrena 319 

Gordonia 877 

Gorteria 1027 

Gossypium 874 

Gouania 1226 

Gratiola 30 

Grewia 1076 

Grielum 599 

Guaiacum 532 

Guai-ea 489 

Guettarda 1121 

Guilandina 531 

Gunnera 1063 

Gustavia 863 

Gypsophila 579 

Haemanthus 408 

Hsematoxylon 538 

Halesia 616 

Halleria 778 

Haniamelis 169 

Hamellia 234 



Hasselquistia 348 

Hebenstretia 788 

Hedera 280 

Hediosma 728 

Hedyotis 123 

Hedysarmn 921 

Helenium 1005 

Helianthus 1024 

Heliconia 286 

Helicteres io74 

Heliocarpus 627 

Heliophila 840 

Heliotropium 179 

Helleborus 718 

Helonias 471 

Helvella 1284 

Hemerocallis 446 

Hemimeris 772 

Hemionitis 1248 

Heracleum 352 

Hermannia 854 

Hermas 1227 

Hernandia 1104 

Herniaria 312 

Hesperis 841 

Heuchera 325 

Hibiscus 875 

Hieracium 954 

Hippia 1039 

Hippocrepis 919 

Hippomane 1146 

Hippopbae 11 68 

Hippuris II 

Holcus 1212 

Holosteum 942 

Hordeuin 103 

Horminum 747 

Hottonia 204 

Houstonia 128 

Hudsonia 622 

Hugonia 857 

Humulus 1178 

Hura 1 144 

Hyacinthus 438 

Hydnum 1281 

Hydrangea 573 

Hydrastis 720 

Hydrocharis 11 89 

Hydrocotyle 332 

Hydropbyllum 205 

Hyraenaea 526 

Hyobanche 799 

Hyoscyamus 244 

Hyoseris 957 

Hypecoum 171 

Hypericum 943 

Hypnutn 1266 

Hypocbaeris 959 

Hypoxis 427 

Hyssopus 725 

Iberis 827 

Ignatia 251 

Ilex 173 

lllecebruui 290 

IlHcium 704 

Impatiens 1053 

Imperatoria 366 

Indigofera 923 

Inula 999 

Ipomoea 219 

Iresiue ii75 

Iris 61 

Isatis 848 

Iscbaemum 12 14 

Isnardia 157 

Isoetes 1256 

Isopyrum 717 

Itea 273 

Iva 1116 

Ixia 58 

Ixora 132 

Jasione 1050 

Jasminum 17 

Jatropha 1141 

Juglans II 29 

Juncus 449 

Jungermannia 1267 

Jungia T046 

Juniperus 1 198 

Jussiaea 552 

Justicia 28 

Ksempferia 8 

Kalmia 560 

Kiggelaria i r9i 

Kleinbovia io73 

Knautia 121 

Kcenigia no 

Kubnia 238 


Kyllinga 69 

Lachenalia 405 

Lactuca 950 

Laetia 680 

LagerstrcBinia 684 

Lagcecia 282 

Lagurus 96 

Lainium 733 

Laiitana 783 

Lapsana 960 

Laserpitium 351 

Lathrffia 761 

Lathyrus 905 

Laugeria 256 

Lauras 518 

Lavandula 727 

Lavatera 871 

Lawsonia 496 

Lechia 115 

Lecythis 682 

Ledum 561 

Leea 11 18 

Lemna 1093 

Leoutice 433 

Leontodon 953 

Leonurus 739 

Lepidium 824 

Lerchea 85 1^ 

Leucojum 410 

Leysera 1008 

Lichen 1273 

Ligusticuin 353 

Ligustrum 18 

Lilium 420 

Limeum 477 

Limodorum 1058 

Limonia 550 

Limosella 794 

Linconia 323 

Lindernia 796 

Linnsea 792 

Linum 396 

Liparia 910 

Lippia 801 

Liquidambar 1134 

Liriodendron 705 

Ljsianthus 213 

Lithospermum 181 

Littorella 1 107 

Loasa 688 

Lobelia 105 1 

Loeflingia 54 

Lolium 99 

Louchitis . . . .' 1249 

Lonicera 235 

Loranthus 455 

Lotus 93 1 

Ludwigia 154 

Liinaria 832 

Lupinus 898 

Lychnis 602 

Lycium 259 

Lycoperdon 1287 

Lycopodium 1257 

Lycopsis 190 

Lycopus s^ 

Lygeum 75 

Lysimachia 207 

Lythrum 626 

Macrocnemum 227 

Magnolia 706 

Malachra 867 

Malope 872 

Malpighia 588 

Malva 870 

Mammsea 675 

Mangifera 276 

Mauisuris 1215 

Manulea 787 

Maranta 6 

Maregravia 661 

Marchantia 1269 

Margaritaria 1187 

Marrubium 738 

Marsilea 1254 

Martynia 769 

Massonia 414 

Matricaria 10 13 

Mauritia 1290 

Medeola 468 

Medicago 933 

Melaleuca 941 

Melam podium i034 

Melampyrum 760 

Melanthium 467 

Melastoma 559 

Melia 543 

Melianthus 818 


Melica 86 

Melicocca 48S 

Melissa 745 

Melittis 748 

Meloehia 855 

Melothria 51 

Memecvlon 493 

Menispermum 1 195 

Mentha 730 

Mentzelia 687 

Menyanthes 203 

Merciirialis 1 188 

Mesembryanthemum . . 649 

Mespilus 646 

Messerschmidia 192 

Mesua 879 

Michelia 707 

Microcos, cf. Grewia. 

Micropus 1042 

Milium 83 

MiJleria 1031 

Milliiigtonia 808 

Mimosa 1228 

Mimulus 803 

Mimusops 493 

Minuartia 113 

Mirabilis 240 

Mik'hella 135 

Mitella 577 

Mnium 1264 

Mcehringia 509 

Mollugo 112 

Moluceella 741 

Momordica 1150 

Monarda 40 

Mouotropa 551 

JNIonsonia 936 

Montia 106 

Moutinia 1167 

Moraea 62 

Morina 44 

Morinda 236 

Morus 1112 

Mucor 1289 

Muellera 911 

Muenchhausia 939 

Muntingia 672 

Murraea 539 

Miisa 1207 

Mussaenda 239 

Mutisia 1004 

Myagruin 819 

Myosotis 180 

Myosurus 402 

Myrica 1 169 

Myriophyllum 1123 

Myrisma 5 

Myristica 1204 

Myrsine 267 

Myrtus 637 

IS^ajas . 1 1 56 

Nama 322 

Napaea 1203 

jVarcissus 412 

Xardiis 73 

jSTauclea 226 

Xepeta 726 

Nerium 300 

Neurada 606 

Nicotiana 245 

Nigelia 700 

Nissolia 884 

Nitraria 624 

Nolaua 194 

Xyctanthes 16 

jN'ymphaea 673 

Nyssa 1232 

Ocymum 749 

OEdera 1047 

ffinanthe 359 

CEnothei'a 484 

Oldenlandia 155 

Olea 20 

Olyra 1099 

Omphalea 1 102 

Onoclea 1242 

Ononis 896 

Onopordum 968 

Ouosma 187 

Ophioglossum 1243 

Ophiorrbiza 211 

Ophioxylon 1208 

Ophira 499 

Ophrys 1056 

Orcbis 1054 

Origanum 743 

Ornitbogalum 428 

Ornithopus 918 


Orobanche 798 

Orobus 904 

Orontiuru 448 

Ortegia 53 

Oryza 460 

Osbeckia 482 

Osmites 1029 

Osmunda 1244 

Osteospermum 1037 

Osyris 1161 

Othonna 1038 

Ovieda 807 

Oxalis 600 

Psederia 294 

Psederota 27 

Pseonia 692 

Panax 1237 

Pancratium 413 

Panicum 80 

Papaver 669 

Parietaria 1220 

Paris 515 

Parkinsonia 527 

Parnassia 392 

Parthenium mS 

Paspalum 79 

Passerina 504 

Passiflora 1070 

Pastinaca 369 

Paullinia 512 

Pavetta 133 

Pectis loii 

Pedalium 817 

Pedicularis 763 

Peganum 621 

Peltaria 829 

Penaea 140 

Pentapetes 860 

Penthorum 596 

Peplis 458 

Perdicium 1003 

Pergularia 306 

Perilla 731 

Periploca 307 

Petesia 134 

Petiveria 472 

Petrea 781 

Peucedanura 346 

Peziza 1285 

Phaca 925 

Phalaris 78 

Phallus 12S2 

Pharnaceum . . 387 

Pharus 11 20 

Phascum 1260 

Phaseolus 899 

PhellandrJuni 360 

Philadelplius 634 

Phillyrea 19 

Phleum 81 

Pblorais 740 

Phlox 217 

Phoenix 1291 

Phormium 439 

Pbryma 755 

Phyhca 263 

Phyllachne 1089 

Phyllanthus 1105 

Phyllis 330 

Physalis 247 

Phyteuma 223 

Phytolacca 607 

Picris 948 

Pilularia 1255 

Pimpinella 373 

Piuguicula 33 

Pinus 1 135 

Piper 47 

Piscidia 889 

Pisonia 1236 

Pistacia 1170 

Pistia 1072 

Pisuni 903 

Plagianthus 861 

Plantago 144 

Platanus 1133 

Plectronia 277 

Pliuia 642 

Plumbago 216 

Plumeria 301 

Poa 87 

Podophyllum 667 

Poinciana 529 

Polemonium 220 

Polianthes 437 

Poiycarpon iii 

Polycnemum 55 

Polygala 882 

Polygonum 510 



Polymnia 1083 

Polypodium 1251 

Polypremum 139 

Polytrichum 1263 

Pommereulla 74 

Pontederia 407 

Populus 1 185 

Portlandia 228 

Portulaca 625 

Potamogeton 175 

Potentilla 655 

Poterium 1127 

Pothos 1082 

Prasium 754 

Premna 782 

Prenanthes 952 

Primula 198 

Prinos 452 

Prockia 690 

Proserpinaca 107 

Protea 116 

Prunella 752 

Pruuus 640 

Psidiuin 635 

Psoralea 928 

Psychotria 231 

Ptelea 153 

Pteris 1246 

Pterocarpus 887 

Pteronia . . 980 

Pulraonaria 184 

Punica ... 638 

Pyrola 568 

Pyrus 647 

Quassia 545 

Quercus 11 28 

Queria 114 

Quisqualis 553 

Eajania 11 83 

Eandia 214 

Eanunculus 715 

Eaphanus 846 

Eauvolfia 293 

lieaumuria 701 

Eenealmia 2 

Reseda 629 

Restio 1 164 

Ketzia 209 

Ehacoma 146 

E/liamuus 262 

Eheum 520 

Ehexia 483 

Ehinanthus 758 

Ehizophora 611 

Ehodiola 11 86 

Ehododendron 562 

Ehus 378 

Eibes 278 

Eiccia 1271 

Eichardia 45 1 

Eicinus 1142 

Eicotia 833 

Eivina 163 

Eobinia 913 

Eoella 222 

Eoridula 284 

Eosa 652 

Eosiuarinus 41 

Eotala 52 

Eottboellia loi 

Eoyena 570 

Eubia 131 

Eubus 653 

Eudbeckia 1025 

Euellia 804 

Eumex 464 

Euppia 176 

Euscus 1205 

Eiita 537 

Saccharum 77 

Sagina 177 

Sagittaria 1 124 

Salacia 1066 

Salicornia 10 

Salix 1 158 

iSalsola . 315 

Salvadora 164 

Salvia 42 

Samara 137 

Sambucus 381 

Samolus 225 

Samyda 558 

Sanguinaria 666 

Sanguisorba 148 

Sanicula ;^i^^ 

Santalum 161 

Santolina 985 



Sapindus 514 

Saponaria 580 

Saraca 880 

Sarothra 391 

Sarracenia 672" 

Satureja 723 

Satyrium ^055 

Saururus 478 

Sauvagesia 283 

Saxifraga 575 

Scabiosa 120 

Scabrita 124 

Scsevola 229 

Scandix 364 

Scheuchzeria. . 465 

Schinus 1193 

Schmidelia 506 

Schoenus 68 

Schrebera 324 

Schwenkia 31 

Scilla 429 

Scirpus 71 

Scleranthus 578 

Scolymus 963 

Scoparia 145 

Scorpiurus 920 

Scrophularia 773 

Scutellaria 751 

Secale 102 

Securidaca 883 

ISedum 595 

Selago 786 

Selinum , . . . . 344 

Seraecarpus 377 

Semper vivum 632 

Senecio 996 

Septas 480 

Serapias 1057 

Seriola 958 

Seriphium 1049 

Serpicula 1106 

Serratnla 965 

Sesamum 802 

Seseli 367 

Sesuviuni 645 

Sherardia 126 

Sibbaldia 401 

Sibthorpia 793 

Sicvos 1 1 54 

Sida 866 

Sideritis 721 

Sideroxylon 269 

Sigesbeckia 1018 

Silene > 583 

Silphium 1032 

Sinapis 845 

Sirium 138 

Sison 356 

Sisymbrium S^6 

Sisyriuchium 1064 

Sium 350 

Smilax 1185 

Smyruium 372 

Solanum 240 

Soldanella 208 

Solidago 998 

Sonchus 949 

Sophora 522 

Sorbus 644 

Sparganium io95 

Hparmannia 677 

Spartium 891 

Spergula 604 

Spermacoce 125 

Sphagnum 1258 

Sphferanthus i044 

Spbseria 1288 

Spigelia 210 

Spilanthus 974 

Spinacia 1 1 74 

Spinifex 1216 

Spiraea 651 

Splachuum 1 262 

Spondias 593 

Stachys 736 

Staehelina 981 

Stapelia 311 

Stapbylea 382 

Statice 395 

Stellaria 584 

Stellera 503 

Stemodia 797 

Sterculia 1 143 

Steris 318 

Stewartia 876 

Stilago 1067 

Stilbe 1234 

Stillingia 1 147 

Stipa 84 

Stoebe 1049 



Stratiotes 703 

Struthiola 162 

Strychnos 250 

Styrax 569 

Subularia 822 

Suriana 598 

Swertia 327 

Swietenia 542 

Symphonia 853 

Symphytum 185 

Syringa 22 

Tabermemontana 304 

Tagetes 1009 

Tamariudus 49 

Tamarix 383 

Tamus 1181 

Tanacetum 987 

Tarchonanthus 983 

Targionia 1268 

Taxus 1 1 99 

Telephiam 385 

Terminalia 1222 

Ternstroemia 662 

Tetracera 697 

Tetragouia 648 

Teucrium 722 

Thalictrum 713 

Thapsia 368 

Thea 685 

Theligonum 1126 

Theobroma 934 

Thesium 292 

Tblaspi 825 

Thuja 1 136 

Thunbergia 815 

Thymbra 724 

Thymus 744 

Tiarella 576 

Tilia 679 

TilljBa 178 

Tillandsia 403 

Tordylium 337 

Torenia 770 

Tormentilla 656 

Tournefortia 193 

Tozzia 762 

TracheHum 224 

Tradescantia 406 

Tragia T103 

Tragopogon 946 

Trapa 158 

Tremella 1276 

Ti'ianthema 572 

Tribulus 547 

Trichilia 541 

Trichomanes 1253 

Trichosanthes 1149 

Trichostema . 750 

TrientaHs 474 

Ti'ifolium 930 

Triglochin 466 

Trigonella 932 

Trillium 469 

Triopteris 590 

Triplaris 108 

Tripsacum 1097 

Triticum 104 

Triumfetta 620 

Trollius 716 

Tropseolum 481 

Trophis 1165 

Tulbaghia 411 

Tulipa 4.? 5 

Turnera 384 

TuiToea 549 

Turritis 843 

Tussilago 995 

Typha 1094 

Ulex 915 

Ulmus 321 

TJlva 1275 

Uniola 89 

tinona 709 

Unxia 10 10 

TJrena 873 

Urtica iiii 

Utricularia 34 

Uvularia 422 

Vaccinium 497 

Vahlia 329 

Valantia 1219 

Valeriana 48 

Vallea 678 

Yallisneria 1157 

Vandellia 795 

Varronia 255 

Vatica 614 



Velezia . . . 


Veratrum . 
Verbena . 
Verbesina . 
Veronica . 
Viburnum . 

Vinca . . . 
Viola . . . 
Virecta . . . 
Viscum . . . 
Vitex . . . 











Wachendorfia 64 

Waltheria 852 

Weinuiannia 508 

Wintera 696 

Winterania 6t8 

Witsenia 57 

Xauthium 1113 

Xeranthemum' 990 

Ximenia 491 

Xylopia ^077 

Xyris 67 

Yucca 441 

Zannichellia 1085 

Zanonia 1^79 

Zanthoxylum 1171 

Zea 1096 

Zinnia 1019 

Zizania 1119 

Zizyphora 39 

Zoegea 1028 

Zostera 1083 

Zygophyllum 544 



L I B R A li Y 



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Agricultural Journal of India. See Calcutta: Agricultural 

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Alexander (J. A.). Notes on the Flora of the Coast and Islands 

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Allen (Henry A.). Catalogue of Types and figured Specimens of 
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Ameghino (Florentiuo). Les formations sedimentaires du creiace 
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Mi Credo disertacion pronunciada el 4 de Agosto de 1906 

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Sobre dos E>queletos de Mamiferos fosiles arma^los re- 

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Ameghino (Florentino). Les Toxodontes a Corneo. Pp. 43; 

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Ames (Oakes). Descriptions of new Species of Acoridium from 

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Hahenaria orhicidata and H. macrophylla. Spiranthes 

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Arana (Diego Barros). El Doctor Don Eodolfo Amando Phiiippi 

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AuriviUius (Per Olof Christopher). See Linne (Carl von). 

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Bailey (Frederick Manson). Contributions to the Elora of 

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Barber (Charles Alfred). Xotes on Sugar-cane Cultivation with 
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Beddard (Frank Evers). A Book of Whales- With forty 
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Bell (James Mackintosh). See Wellington : Xew Zealand Geo- 
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Bernard (Charles). Sur la distribution geograpliique des Ulmacees. 

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Notes de Pathologic Yegetale. — I. Sur quelques maladies 

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Liyy. soc. PEOCEEDINGS. — SESSIOX 1906-1907. /.• 


Bonnier (Gaston). Album de la Nouvelle Flore representant 

toutes les especes de Plantes photographie'es directemeat d'apres 

nature. Pp. 190 and 2028 photographs. 

8vo. Paris, [1906J. Frank Crisp. 
Boorsma (W. G.). Ueber Aloeholz und andere Eiechholzer. 

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Boott (Francis). Illustrations of the Genus Carex. 4 parts (the 

4th part by Sir J. D. Hooker). fol. London, 1858-67. 

(Second copy.) Sir Prior Goldney, Bt. 

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„ II. Pp. iv, 75-103 ; plates 201-310. (1860.) 
„ III. Pp. 104-126; plates 311-411. (1862.) 
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Brandis (Sir Dietrich). Indian Trees : an Account of Trees, 
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Briquet (John). See Vienna : Kongress Intern. Bot. 
Queensland Acclimatisation Society. 

Annual Report, 43. Svo. Brisbane, 1906. 

British Association for the Advancement of Science. 

Report (York), 1906. 8vo. Londoii, 1907. 

Council Brit. Assoc. 

Fauna, Flora, and Geology of the Clyde Area. Edited by 

G. F. ScoTx Elliot, Malcolm Laurie, and J. Barclay 
MuRDOcn. Published by the Local Committee for the 
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8vo. Glasgow, 1901. 
British Museum {continued). 

The History of the Collections contained in the Natural History 
Departments of the British Museum. Vol. II. Separate 
Historical Accounts of the several Collections included in the 
Department of Zoology. Pp. 782. 8vo. London, 1906. 

A Catalogue of the Works of Linnaeus (and Publications more 
immediately relating thereto) preserved in the Libraries of 
the British Museum (Bloomsbury) and the British Museum 
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Dipterous Insects. 

Illustrations of British Blood-Sucking Flies, with Notes by 
Ernest Edward Austen. Pp. 74 ; plates 34. 

8vo. London, 1906. 


JBritish Museum (continued). 

Lepidopterous Insects. 

Catalogue of the Lepidoptera Phaloenae in the British Museum. 
Vol. VI. Catalogue of the Noctuidae ia the Collection of 
the British Museum. By Sir George Francis Hampson, 
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8vo. London, 1906. 

Orthopterous Insects. 

A Synonymic Catalogue of Orthoptera. By W. F. Kirbt. 
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Catalogue of the Madreporarian Corals in the British Museum 
(Natural History). Vol, IV. The Family Poritid*.— 
I. The Genus Goniopora. By Henry M. Bernard. Pp. viii, 
206 ; plates 14. 1903. 

Vol. V. The Family PoritidiO.-II. The Genus Porites. 

Part I. Porites of the Indo-Pacilic Kegion. By Henry M. 
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Vol. VI. The Family Poritidie.— II. The Genus 


Part II. Forites of the Atlantic and West Indies, with the European 
Fossil Forms. 
The Genus Goiiiopora. A Supplement to Vol. IV. By 
Hexiiy M. Bernard. Pp. vi, 173 ; plates 17. 

4to. London, 1906. 

List of British Seed-Plants and Ferns Exhibited in the De- 
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8vo. London, 1907. 


Sjiecicd Guide No. 1. 

Guide to an Exhibition of Old Natural History Books, illus- 
trating the Origin and Progress of the Study of Natural 
History up to the Time of Linna?us. Pp. 27. 

8vo. London, 1905. 

Special Guide No. 2. 

Books and Portraits illustrating the History of Plant Classi- 
fication exhibited in the Department of Botany. Pp. 19, 
with one plate and 3 portraits. Svo. London, 1900. 


132 PEOCEEDi;,'GS or THE 

British Museum (continued). 

SjpeciaJ Guide No. y. 
Memorials of Linuteus, a Collection of Portraits, Mauuscripts, 
Specimens, and Books exhibited to Commemorate the Bi- 
centenary of his Birth. By A. B. Eexdle. Pp. 10 and 
2 portraits. Svo. London, 1907. 

Britten (James). List of British Seed-Plants and Ferns. See 
British Museum. Plants. Pp. 44. 1907. 

Browne (Patrick). The Civil and Natural History of Jamaica. 
In three parts. Pp. viii, 503 ; plates 50. (Second copy.) 

fol. London, 1756. Sir Prior Goldney, Bt, 
Buchan Field Club. See Peterhead. 
Departement de I'Agriculture aux Indes Neerlandaises. 

Bulletni No. 6. Svo. Bvitenzorfj, 1907. 

No. 0. Notes de Pathologie Vegetate. — 1. Sur quelques maladies de 
Thea asi^amiva, de Kick.vla elastica et de Hevea brasiliensis. 
Par Dr. Ciiaules Berxard. Pp. 55 ; plates 4. 1907. 

Bullen (Robert Ashington). Land and Freshwater MoUusca 

from Sumatra. Part II. Pp. 5 ; tigs. 5. (Proc. Malacol. Soc. 

vii.) Svo. Jjondon, 1906. Author. 

Buller {Sir Walter Lawry). Supplement to the ' Birds of New 

Zealand.' Yols. I., II. i'ol. London, 1905. 

Burdett {Sir Henry Charles). See Science Progress. . . . Conducted 

by H. C.;Bijedett, &c. Vols. I.- VII. 1S94-9S. 
Burnat (Emile). Flore des Alpes Maritinies, on Catalogue 

raisonne des Plantes qui croissent spontanement dans la Cha'ine 

des Alpes Maritimes, &c. Vol. lY. Pp. 303. 

Svo. Geneve 4- Bale, 1906. 
Butler (Edwin John). An Account of the Genus Pythium and 

some Chytridiacese. Pp.160; plates 10. (Mem. Dept. Agric. 

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III. Carl von Linne sasom botanist, af C. A. M. Lindman. Pp. 116. 1907. 

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4to. London, 1907. G. B. De Toni. 
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Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine. 

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University of Liverpool. 

Cancer Eesearch Laboratories. 

First lleport on the Cytological Investigation of Cancer, 
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Actes du 1''' Cougres International de Botanique tenue a Paris 
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Notice sur les collections ethologiques au Jardin Botanique 

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La Guerre et les Alliances entre Animaux et Vegetaux (six 

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„ IV. Fossil Corals collected by A. P. Low. By Lawrence M. 

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Alexander Forbes. Pp. 1-14. 19015. 
No. G. The Origin of a Polydactjlous Race of Guinea-pigs. By William 
E. Castle. Pp. 15-29. 1906. 

Waterhouse (Charles Owen) and Sharp (David). Index Zoolo- 
gicus : an Alphabetical List of Names of Genera and Subgenera 
proposed for use in Zoology as recorded in the ' Zoological 
Kecord,' 1880-1900, together with other Names not included 
in the ' Nomenclator Zoologicus ' of S. H. Scudder. Compiled 
(for the Zoological Society of London) by Charles Owen 
Wateehouse, and edited by Dayid Sharp. Pp. xii, 421. 

8vo. London, 1902. 

Weber (Emil). Die Gattungen Aj^toshmun Burch. und Pelio- 
stomuni E. Mey. Pp. 101 ; mit 3 Tafeln. (Beih. Bot. Centralbl., 
Abt. 2. xxi.) ' 8vo. Dresden, 1906. 

Weinzierl (Theodor Ritter von). See Vienna : Kongress Intern. 

Weiss (Frederick Ernest). Die Bliitenbiologie von Mercurialis. 
Pp. 4 ; fig. 2. (Ber. Deutsch. Bot. Ges. xxiv.) 

8vo. Berlin, 1906. 

The Parichnos in the Lepidodendraceae. Pp. 22; plate 1, 

figs. 8. (Mem. & Proc. Manch. Lit. & Phil. Soc. li.) 

8vo. Manchester, 1907. Author. 

Weiss (Frederick Ernest) and Yapp (Richard Henry). Sketches 
of Vegetation at Home and Abroad. III. "The Karroo" in 
August. Pp. 15 ; plates 3. (New Phvtol. v.) 

Svo. London, 19o6. F. E. Weiss. 

Wellcome Research Laboratories, Gordon Memorial College. See 


New Zealand Geological Survey. 

^ew Series. Bulletin no. 1. 4to. Wellington, 1906. 

No. 1. The Geology of the Hokitika Sheet, North Westland Quad- 
rangle, &c. By James Mackintosh Bell, assisted by Colix 
Fraser. Pp. xi, 101 ; plates 28 and 9 maps. 1906. 

Wettstein (Richard von). >S^^e Vienna: Kongress Intern. Bot. 

White (Adam). Descriptions of a new Genus and Five new 
8pecies of Crustacea. S«e Jukes (Joseph Beete). Narrative 
of the Surveying Voyage of H.M.S. Fhj, &c. 1847. 


Whiteaves (Joseph Frederick). Pal?eozoic Possils. 

J. The Fossils of the Sihirian (Upper Sihirian) Rocks of Keewatin, 
Manitoba, the North-eastern siiore of Lake Winnii^egosis, and the 
Lower Saskatchewan Eiver. 

6. The Canadian Species of I'lrctoceraa and Barrandeocp-as. 

7. Illustrations of Seven Species of Fossils from the Cambrian, Cambro- 

Siluriaii, and Devonian Rocks of Canada. 

8. Revised List of the Fossils of the Giielph Formation of Ontario. 

Pp. 10-3 : i^lates 20. (Geol. Surr. Canada, vol. iii. part 4.) 

8vo. Ottawa, 1906. 
Whiting (W. H. C). See United States : Geological and Topo- 
graphical .Survey. Report of the Secretary of AVar, &c. 1850. 
Wiesner (Julius). See Vienna : Ivongress Intern. Bot. 
Wilson ( Ernest Henry). See Freeman (William George). The 

World's Commercial Products. 
Wimhledon (The) and Merton Annual. Edited by Hexet t. d. 
B. CoPELANi). Pp. 159 ; plates 7. 8vo. London, 1904. 

H. W. Pugsley. 
Winn (James Michell). On Darwin. Pp. 18. (Journ. Psychol. 
Medicine and Mental Pathol, vol. viii. part 2.) 

Svo. London, [n. d.]. 
Withering (William). Plantae ITlyssipponensis. MSS. (M8. 

descriptions 8vo, and plates 4to.) 
Wood (John Medley). Eeport on Xatal Botanic Ciardens and 
Colonial Herbarium for the Tear 1905-1906. 

8vo. Durban, 1906. 

A Handbook to the Flora of Natal. Pp. 202. 

8vo. Burhan, 1907. Author. 
Woodward (Bernard Barham). List of British non-Marine 
Molliisca. Pp. 16. (Journ. Conchol. x, no. 12.) 

Svo. London, 1903. 

On some " Feeding-Tracks " of Gastropods. Pp. 3 ; figs. 4. 

(Proc. Malacol. Soe. vol. vii. pt. 1.) 

8vo. London, 1906. Author. 

See British Museum. A Cataloeue of the Works of 

Linnaeus (and Publications more immediately relating thereto) 
preserved in the Libraries of the British Museum (Bloomsbnry) 
and the British Museum (Natural History) (South Kensington). 
— See Kennard (A. S.). The Post-Pliocene non-Marine 
Mollusca of Essex. Pp. 24 ; figs. 8 and table of distribution. 

A Revision of the Pliocene non-Marine Mollusca 

of England. Pp. 18 ; figs. 4. 1899. 

Notes on Paludestrina Jenhinsi (Smith) and P. con- 

fusa (Frauenf.). Pp. 4. 1899. 

The Pleistocene non-Marine Mollusca of Ilford. 

Pp. 5. (Proc. Geol. Assoc, xvi.) 1900. 

Further Notes on the British Pliocene non-Marine 

Mollusca. (Proc. Malacol. Soc. iv.) 1901. 

— The Post-Pliocene non-Marine Mollusca of tho 

South of England. (Proc. Geol. Assoc, xvii.) 1901. 


Woodward (Bernard Barham). See Kennard (A. S.). On 
Sections in the Holocene Alluvium of the Thames at Staines 
and Wargrave. Pp. 7 ; fig. 1. (Proc. Greol. Assoc, xix.) 


On the Occurrence of Vertigo panedentata, Al. Braun, 

in Holocene Deposits in Great Britain. Pp. 2. (Proc. Malacol. 
Soc. vol. vii.) 1906. 

See Sherborn (Charles Davies). Notes on the Dates of 

Publication of the Parts of Kieuer's " Species General et 
Iconographie des Coquilles Vivantes," &c. (18;:54-S0). 1901. 

Wright (Thomas). See Agassiz (Jean Louis Rudolph) and Gould 
(Augustus Addison). Outlines of Comparative Physiology, &c. 
Eevised Edition. 1851. 

Yapp (Richard Henry). See Weiss (F. E.). Sketches of Vegeta- 
tion at Home and Abroad. III. " The Karroo," in August. 

York, Eastleigh, Birmingham, and Cambridge. 

Watson Botanical Exchange Club. Annual Report, 23rd. 

Svo. Cambridge, 1907. G. Goode. 

Zahlhruckner (Alexander). See Vienna : Ivongress Intern. Bot. 

Zahn (Karl Hermann). Die Hieracien der Schweiz. Pp. 568. 

(Xeue Denkschr. allgem. schweiz. Ges. gesammten Naturw. 

Bd. 40.) 4to. Ziiricli, 1906. 

Zoological Record. Vol. 42 (1905). Svo. London, 1906. 


Botanisches Museum der Universitat, Zurich. 

Der botanische Garten und das botanisclie Museum der 
Universitat, Ziirich, im Jahre 1906. 

8vo. Z'drich, 1907. Dr. Hans Schinz. 
-zur Strassen. See Strassen (Otto zur). 

LINX. soc. PROCEEDINGS.— SESSION 1906-1907. 



1907. £ s. d. 

April 18. The Eotal Society. Third grant in aid 
of Dr. G. Herbert Eowleb's " Biscayan 
Plankton " (Trans. 2nd ser., Zool. vol. x.) . 50 

June 11. The Trustees of the Percy Sladen 
Memorial Pund. First grant in aid of 
Mr, J. Stanley Gardiner's Expedition 
to the Indian Ocean in 1905 (Trans. 2nd 
ser., Zool. vol. xii.) 200 



List in accordance with Bije-Laws, Chap. XVII. Sect. 1, of all 
Donations of the amount or value of Tiventy-five pounds and 

The Rt. Hon. Sir Joseph Banks, Bart. 

Cost of Copper and engraving oi the plates of the first volume 
of Transactions, 20 in number. 
The same : Medallion of C. von Linne, by C. E. Inlander. 

The same : a large collection of books. 


Subscription towards the Charter, .£295 4^. Qd. 

Claudius Stephen Hunter, Esq., F.L.S.(Grratuitous professional 
services in securing the Charter.) 


Dr. Richard Pulteney. 

His collections, and £200 Stock. 
Aylmer Bourke Lambert, Esq. 

Portrait of Henry Seymer. 


Sir Joseph Banks, Bart. 

His collection of Insects. 


Richard Anthony Salisbury, Esq. 

Portrait of D. C. Solander, by J. Zoffany. 


Sir Joseph Banks, Bart. 

His collection of Shells. 
Mrs. Pulteney. 

Portrait of Dr. R. Pulteney, by S. Beach. 

Joseph Sabine, Esq. 

Portrait of C. von Linne, after A. Roslin, reversed. 
Dr. John Sims. 

Portrait of Dr. Trew. 


Subscription of £215 Qs. for Caley's Zoological Collection. 




The Medical Society of Stockholm. 

A medallion of Linnaeus in alabaster. 

Bust of Sir Joseph Banks, by Sir F. Chantrey, E.A. 
Subscription of the Fellows. 


The late Natural History Society. 

£190, 3| Stock. 
Bust of Sir James Edward Smith, P.L.S., by Sir F. Chantrey, 
E.A., by Subscribers. 

Subscription for the purchase of the Linnean and Smithian 
Collections, £1593 8s. 

Sir Thomas Grey CuUum, Bart. 
£100 Bond given up. 

The Honourable East India Company. 

East Indian Herbarium (Wallichian Collection). 


Subscription for Cabinets and mounting the East Indian Herbarium, 
£315 14s. 

Subscription portrait of Robert Brown, by H. W. Pickersgill, E.A. 


Subscription portrait of Edward Forster, by Eden Upton Eddis. 
Subscription portrait of Archibald Menzies, by E. U. Eddis. 


Subscription portrait of Alexander MacLeay, by Sir Thomas 
Lawrence, P.E.A, 

Collections and Correspondence of Nathaniel John Winch. 
Portrait of Dr. Nathaniel Wallich, by John Lucas, presented by 
Mrs. Smith, of Hiill. 

Subscription portrait of William Tarrell, by Mrs. Carpenter. 

David Don : herbarium of woods and fruits. 
Archibald Menzies : bequest of £100, subject to legacy duty. 
Portrait of John Ebenezer Bicheno, by E. U. Eddis, presented by 
Mr. Bicheno. 



Subscription in aid of the funds of the Society', .£994 3s. 
Subscription portrait of Six* William Jackson Hooker, by S. GanJ- 

Microscope presented by Subscribers. 

Joseph Janson : -£100 legacy, free of duty, and two cabinets. 


[Bequest of £200 in trust, by Edward Rudge ; declined for reasons 
set forth in Proceedings, i. pp. 315-317.] 

Portrait of Sir J. Banks, Bart., bv T. Phillips, E.A., presented by 
Capt. Sir E. Home, Bart., E."N. 

Subscription portrait of the Rt. Rev. Edward Stanley, D.D., 
Bishop of Xorwich, by J. H. Maguire. 


Portrait of Carl von Linne, by L. Pasch, presented by Robert 

Pastel portrait of A. B. Lambert, by John Russell, presented by 

Robert Brown. 

Professor Thomas Bell, £105. 

Subscription portrait of Prof. T. Bell, P.L.S., by H. W. Pickersgill, 

Thomas Corbyn Janson : two cabinets to hold the collection of 

fruits and seeds. 
Pleasance, Lady Smith : Correspondence of Sir J. E. Smith, in 

19 volumes. 

Subscription portrait of Nathaniel Bagshaw Ward, by J. P. 

Subscription for removal to Burlington House, £1108 15s. 
Diaiy of Carl von Linne, and letters to Bishop Menander, 

presented by Miss Wray. 
Dr. Horsfield's Javan plants, presented by the Court of Directors 

of the Hon. East India Company. 
Dr. Ferdinand von jMueller's Australian and Tasmanian plants, 

including manv types. 

Books from the library of Robert Brown, presented by J. J. 

Bennett, Sec.L.S. 
Robert Brown : two bonds given up, £200. 



Subscription bust of Eobert Brown, by Peter Slater. 

Collection of birds' eggs, bequeathed by John Drew Salmon, F.L.S. 


The Linnean Club : presentation bust of Prof. T. Bell, by 
P. Slater. 

Subscription portrait of John Joseph Bennett, by E. U. Eddis. 


Beriah Botfield, Esq. : Legacy, .£40 less Duty. 

Executors of Sir J. W. Hooker, £100. 

George Bentham, Esq. : cost of 10 plates for his " Tropical Legumi- 
nosae," Trans, vol. xxv. 

Dr. Friedcich Welwitsch : Illusti-atious of his ' Sertum Angolense,' 

George Bentham, Esq. : General Index lo Transactions, vols, i.-xxv. 
Eoyal Society : Grant in aid of G. S. Brady on British Ostracoda, 

Carved rhinoceros horn from Lady Smith, formerly in the posses- 
sion of C. V. Linne. 

Subscription portrait of George Bentham, by L. Dickinson. 
George Bentham, Esq., for expenditure on Library, £50. 


Legacy from James Yates, £50 free of Duty. 
„ ., Daniel Hanbury, £100 less Duty. 


Legacy of the late Thomas Corbyn Jansou, £200. 

,, „ „ Charles Lambert, £500. 

George Bentham, Esq. : General Index to Transactions, vols, 

Subscription portrait of John Claudius Loudon, by J. Linnell. 
Subscription portrait of Eev. Miles Joseph Berkeley, by James 


Bev. George Henslow and Sir J. D. Hooker : Contribution to 
illustrations, £35, 



The Secretary of State for India in Council : cost of setting up 
Dr. Aitchison's paper, .£36. 


George Benthaui, Esq., special donation, £25. 
The same : towards Richard Kippist's pension, .£.50, 
Portrait of Dr. St. George Jackson Mivart, by Miss Solomon; 
presented by Mrs. Mivart. 


Executors of the late Frederick Currey : a large selection of books. 
Subscription portrait of Charles Robert Darwin, by Hon. John 

The Secretary of State for India in Council : Grant for publication 

of Dr. xiitchison's second paper on the Flora of the Kurrum 

Valley, £60. 

Sir John Lubbock, Bart, (afterwards Lord Avebury). 

Portrait of C. von Linne, ascribed to M. Hallman. 
Philip Henry Gosse, Esq. : towards cost of illustrating his paper, 

Eoyal Society : Graut in aid of Mr. Gosse's paper, £50. 
Sophia Grover, Harriet Grover, Emily Grover, and Charles Ehret 

Grover : 11 letters from C. von Linne to G. D. Ehret. 


Executors of the late George Bentham, £567 lis. 2d. 
Subscription portrait of George Busk, by his daughter Marian 


A large selection of books from the library of the late Spencer 

Thomas Cobbold (a bequest for a medal was declined). 
Sir George MacLeay, Bart. : MSS. of Alexander MacLeay and 

portrait of Rev. William Kirby. 

"William Davidson, Esq. : 1st and 2nd instalments of grant in aid of 

publication, £50. 
Francis Blackwell Forbes, Esq., in aid of Chinese Flora, £25. 

The Secretary of State for India in Council: Grant in aid ol 

publication of results of the Afghan Boundary Delimitation 

Expedition, £150. 
Dr. J . E. T. Aitchisou, towards the same, £25. 
Trustees of the Indian Museum : Mergui Archipelago report, for 

publication in Journal, £135. 
Dr. .Tohn Anderson, for the same, £60, 
Wm. Davidson, Esq. : 3rd and last instalment, £25. 


Bronze copy of inoclel for Statue of C. von Linne, by J. F. Kjellberg ; 
presented by Frank Crisp, Esq. 


The Secretary of State for India in Council : Grant for Delimitation 

Expedition report, £200. 
Oak table for Meeting Eoom, presented by Frank Crisp, Esq. 
Subscription portrait of Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker, K.C.S.I., by 

Hubert Herkomer, R.A. 
Executors of the late John Ball, Esq. : a large selection of books. 
An anonymous donor, £30. 
Colonel Sir Henry CoUett, Iv.C.B., towards the publication of his 

Shan States collections, <£50. 


Subscription portrait of Sir John Lubbock, Bart. [Lord Avebury], 

by Leslie Ward. 
George Frederick Scott Elliot, Esq., towards cost of his Madagascar 

paper, £60. 

Dr. Richard Charles Alexander Prior: for projection lantern, £50. 


The Executors of Lord Arthur Eussell : his collection of portraits 

of naturalists. 
Electric light installation : cost borne by Frank Crisp, Esq. 


Algernon Peckovei', Esq., Legacy, £100 free of Duty. 
Miss Emma Swan, " Westwood Bequest," £250.; 


Clock and supports in Meeting Room, presented by Frank Crisp, 

William Carruthers, Esq. : Collection of engravings and photo- 
graphs of portraits of Carl von Linnc. 
Eoyal Society : Grant towards publication of paper by the late 

John Ball, £60. 
Subscription portrait of Professor George James Allman, by 
Marian Busk. 

Sir John Lubbock, Bart. : Contribution towards his paper on 

Stipules, £43 14s. 9d. 
Eoyal Society : Contribution tov.ards Cole's paper, £50. 

„ „ „ „ Murray &Blackman's paper, 

„ „ „ „ Elliot Smith's paper, £50. 

,, „ „ „ Forsyth Major's paper, £50. 



A. C. Harms worth, Esq. [Lord Northcliffe] : Contribution towards 

cost of plates, .£43. 
Eoyal Society : Contribution towards Mr. 11. T. Giintlier's paper 

on Lake Urmi, ^50. 

Hon. Charles Ellis, Hon. Walter Eothschild, and the Bentham 

Trustees : The Correspondence of William 8wainson. 
Eoyal Society : Contribution towards Mr. F. Chapman's paper on 

Funafuti Foraminifera, =£50. 
Prof, E. Eay Lankester : Contribution towards illustration, £30 5s. 
Portrait of Dr. St. G. J. Mivart ; presented by Mrs. Miyart. 


Eoyal Society : Contribution toward Dr. Elliot Smith's paper, £50. 
Legacy from the late Dr. E. C. A. Prior, .£100 free of duty. 
Mrs. Sladen: Posthumous Portrait of the late Walter Percy 
Sladen, by H. T. Wells, E.A. 

B. Arthur Bensley, Esq. : Contribution to his paper, £44. 


Eoyal Society : Grant in aid of third volume of the Chinese Flora, 

Supplementary Eoyal Charter : cost borne by Frank Crisp, Esq. 


Eoyal Society : First grant in aid of Dr. G. H. Fowler's ' Biscayan 

Plankton." £50. 
Executors of the late G. B. Buckton, Esq. : Contribution for 

colouring plates of his paper, £26. 


Eoyal Society : Second grant towards ' Biscayan Plankton,' £50. 
Subscription portrait of Prof. S. H. Yines, by Hon. John Collier. 
Eoyal Swedish Academy of Sciences : Copies of portraits of C. voa 

Linne, after Per Krafft the elder, and A. Eoslin, by Jean 



Eoyal University of Uppsala : Copv by Jean Haagen of portrait of 

C. V. Linne, by J. H. Scheffer(1739). 
Eoyal Societv : Third and final grant towards 'Biscayan Plankton,' 

The Trustees of the Percy Sladen Memorial Fund : First Grant 

towards publication of Mr. Stanley Gardiner's Researches 

in the Indian Ocean in H.M.S. ' Sealark,' £200. 


SESSION 1906-1907. 

Note. — The following are not imlexed : — The name of the Chairman at each meeting, 
speakers wliose i-emarks are not reported ; and passing allusions. 

Abyssinia, Fauna and Flora of (Poul- 
ton), 15. 

Atanlhacea' of Malaga (Clarke), 9. 

Accounts, 1 7 ; laid before Anniversary 
Meeting, 16. 

Adams, Mrs. H. I., elected, 5; pro- 
posed, I. 

Additions to Library, 127-161. 

Address, Presidential, 19-33. 

Adoxa, MoschatdUnu, Linn., mentioned, 

A(/rof/ts alba, Linn., and A. stvhjiiifera, 
Linn., mentioned, 77. 

rerticillaff, Vill., in Channel 

Islands (Druce), 12 ; — abstract, 76. 

vid<jarix, With., mentioned, 77. 

Albino woodlice, OnUcns asellug(Lmn.), 

(Webb), 6. 

Alcock, Lieiit.-Col. A. W'., withdrawn, 1 6. 

Algas critical Freshwater (West), 72. 

Alpine flowers, drawings exhibited (Mrs. 
Ward), 13. 

Ahine afl/c/iiensls, G. C. Drnce, men- 
tioned, 77-78. 

Amphipoda of ' Silver Belle ' (Tatter- 
sall), 72. 

Anderson, Dr. T., photograjjhs exhibi- 
ted, 62. 

Andrews, Dr. C. W., skull of Proccuglo- 
doii airo.v shown, 62. 

Augiosperms, their origin (Arber), 13. 

Anniversary Meeting, 16. 

Anthrenua luuscorum (Linn.) Fabr., 
(Ewart), 6. 

Ants of the Seychelles (Forel), 11. 

Arber, E. A. N., Origin of Angiosperms, 
13 ; Zamites and Ptcrophyllum, 72. 

Ardiiino, Prof. P., copy of a letter 
from Linnicus to, laid before Anni- 
versary Meeting, 34. 

Assheton, R., Councillor retired, 34. 
Associate, deceased (Mitten), 16; elected 

(Pearson), 18. 
Auditors elected, 13 ; Certificate (W. B. 

Keen), 17. 
Australasian Polyclads (Haswell), 60. 
Aves of 'Sealark ' (Gadow & Gardiner), 


Bahhaia spatkacca, Ker (Brown), 7. 
Bagshawe, A. W. G., elected, 9 ; pro- 
posed, 6. 
Baker, E. G., Dr. A. B. Eendle, and 

S. Moore, Tanganyika Expedition, 8 ; 

Plants from Mt. Rnwenzori, 72. 
Baker, W^. H., proposed, 71. 
Balcombiau Deposits of Port Phillip 

(Chapman), 10. 
Ballots for Council and OfTicers, 34. 
Bamboo leaves (Brandis), 2. 
Barnard, Major K. C, deceased, 16 ; 

obituary, 37. 
Beale, R. E. C, proposed, 71. 
Bedford, The Duke of, admitted, 16. 
Beetle, Museum, Anthreiim museorum 

(Linn.) Fabi\, (Ewart), 6. 
Bellis j)cr<'nni><, Linn., its habit, 79. 
Benson, Miss M., and Prof. F. W. Oliver, 

preparations of Laijcuostoma oooidrs 

and Phi/soiiioiua clcgans, shown, 62. 
Birds of tlie ' Sealark ' cxped. (Gadow 

& Gardiner), 11. 
Biscayaii Plankton : Deeapoda (Kemp), 

12 ; Fishes (Holt & Byrne), 6. 
Blackman, V. H., elected Councillor, 34. 
BlooiTier, H. II., admitted, 14; elected, 

I 3 ; proposed, 10. 
Boerhaave, Herman, photographs of 

pages of his audience book shown , 




Boodle, L. A., Equisefum maxiiiuim, 
Lam. (syn. £. Telniateia, Ehrb.), 2 ; 
elected Councillor, 34. 

Borradalle, L. A., Land Crustacea of 
'Sealark,' 11; Stouiatopoda of 'Sea- 
lark,' 72. 

Bottomley, Prof. W. B., results of Lio- 
culation of Leguminous Plants, 14. 

Bourne, Prof. G. C, elected Councillor, 

34- . 
Brandis, Sir D., Bamboo leaves, 2. 
British Museum, copy of Linnean 

Medal presented to, 5. 
British Terrestrial Isopod (Patience), 9. 
Broiiius interruptus (Druce), 60. 
Brown, ]\^. E., Fockea capensis, Endl., 

Brown, Dr. H. T.. Councillor retired, 

34; elected Auditor, 13, cf. 17. 
Broxbourne, Herts, Equisetiim yuaxiinum. 

Lam. (sTn. E. Telmcdeia, Ehi-h.), from 

(Talbot), 2. 
Bruce, C. W. A., deceased, 16. 
Buller, Sir \V. L., deceased, 16 ; obituary, 

Bullock-Webster, Eev. Canon, XitcUa 

ornithopoda, 11. 
Burchell, Dr. W. John, lecture on 

(Poulton),64; manuscripts (Poulton), 

Burdon, E. E,., Chcrmes or Kernics, 6. 
Burrell, W. H., elected. 58 ; proposed, 


Burtt-Davy, J., Tree and Bush regeta- 
tion in Transvaal, 13. 

Bush and Tree vegetation in the Trans- 
vaal (Burtt-Davy), 13. 

Bye-Laws (new section). Chap. II. 
Sec. 2 a, read first time, 1 3 ; read 
second time, 16; approved, 59. 

Byrne, L., with E. W. L. Holt, Bis- 
cayan Plankton. Fishes, 6 ; ' Silver 
Belle,' Pishes, 72. 

Calcutta, Isopod from (Stebbing), 9. 
Caiman, Dr. W. T., communications by 

(De Man), 2 ; (Bori-adaile), 72. 
Cameron, P., Hymenoptera of ' Sealark,' 

Campbell, Eev. A. J., admitted, 8 ; 

elected, 5; proposed, i. 
Carpenter, Prof. G. H., Pycnogonida of 

' Sealark,' 11. 
Carpet presented by H. Druce, i. 
Carruthers, W., exhibited drawings on 

behalf of Mrs. H. Ward, 13 ; report 

on Linnefest, 59. 
Catalogue of Genera in Linn. Herb. 

(Jackson), 89-126. 
Cederquist, J., collotyije portrait of 

Linne, 2. 

Cephalopoda of the Sudan (Hoyle), 72. 

Chadwick, H. C, proposed as Asso- 
ciate, 5. 

Chama?leon3, their colour changes in 
S. Africa (Poulton). \z. 

Channel Islands, Bpergularia athenieiisis 
ixnd Af/rosti.< vcrtkiUata in the (Druce), 
12 ; - — abstract. 76. 

Chapman, E.. deceased, 16; obituarv. 

Chapman, F.. Foraminifera of Victoria : 
The Balcombian Deposits of Port 
Phillip. 10. 

Chart of the Metric System (J. G. Fil- 
ter) shown (Stebbing), 3. 

Chenncs or Kermes (Burdon). 6. 

China, Distribution of Conifei-s in 
(Masters), 71. 

Choisya tcrnata, H. B. Iv., twice-flower- 
ing, shown (Walker), 6. 

Clarke, C. B.. Acanthacete of Malaya, 
9; deceased. 16; obituary, 38-42. 

Cleistogamous Flowers and Stolons, 
Ecologic Functions of (Shenstone), 
14 ; — abstract, 78, 

Climbing Plants (Gerard), 9. 

Closing-net (Fowler), 14. 

Coccidte, aberrant form of (Scott), 14; 
' Sealark ' (Green), 72. 

Colour-changes in S. African Chamae- 
leons (Poulton), 12. 

Conifers, Distribution of Chinese (Mas- 
ters), -I. 

Conservation of species by Constitu- 
tional Variation (Walker), 14. 

Consols sold, 16. 

Constitutional Variation, conservation 
of species by (Walker), 14. 

Cooper, W. F., admitted, 2 ; with L. E. 
Robinson, on Bhipicephcdus, 8. 

Coral Reefs, Red Sea (Crossland), 15. 

Council elected, 34. 

Cousens, F. W., elected, 11 ; proposed, 

Ci'ossland, C, Sudan Investigations, 15. 
Crustacea from Japan (De Man), 2; 

— , land, from ' Sealark ' (Borradaile), 

Cryer, J., Folyi/ala amarcUa, Crantz, 3. 
Curl, Dr. S. M., deceased, 16. 

Dab, from Dogger Bank, with three 

eyes (Masterman). 6. 
Darbishire, A. D., Pia/nn saficu,j>. 62 ; 

Respiratory Mechanism in Elasmo- 

branchs, 15. 
Davy, J. B., sec Burtt-Davy. J. 
Dawe, M. T.. elected, i. 
Deaths recorded, 16. 
De Man, Dr. J. G.. Crustacea from 

Japan, 2. 



Dendy, Prof. A., communications by, 
(Darbishire) 15, (Haswell) 60. (Neu- 
mann) 60 ; elected Councillor, 34 ; 
elected Zoological Secretary, 1 1, cf. 
34. ; exiiibited at Reception, 62 ; with 
E. Hindle, N. Z. Holothurians, 60. 

De Toui, Dr. G. B., on Liimean letter, 
34, <;/'. S3. 

Dogger Bank, tbree-eyed Dab from 
(Masterman), 6. 

Donations to Library, 127-161 ; to the 
Society (1790-1907). 163-169. 

Dragon-Flies of ' Sealark ' ( Laidlaw), 1 1 . 

Druce, G. C, Speryularia afheniejisis 
and Aqrostis vcrticillafa in Channel 
Islands. 12; — abstract, 76; Oro- 
hanche Bitro, Bromus interrupt us, and 
Orchis Simia, shown, 60. 

Di-uce, H., appointed Scrutineer, 11 ; 
presented carpet, i ; elected Auditor, 
13, cf. 17. 

Druramond, J., elected, 5 ; proposed, i. 

Ecologic Functions of Stolons and 

Cleistogamous Flowers (Sbenstone), 

14 ; — abstract, 7S. 
Elasiuobranchs, i-espiration of (Darbi- 

shire), i 5. 
Elections at Anniversary, 1 6. 
Elmhirst, R., elected, 14 ; proposed, 

EquisetiiiH 7Ha,vimH//i, Lam. (syn. E. Tel- 

iiiatcia, Ehrh.), from Broxbourne, 

Herts (Talbot), 2 ; from Stockport 

(Weiss), 2. 
Eriosphara Oculus-cati, Less. (Brown), 

Evans, L B. P., elected, 58 ; proposed, 

Ewart, Prof. A. J., on Hectorella ccsspi- 

tosa, z ; Museum Beetle, Anthrcnus 

museorum (Linn.) Fabr., 6. 
Expedition, Tanganyika (Rendle and 

others), 8, 

Farmer, Prof. J. B., phenomena of 

Apogaiuy exhibited, 63. 
Farran, G. P., Pyrosoma spinosuni of 

' Silver Belle ' exped., 72. 
Fauna and Flora of Abyssinia (Poul- 

ton), 15. 
Fellows deceased, 16: elected, 18; re- 
moved, 18 ; withdrawn, 16. 
Fishes of the ' Silver Belle ' exped. (Holt 

& Byrne), 72. 
FitzGerald, Rev. H. Purefoy, Sieges- 

hcckia orientalis, Linn., 6 ; — abstract, 

Fjan-lands Fjord, Norway (Monckton),4. 
Flora and Fauna of Abyssinia (Poulton), 

Fockea capcnsis, Endl. (Brown), 7-8. 

Foraminifera of Victoria : The Balcom- 
bian Deposits of Port Phillip (Chap- 
man), 10. 

Foreign Member, Prof. F. R. Kjellman, 
deceased, 16. 

Forel, A., Fourmis des Seychelles, 
from ' Sealark,' 1 1. 

Foslie, M., Lithothamnia of the ' Sea- 
lark,' 72. 

Foster, Sir M., deceased, 16 ; obituai-y, 

Fourmis des Seychelles, 'Sealark'(Forel), 

Fowler, Dr. G. Herbert, closing net 
shown, 14; communications by (Holt 
& Byrne), 6 ; elected Councillor, 

Fowler, Rev. Canon W. W., elected 

Councillor, 34. 
Fraser, John, portraits shown (Jackson), 

Fream, Prof. W., deceased, 16, 
Freshwater Alg£e (West), 72. 
Fritsch, Dr. F. E., Anatomy of the 

Julianiacea;, 72. 
Frog-tadpole ornamentation (Layard), 

1 1 ; abstract, 74. 
Fryer, C. E., admitted, 16 ; elected, 10 ; 

proposed, 8. 

Gadow, Dr. H. F., with J. Stanley 

Gardiner, Aves, from 'Sealark,' 11. 
Gardiner, F. A., admitted, 71 ; elected, 
58 ; proposed, 14. 

Gardiner, J. Stanley, admitted, 10; 
elected, 5 ; proposed, i ; Aves of ' Sea- 
lark ' (with Gadow), n ; communica- 
tions by (Borradaile), (Cameron), 
(Carpenter), (Forel), (Laidlaw), (Pun- 
nett), (himself and Gadow), lo-ii ; 
(Green) and (Foslie), 72 ; with C. 
Forster Cooper (Percy Sladen Trust 
Exped.) : Description of the Expedi- 
tion, I. Introduction, II. History and 
Equipment of the Expedition, III. 
Resume of the Voyage and Work : 
Part I. Colombo to Mauritius, 10; 
Introd., Part II., 'Sealark,' 71; 
Photographs taken during the ' Sea- 
lark ' expedition, 63. 

Genera in Liunean Herb, catalogued 
(Jackson), 8g. 

Gerard, Rev. J., Climbing Plants, 9. 

Glover, G., portrait of Wm. Kirby 
shown, 60. 

Goss, H., withdrawn, 16. 

Grant, F. E., obituary, 45. 

Grassington, I'olygala, amarella from 
(Cryer), 3. 

Green, E. E., Coccida; of ' Sealark,' 72. 



Groves, H., appointed Scrutineer, ii, j 

34- ! 

Grovee, H. & J., on Jsitclla ornithopoda, j 

A. Braun, ii. 

Grueber, H. C, copy of Linnean Medal 
received for British Museum, 5. 

Giinther, Dr. A. C. L. G., moved thanks | 
to President for Address, 34 ; com- 
munication by (Holt & Byrne), 72. 

Haagen. Jean, copy of portrait of 
Linnaeus, 8. 

