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m ii '' 

1,161 — O-1006 






YiioM November 1909 to June 1010. 


P R J >' T E D for the L I >^ N E A N S O C 1 E T Y , 
iJURLiXGio;* Housr, Piccadilly, \\\, 
1910. , 

I'KI NIKK liV T.Vil-OR VXD F U A X ( ' I S, 

i;f.ii i.ihn coriJT. ilket sTrir.F.r. 

' 7 



List of Publications issued '^' 

Proceedings oF the 122nd Session ' 

Presidential Address ^^' 

Obituaries '^3 

Additions to the Library • • i°9 

Donations ^35 

Benefactions, 17i,tO-l 910 , 1 3'^ 

index 144 


Publications of the Societv issuerl during the period, Hist .Uilj, 
ii>U!i, to 31st July, 1910:— 

Journal (Botany), No. 270, 4th Aug., 19»>!). 

„ 271, 28th Oct., 1909. 

(Zoology), Xo. 2U0, loth Dec, 1909. 

„ 201, 22nd June, 1910. 

„ 20(5, ;{Oth Nov., 1909. 

Transactions (2nd Ser.) Botany, Vol. Yll. Bart xiii., Sept. 1909. 

„ \iv., Nov. 19U9. 
„ (2nd Ser.) Zoology, A'ol. X. Bart ix., Xov. 1909. 

,, Xlll. ,, I., Oct. 1UU9. 

II., Feb. 1910. 

„ 111., Juiic 191(». 

I'l-oceediuj^s, Session, from November 190S to June iyu9 
October J9U9. 

List of [Fellows, Associates, and Foreign Members], 1909-1910. 





November 4th, 1909. 

Dr. D. H. Scott, F.R.S., President, in the Chair. 

The Minutes of the Cleneral Meeting of the 17th June, 1909, 
were read and confirmed. 

Miss JiUia Liudley, Mr. Martin Hubert Foquet Sutton, and 
Mr. Cecil Hallworth Treadgold, M.A. (Cantab.), were admitted 

Captain John Humphrey Barbour, M.B., Mr. Frederick James 
Bridgman, Mr. Linnaeus Greening, Mr. Heni'y John Jeffery, 
A.R.C.S.,Mr. Frank Armitage Potts, M.A. (Cantab.), Mr. Walter 
Theodore Saxton, M.A. (Cantab.), Mr. Hugh Scott, B.A. (Cantab.), 
Mr. Cbarles Sillem, and Mr. Charles VV^orster-Drought, B.A. 
(Cantab.), were proposed as Fellows, and Mr. Oswald Arthur 
Sayce as an Associate. 

Mr. Richard Siddoway Bagnall was elected a Fellow. 

Mr. Cecil C.irus-Wilson, F.E.S.E., F.Gr.S., exhibited specimens 
and lantern-slides of the Natural Inclusion of Stones in Woody 
Tissue. He said ; — About twenty-three years ago a gravel-pit was 
started in the valley-gravels occux-ring between Syndale and 
Newnham, some three miles from Faversham in Kent. Part of a 
wood, chiefly oak trees, covered the deposit ; as the work pro- 
gressed these were felled, and the stumps and roots dislodged. 



The gnivel consists of subatignlar, water-worn flints, large 
noJiiles less worn, and occasional blocks of Narsen-stone ; the 
whole brtin<jj mixed with flint grit and quartzose sand, and forming 
a compact and soraewliat coherent mass. Several Palaiolitiiic 
implements aud part of a skull of Bos lowjifrons have been found 
in the deposit. 

Tlio roots and stumps referred to were distributed promiscuously 
over the surface of the ground as the gravel in which they were 
embedded was removed. The work of excavating ceased in this 
particular part of the valley about ten years ago, so the roots still 
remaining have been exposed for that length of time, the others 
having been cut up for fuel by the cottagers in the neighbourhood. 

Most of those now found there were left intact because of the 
large number of stones enclosed in the wood. Not only did these 
resist the work of saw and axe, but when burnt they burst 
asunder with considerable force, becoming a source of danger to 
those within range of the flying fragments. 

The stones are actually embedded in the solid oak, and not 
merely included within forked portions which may have grown 
together subsequently. The tissue of the wood appears to have 
growu around the stones and enveloped tlieni, indicating that the 
process was carried on under conditions of considerable pressure. 
There are dozens of stones embedded in some of these roots, or 
snags, so that the substance might be described as " a con- 
glomerate formed of flints enclosed in a woody matrix." 

In the specimen of which I now show a photograph (Plate 1) 
I counted no less than sixty-seven flints, the largest being several, 
pounds in weight, and there are innumerable empty cavities 
showing where others existed before the shrinkage of the wood 
after exposure. Piles of these dislodged flints are to be seen on 
the ground under and around each root. 

The picture now thrown upon the screen shows the same root 
with one of the limbs cut off to facilitate its removal to the 
Museum at Kew last July. Only three of the sixty-seven stones 
were sliaken out before the specimen reached Kew — this being 
due to the sawing, and the shaking of the cart in which they were 
conveyed to Faversham. 

In regard to the forked part now seen : — Each limb measures 
about 3 feet in length, with girths averaging about 25 inches. 
This part contains 50 stones. The single piece was sawn off the 
forked one ; its length is 33 inches, and the girth measurement 
averages 25 inches ; it contains 14 stones. 

I have occasionally seen odd stones thus embedded in the trunks 
of trees. In Norton Churchyard, a few miles from Faversham, 
are three very old yew trees, and in two of them I saw flints and 
fragments of tiles embedded in the wood of the trunk seven feet 
above the ground. 

In Molash Churchyard, six or seven miles south of Faversham, 
there are six very old and large yews. Some of these have flints 

Proc. Linn. Soc, 1909-1910. 

Plate I. {to face p. 2). 



embedded in their trunks sevea or eiglit feet above the ground, 
and in one, on the north side of the churchyard, I saw Hints at 
least twelve feet above ground. 

The circumstances led me to suppose that the stones and 
fragments of tile had been originally pressed into the roots when 
these were in a soft and spongy state below ground, and that they 
subsequently emerged with the growth of the tree. 

The examples at Syndale are, however, as far as I know, 
unique, and if trees can enclose stones in such quantities, and 
retain them within their substance so tenaciously, we have trans- 
porting agents capable, under certain conditions, of distributing 
terrigenous material over sea- beds to an extent not hitherto 

JVIy thanks are due to Mr. C. Gordon Neame, of Copton Manor, 
for his valuable assistance in enabling me to secure the specimens 
referred to. 

The President contributed some remarks upon the interest of 
this exhibition. 

Dr. A. B. Eendle, F.R.S., showed a specimen of heather 
(Erica cinerea) found near Axminster in which the flowers were 
replaced by dark red leaf-buds of about the same size as the 
flowers. One side, or about half of a clump of heather was 
affected ; the other side bore normal flowers and the two sorts 
were not mixed. The red leaf-buds, which occupy the position 
of flowers, consist each of a number of short, strongly ascending 
leaves closely arranged in superposed whorls of four ; the four 
lines have often a strong spiral twist in the upper part of the bud. 
The leat'-arrangement therefore resembles that of the flower, not 
of the foliage leaves which are in whorls of three. The leaves 
of these special buds also differ in form from the foliage letives 
in that they are upwardly concave with a bluntly keeled back 
recalling the sepals of a typical flower. They are 32 or more in 
number, and thus considerably out-nuiuber the parts of a typical 
flower (24 including bracteoles). The tip of the bud was always 
damaged, but in many of those examined a shrivelled or more or 
less misshapen pistil or its parts were present, and sometimes 
below this semifoliaceous stamens were found. The appearance 
suggested insect injury, but Mr. C. 0. Waterhouse was unable to 
find any animal organism ; he pointed out, however, that the 
appearance suggested the work of a Phytoptus, which in the 
normal course of events would have already deserted the buds. 
Dr. Rendle has, however, been able to find no record of Phytoptus 
in connection with our heather. The specimen is of interest as 
resembling a teratological form of Erica cinerea described by 
Maxime Cornu in 1879, where the flowers were replaced by 
vegetative buds apparently very similar in appearance to those on 
our specimens, but in which the arrangement of the foliage leaves 
was maintained (the leaves being in rows of six), while the bud 



contained no trace of floral organs or of daiimge by any animal 

A discussion followed in which the following engaged : — Mr. E. 
M. Holmes, Dr. O. Stapf, and the President; Dr. Rendle 

Prof. II. H. W. Pearsox, Sc.D., F.L.S., then gave a lecture 
illustratf'd by a long series of lantern-slides, entitled — " Types of 
the Yegi'lation of Biishmanland, Namaqualand, Damaraland, and 
South Angola (A Preliminary Keport of the Percy Sladen 
Memorial Expedition in South-West Africa, 1908-1909)," of 
which the following is an abstract : — 

The floras of the regions named in the title are very distinctly 
related, if the remarkable vegetation found on the Huilla plateau 
in South Angola be excluded. Otherwise the differences that are 
observed ar*^ probably to be accounted for mainlv as a result of 
variation of (1) elevation; (2) atmospheric humidity; (3) depth 
at which permanent supplies of underground water are available; 
(4) geographical position, especially with regard to the composition 
of the floras of contiguous regions. In all, the rainfall is normally 
scanty and inconstant, and there is a prolonged drought in the 
winter season. Near the coast, in some places up to elevations as 
great as 2,700 feet, the total annual rainfall is never more than a 
few millimetres and frequently fails altogether. 

The afllnities of these floras (again excepting that of the Huilla 
plateau) are primarily with those of the South Central African 
highlands. In South Angola many species are undoubtedly 
derived from the Coast and Montane regions of West Tropical 
Africa. Throughout, the vegetation is more or less extremely 
xerophytic in character, and is marked either by a very short 
period of duration or by the possession of those structural pecu- 
liarities which are commonly found in dry climate perennials. 
Of these, hairiness is, in general, not a conspicuous feature : 
exce|)t in Lower Namaqualand, succulence is not especially 
common. A round bushy habit is very marked throughout. The 
root system is usually very deep ; the leaves are commonly simple 
and of small size and with a strongly developed cuticle. 

The formations and associations indicated are predominant by 
reason either of their great extent or of striking peculiarities of 
the plants composing them. They are arranged in the main 
geographically from South to North. 

The President having opened the discussion, it was continued 
by Prof. Herdman, Dr. Henry Woodward (visitor), Dr. A. B. 
Eendle, Mr. Bailey Saunders (visitor), and Dr. Stapf; Prof. 
Pearson replying. 


November 18th, 1909. 

Dr. D. H. Scott, r.E..S., President, in the Chair. 

The Minutes of the General Meeting of the 4th November, 
1909, were read and continued. 

Prof. William Bateson, M.A. (Cantab.), F.R.S., and Mr. Donald 
Hex'bert Edmuud Sunder, were proposed as Fellows. 

Mr. Thomas Parkin, M.A., was elected a Fellow. 

Mr. F. Enock, F.L.S., exhibited on the screen a series of photo- 
graphs of the movements of animals, and contributed the following 
summary of his remarks : — 

Among tlie recent discoveries and improvements in scientific 
appliances connected with photography, the kineinatograph stands 
out before all others, but it is a fact inucli to be regretted that 
ninety per cent, of the films made are for the simple amusement 
of the multitude. No doubt, as time goes on, naturalists will 
realize the immense value of the kinematograph in permanently 
registering movements of every kind of living creature, which can 
be shown time after time upon the screen. Every stage in the 
life-liistory of an insect can (with a good deal of trouble and 
patience) be photographed with all the detail of living movements. 

During the past two years I have, with the invaluable assist- 
ance of Mr. A. Newman, taken a number of films showing the 
movements peculiar to certain larvae of Lepidoptera, together 
with other insects, as well as those swimming in their native 
element. Our first film shows a beetle crawling along a stem, 
using its antennae to feel its way along; a woodlouse also uses 
these organs for the same purpose ; and a garden spider runs 
across so rapidly that the order in which its legs are used is quite 
lost in this instance. 

Caterpillars of various species each show some peculiarity in 
their progression along a stem. That of an Ermine Moth, one of 
the familiar Woolly-bear type, moves very hurriedly, so that the 
undulatory movement is most noticeable. Others, such as the 
larva of tlie Puss Moth, show greater caution in their movements; 
and that of the Elephant Hawk-Moth gives a good idea of 
dignified motion, the bringing up and settins down of the anal 
segment much resembling the action of the ponderous foot of the 

The strange appendages with which the larva of Staitropus fagi, 
the Lobster Moth, moves are all shown to advantage, especially 
the frying-pan appendage at the tail. 

As might be imagined, the undulatory movement of the 
" Looper "caterpillars is noticeable by its absence, owing to the fact 
that these larvae have no intermediate claspers, so necessitating 


the rapid drawing uj) of the anal claspers to the prolegs, and so 
niakinj^ the body into a loop. 

Films taken of aquatic insects such as tlie Common Water- 
Beetle (Di/tiscus), AV'^aler-Sforpion [Nepa cinerea), and the AVater- 
Bojitmau (Notonecta), all show the characteristic movement of the 

Perhaps the most interesting film is that showing a Butterfly 
emerging from its chrysalis, as it first bursts opeu, gradually 
withdraws its legs, antennae, tongue, and body, followed by tlie 
\\ iiigs, catches hold with its claws as the wings fall into position, 
and then, swayed to and fro by the \\ ind, mysteriously develops 
until the wings attain their full 8i7,e. 

Passing from insects, an interesting fdin of two Lizards engaged 
in a fierce struggle for the possession of a meal-worm, shows how 
they can plant their claws and throw each other over in the most 
approved fashion of wrestling. 

The film of swimming Sticklebacks was produced by Mr. New- 
luan ; and the last film showed a tongueless Frog from the Cape, 
catching and sw^allovving a worm, during which operation it makes 
a most comical use oL" its front legs and claws for pushing the 
worm into its mouth. 

I feel that attention ought to be called to Mr. Newman's inven- 
tion of a safety trough, which is inserted between the illuminant 
and film, which, being filled M'ith water, prevents the film from 
becoming dangerously heated, so that it is possible to stop the 
apparatus at any point, when it is necessary to explain any special 

Further remarks Avere made by Mr. John Hopkinson, Mr, E. M. 
Holmes, and Mr. Enock. 

The following papers were read : — 

1. "A New Tipulid Subfamily." By W. AV^esche, F.K.M.S. 

(Communicated by J. Hopkinson, F.L.S.) 

2. " Freshwater Ehizopods from the Lake District." By J. M. 

Brown, B.Sc. (Communicated bv Prof. A. JJennt, 

December 2nd, 1909. 

Dr. D. H. Scott, F.R.S., President, in the Chair. 

The Minutes of the General Meeting of the 18th November, 
1909, were read and confirmed. 

Captain John Humphrey Barbour, M.B., Mr. Frederick James 
Bridgman, Mr. Linnaeus Greening, Mr. Henry John Jeffery, 
A.R.C.S., Mr. Frank Arraitage Potts, M.A. (Cantab.), Mr. Walter 
Theodore Saxton, M.A. (Cantab.), Mr. ]Ligh Scott, B.A. (Cantab.), 


Mr. Charles Sillem, and Mr. Charles Worster-Drougbt, B.A. 
(Cantab.), were elected Fellows, and Mr. Oswald Arthur Sayce an 

On behalf of Dr. 11. Dki>'Kwater, F.R.S.E., there were ex- 
hibited 25 drawings in body-colour on dark backgrounds, of wild 
flowers, chiefly from Wrexham. 

Mr. Clement Reid, F.R.S., F.L.S., exhibited photographs on 
the screen of fruits and seeds of some of the plants introduced by 
the Romans into Britain. The remains have been collected princi- 
pally from disused Roman wells, employed subsequently as rubbish 
pits, and often sealed up under Roman pavements of later date. 
The principal sources have been Roman Silchester, Caerwent, 
London, and Pevensey ; and to a large extent the collections have 
been made by Mr. A. H. Lyell, who has been most careful to 
reject any deposit of doubtful or later date. 

The fruits and seeds exhibited belong to pea, bean, fig, grape, 
mulberry, medlar (a very small variety), apple, cherries (probably 
both black and red), sloe, bullace (wild and cultivated), damson, a 
larger plum like the '• black plum" of Cornwall, Portugal laurel, 
black and white mustard, turnip? fennel, dill, coriander, aleianders, 
ChcerophyUum aureum (a casual, perhaps introduced with packing- 
case rubbish from France, and not grown in Britain), belladonna, 
henbane, field poppies {Fajxtver lihceas, P. Argemone), the opium 
poppy (seeds of this were probably used, as in Rome, scattered on 
loaves of bread), greater celandine, corn-cockle, white campion, 
bladder campion, penny cress, sow-thistle, ox-eye daisy, Cheno- 
podium urbicum and C. murale, and leaves of box. Box-leaves 
have been found in three different rubbish-pits in Roman Sil- 
chester ; the branches may have been used for wreaths, as the 
nearest native substitute for the Italian myrtle. 

The plants thus far found do not suggest any direct shipping 
trade with the Mediterranean. The peach, apricot, almond, and 
other fruits that will only ripen south of Britain are missing. 
The fruits and spices found are only such as can be grown com- 
mercially in Britain at the present day, and this makes it probable 
that the abundant fig and grape seeds belong to fruit grown in 
this country and not imported in a dried state. Mulberries do 
not travel well and are scarcely ever dried; they must have been 
grown at Silchester. 

Mr. Lvell (visitor), Lt.-Col. Prain, Mr. G^. C. Druce, Mr. L. A. 
Boodle, the Rev. J. Gerard, Mr. E. M. Holmes, Mr. E. G. Baker, 
and the President took part in the discussion which followed, and 
Mr. Reid briefly replied. 

Mr. G. Clakidge Druce, F.L.S., exhibited specimens of (a) 
Zannichellia gibberosa, Reichb., new to Britain, from Eye Green, 
Northants; and (6) Orchis maculata var. O'Kellyi, Druce, from 
Ballyvaughan, Co. Clare, recently described in ' The Irish Natu- 


Mr. Clement Keid rxhibited in connection with this, three 
photographs of ZannicJiellia fruits obtained by him from the 
Cromer Forest Bed (pre-glacial), and also contributed some 
remarks ; Mr. Hohncs brought specimens of another variety of 
Orchis macvlata and commented on the same, and Mr. Druce 

The following papers were read : — 

]. "Nudibranchs from the Indian Ocean.*' By Sir Ciias. 

Eliot, K.C.M.G. (Communicated by Prof. J. Stanley 

Gardiner, M.A., F.R.iS., F.L.S.) 
L'. " Trichoptera von Mr. Hugh Scott auf den Seychellen 

gesammellt." By Dr. Georg Ulmer. (Communicated by 

the same.) 

3. " Report on the Brachiopoda obtained from the Indian 

Ocean." By Dr. W. H. Dall. (Communicated by the 

4. "Narrative of the 'Sealark' Expedition. Part III." By 

Prof. J. Stanley Gardiner, M.A., F.R.S., F.L.S., and 

December lOtb, 1909. 

Prof. E. B. Poulton, E.E.S., Vice-President, in the Chair. 

The Minutes of the General Meeting of the 2nd December, 
1909, were read and confirmed. 

Dr. William Henry Lang, and Mr. Charles Sillem, were 
admitted Fellows. 

Mr, Cyril Crossland, and Dr. Harry Drinkwater, M.D. (Edin.), 
were proposed as Fellows. 

Prof. William Bateson, M.A.(Cantab.), F.R.S., and Mr. Donald 
Herbert Edmund Sunder, were balloted for and elected Fellows. 

The following papers were read : — 

1. "Report on the Crustacea Isopoda and Tanaidacea collected 

by Mr. Cvril Crossland in the Sudanese Red Sea." By 
the Rev. T. R. R. Stedbing, M.A., F.R.S., F.L.S. 

2. " Isopoda from the Indian Ocean and British East Africa." 

By the same. 
'3. " Pycnogonida from the Red Sea and Indian Ocean, collected 

by Mr. Cvril Crossland." By G. H. Carpenter. (Com- 

niunicated by Prof. W. A. Herdman, F.R.S., F.L.S.) 
4. " On a Collection of Blattidre preserved in Amber, from 

Prussia." By R. Shelford, F.L.S. 


5. " The Bi'vozoa from collections made by Mr. Cyril Cross- 
land, Part II.— Cyclostomata, Ctenostomata, and Endo- 
procta." By A. W. Watees, F.L.S. 

The Vice-President in the Chair announced the subject for the 
following meeting on the 20th January, 1910. 

January 20th, 1910. 
Dr. D. H. Scott, M.A., F.R.S., President, in the Chair. 

The Minutes of tbe General Meeting of the 16th December, 
1909, were read and confirmed. 

Mr. Frederick James Bridgmau was admitted a Fellow. 

In accordance with the announcement from the Chair at the 
previous Meeting, the Meeting was devoted to a discussion upon 


Dr. W. H. Gaskell, F.R.S. (Visitor), who opened the Discussion 
on the " Origin of Vertebrates," said : — I take it for granted that 
we all believe in Evolution and that an upward progress can be 
traced from the Protozoa to 3Ian. Now the formation of the 
Metazoa from the Protozoa and the progress of the Metazoa 
upwards signifies that the separate units composing the individual 
have been coordinated for the well-being of that individual. Such 
coordination has taken place in two ways : (1) a chemical method, 
by the formation of hormones ; (2) a nervous method, by the 
formation of a central nervous system, and it is self-evident that 
as soon as a central nervous system is formed, such nervous 
coordination, especially in connection with the formation of the 
special senses of sight and smell, must become the important 
factor in the life of the individual, and its further and further 
development must constitute the most important factor for the 
upward progress of the animal race. The first point I want to 
impress upon you is that for all questions of Evolution, the central 
nervous system rather than the alimentary canal is the most 
important factor. 

Throughout the whole history of the attempts to find out the 
origin of Vertebrates one point stands out clearly : whatever other 
views have been put forward there have alwa3^s been strong 
supporters of the view that the Vertebrates have arisen from that 
great group of segmented Invertebrates, the Appendiculata, and 
such supporters have not been outsiders of no account, but largely 
the main authorities in the zoological teaching of the time, e. g., 
Geoffroy St. Hilaire, Leydig, Newport, Treviranus, Owen, Dohrn, 
and numerous others, all of whom based their views on the 
presence of the infundibulum in the Vertebrate in exactly the 


siiine position in the brain as the cesophaj^us in the Invertebrate 
group. Supra-infundibular nerve-mass was then tlie same as the 
supra-oesophageal, infra-infundibular as infra-oesophaKeal, and it 
was seen that the function corresponded marvellously- So 
powerful was the fetish of the inviolability of the aliinentary 
canal, tliat no one of these observers ever noticed that if the 
infuiidibuluin is the old oesojthagus, it leads directiv into the great 
cavity of the ventricles of the brain, which again lead into the 
straight narrow caual of the spinal cord and so through the 
)ieurentoric canal to the anus; that in fact if the infundibulum is 
the (esophagus, the rest of the liuiiig-walls of the cavitv of the 
central nervous system corresponds «ord for word with the rest 
of the Iinvrtebrate alimentary canal. On the contrary, they 
considered the homology could only hold good by turning the 
animal topsy-turvy and making the back of the Invertebrate 
correspond to the ventral surface of the Vertebrate. Such a 
method was doomed to failure and is now universally discredited. 
As to the alternative hypothesis of an origin from some non- 
segmented Invertebrate, please think what it implies and consider 
seriously whether it is possible to accept it. I imagine we may 
take it lor granted that we know the nature of all the main group's 
of animals alive on the earth at the present time, and as far as 
1 know the geological record has not brought to light any foi-ms 
which are not capable of being classified either among or in con- 
nection with our present main groups; yet the assumption of this 
hypothesis is that from some unsegmented animal low down in 
the scale a group of segmented animals has arisen, in which the 
alimentary canal was always ventral to the central nervous system 
and that this group gave origin to the Vertebrate. The absence of 
any evidence of such chain among living animals at all comparable 
to the well-marked evidence in the case of the Appendiculata, 
makes this hypothesis an improbable one ; and when the hypo- 
thesis further necessitates that not only the central nervous system 
of such segmented animals has been built up on exactly the 
same lines as the central nervous system of the Appendiculata, 
hut, contrary to all other nervous systems, has been formed hollow, 
and that that hollow tube has been formed in such a shape 
and in such a position with respect to the true nervous elements 
as exactly to mimic the alimentary caual of the Appendiculata 
with respect to its central nervous system, — I ask you plainlv, 
does not the improbability amount to an absurdity? This I 
claim to be the great characteristic of the Vertebrate which 
differentiates it from all other animals — the presence and nature 
of this tube around which the central nervous system is grouped : 
and I beg that those speakers who follow after me and disagree 
with my conclusions, will give some explanation of the presence 
and peculiarities of this tube. To me and to all my friends who 
are accustomed to deal with the Vertebrate central nervous system, 
the explanation I have given is so self-evident and natural, that it 
is impossible tc look at the matter in anv other wav. 


The paramount importance of the development of the central 
nervous system for the upward progress ot the members of the 
Animal Kingdom leads to the conclusion that each higher group of 
animals has arisen in succession from the highest race developed 
up to that time, by highest meaning the group possessing the best 
developed central nervous system. This law is proved to us most 
clearly by the evidence of the rocks in the case of the Vertebrate 

Thus we see that Man came from the Mammals, tlie highest 
race in the Tertiary times. They arose from the Keptiles, the 
highest race in Mesozoie times, who in their turn arose from the 
-Amphibians, the lords of the Carboniferous epoch. Further back 
we leave the land and find that the Amphibians arose from the 
Fishes, the earliest of the Vertebrate race which swarmed in 
Devoniau times. This steady sequence in upward progress from 
Fishes to ]\Ian, revealed by Geology in the long series of ages 
from the Devonian to recent days, is in absolute conformity with 
the upward development of brain-power through the Vertebrate 
series from Fishes to Man, as shown by the investigations of 
Comparative Anatomists, especially Edinger and Elliot Smith. 

If thus it can be proved that such a law of Evolution has held 
good through the enormous spaces of time between the beginning 
of the Devonian and the present day, surely it is highly probable 
that the same law has held thz'oughout, and that therefore the 
Fishes themselves arose from the race that was the most highly 
developed at the tune when they first appeared; a race therefore 
which possessed a central nervous system most closely resembling 
that of the fish. 

The evidence of the rocks points to the Silurian age as the time 
when the Vertebrate first arose, and to the great and striking group 
of Arthropods which swarmed in the seas at that time, to which 
the name Palceostraca has been given. These were the highest 
developed race at that time and from them, according to this law 
of Evolution, the Vertebrate ought to have sprung. 

The great problem then for the study of the origin of Vertebrates 
resolves itself into this : What was the nature of the earliest fish 
aud of the Palaeostraca in Silurian times ? 

That was the problem I set myself, and it is that comparison 
which I have attempted organ by organ in my recent book. Such 
an attempt Avas rendered possible by the fortunate occurrence of 
one of the Palaeostracau Group — Linmlus or the King Crab — being 
still living in the present day, and what is still more important, 
the remarkable resemblance of Ammocoetes — the larval form of the 
Lamprey — to the fishes belonging to the Osteostraci, especially the 
close resemblance in position and structure of that remarkable 
muco-cartilaginous head-shield of Anvnoccetes to the head-shield 
of such a fish as Cephalasjns. 

My object throughout has been by the study of Ammocoetes to 
find out a clue to the past history of these extraordinary early 
forms of fish. The results are published in my book, and give a 


striking evidence of the way in wliich these euriy fishes may Lave 
arisen from their conti^inporary Palajostracan rivals. It must 
always he reineinberccl that these latter animals were not Crusta- 
ceans or Arachnids, but tlie precursors ot" both of these groups, 
and much nearer to their origin from the Annelids than the 
])resent day Arthropoda. To this circumstance must be attributed 
the annelid characteristics so markedly found in the Vertebrate, 
especially in the excretory organs. 

It seems lo me highly probable that this same law of upward 
progress, viz., that each successive group has arisen from some 
member of tlie highest group existing at the time, holds good 
also for the vegetable kingdom, especially in view of the statement 
recently made that Phanerogams arose from Cycads, I hope that 
the President may see his way to offer a few remarks on that 
aspect of the question. 

The great stumbling block lo the acceptance of my theory ia 
the minds of many, ia the necessity of making a new digestive 
tube in a highly organised animal, aud yet the same zoologists 
accept without the slightest dilliculty, as a commonplace, the 
manufacture of a new respiratory organ for breathing air instead 
of water in the transition from the fish to the amphibian. The 
previous factor in that case was the swim-bladder which provided 
the new organ, in tlie other a respiratory chamber formed by the 
internal gills ; for one of the great characteristics of many members 
of the Palaeostracan group is the absence of external gills and 
the indication of internally situated gills, and it does seem to me 
that the evidence is stronger in favour of the Vertebrate alimentary 
canal being formed from a {)reexisiing respiratory chamber, than 
that an alimentary canal should have taken on a respiratory 
function in its anterior end. 

The way in which the alimentary canal is innervated by the 
downgrowth of the great respiratory nerve, the vagus, which is so 
clearly a segmental nerve for the respiratory part but not for the 
small intestine, points to this conclusion. The fact that in the 
Avell-marked segmental respiratory chamber of Ammocoetes a new 
unseginented alimentary tube should be formed at transformation, 
again indicates that a segmented respiratory chamber was the pre- 
cursor of an alimentary canal. Finally, the position of the anus 
in such a form as Drepanaspis and Bothriolej)is immediately 
following upon the region of the head-shield, suggests strongly 
that in these most ancient and extraordinarily formed fishes the 
anus followed close upon the mesosoraatic or respiratory region 
just as it does in such an animal as Limulus. 

Finally in this sketch, not of details but of general principles, 
I come to the argument that this theory is untenable because it 
contravenes the fundamental principles of ontogeny. 

Against tliis slatement I most strongly protest, for the strength, 
I might almost say the main strength, of my position is based on 
the facts of Vertebrate development. 

The one great principle of ontogeny is the L.iwof Recapitulation, 


<he law which lays down that the past phylogeuetic stages which 
have led to the evolution of any individual are indicated to some 
extent in the ontogeny of that individual. 

This law is contirmed and indicated in a most amazing way by 
my theory. The theory asserts that the clue to the origin of 
Vertebrates is to be found in the tubular nature of the central 
nervous system of the Vertebrate in that the central nervous 
system is in reality formed of two things : (1 ) a central nervous 
system of the Arthropod type, and (2) an epithelial tube in the 
position of the alimentary canal of the Arthropod. 

Is it possible for embryology to recapitulate such a phylogenetic 
history more clearly than is here the case? In order to avoid all 
possibility of our mistaking the clues, the nerve-tube in the embryo 
always opens into the anus at its posterior end, while in the larval 
Amphioxus it is actually still open to the exterior at its anterior 
end. Consider the shape of the nerve-tube when first formed in 
the A^ertebrate. At the cephalic end a simple bulged-out tube with 
two simple anterior diverticula, which passes into a narrow straight 
spinal tube; from this large cephalic bulging a narrow diverticulum, 
the infundibulum, passes to the ventral surface of the forming 
brain. This tube is the embryological expression of the simple 
dilated cephalic stomach, with its ventral oesophagus and two 
anterior diverticula, which opens into the straight iutestine of the 
arthropod. Nay more, by its very shape and the invariable 
presence of two anterior diverticula, it points not only to an 
Arthropod ancestry but to a descent from a particular group of 
primitive Arthropods. Then comes the formation of the cerebral 
vesicles and the formation of the optic cup, telling us, as plainly 
as can be, how the invasion of nervous material over this simple 
cephalic stomach and its diverticula has altered the shape of the 
original tube and more and more enclosed it with nervous 

So, too, in the spinal cord region. When the tube is first 
formed, it is a large tube, the latero-ventral part of which presents 
two marked bulgings ; connecting these two bulgings is the 
anterior commissure. These two lateral bulgings, with their trans- 
verse commissure, represent with marked fidelity the ventral 
ganglion masses of the Arthi-opod with their transverse commissure, 
and occupy the same position with respect to the spinal tube, as 
the gangliou-masses do with respect to the intestine in the 
Arthropod. Then the further development shows how, by the 
subsequent growth of the nervous material, the calibre of the tube 
is diminished in size and the spinal cord is formed. 

Again, I say, is it possible to conceive that embryology should 
indicate the nature of the origin of the Vertebrate nervous system 
more clearly than it does ? 

It is the same with all the other organs. Take for example the 
skeletal tissues. The study of the Vertebrate embryo asserts that 
the cartilaginous skeleton arose as simple branchial bars and a 
simple cranio-facial skeleton, and also that the parenchymatous 


variety of cartilage represents the embryonic form. Word for 
word, the early embryonic stage of the Vertebrate skeleton closely 
resembles the stage reached in the Arthropod, as shown by 
Limuhts, and again records unmistakably the past history of the 

80, too, with the whole of the prosomatic region ; the situation 
of the old mouth, the manner in which the nose of the 
Ceplialaspidian fishes arose from the Pala30stracan, are all shown 
with vivid clearness by KiiplTer's investigations of the early stage 
of Ammocates, while at the same time the closure of the oral 
cavity by the septum shows how the oral chamber was originally 
bounded by the operculum. Nay, further, the very formation of 
this chamber embryologically was brought about by the forward 
growth of the lower lip, just as it must have been if the chihiria 
grew forward to form the metastoma. So, too, the study of the 
embryo teaches that the branchia) arise as ingrowths, that the 
heart arises as two longitudinal veins, just as the theory supposes 
from the facts provided by Lhmdus and the Scorpions. 

No indication of the origin of the thyroid gland is given by the 
studv of its structure in anj adult Vertebrate, but in the larval 
form of the Lamprey there is still preserved for us a most graphic 
record of its past history. 

The close comparison which it is possible to make between the 
eye-muscles of the Vertebrate and the recti muscles of the Scorpion 
group on the one hand, and between the pituitary and coxal glands 
on the other, are based upon, or at all events are strikingly con- 
firmed by, the study of the cojloinic cavities and tlie origin of 
these muscles in the two groups. In fact the embryological 
evidence of the double segmentation in the head and the whole 
nature of the cranial segments, is one of the main foundation 
stones on which the whole of my theory rests. 

So it is throughout. Turn to tlie excretory organs : it is not 
the kidney of the adult animal which leads direct to the excretorj'- 
organs of the primitive Arthropod, but the early embryonic origin 
of that kidney. 

So far from having put forward a theory which runs counter to 
the principles of embryology, I claim to have vindicated the great 
Law of Kecai)itulation which is the foundation stone of embryo- 
logical principles. My theory is largely based upon embryological 
facts, and its strength consists in the manner in which it links 
together into one harmonious whole the facts of Embryology, 
PaliEontology, Anatomy, and Physiology. 

It cannot then be said that my theory contravenes this great 
law of development, the Law of Ilecapitulation. "What, then, is 
the objection ? It is that it disregards the germ-layer theory, a 
theory which assumes that the origin of the Metazoa from the 
Protozoa took place by the formation of a gastrula-form — Haeckel's 
hypothetical Gastrsea — which gave a fixed and definite morpho- 
logical origin to hypoblast, and that from that time up to the 
latest animal development that hypoblastic layer has always 


remaineJ the same. Such a positive assertion, if true, immediately 
puts out of court any theory which forms an ahmentary canal out 
of something which is not hypoblast. It makes the alimentary 
canal the keystone of the whole fabric of Evolution, not the central 
nervous system. 

As I have pointed out in my book, the evidence of Brehm and 
others is to the effect that there is no such morphological criterion 
of hypoblast, but, on the contrary, the hypoblast is a physiological 
conception rather than a morphological one, being the term given 
to that layer which is found by its development to form the 
digestive tube of the animal, and that in the earliest members of 
the Metazoa, where we ought to expect the gastrula formation to 
be most conspicuous, there it is most conspicuously absent, while 
it is most clearly evident in those free-living pelagic blastula-forms 
in which, owing to the absence of yolk, the necessity exists of 
obtaining food from the outside even from the early blastula stage. 

According to the Law of Eecapitulation we may expect to find 
in the developmental history of the Metazoa some indication of 
the nature of the Protozoan ancestor which gave origin to the 
Metazoa. Such indication is given with absolute uniformity in all 
the Metazoa by the blastula stage, not by the so-called gastrula 
stage. The blastula represents one of the highest Protozoan forms, 
such, for example, as VoIvoa\ as I have suggested in my book, and 
the blastula stage aifords yet another indication of the great law, 
that the upward progress of the Animal Eace has always been 
brought about by the genesis of the next highest form from a 
member of the highest existing group of animals. 

Prof. E. W. MacBbidb, F.E.S. (Visitor), remarked :— 
Dr. Gaskell has given us a brilliant exposition of his famous 
theory of the " Origin of Vertebrates " to which it is impossible 
to reply at all adequately in a quarter of an hour. Fourteen 
years ago this theory was presented to the Cambridge Philo- 
sophical Society and I then gave expression to many objections 
which I felt to it ; and I confess that those objections remain in 
unaltered force to-day. Not one of them has been removed by 
Dr. Gaskell's speech, nor has a perusal of the latest edition of his 
book weakened one of them in the slightest degree. 

The first and most fundamental objection is to the whole 
nature of Dr. Gaskell's morphological reasoning. Unless this 
kind of reasoning is to be guided by definite rules it becomes a 
mere arena for the display of the imaginative faculties. The 
change which one man regards as inconceivable another thinks the 
most natural in the world. I, for instance, cannot contemplate 
in cold blood a free-living animal giving up its alimentary canal 
and beginning to digest with its skin, whilst to Dr. Gaskell this 
seems the most natural transition in the world. But what rules 
for morphological reasoning are suggested ? Tacitly or avowedly, 
all zoologists agree on this — morphological reasoning must conform 
to precedent. But what constitutes precedent in this case ? 


Those changes about the uature of which all zoologists are agreed, 
such as the rt'hitionship of an abei-raut genus to the typical form 
of the family or ordi-r to wliich it belongs. Thus no one doubts 
that the Ili'riiiit Crab is defscended from a normal Lobster or 
Chiftojiterus from a normal Annelid. The changes involved in the 
descent of such forms from the more normal types give us the 
only rules we can have to guide us vvlien we attempt the more 
dithcidt task of passing from one phylum to another. 

Now Dr. Gaskell, in assuming that Vertebrates are descended 
from some Pala^ostracan type of Arthropod of which the only 
survivor is Limulus, is obliged to reconstruct the entire animal, 
leaving only the central nervous system standing. We are asked 
to believe that the original alimentary canal has become the neural 
canal, and that a new alimentary canal has developed from the 
skin of the ventral surface of the body. No precedent for such a 
change can be gathered from any of the data I have mentioned above. 

Again, the skin of the lower Vertebrates is ciliated, and this is 
most undoubtedly a primitive condition seeing how widely it is 
spread amongst the lower groups in the Animal Kingdom. No 
Arthropod* is ciliated at any time of its existence: its whole 
organisation is dominated by the tendency to form thick chitinous 
cuticle. AVe have to suppose that this tejidency, which is spread 
throughout Arthropoda from the highest to the lowest, has been 
overcome and that a reversion to a primitive soft ciliated ectoderm 
has been accomplished. No precedent for such a change can be 
gathered from the entire Animal Kingdom. It is no answer to this 
to show that in Ainmoccptes and one or two other cases a thin 
exterior cuticle is developed on certain parts of the skin— for it 
is the normal sequence of things that a cuticle should succeed to 
a ciliated skin as a secondary change, but the change in the reverse 
direction is absolutely without precedent. 

The eyes of Vertebrates, or, to speak more correctly, their 
retina?, are lateral pockets of the walls of the neural canal — which 
we are told to regard as the old alimentary canal. The eyes of 
Arthropoda are, without exception, modifications of the external 
skin. Are the lateral eyes ot the two groujjs homologous or are 
they not ? If they are homologous, how is their different origin 
explained ? Dr. Gaskell figures a section of Artemia in which 
one of tiie liver saccules is in close contact with the lower layer 
of the eye. He hints that perhaps part of the eye is developed 
from the epithelium of the liver saccule, but this is in flat con- 
tradiction to the work of eveiy zoologist who has examined their 
development. If the eyes in the two cases are not homologous, 
why did the Arachnid ancestor of Vertebrates give up its external 
eyes and develop a new pair from its old alimentary canal ? To 
say that there is no precedent for such a change is to put it mildly. 

* I hardly think it necepsary to refer to the cihation of the genital ducts of 
Ptiripaiua, the only exception to this rule, since Peripafus is hardly as 3'et an 


Dr. Gaskell indulges in a polemic against the germ-layer theory, 
whilst maintaining strongly the theory that tlie development of 
the embryo recapitulates the history of the race. He seems to be 
unaware that the germ-layer theory is only a special instance of the 
recapitulation theory. It asserts that the egg in its progress to a 
hollow blastula recapitulates the change from a unicellular to a 
multicellular Protozoon. This part of it Dr. Gaskell accepts, and 
with justice, for in the development of simple and primitive types 
the blastula crops up throughout the entire Animal Kingdom. But 
in every case which is free from the complication of yolk, the blastula 
is transformed into a hollow gastrula by a process of invngination, 
so that we find that in the Arthropod Lucifer and the Vertebrate 
AmpJdoxus the process is very similar. And yet Dr. Gaskell asks 
us to believe that in the one case the cavity is homologous with 
the neural canal of Vertebrata and in the other with the gut ! 
Such reasoning seems to me to be very difficult to accept. 
Dr. Gaskell assumes that Lucifer developed the hollow gastrula 
stage because its egg is a small one floating in water and has to 
absorb nourishment early through the blastopore, but the fact 
is that in this stage of its development the egg of Lucifer is in a 
tough shell and that before it begins to absorb nourishment the 
blastopore closes, and this is the case with AmpJiio.vus also. The 
doubts as to the validity of the germ-layer theory have concerned 
themselves chiefly with the nature of the third layer, the mesoderm. 
If everything which is found between ectoderm and endoderm be 
called mesoderm no doubt confusion will arise, for heterogeneous 
structures are confounded under this name. But the more careful 
investigation of doubtful cases in recent years, for which we are 
specially indebted to the Americans, have shown that if by meso- 
derm we mean the wall of the coelom, theu this is homologous in 
all cases and always arises from the gut-wall. 

I pass over minor difficulties of Dr. GaskelTs theory, such as 
the degeneration of the ancient genital gland into packing tissue 
surrounding the brain, and the transformation of the womb into 
a gland which in Ammocoetes, as in Amphioxus, produces a string 
of mucus to entangle food ; for the mind which accepts the main 
ideas of the theory will be capable of digesting such trifles also. 
We come then to the only points in Dr. Gaskell's theory which 
in the mind of any zoologist would constitute even prima facie 
evidence in its favour, viz. the external resemblance between some 
of the armoured flsh of the Devonian and the contemporary Eury- 
pterids, coupled with the assertion that when Vertebrates appeared 
Arthropods were dominant in the water, and that only creatures 
with strong armour and well-developed nervous systems could have 
overcome them. Dr. Gaskell infers that if the primitive Verte- 
brates had been \\ke Amphioxus they never could have won the day. 
Now to this, two answers may be made, first, that the resem- 
blance is purely superficial, in fact far less than exists between a 
Whale and a Fish : we should in fact have far more reason for 
classing Whales as Fish than for regarding Ceplialaspis as allied 




to LnnuJus. This point I shall leave for elaboraHon to the 
pal^outologists ;;ho lollovv n.e. Secondly, Dr. G.iskell has no 
right to assume that Cephalas^ns-hke forms Mere the first Verte- 
brates Jt IS entirely to ignore all that Darwin tanght on the 
nnperfec ,on of the geological record, and alreadv the discoverv 
ot toruis like Thehdus with a skeleton of isolated denticles and clf 
tusitorm ish like Bn-ken>a and Lasamas, in which the skeleton if 
any, was formed of small isolated plates, has given the lie to suVh 
assumptions If early Vertebrates were like A.yMoa;us they may 
have existed from Pre-Cambnan times and we should have found 
uo trace ot hem Moreover, the form of Cephalaspis and its 
allies IS otally unlike the typical fish form. This is fusiform and 
flattened in the vertical plane, while Lirmdus, like all l'ala;ostraca 
and the overwhelming majority of Arthropoda, is flattened in the 
horizontal plane Cej.hah,sjns in outer form resembles such 
modern hsh as LopJuus {ihe Anghr) and the Gurnards, which 
habitually squat on the bottom and some of which bury them 
selves in the mud ; and some of these forms actually develop their 
scales into plates and have their eyes shifted dorsallv. I have no 
doubt at all that whilst Cephalaspis, Plerichthys, and their con 
geners were practising this sluggish mode of life, the real ancestors 
of the dominant Veitebrates of the sea were ranging like flashes 
of living light through the waters above. It is customary to 
speak ot Amphou'vs ^^ a degraded creature, but no one who has 
ever seen i swi.n will fad to realize the immeasurable superiority 
of the Vertebra e motor system over that of the Arachnid The 
comparison ot the one to the screw of a steamer and of th^ other 
to an eigh -oared boat gives some idea of the difference. We may 
add that the whole course of evolution in fish and other Vertebrates 
has tended in the direction of getting rid of external armour 
and there is no foundation for Dr. Ga.keirs assumption that th^ 
possession of heavy external armour indicates a " dominant " 
iorm. It really indicates a sluggish form. But Dr. Gaskell 
continues, there is the unique feature that the Vertebrate 
nervous system is tubular and that the ganglion cells bear 
A .1 A f ^^t^^'i^^^P to tJ"s tube as do the ganglia of an 

Arthropod to its alimentary canal, and the central nervous svstem 
IS the n.ost important organ in the body : whilst all else n.ay chance 
It endures Here again every single item of this statement 
may be met with a denial. A tubular nervous system is not con- 
fa.ied o the \ ertebrata. It is found amongst the Echinodermata 
in Ophiuroiaea, Echinoidea, and llolothuroidea, and in all cases it 
18 formed precisely as in Amphioa-m. An exposed plate of nervous 
ectoderm such as is found throughout life in Asteroidea is 
covered by the meeting of two thin non-nervous flaps. Then 
again the ganghonated character of the nervous system of an 
Arthropod IS appealed to as a sign of high differentiation-but 
th.8 IS entirely to misread it. This character depend, on the 
nature of the locomotor system, which consists of discrete groups 
of muscles confined to appendages, which leads to a local grouping 


of motor nerve-cells. What intelligence Limulus has is confined 
to its minute archicerebrum, and this is probably small in amount. 
Amphioxus has no particular reason to fear Lhmdus on the ground 
of brains. lu the Vertebrate the swellings of the nervous system 
are associated with the development of large sense organs, but its 
locomotor organs are the almost continuous bands of muscle 
known as myotomes, and hence the motor nerve-cells form a practi- 
cally continuous plate. Moreover, the whole study of the Animal 
Kingdom is dead against the assumption that all else may change 
but the nervous system must endure. If we start with the most 
highly developed Arthropoda, or with the most highly developed 
MoUusca, we find as we pass back to more primitive forms that the 
nervous system evaporates into a mist of general ciliated nervous 
ectoderm. Out of this, as required by the exigencies of motor 
and sensory organs, accumulations of nerve-cells develop, and 
disappear with the disappearance of these organs. Of course, 
like every other organ, when they have persisted for a long time 
in a phylum they become stable, but why we should trace the 
highly developed brain of a Cuttlefish back to primitive ectoderm 
and pass from the developed nervous system of a typical Arthropod 
to the typical nervous system of a developed Vertebrate — ignoring 
all the really primitive forms belonging to the Vertebrates, is 
conceivable to no one who really knows zoology. 

The alternative theory to his, as Dr. Gaskell admits, is that 
Vertebrates arose from some simple form with undiiferentiated 
organs. Amphioxus gives us an idea of the Vertebrate structure 
in its most undifferentiated form, but showing the characteristic 
Vertebrate organs of notochord, gill-slits and tubular nerve -cord. 
The worm-like Balanoglossus and its allies show the same 
structures, but without the segmentation characteristic of the 
muscles of Amphioxus and other Vertebrates. But in its develop- 
ment, which shows far more primitive features than that of any 
known Arthropod, Amphioxus resembles Balanoglossus. The larva 
of Balanoglossus resembles that of Eehinoderms, and here we 
have a hint of a wide ranging free-swimming group of pelagic 
animals, the direct descendants of whom are Vertebrata, but the 
degenerate off-shoof s of whicli at various levels are Echinodermata, 
Enteropneusta, Amphioxus, and Ascidians. 

Dr. Gaskell heaps scorn on the idea that Vertebrates, the domi- 
nant class, arose from a degenerate like Balanoglossus, and asks 
how such worms could have competed with the big Arthropods. 
No one supposes that Vertebrates are descended from Balano- 
glossus, but at the immensely remote period of time when the 
ancestors of Balanoglossus, leaving their closely allied compeers the 
ancestors of Vertebrata, deserted the surface to seek the mud, 
the ancestors of the Gaskellian Arthropods were probably in the 
condition of the Trochophore larva. 

Dr. Gaskell alludes to Spengel's work on Balanoglossus a? 
destroying the supposed Vertebrate character. Nothing coula 
be more mistaken. Every argument o£ Spengel has been 



pulverized, and every statement of Bateson confirmed in the 
sixteen years that have succeeded the publication of Spengel's 

Dr. Gaskell calls the theory of " parallel development," by which 
he means the theory of the independent origin of the great phyla 
Arthropod.!, Mollusca, Vertebrata, &c. from simple forms, an 
" unscientific and inconceivable suggestion."' Surely he has for- 
gotten the ' Origin of Species.' 

Does he forget that Darwin felt the differences between these 
phyla so strongly that he doubted their common origin, and seems 
to have imagined that they might have originated independently 
from primordial protoplasm. Does not Dr. Gaskell know that 
those who give their lives to the study of Zoology have " parallel 
development " or fan-like development forced on them at every 
turn, in every section and sub-section of the Animal Kingdom. 
That the air-breathing type of gastropod Mollusc, for instance, 
must have originated at least half a dozen times and the snake- 
like Vertebrate at least a dozen times each time in entire inde- 
pendence of every other. And why unscientific ? If protoplasm 
be fundamentally the same sort of thing at bottom, and if varia- 
tions be due to definite changes in its chemical composition 
produced directly or indirectly by changes in the environment, 
should not like causes have like results ? 

Dr. Gaskell states that his theory strikes at the root of the 
conception of parallel development. In this case I venture to 
predict ttiat the root will prove to be more resistant than the axe 
with which it is struck. 

Prof, E. H. SxAELiNG, F.R.S. (Visitor), followed and remarked : 
I do not know how far an apology may be considered necessary 
for the intervention of a physiologist in the discussion of a topic 
which has hitherto been regarded as the special preserve of the 
zoologist and comparative anatomist. I understand, however, that 
the chief criticism of the theory, which has been so ably put before 
us this evening, has had reference to the method by which the 
problem is attacked, rather than to the facts in comparative 
anatomy which have been discovered or collated by Dr. Gaskell. 
On this point, namely, the principles which must guide any 
research into the phylogeny of our race, a physiologist has as good 
a right to be heard as has a comparative anatomist. In fact, it 
was the author of the ' Origin of Species ' himself who introduced 
physiological considerations into the theory of descent. Darwin 
showed that the grouping of living beings made by zoologists had a 
far deeper significance than mere resemblance of form, and were 
really expressions of blood relationships among the members of 
any group or between allied groups. He thus replaced a purely 
conceptual anatomical grouping by an actual physiological kinship. 
Since the varying degrees of divergence among different forms are 
to be referred to the survival only of such individuals as are most 


fitly adapted to their environment, the problems of relationship, 
of descent and, in short, of the origin of species become part of 
that great study of adaptation which is the proper occupation of 
the physiologist. These problems are bound up, not with the 
outward seeming of an organ or organs, but with their %ise to the 
animal in the struggle for existence, and are therefore in the first 
place problems of function. 

In a search for the ancestry of Man and of Vertebrates generally 
we must therefore remember that we are dealing, not with museum 
specimens, but with living organisms, and must endeavour to learn 
what are the essential factors in the life of the animal that give 
it an advantage over its fellows and tend to the perpetuation of its 

We have really two questions to deal with, namely : — 

(1) What determines survival of type ? and, 

(2) What determines dominance of type ? 

Sui'vival is merely a question of perfection of adaptation and 
does not necessarily imply that the type which survives becomes 
dominant. There are many holes and corners on the surface of 
the globe where the environment is of a very special character, and 
in each of these we shall find some group of organisms adapted 
for this environment and for none other. In many cases such an 
environment is furnished by the svirface or interior of some other 
type leading a more active existence. It is in this parasitic con- 
dition that we get the most extreme degree of specialized adapta- 
tion associated with degeneration of all parts rendered unnecessary 
by the restricted range of environmental events to which the 
organism is liable. 

Dominance of a type, on the other hand, involves wide distri- 
bution and, in most cases, the existence of numerous species of 
the same general characteristics under widely different conditions 
of environment. To such a dominant type belongs the Vertebrate 
with its highest representative, Man. There can be no doubt 
that the evolution of such a type must have been continuous and 
progressive. It has often been imagined that the evolution of the 
dominant forms of life was simultaneous and not successive, and 
was to be compared rather to the spokes of a fan than to a tree 
with its branches diverging from a common stem. Such a fan- 
like evolution could only occur with a complete separation of 
environments. It is as difficult to conceive that the Vertebrate 
was evolved from a primitive worm-like organism which shot up 
past the more highly developed Arthropoda, as it is to believe that 
mankind is destined to be replaced by some beast that is now 
being evolved from lower groups in the depths of the sea. But 
what do we mean by speaking of lower and higher groups ? The 
idea involved in this antithesis is the same as that included in the 
term " dominance." The positioo of any type in the animal scale, 
the question whether it is to win in life's struggle, is determined 


hy rnnfje of adaplalion or of reaction. The organ or system on 
which the range of adaptation depends is the one on uhich we 
must concentrate our attention in tracing back the evolution of 
the Vertebrate. This organ is the central nervous svetem. There 
has been no continuous rise in type of the muscular, digestive or 
respiratory systems. It is the central nervous svstem which 
determines dominance of any type, and the nervous svstem is 
the only part of the body which undergoes continuous evolution 
irom the lowest to the highest forms. The reactions of the 
highest animals are determined by the nerve-cells and tracts 
laid down in the embryo and inherited from the parents no 
new formation or repair being possible after the earliest stages 
ot loetal life, if indeed at any time. In no case, so far as I am 
aware, do we find the central nervous system cleared away and 
laid down afresh in the metamorphosis of" an animal. At various 
times an animal may breathe by its skin, by gills or by lungs. It 
may digest its food by means of glands derived from'the epiblast 
or hypoblast, and indeed digestive ferments may be produced hy 
almost any cell in the body. It mav excrete waste products by 
kidneys, intestines, or skin ; but the central nervous system 
remains the one unchangeable organ, whose function, namely the 
determination of adapted reactions and therefore of survival 
cannot be replaced by the vicarious activity of anv other part of 
the body. ■ ^ 

Looking back as physiologists we mav indeed see that all the 
main epochs m the evolution of higher forms of life are charac- 
terized by changes in the nervous system. The first step was 
taken when the individuals of a cell colony remained in structural 
connection, so that the consensus partiwn could be maintained by 
the propagation of molecular changes along the protoplasmic 
strands between the different cells and no longer depended solely 
on the diffusion into the surrounding medium of chemical sub- 
stances which might affect friend or foe alike. By a differentiation 
among these connecting strands a diffuse nervous system was 
formed with immensely enhanced rapidity of reaction of the 
w'hole organism to environmental changes at anv part of its surface. 
The location of the mouth at the front end of the body, i. e. the 
one which in the actively moving animal was first exposed to 
changes in the environment, was attended hy the concentration at 
this end of the specialized projicient organs of sense, i. e. those 
whose activity was aroused by changes occurring at some distance 
from the animal, in a region with which a continuation of the 
forward progression of the animal would bring it in more intimate 
relations. The presence of these foreseeinr/ organs at the anterior 
end necessarily brought in its train a subjection of all other parts 
of the nervous system to that part, the supra-cesophageal ganglion, 
which was the first recipient of the afferent impressions from these 
organs. The rise in type, which has culminated in the production 
of Man himself, has been determined simply hy a continuous 


advance in the complexity of adaptations, and by an increase in 
the powers of control and foresight exercised by the foremost 
part of the central nervous system. On these t^A'o factors, fore- 
sight and control, depends a man's position among his fellows, 
and a continuous growth in the same factors marks the pro- 
gression of living forms from the Worm to the highest Vertebrate. 
Since the functions which determine survival are those bound 
up almost exclusively with the central nervous system, this system 
is taken by Gaskell as his guide in tracing the genealoijy of the 
Vertebrate. 1 am not sufficiently equipped to bear testimony in 
favour or otherwise of the facts adduced by Graskell in support of 
his theory. I am convinced, however, that the principles on which 
he has proceeded are the only ones which Mill lend to a solution 
of the problem, and that researches along these lines will throw 
light on the meaning and physiological significance of many organs 
whose part in the economy of the body is still a mystery. It is 
difficult to understand the attitude which has been taken up by 
the majority of zoologists towards this theory of the origin of 
Vertebrates. We find zoologists themselves putting forward 
theories of the descent of Vertebrates based on a more or less 
profound study of all sorts of organs and structures which really 
have little or no importance in the life of the animal, or can be 
replaced vicariously or structurally with the utmost ease. Thus 
they concentrate their attention on or{j;ans such as the alimentary 
canal, blood vessels, foetal membranes, excretory organs, the 
notochord, but p:iy little or no regard to the one system of the 
body which is all-important in determining the continuous series 
of adaptations which make up the life of the animal. And what 
is strange is that in most cases no palaeontological evidence seems 
to be brought forward in favour of these hypotheses. I do not 
know whether succeeding speakers will be able to adduce any facts 
from the geological record in favour of the existence of the strange 
slug-like animals, with or without holes punched in them, which 
have been evolved out of the inner consciences of our most dis- 
tinguished zoologists and assigned to us as our remote ancestors. 
To an onlooker like myself the striking resemblance between the 
earliest fishes and the Arthropoda which were the dominant type 
just before the appearance of these Vertebrates, is striking evidence 
in favour of Gaskell's theory. I would ask the morphologists 
present here to-night to explain how they account for this striking 
similarity. If the gastrula theory had been mentioned in the 
first chapter of Genesis, it is possible that the presence of those 
earliest fishes in the earth's crust might be regarded as a divinely 
appointed trial of faith for the orthodox among zoologists. It 
seems to me that the morphologist, while professing a lip service 
to the doctrine of Evolution, has really forsaken the teachings of 
Darwin and gone back to the worship of his old idol, the study of 
form for itself. For him, as for the anatomists before Darwin, 
similarity of form is everything and function is of no account. 


The special message of Darwin to biology was the vindication of 
function, and the demonstration that it was the use of parts and 
not their shape which determined their significance, — that rela- 
tionship between different types was a question of descent and of 
survival, and therefore depended not on form but on fitness, that 
is to say, on physiological function. It is curious to note, with this 
relapse into scholiasticism, the old tendency to intolerance of new 
ideas and of any light on the problems at issue other than that 
shed by some enshrined man-made theory at the end of a dark 
passage. In fact some members of the zoological hierarchy 
apparently regard the attempt to throw light from any other 
direction a? impious, and associate it, like many worthy divines 
did the work of Darwin, with the Author of all evil. I would 
not however like to suggest that Proiessor MacBride entertained 
any such comminatory feelings or was conscious of any spirit of 
religious intolerance when he speaks of the " diabolical ingenuity " 
of Gaskell's theory. But surely the odium ihcologicum is out of 
place in dealing with biological problems. A sacerdotal attitude 
of mind will never advance our knowledge of natural phenomena 
or of the origin of Vertebrates. It is a happy augury for the 
revival of freedom of thousfht in English biology that the Linnean 
Society should, in this jubilee year of Darwin, have devoted an 
evening to the discussion of a theory, which, I believe, will prove 
to be the most important contribution to the history of our race 
since the publication of the ' Descent of Man.' 

Mr. E. S. GooDEicn, F.E.S., F.L.S., stated that before em- 
barking on a theory as to the origin of the Vertebrates, we may 
attempt to determine what must have been the structure of the 
primitive early Vertebrate from which the Cephalochorda, Cyclo- 
stomata, and Gnathostomata (Fish and higher Vertebrates) have 
been derived. That all these forms are bilaterally symmetrical 
ccelomate animals, provided with gill-slits, notochord, and dorsal 
central nervous system, will be granted to start with ; but we 
must further try to fiud out what has been the general course of 
differentiation and specialization, to distiuguish the higher from 
the lower forms, and to point out what other characters must 
have been absent or present from the undifferentiated ancestral 
stage common to them all. 

With considerable certainty Gnathostomes can be traced back 
to an aquatic fish-like ancestor, in general structure not unlike 
the modern Selachian. It possessed biting jaws with true teeth, 
a general covering of denticles, open branchial slits, paired and 
median fins, a cartilaginous endoskeleton, and well-developed 

The Cyclostomes belong to an altogether lower grade of organi- 
sation, the primitive characters of which cannot be merely due to 
degeneration. The segmentation of the body is more complete, 
and the segments are more uniform. This is especially the case 


in the head. The formation of a distinct head-region with a large 
diiferentiated brain, a skull, and cranial nerves, is one of the most 
important and characteristic features of the structure of the 
Craniata (Cyclostomes and Gnathostomes). It takes place by 
the gradual modification of more and more of the segments at the 
anterior region of the body where are situated the mouth, gill- 
slits, and paired organs of sense. But this process of cephali- 
zation has gone much further in the Grnathostomes, where the 9th 
and 10th cranial nerves become included in the skull, and the 
corresponding muscle segments are suppressed, than in the 
Cyclostomes, where these nerves emerge behind tlie rudimentary 
skull and the muscle segments still in the adult form an un- 
interrupted series from in front of the mouth to the tip of the 
tail. Moreover in the Cyclostomes there are no paired limbs, no 
true teeth, in fact no trace whatever of dermal skeleton, and the 
testis has not yet acquired any direct connection with the kidney 

The next point to be studied is the structure of the common 
ancestor of the Cephalochorda and the Craniata. Now, although 
Amphioxus is doubtless in some respects a very specialized 
animal — as for instance in the possession of an atrial cavity — yet 
it preserves many primitive characters. Judging from its struc- 
ture, we must conclude that the ancestral Vertebrate was still 
more uniformly segmented than the primitive Craniate, The 
head-region was scarcely differentiated at all, there was no skull 
(probably no cartilaginous axial skeleton at all), a quite rudi- 
mentary brain, no specialized cranial nerves, no eephalization due 
to the presence of large paired organs of sense. It is possible 
that Amphioxus is somewhat degenerate ; but it cannot seriously 
be urged that it once possessed in well-developed condition those 
paired sense-organs which have so pi'ofoundly modified the 
structure of the head-region in the Craniata. For it would 
be ridiculous to suppose that the modified segments could be 
I'estored to their original condition of uniformity with the trunk 
segments ; no trace of the disturbance appearing in either adult 
or embryo. 

Further, in Amphioxus, there is no dermal or epidermal armour, 
and primitiveness is shown in the structure of the endostyle, 
which becomes modified into the thyroid gland in higher forms. 
Lastly the presence of true uephridia, a type of excretory organ 
which has been lost in other Vertebrates, links Amphioxus to the 
lower Invertebrate Coelomata. 

Thus can be traced an irreversible series of stages in the differ- 
entiation of Vertebrate structure, at the bottom of which we find 
a much simpler, but still essentially Vertebrate ancestor, probably 
already extinct in Silurian times. 

Amoug the various Classes of modern Invertebrates we do not, 
and indeed cannot expect to find any close allies. But the some- 
what distantly related Enteropneusta (Balanoglossus) seem to 



point to a remote common ancestor in which the supportino 
notochord was not yet formed, the nervous system was superficial 
and more diffuse, and the segmental ion less perfect. 

We have seen that the study of the Vertebrates leads us back 
step by step to a simple undifferentiated ancestor, in which the 
complex sense-organs, the highly developed brain, tlie chambered 
heart, and other structures so characteristic of this phvhira had 
not yet appeared. Now, the same conclusion is reached on 
studym- such other groups as the Mollusca and Arthropoda. 
Here also we are led back along an irreversible series of forms to 
a simpler generalized ancestor. Tlie Vertebrates, Molluscs and 
Arthropods, have diverged along fundamentally different lines of 

Just as the organisation of the Vertebrata is governed by 
the appearance of a dorsal nervous system, a notochord gUl-slits 
a mesoblastic skeleton, etc., so the whole organisation of the 
Arthropoda is dominated by the secretion of a complete superficial 
chitmous skeleton, and the accompanying development of jointed 
appendages serving for feeding and progression. Similarlv, the 
Molluscan organisation has been throughout influenced by the 
secretion of a calcareous dorsal shell, and the development of a 
soft body capable of distention by the blood-vascular system. Of 
all the systems of organs the nervous system mav be considered 
as the most important, and it is just in the study "of this system 
that we can most easily trace the divergence in structure of the 
three groups. 

Owing to adaptation to similar environment or function certain 
striking resemblances may occur between animals of widely 
separated origin; this is especially the case with sense-orf-ans 
adapted to receive definite stimuli. Thus, a Cepha]o[)od Moliusc 
ha^ a large brain enclosed in a cartilaginous skull, with paired 
orbits containing large eyes remarkably hke those of the Craniate 
Vertebrate. But the resemblance is due to convergence; these 
complex organs were not present in more primitive Mollusca. and 
have been acquired within the Molluscan phylum. Examined 
carefully they are found to differ as fundamentally in every detail 
from those of the Vertebrate as does the whole organisation of 
the Mollusc differ from that of the Vertebrate in general. 

Eesemblances between the Arthropod and the Vertebrate are 
not so striking; when they do occur they can be shown to be of 
the same nature. Here also the various organs which acquire 
some likeness to each other in the two groups are found to differ 
as fundamentally in detail as they do in origin. What the two 
groups really have in common is only that which they have both 
inherited from a ^ery early undifferentiated ancestral stock. 


Dr. H. Gadow, F.R.S. (Visitor), followed, and said : — When 
Dr. Graskell explained his hypothesis at a meeting of the Cambridge 
Philosophical Societ_y, fourteen years ago, I was the only one who 
had the courage of pleading for its being given a chance. It has 
survived pitiful contempt and ridicule. 

If we want to join the ends of a broken chain, we must be 
clear about the links. I propose pointing out the last Vertebrate 
link, by reconstructing an early Vertebrate analytically. 

Ever since (jegenbaur based his investigations into the compo- 
sition of the cranium upon Elasmobranchs, and as since, after him, 
Balfour discovered so many important features in their embryonic 
development, the Elasmobranchs have come to be looked upon as 
the ideally lowest typical Vertebrates. Dohrn even went so far 
as to explain the Cyclostomes out of the way of direct ancestry as 
degenerated Elasmobranchs. 

This Elasmobranch worship is wrong. They are a side-branch 
which leads to nothing. The main stem of the Vertebrate 
descent passes through what we may call Gano-Dipnoi, and their 
ancestors, Proto-Gano-Dipnoi, presumably were still devoid of 
paired limbs, and still lower down were not yet Gnathostomes. 
We can reconstruct further: With a mouth not terminal but 
ventral : their bulk consisting of a large anterior complex and a 
short, tapering tail, both segmented and metameric. Condensation 
and fusion produced a head which was so large because it con- 
tained all the principal organic systems, as nervous, digestive, 
respiratory, vascular, and possibly excretory and generative. 

Metamerism in this anterior complex, the incipient head, was 
doomed, but in the posterior portion it underwent renewed 
activity. Not only were more segments formed by interstitial 
budding, but metamerism ran wild, culminating, besides other 
features, in vertebralization. 

The latter proceeded from the tail end forwards, and it is idle 
to seek for vertebrae in the primitive bead, excepting in the part 
from the vagus backwards, which in the early creature we are 
dealing with, was a very I'ecent formation. 

Meanwhile, the posterior or tail portion becoming larger, part 
of it, from before backwards, was converted into a trunk, as this 
was receiving most of those organs which were crowded out from 
the consolidating head, and also no doubt owing to the repetitional 
budding backwards of some of these organs. Thus we have 
arrived at a Tadpole-shaped A^ertebrate of which some Ostraco- 
dermi with their vertebralized tails are not a bad sample. 

Gegenbaur had taught us to consider the spinal cord as an 
outgrowth from the older brain. The greater part of the chorda 
is likewise due to a secondary growth backwards, this organ not 
being laid down in its totality, certainly not in the tail where it 
ought to have arisen if originally intended for an axial stiffening 
organ. It arises, however, in the trunk, and since this is a later 


addition (due to interstitial postcephalic budding) the chorda must 
be of a comparatively late stage. 

Both these features, chorda and spinal cord, fit into the sketch 
I have just outlined, but if we consider the spinal cord as an 
outgrowth from, and therefore a thing later than, the brain, this 
seems to go strongly against Dr. Gaskell's theory, and this would 
not be reconcilable with my early Vertebrate. But Gregenbaur's 
explanation, development from the supra-ojsophageal ganglia of the 
Invertebrates, is one of those captivating notions which is really 
nothing but a working hypothesis to account for the dorsal 
position of the spinal cord. And yet this hypothesis, absolutely 
wrong in detail, led and became wrapped up in the much more 
important principle of the foundation of a trunk by backward 
interstitial budding. As this became dimly recognised as reason- 
able, the spinal cord explanation benefited by it, although 

A few words about the skeletal material, the cartilage. I 
remember Gegeubaur saying in his lectures, " AUer Knorpel kommt 
urspriinglich von Aussen." We are only now beginning fully to 
understand the meaning of that oracular sentence. The cartilage 
of the Vertebrata is originally an ectodermal, basal membrane 
product, which then migrates inwards. It does not arise, as the 
old master himself had taught, and as everybody teaches, in the 
immediate vicinity of the chorda, there to form arcuaUa or basal 
blocks, these to form neural and ventral processes, whence 
ultimately arise the median fin-supporting rays. The process is 
just the reverse. First rays, lastly basal blocks, culminating in 
the formation of an axial skeleton with centra. As an aside, 
I need scarcely mention that this reversed process considerably 
assists the derivation of the paired fins from a hypothetical 
lateral fin. 

Another point : since Gegenbaur has stated it positively, there 
have been persistent attempts to prove that cartilage appears 
endogenous in the chorda. Personally I think that this belief 
rests upon faulty, or misinterpreted observations, but if there 
should, after all, exist such endogenous chordal cartilage, such an 
endodermal origin would appear quite irreconcilable with the new 
doctrine of its ectodermal origin. And yet, if Gaskell's explana- 
tion of the chorda as an early folded-off portion of his new gut is 
right, then it becomes quite comprehensible how this new gut-wall 
may still retain some lingering scleroblastic cells, since, according 
to Gaskell, this gut is partly made out of ventral ectoderm. 

The early Vertebrate I have just reconstructed approaches the 
Silurian limbless Ostracoderms. PtericJitht/s may be a belated 
offshoot, still retaining a pair of Invertebrate limblike appendages. 
Ostracoderms I hold to be the lowest known Vertebrates, not yet 
Gnathostomes, whether we call them Hypostomes or Agnatha, or 
even Cyclostomes in a wider sense. 

It is one of Dr. Gaskell's happiest feats to have shown that 


Cyclostoraes closely resemble such Ostracoderms, not, however, 
as their descendants, but rather as their ancestors, although 
modified and even somewhat degenerated. To appreciate this, 
however, we must cease gazing at the Lamprey. The Ammoccetes 
larva is the key. Of course, even this is not primitive enough for 
the earliest Vertebrate, To reconstruct this we have to take 
away its trunk, and such a creature may well be expected to have 
lived in early ISilurian timeR. Although there is not yet known a 
single fossil Cyclostome from the Silurian slates to recent river- 
mud, such creatures may come to light and they would not be 
more puzzling than Palteosponch/lns. 

Thus far it is plain sailing. The Vertebrate end of the broken 
chain is clear enough. The attempts to bring Amphioxus into line 
have not been successful, and the claims of the other " Chordata " 
restrict themselves to a few features of doubtful value. JVowhere 
could these comparisons be driven home, and what do these 
attempts amount to against Dr. Gaskell's detailed, almost too 
minute comparisons of a dozen of the most important organs ? 
If his results were, every one, nothing but coincidences, analogies, 
such a state of things would be much more astonishing and un- 
likely than his whole hypothesis. His explanations of the huge 
cavities in the brain, the peculiar structure of its roof, the ventral 
and the neurenteric canal, are the only plausible ones ever offered. 
It is a somewhat forgotten fact that in some Birds there is no 
proper neurenteric canal, while in other species there are, not one, 
but two and even three successively formed communications of 
the central canal with the gut and passing right through the chorda. 
An organ which, like the chorda of a bird, has passed its prime, is 
liable in its degeneration to revert to primitive features, some\A hat 
muddled. Here we have three neurenteric connections, their 
respective funnels behaving as if the chorda were a negligible 
quantity, or rather part of the gut. 

Gaskell's explanation of the chorda is by far the best we have. 
If considered as a product of an endodermal gut, the chorda 
cannot well have started as a supporting organ. It must have 
started with gut-like function, but having lost this with its lumen, 
its walls shrinking to rod-shape, may then well have formed a 
useful axial support. Can it be upheld, that the chordoids of 
Balanoglossus and Hhabdopleura ever had a gut function ? This 
would mean that a glandular, secretive organ has lost its function 
and yet waxed large. A proper chorda is not a glandular thing, 
and even when it is a rod ten feet long and more than one inch 
thick, it possesses neither nerves nor blood-vessels. 

Zoologists have allowed histology to slip out of their hands into 
those of the physiologists, and it has done well there. Embryoloo-y 
would likewise have fared better if the function of the aggregating 
and growing masses of cells had been taken as the leading 
principle, instead of the structures which they ultimately give 
rise to. It is function which determines the organ, and the 


possible function often depends upon mere poaition, sometimes 
almost acfidental, with regard to the surrounding medium. 
Kature does not care where the material comes from, provided 
it be suitable. There are, for instance, endodermal and ecto- 
dermal gills ; nor does it matter whether a creature digests and 
absorbs food by its inner or by its outer surface. Whilst an 
armour-clad animal caiuiot do it, a naked Amphibian drinks 
through its whole skin ; and most species of Sjjelerpes, sometimes 
six and more inches long, never possess gills, have lost their lungs, 
and breathe almost entirely through their outer surface. 

The Germ-laver theory has crystallized into a dogma and has 
led into a cul-de-sac. How else could it happen that people, who 
have spent a lifetime at embryology, throw it up in disappoint- 
ment and denounce the theory of Eecapitulation, which is about 
tlie only valuable, really priceless generalization of this direct 
means of studying evolution. 

Because Dr. Gaskell is a good physiologist, he saw that the 
central canal and the brain ventricles could not possibly have 
anything to do, primarily, with the central nervous system, that, 
in fact, they are the remnants of a gut. This has of course been 
suggested long ago, from the general look of the thing, but there 
were no proofs, and there was the seemingly hopeless task of 
having to account for a new gut. Gaskell had the courage and 
insight to show how such a gut may have been evolved, and this 
is one of the best, simplest and most convincing chapters. It is a 
false dogma that the gut must be the organ which is homologous 
in all gut-possessing animals. 

Dr. Gaskell may be mistaken in some of his interpretations, 
but his hypothesis is not only at least as good as others, but it is 
the only one which endeavours to carry through a great number 
of comparisons. His hypothesis is logically conceived ; it is built 
up of items, none of which are impossible, therefore the total is 

The discussion was then adjourned to the next General Meeting, 
Thursday, 3rd February, 1910, at 8.0 P.M. 

February 3rd, 1910. 
Dr. D. H. ScoTi', M.A., F.E.S., President, in the Chair. 

The Minutes of the General Meeting of the 20th January, 1910, 
were read and contirmed. 

Dr. Henry Drinkwater, M.D. (Edin.), and Mr. Cyril Crossland, 
M.A. (Cantab.;, B.Sc. (Loud.), were elected Fellows. 


The discussion upon the Origin oE the Vertebrates, begun at 
the previous Meeting, was resumed. 

The discussion was continued by Dr. A. Smith Woodward, 
r.E.S., F.L.S., who remarked that Paheontology affords no clue 
to the ancestry of the Vertebrates, because they seem to have 
originated as animals with no hard parts caj)able of fossilization. 
When they first acquired a calcified skeleton in the Upper 
Silurian period, they were represeiited not only by very primitive 
types like the Ostracoderms, but by true fishes of at least as high 
a grade as the Elasmobranchs (Acanthodians). 

It is perhaps a significant fact that the Arthropods were the 
dominant type of life at the time when the Vertebrates began to 
be conspicuous. It is known that during the subsequent course 
of evolution of the Vertebrates themselves, each successively 
higher great group became the dominant type for the time being ; 
and that each advance was due to evolution from the immediately 
precednig dominant type. In every case, however, the higher 
group seems to have been directly derived from the earliest and 
most generalized members of the preceding group, not from the 
specialized members that flourished at the time of its dominance. 
If, therefore, the Vertebrates originated from Arthropods, their 
direct ancestors must have been early generahzed forms which 
there is little hope of discovering among fossils. 

Although so little is known of their organisation, it seems 
proliable that the Ostracoderms are lower in rank than the true 
fishes, and most nearly related, among surviving animals, to the 
Marsipobranchs. Dr. Gaskell has added to this probability by his 
researches on the Ammocoete. His comparison of tlie structure 
of the dermal head-shield in the Upper Silurian Aachenasjns with 
that of the more deeply seated plate of muco-cartilage in the 
Ammocoete, is particularly striking and interesting. 

Most of the Ostracoderms have a remarkable superficial resem- 
blance to the contemporaneous Arthropods of the Eurypterid 
group, being adapted for a similar mode of life on the sea-bottom. 
A few, however, are laterally compressed and as gracefully fusi- 
form as swiftly-swimming fishes (e. g., Birl-enia) ; and that these 
had a wide geographical distribution in Upper Silurian times is 
shown by the recent discovery of a fragment (named Ctenopleuron 
nerepisense by G. E. Matthew) in New Brunswick. 

The supposed discoveries in Ostracoderms of appendages com- 
parable with those of Arthropods, are due entirely to faulty 
observation or misinterpretation. There is nothing more than a 
normal branchial chamber on each side of the cranial region in 
genera such as Cqyhalasins, Pteraspis, Cyathaspis, and Tremataspis, 
where the skeleton can be well observed. The so-called paii-ed 
appendages ascribed to the trunk of Cephalaspis by Prof. W. 
Patten, are merely the scales which project along its sharp 
angulation on each side. 


Prof. Authur Dbndy, F.R.S., Sec.L.S., contributed the follow- 
ing remarks : — 

Any theory of the orii^in of Vertebrates must stand or fall by 
the results of detailed criticism of the evidence upon which it 
rests, and owing to the large amount of evidence which Dr. Gaskell 
has brought forward, this must necessarily be a verv laborious 
undertaking. The portion of this evidence to which I wish to 
call special attention on this occasion is that which concerns the 
eyes, upon which very great stress has been laid. This applies 
especially to the median eyes, concerning which Dr. Gaskell 
himself states * that " undoubtedly, in recent times, the most 
important clue to the ancestry of Vertebrates has been given by 
the discovery that the so-called pineal gland in the Vertebrate 
brain is all that remains of a pair of median or pineal eves, the 
existence of which is manifest in the earliest Vertebrates." This 
being so, it seems especially desirable to examine criticallv the 
evidence brought forward in this case. Dr. Gaskell has studied 
these organs in the Ammocoete larva of Petromyzon. I myself 
have studied them in the Velasia stage of the New Zealand 
Lamprey, Geotria, which is very closely related to Petromyzon, and 
also in Sphenodon, where they are exceptionally well developed. 
I may say at once that my interpretation of their structure does 
not agree with that of Dr. Gaskell. 

Dr. Gaskell reminds us that Crustaceans and Arachnids, as well 
as A^ertebrates, have lateral and median eyes and that in these 
Arthropods, " the median eyes are in all cases eves with a simple 
upright retina and a simple cuticular lens, while the retina of the 
lateral eyes is compound or may be inverted, according as the 
animal in question possesses crustacean or arachnid aTfinities " 
Again he says, " The lateral eye of the vertebrate, possessing, as 
it does, an inverted compound retina, indicates that the verte- 
brate arose from a stock which was neither arachnid nor crusta- 
cean, but gave rise to both groups— in fact, was a member of the 
great palaeostracan group."' He then proceeds to examine the 
evidence with regard to the median eyes of Ammoccetes, with a 
view to discovering whether they belong to the same type as 
those of Arachnids and Crustacea. He compares an extremely 
diagrainmatic figure of the pineal eye of Ammoccetes, which in 
my opinion is far from being correct, with an apparentlv equally 
diagrammatic figure of an Acilius larva, which, to judge "from the 
drawing of this eye copied from Patten on a later page, is also 
far from accurate. By this procrustean method of treatment 
the two eyes are certainly made to look very like one another 
although it has been impossible to eliminate the cuticular lens of 
Acilius, which is entirely wanting in Ammoccetes. 

The manner in which it has been necessary to treat the evidence 
in order to arrive at this comparison is clearly illustrated by 

* ' The Origin of Vertebrates ' : Longmans, Green, & Co., 1908, p. 74. 



Dr. GiiskeH's discussion of the miiaule structure of the retiua. 
If the comparison is to be valid the retina of the pineal eye must 
be a simple retina, that is to sa}^ it must not contain an optic 
ganglion. Dr. Gaskell savs " neither I myself nor Studnicka 
have been able to see any detinite groups of cells between the 
nerve end-cells and the optic nerve sucli as a compound retina 
necessitates." It is difficult to reconcile this statement with 
wliat Studnicka himself says. According to this author,* the 
retina of a developed Ammoccete consists of the following cell- 
layers : — 

(1) At the bottom, a layer of nerve-fibres, \Ahich are in 

direct connection with those of the pineal nerve. 

(2) A layer of basal cells ; large, very clear cells with lightly 
staining protoplasm and large nuclei, with a number of 
nei've-libres running between them. 

(3) A laj^er of nuclei belonging to small cells. 

(4) A layer of cylindrical cells which correspond to the rods 

of older authors and which consist of sense-cells and 
supporting cells. 

This does not sound very much like a simple retina. Dr. Gaskell 
quotes Studnicka as saying that the nerve end-cells pass directly 
into the nerve, which, Dr. Gaskell observes, "points dii'ectly to 
the conclusion that this retina is a simple, not a compound retina, 
and that it therefore in this respect agrees Avith the retina of all 
median eyes." I do not know where Studnicka makes the state- 
ment upon which Dr. Gaskell bases this conclusion. What I do 
find hiui saying (oji. clt. p. 25) is that tlie lower extremity of the 
sense-cell is produced into a nerve-fibre which loses itself in the 
nerve-fibre layer of the retina (1). He further expressly states 
thxat in the adult Petromyzon there are amongst the round basal 
ce Is many which undoubtedly have the character of ganglion cells, 
and that the processes of these cells may be followed into the 
layer of nerve-fibres, while they also send processes into the layer 
of cylindrical cells. 

In short the retina of the pineal eye of Ammocceies is iin- 
doubtedly a compound retina and not, as Dr. Gaskell would have 
it, a simple one. My own observations on the pineal eye of 
Geotria fully confirm this view. In this animal also a well- 
developed retinal ganglion is pi'esent. Dr. Gaskell endeavoui's to 
harmonize my observations with his theory by supposing that the 
cells of which this retinal ganglion is composed "do not represent 
the original optic ganglion of a compound retina, but rather the 
subsequent invasion, by way of the pineal nerve, of ganglion cells 
belonging to a portion of the brain." When undoubted facts 
have to be ignored or explained away in this manner in order to 

* "Die Parietalorgaiie " (in Oppel's ' Lelirbuch der vergleiclieiuleii uiikro- 
skopischen Anatomie der Wirbelthiere ')> P- 24. 


34 PltOCKEDlNCS OK Tin: 

support a llifory it looks as il' th.-n theory must slaiul upon a 
soniinvliat shaky fouiuhition. 

Dr. GaskpU, then, coiiclutk's that iu the pineal t-ve of Ammocmtes 
"there is certainly no api)earance in the least resembling a compound 
retina such as is seen in the vertebrate or crustacean lateral eye.'' 
It is true that in the Lampreys tlie retinal ganglion of the pineal 
eye is not spread out to form a layer of such unilonn thickness 
as in the lateral eye, but the pineal eyes of Sphenodon and of the 
Lacertilia make a much closer approach to the lateral eyes in this 

By far the most important evidence afforded by both the pineal 
and lateral eyes of A'ertebrates, however, is, in mv opinion, that 
derived from their development. Both differ essentiallv from 
any Invertebrate eye in being formed as diverticula of a hollow 
brain. The eyes of Arthropods are formed by thickening and 
differentiation of the superlicial epiblast. How is it possible to 
reconcile this discrepancy ? Dr. Gaskell himself {op. cit. p. 101) 
states the problem quite clearly in the case of the lateral eyes. 
Having arrived at the conclusion tliat the retina is in this case a 
compound retina, composed of a retina and retinal ganglion of the 
type found in Arthropods, he gops on to say : "From this it follows 
that the development of the vertebrate retina ought to show the 
formation of (1) an optic plate formed from the peripheral epi- 
dermis and not from the' brain ; (2) a part of the brain closely 
attached to this optic plate forming the retinal ganghon, which 
remains at the surface when the rest of the optic ganglion with- 
draws : (3) an optic nerve formed in consequence of "this with- 
drawal, as the connection between the retinal and cerebral parts 
of the optic ganglion." Of course, the same must apply to the 
pineal eyes *. 

Itelyiiig upon Gotte's observation " that the retina arises from 
an optic plate, being the optical portion of his ' Sinnesplafte,' " 
Gaskell concludes that the retina (of the lateral eve) is to 'be 
regarded as a portion of the superficial epiblast together with 
a retinal ganglion with which it has become fused, while the 
optic vesicles are explained as outgrowths of the primitive 
Arthropod stomach which supply only the epithelial and supporting 
framework of the retina, with which the nervous and sensory 
elements become interwoven. The development of the lateral 
Vertebrate eye is, however, a very complex process, and as I have 
not made a special study of it myself, I leave it on one side, 
though I may say that Dr. Gaskell's idea of the double origin of 
the retina and its supporting structures seems to me to be too far- 
fetched to be of much value as a support for his theory, and that 
any attempt to institute a close comparison between the lateral 
eye of a Vertebrate and the highly specialized compound eye of an 
Arthropod is foredoomed to failure. 

* At any rate so far as no. (1) is concprned, whatever view we may take as 
to the presence or absence of a retinal ganglion in the pineal ej e. 


Ui*. Gaskell unroi'tiiiiate!)' does not deal with the development 
of the ])iiieal eye, wliich is far simpler. This has been carefully 
studied is various types, all of which agree in essential features. 
J myself have studied it chiefly in Sphenodon, upon which animal 
the following statements are based. The pineal eye originates as 
a simple evagiuatiou of the brain-roof. This completely separates 
from the brain and closes up. The optic vesicle thus formed does 
not invaginate to form an optic cup, as in the case of the paired 
eye, but the retina, with its sense-cells, ganglion-cells and nerve- 
fibres, is formed directly and in situ by differentiation of its 
posterior wall, while the lens is formed from its anterior wall. 
There is not the slightest indication of the origin of any part of 
the retina directly from the superficial epiblast. It is true, of 
course, that the whole of the central nervous system is derived, in 
the first instance, from superficial e])ibiast, and so also is the 
central nervous system of an Arthropod. Ko one denies that the 
retina is epiblastic in orgiu ; the question is, what part of the epi- 
blast is it derived from ? In the Vertebrate it is derived from 
the part which becomes iuvaginaled to form the central nervous 
system. In the Arthropod and in other Invertebrates, it is not. 

I cannot, therefore, avoid expressing the opinion that the 
evidence which Dr. Gaskell derives from the study of the lateral 
and pineal eyes in favour of his theory does not stand the test of 
critical examination. It appears to me, if I may venture to say 
so, that he has failed to distinguish between analogy and homology. 
Animals which h;i,ve to live under similar conditions must be 
expected to become adapted along similar lines, and it is no moi-e 
necessarv to invoke a common ancestry to explain the resemblance 
between the visual organs of Vertebrates and Arthropods than it 
is to give the same explanation of the superficial resemblance 
between their organs of locomotion. Again, the resemblance 
between the lateral eyes of Vertebrates and the highly charac- 
teristic compound eyes of any Arthropod is not nearly so striking 
as is that betw'een the former and the higher Cephalopod eye, 
and yet no one, so far as I am aware, has yet ventured to 
include the Octopus in the ancestral portrait gallery of the 

Looking at the problem for a moment from a wider point of 
view, I should like to express my agreement with those who 
see in Amphioxns a close approximation to the starting-point of 
the great Vertebrate phylum. The evidence in favour of the 
essentially primitive character of Antpldoxus is, to my mind, 
overwhelming, but the acceptance of this evidence is fatal to 
Dr. Gaskell's views, for in Amphioxint^ of course, a very large 
proportion of the Vertebrate characters upon which he lays so much 
stress as indicating Arthropod atlitiities, have not yet put in an 
appearance. Thus, for example, there is no trace of either lateral 
or pineal eyes, and we therefore conclude with confidence that 



these structures liuve not bneii inheritotl Iroiii any Invertebrate 
ancestor at all, but have arisen cjuite independently within the 
A'ertebrate group. 

In connection with Dr. Gaskell's theory, the question is some- 
times asked: — If the cavity of the central nervous system of the 
Vertebrate, with its lining epithelium, has not been derived from 
the alimentary canal of an Arthropod ancestor, how do you 
account for its existence, and how do you account for the existence 
of the choroid plexuses ? To the zoologist, of course, this 
question presents no difficulty. One of the commonest ])heno- 
mena of development throughout the Animal Kingdom is the 
incrense of surface by the forniation of folds. We are familiar 
with it in glandular tissues and in respiratory tissues, and we are 
familiar with it also in the formation of the central nervous 
system of various Invertebrates, as Professor MacBride has 
already pointed out. jN'o one doubts, moreover, that this is the 
explanation of the convolutions of the brain in higher A^ertebrates. 
Why then object to apply the same principle in expltmation of 
the origin of the Vertebrate nervous system by invagination of the 
superficial epiblast ? The Vertebrates inherited from their In- 
vertebrate, worm-like ancestors, this characteristic mode of 
forming the central nervous system, which naturally resulted in 
the development of a hollow^ tube ■with at first a narrow lumen. 
Eurther evolution of the nervous system was brought about 
primarily by the increase in number of the nerve-cells and the 
consequent thickening of the wall of the neural tube. Ic will, of 
course, be asked by the supporters of Dr. Gaskell's theory, why 
has the cavity of the original neural tube increased to such 
enormous dimensions in the case of the ventricles of the brain ? 
Here again I do not see any difficulty. The great mass of nerve 
tissue formed in the brain requires some very well developed 
system for nutrition and respiration. This is primarily effected 
of course by the cerebral blood-vessels ; but we have also the 
cerebro-spinal fluid, with whieh the ventricles of the brain and the 
canalis centralis of the spinal cord are filled, and which probably 
exercises an important respiratory and possibly also other 
functions. I suppose Dr. Gaskell will hardly ask us to look upon 
the cerebro-spinal fluid as representing the digestive juices which 
were poured into the stomach of the ancestral Arthropod. 

What about the choroid plexuses, then ? Here, again, we have 
a beautiful illustration of the principle of folding in order to 
increase surface, a folding which is quite inexplicable except on 
the assumption that the choroid j)lexuses fulfil some very im- 
portant function in connection with the cerebro-spinal fluid into 
which they dip. They are, as everyone knows, extraordinarily 
vascular (which the wall of the Arthropod stomach is not), and 
they probably constitute a kind of intra-cerebral gills concerned in 
the respiration of the cerebro-spinal fluid ; they may also have 
other functions in connection with this important fluid. 


It appears from Dr. Gaskell's opening speech that he assumes 
that the anterior opening of the neural tube in the larval Amphi- 
oxiis represents the old Arthropod mouth, but in the higher 
A'^ertebrates he locates this ancestral mouth in the region of the 
infundibulum. This necessitates the supposition that the anterior 
neuropore is identical in position with the infundibulum, a 
supposition wliiuh would, I imagine, strike modern embryologists 
with amazement. 

Then again, what is the value of the evidence afforded by the 
so-called neurenteric canal? This structure, if structure it can 
be called, simply results from the fortuitous enclosure of the 
blastopore by the uprising neural folds, and to my mind it 
has no phvlogenetic significance of the kind attributed to it by 
Dr. Gaskeil. 

It was urged, I think by Professor Starling, that the immense 
physiological importance of the central nervous system gives it a 
special claim to consideration as evidence in the discussion of the- 
origin of Vertebrates. This is entirely contrary to the usually 
accepted views of systematic zoologists, who find in structures 
which are apparently of the least use to their possessors * the 
best guides to genetic affinity. Organs which are of great use 
must be subject to adaptive modification in accordance with the 
changing needs of the organism. Modern schemes of classification 
are indeed largely based upon this principle, and certain modi- 
fications in the nervous system of tape-worms have been explicitly 
ruled out as guides to classification in accordance therewith. 

[The central nervous system of a Vertebrate of course agrees 
with that of an Arthropod in exhibiting traces of a fundamental 
metamerism, because both Vertebrates and Arthropods are meta- 
merically segmented animals, and both have very probably been 
derived from some metamerically segmented common ancestor. 

It is the later modifications, coenogenetic rather than palingenetic 
features, readily explicable as adaptations to the special needs 
of the Vertebrate organisation (which are of course in many 
respects similar to those of the Arthropod organisation), that I 
consider to be inadmissible as evidence in considering the phylo- 
genetic relationships of the Vertebrates. The fact that highly 
specialized characters of the brain may afford a useful clue to 
relationship within the limits of the Vertebrate phylum does not, in 
my opinion, affect the question at issue. In dealing with closely 
related groups comparatively recent modifications are oi:' undoubted 
taxonomic value; but in comparing such widely divergent groups 
as Vertebrates and Arthropods, resemblances due to such characters, 
when they can be explained quite reasonably as the result of con- 
vergent evolution, must be eliminated from the discussion.] 

* I may cite in illustration the microsoleres or so-called flesh-spicules of 
siliceous sponges, wiiii their cxtraDi-diuarily diverse and rtp|)arently specifically 
constant niodilications. 


Sir Eay Lankester, F.R.S., F.L.S., said lie was not preparer! 
there and then to discuss points of detail, hut the subject was so 
interesting that he should wish to offer some remarks. Moreover 
he gathered from Dr. Gaskell's book, and from more direct in- 
formation, that he himself was to some extent connected with the 
genesis of Dr. Gaskell's vie^s, since certain observations and 
arguments of his own on Limulus and the Scorpion had germinated 
in Dr. Gaskell's mind and led him to the vpry careful and elaborate 
studies which he had made and the extraordinary theory which he 
advanced. AVhilst calling it an " extraordinary " theory, he did 
not wish it to be supposed that on that account he wished to 
reject it or not to give it full attention. This was a matter not to 
be treated as a priori impossible or improbable, but the question 
simply was, " Are the facts brought forward by Dr. Gaskell such 
as to make it appear probable that the Vertebrates have developed 
from Arthropods resembling Limulus by the conversion of the 
old alimentary canal into the neural tube and the simultaneous 
formation of a totally new digestive tract ? ' 

The relations of animal forms to one another is the great 
pi'oblem of morphology. A hundred and twenty years ago morpho- 
logists still believed in the " scala naturae " and a linear progressive 
series of animal groups. The great step was taken by Cuvier in 
opposition to the conception of Lamarck of arranging animal 
forms in four branches — " embranchemens " he termed them, the 
Eadiata, Mollusca, Articulata, and Vertebrata. lie thereby 
anticipated the modern conception of a branching pedigree, which 
became the generally accepted form of classification when once 
Darwin had established the tlieory of Descent. 

The earlier attempts at a branching pedigree made by Haeckel 
differed from the later ones by the same naturalist, and there had 
been considerable development and improvement in the theoretical 
pedigree, which aimed at exhibiting the genetic affinities of ail 
animal forms. The question of the position of the Tunicata had 
been one of the most interesting. Allman, foi'ty or more years 
ago, considered the Tunicata as related together with the Polyzoa 
to the Lamellibranchs and other Mollusca. He regarded the 
perforated pharynx of the Ascidian as formed by the fusion of 
the gill-plates of a Lamellibranch along their free edges to form 
a closed sac, and this was perhaps the largest call upon the 
imagination which had been made by a modern morphologist until 
Dr. Gaskell suggested the conversion of the Arthropod's digestive 
tract into the spinal cord and the formation of a new gut in 
Vertebrata by the closing in of an open ventral groove. The facts 
brought forward by Kowalevvsky had determined the position of 
Ascidians in the Vertebrate stem. There were four " coinci- 
dences " of structure which by the law of probability led to the 
conclusion that Ascidians were genetically closely related to 
Vertebrata. They were the existence in the Ascidian tadpole as 
well as in Vertebrata (l)of the notochord developed from eudoderm. 


(2) of the pharyngeal gill-slits, (;5) of the tubular dorsally placed 
nerve-cord, and (4) of the cerebral eye. The evidence was 
cumulative, and its value depended on the exact and indisputable 
nature of the agreements and on the fact that they were found in 
the two cases compared and in no other animals, so that a common 
inheritance of these structures by Ascidians and certain Yertebrata, 
not shared by other forms, was the only rational explanation of 
the facts. Was tliis the case with the coincidences of structure 
between the Lamprej' and the Arthropods brought forward by 
Dr. Gaskell ? Sir Kay Lankester held that the coincidences cited 
by Dr. Gaskell were not of a sulliciently exact and special nature, 
nor peculiar to the Vertebrates aud Arthropods, so as to render it 
necessary to suppose that Vertebrates had been derived from 
Arthropods, and certainly not of such a nature as to render it 
reasonable to suppose that the extraordinary conversion of the 
Artlu'opud's digestive tract into the nerve-tube liad taken place as 
insisted upon by Dr. Gaskell. 

