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Full text of "Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales"

THE 

PROCEEDINGS 



OF THE 



LirinEHN Society 



OF 



New South Wales 



FOR THE YEAR 

1914 

Vol. XXXIX. 




WITH NINETY-FOUR PLATES. 



SYDNEV: 
PRINTED AND PUBLISHED FOR THE SOCIETY 

BY 

W. A. PEPPERDAY «k CO., 119a PITT STREET 

AND 

SOLD BY THE SOCIETY 

1915. 



,p-70 '^ 



\\. A. PEPPERDAY AND CO., 

GENERAL PRINTERS, 
119a PITT STREET, SYDNEY. 




CONTENTS OF PROCEEDINGS, 1914. 

PART I. (No. 153). 
(Issued 17th July, 19 U.J 

PAGES 

Presidential Address delivered at the Thirty ninth Annual 
General Meeting, March 25th, 1914, by W. S. Dun. (First 
Part) 1-15 

On the Study of Zoogeographical Regions by means of Specific 
Contours : with an application to the Odonata of Australia, 
By R. J. TiLLYARD, M.A., F.E.S., Science Research Scholar 
in Biology in the University of Sydney. (Plate i., and Trans- 
parencies 1-3) 21-43 

Revision of the Subfamily Tenebrioniiuv, Famil}' TenehrionidcE : 
Australian Species; with Descriptions of new Species of Tent- 
briouinre and Cyphahhui;. By H. J. Carter, B.A., F.E.S. 
(with six Text-figures) ... ... ... ... ... ... 44-86 

The Venom of the Fish, Notesthes robusta. By Leighton 

Kesteven, M.R.C.S. {Communicated by A. R. McCulloch) 91-92 

Contribution to a Knowledge of the Biology of the Richmond 
River, N.S. VV. By G. I. Playfair, Research Scholar of 
the University of Sydney in Hydrobiology and Plankton. 
(Plates ii.-viii.) 93-151 

The Xerophilous Characters of Hakea dactyloides Cav. [N.O. 

pROTEACK.*;]. By A. G. Hamilton. (Plates ix,-x.) 152-156 

On some Problems concerning the Development of the Wing- 
venation of Odonata. By R. J. Tilly'ard, MA,, F.E.S., 
Science Research Scholar in the University of Sydney. (Plates 
xi.-xiii,, and twenty Text-figures) ... ... ... ... 163-216 

Hon. Treasurer's Financial Statement, Balance Sheet, etc. ... 15-19 

Elections and Announcements ... ... ... ... ... 87,157 

Notes and Exhibits 20,87-90,158-162 



27797 



CONTENTS. 

PART II. (No. 154). 
{Issued 25th September, 1914). 



PAGES 



Revision of the Ami/cttrides. Part iii. Notonophes, Macrainyc- 
terus, and genera allied to Talauri7ius [Colkofteua]. By E. 
W. Ferguson, M.B., Ch.M. (Plate xi v.) 217-252 

Additional Notes on the Ferns of Lord Howe Island. By the 

Rev. W. W. Watts x^. 257-262 

A Revision of the Monaxonid Sponges described as new in Len- 
deufeld's "Catalogue of the Sponges in the Australian 
Museum." Parti. By E. F. Kallmann, B.Sc, Linnean 
Macleay Fellow of the Society in Zoology. (Plates xv.-xxiv. ) 263-315 

The Bondi Anticline. By C. Hedley, F.L.S. (Plates xxv.-xxvii.) 316-321 

A Revision of the Monaxonid Sponges described as new in Len- 
denfeld's " Catalogue of the Sponges in the Australian 
Museum." Part ii. By K. F. Kallmann, B.Sc, Linnean 
Macleay Fellow of the Society in Zoology. (Plates xv.-xxiv.) 327-376 

Further Notes on the Botany of Lord Howe Island. [Fifth Paper]. 

By J. H. Maiden, F.L.S., etc. (Plate xxviii.) 377-384 

A Study of the Leaf-anatomy of some native Species of the Genus 
Andi-ojiogon \1^. 0. GuAMiiiEJE]. By E. Breakwell, B.A., 
B.Sc. (Plates xxix.-xxxiii.) 385 394 

A Revision of the Monaxonid Sponges described as new in Len- 
denfeld's " Catalogue of the Sponges in the Australian 
Museum." Part iii. By E. F. Hallmann, B.Sc, Linnean 
Maclea}' Fellow of the Society in Zoology. (Plates xv.-xxiv.) 398-446 

Petrological Notes on various New South Wales Rocks. By W. 
N. Benson, B.A., B.Sc, F.G.S., Linnean Macleay Fellow of 
the Society in Geology. [To be contimied in (he next Part) .. 447-448 
Elections and Announcements ... ... ... ... 253, 322, 395 

Notes and Exhibits ... 253-256,322-326,395-397 



PART IIL (No. 155). 
(Issued 24th November, 1914). 



Petrological Notes on various New South Wales Rocks. By W. 
N. Benson, B. A., B.Sc, F.G.S., Linnean Macleay Fellow of 
the Society in (ieology. (Continued.) ... .. .. ... 449-453 



CONTENTS. V. 

PART III. (Continued J. pages 

Contributions to a Knowledge of Australian CtdicidcB. No.i. By 

Fhank H. Taylor, F.E. 8. (Plates xxxiv.-xxxvii.) 454-468 

The Evolution of the Eucalypts in relation to the Cotyledons and 
Seedlings. By Cuthbert Hall, M.D., Ch.M. (Plates 
xxxviii.-lxix.) 473-532 

Note on the Bacteriotoxic Action of Water. By R. Greig- 

Smith, D.Sc, Macleay Bacteriologist to the Society 533-537 

Note on the Destruction of Paraflfin by Bacillus prodigiosus and 
Soil-Organisms. By R. Greig-Smith, D.Sc, Macleay Bac- 
teriologist to the Society 538-541 

The Lepidoptera of Ebor Scrub, N.S.W. By A. Jefferis 

Turner, M.D., F.E.S 546-564 

Description of a new Tiger-beetle from North- Western Australia. 

By Thomas G. Sloane 565-567 

Re visional Notes on Australian Carahidce. Part v. By Thomas 

G. Sloane 568-614 

On some Pauropoda from New Soutli Wales. By Launcelot 

Harrison, B.Sc. (Plates Ixx.-lxxi.) 615-634 

Australian Neuroptera. Part i. By Esben Petersen. (Plates 

Ixxii.-lxxv.). ( To be continued in next Part }... ... ... 635-640 

Elections and Announcements ... ... ... .. ... 469, 542 

Notes and Exhibits 469-472,542-545 



PART IV. (No. 156). 

(Issued 26th February, 1915). 

pages 
Australian Neuioptera. Part i. By Esben Petersen. (Plates 

Ixxii.-lxxv.). [Continued from Part 3^ 641-645 

Descriptions of new Species of Australian Coleoptera. Part x. 

By Arthur M. Lea, F.E.S, (Plate Ixxvi.) 650-694 

Studies on Australian Mollusca. Part xii. By C. Hedley, 

F.L.S. (Plates Ixxvii.-lxxxv.) 695-755 

Some Notes on the Ferns of North Queensland. By the Rev. W. 

Walter Watts. (Plates Ixxxvi.-lxxxix.) ... ... ... 756-802 

The Diamond- Deposits of Copeton, New South Wales. Bj' L. A. 

Cotton, B.A., B.Sc, formerly Linnean Macleay Fellow of 

the Society in Geology. (Plates xc.-xcii.) .. ... ... 803-838 



CONTENTS. 



PART IV. ( continued). 
Contributions to our Knowledge of Soil-Fertility. No. xii. 'J"h( 
Action of Toluene upon the Soil- Protozoa. By R. Greig 

Smith, D.Sc, Macleay Bacteriologist to the Society 

The Pollination of Goodenia cyclopUra R.Br. [N.O. Goodeni 
aceje]. By Archdeacon F. E. Haviland. (Plate xciii.) .. 
On a Collection of fossil Polyplacoplwra from North- VVestern 
Tiismania, with Descriptions of three new Species. By A 

F. Basset Hull. (Plate xciv.) 

Announcements 

Donations and Exchanges, 1913-14 

Notes and Exhibits ... 

Title-page 

Contents 

Coirigenda 

List of new Generic Names ... 

List of Plates 

Index ... ... ... ••• ••• ••• • •• • •• i 



839 850 
851-854 



855-857 

645 

858-878 

646-649 

i. 

iii.-vi. 

vi. 

vii. 

viii. 

•xxxviii. 



CORRIGENDA. 

Page 47, line 7 — for H. J'ovealus, read H. foveata. 

Page 52, line 27— for cyanipennis, read ryaneipennis. 

Page 97, line 5— for var. cylindkica, read var. cylindracea. 

Page 148, line 3 — for var. vialU, read var. sialis. 

Pa^e 267, lines 22, 24, 26 — for Echinonema anchoroAum, read fEchinonema 

anchoratum. 
Page 267, lines 35, 43— for Thalassodendron, read iThalassodendron, 
Page 267, line 45— for Plectispa, read \Plectispa. 
Page 268, lines 1, 2 — for Plectispa, read \ Plectispa. 
Page 284, line 26 — for 2\ ingalli, read D. ingalli. 

Page 334, line 25— after Enmastia, insert ^.<f<romm?(5(29), S pong o sorites. 
Page 360, line 16— ;/b?- canals, which, rtad canals which. 
Page 400, line 25— for P. innidin, read P. isidis. 
Page 423, line 17— ;/"or conically, read conical. 
Page 425, line 37^br spicules, (oxea), read spicules (oxea). 
Page 434, line 12 (legend) — for b, read b, c. 
Page 579, line 3 — for cyanipennt, read cyanipennis. 
Page 584, line 18 — for Heliuosoina, read ^Enigma. 

Page 651, line 26 —/or MALOCODERMID^, read M ALACODERMID^. 
Page 749, line 18— for Piirpurea grisea, read Purpura grisea. 
Plate xviii, — Fig.2 should be Fig.3, and vice versa. 
Plate xci. is incorrectly numbered cxi. 



CONTENTS. 



LIST OF NEW GENERIC NAMES PROPOSED IN 
THIS V0LU]V]E(19U). 



Aboethfta [Lepidoptera] 

Ametroglomus [Coleoptera] 
A iistronymphes [Neuroptera] 
^xiawio?* [Porifera] 
^ xmo-5ia [Porifera] 
Chariothes [Coleoptera] 
Charisma [Mollusca] 
Ckrysophoracis [Coleoptera] 
Crat is [ M ol I u sea] 
Dasycerca [Lepidoptera] 
Enchoptila [Lepidoptera] 
Epimicodema [Coleoptera] 
^pi/Aywiewa [Lepidoptera] 
Eumoiitruuziera [ M ollusca] 
Eutoreuma [Coleoptera] 
G^asi;?-oci.s [Coleoptera] ... 
Helluapterus [Coleopteia] 
Helluarchus [Coleoptera] 



PAGE 




PAGE 


... 551 


Henii(/07)iphus [Odonata : rede 




... 612 


fined and restored] 


188 


.. 636 


Hemitedania [ Porif era] . . 


431 


... 440 


Macramycterus [Coleoptera] . . 


232 


... 349 


Meripherinus [Coleoptera] 


683 


... 78 


Mitrothorax [Coleoptera] 


78 


... 7J1 


i\reoAe^^?fo [Coleoptera] 


608 


... 663 


aVodo/)e^a(/m [Molluscal 


731 


... 698 


Oligochrysa [Neuroptera] 


639 


... 555 


Philoiochma [Lepidoptera] 


550 


... 554 


Pneudonotonophes \Co\eo\itevA\ 


227 


... 588 


Pstudotrachya [Porifera] 


269 


... 562 


^'^y/i.ssa [Porifera] 


269 


. 703 


T6re7ne?ies [Coleoptera] .. 


54 


... 78 


7Vme7ieca [Coleoptera] 


78 


... 661 


7^nVso6?-ocAa [Lepidoptera] 


548 


... 590 


t/ro/e/ops [Coleoptera] 


657 


.. 59-2 


C/'fa[Protococcoideie] 


108 



LIST OF PLATES. 

PROCEEDINGS, 1914. 

Transparency 1.— Part of Specific Contour (approximate) for the Genus 

Rhy othemU (Ectogenic). 
Transparency 2.— Approximate Specific Contour for the Group Synthemina 

(Entogenic). 
Transparency 3.- Part of Specific Contour for the Subfamily Petalurince 

(Palaeogenic). 
Plate i.— Map of the Australian Region showing average Annual Rainfall. 
Plate n. — Volvocaceo' of the Richmond River, 
Plate in.— Chlorophyceie of the Richmond River. 
Plates iv.-v. — Bacillarierh of the Richmond River. 
Plate wi.—Myxophycece of the Richmond River. 

Plate vii. — Chytridiacece^ Schizomycetes, and Fauna of the Richmond River. 
Plate viii.— Microscopic Fauna of the Richmond River. 
Plates ix.-x. — Xerophilous characters of Hakea dactyloides Cav. 
Plates xi.-xiii.— Wing-venation of Odonata. 
Plate xiv. — Macramycterus spp. 
Plates xv.-xxiv. — Australian Sponges. 
Plate XXV.— Scheme of the Bondi Anticline. 
Plate xxvi.— Example of a crumpled sheet of Shale. 
Plate xxvii. — A series of coils of Sandstone. 
Plate xxviii. — Plantago hedltyi, n.sp. 
Plates xxix.-xxxiii. — Leaf-anatomy of Andropogon spp. 
Plates xxxiv.-xxxvii. — Australian Gidicidce. 
Plates xxxviii.-lxix.— Seedlings and Cotyledons of Eucalypts. 
Plate Ixx.- Pmiropiis amicus, n.sp. 

Plate \xx\. — Pauropus spp.. and Eurypauropus speciosiifi, n.sp. 
Plates Ixxii.-lxxv. — Australian Neuroptera. 
Plate Ixxvi.— Australian Goleoptera. 
Plates Ixxvii.-lxxxv. — Australian Mollusca. 
Plates Ixxxvi.-lxxxix.— Ferns of North Queensland. 
Plate xc.—l. Inclusion in Oakey Creek Granite. 'i.Copeton from Soldier 

Hill, looking east. 
Plate xci. — l. Tunnel, Oakey Creek. 2.Cope's Creek. 3. Oakey Creek 

dolerite. 
Plate xcii. — (ieological Map showins; the Tertiary Leads of the Copeton 

Diamond-field. 
Plate xciii. — Pollination of Goodenia cycloptera R.Br. 
Plate xciv. — Tasmanian fossil Polyplacophora. 



4- .^^.v 

PROCEEDINGS V> *»,.as. (^ 

OF THE ^*^ '^ '^ 

LINNEAN SOCIETY 

OF 

NEW SOUTH ^Sr ^T.J^S. 



WEDNESDAY, MARCH 25th, 1914. 
The Thirty-ninth Annual General Meeting, and the Ordinary 
Monthly Meeting, were held in the Linnean Hall, Ithaca Road, 
Elizabeth Bay, on Wednesday evening, March 25tli, 1914. 

ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING. 



Mr. W. S. Dim, President, in the Chair. 

The Minutes of the preceding Annual General Meeting (March 
26th, 1913) were read and confirmed. 

The President lelivered the Annual Address. 



PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 

In one respect— the improved status of the Linnean Macleay 
Fellowships Endowment on 31st December, 1913, and the 
favourable correlated reaction on the Society's finances— the 
past year has been rather a notable one in the Society's 
history. The sum of £33,250 (being a bequest of £35,000 
from the late Sir William Macleay for the endowment of four 
Fellowships, less £1,750 deducted for probate duty) was paid 
over to the Society in October, 1903; and invested at 4 per cent., 
the best investment offering at the time. As the income there- 
from was insufficient to enable the Council to carry out the 
terms of the bequest — and would have been so, even if the 
Executors had not been called upon to deduct the amount of the 
probate duty— the question of the administration of the trust, 
under unexpected conditions, was referred to the Equity Court 
for guidance. In reply to the Society's petition for advice, His 



2 PRESIDENT S ADDRESS. 

Honor, the Chief Judge in Equity, on 26th August, 1904, 
directed, among other matters, that -(a) "The Council of the 
said Linnean Society of New South Wales will be justified in 
appointing three Fellows only wdth a salary of four hundred 
pounds per annum until the income from the fund in the said 
petition mentioned is sufficient to pay the four Fellows the full 
salary of four hundred pounds per annum." And (6): " The 
income from unawarded Fellowships should be accumulated until 
the said fund was sufficient to produce an income of one thousand 
six hundred pounds per annum." 

The Council forthwith proceeded to carry out these directions. 
In October, 1904, and in the same month of every succeeding 
year up to 1912, the Council offered three Fellowships. The 
balance of the income, after providing for the salaries of the 
Fellows, except for small incidental expenses, has been capitalised 
annually. In this way, on 31st December, 1913, the original 
capital of £33,250 had been raised to £41,350, while, for the 
first time, the income for the year (£1,759 15s. 8d., as compared 
with £1,562 4s. 5d. for 1912) was sufficient to provide for the 
salaries of the maximum number of Fellows, and also to yield a 
surplus of £159 15s. 8d., which, at the discretion of the Council, 
may be taken for the " general use " of the Society : that is, in 
part, for defraying the cost of printing the papers of Fellows and 
of the Society's Bacteriologist, as well as the expense of the 
general administration of the Endowment Funds. Hitherto, this 
unexpected and unforeseen expenditure has been a charge on the 
Society's General Fund; and to meet it, and yet avoid a reduc- 
tion in size of the annual volume of Proceedings (except in so far 
as the increased cost of printing has affected it), it has been 
necessary to exercise economy in other directions to a correspond- 
ing extent. The prospect of being relieved of this rather burden- 
some responsibility, and of seeing the realisation of Sir William 
Macleay's benevolent intentions as he wished them to be realised, 
is, therefore, very gratifying. 

The arrears in the printing have been overtaken, and the Pro- 
ceedings for the year have been completed. Twenty-six papers 
were read at the Monthly M eetings, but their average length was 



PRESIDENTS ADDRESS. 3 

greater than usual; and, though one was withdrawn for some 
supplementary additions, the remaining twenty-five take up an 
additional space of about 40 pages, as compared with thirty-seven 
papers of the year before. 

Mr. Hedley's important paper embodying the results of his 
patient examination of the types of Australian Mollusca in 
European and American Museums, illustrated with excellent 
figures of many of them, will be of great service to Australian 
conchologists. It is the kind of paper, of which Australian 
naturalists need many more, in other branches of knowledge. 

When the suggestive papers of Mr. Andrews and Mr. Benson 
were read, it was proposed that detailed discussion thereon 
should be postponed until the papers were in print, and Mr. 
Benson had returned from England. We may look forward, 
therefore, to interesting discussions on the development of the 
Myrtacece, and on the geology and petrology of the Serpentine- 
Belt of New South Wales during the current Session, on dates 
to be announced. 

The discussion on "The Study of Zoogeographical Distribution 
by means of Specific Contours," introduced by Mr. R.J. Tillyard 
at the Meeting in May, aroused much interest; but it seemed 
evident that the existing lack of a sufficiently detailed knowledge 
of the geographical distribution and range of many common 
groups, both of animals and plants, placed Members who are 
interested in these^ at a disadvantage in applying Mr. Tillyard's 
views. 

The names of nine new Members were added to the Roll 
during the year. Two Members resigned; two Ordinary Mem- 
bers, Mr. E. Betche, and Mr. T. Stephens, M.A., F.G.S., of 
Hobart, and one Honorary Member, Dr. Albert C. L. G. Giinther, 
C.M.G., F.R.S., have been removed by death. 

M r. Ernst Betche, Senior Botanical Assistant at the Botanical 
Gardens, Sydney, who died on 29th June, was born at Potsdam, 
about sixty one years ago. He was interested in horticulture in 
his early days, having first studied at the Horticultural College 
of his native city ; subsequently gaining experience at the 
Municipal Gardens in Berlin, and at the horticultural establish- 



4 PRESIDENTS ADDRESS. 

ment of Van Hoote. Afterwards, in the interest of his health, 
he went to Italy, but without satisfactory results; and he then 
decided to try the milder climate of the South Seas. He spent 
some time in collecting plants in Samoa, Tonga, and the Caroline 
Islands; and finally came to Sydney, in 1881, where he spent the 
rest of his days. His connection with the Sydney Botanic 
Gardens dates from the year mentioned. During the next fifteen 
years he collected extensively in New South Wales, for the 
Botanic Gardens; and subsequently became Botanical Assistant. 
Mr. Betche was naturally of a retiring disposition, and this 
characteristic was intensified by the fact that he was almost a 
life-long sufferer from a troublesome asthmatic complaint. But 
his interest in botany never flagged, and he accomplished, in his 
own unostentatious way, a considerable amount of useful and 
valuable work in connection with the Gardens and the State 
Herbarium, the importance of which is not to be estimated by 
what has been published. He collaborated with the late Mr. 
Charles Moore, in the production of a " Handbook of the Flora 
of New South Wales," published in 1893, now out of print, and 
much in demand; and with Mr. J. H. Maiden, in a long series 
of contributions, particularly "Notes from the Botanic Gardens, 
Sydney," in the Society's Proceedings covering the period from 
1896-1913. 

Mr. Thomas Stephens, the younger brother of the late Pro- 
fessor W. J. Stephens, was born in 1830, and died in Hobart in 
the latter part of last year. It would be diflicult to find another 
case of two brothers who served, so eminently, and for so long a 
time concurrently, the cause of education and science, in slightly 
difi'erent ways, in two of the States of the Australian Common- 
wealth. After taking his degree at Oxford, Thomas Stephens 
came out to Victoria in 1855, but migrated to Tasmania in the 
following year, where he spent the remainder of his life. From 
1857, he was identified with the Department of Education, first 
as Inspector of Schools, and finally as Director of Education. 
He joined the Royal Society of Tasmania in 1858, and from the 
time of his residence in Hobart, he was an ofiice bearer. He 
was no less keenly interested in the establishment of the Uni- 



PRESIDENTS ADDRESS. 5 

versity of Tasmania, and of its forerunner, Christ's College. His 
official duties provided opportunities for visiting all the settled 
parts of Tasmania, and led to the acquisition of a considerable 
knowledge of the geographical and geological features of the 
country, branches of knowledge in which his interest was of long- 
standing, and maintained to the last. Mr. Stephens joined this 
Society in 1904 ; and, in 1908, he contributed an important 
paper entitled " Notes on the Geology of the North- West Coast 
of Tasmania, from the River Tamar to Circular Head," which 
appeared in the Proceedings for the year mentioned. Other 
papers are to be found in the Papers and Proceedings of the 
Royal Society of Tasmania, or in the Report of the Meeting of 
the Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science 
held in Hobart in 1 902. 

Dr. Albert Giinther was elected an Honorary Member of the 
Society in 1883, in appreciation of his valuable contributions to 
a knowledge of Australian Fishes, Amphibia, and Reptilia. His 
paper on Ceratodus, in the Philosophical Transactions of the 
Royal Society for 1871, is well known to students. His lengthy 
and honourable association with the British Museum, as Keeper 
of the Zoological Department, terminated on his retirement in 
1 895. He was the author of a monumental series of British 
Museum Catalogues, Monographs, and papers contributed to the 
Transactions of numerous Scientific Societies; also the founder 
and first editor of the Zoological Record. His services to science, 
both in connection with the British Museum, and in other ways, 
have been of the highest order; and his death in London, on 
February 1st, in his eighty-fourth year, closed a distinguished 
and fruitful career. 

Dr. Greig-Smith, Macleay Bacteriologist to the Society, has 
continued his investigations into the reason for the beneficial 
action of heat and of the volatile disinfectants, such as chloroform 
and toluene, upon soils. It has been claimed by the Rothamsted 
investigators, that the enhanced fertility, that follows the treat. 
ment, is due to the destruction of the phagocytic protozoa. If 
this were so, it would be immaterial whether the one method 
were employed or the other, and in the case of a double treatment 



6 PRESIDENTS ADDRESS. 

by both methods, whether heat were applied first or last. It 
has been found that, while the results are similar in field-soils? 
they are different in garden-soils. As one of the differences 
between the two classes of soils is the fatty material removable 
by disinfectants, it is not improbable that it plays a part in the 
restriction of the natural fertility. The presence of bacterio- 
toxins in soils has been denied by the Rothamsted investigators, 
but there are many reasons why their presence may have been 
overlooked. They are soluble in water, and are washed out of 
the soil by rain. They are unstable, and are slowly destroyed 
during dry weather. Although always present in varying 
amount, the nutrients may so overshadow them, that their 
presence may be unnoticed, until they are destroyed by some 
aerent, such as heat, when an enhanced nutritive effect is obtained 
from the soil-extracts. Furthermore, an appropiiate dilution, 
generally equal parts of soil and water, is requisite to show an 
optimum toxic effect. Toxic extracts can be obtained from soils 
by noting these conditions, and a soil, originally with a pre- 
ponderating amount of nutritive substances, may be made to 
become toxic by simple incubation in the laboratory. While 
the soil-toxins are destroyed by heat, those of the subsoil are not. 
There are thus two classes of toxins in soils, a thermolabile in 
the soil, and a thermostable in the subsoil. One would imagine 
that the saturation of an organic manure, such as dried blood, 
with paraffin or vaseline, would reduce the rate of decay. Labo- 
ratory-tests have not borne this out, and the matter is under 
investigation. The action of naphthalene upon soils was also 
examined. This substance has recently been recommended for 
increasing the fertility of horticultural soils. It was found that 
while it increased the growth of bacteria, they were of a kind 
which did not bring about the formation of ammonia from dried 
blood. 

Dr. J. M. Petrie, Linnean Macleay Fellow in Biochemistry, 
contributed two papers during the year, " Hydrocyanic Acid 
in Plants. Part ii. Its Occurrence in the Grasses of New 
South Wales," and " Note on the Occurrence of Strychnicine," 
which will be found in the last Part of the Proceedings. In the 



PRESIDENTS ADDRESS. 7 

first of these, it is shown that a considerable number of our 
grasses contain cyanogenetic compounds, but that very few 
contain free hydrocyanic acid. There are indications that only 
the latter is a poisoning factor in these grasses. The investiga- 
tion is, accordingly, being continued in the direction of ascertain- 
ing what substances are capable of decomposing the glucoside, 
and what conditions are necessary to bring about poisonous 
results. The examination of the alkaloids of certain solanaceous 
and other plants is being carried on. 

Mr. E. F. Kallmann, B.Sc, Linnean Macleay Fellow in Zoology, 
has almost completed his first paper entitled "Revision of the 
Monaxonid Species described as new in Lendenfeld's Catalogue 
of the Sponges in the Australian Museum," which will be read at 
the Meeting in May. Mr. Kallmann's progress in the study of the 
Monaxonida has been greatly retarded not only by the inherent 
difficulties in the way of a satisfactory classification of this group, 
a subject which one of the most experienced workers at sponges has 
characterised as "actually repulsive from its difficulties"; but he has 
been greatly hampered by the grossly inaccurate and misleading 
character of njany of the descriptions given in the Catalogue; and 
also because the specimens of types, in two different Collections, 
do not agree either with each other, or with the descriptions; 
while each of them includes cases of similarly labelled specimens 
belonging to dissimilar species. 

In consequence of the increased income from the Fellowships 
Fund for last year, for the first time the Council was able to off'er 
four Fellowships. Three applications were received in response. 
I have now the pleasure of making the first public announcement 
of the re-appointment of Dr. J. M. Petrie and Mr. E. F. Kail- 
man, to Linnean Macleay Fellowships in Biochemistry and 
Zoology, and of the appointment of Mr. W. Noel Benson, B.A., 
B.Sc, to a Fellowship in Geology, for one year, from 1st proximo. 
Mr. Benson, in joining the research-staff of the Society, comes 
with the highest qualifications. He completed the course for the 
B.Sc. degree in the University of Sydney, in 1907, with First 
Class Konours in Geology and Mineralogy. For some time he was 



8 PRESIDENT S ADDRESS, 

Demonstrator in Geology; subsequently Acting Lecturer in Minera- 
logy and Petrology at the University of Adelaide during the 
absence of Dr. Mawsou with the British Antarctic Expedition 
under Lieutenant Shackleton ; and, afterwards, again Demons- 
trator in Geology in tlie University of Sydney, up to the time of 
his a]i|)ointment, in 1911, to a Science Scholarship of the Koyal 
Connnissioners for the Exiiibition of 18.')!, tenable for two years, 
but later on extended for a third year. In this way, Mr. Benson 
was enabled to proceed to Cambridge, and hold a Research 
Studentship at Emmanuel College. On the acceptance of his 
thesis on " The GeoU)gy and Petrology of the Great Serpentine- 
Belt of New South Wales," Mr. Benson was admitted to tiie 
degree of B.A., last year. Three portions of his thesis have been 
published in our Proceedings for 1913, and the rest of it will form 
the subject of future communications. Mr. Benson has now had 
some considerable experience in research work under very fa\'our- 
able conditions. He has contri})uted a number of Papers to the 
Proceedings of this Society, to the Journals of the Royal Society 
of New Soutli AVales and South Australia, or to other publications. 
While at Cambridge, he took the complete course of study given to 
senior students; and he comes to us witli high credentials, from his 
Australian teachers as well as from Professor Bonney and Mr. 
Harker, of Cambridge. This instructional work has been supple- 
mented l)y visits to the laboratories of Universities in Germany and 
Switzerland. Mr- Benson has also had s]i)ecial opportunities of 
seeing for himself, and learning as much as possible of the geology 
of certain areas in England, Scotland, and the Hartz Mountains, 
under very advantageous circumstances, a knowledge of which has 
an important bearing on the work he has done in connection with 
the Serpentine Belt, or proposes to continue, on his return to tlie 
State. On taking up the work of his Fellowship next month, I\Jr. 
Benson will continue the line of work upon which he has made a 
beginning, so as to complete, in detail, a study of the geology of 
the country from Tamworth to Warialda, with a general account 
of the physiography, special attention being given to the Attunga 
and Moonbi districts, where the intrusion of the granite has pro- 



president's address. 9 

duced some reinarkaljle contact-effects on the tuffs, lavas, and 
oilier meiiil)ers oi' the Devonian Series, analogous to those ol the 
Hartz Mountains. The Serpentine Belt also needs further investi- 
gation southward from Nundle towards the Myall Lakes, through 
an area at present little known geologically. 

At the Meeting of the Society in September, Mr. K. H. Cambage 
called attention to a laudable legislative effort then about to be 
made in England, to check the destruction of bird-life in distant 
countries; and, on his motion, it was resolved — That the Linnean 
Society of New South Wales considers it to he highly desirable 
that the Importation of Plumage (Prohibition) Bill, now before 
the British Parliament, should become law, and desires that a letter 
be written to the Premier of this State for transmission to the Sec- 
retary of State for the Colonies, urging the passing of the Bill. 
By the courtesy of the Premier, the terms of the Resolution were 
carried out ; and on February Ttli a letter was received from the 
Under-Secretai-y, Chiei" Secretary's Office, Sydney, notifying ^'that 
a Despatch has been received from the Secretary of State for the 
Colonies by the Prime Minister of the Commonwealth, requesting 
that your Society be informed that the Bill was introduced into 
Parliament by His Majesty's Government, and will be re-intro- 
duced next Session.'' From the newspapers, we have since learned 
that the second reading of the Bill was moved in the House of 
Connnons by the Postmaster-General, Mr. C. E. Hobhouse, on 9th 
March, and agreed to by 28-1 votes to 27. The mover expressed 
the hope that an international conference on the subject would be 
lield without delay, for, as he said, ^'Britain was really acting 
towards the Colonies as the receiver of stolen goods." Naturally, 
we should like to know how the Bill is viewed by naturalists and 
scientific bodies in Europe; but at this distance, it is difficult to 
find out and follow the trend of scientific opinion. A lengthy criti- 
cism of the Bill, by Sir Harry Johnston, will be found in "Nature'' 
for December 11th, 1913 (p. 428). This writer contends that the 
Bill "is a very mildly worded measure, which will not satisfy root- 
and-branch reformers, for it exempts from supervision personal 
clothing \\'orn or imported by individuals entering this country 



10 

from abroad." But he adds, further, that any legislation rather 
than none, as the thin end of the wedge, is to be welcomed. In 
reply to Sir Harry, Mr. H. 0. Forbes, as a British ornithologist 
interested in the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds, agrees 
that the Bill does not go far enough, but he considers that the 
weakness in the Bill pointed out by Sir Harry, can be eliminated 
by making the wearing of wild birds' feathers in England by Bri- 
tish subjects, as illegal as the importation of feathers ("Nature," 
December 25th, p. 476). Mr. Forbes continues: "The real object 
desired by the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds is the 
prevention of the great cruelty for which the plumage trade is 
responsible, of the extermination, and of the reduction, towards 
that point, of the beautiful and beneficient fauna of the world." 
The international attitude towards the principle of the Bill is thus 
referred to in "Nature" for January 29th, 1914 (p. 617) : "The 
United States Government has made the importation of birds' 
plumage penal, as well as prohibited the wearing of feathers. 
Austria and Germany are in accord with England as to the neces- 
sity of putting a stop to this nefarious traffic by similar laws. 
France and Belgium stand on the other side, for the plumassiers 
are so influential that it is hopeless for the Government of either 
of these countries even to propose such a protective Bill." Lastly, 
in "Nature" for February 5th (p. 639) will be found a very grati- 
fying message, cabled to the Zoological Society of London, by the 
Zoological Society of New York, on the occasion of the Annual 
Meeting. The hope is expressed that unanimous support will be 
given to the Hobhouse Bill, which is designed to reinforce the pro- 
tective measures passed by Congress. The message continues — 
"The effect of the American Bill has been instantaneous and wide- 
spread, and is now receiving unanimous support all over the 
United States. The very passage and enforcement of the Bill has 
created a sentiment for wild-life protection in many quarters 
where it did not exist before. The millinery trade has adapted 
itself to the new conditions, and the law is acknowledged to be most 
beneficial in its results.'' In conclusion, we have still to remember 
that the Hobhouse Bill provides for only one phase of the complex 



11 

problem of the preservation of the world's bird-life, namely, the 
checking of the destruction of birds for trade purposes. Another 
phase needing consideration, which is not in evidence in Europe or 
the United States, but which manifests itself in Australia in con- 
nection with the destruction of rabbits by poison, is the preserva- 
tion of useful birds, many of them not having ornamental plum- 
age of value to the trade, whose welfare is not provided for by the 
Hobhouse Bill. 

I have pleasure in making known to Members, that the Society 
is in receipt of a very cordial invitation from Mr. J. A. Barr, 
Manager of the Panama-Pacific Exposition, to be held in San 
Francisco from February to December, 1915, supported by Mr. 
J. P. Bray, American Consul-General in Sydney, to hold a Meeting 
during the Exposition. In thanking these gentlemen for their kind- 
ness and courtesy, they have been informed that the invitation 
would be communicated to the Members at the Annual Meeting; 
and that, thereafter, if a sufficient number are able to visit the 
Exposition, the Council will inquire as to the possibility of arrang- 
ing for the acceptance of the invitation. It may be presumed that 
the object of holding such a Meeting will be to provide an oppor- 
tunity of discussing the Australian aspect of problems of general 
interest ; or matters arising out of scientific exhibits or the assemb- 
ling of scientific men from all parts of the world in connection 
with the Exposition. Members who contemplate visiting the 
Exposition are requested to give in their names to the Secretary in 
good time. Perhaps if the number of representatives of any one 
Society is not very large, it might be possible to arrange for a 
joint Meeting of visitors from Australia. 

An event entitled to notice is the return of the second contingent 
of the Australasian Antarctic Expedition, which left our shores 
in 1912, under the leadership of Dr. Douglas Mawson. It is not 
intended to touch on the tragic losses, nor the fortitude of the 
leader — which have already been fully brought to the attention of 
members and the public. But the actual, and potential scientific 
results are such, that they are well worthy of the attention of those 
interested in Australian science. The outstanding feature of the 



12 president's address. 

work carried out by this Expedition, is that investigations in all 
the leading lines, occupying the attention of previous ventures, 
have been prosecuted in an entirely new region, or practically new, 
for Uumont D'Urville did not land on the mainland, and brought 
back no information concerning it, except the main fact, that there 
w^as land. Wilkes bad taken a few soundings. Sixty of the 90° of 
the Australian Quadrant were new ground, and it was there, that 
operations were carried out in relation to physiography, meteor- 
ology, and other branches of science. The result is that the coast 
has been mapped through 33* of longitude, and the extension of 
the continent has been shown for the remainder by means of 
soundings indicating continental slopes or a shelf. 

Large areas of the land were sledged over, and rough topogra- 
phical maps prepared. A study of the great Ice Sheet, both on the 
plateau, and along its coastal face, has been illuminating, and adds 
new data for the study of glaciation. Marginal shelf-ice on a large 
scale, floating glacier-tongues, a booming glacier, and an avalanche- 
cascade were special features studied. The occurrence of extraordi- 
narily large bergs, up to 40 miles in length by 20 miles broad, and 
observations upon their annual rate of travel, form a matter of 
interest. 

The territory of Adelie Land was extended to reach the area of 
the Main Base. King George F^and is considerably to the east of 
the Main Hut, Queen Mary Land at our western base, Wilkes'Land 
is south of Duniont D'Urville's Clare Land, which was proved to be 
non-existent. 

From these terse facts it will he seen that though all the details 
of the geography of the Australian Quadrant are not yet known, it 
is assured that the salient features are covered. 

Important dredging work was carried out; unfortunately, owing 
to weather conditions, it was only on the last cruise that really 
satisfactory results were obtained, and on this venture every dredge 
was successful. Dredgings at all depths between 50 fathoms and 
two miles Avere made along the region of the Antarctic Circle (in 
the Australian Quadrant). These dredgings are in the charge of 
Mr. Hunter, and it is understood that the distribution is to be 



president's address. 13 

carried out by the Australian Museum and the University. The 
results of the detailed examination are bound to be of the highest 
importance. The earlier cruises were accompanied by Mr. Waite 
and Professor Flynn, of the University of Tasmania, but weatlier 
conditions militated against successful results. 

A very large number of soundings have been taken, including 
two lines of soundings between Australia and the Antarctic Conti- 
nent — one from Tasmania to Adelie Land, the other from Queen 
Mary Land to Adelaide. A well-marked submarine elevation was 
discovered to the south of Tasmania, another to the north of Queen 
Mary Land — the relics of old land-connections. A very large series 
of oozes was obtained during the dredgings. 

In Antarctic waters, besides the usual cherts, gneisses, red sand- 
stones, etc., wood and coaly matter were dredged up on several 
occasions, and once scoriaceous lava, this to tlie north of wliere 
North's Highland appears on Wilkes' maps. Dr. Mawson is of the 
opinion that this comes from a local volcanic centre. 

The severe weather conditions at both bases, especially at 
Adelie Land, where almost unimaginable and frequent blizzards 
were found to prevail, are most astonishing. It is now known 
that the average wind velocity, on the Antarctic Continent, is 
greater as one decreases the distances to the Geographical Pole; 
localities on the same latitude may, however, vary through wide 
limits, the two extremes being Amundsen's base and Mawson's. 

The snowfall is phenomenal in the northern portion of the 
continent— probably up to 2 or 3 feet in the day. Magnetic 
observations were regularly taken, and when published, hourly 
values will be given for the whole period. 

Observations on the Aurora were continued in connection with 
the state of the aether, and as to its capacity of transmitting wire- 
less waves. It is of interest to note that an accurate longitude was 
established in Adelie Land, by the use of the wireless installation. 
Antarctic bacteriology was studied by Dr. McLean, and cultures 
were prepared. 

Another station was Macquarie Island, which has been mapped 
and contoured by Mr. H, Blake; the sea-elephants and the ahun- 



14 president's address. 

dant life were studied by ^Ir, Hamilton; the meteorology by Mr. 
Ainsworth; and the geology by Mr. Blake. All the older rocks 
are igneous, gabbros predominating; glacial tills and glacial lakes 
occur. 

The results of the examination of the collections, and the study 
of the observations are now being taken in hand, and I feel sure 
that, when published, they will be such as not only to confer 
credit on the work, but to prove of the greatest interest to the 
scientific world. 

In a few months we shall be taking part in the. most important 
scientific gathering ever held in Australia, for, in August next, the 
representatives of the British Association for the Advancement of 
Science will assemble in the various capitals. These will com 
prise about 400 members, although a greater number applied for 
inclusion. Amongst those who are coming, are many of the lead- 
ing men of science of the world, for besides the main British party, 
invitations issued to many leaders in science of foreign countries 
have also been accepted. Sir Oliver Lodge and Sir Edward 
Schafer, the last two past-Presidents, are included. 

It has been decided that an advance section, consisting of about 
70 members will call at Western Australia, while the main party 
will visit Adelaide, Melbourne, and Sydney, and arrangements have 
been made for some of the members to visit Brisbane and New 
Zealand, while the question of some going to Tasmania is now 
under consideration. 

Sectional Presidential addresses will be delivered at Adelaide, 
Melbourne, Sydney, and Brisbane ; and papers in the various sec- 
tions will be read at Melbourne, Sydney, and Brisbane. 

The President of the Association will deliver the first half of his 
address in Melbourne, and the remainder in Sydney. 

The popularity of the visit will be increased by the discourses 
and lectures of prominent members. Two discourses will be de- 
livered to members, and two citizens' lectures to the public, and 
of these, the latter will be largely under the control of the Workers' 
Educational Association. For the discourses in Sydney, two emi- 
nent lecturers, Sir James Rutherford and Professor Grafton Elliott 



PRESIDENTS ADDRESS. 15 

Smith, have been selected ; while several have offered their services 
for the citizens' lectures, but a final choice has not yet been made. 

From a scientific standpoint, the gathering will be the most 
brilliant ever assembled in Australia; and, as many of our visitors 
will be engaged in lecturing on their return, it will be seen that the 
assistance, which has been granted to this Association by the vari- 
ous Australian Governments, must meet with ample reward. 

The remainder of the Address was devoted to a consideration 
of the relations of the Permo-Carboniferous fauna of Australia 
to those of other parts of the world; and will appear later in 
separate form. 



Mr, G. A. Waterhouse, on behalf of Mr. J. H. Campbell, 
Hon. Treasurer, who was indisposed, presented the balance 
sheet for the year 1913, duly signed by the Auditor, Mr. F. H. 
Rayment, F.C.P.A., Incorporated Accountant; and he moved 
that it be received and adopted, which was carried unanimously. 
Abstract: General Account, Balance from 1913, £207 lis. 4d.; 
income, £1,111 16s. 7d.; expenditure, £1,039 18s. lid.; transfer to 
Bookbinding account, £11 lis. Od.; balance to 191 4, £279 9s. Od. 
Bacteriology Account, Balance from 1912, £39 5s. 9d.; income, 
£543 7s. lOd.; expenditure, £588 5s. 6d.; Dr. balance to 1914, 
£5 lis. lid. Linnean Macleay Fellowships Account, Income, 
£1,759 16s. 8d.; expenditure, £868 8s. 4d.; transfer to Capital 
account, £891 7s. 4d. 

No nominations of other Candidates having been received, the 
President declared the following elections for the Current Session 
to be duly made : — 

President : Mr. W. S. Dun. 

Members of Council (to fill six vacancies) : Professor David, 
C.M.G., D.Sc, F.R.S., Messrs. W. S. Dun, J. R. Garland, M.A., 
Professor W. A. Haswell, M.A., D.Sc, F.R.S., A. H. Lucas, 
M.A., B.Sc, J. H. Maiden, F.L.S., &c. 

Auditor : Mr. F. H. Rayment, F.C.P.A. 

A very cordial vote of thanks was accorded, by acclamation, 
to the President, on the motion of Dr. Kesteven, seconded by 
Mr. A. F. B. Hull. 



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20 



ORDIXAPvY MONTHLY MEETING. 
March 25th, 1914. 
Mr. W. S. Dun, President, in the Chair 

The Donations and Exchanges received since the previous 
Monthly Meeting (26th November, 1 9 1 3 ), amounting to 49 Vols., 
258 Parts or Nos., 48 Bulletins, 1 1 Reports, and 1 1 Pamphlets, 
received from 107 Societies, etc., and three individuals, were laid 
upon the table. 

NOTES AND EXHIBITS. 

Mr. David G. Stead exhibited a number of very large nema- 
tode worms from the ovaries of a Jew^fish, Scicena antarctica 
Castelnau. On the 3rd December, 1913, two sets of ovaries of 
Jewfish were being examined in connection with an investigation 
into the spawning period of the species. One of these was quite 
normal, but the other was seen to be infested w^ith a peculiar 
nematode worm, previously found under similar conditions. 
Upon opening these ovaries, a great number of the round 
worms were found. One of the worms proved to be no less than 
84 inches in length, while others were nearly as long. They 
were of a wonderful translucent ruby colour, and from about 
2 mm. to 2-5 mm. in diameter. Another nematode worm (an 
immature Ascaris), but of small size, was also present on the 
outside of the ovaries: but this is seen in nearly all cases. The 
long nematodes were tied up into many knots, individually, and 
with each other, and may have grown so. Nine of them, that 
were isolated from one another, measured respectively 30, 36, 60, 
60, 72, 72, 78, 78, and 84 inches; while there were seven other 
sections aggregating 97 inches, and two complete worms hope- 
lessly tied in knots with each other —altogether about 65 feet of 
this large nematode worm in one ovary alone. The Jew^fish, 
from which the parasitised ovaries were taken, was from Port 
Kembla. It measured 42 inches, and weighed 29 lbs. 

Mr. E. Cheel showed a small Skink Lizard with an anomalous 
tail. 



21 



ON THE STUDY OF ZOOGEOGRAPHTCAL llEGTOXS 
BY MEANS OF SPECIFIC CONTOURS. 

With an application to the Odoxata of Australia. 

By R. J. TiLLYAHD, M.A., F.E.S. 

(Nkw South Wales Government Research Student in 

BlOLOfa' AT THE UNIVERSITY OF SVDNEY.) 

(Plate i., and Transparencies 1-3.) 

It can scarcely be denied that the science of Zoogeography is 
in a somewhat unsatisfactory condition, and that great difhcnlties 
exist both in the following out of lines of research and in the 
drawing of general conclusions. 'J'his is not to be wondered at, 
when we realize that the present distribution of the fauna and 
Hora of the earth has been brought about by the acting together 
of so many conflicting conditions, continually cliangiiig through- 
out immense!}" long geological periods; and that the task of 
re-picturing or re-constructing these conditions is in itself a most 
baffling one, owing to the very fragmentary evidence still pro- 
served to us. 

Under these circumstances, any method which may promise to 
yield good results, and to give us a clearer view of the problem 
in hand, is worthy of a trial. The author, therefore, offers the 
method explained in this paper, with the intention neither of 
ousting any of the already approved methods of study, nor of 
proclaiming the discovery of a panacea for the difficulties known 
to exist; but rather with the purpose of presenting the subject 
in a new light, in which, it is hoped, certain facts may be made 
to stand out in bolder relief than they have hitherto done. 

It is now generally admitted that the six main zoogeographical 
regions, as originally proposed by Sclater, and modified by 
Wallace, are valid subdivisions of the land-surface of the earth, 
as far as its fauna and flora are concerned. But though these 
3 



22 ON THE STUDY OP ZOOGEOGRAPHICAL REGIONS, 

regions may be marked ojff very definitely in the case of certain 
groups— as, for instance, in the case of the Mammalia and the 
Passerine Birds, for which they were originally instituted — yet 
in other cases the boundaries between them may be more or less 
transgressed, or may even be non-existent for certain groups. 
This is, of course, due to the fact that the barriers which mark off 
the different regions may not always have been barriers in time 
past, nor may they be complete barriers in time present. It can 
be easily seen, for instance, that Wallace's line need not prove a 
bar to the migration of strong-flying insects, nor need the arid 
tract that somewhat vaguely separates the Nearctic from the 
Neotropical Region be any bar to the progress of eremian forms 
of animals or plants. 

It is no wonder, therefore, that much less agreement should be 
found amongst the opinions of students when we come to con- 
sider the question of subregions. Many schemes have been pro- 
posed for the subdivision of the six main regions into subregions 
of approximately co-ordinate value. Possibly the desire for uni- 
formity and symmetry has been one of the underlying forces in 
some of these attempts. One scheme, with a good deal to recom 
mend it,* divides each main region into four subregions. Such 
divisions cannot, however, be regarded as of co-ordinate value. 
To take an example, the Australian region is subdivided into the 
Australian proper (Australia and Tasmania), the Papuan, the 
Polynesian, and New Zealand (with its allied islands). Of these. 
New Zealand stands in a higher rank than the others, and is 
claimed by many scientists to form actually a separate region. 
On the other hand, the division does not recognise the claims of 
the South-Western corner of Australia, which, to botanists at 
any rate, will appear to be as distinct a subregion as could pos- 
sibly be found; while, on the other hand, the so-called Polynesian 
subregion is founded purely on negative characters, and is only 
doubtfully to be included in the Australian region at all. 

The present paper is an attempt to approach the subject from 
a different view-point. The desire to draw hard-and-fast divi- 
sions exaggerates the actual boundaries reared by Nature at 
* Text-Book of Zoogeography, F. E. Beddard. 



BY R. J, TILLYARD. 23 

various times and in various manners, and we are apt to lose 
sight of the great fact of the underlying unity of descent con- 
necting together the various groups of animals or plants upon 
the earth. In the method proposed, no attempt will be made to 
indicate land-area divisions or subdivisions; but the attempt at 
subdivision or classification will be devoted to the actual contours 
of groups. The construction of these contours is, however, a 
matter of great difficulty. As the author is convinced of the 
futility of attempting such a task, except under the guidance of 
very strict and definite rules, the following scheme is here pre- 
sented as an explanation of the method, for which the name 
^^ Method of Specific Contours" is proposed : — 

i. Selection of the Land- Area. 
Any land-area, either continuous or discontinuous, may be 
selected which may he considered to have claims to he regarded as 
a zoogeographical unit. Without doubt the best results will be 
obtained by the drawing of contours over the complete area of 
one of the six main zoogeographical regions. For the study of 
circumpolar or circumtropic distributions, it would be advisable 
to take the total land area of the earth into discussion. Parts 
of a region (such as Madagascar, New Zealand, or Australia with 
Tasmania), may be studied separately with good results, provided 
the unity of the prevailing flora or fauna of a region is not 
destroyed by the selection of an area that has no claims to be 
considered as a unit. 

ii. Selection of the Group. 
The group of animals or plants selected for study by contours, 
whether it be a single genus, group of genera, subfamily, or 
division of higher order, must he a natural group clearly marked 
off from its nearest allies. Genera or other groupings merely 
based on taxonomic expediency cannot be used. For if we fail 
to take into account any portion of a complete natural group, 
we cannot expect to obtain a completely natural result. In 
particular, known convergences of type must be carefully avoided; 
but, on the other hand, when convergence is not yet proved, the 
resulting contour may give valuable evidence as to its existence, 



24 ON THE STUDY OF ZOOGEOGRAPHICAL REGIONS, 

iii. Collection of Records. 

It is essential that the records used ha fairly complete. Pro- 
bably in very few cases can the complete records of distribution 
of even a single species be obtainable But this is not necessary, 
because the object of the method is not to produce contours of 
impeccable accuracy (such, indeed, are practically an impossi- 
bility), but to study the type of contour produced. The altera- 
tion of a contour line a few miles (or even perhaps a few hundred 
miles) usually will not aftect our ability to recognise it as belong- 
ino^ to a particular type. As an example of the kind of contour 
aimed at, one may offer any of the well-known meteorological 
contour maps drawn over a large area In these, the general 
distribution of isobars, isohyets, or isothermals, is very clearly 
shown; but these lines are drawn as free curves, and ignore 
many small local variations. To give a good example, the 
average annual rainfall map of Australia (Plate i.) is produced 
from about seven hundred records. Doubtless, if we could have 
access to seven thousand records, a much closer approximation to 
the truth could be obtained. Yet nobody would seriously main- 
tain that the contour as now produced is not accurate enough for 
all practical purposes, especially for study as a coinplete ivhole, in 
which too much attention to detailed curvings of contour-lines 
would mar the clear effect now obtained. 

Under this heading, it is hoped that the method of Specific 
Contours will, if adopted, lead to a closer recognition of the value 
of every single record that can be obtained of every single species^ 
however common it may he. 

iv. The validity of Species. 

No attempt can here be made to answer the question " What 
is a species T To each student who desires to use the method, 
sufficient common sense may be attributed not to mar the result 
by an insistence on the recognition, as species, of units of lower 
than specific value. In this connection, it should, how^ever, be 
clearly noted that, on the whole, both " splitter " and "lumper" 
will produce approximately the same contours for a given group. 
For, if a recognised species, A, be subdivided into any number of 



BY R. J. TILLYARD. 25 

Species, Aj, Ag, A^, the contour will not be aifected unless trvo 
or more of the forms occur in a single locality. But as nearly all 
the argument between " splitters " and " lumpers" occurs about 
" geographical races," it follows that in such cases no alteration 
of the contour is effected by a change of opinion, since the species 
in question can only score " one " in each locality in which it 
occurs. 

Local varieties, known to be produced as the offspring of a 
definite species, should on no account be included as "species." 

V. Application of the Method. 

On the map of the area to be studied, each locality from which 
records are obtainable should be marked down. Against each, 
the number of species (of the group in question) occurring in 
that locality should be written. Contour lines are then to be 
drawn as free curves enclosing in tnrn all those localities possess- 
ing the same number of sjjecies. In the simplest cases (where no 
lacunae or breaks occur), the result will be as follows : — 

Between the outermost contour-line (1) and the next (2) will 
lie all those localities in which only one species occurs. (N.B. — 
It is important to notice that this is not necessarily the same 
species for all these localities). 

Between contour-lines 2 and 3 will lie all those localities pos- 
sessing ttvo species (again, not necessarily the same two species). 
And so on. Finally, the nth or highest contour-line will be 
either a closed oval, or possibly a series of closed ovals, of com- 
paratively small extent, enclosing those few localities in which 
the highest total of n species occurs (again, be it noted, not 
necessarily the same n species in every locality within an oval). 

Where the records are not sufficient, continuity or discon- 
tinuity may be assumed provisionally according to the evidence 
available. To give an example : — A species may be recorded 
from Sydney, Newcastle, Richmond River, Tweed Heads, Bris- 
bane, Rockhampton. In such a case, it may reasonably be 
assumed that it occurs along the whole coast-line from Sydney to 
Rockhampton, because the conditions known to exist between 
these points naturally suggest its occurrence throughout. But, 



26 ON THE STUDY OF ZOOGEOGRAPHICAL REGIONS, 

suppose a species is recorded from Perth, Bunbury, Busselton, 
Albany, Adelaide, Port Elliott, Murray River. In this case, we 
might be justified in refusing to include the very barren coastal 
region along the Great Bight within the contour, until we had 
definite evidence of the occurrence there of the species in question. 

Suppose, then, that the contour of the group, planned on the 
lines laid down, has been obtained. Of what value is it to usl 

i. It is a densiti/-contour for the group, but not an actual 
species-contour. It takes account only of the number of species 
occurring at a given point, not of the actual species comprising 
that number. 

ii. It is not accurate in detail, but only in broad outline. 

If these two facts be continually borne in mind, the contour 
may be used with very real value. The objects to be aimed at 
in using such a contour are as follows : — 

1. To obtain on a single map a fairly accurate graphical repre- 
sentation of the present distribution of a group. 

The author claims that the single " contour-map " will give to 
the mind a clear and sufficiently accurate representation of the 
distribution of the group, which cannot be attained by the perusal 
of many separate maps, on each of which the area of distribution 
of a single species of the group is mapped separately. 

2. By comparison of the Specific Contours of many groups over 
the same region, these groups may be arranged into separate sets^ 
each set possessing a contour referable to a single type, but not, 
of course, similar in details. 

3. By a study of the different types obtained, the sum total of 
the fauna or flora of the region may be clearly visualised, and its 
different components clearly distinguished. 

4. In many cases, valuable phylogenetic evidence may be 
deducible from a study of the contour. 

Before dealing more fully with these points, it is necessary to 
consider (a) the general structure of a contour, (6) the general 
theory of contour-types. 



BY R. J. TILLYARD. 27 

A. 7%e general structure of a contour. 

It is evident that, in general, the lowest contour-lines will 
enclose the largest areas, while, as the number-value of the 
contour-line increases, the area it encloses will become smaller 
and smaller. Finally, the nth, or highest, contour-line will 
enclose a small area or series of areas surrounded by all the other 
contour-lines. Such an area, representing a " summit " of the 
contours, may be spoken of as a Zoocentre ; it being clearly 
understood that in using this term no definite claim is put 
forward that the area is also a centre of origin for the group. 
The Zoocentre may be defined as the centre of present greatest 
density for the group. It may be also a centre of origin, but in 
most cases it is possible that such a claim cannot be maintained 
for it. Sometimes the area of the zoocentre is elongated very 
much in comparison with its breadth; it may then be termed the 
Zoocentric Axis of the group. In the case where the contour 
exhibits more than one separate zoocentre, that which contains 
the highest number of species may be called the primary zoo- 
centre, while those of lower value may be called secondary 
zoocentres. 

It sometimes happens that the order of the contours is reversed, 
so that the higher contours enclose the lower, until in the middle 
may be found a small area in which perhaps only 2, 1, or even 
no species occur. (Such a case, for example, is furnished by the 
failure of a subtropical group to ascend a central mountain 
range, though it may be spread abundantly all round it. As 
one reaches a higher elevation, the number of species found will 
diminish; until, perhaps, above a certain level no species of the 
group will occur). In such a case, the area of lowest contour 
may be called a Lacuna. The mapping of lacunse may be of the 
very greatest importance in the study of a group. 

In constructing a contour, it is very important to leave out of 
account purely local discoritinuity. To give an exaggerated 
example : — Certain species of rush occur throughout Central Aus- 
tralia, wherever there is a waterhole. The waterholes may be 
fifty or a hundred miles apart. Nevertheless, the correct contour 



28 ON THE STUDY OF ZOOGEOGRAPHICAL REGIONS, 

needed for general study of this group of rushes should be drawn 
completely around the whole region in which they occur, and 
not as a number of small circles around the various waterholes. 
So, also, in mapping contours for groups of Odotiata, we do not 
draw our contours along the boundaries of rivers and lakes* 
though the species are actually confined to them; rather, we 
include the whole area in which, given, the necessary ivater^ the 
particular species can be shown to occur. 

B. llie gene7'al theory of Specific Contours. 

Let us select for study a region, Z, separated by a definite 
barrier from another region, Y. A group of species occurring in 
Z may either have originated in Z, or they may have immigrated 
into it from some other region. Suppose a group of species. A, 
to have been inhabitants of the region Y at some past time before 
the barrier between Y and Z was effective, and let A be a domi- 
nant or increasing group. As it extends its boundaries, first one 
and then another species may reach Z and penetrate further and 
further into the new region. As these new arrivals encounter 
new conditions of life, such as altered temperature, rainfall, 
geological or vegetational conditions, their progress may be 
gradually stopped. Some forms may penetrate further than 
others, or may take different paths. As long as the barrier 
between Y and Z is not a complete one, so long will this immi- 
gration stream flourish and be clearly recognisable as such. 

The contour of such an immigration gi-oup over the area Z is 
easily recognisable (Transparency 1 ) by the fact that its zoocentre 
either lies entirely outside or only partly inside the region Z, 
while the lower contour-lines extend farther and farther into the 
region. 

For such a contour, the name EGtoye7iic Contour is proposed. 

Suppose, next, that the barrier between Y and Z becomes 
complete, so that the immigrant-stream is cut off" from the parent 
group. If it does not die out, it will gradually assimilate itself 
to the new conditions, forminy new zoocentres in those areas 
where co7iditions are most favourable to it. After a suflicient 
interval of time, it will have evolved a group very distinct from 



BY R. J. TILLYARD. 29 

the parent group in Y, and the dilFerences may be accentuated 
by the evolution of the two groups along divergent lines. Thus 
tlie group in Z gradually takes on a distinct or regional form, 
and becomes part of the native or autochthonous fauna of tlie 
region. We thus obtain a group whose (jroup-charactei's, as nofv 
recognised, ivere actually evolved within the recjion Z. Such 
(jroujjs form the characteristic fauna or Jiora of a. given region, 
and it is on the evidence of such groups that regional distinc- 
tions are based. Their contours are recognisable by the fact 
that their zoocentres he ivithin the region, while the lower con- 
tour-lines spread out farther and farther around, and may even 
overlap into surrounding regions (Transparency 2). 

For a contour of this type, the name Entugenic Contour is 
proposed. 

We can now go one stage further, and assume that a particular 
entogenic group in Z is faced with newer and stronger invasions 
of ectogenic groups from other regions, due, perhaps, to the 
removal of old barriers. In the struggle for existence, the older 
group will go under, and, if it is preserved at all, will appear as 
a remnant in one or more areas of the region Z. These areas may 
be the original zoocentres of its former entogenic contour; for it 
is reasonable to suppose that the group would be able to hold 
out longest in those areas where its density is greatest. They 
may, however, be simply "refuge" areas into which the remnants 
have been driven, and, in such cases, will not afford any eAidence 
of the position of the original entogenic zoocenti-es. The contour 
of the group will now appear as a f-eries of discontinuous ovals 
with no contour-lines of high value. 

Such a contour may be termed a Palceogenic CoiUour. These 
are the contours of archaic groups. They may be sufficiently 
numerous to furnish part of the distinctive character of the fauna 
or flora of the region, but are usually of less importance, though 
not necessarily of less interest, than the entogenic and ectogenic 
groups of the region. Owing to the great changes in land dis. 
tribution throughout long geological epochs, true paheogenic con- 
tours may very often be, and indeed usually are, discontinuous 
over more than one region. Hence their contours should be 



30 ON THE STUDY OF ZOOGEOGRAPHICAL REGIONS, 

mapped out on a complete map of the world, and then studied in 
relation to all the regions in which they occur. In those cases 
in which they occur in only one region, they may be very similar 
to entogenic contours, but will exhibit less density and extent. 

We may now define the three main types of contour as 
follows : — 

i. Ectoyenic Contours. — The contours exhibited by groups 
which evolved their present group-centres outside the region Z, 
but have since invaded Z and form a definite part of its fauna 
and flora. The zoocentres will be either completely outside Z, or 
only slightly projecting into it, while the lower contour-lines will 
extend farther and farther into Z. 

Generally, it will be found that the species forming the immi- 
grant group are quite distinct from the main body of the group 
still located in Y. Very often they are also generically distinct, 
but the closer connection between the parent genus and its 
ojffshoots will still be evident, and will necessitate the two being 
taken together as a natural group, according to the rule already 
laid down. 

li. Entogenic Contours. — The contours exhibited by groups 
which evolved their present group-characters within the region Z. 
The zoocentres will lie entirely within Z, while the lines of lower 
contour will spread out more and more over the region, and one 
or more of them may possibly pass outside the region (forming 
the beginning of a new ectogenic contour for some other region). 

Groups with entogenic contours are essentially those that give 
the distinctive character to a region, and on them the main zoo- 
geographical regions of the earth are based. 

iii. Palceogenic Contours. The contours exhibited by groups 
which are remnants of what were once far more widely spread 
groups. Such contours may consist of one or more isolated areas 
of low value, and usually exhibit discontinuity over more than 
one region. These isolated areas may be regarded as the "sunken 
peaks" (probably the zoocentres) of a once large and continuous 
contour (just as an archipelago shows only the sunken peaks of 
what once formed a continuous land-mass). 

It should be clearly recognised that these three types of 
contour are definitely connected, and that intermediate forms 



BY R. J. TILLYARD. 31 

may occur; for instance, an ectogenic group may have spread 
nearly all over a region, forming one or more secondary zoocentres 
in it, and still exhibit connection with the parent group, entoyenic 
in a neiglibouring region. As soon as that connection is definitely 
broken, and the offshoot assumes its own distinguishing charac- 
teristics, it becomes entogenic in the region of which it has taken 
possession. Again, an entogenic group may gradually die out, 
and so reach a stage at which it exhibits a contour intermediate 
between an entogenic and a palseogenic one. Such a contour 
w^ould not, perhaps, show any discontinuity, but the paucity of 
contour-lines would indicate how very little more reduction was 
needed to produce a typical palseogenic contour. 

It may be seen, also, how every group, in the course of time, 
from its rise to its final extinction, may go through the three 
stages of ectogenic, entogenic, and finally palseogenic contour in 
any given region. 

Contours may exhibit flatness (in the case of groups with few 
species) or steepness (in the case of groups with many species in 
a small area). Several contour-lines may lie together in one 
single line, as, for example, along the coast-line of a region, or, in 
the case of several plant-feeding species which extend all together 
to the utmost boundary of distribution of a single food-plant. 
In such cases, it is probably best to exhibit the contours as a set 
of close parallel curves arranged in the order in which they would 
naturally come if the species did not end off quite coterminously. 
In the case of a coast-line, these parallel lines may be drawn on 
the map, actually over that part representing the sea, following 
the coast-line in general direction, but not its irregularities. (See 
the ectogenic contour in Transparency 1). Where the same 
species occurs in a number of islands, a single contour-line may 
be drawn round all the islands. 