Ilanbury, Sir T., deceased, 16; obituary, 

Haswell, Prof. W. A., Australasian 
Polyclads, 60. 

Ilaviland, G. D., deceased, i6. 

Hectorella cafpitoaa (Ewart), 2. 

Hemsley, W. Botting, Platan fhera 
chlorantha, Custor, var. tricalcarata,^. 

Herbarium, Linnean, Manuscript List 
of (Jackson), 89-126. 

Herdman, Prof. W. A., Address, 19-33 ; 
appointed Scrutineers, 11 ; Ceylon 
Pearl Fisheries, 65 ; communication 
by (Hoyle), 72 ; elected Councillor, 
34; elected President, 34; Introd. 
to Sudan Investigations, 15; moved 
thanks to retiring Secretary, 1 1 ; 
on Reception, 65 ; photographs and 
specimens ilhistrating the Oyster 
Fisheries of Ceylon, 63 ; plankton 
gatherings shovrn, 63 ; presentation 
of medal by, 35-37; read addition 
to Bye-Laws, 16 ; read letter to 
Sir J. D. Hooker, 71; referred to 
vacancy in list of Associates, 8 ; spe- 
cimens of Plaice shown, 1-2 ; thanks 
to, for Address, 34. 

Hertfordshire, Broxbourne, Equisefum 

'/iia.vii/mm. Lam. (syn. E. Tclmatcia, 

Ehrh.), from (Talbot), 2. 

Hildyard, F. W., withdrawn, 16. 

Hill, Prof., J. P., elected Councillor, 34 ; 

Dasyurus vicen'imts, drawings shown, 


Hindle, E., with Prof. A. Dendy, N. Z. 
Holothurians, 60, 

Holland, W., proposed as Associate, 5. 

Holme, C, withdrawn, 16. 

Holothurians, New Zealand, our know- 
ledge of (Dendy & Hindle), 60. 

Holt, E. W. L., and L. Byrne, Biscayan 
Plankton, Fishes, 6 ; Fishes of 
' Silver Belle,' 72. 

Hooker, Sir J. D., congratulated, 71. 

Hopkinsou, J., appointed Scrutineer, 
II, 34; elected Auditor, 13, cf. 

Hoppner, John, portrait of Eraser by, 
shown (Jackson), 14-15. 

Hoyle, Dr. W. E., Cephalopoda of tlie 

Sudan, 72. 
Hullett, R. W., withdrawn, 16. 
Hymenoptera of 'Sealark' (Cameron), 

II. , 

Indian Ocean, The Percy Sladen Trust 
Expedition to the (J. Stanley Gardiner 
& C. Forster Cooper), 10. 

Inoculation of Leguminous Plants 
(Bottomley), 14. 

Introduction. Part II., ' Sealark ' (Gar- 
diner), 71. 

Investments, changes in, 16. 

Iris Fseudacorus, Liun,, mentioned, 79. 

Isopod, British Terrestrial (Patience), 9 ; 
from Calcutta (Stebbing), 9. 

Ixodidte, ' Sealark ' (Neumann), 60. 

Jackson, B. Daydon, elected Auditor, 
17; — • Coimcillor, 34; — -Secretary, 
34 ; explained constitution of Linnean 
Medal, 5 ; exhibited portraits of J. 
Eraser, 14-15; manuscript list of 
Linnean Herbarium, 35 ; — printed, 
89-126 ; Folygala amarella from York- 
shire, shown, 3 ; portrait of C. von 
Linne from Stockholm, shown, 2 ; 
■ — copy in oil from Uppsala, 8 ; 
read acknowledgment from King of 
Sweden, 71 ; signatures from Boer- 
haave's audience book, 71 ; supple- 
mentary remarks on Linnean celebra- 
tions in Sweden, 60. 

Japan, Crustacea from the Inland Sea 
of (De Man), 2. 

Johnstone, Miss M. A., admitted, 12 ; 
elected, 8 ; proposed, 5. 

Julianiaeese, anatomy of the (Fritsch), 

Justen, F., deceased, 16; obituary, 48. 

Keeble. F., Convoluta roxojfhisis, 63. 
Keen, W. B., Accoimtant's certificate, 

Kemp, S. B., Biscayan Plankton, Deca- 

poda, 12. 
Kermes or Chermcs (E. R. Burdon), 

Kew, Papai'cr commutatum from (Wors- 

dell), 71. 
King of Sweden, congratulations on 

Golden Wedding. 58; acknowledged, 

Kirby, William , portrait shown (Glover), 

Kjellman, Prof. F. R., deceased, 16. 
Knipe, H. R., admitted, i. 
Kraflt, P., his portrait of C. y. Linno 

in collotype, shown (Jackson), 2. 


Laidlaw, F. F., Dragon Flies of 'Sea- 
lark,' II, 

Laj'ard, Miss N. F., Tadpole Ornamen- 
tation, II ; — abstract, 74. 

Leaves of Bamboo (Brandis). 2. 

Leersiim, Prof, van, photogi'aphs from, 
shown, 71. 

Leguniiuous Plants, their Inoculation 
(Bottomley), 14. 

Lewis, F. J., Plant-remains, Seeds, 
Leaves, &c., from the Peat, 63 ; 
lecture on same, 69-70. 

Librarian's Eeport, 18. 

Library, Additions, 127-161. 

Linne, C. v., Manuscript List of his 
Herbarium (Jackson), 35, S9-126 ; 
copy of a letter to Prof. P. Arduino, 
34,c/ S3 ; portrait in collotype shown 
(Jackson), 2. 

Linnean Celebrations reported on (Car- 
ruthers), 59-60 ; suppl. remarks ( Jack- 
son\ 60. 

Herbarium. Manuscript List of 

(Jackson), 35, cf. 89-126. 

Medal presented to Dr. Treub, 37 ; 

copy presented to British Museum, 5 ; 
special copy presented to L^ppsala 
L^niversity, 59. 

List of the Linnean Herbarium (Jack- 
son), 35, S9-126. 

Lister, J. J., admitted, 10 ; elected, 5 ; 
proposed, i ; communication by (Scott), 

Lithothamnia of ' Sealark ' (Foslie), 72. 
Lomax, J., proposed as Associate, 5. 

McClellan, F. C, elected, 58 ; proposed, 

Maidstone, Choi.-^i/a tcrnata, H. B. K., 

twice flowering, shown from 

(Walker), 6. 
Malaya, Acanthacete of (Clarke), 9 ; 

new plants from (Stapf), 10. 
Manuscript List of the Linnean Her- 
barium (Jackson), 35, 89-126. 
Manuscripts of Dr. W. John BurcheU, 

shown (Poulton), 14. 
Marine Fishes of ' Sealark ' (Eegan), 60. 
Masterman, Dr. A. T., admitted, 14 ; 

elected, i ; three-eyed Dab from 

Dogger Bank, 6. 
Masters, Dr. M. T., Chinese Conifers, 

Mastin, J., admitted, 6; elected, 5; 
proposed, i. 

Mathews, G. M., admitted, 12; elected, 
1 1 ; proposed, 9. 

Medal, Linnean, copy presented to 
British Museum, 5 ; presented to 
Dr. Treub, 3 5 ; special copy presented 
to the University of Uppsala, 59. 

Medallist, Dr. Melchior Treub, 35. 
Mee,C. J. C, elected, 13 ; proposed, 10. 
Meeting declared special for election of 
I Secretary, 11. 
Meeting Eoom redecorated, i. 
Mercurialis perennis, Linn., mentioned, 

Metric System,Pilter'sChart(Stebbing), 

Mitten, W., deceased, 2, 16; obituary, 

49 : vacancy due to death of, 8. 
Monckton, H. W., Accounts, 17; elected 

Councillor, 34 ; elected Treasurer, 34 ; 

Fjaerlands Fjord, Xorway, 4 ; nomi- 
nated V.-P., 58. 
Moore, S., E. G. Baker, aud Dr. A. B. 

Rendle, Plants from Mt. Ruwenzori, 

72 ; Tanganyika Expedition, 8. 
Morris, Rev. A. B., withdrawn, 16. 
Mount Ruwenzori, plants from (Baker, 

Moore, & Rendle), 72. 
Murie, Dr. J., skull showing growth of 

Scibcllaria alvcolata, shown, 11. 
Museum Beetle, Anthre^ius mtcseoriihi. 

(Linn.) Fabr., (Ewart), 6. 

Nemerteans, land, from 'Sealark' (Pun- 

nett), 10. 
Net, a new closing (Fowler), 14. 
jS'etherlands Legation receives Linnean 

Medal on behalf of Dr. Melchior 

Treub, 35. 
Neumann, Prof., Isodidte from 'Sealark 

Newman, C. A., admitted, 12; elected, 

9 ; proposed, 6. 
Newshara, J. C, admitted, 8 ; elected, 

5 ; proposed, i. 
Nicholas, R. E., elected, 13 ; proposed, 

1 1. 
Nitclla ornithopoda, A. Braun (Groves), 

Northamptonshire, Uromus intenniptus 

from (Druce), 60. 
Norway, Fjisrlands Fjord (Monckton), 


Obituary Notices, 37-58. 

Ecological Functions of Stolons and 

Cleistogamous Flowers (Shenstone), 

14 ; abstract, 78. 
Officers elected. 34. 
Oliver, Prof. F. W., Development of a 

Salt-marsh, 63 ; elected Councillor, 

Oliver, Prof. F. W., with Miss M. 

Benson, preparations of La^enostonui 

oroides and Physosto7na elegans, 62. 
Oniscvs asellus (Linn.), (Webb), 6. 
Orchis Simia shown (Druce), 60. 
Origin of Angiosperms (Arber), 13. 



Viola odorata, Linn., and V. canina, 
Linn., mentioned, 79. 

Walker, A. O., Choisya temata, H. B. K., 
6 ; Conservation of Species by Con- 
stitutional Variation, 14. 

Ward, Mrs. Helen, dra^vings exhibited, 

Ward, Prof". H. Marshall, deceased, i6; 

obituai'v, s+. 
Waterfield, W., deceased, 16; obituary, 

Waters, A. W., Tubucellaria, 72. 
Weale, J. A., elected, i ; photographs 

of Casfanea vesca and Aristolockia 

Sipho, shown, 63. 
Webb, W. M., Albino woodlice, Oniscus 

asellus (Lmn.), 6. 
Webster, B., see Bullock- Webster, Rey. 

Weiss, Prof. F. E., elected Councillor, 

34.; Eqidsetum maximum, Ijmix., from 

Stockport, 2. 
West, Q-. S., admitted, 6 ; critical 

Freshwater Algaj, 72. 
Westell, W. Percival, elected, 13 ; pro- 
posed, II. 

Will of Richard Anthony Salisbury 

(Poulton), 14. 
Witches' Brooms (Saunders), 13-14. 
With, C. J., Pseudoscorpions, 15. 
Withdrawals recorded, 16. 
Wolfenden, Dr. R. N., communication 

by (Farran), 72 ; results obtained by 

cruise of " Silver Belle,' 72. 
Woodlice, Albino, Oniscus asellus, lAnn. 

(Webb), 6. 
Woodward, Dr. A. Smith, elected 

Councillor, 34. 
Worsdell, W. C., exhibited abnormal 

Papaver commutatum and P. orientale, 

Yapp, Prof. R. H., admitted, 12. 
Yerbury, Lieut.-Col. J. W., admitted, 

Yorkshire, Polygala amarella from 

(Cryer), 3 ; (Jackson), 3. 
Young, W. H., admitted. 8 ; elected, 5 ; 

proposed, 1. 

Zamites and Pterophyllum; 

Species of (Arber), 72. 
Zoological Secretary elected, 1 







From November 1907 to June 1908. 








List of Publications issued iv 

Proceedings of the 120th Session i 

President's Address 17 

Obituaries 42 

Abstract of Paper 74 

Additions to the Library 77 

Benefactions, 1790-1908 116 

Index 124 



Publications of the Society issued during the period, 31st July, 
1907, to 31st July, 1908 :— 

Journal (Botany), No. 264, 14th Oct., 1907. 
„ 265, 11th Jan., 1908. 
„ 266, 3rd June, 1908. 
(Zoology),No. 196, 14th Oct., 1907. 
„ 197, 31st Mar., 1908. 
„ 203, 2Ist Dec, 1907. 

Transactions (2nd Ser.) Botany, Vol. VII. Part ti., Oct. 1907. 

„ yii., Nov. 1907. 

„ Yiii., Jan. 1908. 

IX., Jan. 1908, 

(2nd Ser.) Zoology, Vol. IX. Part xiii., Aug. 1907. 

„ XIV., Oct. 1907. 

Vol. X. Part Till., Oct. 1907. 

Vol. XII. Part I., Sept. 1907. 

II., Dec. 1907. 

„ III., May 1908. 

Proceedings, 119th Session, from November 1906 to June 1907 
October 1907. 

List of [Fellows, Associates, and Foreign Members], 1907-1908. 





November 7th, 1907. 

Prof. W. A. Heedmakt, F.E.S., President, in the Chair. 

The Minutes of the General Meeting of the 20th June, 1907^ 
were read and confirmed. 

Mr. Arthur WiUiam Garrard Bagshawe, M.B., and Mr. William 
Percival Westell were admitted Fellows. 

The following persons were proposed as Pellows : — Dr. Nelson 
Annandale, Mr. Stanley Arden, Mr. Henry Atkinson, Dr. Joseph 
Barker, Dr. Frederic Hungerford Bowman, Mr. David Thomas 
Gwynne-Yaughan, Mr. James Thomas Hamilton, Dr. Frederick 
Keeble, Prof. Alexander Meek, M.Sc, Mr. James William Oliver, 
Mr. Linsdall Richardson, Mr. John Crosby Smith, Mr. Thomas 
Southwell, Miss Eva Whitley, and Mr. William Robert Worthingtou 

Mr. Frank Arthur Stockdale was elected a Fellow. 

A letter from Sir Joseph D. Hookee, G.C.S.I., F.R.S., dated 
11th July, 1907, in reply to the address of congratulation sent 
from the General Meeting held 20th June last, was read by the 
General Secretary, as follows : — 

The Camp, Sunningdale, 
July 11, 1907. 
Dear Dr. Datdox Jacksox, 

Your letter of the 21st ult., conveying to me the welcome 
congratulations of the President and Fellows of the Linnean 
Society on the approach of my 90th year of age and the 65th of 
LINN. SOC. proceedings. — SESSION 1907-1908. b 


my Fellowship, has touched me deeply, and I beg of you to 
transmit to them my profound feelings of esteem, fraternity, and 
gratitude for this token of their abiding friendship. 

"With the exception of an ephemeral Entomological Society, the 
Linnean was the first to open its arms to me, and this as a son 
and grandson of two of its own body rather than as a worthy 
aspirant to the honour of Fellowship, and I shall never forget 
the pride and satisfaction with which I first added F.L.S. to my 

As time advanced and writings, the results of my own re- 
searches, were honoured by admission into its publications, my 
affection for our Society and interest in its labours redoubled ; but 
it was not till the efforts of some devoted Fellows, in which I was 
privileged to share, had persuaded the Lords of the Treasury that 
the Society was so woi'thy of recognition as to justify their granting 
it quarters at the national cost, did I feel that its future sphere of 
scientific action and its I'esources were adequately ensured. 

That this grant in aid was as wisely as well bestowed on the 
part of the Government is evidenced by the number of calls, 
direct and indirect, it has made on the Society for advice on the 
fitting out and conduct of scientific expeditions, in combating 
tropical diseases, in apportioning rewards for researches and 
discoveries, and in many other ways. 

That the subsequent great advance in the Society's well-being 
and sphere of utility has not been primarily due to extraneous 
aid, a retrospect of its condition during five years of its existence, 
when 1 knew it as a visitor only, and from many succeeding ones 
of my Fellowship sufficiently shows. 

There were years, which I remember, when the number of 
attendants at the evening meetings might often be fingered on one 
hand ; when the dearth of scientific contributions for occupying 
the hours of meeting compelled the Society to resort to reading 
Hamilton's Commentary on Eheede's three-century old ' Hortus 
Malabaricus,' which was abruptly discontinued only after having 
monopolised eight evenings, and that only in 1852, a time when 
the President sternly discouraged any discussion on the papers 
read, and when the idea of a lady visitor at a meeting was never 

I cannot conclude without an allusion to the Society's com- 
memoration of my own Fellowship by the magnificent medal 
struck in my honour, and the award of another which bears the 
bust of the great man who gives his name to our Society, and who 
is in many senses its founder. For such tokens of regard, coupled 
with the congratulations now received, I canuot voice my feelings 
of gratitude. Very sincerely yours. 

Dr. B. Daybon Jackson, (Signed) Jos.D. HoOKEB. 

Secretary L.S. 

A vacancy in the list of Associates, in consequence of the death 
of Mr. Frederic Moore, the entomologist, was announced from 
the Chair. 


The General Seci'etaiy exhibited a copy of the second edition 
of Hudson's 'Flora Anglica,' 1771, on behalf of Mr. Alexander 
H. Steyenson, of Dundee, who had picked up the volume in a 
dilapidated state on a bookstall. It contains numerous notes by 
Eev. William Kirby, an early Fellow of the Society, who spent 
his entire clerical life of 68 years in the parish of Barham, a few 
miles from Ipswich in the direction of Saxmundham. Many of 
these notes relate to localities in the neighbourhood, recorded in 
1797, judging from the few which are dated. 

Dr. A. B. Eendle exhibited an abnormal specimen of Eucalyptus 
scdmonopldoia, F. Muell., from West Australia, of two stems 
horizontally connected by new growth. The Rev. J. Gerard, S.J., 
who referred to similar cases in the yew (Taxus baccata), and the 
Eev. G. Henslow commented on this exhibition. 

The following papers were read : — 

1. " On the Origin of the Di-trimerous Floral Whorls of certain 

Dicotyledons." By the Rev. G. Henslow, INI. A., F.L.S. 

2. " Unrecorded Acari from IN'evv Zealand." By Albert D. 

Michael, F.L.S. 

3. " On j^nigmatistes africanus, a new genus and species of 

Diptera." By R. W. C. Shelford, F.L.S. 

November 21st, 1907. 

Prof. W. A, Herdman, F.R.S., President, in the Chair. 

The Minutes of the General Meeting of the 7th November, 
1 907, were i-ead and confirmed. 

The following persons were proposed as Fellows : — Mr. James 
Masson Hector, B.Sc. (Aberd.), and Mr. Charles Francis Massy 
Svvynnerton ; also as Associate, Mr. Herbert Clifton Chadwick. 

Mr. Walter Henry Baker, Mr. Reginald Evelyn Child Beale, 
and Dr. John Tanner were elected Fellows. 

Mr. C. W. Anderson exhibited a specimen of a light-giving larva 
brought by him from near the boundary of British Guiana with 
Brazil, exhibiting when Hving a ruby light in its head, and a 
double row of phosphorescent spots along the body, two on each 
segment. These lights were not intermittent but glowed con- 
tinuously. This presumed coleopterous larva was called " Maca- 
doub " by the natives, and is not uncommon in the region named. 

Prof. A. Deudy, Sec.L.S., in opening the discussion, called 
attention to the paper by Mr. Andrew Murray in the Journal of 
the Society, Zoology, vol. x. (186S) pp. 74-82, with a later note 
by Mr. Roland Trimen, in the same volume, pp. 503-4 issued in 
1870. Other speakers were, the General Secretary, Dr. Murie. 
Dr. Caiman, Mr. C. J. Gahan (a visitor), Mr. H. N. Ridley, and 
were replied to by Mr. Anderson. 



Prof. Deis'dt exhibited two living specimens of Peripatus from, 
the Cape, which he had succeeded in keeping in excellent health, 
by supplying them Avith woodlice as food. Dr. Murie and the 
Eev. T. K. K. Stebbing contributed additional remarJ^s. 

Mr. G. C. Dktjce showed dried specimens of Linaria arenaria, 
DC, which he had gathered near Barnstaple this autumn, but 
which had no pretension to be native, as it had been sown there 
fifteen years earlier. Further he exhibited herbarium specimens 
of Leontodon hirtus var. Prisfis, G. C. Druce, from Guernsey and 
Alderney, and Picris Meracioides var. incana, G. C. Druce, from 
the latter island. 

The President, Eev. T. E. E. Stebbing, Prof. J. B. Parmer, 
Mr. J. C. Shenstone, Mr. P. K. Williams, and Prof. Dendy took 
part in the discussion which follo\^•ed, the last speaker calling 
attention to the ti'ansportation of animal organisms with living 

The following papers were read : — 

1 . " Abnormal Structures in Leaves and their Value in Mor- 

phology." By W. C. WoRSDELL, P.L.S. 

2. "Two New Species of Amphipoda." By the Eev. T. E. E. 

Stebbing, M.A., P.E.S., P.L.S. 

3. "The Preservation of Specimens in Australian Museums.'' 

By J. G. Otto Teppee, P.L.S. 

December 5th, 1907. 

Prof. W. A. Heedman, P.E.S., President, in the Chair. 

The Minutes of the General Meeting of the 21st November, 
1907, were read and confirmed. 

The following persons were proposed as Pellows : — Mr. "Walter 
Barratt, Mr. Prederick James Chitrendeu, Mr. AValter Edward 
CoUinge, M.Sc, P.E.S., Mr. Arthur AVilliam Hill, M.A. (Cantab.), 
Mr. Joseph Hubert Priestley, B.Sc. (Lond.), and Miss May 
Evelina Bainbridge, B.Sc. 

The following were elected Pellows ; — Dr. Nelson Annandale, 
Mr. Stanley Arden, Mr. Henry Atkinson, Dr. Joseph Barker, 
Dr. Prederic Hungerford Bowman, Mr. David Thomas Gwynne- 
Vaughan, Mr. James Thomas Hamilton, Prof. Prederick Iveeble, 
Prof. Alexander Meek, M.Sc, Mr. James AVilliam Oliver, 
Mr. Linsdall Eiehardson, Mr. John Crosby Smith, Mr. Thomas 
Southwell, Miss Eva Whitley, and Mr. William liobert Worthing- 
ton Williams. 

Dr. 0. Stape, P.L.S., exhibited a series of specimens of SjMi'tina 
Townsendi representing different stages of development and tall 
and dwarf forms, and for comparison also typical specimens of 
S. cdterniflora, S. stricta, and, on behalf of Messrs. H. & J. Groves, 


S. Neyrautii from the estuary of the Bidassoa Eiver. The 
specimens of *S'. Townsendi and S. stricta were collected by the 
exhibitor in the Isle of Wight ; those of fS. alternijiora near 
Mill brook Station in Southampton Water. He pointed out the 
morphological differences of the three English species, which 
show S. Toivnsendi to hold in many respects an intermediate 
position between S. alternijiora and ,6'. stricta, although it is 
different enough to be treated as specifically distinct from either. 
He then described the distribution of the three species, and more 
particularly that of S. Townsendi, which was first collected near 
Hythe in 1870 and distributed as S. alierniflora. Three j'ears 
later the brothers Grove found it again in the same locality, and 
in 1881 they recognised it as a distinct new species and named it 
S. Tow)isendi. At present it covers many hundreds or may be 
thousands of acres on the muddy foreshores of the Hampshire 
coast and the Isle of Wiglit, threatening S, stricta with exter- 
mination in some places. There are three theoxnes to explain the 
appearance of the grass, which is too conspicuous to have been 
long overlooked : — (1) It may have been introduced, likeyS. alierni- 
flora, which is a common mud-grass on the Atlantic coast of 
America from Newfoundland to Brazil. Lord Montagu has, in 
fact, stated that the people on the shores of Southampton Water 
have a notion that it was introduced by an Argentine ship. But 
so far, no Spartina corresponding to S. Toiviisendi has been found 
in America, and the x\rgentine species, mentioned by Arechavaleta 
and Stuckert, are distinctly different, (2) It may have originally 
arisen as a mutation of S. stricta, and, the characters having 
become fixed, the progeny now behaves like an ordinary species. 
Against this may be argued that there is no evidence, historical or 
morphological, for this assumption. (3) It sprang from a fertile 
hybrid or hybrids between S. alternijiora and S. stricta, and has 
assumed the character of a particularly vigorous and fairly con- 
stant species. In favour of this theory two circumstances may be 
adduced: first, the fact that S. Toivnsendi combines actually not a 
few of the distinctive characters of both species ; and secondly, 
that it has an almost exact pai'allel in S. Neyrautii, which was 
described as a hybrid of S. alierniflora and S. stricta from speci- 
mens found growing among the parents in the estuary of the 
Bidassoa. This S. Neyrautii differs from S. Toivnsendi only in 
the more pronounced accentuation of the characters derived from 
S. alternijiora. The Adour and the Bidassoa Rivers on one side 
and Southampton Water on the other are the only two places in 
the world, so far as we know, where S. alternijiora and *b'. stricta 
meet ; and it would be a case of extraordinary coincidence if 
S. Townsendi and S. Neyrautii should after all be found to have 
been introduced from some other part of the world just into 
those two localities. An attempt of artificial crossing of S. alterni- 
jiora and S. stricta should be made. Dr. Stapf finally spoke of the 
grass as a mud-binding and land-reclaiming species. 

A discussion followed, in which the President, Mr. H. Groves, 
Mr, J. C. Shenstone, and Prof. ¥. W. Oliver engaged. 


The following papers were read : — 

1. " On a Collection of Plants from Gunong Tahan, in Pahang, 

by Mr. H. C. Robinson." By Henet Nicholas Eidlet, 
M.A., P.E.S., P.L.S. 

2. " Report on the Aleyouaria of the Red Sea." 3y Prof. J. 

Arthur Thomson. (Communicated by the President.) 

3. " Report on the Crinoidea of the Red Sea." By H. C. 

Chadwick. (Communicated by the President.) 

4. " Notes on some Marine Algae of the Red Sea." By Prof. 

R. J. Harvey Gibson, M.A., F.L.S. 

5. " Hydroid Zoophytes from the Red Sea." By Miss L. R. 

Thoenelt. (Communicated by the President.) 

December 19th, 1907. 

Prof. W. A. Herdman, F.R.S., President, in the Chair. 

The Minutes of the General Meeting of the 5th December, 1907, 
\^ ere read and confirmed. 

The President read an Address to H.M. Gustaf V. of Sweden 
on the death of our late Honorary Member, H.M. Oscar II., 
v\hich was unanimously adopted, signed by the President and 
Secretaries, and ordered to be sent to His Excellency the Swedish 
Minister for transmission. 

Professor Frederick Keeble, Miss Eva Whitley, and Mr. "William 
Robert Worthington Williams were admitted. 

Mr. Edward Charles Stuart Baker, Mr. Edward Alfred 
Cockayne, M.A., B.M.(Oxon.), Miss Emmeline Crocker, and 
Mr. Philippe Leveque de Yilmorin wei'e proposed as Eellows. 

Mr. James Masson Hector and Mr. Charles Francis Massy 
Swynnerton were elected Fellows, and Mr. Herbert Clifton 
Chadwick was elected an Associate. 

Dr. G, Archdall Reid read his paper, communicated by 
Sir Ray Lankester, K.C.B., F.R.S., F.L.S., "On Mendelism 
and Sex," of which the following is the Author's abstract : — 

Species are adaptional forms ^vhich have arisen under the 
operation of Natural Selection. The evidence is plain that, 
speaking generally, variability is controlled and regulated by 
Natural Selection ; therefore variability itself is, in a real sense, 
an adaptation. Nearly all variations are spontaneous as is proved 
by a mass of evidence afforded by human beings ; Natural Selec- 
tion builds solely on spontaneous variations. When selection 
ceases as regards any character, that character tends to i-etrogress ; 
therefore retrogressive variations tend to predominate over pro- 
gressive variations. This tendency to retrogression is very useful 
and has played an immense part in adapting species to their 


environments. The author then touched upon blended and 
alternative inheritance ; fluctuations and mutations ; differences 
between Artificial and Natural Selection ; and differences in the 
mode of reproduction of sexual and non-sexual characters. The 
mode of reproduction of mutation tends to resemble that of 
sexual characters ; when conjugation occurs there is an appearance 
of alternative inheritance as regards both sexual characters and 
mutations, but it is an appearance only. The evidence is plain 
that there is only alternative reproduction combined with latency 
of one alternative and patency of the other, and actual blending 
between the patent character of one individual and the latent 
character of the other, therefore blending is universal. This 
tendency owing to the predominance and prepotency of retro- 
gressive characters tends to cause retrogression on cessation of 
selection, and this is the function of sex. 

The President having invited discussion, the following speakers 
took part : — Mr. A. O. Walker, Mr. J. T. Cunningham (visitor), 
Mr. A. D. Darbishire (visitor), Dr. "W. T. Caiman, Mr. G. P. 
Mudge (visitor), Prof. Dendy, Sir E. Ray Lankester, and Prof. 
Poulton, Dr. Archdall Eeid briefly replying. 

January 16th, 1908. 
Prof. W. A. Herdman, P.R.S., President, in the Chair. 

The Minutes of the General Meeting of the 19th December, 
1907, were read and confirmed. 

The Eev. Dr. Joseph Barker, Mr. Charles Francis Massy 
Swynnerton, and Mr. Henry Atkinson were admitted Pellows. 

Miss May Evelina Bainbridge, B.Sc, Mr. Walter Barratt? 
Mr. Frederick James Chittenden, Mr. Walter Edward Collinge, 
M.Sc, F.E.S., Mr. Arthur William Hill, M.A. (Cantab.), and 
Mr. Joseph Hubert Priestley, B.Sc. (Lond.), were elected Fellows. 

Mr. A. P. Young exhibited a series of lantern-slides to show 
various stages of soil-denudation and forest destruction in the 

The slides from photographs taken in two valleys, one north of 
the Brenner Pass, the Navistal, near Innsbruck, and one south of 
the Pass, the Schalderertal, near Brixen, illustrated various limits, 
commencing near the upper limit of the vine cultivation at about 
700 m. to the snow limit at about 2800 m. 

Great waste of soil is caused in forest land by the simultaneous 
felling of trees over single plots of ground, and in the higher 
levels by the encroachments of grazing animals. One effect of 
this waste is the recession, not only of the ti'ee line, but also of 
the limit of continuous forests, which is generally considered as 
distinct from the tree line. 

Waste of soil in high-level pastures was also attributed to the 


formation of tracks by grazing animals. The grooves are often 
quite bare of vegetation, and therefore open to rapid denudation 
by rain-water. 

The following papers were read : — 

1. " Notes on Brassica Crosses." By Arthur W. Sutton, 


2. " Eevision of the Genus IlUgera." By S. T. Dunn, F.L.S. 

3. " New Coniferae from Formosa," By Bunzo JBLatata. 

(Communicated by W. Botting Hemsley, F.E.S., F.L.S.) 

February 6tb, 1908. 

Dr. A. B. Rendle, M.A., Vice-President, in the Chair. 

The Minutes of the G-eneral Meeting of the 16th January, 1908, 
were read and confirmed. 

Mr. Walter Barratt and Mr. Arthur William Hill were 
admitted Fellows. 

The Rev. George Henry Aidan Elrington, D.Sc., Mrs. Marian 
Sarah Farquharson, Mr. Charles Francis UUathorne Meek, and 
Miss Winifred Smith were proposed as Fellows. 

Mr. Edward Charles Stuart Baker, Mr. Edward Alfred Cockayne, 
M.A., B.M. (Oxon.), Miss Emmehue Crocker, and Mr. Philippe 
Leveque de Vilmorin were elected F'ellows. 

A letter was read from His Excellency Count Wrangel, con- 
veying the thanks of His Majesty Gustaf V. for the address of 
sympathy adopted in General Meeting of the 19th December, 

Mr. Horace W. Monckton, Treasurer and V.P., exhibited 
specimens and lantern-slides of leaf-impressions from the Beading 
Beds, on behalf of himself and Mr. O. A. Shrubsolb, F.G.S., who 
was prevented by illness from being present. 

A discussion followed, in which Mr. E. T. Newton, F.E-.S. 
(visitor), Mr. Clement Reid, F.R.S., Dr. D. H. Scott, F.R.S., 
Sec.L.S., and the Chairman engaged ; and Mr. Monckton having 
replied, a vote of thanks to Mr. Shrubsole for his interesting 
exhibition of specimens was passed. 

The following papers were read : — 

1. " Fruits and Seeds from the Pre-Glacial Beds of Britain and 

the Netherlands." By Clement Eeid, F.E.S. , F.L.S., and 
Mrs. Eeid, 

2. " On a Method of Disintegrating Peat and other Deposits 

containing Fossil Seeds." By Mrs. E. M. Eeid. (Com- 
municated by Clement Eeid, F.E.S,, F.L.S.) 



" On a Botanical Expedition to Pokieu." By S. T. Dunn, 

" Alcyonaria from the Indian and Pacific Oceans." (Ab- 
stract.) By Miss EuTH M. Harbison. (Communicated 
by Pi-o£. Gilbert C. Bourne, D.Sc, F.L.S.) 

February 20tb, 1908. 

Lieut.-Col. Prain, CLE., LL.D., F.E.S., V.-P., in the Chair. 

The Minutes of the General Meeting of the 6th February, 1908, 
were read and confirmed. 

Miss May Evehna Bainbridge, B.Sc, Miss Emmeline Crocker, 
Mr. William Holmes Burrell, and Mr. James William OUver were 
admitted Fellows. 

Mr. Hamilton Herbert Charles James Druce, F.Z.S., F.E.S., 
Mr. Walter Thomas Haydon, and Mr. John Herbert Milton, were 
proposed as Fellows. 

The Vice-President in the Chair announced that there were two 
vacancies in the list of Foreign Members owing to the death of 
Prof. Frans Reinhold Kjellman and of Prof. Jose Vicente Barboza 
du Bocage. 

The Chairman also stated that a celebration of the Jubilee of 
the presentation of the Darwin-Wallace joint essay on 1st July, 
1858, would take place on the 1st July next ; the details were 
not complete, but it was intended that an afternoon meeting and 
an evening reception should take place on the day named, with the 
award of copies of a special medal, and subsequent publication of 
the proceedings of the celebrations. Subscriptions were invited to 
defray the cost 

Mr. T. Ernest Waltham exhibited stereoscopic photographs of 
Alpine flowers in their natural colours, some of the slides being 
also shown by means of the lantern on the screen. Mr. E. Morton 
Middleton, Mr. Arthur W. Sutton, Dr. A. B. Eendle, and the 
Vice-President in the Chair, made some observations, and 
Mr. Waltham replied. 

The following papers were read : — 

1. " Experiments with Wild Types of Tuber-bearing Solanums." 

By Arthur W. Sutton, F.L.S. 

2. " The Life-history and Larval Habits of Tiger-Beetles 

(Cicindehdae)." By Dr. V. E. Shelford. (Communicated 
by the Eev. Canon W. W. Fowler, M.A., F.L.S.) 


March 5th, 1908. 

Lieut.-Col. Peain, C.I.E., LL.D., F.E.S., V.-P., i^ the Chair. 

The Minutes of the General Meeting of the 20th February, 
1908, were read and confii'med. 

Mr. Hugh Broughton, and Fleet-Surgeon Charles Geekie 
Matthew, M.B., were proposed as Fellows. 

Prof. Otto Biitschli, of Heidelberg, and Prof. Alfred Gabriel 
Nathorst, of Stockholm, were proposed as Foreign Members. 

The Eev. George Henry Aidan Elrington, O.P., D.Sc, 
Mrs. Marian Sarah Farquharson, Mr. Charles Francis TJllathorne 
Meek, and Miss Winifred Smith were elected Fellows. 

The following papers were read : — 

1. " On a possible case of Mimicry in the Common Sole." By 

Dr. A. T. Mastermait, F.L.S. 

2. " On the Morphology of Stigmaria and of its Appendages 

in comparison with Hecent Lycopodiales." By Prof. F. E. 
Weiss, D.Sc, F.L.S. (See p. 74.) 

3. " On Triclioniscoides alhidus (Budde-Lund) and P. sarsi. 

Patience." By Alexander Patience. (Communicated by 
Prof. Malcolm Laurie, D.Sc, F.L.S.) 

March 19th, 1908. 

H. W. MoNCKTON, Esq., Treasurer & Yice-President, 
in the Chair. 

The Minutes of the General Meeting of the 5th March, 1908, 
were read and confirmed. 

Mr. Henry Haselfoot Haines was admitted a Fellow. 

Miss Ethel Louise de Fraine, B.Sc, Mr. George Edward 
Nicholls, B.Sc, A.E.C.S., and Mr. Eichard Wilhams Harold 
Eow, B.Sc, were pi'oposed as Fellows. 

Mr. Hamilton Herbert Charles James Druce, Mr. Walter 
Thomas Hajdon, and Mr. John Herbert Milton were elected 

The Chairman called upon the General Secretary to read the 
terms of a circular about to be sent to the Fellows explaining the 
nature of the Darwin-Wallace Celebration to be held on 1st July 


The following exhibitions were shown by permission of the 
Director, Eoyal Botanic Gardens, Kew : — 

(1) Mr. ^y. BoTTiNG Hemslet, F.R.S., F.L.S., sent for exhibi- 
tion a second specimen of Platanthera chlorantJia with three spurs, 
Avhicli was described in his absence by Mr. C. H. Wright, A.L.S. 
The plant now shown came from the Rev. E. A. Woodruffe- 
Peacock, F.L.S., to whom it had been sent by Miss Susan Allett, 
of Bath, and exhibited a spike, each flower of which had the three 
petals spurred, a case of true peloria, whereas the specimen shown 
on 17th January, 1907, had the three sepals spurred, a case of 
false peloria. 

In consequence of the publication of the latter specimen in the 
Society's Journal (Botany, vol. xxxviii. (1907) p. 3), Cav. Sommier 
has drawn attention to the occurrence of true and false peloria in 
P. bifolia in the neighbourhood of Florence. 

Dr. A. B. Eendle offered a few remarks on this exhibition. 

(2) Mr. T. A. Sprague, F.L.S,, showed female flowers and 
fruits of Sterculia Ale.vandri, Harv., an extremely rare tree from 
Uitenhage, the only locality known for it, where it was first found 
in January 1848 by Dr. R. C. Alexander, F.L.S. (afterwards 
Prior). The specimens shown had been collected by Dr. S. Schcin- 
land, P.L.S., who reported that the seeds were of pleasant taste 
resembling a chestnut, and were greedily sought after and 
devoured bj' the baboons. 

Discussion was carried on by Mr. A. P. Young, Mr. J. R. 
Drummond, and Mr. E. M. Holmes, Mr. Sprague replying. 

(3) Mr. C. H, Wright, A.L.S., showed specimens of (a)Sj>hm'o- 
tliylax ahjiformis, Bisch., a rare South-African Podosteraaceous 
plant, and spoke of the outward resemblances of some plants of 
this family to certain cryptogams, showing side by side examples 
of Hydrostachys imbricata, A. Juss., and IT. nana, Engl., as 
resembling the alga Caulerpa aqjressoides, and Tristiclia Jiypnoides, 
Spreng., with the form of a moss ; also (b) Archangiopteris Henryi, 
Christ & Gilsenh., a Chinese genus of Marattiaceae, of which a 
better supply of material had been recently obtained. 

The discussion on these exhibitions was engaged in by Dr. A. B. 
Rendle, Mr. J. C. Shenstone, and Dr. D. H. Scott, the latter 
expressing his concurrence in the view that the genus Archangio- 
pteris was very nearly allied to the older genus Angiopteris. 

The following papers were read : — 

1. "The Podosomata of the Temperate Atlantic and Arctic 

Oceans." By the Rev. Canon A. M. Normax, F.R.S., 

2. " Amphipoda Gammaridea from the Indian Ocean, British 

East Africa, and the Red Sea." By A. O. Walkeb, P.L.S. 


3. "A Revision of the Genus Codonopsis." By T. F. Chipp. 

(Communicated by "W. Botting Hemslet, P.R.S., F.L.S.) 

4. '*The Holothurians of the Sudanese Red Sea." By E. 

HiNDLE. (Communicated by the President.) , 

AprU 2nd, 1908. 

Lieut.-Col. Pbain, C.I.E., LL.D., P.R.S., V.-P., in the Chair. 

The Minutes of the General Meeting of the 19th March, 1908, 
were read and confirmed. 

Miss Winifred Smith, Mr. Edward Alfred Cockayne, Mr. David 
Thomas Gwynne-Vaughan, and Mrs. Harriet Isabel Adams were 
admitted Eellows. 

Mr. Charles Aubrey Ealand was proposed as a Eellow. 

Mr. Hugh Broughton and Fleet- Surgeon Charles Geekie 
Matthew were elected Fellows. 

The Rev. John Geraed, S.J., F.L.S. , exhibited lantern-slides 
of " Vegetable Imitations or Mimicries," amongst them Ophrys 
muscifera and 0. apifera, Veronica tetragona, once described as a 
G-ymnosperm, and a Dacrydium which closely resembles it, and 
instances from the genus Lysimachia which appear to mimic Paris 
and other remote genera by their habit and foliage. 

Prof. Dendy, Prof. Weiss, and the Vice-President in the Chair, 
contributed remarks on the subject. 

The following papers were read : — 

1. " The Anatomy of some Sapotaceous Seedlings," By Miss 

Winifred Smith, B.Sc, F.L.S. 

2. " Notes on some Sponges recently collected irk Scotland." 

By Dr. Nelson Annandale, F.L.S. 

May 7th, 1908. 
Prof. W. A. Heedman, D.Sc, F.R.S., President, in the Chair. 

The Minutes of the General Meeting of the 2nd April, 1908, 
were read and confirmed. 

Fleet-Surgeon Charles Geekie Matthew, Monsieur Philippe 
Leveque de Vilmorin, Mr. Hamilton Herbert Charles James 
Druee, Mr. Reginald Evelyn Child Beale, the Rev. George Henry 
Aidan Elrington, D.Sc, and Mr. Frederick James Chittenden 
were admitted Fellows. 


Mr. Ernest Melville Cutting, B.A. (Cantab.), Mr. Louis Charles 
Deverell, F.Gr.S., Mr. James Montagu Francis Drummond, B.A. 
(Cantab.), Mr. Cecil Hallworth Treadgold, M.A. (Cantab.), and 
Miss Grace Wigglesworth, M.Sc. (Mane), were proposed as 

Miss Ethel Louise de Fraine, B.Sc, Mr. George Edward 
Nicholls, B.Sc, A.R.C.S., and Mr. Richard Williams Harold Eow, 
B.Sc, were elected Fellows ; and Prof. Otto Blitschli, of Heidel- 
berg, and Prof. Alfred Gabriel Nathorst, of the Naturhistoriska 
Eiksmuseum, Stockholm, Foreign Members. 

Prof. J. P. Hill, D.Sc, and Dr. A. B. Eendle, M.A., were 
proposed as Auditors on behalf of the Council, and Mr. Herbert 
Druce and Mr. Henry Groves on behalf of the Fellows ; and by 
show of hands were elected Auditors. 

The President announced that on 1st July next, the President 
and Council would entertain the Darwin- Wallace Medallists and 
Foreign Guests to Dinner at the Princes' Restaurant, and Fellows 
to a limited number could also purchase tickets, price one guinea, 
including wine. 

Prof. F. E. Weiss, D.Sc, exhibited fruits of the " Buddha's 
Claw " variety of Citrus Medica which he had obtained at Easter 
from the gardens at La Mortola, formerly belonging to the late 
Sir Thomas Hanbury, K.C.V.O., F.L.S., also a normal fruit for 
comparison. M. de Yilmorin commented on the frequent por- 
trayal of this fruit in Japanese art, and also the variety of preserves 
made from it in China. 

Mr. F. Martin Duxcax, F.R.P.S., exhibited by means of the 
IS'ewman fire-proof Kinematograph, a representation of the move- 
ments of Peripatus and other invertebrate animals. The special 
feature of the apparatus used was, that it enabled one to analyse 
all movement, picture by picture, instead of having to run the 
whole film through from end to end without a stop as in ordinar}^ 
Kinematograph projectors. The effect of concentrated light 
upon different species of Invertebrate animals had proved of 
interest and frequently a difficulty, so that colour filters and 
isochromatised negative films had in some cases to be used to 
obtain a satisfactory record. 

In reply to the President, the exhibitor explained that he was 
engaged in study of the complex movements displayed, and hoped 
at a later period to bring his results before the Society. 

The following papers were read : — 

1. "Colony-formation as a Factor in Organic Evolution." By 
H. M. Beexard, M.A. (Communicated by Prof. Dendt, 
D.Sc, F.R.S., Sec. L.S.) 



" Antipatharia from the Voyage of H.M.S. ' Sealark.' " By 
C. FoRSTEE Cooper, M.A. (Communicated bv J. Stanley 
Gardiner, M.A., F.E.S., T.L.S.) 

"Freshwater Fishes, Batrachians, and Eeptiles obtained by 
Mr. J. Stanley Gardiner's Expeditiou to the Indian Ocean." 
By G.A.BouLENGER,F.R.S. (Communicated by J. Stanley 
Gardiner, M.A., F.R.S., F.L.S.) 

" The Madreporarian Corals. — Part I. The Family Fiingidae, 
with a Revision of its Genera and Species and an Account 
of the Geographical Distribution." By J. Stanley Gar- 
diner, M.A., F.R.S., F.L.S. 

May 25th, 1908. 

Anniversary Meeting. 

Prof. W. A. Herdman, D.Sc, F.R.S., President, in the Chair. 

The Minutes of the General Meeting of the 7th May, 1908, 
were read and confirmed. 

Mr. Herbert Clifton Chadwick was admitted an Associate, and 
Prof. Seittsiro Ikeno a Foreign Member. 

Miss Helen Stuart Chambers, B.Sc, Mr. Norman Gill, and 
Mr. Henry Herbert Travers were proposed as Fellows. 

It was proposed from the Chair on the initiative of the Council 
that His Majesty Gustaf V., King of Sweden, be elected au 
Honorary Member, which was done by acclamation. 

The Treasurer read his financial statement, which was received 
and adopted by the Meeting (see p. 15). 

The General Secretary's report of deaths, withdrawals, and 
elections during the past year was read, as follow^s : — 

Since the last Anniversary Meeting 24 Fellous have died or 
their deaths been ascertained : 

Dr. Robert Barnes. 

Rev. Richard Baron. 

Mr. Edward Alfred Lionel 

Mr. John Benbow. 
Sir Dietrich Brandis. 
Mr. Robert Ingham Clark, 
Mr. John Farrah. 
Mr. Charles Anderson Ferrier, 
Mr. Frederick Ernest Grant. 
Dr. Edward Alfred Heath. 
Sir James Hector. 
Mr, Joseph Ince. 

Dr. Maxwell T. Masters. 
Prof. Alfred Newton. 
Mr. William Rome. 
Mr. Howard Saunders. 
Mr. Alexander Somerville 
Dr. Henry Clifton Sorby. 
Prof. Charles Stewart. 
Lieut.-Genei'al Sir Richard 

Mr. William Thomas L. Travers 
Mr. James Herbert Veitch. 
Mr. John Francis Walker. 
Mr. Charles Augustus Wright. 




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1 6 proceedings of the 

Associate (1). 
Mr. Frederic Moore. 

Foreign Members (2). 

Prof. Jose Vicente Barboza da Bocage. 
Prof. Karl Mobius. 

The following 6 Fellows have withdrawn : 

Mr. William Heniy Blaber. 
Mr. Frederick James Faraday. 
Mr. James Scott Gordon. 

Mr. Ei'nest Charles Horrell. 
B,ev. Richard Paget Murray. 
Dr. Charles Symes. 

Mr. Henry Williams and Mr. George Sampson V. Wills have 
been removed from the List of Fellows, under the provisions of 
the Bye-Laws, Chapter II. Section 6. 

Fifty Fellows have been elected (of whom 47 have qualified), 
and one Associate. 

The Librarian's report was then laid before the Meeting as 
follows : — 

During the past year, 94 volumes and 120 pamphlets have 
been received as Donations from Private Individuals. 

From the various Universities, Academies, and Scientific 
Societies 323 volumes and 205 detached parts have been received 
in exchange and otherwise, besides 68 volumes and 24 parts 
obtained by exchange and as Donations from the Editors and 
Proprietors of independent Periodicals. 

The Council have sanctioned the purchase of 178 volumes and 
89 parts of important works. 

The total additions to the Library are therefore 663 volumes 
and 508 pamphlets and separate parts. 

The number of books bound during the year is as follows : — 

In full morocco 5 volumes, in half-morocco 355 volumes, in half- 
calf 4 volumes, in full cloth 142 volumes, in vellum 23 volumes, 
in buckram 52 volumes, in boards or half-cloth 25 volumes, 
relabelled (half-morocco and cloth backs) 55 volumes. Total 
601 volumes. 

The General Secretary having read the Bye-Laws governing 
the elections, the President opened the business of the day, and 
the Fellows present proceeded to vote. 

The President then delivered his Annual Address as follows : — 



Fellows of the Li^tnean Society, — 

It is with feelings of regret, of relief and of gratitude 
that I rise to address you for the last time from this Chair. I 
regret deeply to sever my official connection with the Society, 
and yet I own to a certain sense of relief that I have served my 
time and shall now be free to return to those excursions into the 
unknown which are the chief business of a scientific man and 
which are less wearing and perhaps more profitable in the end than 
fortnightly excursions to London. Pleasant as my work here has 
been, it is no light responsibility for one like myself, engaged in 
active professional work more than 200 miles away, to undertake 
for four years the duty of occupying the Presidential Chair of such 
a Society as this. My dominant feeling, however, is one of 
gratitude — both to the Pellows for having given me this oppor- 
tunity of serving them, and to my fellow Officers for their 
constant kindness and most efficient support. I ought to acknow- 
ledge especially the consideration shown to me during my recent 
absence for two months in the Gulf of Manaar, when the 
Treasurer relieved me from my duties on Council and Colonel 
Prain and the other Yice-Presidents took my place in this Chair 
at the evening meetings. 

I congratulate the Society on having elected as my successor 
that most eminent Botanist, and most genial of colleagues. Dr. D. 
H. Scott, F.E.S., and I congratulate Dr. Scott on having attained 
to the highest honour we can bestow on our Officers in the Society. 
Dr. Scott's elevation to the Chair causes a vacancy in the secre- 
tariat, and we are fortunate in having now selected Dr. Stapf as 
our Botanical Secretary. Occasional changes in the Executive 
are inevitable, and they have perhaps been unusually frequent 
during the last few years, but we have only the happiest feelings 
and anticipations in regard to the appointments made to-day. 
That the Linnean Society may increase and prosper in all good 
works, under the guidance of your new Officers, is the earnest 
hope of your retiring President. 

We know, as Anthropologists, that it has been the custom in 
some countries to put the king, chief, or high priest to death while 
he is still in full vigour, bodily and mental, hoping thereby to pass 
on his strength and spirit to his successor unimpaired by decay. 
In some cases the practice permitted the chief to reign only for a 
fixed period, at the conclusion of which he was inexorably led to 
the sacrificial altar. 

You, in your wisdom, have adopted the same principle. Ton 
recognise that the occupation of this Chair for more than four years 
might lead to a deterioration in the active spirit which you rightly 
demand should animate the head of our Society ; but more merciful 
than the early Aryan tribes, who required that their leader should 

LINN. see. PEOCEEDIKGS. SESSION 1907-1908. c 


be slain at a great meeting when his term of office had expired, 
you permit him to retire with his hfe into the obscurity from 
which you raised him — so long as he is able to hand on the work 
and the tradition of the Society unimpaired to his successor, and 
the only sacrifice you demand is that he should' render some 
account of his time by addressing you upon the affairs of the 
Society, and upon some aspect of one or other of those sciences 
which you cultivate. 

I have been privileged to occupy this Chair during a most 
interesting pei-iod in the history of the Society. In the first of 
these four sessions (1904-5) the Fellows adopted the new code of 
bye-laws, and as a result the Fellowship of the Society was thrown 
open to duly qualified scientific women on equal terms with men. 
In all, 41 such women have now been elected ; and of these, six 
have read papers while others have taken part in our discussions, 
and one (Miss Sargant) has served on Council and Committees. 
The added gain and strength to the Society is recognised and 
appreciated by us all. 

In all, about 150 new Fellows have been elected in the four years, 
and 100 have died or resigned during the same period ; so the 
Society is growing, although not so rapidly as some of us would 
wish. This is a Society to which all active original workers in 
Biology should desire to belong, and the more experience I have 
of its meetings the more I am impressed with the value of that 
association and co-operation of Botanists and Zoologists which we 
still enjoy but which has been lost in many Natural History 
Societies and in the Sections of the British Association. 

The work brought before us dui'ing the last four years has been 
large in amount and seems to be increasing. No less than 52 
papers have been communicated during the present session. A 
considerable number of those papers have come to this Society as 
the result of the arrangement made with the Trustees of the 
Percy Sladen Memorial, whereby we have undertaken to publish 
the Reports of the First Percy Sladen Expedition in a series of six 
large volumes — to meet the expenses of w hich the Trusi contributes 
largely. Of the first volume three parts have already appeared, 
and the fourth is now in our Secretaries' hands and will be out 
before long. 

The Society is also publishing in the Zoological Journal a series 
of reports upon the collections made by Mr. Cyril Crosslaud on 
the Sudanese coast of the Bed Sea — a coral region of considerable 
faunistic interest. Amongst other papers of special interest 
this session the following have given rise to important discus- 
sions : — Dr. Archdall Eeid's " Mendelism and Sex," Mr. A. W. 
Sutton's " Brassica Crosses " and " Tuber-bearing Solanums," and 
Mr. Clement Reid's " Preglacial Fruits and Seeds." 

Our loss by death among the older Fellows has been unusually severe, 
including as it does such notable veterans of science as Professor 
Newton, Dr. Masters, Professor Charles Stewart, Mr. Howard 
Saunders, Sir James Hector, Sir Richard Strachey, and Dr. Sorby. 


The usual obituary notices of the deceased Fellows will be laid 
upon the table by the Secretaries. 

During this session we have lost by death two of our Foreign 
Members, Prof. Barboza du Bocage of Lisbon, and Prof. Karl 
Mobius of Berlin. Two additional Foreign Members have also 
been elected, Prof. Nathorst of Stockholm and Prof. Biitschli of 
Heidelberg. Tour election today of H.M. the King of Sweden 
as an Honorary Member fills the place left by the death of the 
late King Oscar II,, and perpetuates in the happiest manner the 
traditional and sympathetic connection which has long existed 
between this Society and the country of Linnaeus. 

The death of Mr. Frederic Moore, A.L.S., left a vacancy in 
the ranks of our Associates which the Societ}^ worthily filled by 
the election on December 19 th of Mr. H. C. Chad wick, Curator of 
the Port Erin Biological Station. The Council has awarded the 
Linnean medal this year to our former Zoological Secretary and 
honoured colleague, the Eev. Thomas R. E. Stebbing, F.E-.S., than 
whom there coidd be no more worthy recipient. 

During last session we, in common with similar societies in 
Sweden and elsewhere, celebrated the 200th Anniversary of the 
birth of Linnaeus. In addition to the references to the occasion 
made at our last Anniversary meeting, and to our participation in 
the primary celebrations at L'psala and Stockholm, we held an 
evening reception in these rooms on June 7th, which was largely 
attended by our FelloAvs and their friends and by many dis- 
tinguished guests, including the Swedish Minister and a number 
of eminent men of Science. On this occasion there were exhibits 
of scientific interest — both Linnean and others — in the Library 
upstairs, while short addresses and illustrated lectures were 
delivered in this meeting room at intervals. The success of this 
conversazione was undoubted, and frequently during that evening, 
and also since, have our Fellows spoken to me in high appreciation 
of the form which our Linnean celebration had taken, and some 
indeed expressed the hope that another occasion of meeting with 
so much of scientific interest to see, hear and talk about would 
soon be provided. 

The approaching celebration of the Jubilee of the Darwin- 
Wallace communication to this Society on 1st July, 1858, seems 
likely to provide such an occasion. A special Committee of 
Council is engaged in arranging the programme and other details, 
and a preliminary circular has been issued showing that the 
celebration will consist of : — 

(1) An afternoon meeting for the delivery of appropriate 

addresses and the award of special medals to Dr. Alfred 
Eussel Wallace, Sir Joseph Hooker and others. 

(2) A dinner of the Fellows, the Medallists and other Guests. 

(3) An evening reception in these rooms ; and 

(4) The publication of a volume containing an account of the 

ever memorable meeting of July 1st, 1858, and of these 
Jubilee proceedings. 



The last address which I deHvered to you from this Chair dealt 
with the principles underlying the organisation of Fishery 
Research in this country, and with the methods of investigation of 
that floating life of the ocean which is of enormous importance in 
connection with the food supply from the sea. 

The method has been adopted by Naturalists and Oceano- 
graphers of taking samples of this floating life or plankton with 
fine silk nets of known straining capacity, the hypothesis being 
that if we know the contents of a small sample of water we can 
calculate the living contents of the ocean. It is obvious that this 
hypothesis rests upon the assumption that the organisms in 
questions are distributed with such uniformity that small samples 
of the water are representative of the whole. I have devoted all 
my spare time for the last couple of years to work at sea with 
various kinds of closing and open tow-nets designed for the 
purpose of testing this assumption. What I laid before you last 
year was of the nature of a preliminary announcement giving the 
first impressions received from observation of the catches. Since 
then, however, the six or seven hundred gatherings which I took 
from the yacht ' Ladybird ' in the seas around the Isle of Man 
during the year 1907 have all been exhaustively examined by our 
Associate, Mr. Andrew Scott ; and from his lists and my own 
observations I have drawn some arguments and] conclusions *, 
with a few of which I propose to trouble you. 

First, as to the data : — We have nearly 900 gatherings taken in 
the year 1907 in the northern portion of the Irish Sea, and of 
these about 650 are from a limited area in the immediate neigh- 
bourhood of Port Erin. At the south end of the Isle of Man, 
where these gatherings were taken, there are very important 
fishing grounds M'hich are frequented by trawlers from Lancashire 
and from Ireland, as well as by the Manx fishermen. This, as 
well as the circumstance that we have there, within a few 
miles, a sheltered sandy bay, an exposed rocky coast, a narrow 
strait through which strong tides run and an area of open sea with 
depths reaching to 70-80 fathoms, has led me to consider Port 
Erin a very suitable locality for a thoroughly exhaustive or 
intensive study of the Marine Plankton. 