The view which w"as almost universally accepted at present by 
zoologists was that when once we pass from the Coelenterate or 
Entero-coclous grade of animal structure to the Ccelomata or 
Coelomo-cielous grade, a number of diverging great lines of descent 
or phyla must be recognised — such as the Echinoderma, the Ap- 
pendiculata (including Arthropods, Rotifers, and Annelids), the 
jNIoUusca, the Vertebrata, the Nemertina, and other worm-phyla. 
As to the beginnings of any of these lines of descent, we had (as was 
natural enough) very scant indications, nor could we say anything 
as to the early connection of any one of these great phyla with 
another. What appeared highly probable, if not certain, was that 
they all converged to simpler ancestral forms, and that they all 
inherited the same fundamental tissues, digestive tract aud glands, 
nephridia, coelom and coolomic ducts, reproductive gonads, blood- 
vascular system, and nervous cords (many or few), and essentially 
the same types of sense-organs — ophthalmic, auditory, gustatory, 
olfactive, and tactile. That the optic vesicles of Arthropoda 
should agree, not absolutely but in many important respects, with 
those of Vertebrata, could not be held to indicate special afHnitiea 
since Annelids, Molluscs, and even Echinoderms had organs of 
the same kind. Tliat some of the tissues should agree minutely 
in two of the phyla was not suggestive of special affinity, since 
many of the tissues agreed in most of the larger phyla. Sir Eay 
Lankester held and he desired to state it without any offence, 
that in searching by long and strenuous enquiry for evidence in 
favour of such a hypothesis as that adopted by Dr. Gaskell, the 
mind is liable to a kind of " suggestion," and that the psycho- 
logical condition may become similar to that of those wdio too 
readily admit all sorts of coincidences as evidence that Bacon 
wrote the plays of Shakespeare. The heroic nature of the task 
which it is sought to accomplish undoubtedly in many enterprising 
and devoted investigators has re-acted unfavourably on the 

40 pROCEr-mNGs of thk 

judgment. All are liable to it and it may be that something of 
till' kind is here at work. Though he could not follow Dr. Graskell 
in the theory put forward by him as to the origin of Vertebrates, he 
recognised very gratefully the value of the observations on many 
details of structure to which it had led that distinguished physio- 
logist, and also the new observations which it had called forth on 
tlie ])art of other naturalists, such as the interesting additions to 
our knowledge of tlie head-shield and the body-scales of Gcplial- 
a^pis which had just been placed before the meeting by Dr. Smith 
Woodward. Jle thought the Society was to be congratulated on 
n very interesting debate. (In the further course of the discussion 
Sir Kay Lankester stated that whilst he considered Amphioxus 
and the Ascidian tadpole to present in many points of structure 
a very much more primitive phase of the Vertebrate group than 
do either Lampreys or Pishes, he held that they were also specially 
modified and degenerate each in its own way, and were not closely 
representative of tbe main line of descent, lie considered that 
the remains of the earliest known fossil fishes, on account of their 
necessardy incomplete condition. Avere not capable of throwing 
much light on the question of Vertebrate ancestry. He was led 
to the conclusion that Balanoglosms threw some light on the 
subject, and he drew attention to the remarkably complex brain 
and cerebral respiratory pits of the Nemertine worms and the 
dorsal median as well as lateral nerve-cords of those creatures, 
which had led Hubrecht long ago to suggest their close connection 
with the remote ancestors of A^ertebrates. A large survey of the 
facts of animal structure, even including that of unfamiliar marine 
worms, was necessary in order to form a reasonable judgment on 
the question of Vertebrate ancestry.) 

Dr. P. Chalmers Mitchell, F.E.S., T.L.S., remarked that con- 
sideration of the general morphology of the nervous system enables 
us to place the Vertebrates in their true perspective amongst 
the various Invertebrate groups. In the Ca?lentera, as shown by 
the Hertwigs, the nervous system frequently appears as a diffuse 
layer of cells and fibres underlying, and in close connection 
with, the epidermis, whilst there is much evidence that a 
similar primitive condition underlies the various presentations 
of the nervous system in higher groups. Even amongst the 
Ccelentera, two processes coincideutly or independently result 
in modification of the primitive simplicity. The original diffuse 
layer may become thickened in definite regions, forming, for 
instance, rings round apertures or radial bands, whilst in tlie 
intervening areas it may be obliterated. The thickened bands or 
rings may migrate inwards and lose their intimate connection 
with the epidermis. Similar processes varying in position and 
extent of their incidence have led to many different arrangements 
of tlie nervous system in the higher groups. 

In tlu! Turbellaria, inward migration has taken place, and two 
ventro-lateral cords have been formed. 


In tlie Trematodes, inward migration baa taken place, and there 
are six cords, two dorsal, two ventral, and two lateral, with a 
network of connecting cords, some of which form a series of 
hoop-like rings. 

In the Cestodes there is less inward migration, whilst there are 
two lateral cords with occasional transverse connections. 

In the Nemertines, sometimes there is no inward migration, so 
that the nerve-strands remain strictly snb-epidernial ; sometimes 
the strands have completely separated. Tlie primitive continuons 
sheath is frequently retained with two lateral and sometimes one 
dorsal thickening. 

In the Nematodes also the extent to which inward migration 
has taken place varies very much, in some cases the sub-epidermal 
position being retained. Six strands occur in many forms, one 
dorsal, one ventral, and two at each side ; these are connected by 
traces of the primitive continuous sheath in tlie form of a very 
broad anterior hoop, and narrow posterior strands. A different 
arrangement of these antero-posterior strands occurs in front of 
the nerve-collar. 

In Gordius, inward migration has occurred and there are three 
ventral strands. 

In Arthropods, the inward migration and separation from the 
epidermis are complete, and there are two ventral bands with an 
anteriorly placed collar. 

In Balanoyloss^is, there is a continuous sub-epidermal sheath 
which has not migrated inwards, and special dorsal and ventral 
thickenings, and also in the collar region the very interesting 
short neural tube with anterior and posi;erior neuropore formed 
by invagination. 

In Chordates, there is a single dorsal band which migrates in- 
wards, whilst the outgrowing segmental nerves may be taken as 
specialized representatives of the continuous sheath. 

Erom the point of view of the general morphology of the 
nervous system, therefore, the Chordate or Vertebrate group 
exhibits simply one of a large series of different modes of spe- 
cialization of the primitive diffuse, sub-epidermal sheath. 

In quite a number of these different experiments, the processes 
of segmentation and of cephalization with the formation of a brain 
have occurred independently, and have produced analogical or 
homoplastic structures. The elaborate comparison of the results 
of the processes of cephalization and segmentation in Ammocoetes 
and higher Vertebrates with those of the Arthropods are meaning- 
less unless we suppose that Ampliioxus has passed through such a 
stage and has lost all traces of it ; it is a simpler supposition that 
the higher Vertebrates have independently acquired the results of 
cephalization after having passed through a stage of which Amphi- 
oxus is the nearest living although specialized and degenerate 

As Prof. Gaskell has laid so much stress on comparison between 


the brain and central nervous system of Artliropods and Verte- 
brates, It IS interesting to notice that C. Judson Jlenick, another 
distinguished physiologist and psychologist, has recently compared 
the two sets of organs (Address cf the Chairman of the Section 
/oology ; American Association for the Advancement of Science, 
190S), prnitnj in 'Science,' 1910, p. 7). Professor Herrick, 
reviewing tiie subject without reference to any theory of ori^rin, 
comes to the conclusions that the psychological procf'sses" of 
Arthwpods and Vertebrates differ totallv ; that the difference of 
Junction IS correlated with a fundamental difference of type under- 
lying all superlicial resemblances, and which was " foreshadowed 
lar back among the ancestral crawling things in which no truly 
vertebrate character was manifest, foreshadowed merely bv a 
structural type with different latent potencies." 

Professor Stanley Gabdixer, F.E.S., F.L.S., said :— Of the 
many speakers only Dr. Gaskell has put forward a connected theory 
which the rest have merely attempted to destroy. Their alter- 
native plan IS by a line of evolution through JmpMoxus, but they 
do not attempt to show us how this beast may have been produced. 
Lnlortunately in the whole question of the Origin of Vertebrates 
we have very few real facts upon which to base our views. Such 
facts, so far as I can see, will be obtained from the study of 
extinct forms, and it is a most curious fact that nowhere 'hns 
Palaeontology yet shown a series of transitional tvpes between 
distant groups. We have to content ourselves with conclusions 
from analogies and proofs by j^^'ohahilities. We largely study 
existing forms. The danger of this is \yell exemplified when 
we consider the relations of Keptiles to Mammals. Both groups 
as existing now must largely be traced to Theromorphs, of Avhich, 
following Cope, minute and relatively punv forms probably br.incbed 
off into each of the two ph via. Applying the ordinary terminology 
ot Cope, it may be said that existing Reptiles have regressed and 
that existing Mammals have progressed. AVe may now consider 
this line as fairly weW established by analogies and p^rohahilities, 
and it appears to me that it is a line almost of facts to which we 
can appeal with considerable certainty for zoological canons. If 
there is one point more than another which it shows it is surely 
the paramount importance of considering the condition of the 
central nervoi;s system a test of progression, as Dr. Gaskell 
maintains. It demonstrates with certainty that his deductions 
from the brains of living Vertebrates, as such a test, are absolutely 
justified. In opposition to Professor Dendy I should claim that 
the central nervous system is the best organ on which to trace 
the changes of evolution. It governs every organ in the body, 
and it must reflect in its own structure every change which those 
organs undergo, every act of progression. 

Turning to Amphibia, we have no indications of their real 
origin, and we have still less when we come to the Fishes. The 


Leptocardia and the Marsipobrancbia are M'itb no certainty repre- 
sented in the fossil state. The}^ are derived from an ancestor far 
more ancient than the Theromorplis, and any comparison of 
existing forms, supposed to have been derived from this ancestor, 
might well show vastly greater differences than between say 
Primates and Lacertilia, or even Primates and Pisces. 

The weakest part of the MacBride-Goodrich argument the other 
night lies in their consideration of Amphiodus as a simple primi- 
tive A'^ertebrate. Whatever Amphioxxis may be, it is surely not in 
the main stem of the Vertebral e descent, and it is certainly a verv 
specialized form. To argue, as Goodrich did, that the presence of 
priuiitive excretory cells (soleuocytes) in Amphioxus proves it to 
be primitive, and related to the Annelids, comes to the same 
thing as claiming that Phoronis is also an Annelid, because its 
larva has similar cells. 

Examining both the above groups, and applying " every canon of 
Biology," we must, I conceive, regard Ampjliioxus as equally typical 
of regression as is any beast that exists in the Animal Kingdom, 
while the Marsipobrancbia as typically show progression. 
Looking at the groups from this point of view the Leptocardia 
may be cast aside from our discussion as unprofitable, and we can 
turn with certainty to considering tlie morphology of Marsipo- 
brancbs for some guide to the evolution of Vertebrates. 

It is not my desire to draw your attention to the series of facts, 
both physiological and morphological, discovered by Dr. Gaskell 
in his extensive comparison of the higher Invertebrates with the 
lower Vertebrates. They present an extraordinary series of 
analogies and probabilities which cannot be lightly passed 
over, and, even if his views be ultimately rejected by palaeonto- 
logical discoveries, will for ever make Zoologists indebted to 
him for drawing their attention to a fresh and broader aspect 
in which to consider their science. Of his comparisons I would 
particularly draw attention to that between the internal cartila- 
ginous skeleton of Limulus and that of Animocoetcs, the skeleton 
being a part which, judging from fossil and living Vertebrates, 
seems to retain for the longest period traces of all its developments, 
"earmarks," as Osborne terms them. I might refer also to the 
infundibulum, the commissures of the brain, the thyroid, the 
auditory apparatus, and the existence of giant fibres and cells in 
the nervous system. By far the simplest way to explain this 
extraordinary series of coincidences between the organs of different 
forms is to suppose that they are due to a common inheritance, 

I would turn now rather to the difHculties which beset the view, 
and by far the chief of these must be deemed to be that relating 
to the alimentary canal. To get that of Petromyzon from that of 
Ammocoetes we have an entirely new formation of quite startling 
character. This is a fact, and accepting it as such we can proceed 
with our minds moi'e open, I think, to consider how a gut in 
Vertebrates came into existence. Professor MacBride is quite 


llaeckelian in his vieu s of the gastrula-or at least of the gerin- 
layer theory, which he cLii.n.s to he stron-er than ever. If there 
IS a real hiiuhiiiMMitiilly important separation such as he claims 
betvveen the germ hiyers, it la quite incouceivabJe that there could 
be torm(Hl cells of one layer from those of another layer. In 
regeneration of tissues we have clear evidence that ectoderm can 
lorm me.stKlerm and endoderm, that endoderm can form ectoderm 
and mesot erm. Mesoderm is not very happy in its formation of 
the other layers, but Dendy has shown that in Anledon the endo- 
derm can come from ectoderm and from mesod<;rm. 

I would altogether dissent from .Sir Eay Lankester's line of 
evolution from the gastrnla. I am inclined myself at present to 
regiml the Annelids as coming from some Actinian-like ancestor. 
In this, as in a 1 Actinia, the secreting digestive epithelium, that 
ot the stomodtcum and mesenterial filaments, is derived from 
(grows down from) the ectoderm after the whole of the gastro- 
vascular cavity is lined by an epithelium which is capable of 
ingestion but not of extracellular digestion. My own work is 
not suihciently advanced perhaps for me to make this statement 
but such were the indications I obtained. The lining epithelium 
ot the cavity would be equivalent to and homologous with the 
endoderm ot I/i/dra, and it would form the mesoderm of three- 
layered animals, the endoderm being an entirely new formation 
1 am aware that there are great, even insurmountable, difficulties 
in respect to this view, but the ectoderm and endoderm of higher 
forms appear to me to be far more intimately related in their 
functions than are either of them to the mesoderm. 

In the experimental work of Driesch, Wilson, and others, we 
get into a maze of difficulties in regard to the preformationist 
hvpothesis. Blastomeres, it is clear, are to a large degree inter- 
changeable. Incidentally, a fourth blastomere gives a gastrnla in 
Am2)hio,vus. Again, in budding there are difficulties with this 
theory, the gut of some budded-olf Polyzoa being formed from 
mesoderm, while of Tunicates, supposed relations of the Verte- 
brates, GlaveUma buds from the endoderm and Botryllus from the 
ectoderm, giving ectoderm and endoderm respectively ; and do not 
some Sponges turn inside out to give the adult ? 

I need scarcely go further into the question of the germ-layer 
theory. The confusion when it is applied to Vertebrates is 
obvious, and we get everywhere involved in difficulties in Inverte- 
brates. If the gastrnla be a general stage on which great stress 
IS to be laid, it necessarily might be supposed that the stages up 
to It should be the same, while actually in the segmenting e^gs we 
get the most diverse fates for the individual cells. " 

On the whole it is abundantly clear, it appears to me, that it is 
the nurture as well as the nature of the individual organs which is 
to be discussed. The law of recapitulation in embrvology has only 
a limited applicability. Surely the transitory characters are at 
best only a very partial reminiscence of the structural types 



tlu'ough which the adult may be supposed to liave passed during 
the geological ages. In all these stages the embryo has itself been 
subject to specialisation. 1 think that where Dr. Gaskell errs is 
in laying too much stress on many details of the recapitulation 
hypothesis. Some of his resemblances I can conceive might be 
due to convergent or adaptive evolution, acting upon lines almost 
infinitely long before the common ancestor is reached. Yet there 
remains such a mass of hard analogy, borne out too by the most 
careful physiological and morphological investigation, a mass 
which cannot be put forward — or even a tithe of it put forward — 
by the exponents of any other view, that one is inclined to doubt 
the presence of adaptive evolution at all in this cose. Although I 
should feel it to be "non-proven," I cannot but regard it as by far 
the most striking view of the origin of Vertebrates that has yet 
been expounded. 

Morphologists must carefully consider whether they may 7iot be 
holding on to shibboleths, and wilfully blinding their eyes to the 
great mass of facts, many largely physiological, which has in 
recent years been accumulated. Is it not just as necessarv for 
the zoologist, who wishes to consider these great questions, to be 
a physiologist as it is for the latter to be a morphologist ? If it is 
desired to prove Dr. Gaskell's hypothesis wrong, his points must 
be taken fact by fact to see where they lead — as indeed barristers 
do with evidence in our courts. If it is desired to prove some 
other theory right, it must likewise be taken fact by fact, and no 
one can, as some try to do at present, consider the natui'e of any 
beast without any examination nito its nurture. 

The Eev. T. E. E. Stebbixg, F.E.S., F.L.S., said : Mr. President, 
may I be allowed for a few moments to intervene on behalf of 
those among us who may describe themselves as the know-nothino- 
section of the audience, persons not a few who are committed to 
neither side in ihe controversy? When we return home and our 
friends gleefully enquire, " What then has been decided as to the 
Origin of Vez'tebrates ?," so far we seem to have no reply readv 
except that the disputants agreed on one single point, namely, 
that their opponents were all in the wrong. It occurs to me to 
illustrate the position by propounding another enigma. What is 
the origin ot arguments ? Take an example. Suppose a company 
in which some pedantic ai'ithmetician asserts that two and three 
invariably make five. To those who like myself easily fall in 
with, the views of the last speaker, the statement appears incon- 
trovertible. But in some brains any positive declaration at once 
sets up what may be called an intellectual wriggle. This process 
soon enables the contradictory person to point out that two and 
three sometimes make six and sometimes minus one or plus one 
as well as two-thirds of one or one and a half. Since one opera- 
tion in arithmetic is as good as another, if not a great deal better 
it follows that two and three do not invariably make five ; far from 
it. Thus the wriggling of the brain originates argument. 


I iicidoutally I may refer to two points raised by those w ho object 
to connecting the origin of Vertebrates with the Arthropoda. It 
was represented that the cliitinous envelope of the latter' was 
prohibitive of cilia. The delicate auditory cilia of Crustaceans are 
well known to carcinologists, but I am warned by intelligible 
signals that the term cilia is variously applied in dilf.^rent branches 
01 Natural History. Another objection was founded on the diffi- 
culty of believing in the transfer of function one or^^an to 
anoth'-r, as required by Dr. Gaskell's hypothesis. Jiut on this 
head the ingenuity of A'ature seems to have been signally 
vindicated by the lato Professor Gegenbaur, who showed how one 
part of an animal organism, in proportion as it went out of servic3 
for one function, could be appropriated for another. 

Now, on the general question we have admired Dr. Smith 
AV'oodward's interesting account of the earliest fossil fishes. But 
these are accepted Vertebrates. For the origin of Vertebrates we 
must go back to something that is not a Vertebrate, such as may 
have existed perhaps far back in the Laurentian period. Imagine 
some soft, more or less elongated, animal organism wriggling about 
in the primeval sea. Then, as now, tlie hard conditions°of the 
AVorld demanded some sort of hardening on the part of living 
creatures. Some would find advantage in a stron^^er external 
coating, others in a strengthened central axis. ]iut in either ease 
the necessity of wriggling would often be paramount, giving rise 
on the one liand to a segmented exoskeleton, on the other to a 
jointed backbone. In these wrigglers, Mr. President, you have 
the origin of the Vertebrates,— a theory which it will be difficult 
to refute, as the supposed animals have liitherto revealed absolutely 
no relics. 

The President having called upon Dr. Gaskell to replv, that 
gentleman said : — 

It is impossible for me in the short time at my disposal to deal 
thoroughly with all the speakers in the two days' discussion. I will, 
however, do what I can. 

Prof. MacBride in his latest paper prefers, as he said many years 
ago, to attribute my explanation to my diabolical ingenuity." As 
I have stated in my book, there is absolutely no ingenuity on my 
part; given the one fixed point that the infundibulum represents 
the old oesophagus and the animal remains upright, all the resem- 
blances between the two groups of animals to which I have drawn 
attention, naturally follow. The devil is not in mv ingenuity but 
in Nature's facts. I can symuathize with MacBride, for surely 
there could not be a more diabolical trick than to create from a 
lowly organised unsegmented animal whole groups of animal's 
becoming more and more segmented, all characterised by the 
presence of an alimentary canal ventral to the nervous system, and 
then wipe them off the face of the earth, so that no trace of this 
setjuence of forms is left among li\ ing animals. Not content 


witli tliis, this diabolic agency lias left as the end result a 
segmented animal — the Vertebrate — in which with the greatest 
cunning he has not only made the supra-int'iindibiilar brain the 
exact counterpart of the supra-oesophageal and ths infra-infun- 
dibular of the infra-oesoi)hageal, but lias grouped that nervous 
system round a large epithelial bag, which has nothing to do with 
a nervous system, but most ingeniously has been put in the exact 
position of the cephalic stomach and oesophagus of the Arthropod 
animal. To complete the story and give it an artistic finish, this 
ingenious devil plants above the brain of the A^ertebrate impostor 
two median eyes exactly in the position of the two median eyes 
of the Palaeostracan. He does not put them therefor the purposes 
of sight, for they are fuuctionless and degenerate in all Vertebrates, 
but just for sheer mischief, and how he must have chuckled over 
the happy thought of making them partly degenerate in the lowest 
Vertebrates, for he well knew that in the Limulus and his con- 
temporaries they were already markedl)'' degenerate and that they 
were no longer the chief eyes but their place had been taken by 
the large lateral eyes. 

Prof. MacBride has asserted again, witliout giving instances, 
the statement so often made before, that 1 assume violent changes 
of function. Again and again 1 have denied it, and shown that I 
do not assume any such thing. Yet again 1 will go through tlie 
list of resemblances and ask where this statement of MacBride's is 
justified. The function and structure of the supra-infundibular 
brain is the same as that of the supra-oesophageal ganglia ; the 
two lateral eyes and the two median eyes are the same in the two 
groups ; the median nose has the same structure, the same nerves, 
and the same olfactory glomeruli in the two groups and even the 
slight difference, that the nasal tube in Ammoccetes opens dorsally 
and the olfactory passage in the Scorpion ventrally, vanishes after 
von Kupffer's demonstration that this Ammoccetes nasal tube 
originates as the tube of the hypophysis, which opens ventrally, 
and the dorsal position is due simply to the growth of the upper 
lip. Passing to the infra-oesophageal region, in both animals the 
anterior part is devoted to the organs of mastication and the 
posterior part to the organs of respiration ; there is no change of 
function here, and 1 have given the evidence to show how the 
actual masticating and respiratory organs of the one group have 
insensibly shifted into those of the other group. Where are the 
violent changes of function so far ? Then, if we pass into the 
spinal cord region, are we to look for them in the muscles or in 
the excretory oi'gans or in the coclomic cavities ? Why, the whole 
evidence is that they are the same in the two groups ; no sign of 
change violent or otherwise. 1 wonder what Prof. Macliride 
means. Surely this scathing indictment is not bused on the 
thyroid gland which, I must repeat yet again, is not a mucin 
secreting gland but is a gland of great importance to the well 
being ot the Vertebrate, apparently having something lo do with 


llio manipulntioii ol' iodine. Is anything known of the funclion 
of the corrfs])ondiiig gland in the Scorpion ? It may have the 
same function for aught I know. No! The oulv part of my 
theory which causes this assertion is that I have had the audacity 
to make a new gut and so go contrary to the laws of the germ- 
layer theory ; 1 am content to leave it at that: time will show, I 
lirmly believe, that the germ-layer theory is absolutely dead. 

1 come now to the observations of Goodrich ; he as well as 
MacBride seemed, to my astonishment, to hold the view that 
Amphinxus was on the direct line of ascent to the Cyclostomes, 
that between Amjihioxus and the Cyclostomes a brain had been 
developed with organs of sense, the eyes and nose. Surely this is 
a unique position ! All other morphologists look upon Amplnoxus 
as a degenerate animal, and degenerate in this precise direction. 
AV'hat conception has Goodrich of the evolutionary process, of the 
struggle for existenc(?, of the survival of the fittest ? Just consider 
it : here is a wretched animal without brains, without eyes, without 
a nose, victorious in the struggle for existence over the whole of 
the Invertebrate world. What is the di'iving force ; how could it 
have taken ])lace? Only, it seems to me, by some beneficent 
])ower taking special charge of him and assisting him iu the growth 
of brain and ot eyes and nose. 

If there is one thing certain, surely it is Gegenbaur's dictum 
that the brain part is older than the spinal part, and further, the 
study of neurology shows clearly that in all animals, w'hether 
vertebrate or invertebrate, the brain is built up in connection with 
the optic and olfactory senses. No, the Amphioxxis is not the 
ancestor of the Cyclostomes but, in my opinion, is closely related 
to the Cyclostomes as seen by its myomeres and the whole of the 
spinal region. After the Vertebrates had been well established 
the Amphioxus, in my opinion, arose by a process of degeneration 
from some ancestor of the Cyclostomes. Goodrich asserts that 
such a view is impossible, as no trace is seen in the development 
of the missing organs. Surely that argument is not good enough, 
for in the Tunicates, where a relationship with the Vertebrates is 
inferred from their development, such development is only found 
in certain members of the group and not in all. 

Smith Woodward gave us an interesting discourse on certain 
early fishes, but I did not gather whether he thought the evidence 
I had brought forward pointed to the Osteostraci being Cyclo- 
stomes, though I think he favours that view. He called Blrlenia, 
Lasthenla, and Thelochis Ostracoderms, and seemed to imply 
they were of the nature of Elasmobranchs. I cannot see why he 
called these scanty remains Ostracoderms, and would like to know 
whether, in his opinion, they were gnathostomatous, for the 
evidence is strongly in favour of the true Ostracoderms being 
clyclostomatous. In any case I see no difhculty in the presence 
of these forms, for surely it was likely enough that in the Upper 
Silurian seas some fish-like forms should have already progressed 


onwards in the Elasmobranch direction with shagreen scales and 
possibly jaws from the primitive agnathous condition. The 
question of the interpretation of the lateral markings on some of 
the head shields of these mailed lishes is a comparatively small 
matter. Smith Wood\^•ard agrees with me that they show the 
presence of segmentation in this region, but thinks they were 
branchial segments ; in my opinion, judging from Ammoccetes, 
they extend too far forward for branchiae, and I think they are 
more likely to have been due to the presence of muscles supplied 
by the trigeminal nerve. 

Coming to Lankester's speech I have a difficulty in finding any- 
thing to answer in it ; he spoke of cryptograms and of Bacon and 
Shakespeare : another suggestion akin to the diabolic ingenuity of 
MacBride which hardly requires any further answer than I have 
given. He said there was no resemblance between the lateral 
eyes of Vertebrates and Arthropods, but that is not the point ; it 
is not the dioptric apparatus upon which I was laying stress, but 
the retinal arrangements. It was the resemblance between this 
latter apparatus in the two groups upon which every observer 
from Berger to Parker has laid stress. 

Finally, I come to the remarks of Dendy. He referred to the 
drawing of the right pineal eye of Ammocoetes as drawn in my 
book as a diagram. That is not so: the left half of the drawing is 
from the actual specimen, the right half is ray interpretation of 
the meaning of the appeai'ance seen. In my paper in the Q. J. 
Micr. Science all the drawings are carefully drawn by Wilson from 
the actual specimens and are not in any way diagrams. He 
referred to the finding by Studnicka in the pineal eye of Amnio- 
ccetes of certain cells which he called ganglion cells. They are 
not arranged like an optic ganglion and are much more like the 
cells described in the median eye of Limulus by Lankester and 
Bourne, and called by them intrusive connective tissue cells. 
What these cells are I do not venture to assert ; in any case they 
are present both in the median eye of Limulus and of Ammocoetes. 
As to Geotria, I have explained in my book that the cells grouped 
round the atrium may be nerve-cells as asserted by Dendy, but 
they are found along the nerve from the ganf/Uon hahenulce to the 
eye. In the left eye of Ammocoetes the nerve has vanished and 
cells of the gcDic/lion habenulce run right into the eye. It is 
perfectly possible that Geotria represents an intermediate stage 
of degeneration between that of the right and left eyes of Ammo- 
coetes, especially seeing that a portion of the original cavity is cut 
off to form the atrium by the massing of the cells in question. 
As to the tube of the nervous system, Dendy, as well as all the 
other speakers on that side, find it very convenient to leave out 
the infundibular prolongation in their picture of the formation of 
an epithelial tube, an unfortunate omission as it happens to be 
the main point of my argument. Dendy's vie«- that the choroid 



plexuses form a respiratory organ for the brain is novel : I wonder 
what Dendy's conception of a respiratory organ is. 

In conclusion, I am grateful to the Linnean iSociety for allowing 
me to put my views before them, and only hope that all those 
who dissent from them will study for themselves organ by organ 
the resemblances between the two groups of animals and make 
up their minds whether they are accidental or, as I believe, 
tsignificant of a real relationship. 

The President said that at that hour of the evening, and after 
so brilliant a discussion, no one would expect a speech from a 
botanical Chairman, though much had been said of great general 
interest to all biologists. On the first evening Dr. Gaskell had 
directly appealed to the Chair with reference to his belief that 
•' each higher group of animals has arisen in succession from the 
highest race developed up to that time." At present he would 
only say that the evidence on the botanical side appeared not 
unfavourable to such a view ; perhaps he might have an oppor- 
tunity of returning to this question on the 24th of May. 

The President felt that any criticisms of his on the course of 
the discussion might well be dispensed with, for he had been 
anticipated by Prof. Stanley Gardiner, whose remarks appeared to 
him to agree, point for point, with those which would occur to the 
mind of any present-day botanist in listening to the discussion. 

It only remained for him to ask the Fellows to return their 
hearty thanks to Dr. Gaskell and all who had taken part in the 
discussion, for the intellectual entertainment they had provided. 

February 17th, 1910. 

Dr. D. H. Scott, M.A., F.R.S., President, in the Chair, 
succeeded by Mr. H. \V. Monckton, Treasurer & Vice-President. 

The Minutes of the General Meeting of the 3rd February, 1910, 
were read and confirmed. 

Mr. Henry John JefFery, A.E.C.S., was admitted a Fellow. 

Dr. Leonard Cockayne, Mr. Walter Ambrose Heath Harding, 
M.A. (Cantab.), and Miss Ida Margaret Hayward, were proposed 
as Fellows. 

Mr. W. T. Saxton, F.L.S., then gave an account of his 
recent investigations upon the anatomy of the genera Widdring- 
tonia, Endl., and Callitris, Vent., of which the following is an 


Evidence is broup;ht forward in this cominanicatioii to show 
(i) that WiddriiKjtonia and CaUitris do not conform to the 
" Cupressineae " type ; (ii) that Widdringtonia cannot be merged in 
the genus ddlitris, but must rank as a distinct genus. 

(i) The chief points in which these two genera differ from the 
Cu|)ressinece are as follows : — 

(a) The position of the Archegonia. In Cupressineae these 
are found at the apex of the prothallus, in Widdringtonia 
and CaUitris never at the apex. 
(h) The multinucleate prothallus cells. 

(c) The development of the proembryo. Eight free nuclei 
are not formed in these genera and the proembryo fills 
the archegonium. 
('/) At least, three embryos may be formed from a single 
Callitrine.e is suggested as a tribal name to include these two 
genera (possibly also Actinostrobus and Tetraclinis). 

(ii) Both morphological and anatomical differences are pointed 
out between CaUitris and Widdringtonia, which seem more than 
sufficient to warrant the retention of Widdringtonia as a separate 

Of the morphological differences the more important of those 
brought forward for the first time are : — 

{a) In Widdringtonia about 64 potential megaspore mother- 
cells are formed at the base of the nucellus. In CaUitris 
about two such cells are found, half way up the nucellus. 
(6) The number and arrangement of the Archegonia differ 

materially in the two genera. 
(<?) The microsporophyll normally bears 4 sporangia in Wid- 
dringtonia, 3 in CaUitris. 
Of the anatomical differences the most important is the occur- 
I'ence of thickenings of the cell-wall in connection with the 
bordered pits in both the wood and the transfusion tracheids of 
CaUitris ; these are not found in Widdringtonia. 

A discussion followed in which Prof. Farmer, Dr. Stapf, and 
the President engaged. 

Mr. George Maseee, F.L.S., followed with a lantern demon- 
stration of his researches entitled : — 

Eyoltjtion op Parasitism in Fungi. 

To understand clearly the evolution of parasitism it is important 
to grasp a fundamental point in the evolution of fungi generally. 
The most primitive forms were aquatic, and reproduced by zoo- 
spores which necessitated the presence of water to secure their 
dispersion. As the fungi gradually took possession of dry land, 
a second asexual or conidia form of reproduction, suitable for dis- 
persion by wind, &c., was gradually evolved. This supplementary 
conidial condition is always the form that has assumed a parasitic 



condition, the older sexual phase remaininf^ as a sapropliyte and 
developing when tho host is exhausted. Parasitism is mainly the 
outcome of opportunity : and the fact that fungi present all stages 
of parasitism, and that a saprophytic fungus can be educated to 
hecome a parasite, proves that parasitism is an acquired habit. 
Incipient or imperfectly evolved parasites promptly kill the host, 
and consequently curtail the ])eriod of their own existence, as 
Ft/thhcm De Baryanian. A higlier stage of parasitism is reached 
by many of the rusts and smuts, Ustilar/o aveyxp, &c., where the 
host is attacked as a seedling, and is stimulated to an unusual 
condition of growth throughout its normal period of growth. 
]\f ore advanced parasites show a tendency to arrest the production 
of spores and conidia, and to perpetuate tliemselves by perennial 
mycelium located in some perennial vegetati\e portion of the host 
(root, tubers, &:c.) or in the seed. In the most highly evolved 
parasites reproductive bodies are entirely arrested, and the parasite 
is perpi^tiiated by hybernating mycelium only. 

In the discussion which followed the speakers were Mr. H. W. 
Monckton, V.-P., Miss A. L. Smith, Dr. Helen Fraser, and Prof. 
Dendy, Mr. Massee replying. 

The following papers (communicated by Prof. J. Stanley 
G.^RL)iNKn, ]\[.A., iMi.S., F.L.S.) were read : — 

1. " The Orneodidte and Pteroplioridae of the Seychelles Expe- 

dition." By T. B. Fletcher, E.N., F.E.S. ' 

2. " Die von Herrn Hugh Scott auf den Seychellen gesammelten 

Embiidinen, Coniopterygiden, uud Hemerobiideu." By 


3. " Die Termiten der Seychellen-Kegion." By Dr. Nils F. 


4. " On the Land and Amphibious Decapoda of Aldabra." By 


March 3rd, 1910. 

Mr. H. W. Monckton, Treasurer and Vice-President, 
in the Chair. 

The Minutes of the General Meeting of the 17th February, 
1910, were read and confirmed. 

Mr. Hugh Scott was admitted a Fellow. 

Miss Winifred Elsie Brenchley B.Sc. (Lond.), Mr. James 
Meikle Brown, B.Sc. (Lond. & Sheff.), and Mr. Hayward Eadcliffe 
Darlington, M.A., LL.M. (Cantab.), were proposed as Fellows. 

Mr, W. BiCKERTON, F.Z.S., M.B.O.U., gave a lantern lecture 


on " Our British Nesting Terns," illustrated by about 110 photo- 
graphs taken by him direct from nature, of all the British species. 
At the conclusion of the lecture, the Chairman, after remarking 
upon the interest of the subject, and the excellence of the slides, 
moved a vote of thanks to the Lecturer, which Avas carried by 

March 17th, 1910. 

Dr. I). H. Scott, M.A., F.R.S., President, in the Chair. 

The Minutes of the General Meeting of the 3rd March, 1910, 
were read and confirmed. 

Dr. Harry Drinkwater, Mr. Frederick Hamilton Davey, and 
Lady Isabel Browne were admitted Fellows. 

Miss Nellie Bancroft, Mr. Sidney Guest, and Mr. John Charles 
Wilson were proposed as Fellows. 

Dr. Leonard Cockayne, Mr. Walter Ambrose Heath Harding, 
M.A., and Miss Ida Margaret Hayward were elected Fellows. 

Dr. Harry Drinkwater, F.L.S., showed specimens of drawings 
in distemper on coloured paper, of wild-flowers growing at Wrex- 
ham ; his object was to draw every plant in the local flora natural 
size, and he had completed 300, leaving about 500 still to be 

Dr. Otto Stapf, F.R.S., Sec.L.S., on behalf of the Director, 
Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, exhibited specimens of Eysenhardtia 
amorplioides, H. B. & K., and demonstrated the exquisite fluor- 
escence of the infusion of the wood of the plant (as described by 
him in the Kew ' Bulletin,' 1907, no. 7, pp. 293-305) by the aid 
of the electric arc-light of the optical lantern. 

The Rev. T. R. R. Stebbing, F.L.S.,Prof. Dendy, and Mr. Shen- 
stone contributed additional observations. 

Mr. J. H. Holland, F.L.S., also on behalf of the Director of Kew, 
showed samples of Soy Beau, Ghjciae Soja, Sieb. & Zucc. (G. Ms- 
pida, Maxim.), with herbarium specimens of the plant producing 
this seed. 

He stated that the seeds of " Soy," of which there are many 
varieties, maybe black, brown, green or greenish-yellow, yellow, or 
mottled ; sometimes seeds are described as white, but there appears 
to be no Soy bean true white in colour. 

The plant is variously known as " Soy,'' " Soja,"' " Soya," 
" White Gram," "American Coffee Berry," and " China Bean." 

In China and Japan, wliere the plant has been cultivated for 
many years — perhaps centuries — the beans are an important food, 


and they are also said to be used as a substitute for coffee. Bean 
Cake and the sauce known comniercially as "Soy" is also made 
from them. It is stated that in the nianufacture of the Soy of 
Commerce, in addition to the beans, the requirements are simply 
a large amount of salt and flour, and an unlimited supply of fresh 
water. Wenchow is an imj)ortant centre of the manufacture, and 
here the bean used for the purpose is said to be chiefly the white 
form from Chinkiang. 

The cultivation has been extended to India, Africa, and other 
warm countries, and in America the plant has been grown for a 
number of years (25 at least) as a forage crop. Like many other 
leguminous plants, it has a s|)ecial value as a green manure. 

The principal use of the beans in this country is for the extrac- 
tion of the oil, of which they contain about 18 per cent, suitable 
for soap-making, and in general as a substitute for cotton-seed oil. 
The residue, after the extraction of oil, is suitable for feeding 
cattle, and for this purpose appears likely to become a serious 
competitor of cotton-seed cakes, sunflower-seed cakes, linseed cakes, 
&c. The beans can be bought in London at about £5 to £0 per 
ton ; the oil realises about £21 to £22 per ton, aiid the cake about 
£Q to =£7 per ton. 

Beans and bean-cake exported from China have gone chiefly to 
Japan, and certain ])arts of Asia, but recently, beginning about 
November 1908, an important trade has been developed in them, 
more especially with the beaiis, betw een Manchuria and Europe, 
Dairen (Dalny) being the chief place of export. 

The cause of this sudden development may, perhaps, be attri- 
buted to the facts that a great increase in the cultivation took 
place in Manchuria during the Eusso-Japanese war, to meet the 
demands for food of the Eussian Army ; then, when the troops 
were withdrawn, the production being found profitable, and the 
home demand reduced, other markets were sought. The trade 
extended to Japan, and afterwards, assisted perhaps by a period 
of depression in that country, it extended to Europe, where the 
industry has created interest in many quarters. 

The amount of the l!t08 crop sent to Europe through Vladi- 
vostok up to J uly 1909, was 1 80,000 tons, the greater part destined 
for the English market (Hull and Liverpool), and the i-emainder 
going to fterman (Hamburg) and Scandinavian ports. 

T7p to 1907 the export of Soy beans from Manchuria did not 
exceed 120,000 tons annually. During 1908 the export rose to 
330,000 tons (one half shipped from Dairen ; 100,000 tons from 
Newchang, and 65,000 tons by rail via Suifenho to Vladivostok), 
the increase it is said being due entirel}- to the demand from 
Europe. The total of the 1909 crop exported has been estimated 
at about 700,000 to 800,000 tons. It is anticipated that at 
present prices Europe may eventually take at least 1,000,000 tons 

Mr. Craib (Visitor), 'Mr. Bunzo Hayata (from Tokyo), and 
Dr. Stapf gave further details, and Mr. Holland rephed. He 


also brought for exhibition a series of 17 photographs showing the 
methods now used to bring Teak, Tectona grandis, Linn, f., from 
the Burma forests to the shipping ports. 

Mr. E. P. Stebbiug, Mr. J. S. Gamble, Mr. John Hopkinaon, 
the Eev. T. E. R. Stebbing, and Dr. A. P. Young, joined in the 
discussion, and Mr. Holland briefly replied. 

The following papers were read : — 

1. " On the Life-history of Cliermes himalaijeiisis on the Spruce 

(Picea Morinda) and Silver Fir (Abies Wehhiana) of the 
N.W. Himalaya." By E. P. Stebbing, F.L.S. 

2. " A Contribution Towards our Knowledge of the Neotropical 

Thysanoptera." By E. S. Bagnall, F.L.S. 

April 7th, 1910. 

Dr. D. H. Scott, M.A., F.R.S., President, in the Chair, 
succeeded by Mr. H. W. Monokton, Treasurer & Vice-President. 

The Minutes of the General Meeting of the 17th March, 1910, 
were read and confirmed. 

Miss Winifred Elsie Brenchlev, B.Sc. (Lond.), Mr. James 
Meikle Brown, B.Sc. (Loud. <fe Shelif.), and Mr. Hay ward Eadcliffe 
Darlington, M.A., LL.M. (Cantab.), were elected Fellows. 

The President announced that the Linnean Medal would be 
presented at the forthcoming Anniversary Meeting to Prof. G-eoeg 
OssiAN Saes, of Cliristiania, and the first presentation of the newly 
founded Trail Award for research on protoplasm, would be made 
on the same occasion to Prof. Edward Alfred Minchin, Professor 
of Protozoology in the L'^niversity of London. 

The following were recommended by the Council to serve as 
Auditors for the Treasurer's Accounts, and by show of hands 
duly elected : — 

For the Council : Prof. J. P. Hill and Mr. John Hopkiicson. 
For the Fellows : Mr. Herbert Druce and Mr. James (3-botes. 

The Genex'al Secretary exhibited a fruit recently bought by 
Mr. William P. D. Stebbing at a fruiterers in Jermyn Street, of 
unassigned origin, with tlie native name of " Cupu-assu.'"' This 
name appears in the ' Flora brasiliensis ' as applied to Theohroma 
grandijlora. Sebum., a congener of tlie plant yielding chocolate, 
T. Cacao, Linn. Prof. J. W. H. Trail remarked that " Cupua " 
was the native Brazilian name f<ir plants of that genus, and that 
" assu " meant large. Mr. T. A. Sprague exhibited two specimens 
from the Museum of the Eoyal Botanic Gardens, Kew, which 


were strikingly diverse in form, but he yet believed them to be the 
same species. 

The following papers w ere read : — 

1. " Elm Seedlings showing Mendelian Besults." By Auqustinb 

Henry, M.A., F.L.S. 

2, " Foraminifera and Ostracoda from Funafuti." ByFREDEEiCK 

Chapman, A.L.S. 

April 21st, 1910. 
Dr. D. H. Scott, M.A., F.R.S., President, in the Chair. 

The Minutes of the General Meeting of the 7th April, 1910, 
were read and confirmed. 

Miss Winifred Elsie Brenchley, B.Sc. (Lond.), was admitted a 

Mr. Henry Smith Holden, B.Sc, Mr. Charles William Mally, 
M.Sc. (Iowa), Mr. Sydney Gross Paine, and Mr. Percv Alfred 
Talbot, B.A. (Oxon.), F.R.A.S., were proposed as Fellows. 

Miss Nellie Bancroft, Mr. Sidney Guest, and Mr. John Charles 
Wilson, were severally balloted for and elected Fellows. 

The President having explained that Mr. JoHX Hopkixson, who 
had been elected an Auditor at the last Meeting, could not take 
part in the Audit, Mr. Leonabd Alfred Boodle was proposed in 
his stead, and, by show of hands, unanimously elected. 

Mr. John Hopkinsox, F.L.S., exhibited eight coloured plates, 
in quarto, of British Nudibranchs, which will be shortly issued by 
the Ray Society, and explained that they were from drawings by 
Messrs. Alder and Hancock. 

Prof. Dendy and the Rev. T. R. R. Stebbing commented on 
these illustrations. 

The Rev. T. R. R, Stebbing drew attention toa " AVitch-knot" 
or " Witch-broom " on a Spruce Fir, Picm c.ccelsa. Link, from 
Walton-on-the-Hill. Surrey, where it had been detected by his 
nephew, Mr. William P. D. Stebbing. 

A discussion followed in which Mr. A. D. Cotton, Mr. H. W. 
Mouckton, Treasurer and Vice-President, Prof. F. W. Oliver, 
Mr. John Hopkinson, and the President took part. 

The following papers were read : — 

1. " The Anatomv of Welwitschia mirahilis, in the Seedling and 
Adult states." B7 Miss M. G. Sykes. (Communicated by 
Prof. H. H. W. Pearson, M.A., Sc.D., F.L.S.) 


L\ " Die von Herrn Hugh Scott iin Juli 1908-Marz 1909 auf 
den Seychellen gesammelten Anthom^'idae, mit den Gatt- 
ungeu lihinia uiid Idiella.'" By Prof. P. Stein. (Com- 
municated by Prof. J. Stanley G-ardinee, M.A., F.R.S., 

3. "The Dermaptera of the Seychelles." By Dr. M. Burr, 

F.L.S., F.E.S. 

4. '• The Pteropoda aud Heteropoda collected by the Percy 

Sladen Trust Expedition in the Indian Ocean." By Dr. J 
J. Tescii. (Communicated by Prof. J. Stanley Gardiner, 
M.A., F.R.S., F.L.S.) 

5. "Die Pilzmiieken Fauna der Seychellen.'' By Dr. G. En- 

DERLEiN. (Comuuinicated by the same.) 

May 5th, 1910. 
Prof. E. B. PouLTON, D.Sc, F.E.S. , Vice-President, in the Chair. 

The Minutes of the General Meeting of the 21st April, 1910, 
were read and confirmed. 

Mr. John Charles Wilson, Mr. Thomas Parkin, Mr. Walter 
Ambrose Heath Hai'ding, Mr. Robert Lawrence Heinig, and 
Mr. llltyd Buller Pole Evans were admitted Fellows. 

Mr. Cecil Hanbury was proposed as a Fellow. 

Mr. E. M. Holmes exhibited specimens of a rare British lichen, 
Pannelia rugosa, var. concentrica, Cromb., from the chalk hills 
between Eastbourne and Seaford, which had previously only been 
recorded from Melbury Hill near Shaftesbury in Dorset, where it 
was noticed in 1856 by Sir W. C. Trevelyan. This lichen grows 
in a concentric manner forming rounded nodules 1-2 inches in 
diameter, and is apparently formed at first on pebbles, but be- 
coming detached and blown about by strong winds, ultimately 
forms more or less spherical growths. 

He also exhibited specimens of the preserved fruits of a large 
variety of the Jujube, Zizi/phas Jajuha, which is cultivated in China 
as a dessert sweetmeat, aud is known by the name of " Mei-tsao," 
or honey-date. The fruits are preserved by boiling in honey, and 
are then pressed flat and dried and by mechanical means are given 
a striated appearance, having longitudinal lines from base to apex. 
The fruit has not as yet been imported into this country. It was 
received from Mr. McDougall of Swatow. 

Mr. Holmes also directed attention to a volume of water-colour 
and pencil drawings, from which the plates of the very scarce 
work Postel and liuprecht's ' lllustrationesAlgarum' had evidently 
been prepared, the majority representing the plates being reversed, 
but also included some algaj which had not been utilised. The 
work consisted of only 200 copies, and the plates had been 


destroyed by fire. Very few of these copies were held by private 
individuals, and the work, which was issued in 1840 at the price 
of £40, >vas hardly ever purchasable. The drawings shown were 
formerly in the possession of J\lr. E. Meinsliausen, of the Imperial 
Botanical Garden at Nt. Petersburg, and are now the property of 
the University of Birmingham. 

Dr. OiTO Staff,, Sec.L.S., exhibited specimens of Utri- 
cularia rifjida, Benj., from West Africa, and C. neottioides, St. Hil., 
from Brazil, the only known representatives of Kamienski's section 
Avesicaria, whicli is characterised by the absence of bladders. 
This condition seems to be correlated with the habitat of the plants, 
that is, rocks and stones submerged in running watfT. The plants 
are attached to the rocks or pebbles by modified clawlike rhizoids, 
very like the ' haptera ' of Podostemonacea;. The fertile stems are 
erect, bearing the flowers and fruits above the water. The 
assimilation-apparatus is submerged and consists of much-divided, 
in their ultimate divisions, capillary branches which resemble the 
' leaves ' of our native Utricularias. In U. riyida they seem 
always to spring from the base of the fertile stems and often 
attain a considerable length. Here and there they give rise to 
young fertile shoots which attach themselves by tlirowing out 
'haptera' from their bases. In r. neottioides, however, they also 
spring from the axils of the lower 3-5 scale-leaves of the flowering 
stems, and remain rather short. Xowhere is any trace of bladders 
to be found. The flowers are those of typical Utricularias. The 
capsules are small and open, in U. rigida at least, by lateral slits, 
the valves remaining united at the top for some time. The seeds 
of both species are rather peculiar in the genus in as fai- as they 
exude mucilage when wetted. The coat of mucilage thus formed 
helps them in becoming fixed in positions suitable for the growing 
plant. U. rifjida is known from the Sierra Leone coast to the 
head-\\aters of the Niger ; U. neottioides from the mountains of 
Brazil (Bahia, Goyaz. Minaes Geraes). Thus they form another 
link connecting the floras of AV'est Africa and Brazil. In habit 
these Utricularias resemble two other aquatic plants of tropical 
Africa also found in running water, namely Quartinia, a Lythracea, 
and Anr/olii'a, a Podostemonacea, of whicli specimens were shown. 

An animated discussion followed in which the following took 
part:— Mr. E. M. Holmes, the Eev. T. E. E. Stebbing, Prof. 
Dendy, Prof. Poulton, and Mr. Henry Groves, Dr. Stapf replying. 

Mr. E. N. AN'iLLiAMS brought up for exhibition fresh specimens 
of a straw-coloured variety of Lathrira S(/iia)naria, Linn., from 
Harefield, Middlesex, growing upon elm-roots ; the normal form 
grew also with it, but was earlier in its develo])ment than the 
variety now show n, and besides had the property of quickly turning 
black after being gathered, whilst the new variety retained its hue 
for more than 24 hours without much change ; it was distinct 
from the pure white variety nivea, known on the Continent. 


The General Secretary exhibited the Linaean MS. ' Spolia 
botanica ' dated 1729, to show that the name Linncea had been 
scratched out, and Htulbeckia substituted, in compliment to Prof. 
Oluf Eudbeck the Younger, in whose house he was then living as 
tutor. This shows that Linnaeus had early selected the plant 
which now bears his name, for he mentions two localities in 
Stenbrohult parish where it occurs, and that the choice of this 
plant to bear his name was not made when gathering specimens 
at Tugganforsen in Lyksele Lappmark. 

After this conclusion had been arrived at, and the erasure and 
substituted name shown to several Fellows on the 10th March, 
1910, the discovery was made that Dr. E. Ahrling had recorded the 
same, which had been overlooked as being in a note in his ' Carl 
von Linnes Uiigdomsskrifter,' i. pp. 92-93, of which the following 
is a translation : — '• As regards the name or word Eudbechia just 
employed, there is this peculiarity, that in the original manuscript 
the word was evidently written there after erasure, and of the 
first writing there remains a perfectly plain L such as Linnaeus 
usually wrote, altered to E. Perhaps this suggestion may be ven- 
tured, that Linna3us first wrote Linna'a, when he meant to keep 
these records to himself, but afterwards, when he dedicated them 
to Prof. L. Eoberg (into whose hands however the manuscript 
perhaps never came), he considered himself bound to protect 
himself against people's ridicule." 

Mr. H. W. Monckton and the Eev. T. E. E. Stebbing raised 
questions, which were replied to by the exhibitor. 

The following papers were read : — 

1. Eight months' Entomological collecting in the Seychelles." 

By H. Scott, E.L.S. 

2. " Some points in the Anatomy of the Larva of TijmJa 

maxiraa ; a contribution to our knowledge of the respira- 
tion and circulation in Insects." Bj' J. M. Bkown, F.L.S. 

May 24th, 1910. 
Anniversary Meeting. 

Dr. D. H. Scott, M.A., F.E.S., President, in the Chair. 

The Minutes of the General Meeting of the 5tli May, 1910, 
were read and confirmed. 

Before opening tlie business of the Meeting, the President spoke 
of the incalculable loss which the Society, in common with the 
whole Empire, had suffered by the death of His late Majesty 
King Edward, Patron of the Society. The grief universally felt 
had found expression in every quarter ; there was one remark 
however, which he, as President of the Society, would like to add. 


His late ^Majesty's great work, in maintaining the peace of the 
world, claimed in a special manner the gratitude of scientific men, 
for Peace was the greatest scientific interest. .Science, like genius, 
was of no country, and the maintenance of harmonious and 
friendly relations between all those nations among whom science 
was cultivated, was an essential condition for the advancement of 

The President then read from the Chair the following Loyal 
Addresses, which had been prepared by the Officers, and approved 
by the Council ; these were unanimously adopted, all present 
risiuii from their seats : — 

Co ti)t icing's iBost ercellent iBaiestp. 


fKo£it ©rafiou^ Sobtrcign, 

We, Your Majesty's most dutiful and loyal subjects, the 
President, Council, and Fellows of the Linnean Society of London 
in Anniversary Meeting assembled, humbly beg leave to offer our 
deepest and most heartfelt sympathy with Your Majesty in the 
great sorrow which has befallen You in the death of Your beloved 
Father, our late Sovereign Lord, King P]dwabd VII. Your 
Majesty's loss is our loss also, and is felt not only throughout the 
Empire over which His late Majesty ruled, but by the world 
at large. 

While thus expi'essing our sorrow, we ask leave, Sire, at the 
same time to tender to Your Majesty our unfeigned and heartfelt 
congratulations upon Your Majesty's accession to the Throne of 
Your Ancestors. 

The sympathetic interest, which Your Majesty has constantly 
manifested in all that concerns the progress of Science, encourages 
us to hope that Y'our Majesty will be graciously pleased to con- 
tinue to our Corporate Body, that beneficent Patronage which it 
has uninterruptedly enjoyed at the Hands of Your Majesty's 
lioyal Predecessors since the granting of our Cliarter in 1802. 

That Your Majesty's Eeign over a loyal, grateful, and loving 
people may be long and glorious, is our earnest wish and ardent 

Given under the Common Seal of the Society, this twentv-fourth 
day of May, in the year one thousand nine hundred and ten. 

L. S. AKTHUK DEXDY, ] . ^ 

B. UAYDON JACKSOX, / '^'^''^^'"''^^ ■ 

* (Dr. Stapk being abroad co.iUl not sign tlie addresses.) 


Co ^n iBost Cjccellent iWajestp 
(aueeu 9lleji:anlira. 



We, the President, Council, and Fellows of the Linnean 
Society ot London, in Anniversary Meeting assembled, remember- 
ing with heartfelt pride the high distinction which Your Majesty 
has conferred upon our Society in graciously consenting to become 
one of our Honorary Members, beg leave humbly to express our 
profound sorrow at the great and irreparable loss which has 
befallen Tour Majesty, the Royal House, and the Nation, in the 
death of our Beloved and Venerated Sovereign Lord, King Edwaiid 
the Seventh, our Patron, Whose Memory will ever be faithfully 
cherished by a grateful people. 

Given under the Common Seal of the Society, this twenty-fourth 
day of May, in the year one thousand nine hundred and ten. 

L. S. ARTHUR DENDY, i ^ . 

B. DAYHON JACKSON, J ^^^''^^«'''^*' 

Mr. Frank Armitage Potts was admitted a Fellow. 

Dr. Wilfred Fade Agar, M.A. (Cantab.), was proposed as a 

The Treasurer then brought forward the Annual Cash State- 
ment to the 30th April last, duly audited, and explained the 
various items. The statement was thereupon received and adopted 
(see pp. 62, 6^). 

The General Secretary laid his Annual Report before the 
Meeting : — 

Since the last Anniversary Meeting 18 Fellows had died, or 
their deaths been ascertained : — 

William Hadden Beeby. Robert Morton Middleton. 

Thomas William Bridge. The Marquess of Ripon. 

Woodyer Merricks Buckton. Edward Saunders. 

Edward Clapton. George Sharpe Saunders. 

Emmeline Crocker. James Ebenezer Saunders. 

William Henry Dallinger. Richard Bowdler Sharpe. 

William Hillhouse. ArthurErnestBousfield Steains. 

Walter Bessemer Longsdon. Sir Charles Strickland, Bt. 

Peter MacOwau. Edward Perceval Wrieht. 



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The deaths of four Foreign Meniber:^ liave also been recorded 

Alexander Agassiz. 
Anton Dohm. 

Emil Christian Hansen. 
Kakichi Mitsukuri. 

The followitig 13 Fellows have withdrawn :- 

Arthur James Dicks. 
John Basil Feildiug. 
Samuel Jennings. 
Samuel Lithgow. 
George Edward Lodge. 
Philip Walker Mackinnon. 
Frederick Gymer Parsons. 

Albert Henry Pawson. 
Henry Power. 
Selmar Schonland. 
George Swainson. 
Henry Sullivan Thomas. 
Lt.-Col. John William Yerbury. 

Mr. Alfred Woodward has been removed from the List by order 
of the Council. 

31 Fellows (of \\ hom 29 have qualified) and 1 Associate have 
been elected. 

The Librarian's report was then read, showing that during the 
past year there have been received an Donations from Private 
Individuals 75 volumes and 189 pamphlets. 

From the various Universities, Academies, and Scientific 
Societies, there have been received in exchange and otherwise 
336 volumes and 86 detached parts, besides 68 volumes and 15 
parts obtained by exchange and as donations from the Editors and 
Proprietors of independent periodicals. 

The Council at the recommendation of the Library Committee 
have sanctioned the purchase of 184 volumes and 91 parts of 
important works. 

The total additions to the Library are therefore 663 volumes 
and 381 separate parts. 

The number of books bound during the year is as follows : — 
In full morocco 8 volumes, in half morocco 217 volumes, in half 
calf 3 volumes, in full cloth 338 volumes, in Aellum 40 volumes, 
in buckram 15 volumes, in boards or half cloth 9 volumes. 
Relabelled (half morocco and cloth backs), 42 volumes. Total 
672 volumes. 

The General Secretary having read the Bye-Laws governing the 
elections, the President opened the business of the day, and the 
Fellows present proceeded to vote for the Council for the ensuing 

The Ballot having been closed, the President appointed the 
Eev. T. E. R. Stebbing, F.R.S., Prof. M. C Potter, and Mr. W. 
Fawcett, Scrutineers, who, having cast up the votes and reported 
to the President, he declared the Council to be elected as 
follows : — 


E. A. Newell Auber, M.A. : Henry Bury, M.A. ; Sir Frank 
Crisp; Prof. Arthur Dendy, D.Sc, 1\E..S. ; Prof. J. B. Farmer, 
F.R.S. ; Dr. G. Herbert Fowler ; Prof. J. Stanley Gardiner, 
F.R.S. ; Arthur W. Hill, M.A. ; Prof. J. P. Hill, M.A., D.Sc. ; 
John Hopkinson, F.G.S. ; Dr. B. Daydon Jackson ; Horace W. 
MoNCKTON, F.G.S.; Prof. Francis W. Oliter, F.E.S.; Prof. E. B. 
Poulton, F.R.S, ; Dr. A. B. Rendle, F.R.S. ; Dr. Walter George 
RiDEWooD ; Miss Edith R. Saunders ; Dr. Dukinfield H. Scott, 
F.R.S. ; Dr. Otto Stapf, F.R.S. ; Miss Ethel N". Thomas, B.Sc. 

The Ballot for the Officers having also been closed, the President 
appointed the same Scrutineers, who, having cast up the votes, 
reported to the President, who declared the result as follows : — 

President : Dr. Dukinfield H. Scott, M.A., F.R.S. 
Treasurer : Horace W. Monckton, F.G.S. 
Secretaries : Dr. B. Daydon Jackson, 

Prof. A. Dendy, D.Sc, F.R.S., 

Dr. Otto Staff, F.R.S. 

The President then referred in a few words to the losses the 
Society had sustained by death during the past year. He also 
announced to the Fellows the generous gift to the Society of =£200 
by Sir Frank Crisp, for the encouragement of Microscopical 
Research. The regulations adopted enjoin the award to be made 
by the Council at intervals of five years, for the best paper in our 
publications during the previous five years, contributed by our 
own Fellows, the first award to be made in May 1'J12, and its 
title to be the " Crisp Award for Microscopical Research." 

The Constitution of the Crisp Award for Microscopical Research 
is as follows : — 

1. The Award to be made at intervals of not less than five 

2. The Award to be given by the Council for the best paper 
dealing with Microscopical Research. 

3. The Award to be confined to Fellows and to work published 
by the Linnean Society since the previous award, and in the first 
case during the five years previous. 

4. The first Award to be given in May 1912. 

5. The Award to be paid out of the accrued interest on the 
■£200, and to be accompanied by a bronze medal similar to the 
Trail Medal, but bearing the words " Crisp Award for Micro- 
scopical Research." 

6. The fund to be invested in Metropolitan Water Board B 

7. With regard to the procedure in the event of the Award 
being withheld, the provisions of the Trail Awai'd to be followed . 

The President then delivered his Annual Address as follows : — 
LINN. see. proceedings. — SESSION 1909-1910. f 



I PROPOSE to take as the subject of my Address this year " Some 
Modern Ideas on the Course of Evolution of Plants " — an extensive 
field, no doubt, whicl) it will only be possible to sketch in the 
merest outline on an occasion like this. The bearing of recent 
investigations in Fossil Botauy on the problem will come in for a 
good deal of attention, but obviously it is impossible to limit oneself 
to this point of view. 

I do not intend, however, to enter with any freedom upon the 
regions of pure theory, in which we must include the great question 
of the origin of the Alternation of Generations, characteristic of 
the higher plants. 

Dr. Lang, it is true, in the remarkable paper which we discussed 
in February 1909, held out hopes of putting this question on an 
experimental basis ; it will be extremely interesting to see what 
comes of this suggestion when practically tested, but I think that 
much will always remain hypothetical. As Dr. Lang himself 
recognized, we can hardly hope to reconstruct the conditions under 
which the sexual and asexual phases first became differentiated, a 
process which must have taken place ages before the date of our 
earliest fossil records. 

I may venture, however, to state my conviction that the position 
of this question, so clearly put before us on the occasion referred 
to, IS now far more hopeful and stimulating to research than it 
was a few years back. Dr. Lang said : — " If this ontogenetic 
view is correct, we should be justified in seeking for correspondence 
in the vegetative organs, and possibly also in the reproductive 
organs, between two individuals of the same life-cycle. These 
correspondences — though between haploid and diploid individuals 
— I should term homologies, since they may amount to practical 
identity when the conditions of development are exactly the 
same " *. 

It is not very long since the idea of any homology between the 
sexual and asexual generations would have been scouted by our 
more orthodox morphologists ; even the heterodox would have 
hesitated to back their opinions so far as to seek for detailed 
correspondence. The old antithetic theory not only set up an 
impassable barrier between the two generations, it also shut off 
the vascular plants absolutely from everything below them. The 
sporophyte, i. e. the plant itself, was assumed to be a new inter- 
i-alation in the life-history, and could therefore never be compared 
with the plant in Thallophytes, which was supposed to belouo- 
to the other generation. jVow all this is changed — the Alga 
Dictyota has given the clue, for it shows us how the two 
alternating generations, the sexual and asexual, may be exactly 

* Discussion on "Alternation of G-enerations," ' New Phytoloeist," vol viii 
1909, p. 106. ■ ' 


alike, aud homologous one with the otlier in all their parts, iu cases 
where they are exposed to like conditions. 

Tims the idea has once more gained ground that the vascular 
plant — the sporophvte — like the gametophyte or prothallus, may 
itself be a modified thallus : iu this way the whole field of 
comparison between the higher plants and the Thallopliyta is 
once more opened up. This conception adds enormously to the 
interest of the older types of v^ascular plants, for there is now 
always the possibility that among them we may succeed in tracing 
their organs — leaf, stem, and root — a step or two nearer to their 
origin. There was never the remotest chance of this so long as 
the plant was supposed to be derived from a sporogonium, for it 
was obvious that the farther back we went in geological history, 
the less like a sporogonium did plants prove to be. 

As we shall presently see, the new views of alternation, 
involving the tlialloid origin of the vascular plant, have already 
proved fertile in evolutionary ideas ; the palaeontologist, however, 
will do well to maintain a cautious position with regard to the 
application of these conceptions to fossil plants. Though we may 
now have a tenable theory of the origin of vascular plants, and 
it is theoretically possible that we may be able to trace some of 
the stages iu their evolution from thalloid ancestors, it is yet 
extremely doubtful whether the fossil record goes far enough back 
to help us appreciably in such an attempt. It cannot be too 
strongly emphasized that the earliest known land-plants were 
already highly advanced and varied types, very far removed 
from any thalloid ancestr}^. It is possible that here and there 
a primitive character may have lingered, but the presumption is 
always against it. 

I shall therefore only touch on theories of the derivation of 
vascular plants in so far as they affect our views of the inter- 
relations of their main groups, for it is on questions of the latter 
kind that new light has been thrown by the investigations, largely 
palseobotanical, of the last few years. 

I may here refer to a remark of Dr. Gaskell's, iu his opening 
«peech in the discussion on the Origin of Vertebrates, to which 
we listened with such deep interest a month or two back. 
Dr. Graskell used these words : — " It seems to me highly probable 
that this same law of upward progress, viz., that each successive 
group has arisen from some member of the highest group existing 
at the time, holds good also for the Vegetable Kingdom, especially 
in view of the statement recently made that Phanerogaius arose 
from Cycads. I hope that the President may see his way to offer 
a few remarks on this aspect of the question " *. 

There was no time then to deal with Dr. Gaskell's point, and I 
promised to refer to it at the Anniversary Meeting. The question 

* Discussion on the Origin of Verteljrates, Proc. Linn, Soc, Session 122, 
1909-10, p. 12. 



raised is an interesting one, and it is worth while to consider how 
far Dr. Gaskell's sugj^estion is supported by palajobotanical and 
other data. 

For one thing, to return to a subject already touched on, the 
present trend of opinion on the origin of the alternating genera- 
tions is favourable to the hypothesis put before us by Dr. Gaskell. 
On the old antithetic view the plant (sporophyte) of the 
Vasculares was held to be derived from a sporogoniiim of the 
simplest type, the Liverwort liiccia, in which the asexual generation 
is merely a group of spores enclosed in an epidermis, affording 
the nearest analogy. Not only the higher IJryophyta, but all the 
more advanced Thallophyta were put on one side, their highly 
organized soma belonging, as it appeared, to the wrong generation ; 
the leading races of plants, so far as their principal phase, the 
sporophyte, is concerned, were supposed to have started de novo 
from the elaboration of a zygote — a fertilized ovum. 'I'he sexual 
generation of the ancestral form was also assumed to have been 
at a low grade of organization, as shown in the prothallus. Now, 
as we have seen, the somewhat academic belief that "the plant is 
nothing but a sporogonium " is being abandoned, and the reasonable 
doctrine that the cormophyte is a more highly differentiated 
thallophyte is beginning to prevail. On this view the proba- 
bilitv is that the Pteridophyta had their origin from the higher 

This, however, is of necessity all an hypothesis, far more 
probable than the former one, but still too much " in der Luft " 
to afford any very sure support to further hypotheses. Let us go 
on to the actual evidence. 

What do we know about the origin of " successive groups " of 
plants ? "\Ve are only concerned with the land-flora, for th« 
evolution of marine plants is entirely a question for the future. 
AVe can go back no further than the Devonian. At that period 
we have good evidence that the following main groups of vascular 
plants were already iu existence : — 

Lycopods (Club-mosses). 

Equisetales (Horse-tails). 



Pteridosperms (Seed-ferns). 


Of these six great groups the Pteridosperms and the Cordaitales 
must be accounted the highest, for they were seed-bearing plants. 
The successive groups of later origin were, essentially, three in 
number, namely, 




The first two groups appeared, so far as we know, about the 


same time, towards the end of the Palseozoic period — the Angio- 
■sperins much later, high up in the Mesozoic. 

The origin of the Cycadophyta (an enormously numerous, varied 
and advanced class in Mesozoic times) is generally admitted — they 
came from the Pteridosperms, or Cycatlotilices, to use the older 
name, to whicli Potonio and some others still adhere. Even 
Pi-of. Chodat *, who is inclined to break up the Pteridosperms, 
would admit that some of the plants grouped under that name 
were on the line of descent of the Cycadophytes. Hence that 
great and dominant class of Mesozoic plants appears to have been 
derived from a highly organized preceding group, and in fact from 
one of the two highest classes of Palaeozoic plants — a conclusion 
wholly favourable to Dr. Gaskell's view. 

The question as to the Conifers is far less simple. There are 
three theories in the field : — 

1. All Conifers may have come from Lycopods. 

2. All may liave come from Cordai tales. 

3. Part may have come from Lycopods and part from 


I am not going to enter into the controversy now, but we will 
see how tlie different views affect the question before us. 

If the Conifers as a whole were derived from the Palaeozoic 
Lycopods, tliey came from a very highly developed earlier group, 
though not from the highest. The Lycopod advocates now base 
their case to a great extent on Lepidocarpon — a Lycopod which 
had attained to the seed-bearing habit, or something very like it. 
Fiu-ther, the Lycopods, if not morphologically among the highest 
Palaeozoic plants, were probably the dominant class of that age, 
at least in the coal-forests. 80 that on this view the Conifers 
had, at any rate, a very distinguished ancestry. 

If, on tiie other hand, they sprang from the same stock with the 
Cordaitales, then they may perhaps claim as their ancestors the 
very highest of PalaBozoic plants. It is not likely, however, that 
the typical Cordaitete were themselves the direct progenitors of 
Conifers : they are too specialized — the fructifications of Cor- 
daiteae, for example, were decidedly more advanced than those of 
Araucarian Conifers. The plants from which, on this hypothesis, 
the Conifers were derived were perhaps less highly modified than 
the true Cordaiteae, such as Grand 'Eury and Renault investigated, 
though still very advanced types. 

If, again, the Conifers had a mixed ancestry (not that I regard 
such a view as really tenable), they could claim kindred partly with 
the morphologically highest, partly with the most dominant race 
of the earlier period. 

Thus, on any view, Dr. Gaskell's hypothesis finds support. 

The Grinkgoales, a group of some importance in Mesozoic ages, 

* " Pteropsides cles Temps Paleozoiques," Archives des Sci. Pliys. et Nat. 
t. XX vi. 1908, Geneva. 



might be separately considered. They are aliiidst certainly con- 
nected witli the Cordaitales, and indeed more cJosely than the 
true Coniferai. The Maidenhair trees are not, however, of much 
consequence for our immediate purpose, for they cannot really be 
called a higher group than the Cordaitales, but are merely slight 
moditications of an old and persistent type. 

We now come to the Angiosperms. Until quite recently 
no serious hypothesis as to their origin has heen in the field, 
for comparisons with Isoetes as regards some anatomical points, 
or with Sela<j'niella as regards the endosperm, were obviously the 
merest analogies at the best. There was a vague idea in the air 
that their origin may have been obscure, from small, unimportant 
plants, easily overlooked or not preserved : so that they migiit have 
existed for a long time as inconspicuous members of tlie flora, side 
by side with the dominant Cycadophyta and Conifers. 1 think 
this was the current idea uutil Wieland, and his apostles Arber 
and Parkin, showed how we might well have had the ancestors of 
Angiosperms (or something like them) in our hands all the time 
without knowing it — that is, they showed that the Mesozoie 
Cycadophytes themselves, more than any other group, betray 
affinity with the great x'ace which succeeded them. This im- 
portant conception was suggested by the discovery that the 
fructifications of Bennettitea\ the characteristic Mesozoie Cvca- 
dophytes, were organized essentially like the bisexual flowers of 
an Angiosperm, though, of course, with important differences 
in detail. The latest work has further strengthened the com- 
parison, and there are strong grounds for the hypothesis that 
the Angiosperms arose from a stock nearly allied to such 
Mesozoie Cycadophyta as the Bennettiteae. The view is by no 
means universally accepted : some botanists, as, for example. 
Miss IStopes and Prof. Fiijii in their recent work on the Cretaceous 
Flora of Japan, still incline to the opinion that the Angiosperms 
may have sprung from unknown herbaceous plants with a simple 
floral structure. AVe cannot enter on the discussion here, but 
the Cycadophyte theory of the origin of Angiosperms is at 
any rate tenable, and, if contirmed, will afford a strong support to 
Dr. Gaskell's theory. 

On the whole, though so much is still uncertain, one may safely 
say that the present tendency of botanical o])inion, determined 
chiefly by pala;obotanical discovery, is favourable to the belief 
that new advances in organization start from the highest, or 
rather from very high, preceding types. Probably the latter, 
more guarded way of putting the case is the better ; the highest, 
in the sense of the most differentiated types, may have been 
usually too far committed to special lines of adaptation to have 
afforded suitable material for new developments. 

As a type of modern opinion on the evolution of the higher 
plants, influenced by the conception of the thalloid origin of the 
Cormophyte, we may suitably take the views of Prof. Lignier. 


They were originally stated in bis paper on the Sphenophyllale* 
and Equisetales, published in l'J03 *, and have been more fully 
developed in his recent essay on the Morphological Evolution of 
the Vegetable Kingdom (]908)t. Prof. Liguier is a strong 
advocate of the homologous theory of alternating generations. 
He derives all tlie higher plants (Bryophyta and Yusculares) from 
a hypothetical group, his Prohepatics, in which the hfe-cycle 
embraced two phases — sporophyte and gametophyte, — which, he 
suggests, probably also existed in their marine ancestors, as is the 
case in tlie recent Dlcfuota. He supposes that in the Prohepatics 
the sexual and asexual individuals had a flat dichotonious thallus, 
and that they were a(]uatic or semi-aquatic in habit. Typical 
antheridia and archegonia may have already appeared at this 
early stage; the author refers to their long persistence through 
so many of the higher groups — an example, as Prof. Bailer has 
pointed out, of morphological stability dependent on adaptation. 
From the Prohepatic ancestors evolution proceeded in two main 
directions. In the Bryophyta the gametophvtic phase assumed 
the greater importance, vegetatively, while the sporophyte became 
reduced in relation to its parasitic lite. In the line of the 
Yasculares the reverse process went on : the gametophyte under- 
went progressive and ultimately extreme reduction, while the 
sporophytic phase showed an immense advance in vegetative 
organization, some of the branches of the thallus (cauloids) 
becoming specialized as organs of absorption, i. e. roots, which 
are acutely described as simply the. most ancient of rhizomes. 
He cites the Lycopods as still showing traces of the common origin 
of aerial cauloids and roots. 

Concurrently with this important differentiation of absorptive 
organs proceeded the no less momentous differentiation of an 
internal conducting system, by which these plants became 
vascular, and thus fully adapted to a terrestrial life. 

As the sporophyte thus attained a more and more exuberant 
growth, a new differentiation of its aerial parts set in. The 
original dichotonious branching of the thallus became, as Prof. 
Lignier puts it, " sympodised," certain branches becoming pre- 
dominant, and thus forming an (Lvis, while others were subordinated 
and constituted the beginnings of leaves. Here, however, a great 
distinction manifested itself, on which the main divisions of 
Prof. Lignier's system are based. In the Lycopodiaceae the 
sympodisation of the thallus never went very far, and true leaves 
(limited thallus-branches) \\ere never developed. The small 
leaves characteristic of the Lycopods — "phylloids," as our author 
calls them — are not thallus-branches at all, but have always 
been of the nature of appendages and are derived from lamellar 
hairs already present at the Prohepatic stage. They are 

* " Les Equisetales et Splienophyllales," Bull. Soc. Linu. de Noniiaiulie, 
ser. 5, t. vii. p. 9o. Caen, lOOo. 

t Cotiiptes Eendus de I'Assoc. Franc;, pour rAvaucenient des Sci. 1908, 
p. 530. 


comparable to the ampbigastria of tbe Marcbantias, and, indeed, 
to the leaves of the JJryophyta generally. 

On the other hand, in the early members of tbe Fern series 
the Hympodising process went on to a great extent, converting 
whole groups of thallus-brancbes (cauloids) into appendages, borne 
on the main supjjorting branches, and tlius leading to the final 
differentiation of the thai! us into stem and leaf. Small groups of 
terminal cauloids, forming part of the appendages, became 
flattened out into pinmdes ; a process which we can see exactly 
repeated in the modern Flora in plants which convert their 
branches into cladodes. Thus, according to our author, the Ferns 
and all the higher groups have true leai'es differentiated out of 
thallus-branches, while the Lycopods alone retain the simple 
primitive appendages, which they possess in common with the 
Bryophytes. Hence all plants above the Thallophytes are divided 
into Phylloide>is (Bryophytes and Lycopodineaj) and Piiylline.e 
(Ferns and all remaining classes of vascular plants). In the former, 
the assimilating organs are still the lamellar phylloids of the sup- 
posed Prohepatic ancestors ; in the latter they are true leaves, i. e. 
differentiated parts of the branch-system of the original tballus. 

The Bryophytes are gametophi/fic Phylloideiie, the Lycopodineae 
sporophiiiic Phylloideje, tbe phylloid appendages being borne in 
the former on tbe sexual, in the latter on the asexual individual. 
Thus Mosses and Club-mosses find themselves at last united in 
one main group I 

Prof. Lignier's idea is interesting. We see how a certain 
degree of ailinity (though a remote one) may conceivably still be 
traced between members of the Bryophyte and Pteridopbyte 
groups, which have been regarded as separated by th,e widest gap 
in tbe Vegetable Kingdom. But the point which more nearly 
concerns us is the separation of the Lycopods from tbe rest 
of the vascular plants. The possibility that tbe leaves of the 
Lycopods may be essentially different from those of the Ferns, is 
one which must have occurred to the minds of many botanists. 
I remember how, nearly thirty years ago, a walk through the 
Pern-houses at Kew suggested to me and to a botanical friend 
tie idea that the fronds of Ferns might be really branches, and 
the leaves of Lycopods scales, comparable to the ran)enta of 
Ferns. At that time, however, the relation of tbe Ferns to the 
higher classes of vascular plants was not recognized, so we 
never extended our idea to the leaves of Phanerogams. 

Fossil Botany tends to emphasize the isolation of the Lycopods, 
for it shows us no transition between the microphylly of this phylum 
and the megaphylly of other groups. On tbe contrary, it provides 
evidence, as Prof. Lignier has shown, that the apparent micro- 
phylly of certain classes (Equisetales and Conifers for example) is 
derived from a primitively megaphyllous condition. There is no 
indication that this applies to the Lycopods ; neither is there any 
appreciable evidence that their simple leaves ever became modified 


into anything more complex *. On the whole, Prof. Lignier's 
idea that the Lycopods stand apart from the rest of the Vasculares 
appears quite teuahle, though by no means proved. It is con- 
firmed by the simple relation between sporangium and sporophyll 
which prevails throughout the group, and by the fact that the 
Lycopods are the only vascular plants in which there is a want of 
sharp differentiation between root and shoot. The former 
character may not be a primitive one (Prof. Lignier himself 
regards tlie terminal position of the sporangium on a branch as 
the original ari-angement ; other botanists suggest the presence of 
a reduced sporangiophore) ; but the existence of so many transi- 
tional forms between root or rootlet and stem or leaf is a strong 
indication of a relatively primitive and isolated ])osition. 

I may here recall that Mr. Tansley has touched on the position 
of the Lycopods in a very illuminating way in the first and the 
last of his lectures on the Evolution of the Filicinean Vascular 
System t. He recognizes the peculiar cliaracter of their leaves, 
contrasting so sharply with the megaphylly of other Pteridophytes, 
but the explanation he suggests is different from Prof. Lignier's. 
He says that the Lycopods " may be independently derived from 
the primitive Propteridophytes by foliar specialisation of short 
undivided hranchlets of the thalliis, instead of ivJiole branch systems 
as in the Filicinean type " (p. 9). This, as he points out, would 
bring the Lycopods into line with the other Pteridophytes without 
assuming any extensive reduction, or abandoning, in this case, the 
thallus-branch theory of the leaf, which he regards as by far 
the most rational and convincing which has yet been suggested. 

I should like to dwell on the wonderfully instructive comparison 
which Mr. Tansley draws between the morphological construction 
of Selaginella and that of a Fern with its fronds, but must content 
myself with a couple of short quotations. " In Selaginella we 
have a very old if not a primitively microphyllous stock which 
modifies whole branch-s3'stems for assimilatimg purposes. The 
leaf itself is so small as to exercise no influence on the general 
conformation of the vascular system, and corresponds physio- 
logically with the ultimate pinnule or segment of the lamina in a 
fern-frond. But the branch-system as a whole retains its plas- 
ticity and becomes moulded on lines parallel with those of the 
fern-frond as a whole" (p. 135), "In the frond-like dorsiventral 
type of branch-system seen in some species of Selaginella we have 
in fact a kind of working model of the hypothetical thallus of the 
' pro-Lycopod,' the leaves representiug the ultimate assimilating 
branchlets, and the whole showing a convergence with a fern- 
frond hypothetically derived by integration of a whole thalloid 
branch-system'*' (p. 136). 

To return to Prof. Lignier. The Phylloideae are after all a 
limited group now, though so prominent in the Palaeozoic Floras. 

* The doubling of the vascular bundle in Siyil/oriopais is the only case in 
point, but does not seem to iiave led to anything iurther. 
t ' New rhytologist," Reprint, No. 2. Cambridge, 1908. 


The great mass of vascular plants, which he derives from the 
Primofilices (Mr. Arber's name for the early Ferns), belong to the 
Phyllineic, with true leaves, differentiated from tlialloid branches or 
system of branches, as already explained. He divides the Phylliuese 
into four groups : — 

1. The MacrophylIine£e. — Leaves large and dominant in com- 

parison with the stem. Primofilices and Ferns generally ; 
l'teridos|)erms or Cycadofilices ; Cycaduphyta. 

2. The Microphyllinea}. — Leaves reduced in comparison with 

the dominant stem. Cordaitea:; ; Ginkgoales ; Coniferae. 

3. The Mesophyllineie. — Leaves intermediate, as regards these 

relations, between groups 1 and 2. = Angiosperms. The 
latest developed of all the groups and the most higiily 
adapted to special conditions, sometimes simulating Macro- 
])livllinea^ {e. r/. Palms), sometimes MicrophvUinese {e. q. 

4. The Articulata?. — Allied to the Macrophyllinese, from which 

they became detached at the epoch of their ancestors, the 
Primofilices. Characterized by verticillate symmetry, pro- 
gressive reduction of leaves, radiate arrangement of leaflets, 
and tendency to multiply the planes of cauline symmetry. 
This includes the Equisetales, mainly, and the >Sphenophylls, 
wholly, a Palaeozoic group. 

It is at this point that Prof. Lignier's views have perhaps 
exercised the greatest influence on botanical opinion. A very 
few years ago it became customary to associate the Articulatcc 
with the Lycopods, for which fossil evidence seemed to speak, the 
characters in common being mainly anatomical. Prof. Jeffrey 
was the strongest advocate of this view , and, as is well known, 
divided all vascular plants into Lycopsida and Pteropsida ; the 
former including Lycopods, Equisetales and Sphenophylls, the' 
latter all other Yasculares. 

This classification was based partly on the microphylly of the 
Lycopsida, the megaphylly of the Pteropsida. and partly on certain 
anatomical characters closely connected with the relative dimen- 
sions of leaf and stem. Other characters also came in, and the 
position appeai-ed a strong one ; at any rate I was among those 
who adopted it for a time. I now think, however, that the 
Equisetales and Sphenophyllales have been shown by Prof. Lignier 
not to be really microphyllous at all, but to be derived by re- 
duction from plants with compound leaves of considerable size. 
The leaves of the Sphenophylls are generally of some complexity 
and often deeply divided — it is only their xegutents which have a 
simple character. Arch rocal ami tes — the oldi-st known member of 
the Equisetales — had compound, forked leaves, while in Pseudo- 
hornia, a Devonian representative of the Articulata?, the leaves 
were doubly compouuil, and were originally taken for fern-fronds. 
It seems clear from all this, and from the detailed arguments of 
Prof. Lignier, which I cannot now recapitulate, that the Articulata^^ 


when raicrophyllous, are only so by reduction, and consequently 
that the anatomical characters correlated with microphylly are 
not essential to the group. On the other hand, as we have seen, 
the Lycopods stand apart as a genuine microphyllous class, 
unconnected by any known transitions with the large-leaved phyla. 
At the same time one cannot admit any very close relationship 
between the Articulattc and the Ferns ; tlieir ancestors, though in 
all probability megaphyllous, may have been much less like Ferns 
than any of the known Primohlices. For these reasons, which I 
cannot now develop at greater length, it seems to nie clear that 
the attempt to divide Yasculares into two main series only must 
be given up, at least for the present. 

I have proposed a threefold division, into Pteropsida (Ferns and 
all Spermophyta), Sphenopsida (Equisetales, Sphenophyllales, and 
Psilotales), and Lycopsida (Lycopods alone). The isolation of the 
Lycopods while the Psilotales are put in ISphenopsida has been 
criticised, and justly so — the position of the little family Psilotales 
is a great difficulty, and I do not think we are yet in a position to 
solve it, in the absence of all geological evidence of their history. 
The group has certain definite characters in common with the 
tSphenophylls, namely the nature of the sporangial apparatus and 
the anatomy : for these reasons some modern authors have united 
them in one class. On the other hand, the Psilotales have other, 
less definite characters in common with the Lycopods — the dicho- 
tomous branching, the alternate leaves, and to some extent tlie 
habit (in the case of Tmeslptpris). The older writers always put 
them in this class, but at that time the Sphenophylls were prac- 
tically unknown. We are not at present able to reconcile the 
two apparent directions of affinity. It is best to emphasize the 
Sphenophyll relation as the more definite, and otherwise to reserve 

It should be mentioned here that Prof. Lignier gives the 
Psilotales quite a dift'erent position, regarding them as the most 
primitive of the Lycopod series, and consequently of all living- 
vascular plants. He believes that in the earliest Pteridophyta 
the sporangia were terminal on certain cauloids (derived from 
thallus-branches), and that the Psilotales only differ from this 
type in having the sporangia grouped on special short branches. 
In arriving at this opinion the author allows himself to be too 
nnich influenced by the very problematic Devonian fossil Psilo- 
phytoh, of which we really know nothing definite. I cannot accept 
a view which i^^nores the points of agreement between the Psilotales 
and the Sphenophyllales, and the probability that the former have 
suffered some reduction in organization in consequence of their 
epiphytic habit. 

Prof. Lignier is of opinion that all his Phyllinese (^. e. all 
Yasculares except Lycopods and Psilotales) are descended from 
the Primofilices. 

As regards the Articulata% I have already suggested that if we 
accept this view we must take Primofilices in an extremely wide 


sense. The comparison between the sporangiophores of Spheno- 
phi/Uum and the fertile pinnules of the Devonian " Fern " 
ArcluFopteris * does not seem to me very helpful, for Arclufopteris 
can scarcely be regarded as one of the Primofilices, but appears 
to have been a very advanced type, possibly, as Mr, Kidstou has 
suggested, a Pteridosperm rather than a true Fern, 

With reference to the seed-bearing plants, however, I find myself 
in agreement with Prof. Lignier as to their ultimate origin from an 
early Filicinean stock. This is an opinion which has been very 
generally adopted, during the last few years, either for the whole 
or at least for a large part of the Seed-plants ; formerly the 
Lycopods were in favour as the probable ancestral group, though 
the origin of the Cycads from Marattiaceous Ferns was taught by 
Sachs about the year 1880, It may be worth while to point out, 
in a few words, the grounds on which the modern view is held. 

For nearly 30 years the existence of a considerable group of 
Palaeozoic Fern-like plants allied to the Cycads has been 
recognized by some ])alsBobotanists, though at first only on 
negative grounds, the plants in question showing no evidence of 
Filicinean fructification. Then came the discoveries of Williamson, 
Solms-Laubach and others, proving that many of these Fern-like 
plants had an anatomical structure intermediate between that 
of Ferns and Cycads, These observations strongly conlirmed the 
opinion that the latter plants were derived from, or had a common 
origin with, the former ; this stage in the development of our 
knowledge may be called the " Cycadofilices " phase. The dis- 
covery of the multieiliate spermatozoids of living Cycads, in 
1896, further strengthened tlieir affinities with Ferns, 

Then in 1903 began the series of discoveries, led by Oliver and 
Kidston, proving that certain of the Cycadofilices bore seeds of a 
Cycadeau type, and establishing a strong probability that this 
applied to the whole group, a group outnumbering the true Ferns 
of the period. The name Pteridospermese marks this important 
step in advance. That the Cycads sprang from a Fern-like ancestry 
was now established beyond reasonable doubt. The Cycads, 
however, were not merely the little isolated family that now bears 
the name — in Mesozoic times they were a vast and varied class of 
plants, for which Xathorst's wider name Cycadophyta is appro- 
priate ; for long ages they were a dominant race throughout the 
whole world. Thus the proof of the Fern-ancestry of this great 
class was already a serious matter. But the theory could not stop 
here. It had always been recognized, since the first recognition 
of the Cordaitefe as a separate class, that these plants had a strong 
Cycadean affinity. It now further appeared that the seeds of the 
Preridosperms were organized just on the same lines as those of 
the Cordaiteae, while anatomically an almost unbroken series of 
transitions between the two groups has been traced. Hence it 
became evident that the Cordaitese — the most specialized of the 

* Ligiiier, " Sur I'Origine des Sphenophyllees," Bull. Soc. Bot. de France, 
si-r. 4, t. viii. p. 278 (1908). 


Palaeozoic Spermophyta — had a common origin witli the Pterido- 
sperms, and consequently that they also were ultimately derived 
from the Fern phylum. This meant that practically all the 
Palaeozoic seed-plants (if we except the quasi-seminiferous Lyco- 
pods) were of Filicinean origin. 

Up to this point I do not think there has been any very serious 
difference of opinion among modern botanists who have considered 
the question. I have already mentioned that the affinity of the 
Maidenhair trees with the Cordaitales is generally recognized. I 
am unwilling, at the close of tliis address, to embark on the con- 
troversy as to the origin of the Coniferse, a question with which I 
have lately dealt in print. Strange to say, the morphology of the 
cone in this familiar order of plants is still very imperfectly 
understood ; I am convinced that a thorough comparative re- 
investigation of the wliole family will be needed before the question 
of their affinities can be cleared up. A vast amount of good work 
has been and is being done, but a broad synthesis is urgently 

There are so many points in common between the Conifers and 
the Cordaitales, both in the anatomy and in the morphology of the 
fructifications, especially the male, that I cannot doubt that tliese 
classes are allied, an opinion in which I believe nearly all botanists 
agree, though my friend Prof. !Se\^ard is a serious exception. 
If we accept this relationship, we cannot escape the conclusion 
that the Conifers were ultimately, though remotely, derived from 
the same ancient Fern-stock with the Pteridosperms and the 

I have already touched on the great question of the origin of 
the Angiosperms. It is clear that if the views now so widely 
held of their relation to the Mesozoic Cycadophytes should be 
confirmed, they also must fall into line with the rest of the 
Spermophyta. At any rate, without prejudging a problem which 
will long continue to engage the chief interest of botanical 
evolutionists, one may safely say that the only tenable or intelli- 
gible theory of the origin of Angiosperms at present before the 
scientific world, involves their derivation from the Cycad-Pteri- 
dosperm-Primofilices series, and demands for them a place among 
the Pteropsida. 

My object in the very slight and rough sketch of a vast field, 
which I have ventured to lay before you, has been to bring home 
to the minds of the Fellows, especially such as are not themselves 
morphological botanists, the profound interest and importance of 
the fundamental problems of Descent which are now under in- 
vestigation and even appear ripe for solution. It is the great 
merit of modern Palccobotauy that it has put new life into the 
study of our phylogenetic questions. It has done so by forcing 
us into contact with realities, with the ancient plants themselves,, 
which were the actual predecessors (though by no means always 
the ancestors) of our living Flora. I believe it to be true, in 


spite of all those difticulties whicli s])ar us on to further research, 
that ill JJotany, as in Zoology, the doctrine of evolution rests at 
present juost securely on a pal.'contological foundation. 

Mr. llEMiy (jrUOYES then moved: — "That the President be 
thanked for his excellent Address, and that he be requested to 
allow it to be printed and circulated amongst the Fellows," which 
being seconded by Prof. M. C. Potter, was adopted by acclama- 
tion, and acknowledged by the President. 

The President, then addressing llerr IIvitfeldt, Secretary 
of the Norwegian Legation, said : — 

Professor Georg Ossian Sars is the distinguished son of a 
distinguished father, the late Professor Michael Sars having been 
one of the pioneers of deep-sea dredging ; it was he who laid the 
foundations of our knowledge of the deep-sea J'auna. 

Professor Georg ISars, following and extending the same lines 
of investigation, has long been recognized by his fellow-workers 
in all parts of the globe as a distinguished leader and guide. Por 
nearly half a century his successive writings have been shedding 
light on the class of Crustacea in its different branches. Almost 
at the outset of his career he succeeded in rescuing a difficult 
group from the obscurity and confusion in which it had been 
previously involved. Experts have over and over again paid his 
systems of classification the supreme compliment of adopting 
them. His instructive essays on the larval Decapoda, founded on 
an ingenious but toilsotne plan of investigation, would have 
sufficed alone to make a considerable reputation. 

After showing his command of languages by treatises in Latin, 
French, and German, besides his native Norwegian, he has obliged 
us by adopting the English tongue for several important volumes. 
Above all, his ready pencil, in an almost miraculous number of 
scientific illustrations, has used an idiom whicli every nation can 
read with facility. 

The carcinologists of Great Britain, I am informed, have special 
reason to rejoice that in Prof. Sars's crowning work on ' The 
Crustacea of Norw^ay,' already containing 756 plates, by a fortu- 
nate coincidence, the fauna of their own country finds illuminating 

All who have been privileged to be in communication with him, 
praise the courteous readiness with which he renders the assistance 
they desire, nor can anyone explore his writings without admiring 
the entire absence of unkindly criticism, and the generous 
acknowledgment of merit in the work of other students. 

It is eleven years since we had the honour of enrolling 
Prof. 8ars among our Foreign Members. It is now m}^ agreeable 
duty, in recognition of the world-wide reputation which he has 
acquired, to present him, through your kind mediation, with the 
Linnean Medal, as a token of our highest esteem. 


Herr Evitfeldt, in accepting the medal, stated that the Nor- 
wegian Minister himself would have been pleased to be present, 
but having only recently arrived in London, he had not yet 
been x*eceived in audience by His Majesty the King, and was 
consequently debarred from attending. 

Turning to Prof. E. A. Minciiix, the President said : — 

Prof. Edward Alfred Minchin, 

It is a great pleasure to me to present to you, on behalf of the 
Society, the first Trail Award, generously founded by my friend 
Prof. Trail, " with the object of encouraging study that throws 
light on the substance known to us as Protoplasm, or on what 
may, in the progress of knowledge, be regarded in a corresponding 
way as the physical basis of life."' 

Your work, in various directions, has done and is doing much 
to throw new light on the morphology and developmental activities 
of the living substance of animal cells. You have made contribu- 
tions of fuiidainental importance to our knowledge of the minute 
structure and development of the Calcareous Sponges. You have 
discovered the remarkable mode of development of those singular 
■structures the calcareous sponge-spicules, and in addition to your 
valuable original memoirs on the group, you have written the 
very able account of these organisms in Sir Ray Lankester's great 
Text-book of Zoology. 

You have also published much work of the utmost importance 
on the parasitic Protozoa, especially the Trypanosomes, a field of 
investigation of momentous practical signiticance as well as of 
the highest scientific intex'est. In furtherance of these studies 
jou made an expedition to Uganda, to study the problem of 
Sleeping Sickness under the auspices of the Royal Societv. 

You have written a masterly treatise on the Sporozoa, for the 
Text-book already referred to, and in addition to all your own 
investigations, have rendered a further service to biological science 
by your translation of Biitschli's classical work on Protoplasm. 

No one could more fittingly be the first recipient of the Trail 
Award, wliich I now present to you, for the recognition and en- 
■couragement of the study of the living substance of organisms. 

Professor Mincuin replied as follows : — 

Mr. President, Ladies and Gentlemen, 

I desire to express my deep sense of gratitude both to the 
Founder of the Trail Award for his generous benefaction, and to 
the Council of the Linneau Society for the honour they have done 
me in conferring the Award upon me. It adds very greatly to 
the pleasure and pride which I feel in receiving it, that the 
selection has been made by a body so distinguished and honourable 
as the Council of the Linnean Society. 

The Trail Award is intended to encourage and promote the 


study of protoplasm, this line of investigation being understood in 
its widest sense :is the study of the living substance and its vital 
powers and manifestations, ytrictly speaking, such investigations 
are co-extensive witli the whole range of the biological sciences, 
but for convenience the study of ])rotoplasm may be regarded as 
the special theme of that branch of scientific investigation 
which is occupied with cells and with organisms of simple struc- 
ture, and which deals with their constitution, development, and 
elementary vital activities. In such objects we are confronted 
with the stupendous mystery of life under its thinnest veil, and 
we observe in bodies almost infinitely minute the exercise of the 
most extraordinary powers, such as would lead us to infer the 
existence of a very great complexity of organization. Thus a 
flagellum performs movements which necessitate the assumption 
of a complex structure, but after studying it with the best optical 
instruments and the most refined technique, we can only repre- 
sent it by a bare pencil-line. The chroraatin-substance of the 
nucleus exhibits marvellous activities and powers, but again our 
pencils can only draw meaningless dots. Xothing, again, is more 
wonderful than the fact that peculiarities in the complex mental 
and physical constitution of a human being should be transmitted 
from one generation to another through the nucleus of the sperma- 
tozoa, the tiniest cell in the body ; but with all the technique at 
our disposal we can only represent that nucleus as a minute dense 
refringent body, apparently homogeneous. A consideration of 
such facts forces upon us the conviction that the living substance 
possesses a complexity of organization far transcending anything 
that our microscopes can reveal, and only to be inferred from the 
activities manifested by it. 

Cells or unicellular organisms relatively higher in the scale 
possess various cell-organs for the exercise of different functions : 
but as we descend the scale in our survey of nature we see these 
organs stripped off, as it were, until we come to cells in which the 
living substance consists only of two parts, termed respectively 
the cytoplasm and the nucleus. .This type of structure is far, 
however, from being the simplest possible condition of a living 
organism. The cell-nucleus itself is essentially a collection of 
grains of a peculiar substance known as chromatin, which is com- 
bined with various accessory structures, such as a framework,^ 
membrane, &c., and organized into a complex structural unit. In 
the simplest organisms there is no definite nucleus, in the strict 
sense of the word, but only scattered grains of the chromatin- 
substance. Hence the living substance, protoplasm, in its simplest 
form consists of two chief constituent parts : — 

(1) Cytoplasm, a semi-fluid matrix, itself organized and ex- 
hibiting a minute structure which, according to the alveolar theory 
of Biitschli, is due to the arrangement of at least two distinct 
substances not miscible one with the other, forming the alveolar 
framework (reticulum) and the enchylema (cell-sap) respectively. 


(2) Chi'oinatiu, occurring as minute granules iiubeddecl in the 
cytoplasm, and either scattered in it, or aggregated wholly or i:i 
part to form a definite nucleus. 