When the contours of different groups have to be studied in 
relation to the rainfall, temperature, or geological conditions of 
the region, they should be drawn on transparent paper, so that 
they can be placed over a map of the isohyets, isothermal s, or 
geology of the region, as the case may be. This has been done 
in the Plate given with this paper, the printed map showing 
isohyets. 



32 ox THE STUDY OF ZOOGEOGRAPHICAL REGIONS, 

Application of tlie Method to a Selected Region. 

Let us now take the Australian region and apply the method 
of specific contours to it, as far as our records will allow us. 
Probably no region has been so little worked: so that, if we are 
able to obtain satisfactory results from somewhat meagre records, 
we should be encouraged to expect even better results in regions 
where the records are more complete. 

'Ihe groups will be selected from the Odonata, in which the 
author has collected fairly complete records during the past nine 
years. Our objects will be (l)to recognise which groups of 
Odonata present ectogenic, entogenic, or palseogenic contours 
respectively; (2) to try to discover whether distinct subtypes 
exist within any of these three types. 

By reference to the map in the Plate, it will be seen that some 
of the Papuan portion, and much of the Polynesian portion, has 
been omitted from the Australian region. The records of the 
Papuan portion are not complete enough, while the contours 
exhibited do not in any case extend into that part of the Poly- 
nesian subregion omitted. Owing to the small size of the map, 
the inland continental limits of the various contour-lines have 
been somewhat extended, otherwise they would appear too closely 
crowded along the coast-line to be distinguishable on so small a 
scale. 

A. Ectogenic Contours. — Transparency I exhibits the approxi- 
mate specific contour of the genus Rhyothemis. This is a genus 
of dragon flies with coloured wings, belonging to the subfamily 
LibeUu/ina', and very distinct from its nearest allies. It is ento- 
genic in the Oriental region, but has spread eastwards across 
Wallaces line, appearing as a strong immigration stream into 
the Papuan subregion and along the northern and north-eastern 
coasts of Australia. One species (E. graphiptera) has spread as 
far south as the Clarence River, in New South Wales, and reaches 
also inland up to the 3,000 feet level in North Queensland. 
Another (/i. phyllis chlo'e) reaches just into New South Wales at 
Murwillumbah, and does not extend as far inland as R. graphip- 
tera. A third {E. chaJcoptilon) has not been recorded south of 
Gayndah. Two other species [R. resplendens and R. braganza) are 



BY R. J. TILLYARD. 33 

only found very much further north, the former extending from 
Papua to Cairns, the latter from Cape York to Townsville. The 
resulting contour exhibits a typical fctoyenic arrangement, the 
zoocentre containing five species and lying so as just to intrude 
into the northern part of Australia. 

Other genera of Odonata exhibiting a contour similar to this 
in general form (not, of course, similar in actual detail or 
density) are : — 

Agrionoptei'a, Macromia, Ictinuii, Anax, Gynacantha, the 
group comprising the closely allied Australian genera of the legion 
Frotoneura, Pse'udagrioii, Argioc7iemis, Ayriocnemh. Austro- 
lesies, as an offshoot of the cosmopolitan Lestes, still very little 
differentiated from the parent stock, exhibits, in Australia, a 
very interesting contour intermediate between typical ectogenic 
and entogenic form. It is, in fact, just in process of being 
" budded " or separated off from the parent stock. 

A certain amount of evidence goes to show that small invasions 
from the Oriental region have reached Australia by way of Timor. 
My records are not, however, complete enough to present a con- 
tour of this type for any group of Odo7iata, though I have little 
doubt that such could be established as a result of careful collect- 
ing in the North- West. 

We see, therefore, the probability of two distinct kinds of 
ectogenic contour in Australia. For these I propose the names 
Torresian and Timorean respectively, indicating the respective 
paths by which the stream of immigration reached Australia. 

B. Eritogenic Contours. —Transparency 2 exhibits the contour 
of the group Syjithemina, comprising the closely allied genera 
Synthemia, MetatJiemis, and Choristhemis. This group belongs 
to the subfamily Corduliimv, and has no near allies. The 
contour shown is typical of the greater portion of the essentially 
Australian fauna. It consists of two separate portions in which 
the species are more or less differentiated from one another. A 
large area is occupied on the east, extending from New Guinea 
to Tasmania, while on the west the genus reappears in the 
south-western corner of Australia. The separation of the two 



34 ON THE STUDY OF ZOOGEOGRAPHICAL REGIONS, 

areas has clearly been brought about by the destruction of the 
group in the dry area of country along and north of the Great 
Bight — the Desert Barrier between East and West Australia. 
The species of Synthemina found in Western Australia are all 
specifically distinct from those in the East, except *S'. macrostigma, 
which is only differentiated into the two closely allied subspecific 
forms occidentalis and orientalis. This species also occurs, some- 
what remarkably, in Fiji. 

The primary zoocentre of this contour is along the highlands 
of South-eastern Australia, while a secondary zoocentre is de- 
veloped around Cape Leeuwin. 

In many genera of animals not so dependent on the rainfall as 
are the Odonata, this same form of contour is exhibited, but the 
lower contour-lines of the eastern portion will lie veiy much 
farther inland to the west, and in many cases one or more species 
may occur across the Desert Barrier, thus linking up the two 
portions of the contour into one complete whole. 

Other genera of Odonata exhibitins^ this contour are : — Austro- 
gomphus, Austroceschna, Bemicor^dulia (in which the western 
species also occur in the east, and may be linked up with them 
when sufficient records are available). 

To a contour of this type I propose to give the name Holono- 
tian, further distinguishing the two portions as the Eonotian on 
the east, and the Hesperonotian on the west. The genus 
Diphlehia exhibits an Eonotian contour only, being completely 
absent from the South- West. Many genera in other groups of 
animals can be shown to exhibit Eonotian contours; but, so far, 
the only purely Hesperonotian contours known are exhibited by 
certain genera of plants peculiar to the South- West. 

The commonest form of Holonotian contour is one in which 
the primary zoocentre tends to be located most strongly in the 
south-east of the continent, though it may run northwards for a 
considerable distance as a narrow zoocentric axis. Sometimes 
two distinct zoocentres may occur, one in the south-east, and one 
near the border-line between New South Wales and Queensland. 
In nearly all those cases where the zoocentre tends to be in the 
south-east, one or more of the contour-lines will extend over 



BY R. J. TILLYARD. 35 

Tasmania; but it is rather the exception than the rule for any 
of these contour-lines to reach into New Guinea. In the Odonata^ 
the group Synthemina is the only one known to me whose contour 
embraces both Tasmania and New Guinea. 

Another variation of the Ilolonotian contour has a zoocentre 
tending to be located more northwards, usually in Northern New 
South Wales, or in South Queensland. In such cases, (e.g., 
Diphlehia) the contour may reach to New Guinea, but not into 
Tasmania, and generally does not exhibit any Hesperonotian 
portion. 

Besides the Holonotian contour, representative of so many 
Australian groups, we find other types of entogenic contours. 
Unfortunately, the records available are not sufficient for the 
actual construction of these contours, but only sufficient to 
indicate broadly their existence. ' One of these may be termed 
the Fapuan contour, and has its primary zoocentre located in 
Papua. The lower contour-lines spread out over the surrounding 
islands, and also down into Queensland, that portion of the 
contour appearing very similar to the ectogenic Torresiau contour 
already defined — in fact, a group with Papuan contour may 
rightly be considered as entogenic in Papua, but ectogenic in 
Queensland, if it is desired to contrast the fauna of Papua wath 
that of Australia proper. Again, in the case of strong-flying 
insects, one or more of the outermost contour-lines may reach 
beyond Wallace's line into the Oriental Region proper, and 
especially into Celebes, which appears to be a kind of link 
between the two regions, receiving both Oriental and Australian 
forms. 

In the Odonata, the genus Argiolestes has a Papuan contour. 
There are a large number of species in Papua, and probably 
many more to be discovered. One species, at least, reaches to 
the Celebes. This group has, however, extended down into 
Australia itself far more vigorously than would be usually 
expected in the case of a tropical group, and is actually in pro- 
cess of budding off a distinct Holonotian contour, having a 
secondary zoocentre in Northern New South Wales with five 
species; and also a single species occurring in Western Australia. 



36 ON THE STUDY OF ZOOGEOGRAPHICAT REGIONS, 

A more typical Papuan contour is exhibited by the well-known 
Ornithoptera-group of the Papilionidce. The species of this 
group spread out from Papua as a centre, and a comparatively 
small branch extends into Australia itself, one species reaching 
as far south as the Richmond River in New South AVales. 

Another form of entogenic contour, not, so far, found amongst 
the Odo7iata, appears to be shown by the distribution of the 
Australian fresh-water Crayfish, in which zoocentres of low 
numerical value occur in the North, South-East, and South- West 
of the continent respectively. With sufficient records, it seems 
that tliis contour would appear as the clear result of radial dis- 
tribution in three separate directions from the large central lake 
known to have existed in Australia in Cretaceous time. It 
might, therefore, be suitably called a Radial Contour. 

The study of entogenic Australian groups occurring in Tas- 
mania, and the careful contouring of their .separate distributions, 
may be expected to throw some light on the question of Antarctic 
connections. The evidence afforded by the Odonata, so far, is 
not very strong, but the very close alliance between the species 
of the isolated group Pefalini, found only in Chili and on the 
Blue Mountains, will be regarded by some students as one link 
in the chain of evidence for a former connection between Aus- 
tralia and America via Antarctica. If the Blue Mountain 
species exists also in Tasmania, the argument will be much 
strengthened. The fact that it has not yet been recorded is of 
little value, when we consider how many years it has taken to 
secure only four specimens in a well collected locality close to 
Sydney. 

C. PaJceogenic Contours. —Transparency 3 exhibits part of the 
contour of the subfamily Petaluriiuf, a small group of Odonata 
with no near allies. In the Australian region, it is represented 
by the genus Petalura in Australia, and by Uropetala in New 
Zealand. Petalura gigantea occurs in the Blue Mountains and 
their southern spurs, and also on Stradbroke Island, South 
Queensland. P. ingentissima is confined to Kuranda and Her- 
berton, North Queensland, while P. pulcherrima extends from 
Kuranda to Cooktown, Uropetala carovei is common in the 



BY R. J. TILLYARD. 



37 



North Island of New Zealand. In Chili, the group is repre- 
sented by Phenes raptor, and in North America by Tachopteryx 
thoreyi in the State of New York, and by T. hageni in Nebraska. 

This contour, therefore, is seen to be discontinuous over three 
separate regions, the Australian, Neotropical, and Nearctic. 
Such a contour, as is well known, can only be exhibited by 
archaic groups, and is only explicable on the supposition that it 
represents the remains of a once much more complete and wide- 
spread contour over several regions. One of the best known 
examples is that of the Dipnoi. 

In Odonata, a further example of a palseogenic contour is 
exhibited by the group Petalini of the jEschnince, mentioned 
above, with one species on the Blue Mountains, and six in Chili. 

Contours exhibiting the passage from the entogenic type to 
the disconti'iuous palseogenic type are not infrequent. Such, for 
instance, amongst the Odonata, are probably those of the genera 
Rannophya and Nannophlehia; while the Monotremata furnish 
an excellent example that will be more clearly appreciated. 

We may now exhibit the various types of contour for the 
Australian region as follows, bracketing those that are not fully 
established. 



Type. 


Subtype. 


Examples. 


A. ECTOGENIC... 


Ai TORRESIAN 

[A2 Timorean] 


Rhyothemis, Agrionoptera, Gyna- 
cantha, &c. 


(Transference from A to B : — Austrolestes.) 


B. Entogenic. 


Bj Holonotian 

( h^ Eonotian 

C 62 Hesperouotian 

B2 Papuan 

[Bj Radial] 


Synthemina, Aristroceschna, &c. 
Diphlehia. 

Argiolestes. 


(Transference from B to C i—Nannophya, Nannophlebia.) 


C. Palseogenic 




Petalu7-ince, Petalini. 



38 ON THE STUDY OF ZOOGEOGRAPHICAL REGIONS, 

The composition of a Regional Fauna. 

One of the great advantages of the method of Specific Contours 
is that it clearly separates out the different types or "layers," as 
it were, which make up the fauna of any given region. The 
attempts to subdivide regions into definite subregions do not give 
sufficient prominence to this, but tend rather to give an idea of 
essential differences between the divisions, separated by hard and 
fast lines. The method of Specific Contours may be called a 
three-colour process, in which the true " colour " or appearance of 
any given fauna is obtained by the superposition of separate 
plates on which the three different distributions, ectogenic, ento- 
genic, and palseogenic, are drawn. Only by such an analytical 
process can we obtain a clear idea of the changes in the faunal 
character of different parts of a region. 

To take a good example of this :— The North Queensland coast- 
line does not strike the visitor as typically Australian in either 
its fauna or flora. Yet if these be analysed, the very strong 
entogenic element very soon becomes apparent, and the overlying 
ectogenic element which marks it can be differentiated out as of 
Oriental origin. As soon as one gets inland, the effect of the 
ectogenic element becomes much less marked, and the entogenic 
fauna and flora show up very distinctly. As one travels south- 
wards, the effect of the ectogenic element diminishes. 

Again, on the Blue Mountains, there is at once apparent a 
very strongly marked entogenic fauna and flora. Almost lost in 
this, but still present — and, by its presence, adding to the variety 
and interest of the fauna — we distinguish the remains of palseo- 
genic groups whose value to the phylogenist can scarcely be over- 
estimated. 

The factors oj zoogeoy raphical distribution. 

Different students of zoogeography have given prominence to 
various factors which have brought about the present distribu- 
tion of the fauna and flora of the earth. It is necessary, how- 
ever, to distinguish clearly between the two classes of factors 
which contribute to the result. They may be classed as follows : 

i. Primary Factors. — Those which determine the presence or 
absence of groups in the fauna or flora of a region. These factors 



BY R. J. TILLYARD. 39 

are : —{ct) the position and extent of the region with reference to 
the centres of origin of the various groups; {h) barriers. 

ii. Secondary Factors. — Those which determine the form of 
contour exhibited in a region by a group whose presence has 
been brought about by the action of i. These are '.~{a) climate 
(rainfall, temperature); (6) the geology of the region; (c) the 
strength of the tendency to vary or mutate exhibited by the 
group in question; (<i) further alteration in the position of barriers, 
after the arrival of the group within the region. 

In determining the distribution of the Australian Odooiata, 
the primary causes have been — (a) The proximity of the Austra- 
lian region to the Oriental, (b) The inefficiency of Wallace's line 
as a barrier to strong-flying species, (c) The "bridges" across 
Torres Straits and Timor, allowing of definite streams of immi- 
gration, (d) Possible lost connections with Antarctica and thence 
with South America. 

The secondary causes, which have restricted the spread of the 
group within the Australian continent, have been— (a) The re- 
striction of the rainfall mainly to the coastal districts, (b) The 
Desert Barrier between South-East and South-West Australia. 

(c) The Bassian Barrier between Tasmania and the mainland. 

(d) The changes in mean temperature as we pass from north to 
south. 

Of these, the distribution of the rainfall is, no doubt, the con- 
trolling factor in determining the narrow form of the Holonotian 
contours exhibited by Australian Odonate-groups. Entogenic 
groups of insects of other orders, less dependent upon the rain- 
fall, exhibit Holonotian contours of very much greater width. 

The subdivision of Holonotian contours into Eonotian and 
Hesperonotian portions has been brought about by the Desert 
Barrier. 

The absence of certain forms from Tasmania which occur com- 
monly on the mainland at the points nearest to the island, can 
only be explained by the supposition that these forms arrived at 
their south-eastern limit after the Bassian Istiniius had sunk 
beneath the sea. This affords valuable evidence of the relative 



40 ON THE STUDY OF ZOOOEOGRAPHICAL REGIONS, 

archaism of (a) Austrotheynis and Nannophya (present in Tas- 
mania) as compared with Diplacodes (absent). (6) Procordulia 
(present) compared with Hemicordulia (absent except for new 
colonisation by H. tau, a species with strong migratory tenden- 
cies), (c) uEschna (present) compared with A7iax (absent). 

The lowering of the mean temperature as w^e pass southwards 
down the eastern coast-line is the chief factor in restricting the 
ectogenic invasion of groups of Oriental origin. As far as the 
northern rivei's of Xew South Wales, the mean temperatures are 
very high, the influence of Antarctic depressions and southerly 
winds being very little felt. To this limit many essentially 
tropical groups, sucli as BhT/othemis, have penetrated. Some few 
reach to Sydney and beyond; but, as we go south, the number 
diminishes very rapidly, and the ectogenic element soon dis- 
appears. A similar process, no doubt, affects the composition of 
the Odonate fauna of the western coast-line, about which very 
little is known. Around Perth, only Tramea and Pmitala have 
been noticed as of ectogenic origin. 

In the Plate, the isohyets or lines of equal rainfall are given 
as supplied by the Federal Meteorological Bureau. In the 
northern portion of the continent, this rainfall is almost wholly 
of monsoonal origin, and falls mainly during summer (December 
to March). In the South- West and South-East, and in Tas- 
mania, the rainfall is mostly of Antarctic origin, and falls mainly 
in the winter (May to September). In New South Wales, both 
monsoonal and Antarctic influences are at work, with the result 
that both summer and winter may be dry or wet according to the 
intensities of the two operating factors. It will readily be seen 
from the map and transparencies that — {a) Ectogenic groups 
exhibit contours broadly similar to the contours of the monsoonal 
isohyets. (6) Entogenic groups (Holonotian) exhibit contours 
more dependent upon the distribution of Antarctic rainfall. 

This correlation between specific contour and rainfall is in no 
way a complete one. Above a certain amount, rainfall may tend 
to retard the spread of a group. The west coast of Tasmania, 
with a rainfall up to 100 inches a year, appears to be very poor 
in Odonata; doubtless owing to its sunless and cold summer. 



BY R. J. TILLYARD. 41 

The excessively wet portion of tropical coast -line centred around 
Innisfail, North Queensland, with a rainfall up to 130 inches a 
year (nearly all summer rain) is not so rich in species as the sur- 
rounding districts with from 50 to 70 inches. 

Other Applications of the Method. 

The Method of Specific Contours may be profitably used in 
studying the density distribution of Zonal Groups — ^.e., groups 
which are not confined to one zoogeographical region, but are 
distributed along a zone of the earth's surface. On the map of 
the world (Mercator's projection) contours ma}^ be shown of 
Boreal, Holarctic, Bipolar, or Circumtropical groups which will 
present at a glance the salient features of distribution in a graphic 
manner. The author has worked out on these lines the contour 
of the holarctic genus Ser}iatochlora with a very satisfactory 
result, though the number of detailed records available was 
scarcely sufficient to give a very accurate contour. Leaving out 
of account three species usually included in the genus (two from 
New Zealand and one from Chili) about whose inclusion in the 
genus there is ground for doubt, we obtain a contour of the zonal 
type ranging round the northern temperate zone. It is interrupted 
by the Atlantic — as might be expected — but not by the Pacific, 
since two species, at least, occur on both sides of Behring's 
Straits, and extend far westwards into Siberia and eastwards 
into Canada. The primary zoocentre seemed to be located in 
the vicinity of the State of Maine, U.S.A., with a density of six 
species, while a secondary zoocentre of large extent but of less 
density (three) runs across the northern part of Europe and 
Asia. The boundary line of the contour southward throws out 
two well-defined projections into lower latitudes, one down along 
the eastern coast of U.S.A. as far as Florida, another into Japan, 
while a somewhat indefinite bulging takes place to include 
records of a single species extending into Arizona. 

This contour is not published here, because the inequality of 
the records available scarcely admits of its consideration in any- 
thing but the broadest of aspects. More collecting has been 
done in the one State of Maine than in the whole of Siberia. 




42 ON THE STUDY OF ZOOGEOGRAPHICAL REGIONS, 

The apparent zoocentre in Maine may be, therefore, only due to 
the completeness of the local records, and the genus may possibly 
attain as great, or even greater, density in some part of Siberia . 
Generally speaking, the number of records necessary for drawing 
an approximate contour in the case of a zonal group will be much 
higher than in the case of a regional group, since the former will 
extend into at least two regions. 

Other examples of zonal distribution in Odonata whose dis- 
tribution might be advantageously studied by this method are : — 

Holarctic — Lihellula, SympetruTn, Leucorrhinia, Gomphus^ 
Boyeria, Calopteryx. 

Circumtropic — Macromia, IVamea, Gynacantha, Teinobasis. 

In the study of zonal groups, the contour itself will decide in 
what region or regions a given zonal group may be considered to 
be entogenic; viz., those regions in which that group can be seen 
to have established definite zoocentres. For example, the genus 
Somatochlora may be rightly considered entogenic in the Nearctic 
Region, and also (though apparently not so definitely) in the 
Palsearctic Region. Other zonal groups are quite clearly ento- 
genic in one region but ectogenic in another. Traviea, for 
instance, appears to be entogenic in the Neotropic Region, with 
an ectogenic outgrowth into the Nearctic Region and another 
into the Australian Region. 

Cosmopolitan groups, such as Aiiax. jEschiia, Lestes^ may also 
be studied by this method; but, of course, the number of records 
necessary for the complete contouring of such a group will be 
even greater than in the case of a zonal group. 

The method may also be applied to the study of a harrier, in 
the following manner : — A map should be taken showing the 
barrier, with parts of the surrounding regions, and over this map 
the partial contours of various groups, drawn on transparencies, 
may be placed in turn. The efficacy of the barrier may be gauged 
by considering the percentage of contours showing total discon- 
tinuity across the barrier. In so far as group contours are com- 
pletely delimited or cut off by the barrier {i.e., the group is pre- 
vented from passing across the barrier at all), the barrier may be 
considered a Primary Barrier; but, in so far as group contours 



BY R. J. TILLYARD. 43 

are only severed by it, (i.e., the group is divided into two distinct 
portions) the barrier is only a Secondary Barrier. It is clear 
that a barrier can only be a Primary Barrier to those groups 
whose arrival in its neighbourhood is of later date than the 
uprising of tlie barrier; while, even to such groups, if they possess 
special facilities for passing the barrier, it may only play the 
part of a Secondary Barrier, or even be no barrier at all. On 
the other hand, if the date of the uprising of the barrier be 
later than that of the arrival of the group, it cannot rank higher 
than as a Secondary Barrier. A recognised barrier, such as 
Wallace's line, might be carefully treated in this manner for a 
large number of groups with very valuable results. 

A further suggestion as to a valuable use of this contour 
method is offered by the author for the case of migrating groups 
of birds. With sufficient records, two separate contour maps 
might be drawn up for, say, one of the genera of the Fjnngillidce, 
showing (a) the contour of the group during the nesting season; 
{b) its contour during the winter. These two contours, drawn 
on large maps and exhibited side by side, would bring home to 
us, more clearly than pages of records, the movements of the 
group during the changing seasons of the year. Probably the 
records available in Europe and America for such a contour will 
be found to be quite sufficient. 

In conclusion, the author contends that the study of zoogeo- 
graphical distribution will be advanced by the method outlined 
in this paper, and that contours of groups are a more natural 
unit for study than theoretical subdivisions of regions into 
separate portions. 



44 



REVISION OF THE SUBFAMILY TENEBRIONINjE, 
FAMILY TENEBRIONID^. 

(Australian Species : with Descriptions of new Spkcies 
OF Tenebrionin^^ and Cvphalein^). 

By H. J. Carter, B.A., F.E.S. 

(With six text-figures.) 
Revision of the Subfamily l^enehrionince. 

This subfamily is in more need of revision than any of the 
Tenehrio7iidce, through the extraordinary complications that have 
arisen through the imperfect descriptions of early writers, 
notably of Boisduval ; and this has been aggravated by the 
diversity of determinations made by later authors. As these 
complications apply to some of the commonest of Australian 
insects, it is hoped that the author's attempt at reaching a stage 
nearer finality will assist other entomologists by clearing our 
catalogues of names that are either synonyms, or belong to lost 
types, and are valueless. This task has been facilitated by the 
aid of Mr. K. G Blair, of the British Museum, who has sent me 
a collection of specimens, some of which have been compared 
with the types of Pascoe and Hope, while others have some 
historic value from their labels. 

The subfamily is now held to include the Coelometopides, 
Tenebrionides vrais, and Toxicides of Lacordaire. 

Distribution. — In the new Catalogue of Junk, in which the 
Tenehrionidce are so ably edited by Gebien, there are 97 genera 
of the subfamily, excluding Microphyes, Chileone, and Ephidonius, 
and including Teremenes (vide infra). Of these, only 16 are 
represented in Australia, of which 10 are exclusively so (endemic). 
These 10 are distributed as follows : — 

Exclusively Australian. 

Brises — Central Australia (including Northern Territory). 

Asphalus — New South Wales, Queensland (coastal districts). 



BY H. J. CARTER. 45 

Hypaulax — AW States; widely distributed. 

Ilydissus — New South Wales, Queensland, Lord Howe Island. 

Oec^os-is — Victoria, South Australia. 

Meneristes —l^ew South Wales, Victoria, Tasmania, Queens- 
land, South Australi-B. 

Teremenes — New South Wales, Victoria, Tasmania, Queens- 
land, South Australia. 

Si/nercticus —New South Wales, Queensland. 

Tanylypa —Tasmania. 

Paratoxicum — Tasmania, and Victorian Alf)S. 

Not exclusively Australian. 

The remaining six genera are distributed as follows : — 

Pediris — Cape York, Austro-Malay Islands. 

Encyalesthus India, E. Asia and Japan, Austro-Malay Islds., 
E. Australia. 

Promethis -'^\\ik\m, Lord Howe Island, Australia (all States). 

Menephihis — Europe, Asia, Africa, Australia (all States). 

7'ewe6r2o— Cosmopolitan ; two species universally distributed 
as flour- and grain-pests; other species world-wide. 

Toxicum — Africa, America, Asia, Australia (all States). 

Brises and Ephidonius. 

In Junk's Catalogue, Herr Gebien places Bynses with the 
Tenehrionince, and Ephidonius with the CyphaleiiuB', but what- 
ever classification be adopted, it seems quite undesirable to 
separate them. In the trapezifotm shape of the head, with the 
eyes widely separated, both are much nearer the Tenehrionince, 
as further indicated in the continuous epipleurse; while in the 
form of the antennae, the more widened emargination of the 
thorax, and especially in the carinate prosternum, they show a 
strong relationship with the Cyphaleince. Both, however, have 
marked characters in which they differ very much from each of 
these groups. (1) In the palpi, where the last joint of the max- 
illary palpi is at most rather narrowly triangular; in B. trachy- 
notoides Fasc, this joint is so narrow as to be considered subulate; 
whereas in both Tenehrionince and Cyphaleince it is strongly 

5 



46 REVISION OF THE SUBFAMILY TENEBRIONIN^:, 

securiform. (2) 'J'lie posterior intorcoxal process in botli is narrow, 
triangular, or very little rounded at apex; whereas in Tenebrio- 
nincE and Cyphalevufn, this process is generally widely rounded. 
(3) The legs and tarsi form the greatest barrier to the inclusion 
of these genera in either group — widely differing from the Tene- 
hrioninrjR in their more elongate form, clothed as to their tibiae 
and tarsi with long hairs; while equally distinguished from the 
Cyp}tahi7i(n by their unusually long tibial spurs and tarsal claws. 
The author suggests (1) that Brises = Ephidonius; (2) that Brises, 
at present, be considered as a single subgroup of the Tenebrionin(n. 
I cannot find any satisfactory character, beyond sculpture, to 
separate the two genera; and in the case of the new species, B. 
Blairi, the sculpture is intermediate between that of B. trachy- 
notoideH Pasc, and E. Duhoulayi Tiates. The name Epkidoni'ns 
should, therefore, be surjk, and the species may be tabulated as 
follows, all of them being before me. 

BttiSES Pasc. (Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 1869). 

Ephidonius Pasc. (loc. cit.). 
1(3) Elytra Viieostate. 

2. Upper surface nlLid Jilairi, n.H\). 

3. Upper surface opaque irachynoloideti Pasc. 

4(6)KlyLra l>ico8lale, upper surface nitid. 

5. (Jost* Huhobsolete acuticornxH Pa.sc. 

6.Co8tai strongly raised Duhoulayi Bates. 

7. Elytra with 5 slightly raised costse, surface o\)'M{\x*i. ...parvicoUia Blackb. 

The two following genera, A.sphalus and J/ypaulax, may be 
grouped as Cf/ilorrtetopnnai, only distinguished from "Tenebrionides 
vrais" of Lacordaire, by their short metasterruim arid apterous 
body. 

AspiiALUs Pasc. 

l.Elytral surface shallow, surface very nitid ebeninn.t Paac. 

2.Elytral striie deep, surface less nitid Htrialun (Ja,rt. 

Hypaulax Bates. 
Chileone liates. 
Chileofte is not (as P>lackburn also suggested) sufficiently differ- 
entiated from J/ypaulax to deserve generic distinction. The 



BY H. J. CARTER. 47 

only marked distinctions given by tlie author (Trans. Ent. 8oc. 
Lond , 18G8, p. 264) are the hisinuate thorax, with the angles 
prominent, and the alveolate si-ulpture of the elytra; the other 
distinctions are either slight or elusive. Of the marked distinc- 
ticms, the first two are certainly found in //. intmlaritt Hope 
( = //. tW(/t>'cr><N Blackb.), and the last (the alveolate elytra) is 
closely approacheil in the species described below {I /. /o renins). 
I believe I have seen specimens of all the described species. If 
I have identified //. i)ife)'ioris Blackb., correctly, in a specimen 
from N.W. Australia, it is further distinguished by its strongly 
punctate abdomen— a character shared to a less, and very 
variable, degree by that widely distributed and most variable 
species, //. orcus Pasc. Bates evidently did not sutticiently con- 
sider the great variability in size, sculpture, shape of prothorax, 
and convexity of form, that is to be noticed in examining long 
series; so that, as he himself admitted in the synonymy of //. 
oralis and H. ol)/o)iya, varieties have been described as species; 
while Macleay described two species in a few lines, without 
having seen the descriptions of Bates' H. sinuafleol lis* and H. 
tarda (Trans. Ent. 8oc. New South AVales, p.285), 

The following are almost certainly synonyms : - 

//. gai/ndahensis Macl. = //. ob/o)ii/a Bates = //. oralis Bates 
= (1 Up is crenata Boisd. ). 

H. opacicollis Macl. = //. sinuaticollis Bates = //. maryinata 
Bates. 

//. iridfscens Blackb. = //. (Plati/notus) i)isularis Hope. 

The last has already been suggested by Champion. 

The descriptions of three new species will be found below. 

Table of Hypaulax. 

l(3)Klytra suleate, its lateral intervals sharply elevated. 

2. rronotuin opaque, lateral border little raised or thickened 

insulay-is Hope ; iridescens Blackb. 

S.Pronotuin nitid, lateral border strongly raised <ind thickened 

Spfuceri, n.sp. 

4(6)Elytra striate, intervals convex. 

5 First two stria^ deep, punctures obvious oralis Bates; ob^onga Bates; 

gayndaheiisis Macl.; {'i)crenata Boisd. 



48 REVISION OF THE SUBFAMILY TENEBRIONINJE, 

6. First two striae shallow, punctures ver}^ small or obsolete 

tenuialriata Bates. 

7(n)Elytra more or less striate, intervals flat. 

S.Pronotum and elytral intervals clearly punctate.. pimcticollis, n.sp. 

9(ll)Pronotuin and elytral intervals scarcely visibly punctate. 

10. J'rothorax arcuate in front, anterior angles advanced orcus Pasc. 

ll.Prothorax truncate in front, anterior angles not advanced 

ampliala Bates. 

12(22)Elytra seriate-punctate. 
13(15)Elytral punctures alveolate. 

14. Apex of prothorax bisinuate, lateral borders thick and crenulate 

Deyrollti Bates. 

15. Apex of prothorax truncate, lateral borders less thick and scarcely 

crenulate /oveata, n.sp. 

16(22) Elytral punctures much smaller. 
17(19)Size large (17-2;^ mm. long). 

18. Colour subopaque black, seriate punctures smaller interioris Blackb. 

IQ.Colour nitidblack, seriate punctures larger.. .. marginata Bates; 

sinnaticollis Bates; e^mcicoUis Macl. 
20(22)Size small (12-15 nmi. long). 

21. Prothorax with lateral channel tarda Bates. 

22. Prothorax without lateral channel opacula Bates. 

Nyctohates and Setenis are not represented in the Australian 
fauna, the former being limited to America. It is possible that 
Promethis [Nyctohates) sterrha OIL, from Lord Howe Island, is 
a Setenis, but I am not able to state this definitely, through lack 
of knowledge of the genus. Under Setenis, Herr Gebien has 
included two of Boisduval's mysteries, Upis crenata Boisd., and 
U. Lottinii Boisd. These will be discussed below. Having 
examined the types of Meneristes curtulus Oil., and M. vulgaris 
OIL, from Lord Howe Island, I should unhesitatingly place them 
under Hydissus, the larger species {M. vulgaris) being extremely 
close to H, ferouioides Pasc. The species may be distinguished 
as follows : — 

Hydissus Pasc. 

l.Pronotum smooth, elytral intervals strongl}' convex, seriate punctures 
evident .fe7-onioidesFa.sc. 

2. Pronotum finely punctate, elytral intervals little raised, seriate punc- 

tures very small, almost hidden in striae vidgaris Oil. 

3. Pronotum more strongly punctate, elytral intervals flat, seriate punctures 

larger than in 2 (also shorter and wider) curtidus Oil. 



• BY H. J. CARTER. 4& 

Under Encyalesthus, two species have been described, to which 
a third is now added. These may be tabulated as follows : — 

Encyalesthus Motsch. 
l(3)Colour ])lack. 

2.Subnitid, hind tibije of 6 with margins entire pnnctipennU Pasc. 

S.Ver}' uitid, hind tibiae of S with excised margin excisipe<i, n.sp. 

*4. Elytra green or bronze, posterior tibiae of i angniate... atj-o-viridis Mac). 

Promethis. 

Before attempting to tabulate the species of this genus, it is 
necessary to clear the ground by a discussion of Boisduval's 
species, the inadequate descriptions of which contain neither 
dimensions nor figures (with one exception), and the types are 
mostly lost. To take these in turn, Pediris (Upis) sulcigera is 
the one member of the Subfamily figured in the " Voyage de 
r Astrolabe," and is well known in European museums. Origin- 
ally described from Amboyna, I have specimens from New Guinea 
and Cape York, the latter taken by Mr. H. Hacker, as recorded 
by me (These Proceedings, 1909, p 125). 

Upis Lottinii Boisd., placed by Gebien under Seteriis. — There 
is a specimen in the British Museum consignment, labelled New 
South Wales (F. Bates' Coll.), with a second label bearing the 
name " Upis Lottinii Boisd., Schaufuss." This specimen is 
undoubtedly a F7'omethis, and is probably a small F. nigra Bless. 
A second specimen, bearing similar labels, has been further 
labelled by Mr. Blair as P. lethalis Pasc. This specimen, I should 
consider as the typical P. tiigra Bless. The original habitat of 
U. Lottinii was stated to be New Guinea. Having little doubt 
as to the synonymy of /'. lethalis Pasc, with /'. nigra J^less., 
(from specimens of the former sent by Mr. Blair, compared with 



* Macleay omitted any reference to sex in his description, or to the fact 
that tlie elytra are often a brilliant brassy-bronze colour; the females have 
the posterior tibiae without this angubir swelling. I have examined many 
specimens. 

Oectosis. — The single species, 0. cylindrica Pasc, is not common in 
collections. I have a specimen from the Mallee district of Victoria. 



50 REVISION OF THE SUBFAMILY TiJSEBRIONlNJ^, • 

the excellent description and figure by Blessig) I should place 
U. Lottinii Boisd., as a probable synonym; this doubt rendering 
it undesirable to preserve the name. 

Upis cretiata Boisd. — There has again been much disagreement 
as to the insect described under this name. The Macleay 
Museum has, under this name, what is undoubtedly P. nigra 
Bless., probably so identified by Macleay. The British Museum 
has a specimen of Hypaulax oblonga Bates, labelled as U. crenata 
Boisd.; while another specimen bearing this name, in the British 
Museum, is certainly Hyjyaulax temiistriatw, and Herr Gebien 
writes that he has an Hypaulax under BoisduvaFs name. The 
ten words of BoisduvaFs description, without dimensions, apply 
more aptly to Hypaulax than to Promethis, especially "thorace 
Isevigato, subconvexo, lateribus rotundato," since the species of 
Promethis, in no case, have a Isevigate thorax, nor are the sides 
notably rounded. Although the name has reappeared in Junk's 
Catalogue under Setenis, it should be consigned to oblivion, as a 
probable synonym of the common Hypaulax oblonga Bates. Jt 
is scarcely possible that Boisduval should have failed to collect 
this in the Sydney district. 

Baryscelis laticollis Boisd. - It would be tedious and useless to 
follow up the various attempts to determine this species. In 
1869, Pascoe described Meneristes laticollis, which is possibly the 
same thing, though Champion expresses a contrary opinion 
(Trans. Ent. Soc. 1894, p. 392), without giving any reason. There 
seems little cause to doubt that Pascoe's species is the same as 
that described by Blessig as Tenehrio australis, by Motschulsky 
as Asiris angulicollis, and by Blanchard as T. iiigerrimus. Mr. 
Blair writes that in the Bates Coll., he has "one series over 
laticollis Pasc, and another over australis Macl.; but I cannot 
distinguish between them." The Rev. T. Blackburn proposed, 
as his solution of the tangle, the identity of T. australis Boisd., 
and B. laticollis Boisd., but even Boisduval could scarcely 
describe the same insect under two genera in two successive 
pages. Moreover, the words " antice emarginato " applied to 
B. laticollis, are not contained in the ten words that describe 
T. australis; and this being a marked character in Pascoe's 



BY H. J. CARTER. 51 

species, it is likely enough that Pascoe's suggestion is the true 
one. 

Baryscelis politiis Boisd., seems to have been left unnoticed by 
writers, so that not even a conjecture, so far, has been made as 
to its identity; nor have I seen any insect so identified. From 
the short note by Boisduval, "II est un tiers plus petit que le 
precedent, et le corselet est moins retreci posterieurement," it 
would seem to be identical with M. iiitermedius Pasc, a smaller 
(and female) variety of M. laticollis Pasc. It seems possible to 
me that T. australis Boisd., is identical with Promethis quadri- 
collis Pasc; and that 2\ nigerrimus Boisd., = J/, servulus Pasc, 
which, again, is certainly (from compared types) identical with 
Meriephilus convexiusculus Hope. 

Having examined a very large number of Promethis, both from 
our museums and from numerous collections, the following 
synonymy is almost certain : — 

P. lethalis Pasc, = P. [Iphthimus) nigra Bless._ 

P. Pascoei MacL, = P. quadricollis Pasc 

P. lethalis Pasc, at furthest, can only be considered as a 
variety of P. nigra. 1'he Queensland specimens show a great 
deal of variation, inter se; a long series taken by Mr. Lea, at 
Cairns, have the hinder part of the prothorax more sinuate, with 
the elytral punctures more hidden, than is the case with the 
typical P. nigra of the Southern States. Moreover, specimens 
that have been for some time in spirits, show a much clearer and 
coarser puncturation that is apt to mislead. A similar variation 
is to be noticed in P. quadricollis Pasc, but having examined 
the type of P. Pascoei Macl., and compared it with specimens 
sent by Mr. Blair as P. quadricollis Pasc, I have no doubt of 
their identity. Most probably, Pascoe's locality, Swan River, 
for his species, is a mistake. I have seen only P. angidata 
Erichs., from West Australia; while hundreds of specimens of 
the other species have been examined from the Eastern States. 
The known species of Australian Promethis may be tabulated as 
follows, three new species being added and described below, P, 
Harmandl Oil., from Sikkim, being omitted, as unknown to me. 



52 REVISlOif OP THE SUBFAMILY TENEBBtONIN^, 

Promefhis Pasc. 

l(9)Posterior angles of prothorax scarceh", or not, produced. 

2.El3'tra very convex, much widened beliind, intervals little raised 

eterrha Oil. 

3i8)Elytra moderately convex, intervals strongly ridged. 

4(6)Size large (22-29 mm. long), prothorax widest in front, elytra obovate 

5. Seriate punctures partly hidden in striae, abdomen moderately punctate 

nigra Bless. 

(Prothorax more sinuately narrowed behind).... var. lethalis Pasc. 
6.Seriate punctures larger than in 5, not at all concealed, abdomen verj' 

coarsely punctate major, n.sp. 

7. Size smaller (15-20 mm. loi)g), form flatter and more parallel, prothorax 

little or not widened in front, sides nearl}' straight 

quadricollis Pasc; Pa.'<coei Macl. 

8, Elytra parallel, sides of prothorax angulately creueite . . .aiigulata ICrichs. 

9.14 mm. long, subcylindric, sides of prothorax rounded, its angles wide 

and declinate, elj^tral intervals moderately convex . ...mmor, n.sp. 

10. Posterior angles of prothorax lobate in S , elytral intervals costate 

lobicoUis, n.sp. 

Augolesthus australasicB Motsch. — From the description, it 
would appear that this is identical with Chariotheca {Thesilea) 
planicollis Fairm., = C. cupripennis Pasc. This genus should, 
therefore, be omitted from tlie subfamily Tenehrionince 

Menephilus Muls. 

l(3)Upper surface blue. 

2.Sides of prothorax sinuate, hind angles acute corvinus Erichs. ; 

cyanipennis Hope. 

S.Sides of prothorax not sinuate, hind angles obtuse Icehts, n.sp. 

4.Pronotum black, anterior angles round, elytra obscure blue, legs and 

antennae black cmrulescens Haag-Rut. 

5 Head ferruginous, pronotum piceous, elytra violaceous, seneous or blue, 

legs and antennae red rujicornis Champ.; 

var. (zneus Carter; var. azuriptnnis, n.var. 
6. Head and pronotum purple-bronze or blue, elytra variegated, legs red. 

brevis, n.sp. 

7(10)Upper surface black or piecous, subnitid, pronotum strongly 
punctate. 

8. Length 12 mm., prosternum fulvo-pubescent, its episterna punctate 

humilis Erichs. 

9.Length 8-9 mm., prosternum glabrous, its episterna pustulose 

colydioidts Erichs. 



6Y tt. J. CARTfiR. 53 

lO.Length 6-7 nim., form flatter than 9, anterior angles more produced, 

elytral intervals less raised, seriate punctures smaller 

parvuhis Macl. 

ll(]3)Upper surface nitid black, pronotum finely punctate, anterior angles 
strongl}' produced. 

1 2. Ptjsterior angles produced backwards Sydntyanus Blkb. 

13. Posterior angles not produced rectibasis, n.sp. 

M. corvinus occurs in Tasmania, South Australia, and New 
South Wales. 

M. coerulescens Haag, is widely distributed in New South 
Wales and Queensland. 

M. rujicornis Champ., occurs from Tasmania to North Queens- 
land. M. (t'neiis is only a small bronze variety of it. Mr. Lea 
has taken several specimens at Cairns, with the elytra dark blue, 
which seem worthy of a name, for which I propose M. azuri- 
peiuiis. 

M. humllis Erichs. — The only specimen of this I have seen, is 
one in the British Museum consignment; larger, wider, the front 
angles less advanced ; with the differences of underside noted 
above, it can be easily distinguished from the more common M. 
colydioides Erichs. 

It is open to question whether M. parvulus Macl., is only a 
variety of M. colydioides Erichs. I have specimens of the former, 
compared with type, from New South Wales and Queensland; 
and of the latter, from Tasmania, and New South Wales. Speci- 
mens of both are from the Blue Mountains, but the distinctions 
given above, seem to warrant their separation at present. 

M. Sydney anus Blkb., is very common in New South Wales 
and Queensland. I have specimens from Eden to Tamljourine 
M ountain. 

Meneristes Pasc. 

1. Moderately nitid black, tibire of i unarmed, elytra subparallel 

laticoUis Pasc, angxdicoUis Motsch., {t) laticoUis Boisd., T. australis 
Bless., T. nigerrimn,>i Blanch., var. inter vie.diusVd.s>c., (l)poliius Boisd. 

2(5)Polished ebony-black. 

S.Tibise of S unarmed, angles of prothorax more strongly produced than 1. 
Elytra ovate, little wider than prothorax at base latior, n.sp. 



64 REVISION OF THE SUBFAMILY TENEBRtONIN jE^ 

4-Hind tibiae of <J with triangular tooth, its apex greatly enlarged and 

curved tibialis, n.sp. 

var. Hind tibije without this tooth proximus, n.var. 

5.A11 tibiae of i bidentate, form subcylindric denlipea, n.sp. 

There is little doubt that M. intermedius Pasc, is only a 
smaller form of the common M. laticollis. Mr. Blair has sent 
me specimens compared with types, and has expressed his own 
agreement with this. The type of M. intermedius Pasc, is a 
female, and is of the form very common in New South Wales, 
the larger form being more often found in Tasmania and Victoria. 
Meneristes is a variable and 'difficult genus to separate into 
definite species, and probably more species will be found. The 
new species, described below, are all very distinct, two of them 
from their male tibial characters as shown by the outlines figured 
below— traced with a camera. Mr. Lea has taken a number of 
Meneristes at Cairns and Atherton, which are very nitid, and 
have larger elytral punctures than the typical M. laticollis Pasc. 
For the present I can only treat this species as a variety. 

M. servulus Viisc, = Menephilus convexiusculus Hope, = (1)il/. 
nigerrimus Boisd. — JVlr. Blair sends specimens compared with 
Pascoe's and Hopes types, which show this. I had already noted 
it on my visit to the Hope Museum in 1907. There is also a 
specimen in the British Museum box identical with M. servulus 
labelled M. nigerrimus Laf., but the doubt that must always 
exist in Boisduval's species renders it undesirable to retain the 
name. At any rate this species requires another generic title? 
dijffering markedly from Meneristes in (1) the structure of the 
prothorax, wdth the rounded unproduced front angles; (2) the 
very short apical spines of the tibiae; (3) the quite different 
onychium. As regards (3), Herr Gebien has been kind enough 
to point out to me the very unusual onychium of M. laticollis 
Pasc, with its several spines besides the two usual setae, and he 
further adds, " I do not know another genus, except Phrenapetes 
of South America, in which that onychium occurs. ' I therefore 
propose the name 7'eremenes for M. convexiusculus Hope, and 
M. longipenjiis Hope, the latter of which has also been clearly 
identified by specimens sent from the British Museum, and which 



BY H. J. CARTRU. 55 

is probal)ly only an elongate and larger variety of J/, convexius- 
culus Hope, but which, for tlie present, I would retain as separ- 
able from that species. To these I would add a third species 
from North Queensland, received from various collectors; and 
tabulate them as follows : — 

Teremenes, n.gen. 

1. 17-18 mm, long, pronotum and elytral intervals finely punctate . ... 

longipennis Hope. 

2. 13-15 mm. long, pronotum, elj'tral iuLeivals, and underside smooth or 

only microscopically punctate 

couL-exiuscnlus Hope, seri'ulus Pasc, {1)uifjerrinms Boisd. 

3. 13-15 mm. long, pronotum, elytral intervals, and underside strongly 

punctate socius, n.sp. 

7'. longipennis Hope, is recorded from Tasmania and South 
Australia. I have specimens also from Victoria and New South 
Wales. _ 

2\ convexiusculus Hope, is widely distributed in all the 
Southern States. 

T. socius, n.sp., seems to be confined to North Queensland. 
Its distinction of sculpture is very marked, while it also has 
sharper hind angles to the prothorax, and a narrower lateral 
border, with the front angles less depressed and more evident. 

Microphyes riijipes Macl. — I have examined the type of this, 
and identified it in my own Coll., from Queensland and West 
Australia (H. Brown). It should be transferred to another sub- 
family, the Ulomince, 1 think, but it is certainly out of place in 
the Tenehrionince. 

Synercticns piceus Pasc, = aS'. heteromerus Newra. - A most 
variable insect in size. My specimens vary from 8 to 13 mm. in 
length. 

Synercticus and Tanylipa are aberrant members of the 7'ene- 
h'ionincB in having their anterior coxal cavities open behind. 
For the present, they must be held as anomalous forms of the 
subfamily, with a doubtful relationship. 



56 REVISION OF THE SUBFAMILY TENSBRIONI^uE^ 

ToxicuM Latr. 

Eight names have been published as belonging to the Austra- 
lian species of this genus. In my opinion, these should be 
reduced to three, with a synonymy as follows : — 

(1)7'. curvicorne Blkb., = 7'. spretum Blkb., = T'. parvicorne 
Macl., = 2\ hrevicorne Pasc. 

(2) T. addendum Blkb., = T. distinctum Macl., = T. punctipenne 
Pasc. 

(3) T. gracile Pasc. 

Of these, I have examined the types of T. spretum, T. parvi- 
corne, and T. distinctum', and specimens compared with types by 
Mr. Blair of T. curvicorne, T. punctipenne, and T. gracile\ while 
T. hrevicorne is the commonest species in Victoria and New Ho^ith 
Wales, and is, no doubt, correctly named in the Macleay Museum. 
Mr. Blair, moreover, writes that he has placed T. curvicorne in 
the British Museum Collection as a synonym of T. hrevicorne, an 
opinion with which I concur, after seeing the specimens sent by 
him. 

All the species I have seen in a fresh condition, except T. 
gracile, have an opaque velvety indumentum which can be 
removed by friction. The type of T. spretum Blkb., in the South 
Australian Museum, is, I consider, an abraded specimen of T. 
hy^evicorne Pasc, the elytral intervals and punctures being a little 
more clearly defined and its surface more nitid than in the fresh 
specimens. In a long series, the male presents variations in the 
length of the horns, as shown in other horned insects (e.g., Ontho- 
phagus, Bolhoceras, etc.); thus the type of T. parvicorne Macl., 
is, I consider, a specimen of I', brevico'ue Pasc, with unusually 
stunted horns. Mr. Champion has published the synonymy of 
T. addendum Blkb., with T. punctipenne Pasc; while T. dis- 
tinctum Macl., is undoubtedly the same species. As pointed out 
by Champion, Blackburn (and I would add Pascoe and Macleay) 
failed to notice the angular enlargement — or blunt tooth - on the 
inside edge of the anterior femora of the male; a pronounced 
character in T. punctipe7ine Pasc. In 7\ hrevicorne Pasc, this 
tooth is smaller but evident, while in T. gracile Pasc, it is even 
less obvious, though present. 



BY H. J. CARTER. 57 

With regard to tlie antennae, Blackburn overlooked the con- 
tradiction contained in Pascoe's description of 2\ brevicorne 
(Journ, of Ent. 1866, p. 454). In the Latin part, this reads 
" antennarum clava triarticulata," while in the longer English 
notes below, he writes " club of the antennte four-jointed." 
From my examination of the five species tabulated below, I find 
the club to be as follows : — 

T. punctipenne'^di&c. — CXwh of 3 joints, easily differentiated 
from the preceding joints. 

2\ brevicorne Pasc. — Club of 4 joints, the 8th transverse, but 
more triangular than the 9th joint. 

T. gracile Pasc. — The slender club may be considered as having 
three or four joints, the 8th being intermediate in size between 
the 7th and 9th, but so much smaller than 9, and in shape like 
7, that I should consider the club as rather 3-jointed than four. 

T. insigne, n.sp. — Club of 4 joints, easily differentiated from 
the preceding joints. 

T. quinque-coriiutum, n.sp.— Club of 4 joints, easily differen- 
tiated. 

The five species can be readily tabulated by the character of 
the horns of the male as follov/s : — 

{l.)Clypeal hoi^ns sep-ATixte, starting from near the corners of the clypeus, 
and nearly vertical. 
Frontal horns gently incurved, pointing upwards, with semicircular 
fringe of red hair from near the apex on the outside to about | 

way down the inside punclipenne Pasc. 

{2.)Glypeal horns shorter than in (1), separated, but not starting from 
opposite corners of the clypeus, and diverging. 
Frontal horns semicircularly incurved, pointing inwards, with smaller 

fringe of red hair round the apex, above and below ... 

brevicorne Pasc. 

{3.)Clypeal horns connected at base, starting from the middle of the 
clypeus, forming the letter Y, with the conmion base wide. 
Frontal horns moderately incurved, pointing upwards, nearly as in (1), 
with fringe of yellow hair starting from near the apex on the 

outside and continued half way or more on the inside 

gracile Pasc. 

{i.)Clypeal horns abbreviated into wide conical tubercles at the corners of 
the clypeus. 



58 REVISION OF THE SUBFAMILY TENEBRIONTNuE, 

Frontal horns strongly incurved at base, the extreme apex again in- 
curved, widened, and deflexed, with a wide apical surface nearly 
meeting, with a fringe of red hair on the outside only, extending, 

but narrowly, to half way down insigiie, n.sp. 

{5.)Clypeal horiis three, the middle one largest and widely tiiangular, the 
two lateral ones short, also triangular, forming the extension of 
the canthi. 

Frontal horna flattened, widest seen laterally, sharply incurved at 
base, twisted backwards at apex, with verj' small tuft of yellow 
tomentum on outside of apex quinque-cornutum, n.sp. 

Paratoxicum iridescens Champ. — I have taken a specimen of 
this at Mt. Buffalo, Victoria. 

Brises Blairi, n.sp. 

Ovate, depressed, glabrous, nitid-black, oral organs, joints 1-2, 
and 8-11 of antennae, and tarsi, red. 

Head closely and distinctly punctate, mandibles bifid at apex, 
labrum emarginate and rounded, epistoma arcuate in front, 
rounded at sides, making an obtuse angle with the can thus, the 
latter raised and angulate (subcornute) and lightly impinging on 
the eyes, epistomal suture sulcate and arcuate, the forehead on a 
higher plane than the epistoma, eyes large, transverse, widely 
separated and free of the prothorax, last joint of maxillary palpi 
triangular; antennae not reaching the base of prothorax, rather 
slender at base, moderately enlarged at apex, joint 3 about as 
long as 4-5 combined, 4-7 obconic, 8-11 rather shortly ovate. 
Prothorax 3-5 x 6 mm., widest at middle and base, arcuate at 
apex, the anterior angles round and little advanced, sides strongly 
widened to the middle, then widely sinuate to the acutely pro- 
duced and dentate posterior angles, without any defined border, 
lateral margins widely explanate and reflexed, concave anteriorly, 
convex posteriorly, separated from disc by a groove; disc with 
medial line faintly indicated, and two basal foveate depressions; 
minutely punctate. Scutellum transversely triangular. Elytra 
wider than prothorax at base and nearly thrice as long, ovate 
and rather flat, shoulders rather square, epipleural fold slightly 
reflexed, horizontal margins wide on basal half, narrowing towards 
apex, with a separating sulcus containing an irregular row of 



BY H. J. CARTER. 59 

punctures becoming obsolete beliind, with two rcaised costas on 
each elytron, the first originating abruptly at some distance from 
the base, and obsolescent about half-way, the second starting 
considerably behind the first and continued a little further back- 
ward, the intervals with indistinct rows of shallow punctures, 
the apical declivity a little rugose and finely pustulose, also a 
row of indistinct pustules on each side of suture on apical half. 
Prosternum punctate, its flanks ridged on the inside, its process 
narrowly carinate and produced, mesosternal cavity wide, with 
raised margins, posterior intercoxal process rounded, abdomen 
minutely punctate, epipleurae smooth, tibiae pustulose, the front 
tibiae slightly bent, tibial spurs and tarsal claws very long, the 
tarsi clothed with long red hair. Dimensions, 16x8 mm. 

Hab. Killalpanima, 100 miles east of Lake Eyre (H. J. 
Hillier). 

A single specimen (gl) sent by Mr. K. G. Blair for examina- 
tion, and in whose honour I name it, is easily distinguished from 
the only other bicostate Brises by its nitid surface, wider form, 
and very different sculpture. 

In the structure of the head, with the epistoma on a lower 
plane than the forehead, and the eyes quite free of the prothorax, 
it is more like B. Duhoulayi Bates, and is interesting as showing 
a connecting link between two aberrant forms. Type in the 
British Museum. 

A second specimen has been lately sent for determination from 
the National Museum, Melbourne, labelled " Finke R.; N. Aus- 
tralia," taken by Professor Baldwin Spencer. 

Hypaulax foveata, n.sp. 

Elongate-ovate, nitid black; antennae, tibiae, and tarsi dark 
castaneous, inside of tibiae and tarsi beneath clothed with pale 
golden pubescence. 

Head very wide, truncate in front, narrowed behind the eyes, 
smooth on forehead, finely punctate on epistoma and labrum, the 
last prominent and ciliate, suture semicircular, mandibles slightly 
notched at apex, antennae stout, joint 3 scarcely longer than 4, 
7-11 enlarged, 8-10 subquadrate, 11 longer than 10. Prothorax 



60 REVISION OF THE SUBFAMILY TENEBRIONINJE, 

wider than long (about 6x7 mm.), truncate at apex, the angle 
feebly advanced, wider at apex than at base, anterior angles 
rather squarely rounded, lateral rounding very slight on the 
anterior part, a little sinuate posteriorly, its angle prominent and 
acute, pointing obliquely outwards, margins fairly wide in front, 
narrowly chajmelled within, margin and channel narrowed (some- 
times with a slight crenulation) before the sinuation; base slightly 
bisinuate and thickly margined; disc with faint median line, and, 
under a strong lens, seen to be finely punctate. Scutellum trans- 
verse. Elytra slightly wider than prothorax at base, gradually 
widening to beyond the middle, sinuately and strongly narrowed 
at apex, with moderate declivity; thickly margined at base, 
humeral angle very obtuse but prominent, lateral margin and 
channel narrow; substriate, with nine lines of large fovese, the 
last on margin, sometimes confluent but smaller and punctiform 
on the first row and near apex; an extra scutellary row consist- 
ing of about three elongate punctures. Abdomen faintly strio- 
late, intercoxal process widely rounded, its margin interrupted at 
apex ; prosternum with three wide carinse, the two outside 
irregularly thickened and crenulate within, the deep sulci 
between the carinse produced in front of coxae, prosternal process 
rounded behind; front tibiae strongly curved at apex. Dimen- 
sions^ 22-25 X 7J-9 mm. 

^a5._Dalveen (H. J. Carter), Stanthorpe (H. Cox) Queens- 
land; Tenterfield, New South Wales (Dr. Clark). 

Six specimens examined, the males generally larger, wider, and 
less convex than the females. The species differs from all de- 
scribed species by the large foveate punctures of the elytra, very 
little smaller than in H. (Chileone) Deyrollei Bates, from which 
it differs in its narrower, longer, and less depressed form, the 
much less produced and wider anterior angles of prothorax, with 
its less thick and crenulate border. (In only one specimen of 
H.foveata is this crenulation marked). Though not strictly 
striate, the intervals are raised, and, viewed from behind, the 
rows appear to be in linear depressions. It is noteworthy that 
H. Deyrollei Bates, occurs within the same geographical area, 
and has been captured by the author at Guyra and Tenterfield, 



BY H. J. CARTKR. 61 

while four specimens of H. foveata were taken at Dalveen. Types 
in the author's Coll. 

Hypaulax puncticollis, n.sp. 

Elongate-obovate, dull black above, nitid beneath, antennse 
reddish, tarsi with golden tomentum. 

Head: mandibles bifid, epistoma truncate at apex, oblique at 
sides and continuous with the canthus, limiting suture arcuate 
and fine, forehead evenly convex, the whole closely and not very 
finely punctate. Prothorax 4 x 5J mm., subtruncate at apex and 
base, anterior angles obtuse and scarcely advanced, sides feebly 
arcuate, abruptly incurving behind, posterior angles obtuse, 
deflexed and not at all produced or dentate, base and sides with 
narrow, raised margin, that of the latter with a subangular twist 
at the point of incurving; disc without foveas or central line, 
densely and regularly punctate, like the head. Scutellum very 
small. Elytra : basal border thickened and raised, shoulders 
obtuse, sides scarcely sinuate at apex; striate-punctate, the striae 
shallow and unevenly defined, the seriate punctures small, fairly 
even in size and position (much smaller and closer than in H, 
orcus or H. ampliatus Bates; about three punctures would go to 
the width of an interval), interstices almost flat throughout, and 
distinctly punctured. Abdomen striolate and finely punctate, 
prosternum coarsely punctate, its process sulcate at the sides, the 
sulci produced behind the pro-coxae, its apex rounded. Protibiae 
rather strongly bent and incurved at apex. Bifnensions, 18 x 7mm. 

Hab. — Onslow, West Australia. 

A single specimen in the Melbourne Museum differs from H. 
interioris Blkb., in (l)its distinctly punctate head and thorax (a 
character Blackburn could scarcely have left unnoticed had it 
existed in his species); (2) the unproduced obtuse posterior angles 
of prothorax, which with H. interioris are " parvis acutis ex- 
trorsum retrorsumque inclinatis." Moreover, if I have identified 
H. interioris correctly in a much larger species from La Grange 
Bay, the abdomen is coarsely and deeply punctate, while the 
prosternum is finely punctate - the reverse being the case with 
H. puncticollis. The species differs widely from the other two 

6 



62 REVISION OF THE SUBFAMILY TENEBRIONINJE, 

western forms in the very different elytral sculpture. The three 
apical joints of antennae are wanting. Type in the National 
Museum, Melbourne. 

A second specimen, labelled W.A., measuring 21 J x 9 mm., is 
in the consignment of insects sent by Mr. Blair from the British 
Museum; both are, I think, males. 

Hypaulax Spenceri, n.sp. 

Oblong-ovate, nitid black above and beneath, antennse piceous 
(reddish towards apex), tarsi clothed beneath with red hair. 

Head distinctly punctate, epistoma and canthus coarctate, the 
canthus shorter and more knobbed than in //. insularis Hope, 
forehead very convex, ridged at the sides, with a horseshoe-im- 
pression ; antennse moderately enlarged at apex. Prothorax 
5x6-5 mm., slightly wider behind than in front, apex sub- 
truncate, the widely rounded anterior angles scarcely advanced, 
widest behind middle, sides widely diverging to the widest part, 
then rather abruptly but not angularly converging (subsinuately) 
to the obtuse undentate posterior angles; base truncate; lateral 
border rounded, thick, raised and nitid, forming a sulcate channel 
within, its extreme outline faintly crenulated, basal border thin 
and accentuated by a transverse sulcus meeting the lateral sulcus 
at the angles; disc more convex than in H. insularis, with a 
faintly impressed medial line, a fovea on each side of this, and a 
larger depression between the foveae and the sides at their widest; 
minutely and closely punctate. Scutellum very transverse and 
thin. Elytra slightly wider than the prothorax at base, obovate, 
with nine rows of large, elongate fovese placed in deep sulci, the 
ninth on the lateral sulcus only distinctly punctate anteriorly, 
the intervals narrower and more convex than in H. insularis; 
minutely punctate; suhmentum finely transversely rugose, gular 
furrow well marked; prosternum coarsely rugose-punctate ante- 
riorly, its process very convex, and not raised at apex; meso- 
sternum and abdomen coarsely punctate and longitudinally 
rugose; mandibles bifid at apex. Dimensions, 16x7 mm. 

^rt6. — Flora River, Northern Territory (Professor Baldwin 
Spencer). 



BY H. J. CARTER. 63 

A single male specimen, sent by the Melbourne Museum, 
taken by Professor Spencer, in whose honour I name it, is a close 
ally of //. insuJaris }iope( ^ h'idescens Blkb.), from which it may 
be distinguished by (l)its entirely nitid upper surface; (2) the 
much thicker margin of prothorax, with wider anterior and un- 
produced posterior angles; (3) the longer and more deeply placed 
fovese of the elytra; and (4) the coarsely rugose-punctate under- 
surface, (the same in H. insularis being finely and sparsely punc- 
tate) besides other minor differences. Type in the National 
Museum, Melbourne. 

Encyalesthus excisipes, n.sp. 

Elongate, convex, nitid black, oral organs, antennce, and tarsi 
red. 

Head closely and clearly punctate, epistomal suture distinct 
and straight, continued obliquely outwards to the margins, 
canthus little raised, space between eyes flat and not much wider 
than the width of one eye, very convex behind; antennae extend- 
ing a little beyond the base of prothorax, joint 3 longer than 1-2 
combined, 7-11 considerably and successively widened. Pro- 
thorax 3-5 x 4 mm., convex, truncate at apex, anterior angles 
widely rounded, depressed, not emarginate, widest about the 
middle, sides slightly rounded, not at all sinuate, posterior angles 
obtuse, not at all produced, base biarcuate, subangulate in the 
middle, lateral and basal border narrow (as in B. punctipennis 
Pasc), disc closely and evidently punctate, without foveae or 
middle line. Scutellum triangular. Elytra considerably Avider 
than prothorax at base, twice and two-thirds as long, very 
convex and slightly widened behind the middle, lightly striate- 
punctate, with eight rows of punctures, besides a lateral and a 
short scutellary row placed in irregular striae, these more deeply 
impressed at sides and apex, the punctures of about the same 
size but generally more closely placed than in E. punctipennis 
Pasc, the intervals minutely but evidently punctate; underside 
finely punctate, the abdomen longitudinally rugose ; femora 
swollen towards apex, tibiae without apical spines, the male with 
front tibiae slightly bent at apex, the posterior tibiae hollowed on 



■/ 



64 REVISION OF THE SUBFAMILY TE XEBRIOSINjE, 

the inside, giving an appearance of an excision. Dimensions, 
11-5-13-5 X 4-5-5'5 mm. 