I think it desirable to point out here that the sea off Port Erin 
cannot be regarded as an exceptional locality. The narrow strait 
known as the Calf Sound (IV on map opposite) where the tidal 
currents run with great velocity is, no doubt, exceptional in some 
respects ; but the open sea, 5 to 10 miles off land (I and II on 
map), has no physical peculiarities such as would lead us to expect 
any unusual distribution of organisms. 

It may be useful to repeat here the same little map that I used 
last year in order to show the localities at which the gatherings 
were taken. The nets used, it will be remembered, were : — Two 

* A detailed account of the results upon which these conclusions are based 
will be [and since this was written lias been] published in the Lancashire Sea- 
Fisheries Laboratory Keport for 1907 (Trans. Liverpool liiol. Soe. vol. xxii.). 



closing vertical nets, the Nansen and the Petersen-Hensen, a 
weighted and two surface, open, horizontal tow-nets, all made of 
No. 20 bolting-silk ; and in addition a coarser silk tow-net (No. 6 
silk) and a large-meshed shear-net only used occasionally. 

During the present Easter vacation (April 11th to 29th, 
inclusive) I have taken 186 additional gatherings, in 15 working 
days (an average of over 12 per day), which will serve to compare 
with those taken during the corresponding period of 1907. The 
number of Diatoms does not appear to be so great this year as in 
1907. The spring maximum does not reach to such a height and 

I I 



is certainly later in April than was the case last year. I have as 
yet only the volumes of the catches before me, the numbers of the 
different organisms present in each net have not yet been calculated. 
The monthly average in cubic centimetres for the first four months 
of the year 1908 is as follows : — January 0-8 ; February 0-6 ; 
March 1-8 ; April 7"4, showing an increase in March which 
became still more marked in April, but is small compared with 
that in 1907. The average haul during April, 1908, with the 
different nets used is : — 

Hensen. Nansen. 







(No. 20). 

(No. 6). 








Showing much the same proportions between the nets as in the 
previous year, but smaller numbers throughout. 

I now turn to the conclusions to be drawn from a study of the 
detailed figures for 1907. It is clear that many of the great 
seasonal variations in the plankton are not due to changes in the 
sea-water such as are recognised in hydrographic observations, but 
are caused simply by the normal sequence of stages in the life- 
histories of organisms throughout the year. No amount of 


" hydrographic " change in the water will determine the presence 
of Echinoderm larvae at a time of year when they are not produced, 
nor of Crab Megalopas when they do not naturally occur. 

Three factors, at least, contribute to the constitution of the 
plankton from day to day throughout the year : — 

(1) The sequence and periodicity of stages in the life-history 

of the organisms ; 

(2) Irregularities due to the inter-action of organisms, as 

when one group serves as the food of another ; 

(3) Periodic changes and abnormalities of either time or 

abundance caused by the nature of the sea-water or by 
weather conditions which may either determine or pre- 
vent the normal or permit of an abnormal development 
of certain species. 

The appearance of swarms of Balanoid Nauplii, followed after 
an interval by the " Cypris " stage, is an example that comes under 
the first head. The disappearance of Diatoms when used as food 
by the increasing swarms of Copepoda and other Crustacea, both 
larval and adult, and of the Copepoda in turn when eaten by the 
developing post-larval fish, are changes falling under the second 
head. The great increase in the number of Diatoms in spring 
when the physical condition of the sea-water has become 
favourable, the enormous development of Dinoflagellates which 
may take place suddenly in autumn under unusual weather con- 
ditions, the almost total suppression of a group such as the 
Medusae in some localities in an unusually stormy summer, and 
the immigration of a species or a group of species from the open 
ocean or from a neighbouring sea-area as the result of variations 
in the hydrographic conditions, are all examples that may be 
classed in the third category. 

Two or all of these factors may, however, be at work together, 
and so the explanation of any particular change may be a very 
complicated problem. The increased development of a group, or 
the immigration of a species, may so disturb the balance of 
nature as to be followed by unusual changes in other groups. 

The results of the hauls obtained on April 9th and 10th in 
Port Erin Bay are good examples of a local plankton mainly com- 
])osed of Diatoms. It is noticed in running the eye down the 
groups that whereas the Diatoms occur in thousands extending up 
to even 100,000, the Dinoflagellates are in hundreds, extending, at 
most, to a thousand ; the Copepoda are in tens, rarely reaching a 
hundred or two, while the fish-eggs are scattered units, such as 
1 and 2. The general character of the hauls on April 9th is that 
there are ten times as many Copepods as fish-eggs ; ten times as 
many Dinoflagellates as Copepods, and ten times as many 
Diatoms as Dinoflagellates, per species. On the following day, 
April 10th, the proportions are somewhat the same ; and if we pick 
out the largest numbers recorded in each of these groups, these 


may be described iu the case of each day as uuits, hundreds 
thousands, and tens oi: thousands — or thereabouts. 

Diatoms. Dinoflagellates. Copepods. Fish-Eggs. 

April 9 100,000 1000 250 2 

April 10 90,000 2000 780 8 

As another example of the same run of figures in these groups 
we note that in a surface haul, W. of the Calf Island, on 
March 29th, the total 

Diatoms amount to 72,650 

Dinoflagellates „ 3,500 

Copepoda „ 363 

Fish-Egffs , 93 


Generally speaking these proportions hold good for many of the 
series of hauls not only in the Bay, but also from the open sea 
outside. Fig. 1 shows by the proportions of the squares the 

Fig. 1. — Diagram showing maximum haul in the year. 


numbers contained in the greatest hauls of Diatoms, Copepods, 
Dinoflagellata, Oikopleura, and Sagitta, respectively. 

Lists compiled from the gatherings and curves drawn from these 
hsts show that, as a consequence of the three factors noted above, 
certain groups and certain prominent species differ from one 
another greatly in their relative abundance throughout the months 
of the year (see fig. 2, p. 24). 

Thus, the Diatoms take on an enormous development in early 
spring, and reach their maximum in April, then die down during 
the summer, and may rise again to a second but much less 
important and less constant maximum in autumn (fig. 3, p. 24). 
It must be borne in mind, however, that the species, and to some 



extent the genera, that form the autumn increase (Chcetoceros 
subtile and species of BMzosolenia) are quite different from those 

Fig. 2. — Distribution throughout the year — diagijammatic. 
Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. 



















„. , 




Total Plankton 







present in spring (e. g., Chcetoceros contortum, and species of Tha- 

From the list of the total plankton throughout the year, reduced 



to the average per net per day, it is seen that the greatest bulk of 
plankton in the water is in April, when the total catches in the 


day reached an average of 51 c.c. per haul. Other lesser elevations 
are seen in June with 20 c.c, and August with 25 c.c. The catch 
in some individual hauls runs a great deal higher than these 
averages, the top score being the Nansen net on April 4th, with 
164-5 c.c. Fig. 4, showing the average haul of plankton per 

Fig. 4. — Diagram showing average ]iaul of Plankton per month. 

Jan. Ftir War A^' Ma^ Jone J^lu A^J 5e|it- (Pet Nov. Dec 

month, brings out the great range and remarkable diversity 
between adjacent months. 

The spring maximum in the amount of the plankton is clearly 
due to a great and sudden increase in the amount of Diatoms 
present (see fig. 3). The other rises seen later in the year, as in 
June, August, and to a slighter extent in October, are less marked, 
and are less clearly due to one cause. 

The hauls taken on an ofF-shore station, on April 5th, show the 
condition of affairs during the spring maximum of the Diatoms, 
when 14 millions of one species, Chcetoceros contortum, were present 
in one haul of the Nansen net. The total number of Diatoms in 
that haul was nearly 17 millions, including ' two millions of 
Thalassiosira Nordenshioldii. Comparatively few Copepoda and 
other organisms were present. The two surface gatherings of this 
date were moderately alike, the same organisms were present in 
both, although one net had, in some cases, about twice as many as 
the other ; but still the hauls were of the same general type and 
the quantities were, in most cases, not very different, showing that 
one can get a good general idea of the fauna by such hauls, but 
that one cannot depend upon their being minutely representative. 


They may show something hke double or half the quantity of 
organisms obtained in neighbouring hauls. 

For comparison with such gatherings, we may examine the similar 
series of hauls taken late in August from about the s^ame locality. 
On August 21st there are practically no Diatoms present, there 
being only a very few individuals of Blddulphia mohiliensis. On 
the other hand, the Copepoda are much more abundant than they 
were in April, for example, compare Oithona similis, where only 
tens, amounting at most to a few hundreds, were present in April, 
and thousands (reaching eleven thousand in the weighted net) were 
in the August haul. Other interesting differences can be noticed 
on comparing the two lists in detail. 

The Copepoda have two maxima in the year, the first in April 
and the second in September and October. The records start in 
January with about 2000 per haul and keep below that level 
throughout February and most of March. During April they 
rapidly mount up with a series of successively higher records, with 
falls between, such as April 2nd 4,500, April 13th 10,755, 
April 16th 11,600, till the climax is reached on April 27th with 
29,825. During May the numbers are low, 1,015 to 6,505 ; in 
June they rise somewhat, 13,610 on the 11th and 15,450 on the 
27th, falling again in July to numbers between 2,895 and 7,930. 
August shows a series of rises with falls between, the tops being 
18,200 on the 10th, 19,400 on the 14th, 14,700 on the 15th, 
16,915 on the 24th, and 10,970 on the 29th. September begins 
at a low level, reaches 11,942 on the 4th, and, with falls between, 
27,177 on the 12th, 13,440 on the 20th, and 27,312 on the 20th, 
followed by 10,582 on 21st, 18,450 on 23rd, 11,850 on 24th, and 
12,110 on 30th. October is also high, with 16,973 on the 9th, 
27,790 on 14th, and 24,480 on 24th. November shows one high 
figure, 10,937 on the 8th ; while December ranges from 1,724 to 
2,755 ; the year's record ending very much at the same level where 
it commenced in January. The range in number of the Copepoda 
per net, 30 to 29,800, is considerable compared with that of some 
groups, but does not equal that of the Diatoms. 

The monthly averages of the Copepoda during this year are as 
follows : — 

Jan 1,816 

Feb 793 

Mar 1,379 

Apr 5,858 

July 5,462 

Aug 5,496 

Sept 6,514 

Oct 17,572 

May 3,415 i Nov 6,923 

June 12,138 1 Dec 2,289 

The highest averages here (June and October) do not quite 
coincide with the maxima (April and September-October) in the 
previous treatment where the days were taken singly. The ex- 
planation is, of course, that although April contains a maximum 
far above that of June, it also contains in the earlier part of the 
month many low records that pull down the average when the 
month is treated as a whole. The maxima in high average bulk of 


catch extending over the month, but not in exceptional catches, 
are seen from this Hst to be in June and October, and especially 
in the latter. 

If we look now for the largest individual hauls of a single 
species of Copepod we find that they occur in April, August, 
and September. The following are some of the more important 
of these : — 

April 9— Pseudocalanus elongatus 16,000 

9 — Teinora longicoruis 19,000 

23 — Calanus belgolandicus 13,480 

24 — Acartia c] ausi 28,000 

Aug. 13-Oithouasimili.s 14,000 

17— „ „ 25,000 

24— Acartia clausi 29,000 

27— „ „ 24,700 

29 — Pseudocalanus elongatus 23,000 

Sept. 4 — Acartia clausi 23,600 

4 — Pseudocalanus elongatus 36,000 

12— „ „ 33,600 

18— „ ., 25,000 

20— Oitbona similis 29,270 

These also bear out the idea of maxima in April and in autumn, 
the latter being the more important one ; in both cases they follow 
the phytoplankton. As a rule a haul rich in Copepoda has few- 
Diatoms, and vice versa, but the Copepoda do not, like the Diatoms, 
present great maxima and marked depressions. Even when both 
groups are present in the plankton we frequently find that they 
are in different zones ; for exauiple, in some April hauls in 1907 
the Diatoms were markedly on the surface and the Copepoda 
below, while later in the year these positions were reversed. 

The distribution of particular Copepoda (Calanus, Anomalocera, 
Microcalanns, Pseudocalanus, Centropages, Temora) have been fol- 
lowed separately and form interesting studies. Calanus, Pseudo- 
calanus, Centropages, and Temora are present throughout the year ; 
Anomalocera appears in our district in spring ; Microcalanns in late 

The Diatom fauna makes its appearance again in September 
(fig. 3). The two surface-nets on Sept. 12th show very large 
numbers of Diatoms, extending up to 13 millions and 16 millions 
in single hauls in the case of Ehizosolenia semispina — in fact this 
highest peak in the September maximum of Diatoms is mainly 
composed of this one species of Bhizosolenia, whereas in the spring 
maximum the bulk of the catch is made up of Chceioceros contortum 
and Thalassiosira Nordenshioldii, species that are rare or altogether 
absent in September gatherings. The genus Thalassiosira is 
mainly a spring form, rarely present after May, and is not repre- 
sented in autumn in this year's results. 

When a comparison is made between the three similar open 
tow-nets which were worked together for 15 minutes at a time — 
two at or close to the surface, and the other weighted so that it 
was lowered to a depth of about ten fathoms, and gradually rose, 
as the boat went slowly ahead, to a depth of a foot or two below 
the surface — it is almost invai'iably found that the weighted net, 


with its wider range through the deeper layers o£ water, gave a 
larger and sometimes a much larger quantity of organisms. The 
only exceptions to this rule are on some occasions in April, when 
the sea was full of Diatoms and the surface-nets gaye very large 
hauls, equal to or even exceeding the deeper ones. But even 
during the Diatom maximum in April some days showed more 
in the weighted than in the surface-nets. For example, on 
April 10th, at along-shore station III, the surface gave 11-5 and 
the net at one fathom 19'5 c.c, and the total Diatoms were 
27,000 in the former and 188,000 in the latter. 

In some cases, as I showed last year, the two similar surface- 
nets worked together gave dissimilar results. Even when the 
results are very much alike quantitatively, they may be very 
different qualitatively ; and it is by no means always the two 
hauls that are most alike in bulk that agree best in the kind 
and number of organisms. It will probably be agreed that it 
is unlikely that, with the large, varied and irregularly scattered 
population that we jfind the sea to contain, two nets should 
often catch the same quantities of the same sets of organisms. 
Consequently a result like that obtained on April 22nd, where 
the two nets caught precisely the same amounts and where the 
lists of organisms constituting the hauls are almost exactly alike 
both in kinds and numbers, is interesting. 

On considering the Diatom list, some other points come out : — 
The average number of Diatoms per catch often varies considerably 
from day to da v. Thus on April 5th the average of all catches of 
that day was 3,533,800, while on April 6th it fell to 348,750 ; 
on April 24th it was 191,873, while on April 25th it was only 

But these numbers scarcely give an adequate idea of the 
quantitative variation among individual catches. Thus on 
{September 10th surface-nets A and B contained 250 and 550 
respectively, while two days later the corresponding numbers were 
13,495,500 and 16,300,500; on April 8th two hauls of the 
JSTansen net gave respectively 198,000 and 3,739,000, and many 
other such cases could be quoted. 

A general inspection of an uusmoothed curve drawn from the 
list of Diatom hauls within Port Erin Bay, shows a well-marked 
maximum at the end of March and earlier part of April. The 
marked increase of Diatoms, and also of Copepod Nauplii, towards 
the end of March is seen well in the following three surface 
hauls : — 

March 26. March 27. March 29. 

12 c.c. 145 c.c. 18o c.c. 

Total Diatoms = 220,000 ... 277,000 ... 326,000 

Biddulphia mobiliensis 46,000 ... 50,000 ... 58,000 

Chffitoceros debile 6,000 ... 8,000 ... 10.000 

decipiens 100,000 ... 150,000 ... 160,000 

Coscinodiscus eoncinnus 64,000 ... 67,000 ... 75,000 

Oopepod Nauplii 7,000 ... 27,000 ... 35,000 

There is also an autumn maximum in the Bay showing a very 


high peak at the end of September. Omitting, however, the 
single catch of September 30th (which is due in the main to 
lihizosolenia semisjpina) the peak is reduced to less than one-third 
its former height. A remarkable feature of this September hump 
is the sudden character of its appearance and disappearance and 
its short duration (six days). An inspection of the temperature 
curve of the year for the water of the Bay, shows that the sudden 
increase in the phytoplankton coincided with the maximum in 
temperature; and our weekly weather records at the Biological 
Station show at that same time a week of fine calm weather with 
easterly breezes (S.E. and E.S.E.). I have noticed the same 
phenomenon in previous years, both at Port Erin and on the 
west coast of Scotland, which seems to indicate that if weather 
conditions be suitable at the end of autumn the phytoplankton 
may suddenly increase so as to constitute a second jnaximum in 
the year, the first being in spring ; but that this possible " maxi- 
mum " may be so modified in time and in amount by temperature 
and wind as to be unrecognisable. In 1906 it was very much 
more marked at Port Erin than in 1907, and lasted longer. 

The phytoplankton minimum for the bay occurs in August, no 
Diatoms being taken from August 9th to August 23rd, though 
nettings were taken on all days included between these dates save 

As an example of a sudden change in the plankton, we may 
compare the surface hauls taken in the bay on October 1st and 
14th. The total quantities of the two gatherings were 1*5 and 
1]*5 i-espectively ; on the 1st, Diatoms were relatively abundant 
(over 91,000) ; by the 14th they had disappeared. But Sagitta 
and various larvae, and especially Copepoda, had greatly increased 
in number by the latter date. The adult Copepoda in all numbered 
only 1,045 on the 1st, while they reached 27,790 by the 14th ; 
younger forms and Nauplii had also become much more abundant. 
By November, however, the Diatoms were back in quantity, and 
Copepoda had begun to decrease again. 

The Dinoflagellata rise to a maximum in April later than the 
Diatoms, and may have a second period of sudden increase in the 
autumn if weather conditions are favourable. 

Ceratium tripos is the most abundant species of Dinoflagellate 
in the Irish Sea, and is present practically all the year round in 
considerable abundance (up to 7753 per haul) at the Isle of Man. 
Our 650 gatherings in one year showed C. tripos on 492 

The curve for Ceratium tripos agrees in general with that for 
the total Dinoflagellates, but differs markedly from those both of 
Diatoms and Copepoda. The spi-ing maximum in the Dino- 
flagellates is later thivn that of the Diatoms, but precedes that of 
the Copepoda. Then again the September hump of the Dino- 
flagellates is earlier than that of the Diatoms, and much earlier 
than the October maximum of Copepoda. On the whole the 
annual curve for the Dinoflagellates lies intermediate between 
those for Diatoms and Copepoda. 


Sagitta is present throughout the year ; it is most abundant in 
August, and the minimum occurs in winter (January to March). 

As showing the difference produced by a lai'ger net of wider 
mesh, we find that during April, when the hauls with the ordinary 
tow-nets were giving units and tens, those taken at the same 
time with the shear-net ran into hundreds, as follows : — 360, 
123, 286, 310, 200, 200, 400, 400, 300, 800. The fact, however, 
that the weighted tow-net, not invariably, but usually, took a much 
larger number than the similar surface-nets, shows that Sagitta is 
usually more abundant in a zone of water below the surface, 
extending down to 10 fathoms, and that consequently the much 
greater numbers obtained by the shear-net may be due not wholly 
to the size of the net and mesh but in part to the depth at 
which it was worked. 

The Nauplius and Cypris stages of Balanus form an interesting 
study. The adult Barnacles are present in enormous abundance 
on the rocks of Bradda Head, and they reproduce in winter, at 
the beginning of the year. The Nauplii first appeared in 1907 
in the bay gatherings on February 22nd, and increased with ups 
and downs to their maximum on April 15th, and then decreased 
until their disappearance on April 26th. None were taken at any 
other time of the year. The " Cypris " stage follows on after the 
Nauplius. It is first taken in the bay on April 6th, rises to its 
maximum on the same day with the Nauplii, and was last caught 
on May 24th. Throughout, the " Cypris " curve keeps below that 
of the Nauplius, the maxima being 1,740 and 10,500 respective!}'. 
Probably the difference between the two curves represents tlie 
death-rate of the Balani during the Nauplius stage. 

The two large Copepoda Calanns helgola adieus (Claus) and Ano- 
malocera paitersoni. Temp., are both regarded as " oceanic " species, 
and are both present in fair abiindanee in the Irish Sea. They 
are two of the most conspicuous objects in our plankton gatherings, 
and can readily be picked out with the eye and counted. 

Calanus was present in our gatherings in 1907 during every 
month of the year from January 8th to December 30th. It was 
represented on nearly every occasion when hauls were taken, and 
in some cases when absent from one net it was taken in another 
gathering made on the same day, showing that the apparent 
absence was due either to irregular distribution or to some imper- 
fection in the sampling of the sea. When, then, we find that a 
species like this is not recorded from a particular haul at a time 
of year when gatherings are being taken once a week only, one is 
inclined to suspect from the appearance of the records at other times 
when the observations were more frequent, that if another haul 
had been taken that day or on an adjoining day the species would 
have been represented. 

Anomalocera, on the other hand, first appears in our records 
on March 29th, and then only in the form of metanauplii (100, 
170, and 30 in surface hauls off the Calf Island). It continues 
to be represented, in small numbers, by both adults and young, 
throughout August and September, and finally on November 8th. 


The distribution ol Microcalanus pusilhis, Gr. O. Sars, throughout 
the year is interesting. It appears for the first time in our records 
late in August, and remains fairly constantly present but never very 
abundant throughout the autumn until January, when it disappears. 
During the first few weeks it is only in the offshore hauls, 
appearing first out in mid-channel on August 24th in the Hensen 
and Nansen nets that were let down to 60 fathoms and hauled up 
vertically. As specimens were present in all the nets that were 
closed when they had been pulled up to 45 fathoms, and were 
not present in the surface and other nets used above this level, 
it is evident that this Copepod was on its first appearance only in 
the deep water in mid-channel. It was encountered next on 
August 26th, in the weighted net hauled at 10 fathoms, on the inner 
edge of the Train bank, some eight miles off land. On August 31st 
it made its appearance at Station I in the Hensen and Nansen 
nets hauled up from 24 fathoms, and in the weighted net from 
10 fathoms — the latter having 350 specimens. It was also present 
on September 2nd and 3rd, under the same circumstances. On 
September 4th we again fouud it in n)id-channel in the vertical 
nets which had been down to 60 fathoms ; it was still not present 
in the surface-nets nor in the inshore waters. 

On September 6th, Microcalanus appeared for the first time 
inshore, at Station IV, off the Calf Island, but only in the Hensen 
and Nansen nets which had been closed at 8 and 15 fathoms 
respectively ; it was not present in the surface hauls taken at the 
same time. It was next met with on September 1 1th, ab Station Y, 
south of Calf Sound, inside the Wart Bank, when 100 specimens 
were taken in each of the two surface-nets, 150 in the weighted 
net at 10 fathoms, and 5, 5, 5, 3, in the four vertical nets (2 
Hensen and 2 ]^ansen) hauled from 20 up to 10 fathoms. It had 
evidently become distributed by this time all through the water 
around the Calf Island. The following day, the species w^as 
present in nearly all the numerous nets worked at various depths 
down to 60 fathoms in mid-channel ; and it then reached its 
climax in numbers, 2000 in the net at 10 fathoms and 2500 in an 
open tow-net attached to the shear-net at 20 fathoms. Finally, 
on September 21st Microcalanus turned up for the first time in 
the surface gatherings taken across Port Erin Bay. It was present 
in these bay gatherings on October 1st (35) and 24th (100), 
November 8th (100), December 20th (80) and 23rd (50), and 
finally January 8th (50 specimens). 

This record looks like the immigration of an oceanic species in 
summer up the deep water of the mid-channel between the Isle of 
Man and Ireland, and then its gradual spread in late autumn into 
the shallower inshore waters and fiiiall}' to the surface of the bay, 
where it remained throughout the winter. 

Centropages hamatus (Lilljeborg) occurs in the Irish Sea all the 
year round. It is on our records for 1907 in every month, and is 
practically continuously present from January 8th to December 
30th. The numbers are low at the beginniug of the year, but 
reach 600 in one haul of the surface-net by April 9th, and 1300 


on April 24th. Contrary to the usual rule, this species seems 
more abundant on the surface than deeper. 

Temora longicornis (Miill.) occurs the whole year round from 
January to December, attains to high numbers in early spring, and 
remains fairly abundant into late autumn. It reaches close on 
7000 in one haul on April 1st, and 19,000 on April 9th ; and 
shows 1280 and 1600 up to the 23rd of September. Temora 
longicornis seems to be equally abundant inside the bay and in the 
open sea, on the surface and in the deeper waters. Sometimes 
the large numbers are in the surface-nets, and at other times in 
the weighted net from below. This is one of the species that 
congregates in swarms, and so is occasionally caught in unusually 
large numbers. Of four similar hauls taken across Port Erin Bay 
on April 13th, the first two gave 875 and 620 and the last two 
1550 and 3700 specimens of Temora. On the same date three 
hauls (two surface and oue deeper) taken outside (Station III) 
gave 800, 850 and 900 specimens, which seems to indicate an even 
distribution, but half an hour later a couple of miles away the 
same two surface-nets gave 2400 and 4750 specimens ; and 
moreover in this last case nearly all the Temora in the 2400 were 
young, while in the second net the 4750 were all adults, indicating 
a segregation of the stages in sAvarms. 

A set of hauls were taken at the end of August on Station V, 
inside the Wart Bank. One remarkable feature of this occasion 
was that the Hensen net hauled up from 14 fathoms contained 
150 specimens of what is probably a new species of Leptopsyllus, 
while the Nansen net used at the same time, and at the same 
depth, on the other side of the ship, caught twice as much material 
but not a single specimen of the new Copepod. The surface-nets 
are also somewhat divergent in their results, while the deeper 
weighted net has caught a very much larger quantity of material, 
the greater part of which is clearly made up of Copepoda both 
young and old — about ninety-five thousand in all. 

The two species of Cladocera found in our district, Podon inter- 
medius and Evadne nordmanni, occur mainly in summer, in a wide 
sense, ranging from the end of March to the beginning of October. 
Our first record of Podon is six specimens on March 26th, and the 
last is fifty on October 9th. Evadne begins with ten on March 
29th, reached 500 on April 9th, and ends with 50 on September 
20th. Tens, twenties and thirties are common numbers in the 
records of both species, but sometimes the hundreds are reached. 
As a rule there is no great difference between surface and deeper 
hauls, and occasionally there is a great constancy of results, indi- 
cating an even distribution : — e.g., on April 18th at Station II. 

At Station II. Surface-nets. 10 faths. Shear-net. 

Podon intermedins 150 150 — — 

Evadne nordmanni 100 100 150 50 50 

On April 19th, in the bay, two similar surface hauls took 40 
and 37 Podon, and 75 Evadne each ; and at the same time, at 



Station II, ten miles ofi', the two surface-nets took 40 Podon and 
75 Evadne each. Other similar cases might be quoted ; but ou 
the other hand there are diverse hauls on other dates showing a 
very uneven distribution. The numbers during May and June are 
relatively high : — 

Podon 190 80 150 100 100 150 

Eyadne 60 80 300 300 300 650 

This is the highest point reached by Evadne, and this form is 
practically absent, or only occasionally present, during the latter 
half of August and parts of September. Podon reaches a climax 
(500) rather later, on August 13th, and soon after that drops to 
tens and even units, with an occasional appearance (August 31st 
200) in greater numbers. During most of September the group 
is but scantily represented ; although neither species is ever 
absent for long, and occasional larger numbers occur — such as 
September 19th, off Calf Island, deep net, Podon 70 and Evadne 
100 ; and September 20lh, Station I, shear-net, Podon 110 and 290, 
deep net 140, and, at the same time, inside the bay, 182. On 
September 23rd the ordinary surface-net inside the bay took 550 
Podon, and the following day 100, after which the numbers fall 
ofi" rapidly. 

The common species of Oikoj^leura that occurs in our district 
{0. dioica) is also a form which seems to deserve special notice. 
It occurs throughout the year, beiug present in every month, and. 
represented in nearly every gathering. It is absent or rare in 
the case of the hauls taken on a few dates between August 24th 
and 28th, and then again on September 4th and 5th. With those 
exceptions, Oilcopleura is one of the most constant of organisms at 
all times of the year, and, moreover, is usually present in quantities 
that range within narrow limits, so that it does not vary to the 
extent that some Copepoda and Diatoms do. In the winter 
months — December, January, February and March — the numbers 
taken are low, but from April to November inclusive quantities of 
a thousand or two per net are very frequently taken. The highest 
numbers occur in April, and they only reach 5500 per net, so 
there is no marked maximum. 

In some cases the numbers of Oilcopleura remain remarkably 
constant for several hauls, indicating a very general distribution 
through the water. For example, in one traverse of Port Erin 
Bay 2780 were caught, and in the return traverse 2030 ; then 
again, two adjacent hauls gave 3840 and 3600 respectively, and 
another pair of simultaneous hauls gave 2250 each. But on the 
other hand, on another occasion, two successive traverses of the 
bay gave 5050 and 2480 respectively, and other examples of 
diverse results might be quoted from our records. But on the 
whole the impression received by an inspection of the records is 
that Oil-oplei'.ra is more evenly distributed through the water than 
most of the other common organisms. 

In regard to the horizontal distribution, a mere inspection of 

LINN. see. PROCEEDINGS. — SESSION 1907-1908. d 


our results shows in some cases close resemblances between 
adjacent stations (such as I and II) on the same day, or between 
adjacent days at the same station, and in other cases just as 
striking differences. How far these points of similarity and of 
divergence are normal and are fundamental, or how far they are 
due to wind, sun, and other weather conditions, or to tidal or other 
currents, will require detailed consideration. 

A further point that has been brought out in the progress of 
this investigation is the obvious distribution of at least some 
organisms in swarms. This can occasionally be seen b}^ the eye, 
when, for example, shoals of large Medusae are encountered which 
are so abundant for a limited area that on a calm day they may 
cover the surface Hke a tessellated pavement, and assume polygonal 
forms from mutual pressure. On other occasions the nets have 
evidently encountered swarms of Copepoda, of Cirripede Nauplii, 
of Crab Zoeas, of worm larvae or of other organisms. One might 
expect such results in the case of neritic forms, w"hich are merely 
stages in the life-history of some gregarious organism ; but the 
occurrence is by no means confined to such, it extends to oceanic 
organisms on the high seas, and this sporadic distribution in 
swarms has not been sufficiently taken into account by some 
writers who have treated of the distribution of the plankton in 
recent years. 

The Irish Sea contains a surprising number of w^hat are usually 
regarded as " oceanic " species — not merely as occasional visitants, 
but as normal and continuous constituents of the plankton during 
a great part of the year. Amongst these may be mentioned 
Chcetoceros densum, Coscinodiscus radiatus, Itliizosolenia semispina, 
Ceratiuni tripos, Peridinium sp., Tomopteris onisciformis, Sagitta 
hipunctata, Pleurobrachia pileus, Calanus Jielgolandicus, Anomalocera 
pattersoni, Acartia clausi, Oithona similis, and OikojjJeura dioica. 
Some of these oceanic species seem, so far as we can judge from 
the published records, to be more abundant and more continuously 
present round the Isle of Man than they are even in the \A'estern 
part of the Enghsh Channel. 

We have evidence from our closing vertical nets that the zone 
of most abundant life is not on the surface but is generally a few 
fathoms below — sa)^ usually, between 5 aud 10 fatlioms. Samples 
of water from 5, 10 and 20 fathoms obtained with the " Mill " 
water-bottle support the above statement. But this conclusion was 
arrived at and could be established, quite apart from the evidence 
of the vertical nets, from a comparison of the results obtained by 
the weighted and surface open horizontal tow-nets. At the time of 
the Diatom maximum in spring, however, our closing vertical nets 
showed that these Protophyta are more abundant in the deeper 
zones than at the surface, and increase in density downwards to at 
least 20 fathoms. 

In the cases of some groups, e. g. Cladocera and Oikopleura, 
the distribution is sometimes remarkably regular, the same 
numbers being taken simultaneously by comparable nets at 


localities up to ten miles apart ; but on the other hand, even with 
these same groups there may, on other dates, be very diverse hauls 
indicating an uneven distribution. Some species, and some groups 
of neritic larvae markedly congregate in shoals, and this also adds 
to the uneveuness of the distribution. 

The horizontal distribution of the plankton is consequently 
liable to be very variable and irregular, and although its character- 
istic constitution at different times of the year may be described, 
and the relative abundance of the different groups discussed, it 
is very doubtful whether any numerical estimates can be framed 
which will be applicable to wide areas. 

It is clear that samples taken quarterly, monthly, or even fort- 
nightly, are quite inadequate to convey a correct idea of the 
constitution and changes of the plankton of a sea-area in any 
detail ; and, consequently, conclusions ought not to be drawn from 
such insufficient observations. Samples, taken weekly throughout 
the year, and almost daily during the three most critical months, 
give by no means too much information, but will probably suffice 
to enable one to make that detailed comparison between adjacent 
localities and dates which are necessary for the purpose of 
determining the representative value of such periodic samples. 

In thinking of this address last winter there was another 
subject that I hoped to have laid before you. It was a com- 
parison of the conditions of a certain fishing bank in the Irish 
Sea 70 years ago and at the present time, and it seemed to me 
that this would be a particularly appropriate study to lay before 
this Society since it involved questions of Zoology, Botany, and 
Greology combined which might interest many of our Fellows. 
I started some of the necessary investigations at sea last summer 
and hoped to have completed them this Easter, but unfortunately 
winds and weather were such in the Irish Sea during April that 
I could not get near to the bank in question. Consequently, the 
research is still incomplete, but it may interest you to have the 
problem briefly stated, and I shall hope on some future occasion 
to publish the results obtained. 

In the 'Annals and Magazine' for 1839 Professor Edward 
Forbes published a short paper entitled, " On a Shell-bank in the 
Irish Sea, considei'ed Zoologically and Greologically " (Ann. & 
Mag. Nat. Hist. vol. iv. 1840, p. 217), in which he recorded the 
results obtained during some years of occasional dredging on a 
scallop bank lying opposite Ballaugh off the North- West of the 
Isle of Man. As these observations extended over seven years 
previous to 1839, if we reckon from a period about the middle of 
his Mork we may consider that we are now dealing with a record 
of the condition of the marine fauna on this bank well over 
70 years ago. It seemed to me that we had here an opportunity, 
such as rarely occurs, of determining whether any change had 
taken place in a limited, well-defined area after a considerable 
interval of time. Forbes, unfortunately, did not deal with all 



groups of animals, and in fact he paid most attention to Mollusca, 
and only recorded in addition the Echinodermata and a few of 
the Zoophytes. Still we may be thankful for what he has gi\'en 
us at such an early date, and it will be interesting to see what 
can be made of it in comparison with our observations at the 
present time. He ends his paper with the following para- 
graph : — 

" I have drawn up these observations chiefly in the hope of 
inducing others to present us with similar reviews of the shell- 
banks of our coast. Greology and zoology will gain as much by 
inquiring how our marine animals are associated together as by 
investigating genera and species, though the former subject has, 
as yet, been but little attended to in comparison with the latter."' 

That sentiment is in such thorough accord with the views of 
nature frequently expressed in these rooms, that I am sure you 
will approve of Forbes's observations of seventy years ago, and of 
my view that the work he began should now be continued and 

As yet we have had only a few days' work on the Ballaugh 
bank, and if we have already found more species than Eorbes 
records, that does not necessarily lead us to the conclusion that 
the fauna is now more abundant, since we have dealt with some 
groups of animals that were not given in the older list, and 
possibly our modern methods with a convenient steamer, an 
Agassiz trawl and wire-rope enable us to work more rapidly and 
effectively. But looking merely at the groups recorded by Forbes, 
w^e find that we have not found quite so many Mollusca, but a 
great many more Zoophytes and Polyzoa. The bank seems to be 
particularly rich in Nudibranchiata and in Coelenterata ; in one 
haul we counted 200 beautiful colonies of Alcyonium digitatum, 
including both white and orange forms. 

There is no object in making a detailed comparison or in 
attempting to draw any conclusions until we have done more 
work on the bank, and accumulated a greater number of records. 
It occurred to me, however, that it would be interesting to extend 
the range of the observations by including two other shell-banks 
under somewhat different conditions, and showing apparently very 
different bottom-deposits. These are (1) the Train bank, lying 
about 8 miles N.W. of Port Erin, where there is a good deal of 
mud mixed M'ith the sand ; and (2) the Wart bank, lying 2 miles 
S. of Spanish Head, near Port St. Mary, and having the bottom 
formed chiefly of broken shells and other calcareous fragments. 
These three banks — the Ballaugh, the Train, and the Wart — 
lying in the " Coralline" zone off the Isle of Man, ought, in the 
end, to give us interesting information in regard to the common 
characteristics and the individual features of such fishing banks 
in our seas. The problems of the sea are still manifold, and at 
least as important, in their connection with human affairs, as any 
that confront the modern biologist. 


Mr. John Hopkinson moved : — " That the President be thanked 
for his excellent Address, and that he be requested to allow it to 
be pi'inted and cii'culated amongst the Pellows," which was 
seconded by Mr. P. Ewinc4, and carried unanimously. 

The ballots for Council and Officers having been respectively 
closed at the times recjuired by the Bye-Laws, the President 
appointed Mr. George S. Saunders, INIr. E. li. Burdon, and Mr. 
Henry Groves, Scrutineers. The votes having been counted by 
them and reported to the President, he declared the result as 
follows : — 

For the Council: — E. A. jSTewell Arbee, M.A., Leonard A. 
Boodle, Esq., Prof. Gilbert G. Bourne, D.Sc, Sir Prank Crisp, 
Prof. Arthur Dendy, D.Sc, F.R.S., Prof. J. B. Farmer, F.R.S., 
Dr. G. Herbert Fowler, Prof. W. A. Herdman, F.R.S., Prof. 
J. P. Hill, M.A., D.Sc, John Hopkinson, F.G.S., Dr. B. Daydon 
Jackson, Horace W. Monckton, F.G.S., Prof. F. W. Oliyer, 
F.R.S., R. INNES PococK, F.Z.S., Lt.-Col. D. Prain, F.R.S., Miss 
Ethel Sargant, Dr. Dukinfield H. Scott, F.R.S., Dr. Otto 
Staff, F.R.S., Prof. F. E. Weiss, D.Sc, and Dr. A. Smith Wood- 
ward, F.R.S. 

The President then appointed the same Scrutineers to examine 
the ballot for the Officers, and the votes having been cast up and 
reported to the President, he declared the result as follows : — 

President: Dr. Dukinfield Henry Scott, M.A., F.R.S. 

Treasurer : Horace W. Monckton, F.G.S. 

Secretaries : Dr. ]3. Daydon Jackson, 

Prof. A. Dendy, D.Sc, F.R.S., and 
Dr. Otto Staff, F.R.S. 

The President then addressing the Rev. T. R. R. Stebbing, 
M.A., F.R.S., some time Fellow and Tutor of AYorcester College, 
Oxford, and recently Zoological Secretary of the Linnean Society, 
spoke as follows : — 

Mr. Stebbing, — Pleasant as it always must be to a President 
to act as the representative of the Council in declaring the award 
of the Linnean Medal to a distinguished man of Science, I think 
you will understand how especially congenial the duty is to me 
on the present occasion, when the worthy recipient is a tried 
friend and has been an honoured colleague. To you and to me, 
Mr. Stebbiug, it might be more natural and more pleasant if 1 
were able to stop at this point ; but, as you are aware, it is our 
custom to have the claims of the medallist recited, so 1 must do 
my duty even to your face, and you must submit with what 
patience you can muster. 


The Eev. T. E. E. Stebbing, F.E.S., has been an ardent and 
most successful student of the Crustacea for the last 35 years. 
His first contribution to knowledge on the subject is dated 1873 *, 
and he has published in all between 60 and 70 important roemoirs 
and papers. During all these years he has been indefatigable 
in making known novelties in structure, classification, and dis- 
tribution, and in correcting errors in fact or in nomenclature. 
Although he has ranged widely over the A'ast field of Carcinology, 
still his chief labours have been amongst the Isopoda and 

To most zoologists, however, Mr. Stebbing's name is chiefly 
known in connection not with this mass of special papers, but 
with certain great works of a monographic nature. His report 
upon the Amphipoda of the ' Challenger ' Expedition (1888) 
occupies three massive quarto volumes comprising 1761 pages of 
letterpress and 212 lithographed plates. This monumental work 
is remarkable not only for the careful and accurate descriptions 
and drawings of the many new species, but even more for the 
invaluable bibliography giving a full and critical report of every- 
thing that had been written respecting these Crustacea from the 
time of Aristotle to the year 1887. This detailed analysis occupies 
more than 600 pages, and is nothing less than a history of our 
knowledge of the group. 

Turning for a moment to two less monumental, but excellent 
volumes, we have (1) our author's ' Naturalist of Cumbrae,' pub- 
lished in 1891, and giving a chai-ming account of the life and 
work of the veteran west-coast marine biologist David Eobertson ; 
and (2) his ' History of Crustacea ' (1893), published in the Inter- 
national Scientific Series — an extremely useful Avork. which has 
supplied many students and teachers with the most recent 
information and correct nomenclature in regard to the British 
species of Podophthalmata, Cumacea, and Isopoda. 

One of the latest and perhaps the most valuable of Stebbing's 
works is his volume of 'Das Tierreich ' (21. Lieferung, Amphi- 
poda : I. Grammaridea, Berlin 1906), which gives abundant evidence 
of his untiring labour and exhaustive research. This colossal 
work gives masterly diagnoses of every known species of the 
group, and must for long remain the standard work on the 
subject. The amount gf skilled labour expended upon this book 
and upon his ' Challenger ' report is almost appalling to con- 

It is impossible to allude on this occasion to the numerous 
useful papers on Amphipoda pubHshed by our Medallist in the 
'Annals and Magazine of Natural History,' and elsewhere, 
between 1874 and 1908 — and each one of them bringing a welcome 
contribution to science — but I shall mention in conclusion a few 

* But his scientific career apparently began in 1869 with a paper on 
" Darwinism," read before the Torquay Natural Historj^ Society, and re-pub- 
lished in his little volume entitled 'Essavs on Darwinism ' (Longmans, Green, 
&Co.: London, 1871). 


of his more important larger papers published in the ' Transac- 
tions ' of our own and other Societies : — 

A joint report, in 1SS6, with our former Linnean Medallist, 
Canon Xorman, on the Isopoda of the ' Lightning,' 
' Porcupine,' and ' Valorous ' Expeditions (Trans. Zool. 
Soc. vol. xii.). 

New Amphipoda from Singapore and New Zealand (Trans. 
Zool. Soc. vol. xii., 1887). 

The Genus Urotlio'e, &c. (Trans. Zool. Soc. vol. xiii., 1891). 

Amphipoda of the Voyages of the ' Willem Barents ' in Arctic 
Seas ; 1894. 

Nine new species of Amphipoda from the Tropical Atlantic 
(Trans. Zool. Soc. vol. xiii., 1895), 

Crustacea brought by Dr. Willey from the South Seas : 1900. 

Amphipoda from the Copenhagen Museum, &c. (Trans. Linn. 
Soc, Zool. 2 ser. vol. vii., 1897-99). 

Eeport on Isopoda in Herdman's Ceylon Pearl Fisheries, 
Part IV. (Eoyal Soc, 1905). 

Marine Investigations in South Africa — South African Crus- 
tacea, four parts ; 1900-1908. 

Any analysis of these or other papers I might add to the 
list would take me far beyond the limits of time set on this 
occasion. I have heard it said that the distinguishing qualities of 
Mr. Stebbing's work are critical insight, industry and accuracy, 
and it would be difficult to find a more valuable combination for 
the promotion of true science. 

There is, however, another side to Mr. Stebbing's work Mhich 
I must just mention, and that is his zeal and influence in 
promoting the study of Natural History in local scientific societies, 
and his success in interesting the layman in the results of 
scientific research. Finally, we in this Society do not require to 
be reminded of our medallist's whole-hearted devotion to our 
interests during the four years when he occupied the important 
position of Zoological Secretary. His labours both on the 
Council and at our evening meetings were much appreciated, 
and we were very unwilling to allow him to retire from office, 
even while we appi'oved his wish to obtain more leisure for 
original work. 

W^'e ask you, Mr. Stebbing, to receive this Medal as a recogni- 
tion on our part of your successful devotion to Natural Science, 
and we hope that you may long continue those admirable 
researches which have so widely extended our knowledge of 

In reply Mr. Stebbixg said : — 

Mr. President, Ladies and Gentlemen, — Some of you may 
remember the legal story of a man charged with stealing a silver 
cup. By the eloquence and ingenuity of the counsel assigned to 


him he was triumphantly acquitted. In the afternoon he called 
upon his advocate, and pathetically explained that he was too 
poor to pay any fee, unless the gentleman would accept the silver 
cup. After listening to all that the President has so skilfully 
urged in my defence, I almost feel as if I ought to ofer him the 
medal back again, to show that I too know how to be grateful. 

This is an occasion when pride and humility go hand in hand. 
The most modest of men could not help feeling elated at so signal 
an honour as the bestowal of this medal confers. Most of you 
are already well aware that I am (or was) the most modest of 
men, but you have spoiled all that and ruined my character by 
making me the proudest. At any rate the circumstances may 
excuse my being a little egotistical, not to praise, or appraise, but 
simply to explain myself. The education of my boyhood some 
sixty years ago, according to the custom of the time, included no 
tincture of science. It was nothing accounted of in those days. 
All the attractions and rewards wei'e in other directions. When, 
a few years later, I went up to Oxford, it happened that 
Dr. Acland offered a prize for the best essay on the Fauna of 
Christ Church Meadow. To myself and other undergraduates, 
on reading the notice posted in the College Hall, the scope of the 
subject was a rather comical mystery. In the year 1858, a year 
which this Society considers memorable, it chanced that my time 
came to take orders, and I was examined and ordained by a 
memorable man, Samuel Wilberforce, then Bishop of Oxford. 
For some years before and after that date I was engaged in 
learning and teaching a miscellaneous mass of ancient classics and 
modern history, English law and general theology. During this 
period there broke out, as you well know, a furious controversy 
between the champions of science and the champions of orthodox 
religion. Had the ecclesiastical party not lifted their voices so 
loudly, I might long have remained in a state of ingenuous 
innocence. But the clamour was shrill and in due course 
penetrated to my ears. Being an enthusiastic young clergyman, 
and also in those days passionately fond of arguing, I felt it my 
bounden duty to join in the fray. 

You see, I had at my command a weapon of keen temper, long 
tested, and guaranteed to be invincible, if rightly used, against 
every other that could be wielded against it. Accoi'dingly I 
approached the reading of Charles Darwin's ' Origin of Species ' 
with an easy confidence that I should be able to smash up his 
heresy and others like it. Instead of which I became an ardent 
convert, and very soon went on to deliver lectures and preach 
sermons, harpiiig continually on the new views. These expres- 
sions of opinion were, it appeared, very agreeable to those who 
agreed with them, but very annoying and distasteful to the 

After a while it occurred to me that I knew scarcely anything 
at first hand of those facts of nature upon which the issue of the 
contest really rested. This reflection led me to those zoological 


studies, fascinating but laborious, since pursued through so many- 
years of my life, with it must be admitted a plodding industry, on 
the results of which the President this afternoon has contrived in 
his kindly review to shed a passing gleam of sunshine. Along 
with these unambitious efforts my awakened mind could not 
neglect the history and progress of science in some of its many 
branches. For, turn where you will, to astronomy, geology, 
biology, or almost any other compartment of human enquiry, you 
learn in some important regards the very same lessons. Por 
example, you find that the most eminent among teachers and 
thinkers and practical men all from time to time make gross 
blunders, so that confessedly we are all liable to error, even, as the 
witty Cambridge philosopher added, even the youngest of us. But 
apart from the stumblings of individual students, in every school 
of thought and section of science we find continual changes of 
opinion, new points of view and new discoveries upsetting old 
theories, however firmly they seemed to be grounded. The 
inference is clear that in man's intellectual efforts there is as yet 
no finality. We are and always have been only making guesses 
at truth. How absurd it would have been had any parliament of 
science been enabled to enact that all scientific truth was enun- 
ciated by a selected list of writers extending from Aristotle to 
Lord Bacon, and that nothing could be true in science unless it 
conformed with what those writers had already told us ! Now, 
this is exactly what has happened with a selected list of old 
Semitic literature, that very weapon which I was originally taught 
to confide in as invincible, and which thousands of persons still 
regard as a single book, instead of what it is in fact, a highly 
diversified assemblage of writings, attended by all those incidents 
of uncertainty to which human effort is at all times liable. 

There is, 1 think, nothing in science to prevent our believing 
that, unseen by the physical eye, there may be horses and chariots 
of fire camping round about the righteous to protect them from all 
evil, or that there may be guardian angels whispering to the inner 
ear, " This is the way, walk ye in it, turning neither to the right 
hand nor to the left." But, because these things are possible, is 
it not childish to maintain that the Hebrew literature, extending 
over many centuries, is one and indivisible, while the facts show 
plainly the very opposite of this contention ? From beginning to 
end we find a long succession of guesses at truth, some of them 
in the highest degree ennobling, consoling, full of hope, radiant 
with sweet charit}'-, but others totally inconsistent with these, 
grotesque or inhuman, such as have fettered the human mind for 
ages and have exercised over it again and again an intolerable 
tyranny. There is about to meet in this country a great Pan- 
Anglican Congress, in which will be gathered ecclesiastics, not 
only high in station but of lofty ideals, self-denying lives, men (be 
it remembered) fully equal in mental calibre to our leading men of 
science. Consider now the hold on general education which these 
able theologians with an immense following will claim to exercise. 


Consider, too, the vast energy which is expended on missionary' 
undertakiugs, and reflect that thousands of our clerical teachers, 
whatever their abilities, know practically nothing of science or 
criticism, but continue to draw the most momentous conclusions 
from premises preposterously weak. Under these circ'umstances 
ought our men of science coldly, haughtily, disdainfully to stand 
aloof from such a congress ? Ought they not rather to grapple 
with the situation and force, if possible, au answer to the question 
whether religion is the only science iu which the advancement of 
knowledge and the discovery of truth are of no importance. 

From these agitating thoughts the hour warns me that I must 
now abruptly turn to complete the shamefaced expression of my 
personal gratitude. I had thought of many hypotheses to 
account for the miracle of my position here to-day, but I renounce 
them all in favour of this simple acknowledgment, that I am 
steeped in "profound satisfaction at what I am fain to cherish aa 
an act of affection on the part of former colleagues and present 
companions in arms. It is au added charm that I have received 
the Medal from the hands of one who, during four stirring years 
of the Society's history, has presided over us with a wonderfully 
genial, enlightened, and inspiriting grace, and has shown himself 
to me, and no doubt to many others, invariably a warm-hearted 

The G-eneral Secretary then placed upon the table obituary 
notices of deceased Fellows and others. 

Lieut.-Colonel Peain, F.E.S., then moved a vote of cordial 
thanks to the retiring President for his valuable and unremitting 
exertions for the good of the Society during his term of office, 
which having been seconded by Mr. A. O. Walker was carried by 


Jose Vicente Barboza du Bocage was born in the island of 
Madeira on the 2nd May, 1823. Shortly afterwards his father 
was obliged to leave the island for political reasons and did not 
return till 1834, when the Liberal party had finally triumphed. 

In 1839 Jose Vicente was sent to Portugal, to the University 
of Coimbra, where he distinguished himself in Mathematics and 
Medicine. He took his degree in 1846, when a revolution taking 
place he enlisted in the Students' Battalion and served during 
the year's campaign under General Povoas. Peace being restored. 
Dr. Bocage settled in Lisbon and practised as a medical man, and 
was appointed Surgeon to the principal Lisbon Hospital. 


la 1849 he was appointed sub-professor of Zoology at the 
Polytechnic Institute. 

He married in 1851 and has had one son, the present Colonel 
Carlos Koma du Bocage, and his widow also survives him. 

In 1878 he was elected a deputy to the Portuguese Cortes, and 
there displayed considerable parliamentary talent; in 1881 he v\ as 
created a peer and joined the Upper House. 

In 1883 he took office as Minister of the Navy and Colonies, 
and in 1884 became Minister for Poreign Affairs. He then with- 
drew from politics and decided to devote his energies entirely to 
science ; but when, in 1890, the dispute occurred between Grreat 
Britain and Portugal regarding East African affairs, and Lord 
Salisbury was compelled to send an ultimatum to the Portuguese 
Government, he was requested by the King to resume the post of 
Minister for Foreign Affairs, which post he filled with great success 
during this critical period. After this he then retired finally from 
public life, merely attending occasionally the meetings of the 
Privy Council. 

He published many valuable works and papers on Zoology, and 
was a contributor to the Annals of the Academy of Sciences of 
Lisbon and to the Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. 
Amongst his best known works are those on the Birds of 
Portugal and the Azores, the Birds, Eeptiles, and some Mammals 
of Western Africa, also on Portuguese !Fishes, especially the 
Squalidae of the Portuguese coasts. 

Besides being a Councillor of State and member of the House 
of Peers, he held the Grand Crosses of the Orders of Santiago, of 
the Spanish Naval Order, and of the Austrian Order of Prancis 
Joseph, besides being a Knight Commander of the Legion of 
Honour and of the Order of Izabel la Catolica. 

Although his sight failed in the year 1896, he bore this trial 
with the greatest resignation and continued to do much valuable 
scientific work. The earlier part of his long life was passed in 
stormy times, but, unlike many others, he emerged with a blame- 
less reputation, and it was with great repugnance that he had 
repeatedly to abandon his beloved scientific pursuits to undertake 
many difficult political appointments. 

He was elected a Foreign Member of the Linnean Society in 
1876. [A. W. Tail] 

Dr. EoBEET Baenes was elected a Fellow on the 18th June, 1896, 
"when 78 years of age ; he died at Bernersmede, Eastbourne, on 
Sunday, 12th May, 1907. Born in 1818, he spent his early school- 
days in Bruges, and began his medical studies at University 
College, London, after an apprenticeship to a Mr. Griffin, at 
Norwich. He then became a student at St. George's Hospital, 
and after qualifying for practice as a member of the Eoyal College 
of Surgeons, London, he AAent to Paris in 1842, remaining a 


twelvemonth iu the study of Medicine, Surgery, and Obstetrics. 
Returning to England, he became a general practitioner at Netting 
Hill, and gradually attaining a position as a teacher, lie was 
appointed Assistant Obstetric Physician to the London Hospital. 
From this he passed to other hospital appointments, Avas a 
Member of the Eoyal College of Physicians in 1853, and Fellow 
in 1857. 

He left behind him the reputation of an able lecturer and 
teacher. His " Lectures on Obstetric Operations " is in its fourth 
edition, and still a text-book ; his smaller papers were entirely 
concerned with professional topics. He amassed a considerable 
fortune, of which he bequeathed .£2000 to London Hospitals. 

[B. D. J.] 

The Eev. Eichaed Barok was born 8th September, 184:7, and 
entered the Lancashire Independent College for theological 
training, but at the instigation of the veteran missionary William 
Ellis, of South-Sea Island and Madagascar fame, he resolved to 
devote his life to missionary work in the vast African island. 
He left England to take up his duties in 1872, but though he 
applied himself with remarkable success to mastering the Malagasy 
language, with subsequent translations into that tongue, he found 
time to study and collect plants and minerals. Of plants the 
total number sent by him to Kew between 1880 and 1896 
amounts to 11,834, many of which were described from time to 
time by Mr. J. G. Baker, P.E.S. The following are that botanist's 
chief papers upon Mr. Baron's materials : — 

(a) Contributions to the Flora of Central Madagascar. Journ. 

Bot. XX. (1882) 17-20, 45-51, 67-70, 109-114, 137- 

140, 169-173, 218-222, 243-245, 266-271. 
(6) Contributions to the Flora of Madagascar. — Part I. Poly- 

petalfe. Journ. Linn. Soc, Bot. xx. (1883) 87-158, 

pis. 22, 23. 

Part II. Monopetala?. lb. 159-236, pis. 24-27. 

Part III. Incompletae, Monocotyledons, and Filices. 

lb. 237-304. 

(c) Further Contributions to the Flora of Central Madagascar. 

lb. xxi. (1884) 317-353. 
— — Second and Final Part. lb. (1SS5) 407-455. 

(d) Further Contributions to the Flora of Madagascar. lb. 

XXV. (1889-90) 294-350, pis. 50-53. 

To these must be added Mr. Baron's own conclusions entitled 
" The Flora of Madagascar," in the last cited volume of our 
Journal (xxv. 246-224), with a sketch-map, which he read before the 
Society on 1st November, 1888 ; he had then been a Fellow since 
7th December, 1882. 

His mineralogical labours iu Madagascar were aided by the gift 
of a special microscope for prepared rock-specimens, from the 
Eoyal Society, and he also became a Fellow of the Greological 



Society in 1889. On his reaching his sixtieth year he contem- 
plated retiring, and came home on furlough in April 1907, staying 
for a few weeks in London, where he had an attack of blackwater 
fever. Eeeovering from this, he spent a couple of months in the 
Lake district, closing his trip A^ith a fortnight with a nephew in 
Kendal. Lea\ing that place for Morecambe, on the day after his 
arrival, October 12th, 1907, he seemed in his usual health in the 
morning ; in the afternoon a slight attack of fever set in, and he 
retired to bed, but shortly afterwards he expired. He was buried 
at Kendal the following Wednesday. 

The genus Baronia, of the natural family of Anacardiacese, was 
dedicated to our deceased Fellow by Mr. J. Gr. Baker, in 1882. 

[B. D. J.] 

Edavaed ARTnuR Lio>'EL Battees's death on the 11th August, 
1907, came as a painful surprise to his friends, who knew that he 
had only the month before removed from Hertfordshire into 
Buckinghamshire, at Gerrard's Cross. 