The question at once arises, which of these two constituents of 
protoplasm represents the true li\ing matter? Is the cytoplasm, 
or the chromatin, to be regarded as the primary living substance? 

No answer that may be attempted to this question can be 
regarded as in any way final in the 'present state of our knowledge, 
and the subject can hardly be discussed adequately in a brief 
space : but the following are a few of the laost important facts 
upon which to found a judgment : — 

I. No living organism is known with certainty which does not 
contain substance of the nature of chromatin ; and some of the 
minutest organisms, e.;/. some Bacteria and Spirochaetes, seem to 
consist of chromatin alone. These facts indicate that cliromatin 
is, and cytoplasm is not, a constant constituent of living bodies. 

II. By experiment it is found that cells, if deprived of the 
nucleus and reduced to cytoplasm aloue, cannot continue living 
for long, and cannot initiate vital changes or processes. 

Til. The present state of our knowledge tends to establish as a 
general truth that the chromatin-elements are the governing and 
directing bodies of cells, and as such are the bearers of hereditary 

From these data the conclusion seems to me irresistible, that 
chromatin is the primary living substance, not cytoplasm. 

If then chromatin is a substance of such immense importance in 
living things, it becomes necessary to attempt to define or charac- 
terize it further — a very difficult task In the first place, it is found 
that the chromatin-elements of the nucleus consist of, or contain, 
substances of greater complexity from the chemical point of view, 
than the other portions of the protoplasm. In the second place, 
this complexity is combined with a high degree of variability, as 
might indeed have been expected on general grounds. For since 
the vital activities and pi'operties manifestly differ in every species 
of organism, and even, it might be said, in every individual cell, 
then, if the chromatin-substance be the regulating and deter- 
mining cause of tlie vital activities and manifestations, it follows 
that tlie chromatin must differ to a corresponding degree in each 
case ; and therefore no given sample of chromatin can be expected 
to be identically similar to any other sample. It is a matter of 
common knowledge that such differences do occur between the 
chromatin-elements of different organisms, and even in the same 
organism at different periods of the life-cycle ; to take only the 
micro-chemical test most commonly emi)loyed for the identifica- 
tion of chromatin, namely its affinity for certain colouring-matters, 
it can be said at once that there is no stain which can be relied 
upon either to tinge the chromatin-elements of any organisms at 
all times, or to stain only chromatin. 

LINN. SOC. rilOCEBDINGS. — SESSION 1909-1010. g 

82 l'U()(Ki:i)IN(iS OK THE 

In short, chromatin cannot be defined solely .by chemico- 
iniysical tests : it is essentially a biological conception. By 
chromatin we understand certain grains of substance imbedded 
in the cytoplasm or aggregated in the nucleus, and playing a 
definite role in the life-cycle of the organism. In the first place, 
in reproduction of the simplest type by lission, the chromatin of 
the daughter-individuals is derived by growth and fission of 
the chromatin-elemtiits of the parent indi\idual. Secondly, in 
syngamy (sexual conjugation), tlie constant and essential feature 
of the process in all its innumerable variations is the union of 
chromatin from two distinct individuals. Tims chromatin exhibits 
in itself the primary vital properties of growth, reproduction and 
individuality — the individuality which is characteristic of living 
organisms, and which depends primarily on the variability of the 
living substance. A given granule in a cell cannot be determined 
with certainty to be chromatin by inspection or by cbemico- 
l)hysical tests, but only by its relation to the life-cycle of the 
organism. This is what is meant by saying that the conception 
of chromatin is a purely biological one. 

Our notion of the living substance infiuences necessarily our 
ideas as to the primitive form of living organism. It has generally 
been held that the first living things were relatively large masses 
of protoplasm consisting of pure cytoplasm, without nuclear 
elements, which appeared later in evolution. Such hypothetical 
forms of life were termed Monera by Haeckei, and with a tech- 
nique less advanced than that of modern times, this distinguished 
naturalist described organisms which he believed to be true 
]\Ionera. But it seems practically certain that no organisms exist, 
however primitive, which do not contain in some form or another 
the chromatiu-substance which is the essential constituent of a 
nucleus. On the view that chromatin represents the primary- 
living substance, I believe that the first living things were exces- 
sively minute specks of matter, perhaps even ultra-microscopic. 
I consider that, of the forms of life existing at the present day, 
the earliest type is most nearly represented by the minutest 
Bacteria and allied organisms in which the body is practicdly 
nothing more than a grain of chrouiatin. The first stages of 
evolution consisted in a gradual increase in the size of the body, 
which came to be composed of several or numerous grains of 
chromatin imbedded in a matrix, the cytoplasm. With further 
growth in size, the chronuitin, at first scattered through tlie 
cytoplasm (chromidial condition of the nuclear substance), became 
aggregated wholly or in part at one spot, and there became 
organized and combined into a compact body, the nucleus. With 
the separation of the nucleus and cytoplasm a most important 
stage of evolution was reached, namely the stage of the cell in the 
strict sense of the w ord, the starting-point of the evolution of the 
entire animal and vegetable kingdoms. It would, in my opinion, 
be of advantage, as conducing to clear thinking, if the term 
*• cell " could be restricted in its application to that type of 


organization in which there is a sharp differentiation of nucleus 
and cytoplasm, and if organisms such as Bacteria, in which there 
is scattered chromatin but no definite nucleus, were not termed 
cells. If, however, the term " cell " is too compromised to be 
restricted in this manner, then two terms should be coined to 
denote these two primitive grades or types of organization, the 
one without a nucleus, as in Bacteria and allied forms, the other 
possessing a nucleus, as in Protozoa and the cells of animals and 

I have ventured here to express definite views upon some very 
controversial and speculative subjects. It is not to be expected 
that everybody should be of one mind in such matters ; but what- 
ever may be the views taken, I think everyone will agree as to 
the fundamental importance of the study of the living substance 
in its simplest forms, and I desire, therefore, to express my strong: 
appreciation of the sagacity and foresight, no less than the 
generosity, of the I'ounder of the Trail Award, and my thanks to 
him for the stimulus and encouragement which he has given to 
such investigations. 

The General Secretary then laid Obituary Notices of deceased 
Pellows on the table, and the proceedings closed. 


Alexaivder Agassiz. — The death of Alexander Agassiz leaves a 
real gap in the world of scientific oceanography Avhich no man of 
our own generation can adequately fill. He died on March the 
27th, 1910, on the steamer ' Adriatic,' en route from England to 
America, at the age of seventy-five. Alexander Agassiz was the 
son of Louis Agassiz, Professor of Zoology at Harvard. He 
accompanied his father to America in 1849, at the age of foui'teen 
years, and graduated in Engineering and Zoology. His first 
serious work was on the Pacific Coast Survey of Ameinca, but in 
1849 and in 1851 he had already served an apprenticeship under 
his father on the Atlantic sea-board and off Elorida. He spent 
some years in assisting his father in developing the Museum of 
Zoology at Harvard : and he became well known for his ability 
not only in Zoology but in the management of affairs. In 1866 
he undertook the development and management of the Calumet 
and Hecla Copper Mine on Lake Superior. This was at that time 
almost a worthless property : it has since become the greatest 
single copper mine in the world, and has paid in dividends, since 
that date, upwards of =£25,000,000. His association with this mine 
led to the foundation of a fortune which enabled him to follow his 
natural bent towards Marine Biology. He retired from active 
work in connexion with the mine after about five years, but he 
retained his interest in it as President or Director until his 

Professor Agassiz will be best remembered by his numerous 


expeditions in the Iropical regions of tlie world. His three cruises 
of tilt; ' Bhike ' in the West Indies and through the CaribheanSea 
produced two admirable volumes. They give an excellent idea of 
the topography of the Caribbean, with many notes and observa- 
tions on the reefs of that region. In addition they give an account 
of the deep-sea fauna as \\ell as chapters on deposits, the pelagic 
fauna, and the Oulf Stream. Even at tlie present day there is no 
better or more interesting book on the subject. Professor Agassi/, 
paid further visits to tlie West Indies, particularly to the Bahaiiias, 
and the elevated coral-reefs of Cuba : he also explored the elevated 
reefs of Florida, and visited Hawaii and the west coast of North 
America, going down to the Galapagos Islands. In the latter 
cruise he was mainly interested in the surface population of the 
ocean, which he had previously investigated in the Gulf Stream. 
In 1S9() Professor Agassiz visited, in the steamer' Croydon,' which 
he had himself chartered, the Great Barrier Eeef of Australia. He 
gave the world an admirable account of the structure of the reef. 
He confirmed Jukes's general analysis of its main features, but came 
to the conclusion that it could not have been formed by subsidence 
as was then generally supposed. In 1897 he visited the Fiji 
Islands, exploring most of the " live "' and fossil reefs of that 
archi|)elago ; in particular he examined the bai-rier reefs of the Lau 
Archipelago, putting down a boring on Wailangalala. He also 
examined many of the elevated coral limestone islands, thus 
getting many sections of reefs up to 1 000 feet in vertical thickness. 
He calculated that the islands of the whole group had been 
elevated, had then remained nearly stationary, and that their 
present conditions might be explained by prolonged denudation 
and erosion. The " actual living reefs " were considered to be Hats 
left by the erosion of a central island, while the lagoons had largely 
been formed by the scouring action of the sea. In 1899 Pi-ofessor 
Agassiz was in the North Pacific, but in 1901 he visited the 
]\Jaldi\'e iVrchipelago in the SS. ' Ann-a,' visiting every atoll of that 
group. He gave us an important series of soundings between the 
different atolls of that archipelago, enabling us to get the first clear 
idea of its topography. In particular he inspected the northern 
atolls, which had not previously been examined. Professor 
Agassiz's next work \\as a long cruise which practically included 
every group of coral islands in the Pacific Ocean. This was 
followed by a dredging cruise down the eastern Pacific to Easter 
Island, during which all kinds of oceanographical research were 
carried out. The greatest interest is to be attached to these 
explorations, since the eastern Pacific is the largest area of the 
world absolutely uninterrupted by islands. An extensive, pecu- 
liarly barren area was discovered to the east of ihe Marquesas 
and Paumotus, and between these archipelagoes and the Soutli 
American coast. 

The Reports on these Expeditions were mostly published in the 
Bulletin and Memoirs of the Museum of Comparative Zoology 


at HarAard. They are noted for their lucid statements of facts 
and for their excellent illustrations, which are made, to a large 
degree, to take the place of further description. They present a 
veritable mine of information to be drawn on by investigators 
interested in oceanic and other islands. The later expeditions 
were undertaken mainl}^ to elucidate the problem of the forma- 
tion of coral reefs. Professor Agassiz had at the time of his 
death practically completed his work on this important problem. 
He had hoped to present his book during the present summer : 
it had arrived at such a point that it is not likely to be 
long delayed. It should put the crown oil forty years of con- 
tinuous research, undertaken in every region of the world. 

In addition to his oceanographical work, Professor Agassiz 
publislied many Monographs on HydrozoaandEchiuoderma. His 
tirst paper was on the " Embryology of the Starfish," in 1804, and 
he followed this up by reports on the Acalepha3 and on the 
" Embryology of the C'tenophorae." His " Revision of the Echini," 
4to, 774 pp., with an atlas of 94 plates, 1872-4, is a classical 
publication for reference ; while his last contribution to " Hawaiian 
and other Pacific Echini" was issued only last year. The variety 
and extent of his published works are very great, mostly in large 
and important Monographs giving the results of his collecting 
in the ' Blake ' and in the ' Albatross,' U.S. Government steamers 
which he was allowed to run on paying their working expenses. 

Alexander Agassiz was all his life connected in some way or 
other with the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard. He 
succeeded his father as Director and Curator in 1874, and he built 
up the Museum from a small Institution to a magnificent home for 
his wonderfully rich collections from all parts of the world. He 
himself, to a large degree, built and endowed the Museum, which 
will ever remain as an enduring monument of his wonderful 
energy. Its publications he paid for on a most lavish scale 
and he equipped it with the most modern scientific apparatus. In 
his will he further bequeathed to it =£40,000 with a possible residual 
share in his estate. His gifts to the Museum altogether probably 
reached at least =£500,000. His full model of Eunafuti atoll is a 
magnificent piece of work, while his vast collections will form, as it 
were, an immense library for future researchers in Oceanography. 

In conclusion one must refer to the great charm of Professor 
Agassiz as a man. He belonged to no country but rather to the 
whole world of science : he was cosmopolitan in every sense, a 
Eellow or an Honorary Member of Scientific Societies in every 
country, a welcome guest everywliere ; he was noted for his un- 
failing courtesy to all, to the most junior student as much as to 
the Professor or Director. To anyone researching on coral reefs 
he gave special encouragement. He was not prodigal of advice, 
but what he did give it would be wise to follow. He was not above 
taking advice from those junior to himself. He was a man of 
indomitable energy ; subject to sea-sickness, many of Ids cruises 


must have been great pain to him, but he never flinched if he 
might increase our knowledge of the science in which he was 
interested. He never sought recognition, and in many respects 
he was averse from it. He never liked teaching, and he seldom 
lectured anywhere. Like a true scientilic man, he cared not for 
himself hut sim|)ly for the advancement of the subject which he 
Io\ed. He was elected a Foreign Member on the 0th May, 1H75. 

[J. Stanley Ctabdineb.] 

AViLLiAM Hadden liEEBY, F.L.S., F.E.M.S., was born on June 9, 
184U, and died on January 4 of the present year. He was in the 
banking business, from which he retired only a few months before 
his death. From an early time he devoted his leisure hours to the 
study of British i^otany, in which he acquired soon a reputation 
for acuteness and great critical knowledge. He added a consider- 
able number of new forms to the ' London Catalogue,' and deposited 
some of his critical gatherings in the herbaria at the British 
Museum and at Kew. His publications in the shape of short 
articles and notes were mostly ])ublished in the volumes of the 
'Journal of Botany' for 1879-1807 ajul for 1908. He was also 
engaged in the preparation of a Flora of Surrey, Lack of leisure, 
how ever, compelled him finally to entrust the work to other hands ; 
but he wrote the Botany article for the Victoria History of the 
County of Surrey (1902). His Surrey collections as well as those 
made in Shetland, which he visited repeatedly, are to be jjlaced in 
the Horniman Museum, in the botanical de|)artment founded by 
Mr. A. O. Hume. He was elected an Associate of the Society in 
1887 and became a Fellow in 1890. A portrait of him was 
published in the' Journal of Botany " for May 1910. [O. Staff.] 

Edward Clapton was born at Stamford, 28th September, 1830, 
died at his house " Tower Croft " on the 28th September, 1909, 
and was buried at Stamford on the 2nd October. He was the 
second son of his parents, and educated at the Stamford Grammar 
School, afterwards entering at St. Thomas's Hospital in 1850, after 
an apprenticeship to a local practitioner from the age of 10 to 20. 
In 1857 he became M.D. Lond. and F.K.C.S. : in the same year 
he was appointed xlssislant Physician and Lecturer on Botanj' at 
St. Thomas's Hospital, and later on he lectured on Materia Medica. 
In 1858 he became Member, and 17 years later Fellow of the Koyal 
College of Ph)"sicians. 

Shortly before his death he presented to the INIuseum of the 
Koyal College of Surgeons two branches and a bundle of twigs from 
the plane tree in the island of Cos, under the shade of which 
Hippocrates lectured on Medicine from a marble seat, still in 
existence : the tree is believed to be considerably more than 2000 
years old. 

He was elected a Fellow, 21st November, 18G1. [B. D. J.] 


Emmeline CiiocKER was born in 1858 at DuKvich, vyhere 
father Ausustus Coleman Crocker then lived; when quite a child 
the family moved to Cheshiint, and here she grew_ up, with the 
exception of her school time at Brighton. On leaving school she 
continued her studies in music and in art, the latter she pursued 
with much ardour under .Miss Gann at the Queen s Square School 

"" Upon her mother's death, w hen the ties of home life became 
slighter, ]^Iiss Crocker undertook a trip round the world by her- 
seff, visiting on her xvay the botanical gardens of Singapore and 
Hono- Kong, finally reaching home by way of Canada. 

It^ter her return she spent some time at Glasneviu, where she 
became conversant with practical garden work under Mr. i .W. 
Moore 1 L.S. ; on leaving she became du-ectress of Mr. hpottis- 
wood's' garden at Porthquidden in Cornwall, from time to tune 
contributing articles to ' The World ' newspaper, which ^eve 
reprinted in 1908 as " Thirtv-nine articles on Gardening. this 
estate was sold by the owner in 1907, and then Miss Crocker 
resolved to busy herself ^vith a monograph on Rhododendron 
forms in cultivation, and for this she painted a large series of 

i)ictures. , ,. , ■, 

Unfortunately she had suifered ot late years from repeated 
attacks of influenza, and \vitl> the idea of escaping the English 
winter, she decided to spend that part of the year in Madeira. 
Here she devoted herself to the flora of the islands, and began a 
collection of marine Alga3 for Kew, but owing to the bad sanitation 
of the hotel at Funchal where she was staying, a violent epidemic 
of typhoid fever broke out, and our late Fellow fell a victim to it, 
dying on the 2(JthEebruary, 191U. -.nn-i ^ 

■ She M-as elected Eellow so recently as (Jth lebruary, 190/, but 
entered into the life of the Society with cliaracteristic energy, 
attending our meetings and using the Library freely. 

For tlfe materials for the foregoing sketch the writer has to thank 
Mr. Alfred Crocker and Miss Alice Shaw. [B. ^J- J -J 

The liev William Henry Dallingeb, LL.D., D.C.L., D.Sc, 
FES F L.S , F.Z.S., F.R.M.S., etc., died on the 7th November, 
1909 ; 'he was born at Devonport on July 5, 1840 ; he was the son 
of J S Dallinger, and married Emma J. Goldsmith, daughter ot 
David Goldsmith of Bury St. Edmunds. At one time he thought 
of adopting Medicine as his profession, hut his strong religious 
tendency led him, in ISGl, to enter the Wesleyan Ministry : the 
first circuit to which he was appointed was that ot laversliam, 
but he afterwards travelle.i those of Cardift', Bristol, and Liver- 
pool; his life, at this time, was that of a circuit Minister, but he 
occupied most of his leisure in studying Hebrew, Greek, and 

German. i -n • ■ i 

In 1880 Dr. Dallinger was appointed Governor and irincipal 

of Wesley College, Sheffield, in which capacity he was highly 

appreciated, but he resigned the post in 1888, and became a 


nion.EDixos or tiik 

ininister without pastoral diarge, in order to have more time at 
MS disposal lor his sdeiititic studies and researclies ; these and 
his lectures on microscopical and biological subjects, occupied the 
greater part of the last Iwenty-oue years of his life, but of lare 
years he was greatly hampered by failing health. One of these 
lectures which was delivered in 1884, before the British Associa- 
tion at Montreal, was famous at the time : it was on -The lowest 
and smallest forms of animal life." 

Dv Dallinger was elected F.Il.S. in 188U, and received the 
ijLD. from the A ictoria University in 18S4, the D.Sc. from 
Uubhn m 1892, and the D.C.L. from Durham in ]89fi ; he was 
,c'w?^\^ol*''^^^^>'^'^ ^ricroscoj.ical .Society of London from 
J884tol88/ inclusive, and of the Quekett Microscopical Club 
irom lS90to 1892 inclusive ; he was also senior lecturer on the 
staff ot the Gilchrist Educational Trust, lie was a Fellow of 
the Linnean Society from 2nd March, 1882, until the time of his 
death, and served on the Council from 1888 to 1890. 

From early youth Dallinger took a strong interest in natiu-al 
science, but the researches which established his position in the 
scientific world, and eventually made his name famous, commenced 
in 1870, and lasted for about ten vears ; thev were microsco|)ical 
researches on the life-histories of certain minute septic organisms 
known as "Monads." The results of these researches were pub- 
lished, from time to time, chiefly in the ' Monthly Microscopical 
Journal,' which was at the time the journal of the Eoyal :^Ii<ro- 
scopical .Society. The earlier of the"se researches were conducted 
in conjuncn-on with J. Drysdale, M.l)., and were marvels of 
patient and skilful investigation : the life-histories were traced 
and established by continuous watching through the microscope 
day and night \Aithout a break ; one observer sitting down to 
the instrument as the other rose, mitil the whole life-history had 
been thoroughly traced and verified. The question of spontaneous 
generation was then a burning one, and the results of jNIessrs. 
Dalhnger and Drvsdale's enquiries and experiments had consider- 
able infiuence in determining the couclusious at which the greater 
part of the scientific world arrived. Some of the later reseiirchea 
into the thermal death-point of known Monads and Monad-germs 
were conducted by Dr. Dallinger alone, w ithout Dr. Drys'dale's 
assistance ; his careful and prolonged exj^eriments proved that 
these^ Flagellates, which normally lived at a temperature of about 
60° ¥., could, by a gradual raising of the temperature of the fluid 
in which they were immersed, be accustomed to live and thrive at 
ISS'' y. The joint experiments had already proved that the germs 
were capable of resisting a fluid heat of 220° I\,ai!d a dry heat of 
300° F. 

The enquiries above referred to were probably Dr. Dalliuger's 
only original investigations and discoveries of im'portance in'bio- 
logical science ; but in the course of them he had to employ the 
highest powers of the microscope, and to use them to the best 
advantage, as the flagella of living monads are difiicult objects to 


see and define properly ; and, iu liis anxiety to give his investiga- 
tions every advantage that patience and skill could afford, he 
studied the optical construction of the instrument, and the most 
advantageous methods of its illumination and management, until 
he became extremely skilful in its use and a great authority upon 
these subjects, in \vhich he took a deep interest, it Avas probably 
this which led him to edit the 7th and 8th editions, published 
respectively in 1891 and 1901, of Dr. W. B. Carpenter's "The 
Microscope and its revelations." For the 1891 edition Dalhnger 
entirely re-wrote the \a hole of the first seven chapters, being the 
part treating of the instrument itself and the preparation of 
objects for examination by its means, and the same portion was 
almost entirely rewritten for the 1901 edition. It is characteristic 
of the patient and untiring nature of the man that, during the 
transit of part of these manuscripts to the printer, an accident 
happened to the box and a considerable portion of the manuscript 
was lost : Dallinger at once quietly set to work to restore it. 

Dallinger wrote his well-known " Fernley Lecture " on " The 
Creator and what we may know about Creation ' in 189(1 ; he 
frequently contributed scientific articles to the ' Wesleyan 
JNlethodist Magazine,' and he wrote some other papers of less 
importance from time to time. 

When Dallinger was President of the Eoyal Microscopical 
Society he was also Principal of the Wesley College, yet he rarely 
missed a meeting of the Society, but used to travel back to Sheffield 
by the night-mail after the meeting in order to be ready for his 
duties at the College the next morning ; and after his term as 
President expired he undertook the office of honorary optical 
Secretary in order to assist the Society, and this otHce he held for 
many years. 

Finally, Dr. Dallinger was a man who gained the affection of 
most of those who knew him, and all those who were in any May 
associated with liim in his scientific pursuits will remember his 
constant readiness to help others and his anxiety to acknowledge 
all assistance which he himself receiAod. [Albert D. Michael.] 

Felix Anton Dohkx, Foreign Member of the Linnean Society 
since 1888, the founder of the famous Biological Station at Naples, 
died in Munich on September 26th last, in his seventieth year. He 
lived to see not onl}' his own Foundation grow famous, the 
acknowledged rendezvous of biologists of all nations, but also 
similar institutions for the prosecution of marine research spring 
lip on the shores of almost every civilized country with a sea-board. 
It is not too much to say that all these institutions, which are 
BOW to be counted by the score, owe their existence largely to the 
insight and courageous initiative of Anton Dohrn, who was the 
first to conceive the plan of a Marine Biological Station, and to 
prove it feasible in the face of much opposition and even ridicule. 
It is therefore difficult to overestimate the part which he has 
played in the great progress of marine biology during the past 

9© 1'U()(Kj:ui.\(;s of tuk 

forty years, a progress wliich has contributed us uiiicli as anything 
else to tile general advance of biological science. 

Although his pi-incipal liie-work was the founding and manage- 
ment of the .Stution, he made many important contributions to 
Morphological Science, especially u])on the vexed and complicated 
problem of the evolution of the A'ertebrate head. 

His (piick perception of the trend of scientific thought had 
recently convinced him that biology in the future would turn 
more in the direction of experimental and ])hysiol()gical empiiry, 
and accordingly he deterniined to increase the buildings and staff 
of the A(]uarium for the especial purpose of offering facilities for 
such work, and his friends may rejoice that he lived to see this 
undertaking, which involved the erection of a wing equal in size 
to the original building, most happily consummated. 

It was JDohrn's wish to preserve the international character of 
the Biological Station. Great Britain has for many years been 
represented by students appointed by Oxford, Cambridge, and the 
British Association, in many conversations with Professor Dohrn 
I learnt that he regarded this comiection with especial pleasure, 
owing to his intimate friendship with Huxley and Fi'ancis Balfour 
in the early days of the Station, and to the cordial support which 
they had given him in difficult times. 

Built physically on a grand scale with immense reverberating 
voice, everyone who knew him felt that his mind corresponded : 
his bursts of humour, his explosions of anger, his ardent enthu- 
siasms, were all iri-esistible in their spontaneous force. A man 
of great culture in literature and the arts, especially music, he 
never forsook right up to the end the slow and laborious method 
of science. In the jjower and destiny of science he possessed an 
ardent faith which amounted to idealism, almost to romanticism. 
His sense of the mysteries of nature and what they meant for 
man transcended the narrow bouuds of knowledge, and any 
advance into the unknown, however small or apparently insigni- 
ficant, was to him worth any amount of effort and sacrifice. This 
burning enthusiasm for knowledge was certainly the source of his 
greatness. Doubtless his wide sympathies, his knowledge of men 
and of the world, both great and small, his extraordinary faculty 
of linking powerful and distinguished men to his own enthusiasm, 
contributed largely to his success ; but it would be the grossest 
error to ascribe the outcome of his life's work to a successful 
obsequiousness to those in power. The strength of his influence 
resided ultimately in the strength of his belief in nature and in 
science, without which his tact and knowledge of affairs would 
have accomplished little. By his death natural science has lost 
one of its most forcible and genuine leaders. [Geoffhey Smith.] 

Emil CiiKisTiAX Hanskx was born at liibe in Jutland, Denmark, 
on May 8, 1842, and died at Copenhagen on August 27 of last 
year. He was originally a house-decorator and pupil of the Art 
school at Copenhagen, but he soon turned to the study of science. 


As he had, liowever, to earu his living as a private tutor, it was 
uot until 18U6 — when the Danish government granted him a 
scholarship — that lie could apply himself wholly to his studies. 
Having been appointed a science master in a Copenhagen gym- 
nasium, lie begun to occupy himself more exclusively with botany 
and chemistry. 

Apart from a preliminary communication on a peat moor in 
Denmark, a subject which he did not follow up, his first publica- 
tion was on "De Danske (ijodningssvampe (Fungi fimicoli Danici/' 
in Vidensk. Medd. Copenhagen, 1876, pp. 207-354. 

In 1878 he entered the physiological laboratory at Carlsberg, 
near Copenhagen, where he at once began that brilliant series of 
researches on fermentations wliich constitute his life-work. He 
initiated it w-itb a dissertation, " Contributions to our knowledge 
of the organisms which are found in beer and beer wort and are 
able to live therein " ; ami having taken his doctor degree in 1S79 
he was appointed Director of the Carlsberg Laboratory, which 
post he held until his death. 

Hansen's biological researclies on the organisms of fermenta- 
tion, and among them mainly of the Saccharomyceta?, were 
carefully planned and carried out on ingenious methods which 
assured a degree of precision not attained before. They were 
fruitful in theoretical results bearing on the biology of those micro- 
organisms, and in many respects of the physiology of the cell 
generally ; but thanks to his practical genius, they also led in the 
industries depending on fermentation to technical improvements 
of the greatest importance and in some respect to changes which 
almost revolutionized them. His numerous publications are 
scattered through the Comptes Hendus of the Carlsberg Labora- 
tory, the Centralblatt fiir Bacteriologie und Parasitenkande, the 
Annals of Botany, the Zeitschrlft fiir das gesammte Brauwesen, 
etc. An independent publication, " Untersuchungen aus der 
Praxis der Garungsindustrie " (Practical Studies in Permentation, 
Engl, transl. by Miller), did uot get beyond part ii. 

In 1898, E. C. Hansen was elected a Foreign Member of the 
Society. [O. Stapf.] 

A¥iLLiAM HiLLUOUSF, whoso death occurred at Malvern Wells on 
January 27th, 1910, was appointed to the professorship of Botany 
at the Mason Science College, Birmingham, in April 1882. He 
had for some time suffered from chronic ^^duioiiary trouble, and 
in September 1909 he resigned his professorship at the Uuiversit)^ 
of Birmingham. Unfortunately he lived but a short time to 
enjoy his retii'ement. 

He was born at Bedford on December 17th, 1850, and in course 
of time became an assistant at the Bedford Modern School. It was 
during this period that he began his study of Botany, working 
more especially the Bedfordshire flora, and he was instrumental 
in founding the Bedfordshire Natural History Society. He 
became a Pellow of the Liunean Societv in 1876. In 1877 he 

92 ri-.()('i:i:i)iNos of tut, 

went to Trinity College, Cambridge, of w liicli lie soon became a 
distiiigiiislied !«cli()lar. From 187<S to 1882 he was assistant 
curator of tlie University Herbarium, and was in this period 
appointed a University Lecturer in Botany. He also became 
Lecturer in Botany to both (tirton and Xewnliam Colleges, and 
his literary tastes combined with his general activity were largely 
responsible for the appearance of the ' Cambridge KevieM ,' of 
which he was one of the original (ulitors. 

On his appointment at Jiirmingham, llillhouse went over to 
Bonn to work with Piof. IStrasburger, a visit which culminated in 
the translation of Strasburger's 'Practical Botany.' 

In Birmingham and the Midlands Hillhouse took an active 
part in educational v\ork. He was for a time president of the 
Birmingham Natural History Society, and of several of the local 
Institutes, and for years he was a prominent member of the 
Leicestershire Education Committee. He was honorary secretary, 
and subsequently chairman, of the Birmingham Botanical and 
Horticultural Society, and under his direction the Botanical 
Gardens, Edgbaston, became one of the deligiits of the Birming- 
ham district. Until his death, which will be sincerely regretted 
by many students, friends, and colleagues, he was chairman of 
the Council of the Midland lieafforestation Association. 

[(i. S. West.] 

Professor Prteh MacOwan, wlio died at Uitenhage, Cape 
Colony, on the 1st December, 1909, was born at Hull, Torks., 
14th November, 1830, and at the age of 10 became a tutor at 
Bath, and after one or two intermediate positions, became a master 
at Hudderstield College, acting also as teacher of Chemistry, in 
1857, in which year he graduated in Arts in the University of 

He had already taken up the study of Phanerogams and Mosses, 
wheii his health gave way, and threatened with lung trouble, he 
left lluddersfield in 18G1 to take charge of a projected college at 
Grahamstown. Hi« health was wholly re-established on the 
voyage out, and he never felt any serious failure until late in life. 
At this school, Shaw College, he began his botanical work in South 
Africa, and got into correspondence with prominent botanists at 
the Cape and elsewhere. 

In 1869 he left Grahamstown to become science tutor at Gill 
College, Somerset East. He gave his herbarium to the College, and 
began a museum, and from this time must be dated his association 
with Dr. Harry Bolns, who was then living at Graaff Reinet. 

He was appointed Director of tlie Capetown Botanical Gardens 
in 1881, and soon afterwards became Professor of Botany at the 
South African College. Here he seemed to have attained his true 
position, but the real position of the Botanic Garden was really 
most unsatisfactory, and the appliances at the College were quite 
inadequate, and after a few years his classes were perforce 
abandoned, though his methods were admirable and his descriptions 

lin:nea>' society of loxdox. 93 

vivid. The Gtirdeii was carried 011 with imicli trouble, upon a 
precarious retail business in plants and seeds, and it is much 
to his credit that when in 1892 he handed it over to the munici- 
pality it was witb a small credit balance, after defraying costly 

The Herbarium in connection with the Garden was badly lioused 
and had been greatly neglected. It was not till 1892 that a 
couple of rooms were assigned to it ; in that year he reported that 
he had now 31 cabinets, against 7, which was the number in 1881, 
with 3U00 sheets, and containing the types of the Cape Flora as 
far as Campanulacea3, mounted by Dr. Har\ey in 18G-1. The basis 
of the collection was once the property of Zeyher, and afterwards 
of Dr. Pappe, and dated from 1825 to 1841) ; the specimens, besides 
being old, liad suffered much from want of care, and even Harvey's 
set had been allow ed to lie for years unpoisoned, and it is due to 
Sir Henry Barkly that this measure of preservation was adopted. 
By 11)01 there were 61 full cabinets, the increase entirelv due to 
jNIacOwan's own hard work. In 1904, to his great delight, his old 
herbarium was presented to the Albany Museum by the Trustees 
of Gill College, where it had lain entirely unused since his time. 
Although it had somewhat dwindled, it still contained 14,000 
sheets of phanerogams, many of them types, and 1800 fungi. 

In 1884 he began with Dr. Bolus the issue of his ' Herbarium 
normale Austro-Africanum,' which was continued till 15 centuries 
had been issued ; five more were issued by MacOMan single- 

He resigned the Directorship of the Bolianic Garden at the end 
of 1891, but retained the post of Curator of the Herbarium till 
his retirement in 1905 ; when he left the sheets had increased to 
44,000. of which 25,500 were Cape plants. For about two years 
subsequent he worked about (5 to 7 hours daily in the Herbarium 
of the Albany IMuseum, chiefly gettiug the Gill College herbarium 
into creditable order once more. In 1907 he had a slight paralytic 
stroke, and finding the climate of (xrahamstown too cold in winter, 
he moved to iriienliage. lie gradually weakened till the end 
came last year, as previously noted, and passed away in the house 
of a son-in-law, Mr. Chase of Uitenhage. 

He took his degree of B.A. before leaving England, and he 
never revisited his native land. Frequently acting as examiner to 
the Cape of Good Hope University in Ciiemistry, Botany, Geology, 
and Zoology, the Council bestowed upon Iiim in 1902 tlie honorarv 
degree of Doctor of Science. He was elected Fellow of our 
Society on the 2nd April, 1885. 

For the particuhirs of the foregoing sketch the writer would 
acknowledge his indebtedness to Dr. Schonland's obituary of his 
father-in-law which came out in the ' Kew Jhilletin,' 1910, pp. 84- 
90, and to the sketcli with ])ortrait which appeared in the ' South 
African Journal of Science ' for January last, pp. 71-79, above the 
initials of Dr. Juritz, the Editor ; the latter article contains a 
partial bibliography of Prof. MacOwan's writings. [B. D. J.] 


KoBERT Morton Mijjdi.kton was born at JSowerby, near Tliirsk, 
Yorkshire, on January 2'), 1840, and died on August 8, 1909, 
at Wallington, Surrey- lli« career, beginning in the banking 
business, was somewhat varied. He spent part oi' his life in the 
Ynited States, whence he returned to Enghmd in 1890. After- 
wards he went out on missionary work aniong the Araucarian 
Indians of South Chili, coming back to this country for good in 
1907. Since then he was employed temporarily at the Botanical 
Department of the Natural History Museum, where he also placed 
his collection of Chilian plants. He was a Hvely, genial man of 
many interests ; but he published very little. He joined the 
Society, whose meetings he attended very regularly, on the 
4th March, 1880. ' [O. S.] 

The Most Honourable George Frederick Samuel Korinson, 
1st Marquis of Eipon, K.Cx., P.C., was born in London 24th 
October, 1827, son of the 1st Earl of Ripon and Sarah, only 
daughter of the 4th Earl of Buckinghamshire. He was elected a 
Fellow on the 20th November, 1840, as Viscount Goderich, and, 
continuing to pay his annual contribution during his life, \Aas the 
oldest paying Fellow on the Eoll, and had therefore contributed 
most largely to the pecuniary support of the Society. 

Of his varied and honourable oliicial career this is not the place 
to discuss : the places he tilled in the State, including the Governor- 
Generalsliip of India fi'om 1880 to 1884, claimed the whole of his 
time and attention. In addition to the Garter Knighthood and 
membership of the Privy Council, he was G.C.S.I., Hon. D.C.L. 
(Oxford), Hon. Litt. D. (Victoria), aud F.E.S. He succeeded to 
the title in 1859; and died at his beautiful seat, Studley Eoyal, 
on the 9th July, 1909, the cause of death being heart-failure. 

[B. H. J.] 

Edwaru Saunders, F.E.S. , F.L.S., F.E.S., and George Sharp 
Saunders, F.L.S., F.E.S., Hon.F.E.H.S., were both born at East 
Hill, Wandsworth, sons of the well known William AVilson 
Saunders, F.E.S., who was for eleven years Treasurer of the 
Linnean Society. They were further fortunate in having for their 
elder lialf-brotlierAVilliam Frederick Saunders (F.L.S. 1857-1901), 
not only an accomplished botanist, but a noble-minded man, who 
in all relations of life "loved himself last." In 1857 the family 
residence was reinoved to Hillfield, Eeigate, and there the brothers, 
educated at home, were constantly in familiar touch with their 
father's immense entomological, horticultural, and other collections. 
Their father's ready sympathy with every form of scien title pursuit 
will be rememl)ered ]\y all who knew him ; and the frequent 
presence at llilltield of men illustrious in various departments of 
natural history was well calculated to impress tlie minds of intel- 
lio-ent boys w^ith the importance of such knowledge. Between the 
claims of heredity and environment, it must remain an open 
question which was the more potent influence to produce in the 


t\^o brothers the tastes and aptitudes for wliicli their father was 
distinguished. However that question may be answered, it is 
certainly a little, or not a little, remarkable that George, born 
March 9, 1842, and Edward, born March 22, 1848, published in 
joint authoi'ship, through the Holmesdale Natural History Club, 
a "List of the Land and Freshwater Mollusca of the Keigate 
District," in February 18(51. There is reason to believe that in 
this publication Edward Saunders, not yet thirteen years of age, 
was the predominant partner. A second edition, brought up to 
date, was issued in January 18G4. The correspondence for 
exchange of specimens in wliich the younger of the two naturalists 
had at once become involved, though no doubt a trial for youthful 
vanity, was only a foretaste of the incessant appeals for friendly 
scientific aid which throughout his life he never failed to answer 
with unselfish readiness. At sixteen, by his " Coleoptera at 
Lowestoft'" he opened on a new subject, which was thenceforward 
for several years to engage his special attention. This early con- 
tribution appeared in the first volume of 'The Entomologist's 
Monthly Magazine,' a useful serial destined to have him for the 
last thirty years of his life as one of its editors. In its March 
number for the present year there appears an admirably sympathetic 
appreciation of his work and character by his long-time friend and 
well-wisher, the Kev. F. D. Morice, M.A., formerly a master at 
Rugby. It is unnecessary, therefore, to repeat the details there 
given of his assiduous labours and numerous publications, succes- 
sively on the Buprestidse, the Hemiptera Heteroptera, and lastly 
on the Aculeate Hymenoptera. It may, however, be noticed as a 
token of the ardour with ^^•hich he carried out his investigations, 
that when publishing in 1871 his important ' Catalogus Bupres- 
tidarum,' he had won the right to say in his Preface : — " To render 
the synonymy as full and accurate as possible, I have myself 
examined the types in the following collections : — British Museum, 
Museums of Berlin, Copenhagen, Kiel, Leyden, Oxford, d'Hist. 
JS'aturelle de Paris, Stockholm, and Upsala; Colls. Chevrolat, 
Kirsch, Le Conte, Linna)us, Mniszech, Reiche, Salle, Thomson, 

Concerning his later efforts Mr. Morice writes : — •' It is quite 
impossible within the limits of tins Notice to give even the titles 
of Saimders's minor writings on Aculeates. It must suffice to sav 
that his grand work ' The Hymenoptera Aculeata of the liritish 
Isles ' (18'J6)is one of the few without which no serious Hymeno- 
pterist thinks his working-librarj complete, and that its merits 
have been ackno\\ledged in the warmest terms by every one at 
home or abroad who is competent to form an opinion upon it." 
Among his minor writings on the subject, however, one of the 
latest is worthy of record, becaitse it shows that he could at will 
descend from that impassioned sublimity of style, with which, as 
is well known, specialists are wont to soar over the heads of the 
vulgar. In 1908 he published with Routledge & Sons a pleasant 
little Tractate for the unlearned, illustrated by daughter 

96 PllOCEKUIXiiS or TUB 

Constance. Hegardini; tlii.s he says in his preface : — ''The object 
of tliis little book is to give in as simple a form as possible a short 
account of some of the British Wild Baes, Wasps, Ants, etc., 
scientilically known as the Jhjmenoptcra Aciihuta. Of these the 
non-scientiiic i)ublic rarely recognizes more than the Hive Bee, 
the Jlumble JJee, the Wasp, and the Hornet, whereas there are 
about 4MU different kinds to be found in this countrv, and they 
can be recognized by any one who is disposed to make a special 
study of the group." 

To the Linnean .Society Edward Saunders contributed a paper 
read Nov. 7, 18G7, published April 23, 1808, communicated by his 
father, then a A'.P.L.S. The subject was " Descri])tions of fifty 
iiew Species of the genus Slitimodera,''' with two ])lates drawn by 
the; author. Another paper containing '' Descriptions of teu new 
Species of the genus Paracupta, H. Deyrolle, and of ten new 
Species of the genus Conof/natha, Escholtze,'* with one plate, was 
read Dec. 3, 1868, and published Aug. 10, 18(30, the author having 
in the meantime, on June 3rd, been elected a Fellow. His third 
paper, '• Descriptions of Buprestidic collected in Japan by George 
Lewis, Esq.'' (I'.L.S. since Jan. 18, 1883), was read Eeb. 20, 1873, 
and published July 18 of the same year. Thirty -four neAv species, 
with a new genus, were included in this memoir. After a long 
interval he again contributed to the Linnean Journal, his ])aper 
•'On the Tougues of tlie British Hymenoptera Anthophila" 
being read April 17, 1890, and published Oct. 18 of that year. 
These honeyed Tongues, successfully mounted by the ingenious 
Mr. Frederick Enock, F.L.S., were delineated on eight attractive 
plates hv George Saunders, who in 1882 had similarly assisted 
his younger brother by drawing plates for his " Synopsis of 
British Hymenoptera'' in the ' Transactions' of the Entomological 

While treating the biography of the two brothers chiefly from 
its scientific aspect, it may not be improper for the recorder here 
to note that in 1S73 the prospects of easy affluence witli which 
their careers had opened were clouded over. This change from 
the smiles of fortune to her frowns they met with brave equa- 
nimity. It left the younger immersed for the rest of his life in 
the business anxieties of marine insurance, while the elder suffered 
for some time from the unset tlemeut due to abruptly altered plans 
and avocations. These were henceforward considerably diversified, 
but their general character will be sufficiently understood by the 
following extracts from obituary notices published last April. 

Thus 'Theliarden' says: " Mr. George Saunders was a warm 
lover of flowers, and also took an interest in insects, so much so 
that we are sorry no book came from his pen on this important 
subject. His initials G. S. S. were familiar, until his recent 
illness, to readers of 'The Garden,' and no one was more qualified 
to give advice on the friends and foes of the garden. One of his 
most important contributions on this subject was to the ' Century 
Book of Gardening,' and he contributed an excellent series of 


articles in ' Gardening Illustrated ' some years ago.". . . " Our friend 
was librarian for many years at St. Thomas's Hospital, and many 
medical men will feel a real pang of sorrow when they know that 
Mr. Saunders is dead. He was beloved by the students aud the 
staff generally." The ' Gardeners' Chronicle' says: "He was soon 
initiated in horticulture, but his bent lay more towards the study 
of insects than of other living things, though he took a keen 
interest in many branches of natural science. He became well 
known as an expert in economic entomology, and his opinion was 
on this subject widely sought and greatly valued, by none more 
than by the Scientific Committee of the Royal Horticultural 
Society, whose meetings he regularly attended for many years. 
His knowledge of entomology was always at the disposal of 
enquirers, and his ready courtesy and clear expositions of life- 
histories and so on made his communications of real value. He 
was the author of several clearly written articles (not all of them 
signed) in the horticultural Press. He was a skilled draughtsman, 
and made a considerable number of coloured drawings of terato- 
logical subjects of gi-eat interest and value to the botanist. When 
in 1906, the Rev. W. Wilks was obliged, through pressure of 
work, to give up the editorship of the R.H.S. Journal, Mr. Saunders 
was appointed to succeed him. and he edited the Journal until 
1908, when ill-health obliged him to resign." 

George Saunders had been a Fellow of the Entomological Society 
from 1861 and had served on its Council. It was not till 1899 
that he joined the Linnean Society, on the Council of which he 
also served from 1902 to 1905, his appointment coinciding with 
his brother's election as a Fellow of the Royal Society. 

Alike in their devotion to natural history, the two brothers were 
further alike in a certain seriousness of temper which evidently 
invited appeals for their aid in church-work wherever they 
happened to reside. This earnestness was happily combined with 
a ready sense of things humorous and with what may best be 
described as a singular capacity for friendship. 
• For many years of happy married life they were alike in enjoy- 
ment and gratitude. But George Saunders, who was united to 
Miss Mary Horsley on July 9, 1868, had the sorrow of losing her, 
after long and painful illness, in 1909, whereas Miss Mary Agues 
Brown, to whom Edward Saunders was married Sept. 3, 1872, 
survives him, together with nine of their twelve children, most of 
them already engaged in a variety of promising pursuits. The 
brothers died as they had lived, each fading from tlie scene with a 
kind of modest tranquillity, Edward on tiie 6th of February last, 
and George on the following 6th of April. Both had been for 
some time conspicuously out of health, yet in each case there 
seemed room for hope, though from the opposite considerations 
that the one had been so seldom ill and the other so often. The 
elder, after a delicate childhood, had proved immune to sickness, 
till sympathy with his wife's affliction apparently broke down his 
powers of resistance. The younger, on the other hand, had so 



frequently recovered from dane;erous attacks that there seemed no 
special reason why the last should be fatal. Yet they fell, not 
indeed on one day, nor on the lield of battle, but after so close a 
union from tirst to last, that, borrowing from a song of triumphant 
sorrow, a friend may say of them, " They were lovely and pleasant 
in their lives, and in their deaths they were not divided." 

[T. K. E. Stebbing.] 

The death of Dr. Eichard Bowdleu Shaepe, which took place 
at his residence at Chiswick on Christmas Day 1909, deprived 
Ornithologists, the world over, of a guide, philosopher, and friend 
indeed ; for his knowledge of Systematic Ornitliology, and of the 
Geographical Distribution of Birds and all that pertained thereto, 
was profound. So long as he lived this knowledge was at the 
disposal of his fellow-workers without reserve ; for he was one of 
the most generous of men, and no man turned away from him 
empty handed. But when he died a rich hoard of facts died with 
him, for in spite of his extraordinary output of memoirs and 
monographs, the best of what he knew he could never be induced 
to systematize and publish. 

Dr. Sharpe was born in London, November 22, 1847, and was 
the eldest son of Thomas Bowdler Sharpe, well known as the 
publisher of ' Sharpe's London Magazine.' His grandfather was 
the Eev. Lancelot Sharpe, Eector of All Hallows Staining, in the 
City, and for many years Headmaster of St. Saviour's Grammar 
School in Southwark. Happily he was not brought up in London, 
but at the age of six was placed under the care of his aunt, 
Mrs. Magdalen Wallace, widow of the Eev. J. Wallace, Head- 
master of the Grammar School at Sevenoaks. She kept a pre- 
paratory school at Brighton, and here the boy passed three 
uneventful years ; he was then transferred to the Grammar School 
at Peterborough, where his cousin, the Eev. James Wallace was 
Master. Here he gained a King's Scholarship, whicl\ not only 
guaranteed his education but carried with it a small sum of money 
which was increased by his services as a choir-boy in the Cathedral. 
A little later his cousin accepted the Headmastei'ship of the 
Grammar School at Loughborough, and the boy accompanied him. 
In these sojournings young Sharpe found scope for his innate love 
of Natural HistoiT, which was to bear such fruit in after years. 
But a time of trial was before him. An unsympathetic father, 
irritated at this marked fondness for w-hat he regarded as an 
unprofitable subject boding no good for the future, suddenly 
bundled him off to London — a boy of sixteen — with a sovereign 
in his pocket, and a letter of introduction to the publishing firm 
of W. H. Smith & Sons ! But opposition of this kind rarely 
attains its end. It certainly did not in the present case : on the 
contrary, it seems to have added fuel to the flames ; and the boy 
succeeded, in spite of this disaster, in following his bent, for here, 
though every imaginable obstacle confronted him, he began to 
write a Monograph of the Kingfishers which mar Iced an epoch 


in Ornithological Literature. Two years later he entered the 
employment of Mr. B. Quariteh, the well-known bookseller, and 
this gave him access to some of tlie finest Ornithological works 
of the time. Every penny he could scrape together he spent in 
buying specimens of Kingfishers for his great book, and every 
moment he could spare was spent in its preparation, so that his 
working hours were long indeed. 

In 1867, when nineteen years old, he was appointed Librarian 
to the Zoological Society of London — the first to hold this position, 
and this appointment gave Inm better opportunities, and greater 
scope for i)is talents. Five years later the reward for his years 
of unnecessary hard labour came to liim, for in 1872 he was 
appointed Senior Assistant in the Department of Zoology of the 
British Museum, and was placed in charge of the Collection of 

One of the first tasks entrusted to him was the preparation of 
the first volume of that monumental work the British Museum 
' Catalogue of Birds,' the most exhaustive work of its kind in 
existence. In the seven-and-twenty volumes of that work every 
known species of bird, up to the date of publicity of each volume, 
is described. This entailed an account of all phases of plumage 
and a list of all the literature, relating to each species — a truly 
appalling task ; yet of these twenty-seven volumes Sharpe contrived 
to write eleven, and portions of tv\'o others. At least this much 
stands to his credit : the remaining volumes were written in part 
by Mr. W. E. Ogilvie-Grant, aud in part by outside aid, and 
these later authors drew largely on Sharpe for guidance aud help. 

But besides this, he also compiled during his later years a 
' Hand-list of Birds,' the last volume of which was only completed 
just before his death. Most men would have quailed before such 
an undertaking requiring so much labour and yielding so little in 
return, for it can appeal only to the specialist. 

Another ofiicial publication was his ' Histoiy of the Bird Col- 
lection in the British Museum.' This is full of interesting 
matter concerning the collections, and the men who made them. 

Besides his Monograph of the Kingfishers he also wrote no less 
comprehensive treatises on the Swallows and the Birds of Paradise, 
and a Handbook to the Birds of Great Britain. Innumerable 
appendices to the Volumes of Travel written by eminent explorers, 
describing the birds collected on their journeys, and a no less 
voluminous list of separate reports and papers on new species of 
birds, in themselves form no mean monument. Besides, he also 
edited, or revised aud largely re-wrote, a considerable number of 
works of eminent Ornithologists removed by death before their 
labours were complete. The huge tomes of John Gould, and two 
Aolumes of Henry Seebohm are among the most notable of this 
category. To these we must add a very long list of papers con- 
tributed to the Journal and Transactions of this Society, the 
Zoological Society, the ' Annals and Magazine of Natural History,' 
' The Ibis,' and the Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club. 

h 2 


In liis later years he edited a two volume edition of White's 
Selborne, and during his researches in the (jri!l)ert White country 
he became interested in the history of Basing Castle and the story 
of the siege by Cromwell. This theme he pursued with great 
zeal, and finally decided to write a book on the subject. Unhappily 
he died while preparing the first volume, but had he lived to 
complete his task, it is certain that he would have produced a 
record of sterling merit, for 1 had the good fortune to know him 
intimately, and know how exhaustively he had treated his subject. 
But this was by way of recreation, though his official woric left 
him but little real leisure. 

Sliarpe always regarded the Collections under his charge with 
a peculiarly tender affection, and the main purpose of his life was 
to enrich them. He spared no effort to persxaade the jealous 
Guardians of the Museum purse to buy collections, and often when 
his pleadings proved unavailing he would purchase collections 
with his own money— which he could ill afford to do, but it was 
anguish unspeakable to him to let a specimen escape that he 
courted for his beloved collection. He had great powers of per- 
suasion, and these he exerted to the full when he desired to move 
some generously inclined traveller to hand over his specimens to 
the national store-house. The great Hume Collection of Indian 
birds, and the wonderful Tweeddale and Salvin-Godman collec- 
tions are among the more remarkable illustrations of his triumphs, 
for these were given to the Museum largely on Sharpe's account. 
Mr. Hume, in presenting his magnificent collection of Indian 
birds and eggs numbering nearly 80,000 specimens, remarked in 
presenting the Collection to the Nation : " I trust it may not be 
forgotten that its acquisition by the Museum has been solely due 
to the fact that Mr. Sharpe was at the head of the Ornithological 
branch of that Institution."' But this is only one, of many muni- 
ficent gifts to the Ornithological Department made on Sharpe's 

He was President of Section A at the Ornithological Congress 
held at Budapest in 1891, and again in Paris in 1900, when he 
was elected President of the Congress which met in London five 
years later. He was an Honorary LL.D. of Aberdeen, a Fellow 
of the Linnean and Zoological Societies, a Member of the British 
Ornithologists' Union, and \vas an Honorary or Foreign Member 
of all the principal Ornithological Societies in the world. In 
1891, II.I.M. the Emperor of Austria bestowed on him the Gold 
Medal for Science. 

His rule as Assistatit Keeper of the Zoological Department \^as 
mildness itself, for he was of a peculiarly genial temperament. 
In spite of domestic worries he was always in exuberant spirits, 
and was a wonderful story-teller. His friends loved to inveigle 
him into telling yarns of the many eccentric people he had met, 
or into reciting Bab- ballads, in x^hich feat he Avas peculiarly 
accomplished ; few, surely, ever succeeded in bringing out the 
exquisite humour of these lines so well as Sharpe ! But his kindly 


nature was sorely abused by people of the begging-letter type : he 
<;ou]d never resist an appeal to his purse, though that was far 
from a well-filled one, and he was no less generous in bestowing 
the fruits of scientific labours on those who asked him. 
Take him for all in all, we shall not see his like again. 

[W. P. PyCKAlT.] 

Sir Charles William Stjuckland, eighth baronet, who died on 
the last day of 1909, Dec. 3Ist, was a Fellow of the Linnean 
Society from the loth February, 1877. He resided at Hildenley 
Hall near Malton, on one of his country estates, for many years. 
The Hall, although not a very large building, is a comfortable 
residence, built in a well sheltered site at the base of a steep 
wooded bank of limestone formation known as Hildenley Wood, 
which is a I'elic of the ancient forest-land of Yorkshire and has 
never been under cultivation, and is the home of some of the 
rarest of our British native orchids and other rare kinds of 
the wild flora of Britain, He was the original of " Martin the 
Madman " in ' Tom Brown's Schooldays,' and was proud of 
the fact. 

Sir Charles was a lover of Nature, and lived for many years a 
quiet life. He built attached to the Hall a fine conservatory for 
flowering plants, and also erected other glass structures for the 
cultivation of exotic orchids, in which he was very successful, and 
gave much attention to them, and no doubt enjoyed his quiet life 
in the study of their growth and admiration of the great beauty 
and variety of their flowers. 

He was a good botanist and had an extensive knowledge of the 
flora of the British Islands ; he was also much interested in the 
cultivation of hardy fruits, more especially of the apple, as he 
considered it to be the most valuable fruit for general cultivation 
in England. Some twenty years ago he represented a committee 
of the Eoyal Horticultural Society, in the examination of the apples 
growing in this district of Yorkshire, more particularly to get a 
knowledge of the best kinds suitable to the locality. For two or 
three seasons collections of these fruits were exhibited at Malton 
and Whitby, local kinds were traced to their origin, and all 
exhibits were named as far as possible and lists given of those 
most suitable to the district. 

He was a large landowner in Yorkshire and generally considered 
to be a generous landlord ; he let his farms at reasonable rents, and 
very rarely changed his tenants. 

He was a tall, robust man of good appearance, was a careful liver, 
and enjoyed the life of a country gentleman. He was fond of 
hunting, and was a regular attendant at Lord Middleton's hunt 
during the season up to within a few years of his death. In his 
early life, whilst he was at Trinity College, Cambridge, he rowed 
at Henley Eegatta in 1839, the first year the grand challenge cup 
for Eights was ever rowed for, and was number 7 in the winning 
crew, his cjUege eight. 


8ir Charles w us twice married ; liis lirst w ilV was Georgiiia 
Milner, dau<:hter of ISir William Mihier, by whom he had one son, 
AValter AVilliam Strickland, born in 1851, who now succeeds to 
the title and estates, and who has been travelling for some years in 
the Colonies of Australia, New Zealand, India, Ceylon, &c., and is 
now residing in Italy. The second marriage was in IbGG, to Ann 
Elizabeth, daughter of the Eev. Christopher Neville of Thorney, 
Notts, who predeceased him. There are two surviving sons and 
one daughter of the second family, Mr. Frederick Strickland, of 
the Brows, Malton, and Lieut. Henry Strickland, of the Eoyal 
Navy. His daughter is married to the Hon. Tatton Lane Fox 

Sir Charles had a good constitution and enjoyed the happiness 
of good health through his long life, and passed away quietly, after 
a very short illness, in his home at Hildenley, in the 91st year 
of his age. [M. B. Slateh.] 

The death of Ebwaej) PivEceyal "Weight, which took place on 
March 4th, caused sincere regret among the large group of friends 
and acquaintances whose affection and regard "Wright's genial and 
striking personality had won. AVriglit was born in Dublin in 1S34. 
He was educated at home and began life as a clerk at the age 
of 10. His taste for Natural History brought him early into contact 
with Geo. J. AUman, the University Professor of Botany in Trinity 
College, Dublin, and resigning bis clerkship, he entered Trinity 
College in 1853 and threw himself with zeal into the study of 
Natural History. His enthusiasm to forward the science led him 
in the following year to found the ' Natural History lieview.' He 
continued editor of that Journal till 1SG6. His earliest essays iu 
Science were made in this Journal and exhibit his keen interest 
from the first in field-work and observation. He visited the caves 
of Michelstown in 1857, with Haliday, and was the first to point 
out the interest of the living fauna of the Irish caves. In the 
same year, he took his B.A. degree and Avas appointed Director 
of the Museum of Trinity College. In 1858, he was appointed 
Lecturer in Zoology in Trinity College and Lecturer in Botany in 
Dr. Steevens' Hospital Medical School, and he was chosen Secretary 
for the Koyal Geological Society of Ireland and Secretary lor 
Section D of the British Association. He continued Secretary of 
this Section for several years, and was always very much interested 
in the work of the Association. It is a proof of Wright's energy 
and capacity for work, that while he was discharging all these 
duties he was at the same time able to keep pace with his undei'- 
graduate medical studies, and did not give up his work in Natural 
Science. He was elected Fellow of the Linnean Society in 1859. 
In 1862 he took his M.D. degree, and after studying abroad in 
Berlin, "Menua, and Paris, he began to practise as an oculist. But 
his chief interests being in Natural Science he did not remain in 
practice long, and in 18G6, in order to devote himself entirely to 
bis duties as locum tenens for Harvev. then the L'niversitv Professor 


of Botauy. Wright definitely gave up oplithalmological work. In 
1865 his attention was called to the fossils of the Jarrow Colliery, 
and with T. H. Huxley he published in the following year an 
important memoir on the Fossil Amphibia of the Kilkenny Coal 

In 1867, Wright went to the Seychelles Islands to study the 
flora and fauna of that group. Unfortunately, all his collecting 
apparatus and preserving materials were lost on the way out by 
shipwreck. But notwithstanding this misfortune he succeeded in 
bringing back an important collection of animals and plants, and 
in the following years \\as able to publish a series of papers 
descx'ibing the new and interesting forms collected. These papers, 
together with others on collections made off the coast of Portugal 
and in Sicily in 1868, appeared in the ' Annals and Magazine of 
Natural History,' in the Transactions of the Eoyal Irish Academy, 
and in the Reports of the British Association. 

In 1869, Wright was appointed University Professor of Botany 
and Keeper of the Herbarium in Trinity College. During the 
first years of his professorship he was still engaged in work on 
his Seychelles and South European collections. In 1877, AVright 
commenced to publish a series of memoirs on the structure and 
development of Algae, which won the appreciative recognition of 
Bornet in 1879. The work on Algte was put aside to draw up the 
Report, with Th. Studer, on the Alcyonaria of the ' Challenger ' 
Expedition. This was not completed till 1888. During this period 
also Wright spent a great deal of energy on arranging the 
Herbarium of Triiiity College ; and if it had not been for his devo- 
tion and painstaking toil at a critical time, the usefulness of the 
collection would have been seriously impaired. The history of 
these events he records in the first number of the ' Notes from the 
Botanical School of Trinity College ' — a journal which owes its 
existence to Wright's energy and generosity. He further showed 
his affection to the department of which he was head by presenting 
to it his valuable collection of botanical books and journals. In 
1894 Wright visited tlje Pyrenees and brought back several addi- 
tions to the Herbarium, and the spring of 1895 he spent collecting 
in Algiers. In 1904 he resigned his professoi'ship after a tenure 
of 35 years. He remained Keeper of the Herbarium till his 

In addition to his researches on Distribution and on Systematic 
Biology, Wright took an active part in many Scientific Societies, 
and was ofiicially connected with several scientific publications. 
Among these activities may be mentioned his connection with the 
' Natural History Review ' as founder and editor, as Secretary, 
with the Dublin Uni\ersity Zoological and Botanical Association, 
with the Royal Geological Society of Ireland, and with Section D 
of the British Association. He was President of the Natural 
History Society of Dublin in 1872, and in 1874 he became Secretary 
of the Royal Irish Academy and editor of its publications. He 
was also editor for some time of the publications of the Royal 


Dublin Society. In these various capacities he showed remarkable 
energy in forwarding; the welfare of the institutions with which he 
was connected, and his p;enerositv, when need arose, could always 
safely be counted upon. He displayed the same activity and 
generosity towards antiquarian research, and the Eoyal Society of 
Antiquaries marked its appreciation of his services in forwarding 
its aims by electing him President in 1900. 

Wright's sympathetic nature won the affection of those who 
came in contact with him, and he was keenly desirous of forward- 
ing younger men's work in science, and generously helped them 
by all the means in his power. It was a pleasure to him to put 
his varied and often recondite knowledge of the literature of 
Natural Science at their disposal. He showed the liveliest appre- 
ciation of the results obtained by the more modern generation of 
biologists. As a teacher he was more than ordinarily successful 
in stimulating the enthusiasm of his students and in implanting in 
tliem the desire to carry out investigation. At the same time he 
had a keen interest in his contemporaries in scientific work, and 
his desire to help the work of otliers and his human sympathies 
brought him into personal contact with a large number of his 
colleagues, not only in the British Isles, but also on the Continent 
and in America. It was always a pleasure to him to speak of 
these friends, and anecdotes of them formed a feature of his 
conversation. [H. H. Dixon.] 

June :2nd, 1910. 
Dr. D. H. Scott, M.A., F.E.S., President, in the Chair. 

The Minutes of the Anniversary Meeting of the 24th May, 
1910, were read and confirmed. 

Miss Nellie Bancroft, Mr. Sidney Guest, and Mr. Hayward 
Eadcliffe Darlington, M.A., LL.M. (Cantab.), were admitted 

Mr. Anthony Belt, and Prof. Edward Alfred Minchin, 
M.A.(Oxon.), were proposed as Fellows. 

Mr. Cecil Han bury, Mr. Henry Smith Holden, B.Sc, Mr. Charles 
William Mally, M.Sc.(Towa), Mr. Sydney Gross Paine, and 
Mr. Percy Alfred Talbot, B.A.(Oxon.), were elected Fellows. 

The President stated that he had appointed Sir Frank Crisp, 
Mr. H. W. Monckton, Prof. F. W. Oliver, and Prof. E. B. Poulton, 
to be Vice-Presidents for the ensuing Session. 

Mr. H. W. Monckton, Treasurer and V.-P., then referred to 
previous exhibitions of AVitches' brooms or Witch-knots in 
Conifers ; instancing those by Dr. Masters on 18th March, 1886, 


Ml'. James Saund*^rs, A.L.S., on 21st April, 1907, and the 
Rev. T. E. E.. Stebbing on 21st April of the present year. He 
showed by lantern-slides siniilai' growths on Finns sylvestrls 
growing near Wellington College, in Berkshire. 

The President pointed out that the term was probably a recent 
translation of the (xermau " Hexenbesen " ; and the discussion 
was continued by Miss A. L. Smith, Mr. J. C. Shenstone, the 
General Secretary, Dr. A. P. Young, and Dr. A. B. Rendle. 

Dr. Stapp, on behalf of Mr. J. F. Waby, P.L.S., of the Botanic 
Garden, Georgetown, British Guiana, exhibited lantern-slides 
from photographs of male and female specimens of Lodoicea 
Sechellarum, Labill., which were flowering and fruiting in that 

He stated that of 36 nuts specially imported in 1893, only 
three plants survived, the two in question, and a third which had 
not yet flowered. It is of interest as being the first occasion of 
this palm flowering in the New^ "World, and for its precocious 

The President, Dr. Eendle, and Mr. W. Pawcett contributed 
further remarks. 

Sir Peank Crisp showed fresh specimens in flower of Linncea 
horealis from his garden at Priar Park, Henley. 

The General Secretarj^ placed on the table for inspection, a 
living specimen of the rare and local orchid, Ojyhrys aranifera, 
received that morning from Mrs. Mann, of Temple E well Vicarage, 
near Dover ; it had been procured from the neighbourhood of 

The following paper was read : — 

" A Contribution to our Knowledge of the Plora of Gazaland, 
an Account of Collections made by Mr. Swynnerton." 
By Dr. A. B. Eendle and others. 

June loth, 1910. 

Dr. D. H. Scott, M.A., P.E.S., President, in the Chair. 

The Minutes of the General Meeting of the 2nd June, 1910, 
were read and confirmed. 

Mr. Percy Alfred Talbot, B.A.(Oxon.), and Mr. Sydney Gross 
Paine were admitted Fellows. 

Dr. Edward Hindle and Mr. Cuthbert St. John Nevill were 
proposed as Fellows. 


Ur. Wilfred Eade Agar, jM.A.(Cantab.), was elected a Fellow. 

The President read a letter to Sir Joseph Hooker, O.M., 
G.C.S.I., F.R.S., ooiigratulatinp; him on tlie approach of his OSrd 
birthday, which was signed by the Fellows present. 

Prof. A. JJexuy, Sec.L.S,, on behalf of Mr. X. C Macxamara, 
F.R.C.S., of Chorley Wood, Herts, showed a spike cut from a 
Foxglove grown from seed of a sport which appeared in 1907, in 
which the corolla was suppressed but the five divisions were 
represented as stamens, making nine in all, and this peculiarity 
comes true from seed. 

Lantern-slides showing the original mutation and other de- 
scendants thereof wei'e also shown ; and a discussion followed, in 
which Dr. Stapf (who pointed out the frequency of monstrosities 
in Digitalis purpurea), Mr. J. C. Slienstone, Mr. Arthur W. 
Sutton, and the President engaged. 

Mr. J. HoPKixsojf showed under the microscope a slide by 
Dr. Penard, of Geneva, illustrating a peculiar method of reproduc- 
tion in freshwater Khizopoda, two specimens uniting to form a 
third of larger size than either, ultimately giving rise to spores. 

The President remarked on the similarity between these 
Protozoa and such Conjuguta as Sjnroriyra and Mesocarfms, 
showing that these lowly organisms should be studied by both 
botanists and zoologists. 

Mr. P. A. Talbot exhibited a large series of coloured drawings 
by Mrs. Talbot of plants from Southern Nigeria, and displayed 
a map and photographs of the scenery. He described the country 
as veiy hilly and densely wooded. 

" These photographs are of the Kwa River and give some idea 
of the beauty and density of the vegetation, but none of the 
glory of colouring or variety of the multitudes of flowers. Right 
down to the water's edge grow giant arums, green on the outer 
sheath, but cream splashed with purple within. Behind these 
spring trees of every shape and tint, from mimosas, with their 
delicate mauve or cream balls and feathery foliage, to the huge 
trumpet-shaped flowers of Gardenia pJu/sojjhylla, and the heavily 
scented purple-splashed blooms of G. Kalhreyeri, or the great 
Berlinia, the white flowers of which shine with a pearl-like lustre 
from amid its dim dark leaves. 

About this river lies the boundary between the sedimentary 
deposits below and the crystalline rocks above. The line of 
demarcation runs along this parallel to the Akwa Tafe on the 
German Border, and the Calabar River on the other side. By 
far the greater part of the District therefore is composed of meta- 
morphic rocks in which gneiss predominates. 


The photographs show the density of the bush through vvhicii 
the roads lead. Perhaps the most striking feature of all in these 
ancient forests is the hurry shown by all trees to reach the light, 
above the thick undergrowth. 

Perhaps the tallest of all the bush giants are the silk-cotton 
trees. It is difficult to get a good photograph of these owing to 
the density of the surrounding bush, which \\ould have to be 
cleared for a great way before a picture could be taken. The 
photograpti is of a comparatively poor specimen, which stood on 
the edge of a clearing. It is only about 150 feet high. The man 
standing at the base was the tallest carrier available, a man well 
over (5 feet. These trees are often 200 to 250 feet high, and have 
a girth of over 80 feet. 

Another photograph shows the source of the Calabar liiver. It 
was on the slope of a hill near by that a Napoleona was discovered, 
which is not only a new species, but which shows an inflorescence 
hitherto unknown in this interesting genus. Altogether, four 
new Napoleonas have been brought home — thus adding half as 
many again to those already known. The second, with the 
consent of the courteous authorities at the Natural History 
Museum, has been named after my friend and former leader, Boyd 
Alexander, who was murdered on April 2nd in Central Africa. 

Altogether over fifty specimens of cauliilorous trees were 
discovered in the District. Detailed drawings of all these were 
made, but unfortunately many of the actual specimens were 
ruined by climatic conditions or lost in transit. This number 
only represents a siiiall propox'tion of those to be found. I hope 
to bring back at least double the number on my next tour. 

Of the Balanophoracese, five species have been brought home. 
The Gardenias of the district are specially striking in the size and 
beauty of their flowers. The fruits of most of them afford excel- 
lent black dyes, some of which are at present being tested at the 
Imperial Institute, and also a new fibre, made from an epiphytic 
Arum, which I forwarded with them. 

Two kinds of Geasters were found in the District. These are 
the first of this genus discovered in Africa. The specimens are 
in England, but have been temporarily mislaid. Altogether over 
a thousand drawings were made in the course of the year." 

Dr. Rendle, Dr. Stapf, Mr. E. G. Baker, and Mr. J. Hopkinson 
discussed the exhibition, and Mr. P. A. Talbot replied. 

Dr. Stapf showed a selection of Arctic specimens collected by 
Capt. Bartlett during the last Peary Expedition, on Ellesmere 
Island, between 82° and 83° N. latitude, describing them as some 
of the most northerly botanical specimens extant. 

Mr. A. "W. Hill showed a specimen in spirit of a barren stem 
of Equisetum Telmateia, Ehrh., in which about half of the nodes 


disappeared in a spiral arrangement ; it had been sent by Dr. H. 
Drinkwater, F.L.S., of Wrexham. 

Dr. liendlo made a few remarks on this phenomenon. 

The following paper was read : — 

" Male Sterility in Potatoes, a dominant IMendelian character ; 
with Kemarks on the Shape of the Pollen in Wild and 
Domestic Varieties." By Dr. K. N. Salaman. (Com- 
municated by Mr. A. W. Sutton, F.L.S.) 





AlDruzzi {Principe Luigi Amedeo di Savoia Duca degli). II 
Euwenzori. Parte Scientifica. Vol. I. Zoologia- — Botaiiica. 
Pp. vii, 603 ; Tav. 74. 4to. Milano, 1909. 

Alcock (Alfred William). Catalogue of the Indian Decapod 
Crustacea in the Collection of the Indian Museum. Part I. 
Brachyura. Pasc. ii. The Indian Preshwater Crabs (Pota- 
monidce). Pp. 135 ; plates 14. 4to. Calcutta, 1910. 

AUis (Edward Phelps, ^r.). The Cranial Anatomie of the Mail- 
Cheeked Pishes. Pp.iii, 219; mit 8 Doppel-Tafeln. (Zoologica, 
Bd. 22, Heft 57.) 4to. Stuttgart, 1909. 

Ameghino (Florentino). Examen critique du Memoire de 
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Koy. 8vo. Buenos Aires. 1909. 

L'avant-premiere dentition dans le Tapir. Pp. 30, tab. 4. 

Hoy. 8vo. Buenos Aires, 1900. 

Una nueve especie de Tapir (Tapirus Spegazzinii, n. sp.). 

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Koy. 8vo. Buenos Aires, 1909. 
Enumeration chronologique et critique des notices sur les 

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Une nouvelle Industrie lithiqvie. Pp. 18, figs. 10. (An. 

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Amphlett (John) and Rea (Carleton). The Botany of Worcester- 
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Audige (J.). Contribution a I'etude des reins de Poissons Tele- 
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Bagnall (James Eustace). See Amphlett (John). Tlie Botany 
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Bailey (Frederick Manson). Contributions to the Plora of 
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Bateman (James). Tlie Orchidacea? of Mexico and Guatemala.' 
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Tj _, „, .^ 8vo. Berlin, 1909. 

Bergens Museums Skrifter. Ny E^kke, Bd. I. no. 1. 

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Bd I. no. 1. Appelof (Adolf). Untersucbungen iiber den Hummer 
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Liefg. 24. Hjmenoptera.-Cynipidai. Von X. W. von Dalla Torre 

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_ , 1910. 

Bernard (Charles). Snr quelques Algues Unicelhilaires d'eau 

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Band XVI. Het't 72. Focke(Wilhelm Or.BERs). Species Ruboru in. Mono- 
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V^ol. IX. Catalogue of the Noctuid<iB in the Collection of 

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Special Guide No. 4. 

Memorials of Charles Darwin ; a Collection of Manuscripts, 
Portraits, Medals, Books, and IVatural History Specimens to 
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LINX. SOC. rilOCEKDIXGS — SESSION 1909-1910. i 


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(Juidf to tlu' British Vertehrates exhihited in the Department 
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Brown (James D.). Adjustable C'lassiHcation for Libraries ; with 
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Brunton (Thomas Lauder), ^^te Klein (Edward Emanuel) and 
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Ministere de I'lnterieur et de TAgriculture. 

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lioy. Svo. Bruxelles, 1910->. 
Les Aspects de la Vegetation en Belgique, par Ciiaules 
BoMMEii et Jean Massart. Les Districts Littoraux 
et Alluviaux, par Jean Massart. Planches 80. 

fol. Briixelles, 1908. 

*5e<'E,ecueilderinstitutBotanique. LeoErrera. (L'niversite 

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Etel, Morbihau. Part 11. ; pp. 5 and 2 plates. (Geol. Mag. 
n. s., Dec. v. vol. vii. March 1910.) Svo. London, 1910. 

BuUer (A. H. Reginald). Eesearches on Fungi. Pp. xi, 287; 
with 5 plates and 83 figures in the text. 

8vo. London ^- Neiv Fori-, 1909. 
Bulletin of Entomological Research, issued by the Entomological 
Kesearcli Committee (Tropical Africa), appointed by the Colonial 
Office. Editor : The Scientific Secretary. 

Vol. I. Part I.-^ Eoy. Svo. London, 1910> 

Burdon-Sanderson. Si-e Sanderson (John Scott Burdon). 

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mid ihr Leben in der Pflanze. Pp. iv, 220 ; mit .'i Tafeln und 

38 Ahbildungen im Text. Svo. Jena, lil(t9. 

Burr (Malcolm). See Blanford (W. T.). The Fauna of British 

India, including Ceylon and Burma. Dermaptera (^Earwigs). 

Svo. 1910. 

Butler (Samuel). Unconscious Memory. New Edition, entirely 

reset, with an Introduction bv Marcus Hahtog. Pp. xxxv, 

186. ' Svo. London, 1910. 


Indian Forest Records. A'ol. I. Part !.->- 

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Ta .t I. STEBBixa (E. P.). A Note on the Lac Insect {Tachanlia lacra). 
its Life History, Propngation, and Collection. Pp. vi. 84; 
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Calcutta (con.). 
Indian Museum. 

Annual Keport, Natural History Section, for 1907-9. 

8vo. Calcutta, 1908-1909. 
Annual Eeport, Industrial Section, for 1907-8. 

8vo. Calcutta, 1908. 

Memoirs. Vol. I.-^ 4to. Calcutta, 1907> 

Eecords. Vol. I.^ Eoy. 8vo. Calcutta, 1907-> 

An Account of the Deep- Sea Asteroidea collected by the 

Eoyal Indian Marine Survey Ship Investi(j(tto7\ By Eenk 

KoEHLER. Pp. 14;} ; ])lates 13. 4to. Calcutta, 1909. 

Ethnographic Survey of India. — Craniological Data from the 

Indian Museum, Calcutta. By B. A. Gupte. Pp. 70. 

4to. Calcutta, 1909. 

Catalogue of the Indian Decapod Crustact-a in the Collection 

of the Indian Museum. Parti. Bracliyura. Pasciculus II. 

The Indian Fresh-Water Crabs (Potamonidce). By A. 

Alcock. Pp. 135; plates 14, 4to. Calcutta, 1910. 

See Indian Forest Manual. 

Caiman (William Thomas). See British Museum — Guide- 
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and Myriopoda exhibited in the Department of Zoology, Bj-itish 
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Cambridge (Frederick A.). Arachnida of Hertfordshire. See 
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8vo. Camhrklrje, 1898-1910. 

Ward (H. Maksiiall)- Trees. 4 vols. 1904-{1}D8, 

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III. (Flowers). Pp. sii, 402; figs. 142. 1905. 
IV. (Fruits). Pp. 161 ; figs. 147. 1908. 
Wert (George Stepiie.\). A Treatise on the British Freshwater Algai. 

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Seward (A. C). Fossil Plants. Vols. I., II. 1898-1910. 
Canada, Department of Mines. 
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Catalogue of Canadian Birds. By John Macoun and James 
Melville Macoun. Pp. viii, 761 ; Index, pp. xviii. 

8vo. Ottaiva, 1909. 
Cape of Good Hope. 

Department of Agriculture. 

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Cepede (Casimir). Becherches sur les Infusoires Astomes, 

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Chilton (Charles). The Subantarctic Islands of New Zealand. 
Edited by Chakles Ciiiltox. 2 vols. 

4to. Wellington, N.Z., 1909. 
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VI. A Disease of Lavatcra trimestris. 
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VIII. Inoculation of Garden Crops. Pp.7. (Journ. Roy. Hortic. Soc. 


8vo. London, 1910. Author. 
Chodat (Robert). Etude critique et expiM-imeiitale sur le Poly- 

iiiorphisnie de.s Algues. Pp. lOo, avec 21 planches. 

8vo. Geneve, 1909. 
Christ (Hermann). Die Geographic der Fai-ne. Pp. 357 ; luit 

einem Titelbild, 129 Abbildungen im Text und 3 Karten. 

8vo: Jena, 1910. 
Clinton-Baker (H.). Illustrations of Conifers, Vol. I. Pp. xii, 

75 : plates 68. 4to. Hertford, 1909* 

Cockayne (L.). Eeport on a Botanical 8urvev of Stewart Island. 

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Combes (Raoul). Determination des Intensites Lumineuses 

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Correvon (Henri) et Robert (Philippe). La Flore Alpine. 

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Crisp {Sir Frank). Guide to Friar Park, Henlev-on-Thames. 

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Dauthenay (Rene) and others. Pepertoire de Couleurs pour 

aider a la determiuation des couleurs des Fleurs, des Feuillnges 

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8vo. Paris, 1905. Sir Frank Crisp. 
Davey (Frederick Hamilton). Flora of Cornwall: being an 

aicount of the Flowering Plants and Ferns found in the County 

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De Laval. See Laval (Patrik Fabian Honore de). 
De Toni (Giovanni Batista). Fkaxcesco Audissoxe (8 Settenihre 

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De Toni (G, B.). Spigolature Aldmvandiaue. IX, Pp.11. (Atti 
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Doflein (Franz). Lehrbueh der Protozoenkunde. Eiue Dar- 
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Driesch (Hans). Tbe Science aud Philosophy of the Organism. 

The (xifford Lectures delivered before the University of 

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Vol. I. pp. xiii, .■!24. Vol. 11. pp. xvi, 381. 


Department of Agriculture and Technical Instruction for 
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Scientific Investigations : 1908, no. 1 ; 1909, no. 1. 

Svo. Dnhlin, 1910. Authors & Scientific Adviser. 
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Hand-List of Irish Flowering Plants and Ferns. By Miss 
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Heft 37. Engler (A.). Acltlitamentum ad Araceas — Pothoideas. 1908. 

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498 Einzelbildei-n in 60 Figuren und einer Tafel. 

„ 38. KuKENTHAL (Georg). Cj'pei'accaB — Caricoideoe. Pp. 824 ; mit 

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„ 39. Walter (Hans). Phytolaccaceif. Pp. 154 ; mit 286 Einzel- 
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Engler (Victor). Monographie der Gattung Tilia. Pp. 159. 

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Farmer (John Bretland), ^SV^" Vries (Hugo de). The Mutation 

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Fitting (HansV Physiological Principles for Determining the 

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Fries (Theodor Magnus). JJref och skrifvelser af och till 

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Univ. of Uppsala. 

Friese (Heinrich) and Wagner Itititr von Kremsthal (Franz). 

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(Spengel, Zool. Jahrb., Abt. Syst. xxix. Heft 1.) 

8vo. Jena, 1910. 
Garden (The). A'ol. 73. 4to. London, 1909. Editor. 

Gardeners" Chronicle. 3 ser. Vols. 45, 4(j. fol. London, 1909. 

Gaskell ("Walter Holbrook). The Origin of Vertebrates. Pp. ix, 

537 : with lOS illustrations. Svo. London, 1908. 

Gibbs (Arthur Ernest). Insecta of Hertfordshire. See Victoria 

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Regia Scuola Superiore di Agi'icoltura. 

Aniiali. .Seric 1', ^'ol. Yiii. S\o. J'ortici, 190S. 

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134 proceedi:n'gs of tue 

Wellington, New Zealand. 
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Victoria History of the County of Hertford, Vol. I. 

fol. 1902. 
York, etc. 
Watson Botanical Exchange Club. 

Annual Keport 26. Svo. Cambridge, 1910. 

Gr. Goode. 

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der zoologischen Fachausdriicke. Pp. xxvi, 645 ; mit 529 

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Zoological Record. Vol. 45. (1908.) Svo. London, 1910. 




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Subscription portrait of Nathaniel Bagshaw Ward, by J. P. 

Subscription for removal to Burlington House, £1108 15s. 
Biography of Carl von Linne, and letters to Bishop Menander, 

presented by Miss Wray. 
Dr. Horsfield's .Javan plants, presented by the Court of Directors 

of the Hon. East India Company. 
Dr. Eerdinand von jNIueller's Austrahan and Tasmanian plants, 

including many types. 

Books from the library of Eobert Brown, presented by J. J. 

Bennett, Seo.L.S. 
Eobert Brown : bequest of two bonds given up, £200. 


Subscription bust of Eobert Brown, by Peter Slater. 

Collection of birds' eggs, bequeathed by John Drew Salmon, F.L.S. 



The Linnean Club : presentation bust of Prof. T, Bell, by 
P. Slater. 

Subscription portrait of John Joseph Bennett, by E. U. Eddis. 


Beriah Botfield, Esq. : Legacy, <£40 less Duty. 


Executors of Sir J. W. Hooker, =£100. 

George Bentham, Esq. : cost uf 10 plates for his " Tropical Legumi- 
nosae," Trans, vol. xxv. 


Dr. Eriedrich Welwitsch : Illustrations of his ' Sertum Angolense,' 


George Bentham, Esq. : General Index to Transactions, vols, i.-xxv. 
Royal Society : Grant in aid of G. S. Brady on British Ostracoda, 



Carved rhinoceros horn from Lady Smith, formerly in the posses- 
sion of Carl von Linue. 


Subscription portrait of George Bentham, by Lowes Dickinson. 
George Bentham, Esq., for expenditure on Library, £50. 


Legacy from James Tates, £50 free of Duty. 
„ „ Daniel Hanbury, £100 less Duty. 


Legacy of the late Thomas Corbyn Janson, £200. 

,, ,, ,, Charles Lambert, £500. 

George Bentham, Esq. : General Index to Transactions, vols. 

Subscription portrait of John Claudius Loudon, by J. Linuell. 
Subscription portrait of Eev. Miles Joseph Berkeley, by James 

Elev, George Henslow and Sir J. D. Hooker : Contribution to 
illustrations, £35. 

The Secretary of State for India in Council : cost of setting up 
Dr. Aitchison's paper, £36. 



George Bgnthain, Esq., special donation, .£25. 
The same: towards Jiichard Kippist's pension, £50, 
Portrait of Dr. St. George Jackson Mivart, by Miss Solomon; 
presented by Mrs. Mivart. 

Executors of the late Frederick Currey : a large selection of books. 
Subscription portrait of Charles Eobert Darwin, by Hon. John 

The Secretary of State for India in Council : Grant for put)lication 

of Dr. Aitchison's second paper on the Elora of the Kurrum 

Valley, MO. 


Sir John Lubbock, Bt. (afterwards Lord Avebury). 

Portrait of Carl von Linne, ascribed to M. Hallmaa. 
Philip Henry Gosse, Esq.: towards cost of illustrating his paper, 

Royal Society : Grant in aid of Mr. P. H. Gosse's paper, .£50. 
Sophia Grover, Harriet Grover, Emily Grover, and Charles Ehret 

Grover : 11 letters from Carl von Linne to G, D. Ehret. 


Executors of the late George Bentham, £567 lis. 2d. 
Subscription portrait of George Busk, by his daughter Marian 


A large selection of books from the library of the late Dr. Spencer 

Thomas Cobbold (a bequest for a medal was declined). 
Sir George MacLeay, Bt. : MSS. of Alexander MacLeay and 

portrait of Eev. William Kirby. 


William Davidson, Esq. : 1st and 2ud instalments of grant in aid of 

publication, £50. 
Francis Blackvt^ell Forbes, Es(]., in aid of Chinese Flora, £25. 

The Secretary of State for India in Council : Grant in aid of 

publication of results of the Afghan Boundary Delimitation 

Expedition, £150. 
Dr. J. E. T. Aitchison, towards the same, £25. 
Trustees of the Indian Museum : Mergui Archipelago report, for 

publication in Journal, £135. 
Dr. John Anderson, for the same, £60. 
Wm. Davidson, Esq. : 3rd and last instalment, £25. 
Sir Joseph Hooker : (1) Series of medals formerly in possession 

of (reorge Bentliain ; (5) Gold Match, key, and two seals 

belonging to Eobert Brown. 



Bronze copy of model for Statue of C. von Linne, by J. F. Kjellberg ;. 
presented by Frank Crisp, Esq. 


The Secretary of State for India in Council : Grant for Delimitation 

Expedition report, £200. 
Oak table for Meeting Eoom, presented by Frank Crisp, Esq. 
Subscription portrait of Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker, K.C.S.I., by 

Hubert Herkomer, K.A. 
Executors of the late John Ball, Esq. : a large selection of books. 
An anonymous donor, £30. 
Colonel Sir Henry CoUett, K.C.B., towards the publication of his 

Shan States collections, ,£50. 


Subscription portrait of Sir John Lubbock, Bt. [Lord Avebury], 

by Leslie Ward. 
George Frederick Scott Elliot, Esq., tow ards cost of his Madagascar 

paper, £60. 

Dr. Richard Charles Alexander Prior: for projection lantern, =£50. 


The Executors of Lord Arthur Eussell : his collection of portraits 

of naturalists. 
Electric light installation : cost borne by Frank Crisp, Esq. 


Algernon Peckover, Esq. : Legacy, £100 free of Duty. 
Miss Emma Swan : " Westwood Fund," £250. 


Clock and supports in Meeting Eoom, presented by Frank Crisp,. 

William Carruthers, Esq. : Collection of engravings and photo- 
graphs of portraits of Carl von Linnc. 
Eoyal Society : Grant towards publication of paper by the late 

John Ball, £60. 
Subscription portrait of Professor George James AUman, by 
Marian Busk. 

Sir John Lubbock, Bt. : Contribution towards his paper on 

Stipules, £43 14s. 9cZ. 
Eoyal Society : Contribution towards F. J. Cole's paper, £50. 
„ „ „ ,, Murray &Blackman's paper, 

„ ,, ,, ,, Elliot Smith's paper, £50. 

., ., „ ,, Forsyth Major's paper, £50. 



A. C. Harmsworth, Esq. [Lord Northcliffe] : Contribution towards 

cost (jf plates, <£43. 
Royal .Society : Contril)ution tow ards Mr. K. T. Giinther's paper 

on Lake Urnii, i;50. 


Hon. Charles Ellis, Hon. Walter llotlischild, and the Bentham 
Trustees : The Com^spondeiice of Wilham Swaiiison. 

Eoyal Society: Conlribution towards Mr. E. Chapman's j)aper on 
Funafuti Eoraminifera, £50. 

Prof. E. Hay Lankester : Contribution towards illustration, £30 5s. 

Portrait of Dr. St. G. J. Mivart, presented by Mrs. Mivart. 

Eoyal Society .- Contribution towmtl Dr. Elliot Smith's paper £50 
Legacy from the late Dr. R. C. A. Prior, £100 free of duty.' 
Mrs. Sladen: Posthumous Portrait of the late Walter Percv 
Sladen, by H. T. Wells, li.A. ^ 

B. Arthur Bensley, Esq. : Contribution to his paper, £4-4. 


Soyal Society : Grant in aid of third volume of the Chinese Flora 
£120. ' 

Supplementary Eoyal Charter: cost borne by Frank Crisp, Esq. 
(afterwards Sir Frank Crisp). 


Eoyal Society : First grant in aid of Dr. G. H. Fowler's ' Biscayan 

Plankton.' £50. 
Executors of the late G. B. Buckton, Esq. : Contribution for 

colouring plates of his pa|)er, £26. 

Eoyal Society : Second grant towards ' Biscayan Plankton,' £50. 
Subscription portrait of Prof. S. H. Amines, bv Hon. John Collier. 
Eoyal Swedish Ac-ademy of Science : Copies'of portraits of C. von 

Liiiiie, after Per Krafft the elder, and A. Eoslin, both by 

Jean Haagen. 


Eoyal University of Uppsala : Copy by Jean Haagen of portrait of 

C. V. Linne, by J. H. Scheffel (1739). 
Eoyal Society : Third and final grant towards * Biscayan Plankton ' 

The Trustees of the Percy Sladen Memorial Fund : First o-raut 

towards publication of Mr. Staidey Gardiner's Researches 

in the Indian Ocean in H.M.S. ' Sealark,' £200. 



Prof. Gustaf Eetzius : Plaster cast of bust of Carl von Linne, 
modelled by Walther Eaneberg from the portrait by Scheffel 
(1739) at Linues Hammarby : the bronze original is for the 
fagade of the new building for the Royal Academy of 
Science, Stockholm. 

Miss^Sarah Marianne Silver, F.L.S. : Cabinet formerly belonging 
to Mr. S. W. Silver, F.L.S. 


The Trustees of the Percy Sladen Memorial Fund : Second grant 
towards publication of Mr. Stanley Gardiner's Eesearches in 
the Indian Ocean in H.M.S. ' Sealark,' ^^200. 

Prof. James William Helenus Trail, F.R.S., F.L.S. : Gift of £100 
in Trust, to encourage Research on the Nature of Proto- 


Royal Society : Grant towards Dr. G. H. Fowler's paper on 

Biscayan Ostracoda, £50. 
Sir Joseph Hooker : Gold watch-chain worn by Robert Brown, 

and seal with portrait of Carl von Linne by Tassie. 

[With the gifts received in 1888, the Societv now possesses the 
gold watch and chain formerly belonging to Robert Brown, with 
the watch-key, amethyst signet engraved R. B., cornelian signet 
engraved J. D. = Jonas Dryander, and cornelian seal, with Linnean 
bust engraved after C. F. Inlander by William (?) Tassie.] 


SESSION 1909-1910. 

Note. — The following are not indexed : — The name of the Chairman at each meeting ; 
speakers wliose remarks are not reported ; and passing allusions. 

Accession of King George, Address, 

Accounts, 62-63; laid before Anni- 
verssiry Meeting, 61. 

Additions to Library, 109-134. 

Addresses on Deatli of Patron, 60-61. 

Africa, see Britisli East Africa. 

Agar, Dr. W. E., elected, 106 ; pro- 
posed, 61. 

Agassiz, A., deceased, 64 ; obituary, 83- 

Aldabra, Dceapoda of (Borradaile), 52. 

Amber, Blattida; preserved in (Shel- 
ford), 9. 

Angola, S., see Pearson, H. H. W. 

Anniversary Meeting, 59. 

Arber, E. A. N., elected Councillor, 

Arctic plants from ' Peary ' expedition 
exhibited (Stapf), 107. 

Associate elected, 64. 

Auditors, nominated and elected, 55 ; 
Certificate (VV. B. Keen), 62-63 ; 
Boodle in phice of Hopkinson, 56. 

Award for Microscopical Research an- 
nounced, 65 ; — ' Trail,' announced, 
55, presented, 79. 

Axniiuster, Krica cincrca from (Rendle), 

Bagnall, R. S., elected, i ; Neotropical 

Thysanoptera, 55. 
Balance Sheet, see Cash Statement. 
Biilanophoracea; mentioned, 107. 
Ballyvaughan, Orchis macidata from, 


Bancroft, Miss N., admitted, 104; 
elected, 56 ; proposed, 53. 

Barbour, Capt. J. 11. , elected. 6 ; pro- 
posed, 1. 

Bartlett, Capt., plants collected by, 
exhibited (Stapf), 107. 

Bateson, Prof. W., elected, 8 ; pro- 
posed, 5. 

Beeby, W. H., deceased, 61 ; obituary, 

Belt, A., proposed, 104. 

Benefactions, 136. 

Bickerton, W., Lecture on Nesting 
Terns, 52-53. 

Birthday Congratulations to Sir J. D. 
Hooker, 106. 

Blattidai preserved in Amber (Shelford), 

Boodle, L. A., Councillor retired, 150 ; 

elected Auditor, 56. 
Borradaile, L. A., Decapoda of Al- 

dabra, 52. 
Botanical Secretary (O. Stapf), elected, 

Braehiopoda of the Indian Ocean 

(Ball), 8. 
Brencliley, Miss W. E., admitted, 56; 

elected, 55 ; proposed, 52. 
Bridge, T. VV., deceased, 61. 
Bridgnian, F. J., admitted, 9 ; elected, 

6 ; proposed, 1. 
British East Africa, Isopoda from 

(Stebbing), 8. 
Brown, J. M., elected, 55 ; proposed, 

52 ; Freshwater Rliizopods from 

the Lake District, 6; Larva of 

Tipula maxima, 59. 
Browne, Lady Isabel, admitted, 53. 
Bryozoa: Part II. Cyclostomata, Cteno- 

stomata, and Endoprocta (Waters), 9. 
Buckton, W. M., deceased, 61. 
Burr, Dr. M., Dermaptera of the 

Seychelles, 57. 
Bury, H., elected Councillor, 65. 


Bushmanhuid, see Pearson, H. H. 

Callitris, Anatomy of (Saxton), 50-51. 
Carpenter, G. H., Pyonogonida from 

the Red Sea and Indian Ocean, 8. 
Cams- Wilson, C, exliibited stones em- 
bedded in wood, 1-3, pi. 1. 
Casii Statement received and adopted, 

61 ; — as audited, 62-63. 
Ciiapman, F., Foi"iminifei-a and Cstra- 

coda from Funafuti, 56. 
Chermcs himolai/riisis on the Spruce and 

Silver Fir (Stebbinc;), 55. 
Cinematograph demonstration (Enock), 

Clapton, E., deceased, 61; obituary, 

Cockayne, Dr. L., elected, 53 ; proposed, 

Congratulations to Sir J. D. Hooker, 

Coniopterygiden iind Henierobiiden auf 

den Sej'chcUen gesammelten (Euder- 

lein). 52. 
Councillors elected, 65 ; retired, 150. 
Crisp, Sir F., award tor Microscopical 

Research, 65 ; elected Coiuicillor, 65 ; 

exhibited specimen of Linnaa horealis, 

105 ; nominated V.-P., 104. 
Crocker, Miss E., deceased, 6 1 ; obituary, 

Cromer Forest Bed, ZaiiniehcUta from, 

exhibited (Reid), 8. 
Crossland, Cyril, elected, 30 ; proposed, 

8; Bryozoa, collected by (Waters), 

9 ; Crustacea Isopoda and Tanai- 

dacea, collected by (Stebbing), 8 ; 

Pycuogoaida, collected by (Carpenter), 

Crustacea Tsopoda and Taiiaidacea from 

the Sudanese Red Sea (Stebbing), 

Ctenostomata, sec Bryozoa. 
' Cupu-assu,' exhibited (Jackson), 55; 

— (Sprague), 55. 
Cyclostomata, sec Bryozoa. 

Dall, W. n., Brachiopoda from the 

Indian Ocean, 8. 
Dallinger, Rev. W. H., deceased, 61 ; 

obituary, 87-89. 
Damaraland, sec Pearson, H. H. W^ 
Darlington, H. R., admitted, 104 ; 

elected, 55; proposed, 52. 
Davey, F. IL, admitted, 53. 
Death of Patron recorded, 59. 
Deaths recorded, 61, 64. 
Decapoda of Aldabra (Borradaile), 52. 

Dendy, Prof. A., elected Councillor, 
65 ; elected Secretary, 65 ; exhibited 
slides and specimen.s of Foxglove, 
io5 ; remarks upon the Origin of 
Vertebrates, 32-37. 

Denny, A., communication by (Brown), 

Dermaptera of the Seychelles (Burr), 

Dicks, A. J., withdrawn, 64. 
Digitalis 'purpurea (Dendy), 106. 
Dohrn, A., deceased, 64; obituary, 89- 

Donations in aid of Publications, 135 ; 
— <o Library, 109-134; — to the 
Society (1790-1910), 136-143. 

Drawings, oi-iginal, of Postel and 
Rupreeht's ' lUustrationes Algaruin,' 
exhibited (Holmes), 57. 

of wild flowers exliibited (Drink- 
water), 7, 53. 

Drinkwater, H., admitted, 53 ; elected, 
30 ; proposed, 8 ; drawings of wild 
flowers exhibited by, 7, 53. 

Drought, sec Worster-Drought. 

Druce, G. C, exhibited Zannichcllia 
gihberosa and Orchis maculata, var. 
O'Kelh/i, 7. 

Druce, H., elected Auditor, 55. 

Elections, number of, 64. 