Bab. — Kuranda, North Queensland (F. Dodd and A. M. Lea). 

Four specimens, two of each sex, examined, one sent to me 
some time ago by Mr. Dodd, the other three, taken by Mr. Lea, 
evidently difter from the well-known E. punctipennis Pasc, in the 
following characters : (l)form wider and more robust, (2) colour 
more nitid, (3) antennae stouter, and especially more enlarged 
apically, (4)elytral striae more distinct, seriate punctures closer, 
(5) stouter femora, and the posterior tibial excision of the male. 
Type in the author's Coll. 

Promethis major, n.sp. 

Elongate-obovate, nitid black, antennae piceous, tarsi and apex 
of tibiae clothed with red tomentum. 

Head as in P. nigra Bless., but with stronger punctuation, the 
antennae also stouter and more evidently punctured. Prothora.r 
6 X 7*2m.m., subquadrate, widest in front, the apex nearly straight, 
anterior angles widely rounded, reflexed and projecting outwards, 
lateral border thickened in front, narrowed and slightly sinuate 
behind, without any twist or erenulation, base bisinuate, posterior 
angles obtuse, but less so and more prominent than in P. tiigra; 
disc closely punctate, the medial line deeply sulcate, but not quite 
extending to apical border. Scutelhmi punctate, curvilinear-tri- 
angular. Elytra obovate, much wider than and more than three 
times as long as the prothorax, striate-punctate, each elytron with 
nine rows (besides a short scutellary row) of large round punc- 
tures, the punctures close but not contiguous, nor at all hidden in 
the striae; the first two rows continuous to apex, the third and 
fourth connected, the fifth and sixth connected in front of the 
former^ the seventh and eighth connected behind the preceding, the 
ninth on the sides containing less defined punctures; the intervals 
rather sharply convex and very minutely punctate. Abdomen 
closely but irregularly covered with large round punctures, these 
larger, deeper and more numerous than in P. nigra Bless., meso- 
and metasternum rugose, their sides only punctate, prosternum 
transverselv rug-ose. 



6Y H. J. CARTER. 66 

^. With front tibiae strongly bent inward at apex, and clothed 
with a tuft of tomentum. 

5. With front tibiae slightly arcuate, but not l)ent inwards. 

Dimensions : ^J, 29 x 11 mm.; 9, 25 x 10 mm. 

7/a6.— Gympie, Queensland (R. Illidge). 

I have seen three specimens of this, amongst the large number of 
Fromethis examined, two from the British Museum, one much 
damaged and ancient; the other, the female type, labelled "Aus- 
tralia." The male type was taken by Mr. Illidge at Gympie, and 
given to me, with many other generous gifts. The species evidently 
differs from the many varieties of P. nigra Bless., in (1) the un- 
usually widened apex of prothorax, the angles of which, in the 9 
type, form distinct lobes; (2) the much coarser punctures of the 
elytral series, not at all concealed in the striae; (3) the even more 
markedly coarser punctuation of the abdomen; (4) the much more 
sharply convex intervals of the elytra. While a few examples of 
P. nigra Bless., approach P. major in size, the latter is larger and 
wider than the general average size of P. nigra Bless. 

Fromethis lobicollis, n.sp. 

Elongate, parallel, subnitid-black, antennee piceous-red, tarsi 
(and apex of tibiae in ^) clothed with red hairs. 

Head densely and strongly punctate, the mentum of $ not 
bearded; mandibles bifid at apex, last joint of palpi securiform, 
mentum subcordate, carinate in the middle, submentum coarsely 
rugose-punctate, gula transversely wrinkled; labrum emarginate, 
straight and ciliate ; epistoma straight in front, obliquely rounded 
at sides, meeting the canthus at a sinuate angle, limited behind l)y 
a straight depression becoming more defined and sulcate at the 
sides; antennae with joint 3 not longer than 1-2 combined, and 
similar to that in P. angulata Erichs. Prothorax 4-5x5 mm., sub- 
quadrate, a little advanced and raised in the middle at apex, base 
truncate, except at the angles; anterior angles depressed and 
rounded, not advanced, sides feebly arcuate (in one example sliglitly 
wider in front, and straight in the middle two-thirds), abruptly 
incurved near base, the posterior angles, in (J, produced behind 



66 



REVISION OF THK SUBFAMILY TENEBRIONI S jfl. 




Fig.l. 
P. lohkollis i 



into a small, swollen, lobate process (somewhat as in Cardiothorax 
egerius Pasc); in the 9 specimen, the lobe is reduced to a small sub- 
rectangular tooth, pointing outwards rather tha n 
behind; lateral and basal border entire, except for 
a single crenulation near the base in (J, narrowly 
reflexed, sulcate within; this border narrowed and 
terminated on the apex; disc closely and definitely 
punctate, with a faint suggestion of a smooth 
middle line. Scutellutn triangular with rounded 
sides, clearly punctate. Elytra wider than pro- 
thorax at base and thrice as long, sides nearly 
parallel throughout, shoulders rather squarely 
rounded, disc with eight fine crenulate costse, the 
crenulation formed by rows of large punctures on 
the outside of each, the punctures rather smaller 
than the seriate punctures in P. angulata Erichs., 
the second and third, fourth and fifth, sixth and 
seventh meeting in pairs near apex; a short scutellary and an 
extreme lateral row of punctures, the latter continuous to apex, 
the intervals between costse wrinkled and closely 
punctate. Abdomen and mesosternum densely 
and very definitely punctate, prosternum less 
deeply so. Femora coarsely punctate, ^ with a 
small tooth on inner margin of fore and middle 
femora near the base, tibiae finely punctate, grooved 
and carinate; strongly curved and elongate in ^J. 
Dimensions : ^, 20 x 65 mm.; 9, 16 x 5-6 mm. 

Hah. — Kalgoorlie and Kookynie (Messrs. Dubou- 
lay, senior, and E. Duboulay). 

Three specimens, two (J, one 9, are the only speci- 
mens I have ever seen, and are quite distinct from 
the described species in the shape of the prothorax, 
and the stronger surface-punctures. One speci- 
men, (J, shows much more puncturation than the P . IoUcoIHh ^ . 
others, possibly due to immersion in spirits. The elytral sculp- 
ture is unlike that of any other Tenebrionid known to me, and 
may deserve generic position, but as it possesses all the salient 




Fi<'.-: 



BY H. J. CARTER. 



67 



characters of Promethis, as briefly given by Pascoe, I prefer not 
to multiply genera in its favour. Types in the Author's Coll. 

Promethis MiNon, n.sp. 

Elongate, parallel, piceous-black, subnitid, underside piceous- 
brown, more nitid, antennae and tarsi red. 

Head much more coarsely punctate than in P. quadricollis Pasc, 
the antennae shorter, and a paler red. ProtlioraxZ x 4mm., widest 
at middle, subtruncate at apex, the middle slightly raised and more 
nitid than the rest, anterior angles rounded, obtuse, and declinate, 
sides rather widely rounded, lateral border narrow, even and entire, 
turned dow^nwards, rather abruptly narrowed, but 
scarcely sinuate behind; posterior angles widely 
obtuse, base bordered and sulcate, apex without bor- 
der, disc distinctly and evenly punctate, the punc- 
tures deeper and more distant than in P. quadricollis 
Pasc, medial channel distinctly impressed but not 
quite continuous to apex. Scutellum triangular. 
Elytra wider than prothorax at base, and thrice as 
long, shoulders rather squarely rounded, sub-cylin- 
dric, narrowly marginal throughout, striate-punctate, 
seriate punctures smaller and more distant than in 
P. quadricollis Pasc, becoming larger towards sides, 
intervals convex and finely punctate; abdomen 
sparsely and finely punctate, slightly wrinkled at the 
edges of segments, metasternum finely rugose, pro- 
sternum nearly smooth. Front tibiae of ^ slightly curved, and 
finely tomentose at apex (straiglit in 9). Dimensions, 14x0 
mm. 

Hah. — Rockhampton, Queensland. 

Three specimens, 1 ^, 2 9, in the British Museum consignment, 
sent to me by Mr. Blair, are evidently distinct from the common 
P. quadricollis in (1) smaller size and cylindric form; (2) less 
nitid, browner-black colour; (3) prothorax wuth sides and angles 
more turned downwards, the wider angles, and the much more 
rounded sides without any sign of crenulation at margin; (4) more 




Fig. 
P. viinor. 



68 RKVISION OF THE SUBFAMILY TE S EBRIOS I S\€, 

evident punctures of elytral intervals, and finer punctures of the 
underside. Types in the British ]\Iuseum. 

Tkremenes socius, n.sp. 

Elongate, parallel, nitid-black; oral organs, clothing of tarsi, 
and (in some examples) the underside of legs pitchy-red. 

Head densely and strongly punctate, clypeal suture arched and 
well impressed, eyes large and rather prominent, antennae not 
reaching the base of prothorax, the apical joints moderately 
enlarged. Prothorax about as wide as long (3-5 m.m.), widest in 
front of middle, subtruncate at base and apex; anterior angles 
rather widely rounded and depressed, scarcely advanced, sides 
gently converging backwards in a feeble curve, slightly sinuate 
behind; posterior angles narrowly dentate and extended, sides and 
base sulcate within the border, disc slightly gibbous in the middle 
of the anterior portion, densely and clearly punctate, generally 
with two fovese near the basal border, and without any medial 
line. Scutellum curvilinearly triangular. Elytra wider than pro- 
thorax at base, twice and one-half as long, sides subparallel, or 
slightly widened behind in the female ; striate-punctate, the punc- 
tures in the striae smaller and closer than in T. convexiusculus 
Hope; the intervals distinctly punctate, and, towards the apex, a 
little convex. Underside-structure as in T. convexiusculus, but 
much more strongly punctured, especially on the abdomen. The 
male is distinguished as in T. convexiusculus by the longer and 
strongly curved front tibiae, with their tuft of golden hair at the 
apex, which is absent from the female. Dimensions, 10-14 x 4-4-4 
mm. 

Rah. — North Queensland: Coen (Hacker), Cairns(Lea), Cook- 
town, Ayr. 

Several specimens examined, differ from the widely dispersed 
T. convexiusculus Hope in the more strongly sculptured surface, 
both above and beneath, in marked contrast to the almost impunc- 
tate pronotum and abdomen of Hope's species. The lateral border 
is also narrower, the front angles less depressed and more evident, 
the hind angles sharper than in T. convexiusculus Hope {servulus 
Pasc). Types in the Author's Coll. 



6Y H. .J. CARTER. 69 

Menephilus LiETUS, n.sp. 

Near M. corvinus Erichs., ( =M. cyaneipennis Hope), the whole 
upper surface bright blue (sometimes purplish), underside black, 
antennae and legs castaneous. 

Head very finely punctate, epistomal suture straight, prothorax 
subquadrate, truncate at base and apex, twice as wide as long, 
moderately arcuate and not all sinuate at sides ; lateral margin and 
channel narrow, basal margin thicker ; disc without f ovege or middle 
line, minutely punctate (only apparent under a strong lens) ; 
anterior angles rather squarely rounded, posterior angles obtuse 
but defined. Elytra parallel, cylindric; striate-punctate, the stria3 
narrow, the punctures small and regular, intervals flat on disc, 
slightly convex towards the sides and minutely punctate. Dimen- 
sions^ 10-12^ X 4:-4| mm. 

Hab. — Kuranda, North Queensland (F. Dodd and A. M. Lea). 

I have identified H. corvinus Erichs., from specimens taken at 
Dorrigo, New South Wales, and compared with specimens sent 
from the British Museum. The above differs from it in its sliortor 
and more convex form, nonsinuate sides of prothorax, the anterior 
angle squarer, posterior obtuse (acute in M. corvinus), mucli finer 
punctures, while the elytra are more glossy, and not as in Erich- 
son's species '^subtiliter transversim rugulosis" but are minutely 
punctate. Types in the Author's Coll. (eight specimens examined, 
four sent me by Mr. Dodd, and four taken by Mr. Lea in the same 
district.) 

Menephilus brevis, n.sp. 

Short, parallel, convex, head and pronotum purple-bronze or 
blue, elytra variegated, in general green with metallic reflections, 
the suture purple, all aj^pendages and underside castaneous. 

Head short and wide, epistoma rounded and tumid, its suture 
straight, eyes just free of prothorax, antennae attenuated at base, 
7-10 enlarged and subtriangular, 11th spherical; whole surface 
and that of the pronotum densely, and bj' no means finely punctate. 
Prothorax subquadrate, but arcuately narrowed in front, its acute 
anterior angles rather strongly produced; rather depressed and 



70 liEVISION OF THE SUBFAMILY TENEBRIONIN JE^ 

slightly explanate; sides (except for the slight narrowing in front) 
nearly straight, base faintly bisinuate, posterior angles subrectan- 
gular. Scutellum very small, punctate. Elytra of the same width 
as prothorax at base, shortly cylindric, and bluntly rounded be- 
hind ; striate-punctate, with eight striae containing fine, close punc- 
tures, the intervals flat (slightly convex at the sides) and minutely 
punctate; legs smooth, abdomen and epipleurge rather closely and 
strongly, prosternum and gula coarsely punctate; prosternal pro- 
cess with raised crenulate margins, the first segment of the abdo- 
men with a fovea betwen the coxce. Dimensions, 4|--5 x 2-2 J mm. 

>/« 6. —Brisbane (R. Illidge), Kurauda (G. E. Bryant); Acacia 
Creek, N.S.W. (The Author). 

Five specimens of this pretty little insect differ only in colour, 
the Acacia Creek specimen being the most brilliant, the head and 
jironotum being blue-green, the elytra purple at suture, then blue, 
green, gold, purple, blue, and gold (on sides), succeeding one 
another. Types in the Author's Coll. 

Menephilus rectibasis, n.sp. 
Elongate, parallel, nitid-black above and beneath, tarsi and 
antennae red (tibiae sometimes reddish). 

Head minutely punctate on epistoma, more coarsely so on fore- 
head, the former surface extended backward more than usual, and 
defined by arcuate depression, eye-sockets more deeply hollowed 
than in M. Sydneyanus Blkb., the antennae shorter and less en- 
larged apically than in that species. Prothorax 2-5x3 mm., 
apex bisinuate, advanced in the middle, the anterior angles acute 
and strongly advanced, sides feebly arcuate, narrowed apically, 
almost straight on posterior two-thirds, base truncate, posterior 
angles sharply rectangular, lateral margins raised, distinctly sul- 
cate within, basal border narrow but clearly defined, disc densely 
and finely punctate, without central line, and with two small and 
inconspicuous basal foveas. Scutellum transversely oval. Elytra 
scarcely, or very slightl}^, wider than prothorax at base and more 
than twice as long, shoulders rather sharply rectangular, sides 
parallel, less convex than M. Sydneyanas Blkb., striate-punctate, 
the seriate punctures small and closely placed in deep striae, inter- 



BY H. J. CARTER. 71 

vals convex, and finely punctate (the punctures becoming larger 
and intervals sharper towards sides). Abdomen densely and deli- 
cately punctate, prosternum finely striolate, tibiae straiglit, or 
nearly so, the anterior tibia? strongly and angularly dilated at apex, 
especially in ^. Dime^isions 9-10 x 3 mm. 

Hah. — Dorrigo (H. Cox, W. Heron), Riclmiond River (British 
Museum). 

Ten specimens under examination, of which two, in the consign- 
ment from the British Museum, are intermediate between M. Syd- 
neyanus Blkb., and M. colydioides Erichs. Possibly it has often 
been overlooked by collectors in mistake for the common M. Syd- 
neyanus Blkb., which I have from the same district. It can be 
readily distinguished from Blackburn's species by (1) prothorax 
with unproduced hind angles and truncate base, the distinctly sul- 
cate sides, and the absence of the basal transverse depression; (2) 
elytra of flatter form, more deeply striate and more convex inter- 
vals; (3) much more distinctly punctate thorax and underside; (4) 
the straight tibiae of (J, with their angulately dilated apex (the 
same being strongly bent dow^nwards, and rounded at apex in M. 
Sydney anus). From M. colydioides it can be distinguished by its 
wider form, more nitid-black colour, prothorax with more produced 
anterior angles wuth wider lateral border and sulcation within. 
(N.B. — M. Sydney anus Blkb., ranges from Victoria to South 
Queensland, while I have specimens of M. colydioides Erichs., from 
Tasmania, Victoria, and New South Wales). Types in the 
Author's Coll. 

Meneristes dentipes, n.sp. 

(J Elongate, subcylindric, polished nitid-black; antenna?, palpi, 
and tarsi dark red; apex of front tibi« with large tuft of red 
tomentum, tarsi scantily clad with a few reddish hairs. 

Head minutely punctured on forehead, more closely on epis- 
toma, and finely rugose-punctate on the neck; epistoma truncate 
in front, with a deep, straight sulcus behind, arcuately continued in 
front of canthus, with two straight longitudinal sulci produced 
backward in front of the eyes; antennae short, scarcely reaching 
beyond the front third of prothorax, considerably widened out- 



72 



REVISION OF THE SUBFAMILY TE S EBRIONIS ^^ 



wards, joint 3 scarcely longer than 4, 8-10 subquadrate, 11 nearly 
round. Protliorax 5 x 5'G mm., more convex than in M. laticollis 
Pasc, widest near middle, apex slightly bisinuate, the middle a 
little advanced, anterior angles widely rounded, scarcely achanced, 
sides gently rounded, sinuate behind when viewed sideways (due 
to subangulate depression of border at this point), base nearly 
straight, posterior angles rather bluntly acute and! 
produced; sides, base, and the greater part of apex I 
with raised border, the lateral border not so evident i 
from above as in M. laticollis Pasc, due to its greater 
convexity ; a narrow sulcus within border throughout, 
except at the middle of apex, border thickened at the 
posterior angles; disc cjuite smooth, highly polished, 
with four foveate depressions, one near each angle 
within the apical and basal border respectively, and 
a faint beginning of a central depression at base and 
apex. Sciitellum triangular. Elytra wider than pro- 
thorax at base, and nearly twice and one-half as 
long, more convex and parallel than J/, laticollis 
Pasc, shoulders advanced and rather scjuarely 
rounded, striate-punctate, with nine rows, besides a ]\f dentipes. 
short scutellary row of large round punctures, no wise concealed 
by the striae, the terminal puncture at base especially large and 
deep; intervals convex and smooth. Gula finely, transversely 
rugose, prosternum finely punctate, metasternum and abdomen 
nearly smooth, except for a row of punctures at front edge of 
second and third segments, and some minute strioles; femora 
smooth, front tibise unusually bent downwards and iuAvards, deeply 
excavated, carinate on the inside, with two teeth, one wider near 
base, the second conical on the upper third; middle and hind 
tibias straight on the outer edge, the middle , tibia3 with two teeth, 
the one near the apex far more acute, posterior tibiae also biden- 
tate, with a large conical tooth near the middle, the other wide and 
round, emerging into the unusually widened ajDex. Dimensions^ 
19-20 X 7 mm. 
^.Wanting, 




Fig. 4 



BY H. J. CARTEl 



73 



Hah. — Coen River, Cape York (H. Haeker), Queensland (Brit- 
ish Museum). 

Two male specimens examined, one taken by Mr. Haeker, in 
1906; a second, labelled Queensland 77-27, in the British Museum 
consignment to me. The tibial characters are remarkable, and are 
shown in my outline figure; while its highly polished surface, cylin- 
dric form, large seriate punctures, and less produced angles of 
thorax, easily distinguish it from the common M. laticollis Pasc. 
Type in the Author's Coll. 

Mknkristks tibialis, n.sp. 

^J, Elongate, parallel, polished ebony-black; antennae, palpi and 
tarsi castaneous, front tibiae with a few red hairs at apex. 

Head rather coarsely punctate on forehead and 
labrum, with a smooth arched space connecting the 
eyes, more densely and finely punctate on epistoma, 
the latter straight in front, limited behind by arched 
sulcus, canthus oblique and raised, antennas extend- 
ing to two-thirds of prothorax, joint 3 as long as 1-2 
combined, longer than 4, joints 8-10 transverse but 
somewhat cjuadrate, 11th elongate-ovate. Prothorax 
5x6 mm., widest at middle and base, one-tliird 
narrower at apex, feebly bisinuate at apex (a little 
drawn back in middle) ; anterior angles obtuse, 
scarcely rounded and well advanced, sides gently 
arcuate widening to middle, feebly sinuate behind; 
posterior angles acutely produced, pointing directly 
backwards and downwards, with narrow reflexed ^^ • tibialis. 
border at sides, terminated and thickened at the posterior angles, 
attenuated but continuous throughout at apex, base without raised 
border, sides with narrow sulcus within border, widened into a hori- 
zontal lamina towards the anterior angle, base bisinuate; disc 
minutely not closely punctate, with two large and deep basal 
foveae, comma-shaped, occupying half the space between the angles 
and the middle, a faint indication of depressed middle line (not 
shown in one example). ScuteUnm triangular, minutely punctate. 




Fig.S. 



74 REVISION OF THE SUBFAMILY TENEBBIONIN^, 

Elytra wider than prothorax at base, and twice and one-third as 
long, shoulders rather squarely rounded, sides narrowly margined, 
striate-punctate, with nine rows, besides a short scutellary row of 
rather small punctures, closely placed in deep striae, intervals 
strongly convex and distinctly punctate (more evidently so than 
in M. laticollis Pasc), gula densely and coarsely punctate, pro- 
sternum finely rugose-punctate, metasternum, abdomen, middle and 
hind femora very finely rugose and minutely punctate; front 
femora more densely and coarsely punctate, front tibiae swollen in 
middle, strongly widened and curved near apex only, this wide 
curved lobe coarsely punctate ; earinate on outside edge, this carina 
widened into a rounded tooth or emargination at apex, with two 
short blunt spurs; middle tibiae strongly curved and similarly but 
less widened at apex, hind tibiae slightly curved with an angulate 
emargination or triangular tooth on inside edge below the middle, 
apex less enlarged than in the other tibiae, the four hind tibiae with 
long apical spurs. 

C^. With all tibiae straight, much less enlarged at apex, hind 
tibiae without the emargination. 

Dimensions of type (J, 20 x 8 mm,, other specimens from 
18 X 7 mm.; of 9, 19-23 x 7-9 mm. 

Hah. — Victorian Alps (The Author), Queensland C^), and New 
South Wales. 

Three male specimens examined, two from the Victorian Alps 
taken by myself, with four corresponding females; the third male, 
with a female, is labelled N. Queensland, but I have no record of 
their capture; a very large female was taken by my son, at 
Gynken, Blue Mountains. 

The species is easily separated from its allies, in male specimens 
by the single tooth on the hind tibiae. It has the polished surface 
of M. dentipes, with much more anteriorly narrowed prothorax 
and sharper angles. Even female specimens may be distinguished 
from M. laticollis by the more polished black colour, the more pro- 
duced and sharper angles, and widened margins near the front 
angles of prothorax. Types in the Author's Coll. 

Var. proximus, n. var. 



BY H. J. CARTER. 



75 



A provoking'ly closely allied species, of which both sexes, from 
Dorrig'o and Acacia Creek, and Tambourine iSIountain, is without 
the emargination on the hind tibiae of the $; the only other dif- 
ferences to be noted are (1) larger seriate punctures of elytra; (2) 
sides of prothorax less arcuately widened but more sinuate behind; 

(3) posterior angles of prothorax directed a little outwards; and 

(4) tibiae less curved and enlarged at apex in ^. 

Meneristes latior, n.sp. 

(J. Widely ovate, polished ebony-black; antennse, palpi, and 
tarsi castaneous, front tibiae with a fringe of red tomentum at 
apex. 

Head: labrum emarginate and coarsely punctate, 
forehead coarsely, epistoma densely and more finely 
punctate, the latter straight in front, rectangular 
at sides, meeting the canthus at a wide angle, 
limited behind by a defined semicircular sulcus; 
antennae extending to two-thirds of prothorax, con- 
siderably widened at apex, joint 3 as long as 1-2 
combined, 8-10 transversely oval, 11th nearly 
twice as long as 10, ovate. Prothorax 5*5 x 7 mm., 
widest in front of middle, much less narrowed in 
front than in 31. laticoUis Pasc, or M. tibialis, and 
nearly as convex as in 31. dentipes; apex bisinuate, 
middle portion advanced, anterior angles widely 
rounded but advanced, sides moderately arcuate? 
sinuate behind, posterior angles acutely produced 
backwards and a little outwards, base strongly 
bisinuate, extreme border narrow on sides, thick- 
ened towards and at the posterior angles, very narrow but unin- 
terrupted at apex, obsolete at base, sides with a wider marginal 
channel than usual, less widened in front than in 31. tibialis, 
but more marked than in 31. laticoUis Pasc, disc microscopically 
punctate, highly polished, with two deep foveato excavations at 
base near angles, and only the faintest suspicion in one example 
of a medial depression. Scutellum widely triangular. Elytra 
very little wider than prothorax at base, ovate, twice and one- 
third as long, shoulders rather widely rounded but prominent; 




Fig.6. 
M. latior. 



76 REVISION OF THE SUBFAMILY TENEBRIONl N.f!, 

striate-punctate, intervals sharply ridged, seriate punctures larger 
than in 31. tibialis, more closely placed than in M. laticollis Pasc, 
intervals apparently quite impunctate; underside very finely 
striolate, prosternum finely transversely rugose, femora smooth, 
tibiae coarsely punctate on under surface, (on upper surface at 
apex only). Front tibije moderately curved and enlai ged at apex, 
external carina triangularly enlarged at apex, middle and hind 
tibiie less curved and enlarged, apical spurs long. Dimensions 
of type (^, 21 X 8'5mm.; other specimens from 17 x 6*2 mm. 

Hab. -Dorrigo, N.S.W.(Il. J. Tillyard). 

Five specimens examined, all males. I can find no females to 
match them. The species is separated from its allies by the great 
width of the prothorax, very little less than that of elytra at 
base, also the great width of elytra compared with length. Thus 
in M. laticollis Pasc, the elytra are nearly exactly twice as long 
as w^de. In M. la/ior, the length is only once and two-thirds 
the width. I ype in author's Coll. 

TOXICUM INSIGNE, n.Sp. 

Elongate, parallel, dull brownish-black above, without the usual 
indumentum; oral organs, antennae, legs, and underside piceous. 

(J. Head concave, punctate, the clypeal horns degraded into 
conical tubercles situated at the corners of the clypeus, frontal 
horns strongly incurved at base and apex, the apices slightly 
widened and deflexed, nearly meeting, with a fringe of golden hair 
on the outside only, extending but narrowing almost to the extreme 
base; antennae with a distinct 4-jointed club, the 8th joint clearly 
differentiated in size and shape from the 7th. Prothorax bisinuate 
at base and apex, widest in front, about as wide as long (4 mm.), 
anterior angles rather squarely rounded, sides nearly straight and 
gently converging to base, posterior angles obtuse, not produced ; 
disc densely and uniformly punctate, sometimes with a faint de- 
pression to denote a medial line. Scutellum curvilinearly triangu- 
lar. Elytra wider than prothorax at base, and twice and one-half 
as long, shoulders rather square, sides nearly parallel till near 
apex; striate-punctate, the intervals convex, the punctures smaller 
and closer than in T. punctipenne Pasc, the basal part of elytra 



BY H. J. CARTER. 77 

with irregular, confused punctures of the same size as those in the 
series. Sternum, especially the prosternum, very coarsely punc- 
tate, abdomen less coarsely punctate. Front femora enlarged but 
not dentate, tibiae widely dilated at the apical two-thirds. 

^. Without tlie (clypeal) tubercles, the frontal horns replaced 
by two wide conical tubercles, the antennal club smaller, the tibia? 
only slightly dilated at apex. 

Dimensions^ 16 x 5(vix) mm. 

i?ab.— Lynndoch, S.A. (Tepper) ; Young, N.S.W. (Sloane) : 
Teralga, N.S.W, and South Australia (British Museum). 

Eight specimens (5 (J, 3 9) examined; three from the South 
Australian Museum, two from the British Museum, three from the 
Melbourne Museum, labelled from the above localities. It is easily 
distinguished by its greater size, the form of the male horns, its 
different elytral puncturation, and the curiously widened tibiae of 
the male. Types in the South Australian Museum. 

TOXICUM QUINQUE-CORNUTUM, n.sp. 

Elongate, parallel, opaque-black above, nitid-black beneath; 
antennae and tarsi piceous, the apical joints of the former red. 

Head densely and strongly punctate, clypeus three-horned, the 
middle one largest and widely triangular, obliquely pointing up- 
wards, its base occupying the whole front of clypeus, with two 
shorter triangular elevations forming a dentate extension, forwards 
and upwards, of the canthi; the frontal horns flattened, widest 
when seen laterally, sharply curved inwards at base, twisted back- 
wards at apex, with a very small tuft of yellow tomentum on the 
outside of apex; club of antennae moderately wide and four-joint- 
ed, joints 9 and 10 largest, and rounded. Prothorax 3 x 2-6 mm., 
bisinuate at apex and feebly so at base, slightly widest at apex, 
anterior angles rather squarely rounded and depressed, sides nearly 
straight and slightly narrowed to base, posterior angles obtuse; 
disc very finely and densely punctate, with a faint indication of a 
smooth middle line. Scutellum triangular. Elytra wider than pro- 
thorax at base, and twdce and one-half as long; striate-punctate, 
the punctures in the striae regular; of the same size, but more dis- 
tant than in T. hrevicorne Pasc. Underside sparsely punctate, the 

7 



78 REVISION OP THE SUBFAMILY TENEBRIONINjE, 

punctures on prosternum largest. Femora unarmed, tibiae slender. 
Dimensions, 10 x 3-5 mm. 

9. Wanting. 

J/a&.— New South Wales (Bellingen ?). 

A single ^ specimen, kindly given to me by Mr. W. Duboulay, 
probably from Bellingen, is easily distinguished by its remarkable 
elypeal and frontal appendages. Type in the Author's Coll. 

In my revision of the Cyphaleinae, I have unfortunately used 
generic titles that are preoccupied. Thus Mitrephorus has been 
used by Schonherr, (Col., 1837; Seudder, Nom. Zool.), and 
Toreuma, by Haeckel (Index Zool., 1902). Moreover, it appears 
that Ctimene Bates, was also used by Boisduval in Lepidoptera ; 
and Chariotheca Pasc, is preoccupied by Dejean (Col. 1833; Seud- 
der, Nom. Zool.). I^ therefore, propose the following changes: 
YoY Mitrephorus Cart., substitute Mitrothorax, n.gen.; for Toreu- 
ma Cart., substitute Entoreuma, n.gen.; for Ctimene Bates, sub- 
stitute Timeneca, n.gen. ; for Chariotheca Pascoe, substitute Chari- 
othes, n.gen. 

Errata.— On. p. 105, These Proceedings, 1903, In the Ex- 
planation of Plates, for Chlorophanes, read Trisilus; and on p. 65, 
for Lygestria read Lygestira; and for Mithippa read Mithippia. 

Platyphanes vittatus Westw. — Mr. Blair lately informed me that 
he had written to Geneva, and that Dr. Weber had kindly sent him 
the type of P. vittatus Westn. It is Pascoe's Opigenia iridescons. 
which, accordingly, must be now known as Opigenia vittata 
Westw. As regards P. aculeatus Westw., and P. striato-punctatus 
Westw., Dr. Weber states that neither of them is at Geneva, though 
both types are stated to be in the Melly Coll. This is most unfor- 
tunate, as leaving the identity of P. aculeatus Westw., with 
Moerodes Westivoodi Macl., unsettled. The following new species 
have been received since the publication of my revision. 

Subfamily Cyphalein^. 
Platyphanes denticollis, n.sp. 
Elongate, parallel, black; head and thorax opaque, elytra and 
underside subnitid, tarsi and antennae piceous, the former clothed 
>vitli red hair. 



BY H. J. CARTER. 79 

Head: labrum squarely emargiiiate, rui'o-ciliate in irout, epis- 
toma truncate, its sides rounded, making nearly a right angle with 
the Hat, elongate, and parallel canthus, the suture arcuate and sub- 
obsolete in the middle; front depressed, the whole coarsely and 
deeply punctate, space between the eyes as wide as the transverse 
diameter of one; antennae short, extending to one-half the length 
of prothorax, greatly enlarged apically, joint 3 longer than 4, 4-7 
obconic, 8-10 transverse, successively wider and more ovate, 11 as 
wide as 10, oval. Frothorax 5 x 6*0 inm., widest in middle, wider 
at base than at apex, the latter nearly straight except at the angles, 
these slightly reflexed, produced obliquely outwards and forwards 
into a sharp triangular tooth, base bismuate, sides slightly rounded 
in the middle, sinuate in front and (less strongly) behind; the pos- 
terior angles subrectangular, not produced; lateral border moder- 
ate, scarcely raised, not channelled within, apical border evident 
throughout. Disc with irregularly scattered round punctures, more 
crowded at the sides, with some smooth spaces near the middle. 
Scutelliim curvilinearly triangular, punctate. Elytra wider than 
prothorax at base and four times as long, widely rounded at, and 
slightly gibbous near, the humeral region, sides parallel, apex 
rather wide and horizontal, gradually narrowed in front, obsolete 
at shoulders, narrowly bordered, the margin separated from the 
disc by a fine sulcus, showing a few close punctures on basal half; 
disc scarcely striate-punctate, with ten defined rows of large punc- 
tures besides a short scutellary row, and an abbreviated row of 
smaller punctures on the fourth interval; intervals somewhat 
tumid, and convex at the sides, minutely punctate; the seriate 
punctures round, and placed so that the distance between two is 
about the width of an interval, with slight, variations of size and 
distance apart. Submentum closely pustulose, prosternum trans- 
versely rugose, its process coarsely punctate, bisulcate and widely 
rounded behind, compressed and nodulose in front, mesosternal 
cavity widely triangular, its edges swollen, sides of metasternum 
and epimera with large round punctures, basal segments of abdo- 
men strigose and finely punctate, femora coarsely punctate, pos- 
terior tarsi with apical and clawjoint of equal length. Dimen- 
sions, 28 X 12 mm. 



80 REVISION OF THE SUBFAMILY TENEBRIONIN ^^ 

Hah. — Warra, Queensland (Mrs. Hobler). 

A single {^%) specimen, kindly given to me by Mrs. Hobler, is 
the largest described si3ecies, and differs from its nearest ally, P. 
creber Blkb., in its black elytra, its dentate anterior angles of pro- 
thorax, the absence of defined striae, of which P. creber is said to 
have about 14. From P. striato-punctatus Westw., it differs still 
more, not only in the form of the prothorax, but in its wider, more 
parallel, and not at all cylindrical shape, with a quite different 
elytral sculpture. Type in the Author's Coll. 

Platyphanes rugosulus, n.sp. 

Narrowly elliptic, very convex; head and pronotum iiitid cop- 
pery-black, elytra dull coppery-brown, antennae and tarsi fuscous, 
underside and legs black. 

Head distinctly but not very closely punctate, epistoma straight 
in front, arcuately impressed behind, this impression joined by 
two shallow longitudinal impressions extending backwards behind 
the eyes, the latter rather widely separated ; antennae short and 
slender, moderately enlarged at apex, joint 3 cylindric, not as long 
as 4-5 combined, 4-7 obconic, 8-10 nearly round, 11 ovate. Pro- 
thorax 3x5^ mm., widest at base, apex arcuate, anterior angles 
obtuse, slightly depressed, scarcely advanced, sides arcuately 
widening to base, posterior angles produced and acute, base 
strongly bisinuate, lateral margins slightly raised, scarcely chan- 
nelled within, disc finely punctate, with three small shallow foveae 
at base. Scutellum triangular, punctate. Elytra of same width as 
prothorax at base, and more than thrice as long, elliptic, very con- 
vex, almost gibbous, with the highest point near middle, shoulders 
obtuse, narrowly margined throughout, striate-punctate, the striae 
indistinct, quite obliterated towards apex, the second stria scarcely 
traceable throughout, the punctures in striae small and not deeply 
impressed, intervals quite flat and finely transversely wrinkled; 
epipleurae nearly smooth, abdomen very clearly and delicately 
striolate-punctate ; prosternum earinate, its flanks coarsely and 
sparsely punctate, meso- and metasternum finely and sparsely, 
their epimera more coarsely punctate, mentum earinate in middle, 



BY H. J. CARTER. 81 

submentum rugose-punctate at sides, smootli iii middle. Dimen- 
sions^ 14 X 6-5 mm. 

Udb. — Rockliamptoii, Queensland (Mr. H. Brown). 

A single ^ specimen, generously given to me by its captor, is 
nearest to P. cyaneus Pasc, and P. ellipticus mihi, in form, but is 
narrower and more convex than either, and quite different in colour 
and sculpture. It is distinguished by the contrast of nitid head 
and pronotum, with its subfuscous elytra, tlie sculpture of the 
intervals being irregularly and finely striate, like the skin of one's 
hand. Type in the Author's Coll. 

Opigenia Browni, n.sp. 

Oblong-oval, convex; upper surface green and blue with purple 
reflections, the suture golden; underside, legs and antennae nitid- 
black, tarsi wdth a very thin clothing of red tomentum. 

Head: epistoma truncate, angulate wdth the canthus, limiting- 
suture subobsolete, canthus little raised, eyes separated by a space 
of the width of one, half concealed by thorax, coarsely and closely 
punctate, antennae not reaching base of prothorax, joints 3-7 of 
equal length, 8-9 successively wider and subtriangular, 10 trans- 
verse, 11 shortly oval. Frothora,v 3(vixjx5mm., widest at 
middle, wider at base than at apex, the latter circularly emargi- 
nate, the anterior angles produced, slightly rounded and obtuse, 
sides widely and evenly rounded, posterior angles rather \videly 
acute, not dentate; base strongly bisinuate, lateral border moderate, 
narrowly concave within, apical border very narrow; disc very 
clearly and rather deeply punctate at sides and base with a large 
smooth transverse middle space, with no indication of a middle 
line. Scutellum triangular and punctate. Elytra as wide as pro- 
thorax at base, widening at shoulders, subparallel on middle third, 
evenly convex; striate-punctate, the intervals closely punctate, the 
seriate and interstitial punctures of almost equal size and scarcely 
differentiated. Prosternum closely rugose-punctate, slightly com- 
pressed and raised in middle, its process widely rounded behiiid, 
epipleurse smooth, metasternum smooth in the middle, strongly 
punctured on sides and epimera; abdomen finely punctate and 



82 REVISION OF THE SUBFAMILY TENEBRIONIN^^ 

striolate. Tibiae straight, femora unarmed, posterior tarsi rather 
short, claw-joint longest. Dimensions'. lo x 7 mm. 

Hah. — Southern Cross, West Australia. 

A single specimen, 5, was given to me by that very enthusiastic 
collector, Mr. H. W. Brown, amongst some Chalcopteri, which it 
somewhat resembles, except in the structure of head and thorax. It 
differs from 0. vittata Westw., (a specimen of which is before me) 
in the following respects : (1) Colour less brilliant; (2) body more 
convex and robust; (3) prothorax with nitid spaces, the sides much 
more widely rounded, front angles wider, margins less refiexed; 
(4) elytral intervals more strongly punctured. 

The prothorax is very similar, in form and colour, to that of 
Frojjhanes chalcopter aides Cart., which is a much larger insect; 
the elytra are similar, in shape and colour, to those of Chalcop- 
terus polychromus Pasc, but the seriate punctures are less dis- 
tinct. Type in the Author's Coll. 

OLISTH.ENA KUF0-.ENEA, n.sp. 

Ovate, slightly convex; head and prothorax castaneous (margins 
rufous), elytra green-bronze; antennae, legs, and underside pale 
red. 

Head rather deeply enclosed in prothorax, epistoma short, round 
in front, widely impressed behind, evidently and clearly punctate, 
eyes separated by a distance greater than the diameter of one eye, 
antennae short, not reaching base of prothorax, apical joints en- 
larged, two penultimate joints about as wide as long, eleventh 
elongate-ovate. FrothorcLC 2 x '6b mm., deeply bisinuate and 
and emarginate at apex, the middle lobe a little raised and ad- 
vanced (this emphasised by the depression behind) ; anterior angles 
strongly advanced in front of eyes, acute but a little blunted at 
apex, sides nearly straight and gradually widened to apex, base 
bisinuate; posterior angles acute, a narrow horizontal margin 
within the raised border, widened at the angles; disc very finely 
and densely punctate, with two small basal foveae and a large cen- 
tral depression on apical half. Scutellum triangular with rounded 
sides, punctate. Elytra of same width as prothorax at base and 



BY H. J. CARTER. 83 

thrice as long, slightly widening behind shoulders, narrowly bor- 
dered, irregularly punctate, with some indications of a lineate 
arrangement on middle, quite irregular, with smootli intervals on 
sides; presternum short, compressed and subcarinate in front, its 
process triangular behind, with a corresponding mesosternal notch, 
and finely punctured, abdomen finely striolate, tibiae slender. 
Dimensions, 7Jx 3 J nun. 

Hah. — Tambourine Mountain, South Queensland (H. Hacker). 

Two specimens, kindly sent by Mr. Hacker, evidently differ from 
0. tenuitarsis Pasc, in the smaller size, coloured thorax and head, 
with much sharper and more produced front angles, more convex 
elytra. Type in the Author's Coll. 

Prophanes Browni, n.sp. 

Elongate-ovate, navicular; coppery-bronze above and beneatli, 
pronotum and scutellum more nitid copper, legs nitid-black, an- 
tennae and tarsi brown, the latter and the tibiae sparsely clad with 
red hairs. 

Head and pronotum rather strongly but not very closely punc- 
tate, epistoma convex, with limiting sulcus strongly defined at the 
sides, subobsolete in the middle, canthus short and raised, eyes very 
large, prominent, and approximate, the separating lamina not 
wider than in Anausis metallescens Westw., but rapidly widening 
each way; antennae extending beyond the base of prothorax, slen- 
der at base, moderately enlarged apically, joint 3 cylindric, not 
as long as 4-5 combined, 4-7 subequal in length, successively wider, 
obconic, 8 shorter and wider than 7, 9-10 longer than wide, much 
shorter than 8; 11th longer and wider than 10, ovate. Prothorax 
5 X 6'5 mm., length measured in middle, widest at base, apex 
bisinuate, anterior angles produced obliquely outwards into long 
acute spines, sides slightly sinuate anteriorly and posteriorly, 
feebly widened in the middle, posterior angles spinose, obliquely 
pointing outwards, disc with two large basal and two smaller 
apical impressions, the latter at the angular emargination, base 
bisinuate, lateral and basal border narrowly raised. Scutellum 
large, curvilinearly triangular, minutely punctate. Elytra slightly 



84 REVISION OF THE SUBFAMILY TENEBRIONIN^, 

wider than prothorax at base, thrice and one-half as long, widen- 
ing at the shoulders, then subparallel on middle third, then strongly 
tapering to a narrow apex, each elytron with a short externa] spine, 
shorter and more closely placed tlian in P. Master si Pasc. Disc 
moderately convex at base (mucli less so than in P. Mastersi), 
evenly declivous in all directions ; irregularly and rather closely 
punctate, the punctures mucli smaller and closer than in P. Mas- 
tersi, these becoming obsolete towards apex, margins very narrow 
on front half, gradually becoming wider and horizontal apieally; 
submentum with coarse round punctures, prosternum transversely 
rugose, strongly compressed and carinate, the process produced 
behind conically, into a widely raised V-shaped receptacle; meso- 
sternum and epipleurae very coarsely rugose-punctate, the latter 
rather abruptly terminating at the last abdominal segment, abdo- 
men finely striolate, the last segment finely punctate, and termi- 
nated witli a fringe of red hair ; legs smooth, front femora swollen, 
posterior tarsi with basal and claw-joint of equal lengtli. Dimen- 
sions, 23x 10 mm. 

Hah. — Kuranda, N. Queensland. 

A single $ specimen, taken by Mr. H, W. Brown, adds another 
fine species ; but it arrived too late to be included in my monograph 
of the group. It is intermediate in form and character between 
Prophanes and Anausis, but is much more convex and less parallel 
than the latter. Type in the Author's Coll. 

Stigmodera suavis Cart. — This is anom. prseocc, by Kerremans 
(Insecta gen. 1902, p. 210). I therefore propose the name S. 
venusta for the species so described (These Proc. 1913, p. 507). 

CffARIOTHES SUBVIOLACEIIS, n.Sp. 

Rather widely ovate, convex; head, thorax, and underside very 
nitid-black, elytra with a violaceous tinge, antennaB and tarsi pale 
red, legs piceous (red at knees and apex of tibiae). 

Head strongly unevenly punctate, rather flat, epistoma slightly 
rounded in front, with a straight indistinct suture behind, eyes 
large, coarsely faceted and transverse, antennae short, apical four 
joints considerably enlarged, joint 3 not longer than 4, apical 



BY II. J. CARTER. 86 

joint elongate. Prothorax 3-4 x 3 mm., rather convex and gib- 
bous in middle at apex, widest at base, very little narrowed at 
apex, widely arcuate at apex, anterior angles obtuse, slightly de- 
pressed, and scarcely advanced, sides nearly straight (feebly arcu- 
ate) on anterior two-thirds, sinuate behind, posterior angles acute 
and slightly produced, base bisinuate, lateral border rounded and 
somewhat thick, with a very narrow sulcus within, disc clearly 
punctate, the punctures shallow and not close, a transverse depres- 
sion behind middle and two basal foveae. Scutellum small, triangu- 
lar. Elytra ovate, convex, slightly gibbous in front of middle, of 
same width as prothorax at base and twice as long, widening be- 
hind, seriate-punctate, the punctures smaller and closer near 
suture, large and foveolate on sides and apex, general surface 
rather uneven, with some transverse ridges and depressions, nar- 
rowly bordered. Sternum closely, abdomen rather sparsely punc- 
tate, prosternal process concave in middle and punctate, imper- 
fectly received into the triangular receptacle of the mesosternum. 
Fore and middle tibiae curved, hind tarsi straight. Dimensions, 
9 X 3-6 mm. 

iJab.— Kuranda (H. Dodd). 

A single specimen, sent by Mr. Dodd, is congeneric with C. 
cupripennis Pasc, but differs in its more explanate prothorax, its 
more gibbous elytra and uneven surface, inter alia multa. In 
form, it suggests Campolene nitida Pasc. Type in the Author's 
Coll. 

Postscript (added 31st March).— The following extract from a 
letter received from Mr. R. G. Blair, of the British Museum, is 
of interest in evidence of the mystery connected with Boisduval's 
species. ''J think I can clear up a few of Boisduval's species. 
Bates acquired, with La Ferte's Collection, a set of duplicate 
Heteromera from the Dejean Collection, and among these are 
probably cotypes, possibly types of Boisduval's species. These 
are as follows : — 

Tenebrio australis Boisd. = Meneristes intermedins Pasc, a small 
specimen, resembling one seen by you (from Peak Downs). 

8 



86 REVISION OF THE SUBFAMILY TENEBRIOSIN jE. 

T. nigerrimus Boisd. = M. servulus Pasc, (? = convexiusculus 
Hope). T. nigerrimus Blanch., (Blessig) = J/, laticollis Pasc. 

Uloma australis Boisd. ,{IIeterocheira) correctly identified. 

Amarygmus columhinus Boisd. = Chalcopterus vinosus Pasc. = 
C. variabilis Bless. 

Adelium harpaloides Boisd. = ^. calosomoides Kirby. 

A. vii'escens Boisd. = ^. brevicorne Bless. 

In addition to these, there are a few specimens in the Bates 
Coll., bearing labels which agree with the labels on Dejeanian 
types of other families. These were probably acquired by Bates 
from Bakewell's Coll., though there is nothing to show this. 
Amongst these are the last two in the above list, and 

Upis crenata Boisd. = Hypaulax ovalis Bates. 

Cilibe hrunnipennis Boisd., {Saragus\ King George's Sound." 



87 



ORDINARY MONTHLY MEETING. 

April 29th, 1914. 

Mr. C. Hedley, F.L.S., Vice-President, in the Chair. 

The Chairman announced that, under the provisions of Rule 
xxvi., the Council had elected Messrs. A. H. S. Lucas, M.A., 
B.Sc, J. R. Garland, M.A., C. Hedley, F.L.S., and W. W. 
Froggatt, F.L.S., to be Vice Presidents; and Mr. J. H. Campbell 
[Royal Mint, Macquarie Street] to be Hon. Treasurer, for the 
Session 1914-15. 

Also, that at the next Meeting, it was proposed to give Mem- 
bers an opportunity of discussing Mr. Andrews' paper on " The 
Development of the N.O. Myrtaceae " [Proceedings, 1913, p.529]. 

The Donations and Exchanges received since the previous 
Monthly Meeting (25th March, 1914), amounting to 10 Vols., 
75 Parts or Nos., 15 Bulletins, 6 Reports, and 11 Pamphlets, 
received from 60 Societies, etc., and two Authors, were laid upon 
the table. 

NOTES AND EXHIBITS. 

The Rev. W. W. Watts submitted specimens of Ophioglossum 
vulgatum L., preserved in formalin. The specimens were collected 
near Sydney during April by Mr. Thos. Whitelegge. 0. vulgatum 
does not occur in Australia in its typical European form; the 
specimens shown belonged to the varieties costatuvi (R.Br.), col. 
lected in Nielsen Park, and gramineum Hook., {0. Dietrichice 
Prantl), also from Nielsen Park, and possibly a third variety 
{lanceolatum). 

Mr. Fred Turner exhibited and contributed notes on : — Chloris 
barhata Sw., collected near Kyogle, Upper Richmond River, New 
South Wales, in 1899. He gave some additional particulars 
about C. barbata Sw., var. decora (Syn. C. decora Nees), which 
was first discovered in this State by the exhibitor and recorded 



88 NOTES AND EXHIBITS. 

in these Proceedings in 1904. — Astrehla triticoides F.v.M., var. 
lappacea [Syn. Danthonia lappacea Lindl.,] forwarded to him by 
Mr. N. Turnbull, Noorama, Cunnamulla, Queensland. The ex- 
hibitor first drew public attention to this grass as producing a 
fairly large grain, like small wheat, at a meeting of the Austra- 
lasian Association for the Advancement of Science held at Mel- 
bourne in 1890. — Eragrostis major Host., forwarded to him, for 
identification and report, by Messrs. P. L. C. Shepherd k Son, 
Nurserymen and Seedsmen, Sydney, who had received it from 
one of their clients in the Forbes district. 

Dr. H. G. Chapman reported some results of the breeding of 
guinea-pigs by his wife and himself. Attention had been paid 
to the colour of the hairs, length of the hairs and arrangement 
of the hairs on the skin. Experiments had now been in progress 
for two years, and five generations had been bred. 

Dr. Petrie showed, on behalf of himself and Dr. Chapman, a 
specimen of the African plant Acohanthera spectabilis, the milky 
juice of which afifects a photographic plate in the dark. Extracts 
of this plant are used as arrow-poison by the Zulus and Somalis. 
Information was asked for, regarding its botanical relations, and 
poisonous properties. 

Mr. Tillyard exhibited both sexes of the interesting archaic 
Ascalaphid, Stilhopteryx costalis Newman, together with the eggs. 
The eggs had never been seen before. They are very large, about 
3-5 X 2 mm., oval and well rounded at both ends. He also showed 
a pair of the Panorpid, Harpohittacus tillyardi Petersen. This 
species, which is very common round Sydney in October and 
November, has for a long time been confused with Bittacus aus- 
tralis Fabr., a much smaller and rarer species. The insect is 
mentioned under the latter name in Froggatt's Entomology, and 
in other publications. 

Dr. J. B. Cleland exhibited a silver-fish (Lepisma sp.) found 
alive and active in the crop of a healthy turkey, together with a 
number of grains of wheat. 

Mr. A. A. Hamilton exhibited specimens from the National 
Herbarium, including Eosa Hort. var., (T. Steel; Strathfield; 



NOTES AND EXHIBITS. 89 

27/3/09) showing fasciation of the stem and foliar prolification of 
the inflorescence. A whorl of reduced leaves is noticeable on the 
faciated stem, below the dilated, abortive ovary, upon which a 
circlet of sessile, atrophied buds, with foliaceous calyces, is seated. 
— Chrysanthemnm frutescens L., (W. M. Carne; Sydney Botanic 
Gardens; 14/3/14) showing extrafloral prolification; virescence 
of the tubular florets, which are much enlarged, and have their 
reproductive organs suppressed, and of the ligulas of the ray- 
florets; leafy branches, bearing buds, spring from the axils of the 
floral bracts, a capitula of floral bracts ascending from one of the 
tubular florets, and a ray-floret of an otherwise perfect flower 
which has developed its tube at the expense of the ligula. Green 
flowers, a result of the development of chlorophyll in place 
of the colouring matter proper to the flower (virescence), have 
been unusually prevalent in the coastal area, especially among 
cultivated Asters, during the past exceptionally dry Spring and 
Summer, furnishing additional evidence in favour of the generally 
accepted theory that droughty conditions are largely responsible 
for this habit.— A series of leaves of Isopogon ane^nonifolius 
R.Br., (A. A. Hamilton; Cook's River; September, 1913) showing 
the xerophytic character of reduction of leaf-surface, owing to 
unfavourable conditions. The plant, from which the leaves were 
taken, was growing on a plateau overlooking Cook's River at 
Undercliffe, in a shallow depression, with a few inches of shale 
covering the rock, which, after rain, becomes a pool of stagnant 
water. — Acacia longifolia Willd.,(A. A. Hamilton; Springwood, 
Went worth Falls, and Leura; November, 1913) showing leaf- 
variation, from linear to ovate-lanceolate; obtuse, acute, to long 
acuminate; straight to falcate. Some measurements are, 11 J x | 
in., 8x|in., 6J x IJin., 6 x |in., 5^ x Jin., 3 J x |-in., 1\ x ] in. — 
Hakea dactyloides Cav.,( A. A. Hamilton; Cook's River, December 
1913; Valley Heights, January, 1914) showing leaf- variation in 
breadth, contour, and texture. 

Mr. Fletcher showed a number of branches of Lantana Camara 
Linn., from Hunter's Hill, exhibiting the cohesion of opposite 
leaves, basally and upwards to a varying extent. Before the 
bountiful rains, which began in February, the plants were suffer- 



90 NOTES AND EXHIBITS. 

ing severely from drought, and many of them lost their leaves. 
At present, they were growing most luxuriantly, and the anomalies 
were fairly common. In every case the coherent leaves were 
terminal, one or both margins being involved, the cohesion being 
accompanied by the suppression of the growing point, much as if 
the shoots had been pinched off. 

Mr. R. H. Cambage brought before the Meeting the important 
matter of the safeguarding of the Bulli Pass, on the South Coast, 
as a beauty-spot and Nature Reserve. Happily the seascape and 
landscape elements cannot be seriously interfered with; but it is 
otherwise with the subtropical vegetation, which is such an 
important factor in the general effect. With the object of secur- 
ing the continuance of the vegetation, the Council had passed a 
Resolution — which had been communicated to the Minister — to 
the effect that it is highly desirable that action should be taken 
by the State to secure an area of several hundred acres around the 
Pass, and that the Minister for Lands be respectfully urged to 
take the necessary action. Mr. Cambage said that he thought 
that what the Council had done would commend itself to the 
Society. Scientific Societies in Europe and America were inter- 
esting themselves, on an international basis, in the preservation 
of Nature, and in providing for Nature Reserves. He accord- 
ingly moved : That this Meeting cordially supports the action of 
the Council. The Resolution was seconded by Mr. A G. Hamilton, 
and a number of Members took part in the discussion; on being 
put to the Meeting, the motion was carried unanimously. 

Miss S. Hynes moved — That there should be more adequate 
protection of the native flora. Mr. A. G. Hamilton seconded 
the motion, which, on being put to the Meeting, was carried. 



91 



THE VENOM OF THE FISH, NOTESTHES ROBUST A. 

By Leighton Kesteven, M.R.C.S., Eng., &c. 

(Communicated hy A. R. McCulloch.) 

That the Bullrout is a very awkward customer to handle, is an 
undisputed fact, but the virulence, or otherwise, of the wounds 
inflicted by the spines about its head, is a " questio vexata " on 
which the best known authorities differ. 

As during some years' residence on the northern rivers of New 
South Wales, I was frequently brought into contact with cases 
of " sting " from this fish, I can speak with professional experi- 
ence of the symptoms presenting on such wounds. 

Tenison-Woods(l), in his description of the Bullrout, gives 
a fairly accurate account of the ordinary symptoms met with, 
and I can confirm his statements, with one exception, viz., that 
the pain disappears at sunset. Though I am not prepared to say 
that it never does, I have not found it the usual condition. I 
have seen several cases where the agony remained unabated for 
twenty-four hours or more, only to be relieved by morphia or 
other analgesic drug. 

Ogilby(2) summarily dismisses the ^dea of the spines of the 
Bullrout being toxophorous, without sufficient justification, as ray 
experience teaches me exactly to the contrary. 

The symptoms are in no way confined to the mere pain and 
discomfort of an ordinary cut or scratch, or the irritation arising 
therefrom. There are very marked and distinct symptoms of the 
direct effect of venom. 

The first of these to manifest itself is the rapid appearance of 
an erythematous blush, which spreads around the wound for some 
distance, in a manner not noticeable in ordinary incised wounds; 
the pain is out of all proportion to the very insignificant nature 
of the injury; it radiates in an altogether abnormal manner, com- 



92 THE VENOM OF THE FISH, SOTESTHES ROBUSTA. 

pared with ordinary pricks or scratches, in many cases extending 
to the shoulder, or even up the side of the neck; the temperature 
varies greatly, in most cases going up two, three, or more degrees 
within a very short time : lasting thus for a varying time, and 
going down again as rapidly, often below the normal, when severe 
collapse occurs, necessitating the free administration of stimulants 
to counteract the heart-failure which threatens. 

Cases treated as in the ordinary methods for snakebite —chiefly 
I have found permanganate the most efficacious - can be relieved 
considerably if taken in hand soon after the sting: but if the poison 
has had time to put in its fine work, so much the longer does the 
recovery take. Extreme prostration, for several days, often 
follows the stings, leaving the patient weak and exhausted. 

These symptoms are not compatible with non-toxic wounds. 
They are undoubtedly venomous. 



LITERATURE. 

1. Tenison- Woods, Fish and Fisheries, N. S. Wales, IS82, p. 48. 

2. Ogilby, Ed. Fish. X. S. Wales, 1893, p. 68; and Proo. Roy. Soc. Qsld., 

xviii., 1903, p.2i. 



I 



93 



CONTRIBUTIONS TO A KNOWLEDGE OF THE 
BIOLOGY OF THE RICHMOND RIVER. 

By G. I. Playfair, Research Scholar of the University of 
Sydney in Hydrobiology and Plankton. 

(Plates ii.-viii.) 

The material which has given occasion for the following notes 
was obtained from the Richmond River and tributary creeks, 
principally in the neighbourhood of Lismore, during the spring 
and summer of 1912-13. Lismore lies on the North arm of the 
river at the head of the navigable portion, and my richest gather- 
ings were made in the short stretch of river, almost undisturbed 
by traffic, between the bridge and the boatshed. Here, on either 
side, were to be found huge beds of weed, chiefly MyriophyUum 
and Elodea, many yards in extent, and reaching right up to the 
surface of the water. The river remained undisturbed by heavy 
rains from the end of September, 1912, to the beginning of Feb- 
ruary, 1913, and the current being very slow indeed, the surface 
of these weed-beds became increasingly rich in both plant and 
animal life. Upon two occasions gatherings were made with 
silk plankton-nets, but these proved disappointing, nothing being 
obtained but Coscincdiscus lacustris and a few other diatoms, 
and as the weed-beds themselves constituted a very efficient filter, 
it was determined to rely altogether upon them. 

On the main river, a single sample was obtained at Casino, 
near the bridge, three mucous strata from the river-brink at 
Coraki, and a stripping from a small bunch of weeds in a tribu- 
tary creek at Kyogle. 

9 



94 BIOLOGY OF THE RICHMOND RIVEB, 

Samples.— ^os.l-3, 5, 6, 8, 11-13, 15-18, 20-22* are from squeez- 
ings of weeds, chiefly out of the river at Lismore, two or three 
out of tributary creeks. Nos. 7 and 9 are silk-net gatherings, 
also from the river at Lismore. No. 14 out of weeds and Hydro- 
dictyon reticulatum from the river at Casino. Nos. 24 and 33, 
mucilaginous gouts from an open drain in Keen Street, river- 
water. Nos. 25 and 26, mucous strata on the footpath near the 
Commercial Hotel, caused by a leaky fire-hydrant, river-water. 
Nos. 27-29, 39 and 40, mucous strata from the river-brink at 
Coraki. Nos. 30 and 34, scrapings from the basin of the horse- 
trough near the Gov. Savings Bank, river-water. No. 41 from 
weeds out of a tributary creek at Kyogle, running water. This 
last, a very small gathering, is remarkable for the number of 
forms contained in it, especially Desmids, which do not take 
kindly to running water. 

Character of the Flora and Fauna. — The outstanding feature 
of the Richmond River flora is undoubtedly its richness in 
diatoms, of which it forms almost a synopsis of the district. Of 
147 forms noted in the latter, from Kyogle to Bexhill, 132 occur 
in the river-system, belonging to 75 generally recognised species. 
It is not surprising, therefore, to find also a considerable number 
of the MyxophycecE, as these two groups generally flourish together. 
Of seven species of the latter, the principal source was indeed on 
land, in situations (horse-trough, foot washer, fire-hydrant, or open 
drain) supplied by river-water, but of these seven, four were also 
noted in the river itself. 

The following tables show the relative proportions of the con- 
stituents of the Flora and Fauna of the Richmond River, com- 
pared with those of the Nepean River (Sydney water), Yan Yean 
Reservoir, Melbourne, the Central African Lakes, and the Lochs 
of the West of Scotland, as far as they have been noted. f 

* For convenience, the local numbers 1-41 have been used in these notes; 
they correspond to Nos. 176-216, inclusive, in the National Herbarium, 
Sydney, where the originals are deposited. 

t Cf . These Proceedings, Vol. xxxvii., 1912; Journ. Linn. See. Bot., Vol. 
xxxix., 1909; ibid., Vol. xxxviii., 1907; Trans. Roy. Irish Acad., Vol. 
xxxiii., 1906, respectively. 



BY G. 



PLAYFAIR. 



95 



Flora. 

Alo.k. Richni. Nepean. Yan Yean. Afr. L. Scottish L. 

Chlorophyceae 57 60 25 43 31 

Desmidiacese 57 112 61 19 102 

Bacillariese 134 48 19 58 38 

Myxophycese 38 19 4 36 16 

Phytheliese 16 ... 2 

Algal Fcnqi. 

Chytridiacese 6 not noted. 

Schizomycetes 13 

305 255 109 158 187 



Dinobryon nil 

Peridinieae 

Vermes 

Tardigrada 

Entomostraca 

Rotatoria 14 14 

Infusoria 34 35 

Rhizopoda 33 13 

"93 "84 



Fauna. 






nil 3 


3 nil 


6 


nil 13 


1 5 


12 


5 3 






1 nil 






6 3 


not noted. 





Plankto7i.— Aiter my experience of the Nepean water, in 
which the Phytheliece and Feridiniece were so remarkably well 
represented, it was disappointing to find them both absent from 
the Richmond. This was the case with Rhizosolenia and 
Di^iohryon also. 

Desmidiacece. — The Desmid flora seems to me to be extra- 
ordinarily rich, in face of the decided preponderance of the 
Diatomacece, the number of forms being almost equal to that of 
the Yan Yean plankton with only 19 diatoms. Of the 57 forms 
noted, exactly half belong to the genus Cosmarium (29), and a 
little more than one-quarter to Clostenum (15); Goriatozygon 1, 
Docidium (Pleur.) 2, Peiiium 2, Micrasterias 2, Euastrum 1, 
Staurastrum 5, make up the remainder. One is prepared for 
the absence oi Xanthidium, the forms of that genus being priu- 



96 BIOLOGY OF THE RICHMOND RIVER, 

cipally swamp-dwellers, but considering that almost all the 
gatherings were shaken out of weeds, the extremely poor repre- 
sentation of Staurastnini is surprising. In the main gatherings 
only three species were noted, St. retiisum Turn., St. striolatum 
Niig., and another: the other two, in an isolated sample from 
Kyogle, were St. ddatatumxsiY. obtusilobum De Not., and another 
(unidentified). Of the long-rayed forms, not a trace was to be 
found, nor were there present any of the variations of St. orbicu- 
larcy so common in the Nepean water. Euastrum was also con- 
spicuously absent, two specimens only (of Eu. binale i.) having 
been noted in a net-gathering. 