He was the fifth son of Mr. George Batters of Enfield, and 
was born on the 26th December, 18G0 ; he received his education 
at King's College School, London, and Trinity Hall, Cambridge, 
graduating in Arts, afterwards taking the degree of LL.B.,and being 
called to the Bar at Lincoln's Inn. Having early acquired a love 
for natural history, and not being dependent upon his profession, 
he came to study Algae with keen interest, and remained constant 
to that department of botany to the end of his life. 

In 1888 he published his first paper, "A description of three 
new Marine Algae," in our ' Journal,' Botany, xxiv. pp. 450-453, 
plate 18, and in the next year brought out his account of the 
Marine Algae of Berwick-upon-Tweed, where much of his time 
had been spent as a child ; and afterwards, with Mr. E. M. Holmes, 
he prepared a list of British Marine Algae, which came out in the 
'Annals of Botany" in 1890, pp. 63-107; the following year he 
issued in the ' Journal of Botany ' his " Handlist of the Algae oP 
the Clyde Sea Area," with map. 

In 1892 he became associated with 'Grevillea,' and till 1894, 
when that journal was discontinued, he had charge of the Algo- 
logical portion. His most noteworthy contribution to science was 
his " Catalogue of the British Marine Alga*, being a list of all the 
species of Seaweeds known to occur on the shores of the British 
Islands, with the localities where they are found," which was 
issued as a Supplement to the ' Journal of Botany ' for 1902, and 
consists of 107 pages in addition to the titlepage. This was 
meant as the forerunner of a treatise which was expected from 
him, but was only begun ; his extraordinary knowledge of the 
facts, which only needed to be reduced to writing, is wholly lost, 
as he was accustomed to rely upon a retentive and well-stored 
niemcnw, rather than upon note?. 

His herbarium is believed to contain more than 13,000 sp(!ci- 
mens, British and foreign, the former constituting about three- 
fourths of the whole. 


A portrait will be found in the ' Journal of Botany ' for 1907, 
opposite page 385, and to the kindly notice of our deceased Fellow, 
contributed to that journal by Mr. & Mrs. Gepp, the writer is 
greatly indebted for many of the above-mentioned facts. They 
conclude by stating, " Both as a friend and as a botanist, he will 
be sorely missed. His kindly, modest, unselfish nature made him 
beloved by everybody with whom he came in contact. In his 
particular branch of botany his loss is quite irreparable. Such a 
good systematist and collector is rare nowadays. The knowledge 
which he possessed is not to be learned from books or classes, 
and demands both natural aptitude and years of observation and 

He was elected Fellow, 18th January, 1883. [B. D. J.] 

John Benbow was born at Maidenhead, 6th March, 1821, and 
died at Uxbridge, where he had long resided, lOth February, 1908, 
within a few weeks of his 87th birthday. British botanists are 
familiar with his work in local records, and although handicapped 
by the loss of sight in one eye, he managed to discover plants 
overlooked by youuger men enjoying the use of both eyes. For 
many years he had devoted attention to the Willows, Carices, 
Muhi, and Mosses, chiefly in the counties of Middlesex, Bucks, and 
Herts, from time to time contributing notes and short articles to 
the ' Journal of Botany.' He was elected Fellow of the Society, 
20th January, 1887. " [B. D. J.] 

Sir DiETEiCH Brandis, K.C.I.E., F.E.S., a pioneer of the Forest 
Department of British India, was born at Bonn, on the 31st 
March, 1824 (or, as other accounts have it, the following day). 
He was the son of Christian A. Brandis, Professor of Philosophy 
in that University. Father and son passed several years in 
Greece, and on his return to Northern Europe our late Fellow 
pursued his studies in the Universities of Copenhagen, Gottingen, 
and Bonn. At the age of 25, in 1849, he became Privat-Docent 
on Botany at Bonn, and in 1854 he married Eachel Shepherd, 
daughter of Dr. Marshman of Bengal, which became a determin- 
ing factor in his life. His brother-in-law General Sir Henry 
Havelock, shortly afterwards, drew the attention of Lord Dal- 
housie to the merits of Brandis as a fit person to take charge of 
the teak forests of Pegu in Burma, which had recently come 
under British supremacy. Brandis lauded at Calcutta in 1856, 
and had a single interview with the Viceroy, whom he never saw 
again ; but his Lordship's remark, that if the scheme propounded 
by Brandis were carried out., it would prove of the greatest value 
to the country, was never forgotten by the new ofiicer. Brandis 
came at an opportune moment, and by systematic and hard work 
managed to save the teak forests from reckless exploitation, but 
also so regulated their management that they are now the chief 
sources of teak timber in the world. His first report on the Pegu 
Teak forests for 1857-60 was issued in Loudon in 1860, and 


eighteen mouths later he was summoned to Simla, presumably on 
the advice of Dr. H. V. Cleghorn, to advise upon forest matters 
in the Xorthern Provinces. In 1864 he was appointed the first 
Inspector-General of Porests, and thereupon set on foot svste- 
matic and uniform forest discipline throughout British India. 
The department has now an ai*ea of nearly 240,000 square miles, 
that is, twice the area of the United Kingdom, 

His subordinates were at first drawn from those trained on the 
continent, later his assistants came from British schools, and 
finally he procured the establishment, in 1878, of a School of 
Forestry at Dehra Dun, chiefly for native officers. The result 
of this long-continued effort has been to place the forest resources 
of the Empire on a solid basis, for the supply of timber, firewood, 
grass, and other products, together with a revenue which has 
increased from ,£40,000, in 1864, to more than sixteen times that 

Official reports were issued annually, but Dr. Brandis did not 
confine his energies to purely official records. Dr. J. L. Stewart 
had been commissioned, in 1869, to bring out a Forest Flora of 
Xorth- Western India, and a few sheets were put in type in 1871, 
when his health had become impaired, and on returning to India 
he died shortly afterwards. In 1872, the materials collected by 
Dr. Stewart were made over to Dr. Brandis, who elaborated them 
at Kew into the well-known ' Forest Flora of Xorth-West and 
Central India,' London, 1874, octavo, with a quarto atlas of plates 
by W. H. Fitch. The next year he was elected into the lioyal 

For the next quarter of a century, his published papers were on 
practical forestry matters. Eetiring from service in 1883, at the 
age of 59, he settled in his native Bonn, until, in or about the year 
1899, he began his last work which occupied him till the close of 
his life, under the title of ' Indian Trees,' with numerous figures, 
published in 1906, an invaluable repository of information, not only 
for foresters, but for botanists also. 

Becoming a widower after nine years of married life, in 1867 
he married Katherine, daughter of Dr. Eudolph Hasse, of Bonn, 
who, with three sons and one daughter, survive him. He was 
appointed CLE. in 1876, and promoted to K.C.LE. in 1887. 
Concurrently with the preparation of his ' Indian Trees ' he 
became absorbed in the structure of the leaves of bamboos, and 
his paper upon that subject, read 1st November, 1906, and 
published in March 1907, was his last contribution to science. 
He left for Bonn immediately after the presentation of that 
paper, but being taken ill soon after his return to his birthplace, he 
was compelled to undergo a severe operation, and after lingering 
for some weeks, he died on 28th May, 1907. 

Before quitting England for the last time. Sir Dietrich Brandis 
had an album presented to him with nearly 200 signatures to an 
address of congratulation, in the hope that he might long enjoy 
his well earned rest — a wish that was not realised. 



Sir Dietrich Brandis was elected a Fellow of this Society^ 
5th May, 1860, and thus just exceeded a period of 47 years in 
that counectioD. [B. D. J.] 

John Faebah, of Harrogate, was a well-known memher of the 
Yorkshire Naturalists' Union. He was born 28th May, 1849, 
and during his business hfe as a member of a firm in Harrogate, 
his leisure was given to natural history and antiquarian pursuits, 
and he was a generous supporter of associations devoted to those 
pursuits. His contributions to botany mostly appeared in ' The 
Natui'alist,' and he also drew up an account of the flora of 
Nidderdale, in H. Speight's volume on that valley. His last year 
was saddened by the loss of a favourite son, whom he did not 
long survive, dying at his house, Jefferies Coate, on 13th November, 
1907, and was buried on the 16th November folloA^ing. He 
joined the Linnean Society on 19th November, 1896. [B. D. J.] 

Charles Anderson Ferriee was a native of Dundee, where 
he was born 10th March, 1829, but lived in Arbroath from a 
very early age. He came to London about 1848, and obtained 
an introduction to William Harvey, for whom he had the greatest 
admiration and to whom he always referred as his best friend. 
His tastes were artistic and literary, and through the friendship 
of Harvey he was able to gain inspiration in art and introductions 
to authors, Thomas Hood being amongst the number ; in later 
years he was the friend of Tom Hood the younger, whose some- 
what early death he felt very keenly. Harvey sent him to 
Dalziel Brothers, where he remained until he commenced his own 
business. He always spoke of them w-ith warm admiration and 
I'espective degrees of affection : they in their turn esteemed him 
highly, which may be seen in the tribute paid to him in their book 
upon their work, as follows : — 

" Charles Anderson Ferrier, a young Scotsman of varied 
capabilities, who had made some small efforts at wood-engraving 
in his native town of Arbroath, without instruction, came to 
seek employment through an introduction he had obtained 
to the late William Harvey. He was a youth of consider- 
able promise, and full of enthusiasm for his art. Though the 
specimens he had to shew were very crude, he had evidently 
been looked upon as a genius by his Scottish friends ; but 
on entering our studio he was indefatigable in his studies and 
eager for improvement. Before he had been tw-o months with 
us, he became the ' London Correspondent ' of an Arbroath 
weekly paper. This Avork he generally knocked off during the 
hour allowed for dinner in the middle of the day. We have 
reason to believe that he turned his attention to scientific subjects 
and became a Tellow of more than one of the learned scientific 
Societies. During the whole of his life he has been a staunch 
Teetotaller, and has worked hard in the Temperance cause. He 
became a personal fi'iend of George Cruikshank, Sir Benjamin 


Ward Eichardson, Sir James Crichton-Browne, aud many other 
scientific people ot" the numerous learned Societies, who preferred 
him as an engraver because of the knowledge he possessed of the 
subjects he had to work upon. 

" Taken altogether Terrier became one of the most remarkable 
men who had their beginning as pupils in our Studio." 

(From " Fifty Years' Work : Our Pupils," p. 349 ; by Dalziel 

His one cause for their respect was his extreme conscientiousness, 
as witness the following may be cited : a question of time arose, 
one of the Brotliers turned to the housekeeper, enquiring " Is the 
clock right ? " " Yes " was the reply, " 1 set it when Mr. Ferrier 
arrived." " Then that's near enough I " showed that the partner 
concurred. The paragraph above referred to was his greatest 
pride. He was an active member, ou the literary side, at 
Eegenl's Square Presbyterian Church, where he incurred much 
obloquy for his audacity in preferring Shakespere before Biu-ns, 
and advocating teetotalism, which in the fifties was less understood 
than it is in the present day. 

His early work included zoological specimens drawn by 
T. W. Wood, for ' Beeton's Boys' Own Magazine,' which (speaking 
open to correction) he continued to the end of the series; 'Land 
& Water,' the ' Leisure Hour,' and other Xatural History 
publications. He became known to the Geological Society, for 
which he did much work in his own careful and painstaking way. 
The whole secret of his pleasing was — to use his own uords — that 
" he kept the drawing of the artist " instead of altering it according 
to fancy or accident. 

This faculty-, engendered of conscientiousness and artistic 
appreciation of the subject, won him his good name ; by treating 
the subject sympathetically it pleased both the draughtsuian and the 
authors, — who wanted the picture to be what they had approved 
as a drawing. The advantage of this power was greatly felt and 
appreciated when he was producing anatomical subjects under 
Dr. Murie, who then was at the Zoological (xardeus, when it was 
important to distinguish between hair, tissue, bone, and muscle. 

From this point he became known to the Linnean Soci«ty and 
was elected Fellow, loth June, 18S2. 

The love of his art, and the rapid growth of process-work, 
caused unspeakable soi*row to him in his later days. He mourned 
that a process almost purely mechanical should supersede an art 
which he had studied for 50 years and of which he still had much 
to learn. [K. M. Feriiiee.] 

Dr. Edwaed Alfeed Heath, born June 22nd, 1S39, at Totnes 
in Devon, was educated at Taunton, and was engaged in the practice 
of Homoeopathic pharmacy, first at Torquay, and subsequently on 
his own account at Taunton, remo^■ing to London in 1864, where 
he practised in Ebury Street, Eatou Square, until December 1904, 
when he moved to Shoreham, Kent. He obtained his degree as 



Doctor of Medicine at the Hahneinann Homoeopathic College iu 
Philadelphia, where lie was resident for two years, and was a 
most conscientious Hcnioeopath, taking the greatest pains to 
verify the plants employed in Medicine, and fully belieA-ing iu 
and acting upon the principles of Hahnemann, and as such he 
met with a considerable measure of success iu his practice. His 
spare time was occupied in the study of British and European 
Lepidoptera, but more specially of Exotic Coleoptera, of ^^■hich he 
ultimately possessed one of the largest private collections in the 
kingdom, but published only a few new species. 

In 1904 he retired to Shoreham in Kent, where he died 
on 4th October, 1907, of an acute attack of jaundice. 

Of a retiring disposition, he took but little part in scientific 
meetings, but by those who had the privilege of his personal 
friendship he was highly esteemed and respected. [E. M. H.] 

Sir James Hector, K.C.M.Gt., F.R.S., was born in 1834 and 
educated at the University of Edinburgh, receiving the degree of 
M.D. iu 1856, He was a member of the Palliser Exploring 
Expedition to British North America from 1857 to 1860, having 
been selected by Sir Eoderick Murchison to accompany the 
Expedition as surgeon, geologist, and naturalist. In 1861 he was 
appointed geologist to the Provincial Government of Otago,. 
N.Z., and subsequently Director of the Geological Survey 
of Xew Zealand. For many years he was also Manager of 
the New Zealand Institute and head of the AVellington Museum. 
He took an active part in educational affairs, and was for some 
years Chancellor of the New Zealand University. He was elected 
a Fellow of the Eoyal Society in 1866, and of the Linnean Society 
in 1875. He was also a Fellow of the Eoyal Society of Edinburgh, 
and of the Geological Society, a Corresponding Member of the 
Zoological Society, and a Member of several Foreign and Colonial 
scientific societies. In 3 875 he received the Lyell Gold Medal 
from the Geological Society, and in 1891 the Founder's Gold 
Medal from the Eoyal Geographical Society. He was created 
C.M.G. iu 1875 and received the honour of Knighthood in 
1887. [A. D.] 

The death of Professor Frans Eeinhold Kjellmax a few weeks 
before the Linnean Festival at Uppsala in May last, was a tragic 
element in the midst of enthusiasm and rejoicing. Although 
the thought was never allowed to obtrude, it was probably present 
to every mind that the Chair of Botany in the University, filled 
with so much distinction by C. von Linne himself, was vacant ou 
the celebration of the 200th anniversary of the birth of the great 
Swedish Naturalist, \\hich had drawn representatives from many 
and far distant lauds. 

Our late Foreign Member was born at Torsci near Mariestad, 
on the 4th November, 1846, and in 1868 he became a student at 
Uppsala; as he had passed through the schools of Arvika and 
Karlstad, he was received into the Yiirmlaud's Nation ; he sustained 


his thesis in philosophy iu 1872, and received his doctorate in 
the same 3'ear, upon which he was appointed Docent iu Botany to 
the University ; in 1883 he was named Extraordinary Professor 
o£ Botany, and in 1889 was finally installed as Borgstrumian 
Professor of Botany and Practical Economy, which he occupied 
till his death. 

Kjellman had early chosen Botany as the great business of his 
life, and pursued it steadily through his travels and the 24 years 
of his University professorship. 

His first entry into botanic authorship was his " Bidrag till 
Kannedom om Skandinavieus Ectocarpeer och Tilopterider," a 
systematic arrangement of a critical group of Algae, and his 
attention to Algae generally remained constant to the last. 

In the same >ear, 1872, as he received his degree of Doctor of 
Philosophy, he accompanied Nordenskiold to Spitsbergen in 
the ' Polhem ' ; at which time he was only in his twenty-sixth 
year. One part of the expedition was to pass the winter in 
Spitsbergen ; Kjellman belonged to the other portion which was 
to return home before the winter set in, and on the 16th September 
they were to start homeward. But on that day there broke 
upon them a severe storm from the north, filling Wijde-hay 
with immense icebergs and completely choking the entrance. 
Thus shut up, the expedition constructed winter-quarters in 
Mossel-bay, and when the cold, which had attained —21° Ceut., 
had passed, and the icy fetters had melted, it was not till 
the 1st August, 1873, that the ' Grladan ' and ' Onkel Adam * 
were able to steer homewards. During this period Kjellman 
made observations along the coast from South Cape to Low 
Island. One of his most important scientific I'esults was the 
discovery that the Arctic Ocean possessed a gigantic algal 
flora, which uninterruptedly grew through the winter, in spite 
of the darkness at the sea-bottom, and, at a tempei'ature of — 1° 
to l'S°, developed normally, grew, and fruited. Two years later 
he published a detailed popular account of the voyage entitled 
'Sveuska Polarexpedition ar 1872-1873, uuder ledning af A. E. 
Nordenskiold,' with woodcuts, lithographs, and map. 

We soon find Kjellman again as explorer. Nordeuskicild had 
planned the investigation of the Arctic Ocean in an easterly direc- 
tion, and in 1875 undertook a journey, which formed an epoch in 
the history of polar research. The Swedish expediton on board the 
hired Norwegian whaler ' Proven ' left Tromso on the 8th July, 
passed into the Kara Sea, and without hindrance by ice, 
reached the mouth of the Yenisei, a position never before 
attained by any craft from the Atlantic. The botanists were 
Kjellman and A. N. Lundstrom, the zoologists lij. Theel and 
A. Stuxberg. By the middle of August the expedition divided, 
Nordenskiold gave the command to Kjellman, who accompanied 
by Theel returned to Norway by the Kara Sea and reached 
Tromso the 5th October. The account of the return journey, 
so far as regards the plant and animal life, was rendered by 
Kjellman to the Royal Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, in 1877. 



The algological result was that the Kara Sea possessed a special 
algal flora, consisting of elements from Novaja Semlija, Spits- 
bergen, the Arctic, and Ochotsk Sea. Before this, it was supposed 
that the slight salinity of the Kara Sea was insufficient to support 
mai'ine algae, and in reporting his results, Kjellman said, " It is 
reserved for future enquirers to solve this problem," but he 
himself after no long interval was to solve it. 

Erom 1874 to 1877 he occupied himself diligently in exploring 
the west coast of Sweden, which he had previously visited during 
winter; and he did not restrict himself to systematic research 
only, but also to the life-history and distribution. Founded on 
these researches he published his ' Ueber die Algenvegetation 
des Murmanschen Meeres,' and ' Ueber Algenregionen und Algen- 
formationen im ostlichen Skager Rack ' in 1878 ; dividing the 
sea-bottom into littoral, sublittoral, and elittoral regions, and 
distinguishing algal formations in the neighbourhood of the coast. 
Kjellman's point of view has found general acceptance with 

In 1878 he again left Sweden to take part in the famous 
Swedish polar expedition, the voyage of the ' Vega.' That vessel 
left Karlski'ona on the 22nd June, 1878, and reached Goteborg 
harbour, finally weighing anchor the 19th August. On the 
28th September at Pitlekaj she became locked in the ice till 
28th July following, when she was freed from her fetters. On 
the 24th April, 1880, she reached Stockholm, after having circum- 
navigated Asia for the first time. 

During this long period Kjellman, Avith his well-grounded 
knowledge and good powers of observation, had the best 
opportunities for research in unknown seas and countries, and 
toward the solution of interesting questions. A chief feature 
of succeeding years was the increased scientific production due 
to his ' Vega ' voyage. In the first place he published his botanic 
observations from Pitlekaj and other parts of Siberia, and gave 
a host of interesting data on the plant-life of this little-known 
part of the Arctic circle. Of the higher plant-vegetation we 
have of his, ' Om vaxtligheten pa Sibiriens nordkust,' ' Sibiriska 
nordkustens fanerogamflora,' and other reports which appeared 
in the ' Vega ' publications. Of special value is the work ' Ur 
polarvaxternas lif ' (1883), for which his arctic travels provided 
the material; but from this date, algology assumed the chief claim 
upon his attention, and in the year jusb mentioned came out 
his most comprehensive "Norra Ishafvets Algflora" in the 
Stockholm Haudhngar, of 431 pages and 31 plates, part being 
in the English language. In this memoir Kjellman treats of 
259 species in 111 genera, and the number of new species is 
considerable. Many of these plants were found to be as large 
and luxurious as those occurring in the Atlantic. 

By this work Kjellman secured a high place amongst the 
students of marine algae, side by side with the great workers, as 
the two Agardhs, and J. E. Areschoug. After several memoirs of 



greater or lesser extent, he produced the first part of his ' Handbok 
in Skandinaviens Hafsal£;Hora ' (1S9U), and wrote the account 
of certain groups for Eugler und Prantl, ' Die natiirlichen 

He was selected as Extraordinary Professor in 1883, and soon 
showed his powers as a teacher in higher education. With a 
liveh' interest for the various branches of botany, he succeeded, 
througli his rich flowing ideas and independent apprehension, 
in directing his public teaching by original and singularly 
successful courses for students. The many new sides of botany, 
which after a long period of preponderating descriptive and 
formal morphologic direction, began to be opened up in the last 
decade of the nineteenth century, such as physiologic anatomy, 
organography as morphology with permanent regard to vital 
phenomena, the developmental history of the individual, plant 
phylogeny, plant dispersal, the invasion of alien plants, types 
of organised plants, as aquatics, xerophytes, hanes, etc., all were 
investigated by Kjellman and utilised by him to the modernisation 
of the study in Sweden. By means of a bold and independent 
terminology, he imparted his botanic ideas and new points of 
view, which seemed to him to promise success. At the same 
time he was a critical and exacting teacher, and according to his 
lights he modified botanic institutions, library, work-rooms, and 
botanic gardens, and improved their resources. His professorial 
career enabled him to issue a dozen or more of treatises or discourses 
such as " Om nordeus varvaxter," speech at a promotion of 
doctors at Uppsala in 1895, " De nordiska tradens arkitectonik," 
" Skandinaviska fanerogamflorans utvecklingshistoriska element," 
" Vaxtorgeni," " Svenska vasternas ofvervintring," etc. On Prof. 
T. M. Fries retiring from the Chair of Botany in the autumn of 
1900, Kjellman was appointed in his place. On his reaching the 
age of 60, his past and existing pupils contributed to a "Festskrift " 
under the title ' Botaniska studier tillagnade F. E. Kjellman den 
4 November, 1906,' accompanied bj' a congratulatory address. 
He was elected a Foreign Member of the Linnean Societv, 
2nd May, 1901. 

At the beginning of 1905 he had a slight apoplectic attack, 
which diminished his workhig powers, but he was well enough 
to be placed upon the committee charged to carry out the details 
of the Linnean celebration last year, though, as it happened, he 
was not able to take part in that committee's labours : but in 
April 1907, another and more serious stroke completely broke 
down his vital powers, and he died at Uppsala on the 22nd April 
last, when his countrymen were busied on the final preparations 
fur the brilliant " Linnefest." 

The writer has to thank Prof. C. A. M. Lindman for a copy 
of his sympathetic notice of his old professor in ' Tmer,' and 
Dr. Aksel Andersson for a copy of the ' Inbjudningsskrift ' for 
the public lecture on the 19tli February, 1900, from which 
publications the foregoing account has been compiled. [B. D. J.] 


Botanic and horticultural science are the poorer by the 
unexpected death on 30th May, 1907, of Maxwell Tylden 
Masters, M.D., F.R.S. He was born at Canterbury on 15th 
April, 1833, the youngest son of Alderman Masters, a nurseryman 
who effected some noteworthy hybridisations. Young Masters 
studied medicine at King's College Hospital, London, was 
admitted Licentiate of the Society of Apothecaries in 1854, and 
two years later became a member of the Royal College of Surgeons. 
He was sub-curator of the Fielding Herbarium at Oxford for 
a short time, and then for some years he practised as a general 
practitioner at Peckham, taking his degree of M.D. at St. Andrews ; 
he was Lecturer on Botany at St. George's Hospital from 1855 
to 1863, and was for some time an Examiner in Botany in the 
University of London, and to the Civil Service. 

Dr. John Lindley, the founder and first editor of the 
* Gardeners' Chronicle,' after a few years of failing health, died 
1st November, 1865, and Dr. Masters was appointed joint-editor 
with Thomas Moore, the Curator of the Physick Garden at 
Chelsea. Our late Fellow once told the present writer, that 
although the stipend he received on entering upon this new 
post was no more than he had been earning at Peckham, yet 
the feeling of its certainty gave a relief to his mind, which he 
characterised as indescribable. In 1882 Moore retired, and Dr. 
Masters remained sole editor till his death. 

He gave the best of his powers to his editorial duties, and 
those who knew his style, could recognise many unsigned articles 
in his journal, as well as those signed or initialled by him, yet 
he found time to write independent volumes, and to take part 
in serial publications, as the ' Flora of Tropical Africa,' and the 
' Flora of British India.' In 1866, he was Congress Secretary 
for the London International Exhibition of 1866 of Horticulture 
and Botany, which was additionally noteworthy for the promul- 
gation of the laws of nomenclature, largely due to the drafting of 
Alphouse de Candolle. The Exhibition ended in a profit of £30u0, 
and the Report by Dr. Masters bears testimony to the care with 
which the details were worked out. The newly installed editor 
profited immensely by this experience, for it introduced him to 
many foreign cori'espondents of distinction. 

As an independent author, his first essays seem to have 
been printed in the third volume of the Ashmolean Society's 
' Transactions,' 1854, etc., while he was at the Oxford Botanic 
Garden. In 1860 an abstract was issued in the * Proceedings ' 
of the Royal Institution, " On the relation between the abnormal 
and normal functions"!^in plants," followed by " Vegetable Morph- 
ology," in the British and Foreign Medico-Chirurgical Review, 
for 1862. These seem to have confirmed him in the study of 
abnormalities, resulting in his ' Vegetable Teratology ' published 
by the Ray Society in 1869, and long out of print ; the author 
never had leisure sufficient to revise or recast the work, but 


be contributed some additions to the German translation by 
U. Dammer which appeared in 1SS6 at Leipzig. ' Botany for 
Beginners ' was a shght, unpretentious vohune in 1872 ; and in 
the same year came out a notice of Maria, Lady Hooker, ^^■hich 
was really drawn up by the then Dr. J. D. Hooker, though 
attributed by many to the editor of the ' Gardeners' Chronicle ' 
in whose columns it appeared. 

During these years Dr. Masters had elaborated the natural 
families of ^Lalvacece, Sterculiacese, and Tiliacete, which form 
pp. 175-268 of the first volume of the ' Flora of Tropical Africa' 
(1868), and the Samydaceae, Loaseae, Turneracea), and Passifloracese 
of the second volume, pp. 492-520 (1871). Similarly he was 
answerable for the enumeration of the Malvaceae, Sterculiaceae, 
Tiliaceae, forming pp. 317-409, and the Olacineae, pp. 572-598, of 
the first volume of the ' Flora of British India ' (1874-75), and 
to the second volume he contributed the Passifloraceae, pp. 593- 
603 (1879). From this time onward, his chief subjects of study, 
in addition to the above-mentioned families, were Eestiaceae and 
Conifene. He drew up an enumeration of Eestiaceae for De 
CandoUe's ' Monographiae,' vol. i., and described the Brazilian 
Passiftoraceae in 3Iartius's great ' Flora Brasiliensis.' Many of 
his papers, particularly those on Coniferae, were contributed to 
the pages of our publications. Thus we find that his earliest 
paper issued in our Journal was that on a monstrosity of the 
flowers of Saponaria officinalis in 1857, until the last from his 
pen, " On the Distribution of Conifers in China and Neighbouring 
Countries," which appeared posthumously in 1907. Forty con- 
tributions from him appeared in our Journal or ' Transactions ' 
between 1857 and 1907. A valuable bibliography, com])iled by 
Mr. W. Betting Hemsley, will be found in the Kew ' Bulletin of 
Miscellaneous Information,' 1907, pp. 327-334, but that does 
not include the mass of his articles in his own ' Gardeners' 

He was also author of very many short articles in Lindley and 
!^[oore's ' Treasury of Botany,' was largely responsible for the 
Eeport on ^lixed Herbage of Permanent Meadows at Eotliamsted 
ill the ' Philosophical Transactions' (1883), and edited new editions 
of Henfrey's ' Elementary Course of Botany,' 2nd edition in 1870, 
and the 3rd and 4th in 1878 and 1884 respectively. 

Dr. Masters was elected a Fellow of the Linuean Society, 6th 
December, 1860, and of the Eoyal Society in 1870 ; he also 
offic-iated as Chairman of the Scientific Committee of the Eoyal 
Horticultural Society, in whose welfare he took the warmest 
interest ; of Foreign recognitions, he was a Corresponding Member 
of the institute of France, and an officer of the Belgian Order 
of Leopold. 

He is commemorated by the leguminous genus 2Iastersia 
.(J/, assamica), so named by Bentham in 1865. 

A few weeks before his death, he became indisposed, but no 


great importance was attached to his symptoms, till his death, as 
noted above, was made known to his large circle of friends. The 
funeral service took place on the 4th June, 1907, and the 
cremation at Woking followed. [B. D. J.] 

Feederic Moore, D.Sc, F.Z.S., who was elected an Associate 
of the Linnean Society in 1881, died May 10th, 1907, at the age 
of 77. He was a distinguished entomologist, and a pi-ominent 
Fellow of the Entomological Society of Loudon for more than 
fifty years. For more than thirty years he was a member of 
the Staff of the East India Company's Museum, and his principal 
memoirs dealt with Oriental Lepidoptera. [A. D,} 

Professor Alfred Neavtok was the fifth son of "William Newton 
of Elveden Hall, Suffolk, who, for many years, represented the 
Borough of Ipswich in Parliament, and of Elizabeth, daughter of 
E. S. Milnes of Eryston, Yoi-kshire, who sat at one time as 
Member of Parliament for the City of York. Through his mother 
he was thus related to the late Lord Houghton and to the present 
Earl of Crewe. 

Alfred Newton was born on June 11th, 1829, at Geneva. He 
was educated privately until he entered Magdalene College, Cam- 
bridge ; which for the next 57 years was to prove his home. 

Newton graduated in 1853, and shortly afterwards began a 
series of extensive travels, visiting (amongst other countries) 
Iceland, Lapland, North America, and the West Indies, where 
his family at one time held large estates. In 1864, accompanied 
by Sir Edward Birkbeck, he made an expedition to Spitsbergen. 
He was a keen yachtsman, and up till quite recent times used to 
enjoy his summer holiday yachting with his old friend Mr. H. 
Evans of Derby, on the west coast of Scotland. In the interval 
of his travels. Professor Newton resided at Cambridge ; and in 
1865, when the University M-as moved to change Professor 
Clark's Professorship of Anatomy into two, one of Human Anatomy 
and a second of Zoology and Comparative Anatomy, he entered the 
list against Dr. Drosier of Gonville and Caius College, M-ho had 
been for some years Deputy to Professor Clark ; and supported 
by a long list of testimonials from Owen, Gould, Gray, Rolleston,. 
and others, he was successful in attaining the Chair by a majority 
of 28, the electors being the resident Masters of Art. At that time 
the study of Natural Science was not popular in the University. In 
the year in which Professor Newton entered upon his duties (1866). 
but 9 candidates appeared in the Natural Sciences Tripos, compared 
with over 200 at the present time. This difference is due, to some 
extent, to the wide and liberal spirit with which Newton exercised 
his functions. Though regarded as a Conservative by many people 
— and in fact in his politics he was in most things a Tory of the 
old school, and in private life adverse to change in his established 
order of life or surroundings — in scientific matters he M'as always, 
after weighing them over carefully, prepared to accept new ideas. 

lixnea:;? society of loxdox. 57 

He welcomed the rise of embryology under Frauk Balfour, and be 
took very great interest in tbe development of the more modern 
metbods of studying beredity and A'ariation. Amongst zoologists 
he Avas one of the iirst to adopt tbe theory of organic evolution, set 
forth by Darwin and Wallace. 

When be became Professor, be bad to cover tbe whole animal 
kingdom ; but later, when Balfour, Sedgwick, and others covered 
the morphological ground, bis lectures, which were always 
written out, dealt with the theory of Evolution and with tbe 
geographical distribution of animals. The last few years of bis- 
life he appointed a deputy, and it is characteristic of his appre- 
ciation of tbe value of the newer work, that he appointed Mr. 
Bateson, who lectured upon tbe researches with which bis name is 
so intimately associated. Although (as we have said) bis lectures 
covered, at one time, the whole animal kingdom, in his writings 
he restricted himself to his favourite group of birds. He published 
the ' Oi-nitbology of Iceland,' ' Tbe Birds of Greenland,' an exhaus- 
tive ' Dictionary of Birds ' in which be characteristically arranged 
the genera in alpliabetical order, holding that no existing system 
of classification was sufficiently satisfactory to adopt. He also 
wrote ' Ootheca Wolleyana " — a monumental work — tbe first 
volume of which appeared in 1864, the second and last shortly 
before bis death. For a time he edited the ' Ibis ' and ' Zoological 
Eecord,' and some of the volumes of the fourth edition of 
' Tarreirs British Birds.' A small text-book on Zoologj-, published 
in 1872, was a model introduction to a great subject ; and to the 
ninth edition of the ' Encyclopaedia Britannica ' he contributed 
numerous articles on birds, some of which (for instance, those on 
" Migration " and the " History of Ornithology and Geographical 
Distribution ") are regarded as classical essays. These articles 
enlarged and corrected were republished in the above-mentioned 

Professor Newton was one of tbe first to take an active share 
in the protection of birds, a subject which we have reason to 
believe was first officially recognised by tbe British Government, 
largely owing to his advocacy. Forty years ago, Newton brought 
the matter before tbe British Association, and for many years be 
was Chairman of tbe Close Time Committee, during which period 
three Acts dealing with this subject passed through Parliament. 
He also took a large part in organising the observation of migra- 
tory birds at A-arious lighthouses, and other fixed stations. Of the 
knowledge we have acquired from these observations much, at 
least, is due to his foresight and powers of organisation. 

Tbe Museum of Zoology in Cambridge, which has grown to be 
one of tbe largest in the kingdom, attained its position largely 
under his guidance. He was always on the look out for new and 
valuable specimens, constantly, though anonymously, buying and 
presenting these. He very greatly disliked any of bis donations to 
be recorded in theEeportsof the Museums and Lecturing Syndicate. 
His gifts, not only of specimens, but of books, to the Library of 
the Department must have cost a very large sum. 


His interest iu old books and early editions was that of a 
Scholar. He spent much time and knowledge on the University 
Library, but his special province was the Philosophical Library, 
situated in the heart of the Museums, over whose destiny he pre- 
sided for many years. It is largely due to him that the Library 
at the present time takes in over GOO periodicals, and nothing gave 
him greater satisfaction than when, by the careful study of book- 
sellers' lists, he was able to complete a " broken set." 

There was soinetliing peculiarly scholarly about Newton's 
writings ; and in small matters of grammar and punctuation he 
was punctilious in a way that is now becoming rare. Yery 
little that he published was of an ephemeral uatui'e, and his printed 
word is characterised by a width of knowledge, untiring research, 
and an unusual degree of accuracy. 

It is difficult to write about the personal chai'acter of one with 
whom the writer has lived on terms of affection and intimacy for 
twenty-five yeai's. His Sunday evenings in the Old Lodge at 
Magdalene College were an epoch in the University life of many a 
student. From nine o'clock till shortly before twelve, Newton 
was " at home," welcoming everybody (even the youngest of us), 
talking to us on the subjects that he thought we knew best, stimu- 
lating us in any little efforts we might make in Natural History, 
and taking the widest possible view of the subject he loved 
so well. 

When once you were a friend of Newton's, you were always his 
friend. He was possessed of the old-fashioned courtesy of m.anner, 
and a certain leisureness of habit, which made a visitor feel that 
he was not trespassing on the time of his host. Both iu appear- 
ance and in character he had the finest attributes of the old race 
of English country gentlemen, to which by birth he belonged. 
To quote a writer in ' The Times,' he was " staunch in his friend- 
ships, firm iu his opinions," and he invariably followed with a 
dogged perseverance that which he held to be right. 

Professor Newton was elected Pellow of the Linnean Society 
March 3rd, 1857, of the Zoological iu 1859, and of the Eoyal iu 
1870 ; in all three societies he served on the Council, and was 
"Vice-President of the Zoological almost coutinuously from 1S61 
to 1897. He received a Royal Medal, and from the Linnean 
Society the Linnean Gold Medal in 1900. [A.. E. S.] 

His late Majesty Oscab, (II.) Fredeik, commonly styled 
Oscar IL, King of Sweden and of the Goths and Vandals, was 
born 21st January, 1829. He was the great-great-grandson of 
Marshal Bernadotte, who was chosen in 1810 to be Crown Prince 
of Sweden, and King in 1818. Married to the Princess Sofia 
Wilhelmina Mariana Henrietta, of Hesse Nassau, on the 6th June, 
1857, he succeeded to the throne on the 18th September, 1872 ; 
was crowned in Sweden the 12th May and in Norway the 18th July 
of the following year. 

Universally known and honoured as probably the most accom- 


plished monarch in Eui'ope, he was more than once called upon to 
arbitrate in international disputes. His knowledge of languages 
(he spoke at least seven fluently) enabled him not ouly to translate 
classic works from English, French, German, Spanish, and Latin, 
but to write poems in other languages than Swedish. 

Into the political history of Scandinavia during the late King's 
reign, it is not our province to enter; but it may be recorded that 
the severance of the jVorwegiau people from his dominion ^as a 
deep and lasting grief. It was to the King's own exertions that 
a peaceful separation was effected, and a fratricidal and doubtful 
var was avoided. 

At our centenary celebration, 24th May, 1SS8, His Majesty was 
elected b}'' acclamation one of our Honorary Members, whose 
numbers, never large, had been suffered to lapse since the death of 
H.M.Leopold, King of the Belgians, on the 10th December, ISOo, 
and was revived eighteen months earlier, in 1886, when His Majesty 
Edward YIL, then the Prince of Wales, accepted the distinction. 
King Oscar's signature to the Roll and Charter Book was affixed 
on his visit to our shores in 1889, when the President and Senior 
Secretary were received by the Swedish monarch in special 

In the interview just mentioned. His 3Iajesty disclaimed all 
knowledge of biology, but the services rendered to science, particu- 
larly geographical science, mainly from the King's own generosity, 
Avere large and continued practically during the whole of his reign, 
and even before it. "Whilst he was still Duke of Ostergotland and 
Crown Prince, he contributed handsomely to Torell's great expe- 
dition to Spitsbergen in 1861, and Xordenskiold's expeditions to 
the same country in 1864, 1868, and 1872-73. 

The King's extreme interest in these matters became fully 
manifest as regards the ' Yega ' expedition of 1878-80, for as 
Baron Xordenskiold himself stated. His Majesty, himself trained 
in the navy, discussed the details of the voyage and gave his 
hearty approval and support, followed later by the bestowal of the 
Yega medals. 

Later expeditions which received the same royal support, were 
two Swedish expeditions in 1882 to Spitsbei'gen, one conducted 
by our latest elected Foreign Member, Prof. A. Gr. Nathorst, on a 
geological quest, the other by Ekholm, for meteorological pui-poses, 
which wintered in the north. The next year Xordenskiold's 
Greenland expedition took place ; in 1890 there were several 
north polar expeditions ; Xansen's voyage in the ' Fram ' in 
1893-96 was largely supported by the King of Norway ; financial 
support was also accorded to Andree's attempt to reach the Xorth 
Pole by balloon, in 1897 ; and Count De Geer's Isfjord investi- 
gation, shortly before, received practical support from the King. 
Dr. Xathorst again visited Spitsbergen and Kung Karls Land in 
1898, and Andree in 1899 went to Greenland. The Swedish- 
Russian measurement of a meridian in Spitsbergen in 1898 was 
favoured, not only by the King, but by the then Crown Prince, 


now His Majesty Gustaf V. Sverdrup's polar journey, 1898— 
1902, and Anmndseu's voyage towards the magnetic pole were 
furthered by State aid. 

Thus for more than 40 years did the late King give his generous 
help to many journeys undertaken by his Swedish and'Norwegian 
subjects northward ; but he also encouraged travellers in other 
directions, as for instance Dr. Sven Hedin in Central Asia. Many 
localities have received names after the late King, as Prins Oscars 
Land and Kung Karls Land (Spitsbergen), Kung Oscars Bay 
(North Asia), Konung Oscars Hamn (Greenland), Konung Oscars 
Fjord, Oscar II.s Land (Spitsbergen); from Dr. Nansen we have 
Kong Oscars Halvo (Taimyr Bay), and from Sverdrup Kong 
Oscars Land (G-rinnell Land) ; these are in the Arctic regions. 
Towards the Antarctic we find Kong Oscars Land (Grahams 
Land), Kap Oscar (Victoria Land); and in Asia Dr. Hedin dis- 
covered Konung Oscars Berg on the northern borders of Tibet. 

During the last few years intervals of illness had caused the 
Crown Prince to act as Eegent. After some weeks of increasing 
illness. King Oscar II. died in his palace at Stockholm on the 
8th December, 1907. It will be remembered that in our General 
Meeting of 6th June, 1907, a telegram of respectful congratulation 
was sent to Their Majesties the King and Queen of Sweden, on 
the celebration of their golden wedding, an event which was 
destined to be the last of the kind in the monarch's lifetime. 

[B. D. J.] 

William Eome, P.S.A., born in 1842, was the son of In- 
spector Eome of the Esses Constabulary, and as a boy received 
his early education at the National Schools of his native Burnham. 
On leaving school he entered the well-known establishment of 
" Sweetings " in Cheapside, and gradually rose until he became 
sole proprietor. He threw himself energetically into Corporation 
matters, and was largely the means of establishing the loan ex- 
hibitions at the Guildhall Art Gallery. He filled many civic 
appointments, and in the neighbourhood of his residence, Creeksea 
Place, Burnham-on-Crouch, his energies were widespread. At his 
house he had amassed a valuable collection of antiquarian treasures, 
medals, and coins, which he was ready to contribute to exhibitions^ 
After the opening of the Spanish art loan exhibition in the City 
of London, towards which he had worked hard, the King of Spain 
conferred upon him the Eoyal Order of Isabella the Catholic. 

In the spring of 1907, Mr. Eome had a slight apoplectic attack, 
from which he was gradually recovering when bronchitis super- 
vened, and after a fortnight's illness he died at his country-house, 
on Sunday, 20th October, 1907, in his 66th year. His connection 
with this Society dated from 5th December, 1889. [B. D. J.] 

Howard Saunders, E.Z.S., died on the 22ud October, 1907, 
at the age of 72, after a long and painful illness. In him, 
as in so many great naturalists, the collecting instinct seems to 


have shown itself at an early age, for, while still a pupil in a large 
private school at Rottingdean, he is said to have caused amuse- 
ment and amazement to his companions by his earnestness in this 
pursuit. As a young man he was a great traveller, spending 
several years in South America, and, in 18G0, exploring the head- 
waters of the Amazon. He was, however, no mere collector, but 
attained a high position as a scientific ornithologist. In 1882 
he succeeded the late Professor Newton as editor of the fourth 
edition of ' Yarreh's British Birds,' and in 1889 he brought out 
his own well-known ' Manual of British Birds.' He was also the 
author of the Catalogue of Gulls in the British Museum, aud of 
various other ornithological memoirs. He took an active part in 
the work of the scientitic societies with which he was connected, 
serving on the Councils of the Linnean, the Zoological, and the 
Royal Geographical Societies, and of the British Ornithologists' 
Union. For six years he served the British Association as 
Honoraiy Secretary of Section D, and for a considerable time he 
was a joint-editor of the ' Ibis.' His service on the Council of the 
liinnean Society comprised three separate periods, viz, 1883-86, 
1893-96, 1898-1900. [A. D.] 

Alexandek Someeville was an instance of an episode of busi- 
ness intervening in a life mainly given to biologic studies. He 
■was born at Glasgow 2otli March, 1842, was educated at Glasgow 
Academy aud the University, passing thence into a house of 
business, Messrs. J. H. Young & Co. In 1865 he went to Cal- 
cutta, in the firm of Mackinnon & Mackenzie for fifteen years, 
but his health suffering from the Calcutta climate he came home, 
resumed his interrupted studies at Glasgow University, and 
graduated as B.Sc. on the biological side. He had met our late 
i^ellow, Sylvanus Hanley, at Cannes, and was on his initiative 
proposed and elected a Fellow on 16th June, 1881. For several 
years he worked at marine zoology, principally mollusca, in which 
group he added several species by dredging off the west coast of 
Scotland. After this he took to botany and remained constant to 
this pursuit during the remainder of his life. 

He identified himself with local natural history and associations, 
and helped to procure support for the Scottish Marine Station at 
Millport. A friend who was much associated with him in the 
Glasgow Natural History Society wrote of him : — " His sympathies 
religious, philanthropic, scientific, and social extended over so 
wide a field and were manifested in so many forms of active use- 
fulness, that his loss would be far more deeply felt than we can 
ever know." He died on 5th June, 1907. The writer is indebted 
to the Rev. J. E. Somerville for the chief information recorded 
above of his brother. [B. D. J.] 

Henby Clifton Sorby, LL.D. (Cantab.), F.R.S., F.S.A., F.G.S., 
F.Z.S., F.R.M.S., the well-known geologist, was a Fellow of the 
Linnean Society from 1875 until the date of his death in March 


1908. He was elected a Fellow of the Eoyal Society in 1857 aud 
served ou the Council from 1876-77, while his eminent services 
to science were recognised by the award of the Society's Eoyal 
Medal. He took a prominent part in the foundation of the 
Sheffield University, to which he left £6500 as an endowment for 
a Professoi-ship of Geology. He also left ,£15,000 to the Eoyal 
Society for the promotion of scientific research in connection with 
the University of Sheffield, and £1000 to the Geological Societv. 

[A. i).] 

AVhilst his researches into the structure of metals and rocks 
led to his scientific eminence, he displayed almost a boyish eager- 
ness in depicting the marine organisms brought up by dredging 
from his yacht ' Glimpse.' On more than one occasion he has 
exhibited some of his preparations at our meetings, and he was 
ever seeking for improved methods of mounting and displaying 
his captures. The last paper he furnished to the Linnean Society 
was printed in our Journal (Zoology), xxix. (1906) pp. 434-439, 
entitled " Xotes on some species of Nereis in the District of the 
Thames Estuaiy," which was read in the absence of the author on 
1st March, 1906. His last printed paper occupies seventy pages 
in the ' Quarterly Journal ' of the Geological Society, vol. 64, 
n. 254 (1908) pp. 171-232, pis. 14-18, and in the discussion it 
was pointed out that it suggested new methods of investigation. 


By the death of Professor Chakles Steavabt, LL.D., F.E.S., 
M.E.C.S., the Linnean Society has lost one of its most distin- 
guished Fellows and one who has been largely identified with the 
work of the Society'. Boi'n at Plymouth in 1840 he was, like his 
father and grandfather, framed for the medical profession, obtain- 
ing the diploma of M.E.C.S, in 1S62. His scientific instincts, 
however, were too strong to allow of his remaining for long a 
medical practitioner, and in 1866 he was fortunate enough to 
obtain an appointment as Curator of the St. Thomas's Hospital 
Museum, where he also lectured on Comparative Anatomy and 
Physiology. The great work of his life, Iiowever, was done in 
connection with the Museum of the Eoyal College of Surgeons, 
where he succeeded Sir W. H. Flower as Conservator, on the 
appointment of the latter to the Directorship of the Xatiu-;il 
History Departments of the British Museum in 1S84. Although 
his time was chiefly occupied with the arrangement of the Museum 
and with the anatomical investigations and preparations by which 
the Museum has so greatly benefitted. Professor Stewart neverthe- 
less found opportunities of making his influence felt as a teacher. 
As Hiaiterian Professor of Comparative Anatomy and Physiology 
he lectured at the College, and he was also Fullerian Professor of 
Physiology at the Eoyal Institution for a period of four years. 

Although he published little, his kno\vledge of the minute 
anatomy of both vertebrate and invertebrate animals was extra- 


ordinarily wide and deep, as all must have realised who heard Kim 
speak at the meetings of the Linnean Societj'. 

It is gratityins; to be able to record that, in spite of Professor 
Stewart's naturally retiring and self-effacing disposition, his work 
\\as appreciated even during his lifetime, and not only by his large 
circle of personal friends, but also by the official dispensers of 
scientific honours. He was elected a Fellow of the Eoyal Society 
in 1S9G, and received the Honorary Degree of LL.D. from the 
University of Aberdeen in 1S99. It was with the Liuneau Societv, 
however, that he more particularly identified himself. He was 
elected to the Fellowship as far back as 1SG6, served on the 
Council from 1875 to ]877, and again from 1S90 to 1895, was 
President from 1890 to 1894, and Vice-President from 1894-1805. 
His Presidential Addresses, which will be found in the ' Pro- 
ceedings ' of the Society for the years mentioned, dealt with 
Secondary Sexual Characters, Commensalism and Symbiosis, the 
Sound-producing Organs of Animals, and the Method of Loco- 
motion iu certain Crabs and Gasteropodous Molluscs. [A. D.] 

Lieut.-General Sir Eichabd Strachey, G.C.S.I., LL.D., F.E.S., 
who died on the 2nd February, 1908, from influenza, was born at 
Sutton Court on the 24th July, 1817, and iu 1836, at the age of 
19, entered the service of the Hon, East India Company, iu the 
Bombay Engineers, was transferred to the Bengal Engineers in 
1839, and during his residence in India filled many impoi-tant 
posts. He served in the Sutlej campaign of 1845-46, and 
during the Indian Mutiny he was Secretary to the Government of 
the Central Provinces ; from 1875 to 1889 he was a member of 
the Council for India. 

As regards his work which concerns this Society, it was practi- 
cally limited to a collection made in conjunction with Mr. J. E. 
"Winterbottom in Kumaon and Garhwal, ^hich was largely named 
by Sir Joseph Hooker, who with Dr. Thomson speaks thus of it : — 

" The collection distributed by Captain Strachey and Mr, 
Winterbottom consists chiefly of the plants of Kumaon and 
Garhwal, and of those of the adjacent parts of Tibet, Captain 
Eichard Strachey was appointed by the Indian Government to 
make a scientific survey of the province of Kumaon, and was 
occupied upon the task about two years, during which time, in 
addition to the important investigations in physical science which 
occupied his attention, he thoroughly explored the flora of the 
province, carefully noting the range of each species. He was 
joined by Mr. Winterbottom in 1848, and they travelled together 
in Tibet, Their joint collections, amounting to 2000 species, were 
distributed in 1852-53 to the Hookerian Herbarium, the British 
Museum, the Linnean Society, and some foreign museums ; and 
the scientific results are now in the course of publication. Tlie 
beautiful preservation of the specimens, and the fullness and 
accuracy with which they are ticketed, render this herbarium the 
most valuable for its size that has ever been distributed from 


India ; and we beg here to record our sense of the great benefit 
that has been rendered to botanical science by the disinterested 
labours of these indefatigable and accomplished collectors." — 
Flora Indica, i. 65-66. 

On Captain Strachey's return home on leave, the su'm of <£500 
was placed at his disposal by the Hon. East India Company for 
printing his report, and the second volume should have continued 
with the account of his plants alluded to above, but as he himself 
told the writer, he was unversed in printing matters, the money 
rapidly vanished, and the botanic part was never published, though 
a few copies were distributed privately. This catalogue, in a 
tabular form, is paged 63-122, and was printed about 1854 ; it 
was afterwards brought down to date by Mr. J. F. Duthie, F.L.S., 
and by him inserted as pp. 403-670 of E. T. Atkinson's ' Gazetteer 
of the N.W. Provinces and Oudh,' Allahabad, 1876. Early in 
1898 Sir R. Strachey was anxious that the Linnean Society should 
make a permanent publication of his work, and produced the 
original maps and profiles of the country traversed, together with 
elaborate analyses of the constituents of the flora, in comparison 
Avith other parts of Asia and of Europe. The Council considered 
that such a publication would require careful work to bring it in 
accordance with present knowledge, and the tabular form would 
largely add to the cost : these reasons induced Sir Richard not to 
press it further in that form, but the idea was not given up, for 
about 1903 the manuscript was handed to Mr. Duthie, who ulti- 
mately passed it through the press, as : — ' Catalogue of the Plants 
of Kumaonand of the adjacent portions of Garhwal and Tibet, based 
on the collections made by Strachey and Winterbottoni during the 
years 1846 to 1849, and on the catalogue originally prepared in 
1852 bv Lt.-Gren. Sir Richard Strachey, revised and supplemented 
by J. F. Duthie,' London: Lovell" Reeve & Co., 1906. 8vo, 
pp. vii, 269, and one page of corrections. In the introduction the 
editor enumerates the botanists who have assisted in completing 
the work. 

For the two years 1888-90 Sir Richard was President of tlie 
Royal Geographical Society ; he was rarely seen in our rooms, 
but on the occasion of Mr. Bentham's retirement in 1874 from the 
presidency, he took part in restoring harmony within the Society. 
He died at Hampstead, as related above, and was cremated at 
Golder's Green on the 15th February, 1908. His election as 
Fellow of this Society dated from 20th January, 1859. 

It is stated that no fewer than 32 species and varieties of plants 
discovered by him, bear his name ; botanically he is commemorated 
by a leguminous plant, Straclieya tibetica, Benth. [B. D. J.] 

Although the death of William Thomas Locke Tkatebs 
took place so far back as the 26th April, 1903, from the effects of 
an accident, the fact was not generally known till recently. 

Born at Castleview, near Newcastle, County Limerick, on the 
9th January, 1819, he received his education principally at 


St. Servan College in France. At the age of 17 he joined the 
Spanish Legion during the Carlist war, and served also in the 
2nd Eegiment of Lancers till 1839, during which period he had 
also served as Aide-de-camp, and for those services was awarded 
the Grand Cross of the Order of Cambodia. Eeturning to Great 
Britain, in 1844 he was called to the Bar, and live years after 
emigrated to Xelson, becoming District Court Judge. Quitting 
that post, he represented various constituencies in the Parlia- 
ment of Xew Zealand, from 1854 onwards. In 1869 he settled 
in "Wellington, and was a chief promoter of the New Zealand 
Institute in 1867, and served as its Treasurer ; he had also a 
principal share in founding the Botanic Garden in that city. He 
was a member of the Council of the "Wellington Philosophical 
Society for thirty-two years, was five times President, and was 
about to retire from that position when his death occurred. 

In biology he took a keen but general interest, and we find in 
the list of his papers accounts of the birds, shells, and plants of 
various parts of the Dominion, anthropology, and cosmic pheno- 
mena. As a botanic collector, he transmitted plants to Eew from 
1860 to 1880, and amongst them a series of plants well-known as 
Veronica Traversii, Hook, f., which was introduced to cultivation 
n Britain about 1873. The monotypic genus Traversia is now 
merged in iSenecio and the species T. baccharoides is now S. gemi- 
nahis, T. Kirk. About a dozen other plants were named after our 
late Fellow, as the follo\\ing list will show : — Ranunculus Traversn 
Hook. f. (now sunk in H. Lyallii, Hook, f.), Drimys Traversii 
T. Kirk (formerly Hymenanthera Traversii, J. Buch.), AciijJiyUa 
Traversii, Hook, f., Olearia Traversii, Hook. f. (formerly Euryhia 
Traversii, F. Muell.), Ctlmisia Traversii, Hook, f., Gnaplialium 
Traversii, Hook, f., Senecio Traversii, F. Muell. (now sunk in 
S. hiUiclioides, Hook, f .), DracopliyUura Traversii, Hook, f., Myosotis 
Traversii, Hook, f., Veronica Traversii, Hook, f., mentioned above 
PimeJea Traversii, Hook, f., and Care:c Traversii, T. Kirk, now 
considered conspecific with C. DaUii, T. Kirk. [B. D. J.] 

James Hebbeet "\^eitch came of the a\ ell-known family of that 
name, was born at Chelsea in 1868, and educated at Crawford 
College, Maidenhead, continued technically in France and Germany. 
He entered upon business in 1885, then, when 23 years of a»e, 
he undertook a voyage to India, Malaya, Japan, Corea, Australia, 
and Xew Zealand, to study the floras of those regions and the 
conditions of growth, with a view to enrich the number of culti- 
vated plants by additional species. During this round he sent 
letters to his uncle, Mr. Harry James "V^eitch, which were printed 
in the ' Gardeners' Chronicle ' from early in 1892 to the end of 
1893, describing the various gardens and nurseries he had visited. 
He amplified and supplemented these letters after his return home 
in 1893, and the resulting quarto volume appeared in 1896 as 
'A Traveller's Notes.' In 1898 his firm became a private limited 
liability company, and the subject of our notice, two years later, 
LI>-y. SOC. PEOCEEDiyCS. — SESSIOX 1907-1908. / 


succeeded to the post of Managing Director, his brother, John 
Gould Yeitch the younger, being Secretary. Soon after this, 
Messrs. Veitch decided to revive the old custom of their house, 
and dispatched Mr. E. H. Wilson to Chiua, and later to the 
extreme west of China and to Japan, resulting in a rich harvest 
of novelties, both from the botanist's and the horticulturist's point 
of view. His last work was the compilation of the sumptuous 
' Hortus Veitchii,' 1906, in which the history of the firm and 
accounts of their numerous collectors are attractively set forth. 
He died at the early age of 39, on the 13th November, 1907, and 
was buried at Exeter, the ancestral home of his race. [B, D. J.] 

John Eeancis "Walker, who was elected Fellow on the 17th 
April, 1873, and died at York 23rd May, 1907, was born in that 
city 25th IS'ovember, 1839, his family having resided there for 
many generations. After his early schooldays at St. Peter's School, 
he studied at Cirencester College, and in 1862 entered Sidney 
Sussex College, Cambridge, and was bracketed first in the Natural 
Science Tripos in 1866. After taking his degree he studied 
chemistry at Bonn, and after the Eranco-German war he returned 
to this country, was called to the Bar, but never practised. In 
1882 he married and retired to York, devoting himself to the 
Brachiopoda, and especially the Mesozoic Brachiopoda, of which 
group his knowledge was large, and to promoting the collections 
of the York Museum, of which he became Honorary Curator. 
Besides our own Society, he was Eellow of the Geological and 
Chemical Societies. He was author of a score of papers on 
geological topics. [B. D. J.] 