Eliot, Sir C, Nudibranchiata from the 
Indian Ocean, 8. 

Elm Seedlings showing Mendelian 
results (Henry j, 56. 

Enderleiu, Dr. Gr., Coniopterygiden und 
Hemerobiiden auf den Seychellen 
gesammelt, 52 ; — Die Pilzniiicken 
Fauna der Seychellen, 57. 

Endoprocta, sec Bryozoa. 

Enock, P., Cinomatograph demonstra- 
tion by, 5-6. 

Entomological collecting in the Sey- 
chelles (Scott), 59. 

Equisefum Telmatcia, Ehrh., exhibited 
(Hill), 107-108. 

Erica cincrea, monstrous, exhibited 
(Ren die), 3. 

Evans, I. P. B., admitted, 57. 

Evolution of Parasitism in Fungi 
(Massee), 51-52. 

Eysenhanltia amorphoides, fluorescence 
of, exhibited (Stapf), 53. 

Farmer, Prof. J. B., elected Councillor. 

Fawcett, W., appointed Scrutineer, 64 ; 

again appointed, 65. 
Feilding, J. B., withdrawn, 64. 





Fellows deccused, 6i ; ivmovcd fioiu 
List, c'leatt'd, and withdrawn, 64. 

l'"inaiicial .Staleiiieiit, scr C^isli Stato- 

Flotclier, T. B., Onioodidic and Ptero- 
plioridre of Se_)clii'lles Expedition, 

Flora of Gazaland : an account of 

Mr. Swyniiprton's collections (liendle 

and others). 105. 
Fluorescence of Ki/senhardtia amor- 

phoafrs, exhibited (Stapf), 53. 
Folkestone, Ophri/x arniiifrrii from, 

exhibited (Gen. Sec), 105. 
Foraininifera and Ostracoda from 

I'unafuti (Cliupnian), 56. 
Foreign Member.-* tleeeiisod, 64. 
Fowler, Dr. G. II., elected Councillor, 

Foxglove abnormalities, exhibited 

(Dendy). 106. 
Fi'uits aiui Seeds of Plants introduced 

by the Romans, exhibited (Reid), 7. 
Funafuti, Foraminilera and Ostracoda 

from (Chapman), 56, 
Fungi, Evolution of Parasitism in, 

demonstrated (Massee), 51-52. 

Gadow, Dr. H., Remarks upon the 
Origin of Vertebrates, 26-30. 

GanJenia phymtphi/lla and G. Kal- 
hrcifcri, mentioned, 106. 

Gardiner. Prof. J. S., communications 
by (Borradaiie) 52, (Dall) S, (Eliot) 
8, (Enderlein) 52, (Flolcher) 52, 
(Holmgren) 52, (Stein) 57, (Tesch) 
57, (Ulmer) 8 ; elected Councillor, 
65; narrative of ' Sealark ' Expedi- 
tion. Part iii., 8; Remarks upon the 
Origin of Vertebrates, 42-45. 

Oaskell, Prof. W. H., opened Discussion 
upon the Origin of Vertebrates, 9-15 ; 
elossd discussion, 46-50. 

Gazaland, Contribution to the Flora 
of (Rendlc and others), 105. 

General Secretary elected (Jackson), 65. 

Glijclne Siijd, Sieb. & Zucc, exhibited 
(Hollinui), 53. 

Goodrich, E. S., Remarks upon the 
Origin of Vertebrates, 24-26. 

Greening. L., elected, 6; projiosed, i. 

Groves, II., moved thanks lor President's 
Address, 78. 

Groves, J., elected Auditor, 55. 

Guest, S., admitted. 104; elected, 56; 
])r(n)Oscd. 53. 

Ilanbury, C. elected. 104; proposed, 

Hansen, E. C, deceased, 61 ; obituary, 

Harding. W. .\. IL, admitted, 57; 

elected, 53; proposed, 50. 
Hay ward, Aliss I. M., clectod, 53 ; pro- 
posed, 50. 
Heathei-, monstrous {Erica cinerra) from 

Axminster (Rcndlo), 3-4. 
Heinig, R. L., admitted. 57. 
Hemerobiiden uiid Coniopterygiden auf 

den S 'ychellen gesammclten (Kndei-- 

leiu), 52. 
Henry, A., Elm Seedlings showing 

Meudelian results, 56. 
Herdman, Prof. VV. A., communication 

by (Carpenter), 8. 
Heteropoda and Pteropoda of the 

Indian Ocean (Tesch), 57. 
' Hexenbesen,' translation of the term 

' Witch-knot,' 105. 
Hill, A. W., elected Councillor, 65 ; 

exhibited Pjjuisrtam Tdmateia, Ehrli., 
Hill, Prof. J. P., elected Auditor, 55 ; 

elected Councillor, 65. 
Hillhouse, W., deceased, 61 ; obituary, 

Hindle, Dr. E., proposed, 105. 
Holden, H. S., elected, IC4; proposed, 

Holland, J. 11., exhibited Glycine Soja, 

Sieb. & Zucc, 53. 
Holmes, E. M., exhibited Parmclia 

ru'gosn var. concent rica, Cromb.. 57 ; 

— Zhj/pJiu^ Jiijiiha, 57 ; — original 
drawings of Postcl and Ruprerht"s 
' Illustrationcs Algarum,' 57. 

Holmgren. Dr. N. F., Termiten der 

Seychellen, 52. 
Hooker, Sir J. D., congratulatory letter 

to, 106. 
Hopkinson, J., communication by 

(Wesche). 6; elected Auditor. 55*; 

— unable to serve, 56 ; elected 
Councillor, 65 ; exhibited plates of 
Nudibranchs, 56; micro, slide show- 
ing mode of reproduction in Rliizo- 
puda, 106. 

Ilvitfeldt, E., received Linnean Medal 
for transmission, 78. 

Idiella, see Anlhomyidae. 

Indian Ocean Rrachiopoda (Dall), 8 ; 
Isopoda (Stebbing), 8 ; Nudibranchs 
(Eliot), 8 ; Pycnogonida (Carpenter), 

Isopoda [Crustacea] and Tanaidacea 
from the Sudanese Red Sea (Steb- 
bing), 8. 

Isopoda from the Indian Ocean and 
British East Africa (Stebbing), 8. 



Jackson, Dr. B. D.. elected Councillor, 
65 ; — Gen. Sec, 65 ; exliibited 
'Cupu-assii,' 55; — Ophri/n aranifcra, 
105 ; — ' Spolia botanica,' 59 ; Obit- 
uary notices, 83 ; report, 61 ; read 
Bye-Liiw.s governii.g elections, 64. 

Jeffery, II. J., admitted, 50 ; elected, 6 ; 
proposed, i. 

Jennings, S., 8; withdrawn, 64. 

Lang, Dr. W. 11., admitted, 8. 

Lankester, Sir E. Ray, Remarks upon 
the Origin of" Vertebrates, 3S-40. 

Larva of Tipula maxima (Erowi;), 59. 

Latlirmt Squamaria, Linn., var., exhi- 
bited (Williams), 58. 

Librarian's report, 64. 

Library Additions, 109-134. 

Lichens exhibited (Holmes), 57. 

Lindley, Miss J., admitted, i. 

Linncea !)o?ral is exhibited (Crisp), 105. 

Linnean Medal, presentation annonnccd, 
55 ; presented, 78. 

Lithgow, S., withdrawn, 64. 

Lodge. G. E., withdrawn, 64. 

Lodoicea SccI/clUiruin, lantern-slides 
exliibited, ic;. 

Longsdon, W. B., deceased, 61. 

MacBride, Prof. E. W., Remarks upon 

the Origin of Vertebrates, 15-20. 
Maekinuon, P. W., withdrawn, 64. 
Macnamara, N. C, exhibition on behalf 

of (Dendy), 106. 
MacOwan, Prof. P., deceased, 61 ; 

obituary, 92-94. 
Male Sterility in Potatoes (Salanian), 

Mallv, C W., elected, 104; proposed. 

Massee, G., Evolution o( Parasitism in 
Fungi, 51-52. 

Medal and Award (Trail), presentation 
announced, 55 ; presented, 79. 

Medal, Linnean, presentation an- 
nounced, 55 ; presented, 79. 

" Mei-tsao," see Zi~t//>Iiiis. 

Mendelian results with Elm Seedlings 
(Henry), 56. 

Microscopical Research Fund an- 
nounced, 65. 

Middleton, R. M., deceased, 61 ; 
obituary, 94. 

Minchin, Prof. E. A., adjudicated Trail 
Award, 55 ; —received, 79 ; proposed 
as Fellow, 104. 

Mitchell, Dr. P. C, Remarks upon the 
Origin of Vertebrates, 40-42. 

Mitsukuri, K., deceased, 61. 

Monckton, H. W., elected Coiinfilior, 
65 ; — Treasurer, 65 ; exhibited 
"Witch-knot," 104-105; nominate. I 
V.-P., 104; his accounts, 62-63; ~- 
submitted, 61. 

Nainaqualand, ^ci: Pearson, H. 11. W 
Narrative of ' Sealark ' Ex])edition 

Part IIL (Gardiner & others), 8. 
Nevill, C. St. John, proposed, 105. 
Nigeria, South, drawings of plants 

from, exhibited (Talbot), 106. 
Nortliants (Eye Gi-een), ZiuinicheUia 

(/ihiwrosa from, 7. 
Norton Churchyard, yew trees in, 

mentioned, 2. 
Norwegian Legation, the Scci-elary 

received Medal for Prof. Sars, 78. 
Nudibranchs from the Indian Ocean 

(Eliot), 8. 
plates of, exhibited (Ilopkinson), 


Obituaries, 83-104. 

Oliver, Prof. F. W., elected Councillor, 
65 ; nominated V.-P., 104. 

Oplirya aravifera exhibited (Gen. Sec), 

Orchis macidata var. O'KvIliji, exhi- 
bited (Druce), 7. 

Origin of Vertebrates, Discussion up(jn 
the, 9-50. 

OrneodidiE and Pterophorida; of the 
Seychelles Expedition (Fletcher), 52. 

Ostracoda and Foraminifra from 
Funafuti (Chapman), 56. 

Paine, S. G., admitted, 105 ; elected, 
104 ; proposed, 56. 

Parasitism in Fungi, Evolution of, 
(Massee), 51-52. 

Parkin, T., admitted, 57 ; elected, 5. 

Pariitelia rugo^a •'la.v.concentricu.Qvuiwh. , 
exhibited (Holmes), 57. 

Parsons, F. G., withdrawn, 64. 

Patron, death of, mentioned, 59. 

Pawson, A. H., withdrawn, 64. 

Pearson, Prof. II. H. W^., communi- 
cation by (Sykes), 56. 

Vegetation of Bushmanland, 

Nainaqualand, Dainaraland, and 
South Angola, 4. 

Peary Expedition, plants fiom, exhi- 
bited (Stapf), 107. 

Penard, Dr., micro, slide by, exhibited 
(Ilopkinson), 106. 

Pilzmiicken Fauna der Seychellen 
(Enderlein), 57^ 

Pinus sj/Zvestrii, " U'itch-knot " on, 
exhibited (Monckton), 104-105 



Plants introduced by the Ronians, ! 

friiils and seeds, exhibited (Reid), 7. 
Pocock, K. I., Couiu'iUor retired, 150. 
Potatoes, Male Sterility in (Siilanian), 

108. I 

Potter, Prof. M. C, iippointed Scru- ] 

tinecr, 64; again appointed, 65; ' 

seconded thanks for President's 

Address, 78. 
Potts, F. A., elected, 6 ; proposed, i. 
Poulton, Prof. E. P., elected Councillor, 

65 ; nominated V.-l*., 10+. 
Power, II., withdrawn, 64. 
Prain, Lt.-Col., Councillor retired, i 50. 
President elected (Scott), 65. 
Presidential Address, 66-78. 
Plerophoridie and Orneodidie of tiie 

Sejclicllcs Expedition (Fletcher), 52. 
Pteropochi and Heteropoda of the 

Indian Ocean (Tesch). 57. 
Pjcnogonida from the Ped Sea and 

Indian Ocean (Carpenter), 8. 

Red Sea, Crustacea Tsopoda and Tanai- 
daeea from (Stebbing), 8 ; Pyeno- 
gonida from (Carpenter), 8. 

Reid, C, exhibited ])hotographs of 
ZcDinichdlia, 8. 

Plants introduced by the Romans, 

Removal of Fellow from List, 64. 
Rendle, Dr. A. B., elected Councillor, 

65 ; exhibited \wmsiro\is Erica cinerea , 

and others, Contrib. to the Flora 

of Gazaland, 105. 
Ilhinia, sec Anthoniyidic. 
Rhizopoda, Freshwater, from the Lake 

District (Brown), 6. 
mode of rejiroductiou, exhibited 

(Hopkinson). 106. 
Ridewood,Dr. W. G., elected Councillor, 

Ripon, Marquess of, deceased, 61 ; 

obituary, 94. 
Robinson, sec Ripon, Marquess of. 
Romans, i'ruits and seeds of Plants 

introduced by the, exhibited (Reid),7. 

Salaman, Dr. R. N,, Male Sterility in 

Potatoes, 108. 
Sargant, Miss E., Councillor retired, 

Sars, Prof. G. O., adjudicated Linnean 

Medal, 55 ; received, 78. 
Saunders, E., deceased, 61 ; obituary, 

Saunder.«,Mi8s E. R., elecled Councillor, 

Saunders, G. S., deceased, 61 ; obituary, 

Saunders, J. E., deceased, 61. 
Saxton, W. T., elected, 6 ; proposed, 

Anatomy of Widdriiic/tuiiia and 

Calli/ris, 50-51. 
Sayce. A. O., elected Associate, 7 ; pro- 
posed as Associate, i. 
Scbonland, S., withdrawn, 64. 
Scott, Dr. D. H.: — Address to 
Linnean Medallist, 78 ; — to Trail 
Medallist, 79 ; appointed Scru- 
tineers, 64, 65; — Vice-Presiilcnts, 
104 ; declared result of Ballots, 
64, 65; elected Councillor, 65; — 
President, 65 ; Presidential Address, 
66-78; read Loyal Addresses, 60; 
announced Sir F. Cris))'s gift, 65 ; 
read letter to Sir J. D. Hooker, 106 ; 
referred to death of Patron, 59. 
Scott. II., admitted, 52 ; elected, 6 ; 
})ro]iosed, i. 

Entomological collecting in the 

Seychelles, 59 ; other collections, see 
Stein, Prof. P. 
Scrutineers appointed, 64, 65. 
' Sealark' Expedition, Narrative (Gar- 
diner & others). 8. 
Secretaries elected, 65. 
Seeds and Fruits of Plants introduced 

by the Romans (Reid), 7. 
Seward, Prof. A. C, Councillor retired, 

Seychelles, Anthomyida; of the (Stein). 
57 ; Coniopterygiden und Ilemero- 
biiden der (Endei-lein), 52; Enti- 
mological collecting in the (Scott), 
59; Orneodidiii and Ptei'cophorida; 
of the (Fletcher), 52; Pilznuickeu 
Fauna (Enderlein), 57; Tricht- 
ptera of the (Ulmer), 8. 
Shelford, R., Blattidai preserved in 

Amber, 9. 
Sillem, C, admitted, 8 ; elected, 6-7 ; 

proposed, i. 
Soy Bean {Glijclnc Soja) exhibited 

(Holland), 53". 
' Sj)olia botanica ' exhibited (Gen. Sec). 

Sprague, T. A., exhibited ' Cupu-assu.' 


Stapf, Dr. O., elected Couneillor, 65 : 
elected Secretary, 65 ; exhibited Arctic 
specimens from ' Peary' Expedition, 
107 ; exhibited lluorescence of Kt/sen- 
hardtia rninir/iJioidrs, H. B. & K., 53 ; 
Ufriciilaria rit/ida, Benj., and U. vcol- 
tioides, St.-Hil., 58; slides of Zof/o/cra 
Scchclkirum, 105. 

Starling, Prof. E. H., Remarks upon 
the Origin of Vertebrates. 2C-24. 

Steaius, A. E. B., deceased, 61. 


Stebhing, E. P., Life-history of Chcrmcft 
himalayeiisix ou the Spruce and Silver 
Fir, 55. 

Stebbiiior, Eev. T. K. R.. appointed 
Scrutineer, 64; again ajipointed, 
65 ; exhibited ' Witcii-knot ' on 
Picca ea-c/'/ga, 56: Crustacea Tsopoda 
and Tanaidacea froir. tlie Sudanese 
Red Sea, 8 ; Isojjoda from the Indian 
Ocean and British East Africa, 8. 

Remarks upon tlie Origin of 

Vertebrate?. 45-46. 

Stein, Prof. P., Die von Ilerrn Ilugli 
Scott im Juli lP()8-M:irz 1909 auf 
den Seycliellen gesammeUen Anllio- 
TnyidiB, rait, den Gattungen Bhiuia 
and Idlella, 57. 

Stones embedded in wood, exhibited 
(Carus-Wilson), 1-3, pi, 1. 

Strickland, Sir 0., deceaBsd, 6r ; obit- 
uary, 101-102. 

Sudanese Red Sea, .see Red Sea. 

Sunder, D. H. E., elected, 8 ; pro- 
posed, 5. 

Sutton, A. W., communication by 
(Salaman), 108. 

Sutton, M. H. F., admitted, i. 

Swainson, Gr.. withdrawn, 64. 

Swynnerton. C. F. M., an account of 
his colled ions (Rendle and others) 

Sykes, Miss Mary Gladys, Anatomy 
of WelwUschia mirabiliti, 56. 

Talbot, Mrs., coloured drawings by, 

exhibifed (Talbot), 106. 
Talbot, P. A., admitted, 105 ; elected, 

104 ; proposed, 56. 
exhibited drawings of S. Nigeri;in 

]3lauts by Mrs. Talbot, ic6. 
Tanaidacea and Crustacea IsojKida 

from the Sudanese Red Sea (Steb- 

bing), 8. 
Termiten der Seychellen (Holmgren), 

Terns, British K'esting, Lecture on 

(Bickerton), 52-53. 
Tesch, Dr. J. J., Pteropoda and 

Iletcropoda of the Indian Ocean, 

Theobronui grandiflora, Schuni., sec 
' Cupu-assu.' 

Thomas, Miss E. N., elected Coun- 
cillor, 65. 

Thomas, H. S., withdrawn, 64. 

Thysanoptera, Neotropical (Bagnall), 

Tlpula maxima, Larva of (Brown), 59. 
Tipulid subfamily, new (Wesche), 6. 

Trail Award announced, 55 ; pre- 
sented, 79. 

Treadgold, C. H., admitted, i. 

Treasurer elected (Monckton), 65. 

Trichoptera auf den Seychellen (Ul- 
mer), 8. 

Ulmer, G., Trichoptera auf den Sey- 
chellen, 8. 

Utricularia rigida, Benj., and U. iicot- 
tioidcs, St.-Hil., exhibited (Stapf), 58. 

Vegetation of Bushraanland, Namaqm- 
land, Daniaraland, and S. Angola 
(Pear.son), 4. 

Vertebrates, Discussion upon the Origin 
of, 9-50. 

Vice-Presidents nominated, 104. 

Waters, A. W., Bryozoa collected by 
Crossland, 9. 

Wclwi/schia mirabilis, its Anatomy 
(Sykes), 56. 

Wesche, W., new Tipidid subfamily, 6. 

Widdrwgtonia and Calliiris, Anatomy 
of (Saxton), 50-51. 

Wild (lowers, drawings of, exhibited, 
(Drinkwater), 7, 53. 

Williams, F. N., exhibited var. of 
LathrcBa Squamaria, Linn., 58. 

Wilson, .sY-e Carus-Wilson. 

Wilson, J. C, admitted, 57 ; elected, 
56 ; proposed, 53. 

'Witch-knot' on Vieca cxccha ex- 
hibited (Stebbing), 56 ; — on Pinus 
sylvcsiris exliibited (Monckton), 104- 

Withdrawals, 64. 

Wood vith stones embedded therein 
exhibited (Carus-Wilson), 1-3, pi. 1. 

Woodward, A., removed from List, 64. 

Woodward, Dr. A. S., Remarks upon 
the Origin of Vertebrates, 31. 

Worster-Drought, C, elected, 7 ; pro- 
posed, I. 

Wrexham, drawings of wild flowers 
from, exhibited (Drinkwater), 7, 53. 

Wright, E. P., deceased, 61 ; obituai'y, 

Yerbury, Lt.-Col. J. W., withdrawn, 

Yew trees in Norton Churchyard, 

mentioned, 2. 

ZannichcUia, photographs of, exhibited 
(Reid), 8. 

gibbcrosa, exhibited (Druce), 7. 

ZizijpkuaJujuhaershxhitcA (Holmes), 57. 
Zoological Secretary elected, 65. 


The Followiiii^ Councillors retired at the Anniversary Meeting, 
iMth May, 1910:— 

L. A, Boodle, Esq., It. 1. Pocock, Esq., Lieur.-Col. Praix, 
Miss Ethel Sahg.vnt, and Pro!'. A. C. Sewaeu. 








From November 1910 to June 1911. 

L o N ]) o K : 

P R I N T J<: D FOR THE L I N N E A N S C 1 E T Y 







List of Publications issued iv 

Proceedings of the 123rd Session i 

Presidential Address 17 

Obituaries 32 

Abstracts 48 

Additions to the Library 73 

Donations 96 

Benefactions, 1790-] 911 97 

Index 106 


Publications oF the Society issued during tlu' period, ^Jlst .lulr, 
1910, to 31st July, 1!)11 :— 

Journal (Botany), No. 272, 18th Oct., I91u. 

(Zoology), No. 1^02, 20th Oct., 191(). 

,. 21 i, 20th July, 1910. 

Transactions (2nd Ser.) l3otany. Vol. A'll. Part xv., Oct. 1910. 

(2nd «er.) Zoology, Vol. X. Part x., June 1911. 

Vol. XI. ., VI., Dec. 1910. 

., VII., Dec. 1910. 

Vol.Xlll, ,. iv., Nov. 1910. 

A^ol. XIV. ,. I., Nov. 1910. 

Proceedings, 122nd Session, from November 1909 to June 1910 
October J91U. 

List of [Fellows, Associates, and Foreign Members], 1910-1911. 





November 3rd, 1910, 

Dr. D. H. Scott, M.A., F.R.S., President, in the Chair. 

The Minutes of the General Meeting of the IGfch June, 1910, 
were read and confirmed. 

Mr. Hugh Broughton was admitted a Fellow. 

Ml'. Anthony Belt and Prof. Edward Alfred Minchin, M.A. 
(Oxon.), were elected Fellows. 

Miss Madelaine Carson, M.Sc, Mr. Jules Angustin de Gaye, 
Mr. Thomas Bennett Goodall, F.R.C.V.S., Mr. Francis Cecil 
Hudson, Mr. Norman Miller Johnson, Miss Eleanor Mary 
Evered Parsons, Lieut.-Col, Simpson Powell, M.D. (Durh.), and 
Mr, Harold Stuart Thompson, were proposed as Fellows. 

The following letter addressed to the General Secretary was 
read from the Chair : — 

Marlborough House, 

Pall Mall, S.W., 
\8ik July, 1910. 
Dear Sir, 

I am commanded by The King to inform you that His 
INTajesty is graciously pleased to become Patron of the Linnean 
Society of London. 

Tours faithfully, 

(Signed) W. H. P. CAEINGTON, 



The deaths of Dr. Melchior Treuh, Foreign Mnniher, of 
Samuel Alexander Stewart and Edward Geirard, Associates, were 

The follow ing papers were read and discussed : — 

1. Prof. AY. A. ITerdman, F.R.S.. F.L.S.— A Comparison of 

the Summer Plankton on the "West Coast of Scotland with 
that in the Irish Sea. 

2. Mr. J. C. F. Fryer. — The Structure and Formation of Aklahra 

and neighhouring Islands, with notes on their Flora and 
Fauna. (Communicated by Prof. J. Stanley Gabdinee, 
F.P.S., F.L.S.) 

3. ]Mr. 11. B. BioET.ow. — On the Siphonophora of the 'Peseareh ' 

Biscaj^an Plankton. (Communicated by Dr. G. Herbert 
Fowler, F.L.S.) 

November 17th, 1910. 
Dr. D. II. Scott, M.A., F.E.S., President, in the Chair. 

The Minutes of the General Meeting of the 3rd November, 
1910, were read and confirmed. 

Dr. Edward Hindle and Mr. Cuthbert St. John Nevill were 
elected Fellows. 

The Eev. Manoah Holland and Mr. Hugh Godfrey Mundy were 
proposed as Fellows, and Mr. Arthur Bennett and Mr. AYilliam 
Cole were proposed as Associates. 

Mr. W. C. "WoRSDELL, F.L.S. , exhibited specimens of Maize 
showing androgynous inflorescences, from Pretoria, South Africa ; 
Dr. Stapf spoke on the probable derivation of Zea Mays from a 
species of Eucldcena. Mr. Worsdell also showed the model of a 
native tortoise carved from some unknown wood, which had been 
riddled by a wood-borin<2: beetle in Cape Town, identified as 
Botryclioplites cornutus, Oliv. 

Prof. J. W. H Trail, F.E.S., F.L.S., exhibited specimens and 
a lantern -slide of a remarkable form of liuhvs Idcrns, distributed 
over a considerable district in Aberdeenshire, in which the normal 
number of leaflets was increased by an extra basal pair, approach- 
ing the leaf of the Suberecti group of fruticose Ii^^hi. 

A discussion followed in which Prof. Henslow, Mr. Henry 
Groves, and the President took part. 

The General Secretary showed a monstrous pear, similar to those 
figured by Dr. Masters in his ' Vegetable Teratology,' which had 
been picked up under a pear-tree in a Ilolloway garden by Mr. A. 
H. Williams. Prof. Henslow and Mr. AVorsdell remarked upon 
the frequency of this monstrosity ami its probable origin. 


The following papers were read and discussed : — 

1. Prof . G. Henslow, P.L.S, — A Theoretical Origin of Plantago 

viaritima, L. and F. alpina, L. from P. Coronopus, L. Vars. 

2, A Theoretical Origin of Monocotyledons from Aquatic 

Dicotyledons, through Self-Adaptation to an Aquatic 
Habit — Being Supplementary Observations to a previous 
paper (Jouru. Linn. Soc, Bot. xxix, (1892) p. 485). 

December 1st, 1910. 

Dr. D. H. ScoxT, M.A., F.E.S., President, iu the Chair. 

The Minutes of the General Meeting of the 17th November, 
1910, were read and confirmed. 

Miss Ida Margaret Hay ward and Mr. Cuthbert St. John Nevill, 
were admitted Fellows. 

Miss Madelaine Carson, M.Sc, Mr. Jules Augustin de Gaye, 
Mr. Thomas Bennett Goodall, F.R.C.V.S., Mr. Francis Cecil 
Hudson, Mr. Norman Miller Johnson, Miss Eleanor Mary 
Evered Parsons, Lieut.-Col. Simpson Powell, M.D. (Durh.), and 
Mr. Harold Stuart Thompson, were elected Fellows, 

Mr. G. Claridge Dbuce exhibited Utricularia ochroleuea, 
Hartm., and U. Bremii, Heer, new records from Ireland, with 
Arahis aljnna, Linn., and Cheer ojjhi/Ilum aweian, Linn., from 
Scotland, the latter two in confirmation of George Don's state- 
ments, which had been doubted during the last century. 

A discussion followed, the participants being Mr. Clement Eeid, 
Mr. E. M. Holmes, and Mr. Henry Groves, Mr. Druce briefly 

Miss Ida M. Haywakd exhibited 18 alien plants selected from 
about 200, which had been noted by the side of the river T^eed, 
and its tributary the Gala. (See p. 48.) 

The following paper was read and discussed : — 

Capt. C. F. IJ. Meek, F.L.S. — The Spermatogenesis of 
Stenobot7irus viridulus, with special reference to the Ileterotropic 
Chromosome as a sex determinant iu Grasshoppers. 



December 15th, 1910. 

Dr. D. U. Scott, M.A., F.R.S., President, in the Chair. 

The Minutes of the General Meeting of the 1st December, 
1910, were read and confirmed. 

Prof. AVilliam Bateson, I\r.A., F.E.S., Miss Madelaine Carson, 
]\lis9 Eleanor JNlary Evered Parsons, and Mr. Henry Smith 
Uolden, B.Sc., were admitted Fellows. 

The Eev. INlanoah Holland and Mr. Hi\rr\\ Godfrey IMnndy were 
elected Fellows ; and Mr. Arthur Bennett and Mr. AVilliam Cole 
Avere elected Associates. 

Miss Beatrice 0. Corfe exhibited a portfolio of drawings in 
water-colour, natural size, of about 250 wild flowers, chiefly from 
the neighbourhood of Winchester. For some years she had 
studied flowers as an artist and lover of Nature, to whom plant- 
growth and blossom had a great attraction from the variety of 
form and colour displayed. 

Additional observations were contributed by the President, 
IMr. H. J. Elwes, Mr. E. M. Holmes, Prof. Dendy, Mr. J. C. 
JShenstone, and the Eev. T. E. E. Stebbing, expressive of admiration 
for these successful representations of the natural forms and 
colours of the native flora, and a preference for an artistic rather 
than a photographic record of plant-life. 

Dr. Stapf then brought forward the reports on the International 
Congress of Botanists at Brussels (see p. 51). 

Dr. Stapf having concluded, an animated discussion followed, 
in which the following engaged: — The President, Prof. Dendy, 
Mr. H. J. Elwes, Mr. Augustin Henry, the General Secretary, 
Mr. H. N. Dixon, and the Eev. T. E. E. Stebbing ; Dr. Stapf 
briefly replying. 

The following papers were read and discussed : — 

1. Mr. E. TV. H. Eow, B.Sc, F.L.S. — Non-calcareous Sponges 

from the Eed Sea, collected by Mr. Cyril Crossland, F.L.S. 

2. Mr. E. S. Adamson. — Notes on the Comparative Anatomy 

of the Leaves of certain Species of Veronica. (Communi- 
cated by Mr. A. G. Ta^slet, F.L.S.) 


January 19th, 1911. 

Dr. D. H. Scott, M.A., F.R.S., President, in tlie Chair. 

The Minutes of the General Meeting of the 15th December, 
1910, were read and confirmed. 

The Eev. Manoah Holland and Prof. Edward Alfred Miuchiu, 
M.A., were admitted Fellows. 

The President alluded to the great loss biological science has 
sustained in the death of Sir Francis Galton, F.E.S., on the 
previous day, and stated that although not a Fellow of the Society, 
he had often been at our Meetings, and was closely associated 
with us as one of the recipients of the Darwin-Wallace Medal on 
the 1st July, 1908. 

Miss Beatrice O. Corfe exhibited some trays of Lepidoptera 
and other insects received from her brother, Mr. Charles Corfe, 
living at Toronto. Amongst these local insects were some equally 
common in Great Britain and Canada, as the Eed Admiral 
( Vcoiessa Atalanta) and a local variety of the Large Tortoiseshell 
{V. polijcldoros). Others, as the Camberwell Beauty, Vanessa 
Antiopa, common in Canada, are extremely rare in the United 
Kingdom, and still others, as many of the various Swallowtails, 
are absent from our fauna. Many of these insects were caught at 
the street lamps. 

Prof. Dendt and Mr. G. E. Nicholls exhibited a series of 
lantern-slides illustrating the structure and relations of the Sub- 
commissural Organ and Eeissner's Fibre in various vertebrate 
types ; the slides were described by Prof. Dendy, and Mr. Nicholls 
gave a brief account of some experiments which he had made 
which so far seemed to support the view that these organs consti- 
tute an apparatus for automatically regulating the flexure of the 
long axis of the body. 

Mr. F. IS". Williams, Dr. Eendle, Prof. Minchin, and Dr. Lilian 
Veley discussed the points raised by the exhibition, and Prof. 
Dendy replied. 

The Eev. E. A. Bullen exhibited specimens of Bytliinella 
padiraci, Locard, and Nipliargus plateaxd, Chevreux, from an 
underground river in Southern Central France. The Eev. T. E. 
E. Stebbing added some observations to the foregoing. 

The following papers were read and discussed : — 

1. Mr. C. II. Wright, A.L.S.— The Flora of the Falkland 


2. i\Ir. CiRiL CnosshAND, F.L.S. — A Physical Description of 

Ivhor JUoiif^onab, lied Sea. 

3. Mr. KowLAND E. Tuuxeu. — On the Fossoriul llymenoptera 

of the Indian Ocean. (Cotnuiunicated by Prof. J. Stanley 
Gardineh, F.R.S., F.L.S., with the four following.) 

4. Prof. J. J. KiEFiEii. — The Cecidomyiida; of the Seychelles. 

5. The C.'iiirouomidic of the Seychelles. 

6. Dr. K. Ki:kti';sz. — The Stratioinyiidie of the Seychelles. 

7. Mr. E. Metuick, F.K.S.— The Tortricina and Tineina of the 

Seychelles and Aldabra. 

February 2nd, 1911. 
Dr. D. II. Scott, M.A., F.E.S., President, in the Chair. 

The Minutes of the General Meeting of the 19th January, 
1911, were read and confirmed. 

The General Secretary showed a series of lantern-slides, 
(1) explaining the genesis of the portrait of Carl von Linne, 
painted by Alexander Rosliu, and the various copies, including 
the original three-quarter-length portrait now at Versailles, 
thougli in a somewhat poor condition ; and (2) showing that the 
I/aplaiid drum in the Hoffman portrait and on the Jap of the 
foreground ligure in the engraved title-page of the 'Flora lap- 
ponica' is a magic drum, and not a botanic press. (See abstract 
on pp. 56-61.) 

Dr, Young asked a question about the reversal of the Bervic 
print, to which Dr. Daydon Jackson replied. 

Dr. Otto Staff, F.E.S., Sec.L.S., showed specimens and a 
lantern-slide of Dujitaria didactyla, Willd., from Sydney, wiiere it 
has recently been used with fair success in making law 11s. 

Mr. A. W. Sutton, F.L.S. , stated: — "It is almost a universal 
custom throughout the Continent — that is, in France, Germany, 
Switzerland, and Italy — to make their garden lawns fresh every 
year by sowing Perennial Kye Grass (Lolium jpere)ine) exclusively, 
or almost exclusively, as, owing to the heat and drought often 
experienced, it is impossible to use those liner grasses in niixture 
w hich are the essential feature of English lawns. Consequently 
tlie Dujitaria didacti/la exhibited may prove of greater value on 
the Continent than in England." 

Ec7. T. E. E. Stebbing asked what gave the green colour in the 
spring in the Nile Valley, when Mr. Sutton replied that it was 
wholly due fo young corn, along the river-side and canals. 


The following papers were read and discussed : — 

1. Fleet-Surgeon Matthew, M.B., F.L.S. — Enumeration of 

Chinese Ferns. 

2. Mr. S. T. Dunn, F.L.S. , showed a series of lantern-slides 

from photographic snap-shots during his journey in Central 
Fokien, described on tlie 6th February, 19US, before this 
Society. He also show ed some specimens of bamboo-rope, 
the species of which had not yet been identified, used on 
the rivers of that provnice, wliich he had procured for the 
Museum at Kew. 

3. Sujjplementary List of Chinese Flowering-PLants, in 

continuation of the List in the Society's Journal (Botany), 
vol. xxxvi., and extending from 1904 to 1910. 

4. Mr. W. EiCKATSON Dykes (a visitor) showed a series of 

autochrome photographs on the screen of various Indian 
and Chinese species of Iris in his garden. 

5. Mr. S. T. Dunn, F.L.S. — A Eevision of the Genus Aciiiiidia, 


February 16th, 1911. 

H. W. MoNCKTON, Esq., Treasurer & V.-P., in the Chair. 

The Minutes of the General Meeting of the 2nd February, 
1911, were read and confirmed. 

Miss Freda Bage, M.Sc, Mr. Ealph Evelyn Drake-Brockman,, L.K.C.P., Mr. Moore Betty Fullerton, and Mr. Charles 
David Soar, F.E.M.S., were proposed as Fellows. 

The Vice-President announced from the Chair that there were 
now seven vacancies in the List of Foreign Members. 

Prof. Dendt, F.E.S., Sec.L.S., showed three lantern-slides of 
some remarkable growth-forms in sponges, and exhibited a 
singular horny sponge collected by him iu New Zealand, which 
has not yet been described. 

The Kev. T. R. E. Stebbing referred to some curious sponges 
in a collection possessed by hnn, and Prof. Dendy replied. 

The following papers were read and discussed : — 

1. Mrs. L. J. WiLSMOEE. — On some Hexactiniae from New 

South Wales. (Communicated by Prof. J. P. Hill, F.L.S.) 

2. Eev. Canon Norman, F.E.S,, F.L.S. — Three Species of 

Harpactid Copepoda. 


Mr. A. S. ITinsT.— Report on the Aranea;, Opiliones, and 
Pseudoscorpioues from tlie Seychelles. (Communicated, 
w ith two following, by Prof. J. Stanley Gabdineb, F.E.S., 

Mr. G. A. BouLENGEB, F.R.S. — List of the Batrachians and 
Iveptiles obtained by Prof. Stanley Gardiner on his Second 
Expedition to the Seychelles and Aldabra. 

Miss Maet Jane liAXiiBUN. — On the Marine Brachyura 
from the Indian Ocean collected in 1905. 

March 2nd, 1911. 

Dr. D. II. Scott, M.A., F.R.S., President, in the Chair. 

The Minutes of the General Meeting of the 16th Febi-uary, 
1911, were read and confirmed. 

Mr. George Herbert Wailes was proposed as a Fellow, and 
Dr. Hans Driesch, Prof. Eichard von Hertwig, Geh.-Hofrat Prof. 
Georg Klebs, Prof. Sergej Gawrilowitscb Nawaschin, Dr. Eugdne 
Penard, Prof. Johann Wilhelm Spengel, and Prof. Edmund 
Beecher Wilson as Foreign Members. 

Mr. C. E. Salmon showed British specimens of Lejpidium 
nec/lectum, Thell., and L. densijlorum, Schrad. Mr. F. N. ^Villiams, 
Mr. E. G. Baker, and Dr. O. Stapf discussed the probable origin 
of these forms, and Mr. Salmon replied. 

Mr. E. M. Holmes showed a specimen of Griffithsia fjlohifera, 
J. Ag., from Milford Haven ; Mr. Cotton remarked upon the 
spread of some of these alien algae in our waters. 

Mr. H. W. MoNCKTON, Treas. & V.-P., showed a series of 
lantern-slides from photographs taken during his visit last autumn 
to Sweden as a delegate on behalf of the Society to the Inter- 
national Congress of Geologists, especially those taken at Uppsala, 
some of which showed places connected \A"ith Carl von Linnc, 
including a front view of his house in tlie old Botanic Garden. 

Mr. H. R. Darlington commented on the modern use in Sweden 
of the German prefix " von." 

The General Secretary then showed a supplementary series of 
lantern-slides, chiefly from old prints, concerning the history of 
the old botanic garden. He stated that when Linne and Eost'n 
bad exchanged Chairs in January 1742, and the former had 
thereby become prefect of the garden, he took immediate steps to 
rearrange the garden, provide glass-houses, and rebuild the house 
attached, which belonged to the prefect. The last slide showed 
the old poplar close to the entrance, the only specimen which can 
be regarded as coeval with Linne, inasmuch as the laurels and a 
few other veterans uad been transported to the new botanic 
garden early in the nineteenth century. 


Dr. A. Strahan, F.E.S. (visitor), Mr. H. N. Dixon, Dr. A. P. 
Young, and Dr. James Murie joined in the discussion which 
ensued upon the whole exhibition. 

Mr. John Hopkinson then showed thirty slides taken about the 
same time as those of his co-delegate, but from a different line of 
country ; he also showed specimens of rock from Omberg and 

The General Secretary alluded to the proBle of KinnekuUe, 
published by Linnc in his ' Wastgota resa' in 1747, and specially 
alluded to by Prof. A. G. ISathorst in his ' Linne sasom geolog ' 
which came out in 1907. 

The following papers were read and discussed :^ 

1. Dr. Malcolm Buer, F.L.S. — Dermaptera (Earwigs) pre- 

served in Amber. 

2. Miss Lauea Eoscoe Thornely.^ — Eeport on the Marine 

Polyzoa of the Collection made by Mr. J. Stanley Gardiner, 
in the Indian Ocean, in H.M.S. 'Sealark' during 1905. 
(Communicated by Prof. J. S. Gaedinee, F.E.S., P.L.S.) 

3. Eev. T. E. E. Stebbing, F.E.S., P.L.S.— The terms Polyzoa 

and Bryozoa. (See Abstract, p. 6i.) 

4. Mr. "VV. M. Tatteesall. — On the Nysidacea and Euphau- 

siacea collected in the Indian Ocean during 1905. (Com- 
municated by Prof. J. Stanley Gabdinee, P.E.S., F.L.S.) 

March 16th, 1911. 
Dr. D. IT. Scott, M.A., F.E.S., President, in the Chair. 

The Minutes of the General Meeting of the 2nd March, 1911, 
were read and confirmed. 

Mr. Anthony Belt and Dr. Edward Hindle were admitted 

Miss Freda Bage, M.Sc, Mr. Ealph Evelyn Drake-Brockman, 
M.E.C.S., L.E.C.P., Mr. Moore Betty Fullerton, and Mr. Charles 
David Soar, F.E.M.S., were elected Fellows. 

Prof. A. Dendy, F.E.S., Sec.L.S., read a communication from 
Prof. W. A. Heebman, F.E.S., combatiiig the statement regarding 
the use of the term " Polyzoa " made by the Eev. T. E. E. 
Stebbing at the last meeting ; on the suggestion of Mr. Stebbing 
the discussion was postponed to another Meeting. (See Abstract, 
p. 62.) 


Mrs. D. H. Scott gave a lantern exhibition of new species of 
the fossil genus Traiiuairia. She also exhibited the original 
diagram made by Dr. W. Carruthers,, who first described 
the genus at a meeting of the JJritisli Association in Ls72, in a 
])aper entitled " iVrtjiu/tno, a Kadiolarian Kliizopod from the Coal- 

Count Solms-Laubach, Professors Sclienk, Strassburger, and 
Zeiller, considered it comparable to the massulK or sporocarps of 
ylzoUa. Prof. AVilliamson (Phil. Trans. 1880) thought it the 
spore of a Cryptogam. He found a group of three Traquairice in 
a sporangium of Lejiidosti-obns, and thought them three megaspores 
of a tetrad. The true megaspores are, however, now well known. 

Mrs. Scott defined Traqiuiiria thus : — " I'raquairia is a spherical 
organism, consisting of two parts each surrounded by a sharply 
detined membrane — an inner capsule, often containing spores, and 
an outer part, which is surrounded by a thick gelatinous envelope. 
In this are embedded numerous hollow spines. The apparent 
bases of these spines are produced into hollow anastomosing tubes, 
\\liich spread over the surface of the sphere, forming a complicated 
network. The spines are hollow and are perforated iu every 
direction by projecting tubular pores. Emanating from these 
pores are delicate threads which appear to lose themselves in the 
gelatinous envelope. Sometimes the threads form a regular net- 
work in it. The inner capsule, a definite brown membrane, can 
only be observed in the more perfectly preserved specimens. 
Spores are generally present, which appear to produce small 
spores. Traqxairici; occur in groups in the decayed wood of 
Lipidodendron and other plants." 

She then exhibited T. Carruthersii, T. Spenceri, sp. nov., 
T. hurntislandica, sp. nov., and T. stellata, sp. nov., and a species 
of an allied genus, Sporocarpon elegans. The most characteristic 
feature in the organisms described is the very complicated structure 
of the outer envelope with its elaborate system of anastomosing 
tubes Connected with prominent spines, which are themselves 
very complex organs. Nothing parallel to this is known in the 
vegetable world. 

The presence of an " inner capsule " containing spores, in the 
interior of which small spores are produced, is reminiscent of 
Kadiolarians. These features are also common to S2>oroca7po7i 
ekf/ans, which with its long spines is very much like a Eadiolarian. 

A discussion followed in which Dr. G. J. Ilinde, F.R.S. (visitor), 
Prof. Dendy, Rev. T. R. R. Stebbing, Prof. Y. AV. OHver, and the 
President took part. 

The following paper was read and discussed : — 

Mr. R. S. Adamson, M.A. — An Ecological Study of a Cam- 
bridgeshire Woodland. (Communicated by iVfr. A. G. 
T^LNSLEl, F.L.S.) 


April Gth, 1911. 

Dr. D. H. Scott, M.A., F.E.S., President, in the Cliair. 

Tlie Minutes of tlie General Meeting of the 16th March, 1911, 
were read and contii'med. 

Mr. Norman Miller Johnson and Mr. Moore Betty Fullerton 
were admitted Fellows. 

Mr. George Herbert Wailcs was elected a Follow. 

The Eev. Hilderic Friend, Miss Ann Croniu Halket, Mr. Ernest 
Lee, A.E.C.S., Mr. John Conf^y Moulton, Mr. Frederick John 
Freshwater Shaw, B.Sc, and Mr. Malcolm Wilson, E.Sc, were 
proposed as Fellows. 

The following Auditors were recommended by the Council, and 
were, by show of hands, elected : — For the Council, Prof. Dendy 
and Dr. A. B. Eeudle ; for the Fellows, Mr. Henry Groves and 
Mr. Hamilton Druce. 

The President announced that the Council had selected Count 
Heumajtn zu Solms-Laubach to receive the Linneau Medal. 

The following papers were read and discussed : — 

1. Miss Sarak M. Baker, B.Sc. — On the Brown Seaweeds of 

the Salt-Marsh. (Communicated by Prof. F. W. Oliyeb, 
F.E.S., F.L.S.) 

2. Dr. C. E. Moss, Mr. E. G. Salisbury, F.L.S.,and Dr. Ethel 

DE Fraine, F.L.S. — On the Genus Salicoraia ; its History, 
Character, and Anatomy. 

May 4th, 1911. 

Dr. D. H. Scott, M.A., F.E.S., President, in the Chair, 
afterwards Prof. Poulton, F.E.S., V.-P. 

The Minutes of the General Meetiug of the Gth April, 1911, 
were read and confirmed. 

Mr. Jules Augustin de Gayo and Mr. Charles David Soar were 
admitted Fellows. 

Mr. Frederick Eyles, Mr. Jolni Graham Murray, and i\Ir. Charles 
AVaterfall were proposed as Fellows. 


Dr. Hans Driesch, Prof. Richard von Hertwifj;, Gen.-Hofrat 
Prof. Georg Klebs, Prof. ISergej Gawrilow itsch Nawascliiii, 
Dr. Eugene Penard, Prof. Joliaun Wilheltn Spengel, and 
Prof. Edmund Beecher "Wilson, were elected Foreign Members. 

The following papers were read and discussed : — 

1. The Kev. T. K. R. Stebbixg. F.R.S., F.L.S.— On John 

Vaiighan Thompson and his Polyzoa, and on Vannthom^)- 
sonia, a genus of Sympoda. (See Abstract, p. 64.) 

2. Prof. iSi'DXEY J. llicKsoN, F.K.y. — On Folijtrema and some 

allied genera. (Communicated by Prof. J. Stanley 
Gakbixer, F.R.S., F.L.S.) 

3. Mr. J. M. Brown, B.8c., F.L.S. — Observations on some new 

and little-known British Rhizopods. 

4. Mr. R. iSuELFoRD, F.L.S. — The British Museum collection 

of BJattidje enclosed in Amber. 

5. Dr. F. E. Fkitsch, F.L.S. — Freshwater Alga3 collected in 

the Soutb Oi-Jcueys by Mr. R. K. R. Brown. 

May 24th, 1911. 

Anniversary Meeting. 

Dr. D. H. Scott, M.A., F.R.S., President, in the Chair. 

The Minutes of the General Meeting of the 4th May were read 
and confirmed. 

Mr. William Xeilson Jones, M.A. (Cantab.), was proposed as a 

The Treasurer then laid his Annual Statement of Accounts 
before the Meeting, which, after observations by Mr. Alfred 
AV. 01<e, Sir Frank Crisp, Lt.-Col. Prain, and Mr. John Hop- 
kiuson, was received and adopted (see pp. 14 & 15). 

The General Secretary laid his Annual Report before the 
Meeting, thus : — 

Since the last Anniversary 15 Fellows had died, or their deaths 
been ascertained, viz. : — 

Fellows (15). 

Thomas Hodgson Archer-Hind. 
Richard Henry Beddome. 
James Bisset. 
John Bennett Carruthers. 
AVilliam Ambrose Clarke. 
Thomas AValker Coffin. 
Theodore Cooke. 
Alfred Russell Fox. 

John Hinchley Hart. 
Frederick Hovenden. 
Simpson Powell. 
Harry Sanford-Burton. 
Francis Lesiter Soper. 
Robert Boog Watson. 
William Dickenson Wickes. 



Edward Gerrard. 

Associates (2). 

I Samuel Alexander Stewart. 

Melchior Treub. 

Foreign Members (2). 

I Charles Otis Whitman. 

Fellows withdrawn (9). 

Charles Crossland. 
Louis Charles Deverell. 
Ernest John Lewis. 
Arthur Thomas Masterman. 
Edward Archibald Smith. 

Henry Aldwin Soames. 
Ernest Euthven Sykes. 
Charles Edward Walker. 
Amandus H. C. Zietz. 

Whilst 25 Fellows, all of whom had qualified, 2 Associates, 
and 7 Foreign Members have been elected. One Fellow has, by 
election, been transferred to the list of Associates. 

The Librarian's report was submitted as follows : — 

During the past year there have been received as Donations 
from private individuals 87 volumes and 192 pamphlets. 

From the various Universities, Academies, and Scientific 
Societies, there have been received in exchange and otherwise 
319 volumes and 128 detached parts, besides 57 volumes and 
29 parts obtained in exchange and as donations from the editors 
and proprietors of independent periodicals. 

The Council at the recommendation of the Library Committee 
have sanctioned the purchase of 198 volumes and 81 parts of 
important books. 

The total additions to the Library are therefore 661 volumes 
and 430 separate parts. 

The number of books bound during the year is as follows : — 
In full-morocco 3, in half- morocco 234, in half-calf 4, in full- 
cloth 433, in vellum 88, in buckram 30, in boards and half- 
cloth 12. Eelabelled (half-morocco and cloth back) 30. Total 
834 volumes. 

The General Secretary having read the Bye-Laws governing 
the elections, the President opened the business of the day, 
and the Fellows present proceeded to vote for the Council and 

The Ballot for the Council having been closed, the President 
nominated Mr. Clement Eeid, the Eev. T. E. E. Stebbing, and 





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Mr. A. 0. Walker, Scrutineers, wlio, having cast up the votes, 
reported to the President, who declared the result as follows :— 

Prof. V. II. Blacicm.vx, Sc.D. ; IIexrv Bunr, M. A. ; Sir Frai^k 
Crisp; Prof. Arthur Dendy, D.Se., F.R S. ; Prof. J. Stanley 
r.ARDivER, F.R.S.; E. S. GooDRicn, F.R.S. ; Hexry Groves, Esq. ; 
Prof. W. A. IIkrdmax, F.R.S. ; Arthur AV. Hir.L, M.A. ; Dr. B. 
Daydon Jackson ; Horace W. IMoncicton, F.G.S. ; Prof. Francis 
W. Oliver, F.R.S. ; Prof. E. B. Poulton, F.R.S. ; Dr. A. B. 
Rendle, F.R.S. ; Dr. Walter George Ridewood ; Miss Edith R. 
Saunders ; Dr. Dukinfield H. Scott, F.R.S. ; Dr. Otto Staff, 
F.R.S.; Miss Ethel N. Thomas, B.Sc; Dr. A. Smith Wood- 
ward, F.R.S. 

The Ballot for the Officers having been closed, the President 
appointed Mr. Clement Reid, the Rev. T. R. R. Stebbing, and 
Prof. G. S. Boulger, Scrutineers, who, having cast up the votes, 
reported to the President, who declared the result as follows : — 

President : Dr. Dukinfield Henry Scott, M.A., F.R.S. 
Treasurer: Houace W. Monckton, F.G.S. 
Secretaries: Dr. B. Daydon Jackson, 

Prof. A. Dendy, D.Sc, F.R.S., 

Dr. Otto Staff, F.R.S. 

The President then delivered his Address : — 



I HATE lately had occasion to look into some of the older work on 
the structure of fossil plants, and it has occurred to me that a few 
notes on the subject miglit be of some general interest. The 
period referred to is that round about the year 1830 — the period 
of Witham and Cotta and of the earlier work of Brongniart. 
It was an intei'esting time, when the study of fossil plants was 
first caught up in the flame of enthusiasm which then burnt so 
brightly for the young science of geology. It was practically 
a pre-evolution period, for though Lamarck had written, the 
influence of Cuvier was dominant ; the evidence, however, was 
accumulating which ultimately formed the firmest basis of the 
theory of descent. In fossil botany in particular, the controversies 
which were soon to divide the French school from its neighbours 
had not yet sprung up, though Brongniart had already established 
his great and well merited authority in the science. If some of 
the opinions of that time strike us as crude and fantastic, we are 
just as often surprised at the gi-eatness of the advance which had 
already been made and at the essential modernness of the point 
of view. Take the following, for example : — 

" Everyone will readily admit that anatomical characters, those 
which relate to the intimate organisation of the plant, have more 
value than the external forms ; it is to these characters, then, 
that one ought to attach the most importance when one is able to 
observe them ; and when one cannot do so, one should seek to 
discover in the external form of organs, such modifications as 
may, so to speak, be the expression of the internal character, and 
may enable us to form an estimate of its modifications. 

" The nutritive vessels, forming the framework which determines 
the relations oE position and often even the form of organs, are 
evidently more important than the parenchyma which surrounds 
them, and which may mask the most essential character of an 
organ. The mode of distribution of the vessels alone may put us 
on the track of the true affinities of plants. Their arrangement 
is consequently the principal thing to observe in each organ." 

This has a very modern sound. The passage might almost have 
been written yesterday ; yet it is a literal translation from the 
Introduction to Brongniart's ' Histoire des Vegetaux Fossiles ' 
and was published in 1828. Evidently we flatter ourselves over- 
much when we fancy that our vascular morphology is a new 
creation. The French have long understood the value of systematic 
anatomy. Brongniart made it a rule to preface the description of 
each fossil group with an account of the recent allied plants, and 
especially of their anatomy. He constantly found it necessary to 
make his own investigations, for just the points most needed for 
comparison with the fossils had usually been passed over in works 
on recent botany. " These researches," he says, " may not be 
without result for the comparative anatomy of plants, or for their 
physiology and natural classification " (p. 0). Artis, in 1825, had 



felt the same nood for Ji better basis of comparison. He says, 
"The wbole Anatomy of the Plant must be studied," and cites 
Cuvier's famous researches on fossil animals as a model. This 
lieultliy reaction of fossil work on the investigation of living 
])lants still goes on in our own dny. 

JJroiigniart gives an excellent account of ilie characters available 
for the discrimination of fragmentary specimens, and points out 
that while almost any organ will sudice to distinguish the main 
groups, for more exact determination the vegetative organs have a 
relatively greater importance in the lower and the re})roductive in 
the higher classes. At the same time, the signitic-ance of vascular 
anatomy had long been recognised in the distinctive characters of 
Dicotyledons and Monocotyledons. " After the internal structure 
of the stem," he says, " the most important character of this organ 
is the mode of insertion of the leaves on its surface," then the 
arrangement of the vessels passing from the stem into the petiole, 
and in the leaves themselves the venation. We see that Brong- 
niart, poorly provided at that time with structural material, was 
feeling about after external characters which might serve as the 
" outward and visible sign " of the structure within. 

Comparative anatou)y, he argues, forms the basis of zoological 
classification, and it will be tiie same for plants, only here the 
difficulty is greater, because a more or less high ningnification is 
always required to show the structure. He especially regrets the 
absence, at that time, of any comparative anatomy of the wood, 
a need which even now has scarcely been adequately supplied. 
Let us see, a little more in detail, how Brongniart succeeded ia 
applying his principles to the problems of fossil botany. 

He recognised four periods of geological time, in which the 
vegetation had a special aspect due to the predominance of certain 
families and to the great development of the plants of these 
families. This recognition of successive periods of vegetation 
was in itself a great step in advance. Only a few years before, 
botanists had still expected to be able to refer the fossils of the 
Coal to recent species and appeared disaj)pointed when thej failed 
to do so. The same spirit still sometimes shows itself in our own 
day, among those who view anything like an intermediate fossil 
group with suspicion. Brongniart's four periods (characterised 
in his own words) were :— 

1. Vegetation almost solely composed of Ferns and ai'borescent 

Horsetails and of the singular Lepidodendrons — gigantic 
plants sharing in the characters of Lycopods and Conifers. 
After the first period these plants seem to have disappeared, 
at least from the regions so far explored. 

2. Characterized by very different forms, of which only a small 

number has come down to present times, — they are espe- 
cially Ferns, less elevated than those of the Coal, and 
Conifers of a very peculiar aspect. 
[This refers essentially to the Triassic Flora.] 


3. In the third Period the Fenis, and still more tlie singular 

family of Cycads, \vere dominant to such a degree that 
the species of the latter family were already more numerous 
than those now existing, and' this little group, which only 
forms the 2000th part of living plants, constituted half the 
flora of that epoch. [Mesozoic] 

4. Plants much less different from those which still exist, — the 

same families and most often the same genera which still 
inhabit our climates. In spite of their analogy with recent 
vegetation, these fossils are no less worthy of our attention, 
for they may solve questions of great interest for the history 
of the "latest changes in the surface of the globe : they can 
decide whether plants, like animals, have experienced great 
specific changes during the latest revolutions to which our 
globe has been exposed. [Tertiary.] 

We must not suppose from these words that Brongniart was an 
evolutionist, for, as Saporta says, he always opposed evolution, 
the doctrine to which his own discoveries lent the strongest 
support. At the same time the whole tone of Brongniart's 
prospectus and introduction to his great book is thoroughly 
modern and enlightened. 

His classification of plants was a singularly natural one, and 
indeed scarcely differs in its main divisions from our modern 
system. He has six great classes : — 

I. Agames: Algae, Fungi, Lichens [=Thallophyta]. 
II. Cryptogames celluleuses: Ilepatics and Mosses [=Bryo- 

III. Cryptogames vasculaires [ = Pteridophyta, but with the 

addition of Characete]. 

IV. Phanerogames gymnospermes. 

V. Phauerogames angiospermes monocotyledones. 
VI. Phauerogames angiospermes dicotyle'dones. 

There is little room for criticism here. The name Agames, 
which is used for Thallophytes, shows that little was known at 
that time of sexual reproduction in these plants, though the 
discoveries of Vaucher had already given the clue. Brongniart 
is quite sound on the Mosses, which lie rightly says have nothing 
in common with the "Agames" beyond the absence of vessels. 
It must be remembered that at that time, owing to the splendid 
early work of Hedwig, the Mosses were much better understood ' 
as regards their reproduction than the Vascular Cryptogams. 

Brongniart thought that the stems of the Vascular Cryptogams 
had some analogy in structure with those of Monocotyledons. 
He says that their organs of reproduction appear always to 
consist o£ two sexes ; in those days, long before the advent of 
Suminski and Hofmeister, there must have been a certain amount 
of luck in arriving at this true conclusion. He explains further 

c 2 


on (p. 07) that tlie organs of fructification vary very mucli ; 
somelinies one recognises easily enough organs which characterise 
two different sexes, sometimes only a single one has heen, with 
any probahility, discovered. He places the Characea?, Marsi- 
leacea\ Ecpiisetacea^, and some Lycopodiacea; in the former 
category : the IVrns and most Lycopodiacea? in the latter. 

The inclusion of Characea? in Vascular Cryptogams seems odd 
to a modern botanist ; but we are scarcely in a position to scoff, 
for the true systematic relations of this family have never yet been 
made clear. 

A striking merit of Brongniart's classification is the separation 
of the Gymnosperms in a class of their own, a point in which he 
was far in advance of most botanists of his own day and even of 
a much later time. He shows that the Gymnosperms are distinct 
from other Phanerogams both in their reproductive organs (the 
seeds, destitute of a capsule, receiving directly the action of the 
fecundating substance), and in the organisation of their stems, very 
different in many respects fi'om that of true Dicotyledons (p. 22). 

In the detailed part of the 'llistoire,' passing over the Fucoids 
and the scanty and doubtful Mosses, the Equisetacea? are dealt 
with first of the vascular plants. The anatomy of recent forms is 
fully treated. It is curious to see what was then thought about 
their sexual reproduction, lledwig had suggested that the spore 
was an ovary with a short style, while the elaters represented 
four anthers attached to the style by their filaments. Brongniart 
improves on this by supposing the spore to be an ovule, and the 
elaters four grains of pollen adhering to it. 

As regards the Calamites, he says that up to that time every- 
thing had confirmed his idea of a relation between them and 
Equisehim. So far, however, he knew nothing either of the 
fructification or the anatomy of the fossil forms. The discovery 
of the latter, at a later date, long misled him and his school, and 
formed one of the great subjects of controversy with English and 
German investigators. 

The rest of the first volume is devoted to the Ferns or the 
plants which he then classed as such, constituting by themselves, 
as he says, the greater part of the Flora of the ancient rocks. 

As regards the reproduction of recent Ferns, Brongniart inclines 
to Hedwig's view that the stalked vesicles (glandular hairs) on the 
young fronds represent the male organs. At any rate, he finds 
" their analogy with the pollen-sacs of Mosses complete " (p. 141). 
His classification of Ferns is quite a natural one, only differing 
from modern systems in including the Tree-ferns (Cyatheacea?) 
under Polypodiacea3, and making the Parkeriaceae {Ceraiopteris) a 
distinct group, as was still done much later. 

For the purposes of fossil botany he employs his well-known 
artificial classih'cation based on the venation and form of the frond, 
a classification which is still indispensable for fossil taxonomic 

The most curious |X)int is that Brongniart at that time included 


Sigillaria under Ferus, -w'hile he included Lindley's genus Caido- 
pteris (true Tree-ferns) under Sigillaria, recognising that the 
fern-affinities of C'aulo^yteris were more evident than those of 
the Sigillarice proper. Brongniart shows that the Sigillarias 
could not have been Cacti, as Martius, or Euphorbife, as Artis 
had supposed, for they were not succulent, but woody plants. 
He ai'gues that they could not have been Dicotyledons at all, 
for their form gives no indication of growth in thickness at tlie 
base of the stem. In view of subsequent developments, his 
rejection of growth in thickness is remarkable. Neither, he 
continues, could the Sigillarias have been Monocotyledons, for 
their leaf-scars are too narrow. Thus he arrives, by a process of 
exclusion, at the Vascular Cryptogams, "that is to say the Eerns, 
for that is evidently the ouly one of the families of this group to 
which one could refer the Sigillarias." He argues elaborately in 
support of this view; the Lycopod affinities seem never to have 
occurred to him at that time. It was no doubt the superficial 
resemblances between the Eern-stems and Sigillaria which misled 
him, though the comparison with Lepidodendron seems to us fairly 

The incomplete second volume, the parts of which began to 
appear in 1837, is devoted, as far as it goes, to the Lycopods. 
He gives a most admirable account of the external characters 
of recent Lycopods and has a good deal to say about the anatomy, 
which he illustrates by some capital figures. He does not, 
however, distinguish clearly between the structure of Lycopodium. 
and that of Selaginella, or Stacliyrjynand.rum as he called it. He 
notices the interesting fact that in some Lycopodiums the roots 
have practically the same structure as the stem (p. 24). 

He is at pains to show that the anatomy of Lycopods and 
Conifers is essentially different. On the other hand, he lays great 
stress on the resemblance in the cones of the two groups, saying 
that in Conifers and Cycads the ovules are fixed on the scales 
exactly like the "capsules" of Lycopodiacese. In describing the 
two kinds of spores in " Slacliygynandrum " and Isoetes he calls the 
large spores " veritable seeds " ; he compares the small spores to 
pollen-grains but declines to discuss their function (p. 33). 

He is very emphatic on the Lycopod affinities of Lepidodendron, 
saying that the fossils of which that genus is the type merely form 
a special section of the family Lycopodiacese. " A fortunate and 
rare circumstance " had given him an opportunity of studying 
the internal structure. This, of course, refers to the famous 
Lepidodendron Harcourtii, first described by Witham in 1832, 
and afterwards by Lindley and Hutton in vol. ii. of their ' British 
Fossil Flora,' 1833. Brongniart's account of the structure 
shows a great advance on the previous descriptions. He was the 
first to recognise the ring of wood, with its smaller elements 
towards the outside. Oddly enough, this principal feature of 
the anatomy had been overlooked, or at least not clearly 
distinguished, by the English writers. The relation of the leaf- 


trace bundles to the central axis was correctly followed ; the 
restoration of the structure in the solid which he gives (P). 21, 
fig. 4) is remarkably accurate. In opposition to Lindley and 
llutton, who had concluded that Lejndodeiulron was intermediate 
between Conifera) and Lycopodiace;e, Brongniait showed that 
the structure is essentially diflerent i'roni that of any Dicotyledon, 
gyinnospennous or angiosperinous (p. 44). lie points out the 
differences from Lijcopod'mm and tSthujiiidla, and shows that 
the best anatomical comparison is with J'sUotum and Tmesipteris. 

He further points out the identity of the rayed or scalariform 
vessels of Lepidodendmn with those of Lycopods, and the small 
size of the peripheral vessels in both, and concludes : " Thus, by 
the internal structure of their stems, as by their external form, 
their mode of branching and the arrangement of their leaves, the 
Lepidodendrons agree almost completely with the Lycopodiaceffi, 
and could be nothing else but arborescent Lycopods" (p. 46). 
His whole treatment of the subject is on sound modern lines. 

He then asks the question, "Is the same analogy to be met 
Avith in their mode of reproduction? " 

He begins by citing cases where the cones (Lepidostrohi) had 
already been found in connection with species of Lepidodendron — 
he found that they were borne on the ends of branches, like 
Lj/copodiinn cones on a large scale, or like the cones of Araucaria. 
He was much puzzled about the position of the sporangium or 
capsule, which from the analogy of Lycopods and Conifers 
(" families between wliic-h all botanists are agreed in placing the 
Lepidodendrons ") should be on the upper surface of the scale 
[he ignores the nude cones of Coniferaj here]. Having no petrified 
specimens to work with, lirongniart at that time completely 
misunderstood the position of the sporangium, which in fact he 
had never seen, or had perhaps confused with the lateral wings 
of the scale. Lindley and Hutton, it is true, had already 
observed the sporangium in Lepidostrofms ornatus, but they had 
described it as a " seed " *, so that Brongniart not unnaturally 
suspected a confusion with the cones of Araucarian Coniferjie. 

He was very cautious about the supposed relation of Lep>ido- 
dendron to Conifers, regarding it as extremely remote. The 
former group, he says, is not intermediate between Lycopods 
and Conifers, but is at most a Lycopodiaceous genus tending to 
establish the first link in a series forming the passage between 
the two families (p. 55). Some of his arguments against a nearer 
relation, especially those drawn from the mode of branching and 
the structure of the wood, are well worthy of consideration. 

Brongniart was distinctly less fortunate in his view of the 
petrified tree-fern stems known as Psaronius, which he regarded, 
on what seem to us very weak grounds, as representing the base 
of Lycopodiaceous stems. AVith all his good intentions, his 
knowledge of Pern-anatomy was not yet wide enough to guide 

* 'Fossil Flora,' toI. i. pi. 20. %. 2a, p. 83. 


him to the right conclusion, though it must be .idinitted that 
Others had already been more fortunate. Brougniart, however, 
quite rightly interpreted the structure of Psaroains, as regards 
the distinction between the stem and the surrounding zone of 

The volume comes to a sudden end in the middle of a sentence 
on p. 72, while the author is discussing the nature of Ulodendron, 
The reasons given by Saporta, in his obituary notice of Brongniart, 
for the abrupt cessation of the work — the immensity of the 
scheme, the difficulties of the Tertiary floras, and the changes in 
the author's views — do not seem altogether sufficient. Brongniart 
lived and continued active work for more than thirty years 
afterwards. It is, however, no part of my plan to follow the 
later and more important development of his career. 

Saporta rightly points out tliat in his early work Brougniart 
was the first to clearly enunciate the principle that there has been 
a definite and gradual development of vegetation in successive 

Brongniart was a great botanist, as everything he wrote proves ; 
by far the greatest who up to that time had undertaken the 
study of fossil plants. 

In passing from him to Bernhard Cotta, we make a marked 
descent — Cotta was by no means great, but he did some meritorious 
work. His book, ' Die Dendrolithen in Beziehung auf ihren 
iiuieren Bau,' was published at Dresden in 1832, while 
Brongniart's first volume of the ' Histoire ' was appearing. Cotta's 
work was based on his father's collection, which included more 
than 500 ground specimens of fossil plants. At that time such 
specimens were sometimes ground thin, to admit of microscopic 
investigation, but it does not appear that Cotta used the modern 
method of mounting really thin sections on glass — that was intro- 
duced contemporaneously in our own country by Witham and 

Young Cotta began his work as a sort of "holiday task"; 
he appears to have been a student at the time, and modestly 
desires that his figures may be regarded as the " Ilauptsache," 
the text only as a necessary explanation. 

Cotta was much impressed by the evidence of a tropical climate 
found in the rich vegetation of the Coal-measures. He adds : 
" But not only in reference to climatic changes, but with 
respect to the gradual development of organic Nature, it is 
interesting that we find more lowly organised plants in the older 
than in the later rocks. Jt is possible, however, that this latter 
circumstance ])roceeds merely from dift'erences of climate, for in 
the Red Sandstone, for example, besides many lower plants, 
remains of Dicotyledonous plants also frequently occur, of which 
the numerous petrified woods with evident annual rings and 
medullary rays alford the best proof " (p. 3). 

Cotta no doubt made too much of his favourite climatic changes, 
but there is some force in what he says : e. <j., the difference 


between the plants oE tlie root-nodules and those of the seain- 
nodules in Lancashire coal beds is clearly due to ditVereiit 
conditions rather than to different age. Like lirongniart, be 
expresses his regret that *' we unfortunately still possess no 
botanical work in which the internal structure of the races of 
jdants is characterised. In this respect it would be especially 
desirable to know accurately the internal structure of the stems 
of Palms and Tree-ferns, which in the forests of America grow 
into such gigantic trees" (p. 7). lie realised the difficulty of 
naming the fragmentary fossil remains without the risk of bringing 
the 8ei)arate jiarts of one and the same plant inider different 
species. He bases his own arrangement on internal characters, 
not that he considered these the best (though they might be so if 
the anatomy of recent plants were better known), but because no 
other characters were available in his petriiied specimens. He 
realised that there are whole fossil families which no longer exist, 
80 far as is known, in the liA^ing Creation (p. 11). 

Cotta's classification was rudimentary. He divided his speci- 
mens into three groups : Khizomata, Stipites, and Eadiati — a 
classification of fossils rather than of plants. 

His first group he calls the rhizomes of extinct Ferns, in which 
he was roughly right. His genus Tuhkanlis, of Permian age, 
may be said to correspond to the family Zygopteridese, as under- 
stood by the latest writer, Paul Bertrand. This is a group of the 
early Ferns — Primotilices of ]\[r. Arber — of which so much has 
been heard of late. Before Cotta, these fossils had been placed 
in the Palms, thouah D. Anton Sprengel had already called them 
"exotic Perns." The genus Tuhicaulis, as now limited, includes 
one only of Cotta's species, based on a single, very fine specimen 
which had been discovered in 1815. A second specimen of a 
distinct species was brought to light in Lancashire nearly a 
century later, and described by Dr. Marie Stopes. Cotta 
nowiiere distinguishes clearly between the petioles and the true 
stem of these plants. 

He follows his predecessor D. A. Sprengel in classing Psaronius 
(also Permian) with Ferns, and in this respect did better than 
Brongniart. The name " fStarling-stones" for these ornamental 
fossils is familiar ; it may not be so generally known that this 
name properly applies only to the specimens showing the roots ; 
those in which the long, curved sections of the vascular bundles 
of the stem are visible used to be called " Maggot -stones," 
"Madensteine," ^^ Psaronius hehnintliolithns.'" In earlier days 
these fossils had been regarded as Corals or Encrinites. 

In certain cases Cotta recognised the roots as such, though he 
more often interpreted the same bodies as leaf-stalks. 

His second group — Stipites or Trunks — includes fossil stems 
from much later rocks, which he rightly classed as Palms. 

The third family, Eadiati, or radiately striated stems, is of 
considerable interest — it embraces, as one might judge from the 
family-name, stems with secondary thickening. He says that 


these specimens, Mliieh he placed in two genera, MeduUosa and 
Cahimitea, have no analo<;ue among hving plants. 

His description of the genus j\IcdulJosa, which he founded, is on 
tlie whole remarkably accurate, and some of his figures are 
excellent and might still be used as adequate illustrations. Two 
of his species, M. stellata and M. porosa, are the real stems ; 
the third, M. elegans, consists of the leaf-stalks (afterwards 
MiieloxDlon). It is odd that he should have placed these in the 
right genus, for of course the structure is totally different frora 
that of the stem. He no doubt mistook the hypodermal 
strengthening zone of the petiole for the outer ring of wood 
in the stem. 

In the description of the stem of M. stellata, he interpreted 
the complex structure with surprising success, considering that 
it is quite unlike anything in recent plants, consisting as it does 
of a double system of peripheral and central steles, each growing 
in thic]<ness by its own cambium. In fact he practically 
recognised tlie " polystely " (to anticipate more than half a 
century), for he describes the pith as containing many-rayed 
stellate columns, constructed on the same plan as the radiating 
outer zone, which he saw was itself a compound structure. He 
points out that each radiating portion forms a whole by itself and 
])ossesses a special pith (einen besonderen Markkeru) (p. G5), 
He rather spoils his excellent observations, however, by suggesting 
that the internal stellate columns might be young plants which 
grew up inside an old hollow stem ! 

His second genus of " Eadiati," Calamitea, may, he says, with 
much probability be supposed to have a common origin with the 
Calamites, so well known as impressions (p. 57). On this point 
his knowledge was decidedly in advance of Brongniart's at the 
same time. He arrived at this right conclusion by comparing 
the striations of his petrified specimens with those on the casts 
(p. 67). His Ccdamitea striata = Calamodendron striatum, Goep- 
])ert, and his Calamitea histriatu = Arthropitys histriata, Goeppert. 
Thus he had already recognised the two chief groups of Calamarian 

Cotta's " Supplementary Eemarks " are partly on the subject 
of the mode of preservation, but their chief object is to correlate 
the impressions with the petrifactions, a laudable attempt in 
which, with the one exception of the Calamites, he was singularly 

He was inclined to identify Trdncaulis with Lepidodendron, 
some species of which (including the well-known L. obovatum) he 
regarded as Ferns. He compares the ribbed Sigillarias with Cacti, 
a view which, oddly enough, has re-appeared in the present day in 
a work by the geologist Steinmann. At the same time Cotta iden- 
tified these Sigillarian stems with his genus MeduUosa (p. 84). 

As regards the Calamites, which he rightly identified, he was 
misled, like Brongniart in later days, by the internal structure, 
though not to the same extent. He argues against their being 


Equisetacoa:', but sufjgests tliat Uiey may represent an extinct 
family intermediate between E(]uisetacea; and Casuarineaj ! 

On tlu^ wbole Cotta's book is not to be taken too seriously from 
a scientific point of view. He was only a beginner at tbe time, 
and evidently no great botanist. His observations, liowever, were 
good, and sometimes bis natural instinct led liim rigbt wben more 
learned autborities went wrong. 

To us, in tliis country, tbe most interesting figure among the 
group we are considering, is that of Henry Wit bam. His real 
name was Henry iSilveitop; be was born in 1779, and took the 
name of AVitliam on liis marriage. He was a man of considerable 
|)roperty and importance in the North of England, and was the 
first Eoman Catholic High !SberifF of tlie County of Hurbam. His 
work on fossil plants belongs to a short period of his life, when 
be was about 50. ]le\vas the founder of modern structural fossil 
Botany in so far as he was the first man who used thin sections 
mounted on glass — the discovery of this method was due toNicol, 
to whom he fully acknowledges his indebtedness, as he does also 
to JMacgillivray, \\ho made the drawings and also no doubt helped 
w ith his botanical knowledge. 

In an early paper " On the Vegetation of the First Period of 
an Ancient World," read before the AVernerian Society of Edin- 
burgh on Dec. 5, 1829, Witham shows himself still much under 
tbe influence of Brongniart. He regards the "Craigleith Tree," 
first discovered in 1826, and now known as PHus WitJuimi (L. & 
H.), and other Gymnospermous Phanerogams of Carboniferous 
age as trifling exceptions to the general distribution of early 
vegetation. He says : " AVe find the opinion of Mr. A. Brong- 
niart most comjjletely verified, namely that the Vascular Crypto- 
gamic plants had a vast numerical proportion, and in fact of 
260 species discovered in this Terrain or period, 220 belong to 
this Class." Witham very soon modified this opinion, as we shall 
see. It appears that a section of tbe Craigleith fossil — a manifest 
Gymnosperm, one would think — had been sent to Brongniart, 
who replied: "I cannot now give a final but only a conditional 
opinion. It is that I believe it to be a section of a Monocotyle- 
donous plant." This strange conclusion, which seems to have 
been shared by some local botam'sts, though not, of course, by 
AVitham himself, can only be explained by the state of preserva- 
tion combined perhaps with a certain prejudice, at that time, in 
favour of the greater antiquity of Monocotyledons. 

In a letter to Winch, a JVewcastle naturalist, dated Dec. 23, 
1829, accompanying this pamphlet and preserved in Winch's 
correspondence in our own Library, AVitham goes into tbe inter- 
esting question of the ])resence of annual rings in tbe early 
Gymnosperms. He says : " I have as yet been unable to discover 
any concentric rings in the Wideopen fossil [Pinites, now Corduites, 

BraHdling'i] I sent Mr. Hutton a beautiful slice of the 

AV'ideopen tree, which to look at with the naked eye would have 
inclined one to believe they were there, but upon microscopic 


examination such idea appears to me to vanish." This exactly 
expresses the usual state of the case in stems of that period. 

Ill the paper " On the Vegetable Fossils found at Leunel Braes, 
near Coldstream," read May 10, 1830, Witham shows that these 
trees (Pitijs antifpta and P. ^jn'»iffi'a, Witham) "must be classed 
amougst the dicotyledonous plants" (p. 11). He attributes (not 
quite accurately) the opinion to Brongniart that "out of six 
classes only two existed at that time, namely the Vascular Crypto- 
gams and the Monocotyledons, the latter containing a small 
number of plants which appear to resemble the Palms and 
arboi-escent Liliaceoe The existence therefore of so exten- 
sive a deposit of dicotyledonous plants at this early period of 
the earth's vegetation appears to demand the attention of the 

In his " Description of a Fossil Tree discovered in the Quarry 
at Craigleith, near Edinburgh, in the month of JN^ovember, 
1830,"* Witham speaks of this fine tree having flourished "for 
aught we can say a million years ago " (p. 4). He had evidently 
frankly accepted the teachings of the young science of Geology, 
which \\as not the case with all English writers at that time. He 
says : " Several scientific gentlemen having stated as their opinion 
that this fossil is a Lycojwdiuyn, I may here mention the reasons 
why I have come to a different conclusion " (p. 5). And further 
on he adds : " In conclusion I beg to add, that we have in this 
striking and stupendous relic of ages long gone by, an additional 
proof amongst many others lately advanced, that plants^belonging 
to the Gymnospermous Phanerogamic class are much more abun- 
dant in these early sedimentary deposits than continental writers 
would lead us to believe " (p. 10). It was in fact AVitham's chief 
work to demonstrate the early prevalence of Gymnosperms, as is 
more fully shown in his book ' The Internal [Structure of Fossil 
Vegetables,' 1 833, which brings together and correlates his various 

" Many fossil vegetables having lately been found, particularly 
in the mountain-limestone series and coal-fields, belonging either 
to the Coniferse or to a family closely allied to them, I am induced 
to believe that those geologists who maintain that the vascular 
cryptogamic plants almost entirely composed the flora of that first 
period labour under a misapprehension '"' (p. 0), 

" That the preponderance of vascular cryptogamic plants was 
considerable, I do not wish to question .... From the frequent 
occurrence of trees possessing an exogenous structure I cannot 
help suspecting the correctness of the assertion that ' the class 
which almost of itself composed the flora of this period is that of 
the vascular cryptogamic plants, and in fact that of 260 species 
discovered in this formation, 220 belong to that class'." A few 
years before Witham had accepted this statement, but now his 

* Nat. ITist. Soc. Nortbuinbcrlanil, Durham, and Newcastle-upon-Tyne; 
read Dec. 28, 1830. 


views had matured, lie was, in fact, the first to challenge the 
description of the Pakcozoic period as the "Age of Cryptogams." 
The latest progress of the science has heen on the same lines 
as his. AVitliam rightly emphasized the higli organisation of the 
early floras, thoiig]i somewhat overstating Ihe case owing to hia 
not having fully grasped the width of the distinction between 
the Gymnosperms and the true Dicotyledons. 

lie regarded the predominance of Vascular Cryptogams as indi- 
cating the presence of a damp forest, where the remains of the 
])laiits had been preserved in sifu, while the Phanerogamic fossils 
represented a hill flora, from which the trunks had drifted down 
streams into lakes or pools. 

The absence of concentric circles, and especially the nature of 
the pits — the longitudinal series of hexagonal markings on the 
walls of the wood-cells facing the medullary rays, — led VVitham to 
infer that the Craigleith trees " are not Couifera;, or at least 
not in all respects similar to the Coniferoe of the present day." 
lie extends this inference to the allied species, and concludes : 
"It is, however, certain that hitherto no structure precise!)' resem- 
hling that of the Couiferae in every respect has been found in the 
jNIountain limestone series or in the Coal formation ; but the 
alleged absence of phanerogamic trunks in these deposits has been 
fully and, I trust, satisfactorily refuted " (p. 49). His conclusion 
is strictly correct, though the grounds on which he based it may 
not be perfectly convincing. He recognised that the Liassic and 
Oolitic woods which he placed in the genus Pence, are evident 
Conifers, which the older fossils are not, though " of the same 
natural family " (p. 69). 

Witham's work on the fossil Gymnosperms was perhaps the 
most important of his life; he also has the credit of having been 
the hrst to describe the structure of a fossil Lycopod, for we owe 
to him the original description and figures of LepiJodcndrGn Ifar- 
conrtii, "beyond all doubt," as Lindley and Hutton said, "the 
most remarkable discovery in the science of Fossil Botany." * 
AVithara himself showed equal enthusiasm. He says: " 1 had 
so repeatedly examined the stems of vascular cryptogamic plants 
witliout detecting any trace of organisation, that I cannot refrain 
from mentioning the delight which I experienced when 1 observed 
a structure so perfect. 1 am the more gratified as it affords me 
an opportunity of corroborating the opinion of so distinguished 
a botanist as Mr. A. Brougniart, though founded solely upon the 
external markings of the peculiar plants." t 

He compared the structure with that of the stem of Li/cojwcUinn 
clavatum, but it is not surprising that he was not altogether 
successful in interpreting so unfamiliar a type as that of the 

* ' Fossil Flora,' vol. ii. p. 4fi. 

t "On the Lepidodoidron. Harcourlii." Reatl at the Natural History Society 
of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, March 1832. 


Anahathra pr(7t7i«>TtHirt, a Lycopod with secondary growth in 
thicknesss, was another fossil investigated by AV^itham, who, how- 
ever, did not attempt to determine its afKDities. " Whatever, 
therefore, may be the family to which the plant in question is 
ultimately referred, it is necessary to institute a provisory genus 
for its reception " (p. 42). He fully satisfied himself of the 
existence of medullary rays, a point about which very unnecessary 
difficulties were raised at a much later date. 

Witham was a modest author. He writes : " My pretentions 
to botanical knowledge are indeed very limited, nor do I presume 
to rank myself among the cultivators of a science to whicli so 
many eminent individuals have devoted themselves in this country. 
The only object I have al\va3rs kept steadily in view, is to direct 
their attention to a department of botany which has hitherto been 
too much neglected ; for, although the study of the external 
forms of the stems, leaves and fructification, of recent vegetables, 
has elicited much knowledge respecting the nature of the former, 
little has been effected by an application to their internal com- 
position, in which decided and characteristic differences are never- 
theless to be found. It is by the recently discovered method 
of cutting and polishing the stems of fossil plants that we are 
enabled to obtain an insight into their structure." * Witham was 
deeply impressed with the importance of the work which he was 
undertaking, and showed a serious and almost religious enthusiasm 
which we cannot but respect. 

The few fragments from the earlier history of a modern branch 
of science which I have ventured to recall to your memories are 
of interest as showing that the problems before the investigators 
of those days were essentially the same as our own, and that the 
spirit in which they approached them is one wdiich we may well 
emulate. The birth of Geology is one of the most interesting 
events in the history of science, and forms an integral part, as 
Prof. Judd has recently so well shown, of the History of Evolution. 
The spirit of Evolution was already in the air, and we, in post- 
Darwin days, find ourselves in complete sympathy with the work 
that was going on in palaeontology at a time when the ' Beagle ' 
had scarcely started on her momentous voyage. 

The President, having delivered his Address, Lieut.-Col. Puain 
moved : — 

" That the President be thanked for his excellent Address, and 
that he be requested to allow it to be printed and circidated 
amongst the Fellows," which being seconded by Prof. F. W. 
OiiiYER, was carried by acclamation. 

* ' Internal Structure of Fossil Ycgetcables,' pp. 1-2. 


The President, then addressing Count Solms - Laubach, 
said : — 

CouxT Solms-Lalbach, 

It is a great pleasure to ine tliat it falls to my lot to present 
to you, on behalf of the Society, our Liunean Medal, awarded for 
the highest distinction in Biology. 

The wide range of your work, almost unequalled in these days 
of specialisation, covers morphology, development, ecology, physio- 
logy, the systematic both of Phanerogams and Cryptogams, the 
history of cultivated plants, the geography of plants, and, last not 
least, fossil botany. 

Tour earliest work was in a difficult field, in which you soon 
made yourself the leading authority, the morphology and alKnities 
of parasitic Flowering Plants, beginning in 1863 with a paper on 
an OrohcincJie, followed, a couple of years later, by your dissertation, 
' De La(hrct(E generis positione systematica.' An important general 
paper on the structure and development of parasitic Phanerogams 
(1868) was succeeded by a series of monographs on the families 
Lennoacefe, Eafflesiacefe, and Hydnoi\ace?e. 

Turning to another subject, you monographed the Pandanaceap, 
Pontederiacea?, Caricacese, and Aristolochiacefe, and in more recent 
years have interested yourself in the Cruciferae and Chenopodiaceae. 

The first of your Cruciferen-Studien, 1900, describes the remark- 
able case of CapscUa Iler/eri, to all appearance a new species, which 
has sprung into existence in our own time. 

Tour systematic work extended to Cryptogams, and we had the 
honour of publishing in our own Transactions your fine mono- 
graph of the Acetabulariacea^, calcai eous Alga) of special interest 
from their relation to early fossil types. 

In other works you have thrown new light on the structure, 
taxonomy, and distribution of Vascular Cryptogams, Mosses, 
Hepatics and Fungi. 

A feature of special morphological interest is discussed in your 
paper on Monocotyledonous embryos with terminal growing 
points. Ton have touched on physiology in your work on the 
occurrence of calcium oxalate in the walls of living cells. 

In another direction again, of more human interest, and of wide 
evolutionary bearing, you have treated with nnich learning and 
ingenuity the history of cultivated plants, such as the Fig, the 
Papaw, the Wheats, Tulips, and Strawberries. I am glad to hear 
that your important historical researches are still in active progress 
during your present visit to England. 

Tour work on the Principles of Plant Geography (1905), a 
critical review of the leading ideas on the distribution of plants, 
is characterised, like all your writings, by breadth and originality 
of thought,, and is exercising a wholesome inlluence on the progress 
of this great subject. 

I should like especially to recognise how you have always 
zealously pursued systematic botany, side by side vith every 


branch of laboratory work, an example which we in this country 
will do well to lay to heart. 

Lastly, I come to your contributions to fossil botany, the side 
of your work with which I happen to have been in closest touch. 
Beginning in 1883-84 with papers on the fossil fern tScoJecopterit 
ehf/ans and on Permian ConifercE, you published in 1887 your 
'Einleitung in die Paliiopliytologie ' (translated five years later, 
for the Oxford Press), a book which marks an epoch in the history 
of this science. To many, like myself, who had never till then 
realized the wealth and significance of the fossil material, this 
truly scientific exposition must have come as a revelation. In my 
own case it prepared me to appreciate the treasures of the 
Williamson Collection, and the work of our dear old friend 
himself, which you alone, at that time, were able to estimate at 
its true value. 

Since then you have continued to enrich our science by a 
series of memoirs of the utmost importance. To recount them 
all would be to write the history of fossil botany during the last 
quarter of a century. I may mention the work on the English 
Greensand fossil, Bennettites Gihsoniaaus, the type of an extinct 
family, dominant in JMesozoic times; on the Cycadofilices or 
Pteridosperms, to use a later name (a group which you and William- 
sou were the first to recognise), Froto^nti/s, Medullosa, Volkelia 
and Sttlod'i/hn ; on the Lower Carboniferous plants (now likely 
to prove of Devonian age) of Falkenberg and Thuringia ; on 
Stigmca-iojjsis, Pleuromeia and many more, — all researches which 
have done much to transform fossil botany and to place it in its 
present strong position as a worthy ally of animal paliEontology. 
In this subject also your work is as active as ever, and I am delighted 
to bear that you are about to elucidate further the structure of 
that wonderful genus of Paheozoic tree-ferns Psaronius, the first 
group of fossil plants showing structure to attract attention, and 
still among the most interesting and difiicult. 

I ask you to accept this medal as a symbol of the deep admira- 
tion and aifection of your English colleagues, and as the highest 
recognition which this Society can bestow. 

The recipient having received the Medal, expressed his thanks 
as follows : — 

Mr. President, Ladies and GentleiDen, 

It has not been an easy matter for me to come to London 
this spring, but as I am fond of this country, where I have so 
many friends, and have always been received with the greatest 
kindness by public institutions as well as by private persons, it 
seemed to me to be my duty personally to present my most 
hearty thanks to this Society, the first of all the great societies 
to receive me as a member, and now has awarded me the highest 
honour in its power, an honour I can only accept with the proviso 
" Magnis in rebus voluisse sat est." 


It is, further, a j^reat pleasure for me to reeeive this medal, 
awarded by the Council, from the hands of our President, 
Dr. 8cott, my friend and fellow-worker iu palaeophytological 

I am now approaching the age of seventy, and my work is 
essentially done ; but should God permit me some further time 
of strength and health, this medal will be a further stimulus for 
me to employ it entirely to the benefit of our beloved biological 

The General Secretary having laid before the Meeting the 
Obituary Notices of deceased Fellows, the proceedings terminated. 


Thomas IIoDGSoy Archer-IIiicd was born in the year 1814, 
and when at Eton from 1826 to 1832 was contemporary with 
Mr. W. E. Gladstone, the future Bishop Selwyn, and other 
notable men. He went up to Trinity College, Cambridge, 
graduated B.A. in 1837, and proceeded M.A. in 1840. He was 
elected Fellow of our Society on the 4th March, 1834, and had 
therefore, for many years, been Father of the Society. 

In 1856, on succeeding to an estate, he added the name 
Archer-Hind to his original Thomas Hodgson, and from 1872 
he lived at Coombe Fishacre House, Xewton Abbot, Devonshire. 

Possessing a keen deliglit in plants all his life, and delighting 
in his charming garden, he seems never to have appeared in print 
during his long career. Up to the last year our Librarian was 
accustomed to receive an annual letter, written in a legible and 
steady hand, requisitioning the Transactions to which he was 
entitled. He died on the 3rd February, 1911. [B. D. J.] 

EiCHABD Hexrt Beddome was born in 1831, educated at 
Charterhouse, and joined the Military service of the H.E.I.C. 
on its Madras establishment in 1848. In 1856 the Madras 
Government took steps to organize a Department of Forestry, 
and iu the year following, Beddome, who was then Quartermaster 
and Interpreter of his regiment, the 42nd Madras Native Infantry, 
was selected, on account of his devotiou to Natural History iu 
different branches, and proficiency in Botany, as chief Assistant 
to the first Conservator, Dr. 11. Cleghorn. One of his first duties 
in this post was an exploration of the Pulney Hills, even now 
too little known scientifically, and the botanical results appeared 
in the Madras Journal (u.s.) iii. (1858), pp. 163-202. The time 
allotted to this survey was necessarily brief, but it added more 
than one species to the local Flora and the published account 
remains of much interest to the present day. In 1859 Beddome 
contributed to the same Journal (iv. pp. 66-73) a valuable paper 
on the South Indian and Ceylon species of the dilBcult genus 


In 1860 Cleghorn retired and Beddomo suoeeeded him; in 18(53 
he brought out, mainly for the use of foresters and phinters, his 
' Trees of the Madi'as Presidency,' and this was followed by 
tlie 'Flora Sylvatica for Southern India,' giving descriptions 
with figures of all the principal timber trees and large shrubs of 
South India and Ceylon. The three hundred and thirty quarto 
plates, executed under the author's supervision by native artists, 
are remarkable for clearness aiul accuracy. Combined with this 
work is a ' Foresters' Manual ' of the local Flora, illustrated by 
twenty-nine lithographed sheets of analytical drawings of genera 
not represented in the main series. This work appeared in parts 
during 1869 to 1874, when it was compleTed. Side by side with 
these substantially official labours, Beddome steadily adhered to 
Natural History as a personal pursuit in such leisure as his public 
duties permitted. Even after his appointment as Conservator 
he had communicated papers on zoological subjects to different 
publications, including the Zoological Society's ' Proceedings' for 
1863 (pp. 225-229); but he gradually limited the field of studv 
to Botany, and from 1863 bis work was mainly concentrated on 
Ferns and their allies. 

In 1863 he published the 'Ferns of Southern India'; from 
that year to 1870 parts appeared of the 'Ferns of British India,' 
dealing with those species which, not having been recorded from 
the area covered by the ' Ferns of Southern India,' were not 
treated in that work. 

A Supplement to these two publications jointly was issued in 
1876, bringing the total number of ferns figured up to 661 ; with 
tlie majority of which the author was directly acquainted. 

Although now devoting his energies mainly to Fdicales, between 
1869 and 1874 Beddome brought out three hundred figures with 
descriptions of remarkable flowering plants from South India and 
Ceylon nnder the title of ' Icones Plantarum Indite Orientalis ' 
(Madras : Gantz Brothers, 1874, 4to), 

Ketiring from the service o£ the Crown with the rank of 
Colonel in 1882, he published in the year following his 'Hand- 
book to the Ferns of British India, Ceylon, and the Malay 
Peninsula ' (Thacker & Spink, Calcutta, 1883). This was based 
on the larger works already mentioned — that is to say, the 
'Ferns of Southern India' and 'Ferns of British India,' — the 
descriptions, however, being more succinctly framed and the 
figures (woodcuts) being reduced from the original illustrations. 
The ' Handbook ' was designed to meet the wants of a wider 
public than the previous undertakings, and met with an excellent 
reception both with the public and in scientific circles. 

Beddome made his home at Putney, where he devoted himself 
enthusiastically to horticulture, while in no wav relaxing his 
interest in the taxonomic side of Pteridology. A frequent visitor 
to Kew, and a contrib\itor from time to time of rare or interesting 
plants to the Royal Gardens, he also gave vahiable aid to the 
staff of the Herbarium by naming sets of Ferns and their allies 



from tlio liulo-^rnlavmi rcpioii : and williiii n few v.reks of liis 
(loceasp lie liad workwl out llie whole of tlie jNIalayan material at 
Ivf'W of iSehtf/tiullct. His name appears in llie Kew ]Ierbariuin 
Visitors' Book for tlie last time on tlie 27th January, 1911 ; 
on the 23i'd February be succumbed at bis residence, after a very 
l)rief illness, to an attack of hcart-lrouble, leaving a widow, 
daugbters and grandchildren. His last ])ublished contribution to 
botanical litei-alure was a jiaper cntilled "Notes on Indian Ferns" 
ill the Journal of the IJoiiibay Natural History Society, April ll?, 
J1H)8. To the Journal of the Koyal Horticultural Society, of 
which be was a Fellow, be contributed useful annotated lists 
of CampmnJa (19U7), Gesneracere and Acanthacejc (190S). In 
1898 Ik^ddome ])resented bis collection of Mosses to Kew: his 
I'haiierogainic herbarium is well represented in the Eoyal Her- 
barium, also in tlie Herbarium of the 33otanical Department, 
JNIadras ; while many fine s])eciinens of trees and flowering plants 
collected by himself in Southern India are preserved in the 
Natural History Museum at South Kensington, to whicb a selected 
set of bis Ferns was also distributed. The bulk of bis own set 
of the Ferns has been presented by Mrs. Beddome to Kew. 

As a horticulturist in bis Surrey home, Beddome was for nearly 
thirty years indefatigable and successful, repeatedly flowering rare 
or little-known sjiecies, which were exhibited at the Eoyal Horti- 
cultural Society's shows, or figured in the ' Botanical JMagnzine'; 
be was keenly interested in practical questions of hybridization 
and selection, and the annual view of his Chrysanthemums, to 
which friends were hospitably invited, was widely apjireciated. 

For those who enjoyed bis personal friendship, the blank caused 
by his death cannot be filled; while his personality, keen and 
active in spite of bis age, will be missed by all wlio knew him. 

He was elected Fellow of this Society on the 2nd March, 1882, 
although a short note of bis, extending only to half a page, 
communicated by Dr. Thomas Thomson, was read on 17tb Novem- 
ber, 1864, and published in the Journal ; it was descriptive of 
his PcecUoneiiron incUcnm, He preferred to delay bis connection 
with this Society until he could make full use of it. 

[J. E. Dkummond.] 

James Bisset was born on the 4th June, 1843, and from bis 
boyhood was keenly interested in natural science, particularly 
botany. His business took him to Japan in the early sixties, at the 
time when the great changes were taking place which have resulted 
in the modern Ja]ian. He made extensi\e collections of Japanese 
plants, and corresponded with Maximovitch, who named several 
plants after him, e. g. Viola Jiisscii. After living twenty years 
in Ja])an be came home in 1886, and for some years he lived at 
Banchory in Aberdeenshire, then, in 1892, be moved to Oxford, 
to gratify his ambition to graduate there, and, at the age of 47, 
he matriculated with a view to graduating in honours in the 
School of Natural Science. He had intended to take botanv as 


Ill's chief subject, but found the needed amoant of microscopical 
work too tryiiirr for his eyesight, and he then turned to geology, 
in which subject he passed with honours iu 1896, at tlie age oi: 
51 ; he proceeded M.A. iu 189'J. It was not till he was in the 
middle of his University career that he retired from business. 