Chlorophycecp. — These total up well, but in the fresh gather- 
ings they were very poorly represented indeed, both in species 
and in numbers. Spirogyra maxima was plentiful at Lismore, 
and Hydrodictyon reticidatum was found in great abundance, 
covering the surface of the river, at Casino, but the commonest 
forms of ProtococcoidefT. had to be diligently sought for. All the 
usual members of the Chlorophycecp were represented, however, 
the same genera almost exactly as in the Sydney Water with the 
exception of Nephrocytium, Oocyst is, Eremosphcera, Botryococcus 
and Ineffigiata. As these are found here in swamps and 
lagoons, their presence in the Nepean water would seem to 
indicate some infiltration from a similar source. All five, but 
especially the last two, get the credit of being plankton-algse, but 
all my observations of their occurrence go to show that their 
home is in swamps and lagoons. 

With regard to the Fauna, the Peridiniece and Dinobryon 
have already been mentioned; there was a good array of Rota- 
toi'ia; the Rhizopoda were plentiful and in fair variety. Of the 
Infusoria, the flagellates Euglena, Phacus, Lepocinclis and 
Trachelomonas were almost entirely wanting, MaUomonas and 
Synnra altogether so. But then the swamps and lagoons of the 
district seem to be quite separate from the river-system. 

The number of organisms noted in the Richmond River and 
creeks amounted to Flora 305, Fauna 93, total 398. Of these, 
81 and H respectively are here described as, to a greater or less 
extent, new forms. They are allocated thus -.—Chlorophycece 18, 



BY G. I. PLAYFAIR. 97 

Desmidiacece 10, Bacillariefp, 32, Myxophycem 13, Chytridiacem 4, 
Schizomycetes 4, Infusoria 4, Rltizopoda 10. 

CHLOROPHYCE^. 

Genus Geminella Turpin. 
Geminella interrupta var. cylindrica, ri.var. (PI. iii., f.3l ). 

Cellulse cylindraceae adpiessae, ad geiiicula coiistrictie: chloro- 
plastidibus crassis parietalibus, totam cellulam compleritibus, 
utroqiie polo macula miiiuta nigra. 

Diam. cell. 6, alt. 6-10 /x. 

Lismore (206). 

Genus Spirogyra Link. 
SpiROGYRA MAXIMA (Hassal) Wittr. 

Lat. cell. veg. 108-130; cell. alt. 120-340; niembr. crass. 1-4 /x. 

Zygospora a fronte visa exacte circ, diam. 110-112; subcirc, 
long. 112-136, lat. 100-116; crass. 84-92 /x. 

Lismore (12, 16, 20, 21). 

Syn. Sp. orbicularis (Hass.) Kiitz., in Petit, Spirog. de Paris, 
p.31, PI. xii., f.l, 2. I have never found this species before, but 
it is the characteristic Spirogyra of the River at Lismore, being 
found in quantity almost anywhere. The breadth of the vegeta- 
tive cells is generally 120/z. The chloroplasts are six in number, 
making J to 1 turn each. The dimensions here given, unite the 
forma tenuior Magn. et Wille, in Wille, Sydamer. Algfl., p. 34 
with the type as recorded by Petit, I.e., p. 31. It seems also very 
probable that the Sp. seti/ormis f. minor, zygotis lenticularibus 
Magn. et Wille, is a form of Sp. maxima, as Mobius (Austral. 
Siissw., ii., p.334) has recorded the latter from the Darling 
Downs, Queensland, at still lower dimensions. Petit gives the 
zygospores of Sp. seti/ormis as elliptic, not lenticular, and the 
cell-membrane of S]). maxim,a, as observed by me, was just as 
often stratified as not. A few filaments (diam. 120 /x) were noted 
with extremely long cells, yet in perfect condition. The cells 
varied in length from 1026 to 1035/x, and contained six chloro, 
plasts making three complete turns each (20). 



^8 BIOLOGY OF THE RICHMOND RIVEk, 

Spirogyra Lismorensis mihi. (PI. iii , f.l). 

Diam. cell. veg. 14; cell. alt. 80-300 /x. 

Lismore(12). 

Cells very long for the diameter, containing a single broad 
chloroplast, not wound spirally, but twisted round its long axis; 
pyrenoids in a single row down the centre; chloroplast making 5 
to 15 turns, edge somewhat laciniate; ends of the cells reflexed 
2 /x. I have given this curious and interesting form a name, but 
I do not consider it a distinct species. It is highly probable that 
each chloroplast splits longitudinally into two which become 
spirally disposed. Some were already divided at the ends, and 
there were other Spirogyra filaments with two taeniae in the same 
gathering. The latter (diam. 18/x, cell. alt. ca. 160//) might be 
Sp. ivflata (Vauch.) Rab., but with both forms infertile, there 
could be no certainty about either. Cf. Spir. Goetzei Schm., 
Ergeb. d. Nyassasee, p.251, PI. iv., f.8. 

DESMIDIACE^. 
Genus Gonatozygon DeBary. 
GoNATOZYGON KiNAHANi (Arch.) Rab., f. (PI. iii., f.32). 
Forma apicibus extremis quam levissime angustatis. 
Long. 288-470, lat. 13-14, ap. 12-13 /x. 
Lismore (18). 

The apices, which are generally somewhat inflated, are in this 
form just a little narrower, no membranous tag at the angles. 

Genus Penium Breb. 
Penium australe, forma crassior G. S. West. 

Zygospora matura globosa, levita angulata, spinis brevibus e 
tumoribus orientibus ad angulos munita, spinis maturis bifidis. 
Membrana crassa. 

Long. 66-90, lat. 48-54. Zygo. diam. s. sp 65; spin. long, ad 
14 /x; membr. 4 /x. 

Lismore (12), Casino (14). 

Cf. G. S. West, Third Tanganyika Exp., p.l08, P1.6, f.4. The 
diameter of the type is 38 /x. The endochrome is arranged in two 



BY G. I. PLAYFAIR. 99 

main radiating chloroplasts each containing a pyrenoid, but 
besides these there are 10-15 very narrow radiating laminae with- 
out pyrenoids. A specimen was noted with the central pyrenoid 
divided into three. (PL iii., f.2). 

Penium globosum var, Wollei (W.&G. S. West) mihi, f. maxima. 

Long. 70, ]at. 54 ^. 

Lismore(12). Cum priori. (PI. iii., f.3). 

Cf. Cos. globosum var. Wollei f. major G. S. West, I.e., p. 118, 
P1.7, f.lO, with which it is practically identical, but half as large 
again. The naming of this form affords an example of the diffi- 
culties arising from the present system of nomenclature, and the 
absolute impossibility of making the latter the expression of 
observed biological facts. When any Penium of the Dysphiiic- 
tium type undergoes rapidly repeated mitosis, the nascent semi- 
cells have (in the short interval between one cell-division and 
another) no time to attain their full proportions; the resulting 
Penium-CQ\\s tend, therefore, more and more to become globose in 
shape, the diameter remaining practically unchanged. Cos. 
globosum Buln., is such a form, probably (diam. 22-25 /x, Monog., 
iii., p. 27) the shortened form of Pen. polyiiio^ylmm (diam. 21-28/x, 
Monog., i., p.91) or some other Penium. Cos. globosum var. 
Wollei f. major G. S. West, (diam. 37-39 /x) I.e., is certainly a 
diminished Pen. australe (diam. 36-38 /x) type, just as my f. 
maxima (supra) is of P. australe f. crassior G.S.W. I find it so 
in this gathering (12), and if the notes by G. S. West, 1 c, p. 11 8, 
on Cos. globosum be compared with those, p. 108, on P. australe^ 
it will be seen that, in the case of Victoria Nyanza at least, the 
specimens of both were found in the same gatherings : — Bukoba 
(20 Apr., 1905; lSro.251 and No.618). Cos. globosum is not really 
a species at all, but merely a mixture of degenerate forms of 
various " species " of Peniiwi, brought together under one name 
on account of a similarity of shape. But it would be unreason- 
able to make such a distinct form as P. australe a variation of 
Cos. globosum (which has priority) although they are biologically 
connected. There is nothing left, therefore, but to accept Cos. 
globosum as a species, well knowing it to be a mass of contradic 



loo felOLOGY OF THE RlCfiMONt) RIVER, 

tions. I have ventured, however, to move it to the genus Penium^ 
as the arrangement of the chloroplasts is not at all that of Cos- 
marium {seiisu stricto). 

Genus Closterium Nitzsch. 
Four forms of Closterium rather common in the river at I>.is- 
more are CI. Ehrenhergi% CI. Leibleinii, CI. tnoniliferuin and CI 
incurvum. I consider these are forms of the same species, the 
difference being a mere matter of development. The zygospores 
also of 67. Ehreubergii and CI. moniliferuin are identical, Monog., 
i., pp.143, 144, PL 17, f.4. The last three were found together at 
Kyogle also. 

Closterium acerosum (Schrank) Ehr. 
Long. 460-655, lat. 42-50, ap. 6 ju. 
Lismore(3, 16, 19), Casino (14). 

Fairly plentiful: the membrane pale pink, smooth or very finely 
and faintly striate, 10-12 ridged chloroplasts, 11-20 pyrenoids in 
semicell. The edges of the chloroplasts are sometimes scalloped 
towards the apices of the cell. 

Var. lanceolatum (Kiitz.) mihi. (67. lanceolatum). 
Long. 300-310, lat. 48, ap. 6 /x. 
Lismore(22). 
CI. lanceolatum is only a short form of 67. acerosiim. 

Var. Angolense W. t G. H. West, f. (PI iii., f.4). 
Forma semicellulis infra apices ut in 67. turgido incrassatis; 
polls levissime recurvatis: apicibus extremis ut in CI. nceroso 
truncatis. Membrana hyalina (apicibus extremis exceptis) vel 
dilute rufescente. Interdum ad suturam zona intercalata (lat. 
6/x). 

Long. 840, lat. 40. ap. 6//. 
Casino (14). Cum priori et sequenti. 

Cf. W. & G. S. West., Monog., i., p.l49, P1.18, f.6. Thisform 
combines in itself the characteristics of four " species."' It has 
the extreme tip of CI. acerosum, the size and shape of CI. acero- 
sum var. Angolense, the recurved ends and slight curvature of 
CI. Pritchardianum, and the subapical incrassate zone of 67. 
turgidum. 



BY G. I. PLAYFAIU. lOl 

Var. Casinoensis, n.var. (PL iii., f.5). 

Forma semicellulis sciagraphia CI. aceroso consimilis ad polos 
non recurvatis, infra apices seriebus singulis nodulorum incrass- 
atorum circ. 10 ornatis. Membrana dilute rufescente, dense 
scrobiculata, utrinque ad nodulos longitudinaliter striata; inter- 
dum membrana glabra vel subtilissime striata. 

Long. 560-640, lat. 44-50, ap. 6 /x. 

Casino (14). 

This is almost the exact shape and size of CI. turgidum f. 
glabra Gutw., Nonn. Alg. Nov., p. 5, T.v., f.lO. The scrobiculse 
are on the inner side of the membrane, which is striate just for 
a short distance above and below the incrassations. The striae 
run alternately through and between the incrassations. 

Other forms of Closterium noted were CI. acutum and var. 
linea, CI. gracile, CI. corriu. The plankton-forms, CI. gracile var. 
elongatum W. &l G. S. West, and CI. actitujn var. subpronum 
(W. & G. S. West), which might have been expected, and are 
not uncommon round Sydney, were not observed. The current 
of the river, however, is very sluggish. 

Genus Cosmarium Corda. 

COSMAKIUM ANdULATUM f. MAJOR Grun. 

Long. 70-82, lat. 44-48, ap. 20, isth. 15-16, crass. 30 /x. 

Lismore(12), Casino (14). (PI. iii., f.6 ). 

Syn. Cos. Bengalense Turner, Alg. E. Ind., T.8, f.33, and T.9, 
f.33. A very rare desmid this, only twice noted before, viz., 
from Banka I. and Bengal. Cf. Grunow, Insel Banka, T.ii., f.24, 
(whose figure works out at 63 x 40 /x) and Turner, I.e., p. 56, T.8, 
f.35, and T.9, f.25. Our specimens are not so retuse in the sides 
as in Grunow's figure. Membrane smooth but sometimes faintly 
and closely pustulate, and there were no signs whatever of the 
inflations indicated by Grunow. When the chloroplasts are in 
good condition, their surface is divided into minute digitate 
fibrilhe, as noted by Turner, I.e., and Wallich. They are most 
noticeable at the isthmus. My opinion of this desmid is that it 
is 2b forma maxima of Cos. Meneghinii. 



102 BIOLOGY OF THE RICHMOND RIVER, 

Var. CONICUM, n.var. (PI. iii., f.7rt). 
Forma brevior, lateribus planis nee retusis, superne etiam quam 
levissime convexis. 

Long, semicell. 34, lat. 44, ap. 16, isth. 14 /x. 
Lisinore(12). Cum priori. 

Var. suBCUCUMis (Schm.) mihi. (PI. iii., f.8). 

Long. 70, lat. 46, isth. 14 /x. 

Lismore (12). Cum prioribus duabus. 

Syn. Cos. siihcucumis Schmidle, Schwarz. u. Rheineb., p. 98, 
T.4, f.20-22; W. & G. S. West, Monog., ii., p.l55, P1.70, f.1-3. 
Cos. suhcucumis is the result of a double division in Cos. migu- 
latum f. major, as the figures plainly show. The specimens were 
all in the same drop. Var. suhcucumis is reniform, suborbicular 
or approaching to conical according to growth. Dimensions of 
the mixed forms : — 

1. Cos. ang.ia.): — long. semi. 40, lat. 46, ap. 16, isth. 14 /x. 
Var. subc.(h): — long, semi 34, lat. 44 /x. (PL iii., f .9). 

2. Cos. ang.v. conic. (a):— long. semi. 34, lat. 44, ap. 16, isth. 14/x. 
Cos an^. V. SM6citc.(b):~ long. semi. 28, lat. 40/x. (PI. iii., f. 7). 

The size of var. suhcucumis (2b, supra) agrees with the smallest 
dimensions (54 x 44) given by Schmidle. PI. 70, f.4, of the Mono- 
graph shows a semicell approximating in outline to Cos. angu- 
latum var. conicum. 

Cos. suBcosTATUM vai. Beckii (Gutw.) W. & G. S. West. 

Long. 34, lat. 28, ap. 12, isth. 8/x. 

Lismore (12). Plentiful. (PI. iii., f.lO). 

The apex was 4-granulate, but the inner two granules were 
geminate. None of the Casino forms of this group were noted in 
the Lismore branch of the river. 

Var. AUSTRAi-E, n.var. (PI. iii., f.ll). 

Formse minori proximum, granulis autem medianis nullis. 
Semicellulse semicirculares, apicibus angustis 4-granulatis, lateri- 
bus e basi rectis, superne valde rotundatis, crenis bigranulatis 2, 
crenis simplicibus basalibus 3. 

Long. 26, lat. 22, ap. 10, isth. 6 /x. 

Casino (14). 



BY G. I. PLAYFAIR, 103 

Shows its intimate connection with Cos. Blyttii in the char- 
acteristic absence of the tumour. 

Cos. Blyttii var. RiCHMONDiiE, n.var. (PI. iii., f. 12). 

Forma var. Novce-Sylvice proxima, paullo autem major, apicibus 
angustioribus. Semicellulse lateribus e basi divergentibus, anguHs 
basalibus baud rectis. Apicibus 4-granulatis; lateribus crenis 
bigranulatis 2, crenis simplicibus basalibus 2; supra isthmum 
tumore nullo nee granulis. 

Long. 24, lat. 20, ap. 7, bas. 16, isth. 6 ix. 

Casino (14). Cum priori. 

This form is intermediate between Cos. Blyttii and Cos. sub- 
costatum f. minor. It follows the Australian form of the type 
in having no papilla or granules above the isthmus. There is an 
odd granule below the depression on either side of the apex. 

Var. Casinoense, n.var. (PI. iii., f.l3). 

In ambitu formse typicse similis, sed major. Semicellulse lateri- 
bus crenis bigranulatis singulis, crenis simplicibus basalibus 2; 
supra isthmum tumore plus minus circulari, 8+1 granulis serie- 
bus verticalibus 3 ordinatis, ornatse. A vertice ellipticae, polls 
late rotundatis, medio utrinque tumore 3-granulato instructse. 

Long. 24-26, lat. 20-22, ap. 10, isth. 6 /a. 

Casino (14). Cum prioribus duobus. 

Combines the form and marginal granulation of Cos. Blyttii 
with the tumour of Cos. subprotumidiim. 

Cos. Seeleyanum var. elegans, n.var. (PL iii., f. 14-1 6). 

Semicellulse tumoribus granulis 9 in seriebus verticalibus 3 
ordinatis; lobulis subapicalibus a tumore radiantibus. A vertice 
ellipticae, utroque latere, in medio, tumore 3-granulato (lat. 5 /x) 
ornatae, utrinque ad tumorem excavatse. 

Long. 24-26, lat. 20-22, ap. 12-13, isth. 6, crass. 13-14 /x. 

Casino (14). Cum prioribus tribus. 

Since Wolle described it from New York, this rare desmid has 
only once before been reported, by Mobius from Victoria Park, 
Brisbane. The apex is 4-granulate, but the two inner granules 
show a tendency to become geminate. These four were all found 



104 BIOLOGY OF THE RICHMOND RIVER, 

together in one gathering ( 1 4 ), and are all intimately connected 
biologically. Several mixed forms were seen. 

Cos. MAGNiFicuM var. Italicum Rac. 

Long. 118, lat. 96, ap. 30, isth. 78, crass. 60 /a. 

Lismore (12). 

In this form, there are no decided granules or scrobiculse in 
the central portion of the semicells, granules only at the edge 
and for a short distance inside. It is an intermediate form 
between the type and Cos. Askenasyi, which is the smooth form 
of Cos. tnagnificurti. The fact that this desmid, one of the largest 
of the genus Cosmarium, was reported from Italy by Raciborski, 
and from Sweden by Borge, after having been originally described 
from New Zealand by Nordstedt, is not only interesting, but it 
throws a strong sidelight on the question of the meaning of the 
word species in the Desmidiacece. 

Var. FLUVIATILE, n.var. (PI. iii., f.l7), 

Semicellula3 truncato-conicee ; lateribus deplanatis ; apicibus 
truncatis; angulis basalibus late-rotundatis: verrucis quadratis 
totam marginem complentibus, juxta suturam dente singulo 
utrinque munitse. Supra isthmum tumore nullo nee scrobiculis, 
verrucis regulariter decussatim dispositis. 

Long. 132, lat. 94, ap. ca. 30, bas. 74, isth. 36 /x. 

Lismore (11). Cum forma typica. 

Cf. Nordstedt, Frw. Alg. N.Z., p.62, P1.6, f.l9. Cos. magni- 
ficum, in common with most of Nordstedt's New Zealand types, 
is found generally distributed in New South Wales. The short 
spine at the basal angle seems to indicate that the verrucse may 
be interchangeable with spines. Cf. Cos. suhhalteimi Schm., Ost- 
Afrika ges. Desm., p. 25, T.ii., f.29, which is also a form of Cos. 
magnijicum. 

CosMAKiUM DENTIFERUM Corda. (PI. iii., f.l8). 

Long. 106, lat. 114, isth. 30 /x. 

Lismore (18). Cf. VV. & G. S. West, Monog., iii., P1.78, f.I8. 
Var suBLATUM (Nord.). (PL iii., f.22). 

Long. 110, lat. 110, isth. 28, bas. 94 /x. 

Lismore (18). Cf. Nordstedt, Frw. Alg. N.Z., PI. v., f.3. 



BY G. I. PLAYFAIR. 105 

Var. PORRECTUM (Nord.). (PL iii., f.l9, 20). 
Long. max. 68-72, centr. 64-70, lat. 70-74, has. 54-60, isth. 20, 
crass. 30 /x. 

Lismore(12). Cf. Nord,, Desm. C. Braz., T.3,f.28. 

MiXKD FORM. (PI. iii., f.21). 

a. Var. porrectum (Nord.). 

Long, semic. 36, lat 74, isth. 18, bas. 56 fx. 

b. Var. quadrum (Lund). 

Long, semic. 36, lat. 64, bas. 56, crass. 36 /x. 

Lismore(17). 

The above are, undoubtedly, all forms of one species Those 
in samples 17, 18, were gathered from the same place on the same 
day; those in 12, from the same position two months earlier. 
They all have the same characteristic end-view, oblong almost 
cylindrical, with paiallel sides and broadly rounded ends. The 
arrangement of the granules is the same also, viz., in vertical and 
decussating series. It should be noted that the forms of Cos. 
porrectum, in figs. 20 and 2 la, are really intermediate between 
Cos. porrectum Nord., type, and Cos. suhlatum Nord. The forms 
of Cos. dentiferum may nearly always be recognised by the large, 
quadrate, smooth space at the isthmus, caused by the tendency 
in the semicells to be reniform, above and below which are 
generally five granules forming an angle. Besides those men- 
tioned here, other desmids included in this species are :— Cos. 
reniforme Ralfs, and P covipressum Nord., the latter widespread 
in this country, Cos. orthopleurum, R.&B., Cos. Tnargaritatum 
(Lund), Cos. pardalis Cohn, Cos. lacanatum G. S. AVest, and 
Cos. pseudohroomei Wolle. 

PROTOCOCCOIDE^. 
Genus Chlamydomonas Ehr. 
Chlamydomonas intermedia Chodat. 
Long. 17, lat. 10 /x. 
Lismore(13). 

Four in a mucous ccenobium, stirring but not yet motile, the 
contractile vesicle, however, could be seen working Chodat 



106 BIOLOGY OF THE RICHMOND RIVER, 

gives "long. 18-20/x, cellules oblongues." Ch. intermedia is the 
prevailing form of the genus in this country. In small two- 
celled coenobia, the cells are always disposed head to tail. If by 
nothing else, immature forms can generally be recognised by the 
presence of a minute clear spot at one extreme end. 

Chlamydomonas globulosa Perty. (PI. ii., f.l^, 

Diam. cell. 14-16, cell, matric. 26, aplanop. 12 /x. 

Lismore (21). 

Chi. globulosa (rare) and Chi. Steinii Gorosh.,(very rare) are the 
only other species that I have met with in New South Wales. 
Chlamydomonas could only be said to just occur in the river; it 
is noteworthy that neither Gleocystis vesiculosa nor Sphcerocystis 
Schrciteri were present. I consider them to be its vegetative stages. 

The gathering (14) from Casino having been kept for some 
months, two minute Chlamydomo7ias forms developed in some 
quantity. They w^ere non-motile when observed, without flagella 
or stigma, but in the larger (12x7) a contractile vesicle was 
working. They denote, I fancy, the presence of Chi. intermedia. 
(PI. ii., f.l4, 15). 

Genus VoLVOX (L.) Ehr. 
VoLvox aureus Ehr. (PI. ii., f.2-4). 
CcEn. matric. diam. 300, membr. crass. 3; cell. diam. 8; parthe- 
nog.(8) diam. 45-50 fx. 
Lismore (20). Rare. 

The cells were globose, the connecting strands quite plain, 
generally single, but sometimes geminate. 

VoLvox Bernardii mihi. (PI. ii., f.5-11}. 

Forma V.aureo similis, nuUis autem fills cellulis conjungentibus. 
Coenobii membrana plerumque crassa. 

Ca?n. matric. diam. 290-300, membr. crass. 3-6; cellulis pyri- 
formibus vel globosis (ambitu circa 28) diam, 4-8, inter se dis- 
tantibus 20-30. Ccenob. filial. (8-12) diam. 60-96, cell. diam. 2-4, 
inter se distant. 1 diam., parthenogonidiis (8-12) diam. 12-40/x. 

Many young specimens were noted, evidently not long freed 
from the mother ccenobium; their specifications were : — 



BY G. I. PLAYFAIR. 107 

Coenob. diam. 74-96, membr. crass. 2-5, cell, (in arabitu circ. 
16-28) diam. 4-6, inter se distant. 2-20, parthenogonidiis (8-12) 
diam. 16-42 fi. 

Lismore (12, 16, 17). Common. 

This is the Volvox recorded by Bernard, Desm. et Protococc, 
p. 165, as V. aureus Ehr. In all the specimens noted, I looked 
very carefully for the connecting filaments, but without result. 
Bernard also remarks. I.e., p. 166 : — " Je dois dire que, malgre 
toutes mes recherches, malgre I'emploi des grossissements les plus 
puissants et de reactifs varies, je n'ai pu arriver a les mettre en 
evidence . . . . il n'y avait pas le moindre trait plus fortement 
colore reunissant les cellules les unes aux autres, ni la moindre 
trace quelconque pouvant faire croire a la presence de communi- 
tions plasmiques." There are so few points in which one species 
of Volvox can differ from another that the absence of these con- 
nective filaments seems to me a decided specific character. 

A specimen was noted, in material that had been some time in 
a bottle, with all the cells of one hemisphere developed into 
oogonia. Cf. Overton, Gatt. Volvox, PI. iv,, f.28. 

Coenob. diam 210, membr. crass. 6; cell, (in ambitu circ. 14) 
diam. 7-8, oogoniis diam. 15-18 /x. (PL ii., f.lO, 11). 

Genus Eudorina Ehr. 

EUDORINA ELEGANS Ehr. 

Chloroplasts granular, cells diam. 6, 10, 12, 16, 18, 22 //. 
Lismore (12, 18). 

A family of 16 coenobia noted, coenobia 16-celled. Family 
diam. 90, coenob. 25, cells 5-6 /x. 

Var. Wallichii Turner. 

Chloroplasts very pale green, translucent, with a single large 
pyrenoid. Coenob. diam. 60, cell. 10 /x. 

Lismore (12). 

Cf. Turner, Alg. E. Ind., p.l55, T.xxi., f.lO; Chodat, Alg. 
Vertes, p. 151, f.76A, b. A fine family of 16 coenobia seen, each 
32-celled. Family diam. 350, coenob. 60, cell. 10 /w,. 



108 BIOLOGY OF THE RICHMOND RIVER, 

Var. RiCHMONDi^, n.var. (PL ii., f.l2). 

Chloroplasts bright translucent green, 2-4 large pyrenoids, 
generally 4 at the angles of a tetraedron. 

Coenob. (16 cell) diam. 130, cell. 16-18 /x. 

Lismore (12). 

As Wallich remarks (in Turner, I.e.) about the preceding form, 
the cells (from a certain point of view at any rate) are so arranged 
in alternating superimposed squares, that the whole sixteen can 
be seen at one time. Pandorina morum present also. 

UvA, n.gen. 

Character idem ac speciei. 

UvA Casinoknsis, sp.unica. (PI. ii., f.l3). 

Coenobium uviforme, ovatum, fronte latius, e cellulis muco 
agglutinatis non autem in volutin, exstructum; cellulis circa 16 
(18,16,32) magnis, ovatis, declinatis; flagellis longis (? binis); 
chloroplastidibus clare viridibus, granulosis, pyrenoidibus nuUis 
(visis); stigmatibus obscuris. 

Coenob. long. 28-40, lat. 22-.. ; cell. long. 10-14, lat. 6-10 />t. 

Casino (14). Plentiful. 

This interesting flagellate was obtained from the river at 
Casino, out of Hydrodictyon reticidatura. The cells in the 
smaller specimens are distinctly ovate, with the narrower ends 
pointing backwards ; but, with growth, they tend to become 
more nearly elliptical. I was not able to see whether theflagella 
are double or single; they are very long, quite equal to the 
breadth of the coenobium, and seem to arise, not as one would 
suppose, from the point, but from the broad end of the cell. The 
organism moves straight forward, broad end first, with the 
oreatest rapidity, revolving at the same time round its long axis, 
very different from the leisurely progression of Eudorina and 
Pandorina. 

For genus Trochisia, see under Chytridiacece, infra. 
Genus Hydrodictyon Roth. 
Hydrodictyon reticulatum (L.) Lag. 

Cellulse perfecte cylindracese, endochroma in reticulo irregulari 
disposita, pyrenoidibus minutis dispersis. 

Cell. long. 200-300, lat. 36-44 /x. 



BY G. I. PLAYFAIR. 109 

Var. MINIMUM, n.var. (PL iii., f.23). 

Cellulse minimae cylindracse, eiidochroma in lamina tenui parie- 
tali disposita, pyrenoidibus singulis minutis. 

Cell. long. 22, lat. 7 /x. 

Casino (14). 

The cliloroplast, when in good condition, extends the whole 
length of the cell, but very often is reduced to a band in the centre, 
as in Myxonema. Eichler, Okolic Miedzyrzeca, 1892, T.ix, f. 6, 
records a size larger than this (cells 46 x 12), but with the reticu- 
late chloroplasts of the type. 

Var. NODOSUM, n.var. (PI. iii., f.24). 
Forma in extremis cellulis leviter inflata, endoclu-oma reticulata. 
Cell. long. 100-300, lat. 20-54 /x. 
Casino (14). 

In many instances, I noted a tendency for the pyrenoids to run 
in long spirals across the cells. 

Var. Bernardii, n.var. (PI. iii., f.25). 

Forma cellulis maximis, in extremis inflatis, membrana crassa, 
endochroma dilute luteolo-viridi in granulis minutis diffusa, pyre- 
noidibus majoribus granulalis. 

Cell. long. 1020; lat. centr. 103, extr. 140, membr. ad 10//. 

Casino (14). 

Cf. Bernard, Desm. et Protoeocc, PL xv., f. 536, 537. All the 
above forms were found together in the same gathering. Bernard, 
I.e., records them also from Java. They are, of course, all stages 
of growth, but are quite distinct enough to be worth naming. It 
seems to me also that this plant, which I meet now for the first 
time, raises questions which have a decided bearing on our ideas 
regarding the growth of the freshwater algae generally. Here is a 
plant whose cells can develop from 22 x 7 to 1020 x 140 /x (Ber- 
nard gives 25 X 8 to 2000 x 220 /x), while at the same time the 
endoehrome twice entirely changes its disposition. Judged by this 
standard, all the forms of Myxonema or Ulothrix resolve them- 
selves easily into one species. If the Hydrodictyon cell and its 
chloroplasts grow and develop, why not Clostermm or Gyrosigma f 

10 



110 BIOLOGY OF THE RICHMOND RIVER, 

A cell that is free, has far greater opportunities for growth than 
one which forms part of a filament. 

Genus Pediastrum Meyen. 
Pediastrum tetras var. integrum (Nag.). (PI. iii., f.26). 
Coenob. long. 26, lat. 20; cell. viv. lat. 12, alt. 10 /x. 
Lismore(13). 

In company with minute forms of P. tetras. This specimen was, 
originally, evidently a coenobium of P. tetras of the 7 + 1 type 
The central cell and four of the peripheral cells have died, but the 
outer ones still retain the size and shape of the cells of P. tetras. 
The three living cells plainly belong to P. integrum Nag. It is 
evident, therefore, that the cells of a coenobium are in a state of 
growth, and that the peripheral cells develop from one form to 
another. 

Pediastrum Boryanum var. capitatum, n.var. (PI. iii., f.27). 

Cellulse exteriores ad cornua extrema globulis singulis in- 
structse. 

Cell. diam. 32; alt. centr. 20, c. corn. 36; diam. corn ap. 3, 
globul. 7-8 ix. 

Lismore(15). 

Genus Kirchneriella Schm. 
Kirchneriella lunaris (Kirchn.) Mobius. 
Cell. diam. 7, crass. 2 /x. 

Var. approximata, n.var. (PI. iii., f.28). 
Cellulae crassae; apicibus acutis approximatis, lateribus interiori- 
bus parallelis. 

Fam. (8 coenob., 8 cell.) diam. 80; coenob. 25, cell. long. 1 1, lat. 
10, crass. 5 fx. 
Lismore(ll). 

Var. aperta (Toiling). (PI. iii., f.29). 
Cellulae crassae; apicibus aeuminatis non autem acutis, lateribus 
interioribus planis, divergentibus. 



BY G. I. PLAYFAIR. Ill 

Coenob. (cell. 8) diam. 40; cell. diam. 10, crass. 5 /x. 

Lismore(ll). Cum priori. 

Syn. Kirchn. aperta Einar Tailing, Svenska Bot. Tidskr., 1012, 
p. 276. This form is somewhat like Selenoderma Malmeana 
Bohlin, Ersten Regnellsehen Exp., i., p. 21, T.i., f. 31-35. I doubt 
very much whether there is any difference between the two genera. 
Cf. also Sorastrum hidentatum Reinseh, De Spec, generibusque, 
T.i., f.D iv. K. lunaris var. contorta (Schm.), PI. iii., f 30, and 
var. gracillima (Bohlin) also noted. 

BACILLARIE^. 

Genus Amphora Ehr. 

Amphora coff^ifohmis Ag. (PL iv., f.l). 
Long. 27; lat. valv. 7; crass, frust. 12, ap. 6 /x. 
Lismore(5,13). 

Syn. A. salina W. Sm. Strias very fine and faint, hardly dis- 
cernible. 

Amphora veneta var. grossestuiata, n.var. (PI. iv., f.2, 3). 

Striae crassse 6-7 in 10 fx. 

Long. 32-75; lat. valv.11-16, ap.3-4; crass, frust. 12-16, ap.6-8/x. 

Lismore(12, 13, 17, 20, 21, 22) ; Kyogle (41). 

For the type, Cleve, Syn., ii., p. 118, gives long. 20-60, lat. 11-18, 
striae 20 in 10/x. In the river, this form was in company with 
Cocconema tumidum, and it was noticeable that the striae on both 
were equal in number and of similar character. 

Genus Cocconema Ehr. 
Cocconema tumidum Breb. (PL iv., f.4). 

Long. 70-90; lat. valv. 20-22, ap. 8-10 /x Strise 6 in 10 /x. 

Lismore(l, 2, 6, 8, 11, 12, 15, 18, 20). Casino (14). Kyogle 
(41,45). 

Very common in the river. The boat-shaped frustule, rostrate- 
truncate ends, and especially the diamond-shaped area round the 
central nodule, define this form. 



112 e::i;:-t :f thi eichmoxd eiver, 

CoccvXEMA ASPKF.UM Ehr. 
Long. 105-200; l*t. t^It. 24-44, ^ 10-14/«. Striae 5 in 10 /*. 
LBm(ire(2. 11). KTogk(41. 45). 

Syn. Coec patiroides Kutz.: Cf. Heiibaad, Anvergne, PI. iii., 1 
10; Clere^ Syn. Rare in lisoioie gatherings, eommon in those 
fr:~ Kyrr^.r Sttt.c e^^ily resolved, punctate. 
- :: :? XAVicrLA Bory. 
Naticci^ ii-::::-. Ku:z <PL W^ f.5,6). 
Valrae^Iipricae vel eliipti: . r aras. 
liong. 16-28: lai. Talv. 6-11. Lra:ss. frost. 8 /i. 
Kntzing's %nre, Bae., PL 3. £. 32. does not show a psendo- 
stanros. whi^ in oar specimens is nearly always present. When 
afasentp in all torms the e^itral nodole is aeeentnated. 

Tar. BHOMBOIDKA, n.var. (PL ix^ £.7). 
ValTs rhomlmdeo-lanoeolatae, in medio modice angnlatae^ ad 
xfiees rapide attennatje. lat^bos planis vel levi^ime retosis, 
ajpeobos acute rotnndatis. 

Long. 30-36: lat. 11-12, apic. 3-4: crass, frost. 6-11 /l 
Three forms of tfiis variation were noted: — (1) with strongly 
aeeentnated eentral nodole and no pseodostaoros : (2) with a 
pseadostanros: (3) with pseodostaoros and divided eolumella. In 
girdle-view the sides are often considerably convex. 

Tar. OTALis, n.var. (PL iv., f.8). 
Talvs late eUipticae, apidbos late-rotandatis. 
liOfig. 22: lat. valv. 10 /t. BarLssime. 

Ts: sTHHZXjL'^jyi. n->-ar. (PLiv., f.9). 

zag«HMB polos versos eoneats; apicibos interdnm 
"i . '-' -^ribos in medio planis, parallelis, apices versos 

r . . .:.-. 1 S-9: crass, fmst. 8 fu 

. --- ;^ __r. -:^ L divided cnjlnmella. 

Var. rcBCTHCTTULEis. n var. <PL iv., f.10-12). 
' - It : icae paene eircolares, apicibos levissime 



BT O. L PI.ATFAnL 113 

Long. 12-17; lat. v^v. 10-12; (»ass fenst- 8|«- 
M<9ted with and withonl a pBeadostaaroiS, also witli a narroiir 
obfieaze fosif orm tnyisrcxse fasda. 

Var. GoBPPKBTiASA (Bkisci ? :' " " 

Valvae elliptieae!, aemoinata?, in:^ . : __ _„ _ : - : : ; : ^ . : : -. : : : s 
regnlaiiter areoatis. 

Lmg. 24-:": .s,: 1, ^. 3; crass, fix : 4: 

Ld^nore-. &..—"- ■ •- J except Tar. 4>iTi««,i ^1^-:^ v,^-. .ir«.i- 

circularu '^ 1.6, 13); Tar. Go pp e rt iama i 1, 6, 

13, 31); Tar f ir. aca/«»(l). 

All the s ^ T . .->^v . ^nations; of tte r ^ -- ^= : 

thej oeeoT : -^ ^e No. 1 (^tafeen out 

ojnespot); V ppearanee nnder : r. 

Theyaref- r. i ^: ^yy-c.j qnitesnioofliand r 

ordinary n . lo*??. It is impoe^blep I thir - 

the s^e& : ::hoat admitting that the 

changes IT.: -: :::ie outline to another. 

dcTelopini- T^-Ttlser. dere, Syn. : -- 1: . 

jives - : . : ::z: r majrgins, bat I hare not noted 

a::T : :— 7 - ar. «ai&euieifl(a(r£s is ezactfy 

th- 1 , -^Spetabefg!Eii,PLi,lI2ft, 

* = J»'.r. : ; :z:s, '.'<?^'n&t fiiise, sec Octc^ Lc.). 

Genus r':?i:yi:5 Ezr. 

' : _ -'-36; lat- tsIt. 16-17; crass, finist. 10 pu 
LiMiiore(2, U, 13). 

V:^r OTAUS, n.Tar. (PL iT., f.16). 
Va.lv 2^ late-eUipticae, OTales. Striae 10 in 10 |k. 
Long. 20-30: lat. TalT. 14; orass. frost. 10 fu 
L iiT- : 11.13). 

V .^ r .. - V ^L ^iTATA, n.Tar. (H. iT.. 117). 
^ ' : . :?* . ?. pidbns aemninatis, latenbos araiati& 

L ^ 1.: 1^: alT. 11-15; crass, frost. 10^ StnslOuilO|L 



114 BIOLOGY OF THE RICHMOND RIVER, 

Lismore(l, 6, 11). Kyogle(41). 

The central nodule in all these forms is quadrate, diam. 2 or 
4/x. 

The longitudinal furrow, 2-4 /x broad, seems (from broken speci- 
mens) to be a lacuna in the membrane. 

Genus Vanheukckia Breb. 

VaNHEURCKIA RHOMBOIDES var. NEGLECTA(Thw.) f. MINOR, n.f. 

Forma dimidio brevior ; valvae lineares-ellipticae, apicibus rotun- 
datis; area centrali indivisa. 

Long. 27-40; lat. valv. 7-8 }x. 

Lismore (2, 3, 6, 20). Kyogle (45). 

The larger form [Schizonema neglecta Thwaites; Nav. gracilis 
var. neglecta (Thw.), W. & G. S. West; Nav. gracilis var. schizo- 
nemoides V.H.) measures 50-90 x 8 /x. 

Vanheurckia cuspidata var. danaica (Grun.). 

Long. 73-80; lat. valv. 18/x. Columella broad, undivided. 

Lismore (3). 

Navicula cuspidata and its forms should be arranged under 
Vanheurckia', there is no real difference between forms with 
divided and those with undivided central area. 

Var. ambigua (Ehr.). 

Long. 70-75; lat. valv. 22, ap. 6/x. Apicibus ssepe levissime 
capitatis. 

Lismore(5). Casino(14). Kyogle(41). 

Syn. Nav. ambigua Ehr. in Donkin, Br. Diat., P1.6, f.5. A'av. 
cuspidata var. ambigua (Ehr.) Cleve. Specimens were noted with 
a single broad columella (with incipient median line, however, 
above and below the central nodule) and also with a double one. 
The median line (1 true raphe or merely a furrow) in these 
Vanheurckia forms develops generally from the centre outwards. 
Beginning as a minute foramen on either side of the central 
nodule (and defining it), it gradually extends outwards to the 
terminal nodules, thus forming a double columella. Cf. Vanh. 
(Frustulia) leptocephala Oestrup, Oest-Gronland, T. i., f.l. 



BY G. I. PLAYPAIR. 115 

Var. Kyoglensis, n.var. 

Forma maxima; valves lanceolatse, apicibus obtusis minime 
protractis, quam levissime rostratis ; area central! (columella) 
longitudinaliter divisa; membrani grosse longitudinaliter striata, 
striis 7-8 in 10/x. 

Long. 180-200; lat. valv. 44-50, ap. 8-10 /x. 

Kyogle(41). 

Except for the longitudinal striae, this form is identical with 
Vanheiirckia africana G. S. West, Journ. Bot., 1909, p. 246, PI. 
498, fig. 18. 

Geuus Amphiproka Ehr 
Amphipjigra alata var. Holdererii (Gutw.) mihi. (Pl.iv., f.l8). 

Long. 52 ji. Alee valde sinuatse. 

Lismore(l, 2). 

This form is only known besides from the Desert of Gobi, 
Central Asia. Gutwinski (Alg. in Asia coll., p.212, Pl.ix., f.7) 
makes it a variation of A. pahcdosa, but from the figures in Van 
Heurck (Diat., PI. 5) it seems much nearer A. alata. It is almost 
certain, however, that all these forms of Amphiprora are varia- 
tions of one species. 

Genus Gomphonema Ag. 
GoMPHONEMA AUGUR var. ROTUNDATUM (Ehr.) mihi. 
Valvse clavatse, superne late-rotundatae, apiculo minuto inter- 
dum instructse; lateribus superne arcuatis, inferne rapide con- 
vergentibus, plus minus planis ; apicibus inferioribus acute- 
rotundatis. Striae 2-3 utrinque ad centralem nodulum plerumque 
alteris valid iores. 

Long. 30-54; lat. valv. 12-16, ap. 2-3 /x; strise 7 in 10 /x. 
Lismore (cum sequenti). (PL iv., f.l9, 20). 

Var. AXGULATUM. (PI. iv., f.21, 22). 
Valvse juxta nodulum centralem latissimse, hie modice angu. 
latse et prope etiam apicem superiorem, apiculo minuto interdum 
instructse; lateribus inferne rapide convergentibus psene planis, 
superne arcuatis convergentibus inter angulos deplanatis. Striae 
2-3 utrinque ad centralem nodulum plerumque alteris validiores. 



116 BIOLOGY OF THE RICHMOND RIVER, 

Long. 40-57; lat. valv. 13-14, ap. 4 /x Striae 7 in 10 fx. 
Lismore(l, 6, 13, 15, 17, 18, 20, 21, 22), both forms together. 

GoMPHONEMA CONSTRICTUM var. AUSTRALE, n.var, (Pl.iv.,f.23). 

Valvse parte superiore valde inflata, apiculo lato munitae; striis 
binis alteris validioribus utrinque ad centralem nodulum prseditse. 

Long 50; lat. valv. cap. 16-18, constr. 10, centr. 13, bas. 5 /x. 

Lismore(l, 2, 6, 8), cum forma typica. 

Dimensions of the type are, here : — long. 40, lat. valv. cap. 12, 
constr. 10, centr. 13, bas. 5 /x. 

GOMPHONEMA TRIANGULARE, n.Sp. (PI. iv., f.24). 

Yalvse minutse, triangulares, prope apices latissimse; lateribus 
ad basin angustatam rapide convergentibus; apicibus depressis 
subrostratis. 

Long. 24; lat. valv. 10, ap. 3 /x. 

Lismore( 1 ). Rarissime. 

Genus Achnanthes, Bory. 
AcHNANTHES LANCEOLATA (Breb.) Grun. 
Valvse elliptico-lanceolatae, apicibus late-rotundatis. 
Long. 12-20; lat. valv. 7-8 /x. Striae 9 in 10 /x. 
Valvse apicibus productis subrostratis, late-rotundatis. 
Long. 20-25; lat. valv. 8-9, ap. 3-4 /x. Striae 9 in 10 /x, utrinque 
20-24. 

Lismore(l, 6, 8, 17, 18, 20, 21, 22), both forms intermingled. 
Cleve, Syn., ii., p. 192, gives striae 13-16 in 10 /x. 

Achnanthes calcar var. austkalis, n.var. (PI. iv., f.25-26). 

Valvae elliptico-lanceolatae, forma typica prae latitudine longi- 
ores ; apicibus acuminatis interdum quam levissime rostratis. 
Valva inferior linea media sola instructa. 

Long. 16-22; lat. valv. 7-8, ap. 2 fi. 

Lismore(6, 12, 13, 15, 17, 20). 

Var. PULCHERRIMA, n.var. (PL iv., f.27). 
Valvae lanceolatae vel lineari-lanceolatae, longiores; apicibus 
acute-rotundatis, interdum quam levissime rostratis. 
Long. 24-40; lat. valv. 8-10, ap. 21 /x. 



BY G. I. PLAYFAIR. 117 

Lismore(17, 20, 21). In profusion(17). 

Cf. Cleve, Diat. Finland, p.51, PI. iii., f.8, 9. A very rare 
species, known (living) only from Finland, and fossil in Sweden 
from freshwater deposits of the Ancylus epoch. Striie 24-25 in 
10 /x according to Cleve, Syn., ii., p. 17 4. Va,v. pulcher^nma 
sometimes approaches in shape to Ach. Hungarica Grun. 

Genus Cocconeis (Ehr.) Cleve. 

COCCONEIS PLACKNTULA Ehr. 

" Intus et extus isevis," Kiitz., Bac, p. 73. 
Long. 22-36; lat. valv. 14-22, crass. 3 /x. 
Lismore. Cum sequenti. 

Var. EUGLYPTA (Ehr.) Cleve. (PL iv., f.28). 

Forma utrinque ad lineam mediam striis longitudinalibus 
crassis rectis 5-6 ornata. Dimensiones et cetera ut in forma 
typica. 

Lismore(l, 6, 13, 17, 18, 20, 21, 22); both forms intermingled. 

Var. LINEATA (Ehr.) Cleve. 

Forma major, striis longitudinalibus 5-6 iindtdatis ornata. 

Long. 40-46; lat. valv. 26-30; lat. annul. 3 /x. 

Lismore(l, 6, 15, 20, 21). Cum f. typica rarius. 

The wavy longitudinal strise are an optical illusion caused by 
the transverse striae decussating at a very obtuse angle. Cleve, 
Syn., ii., p.l69, gives long. 40-70, lat. 30-40 /x for this form. 

Var. AUSTRALICA, n.var. (PI. iv., f.29). 

Var. lineatse consimilis, striis autem nullis ; area centrali 
(1 nodulo) circular! distinctA, instructa, lineis medianis binis 
arcuatis. 

Long. 44; lat. valv. 30 /x. 

Lismore(l). Rarissime. 

Genus Epithemia Br^b. 
Epithemia gibberula var. perpusilla, n.var. (PI. iv., f.30). 
Var. productse consimilis sed minor; costis 5-6 dorso crassis ad 



zonam versus sensim attenuatis. ■ = <. /X 

Long. 15-16; lat. valv. 6; lat. frust. 13, ap. 4 /x. '^'-•'^■O^ 



.^y 



118 BIOLOGY OP THE RICHMOND RIVER, 

Lismore(2b), with var. producta Grun. 

From Van Heurck's figures, Diat., PI. 9, figs. 359, 360, 361, 
there would not appear to be any specific difference between E. 
miLSCulus Kiitz., and E. gibberula var. producta Grun., nor are 
Kiitzing's figures of the types, Bac, PL 30, f . 3, 6, sufiiciently 
different for distinct species. In these latter, the lower figures 
in each case are not of frustules seen in girdle-view, but repre- 
sent the two outer and opposite valves of a hemisphere of frus- 
tules cohering after division. The same is true of Van Heurck's 
figures, Diat., PI. 30, f.825 {sinistra). E. gibberula has priority, 
as Kiitzing refers it to Ehrenberg. 

Epi. Sorex, E. zebra, E. turgida var. grauulata, and E. gibba 
var. ventricosa were also abundant both at Lismore and Casino. 
The three last from Kyogle also. 

Genus Eunotia Ehr. 
EuNOTiA FORMICA, var. RiCHMONDiiE, n.var. (PI. iv., f.31, 32). 

Valvie levissime arcuatas, medio apicibusque subito inflatse 
lateribus plus minus parallelis; apicibus acuminatis cuneatis. 

Long. 56-124; lat. valv. 8-9, inflation. 10-14 /x. 

Lismore (3, 6, 12,17,18, 22). 

Forming long ribbons, in company with Eun. depressa Ehr. 
The latter is the only other form of Eunotia in the river, long. 
24-96, lat. 8, ap. 5 /x, very common; cf. Kiitz., Bac, PI. 30, the 
two unnumbered examples between figs.l and 2. 

Genus Synkdka Ehr. 
Synedra Lismorensis, n.sp. (Pi. iv., f.33-38). 

Valvye in medio constrictse, papilla minuta etiam nonnunquam 
ornatse; superne interdum paullo inflatpe, ad apices attenuata3) 
apicibus rostratis. Striis tenuissimis circ 12 in 10 /x, in medio 
mancis. Latere cingulato frustulum rectangulare, interdum 
apices versus modice attenuatum, parte non striata ad angulos 
incrassata. 

Long. 22-88; lat. valv. 4-6, ap. 2-3; lat. frust. 4-6 /x. 

Lismore (1, 12, 13, 17, 18, 21). In profusion. 



BY G. I PLAYFAIR. 119 

Every length, in successive increments of 2 /x, between 22 /x 
and 88 fx, was actually observed and measured. The frustules 
were in long ribbons, the shorter ones (long. 22 ji and upward) 
being quite as broad as the longest (or even broader) were very 
unlike Synedra in appearance. 

Genus Surirella Turpin. 

SuRiRELLA ovALis var. PiNNATA (W. Sm.) Van. Heurck. 

Long. 30-40; lat. valv. 10-12, ap. 3-4; lat. frust. 8-12 /x. Costse 
5-6 in 10/x. 

Lismore(3, 12,22). (PL iv., f.39, 40). 

Syn., ^uri. lapponica Astrid Cleve, Recent Frw. Diat., p. 25, 
PL i., f.26. S. ovalis type also noted (long. 44-48, lat. 26 /x, costse 
18-20 a side) in Nos.2, 3, 11. 

Var. Lbvvisii mihi. (PL iv., f.41-43). 

Valvse facie inflata ; membrana media distincte marginata; 
costai breves, validae, lateribus parallelis, ad marginem merabranse 
abrupte terminatse. 

Long. 50-64; lat. valv. 32 /x. 

Lismore(5). 

Cf. Suri. ovalis Lewis, Diat. U. S. seaboard, p. 63, PL 1, f.3. 
Lewis calls it " a sparangial form." Var. Lewisii has the same 
relation to the type that Cyclotella Mcneghiniana /S (var. coiivexa 
mihi, infra) has to its type. The costie are convex and terminate 
abruptly at the edge of the central smooth membrane. In this 
form they increase in number by new ones forming between the 
others, growing from the edge outwards. Usually in Surirella 
the new marginal costse, verrucse or denticulations form at the 
apices, the latter being the growing points of the frustule. 

Surirella plana G. S. West, forma. (PL v., f.l). 

Long. 100-134; lat. valv. max. 44-50; lat. frust. ap. 36-48, bas. 
24-30 /x. 

Verrucas marginales circ. 20; latere cingulato ut in Suri. 
rohustd. 

Lismore. Cum sequenti rarius. 



120 BIOLOGY OF THE RICHMOND RIVER, 

Var. ALGENSis, n.var. (PL v., f.2, 3). 

Valvse breviores, prse longitudine latiores, ellipticse plus minus 
ovatse; costis 10-12, terminalibus 3 vulgo (interdum omnibus) 
simplicibus. Latere cingulato valde cuneato, apicibus latissimis 
ad basin rapide attenuatis; marginibus alarum medio retusis. 

Long. 56-106; lat. valv. 34-56; lat. frust. ap. 36, bas. 20 /x. 

Lismore (5, 7, 8). Cum priori. 

Cf. G. S. West, Third Tanganyika Exp., p. 165, PI. 8, f.5; also 
Suri. margavitacea O. Miiller, Bac. a.d. Nyassaland, p. 37, PI. 2, 
f.l2, the latter probably a smaller size of var. algensis with the 
costje broken up into rows of minute granules. I consider Suri. 
plana a variation of Suri. robusta, with one end (or both) very 
broadly rounded and a tendency to be ovate; in girdle-view they 
are identical. The girdle-view in var. algensis is characteristic, 
being strongly cuneate. The costpe are distinct to the centre, or 
merely marginal according, of course, to the silicification of the 
membrane. Some forms were noted with simple costae only, pro- 
ceeding from marginal denticulations as in Sui'i. elegans and S. 
ovalis. These costse do not remain simple, however, but become 
double with growth of the frustule. S. robusta var. splendida in 
the same water (long. 136-140, lat. 48-50 /x); Lismore (6, 7, 8, 18), 
and Casino (14). 

Genus Nitzschia Hassal. 
NiTZSCHiA PARADOXA (Gmel.) Grun. 
Long. 80-100; lat. valv. 6, ap. 2 /x. (Bacillaria paradoxa 
Gmelin). 

Var. MAJOR Van Heurck. (PI. v., fig. 4). 
Long. 100-120; lat. valv. 8; lat. frust. 8, ap. 6 /x. Puticta 5 in 
10 /i. 

Var. PERPUSILLA, n.var. (PI. v., f.5). 

Forma minima; valvae lineari-ellipticse, apicibus acute-rotun- 
datis nee rostratis. 

Long. 22-40; lat. valv. 5; lat. frust. 6 /x. 

Lismore (1, 2, 6, 8, 15, 17, 20, 21), type and var. perpusilla; var 
major (7, 8). 



BY G, I. PLAYFAIR. 121 

NiTZSCHiA vERMicuLARis var. siALis, n.var. (PL v., f.6). 
Forma a latere cingulato visa, apicibus attenuatis. Puncta 
carinse 5 in 10 /x. 

Long. 180-186; lat. valv. 8, ap. 3; lat. frust. 14, ap. 8-10 jut 
Lismore(3, 12); in Lynghya stratum (26). 

Var. MiNUTA, n.var. (PI. v., f.7). 

Forma minima, latere cingulato apicibus attenuatis, punctis 
carinas saepissime carentibus. 

Long. 44-48; lat. valv. 4, ap. 2^ /x. 

Lismore, in Lynghya stratum (26) cum priori. 

The carinal dots in these forms increase gradually in number. 
They first elongate longitudinally and then divide into two 
granules. Granular and elongated puncta were noted inter- 
mingled in the same specimen, and with them also were some 
which were quite evidently half divided. It is one indication of 
a very slow process of growth and development which is taking 
place in the frustule. 

Genus Tryblionella W. Smith. 
Tryblionella Hantzschiana var. minor, n.var. (PI. v., f.8). 
Formae typicse (fig. a in Grun., Oesterr. Diat., T. xii) consimilis 
sed minor. 

Long. 40; lat. valv. 14 /x. 

Var. YiCTORiiE (Grun.) mihi. (PI. v., f.9-1 1). 
Long. 30-60; lat. valv. 15-22 ; lat. frust. 13-20, cingul. 5-8 /x. 
Striae 24-36, 5-6 in 10 /x, equal in number to the marginal dots 
when present. Syn. Tryhl. Victo7'ice Grun., Oesterr. Diat., p. 553 
T.12, f.34. Both figures are tilted sideways, 346 very much so. 

Var. calida (Grun.) V. Heurck. (PI. v., f.l2). 
Long. 70-72; lat. valv. 10-12, ap. 2-3; lat. frust. 11, cingul. 3-4 /u. 

Var. OVATA (Lagerstedt) mihi. (PI. v., f . 1 3). 
Long. 26-36; lat. valv. 14-18. Strise circ. 20, 6 in 10 /x. Syn. 
T. ovata Lagerst., Spetzbergens, p. 48, T.2, f.23. Lagerstedt's 
figure also is tilted sideways. 



122 BIOLOGY OF THE RICHMOND RIVER, 

Var. AUSTRALICA, n.var. (PI. v., f.l4). 

Valvse elliptico-lanceolatse, apices versus paullulo cuneatse, api- 
cibus modice subrostratis ; lateribus in mediis valvis paullulo 
deplanatis ; striis crassis baud punctatis, apices versus saepe 
carentibus. 

Long. 76; lat. 28 fi. 

This variation combines in itself the characteristics of several 
forms. There is a general resemblance, especially in the sub- 
rostrate apex, to Tryhl. {Nav.) punctata; in size, however, it 
agrees with Tryhl. Hantzschiana, while in shape it leans some- 
what to T. ovata. 

Tryblionella cruciata, n.sp. (PI. v., f.l5). 

Valvse late-lineares, in medio inflatae, apicibus late-rotundatis. 
Striis transversis, 8 in 10 /x, evddenter punctatis. 

Long. 48; lat. valv. centr. 1 6, ap. 1 1 /x. 

Only one frustule noted, and the only one, too, among numbers 
of the others, in which the striae were distinctly punctate. If 
Tryhl. punctata had been present, I would have made it a form 
of that species. 

Lismore, all six forms (1); var. Victorice (1, 3, 6, 12); var. ovata 
(1, 11,18); var. calida {3, 20). 

It is noticeable that these six forms of Tryblionella were all 
found in the same sample(l) out of a few heads of Myriophyllum 
gathered in one place. I cannot but consider them, therefore, 
all forms of one species. On account of its punctate striae, how- 
ever, Tr. cruciata has been kept separate. Following W. Smith, 
and Grunow (originally), I have classed these forms together 
under the old genus Tryhlionella. Why should Hantzschia and 
Stenopterohia (whose forms much more resemble Nitzschice) be 
separated from Nitzschia and these forms remain? The structure 
of the frustule is on the lines of Surirella; the pseudoraphe, the 
costae radiating more and more towards the apices where they 
are often absent or more delicate, the submarginal keel 07i hoth 
sides of the connecting zone (as also in Stenopterohia)^ the carinal 
dots originating near the apices and getting more complex as 
they approach the centre, all these remind one of Surirella. Also 



BY G. I. PLAYFAIR. 123 

in Suri. margayitacea Miiller, Nyassaland, i., P1.2, f. 12, we have 
a form of that genus with punctate costae (probably temporarily 
only, however). The frustules of these TryhlionellcB are very 
narrow and compressed in girdle-view, and slightly twisted round 
their long axis. I am inclined to believe them degraded forms 
of Cymatopleura solea, which is found in the upper reaches of 
the river at Kyogle. In this connection, cf. Miiller, Bac. aus 
Nyassaland, i , p. 23, f.4. 

Genus Melosira Ag. 

Melosira varians var. moniliformis (O.F.M.). (PI. v., f.l6, 17). 

Diam. 16-26; alt. cell. 16-26 (rare usque ad 60 /x). 

Lismore (3, 5, 22). Cum forma typica. 

Cf. Kiitzing, Bac, p. 53, T 3., f.ii., 1-3, whose figures work out 
at diam. 12-20 /x. i/. varians (diam. 14-30/x) is common in the 
river, being found in almost every gathering. [M. granulata, 
very rare, only once noted). In var. moniliformis, the cells 
become first semi detached and later entirely free, in which con- 
dition they are liable to be mistaken for Gyclotella frustules. 

Genus Gyclotella Kiitz. 

Cyclotella Meneghiniana Kiitz., forma. (PI. v., f.l8). 

Diam. 12-28; crass. 11-14 /x. Striae in ambitu circ. 30. 

In the type, the central area of the valve is not sharply out- 
lined, the striae are delicate, and the edge shows as a well-defined 
rim 1-1^ /x in thickness. The girdle-view is rectangular, the face 
of the valve, with the exception of the inflated half of the central 
undulation (when present), being beneath the level of the edge. 
These specimens were not quite typical, since they were not quite 
rectangular in girdle-view, but somewhat inflated, the striae 
showing over the edge. 

Yar. convex A mihi. (PI. v., f.l9, 20). 

V^alvae area centrali distincte definita, glabra, area marginali 
rugosa vel striata. A latere cingulato visae, lateribus convexis in 
medio planis vel plus minus undulatis. 

Diam. 8-36, diam. areae centralis 8-15; crass. 8-20 /x. In 
ambitu striae 24-30 vel, apud cell, validiores, rugae 50-60. 



124 BIOLOGY OF THE RICHMOND RIVER, 

This is var. ji Kiitzing, Bac, T.30, f.68. It is quite unlike a, 
but the '''•forma " recorded above is quite certainly intermediate. 
Var. convexa, which is the characteristic Cyclotella of the river 
here, has a sharply defined exceedingly smooth area (generally in 
diameter about half that of the cell) in the centre of the face of 
the valve, and this part alone is undulate (but the undulation is 
often slight and sometimes absent). The marginal portion of the 
valve is convex, and in large forms of 30 /x and over, the stri^ 
appear to be the edges of radiating corrugations. In a tilted 
cell, these show as crenulations at the edge. There is no definite 
rim. 

Var. QUADRATA, n.var. (PI. v., f.21, 22). 

Valvae sine striis, punctis autem intra margines notatae. Cellulae 
a latere cingulato paene quadratic, lateribus rectis. Tota facies 
valvae levissime undulata. 

Diam. 8-9; crass. 7 /x. 

Var. quadrata is a form produced from var. convexa by long- 
continued mitosis. The striate marginal area has been gradually 
whittled away concentrically, and the frustule now consists 
merely of the central smooth area of the original cell, in which 
the undulation occurs. Hence in this form the undulation in 
girdle-view runs right across the valve instead of being confined 
to the central portion. The marginal striae are represented by 
faint puncta within the rim itself. The diam. of the valve also 
is exactly the breadth of the smooth central area in the smaller 
sizes of var. convexa. 

Var. BREViSTRiATA, n.var. (PI. v., f.23). 

Forma area centrali glabra prae diametro valvae latissima, area 
marginali striata angustissima, striis brevissimis. 

Diam. 12-14, arese centr. 10 /x. Striae in ambitu circ. 30. 

This would seem to be an intermediate form in which the 
marginal striate area is not yet quite deleted, or else one in which 
it is gradually developing again by growth. The striae end 
abruptly at the edge of the smooth central area, which is rela- 
tively very wide. With central area of 10 /x broad, the valve in 
var. convexa would have a diameter of 20-24 /x. 



BY G. I. PLAYFAIR. 125 

Var. FLUviATiLis, n.var. (PI. v., f.24). 

Forma striis brevibus e denticulationibus marginalibus cuneatis 
orientibus. 

Diam. 15-18, areas centr. 8//. Striae in ambitu circ. 30. 

Lismore, all five forms (2, 20); var. convexii (2, 13, 17, 18, 20, 
21, 22); var. quadrata (2, 5, 20, 21, 22); vaiV.fluviatilis (2, 5, 20). 

Genus Hydrosera Wallich. 
Hydrosera triquetra Wallich. (PI. v., f.26). 

Long, (latere cingul.) 75-130; lat. 80-100; diam valv. 80 /x. 

Lismore (16, 19, 21). 

The valves are strengthened internally by septa across the 
salient C? and intermediate) angles, the lower, free, edges can be 
seen in girdle-view as flying arches. The two smooth vertical 
bands are the extension of the papillae which appear at the 
margin in optical section. These are really (as in all other 
diatoms where they appear) loops of the inner incrassate mem- 
brane, which run right round the valve. The thin outer mem- 
brane remains flat, but often breaks away, showing the loop 
plainly as a marginal indentation. "Grunow and H. L. Smith 
unite the genus Hydrosera with Pleurodesmiunn and Teiysinoe, 
which have the same structure."— Van Heurck, Diat., p. 453. 
The latter relies on the triangular valve as a generic character. 
I have not found any biradiate forms in the river. All three 
genera have this in common, that they consist of marine forms 
which are just as often found in the fresh water of rivers and 
far above all tidal influence. 

Genus Coscinodiscus Ehr. 
CosciNODiscus LACUSTRis Grunow. 
Diam. 34-78; striae 8-9 in 10 /x; puncta circ. 10 in 10/x. 
The puncta may be noted arranged in many different ways, 
but most of these are merely transitory arrangements due to 
growth. In the perfect form, the puncta are in regular radiat- 
ing lines, but frustules are common in which tliey are disposed 
quite irregularly or in fascicles with shorter rows filling the 



126 BIOLOGY OF THE RICHMOND RIVER, 

triangular marginal interspaces, or in arcs (decussating) from 
point to point of the circumference. In some specimens, they 
appear as arcs or in irregular radiating lines according to the 
focus. Sometimes, the puncta are very distinct and separate, at 
others, obscure or inclined to be confluent, at others, again, very 
delicate and hardly visible, sometimes, apparently absent. 