Chaeles Augustus Wright, the third son of John Wright, Esq., 
was born at Cumberland Terrace, Eegent's Park, 1834. He was 
privately educated, and at a comparatively early age accompanied 
his parents to Algiers and afterwards to Malta, where he resided 
many years. He acted, from about 1865 to 1874, as correspondent 
for ' The Times ' in the Mediterranean, being also present with a 
small squadron detailed to watch British interests during the 
Intransigeante distui'bances of 1873 at Carthagena. In the same 
year he participated in a cruise to the Levant and the Dai'danelles ; 
and in 1874 he accompanied the Fleet under Admiral Sir J. E. 
Drummond, in its expedition to the same waters. In his younger 
days a keen sportsman, Mr. Wright devoted himself to the 
Natural History and especially the Ornithology of Malta while 
he lived there ; and his " List of Birds observed in the Islands 
of Malta and Gozo," commenced in the ' Ibis ' for 1864, 
with appendices in 1864-65, 1869, 1870, 1874, was made by 
Dr. Blasius the basis (\\'ith full acknowledgment of its use) of 
his " Ornis von Malta und Gozo " (' Ornis ' for August 1895), and 
was noticed by Dr. P. L. Sclater in his opening address to the 
Biological Section of the British Association, August 25th, 1875, 
pp. 90, 117. 


The Maltese Avifauna possesses special interest in relation to 
tilt; course and circumstances o£ distribution and migration ; and 
Mr. Wright's collection included twelve species never previously 
recorded from those Islands, of which two were altogether new to 
any part of Europe. Authentic specimens of ten out of the 
twelve were presented by him to the Italian National Museum at 
Florence, viz. : — Saxicola leucopyna, Saxicola stapazina (or deserti), 
Merops j>ersicMS, Caprimulgus ruficollis, Bartramia longicaudata, 
Cypsehis pcdlidus, Hoploptems spinosus, Aedon gcdactodes, Chara- 
drius fulvics, and Enjthrospiza r/ithaghiea. 

In the ' Proceedings ' of the Zoological Society of London, April 
6th, 1875, Mr. Wright contributed a paper on the " Specific 
Identity of the Weasel found in Malta," in which it was pointed 
out that the Maltese AVeasel cannot be purely identified with the 
common Weasel of Southern Italy, nor with the local ' Boc- 
camele' of Sardinia. One of the examples on which this paper 
was founded was presented to the Natural History Branch of the 
British Museum (South Kensington) ; and later, at the request 
of the Museum authorities, five more specimens of the Maltese 
Weasel were sent for special examination from Mr. Wright's 
private collection, with the result that the Maltese Weasel has 
been now referred by Mr. Oldfield Thomas (see Proceedings Zool. 
Soc. London, Feb. 5th, 1895) to the extra -European species 
Putoriiis africaniis, Desm. 

Mr. Wright's attention was by no means confined to the higher 
forms of animal life in the Malta group, or to their living 
representatives, and his efforts to explore the fossil fauna led to 
the discovery of remains of the Mastodon in the Lower Miocene of 
Gozo, and of Halitherium also (see A. Leith Adams in Journ. 
Geol. Soc. London, Aug. 1879). 

He had also formed a Herbarium of the Flowering Plants and 
Ferns of Malta, of much interest ; and was an enthusiastic 
conchologist, his fine collection being rich in Mediterranean shells 

Mr. Wriglit was made a Knight of the Order of the Crown 
of Italy on the 22nd March, 1883, by the late King Humbert. 
He was elected on 5th December, 1878, as a Fellow of this 
Society, and in 1880 of the Zoological Society of London. He 
was also a member of the British Ornithologists' Union, of 
the Essex Field Club, and the Norwich Natural History Society. 
His first contribution to the ' Ibis ' was an account of a visit to 
Filfila, an islet on the south coast of Malta, in 1863, and his last a 
letter on a Greenland Falcon shot at Lewes in 1883. For some 
years past Mr. Wright resided at Kew, and though latterly much 
crippled and often suffering from rheumatic complaints, he 
maintained a lively interest in various branches of Natural 
History, and with devoted assistance from members of his family 
continued the formation of a British Herbarium, which includes 
many fine and interesting examples of our native phanerogamic 
flora. He lost no opportunity of learning from friends, so far as 




health permitted, all that was going on in Ornithological circles^ 
and among Systematic Botanists, at the Zoological Gardens, or at 
the Linnean Society ; he was able to take part in the fourth 
Ornithological Congress in London in 1905, and the last public 
function he attended was the Evening Reception at the Eooms of 
our own Society on the 7th June, 1907. 

Our late Tellow's acquaintance with the Island of Malta, its 
people, languages and history, was such as not many have 
acquired : he was a Vice-President of the local Archaeological 
Society, and in 1874 shared in the discovery, through its efforts, of 
interesting remains of early Christian buildings uear Marsa. 

Latterly, and especially in 1907 (which was his seventy-fourth 
year), repeated illness and the loss of friends, Charles Baron Clarke 
and Sir D. Brandis particularly, told on Mr. Wright's naturally 
vigorous constitution, and an outdoor task which proved beyond 
his strength resulted in an accident, producing injuries to which 
he succumbed on the 13th July, 1907. One of his last I'equests 
was that a flowering spray from au exotic Latliyrus which he had 
raised in his garden at "Kay hough" (Kew Gardens), where he had 
lived since 1876, should be sent to a friend who was interested 
with himself in its determination. [J. E. Dbummokd.] 

June 4th, 1908. 

Dr. D. H. Scott, M.A., F.E.S., President, in the Chair. 

On taking the Chair, Dr. Scott thanked the Society for the 
honour done him, by his election as President. 

The Minutes of the Anniversary Meeting of the 25th May, 
1908, were read and confirmed. 

The President announced that he had appointed the following 
to be Vice-Presidents during the current Session — Prof. "W. A. 
Herdman, F.E.S., Mr. Horace W. Monckton, Treas.L.S., Lieut.- 
Col. Prain, P.E.S., and Dr. A. Smith Woodward, P.E.S. 

Miss Ethel Louise de Eraiue and Mr. Joseph Hubert Priestley 
were admitted Fellows. 

Mr, Joseph Pearson, M.Sc, was proposed as a Eellow. 

Mr. Ernest Melville Cutting, B.A. (Cantab.), Mr. Louis Charles 
Deverell, E.G.S., Mr. James Montagu Prancis Drummond, B.A. 
'Cantab.), Mr. Charles Aubrey Ealand, Mr. Cecil Hallworth 
Treadgold, M.A. (Cantab.), and Miss Grace Wigglesworth, M.Sc. 
(Mane), were severally balloted for and elected PelloAvs. 


Mr, C. E. Salmon, P.L.S,, exhibited a series of original coloured 
drawings, and lithographs from them, from Descourtilz's ' Ornitho- 
logie bresilienne.' 

Mr. F. Enock, F.L.S., exhibted a series of lantern-slides 
illustrative of the life-history of wood-boring wasps, showing 
their method of capturing prey, and storing the same in their ex- 
cavated burrows, with the extraordinary faculty shown for seizing 
the selected species and no other, for the food of the future 
larvae. He mentioned that one of the species he had had under 
his own observation had brought to its burrow, in one day, 
27 specimens of Tipula imperialis, a species so rare that he 
himself had only met with one specimen during a series of 
many years. 

The following papers were read : — 

1. "Note on the Spicules of CMrodota geminifera, Dendy & 

Hindle." By Prof. A. Dendt, D.Sc, F.E.S., Sec.L.S. 

2. "The Caryophyllaceae of Tibet." By E. N. Williams, 


3. "The Polychaeta of the Indian Ocean."' By F. A. Potts. 

(Communicated by J. Stanley Gtabdiner, M.A., F.R.S., 

4. " On Koomoif/a cursor • a remarkable new type of malaco- 

stracous Crustacea." By O. A. Saycb. (Communicated 
by Dr. W. T. Calman, F.L.S.. F.Z.S.) 

5. " The Stylasterina of the Indian Ocean." By Dr. S. J. 

HiCKsON, F.E.S., and Miss Helen M. England. (Com- 
municated by J. Stanley Gardiner, M.A., F.E..S., 

6. " A Contribution to the Mycology of South Africa." By 

Messrs, W. N. Cheesman, F.L.S,, and T. Gibbs. 

June 18th, 1908. 

Dr. D. H. Scott, M.A., F.R.S., President, in the Chair; afterwards 
Dr. A. Smith Woodward, F.R.S.. V.-P. 

The Minutes of the General Meeting of the 4th June were 
read and confirmed. 

The President referred to the recent disuse of the Library 
Eecommendation Book by the Fellows, the last entry being nearly 
five years old. 

Mr. Ernest Melville Cutting was admitted a Fellow. 


Miss Eleanor Pearse and Mr. James Moore Williams were 
proposed as Fellows. 

Miss Helen Stuart Chambers, B.Sc, Mr. K'orman Gill, and 
Mr. Henry Herbert Travers were severally balloted' for and 
elected Fellows. 

Mrs. Habet GrAT exhibited a volume of drawings of plants from 
the Island of Bombay, part of a series of 1700 she had painted 
during a residence there of fourteen years. 

Mr. C. H. Weight, A.L.S., exhibited on behalf of Mr. J. F. 
DuTHiE, F.L.S., specimens of Melitella imsilki, a new genus 
of Compositse descinbed recently by Cav. Sommier, from material 
collected by him in the island of Gozo, near Malta. Dr. Stapf> 
Mr. Worsdell, and the President joined in a discussion. 

Mr. W. C. WoESDELL, F.L.S., exhibited a lax'ge series of seedlings 
of the Scarlet Runner bean, Phaseolus multijiorus, exhibiting 
artificial fasciation induced by cutting away the plumule early in 
its growth. The President and Dr. Stapf contributed some 
remarks, the Author briefly replying. 

The following papers were read : — 

1. " Altitude and Distribution of Plants in Southern Mexico."' 

By Dr. Hans Gadow, F.E.S. (Communicated by Dr. A. 
B. Rendle, F.L.S.) 

2. " Reports ou the Marine Biology of the Sudanese Red Sea 

from Collections made by Cyril Crossland, M.A., B.Sc, 
F.Z.S., together with Collections made in the Red Sea by 
Dr. R. Hartmeyer. — On the Bryozoa, Part I. Cheilo- 
stomata." By Aethue Wm. Watees, F.L.S. 

3. " The Alg£e of the Tau Tean Reservoir." By G. S. West, 


4. " On Gardenia Thunhergia and its allies." By Dr. Otto 

Staff, F.R.S., Sec.L.S., and J. Hutchinson. 

5. " The Marine Algae collected in the Indian Ocean by H.M.S. 

' Sealark.' " By A. Gepp, M. A., F.L.S. 

6. "Nudibranchs from the Red Sea, collected by Mr. C. 

Crossland." By Sir Chaeles Eliot, K.C.M.G. (Com- 
municated by Prof. Heedman, F.R.S,, F.L.S.) 


Linn. Soc. Proc. 1907-08.] 

\_To face p. 71. 

1st July, 1908. 



held on the 1st July, 1908, in the Institution of Civil 
Engineers, at 2.30 p.m. 

Dr. D. H. Scott, E.E.S., President, in the Chair, 

The President welcomed the Delegates and other guests in a 
brief address. 

The first award of the Darwin-Wallace Medal, specially struck 
to commemorate the 50th anniversary of the reading of the joint 
papers by Charles Eobert Darwin and Alfred Eussel Wallace, 
was then made. The gold medal was presented to the surviving 
essayist, Dr. Wallace, E.E.S., E.L.S., the President addressing 
him and setting out the reasons which had caused the Council to 
hold this Special Meeting, to which Dr. Wallace made a reply. 

In succession the following six received silver copies of the 
medal, the President in each case reciting the claims of the 
recipient, and each of the medallists present, in turn, replying. 

Sir .Joseph Dalton Hooker, O.M., G.C.S.I., E.E.S., P.L.S. 

Prof. Ernst Haeckel, E.M.L.S. 

Prof. Edeard Strasburger, E.M.L.S. 

Prof. August Weismann, E.M.L.S. 

Dr. Francis Galton, F.E.S. 

Sir Edwin Eat Lankester, K.C.B., F.E.S., E.L.S. 

Profs. Haeckel and Weismann being prevented by professorial 
duties from being present, their medals were received on their 
behalf by Herr von Bethmann-Hollweg, Secretary of the German 

The reception of the Delegates of Corporate Bodies then 
followed. The first group, consisting of representatives from 
Universities and Schools, was introduced by speeches from 
Dr. Francis Darwin, F.E.S., F.L.S., and Sir W. T. Thiselton- 
Dyer, K.C.M.G., F.E.S., F.L.S. 

Christ's College, Cambridge : The Master, Dr. J. Peile. 
Shrewsbury School: The Chief Science Master, Mr. C. 

J. Baker. 
Hertford Grammar School : The Headmaster, Mr. G. 

W. Kinman, M.A. 

The above College and Schools were connected with the early 
training of Darwin and Wallace. 


The University of Oxford : The Vice-Chancellor, Dr. T. H. 

Prof. E. B. Poulton, D.Sc, F.B.S., 


„ „ Dr. A. H. Church. ' 

„ Cambridge : Dr. Francis Darwin, F.R.S., 

„ St. ^.ndrews : Prof. P. E. Scott Lang, 

M. A., B.Sc. (with address). 
„ Glasgow: Prof. J. Graham Kerr, M.A., 


„ Aberdeen : Lt.-Col. Prain, CLE., LL.D., 

r.R.S.,F.L.S.(with address). 

„ Edinburgh : Prof. I. Bayley Balfour, M.D., 

F.E.S.,F.L.S.(with address). 

Dublin : Prof. H. H. Dixon, D.Sc, F.E.S. 

(with address). 
(Dr. Dixon was unable through illness to 
present the addi-ess himself, which was 
done on his behalf by the General 
Durham : Prof. M. C. Potter, F.L.S. 
„ London: Sir W. T. Thiselton - Dyer, 

K.C.M.G., F.E.S., F.L.S. 
(with address). 
„ Manchester: Prof. F. E. Weiss, D.Sc, 

F.L.S. (with address). 

Wales : Prof. E. W. Phillips, D.Sc, F.L.S. 

„ Birmingham : The Vice- Chancellor, Sir 

Oliver Joseph Lodge, D.Sc, F.E.S. 

„ Liverpool : Prof. W. A. Herdman, D.Sc, 

F.E.S., Past President L.S. (with address). 

„ Leeds : Prof. V. H. Blackman, ScD., F.L.S. 

Sheffield : Prof. Denny, F.L.S. 

University College, Bristol : The Principal, Prof. C. Lloyd 

Morgan, F.E.S. (with address). 
Nottingham : Prof. J. W. Carr, F.L.S. 

The second group represented Academies and Societies, and 
M^as introduced by speeches from Prof. Einar Lonnberg, Ph.D., 
and Sir Archibald Geikie, K.C.B., Sec.E.S. 

The Eoyal Swedish Academy of Science, Stockholm : 

Prof. E. Lonnberg, Ph.D. (with address). 

The Eoyal Society : Sir Archibald Geikie, Iv.C.B. 

The Society of Antiquaries : The Lord Avebury, P.C., F.E.S., 

F.L.S. (with address). 
The Eoyal Irish Academy : Dr. E. F. Scharff, F.L.S. 


The Manchester Literary and Philosophical Society : Mr. C. 

Bailey, M.Sc, F.L.S. 
Tl»e Eoval Society of Eliuburgh : Prof. D'Arcv Thompson, 

C.B., F.L.S. (with address). 
The Geological Society of London : Mr. W. H. Hudleston, 

F.E.S., P.L.S. 
The Cambridge Philosophical Society : Dr, S, F. Harmer, 

The Royal Astronomical Society : The President, Mr. H. F. 

^^ewall, F.R.S. 
The Zoological Society of London : Mr. G. A. Boulenger, 

The British Association : The President, Sir David Gill, 

K.C.B., F.R.S. 
The Entomological Society of London: The President, 

Mr. C. O. Waterhouse. 

The Royal Microscopical Society : The President, The Lord 

Aveburv, P.C., F.R.S., F.L.S. (with address). 

The Chemical Society : 'Dr. Horace T. Brown, F.R.S., F.L.S. 

The Marine Biological Association : Mr. A. E. Shipley, 

F.R.S., F.L.S. 
The Malacological Society : Mr. R. H. Byrne, F.Z.S. 

The British Academy : The President, Sir E. Maunde 

Thompson, K.C.B. (with address). 

The Lord Avebubt then gave an address, for which a vote of 
thanks was proposed from the Chair, and accorded by acclamation. 
The proceedings then closed. 

A dinner of the Fellows took place at the Princes' Restaurant, 
Piccadilly, at 6.30 p.m., at which the following Medalhsts and 
Foreign guests were present : — Prof. Strasburger, Dr. Galton, 
Sir Ray Lankester, Prof. Einar Lonnberg, Prof. Hubrecht, and 
Prof. AYarming. The total number amounted to ninety. 

At 9.30 a reception was held in the Rooms of the Society in 
Burlington House, the guests being received by Dr. D. H. Scott 
and Mrs. Seott. Various objects were on view in the Library, 
and two lantern demonstrations were given in the Meeting Room, 
by Prof. Seward, F.R.S., F.L.S. "The Jurassic Vegetation of the 
World — a Study in Plant-Migration,"' and by Dr. A. Smith 
Woodward, F.R.S., F.L.S., "The Evolution of Mammals in South 

A full description is given in the special volume. 



Abstbact of Prof. Weiss's Paper on the Morphology of Stig- 
maria and of its Appendages in Comparison with Becent 

[Eead 5tb March, 1908.] 

The opposition to the identification of Stirjmaria as the " root- 
system" of Sigillaria has gradually disappeared owing to the 
accumulation of evidence supporting Binney's discovery in 1845 
of an organic connection between Stigmaria and Sigillaria. 
But the recognition of this fact and its subsequent extension 
to the case of Lejndodendron did not settle definitely the morpho- 
logical value of the Stigmarian axis. It might still be regarded 
either as a large bifurcating root bearing lateral roots or as 
an underground stem (rhizome), in which case its appendages 
might be adventitious roots (Scott) or leaA'es modified to serve 
absorptive purposes (Solms-Laubach), or possibly both kinds of 
lateral organs might be present (Renault). Some recent obser- 
vations have tended to reopen the discussion of the morphology 
of the appendages, particularly the recognition of peripheral 
" transfusion " tracheids in the Stigmarian appendages and the 
presence of a parichnos-strand in these organs. But though both 
have their counterpart in the leaves of the Lepidodendracese, T can 
only see analogy and not homology in these structures, and 
believe their presence is due to the physiological requirements of 
the organs in question. 

The older objection to the identification of the appendages as 
rootlets, namely their exogenous origin, is sufficiently answered 
by the fact that several recent Lycopodiales, such as Phylloglossum 
and the young sporophyte of Isoetes, have exogenous roots. The 
regular quincuncial arrangement of the rootlets similar to that of 
the leaves of the Lepidodendracese might be explained by the fact 
that we know of rootlets placed close to the base of the leaves of 
certain Sigillarige (Sigillaria sjnnulosa). 

A suppression of the leaves on the underground axis might 
leave the rootlets with the same arrangement as the leaves in the 
aerial portion of the stem. These considerations and the very 
close agreement in structure of these problematical appendages 
with the monarcli roots of Isoetes, seem to me strong reasons for 
regarding the Stigmarian appendages as true roots. 

As regards the axes on which they were borne, their structure, 
so different from that of the rootlets and so singularly unlike the 
roots of any living plant, seems to prevent our regarding them as 
main roots. Their cauline nature has been questioned on account 
of the difference in their structure from that of the aerial stems of 
the Lepidodendracese. But recent evidence in confirmation of 
Renault's observations of the existence of Stigmarice with centri- 
petal wood partially removes this objection. Still, in the case of 



the Lycopodiales we are not limited to the two alternatives root 
or stem, since Goebel and Bruchmann have shown that the 
rhizophores of Sdaginella are indeterminate organs which can 
develop either as root-bearers or as leafy shoots. Their position 
in the young sporophyte of Selaginella is very suggestive of 
analogy with the Stigmarian axes, and attention has been drawn 
to this by Scott, Bower, and others. But the peculiarly root-like 
structure of these rhizophores and the fact that they produce 
their roots endogenously, shows that they are in Selaginella very 
highly specialised. The Stigmarian axes though undoubtedly 
analogous structures are more stem-like in their character and 
probably more primitive. A more useful comparison might 
therefore be made between Stigmaria and the very primitive 

Here we have not only exogenous and adventitious roots 
developed at the base of the leaves (cf. Sigillaria spinidosa), but 
in similar positions one or more outgrowths are produced which 
serve the purpose of vegetative reproduction. But though 
specialised for this function, they are, I believe, of the same 
indeterminate natui'e as the rhizophores of Selaginella ; and as 
they show more resemblance to true shoots and bear their roots 
exogenously, they are really more closely analogous to the 
Stigmarian axis. Organs of this nature would probably have 
bifurcated in the case of the extinct Lycopodiales, to keep pace 
with the physiological requirements of the branching main axis. 
They may possibly possess the power of forming under certain 
conditions upright leafy stems, which would explain some structures 
figured and described by G-rand'Eury and others. 

The conformation of the underground axes of Stigmariojms 
and the still more pronounced contraction of the base of 
Pleuromeia and of Isoetes, would be explained by reduction of 
the requirements of the plants so far as root-absorption was 





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8vo. Buitenzorg, 1907. 
Betankande rtirande atgiirder till skydd for v§rt lands natur och 
naturminnesmarken afgifvet af inom Kungl. Jordbruksde- 
partementet for jindamalet tillkallade Sakkunnige. 

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Vol. II. Ants and Cuckoo- Wasps. 

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Secretary of State for India in Council. 

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lAT<rS. see. PEOCEEDIKGS. — SESSIOX 1907-1908. g 


Borgesen (Frederik C E.). Om Algevegetatioaen ved Faer^ernes 
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An Ecological and Systematic Account of the Caulerpas of 

the West Indies. Pp. 56, figs. 31. (Kgl. Danske Vid. Selsk. 

Skrifter, 7 Etekke, Afd. iv. 5.) 4to. Copenhagen, 1907. 

— The Dasycladaceas of the Danish West Indies. Pp. 13, 

figs. 8. (Bot. Tidsskr. xsviii.) Svo. Copenhagen, 1908. 

Gardening and Tree-planting in the PsRroes. Pp. 17, 

figs. 7. (Botany of the Pceroes, pp. 1027-1043). 

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Linnes Minne. Ivviide och Tal vid K. Vetenskaps- och Yetter- 
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siillskaps Geraensamma Fest till Linnes Minne den 23 Maj 
1907. 8vo. Goteborr/, 1907. Goteborg's Stadsbibliothek. 

Contents: — ^^ i 

Linne i Goteborg den 13 Juli, 1746, af A. U, Baatii. Pp. 7. 
Tal. af LuDviG Stayenow. Pp. 12. 
Tal, af LrDviG Wolff. Pp. 20. 

Linsbauer (Karl). Sec Wiesner-Festschrift, 1908. 

Societe Portugaise de Sciences Naturelles, 

Bulletin. Yol. I. fasc. 1. 8vo. Lisbonne, 1907^ 


Liverpool Marine Biology Committee. 

Memoirs on Typical British Marine Plants and Animals. 
Edited by W. A. Heedman. I.-XYI. 

8vo. Liverpool, 1899-1908. 

XVI. Cancer. By Joseph Pearson. Pp. viii, 209 ; plates 13, and 
13 figs, in the test. 1908. 

Marine Biological Station at Port Erin (Isle of Man), &c. 
Annual Eeport, 21. 8vo. LiverpooJ, 1907. 

Prof. W. A. Herdman. 

British Academy. 

Proceedings, 3903-04, 1905-1906. 8yo. London, 1904-06. 
Geological Society. 

The History of the Geological Society of London. By 
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trations 27. 8vo. London, 1907. Council Geol. Soc. 
Holmesdale Natural History Club, Eeigate. 

Proceedings for the Tears 1881-83, 1888-1905. 

8vo. London S,- Beigate, 1884-1906. C. E. Salmon. 
Royal College of Surgeons of England. 

Descriptive and Illustrated Catalogue of the Physiological 
Series of Comparative Anatomy contained in the Museum 
of the Eoyal College of Surgeons of England. Second 
Edition. [By Chaeles Stewaet.] 3 vols. 

8vo. London, 1900-1907. 
I. Pp. 1, 160; plates 14, figs. 5. 1900. 
II. Pp. ix, 618 ; figs. 254. 1902. 
III. Pp. siii, 391 ; figs. 54. [By E. H. Burne.] 1907. 

Catalogue of the Specimens illustrating the Osteology and 
Dentition of Yertebrated Animals, Eecent and Extinct, con- 
tained in the Museum of the Eoyal College of Surgeons of 
England. By William Hekrt Eloavee. Second Edition. 
[By CH.UILES Stewaet.] Part I. Man : Homo sapietis, 
Linn. Pp. xxvi, 433. 8vo. London, 1907. 

Annual Eeport on the Museum by the Conservator, Aethue 
Keith. Pp. 14. 8vo. London, 1908. 

The jN"ubian Pathological Collection. Presented by the Survey 
Department of the Egvptian Government. Pp. 5. 

8vo. London, 1908. 


Lonnberg (Axel Johan Einar). Anatomische Studieu iiber Skau- 
dinaviscbe Cestodeu. Inaugural-DissertatioD. Pp. 109, Taf. 3. 
(Kgl. Sv. Vet.-Akad. Hand), xxiv. no. 6.) 8vo. Stockholm, 1891. 

Undersokningar rorande Oresuuds djurlif. Pp. 76 & map. 

(Meddel. Kongl. Landtbruksst, No. I. ur 1898-1899.) 

8vo. Ui>2)sala, 1898-1899. 
Clava glomerata mihi, eine anscheineiid neue Hydroide. 

Pp. 2. (Zool. Anz. xsii.) 8vo. Leipzig, 1899. 

Univ. of Uppsala. 
— Caroli Linnaei. Methodus Avium Sveticaram. See Uppsala 

Univ. Arsskr. 1907. Linncfest-Skrifter, 5. 

Wissenschaftliche Ergebuisse der Schwedischen Zoologischen 

Expedition nach dem Kilimandjaro dem Meru und den um- 
gebenden Massaisteppen Dentsch-Ostafrikas 1905-1906, unter 
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Sheppard (Thomas). A Malformed Antler of a Eed Deer. Pp. 3 ; 

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Smith (John Donnell). Undescribed Plants from Gruatemala and 
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Dr. Hans Schinz. 




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Robert Brown. 

Professor Thomas Bell, £105. 

Subscription portrait of Prof. T.Bell, P.L.S., by H. W. Pickersgill, 

Thomas Corbyn Janson : two cabinets to hold the collection of 

fruits and seeds. 
Pleasance, Lady Smith : Correspondence of Sir J. E. Smith, in 

19 volumes. 

Subscription portrait of Nathaniel Bagshaw Ward, by J. P. 

Subscription for removal to Burlington House, £1108 15s. 
Biography of Carl von Linne, and letters to Bishop Menander, 

presented by Miss Wray. 
Dr. Horsfield's Javan plants, presented by the Court of Directors 

of the Hon. East India Company. 
Dr. Perdinand von Mueller's Australian and Tasmanian plants, 

including many types. 

Books from the library of Robert Brown, presented by J. J. 

Bennett, Sec.L.S. 
Robert Brown : bequest of two bonds given up, £200. 


Subscription bust of Eobert Brown, by Peter Slater. 
Collection of birds' eggs, bequeathed by John Drew Salmon, F.L.S. 


The Linnean Club : presentation bust of Prof. T. Bell, by 
P. Slater. 

Subscription portrait of John Joseph Bennett, by E. U. Eddis. 

Beriah Botfield, Esq. : Legacy, <£40 less Duty. 


Executors of Sir J. W. Hooker, <£100. 

George Bentham, Esq. : cost of 10 plates for his " Tropical Leguini- 
nosae," Trans, vol. xxv. 

Dr. Friedrich "Welwitsch : Illustrations of his ' Sertum Angolense,' 

George Bentham, Esq. : General Index to Transactions, vols, i.-xxv. 
Royal Society : Grant in aid of G. S. Brady on British Ostracoda, 

Carved rhinoceros horn from Lady Smith, formerly in the posses- 
sion of Carl von Linue. 

Subscription portrait of George Bentham, by Lowes Dickinson. 
George Bentham, Esq., for expenditure on Library, o£o0. 


Legacy from James Tates, £50 free of Duty. 
Daniel Hanbury, £100 less Duty. 

)j j> 


Legacy of the late Thomas Corbyn Janson, £200. 

,, „ „ Charles Lambert, £500. 

George Bentham, Esq. : General Index to Transactions, vols. 

Subscription portrait of John Claudius Loudon, by J. Linuell. 
Subscription portrait of Eev. Miles Joseph Bei'kely, by James 

Rev. George Henslow and Sir J. D. Hooker : Contribution to 
illustrations, £35. 



The Secretary of State for India in Council : cost of setting up 
Dr. Aitcbison's paper, £'66. 

George Bentham, Esq., special donation, £25. 
The same: towards Richard Kippist's pension, <£50. 
Portrait of Dr. St. George Jackson Mivart, by Miss Solomon; 
presented by Mrs. Mivart. 


Executors of the late Frederick Currey : a large selection of books. 
Subscription portrait of Charles Eobert Darwin, hv Hon. John 

The Secretary of State for India in Council : Grant for publication 

of Dr. Aitchison's second paper on the Elora of the Kurrum 

Valley, =£60. 

Sir John Lubbock, Bart, (afterwards Lord Avebury). 

Portrait of Carl von Linne, ascribed to M. Hallman. 
Philip Henry Gosse, Esq. : towards cost of illustrating his paper, 

Eoyal Society : Grant in aid of Mr. P. H. Gosse's paper, £50. 
Sophia Grover, Harriet Grover, Emily Grover, and Charles Ehret 

Grover : 11 letters from Carl von Linne to G. D. Ehret. 


Executors of the late George Bentham, ,£567 lis. 2d. 
Subscription portrait of George Busk, by his daughter Marian 


A large selection of books from the library of the late Spencer 

Thomas Cobbold (a bequest for a medal was declined). 
Sir George MacLeay, Bart. : MSS. of Alexander MacLeay and 

portrait of Rev. William Ivirby. 


William Davidson, Esq. : 1st and 2nd instalments of grant in aid of 

publication, £50. 
Erancis Blackwell Eorbes, Esq., in aid of Chinese Elora, £25. 


The Secretary of State for India iu Council: Grant in aid ot 
publication of results of the Afghan Boundary Delimitation 
Expedition, £150. 

Dr. J. E. T. Aitchison, towards the same, £25. 

Trustees of the Indian Museum : Mergui Archipelago report, for 
publication in Journal, £135. 

Dr. John Anderson, for the same, £60. 

Wm. Davidson, Esq. : 3rd and last instalment, £25. 



Bronze copy of model for Statue of C. von Linnd, bv J. F. Kjellberg ; 
presented by Frank Crisp, Esq. 


The Secretary of State for India in Council : Grant for Delimitation 

Expedition report, ^200. 
Oak table for Meeting Eoom, presented by Frank Crisp, Esq. 
Subscription portrait of Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker, Iv.C.S.I., by 

Hubert Herkomer, E.A. 
Executors of the late John Ball, Esq. : a large selection of books. 
An anonymous douor, .£30. 
Colonel Sir Henry CoUett, K.C.B., towards the publication of his 

Shan States collections, £50. 


Subscription portrait of Sir John Lubbock, Bart. [Lord Avebury], 

by Leslie Ward. 
George Frederick Scott Elliot, Esq., towards cost of his Madagascar 

paper, £60. 

Dr. Richard Charles Alexander Prior : for projection lantern, £50. 


The Executors of Lord Arthur Russell: his collection of portraits 

of naturalists. 
Electric light installation : cost borne by Frank Crisp, Esq. 

Algernon Peckover, Esq., Legacy, £100 free of Duty. 
Miss Emma Swan, " Westwood Bequest," £250. 


Clock and supports in Meeting Eoom, presented by Frank Crisp, 

William Carruthers, Esq. : Collection of engravings and photo- 
graphs of portraits of Carl von Linne. 
• Eoval Society : Grant towards publication of paper by the late 

' John Ball, £60. 
Subscription porti-ait of Professor George James Allman, by 
Marian Busk. 

Sir John Lubbock, Bart. : Contribution towards his paper on 

Stipules, £4.3 14s. M. 
Eoyal Society : Contribution towards F. J. Cole's paper, £50. 
„ „ „ ,, Murray&Blackman's paper,. 

„ „ „ „ Elliot Smith's paper, £50. 

., ., „ „ Forsyth Major's paper, £50. 



A. C. Harmsworfch, Esq. [Lord jN^orthcliffe] : Contribution towards 

cost of plates, ^43. 
Eoyal Society : Contribution towards Mr. E. T, Giinther's paper 

on Lake Urmi, <£50. , 


Hon. Charles Ellis, Hon. Walter Eothschild, and the Bentham 

Trustees : The Correspondence of William Swainson. 
Eoyal Society : Contribution towards Mr. F. Chapman's paper on 

Funafuti Foraminifera, ^50. 
Prof. E. Eay Lankester : Contribution towards illustration, :£30 os. 
Portrait of Dr. St. G. J. Mivart ; presented by Mrs, Mivart. 


Eoyal Society : Contribution toward Dr. Elliot Smith's paper, £50. 
Legacy from the late Dr. E. C. A. Prior, £100 free of duty. 
Mrs. Sladen: Posthumous Portrait of the late Walter Percy 
Sladeu, by H. T. Wells, E.A. 

B. Arthur Bensley, Esq. : Contribution to his paper, £44. 


Eoyal Society : Grant in aid of third volume of the Chinese Flora, 

Supplementary Eoyal Charter : cost borne by Frank Crisp, Esq. 


Eoyal Society : First grant in aid of Dr. G. H. Fowler's ' Biscavan 

Plankton/ £50. 
Executors of the late G. B. Buckton, Esq. : Contribution for 

colouring plates of his paper, £26. 


Eoyal Society : Second grant towards ' Biscayan Plankton,' £50. 
Subscription portrait of Prof. S. H. Vines, by Hon. John Collier. 
Eoyal Swedish Academy of Science: Copies of portraits of C.von 

Linne, after Per Krafft the elder, and A. Eoshn, by Jean 



Eoyal University of Uppsala : Copy by Jean Haagen of portrait of 

C. V. Linne, by J. H. Scheffel (1739). 
Eoyal Society : Third and final gi-ant towards 'Biscayan Plankton,' 

The Trustees of the Percy Sladen Memorial Fund : First grant 

towards publication of Mr. Stanley Gardiner's Eesearches 

in the Indian Ocean in H.M.S. ' Sealark,' £200. 



Prof. Gustaf Eetzius : Plaster cast of bust of Carl von Linne, 
modelled by "Walther Euneberg from the portrait by Scheffel 
(1739) at Linues Hammarby ; the bronze original is for the 
fagade of the new building for the Royal Academy of 
Science, Stockholm. 

Addendum to page 50. 

The death of Sir James Hectoe took place at Wellington, Xew 
Zealand, on the 6th November, 1907. 


SESSIOjS" 1907-1908. 

Note. — Tlie following ai'e not indexed : — The name of the Chairman at each meeting, 
speakers wliose remarks are not reported ; and passing allusions. 

Aberdeen University represented, 72. 
Abnormal Structures in Leaves (Wors- 

dell), 4. 
Abstracts, Mendelism and Sex (Reid), 

6 ; Spartina (Stapf), 4-5 ; Stigmaria 

(Weiss), 74. 
Academies and Societies represented, 

Academy of Science, Eoyal Swedish, 

represented, 72. 
Acari from New Zealand (Michael), 3. 
Adams, Mrs. K. I., admitted, 12. 
Additions to Library, 77. 
Address delivered by Lord Avebury, 

73 ; — to H.M. GuBtaf Y. King of 

Sweden, 6. 
Addresses received from Delegates, 72. 
jEnigmatistes, africanus, a new genus 

and species of Diptera (R. W. C. Shel- 

ford), 3. 
Africa. South, Mvcology of (Cheesman 

& Gibbs), 69. 
Alcyonaria of Red Sea (Thomson), 6 ; 

of Indian and Pacific Oceans (Miss 

Harrison), 9. 
Alg£e, Marine, of Red Sea (Gibson), 6 ; 

' Sealark ' (Gepp), 70; Yan Yean 

Reservoir (West), 70. 
Alpine Flowers, shown by means of 

stereoscopic transparencies (Wal- 

tham), 9. 
Altitude and Distribution of S. Mexican 

Plants (Gadow), 70. 
Amphipoda Gammaridea (Walker), 11. 
Two new species of (Stebbing), 

Anatomy of Sapotaceous Seedlings 

(Smith), 12. 
Anderson, C. W., exhibited light-giving 

larva, 3. 

Annandale, Dr. N., elected, 4; proposed, 


Sponges collected in Scotland, 12. 

Anniversary Meeting, 14. 

Anniversary (50th) of the reading of 

the joint papers by Darwin and 

Wallace commemorated, 71. 
Antipatharia from ' Sealark ' Esped. 

(Cooper), 14. 
Antiquaries, Society of, represented, 


Arber, E. A., elected Councillor, 37. 

AreIiafigio])teris Henry i, Christ & 
Gilsenh., exhibited (Wright), 11. 

Arctic Ocean, Podosomata of (Norman), 

Arden, S., elected, 4; proposed, i. 

Associates deceased, 16 ; elected, 6 ; 
vacancy declared, i. 

Atkinson, H., admitted, 7 ; elected, 4 ; 
proposed, i. 

Atlantic Ocean, Podosomata of (Nor- 
man), II. 

Auditors elected, 1 3 ; Certificate (W. B. 
Keen), 15. 

Australia, West, Euccdyptu& salmono- 
pltloia from, exhibited (Rendle), 3. 

Australian Museums, Preservation of 
specimens in (Tepper), 4. 

Avebury, The Right Hon. Lord, Ad- 
dress, 73 ; — thanked, 73 ; represented 
the Royal Microscopical Society, 73 ; 
and the Society of Antiquaries, 72. 

Bagshawe, A. W. G, admitted, i. 
Bailey, C, represented the Manchester 

Literary and Philosophical Society, 

Bainbridge, Miss M. E., admitted, 9; 
elected, 7 ; proposed, 4. 




Baker, C. J., represented Shrewsbury 
School, 71. 

Baker, E. C. S., elected, 8 ; proposed, 

Baker, W. H., elected, 3. 

Ballots for Council & Officers. 37. 

Barboza du Socage, Prof. J. V., de- 
ceased, 16; obituary, 42. 

Barker, Kev. Dr. J., admitted, 7 ; 
elected, 4; proposed, i. 

Barnes, Dr. E.., deceased, 14; obituary, 

Baron, Rev. E., deceased, 14; obituary, 


Barratt, "W., admitted, 8 ; elected, 7 ; 
proposed, 4. 

Batrachians, Freshwater Fishes, and 
Eeptiles of ' Sealark ' (Boulenger), 14. 

Batters, E. A. L., deceased, 14 ; obit- 
uary, 45. 

Beale, R. E. C, admitted, 12; elected, 

Benbow, John, deceased, 14; obituary, 

Benefactions, List of, 116. 
Bernard, H. M., Colonj--formation as a 

Factor in Organic Evolution, 13. 
Bethmann-Hollweg, Herr von. received 

medals on behalf of Pi'ofs. Haeckel & 

Weismann, 71. 
Biology, Marine, of Sudanese Red Sea 

— Bryozoa, Part. I. Cheilostomata 

(Waters), 70. 
Birmingham University represented, 


Blaber, W. H., withdrawn, 16. 

Blaekman. Prof. V. H., represented 
Leeds University, 72. 

Bombay Island, drawings of plants 
from, exhibited (Mrs. Gay), 70. 

Boodle, L. A., elected Councillor, 37. 

Botanical Secretary, elected, 37. 

Boulenger, G. A., Freshwater Fishes, 
Batrachians, and Reptiles of ' Sea- 
lark,' 14 ; represented Zoological 
Society of London, 73. 

Bourne, Prof. G. C, communication by 
(Harrison), 9 ; elected Councillor, 37. 

Bowman, Dr. F. H., elected, 4 ; pro- 
posed, I. 

Brandis, Sir D., deceased, 14; obituary, 

Brassica crosses (Sutton), 8. 

Bristol, University College represented, 

Britain, Pre-glacial Flora of (Mr, & 

Mrs. Reid), 8. 
British Academy represented, 73. 
British Association represented, 73. 
British East Africa, Amphipoda Gam- 

maridea from (Walker), 11. 

Broughton, H., elected, 12; proposed, 

Brown, Dr. H., T., represented the 

Chemical Society, 73. 
Bryozoa (Cheilostomata) of Sudanese 

Red Sea (Waters), 70. 
" Buddha's Claw " variety of Citncs 

Mcdica, exhibited (Weiss), 13. 
Burdon, E. R., appointed Scrutineer, 37. 
Burrell, W. H., admitted, 9. 
Biitschli, Prof. O., elected Foreign 

Member, 13; proposed. 10. 
Byrne. R. H., represented the Malacc- 

logical Society, 73. 

Caiman, Dr. W. T., communication by 
(Sayce), 69. 

Cambridge Philosophical Society repre- 
sented, 73. 

Cambridge University represented 72. 

Carr, Prof. J. W., represented Univer- 
sity College, Nottingham, 72. 

Caryophyllaceffi of Tibet (Williams), 69. 

Caulcrpa cupressoidcs, Agh., exhibited 
(Wright), II. 

Chadwick, H. C, admitted as Associate, 
14; elected, 6; proposed, 3; — Red 
Sea Crinoidea, 6. 

Chambers, Miss H. S., elected, 70 ; pro- 
posed, 14. 

Cheesman, W. N., and T. Gibbs, Mycol- 
ogy of S. Afi'ica, 69. 

Cheilostomata (Bryozoa) of Sudanese 
Red Sea (Waters), 70. 

Chemiciil Society represented, 73. 

Chipp, T. F., Revision of the genus 
Codouapsis, 12. 

Chirodota geminifera , Dendy & Hindle 
Spicules of (Dendy), 69. 

Chittenden, F. J., admitted, 12 ; elected, 
7 ; proposed, 4. 

Christ's College, Cambridge, represented, 

Church, Dr. A. H., represented Oxford 
University, 72. 

Oicindelidfe, Life-history of (V. E. Shel- 
ford), 9. 

Circular to Fellows for Darwin-Wallace 
Celebration, terms read, 10. 

Citrus Mcdica, exhibited (, 13. 

Clark, R. L, deceased, 14. 

Cockayne, E. A., admitted, 12; elected, 
8 ; proposed. 6. 

Codonopsis, Wall., Revision of the genus 
(Chipp), 12. 

Colliuge, W. E., elected, 7 ; proposed, 4, 

Colony-formation as a Factor in Organic 
Evolution (Bernard), 13. 

Coloured drawings exhibited (Salmon), 

Coniferae from Formosa (Hayata), 8. 



Cooper, C. F., ' Sealark ' Antipatharia, 

Corporate Bodies, Delegates received, 

Council elected, 37. 

Crinoidea of the Red Sea (Chadwick), 6. 
Crisp, Sir F., elected Councillor, 37. 
Crocker, Miss E., admitted, 9 : elected, 

8 : proposed, 6. 
Crossland, Cyril, Reports on Coll. by, 

Cheilostomata (Waters), 70; Nudi- 

branchs (Eliot), 70. 
Crustacea, new type of (Sayce), 69. 
Cutting, E. M., admitted, 69 ; elected, 

68 ; proposed, 13. 

Lact-ydmm, slides exhibited (Gerard), 

D'Arcy Thompson, see Thompson. 

Darwin, Charles Robert, mentioned, 71 ; 
see also Darwin-Wallace Celebration. 

Darwin, Dr. F., delivered speech, 71 ; 
represented Cambridge University, 

Darwin - Wallace Celebration, an- 
nounced, 9 ; Medallists invited to 
Dinner (President), 13; Medals pre- 
sented, 71 ; Terras of Circular read, 

Deaths i-ecorded, 14.. 

De Fraine, Miss E. L., admitted, 68 ; 
elected, 13 ; proposed, 10. 

Delegates, reception of, 71. 

Demonstrations (lantern) at Reception, 

Dendy, Prof. A., communication by 

(Bernard), 13; elected Councillor, 37; 

— Secretary, 37; exhibited Peripatus, 

4 ; Spicules of Chirodota geminifera, 

Denny, Prof. A., represented Sheffield 

University, 72. 
Descourtilz's ' Ornithologie bresilienne,' 

drawings from (Salmon), 69. 
Deverell, L. C, elected, 68 ; proposed, 

De Vilmorin, P. L., see Vilmorm. 
Dicotyledons, Origin of Di-trimerous 

Floral Whorls of certain (Henslow), 3. 
Dinner at Princes' Restaurant, alluded 

to by President, 13; — account of, 

Diptera, a new genus and species of 

{Mnigmatistes africamts), (R. W. C 

Shelford), 3. 
Disintegrating Deposits containing 

Fossil Seeds (Mrs. Reid), 8. 
Distribution and Altitude of S. Mexican 

Plants (Gadow), 70. 
Disuse of Library Recommendation 

Book, referred to by President, 69. 

Di-trimerous Floral Whorls of Cotyle- 
dons, their Origin (Henslow), 3. 

Dixon, Prof. H. H., attendance pre- 
vented, 72. 

Donations to Library, 77. 

Drawings exhibited (Mrs. Gay), 70 ; 
(Salmon), 69. 

Druce, C. G., exhibited Linaria arenaria, 
DC. ; Leontoclon hirtus var. Pristis, 
G. C. Druce ; and Pieris Meracioides 
var. incana, G. C. Druce, 4. 

Druce, H., elected Auditor, 13. 

Druce, H. H. C. J., admitted, 12 ; 
elected, 10 ; proposed, 9. 

Druinmond, J. M. F., elected, 68 ; 
proposed, 13. 

Dublin University, address from, 72. 

Duncan, F. Martin, Kinematograph 
representation of the movements of 
Pcrijxctns, 13. 

Dunn, S. T., Botanical Expedition to 
Fokien, 9. 

Durham University represented, 72. 

Duthie, J. F., Melitella pusilla exhibited 
on his behalf (Wright), 70. 

Dyer, Sir Wm. T. Thiselton-, delivered 
speech, 71 ; represented London Uni- 
versity, 72. 

Ealand, C. A., elected, 68 ; proposed, 

Edinburgli University represented by 

Prof. I. B. Balfour, 72, 
Elections at Anniversary, 37 ; recorded, 

Eliot, Sir C, Red Sea Nudibranchs 

collected by Cyril Crossland, 70. 
Elrington, Rev. Dr. G. H. A., admitted, 

12 ; elected, lo ; proposed, 8. 
England, Miss H. M., with Dr. S. J. 


Enock, F., exhibited slides of wood- 
boring wasps, 69. 
Entomological Society of London re- 
presented, 73. 
Eucali/ptus salmonojMoia, F. v. Muell., 

exhibited (Rendle), 3. 
Evolution of Mammals in S. America 

(Woodward), 74. 
Ewing, P., seconded vote of thanks to 

President for Address, 37. 
Exhibitions from the Royal Botanic 

Gardens, Kew, 11. 
Expedition to Fokien (Dunn), 9. 
Experiments with Solanums (Sutton), 9. 

Faraday, F. J., withdrawn, 16. 
Farmer, Prof. J. B., elected Councillor, 




Farqubarson, Mrs. M. S., elected, 10; 
proposed, 8. 

Farrab, J., deceased, 14; obituary, 48. 

Fellows deceased, 14.; elected, 16 ; with- 
drawn, 16. 

Ferrier, C. A., deceased, 14 ; obituary, 

Financial Statement (Treasurer), 15. 

Fishes, Batracbians, and Reptiles of 
' Sealark ' (Boulenger), 14. 

' Flora Anglica,' 1771 (Hudson), exhi- 
bited by General Secretary on behalf 
of Mr. A. H. Stevenson, 3. 

Fokien, Botanical Expedition to (Dunn), 


Foreign Guests invited to Dinner on 
the occasion of the Darwin-Wallace 
Celebration (President), 1 3 ; present 
at Dinner, 73. 

Foreign Members, admitted, 14; de- 
ceased, 16; elected, 13; proposed, 
10 ; vacancies, 9. 

Forest destruction in the Tyrol (Young), 

Formosan Coniferje (Hayata), 8. 

Forster Cooper, sec Cooper. 

Fossil Seeds, Disintegrating deposits 

containing them (Mrs. Eeid), 8. 
Fowler, Dr, G. H., elected Councillor, 


Fowler, Rev. Canon W. W., communi- 
cation by (V. E. Shelford), 9. 

Fraine, Miss E. L. de, see De Fraine. 

Freshwater Fishes, Batracbians, and 
Reptiles of ' Sealark ' (Boulenger), 14. 

Fruits and Seeds from Pre-glacial beds 
of Britain and the Netherlands (Mr. 
k Mrs. Eeid), 8. 

Fungidse, Part I. of the Madreporarian 
Corals (Gardiner), 14. 

Gadow, Dr. H., Altitude and Distribu- 
tion of South Mexican Plants, 70. 

Galton. Dr. F., present at Dinner, 73 ; 
presented with medal, 71 ; — replied, 


Gardenia Thunbergia, Stapf & Hutchin- 
son on, 70. 

Gardiner, J. S.. communications by 
(Boulenger), 14 ; — (Cooper), 14 ; 
— (Hickson & England), 69 ; — 
(Potts), 69 ; Madreporarian Corals, 
Part I. Fungida?. 14. 

Gay, Mrs. H., exhibited drawings, 70. 

Geikie, Sir A., delivered speech, 72 ; 
represented Royal Society of London, 

General Meeting, Special, 71. 
Geological Society of London repre- 
sented, 73. 
Gepp, A., ' Sealark ' Marine Alga^, 70. 

Gerard, Rev. J., exhibited slides illus- 
trating " Vegetable Imitations or 
Mimicries," 12. 

German Embassy, Secretary of, received 
medals on behalf of Profs. Haeckel & 
Weismann, 71. 

Gibbs, T., with W. N. Cheesman, Myco- 
logy of S. Africa, 69. 

Gibson, R. J. H., Marine Algte of the 
Red Sea, 6. 

Gill, Sir D., represented the British 
Association, 73. 

Gill, N., admitted, 70 ; elected, 70 ; 
proposed, 14. 

Gold Medal presented to Dr. A. R. 
Wallace (Celebration), 71 ; (Linnean) 
presented to the Rev. T. R. R. Steb- 
bing, 39. 

Gordon, J. S., withdrawn, 16. 

Gozo Island, nr. Malta, Melitella pusilla 
from (Duthie), 70. 

Grant, F. E., deceased, 14. 

Groves, H., appointed Scrutineer, 37 ; 
elected Auditor, 13. 

Groves, H. & J., exhibited Spartina 
Neyrautii (Stapf), 45. 

Guests present at Dinner, 73. 

Gunong Tahan, Plants from (Ridley), 

Gustaf v., H.M the King of Sweden, 
address to, 6 ; thanks from, S ; Hon. 
Member, 14. 

Gwynne-Vanghau, D. T., admitted, 12 ; 
elected, 4 ; proposed, i. 

Haeckel, Prof. E., attendance prevented, 

71 ; medal presented to, 71. 
Haines, H. H., admitted, 10. 
Hamilton, J. T., elected, 4 ; proposed, i. 
Harmer, Dr. S. F., represented the 

Cambridge Philosophical Society, 73. 
Harrison, Miss R. M., Alcyonaria from 

Indian and Pacific Oceans, 9. 
Hartmeyer, Dr. R., Collections made 

by, 70. 
Hayata, B., Formosan Coniferse, 8. 
Haydon, W. T., elected, 10 ; proposed, 

Heath, Dr. E. A , deceased, 14 ; obituary, 

Hector, Sir J., deceased, 14, 123 ; 

obituary, 50. 
Hector, J. M., elected, 6 ; proposed, 3. 
Hemsley, W. B., communications by 

(Chipp), 12; (Hayata), 8. 
Henslow, Rev. G., On the origin of the 

Di-trimerous Floral Whorls of certain 

Dicotyledons, 3. 
Herdman, Prof. W. A., elected Coun- 
cillor, 37 ; nominated V.-P., 68 ; 

represented Liverpool University, 72. 



Hertford Grammar School represented, 

Hickson, Dr. S. J., with Miss H. M. 

England, Stylasterina of Indian 

Ocean, 69. 
Hill, A. W., admitted, 8 ; elected, 7 ; 

proposed, 4. 
Hill, Prof. J, P., elected Auditor, 13; 

— Councillor, 37. 
Hindis, E., Holothurians of Sudanese 

Red Sea, 12. 
Holothurians of Sudanese Eed Sea 

(Hindle), 12. 
Honorary Member elected, 14. 
Hooker, Sir J. D., letter in reply to 

congratulation from General Meeting, 

I ; Darwin-Wallace medal presented 

to, 71 ; — replied, 71. 
Hopkinson, J., elected Councillor, 37; 

proposed thanks to President for 

Address, 37. 
Horrell, E. C, withdrawn, 16. 
Hubrecht, Prof., present at Dinner, 73. 
Hudleston, \Y. H., represented the 

Geological Society of London, 73. 
Hutchinson, J., with Dr. O. Stapf, on 

Gardenia Thunbergia, 70. 
Hydroid Zoophytes from the Eed Sea 

(Miss Thoruelyj, 6. 
Hydrostachys imbricata, A. Juss., & 

H. nana, Engl., exhibited (Wright), 


Ikeno, Prof. S., admitted Foreign 
Member, 14. 

Illigcra, Revision of the genus (Dunn), 8. 

Imitations or Mimicries in Vegetables 
(Gerard), 12. 

Ince, J., deceased, 14. 

Indian Ocean, Amphipoda Gammaridea 
of (Walker), 1 1 ; Marine Alga of 
' Sealark ' (Gepp), 70 ; Polychseta of 
(Potts), 69 ; Stylasterina of (Hickson 
& England), 69. 

Institution of Civil Engineers, Meeting 
held at, 71. 

Invertebrate animals, action of concen- 
trated light on (Duncan), 13. 

Island of JBoinbay, drawings of plants 
from (Mrs. Gay), 70. 

Jackson, Dr. B. D., elected Councillor, 
37; — General Secretary, 37; read 
terms of Darwin-Wallace Circular, 

Jurassic Vegetation of the World — a 
Study in Plant-Migration (Seward), 

Keeble, Prof. F.. admitted, 6 ; elected, 
4; proposed, i. 

Kinematograph representation of the 
movements oi Pfiripatus (Duncan), 13. 

Kinman, W. G., represented Hertford 
Grammar School, 71. 

Koonunga cursor (Sayce), 69. 

La Mortola, Citrus Medica from 

(Weiss), 13. 
Lang, Prof. P. R. Scott, represented 

St. Andrews University, 72. 
Lankester, Sir E. Ray, communication 

by (A. Reid), 6 ; Medal presented to, 

71; replied, 71 ; present at Dinner, 

Lantern demonstrations at Reception, 

Larva, light-giving, exhibited by C. W. 

Anderson, 3. 
Laurie, Prof. M., communication by 
- (Patience), 10, 
Leaves, Abnormal structures in (Wors- 

dell), 4. 
Leeds University represented, 72. 
Leontodon hirtus var. Pristis, G. C. 

Druce, exhibited (G. C. Druce), 4. 
Librarian's Report, 16. 
Library, Additions and Donations, 

77 ; — Recommendation Book men- 
tioned (President), 69. 
Life-history of Tiger-Beetles (Cicinde- 

lidiB), (Shelford), 9 ; of Wood-boring 

Wasps (Enock), 69. 
Linaria arenaria DC., exhibited (G. 0. 

Druce), 4. 
Linnean Medal awarded to Rev. T. R. R. 

Stebbing, 37. 
Lithographs exhibited (Salmon), 69. 
Liverpool University represented, 72. 
Lodge, Sir O., represented Birmingham 

University, 72. 
London University represented, 72. 
Lonnberg, Prof. Dr. E., delivered 

speech, 72 ; present at Dinner, 73 ; 

represented Royal Swedish Academy 

of Science, 72. 
Lysimachia. slides exhibited (Gerard), 


Madreporariau Corals, Part I. Fungidse 
(Gardiner^, 14. 

Malacological Society represented, 73. 

Malacostracous Crustacea, new type of 
(Sayce), 69. 

Mammals in S. America, their Evolu- 
tion (Woodward), 74. 

Manchester Literary and Philosophical 
Society represented, 72. 

Manchester University represented, 

Marine Algce of the Red Sea (Gibaon), 
6 ; of ' Sealark' (Gepp), 70. 

Marine Biological Association repre- 
sented, 73. 

Marine Biulogy of Sudanese Red Sea. 
Bryozua, Part I. Cheilostomata 
(Waters), 70. 

Martin Duncan, sec Duncan. 

Masternian, Dr. A. T., Mimicry in the 
Sole, 10. 

Masters, Dr. M. T., deceased, 14 ; 
obituary, 54. 

Matthew. 0. Gr., admitted, 12; elected, 
12 ; propo.^ed, 10. 

Medallist (Linnean), Eev. T. R. R. 
ytebbing, 37. 

Medallists, claims recited, 71 ; invited 
to Dinner (President), 13; present 
at Dinner, 73. 

Medals, Darwin-Wallace, presented, 71. 

Meek, Prof. A., elected, 4; proposed, 

Meek, C. F. U., elected, 10 ; proposed, 

Mel'della j^iisilla, exhibited by C. H. 
Wright on behalf of J. F. Dutbie, 

Meudelism and Sex (Reid), 6-7. 