Upon taking his degree, he moved to Edinburgh and threw 
himself into local scientific work ; lie was a Fellow of the Koyal 
Society of Edinburgh, the lioval Physical Society, and a member 
of the London and the Edinburgh Geological Societies. He 
joined the Linnean Society, 21st April, 1881. 

His published papers were, " List of Desiuidiaceee found .... 
in the neighbourhood of Lake Windermore during 1883," which 
appeared in Journ. K. Micr, Soc. ser. 2, iv. (1884) 192-197, and 
in conjunction with Dr. John Ko3',in the ' Scottish Naturalist ' in 
1893-94, comprising G4 pages on Scottish Desmids. 

He died on 3rd April, 1911, at Edinburgh. [B. D. J.] 

Jonjf Bexxett CABEDTnEES, F.L.S., F.E S.E., died in Trinidad 
at the early age of 41, on July 17, 1910. He was born at 
Islington on January 19, 18G9, son of the then Keeper of 
the Department of Botany of the British Museum, William 
Carruthers. He was educated at Dulwich College, the Royal 
School of Mines, and University College. Having decided for 
a botanical career, he devoted himself more particularly to 
the study of Algae, first under George Murray of the British 
Museum, and afterwards under Prof. Schmidt in the University 
of Greifswald. After his return to England he assisted his 
father, then Considting Botanist to the Eoyal Agricultural Society, 
and, at the same time, acted as lecturer on botany at Downton 
College and at the Eoyal Veterinary College, until in 1897 he 
went, for the Planters' Association, to Ceylon to investigate a 
disease which threatened the Cocoa plantations. He delivered 
himself so successfully of his task that in 19U0 he was apjioioted 
Mycologist to the Government of Ceylon and Assistant- Director 
of the Botanic Gardens at Peradenyia. Yive years later he went 
to the Federated Malay States as Director of the new Department 
of Agriculture. This post he held until 1909, when he accepted 
an appointment as Government Botanist and Assistant-Director 
of Agriculture in Trinidad. During an official visit to Tobago he 
contracted fever which, after a prolonged illness, led to his 
premature death. J, B. Carruthers was eminently a practical 
botanist, his principal achievements being in the sphereof Tropical 
Agriculture and plant pathology, and he was considered an 
authority on rubber cultivation. His publications were not; 
numerous and, apart from one on the cystocarps of some Algae, 
dealt with economical matters. 

He was elected a Fellow of the Linnean Society in 1890 and of 
the lloyal Society of Edinburgh in 1900. His rajiid promotion 
speaks suthcientlv for the high ajtpreciation which his knowledge 


and work found in ofllcial circles, whilst he was not less esteemed 
by his numerous friends for his genial and loyal character. 

[0. S.] 

Wn.r-iAM Ambrose Cf.atuce was born at Hinckley, Leicestershire, 
on the 6tb February, 1841, the son of the Kev. T. A. Clarke, of 
Sta|)leton. lie was articled to a Chippenham solicitor, and after- 
wards practised in that calling in the town. He became interested 
in botany, and formed acquaintance with the liev. T. A. Preston 
of Marlborough College, helping in the ' Flora of Marlborough,' 
issued in 1888. In 1892 he married and moved to Oxford, where 
he spent the rest of his life. 

In 1892 onwards he published in the ' Journal of Botany ' the 
first records of British Plants, which was issued as a volume in 
1890, followed by a second revised edition in 1900. 

He was elected a Fellow on the 4th December, 1890, but 
\\ithdrew on the 7th Februarv, 1901 ; later he was again elected 
4th ^larch, 1909. 

The writer is indebted to the account of Mr. Clarke given in 
the ' Journal of Botany ' for May 1911 for most of the facts above 
given. [B. D. J.] 

Theodoee Cooke, C.I.E., M.A., LL.D., M.I., F.L.S., was bora 
}i.t Tramore, Co. VV^aterford, Ireland, in 183(3, as the eldest son 
of the Kev. J. Cooke. He was educated at Trinity College, 
Dublin. After having graduated in 1859, he went to India as an 
engineer in the service of the Bombay, Baroda, and Central 
India Kailway. Five years later, in 18(35, he was appointed 
Principal of the Civil Engineering College at Poona, or, as it was 
afterwards, the Poona College of Science, and he continued in 
this position until 1893, when he retired. During his tenure of 
this post he also acted temporarily as Director of Public Instruc- 
tion, Director of I^and Records and Agriculture of Bombay 
Presidency, and as Dean of Faculty and member of the Syndicate 
of the University of Bombay. From an early date he paid 
careful attention to the flora of the presidency he lived in, and 
brought together very considerable collections. AV'lien in 1891 
the Botanical Survey of India was established, he was entrusted 
with the survey of Western India. He soon conceived the plan of 
writing a ' Flora of the Presidency of Bombay ' ; but it was not 
until 1898 that his proposal was approved by the Secretary of 
State for India. He was by that time 02, an age when a much 
younger man might have shrunk from undertaking such a task, 
particularly if it was, as in Cooke's case, his first attempt at 
writing a flora, or in fact anything botanical. But Cooke had, in 
a quiet way, built up for himself a knowledge of the plants of his 
area which was surprising even to his friends when it disclosed 
itself. This, combined with an admirable method and regularity 
of work, was the foundation of the remarkable success of his 
Flora, the first part of which appeared in 1901. After that, part 


followed part without a single liitcli, until, in 1908, with the 
eighth part, the work came to a conclusion. For clearness, 
precision and method, Cooke's ' Flora of the Presidency of 
Bombay ' will always be a model. The plant-material on which it 
was based consisted, apart from the older specimens in the Kew 
collections, almost entirely of his own extensive herbarium, which 
he brought with him to Europe, leaving a duplicate set at Poona , 
and when subsequently the Poona Herbarium was burned, he, 
very unselfishly, handed over his own set to the Poona College 
to form the nucleus for a new Herbarium. After the completion 
of his ' Flora ' he undertook to work out certain families for the 
' Flora Capensis.' He finished the genera Flextranthus, Coleus, 
Pycnostachijs, ^olanthus, ll)j2^tis, and Mentha of Labiata^, and the 
families of the Plantaginaceae, Nyctaginacete, and Illecebracese. 
But whilst working at the Amarautacea3 he was seized with his 
last and fatal illness. 

In Theodore Cooke botany lost a serious worker who came 
forward late in life, but with unabated energy and ripe experience, 
Avhilst his friends mourned in him the man, kind, genial and 
broad-minded. He was made an LL.D. by his University and 
created a CLE. in 1891. He was further a member of the 
Institute of Civil Engineers, Ireland, of the Anthropological 
Institute of Great Britain, and a Fellow of the Geological and — 
since 1892 — of this Society, [O. Staff.] 

Alfred Eussell Fox, who died at Sheffield, 5th December, 1910, 
after a long illness, was born iu that city in 1853, and on 
leaving school was apprenticed to his father, a pharmaceutical 
chemist, with whom he became a partner in 1876, and the 
following year his name was enrolled in the Pharmaceutical 

He identified himself with municipal work, and particularly 
with the work of local natural liistory societies. An ardent field- 
botanist, he was much appreciated as a lecturer on his favourite 
pursuit. He was one of tiie oldest men)bers of the Sheffield 
Field Naturalists' Society and of the Shetfield Microscopical 

His connection with this Society dated from 15th June, 1899. 

[B. D. J.] 

Edward Gerrard, an Associate of the Society, elected iu 1862, 
w as born iu Oxford, October 20, 1810. While he was still iu his 
childhood, his parents came to London, and eettled at St. Pancras, 
where he continued to reside during the many years of a longer 
life than is granted to the majority of mankind. In 1836 he 
entered the service of the Zoological Society on the same day as 
the late Mr. G. II. "VVaterhouse, w hom he assisted in the curatorial 
work of tlie Society's Museum. It is recorded that this Museum 
at that time contained 0720 exhibited specimens of Yertebrata ; 
and it was here that he laid the foundation of his knowledge of 


Vertebrate Zoologj'. Dr. J. E. Gray, a frequent visitor to the 
buciety's Museum, recognized the worth of the young man, and 
induced him to e.xcliange his post lor one in tlie British Museum ; 
and on April 5, 3841, he was appointed an Attendant of the 
I'irst Class in the Department of Zoology. In this modest 
position be worked for 55 years; and never had the Museum a 
more industrious, more conscientious, more devoted servant tlian 
Edward Gerrard ; he was Dr. Gray's right-hand man, always the 
best of my Iriends, and equally lielpful to me in later years. 

AVhen Gtrrard entered upon his new duties he was just in 
time to bear a hand in the removal of the Zoological collections 
from Montague House into the new Museum at Bloomsbury, and 
to form there the new exhibition of Mamnwls ; it consisted 
almost exclusively of mounted skins; but Dr. Gray, who fully 
understood the importance of osteology for his systematic studies, 
set immediately to work with his usual energy to supply this 
desideratum. In this Gerrard's assistance was iuAaluable to him ; 
only a few of the skeletons were mounted, the majority being 
kept disarticulated in wooden boxes in a large basement-room in 
which a fire had to be kept all the year round to prevent the 
boxes and labels from getting damp and mouldy. Here Gerrard 
could be found engaged in arranging the collections and pre- 
paring a systematic Manuscript Catalogue. Dr. Gray's ' List 
of Osteological Specimens in the British Museum' (1847) was 
based upon that Manuscript ; and a greatly enlarged later 
edition, 'Catalogue of the Bones of Mammalia in the British 
Museum' (lb02), was almost wholly Gerrard's work. This 
collection remnined the centre of his solicitude and its care his 
favourite occupation. It was a proud day for him when lie saw 
the magnificent series of skeletons, with the individual history of 
which no one was more intimately acquainted than himself, set up 
fur the first time for exhibition, filling an entire gallery in the new 
]\luseum at South Kensington in systematic arrangement. Great 
was his morlification that he had to witness the breaking-up and 
dispersal of this unique exhibition at the time of his retirement 
from the Museum. 

Besides this special work, Gerrard had other important duties 
to perform in the Department. A general supervision of the 
acquisitions of former years, and the registration and conservation 
of all new accessions to the classes of Mammals, Keptiles, Batra- 
chians, and Fishes, were entrusted to him, until by additions to 
the staff some of these duties could be assigned to others. 

After o,") years of service Gerrard retired in 1S96. According 
to a "Minute" of the Trustees' meeting on July 25, "the 
Trustees in accepting Gerrard's resignation, desired the Director 
to express to liiin their high appreciation of his very long- 
contiiuied and faithful servi.-e." This " appreciation " is probably 
unique in the annals of the Museum, as regards a member of the 
class of Atteiulants. 

Gerrard was endowed with an uuujuallv strong constitution. 

LINNEA:^ society of LONDON. 39 

which he retained unimpaired ahnost to within the last year of 
his Ufe, owing to his frugal and regular habits. The days on 
which during those 55 years he was compelled by indisposition 
to absent himself from duty were very lew; in fact, I cannot 
remember one. Daily, in ail weathers, he walked from his home 
in Camden Town to the Museum, and even after his retirement 
he continued his daily exercise, enjoying excellent health. His 
friends hoped that he would reach his lOoth year ; he died on 
June lU, lyil.l, witliin four months of his lOist birthday. 

His son, Edward Gerrard, and one daughter survive him. The 
foriuer followed in his fatjier's footsteps, being the well-known 
Ageut of jNatural History, who has done great services to the 
Museum by faithfully fultiiling nuuierous commissions with 
which he has been entrusted, and from whose laboratory the 
nuijority of the best-mouuted mammals in the Museum have been 

issued. [ALBEIiT GtJNTUEU,] 

John IIixcnLEY Haut, F.L.S., ^vas born in 1847 and educated in 
England, but as early as lb7'2 he went to America, where in the 
British Colonies he found a rich Held for his energy and his 
practical abiUties. He spent the years 1872-75 as landscape- 
gardener in jN'ova Scotia, and the next twelve years in Jamaica, 
lirst in charge of the gardens and grounds of King's House, then 
as Superintendent of the Cinchona plantations (1881-86), and 
tiually as Director of Public Gardens and Plantations. In 1887 
lie was appointed Superintendent of the Eoyal Botanic Gardens 
in Trinidad, which post he held until 1908, when he retired from 
Government service. He was regarded as one of the best and 
most trustworthy authorities in agriculture and horticulture in the 
West Indies, and had an extensive knowledge of the Horas of 
Jamaica and Trinidad. His publications are few, but the Her- 
barium list of the botanical department of Trinidad (1908) is very 
useful. He also eilited Jenman's volume of 'The Perns and 
Pern Allies of the British West Indies and Guiana ' (1909). He 
was elected a Pellow of this Society in 1887. [O. Stape.] 

FREDERICK IIovENDEN' was a member of a firm of perfumers, and 
succeeded in securing the means of early retirement irom 
business cares. Born in London in 1838, he soon took part^ in 
local work, and in 1874 became the principal mover in founding 
the South London Natural History Society (of which he became 
tlie first secretary) in conjunction with Henry Deane, Prof. Charles 
Stewart, Dr. Braitliwaite, and others. On quitting business he 
moved from Brixton to Dulwich, and, later still, he acquired a 
country liouse near Swanage, attracted thither by the charm of 
the geology of the district. 

He was elected Fellow, 5th June, 1873, and of the Geological 
Society in 1876; he died at DuKvich on the 17th March, 1911, 
being buried at Norwood. [B. D. J.] 


Lieut. -Culojiol Simpson Powki.l, ]\1.D., E.A.M.C, died ut 
liangoou on the -?;5rd ]March, lUll, soun alter lie had returned to 
iluty as senior medical ollieer from lurloiigh, during wliieh he had 
hren eleett^d a Fellow of the Liniiean Society, on 1st December, 
I'JlU; his connection with us therefore lasting less than four 

lie was the eldest son of Mr. Christopher BoUared Powell, of 
8outhhorough, Kent; born in 1858, he \\as educated at Bury 
at. Edmunds fSchool, and received his medical training at King's 
College, London, becoming house jjhysician there. After taking 
the medical diplomas of L.S.A. and M.U.C.S. iu 3 880 and 1882 
respectively, he graduated at Durham University M.B. iu 1883 
and M.D. in 18'JO. lie entered the Army Medical Service in 
1885, and thenceforward ser\ed in India, China, and the Home 
District. Gazetted Lieut.-Colonel in 19U5, he sailed again for 
India in 1908, and was transferred to Burma, where his career 
was cut ^hurt by the climate. [B. D. J.] 

puAXCis Lesitek Sopeu was, at the time of his deatli, 
3Uth December, 1910, at Ilighgate, at the advanced age of 92, 
the head of the firm of scientitic publishers Lovell Eeeve & Co. 
He was a frequent attendant at the General Meetings of the 
Society till a few months before his death. 

Like his predeceased partner, Mr. Lovell Eee\e, lie took a 
keen interest in the subjects of the volumes published by their 
house, but, unlike the senior partner, he did not join the ranks 
of authors. 

He was elected Fellow of the Society, Ist December, 1870. 

[B. D. J.] 

Samuel Alexander Stewabt, A.L.S., was born in Philadelphia 
on February 5, 182G. AVben eleven years old he came with his 
father to live at Belfast, where he spent the remainder of his long 
life, dying on June 15, 1910, in consequence of an accident in the 
street. He was an entirely self-educated man. Poor health when 
a child, and then straitened circumstances, shut him out from the 
ordinary school career; but, fortunately, his love of nature took 
him earlv to the Held where the work of his life was done. Up 
to 1880,' when he was appointed Assistant-Curator of the Belfast 
Museum, he worked at trunk-making, a trade in which he was 
particularly skilful, giving all the spare hours to natural history, 
especially botany and geology. He was on the committee of the 
Belfast Naturalists' Field Club from its foundation in 18G3, and 
liis first paper, " On the occurrence of some rare or little known 
Plants in the Belfast district," was ]mblished the same year. A 
considerable number of other papers and notes on the botany, 
zoology, and geology, mainly of the North-East of Ireland, 
followed, liis last contribution bearing the date 1909. But his 
principal work was the 'Flora of the North-East of Ireland' 


(1S88), of which Lloyd Praegei", a most competent judge, sars, 
that " its fulness, accuracy, and schohu'ly style place it high 
among works of the kind." In 13'Ji he was appointed Curator 
of the Belfast Museum, which post he held until ltiU7. He was 
elected Associate of the Society in 1904. A list of his publica- 
tions and further particulars of h"s life and achievemeuts, as well 
as a portrait, were published in ' The Irish Naturalist,' vol. xix. 
(191U) pp. 201-209. [O. SiAPF.] 

By the death of Dr. Melciiiou Treub, at St. Eaphael on the 
J3rd October, 1910, the Liiuiean Society has lost one of its most 
distinguished Foreign Members, and Botany one of its most able 

He was born at Voorschoten, three miles S.W. of Leyden, on 
the 26th Decen)ber, 1S51 ; and soon showing his love for Natural 
Science, he devoted himself to its study at Leyden under 
Prof. W. r. li. Suringar, but early struck out into other direc- 
tions than those usually then followed at that University. His 
dissertation ' Ouderzoekingen over de natuur der lichenen,' 
Leiden, 1873, was upon the then burning question of the inde- 
pendent entity of Lichens, and Treub succeeded by cultures in 
showing that gonidia did not arise from hyphae, a theory pre- 
viously only tentatively advanced. For this he received a gold 
medal, and became assistant to Prof. Suringar. A small paper 
on the pappus of Hieracium nmbellatum followed, where he 
observed, in a plant affected by galls, the altered Hower-heads 
displayed 5-leaved calyces and other transitions, from which he 
concluded that the pappus arose from division of the calyx- 

' lets over het Chlorophyll,' which came out in the following 
year, 187-A, showed his powers in a new field, and one to which 
he recurred in later years when in Java ; in this he specially 
dealt with the occurrence of red and green colouring-matter. 

After this his writings were most often expressed in French, 
Ins mothers native tongue, beginning with ' Le meristeme primitif 
de la racine dans les Monocotyledones,' 1870, and ' liecherches 
sur les organes de la vegetation du Sdag'mella Ilartensii,' Leiden, 
1877; and his first essay in cytology, 'Quelques recherches sur 
la role du noyau dans la division des cellules vegetales,' Amster- 
dam, 1878, and in 1879 his observations on sclerenchyma and 
multinucleate cells, and 'Notes sur Tembryogenie de quekjues 
Orchidees,' Amsterdam. 

By this time his gifts and scientific industry had drawn atten- 
tion to him ; whilst still assistant to Siu'ingar he was chosen a 
Member of the Dutch Academy of Sciences, and when li. H. C. C. 
Scheffer's death left the post of Director of the Botanic Gardens 
at Buitenzorg vacant, Treub was thought the best man for tho 
place, though he was not at first disposed to accept it. 

The Garden at Buitenzurg, founded in 1817 by lieiuwardt, 

42 rnocEEDiNcs of the 

and soon after rciulcivd famous by C. L. VAnme, liad since fallen 
into nef,decl-, but had been somewhat rehabilitated during the long 
service of Teysman, and the eleven years of directorship under 
tSchefter. 'I he latter had started a department of Colonial 
Agriculture, and a scientific journal emanating from the garden, 
and restricted to systematic papers, under the title of 'Annates 
du jardin botanique de iiuitenzorg.' Of this only the first volume 
was completed by fcJclKil'er in 187G, when it stopped, until 
resumed by his successor. 

In November 1880 Treub was settled at Buiten/.org, with 
Tfv. W. Burck as his assistant, and soon determined that ti.e 
'Annales' should bo continued on a wider basis, and not bo 
confined to the concerns of Java. In the preface to the second 
volume of that series the new editor explained how that adminis- 
trative duties had hindered his predecessor from prosecuting the 
work, but ho considered it his pious duty to put forward the only 
paper found written by Sclieli'er, and that though his own work 
had hitherto lain in the departments of plant anatomy and 
l)liysiol()gy, he had no intention of confining the journal to 
one department. Besides the contribution already inentioned. 
Dr. Treub printed in this volume the first ]iart of his ' Hecherches 
surges Cycadees ' and ' Observations sur les Loranthacees.' 

Treub may be considered as the first; botanist, trained in 
modern method.s who has had the control of a botanic garden in 
the tropical wonderland : of this he maile full use. Tew botanists 
had used tlie microscope in the tropics: in India, GriHith had 
employed the instruments of his day to good purpose, it is true, 
but the new Director set himself to establish i)roper and adequate 
means of research, amidst the gorgeous and abundant vegetation 
surrounding his sphere of activity. He succeeded in making 
Bmtenzorg a goal for visiting botanists, attracted thither bv the 
prospect of employing material in abundance, quite unattainable 
m temperate climates, and he also succeeded in establishing the 
Agricultural Departmeiit on a scientific basis. With the adminis- 
tration of the garden and the department just mentioned, his 
energies, even in a climate which usually exhausts Europeans in 
a few years, were still further employed in a series of researches 
and observations which would have done credit to a man of 

Prof. Goebel has pointed out that Treub's contributions to the 
' Annales ' niay be grouped under four heads. 

Pirst, his observations on the prothallia of the Lycoi)odiacea^, 
extending over four volumes. Second, the work on Cycads, 
Casuarina, the division of Angiosperms into chalazogamic and 
porogamic plants, and Apogamy. Third, on Epiphytes and 
Mlinnecodia, on climbing plants, and the renewal of vegetation 
on Krakatau, tracing it from the third year after the eruption, 
witli the occurrence of Cyauophycea) as rendering possible the 
advent of Mosses and Ferns. Fourth, the continuation of his 


researches on chlorophyll, and the presenc-e of hydrocyanic acid 
in plants as the iirst prodnct of nitrogenous assnnilation. 

At Buitenzorg he established tlie ' Laboraton;e des Savants 
etran-ers'— what a wealth of meaning and of scientihc hosp.tali y 
is in that phrase -and at Tjibodas, already famous as the early 
station for Cinrhona culture ux Java, he had a small mountain- 
garden established, with a laboratory in close connection vyith the 
vir<^in forest. At his instigation, the Government set apart 
a portion of the original forest, so that it might remani un- 
disturbed. ... 1 ^i,„ 

Treub left Java in October 1900, hopnig to spend the 
remainder of his life in Europe, lie broke his journey at Lan-o, 
and afterwards travelled to the Eiviera. But after 29 years 
service in Java, cooler regions did not restore his strength, and on 
the 3i-d October, 1910, he breathed his last at St. Eaphael. lie 
was elected a Foreign Member, 5: h May, 1887. _ 

This brief sketch of a full and strenuous life gives no idea ot 
Treub's charming personalitr. Even to those who met him only 
durino- his occasional visits to Europe he was a dehghttul com- 
panion, but to those who had the good fortune to visit him at 
Buitenzorg he was still more ; he had a unique position, and used 
it wisely and well. We have lost a great man, ot a character 
too rarely found, and the present generation may never again see 
his equal, but his memory will live with those who were fortunate 
enough to know hiui and to value his labours at their true 

worth. ^1 , /-.i • 1 > 

A ^ood portrait will be found in the 'Gardeners Chronicle 
for 5Ui November, 1910. p. 336, and a full bibliography by 
Prof E A E. Went, in Ann. Jard. Bot. Buitenz. xxiv. (1911) 
pp. xxix-xxxii, preceding Treub's latest and posthumous essay. 

[B. U. J .J 

The Eeverend Eobert Boog Watson, LL.D., E.L.S., E.G.S., 
E H.S.E. Born on September 26th, 1823, he was educated at 
the Edinburgh Academy and at Lille, and took his B.A. at 
Edinburgh University. After a course of study at the ^ew 
Colkxre, Edinburgh, he was licensed by the Eree Presbytery in 
1847°and in 1854, on the outbreak of the Crimean AVar, he went 
out as Chaplain to the 93rd Highlanders. Invalided home after 
a nearly fatal attack of dysentery, he recovered sulTiciently to 
undertake garrison work at Dover in 1856. In this year he 
married Janet Cowan, daughter of the founder of the firm ot 
Alexander Cowan & Sons, papermakers, and immediately after- 
wards went out to India, and acted as Chaplain to the Highland 
Brigade in the Mutiny. Owing to a return of his illness, he was 
again invalided home. ^ ^ 

In 186-4 he accepted an appointment 1o the Scots Church in 
Madeira, and in tli'e course of his ten years' tenure of that office 
was enabled to investigate the remarkably rich land molhiscan 
fauna of the Madeiran group, as well as the marine shells, 


ill oo-oporatioii with Jjowe aiul Wolhistoii. On relurning to 
EdiiibiiiM^li, ho devoted himself chiefly to his favourite sciences of 
geolouly and conchnlogv ; and in ISTG, at the request of his 
friend, Sir Charles Wyvdle Thomson, he undertook to work out all 
the mollusca which had just been brought back by H.M.S. ' Chal- 
lenger' — with the excei)tion of the Cephalopoda and Ptercpoda. 

In 1878, however, the failure of the City of Glasgow Bank 
compelled him to give up his well-earned leisure and to return to 
work ; and he accepted the call of the Free Church congregation 
at Cardross, Dumbartonshire, where he remained till his retire- 
ment from active work in LSiJS. 

llesidence in a country district of course deprived him of easy 
access to books and collections, and he therefore returned all tho 
material he was working at to the ' Challenger' oflice ; but Sir C. 
AVyville Thomson's urgent representations induced him to resume 
his stutlies in part, though he limited his investigations to the 
Gastropoda Hiid Scaphopoda — about 1300 recognizable species 
in all. 

The results of his labours appeared in the fifteenth volume of 
the 'Challenger' series in 1886, and, as an illustration of the 
thoroughness of his methods, it may be mentioned that he worked 
at the Museums of Paris, Berne, and Geneva, as well as at the 
]iritish Museum, before the Natural History portion was removed 
to South Kensington. 

In 1891 he was President of the Conchological Society, and in 
1892 the University of Edinburgh conferred upon him the 
degree of LL.D. 

Of the nature of Dr. Watson's work there is only one opinion. 
]lis descriptions, at times almost too detailed, are "excellent, and 
he spared himself no trouble in their preparation. 

For nearly twenty years he spent part of the summer in 
Switzerland, especially in the Rhone Valley, and his favourite 
haunt was Bel Alp, where he did much climbing and botanising, 
and fraternised with such men as Bishop EUicot, Edward 
AVhymper, and Prof. Tyndall. 

[E. A. Smith, I.S.O., and J. E. Le B. Tomlix.] 

[A list of nineteen works, nearly all on Mollusca, is given in .Tourii. of 
Conch, vol. xiii. pp. 139-40. Excludiuj,' the 'Challenger' luunograph, 
tlie most important of these is the series ou tho ' Challenger' Mollusca 
in tho Jouru. Linn. Sue. (Zool.) xiv.-xvii. I878-83.J 


June 1st, 1911. 

Dr. D. H. Scott, M.A., F.E.S., Tresident, in the Chair. 

The Minutes of the Anniversary Meeting of the 24tli Atay, 
1911, were read and confirmed. 

Mr. Frederick Eyles, the Eev. Hilderic Friend, INTr. Ernest Lee, 
Miss Ann Cronin llalket, Mr. John Coney Moulton, Mr. John 
(irahiun Murray, Mr. Frederick Jolui Freshwater Shaw, B.Sc, 
Mr. Cliarles Waterfall, and Mr. Malcolm AV^ilson, B.Sc, ^^ere 
elected Fellows. 

The President announced that he had appointed the following; 
as Vice-Presidents for the ensuing session : — Sir Frank Crisp, 
Mr. Horace W. Mouckton, Prof. E. B. Poulton, and Dr. A. B. 

Prof. W. A. Heiidma:^ gave an account of the recent occurrence 
(April 1911) of the minute Dinotiagellate AmpTndinium ojtercu- 
latum, Clap. & Lachm., at Port Erin in the Isle of Man, in such 
profusion as to discolour the sand between tide-marks in patches 
extending on some days for many yards. Ampliidinimn opercu- 
latuni has been recorded from several places on the coasts of 
Europe and America, but has apparently not been previously found 
in Britain. 

The Eev. T. E. E. Stebbing and Prof. Dendy contributed eome 
remarks, and the author replied. 

Dr. A. Smith Woodward gave a general account of tlie Fauna 
of the Carboniferous Period, so far as it has been discovered in 
the same deposits as the Carboniferous Flora. I'he Fauna agrees 
with the Flora in consisting for the most part of highly specialise d 
representatives of the louer groups, but is singularly modern in 
some respects. Some of the freshwater and land Mollusca are 
scax'cely distinguishable from genera still existing. All the 
Crustaceans are of primitive groups, and some of the most inter- 
esting are related to Anasj^vhs, which still survives in Tasmania. 
The Myriapods, Scorpions, and Spiders are similar to those of 
later date, but a few of the Scorpions retain obvious remnants of 
the characters of their aquatic ancestors. Limuloids also occur. 
Insects are numerous, but all belong to the lower groups in which 
there is no complete metamorphosis, and there are many generalist d 
types which can scarcely be referred to existing Orders. Cock- 
roaches are numerous, but have transparent fore-wings. Primitive 
Dragon-Hies occur, and some of tiiese are the largest known 
insects, with a span of wings measuring 2 feet. Among Fishes, 
the spiny AcanthodiaTi Sharks, which are typically Lower Pala'o- 
zoic, are still found in the Carboniferous Fauna, and are known to 
have been preyed upon by the higher Fishes. The Pleuracanth 

46 puocEEDixas of tup: 

8]mrks are cliaracf eristic, of tlio period, and interestinjr ns showing; 
a more cjiMieralised vertebrate skeleton than any later Fishes. The 
C'ocldiodont Sharks with grinding teeth appear to be closelv related 
to the existing Ceslracion, but have many of the (eeth fused into 
extensive plates. Some of the sharp-toothed Sharks also seem to 
have had their teeth fused into rigid masses. 'J'he highest Fishes 
are the Paheoniscida and Phvlysomids, whieh exliihit all the funda- 
mental characters of the present-day Sturgeons, obscured beneath 
a normal covering of ganoid head- plates and scales. Large 
Dipnoan Fishes are numerous, and differ little from Ceratodus, 
except in showing traces of the separate points of which their 
denial ]ilates are com|)Osed. Most, important are the Crosso- 
])terygian Fishes, of which llhizodxis and Mer/alichiJn/s are typical 
genera. These Fishes make a closer approach to the earliest 
lung-breathers than any Fishes which have existed before or since. 
Lung-breathers were certainly in existence just before the begin- 
ning of the Carboniferous Period, and all seem to belong to a very 
primitive group of Amphibia, variously termed Stegocephalia or 
Labyrinthodontia, in allusion to the complete roofing of their 
cheeks by bone and to the complicated structure of their teeth. 
In their possession of supra-temporal plates and often of post- 
temporal bones, as also in the marking of th(nr superficial bones 
by the course of the slline-canals, these Amphibians more closely 
resemble fishes than any later members of the Order. Towards 
the end of the Carboniferous Period some of the smaller Stego- 
cephalia, the so-called Microsauria, seem to have passed into true 
lleptiles very similar to the surviving Sj^henodon or llatieria. 

A discussion followed, the itndermentioned taking part : — 
The President, Mr. William Cash (visitor), the Eev. T. 11. E. 
Stebbing, and Mr. A. O. Walker ; the author replying. 

June 15tb, 1911. 

Dr. A. B. Eexdle, F.E.S., Yice-Presideut, in the Chair 

The ^Minutes of the General Meeting of the 1st June, 1911, 
were read and confirmed. 

jNlr. George Herbert Wailes, INliss Freda Bage, ;M.Sc., Mr. 
Malcolm Wilson, 13. Sc, IMiss Ann Croniii Halket, and Mr, Ernest 
Lee, B.Sc, were admitted Fellows. 

INIr. AVilliam Neilson Jones, M.A. (Cantab.), was elected a 

A letter congratulating Sir Joseph Hooiceu on his approaching 
94th birthday, was read and signed by the Chairman and the 
Fellows present. 


Professor AV. A. IIebdman referred to his paper at the hist 
meeting on the abundance of a Peridinium at Port Erin, and 
stated that he visited tliat locality a few days after ilie said 
meeting, and found similar markings on the sand, but on the 
latter occasion it was due to vast numbers of a Diatom, Navicula 

Mr. G. H. Wailes, Prof. Dendy, and Mr. J. C. Shenstone 
contributed some remarks. 

The following papers were read and discussed : — 

1. Miss H. M. CUNNIXGTOX. — The anatomy of Enludus; 

acofoides, Rich. (Communicated by Pi'of. Percy GtUoom, 

2. Prof. A. D. Imms. — On the life-history of Croce fiJ'tpennis, 

AVestw. (Communicated by Canon Eoweeu, F.L.8.) 

3. Prof. J. J". KiEFFER. — Cynipidse. 

4. The same. — Proctotrupoidea. 

5. Prof. T. D. A. Cockerell. — Apoidea. 
fi. Mr. J. C. F. Prykr. — Lepidoptera. 

7. Mr. G-. Meade- Waldo. — AV'asps. 

8. Mr. J. E. CorxiN.— Borborida^. 

9. 'J'he same. — Phorida). 

10. Mr. P. \. Theobald. — Culicid?e. 

(The last eight papers, relating to the fauna of the 
Seychelles, were communicated by Prof. J. Stanley 
Gardiner, P.E.S., F.L.S.) 

The first exhibition was by Mr. P. Enock, who showed a series 
of slides illasti-ating several species of the minute hymenopteron 
Mymar, especially the recently-discovered M.regalishom. Burnham 

Dr. George Henderson, F.L.S., exhibited a lantern-slide, 
made from a snapshot of the head of a AVaterbiick, Cohus ellijtsi- 
prymmis, taken by his son, Mr. Fred. L. Henderson, of the 
British East African Medical Service, at Nairobi. 

Mr. AV. Fawcett, F.L.S., showed: — 

(a) A Parasitic Flowering Plant from Jamaica {Scyhallam 
jamaicense, Schott & Eudl.). 

(h) Flowers of Banana (Musa paradisiaca var. snpientum). 

The cultivated Banana-plant attains its full height before the 
flowers are formed. The trunk is a hollow cylinder formed by 
the bases of the leaf-stalks. The flowering-stalk first a])pears as 
a projection from the tuber into the base of the cylinder. The 
first flowers are formed while the stalk is quite short, and appa- 
rently it takes about six weeks for it to grow from the base until 
it emerges at the apex. The flowers exhibited were taken before 
emergence. They occur in clusters spirally arranged round the 


peduncle. The lowest clusters are female flowers ; tlio highest 
clusters are male flowers, iiefween these two sets of clusters 
there are very often a few clusters in whirh the ovary is ahoufc 
half the length of the whole liower; these are prohably not truly 
hermaphrodite, but neuter. 

The ovaries of the female flowers become the banana-fruit ; 
those of the neuter flowers grow into small worthless fruit. The 
male flowers and bracts are deciduous, and the peduncle continues 
to lengthen and produce male flowers until the fruit is cut. 

Dr. iS'i'APF commented on these exhibitions. 

Mrs. LoxGSTAFF showed a specimen of Brassia caudata, Lindl., 
in flower, from Jamaica, uhich was followed by remarks from 
Mr. W. Fawcett and the Chairman. 

Sir Fr.v>'k Crisp exhibited on behalf of Mr. William Monnis 
a monstrous proliferation of a Foxglove, in which the terminal 
flower had attained an extraordinary development. 

Mrs. Steubing, F.L.S., also showed a very small monstrosity in 
the same species. 

Tliese exhibits were discussed by the Rev. T. R. R. Stebbing, 
Dr. Longstaff (visitor), Miss May Eathbone, and the Chairman. 


Alien Plants introduced into the Tweed District with Foreign 
Wool. By Ida M. Hayward, F.L.S. 

[Read Ist December, 1910.] 

The subject to which I propose briefly to direct the attention of 
this meeting is the Alien Plants of the Tweed district. 

Those shown are a selection out of about 200 alien ])lants which 
I collected on the banks of the river Tweed and its tributary the 
G-ala in the course of the last three or four years. Three of them 
were gathered when acconipariied by ^Ir. James Fraser of Edin- 
burgh, and two of them when accompanied by Mr. Claridge Druce 
of Oxford. 

It is, however, proper to add that reference has been made 
to the major portion of them in the course of tlie present and 
past year in the ' Annals of Scottish Natural History' and the 
Botanical Exchange Club Report of the British Isles. 

Tlie reason of the plants beiug found on the banks of the Tweed 
and (iala is interesting. The sta])le industry in that localiry is 
the manufacture of wool into cloth. The wool is brought from 


the Colonies and various foreign countries, and in it is entangled 
a variety of seeds. In the process of \vashing the wool the seeds 
are swept into the river, and some of them, deposited on the 
shingle or on the banks of the river, germinate and grow into 
more or less hardy plants. In this way plants that ai-e natives 
of Australia, IS'ew Zealand, Cape Colony, South America, and 
other foreign countries are seen to be growing side by side with 
plants of the British Flora. 

Erodium Botrys, Bert. No. 1 specimen. A South European 

There are a great many European species of Erodium by the 
river-banks and on mill waste-heaps. 

Medicago precox, DC. No. 2 specimen. 

This geuus, like the Erodium, is a very common one in the 
Tweed district. Eight different species have been collected ; the 
species now exhibited, however, has not hitherto been recorded. 

The history of this Medicago is interesting. Originally a South 
European species, it has become widely spread in Argentina. 
The Spaniards, in the sixteenth century, introduced into that 
country some of their domesticated sheep which probably carried 
some fruits of the Medicago with them. The seeds, finding there 
a congenial soil, have flourished and now come back to Europe and 
to the Tweedside in bales of wool. The fruits are also found iu 
the wool of Australia and other colonies, and probably also have a 
similar origin. 

The fruits, or burrs as they are locally called, are very detrimental 
to the wool. This, however, is overcome to some extent by the 
following process, which is now much practised in the manu- 
facturing districts of this country and on the Continent. The 
rind of the burrs is carbonised by a weak solutiou of sulphuric 
acid, and then subjected to a dry heat of about ISO degrees. 
Tlie burrs are then pulverised by heavy rollers and blown out by 
strong fans. The seeds themselves are uninjured by this process 
or even by being boiled in the process of dyeing. 

T'illcEa VaiUaniii, Willd. Specimen Xo. 3. Native of France 
and Spain. 

Plentiful for two successive years. It has stalked flowers and 
their parts are in fours, while in Tilloia muscosa the parts are in 
threes, and the flower sessile. 

The genus Helipterum^ of which I have specimens of three 
different species, Nos. 6, 7, 8, Ilelipterum corimhijlorum, Schlecht., 
JleUpterum Jloribundum, DC, Hdipterum hgaloitpermum, F. von 
Mueller, is perhaps the most interesting of these alien plants. 
This geuus has hitherto been unrecorded for Great Jiritain, and 
3'et has been found growixig as' far nortli as the banks of the 



Tweed, It is nearly ivllird to I/clichrifmnu, an everlasting flower. 
JltHl>ttrum (litTers liy liaviiijr tlie liairs of tlie pappus plumose 
instead oi pilose. IS'atives of JSouth Ai'rica and Australia. 

Coliila fiiisfrdJis, Hook. f. Ko. 0. 

These 1 have found in ])lenty six miles down the river at Melrose 
for two successive years. It is a perennial, a native of Australia 
and New Zealand, invariahly following sheep. 

Cenia turhinata, Pers., var. concohr. No. 10. 

In variety concolor the rays are yellow on both sides, in the 
type they are white above and reel on the lower surface. An 
hitherto unrecorded genus for Britain, but a commoa weed 
throughout Cape Colony. 

Smecio lanius, Forster. No. 11. 

I have noticed *SV»ef/o lantus for three years. It is a handsome 
perennial plant and grows in abundance on the banks of the Gala 
and Tweed to a height of 2 feet. A native of Australia, Tasmania, 
and New Zealand. 

EritricMum mtsiralasicum, A. DC. No. 13. 

One small patch of the above endemic Australian species was 
found in moist alkivium near the junction of the Gala and Tweed, 
and was an unrecorded genus for ]3ritain. 

Airiplex sjwnr/iosa, F. von Mueller. No. 14. 

The berry-like spongy fruit of plants found at Tweedside 
turned from pale green to dull red. I have noticed the testa 
comes off, leaving the inner membrane with ripe seeds. It may 
be at this stage the seeds adhere to the wool. Sheep are very 
fond of AtrlpUw sjwvr/iosa : Maiden, in his ' Useful Plants of Aus- 
tralia,' tells us "it is a useful salt bush for culture." It may be 
found through a great part of Central Australia, extending to the 
West Coast and also South Australia. 

Dei/euxia retrofracta (Wiild.), Druce, No. 18. 

This very conuuon, but variable Australian species is referred 
to by Maiden as Toothed Bent Grass. It produces a large 
quantity of sweet fodder in damp localities and is valuable for 
pastures. It is (>ssentiall}f a winter grass, dying out on the 
approach of summer, and is eaten w hen young. Its pointed seeds 
are very injurious to wool. It seeds in September and October. 

The reinainiug specimens exhibited are : — 

Daucws hrachiatus, Sieber. No. 4. A native of Australia. 

Erifjcron linlfoIii(S, Willd. No. 5. A native of Australia, 
South America, commoii in China and Ceylon. 

i:ienecio hrachyfjlossus, F. von Mueller. A native of Australia. 


Rumex Broivnii, Camp. No. 15. A native of Ausfralia nnd 
said to thrive in every place where sheep have been *. I have 
found it growing for three years in abundance by the banks of 
the Gala and Tweed. 

Ar/rostis lachnantha, Nees. No. 16. A native of South Africa 
and Abyssinia. 

Polypogon linearis. Triu. No. 17. A Chilian species. 

I have to accord my warmest thanks to the authorities of the 
Herbaria of Kew and the British Museum, to Mr. Gr. Claridge 
Druce, to ProF. Bayley Balfour, and Mr. James Fraser of Edin- 
burgh, for kindly helping to name and verify tliese plants. 


Reports on the luternational Congress of Bolanists, 
held at Brussels in May 1910. 

[Presented 15th December, 1910.] 

Dr. O. Stapp introduced his report on the International Botanical 
Congress, held at Brussels between May 14-22 of the present 
year, with a short account of the working programme of the 
Congress as it arose out of the decisions of the last International 
Botanical Congress which met at Vienna in 1905 and the disposi- 
tions of the Belgian Bureau. There were altogether 5 sections. 
Sections I. and II. were charged with the discussion and codifica- 
tion of the special arrangements necessary with respect to the 
nomenclature of fossil and non-vascular plants on account of 
their special nature. Tacked on to them were two propositions 
dealing with an extension of the list of ' nomina conservanda ' 
for phanerogams and vascular cryptogams, adopted at Vienna. 
Section III. was reserved to ' phytogeographical nomenclature.' 
Section IV. was to deal with bibliography and botanical documen- 
tation, and Section V. with botanical instruction. Sections I. 
and II. continued the work of the Vienna Congress in so far as it 
concerned nomenclature. Section III. was the result of the 
deliberations of a new Commission appointed by the Vienna 
Congress. The other two sections were added by the; Belgian 

The Liunean Society appointed five delegates for the Congress 
with a view to have the different departments concerned in the 
discussion on taxonomic nomenclature as far as possible repre- 
sented. The delegates were Messrs. Arber (fossil plants). Cotton 
(Alg?e, Licliens, and Fungi), Gepp (Musci and Ifepaticse), Henry 
Groves and Dr. Stapf (Phanerogams and Vascular Cryptogams, 

* Eentham, ' Florci of AuBtralia,' vol. v. p. 203. 



and Mr. 11. Groves, 1 he latter also for Characea?). Phytogeograpby 
was not taken espi-cially into account, as JMr. Tansley, the delegate 
of the CambridLje I'hilosopliical tSociety, joined Section 111. As 
to Sections IV. and V. no special steps were taken, and as their 
meetings mostly coincided in time with those of Sections I., 11., 
and Hi., the delegates of the Society did not take part iu their 

Dr. Stapf reported then especially on the decisions concerning 
the nomenclature of phanerogams and vascular cryi)togam8. A 
number of propositions of a general character, and insofar touch- 
ing the nomenclature of phanerogams and vascular cryptogams, 
had been submitted to the Permanent Bureau on Nomenclature, 
but they were automatically cut out by the decision of the Bureau 
not to reopen the discussion on poiuts decided at Vienna. Thus 
the only serious subject to decide upon was the question whether 
and to what extent the list of ' nomina conservanda ' was to be 
added to. There were two lists of addenda proposed — one of 
phanerogamic genera, the other of fern genera and fern allies. 
The object of their promoters was to restrict as far as possible 
the replacement of well-known and generally used names by 
obscure ones ou the ground of the strict application of the rule of 
priority. As iu certain cases the changes had already been made 
since 1905 and they had found their way into floras and text- 
books, a compromise was accepted by which those changes were 
recognised, but further changes barred by putting a considerable 
number of threatened genera ou the list of ' nomina conservanda.^ 
Among the names thus saved were, for instance, Fersea and Ter- 
miiialia, genera including a great many species, and Wehviischia 
and Selaghiella. 

Mr. Henet Groves followed with some remarks on the question 
of taxonomy as affecting local floras, and the fact tliat little had 
to be altered in Characea). He also paid a wiirm tribute to the 
masterly manner in which Dr. Briquet discharged his duties as 
* Eapporteur gene'ral.' 

Mr. A. Gepp reported thus : — 

In contributing to tlie report ou the International Congress of 
Botanists at Brussels, I l)eg to express my thanks to the Society 
for the honour they conferred upon me by including me among 
their delegates. The Congress was attended by many distin- 
guished botanists, whom it was a pleasure to see, and whom 
otherwise one might never come across. 

The work of the Congress covered a very wide field, but owing 
to the thorough carefuhiess with which the matters for discussion 
had been sifted and prepared beforehand by the permanent Com- 
mittee, and to the diligence and determination of the honorary 
presidents, vice-presidents, and secretaries, the agenda were 
carried through and settled point by point with business-like 
celerity at the meetings. 


Tliough interested in the welfare of the Cryptogams as a whole, 
I was specially interested in the nomenclature of the Algfe, Mosses, 
Hepatics, and Ferns. The points to be settled by tlie Congress 
were these : — Whether the noniencLature of the Cellnlnr Crypto- 
gams would start from Liniiajus's ' Species Plantarum,' Edition I. 
(1753), thus bricging them into line with tlie Vascular Plants, 
which occupied the attention of the Vienna Congress in 1905 ; or 
whetlier the various groups of Cryptogams should have separate 
starting-points of later date. In the event it was decided that 
some of the groups should date from Linnteus's ' Species Plant- 
arum ' (1753), viz. : — Myxomycetes, Licheues, ITepatica-, Sphng- 
nacete, and the main group of tlie Alga?. On the other hand, the 
Pungi are to start partly from Pries's ' Systema Mycologicum ' 
(1821-32), and partly "from Persoon's 'Synopsis Pungorum ' 
(1801). The remainder of the Algce, broken up into small groups, 
are to start from various dates, and some are left over for con- 
sideration at the next Congress (London, 1915). The Mosses 
(Musci veri) are to date from Hedwig's ' Species Muscorum ' 

The reason for selecting works of post-Linnean date as starting- 
points for some of the groups of Cryptogams is that there is 
considerable doubt as to what plants Linnaeus meant by the names 
and descriptions in his ' Species Plantarum.' It sometimes happens, 
for instance, that his description represents one species, while the 
plate cited figures another species, and the specimen found in his 
herbarium is a third and different species. 

It was to avoid basing the Mosses upon such uncertain types 
that the proposal was made to select Hedwig's ' Species Mus- 
corum ' (1801) as starting-point for the Musci veri. Por Hedwig 
was the first to discern generic values and relationships among 
the Mosses, and to investigate and figure their morphology with 
a microscope (a primitive one though it was). His ' Species 
Muscorum ' is an epitome of his previous works ; and his type- 
specimens are still in existence. 

Similarly, it would have been v^ell to make the Hepaticse and 
Lichenes start, not from Linna^us's 'Species Plantarum ' (1753), 
where, indeed, they are included under the Algte, but from the 
works of some post-Linnean specialists. For instance. Sir 
William J.Hooker's 'British Jungermannise ' (1812-16) is the 
real starting-point of hepaticology, and only fails to qualify through 
not treating of the Marchantiacea), Ricciacea?, Anthocerotaceao. 
And for the Lichenes the book that suggests itself is Acharius's 
' Lichenographia Universalis ' (1810). The types of these two 
authors are either in existence or for the most part are compre- 
hensible. But in the absence of any definite proposal, the 
Congress could hardly do otherwise than leave the Hepaticae and 
Lichenes on the Linnean starting-line. In the case of the Alga), 
the proposals for giving the main group a less antiquated starting- 
point were defeated. 

However, the actual starting-point may perhaps not be of vital 


importance ; for the Congress made the wise provision of appoint- 
ing for each group of Cryptogams a special Committee, whose 
duty it is to prepare and consider hsts of ^ nomhm conservanda^ to 
be suhmitted to the next Congress (London, lUJS). This should 
put the nomenclature of the various groups upon a satisfactory 
and stahle hagis, and will give an opportunity for eliminating 
undesirable factors, as, for example, the name JumjeniHinniu, 
\\ iiich in Linnieus's ' Species Planlarum ' represents, not a genus, 
but a whole family of heterogeneous genera. JuiKjermannia can 
be discarded, just as Lichen, as a genus-name, has been long 
discarded by universal consent. 

A word now as to the Ferns and Fern-allies. These, as decided 
at the Vienna Congress (19U5), start from Linnaeus's ' .Species 
Plantarum.' An attempt was made at the recent Brussels 
Congress to establish a list of ' nomina conservanda ' for some 
twelve genera of ferns which otherwise will pass out of use : 
the most interesting of these are Kephrodium and Selajjlnella. 
The proposal was, however, rejected by a strong opposition on the 
plea of practical convenience ; for a complete and appropriate 
scheme of fern-nomenclature has been carefully elaborated by 
Christensen in his 'Index Filicum ' (1905-6), a book that is 
evervw here accepted and is in full accord with the laws of priority. 
Let it be the standard, and there will be no more wrangling over 
fern-names. It should be added, however, that the Congress 
decided to maintain the name Selaginella in place of Stachij- 
(/i/nandrum and other earlier synonyms. Further, it is interesting 
to note about Nephrodlum, that upon its acceptance or rejection 
depeiided the fate of some 800 species. These have now been 
transferred by Christensen and others \o Drijopteris,^ genus which 
however does not deserve its position. For recently it has been 
pointed out by Niewland in the ' American Midland Naturalist ' 
that Schmidel in his ' Icones Plantarum ' employed the name 
Thdifpteris for the same group of ferns a year before Adanson 
proposed Dryopieris, and that Schmidel has given in illustration 
an unmistakable figure of the Marsh-fern (Xejjhrodium TheUjpteris). 
It would appear, then, that the 800 species will now have to be 
transferred to Thelypttris, unless Dnjopteris should be put among 
the ' genera conservanda.' 

Mr. A. D. Cotton then explained that the following dates were 
adopted as the starting-points for the nomenclature of the Cellular 
Cryptogams : — 


Linnjeus, Species Plantarum, 1753 ; with the following excep- 
tions : — 

Desmidiacea?. Ealfs, British Desmidiacea?, 1848. 
Oedogoniacea;. llirn, Monographic der Oedogoniaceen, 


Cyanophyceae. Bornet & Flahault, Revision des Nosto- 
cacees heterocystees, 1880-S ; and Gomont, Monograpliie 
des Oscillariees (Nostocacees homocystees), 1892-3. 
Diatomacea?, Chroococcaceae, and Flagellatea) were postponed 
till the next Congress. 


Fries, Systema Mycologicuui, 1821-1832 ; with the followiug 
exceptions : — 

Uredineie, Ustilagineae, and Gasteromycetes, which start 
from Persoon, Synopsis Fungorum, 1801. 

Linnteus, Species Plautaruin, 1753. 


Linnaeus, Species Plantarum, 1753. 

Committees were appointed to prepare lists of ' genera conser- 
vanda ' for the AlgcB, Fungi, and Lichens. 

For Fungi with a pleomorphic life-cycle, it was decided to 
adopt the oldest name applied to the perfect stage of the fungus, 
provided that in other respects it conform to the rules. 

Mr. E. A. N. AiiBEE not being present, and no delegate having 
been present at the Section on Pliytogeographical Nomenclature 
(admirably summarised in the ' New Phytologist,' ix. uos. 6 & 7, 
pp. 2G0-262), Dr. Stapf resumed his address, stating that: — 

The propositions concerning fossil plants led in one particular 
point to a somewhat lively discussion. This was with respect to 
the admission of diagnoses or descriptions not in Latin, but in 
one of the four modern tongues, Euglish, French, German, or 
Italian. It was in the end decided that descriptions of fossil 
plants might be in a modern language, but they should always be 
accompanied by a Latin diagnosis. As starting-point Linuseus's 
' Species Plantarum,' 1753, was adopted for fossil plants; but in 
order to reduce the changes arising from that rule to a minimum, 
a list of ' nomina conservanda ' will have to be drawn up, including 
generic names of living plants which otherwise — as, for instance, 
BucJdandia — would have to give way to old generic names of 
fossil plants, and generic names of fossil plants which are homo- 
nyms of synonyms of recent plants. 



2nd February, 1911. 


Tub General Secretary, Dr. B. Daydon Jackson, gave tlie 
following history of the portrait of Carl von Liiino painted by 
Alexander Ivoslin, with s^jine further remarks ou the Laplaud 
drum in the ilolfman portrait. 

lie pointed out that there are three portraits of the great Swede 
known to be painted by lloslin, two of them busts and one a 
tliree-quarter length. They have been termed by Prof. Tycho 
Tullberg, the icouogi'apher of Linne, (1) the Stockholm, (ii) the 
Grij)sholm, and (3) the Versailles portraits ; nos. 1 and 2 re- 
epeetively form plates 13 and 12 of TuUberg's ' Linneportratt ' 
ajid are excellently reproduced ; no. 3 in the same work is a half- 
tone reproduction which leaves much to be desired. He had, 
therefore, after much trouble and delay succeeded in getting afresli 
photograph taken (Plate), and accompanied it with the following 
acco\uit of its origin, so far as now ascertainable. 

Linne in his 'Egenh. Auteck.' p. 08, says: — " llerr Eoslin who 
takes lUOO plutar (about <£165) of others, is doing Linne's portrait 
gratis and so excellently that nothing can be more like ; all the 
others are somewhat unlike." In a letter to his intimate friend 
Biick at Stockholm, Linne says: — "Will my brother [i.e. Biick] 
should he meet liosliu, who has not his equal in the world, be so 
good as to ask when I should come? Think how extremely 
generous he was to promise to paint my head gratis, though he 
charges from 7000 to SOOO dalers (about £100 to £182) for each 
portrait, and that he promised me the first time I had the fortune 
to meet him. God grant that he may not repent. It would be a 
reason for me once more during life to see Stockholm." This letter 
is undated, but Prof. Fries states it was certainly written in 
November 1774 (see Bref och Skrifv. v. p. 222). In a later letter, 
ot" the 18th November, he continues, " My colleagues want to have 
me with them in Stockliolm, when they will present the first book 
t)f their Bible version, but lectures, presidency, cold winds, and old 
age prevent me, though I should like to come, if Eoslin the great 
portrait jiainter has time to do me the I'avour be has so kindly 
jiromised" (lb. p. 223); and four days later, "If I keep well, 1 
will come to Stockholm to enjoy the signal and valuable favour 
our great lloslin offered me so innocently " (lb. p. 22-1). 

It is certain that Linne journeyed to Stockholm, probably a 
few months later, in 1775, when the portrait was painted. Which 
of the three portraits specified above veas the original is not easy 
to decide, for Koslin took it with him to Paris. At the beginning 
he evidently did not contemplate this, but on so deciding 
he applied to the secretary of the Royal Academy of Science, 
P. Wargontin, who seems to have taken Linne's opinion upon the 

Proc. Linn. Soc, 1910-1911. 

Plate {to face p. 56). 




project, for Linne replies to "SVargentin, 17th Sept., 1775 : 
" Tbrough my being at llammarby 1 only received the post to- 
day, ilerr Eoslin has done the portrait gratis, so that he was at 
liberty to dispose of it, even without my wish, but he has thereby 
done me double favour, for it was only painted for posterity, and 
can never be better copied than in Paris ; give him my respectful 
thanks, if he is still [in Stockholm] and say that 1 am doubly 
indebted to him." This letter shows that the reason why Eoslin 
wanted to carry off the portrait, was to copy it in Paris, where he 
was permanently settled. 

It is perfectly certain that the portrait which now belongs 
to the Versailles gallery was painted complete in Sweden, for it 
was very accurately copied by Lorenz Pasch the younger ; and as 
he seems never to have left Sweden after his return from abroad 
in 1766, the copy must have been made in that country, so that 
lloslin's original must have been then complete. 

Nothing more was heard about the portrait till after Linne's 
death early in 1778, and the news seems to have stirred Eoslin up 
to carry out his promise to give a copy to the family of Liiine 
and to the Eoyal Academy of Science. In September of that year, 
the Academy debated upon some talk which the painter had with 
some of the membei's, that he was to get one of the most skilful 
of the Paris engravers to engrave the portrait of his fellow- 
countryman which he had painted. It was to cost 1000 livres 
(£'39 15s. Od.), and Eoslin asked whether the Academy would pay 
this on condition of receiving the plate and the whole of the 
impression, which it was thought would readily sell, and be eagerly 
sought after by the whole of the learned world, so that not only 
would the outlay be recouped, but that the Academy would benefit. 
The Academy took this view gladly and gave instructions to the 
Secretary accordingly. A letter of the 12th May, 1779, fronx 
Eoslin was read in the meeting of the 2nd June, in which he 
stated, that the copper was now ready with 500 copies printed, and 
150 of these were sent by Herr Sergei [the Swedish sculptor]. The 
remainder might be sold in Paris and elsewhere for 2 livres 
( = ls. "d.) apiece. Besides the cost of the plate, 80 livres [=<£8] 
had been spent for paper and printing. " The actual portrait 
which Herr Eoslin made for himself, he offers to present to the 
Academy. All this delighted the Academy, but the determination 
as to the disposal of the 150 copies was postponed, till they should 
arrive." In a letter to the younger Linne dated 19th July, 1779, 
AVargentin says : — " Of the late Hr. Archiater's portrait engraved 
on copper, 150 copies have come. It is extraordinarily beautiful, and 
like, although the Archiater is represented younger and plumper 
than he was during the last years. It has cost the Academy 
3600 dalers in copper (about <£83)." This refers to Bervic's 
engraving, a copy of which was shown at the meeting held on the 
21st July : "All present found it extremely well done, but were 
of various opinions as to the more or less likeness to our lamented 
Linne. The Academy decided to present copies to the widow and 


son, ITr. "Biick and Hr. Sergei, Init that the rest should be sold to 
the member.s iiiul otliers at hull' a Kiksdaler apiece (about 2.s. '3(1.)." 
On the same occasion a letter from Jiosliii was read, in w Inch lie 
oiTered the portrait it selt'. "The Secretary received instructions 
to thank him in the choicest language for this offer, which had 
been received by the Academy with the greatest pleasure." 

As soon as the younger Linne received the print, he wrote to 
Wargentin: — "1 thank you most obediently for the specimen of 
my late father's portrait, of which I have given my mother hers. 
It is extremely beautiful and well engraved ; it is a pity that it 
appears so tilled out, otherwise it would probably have been 
more like. Each time I look at it, at the first moment it seems 
wholly like, but that disappears directly I look longer at it. What 
about the Eoslin portrait? Can it be got back? It would be 
most suitable if it were in the same building [the University] 
where both the Rudbec-ks were formerly." 

"When this was written the writer was probably unaware that a 
canvas had already been given to the Academy, and the picture he 
asked about was that which Roslin took with him to Paris. In a 
later letter, also to AVargentin, he says : — " That my late father's 
])ortrait has been given by Eoslin to the Eoyal Academy, I can 
never say anv thing against, but am thereat extremely pleased." 
¥rom this it would seem that the younger Linne, when he heard that 
Roslin had presented a portrait to the Academy, and when he did 
not get back that which Eoslin carried ofP, thought the latter should 
haTig in the University, for he could not object to another portrait 
being given to the Academy, of which, it must be remembered, 
Linne was one of the founders, its first president, and for 20 3'ears 
its secretary. 

As regards the three Eoslin canvases. Prof. Tullberg comes to 
the following conclusion : — Eoslin offered Linne when he met him 
to paint his portrait gratuitously for his own sake, possibly also 
with an idea of painting a replica to exhibit in Paris. He then 
painted the three-quarter length, which Linne saw and admired. 
Afterwards the idea just alluded to took a more detinite shape, and 
as during his visit to Sweden he was unable to make the copy, he 
took it with him to Paris after getting Linno's permission, 'i'here 
it remained and nothing was done, and only after Linne's death 
in January 3 778, did he begin to think about it. Eoslin therefore 
did not trouble to paint a complete replica, but kept the original 
and pleased himself by painting a head-aud-shoulders, which he 
suggested to the E. Academy should be engraved, a suggestion 
gladly received. It was this which he gave to the Academy ; the 
latter, knowing that Eoslin had promised the portrait to Lijinc, 
asked his son if he had any objection to the Academy accepting it, 
upon which he replied, that he " was very pleased therewith." 
Eoslin, however, considered he was bound to carry out the promise 
made to Linne, and therefore painted the '' Gripsholm " portrait for 
the family. It belonged to them until it was bought by Gustaf II L 
and placed in the palace of Gripsholm, but when, it is uncertain, 


though it must have been before 1792, when he was assassinated 
by Aukarstrom. It cannot be maiutained that this is a mere copy 
of the upper part of the Versailles' portrait, for the position of the 
shoulders varies, the coat is of velvet, not silk, the necktie has 
another form, and a spray of Linncea is placed in the button-hole, 
instead of the hand, which does not appear in the smaller canvas. 
In general the latter agrees with the Stockholm portrait : it seems 
probable that the (iripsholm portrait was painted first, possibly as 
a sketch ; it might have been done in Sweden, or after the painter's 
return to Paris. 

It may therefore be assumed that the "Versailles portrait was 
painted in Sweden, and is the original picture ; it was copied by 
Pasch very soon afterwards, and disappeared from sight after 
being exhibited at the Salon, till its reappearance fifty years ago. 
It is possible that the Gripsholm portrait was painted also iu 
Sweden, but the Stockholm picture must certaiidy have been 
produced in Paris at a later period. 

As the Versailles portrait is practically unknown in this country, 
tVie following details are taken from Prof. Tullberg's volume. It 
was shown at the Salon in Paris in 1770, and came by purchase to 
A'er.sailles before 18G1, and is numbered 4514. It has suffered 
bad treatment, and was restored some years since. "When it was 
being cleaned, it was discovered that the painting bore traces of 
the cross of the Polar Star, which had previously escaped notice, 
and since then it has been very unhappdy painted in, the crown 
being omitted, and the cross placed flat on the ribbon, instead of 
the true method of suspension. This explains why, in a series of 
photographs issued in 1897, the decoration is wanting ; but it was 
l)resent in 1906, as shown in a later photograph possessed by 
Prof. Tuliberg. 

The account given by Dr. "W. Carruthers in our ' Proceedings,' 
1905-6, pp. 67-68, set out the facts then available regarding the 
Pasch copy, but more recent information has rendered that 
account somewhat incorrect, as may be inferred from the foregoing 
narrative. It may be restated thus : — 

Uno von Troil (1746-1803) was the son of an archbishop of 
Upsala, who, alter taking his degree as Fhilosophue Maltster, went 
on a foreign tour, during which he accompanied Sir Joseph Banks 
and Dr. Solander to Iceland, iu 1770, and on his return to Sweden 
published his ' Bref rcirande en resa till Island,' which aroused 
great attention. He met Eoslin in Paris in 1771, and was there- 
fore an acquaintance of the painter when he revisited his native 
country in 1774-5. Von Troil became a court-chaplain in 1775, 
and it seems practically certain that lie then induced Eoslin to 
allow Pasch to make a copy of what we have termed the Versailles 
portrait as a present to Sir Joseph Banks. It remained iu Banks's 
possession till his death in 1820, when it passeil to Eobert Brown, 
under the proviso of Banks's will, that the household furniture in 
the Soho Sqtiare establishment should pass to Brown, upon Lady 
Banks ceasing to reside there after her husband's death. Brown 



was President of the Liimean Society from 1S49 to 1853, and upon 
his retiring from the Cliair, he presented the Pusch copy of tlie 
Liunean portrait to the Society, 


Tn the second and more detaihxl account f>iven by !Mr. (now Dr.) 
AVilliam Carruthers* of tlie various portraits known of Linne, lie 
lias recorded his belief that the frontispiece to the ' Flora 
hipponiea' represents the autlior himself, with a Lapland drinn on 
his knees, which, it is suggested, is a press for drying plants (Proc. 
1905-6, p. 60). I am myself forced to regard the whole frontis- 
piece as representing the country and its inliahitants, some of the 
objects as drawn by Linne, others, such as the mountains, as imaginetl 
by the Dutch artist. The figure in the foreground is a Lapp in 
front of liis tent, with the magic drum on his knees, some small 
stones on the stretched skin, and a forked instrument to set tlie 
membrane in vibration and cause the stones to move on to certain 
representations of deities and objects of every-day life, by which 
the future might be forecast. These drums were formerly common 
amongst the Lapps, but the Swedish missionaries discouraged 
their preservation as savouring of superstition, and large numbers 
were destroyed. The ultimate fate of Linne's specimen seems 
unknown ; he had it with him in Amsterdam, when the full- 
length canvas was painted by M. Hoffman. 

Prof. Tullberg, on the authority of Prof. K. B. Wiklund, has 
given in his 'Linneportratt/ p. 92, the following explanation of 
the designs drawn upon the drum in the lloli'man portrait, as also 
the text-ligure here reproduced, slightly reduced in size. The 

drum consisted of an oval frame of wood over w hich was stretched 
a skin, upon which many figures were drawn ; it was used by the 
Lapps to search out hidden matters, which was done by placing 
stones or other small objects on tlie drum-skin, which was then 
thrown into vibration by means of a fork-like instrument, which 

* Troc. Liiiu. Soc. IttUo-G, p. 60. 


was called the hammer. Naturally the objects on the membrane 
changed places on the skin, and by their incidence upon the 
respective figures, the future «as foretold. The figures on the 
drum are thus identified : — 

1. The sun with its beams in four directions, 2. Eeindeer 
paddock (?), 3. Lapp tent, 4. Reindeer, 5-8. Deities, 9. The 
sacrifice, 10. Boat, 11. Reindeer, 12. Road to peasant's cottage, 
13-15. Lapp divinities or uorns. 16. Road with 4 human 
figures, 17. Reindeer enclosure (?), 18. The kingdom of the 
dead, 19. Magician with drum. 

The remainder of the picture shows other Lapps hunting, 
boating, driving in reindeer sleighs, with the sun in its course 
visible throughout the entire twenty-four hours, and apparently 
about 3 A.M. judging from its ])osition, a Lapp storehouse on poles, 
and sundry other indications of their wandering life. 


March 2, 16, and May 4, 1911. 

The terms Poltzoa and Bryozoa. 


The Rev. T. R. R. Stebbing made the following remarks : — 
Like tlie suit of Jarndyce v. Jarndyce, the conti-oversy between 
the terms Polyzoa and Bryozoa seems almost interminable. An 
attempt to settle it ought to be welcome. For this purpose it is 
desirable to confront the arguments on each side. 

Tlie late Mr. Busk, in his monograph of the Crag Polyzoa, 1859, 
after mentioning that Milue-Edwards had proposed to distinguieh 
this group from the hydroid polyps by the name of ' Polypes 
tuuiciers,' goes on to say: — "Another independent observer, how- 
ever, Dr. John Y. Thompson, of Cork, was also at work on the same 
vsubject, the results of wliose researches, apparently commenced in 
1S20, were not published till December 1830, in the first part of his 
' Zoological Researches and Illustrations.' He, like M. Milne- 
Edwards, recognising the close atPinities presented in the structui'o 
of the animals to that of tlie compound Ascidians, was the first to 
propose for them an nppellation wholly independent of their former 
incongruous allies, the hydroid ' Polypes.' The term he emj)l()yed 
was ' Polyzoa,' it ' being applied,' as he says, ' to a distinct class of 
Polypes hitherto in great measure confounded with the llvdroida.' 
But it is to be remarked that he used the word in the singular 
number, so that the plural term, ' Polyzoa,' as now employed, though 
etymologically more correct, is not in reality synonymous with that 
of Dr. J. Y. Thompson. This fact, which appears to have been 
strangely overlooked till 1852, may fairly enough be used as an 
argument in their favour by those who are inclined to prefer the 
Ehrenbergian term 'Bryozoa.' But as this preference, which is still 
extensively prevalent, more especially on the Continent, is based 
simply on thesupposed priorily of Profesfor Ehreuberg's appellation, 


a cliiim which has been shown to be wholly untenable, it is scarcely 
likelv that liritish iiiituralists will refuse the honour justly clue to 
Dr. .1. V. Thoni])son, for what can scarcely perhaps be regarded as a 
sudu'ient reason." 

In a footnote Busk refers to his own article " On the Priority of 
the Term ' Polyzoa ' for the Ascidian Polypes " (Ann. Nat. Hist. 
2iid series, vol. x. p. 352, 1852). He there convincingly shows that 
Deci'inber 1830 (date of Polyzoa) is earlier than March 1831 (first 
nieTitionof Bryozoa). But he is apparently unaware how the import- 
ance of this undeniable fact is undermined by other considerations. 

J. Vaughan Thompson was a man of renown who dimmed the 
lustre of his researches by his confused manner of expounding them. 
The fifth memoir of his ' Zoological Eesearches,' which is here in 
question, is entitled " On Polyzoa, a new animal discovered as an 
inhabitant of some Zoophites, with a description of the newly 
instituted Genera of PediceUaria and Vesicularia." 

At p. 94, Thompson says : — " This new animal, the Polyzoa, was 
subsequently found in Sertidaria Cuscuta, Sjnnosa, and Pustidosa." 

At p. 90, he says : — " The discovery of the Polyzoa was made in 
the summer of 1820; during the subsequent and following seasons, 
an exactly similar structure was noticed in the other species above 
enumerated, and in a new type which perhaps merits to be distin- 
guished as a separate genus, under the title of PediceUaria." 

It thus appears that Polyzoa and Bryozoa are not really com- 
parable, the latter being of ordinal and the former of generic value. 
Now, according to Scudder's 'Nomenclator Zoologicns,' Polyzoa was 
instituted by Lesson as amolluscan genus inl830,while,accordingto 
Cuvier's ' Kegne Animal,' vol. iii. p. 385 (1830), Lesson's ' J\Lanuel 
de rilist. des Mollusques ' was in fact published in 1829, so that 
Thompson's Polyzoa, published in December 1830, was void by 

Note on J. V. Thompson's use of the term " Polyzoa." 
By Prof. W. A. Hebdman, F.R.S., F.L.S. 

I HAVE read with much interest the report of the remarks made 
by the Kev, T. R. R. Stebbing, at the last meeting of the Society, 
in regard to the use of the term " Polyzoa " in the title of one of 
the papers then communicated to the meeting. There are several 
distinct points that can be raised in the controversy as to the use 
of the terms "Bryozoa" and "Polyzoa." The only one that I 
desire to remark upon now is Mr. Srebbing's contention that 
Dr. J. Vaughan Thompson, in his publication of December, 1830, 
intended to use the term "Polyzoa" as a generic title, and that 
as such the name was pre-occupied by Lesson's institution of a 
Molluscan genus in 1829. I am sorry that an examination of 
,T. V. Thompson's 5th Memoir, in the 4th part of his 'Zoological 
Researches and Illustrations,' leaves me unable to agree with 
Mr. Stebbing that Tliompson used "Polyzoa" as a generic name. 
Several passages in the memoir seem to me to show clearly that 


the author was arguing that sets of species included under several 
different genera, and even distinct families, had the structure 
which he was describing under the term" Polyzoa" and, therefore, 
ought to be removed from the groups with which they had 
previously been associated. For example, after saying that some 
of the Sertularian Zoophytes would require to be so removed, 
" as well as such other genera [italics mine] as may hereafter be 
found similarly circumstanced," he goes on (Mem. 5, p. 92) to 
say : — " 1 shall merely indicate here in a general way the whole of 
the Flustraceae, in many of which I have clearly ascertained tlie 
.animals to be Polyzose." Surely this indicates that he recognised 
that whole families and genera \\ould find their proper places in his 
new group ? 

Then again, on page 97, he refers some of the species of 
*' Sertularia " (which, by the way, from another passage he 
evidently regards as a "Family"), in which he has found the 
animals to be Polyzoa, " to one genus " ; but that does not mean one 
genus " Polyzoa," for, a few lines below, he proposes the name 
" Yesieularia " for this genus, showing clearly that he did not 
regard his term "Polyzoa" as a generic title, and that Vesicularia 
was only one set of species in the larger assemblage Polyzoa 
which he was creating. Thompson was in the habit of printing a 
generic name at the foot of each of his plates — such as Nebalia, 
Noctihica, etc., in previous Parts of his 'Zoological Eesearches,' 
—and below the plates of this "Polyzoa" memoir we find the 
name " Vesicularia," as one would expect from the text. It is 
clear then, on all these grounds, that he did not regard " Polyzoa" 
as a genus. 

Finally, in the last paragraph of this paper (p. 100) he says : — 
"Time and more accurate observations will no doubt add many 
more species to the above genera, etc." That is, genera of which 
he had demonstrated the Polyzoon structure or nature. It is 
therefore obvious that he could not and did not regard the whole 
assemblage of such genera as one genus to which he was applying 
the term " Polyzoa," as Mr. Stebbing would apparently have us 

In short, I consider that John Vaughan Thompson knew what 
he was about, and that although in places his language is a little 
quaint his meaning is clear : that he was the first to recognise the 
essential points in Polyzoon structure, as seen, for example, in 
the genus Vesicularia, or in the larger group " Flustracea," and 
that he described and figured these adequately in December, 18,'30, 
in a memoir entitled " On Polyzoa," etc. The very title of his 
memoir shows that he did not [)ut Polyzoa forward as the name 
of a genus, since it cites PedircUaria and Vesicidaria as the two 
new genera he is placing in the larger group Polyzoa. Is that 
clear recognition and demonstration of a group of allied genera 
collectively named " Polyzoa " invalidated by the fact that Lesson 
a few months before applied the term Polyzoa to a genus of 
Tunicata ? 

March lltli, 1911. W. A. IIeUDMAN. 


On Jonx VxconAN TnoMrsox and liis Polyioa, and on Vaun- 
thonipsonia, a genus of Sympoda. By the Rev. T. li. li. 
iSiJiuuiNG, M.A., IMl.S., F.L.S. 

John Vaughan TuowrsoN was born in 1779 and died in 1847. 
The Ijiniean Society with prophetic instinct elected him a Fellow 
on Fehniary Cth, 1810. It would be an honourable thinj^ to 
romniemorate that centenary by a re-issue of his writing*, which 
are small in compass, dilliiMilt to obtain, but of great historic 
interest and value. In 1830 he made a pathetic appeal to the 
scientific world to furnish liim with a hundred and iifty .subscribers, 
as (lis private income would no longer bear the sacrifice till then 
entailed by the publication of his reseiirches. lie had good reason 
to be proud of his " discoveries," though he may not have been 
the first to make them. That is the lot of all discoverers, as 
CoUimbus, for example, in finding the New World found it already 
peopled by men who had known it before he was born. None the 
less, Vaughan Thompson was a foremost leader in proving that 
cirripedes ( Thyrostraca) are crustaceans and that crustaceans as a 
rule pass through metamorphic stages, lie was also undeniably 
in the vanguard of those who proved that the term Zoophytes had 
been used to cover a mixture of animals superficially alike but 
essentially different in structure. 

In regard to this latter part of his investigations, a curious 
terminological dispute or difference of usage has arisen. While 
practically all Contiiiental and American writers speak of a class 
Bryozoa, a very distinguished section of British experts apply 
the name Polyzoa to a class identically the same. Possibly the 
arguments in favour of either term may be so evenly balanced that 
after discussion we shall leave off where we began, each side 
thinking that it has had the better in the controversy and applying 
to those of the opposite opinion the French proverb " Chacuii a 
son gont,"or,as sometimes amplified, "Chaeun a son vilain gout."' 

On the one hand, then, it may be urged that no confusion can 
arise from the retention uf both the terms. They have become 
perfectly familiar as equivalents. Some writers even head their 
treatises " Bryozoa or Polyzoa," as though it were a matter of 
complete indifference, and perhaps wishing to insinuate to the 
disputants " a plague on both your houses." Further, it is clear 
that the names of classes and orders have never been subject to 
80 strict a discipline as the names of genera and species, probably 
because, while the limits of the higher divisions remained 
essentially unstable, fixity in their designation has been felt to be 
inconvenient or unreasonable. In fact, as Lord WaUingham has 
urged in the introduction to his Merton Code, the moral law, the 
law of giving every man his due, is the strongest foundation on 
which any precise methods can be based. 

Again, it may be argued that any defect in the form of 


Thompson's term Polyzoa is venial, considering the date of its 
publication. Thus in 1814 Leach named an order Podosoma, 
which in 1816 he silently corrected into a proper plural Podoso- 
mata. In 1843 the French author Rene Primevcre Lesson 
recalls the family Plethosoma which he had established in 1828, in 
order at the later date to make of it a tribe, with the name 
unaltered, and including in it a genus also named PUthosoma. 

It will be no breach of confidence, I think, to quote the 
unpublished words of a leading authority on this subject, who 
writes to me as follows : " I base my action on two considerations : 
(1) That Thompson was the first to recognize the Polyzoa as a 
distinct type of structure in the Animal Kingdom ; aud, moreover, 
introduced a name that can quite fairly be used as that of the 
Class or Phylum. (2) That a large proportion of the w^ork that 
has been done on the group has been done by men who have 
consistently spoken of these animals as the Polyzoa. I need only 
mention Busk, Allmau, Hincks, Norman, aud perhaps Hyatt in 

As a matter of fact, it was appnrently Dr. Gray m 1840 who 
first gave currency to Polvzoa (in the plural) as the rrame of an 
extensive animal group, while Busk by his arguments in 1852 and 
1859 procured for it vogue among his English followers. It may 
just possibly be contended that Thompson himself used Polyzoa in 
the plural number, since on page 02 of his Memoirs he says : " The 
Polyzoa will probably be found in many dissimilar Genera of the 
Zoophites, and even"mixed up with Hydra in some, as they appear 
to be in the 8ertularia of authors." It should suffice to say that 
the very paragraph in which this ambiguous " they " occurs ends 
with the genuine plural Polyzoae. But yet again on page 96 we 
read " the Polyzoa however are essentially difl:erent.-"' That this 
is merely a slip of the pen or a printer's error seems absolutely 
certain, since we have Polyzose on page 97 and on page 99, and the 
Introductory Address, incorporated in Vol. I. of the Eesearches, 
promises a future article on " Animals of some Cellariae, Tubuli- 
poroi and Plustracise, proved to be Polyzose." 

That Thompson's use of the word Polyzoa antedates Ehren- 
berg's introduction of the name Bryozoa cannot be denied. 

Whether these various considerations, or any others which I 
have failed to discover, justify our eminent English authorities in 
their usage of the term Polyzoa, is a question now to be presented 
from an opposite point of view. 

Strangely enough the first witness to be called is Busk, the very 
fons et ori>/o mali, as evidence himself against himself. Speaking 
of Vaughan Thompson, he says, " It is to be remarked that he 
used the word in the singular number, so that the plural term 
' Polyzoa,' as now employed, though etymologically more correct 
is not in reality synonymous with that of Dr. J. V. Thompson." 
And he adds that' this fact " may fairly enough be used as an 
argument in their favour by those who are inclined to prefer the 



Elireiihergian term Bryozoa." Wliat ainazinp; candour on the 
part of an advocate for the use of one term, when he dedares that 
fair arj^iiment is in favour of our usitip; the other. Here, too, it 
should be remembered tliat Busk's action had to be judged by 
itself at the time when it was taken. It could not rely on a long 
list oi famous experts in IBoii. Allman and Hincks, Norman and 
IlarnuT, llerdinan and Gardiner, JS'icholls and Thornely, Kirk- 
l)atrick and Annandale, had not yet either written on tlie subject 
or expressed any opinion on its proper title. 

Observe, further, that Busk's article in the ' Annals ' of 1852 
is " On the Priority of the Term ' Polyzoa ' for the Ascidian 
Polypes." As a very imperfectly informed amateur on this branch 
of zoologv, I venture to ask the learned disciples of Busk whether 
the animals which they call Polyzoa are Ascidians. They will in 
their answer no doubt give aw-ay their tutelary genius. But Busk 
himself would probably have paused in upholding what he 
supposed to be Thompson's claim, had he been conscious of the 
fact that, prior to the publication of Thompson's memoir, 11. P. 
Lesson, in the 'Voyage de la Coquille ' (vol. ii. p. 437), had 
already used Pohizoa in the singular number for a genus of 
compound ascidians. He would probably have thought it quite 
inexpedient to have a word, undistinguishable in sound and 
spelling from that generic name, as appellation of a much higher 

Here it is right to confess that Lesson's ' Manuel de I'histoire 
des JNIollusques,' to which I referred in the Linuean circular for 
2nd March, 1911, has not proved to be procurable either in 
Prance or England. But the same Lesson in his ' Histoire 
iiaturelle des Zoophytes,' p. 6G, 1843, declares that his con- 
tribution to the zoology of ' La Coquille ' was "tire a part et mis 
en commerce " in 1829. The priority, therefore, of Lesson's 
Polyzoa over Thompson's caii scarcely be disputed. "Whether in 
Zoology it is desirable, allowable, or in accordance with any good 
])recedent, that a name previously adopted for a genus should be 
iudependently repeated as the name of a class or phylum, it would 
he presumptuous in me to decide. Branchiopoda, I admit, has 
been sometimes retained for an Entomostracan order, very likely 
from ignorance of its earlier employment as a generic name by 
Lamarck in 1801. 

But surely no rare exception, if any valid one can be found, 
ou' ht to be followed in the present instance, for w hy should a 
claim be asserted for Thompson w hich he never made for liimself ? 
Some stress has been laid on the words which he uses in regard to 
his Polyzoa (p. 92), that " this discovery must be the cause of 
extensive alterations and dismemberments in the Class with which 
they have hithei'to been associated." But in the very same 
paragraph he inunediately proceeds, not to establish a new Class, 
but simply to transfer all such species and genera as contain liis 
" new animal " from the class Zoophytes to the class Mollusca 
acepliala, adding, " I sliall merely indicate here in a general way 


the whole of the Flustracese, in many of which I have clearly 
ascertained the animals to be Polyzote." 

Now, in regard to that last remark, without casting the 
slightest imputation on Thompson's originality, one must again 
appeal to Busk, who, publishing in 1859, says : " Thirty-one years 
ago, Dr. Grant, in some ' Observations on the Structure and 
Nature of Flustrse,' drew, for the first time, a distinction between 
the animals inhabiting those growths, and the Sertularian, or 
Hydroid Polypes, with which they had previously been associated." 
These Observations by Dr. K. S. Grant appear in the Third 
volume of the Edinburgh New Philosophical Journal (pp. 107, 
337), which is dated 1827, so that he has two years precedence of 
Thompson and three of Ehreuberg. A nice flusteration there will 
be if we start a new school of writers calling the class Flustrie ! 
And yet in the language of Busk, " It is scarcely likely that British 
naturalists will refuse the honour justly due to Dr. R. S. Grant, 
for what can scai'cely perhaps be regarded as a sufficient reason." 

Seriously speaking, in the face of Busk's admission that it was 
Grant who, for the first time, drew the distinction, it can scarcely 
be maintained that Thompson was the first to recognize the 
Polyzoa as a distinct type of structure in the Animal Kingdom. 
This is no denial of his statement that " the discovery of Polyzoa 
was made in the summer of 1820." My own belief is that, had 
he published in 1820, he would have made a new genus Polyzoa 
for the Sertularia imbricata of Adams. But, as we all know, 
recognition of our discoveries has to date, not from the time when 
they were made, but from the time when they were published. 
For aught we know, Grant also may have carried out Lis 
observations ten years before he made them public. 

As an observer of nature Thompson was in the highest degree 
keen and admirable ; in nomenclature he was almost equally 
erratic and unmethodical. Witness his vacillating use of Shizo- 
poda and Shizopodse f or the Schizopoda of Latreille, his unmeaning 
name Nocticula for a luminous shrimp, his unjustified change of 
that shrimp's specific name irom fuh/tns to banksii, his adoption of 
Cynthia and Peilicellaria for new genera, though he was avowedly 
aware that each had been previously used in a diiferent sense. 

That Polyzoa either in the singular or plural is not a term worth 
contending for in respect of its appropriateness, should be felt 
at least by members of that famous University which claims the 
fine scholarship of Milton and Gray, of Porson and Munro, for the 
Greek word ttoXv^iuos happens to mean long-lived, not many- 
animaled, and even if it had the latter meaning it would be 
undistinctive, being equally applicable to many species in quite 
diti'erent groups. But some witchcraft must have put a spell upon 
Thompson in respect of names. When he has to mention the 
Cancer scorpioides of Montagu, he calls it scorplonurus. After his 
death he leaves behind him a manuscript genus Scorpionura, once 
more a preoccupied name. In place of this Spence Bate fouudeil 
on the words Vaughau Thompson a new concoction. But the 

68 rnocEEDiNGS or the 

spell still works. Again there is vacillation. Again there is 
controversy. To my mind it is clear that in 1858 Bate called his 
genus yaun/7ionj;^souia, that in 1859 he changed it to A'aun/7io»i- 
sonia, and finally in 18G0 decided for Vaun<o?H/>sonia. But 
another orado maintains that the tomp was earlier than the thomjj. 
We must wait and see. 

Xow all this slight skirmishing may easily and perhaps 
jiistifiahly he dismissed with the remark, that the argument against 
Polyzoa is advanced by one who has little or no intimate 
acquaintance with the subject matter in which he is interfering. 
But there is at least one writer, a Fellow of this Society, against 
whom such a reproach cannot possibly be urged. It may well be 
that some of us are ill acquainted with the arguments on this 
topic powerfully stated by the veteran Bryo-zoologist, A. W. 
Waters, so far back as 1880. But all those in the least interested 
in the matter are hound to have taken into account his paper of 
December IGth, 1909, published in our Journal so recently as the 
22nd of June, 1910. Nevertheless, to refresh our memories, I 
shall do myself the pleasure of quoting his two concluding 
paragraphs. He writes : — " As a young man when I presented 
papers, those in authority said, you should not use Bryozoa when 
Busk and others use Polyzoa. I pointed out my reasons and 
induced them to examine Thompson's paper, and they all, without 
exception, said they considered 1 was quite right atid that there 
could not be any question of Thompson using Polvzoa as a class 
name. Such able literary and scientific critics as Mr. Dallas and 
Dr. Francis became quite convinced, and Mr. Dallas in a review of 
llincks's book put the question more clearly than it has been put 
by anyone else. A number of members of the staff of the British 
Museum working ui)on invertebrates met together to examine 
Thompson's paper, and unanimously came to the conclusion that 
Polyzoa was not given as a class designation. 

"Bryozoa was for a long time used in England, and then Busk 
introduced Polyzoa as being Thompson's name. I was not 
surprised that Busk, AUman, and llincks, who had worked 
together, did not change, but I felt confident that the change would 
soon be made by a younger generation. In this I seem to have 
been mistaken ; and so long as any of our leaders use Polyzoa we 
must recognise that there are two sides to the question, though 1 
find it very difficult to understand how this can be iF we try to 
divest ourselves of the knowledge gained since Thompson's time 
and put ourselves in his position." (Journ. Linn. Soc, Zool. 
vol. xxxi. p. 247.) 

You will not fail to notice the modesty of that conclusion. 
It warns me not to alienate goodwill by being too self-assertive, 
and to bring my treatment of the matter to an end, before you 
become too sorry that it ever had a beginning. 


On Vaunthompsonia, Bate. 

For the difficulties which beset our use of this generic uame, 
Vaughan Thompson, iu whose honour it was invented, is only 
indirectly responsible. The genus belongs to the Sympoda, for 
long but very unsuitably known as Cumacea, in dealing with which 
among many eminent names there are, I think, pre-eminent, 
Kroyer in Denmark, Sars in A^orway, and our own Dr. Caiman in 
England. Now in this remarkable group Thompson, as already 
intimated, promised but never gave " Detail of the curious struc- 
ture of several species of the newly instituted Genus Condylura 
(Cancer Scorpionurus of Montagu)."' No doubt he intended to 
refer to '■'■Cancer Scorpioides" of Montagu, but among his 
collections there were subsequently found specimens labelled as 
three species of a new genus Scorpionura. Here he had once 
again the misfortune to choose a nauie preoccupied before his own 
use of it was published. Thus it came about that Spenee Bate 
instituted the genus Vaunthompsonia for one of Thompson's three 
species. For the record of this genus we are indebted. first of all 
to Professor Kiuahan, through the ' Natural History Eeview,' 
vol. V. pp. 202-205, 1858. The professor there says, " I have 
extracted Mr. Bate's communication and figures in extenso from 
the ' Journal of the Eoyal Dublin Society,' before whose evening 
meeting of the 28th May it was read." The definition of Vaun- 
thompsonia (Spenee Bate) is included in the communication. 
Next year, in the ' Annals of Natural History,' ser. 3, vol. iii. 
pp. 273-274, no. IG for xlpril 1859, Spenee Bate speaks of the 
genus Yaun^Ao/nsonia, recently described by me in the ' Natural 
History lieview.' Then finally, in the ' Journal of the lioyal 
Dublin Society,' vol. ii. 1858-1859 (Dublin: Hodges, Smith, & 
Co., 1860), pp. 101-104, he defines Vaun/o?3ijjsonia, n. g. In 1005, 
however, Dr. Caiman argues that this last form has priority. Of 
\ixv\nthomp)somii he says that " it is used iu Spenee Bate's paper 
in the Nat. Hist. Eeview, which appears to be a i-eprint of, and 
was probably later than, that in the J. Eoyal Dublin Soc, in which 
the aspirate is omitted. In any case the omission was clearly 
intended by the author, who states that in building up the word 
the Christian name and the surname of Mr. Vaughan Thompson 
have been " both spelled according to sound." But the ' Natural 
History Eeview ' of 1858, in which Bate's paper appeared through 
the intervention of Kinahau, recoi'ded the Proceedings of various 
Irish Societies, much as 'Nature' and 'The Athenaeum' nowadays 
record the Proceedings of many Societies, as a rule far in advance 
of the Journals of the Societies themselves. There is no reason 
for thinking that the 'Journal' of the Eoyal Dublin Society, 
published under the date of 18G0, was earlier than the 'Natural 
History Eeview ' of 1858. But there is a reason for thinking 
that it was later, since, as already mentioned, Sponce Bate iu 
April 1859 speaks of the genus Yaun^/ioj^sonia, recently described 


by me in tlie'Xalural History Eeview.' Wliy should he refer 
to that Review, iP the genus had been published still earlier in the 
Royul Dublin Society's Journal, and why should he retain the 
aspirate, if he had already entertained the happy idea of rejecting 
it ? It is evident that, contrary to modern notions, he thought 
that he had a right to do what he liked with his own. So he first 
wrote Vaun</iO»ipsonia, as recited by Kinahan in 1858. Then in 
1S59 he improved tliis into Vauni/iomsonia, and finally in 18G0 he 
dropped the aspirate but resumed the p in the form Ysiwntomp- 
sonia. Modern rules require that we should revert to the first 
published Vaunthompsonia. 

Against retaining Cumacea, proposed by Kriiyer in 18-46, I 
venture to indulge the vanity of quoting from my friends 
Dr. Norman and Dr. Brady, who in tlieir ' Crustacea of North- 
umberland and Durham,' p. 25, say, "The name Cuma of 
Humphreys, 1795, being in use for a genus of MoUusca, the Eev. 
T. K. E-. Stebbing has discarded it among Crustacea, substituting 
for it BoJotria Groodsir, and for the order Cumacea the more 
apprnpriate name Sympoda." 

JVot only was Cuma, as used by Milne-Edwards, a preoccupied 
name, but apparently it had the further disadvantage of embalming 
an error to which that great naturalist obstinately adhered in 
regard to the Sympoda. He thought that his specimens were 
embryonic, and in naming a genus for them he chose a Greek 
word meaning among other things " an embryo." But, apart from 
the misfortunes of its origin, this genus had no right of priority 
in determining the name of the order, since Diastylis had been 
well defined by the American Say ten years earlier. In Sympoda 
we have a form corresponding with Decapoda, Schizopoda, Stomato- 
poda, Isopoda, and Amphipoda, all of them important divisions of 
the Malacostraca. 


Mr. S. F. IIaemek did not agree with Mr. Stebbing's con- 
clusions. He pointed out that the Laws of Priority which govern 
generic and specific names do not ai)ply with equal force to 
group-narries. He regarded the criticism that Thompson usually 
(though not always) employs " Polyzoa " as a singular word as 
comparatively unimportant when taken iu conjunction with the 
broad conclusion which Thompson saw so clearly, that the 
observations he had made would " render extensive alterations 
and dismemberments " in classification necessary. The title of 
Thompson's memoir shows indeed that " Polyzoa" is not a generic 
term, but is of higher value : in other words, that it is a group- 
name. The priority of " Polyzoa " over '' Bryozoa " is admitted, 
and there is evidence that it was used by Thompson even earlier 
than December, 1830, the date on the wrapper of No. IV. of the 
' Zoological Researches,' which consists of " Memoir v. On 
Polyzoa." The wrapper of No. III., which is headed January, 


1830, bears tlie announcement (dated by Thompson December, 
iy20) that tlie Fourth ]Vumber will contain " a Memoir on PoJi/zoa, 
a new animal discovered as an inhabitant of some Zoupliites." 
The speaker considered that Thompson's clear realisation of the 
effect his discovery must have in altering current views with 
regard to the classification of Zoophytes constitutes ample 
justiiicatiou for preferring " Polyzoa " to " Bryozoa." 


Me. a. W. Waters said that his reasons for using the term 
Bryozoa were given many years ago, and he had recently restated 
his hrm adherence to the view arrived at. But it will be well to 
first clear up a mistaii.e which has misled many, for most naturalists 
have looked to Busk's ' Crag Polyzoa ' to see why he changed 
from Bryozoa to Polyzoa ; and speaking of Thompson, Busk 
writes : " The term he employed was Polyzoa, ' it being applied,' as 
he says, ' to a distinct class of Polypes hitherto in great measure 
confounded with the Hydroida ' " : although this is given as a 
quotation, in inverted commas, Thompson never said anything of 
the kind, and a critical examination shows how impossible it 
would have been for him to have wi-itteu it. 

The speaker said his point had always been that Thompson gave 
no indication that he was establishing a class. The paper is on 
" Polyzoa, a new animal discovered as an inhahitant of some 
Zoophiles,'^ and then he speaks of the animal as Polyzoa, and this 
idea of the animal being a Polyzoa, but the animals Polyzoje, is 
repeated several times in the paper. Thompson considered that 
a certain section of the zoophytes must ultimately be separated, 
as the polypides were not hydra, and we must remember that at 
that time the polypes of Hydrozoa were still ppoken of as flores, 
and there were perhaps naturalists still living who had believed 
that the poly])ides of Flicstra could leave the zocecium whenever 
they wished, just as a bee can leave its cell. 

A year before Thompson's paper, Cuvier had separated the 
Bryozoa as " Polypes a cellules " as a distinct family from 
" Polypes vagiuiformes," namely the Hydrozoa, but said the 
animals in both cases resemble Hydrse. 

It has been urged that Thompson having seen the great 
difference between the Bryozoa and other zoophytes, we ought to 
honour him by retaining the name Polyzoa. However, if he did 
not create the class we must remember that he was not the first to 
publish the difference, for Dr. Grant (1827) had seen that a 
separation must be made, and he based it upon the Bryozoa having 
no common cocnosarc, but, though he described the polypide 
correctly, he did not recognise that the digestive tract had two 
openings. Then Audouin and Milne-Edwards (1828), studying 
the marine invertebrates of Chausey, divided the Polypes, or 
Zoophytes, into four families, and these were, as we should say, 

7- rnocEEDixcs of the linnban society. 

:i|iproxiinatL'ly (1) Sponges, (2) Ilydrozoa, (3) Antliozoa, and (4) 
Bryozoa ; and of this last tliey said, our fonrtli fumih/ contains 
Fhistra and the other Poh/pes of which the dif/eslive canal com- 
muuicates tvith the extemor by two distinct ojyeninf/s, and of which 
the onjanisntion approaches that of the compound Ascidians. At 
tlie meeting of the French Academy, when the paper was read, 
Blaitiville stated that he was aware of this structure, and that it 
Iiad heen also pointed out to him some years ago by Lesueur and 
Desmarest ; so that several observers had independently come to 
the same conclusions, within a few years of one anothei'. 

It is strange to find these divisions called families, where we 
should say orders and classes, but nothing could be clearer than 
that Audouin and Milne-Edwards forestalled Thompson and 
distinctly indicated a division, for we must not forget that i'7«s<yrt 
then ah\ays included JSIemhranipora and was sometimes used 
where we should say Cheilostomata. It is surprising how seldom 
zoologists of that period, working on the zoophytes, ever refer to 
Classes or Oi'ders, and often use class as a general term instead of 
group. Lamarck, in ' Hist. Nat. des Animaux sans Yertebres,' 
instead of classes and orders, says divisions and sections. 

In conclusion, if Thompson meant to establish a class division, 
then his paper is an extraordinary muddle of a communication; 
whereas, if he wished to indicate the nature of the polypide, it is 
consistent from beginning to end, and though forestalled in his 
uiain points we must respect him for it. 



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Observations an siijet des Notes du Dr. Mochi sur la 

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Appel (Louise C). See Kleinschrod (Franz). Tbe Inberent 
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Arber (Edward Alexander Newell). Plant Life in Alpine 
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Bailey (Charles). A third List of the Adventitious Vegetation of 
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Baker (Richard Thomas) and Smith (Henry G.). A Eesearch on 
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Beitrage zur Kryptogamenflora der Schweiz. Auf Initiative der 
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„ ,, Heft 2. ScuELLENBERG (Hans Conrad). Die Brandpilzo der 
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Das Tierreich. Herausgegehen von tier Deutschen Zoologischen 
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Liefg. 20. Ixodidic. Von L. G. Neumann. Pp. vi, 169 ; mit 76 Abbild- 

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„ 27. Eeptilia. — Chamaeleontidae. Von Prof. Dr. Franz Werner. 

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Bezzi (Mario). Dipteres (Premiere Serie) suivi d'un Appendice 

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Bibliotheca Botanica {continued). 