There is a great general likeness between Coscinodiscus lacus- 
tris and Cyclotella Meneghiniana var. convexa, and I am not at 
all convinced that they are not stages of the same plant, and 
that this, the only freshwater Coscinodiscus, is not, as W. Smith 
considered it, a Cyclotella. 

Yar. PKLLUCIDUS, n.var. 
Valvse membrand glabnl, striis punctisque nullis. 
Diam. observ. 52-61 /x. 

Yar. STELLATUS, n.var. (PI. v., f.27). 

Yalvae membrana glabnl , area centrali nuda, granulis margin- 
alibus distinctis, striis spatio distantibus. Unicum frustulum 
tantum vidi. 

Diam. observ. 50 /x, striae long. 1 5 /x. 

'?Syn. Cyclotella Kiitzingiana Kirchner, in Forbes and Richard- 
son, Biology of the Upper Illinois River, PI. 85, f.l. Each of 
the striae proceeds from a marginal granule, probably intermediate 
striae form between the others. No doubt an abnormal out- 
growth of the foregoing. 

Yar. DENTicuLATUS, n var. (Pl.v , f.28). 

Yalvae granulis marginalibus in denticulos productis, inter se 
paullo magis distantibus. 

Diam. 44-55 /x. 

The marginal denticulations are 3/x apart from centre to 
centre, in the type 2 /x. Is this identical with Stephanodiscus 
Hantzschianus Grun., in Yan Heurck, Diat., p.520, P1.23, f.662?. 

Yar. PAPILLATUS, n.var. (PL v., f.29). 
Yalvae intra margines papillis humillimis 8, pari intervallo 
inter se distantibus instructae. Unicum frustulum tantum vidi. 
Diam. observ. 50; crass. 20 /x. 



BY G. I. PLAYFAIR. 127 

This rare form of Coscinodiscus lacustris may possibly con- 
stitute the genus Perithyra Ehr. 

Var. TYMPANiFORMis, n.var. (PL v., f.30) 

Cellulse a latere cingulato latissimse, saepe rectangulares; lateri- 
bus planis vel modice convexis, in medio interdum levissime 
inflatis, nee undulatis. Valvse margine distincta, granulis mar- 
ginalibus nullis. 

Diam. observ. 40-54; crass. 25-26; lat. zonae 12/x. 

Very broad in girdle-view, rectangular, the angles sometimes 
sharp, sometimes just rounded ofip; the sides flat, not undulated, 
but occasionally a little inflated towards the centre. 

Var. Iris (Heribaud & Brun). (PI. v., f.31). 

Diam. 50-70; crass, centr. 16, c. infl. unic. 22, c. infl. binis. 28 /x. 

This answers exactly to Cyclotella Iris Heribaud ife Brun, Diat. 
Auvergne, Pl.vi., f.l, 3, when allowance is made for the latter 
being fossil. The outer zone of the valve is striate, with coalesced 
puncta, one line to each marginal granule, and one intermediate; 
in the central area, the puncta of the striae are distinct. The 
total breadth (crass.) across both inflations in girdle-view is just 
about the same as that in var. tympa^iiformis. In quantity, 
aUve(9). 

Lismore, type(l, 2, 7, 11, 12, 13, 21); \ar. petlucidus{7, 11); 
var. stellatus {\l) ; yslv. dentieulatus (7, 12); var. papillatus (6) ; 
var. tympaniformis (12); var. Iris (7, 9, 12). 

MYXOPHYCE^. 

denus Anab^na Bory. 

ANABiENA OSCILLARIOIDES Bory. 

Cell, carent.; heterocyst. oblong., long. 6, lat. 5; sporis oblongis 
vel cylindraceis, apicibus rotundatis, immaturis long. 9 12, lat. 6; 
maturis long. 15-23, lat, 7-8 /x. 

Lismore, swamp (10); not noted in river. 

Forma torulosa, n.f. 
Fila torulosa diam. 4 /x, cell, truncato-globosis; heterocyst. 
sphaericis vel ovalibus, diam. 6 /x. 

Lismore (26). Cum var. cylindraced. 



128 BIOLOGY OF THE RICHMOND RIVER, 

Forma oircinalis, n.f. 
Fila circinalia, diam. 5; cell, sphaericis, ovalis vel truncato- 
globosis; heterocyst. sphaericis, diam. 5; ovalibus, long. 7, lat. 6 /x. 
Lismore(3). Cum var. cylindraced 

Var. CYLINDRACEA, ii.var. (PI. vi., f.l). 

Fila diam. 4-6 (7), apicibus attenuatis; cellulis quadratis vel 
cylindraceis, alt. 2-8, plerumque 4-6, endochroma homogenea vel 
vacuolata, Heterocystidibus sphaericis, diam. 6 ; oblongis vel 
ovalis, long. 6-8, lat. 5-7; aut cylindraceis, long. 6-10, lat. 5-6. 
Sporis oblongis vel cylindraceis, long. 12-16, lat. 5-10 /x. 

Lismore(2rt, 26, 12, 16). 

Differs from var. stenosjxtra Born, et Flah., only in the shape of 
the cells and the breadth of the spores, the latter, except when 
immature, having the dimensions of the type. The dimensions 
given above for the spores ai-e the greatest noted in this district; 
round Sydney, I have observed spores up to 34 x 11 /x, very rarely, 
however. A torulose form of this variety, all dimensions agree- 
ing, was also observed there (at Rookwood). Atiahoina Volzii 
Lemm., Dr. Volz gas. siisswass., p. 153, T.xi., f.4, 5, 20, is a form 
of this species distinguishable from var. cylindracea only by its 
barrel-shaped spores. I have found it at Canley Vale in com- 
pany with the type (in fruit;. A var. Novce Zelandice Lemm., 
Reise n.d. Pacific, p. 355, has very narrow cylindrical spores 3 /x 
broad and 16/x long, but the cells are spherical and smaller, 
diam. 2-3 /x. 

Genus Nodularia Mertens. 
NoDULARiA SPUMIGENA Mertons. (PL vi., f.2). 
Fila diam. 8; cell. veg. alt. 2-4, plerumque 2; heterocyst. de- 
pressis, diam. 8, alt. 4-8; sporis immaturis diam. 8, alt. 4, maturis 
diam. 8-9, alt. 6-7 /x. 

Coraki, river-bank near Commercial Hotel (29) 

The sheath was evident. There is, I think, no doubt that the 

appearance generally referred to in descriptions of the Lyngbyece 

as " trichomata ad genicula constricta " is due to the formation 

of a cellulose ring on the sheath, opposite the junction of the 



BY G. I. PLAYFAIR. 



129 



cells. In the projecting sheath of a broken filament in the above, 
they were plainly visible. Tn large forms, they develop into true 
septa across the sheath distinct from the cells themselves. Cf. 
Sydney Water-Supply, PI. Ivi., f.l7. 

Genus Plectonema Thuret. 

Plectonema Nostocorum Bornet. 

Fila. diam. U; cell. alt. 2-4 /z. 

Lismore (30). 

Colour very pale blue, not yellow-green as in Gomont, but in 
this country yellow-green forms of generally pale blue species are 
not at all uncommon. I consider that the two colours are prac- 
tically interchangeable. Filaments very little branched, sheath 
distinctly observed. In the case of trichomes which had been 
forced from the sheath, I noted, on more than one occasion, a very 
interesting phenomenon. The terminal cells, one by one, broke 
away, and after a short pause became motile. In some instances 
a portion of the trichome, containing several cells, became dis- 
connected first, and then broke up. The cells thus set free do 
not move like Vibrio or Bacillus, but fly through the water, 
spinning rapidly round their shorter axis. By examination of 
the base of the aeruginous stratum of Phorniidiuin corium, with 
which the Plectonema was intermingled, it could easily be seen 
that the filaments of the latter were originally sessile. Hence 
these motile cells evidently settle down and form new filaments. 

Genus OsciLf.ATORiA Vaucher. 
Sheath always present, but generally very delicate. In all the 
species of Oscillatoria mentioned below, I clearly demonstrated 
the presence of a sheath — repeatedly in the case of 0. splendida 
and its various forms. If a fragment of the stratum (or even a 
drop of water in which filaments are present in any quantity) be 
thoroughly mashed up on a glass-slip with the thumbnail, the 
sheath can generally be detected, either as a minute tag at the 
angles of a broken filament, or as a faint projecting tube, or as a 
connecting: link between two trichomes on the two halves of a 
bent filament. It seems doubtful, therefore, whether there is 



130 BIOLOGY OF THE RICHMOKD RIVER, 

any valid reason for retaining the genus Li/ngbr/a. Cf. Gomont's 
remarks, Monog. d. OscilL, ii., pp.92, 93. 

OSCILLATORIA SPLENDIDA Var. ATTENUATA W. & G. S. West. 

Fila diam 2J-3; cell, disjunctis, alt. 4-10 /x. 

Lismore {20b). Cum forma typica. 

Fila diam. 2^-3; cell, conjunctis, alt. 4; cell, apic, long. 8-20, 
lat. 1-1 i/x. 

Lismore (12, 13, 20). 

0. splendida Grev., (0. leptotricha Kiitz., in Mobius, Austral. 
Siissvv., p. 449, f.22; Bailey's Bot. Bull, vi.) is common in rivers 
and creeks here, but the type-form, as in Gomont, I.e., T.7, f.7, 8, 
is very rare. I have only once seen it. The colour of 0. 
splendida in all its forms is a characteristic pale blue, hardly ever 
greeny-blue, and the filaments very translucent except in var. 
amylacea. The cells are occasionally disjoined, and the two 
minute granules at each side of the septa, as figured by Gomont 
and W. tfe G. S. West, are very rarely found here. (PI. vi., f.3). 

Var. LiMNETiCA (Lemm.) mihi. (PI. vi., f 4). 

Fila ut in forma typica vel in var. attenuata, dissepimentis 
autem utrinque granulis magnis singulis ornatis. 

Diam. l|-2; cell. alt. 3-10, ssepe 8 /x; apicibus rotundatis vel 
modice attenuatis. 

Lismore (13); with var. amylacea in Lynghya stratum (26). 

Diam. 1^-3; cell. alt. 6-10, ssepe 8 fx; apicibus attenuatis sub- 
capitatis diam. \h jJ^. 

Coraki, river-brink, with var. amylacea in Spirulina stratum 

(■11). 

In this country, forms of 0. splendida, if granulate at all, 
ahnost invariably have a large single granule at each side of the 
dissepiments. I have only once seen it otherwise. That these 
are forms of 0. splendida, is evident, as they often possess the 
characteristic apex of var. attenuata. In sample No. 153, from 
Canley Vale, near Sydney, a pure growth of this kind is pre- 
served, filaments diam. 2 jx, cell. alt. 3-6 /x, sheath distinctly 
observed, and many of the filaments are twisted exactly as in 
Lynghya ])erelegans Lennn., Volz ges. siisswasseralg., T. xi., f.l4. 



BY G. I. PLAYFAIR. 131 

In this var. limnetica (1898) should be included all Lemmer- 
mann's granulate Lynghyce^ viz., L. gloiophila, lieise n.d. Pac. 
p. 355 (1899); L. perelegans, I.e. (1899); and L . bipunctdta, Forsch. 
Biol. Stat. z. Plon, T. 2, £.48(1900). These differ from one 
another very slightly, and that, too, only in the breadth of the 
filament and length of the cells, points which are valueless for 
the formation of even distinct variations when the general char- 
acteristics are identical. From a note by G. S. West, Third Tan- 
ganyika Exp., p. 175, it would appear that L. Nyassce Schmidle, 
should be included here as a synonym also; it has the attenuate 
and capitate apex of the type. 

Yar. BACiLLiFORMis, n.var. (PI. vi., f.5). 
Fila clare cgerulea, diam. 1^ (vagina observata) cellulis dis- 
junctis, alt. 6 /;t, utroque polo granulis magnis singulis ornatis. 
Lismore(2a). 

Var. AMYLACEA, n.var. (PI. vi., f.6). 

Fila pallide cserulea, dissepimentis indistinctis rarissime cer- 
nendis. Protoplasma homogeneo amylo diffuso spissum. 

Diam. 2-3 /x, cell, haud visibilibus, apicibus rotundatis. 

Lismore (12, 21), in Lyngbya stratum (26). 

Diam. 2 /x, et basi aflixa et libera. 

Lismore (16). 

Diam. 2-2j/x(vagina, observata); cell. alt. 4-8 (rarissime ad 12/x), 
apicibus attenuatis nonnunquam capitatis etiam vel subcapitatis, 
dissepimentis interdum sed rare cernendis. 

Coraki, river-brink, in Spirulina stratum (27). 

I have had this form under observation for years in Sydney, 
where it generally occurs in almost every mixed gathering of 
freshwater algte. Its colour and size had already connected it 
in my mind with 0. splendida^ and this became a certainty by 
finding it, in this district, with the characteristic apical cell of 
var. attemiata, and by its close association with the granulate 
forms. The protoplasm is opalescent, with diffused amylum, so 
that the dissepiments are generally quite hidden, and the fila- 
ments very different in appearance from the transparent filaments 
of the type. Var. limnetica and all other granulate variations 



132 BIOLOGY OF THE RICHMOND RIVER, 

are formed from this one by the agglomeration of the diffused 
amylum into granules at the septa, thus leaving the protoplasm 
clear and pellucid. The apices are generally truncate or rounded, 
but this is the case to a greater or less extent with all the forms 
of 0. splendida. 

Forma clarescens, n.f. (PL vi., f.7). 

Fila diam. 2-3, apicibus rotundatis, cell. alt. 4 /x, granulis 
minutis singulis, utrinque ad dissepimenta; et dissejmyientis et 
granulis difficile cerne7idis ob protoplasma amylo spisso. 

Lismore, in Lynghya stratum (24). 

Forma (PL vi., f. 8). 

Fila minutissima incipientia, epiphytica vel sessilia, basi affixa. 
Cytoplasma pallide caeruleum homogeneum. 

Long. fiL incip. 10, 12, 14, 17, 18, 50; lat. 2-4 /x. 

Lismore (13, 16, 17). 

These incipient filaments were noted in fresh samples both 
epiphytic on Oedogonium, and sessile on flocculent matter. They 
also made their appearance on the sides of glass-jars in which 
samples were kept, vide PL vi., f.8c, where green cells have 
been deposited first, and these incipient Oscillatoria filaments 
have become epiphytic upon them. They must, therefore, be the 
outcome of motile cells or of micro-zoospores (see note under 
Plectonevia, supra). They certainly develop into filaments of 
var. amylacea, PL vi., f.8o?. 

Oscillatoria tknuis Ag. (PL vi., f.9). 
Fila diam. 9 /x, cell, alt 4 /x. Cf. Gomont, P1.7, f.3. 
Casino (14). 

Var. CHLORiNA, n.var. (PL vi., f.lO). 

Fila clare luteo-viridia, diam. 7 /x, vagina observata tenuissima; 
cellulis disjunctis alt. 3-4 /x; dissepimentis baud granulatis. 

Lismore (22). 

Trichomata diam. 5/x ad genicula constricta, cellulis conjunctis 
alt. 4 /x. Dissepimentis haud granulatis. 

Casino (14). 



BY G. I, PLAYFAIR. 133 

Genus Lyngbya Ag. 
Lyngbya Lismorensis, n.sp. (PI. vi., f.ll). 

Stratum fusco-olivaceum. Fila semper recta, margine glabra, 
pallide griseo-viridia, translucentia; apicibus attenuatis, interdum 
calyptra instructis. Cellulae apicales coniese vel rotundato- 
conicse, rarius capitatse, plerumque ad extremes membrana in- 
crassata. Vaginae achroas tenuissimae. Trichomata ad genicula 
hand constricta, dissepimentis crassis, plerumque pellucidis 
glabris, interdum minute granulatis. Cytoplasma liomogeneum 
translucens. 

Diam. fil. 7-9, sub calyptra 4; cell. alt. 4-8, saspe 6 /x. 

Lismore, on curbstone near Commercial Hotel(26), river-water. 

Diam. fil. 6-8, cell. alt. 4-8 /x. 

Lismore, river (12, 13). 

Yar. NIGRA, n.var. (PI. vi., f.l2). 

Fila obscure griseo-cjerulea vel obscure griseo-viridia; apicibus 
saepe late-rotundatis. Cetera ut in forma typica. 

Lismore, horse-trough near Gov. Savings Bank (30, 34). 

The characteristic points of L. Lismorensis are the pale (or, in 
var. nigra, dark) grey colour of the filaments, flashed with pale 
green or pale blue, this latter point especially noticeable when 
the filaments are slightly out of focus. Also the quadrate cells, 
with their broad pellucid dissepiments, and the finer and fainter 
septa which sometimes alternate with the others, and are often 
to be noted just starting from the margins. The tips of the 
filaments, when fully formed, are capitate or calyptrate; but such 
are very rare, and conical tips, with the calyptra in process of 
formation, are more common. The broadly rounded ends often 
seen, are merely the result of broken filaments, and are not 
typical. Separated on a watchglass, in the mass the filaments 
are of a dull olive-green. 

Genus Phormidium Kiitz 
Phokmidium tenue (Menegh.) Gomont. (PL vi., f.l3). 
Diam. fil. 1-2; cell, alt. 2-6, plerumque 3-4, raro 8-10 /x. 
Lismore (2, 26, 12, 13, 18); Coraki, river-brink, with Spirulina 
(27), and Nodularia (29). 



134 BIOLOGY OF THE RICHMOND KIVER, 

Diam. fil. 2 J; cell. alt. 2-6; spora immatura sphserica diam. 4; 
spora matura oblonga, long. 8, lat. 4 /x. 
Lismore(13). 

Var. CHLORINA, n.var. 

Trichomata pallide luteo-viridia; diam. fil. 1 /x; cell. alt. 3-6 /x. 

Casino (14). 

Phonnidium tenue occurred sparsely in a considerable number 
of samples, and in some quantity in Nos.2 and 26, but in no case 
was it in the Phormiduim state. This is also my experience 
with gatherings made near Sydney, where I found it only once 
in the agglutinated condition, viz., in an open drain in Park Rd., 
Auburn (No. 48, N.H.S.). I am of the opinion that the PAor- 
miduim state is merely an accidental condition brought about by 
exposure of a stratum to the air and sun. A filament with a 
spore, as given in Pl.vi., f.l3c, was noted also at Auburn (Nov. 
16th, 1909). The spherical cell is not a heterocyst, but an 
immature spore. 

Phormidium fragile (Menegh.) Gomont. (PL vi., f.l4). 

Diam. fil. 2-3i; cell. alt. 2-3 /x. 

Lismore (12). 

Generally found sparingly in mixed gatherings as short fila- 
ments, here and around Sydney. Meneghini made it an Ana- 
bjena, and here it was found in company with A. oscUlarioides 
var. cylindracea (PI. vi., f.l) with cells of the same shape, diam. 
4-6 /x. I should not be surprised if it turned out to be the 
transition-stage between the two genera. I have never found it 
either in the Phormiduim condition. Gomont makes it a marine 
form. 

Genus Spirulina Turpin. 
Spirulina major Kiitz. (PI. vi., f.l5). 
Spira diam. 4; anfr. 4-6 inter se distant.; trich. diam. H /x. 
Lismore (12), loose filaments. 

Spira diam. 4; anfr. 2-3 inter se distant.; trich. diam. 1^/x. 
Coraki, river-brink (27), mucous stratum. 



BY G. I. PLAYFAIR. 135 

SpiRULiNA LAXissiMA G. S. West. (PI. vi., f.l6). 

Spira laxissima diam. 4; anfract. 10-15 inter se distant.; trich. 
diam. 1-1 J /x. 

Lismore (20), in Lynghya stratum (26). 

A very rare Spiridina, only known Ijesides from Tanganyika. 
Generally found here in short pieces, 30-80 ju- long. Cf . G. S. 
West, Third Tanganyika Exp , p.l78, P1.9, f.6. 

Spirulina Corakiana, n sp. (PI. vi., f.l7). 

Trichomata angustissima in spiram laxissimam regularem 
diametro 2 /x ?equaliter contorta; anfractihus 6-10 inter se dis- 
tantibus; cytoplasmate pallide serugineo et homogeneo. Crass, 
trich. 0*8 /x. 

Lismore (12); Coraki, with Spirulina rnajor (27). 

Genus Merismopedia Meyen. 
Merismopedia punctata var. oblonga, n var. (PI. vi., f 18). 
Cellulse oblongfB, long. 3, lat. 2 /x. 
Lismore (2). 

Merismopedia elegans A.Br. (PL vi., f.l9). 

Coenob. long. 300, lat. 200; cell, sphaeric. diam. 4-5, oblongis 
long. 6-7, lat. 4-5 /x. 

Lismore (9, 18). 

Ccenobia very large and membranous. Cells very numerous, 
1024 and 2048 actually observed (32 rows x 32 and 64 rows x 32), 
closely approximated, only 1-2 /x between, pale blue or pale green, 
oblong, constricted or spherical according to stage of division. 
Syn., M. nova Wood, cf. Tilden, Minnesota Algge, i., pp.42, 43. 

Genus Ccelosph.erium Nag. 

CCELOSPH^RIUM KUETZINGIANUM Nag. (PI. vi., f.20). 

Ccenob. long. 40, lat. 36; cellulis clare cseruleis, diam. 3 /x. 
Lismore (20). 

Var. PUNCTATA (Nag.) mihi. (PI. vi., f.21). 
Coenob. diam. 6-16, cell, diam 2 /x. 
Lismore (16). 



136 BIOLOGY OF THE RICHMOND RIVER, 

Syn., Gleocapsa punctata Nag., Gatt. Einz. Alg., T. i., f.rG. 
These are the younger stages of development of Cvdosphmrium, 
Kiltzingiariurn. In gathering (16) there were quantities of them, 
the growth from a single cell being easily seen (PI. vi., f.21). 
This cell is indistinguishable from Merismopedia punctata (also 
noted in the river), and I consider, therefore, that C aelosphcErium 
is 3i fades of Merismopedia, with a globose coenobium instead of 
a flat one. How this is accomplished (the plant still retaining 
its division in one plane) is very simple. The four cells result- 
ing from the division of the original cell in two directions, 
arrange them at the angles of an imaginary tetraedron, and each 
cell thenceforward divides regularly in its own plane. The same 
two modes of development occur in Tetraedron lobulatum, where 
both flat and tetraedral forms are produced by growth from the 
same flat cell. 

CHYTRIDIACEi?^. 

Genus Trochisia Kiitz. 
Trochisia hirta var. elliptica, n.var. 
Cellulae irregulariter ellipticae. Cytoplasma hyalinum. 
Long 58-60, lat. 36-40, spin. long, ad 12/x 
Lismore, on decaying cells of Spirog. maxima (20). (PI. vii., 

f.i). 

Of. De Bary, Conj., '1\ i., f.6. This is a half-grown form of 
Tr. hirta. 

Formae valde iMMATURiE. (PL vii., f.2). 

Cellulse minimae globosae, primum glabrae deinde minute den- 
ticulatse. Cytoplasma hyalinum. 

Diam. cell. 8-1 4 />i, spin. long, ad 1 fi. 

Lismore, on decaying cells of Spirog. maxi7na{ 1 6); on decaying 
specimens of Penium aicstt-ale and Doc. trahecula{Vl). 

Cf. Reinsch, De Spec, generibus, T.5d, f.iii. 3, whose figure 
works out at diam. 20/x. On a single Spirogyra cell, 30 were 
observed, each surrounded by the excavated (1), circular space 
characteristic of Trochisia, in situ. Six were noted also on one 
specimen of Pen australe. I have observed Tr. hirta also in 
Eremosphcera viridis. Wille's excellent account and figures of a 



BY G. I. PLAYFAIR. 137 

variation of Tr. granulata (Studien iiber Chlorophyceen, 1900, ii.) 
leave no doubt that Trochisia, under certain circumstances, 
develops chlorophyll, living and reproducing itself in the manner 
of the Algge. Nevertheless, though I have noted I'r. hirta, Tr. 
granulata and 'Tr. reticulata from a number of localities in this 
country, the cytoplasm has been invariably hyaline, as was also 
the case in the forms observed in these samples. Add to this 
their development, as shown in the formce immature^ above, and 
the fact that they are always found on decaying cells, and I can 
only conclude that the forms of Trochisia are essentially sapro- 
phytic in character. The genus seems to me nearest to Chytri- 
dium of all the algal fungi. The minute immature forms of the 
green algae may occasionally be pale blue, but never hyaline, as 
in this plant. 

Trochisia verrucosa, n.sp. (PI. vii., f.3). 

Cellulse globosse vel ellipticae, verrucisquadratis dense obtectis. 
Cytoplasma hyalinum. 

Long. 58, lat. 34; verrucas long. 2-3 /z. 

Lismore, on decaying Spirog. maxima (20). 
Genus Chytridium A.Br. 
Chytridium gregarium Nowakowski. (PI. vii., f.4). 

Cell. long. 32-48, lat. 26 /x. 

Lismore, in dead Rotifer (16). 

Cf. Nowakowski, Kentnn. d. Chytridiaceen, i., p. 77, T.iv , f,2. 
Chytridium amphoridium, n.sp. (PI. vii., f.5). 

Cellulae lageniformes ; corpore globoso superne in collum 
angustum protracto. Cytoplasma hyalinum. 

Long. cell. 12, corp. 7, coll. 5; lat. corp. 6, coll. 2 /x. 

Casino, on Hydrodictyon {\i). 

Genus Rhizidium A.Br. 
Rhizidium mycophilum A.Br. (PI. vii., f.6). 

Zoosporangia immatura, suhglohosa diam. 7-10, cell, basal, 
(dauerspora) diam. 7-10, 'pyriformia long. 13-22, lat. 9-14, cell, 
basal, diam. 10-14. Zoosporangia matura ovata, long. 40, lat. 24, 
cell, basal, diam. 18; zoospor. diam. 6, flagell. long. 20-25; hyphae 
lat. 1-2 /x. 



138 BIOLOGY OF THE RICHMOND RIVER, 

Casino, on decaying Hydrodictyon (14). 

Cf. Nowakowski, I.e., p.88, T. v., f.6-1 2, T. vi., f.1-5. He gives 
the size of the mature zoosporangium as, long. 40, lat.25, zoospores 
diam. 5, dauerspores diara. 18-30 /x. The young zoosporangium 
is globose, becoming pyriform or ovate with growth: and, at the 
base, four rugae form, disposed crosswise Occasionally these are 
found also in very young zoosporangia, in which case the latter 
are somewhat dome-shaped. The corrugations are not shown in 
Nowakovvski's figures, probably because his specimens were grow- 
ing freely in the mucus of Chcetophora; this also accounts for 
many other differences of growth. In our specimens, growing, as 
they were, on decayed algal cells, the zoosporangia lie outside and 
the dauerspores and hyphse inside the cell- wall, being connected 
by a minute pore. It would appear, therefore, that, in these 
cases, the zoosporangial cell forms first, pierces the cell-wall of 
the host, and gives rise to the mycelium and dauerspore within. 
The dauerspore evidently acts as a reservoir, gradually passing 
on its contents to the zoosporangium, for when the latter is 
mature, the dauerspore is always empty and the hyphse atropied. 

Rhizidium SpiROGYRiE, n.sp. (PI. vii., f.7). 

Zoosporangium maturum globosum ; in speciminibus vacuis 
superne truncatum, oris levissime eversis; (cellulae immaturae 
ssepe plus minusve ovatse); ad basin petiolo brevissimo instructum, 
dauersporis nullis. 

Long. = lat. = 10-34 /a. 

Lismore, on decaying cells of Spirogyra maxima {20). 

Quantities of minute growing cells were noted also, from diam. 
4 /x upwards, globose Very rarely, there is found a minute 
( X 3 /x) swelling where the dauerspore should be. 

SCHIZOMYCETES. 

Spirillum volutans. 

In filament-form, and in active and non-motile spirals. The 
filamentous form looks like an Oscillatoria or Lynghya. It is 
generally hyaline or very pale blue, and very lively, coiling and 
twisting until it breaks into short lengths. These remain quies- 



BY G. 



PLATFAIR. 



139 



cent for a short time, tlien gradually coil into non-motile spirals, 
which finally, after some spasmodic movements, become active. 
I have watched the whole process. 
Lismore(3, 11, 12). 

Var. MAXIMUM n.var. (PI. vii., f.8). 

Long. s. flag. 50; diam. anfract. 14, diam. fil. H/x. Anfractibus 
3; in extremis flagello distincto praeditum. 
Casino (14). 

Spirillum tenue Cohn. (PI. vii., f.9). 
Long. s. flag. 10; diam. anfr. 3, diam. fil. 1 /x. Anfract. 2. 
Lismore(20); Coraki, river-brink, in Spimdiyia stra.t\iin (27). 

Spirillum laxissimum n.sp. (PI. vii., f 10). 

Trichomata brevissima hyalina in spiram regularem laxissimara 
contorta; anfractibus semper singulis. 

Long. s. flag. 4-8; diam. anfr. 2-3; diam. fil. |-1 /x. 

Long. s. flag. 10-16; diam. anfr. 3-4; diam. fil. IJ/x. 

Lismore(16), both forms together in quantity. 

I have always taken this to be Spirillum undula Cohn, and 
indeed that name would describe the plant very well. However, 
reference to Q. Journ. Micr. Sci., n.s., Yol. xiii., PI. v., shows 
that Sp. undula {i. '20) cannot be distinguished from Sp. tenne 
Ehr. (f.l9;, and must be considered, therefore, as a synonym of 
the latter. Note that the figures of Sp. undula and Bacillus 
suhtilis in Strasburger's Botany (Eng. ed., p. 333, f. 252g? and 
f.2546) are entirely different from those given by Cohn, I.e., which, 
the writer says, " must furnish the basis for all future nomen- 
clature." 

[OSCILLATORIA AMPHIBIA Ag.] 

Fila glabra, diam. 1-3 /x, dilutissime caerulea pa^ne hyalina, 
granulis sparsis primum hyalinis, deinde nigrescentibus impleta. 
Lismore (18, 27), Casino (14). Plentiful in (18). 

Var. MAJOR, n.var. 
Diam. 4/x. Lismore (18), cum priori multo rarius 



'4 R y 



ii/ 



/ 






^. 



140 BIOLOGY OF THE RICHMOND RIVER, 

Yar. MAXIMA, n.var, (PL vii., f.ll). 

Diam. 8 /x. Lismore (2), rarissime. 
Var. ASPERA, n.var. (PI. vii., f.l2). 

Fila dilutissime caerulea vel achroa, minute aspera, granulis 
atris sparsis projicientibus, diam. 1-2 /x. 

Casino (14). Plentiful. 

Geddes and Ewart, Z.c, have shown, though not by name, that 
Oscillatorui amphibia is the sporangial state of Spirillujn. It is 
developed from the same filamentous form which gives rise to 
Spirillum volutans and *S';->. tenue. The scattered granules, at 
first hyaline, and later deep black, are loculi full of spores, which 
are set free and develop into Sp. undula. These three Spirilla 
are, of course, merely polymorphic forms, one of the other. In 
var. aspera, the granules project through the cell-wall. 

Bacillus subtilis. (PI. vii., f.l3). 

Fila diam. 1-2 (vulgo IJ); cell. alt. 5-10, vel. 10-22 /x. 

Lismore (6, 7, 20), Casino (14), Kyogle (41, 45). 

Was more in evidence in these gatherings than I have ever 
known it before. The cells, in the filaments, are generally dis- 
jointed, but in (41) short filaments were noted with contiguous 
cells. Bacterium termo and Vibrio serpens were also met with. 
Two curious zoogloea stages of the former are figured(Pl.vii.,f.l4). 

Fauna. 
ENTOMOSTRACA. 

Macrothrix spinosa King. (PI. viii., f.l). 

Long, carap. 530, lat. 330; long. caud. proc. 142, set. 124; long, 
antenn. 105; spin, ad 70 /x. 

Lismore (11, 12, 13, 15), Casino (14). 

Common in the river. The caudal processes often end abruptly, 
each terminating in a pair of long setae. Noted with winter eggs 
in December and January (midsummer). Dorsal edge of the 
carapace minutely serrulate. It is doubtful, therefore, whether 
the species is distinct from M. latico7^nis (J urine), as Sars( Austral. 
Cladocera, ii., p. 26) makes this the chief point of difference. 



BY G. I. PLAYFAIR. 141 

Var. DENTATA, n.var. (PI. viii., f.2). 

In capite glabra minute autem serrulata; a fronte et a tergo 
dentibus nee spinis instructa. 

Lismore(16, 20). 

Cyclops qiiadricornis, Diaptomns gr^acilioides, Alona clathrata 
Sars, and Alona Icevissima Sars, were also observed. 

INFUSORIA. 

TllACHELOMONAS VOLVOCINA Var. PELLUCIDA, D.Var. 

Lorica achroa, forma miniita, diam. 8-10 /x. 
Lismore (1, 8). Common. (PI. viii., f.3). 

The type, diam. 17/x, with deeply yellow-brown lorica, noted 
at Casino (14), rare. 

Trachelomonas ovalis, n.sp. (PI. viii., f.4). 
Lorica ovalis vel oblonga, collo niillo, perfecte glabra, achroa 
vel loiteo-fusca. Long. 30, lat. 22 /x. 
Casino (14), with 7V. hispida. 

Lepocinclis Steinii var. suecica Lemm. (PI. viii., f.5). 
Long. Corp. 26-32; lat. 11-12, ap. 3; long. caud. 3 /x. 
Lismore (22), Casino (14). 
Cf. Lemmermann, Plankt. Schwed. gewass., T. i., f.20. 

Tar. AUSTRALICA, n.var. (PI. viii., f.6). 

Forma latior, corpore late-oval i, caiida brevi, oblique spiraliter 
striata. 

Long. Corp. 32, lat. 24; long. caud. 8 /x. 

Lismore (22). Common. 

Neither form was noticeable in the freshly gathered material, 
being present only as minute vegetative resting cells, unrecog- 
nisable. After the sample had been standing for several months 
(in a corked phial without preservative), exposed to a strong 
diffused light, they were found in numbers, alive and active, 
having developed in the bottle. 

Menoidium pellucidum var. incurvum (Fresenius). 
Long. 16, lat. 5 /x. Common. (PI. viii., f.7). 
Lismore (13). Cf. Daugeard, Les Eugleniens, p.151, f.46. 

12 



142 BIOLOGY OF THE RICHMOND RIVER, 

Var. CLAVATUM, n.var. (PI. viii., f.8). 

Forma clavata, parte superiore elliptico-lanceolata, protoplas- 
mate granulate, apice angusta truncata; parte infei'iore angusta 
in Cauda protracta, protoplasraate homogeneo; flagello recto. 

Long. 40, lat. 6, ap. 2, caud. 1 /x. 

Lismore (12, 13). Cum priori. 

Looks like Peranema (Astasia) trichophorum var. ptisillum 
Stokes, but the motion is that of Menoidium. 

Other interesting forms of Infusoria noted were, Mastiyamceba 
longijilum Stokes, Anthophysa vegetans Stein, Dendromonas vir- 
garia Stein, Cot?iurnia parallel a ^lsi^\ie\\, and Opercnhita elongata 
Kellicott. 

RHIZOPODA. 

DiFFLUGiA Casinoensis, n.sp. (PI. viii., f.9). 

Lorica subglobosa, in ambitu late-ovalis, ore lato margine 
levissime recurvata. Membrana glabra pellucida, frustilis Cocc. 
placentidcB confirmata. 

Long. 48, lat. 40, or. 28 ^i. 

Casino (14). 

DiFFLUGiA acuminata var. Levanderii mihi. (PI. viii., f.lO). 

Lorica angusta lateribus subparallelis, extremitate posteriore 
acuminata in cauda brevi protracta. Membrana granis arenae 
confirmata. 

Long. 190, lat. 60, or. 48 /x. 

Casino (14). Cf. Levander, Wasserfauna, T. i., f.7. 

Var. BACILLIFERA, H.var. (PL viii., f.l 1). 
Long. 110, lat. 70, or. 40 /x. 
Lismore (13). 

DiFFLUGiA RiCHMONDiiE, n.sp. (PI. viii., f.l 2). 

Lorica ovalis, apice truncato, ore minuto circulari. Membrana 
granulis rugosa, dilute luteo-fusca. Pseudopodia crassa. 
Long. 14, lat. 12, lat. oris. 3 /x. 
Lismore (2). Common. 



BY G. I. PLAYFAIR. 143 

Difflugia glohulosa, D. lobostoma, Sphenoderia lenta, and Tri- 
nema enchelys were also observed. The most common species, 
however, was Centropyxis aculeata, generally var. ecornis. 

EuGLYPHA ALVEOLATA var. HAMULIFERA, n.var. (PL viii,, f.l3). 

Forma laminis circulari-hexagonis minime inarginibus transili- 
entibus ornata. 

Long. 44, lat 24, oris 8 /x. 
Lismore(13). Plentiful. 

Var. L^vis (Perty) milii. (PI. viii., f.l4). 

Forma minuta, parte posteriore rotundata vel acuminata; ore 
dentibus truncato-conicis 6 (visis: 4) circumcincto; membranji 
glabra sine notis spinisque. 

Long. 30-34, lat. 16, or. 8-10 /x. 

Lismore (1, 6). Plentiful 

Arcella papyracea, n.sp. (PI. viii., f.l5). 

Lorica a fronte visa circularis; ore circulari, serie unica punc- 
torum circumcinxo ; a latere crateriformis, margine levi, ore 
recesso. Membrana glabra sine notis, textura papyracea, dilute 
luteo-fusca. 

Diam. 60-80, crass. 32; lat. oris. 20-30 {x. 

Casino (14). 

The membrane is without the usual markings, semitransparent, 
and cloudy like thin straw-paper. Arcella vulgaris and A. dis- 
coides were also present, the latter very common. 

AcTiNOPHRYS SOL var. SIMPLEX (Schaudimi) mihi. 

Diam. corp. 7-22, pseudopodia long, ad 25 [x. 

Lismore (7, 12). 

Syn , Acanthocystis simplex Fr. Schaudinn, Mem. Acad. St. 
Petersbourg, 1893, p.ll, f.8; (diam. 15-22 /x). The figure given 
by Schaudinn shows quite plainly the characteristic lumpy^ 
sharp-pointed pseudopodia of Actinophrys and Actinosphcerium. 
The pseudopodia of Acanthocystis are of quite a different kind, 
being smooth and bacillar, with or without a minute knob at the 
end, or minutely bifid. In the specimens I noted, the pseudo- 



144 BIOLOGY OF THE RICHMOND RIVER, 

podia were smooth and very faint, in the smallest (diam. 7 />t) only 
15/x long, but even so, tlie\^ had the characteristic attenuate 
shape. (PI. viii., f.l6). 

Yar. EiCHHORNii mihi 

Diam. corp. 80-240; pseudopodia long, ad 160 /t. 

Lismore (IG). 

Actinosphcr.ruLin Eichlwrnii is merely the mature form of 
Actinophrys sol. Minute forms of the latter (var. simplex Schau- 
dinn, supra) have solid bodies; in well grown specimens of Actino- 
sphcerium, the whole is composed of large cells; while, in the 
type, the body is a mass of small cells, with larger ones making 
their appearance on the surface. The pseudopodia are similar in 
every case. 

Amceba verrucosa. (PI. viii., f.l7). 

Long. circ. 50-60 /x. The usual size in this country. 

Lismore (11, 12). 

With var. quadrilineata (Carter) mihi (Syn. A. quadrilinenta 
Carter), showing four longitudinal lines. There are always four, 
neither more nor less. The contractile vesicle is generally yqyj 
distinct in this species, as it only discharges at considerable 
intervals. It is almost always at the extreme end. 

Var. LiMAX C? Duj.) mihi. (PI. viii., f.l8). 

Long. circ. 30, lat. circ. 10 /x. 

K}'ogle (41). Cum prioribus duabus. 

I consider this a minute form of A. verrucosa, on account of 
its mobility, its straightforward movement, the distinct con- 
tractile vesicle, and the broad edging of ectosarc at the anterior 
end, all of which are characteristic of that species. In shape, it 
is cuneate. 

Var. MAXIMA, n.var. (PI. viii., f.l9). 
Formse typicis consimilis sed maxima. Long. 1 20, lat. 90 fx. 
Casino (14). Twice as large as the type. 

Amceba radiosa var. minutissima, n.var. 
Diam. max. pseudop. inch 20-30, diam. corp. 4-8 /x. 
Lismore (7, 12, 15). 



BY G. I. PLAYFAIR. 145 

The usual size is considerably larger than this. These minute 
specimens retain the characteristics of the species, which is quite 
distinct. The cytoplasma is much more solid than in A. j)^'oteus 
or A. verrucosa, and the shape always radiate. The contractile 
vesicle is small, with a long systole, and sudden discharge. 
(PI. viii., £.20). 

Var. STELLATA, n.var. (PI. viii., £.21). 

Forma pseudopodiis longissimis angustissimis fili£ormibus. 

Diam. corp. circ. 50, pseudopodia long, ad 150 /x. 

Lisraore (12). 

The pseudopodia are of clear ectosarc, very narrow, often quite 
filiform, and always blunt at the ends. They are often more or 
less stable, and are moved about bodily like the tentacles of 
Hydra. 

Am.ceba proteus, Vampyrella lateritia, Paniphagus mtttabilis, 
Clathrulina elega7is, C ochliopodiu7n bilimbosum, and Acantho- 
cystis sp. were also found. 



EXPLANATION OP PLATES II.-VIIL 

Plate ii. 

(In figures of Volvox, the flagella have been omitted). 
Fig.l. — Chlamydomonas (jlohulosa Perty; p. pyrenoid, gr. granule 

(x704). 
Fig. 2. — Volvox aureus Elir., part of the wall of the ctenobium, 

showing connective filaments; p. pyrenoids (x528). 
Fig. 3. — Volvox aureus, cell ; p. pyrenoid, gr. granule, st. stigma 

(xl056). 

Fig. 4. — one of the parthenogonidia (x704). 

Fig. 5.. — Volcox Bcniardit, n.sp. Family of eight caniobia (x235). 

Fig. 6. a younger ca^nobium (x528). 

Fig. 7. with crowded cells (x528). 

Fig. 8. one of the parthenogonidia of fig. 7 (x 

704). 

Pig. 9. a young coenobium, with few cells(x528). 

Fig. 10. with oogonia (x235). 

Fig. 11. one of the oogonia (xl0o6). 

Fig. 12. — Eudurina elegaiis var. I?ic/i7/io/idice, n.var., cell (x 880). 
Flg.13. — Uva Caslno'ensls, n.gen. et. sp. (xl056). 



146 



BIOLOGY OF THE RICHMOND RIVER, 



Figs. 14-15. — Chlamyddmonas sp., (prob. interrnedla Cliod.), young 
non-motile forms; p. pyrenoid, c.v. contractile vesicle (x 
1056). 

Figs. 16-17. — Gk'ocy.'itis-iorms of (probably) CJil. infcnncdia ; 16, a 
homogeneous coenobium which has got frayed out at the 
perii^hery, the cells, as a result, tending to be cordate; 17, 
a compound ca?nobium with cells in pairs, head to tail 
(x352). 

Plate iii. 

Fig.l. — Spiro(j!/ra Lismorensis, n.sp. (x470). 

Fig. 2. — Pen. ausfralc Rac, end-view of choroplasts (x352). 

Fig. 3. ijluhosum var. Wullei, i. maxima, n.f. (x352). 

Fig. 4. — Clo.sfciiinn acci^jsinn var. anuolcnse W.&G.S.West, f. (x 

264; (r/), tip (x704). 

Fig. 5. var. Casino'cnse, n.var. (x704). 

Fig. 6. — Cosmariion aiujuJutinn f. major Grun. (x352). 

Fig. 7. 1—— — — — var. conicum, n.var. (a) + var. 

suhcucvlmis (Schm.),(6),(x352). 

Fig. 8. var. suhcucumis (Schm.) (x352). 

Fig. 9. — Cos. anfjiilafum f. major Grun., ((/) + var. suhcucumis 

(Schm.), (h) (x352). 
Fig. 10. suhcostdlinii var. Bcckii (Gutw.) "W. ct G. S. West 

(x704). 

Fig. 11. var. australc, n.var. (x704). 

Fig. 12. BUjttii var. liichmondiw, n.var. (x704). 

Fig. 13. xixr.Caslnoense, n.var. (x704). 

Figs. 14-16. — Cos Sccleyaninn var. cdcuans, n.var. (x704). 
Fig. 17. — Cos. maunificum var. fluviatilc, n.var. (x352). 

Fig.18. drnfifcrum Corda (x235). 

Fig.l9. var. porrccUnn (Nord.) (x352). 

Fig.20. forma (x352). 

Fig.21. (Nord.) (a), + var. quad- 
rum (Lund.) (6) (x352). 

Fig. 22. var. suhhifum (Nord.) (x 235). 

Fig. 23. — Hijdrodictjjon rcticidafum var. minimum, n.var. (x704). 

Fig. 24. var. nodosum, n.var. (xl75). 

Fig. 25. var. Bcrnardii, mihi (x70); (a) 

chloroplast very much magnified. 
Fig. 26. — rcdinstriim tctras var. intc(jrum (Nag.), development out 

of ctenobium of Pedi. tetras (x704). 

Fig. 27. Boryanum var. capitatu'm, n.var. (x352). 

Fig. 28. — KirchncricUa lunaris var. approximate, n.var. (x704). 
Fig.29. ' var. aperta (Teiling) (x704). 



BY G. 1 PLAYFAIR. 14*^ 

Fig.30. --var. contorta (Schm.) (x704). 

Fig. 31. — GemuicUa intcriupta var. cyUndracea, ii.var. (x704). 
Fig. 32. — Gonatozy(jon Kliiahanl forma (x704). 

Plate iv. 

Fig.l. — Amphora coffcelfonnis Ag. (x704) 

Fig. 2. veneta var. grossestriata, ii.var. (x704). 

Fig.3. long form (x528). 

Fig. 4. — Cucconcma tv^uiiduin Breb. (x528). 

Figs. 5-6. — Sa v icida rnutica Kiitz. ( x 1056) . 

Fig. 7. var. rhomhoidea, ii.var. (xl056). 

Fig. 8. var. ovalis, n.var. (xl056;. 

Fig. 9. var. suhhexagona, n.var. (xl0o6). 

Figs. 10-12. ' var. suhcircularis, n.var. (xl056). 

Fig. 13. var. Goppertiana (Bleisch) (xl056). 

Figs. 14-15. — Dlploneis Boldtiana var. austraJlca, n.var. (xl056). 

Fig. 16. : var. ovalis, n.var. (xl056). 

Fig. 17. var. acuminata, n.var. (xl056). 

Fig. 18. — A'mphlprora alata var. Holdererii (Gutw.) mihi (x528). 

Figs. 19-20. — Gomphoncwa augur var. roiundatum (Ehr.) mihi 
(x704). 

Figs. 21-22. • var. angulatum, n.var. (x704). 

Fig. 23. const rut um var. australe, n.var. (x528). 

Fig. 24. triangulare, n.sp. (x704). 

Fig. 25. — Achnanthcs calcar var. austrcdis, n.var. (xl056). 

Fig.26. lower valve (x 1056). 

Fig. 27. . var. pulcherrima, n.var. (xl056). 

Fig. 28. — C occonc is place niula \ar. euglypta (Ehr.) Cleve. (x 1056) 

Fig. 29. — ' var. australica, n.var. (x528). 

Fig.30. — Epithrtnhi gihhrrula var. perpusUla, n.var. (xl056). 

Figs. 31-32.— A' (//lofta fortaica var. lUchniondUc, n.var. (x528); 
(31o), apex in girdle-view (x704). 

Figs. 33-38. — Syncdra Llsniorcnsis, n.sp. (x704); ((/), girdle-view 
(x704). 

Figs.39-4:0.—Surirella ovalls var. pinnata (W.Sm.) Van Heurck 
(x704). 

Figs. 41-42. var. Laclsil mihi (x792). 

Fig. 43. portion of the edge, show- 
ing incipient costa ; much enlarged. 

Plate V. 

Fig.l. — SurirclJa plana G.S.West, forma (x528). 

Figs. 2-3. var. algensis, n.var.; (2), valve (x704); 

(3), girdle-view (x 528). 



148 BIOLOGY OF THE RICHMOND RIVER, 

Fig. 4. — yitzschia paradoxa var. major Van Heurck (x704). 

Fig. 5. var. pcrpusilla, n.var. (xl056). 

Fig. 6. ^ vermicularis var. v'udis, n.var. (x352). 

Fig. 7. var. minuta, n.var. (x704). 

Fig. 8. — TryhlionellaEontzschiana var. minor, n.var. (x704). 

Fig. 9. — • i var. Victoria:, (Grun.) milii (x704). 

Fig. 10. girdle-view (x704). 

Fig. 11. edge in |-f ace ; much 

enlarged. 

Fig. 12. var. adidn, (Grun.) V. Heurck(x528). 

Fig. 13. var. ovata (Lagerstedt) mihi ; (a), 

girdle-view (x704). 

Fig. 14. var. nuatraUca, n.var. (x528). 

Fig. 15. ■ cnicidta, n.sp. (x704). 

Yig.lG.—Mclosira rnrians var. monilijormis (O.F.M.), semi-de- 
tached frustules in a short filament (x704). 

Fig. 17, isolated cell dividing (x528). 

Fig. 18. — Cydotella Mcncjliiniana Kiitz., forma; (a), girdle-view 
(x704). 

Fig. 19. var. cunccxa mihi; (a), girdle- 
view (x704). 

Fig. 20. another form (xl().56). 

Figs.21-22. var. qiKulrata, n.var.; (22), girdle- 
view (xl400). 

Fig. 23. var. hrcvistriata, u.var. (xl056) 

Fig. 24. ■■ var. fluviatilis, n.var. (xl056). 

Fig. 25. — Diadesmi.s confcrracea var. pereyrina (W.Sm.) (x704). 

Fig.26.—Rydrosera triquetra Wallich ( x 352) ; (a), end ( x 704). 

Fig. 27. — Coscinodiscufi lacustris var. sfellatiis, u.var. (x704). 

Fig. 28. var. dcnticulatus, n.var. (x704). 

Fig. 29.^ var. papillatus, n.var. (x352). 

Fig. 30. var. ti/mpaniformis, n.var. (x528). 

Fig.31.-- var. 7r/6(Herib.&Brun) mihi(x528). 

Plate VI. 
(.AH figures magnified 660 diameters unless stated otherwise.). 

Fig.l. — Anahccna osciUarioidcs var. cylindracca, n.var. ; (a) fila- 
ment diam. 7/x one end, 5/x the other, with rounded apical 
cell, and a terminal heterocyst ; (h) terminal heterocysts, 
two forms, ( x 1000) ; (c) filament with two forms of hetero- 
cyst ; (d, e) cells quadrate and vacuolate, (c, d, c) show 
plainly the development of the heterocysts from globular 
to cylindrical; (/) spores; (g) cells with granular and 
homogeneous protoplasm in same filament ; (h) minute fila- 
ments like this in profusion (16), outgrowth probably of 
isolated cells. 



BY G. I. PLAYFAIR. 149 

Fig. 2. — Nodularia spumigena Mertens ; (a) infertile filament with 
three forms of heterocyst; (b) with ripe spores; (c) with 
immature spores. 

Fig. 3. — Oscillatoria sjAendida var. attenuata W.& G.S.West. 

Fig. 4. var. limn etica (hemm.) mihi. 

Fig. 5. var. hacilliformis, n.var. 

Fig.G. var. amylacea, n.var. ; (a, h, d) rare 

forms of apex ; (c) filament with sundered trichome, show- 
ing sheath and also the common type of tip. 

Fig. 7. — Oscill. splendida var. amylacea forma clarescens, n.f . ; the 
markings hardly visible. 

Fig. 8. ■• incipient filaments, outgrowth 

of motile cells; (a) on Ocdogonium (x330); (b) on vege- 
table debris; (c) on previously deposited living cells; (d) 
becoming filamentous by growth. 

Fig. 9. — Oscillatoria tenuis Ag. 

Fig. 10. var. chlorina, n.var. 

Fig. 11.= — Lyngbya Lismorcnsis, n.sp. ; {a, b, c) common and charac- 
teristic apices; {d, e, /) rare forms of tip; (g) broken fila- 
ment showing sheath. 

Fig. 12. var. nigra, n.var. ; (a) with broad 

smooth dissepiments and fine incipient septa ; (6) with 
granulate septa. 

Fig. 13. — Fliofmidiumtcnuc (Menegh.) Gomont; («) three forms of 
trichome in the same filament; (6) tip of a filament with 
contiguous cells ; (c) a filament with spores. 

Fig. 14. — Fhohnidium fragile (Menegh.) Gomont; two sizes, cells 
showing the characteristic appearance of the protoplasm. 

Fig. 15. — SpiiuUna major Kiitz. ; two forms. 

Fig. 16. laxissima G.S.West. 

Fig. 17. Corakiana, n.sp. 

Fig. 18. — Mcrismopcdia punctata var. oblonga, n.var. 

Fig. 19. ■ elegans A.Braun. 

Fig. 20. — Coelosphccrium Kutzingianum Ntig. (x500). 

Fig. 21. — ■ var. punctata (Nag.) mihi; 

(a) diam. 2/x ; (b) 5/x x 2/x ; (c) 5/z x 5/x ; (d) tetraedral 
form, diam. 6 /x; (tO eight-celled cconobium, diam. 8/x; (/') 
diam. 10 /x; (g) diam. 12 /x; (h) diam. 16 /x : (a) to (h) show- 
development of a young form of Codospharium Kutzingi- 
anum from the single cell. In profusion in No. 16, the 
above all noted in the same drop. 



150 BIOLOGY OF THE RICHMOND RIVER, 

Plate vii. 
Fig.l. — Trorhi.sid hirta var. dliptica, ii.var.( x330). 
Fi(^.2. minute immature forms of growth, (a) 

smooth, (h) denticulate (x330). 

Fig. 3. verrucosa, n.sp. (x330). 

Fig. 4. — ('hi/fiidiuin (jicutnium. Nowakowski, in carapace of a roti- 
fer (x330). 
Fig. 5. — Olpidiidn ampho rid linn, n.sp., discharging (a) microzoo- 

spores, (h) a mass of spores (x660). 
Fig. 6. — lUiizidium mycophUum. A.Braun, {a, h) immature forms, 

((■) mature, (c) extrusion of a mass of zoospores, (c/) zoo- 
spores wriggling free (x330). 
Fig. 7. — Bhtz'idiurti spirugyrw, n.sp., (a) incipient forms, {h, c, d, e) 

discharged cells (all x330); (/, (j, h) other forms (x660). 
Fig. 8. — Spirillum volutans var. maximum, n.var. (x660). 

discharged cells (all x330); {f,g,h) other forms (x660). 

Fig.9. tenue Elir. (xlOOO). 

Fig. 10. laxissimum, n.sp., («) small form, (h) larger 

(xlOOO). 
Fig. 11. — [O.'iciUatoria'] amphibia var. maxima^ n.var. (sporiferous 

Spirillum filament) (x330). 
Fig. 12. var. aspcra, n.var. (sporiferous Spirillum 

filament), (h) part with spore capsules, part without 

(x500). 
Fig. 13. — Bacillus suhfilis Ehr., (a, h) in filament form, (c) free 

cells with flagella (x660). 
Fig. 14. — Bacterium termo (Ehr.) Duj., (granular form), two zoo- 

gla^a states (x660). 
Fig. 15. — Operculata elon(jata Kellicott, (6) retracted (x330). 
Fi^.l6.—Cothurnia paraUcla Maskell, (5) retracted ( x 660). 
Fig. 17. — Chatonoiua larus var. maxitnus (encysted) (x330). 
Fig. 18. — ramphayu.s inutahUi.^ (x330). 

Plate viii. 
Fig.l. — Macrothrix spinusa King, female with winter egg, (e) only 

one pair of antennae figured (xlOO). 
Fig. 2. var. dentata, n.var., front edge of 

carapace (x660). 
Fig. 3. — Trachrlomonds rolvocitia var. pcUucida, n.var., (h) with 

short neck (xlOOO). 

Fig. 4. or(dis, n.sp. (x660). 

Fig. 5. — Lcpocinclis Stcinll var. succica Lemm. (x660). 

Fig. 6. ■■ var. ((ustrcdica, n.var. (x660). 

Fig. 7. — Menoidiuin pcllucidum var. Incurvuni (Fresenius) milii. 

(a) from above (xl300). 



BY G. I. PLAYFAIR. 151 

Fig. 8. var. clavafmn, n.var. (xlOOO). 

Fi^.d.—Diffiugia Cadnoen^iis, n.sp. (x66n). 

Fig. 10. acumimifd var. Levander'ti milii ( x 250)". 

Fig. 11. var. hacillifera, n.var. (x330). 

Fig. 12. l{i(hn,(>ii<li<r^ n.sp., (a) from above (x66()). 

Fig. 13. — Euiiliiphd. nlvi'ojdfd var. hamuUfcra, n.var. (xlOOO); (a) 

overlap of plates, more enlarged. 

Fig. 14. var. lavi^ (Verij) milii (xGGO). 

Fig. 15. — Arcclhi papjjiacca, n.sp. (x500). 

Fig. 16. — ActliH/phtj/.s sol var. ,simpl''.i- (Schaudinn) milii, but the 

rays show much fainter (x500). 
Fig. 17. — Amniha verrucosa var. qwidrilincaia (Carter) mihi (x500). 

Fig. 18. var. Umax {? Diijardin) mihi (x660). 

Fig. 19. var. maxima, n.var. (x330). 

Fig. 20. radiosa var. minutissima, n.var. (x660). 

Fig. 21. var. stellata, n.var. (x220). 



152 



THE XEROPHILOUS CHARACTERS OF HAKEA 
DACTYLOIDES Cav. [N.O. Proteace^]. 

By a. G. Hamilton. 
(Plates ix,-x.) 

Hakea dactyloides is a low shrub, very common in sandy places 
about Sydney, and on the coast and mountains wherever the 
Hawkesbury Sandstone occurs. It is associated with Petrophila 
■pedmiculata, Banksia ericifolia, B. serrata, Lamhertia formosa, 
Hakea pugioniformis, Leptuspermum, scoparium, Darwinia fasci- 
cularis and other xerophytes. 

Like all drought-resisting plants, it is of slow growth, and the 
stems are tough and woody. They are covered with hairs of two 
kinds, long and slender, and capitate hairs of small size. The 
vascular bundles contain many thick-walled fibres, which make 
the twigs very tough. 

The leaves are rather few in number, arranged sj^irally, and 
placed vertically, so that the edges are presented to the light. They 
are obovate in shape, narrowing to a short petiole. The apex of 
the leaf is sometimes cjuite rounded («, Fig. 1), and sometimes 
narrowing to a short point(6, Fig.l). In the latter variety, they 
are relatively rather narrower than the round-topped leaves are. 
There are three principal veins, the secondary veins ramifying in 
between, and these sometimes have blind ends (Fig. 1). There is 
also a vein round the edge. They vary in size according to the 
character of the season in which they develop. If the growth 
period — November to February — be wet, they reach a size of 14 
X 3*5 cm.; if rain is scarce, they barely reach 6 x 1*5 cm. They 
are thick, rigid, and tough. The colour is light olive-green (darker 
in plants growing in shady places), with the marginal thickening 
reddish. The surface is smooth and dull, and the primary veins 
project on both sides. The yoiing leaves and shoots have a dense 



BY A. G. HAMILTON. 153 

vestiture of hairs, those on the outside being a beantii'ul c^ohlen- 
brown, and tlioso beneatli silvery. They are spindh'-sliapcd and 
tliiek-walled (Fig. 2). They fall off soon after the leaf has readied 
full size. 

The stomates are found on both sides. They are sunk beneatli 
the surface, and open into a vestibule formed by an upward arr-li- 
ing of the surrounding epidermal cells, the aperture being at one 
end of the chamlier, and directed towards the apex of the leaf. 
The chamber is OOG mm. long, 004 mm. wide, and the aperture 
001 mm. in diameter. The stomata are numerous, as many as 120 
to the square millimetre, making about 120,000 to an average- 
sized leaf. The e]3idermal cells are small, 001 mm., and rounded 
in form. 

Seen in transverse section, the epidermis is composed of small 
cells, about 0005 mm. high. The cuticle is very thick, 0015 ram. 
(Fig. 3), of a dull olive-brown colour after the rest of the leaf has 
been decolorised by spirit. The cells are usually empty, but now 
and then contain cubical crystals. Scattered about in the epidermis 
are found capitate hairs in sunken cavities (Figs. 6-7). In the 
young leaf, these hairs are more plentiful. The interior wall of 
the epidermis projects downwards into the palisade tissue(Fig.6a). 
The hairs are thick-walled, and apparently empty; but the cavity 
stains with saffranin or gossypimin very deeply. 

In the young leaf, the hairs project above the surface of the 
epidermis, and apparently as the leaf gets older, the cuticle grows 
up, so as to surround the hairs. Many of the hairs drop off while 
the leaf is young, and the portions of the epidermis, on which they 
were seated, grow up to the level of the rest, leaving no trace of the 
former existence of the hairs. 

The mesophyll consists of palisade cells in two layers under each 
face of the leaf. The cells are rather large, 0-06 mm. long, and 
00075 mm. wide, packed with rather large granular chloroplasts. 
There are no intercellular spaces, except just under the stomata 
(Fig. 5). Between the two layers of palisade cells, the meso]ihyll 
consists of irregularly rounded cells, containing chlorophyll, and 
measuring 004 to OOC mm. in diameter. There are no intercellular 



154 XEROPHILOUS CHARACTERS OF HAKEA DACTYLOIDES^ 



siDaces here either. These cells do not contain so much chlorophyll 
as the palisade cells. 

All through the mesophyll are numbers of large scleroblasts or 
stone-cells, columnar and simple (Fig. 8), or massive and irregu- 
larly branched in all directions (Fig. 9). Occasionall}^, a detached 
cell is found among the palisade cells, but the greater number have 
one or more of their branches touching the inner wall of the epider- 
mis, and this part is usually expanded as if it were soft, and press- 
ing against the epidermis. The greatest axis of these cells is at 
right angles to the j^lane of the leaf. They only rarely pass into 
the central region of the mesophyll, and still more rarely extend 
through from one palisade layer to the other. In some of them, a 
central cavity is seen, very narrow and branching, but the branches 
do not always correspond to the arms of the cell (Figs. 8 and 9 a). 
There are also narrow openings in the thickened wall, leading- 
straight in to the central cavity. 

The vascular bundles have a very strong development of hard 
bast — sclerencbymatous fibres with thick walls and small lumina. 
The few spiral vessels and sieve-tubes are embedded in the centre 
of this. In the marginal vein, the fibres lie outside the veins? 
but not inside. 

The foregoing description applies to mature leaves growing in 
the open. Plants growing in shady places show marked differ- 
ences. The leaves of the plants in the open average 04 mm. in 
thickness, while those of shade-plants are only 0-3 mm. The fol- 
lowing table shows the main differences in measurements between 
ordinary and shade-leaves. 





Ordinary leaf. 


Shade-leaf. 


Leaf, thickness 

Epidermis, thickness... 

Cuticle, thickness 

Palisade cells, length 


{3;i^0-4 mm. ^^ 
M;0-04mm. 

0-015 inm. 

05 mm. 


0-3 mm. 
0-01 mm. 
0-005 mm. i 
03 mm. 



In the shade-leaves, each cell of the epidermis almost always con- 
tains a single cubical crystal. The stomates are fewer in number 



BY A. G. HAMILTON. 155 

than in the ordinary leaf, and the vestibules are shallow and 
wider. The palisade tissue is not so close, and is composed of 
shorter and narrower cells. The cuticle has not tlie l)rown tint of 
that in the ordinary leaf, being- quite clear and transparent. The 
capitate liairs occur very sparsely. The sclero])lasts are also rare. 
There is little difference in the external characters, except that tlie 
leaves of shade-plants have much darker green leaves, which may 
be accounted for by the thinness of the cuticle, and the absence of 
brown colour from it. 

There can be no doubt but that the thick cuticle is a powerful 
factor in checking- transpiration and this is aided by the deeply 
sunken stomates. The closeness of the palisade cells and the 
absence of intercellular spaces also aid in this. The young leaf is 
effectively protected by the thick coating of hairs. 