Mexican Plants, their Altitude and 
Distribution (Gadow), 70. 

Michael, A. D., Acari from New Zea- 
land, 3. 

Milton, J. II., elected, 10 ; proposed, 9. 

Mimicries or Imitations in Vegetables 
(Gerard), 12. 

Mimicry in tl^e Sole (Masterman), 10. 

Mobius, Prof. K., deceased, 16. 

Monckton, H. W., elected Councillor, 
37 ; — Treasurer, 37 ; exhibited speci- 
mens and slides of leaf-impressions 
from the Reading Beds, 8 ; nomi- 
nated V.-P.. 68. 

Moore, F., deceased, 16; obituary, 

Morgan, Prof. C. L., represented Uni- 
versity College, Bristol, 72. 

Morphological value of leaves (Wors- 
dell), 4. 

Murray, Rev. R. P., withdrawn, 16. 

Mycology of S. Africa (Cheesman and 
Gibb.s), 69. 

Natborst, Prof. A. G., elected Foreign 
Member, 13 ; proposed, 10. 

Netherlands, Pre-glacial Fruits and 
Seeds (Mr. & Mrs. Reid), 8. 

Newall, H. F., represented the Royal 
Astronomical Society, 73. 

Newton, Prof. A., deceased, 14; obitu- 
ary, 56. 

New Zealand, Acari from (Michael), 3. 

Nicholls, G. E., elected, 1 3 ; proposed, 


INDEX. 129 

Norman, Canon A. M., Podosomata of 

the Temperate Atlantic and Ai-ctic 
Oceans, 1 1. 

Nottingham, University College repre- 
sented, 72. 

Nudibranchs collected in Red Sea by 
Cyril Crossland (Eliot), 70. 

Obituary Notices, 42-68. 

Officers elected, 37. 

Oliver, Prof. F. W., elected Councillor, 

Oliver, J. W., admitted, 9 ; elected, 4 ; 

proposed, i. 
Ophrys apifcva, and 0. 77mscifera, 

slides exhibited (Gerard), 12. 
Organic Evolution, Colony-formation 

as a Factor in (Bernard), 13. 
Origin of Di-trimerous Floral Whorls 

of certain Dicotyledons (Heuslow), 

' Ornithologie' bresilienne' (Descourtilz), 

drawings exhibited (Salmon), 69, 
Oxford Uuiversity represented by three 

Delegates, 72. 

Paris, genus mentioned (Gerard), 12. 
Patience, A., Trichoniscoides albidus and 

T. sarsi, Patience, 10. 
Pearse, Miss E., proposed, 70. 
Pearson, J., proposed, 68. 
Peat, method for Disintegrating (Mrs 

Reid), 8. 
Peile, Dr. J., represented Christ's 

College, Cambridge, 71. 
PerijMtus, exhibited (Dendy), 4; move- 
ments of (Duncan), 13. 
Phaseohia /?iul(iJiorus, seedlings exhibited 

(Worsdell), 70. 
Phillips, Prof. R. W., represented Wales 

University, 72. 
Picris hicracioides var incana, G. C. 

Druce, exhibited (G. C. Druce), 4. 
Plants from Gunoug Tahan, in Pahang 

(Ridley), 6; in South Mexico, their 

Altitude and Distribution (Gadow), 

Plant-migration, a Study in (Seward), 

Platanthera cklorantha exhibited 

(Wright), II. 
Pocock, R. I., elected Councillor, 37. 
Podosomata of the Temperate Atlantic 

and Arctic Oceans (Norman), 11. 
PolychaBta of Indian Ocean (Potts), 


Potter,Prof. M.C., represented Durham 

University. 72. 
Potts, F. A., Polychreta of Indian 

Ocean, 69. 

1907-1908. Tc 


Poulton, Prof. E. B. represented Oxford 

University, 72. 
Prain, Lieut.-Col. D., elected Councillor, 
37 ; moved thanks to retiring Presi- 
dent, 42 ; nominated V.-P., 68 ; 
represented Aberdeen University, 72. 
Pre-glacial flora of Britain and the 

Netherlands (Mr. & Jfrs. Keid), 8. 
Preservation of specimens in Australian 

Museums (Tepper), 4. 
President (for the time being), address 
to Medallists, 71 ; appointed Scru- 
tineers, 37 ; appointed Vice-Presidents, 
68 ; communications by (Chadwick), 
3 ; — (Eliot), 70 ; — (Hindle), 12 ; 
— (Thomson), 3 ; — (Thornely), 3 ; 
declared result of Ballots, 37 ; de- 
livered his Address, 17-36; elected, 
37 ; moved thanks to Lord Avebury 
for address, 73 ; referred to Dinner, 
13 ; — Honorary Member, 14; spoke 
on disuse of the Library Recom- 
mendation Book, 69 ; tendered 
thanks for election (Scott), 68 ; 
thanked on retirement (Herdman), 
42 ; welcomed delegates, 7 1 ; 'with 
Mrs. Scott, received guests at Eecep- 
tion, 73. 
Presidential Address, 17. 
Priestley, J. H., admitted, 68 ; elected, 

7 ; proposed, 4. 
Princes' Restaurant, Dinner mentioned 
(President), 13 ; — Dinner at, 73. 

Reading Beds, leaf-impressions from 

(Monckton), 8. 
Reception in the Rooms of the Society, 

73- . 

Recommendation Book in Library, 

disuse of (President), 69. 
Red Sea Alcyonaria (Thomson), 6 ; — 

Amphipoda Gammaridea (Walker), 

II ; Collections (Hartmeyer), 70; — 

Crinoidea (Chadwick), 6 ; — Holo- 

thurians (Hindle), 12 ; — Hydroid 

Zoophytes (Thornely), 6 ; — Marine 

Algaj (Gibson), 6 ; — Nudibranchs 

(Eliot), 70. 
Reid, Dr. A., Mendelism and Sex, 6-7. 
Reid, C, communication by (Mrs. 

Reid), 8. 
Reid, C. , and Mrs. Reid, Pre-glacial flora 

of Britain and the Netherlands, 8. 
Rendle, Dr. A. B., communication 

(Gadow), 70; elected Auditor, 13; 

exhibited Eucalyjitus salmoiiophloia, 

F. Muell., 3. 
Representatives of Univei-sities and 

Schools, i-eceived, 71. 
Reptiles, Batrachians, and Freshwater 

Fishes of ' Sealark ' (Boulenger), 14. 

Reservoir, Algte of the Yan Yean, 

(West), 70. 
Retirement of Prof. Herdman as Presi- 
dent, 42. 
Revision of the genus IlUgera (Dunn), 

Richardson, L., elected, 4; proposed, 

Robinson, H. C, Plants collected in 

Gunong Tahan (Ridley), 6. 
Rome, Wm., deceased, 14 ; obituary, 

Row, R. W. H., elected, 13 ; proposed, 

Royal Astronomical Society represented, 

Royal Irish Academy represented, 72. 
Royal Microscopical Society represented, 

Royal Society of Edinburgh represented, 

Royal Society of London represented, 

Royal Swedish Academy of Science 
repi-esented, 72. 

St. Andrews University represented, 

Salmon, C. E., exhibited coloured 

drawings, 69. 
Sapotaceous Seedlings, their Anatomy 

(Miss Smith), 12. 
Sargant, Miss E., elected Councillor, 

Saunders, G. S., appointed Scrutineer, 


Saunders, H., deceased, 14; obituary, 

Sayce, O. A., Koonunga cursor, 69. 

Scarlet-Runner bean seedlings exhibited 
(Worsdell), 70. 

Scharff, Dr. R. F., represented Royal 
Irish Academy, 72. 

Schools and Universities, represen- 
tatives received, 71. 

Scotland, Sponges collected in (Annan- 
dale), 12. 

Scott, Dr. D. H., elected Councillor, 
37 ; — President, 37 ; thanks for 
election as President, 68 ; with 
Mrs. Scott received guests at Recep- 
tion, 73. 

Scott Lang, sec Lang. 

Scrutineers appointed, 37. 

' Sealark ' Expedition, 14 : — Marine 
Algse of (Gepp), 70. 

Secretaries elected, 37. 

Secretary, General, Bye Laws govern- 
ing elections read, 16 ; obituaries, 
42 ; report of deaths, withdrawals, 
and elections, 14-16. 


Secretary of German Embassy, received 
medals on behalf of Profs. Haeckel 
& Weismann, 71. 

Seedlings, Sapotaceous, their anatomy 
(Miss Smith), 12. 

Seeds and Fruits from the Pre-glacial 
beds of Britain and the Netherlands 
(Mr. & Mrs. Reid), 8. 

Seward, Prof. A. C, lantern demon- 
stration at Reception, 73. 

Sheffield University represented, 72. 

Shelford, R. W. C, .^nigmatistc^ afri- 
caniis, a new genus and species of 
Diptera, 3. 

Shelford, Dr. V. E., Life-history of 
Tiger-Beetles, 9. 

Shipley, A. E., represented the Marine 
Biological Association, 73. 

Shrewsbury School represented, 71. 

Silver medals presented (Darwin- 
Wallace Celebration), 71. 

Smith, J. C, elected, 4; proposed, i. 

Smith, Miss W., admitted, 12 ; elected, 
10 ; proposed, 8 ; anatomy of some 
Sapotaceous Seedlings, 12. 

Smith Woodward, see Woodward. 

Societies and Academies represented, 

Society of Antiquaries represented, 

Soil-denudation in the Tyrol (Young), 


Soiree, see Reception. 

Solanums, experiments with Wild 
Types of (Suttou), 9. 

Sole, mimicry in the (Masterman), 

Somerville, A., deceased, 14 ; obituary, 

Sorbj^ Dr. H. C, deceased, 14 ; obit- 
uary, 61. 

South Africa, Mvcology of (Oheesman 
& Gihbs), 69. 

South America, Evolution of Mammals 
in (Woodward), 73. 

Southwell, T., elected, 4 ; proposed, i. 

SjMrtina alteniiflora, S. Neyrautii, 
S. stricta, and <S. Toivnseiidi ex- 
hibited (Stapf), 4. 

Special General Meeting, 71. 

Specimens in Australian Museums, 
their preservation (Tepper), 4. 

Speeches delivered, 71-72. 

Sph(B)-othijlax algiforniis, Bisch., ex- 
hibited (Wright), II. 

Spicules of Chirodota gc mini f era, Dendy 
& Hindle (Dendy), 69. 

Sponges collected in Scotland (Annan- 
dale), 12. 

Sprague, T. A., exhibited Slcrculia 
Akxandri, Harv., 11, 

Stapf, Dr. O., elected Councillor, 37 

— Secretary, 37 ; exhibited Sjjartitia 
altcrniflora, S. Neyruudi, S. stricta, 
and (S. Totvnsendi ; with J. Hutchin- 
son, on Gardenia Thiinhergia, 70. 

Statement of Accounts (Treasurer), 15. 

Stebbing, Rev. T. R. R., Linnean Medal- 
list, 37 ; — reply to President, 39 ; 
Two new species of Amphipoda, 4. 

Stcrculia Alexandri, Harv., exhibited 
(Sprague), 11. 

Stevenson, A. H., exhibited Hudson's 
' Flora Auglica,' 1771, 3. 

Stewart, Prof. C, deceased, 14 ; obit- 
uary, 62. 

Sfigmaria, Abstract of Prof. Weiss's 
paper on the Morphology of, 74 ; 

— memoir read, 10. 
Stockdale, F. A., elected, 1. 
Stockholm, Royal Swedish Academy of 

Science, represented, 72. 
Strachey, Lieut.-Gen. Sir R., deceased, 

14; obituary, 63. 
Strasburger, Prof. E., medal presented 

to, 71; — replied, 71; present at 

Dinner, 73. 
Stj-lasterina of the Indian Ocean 

(Hickson & England), 69. 
Sudanese Red Sea, Holotliurians (Hin- 
dle), 12 ; Marine Biology of — Bryo- 

zoa. Part I. Oheilostomata (Waters), 

Sutton, A. W., Brassica Crosses, 8 ; 

Tuber-bearing Solanums, 9. 
Sweden, H.M. the King of, address to, 

6 ; thanks from, 8 ; Hon. Memb., 14. 
Royal Swedish Academy of Science 

represented, 72. 
Swynnertou, C. F. M., admitted, 7 ; 

elected , 6 ; proposed, 3 . 
Symes, Dr. C, withdrawn, 16. 

Tanner, Dr. J., elected, 3 ; projjosed, 8. 
Tepper, J. G. Otto, Pi*eservation of 

Austi-alian Museum specimens, 4. 
Thiselton-Dyer, sec Dyer. 
Thompson, Prof. D., represented Royal 

Society of Edinburgh, 73. 
Thompson, Sir E. M., represented the 

British Academy, 73. 
Thomson, J. A., Red Sea Alcyonaria, 6. 
Thornely, Miss L. R., Hydroid Zoo- 
phytes of the Red Sea, 6. 
Tibet, CaryophylIace;\3 of (Williams), 69. 
Tiger-Beetles (Cicindelida;), Life-history 

of(V. E. Shelford), 9, 
Tipula i»iperialis, its rarity (Euock), 

Training of Darwin & Wallace, Schools 

connected with, 71. 



Travers, H. H., elected, 70 ; proposed, 

Travers, W. T. L., deceased, 14 ; obit- 
uary, 64. 

Treadgold, 0. H., elected, 68 ; pro- 
posed, 13. 

Treasurer elected, 37 ; his accounts, 
15 ; — submitted, 14. 

Trichoniscoides alhidus (Budde-Lund), 
and T. sarsi. Patience (A. Patience), 

Tristiclia hypnoides, Spreng., exhibited 
(Wright), II. 

Tyrol, Soil-denudation in the (Young), 

Uniyersities and Schools, representatives 
received, 71. 

represented, Rce under their re- 
spective names, 72. 

University College, Bristol, repre- 
sented, 72. 

Nottingham, represented, 72. 

Vaughan, see Gwynne-Vaughan. 
Vegetable Imitations or Mimicries 

(ijrerard), 12. 
Veitch, J. H., deceased, 14 ; obituary, 

Veronica tetragona, slides exhibited 

(Gerard), 12. 
Vice-President, announcements by, of 

Darwin - Wallace Celebration, 9 ; 

vacancies in List of Foreign Mem- 
bers, 9. 
Vice-Presidents nominated, 68. 
Vilmorin, P. L. de, admitted, 12; 

elected, 8 ; proposed, 6. 

Wales, University of, represented, 72. 

Walker, A. O., Amphipoda Gamma- 
ridea, 1 1 ; seconded thanks to Presi- 
dent upon retirement, 43. 

Walker, J. F., deceased, 14; obituary, 

Wallace, Dr. A. R., presented with 
Gold Medal (Darwin-Wallace Celeb- 
ration), 71 ; — replied, 71. 

Waltham, T. E., exhibited stereoscopic 
transparencies of Alpine flowers in 
natural colours, 9. 

Warming, Prof. J. E. B., present at 
Dinner, 73. 

Warren, Dr. T. H. represented Oxford 
University, 72. 

Wasps, wood-boring, slides exhibited 
(Enock), 69. 

Waterhouse, C. O., represented the 
Entomological Society, 73. 

Waters, A. W., Marine Biologj' of 
Sudanese Eed Sea — Bryozoa, Part I. 
Cheilostomata, 70. 

Weismann, Prof. A., attendance pre- 
vented, 71 ; medal presented to, 71. 

Weiss, Prof. F. E., Abstract of paper, 
74; elected Councillor, 37 ; exiiibited 
Citrus Medica, 13 ; Morphology of 
Stigmaria and of its appendages in 
comparison with recent Lycopodiah s, 
10 ; i-epresented Manchester Uni- 
versity, 72. 

West, G. S., Algae of Tan Yean Reser- 
voir, 70. 

West Australia, Eucalypius salmono- 
phloia from, exhibited (Rendle), 3. 

Westell, W. P., admitted, 2. 

Whitley, Miss E., admitted, 6 ; elected, 
4 ; proposed, i . 

Wigglesworth, Miss G., elected, 68 ; 
proposed, 13. 

Williams, F. N., Oaryophyllaceae of 
Tibet, 69. 

Williams, H., removed from List, 16. 

Williams, J. M., proposed, 70. 

Williams, W. R. W., admitted, 6; 
elected, 4; proposed, i. 

Wills, G. S. v., removed from List, 16. 

Witbdi-awals recorded, 14. 

Wood-boring Wasps, slides exhibited 
(Enock), 69. 

Woodward, Dr. A. S., elected Coun- 
cillor, 37 ; lecture at Reception, 73 ; 
nominated V.-P., 68 ; on Evolution 
of Mammals in S. America, 74. 

Wordsell, W. C, Abnormal Structures 
in Leaves and their Morphological 
value, 4 ; exhibited seedlings of Pha- 
seohis 'limit iflorus, 70. 

Wrangel, His Excellency Count, letter 
from, 8. 

Wright, 0. A., deceased, 14; obituary, 

Wright, C. H., exhibitions by : — Arch- 
avgiopteris Hcnryi, Christ & Gilsenh., 
Cuidei-pa cupressoides, Agh., Hydro- 
sfacliys imhricafa, A. Juss.,& H. nana, 
Engl., II; Mclitella fimlla, 70; 
Platanthcra cMorantha, Sjiharoihylax 
algiformis, and Tristicha hypnoides, 
Spreng., 11. 

Yan Yean Reservoir, AlgjE of the 
(West), 70. 

Young, A. P., slides showing soil-denu- 
dation in the Tyrol, 7. 

Zoological Secretary, elected, 37. 
Zoological Society of London repre- 
sented, 73. 





121st session. 

From November 1908 to June 1909. 









List of Publications issued iv 

Proceedings of the 121st Session i 

Presidential Address 21 

Obituaries 34 

Abstract of Paper 54 

Additions to the Library 55 

Donations 86 

Benefactions, 1790-1909 87 

Index 95 

Publications of the Society issued during the period, 31st July, 
1908,, to Slst July, 1909 :— 

Journal (Botany), No. 267, 13th Oct., 1908. 
„ 268, 15th Feb., 1909. 
„ 269, 11th Mar., 1909. 
(Zoology), No. 198, 30th Sept., 1908. 
„ 199, 6th July, 1909. 
„ 204, 11th Nov., 1908. 
„ 205, 8th Mar., 1909. 

Transactions (2nd Ser.) Botany, Vol. VII. Part x., Dec. 1908. 

XI., Feb. 1909. 

„ XII., July 1909. 

(2nd Ser.) Zoology, Vol. XI. Part i., Dec. 1908. 

II., Mar. 1909. 

„ III., Apr. 1909. 

„ IV., June 1909. 

v., July 1909. 

Proceedings, 120th Session, from November 1907 to June 1908 
October 1908. 

List of [Fellows, Associates, and Foreign Members], 1908-1909. 


or THE 



November 5th, 1908. 

Dr. D. H. Scott, M.A., E.E.S., President, in the Chair. 

The Minutes of the General Meeting of the 18th June, 1908, 
Avere read and confirmed. 

Miss Grace Wigglesworth, M.Sc. (Manch.), and Capt. Andrew 
Thomas Gage, I.M.S., were admitted Fellows. 

The following were proposed as Fellows : — Lieut.-Col. Charles 
James Bamber, I. M.S., Mr. Ernest Brown, Mr. Ernest Gibson, 
Mrs. Mary Jane Longstaff, Mr. Ashley Henry Maude, Miss Mary 
(May) Eathbone, Miss Agnes Eobertson, D.Sc. (Lond,), Miss 
Ethel Nancy Thomas, B.Sc. (Lond.), and Miss Anita Florence 
Seed AVilliams, B.Sc. (Lond.). 

Mr. Joseph Pearson, M.Sc, was balloted for and elected a 

A silver copy of the Darwin- AVallace Medal was presented to 
the British Museum : Mr. H. A. Grueber, F.S.A., the Keeper 
of the Department of Coins and Medals, received it on behalf of 
the Museum, and expressed his pleasure in accepting for his 
Department so noteworthy a medal. 

Prof. A. Dendy, F.E.S., Sec.L.S., exhibited bronze copies of 
the new Eesearch Medal instituted by the New Zealand Institute, 



as a memorial to Capt. Hutton, F.E.S. ; it had been modelled by 
Prof. E, Lauteri, showing on the obverse a portrait of Hutton, 
and on the reverse S2:>7ienodon j^unctatus, A2)ten/x ; Phorminm tenax, 
Cordyline australis, and a Celmisia for the fauna and flora, whilst 
geology was represented by a geologist's hammer and a distant 
range of volcanoes. ' 

Mr. L. A. Boodle, !F.L.S., exhibited a preparation and drawings 
of a remarkable gall sent from Bombay by Mr. T^^. A. Talbot, 
F.L.S., Conservator of Forests. Prof. Trail and Dr. Stapf dis- 
cussed certain points, and Mr. Boodle replied. 

Dr. Otto Stapf, F.E.S., Sec.L.S., referred to Mr. Scott Elliot's 
problematical plant, described and discussed in Jouru. Linn. Soc, 
Bot. vol. XXX. (1894) p. 155, t. 8, and identified by M. H. Hua 
with Lepidagathis Pobef/uinii. He produced one of Scott Elliot's 
specimens, and explained bow from the presence of c^'stoliths in 
the epidermis in connection with the peculiar distribution of the 
phloem in the stem the affinity of the plant might have been 
ascertained in spite of the absence of inflorescences. 

The President, Miss A. L. Smith, and Mr. Boodle commented 
on the exhibition. 

The following papers were read : — 

1. " Notes on some Parasitic Copepoda, with a description of a 

new species of Clwndr acanthus, i. e. C. ivjlahis." By Miss 
Mat E. BAiyBEiDGE, B.Sc, F.L.S. 

2. " On some Nemei-teans from the Eastern Indian Ocean." 

By E. C. PunjS'ett, M.A., and C. Foester Coopee, M.A. 

(Communicated by J. Stanley G-aedinee, M.A., F.E.S., 

3. " Eeport on the Echinoderms (other than Holothurians) 

collected by Mr. Stanley (xardiner in the Yrestern parts 
of the Indian Ocean." By Prof. F. Jeffrey Bell, M.A. 
(Communicated by the same.) 

November 19th, 1908. 

Dr. D. H. Scott, M.A., F.E.S., President, in the Chair. 

On tiaking the Chair, the President announced that, accompanied 
by Dr. Stapf and the General Secretary, he had been received in 
audience by H.M. the King of Sweden, at Windsor, Mho signed 
the Eoll and Charter Book as an Honorary Member. 

The Minutes of the General Meeting of the 5th November were 
head and confirmed. 


Mr. William Booth Waterfall was proposed as a Fellow. 

Miss Eleanor Pearse, B.Sc. (Lond.), and Mr. James Moore 
Williams were severally balloted for and elected Fellows. 

Mr. Harold AVageii,F.E.S.,F.L.S., gave a lantern demonstra- 
tion on " The Optical Behaviour of the Epidermal Cells of Leaves." 
He stated that Professor Haberlandt had suggested that the 
epidermal cells of certain leaves are functional as ocelli or primi- 
tive eyes and are capable of the perception of light. The structure 
of these cells is such that the rays of light which fall upon them 
are refracted and brought to a focus, and in one case Haberlandt 
was able to obtain a photograph of a microscope the image of 
which was focussed upon the basal walls of the epidermal cells. 
This image, as figured in his book, is not very clear, and it has 
since been found possible to obtain much clearer images of a 
variety of subjects through the cells both of the upper and lower 
epidermis of many leaves, including portraits from life, flowers, 
houses and landscapes, reproductions of photographs and pictures, 
and simple diagrams in colour on the autochrome plates of 
Messrs. Lumifere. 

In order to explain this lens-function, Haberlandt has put 
forward the extremely interesting hypothesis that the convergence 
of the light rays causes a differential illumination of the proto- 
plasmic layer on the basal walls of the epidermal cells and sets up 
a stimulus which results in the orientation of the leaf into that 
position in which it can obtain the most suitable illumination. 

There is no doubt a good deal of evidence in favour of Haber- 
landt's view, but there are many facts to be explained before a 
definite conclusion can be arrived at. For example — convergence 
takes place in the lower as well as in the upper epidermal cells, as 
shown by Albrecht for Viscum and by the exhibitor in many other 
plants. In a species of Mesembryanthemum there are special lens- 
cells equally well developed on the lower surface as on the upper 
surface. In Garrya elliptica also there are special lens-shaped 
thickenings of the cuticle equally well developed on both surfaces. 
The papillate cells of many petals show a very clear convergence. 

It is not impossible that the convergence may bring about a 
more efficient illumination of the chlorophyll grains. Haberlandt 
himself suggested something of this kind many years ago, and the 
numerous observations which have been made upon ScMsiostega, 
Osmundaceoe, some Selaginellas and Hepatics, and other plants, 
and some observations by the exhibitor upon Botrydium granu- 
latum, all clearly indicate that this hypothesis must be taken into 
account. It is significant, also, that epidermal cells v^■ith long 
focus appear to be associated with long palisade-cells, whilst the 
cells with short focus are associated with short palisade-cells. 

The President and Dr. S. E. Chandler commented on the exhi- 
bition, and the Author replied. 



Mr. C. T. DRrERY exhibited some ferns growing in a bottle 
presumably airtight, on silver sand, which during a period of four 
years had nearly filled the jar. The question he propounded 
was, How did this vegetative growth procure the needful carbon 
dioxide ? , 

Mr. G-. P. Mudge (visitor). Dr. Eendle, and Dr. Drabble engaged 
in a short discussion on the point raised. 

The Eev. John Gerard, S.J., showed a series of lantern-slides : 
(a) illustrating Tew stems natural!}' inarched, from Stonyhurst, 
Lancashire ; and (b) Wistaria stems, one of which having been 
twined round a pillar " clock- wise " fashion, had ceased to put 
forth fresh shoots, though still living. The other, having twined 
itself " counter-clockwise," had flowered freely. Dr. Eendle, 
Mr. J. C. Shenstone, and the President joined in the discussion 
which followed. 

Miss A. L. Smith showed under the microscope and by lantern- 
slides, Myxococcus pyriformis or M. ruhescens (?), a British member 
of the MyxobacteriaceES, which had also been found near Berlin. 

The Eev. T. E. E. Steering exhibited specimens of an Alcyo- 
narian evidently belonging to the suborder Pennatulaeea, and not 
improbably to the widely distributed species Cavernularia olesa, 
Milne-Edwards & Haime, in Kolliker's family Cavernulariidse. 
They had been sent from Borneo some years ago by Charles Hose, 
Esq., D.Sc, at that time the Eesident in the Baram district, 
Saraw-ak. The suggested identification was founded on Professor 
S. J. Hickson's discussion of the species in Gilchrist's ' Marine 
Investigations,' vol. i. p. 92, pi. 3 (1902), and on inspection of a 
specimen in the British Museum under the care of Professor 
Jeifrey Bell. Mr. Stebbing pointed out that the genus Cavernu- 
laria was established in 1850 by Milne-Edwards & Haime (British 
Eossil Corals, part i. p. Ixxxiv), and should not be credited to 
Valenciennes who only gave the name in manuscript on a museum 
label. A similar remark applies to the species C. ohesa. The 
largest of the specimens is about three and a half inches or 87 mm. 
in length. AVheu received in England, and for months afterwards, 
they had the appearance of slender, almost smooth, light-brown 
sausages, besprinkled, except for a still smoother fifth or sixth of 
their length, with small black dots. The chief motive for bringing 
them under the notice of the Society lay in the circumstance that, 
Avhen again examined after a further long interval, during all 
which time they had been in a preservative medium, the speci- 
mens displayed for the most part an entirely different aspect. 
The surface had become in many parts conspicuously squamose, 
and from many of the black dots polyps were now more or less 
expansively protruded. It looked as if by their powder of with- 
drawal into the common fleshy polypidom, these creatures were 


able for an imraense time to resist the poisoning influence ot 
spirit or formalin, but Prof. Dendy suggested that a post-^nortem 
shrinkage of the polypidom might have protruded the polyps. 

The following papers were read : — 

1. " On a new Species of Sympliyla from the Himalayas." Br 

Prof. A. D. Imms, D.Se. (Communicated by A. E. Shipley, 
F.E.S., P.L.S.) 

2. " The Freshwater Crustacea of Tasmania, with remarks on 

the Geographical Distribution." By Geoffrey W. Smith, 
M.A., F.L.S. 

December 3rd, 1908. 

Dr. D. H. Scott, M.A., F.R.S., President, in the Chair. 

The Minutes of the General Meeting of the 19th November 
were read and confirmed. 

Mr. George Edward Nicholls, B.Sc, Miss Eleanor Pearse, B.Sc, 
and Mr. Albert William Bartlett, B.A., B.Sc, were admitted 

Mr. "William John Yandenbergh was proposed as a Fellow. 

The following persons were severally balloted for and elected 
Fellows : — Lieut.-Col. Charles James Bamber, I. M.S., Mr. Ernest 
Brown, Mr. Ernest Gibson, Mrs. Mary Jane Longstaff, Mr. Ashley 
Henry Maude, Miss Mary (May) Eathbone,Miss Agues Eobertsou, 
D.Sc. (Lond.), Miss Ethel IVancy Thomas, B.Sc. (Lond.), and Miss 
Anita Florence Seed Williams, B.Sc. (Loud.). 

Dr. O. Rosenheim exhibited a large series of lanteru-slides 
prepared by the starch-grain colour process, and explained the 
method by which these results had been obtained. The President, 
Mr. J. C. Shenstone, Mr. A. P. Young, Mr. A. O. Walker, and 
Dr. Y. H. Yeley, F.R.S. (visitor), contributed some remarks, and 
Dr. Rosenheim replied to the questions which had been put. 

The following papers were read : — 

1. " Biscayan Plankton : the Ostracoda." By Dr. G. Heebeux 

Fowler, F.L.S. 

2. " Mimicry in Spiders." By R. Innes Pocock, F.L.S., F.Z.S. 

3. " Note on Jimiperus taxifolia, Hook. & Am." By B. Hayat.i. 

(Communicated by W! Boxting Hemsley, F.R.S. , F.L.S.) 


December 17th, 1908. 
Dr. D. H. Scott, M.A., F.E.S., President, in the Cliair. 

The Minutes of the General Meeting of the 3rd December were 
read and confirmed. 

Miss Anita FJorence Seed Williams, B.Sc. (Lond.), Miss Ethel 
Nancy Thomas, B.Sc. (Lond.), Mr. Charles Francis Ullathorne 
Meek, and Mr. Ashley Henry Maude, J. P., were admitted Fellows. 

Mr. Richard Dupont, Mr. William Herbert Mullens, M.A., 
LL.M., and Mr. Gurney Wilson were proposed as Fellows. 

Mr. William Booth Waterfall was elected a Fellow. 

Mr. EuPEET Vallentin, F.L.S., exhibited a rare barnacle, 
Lepas fascicularis, obtained in July last off the Scilly Isles, and 
the coral Dendrophytlia cornigera dredged in St. Ives Bay. The 
Eev. T. E. E, Stebbing contributed some observations with regard 
to this and other barnacles. 

Mr. W. C. WoESDELL, F.L.S., exhibited living specimens of 
various forms of Selaginella, and remarked that in Selaf/inella 
inequalifolia, Spring, S. Willdenovii, Baker, ^. canalicidata, Baker, 
S. serpens, Spring, S. Mettenii, A. Br., he observed rhizophores 
which had grown out spontaneously into leafy shoots. The mode 
in which this takes place shows that the rhizophore has the 
morphological character of a shoot, as there is clearly but a single 
organ here concerned, and there is no question of the shoot 
developing out of an organ of a different nature represented by 
the extreme base of the whole structure. The exogenous origin 
of the normal rhizophores, the fact that the two (upper and lower) 
at the base of each dichotomy of the stem form therewith a 
tetrachotomy , two arms of which are in a plane at right angles to 
the other two, and their constant, definite place of origin, are all 
in favour of their shoot-nature. Transitions occur betAveen the 
normal rhizophore and the extreme leafy form. 

The rhizophore is probably homologous wiih the " protocorm " 
of Lycopodium and PhyllogJossum, and with the organ known as 
Stigmaria • if so, it follows that both the " protocorm " and 
Stigmaria are also of shoot-nature. It is very unlikel}^ that 
organs intermediate between shoot and root can exist in Nature. 

The President remarked upon the interest of this exhibition. 

The third exhibition was by Mr. Geoege Massee, F.L.S., who 
exhibited preserved specimens, and lantern-slides ot the " Black 
Scab " of potatoes. During the past few years this disease, caused 
by a parasitic fungus, has assumed the proportions of an epidemic 


in various parts of this country. Tlie tuber is the part most 
frequently attacked, but very young leaves are sometimes infected. 
In tubers the young " sprouts " are attacked, and owing to the 
stimulation induced by the parasite in infected spi'outs rapidly 
increase in size aud form large coralloid masses or warts, which 
frequently cover the greater portion of the surface of the tuber. 
These masses eventually become blackish-brown in colour, due to 
the presence of myriads of dark-coloured resting-spores. 

Infection always takes place from without, consequently the 
epidermal or peripheral cells alone are infected. The presence of 
mature resting-spores imbedded deeply in the tissue of the host, 
at first sight appears to contradict this statement, but this appear- 
ance is due to the rapid growth and division of uninfected 
epidermal cells, which soon form a tissue superposed on what 
was previously the peripher}^ . 

A point of interest in connection with this disease is the absence 
of periderm, which in other diseases of potato tubers is so readily 
formed. On germination, the inner, thin hyaline wall is extruded 
in the form of a sphere, through a crack in the thick coloured 
outer wall of the resting-spore. The thin wall of the extruded 
inner membrane soon deliquesces, aud liberates myriads of ellip- 
tical, uniciliate zoospores. 

The facts that the host is infected through the epidermal or 
peripheral cells, and the extrusion of the inner wall of the resting- 
spore as a sphere, from which the zoospores escape in an active 
condition, indicate that the parasite belongs to the old and well- 
known genus Syncliytrium. 

What happens to the zoospores after their liberation into the 
ground remains to be discovered, but experiments conducted at 
Kew prove that soil once infected produced a diseased crop even 
after a period of five years. 

Prof. Dendy, Mr. A. P. Young, and the President contributed 
some remarks, and Mr. Massee replied to certain questions. 

Messrs. H. & J. Groves, P.L.S,, exhibited specimens of Luzula 
pallescens, Besser, collected in Woodwalton Fen, Hants, by Mr. J. 
Groves in company with Mr. E. W. Hunuybuu, who discovered 
the plant there last year. L. ]jallescens has previously heen 
recorded as British from specimens collected by the Rev. Augustin 
Ley in 1898 at Presteign, Radnorshire ; but on examination of 
Mr. Ley's specimens, they proved to be merely a pale state of 
L. erecta. In Messrs. Groves' opinion the differences between 
L. pallescens and L. erecta were sufficient to warrant their being 
regarded as distinct species ; the principal characteristics of 
L, pallescens being the very numerous smaller oval heads, the 
much smaller perianths and fruits, and the minute seeds, besides 
which there was a great difference between the outer and inner 
perianth-segments. Though originally described from Scandi- 
navia by Wahlenberg (under the genus Juncus), the headquarters 


of L. pallescens appears to be Eastern Central Europe. Messrs. 
Groves also exhibited specimens of the allied species. 

Dr. Otto Stapf, F.E.S., Sec.L.S., exhibited, for comparison, 
specimens of L. pallescens from Central Europe. 

Dr. Stapf, Mr. G. C. Druce, and Mr. E. N. Williams engaged in 
a discussion, and Mr. James Groves replied. 

Mr. G. Claridge Druce, M.A., E.L.S., exhibited as a probable 
new British plant, Montia lamjjrosjjerona, Chamisso ; the characters 
by which it is distinguished from M. fontana being, it was stated, 
the larger, chestnut-brown shining seeds, reticulate rather than 
tubercular. In M. fontana they are small, dull-black, and strongly 
tubercular. The plant has a distinctly northern range, and from 
its being the only form found in the Faeroes, and from its occur- 
rence in Scandinavia, Russia, and North Germany, it might be 
expected to grow in Scotland. Mr. Druce has specimens which 
he found in Ross-shire in 1881 in Glen Spean, and on Loch na 
Gar, the latter at an altitude of 3400 feet. 

Mr. Clement Eeid believed he had met with the seeds of both 
species in his researches in British leaf-beds, 

Mr. E. M. Burton, E.L.S., sent for exhibition an oyster-shell 
with a remarkably large calcareous concretion formed at the point 
of attachment of the adductor muscle. Prof. Herdman, to whom 
the shell had been shown, considered the phenomenon due to some 
parasitic infection which had caused irritation, and consequent 
growth. There was no trace of any animal having bored in from 
the outside at the place. 

The following papers were read : — 

1. " The Anomura of the Sudanese Red Sea." By W. Riddell. 

(Communicated by Prof.AV. A. Herdman, E.R.S., V.P.L.S.) 

2. " Eorras of Elowers in Valeriana dioica." By R, P. Gregory. 

(Communicated by Prof. A. C. Seward, E.R.S., E.L.S.) 

3. Rhynchota obtained during the ' Sealark ' Expedition." By 

W. L. Distant. (Communicated by J. Stanley Gardiner, 
E.R.S., E.L.S.) 

4. " Etudes sur les Cirrhipcdes du Muse'e de Cambridge." By 

Prof. A. Gruvel. (Communicated by the same.) 

January 21st, 1909. 

Dr. D. H. Scott, M.A., E.R.S., President, in the Chair. 

The Minutes of the General Meeting of the 17th December, 1908, 
\^ere read and confirmed. 

Mias Agnes Robertson, D.Sc, \\-as admitted a Eellow 


Mr. David Eeekie was proposed as a Fellow. 

Mr. William John Vandenbergh was elected a Tellow. 

Dr. Otto Stapf, F.E.S., Sec.L.S., exhibited male and female 
specimens of Plagianthus Helmsii, F. . Muell. & Tate, and de- 
monstrated with the aid of lantern- slides their peculiar leaf and 
floral structure, pointing out at the same time, that it appears 
more natural to treat this species together with Plagianthus micro- 
pJiyllus and P. squamatus as members of si distinct genus for which 
Mueller's name Halothamnus, originally applied to P. microphylhis, 
would have to stand. 

Prof. Dendy, Sec.L.S., Mr. E. G-. Baker, and Mr. T. A. Sprague 
took part in a discussion, and Dr. Stapf replied. 

The following papers were read : — 

1. " The Longitudinal Symmetry of Centrospermse." By Prof. 

P. Groom, M.A., P.L.S. 

2. "The Genus NototricJie, Turcz.*' By Aethue W. Hill, 

M.A., P.L.S. 

February 4tb, 1909. 

Dr. A. Smith Woodward, F.E.S., Vice-President, 
in the Chair. 

The Minutes of the General Meeting of the 21st January, 
1909, were read and confirmed. 

Mr. Frank Campbell McClellan was admitted a Fellow. 

Mr. William Ambrose Clarke, Mr. Frank Hicks, and Miss Ida 
Mary Eoper were proposed as Fellows. 

Mr. Paul Eivalz Dupont, Mr. William Herbert Mullens, M.A., 
LL.M., and Mr. Gurney Wilson Mere severally balloted for and 
elected Fellows. 

The Chairman announced that sets of the Poi'traits which form 
part of the Darwin- Wallace volume have been printed in quarto 
form, and are purchasable by the Fellows at two shillings per set, 

Prof. W. A. Heedman exhibited microscope-slides prepared by 
one of his pupils, Mr. W. J. Dakin, now working at Naples, 
showing striped muscle-fibre in the mantle of Pecten. 


The Eev. E. S. Makshall showed the following interesting 
British plants : — 

" Saxifraga nivalis X stcllaris, n. hybr., found in 1902 on Cairn- 
gorm by the late Mr. E. C. Crawford, F.E.S.E. (after whom, it 
was proposed to name it). Specimens only in flower, but quite 
intermediate in character. 

OrcJiis . Eound by Mr. "W. A. Shoolbred and himself, in 

quantity, at Inchnadamph, W. Sutherland. Clearly a new form, at 
least for Britain ; allied to 0. macidata, L. A drawing by Mr. E. 
W. Hunnybun is shown, besides good specimens. 

Helianthemum Chamcecistiis xpolifoKum, from Burn Hill, Bleadon, 
N. Somerset. First observed by Mr. H. S. Thompson. A good 
intermediate ; apparently quite fertile. 

Hieracium Jiyj^arcticum (Almq.) Elfstrand. First found by 
Mr. F. J. Hanbury and himself in 1890 at Inchnadamph, and 
again gathered in 1908. A modification of a South Greenland 

Hieracium eustales, Linton, from E. and W. Sutherland. An 
endemic species, previously known only from about four Berth- 
shire stations." 

Mr. Henry Groves remarked upon the excellence of the 
dried specimens exhibited. 

This exhibition was followed by Brof. F. E. Weiss, who showed 
some specimens of Comjisopogon, a tropical freshwater alga 
belonging to the Bhodophycese, which has been found in the 
Beddish Canal near Stockport. The water in this part of the 
canal is warmed by the inflow of hot water from the cotton mills, 
and other subtropical aquatics have been found there in the past 
— Naias graminea, Chara JBraunii, and Pitliopliora Oedogonia. 
They are supposed to have been introduced with refuse from the 
cotton mills. 

Brof. A. Dendy, Sec.L.S., exhibited lantern-slides and prepara- 
tions which throw hght upon the structure of the Bineal Eye of 

The Chairman, Brof. Herdman, and the Eev. T, E. E. Stebbiug 
took part in a short discussion, and Brof. Dendy replied. 

The following papers were read : — 

1. " On Fucus spiralis, Linue, or Fiicus platycarpus, Thuret." 
By Dr. F. Borgesen. (Communicated by the General 


2. " The CEconomy of Ichneumon manifestator, Marsbam." By 

C. MoRLEY, F.E.S. (Communicated by E, A. Cockayne, 

3. " The Polyzoa of Madeira." By the Eev. Canon Norman, 

M.A., F.E.S., F.L.S. 

February ISth, 1909. 

Dr. D. H. ScoxT, F.E.S., President, in the Chair ; afterwards 
Lt.-Col. Pbain, C.I.E., F.E.S., A'ice-President. 

The Minutes of the General Meeting of the 4th February, 1909, 
were read and confirmed. 

Miss Helen Stuart Chambers, B.Sc, was admitted a Fellow. 

Mr. Alexander James Gibson, Mr. Edward James Salisbury, 
B.Sc, and Miss Marie Charlotte Carmiehael Stopes, D.Sc. (Lond.), 
Ph.D. (Munich), were proposed as Fellows. 

Mr. David Eeekie was elected a Fellow. 

The President announced that two vacancies existed in the list 
of Foreign Members, caused by the deaths of Prof. Alfred Giard 
and Prof. Karl Mobius. 

The President then left the Chair, and was succeeded by Lt.-Col. 

A discussion on " Alternation of Generations in Plants " was 
opened by Dr. William H. Lang, M.B., D.Sc. After some intro- 
ductory remarks and reference to some examples of well-marked 
alternation of generations, and the nuclear difference between the 
two generations, the Author adduced the ontogeny of organisms 
without alternation of generations ; the concept of a specific cell 
corresponding to each specific form. The concept of the specific 
cell must be applied to organisms with alternation : the bodies of 
the two alternating iudividuals in the life-history may be similar 
or dissimilar. 

Two alternative explanations are open as to the differences 
between the two generations in the complete life-history : 

(a) that the differences are due to the different state of the 
specific cell in the spore and zygote respectively ; 

(6) that they are due to different environmental conditions 
acting on equivalent germ-cells. 


The former view, which is often tacitly assumed, meets with 
difficTilties in the more complex explanation of the transmission 
of characters which it involves ; in the similar bodies, in spite of 
the nuclear difference, of the two generations of Dictyota, etc. ; 
in the diiFerent bodies with no nuclear difference, in certain 
abnormal ferns. 

The latter view allows of a simpler explanation of the trans- 
mission of characters ; is consistent with similar bodies being 
developed from the haploid and diploid germ-cells when exposed 
to the same conditions, as in Dictyota ; and with the results of 
their development being profoundly different, as in archegoniate 
plants. In the latter the zygote, retained within the body of the 
gametophyte, is removed from all the influences acting on the 
spore and exposed to a new set of nutritive and correlative influ- 
ences proceeding from the enclosing body of the sexual individual. 
These influences last until a condition of formative induction may 
fairly be supposed to be established. 

The mode of reproduction — sexuality or spore-production — 
appears to be necessarily associated with the state — haploid or 
diploid — of the specific cell. In the hght of this ontogenetic view 
of the origin of the diff'erence between the t\^o generations, 
examples of the Algae, Hepaticae, Musci, Lycopodiales, Equisetales, 
and Filicales were considered as well as the facts regarding 
apogamy and aposporj'. Comparisons were suggested between the 
two generations in the several groups. 

The bearing of the ontogenetic view on the antithetic and 
homologous theories as at pi'eseut regarded was then considered. 
"While the possibility of the different states of the specific cell in 
the spore and zygote having some causal influence on the difference 
of the resulting individuals must be borne in mind, it is suggested 
that this ontogenetic theory of the natui-e of the alternation seen 
in Bryophyta and Pteridophyta may prove a useful working 
hypothesis, that it will lead to work on new lines, and that it is 
to some extent open to experimental test. 

An animated discussion followed, the speakers being Prof. P. 
O. Bower. Dr. D. H. Scott, P.L.S., Prof. J. Bretland Parmer, 
Prof. P. W. Ohver, and Mr. A. G. Tansley, Dr. Lang briefly 

March 4th, 1909. 

Dr. D. H. ScoiT, F.E.S., President, in the Chair. 

The Minutes of the G-eneral Meeting of the 18th Pebruary, 1909, 
were read and confirmed. 

Mr. Henry Caracciolo, P.E.S., C.M.Z.S., Mr. John Beavis 
Groom, and Dr. Anstruther Abercrombie Lawson, B.Sc, Ph.D., 
were proposed as Pellows. 


Prof. Yves Delage and Prof. Magnus Gustaf Eetzius were 
proposed as Foreign Members. 

Mr. William Ambrose Clarke, Mr. Frank Hicks, and Misa Ida 
Mary Eoper were elected Fellows. 

Mr. E-. A. EoLFE, A.L.S., exhibited flow^ers of several crosses 
derived from the hybrid Ujndendriivi hewense and its parents, 
Avhioh showed Mendelian phenomena. 

Dr. A. B. Rendle and Prof. Weiss contributed some remarks, 
and Mr. Eolfe replied. 

Prof. F. E. Weiss exhibited actual specimens of the curious 
development of the roots of a Sycamore which had grown on very 
stony soil, and further illustrated the developments by lantern- 

Dr. 0. Stapf, Mr. J. C. Shenstone, and the President remarked 
upon the phenomena thus shown. 

The following paper was read : — 

" A Contribution to the Montane Flora of Fiji, iucludiug 
Cryptogams ; with Ecological Xotes," By Miss L. S. Gtibbs, 

March 18th, 1909. 

Dr. D. H. Scott, F.E.S., President, in the Chair. 

The Minutes of the General Meeting of the 4th Mai'cli, 1909, 
were read and confirmed. 

( 1 Mr. William Herbert Mullens and Mr. Gurney Wilson were 
admitted Fellows. 

Dr. William Henry Lang, M.B,, CM., and Mr. Martin Hubert 
Foquet Sutton were proposed as Fellows. 

Mr. Alexander James Gibson, Mr. Edward James Salisbury, 
B.Sc, and Miss Marie Charlotte Carmichael Stopes, D.Sc, Ph.D., 
were severally balloted for and elected Fellows. 

Mr. C. E. Salmon, F.L.S. , exhibited specimens of Euplirasia 
niiaima from Somerset, which had been ten years in his herbarium, 
and remarked upon the geographical range of the species. 

Mr. F. X. AViLLiAMs contributed further remarks and pointed 
out the strong probability that E. minima was the type of 
E, officinalis, Linn. 


The following papers were read : — 

1. " The Dry-rot of Potatoes." By Miss Sibyl Longman, 

(Communicated by Prof. F. Keeble, P.L.S.) 

2. " The Structiu-e and Affinities of Davidia involucrata, B^ill.'' 

By A. S. Horne, B.Sc. (Communicated by Prof. Farmer, 
F.E.S., F.L.S.) 

April 1st, 1909. 

Dr. D. H. Scott, F.E.S., President, in the Chair. 

The Minutes of the General Meeting of the 18th March, 1909, 
were read and confirmed. 

Miss Mary Eathbone, Mr. James Montagu Francis Drummond, 
B.A., and Dr. Marie Charlotte Carmichael Stopes, were admitted 

Mr. Henry Caracciolo, F.E.S., C.M.Z.S., Mr. John Beavis 
Groom, and Dr. xlnstruther Abercrombie Lavvson were elected 

Dr. Marie Stopes exhibited several microscope slides and 
micro-photographs of plant petrifactions from Japan. The petri- 
factions are of Cretaceous age, and are preserved as masses of 
fragments in some degree like the palaeozoic " Coal-ball." The 
specimens included a number of new genera and species whose 
structure throws light on the flora of the Cretaceous period, and 
in particularly is important in relation to the question of the 
early Angiosperms. These specimens are the first to be worked on 
from these beds. 

The President congratulated Miss Stopes in the name of the 
Society, on the successful and important results of her journey 
and explorations. 

Prof. F. W. Oliver and Mr. E. A, Newell Arber joined in tl>e 
discussion which followed. 

Mr. A. D. Darbishtre exhibited seven cases of specimens as 
the results of breeding experiments with Peas, illustrating Meu- 
delian Phenomena ; and Mr. Arther Sutton showed a large series 
of seeds, some being results obtained by crossing Pisum arvense 
from the neighbourhood of Jaffa in Palestine, with varieties of 
culinary Peas, P. sativum. 

Prof. Keeble and Mr. J. E. Drummond contributed further 
remarks, and the exhibitors replied. 


Mr. Walker showed specimens of Amphipoda preserved for 
26 yeai's in pure glycerine, the colour and markings being perfectly 

He concluded by offering for acceptance by the Society, a 
Microscope by E. Leitz of Wetzlar, fitted \vith three powers and 
Abbe's condenser. 

The President moved a special vote of thanks to the donor for 
bis generous and welcome gift, which was carried by acclamation. 

The following papers were read : — 

1. " Amphipoda Hyperiidea of the ' Sealark ' Expedition." Bv 

A. O. Walkee, E.L.S. 

2. " Marine Mollusca of the same Expedition." By Dr. J. 

Cosmo Melyill, E.L.S. 

3. " Mollusca of the Seychelles Archipelago." By E. E. Sykes, 


4. " On a Blind Prawn from the Sea of Galilee." By Dr. W. 

T. Calman, F.L.S. 

May 6th, 1909. 

Dr. D. H. Scott, F.R.S., President, in the Chair. 

The Minutes of the General Meeting of the 1st April, 1909, 
were read and confirmed. 

Mr. Joseph Pearson, M.Sc, Mr. Edward James Salisbury, B.Sc, 
and Mr. Frank Hicks were admitted Fellows. 

Dr. William Henry Lang, M.B., CM., and Mr. Martin Hubert 
Foquet Sutton were severally balloted for and elected Fellows ; 
and Professor Yves Deiage and Professor Magnus Gustaf Ketzius 
were in like manner elected Foreign Members. 

Lady Isabel Mary Peyronnet Browne, Captain Stanley Smyth 
Flower, Mr. Valavanur Subramauia Iyer, M.A., Madras University, 
Miss Julia Lindley, and Mr. William Kobert Price, B.A. Cantab., 
were proposed as Fellows. 

The following Auditors were nominated from the Chair, and by 
show of hands were duly elected : — For the Council, Sir Frank 
Crisp and Prof. J. P. Hill. For the Fellows, Mr, G. S. Saunders 
and Mr. Henry Groves. 

Mr. E. A. Newell Arber explained by means of lantern-slides 
the CECology of two alpine species of Sempervivum, namely S. arach- 


noideum and S. montanum ; he pointed out the formation of 
primitive soil by three methods : (1) from crustaceous lichens, (2) 
mosses, and (3) decay of coniferous needles. Upon this primitive 
soil these Semperviva flourished and formed groups, which might 
be regarded as individuals or colonies, but for which he preferred 
the non-committal term of ' pseudo-colony.' The stolons, which 
were emitted from the rosettes, were sometimes of great length 
before giving rise to a daughter-rosette. 

Dr. Otto Stapf followed with some additional remarks, and 
the Author replied. 

Mr. James Buckland exhibited a series of sixty lantern- slides 
received from the United States of America, and Australia, in 
illustration of various species of birds in imminent danger of 
extinction in consequence of the commercial demand for their 
plumage as means of adornment. He pointed out the urgency 
of prohibitive legislation in order to save a multitude of birds, now 
rare, owing to the reckless slaughter by the plume-hunters. 

The first group of slides showed the slaughter of gulls and terns 
on the Atlantic seaboard of the United States, so great that 
President Roosevelt had intervened by proclaiming certain portions 
as I'eservations, and the resultant saving of the terns in these pro- 
tected sanctuaries. Next were shown the Snowy Herons on the 
Florida Keys Eeservation ; the patrol boats for the enforcement 
of the protective regulations ; the grave of a warden shot in 
the execution of his duty by a bird-hunter on forbidden territory ; 
and nesting-habits of the Egret in Tlorida. 

Following these came slides of plumage-birds from Oregon. 
California, and Venezuela ; the flightless birds of New Zealand ; 
the Birds of Paradise, Emu, Lyre-bird, various Bower-birds, and 
hon^e of the Albatross ; the Australian Gannet in its rookery, 
closing with " The cost of a plume," a series of slides showing the 
effect of the slaughter of the parent birds by the lingering death 
of the nestlings by starvation ; these latter slides had been obtained 
by climbing with the camera to the top of the Blue Gums, in 
which the nests were built. 

Prof. A. Dendy spoke of the remarkable interest of the ex- 
hibition, and trusted that the devotion of Mr. Buckland to the 
cause he had so much at heart would be crowned with success. 
He referred to the fact that the Council of the Societj^ had 
done what it could in the good cause, by supporting the proposed 
bill for the restriction of the importation of plumage into this 
country. "With regard to the flightless birds of New Zealand : they 
occupied different ground, as the dauger to which they are exposed 
is chiefly due to the introduction of predatory animals into the 


The following papers were read : — 

1. "On some Zoantlieae from Queensland and the New Hebrides." 

By Mrs. LEO^■ORA Wilsiiore, M.Sc. (Communicated by 

Prof. J. P. Hill, D.Sc, F.L.S.) 
;2. " On two new Genera of Thysanoptera from Venezuela." 

By E. S. Bagxall. (Communicated by Lord AvEBunr, 

P.C., F.R.S., F.L.S.) 

May 24th, 1909. 
Anniversary Meeting. 

Dr. D. H. Scott, F.R.S., President, in the Chair. 

The Minutes of the General Meeting of the 6th May, 1909, 
•were read and confirmed. 

An enlarged copy bv Miss Medlaud of the miniature of Colonel 
■George Montagu, F.L.S. (1747-1815), one of two executed for 
Mr, W. H. Mullens, F.L.S., in a contemporaneous frame, was 
presented by that gentleman, and was accorded a special vote of 

Mr. R. V., F.L.S., placed on the table (a) a pure 
white variety of Orchis Jlorio, and (6) the pink orchid from Christ- 
church meadows, which varies from typical Orchis incarnata, Linn., 
by flowering some weeks earlier. 

Miss Ida Mary Roper, Mr. Walter Edward Collinge, Mr. John 
Beavis Groom, and Mr. Richard Manliffe Barrington, were 
admitted Fellows. 

Mr. William Dennis and Mr. Edward John Woodhouse wei"e 
proposed as Fellows. 

The Treasurer then read his financial statement, which was 
received and adopted by the Meeting (see p. iS). 

A Fellow asked if anything had been received from the estate 
of the late Herbert Spencer, as noted in newspapers. The General 
Secretary replied that nothing except a copy of the Will had been 
received by the Society. 

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Mr. J. L. J. BoxHOXE asked a question relative to the Darwin- 
Wallace Fund, which was answered by the Treasurer pointing out 
that the statement was necessarily compiled from two annual state- 
ments, and did not fall entirely under either financial year. 

The General Secretary's report of deaths, withdrawals, and 
elections during the past year was read, as follows : — 

Since the last Anniversary INIeeting 20 Fellows have died or 
their deaths been ascertained : 

Mr. Lewis A. Bernays. 
Mr. John Henry Burrage. 
Mr. Cuthbert Collingwood. 
Mr. Hastings Charles Dent. 
Rt. Honourable Lord Egerton 

of Tatton. 
Sir John Evans. 
Dr. James Fletcher. 
Mr. Francis Blackwell Forbes. 
Mr. William J. 0. Holmes. 
Mr. Wilfrid Henrv Hudleston. 

Mr. Frederick Edward Hulme. 

Mr. William Saville Kent. 

Sir George King. 

Mr. William Henry Kirton. 

Mr. Arthur Lister. 

Mr. George Nicholson. 

Mr. Robert Okell. 

Mr. James Robert Reid. 

Prof. Harry Govier Seeley. 

Mr. Alexander Whyte. 

Associate (1). 
Mr. George Sim. 

Foreign Membebs (2). 

Prof. Alfred Giard. 
Prof. Wilhelm Lilljeborg. 

The following 6 Fellows have withdrawn : 

Mr. Hugh de Beauvoir de 

Rev. Thomas W. Fyles. 
Mr. Thomas Bennett Goodall. 

Mr. Edward Francis Johns. 
j\Ir. Louis Compton Miall. 
Mr. David Sharp. 

Mr. Graham Ewart Bott, Mr. John Edward Shorec Salvin- 
Moore, Mr. William Tyson, and Mr. Joseph William Williams have 
been removed from the List of Fellows, under the provisions of 
the Bye-Laws, Chapter II. Section 6. 

Thirty -eight Fellows (of whom 32 have qualified) and 2 Foreign 
Members have been elected. 