Heft 73. Geiieeb (Adalbert). Bryologia atlantica. — Die Laubmoose 
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Eand XXIII. lleft 50. Daday (Eu«en von). Untersucb ungen iiber die 
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unci 7 Textfiguren. 1911. 


Bibliotheca Zoologica (continued). 

Baud XXIV. KeltGl. Kubsaamen (Ewald H.). Die Zoocecidien, diu-ch 
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Thomas (Friedricii Auqust Wilhelm). Ver- 
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KcsterCE.). Allgemeiner Tell. I*P-105-165- 
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Note snr la distrihution gcograpliique des especes du genre 

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, 8vo. Geneve, 1908. 
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Cape of Good Hope. 

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Chapman (Frederick). A Synopsis of the Silurian Fossils of 

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(Victorian Nat. xxvii. no. 4.) 8vo. Melbourne, 1910. 

Kew or Little-known Victorian Fossils in the National 

Museum. — Part. XI. On an Impression of a Bird's Feather in 
the Tertiary Ironstone of Eedruth, Victoria. Pp. 6, with 2 
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8vo. Melbourne, 1910. 

Part XIT. On a Trilobite Fauna of Upper 

Cambrian Age {Olenus Series) in N.E. Gippsland, Victoria. 
Pp. 20, with 4 plates. (Proc. Eoy. Soc. Victoria, N. S. xxiv. 
pt. 2.) 8vo. Melbourne, 1911. 

A Eevision of the Species of Limopsis in the Tertiary 

Beds of Southern Australia. Pp. 14, with 3 plates. (Proc. 
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On some supposed Pyritized Sponges from Queensland. 

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Church (Arthur Harry). Types of Floral Mechanism, a selection 

of Diagrams and Descriptions of Common Flowers, arranged as 

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Prof. Sydney H. Vines. 
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Pp. vii, 190 ; with 71 illustrations. 8vo. Wellingion, 1910. 

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CoUinder (Erik). IMedelpads Flora, vlixtgeografisk cifversikt och 

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Connold (Edward Thomas). Plant Galls of Great Britain, a 

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8vo. London, 1909. Dr. B. Daydon Jackson. 

Crossland (Charles). An Eighteenth Century Naturalist : James 

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Daday (Eugen von). TJntersuchungen iiber die Siisswasser- 

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Deabel (Friedrich). See Holdhaus (Karl). Untersuchungeii 

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Vol. V. Heteroptera : Appendix. Pp. xii, 362; with 214 

illustrations. 8vo. 1910. 

Druce (George Claridge). Botanologia of JN'orthaniptonsldre 

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Hist. Soc. xiv.) 8vo. Northampton, 1908. 
Address on the Unveiling of the Monument to George 

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8vo. OA'ford, 1910. Author. 

Zoological Society of Ireland. 

Annual Eeport 79. 8vo. ZojuZo)?, 1910. 

Dr. R. F. Scharff. 
Duggar (Benjamin Minge). Fungous Diseases of Plants. 

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8vo. Boston ^- London, 1910 
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of Market Garden Crops. New Edition. Pp. 144 ; illustrated. 

8vo. London, 1910. Authors. 
Elliot (George Francis Scott). Botany of To-Day. A popular 

Account of recent notable Discoveries. Second Edition. Pp. xv, 

17-352; with 27 illustrations. 8vo. London, IdW. 

Engler (Heinrich Gustav Adolf). Das Pflanzenreich. Eegni 

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Hefte 40-47. 8vo. if^?;^^^?';/, 1909-1911. 

Heft 40. Fedde (Friedrich). PapaveraceEe - Hypecoicleae et Papa- 

vei-aeeffi-Papaveroidese. Pp. 430 ; luit 532 Einzelnbildern ia 

43 Figui-en. 19U9. 
„ 41. Wangerin (Waltiier). Garrjaceaj. Pp.17; ruit 26 Einzel- 

bilclern in 5 Figuren. I'JIO. 
Nyssaceie. Pp.19; mit 38 Eiiizelbildern in 4 Figuren. 1910. 
Alangiaceffi. Pp. 24 ; niit 47 Elnzelbildern in 6 Figuren 

CornaceiB. Pp. 110; niir. 193 Elnzelbildern in 24 Figuren 

„ 42. Pax (F.). Eupborbiacese— Jatrophea?. Pp. 118 ; mit 155 

Einzelbildern in 45 Figuren. 1910. 
„ 43. WoEPF (Hermann). Unibelliferre— Apioidea;— 5Mp^e«<r«««, 

7Vm?a et reliquaa Amininea3 heteroclitte. Pp.214; mit 155 

Einzelbildern in 24 Figuren. 1910. 
„ 44. Pax (F.). Eupborbiacec-c— Adrianea\ Pp. Ill; mit 151 

Einzelbildern in 35 Figuren. 1910. 
,, 45. Kranzmn (Fritz). Orcbidacefe — Monandra— Dendrobjinw. 

Pars I. Genera n. 275-277. Pp. 382 ; mit 327 Einzel- 
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Engler (Heinrich Gustav Adolf). Das Pflanzenreich (con.). 

lleft 4G. PiEi.s (L.). Monisporinacero. I'p. 345 ; mil 917 Einzelbildern 
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„ 47. Pax (F.). Euphorhiacese— Cluytie.t. Pp. 124; niit 144 
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H01F.MAN.V. 1910. 
Macpari.ane (J. M.). Cephalotaceae. Pp. 15; mit 24 
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nnrl Drude (Oscar). Die Vegetation der Erde. TX, 

XI, XLI, Xlll. 8vo. LeijKhj, 1908-1911. 

IX. Die Pflanzenwelt Afrikas insbesondere seiner tropischen Gebiet« ; 

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Band I. 1 Ilalfte. Allgeineiner Ueberbliek iiber die Pdanzenwelt 

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Karten, 20 VoUbilderri und 404 TextOgurcn. 1910. 
„ I. 2te Ilfilfte. AUgenieiner Ueberbliek iiber die Pflanzenwelt 

Afrikas und ihre Existonzbedingungen. Pp. xi, 479-1029; mit 1 

Karte. 27 Vollbildern und 305 Textfiguren. 1910. 
„ II. Cbarakterpflanzen Afrikas (inbesondore des tropischen). 

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figuren. 1908. 
XI. Die VegetationsTcrhaltnisse der Balkanliinder (Mosisclie Lander). 

Von Dr. Lujo Ada.movic. Pp. xvi, 567 ; mit 49 Vollbildern, 

11 Textfiguren und 6 Karten. 1909. 

XII. Die PHanzenwelt der peruanischen Anden. Von A. Weberbaukr. 

Pp. xii, 355; mit 40 Vollbildern, 63 Textfiguren und 2 Karten. 
XIII. Phytogeographic Survey of North America by John W. IIarsftberoer. 
Pp. Ixiii, 790 ; with 1 map, 18 plates, and 32 figures in the text. 

Errera (Leo). Recueil d'Q^uvres de Leo Errera. Botaniqne 
geuerale. I, II. 8vo. Bruxelles, 1908-1909. 

I. pp. iv, 318 ; planche 1 et portrait. 
II. pp. 341, avec 74 figures dans le texte. 

Melanges : Vers et Prose. Pp. xiv, 222 ; portrait. 

S\o. Bruxellcs, 1908. 

Physiologie generale. Philosophic. Pp. xiii, 400 ; 

avec 41 figures dans le texte et portrait. 

8vo. Bruxelles, 1910. 
Sur I'efficacite des Moyens de Dissemination. Pp. 13, 

avec 2 planches. (Rec. Inst. hot. L. Errera, viii.). 

Eoy. 8vo. Bruxelles, 1910. liev. G. Henslow. 
Ewart (Alfred James). Plants indigenous to Victoria. Vol. II. 

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The Flora of the Victorian Alps. With a Botanical 

Report by J. W. Audas. Pp. 17, with 1 plate. (Vicforiiiii 
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Ewart (Alfred James), Rees (Bertha), and Wood (Bertha). 
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lix:n^eax society of londox. 8i 

Fawcett (William). Flora of Jamaica. See British Museum 
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Fedde (Friedrich). See Engler (H. G. A.). Das Pflanzenreich. 
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Filarszky (Ferdinand). Botanische Ergebaisse der Forschungs- 

reisen von M. v. Dechy im Kaukasus. Pp. 126 ; Taf. 25. 

(von Decby, Kaukasus, iii.) 4to. Berlin, 191U. 

Dr. B. Daydon Jackson. 
Firminger's Manual of Gardening for India. Fifth Edition. 

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Fischer (C. E. C). See Jacquot (A.). Incendies en Foret. 

(Forest Fires.) 8vo. 1910. 

Fischer (Eduard). Die Uredinen der Schweiz. Pp. xciv, 590 ; 

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Fisher (Herbert). Sec Home University Library of Modern 

Knowledge. 8vo. 

Flower (Stanley Smyth). List of Animals in the Zoological 

Gardens, Giza, near Cairo. Second Edition. Pp. 372; 

plates 20. 8yo. Cairo, 1910. Author. 

Fredericq (Leon) et Massart (Jean). Notice sur Le'o Errera. 

Pp. 153 et portrait. 8vo. Bruxelles, 1908. 

Rev. Geo. Henslow. 
Fries (Theodor Magnus). Bref och skrifvelser af och till 

Carl von Linne, med understod af Svenska Staten utgifna 

af Upsala Universitet. Forsta Afdelniugen. Deel iv., v. 

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Univ. of Uppsala. 

Fry (Agnes). See Fry (Sir Edward). The Liverworts British 

and Foreign. 8vo. 1911. 

Fry (Sir Edward) and Fry (Agnes). The Liverworts British and 

Foreign. Pp. viii, 74 ; with 49 illustrations. 

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Fujii (Kenjiro). Some Eemarks on the Cretaceous Fossil Flora 

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xxiv. n. 284.) Svo. ^0^7/0, 1910. Author. 
and Stopes (Marie Charlotte Carmichael). Studies on 

the Structure and Affinities of Cretaceous Plants. Pp. 90 ; 

9 plates. 4to. 1910. 

Gamble (James Sykes). The Bamboos of the Philippine Islands. 

Pp. 15. (Philippine Journ. Sci. v. C. Bot.) 4to. Manila, 1910. 

Garden (The). Vol. 74. 4to. London, 1910. Editor. 

Gardeners' Chronicle. 3 ser. Vols. 47, 4S. fol. London, 1910. 


LINN". SOa proceedings. — SESSION 1910-1911. (J 


Geheeb (Adalbert). Bryologia atlantioa. Die Laubmoose der 
atlantischon Iiisoln (untei* Ausschluss der europaisc-lien und 
arktisclieii (aebiete). Ergjinzt und bearbeitet; von Tueodor 
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4to. SlHttfjart, 1910. 
Gertb van Wijk (H. L.). A Dictionary of Plant-names. Parts I., 
n. 4to. //flfl*-?fw, 1909-1910. 

I. pp. xxiv, 1-710. 11. pp. V, 711-1444. 

Giles (P.). See Cambridge Manuals of Science and Literature. 

Gltick (Hugo). Biologiscbe und morphologische Untersuchungen 
Uber Wasser- und Sumpfgewiichse. Theile I., II. 

8vo. Jena, 1905, 1906. 

I. pp. xxiv, 312; mit 2") Textfig. und 7 lithogr. Doppoltafeln. 
II. pp. xvii, 256 ; mit 28 Textfig. und G litliogr. DopprltatVln. 

Lord Avebury. 
Griffiths (B. M.). See West (George Stephen). JJiUhnnsia 
mirahUis, a Giant Siilpliur Bacterium. 8vo. 1909. 

Groom (Percy) ;S'e(? Ward (H. Marshall). Trees. Yol.Y. 1909. 
Guillemard (F. H. H.). See Cambridge County Geographies. 
Gulia (Giovanni). Intorno ad un nuovo habitat della Alelitella 
puslUa, Somm. Pp. 2. (Bull. Soe. bot. Ital. 13 Marzo, 1909.) 

8vo. Firenze, 1909. 

Elenco dalle Pteridofite Maltesi. Pp. 2. (Bull. Soc. bot. 

Ital. 11 Dicembre, 1909.) Svo. Firenze, 1909. 

Addition k la Faune Ichthyologique Maltaise. Pp. 2. 

(Bull. Soc. Zool. Fr. xxxiv.) Svo. Paris, 1909. 

Cenni Bibliografici sulla Fauna Vertebrata Maltese. Pp. 21. 

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trations. 8vo. New YorJc, lUlO. 

Stopes (Marie Charlotte Carmichael). Adventitious Budding and 
Branching in C'ljcas. Pp. 8, with 6 illustrations. (New 
Phytol. ix.) 8vo. Cambridge, 1910. 

Eurther Observations on the Fossil Flower, Cretovariam. 

Pp. 3, with 2 plates. (Ann. Bot. xxiv.) 

8vo. Oxford, 1910. Author. 

Stur (Dionys). Beitriige zur Keuntniss der Flora der Vorwiilt. 

Band I. Die Culm-Flora. Pp. xxii, ir, 3G6; mit 44 lithograpli- 
isten TaCelu, 63 Holzschnitten und Zinkographien und 
3 Tafelu in Farbendruch. (Abb. k.-k. Geol. lieicbsanst. 
Wien, viii.) 1875-77. 

Band II. Die Carbon-Flora der Schatzlarer Scbicbten. Abt. I. 
Die Fame der Carbon-Flora der Scliatzlarer Scliichteii. 
Pp. 418; mit 49 Doppeltafeln und 48 Ziukotypien. 
(Abb. k.-k. Geol. Eeicbsanst. Wien, xi. Abt. I.) 1886. 
Die Carbon-Flora der Scbatzlarer Scbichteu. Abt. II. 
Die Calmarieu der Carbon-Flora der Scbatzlarer Schieh- 
ten. Pp. 240 ; mit 2li Doppeltafeln und 43 Ziuko- 
typien. (Abb. k.-k. Geol. Reiebsanst. Wien, xi. Abt. 2.) 

fol. Wien, 1875-1887. 

Suzuki (Y.). On the Structure and Affinities of Two new 
Conifers and a Kew Fungus from the Upper Cretaceous of 
Hokkaido (Yezo). Pp. 16 ; with 1 plate and 3 illustrations in 
the text. (Bot. Mag., Tokyo, xxiv. n. 284.) 

8vo. Tolajo, 1910. Author. 

Szymanski (Franz). Uebereinige parasitische Algen. Inaugural- 
Dissertation. Pp. 23. 8vo. JSkmslau, 1878. 

Tapper (J. Gottlieb Otto). South Australian Museum. The 
Museum Entomologist's Quarterly Keports. With Notes and 
Eemarks on Habits, Eemedies, &c., from April 1897 to 
December 1910. Part I. Nos. 1-35 ; 11. Nos. 36-53. 
[Published by "The Eegister" mostly. With 50 Eeprints 
as Leaflets usually by order of the Board of Governors, 
Public Librarv and Art Gallery.] 

4to. Adelaide, 1897-1910. Author. 


Thomas (Friedrich August Wilhelm). Verzeicbnis der Schriften 
iiber deiitsdie Zoocecidien und Cecidozoen bis einschliesslich 
lOOG. iSee Bibl. Zoologica, Bd. xxiv. Heft 61. 

4to. Stuttrjart, 191 1 . 

Thomson (John Arthur). >See Home University Library of 
Modern Knowledge. 8vo. 

Tongue (Miss Helen). Bushman Paintings. "With a Preface by 
J1e>ey Balfour. Pp. 47 ; with 54 plates and map. 

4to. Oxford, 1909. Dr. D. Oliver. 
United States Geological Survey. 
Monographs : 

Vol. 49. The Ceratopsia. By John B. Hatcher, based on 
preliminary Studies by Othniel C. Marsu. Edited 
and completed by Eichard S. Lull. Pp. xxx, 300 ; 
witli 51 plates and 125 illustrations in the text. 

4to. Washington, 1907. 

Vol. 50. The Cretaceous Flora of Southern New Tork and 

New England. By Arthur Hollick. Pp. 219 ; with 

40 plates. 4to. Washington, 1906. 

van Wijk. See Gerth van Wijk. 

Wangerin (Walther). See Engler (H. G. A.). Das Pflanzenreich. 

Het't 41. Garryaceae, Xyssacea?, Alangiaceae,Coruaceae. 1910. 

Ward (Harry Marshall). Trees: a Handbook of Forest Botany 

for the AVoodlands and the Laboi'atorv. 5 vols. (Camb. Biol. 

Series.) 8vo. Cambridge, 1904-1909. 

Watson (Arnold T.). See British Association. Handbooks. 

Sheffield. 8vo. 1910. 

Weberbauer (August). Die Pflanzenwelt der peruanischen 

Anden. Pp. xii, 355 ; mit 40 VoUbildern, 63 Textliguren und 

2 Karten. (Engler-Drude, Vegetation der Erde, xii.) 

8vo. Leijyzig, 1911. 
Wehmer (Karl). Die Pflanzenstoffe, botanisch - systematisch 
bearbeitet ; chemische Bestandteile und Zusammeusetzung der 
einzelnen Ptlanzenarten Bohstoffe und Produkte. Phanero- 
gamen. Pp. xvi, 937. 8vo. Jena, 1911. 

Weiss (Frederick Ernest). Note on the Variability in the 
Colour of the Flowers of a Tropa;olum Hybrid. Pp. 6, with 
1 plate. (Mem. & Proc. Mauch. Lit. & Phil. Soc. vol. 54.) 

8vo. Manchester, 1910. Author. 
Wellington, New Zealand. 
Department of Lands. 

Keport on a Botanical Examination of the Higher Waimarino 
District. By E. Phillips Tuener. Pp. 14 ; figs. IS and 
map. fol. Wellington, 1909. 


Wellington, New Zealand. 
Department of Lands (con.). 

Eeport ou the Saud Dunes of New Zealand. By L. 
Cockayne. Pp. 30 ; figs. 35. fol, Wellington, l{)09. 

Eeport on a Botanical Survey of Stewart Island. By L. 
Cockayne. Pp. 68 ; figs. 43 and map. 

fol. Wellington, 1909. 

Werner (Franz). See Berlin. Das Tierreicli. Liefg. '27. Rep- 

tilia — Chamaeleontidse. 8vo. 1911. 

West (George Stephen). On Variation in the Desmidieae, and its 

Bearings on their Classification. Pp. 52 ; with 4 plates, and 

4 cuts in the text. (Jouru. Linn. Soc, Bot. xxxiv.) 

8vo. London, 1899. 

The Alga-Flora of Cambridgeshire, being an Account of 

the Freshwater Algfe of the County, with Notes on their 
Classification and Distribution, with Critical Remarks on many 
of the Species and Descriptions of new ones. Pp. 47, with 
3 plates. (Journ. Bot. sxxvii.) 8vo. London, 1899. 

Report on the Freshwater Algae, including Phytoplankton, 

of the Third Tanganyika Expedition conducted by Dr. A. W. 
CuNNiNGTON, 1904-1905. Pp. 117, with 9 plates. (Journ. 
Linn. Soc, Bot. xxxviii.) 4to. London, 1907. 

— Some Critical Green Algae. Pp. 11, with 2 plates. 
(Journ. Linn. Soc, Bot. xxxviii.) 4to. London, 1908. 

Botanical Synonyms in the Desmidiaceae and Protococ- 

coideae. Pp. 5. (Journ. Bot. xlvii.) 8vo. London, 1909. 

— The " Red Snow " Plant {Sphcerella nivalis). Pp. 3. 
(Journ. Roy. Microsc Soc. 1909, pp. 28-30.) 

8vo, London, 1909. 
The Algae of the Yan Y^ean Reservoir, Victoria : a Bio- 

logical and (Ecological Study. Pp. 88 ; with (i plates, and 
10 cuts in the text. (Journ. Linn. Soc, Bot. xxxix.) 

4to. London, 1909. 

A Biological Investigation of the Peridinieae of Sutton 

Park, Warwickshire. Pp. 10, with 7 cuts in the text. (New 
Phytol. viii. nos. 5 & 6.) 8vo. Cambridge, 1909. 

The Algae of the Birket Qarun, Egypt. Pp. 10, with 

1 plate. (Journ. Bot. xlvii.) 8vo. London, 1909. 

Some new African Species of Volvox. Pp. G, with 

plate. (Journ. Quekett Microsc. Club, 2 ser. xi.) 

8vo. London, 1910. 
Algological Notes. Pp. 8, with 3 cuts. (Journ. Bot. 

xlix.) 8vo. London, 1911. Author. 

West (G. S.) and Grifl&ths (B. M.). Hillhousia mirabilis, a Giant 
Sulphur Bacterium. Pp. 8, with 1 plate. (Proc Roy. Soc. 
B. vol. 81.) 4to. Zow/ou, 1909. G. S. West. 

West (William) and West (George Stephen). Notes on Fresh- 
water Algae. I., II., III. Pp. 3G. (Journ. Bot. vols. 30, 38, 
41.) 8vo. London. 1898-1903. 


West (William) and West (George Stephen). A further Con- 
tributioa to the Freshwiiter I'laiilvtoii of the Scottish Lochs. 
Pp. 42, with 7 plates. (Trims. Roy. 8oc. Edinb. .\li.) 

4to. Edinhurfjh, 1905. 

A Comparative Study of the Phinkton of some 

Irish Lakes. Pp. 40, with (5 plates. (Trans. Koy. Irish Acad. 
B. xxxiii. part 2.) Aio.' DuhUn, 190G. 

Freshwater Algae from Burma, including a few from 

Bengal and Madras. Pp. 88, with 7 plates. (Ann. Roy. Bot. 
(jfarden, Calcutta, vi. part 2.) fol. Calcutta, 1907. 

— The Phytoplankton of the English Lake District. 

Pp. 47, with 3 plates, and 8 cuts in text. (Naturalist, Aug., 
Sept., 1909.) 8vo. London, 1909. 

The British Freshwater Phytoplankton, with 

Special Reference to Desmid-plankton and the Distribution of 
British Desmids. Pp. 42, with 6 figs. (Proc. Roy. Soc. B. 
vol. 81.) 4to. London, 1909. 

The Ecology of the Upper Driva Valley in the 

Dovrefjeld. Pp. 22, with 2 plates and 7 cuts. (New Phytol. ix. 
no. 10.) , 8vo. Cambridge, 1910. Authors. 

Wildeman (Emile de). Mission Emile Laurent (1903-1904). 
Enumeration des plantes rocoltees par Emile Laurent avec la 
collaboration de Maucel Laurent pendant sa derniere Mission 
au Congo ; par E. de W. 

2 vols. Roy. 8vo. Bruxelles, 1905-1907. 
I. pp. ccxxv, 617 ; figs. 13S. 
II. plates 184. 

Willey (Arthur). Convergence in Evolution. Pp. xii, 177, 

with 12 illustrations. 8vo. London, 1911. Author. 

WolflF (Hermann). See Engler (H. G. A.). Das Pllanzenreieh. 

Heft 43. Umbellifera) — Apioidea) — BupJeurum, Trinia et 

reliquae Amminete heteroclitic. 1910. 

Wood (Bertha). See Ewart (Alfred James). Contributions to 

the Flora of Australia. Nos. 14, 15. 8vo. 1910. 

Wood (John Medley). Natal Plants. Vol. vi. part 2. 

4to. Durban, 1910. Author. 
Woodward (Bernard Barham). Note on the Occurrence of 

Pisidium personatum, Mahn, in the British Islands. P. 1. 

(Proc. Malacol. Soc. viii. part 3.) 8vo. London, 1908. 
On the Occurrence of Pisidum supinum in the Living State 

in England. P. 1. (Proc. Malacol. Soc. viii. part G.) 

8vo. London, 1909. 
On the Occurrence in the British Isles of Living Specimens 

of Pisidiu n Steenhuchii, Moi'ch, and P. LiUjeborgii, Clessin, with 
Notes of New^ Records of Pisidia for the Lake District, and 
Fresh Localities for P. supinum, h. Schm. Pp. 2. (Proc. 
Malacol. Soc. ix. part 1.) 8vo. L^ondon, 1910. 

— Note on further British Localities for Pisidium Steen- 
hucJiii, MoUer, and P. LiUJeborr/ii, Clessin. P. 1. (Proc. 
Malacol. Soc. ix. part 3.) Svo. London, 1910. 


Woodward (Bernard Barham). See British Museum (Natural 
History)— Catalogue of Books, &c. 4to. 1903-1910. 

See Kennard (A. S.). Notes on Non-Marine 

Mollusca from some Irish Lakes, obtained by Major H. 
Trevelyan. 8vo. 1911. 

Ziegler (Heinrich Ernst). Der Begriff dcs Instinktes einst und 
jetzt . . . Mit einem Anhang : Die Gehirne der Bienen und 
Ameisen. Pp. vi, 112 ; mit 2 Tafelu und 16 Abbilduugen iiu 
Text. 8vo. Jena, 1910. 

Zoological Record. Vol. 46. (1909.) 8vo. London, 1910. 


Botanische Museum der Universitat Zurich. INIitteilungen. 
No. 36. 8vo. Zurich, 1907^ 

Der botanische Garten und das botanische Museum der 

Uuiversitiit, Ziirich, im Jahre 1909. 

8vo. ZUnch, 1910. Dr. Hans Sohinz. 



1910. £. s. 

May 31. Prof. J. Sta:\ley Gaudiner: Contribution 
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Thomson's paper ou Alcyonarians 35 

Nov. 4. Sir Frank Crisp: Donation as a Fund for 

Microscopical Eesearch 200 

„ 4. Third Donation from the Sladen Trustees, 
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the Indian Ocean 200 


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The following Councillors retired at the Anniversary Meeting, 
24th May, 1911 :— 

E. A. Newell Aubee, M.A., Prof. J. Bketland Fabmer, 
Dr. G. IIekbert Fowler, Prof. J. P. Hill, and John IIope;inson, 


SESSION 1910-1911. 

Xu/e. — Tlie following arc not indexed : — The name of the Chairman at each meeting ; 
speakers whose remarks are not reported ; and passing alhisions. 

Accounts, 14-15; laid before Anni- 
versary Meetin^f, 12. 
Actinidia, Revision of the Genus 

(Diinu), 7. 
Adanison, R. S., Leaves of certain 

species of Veronica, 4; Ecology of a 

Cambs. woodland, 10. 
Address, Presidential, 17-29. 
Aldabra and neiglibouring Islands 

(Fryer), 2 ; s^ee Seychelles. 
Algnj, Freshwater, from the South 

Orkneys (Fritsch), 12. 
Alien plants from banks of River Tweed 

(Hayward), 3, 48-51. 
Amber, see BlattidiC, Dermaptera. 
A 1)1 ph id i lit urn opei-culafum. Clap. & 

Lachm., at Port Erin (Herduian), 

45- 47- 
Androgynous inflorescences of Maize, 

exhibited (Worsdell), 2. 
Anniversary Meeting, 12-44. 
Apoidea of the Seychelles (Cockerell), 

Arabis alpina, Linn., exhibited (Druce), 

Aranese, Opiliones, and Pseudo- 
scorpiones from the Seychelles 

(Hirst), 8. 
Arber, E. A. 


N., Councillor retired, 

T. H., deceased, 12 ; 

obituary, 32. 
Associates deceased, and elected, 13. 
Auditors elected, 1 1. 
Autochrou\e photographs of certain 

species of Iris, shown (Dykes), 7. 

Bage, Miss P., admitted, 46 ; 
9 ; proposed, 7. 


Baker, ]\Iiss S. M., Brown Seaweeds of 

the Salt-Marsh, 11. 
Balani-e Slieet, »ec Cash Statement. 
Bamboo-rope from Central Fokien, 

exhibited (Dunn), 7. 
Bateson, Prof. W., admitted, 4. 
Batrachians and Rei)tiles from the 

Seychelles and Aldabra (Boulenger), 

Beddome, Col. R. H., deceased, 12; 

obituary, 32. 
Belt, A., admitted, 9 ; elected, i. 
Benefactions, 97-104. 
Bennett, A., elected Associate, 2; 

proposed, 4. 
Bigelow, H. B., Siphonophora of 

■ Research ' Biscayan Plankton, 2. 
Bisset, J., deceased, 12; obituary, 34. 
Blackman, Prof. V. H., elected Coun- 
cillor, 16. 
Blattidse enclosed in Amber (Shelford), 

Borboridse of the Seychelles (Collin), 

Botanical Secretary (Dr. 0. Stapf) 

elected, 16. 
Botrychoplites cornufus, Oliv., "Wood- 
carving riddled bv, exhibited 

(Worsdell), 2. 
Boulenger, Gr. A., Batrachians and 

Reptiles from the Seychelles and 

Aldabra, 8. 
Boulger, Prof. G. S., appointed 

Scrutineer, 16. 
Brai'hyura, Marine, from the Indian 

Ocean (Ratlibun), 8. 
Bruffia caudata, Lindl., in flower, 

exhibited (Longstalf), 48. 
Brockman, see Drake-Brockman. 
Broughton, H., admitted, i. 



Brown, J. M., Xew and little-known 

British Khizopods, 12. 
Bryozoa, see Bolyzoa. 
Biillen, Kev. R. A., exhibited Bythinella 

jiudiraci, Lucard, and JSiphurc/us 

jjlatcaui, Chevreiix, 5. 
Burr, Dr. M., Dermaptera (Earwigs) 

])reserved in Aiuber, 9. 
Burton, sec 8an ford-Burton. 
Burv, 11., elected Councillor, 16. 
Bi/tkincUa padiraci, Locard, exhibited 

(Bullen), 5. 

Cambs. woodland, Eciology of a 
(Adamson), 10. 

Carboniferoua Period, Fauna of (Wood- 
ward), 45. 

Carruthers, J. B., deceased, 12; 
obituary, 35. 

Carson, Miss M., admitted, 4; elected, 
3 ; proposed, i. 

Cash Statement received and adopted, 
12 ; — as audited, 14-15- 

Cecidomyiida; of the Seychelles (Kieffer), 

Central Fokien, Lantern-slides of photo- 
graphs of, shown (Dunn), 7 ; Bamboo- 
rope from, exhibited (Dunn), 47. 

China, sec Central Fokien, Chinese. 

Chinese Ferns (Matthew), 7 ; fio\vering- 
plauts (Dunn), 7. 

Chirouomidiie of the Seychelles (Kieffer), 

CharophyUum aureum, Linn., exhibited 
(Druce), 3. 

Clarke, W. A., deceased, xt. ; obituary, 

Cockerell, Prof. T. D. A., Apoidea of 
the Seychelles, 47. 

Coffin, T. VV. deceased, 12. 

Cole, W., elected Associate, 4 ; pro- 
posed, 2. 

Collin, J. E., Borboridre and Phorid;c 
of the Seychelles 47. 

Cooke, Dr. T., deceased, 12; obituary, 

Copepoda, see Harpactid Copepoda. 

Corfe, Miss B. O., exhibited water- 
colour drawings of wild flowers, 4 ; 
— Lepidoptera from Toronto, 5. 

Councillors elected, 16; retired, 105. 

Crisp, Sir F'., appointed V.-P., 45 ; 
elected Councillor, 16 ; exhibited 
monstrosity in the F'oxglove, 48. 

Crocc Jilipeuids, Westw., Life-history 
of (Imms), 47. 

Crossland, Charles, withdrawn, 13. 

Crossland, Cyril, Physical description 
of Khor Dongonab, 6. 

Culicidic of the Seychelles (Theobald), 

Cunningtou, Miss H. M., Anatomy of 
Euhaiiis acoruides. Rich., 47. 

Cynipida of the Seychelles (Kieffer), 

Deaths recorded, 12-13. 

de F'raine, Dr. E., see Moss, Dr. C. E. 

de Gaye, J. A., admitted, 11 ; elected, 
3 ; proposed, i. 

Deudy, Prof. A., communication from 
Prof. Herdman, 9 ; elected Auditor, 
1 1 ; elected Councillor and Secretary, 
16; showed lantern-slides, and a 
specimen, of New Zealand sponges, 

—!— and G. E. Nicholls, On the Sub- 
commissural Organ and Reissuer'a 
F'ibre, 5. 

Dermaptera (Earwigs) preserved in 
Amber (Burr), 9. 

Deverell, L. C, withdrawn, 13. 

Digitaria didactyla, Willd., exhibited 
(itapf), 6. 

Donations in aid of Publications, 96 ; 
— to Library, 71 ; — to the Society 
(1790-1911), 97. 

Drake-Brockman, R. E., proposed, 7 ; 
elected, 9. 

Driesch, Dr. H., elected Foreign Mem- 
ber, 12 ; proposed, 8. 

Druce, G. C, exhibited Utricularia 
oelirolcuca, U. Bremii, Arahis alpina, 
and Ch(£rophyllum aureum, 3. 

Druce, H., elected Auditor, 11. 

Dunn, S. T., Chinese Flowering-Plants, 
7 ; exhibited bamboo-rope from Cen- 
tral Fokien, 7 ; — lantern-slides of 
photographs of Central Fokien, 7 ; 
Revision of the Genus Adinidia, 7. 

Dykes, W. R., showed autochrome 
photographs of certain species of 
Iris, 7. 

Earwigs, sec Dermaptera. 

Ecology of a Cambs. woodland (Adam- 
son), 10. 

Elections, number of, 13. 

Enhcdus acoroides. Rich., Anatomy of, 
(Cunnington), 47. 

Enock, F., showed lantern-slides of 
Mymar, 47. 

Euphansiacea, see Nysidacea. 

Eyles, F., proposed, 11 ; elected 45. 

Falkland Islands, Flora of the (Wright), 

Farmer, Prof. J. B., Councillor retired, 



Fauna of the Carbon iferous Period 

(VVoodwiird), 45. 
Fawcell, W., sliowocl Sci/halium jamai- 

cense, Scliott & Eiidl., aud Musa 

■paradisiaca var. snjjic/t/UM, 47. 
Fellows dfcwKsed, 12; elected, 13; 

willidniwn, 13. 
Ferns, Cbinese (Matthew), 7, 
Financial Statement, see Cash State- 

Flora of the Falkland Islands (Wright), 

Flowering-plants, Chinese (Dunn), 7. 
Foreign Members deceased, aud elected, 


Fossorial ITymenoptera of tiie Indian 

Ocean (Turner), 6. 
Fowler, Dr. G. II., communication by 

(Bigelo™), 2; Councillor retired, 

Fowler, Canon W. W., communication 

by (Imn>s), 47. 
Fox, A. K., deceased, 12 ; obituary, 37. 
Foxglove, Monstrosities in the, exhibited 

(Crisp. Stel)bing), 48. 
Friend, Kev. II., elected, 45 ; proposed, 

1 1. 
Fritsch, Dr. F. E., Freshwater Algae 

from the South Orkneys, 12. 
Fryer, J. C. F., Aldabra and neigh- 
bouring Islands, 2 ; Lepidoptera of 

the Seychelles, 47. 
Fullerton, M. B., admitted, 11 ; elected, 

9 ; proposed, 7. 

Galton, the late Sir Francis, mentioned, 


Gardiner, Prof. J. S., communications 
by : (Fryer), 2 ; (Hickson), 12 ; (Hirst 
and others), 8 ; (Kietfer and others), 
47; (Tattersall, Thoniely), 9; (Tur- 
ner and others), 6; elected Councillor, 

General Secretary, Annual Report of, 
12 ; election of (Dr. B. I). Jackson), 

Gepp, A., Report on the Inter. Congr. 
of Bnt., 191 1, 52. 

Gerrard, E., deceased, 2, 13 ; obituary, 


Goodall, T. B., elected, 3 ; proposed, i. 

Goodrich, E. S., elected Councillor, 

Grijfifhsia qlohifcra, J. Ag., exhibited 
(Holmes), 8. 

Groom, Prof. P.. communication by 
(Cimnington), 47. 

Groves, II., elected Auditor, 11; — Coun- 
cillor, 16; Report of, on liic Inter. 
Congr. of Bot., 191 1. 52. 

Ilalkct, Miss A. C, admitted, 46 ; elect- 
ed, 45 ; proposed, 1 1. 

Ilarnier, S. F., on the terms Polyzoa 
and Bryozoa, 70. 

Ilarpactid Copepoda, Three species of 
(Norman), 7. 

Hart, J. II., deceased, 12; obituary, 


llayward, Mias I. M., adtnitted, 3; on 
alien plants from banks of RiTer 
Tweed, 3, 48-51. 

Henderson, Dr. G., showed lantern- 
slide of the bead of a Wa'terbuck, 47. 

Henslow, Prof. G., Origin of Mono- 
cotyledons, 3 ; Origin of Flantayo 
mariiima and 1\ a/j/iiia, 3. 

Herdman, Prof. W. A., Amphidininm 
ojyerculatum, Clap. & Laclim., at Port 
Erin, 45, 47 ; elected Councillor, 16 ; 
On the use of the term Polyzoa, 9 ; 
On J. V. Thompson's use of the term 
" Polyzoa," 62 ; Summer Plankton 
in the Irish Sea, 2. 

Hertwig, Prof. R. von, proposed as, and 
elected, Foreign Member, 8, 12. 

Ilexactinia; from New Soutii Wales 
(Wilsmore), 7. 

Hickson, Prof. S. J., rolytrema and 
some allied genera, 12. 

Hill, A. W., elected Councillor, 16. 

HilL Prof. J. P., communication by 
(Wilsmore), 7; Councillor retired, 

Hind, see Archer-Hind. 

Hindle, Dr. E,, admitted, 9; elected, 2. 

Hirst, A. S., Aranca;, Opiliones, and 
Pseudoscorpiones from the Sey- 
chelles, 8. 

Holden, H. S., admitted, 4. 

Holland, Kev. M., admitted, 5 ; elected, 
4 ; proposed, 2. 

Holmes, E. M., exhibited Griffilhsia 
(jlohifera, J. Ag., 8. 

Hooker, Sir Joseph, letter of congratu- 
lation to, 46. 

Hopkinson, J., Councillor retired, 105 ; 
showed lantern-slides of j)hotograpli3 
of, aud exhibited specimens of rock 
from, Sweden, 9. 

Hovendeu, F., deceased. 12; obituary, 

Hudson, F. C, elected, 3 ; proposed, i. 
Hynienoptera, Fossorial, of the Indiau 

Ocean (Tirner), 6. 

Imms, Prof. A. D., Life-history of Crcce 
filipeiinis, Westw., 47. 

Indian Ocean, Fossorial ITymenoptera 
of the (Turner), 6; Marine Brachyura 
from the (Ralhbuu), 8 ; Marine 


Polyzoa from the (Tliornely), 9 ; 
Nysidacea and Eupliausiacea from 
the (Tattersall), 9. 

International Congress of Botany Re- 
ports : (Stapf), 4, 51, 55 ; (Groves & 
Gepp), 52 ; (Cotton), 54. 

Iris, autooliromp photoffraplis of certain 
species of, sliown (Dykes), 7. 

Irish Sea, see Plankton. 

Jackson, Dr. B. D., elected Conncillor 
and Secretary, 16 ; exhibited a mon- 
strous pear, 21 ; on some portraits of 
Carl von Linne, 6. 56-61 ; on the old 
Botanic Garden at Uppsala, 8. 

Jones, W. N., elected, 46; proposed, 12. 

Johnson, N. M., admitted, 11 ; elected, 
3 ; proposed, i. 

Kertesz, Dr. K., Stratiomyiida of the 
Seychelles. 6. 

Klior Dongonab, Physical description 
of (Crossland), 6. 

KiefFer, J. J.. Cecidomyiidaj and Chiro- 
nomidie of the Seychelles, 6 ; Cyni- 
pidie and Proctotrupoidea of the 
Seychelles, 47. 

Klebs, Prof. G., elected Foreign Mem- 
ber, 12; proposed, 8. 

Leaves of certain species of Veronka 

(Adamson), 4. 
Lee, E., admitted, 46 ; elected, 45 ; 

proposed, 11. 
Lepidium iieglecfum, Thell., andZ. den- 

nijiorum, Schrad., exhibited (Salmon), 

Lepidoptera from Toronto exhibited 

(Corfe), 5; — of the Seychelles 

(Fryer), 47. 
Lewis, E. J., withdrawn, 13. 
Librarian's report, 13. 
Library Additions, 73-95. 
Linne, Carl von, on some portraits of 

(Gen. Sec ), 6, 56-61. 
Linnean Medal presented to Count 
I Solms-Laubach, 30. 

L< ilium per enne, Linn., mentioned, 6. 
Longstaff, Mrs., siiowed Brassia caudaia, 

Lindl., in flower, 48. 

Maize with androgynous inflorescences 

exhibited (Worsdell), 2. 
Masterman, A. T., withdrawn, 13. 
Matthew, Fleet-Surgeon, Chinese Ferns, 



Meade-Waldo, G., Wasps of the Sey- 
chelles. 47. 
Medal, Linnean, presented to Count 

Solms-Laubach, 30. 
Meek, Capt. C. F. U., Spermatogenesis 

of Sfcnohothrus viridulmi, 3. 
Meyrick, E., Tortricina and Tineina of 

the Seychelles and Aldabra, 6. 
Minchin, Prof. E. A., admitted, 5 ; 

elected, i. 
Monckton, H. W., appointed V.-P.,45 ; 

elected Councillor and Treasurer, 16 ; 

showed lantern-slides of photograplis 

of Sweden, 8. 
Monocotyledons, Origin of (Henslow), 

Moss, Dr. C. E., E. G. Salisbury, and 

Dr. E. de Fraiue, The Genus Sali- 

cornia, 11. 
Moulton, J. C, elected, 45 ; proposed, 

Mundy, H. G., elected, 4; proposed, 2. 
Murray, J. G., elected, 45; proposed, 

1 1. 
Masu paradisiaca var. sapie/itum, shown 

(Fawcett), 47. 
Ml/mar, lantern -slides of, shown 

(Euock), 47. 

Navlcula AmphisbcBiia at Port Erin 

(Herdman), 47. 
Nawaschin, Prof. S. G., proposed as, 

and elected. Foreign Member, 8, iz. 
Nevill, C. St. J., admitted, 3 ; elected, 

New South Wales, see Wilsmore, Mrs 

L. J. 
New Zealand, sec Dendy, Prof. A. 
NichoUs, G. E., see Dendy, Prof. A. 
Kiphargus plateaui, Chevreux, exhibited 

(Bullen), 5. 
Norman, Rev. Canon, Three species of 

Harpictid Copepoda, 7. 
Nysidacea and Euphausiacea from the 

Indian Ocej,n (Tattersall), 9. 

Obituary Notices, 32-41. 

Oliver, Prof. F. W., communication by 

(Baker), 11 ; elected Councillor, 16; 

Vote of thanks seconded by, 29. 
Opiliones, sec Aranece. 
Origin of Monocotyledons (Henslow), 

3 ; — of Plantago maritima and 

P. alpina (Henslow), 3. 
Orkneys, South, see Fritsch, Dr. F. E. 

Parsons. Miss E M. E., admitted, 4 ; 
elected, 3 ; proposed, i. 


I'alrun, Consent of King George V. to 

become, i. 
Pear, monstrous, oxliibited (Gen. Sec), 


Penard, Dr. E., elected Foreign Mem- 
ber, 12 ; proposed, 8. 
riioi idee of tbe Seycbellea (Collin), 47. 
Pliysieal descri|)tion of Khor Dongoiiab 

(Crossland), 6. 
Plankton, Summer, in the Irish Sea 

(Herdman), 2 ; see Siplioiiophora. 
lH(niia(]o maridma and P. a/pina, 

Origin of (Henslow), 3. 
Po/i/tirma and some allied genera 

(ilick.son), 12. 
Polyzoa, Marine, from the Indian 

Ocean (Thoruelj), 9. 
Polyzua and Bryozoa, The terms (Steb- 

bing), 9, 12, 61, 64-6S ; (Harmcr), 

70; (Herdman), 9. 62 ; (Waters), 71. 
Port Ji)rin, see Herdman, Prof. VV. A. 
Poulton, Prof. E. P., appointed V.-P., 

45; elected Councillor, 16. 
Powell, Lt.-Col. S., deceased, 12; 

elected, 3 ; obituary, 40 ; proposed, i. 
Pniin, Lt.-Col. D., Vote of thank.s 

moved by, 29. 
President elected (Dr. D. H. Scott), 16. 
Presidential Address, 17-29. 
Prnctotrupoidea of the Seychelles 

(Kieffer), 47. 
Pseudoscorpiones, see Araneie. 

Rathbun, Miss M. J.. Marine Brachyura 
from the Indian Ocean, 8. 

Red Sea, see Sponges. 

Reid, Clement, appointed Scrutineer, 
13, 16. 

Reissner's Fibre, see Dendy, Prof. A. 

Rendle, Dr. A. B., appointed V.-P., 45 ; 
Councillor, 16; elected Auditor, u. 

Reptiles, see Batrachians. 

Rbizopods, British, New and little- 
known (Brown), 12. 

Ridewood, Dr. W. G., elected Coun- 
cillor, 16. 

Row, R. W. IT., Non-calcareous Sponges 
from the Red Sea, 4. 

Eiihus Idcpus, Abnormal form of, ex- 
hibited (Trail), 2. 

RaUcnrnin. The Genus (Moss, Salisbury, 

and de Fraine), 11. 
Salisbury, E. G., sec Moss, Dr. C. E. 
Salmon,' C. E., exhibited Lcpidium 

vrfilecfum, ThelL, and L. densijlontm, 

Schrad.. 8. 
Salt-Marsh, see Seaweeds. 
San ford-Burton, H., deceased, 12. 

Saunders, Miss E. R., elected Councillor, 

Scott, Dr. D. H., appointed Vice- 
Presidents, 45 ; elected Councillor 
and President, 16; nominated 8<'ruti- 
neers, 13, 16; Presidential Address 
of, 17-29. 

Scott, Mrs. D. II., gave lantern ex- 
hibition of new species of Tragtiairia, 

Scrutineers appointed, 13, 16. 

Scyhalhnn jamaicense, Schott & End!., 
shown (Fawcetl), 47. 

Seaweeds, Brown, of the Salt-Marsli 
(Bakor), 1 1. 

Secretaries elected, 16. 

Seychelles, Apoidea (Cockerell), 47; 
Araneae, Opiiiones, and Pseudo- 
seorpiones from the (Ilirsti, 8 ; 
Batrachians and Reptiles from the, 
and Aldabra (Boulenger), 8; Bor- 
boridae, 47 ; Cecidomyiid.T of the 
(Kieft'er), 6; Chironomidaj of the 
(Kieffer), 6 ; Culicidae (Theobold) of 
the, 47 ; Cynipida; and Proctotru- 
poidea (Kietfer), 47 ; Lepidoptera 
(Frj'er), 47 ; Phoridse (Collin), 47 ; 
Stratiomyiidaj of the (Kertesz), 6 ; 
Tortricina and Tineina of the, and 
Adabra (Meyrick), 6 ; Wasps (Meade- 
Waldo), 47. 

Shaw, F. J. F., proposed, 1 1 ; elected, 

Shelford, R., Blattida enclosed in 

Amber, 12. 
Siphonophora of 'Research' Biscayan 

Plankton (Bigelow), 2. 
Smith, E. A., withdrawn, 13. 
Soames, H. A., withdrawn. 13. 
Soar, C. D., admitted, 11 ; elected, 9; 

proposed, 7. 
Solm.s-Laubacb, Count Hermann, to 

receive the Linnean Medal, 11 ; 

Linnean Medal presented to, 30 ; his 

thanks, 31. 
Soper, F. L., deceased, 12; obituary, 40. 
Spengel, Prof. J. W., elected Foreign 

Member, 12; proposed, 8. 
Spermatogenesis of Stenohothrus viri- 

didiis (Meek), 3. 
Sponges, Lantern-slides, and a speci- 
men, of New Zealand, shown (Dendy), 

7 ; Non-calcareous, from the Red 

Sea (Row), 4. 
SpoTOCarpon elegans, exhibited (Scott), 

Stapf, Dr. O., elected Councillor and 

Seci'etary, 16; exhibited Du/itaria 

dldactyla, Wiild., from Sydney, 6 ; 

Report on the Inter. Congr. of Bot., 

1911,4, 5'. 55- 


Stebbing, Mrs. M. A., exliibitecl mons- 
trosity in the Foxglove. 48. 

Stebbing, Ee7. T. E. R.. nppointctl 
Scrutineer, 13, 16; On J. V. Tlioni]!- 
son and his Polyzoa, 12, 64-68 ; On 
J aunfhohipsovia. Bale, 69 ; Tiie terms 
Polyzoa and Brjozoa, 9, 61. 

Stenohofhrus viridulus, Spermatogenesis 
of (Meek), 3. 

Stewart, S. A., deceased, 2, 13 ; obituary, 

Stratiomyiidre of the Seychelles (Ker- 
tesz), 6. 

SiilvOoramissural Organ and Reissner's 
Fibre (Dendy and Nichulls), 5. 

Sweden. Lantern-slides of photographs 
of, shown (Ilopkinson), 9 ; (Monck- 
ton), 8 ; specimens of rock from, 
exhibited, 9. 

Sydney, see Stapf, Dr. O. 

Sykes, E. E., withdrawn, 13. 

Tansley, A. G., communications by 

(Adanison), 4. 10. 
Tattersall, W. M., Nysidacea and Eu- 

phansiacea from the Indian Ocean, 9. 
Theobald, F. V., Ciilicidte of the Sey- 
chelles, 47. 
Thomas, Miss E. N., elected Councillor, 

Thompson, II. S., elected, 3 ; proposed, 

Thompson, J. V., and his Polj-zoa 

(Stebbing), 12; his use of the term 

"Polyzoa" (Herdman), 62. 
Thornely, Miss L. E., Marine Polyzoa 

from the Indian Ocean, 9. 
Tineina, see Tortricina. 
Toronto, Sfc Corfe, Miss B. O. 
Tortricina and Tineinaof the Seychelles 

and Aldabra (Meyrick), 6. 
Trail, Prof. J. W. H., exhibited au 

abnormal form of Ihibus lilceiis, 2. 
Traquairia, Lantern exhibition of new 

species of (Scott), 10. 
Treasurer elected (H. W. Monckton), 

16. . 
Treub, Dr. M., deceased, 2, 13 ; obitmry, 

Turner, R.E.,Fossorial Hymenoptera of 

the Iftdian Ocean, 6. 
Tweed, Eiver, see Hayward, Miss I. M. 

Uppsala, Old Botanic Garden at (Gen. 

Sec), 8. 
I'/f/cii/aria ochroleura, Hartm., and 

U. Bremii, Heer, exhibited (Druce), 


Vaunthomfsonia , Bate (Stebbing), 69. 
I'eroir/ca, Leaves of certain species of 

(Adamson), 4. 
Vice-Presidents appointed, 45. 

Wailes, G. K., admitted, 46 ; elected, 

II ; proposed, 8. 
Waldo, see Meade-^Yaldo. 
Walker, A. O., appointed Scrutineer, 

W.ilker, C. E., withdi-awn, 13. 
Wasps of the Seychelles (Meade- Waldo), 

Waterbuck, Lantern-slide of the head of 

a, shown (Henderson), 47. 
Water-colour drawings of wild flowers, 

exhibited (Corfe), 4. 
Waterfall, C, elected. 45 ; proposed, 1 1. 
Waters, A. W., On the terms Polyzoa 

and Bryozoa, 71. 
Watson, Eev. E. B., deceased, 12 ; 

obitnary, 43. 
Whitman, C. O., deceased, 13. 
Wickes, W. D., deceased, 12. 
Wilsmore, Mrs. L. J., Hexactinia; from 

New South Wales, 7. 
Wilson, Prof. E. B., proposed ns, 

and elected, Foreign Member, 8, 12. 
Wilson, M., admitted, 46; elected, 45 ; 

proposed, 11. 
Withdrawals, 13. 
Woodward, Dr. A. S., elected Councillor, 

16; On the Fauna of the Carboni- 
ferous Period, 45. 
Worsdell, W. C, exhibited maize show- 
ing androgynous inflorescences, and 

wood-carving riddled by Hbfrycho- 

ph'fes cornvius, Oliv., 2. 
Wright, C. H., Flora of the Falkland 

Islands, 5. 

Zeitz, A. H. C, withdrawn, 13. 
Zoological Secretary elected (Prof. A. 
Deudy), i6. 


To face Title.] 

Proc. Linn. Soc, Session 1911-1912. 

at the age of 51. 





From November 1011 to June 1912. 

L N D 1\ 






List of Publications issued iv 

Proceedings of the 124th Session r 

Presidential Address 26 

Obituaries 42 

Abstracts of Papers 71 

Additions to the Library 91 

Benefactions, 17^'0-1 912 no 

Index 118 

Index to the Linnean Herbarium. 


PUBLICATIONS: Session July 191 I-July V,)]2. 

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Proceedings, 123rcl Session, Octobei' 1911. 

List of [Fellows, Associates, and Foreign Members], Nov. 19 11, 





November 2nd, 1911. 

Dr. D. H. Scott, M.A., F.R.S., President, in the Chair. 

The Minutes of the General Meeting of the 15th June, 1911, 
were read and confirmed. 

Mr. "William ISTeiLson Jones, M.A., Mr. Charles Waterfall, and 
Mr. Richard Siddoway Bagnall were admitted Fellows. 

Mr. James Wales Audas, Mr. Claude Keith Bancroft, B.A., 
William John Dakin, D.Sc, Miss Ruth Mary Cardew, Mr. John 
Hughes, Thomas Harvey Johnston, M.A., D.Sc, Robert Laurie, 
M.B., Ch.B. (Glasg.), B.Sc. (Edin.), AViUiam McRae, B.Sc, Sir 
Frederick William Moore, M.A., M.R.I.A., Dr. Annie Porter, 
B.Sc. (Lond.), Albert MaUns Smith, M.A. (Cantab.), Miss Edith 
Layard Sfepiiens, B.A. (Cape), Miss Elsie Maud Wakefield, and 
Alfred James Wilmott, B.A (Cantab.), were proposed as Fellows. 

The President read the following reply by Sir Joseph Hooker, 
in response to the letter of congratulation sent to him from the 
General Meeting of the 15th June : — 

The Camp, Suniiingdale> 
\2bth June, 1911.] 
My dear President, 

The warm congratulations with which I have been greeted 
by my fellow-members of the Linnean Society on the approach 
of my 94th birthday have moved me more deeply than I can 
express. From no other association of scientific labourers could 

LINN. SOC. PROCEEDIiyfGS. — SESSION 1911-1912. h 


greetings be so welcome to me, because of the esteem and afEection 
I feel for the Society as one of its oldest members and because of 
my descent, as grandson and son of two of its earliest. 

Eequesting you to make known to my fellow-members my 
lioarty appreciation of their affectionate congratulation and my 
own best wishes for the continuatiou of its increasing prosperity, 

Believe me, sincerely yours, 

(Signed) Jos. D. Hookee. 
The President, 
Linn can Society. 

Dr. A. B. Rexdle, V.-P., having taken the Chair: — 

Dr. D. H. Scott gave an account of the Palaeozoic Fern, 
Zijgopteris Grayi ("Williamson). (Subsequently published in the 
' Annals of Botany,' vol. xxvi. no. ci, 1912, pp. 139-67, 5 pis.. 

Dr. Rendle having spoken on the subject of the paper, left the 
Chair, and the President resumed. 

A paper, by Miss Edith E. Bamford, entitled "Pelagic Actinian 
Larvae," and communicated by Prof. J. Stanley Gardiner, F.R.S., 
E.L.S., was read in abstract. 

Mr. Alfred 0. Walker contributed a paper on " The Distri- 
bution of Elodea canadensis, Michx., in the British Isles in 1909." 
(Abstract, p. 71.) 

A discussion followed, in which the following took part : — 
Mr. James Groves, Mr. E. M. Holmes, the Rev. T. R. R. Stebbing, 
Prof. J. W. H. Trail, Dr. Margaret Benson, Mr. II. N. Dixon, 
Mr. J. C. Sheustone, Prof. A. Dendy, Dr. O. Stapf, Mr. Henry 
Groves, Dr. A. B. Rendle, and the President. 

Dr. James Murie exhibited sets of specimens of the " Slipper 
Limpet" {Crepidula fornicata), the shells themselves in gra- 
duated series and living examples attached to oysters, mussels, tfec. 
These were obtained in the Essex waters, by dredging, and from 
shallow muddy shore tracts. 

The "Limpets" have now become a nuisance on the oyster-beds 
of Kent and Essex. Originally they were introduced from America, 
among the barrelled oysters brought over for relaying. They have 
since become thorougldy naturalised, and on the Blackweter and 
River Crouch are dredged up in tons, attached to the oysters, 
mussels, &c. 

Unlike the Starfish, devourers and arch-enemies of the oyster, 
the Mussels, which literally smother them, or the Whelk Tingles, 
which bore through their shells, the " Slipper Limpet " is more of 
a commensal parasite and messmate, partaking of the oyster's 

The labour and expense involved in constant dredging for them 


renders them a serious menace to oyster-culture, as likewise the 
necessity for individually chopping them off by " cultack " before 
the oysters are presentable for sale. 

Prof. A. Dendy and tlie President made remarks, and Dr. Murie 
briefly replied. 

Mr. Alfred O. Walker exhibited Clerodendron trichotomum, 
Thunb., in fruit, a result of the past abnormal summer, explaining 
that, although the plant frequently flowered in England, this year 
is the first time it had fruited, the same occurrence being also 
observed at Kew. 

Mr. R. S. Bagnall briefly i*eferred to three interesting captures 
lie had lately made in the county of Durham, namely, species of 
Di^ylopora and Pauropoda, and of Protunt first recorded as British. 

November 16th, 1911. 

Dr. D. H. Scott, M.A., F.R.S., President, in the Chair. 

The Minutes of the General Meeting of the 2nd November, 
1911, were read and confirmed. 

Mr. James M'Crone Douie, C.S.I., Mr. John William Haigh 
Johnson, B.Sc, and Miss Beatrice Lindsay, were proposed as 

Dr. Ebgixald R. Gates, M.A., Ph.D., then gave the main 
outlines of his paper, communicated by Dr. Marie Stopes, F.L.S., 
on " Certain aspects of the Mutation Problem in Oenothera." He 
stated that : — 

Work with the Oenotheras has developed in several directions, 
all bearing on the general question of the place to be assigned 
to mutation as an evolutionary factor. An investigation of the 
behaviour of the Oenotheras in heredity and variation from several 
points of view, gives a broader basis for the interpretation of the 
evolutionary significance of these phenomena than has hitherto 
been possible in most other genera. 

The cj^tological evidence shows that in most of tlie mutants 
from Oenothera LamnrcJciana the chromosome number is unchanged, 
but in the mutant O.glgas it is doubled. Hence mutants originate 
in various ways. Evidence tends to show that the chromosome 
doubling in 0. gigas probably occurred either in the fertilized e^^g, 
or in a megaspore mother-cell which afterwards developed apo- 

On tlie other hand, in certain cases the mutational change 
probably occurs during the reduction divisions. Thus 0. rubri- 
cahjx is a mutant from 0. rubrinervis which produces an extreme 



iiinount of pigineiit ; iiiiil wlieii t-rossed with tlie parent type the 
new cbiinicter behaves as a MeiidcHaii dominant, and so as to 
show that the original mutant individual was Iieterozygous and 
])robably originated from a cross between a germ-cell in which 
tlie new dominant character appeared and one in which it was 

From this and much other evidence, mutation in Oenothera 
appears to be due to a general condition of germinal instability, 
which in turn is probably connected with crossing in theancestr)'. 
This, however, by no means deprives it of evolutionary significance, 
for all open-pollinated species of plants are h^'brids in the sense 
that various races have participated in their immediate ancestry. 

The paper, which was illustrated by lantern-slides, was discussed' 
by Dr. Helen Fraser and the President, the author replying. 

Mr. Gr. Clvbidoe Druce, in his exhibition entitled " Some 
Floristic results of the International Phytogeographic Excursion 
through the British Isles " during the past summer, gave an 
account of the places visited during the five weeks spent on the 
tour, and touched on the species and varieties discovered. (Abstract, 

P- 77-) 

Dr. C. E. xMoss (visitor), the Eev. T. E. R. Stehbing, Mr. William 
Fawcett, and Mr. .1. C. Sheustone discussed certain points raised, 
and Mr. Druce replied. 

Mr. Arthur W. Hill showed drawings of a viviparous speci- 
men of Juncus bufonius, in which the seedlings were seen emerging 
from the parent capsule. 

Mr. N. C. Mao'amara contributed some remarks on " Muta- 
tions in Foxglove plants," which was communicated by Prof. A. 
Dexdt, and read by the General Secretary, as follows : — 

The following record is intended to supplement the communi- 
cation made to the Linnean Society, on my behalf, by Prof. A. 
Dendy, F.K.S., on the 16th of June, 1910, concerning mutations 
in cei'tain Foxglove plants grown at Chorley Wood, Herts. 

From a packet of Foxglove seeds {Dujitalis ^^urpurea) sown in 
the year 1906, fifty-four plants were, in June 1907, planted in a 
shrubbery of fir-trees with an undergrowth of laurels. Of these 
plants fifty-one grew into normal Foxgloves, but the three re- 
maining plants were sports which we may distinguish by the 
letters A, J?, and C. 

A. In this plant the flowers of the lower half of the stem 
possessed only a bifid upper petal and seven stamens united at 
their bases. The flowei's of the upper part of the spike were 

B. A fine, \\ ell-grown plant 4|| feet high ; throughout the 


whole length of the spike the flower consisted of a bifid upper 
petal, seven stamens, and style. The upper part of this spike was 
isolated ; it produced abundant self-fertilized seed. 

C. The spike of this ])lant grew to be 5 feet high ; from base to 
apex its flowers consisted of nine stamens and a style, with no 
vestige of petals. 

It is unnecessary to follow the history of plant A, as it was 
only the lower part of the spike in which the flowers were abnormal, 
and the stem was not isolated. 

Seed taken from tlie upper covered part of the plant B 
(described above) germinated abundantly ; twenty-one of these 
plants flowered in 1^09. Of these twenty-one plants thirteen 
produced spikes of the parent type, and eight produced normal 
Poxglove flow'Crs. One of the thirteen plants grew to be 5 feet 
1 inch high, its spike producing one bifid petal and a style ; but 
its terminal fiower consisted of twenty-two stamens and a large 
flask-shaped carpel (divided into seven compartments) and style, 
but having no corolla, that is, it had no petals. (As shown in 
photograph exhibited.) 

The season of 1909 was sunless with constant rain ; conse- 
quently, all covered plants suffered much from mildew, but I 
managed to collect some self-fertilized seed from the terminal 
flower of the plant referred to, and this seed germinated and 
flowei-ed in 1911. Every one of the twelve plants I reared from 
tlie seed of the terminal flower produced flowers precisely like the 
parent. Two of these plants were isolated and their self-fertilized 
seed germinated freely (September, 1911). 

The seed originally collected from the covered part of plant C 
of 1007, had produced plants which in 1909 gave flowers precisely 
similar to the parent plant ; self-fertilized seed from these plants 
(1909) in 1911 produced plants exactly like those of 1907, ■i.e., 
flowers having nine stamens and a style but no petals ; self- 
fertilized seed from these plants are now (September, 1911) 
germinating freely. Some of the plants of 1909, however, in 
place of a tall single spike grew some seven or eight shorter spikes, 
each flower of which had nine stamens but no petals. 

It seems that a certain number of the Foxglove seeds sown in 
the year 1906 contained elements in a condition such as that 
described by de Vries as being " impressed by an impulsive muta- 
bility,"' for some of the flowers produced by these seeds were 
sports. Seeds from these sports produced their like in 1909 ; 
and, further, these latter plants produced some terminal flowers 
totally differing in character from the parent sport from which 
they were derived. Seeds from these terminal flowers produced 
their like in the year 1911 ; so that 1 have now two different strains 
of Foxglove plants produced from the seeds sown in 1906, and these 
strains have been produced from self-fertilized flowers, that is, 
from flowers carefully protected from insects or other means 
of cross-fertilization. If other observers would record their 


experience as to the behaviour of sports of this kind, in the course 
of time we might hope to possess data sufficient to enable us to 
form some reasonable idea as to the i'requeucy, and above all» 
the permanency of such mutations in wild types of plants. 

December 7th, 1911. 
Dr. D. H. ScoxT, M.A., F.R.S., President, in the Chair. 

The Minutes of the General Meeting of the IGth November, 
1911, were read and confirmed. 

Mr, Frank Evans, Mr. George William Howes, and Dr. Ealph 
Vincent were proposed as Fellows. 

Mr. James Wales Audas, Mr. Claude Keith Bancroft, B.A., 
Miss Kuth Mary Cardew, AVilliam John Dakiii, D.Sc, Mr. John 
Hughes, John Harvey Johnston, M.A., D.Sc, Eobert Laurie, 
M.B., Ch.B. (Glasg.), B.Sc. (Edin.), William McEae, B.Sc, Sir 
Frederick William Moore, M.A., M.E.I.A., Dr. Annie Porter, 
B.Sc. (Lond.), Albert Malins Smith, M.A. (Cantab.), Miss Edith 
Layard Stephens, B.A. (Cape), Miss Elsie Maud Wakefield, and 
Alfred James Wilmott, B.A. (Cantab.), were elected Fellows. 

Mr. H. N. Dixon read his paper entitled " On some Mosses of 
New Zealand." 

Dr. Geokge Hendeeson then showed a series of more than 
70 slides, taken during an official mission through Kashmir, Little 
Tibet, and Turkestan in 1870. The original photographs had 
been lost sight of, but having recently been discovered in the 
keeping of a friend, lantern-slides had been made from them, and 
were now shown, with explanatioiif^ by the author. He traced 
the progress of the expedition from Lahore to Yarkand, where the 
series ended. 

Dr. Stapf and the President commented on the interest of the 
exhibition, and the botanical results obtained 40 years ago. 

Dr. Hendersox also showed three variations in the foliage of 
Ahws (jlvtinosa from the banks of the Elver Darenth, in full view 
of his house, and explained that these differences corresponded 
with varying dates of leafing, leaf-fall, and fruiting. 

The President spoke on the changes induced by trees and 
shrubs being cut back, the luxuriance of the new growth making 
it almost unrecognizable, as in a case observed at Oakley, when it 
was found that Ithnmnus cathartica had assumed a new form 
owing to severe coppicing. Mr. J. C. Shenstone also spoke. 


Dr. A. B. Eendle showed a fine specimen of a viviparous Poa 
tnvialis, Linn., found by Mr. Miller Christy at Stisted, near 
Braintree, in Essex. The normal inflorescence was almost entirely 
replaced by a mass of vegetative outgrowths replacing the flowers. 

A discussion followed, in which Dr. Stapf, Mr. H. N. Dixon, 
and Mr. W. C. Worsdell took part. 

December 21st, 1911. 

Dr. D. H. Scott, M.A., F.R.S., President, in the Chair 

The Minutes of the General Meeting of the 7th December, 
1911, were read and confirmed. 

The President then spoke of the loss sustained by the Society 
since its last meetinj^ in the death of Sir Joseph Hooker, beyond 
doubt their most distinguished Pellow. He was elected June 7, 
1842, over 69 years ago, and served on the Council, with only 
short intermissions, from 1846 to 1884 ; he was Vice-President 
during a great part of that time, and exercised considerable influence 
on the aff'airs of the Society, though, unfortunately, never Presi- 
dent. Much of his best work, so far as it A^as not in book-form, was 
published by the Society ; his memoirs on the Flora oi the Gala- 
pagos Islands, the distribution of Arctic plants, and the classic 
memoir on the unique plant, Wehvitschia mirabilis, were mentioned. 
His last paper published in our Transactions was on the Eubber 
plant, Castilloa, 25 years back. The Society hoped to have the 
lionour of publishing his latest work, on the genus Impatiens, upon 
which he was actively engaged during the last years of his life, 
till very near the end. 

Sir Joseph was the acknowledged leader in systematic, and 
above all, in geographical botany. His contributions to fossil 
botany were of great value : by the world at lai'ge, he would be 
best known for his close association with Darwin and with the 
development of the Darwinian theory. 

The following Resolution was then moved from the Chair : — 

The Fellows of the Linnean Society of London in General 
Meeting assembled, desire to place upon record their profound 
sense of the loss to the Society and to the World of Science, 
occasioned by the deatli of Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker on 
the 10th December, and their pride in his having been a Fellow 
of the Linnean Society for nearly 70 years, during which by 
his scientific contributions to the Society's publications and his 
advice throughout his many years of service on the Council, he 
so greatly added to the prestige and eflioiency of the Society. 

They desire also to express their deepest sympathy with 
Lady Hooker and the family in their bereavement. 

That a copy of the foregoing Eesolution be communicated 
to the family by the General Secretary. 


The Resolution was carried unanimously, the Fellows rising in 
their places. 

The President then announced that a vacancy existed in the 
List of Foreign Members by the recent death oi" Dr. Jean Baptiste 
Edouard JJornet,, and that two vacancies had arisen 
in the List of Associates, by the death of Mr. Oswald Arthur 
8ayce, and the election as Fellow of Sir Frederick William 
Moore, M.A. 

Miss liuth Mary Cardew, the Eev. Hilderic Friend, and 
Miss Elsie Maud Wakefield, were admitted Fellows. 

Sir James M'Crone Douie, K.C.S.L, Mr. John William Haigh 
Johnson, E.Sc, and Miss Beatrice Lindsay, were elected Fellows. 

The Rev, Hilderic Feiend, F.L.S., then read his paper, en- 
titled " Some Annelids of the Thames A^alley," which w as discussed 
by Prof. A. Dendy, Sec.L.S., and the Rev. T. R. R. Stebbing; the 
author briefly replying. 

Mr. W. C. WoRSDELL, F.L.S., then gave a lantern exhibition 
of a series of slides, show ing abnormalities in fungi, and explained 
his views on the causes which produce them. Prof. F. O. Bower, 
Prof. D. T. MacDougal (visitor), the Rev. T. R. R. Stebbing, 
Prof. A. Dendy, Sec.L.S., Dr. Stai)f, Sec.L.S., Miss E. M. Wake- 
field, Miss E. N. 'i'liomas, and the President joined in a discussion, 
and the exhibitor replied. 

Dr. A. B. Rkndle, F.R.S., F.L.S., showed specimens obtained 
in 1911, of the dissected leaf-form of Horseradish, Cochlearia 
Armoracia ; in his absence, the following statement was read for 
him by the General Secretary : — 

" It is not suggested that the dissected form of leaf of Horse- 
radish is new ; it will be familiar to many Fellows. The leaf- 
tissue between the veins is undeveloped to a greater or less degree, 
and a more or less cut form of leaf results. 1 should like to ask 
whether this form has been more generally noticed during the 
past remarkably sunny summer. It might be suggested that it is 
a response to an increased amount of sunlight or diminution of 
water-supply. The specimen w hich I am sliowing came from a 
dry field, about a njile from the sea, at Bognor, in which a number 
of the ])lants were growing here and there, and nearly all of them 
showed the phenomenon in a greater or less degree. I noticed 
the same dissected leaf-form in other places this summer. 

" Miss Ida M . Roper, F.L.S., has sent a specimen from Somerset, 
and her letter may be worth reading to the Fellows." 

The letter, dated the 20th December, was accordingly read. 

Dr. Stajjf then referred to one or two points suggested by the 


January 18th, 1912. 
Dr. D. H. ScoxT, M.A., F.E.S., President, in the Chair. 

The Minutes of the General Meeting of the 21st December, 
1911, were read and confirmed. 

Miss Alice Pegler was proposed as an Associate. 

Mr. Frank Evans, Mr. George WilHam Howes, and Ealph 
Vincent, M.D., M.E.C.P., were elected Pellows. 

Dr. A. Anstruther Lawson, F.L.S., gave a lantern lecture 
entitled " Some features of the Marine Flora at 8t. Andrews," 
showing the wealth of algal vegetation at t'lat part of tlie coast, 
and its special characteristics, including the habit of the plants 
when growing in their natural position under water. Illustrations 
of the gigantic Brown Alga3 of the Pacific Coast were also shown 
for comparison. 

The lecture was discussed by Miss A. L. Smith, Mr. J. C. 
Shenstone, Prof. F. E. Fritseh, Mr. A. D. Cotton, and the 
President, the lecturer replying to various questions. 

Miss E. L. Turner, F.L.8., then showed a series of lantern- 
slides illustrating her discovery last year of a nestling Bittern in 
Norfolk on the 8th July, 1911. The slides were from photographs 
taken by the author, and showed the young bird in its protective 
attitude simulating a bundle of I'eeds, and the nest itself. 

The narrative showed that probably more than one young bird 
had been batched, and that the fledgling found was the last of the 
brood, and the older birds had been induced by the parents to quit 
the neighbourhood of the nest and scatter amongst the reeds of 
the marsh. It is gratifying to recoi'd the recurrence of this in- 
teresting species in a county in which it was formerly common, 
and it is hoped that it may re-establisli itself in its old haunts. 

The Rev. T. 11. R, 8tebbing, F.R.S., added some remarks, 
congratulating Miss Turner on her success as an observer. 

The General Secretary read a letter from Dr. George Henderson, 
accompanying a quantity of seeds of Nannorrli02^s liitchiana, 
H. Wendl., which the sender wished should be tried in cultivation 
in the South of England by as many persons as possible. He 
stated that these seeds were of last summer's growth, and came 
from the Ivhyber Pass, wliere snow sometimes covered these palms 
in winter, whilst the summer is very hot. He further suggested 


that heat might he requisite to cause the seeds to germinate 

The seeds were accordingly distributed amongst those present 
at the meeting. 

February Ist, 1912. 

Prof. E. B. PouLTON, F.E.S., Vice-President, in the Chair. 

The Minutes of the General Meeting of the 18th January, 1912 
were read and confirmed. 

Dr. Ralph Vincent was admitted a Fellow. 

Mr. Charles Cumming Calder, B.Sc, Mr. Thomas Alfred 
Dymes, Mr. Thomas Maldon Fitch, Miss Clara Ethelinda Larter, 
Miss Maud Samuel, E.Sc, and Mr. David George Stead, were 
proposed as Fellows, and Mr. Arthur Patterson and Mr. Ciiarles 
Davies Sherborn for the vacant Zoological Associateship. 

Mr. F. N. Williams regretted the present method of postponing 
exhibitions, which produced the greatest amount of discussion, 
to the reading of papers of mere formal importance, with the 
consequent inconvenience to those Fellows who, living at a 
distance, had to leave early on account of their trains. 

The Vice-President in the Chair pointed out that the matter 
was actually before the Council, and Mr. Williams's remarks 
would receive attention ; and Prof. Dendy, Sec.L.S., explained 
the reason why the alteration had been tried. 

The following live papers, relating to the fauna of the Seychelles 
and other islands of the Indian Ocean, were communicated by 
Prof. J. Stanley Gardinee, F.R.S., F.L.S. : — 

1. M. A. FoREL. — Four 111 is des Seychelles et des Aldabras, 

revues de M. Hugli Scott. 

2. Mr. F. W. Edwards. — Tipulidae. 

3. Di". GtJNTHER Enderlein. — Sciaridse. 

4. Mr. Claude Morley. — The Ic-hiieumonidae. 

5. C. Tate Eegan, M.A.— New Fishes. 

The Vice-President in the Chair, Prof. Dendy, Sec.L.S., the 
Rev. T. R. R. Stebbing, and Prof. W. A. Herdman contributed 
some remarks on the value and importance of the results thus 
briefly summarized. 

The Rev. 11. AsnixoTOX Bullen, F.L.S. , exhibited a snail found 
by him at Potto Pi, near Palma, Mallorca, in March 1909. Its shell 
puzzled him, because it had composite characters allying it on the 


one band to Helix aspersa, O. F, Miill., and on the other to 
Otala vermictdata (0. F. Miill.), both common Lusitanian forms. 
The Rev. E. H. Bowell having examined the anatomy of the 
animal itself, found that its radula partook of an intermediate 
character, showing affinities to the species named above, and the 
absence of certain organs argued its hybridit)'. 

A discussion followed, in which the following took part : — 
Prof. Poulton, Mr. Alfred Santer Kennard (visitor), and the 

Eev. R. AsHiis'GTON Bullen also exhibited new engravings, 
enlarged 12 diameters, of Hygromia montivaga, AVesterlund. This 
land-mollusc was found at Harlyn Bay, Cornwall, in 1902, in a 
prehistoric cemetery of late Keltic date. He had found about 40 
specimens in all. It is a member of the Lusitanian fauna, and, so 
far, only found in England in the above locality. The exhibitor 
adduced evidence to show that it was certainly of pre-Eoman date 
(dying out in the early Iron Age), he having obtained it from a 
probably Pleistocene horizon in previously undistui'bed brown 
sandy clay, the upper disintegrated layer of the Ladock Beds 
(Devonian Slates). The place where he so found it had not been 
dug into for the purpose of burial. It also occurred in the 
brown sand in which the late Keltic burials were placed, but not 
in the 12 or 13 feet of bright shell-sand beneath the top soil and 
above the interments, Roman remains (a coin of the younger 
Faustina) had occurred in the neighbourhood no deeper than 

The following joined in the discussion upon this exhibition : — 
Prof. Dendy, Sec.L.S., Mr. A. S. Kennard (visitor), the Treasurer, 
Mr. J. C. Shenstoue, Mr. Hugh Findon, Dr. Otto Stapf, Sec.L.S., 
Mr. F. N. Williams, Dr. Marie Stopes, and Prof. Poulton, the 
exhibitor replying. 

The G-eneral Secretary brought forward a communication from 
Herr Paul Scheedlin, as follows : — 

" For hundreds of years pigeons have nested on the spire of 
Strassburg cathedral. They increased so much that many attempts 
have been made to extirpate them, but in vain. During the last 
few years there has been a sudden and startling diminution iu the 
number of these cathedral pigeons. 

" I am of opinion that this manifest reduction is due to the 
asphalting of the streets round the cathedral. Between the stone 
sets of the pavement the pigeons were able to pick up food in 
quantity. In consequence of the asphalting, and daily \^atering 
and cleansing of the places in the immediate neighbourhood, the 
birds have gone. 

",Has a similar case been observed elsewhere ? " 

The Rev. R. Ashington Bullen, Prof. Dendy, Mr. Henry Bury, 
and Mr. Charles Oldham (visitor) spoke on the subject, — the last 


speaker referring to the lessened number of pigeons in certain 
parts of London, due to the increase of motor traffic and corre- 
sponding decrease of horses, tlie birds thus losing tlieir chief 
source of food from scattered horse-feed. 

The Genex'al Secretary then brought forward a communication 
entitled "Additional Information concerning Linne's J.ajjland 
Drum." He stated that on the 2nd February, 1911, he showed 
some lantern-slides concerning lioslin's portrait of Carl von Linne 
(Proc. iyiU-1 1 , p. 2, plate), followed by some remarks on the Lapp 
drum which figures in the Hoffman portrait and on the titlepage 
of the ' Flora Lapponica.' 

Innnediately upon the printed account of this exhibition 
reaching Sweden, two correspondents wrote to him about ir, 
and one of them, Dr. J. M. llulth, of Uppsala, was so kind as to 
enclose a reprint of au article by Dr. Edgar Reuterskicild, on the 
Linnean Lapland magic drum, from which the following in- 
formation is taken. 

The information printed in the Proceedings for last year 
(pp. 60-01) represented the ascertained facts up to the Bi- 
centenary of Linne in May 1907. But enquiry was afterwards 
made as to what had become of the Linnean drum, and it resulted 
in the discovery of its history as follows : — The drum formed 
part of a large collection of curiosities whicli was bought by the 
Uni\ersity of Upsala in 1832 on the death of Thun berg's pupil 
and botanical demonstrator, C. P. Forsberg. In 1874 the Uni- 
versity, not knowing its interestino history, presented it to the 
Royal Academy of Science, Stockholm, whence, in 1883, it passed 
to the Trocadero Museum, in Paris, in exchange for some Peruvian 

It now seems certain that Linne received the magic drum from 
Pite Lappmark, as it agrees with the design of others from that 
part, and differs from the form of those from Kimi and Torne 
Lappmark ; it has certain figures used in the district of Asele. 
AVe may ex])ect a detailed account of the drum in question from 
Dr. Reuterskiiild, who is occupied in au exhaustive review of all 
known specimens. 

The Treasurer referred to the interest of this exhibition, 
specially witli regard to the local variations in the pattern of 
the drums. 

The General Secretary also read a letter from Sir E. Ray 
Lankesteii, K.C B., F.R.S., referring to certain developments on 
the part of ' Tiie Field ' newspaper, as enlisting the help of 
sportsmen and country gentlemen for natural history. 

Mr. John Hopkinsoti also contributed some remai'ks on the 
illustrations shown in support of the letter. 


February loth, 11)12. 

Dr. D. H. Scott, M.A., F.E.S., President, in the Chair. 

The Miuutes of the General Meeting of the 1st February, 1912, 
were read and confirmed. 

Mr. Albert Malins Smith, M.A., was adm.itted a Fellow. 

Mr. Kichard Higgins Burne and Prof. Augustus Daniel Irams, 
B.A., B.Sc, were proposed as Fellows. 

Miss Alice Pegler was elected an Associate. 

With reference to remarks made at the last General IMeetinff,. 
the Pi'esideut read the following Resolution which had been 
adopted by the Council : — 

"That it be the duty of the Secretaries to arrange the 
Agenda of the Exhibitions and Papers for each meeting 
in such a way as may in their discretion best contribute to 
tlie interest and convenience of the Fellows attending the 

Mr. EoBERT Haeolb Compton, M.A., read a pa[)er, com- 
municated by Prof. A. C. Sewakd, F.E.S., F.L.S., entitled "An 
Investigation of the Seedling Structure in the Leguminosa?."' 

A discussion followed,, by Miss E. JV. Thomas, J\Ir. T. G. Hill, 
Dr. Ethel de Fraine, Mr. A. G. Tansley, the President, Dr. Otto 
Stapf, Sec.L.S., and Mr. Ernest Lee, the author replying. 

Mr. C. E. Salmon exhibited an abnormal Orchis with enlarged 
drawings of the flowers, with the following note : — 

On April 23rd, 1911, Mr. P. H. Mitchiner gathered this re- 
markable specimen on the chalk downs above Eeigate and brought 
it to me for determination. At a first glance, Hahenaria viridis 
or Herminium MonorcJiis might be suggested as a name, for the 
stem was about 4 inches high, with a spike of small greenieh-yellow 

A close examination soon dispelled such an idea, and I saw at 
once that the specimen was unlike any British wild Orchid. 
Knowing that Mr. W. B. Hemsley had studied various species of 
this Order very closely, I at once packed up the specimen and 
despatched it to him. I cannot do better than read the careful 
report he made upon it, only regretting that he is unable to be 
present to-night to explain personally the various points. He 
writes : — 

" Although none of the flowers attained full development, some 
of them grew out sufficiently for analysis and recognition of the 
parts. Briefly, the floAvers present several peculiarities. In the 


first place, they have three spurs, the additional pair heing 
sepaline ; agreeing in this respect with the three-spurred Platan- 
thera that 1 exhihited before the Linnean Society, Jan. 17, 1907, 
and differing from the three - spurred Platanthera exhibited 
March 19, 1908, in which the additional spurs were petaline; 
these two conditions affording examples of false and true peloria 
respectively. Both specimens of Platanthera contained fully 
developed normal pollinia ; your plant, none. The structure of 
the flowers of your plant is as follows: — Scape with one appressed 
leaf. Flowers yellowish, crowded, not fully developed and only 
about one-tliii'd of an inch long. Bracts longer than the ovary, 
shorter than the flower. Flowers 3-spurred, the additional spurs* 
produced by the two lateral sepals, and somewhat thicker than 
the labelhnn spur. Spurs equal or unequal in length. Labellum 
considerably larger than the sepals and petals, narrow in the 
basal half and nearly orbicular in the distal half, entire or 
irregularly 5-toothed. Sepals and petals otherwise similar. 
Genitalia (juite rudimentary with no trace of pollinia. 

" The floral structure of this anomalous orchid, especially the 
shape of the different organs, and its sterile nature, Mould lead one 
to suppose it to be of hybrid origin. But its early appearance 
and its small size make it diflicult to suggest a probable parentage. 
The shape of the labellum points to Orchis and I suggest some 
connection with 0. Morio ; yet the resemblances go no further. 
I sent the drawings to my friend Dr. Focke, and he replied that 
he could say very little about it but referred me to a Swiss record, 
which he had not seen, of an anomalous 0. Morio, as a possible 

The suggestion of Dr. Focke (whose letter is upon the table) 
is not very helpful, as the plant to which he refers proved to be 
a 3-lipped and 3-spurred Orchis Morio. The plants associated 
with this abnormal Orchis on the Reigate Downs include Orchis 
masctda, 0. Morio (sparingly), 0. ustulata (sparingly), Aceras, and, 
not far away, Habenaria hifolia ; but of all these, 0. mascula 
Mould be the only species in flower on such an early date as 
April 23rd. 

I may mention that Mr. Hemsley showed the drawing at a 
meeting of the Scientific Committee of the Eoyal Horticultural 
Society on Aug. 20, 1911, but no conclusion was arrived at. I 
should be very glad to hear any suggestions as to the origin of 
the plant. 

Mr. Hugh Findox showed a series of Glass-sponges from Japan. 
He stated that these sponges had been lately given to him by a 
gentlnman who received a number of them some years ago from a 
naturalist in Japan. 

He stated that they were of two species, Hyalonema SiehoWii 
and H. apertinn, and were dredged in ten to fifteen fathoms 
of water off the East Coast of Japan. One specimen had been 
cut in order to see the connection between the stalk, or " rope," 


and the sponge proper. The lover ends of the strands of the 
"rope" are barbed in a peculiar manner, as may be seen under 
the microscope. 

Slides of the spicules were also shown under the microscope, of 
which there seem to be a great variety, the most noteworthy being 
the double-ended, six-bladed, battleaxe-form and the four-i'ayed 
star with the barbed spur. Tliere also appears to be a smaller 
double mushroom anchor form and many straight spines. The 
spicules polarize light but sliglitly, and appear to have an organic 
nucleus or centre core. 

Prof. A. Dend}'-, Sec.L.S., spoke on the history of these 
sponges, and the original erroneous ideas entertained concerning 
their nature and mode of growth. He further displayed illus- 
trations from various sources in support of his statements. 

March 7th, 1912. 

Dr. D. H. Scott, M.A., F.R.S., President, in the Chair. 

The Minutes of the General Meeting of the loth Pebruary, 
1912, were read and confirmed. 

Mr. AUeyne Leechman and Dr. Charles Edward Moss wei'e 
proposed as Fellows, and Dr. Hermann Christ-Sociu as a Foreign 

Mr. Charles Gumming Calder, B.Sc, Mr. Thomas Alfred 
Dymes, Mr. Thomas Maldon Fitch, Miss Clara Ethelinda Larter, 
Miss Maud Samuel, B.Sc, and Mr. David George Stead were 
elected Fellows. 

The names of Mr. Arthur Patterson and Mr. Charles Davies 
Sherborn uere submitted to a ballot for the vacant Zoological 
Associateship. The ballot having been closed, the President 
nominated Mr. A. D. Michael, Dr. W. T. Caiman, and Dr. A. P. 
Young, Scrutineers ; these having examined the Ballot-papers and 
reported to the President, he declared that Mr. Charles Davies 
Sherborn had been elected an Associate. 

The President announced the death of Mr. Alfred Fryer, A.L.S. 

Prof. Perct Gkoom read a paper entitled "Note on the 
Internodes of CalamitesP 

A discussion followed, in which the following took part : — 
Prof. F. W. Oliver, Dr. Marie Stopes, Mr. Clement Reid, and the 
President, the author replying. 

Miss Ethel M. Phillips exhibited a portfolio of water-colour 
drawings, and explained that they were made duriug a recent 


visit to Barbados, AVest Indies, between Xovember 1908 and 
yiny 1911. "I had been greatly struck by tlie profusion and 
brilliance of the flora o( the Ishiiui, and having tried to make a 
collection of dried specimens, which [ji-oved most disappointing, I 
was led to begin the paintings by a desire to have some permanent 
record of what I saw. The list of 104 plants is far from being 
exhaustive, but contains perhaps the majority of the more promi- 
nent ones. I am not a botanist, but have endeavoured to delineate 
as faithfully as possible the form and structure of the various 
species, and have also tried to reproduce something of the 
intensity of colouring which seemed to me so remarkable. I may 
perhaps be allowed to make a special mention of the number of 
Flamboyant trees, Poincluna regia, which \sith theii- abundance 
of bright scarlet blossoms form so striking a feature of the 
landscape in the months of May, June, and July." A list of 
most of the botanical names, supplied by Mr. John Bovell, F.L.S., 
of the Agricultural Department, Barbados, was also show n. The 
exhibitor reminded those present that some of the colours, especially 
the mauves and blues, are not seen to advantage in artificial 

The Rev. T. E. li. Stebbing read his paper, " Historic doubts 
about VmoUhompsonia." (Abstract, p. 78). 

Dr. W. T. Caiman, the General Secretary, and Prof. A. Dendv, 
Sec.L.S., joined in the subsequent discussion. 

Dr. Otto Staff, Sec.L.S., by permission of the Director of the 
Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, showed some living specimens of 
Cactoid Euphorbias from South Africa, and commented on the 
salient features of the group. 

The President, Miss M. Carson, Mr. H. R. Darlington, the 
Treasurer, Mr. Clement Eeid, Mr. J. C. Shenstone, Prof. A. 
Dendy, and Dr. C. E. Moss (visitor) contributed further remarks, 
and Dr. Stapf replied. 

March 21st, 1912. 

Dr. D. H. Scott, M.A., F.R.S., President, in the Chair. 

The Minutes of the General Meeting of the 7th March, 1912, 
were read and confirmed. 

Dr. Ronald llamlyn-Harris, F.Z.S., and Mr. Robert Heath 
Lock, M.A. (Cantab,), were proposed as Fellows, and Mr. AVilliam 
Hales as an Associate. 

Mr. Richard Higgins Burne, and Prof. Augustus Daniel Imms, 
B.A., D.Sc, were elected Fellows. 


A paper by Dr, Ign^acio Boliyar aud Mr. Cuaeles Ferriere, 
B.Sc, on the " Orthoptera-Phasinid^e of the Seychelles," and 
communicated by Prof. J. Stanley GtARDiiner, P.R.S., F.L.S., 
was read by the Zoological Secretar\% who, in illustration of this 
paper, showed living examples of Phasinidie and their eggs, 

Mr. W. F. Kirby, Miss E. Pearse (who also showed specimens), 
Miss E. M. AVaketield, Dr. A. P. Young, and Dr. Otto Stapf, 
Sec.L.S., joined in the discussion which followed. 

Miss May Eathboxe exhibited a specimen of TrifoUam repens 
which showed phyllody of the carpels in a very distinct manner, 
the axes of many of the flowers being prolonged into a single 
leaflet, subtended by stipules, the rest of the flower calling for no 
remark. (Abstract, p. 79.) 

Miss E. M. Berridge, the President, Dr. O. Stapf, Dr. C. E. 
Moss (visitor), Mr. H. E. Darlington, the Eev. E. .S. Marshall, 
and Dr. R. E. Gates (visitor), contributed further observations. 

Mr. J. A. Ltddell's paper, " On Nitocrameira hdeUurce, a new 
genus of parasitic Cantliocamptidse," communicated by Prof. G. C. 
Bourne, F.E.S., F.L.S., was read in abstract by the Zoological 
Secretary, and commented on by the Eev. T. E. E. Stebbing, 
Dr. W. T. Caiman, Prof. Dendy, Sec.L.S., and the President. 

The Botanical Secretary gave an account of a paper by Mr. W. 
"West and Prof. G. S. "West entitled " On the Periodicity of the 
Phytoplankton of some British Lakes." 

Mr. H. jN". Dixon showed a series of plants from South Poi'tugal, 
stating that the plants shown were collected on a botanical visit 
to Algarve in company with Mr. W. E. Nicholson in May, 1911. 
The trip was mainly taken with a view to bryophytic study, and 
the phanerogams were only incidentally collected. They were 
not shown with special reference to their botanical interest, 
though some of them were decidedly rare, but chiefly in order 
to draw attention to the method of mounting in some instances, 
certain of the specimens being mounted on sheets of black 
paper, instead of the ordinary white. In some cases, as for 
instance with white and yellow flowers, or with many grasses, 
the colour of the flower is shown up much better by the contrast ; 
and in others, where this is not conspicuously the case, the black 
background produces a restful ness to the eye which probably, 
quite apart from colour contrast, is an advantage. It is not 
suggested that in all cases, or for herbarium purposes, there is any 
advantage gained, but for exhibition purposes, and for a certain 
class of plants it seems an improvement over the ordinary white 
sheet. The surface should of course have as little glaze as possible, 
and a paper should be chosen which has been found to bear con- 
sidei'able exposure to light without discoloration. 

LINN. SOC, proceedings. — SESSION 1911-1912. c 


Several of the plants shown are endemic to Portugal, and others 
to the Spanish Peninsula. 

Dr. C. E. Moss, ]Mr. Wilfred Mark Webb, Mr. J. C. Shenstone, 
and the Treasurer also spoke on the subject of the exhibition. 

Dr. John Mastin sent for exhibition under the microscope, 
two slides of Polycistina obtained under the following circum- 
stances: — 

"On the 4th September, 1011, a few days after a stormy sea 
and heavy wind, on the coast off Whitby, Yorkshire, I saw a 
little patch of beautiful iridescent colour floating on the surface 
of the then calm water. 1 skimmed this cloud of colour, and on 
clearing later, found it to be varieties of Polycistina, of the family 
Ehizopoda, but having siliceous instead of calcareous shells. 

"These shells, which are of magnificent forms, are identical 
with those usually (and, I am informed, hitherto onhi) found in 
the West Indies and along the coasts of Florida aud the Gulf of 
Mexico. 1 believe they are the first discovered on the English 
Coast, to which they will most probably have been brought by the- 
Gulf Stream. 

" I shall be glad if any of the Fellows of the Society can inform 
me if such as these have ever been discovered on the Yorkshire 
Coast, or indeed on any portion of the home coasts. 

" Up to the present 1 have failed to find similar ones in any 
private or public collection which have been found locally. They 
are all purely West Indian varieties and appear to be absolutely 
new on these shores." 

Prof. Dendy remarked upon the interest of this exhibition, 
and that the forms shown were similar to those procurable from 

April 18th, 1912. 

Dr. D. H. Scott, M.A., F.E.S., President, in the Chair. 

The Minutes of the General Meeting of the 21st March, 1912, 
were read and confirmed. 

Mr. Eichard Higgins Burne was admitted a Fellow. 

Mrs. Eleanor Mary Eeid, B.Sc, was proposed as a Fellow. 

Mr. Alleyne Leechman and Dr. Charles Edward Moss were 
elected Fellows. 

The following Auditors for the Treasurers Accounts were 
nominated by the Council, and elected by show of hands, namely : 
for the Council, Dr. A. B. liendle and Mr. A. AV^ Hill : for the 
Fellows, Mr, Hamilton H. C. J. Druce and the Hon. N. C. 


The President anuounced that the Linnean Medal would be 
awarded to Dr. E. C. L. Perkins, famous for his researches on the 
Fauna of the Sandwicli Islands. 

Dr. D. H. Scott read a paper on '■'■ Botnjchioxylon paradoxum, a 
Palaeozoic Pern with Secondary Wood." 

Eemarks were contributed by Dr. E. A. N. Arber, Prof. A. C. 
Seward, and Dr. W. H. Lang, the author replying briefly. 

Dr. E. A. Newell Arber then summarized his paper, "On 
Psygmophyllum majus, sp. nov., from the Lower Carboniferous 
Rocks of Newfoundland, together with a Eevisiou of the Grenus, 
and Eemarks on its Affinities." 

Prof. Seward and the President followed with additional ob- 

Mrs. He>'shaw then gave a lantern demonstration on "The 
Alpine Flora of the Canadian Eocky Mountains," the slides giving 
admirable representations of the more striking constituents of the 
flora, with views of the magnificent mountain scenery in which 
the plants are found. 

Dr. O. Stapf, Sir Frank Crisp, and the President joined in the 
discussion which followed. 

May 2nd, 1912. 

Dr. D. H. Scott, M.A., F.E.S., President, in the Chair. 

The Minutes of the General Meeting of the 18th April, 1912, 
were read and confirmed. 

Mr. Charles Hedley and Mr. Thomas Alfred Dymes were 
admitted Fellows. 

Mr. William Henry Daun, .M.A. (Cantab.), the Eev. John 
Stewart Miiller, M.A. (Cantab.), and Mr. Edwin Percy Phillips, 
M.A. (Cape Univ.), were proposed as Fellows. 

The following persons were severally balloted for and elected: — 
Dr. Eonald Hamlyn-Harris, F.Z.S., and Mr. Eobert Heath Lock, 
M.A. (Cantab.), Fellows ; Dr. Hermann Christ-Socin, of Basel, 
Foreign Member ; and Mr. William Hales, Associate. 

The President read the proposed alterations in the Bye-Laws in 
Chap. II. Sections 2 and 3, with regard to Composition ; the new 
provisions were explained by the President, and the method of 
voting to be adopted on the Gth June, by the General Secretary. 


Miss T. L. Pravkeiid, B.Sc, read her paper " On the Structure 
of the Palaeozoic Seed Larienostoma ovoides, AVill.," aud com- 
municated by Prof. F. W. Oliver, F.R.S., F.L.S. 

The President, Prof. F. W. Oliver, and Dr. Marie Stopes 
contributed further remarks on the subject of the memoir. 

A paper, by Dr. Karel Domin, was communicated and read 
by Dr. O'rro Staff, Sec.L.S., and entitled: "Additions to the 
Flora of Western and North-Western Australia." 

Dr. Rendle and Dr. Stapf commented on certain points of the 

The next paper was by Mr. G. H. Wailes, entitled " Fresh- 
water Rhizopoda from the States of New York, New Jersey, and 
Georgia, with a supplementary account of some species from the 

Mr. Wilfred Mark Webb exhibited several specimens of the 
extremely rare British AVoodlouse, Lyc/kUum liypnorum, and ex- 
plained the circumstances under which lie obtained these specimens 
from Great Warley, Essex. 

The Rev. T. R. R. Stebbiiig adverted to his first finding the 
species in Britain, and the relations experienced \\ith the then 
leading authorities on the group ; Prof. Dendy also joined in the 

The Rev. R. Ashingtox Bullex had sent a box containing 
cochineal insects for exhibition ; he expressed a fear that they 
would be dead before they could be shown, which was the case. 

The General Secretary referred to the unfortunate experience 
of Carl von Linne, who had laboured so hard to procure living 
insects ; when at last they reached Uppsala they were cleaned off 
by the gardener, without the Professor's knowledge, to his deep 

The General Secretary placed before the Meeting a summary 
of his recent investigation of the Linuean Herbarium. He stated 
that a full catalogue of its contents had long been desired, but 
difficulties have stood in the way of a complete catalogue. The 
present list was on a modest scale, and only aimed at indicating 
which of the Linneau types are represented in the Herbai'ium 
vei'ified by himself, and these will be shown in the list by special 
type. This will probably obviate much correspondence, and 
many useless references in search of species not contained in 
the Hei'barium. It is hoped that the " Index " may be printed 
by the autumn of the present year. 