The most remarkable feature of the leaf is the great develop- 
ment of scleroblasts. In the young leaf, even up to the time when 
it has reached full size, there are none to be found; and we have 
seen that, in tliose growing in the shade, they are rare or absent. 
But as the mature leaf, exposed to sun and wind, grows older, 
small masses of sclerenchyma appear in the middle region of the 
leaf; these increase in size and number till they occupy a very 
large part of the micl-region of the leaf — as much, I estimate, as 
45 % of it. They begin their growth among the palisade cells, 
and extend gradually outwards till they reach the epidermis, and 
then the part touching the epidermis extends laterally. As to their 
origin, it is most likely, as Sachs conjectures, that they are nothing 
more than peculiarly developed parenchyma calls(l,p.l46). From 
the fact that they develop most in leaves exposed to intense light, 
heat, and wind, it would appear that their occurrence is a direct 
consequence of those conditions. Their function is probably the 
same as that of the closeness of the mesophyll, viz., diminishing 
transpiration by, as Sachs states (l,p.l44), slowing the exchange 
of sap between the parenchymatous tissue and the veins. 

The function of the sclerenchymatous fibres round the vascular 
bundles is apparently to give rigidity to the leaf, but they would 
also undoubtedly assist in slowing transpiration, as they are always 



156 XEROPHILOUS CHARACTERS OF HAKE A DACTYLOIDES. 

very strongly developed in plants exposed to dry conditions, and 
particularly so in the Proteace?e(2). That they are effective in 
enabling the plant to withstand the effects of a dry environment, 
may be inferred from their common occurrence in such conditions 
in plants of very diverse natural orders. 



REFERENCES TO LITERATURE. 

(1) Sachs, On the Physiology of Plants. 

(2) Hamilton, " On the structure of the leaf in Banksia sery-ata" Report 

Aust. Assoc. Adv. Sc. 1907. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATES IX. -X. 
Plate ix. 
Fig.l. — Venation of leaf,( x ^). 
Fig.2. — Hairs on young leaf. 

Fig. 3.- Epidermis and one row of palisade cells of ordinary leaf; c, cuticle. 
Fig. 4. — Epidermis and one row of palisade cells of shade-leaf; c, cuticle. 
Fig.5. — Section of stomate and vestibule; v, vestibule; g, guardcells. 
Fig. 6. — Capitate hair in cavity; a, projection of epidermis into mesophyll. 
Fig.7.— Ditto. 

Fig.8.— Simple scleroblasts; a, cavity. 
Fig.9. — Massive, branched scleroblasts; a, cavity. 

Plate X. — Microphotographs. 
Fig.lO. — Cross-section of ordinary leaf; c, cuticle; s, scleroblasts. 
Fig.ll. — Cross-section of shade-leaf ; c, cuticle; s, scleroblasts. 
Fig. 12. — Section parallel to plane of leaf; s, scleroblasts cut at right angles. 






157 



ORDINARY MONTHLY MEETING. 

May 27th, 1914. 

Mr. C. Hedley, F.L.S., Vice-President, in the Chair. 

Mr. W. J. Enright, West Maitland, was elected an Ordinar}' 
Member of the Society. 

The Chairman regretfully announced the decease, on 15th inst,, 
of Mr. E. G. W. Palmer, a Member of the Society elected in 
1885, for some time a Member of the Council, and subsequently 
one of the Society's Honorary Auditors; and who, for many years, 
took an active interest in the Society's work and welfare. 

The Secretary communicated a letter from the Hon. N. C. 
Rothschild, representing the Societ}?^ for the Promotion of Nature- 
Reserves, recently established in England, accompanying a pro- 
spectus and circulars relating thereto. The writer said — " Al- 
though the Society primarily conducts its operations in the 
British Islands, we think that a similar movement should be 
encouraged in all parts of the Empire, and it is to ask you if you 
could bring the objects of the Society to the notice of the Gov- 
ernment, the various men of Science, and lovers of Nature in 
Australia, that I am venturing to send you this letter. Austra- 
lia being still largely undeveloped^ affords, I think I may say, 
a unique opportunity for securing adequate Nature-reserves to 
preserve its fauna and flora in perpetuity, and, therefore, I think 
no excuse is needed for sending you details of this Society." [See 
an article on " Nature-Reserves," by Sir E. Ray Lankester, in 
"Nature," March 12th, 1914, p.33]. 

The Secretary called attention to some historically interesting 
as well as scientifically valuable, old prints of Australian plants, 
framed and glazed, presented to the Society by the Rev. James 
Lamont, F.L.S., of Mosman, since the last Meeting. They are 
Plates 2, 3, 7, 8, 9 and 10 (with two others still to come) of Parts 
i. and ii. of the very rare coloured issue of " Illustrationes Horf^ 

X3 



158 NOTES AND EXHIBITS. 

Novre Hollandise sive icones generum quse in ' Prodromo Florae 
Nova? Hollandise et Insulse Van Diemen descripsit Robertas 
Brown,' Londini, 1813," by Ferdinand Bauer (1760-1826), the 
botanical draughtsman who accompanied Robert Brown on 
Flinders' Expedition, 1801-05, and subsequently. So much of 
Bauer's botanical work had not been published, that the speaker 
thought the Society was under great obligations to the donor for 
his thoughtfulness and liberality in making provision for these 
fine examples of Bauer's beautiful work becoming better known 
to present and future Australian botanical students. 

On the motion of Mr. A. G. Hamilton, seconded by Mr. E. 
Cheel, it was resolved unanimously : That this Meeting desires 
to record its cordial appreciation of the Rev. J. Lamont's kind- 
ness in enabling the Society to take charge of the stimulating 
relics of an early botanical enthusiast, for the edification of 
Australian plant-lovers, present and to come. 

The Donations and Exchanges received since the previous 
Monthly Meeting (29th April, 1914), amounting to 11 Vols., 
101 Parts or Nos., 13 Bulletins, 2 Reports, and 4 Pamphlets, 
received from 64 Societies, etc., were laid upon the table. 

NOTES AND EXHIBITS. 

Mr. Froggatt exhibited specimens of a freshwater crustacean 
allied to Branchipus stagnalis^ from a pond at Trangie, N.S.W., 
sent by Mr. Sarcombe. Also a pair of small butterflies "Blues" 
(Ogyris hewitsoni Waterh.) from Yarrum Burrum Plains, which 
visit the flowers of a Loranthus common on the Belar. 

Dr. J. B. Cleland exhibited specimens from the River Murray, 
near Morgan, S.A., the work of white cockatoos, Cacatoes galerita. 
They consist of cones of Callitris, of which the upper parts have 
been bitten off, apparently with the object of obtaining the seeds 
before the cones had expanded. Also a number of fine twigs 
from an adjacent Eucalypt, which had apparently been nipped 
off, for some unknown purpose, by the same birds. 

Dr. H. G. Chapman exhibited, for Dr. Burton Bradley and 
himself, a specially designed and locally constructed oven for 



NOTES AND EXHIBITS. 159 

imbedding histological material in paraffin. The imbedding 
vessels are set in trays, and surrounded with oil-jackets. Closed 
vessels for melting paraffin serve to keep the latter free from 
dust. In three trays, there is provision for imbedding 36 speci- 
mens in separate vessels. 

Dr. Chapman communicated a note on the origin of the pre- 
cipitate in precipitin-reactions from the globulin-fraction of the 
antiserum. Experiments showed that the main weight of tlie 
precipitate was due to denatured globulin. 

Mr. A. A. Hamilton exhibited, from the National Herbarium, 
specimens of {\) Olearia mi/rsiiioides F.v.M., (/Js^er myrsinoides 
Labill); Mt. Victoria (Fairy Bower) [A. A. Hamilton; November, 
1913]. A form of this species, which owes its altered facies to 
environment The examples commonly found on the Blue 
Mountains, grow on the poor, rocky hillsides, and exhibit the 
xerophytic characters of low straggling growth (1-2 ft.), sclero- 
phyllous leaves, etc. The specimens exhibited were taken from 
a luxuriant bush growing in a rich deposit of vegetable detritus 
in the midst of forest-vegetation, and near a watercourse, 5 feet 
in height, and with leaves 3 inches long, and nearly 2 inches 
wide, on petioles of J inch. The ordinary mountain-form, of 
which a specimen was shown for comparison, has leaves from ^-1 
inch long, and k inch wide, with a short petiole. The original 
species (-^. myrsinoides Labill.) has sessile leaves, rarely above 
h inch. There are examples of the form, under review, in the 
National Herbarium from Mt. Victoria (J. H. Maiden; Decem- 
ber, 1896) ; between Lawson and Wentworth Falls (Captain 
Murray; October, 1899); Jenolan Caves(W. F. Blakely; January, 
19U0). — {2} Lepidosper ma Jle.vuosf uaJi.Br.; Leura(A. A. Hamilton; 
April, 1914); showing a transition in the inflorescence from a single 
spikelet to a branching panicle. This, and the following species 
have not been recorded from the Blue Mountains previously. — 
(3) Lepidospenna Jili/orme Labill.; Leura(A.A. Hamilton; April, 
1914); the specimens have, in nearly every case, one spikelet 
only. Labillardiere's figure (PI. Nov. HolL, i., t.l5) shows a 
spike with fourspikelets. —{-i) Acacia Jioribuiida Willd.; Meadow 



160 NOTES AND EXHIBITS. 

Bank (A. A. Hamilton; April, 1914); showing a reversion to 
juvenile leaves, due to arrested growth. Pinnate leaves are to 
be noted springing from tlie ends of branches from which twigs 
have been violently torn off; the surrounding phyllodes are more 
or less attenuated. — (5) Escholtzia californica Cham. Hort.; Yass 
(Rev. J. W. Dwyer; May, 1911); showing heterotaxy. Adventi- 
tious buds arise from the recurved margin of the floral receptacle 
in company with the flower, and, a short distance below, leaves 
are produced on the peduncle, whose distended recurved base, 
which represents the floral receptacle, indicates an abortive 
attempt at flower-production. — (6) ^05« viridiflora Hort. var.; 
Bot. Gardens, Sydney (J. L. Boorman; August, 1913); showing 
phyllody of the corolla, petalody of the stamens, and virescence. 
The upper portion of the petal is lobed, disclosing its foliaceous 
character; the barren anthers are seated on the central portion 
of the particoloured laminse, the lower portion being produced 
into a claw, representing the staminal filament. — {l)Lomatia 
silaifolia R.Br.; a series of leaves of this plant, exhibiting an 
exceptionally large range of leaf-variation. 

Mr. Halcro Wardlaw reported the results of his recent daily 
observations of the temperatures of a numl)er of Echidnas which 
were living in captivity at the University. The animals had 
been living in perfect health for the past few months now, so 
that their temperatures were presumably normal. These are 
peculiar, inasmuch as they do not remain at a constant high 
level, like those of higher mammals; nor do they follow the 
external temperature at a level a few degrees higher like those 
of reptiles. The temperature of Echidnas varies from 25-33°C., 
and shows a diurnal variation of about 3°, the highest tempera- 
tures being in the afternoon. This variation is independent of 
alterations in the external temperature. During the last few 
days several of the animals under observation had commenced 
hibernation, and their temperatures were now at the level of that 
of the air, but were following the alterations of this exactly. 

Mr. E. Cheel exhibited a series of specimens of seventy distinct 
forms of cultivated legumes, chiefly belonging to the genus PAase- 



NOTKS AND EXHIBITS. 161 

oliLS^ wliicli liad been grown for five years in some instances, for 
the purpose of testing the characters of growtli and noting any 
changes in the colour of the flowers and seed-coats, etc., without 
resorting to artificial pollination. — (1) The various forms of 
Fhaseobis vulgaris were found to be fairly constant, reproducing 
their flowers and seeds true to the parent-forms. In two instances, 
however, dwarf forms were found intermixed with climbers; these 
were marked, and grown again separately; and in each case, the 
dwarf or climbing habit of their respective parents was retained. 
With regard to certain forms of P. innltiflorus, considerable 
variation occurred in the colour of the flowers and seed-coats. 
For example, from seeds of the form known in the trade as 
"Papilio" or "Butterfly-Runner," plants were obtained producing 
three distinct forms; viz., (1) flowers and seeds like the parent- 
form, (2) flowers pale scarlet, and seed with cream background 
with cupreous markings, and (3) flowers similar to No. 2, but with 
seed having a pale reddish-mauve or amethyst background, and 
marked with purplish splashes or stripes. The latter had flowered 
again, producing flowers exactly like the original " Papilio "- 
forms, namely, scarlet standard and white wings. Another form 
producing seeds somewhat resembling those of the typical 
" Scarlet Runner," but paler, with less dark-coloured markings, 
and flatter irregular seeds, which may be temporarily designated 
a " Pale form of Scarlet Runner," occasionally produces plants 
having white flowers, and white seeds, almost identical with 
those of the form known in the trade as " Czar " or so-called 
" White Scarlet-Runner." As the different forms were grown 
quite close to each other, it is quite possible that cross-pollination 
had taken place, as bees were observed, on two occasions, visiting 
the flowers, irrespective of colour. — (2) Examples of P. lunatics 
and the forms of var. macrocarpus were likewise exhibited; these, 
so far, have given no variants. — (3) Pods and seeds of three 
species of Stizolobium (Velvet Bean); these, too, so far, have 
given no v^ariants. — (4) Examples of Canavalia ohtusifolia DC, 
C. ensifo7-mis DC, and C. gladiata DC, which appear to be con. 
stant. The last two are regarded by some authors as belonging 
to one species, but C. ensiformis (commonly known as "Jack 



162 NOTES AND EXHIBITS. 

Bean ") is an annual about 2 ft. 6 in. high; whereas C. gladiata, 
which is known as " Red Bengal Bean," or sometimes " Sword 
Bean," is a very vigorous climber of perennial habit, according to 
Mr. B. Harrison, of Burringbar, Tweed River, —Mr. Cheel 
showed, also, specimens of an introduced plant, known in Europe 
as the "Caltrop-like Medick '" {Medicago truiicahda Gsiertn., = M. 
tribidoides Lam.), from the Scone and Yanco districts, which 
was an undesirable plant in sheep-country, on account of its 
harsh, spiny fruits. 

Mr. G. H. Halligan exhibited, in quantity, examples of an 
undetermined Amphipod, which after rain, and with the wind 
in a certain direction, were to be found, regularly, strewn over 
the floor of the porch of his house at Hunter's Hill. As his 
garden was kept in order, and there was nothing out of the 
ordinary in the way of cover for the animals, he was at a loss to 
know how they came to be so abundant; and he asked for an 
explanation of their occurrence. 

Mr. Fletcher exhibited an additional set of specimens illus- 
trating the cohesion of opposite leaves in Lantana Camara L. 
A very complete gradational series had been obtained showing 
the results of {a) temporary adherence of the petioles only, fol- 
lowed by separation, but bringing about the extinction of the 
shoot; (6) incomplete fusion of the petioles on one side, accom- 
panied by coherence of one margin of each leaf, sometimes allow- 
ing of the escape of the shoot through a chink, but more often 
extinguishing it; (c) complete cohesion of the petioles resulting 
in the smothering of the shoot, accompanied by the cohesion of 
more or less of both margins of the leaves; {d) cohesion of portion 
of the underside of each of two leaves, brought about partly by 
a twisting of one of the petioles; and (e) cohesion of the petioles 
of one pair of opposite leaves and of that of one leaf of the pair 
next below, accompanied by cohesion of both margins of one leaf 
with one margin of each of the other two leaves involved. 



The Chairman invited discussion on Mr. Andrews' paper on 
"The Development of the N.O. J/^/r^acece " (Proceedings, 1913, 
p.529). Mr. Fletcher, Dr. J. R. Dixon, and Mr. Tillyard took 
part in the discussion; and Mr. Andrew^s replied. 



163 



ON SOME PROBLEMS CONCERNING THE DEVELOP- 
MENT OF THE WING-VENATION OF ODONATA. 

By R. J. TiLLYARD, M.A., F.E.S., Science Research Scholar 
IN THE University of Sydney. 

(Plates xi.-xiii., and twenty text-figures.) 

Introduction. 

During the course of some researches into the tracheal system 
of Odonate larvse, I had occasion to examine a very large number 
of these interesting creatures. Thus a beautiful series of develop- 
ing nymphal wings was presented to me, which it was impossible 
to ignore or to cast away unexamined. Hence it was tliat I 
determined to photograph the wings of each species, as oppor- 
tunity offered, and to use them with a view to famiharising 
myself with the problems and theories set forth by Needham in 
his now famous paper.* 

It soon became evident that there were certain portions of the 
question in hand that needed special attention, while new aspects 
of the problem presented themselves to my mind and demanded 
investigation. It seemed to me that the whole problem of the 
development of the unique venation of the Odonate wing might 
conveniently be divided into two parts, viz.: — 

i. 'J'he study of the tracheae of the developing wing, and their 
relationships to the imaginal wing-veins. 

ii. The study of the source of the oxygen-supply of the wing- 
tracheae. 

* Needham, J. G., "A genealogic study of Dragonfly Wiug-Veuation," 
Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xxvi., pp. 703-764, 1903. 



1G4 DEVELOPMENT OF THE WING-VENATION OF ODOXATA, 

Now Needham's paper deals with i. only, and that chiefly in 
SO far as it concerns the Anisoptera. The investigations into 
the Zygoplera seem to have been on a much smaller scale, and 
it is very evident that a wide field of research remains open in 
this direction. With regard to the Anisoptera, it seemed to me 
that the study of the anal tracheae had been left in a somewhat 
unsatisfactory state. Hence I have devoted a considerable part 
of my paper to an elucidation of this problem, with special refer- 
ence to the development of the so-called mial loop. 

With regard to ii , it seems quite clear that the wing-venation 
cannot be fully understood until we go to the root of the problem. 
That is to say, we must go a stage back beyond i., and enquire 
carefully how the oxygen-supply is brought to the wing-tracheae; 
or, in other words, we must connect up these wing-tracheae witli 
the complex tracheal system of the larva, and study the connec- 
tion between them. 

The general tracheal system of the Odonate larva is so peculiar 
that it might v.ell be suspected of exercising some special influ- 
ence on the developing wing. Its chief peculiarity is the fact 
that the oxygen-supply is derived in all cases from the anal end 
of the body during practically the whole period of growth; either 
by means of the internal " branchial basket " in the rectum of 
Anisoptera, or by the external caudal gills of Zyyoptera. Hence, 
chiefly by means of the huge dorsal tracheal trunks, but also in 
a less degree by the visceral and ventral trunks, the oxygen is 
conveyed forwards to all parts of the body. As regards the 
head and thorax, the supply comes entirely from the dorsal 
trunks, since the ventral trunks do not reach so far forward, and 
the visceral trunks send only their attenuated anterior ends into 
the thorax to connect with the tracheae of the middle leg. 

Now in all cases so far investigated, the tracheal suppl}'^ of the 
developing wings of insects has been found to arise from two 
sources*: — 



* Comstock and Needham, " The Wings of Insects," American Natural- 
ist, xxxii. , pp.45 tt seq., 1898. 



BY Ft. J. TILLYARD. 165 

A. A branch from the great dorsal trunk enters tlie costal 
side of the wing-base and supplies the costo-radial i^i-oup of wing- 
trachefe (viz., cosfa^ subcosta, radius and media). 

B. A branch from the venti-al trunk entei's the anal side oi the 
wing-base and supplies the ciibi to-anal group of wing-tracheae 
(viz., cubitus and analis). 

In all cases, except riecoptera and some Cockroaches, the 
branches A and B are connected by a transverse trachea, so that 
a continuous loop is formed passing from the dorsal trunk into 
the costal side of the wing-base, thus making a loop projecting 
slightly into the wing-base (from this loop the wing-trachese arise 
in order), and finally leaving the wing-base at its anal side and 
joining the ventral trunk. 

It is quite clear, therefore, from the start, that this last con- 
nection with the ventral trunk could not exist in Odonate larvae; 
since this trunk does not enter the thorax. However, it is 
equally clear that a complete loop exists in the Imse of the wing- 
rudiment, since it can be seen both in the living larvae, and in 
the cut-oif wing-cases. I propose to call this loop tlie alar trunk 
(AT), since it is the trachea from which all the principal longi- 
tudinal tracheae of the wing arise. The question of its connec- 
tions costal ly and anally with the general tracheal system, will 
be fully dealt with in Part ii. of this paper. 

It is fitting that I should state here how valuable and inspir- 
ing I have found Professor Needham's work, already quoted. It 
is, indeed, a solid and excellent foundation, on which all future 
researches on Odonate wing- venation must be built, and a work 
that merits the highest meed of praise. Nor can I pass on with- 
out recording my indebtedness to all those who, during my long 
period of ill-health, have so generally assisted me in obtaining 
the many rare larval forms necessary for the work in hand. For 
these, I have to thank my wife, Mr. F. W. Carpenter, M.A., 
Mr. Gregory Geake, and my brother, Mr. S. J. Tillyard. 

Owing to the fact that the wing-cases of so many larvie are 
very deeply pigmented, and .sometimes also very hairy, I have 
adopted the plan of illustrating this paper by drawings traced 






-^ in order thz.' 

opon my ow^ . 

Z - beairaiL^ l»«^s: — 

X zu^i — — r : ^— "f * r - ns ^■tus': and 

tlieirrdbt: . 

SeetiomA —-- 

aiMi its reli:_._i__i :. :_r :_: ^ __. :.-^____r 

Sectiim, 1 — r_T : _ .---:: 

«|iLl90i 

Ssdiom C — r T . ^ring in 

Zygnsftt^roL, and ii;a> h^'.i:.-.,'.t„',g-^. «ii^ i^^^^4>i t . 1 94). 

FkrtiL—Tbe study jf tie : r f the xj- - : :^ e 

wing-tnidbeae (piJOl: 

-SociiM*^— Dest: _ ; _ 

Odtrmmir win^v- 

p!.rT L 
The ste^- ' - - - : T- 



SoctUm A.— Tie dewd: 
mmd its rdmiitms to die e 

For tiie purpose of tin 
brwe aTaibhle within £. 
eze^ some of the lar^ 
all, the wings of nearij r 
ment, hot cfaie^- nearij 
Vrom theses a set of mc : 
pucd, givii^ a wide vie 



BY P.. J. TILLYAED. 



167 



The followiog is a complete ILst of the genera and species 

studies] : — 



Subfamily. 


Genus. 


n 


Species. 


Gomphiiue 


A ustrcHjompfi m 


A. ochtaceus Selys. 






\ 


A. heterocUtus Selvs. 


jEschniruE 


Austrophlebia 




A. costaJis Tillyard. 




Austroceschna 


f 


A. rmdtipunctata ilartin. 






\ 


A. longisstma Martin. 




D^.ndrocuschna 




D. conj^persa Tillyard. 




JUschna 




^. hreristyJa Ramb. 




Anax 




A . papuetiiis Burm. 


CorduUince 


Sifnthemis 


f 


*S'. maerogtiffjna orientalis Tillyard. 






I 


S. eugtalacta Barm. 




Metathemis 




J/, guttata Selys. 




A ustrwordidia 




A. refracta Tillyard. 




Hemicordulia 


/ 


H. fan Selys. 






I 


H. austral w Ramb. 




CorduUphya 




''. j/ygma^a Selys. 


L ib^Jhilin^p 


Orthetrinn 


f 


0. caledonicum Br. 






\ 


0. vdlosovittatum Br. 




Diplaccd'es 


f 


D. hi punctata Br. 






I 


D. h<ematodes Barm. 



This list comprises thirteen genera (properly foarteen, since 
Austrogomphus heteroclitus Selys, is not congeneric with A. 
ochraceus Selys), and nineteen species. It is fortunate that the 
CoiduUince are so well represented in Australia, since the prin- 
cipal changes in the anal area of the wing take place in this 
subfamily. 

In his remarks on the anal trachea ( A >, Xeedham ( /oc. ri/., 
p. 721 ; points out that it fuses with the cabitas(Cu) close to the 
base, and later on branches away from it. This fusion was seen 
in all Anisoptera examined by him. It occurs also in all the 
forms which I have examined: so that we may be fairly certain 
that it is as universal an occurrence as the fusion of the radius 
with the media. 

The very great importance of this basal fasion of Cm and A, 
and its bearing on the imaginal wing- venation, seems to have 



168 DEVELOPMENT OF THE WING-VENATION OF ODOKATA^ 

escaped Needham. Two very important facts need to be empha- 
sised in connection with it : — 

(l).The so-called "first cubito-anal cross-vein " of Needham is 
not a true cross- vein at all, but is formed about the anal trachea 
itself, at the point where it descends from Cu. It may be called 
the anal crossmgi Ac). 

(2). The so-called " anal vein " of Needham is not a true anal 
vein, i.e., not developed along the anal trachea, but is a second- 
aril}^ formed bridge-vein from the lower end of Ac back towards 
the wing-base, to which it is connected posteriorly in a manner 
different from the other main veins. Hence the correct notation 
for this part of the wing is as follows : — 

The cubitus(Cu) of the imaginal wing becomes Cu -f A as far 
as Ac. 

The "anal vein" (A) must be distinguished as the secondary 
anal vein, and designated A'. 

To make these points quite clear, let us compare the nymphal 
and imaginal wings of uEschna hrevistyla Ramb. (Figs. 1-3, and 
Plate xi., figs. 1-2). The course of the anal trachea is best followed 
in the hindwing. 

The convergence of A towards Cu near the base, as also that 
of M towards R, is primarily due to the gradual narrowing of 
the base of the developing wing in comparison with its length. 
At first, all these trachecTe are separate; but by the time the wing- 
cases are half-grown, the fusion of Cu + A, as well as that of 
R -H M, can be clearly seen. As the wing grows, the fusion 
becomes greater, until, in the nearly full-grown nymph, A is seen 
to run obliquely up to join Cu very near its base, and then runs 
closely alongside it as far as Ac. At this point, A turns sharply 
downwards away from Cu, in the same manner that M turns 
away from R at the arculus. Hence Ac is the exact analogue 
of the upper portion of the arculus. It is, for this reason, that 
at least one " cubito-anal cross- vein" occurs in every Odonate 
wing. 

At the lower end of Ac, A branches into two, just as M 
branches into two when leaving the arculus. These branches 
were primarily an upper one, A^.g, and a lower one, A4, exactly 



BY R. J. TILLYAllD. 



169 



comparable to M^.g and M^. Bub owing to the altered shape of 
the wing-area to be supplied, the upper branch A^.j becomes a 
distally -running branch, while the lower branch A4 becomes a 
basally-running branch. In the half-grown yEschna-w'uvf the 




Fig.2. 

Fig.l. — uEschna hrevislyla Ramb. Tracheation of a half-grown nyinphal 
hindwing.(Sydney, N.S.W.; Sept., 1913). 

Fig. 2. — ^Efichna brevisti/la K-amh. , S • Tracheation of nearly full-grown 
nymphal wings. (Sydney; Sept., 1913). A, forewing; B, hindwing. 

Fig.S.—yEsrJma hrevislyla Rainb.,cJ. Basal portion of imaginal wing- 
venation. (Sydney; Oct., 1913). 



two branches may be seen in this position, Aj.-j running distally 
from Ac and giving off in turn A;., Aj and A,, while A4 runs 
basalwards back from Ac(Fig.l). Later on, owing to the devel- 



170 DEVELOPMENT OF THE WING-VENATION OP ODONATA, 

opment of the strong anal triangle in the male, or the corres- 
ponding rounded portion of the wing in the female, A3 tends to 
migrate from A^.g across Ac, to become attached to A4 very close 
to Ac(Fig.2). But, in the forewing, it still remains attached to 

-^1-3- 

Let us now study the four branches of A from the base out- 
wards Firstly, A4 is a short, weak trachea, only reaching back 
from Ac to about half-way towards the wing-base. In many 
forms, it comes downwards at its end. Towards the posterior 
edge of the true wing-base, the line of A4 parallel to Cu -f A is con- 
tinued by the formation of the secoiidary anal vein A', which 
becomes attached to the wing-base of the imaginal wing. Hence 
we see that A' is a bridge-vein continuing the weak trachea A4 
back to the wing-base; its distal portion is formed about A4 itself, 
but its basal portion is not formed about any important tracheal 
branch at all. It is comparable, therefore, to the " bridge-vein '' 
connecting Rs backwards to M^.o, which occurs in all Anisoptera. 

Secondly, A3 is a fairly strong trachea descending either (pri- 
marily) from A1.3 (Fig.l), or (secondarily) from Ac or A4(Fig.2), 
towards the posterior border of the wing. About it, in the 
imaginal wdng, the distal side of the anal triangle is formed in 
the male(Fig.3). In the female, it is usually less regressed 
towards the base, and generally descends straight from Ac, 
though individual variations, both basad and distad from Ac, are 
sometimes seen. It gives rise, in the female imago, to a descend- 
ing vein of less importance than the distal side of the triangle in 
the male, but corresponding to it. The fate of this branch, in 
both sexes of the Libellidinoi, is of interest, and will be followed 
out later. 

Thirdly, An is a strong branch descending sharply from Aj.j 
somewhat distad from Ac, and roughly parallel to Ao. In the 
uEschnince (and, indeed, in all forms in which a " loop " is de- 
veloped) it forms the proximal or basal side of the "anal loop" 
(Al, Fig.3) 

Fourthly, Aj is a strong trachea which continues distally 
towards Cuo, which it meets quite close under the point of bifur- 
cation of Cua from Cn^. It then fuses with Cuo for some dis- 



BY li. J. TILLYAKD. 



171 



tcance, turning slantingly downwards to run alongside it, and 
finally leaves Cua by bending downwards and backwards, so as to 
complete the formation of the distal side of the "anal loop." In 
the genus J^schna, it bifurcates, near its end, into two small 
branches. One of these turns basad to join A., thus completing 
the closure of the anal loop; while the other turns away distad 
in a curve, and helps to form the well-known secondary loop of 
this genus (AT, Fig.3). The fate of Aj, in the Libellulince, is 
also of great interest, and will be dealt with later on. 

Having traced the course and fate of the various branches of 
A in ^iJschna, we may now exhibit, in a table, the complete com- 
parison between the two pairs of combined tracheae, viz., R + M 
and Cu + A. 





Rh-M combine 


Cu-t- A combine 




2-branched 
trachea R. 


4-branched 
trachea M. 


2-branched 
trachea Cu. 


4-branclied 
trachea A. 


First branch 

Second branch ... 

Third branch 

Fourth branch 


R, 
Rs 


M„ 
M4 


Cu, 
Cuo 


Ai 

Ao 
A. 
A. 


Point of departure 
Backward vein from "1 
fourth branch / 
Supplementary sector ) 
under lower brancli of I 
two-branched trachea ) 


Arculus(arc.) 

[Upper side of triangle] 

Rspl. 


Aiial-crossing (Ac.) 

Secondary anal vein (A') 

Cuspl. (only hi Lihdlu- 
lidce, vide infra). 



In the above table, corresponding parts in the two main 
columns are true analogues of one another, except in one case, 
viz., the upper side of the triangle. This is, of course, not 
analogous to A', but it is included in tlie table in brackets in 
order to call attention to the manner in which it continues M^ 
backwards, just as A' continues A4 backwards. 

We turn now to the study of the Anal Loop. The structure 
known by this name is found throughout the .Eschnin(v. and the 
whole series of the Libelhdidce. But whereas it varies very 
little in shape throughout the jEschnincH, it exhibits very great 
diversity of form in the Libellulidce. On the one hand, we have 



172 DEVELOPMENT OF TMK WING-VKNATION OF ODONATA, 

the wide, roundish loop of Macromia and Sr/nthemis, while, on 
the other, we see the extremely elongated and narrow, foot- 
shaped or Italian''' loop of tlie majority of the Lihellulince and 
the Eucorduliini. 

There are two theories in the field to account for the develop- 
ment of this remarkable Italian loop. They may be termed the 
Theory of Douhle Descent^ and the Theory of Single Descent 
respectively. They are of special importance, because the whole 
of one's view of the phylogeny of the Lihellulince depends upon 
which theory one is willing to accept. 

The Theory of Double Descent postulates a separate origin for 
the jEschnine and Mac7'omian loops, on the one hand, and the 
Italian loop on the other. As formulated by Dr. Ris,t and up 
till now accepted by the majority of students of the Odonata,X it 
depends mainly on the following interpretation of the venation 
of the two forms of loop concerned(Fig.4A). The jEschnine and 
Macromia7i loops are enclosed (as shown above) by A2 as basal 
side, and A^ as distal side. But the Italian loop is formed with 
Ao as basal side, and A^ as distal side, while A^ forms its strong 
midrib. t Hence the two forms of loop are not homologous, and 
cannot be descended along a single line. According to the 
exponents of this theory, the Libelluli7ice are descended from 
narrow-winged forms similar to Tet7'aihemis, and hence the 
Italian loop arose by secondary broadening from this narrow form 
of wing. 

The Theory of Single Descent, which I formulated in ]912,|| 
postulates a single line of descent for all the different known 

* I suggest this as a convenient name for this form of loop, which much 
resembles the map of Italy in shape. 

t See diagram of tj'pical Libellulive wing (Scapanea frontalis Burm.) in 
Dr. Ris' LibeUulinen, Fasc. i.-xvi. of de Selys' Monographs, 1910-1914. 

Jin the short account of the anal loop given by Needham (Zoc. cit., 
p. 722), there is nothing to indicate that he favoured this theory. On the 
contrar}', his words, so far as they go, seem to oppose it, but no lettering 
is attached to his figures of loops. It seems unlikely that the question of 
a double descent ever occurred to him. The theory was, however, a direct 
outcome of the impetus given to venational studj^ by his paper. 
§ These Proceedings, xxxvii., p. 724, 1912. 



BY R. J. TILLYARD. 



173 



forms of ana] loop. Without attempting to homologise the cor- 
responding parts of the jEschnine and Italian loops, it was a 
protest against the assumption of a double origin for two essen- 
tially similar formations; and, in particular, it was a special 
protest against the assumption that the narrow-winged forms, 
such as Tetratheinis, Cordulephya^ Afjrior/omph^is, lay anyvvliere 
close alongside the main line of descent of the Anisojdera. In 
brief, I considered all such nari'ow-winged forms to be highly 
specialised asthenogenetic offshoots from the main stem, while the 
main line of advance had consisted of bi'oad-wim/ed forms from 
the very beginning; and hence, there could be only one origin 
for all kinds of anal loop. The notation that agrees with this 
theory is given in Fig. 4b. 




Fh 



Fig.4. — Scapanea frontalis Buin\.,S. Diagram to show tlie notation of 
the anal loop. A, as given by Ris; B, as worked out in this paper. 
Compare Figs. 11-12. 

These two theories are, in this paper, put to the crucial test by 
a careful study of the tracheation of the developing anal loop. 
Putting aside the Gomjyhince, i)i most of which no anal loop is 
formed, the twelve other genera studied by me can be arranged 
in four distinct groups or stages, which show a distinct pliylo- 
genetic connection as regards their anal loops, and may be 
arranged in ascending order of development, as follows : — 



174 DEVELOPMENT OF THE WING-VENATION OP ODONATA, 

Stage 1. — .EschnincB [Austrophlebia, Austroreschna, Dendro- 
cvschiia, uJ'Jschna, A'iiax^. 

Stage 2. — Synthemini [Synthemis, Metathews]. 

Stage 3. — Idocorduliiiii [^Aiist7'oco7'dulia\ 

StayeA. — Eiicordnliini + LibeHulina'[I/emico7'didia, Orthetrum, 
Diplacodes; with Cordulephya a specialised offshoot from near 
the base of the Eucorduliini]. 

Let us now study these four stages in turn : — 

Stage 1. — .EscJuiinoi (Figs. 1-3, and Plate xi., figs. 1-3). All 
the genera studied under this stage, agree exactly, in the forma, 
tion of their anal loops, with the description already given in the 
case of ^Eschna hrevistyla{Yigs.\-o). In all cases, the basal side 
of the loop is A2, and the proximal side is Aj, the latter fusing 
with Cu2 for some distance, and finally turning inwards to com- 
plete the loop below. 

Stage 2. — Synthemini (Figs. 5-8, and Plate xi., figs. 4-5). At 
first sight, there seems to be very little difference between the 
anal loop of the Synthemini and that of the ^EschnincB. But a 
little consideration will show us that those forces which culminate 
in the formation of the complex Italian loop are already at work. 
Two important changes are beginning to take place : — 

(1). Ac bends off from Cu + A much closer to the base of the 
wing than to the triangle. [In Stage 1, it bends off somewhat 
nearer to the triangle than to the base, while in the Gomphinoi 
it is still nearer to the triangle]. 

(2). Consequently Aj is stretched longitudinally, tends to de- 
crease in diameter, and makes a weaker union with Cug. 

Probably the larva of llacromia will be found to exhibit a 
similar arrangement, though we must not be too hasty in assum- 
ing a near relationship between this genus and the Synthemini. 
Metathemis agrees exactly with Synthemis. 

This stage shows the first attempt to enlarge the basal area of 
the hindtving. It is carried out on very simple lines, viz., by a 
purely longitudinal stretching of the area between Ac and the 
triangle. Developed to its logical conclusion, it culminates in 
such forms as Synthemis regina $ and 9, in which the enor- 
mously widened anal loop is split into two by the development 



BY R. J. TILf.YAKD. 



175 



of a straight supplement paralh'l to A2{Fig.8, X); while, in the 
very broad-winged female, even A^ is dragged in to make a third 
support, giving the insect an apparently three-portioned anal 
loop of immense width. 




Fig.5. 




Fig.7. 





Ficr.6. 




Fig.S. 



'E\g.b. — Synthemis macrostigma Selys. Trachealion of a half -grown 
nymphal hindwing.(Blue Mountains; Sept., 1913). 

Fig. 6. — Synthemis macrostigma Selys, S . Tracheation of nearly full- 
grown nymphal wings. A, forewing; B, liindwing. 

Fig.7. — Synthemis macrostigma Se\ys, S ' Portion of imaginal venation, 
to show structure of anal loop. 

Fig.S. — Synthemis reyina Selys, ? . Portion of imaginal venation, to show 
structure of compound anal loop. The vein X is not developed 
along any main tracheal branch, but is a supplement comparable to 
Cuspl in Hemicorclulia and the Libellulime. 



176 DEVELOPMENT OP THE WING-VENATION OF ODONATA, 



It is scarcely necessary now for me to say that these phylo- 
genetic stages, taken from hying examples, do not lie along one 
ahsolutely straight line of descent. Each, rather, lies a little off 
the direct line that culminates in the Italian loop; nevertheless, 
each is a true advance on the one hefore it. 

Stage 3. — Idocorduliini {Figs. 9 -10, and Plate xi., fig.6). We 
now come to a stage exhibited by the rare larva of Austrocordulia 




A, Cu^ 



Fig.9. 




Fig. 10. 

Fig.9. — Ausfrocordnlia refracta Tillyard, cJ . Tracheation of full-grown 
nymphal hindwing. (Stanwell Park, N.S. W.; Feb., 1914). 

Fig. 10. — Austrocordulia re/rac^a Tillyard, <5 . Portion of imaginal vena- 
tion, to show structure of anal loop. (Heathcote, N.S. W.; from a 
specimen, bred Dec. 20th, 1912). 

re/?-actoTillyard,( the only known larva of the tribe Idocorduliini) 
which stands, in my opinion, very nearly in the direct line of 
ascent to Stage 4. The line branched off from Stage 2 at a time 
when the area between Ac and the triangle, though tending to 
stretch more widely, was still only wide enough to support a loop 
of two cells' width. At this point, a new force came into play, 
viz., the beginning of a stretching transverse to the longitudinal 
axis of the iving. The combination of forces started thaX diagonal 
stretching which brought the Italian loop into being, and to which 
the slantwise-elongated cells of the hindwings of almost all 
Lihellulidce bear irrefutable witness. Not hy growth of new 
ivi7ig -material , hut hy stretching out of the old, did this heautiful 
formation arise. 



BY R. J. TILLYARD. 177 

We cannot omit, here, a reference to the behaviour of the 
hindwing-triangle. In Stage 2, that triangle was still distal 
from the arciiliis. Had it remained so, while Ac receded basad, 
the anal loop must inevitably have widened, and Synthemis reyina 
might even to-day then stand as the apex of Anisoj^terous wing- 
development. But, as soon as the tendenc}' to transverse stretch- 
ing began, the hindwing-triangle followed the anal-crossing basad, 
and began to recede towards the arculus, until its basal side 
finally came to lie exactly under it. It is, indeed, curious to see 
how the necessity of hroade^iing the hind wing should cause the 
triangle to recede and tend to broaden out lonyitudinally, while 
the almost equally insistent necessity for narroivimj the forewing 
(to prevent overlapping on to the hindwing) should bring about 
an exactly opposite result, viz., the procession of the triangle 
away from the arculus, and an excessive broadening of it trans- 
versely to the wing-axis. In the case of the hindwing, the j9?<// 
on the triangle stretched it longitudinally; while in the case of 
the forewing, the push on it, due to the rapid narrowing of the 
anal area, shut it up transversely like a collapsed framework, at 
the same time that it drove it away from the wing-base. 

We are now in a position to understand Figs. 9-10. The shape 
of the area to be supplied by the anal trachea and its branches, 
has now altered so considerably, that we need not be surprised 
at the change in the relative importance of the various branches. 
As this area becomes elongated in a slantwise direction, A2 
becomes directly attached to Ac, and in this very favourable 
position, it begins to show a distinct gain in size and length 
compared with the other branches. Forming, as it now does, a 
kind of mid-channel along the whole anal area, it supplies the 
latter with the greater part of its oxygen. On the other hand, 
Ai, originally more important than Ao, now shows a further 
slight reduction from the form reached in Stage 2 (Synthemis). 
It still reaches Cua just below its bifurcation from Cu„ but is 
an exceedingly slender trachea, very small in comparison with 
Cuo. It gives off slender branches inwards to help to form the 
separate cells of the loop, as far as the third set of cells from its 
base. But the rest of tlie loop, consisting of two more sets of 



178 DEVELOPMENT OF THE WING-VENATION OF ODONATA, 

cells, is formed on its distal side by a strong descending branch 
of Cug, which we call Cuot,. 

It is evident from this, that the elongation of the anal loop 
was first brought about by the inclusi(jn of extra sets of cells 
beyond the original distal end still to be seen in Stage 2. If, in 
the loop of Synthemis {Fig.7), we imagine the wing to be some- 
what stretched in a slantwise direction so as to straighten out 
Cuj, Aj at the same time becoming straighter but not longer, 
while A., becomes both straighter and also considerably longer, 
we get an approach to Stage 3, which can then be completed by 
a basal narrowing and by the development of a strong Cugb dis- 
tally. Hence we see that the loop of Austrocordulia is a com- 
posite structure, and no longer a true " anal loop," i.e., no longer 
enclosed purely between Aj and A.,. 

Further peculiarities in this area of the wing of Austrocordulia 
must here be noticed. 'N'ow that A^ has obtained the command- 
ing position under Ac, A3 has shifted considerably basad, and 
become reduced in size. Hence arises the beginning of the 
decline of the aiial triangle in the male — a movement which leads 
inevitably to the complete loss of the angulated wing, as seen in 
Heniicordidia and Lihellulinff . Hence, in so far as the elonga- 
tion of A 2 necessitates the reduction of A3, so far may we say 
that the Italian loop is developed at the expense of the anal 
triangle. In Tetragoneuria (Needham, loc. cit., Fig. 19, p. 721) 
we see the maximum development permissible to both at the 
same time; a development w^iich may well be claimed to be the 
high- water mark of Anisopterous evolution, and from which the 
whole mass of the Lihelluliiue may be judged to stand on a lower 
level by regression, as they certainly do in powers of flight. 

In Austrocordulia, the hind wing-triangle is greatly stretched 
out longitudinally, more so than in any other Libellu/id, yet its 
basal side does not quite succeed in reaching the arculus. This 
excessive stretching, together with the extreme narrowing of the 
proximal part of the loop, are special to this genus, and are not 
to be judged as developments along the direct line between Stages 
2 and 4. 



BY K. J. TILLYARD. 



179 



Stage 4.— The final stage in the phylogenetic development of 
the anal trachea is to be seen in most of the Libellulince and in 
the Eucordtdiini (see Figs. 11-1 2, and Plate xi., figs. 7-9). Here 
A.j has outdistanced all the other branches in development, and is 
to be seen as a very long and strong trachea ruiniing slantwise 
distad from Ac. As in the ^EschniiuF, it still forms the basal 




Fig. 12. 

Fig. 11. — Hemico7^dulia tauSe]ys, (S . Tracheation of full-grown iiyniphal 
wings. A, forewiiig ; B, hindwing. (Sydney; Jan., 1914). Note 
the narrowing of the imaginal wing-border in the forewing. 

Fig. 12. — Hemicordulia tau Selys, S . Basal portion of imaginal venation. 
(Heathcote, N.S.W.; March, 1907). 

border of the so-called "anal loop," though that term can no 
longer strictly be applied to the elongated Italian loop now before 
us, since A^ has ceased to play any part in its formation. Aj, 
shrivelled up almost beyond recognition, now fails even to reach 
Cug. But the latter, strongly developed in a slantwise direction, 
very similarly to Ao, now forms the complete distal border of the 
loop, and also gives off a branch Cu-.^,, which breaks back to form 



180 DEVELOPMENT OF THE WING-VENATION OF ODONATA, 

the posterior border or "sole" of the now stocking-shaped or 
Italian loop. The loop is still only two cells wide for the most 
part, but tends to widen at both ends, so that it is not unusual 
to find three or more cells in a row, both at the base and towards 
the tip. Finally, by the convergence of the distal ends of A, and 
Cuob, an exceedingly elongated and pointed "foot" may be formed, 
such as is to be seen in ]}feurothemis (Needlvdm, loc. cit., fig. 18, 
p.724). 

We have now to consider the formation of the midrib or 
symmetrical axis of the Italian loop. By reference to Fig. 11, it 
will at once be seen that this is not formed about a trachea at 
all. The midrib is, in fact, nothing more nor less than a cubital 
supplementary sec^o?' (Cuspl), formed on exactly the same lines 
(and even carrying, in Heniicordnlia, the same mass of pigmenta- 
tion) as Mspl under M^ and Pvspl under Rs, though attaining a 
far greater measure of usefulness owing to its fortunate position. 
In cases where the "toe" is not fully formed, as in Ilemicordulia, 
this Cuspl runs straight to within one cell's breadth of the "sole." 
But where there is a well-developed toe (e.g., in Diplacodes, Plate 
xi., fig. 9), it is cut off by yet another branch of Cuo (CuoJ, which 
descends from Cug about midway between its point of bifurcation 
from Cuj and its point of branching to give oflP Cugb, and runs 
almost straight to the tip of the toe. Hence, in this extreme 
case, the midrib is formed chiefly by Cuspl; but its apical end, 
penetrating into the toe, is formed abom the new branch from 
Cu,. 

Having now traced the development of the anal trachea 
through all its stages, we are in a position to give the true homo- 
logies of the much-discussed Italian loop. First of all, it is not 
an anal loop in the sense that the ^Eschnine loop is, for it is 
formed as much from Cu., and its derivatives as it is from A. Of 
the branches of the latter, only Ao enters into its composition. 
It is, strictly speaking, a cubito-aiial loop^ and should be desig- 
nated as such, with the abbreviation Cual. The basal side of 
Cual is in all cases Ao. Nearly always, it descends directly from 
Ac. But, in some genera, it may lie a little distad from or 
proximad to Ac. In all such cases, where larvae are obtainable, 



I 



BY R. J. TILL YARD. 181 

a strict study should be made, in order to discover any possible 
exceptions to the rule laid down; though such are not likely to 
occur, seeing that Ao forms the basal side in all known forms 
throughout the series. 

The distal side of Cual is Cu.3. It is, therefore, not homologous 
with the distal side of the anal loop of the ^Eschnhiff, which is 
formed from Aj, or more strictly from the fusion of Aj with 
Cuo for part of its length, and then from Aj alone lower down. 

The midrib of Cual is a cubital supplement (Cuspl). It has 
no true homologue in any other subfamily. The straight sup- 
plement X, in Synthemis reyiiia, is comparable to it, but is not 
its true homologue, since it is not formed by the fusion of small 
tracheal branches from Cu^. The midrib is strictly analogous to 
Rspl and Mspl, the sectors developed similarly under Rs and 
M4 respectively. 

As regards the two rival theories, our investigations have, 
without doubt, proved the Theory of Double Descent to rest on 
an unsound basis, since it depended upon an incorrect interpre- 
tation of the homologies of the basal side and midrib of the 
Italian loop. On the other hand, the Theory of Single Descent 
is supported by the whole weight of the evidence obtained from 
the study of the nymphal wings. 

Before passing on from the study of the anal loop, one more 
problem presents itself, viz., the question of the phylogeny of the 
reduced forms of the Lihellulidce. Only one larva is obtainable, 
that of Cordulephya j)yy^n(Ea Selys, a form in which the imago 
has an extremely reduced and narrowed hindwing, with an anal 
loop comprised by only two large cells. I have already indicated 
my belief* that this loop is a reduction from a more normal loop, 
and must be considered as a very highly specialised offshoot of 
the Eucorduliini. Let us now see what evidence is afforded by 
the nymphal wing. 

Fig. 13 shows the anal area of this larval wing. The reduction 

from a considerably broader wing is very evident (as in the 

Zygoptera; see Plate xii., fig.l) by the fact that the imaginal 

wing-border is drawn in, leaving a broad space below, into which 

* "On the genus Cordulephya" These Proceedings, 1911,xxxvi., p.388. 

15 



182 DEVELOPMENT OF THE WING-VENATION OF ODONATA, 



the fine ends of the tracheae penetrate for a very considerable 
distance. The same thing may be seen in the forewing of Ilemi- 
cordulia {Yig.W A.) . What is of greater interest, however, is the 
fact that, as in Stage 4, Aj does not help to form the distal border 
of the loop at all, but is a weak trachea curving in half-way 
between Ac and Cug to form the distal border of the first of the 
two large cells forming the loop. Ag, on the other hand, is a 
very strong, thick trachea, descending from Ac and forming the 
basal side and part of the lower border of the loop. Cuob is 
visible as a fairly strong trachea descending from Cuo into the 
space below the imaginal wing-border. From these considera- 



■R+n; 




K 

M,., 




f- 






Ca+A 



Iwb 



Fig. 13. 




Fig. 14. 

Y\^.\^.—Cordiilephya pygmcea Selys, i. Tracheation of full-grown 
uymphal hiiidwing. (Lily Vale, N.S. W.; Feb., 1914). Notice the 
narrowing of the imaginal wing-border. 

Y\g.\^.~Gordulephya pygmcea Selys, i . Basal portion of imaginal vena- 
tion of hindwing. (Lily Vale; March, 1907). 

tions, it is quite clear that the loop possessed by the unreduced 
wing ancestral to Cordulephya was definitely a cuhito-anal loop, 
formed between Ao and Cu.,. Such a loop really distinguishes 
the Eucorduliini and Lihelluliuce from all other Odonata. Hence 
we may fairly place Cordulephya as a specialised side-branch of 
the Eucorduliini^ which must have branched off from the main 
stem at some period between Stage 3 and Stage 4. This agrees 
exactly with the argument alread}^ advanced by me,"**' as a result 
of a general study of its larva, that Cordulephya is a member of 
the Eucorduliini, and has its nearest existing ally in the unre- 
duced genus, Hesperocordulia, from Western Australia. 
* " On the genus Cordulephya,''' These Proceedings, 1911, xxxvi., p.388. 



BY R. J. TILLYARD. 183 

It is probable that the larval wings of all tlie narrow-winged 
Libellidince would yield similar evidence of descent from broader- 
winged forms. None of the larvie are, however, at present 
obtainable. But in the exuviae of Nannophlehia and Lathrecista^ 
which I have seen, the breadth of the hind wing-case certainly 
suggests a descent from a broader-winged form. 

The foregoing discussion has been confined to the hindwings. 
'Ilie forewings of the Anisoptera are not, however, without 
interest. First of all, we notice the absence of pigmentation 
throughout the posterior longitudinal portion of the wing-case, 
due to the fact that the hind wing-case overlaps the forewing to 
that extent (see Plate xi., fig.8). This may well be a contribut- 
ing cause to the narrowing of the anal area, since absence of 
light means absence of pigmentation, and pigmentation precedes 
the development of the permanent venation. [Contrast the de- 
velopment of the wings of Ephemeridce, in which the fore wing- 
case overlaps the hind, and the forewing far outruns the hind in 
development]. 

Secondly, changes take place as we pass from stage to stage, 
although these changes are small compared with those in the 
hindwing. 

In Stage 1 {^Eschnince), the four typical branches of A are 
present, and placed in the primitive positions. Aj reaches and 
fuses with Cua, and keeps this position through all succeeding 
stages. 

In Stage 1{Synthemini), the final development of Ai is already 
almost accomplished. Stage 3 being very similar to Stage 2, we 
may study the forewings of these two stages together. We then 
notice the following advance from Stage 1. 

As in the hindwing, Ac has come to be much closer to the 
wing-base, while A3 has become hitched to A^. A2 keeps its 
original position somewhat distad from Ac, while Aj is greatly 
lengthened out, and consecjuently gives off supplementary trachese 
downwards to supply the elongated area below it. Owing to the 
compression of the triangle (explained above), which is already, 
considerably advanced in Synthemis, though not so evident in 
Austrocordulia, Aj takes a bend slightly downwards (Plate xi. 



184 DEVELOPMENT OF THE WING-VENATION OF ODOyATA, 

fig.5) SO as to meet Cuo just at its point of greatest curvature. 
Thus A. and Cu, between them, form two sides of a large trian- 
gular space, the suhtrimigle (st). One of the set of cross-veins 
developed transversely^ between Cuj.o and Aj now becomes 
specialised by slantwise lengthening, so as to run from the first 
bend of Cu^.^ towards the bend of Aj, and thus develops into a 
firm support for both bends, as the inner side of the suhtrimigle. 
In Austrocordulia, owing to the small amount of transverse 
elongation of the triangle, st is rather small, and consists of one 
strongly-formed triangular cell. But in Synthemis, owing to 
further transverse elongation of the triangle, st has increased 
very much in area. Hence is developed the system of support- 
ing cross-veins, which divides the subtriangle into three cells, 
and which persists throughout the rest of the phylogenetic series 
with only slight variations. 

Stage 4 {Eucorduliini and Libellulince) shows very little ad- 
vance from Synthemis. The growth of Ai is stronger, the bend 
much sharper (approaching a right angle), the subtriangle larger 
and more strongly formed, but essentially of the same structure 
(Fig.llA). It tends, however, to become yb?*r-5io?eo? through a 
second bending of A^, and at this same point A^ gives off a fairly 
strong branch, which runs at first considerably basad, then bends 
completely round, and finally runs distad to meet Aj itself after 
its "break-back" from Cu.j. Thus there is formed a small and 
complete " anal loop," represented in the imaginal venation by 
two strong supporting cells lying under st. 

In Plate xi., fig.L^, the very interesting forewing of Cordule- 
phya nymph is figured. It shows several peculiarities. Ac runs 
very slantingly, parallel to the basal side of the triangle. The 
bridge-vein is extremely well developed. The postnodal area 
of the wing is excessively shortened, and the tip of the wing is 
formed irregularly, as if a small part of the margin had been 
broken off. Tins last peculiarity is to be seen also in Hemicor- 
dulia, and probably in other Eucorduliini, while the shorten- 
ing of the postnodal area is also noticeable in this group. These 
are two further links in the chain of evidence which binds Cor- 
dulephya to the Eucorduliini. 



BY R. J. TILLYARD. 185 

In Sipitheinis, the hindwing of the larva outgrows tlic forcwing 
very iiiucli more than in other genera. This may be due to the 
diverging position of the wing-cases, which do not He parallel 
along the back of the insect, but resemble those of Cordulegaster. 
Such a position must be regarded as a speciaHsation connected 
with the form and habits of the larvie. In a nearly full-grown 
nymph of *S'. macrostignia, T found the forewing to be oidi/ slightly 
more than half a.s long as the hind wing. 

Having now completed the study of the anal loop, let us turn 
our attention to the Gomphime, where no loop is formed, and 
study the anal area there. The only genus available to me was 
Austrogomphjis. There are, however, two distinct typ^s of larvae 
included in this genus. A. ochi^aceus hJelys, and A. hete^'oclitus 
Selys, represent these two types. As will be seen from Figs. 15- 
16, the tracheation of the anal region shows considerable differ- 
ences in the two types. 

In ^. ochraceus {Fig.lD), the anal trachea, at the end of Ac, 
branches into three. The branch running basad is A^, and from 
it the secondary anal vein A' is developed as a bridge- vein. The 
branch descending directly from Ac is almost certainly A.,, since 
it forms the distal side of the anal triangle in the male. The 
branch running distad represents A^,.,, but does not reach Cu.^ at 
any point. This branch divides into two rather low down. 
These two branches inay be A., and Aj respectively, but their 
determination is doubtful. 

In A. heteroclitus (Fig 16), the anal trachea, at the end of Ac, 
branches as usual into two. 'I'he branch running basad is A3.4. 
A;; descends from A4 somewhat basad from Ac, and forms the 
distal side of the anal triangle of the male. This distal side is 
strotigly bent in the imago (Fig. 18), and slants away from the 
anal vein, instead of descending perpendicularly to it as in A. 
ochraceus. The branch running distad from Ac is Aj.o. At first 
it curves downwards parallel to Cu.^. It then gives off a strong 
branch descendin^^ straight to the wing-border; tiiis is almost 
certainly A2. From the point of origin of A.^, the more distal 
branch Aj bends again towards (.'Uo; but, having britlged only 
half the distance separating it from Cu2, it again turns rather 



186 DEVELOPMENT OF THE WING-VENATION OF ODONATA. 



sharply downwards, and runs to the wing-border. A small 
trachea from Cuo meets it a little below this final bend (Fig. 16, 
and Plate xi., fig. 12). 




Fig. 15. 



Fig. 17. 





Fi-.16. 



Fig. 18. 



Fig. 15. — Austrogomphus ochraceus Selys^^Jt. Tracheation of a nymphal 

hindwing, not quite full-grown. (Lily Vale, N.S.W.; Feb., 1914). 
Fig. 16. — Hemigowphus heteroditus Seh's,^. Tracheation of full-grown 

nymphal hindwing. (Stanwell Park, N.S.W.; Feb., 1914). 
Fig. 17. — Auslrogomphns ochraceus tSel3's,^. Portion of imagiual venation 

of hindwing. (Heat)icote; Nov., 1911). 
Fig. 18. — Hemigomphua IiPleroclitiLS Selys,^. Portion of imaginal venation 

of hindwing. (Heathcote; Nov., 1911). 

We see from this that the anal trachea is more primitive in 
the GomphiiLce than in the groups already discussed, in so far as 



BY R. J. TILLYARD. 



187 



Aj does not at any point reach Ciio or fuse witli it. Hence no 

anal loop comparable to that in the J'Jschnincf. or Lihelhdidff can 

be formed. In this connection, it is to be hoped that the anal 

tracheation of such forms as //aiye?*^**' (Fig. 19) will l)e worked 

out by those who have access to them. The small loop there 

formed may quite probably be enclosed between Aj.o as the upper 

part of its basal side, Aj as the lower part of its l)asal side, Cuo as 

the upper part of its distal side, 

and the small branch-trachea 

from Cu2 (shown in A. hetei^o- 

clit.ns) completing its distal side 

lower down and joining Aj. In 

that case, the correct notation 

for the wing-veins will be that 

given in Fig.l9. The "anal 

loop" of Hagenius, under these 

circumstances, is not homologous, 

in any sense, with the anal loops 

of the other groups, but is niore^'g-'^--^«-^«'»"^^^^^'^'^^^^^^^''S^^>'«'^^ 

» ,1 , p 1, • 1 Portion of imasinal hindwing-vena- 

ot the nature or a subtriangle. 




Fig. 19. 



tion, with suggested notation for 
the descending branches of the anal 
vein (not yet confirmed by analysis 
of nymphal wing). From a speci- 
men sent by K. B. Williamson, 
Bluffton, Indiana, U.S.A. 



The point cannot, however, be 
settled without a study of the 
larval wing-tracheation. 

If my interpretation of the 
branchings of A in the Gomphinoi 
be correct, Needham's notation for that subfamily will need 
altering. In his figure for Gomphus descriptus (Joe. cit., p. 708), 
A;j and Ao remain as indicated, but the vein labelled Aj must be 
altered to Cug,, ( = proximal branching of Cu.,). His figure on 
p. 7 07 also shows that this is so. Probably A^ forms the greater 
part of the weak zigzag vein descending between Ao and Cuo,„ 
and arising from A 2 one cell below the subtriangle. 

It is very necessary that other genera of Gomphina' should be 
studied in this manner. A satisfactory classification of this sub- 
family has not yet been attained, but a study of the larval wing- 
tracheation would go far towards establishing it, and would, in 
any case, reveal any hidden convergences which may be lurking 



188 DEVELOPMENT OF THE WING-VENATION OF ODONATA, 

to catch the systematist who pins his faith to imaginal wing- 
venation only. That such may be reasonably expected to occur, 
will be seen by perusing Section l> of this part, in which a most 
unexpected and extraordinarily well hidden convergence is 
brought to light in the Agrionidcf. 

To return to Austrogomphus^ it is now necessary to propose a 
subdivision of this genus into two, as follows : — 

(1.) Distal side of anal triangle in the male descending per- 
pendicularly from Ac (Fig. 17). Larva with flattened abdomen, 
four-jointed antennae only moderately swollen, and rectal tracheal 
gills without papillae. Larva lives in trash in running streams. 
Genus Austrogomphus. 

Type, Austrogomphus guerini Ramb. 

This genus includes, most probably, all the species at present 
grouped under the name Austrogomphus, except the three 
separated out below. 

(2.) Distal side of anal triangle in the male descending from A' 
before the level of Ac, and running in a slanting curve away 
from it(Fig.l8). [.arva with rounded abdomen, four-jointed 
antennje (in which the third joint is greatly swollen and rounded, 
while the fourth joint is practically obsolete), and rectal tracheal 
gills with numerous papillte. Larva lives completely buried in 
clean sand in running streams. 

Genus Hemigomphus Selys (re-defined*). 

Type, Austrogomphus heteroclitus Selys. 

This genus, w^hich corresponds to the second division of de 
Selys' suppressed genus IIemigom,phus, includes only three species, 
viz., A. heteroclit'tis Selys, A. comitatus Tillyard, and A. armiger 
Tillyard. 

Hemigomphus is, almost certainly, an offshoot from the Palae- 
arctic Onychogomphus-growp, with which it agrees in the form 
of its larval antennae and rectal gills. It has, however, suffered 

* The generic iiaine Heniigomphtts was intro<Uiced by de 8elys (type H. 
heteroclitus), but suppressed bj' R. Martin owing to the ver\' slight diflFer- 
ences between it and Austroyomphus. The new definition of the genus 
iiere given, however, establishes it on a firm footing. 



BY R. J. TILLYARD. 



189 



considerable reduction during its migration eastwards. Tt may, 
in fact, be considered as very probably a specialised offshoot from 
the Oriental genus Burmagomphns^ and its arrival in Australia 
is almost certainly much more recent than that of Ausfrofjomjyhus, 
s.str. As for the latter, its origin seems lost in the mists of 
antiquity, since no other Goniphiiice are, so far, known in whicli 
the larval rectal gills have not developed papilla'. Both genera 
must hav^e entered Australia from the North-West by way of 
Timor, since no Gomphiruc occur in the Papuan subregion. 

Needham's supposition, that Aj may possibly be aborted in 
the Gomphinff, seems to me to be unlikely. For, in the more 
primitive forms, it is just this particular branch of A which 
shows the greatest development. It seems rather that we have 
to do with forms in which Ao is very poorly developed, this being 
due to the fact that the failure of A^ to reach Cii., left only a 
very small area between A3 and Aj, for Ag to supply. 

Having now followed the development of the anal trachea in 
both fore and hind wings through all its phylogeiietic stages, we 
may conclude this section by giving a table of the principal 
differences between the Comstock-Needham notation and the new 
notation here adopted : — 



Main longitudinal veins at base 
of wing : — 

First 

Second 

Third 

Fourth 

Fifth 

First eubito-anal cross-vein ^ 
( = Anal-crossing) j 

Anal loop of uEschnince : — 

Basal side 

Distal side 

Italian loop of Liheilulidcp : — 

Basal side 

Midrib 

Distal side 

Sole of foot 



Corns tock-Need ham 
Notation. 



C 
Sc 

R + M 
Cu 
A 

(>nq{Kis) 



A„ 

a; 

AjiRis) 
A„(Ri8) 
A[(Ris) 
9 



New Notation. 



C 

Sc 
R + M 

Cu + A 
A' 

Ac 



A, 
Ai 

A, 

Cusp! 

Cu, 

CUi!,, 



Note on the so-called ^^ First Postcubital ." — In Plate xi., fig. 3, 
I have shown the tracheation of the hind^ving of the nymph of 



16 



190 DEVELOPMENT OF THE WING-VENATION OF ODONATA, 

DendrocBschna conspersa Tillyard, the only nymph so far studied 
of an jEschiiine with reticulated basilar space. This shows the 
interesting fact that the anal-crossing Ac is not the first post- 
cubital cross-vein, but the second, since there is one cross-vein 
developed between it and the base. In the imaginal wing, at 
first sight, the whole series of four (sometimes five) postcubitals 
appears very similar, except that the last is placed slantwise to 
form a weak subtriangle. But a little examination shows us that 
the second postcubital is also slightly bent, and very slightly 
thicker than the others. The reduction in strength from the 
strong trachea Ac to the weak cross-vein is, of course, exactly on 
a level with the formation of the " oblique vein " treated of in 
the next section of this paper. But here, the obliquity of the 
trachea was never very great, and is practically lost in the 
imaginal cross-vein. 