The Librarian's report was then laid before the Meeting as 
follows : — 

During the past year, 119 volumes and 142 pamphlets have 
been received as Donations from Private individuals. , 

from the various Universities, Academies, and Scientific 
Societies, there have been received in exchange and otherwise 308 
volumes and 105 detached parts, besides 63 volumes and 13 parts 
obtained by exchange and donation from the Editors and Pro- 
prietors of independent periodicals. 

The Council at the recommendation of the Library Committee 
have sanctioned the purchase of 200 volumes and 78 parts of 
important works. 

The total additions to the Library are therefore 690 volumes, 
and 338 separate parts. 

The number of books bound during tlie year is as follows : — 
In full morocco 8, in half morocco 223 volumes, in half calf 
3 volumes, in full cloth 169 volumes, in vellum 21 volumes, in 
buckram 28 volumes, in boards or half cloth 22 volumes. 
Relabelled (half morocco, and cloth backs) 59 volumes. Total 
533 volumes. 

The General Secretary having read the Bye-Laws governing the 
elections, the President opened the business of the day, and the 
fellows present proceeded to vote. 

The President then delivered his Annual Address as follows : — 



During last year and this our thoughts have been specially 
directed to the great revolution in biology accomplished, 50 years 
ago, by Darwin and Wallace. Last July we held our own 
celebration, at which I had the high honour of presiding, of the 
lirst inauguration of the theory in the rooms of our Society. 
The proceedings on that day were of extraordinary interest, owing, 
above all, to the contributions of Dr. Wallace himself and of 
8ir Joseph Hooker. 

Since then, some of ns have taken part in a very charming com- 
memoration at Oxford, of the Centenary of Dartrin's birth, and 
now we are all looking forward to the great Jubilee of the ' Origin 
of Species ' to be celebrated at Cambridge next month. We have 
already welcomed a harbinger of that important event in the shape 
of the memorial volume on Darwin and Modern Science. To have 
been a contributor to this book is a privilege which I value very 
highly, but it has, like other gratifying things, its drawbacks, 
which I have felt rather acutely during the preparation of this 
address. I have thought it natural and appropriate to choose 
as my subject this year some points in botanical morphology 
which have a bearing on Darwinian doctrine. But some of the 
questions on \Ahich I should have wished to speak today have already 
been dealt with in my contribution to the Darwin memorial 
volume, and I have found the field of my observations somewhat 
restricted, if the error of repeating oneself was to be avoided. The 
subject, however, even within the limits of palreobotany (to which 
1 shall not wholly confine myself) is sufficiently wide, and I trust 
that there is still scope for such remarks as may occupy the short 
time for which I propose to detain you. 

The Darwinian theory of the Origin of Species by Variation 
and Natural Selection only fulfils its t^ole, in so far as the dis- 
tinctive characters of organisms are, or have been, adaptive, i. e. 
beneficial to the species. Purely " morphological " characters (if 
any such exist) and non-adaptive characters in general are not 
explained by the Darwinian theory (or only indirectly with the 
help of correlation). I therefore make no apology for having a 
good deal to say about adaptations in what follows. I am aware 
that in some quarters adaptation is out of fashion just now, as was 
already the case in Darwin's day. In a well-known passage in a 
letter to Sir W. Thif-elton-Dyer * written in 1880 about adaptations 
in germinating seeds, Darwin says : " Many of the Germans 
very contemptuous about making out use of organs ; but they may 
sneer the souls out of their bodies, and 1 for one shall think it the 
most interesting part of natural history." 

To save any risk of international complications, it may be well 

* ' More Letters of Charles Darwin,' ii. p. 428. 


to add that in these days it is not necessary to go to Germany to 
find people " sneering out their souls " at adaptation ! It is a 
curious habit of mind, but need not be taken too seriously. Such 
justification as it has, lies in a pardonable reaction against the too 
facile assumption of: hypothetical functions where direct evidence 
was not available. That the great bulk, if not the whole, of 
organic structure is of the nature of an adaptive mechanism or 
device cannot be seriously doubted. 

The Origin of Species by means of Natural Selection does not, 
as has sometimes been imagined, involve a constantly increasing 
perfection of adaptation throughout the whole course of Evolution. 
Darwin expressed his belief " that the period during ^^hich each 
species underwent modification, though long as measured by years, 
was probably short in comparison with that during which it 
remained without undergoing any change."* 

During the long periods of rest, adaptation to the then existing 
condition of life must have been relatively perfect, for otherwise 
new variations would have had the advantage and change would 
have ensued. It thus appears that, as a rule, a state of equili- 
brium has existed in the relation of organisms to their environment, 
only disturbed when the conditions were changing. That such 
long periods of evolutionary stability have actually occurred is 
shown, for example, not only by the familiar case of the Flora of 
Egypt, unaltered during a long historic period, but still more 
strikingly by the absence of any noticeable change in the plants 
of our own part of Europe since glacial or pre-glacial times. 

The conclusion follows that at any given time, apart from the 
relatively short critical periods when changed conditions had to be 
met, we must expect to find organisms in a state of complete 
adaptation to their surroundings. When physical and especially 
mechanical conditions are in question, such as have practically 
remained constant through all geological time, we may reckon on 
finding the corresponding adaptive structures essentially the same 
at the earliest periods as they are now. 

Hence, the attempt to support the Darwinian theory by the 
detection of imperfect adaptations in Palaeozoic plants, is wholly 
futile, as was well shown by the late Prof. Westermaier in a 
controversy on this question a few years ago. Westermaier's 
ovt'n point of view was not that of a Darwinian, but, never- 
theless, his conviction that efficient adaptation has always been 
characteristic of living organisms, is a perfectly sound one, 
thoroughly in harmony both with the principles of Darwin and 
Wallace, and with the observed facts, as far back at any rate as 
the palaeontological record extends. In particular, Westermaier's 
contention that the constru.ction of the Carboniferous plants 
followed the laws of mechanical stability and economy of material, 
just as is the case in plants of our own day, is completely con- 
firmed by accurate observations on their structure, while his 
opponent's supposed detection of palaeozoic constructions " in direct 

* ' Origin of Sjiecies,' 6th edition, d. 279. 


contradictiou to the principles of the engineei* '' merely showed 
that the critic had failed to distinguish between the supporting 
and conducting tissues of the plaut. It appears to have been 
characteristic of PaliBozoic plants that their mechanical tissues 
were, to a great extent, independent of the wood and concentrated 
in the outer cortex — the most advantageous position on engineering 
principles. For example, the extremely prevalent " Dictyoxylon " 
type of cortex, in which bands of strong, fibrous tissue, united to 
form a network, alternate with the living parenchyma enclosed in 
their meshes, was an admirable mechanical construction for stems 
Avhich did not attain any great thickness by secondary growth. 
Where such growth was so extensive as to put the primary sup- 
porting system out of action, we iind, as in species of Siglllaria and 
Lepidodendron, a secondary Dictyoxylon framework set up in the 
periderm, and no doubt renewed as further growth went on. The 
periderm, so typical a feature of the tree-Lycopods of the Palaeozoic, 
was not a mere bark, but constituted the chief mechanical tissue of 
the older trunks. The wood, only moderately developed, was, as a 
rule, too centrally placed to afford an efficient resistance to bending 
strains, and was a comparatively soft, thin-walled tissue, evidently 
adapted solely or chiefly for conducting purposes. 

In the Calamites, we find, in young stems, the same alternation 
of fibrous and parenchymatous bands in the cortex, which is so 
familiar to physiological anatomists in the stems of our living 
Horsetails. In the more mature Calamitean stems we meet with an 
immense development of periderm, which may have had a mechanical 
function like that of the Lepidodendrea), though in Calamites the 
wood often had a denser structure, and may have contributed more 
materially to suppoi't. 

The great Tree-ferns of the later Carboniferous (if Ferns they 
were) evidently depended for their mechanical strength on a 
stereome or siipporting tissue quite distinct from the vascular 
system, and for the most part peripherally disposed, as it should 
be. Their power of i"esistance to bending strains was no doubt 
greatly increased by the dense external envelope of strongly con- 
structed adventitious roots, imbedded in the cortex, a mode of 
support which we meet with in some Monocotyledons such as 
Khigkt (Liliaceae) and species of P«?/a (Bromeliacete) at the present 

The remarkable Palaeozoic genus SplienophyUum shows an only 
moderately strong construction, and it may be that here the central 
woody axis was of greater relative value as a support, but from the 
habit we may be sure that the species were not ordinary upright 
terrestrial plants, and that the conditions of stability were dilferent 
from those in the other cases cited. The old view was that Spheno- 
pihyllam was an aquatic genus; thei'e are, however, many argu- 
ments against this, and of late years Prof. Seward's suggestion 
that the species may have been scrambling climbers, supporting 
their weak stems by the aid of their more robust neighbours, has 
found favour and would explain a construction possibly adapted 
to tensile strains. 


When we come to the most highly organised of the Palaeozoic- 
plants, the Cordaitales, constituting the characteristic Gymno- 
spenns of that epoch, we find that the young stems had the 
same " Dictyoxylou " construction of the cortex as was so comniou 
among the contemporary fern-like Seed-plants. The Cordaitean 
wood, however, often assumed a dense structui'e, and in many 
cases (as also sometimes occurred among the Pteridosperms) there- 
were tangential bands of narrow fibre-like wood-elements, sug- 
gesting, tliough not identical with, the autumn wood of recent 
Coniferous trees, and no doubt subserving a special mechanical 

The exigencies of secondary growth, when occurring on a great 
scale, idtimately demand that the mechanical tissues should be- 
seated in the wood, on the inner side of the growing zone, though 
this is not the best position on engineering pi'inciples. The old 
plants were on the '\\hole more correct in their methods ; their 
successors have more often had to adopt a compromise, which 
sacrifices a certain degree of mechanical efficienc}' in order to 
facilitate construction. 

In the leaves of the Cordaitese we meet with remarkably perfect 
types of mechanical construction showing various applications of 
the I-girder principle, "with utilization of the " web '* for the 
protection of the conducting vascular strands. The construction is 
on the same lines as that of many of the Monocotyledonous leaves 
investigated by Schwendener in his classical work. It will be 
remembered that the Cordaitean leaAes were originally classed as 
those of Monocotyledons, which they closely resemble in form 
and mechanical requirements. Here there is no secondary growth 
to disturb the lines of a rational construction ; the leaves were of 
great length and borne on lofty stems, requiring a strong 
mechanical system for their support, and hence we find that they 
present admirable illustrations of engineering principles. 

AVithout pursuing the subject further it may be added that 
other Palaeozoic leaves show essentially the same types of 
mechanical construction as are found in leaves of corresponding- 
shape and dimensions in the \i\ ing Flora. 

These few illustrations may suffice to show that from an 
engineering point of view, the plants of the Palaeozoic were just 
as well constructed to resist the strains to which their organs 
were exposed, as are their recent successors. Mechanical con- 
struction provides a favourable means of testing the standard of 
adaption in early fossil plants, for we may assume that in this 
respect the conditions were essentially the same then as now. In 
other cases, it is often difficult to estimate the perfection of the 
mechanism, because we have no sufficiently exact data as to the 
end which it served ; in many cases our knowledge of the working 
of the machine even in a recent plant is still very imperfect. 
This is especially true of the water-conducting apparatus in \ ascular 
plants, the mode of action of which is still the subject of dispute 
among physiologists. A few points bearing on the structure of 
the wood in fossil plants may, however, be mentioned. 


Westermaier, in the coutroversy already mentioned, perhaps 
went too far when he maintained that histological differentiation 
was as far advanced in Pala-ozoic plants as in those of our own 
day. We have no evidence that the complex structure of the 
wood characteristic of our Dicotyledonous trees had any close 
parallel in the Carboniferous Flora. The mechanism was con- 
structed on other lines, but in its own way was elaborate enough. 
For example, the extraordinary lattice-work structure of the 
scalariform vessels, recently discovered by Mr. Gwynne-Yaughan, 
was first suggested to him by observations on the wood of fossil 
Fei-ns, belonging to the Osmundaceae. and goes back to Palaeozoic 
members of that family. The complex mechanism of the wood- 
elements with bordered pits was peculiarly characteristic of 
extensive groups of plants in the Palaeozoic Flora. The horizontal 
tracheides in the medullary rays, serving no doubt for the 
transference of water in a radial direction, now peculiar to the 
wood of the more liighly differentiated Coniferse, was anticipated 
by the Palaeozoics Lycopods, as was also the remarkable '"trans- 
fusion-tissue " of the leaf, a system of water-conducting elements 
servins: to reinforce the vascular bundle in the irrigation of the 
tissues of the leaf, and thus replacing the more complex venation 
of other types. In the cases last mentioned — the ray-tracheides 
and the transfusion-tissue — the peculiar differentiations in question 
were, in my opinion, of quite independent origin in the two 
groups of plants which have possessed them. 

1 have elsewhere dwelt on the gradual change in the con- 
struction of the wood, correlated with the on-coming of secondary 
growth, and have traced the slow extinction of the old, 
" Cryptogamic," centipetally-developed wood, as the newer, 
centrifugal wood, derived from a cambium, more and more 
eft'ectually took its place *. In the former we have to do with a 
structure becoming vestigial, but it is interesting to note how 
the doomed tissue was not always left in its old age to be a mere 
pensioner on its more active neighbours, but was often employed, 
while it survived, on such work as it was still able to do. We 
find, in quite a number of cases f, that the central wood had changed 
its character, and shows by its structure that it had become 
adapted to the storage, rather than the transmission of the water- 
supply, its earlier function no'w being more conveniently left to 
the external parts of the wood. Such utilization of a vestigial 
structure appears to be a good mark of a high standard of 

Another interesting case of adaptive specialization in an organ 
which ma}^ be regarded as of an old-fashioned type is to be found 
in the rootlets of Sfir/maria. The nature of these appendages has 
been much disputed — last year we had an interesting discussion 
on the subject, opened by Prof. "Weiss. I have used the word 
" old-fashioned "' because there is some reason to suppose that 

* Scott, D. H., " The Old Wood and the New." New Pliytologist, vol. i. 1902. 
t Megaloxyloii, Zolesskyu, Lepidodvndrcm selafjinoides. 


these organs were not yet quite sharply differentiated as roots ; 
at any rate there are certain points in which they I'ather resemble 
modified leaves, though in my opinion the root-characters pre- 
dominate. Though they may thus be " primitive," from the 
point of view of our current morphological categories, these 
organs, as Prof. Weiss has discovered, show a remarkable adaptive 
mechanism in the presence of strands of water-conducting 
elements, running out from the central vascular bundle and 
terminating in plates of tracheae placed in the outer cortex. The 
whole constitutes an absorptive apparatus more elaborate than 
anything found in recent roots, if we except a few highly 
specialized haustorial roots of parasites. This example seems to 
me instructive, for it shows how a very high degree of adaptation 
may coexist with characters which suggest a somewhat archaic 
type of organ. 

As an example of adaptation to more special conditions, I may 
instance the xerophytic characters shown by various Carboniferous 
plants, especially in the structure of their leaves. In the 
Lepidodendreae, the stomata were commonly restricted to two 
deep furrows on the lower side of the leaf, where they were 
further sheltered by a growth of hairs. The whole structure 
of the leaf suggests a xerophilous habit. The late M. Renault 
regarded the transversely elongated cells of the mesophyll in 
SigiUaria as a means of rolling up the leaf, to diminish ti'an- 
spiration, as occurs, for example, in certain grasses at the present 
time. In the Pteridosperm Lyghiodcndron the leaflets of the 
fern-like fronds had a fleshy character, and a conchoid, incurved 
form ; they were provided with a hypoderma, and the endings of 
the vascular bundles were often dilated, perhaps in connection 
with glands. These are all characters such as are met with in 
the plants of salt-water swamps at the present day. 

The subject of the physiological anatomy of Palaeozoic plants 
has never yet been attacked in a systematic manner. In a 
conversation I had with Prof. Haberlandt of Graz, four years ago, 
he said that he would like to undertake their investigation from 
this point of view ; if he would do so it is certain that a remark- 
able advance in our conceptions of the adaptive structure of ancient 
forms would result. Even with our present limited knowledge, 
however, it is sufficiently clear that the plants of that relatively 
(but only relatively) early period were thoroughly well adapted to 
the conditions of their life ; succeeding ages bi'ought with them 
neiv rather than hetter adaptations. 

Though there is no question of absolute perfection in Nature, 
it appears that under given conditions, adaptation is and was 
sufficiently perfect to make it very difficult to put one's finger on 
any defect. AVhen we think we can do so it generally turns out 
that the defect is in the mind of the critic rather than in the 
organism criticised. AVe will take a particular case, where the 
history seems to give some justification for our fault-finding. 

The late Palaeozoic family Medulloseae were in some respects 
the most i-emarkable plants from an anatomical point o£ view that 


we know of. Most of them were plants of great size, with rather 
sturdy stems, bearing immense fern-like fronds ; the habit alto- 
gether must have been something like that of a Tree-fern, but 
their reproduction was by large seeds, borne on the fronds. To 
adapt the vascular system of the stem to the supply of the large 
and compound leaves, the type of structure was assumed which 
{pace Mr. Tansley) it is still convenient to call polystelic, i. e. the 
single vascular cylinder (which may be recognized in some of the 
earlier members of the group) became broken up, in various 
Avays, into a number of distinct cylinders, only connected at 
intervals. So far the change was in the same general direction 
as in the evolution of the higher Eerns ; the fossil famil}^ how- 
ever, was not content with a complex primary vascular system, 
but must have secondary growth as well. Now if you have a 
number of vascular columns in the same stem, each growing 
continuously in thickness on its own account, it is evident that 
very special arrangements will be necessary to avoid overcrowding. 
The difficulty was overcome, and the MedulloseaB for some time 
flourished among tlie dominant families — the Permian formation 
represents their Golden age. But one is tempted to think that 
the system was too complicated to last ; at any rate it seems 
not to have lasted, for thi-se elaborate stems have not been found 
in any later rocks. Either, as Mr. Worsdell supposes, the 
Medullosean stem became reduced and simplified to form the 
Cycadean type of stem of later days, or, as I am more inclined to 
believe, the family died out altogether. Even here, though we 
seem to have an instance of a cumbrous mechanism, overreaching 
itself in elaboration, yet it worked well enough for a time, and it 
would be difficult to say exactly what the conditions were that 
led to its being superseded. 

One of the most striking results of modern palaeobotanical 
research, led by Williamson, has been to show how widely spread 
among Palaeozoic plants was the power of secondary growth b}' 
means of cambium ; probably quite as large a proportion of the 
whole Flora possessed it then, as now. To a certain extent 
indeed, secondary growth has " gone out '"' since then, for the 
very flourishing modern class Monocotj^ledons liave dropped it, 
and for the most part have done very well without it, though 
some few have tried to retrace their steps. In spite of this 
important defection, it is evident that for most land-plants 
secondary thickening has been a highly successful system, and it 
is an interesting question whether there was ever a time without 
it. Was the power of cambial growth, at some period or other 
however remote, a new acquisition, or is it as old as the vascular 
tissues themselves? Jn Palaeozoic times eveiy class of land-plant 
possessed secondary growth in a greater or less degree — G-ymno- 
sperms, Pteridosperms, Lycopods, iSphenophylls, Horsetails, and 
even Ferns, though among true Ferns it seems never to have 
amounted to very much. Widely spread as it was, the evidence 
on the whole points to cambial growth having been a secondary 
acquisition in the history of the race, as in that of the individual 


plant. AVithout going into details, I may say that the argument 
rests on the relatively great deA'elopment of the pv-iwio)'?/ vascular 
tissues in many Palaeozoic plants, on the frequent sharp distinc- 
tion between primary and secondary formations, and on the late 
appearance of the latter in the individual development. The 
arguments do not apply with equal strength to all groups, and 
the conclusion may not hold good universally. We know that 
secondary growth occurs in seaweeds at the present day, and it 
may quite possibly have existed even among the very earliest 
land-plants, but in certain phyla it seems to have been a relatively 
new character, though dating from times before the Devonian, 
Supposing we could go back far enough, we might find a real 
deiicieucy in respect of secondary growth, but its absence would 
not imply defective adaptation (anymore than in Monocotyledons 
at the present day) for there is a boundless variety in the ways in 
which plants can equip themselves for the battle of life. 

The hypothesis of " a gradual development from the simpler to 
the more complex " is not borne out by the facts of Palaeobotany 
— the real course of events was infinitely more involved. On a 
general view, as Darwin himself recognized, " The geological record 
does not extend far enough back to show with unmistakeable 
clearness that \A'ithin the known history of the World organisation 
has largely advanced." * This wise saying has been too often 
overlooked by those who have tried to popularize Evolution — it is 
eminently true of the geological history of plants. Though there 
is no doubt a balance on the side of advance, due chiefly to the 
increasing complexity of the interrelations among the organisms 
themselves, the general progress since Palaeozoic days is by no 
means so great as has often been assumed, and we may be sure 
that as our knowledge of the older plants increases, we shall come 
to form a still higher estimate than we do now of their adaptive 

It has been alleged that it is the fact of the gradual appearance 
of higher forms which enables us to determine the relative age of 
strata by their fossils. So far as plants are concerned, this state- 
ment is only true to a very limited extent. A fossil Angiosperm, 
no doubt, would be evidence of an age not earlier than the Creta- 
ceous, but on the other hand a Lycopod of much higher organiza- 
tion than at present, would establish a strong presumption of 
Palaeozoic age ; so would the higher forms of the Equisetales ; a 
Cycadophyte with a fructification far more elaborate than that of 
recent Cycadaceae would afford sure proof that the bed containing 
it belonged to the Lower Mesozoic. 

Of course much depends on the meaning we give to the words 
" higher" and " lower." If by " higher " we mean nearer to the 
recent types, then it is merely a truism to say that the higher 
forms are characteristic of the later rocks. But if by "higher" 
we mean more elaborately differentiated, then the statement 
quoted is, in any general sense, untrue. If again we imply by 

* ' Origin of Species/ 6th edition, p. o08. 


the word " higher," more perfectly adapted to the existing coudi- 
tions, then it would be very difficult to prove any advance, for as I 
have endeavoured to show, adaptation has in ever}-^ age been fully 
adequate in relation to the prevailing conditions. If organisms 
have grown in complexity, it is only where the conditions of their 
life have become more complex. The most striking examples of 
high organization in relation to organic environment are presented 
by the characteristic modern sub-kingdom, the Augiosperms, in 
the evolution of which, as ISaporta pointed out, insect-fertilization 
has been the chief determining factor, leading to an infinite 
variety in the special adaptations of the flower and no doubt 
indirectly affecting the mode of life of the whole plant. The 
advent of the Angiosperms seems to have been almost simultaneous 
Avith that of the higher families of insects, which now, at all 
events, are chiefly concerned in pollination. It would be difficult 
to overestimate the importance of these relations in their elfect 
on the Flora of the world. If the vegetation of our own epoch 
appears, on the whole, definitely more advanced than that of 
earlier geological periods, this is probably due in a greater degree 
to the contemporary insect-life than to any other cause. 

Unfortunately we have very little knowledge of the special 
adaptations of the plants of the distant past — in particular, we 
know scarcely anything of their relations to other organisms. 
The presence of characteristic glands on the surface of some 
Palaeozoic plants (notably the Fern-like seed-plant Lyginodendron') 
has suggested that insects may have been attracted, who were in 
some way useful to the plant. At the same time the immense 
number of pollen-grains found in the pollen-chambers of the seed 
in plants of this group has roused the suspicion that some agent 
more certain than the wind may have been concerned, and that 
possibly insect-pollination may have had its beginnings nuich 
further back in the evolution of seed-plants than we have been 
accustomed to think. The suggestion was due to Sir Joseph 
Hooker, and has received support from evidence recently adduced 
that living Cycads * and also Wehvitschiaf (plants which belong, 
in a sense, to the past rather than the present) may employ insects 
as carriers of pollen. But as regards the fossil plants the data 
are still insufficient. In any case we must grant the superiority, 
from this point of view, of the more modern types. 

I have discussed the subject of reduction in evolution else- 
where X and will only briefly allude to it here. In many groups 
(Lycopods, Equisetales, Cycadophytes) there has been a lowering 
of the standard of organization, partly due to direct reduction, 
partly to the extinction of the higher forms in each group. There 

* Pearson, H. H. W.. " Notes on South African Cycads," Trans. South African 
Phil. Soc. vol. xvi (1906^ p. 348. 

t Pearson, H. H. W.. '• Some Observations on Welwitschia mirabilis," Phil. 
Trans. Royal Soc. (B^ vol. 198, lOOfi, p. 274. 

\ ' Darwin and Modern Science.' XIT. The Palaeontological Record. II. 
Plants. 1909. 


are, however, mauy other cases in which the simplificatiou of 
particular organs means a real advance. 

A striking instance is the seed, an organ which required to be 
much more elaborate in the days of spermatozoid-fertilization, 
now only lingering in a few archaic survivals from the past (Cycads 
and Ghikgo). The seed of an Angiosperm is, generally speaking, 
a simple affair compared with that of a Pteridosperm or Cordaitean 
of Palaeozoic age. We may add that the stamen of the higher 
plants is extremely reduced as compared with the male sporophyll 
of ancient forms such as the Mesozoic Bennettiteae. In such 
cases (and innumerable other illustrations might be given, especially 
from the flowers of advanced Angiosperms, where both andrcecium 
and gyuceceum tend to a reduction) the reduction is correlated 
with the more exact adaptation of a specialized floral mechanism. 

Taking into account all the causes whicli make for simplification 
the question suggests itself whether, when we find a simple type 
of structure existing at the present day, there is any presumption 
in favour of its primitive nature. It has sometimes been urged 
that such a presumption exists (except when direct evidence of 
reduction can be adduced) on the ground that the general course 
of evolution must have been from the simpler to the more complex, 
a ru.le, as we have seen, subject to so many exceptions, that 
within the limited period to which the palseontological record 
extends, it has practically no validity. My own conviction is 
that in such cases there is no j^resumption of primitiveness at all, 
and that we should demand very strong evidence before admitting 
that a given simple structure is primitive. Of course it may happen 
that a primitive simple tj-pe, or at least an old simple type, may 
have survived to our own day ; this may have been the case in 
decaying families, where the less advanced members have had the 
best chance of evading the competition of ascendant races. But, 
on the whole, it is very unlikely that among all the changes and 
chances of the world's history, a really primitive simplicity should 
have been preserved. " The eternal ages are long " and there 
has been time enough for many ups and downs on every line of 

The subject of reduction, so essential a clue in any attempt 
to trace the course of evolution, suggests a reference to the 
question of the simpler Angiospermous flowers. While the older 
morphologists were wont to interpret such flowers {e. g. those of 
Aroidese, Piperacese, Cupuliferae) as reductions from more perfect 
types, there has been a tendency in more recent times to accept the 
simpler flowers as primitive structures from which more elaborate 
forms have been evolved. Quite lately, however, a reaction has 
set in, due to the discovery by Dr. Wieland of the wonderful 
bisexual flowers of the Mesozoic Cycadophyta, which are con- 
structed on the same plan (though of course with many differences 
in detail) as the more perfect Angiospermous flowers, such as 
those of Magnoliaceae. The whole subject was put before the 


Society, two j-ears ago, with great fulness and clearness by Messrs. 
Arber and Parkin, in tlieir paper on the 'Origin of Angiosperins'*. 
Tbey sbowed in detail tbat, if tbe Angiospermous flower was 
derived, as they hold, from a source allied to the Bennettitea), its 
evolution, as suggested by Wieland, must have been essentially a 
process of reduction. I am in general agreement with the views 
of these authors, and only wish to point out that they are nob 
inconsistent with the great relative antiquity of simple and, ex 
hypoihesi, reduced forms, for which in the case of the Amentiferoe 
there seems to be good geological evidence. Eeduction appears 
to have often been a rapid, indeed a comparatively sudden change 
as shown by the frequent occurrence of much simplitied foi-ms in 
the same family in which the prevailing structure is typically com- 
plete. I need only instance certain Poterieae among the Rosaceae, 
Senehiera among the Cruciferse, Peplis among the Lythraceae, 
Garrya, with its catkin-like inflorescence, and pei'haps Davidia 
among the Cornaceae, but similar cases are exceedingly common. 
It thus appears quite probable that some groups with very simple 
flowers, though not " primitive " may be very ancient, tracing 
their origin from forms which in quite early days underwent 
reduction from the highly developed flowers which probably 
characterized the first autonomous Angiosperms. 

The tentative and somewhat fragmentary observations which I 
have brought before you this afternoon tend to the following 
conclusions : — 

1. That at all known stages of the past history of plants there 

has been a thoroughly eflicient degree of adaptation to the 
conditions existing at each period. 

2. That, the characters of plants having always been as highly 

adaptive as they now are, Natural Selection appears to afford 
the only key to evolution which we at present possess, for 
all periods covered by the palseontologieal record. 

3. That this record only reveals a relatively short section of 

the whole evolution of plants, during which, though there 
has been considerable change, there has not been, on the 
whole, any very marked advance in organization, except 
in cases where the conditions have become more complex, 
as shown especially in the floral adaptations of Angio- 

4. That simple forms existing at the present day are, as a rule, 

of a reduced rather than a primitive nature, but that such 
reduction may have often set in at a relatively early stage 
of evolution, and is therefore consistent with a considerable 
degree of antiquity in the reduced forms. 

* Journal of the Liunean Society, Botany, vol. xxxyiii. (1907) p. 29. 


Mr. William Fawcett moved : — " That the President be 
thanked for his excellent Address, and that he be requested to 
allow it to be printed and circulated amongst the Pellows " ; which 
was seconded by Mr. G. S. Saundees, and carried unanimously. 

The ballots for Council and Officers having been respectively closed 
at the times required by the Bye-Laws, the President appointed 
Mr. J. F. Duthie, the Kev. T. E. ii. Stebbing and Mr. F. N. Williams, 
Scrutineers. The votes having been cast up by them were reported 
to the President, who declared the result as follows : — 

For the Council : — E. A. Newell Arbee, M.A. ; Leonard A. 
Boodle, Esq. ; Henry Bury, M.A. ; Sir Frank Crisp ; Prof. 
Arthur Dendy, D.Sc, F.R.S. ; Prof. J. B. Farmer, F.ll.S. ; Dr. 
Gr. Herbert Fowler ; J. Stanley Gardiner, F.R.S. ; Prof. J. P. 
Hill, M.A. , D.Sc; John Hopkinson, F.G.S. ; Dr. B. Daydon 
Jackson ; Horace W. Monckton, F.G.S. ; 11. Innes Pocock, 
F.Z.S. ; Prof. E. B. PouLTON, F.B.S. ; Lt.-Col. D. Prain, F.E.S. ; 
Dr. A. B. Rendle, F.E.S. ; Miss Ethel Sargant ; Dr. Dukinfield 
H. Scott, F.E.S. ; Prof. A. C. Seavard, F.E.S. ; and Dr. Otto 
Stapf, F.E.S. ; the five retiring Councillors being : Prof. G. C. 
Bourne, D.Sc, Prof. W. A. Herdman, F.E.S., Prof. F.W. Oliver, 
F.E.S,, Prof. F. E. Weiss, D.Sc, and Dr. A. Smith Woodward, 
LL.D., F.E.S. 

The President then appointed the same Scrutineers to examine 
the ballot for the Officers, and the votes having been cast up were 
reported to the President, who declared the result as follows : — 
President : Dr. D. H. Scott, M.A., F.E.S. 
Treasurer : Horace W. Monckton, F.G.S. 
Secretaries: Dr. B. Daydon Jackson, 
Prof. A. Dendy, F.E.S., 
Dr. O. Stapf, F.E.S. 

The President then addressed Prof. F. O. Bower, F.E.S. : 

Professor Bower, — It is one of the pleasantest incidents of my 
life that I should be called on at this meeting, the first anniversary 
at which I have presided, to present to you the Linneau Medal, 
the greatest distinction which the Society has to bestow, and 
one associated already with many great names, from that of Sir 
Joseph Hooker to those of Strasburger and Treub, the last 
botanical recipients. 

Tou and 1 have known each other so well and so long that it 
would be difficult for both of us if I tried to deliver a formal 
eulogium in your presence. It may be most in accordance with 
your wishes if I say on this occasion less than I think. 

We first met in the early days of your work on WelwitscJiia 
and Gnetum about 1880-1882. Everyone remembers the discovery 
you made of the true nature of the two persistent leaves in 
WelwiiscJiia, formerly supposed to be the cotyledons. Those 


remarkable genera which yoa taus^lit us so much about are uow 
again to the fore in the minds of botanists. 

Tlie next period was occupied with the morphology of the 
leaf, treated of in an important paper presented to the Royal 
Society in 1S84, in which the idea of the phyllopodium, or leaf-axis, 
was developed, and in the next year in your work on the apes of 
the leaf in Osmunda and Todea, a subject moi'e closely related to 
your subsequent research. Another early Vascular Cryptogam 
paper was that on Phylloglossum, a good example of a simple 
form which is apparently not so priraitiye as we once thought. 

Tour most important contribution to the publications of our 
own Society was the great paper on " Apospory and allied 
Phenomena," suggested by Mr. Druery's observations and read in 
1886. This was of extreme interest in itself, and also, as j^ou 
have 3'ourself told me, from its leading you on to the views of 
Alternation of Generations which you maintained for so many 

These views took definite shape in the memoir on " Antithetic 
as distinguished from Homologous Alternation in Plants," published 
in 1890. The subject of apospory in particular vv-as further pursued 
in the papers on TricJiomanes. 

A memoir on " The Comparative Examination of the Meristems 
of Ferns as a Phylogenetic Study," 1889, was still written under 
the influence of the old idea that the Leptosporangiate .Ferns 
were the most primitive, but two years later you turned the 
phylogenetic order upside down, and quite rightly so, when you 
discussed the question : — Is the Eusporaugiate or the Lepto- 
sporangiate Type the more primitive in the Ferns? Your new 
conclusions were in harmony with fossil investigation, and this 
reminds me of your paper on the axis of Lejndostrohus Brownii, 
1893, a bye-product of your great sporangial synthesis, but to 
the palaeobotanist a valuable one. 

Your Theory of the Strobilus in Archegoniate Plants defined 
the position which you held with so much determination and 
resource for the next 15 years — the period of maturity of the 
antithetic doctrine. I think we both have not unpleasant re- 
collections of the lively and inspiriting controversies which marked 
the adolescence of the theor}\ Your great series on the Spore- 
producing members, 1894-1903, affords one of the most striking 
examples of the inestimable value of a thoroughly thought out 
working hypothesis (whether ultimately verified or not) as a guide 
to research. 

Leaving many other papers of yours uumentioned I pass on to 
that admirable book "The Origin of a Land Flora," published last 
year, in which your long career of morphological research, for the 
time being, culminated. Since then, to judge from what passed at 
a memorable meeting of our Society last February, some change 
has come in your theoretical position, and much as we all respect 
the openness of mind with which you faced a changed situation, 



I cannot help feeling some tinge of I'egret that the days of our 
friendly controversies are now, in all pi'obability, past and gone. 

Tour -work as the leader of Morphological botany in this 
country is worthily recognized by the award of our medal, which 
I have great pleasure in handing you. , 

Prof. F. O. BowEE, having received the Medal from the Presi- 
dent, replied as follows : — 

Mr. President, Ladies and Gentlemen, — It would be impossible 
for me to receive this token of your kind appreciation of my 
work without some words of thanks, but they shall be brief. 
I value your gift of the Medal on three grounds. First, that I 
receive it from the hands of my old friend. Dr. Scott ; and though 
he and I have differed in the past, on scientific questions (and 
perhaps even now do not see exactly eye to eye on some of them), 
still, this has only shonai me the truth of what one learned in 
the Latin Grammar, that " Amaniium irce amoris integratio est." 
Secondly, I value the gift as a tangible sign of your good will. 
There have been figures in the scientific world, that like some great 
colossus have stood independent of contemporary opiuiou, or 
definitely opposed to ifc ; but to average men of science the 
approval of their colleagues acts as a strong incentive to fresh 
effort, and it is in this way that I receive this award of your medal. 
Thirdly, I value it because of the distinction of those who have 
received it before ; it is a high honour to have one's name added 
to a roll which begins with Hooker and Owen, and includes such 
names as De Candolle, Huxley, Haeckel, and many others. But 
inclusion in this list seems to stand as a milestone on the road 
of seniority ; for the medal has often been awarded towards the 
close of an active career. Against this may, however, be set the 
example of its first recipient. Sir Joseph Hooker, who still in his 
advanced age is actively at work in the interests of the science he 
has so long served. This example may well be in itself a fresh 
stimulus to exertion, and as such I shall hold it to be. I thank 
you. Sir, and the Society very heartily for the high honour con- 
ferred upon me. 

The General Secretary then laid the Obituary Notices as follows 
before the Meeting, and the Proceedings closed. 


Lewis Adolphus Bernays was born in London, 3rd May, 1831, 
son of the late Prof. A. J. Bernays, the chemist, and was educated 
at King's College School. He was accustomed to speak of him- 
self as having achieved " a record tenure of the office of Clerk of 
the Legislative Assembly of Queensland and many years gratuitous 
service in the cause of economic botany." In 1872 he published 
" The Olive and its Products, the habits, cultivation, and propa- 


gatiou of the tree " (Brisbane), and eleven years later, " Cultural 
Industries for Queensland ; Papers on useful plants suited to the 
Climate "' (Brisbane). On 17th January, 1871, he was elected 
Pellow of the Society, and then intending to retire from 
biological pursuits he -withdrew in 1889, but in three years' time 
he found himself obliged to come forward for re-election, which 
took place on 15th December, 1S92. He died at Brisbane, 
September 1908, In 1851 he married Mary, daughter of William 
Bortou, of Boddington, Oxfordshire, and had four sons and four 
daughters issue of the marriage. [B. D. J.] 

The death of CrinBEBX Collingwood on the 20th October, 
1908, removes one of our oldest Fellows, his election having taken 
place on the 1st November, 1853. He was born on Christmas 
Hay, 1826, at Christchurch, Hampshire, and was educated at 
King's College School, London, and Christ Church, Oxford, gradu- 
ating B.A. in 1849 and pioceeding M,A. in 1852 and M.A. 
Cantab, (ad eundem). He studied Medicine at Edinburgh 
University, then at Guy's Hospital, London, and added to his 
experience in Paris and Vienna. His medical qualifications were 
M.B. Oxford, and M.E.C.P, London. In 1858 he became 
lecturer on Botany at the Eoyal Infirmary Medical School, 
Liverpool, subsequently Physician to the Northern Hospital in that 
city, and for some years was honorary secretary to the Literary 
and Philosophical Society, with other ofHcial appointments. To 
the last-named society he contributed two papers on Ornithology 
dealing with the notes of birds, and their migration, in 1861 and 
1862. At the same period he was busied in reporting on dredging 
marine organisms in the Eiver Mersey, and on the method of 
advancing science by means of the mercantile marine, to the British 
Association. Papers on the Quadrumana, and the ancient fauna 
of Lancashire and Cheshire next engaged his attention ; but the 
volume by which Collingwood is best known, is his ' Eambles of 
a Naturahst on the shores aud waters of the China Sea,' which 
recounted his observations made in 1866 and 1867 on board H.M. 
vessels ' Eifleman ' and ' Serpent,' which appeared in 1868. In 
the latter year he was elected on the Council of this Society, and 
went out of ofiice in the following year. He was a fairly constant 
attendant at our meetings until he removed in 1901 to Paris, 
whei'e he lived till late in 1907, when he returned to London, and 
died at Lewisham in his 82nd year. In 1869 he married Clara, 
daughter of Sir Robert Mowbray. Besides the volume above 
mentioned our late Pellow published 'A Vision of Creation,' 
* The Bible and the Age,' and ' From Bevrout to Bethlehem.'. 

[B. D. J.j 

Hastings Charles Dent was born on the 23rd June, 1855, at 
42 Thurloe Square, the son of Colonel Dent of the Coldstream 
Guards, his mother being Lady Beaujolois Dent, daughter of the 
2nd Earl of Charleville. Educated at private schools, and Owens 


;^6 PBocEEJ)l^'GS of the 

College, Manchester, he migrated to the Eoyal School of 
Engineeruig at the Crystal Palace, becoming tutor and then 
examiner. Following his profession as a civil engineer, he laid 
down the first tramway in Manchester, and later, spent much time 
in Brazil, surveying for railways, which gave rise to his ' Two 
Tears in Brazil.' Although he liad travelled far and wide, India 
was unvisited by him. Ultimately about 1SS8 he settled at 
Godstone, and there spent much of his time, busied on his collec- 
tions, those of Lepidoptera and Coleoptera being stated to be 
exceptionally rich. 

He took a chill in the early part of the present year, which 
developed into bronchitis, and proved fatal on the 6th March, 
1909, at The Homestead, Godstone, and was buried at Outwood 
Parish Church ; by a previously expressed wish of the deceased, 
the coffin was borne on a farm waggon draped in purple. 

Mr. Dent was elected Fellow on the 2Dd April, 1885, and for 
many j^ears was also a Fellow of the Eiitomological Societv. 

[B. D. J.] 

The Eight Honourable Wilbeaham Egerton was the son of 
the 1st Baron Egerton of Tattou, born on 17th January, 1832, 
succeeded as 2nd Baron in 1883, and ^^■as created 1st Earl Egerton 
of Tattou and Viscount Salford in 1897. He was educated at 
Eton and Oxford, and was M.P. for jS^orth Cheshire, 1858-68, and 
Mid-Cheshire, 1868-83, when his father's death caused his removal 
to the House of Peers. Attached to agriculture and fond of 
experiments in that pursuit, he became a Fellow of this Society, 
1st December, 1887, but his published works are on other and 
diverse subjects. He died at Bordighera on the 16th March, 
1909 ; twice married, he left but one daughter, now Lady Albemarle, 
being succeeded to the Barony by his brother, the Hon. Alan de 
Tatton ; the Earldom and the Viscounty lapsed on the death of 
the first holder of those titles. [B. D. J.] 

Sir John Evans, K.C.B., was born at Britwell Court, Burnham, 
Bucks, on the 17th JS'ovember, 1823. He was the son of the Eev. 
Dr. Arthur Benoni Evans, Headmaster of the Grammar School at 
Market Bosworth. He was educated under his father at Market 
Bosworth, and then for a short time in Germany. In IS-IO at the 
age of 17 he entered the Paper-making works at Nash 3Iills, 
Hemel Hempstead, which had been founded by his mother's 
brother, John Dickinson, and Xash Mills was his home until nearly 
the end of his life. In time he became the senior member of the 
firm, and he was for many years the President of the Paper Makers* 

He took an active part in the affairs of the County of Hertford, 
was High Sherifi^in 1881, and for many years was the Chairman of 
Quarter Sessions and of the County Council. 

His couneetion with the paper-making industry led to a careful 


study of matters relating to water-supply, rainfall, and percolation 
and evaporation. E'.iin gauges and percolation gauges had been 
installed at Nash Mills by his uncle, John Dickinson, and for a long 
series of years they were under the personal supervision of Sir 
John E vans. Water-supply led naturally to practical geology, and in 
that field Evans was a leading authority, but it was from his studies 
in what may be termed antiquarian geology that he was best known 
to the general public and to geologists both at home and abroad. 
It was largely owing to the work of Evans in conjunction with 
Sir Joseph Prestwich, that the great age of the implements found 
in the terraces of Eiver Gravel of the Somme and the Thames was 
satisfactorily established. 

T'le collection and study of coins attracted Evans's enthusiastic 
attention from early days, and in the end he was one of the leading 
numismatists of Europe. 

Sir John Evans was elected into the Eoyal Society in 1864. In 
] 87S he became the Treasurer and he held that important post for 
twenty years. In 1884, when Huxley, who was President, was 
away ill, Evans prepared and delivered the Anniversary Address. 
He constantly held office in the Geological Society and was 
President in 1874-76. In 1880 he received the Lyell Medal, and 
tbe Prestwich Medal was presented to Lady Evans last February 
in memoi'iam. 

Evans was at different times President of the Society of Anti- 
quaries, the Eoyal Numismatic Society, the British Association, 
and of many otlaer societies. He was made K.C.B. in 1892. 

He was the author of ' The Ancient Stone Implements, 
Weapons, and Ornaments of Gi'eat Britain,' which first appeared 
in 1872, and a second edition in 1897 ; ' Ancient Bronze Imple- 
ments, Weapons, and Ornaments of Great Britain and Ireland,' 
ISSl ; ' The Coins of the Ancient Britons,' 1864 ; and of numerous 
papers which appeared in different serial publications. 

Sir John Evans was married three times. His first wife was a 
daughter of his uncle, John Dickinson, and at her death she left 
three sous and two daughtei's. One of the sons is the well-known 
explorer of Knossos and a Fellow of the Eoyal Society. Tiie 
second wife, a daughter of Mr. Joseph Phelps, left no children. 
Lady Evans, who survives her husband, is the daughter of 
Mr. Charles C. Lathbury and has a daughter. Lady Evans is an 
accomplished classical scholar aud antiquary. 

Sir John Evans was elected a Fellow of the Linnean Society on 
March 21st, 1878, and died at his residence, Britwell, Hertford- 
shire, on May 31st, 1908. [H. W. Monckion.] 

Dr. James Fletcheu was born at Ash, seven miles S.W. from 
Graveseud, Kent, on 28th March, 1852, was educated at King's 
School, Eochester, and went to Canada in 1874 as a clerk in the 
Bank of British North America. After two years of this work he 
became Assistant in the Library of Parliament, Ottawa, and 


devoted all his spare time to Botany and Entomology, which led 
to his appointment as Honorary Dominion Entomologist and 
Botanist, followed soon afterwards by work in these departments 
at the newly-established Central Experimental Earm in 1887. 
For 21 years he was assistant to Dr. W. Saunders, C.M.Gr., 
Director of the Earm. 

In 1878 he became a Councillor of the Entomological Society of 
Ontario, and continued to hold office, being President 1886-88, 
and again in 1906 to the time of his death. His first ])aper was 
on Canadian Buprestidse in 1878, and his contributions to science 
were thenceforward frequent and valuable. In 1879 he helped to 
found the Ottawa Eield Naturalists' Club, the most successful of 
the kind in the Dominion, and later on he succeeded in founding 
the Association of Economic Entomologists of Xorth America, of 
which he was President in 1892 ; he was also one of the original 
Eellows of the Entomological Society of America. On the 
3rd June, 1886, he was elected Eellow of our Society, and in 1896 
received the honorary degree of LL.D. from Queen's University, 
Kingston, Ontario. 

Erom 1885 he had been a Fellow of the Eoyal Society o£ 
Canada, had been President of the Biological and Cieologicai 
Section, Hon. Treasurer, and, for the last two years of his life, 
Hon. Secretary, and several most suggestive papers from his pen 
were published in its Transactions. Other valuable memoirs were 
his annual reports on the work of his department, and in other 
(serials. Two years ago he issued a work on the weeds which 
trouble farmers throughout the Dominion, in 4to, with 46 coloured 
plates. He was much in demand as a lecturer, and was especially 
successful in securing and holding the attention of his audiences. 
In this way his influence has been widely felt in arousing people 
to the best methods of dealing with iusect pests. 

Eor many months his health had been failing, and more or less 
internal haemorrhage had troubled him, but did not awake alarm. 
In the autumn of last year he was busy with preparation for the 
Annual Meeting of the Entomological Society of Canada, to be 
held at Guelph, Ontario, but the week before the gathering he 
went to consult a specialist at Montreal. He was at once sent to 
the Eoyal Victoria Hospital, and a week later underwent an 
opei'ation for internal tumour, but failed to rally from it, and died 
the following morning, Sunday, 8th November, 1908, aged 06. 

The writer is indebted to an appreciative obituary by Prof. 
C. J. S. Bethuue in the ' Canadian Naturalist,' xl. 1908, for the 
for^-going account, where also will be found a portrait of our 
deceased Eellow. [B. D. J.] 

EE.A?fcis Blackwell Eorbes, whose death was announced in the 
' Daily Telegraph ' of November 20 last year, was an American. 

In 1857 he went out to China as attache to Mr. Eeed, the 
Plenipotentiary of the United States of North America, but soon 


entered a commercial career, living in Canton in 1858 and 1859 
and afterwards in Shanghai. He took much interest in the 
affairs of the Shanghai branch of the Eoyal Asiatic Society, whose 
President he was in 1S74. It was then that he made the 
acquaintance of jMr. Charles Ford — at that time Superintendent 
of the Botanical Garden at Hong-Kong — which led to his taking 
up collecting plants more seriously. His first collection was 
determined during his stay in Europe in 1875 and 1876 by 
W. B. Hemsley. Then followed a second residence in Shanghai, 
\^ hich lasted from 1877 to 1882. During the live years from 1882 
to 1886 he settled in England, applying himself to botanical work 
at Kew and the British Museum. Subsequently he lived in Paris, 
and finally he retired to Boston, Mass., where he died. 

The name of Francis Blackwell Forbes will always be associated 
with the exploration of the Flora of China as the promoter of that 
fundamental work, the " Enumeration of all the Plants known from 
China Proper, Formosa, Hainan, Corea, &c.," published under the 
joint names of F. B. Forbes and W. B. Hemsley in the ' Journal ' of 
the Linnean Society, Botany (vols, xxiii., 1886-1888; xxvi., 1889- 
1902 ; xxxvi., 1903-1905). The history of this work is given in 
Bretschneider's ' History of European Botanical Discoveries in 
China,' p. 722, and in the preface by Sir "W. Thiselton-Dyer to 
vol. xxxvi. of the Journal of the Linnean Society. In this place 
it will be sufficient to define the share which F. B. Forbes had in 
the matter. Forbes had already during his first stay in England 
conceived the idea of a catalogue of all the Chinese specimens 
found in the herbaria at Kew and the British Museum, as a help 
towards the botanical exploration of China. This catalogue, a 
mere list of names, was drawn up by Mr. Hemsley in 1876, and 
was intended to form the basis for a complete list of the plants 
known from China after the model of Maximowicz's ' Index Florae 
Pekinensis.' After his return from China in 1882, Forbes set to 
work collecting material for this hst, when in December 1883, 
Mr. (now Sir) W. Thiselton-Dyer made an appeal to the Govern- 
ment Grant Committee of the Eoyal Society to the effect that a 
committee be appointed to repoi't on our present knowledge of the 
' Flora of China,' stating at the same time that it was desirable to 
catalogue the Chinese material in the National Herbaria after the 
manner of the Botany of Godman and Salvin's ' Biologia Centrali - 
Americana.' The application was acceded to, and a committee 
appointed which was joined by Forbes in February 1884. He 
most liberally placed at its disposal his very full slip reference 
catalogue to records of Chinese plants, collection and notes. A.t 
the same time Mr. Hemsley was engaged to co-operate in the 
" Enumeration," which was to be published in the ' Journal ' of the 
Linnean Society. Private engagements, however, prevented 
Forbes from taking any further active part in the preparation of the 
work, which in its execution must therefore be wholly credited to 


Mr. Hemsley and, so far as the later orders are concerned, his co- 

i\ B. J'orbes's association with the Linnean Society dates back 
to 2nd December, 1875, and he served on its Council from 1885 
to 1887. He was for a long time Swedish and Norwegian Consul- 
General at Shanghai, andinconsiderationof his services was made 
a Knight Commander of the Swedish Eoyal Order of Wasa. 

[O. S.] 

Alfeed Giakd was born in the year 1846. After passing throiigh 
the Ecole normale superieure, in 1871 he became assistant to Lacaze- 
Duthiers, whence he went to Lille as assistant-professor in 1873. 
As early as 1869 he had in conjunction with Max Cornu printed 
in the * Bulletin de la Societe Botanique de Prance ' a paper on 
the hermaphroditism of Melandryum alhnn infested with Ustilago 
antJierarum, a phenomenon which under the term " castration 
parasitaire " interested him throughout life. 

From Lille in 1888 he was called to Paris to lecture in the 
Paculte des Sciences, and in 1892 he became titular professor at 
the Sorboune, and in 1900 chosen into the Academie ■ des 

In the ' Bulletin Scientifique de Prance,' a serial of which he 
was editor from 1878, in vol. 42, pp. xlv-lxxiii, is given a list 
of 624 papers published by Giard, to 1908 the year of his death, 
exclusive of many articles in the ' Grande Eucyclopedie ' and the 
' Botanisches Centralblatt.' He himself in his ' Expose des titres 
et travaux scientifiques,' 1896, grouped his various memoirs under 
twelve subject headings, but embryology and parasitism were his 
favourite subjects, though, far from confining his attention to them, 
he took in a wide extent of study. The zoological station of 
Wimereux, near Boulogne, was established by him in 1874, and 
his chief pleasure was to settle down in those quarters for such 
periods as his professorial duties in Paris permitted, busy on 
material obtained from the sea wdthin a few yards of his study. 

He was one of the Prench delegates at Uppsala and Stockholm 
at the Linnean festivities in May 1907, with Madame Giard, a 
lady of English birth. Early in 1908 he wrote accepting the 
invitation of our Council to the Darwin-AVallace Celebration, but 
before that took place, a stroke of apoplexy disabled him, and 
though he partially recovered his powers, a second stroke was 
quickly fatal : he died in August, 1908. He Mas elected a Poreign 
Member on the 1st May, 1902. 

He is described as possessing a rare and attractive personality, 
which attached his pupils strongly to him, and roused their 
enthusiasm. Yet he could write, " Pour ma part, dans ma carriere 
dcja longue du professorat, je ne crois pas avoir forme un seul 
naturaliste " ; this is possibly explained by his high ideal of what 
a fully equipped naturalist should be. [B. D. J.] 


Wilfrid Hudleston Hudleston was boru at York on June 2nd, 
1828. He was the son of a physician, Dr. John Simpson of 
Kuaresborough, whose wife was through her mother an heiress 
and a representati^'e of the family of Hudleston of Hutton John 
in Cumberland, In 1867 Dr. Simpson and his two sons, by letters 
patent, assumed the name of Hudleston. Wilfrid was educated at 
St. Peter's School, York, at Uppingham, and St. John's College, 
Cambridge, and in 1853 he was called to the Bar but does not seem 
to have practised. 

After leaving Cambridge his attention was directed to ornitho- 
logy, and in pursuance of the study he made in 1855 several 
journeys in different parts of Europe and in Northern Africa. 

In his last term at Cambridge he had attended Sedgwick's 
lectures, and in 1862 he began a systematic study of natural 
science, firstly at Edinburgh and afterwards at the Eoyal College 
of Chemistry in Oxford Street. He thus acquired a good know- 
ledge of chemistry which was very useful to him in his subsequent 
geological work. He appears to have definitely devoted himself to 
geology about the year 1866, when he made the acquaintance of 
Jolni Morris, and he became a EelJow of the Geological Society in 

He was elected a Fellow of our Society on November 7th, 1878, 
but did not contribute anything to our publications. 

Hudleston was President of the Geologists' Association, 1881-83. 
He became a Fellow of the Eoyal Society in 1884, was President 
of the Geological Society in 1892-94, and of the Geological Section 
of the British Association at Bristol in 1898. For many years he 
was one of the Editors of the ' Geological Magazine.' He received 
the AVoUaston IMedal of the Geological Society in 1897. 

In 1890 Mr. Hudleston married Eose, second daughter of 
William Heywood Benson, of Little Thorpe, Kipon, who survives 
him. They lived at 8 Stanhope Gardens, South Kensington, and 
at West Holme, a property which he purchased between Wareham 
and Lulworth in Dorsetshire. His Geological and Ornithological 
collections were housed at Stanhope Gardens, and his Museum was 
visited by the Geologists' Association on March 1 1th, 1899. 

Hudleston's most important work was the Monograph on the 
Inferior Oolite Gasteropoda, published by the Pal?eontographical 
Society. He contributed numerous papers to various scientific 
societies and to the ' Geological Magazine.' 

Hudleston was a man of great energy, a good shot and fond of 
fishing, and retained his activity to the last. He died suddenly at 
West Holme from heart failure on January 29th, 1909. 

[H. W. MONC£TO>\] 

Frederick Edward Hulme was born at Hanley in Staffordshire 
in 1841, and became a prolific author in many departments, some 
of which did not arise out of his position at King's College, 
London, as professor of drawing, but from his wide range of 


sympathy. His first publication was ' Plant Form ' in 1868, 
followed in succession by ' Plants, their natural growth and 
ornamental treatment,' 1874, in which plant-form was utilised as 
the basis of architectural ornament ; ' Familiar Wild Flowers,' by 
far bis most popular production, issued in 8 volumes of colourec^ 
plates and letterpress, from 1878-1905, and a ninth volume was 
in press at his death ; ' Suggestions in Floral Design,' 1880 ; ' Wild 
Fruits of the Country-side,' 1902 ; ' Butterflies and Moths of the 
Country-side,' 1903 ; ' Wild Flowers in their Seasons," 1907 ; and 
his latest, ' Familiar Swiss Flowers,' 1908. In addition to these his 
pen produced many volumes on Art, Myths, Archaeology and 
Proverbs, also a history of the town and college of Marlborough. 

He was elected Fellow of our Society 18tla March, 1869, and 
was also a Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries. He died at his 
residence at Kew on 10th April, 1909, and was buried on the 14th 
of that month. [B. D. J.] 

William Saville Kent was elected a Fellow on the 19th June, 
1873, and he died on 11th October, 1908, from heart failure 
after an operation. In 1885 he became Inspector of Fisheries at 
Hobart, Tasmania, till about 1891, and soon afterwards he returned 
to England, finally settliug at Lymington, where he died. 

His chief work is the sumptuous volume on the ' Great Barrier 
Eeef of Australia,' with its remarkable illustrations and accurate 
information about this vast extent of coral-formation. He also 
gave much attention to oysters and oyster-fishing, and urged the 
establishment of a biological station on Thursday Island, a central 
depot in the Torres Straits for pearl fishery. He claimed also the 
power of inducing pearl-oysters to produce tine pearls, by a special 

On 21st June, 1906, he exhibited at one of our meetings a 
striking series of photographs, in three-colour transparencies and 
lantern-slides, of the fishes and other fauna of the Polvnesian 
Coral Eeefs, [B. D. J.] 