It was found in the course of investigation that Sir J. E. Smith 
had transferred no fewer than 110 species to genera other than 
those assigned to them by Linnd ; these have now been restored 
to their original positions. Three signs which had been a puzzle 


to botanists since the days of tlie younger Linne, have been inter- 
preted ; and another discovery shows that Linne had catalogued 
his phants as late as 1767, making three enumerations. Another 
interesting find was that the insects and shells were marked 
off in copies of the 10th ed. of the ' ISystema,' 1759, and the 
12th ed. 1767. A short series of slides in illustration, closed 
the exhibition. 

Dr. Rendle, Dr. Stapf, and the President referred to certain 
points, and the author replied. 

May 24th, 1912. 

Anniversary Meeting. 

Dr. D. H. Scott, M.A., F.E.S., President, in the Chair. 

The Minutes of the General Meeting of the 2nd May, 1912, 
were read and confirmed. 

Miss Clara Ethelinda Larter and Sir Frederick "William Moore 
were admitted Fellows. 

Miss Ethel Mary Doidge, M.A. (Cape Univ.), Mr. Thomas 
Bainbrigge Fletcher, and Mr. John Gervaise Turnbull, were 
proposed as Fellows. 

The Treasurer then laid liis Annual Statement of Accounts 
before the Meeting, and explained the various items of receipts 
and expenditure, and the same was received and adopted upon 
the motion of the President (see pp. 22 & 23). 

The General Secretary then laid his Annual Eeport before the 
Meeting, thus : — 

Since the last Anniversary 10 Fellows had died, or their deaths 
been ascertained : — 

Algernon Sidney Bicknell. 

Dr. Harry Bolus. 

Rev. John Bufton, Ph.D. 

Mrs. Marian Sarah Farquharson, 
F.R.M.S. [Mrs. Ogilvie- 
Farquh arson of Haughton.] 

Albert Harrison. 

Thomas Morlaud Hocken, M.D. 

Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker, O.M. 

George Maw. 

John Campbell Oman. 

Francis Tae;art. 

Also 2 Associates ; — 
Alfred Fryer. | Oswald Arthur Sayce. 

And 2 Foreign Members : — 

Dr. Jean Baptiste Edouard 

Prof. Eduard Strasburger, 



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Fellows withdrawn (14) 

Eev. "William Jenkins Webb 

Dr. Frederic Ilungerford 

Hugh Broughton. 
Fergusson Escombe. 
Dr. George AVallace Eustace. 
Rev. Ililderic Friend. 
Robert Lawrence Heinig:. 

Prof. A. F. Stanley Kent. 
Robert "Walter Campbell 

Thomas R. Sim. 
Matthew B. Slater. 
Herbert Stone. 
David Thomas. 
William AVhitwell. 

Fellows whose names were ordered by the Council to be 
removed from the List (2) : — 

Walter Harris Coffin. | James Moore Williams. 

Fellows elected -42, of whom 3G have qualified up to the present 
time ; also 2 Associates and 1 Foreign Member. 

The Librarian's report was as follows : — 

During the past year tliere have been received as Donations 
from private individuals 82 volumes and 228 pamphlets. 

From the various Universities, Academies, and Scientific 
Societies there have been received in exchange, and otherwise, 
321 volumes and 94 detached parts, besides 76 volumes and 21 
parts obtained in exchange, and as donations from the editors 
and proprietors of independent periodicals. 

The Council at the recommendation of the Library Committee 
have sanctioned the purchase of 193 volumes and 60 parts of 
important works. 

The total additions to the Tiibrary are therefore 672 volumes 
and 403 separate parts. 

The number of books bound during the year is as follows : — 
In full-morocco 3, in half- morocco 225, in half-calf 3, in full- 
cloth 438, in vellum 58, in buckram 55, in boards and half- 
cloth 24. Relabelled (half-morocco and cloth back) 44, Total 
850 volumes. 

The President referred to the losses by death which the Society 
had sustained during the past year, and especially to the quite 
recent death of their Foreign Member, Prof. Strasburger, the 
news of which had only been received the day before. Prof. Stras- 
burger received the Linnean Medal in 1905, and the Darwin- 
AVallace Medal in 1908 ; he was the founder and acknowledged 
leader of modei-n cvtology on its botanical side ; students from 
all parts of the world frequented his famous laboratory, and to 
many of his colleagues, like the speaker, he was a valued personal 

The President referred to the end, now so near, of his own 
term of office, and while regretting for his own sake that the 


time bad come for him to be gathered to his predecessors^ 
congratulated the Society on tlieir gain in securing Prof. Poulton 
as their new President. 

He expressed his great regret that Prof. Dendy was unable to 
offer himself for re-election as Zoological Secretary, his many and 
inci'easiug duties preventing him from continuing his valuable 
services to the Society. In Prof. Dendy they were losing a 
vigorous and able oflicer, whom they could iil spare. If, however, 
they could not keep Prof. Dendy, they were fortunate in being 
able to put forward Prof. Bourne, of Oxford, as his successor. 

The General Secretary having read the Bye-Laws governing 
the Elections, the President opened the business of the day, and 
the Fellows present proceeded to vote for the Council and 

The Ballot for the Council having been closed, the President 
nominated the Eev. T. E. 11. Stebbing, Dr. A. P. Young, and 
Mr. A. "W. Oke, Scrutineers, who, having cast up the votes, 
reported to the President, who declared the result as follows : — 

Tempest Andeesois", D.Sc. ; Prof. G. C. Bourne, F.E.S. ; Prof 
Arthur Dendt, D.Sc, P.E.S. ; Prof. J. Stanley Gardiner 
F.E.S. ; Prof. Percy Groom, D.Sc. ; Henry Groves, Esq. 
Prof. ^V. A. Herdman, F.E.S. ; Arthur W. Hill, M.A. 
Dr. B. Daydon Jackson ; Prof. F. Keeble, Sc.D. ; Horace W 
MoNCKTON, F.G.S. ; Prof. Francis W. Oliter, F.E.S. ; Prof 
E. B. Poulton, F.R.S. ; Dr. Walter George Eidewood ; Henry 
IN". EiDLEY, C.M.G., F.E.S. ; Miss Edith E. Saunders ; Dr. 
DuKiNFiELD H. Scott, F.E.S. ; Dr. Otto Stapf, F.E.S. ; Miss 
Ethel "N. Thomas, B.Sc. ; Dr. A. Smith Woodward, F.E.S. 

(The retiring Councillors were : — Prof. V. H. Blackmak^ 
Mr. Henry Bury, Sir Frank Crisp, Mr. E. S.Goodrich, F.E.S., 
and Dr. A. B. Eendle.) 

The Ballot for the Officers having been closed, the President 
appointed the same Scrutineers, who, having cast up the votes, 
reported to tlie President, who declared the result as follows : — 

President : Prof. E. B. Poulton, F.E.S. 

Treasurer: Horace W. Monckton, F.G.S. 

Secretaries: Dr. B. Daydon Jackson, 
Dr. Otto Staff, F.E.S., 
Prof. G. C. Bourne, F.E.S. 

Dr. D. H. Scott, the retiring President, then delivered his 
Address : — 

26 rnocEEDixos of the 


In my Address last year I ventured to give you a short sketch of 
the work of some of the founders of scientific palocobotany. The 
subject which I propose to touch on today, though not dissimilar, 
has claims on our attention of a more personal nature. The death, 
during the past year, of the acknowledged leader of Botany, 
Sir Josepli Hooker, our most distinguished Fellow, is an event 
which must be present to the minds of all of us. The notice of 
his career for our Proceedings is in hands more competent than 
mine ; I shall limit myself to one special field of his activity, that 
on which alone I feel in a position to speak, and propose to offer 
jou a few remarks on Hooker's relation to the study of fossil 

Hooker's work on fossil botany begau very early in his career, 
and was, with one exception, limited to his younger days, though 
he kept up his interest in the subject all through. 

His first pal?eobotanical paper, dated 1842, is on fossil wood 
from the Macquarie Plains in Tasmania, a locality which he visited 
in the course of his famous Antarctic voj'age. The fossil tree 
(now in the Natural History Museum) was found imbedded in 
Tertiary basalt ; it is curious to find that in his investigation 
Hooker made no attempt to have sections cut. In the outer layers 
no siliceous matter had infiltrated into the intervening spaces 
between the elements, so that they could be separated for micro- 
scopic examination, and the " glandular tissue, the distinctive 
character of a pine-wood," be recognised. More than GO years 
later the stem was more fully investigated by Dr. Arber, and 
named Cupressinoccylon Ilookeri. On reading this paper Hooker 
wrote to me (March 28, 1903): — "I was much amused the other 
day on finding my infant attempt upon a fossil plant christened in 
the Geological Journal as a new species of plants ! " 

A Note on a fossil ])lant from the Fish Kiver, South Africa, was 
another early contribution (1840). No name was assigned to 
the specimen, probably Ilhastic, and no definite opinion on its 
affinities was expressed. It has since been referred to the 
Equisetaceous genus Schizonewa. 

These were unimportant works ; but in 1S46 Hooker was 
appointed Botanist to the Geological Survey of Great Britain, 
and though he only held the post for little more than a year, three 
valuable memoirs, published in 1848, were the immediate result. 
In fact, this was the time of his most active work on fossil plants. 
The first of these memoirs is of a general character ; it is " On the 
Vegetation of the Carboniferous Period as compared with that of 
the present day," and is of remarkable interest as giving the 
impression made on the mind of a brilliant young botanist by 
the then state of our knowledge of Paleozoic plants. He says 
that his observations " are little more than the first impressions 


received by a naturalist, who, having been almost exclnslvely 
occupied with an existing Flora, is called upon to contrast with it 
the fragmentary remains of anotlier Flora, whose species are, 
without an exception, different from those now living, which 
represent in part the vegetation of a period indefinitely antecedent 
to the present, and have been succeeded by still other plants, 
equally diverse from both, and which have likewise perished" 
{p. 387). He realised the true interest of the enquiry, saying: — 
" As a field for botanical research there is none so novel as the 
coal formation, the few yards of shaft being more than e(juivalent 
to the longest voyage, in respect of the amount and kind of dif- 
ference between the vegetation the naturalist is ac(iuainted with 
and that he seeks to understand " (p. 39-i). At the same time 
Hooker, in this as in all his palajobotanical work, was deeply 
impressed with the excessive difiSculties of the subject, and it must 
be admitted that his criticisms, judicious as they always were, are 
apt to sound somewhat depreciatory and discouraging. In the 
later years of his life, as we shall see, he felt able, under the 
influence of recent advances, to take a more hopeful view of 
the position. 

In the Essay of 1848 Hooker expressed the opinion that the 
classification of plants is less easily intelligible than t'.iat of 
animals, being less concerned with external characters. " It is 
partly," he says, " owing to these circumstances that the study 
has been comparatively neglected ; partly also because a far 
more comprehensive knowledge of the existing forms of plants 
is required to make any progress in fossil botany, than of recent 
zoology to advance equally in palaeontology " (p. 388). This is a 
very just comment, and accounts in a great degree for the rather 
late development of plant-palfeontology. 

While he recognised that the Carboniferous period presents 
exceptional facilities for investigation, Hooker scarcely did justice 
to the quality of its fossils. " Plants, whose tissues are so lax as 
to be convertible after death into a mass of such uniform structure 
as coal, evidently would not retain their characters well during 
fossilization, under whatever favourable circumstances that opera- 
tion may be conducted. We consequently find that few specimens 
are available for scientific purposes" (p. 389). This somewhat 
theoretical difficulty Avould not trouble one at the present day. 

It is interesting to find that Hooker already admitted the 
necessity for anatomical work. He says that the investigator's 
knowledge should embrace " a familiarity with vegetable anatomy, 
for when the stem or trunk alone is preserved, which is often the 
case, a minute examination of its tissues is the only method of 
determining its position in the natural series " (p. 392). All the 
same. Hooker was distrustful of anatomical characters, for in 
discussing the affinities of SujilJaria eler/ans he says : — " It is not 
by solitary characters, and least of all by such as the arrangement 
of the tissues in the axis affords, that genera of plants are referred 
to their natural orders " (p. 422). In this he was more cautious 

28 , phoceedikgs of the 

than Uroiigiiiart and escaped his errors, but the riper knowledge 
of hvter times lias fully rehabilitated the anatomical method. 

He gives an excellent account of the Coal-measures and the 
distribution of their fossil plants ; he says it may be concluded 
that the Conifera; [now Cordaitete] "never were associated with 
tho Sif/iUari(i; and other ])lant8 which abound in the coal seams; 
but that they tiourished in the neighbourhood, and were at times 
transported to these localities" (p. 396), a conclusion confirmed by 
later work. He also calls attention to ''the extraordinary size of 
both the vascular and cellular tissue of many " coal-plants, a point 
which has often struck subsequent observers, though it does not 
extend to the Cordaitca), plants which had a different habitat. 

He admits that this singxilarly succulent texture of the typical 
Coal flora i)0ssibly indicates a great degree of humidity, but in a 
later paper * he shows that no reliance can be placed on this 
argument, succulence being specially characteristic of the plants 
of deserts ; at the same time he considered the geological evidence 
for the swamp-flora theory of the Coal-measures conclusive. 

He was inclined to regard the Carboniferous Flora as poor in 
species, saying "A luxuriant vegetation is no index to a varied one ;. 
and as many of our modern woods and even great areas of tropical 
forests consist of but a few species multiplied ad infinitum, so may 
the forests of the Carboniferous period have been composed of but 
a few Si</ill((n(e and Lepidodendrons, sheltering an undergrowth 
of a limited number of kinds of ferns, for a very limited number 
of them (comparatively speaking) if as protean as some of their 
allies are in our day, would embrace all the known species of the 
Fossil Flora " (p. 398). He proceeds to show that a recent Flora, 
marked by a preponderance of ferns, is almost universally deficient 
in species of other orders. These speculations are interesting, and 
show how" dift'erent the point of view" was then from that of the 
present day. The flora of a past age was then treated rather as a 
peculiar flora of our own time might be — the evolutionary idea 
had not taken root. "Whether the Flora of the Coal was a poor or 
a rich one is hard to decide, for we are still very ignorant of the 
true limits of species, a point on which Hooker's warnings are a» 
much needed as ever. 

Hooker refused to admit that the vegetation of the Carboniferous 
period was less highly developed than what succeeded it. His 
remarks here are very just. " We knov:," he says, " too little 
of the structure of the ferns of that day to pronounce them 
either more or less complete than their allies of the present time ; 
while of the Lycopodiacese it may be safely assei'ted, that they were 
of a form and stature far more noble, and in structure more com- 
plicated than any plants of that order now" existing" (p. 400). 
His caution about the ferns is seen to be more than justified, now 
that we have reason to believe that so many of them at that 
period were in reality seed-bearing plants. At that time, of course,. 

* Volkmannia, 1854. 


and for manj^ decades afterwards, there was no suspicion of the 
kind. Hooker, in fact, speaks of the ferns as the onl}' group with 
obvious or recognisable affinities with an existing order. He even 
regarded Pecopteris as " the fossil representative, if not congener, 
of the modern Pteris" (p. 401); adding that it is not improbable 
that there are other genera of living ferns fossilized in the shales 
of the coal-formation. He illustrates the heteromorphous frond of 
his Pecopteris heteropJu/lla (now AJetliopteris decurrens) by that of 
the New Zealand Pteris esculenta (figs. 1 & 2), an analogy none the 
less striking because the plants have proved to be really so wide 
apart. It is interesting, however, to note that he already recog- 
nised the affinity of Corda's Smftenuergla, of which the fructification 
was known, with a recent group of ferns [Aneimidicti/oii, our 
Aneimia), a view now generally admitted. 

Discussing the bearing of the supposed predominance of ferns 
on the question of climate he writes: "A climate warmer than 
ours now is would probably be indicated by the presence of an 
increased number of flowering plants, which would doubtless 
have been fossilized with the ferns ; whilst a lower temperature, 
equal to the mean of the seasons now prevailing, would assimilate 
our climate to that of such cooler countries as are characterized 
by a disproportionate amount of ferns" (p. 404). Thus he 
appears to explain the absence of flowering plants from the Coal- 
flora by the climatic conditions. 

Hooker, at that time, was quite alive to the remarkable rarity 
of fructifications on the fossil ferns of the Coal, and cites a 
striking analogy in explanation. " The infrequency of fructifica- 
tion upon the fronds of the fossil ferns belonging to this 
formation appears as possibly another argument in favour of 
many of those appertaining to tree-ferns ; for, while the her- 
baceous and caulescent ferns of New Zealand are scarcely ever 
barren, the arborescent species are almost invariably so. I think 
I am safe in saying that of two or three kinds of New Zealand 
tree-fern, not one specimen in a thousand bears a single fertile 
frond, though all abound in barren ones " (p. 405). This observa- 
tion must still have considerable weight when we are tempted 
to rely on ner/ative evidence in judging of the nature of Carbon- 
iferous fern-like plants. 

Hooker gives some striking examples of the worthlessness of 
external vegetative characters in ferns, showing how one and 
the same frond might, in the sterile condition, be equally well 
referred to four different genera (p. 408). Attention is also 
called to the dimorphism, in many cases, of the fertile and sterile 
fronds, a point of much importance, as it has proved, in dealing 
with the so-called ferns of the Carboniferous. 

Venation, a character much relied on by pteridologists from 
Brongniart onwards, is shown to be usually characteristic of minor 
divisions, though not always valid even for them, while useless 
for the discrimination of main groups. Hence genera founded 
on venation must be wholly artificial. Although no pala)obotanist 


would dispute this, the warniug was not superfluous, for names 
exercise an undue influence and we are still ajit to think that 
something is attained when we have referred a fossil to Fecoptens 
or Neuropteris. Outline is, of course, more deceptive even than 
venation. " On the whole," he remarks, " it is probable that 
the irregularity of outline and division, prevalent in recent ferns, 
is the most fertile source of error in our investigations amongst 
the fossil" (p. W^). 

Considering the part played by glands in some recent investiga- 
tions, it is worth noticing that Hooker specially calls attention 
to the value of the characters afforded by hairs, scales, and 
glands in living ferns (p. 414). Hooker's critical observations 
on the study of fossil ferns have by no means diminished, but 
rather gained in weight, now we know that under the name 
" ferns '* so many Carboniferous plants of widely different aftinity 
have been included. 

Passing on to Sigillaria, Hooker gives an interesting account 
of the occurrence of the stems in coal-mines, showing a con- 
siderable practical knowledge of the subject. He discusses the 
possibility that some of the Lepidodendrons may have been the 
branches of Sigillana, and adds that there is no real distinction 
between the two genera (p. 416). At that time all kinds of 
ideas as to the affinities of Sigillaria were held by good 
authorities. Hooker thought it worth while to discuss, though 
of course only to reject, the reference of this group to Euphor- 
biacea?. Cacti, and Palmse (p. 420). The opinion that they were 
ferns had the most advocates, though already abandoned, on 
good grounds, by Lindley and Hutton. Hooker is rather favour- 
able to the idea of some affinity, or at least analogy, between 
Sigillaria and ferns, and even argues for the probability that 
the Sigillarias may have borne fern-fronds (p. 417). He would 
not admit that anything positive Avas known at that time of the 
folliage of SlgiUaria^ for he was inclined to refer the only species 
in which the true leaves had then been observed (>S'. hpidodendri- 
folia) to Lepidodendron. Apart from his too liberal concessions 
to the fern-theory. Hooker shows sound judgment as regards 
Sigillarian affinities, for he says : " That the iSigillaria; were allied 
to Lycopodiacea) is evident, their tissues and scarring being very 
like those oi Lepidodendron" (p. 421). 

He recognised the high value of Brongniart's admirable account 
of the anatomy of his SigiUaria elegans (really S. Menardi), but 
had doubts whether the plant was a true Su/illaria. It will be 
remembered that Erongniart was led by his discovery of radially 
seriated (secondary) wood in tSigiUaria to refer that family to 
the " great division of Gymnospermous Dicotyledons." He still 
recognised some affinity to the Lycopodiaceae, regarding the 
Sigilliirias as coming betAveen Lycopodiacd'e and Cycadeae, but 
nearer to the latter. Hooker's remarks on this point are most 
judicious. " Assuming," he says, " the 8. elegans to be a true 


Sigillaria, it appears to afford slender grounds for the adoption 
of the above view, as regards its uniting such diverse and distinct 
orders as Cj'cadeje and Lycopodiacece. It is true that it departs 
signally from the ordinary structure of the latter order ; hut 
it requires stronger evidence than the more perfect structure 
and regular arrangement of the bundles of vascular tissue to 
ally it to Cycadea?, ■with which, in general appearance, habit, 
fluting, markings, stigmaroid roots, absence of accompanying 
foliage, and mau)^ other points, it has nothing in common" 
(p. 421). Thus in the controversy which for so long divided 
fossil botanists, Hooker at once placed himself on the side which 
the event has shown to have been the right one. 

Hooker's account of Leindodtndron contains a much needed 
caution on the question of species. " If the species of that 
genus," he remarks, " were as prone to vary in the foliage as 
are those of Lifcopodmin, our available means for distinguishing 
them are wholly insufficient " (p. 423). He illustrates his point 
by the Xew Zealand species, Lijcojyodium densum. The suggestion 
that some of the Trigonocarpi were the seed-vessels (sporangia^l of 
Lepidodendron is curious, considering that other fossil " seeds " 
have turned out to be really of that nature. 

At that time Hooker had seen no Calamitese with structure, 
and he refrains from expressing any opinion as to their relation- 
ships. It is interesting to find that he looked, though in vain 
" for evidence of their being Equisetaceae, in the presence of those 
siliceous stomata with which that order abounds, and which 
would surely have been preserved in the fossil state" (p. 427). 
It is only within the last year or two that this evidence has 
been actually found, in the stomata of Calamitean leaves investi- 
gated by Mr. Hamshaw Thomas. 

In his concluding remarks, Hooker speaks of the abundance of 
specimens, suggestive of most interesting points, still to be 
worked out. He hoped that they would form the materials for 
a succession of essays in the Memoirs of the Geological Survey, 
but only two more were ever published, his Himalayan expedition 

The first of these is his memoir " On some Peculiarities in the 
Structure of /Stif/maria.^' The merit of this jiaper consists in 
the excellent and well-illustrated account given of the internal 
structure of Stigmaria, which was already known to be the root, 
or at least the underground portion of ^ifiillaria. Only in one 
point was Hooker seriously mistaken regarding the anatomy. He 
allowed himself to be misled by an observation of Goeppert's, 
and believed that the vascular strands passing out through the 
medullary rays originated from isolated bundles occurring in the 
pith. As "Williamson showed, nearly 40 years later, no such 
medullary bundles exist ; Goeppert was deceived by Stigmarian 
rootlets burrowing in the decayed pith, and took them for integral 
parts of the structure. 

The comparison drawn between the structure of Stigmaria 


and that of fii(jillaria itself, and of Lepidodendron (p. 436) is 
interesting ; but the state of anatomical knowledge was not then 
sufficiently advanced for the true homologies of the parts to be 
recognised. Kegarding the affinities, Hooker says : " The points 
by which SigiUaria (and Slir/mana) is allied to Lycopodiacese, 
especially through the Lepidodendru, are probably quite sufficient " 
(p. 437). Jle again rejects the idea of any affinity with Cycadeaj, 
admitting only a certain analogy, a view in which he was un- 
doubtedly justified. 

The most important of Hooker's palaeobotanical works is certainly 
the third paper in the ilomoirs of the Geological Survey — " llemarks 
on the Structure and Affinities of some Lepldostrohi,''' in which, for 
the first time, he explained the true structure, hitherto quite 
misunderstood, of the fructification of the Carboniferous Clubmosses. 

All his specimens of Lepidostrobus were found in nodules of 
clay-ironstone, from the coal-fields of Staffordshire, Glamorgan, 
&c. Curiously enough the best specimens occurred, as broken 
frustules of cones, inside the stems of Lepidodendron elerjans and 
other species, having been washed into the hollow stumps before 
fossilization — the way in which this is likely to have occurred is 
discussed in detail. He examined no less than 30 such trunks 
from Staffordshire, all containing cones, which were sometimes 
very numerous. 

Hooker begins his description by pointing out that three con- 
ditions must be fulfilled in order to determine the relationships of 
fossil cones. It is necessary to know : (1) the arrangement of the 
individual organs and nature of the scales; (2) the anatomical 
structure of the axis and other parts; (3) the nature of the 
•contents — " there may be stamens or male organs, — ovaria or 
female ones ; — or lastly, capsules containing reproductive spores 
(which are peculiar to plants having no sexual system)" (p. 441). 
At that time, immediately before the appearance of Hofmeister's 
great Avorks, knowledge of the sexual reproduction of the Higher 
Cryptogams was still very imperfect. In Lijcopodium, indeed, the 
genus which Hooker probably had especially in mind, nothing 
■whatever was known of the sexual process till nearly 40 years later. 

The memoir is illustrated by eight plates, which give an admirable 
idea of the external characters and internal structure of the cones. 
The slightly restored figure of the scales and sporangia in radial 
section (i)late 8. fig. 11) has become classical, and is remarkably 
true to nature. The only defect is that the attachment of the 
sporangium to its scale is shown too short, no doubt owing to 
the section examined not having been so strictly radial as is 
necessary to show the narrow attachment in its full length. 

He described the spores as " consisting of three or rarely four 
sporules, -which are afterwards separated from one another " 
(p. 451), but it is probable that what he really observed, in most 
cases, was the split membrane of a single spore, and not the true 
tetrads (except perha])s in the case shown in plate 0. fig. 11). 
The mistake is extremely easy to make, as I kno-w from experience. 


Apart from these somewhat minute criticisms, it may be said 
without any reserve that Hooker's work at once placed our know- 
ledge of these cones on a perfectly satisfactory basis, leaving 
indeed little, except the discovery of the megaspores, to be added 
by later observers. 

He had no hesitation in referring the cones to Lepldodendron, on 
the ground of association, and of the entire agreement between 
the axis of the cone and the stem in the arrangenient of the 
tissues. He considered that the only material difference from 
the recent Li/copodiiim was in the form of the sporangium. He 
emphasizes the clear Lycopodiaceous affinity and finally rejects the 
vague suggestions of Cycadean or Coniferous relationship which 
were still in the air. 

At the conclusion of the memoir, he gives some examples from 
recent plants of false cones, often pathological, as a warning to the 
student of fossils. Although his own Lepklostrohi were so perfectly 
cleared up by his researches, he appears to have had some doubts 
about other species, and was thus led to a characteristic mani- 
festation of scepticism. 

The Lepidostrohus memoir shows how much fossil Botany might 
have expected from Hooker, if he had continued to give his atten- 
tion to the subject. This, however, was not in any high degree, 
the case ; his subsequent activity was turned in other directions, 
and his later paliBobotanical papers are, with one exception, of less 
positive importance, though often interesting as critical contributions. 

Passing over a brief note on some doubtful Calamites, of Old Red 
Sandstone Age, from the Shetland Islands (1852), Hooker's next 
serious contribution to our knowledge of Palfeozoic Vasculares was 
a memoir " On a new Species of Volkmaania " (1854). Sternberg's 
genus VolJcmannia was long employed for various fructifications 
which have turned out to be of Calamitean or Sphenophyllaceous 
affinity. Hooker's species, V. Morrisii, from the Lower Carboni- 
ferous of Carluke near Glasgow, is a fine cone, nearly 3 inches 
long and more than an inch broad, the stalk having a length of 
9 inches. Hooker says " the general resemblance to a gigantifc 
Equisetum without sheaths is obvious," but adds " It is perhaps 
not improbable that the genus may prove to be allied to Lepido- 
dendron." Casuariueaj and Gnetaceic are also referred to. The 
first suggestion is no doubt nearest the truth. As my friend 
Dr. Arber suggested to me, the size and character of the cone invite 
a comparison with Cheirostrobus, a fructification allied to the 
■SpheuophyllaceiB and so far only known from structural specimens. 
Hooker felt the need for structural evidence in the case of his cone, 
saying " No progress in systematic Botany can be made without an 
extensive study of the structure and morphology of plants — of their 
comparative anatomy in fact, and the materials for these researches 
are seldom preserved in fossil specimens." 

The memoir with Binney, "On the Structure of certain Limestone 
Nodules enclosed in seams of Bituminous Coal, with a Description 


34 phoceedings of the 

of some Trigonocarpons contained in tliem '' (L^oS), is a valuable 
contribution, from two points of view. An excellent account of the 
nature and occurrence of the calcareous nodules (coal-balls) is 
given, the earliest, I believe, extant, but this was presumably the 
work of Binney. The writers notice the absence of fern-fronds- 
from their petrified material, saying : " It is difficult to conceive the 
delicate fronds of Ferns so preserved that their structure should be 
recognized on a transverse section of them in the fossil state." Of 
course the structure of the leaves of some of the Pteridosperms- 
tthen included under Ferns) is now well known, but the rarity of 
true fern-fronds in the petrified condition is remarkable, considering 
(he frequency of their petioles and stems. 

As regards the Trigonocarpons, the writers proved that the 
common nut-like specimens are merely casts of tlie seed-cavity. 
They give, from their structural specimens, an excellent descrijition 
of the " outer and second integument " (our sarcotesta or outer 
fleshy layer, and sclerotesta) ; the nuccllus with its vascular 
bundles is also described, but not the outer system of bundles in 
the sarcotesta. 

They made a detailed comparison with the seed of SaJisbtiria 
(GfinJcffo), and believed the affinities of I'r'ir/onorarpon to be Coni- 
ferous rather than Cycadaceous. As a matter of fact, Brongniart'a 
suggestion of Cycadaceous relationship now seems nearer the truth. 
The authors say that association gives no clue — they were not 
then acquainted witli the Aletliopttris-\eix\G^ whicb so generally 
accompany these seeds. 

They had some suspicion that 2'rir/onocarjwn might belong to 
Sigillaria, a suggestion Avhich perhaps shows that Brongniart's 
belief in the Gymnospermous nature of Shjillaria was beginning to 
have an undue influence. The paper is an important one, as it 
placed our knowledge of one Palaeozoic seed, at least, on a scientific 

Tavo papers by Hooker relate to the problematic organism 
Pachytheca, of Silurian age. The earlier work is "On the Spheroidal 
Bodies, resembling Seeds, from the Ludlow Bone Bed " (1852). 
The outer zone of the spheroidal thallus consists of radiating cells, 
and in this first paper Hooker said : " This simple structure of spore- 
sac is very characteristic of the natural order Lycopodiaceae." He 
was thinking, no doubt, of the well-known columnar layer which 
forms the outer wall of the sporangium in Lepidostrohus. On a 
re-examination of specimens in 1875, he gave up this tentative 
hypothesis and recognised the Algal nature of the organism. His- 
latest contribution to fossil Botan)' is a short paper on PachijtJieca, 
published 37 years later in the ' Annals of Botany ' for 1889, 
illustrated by beautiful drawings from his own hand, showing the 
detailed structure. He points out the remarkable density and 
power of resistance to deformation that the thallus must have 
possessed, and discusses the question whether the internal filaments 
might be parasitic. He cites the opinions of other botanists, but 


does not express any decisive view of his own, beyond his con- 
viction of Algal affinities. 

This paper was preliminary to a somewhat fuller investigation 
by Mr. C. A. Barber, but the nature of the organism has never 
been any further determined. 

Turning to Tertiary plants, a " Note on the Fossil Plants from 
Reading " derived from tlie Thanet Sands, is most interesting from 
the emphasis with which the author insists on the worthlessness of 
conclusions as to affinity drawn from mere impressions of leaves. 
Though his specimens were good ones, he refused to give even 
generic names to the plants. He found that all except two were 
decidedly Dicotyledonous and Exogenous. The other two " from 
having parallel veins, may be assumed to be Monocotyledonous," 
but beyond this he would not go. 

Of other speeimens he says : " It would be very easy to produce 
from an herbarium leaves so similar .... as to deceive the 
inexperienced into instituting crude affinities." Speaking of the 
specimens generally Hooker remarks : " Though the leaves pre- 
served in the Keading beds are all of the very commonest forms 
in the vegetable kingdom (of Dicotyledonous plants) I do not find 
that they exactly resemble those of any living English species 
and indeed, even were the resemblance so close that I could not 
distinguish them from existing forms, I should not consider myself 
warranted in drawing any conclusions therefrom." The only 
inference he permits himself is that there is no objection from 
the evidence of the plants to the climate having been a temperate 

It would be well for our science if the caution shown in this 
paper by so great a systematist were more often emulated by those 
who approach the determination of plant-impressions with a more 
limited equipment of taxonomic knowledge. 

In 1855 Hooker described two " seed-vessels," one (" Carpolitlies 
ovuJion, Brongn.") fi'om the Eocene Beds of Lcwisham, the other 
(^^Folliculites minutuhis, Bronn") from the Bovey Tracey Coal. 
Though very cautious in avoiding any definite determination of these 
objects, he was inclined to suggest, in each case, an affinity with 
Ferns, spore-like bodies having been found in the Carpolithes. I 
am informed by Mr. Clement Reid that the Carpolithes ovulurn is 
the seed of a Water-lily, while the Folliculites is also a seed and 
certainly belongs to Stratiotcs. The study of Tertiary seeds, now 
carried to such perfection by the work of Mr. & Mrs. Keid, was 
of course in its earliest infancy at the time when Hooker wrote 
these papers. 

"We have now run rapidly through those memoirs of Hooker's 
which are specially devoted to the consideration of fossil plants. 
It remains to notice a few references to the subject scattered 
through his more general Addresses. 

I well remember the keen interest with which, as a boy, I read 



Hooker's Presidential Address to tlio Whitish Association at tho 
Norwich fleeting of iy()8, ^Vhat appealed to one was, of course, 
his zealous championship of Darwinism, then by no means 
universally accepted, at least by the laity of Science. 1 will only, 
however, allow myself one quotation from this part of the Address. 
(Speaking of the then position of the Darwinian theory the President 
said: — "it is ^>«r excellence an avowed favourite with the rising 
schools of naturalists ; perhaps, indeed, too much so, for the young 
are apt to accept such tlieorics as articles of faith, and the creed of 
the student is but too likely to become the shibboleth of the future 
])rofessor " (p. 22). Darwinism has passed through and left 
behind tho dangers of the age of faith predicted by Hooker ; it 
has long emerged into the more wholesome air of free criticism, and 
has to face, on certain sides, the vigorous rivalry of alternative 

At that time it appears that fossil plants were attracting much 
attention, for Hooker says : " In my own special Science, the 
greatest advances that have been made during the last ten years 
have been in the departments of Fossil liotany, and Vegetable 

" In the past history of the globe, two epochs stand prominently 
forward — the Carboniferous and the Miocene — for the abundant 
materials they att'ord, and the light they consequently throw on the 
early conditions of the Vegetable Kingdom." (p. 13.) As regards 
the Carboniferous flora, he refers especially to the results attained 
by liinuey and Carruthers. " These show," he says, " that Calamites 
is an actual member of the existing family of Equisetaceje, 
which contained previously but one genus, that of the common 
Mare's-tail of our river-banks and woods." In this frank accep- 
tance of the conclusion of the English pala^obotanists Hooker 
was in advance of his time, for many years had to elapse before 
prejudices were overcome and difficulties surmounted so as to 
enable the true position of the Calamariese to be universally 

As regards the Miocene plants Hooker was much impressed by 
Heer's results ; the evidence for a highly developed Arctic Tertiary 
Flora was what chiefly interested him. 

In this Address Hooker, after some vigorous criticism of over- 
reliance on evidence from leaves in palaeobotany, added: "In this 
most unreliable of Sciences — Fossil Botany — we do but grope in 
the dark ; of the thousands of objects Ave stumble against, we here 
and there recognise a likeness to what we have elsewhere known 
and rely on external similitude for a helping hand to its affinities ; of 
the great majority of specimens we know nothing for certain, and of 
no small proportion we are utterly ignorant. If, however, much 
is uncertain, all is not so, and the Science has of late made sure 
and steady progress, and developed really grand results " (p. 15). 
These words express concisely his attitude towards the whole 
subject — severest criticism combined with a keen interest in such 
advances as seemed to him to rest on a sound basis. The same 


feeling is expressed in his Address to the Royal Society in 1877. 
After referring to Lesquereux's work on Cretaceous and other 
fossil plants of the United States, he says : " In the whole range 
of the natural sciences no study is so difficult and at the same 
time so fruitless, if we regard the amount of results accepted by 
botanists, as compared with the prodigious labour their acquisition 
by palaeontologists has demanded;' This discouraging remark 
refers, however, essentially to work based on external characters, 
especially on those of fossil leaves — his bete noir. In the same 
Address he follows with interest the progress of American fossil 
botany as hearing on distribution, and points out that in North 
America there is no break between the Upper Cretaceous and 
Lower Tertiary floras. He returns to the subject in his Royal 
Society Address of the next year, 1878, in which he discusses with 
sympathy Saporta's theory of the Polar origin of vegetation. 

In an Address to the Geographical Section of the British Association 
in 1881, Hooker again refers to the discovery in Arctic latitudes of 
fossil plants whose existing representatives are to be found only in 
warm temperate regions, and discusses the bearing of them on the 
history of the Flora of North America. This subject was one which 
specially ajipealed to him from its immediate bearing on the great 
questions of Geographical Distribution to which his best work was 

During his later years Hooker followed the rapid progress of 
fossil botany with a most sympathetic interest, which was very 
kindly shown in some of his letters to me. In a letter of Oct. 3, 
1896, acknowledging a copy of my Address to the Botanical 
Section at Liverpool, he said : " Your Fossil Botany pages, of course, 
interest me most and very much indeed." This, and other passages 
show that, with all his severity of judgment, he had a specially 
friendly feeling for the study of fossil plants. Perhaps his most 
interesting letter in this connection was one written on receiving 
the preliminary communication by Prof. F. W. Oliver and myself 
on the seed of Lyijinodendron, which, it may be remembered, was 
identified in the first instance by the glands on the cupule. He 
wrote (June 13, 1903) : " I must write to thank you for sending 
me the Proceedings R. S. with your and Oliver's paper on Lygino- 
dendron, which has interested me more than I can express. What 
can be the meaning of the capitate glands ? they would seem to 
indicate the cotemporaneous insect-lifo which I think has been 
demonstrated to exist in the Coal Measures. Has any one accounted 
for the quantity of pollen-grains in the sac of the ovule of 
Cycadese ? so many more than the wind is likely to have brought." 

As regards the last suggestion some light is thrown on tho 
difficulty by Prof. Pearson's observations on the insect-visitors of 
some South African (Jycads. As regards the fossils the abundance 
of pollen in the ovule is equally remarkable, and Hooker's remark 
may here also give us a clue to the right explanation. 

In a later letter (Oct. 6, 1906) he spoke of our " knowledge of 


Botany, as it advances by strides under a study of its fossil repre- 

It is pleasant to a student of fossil plants to remember with 
what warm and generous sympathy the great leader of botanical 
science followed the recent jirogrcss of the subject. 

Hooker's definite contributions to our knowledge of palajobotany 
were valuable, though limited in extent, owing to the small part 
of his time that he was free to devote to such investigations. His 
influence as a severe but just and friendly cricic was of the greatest 
importance, and his warnings against the many pitfalls of the 
subject, though they may have discouraged some, are in reality 
entirely wholesome, and are no less needed today than at the time 
they were given. 

References to Papers hij Sir Joseph Dalton lloolcer. 

1842. On the Examination of some Fossil Wood from Macquarie 

Plains, Tasmania. Tasmanian Journ. Xat. Sci. vol. i. 1842, 

p. 24. 
1846. Note on a Fossil Plant from the Fish River, South Africa. 

Trans. Geol. Soc. vol. vii. 184G, p. 227. 
1848. On the Vegetation of the Carboniferous Period, as compared 

with that of the present day. Mem. Geol. Survey, vol. ii. 

1848, p. 387. 
1848. On some Peculiarities in the Structure of Stiymaria. Ibid. 

p. 431. 
1848. Remarks on the Structure and Affinities of some Lepidostrohi. 

Ibid. p. 440. 
1853. (J. D. H. & H. E. Strickland.)— On the Distribution and 

Organic Contents of the " Ludlow Pone Bed " iu the 

districts of Woolhope and May Hill, with a Xote on the 

seed-like bodies found in it. Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. 

vol. ix. 1853, p. 8. 

1853. Note on the Fossil Plants from the Shetlands. Ibid. p. 49. 

1854. Note on the Fossil Plants from Reading. Ibid. vol. x. p. 163. 

1854. On a new species of Volkmannia ( V. Morrisii). Ibid. 

vol. X. p. 199. 

1855. (J. D. H. & E. W. BiNNEY.)— On the Structure of certain 

Limestone Nodules enclosed in seams of Bitumiuous Coal, 

with a description of some Trigonocarpons contained in 

them. Phil. Trans. Royal Soc. vol. 145. 1855, p. 149. 
1854. On some minute Seed-vessels {CarpoJithcs oridiim, Brongn.) 

from the Eocene Beds of Lewisham. Quart. Journ. Geol. 

Soc. vol. xi. 1855, p. 562. 
1854. On some small Seed-vessels (Folliculites mini(lidt(S, Bronn) 

from the Bovey Tracey Coal. Ibid. p. 566. 
1868. Presidential Address to the British Association for the 

Advancement of Science. Norwich, 1868. 
1877. Presidential Address to the Royal Society, 1877. Proc. R. 

Soc. vol. xxvi. p. 427. 


187S. Presidential Address to the Itoyal Society, 1878. Proc. K. 

Soc. vol. sxviii. p. 43. 
1881. Presidential Address to the Geographical Section of tho 

British Association, York, 1881. 
18S9. On Pachytheca. Annals of Botany, vol. iii. 1889, p. 135. 

Upon the conclusion of the Presidential Address the Rev. 
T. E. E. Stebbixg moved : — 

" That the President be thanked for his excellent Address, and 
that he be requested to allow it to be pi-inted and circulated 
amongst the Eellows,'' which, being seconded by Mr. CLBiiENT 
Eeid, was carried by acclamation. 

In acknowledging the vote of thanks proposed by Mr. Stebbing 
and seconded by Mr. C. Eeid, the President said that, flourishing 
and active as the Linnean Society now was, he looked forward to 
even greater developments during the time of his successor and 
iu tlie more distant future. The Pellows of the Linnean Society 
had perhaps even yet hardly realized their position as the first 
Biological Society of the World. That was a proud and responsible 
place for a Society to hold, and one which it required an effort to 
rise to. He should like to see the Society's rooms the recognized 
meeting place of British Biologists, and their Meetings the 
occasions when all the new biological discoveries were brought 
forward, whether destined for publication there or elsewhere. 

The President then addressed Capt. Charles Fbancis Ulla.- 
THORNE Meek, F.L.S., and handed to him the bronze medal of the 
Crisp Award for Microscopical Science, and a cheque for the balance 
of the fund, tliis being the first presentation from the fund fouuded 
in 1910 by a donation from Sir Prank Crisp, speaking as follows : — 

Captaih^ Meek, 

It is now my welcome duty to present to you the Crisp Award 
for Microscopical llesearch, of which you are the first recipient. 

The Award was founded two years ago by the generosity of our 
distinguished and valued Fellow, Sir Prank Crisp, to whose long- 
continued services in many directions our Society owes so much. 
I may briefly recall the conditions of the Crisp Award. 

It is to be made at intervals of not less than five years, and is to 
be given by the Council for the best paper dealing with Micro- 
scopical Eesearch. The Award is to be confiaed to Fellows aucJ to 
work published by the Linnean Society since the previous Award, 
and, in the first case, during the five years previous. The first 
Award was to be given in May 1912, the date which we have now 


The paper on which the Award is made is your work on " The 
Spermatogenesis of Stemhothrus vir'uhdus ; with Si^ccial Kcferenco 
to the Hcterotropic Chromosome as a Sex Determinant in Grass- 
hoppers/' published in our Journal (Zoology) in 1911. 

I am ])articularly glad that the choice of the Council has fallen 
upon this investigation of yours, because your work is, on the one 
hand, in the field of cytological microscopy, demanding the utmost 
skill in the use of advanced methods and the highest poAvers of tho 
microscope ; Avhile on the other it is concerned with a fundamental 
problem of Eiology of equal interest to the zoological and botanical 
sides of our Society. On both these grounds we feel that we are 
setting a fittingly high standard for future awards, worthy of the 
intentions of the founder. 

The special interest of your work lies in its bearing on tho 
question of the determination of sex, the insect you have investi- 
gated being one of those in which the male has an odd number of 
chromosomes in its somatic nuclei, while in the female the number 
is even, the figures in this particular case being 17 and 18 respec- 
tively. You have fully investigated the history of the spermato- 
genic divisions, with special reference to the' behaviour of the 
accessory or hcterotropic chromosome present in half the sperma- 
tozoa, while lacking in the remainder. The result of fertilization 
by the former is to produce females, by the latter to produce males, 
the odd chromosome consequently being regarded by some as the 
determinant of sex in these cases. You point out, with scientific 
caution, that this conclusion is not yet absolutely established, but 
the exact history of the process which you are able to give afPords 
the best basis for the ultimate comprehension of its significance. 
Your singularly accurate and beautiful work deserves the moro 
credit as it was begun at a time when you Avere still under the 
pressure of very different duties. 

I have great pleasure in handing you the Crisp Award, in recog- 
nition of work which is of the best type of modern microscopical 

Capt. Meek having received the medal and cheque, briefly 
returned thanks, and expressed his gratification at being chosen 
the first recipient of the a^ard. 

The President then addressing Prof. E. B. Poultox, handed to 
him the Linnean Modal for transmission to Dr. Eobeet Cvril 
Laytox Perkins, who was abroad, said: — 

Peofkssor Poulton, 

In the unavoidable absence of Dr. P. C. L. Pkekins, who is 
abroad, 1 ask you to receive our Medal on his behalf. 

Dr. Perkins combines, in a rare degree, the qualities of an in- 
defatigable field-naturalist and those of a skilled and precise 


systematic investigator. He has himself worked out the syste- 
matics of the chief groups of the Hymenoptera, the whole of the 
Orthoptera and Neuroptera and part of the Coleoptera, and, among 
Vertebrates, the Birds of tlie Sandwich Islands. All these contri- 
butions are included in that great work the ' Fauna Hawaiiensis,' 
written by numerous eminent specialists : his General Introduction 
to the Fauna is now in the Press. 

Throughout Dr. Perkins's long residence in the Sandwich Islands, 
extending over a period of at least twentv-five years, he has 
studied the conditions of life of all the groups of animals in the 
Islands, and not only those on which he has himself written. 

The value of his long and arduous researches is enhanced by the 
unfortunate circumstance that large numbers of species which he 
has studied are now extinct, owing to the importation and spread 
of competing Continental species and to the destruction of the 
native forests to make way for the sugar-plantations. Dr. Perkins's 
careful work will thus be the sole record in the future of the many 
deeply interesting forms of life which have already gone, and of 
many more Avhich are on the point of disappearing. 

To Dr. Perkins's more strictly scientific achievements must be 
added his remarkable success in founding the Experimental Station 
at Honolulu. I am told that he, more than anyone else, has proved 
that such investigations in applied Biology really pay ; the sugar- 
planters of the Islands have found it worth their while to liberally 
endow his Station, having learnt that he has saved them immense 
sums by his method of importing into the Islands the enemies of 
the insect-pests of the crop. This practical work has not been 
accomplished without laborious and most minute investigations 
into the life-history and bionomic conditions of the pests and their 
enemies, carried out by him or by skilled assistants under his 
direction. These enquiries have led to a most exact knowledge of 
the ways of parasites and hyper-parasites, and, while the object 
was originally a commercial one, a tlood of light has been thrown 
on the scientific aspects of insect bionomics. 

I regret to hear that Dr. Perkins's health has suffered in the 
course of his long-continued labours, owing to exposure during his 
travels at high elevations and in the damp regions of the Islands. 

On the ground of his distinguished work in field natural history, 
in systematic investigation, and in applied biology, the Council 
have awarded the Linneau Medal to Dr. Perkins, and I have great 
pleasure in handing it to you for his acceptance. 

Prof. Poulton made a suitable acknowledgment, and undertook 
to convey the medal to the recipient. 

The General Secretary havino; laid before the Meeting certain 
obituary notices of deceased Fellows and others, the proceedings 


Algernon Sidney Bicknell was the sou of Elanan Bicknell, of 
Heme Hill, Surrey, a well-known collector of pictures, and Jjorn 
on the 9th October, lSli'2. Possessed of ample means, he gave 
his attention to botany, astronomy, and alpine exploration, 
travelling much and never happier tlian when in such scenes as 
the vast forests of the An)azon Jiiver. 

At a later period he specially interested himself in fungi, and 
collected a good library bearing on that group. He showed an 
extensive series of fungi about the year 1887 at the Eoyal 
Horticultural Society, at that time at South Kensington. He was 
a member of several scientiHo Societies, amongst them the 
Woolhope Club and the lioyal (xeographical Society, but he 
seems never to have published any accouut of his travels or 
researches. He was elected a Fellow of the Linnean Society, 
iipth December, 1877, and died at Brighton after an operation, on 
the 26th October, 1911, shortly after completing his 79th year. 

[b] D. J.] 

Haiuiy Bolus was born in Nottingham on April 28th, 1834, 
the son of Joseph Bolus, a business man of that town. Through 
the master of his school he became connected with AVilliam 
Kensitt, a merchant of (xrahamsroMii, with whom he served as 
apprentice from 1850-1852, having landed at Port Elizabeth 
on March 28th, 1850. From Grahamstown he went to Port 
Elizabeth as book-keej)erin a mercantile house, and, at the end of 
1855, after a short visit to England, returned to South Africa to 
Graaff-Eeinet, where he spent the succeeding nineteen years, 
acting for a short time as Secretary to the Midland Fire 
Insurance and Trust Company. In 1874 he left Graaff-Eeinet 
and joined his brother, a stock-broker in Cape Town,* retiring 
from business in 1895. He died at Oxted, Suri-ey, on May 25th, 
1911, soon after his arrival on what Mas to be the last of his 
many visits to England, and was buried in the churchyard of the 

Although no doubt interested from eai'ly youth in the observa- 
tion of natural objects and phenomena, his connection with 
botany may be said to date from 1862, when he attended a short 
course of public lectures on botany, given by Prof. F. Guthrie, 
who the year before had been appointed to the newly founded 
Graaff-Eeinet College. His friendship with Guthrie furthei'ed his 
botanical inclinations, and the loss in 1805 of his eldest son and 
the desire for relief from the sad blow, drove him into the 
arms of the science in which his interests centred lienceforth. For 
years his activity in this domain was confined to collecting and 
observations in the held, and studies in his own herbarium. 
Thorough and methodical habits and a keen eye not only helped 
him to build up a valuable collection of his own, but also made 
him a most useful contributor to his numerous correspondents, 
whose inquiries and wishes he always met with great liberality. 


Poremost in his correspoudence stood Kew, the connection with 
which extended from 1867 to his death, and was much strengthened 
by repeated visits, on which he used to bring with him large 
sets ot" specimens for study and comparison. 

With Bolus started a second and most successful period in the 
botanical exploration of South Africa, the lirst having closed with 
Ecklon and Zeyher in the forties. The success \\as partly due to 
his own numerous travels, of wliieh Prof. H. H. W. Pearson 
published a valuable list in the South African Journal of Science 
for 1911, and partly to the stimulus Avhich he so well understood to 
awake and keep alive in otliers. His botanical journeys took him 
■all over Cape Colony, from Cape Town to Xama([ualand and Pondo- 
land, and from Algoa Bay to Kimberley. He also visited the 
Orange Pree State, and three times the Transvaal. Thus he ac- 
quired an unparalleled field knowledge of the flora of South Africa, 
and especially of Cape Colony. It found a masterly expression in 
his ' Sketch of the Piora of South Africa ' (1886), and again in a 
more matured and condensed form in his ' Sketch of the Ploral 
Eegions of South Africa' (1905); but on the whole he was not a 
prolific writer. He was too modest to gauge exactly the value of 
his experience and first-hand knowledge, and perliaps also too 
cautious in a field where the inadequate literary and herbarium 
resources at his disposal certainly provided ample opportunity for 
blocking and pitfalls. However, he published a number of 
" Contributions to South African Botany " in various places, and 
with respect to tv^o families he rose far above the level of the 
casual contributor. The iunnensely rich and varied Orchid flora 
•of the Cape fascinated him early. In 1882 he gave us a " List of 
Published Species of Cape Orchids " in the Journal of the Linuean 
Society, followed in the same place by five "Contributions" 
(1884-1^90) dealing with the family, whilst a paper on the 
Orchids of the Cape Peninsula, illustrated by himself, appeared 
in the Transactions of the South African Philosophical Society 
in 1882. The plan of illustrating as many South African members 
of the family as possible was carried further in his ' Icones 
■Orchidearum Austro-Africanarum Extratro])icarum,' of Mliicli the 
first part (50 plates) came out in 1 892, the second (50 plates) in 
1896, both constituting A^olume I., and a third. Volume II., in 1911, 
the revision of the last proof-sheets of this having been concluded 
by him on the very eve of his death. The other family which 
deservedly claimed his special attention was the Ericacea?, which 
in the genus Erica attains to such a marvellous number of species. 
Bolus, together with his friend Prof. Guthrie, undertook to elabo- 
rate the genus for the ' Flora Capensis,' and, after Guthrie's death 
in 1899, he finished the difficult and troublesome task, the work 
occupying over 300 pages with descriptions of 469 species in the 
fourth volume of the ' Flora Capensis ' (1905). Yet another 
publication has to be mentioned, namely, 'A List of Flowering 
Plants and Ferns of the Cape Peninsula,' which he elaborated in 
•conjunction with Capt. (now Major) A. IT. Wolley Dod. It is' 

44 phoceedikgs of the 

the fruit of bis labours in the district wbere he resided for so 
long a part of his life, and vas published in the Ti-ansactions of 
the South African Philosophical Society in 19U3. 

Allusion has been made to the stimulating influence he 
exercised over South Africa, thereby reviving the interest in 
the botany of the country. It was done mainly through his 
example and an extensive and sustained correspondence. This 
naturally ceased with his death. ]iut in founding the Harry 
Bolus Chair of Botany in the South African College in 1902, he 
has secured for botany a permanent footiug in the centre of one 
of the most remarkable floras of the world. It was a fine 
expression of public spirit, worthy of the man who was ever 
mindful of the common good and u staunch believer in education 
in the widest sense. He also provided in his will for the 
maintenance and extension of his herbarium and botanical library, 
which are now in the charge of the South African College. 
Although he was averse to coming to the front in public life, the 
integrity of his character and his ripe experience made him a 
desirable member of public bodies, and so he served on the board 
of the Colonial Orphan Chamber (since 18S2), on that of the 
South African Public Library (since 1897), as a Trustee of 
the South African Museum (since 1006), and on the Council of 
the South African College (1908-1910). He was President of the 
South African Philosophical Society for the Session 1886-87, and 
an Original Pellow and Member of the Council of the Royal 
Society of South Africa. In 1903 the Cape University recognized 
his scientific merits by giving him the honorary degree of D.Sc, 
whilst in 1909 the South African Association for the Advance- 
ment of Science awarded him the South Africa Medal and Grant 
for Scientific Research. The Linnean Society numbered him 
among its Fellows since 1873. 

Harry Bolus was a self-m.ade man. Prom modest beginnings 
he rose by force of character to the position of a man of public 
standing and scientific recognition. Taken away from his 
Nottingham school when still in his boyhood, he educated himself 
up to the level not only of a superior student of science, but 
also a man of refined and liberal tastes. The independence and 
freshness of his mind made his company always enjoyable and 
stimulating, whilst the stern mettle ol' his manly character attached 
bin) and his memory permanently to those who had the good 
fortune of his friendship. Death has gently dealt with him and 
given him back to his old home when his work was done. 

[O. Staff.] 

Jean Baptiste Edouaed Boenet, M.D., Membre de I'lnstitut, 
the well-known algologist, was born at Gudrigny (Nievre) on 
2nd September, 1828. He studied under Tulasne and Leveille, 
and early in his career turned his attention to lichens and alga?, 
groups which he continued to investigate throughout his life. 
His death took place at Paris, on December 18th, 1911. 


The researches carried out by Bornefc with regard to the life- 
history of lichens were especially importaut. He isolated and 
specifically determined the algoe which entered into the composi- 
tion of a large number of species, and described the method by 
which the hyphoe env'elop the algte, coming to the conclusion that 
the gonidia of lichens can always ha referred to a species of alga. 
The strong support which he gave Schwendeuer, materially helped 
in securing the early recognition of the theory of the dual nature 
of lichens. 

His work on marine algoe was no less noteworthy. The magni- 
ficent drawings in 'Notes Algologiques ' and 'Etudes Phycolo- 
giques ' testify to his skill and to the careful manner in which 
he investigated the structure and development of these plants. 
Amongst systematic works his joint monograph with Flahault on 
the Nostocaceae is perhaps the best known, being a masterly 
revision of a group that was previously in the greatest confusion. 

Dr. Bornet was elected a Foreign Member of this Society on 
1st May, 1870, and awarded the Linnean Medal in 1891 ; he 
was also a Foreign Member of the Royal Society, " Membre 
Foudateur" aud Past President of the Societe botanique de 
France, and "officier" of the Legion of Honour. His interest 
in marine algse continued to the end. On the most friendly terms 
with British algologists, he never spared time or trouble in giving 
them the benefit of his opinion and advice. [A. D. Cotton.] 

The removal by the hand of death, on the 20th xipril, 1912, 
at Nice, of Mrs. OoiLVTE-FAUQunAKSON, of Haughton, takes fi-om 
us a woman who exercised a notable influence on the affairs of 
this Society in the matter of the full admission of women to all the 
activities of the Society. 

Mauian Sarah Eidley was born at Privet, NTorthamptonshire, 
on the 2nd July, 1846, the eldest daughter of the Eev. J. Nicholas 
Ridley, of HoUington, Hants. In 1881 she published a little 
Yolume, ' A Pocket Guide to British Ferns,' aud a paper at the 
British Association at Aberdeen in 1885, on the distinctive 
characters of British Mosses ; these seem to be her only contri- 
butions to scientific literature. In 1883 she was married to 
Mr. R. F. Ogilvie-Fai-quharson, of Haughton, aud at Tillydrine, 
Kincardine O'Neil, the remainder of her days were spent, save 
when the calls of health or the cause she had most at heart, drew 
her from her home. 

In June 1900 an application from Mrs. Farquharson respecting 
the admission of women as Fellows was laid before the Council, 
and received attention at several subsequent Councils. In view 
of the doubt expressed as to whether the Charter permitted the 
admission of women to the Fellowship, counsels' opinion was 
taken, to the effect that the Charter did not empower the Society 
to admit women. Upon this a memorial, set on foot and 
supported by a considerable number of Fellows favourable to the 

46 phoceedings or the 

admission of women, was presented to the Council early in 1902^ 
and a circular inviting the oi)inions of tlie Fellows was issued in 
March oi" that year ; the return of the papers in response to this 
enquiry showed a lar^e majority in favour of applying for powers 
to admit women (301 in favour, 12(5 against, with 313 absten- 
tions). The meeting of the loth .January, 1903, was made 
special, and the motion to proceed for enlarged powers was 
carried by a large majority. Upon this the Treasurer, the present 
Sir Frank Crisp, nndertook to procure an additional Charter, 
granting wider powers in certain other directions as well, which 
w as done at the sole cost of the Ti'easurer. The new Charter was 
granted in April 1904, and the Bye-laws were amended in accor- 
dance with it ; the first election of women as Fellow s took place 
on the 15th December, 1904, and their formal admission on the 
19th January, 1905. In this first election Mrs. Furquharson did 
not succeed at the ballot, but subsequently, on the 5th March, 
1908, she was elected Fellow, and the effort of many years 
crowned with success. 

By this time Mrs. Farquharson was suffering from heart 
trouble, and the probable bad effect of excitement on a weakened 
organ, prevented her con)ing forward for formal admission. She 
died, as stated above, at Nice, and was buried by the side of her 
husband, at Alford, in the county of Aberdeen. [B. D. J.] 

Alfred Fkyer (1826-1912). — To those to whom he was known 
the death of Alfred Fryer came as a shock, for notwithstanding 
his age, he was very active up to the last. 

Born of an old Cambridgeshire family of the fenland, he was a 
typical type of the fenman. He often said " Ah ! I knew him 
by the scowl of his broA\-," meaning he could identify a fenman 

He was a good letter- writer ; froni the time I first knew him 
till his death, his letters make 1480 pages, mostly referring to the 
genus Potamogeton ; for which he was undoubtedly our best 
authority on the British species. He had a wonderful memory 
for the various forms all around Cliatteris ; at every dyke or ditch 
he took one to, he could point out each plant ; these he had 
studied for years, both at home and in nature. 

His ' Monograph of the British Potamogetons,' unfortunately 
unfinished at his death, with the plates by Eobert Morgan, will 
ever remain as a monument to his memory. The nine quarto 
published parts appeared from 1898 to 1900. 

He had an enormous collection of dried specimens of the genus, 
and was very liberal witli them ; he w-as also very well read in 
ornithology, entomology, and conchology. 

It was very pleasant to see the estimation he was held in all. 
around Chatteris; he never confined himself to roads or footpaths, 
but went where inclination led him, and everywhere he was 
received as though he was on his own ground. 


He \vas elected an Associate of the Society on the IGtli Decem- 
ber, 1897, and died at Chatteris, 2Gth February, 1912, where he had 
carried on the business of nurseryman. His pi'inted contributions 
to Science, besides the unfinished monograph referred to above,, 
consisted in papers to the 'Journal of Botany' for a series of 
years, from 1883 onwards, on his special genus Potamoc/eton, and 
bear witness to the careful and valuable results he evolved from 
these studies. [Arthur Bennett.] 

Albert Harrison was born in 1860 at the JVew Pale Farm, 
Frodsham, Cheshire, and received his education at the Liverpool 
Institute, leaving at the age of 15 to enter the sugar refinery of 
Henry Tate & Sons in Liverpool, and three years later was trans- 
ferred to the London branch, where he obtained rapid promotion,. 
and finally was made manager. 

The home of his boyhood being close to Delamere Forest, he 
early imbibed a liking for Natural History, and he usually spent 
part of his annual holiday in that forest. It was not till 1888' 
that he took up the study of the Lepidoptera in a serious way. 
Then he joined forces Avith his brother-in-law, Mr. Hugh Main, 
and the two experimented on forms oi Aj^lecta nehulosd and Pieris 
oiapi, and latterly on Boarmia repandata. Mendelian results 
greatly interested him. He was a member of many biological 
associations, and in 1899 was President of the Entomological 
Society. He was elected Fellow of the Liunean Society 
3rd November, 1898 ; he was also Fellow of the Zoological, 
Eoyal Microscopical, and Chemical Societies. He died suddenly 
of apoplexy at his house at South Woodford, on 28th August, 1911, 
and was buried at Alvanley, in Cheshire. [B. D. J.] 

JosEPn Dalton Hooker. — By the death of ?ir Joseph Hooker 
on Sunday, December 10th, 1911, in his 95th year, the Linnean 
Society has lost at once the most renowned of all its Fellows and 
one of the most remarkable men VAho ever devoted his life to the 
advancement of Science. Hooker's ancestry and parentage do not 
require to be set forth here in detail. The son of Sir William 
Hooker, the Founder of Kew, he hailed from East Angiia — a part 
of England which can hold its own with any other region in the 
cumber and eminence of the Naturalists which it has cradled. 
Had Hooker lived another six months it would have been exactly 
70 years since he was elected into the Linnean Society (June 7th, 
1842). Nor does this lapse of time represent the full working 
life of this great man, for already on his election he had won 
his spurs as a botanical traveller in the Antarctic. His life- 
long friend, Asa Gray, in a letter written about this time to 
Sir William Hooker, says * : — 

" 1 heard within a few days that Eoss's expedition had beea 
* ' Letters of Asa Grray,' p. 307. 


heard of from Rio. Doubtless Joseph will liave reached home 
before this letter arrives, and 1 may congratulate him — and 
yourself — upon his most gratifying success, which has laid a 
broad and sure foundation for his scientific eminence. His 
'Flora Antarctica' must be of the very highest interest and 

To young Hooker after his return Gray also wrote*: " Tou now 
stand in a perfectly unrivalled position as a botanist, as to 

advantages, &c and if you do not accomplish something 

worth the while, you ought not to bear tlie name of Hooker." 
The sequel showed how well placed was Gray's high encourage- 
ment. Xo father can ever have had more just reason for pride 
than Sir AVilliam in the achievements of his son. 

Hooker, though born in Suffolk, was taken to Glasgow at the 
age of four ^hen his father was appointed to the Professorship 
of Botany in the University. Here he received his education so 
far as school and college are concerned. He graduated in 
Medicine in 1839, being then 22 years of age. With the world to 
conquer he seized the first big thing that chance afforded. 

As Hooker has told us, his father's house " was the resort of 

voyagers and travellers from all parts of the world On 

the occasion of a visit from Koss, he told my father of his hopes 
of obtaining the equipment of an expedition to discover the South 
Magnetic Pole ; whereupon my father brought me to him as a 
youth who would be delighted to accompany him as Xaturalist. 
E.OSS received me very kindly, and told me that if I could prepare 
myself for such a duty, he would take me. The Antarctic 
E.xpedition saw my debut in a scientific career "t. To travel had 
always been Hooker's dream as a child, and he relates how he used 
to look at the pictures in Cook's voyages sitting on his grand- 
father's knee (Dawson Turner). The one that took his fancy 
most was the plate of Christmas Harboui', Kergueleu's Land, with 
the arched rock standing out to sea, and the sailors killing 
penguins. He was consumed with the desire to see that rock and 
knock penguins on the head. By an odd coincidence this was one 
of the first places he visited with the Antarctic Expedition. 

The fascination and interest of this desolate island, the flora of 
which he fully described, appears to have remained throughout his 
life. In a letter to my father, written during a visit to the 
Scottish Highlands t, Hooker says : — 

" Skye Geology, too, impressed me much. The island re- 
sembled some of the Antarctic ones in many particulars ; and 
though volcanic on the whole, it contains beds representative of 
most or all the British Formations from the Laurentian upwards ! 
and I could not help wondering if future discoveries, say in 

* ' Letters of Asa Gray,' p. 317. 

t Anniversary Dinner of the Royal Soeiety, Nov. 30, 1887. Sir Joseph 
Hooker's replv to the toast of "The Medallists," p. 13. 
+ Dated Aviemore, Sept. 25, 1876. 


Kerguelen's Land, ina}'' not throw as much hglit on the Greology of 
the Antarctic regions as 8kye alone would have done in respect of 
Northern Europe. Perhaps the fossil wood of Kerguelen's Land 
may be the nucleus of a great liglit." 

On his return from the Antarctic, Hooker at once took in hand 
the description of his rich collections and the elucidation of the 
Southern Floras. This task culminated in tlie publication of the 
first instalment of the ' Flora Antarctica ' in 1847. It is interesting 
to note at this period the influence of the atmosphere of Bryology 
in which the son of so famous a Bryologist as Sir William Hooker 
had been brought up. His earliest published papers all dealt with 
Mosses, and on his return from the Antarctic it was the Mosses, 
Liverworts, Lichens and Algte of the voyage which he lirst worked 
out in detail. 

In a letter to my fatlier, written in his 91st year, Hooker states 
that the first plant he ever dissected was a Moss*, and though 
throughout the middle period of his life he concerned himself 
mainly with the flowering plants, the intention was always 
cherished and sometimes referred to, so my father tells me, of 
returning to the group once more when the burden of official duties 
■should fall from his shoulders. This intention, as is well known, 
was never realised ; the remarkable and difficult genus Imiiatiens 
absorbing him during the last ten years of his life. 

In the course of his travels Hooker had come into frequent 
contact with fossil plants, and in 1846 he was appointed Botanist 
to the Geological Survey of Great Britain. This field evidently 
was a congenial one, and he pursued it for a while with marked 
success. It is not necessary, however, here to record in detail 
Hooker's work as a Palseobotanist, for it has formed the main 
subject matter of the Presidential Address to the Fellows of this 
Society delivered last May by our retiring President, Dr. D. 
H. Scott. This, at any i-ate, is certain. Had Hooker devoted his 
life to this branch, the history of fossil botany in this country 
must have been profoundly changed. The post of Botanist to 
the Geological Survey would appear to have been long obsolete, 
and, so far as the State is concerned, paheobotany has not received 
the encouragement which it deserves, having regard to the magni- 
tude of the coal industry of Great Britain and to the intrinsic 
importance of the subject. 

Though his energies were directed into other fields, Hooker 
always maintained an ardent interest in the progress of fossil 
botany right up to the end of his life. It is stated of his con- 
temporai-y, Lindley, that he abandoned the pursuit of fossil botany 
lest it should beguile him from the straight path of systematics ; 
in the case of Hooker no doubt the superior attractions of travel 
and phytogeography proved too strong. 

* " Happily my eyes are as good and my fingers as nimble at dissecting 
under the microscope as when I coinmenceci at 10 years of age — I think with 
a Polytrichiim," from letter dated Jan. 22nd, 1908. 



Be this as it may, towards the close of 1847 Hooker was on his 
way 10 India, and thus on tlie threshold of perhaps the largest 
of the interests that entered into his very full life. This journey 
came as a natural sequel to the Antarctic ; he was anxious to be- 
come acquainted with the Tropics, and chose India in preference 
to South America because so much of its geography as well as the 
botany was "involved in a mystery equally attractive to the 
traveller and the naturalist." 

The immediate outcome of this journey, which extended over 
three years, was the ' Himalayan Journals,' a book which fittingly 
takes its place beside ' The Voyage of the lieagle ' — from the un- 
published proof-sheets of which Hooker had drawn inspiration 
before his departure with lioss to the Antarctic. The perusal of 
these ' Journals' shows how incomparably well fitted was Hooker 
for the role of traveller in a strange country full of difhculties. 
Though circumstances ultimately determined that the botanical 
results should prove the richest, because pursued and analysed 
farthest, Hooker was no mere botanist. These notes appeal equally 
to the ethnologist, the zoologist, the geologist, the meteorologist, 
and the geographer. In several of these fields, especially ludian 
topography, Hooker left an enduring mark ; had he chosen he 
could have attained to the highest eminence in any. 

Here are a few extracts, taken at random from the ' Journals, 
which illustrate some of his many sides : — ■ 

"During my ten days' stay at Zemu Sanidong, I formed a 
large collection of insects, which was in great part destroyed 
by damp ; many were new, beautiful, and particularly interesting, 
from belonging to types whose geographical distribution is 
analogous to that of the vegetation. The caterpillar of the 
swallow-tail butterfly was common, feeding on umbelliferous 
plants, as in England ; that of a Sphynx was devouring the 
euphorbias ; the English ' painted-lady ' was common, as were 
' sulphurs,' ' marbles,' ' whites,' ' blues,' and Thecla, of British 
aspect but foreign species." 

" As the rains advanced, insects seemed to be called into 
existence in countless swarms ; moths, cockchafers, glow-worms,, 
and cockroaches made my tent a Noah's Ark by niglit, when the 
candle was burning ; together with winged ants, may-flies, flying 
earwigs, and many beetles, while a very large species of daddy- 
long-legs swept across my face as I wrote my journal, or plotted 
off" my map." 

" Bhomtso [in Tibet] is 18,590 feet above the sea ; it presented' 
an infinitely more extensive prospect than I had ventured to 

anticipate No village or house is seen throughout the 

extensive area over which the eye roams from Bhomtso, and the 
general character of the desolate landscape was similar to that 
which I have described as seen from Donkia pass. The wild ass 
grazing with its foal on the sloping downs, the hare bounding 


over the stony soil, the antelope scouring the sandy flats, and the 
fox stealing along to his burrow, are all desert and Tartarian 
types of the animal creation. The shrill whistle of the marmot 
alone breaks the silence of the scene, recalling the snows of Lap- 
land to the mind ; whilst the kite and raven wheel through the 
air, with as steady a pinion as if that atmosphere possessed the 
same power of resistance that it does at the level of the sea. 
Still higher in the heavens, long black V-shaped trains of wild 

geese cleave the air One plant alone, a yellow lichen 

(Borrera) is found at this lieight, and that only as a visitor ; for 
Tartar-like, it migrates over these lofty slopes and ridges, blown 
about by the violent winds." 

" The Khasias are superstitious, but have no religion ; like the 
Lepchas, they believe in a supreme being, and in deities of the 
grove, cave, and stream. Altercations are often decided by 
holding the disputants' heads under water, when the longest 
winded carries his point. Pining is a common punishment, and 
death for grave offences. The changes of the moon are accounted 
for by the theory that this orb, who is a man, monthly falls in 

love with his wife's motlier, who throws ashes in his face 

they have names for the twelve months ; they do not divide their 
time by weeks, but hold a market every fourth day. These people 
are industrious, and good cultivators of rice, millet, and legumes 
of many kinds . . . They keep bees in rude hives of logs of wood," 

The 'Himalayan Journals' were followed in 1855 by the first 
volume of the ' Flora ludica ' in conjunction with his old college 
friend, Thomas Thomson. Though the work was never continued 
in the form then planned, this volume is famous for its Intro- 
ductory Essay extending over 260 pages. This essay, besides 
presenting a masterly analysis of the vegetation and physical 
features of India, gives us the foundations of the study of syste- 
matic botany set forth as only Hooker could set them forth. It 
also shows Hooker as the fearless critic of current methods in 
systematic botany by which that branch had become encumbered 
to its serious disadvantage. 

The Indian flora \Aas taken up again later in what is Hooker's 
greatest floristic work, ' The Flora of British India,' which appeared 
in seven volumes between the years 1872 and 1897. In addition 
to this Hooker completed the ' Ceylon Flora' of Henry Trimen, and 
concluded his labours in this field with 'A Sketch of the Vegetation 
of the Indian Empire ' (1904). Nor can it be said that Hooker 
ever laid aside his studies on the Indian Flora, for the closing years 
of his life were devoted to a monograph of the genus Impatiens. 
In this connection the following extract from a letter to my 
father, describing his method of ^^ork (dated Jan. 22, ]908) is of 
interest : — 

" I have been at work ever since I retired on Impatiens, and 
have m.onographed all the Indian and Malayan Species — well 



on to 200 — and am now at China proper, from wlience I have 
140 species, of wliich not a dozen are natives of India ! 1 do 
not know which is the more diflicult task — to remove and 
dissect a flower, or to dassify the species, or to describe their 
variable and grotesque organs for many points in which there is 
no teclnilcal terminolog)\ Many single ilowers of these curious 
species especially took 2 and even 3 hours to lay out the parts for 
drawing and description — and after all is done I doubt whether 
what I see, draw, and describe will fit in with the living flower ! As 
it is, I defy the acutest botanist to tell me fron) the best dried 
specimens whether there are 2 or 4 lateral sepals, whether the 
anthers are acute or didymous, or — even approximately — the true 
form of a single floral envelope. To get at these you must remove 
and moisten the flowers and spread out every organ flat under 
water. This done, I secure them all on slips of gummed paper as 
evidences of the fidelity ? of my sketches that go w ith the analyses 
into the Herbarium ; no reagent has helped me. 

" I have the loan of the Paris Chinese Balsams, 70 species, two- 
thirds different from the 80-90 species of the Herb. Kew. I find 
the bracts (as to situation) a prime character. Indeed, you may 
divide the genus into two groups, one with the lower pedicel of 
the raceme bracteate at the base, as in most, or ebracteate, as in 
Noli-me-tangere — the latter are few in India but abound in China. 
Of course the 1-flowered species puzzle you, but that is a detail ! 

" After the bracts I think the anthers come next, but these are 
so small and so crushed in dried flowers that the getting at their 
form is often a long affair. Lastly, the sectional character of one 
region won't do for another ; which is no A^onder when you con- 
sider that of some 64 species of India AV^. of the Bay of Bengal 
not 5 are found in Burma and countries E. of the Bay, and only 
2 or 3 in China. 

"I will bore you no further — my head is as twisted as a balsam 
flower and as upside down." 

Almost everything Hooker undertook was conceived on the 
grand scale and carried through with a tenacity and continuity of 
driving power that was simply marvellous. AVhat was true of 
the Indian Flora applied also to the Antarctic. Though interrupted, 
this was brought to a triumphant conclusion in the ' Introductory 
Essay to tlie Flora of Australia,' published in 1859. This, no 
doubt, was Hooker's most brilliant effort, and it appeared just at 
the right moment. In it are discussed the general phenomena 
of variation in plants and the distribution of plants in space and 
time. Then follows the detailed handling of a special case — that 
of the Australian Flora. The headings of the sections in a single 
chapter will serve to illustrate the topics considered : — Circum- 
scription of area of species, and causes of it; lielative distribution 
of natural groups of plants ; Insular floras, and analogies between 
them and mountain floras, and between the geological ages of 

LINjS'EAN society of LONDON. 53 

insular and other floras ; Existing conditions iv ill not account for 
existing distribution ; Effects of humidity in modifying distribu- 
tion ; Effects of the Glacial Epoch, and Darivin's views thereon. 
Coming just when it did, this essay was of enormous service to the 
cause ol: Darwinism. Hooker had always been Darwiu's right 
hand man, and it was due to liis well-judged intervention in con- 
junction with Lyell, that the famous Darwin-Wallace joint note 
on Natural Selection was presented to the Linnean Society on 
July 1st, 1858. The matter, however, need not be pursued here, 
as it has been recently embodied in extenso in a special volume 
issued by the Society on the occasion of the Jubilee celebration on 
July 1st, 1908. jtlooker's friendship and scientific connection 
with Darwin was undoubtedly the most important experience of 
his lifetime, and was frequently alluded to by him M-itli gratitude. 

Hooker, now 40 years of age, had reached the plenitude of his 
powers, and must have been a great figure in those days. He had 
undertaken two great journeys in regions hitherto veiled in 
obscurity, and by his masterly handling of the enormous masses 
of data he had accumulated, he became the virtual founder of 
phytogeography as a science. In 1855 he was appointed 
Assistant Director of Kew under his father ; and all this time 
he was behind the scenes with Darwin, doing yeoman service in 
the cause of evolution with his great stores of knowledge, good 
judgment, and fine critical powers. 

At the present day we often incline to be envious of the 
apparent ease with which average men belonging to a former 
genex'ation took their place as recognised authorities whilst still 
quite young ; w^e conceive the world to have been less crowded 
then and the public less satiated with the results of modern 
science. Whatever substratum of justice there may be in such 
jaundiced reflections, they do not apply to the case of Hooker. 
This philosophically-minded and robust man of action, quick in 
observation and sound of judgment, always ready to help Avith 
acute criticism, such a man was bound in any age and in any field 
to tower above his contemporaries. The best material brought up 
in the best of schools, the early Victorian days threw into fitting 
relief this vivid and indomitable personality which really belongs 
to the heroic age. A hero indeed he was to the younger men 
of his time, as I gather from what my father tells me of his own 
feeling towards Hooker before he came to Kew. 

Tor ten years (1855-1865) Hooker served under Sir "William 
Hooker, and on the death of the latter naturally succeeded to the 
Directorship of Kew, a position which he held till 1885. 

His official connection with Kew was marked by the continued 
active development of the Gardens along the lines laid down by 
his father. It was under the Hookers that Kew rose into fame, 
and I agree with Prof. E. O. Bower * that it would serve no useful 

* An Oration on Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker. Glasgow, 1912, p. 15. 


purpose to attempt to disentangle the respective shares of father 
:md son in its advancing fortunes. So far as Kew is concerned 
the appearance of the Hookers may hest be regarded as a single 
phenomenon. Sir William's policy had been large and en- 
lightened, and it was not likely that the son would modify its 
main outlines. Apart from material expansion — and many new 
features were introduced — the ollicial duties of the Director 
increased continually. Administration, together with correspon- 
dence with Government departments and Colonial gardens, would 
have overwhelmed a weaker man, but Hooker never jiermitted them 
to interrupt or seriously abate his scientitic work. In Hooker, the 
man and botanist never relapsed into the official. At the same 
time he kept in the closest touch with the detailed administrative 
work of Kew. In my childhood Hooker was a familiar figure in 
tlie Gardens, going his daily round between eleven and one 
o'clock, commonly in company with Smith the Curator, or with the 
appropriate head of a department. These encounters were much 
appreciated by us children, for " Dr. Hooker" always had a cheery 
greeting and took an interest in our pursuits. I remember 
one day his challenging me to swarm up one of the wire stays of 
the great flagstaff, and, when my feet dangled over his head, his 
peremptory request that I should descend. I don't know whether 
Hooker was what would be called a "children's man," but we were 
all immensely devoted to him ; perhaps because he kept our indi- 
vidualities distinct and identified himself with our intei'ests. In 
his own house on the occasion of children's parties, and my recol- 
lection of the Christmas parties with " tree " and magic lantern- 
slides is vivid, Hooker, although he didn't hang about, always came 
in to welcome us on arrival, and to say good bye. I have also seen 
him emerge as a roaring lion from under the drawing-room table, 
and a very good lion, too I 

As Director, Hooker never let a chance slip of picking up a 
good man. The following reference to Mr. Baker, afterwards 
Keeper of the Herbarium, occurs in a letter to my father in 1865. 
" I wonder whether Baker would ever care to come and work at 
Kew for a few weeks at a time if we paid his expenses and offered 
£1 a week ; it might be the means of getting him on the staff 
eventually ?" 

He also looked after his subordinates, as is well illustrated by 
the following extract from the same letter : — 

" I had a talk with . He corresponds with the ' Cottage 

Gardener,' but offered to discontinue it. I told him that I had 
no objection, but that no part of his time between 8.30 and 5 
should be devoted to it. 1 also spoke of smoking, and of the 
necessity of resting after meals — which you siiould be told of, 
too ! He suffers from dyspepsia (no wonder) and promises 

reform." To what extent may have changed his ways I 

cannot say, but I well remember that my father always used to 
rest on the sofa for a quarter of an hour after luncheon, a habit 


probably attributable to advice from Hooker, for I don't think 
such an idea would ever have occurred to him spontaneously I 
And also by this (1871): — 

" 1 am poauding the Board to get an Assistant for Smith, who 
can hardly stagger along under his loads of duties of all sorts," 

In those days Kew was under the lioard of Works, and later 
Hooker had a good deal of trouble with one of the ParUamentary 
heads. It is no use raking over this old controversy ; suffice to 
say that Hooker more than held his own and was victorious in the 
end. I imagine no man was less toleraut of dictation and unin- 
teUigent interference than Hooker. Daring the seventies of last 
century there was a local agitation — doubtless promoted by the 
owners of houses along the Richmond Road — to have the brick 
wall which enclosed the Grardens on this .side replaced by iron 
railings. Hooker's reply was to add another five or six feet to the 
height of this wall for a considerable part of its length, and so it 
remains to the present day. 

I iiave heard the term "hasty" applied to Hooker, but cannot 
say how far it is justified. It may have been the " defect" of his 
x^uality for sound and rapid generalisation. Darwin in one of his 
letters reproaches Hooker for being " down " on second-rate men, 
and there is no doubt that Hooker used to express himself em- 
phatically as to bad craftsmanship or waste of time. 

C is not doing any good. He is putting out for Mueller 

bad specimens of the commonest garden things and putting them 
up in clumsy parcels that I am ashamed to send out" *. 

It will be realised how annoyed Hooker must have been with 

the wretched C , for lie himself not infrequently sent out 

plants with his own hands — a habit acquired on his travels. My 
father tells me that the very first time he ever met Hooker, on the 
occasion of his arrival at Kew in 1858, he found him making up 
such parcels to send av.ay in the little room on the i-ight of the 
Herbarium door. 

The period of Hooker's Directorship included numerous publica- 
tions of value to systematic botany, of which the 'Genera Plantarum' 
was in many ways the most important and indispensable. In this 
great work, undertaken in conjunction with George Bentham, the 
whole of the genera of flowering plants were diagnosed and 
delimited; its publication extending from 1863 to 1882. To 
Hooker, of course, systematic botany was not an end in itself but 
an essential instrument in the solution of the higher problems, the 
laws that control evolution and dispersal of species, and the rela- 
tion of physical changes and geology to these laws. 

Hooker never lost his taste for travel nor failed to make oppor- 
tunity for it. Among his minor and later journeys may be 
mentioned his trip to the Atlas Mountains of Morocco in 1871. 
His travelling companions were John Ball, the famous alpinist, and 
'George Maw, well-known for his elaborate monograph on the genus 

* Letter dated 1871. 


Crocus. The following extract from a letter written from Tetuan 
gives us a glimpse of this trio in the field: — 

" I say that ViwW finds this or that because he beats me Jtolloiv in 
botanisii]g and is making a splendid herbarium. 1 find my eye- 
sight quite fails me as a collector; indeed, 1 have been remarking 
for two years now that 1 cannot read the garden labels with my 
spectacles even, except I stoop down *. Mr. Maw has a marvellous 
eye also, especially for bulbs. The aggregate knowledge of liall and 
Maw as to European plants is simply astounding. Ball knows the 
smallest flowerless scrap of hundreds of obscure things (e.g. Medi- 
cago, Care.v, and such like), and Maw recognises the bulbs by leaf, 
however like the long grass they grow amongst." 

In the summer of 1877 Hooker in company with Asa Gray, the 
great American botanist, undertook a journey of three months' 
duration in California and elsewhere in the United States of 
America. Of this journey Asa Gray wrote t : — 

" Never were such busy people as Hooker and I the whole time. 
In fact, I was bound to make Hooker see just as much as possible 
within our limited time, and it seemed on the Avbole best for us to 
see very much in glimpses and snatches rather than far less more 
leisurely and thoroughly. He will have told you of our over nine 

thousand miles of travel together, and of how he hked it 

"We should like to do it all over, and more. But especially we 
should like to see California in green attire. JVot that we are not 
interested and taken with the sere aspect of these western regions 
in summer, which we fancy more than Hooker does. In fact, the 
greenness of England is so congenial to him that he took more 
delight in our eastern States, which he had mere glimpses of, than 
in all the wide western region, though, of course, there was more 
to learn in these." 

The rambling spirit in Hooker enabled him fully to enjoy more 
modest excursions. The following is a typical extract from a 
holiday letter written from the High Force, Teesdale, in ]865. 
As indicated in the previous extract from A?a Gray, bleak mono- 
tonous landscape was little to his liking. 

" I call the country here Mdeotis aw ay from the ri^ er banks, 
which are charming. We are vastly pleased with the place, for 
even the hideous moors make capital hale walking ground and the 

moraines are most interesting AVe enjoy this place very 

much ; it is just the sort of climate for my wife, and I am rapidly 
getting into that condition when after breakfast dinner is the only 
subject worth a thought. I have botanised Cronkley pretty well 
and got most of the good plants — nothing new as yet, but a little 
Juncns of which I send specimen enclosed, it is most abundant 

* Tlicre was notbing seriously amiss with his eycsigbt, as the footnote at 
p. 49 shows. 

t ' Letters of Asa Gray,' 1893, p. 671. 


hereabouts, growing with snjyinns, but always quite different. The 
roots feel knotted ; it swarms from the Torce up to the top of 
Cronkley and never varies. If you can't make it into a new 
species I must send it to Eabington ! Bentham is puzzled with it." 

The following account of a visit to Backhouse's nursery at York 
was written at the same time, and is of interest for its defence of 
the system of cultivation under glass that is usually followed in 
botanic gardens. 

" We were delighted with Backhouse's nursery. The collection 
of Alpines is wonderful and entirely successful, and we ought to 
have something of the kind at Kew *. 

"The underground fernery rather disappointed me, though very 
wonderful in its way. Many of the tilings do better than in pots, 
many worse. But I am beginning to think that my dislike to 
Ward's case cultivation and these devices of Backhouse and 
Bewley, &c., arises from the fact that though nearer imitations 
of nature than our house-aud-pot system, they are failures by 
direct comparison with nature. No one compares the house-and- 
pot system with nature and no comparison is suggested : with 
these systems it is the contrary — lam taken to a muggy, close, 
damp, slimy hole, the contrast of which to the fresh air ot 
heaven in the plants' native habitat is too violent, and the fact 
of the plant growing as well in the one case as the other, rather 
shocks than gratifies." 

The occasional addresses and lectures delivered by Hooker at 
meetings of the British Association, of which he was President 
at Norwicli in 18G9, reach a very high standard indeed. Those 
dealing with Geographical Botany were especially remarkable. 

Hooker's eminence marked him out for the Presidential chair of 
the Eoyal Society (1873-77), and it is a tribute to his marvellous 
vigour that he was able successfully to grapple with the onerous 
duties of this post during his period of full work at Kew. As a 
rule the presidentship is held by a veteran already in the enjoy- 
ment of some leisure from the active pursuits of his life. 

Unlike his father. Hooker had little direct experience as a 
teacher of botany in academic institutions, though he held an 
assistantship in the botanical department of the University of 
Edinburgh for a brief period on his return from the Antarctic, 
None the less the educational side of botany always interested 
him deeply, and was often the subject of comment in his letters to 
my father. The following, written in 1862, merits repetition at 
the present day : — 

" I do not approve of working a professoriate like a school or 
a college coacJi ; it is a mistake depend upon it. Good free 

* Eealised in 1882. 


lecturing, attention to fundamentals, and working with schedules* 
is more than enough for -^ of the men, and quite enough for 
3 months work with men who have other things to attend to. 
With such coaching the men hecome absolutely helpless when 
turned out — all self-reliance is gone." 

IJis views on the scope and importance of botanical training are 
given at some length in the Introduction to the * Flora ludica.' 
1 am indebted to Mr. Alfred Mihies,of the Univei'sity of Loudon, 
for the information that Hooker acted as Examiner m J3otany to 
the University during two periods of ilve years each. Those of his 
writings best known to students are Hookers ' students' Flora 
of the British Islands ' (1870), the most scholarly of all our floras, 
the English edition of Le Maout and JJecaisne's ' General System 
of Botany,' translated by Mrs. Hooker (1873), a Primer on Botany 
(187G), and Bentham & Hooker's 'Handbook of the British 
Flora' (1887). 

To the publications of our Society Hooker was a copious 
contributor. Tlie best known of his papers are perhaps his 
"Outlines of the Distribution of Arctic Plants" (18Gl),and the very- 
important monograph "On Wehvitschia" (ISd'S). The discovery 
of this plant had ax-oused a very lively interest at the time, and 
Hooker's Memoir was a detailed, intensive study of its morphology, 
development, and histology, in recent years, at the initiative of 
Prof. Pearson, of the South African College, Wehvitsclda has 
been the subject of a fine series of additional papers extending 
our knowledge in many ways. It is, however, safe to say that, 
subject to the methods of investigation and amount of material 
available half a century ago, the original account still holds its 
place. This and a few other papers in the same field show 
Hooker's capacity to work successfully along lines which were 
not generally pursued, at any rate in this country, for another 
fifteen or t\\'enty years. 

In addition to a fine incisive literary style. Hooker had artistic 
gifts of a high order which were freyly employed in connection 
with his pursuits. None but an artist could have knocked off the 
panoramic views reproduced in the first edition of the 'Himalayan 
Journals,' whilst his drawings of pints, tissues and the like were 
exc(;llent. The sheets of dried plants which passed through his 
hands for description gained much in value from the sketches of 
analyses with which it was his practice to embellish them. 

In the conduct of tlie affairs of our Society Hooker always 
showed the greatest activity ; and he served on the Council for 
periods aggregating twenty years. It was largely at his instigation 
that the 'Journal ' of the Society was founded; the circumstances 
are given in the following passage t : — 

* The reference i.s doubtless to the schedules introduced by J. S. Henslow, 
by means of which students could exhibit the salient external features 
of a plant. 

t Extracted from Jackson's Life of George Bentham, 1906, pp. 169-170. 


" A small dinner-party in their rooms (at 91 Victoria Street) on 
2nd March (1855) was arranged with Professor T. Bell, President 
of the Linnean Society, and Dr. Hooker, to discuss starting an 
octavo journal on behalf of the Society. This was ultimately 
achieved, but with great opposition from J. J. Bennett, the 
Secretary, and Eobert Brown, opposition which made Bentham 
almost hopeless of success. The custom then was to issue one 
part of the Transactions annually, and the idea of a quarterly 
journal to those trained in the leisureliness of Kobert Brown, was 
novel and distasteful." 

In this connection the following letter to Dr. Daydon Jackson, 
the last which Hooker wrote to the Society, though it refers to a 
trivial matter, will be read with interest. It is dated July 13, 

" I have just received from Linn. Soc. a most interesting 
number for me. I had no idea that 70 years ago I had gutted the 
Falkland Islands botanically so thoroughly. 

"But my chief object in writing is to ask whether it might not be 
expedient to have the edges of the leaves of the Journal cut before 
issue ? The time and temper it costs me to cut the leaves of the 
many books I have to read is I fear registered against me aloft, 
and, in these days of innumerable books that one must read, 
it would be a mercy to have the leaves cut, of which the 
(Geographical, Koyal, and Statistical Societies' Journals set good 

The suggestion as to the cutting of the leaves of the Journal 
was at once adopted by the Council. 

As we have seen, Hooker in retirement maintained his activity 
to the last, and the output of this period alone would have been a 
creditable record for an ordinary man. His interest in the 
progress of botany was unabated and the men of younger genera- 
tions derived much encouragement from his kindly sympathy and 
frank criticism. Although ni. retirement, no one ever dreamt of 
thinking of Hooker as on the shelf ; he was always consulted 
when anything important was afoot, and he remained to the last 
by universal acclaim the greatest of living botanists. 

Of public honours a goodly share was showered upon Hooker, 
the most notable perhaps being the Copley Medal of the Eoyal 
Society (1887), and the Order of Merit (1907). From this 
Society he received one of the first two Liunean Medals in 
1888 — the other going to Owen — and in 1897 a Medal struck 
to commemorate his 80th birthday. He was also the recipient 
of one of our Darwin- AVallace Medals on the occasion of the 
celebration held by this Society in 1908 — at which celebration he 
was present and played a leading part. 

For the list of papers contributed by Sir Joseph Hooker to the 
publications of this Society, herewith appended, I am indebted to 
the courtesy of Dr. Daydon Jackson. I have to thank my father. 


who was Hooker's colleague at Kew for nearly 30 years, for much 
iuforniation and for access to the correspondence from which 
numerous extracts have been drawn. 

The portrait which accompanies this notice is reproduced from 
the photograph taken by Mrs. Cameron in 1868. It has always 
been counted an admirable likeness of Sir Joseph Hooker in 
middle life. [F. "W. Oliter.] 

List of Papers bi/ Sir J. D. Hooker in the issues of 
the Linneun Society. 

1. In the Transactions. 

1847. An enumevation of the Plants of the Galapagos Archipelago, 
with descriptions of those that are new. Trans, xx. pp. lb"3-233. 

1847. On tlie Vegetation of the Galajjagos Archipelago, as compared 
with that of some other tropical islands and of the Continent 
of America. Trans, xx. pp. :^3o-262. 

1856. On the structure and affinities of Balanophorete. Trans, xxii. 

pp. 1-68; ])ls. 1-16. 

1857. On the growth and composition of the Ovarium of Siphotiodon 

celastrineus, Griffith, especially with reference to the subject of 
its placentation. Trans, xxii. pp. 133-139, pi. 26. 
1859. On the origin and development of the Pitchers of Nepenthes, with 
an account of some new Bornean plants of that genus. Trans, 
xxii. pp. 415-424, pis. 69-74. 

1859. On a new genus of Balanophoreae from New Zealand, and two 

new species of BuUmophora. Trans, xxii. pp. 425-427, pi. 75. 

1860. Illustrations of the Floras of the Malayan Archipelago and of 

Tropical Africa. Trans, xxiii. ])p. 155-172, pis. 20-28. 

1861. Outlines of the Distribution of Arctic Plants. Trans, xxiii. pp. 251- 

348. pi. 32 (map). 

1861. On three Oaks of Palestine. Trans, xxiii. pp. 381-387, pis. 36-38. 

1863. On Wehcitschia, a new ffenus of Gnetacese. Trans, xxiv. pp. 1-48, 
pis. 1-14. 

1865. Description of some new and remarkable species of An'stolochia 
from "Western Tropical Africa. Trans, xxv, pp. 185-187, pi. 14. 

1886. On the Castillca elastica of Cervantes, ai.d some allied rubber- 
yielding plants. Trans. 2nd Ser. Bot. ii. pp. 209-215,. 
pis. 27, 28. 

2. In the Journal (Botany). 

1856. On some collections of Arctic plants, chicHy made by Dr. Lyall, 
Dr. Anderson, Ilerr Miert selling, and 31r. Pae, during the 
Expeditions in search of Sir John Franklin, under Sir John 
Richardson, Sir I'Mward Belcher, and Sir Robert McClure^ 
Joiirn.. Bot. i. pp. 114-124. 

1856. On the Botany of Raoul Inland, one of the Kermadec group in the 
South Pacific Ocean. Journ. i. pp. 125-129. 

1860. On Fropiora, a ni>w Mauritian genus of Calycifloral Exogens, of 
doubtful affinity. Journ. v. pp. 1-2, 

1860. On Barter id, a new genus of Passiflorese from the Niger River. 
Journ, V. pp. 14-15. 


1861. On the Vegetation of Clarence Peak, Fernando Po; with de- 
scriptions of the Phmts collected by Mr. Gustav Maun on tlie 
higher parts of that ^lountain. Journ. vi. pp. 1-23. 

1864. On a new Helicunia with the habit of a Musa, sent from New 
Granada by Dr. A. Authoine to the Ptoyal Gardens, Kew. 
Journ. vii. pp. 68-69. 

1864. On the Plants of the Temperate Regions of the Cameroons 
Mountains and Islands in the Bight of Benin, collectedjiy 
Mr. Gustav Mann, Government Botanist. Journ. vii. pp. 171- 
240, pi. 1. 

I860. On the Identity of P'miis Pence, Griseb. of Macedonia, with 
the P. excelsa of the Himalaya Mountains. Journ. viii. 
pp. 14.5-147. 

1869. On the true Fuchsia coccinea of Aiton. Journ. x. pp. 450-461. 

1874. On the Subalpine Vegetation of KiHma Njaro, E. Africa. Journ. 
xiv. pp. 141-146. 

1874. On Hi/dnora americana, R. Br. Journ. xiv. pp. 182-188. 

1875. On the discovery of PhijUca arborea, Thouars, a tree of Tristan 

d'Acunha, in Amsterdam Island, in the S. Indian Ocean, with 

an enumeration of the Phanerogams and Vascular Cryptogams 

of that Island and of St. Paul. Journ. xiv. pp. 474-480. 
1875. Observations on some Indian species of Garcinia. Journ. xiv. 

pp. 484-486. 
1882. On Dyera, a new genus of rubber-producing plants belonging to 

the Natural Order Apocynaceae, from the Malayan Archipelago. 