We see from this how very inconvenient, and even incorrect, 
the term " first cubito-anal cross-vein " may become. It should 
certainly be done away with once and for all, and the term 
" anal-crossing" (Ac) be substituted. In the closely veined 
species of jEschnince, there should never be any difficulty in pick- 
ing Ac out, since it is always the cross- vein lying slightly distad 
from the distal side of the anal triangle of the male. Hence, in 
Basiceschna and Boyei^ia, for instance, it is actually the first 
cross-vein, in spite of their archaic reticulation. 

Section B. — The occurrence of a hridge-vein in Zygoptera. 

Needham states that a true bridge-vein is not formed in any 
of the Zygoptera except the Lestince. In that subfamily (Plate 
xii., figs. 3-4), it is very easily discovered in the nymphal wing, 
and agrees entirely in its form with the bridge-vein of Anisoptera, 
except for its greater length. In the imaginal wing (Plate xii., 
fig. 4), it carries lis backwards in a straight line, to attach to 
Mi.2 very slightly distad from the origin of M3. 

The occurrence of this bridge-vein in the Lestince must be of 
very great phylogenetic importance, since it almost certainly 
indicates a separate line of descent for that subfamily, as com- 
pared with the non-bridgeveined Zygoptei^a. We should, there- 
fore, search carefully for any evidence still existing as to what 



BY R. J. TILLYARD. 191 

this line of descent was like, and also try to discover whether 
any other Zygoptera exhibit a bridge-vein. 

Now in the very remarkable dragonfly, Epiophlehia superstes 
Selys, whose wings are figured by Needham {loc. cit., Plate xli., 
fig. 3), a typically Lestine bridge, with clearly indicated oblique 
vein, can easily be made out; and will, I feel sure, readily be 
recognised and accepted by all students of Odonata without 
requiring corroborative evidence from the larval wing, which 
will probably never be found, even if the dragonfly be not already 
extinct. The remarkable and isolated wing-type shown by Epio- 
phlehia has so many points of Lestine affinity, that it may well 
be claimed to lie on the direct line of descent of that genus. The 
chief difference lies in the much greater reduction of the Lestine 
wing, and the departure of M2 from M^ far distad from the sub- 
nodus. The latter is, however, a characteristic of all highly 
reduced Zyyopterid wings, and must be considered as a specialisa- 
tion brought about by the shifting of the nodus basad. The 
trachea M., need not follow the subnodus towards the base, since 
it is not really connected in any way whatever with either Sc or 
R, and its function is to supply the middle portion of the apical 
part of the developing wing. The genus Archilestes shows an 
intermediate position of Mg. 

In quite another direction, Epiophlehia shows strong relation- 
ship to the Anisoptera, particularly to the Gomphince. In the 
larger Gomphince, the oblique vein is placed about as far distad 
from the subnodus as it is in Epiophlehia, and the bridge itself 
is almost, if not quite, as long. Furthermore, in both, M., de 
scends from the subnodus, and there are two thickened anasto- 
mosing antenodals of flat triangular form. Finally, apart from 
its wing-venation, Epiophlehia is characteristically Gomphine in 
the short build of its body-parts, in the large size and closeness 
af the eyes in the male, and its archaic bicolorous {hylochrome) 
colour-pattern. 

We stand here, in fact, almost on the verge of the first dicho- 
tomy between Anisopterid and Zygopterid forms. It needs but 
a single cross-vein inserted into the quadrilateral of thehindwing 
oi Epiophlehia to turn that cell into a weak " supertriangle -f- 



192 DEVELOPMENT OF THE WING-VENATION OF ODONATA, 

triangle " of early Anisopterid type. The greater breadth of the 
hind wing is, in itself, evidence of a descent from Anisopterous 
ancestors; while the fact, that the forewing-qiiadrilateral is 
already of Lestine form, strongly suggests that the latter group 
are highly reduced descendants of an originally weakly-triangled 
Anisopterous stock. In that case, the sharply acute distal angle 
of the quadrilateral is the last remaining piece of evidence of the 
originally present triangle. It does not follow, of course, that 
any of the Zygoptera which possess fairly regular quadrilaterals 
were descended from similar ancestors; in fact, the regularity of 
the quadrilateral is an almost certain sign that all these forms 
branched off as reduced members from the main stock long before 
the first beginnings of the formation of the A nisopterid triangle. 
On this view, the Calopterygidce and their more highly reduced 
descendants, such as the Podagrioniiii, are a far more archaic stock 
than the Epiophlehia-Lestes line, which has a truly Anisopterous 
ancestry. As regards the acutely-angled quadrilateral of the 
Agrionini, we should hesitate to describe that also as the result 
of a reduction from an early Anisopterous form, since we have, 
at present, no other evidence in favour of that view, and a good 
deal against it. It is probably much more truly a specialisation 
of an originally regular quadrilateral. 

To turn now to our second point - can we indicate any other 
Zygopterous forms which possess a bridge and oblique vein ? A 
search through the whole series of known imaginal wings will 
not reveal a single case with certainty; hence we must turn to 
the study of the larval wing. Now there is, in Australia, a 
genus (Synlestes) which is usually placed in the Podagrionini 
with Argiolestes and its allies. I have, for years, been struck by 
the similarity in habits, appearance, and, in particular, larval 
form, between Synlestes and Lestes, and also by the wide diver- 
gence in all points (except wing-venation) between Syiilestes and 
Argiolestes. I, therefore, expected that the similarity in wing- 
venation between these two latter genera must be due to con- 
vergence. This year, I obtained nearly full-fed larvae of Sy7ilestes 
weyersi, Argiolestes griseus, and A. icte7'omelas, and photographed 
the larval wings. The result was even more astonishing than I 



BY R. J. TILLYARD. 193 

had expected, as will be seen by comparing Plate xii., figs. 5-8, 
also Plate xiii., figs. 2-3. While Argiolestes shows a typical 
Zygopterid tracheation, with no sign whatever of either bridge 
01' oblique vein, Synlestes exliibits a very long bridge, which 
would have appeared as of typical Lestine form, had it not 
become very cleverly masked, in the imago, by becoming hitched 
on to Mo close to its origin, instead of joining up to M1.2 in the 
usual manner. Also, it is very remarkable to see that, in spite 
of the excessive obliquity of trachea Rs at its crossing from Mo, 
the corresponding cross-vein in the imago is so little oblique in 
direction (Plate xii., fig.6,0) that nobody would notice it at all 
unless he had the larval wing to guide him. In fact, from my 
long series of Synlestes iveyersi, I can select a fair number of 
specimens in which the obliquity of this vein is completely lost. 
To such unprecedented lengths, then, can convergences go, in 
the formation of apparently similar and closely allied types of 
imaginal wing- venation, that we can now lay down only one safe 
rule for the study of the phylogeny of the Zygopt^ra; that is — 
Never he sure of the homologies of the parts., in any genus oj 
Zygopteva., until you have studied the tracheation of the larval 
tvi7ig. 

Having thus shown that Synlestes has no real atiinit}^ to the 
Podagrionini, towards which group it is a pure and very cleverly 
masked convergence, Ave must next enquire whether any other 
genera, now^ included in that tribe, ought to be taken out and 
placed with Synlestes. To this, bearing in mind the rule I have 
just laid down, we must give a very guarded reply. Without 
having seen even the insect itself, and simply from the photo- 
graphs of wing-venation sent to me by my friend. Dr. F. Ris, I 
am able to state my a ery strong conviction that the genus Chlo- 
rolestes will be found, when its larval wings are examined, to 
possess a l>ridge and oblique vein of exactly similar form to those 
of Synlestes. In the imaginal wing, the oblique vein can be 
detected some four to six cells distad from the bifurcation of 
M2 from Mj, much more clearly than it can be usually seen in 
Synlestes itself. Chlorolestes, like Synlestes, has the distal angle 
of its quadiilateral very acute, and Cuj in both genera arches 
strongly upward away from Cu.j. 



194 DEVELOPMENT OF THE WING-VENATION OF ObONATA, 



In the fossil genus, Heterophlebia, about which unfortunately 
very little is known, there is an attachment of what is probably 
a long bridge-vein to M.. in the manner of Synlestes. It is quite 
probable that this fossil stands in somewhat the same relation- 
ship to Synlestes that Epiophlehia does to Lestes. A careful 
study of the hindwing-quadrilateral of Heterophlebia should go 
far towards completing the proof of the Anisoptey^ous ancestry of 
this group. 

It will be seen that the above study affords us a very satis- 
factory point from which to start on an entirely new classifica- 
tion of the Zygoptera. This will be somewhat more fully dealt 
with in the next section. 

Section C. — The yeneral tracheation of the larval iving in 
Zygoptera, and its homologies with that of the Anisoptera. 

I have already indicated that my study of the general trachea- 
tion in Zygoptera is necessarily incomplete, since it is confined 
to the Agrionid(je. However, in that family I have been able to 
obtain and study a large number of different genera, a list of 
which is here given : — 



Tribe. 


Genus. 


Species. 


Synlestini 


Synlestes 


S. iveyersi Selys. 


Lestini 


Austrolestes 


A. cingulatus Burm 
\ A . psyche Selys. 
l^. leda Selys. 


Podagrio7iini 


A rgiolestes 


iA. icteromelas Selys. 
\A. griseus Selys. 






Protoneurini 


Neosticta 


N. canescens Tillyard. 




Isosticta 


/. simplex Martin. 


Agrionini 


Ischnura 


(I. heterosticta Burm. 
\/. aurora Br. 








Argiocnemis 


A. ruhescens Selys. 




Caliagrion 


C. billing hursti Martin. 




Austroagrion 


A. cyane Selys. 



The list thus comprises nine genera, selected fram five tribes, 
and represents practically all the Agrionid larvae obtainable 
within one hundred miles of Sydney. Several of them, indeed, 
are very rare, and only to be obtained by thorough searching of 
special localities. 



BY R. J. TILLYARD. l95 

In carrying out this research, one of the principal difficulties 
was found to be the extreme thinness of the wing-cases, through 
which the slightest pressure served to disarrange the tracheae. 
Many specimens were spoilt through this. The plan which I 
finally adopted was to dissect ofi" the two wings of one side 
together, under water, with a fairly large portion of the pleural 
attachment; then, to separate the two wings by a sharp cut in 
the plane of the wiyig-case, not transverse to it, so as to cut the 
attachment in halves without exerting any pressure on the wing- 
cases themselves; and, finally, to fioat each wing out separately 
on to a slide with plenty of water, let down a cover-glass gently 
on to it, and photograph it while still in the water. If desired, 
the attachment can be cut completely away in order to obtain a 
planer surface for focussing; but as this usually pulls the delicate 
anal trachea away from its attachment to Cu, it should only be 
done for enlarged studies of other parts of the tracheation, as 
for instance, the studies of the bridge (Section B, above). 

Another great difficulty is the fact that some larvae have very 
hairy wing-cases, while many have them very deeply pigmented. 
The wing-cases of Argiolestes are very hairy and rather thick; 
those of Isosticta nearly always jet black. Some ingenuity is 
required in manipulating these insects. Remembering that the 
dark colour of these larvae is mainly due to their being bottom- 
dwellers, I placed some Argiolestes and Isosticta larvae in a jar 
with a mass of water-weed alone, no sandy bottom being sup- 
plied. After wandering round the glass bottom for some time, 
most of the larvae took to the water-weed, on which they rested 
clumsily with outspread legs (showing their inability to cling 
closely in the way that habitual weed-dwellers do). One Argio- 
lestes and several Isosticta larvae went through an ecdysis in this 
position; and instead of rapidly darkening, as they usually do, 
remained pale brownish for many days, showing even a tinge of 
green also. This was what I expected. From these larvae, I 
obtained very fair photographic results, from which the diagrams 
(Plate xii., figs.7, 11) have been taken. I also obtained a photo- 
graph of an Isosticta larval wing soon after ecdysis, and was 
interested to notice that all the imaginal wing-venation showed 



196 DEVELOPMENT OF THE WING-VENATION OF ODONATA, 

up white and unpigmented, with large patches of black pigment 
in each separate cell. 

For our general study, I will now select the lai'gest as well as 
the palest of all the larvaj examined, that of Caliayrion billiity- 
hursti Martin. This very beautiful larva is of a bright green 
colour, and its wings are pigmented uniformly and lightly all 
over. I was, unfortunately, unable to study any of the earlier 
stages of this or any other larva, owing to the lateness of the 
season when I first started (September). A complete study of 
the Caliayrion nymph will, I hope, be undertaken next season, 
with a view to determining the ontogenetic development of Rs. 

A very clear photograph of the complete hindiviny is given in 
Plate xi., fig. 14, while Fig. 1 of Plate xiii., gives a much more 
highly magnified photograph of the most important parts. From 
these and from the diagram in Plate xii., fig.l, it will be seen 
that, in Caliayrion, as in all the Anisoptera, trachea A fuses with 
Cu as far as the anal crossing (Ac). This can also be seen very 
clearly in Anstrolestes, less clearly in ISynlestes; while, in the 
smaller species, it is often very ditiicult to detect any trace of A 
at all. This is especially the case with the p7-oioneurini, JVeo- 
sticta, and Isosticta, in which the whole anal trachea seems to be 
quite aborted, except that, in one or two specimens, I have 
detected a very fine and short basal portion which fails to reach 
Cu. However, in all cases Ac can be detected, though not with- 
out careful searching in the case of the most reduced forms. 

From this, we must conclude that the anal trachea of the 
Zygopterid nymphal wing behaves in the same manner as the 
coi'responding trachea in Anisoptera. Hence, as far as A' and 
Ac are concerned, the new notation applies to all Odonata. 

The next point is a very startling one, viz., that, in Caliayrion, 
the anal trachea at the distal end of Ac becomes four-branched, 
just as it does in Atdsoptei^a (VlsLte xii., fig.l). The branch A, 
runs basad for a short distance, and along and beyond its course 
the future secondary anal vein A' of the imaginal wing is clearly 
marked out as a pale band. A;, and A ^ arise close together under 
Ac, and run slightly divergingly downwards to supply a quite 
/airly large a7ial area below. At metamorphosis, these two 



BY R. J. TiLLYARD. 197 

trachea?, and the area whicli they supply, are completelv lost, the 
petiolation of the iinaginal wing cutting out all the area below 
Ac, and making A' itself form the hind border of the winir from 
the base up to Ac. Finally, A^ runs distad as a fine trachea 
towards Cu.,, but fails to reach more than half-way towards it. 
It is then continued, in the imaginal venation, by a white band 
(Ab), which runs on to join the first small descending trachea 
from Cu.^(Cu.3i. The vein developed from this white band mav 
be conveniently termed the anal hridfje ( Al)). 

There is only one interpretation to be given to all this, viz., 
that (Jaliayrion is a reduced descendant from an original ancestor 
fvhich had a fairly broad anal area supplied by a icell developed 
four-branched anal trachea. Also, since a difference in the width 
of this anal area, and in the amount of development of the four 
branches of A, is still easily to be detected in the fore and hind 
wings of the Caliayrion nymph, we must go further, and state 
that this ancestor was of an Anisopterous type; not, of course, 
necessarily wath triangles developed, but most certainly with 
hindwings broader than forewings. 

Farther proof of this interesting point can be obtained by 
studying the formation of the imaginal venation in the nympli of 
Calingrion. The oiiginal posterior border of the wing is formed 
at first, in the usual manner, as a pale band running far pos- 
teriorly to Ac, towards which the remnants of two descend- 
ing veins can still be seen developing as thin white bands along 
A., and A3 resi^ectively. Further, the white bands which descend 
from Cuo to the posterior border, are not only strong and clearly 
to be seen, but they are of great length comjjared with their 
remnants in the imago. In fact, the wdiole of this portion of the 
wing is constrained to pass through, in its ontogenetic de^■elolJ- 
meut, the past phylogenetic stages of its ancestry, before arri\ing 
at its pr esent highly specialised petiolate form. Just in this case, 
the application of the Biogenetic Law of Haeckel seems \ery 
complete and exact. 

As metamorphosis approaches, the wing-rudiment becomes 
drawn away, along its posterior margin, from the edge of the 
wing-case; it shrinks in rapidly, but more especially towards the 



198 DEVELOPMENT OF THE WING-VENATIOX OF ODONATA, 

base, where it finally coalesces with A' from the base to Ac. 
Beyond Ac, it takes a slanting direction from Ac towards Cuob, 
which is now only about half its original length; all the other 
subcubital cross-veins becoming similarly shortened. A similar, 
but less intense narrowing also takes place along the costal 
border. As a result, the base of the wing becomes quickly 
narrowed to less than half its former width, and, in this shape, 
it is withdrawn from the wing-case at metamorphosis. The ex- 
pansion Avhich follows mainly affects the " blade " of the wing, 
the petiolate stalk undergoing a comparatively small lengthening. 

A further point of interest in Zyyopterid wings is the develop- 
ment of Cu. In all Zygopterid wings, there is very little curving 
of this trachea. In some cases (as in Caliagrio7i), Cug contiimes 
the line of Cui.2, while, in others, it is about as much curved as 
Cuj, but, of course, in an opposite direction (see Synlestes, Plate 
xii., fig. 5). In every case, Cus is less strongly developed than 
Cui, the latter being a very strong and almost straight trachea. 
In the Protoneurioii, Cu^ undergoes a gradual reduction, until, in 
the most asthenogenetic forms (Plate xii., figs. 9-1 2), it is seen to 
be only a very short trachea terminating somewhere about the 
level of the origin of M. from Mj..^. Its length varies very much 
in the different genera. In many genera, Cuo is completely sup- 
pressed, and Cu then appears as a short, unforked trachea, 
slightly bent downwards under the arculus. In such forms, it is 
not surprising to observe the complete disappearance of trachea 
A, except perhaps for a minute basal portion not easily observed: 
since the asthenogenetic tendency must affect A before it can 
touch Cu. 

These highly specialised Proto7ieurini are, without doubt, from 
the point of view of the reduction of their tracheal system, the 
most advanced members of that very prolific and successful 
phylogenetic line, which probably includes, in the form of numer- 
ous more or less successful side-branches, the whole mass of the 
CalopterygidfP.^ and also all the AgrionidcK possessing regular 
quadrilaterals. 

Let us now pass to the question of the origion of Rs in Zyyop- 
tera. In all except one of the forms so far examined, no connec- 



BY R. J. TILLYARD. l99 

tion can be detected between Rs and R, but Rs in all these cases 
appears as a branch of M. It can generally be detected by its 
peculiar method of parting from M, which is at a considerably 
greater angle than that made by a true branch of M, such as 
Mg (Plate xii., fig.l). This distinct curve in Rs, on leaving M, 
is most probably due to the original manner in which it cut 
across and under Mj and M.^, before it became permanently 
hitched on to Mi.o. As Needham has justly observed, there can 
be no difficulty in understanding this cutting-off of Rs from R, 
and its subsequent permanent attachment to M. For with the 
setting-in of the asthenogenetic process, and the consecjuent nar. 
rowing of the wing-rudiment in width, any difference of level 
which originally existed between M and R (and the fact that Rs 
still passes undey^ Mj.^ in Anisoptera shows that there was once a 
difference in the level) must inevitably become lessened. Thus 
the trachea Rs must gradually become pressed near its base by 
the stronger overlying M1.2, and if it could not effect a union with 
the latter by the abortion of its original base, it would inevitably 
perish for lack of oxygen. 

Let us now examine the condition seen in the Protoneurini. 
The arrangement of tracheae in the region below the nodus seems 
to be the same in Isosticta (Plate xii., figs. 11-12) as it is in Cali- 
agrion. Two tracheae branch off from Mj.o close together. One 
would naturally suppose that the more proximal of these is M3, 
and the more distal is Rs, as labelled in the plate (with a query). 
But if we turn to the closely allied genus Neosticta (Plate xii., 
figs. 9-10), we find Rs actually descending from R below the 
nodus, and crossing both M1.2 and Mo. Having done so, it runs 
along only for a very short distance, and then ends up; so that 
the rest of the imaginal vein Rs is not found about a trachea at 
all. 

It seems very probable that we have, in Neosticta, the condition 
described above, viz., that Rs has failed to coiniect basally on to 
M, and is in process of perishing for lack of oxygen, owing to 
pressure from the overlying branches of M. If this is really so, 
then we might well consider that Isosticta shows the next step 
in advance, viz., that Rs has attained a basal fusion with M, 



200 DEVELOPMENT OF THE WING-VENATION OF ODONATA, 

and hence gets a plentiful supply of oxygen, and grows to its 
full length. In tiiat case, we must transpose the lettering in 
the plate, and name the more proximal trachea Ks. 

If we accept the above solution, the ProtoiiPAirini (so far as 
known) will differ from all other Agrioiiidce in having Rs crossed 
under three branches of the nodus instead of two. The question, 
however, should not be regarded as finally settled, since it is only 
fair to point out that the wing of Neosticta is so highly pigmented, 
and the trachea Rs so faintly indicated, that I may have made a 
mistake in my interpretation of its course. In Plate xiii., fig. 4, 
I give the actual photograph itself, but I may add that the wing 
itself, Avhen first examined, was somewhat clearer than the photo- 
graph, and gave me a distinct impression of Rs crossing under 
Mo as well as Mj.o. The point can only be finally settled by 
further investigations, if possible on Jarvse fresh from an ecdysis, 
at a time when pigmentation is less dense. 

Concerning the rest of the Zygopterid nymphal wing, there is 
very little of interest. The arculus is formed exactly as in 
Anisoptera by M descending from R, but the supporting vein 
formed underneath it, and completing it, also forms, of course, 
the basal or proximal side of the quadrilateral. The distal side 
of this latter is another cross-vein connecting Mj with Cu at its 
point of bifurcation. The subcosta is a very weak trachea, and 
takes very little part in forming the nodus, which is here con- 
structed from a small thick trachea arising from R, but princi- 
pally by a simple vein, devoid of trache?e, and blocked off by a 
huge mass of pigment proximally. This formation is an astheno- 
genetic specialisation derived from the older method shown in 
Anisojitera (where Sc plays the principal part), and is due to the 
weakening of tSc, caused by the narrowing of the wing. 

All the wings studied under the tribe Agrionini agree with 
Galiagrion in all essential particulars, except that Ac and its 
branches are not so clearly to be seen as in the larger larva. The 
distribution of trachea? in Argiolestes is also essentially similar to 
that in Caliagrion, the chief difference being that, in the latter, 
all trachcc^ run nearl}^ parallel or slightly converging, while in 
the former, the wing being broader apically, they tend to diverge 



BY R. J. TILLYARD. 201 

and allow of tlie introduction of short supplementary sectors 
(Plate xii., fig. 7). As in Anisoptfira, forewings can be distin- 
guished from hindwings easily by the fact that they are only 
heavily pigmented from the costal border to Mj. All the rest of 
the wing, being covered by the hindwing, is pale and very little 
pigmented. Tlie erect position of the wing-cases, seen in adult 
Zyyopterid larvie, is only assumed after the last ecdysis, at a 
pei-iod sliortly before the final metamorphosis. Anisopferaheh^wa 
in the same way, but the change is perhaps not so noticeable. 

For general study, forewings may be preferred to hindwings, 
since they yield much clearer photographs. But for the stud}^ 
of the anal trachea, the hindwing should be selected, since it is 
broader at tiie base, and shows the four-branched condition much 
more clearly. 

Much more remains to be done in the study of the nymphal 
wings of this interesting Suborder. The present rese'arch is 
only a bare beginning, on whicli, it is to be hoped, other investi- 
gators will be able to build. Particularly in the Calopterygidce 
must careful study be made of all possible nymphal wings; for it 
is just amongst these archaic end-twigs that we may expect to 
find the missing steps in the development of Rs across Mj and 
Mo, and in the reduction of the anal trachea. 

We may profitably conclude this section b}^ a short discussion 
on the question of the classification of the Suborder Zyyoptera. 

It becomes now more than ever apparent that the Selysian 
division into Calopterygidce and Agrioiiidce is quite untenable as 
a natural dichotomy. More than this, it is pretty clear also that 
the Zyyoptera are not, like the Anisoptera, derived from any 
original pure line of descent. Triangle-formation most certainly 
only started once; and, however far back new fossil discoveries 
may take us as regards the first formation of the triangle, there 
can be no doubt about the origin of all Anisoptera from that 
single line of descent, which Palaeontology already places as far 
back as the Trias, and which probably began in the Permian 
period. Most of the Zyyoptera {cQvtdJinly a^W those with regular 
quadrilaterals) must have branched away from the Anisoptera- 
line before this. But who can tell how many separate branch- 



202 DEVELOPMENT OF THE WING-VENATIOX OF ODONATA, 

ings took place, even amongst this one portion of the Suborder ? 
The origin of the tribe Agrionini is doubtful, for their acute 
quadrilateral might yet be proved to be the reduced remnant of 
an originally weak Anisopterid triangle-formation. Finally, 
standing out clearly from all the rest as the most recent offshoot 
from the Anisopterid line, we see the EjnopJdehia-Synlestes-Lestes 
line of descent, which branched off from that line not very far 
from the beginnings of the GomphinfF, and whose sharply angu. 
lated quadrilateral is almost certainly an Anisopterid remnant. 

Were it not for the problematical position of the Agrionirii, 
which form the greater number of the Zygoptera, and must 
therefore, be satisfactorily placed in any classification that is to 
be of any use, we might see the dividing line in the form of the 
quadrilateral. Our two main groups would then be the Zygop- 
tera Rectangularia, with more or less regular quadrilateral, and 
the Zygoptera Acuta with the distal angle of the quadrilatera 
sharply acute. But this division is most probably scarcely less 
unnatural than the Selysian. It would, therefore, be unwise to 
press for its recognition as a natural basis for classification. On 
the other hand, just as the terms Calopterygidre and AgrionidcF, 
though indicating admittedly unnatural groups, do carry a certain 
value as the names of groups possessing a single character common 
to every member of each (at least, with few exceptions) — and 
are, therefore, of great value to students not very familiar with 
the intricacies of Odonate wing- venation— so also, I would urge 
a loose acceptance of the terms proposed, on the ground that 
they may prove of very great benefit in subsequent phylogenetic 
discussions. If that be recognised, then, for instance, whenever 
we mention the term Zygoptera Acuta, everyone will recognise 
that it refers to all Zygoptera with acute-angled quadrilaterals; 
and similarly for Zygoptera Rectangularia. 

The time is not yet ripe for making more than a beginning at 
the difficult problem in hand. That beginning I now make by 
selecting the Epiophlebia-Synlestes-Lestes line of descent as a 
single pure line, descending from the main Anisopterid stock at 
a later period than any of the other Zygoptera. These, I con- 
sider to be worthy of family-rank at least; hence I propose, for 



BY R. J. TILLYARD. 203 

them, the family-name Lestidcp., with the following definition and 
subdivisions : — 

Family Lestid^e. 
Quadrilaterals of all four wings, but especially of forewings, 
with their distal angle very acute. Rs leaving M., considerably 
distad from subnodus. A long bridge-vein developed backwards 
from Rs towards the bifurcation of M^.o from M.,. 

Excluding fossil forms, three subfamilies may now l)e proposed 
under the above heading : — 

/Bridge connecting with M^ o 1. 

I Bridge connecting with M„ 2. 

/'More than two antenodals, of which two are thickened. 
M.^ departing from snbnodus. Quadrilateral of hindwing 
much less acute than that of forewing. General facies 

of insect distinctly Gomphine in appearance 

Subfamily 1. Epiophhhiince. 

Ool}' two antenodals (rarely three). Slender petiolate wings. 
M„ departing more or less distad from nodus. General 

facies of normal Zygopterid form Subfamily 2. Lestince. 

'Only two antenodals (rarely three). Slender petiolate wings. 

M„ departing far distad from subnodus Subfamily 3. Synlestiiue. 

More robust forms with many antenodals 

[Fossils only . Subfamily Heterophhbiiiue]. 

Of these, the subfamily Bpiophlebiitice contains the single genus 
Epiophlehia Calveit {= Palceophlebia of Selys). The subfamily 
Heterophlebiiufc contains only the single fossil genus Hetero- 
phlehia, which has not yet been fully studied. The subfamil}^ 
SynlestincH contains the genus SynUstes, Chlorolestes, and pos- 
sibly other additions from the ranks of our present tribe Poday- 
rionini. The subfamily Lestinca remains exactly as at present 
recognised, with Archilestes as its most archaic genus (M^ fairly 
close to subnodus) and Aitstrolestes as its most reduced, and pi-o- 
bably most csenogenetic development. 

There can be little doubt that the tangle of forms left over, 
after the extraction of the homogeneous Lestidce, will eventually 
be unravelled by scientific treatment. But the problem calls for 
not months but years of research. The point of division must 
be looked for still in the behaviour of Rs, since there are pro- 
bably, in the Calopteiyyidce, a number of aichaic forms in which 



204 DEVELOPMENT OF THE WING-VENATION OF ODONATA, 

Rs never succeeded in getting under more than the first branch 
(Mj) of the median trachea. Forms like Diphlebia, which show 
a peculiar oblique vein under Mj far distal from the subnodus, 
need also a thorough investigation; since in such cases the vein, 
at present taken to be M,, may eventually prove to be none other 
than Rs itself. There, for the present, we must be content to 
stop, resting in the certaint}^ that the many forms of Calojjterygid 
larval wings will one day yield a wonderful harvest to tlie fortu- 
nate student who has a chance of investigating them. 

Part ii. 
The study of the source of the Oxygen-supply of the Wing-trachese. 

Section A.— Description of the tracheal system of the thorax. 
The tracheal system of the thorax can only be studied in Anisop- 
tera by means of very careful dissections, or by serial sections. 
Dissection is difficult, owing to the great thickness of the pleural 
ridges and their underlying muscles, in which it is very difficult 
to follow the course of the alar trunk. Eight larvae of ^Eschnida^ 
were dissected, but the complete result was obtained only by 
piecing together the separate points made out in diffiirent larv?e. 

The most satisfactory method of study is to select a Zyyopterid 
larva immediately after its final larval ecdysis, and study it 
directly, under a low power of the microscope. If a green or 3^ellow 
transparent larva be chosen (Lestes, Ischnura, or Caliagrion) and 
submitted to strong transmitted light, the whole tracheal system 
stands up clearly in black, against a background of transparent 
pale greenish or yellowish. 

The following description embodies the general results obtained 
for both Anisoptera and Zygoptera. 

In all the specimens examined, the great dorsal trunks pass 
into the thorax from the abdomen with an upward curving, and 
also distinctly converging towards one another. Thus they come 
to lie very close under the pleural ridges, and pass forwards and 
upwards to a point very nearly vertically above the second coxae, 
where they attain their maximum convergence, and are connected 
by the short stout thoracic anastomosis (T A) (a very short con- 
necting trachea from which two small diverging branches pass to 



BY R. J. TILLYARD. 



205 



the region of the closed posterior stif^mata). Beyond this, they 
diverge slightly, and pass close under, and a little to the inside 
of, the pair of larger and open anterior stigmata (Stj) which lie 
hidden in the fold between thorax and prothorax. 

Plr 




Fig. 20. 

Fig.20. — Austrolestes leda Selys, 9 . Diagram of tracheal system of 
thorax in full-grown nymph, viewed from right side. The left visceral 
trunk (VT) crosses over to become hitched on to the right second pedal 
trachea (P2), and a remnant (Vr) forms a small loop attached to the dorsal 
trunk (DT). The alar trunks (AT^, AT.^) arise from DT (anally), and end 
(costally ) on the second and third pedal tracheae (pg, Pa) respectively. The 
posterior stigma (Stg) is aborted, but its position is marked by tracheal 
branchlets. The two dorsal trunks (DT) are connected by a short trans- 
verse anastomosis (TA). For other letterings, see p.214. 

At a point not far removed from the thoracic anastomosis 
(slightly behind it in jEschnid^, in front of it in Agrionidce), 
each dorsal trachea gives off a strong branch to the second leg, 
the second pedal trachea (pg). This important trachea receives, 



17 



206 DEVELOPMENT OF THE WING-VENATION OF ODONATA, 

very close to its origin, the anterior termination of the visceral 
trunk from the opposite side of the body. That is to say, the 
two visceral trunks cross one another under the oesophagus, the 
right one passing over the left, and each connects with the second 
pedal trunk of the opposite side. These visceral tracheae lie well 
below the dorsal tracheae, and play no part in the development 
of the wings. 

At a point directly under the posterior part of the pleural 
ridge, not far from the point where the abdomen joins the thorax, 
each dorsal trunk gives off a short stout trachea, which enters 
the base of the corresponding hindwing-case at its anal end. 
This is the alar trunk of the hind wing. From it arise, in order, 
the anal, cubital, median, radial, subcostal, and costal tracheae of 
the wing-rudiment. This alar trunk is of greatest diameter at 
its point of origin from the dorsal trunk. As it proceeds costad, 
its diameter decreases. After giving off the six tracheae of the 
wing, it becomes a narrow, thread-like trachea. Its course 
through the wing-base is roughly semicircular. On leaving the 
wing, it runs downward and slightly forward, and finally enters 
the third pedal trachea (pa), at a point very close to the posterior 
stigma (Sto). This third pedal trachea is itself an offshoot ven- 
trally from the great dorsal trunk, and arises, in the ^schnidce^ 
not far from the alar trunk of the hindwing, which may be 
termed the second alar trunk. In the Agrionidce, owing to the 
greater obliquity of the thorax, it comes to lie very close under 
the origin of the^rs^ alar trunk. 

The Jirst alar trunk arises similarly to the second, from the 
main dorsal trunk. In the ^Eschnidce, and probably in all 
Anisoptera, this alar trunk lies very close to, and a little in front 
of, the second alar trunk. In the Agrionidce, it is separated 
from the latter by a greater space, and arises, as just mentioned, 
very nearly directly over the third pedal trachea (pg). In the 
Anisoptera, it is of somewhat smaller diameter anally than the 
second alar trunk; in the Zygoptera, almost of the same size as 
the latter. It passes into the forewing-base at its anal end, 
gives off the six main wing-tracheae in the order already named 
for the second alar trunk, makes a semicircular loop, gradually 



BY R. J. TILLYARD. 207 

decreases in diameter, and finally leaves the wing-base on its 
costal side as a fine thread-like trachea. It then runs downward 
a-nd forward to join the second j^edal trachea(ip^) somewhat below 
the point where the visceral trunk enters it. 

In all Odonata, the distance from the origin of the alar trunk 
to the point at which it gives off the anal wing-trachea (A) is 
very short; while the distance from the point at which the costal 
wing-trachea (C) is given off, to the point where the alar trunk 
■ends on the pedal trachea, is much longer, especially in Agrionidce. 
The diameter of each alar trunk is very much smaller at its end- 
ing on the pedal trachea than it is at its origin from the dorsal 
trunk. 

It seems, therefore, very evident that the oxygen-supply of the 
developing wing in Odonata is derived from the anal end of the 
alar trunk, being drawn from the main dorsal trunk, which 
receives its supply from the branchial basket in Anisoptera, or 
from the caudal gills in Zygoptera. This fact is, in my opinion, 
the cause of all the chief peculiarities of the Odonate wing, as 
will be shown in Section B of this part. 

The diagram in Fig. 20 shows a lateral view of the tracheation 
of the thorax in a larva of Austrolestes leda Selys, directly after 
the last larval ecdysis. The drawing was made under the camera- 
lucida by means of strong, artificial, transmitted light, in which 
all the tracheae appeared almost black on a pale yellowish-green 
ground. Making allowances for the greater obliquity of the 
thorax in the Zygoptera, the results of my dissections of ^Eschnid 
larvae agree very fairly closely with this diagram. I thought it 
advisable to publish the diagram of Austrolestes rather than of 
uEschna, because the former can be much more easily studied, and 
the complete result verified; while, in the latter, only repeated 
dissections enable one to piece the whole scheme together, and 
thereby invite the unwitting introduction of error. 

Section B. — General theory of the unique development of the 
Odonate wing -venation. 

We are now in a position to enunciate a theory concerning the 
unique peculiarities of the wing-venation of Odonata, in the 
following words. 



208 DEVELOPMENT OF THE WING-VENATION OF ODONATA, 

The peculiarities shown hy the winy-ve7iatio7i of Odonatd, as 
contrasted with that of other insects, are due primarily to the 
aquatic habits of the larvae; ivherehy, through the development of 
rectal or caudal breathing, the oxygen-supply of the developing 
wing is carried from the posterior end of the body, and enters the 
wing-base at its anal end. 

The effects of the peculiar formation of the alar trunk may be 
stated as follows. (l)The costal trachea (0) is in the most 
unfavourable position for receiving oxygen. As a matter of fact, 
it receives scarcely any, dwindles rapidly in size, and becomes a 
mere rudiment in the fully developed nymphal wing. 

(2) Next to C, the subcostal trachea (Sc) lies in the next most 
unfavourable position. It receives a certain amount of oxygen, 
but its development is weakened and curtailed, so that it only 
develops about half-way along the wing-rudiment. This fact, 
originally a source of weakness to the wing, has been seized upon 
by natural selection, and has been made a source of strength to 
the wing by the development of the unique formation known as 
the nodus at the end of Sc. 

(3) The radius (R) was originally the largest and longest trachea 
of the wing (as may be seen by comparing the Odonate wing with 
that of an Ascalaphid, an insect undoubtedly derived from the 
same stock as Odonata, before the larvae of the latter adopted an 
aquatic mode of life). Originally R arose at the extreme bend 
of 1 he alar trunk at some distance away from M, and thus held 
an excellent position for receiving the flow of gas from either 
costal or anal ends of AT. At first, it tends to develop ahead of 
the media (M), and at the ontogenetic period when both R and 
M appear as fair-sized bifurcated tracheae, R is still greater than 
M. 

(4) At this stage, M begins to gain on R, owing to its ability 
to intercept oxygen coming from the anal end of AT. Arising 
a little before the extreme bend of AT, M is in an exceptionally 
favourable position for competing with R for the flow of gas. As 
the wing develops, M begins to gain upon R, and finally moves 
up close to it, thus sharing with R the ideal position at the bend 
of AT, and receiving more oxygen than any other trachea in the 



BY R. J. TILLYARD, 209 

wing. Thus it develops into a four-branched trachea supplying 
a greater area of wing-rudiment than is supplied by any other 
trachea. 

It might here be accepted as sufficient explanation of the 
ultimate fusion of R and IM in the imago, that it was the direct 
outcome of the struggle for precedence between these two leading- 
tracheae of the wing. Certainly this played no inconsiderable 
part in the result. But there can be little doubt that another 
factor, viz , the gradual tendency towards the production of a 
narrower flying-wing from an originally broader planing-area^ 
helped to drive these two tracheae close together. The same 
tendency also most certainly played a part in the invasion of 
territory originally served by R, by one or more branches of M. 
Partly because of this gradual wing-narrowing, partly also 
because of the gain in development by M at the expense of R, 
we find the former throwing two of its four branches over Rs, so 
as to invade and supply the area between R^ and Rs. 

(5) The cubitus(Cu) was originally a much smaller trachea than 
either M or R. In a wing with a symmetrical oxygen-supply 
{i.e., a supply received equally from costal and anal ends of AT), 
Cu would develop about equally with Sc, its analogue on the 
costal side of the wing. But it lies in a more favourable position, 
in the Odonate wing, since it is closer to the anal oxygen-supply 
than any trachea except A itself. Hence it develops into a 
strong two-branched ^-rachea of greater importance than any 
except R and M. 

The weaker development of Cu (and A also) in the forewing is 
easily explained by the fact that the hind wing-case completely 
covers over this portion of the forewing. Thus, both Cu and A 
in the forewing are deprived of the light so necessary to the 
formation of strong pigmentation; and this must, in the end, 
have a deleterious effect on the development of this portion of 
the forewing. 

(6) The anal trachea (A) is only a small trachea, which could 
develop but little^ were it not for its extremely favourable posi- 
tion, enabling it to take first toll on the available oxygen-supply, 

18 



210 DEVELOPMENT OF THE WING-VENATION OF ODONATA, 

and thus to develop much more freely than its analogue (C) on 
the costal side of the wing. Hence, in the Odonate wing, it is 
enabled to become a four-branched trachea of considerable im- 
portance, particularly in the overlying hindwing. Also, it com- 
petes with Cu in the same manner that M competes with R; and 
hence arises the fusion of Cu and A already described in the 
imaginal wing. Of course, as in the case of R and M, the 
tendency towards narrowing also aids this result. 

This theory, then, founded on the facts now known concerning 
the origin of the alar trunk, is sufficient to account for all the 
peculiarities of the Odonate wing, provided we accept also the 
theory, already advanced by Handlirsch,* of the development of 
the present-day insect-wing from an original broad plmihig-area, 
only useful for accomplishing long downward ^^ vols planes,'^ and 
not for active flight. Probably nobody will now refuse to accept 
Handlirsch's theory, since it appears to be the only possible ex- 
planation of the development of any form of wing in Nature. It 
is not, however, the object of this Section to discuss Handlirsch's 
theory. We may safely claim it as a contributory cause to the 
peculiar development of the Odonate wing-venation, while, at the 
same time, indicating the anal" oxygen-supply as the primary 
cause of all those peculiarities. 

Let us now go back a little further, and inquire what evidence 
there is, either in Ontogeny or Palaeontology, for the belief that 
the larvae of Odonata were not origiiudly but only secondarily 
aquatic in their mode of life. The evidence for this seems to me 
to be overwhelming, but there are some important points that 
bear more closely on the question at issue. 

First of all, if the Odonata larvse took to fresh water from the 
sea, without the intervention of a land-living period, we should 
naturally expect to find them still breathing by those archaic 
adaptations of segmental processes which, we have every reason 
to believe, were employed by Trilohites and their nearest allies. 
The fact that the larvse of both Anisoptera and Zygoptera exhibit 

*Fossilen Insekten, pp.1316 et seq., 1908. 



BY R. .1. TILLYARD. 211 

breathing-or^aiis utterly unlike those of any other aquatic animal, 
speaks very strongly in favour of a special development of these 
organs in larvae which, having lost their original marine mode of 
respiration by taking to the land, again took to the water and 
developed organs peculiar to themselves. 

Secondly, the persistence of thoracic spiracles, in spite of their 
uselessness during the greater period of grcjwth, is a strong argu- 
ment for the existence of an open tracheal system in the larvie as 
well as the imagines of the ancestors of our present-day Odonata. 

Thirdly, a careful study of ihe peculiar connections of the leg- 
and wing-trachese in the larvae of Odonata, must go far to convince 
us of the same truth. Let us examine these in detail. 

The anterior spiracle (Stj) in the larva is still open, and partly 
functional. Now p^ arises from Stj, and a branch lb passes oif 
from it to supply the labium. On the other hand, p., arises 
directly from DT, and receives only a small branch from Stj.* 
This can be understood, if we suppose that this small branch was 
the original p.,, and that, later on, a new attachment was de 
veloped on to DT, to intercept the oxygen coming from the anal 
end of the body. 

Again, pg arises directly from DT, but it gives off one or more 
small trachese to the region of the closed posterior stignia(St2). 
The same explanation would, therefore, hold here, viz., that these 
small branches represent the remains of the original trunk of p^ 
(now almost aborted by the complete closing of the stigma), while 
a new attachment was formed on the dorsal trunk (DT) when 
the larva took to breathing from its anal end. 

Let us now see whether the other trachese of the thorax sup- 
port this exj)lanation. 

J^'irstly, the visceral longitudinal trachese (VT) cross one another 
in a peculiar manner, and terminate each on po of tiie opposite 
side, not far below the stigma. This is an extraordinary arrange- 



* This is the arrangement in tlie Anisopttra. In the Zygoptera, p^ 
arises from DT in front of St^, while po connects up to Sti(Fig.20>. Either 
of these arrangements is clearly of a secondary nature. 



212 DEVELOPMENT OP THE WlNG-VENATlON OF ODONATA, 

ment. It can scarcely be doubted that these visceral trunks 
were originally developed from Stj for direct air-breathing, and 
that the present crossing and liitching on to pg is a secondary 
arrangement develoj^ed when the larva took to an aquatic mode 
of life. 

Secondly, the alar trunks, by their pecuHar arrangement, 
suj^port the theory of an original air-breathing larva for Odonata. 
Each ends by a slender attachment to its corresponding pedal 
trachea (p2 or pg) not very far from the stigma. These slender 
endings are at present of no value to the developing wing, since 
it is quite clear, from the gradual decrease in diameter, that the 
oxygen-supply now comes altogether from the anal end. What 
then can they be, but the reduced remnants of the original alar 
trunks, which arose either directly from the spiracles, or, more 
probably, from the pedal tracheae close up to the spiracles 1 In 
that case, there must have been oriyinally, in the air-breathing 
larva, a supply of oxygen to the costal side of the wing-base, 
such as is found in the larvae of all present-day insects except 
the Odonata. Whether this suppl}' arose directly from the 
stigma or from the pedal trachea, or even originally from the 
main visceral or ventral trunk, it is scarcely necessary to enquire. 
The point is that the, Protodonate wing was developed along normal 
lines, by means of an oxygen-supply to the costal side of the 
wing (probably also, as in Plecoptera, with a smaller supply to 
the anal side), and that this normal method of supply was de- 
stroyed when the larva took to fresh water. From that point 
onwards, we must exjDect to see the gradual development of those 
peculiar characteristics which make the Odonate wing unique. 

One mure point of interest in this question can be bi'ought 
forward. It is well known that the whole dorsal tracheal system 
in Odonata is of a peculiar reddish-purjole or bright coppery 
colour, while the visceral system is silvery- white.* Now, just 
where the main dorsal trunk passes close to the anterior stigma 



* The remarks in this paragrapli apply, as regards colouration, specially 
to the Anisoptera. In the Zygoptera, the arrangement of the trachea is 
similar, but the differences of colouration are not so marked. 



BY R. .T. TILLYARD. 213 

(Stj) it divides into two parallel, main trunks supplying the head 
(Fig.20). The outer of these seems to represent the original 
dorsal trunk, while the inner probably represents an originally 
separate tracheal system for the head, which became hitched on 
to the dorsal trunk when its original air-supply was cut oiF by 
the more or less complete functional atrophy of Stj. (The short 
branch to Stj is still to be seen). Now (Fig. 20) whereas all these 
tracheae are either purplish-red or coppery colour, and hence 
belong to the dorsal system, there can be easily detected, lying- 
just inside DT, a very short trachea ( Vr) of silvery-white colour, 
arising from the inner of the two divisions of DT close to the 
point where it divides into two, and running back only a very 
short way to enter again the doisal trunk itself, ^\'hat then 
can this useless rudiment be, but the original spiracular ending 
of VT, the rest of which is now broken off and hitched on to p^ ^ 
Surely its silvery colour admits of no other interpretation, since 
at the present time it is completely attached to the dark coloured 
dorsal system I 

Let us now turn to Palaeontology for support. If our theory 
be correct, the ancestors of our Odonata should show^ a stronger 
development of the trache?e on the costal side of the wing than 
they do to-day. Also, no ivater -dwelling larvca should be found 
in those deposits whence we have obtained such ancestors. Now 
this is exactly the case with our Protodonata. Fossil Ephemerid 
lar\ £6 are recorded far back, almost into Palaeozoic times; but no 
fossil larvae referable to an Odonate type have yet been found 
with them. Moreover, in the Protodonata, 8c runs either to the 
wing-tip or nearly as far, while the crossing of one or more 
branches of M over R is not accomplished, nor are M and R 
fused in the imago. Further than this, the Protodonata exhibit 
extraordinary diffei'ences, in many cases, between the \'eiiation 
of fore and hind wings — differences that seem to defy explana- 
tion, unless we assume that these insects are misnamed, and do 
not lie anywhere near the direct line of Odonate ancestry. Might 
not an application of this new theory help to solve some oi these 
very difficult problems, on the assumption that the tracheal 
shiftings took place not only gradually hut also unequally in fore 



214 DEVELOPMENT OF THE WING-VENATION OF ODONATA, 

tiiid hind wings, thus producing differences in the venation ? Such 
an appUcation, though beyond the scope of the present paper, 
would be well worth making by some student more intimate with 
the vagaries of Protodonate wing-venation than myself. 

There remains now to be carried out a thorough study of the 
enibryonic and early post-embryonic development of the tracheal 
system in Odonata. Such a stud}' will almost certainly reveal 
the true phylogenetic stages of Odonate larval history, and I 
hope to be able to give a full account of them in a future paper. 
If it should be proved to bear out the theory offered in this 
Section, we shall have, in the Odonnta, a double tracheal meta- 
morphosis — first from spiracular to anal breathing in the young- 
larva, and secondly from anal breathing back to spiracular 
breathing at metamorphosis — which will be more wonderful even 
than the remarkable changes, now known to every biologist, 
which took place in the blood-system of the Vertehrata when 
they began to desert the sea and make their homes on dry land 
— changes which to-day are being repeated in the ontogeny of 
every air-breathing Vertebrate. 

REFERENCE LETTERS. 

A, anal tracliea or vein : Aj, A„, Ag, A^, its four branches— A' second- 
ary anal vein — Ab, anal bridge — Ac, anal crossing { = " first cubito-anal 
cross-vein " — Al, anal loop — Al', secondary anal loop (of ^Eschna) — arc, 
arculus — At, anal triangle— AT^, ATo, alar trunks of fore and hindwings 
— Br, bridge-vein— C, costal trachea or vein — Cu, cubital trachea or vein; 
Cuj, Cuo, its two branches,; Cuoa, Cu^b, distal and proximal branches of 
the latter — Cual, cubito-anal or Italian loop — Cuspl, cubital supplement 
(-=midrib of Italian loop) — DT, dorsal longitudinal tracheal trunk — Fw, 
forewing — Hd, head — H\v, hindwing — lb, labial trachea — M, median 
trachea or vein; M^, Mo, Mg, M^, its four branches — m, membranule — 
MM, combined meso- and metathorax — Mspl, median supplement — N, 
DQflus — o, oblique vein — Pi, Po, pg, first, second and third pedal trachetB 

Plr, pleural ridge — Prt, prothorax— ps, branch-trachea to region of 

second stigma — R, radial trachea or vein; R^, Rs, its two branches [Rs = 
♦' radial sector "]—Rspl, radial supplement — Sc, subcostal trachea or vein 

st, subtriangle — St^, St^, anterior and posterior stigmata, or spiracles — 

t, triangle — TA, thoracic or posterior tracheal anastomosis — Vr, remnant 
of visceral trunk — VT, visceral longitudinal tracheal trunk. 



BY R. J. TILLYARD. 215 

EXPLANATION OF PLATES XI.-XIIL 

Plate xi. (Micropholographs). 
Fig. 1. — yEschna brevintyla Ramb.,(^. Basal portion of hindwing of nearly 

full-grown nymph. (Compare text-figure 2B). 
Fig. 2 — yEschna Jtrevistyla Ramb.,(^. Basal portion of forewing of .same. 

(Compare text-figure 2A). 
Fig. 3. — Dendroirschna conspersa'l'xWyAi'iX,^ . Basal portion of hindwing 

of full-grown nymph. 
Fig. 4. — Synthemis macro stigma orientalu Tillyard,(^. Basal portion of 

hindwing of nearly full-grown nymph. (Compare text-figure 6B). 
Fig.5. — Synthemis macrostigma orientalis Tillyard,<^. Basal portion of 

forewing of same. (Compare text-figure 6A). 
Fig. 6. — Aiistrocordulia refracta Tillyard,(3 . Basal portion of hindwing of 

full-grown nymph. (Compare text-figure 9). 
Fig. 7. — Hemicordulia tan Selys,(J. Basal portion <jf hindwing of full- 
grown nymph. (Compare text-figure 11 B). 
Fig. 8. — Hemicordulia tau Selys,^. Basal portion of forewing of .same. 

(Compare text-figure 11 A). 
Fig. 9. — Diplacodes hcvmatodes Burm.,9- Basal portion of hindwing of 

full-grown nymph. 
Fig. 10. — Cordule'phya j^ygni'va Selys,(^. Basal portion of hindwing of 

full-grown nj'mph. 
Kig. 11. — Cordxdephya pygmcea Selys,(^. Same from another specimen, 

closer to metamorphosis, to show narrowing of imaginal wing- 
border. (Compare text-figure 13). 
Fig. 12. — Hemigomphus heteroclitus Se]ys,^ . Basal portion of hindwing of 

full-grown nymph. (Compare text-figure 16). 
Fig. 13. — Cordulephya pygnuva Selys,(^. Forewing of full-grown nj'mph. 
Fig. 14. — Caliagrion hillinghursti Martin, 9- Hindwing of full-grown 

nymph. 
Fig. 15. — Caliagrion hillinghiirsti Martin, Q. Base of same, lightly printed 

to show fusion of A with Cu. (Compare Plate xii., fig.lA). 
(Figs.1-3 and 6-12x32, figs.4-5xl6, figs. 13-15 x 11.) 

Plate xii. (Diagrams). 

Fig. 1. — Caliagrion billinghursti Martin, 9- Tracheation of hindwing of 
full-grown nymph. (Compare Plate xiii., fig. 1). 

Fig.lA. — Base of same, to show fusion of A and Cu. (Compare Plate xi., 
fig. 15). 

Fig.2. — Caliagrion hillinghursti Martin, Q. Corresponding venation in 
imago. 

Fig.3. — Austrolestes cingulatus Bnvm.,Q. Tracheation of forewing of full- 
grown nymph. 



216 DEVELOPMENT OF THE WING-VENATION OF DON ATA. 

Fig. 4. — Austrole^tes cingulatu-^ Burm.,(5. Corresponding venation in 
imago. 

Fig. 5. — Synhstes weyersi Selys,(J. Tracheation of forewing of nearly full- 
grown nymph. (Compare Plate xiii,, fig. 2). 

Fig. 6. — Synlesten iveyersi Sely.s,(J, Corresponding venation in imago. 

Fig.7. — Argiolestes griseus Selys,9- Tracheation of forewing of full-grown 
nymph. (Compare Plate xiii., fig. 3). 

Fig.8. — Argiolestes griseus Selys,9- Corresponding venation in imago. 

Fig. 9. — Neosticta canescens TiWysn-d,^ Tracheation and imaginal vena- 
tion of forewing of full-grown nymph. (Compare Plate xiii., fig. 4). 

Fig, 10. — Neosticta canescens Tillyard,Q. Corresponding venation in 
imago. 

Fig. 11. — I soslicta simplex Mai.\-t\n,^. Tracheation of hindwing of nearly 
full-grown nymph. 

Fig. 12. — Isosficta simplex Martin, 9- Corresponding venation in imago. 

(All figures of nymphal tracheation from microphotographs; x 30. Figures 
of imaginal venation from oamera-lucida drawings; x 5). 

Plate xiii. (Microphotographs). 

Fig. 1. — Caliagrion billinghursti Martin, 9- Tracheation of hindwing of 
full-grown nymph. (Compare Plate xii., fig. 1). 

Fig.2. — Synlestes weyersi Selj's,(^. Tracheation of forewing of nearly full- 
grown nymph. (Compare Plate xii., fig. 5). 

Fig.3. — Argiolestes griseus Selys,9. Tracheation of forewing of full-grown 
nymph. (Compare Plate xii., fig.7). 

Fig.4. — Neosticta canescens Tillj'ard,^^. Tracheation of forewing of full 
grown nymph, (Compare Plate xii., fig. 9). 
(All figures X 50.) 



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Chloroplnjcc-d- of the Jtiobmond Kiver. 




Bacillarii:i' of the Kicbuioml Kiver. 



P.L.S.N.S.W. 1914 




Barniaric:v of tlie Kic-bmond Hivev. 



P.L.S.N.S.W. 1914. 






CM 



II 



TM 






i 



D 



i 




3Iyxopltiict'H' of the Ricliinoinl River. 



P.L.S.N.S.W. 1914. 




a 


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Chytridiaceie, Schizowna'tes au.l Fauiin of the Eicliinoiid Eiver. 



P.L.S.N.S.W. 1914. 




Microscopic Fauna of the Ricbiuond River. 



P.L.S.N.S.W. 191'! 




moaoDooonr 



Xeroi)liilon.s characters of ifd/.m <lnrtiihn<lr)i Cav. 



P.L.S.N.S.W. 1914. 




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12 



Xerophilous characters of Hnkia (/«ffi//«>iV;..s Cav. 



P.L.S.N.S.W. 1914. 






MM 



2S*f«*!*«*«WHHiiiB^ 




i^jT -.c^.o.sor. 



Wing-veiiatiou of 0(\onaia. 



P.L.S.N.SW. 1914 



Sc 
Rtfl 

Cut A 









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Winy- venation of OiJoiKitd. 



R JT Jcl 



'.L.S.N.S.W. 1914. 




RJ.T 



Wiiig--venation of Odonata. 



217 



-^ '-^^Sb- 



REVT8TON OF THE AMYCTERTDES. 

P;ii-t iii. XofonnpJiPs^ Macramycterus, and ^^-cnei-a allied to 
Talmiriiuis. 

By Eustace W. Ferguson, M.B., Ch.M. 

(Continued from Vol . xxxviii., p.39Jf.) 

(Plate xiv.) 

Tn the present part of my revision of the subfamily, I have 
brought together a number of the smaller genera, partly for con- 
venience, partly because they are mostly related to Tnhuirinus: 
Xotonophes, Pseudonoi onoph es and Mijotrotus, which show a de- 
cided affinity to Talaurinus; Macramycterus, which should per- 
haps be considered as forming a distinct group in the subfamily 
allied both to the Talaurinus and to the AcaniliolophuH groups of 
genera; and Chriof//phus, which, notwithstanding the long scape, 
is very doubtfully associated with the long-scaped genera, its affini- 
ties appearing to ))e rather to the '^Euomides" and to Ahxirhea 
in ]iarticular. 

With the exception of Myolrotus, a Central Queensland genus, 
all the genera described in the present paper are inhabitants of 
West or North-west Australia, in the case of Notonoplies, the 
habitat extending along the north of Australia to the extreme 
north-east of Queensland. 



*In the first part of this Revision, I indicated that there was some 
doubt as to tlie correct assignment of the name uAmycttrus. As will be 
seen later, this name must sink as a synon}^! of Psalidura, and, according 
to the present rules of nomenclature, the name of the sul)family, Amyc- 
teridcs, should be altered to Pmlidurides. As the name Amyderidf.s has 
been in use for these insects for so long a time, 1 do not at present suggest 
this alteration as advisable. 

1 



218 REVISION OF THE AMYCTERIDES, ui., 

NoTONOPHES Sloane. 

Sloane, Trans. Koy. Soc. S. Australia, xvi., p. 2o4. 

Tj'pe of genus, Cuhicorrhynclms cichlodes Pase. 

The following extract from the generic diagnosis apj^ears to 
contain the main i3oints of generic importance: "Allied to Talauri- 
HKs. Form oval, robust. Rostrum broad, flat, not divided from 
head; a light linear longitudinal impression in middle; external 
ridgeaj prolonged backwards to eyes, becoming more prominent 
behind; scrobes widening backwards and reaching eyes.'' The 
remainder of the diagnosis contains no feature peculiar to the 
genus, and is applicable to many forms of Talaurinus. Sloane 
says {loc. cit., p. 235), "Except for the head, the species on which 
this genus is founded has entirely the form of a Talaur'musJ' 

To the above combination of features may be added, as a generic 
characteristic, the supraorbital crest, as, with the single exception 
of .Y. hi/stricosus Bohem., which I regard as doubtfully congeneric, 
it is present, and strongly developed in all the species known to 
me. The rostrum is always broad, and the external ridges extend 
back towards the eyes, and end in the supraorbital crests, but 
tliough, in general, the plane is flat, in some the median line is 
further depressed and widened in front, forming a concave, median 
area which extends anteriorly into the postmarginal sulcus. The 
external borders of the dorsum of the rostrum are flat, and not 
definitely ridged; generally, they show an outward divergence 
towards the base. In some species, the supraorbital crests appear 
to be the direct continuation backwards of the external ridges; in 
others, however, the crests arise at a distinct angle from the general 
line of the ridge. The crest itself is flat, and projects backwards 
and outwards from the side of the head, above the eye. The inter- 
nal, rostral ridges are not distinctly marked off from the rest of 
the dorsum in the type-species; in X. auriger, they are present 
though not conspicuous, and are flattened above; while in N. nngu- 
licollis, they are small, rounded, and almost nodulose. In the more 
typical species, the head and rostrum run directly into one another; 
in iV. angulicoUis, however, they are, to some extent, separated by a 



HY E. W. FERGUSON 219 

transverse, basal sulcus. The i^rotliorax is siniilai- in sliai>e in all, and 
is not in any way different from that of many species of Talmiri- 
nus. The elytral sculpture consists of more or less re.s:ular rows 
of shallow foveae or punctures ; the interstices are little raised, and 
finely granulate, the graindes hemg often obscured l)y tlie cloth- 
ing'; in X. 1nixtricoAHs,\\o\\Q\eY, the elytra are spinose. 

In addition to Cubicorrhi/nchus cichlodes Pasc, tlie type of tlie 
genns, the following- species have also been referred ])y Lea (Trans. 
Roy. Soc. 8. Australia, 1903, p. 112) to XolofwpJies — T. dumosus 
j\[acl., T. jrupa Pasc, T. lernmuf^ Pasc, T. s2')i7iosu.'i MacL, X. atigii- 
licollis Lea. 

I cainiot regard the first three as congeneric with X. cichlorlef^, 
and have, therefore, proposed the genus Pseudotiotcmophefi to 
receive them. T. spinosus is synonymous witli T. lij/i^tricofius 
P)ohem., and T. temiipes Pasc; it differs from .Y. cichlodes in the 
a))sence of the supraocular crests, and in the spinose elytra. As it 
is probably more nearly related to Notonophes tlian to the tj/picus- 
group of Tcdaurinus, for example, I am content to leave it, for tiie 
present, in the former genus. X. angtdicollis Lea, is a thoroughly 
distinct species, but I have grave doubts as to whether the form 
described as a variety, by Lea*, is not entitled to specific rank; at 
any rate, I liave thought it worthy of at least a varietal name. In 
addition to the above, I have specimens of two new species from 
West and North-west Australia, and one wliich I doubtfully regard 
as another variety of X. angulicollis Lea. 

Also, I liave little doubt, from the description, that Cuhicorrlnpi- 
chus dnafnticeps Blackburn (Report Horn Exped. Central Aus- 
tralia, ii., 1806, p. 293), also l)elongs to this genus. As I do not 
know it in nature, I have not included it in my table. 

Geographical Disfrihidion. — The range of this genus differs 
greatly from that of the otlier main genera, with the possil)le 
exception of Macramgcterus. Including X. hg.^lricosus, the range 
extends from King George's Sound, through Nortli-west Australia 
and tlie Xortliern Territory to Cape York Peninsula. 11' C. dihda- 



* Mitt. a. d. Zool. Mus. Berlin, 1910, p. 181. 



220 RlfA'WIOV OK T»K A>fYrTEKIDK.S, iii., 

tireps f>rove to be a SotttnopheH^ Central Australia I Charlotte 
Waters) must be arldeil to the habitat. The re«pon embraced in 
this range i.s, or was until lately, almost unexplored entomologi- 
f-ally. ar»fl probably other new forms await dis^overj'. 

Tfi.hU of .*^xie^. 

). Hea<i with supraocular creat, elytra granulate. 
A. Kostrum continuous with head without interruption. 
a. Outer border of cresta evenly curved, not angulate. 

h. Klytral granules small but regular and prominent 

X. cichJofieA Paiac. 

hh. Elytral granules smaller, le«« prominent, and leas 

regular A", taurt^^, n.sp. 

cux. Outer border of crests markedly angulate J>eyond p^jint 

of origin from the head X. auri{/er, n.ap. 

•A A. Rostrum separated from head by transverse sulcus. 
' . F'lytra witli irregular mottle^l clothing. 

d. Siz<r mo<lerate(14 / 6 mm. ), crest mwlerately promi- 
nent A'. angnlicollU Lea. 

fW. Size smaller (12x4 mm.), crest little prominent 

var. am/u^tior, n.var. 

cc. Klytra Hith large dark patches forming a regular 

pattern , var, Ltai, n.var. 

•2 Head without supra/K.ular crest; elytra spimjse.A'. hyntricontu Bohem. 

NOTONOFHKS CICHLODES PaSC'. 

CuhicorrhymhuH eirhlodes Pase., Joum. Linn. So<*., Zool.. xii.. 
1873, p.l8; Xot&nophes firhlodes Sloane. Trans. Roy. Sof. S. Aus- 
tralia, xvi.. 180.3, p. 23.'). 