Sir George King, Avho died at San Eemo on February 12th, was 
born at Peterhead, Aberdeenshire, on April 12th, 1840. He was 
educated at the Grrammar School at Aberdeen and studied Medicine 
in the University of the same city, graduating as M.B. with 
highest academic honours in 1865. His association with Professor 
G. Dickie, the algologist, first as his pupil and subsequently as 
his assistant, early engendered in him the desire for a botanical 
career. The Indian Medical Service, which after some interruption 
had then just been opened again to young medical men, promised 
fair prospects for the gratification of his wishes. He entered it 
therefore as soon as he had taken his degree. After the usual 
preliminary course at Netley, King was selected for the Bengal 
Presidency. He reached Calcutta in March, 1866. After a short 
service at the General Hospital and later at the Medical College 


Hospital, he was sent to Central India and Eajputana, wiiere he 
began field work as a botanist and zoologist as far as was 
compatible with his medical duties. His botanical inclinations 
and knowledge soon singled him out for the career which he 
had at heart. In 1868 he was temporarih' entrusted with the 
administration of the Botanic Garden at Saharanpur, and sub- 
sequently entered the Indian Forest Service in the Xorth-West 
Provinces (now Cnited Provinces), with his headquarters at Dehra 
Dun. His stay there was not of long duration, as in 1S71 he was 
appointed successor to Dr. Thomas Anderson in the super- 
intendentship of the Eoyal Botanic Gardens at Calcutta and of 
Cinchona Cultivation in Bengal, taking over at the same time the 
duties of a Professor of Botanj' at the Medical College in Calcutta. 
To these duties were added in 1S91 those of Director of the 
Botanical Survey of India, a new post just then created. King 
continued to hold all these offices until, in 1895, he retired from 
the Professorship in the Medical College of Bengal. This 
exhausted, however, by no means the sphere of his amazing 
activity, as he also served on the Committee of tlie Management 
of the Zoological Garden at Calcutta, on the Board of Alsitors of 
the Engineering College of Bengal, as a Trustee (and for some 
time Chairman) of the Indian Museum, and since 1894 as President 
of the Central Committee appointed by Government to investigate 
the indigenous drugs of India. He retired in 1905. A severe 
illness during the last year of his stay in India greatly impaired 
his health, and after his I'eturn to England he found himself from 
year to year more and more obliged to abstain from work and to 
seek the protection of the sunny sliores of the Eiviera, \\here he 
suddenly succumbed to a severe attack of his illness. 

It is difficult not to underrate the many-sided activity of this 
botanist, administrator and organiser, who will always stand in 
the front rank among those who have helped to open the treasure- 
house of the plant world of India. The long list of his publica- 
tions, in ]^\o. 4 of the Kew Bulletin for 1909, gives, although 
running over three and a half pages, after all only an inadequate 
idea of it. Chronologically arranged, it begins with two zoological 
papers, one on the lion of Aboo, the other on the birds of the 
Goona District (Central Provinces), both published in 1863. 
Although kept within a narrow compass they are models of 
singularly unpretending and yet lucid and to-the-point diction, and 
all betray acute power of observation. Of a similar character is 
his first botanical paper, " Xotes on the Famine Foods of Marwar," 
published in the following year; but here we have in addition to 
the merits mentioned the display of a great talent for coordinating 
facts and the application of their bearing on problems of practical 
life. His publications during the next six or seven years when he 
moved to Saharanpur and Dehra Dun, and finally to Calcutta, 
reflect the same practical sense and the elasticity with which he 
knew to subordinate his personal inclinations to the exigencies of 


his office. The renovation of the Botanic Garden at Calcutta, 
which liaci been wrecked by the two great cyclones of 1864 and 
1S67, and which now under King rose to new beauty and to 
greater importance than it ever had, and the successful manage- 
ment of the Cinchona department, which in its ultimate effects 
became a blessing for the whole of the Indian Empire and even 
beyond its boundaries, were triumphs of organisation. Both tasks 
taxed his time heavily ; but when they were fairly accomplished, 
the opportunity had come for work which must have been all the 
time very near to his heart. A number of sliort papers on species 
of Ficus published in 1886 and 1887 were the forerunners of the 
magnificent monograph of the Eicus of the Indo-Malayan and 
Chinese countries, with which in ]8S8 he initiated that splendid 
and sumptuously illustrated serial the 'Annals of the Eoval 
Botanic Garden, Calcutta.' Other memoirs on the Indian Ario- 
carims, Quercus, Castanojjsis, Magnoliacese, Myristica, Auonacete, 
on new and rare Indian plants and the Orchids of the Sikkim 
Himalaya, some of them in collaboration with other authors, 
followed, the illustrations filling near on 1300 plates. Shortly 
after the appearance of the first volume of the Calcutta ' Annals ' 
King started the " Materials for a Flora of the Malayan Peninsula," 
to be published at intervals in the ' Journal ' of the Asiatic Society 
of Bengal. Under the disguise of a modest title the " Materials " 
is actually what otherwise would be called a " Flora " of the 
Malayan Peninsula, that is a systematic catalogue with full descrip- 
tions of all the species known from that rich and interesting area. 
He was not allowed to finish the task. At the time of his retire- 
ment the publication had proceeded to the middle of the Calyci- 
flor£e. After his return to Europe he continued the work as far as 
his health would permit, and thus finished Calyciflorae practically 
unaided by others. From 1902 onwards, however, he made 
arrangements for collaboration with Mr. J. S. Gamble for the 
CoroUiflorse, while the Monocotyledonete were taken over by 
Mr. Eidley. The magnitude of the task is apparent from the fact 
that King alone is responsible for the enumeration and description 
of over 1660 species. The enormous progress of our knowledge of 
the flora of the Malayan Peninsula would not have been possible 
but for the fact that King was not satisfied with the old collections 
in the Calcutta Herbarium and chance contributions, but had paid 
collectors in the Peninsula, such as Kunstler and Scortechini, 
\\hose memory he perpetuated in his ever generous way by 
dedicating to them a very great number of new species. His 
system of organised collecting, however, was not confined to the 
Malayan Peninsula. Almost from the beginning of his administra- 
tion of the Calcutta Garden, he provided for the sending out of 
trained native collectors into such districts as appeared to him 
most promising; and when in 1891 the office of the Botanical 
Survey of India was established and placed under his directorship, 
he seized at the idea of so coordinating: the efforts of the botanical 


officers in the exploration of India that as little waste as possible 
should occur. The material amassed in the Calcutta Herbarium 
during his administration is enormous. Neither he himself nor 
his staff, which in number was always very limited, could ever 
have elabox'ated them. If, nevertheless, so much of it has become 
in a sense the property of botanical science, it is entirely due to 
the high-minded conception which he had of his office as custodian 
of the Calcutta collections, and which alh.nved him to throw them 
open Avith unstinted liberality to the workers in the home country 
as well as abroad. The gain derived therefrom for science is no- 
wliere more evident than in the last volumes of the ' Flora of 
British India.' 

King's association with the Linnean Society dates back to 1870, 
when he was elected a Fellow. The nature of his woi'k and his 
official position led naturally to the concentration of his publica- 
tions in one or the other of the great Calcutta serials, and his 
contributions to the volumes of the Linnean Society were there- 
fore few and brief, his " Observations on the genus Ficus, with 
special references to the Indo-Malayan and Chinese species "' 
(Journal, vol. xxiv. 1887, pp. 27-44) being the most important 
of them. Nevertheless, the Society felt great pride in awarding 
to its illustrious Fellow the Linnean Medal in 1901. He was 
elected a Fellow of the Eoyal Society in 1887, and associated as 
an Honorary Member with various learned Societies at home and 

King was a man of one cast. If he was faithful to his office, he 
was faithful to his friends. If he was above official nai'rowness, 
so often the result of routine, he was equally above the petty con- 
ceptions of private life. Liberal, generous and gentle almost to a 
fault, he conquered wherever he came by the irresistible charm of 
his personality. [O. S.] 

WiLDELM LiLLjEBOEG, Emeritus Professor of Zoology at Uppsala 
University, and Foreign Member of the Linnean Society since 5th 
May, 1870, was born in the province of Skane, onthe 6th October, 
1816. He studied at Lund under Sven Xilsson, and travelled for 
scientific ends in Norway, Northern Russia and Finland, the last 
two countries in 1848, of which he brought out a I'eport in the 
Stockholm ' Handlingar ' in 1850. Hitherto from 1843, the date 
of his first paper, he had ranged over a wide field, writing on 
mammals, birds, fishes and mollusca, but he now evinced a strong 
predilection for the group of Entomostraca, at that time hardly 
studied in Sweden. In 1853 he issued an octavo volume of more 
than 200 pages on the Cladocera, Ostracoda, and Copepoda of 
Scandinavia; at this time he became Assistant Professor at 

Goran Wahlenberg died in 1851, the last Professor of Natural 
History at Uppsala in the Faculty of Medicine. His chair was 


partitioned into several, three of which, Zoology, Botany, and 
Geology, were assigned to the Faculty of Philosophy. 

The first occupant of the Chair of Zoology was Lilljeborg, who 
entei-ed upon his duties 7th January, 1854, and held it until his 
retirement in 1882. After three courses of general Zoology, he 
adopted a syllabus of ten courses, embracing the whole of the 
animal kingdom, beginning with the Protozoa. His lectures were 
followed by demonstrations of the types of the groups under con- 
sideration. His last coarse in 1832 was devoted to comparative 
osteology, and took in all the groups of Yertebrata. 

During his professorship he was able to restore or rather to 
establish the Zoological Museum at Uppsala. Before he came, 
there were large collections from Thunberg's time onwards, but 
they consisted mostly of badly preserved and faded mammals and 
birds, a few insects, dried Crustacea, shells, and corals from all 
parts of the world, without information or localities. The 
collection of skeletons was practically absent, and the spirit 
collection was insignificant. They were removed to the Gustavian 
building, and completely overhauled, and in the course of time a 
creditable collection was amassed and adequately shown. The 
zoological laboratory was established in 1875 at Uppsala, the 
professor fully recognising the importance of practical work. 

Upon quitting the chair, Lilljeborg continued his scientific 
work, and in 1896 a handsome quarto volume Festschrift appeared, 
entitled ' Zoologiska Studier,' in honour of his 80th birthday ; one 
of the articles in this is a bibliography of Lilljeborg's works, 
numbering 68. After that year he produced 5 later memoirs, 
upon his favourite group, making a total of 73 papers. He was 
continually adding to the University collections till his death, 
which took place 24:th July, 1908, and after that event his widow 
presented to the Zoological Museum, according to an expressed 
Avish of the late professor, books and papers which were not in the 
library of that institution, numbering about 1400 besides serials. 

His professorship was characterised by his keenness in his 
examinations and enthusiasm for his work, but only once did he 
quit Scandinavia for a visit to the zoological institutions in London 
and Paris, and that was in 1865 ; but he constantly visited the 
various parts of Sweden, chiefly bent on adding to his collection of 
Entomostraca. His health remained good till the middle of July 
last year, and he passed quietly away on the 24th of that month, in 
the 92nd year of his age. 

The data for the foregoing sketch have been drawn from the 
obituarv by Prof. Tullberg, Lilljeborg's successor, published in 
' Fauna och Flora,' 1908. [B. D. J.J 

Arthur LisTEE,F.E.S. — Arthur Lister was born at Upton House, 
AVest Ham, in 1830 as the youngest son of Joseph Jackson Lister, 
F.E-.S., the distinguished optician. He was educated at Hitchin. 
At the age of sixteen he began his business career, living at first 


in Bedfordshire, then at Bradford, and since 1857 at Leytonstone, 
near London. Having with two of his brothers bought ' High- 
cliif' at Lyme Eegis in 1871, he spent inucli of his time there, 
especially after his retirement from business in 1888. Here he 
also died somewhat suddenly on July 19tli of the present year. 
When Arthur Lister became known as a botanist he was already 
well advanced in years, and his first publication was a short note 
in the ' Journal of Botany ' for 1877 : " How to preserve the 
Spores of Agaricini and Polyporei." He had, however, been an 
ardent lover of nature from childhood and a zealous collector and 
observer for many years, and was of course perfectly familiar 
with the microscope and its technique. This fitted him eminently 
for the \\ork for which he specialised so late in life, and which he 
pursued with signal success — the study of the Mycetozoa. His 
first contribution to this fascinating class of organisms was pub- 
lished (in collaboration with his daughter) in 1888, and others, to 
the number of 35, followed, the last appearing a few weeks before 
his death. His great A^ork, however, was his Monograph of the 
Mycetozoa, published by the British Museum in 1894. Although 
professing to be a descriptive catalogue of the species in the 
Herbarium of the British Museum, it is in reality a complete 
compendium of all the Mycetozoa known up to 1894, amply 
illustrated by numerous woodcuts and 78 plates — photographic 
reproductions of very beautiful coloured drawings by himself and 
his daughter Grulielma. 

Arthur Lister became a JFellow of the Linnean Society in 1873, 
and of the Eoyal Society in 1898. He was also for many years 
a member of the Essex and Dorset Field Clubs, and of the Myco- 
logical Society, as whose President he acted in 1906-07. He was 
a Justice of the Peace, and in many ways, but always unobtru- 
sively, gave evidence of his public spirit. He belonged to the 
Society of Friends. Those who had the good fortune of knowing 
him intimately, remember him as a delightful companion and a 
most lovable man. [O. S.} 

Professor Karl August Mobius, who died in Berlin on the 2Gth 
April, 1908, was born at Eilenburg, in Prussian Saxony, in 18:25, 
and was originally trained for a school-teacher, but his enthusiasm 
was awakened by reading the works of Alexander von Humboldt, 
and he set out for Berlin with very slender means. By 
giving lessons, he succeeded in getting a university training, and 
amongst his teachers may be mentioned C. Gr. Ehrenberg and 
Johannes Mueller. Becoming assistant to Lichtenstein, he was 
aided in 1853 to a teaching appointment at Hamburg, where he 
found time to prosecute his faunistic studies. In 1868 he went 
to Kiel as Professor of Zoology, and in conjunction with H. A. 
Meyer he produced the two folio volumes of the ' Fauna der Kieler- 
Bucht,' Leipzig, 1865-72, a rich storehouse of observations. He 
had already established a salt-water aquarium, and the famous 


Zoological Garden at Hamburg was helped by him at its founda- 
tion. The year 18S0 witnessed the completion of the Zoological 
Museum and Institute at Kiel, in great measure due to the strong 
efforts of Mobius. In 1887 he was called to Berlin as Director 
of the new Zoological Museum, which he held till the close lof 
1905, retiring at the age of 80 ; and on his 80th birthday was 
published a Festschrift in his honour from his many pupils. The 
various publications to which bis name is attached show his wide 
range, from Alcyonarians to fishes, and the ' ArtbegrifFe ' ; but his 
chosen field was amongst marine organisms, particularly MoUusca. 
He had a strong practical sense, and was therefore able to make 
many useful suggestions in connection with fisheries and other 
marine industries. 

His connection with our Society dated from the oth May, 1892, 
when he was elected a Foreign Member. [B. D. J.j 

George Nicholsok was born at Eipon, Yorkshire, on December 4th, 
1847, as the son of a nurseryman. After having received the 
usual general education, he worked for several years in various 
nurseries in England, and afterwards in the La Muette Gardens 
in Paris. In 1873, not long after his return to England, he 
entered the Civil Service as Clerk to the Curator of the Eoyal 
Gardens, Kew ; and in 1S86, on the retirement of the then 
Curator, John Smith the second, he succeeded him in that oifice, 
holding the post until 1901, when failing health obliged him to 
retire. He resided for the remainder of his life in Eichmond, 
Surrey, where he died on September 20th, 1908. He was entirely 
a selfmade man. Although the love for plants and gardening 
may have run in his veins, a particularly keen intellect making 
much easy to him that would have been a stumbling-block to 
others, the success of his life was after all greatly due to the 
adroit and persistent application of his gifts to a well-defined 
field ol activity. The trend towards concentration and persistence 
is curiously i-eflected by the fact that his first publication was on 
the AVild Elora of Kew Gardens and Pleasure Grounds (1875) ; 
whilst almost his last visits to the Gaixleus — a few weeks before 
his death and in a bath-chair — were brightened and enlivened to 
him by the search for minute Lepidoptera and Pungi, which 
should serve as further contributions to the AVild Pauna and 
Plora of the Gardens, the exploration of which he had always had 
at heart. If this was rather in the nature of a hobby, his more 
serious work shows the same traits. Ofiicially special stress has 
been laid on his long-continued devotion to the development of 
the Kew Arboretum, one of the finest collections of this kind; 
whilst his ' Dictionary of Gardening' (1884-88 in four volumes, 
and in a Prench edition, 1892-99) soon became a standard work 
of gardening. He Avas also a fertile and serious contributor to 
the horticultural papers. The Linnean Society recognised his 


services to botanical science by electing him an Associate in 1886, 
which distinction he held until 1898, when he became a Fellow. 
He was one of the lirst recipients of the Victoria Medal of 
Honour in Horticulture (1897), and received the Veitch Medal 
in 1894. 

His travels — he frequently visited the continent, particularly 
FxMnce and Switzerland, and went twice to America — and his 
wide reading gave his views of men and matters breadth and 
depth, whilst an exquisitely amiable disposition added much 
charm to his personality and won him friends wherever he went. 

[O. S.] 

Professor Harry Govier Sebley, F.E.S., who died on 
January 8tb, 1909, had been a Eellow of the Linnean Society 
since 1871. He was born in London on February 18th, 1839, 
and began early to take an interest in scientific work. He soon 
inclined towards palaeontology and geology, and became assistant 
to Prof. Adam Sedgwick in the Woodwardian Museum, Cam- 
bridge. While here engaged in arranging the collection of 
fossils and in practical field-work with students, Seeley published 
many important papers on fossils, especially on fossil reptiles, on 
which he became an acknowledged authority. His well-known 
small volume on ' The Ornithosauria ' was published by the Cam- 
bridge University Press in 1870 ; and his mature views on the 
same subject were summarised so recently as 1901 in his ' Dragons 
of the Air : an Account of Extinct Flying Keptiles.' In 1873 
Seeley returned to London, and began to contribute a long series 
of papers, chiefly on fossil reptiles, to the ' Quarterly Journal 
of the Geological Society. Ln 1876 he published papers on 
'• Eesemblances between the Bones of typical living Ee[)tiles and 
the Bones of other Animals" and on " Similitudes oF the Bones 
in the Enaliosauria " in the 'Journal' of the Linnean Society 
(Zoology), vol. xii. In 1876 he was appointed Professor of 
Geography in King's College, London, and Professor of Geography 
and Geology in Queen's College, London, holding both these 
Professorsliips until his death. From 1891 until the closing of 
the institution, he was also Lecturer on Geology and Mineralogy 
in the Eoyal Indian Engineering College, Cooper's Hill ; and from 
1896 onwards he was Professor of the same subjects at King's 
College. Prof. Seeley also undertook much popular lecturing and 
teaching, and was for many years one of the Gilchrist Lecturers. 
In 1889 he obtained a grant from the Koyal Society to enable him 
to visit South Africa and Russia to collect and study the extinct 
Anomodont Reptiles ; and the most important results of his work 
were published in a series of memoirs in the ' Philosopliical 
Transactions.' He discovered and described the well-known 
skeletons of Pariasaurns haini and Ci/nor/nathus crateronotus 
besides many other important specimens, which are now exhibited 



in the British Museum. A portrait of Prof. Seeley and a hst of 
his scientific papers were pubhshed in the ' Geological Magazine ' 
for June 1907 (dec. 5, vol. iv. pp. 245-253, pi. xii.). 

[A. Smith Woodwakd.] 

George Sim, A.L.S. since 2nd December, 1886, was the son of 
a general merchant at Craigellachie, Avhere he was boru on 
26th March, 1835. He received but little education as a child, 
and in 1848, when 13 years old, he was apprenticed to a tailor in 
Auchterless ; after 4| years he became journeyman to the same 
master, and remained some time longer with him, till, in conse- 
quence of bis employer's increasing love of drink, he became 
ruined, and Sim had to find work elsewhere. This experience 
deeply impressed him, and led him by precept and example to 
endeavour to save his fellow-workmen from that habit which had 
proved fatal to the master. 

As a journeyman tailor he moved about in various parts of 
Great Britain and Ireland, till in 1857 he tried his fortune by 
setting up a shop in Turriff, but soon afterwards a brother induced 
him to join in buying a druggist's business in Tarland, where they 
spent about two years. The business did not equal their hopes, 
so it was sold, and on leaving Tarland George Sim resolved to 
improve his knowledge of taxidermy by a regular training under 
Mr. Sandison, of Edinburgh. After a short visit to London, he 
went to Aberdeen in 1862, and began business in King Street as 
a naturahst and preparer. His success enabled him to move, in 
a few years, to Castle Street, where he also sold antiquarian 
articles ; his integrity and skill were so known and valued, that 
this branch became largely extended and successful. 

He had married before settling in Aberdeen, where his wife and 
child lived during his search for fortune in London. After his 
establishment in business, he was assiduous in field-work at such 
hours as could be snatched from business ; he did not spare 
himself, working early and late. In 1878 he published in the 
' Transactions ' of the Aberdeen Natural History Society his " List 
of the Crustacea of the North-East Coast of Scotland," and a 
'* Catalogue of Eish found in the vicinity of Aberdeen " by the 
late Dr. Dyce and Sim. His collections in both groups were 
given by him to the University of Aberdeen shortly before his 
death. His quarto note-books, from 1862 to 1890, with drawings 
interspersed, were given to the Aberdeen Eree Library. Many 
short notes in Naturalist's Journals were written by him, till in 
1903 he published in Aberdeen ' The Vertebrate Eauna of Dee,' 
a handsome octavo volume of nearly 300 pages. 

The scanty education of his youth was largely made good by- 
private study, and he was an omnivorous reader. In his later 
years he travelled in Erance, Italy, and other parts of Europe, 
visiting museums and other places of interest to a naturahst. 

He is described as reserved and silent with strangers ; of spare 


frame and almost ascetic appearance, which seemed unequal to 
the demands his business and relaxation made upon it, but he 
reached the age of 73, dying in his home at Aberdeen on the 
15th June, 1908. 

The writer of tliese lines is indebted to the kindness of Prof. J. 
W. H. Trail, F.E.S., for the information contained in an un- 
published memoir, with portrait, to be issued in the ' Annals of 
Scottish iS^atural History,' which has permitted of this notice 
being drawn up. [B. D. J.] 

Alexaxdek "Whtte. — Alexander Whyte was born at Fetter- 
cairn, Kincardineshire, as the son of the Rev. A. Whyte, M.A., 
on Marcli 5th, 1S3-1. He was educated at the Parish Scliool 
there, and, in 1850, entered the University of Aberdeen, where 
he proved proficient in classics as well as in natural history, and 
especially in botany. Without taking his degree he left for 
family reasons for the West Indies, and proceeded later on to 
Ceylon, where he lived until 1890, when he returned to London. 
His keen interest in natural history and experience as collector, 
chiefly of geological objects, recommended him to Mr. (now Sir) 
H. H. Johnston when preparing for his departure as Commissioner 
for British Central Africa, and he attached him as principal 
scientific officer to his statf. Alexander Whyte left for Africa in 
March 1891. Having stayed six years with Sir H. H. Johnston, 
he was in 1898 transferred to Ilganda, and in 1902 appointed 
Director of Agriculture for British East Africa, He retired the 
following year ; but his energy was by no means exhausted. At 
the age of 70 he went to Liberia, in the interest of a company, to 
explore the forest-belt in the interior for rubber-plants. In spite 
of great hardships and a severe attack of dysentery he successfully 
executed his commission, and retui'ued home in apparently unim- 
paired health in 1905. He died at High Barnet, Hertfordshire, 
on December 21st of the present year. 

His activity as botanical collector dates from 1891, when ht 
explored the M'lanje Mountains in British Central Africa. The 
very important collections made on that occasion went to the 
British Museum, and formed the subject of a paper by the officers 
of the botanical department of that institution in the 'Trans- 
actions ' of the Linnean Society, Ser. 2, Botany, vol. iv. pp. 1-67 
(1894). His later very extensive collections from British Central 
Africa, Uganda, and British East Africa are mostly at Kew, and, so 
far, only partially worked up (' Flora of Tropical Africa '). Perhaps 
his most valuable contribution was from Liberia, a country ^^•hic•h 
until then was, apart from certain parts of the littoral, botanically 
almost unexplored. The results of this expedition were in- 
corporated in Sir H. H. Johnston's ' Liberia,' and the new species 
described in the ' Journal ' of the Linnean Society, vol. xxxvii. 
pp. 79-115 (1905). The number of new species discovered by him 
is very considerable, 'and not a few have been associated with him 



by their specific designations, among them the M'lanje Cypress, 
Widdringtonia Whytei. The value of his collections would have 
been still greater had he paid more attention to labelling and 
writing down his observations. That he was a good observer and 
also had the literary power of putting into words what he saw 
will be admitted by those who had an opportunity of listening to 
his accounts or reading the manuscript report of his expedition 
to Liberia. 

In 1 877 Alexander Whyte was elected a Fellow of the Zoological 
Society, who in 1894 made him an Honorary Fellow and in 1897 
awarded him their Silver Medal. His Fellowship of the Linnean 
Society dates from 1894. [O. S. 

June 3rd, 1909. 

Dr. D. H. Scott, F.R.S., President, in the Chair. 

The Minutes of the Anniversary Meeting of the 24th May, 
1909, were read and confirmed. 

Mr. Eichard Siddoway Bagnall was proposed as a Fellow. 

The Lady Isabel Mary Peyronnet Browne, Capt, Stanley Smyth 
Flower, Mr. Valavanur Subramania Iyer, M.A. Madras Univ., 
Miss Julia Lindley, and Mr. WiUiam Eobert Price, B.A. Cantab., 
were elected Fellows. 

The President announced that he had appointed the following 
as Vice-Presidents for the ensuing year : — Sir Frank Crisp, 
Mr. Horace W. Monckton, Prof. E. B. Poulton, and Lieut.-Col. 

The first exhibition was by Prof. Dendy, F.E.S., Sec.L.S., of 
photomicrographs showing nuclear division in Galtonia candicans, 
Decne., and nuclear division and fertilization in Ascaris megalo- 

Tbe President added some observations on the interest of these 

Mr. A. D. Cotton, F.L.S., showed dried and recent specimens 
in formalin, of Golpomenia sinuosa, Derbes & Sol., from Wev- 
mouth, explaining how this Mediterranean species had advanced 
during the last few years up the French coast, into the English 
Channel ; it was belitjved to act injuriously to young oysters, by 
breaking thein adrift on its rising by buoyancy when distended 
\^'ith air. 

An animated discussion followed in which the following 
joined :— Mr. E. M. Holmes, Dr. J. C. Willis, Prof. Dendy, and 
Mr. J. C. Shenstone, Mr. Cotton replying. ' 


The following papers were read : — 

1. " On Calamites (Calamitina) ScJmtzei, 8tur., and on the 

correspondence between the length of internodes and the 
position and function of the short internode in the genus 
Calamites and in the recent Equisetaceae." By A. R. 
HoRwooD. (Communicated by E. E. Lowe, F.L.S.) 

2. " Cephalocorda — Amphioxides — of the 'Sealark' Expedition." 

By H. 0. S. GriBso^f, B.A. (Communicated by J. Stanley 
Gabdixer, E.R.S., E.L.S.) 

3. "Alcyonaria of the 'Sealark' Expedition." By Prof. J. 

Arthur Thomson. (Communicated by the same.) 

June ITth, 1D09. 

Sir Frank Crisp, Vice-President, in the Chair. 

The Minutes of the General Meeting of the 3rd June, 1 909, 
were read and confirmed. 

Mr. Thomas Parkin, M.A., was proposed as a Fellow. 

Mr. William Booth Waterfall, Mrs. Mary Jane Longstaff, 
Mr. Eichard Williams Harold Row, and Mr. William Eoberfc 
Price, B.A. Cantab., were admitted Fellows. 

Mr. William Dennis and Mr. Edward John Woodhouse, 
B.A, Cantab., were elected Fellows. 

A letter congratulating Sir Joseph Hooker on his approachiug 
92nd birthday was read from the Chair, and signed by the Fellows 

The following papers were I'ead : — 

1. " On the Growth of a Species of BattareaP By J. G. Orro 

Tepper, F.L.S. (Abstract, see p. 54.) 

2. " The Deposits in the Indian Ocean." By Sir John Murray, 

K.C.B., F.R.S., F.L.S. 

3. " The ' Sealark ' Penaeidea, Stenopidea, and Reptantia." By 

L. A. BoRRADAiLE. (Comuiunicated by J. Stanley 
Gardiner, M.A., F.R.S., F.L.S.) 

4. " The ' Sealark ' Polychaeta." By F. A. Potts. (Communi- 

cated by the same.) 
o. "The 'Sealark' Lepidoptei-a."' By T. Bainbrigge Fletcher. 

(Likewise communicated.) 
6. " Report on the Porifera cullecled by Mr. Cyril Crossland 

in the Red Sea ; Part L Calcarea"." By R. W. Harold 

Row, B.Sc, F.L.S. 



7. " New Species of Malesian and Philippine Ferns." By 

Dr. H. Christ. (Communicated by Pleet-Surgeon C. G. 
Matthew, M.B., F.L.S.) 

8. "The African Species of Triumfetta, Linn." By T. A. 

Spragub, F.L.S., and J. Hutchinson. , 

9. " The Acaulescent Species of Malvastrum, A. Gray.'* By 

Akthue W. Hill. 


Notes on the Growth and Development of a Specimen of a 
South-Australian Battarea. By J. G. 0. Teppek, E.L.S, 

[Eead 17th June, 1009.] 

In April 1900 the specimen in question was received from 
Miss IJna A. Wai-e, of Dalkey, 17 miles north of Adelaide, in the 
" Mallee Scrub "of dwarf Eucaliiptus. It consisted of a fully- 
developed Battarea from base to pileus, with a solid, heavy, tuber- 
like mass attached. The specimen was shown on 1st May, 1900, 
at a meeting of the Eoyal Society of South Australia (Trans, xxiv. 
p. 171). A few days later spores were abundantly shed, and the 
specimen bedded in sand and cov^ered with a bell-glass, and for 
nearly a mouth it continued to develope in height. It was again 
shown to the E. Society of South Australia on 6th June, when 
the following dimensions were noted : — 

Total height from base to summit . . 235 mm. 

Pileus, diameter 42 ,, 

Stipes, at summit 12 „ 

5, 75 mm. below the summit . . 20 „ 

Peridium whitish when fresh, irregularly hemispherical and 
smooth, except some slight irregular furrows. 

The specimen was handed to Dr. M. Holtze, F.L.S., Director 
of the Adelaide Botanic Garden, and is there preseiwed in the 
Herbarium. No other specimen has been recently found, but it 
has been suggested that it may belong to Battarea phalJoides, 
Dicks. The other Australian species known are B. Miielhriana, 
Kalchb., from Torke's Peninsula, and B. Teppcriana, Ludw., from 
N.W. Victoria. 





Agricultural Researcli Association, 1907-8. 

8vo. Aberdeen, 1908. 
Jamieson (Thomas). Utilisation of Nitrogen in Air by Plants. No. III. 
Pp. 75 ; with 4 plates and portraits. 1908. 

Thos. Jamieson. 
Aisslinger (Hans). Beiti-age zur Iveuatnis weuig bekauuter 
Pflanzenfasern. Pp. 135: init 2 Tafeln. 

8vo. ZiiricJi-Selnnu, 1907. Dr. Hans Schinz. 
Albert, Honore Charles {Prince cle Monaco). Eesulfats des 
Campagnes Seientifiques accomplies siir son Yaclits [VHirondeUe 
et la Princesse-AUce^. Fascicules 33, 34. 

4to. Monaco, 1908-1909. 

XXXIII. Crustaces decapodes (Peneides) provenant des campagnes de 

VHirondelle et de la Pr incense- Alice (1886-1907). Par E. L. 
^ BouviER. Pp. 122 ; plates 16. 1908. 

XXXIV. Echinodermes provenant des^ campagnes du yacht Princcsse- 

Alice (Asteries, Ophiures, Eehinides et Orinoides). Par R. 
KoEiiLER. Pp. i517 ; plates 32. 1909. 

Alderwerelt van Rosenburgh (C. R. W. K. van). New or Inter- 
esting Malayan Ferns. Pp. 27, tab. 8. (Bull. Dept. Agric. 
Indes JN'eerl. no. 18.) 8vo. Buitenzorg, 1908. 

Handbook to the Determination of the Perns of the 

Malayan Islands (inch those of the Malay Peninsula, the 
Philippines, and New Guinea). Pp. xl, 899. Additions, 
Moditications, and Corrections. Pp. 11. 8vo. Batavia, 1909. 

Aldrovandi (Ulisse). See De-Toni (Giovanni Battista). 

Ameghino (Florentine). El arco escapular de los Edentados y 
Moriotremos y el origen Eeptiloide de estos dos Grupos de 
Mamiferos. Pp. 91, iigs. 60. (An. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, 
xvii.) lioy. 8vo. Buenos Aires. 1908. 

Encore quelques mots sur les Tatous Eossiles de Prince et 

d'AUemagne. Pp. 22, figs. 12. (An. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, 
xvii.) Eoy. 8vo. Buenos Aires, 1908. 


Ameghino (Florentine). Notes sur les Poissons da Patagonien. 
Pp. 23, figs. 2. (An. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, xvi.) 

8vo. Buenos Aires, 1908. 

Las forinaciones sedimentarias de la Region litoral de Mar 

del Plata y Chapalmalan. Pp. 88, figs. 16. (An. Mus. Nac. 
Buenos Aires, XA'ii.) 8vo. Buenos Aires, 1908. 

Dos documentos testimoniales a proposito de las escorias 

producidas por la combustion de los cortaderales. Pp. 12. 
(An. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, xix.) 

Eoy. Svo. Buenos Aires, 1909. 

Le litige des scories et des terres euites autbropiques des 

formations ne'ogenes de hi Eepublique Argentine. Pp. i2. 

Boy. Svo. Buenos Aires, 1909. 

Produits pyriques d'origine aiitbropique dans les formations 

neogenes de la Eepublique Argentiue. Pp. 25. (An. Mus, 
Nac. Buenos Aires, xix.) Svo. Buenos Aires, 1909. 


Apstein (Carl). See Plankton-Expedition. Die Pyrocysteen. 


Arher (Edward Alexander Newell). Bibliography of Literature 
on Palaeozoic Possil Plants ; including some of the more 
important memoirs published between 1870-1905. See Pro- 
gressus Rei Botanicae, Bd. i. Heft 1, pp. 218-242. 1907. 

ArcMv fiir Protistenknnde. Begrlindet A^on Dr. Peitz Schau- 
DiNN, herausgegeben von Dr. M. Haktm.\in'n und Dr. S. von 
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Austen (Ernest Edward). /S^^ Calmette (A.). Venoms, Venomous 
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John Hopkinson. 

Barraud (Philip J.). See Gibbs (Arthur Ernest). A Preliminary 
List of Hertfordshire Diptera. 1908. 

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Bd. i.' Heft 2, pp. 368-418 ; with 24 illustrations. Svo. 1907. 

Mendel's Principles of Heredity. Pp. xiv, 396 ; with 

6 plates, 3 portraits, and 37 figs, Svo. Cambridge, 1909. 

B?.y (J. Christian). Index Emendatus, ans : Bibliotheca Botanica, 
uuctore Alberto de Hallee. Pp. v, 57. 4to. Bema^, 1908. 


Beck (Henrich Henrichsen). Index MoUiiscorum praesentis aevi 
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Beitrage zur Naturdenkmalpflege. Herausgegeben von Hugo 

CoNWENTZ. Heft 2. 4to. Berlin, 1908. 

2. Bericht iiber die Staatliche Niiturdenkmalpflege in Preusseu im Jahre 

1907. Von H. Conwentz. 1908. 

H. Conwentz. 

Das Tierreich. Herausgegeben von der Deutschen Zoologischen 

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Liefg. 25. Lepidoptera. — Brassolida?. Von H. Stichel. Pp. xiv, 244 ; 

figa. 46. 1909. 

Bernard (Charles). Protococcacees et Desmidiees d'Eau Douce, 
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Bibliotheca Botanica (continued). 

Baud XVI. Heft 71. Wolf (Tueodoii). Monographie der Gattung 
Poientilla. Pp. vi, 714 ; mit 2 Earten und 
20 Tafeln. 

4to. Stuttgart, 1908. 

Bibliotheca Zoologica (continued). 

Band XXI. Heft 54. Liefg. 1. Kennel (Julius). Die Palsearktischen 

Tortriciden. Pp. 100 und 6 Tafeln. 1908. 
„ „ 55. Kaule (Waltiier). Die Psedogenesis der Cecido- 

niyiden. Pp. 80 ; mit 38 Textfiguren und 6 

Tafeln. 1908. 
„ ,, 56. TiHELE (Johannes). Eevision des Systems der 

Ohitonen. Teil I. Pp. 70; mit 6 Tafeln und 

5 Textfiguren. 1909. 

Biddlecombe (A.). Thoughts on Natural Philosophy ; with a 
jiew Eeading of NevVton's First Law. Eevised and Enlarged 
Edition. Pp. 24. 8vo. London, 1908. 

Thoughts on Natural Philosophy (with a new Eeading of 

Newton's First Law); and the Origin of Life. Fourth Edition, 
Eevised and Enlarged. Pp.32. 8vo. Neivcastle-on-Tyne, 1909. 

Fifth Edition. Pp. 39. 

8vo. Newcastle-on-Tyne, 1909. 


Boorsma (W. G.)- Pharmakologische Mitteiluugen, IV. P0I3'- 
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8vo. Buitenzorg, 1908. 
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found on the shores of the Danish West Indies. Pp. 1,8, 
plate 1, figs. 8. (Vidensk. Meddel. naturli. Poren. 1908.) 

8vo. Copenhagen, 1908. 

Yegetationen i Dansk-Vestindien. Pp. 32, figs. 24. 

(" Atlanteu." Pp. 601-632, figs. 277-300.) 

8vo. KjdhenTiavn, 1909. 
Notes on the Shore Vegetation of the Danish West Indian 

Islands : a Supplement to my earlier paper on the Halophyte 
Vegetation of the Islands. Pp. 59 ; with 4 plates and 40 figs. 
(Bot. Tidsskr. vol. 29.) 8vo. Copenhagen. Author. 

Boston, Mass. See Arnold Arboretum. 

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des Campagnes de VHirondelle et de la Princesse-Alice (1886- 
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National Antarctic Expedition (SS. ' Discovery ') 1901-1904 :— 
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Vol. IV. Zoology. (Various Invertebrata.) 

4to. London, 1898. 

IV. MoUusca. Soleuogastres. By Dr. H. F. Nierstrasz. 1908. 
Aptera. By G. H. CARrENTER. 1908. 
Schizopoda. By W. M. Tattersall. 1908. 
Copepoda. By R. Norris Wolfenden. 1908. 
Echinoderma. By F. Jeffrey Bell. 1908. 
Echinoderui Larva. By E. W. MacBride and J. C. Simpson. 
Myzostomidffi. By Dr. Eudolf Eitteh von Stu.miier-Traunfbls. 

Sipiinculoidea. By W. F. Lanciiester. 1908. 
Cojlentera. Actiniae. By J. A. Clubb. 1908. 
Porifera : — 

Tetraxonida. By R. Kirkpatrick. 1908. 

Oalcarea. By C. F. Jenkin. 1908. 


Catalogue of the Presh-Water Pishes of Africa in the British 
Museum (Natural Histoiy). By G. A. Boulengeh. Vol. I. 
Pp. xi, 373 ; figs. 270. 4to. London, 1909. 

Lepidopterous Insects. 

Catalogue of the Lepidoptera Phalsense. Vol. VII. Catalogue 
of the Noctuidse in the Collection of the British Museum. 
By Sir G-eokge P. Hampson, Bart. Pp. xv, 709 ; figs. 184, 
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linnean society of london. 59 


Synopsis of tlie British Basidiomycetes : a descriptive Catalogue 
of the Drawings and Specimens in the Department of Botany, 
British Museum, By WoETniNGTON G. Smith. Pp. 531 ; 
ligs. 145, plates 5. 8vo. London, 1908. 


Guide to Sowerby's Models of British Fungi in the Department 
of Botany, British Museum (Natural History). Second 
Edition. Eevised. By Woethingxon G. Smith. Pp. ii, 
85 ; figs. 90. Svo. London, 1908. 

Guide to the Specimens illustrating the Eaces of Mankind 
(Anthropology), exhibited in the Department of Zoology, 
British Museum (Natural History). By E. Ltdekkee. 
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Guide to the Whales, Porpoises, and Dolphins (Order Cetacea) 
exhibited in the Department of Zoology, British IVTuseum 
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Svo. London, 1909. 

An Introduction to the Study of Eocks and Guide to the 
Museum Collection, Mineral Department. By L. Fletchee. 
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vSelections from previous Works. With remarks ou Mr. (x. 

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Essays on Life, Art, and Science. Edited by E. A. 

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Byrnes (Esther F.), The Fresh-Water Cyclops of Long Island. 
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Carved rhinoceros horn from Lady Smith, formerly in the posses- 
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Electric light installation : cost borne by Frank Crisp, Esq. 


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Clock and supports in Meeting Eoom, presented by Frank Crisp, 

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„ „ „ „ Elliot Smith's paper, £50. 

., „ „ „ Forsyth Major's paper, £50. 



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Legacy from the late Dr. E. C. A. Prior, <£100 free of duty. 
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Eoyal Society : Second grant towards ' Biscayan Plankton,' £50 
Subscription portrait of Prof. S. H. Vines, by Hon. John Collier. 
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Eoyal Society : Third and final grant towards 'Biscayan Plankton,' 

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(1739) at Linnes Haminarby ; the bronze original is for the 
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Science, Stockholm. 

Miss Sarah Marianne Silver, P.L.S. : Cabinet formerly belonging 
to Mr. S. W. Silver, F.L.S. 


The Trustees of the Percy Sladen Memorial Fund : Second grant 
towards publication of Mr. Stanley Gardiner's Researches in 
the Indian Ocean in H.M.S. ' Sealark,' ^200. 

Prof. James William Helenus Trail, P.R.S., P.L.S. : Gift of ^100 
in Trust, to encourage Research on the Nature of Proto- 


SESSION 1908-1909. 

Note. — The following are not iudexed : — The name of the Chairman at each meeting ; 
speakers whose remarks are not reported ; and passing allusions. 

Abstract of South-Australian Battarea 
(Tepper), 54 

Acaulescent species of Malvasfrum, 
A. Gr. (HUl), 54. 

Accounts, I S ; laid before Annirersary 
Meeting, 17. 

Additions to Library, 55-S5. 

Address. Presidential, 21-31. 

African Species of Triumfetta, Liun.,54. 

Alcyonaria of ' Sealark ' Exped. (Thom- 
son), 53. 

Alternation of Generations in Plants 
(Lang), 11-12. 

Amphioxidcs (Cephalocorda) of 'Sea- 
lark' Exped. (Gibson), 53. 

Amphipoda Hyperiidea of the ' Sea- 
lark' Exped. (Walker), 15. 

in glycerine, exhibited (^Yalke^), 

Anomura of Sudanese Red Sea (Rid- 

dell), 8. 
Arber, E. A. N., elected Councillor, 32 ; 

(Ecology of Semjjcrvivum arach- 

noideum and S. montamim, 15-16. 
Afcaris megaloccphala exhibited 

(Dendy), 52. 
Associate, deceased (Sim), 19. 
Auditors, nominated and elected, 1 5 ; 

Certificate (W. B. Keen), 18. 
Autochrome and other transparencies 

exhibited (Rosenheim), 5. 
Avebury, The Rt. Hon. Lord, com- 

uiunication by (Bagnall), 17. 

Bagnall, R. S., proposed, 52 ; Thysano- 

ptera of Venezuela, 17. 
Bainbridge, Miss M. E., Parasitic 

Copepoda, 2. 
Bamber, Lt.-Col. C. J., elected, 5 ; 

proposed, i. 

Barrington, R. M., admitted, 17. 
Bartlett, A. W., admitted, 5. 
Battarea, growth of a species of 

(Tepper), 53 ; abstract, 54. 
Bell, F. Jeffrey, Echinoderms of the 

Western Indian Ocean, 2. 
Benefactions, 8 7-94. 
Berlin, Myxococcus pyriformis from, 

(Smith) 4. 
Bernays, L. A., deceased, 19 ; obituary, 

Bird destruction, illustrated by slides 

(Buckland), 16. 
Birthday congratulations to Sir J. D. 

Hooker, 53. 
Biscayan Plankton : the Ostracoda 

(Fowler), 5. 
' Black Scab ' of Potatoes, exhibited 

(Massee), 6-7. 
Blind Prawn from Sea of Galilee 

(Caiman), 15. 
Bonhote, J. L. J., referred to Cash 

Statement, 19. 
Boodle. L. A., elected Councillor, 32 ; 

exhibited gall from Bombay, 2. 
Borgesen, Dr. F., Fucus spiralis, Linue, 

or Fueiis plati/carpus, Thuret, 10. 
Borradaile, L. A., ' Sealark ' Penaeidea, 

Stenopidea, and Reptantia, 53. 
Botanical Secretary elected, 32. 
Botrydium gramdatum, lens-cells in, 3. 
Bott, G. E., removed from List, 19. 
Bottles, ferns enclosed in (Druery), 4. 
Bourne, Prof. G. C, Councillor re- 
tired, 32. 
Bower, Prof. F. O., Linneau Medallist, 

32-34; thanks for Medal, 34. 
British Museum, copy of Darwin- 
Wallace Medal presented to, i. 
Brown, E., elected, 5 ; proposed i. 



Browne, Lady I. M. P., elected, 52 ; 
proposed, 15. 

Buckland, J., exhibited slides of Bird 
destruction in America, etc., 16. 

Burrage, J. H., deceased, 19. 

Burton, P. M., exhibited an oyster- 
shell with calcareous concretion, 8. 

Bury, H., elected Councillor, 32. 

Calamites Schutzei, Stur (Horwood), 

Calcarea, Part I. of Eed Sea Porifera 

(Eow), 53. 

Caiman, Dr. W. T., Blind Prawn from 
Sea of Galilee, 15. 

Cambridge Museum, Etudes sur les 
Cirrhipedes du (Gravel), 8. 

Caracciolo, H., elected, 14; proposed, 

Cavernularia ohesa. mentioned, 4. 

Cells of LeaTCS, see Epidermal Cells. 

Centrospermse, Longitudinal Symmetry 
of (Groom), 9. 

Cephalocorda : Amphioxides of ' Sea- 
lark' Exped. (Gibson), 53. 

Chambers, Miss H. S., admitted, 1 1. 

Chara Braunii from Canal near Stock- 
port, 10. 

Charter Book, see Eoll and Charter 

Chdndracantkus iiiflaius, description of, 
(Bainbridge), 2. 

Christ, Dr. H., Malesian and Philippine 
Ferns, 54. 

Clarke, W. A., elected, 13 ; proposed, 


Cockayne, E. A., communication by 

(Morley), 11. 
CoUiuge, W. E., admitted, 17. 
CoUingwood, Dr. C, deceased, 19 ; 

obituary, 35. 
Colpomenia sinuosa, Derbes & Sol., ex- 
hibited (Cotton), 52. 
Compsoipogon, exhibited (Weiss), 10. 
Cooper, C. F., see Punnett, E, C. 
Copepoda, see Parasitic Copepoda. 
Cotton, A. D., exhibited Colpomenia 

sinuosa, Derbes & Sol., 52. 
Councillors elected, 32 ; retired, 32. 
Crisp, Sir F., elected auditor, 15 ; 

elected Councillor, 32 ; nominated 

V.-P., 52. 
Crossland, Cyril, Porifera collected by 

(Eow), 53. 
Crustacea, Freshwater, from Tasmania 

(Smith), 5. 

Darhishire, A, D., Experiments with 
Peas, demonstrated, 14. 

Darwin-Wallace Medal presented to 

British Museum, i. 
Davidia involucrata, Baill., Structure 

and Affinities of (Home), 14. 
Deaths recorded, 19. 
Delage, Prof. Y., elected, 15 ; proposed 

For. Memb., 13. ' 

Bendrophyllia cornigera, exhibited 

(Vallentin), 6. 
Dendy, Prof. A., elected Councillor, 32 ; 

— Csecretary, 32; exhibited Hutton 
Eesearch Medal, 1-2 ; — Slides 
showing nuclear division in Galtonia 
candicans, 52, and Ascaris megalo- 
ccphala, 52 ; — Slides showing struc- 
ture of Pineal Eye of Sphenodon, 10. 

Dennis, W., elected, 53 ; proposed, 17. 
Dent, H. 0., deceased, 1 9 ; obituary. 

Deposits of the Indian Ocean (Murray), 

Distant, W. L., ' Sealark ' Ehynchota, 

Donations in aid of Publications, 86 ; 

— to Library, 55-85 ; — to the 
Society (i 790-1 909), 87-94. 

Druce, G. C, exhibited Montia lani'pro- 

spernut, 8. 
Druery, C. T., Ferns in bottles, 4. 
Drummond, J. M. F., admitted, 14. 
Dry-rot of Potatoes (Longman), 14. 
Dupont, P. E., elected, 9 ; proposed, 6. 
Duthie, J. F., appointed Scrutineer, 

Echinoderms of the Western Indian 
Ocean (Jeffrey Bell), 2. 

Egerton of Tatton, Et. Hon. Lord, 
deceased, 19; obituarj'-, 36. 

Election of Council and Officers, 32. 

Elections reported at Anniversary 
Meeting, 19. 

Elliot, G. t-. S., his problematical 
plant exliibited (Stapf), 2. 

Epidermal Cells of Leaves, their Optical 
behaviour demonstrated (Wager), 3. 

EquisetaceaB, iuternode in recent (Hor- 
wood), 53. 

Euphrasia minima from Somerset, ex- 
hibited (Salmon), 13. 

Evans, Sir J., deceased, 19; obituary, 

Farmer, Prof. J. B., communication 
by (Home), 14; elected Councillo:', 

Fawcett, W., moved thanks to President 
for Address, 32. 

Fellows deceased, 1 9 ; elected 1 9 ; re- 
moved from List, 19; withdrawn, 



Ferns in bottles (Druery), 4. 

Malesian and Philippine (Christ), 

Fiji, Montane Flora of (Gibbs), 13. 
Fletcher, J., deceased, 19 ; obituary, 

Fletcher, T. B., ' Sealark' Lepidoptera, 

Flora of Fiji (Gibbs), 13. 
Flower, Capt. S. S., elected, 52 ; pro- 
posed, 15. 
Flower formation in Valeriana dioica 

(Gregory), 8. 
Forbes, F. B., deceased, 19 ; obituary, 

Foreign Members deceased, 19 ; elected, 

19; vacancies announced in list 

of, II. 
Forms of Flowers in Valeriana dioica 

(Gregory), 8. 
Fowler, Dr. G. H., Biscayan Plankton : 

the Ostracoda, 5 ; elected Coun- 
cillor, 32. 
Freshwater Crustacea from Tasmania 

(Smith), 5. 
Fucus sjjiralis, Liune, or Fiicus flaty- 

carpus, Thuret (Borgesen), 10. 
Fyles, Kev. T. W., withdrawn, 19. 

Gage, Capt. A. T., admitted, i. 
Galilean Sea, Blind Prawn from 

(Caiman), 15. 
Gall from Bombay exhibited (Boodle), 

Galtoiiia candicans exhibited, showing 

nuclear division (Dendy). 52. 
Gardiner, J. S., elected Councillor, 32 ; 

communications by : (Bell) 2. (Borra- 

daile) 53, (Distant) 8, (Fletcher) 

53, (Gibson) 53, (Gruvel) 8, 

(Potts) 53, (Punnett & Cooper) 2, 

(Thomson) 53. 
Garry a elliptica, lens-cells in, 3. 
General Secretary, see Secretary, 

Gerard, Rev. J., Yew and Wistaria 

stems, slides exhibited, 4. 
Giard, Prof. A., deceased, 19; obituary, 

Gibbs, Miss L. S., Montane Flora of 

Fiji, 13- 
Gibson, A. J., elected, 13; proposed, 

Gibson, E., elected, 5 ; proposed, i. 
Gibson, H. O. S.,Cephalocorda(yi«ij!^Aj- 

o.ridcs) of ' Sealark' Exped., 53. 
Goodall, T. B., withdrawn, 19. 
Gregory. R. P., Flower formation in 

Valeriana dioica, 8. 
Groom, J. B., admitted, 17; elected, 14; 

proposed, 12. 


Groom. Prof. P., Longitudinal Sym- 
metry of Centrospenn;e, 9. 

Groves, H., elected Auditor, 15. 

Groves, H. & J., exhibited Lunula 
pallescens, Besser, 7. 

Growth o{ Bait area (Tepper), 53, 54. 

Grueber, H. A., received Darwin- 
Wallace Medal for British Museum, 

Gruvel. Prof. A., Etudes sur Ics Cir- 
rhipedes du Musee de Cambridge, 8. 

Gustav v., H.M., as Hon. Member, 
signed Roll and Charter-book, 2. 

Havilland, Hugh de Beauvoir de, with- 
drawn, 19. 

Hayata, B., Juniperus taxifolia, 5. 

Hcliantheinuiii Chumceci^fns x poli- 
/(>//«;«, exhibited, (Marshall), 10. 

Hemsley, W. Botting, communication 
by (Hayata), 5. 

Herdman", Prof. W. A., exhibited 
striped muscle-fibre in mantle of 
Pccteii. 9 ; communication by 
(Riddell), 8 : Councillor retired, 32. 

Hicks, F., admitted, 15; elected, 13; 
proposed, 9. 

Hieraciuni hyparcticuni and H. ciistales, 
Linton, exhibited (Marshall), 10. 

Hill, A. W., Acaulescent Species of 
Malva!itri'.,a, A. Gray, 54 ; Xototriche, 
Turcz., 9. 

Hill, Prof. J. P., elected Auditor, 15; 
elected Councillor, 32 ; communi- 
cation by (Wilsmore). 17. 

Himalayan Symphyla (luims), 5. 

Holmes, W. J. O., deceased, 19. 

Honorary Member, King of Sweden, 
signed Roll and Ch irter Book, 2. 

Hooker, Sir J. D., birthday congratu- 
lations, 53. 

Hopkinson, J., elected Councillor, 32. 

Home, A. S., Structure and Affinities 
oi Davidia imoltwrafa, B.iill., 14. 

Horwood, A. R., Calamites Schufzei, 
Stur, 53. 

Hudleston, W. H., deceased, 19; 
(ibituary, 41. 

Hiilme, F. E., deceased. 19 ; obituary, 

Hutchinson, J., see Spnigue, T. A. 

Hutton Research Medal exhibited 
(Dendy), 1-2. 

Ichieumon inanifestator, Marsham, 

CEconomy of (Morley), 11. 
Imms, Pn)f. A. D., i>y>iip/iyla from 

Himalayas, 5. 
Indian Ocean Deposits (Murray), 53. 
Indian Ocean (Eastern), see Punnett ; 

— (Western), sec Bell. 

1908-1909. h 



Iyer, V. S , eleclecl, 52; proposed, 15. 

Jackson, Dr. B. D., elected Councillor, 
32; — Gen. Sec. ^2; with President 
and Bot. Sec. to Windsor Castle, 2 ; 
Obituary Notices, 34 ; report, 19 ; 
read Bye-Laws governing elections, 

Japan, plant petrifactions from, ex- 
hibited (Stopes), 14. 

Johns, E. F., withdrawn, 19. 

Jimiperus taxifolia (Hayata), 5. 

Keeble, Prof. F., communication by 

(Longman), 14. 
Keen, W. B., Accountant's certificate, 

Kent, "W. Saville, deceased, 19; 

obituary, 42. 
King of Sweden signed Roll and 

Charter Book as Hon. Memb., 2. 
King, Sir G., deceased, 19. 
Kirton, W. H., deceased, 19. 

Lang, Dr. W. H., elected, 15 ; pro- 
posed, 13; opened discussion on 
"Alternation of Generations in 
Plants," 11-12. 

Lawson, Dr. A. A., elected, 14 ; pro- 
posed, 12. 

Leaves, Epidermal Cells of, see Wager. 

Lcpas fascicularis, exhibited (Yallentin), 

Lepidoptera of 'Sealark' Exped. 
(Fletcher), 53. 

Librarian's Report, 20. 

Library Additions, '55-85. 

Lilljeborg. Prof. W., deceased, 19; 
obituary, 45. 

Lindley, Miss J., elected, 52 ; proposed. 

Lister, A., deceased, 19 ; obituary, 46. 
Longitudinal Symmetry of Centro- 

spermse (Groom), 9. 
Longman, Miss S., Drj--rot of Potatoes, 

Longstaff, Mrs. M. J., admitted, 53; 

elected, 5 ; proposed, i . 
Lowe, E. E., communication by 

(Horwood), 53. 
Lu::ula paNesciiis, exhibited (Groves), 


McClellan, F. C, admitted, 9. 
Madeiran Polyzoa (Norman), 11. 
Malesian and Philippine Ferns 
(Christ), 54. 

Mai vast rum, A. Gray, Acauleseent 
species of (Hill), 5^. 

Marine MoUusca of the ' Sealark ' 
Exped. (Melvill), 15. 

Marshall, Rev. E. S., exhibited: — -Saxj- 
frciga niva/is X sfellaris; Ofchis, 
allied to 0. maculata, Linn. ; Helian- 
tlicmum ChamcEcistits X polifolium ; 
Hicracium hyparcticum and H. 
cndales, Linton, 10. 

Massee, G., exhibited 'Black Scab 'of 
Potatoes, 6-7. 

Matthew, C. G., communication by 
(Christ), 54. 

Maude, A.H., admitted, 6 ; elected, 5 ; 
proposed, i. 

Medal (Darwin-Wallace), presented to 
British Museum, i ; (Hutton Re- 
search), exhibited (Dendy), 1-2 ; 
(Linnean), awarded to Prof. BoAver, 

Meek, C. F. U., admitted. 6. 

Melvill, J. C, Marine Mollusca of the 
' Sealark,' Exped., 15.