Journ. xix. pp. 291-293. 
1882. Preliminary Note to Prof. Watt's Indian species of Primula. 

Journ. XX. p. 1. 

1884. Introductory Note to Mr. C. B. Clarke's Notes on the Flora of 

Parasnatii, a mountain of North-western Bengal. Journ. xxi. 
p. 252. 

1885. List of the Plants collected by Mr. Thomson, F.R.G.S., on the 

Mountains of Eastern Equatorial Africa, by Prof. Daniel 
Oliver, F.R.S. ; with observations on their distribution by 
Sir J. D.Hooker, F.R.S. Journ. xxi. pp. 392-406. [Sir Joseph 
Hooker's Obs. are on pp. 392-396.] 
1904. On the species of Impatiens in the W^allichian Herbarium of the 
Linnean Society. Journ. xxxvii. pp. 22-32. 

With T. Thomson. 

1857. Praecursores ad Floram Indicam : being Sketches of the Natural 
Families of Indian Plants, with Remarks on their Distribution, 
Structure, and Affinities. Journ. Bot. ii. pp. 1-29 [Cam- 

1857. [SaxifrageiB, etc.]. Journ. ii. pp, 54-96, pis. 1, 2. 

1858. „ „ „ „ 97-103. 

1858. [Caprifoliacese]. „ „ „ 16.3-180. 

1859. Balsaminese. „ iv. „ 106-157. 

1S61. Cruciferaj. „ v. „ 128-181. 

1864. On the genus JEuptelea, Sieb. & Zucc. Journ. vii. pp. 240-244, 

pi. 2. 
1864. Description of a new genus of Scrophularineai from Martaban 

{Brandisi(t]. Journ. viii. pp. 11-12, pi. 4. 


The l'ollo\\ing dates may be used to supplement the foregoijig 
vivid sketch of a remarkable personality. 

The late Sir Joseph Hooker was born on the 30th June, 1817, 
at Halesworth, Suffolk, ^\ here his parents were settled for a short 
time, on property belonging to Dawson Turner, his maternal 
grandfather. He received his early education at the High School, 
and in the faculty of Arts and the Medical Faculty in the 
University of Glasgow. Having taken his degree in 1839, he 
was appointed Assistant Surgeon to the Eoyal Kavy, and as such 
he accompanied Sir James Ross on his Antarctic Expedition oE 
1839-1843. After his return he was Assistant to Professor 
Graham in the University of Edinburgh, and from 1845-1847 
Botanist to the Geological Survey. His famous travels in India 
cover the four years from 1847 to 1851. In 1855, he became 
Assistant Director to his father at Kew, on whose death, in 18G5, 
he succeeded to the Directorship, which he held until his retire- 
ment in 1885. It was during this period that he travelled in 
Palestine ( 1 8G0), in Morocco (1871), and in the United States (1877). 

He was twice married, first to a daughter of Prof. J. S. 
Henslow in 1851, who died in 1874, and second, the widow of 
the late Sir AV. Jardine in 1876, who survives him. He died at 
"The Camp," Sunningdale, 10th December, 1911, and was buried 
five days later at Kew, beside his father, amidst a large gathering 
of his friends and colleagues. 

By will lie left £100 free of duty to the Linnean Society, and 
the reversion of his large collection of medals, which are now 
shown on loan by Lady Hooker in the rooms of the Society. 

[0. S. & B. D. J.] 

Geouge Maw was born in London on December lOtb, 1832. 
His father was John Hornby Maw, then partner of a firm of 
surgical instrument makers in London. George received his early 
education at home, mainly at Hastings, where his father had 
removed in 1839. At the age of 16 or 17 he went to the Agri- 
cultural College at Cirencester with the idea of becoming a farmer. 
Although he was very successful there, gaining five certificates of 
honour and a certificate of merit, he gave up the agricultural 
career and joined his younger brother, Arthur, in establishing in 
1850 a factory of encaustic tiles at Worcester, which two years 
later was removed to Benthall, Broseley, Shropshire. His father 
had been a man of much knowledge and culture and especially 
artistic gifts, and so was his son George. 

His reputation as a chemist was considerable. As geologist he 
was a fertile and many-sided writer and successful worker. 
Among many papers his account of the structure of the Great 
Atlas, with his demonstration of the former extension of glaciers 
in that chain of mountains down to 5800 feet, and his treatise on 
the disposition of iron in variegated strata may be mentioned 
especially. ^Nevertheless, geologists seem to be inclined to count 


him rather as a botanist than one of their own brotherhood. This 
may be on account of his early inchnations towards botany and his 
love for collecting plants wherever he Avent, be it for his herbarium 
or for his beautiful garden at Bentliall Hall, whence not a feW'- 
novelties found their way into other English gardens. His merits 
in this respect were summed up by 8ir J. D. Hooker in these 
words : " No one of late years, or perhaps ever, has collected with 
his own hands so many of these (i. e., hardy herbaceous plants) for 
transmission to England, cultivated them with more success, or 
distributed them with more liberality." But his claim to recogni- 
tion as a scientific botanist rests almost entirely on a very narrow 
field, which, however, he exploited to the utmost with the keen 
eye of the trained observer and the love of the enthusiast. It is 
circumscribed by the limits of tlie genus Crocus, which he studied 
with rare thoroughness in the field and in his garden, where he 
succeeded in forming an almost complete living collection of the 
67 species recognised by him. The result of his labours, which 
extended over more than 10 years, was a monograph which was 
published in 1S8G. It is the more valuable as it is beautifully 
illustrated from his own drawings, which also shov\- him as an 
artist of no common powers. A long series of articles in 
'The Gardeners' Chronicle' and a paper on "Notes on the 
life-history of a Crocus, and the classification and geographical 
distribution of the genus," in the Journal of this Society (vol. xix. 
1882), preceded the publication of the monograph. Extensive 
journeys in Europe and travels in North Africa (1871) and Asia 
Minor (1877) contributed as much to his botanical education, as 
they went to enrich his collection of living plants and especially 
of Crocuses. Best known of them is his visit to the Great Atlas 
of Morocco, which he undertook in company of Sir Joseph D. 
Hooker and Mr. John Ball in 1871. 

He joined the Linnean Society in 1860. The dedication of a 
volume (1874) of the ' Botanical Magazine' by Sir Joseph Hooker 
and of a volume of 'The Garden' (1878) by Mr. William Robinson, 
"were fitting tokens of recognition of his enthusiastic love of 
plants. Unfortunately the latter part of his life v\as clouded by 
ill-health which obliged him to seek seclusion. He left Broseley 
in 1886, and died in retirement at Kenley, Surrey, on February 7th 
of the present year. A portrait of him was published in 'The 
Garden,' vol. xiv. No. 371, and a review of Benthall Hall, his home, 
in 'The Gardeners' Chronicle' of February 12th, 1881. The 
number of 'The Garden' quoted also contains an enumeration of 
the journeys undertaken by Mr. Maw up to 1878. [0. Staff.] 

OcTAVius Albert Satce was born in 1862, educaled at the Scotch 
College, Melbourne, and entered business, becoming a commercial 
traveller. During this period he made constant use of the micro- 
scope, and succeeded in securing a position on the stafi: of 
Melbourne University. 


A good field naturalist, especially in the Coleoptera, he passed 
through a course of practical biology, where his previous acquain- 
tance with chemical manipulation stood him in good stead. His 
first important ])apor on GniUotalpa when printed was sent to our 
late colleague, Prof. tr. J3. Howes, who sent a postcard simply 
inscribed "Good. Go on. — G. B. H.," which encouraged Sayce 
to persevere. 

About tlie year 1902 he turned his attention to the Crustacea, 
and in 190(5 was appointed Demonstrator and Assistant Lecturer 
ou Bacteriology in the University ; it was shortly after this that 
his paper on Kootiumja cursor was published in our Transactions 
(Zool. xi. pt. 1, 1908) ; on the 2nd December, 1909, he was 
<}lected A.L.S., a distinction greatly valued by him. 

In April 1911, he was appointed the first Director of the 
J^acteriological Institute of South Australia, but did not live to 
take up his new position. He died of pneumonia after a few- 
days' illness, on the 29th April, 1911, and was buried on the 
1st May following. The day of his death had been fixed for his 
entrance on his new duties. His widow passed aw ay eight weeks 
later, on the 24th June, largely due to the shock of her husband's 

A full bibliography will be found in 'The Yictoriau Naturalist' 
for June 1911, p. 27, appended to a sympathetic notice of Mr. 
Sayce, from which the foregoing notice has been derived, supple- 
mented by a letter from Mr. F. Chapman, A.L.S. [B. D. J.] 

Eduakd Strasburger. — The intelligence of the unexpected and 
sudden death of Eduard Strasburger on the 19th May, 1912, 
was received on the eve of our last Anniversary Meeting, and 
saddened the many amongst our Fellows who knew and honoured 
our distinguished Foreign Member. 

He was born in Warsaw, on 1st February, 1844, and received 
his first botanical training at the University of Bonn, under 
Hermann Schacht, and where Julius Sachs was then a teacher in 
the Poppelsdorf Agricultural Academy. Schacht died suddenly 
in 1864, and Strasburger, thus deprived of his professor, decided 
to migrate to Jena, to benefit by the lectures of Nathan Prings- 
heira, whom he had already met at Bonn. In after years he 
owned the impetus derived from Pringsheim, and his association 
with Ernst Haeckel. It was due to the latter that, upon the 
retirement of Pringsheim in 1869, Strasburger was called to the 
chair, at the age of 25 years. It was in this very year that the 
first production of Strasburger's pen saw the light: "Die 
Befruchtung bei den Coniferen," which happened to offend 
Hofmeister, because the author sought to prove that the " cor- 
puscula " do not corresponds to the embryo-sacs of Angiosperins, 
but are archegonia. 

Three years later he issued his " Die Coniferen und die 


G-netaceeii' in octavo, with a quarto atlas of plates, and in 1873, 
his briefly entitled " Ueber Azolla." 

In 1S75 came out his " Ueber Zellbildung und Zelltheilung,'' 
which reached the second edition the next year, and the third 
in 1S80, besides versions in other languages. From this time 
onward, Strasburger was the foremost worker in botanic cytology, 
and his labours, extending over 35 }'ears, have proved extra- 
ordinarily fruitful. 'Ueber Befruchtung und Zelltheilung' 
came before the world in 1876, as did his ' Studien iiber Proto- 
plasma.' His next important work was ' Die Angiospermen und 
die Gymnospermeii,' in 1879. 

Prof. Johannes von Hanstein, who had succeeded to Schacht's 
chair at Bonn, after Strasburger had settled at Jena, died on the 
27th August, 1880, and the latter was called upon to succeed him 
early in the following year, after 12 years' labour at Jena. In 
April of 1882 he produced ' Ueber den Ban und das Wachsthum 
der Zellhaute,' which work he described as in part three years 
old, thus in some measure the result of his work in Jena. 

JSoon afterwards he addressed himself to a wider circle and to 
younger students, by issuing ' Das botanische Practicum ' early 
in 1884, a work which attained its 4th edition in 1902 (of which 
a sunnnary has gone through many editions), and was translated 
by Prof. Hillhouse as ' Handbook to Practical Botany ' in 1886. 
Later in the same year, he brought out his ' Neue Untersuchungen 
Uber den Befruchtungsvorgang bei den Phanerogamen als Grrund- 
lage fiir eine Theorie der Zeugung.' 

In 1889 began his important series of researches, published 
under the name of ' Histologische Beitriige,' of which seven parts 
came out under these titles : — 

1. Ueber Kern- und Zelltheilung im Pflanzenreiche, nebst einem 

Anhang iiber Befruchtung. 1888. 

2. Ueber das Wachsthum vegetabilischer Zellhaute. 1889. 

3. Ueber den Bau und die Verrichtungen der Leitungsbahneu in 

den Pflanzen. 1891. (He was accustomed to speak of this 
volume of 1000 pages as " mein grosses Buch.") 

4. Ueber das Verhalten des Pollens und die Befruchtungsvor- 

giinge bei den Gymnospermen — Schwarrasporen, Gameteu, 
pflanzlichen Spermatozoiden und das Wesen der Be- 
fruchtung. 1892. 

5. Ueber das Saftsteigen. — Ueber die Wirkungssphare der 

Kerne und die Zellgrusse. 1893. 

6. Ueber Reduktiontheilung, Spindelbildung, Centrosomen und 

Cilienbildner im PHanzenreich. 1900. 

7. Zeitpunkt der Bestimmung des Geschlechts, Apogamie, Par- 

thenogenesis und Reduktionstheilung. 1909. 

On the occasion of his assuming office as Rector of Bonn 
University, in October, 1891, he delivered an address, which was 
issued as ' Das Protoplasma und die Keizbarkeit.' 



The work wliicb has attained the widest circulation and 
popularity is that entitled : — * Lehrbuch der Botanik fiir lloch- 
sclmlen,' written with the assistance of Drs. F. Xoll, H. Schenck, 
and A. F. W. Schiinper, appearit)g in 18!i4; it has since reached 
its tenth edition (1910). It has been translated in many other 
lan?:uai?es, and is now in its fourth edition in English. 

In a more popular manner we have his ' .Streifziige an der 
Eiviera,' the second edition of which came out in 1904, and in 
English as ' Rambles on the Hiviera," London, 1906, with 87 
coloured plates. AV^e cannot here catalogue his many shorter 
papers on various topics of botanic interest, but one in particular 
deserves mention, if only for the adverse criticism it called forth, 
which gave him much pain, though he maintained his position 
stoutly. It was " Meiue Stellungnahme zur Fra2;e der Pfrop- 
bastarde," in Ber. deutsch. hot. Ges. xxvii. (1909) 611-528. 

Strasburger was no mere conventional professor. In his 
pleasant quarters at Poppelsdorfer Schloss, formerly the palace of 
the Electors of Cologne, he was easily accessible, and delighted to 
be the sympathetic friend of his students ; the many pupils 
attracted by his reputation to study under him, will gladly bear 
witness to the regard in which he was universally held. Supreme 
in his chosen department, he interested himself in many other 
directions, of which ecology may be adduced as an instance. This 
notice is not the place for a critical estimate of 8trasburger's 
work, but the frequency with which lie changed his opinions 
regarding the interpretation of certain cytological phenomena, 
proved disquieting to some; in this he was only searching further, 
and w'as ever ready to submit his former opinions to the test of 
later work or new discoveries. 

Few botanists were more appeciated in our own country ; he 
was a Foreign Member of the Linnean Society from 6tli May, 
1880, of the Royal Society from 1891 ; further, he was the reci- 
pient of the Linnean Medal in 1905, when it was received for 
him by Sir Dietrich Brandis, and acknowledged by a letter then 
read, which explained that oflScial duties hindered him from 
attending personally. He was present at the Darwin-Wallace 
Celebration on the 1st July, 1908, and received a silver copy of 
the speciiil medal then struck. In his native country he enjoyed 
the title of " Geheimer Regierungsratb." 

He died from heart-failure on the date above-mentioned, his 
wife having predeceased him by several years. A Festschrift was 
in preparation for his 70th birthday, which it is hoped may yet 
see the light, though as a memorial volume in place of the con- 
gratulatory work intended. [B. D. J.] 

Feancis Tagart, whose legacy of £500 free of legacy duty 
has recently been received by the Society, was the son of Mr. 
William Tagart, was born in 1839 and died on the 25th November, 
1911, at his house. Old Sneed Park, Stoke Bishop. His business 


life was passed in the City of London as a merchant, and amongst 
other subsidiary diities, he \\as a Director of the Surrey Commercial 
Dock Company, and at the time of his death, was one of H.M. 
Lieutenants for the City of London. He was proposed as a 
Fellow of this Society on the 6th March, 1855, by his brother, the 
Eev. Edward Tagart, who died a few years later, Edward Newman, 
and Ji. Wakefield, the election taking place on 1st May of that 
year. On retiring from business he resided on his estate near 
Bristol, and his last visit to the rooms of the Society was about 
two years before his death, when he expressed his intention of 
making a bequest in favour of the Society. 

The sum thus bequeathed has been invested as a separate fund 
bearing the donor's name, the income to be applied to the purposes 
of the Society as the Council may determine from time to time. 

[B. D. J.] 

June 6th, 1912. 

Prof. E. B. PouLTON, r.E.S., President, in the Chair. 

The Minutes of the Anniversary Meeting of the 24th May, 1912, 
were read and confirmed. 

Dr. William John Dakin, Dr. Annie Porter, Prof. Alexander 
Meek, and Mr. William Edward Balston were admitted Fellows. 

Mr. William Henry Daun, M. A. (Cantab.), the Eev. John Stewart 
Muller, M.A. (Cantab.), Mr. Edwin Percy Phillips, M.A. (Cape), 
and Mrs. Eleanor Mary Eeid, B.Sc. (Lond.), were severally balloted 
for and elected Fellows. 

The President read the proposed alterations of Chap. II. Sect. 2 
and 3 of the Bye-Laws for the second time. 

The President announced that he had appointed the following 
to be Vice-Presidents for the ensuing year : — Prof. J. Stanley 
Oabdineb, Mr. Horace W. Monckton, Miss Edith E. Saunders, 
and Dr. Dukiufield H. Scott. 

Prof. A. Meek read his paper, " On the Development of the 
Cod, Gadus inorrhua" 

Mr. Charles Hedley read his paper entitled " Paiseogeographical 
relations of Antarctica." (See p. So.) 

A discussion ensued in which the foUowing took part : — Dr. 
Otto Stapf, Sec.L.S., Dr. Gr. B. Longstaff (visitor), Mr. Clement 
Eeid, Mr. T. A. Sprague, Prof. C. Chilton, Dr. Marie Stopes, and 
Dr. A. Smith Woodward, the author briefly replying. 



Mr. EuPEiiT Vallextin showed a series of slides from photo- 
graphs taken by himself during a recent visit to the Falkland 
Islands, extending over many months. He divided them into 
views of the scenery, the native plants and the fauna, alluding to 
the changes iu progress, and the loss of endemic types. 

Miss May Eatubone showed a portion of an unusually thick 
stem of Iledet-a Helix, stating that this specimen was taken from 
a plant of ivy grow ing on a tree in Cheshire. The stem, which 
was somewhat triangular, measured 18^ inches in circumference 
and 54 inches in diameter at its widest part. The phloem, which 
was very well marked, measured about ^ of an inch in its thickest 
part. The rings in the wood were not very distinct but about 
46 could be counted. The a\ ood \\as very heavy. The sj)ecimen, 
which was 18;j inches long, Aveighed 14 lbs., and the specific 
gravity \\as 0-91, but, as it A\as weighed \\ithout removing the 
bark, this is only an approximation. 

13r. Mahie Stopes exhibited a plant of Cardamine pratensis, on 
behalf of Mr. A. D. Lang, showing bulbils in abundance from the 
blade of the leaf as well as the axil of the flowers. 

Dr. Stapf remarked on the interest of the exhibit, and hoped by 
cultivation, that the causes of this phenomenon would be ascer- 

Mr. Chables Sillem placed on the table specimens of the 
flowering branches of a rambler rose, all the flo\\'ers shoMiug 
median prolilication of an unusual character. 

Mrs. Loxgstaff showed a specimen of Lycaste Barringtonice^ 
Lindl., brought from Jamaica four years ago, but flowering now^ 
for the first time. Mr. W. Fa^cett remarked that the type of 
this plant is in Smith's Herbarium, possessed by the Society, under 
the name of Epidendrum Barrinytonioe. 

June 20th, 1912. 

Prof. E. B. PouLxoN, F.E.S., President, in the Chair. 

The Minutes of the General Meeting of the 6th June, 1912^ 
were read and confirmed. 

Mrs. Eleanor Mary Eeid, B.Sc, Miss Maud Samuel, B.Sc, 
Mr. William Henry IJaun, M.A., and Mr. John Coney Moulton, 
M.A., were admitted Fellows. 

Mr, Ernest John Bickford, Mr. Thomas Ford Chipp, B.Sc. 
(Loud.), Mr. Alfred Eugene Craven, Mr. Xevin Henry Foster, 
M.E.I.A., M.B.O.U., Mr. AVilliam Norman Sands, and Mr. 
Francis James Stayner, were proposed as Fellow s. 


Miss Ethel Mary Doidge, M.A., Mr. Thomas Bainhrigge 
rietcher, and Mr. John Gervaise Turnbull, were elected Fellows. 

The proposed alterations in the Bye-Laws, Chap. II. Sect. 2 and 
'3, \\hich had been read from the Chair on the 2nd May and 6th 
June, \\ere submitted to a ballot and approved by the Pellows. 

The President announced that it was proposed to liave a dinner 
of the Society on Thursday, 31st October, to be followed by a 
reception in the rooms of the Society. Further notice to be given 
in due course. 

Mr. Hugh Scott briefly introduced the following papers, 
relating to the fauna of the Seychelles and other islands, the 
first three and the fifth being communicated bv Prof. J. Stanley 
Gardineu, F.E.S., F.L.S. 

1. Mr. C. G. Lamb on the Lonchreidse, Sapromyzidse, Ephy- 

dridse, Chloropidae, and Agromyzidae. 

2. Dr. Ignacio Bolivar on the Saltatorial Orthoptera. 

3. Dr. A. SiCARD on the Coccinellidae. 

4. Mr. Hugh Scott on the Coleoptera Lamellicornia and Ade- 


5. The late Dr. Budde-Lund on the Terrestrial Isopoda of the 

Percy Sladen Expedition, which was introduced by the 
Eev. T. E. E. Stebbing, F.E.S. 

Mr. H. Stuart Thompson exhibited 33 coloured drawings of 
Alpine flowers by Mr. George Flemwell, with some proofs of plates 
taken from them. 

Prof. Arthur Dendy, F.E.S. , introduced an exhibition of four 
white canaries, of a race bred by Mrs. John Martin, of Martin- 
borough, New Zealand, and brought home by Dr. A. E. A. Palmer, 
of the same Dominion, who was present, and explained that they 
were shown in this country for the first time. Miss Florence 
Durham (visitor) also spoke. 

Prof. Dendy then showed the disc-like cocoons constructed by 
the larva) of a Saw-fly, PJn/llotoma aceris, which had been fouudin 
large numbers at Maiden Station, in Surrey, and were cha- 
racterised by jumping movements like those of the well-known 
Mexican " jumping bean." AVith them he showed specimens of 
sycamore leaves from which portions of the mesophyll had been 
eaten by the larvfe, while circles cut out of the upper cuticle had 
been utilised to form one side of the cocoon, the other side being 
spun by the larva. 


Mr. E. TV. H. Row related his experiments with these insects, 
and stated tliat tlu' jiiniping began when the cocoons were exposed 
to sunshine, and appeared to be caused by an instinct to escape 
the light. 

Mr. J. C. MouLTON had brought with him from ]5orneo, living 
exain])les — now seen for the first time in this country — of the 
remarkable Trilobite-like coleopterous larva), well known in the 
Oriental tropics. Mr. C. J. Gahan (visitor) referred to the 
previous knowledge of these larvae, which belonged, he considered, 
to the Lycidse, and spoke of the probability of their never passing 
into an imago stage. The discussion was continued by Mr. H. 
N. Eidley, Mr. S. G. Paine, Mr. J. C. Moultou, and the 

Mr. S. T. DuKN introduced his paper on the revision of the 
genus Millettia. 

Dr. Otto Staff, Sec.L.S., read a paper by Mr. Carl 
Christensei^^, communicated by Prof. J. Statelet (Gtaediner, on 
the Ferns of the Seychelles and Aldabra. The lantern- slides to 
illustrate this paper had not arrived, and their exhibition was 

Prof. Gardiner also communicated Mr. C. Warburton's paper 
on the Acarina of the Percy Sladen Expedition, which Mas read in 
title, as was also Canon Norman's investigation of Synagoga 

Capt. C. F. U. Meek's paper entitled " Correlation of Somatic 
Characters," was placed before the meeting, with the Author's 
own statement of his conclusions. 



The Distribution of Elodea canadensis, Michaux, in the British 
Isles in 1909. By A. O. Walkek, F.L.S. 

[Read 2nd November, 1911.] 

The history of this plant, so far as our islands are concerned, is 
fairly well known. The first locality in which it appears to have 
been recoi'ded, by Mr. John Dew in 1836, was at Waringstown, 
County Down, Ireland. In 1843 it was reported by Dr. G. 
Johnston, of Berwick-on-Tweed, in Duuse Loch, Berwickshire. By 
1850 it had spread to many rivers and reservoirs in Great Britain 
and become a serious nuisance to navigation and drainage — so 
much so in Lincohishire, that in 1852 Mr. Eawlinson was sent 
by the Government to advise as to clearing the dykes in the fens. 
Attempts to eradicate it by dredging failed, and it was found that 
the only way of dealing with it successfully was to leave it alone, 
when it appears to gradually diminish or die out altogether. 

In 1884 Mr. J. D. Siddall, of Chester, published a valuable 
paper on the structure and history of this plant (Proc. Chester 
Soc. Nat. Sci., Part iii. 1884, p. 125), from which most of the 
above information is derived. He states that experience shows, 
" that if left alone, its habit is, upon first introduction into a new 
locality, to spread with alarming rapidity ; so much so as literally 
to choke other water plants out of existence. But this active 
phase reaches a maximum in from five to seven years and then 
gradually declines, until at last the Anacliaris ceases to be a pest 
and becomes an ordinary denizen of the pond, river, or canal as 
the case may be." This maximum period in the neighbourhood of 
Chester seems to have been between the years 1867 and 1873 ; in 
1884 Mr. Siddall says it is " far less abundant than formerly," and 
in April 1909, he wrote that he had some difficulty in finding a 
piece in a locality where in 1873 all other vegetation was choked 
out by it. He also says that the circulation of the protoplasm 
in the leaf-cells was very feeble compared to what it was iu 
1873 — an important fact, possibly indicating diminishing vitality 
in the species. The recollection of the writer, who resided in 
Chester from 1856 to 1889 and remembers the canal there so 
choked with the weed as to greatly impede the boat traffic, quite 
bears out Mr. Siddall's statements as to its abundance in 1867 to 
1873 (l. c. p. 131). 

In 1909 it appeared to the writer that sufficient time had 
elapsed to enable an opinion to be formed as to the probability of 
the plant becoming a permanent denizen in the British Isles, and 
with this view a circular was sent to most of the corresponding 


Societies of Natural Science of the British Association asking for 
iiitormation on the subject. 

To this, as may be seen, numerous replies were received and 
much valuable iiitormation obtained, for which the writer now 
heartily thanks all hi.s correspondents. One unavoidable defect 
in the scheme consists in the fact that the period of maximum 
abundance having begun about 1852 (in the Lincolnshire Fens, 
the river Cam, &c.), there would be iew botanists whose memories 
Avould extend iar enough back to be able to compare the present 
M ith the past. But, with due allowance for this, the indications 
are that on the whole the plant is not now so abundant as to be 
a nuisance but has generally established itself as a denizen It is 
however, i)robable that there are waters to which it has not vet 
penetrated and in which it may still flourish as in previous years 
Such may be the case with the artificial water of Monlton 
Grange, Northants, where Mr. H. N. Dixon, Hon. Sec. Xorthants 
JNat. iiist. boc, describes it as "a great pest." It would be 
interesting to know whether it has ever re-appeared in water 
where it has flourished and died out, as might conceivably happen 
after a lapse of time sufficient for the bottom to recuperate If 
It has not done so anywhere, it would not be unreasonable to 
attribute it to a diminution of the vitality of the species as 
suggested above. 

The following reports from different Counties from the south 
of England to Banffshire are probably sufficiently representative 
of the whole of Great Britain. 


Mr. J.L. Sager, M.A., on behalf of the Exeter University 
College Field Club, writes: "It occurs in more or less 
abundance in the Rivers Exe, Culm, and the Exeter Canal It 
has been known to flower occasionally, but fruits have not been 

Mr. H. J. Morgan, a member of the above Society, says that for 
some time before 1878, "the right bank of the Exe from the 
Bridge to the Gas Works (over 200 yds.) was one thick mass of 
Elodea. Since that date this plant has become by no means 
plentiful in this place. Many ditches on Exminster Marshes were 
almost filled with Elodea about seven vears ago. There is certainly 
not so much there now." ' 


Mr. N. M. Eichardson, President Dorset Field Club, reports • 
" Mr. Filleul says he sees it in every stream he fishes, but our 
own native weeds far more than hold their own against it " 

Mansell-Pleydell, 'Flora of Dorset,' 1874 : " Str^'eams anil ponds 
common ; thoroughly established, becoming a most troublesome 


Hampshire and Isle of Wight. 

From the Flora of tlie above bv F. Townsend, 1904 : " Abundant 
in Hants and Isle of Wight. Too common in many localities. 
Introduced to lake in Leigh Park in 1847 with American aquatics 
and discovered in Leicestershire the same year." 

Not recorded in Bromfield's ' Flora of Isle of Wight,' edited by 
Sir W. J. Hooker & T. B. Salter, 1856. 


Rev. E. Elmau, per Mr. T. Hilton : " About Lewes and the 
•Cuckmere Valley and in man}'- other places in Sussex — cannot say 
if less abundant than formerlv " (Brighton and Hove Nat. Hist. 

Mrs. T. R. E. Stebbing, F.L.S., writes : " It used to be found in 
Cold Bath Ponds at Rusthall, Tunbridge Wells, and the Lake at 
Warberry House." 

'Flora of Sussex,' F. H. Arnold, 1887: "Ditches, pools, 
rivers, common." By F. C. S. Roper, Eastbourne, 1875 : "Ditches, 
locally abundant." 


Mr. J. G. Baker, F.R.S., writes in 1909 : " In a pond in the 
garden at Kevv it was once very plentiful and has now quite died 
•down, its place being taken by Nitella." 

Holmesdale Nat. Hist. Club, Reigate : " River Mole and 
various ponds and ditches in the district. Not quite so plentiful 
as it used to be." 


" Now (1899) quite common in ponds, ditches, and slow streams 
throughout the county." First record 1855 ('Flora of Kent,' 
Haiibury & Marshall). 

River Beult, near Headcorn (A. O. W., 1910). Not seen at 
Ulcombe. Lenworth Mill Pond, Maidstone, "grows alarmingly" 
<not signed). [" Still abundant there." A. O. W., 24th Sept., 

The Stour, " less abundant than formerly," Rev. C. H.Fielding. 


" Very common here in ponds and streams : rivers Brent, Colne, 
and Paddington Canal " (Ealing Scientific and Microsc. Soc. per 
Mr. Offord). 

" About the same in last 10 years, not increasing " (ditto). 


" Very abundant in River Wye, canals, streams, and pools, 1865 
to 1889. Since that date becoming more scarce. First observed 
in Herefordshire about the year 1855 " (Rev. Augustin Ley). 

R. Lugg, by Mill Street ; marsh, Leominster ; pool at Sellark, 
iloss ; mill sluice (Rev. A. L.). 


WoKCESTEEsninE Naturalists' Club. 

"In nearly every piece of water in the County of Worcester."' 
" Showing signs of decrease " (Amphlett & Eea). 

'Botany of A\''orcestershire,' E. Lees, 1867: Avon division, 
several places ; Severn division, many places. 


Rivers Trent, Sow, Penk, Weaver, Dove, and most of the canals 
and watercourses in the County. 

" Not nearly so plentiful as 20 years ago, has disappeared from 
one or two spots where it used to occur plentifully, but is still 
to be found in most of the rivers and canals " (not signed). 

Mr. J. E. Nowei"s, Burton-on-Trent, says it is very abundant 
there. "I think it is about the same quantity as it was 30 vears 
ago." Mr. G. E. Jebb, C.E. (Dec. 1910), says: '' El odea has 
practically but not entirely disappeared from most of the ditches 
or canals in Shropshire and Staffordshire which used to be choked 
with it." 


E. W. Bowers, Wem : Shropshire Union Canal and R. Roden ; 
a friend " seems to think this weed on the decrease." 

Rev. J. B. Meredith, Kinnerley Vicarage: "As to American 
Weed, a mill pond near here was dredged clean, well mudded out, 
some four years ago, and is fuller than ever now.'' 

Dr. W. P. Hamilton, Botanical Referee Caradoc and Severn 
Field Club : " The Severn, S. U. Canal, meres and pools every- 
where." Mr. H. E. Forrest, Shrewsbury, confirms the above. 


Mr. P. G. Boswell, Hon. Sec. Ipswich Field-Club: " Elodea is 
now very common in all our ponds and streams round here and in 
the 11. Gippiug. It appears to be getting more plentiful." 


Mr. E. T. Daubeny (' Nature Notes,' vol. xviii. 1907, p. 212), says 
that Elodea has disappeared from Narford Lake, near Swaffham, 
where it was formerly abundant, " leaving nothing in the shape 
of vegetable growth in its place." 


Mr. J. D. Siddall : " In most of the ponds, canals and streams 
of the district" (Chester Soc. of Nat. Science, &c.) "Much less 
abundant than 25 years ago and decidedly less robust." 

Mr. C. Madeley, Warrington Museum : " Occurs in the Old Quay 
Canal near AVarrington, and in many of the numerous ponds and 
ditches ; perhaps a little less abundant than formerly." 



" Common iu rivers, brooks, canals, and ponds throughout the 

" My own experience of 20 years is that it is not increasing, 
but that if there is any change at all it is in the direction of a 
slow decrease in abundance." Prof. J. W. Carr. 


" It occurs in rivers and ponds in all the districts of 
Northants " (Druce in Journ. Northants Nat. Hist. Soc, vol. iv. 
p. 121, 1886). 

Mr. Druce writes to Mr. H. N". Dixon : " My own impression 
is that although Elodea was common in the Grand Junction Canal, 
and I can remember it in 1860 both in Northants and Bucks, it 
■was never a pest. In the sixties it was, however, a great pest in 
artificial pieces of water such as the Wakefield [Laun] Ponds, 
where it had to be frequently cut. It is certainly less common 

First record 1841, Watford Locks, G, J. Canal. 

Mr. H. N. Dixon, Hon. Sec. Northants Nat. Hist. Soc, says: 
" It is just now a great pest iu the artificial water of Moulton 
Grange, the residence of Mr. H. Maufield, M.P." 


Mr. W. H. Heathcote, Hon. Sec. Preston Scientific Soc. : 
" Very abundant in the Preston and Lancaster Canal ; Leeds and 
Liverpool Canal ; Eivers Eibble and AVyre ; numerous ponds, &c. 
I should say more abundant" (tlian formerly). 

" Ponds and ditches, common " (Flora of Preston and neigh- 
bourhood by members of the Preston Scientific Soc, 1903). 

' Flora of Liverpool District,' C. T. Green, 1902 : " Frequent in 
canals, ditches, and old ponds," Liverpool and Wirral. 


Mr. F. Jowett, Hon. Sec. Bradford Nat. Hist. Soc. : " Aire 
about Skipton ; Leeds and Liverpool Canal ; mill dams all over 
the district ; common in wet ditches. The plant is holding its 
own in all places except in the canal, where it is probably cut uj) 
by the screws of the boats." 

Mr. F. Barker, Hon. Sec. Halifax Scientific Society : " Very 
common Calder and Hebble Canal between Halifax and Salter- 
hebble. Several mill dams in the neighbourhood ; very firmly 
established. Opinions differ" (as to its being more or less 
abundant than fornierlv). 

' Flora of N. Yorkshire,' J. G. Baker, 1863 : "The Wiske and 
ponds at Kirby Wiske. Clifton Ings ditch; Foss Islands near 
York." In 1909 J. G. B., writes : " It has never been abundant 
in the North Riding." 

' Flora of E. Eiding,' J. F. Eobinson, 1902. " Common in dykes 
and drains, but scarcely so conspicuous as it was 12 years ago." 

76 rnocEEDixGS of tke 

Dr. AV. B. Kussell writes : " It used to be so abundant in the 
Derwent at Maltou, 30 or 40 years ago, as almost to block the river. 
It is now almost extinct, being replaced by Potamogeton j)ectinatus.^' 

Mr. Fox Lea : " In canals, Dewsbury and other still waters, 
pouds, &c. liiver Wbarl'e at llkley, 1909. ]S'ot so abundant as 


Mr. Douglas AVitty (llydal Mount, Colwyn Bay), writes that 
" it is generally spread over all North Lincolnshire. In the 
Aucholine valley it is met with practically everywhere. In the 
Upper Ings Drain (near Barton-on-lluraber) it has increased 
very considerably in the last decade, and has with other water- 
growths seriously obstructed tlie flow of the stream at times. 


C. E. Eobson, Hon. Sec, Nat. Hist. Soc, Northumberland, 
Durham, &c., writes : " There are no canals in the district, and 
the rivers being swift-flowing and not wide the plant is practically 

N. AVales. 

Merioneth. — Mr. D. A. Jones, Eock House, Harlech, writes : 
'• I found it three years ago in Llyn Gwernen, 2 miles from 
Dolgelly. It is the only record I have for the County." (Mr. H. E. 
Forrest says D. A. J. is the authority on the Flora of Merioneth.) 

Montuomery. — Mr. D. A. J. says it grows at Llanymynech. 

Denbighshire. — Same authority says it grows at Gresford. 
Mr. T. K., per Mr. H. E. Forrest, says it is found in the canal 
2 to ;3 miles from Llangollen as " an ordinary humble weed," not 
choking any part of the canal. A. 0. Walker remembers it about 
30 years ago completely filling up the canal there. 


Glasgow District. — Mr. J. E. Lees (Glasgow Nat. Hist. Soc.) 
M-rites : " Occurs in the Forth and Clyde Canal and in a number 
of the small streams, ponds, and lakes near Glasgow. Not nearly 

so abundant as about 20 years ago Seems to be rapidly 

disappearing in most parts of the district." 

BiiRWiCKSHiRE. — First record for Gt. Britain in Dunse Loch 
bv Dr. G. Johnston in 1842. 

" ]SLE OF BuTi;. — " Stream at Eothesay," W. H. Heathcote, Sec. 
Preston Scientilic Society; also 

Inverness, mill stream near, AV. II. H. 

Perthshire. — Mr. E. Barclay reports {D: "In Tay, Earn, 
Isla, Towns Lade, Moncreiffe Pond, and very many other ponds 
throughout the County. (2) Occurs in more localities " (than 


formerly) " and on the whole more abundant, though less so iu 
some stations." 

Elgix. — Rev, Gr. Binnie says it occurs in the 8pey near 
Garmouth, iu backwaters, &c. ; also in Fochabers Curling Pond. 
It has gi'eatly increased in a stagnant pool in the old course of the 
Spey. Still water with a muddy bottom suits it. 


Mr. S. A. Stewart, A.L.S., gives a number of localities in Cos. 
Down, Antrim, and Derry, and says : " My own experience has been 
to meet with this plant in practically all suitable waters, save only 
the lakelets in Eathlin Island, off the Antrim Coast, but only the 
female plant. No exact data have been secured on the subject of 
the decrease or otherwise of this plant, but the general opinion 
seems to be that it is not increasing and is on the wane." 

In the same district Mr. W. J. C. Tomlinsou gives several 
localities and adds : " In almost every lake and lakelet in the 
district," He also says: " It is believed to be more abundant now 
than ever before within living memor3^ However, it may be 
that increased observation of its existence may contribute to the 
idea that the plant is still increasing here." 

Mr. A. W. Stellfox, Hon. Sec. Belfast Naturalists' Field Club, 
considers that " In the Logan Canal the plant is certainlj^ much 
less plentiful than, say, 12 years ago. About that time it was 
necessary to dredge the canal several times during the summer, 
while at present no obstruction is caused b y the growth of th e 

' Cybele Hiberuica,' Moore & More, 1866: "Canals, ponds 
and streams, as yet rather local in 7 districts out of 12." 


Note on the Exhibits on 16th November, 1911. 
By Mr. Gr. Claridge Deuce. 

New British Forms. 

Castalia Candida, Schinz & Thellung. Loch near Duukeld, 
pointed out by C. H, Ostenfeld, and from Eoundstone, Galway 
(Ostenfeld & Druce). 

Viola epipsiln, Ledeb. New to Ireland : Xillarney. 

Stellaria DiUeniana, Moench, Sutton Broad, gro^^•ing with and 
flowering at the same time as pahistris. 

Sagina nodosa, var. moniliformis, Lange ; pointed out by Prof, 

S. glabra, Fenzl. Ben Lasers. Referred to as pi-obably this 

Bhamnus catJiarticiis, var. Schroeteri, Druce. 

Alchemilla vidqaris, Linn., var. acuiidens (Buser). Ben La\\ers 
(C. H. Ostenfeld). 


Cirsinm jntlustn', >Scop., var. fero.v, Druce. 

CaUuna vuhjaris, Hull, var. Erikcp, Asclierson. Shown to the 
party on Wessenden Moors, Yorkshire, by Dr. Graebner. And 
also found on Ben Lawers, at the Lizard, and near Clifdeu, 
Gal way. 

Erica Tetralix X vafjans = E. cinerea X vagans. Davey, in 
Journ. Bot, xlviii. (1910), p. 338, but identified by Druce, 
Schroeter, and Graebner as the above hybrid when the plant was 
shown to them by the discoverer, Mr. P. D. Williams, at Lanarth, 
on the St. Keverne Moors. The glandular hairs and other 
characters prove the presence of Tetralix. 

Jiincus ranarius, Perr. & Song. Southport, pointed out by 
Dr. Graebner. 


Historic doubts about Vaxmthompsonia. 
By the Eev. T. R. R. Stbbbing, M.A., F.R.S., F.Z.S. 

[Read 7th March, 1912.] 

Dr. Calman has pointed out to me that my argument for the 
priority of this form over its rival Vauntompsonia is open to a 
serious objection. The latter spelling of Bate's generic name 
appears in the second volume of the Royal Dublin Society's 
Journal, published under date of 1860. But the volume includes 
several numbers, and Number 10, with which we are here con- 
cerned, is dated on p. G3 (its first page) " July, 1858." That the 
number was actually published in that year, Dr. Caiman says, 
*'is shown by the fact, which I owe to Mr. Sherborn, that the 
part in question was received by the Library of the Geological 
Society between July 1st and October 31st, 3 858, as recorded in 
the Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. xv. p. 149, 1st Feb., 1859." This, 
however, still leaves open the cfuestion whether the July number 
of the Journal was published earlier or later than the July 
quarterly number of the Natural History Review of the same year. 
On this point neither the publishers of the Review nor the 
present editor of the Journal have been able to supply information. 
But the Library of the British Museum at Bloomsbury gives, as 
it seems to me, a fairly satisfactory clue. The number of the 
'Natui-al History Review' for July 1858 is there on the last page 
of the lunuber, p. 263. stamped " 16 J Y 58." Now, Bate's paper 
in the Journal is followed on p. 105 by " Return of Donations to 
the Royal Dublin Society, to July, 1858," so that the material for 
the number was not even complete till the beginning of July, and 
its issue within a fortnight of that completion would surely in 
those days have seemed needless to the editors and impossible 
to the printers. Incidentally it may be observed that Kinahan 
refers to Bate's paper as appearing in the second volume of the 
Journal without giving any page number, as he would naturally 
have done, had such a number been already available. We also Hnd 
that Kinahan uses the spelling Vaunthompsonia in a Report to the 

LINNEAN SOCIETY OP 1,0^1)0^. 79 

British Association at Leeds in September, 1858, on p. 266 of 
the General Report, which was no doubt not effectively published 
till the following year, when he might have corrected an un- 
intended error. 

My thauks are due to Dr. Caiman for his having entrusted me 
with the evidence that Bate's Vanntompsoma was published at 
some time in the third quarter of 1858. Nevertheless we have 
Bate's own clear statement that the genus was described by him 
in the ' Natural History Review.' He could just as well have 
referred to the Journal, if that had priority, and it would have 
given him the best possible opportunity of vindicating his mode 
of spelling the generic name against Kinahan's. Kiuahan was on 
terms of intimacy with Spence Bate, as letters in my possession 
show. He was also interested in the reputation of Vaughan 
Thompson. It may well be that he thought his friend Bate was 
taking too much of a liberty with the deceased author in mis- 
spelling both his christian and his surname. To remedy this, we 
may suppose, he himself took the liberty of making a change in 
the still unpublished name of Bate's genus, against which I cannot 
find that Spence Bate ever uttered or printed a word of 

Whatever may be the result of the particular controversy, time 
will not have been wasted over it, if it helps to bring about a more 
general adoption of the practice in scientific literature of pi*inting 
on each separate publication the exact date of issue. 


Phyllody in Trifolium. By May Rathbone, P.L.S. 
[Eead 21st March, 1912.] 

A specimen of Trifolium repens showing phyllody of the carpels, 
was gathered in a hayfield, Cheshii'e, in the summer of 1912. 

The flowers are of two forms, both occurring on the same plant, 
but in different heads. In one form in place of the carpel the axis 
of the flower is prolonged into a petiole with well-developed 
stipules and bearing only one leaflet. The other parts of the 
flower are normal, except that the calyx teeth are, I think, a little 
longer and broader than usual. 

The other form bears a trifoliolate leaf instead of the carpel 
and, in the flower of this type which was dissected, no stipules 
were found. The stamens, corolla, and calyx were normal. 

The season of 1912 was a particularly dry one, and the plant 
showed no signs of disease or injury. 


Dr. Masters, " Vegetable Teratology," pp. 276 & 279, 1869. 
M. Germain de Saint-Pierre, Bull. Soc. Bot. France, 1856, 
vol. iii. p. 477. 

Dr. Peuzig, " Pflanzen-Teratologie," vol. i. 1890. 



The Paheogeograpliical llelations of Antarctica. By Charles 
IIedlky, F.L.8., Assistant Curator of the Australian Museum, 
Sydney, New South Wales. 

[Eead 6th June, 1912.] 

1. Introduction. 

Testimony in support of alteration in temperature and contour of 
Tertiary Antarctica is almost wholly based on a comparison of tl)e 
living fauna and flora of surrounding countries. While biologists 
in general, led by Wallace, Sclater, and Hutton, opposed the idea 
of an extended and habitable Antarctica, geographers hesitated to 
adopt a hypothesis the arguments for which lay in a foreign field. 
Hut of late years most of those engaged in its discussion have been 
supporters of extension, so that the theory has advanced from the 
position of a disparaged heresy to that ofan established view. 

Accustomed to rely on biological evidence, in the form of 
!)al£eontology, for important and far-reaching generalisations, 
geology n lay now accept from biology this theory of formei* 
Antarctic extension. Thereby is acquired a correlation of climate, 
of time, and of continental change, while incidentally a new light 
is thrown on the question of the permanence of ocean basins. 

It seemed nothing unusual to find a similar fauna and flora, 
even to the extent of a large proportion of identical species, on 
the subantarctic islands all round the world. But collectors 
working in south temperate and even in south tropical zones were 
surjn-ised to And related species and genera in opposite hemi- 
spheres. This correspondence is more pronounced in primitive 
groups and grow s clearer southwards. 

First, it was realised when the famous botanist Sir J. D. Hooker 
pointed to the distribution of the southern pines as indicating 
a common origin (Hooljer, ' London Journal of Botany,' iv. 1845, 
p. 137). 

The relations of a southern fauna linking Australasia to South 
America Mere sketched firm and clear by a master hand iu 
Professor Huxley's essay on the classification and distribution 
of the gallinaceous birds (Huxley, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1868, p. 294). 

According to Ortmann, first Eiitimeyer definitely proposed 
radiation from Antarctica as the solution of the problem (Eiiti- 
meyer, ' Ueber d'e Herkunft unserer Thierwelt,' 1807, p. 15). 

Our knowledge of this subject was nuich advanced by Dr. 
H. O. Forbes (Forbes, Boy. Geogr. Soc. Sup])l. Papers, iii. 1893). 
Starting from the fossil avifauna of the Chatham Islands, he 
reviewed the community of southern faunas and interpreted it by 



antarctic distribution. As the means of dispersal he mapped „ 
vast continent stretching continuously from Madagascar to South 
America and Fiji during the " northern glacial epoch," 

It was suggested by the present- writer tliat a far smaller area 
of continental land, of an earlier date and of unstable form, was 
indicated by its surviving refugees (Hedley, Proc. Eoy, Soc. 
IS", S. Wales, xxix, 1896, p. 278); and that the last Antarctic 
phase as reflected by these might be expressed in arms reaching 
•on one side to Tasmania, on the other to Cape Horn, while 
previous phases may have been represented by other rays 
extending to ^^ew Zealand, Madagascar, Ceylon, and perhaps 
South Africa, 

A study of terrestrial and fluviatile mollusca induced Ancey to 
subscribe to these suggestions (C. F. Ancey, Journ, de Conch, 
xlix. 1901, p, 12), 

Dr. Ortmann, while investigating the South American Tertiary 
Invertebrates, accepted my amendments to Forbes's proposition. 
To a clear exposition of the subject he added a map and biblio- 
graphy (' Report Princeton University-Expedition to Patagonia ' iv. 
pt, 2, 1902, pp. 310-32-1). 

The distribution of southern earthworms was discussed by 
Prof. W. B. Benhara (Proc, Austr, Assoc. Adv. Sci. 1902, 
pp. 319-343). In his opinion the Acanthodrilids, a primitive 
group, originated in New Zealand and spread by way of Ant- 
arctica to South America. He emphasised the fact that the 
union they indicated between Antarctica and New Zealand was 
not synchronous with the Australian connection. 

Examining the mammalian fauna A. Gaudry considered that 
unless Tertiary Patagonia was united to Antarctica its palajonto- 
logical history would be incomprehensible (Compt. Rend, vol cxli 
1905, p. 806). 

From a study of the freshwater Crustacea of Tasmania, Mr. 
Geoffrey Smith concludes that certain elements of this fauna 
" reached their present range by means of an Antarctic connection 
bet\\-een the southernmost projections of Australia, South America, 
and New Zealand " (Trans. Linn. Soc. Lond. Ser, 2. Zool, ix. 1909' 
p. 67). His analysis revealed the presence in Tasmania of another 
element which he derived from the northern hemisphere and 
which he supposed to have travelled down the Andean chain and 
crossed to Australasia by the Antarctic route. 

Summing up a biological examination of the southern islands 
of New Zealand, Prof. C. Chilton concludes : " The evidence 
pointing to former extensions of land from the Antarctic 
continent northward, and to the warm climate that was enjoyed 
by this continent in early Tertiary times, seems to offer a fairly 
satisfactory explanation of the facts before us "(' Subanf arctic 
Islands of New Zealand,' ii. 1909, p. 467). A full bibhography is 
included in this article, 

LINN, soc, PROCEEDINGS, — SESSION 1911-1912. // 


Finallv, Osborn describes the hypothetical reconstruction of 
Antarctica as " one oF the greatest triumphs of recent biological 
investigation " ('The Age of Mammals,' 1910, p. 75). * 

2 . Argument. 

The distribution records of recent antl fossil species upon which 
the generalisations of the foregoing authors depend have never 
been denied. Indeed, they continue to increase with the progress- 
of science. 

To other, and usually earlier, authors these views presented 
two insuperable diflSculties. One is the extreme change in climate 
which formerly permitted temperate and subtropical animals and 
plants to exist where cold is now so intense. The other is the 
demand for the existence of Tertiary land where an ocean no\\- 
extends so broad and deep as that between Antarctica and 
Tasmania or New Zealand. 

To evade these difficulties and yet explain existing distribution, 
the following three alternatives have been advanced. 

That decadent groups were expelled from their original seats 
by more vigorous competitors : retreating from a northern centre 
to the ends of the earth, such groups divided into fugitive parties 
which converged as southern lands approached the pole. Or 
discontinuous distribution in southern continents were simply 
considered remnants of a former universal distribution (Wallace, 
'The Geographical Distribution of Animals,' i. 1876, p. 39S; 
Pfeffer, Zool. Jahrb. Suppl. viii. 1905, pp. 407-442). 

But whereas, under the circumstances postulated, the northern 
wanderers would be expected to diminish and to vaiy as they 
receded, the southern forms in question became more alike and 
more numerous proceeding south. Thus radiation rather than 
convergence is indicated. 


That birds, winds, or circumpolar currents, by a process of 
picking up and setting down passengers from the continents or 

* Wliile this article was in the press, there reached rue an imporUmt 
memoir by Dr. Pilsbry on " The Non-Marine Molhisca of Patagonia " (Rep. 
Princeton Univ. Exped. Patagonia, iii. 1912, pt. v. pp. ol3-633). My friend 
considers Antarctica rather as a road for migration, especially an American 
exit, than as a centre of evolution. Ho t^akes exception to my deriva- 
tion of Australian Acavida^ from Antarctica, and suggests that the group 
arose in Gondwana Land. On reconsideration I would still maintain tliat the 
south-eastwardly increasing distribution of Australian Acavida^ indicates their 
immediate Antarctic origin. But previous to an Antarctic sojourn the group 
may have been Gondwana bred. This memoir heightens the resemblance 
between and west. Gundlachia, Liphdon, and Radiodiscus are common, 
Pettcrdia7m scarcely differs from Littoridina, and I'ofamolithis appears to have 
Tasmanian relatives. 


islands by the way, established a uniformity of fauna and flora. 
Thus Dr. Michaelson writes (Journ. West. Aust. Nat. Hist. Soc. 
v., July 1908, p. 13): " There is no need for the supposition of an 
ancient great Antarctic continent \Ahich connected Australia and 
South America as some scientific men still suppose. Certain 
littoral Oligochajta consisting of euryhaline forms, for which the 
salt sea is no barrier, can be transported by the west wind drift 
over the stations on the different islands lying between one 
continent and another." 

The flora of the circum antarctic islands, as instanced by 
Kerguelen, was thought by W. Schimper to have been conveyed 
by sea birds and ocean drift (Schimper, AVissenschaft. Ergebn. 
Valdivia, ii. 1905, p. 75). Although this niiglit apply to species 
which recur through several archipelagoes, such would not explain 
the presence of endemic plants and on Kerguelen the occurrence 
of an endemic snail, Ampliidoxa JiooJceri. 

Such transport accounts only for a wide range of individual 
species capable of air or water carriage. It has doubtless been a 
small but real factor in distribution. Eut it does not account 
for the existence of related and representative species, for the 
subtropical element, or for the species incapable of such convey- 
ance. Px'of. W. B. Benham raises the objection that a species 
might drift yet never land : — " When I stood at the top of the 
sheer cliffs, some 500 ft. to 1000 ft. in height, which form the 
whole of the west coast of Auckland Island, and saw the 
tremendous breakers which even in moderately calm weather dash 
with incredible force against the rocks, I was more than ever 
convinced that the ' west- wind drift ,' cannot account for the 
transference of Oligochieta from the various land surfaces of this 
subantarctic region " (Benham, ' Subantarctic Islands of New 
Zealand,' i. 1909, p. 254). 


That a trans-Pacific continent conveyed to New Zealand, 
Australia, and South America a common stock otherwise recognised 
as the Antarctic element (ITutton, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales, 
xxi. 1896, p. 36 ; Baur, ' American Naturalist,' xxxi. 1897, p. 661). 

This alternative seems the weakest. Had a trans-Pacific bridge 
really disseminated the species under discussion, then they should 
be best developed in the central remaining portion (for instance, in 
Tahiti or Samoa) and least at the extremity (as in Chili or 
Tasmania). Actually the reverse is the case : Soutli America is 
the most closely associated with Tasmania, then New Zealand is 
less so, and the Mid-Pacific islands not at all. 

Those who consider the demand for land between Tasmania and 
Antarctica as exorbitant are not consistent in asking so much 
larger a grant in the Pacific. 

Another difficulty is why that South American contingent 
which flooded Tertiary Antarctica, and then Australia, failed to 
include such characteristic South American fauna as the humming- 



hirtls, platyrhine monkeys, hystricomorph rodents, edentates, or 
notoiinguliites. Dr. von Jheritig explains (Trans. N.Z. Inst. xxiv. 
1891, J). VM ; and X. Jalirb. f. iMineralogio, &c. Beil.-Bd. xxxii. 
1911, p. 170, pi. V.) that two former subcontinents, of late 
niesozoic or early tertiary age, are now fused in the present South 
America. Before the rise of the Andes these were separated 
from each other by a broad sea and maintained distinct fauna and 
flora. The southern tract, which he calls " Archiplata," comprised 
what is now Chili, Argentina, and Southern Brazil. The 
northern area, called " Archiguyana," embraced Xorthern Brazil, 
Venezuela, and Guiana. 

It was from Archiplata that the last phase of Antarctica had 
its American derivatives, and that at a time when many forrcs 
now regarded as typically South American had not yet reached 
Archiplata. Not until after Antarctica was i-eh^ased from 
Archi|)lata did the latter join Archiguyana, and then the southern 
fauna sufft^red the usual fate from the incursion of the more 
highly organised northern types. 

3. The Austeal Fauna and Flora. 

More space than is here available would be required to 
enumerate the Antarctic refugees in austral lands. A few of the 
more striking instances are now selected. 

Recent marsupials are restricted to Australasia and to the 
Americas, the monotremes to the former. It seems to have been 
assumed generally that marsupials necessarily had a Eui'opean 
origin and travelled across Siberia to North America. A shorter 
connection between Western Europe and South America by way 
of Archhelenis is at any rate worth debate. Had the entry to 
Australia been by the Malay Archipelago, as opponents of the 
Antarctic hypothesis advance, then stragglers by the way should 
have lingered in the East Indies. In Australasia marsupials and 
monotremes are least developed in the north ; proceeding south- 
wards more groups successively appear till ultimately Tasmania 
has, as Professor Spencer expressed it, " a condensation of most 
that is noteworthy in the Australian region" (Spencer, Proc. Austr. 
Assoc. Adv. Sci. 1892, p. 106). Indeed, the most convincing 
proof of the Antarctic theory is the fact that in Australasia the 
South American affiuities regularly increase as Tasmania is 
approached and there attain their maximum. Those who 
deny marsupial migration across Antarctica are obhged to 
assume that the Thylacinida? were independently evolved in each 
hemisphere. That Tasmania was the point of entry is supported 
by the discovery in Tasmania of the earliest fossil Australian 
marsupial. This, Wi/nyufdia bassiana, is apparently one of the 
Phalangeridae, but the unique example is too imperfect for 
positive identification (Spencer, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1900, p. 776). 


Local geologists class the stratum in which it occurred as Eocene, 
but English and American geologists are less disposed to grant 
these beds such antiquity. 

If marsupials had not been available, the case could have been 
made as clear from herpetological evidence. And, indeed, were 
the vertebrata disregarded, the liypothesis could still be as well 
established from the invertebrata or the plants. 

Among the reptiles, fifty genera of the Iguanidse are known, all 
of which are confined to the New World, chiefly South America, 
except one genus in Eiji and two in Madagascar. Australian 
snakes are divisible into the venomous and the non-venomous 
groups. All the venomous are of the family Elapidae, related to 
South American types ; they focus in Tasmania, where non- 
venomous snakes are absent. The non-venomous snakes are of 
Asiatic or Papuan alHnity, and focus in North Queensland. The 
majority of Austx'alian frogs are also akin to South American 

A family of large snails, conspicuous for the size and beauty of 
the shell and distinct in structural features, called by Dr. Pilsbry 
the Ilacroogona, has the following distribution : — In South 
America, chiefly tropical, Macrocyclis 1 species, Strophochilus 
51 species, and Goni/ostomiis 5 species ; in Madagascar, Ampelita 54 
species and Helicophanta 16 species ; in the Seychelles, Stijlodonta 
2 species ; in Ceylon, Acavus 7 species ; in the Moluccas, Pyro- 
chihis 4 species ; in Tasmania, Anogh/pta 1 species and Cart/odes 
1 species ; in Eastern Australia, Pedinogyra 1 species and Panda 
4 species. The Chilian Macrocyclis and the Queensland Pedinogyra 
by shell characters pair together, while Helicophanta is a match 
for Panda. The absence of this family from New Zealand, its 
preponderance of species in Madagascar, of genera in Tasmania 
with Australia, and its development in the tropics are remarkable 
characters of this old austral group. 

The snail family Bulimulida^ is chai'acteristic of South America, 
beyond which two genera stray into the West Indies and North 
America, and two others, Botliriemhryon and Placostylus, occur in 
Australasia. The first ranges from Tasmania to AVest iVustralia, 
and forms an exception to Antarctic rule by liaving its distri- 
bution centre in the latter. Indeed, Botliriemhryon and the 
fluviatile crustacean Gha'raps raise a suspicion that West 
Australia had direct relations with Antarctica, prior to and 
independent of the Tasmanian Istlimus. Placostylus extends from 
New Zealand to Fiji and New Guinea, "giving testimony," as 
Pilsbry remarks, "to the foi'mer existence of an Antarctic land 
connecting the austral continents of the two hemispheres " (Man. 
Couch., Index, vols. x,-xiv. 1902, p. ix). 

The Buprestidaj, a family of large and handsome beetles, exhibit 
a striking affinity between Australia and South America. So 


much so that, opposed as AVallat-e was to the Antarctic connection, 
lie here conceded that some exchanj^e between the two areas was 
required. Jle thought that it took the form of larvjc in floating 
limber drifting round the antarctic seas in a warm period. 

Among early Tertiary vej^'etation brought from Seymour Island 
in the Antarctic by Dr. NordenskjilUrs expedition, Dusen has 
recognised a s{)ecies of Fagus and an Aranc((na like A. hrasiliensis 
(8ch\vedisclie ISudpolar. Exp., Jkl. iii. Lief 3, 1908). In the light 
of this discovery the range of the living species of these genera 
acquires an importance for the student of the Antarctic hypothesis. 
The distribution of the beech trees is a particularly interesting one, 
for on the principle of Antarctic extension it is simple and intelli- 
gible, but without it is complicated and inexplicable. 

This geiuis Far/us, sensu latu, has tAvo representatives in 
Europe, one in North America, and several in China and Japan. But 
in South America there are eleven, in New Zealand seven, and in 
Tasmania with Australia three. The northern forms are deciduous, 
but with one or two exceptions the southern ai'e evergreen. The 
genus being a natural one is certainly not of polyphyletic origin, 
and the question before us is, from what centre of migration has 
it spread ? Did the southern species radiate from the south or 
converge from the north ? It is a strong argument for a southern 
origin that the bulk of the species are southern. Again, the ever- 
green state is primitive, the deciduous derived, and this indicates 
that the northerners are offshoots from an evergreen stock. 
Thirdly, the southern species more closely resemble each other 
than any northern does any southern fox-m. Even, as Mr. 
llodway (Proc. Austr. Assoc. Adv. Sci. 1912) points out, the same 
parasite atHicts Tasmanian and South American trees. This 
agrees better with radiation fi*om the south than with convergence 
from the north. 

Another aspect of Antarctic distribution is presented by the 
genus Araucaria. None of the fifteen existing species reach the 
northern hemisphere, so the complication of a boreal factor is 
absent. It is chiefly subtropical and characterises a zone external 
to that of Faijus. In South America there are three species, in 
New Caledonia eight, in Norfolk Island one, in New Gruinea one, 
and in Australia two. The latter pair are unlike each other, but 
<me, A. biihvilli, from Queensland, stands very close to the 
Chilian A. imhricata. This indicates that the genus had already 
differentiated almost to its present extreme before the migration 
route between Australia and South Amei'ica had closed. The 
large and heavy seeds of these trees possess no floating power and 
are unfitted for dispersal by birds. As Dr. Guppy remarks of the 
Fijian Kauri pine, " they may well be cited in support of any 
continental hypothesis" (Guppv, ' Naturalist in the Pacific,' ii. 
1906, p. 301). 

The preponderance of Araucaria in tlie Pacific is enforced by a 


related genus Agathis. If statistics carry a meaning, Fagus would 
seem to have come to Australasia from America, while Ai'aucaria 
•made the reverse journey. 

The remarkable and well known genus Fuchsia includes sixty- 
nine species. Four of these are natives of New Zealand, the rest 
inhabit South America, Mexico, and the AVest Indies. These 
figures are almost exactly reversed for the shrubby evergreen 
Veronicas, plants conspicuous in auy New Zealand landscape, 
totally absent from Australia or Tasmania, and represented by a 
few stragglers in South America and Fuegia. 

4. Deductions. 

If it be resolved that the community of austral life is explicable 
•only by former radiation along land-routes from the south polar 
regions, we reach a position to probe deeper into the intricacies 
of the problem. 

In the scheme propounded by Dr. H. 0. Forbes, the austral 
forms inhabited one vast continent, nearly a third of the southern 
hemisphere, at the same (? Pleistocene) time. But an analysis of 
the fauna in question shows that some groups avoid Tasmania and 
others avoid New Zealand. Clearly the Antarctica that supplied 
Australia with an abundant fauna of marsupials, monotremes, 
snakes, frogs, and so on, was not in touch with New Zealand, 
where these animals are conspicuously absent. Benhara has 
emphasised the fact that the Acanthrodrilids, Antarctic earth- 
worms, failed to reach Tasmania. When they, the fuschias and 
other associates, spread backwards and forwards from New Zealand 
to South America, it is equally clear that the road to Tasmania 
was barred to them. Iredale remarks (Proc. Malac. Soc. ix. 1910, 
p. 160) that the Antarctic element in the New Zealand Polyplaco 
phora, a marine moUuscan group, is distinct from that which 
reached Tasmania from the south. The differences are both 
positive and negative, and are not due merely to the more southern 
latitude of New Zealand preserving a larger proportion of cold 
types. When circumstances allowed Iguanidae to wander from 
South America in two genera to Madagascar and in another to 
Fiji, the Australian road was apparently closed to them. 

It becomes increasingly apparent that the Antarctic source of 
austral life was not simjile but compound. This complexity hai^ 
probably beeu the chief hindrance to its recognition. The problem 
before us is : — Was the complexity that of time or space, or botli ? 
Shall we suppose, for instance, that at the close of a glacial 
period an Antarctic continent bare of life received a fauna and 
flora from one neighbour, then developed and transmitted it to 
another? That a subsequent glaciation swept all life away from 
tlie polar area? That a warm interglacial period succeeded when 
another transfer, but between different neighbours, took place? 


80 tliat the fauna of New Zealand might represent tlie life of one 
iuterglacial antarctic phase and that of Australia another. 

Or f^liall we consider that Tertiary Antarctica was an archipelago, 
the islands of which carried such different fauna and flora that 
emigrants from one quarter differed from those of another. It is 
not yet known whether the area between Xing Edward VII. Laud 
and (Jraham Land is a lobe of the continent or an archipelago, or an 
independent island (Darwin, Proc. Eoy. J^oc. A, vol. Ixxxiv, 1910, 
p. 420; and Maw son, Geogr. Journ. xxxvii. 1!)11, map, p. 6L*J). 
In the latter ease it is possible that King Edward YIl. Land may 
havejoimd New Zealand, while Tasmania was separately linked 
to 8outh Victoria Land. Under these circumstances New Zealand 
and Tasmania may have simultaneously imported an Antarctic and 
yet a different fauna and flora. 

Or both conditions of iuterglacial succession and insularity may 
have combined in the past to produce present effects. 

Prof. 11. Pilsbry has shown (Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad. 1900, 
p. 5G8) that the land molluscan faunas of the Marquesas, Hawaii, 
and Society Islands are closely related, and that though of primitive 
type they are harmonic such as befits continental laud, not a drift 
selection such as oceanic islands have. He proposes them as 
witness to the existence of a Palaeozoic or early Mesozoic land 
mass. The tree-lobelias also testify to the antiquity and associ- 
ation of these distant Pacific archipelagoes (Guppy, ' A Naturalist 
in the Pacific,' ii. 1906, p. 250). Their rehirious are with the 
alpine floras of South America and Equatorial Africa. A third 
of the mountain flora of Hawaii is derived from high southern 
latitudes. It is now suggested that these primitive continental 
plants and animals reflect a meridional Pacific land-ray, the first 
visible vestige of Antarctic extension, as Tasmania was the last. 
To carry a cold flora across the Equator the land must have been 
lofty and continuous. In such a range some might see the rib of 
a fornier tetrahedral world. 

As the Eocene w as both a warm period and a time when land 
was largely developed in the Patagonian area, it is likely that the 
Archiplatan fauna then or earlier entered Antarctica. If the 
Tasmanian fossil Wynyardia is rightly dated Eocene, then during 
that age some at least of the American migrants reached Australia. 

Whereas New Zealand in its relation with South America, via 
Antarctica, appears both as a giver and a receiver, Australia, on 
the contrary, seems to have made no return to South America, but 
to have i-eceived all and given nothing.* No Eucalypts, for 
instance, crossed from Tasmania to Patagonia. One explanation 

* Ortniann (Proc. Am. Pliilos. Soc. xli. 1902, p. 340) considers that the 
freshwater Crustacea Parastacid.T spread from Australia into Antarctica and 
tbence into Chili. But the distribution of this group in Australia as detailed 
by G. Smith (Pnoc. Zool. Soc. 1012, p. 149) appears to uie to be that of 
immigrants from an east and wc>t base respectively. 


may be that Australia was then too poor to afford emigrants. 
Another and more probable explanation is that Antarctica having 
received a fauna and flora from Arcbiplata was severed fi-om it 
before joining Australia. Thus a stream of migration would be 
forced forward and checked backwards. 

The austral fauna and flora appears extending m successive 
zones from the far south to the tropics. In New Zealand the 
warmth-loving plants and animals, such as the Kauri pine (a 
relation of Araucaria) and Placostylus snail, have been thrust to a 
northern refuge, while diminished temperature has probably exter- 
minated others. The Araucaria and iguanas, the freshwater fish 
Osteof/lossum , are examples of tropical austral forms of which a 
long list could be compiled. 

It is unhkely that the Antarctica that bore this tropical and 
subtropical assembly reached much more broadly to the tropics 
than does the present continent. Had it done so, more traces 
would have been left of such extension in the South Sea Islands on 
the one side or in South Africa on the other. 

But if the subtropical flora and fauna had in the Tertiary 
extended unbroken across the pole from Fuegia to Tasmania, what 
then became of tlie ancestors of the present subantarctic and south 
alpine life ? Why were not these frigid forms driven from off the 
face of the earth when the heart of the Antarctic itself enjoyed a 
genial climate ? 

The discovery by Sir E, Shackleton of a plateau 10,000 feet high 
near the south pole, suggests a solution of the difficulty. If such 
a plateau existed ^hen the climate was at its warmest, then the 
tropical migrants could have found a congenial climate on the 
coast, while the ancestors of the Kosciusko and Kerguelen plants 
and animals took refuge on the plateau heights. The inference is 
that such a plateau did then exist. 

If the land-connection between the Antarctic and Tasmania had 
broken down during the warmest period of the interglacial phase, 
it would have isolated the flora and fauna at a time when the cold 
elements were gathered together on the central plateau heights, 
while the temperate and subtropical elements possessed the 
Antarctic periphery. In that case the cold forms would have had 
no opportunity to escape to the alpine stations of New Zealand or 
Australia, or to occupy the subantarctic islands. 

The conclusion is therefore drawn that the land link was main- 
tained during the period of refrigeration, and that from the 
Antarctic focus first the subtropical, then the temperate, lastly the 
alpine forms were expelled, each to gain a fresh footing in lower 

Possibly associated with the formation of great ice masses, a 
paroxysm of diastrophic energy ensued. This, which perhaps has 
not yet subsided, effected the destruction of the antarctic bridge, 
and to it may be due the recent disarticulation of the Dominion 


of New Zealand aud the severance of Tasmania from its parent 

In the lon<i[ perspective of past time Antarctica appears to fade 
and form lilie a sumn)er cloud, now extondinf^ a limb, now shedding 
it, now resolving into a continent, now dissolving into an archi- 
pelago. At present it lies dead and cold under its white winding- 
sheet of snow. By the light of the magician's lamp we watch the 
summer of the cycles dawn. The glow of life returns, the ice 
mask melts, green spreads a mantle. At last a vision comes of 
rippling brooks, of singing birds, of blossoming flowers, and of 
forest glades in the heart of Antarctica. 





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Warthiadi (Demeter). Veriinderungen der Pflanze unter dem 

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Zoological Results, based on Material from New Britain, New 
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•Ito. Cambridge, 1898-1902. 

Part I. 

1. WiLLEY (A.). Anatomy and Development of Pcripatnn novce- 

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3. BouLENGEK (Gr. A.). Little-known Sea-Suake from tlie South Pacific. 

Pp. 57-59; with Plate 5. 1898. 

4. Pocof K (R. I.). Centipedes and Millipedes. Pp. 59-75 ; with 

Plate 6. 1898. 

5. Sharp (D.). Phasmidse witli notes on tlie Eggs. Pp. 75-95 ; 

Plates 7-9. 1898. 
C. PococK (R. I.). Scorpions, Pedipalpi and Spiders. Pp. 95-120; 
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Part II. 

7. HicKSON (Sydney H.). Millepora. Pp. 121-133 ; Plates 12-16. 


8. Bell (F. Jeffrey). Echinoderms (other than Ilolothurians). 

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9. Bedford (F. P.). Ilolothurians. Pp. 141-150; with figs, on 

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10. Shipley (Arthur E.). Sipunculoidea. Pp. 151-160 ; with 

Plate 18. 1899. 

11. Gardiner (J. Stanley). Solitary Corals. Pp. lGl-170; Plates 

19, 20. 1899. 

12. Gardiner (J. Stanley). Cycloseris. Pp. 171-180; Plates 19, 20. 


13. Bkddard (Frank E.). Earthworms. Pp. 181-194 ; Plate 21. 


14. HiLES (Isa L.). Gorgonacea. Pp. 195-206 ; Plates 22, 23. 1899. 

Part III. 

15. Gadow (Hans). Orthogenetic variation in shells of Chelonia. 

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16. WiLLEY (Arthur). Enteropneusta. Pp. 223-334; Plates 26-32, 

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17. Shipley (Arthur E.). Collection of Echiurids. Pp. 335-350 ; 

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Part IV. 

18. Gardiner (J. Stanley). On the Anatomy of a supposed new species 

of Cannpsammia from Lifu. Pp. 357-380 ; Plate 34. 1900. 

19. Sharp (D.). On the Insects from New Britain, Pp. 381-394; 

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21. CoLLiNGE (Walter E.). Report on the Slugs. Pp. 429-438; 

Plates 40, 41. 1900. 


22. Pniupps (E. G.). Eeport on tlie Polyzoa, &c. Pp. 439-450; 

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23. TnoRNELY (Laura Roscoe). The Ilydroicl Zoophytes. Pp. 451-458 ; 

Plate 44. 1900. 

24. Lister (J. J.)- Astroclera willeyana, the type of a new Family of 

Sponges. Pp. 459-482 ; Plates 45^8. 1900. 

25. Pycraft (W. p.). Pterylography o( the Megapodii. Pp. 483-492 ; 

Plate 49. 1900. 
20. HiCKSoN (Sydney J.) and Hiles (Isa L.). Stolonifera and Alcyo- 
nacoa. Pp. 493-508 ; Plates 50, 51. 1900. 

27. Ashwortu (J. H.). Eepoi't on the XeniidsE. Pp. 509-528 ; Plates 

52, 53. 1900. 

Part V. 

28. Shipley (Arthur E.). Entozoa. Pp. 531-568; Plates 54-56. 


29. PuNNETT (R. C). South Pacific Nemertines. Pp. 569-584; Plates 

67-61. 1900. 

30. BoRRADAiLE (L. A.). Young of the Robber Crab. Pp. 585-590 ; 

with figures in the text. 1900. 

31. Pratt (Edith M.). Anatomy of Xeohelia porccllana, Moseley. 

Pp. 591-602 ; Plates 62, 63. 1900. 

32. BouLENGER (Gr. A.). New Blind Snake from Lifu, Loyalty Islands.. 

Pp. 603-604 ; with figures in the text. 1900. 

33. Stebbing (Rev. T. R. R.). Crustacea from the South Seas. Pp. 605- 

690 ; Plates 64-74. 1900. 

Part VI. 

34. WiLLEY (Arthur). Natural History of the Pearly Nautilus. 

Pp. 691-830. 

I. Personal Narrative. With 1 1 test-figures. 
II. Special Contribution. Plates 75-83, a map, and fifteen 
text-figures. 1902. 

no phoceedings of the 


List in accordance with Bue-Laivs, Chap. XVII. Sect. 1, of all 
Donations of the amount or value of Twenty-five pounds and 

The Et. Hon. Sir Joseph ]3canks, Bt. 

Cost of Copper ;ind engraving ot the plates of the first volume 
of Transactions, "20 in number. 
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The same : a large collection of books. 


Subscription towards the Charter, .£295 4s. 6d. 

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Portrait of Henry Seymer. 


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Carved rhinoceros horn from Lady Smith, formerly in the posses- 
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Legac}' from James Tates, £50 free of Duty. 
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,, ,, ,, Charles Lambert. £500. 

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The Secretary of State for India in Council : cost of setting up 
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George Benlhain, Esq., special donation, £25. 
The same: towards Jiichard Kippist's pension, =£50. 
Portrait of Dr. St. George Jackson Mivart, by Miss Solomon; 
presented by 'Mva. INIivart. 

Executors of the late Frederick Currey : a large selection of books. 
lSubscri|)tion portrait of Charles Kobert J)ar\\in, by lion. John 

The Secretary of State for India in Council : Grant for publication 

of Dr. Aitchison's second paper on the Flora of the Kurruin 

Valley, £00. 

Sir John Lubbock, Bt, (afterwards Lord Avebury). 

Portrait of Carl von Linnc, ascribed to M. llallman. 
Philip Henrv Gosse, Esq.: towards cost of illustrating his paper, 

Royal Society : Grant in aid of iMr. P. II. (xosse's paper, £5(1. 
Sophia (irover, Harriet G rover, Emily Grover, and Charles Ehret 

Grover : 11 letters from Carl von Linne to G. D. Ehret. 


Executors of the late George Beiitham, £507 lis. 2d. 
Subscription portrait of George Busk, by his daughter Marian 


A large selection of books from the library of the late Dr. Spencer 

Thomas Cobbold (a bequest for a medal \Aas declined). 
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])ortrait of liev. William Kirby. 

AVilliam Davidson, Esq.: ]st and 2nd instalments of grant in aid 

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The Secretary of State for India in Council: Grant in aid of 

l)ublication of results of the Afghan Boundary Delimitation 

Expedition, £150. 
Dr. J. E. T. Aitchison, towards the same, £25. 
Trustees of the Indi.m Museum : Mergui Archipelago report, for 

publication in Journal, £135. 
Dr. John Anderson, for the same, £00. 
Wm. Davidson, Esq. : 3rd and last instalment, £25. 
Sir Joseph Hooker: (1) Series of medals formerly in possession 

of George Benthain ; (2) (^lold watch, key, and two seals 

belonging to liobert Brown. I 



Bronze copy oF model for Statue of C. vou Liuuc, by J. F. Kjellberg ; 
presented by Frank Crisp, Esq. 


The Secretary of State for India in Council : Grant for Delimitation 

Expedition report, =£200. 
Oak table for Meeting Koom, presented by Frank Crisp, Esq. 
Subscription portrait of Sir Josepb Dalton Hooker, K.C.S.I., by 

Hubert Herkomer, R.A. 
Executors of the late John Ball, Esq. : a large selection of books. 
An anonymous donor, ^30. 
Colonel Sir Henry Collett, K.C.B., towards the publication of his 

Shan States collections, <£50. 


Subscription portrait of Sir John Lubbock, Bt. [Lord Avebury] 

by Leslie Ward. 
George Frederick Scott Elliot, Esq., towards cost of his Madagascar 

paper, .£60. 

Dr. llichard Charles Ali'xander Prior: for [)rojection lantern, .£50. 


The Executors of Lord Arthur iius.sell : his collection of portraits 

of naturalists. 
Electric light installation : cost borne by Frank Crisp, Esq. 


Algernon Peckover, Escj. : Legacy, £100 free of Duty. 
Miss Emma Swan: " Westvvood Fund," =£250. 


Clock and supports in Meeting Roou), presented by Frank Crisp, 

William Carrutbers, Esq. : Collection of engravings and pboto- 

grapiis of portraits of Carl von Linne. 
Eoyal Society : Grant towards publication of paper by the late 

John Ball, =£60. 
Subscription portrait of Professor George James AUman, by 
Marian Busk. 

Sir John Lubbock, Bt. : Contribution to\\ ards his paper on 

Stipules, =£43 14;.-. 9d. 
Eoyal Society : Contribution towards F. J. Cole's paper, £5i). 
,, ,, ., ,. Murray &Blackm:in*s paper, 

., .. ,, ,, Elliot Smith's paper, ^50. 

., • ,, ,, Forsyth Major's paper, =£50. 



A. C. Ihinnsworth, Esq. [Lord Nortlieliffe] : Contribution towards 

cost of plates, £43. 
Roj'al Society : Contribution towards Mr. U. T. Giintlier's paper 
ou Lake Urnii, i'oO. 

lion. Charles Ellis, J Ion. Walter Kuthscliild, and the Benthaiu 

Trustees: The Correspondence of William 8waiiison. 
Royal Society: Contribution towards Mr. F. Chapman's paper ou 

Funafuti Foraminifei-a, £50. 
Prof. E. Eav Lankester : Contribution towards illustration, £30 5s. 
Portrait of Dr. St. G. J. Mivart, presented by Mrs. Mivart. 

Royal Society : Contribution towai'd Dr. Elliot Smith's ])aper, £50. 
Legacy from the late Dr. R. C. A. Prior, £100 free of duty. 
Mrs. Sladeu : Posthumous Portrait of the late AYalter Percy 
Sladen, by H. T. Wells, R.A. 

B. Arthur Beusley, Esq. : Contribution to his paper, £44. 


Royal Society : Grant in aid uf third volume of the Chinese Flora, 

Supplementary Ro}al Charter : cost borne by Frank Crisp, Esq. 

(afterwards Sir Frank Crisp). 


Royal Society : First grant in aid of Dr. G. H. Fowler's ' Biscayan 

Plankton,' £50. 
Executors of the late G. B. Buckton, Esq. : Contribution for 

colouring plates of his paper, £26. 


Royal Society : »Second grant towards 'Biscayan Plankton,' £50. 
Subscription portrait of Prof. S. H. Vines, by Hon. John Collier. 
Royal Swedish Academy of Science : Copies of portraits of C.von 

Linne, after Per Krafft the elder, and A. Roslin, both by 

Jean Haagen. 


Royal University of Uppsala : Copy bv Jean Haagen of portrait of 

C. V. Linne. by J. H. Scheffer( 1739). 
Royal Society : Third and final gmnt towards 'Biscayan Plankton,' 

The Trustees of the Percy Sladen ^Memorial Fund : First grant 

towards publication of Mr. Stanley Gardiner's Researches 

in the Indian Ocean in H.M.S. ' Sealark,' £200. 



Prof. Gustaf Eetzius : Plaster cast of Lust of Carl von Liinie, 
modelled by "Waltlier Piineberg from the portrait by Scheffel 
(1739) at Linuc's Hammarby ; the bronze original is for the 
facade of the new building for the Royal Academy of 
Science, Stockholm. 

Miss Sarah Marianne Silver, F.L.S. : Cabinet formerly belonging 
to Mr. S. W. Silver, F.L.S. 


The Trustees of the Percy Sladen Memorial Fund : Second grant 
to\\ards publication of Mr. Stanley Gardiner's Researches in 
the Indian Ocean in H.M.S. ' Sealark,' i;20U. 

Prof. James William Helenus Trail,, F.L.S. : Gift of =£100 
in Trust, to encourage Research on the Nature of Proto- 


Royal Society : Grant towards Dr. G. H. Fowler's paper on 

Biscayan Ostracoda, £50. 
Sir Joseph Hooker : Gold watch-chain worn by Robert Brown, 

and seal with portrait of Carl von Linne by Tassie. 
Prof. J. S. Gardiner : Payment in aid of illustrations, £35 0«. in/. 
Sir Frank Crisp : Donation in Trust for Microscopical Research, 

The Trustees of the Percy Sladen Memorial Fund : Third grant 

towards publication of Prof. Stanley Gardiner's Researches 

in the Indian Ocean, £200. (For third volume.) 


The Trustees of the Percy Sladen Memorial Fund: Second 
Donatio)! towards the publication of the third volume on 
the Indian Ocean Reseai'ches, £70. 

The same : First Donation towards the fourth volume, £i;)0. 


The Indian Government: Contribution towards the illustration 
of Mr. E. P. Stebbing's jiaper on Himalayan Chermes, 
£46 15*. 2d. 

The late Mr. Francis Tagart, £500 free of Legacy Duty. 

The late Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker. O.M., G.C.S.I., £100 free of 
Legacy Duty. 


SESSION 1911-1912. 

Xu/e. — Tlie f'ullowiiigareiiot indexed :— The name of tJieCliairnian at each meeting; 
sijeakers whose remarks are not reported ; and passing alhisions. 

Abnormal On-liia exhibited (Salmon), 

Abstracts of Papers, 71-90. 
Acarina of tlie Percy Sladen Exhil)i- 

tion (Warbnrton), 70. 
Accounts, 22-23; ^"'^^ before .V^nui- 

versar^' Meetinir. 21. 
Actinian LarA"a' (Pamford). 2. 
Additions to tlie Library, 91-109. 
Address, Presidential, 26-39. 
Agromyzid;e. sec Lamb, C. G. 
Aldabra. sec Scyciielles. 
Allium (jluilnosd, variations in its foliage 

exhibited (Henderson), 6. 
Alpine flowers, drawings by G. Flem- 

well, exhibited (Thompson). 69 ; 

flora of Canada, lantern denionstra- 

tion (llenshaw), 19. 
Anderson, Dr. T., elected Councillor, 

Anderson, Rev. W. J. W., withdrawn, 

Annelids of the Thames Vallev (Friend), 

Anniversary Meeting, 21-41. 
Antarctica, sec Hedley, C. 
Arber, Dr. E. A. N., Vsii(inuti)htilluia 

ma jus, ep. no v., 19. 
Associates deceased, 21; elected, 2}: 

vacancies in List announced, 8. 
Audas. J. W., elected, 6 ; jjroposed, i. 
Auditors elected, 18. 
Australia, Additions to the flora of 

(Domin), 20. 

Pagnall, R. S., admitted, i : Biplopora, 
I'auropoda, and Proturri, spp. new 
to Britain, 3. 

Balance Sheet, wr Cash Statement. 

Balston, W. E., admitted, 67. 

Bamford, Miss E. E., Pelagic .\ctinian 

LarvjB, 2. 
Bancroft, C K., elected, 6 ; proposed, i. 
Barbados, see Phillips, Miss E. M. 
Henefaclions. i 10-1 17. 
Biokford, E. J., projiosed. 68. 
BickncU, A. S., deceased, 21 ; f>bituary, 

Bittern discovered in Norfolk, huilern- 

slides shown (Turner), 9. 
Blackman, Prof. V. H., Councillor 

retired, 25. 
Bolivar, Dr. I., SaUatorial Orthoptera 

of the Seychelles, 69. 
and C. Ferricre. Orthoptera- 

Phasmidse of the Seychelles, 17. 
Bolus, Dr. n., deceased, 21 ; obituary, 

Borneo, see Monlton, J, C. 
Bornet. Dr. J. B. E., deceased, 8, 21 ; 

obituary, 44. 
Botanical Secretary (Dr. O. Stapf) 

elected, 25. 
Botrychioxj/lon jxiradoxinn, a Palaeo- 
zoic Fei-n with Secondary Wood 

(Scott), 19. 
Bourne, Prof. G. C, elected Councillor 

and Secretarv, 25 ; conununicatii^n 

by (Liddcll), "i-. 
Bowman, Dr. F. H., withdrawn. 24. 
Brougiiton, IL, withdrawn, 24. 
Budde-Luud, Dr., Terreslri^il Isopoda 

of the Percy Sladen Expedition, 69. 
Button, Rev. .T., deceased, 21. 
BuUen, Rev. R. A., exhibited hybrid 

snail, 10; — engravings of ////^r((/«/rt 

mo)ifivai/ct, Westerlund, 1 1 ; — cochi- 
neal insects, 20. 
Burne, R. H., admitted, 18; elected, 

16 ; proposed, 13. 


Bury, H., Councillor retired, 25. 
Bye-Laws concerning Composition, 

alterations read, 19, 6", and approved, 


Cactoid Euphorbias, sec Euphorbias. 
Calamites, Internodes (Groom), 15. 
Calder, C. C, elected, 15; proposer!, 

Caiman, Dr. W. T., nominated Scruti- 
neer, 15. 
Canadian Alpine Flora, lantern dennm- 

stration (Henshaw), 19. 
Canaries, white, exhibited (Palmerl, 

Cardamine prafcnsis with bulbils, ex- 

liibited (Slopes), 68. 
Cardew, Miss E. M., admitted, 8 ; 

elected, 6; proposed, i. 
Cash Statement received and ado]5ted, 

21 ; as audited, 22-23. 
Chip|i, T. F., proposed. 68. 
Ciiloro]iida', i^re Lamb. C. (1. 
Ciirist-Socin, Dr. H., elected Foreign 

Member, 19; proposed, 15. 
Christensen, C, Ferns of tiie Seychelles 

and Aldabra, 70. 
Clcfodoidron trichofomum, Thunb., in 

fruit, exhibited (Walker), 3. 
CoceinellidiK of the Seychelles (Sicard), 

Cochineal insects exhibited (Bidlen), 
20; on those sent to Carl von Linne 
(Jackson), 20. 

CocUmria Armoracia, dissected leaf- 
form of, exhibited (Reudle), 8. 

Cod, its development (Meek), 67. 

CofTm, W. H., name ordered to be 
removed from List, 24. 

Coleoptera of the Seychelles (Scott), 

Couiposition, Bye-Laws concerning, 
alterations read, 19, 67, and ap- 
proved, 69. 

Cinnpton, E. H., Seedling Structure in 
the Lcguminosa', i 3. 

Correlation of Somatic Characters 
(Meek), 70. 

Councillors elected, and retired, 25. 

Craven, A. E., proposed, 68. 

Crcpidula foraicida, exhibited (Muric), 

Crisp Award and Medal presented to 
Capt. Meek, 39. 

Crisp, Sir F., Councillor retired, 

Dakin, Dr. W. J., admitted, 67 ; elected, 
6 ; proposed, i. 

Daun, W. II., admitted, 68 ; elected, 

67 ; proposed, 19. 
Deaths recorded, 21. 
Dendy, Prof. A., elected Councillor, 

25 ; resignation of Zoological 

Secretaryship, 25 ; on Glass-sponges, 

15; exhibited living PhasmidiE, 17; 

-~- cocoons of larva; of a Saw-fly, 

Phyllutoma accrls, 69. 
Dinner and proposed reception, 

announced, 69. 
Diplopora, Tauropoda, and Proiura 

spp. new to Britain (Bagnall), 

.3- . . 
Distribution of Elodea canadensis, 

Michx., in the British Isles (Walker), 

2, 71-77. 
Dixon, H. N., exhibited plants from 

Portugal, some mounted on black 

paper, 17 ; some Mosses of New 

Zealand, 6. 
Doidge, Miss E. M., elected, 69 ; pro- 
posed, 21. 
Domin, Dr. X., Additions to Flora of 

Australia, 20. 
Donations to Librarj' 91-109 ; — to 

the Society (1790- 1912), iio- 

1 17. 
Douie. Sir J. M., elected, 8 ; jjroposed, 

Druce, G. C, International Phytogeo- 

graphieal Excursion, 1911, 4; note 

on the exhibits, 77. 
Druce, H. H., elected Auditor, 18. 
Dunn, S. T., Eevision of the genus 

Millettia, 70. 
Dyuies, T. A., admitted, 19; elected, 

15 ; proposed, 10. 

Edwards, F. W., Tipulidte of the Sey- 
chelles, 10. 

I'Jlections, number of, 24. 

Klodea canadciit<is, Michx., distribution 
in the British Isles (Walker). 2, 71- 

Enderlein, Dr. G., Sciarid;t of the Sey- 
chelles, 10. 

Ephydridffi, see Lamb, C. G. 

Escombe, F., withdrawn, 24. 

Euphorbias, Cactoid, from S. Africa, 
exhibited (Stapf), 16. 

luistace. Dr. G. W., withdrawn, 24. 

Evans, F., elected, 9 ; proposed, 6. 

Exhibitions at the Meetings, Mr. F. N. 
Williams on, 10; resolution con- 
cerning, 13. 

Falkland Islands, lantern-slides illus- 
trating the (VoUentin), 68, 


Farqiiliarson, Mrs. Ogilvie-, deceused, 

21 ; obituary, 45. 
Fellows dei-i'iised, 21; elected, 24; 

willidnvwii, 24. 
Ferns of the Seychelles and Aldabra 

(Cln-istensen), 70. 
Ferriere, C, -"ee Bolivar, Dr. I. 
" Field " newspaper, letter IVoni Sir 

Ray L'lnkester read, concerning, 12. 
Financial Statement, see Cash State- 

Findon, H., exhibited Glass-sponges 

from Japan, 14. 
Fishes, new, from Aldabra (Regan), 

Fitch, T. M., elected, 15; proposed, 

Flemwell, G., sec Thompson, H. S. 
Fletcher, T. B., elected, 69 ; proposed, 

21. ^ 

Foreign Members, deceased, 21; elected, 

24.; vacancy in List announced, 8. 

Forel. AI. A., Fourmis des Seychelles 
et des AUlabras, 10. 

Foster, N. H., proposed, 68. 

Fourmis des Seychelles et des Aldabras 
(Forel), 10. 

Foxglove plants, Mutations in (Mac- 
namara), 4-6. 

Friend, Rev. H., admitted, 8; with- 
drawn, 24 ; on some Annelids of the 
Thames Valley, 8. 

Fryer, A., deceased, 15, 21 ; obituary, 

Fungi, abnormal, lantern-slides shown 
(W(.rsdell), 8. 

GatJus morrhna. its developinent(Meek), 
Gahan, C -T., "" liH'^'^ <'™n' Borneo, 

Gimiiner, Prof. J. S., appointed V.-P.. 
67- elected Councillor, 25: commiini- 
calions bv (Forel and others), 10 ; 
(H(,li\;ir and Ferriere;. 17 ; (Lamb 
and others^ 69; (Christcnseii and 
Warburton). 7°- , , 

Gates, Ttr R. R., jMulation problem m 
Oeiio/hera, 3. 

General Meetings, Resolution con- 
cerning the order of business at. 1 3 

Genenil 'Secretary, AiiiuimI Report of. 
21 ; election of (Dr. 15. D. Jackson), 

Glass-sponges from Japan exhibited 

(Findon), 14. . , . ^ 

Goodrich, E. S., Councillor retired, 

Groom, Prof. P., Tnternodes of Ccda- 
mi/cs, 15 ; elected Councillor, 25. 

Groves, H., elected Councillor, 25. 

Hales, W.. elected Associate, 19; pro- 

])Osed. 16. 
Hainlyn-Harris. Dr. R., elected, 19; 

])ropospd, 16. 
Harris, .see Ilamlyn-Harris. 
Harrison, A., deceased, 21; obituary, 

Her/era Helix, thick stem of, exhibited 

(Rathbone), 68. 

Hedley, C admitted, 19 ; Palaeo- 
geo<;raphical relations of Antarctica, 
67, 80-90. 

Heinig. R. L., withdrawn, 24. 

Henderson, Dr. G., showed lantern- 
slides illustrating Kashmir, etc., 6 ; 
exhibited variations in foliage of 
Alnus qlutiiioM, 6 ; sent seeds of 
Kaniion-hopa Bifrhiana. H. Wendl., 
for distribution, 9. 

Henshaw, Mrs., lantern demonstration 
on Canadian Alpine Flora, 19. 

Herbarium specimens mounted on black 
paper c-xhibited (Dixon), 17; ^c 
Linnean Herbarium. 

Herdman, Prof. W. A., elected Coun- 
cillor, 25. 

Hill. A. W., elected Auditor, 18; — 
Councillor 25; showed drawings of 
viviparous Juticus hiifaiiius, 4. 

Hockcn, Dr. T. M., deceased, 21. 

Hooker, Sir Joseph, letter of thanks for 
congratulations.!; deceased, 21: 
obituary, 47-62 ; resolution passed 
upon his decease, 7 ; his work on 
Fossil Botany (Presidential Address), 

Howes, G. W., elected, 9; proposed, 6. 
Hughes, J., elected, 6; proposed, i. 
Hybrid snail exhibited (BuUen), 10. 
Hiijironiia iiionfimga, Wcsterlund. eii- 
'grivings exhibited (Bullen). n. 

Irhneumonidie of the Seychelles 
(M(irlev), 10. 

Imms. Prof. A. D., elected. 16; pro- 
jioseil, 13. 

Index to the Linnean Herbarium 
(Jackson). Supplement, 1-152. 

International Pliytogeographical Ex- 
cursion, HUl (.Druce), 4 ; not« on the 
exliibits, 77. 

Tnternodes of Calamilrs (Groom), 15. 

Isopoda, Terrestrial, of the Percy Sladen 
Expedition (Budde-Lund), 69. 

Jackson, Dr. B. D., additional in- 
formation concerning Linne's Lap- 
land Drum, 12; elected Councillor 


and Secretary, 25 ; Index to tlie 
Linnean Herbariiiu), Supplement, 
I-I5Z; on Liuiie's coehi'-ieal insects, 
20 ; on recent investii;ation of the 
Linnean Herbarium, 20. 

Japan, see Fiiulou. H. 

Johnson, J. W. II., elected, 8 ; proposed, 


Johnston, ])r. T. II., elected, 6 ; pro- 
posed. I. 

Jones, W. N., admiltcd. i. 

Jiuicus hiifuniiis, drawings of a vivi- 
parous specimen exhibited (Hill), 4. 

Kashmir, Little Tibet, and Turkestan, 
lantern -slides illustral ing, shown 
(Henderson), 6. 

Keeble, Prof. F., electi'd Councillor, 

Kent, Prof. A. F. S., withdrawn, 24. 

Lagenosfoma ovoides, Will., its struct ui-e 

(Prankerd), 20. 
Lamb, C. Gr., Loncha^ida-, Sapromy- 

zida), Ephydridaj, Chloropidae, and 

Agromvzidis, of the 8evchelles, 

Lankester. Sir E. Ray, letter from, 

concerning 'The Field,'' read, 12. 
Lapland Drum, sec Jackson, D>-. B. D. 
Larter, Miss C. E., admitted, 21; 

elected, 15; proposed, 10. 
Larvae from IBorneo exhibited 

(Moulton). 70. 
Laurie, E., elected, 6 ; ))roposed, i. 
Lawson, Dr. A. A., Marine flora of St. 

Andrews, 9. 
Leechmau, A., elected, 18; proposed, 

Leguminosa\ seedling structure in the 

(Compton), 1 3. 
Librarian's report, 24. 
I;ibrary Additions, 91-109. 
Liddell, J. A., Nitoci-ameira JxlcllurcB, 

a new genus, 17. 
Lindsay, Miss B., elected 8 ; proposed, 


Linne, Carl yon, his Lapland Drum, 
additional information concerning 
(Jackson), 12 ; on his cochineal in- 
sects (Jackson), 20.