This species may be easily recognised by its ovate, convex form, 
with the eljiral granules small but conspicuous. I have examine<l 
the specimen upon whicji Sloane fon?ifIed the genus, and agree with 
him in assigning it to ( . cichlodeH Pas<'. As Mr. Sloane has given 
a full description of the spef'ies, a further one is unnecessarj* here. 
It appears to be a conmum s[>ecies in the Murchison District of 
West Australia. 

Hah. — W. Australia, .Murchison District (R. Helms; Elder Ex- 
pedition; C. French), Geraldtoni .\. .M. U-a), Cue ( H. W. Brown). 



BY K. W. FKRGlSOy. 221 

NcnoxoruKs taikis. ii.sp. 

^. Size Tin>dei*Jitr, oUuiijato-ovate. lilai-k. «lt'ii>ply oovereii with 
>ihuouiis ami whitish suhsetoso rlolhinir; liea«i «U»nsely clothetl. s;ue 
tivor uiotliaii lino, wiili whitish supraiH'uhir \ilta': prothorax trivit- 
lalo, elytra niaculale with white, siiles oi' pn>thnrax ami elytra 
wiilt white elothinir; henealli sterna spai^sely rlotheii. ventral seir- 
nuMils with nie<liaM luanihe almost continuous, anil with smaller 
lateral ttnes. Seta' light. 

Head auvl rostrum ehararteristic ot the uenus: suhlateral sulei 
>hallow. meilian line rather deeply impresseil. external honlei's of 
rostrum teehly divergent; >upraorular irests arisimr at nearly a 
riirht angle with rostral bordei-s. projerting strongly t)utwards. 
the outer edge strongly eurveil backwards, the inner border 
less >trougly lurveil. apex pointed, base narri>wer than 
in X ^uriij'r. Protborax (o X 4 mm. > tjansvei*se. evenly 
rounded o\\ sitles. apical uuirgin without iletinite lobes: disc set 
with small separate setigerous gramUes. lending to leave sub- 
lateral \ittiv fitv; sides gnmulate abi)M'. Klytra (S x 6 nun.) 
rather strongly widened, ovate, base gently arcuate. hunuM-al angles 
noduliform: striate, the >lria' with i>bscure. open, foveiform de- 
pressions: iutei'stices rather broad, gently convex transversely, not 
greatly raised, set with snuill depressed setigerous granules, more 
or less i)bscured by (•K»ihing. tor the most part in single series, 
occasionally duplicated: near the sides, the granules show some ten- 
dem-y to unite laterally, tornung obscure. transvei*si> ruga\ 
Heneath glabrous, with scattered, shallow, setigerous punctures, 
xentral segnuMits feebly llatlenctl in middle, tilth segment very 
leebly concave in mitldle. witlumt <letinite impressions. lx\u> 
simple, intermediate tibia^ not notched. 

c^. Vcrv >imilar. but larger, bi>»;ider. nu»re*»\ate; undcrsurfaoe 
gently eon\t'x. DituenitiDus : (^. 13 x G nun.: 9« 1 ^ ^ ~ u\u}. 

Holt. West Australia. l^»ke Austin. "iMdy t'ound in the I«»ke 
I'ountry umler stt»nes*' (11. W. r>ritwn>. 

Inttii sexes show a teebly tran>ver>e impression at base ot" ros- 
trum, but it is not dc\ elopcil to the sauu' extent as u» .V. (UKfuli- 



222 REVISIOX OF THE AMYCTERIDES, iii., 

culli.'i Lea. The crests are shaped soiiiewiiat as in .V. cichludes, but 
are much struiiiier and more curved, a fanciful resemblance to 
horns having suiigested tlie specific name. The femora are practi- 
cally devoid of clothing (except for a few scattered settc) on the 
inner and on the basal two-tliirds of the outer side; the knees are 
also bare; tlie tibiiB are closely clothed. 

Closely allied to X. cichlodes Pasc, but, apart from size and the 
larger crests, it differs in the more obscure granulation of the pro- 
thorax and of the elytra; the clothing on tlie elytra is also differ- 
ently distributed, lacking the sublateral vitta so conspicuous in X. 
cichlodes. 

XOTONOPHES AUKIUER, 11. sp. 

(J. Elliptical, eluiigate, convex. Black, granules subnitid, more 
or less densely clothed with greyish subpubescence, granules not 
clothed; beneath with scattered seta?, and with whitish setose sub- 
pubescence in the middle of each segment, tending to form a feeble, 
median vitta. Setae light brown. 

Rostrum short and wide, gently con\ex in profile, forming an 
even curve witli liead, not excavate, a feeble transverse impression 
present at base connecting a median and two sublateral basal 
fovese; internal ridges flattened, subobsolete, indicated at base but 
not at all prominent. Head gently convex above, with large, 
flat, ear-like crests projecting laterally and directed back- 
wards, the outer liorder not continuing the direction of tlie 
external ridges but arising almost at right angles, then 
suddenly changing direction backwards and outwards; crests 
wide across base. Scrobes simple, open posteriorly. Eyes 
ovate, vertical, overhung by projection of the crests. Pro- 
thorax (3-5 X 4 mm.) widest about middle, sides gently narrowed 
to apex, but rather sharply narrowed before base, apical mai-gin 
truncate above, ocular lobes absent; disc with a narrow, subapical, 
transverse impression; set fairly uniformly with rounded, moder- 
ately large, non-contiguous granules. Elytra (9 X 6 mm.) elon- 
gate, ovate, evenly rounded to apex ; base moderately strongly and 
evenly arcuate, humeral angles marked by a small granule, not 



BV R. ^^. FERGUSON. 223 

produced. Disc foveo-slriatc, tovcu- small, shallow, open, the 
intervening' ridges setigerous, hardly granulate; interstices broader 
than striie. gently convex, all e(|ually i)roniinent. set with small, 
somewhat obsolete, setigerons granules, showing a slight tendency 
to umbilication, in double series on third and tifth interstices, more 
prominent on declivity and towards sides. Abdominal segments 
feebly concave at base, lifth segment without imi)ressions. Tibite 
simi)lc. Avithout sul)ai>ical notch. 

9. Diti'ers in being relatiAcly more robust, and in the gently 
convex ventral sui-t'ace Diiiu hskhis \ ^. 14 x 16 mm.: 5. 14 x 
6*5 mm. 

Hah. — Xorth-West Australia. 

Closely allied to .V. cichlndes Pasc. but larger an<l llatter, and 
with very ditterently shaped, supraorbital crests. The clothing 
has been much abraded from the specimen 1 take to be the male: in 
the other, the prothorax is feebly trivittate, and the elytra definite- 
ly maculate. There ai)pears to be little sexual difference, but. in 
the specimen I regard as the male, the basal abdominal segments 
are flattened, hardly concave: while in the other specimen, the 
whole abdomen is distinctly convex. 1 am indebted for my speci- 
mens to Mr. H. J. Carter, who obtained them from ^Ir. C. French. 

NOTONOPHES ANGULICOLLIS Lea, 

Lea. Mitt. a. d. Zool. Mus. Berlin. 1910. p. 181. 

This species was descriljed by Lea, in a i)aper entitled "Notes on 
Australian Curculionida? in the Berlin Museum." It is, for the 
genus, a conii)aratively large species, and may be recognised by the 
prominent angles at the sides of the prothorax. The supraorl)ital 
crests are moderately long and prominent. 

//«6.— North- West Australia. Behii and Upper Ord KiAers. 

N. ANGULK'oLLis Lea. \i\v. Lkai. n.\ar. 

1 jiropose this name for a form which Lea has noted in his 
pai)er. and which aiti)ears, to me. sulhciently distinct to wairant 
at least varietal it not specihc rank. 



224 REVISION OF THE AMYCTERIDES, iii., 

(J. Size siiiallei', ii;irruuer. Clutliiug mostly of a slaty-grey, 
with a large, subtriaiigular, dark })at('h on each side about the 
middle of each elytron, apex of triangle almost touching suture, 
and with an apical dark patch on declivity. 

5. More ovate, but with sijnilar clothing. D'uneiisioihs : (^, 
1 1 X 4*5 mm.; 9, 1 1 x 5 mm. 

Hah. — Northern Australia, Port Darwin (A. M. Lea)^ — North 
(Queensland, Princess Charlotte Bay (C. French). 

The head appears to be shorter, and almost nodulose in front, 
though this is, to a great extent, obscured by the clothing; apart 
trom this, there seems little difference in structure between the two 
forms. The difference in the clothing is most conspicuous, and the 
dark patches are constant in all the specimens (4) I have seen of 
the variety. 

Type-male in Coll. Lea; type-female in Coll. Ferguson. 

N. ANGULicoLLis Lea, var. angustioh, n.var. 

Specimens from North- West Australia appear to represent an- 
other variety of this species. 

(J. Size smaller, narrower. Clothing mottled with brown as in 
type, without conspicuous, dark patches. Supraorbital crests 
much smaller and less prominent. Dimeiisioiis : ^, 1'2 x 4 mm. 

Apart from its smaller size and much smaller crests, I can detect 
no dilferenee between the variety and the type of the species. A 
specimen which I also refer to this variety, is greatly abraded, and 
shows small granules on the elytral interstices; these are generally 
completely obscured by the clothing. Li both varieties, the angles 
at the sides of the prothorax are less marked. Type in Coll. Fer- 
guson. 

CUBICORRHYNCHIJS DILATATICEPS Blackb. 

Blackburn, Ixeport Horn Exped. Central Australia, ii., 1890, p. 
293. 

I have little dou})t that the above species belongs to Notonophes. 
The head is described as "sparsim granulato, supra oculos utrinque 
cristato, crista rostri planum oblique retrorsum et extrorsum con- 



BY E. W. FERGUSON. 225 

tiiiuaiiti". Ag-aiu, Blackburn wi'ites: "Its xcry short rostrum llat- 
tenod above (or rather having' its entire upper suilaee gently and 
evenly concave), transversely (juadrate, and as wide as tiie head is 
behind the eyes . . . with tlie crests appearing as prolongations of 
the rostrum and directed ol)li(|uely hindward and outward, and 
looking like set-back ears of some animal . . . furnishes very un- 
nnstakable characters." As the elytra are described as "seriebus 
alternis e tuberculis sat niagnis . . . alternis e tuberculis parvis 
constantibus," 1 am conlident that L liave not seen the species. 

Uab. — Central Australia, Cliarlotte Waters (Horn Expedition). 

The above supposition has since received confirmation from Mr. 
K. G. Blair, of the British Museum, who kindly examined Black- 
burn's type, at my request. Mr. Blair writes — "Cub. dilataticeps 
Blkb., agrees very well witli Cub. cichlodes Pasc., as regards forju 
of head and rostrum, but is much more elongate and parallel, and 
its sculpture has more the general appearance of Cubicorrhynchus ; 
a comparison, with members of that genus, makes me think that 
it is erroneously jolaced there, and that your supposition is pro- 
bably correct." In another place in his letter, he states, C. dilaia- 
l ice pi) Blkb., is a Xoio)iopJies. 

NOTONOPHKS HVSTKICOSUS Bolieui 

Amycterus hystricosus Bohem., Schonh., Gen. Cure. vii„ (1), p. 
54; Talaurinus id., MacL, Trans. Ent. Soc. N. S. Wales, i,, IHG.'). ]>. 
242; T. spinosus Macl., loc. cif., p. 24;{ : 7'. leu ni pes Pasc, loe. eii., 
p.l5, t.2, f.2. 

Size small; elongate-ovate. Black, clothing variegated, dark 
portions varying from golden-brown to black, light portions whit- 
ish ; prothorax trivittate, elytra with a short vitta at each shoulder, 
and a transverse bar at each side at commencement of declivity, 
these sometimes continuous across elytra, sides maculate with 
white: undersurfaee with light subsetose clothing, on ventral seg- 
ments forming mesial and lateral macula'. 

Head flattened in front, extending on to i-osti'um in the same 
j)lane, supraocular crests absent. Rostrum short, wide, not sei)a- 
rated from head, witiiout excavation, the median area hardlv 



226 REVISION OF THE AMYCTKRIDES, ill., 

depressed, siiblateral sulci narrow, deep, obli(|uely set, somewhat 
riirvedjiiotquite meeting at base, Head and rostrum set with sborl, 
scattered, decumbent setie. Eyes ratlier large, set high in head. 
Prothorax('2 x 3 mm.) transverse, apex with a feeble, postocular 
sinuation, with a marked, transverse, postapieal impression, median 
and sublateral lines free from tubercdes, but hardly impressed; set 
with small, rather prominent, subconical tubercdes, more rounded 
on the sides. Elytra (7*5 x 5 mm.) rather strongly widened to 
beyond middle, thence narrowed to apex, wdiich is ratlier strongly 
produced and mucronate; base gently arcuate, humeral angles with 
an out-turned tubercle, disc with rows of shallow, open, punctiform 
depressions, interstices Avith small but distinct tubercles, these not 
present on the declivity; sutural interstice with obscure granules 
only; second with tubercles, rounded at base, becoming subconical 
towards declivity; third with a prominent row of rather larger, 
acutely conical tubercles, becoming larger more posteriori}^; fourth 
with two or three isolated ones; tiftli with a row of outwardly pro- 
jecting, acutely conical tubercles, extending from base to edge of 
declivity; sixth situated on the side, with much smaller ganules; 
lateral interstices with the granules obsolete. Dimensions: 11 x 5 
mm. 

Ilab. — West Australia, Swan River, King George Sound. 

The above description was drawn up from a cotype of T. spino- 
sas, received many years ago from Mr. G. Masters. It is probably 
a female, as the basal, ventral segments are feebly convex ; the last 
segment lias a shallow, oval, transverse impression at extreme apex. 
There are seven specimens before me, but I cannot distinguish any 
difference in sex. The size is very variable, one specimen in my 
collection measuring 8x5 mm It was on a similar specimen tluit 
T. I en ui pes Pasc, was founded. This specimen was compared with 
the type of T. fenuipes by Mr. K. G. Blair, and it agreed well both 
in size and also in its lack of clothing, thougli this is probably due 
to abrasion. The species agrees in all details with the description 
of Amycterus hi/stricosus^ and I have no doul)t that it is correctly 
identified, though, as mentioned before, I dou})t the correctness of 
its assignment to Notonophes. 



BY E. W. FKRGUSOX. 227 

PSKUDONOTONOI'ME.S, 11. i^". 

Type, Tcdauriniis dumoaus Mad. 

Kostnim a lioocl deal narrower than head, .siiort, in the same 
plane above with head; with a median, impressed line, bifurcate at 
base. Scrobes open posteriorly, with a marked uroove extending 
downwards and backwards to eye. Head plane in front, strongly 
rounded on sides, also from behind eyes to l)ase of rostrum. Eyes 
rather large, ovate, set low down in head. Scape of moderate 
length. Prothorax transverse, granulate. Klytra short, o\ate, 
granulate or tuberculate. 

The dift'erence in the relation to eacli otiier, of the head mikI 
rostrum, at once differentiates tliis genus from Xotottoplies, to 
wliich its species have been referrecL In XotonopJies, the external 
borders of the rostrum run backwards and outwards abo\e I lie 
eyes; whereas in Pseudo}wtou()i)lies, these borders end on the front 
of the head, and very far from the eyes, which are also situated at 
a lower level on the side of the head. 

To these genus, I would refer Tcdauriinia dumosus Mac!., and T. 
lemmiis Pasc, placing T. pup(( Pasc., as a probable variety of P. 
dumusus. The species may be conveniently separated: — 

1. Head with distinct though small granules. 

A. Elytra granulate. 

(i.) Prothoracic granules closely set P. dumosus 'SldiiA. 

(ii.) Prothoracic granules fewer, and more widely separated.../', pupa. 

B. Elytra without any trace of granules P. Gilesi, n.sp. or var. 

2. Head with granules obsolete P. Icmmus Pasc. 

PSEUDONOTONOPHES UUMOSL'S Macleaj. 

itduHrinas diintosua MacL, loc. ciL, p. 243; ? 7'. pupa Pasc, loc. 
ciL, p. 10; Xoloiioplies id., Lea, Trans Koy Soc. S. Australia. 
11)03, p. 112. 

(;^. Black, legs and anteniue diluted with red; ju'actically with- 
out clotliing, save for some white macules on side of elytra, and at 
commencement of declivity; setfE reddish-yellow. 

Head and rostrum as in genus. Head witli scattered, umbilicate 
granules; forehead with a \'-shaped depression continuous with the 
median rostral groove. Prothorax (2 x 2 nun.) rounded on sides, 



228 REVISION" OF THE AMYCTERIDES, iii., 

witlioiit ocular lobes, median line I'ree from granules, elsewhere 
with regular, rounded, umbilicate granules closely set. Elytra 
{'l:-5 X 3 mm.) short, nuicli wider than prothorax; apex moderately 
produced, emarginate at suture; base subtruncate, humeral angles 
marked by a small nodule. Disc with striae moderately deep, the 
loveai hardly traceable save by the intert'o\eal granules; inter- 
stices with prominent, rounded granules becoming conical and 
tuberculiform posteriorly, on the third and tit'tli interstice extend- 
ing halfway down declivity. Sides with rows of regular foveas, 
interstices not granulate. Metasternum and iirst abdominal seg- 
ment concave, somewhat rugosely punctured; the other ventral 
segments feebly convex, almost laevigate; hftii with a deep impres- 
sion at apex. 

5. Similar but Ijroader, beneath strongly con\ex, Isevigate 
without an apical impression. Dimensions: (J, 7 x 3: 9, 9 x 5mm, 

Hah. — West Australia, King George Sound. 

The above descrii)tion was drawn nj) from the type-specimens in 
the Macleay jMuseum. In the same collection are cotypes of T. pupa 
and T. lemmus. From an examination of the specimen of T. pupa, 
1 am of the opinion that it probably should be referred to V. 
ilumosus; the specimen, however, is a female, and presents certain 
ditferences, of the specific value of which, I am uncertain. The 
prothoracic granules are fewer, less umbilicate, less closely set, 
leaving three si)aces free from granules; the elytra are similar, but 
the intrastrial granules are hardly traceable. Also the setae are of 
a brown colour, considerably darker than in P. dumosus. 1 have 
had a chance of examining a number of specimens of this species; 
all possessed dark-coloured setae, but the prothoracic granules 
showed considerable variation ; the head also shows some variation 
in width. Possibly P. pupa is distinct from P. dumosus, but I am 
unable to suggest constant characters for their differentiation ; the 
examination of a long series of both sexes, and from different parts 
of West Australia, Avould probably solve the difhculty. 

A female recently received from the British Museum, for exami- 
nation, and labelled Talaurinus pupa Pascoe, does not differ 
materially from 1\ dumosus. 



BY E. W. FERGUSON. 229 

PSEUDONO'I'OXOPHES LKMMUS PaSC. 

TahiNn'HKs leninnis Pase., Inc. rit., p. 16; Notnnojilies id. Lea, 
lor. cit., p. 112. 

9, Small, ovate. Black; densely clothed with brown, prothorax 
trivittate with white, elytra witli a short vitta at each shoulder and 
an irreii'nlar transverse bar at eacli side about commenfement of 
declivity; sides maculate. 

Head and rostrum as iu genus. Head with scattered seta^ on 
forehead, arising from punctures not from dehnite granules, sliglit 
traces of granules towards sides. Prothorax (2 x 2-5 mm.), with 
n subajncal, transverse impression, and rather feebly impressed 
median line; set with separate, round granules, absent over mesial 
and sublateral vitta". and obsolete on the sides. Elytra (5 x 3-5) 
with rows of fairly regular, small, open fovea3; interstices granu- 
late, tlie granules small and obsolete near base, })ecoming more 
jirominent and snhconical near declivity, most conspicuous on the 
second, barely traceable on tlie more lateral interstices. Beneatli 
convex, without impressions. Dimensions: 9, 8 x 3-5 nnn. 

The a))o\e description is of a female from Geraldton, in my own 
collection. 1 think I am right in referring it to P. lemmns. It 
agrees with the cotype of T. lemmus Pasc, in the Macleay 
Museum, on wliich specimen I liave the following notes, made in 
comparison with P. dumosus. ]More densely clothed, head with 
granules not tracea])le. elytra with granules obsolete anteriorly, 
less prominent posteriorly, fovea' more transverse, no interfoveal 
granules. 

Amale(7 x 3mm.) in the Soutli Australian Museum also belongs 
to this species: compared with my specimen(9), it has the granules 
rather larger and more evident, beneath it is more flattened, with 
the intermediates shortei-, and the Hfth segment large, and witliout 
a definite excavation, the apical third heing only very feebly 
depressed. 

Apart tVoni ditferences in clothing, which may conceivahly be 
due to ahrasion. P. lewmus is sulficiently differentiated I'rom P. 
dumosus hv the non-uranulate head, the slightlv more transverselv 



230 REVISIOX OF THE AMYCTERIDES, iii., 

foveate, less tuberculate, elytral sculpture; as well as by the uou- 
exeavate fiftli veutral segment of the male. 

Since the a))()ve description was written, I have had, under ex- 
amination, a specimen ((J), labelled Talaurinn^ lemmus Pasc. It 
is densely clothed and strongly maculate; the head is granulate, and 
both the prothoracic and elytral granules are larger than in the 
specimens I attribute to this species. lu these respects, also, the 
specimen is at variance with Pascoe's description. The anal seg- 
ment is strongly depressed or excavate in its apical portion. If the 
specimen be correctly identified, it appears to be necessary to sink 
P. lemmus as a synonym of P. dnmosKs. At present, however, I 
am loth to do so. It is, nevertheless, possible that these are all 
forms of V)ut one variable sjiecies. 

PSEUDONOTONOPHES GiLESI, n.Sp. 

9. In general appearance close to P. lemmus, but larger. 
Clothing scanty, except where forming creamy patches; on thorax 
as sublateral vitta^ ; on elytra a humeral patch continuous with pro- 
thoracic vitta^, one or two small macules on lateral borders of disc 
and on sides, an o])lique fascia, extending from sides two-thirds of 
width of elytron, at connuencement of declivity. Setje black. 

Head and rostrum as in genus. Head with scattered, small, seti- 
gerous granules. Protborax (2 x 3 mm.), with granules small, 
moderately closely set. more or less absent along median and su))- 
lateral lines. Elytra (5 x 4 mm.) foveo-striate: fovea? small but 
distinct, subquadrate, continued to apex but diminishing in size on 
declivity, the intervening ridges not granulate; interstices slightly 
I'aised, each with a row of small, decumbent set^e, without granules 
save for one or two very feel)le ones at commencement of declivity, 
hardly traceable except from certain directions. Sides foveo-stri- 
ate. interstices broad, not raised. Beneath convex, apical segment 
without definite impressions. Dime us ions : 9, 9-5 x 4 mm. 

Hnb.—^yeM Australia, South Pertli (H. M. Giles). 

If P. Ipmnuis is to be regarded as a species distinct from P 
flumofius, then this other form deserves a name, if only a varietal 
one. From P. lemmus, the granulate head will separate it, while 



BY E. \V. FERHUSON. 231 

the pnu'tit-ally iioii-ui-aniilate elytra will separate it from both P. 
lemmus and P. (lunumis. In spite of* the granulate head, I reoard 
it as more nearly related to P. lemmus than to P. (lumosus. Until 
more field-work is done in collecting these species, T think itcadvis 
able to maintain the different forms, with the exception of T.pupa, 
as distinct species. 1 have mucli pleasure in namin*:- this insect 
al'tei' ]Mr. H. M. Giles, of Perth, from whose collection 1 obtained 
it. 

Myotrotus Pascoe. 

Pascoe, Jonrn. Linn. Soc. Zool., xii., p. 22. 

Type of genus, Mi/olrolus nhUisus Pasc. 

Head strongly convex. Rostrum short, broad, the upper surface 
transversely concavo-convex from middle to sides; the external 
ridges strongly convex in profile, and convex outwardly, strongly 
incurved to base; internal ridges barely traceable. Scrobes dee]i, 
wide, arcuate, ending far from eyes. Eyes small, subovate. Sca])c 
short, strongly incrassate. Prothorax with ocular lo])es strongly 
produced to touch or i)artly conceal the eyes in certain ]iositions. 
Elytra with interstices finely granulate. 

A remarkable form, which I prefer to place among the allies of 
Tfdaurimis rather than among the '"Euomifles,'' an assignment 
about which Pascoe himself felt doubtful. In the male, the fifth 
ventral segment is moderately deeply and extensively excavate, 
somewhat in the fashion of TalaiiriHus apici-hirlns. The curiously 
shaped and strongly convex, external, rostral ridges, the very sliort, 
thickened scape, and the strong, ocular lobes afford the most strik- 
ing characters of the genus. 

Myotrotus obtusus Pasc , lor. cif., p.*22, PI. ii., fig.5. 
To this species. I would refer several si)ecimens in the Macleay 
^fuseum. though they show slight variation inter se in the elytral 
granules. A specimen IQ) I'eceived some years ago from the late 
j\lr. George Masters, was sent to the British ]\Iuseum for compari- 
son with the type. In reply, ^Ir. K. G. lilair writes: "Yes. n Mi/n- 
trotus. Tvpe $^ and moi-e slender than yours, and its gramilation 
is mucli obscured l)y clothing. ))iit ajjpcais to agree vei'y well wilh 



232 REVISION OF THE AMYCTERIDRS, iii., 

yours.'' A male in the Maeleay Collection agrees well with Paseoe's 
description and figure. The elytra have the first, third, and fifth 
interstices with numerous fine granules in douhle and multiple 
series, the second and fourth with much fewer (six on one, nine on 
the other side), and isolated granules. The fifth ventral segment 
has an extensive, somewhat boat-shaped excavation at apex, occu- 
pied by dense golden-brown hair or bristles, which are continued 
forward to form a dense, median vitta. The length of the fifth 
segment is greater tlian tliat of the two preceding, but hardly as 
long as the three preceding combined. Corresponding females 
have the fifth ventral segment not excavate, and the intermediates 
longer. Another female has somewhat less rugose, elytral sculp- 
ture, interstices flatter, and tlie granules more numerous on tlie 
second and fourtli interstices. 

Hal). — Queensland, Rockliampton (leste Pascoe, ^Maeleay 
IMuseum) : (rayndali (George Masters). 

Ma(;ramycterus. noni.nov. 

Amyclerus Lacordaire (nee Schonherr), Gen. Coleoi^.. vi., p. lUO, 
1863; Maeleay, Trans. Ent. Soc. X. S. Wales, i., p. 2(m, 18(15. 

Type, Phalidura draco W. S. Maeleay. 

Large or very large species; male elongate, su])parallel ; female 
elongate, ovate. Head concave in front, centre of forehead sul)- 
ti'iangularly raised. Rostrum not separated fi-om liead above, 
external ridges naming backward along head, internal ridges pre- 
sent, strongly convergent. Scrobes open posteriorly, extending 
back to or])it. Eyes subovate, ratlier deeply set, overhung by 
lateral ridge of foreliead (in M. Boi>idurali, eyes rounded, strongly 
]ii-o,iecting). Protliorax strongly transverse, tuberculate or granu- 
late. Elytra strongly tuberculate on second, third, sixtli, and 
seventh interstices. Prosternum with a tubercle on eacli side, in 
front of anterior coxa*. No median ventral vitta present. 

While in tlie ]iast, accepting the name Ami/cferns for the genus 
under consideration, I have done so with considerable hesitation. 
T had not seen Sclionherr's paper (Cure. Disp. Motli., p. 202, 1826), 
but, at tlie time the "cnus Amvcterus was described bv him, the 



\ 



BY E. W. FERGUSON. 233 

onlj^ species known were Cnrculio inirabilis Kirby, alreiuly referred 
to Psalidura hy Fischer von Waldheim, ('. Inneplialns Olivier, ('. 
bubalus Olivier, and Ilipporhinns nigrosplnosiii^ JJoii., niend^ersof 
the li'enera TaUdiriiins and Sclerurriiinas. No member of the pre- 
sent genns was described until 1827, wiien W. S. Macleay (King's 
Survey, ii., App., p. 244) ]»ul)lislied the description oi' Phalidiua 
draco. \\\ the early auihoi-s, the naiue Ami/clenis was used in a 
sense wide enough to embrace the whole subfamily, though Acioi- 
lltulopliun was early separated but not described. In its usual 
restricted sense, the name was first employed by Lacordaire, wjio 
gives no reason for allocating it to this special and numerically 
small group. Macleay merely followed Lacordaire in his use of the 
name, which, by usage, has come to be universally adopted for these 
species. 

Quite recently, however, Mr.K.G. Bhiii-, of the British Mnseum, 
has kindly looked up the original descriptions, and, from the infor- 
mation supplied by him, I am able to make the following notes. 
Fischer's ligure and descri[)tion of PJudidura inirahilis Macleay, 
represent the gular-horned species, for many years known as P,s«//- 
dura mirabilis Kirby; but his species is evidently not the same as 
the Curcidio mirahUis of Kirby. Schonherr was apparently un- 
aware of Fischer's paper, and, in describing his genus Amjicterux, 
he (|uotes Cure, mirahdis Kirby as the tyi>e. Though not the same, 
the two species are undoubtly congeneric, and the name Auuidcnis 
nmst, tlierefore, fall as a synonym of Phalidura. Accordingly, 1 
now pi'opose the name Mavramiieterus for this genus. 

Since the above was written, I have had an o|)p(>rtunity of see- 
ing Schdnherr's original description. As he ([Uotes Cunulio mira- 
hdis Kirby. as the type of his genus. Amfivterus (1820) becomes an 
absolute synonym of Psalidura Fischer de Waldiieim (182."i). 

The second species, ^1. Boisduvali Boisd., was described in 18.')5 
(\'oy. de TAstrolabe, ii., p. 301})*. and a third species, A. Schiin 
herri lloj^e, was added in 183(5 (Hope Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., i.. 
p. 08, t. 8, f. 2). ]\Iacleay (180.')) revised the i)re\ions sj^ecies, and 
added a fourth, A. Leichhardti. 



234 REVISION OF THE AMYCTERIDES, iii., 

To this imiiiber, 1 now propose to add the names of three others. 
The species of tliis genus are the giants of the subfamily, M. draco 
being one of the hirgest of the Australian weevils. Tlie chief 
characters lie in the structure of the head and rostrum, in the ex- 
planate tuberculate prothorax, and in the arrangement of the 
elytral tubercles. 

The liead is large, with the forehead strongly depressed, the 
nuddle being triangularly raised or subcarinate ; tliis concavity is 
bounded by the prolongation ])ackwards of the external, rostral 
ridges. The rostrum is directly continuous with the head, and is 
moderately deeply excavate; the apical marginal plate is small, 
and is subtended by a triangular, depressed area, which, in turn, is 
bounded posteriorly by the subobsolete, internal ridges; running 
round the outer side and end of these ridges, is a narrow, horse- 
shoe-shaped line. The scrobes proper end distant from the e\ es, 
but these are situated immediately under the ridges on the head, 
and in the depression continuous with the scrobe, and formed b>' 
the prolongation backwards of tlie ridges. The eyes, in almost all 
the species, are ovate and not prominent; the exception being .1/. 
Boisdurali, which has round and prominent eyes. 

The prothorax, in all except M. Boisduv(di, is wide and ampliate, 
and the structure of its upper surface comprises («) plane, more or 
less smooth areas, a median and two sublateral, (6) groups of 
tubercles, a median and a lateral group on each side, (r)smaller 
granules along anterior and posterior margin. The median 
tubercles api)ear to l)e variable in number in the one species; the 
lateral group shows good specific differences in the arrangement of 
the tubercles. The elytra, as a rule, have four rows of strong 
tubercles, one row on the second interstice, from in front of middle 
to apex; one row on the third interstice from base to declivity; 
two rows more laterally, the inner one extending from the middle 
to the apex, the outer one from the humeral angle to opposite and 
external to the commencement of the inner row, thence rapidly 
becoming obsolete. For convenience of description, I have called 
these rows 1, 2, H, 4, their relative positions being always the same. 
As the seriate punctures are, in most eases, very small and indis- 



I 



BY E. W. FERGUSON. 235 

tiuct, being: broken up and coniused by tlie tubercles, it is not an 
easy matter to determine tlie interstices upon wliich the tubercles 
are situated, in the teniale specimens, which 1 refer to M. ohsole- 
tus, the elytral stria3 are more easily traced. From a study of this 
species, 1 believe that the relation of tlie rows of tubercles to the 
interstices is as follows : the lirst and second rows are situated on 
the second and third interstices respectively, the third row on tlic 
sixth interstice, the fourth row on the seventh; the fourth inter- 
stice is devoid of tubercles generally if iiot always; the fifth is re- 
presented by the humeral tubercle, and, perhaps, by one or two 
isolated ones, but these are not ])i-esent in all species, and, in some, 
may possibly occur on tlie fourth. The derm between the tubercles, 
apart from the seriate punctures, is generally smooth; in some, 
however, it is moi'e or less asperate. The apex of tlie elytra, in 
both sexes, is flanged by a row of strong tul)ercles, wliicli, in tlie 
male, do not reach to tlie middle line, the apical margin, however, 
not being emarginate at tlie suture; in the female, the tubercles 
extend practically to the suture, tlie innermost being strongly pro- 
duced, mucroniform, sometimes conjoined with its fellow of the 
opposite side, sometimes separated by a dee[) emargination. The 
undersurface is smooth and Itcvigate in all, exce})t M. Boisdurali, 
in wliich it is more opaque, and closely setigerous. The prosternum 
bears a pair of mammary-like i^rojections, situated in front of tlie 
middle coxa?; but in M. Boisdiivali these are obsolescent. The ventral 
segments are transversely convex, more markedly so in the female. 
The basal segment is depressed hi the male, and the apical seg- 
ment generally has an ill-detined, transversely oval impression at 
apex. In M. Boisduvali, the segments are more flattened. The 
anterior tiliia' bear a few small granules or denticles \aryiiig in 
position and of specific importance; the posterior tibiae have a 
strong excavation immediately above the apex, and on the inner 
surface of the tibiti?, but this is absent in .1/. Boisrhn-ali. A speci- 
men of J/. Scliihih'rrl was dissected, to examine the male sexual 
organs. The penis, or the chitinous portion of it, is very large, and 
the free extremity })icornuate. The forceps aie rein-esented by 
two, small, triangular, chitinous pieces, moi'o <»r less closely con- 



236 REVISION OF THE AMYCTERIDES, iii., 

iicctcd, and leaving a brnsli oi' hair on tlie inner border. In this 
respect, Macranu/clcra.s approaeiies closeh* to Sclerorrliinus, these 
structures being of a simihir character in that genus. 

Relation to Other Genera. — The species comprising- this, numeri- 
cally small group arc, with one exception, remarkably homogene- 
ous in appearance and structure. The exception, M. Boisduvali, 
nngiit Avell be separated generically ; it is, however, more closely 
related to the other species of Macramijcterus tlian to any other 
genus. In the structure of the prothorax and in the arrangement 
of tlie elytral tubercles, these species show a resemblance to Acan- 
tholopliiis. I cannot, however, regard this resemblance as more 
than superficial, nor as showing a connecting link between Amii- 
tliolopliKu and the TalauriiiKs-Sclerorrliijius Section. The jn-esence 
of the internal, rostral ridges would point to a relationship with 
Talauri)ii(s, while the structure of the sexual organs suggests 
aflinity with Sderorrliiuus. I tliink it probable that Macrami/c- 
tcriia has developed from a common ancestor of Talaurinus and 
iSderorrliinus, and has become separated early in the line of 
descent. The small number of its species, and their lai'ge size, per- 
haps indicate that the genus Marram ycteruii represents a dying 
race, in the natural order of things to become extinct at no distant 
date. 

Geo(jrap}iical l)islributio}i. — Althougli a fair iuuuf)er of speci- 
mens \v^\Q passed through ni}' hands, the data, as regards place of 
capture, have been meagre. All the species occur in West Aus- 
tralia. M. Leichhardti was recorded from the Lynd Kiver, NortJi 
Australia; it appears to occur elsewhere in West Australia. 21. 
Boisduvali and J/, draco were described from King George's 
Sound, while M. Schihiherri occurs on the Swan River. Mr. Lea 
has recorded M. draco from Mullewa, though most of the speci- 
mens I have seen of the variety I have called insiynis, Avere taken 
either at Keller))errin or Conjerdin. The male type of J/, ohsole- 
ins is from Yilgarn, but the specimens I regard as probably 
females of the same species, came from Nangeran. J/, tibialis is 
from Shark's Bay. 



BY E. W. FERGUSON. 237 

It will be seen from tlie above, Ibat tlie records are too scanty to 
permit of generalisation on the distribution of tlie genus. Possibly 
all the species will be found to liiive a fairly extensive range. 

Table of Species. 

l.(12)Prothurax tuberculate, e3'es rather deeply set. 

2.(9)Sides of prothorax, as vMewed from aljove, with tubercles more or 

less flattened, outwardly directed in single series. 
*^.(6)Protiiorax widely explanate. 

4.(5)Klytra granuloae between the rows of tubercles 

M. draco VV. S. Macleay. 

5.(4)Elytral derm smooth, non-granulose between tubercles 

M. insignis, n.sp. or var. 

6. (3)Prothorax transverse but much less explanate. 

7.{8)Tubercles on elytra rounded or conical... . M. tihialia, n.sp. 

8. (7)Tubercles on elytra elongate, much less strongly raised 

M. ohaoletics, n.sp. 

9 (2).Sides of prothorax with tul)ercles forming a cluster in middle of 
lateral margin. 

10.(ll)Elytral tubercles black iV. Schiinherri Hope. 

ll.(10)Elytral tubercles reddish M. LeAchhardti Macleay. 

12. (l)Prothorax more or le.ss closely granulate: eves prominent 

.. M. Boisfdvvali Roisd. 

Macramycterus draco W. S. Macleay. 

W. S. ^[acleay (Phalidura), Kin g-^s Survey, ii., App., 1827, p. 
244; W. Macleay {Amt/clerus), Trans. Ent. Soc. N. S. Wales, i., 
1805, p. 266. 

(Plate xiv., figs.l, 2.) 

Type, Ph. draco W. S. Macleay, ^. Elongate, robust, pro- 
thorax widely anipliate. Black, with patches of greyish clothing 
on sides, a few greyish scales on elytra. 

Head with middle of concavity strongly raised, elongately tri- 
angular. Rostrum with tlie internal ridges moderately strong, 
practically meeting. Eyes subrotundate. Prothorax(6 x 10 mm.) 
strongly ampliate-explanate, disc with median and su))lateral areas 
obsoletely furrowed, median line of tubercles four in number on 
each side, subconical, briefly tiansverse ; sides explanate, with six 
laterally projecting' tnl)cicles or teeth, widest across at level of 



238 REVISION OF THE AMYrTERIDES, iii.. 

rtt'tli, sixtli smaller, tlieiu-e very suddenly dimiiiishiiio' in width to 
base; apical and basal margins each with a row of small granules, 
width across base 5 mm. Elytra (16 x 10 mm.) : apex with a 
strong flange of six or seven tubercles on each side not extending to 
middle; disc between tubercles roughly granulate; suture granu- 
late; with four rows of strong tubercles, seven in the first row, ex- 
tending from near base to apex, strong, separate, conical, and 
spinose, especially on declivity; second row with eight from base 
to declivity, tubercles strong, closer together; third row with six 
spinose tubercles outwardly directed, from middle to near lateral 
flange; fourth I'ow with six^ large, outwardly directed tubercles, 
then with more obsolete ones : sides with rounded, obsolete 
tubercles. Beneath subnitid; fifth ventral segment concave, with 
scattered punctures; prosternal tubercles small but definite; an- 
terior tibia^ with s]")arse setae arising from small granules along tlie 
length of the tibia^. Dimensions: ^, 25 x 10 mm. 

Hal). — West Australia, King George Sound; type in ?klacleay 
Museum. 

The above desci'iption was drawn up from the type in the 
■Nlacleay Collection, which lias tlie elytral derm evidently granulose 
between the rows of tubercles. Recently, I have had a number of 
specimens submitted to me by the authorities of the South Aus- 
tralian ]\luseum. These I cannot sejiarate from M. draco, but they 
show a good deal of variation, both in shape and in the degree of 
granularity of the derm, so much as to cause me some doubt as to 
the validity of M. insignis as a species. All tliese specimens, which 
include three females, have the median prothoracic tubercles few in 
number, and, even if on this account alone, it seems advisable to 
give a distinguishing name to the form T have called M. insignis. 

Only the male Avas known to Macleay, but Lea has recently 
described the female ; the specimens ])efore me are, apart from tlie 
tubercles on the prothorax, extremely like the female I have 
described below as M. insig^iis, 9; they have, however, the centre 
of the forehead more convex, and the derm slightly more graiuilose. 
One male is labelled Northern Territory ; the others are from West 
Australia, without exact locality. 



BY E. W. FERf^USON. 239 

Mackamyctkrus insignis, n.sp. or \ai-. 
(Plate xiv., figs. 3, 4.) 

Size large, elongate, robust; t'einale })y far the larger and moi'e 
robust insect. Protliorax widely explauate, median tubercles vari- 
able in num})er, elytra strongly tu))erculate. Black, tubercles nitid, 
with sparse greyish clothing, generally abraded, sides maculate 
with white. 

(J. Head broad, forehead deeply concave, bounded by a pro- 
longation ))ackwards ol' the external rostral ridges, middle of cavity 
rather strongly raised, subcai inate; internal rostral ridges not pro- 
minent, rounded in appearance, short, strongly convergent, median 
area depressed, apex of rostrum widely but not deeply emargi- 
nate. Scrobes not definitely limited behind; undersurface of exter- 
nal ridges thickened in middle. Eyes subovate, deeply set. Pro- 
thorax (6x9 mm.) widely explanate-tuberculate at sides, sud- 
denly constricted before base, tubercles seven in number on left, 
five on right, flattened above, projecting laterally, graduated in 
size to middle, ai:)ical margin with a single row of small tubercles, 
a similar but smaller row along posterior margin ; an irregular row 
of tu])ercles on either side of median area, tubercles irregular in 
size, mainly transverse, not greatly elevated, ten in number on 
each side in type; median and sublateral areas smooth, save for 
some obsolete scarring, a few granules at base of median area. 
Sides with small granules, with a few, larger, flattened tubercles 
beneath lateral edge. Elytra(16 x 8 mm.) elongate, little dilatate, 
apex strongly rounded, with a flange of small tubercles, absent in 
centre; base subtruncate, humeral angle with a small tubercle ]>ro- 
jecting laterally. Disc with lines of minute punctures, subtended 
l)y small set.-e, hardly traceable into striae, only clearly seen where 
tubercles are deficient; with rows of strong tubercles, suture with 
a row of fine granules, first row with five or six tubercles, not 
extending to base, last two on declivity, conical; second row with 
six or seven from base to edge of declivity, the last one conical; a 
single tubercle corresponding to fourth interstice; third row with 
conical tu])ercles commencing from the middle, and extending 
down declivitv; fourth with six strong tubercles from humei-al 



240 UEVISION OF THE AMYCTERIDES, iii.. 

aiitile to middle, tlieiu-o as smaller tiattened tiibeivles external to 
third row. Sides striate, interstices with small. Hattened tubercles. 
Fifth ventral seirment with an irregular mesial depression rather 
strongly ]>un(tured. Penis with apex emarginate. lateral angles 
strongly jn-oduced. out-turned. Tibijr long, anterior with a tew 
small dentiform projections on under surface. 

9. Ltirger, more robust: bead and rostrum as in g. Pro- 
tborax (7 x 11mm.) widely explamite-tubereulate as in ^, mesial 
Tubercles small, transverse, rounded, somewhat depressed, very 
irregularly arranged, twelve on left and ten on right side in 
the type. Elytra (21 xl2mm.) more ampliate, more robust: 
apex strongly tlanged, the flange strongly mucronate in centre: 
disc, save for seriate punctures, sm(H)th between the tubercles: 
tirst r«)w with nine tul>ercles, last four on declivity conical: 
second row with eight : a row of three corresponding to fourth 
interstice: third row with nine, from midtlle extending down 
declivity, tirst four rounded, transverse, the others conical : 
fourth row with about eight, well defined transverse tubercles, 
then with more obsolete ones. Beneath convex: fiftli segment 
with strong, rugose punctures at apex. Di'metts/oits: g. '2d x 8nnu.: 
9, 35 X 12 mm. 

Hah. — West Australia. Kellerherrin. Oonjerdin : several speci- 
mens, without exact locality. 

When the description of this species was drawn up, I regarded 
it as distinct from M. draco, on account of the ditference in tiie 
granularity of the derm. I have had reason to <l(iubt tlie value of 
this feature, however, for separating the species, and it may he 
perhaps better to regard .1/. insiiviia as a variety of M. draco. A 
specimen ((J) received from Mr. Froggatt, has the prothoracic 
tubercles four on each side, but the derm is smooth between the 
tubercles. When the description was drawn up. I had. under 
examination, in addition to the types, six specimens belonging to 
the British Museum — one male and five females. The nuile and 
one female had the tubercles as in the types. The other four dif- 
fered in the nuu-h more numerous prothoracic tubercles, now hardly 
larger than granules: the elytral tuberc-les also appeared to be 



BY E. W. FERGUSON. 241 

more nnnierous. F\)r i)iirposes of fomparison. I append a short 
table sliowiiiu- tlie ditterence in the number of the prothoracie 
tubercles; the elytral tubercles are also given, numbered for con- 
venience according to the interstices on whicli tliey are situated, 
not according to rows. It is ])ossible tiuit these specimens should 
l)e regarded as a distinct species, and tlie examination of a series 
including the male, might settle tlie question ; but witli tiie material 
at present availal)le, I cannot consider them distinct from M. itisitf- 
ni<i, and only separate that species from M. draco with doubt. I 
would, therefore, pro tern., regard as M. dnico those species having 
the derm more or less grannlose, and the prothoracic tubercles 
few in number; as 31. in!<if)tns, tliose which have the prothoracic 
tubercles more or less numerous, and the derm non-granulose. at 
the same time recognising the existence of forms, intermediate or 
otherwise difficult to classify. 



Prothoracic tubercles. ^ Elytral tubercles. 

Left. Right. 2 3 4 6 7 



i. 


12 


10 1 


9 


8 


3 


9 


8 


Type 9 . M. infiignis. 


ii. 


19 


20 1 


12 


12 


4 


14 


10 


Fry Coll. 


iii. 


20 


17 ' 


9 


10 


5 


10 


s 


Fry Coll. 


iv. 


27 


25 


10 


11 


5 


12 


- 


W. Australia (blue label) 


V. 


19 


20 


8 


8 


3 


11 


s 


W. Australia (blue label) 



Macramycterus tibialis, n.sp. 
(Plate xiv., fig.9.) 

^. Large, elongate, subparallel. Black, tubercles nitid, prac- 
tically without clothing. Head and rostrum as in the genus, the 
convexity of the forehead wedge-shaped, suhcarinate: internal 
rostral ridges rather strongly convergent basal ly. 

Prothorax(5x 7 mm ) subdilatate on sides, apical margin with 
o))solete granules, median and sublateral s|)aces smooth, not stii- 
gose or cicatrised. Median tul)ercles six in nnmbei- on each side, 
rounded, slightly transverse and in single series; lateral border 
iu)t explanate, with a single row of tubercles, live in number, 
starting from tlie ai)ex. tlie Hrst very small, then grn<lually increas- 
ing in size to the mi<ldle une( the fourth), space between last and 



242 REVISION OF THE AMVCTERIDES, lii., 

base with only a small obsolete granule. Sides granulate, obsoletely 
so towards coxa?. Elytra (14 x 7 mm.) elongate, apex tlanged, 
tlange set with a row of small granules, suture not granulate; disc- 
between tubercles smooth, noi granulate, with very faint, obsolete 
traces of seriate punctures; tuberculate, first row with seven or 
eight large tubercles, rounded l)asally, becoming strongly conical 
posteriorly, extending from in front of middle almost to apex; 
second row with eight or nine from base to edge of declivity, basal 
ones slightly transverse, closer together, posterior ones more coni- 
cal, third with seven tubercles all conical, fourth with six conical 
tu))ercles from humeral tu))ercle (which is large and conical) to 
opposite commencement of third row, thence with four smaller, 
more obsolete ones; sides with two rows of obsolete tubercles. 
Beneath smooth, apical segment with a shallow, transverse impres- 
sion. Prosternal tubercles distinct. Anterior tibise with a strong 
triangular tooth, one-third of length of tibia from apex. Dlmoi- 
sions : (J, 22 X 7 mm. 

Hah.—\\e^\. Australia, Shark Bay. 

Probably nearest to 71/. it/signis mihi, but sides of prothorax not 
explanate, suture not granulate, humeral tubercle large, not the 
smallest of the row, tibial dentition different, etc. From J/. Schon- 
herri, which has a similar but smaller tibial dentition, it differs 
in the non-granulate suture, in the lateral prothoracic tubercles 
forming a single roAv, and in the much smaller elytral tubercles. 
From M. Le'uhhardti, it differs in the colour of the tubercles, in 
their smaller and less spinose shape, and in the prothoracic 
tubercles in single series at sides and on disc. From M. ohsoletus, 
the conical, non-Ilattened tubercles will serve (inler alia) to dis- 
tinguish it. 

Machamycterus obsoletus, n.sp. 
(Plate xiv., fig. 10.) 
(J. Large, elongate, subparallel. Black, without clothing, sub- 
nitid. 

Head and rostrum as in the genus; middle of forehead with 
the convexitv subcarinate, internal ridges rather strongly de- 



BY R. W. FRRHUROV. 243 

veloped. Prothorax(6 x 9 mm.) strongly transverse, apical margin 
with rather large, flattened granules irregularly arranged in two 
rows, basal margin with suialler, more rounded ones; median space 
wide, convex in michlle, smooth; sublateral spaces strongly longitn- 
dinally strigose; mesial row of tubercles with seven on eacli side, in 
single series with a tendency to duplication near base and apex, the 
individual tubercles transverse, depressed, flattened, the central 
tubercle being the largest; with a lateral row of five tubercles or 
dentations on each side, tubercles of same size and appearance as 
tiie mesial row. in single series as viewed from above (l)ut not so 
widely explanate as in M. draco) ; as viewed from the side, ar- 
I'anged in a cluster; sides strongly granulate, size of granules 
diminishing from above downwards. Elytra (17 x 9 mm.) elong- 
ate, apical margin with a flange of small tubercles, emargination 
feeble; disc subgranose between tubercles, suture with granules 
subobsolete, confluent; flrst. row of tubercles from near base to 
apex, consisting of four or five elongate, flattened tubercles, and 
two or three larger conical ones on declivity : second row from base 
to edge of declivity of about seven elongate tubercles, somewhat 
larger than in first row, last one rounded, hardly conical; fourth 
interstice with two elongate tubercles anterior to middle; third 
row of five rounded, ^ubeonical ones extending from middle; 
fourth row with about twelve, the first six. large, rounded, the 
I'emaining ones becoming progressively smaller. Sides with rows 
of somewhat flattened subcontiguous tubercles. Beneath subnitid, 
a]iical segment with a narrow transverse impression. Prosternal 
tubercles rather strong. Anteri(n' tibia? with a small group of 
teeth one-third of the length from apex. Penis strongly emargi- 
nate at apex, angles produced into subparallel horns. Dinienf^iovs: 
(J, 27 X 9 mm. 

Hah. — West Australia, Yilgarn. 

A single male under examination, readily distinguished froni all 
its congeners by the flattened appearance of both prothoracic and 
elytral tubercles. It comes nearest to .V. //?.s/_r/>y/.s, ])ut the difference 
in the tubercles is too great to allow of my considering it as a 
variety of that species. 



244 REVISION OF THE AMYCTERIDES, iii., 

After tlie above des(Ti]itioii of tlie male was drawn up, I received 
from Mr. Spry, of the National Museum, jNIelbourne, two speci- 
mens which, though differing considerably from the type, T never- 
lludess believe are females of this species. 

9. Large, robust, convex. Moderately densely clothed with 
very minute, broAvnish, subsetose scales, giving the insect a dingy 
appearance, elytral tubercles not clothed. 

Head and rostrum as in the male. Prothorax (6 x 9 mm.) 
similar to that of male, slightly more convex, derm not rugulose 
between the groups of tubercles, lateral group in single series, 
about seven in number, less promment than in the male, mesial 
groups similar, flattened, obscure, but about twice as numerous — 
fifteen to sixteen on each side; the median area broader. Elytra 
(20 X 12 mm.) convex, ovate, apex with a flange composed of a 
few granules, and with a strong uuicroniform projection on each 
side of suture, this latter not granulate; tubercles of hiterstices 
long, narrow, depressed, the second interstice extending practi- 
cally to the base, with eleven to fourteen tubercles, almost con- 
tinuous basally; tliird with ten similar tubercles ending at edge of 
declivity; fourth with three; fifth with a small humeral tubercle, 
and with a row^ of four isolated ones from behind shoulder to 
about the middle: sixth with six, rounded, hardly subconical 
tubercles, extending from near the middle down the declivity, 
slightly overlapping fifth; seventh with eight flattened ones, from 
base to beyond middle. Beneath convex, fifth segment with a 
transverse apical impression. Prosternal tubercles strongly 
developed. DimPiidona : 9, 33 x 1 2 mm. 

//a5. — AVest Australia, Nangeran (Enderbee, per F. P. >Spry). 

The differences between these specimens are all of the nature of 
sexual variation, which exists to a considera])le extent in this genus. 
The structure points strongly to the relation of these to 3/. ohfio- 
Jetus. I have descril)ed the tubercles according to the interstices, 
not according to the rows, as, in these specimens, the arrangement 
of the seriate punctures can l)e fairly definitely determined, where- 
as in most species the punctures are crowded out and brokeji u]"» 
})V the rows of tul)ercles. Examination of the position of the rows 



BY R. W. FERGUSON. 245 

oC (iibcrclcs shows llijil llic lirst and second rows arc silnal(!<l on 
tlic second and lliird inlersticcs irspecliNcI.N' : the thii-d row is icall\ 
on (lie sixtli interspace, and the I'ouilh on the sexenth; Ihc Ml'lh 
intci'sHce is. in most species, j-epresented l)y the huniei'al Inlx-ich' 
alone, while the I'oniih is iienerally unti-aceahh'. 

MA('!tAMV("rEKUH 8cji(;)\iiKi{Ki Hupe. 
^ Plate xiv., %s.7, 8.) 

lIojK', Trans. Eiit. Soc. IjoikL, i., 1836, p. 68, t.8, f.2: Bohem., 
Schh., Geii. Cure. vii.(i.), p.82: Maeleay, Trans. Eiit. !Soc. N. S. 
Wales, i., 1865, p. '268. 

(J. Large, elongate, sul)i)aranel. lilaek, subnitid, ])raetieally 
witliout clothing, a few minute grt3\'ish scales in parts. 

Head large, concave between external ridges, middle of con- 
cavity with the svu't'ace convex. Rostrum excavate, a small i)unc(i- 
iorm depression in midline at base; external ridges prominent, 
continued on to forehead; internal little raised, broad, apices meet- 
ing. Eyes rather deeply set. Prothorax (6 x 8 nnn.) ti'ansverse, 
angulate in middle of sides; with a row of strong, rounded 
tubercles, subconical and slightly trans\erse, on either side of 
middle, the space between wide and smooth; with a gi'oup of three 
or four smaller tubercles clustered at the lateral angle on each 
side; apical and basal nuirgins with a few granules, remainder of 
disc smooth, save for a few obsolete scars. Elytra (If x 8 mm.) 
with four roAvs of large, closely placed, subimbricated, conical 
tubercles, suture with a few granules, tirst row of four or live from 
behind middle down declivity, second row of live from base to edge 
of declivity, third row of five commencing about middle, the 
tubercles directed outwards and downwards, fourth row with ii\e 
strongly conical tubercles closely placed from base to conmience- 
ment of third row, thence continued on as a row of much less ele- 
vated, subconical tubercles. Sides with tubercles smaller, more or 
less flattened, their apices projecting posteriorly. Ventral seg- 
ments with sjiarse, fairly large punctures, fifth segment with a 
shallow impression, posterior edge raised. Prosternal tubercles 
ol)tuse. Anterior tibiae with a small spine or denticle one-third of 
the length from apex. 



246 REVISION OF JHR AMVCTERIDES, iii.. 

9- Larger, mure robust tluiii male. J lead and protliorax 
(7x10 mm.) similar. Elytra ( 17 x 10 mm.; mure uvate, apex 
with a strong;, granulate flange on each side; disc with rows of 
tubercles, situated not so close together, anterior tubercles of two 
inner rows more rounded, all tlie tubercles less acute, first row with 
tubercles more spaced out, second with seven, an intermediate row 
of one or two on fourth interstice, outer two rows as in ^. Be- 
neath strongly convex, fifth segment withont impression. Dimen- 
sions : (J, 23 X 8: 9, 27x10 mm. 

Hah. — West Australia. Swan Kiver. 

A very distinct species, having the protlioracic tubercles differ- 
ently arranged, and the elytral tubercles stronger than in all the 
other species. M. Le'uhhardti approaches it most nearly in these 
respects; but, inter alia, the colour of the tubercles will prevent 
their confusion. The central group of tubercles on the protliorax 
varies in number, and while most specimens possess only a few, 1 
have seen specimens possessing almost as many as some varieties 
of M. ins ignis. 

The description given by Hope is very short, and his figure is 
bad; but both clearly refer to the present species. 

Macka.mycterus Leichiiardti iMacleay. 
(Plate xiv., figs.5, 6.) 

Macleay, Trans. Ent. 80c. N. 8. Wales, i., 1865, p. 269; Lea, 
Trans. Hoy. 80c. 8. Aust., 1911, p.76. 

jj. — Type, Aniijcterus Leichhanlti Macleay. — Elongate, sub- 
parallel. Black, elytral tubercles retldisb: with feeble, nmddy 
grey clothing. 

Head with middle of concavity triangularly convex. Internal 
rostral ridges well defined, almost meeting, but separated by a 
groove. Eyes round. Prothorax(6 x8mm.) rather strongly trans- 
verse, subangulate on sides in front of middle, central and sul)- 
lateral spaces smooth, with obsolete hnigitudinal striae; median 
group of tubercles about twelve on each side, rounded in shape, a 
large one near a[)ex, followed by a smaller transverse one, and then 
by an irregular double row of smaller ones; lateral group consist- 
ing of similar but smaller tubercles mainly situated around lateral 



BY E. W FEnCUSON. 247 

anjilo. ill iiiimodiato aiiLilo liilxTclt's s<»nie\vlijil (tbsolete, sides 
granulate. Klytra (14 x 7 nun.) .sul)j)arallel, narrower tlian pro- 
tliorax, l)ase suhtrmicate, apex with a strong Hange of five or six 
tubercles, not extending tjuite to suture; disc between tul)erdes 
with obsolete punctures, suture practically non-granulate; 
tubercles strong, acute; tii-st row of ten extending from near base 
to ai)ex; second row of six from base to edge of declivity; thii'<l 
row with Hve. strong tubercles, outwardly and backwardly directed, 
from middle down declivity; fourth row with live, strong tubercles 
from shoulder to middle, thence Avith obsolete tubercles; sides with 
obsolete tul)ercles. Fifth ventral segment concave, not exca\atc. 
posterior border of segment raised. Prosternal tubercles small. 
Anterior tibia? with three or four strong setae beneath, a stronger 
seta arising from a small denticle two-thirds of tlie length from 
base. 

<^. Eh)ngate, more lobu^t than ^. Head and rostrum as in 
(^. Prothoraxf? x9inni.; strongly dilatate, subangulate: mesial 
group of tubercles small, about fourteen on each side, irregularly 
arranged in double series; laterally with numerous tubercles simi- 
lar to those in mesial group, the largest at tlie lateral angle, median 
and siiblateral spaces smootli. Elytra ( 18 x 10 mm. ) widest a 
little behind middle, apex with a strong flange of single tubercles, 
innermost tlie largest, mucroniform. the two flanges se})arated in 
middle l)y a well-marked emargination ; disc with small punctures 
traceable in striae; with rows of round or subconical tubercles of a 
moderate size, tirst row with nine, second with six. third with 
eight, fourth with six to middle, thence with obsolete ones, 
tubercles arranged in the same relative positions as in male; sides 
obsoletely rugose. Beneath convex; fifth segment without an 
impression ; prosternal tubercle small. Dimensions: ^J. ■22x7; 9- 
29 X 10 nnu. 

7/«6.— North Australia. Lynd liiveri Leichhardt. /rsfr Macleay ) ; 
West Australia. 

The description of the male was drawn u}) from the type in the 
Macleay INIuseum, that of the female from a specimen in my own 
collection. While })reseuting considerable difference in the size and 



248 REVISION OF THE AMYCTERIDES, ill., 

appearance oi' llie elytral tubercles. 1 believe both speciiiieiis lo 
belong- to but one species. Mr. Lea says tliat red is pr<)l)al)ly the 
normal colour of the tubercles; 1 believe it to be the invariabh> 
colour in this species. Maeleay, beyond describing the insect as 
^'ater,'" makes no mention of the colour of the tubercles; in the 
type, however, they are certainly reddish, though the colour lias 
been dimmed by age, and obscured probably by innuersion in pi-e- 
servative. ]\lacleay records the species as from Lynd Kiver, Xoith 
Australia. jNlost of the specimens I have seen, bore the lal)cl 
''West Australia," without exact locality; probal)ly it has a wide 
distribution. 

Macramycterus Boisduvali Boisd. 

Boisduval, Voy. de TAstrolabe, ii., 1835, p.393 ; Maeleay, loc. 
cit., p.266. 

(Plate xiv., tigs.11,12.) 

(J. Narrow elongate. Black, with minute S(piames, more 
numerous laterally (where they unite to form small patches). 

Head excavate between the ridges, these merging into head and 
losing their distinctness opposite the middle of the eye; central 
ridge distinctly carinate in front, broadening behind. Rostrum 
with mternal ridges low and broad, the median sulcus rather deep. 
Eyes not sunken, round, distinctly protuberant. Prothorax (5 x 
(3 nnn.) transverse, evenly rounded on sides, apex subtruncate, a 
fairly definite, transverse, subapical impression present, median 
Hue free from granules but not depressed, rest of disc set Avitli 
small, rounded granules, not contiguous and somewhat irregular in 
size, being slightly transverse near centre, and distinctly smaller 
along the sublateral areas; sides granulate. El}i;ra (12x6-5 mm. ) 
elongate, apex rounded, base truncate; disc with obsolete punctures 
or small fovese hardly traceable in series, tuberculate in four rows, 
tubercles strong, conical, projecting backwards; first row with 
three or four extending from behind middle down declivity; 
second row with four from base to middle, the tubercles far apart, 
and increasing in size from base ; third row of four, not extending 
to base or apex, tubercles separate, increasing in size posteriorly; 



BY E. W. FERGUSOX. 249 

fourth row with a rounded humeral one, and four small tubercles 
or granules, tubercles wanting beyond level of commencement of 
third row. Sides smooth, with obsolete punctures. Beneath set 
with minute, setigerous granules; apical segment with a slight 
impression at apex. Anterior tibiae without denticles. 

9- Larger, more obese; head, rostrum, and protborax similar. 
Clothing rather denser. Elytra (14x9 mm.) more convex, 
strongly ampliate, tubercles more numerous, smaller, rounded, at 
most subconical; first row of five increasing in size from near base 
to declivity, and two decreasing in size on declivity; second with 
eight, rather more closely set, extending back with a slight inclina- 
tion outwards to behind middle ; third witli six, rather closer to- 
gether, and smaller; fourth with about four small ones; sides 
without tubercles or granules. Beneath convex, with minute gran- 
ules as in male; no impression on apical segment. Dimensions: 
(J, 20 X 6-5; 9, 23 x 9 mm. 

Hah. — West Australia, King George Sound. 

Very distinct from all its congeners, and possibly requiring a 
separate genus. The protuberant eyes, and the granulate prothorax 
seem almost to be of generic importance. 

Specimens of (J(F) and 9(^) were kindly forwarded, for me, 
by Mr. A. M. Lea, to M. Lesne, of the Museum d'Histoire Natu- 
relle, Paris, for comparison with the type. In reply, M. Lesne 
states: "Nous n'avons pas le type, qui faisait partie de la collec- 
tion Dupont; mais le specimen F. est bien conforme a un exem- 
plaire de la collection Fairmaire determine 'Am.BoisduvaliBoisd.,' 
par Bohemann. G. est conforme aux specimens que nous possedons 
sous le nom de Am. Mannerheimi Schonh." 

Chriotyphus Pascoe 
Pasc, Journ. Linn. Soc, xii., 1873, p. 19, t. 2, f. 10. 
Type of genus, Chriotyphus acromialis Pasc. 
Head strongly convex, separated from rostrum by a narrow, 
deep, circumferential sulcus. Rostrum considerably narrower 
than head ; dorsal surface narrow, with a deeply impressed median 
line, separating dorsum into two parallel ridges, these feebly bifur- 

3 



250 REVISION OF THE AMYCTERIDES, iii., 

cate at base, tlie inner portion slightly raised, the outer extending 
outwards, downwards, and backwards towards eye. Serobes 
curved. Eyes large, ovate. Scape long. The rest as in Talaurinus. 

I have grave doubts as to the correctness of the position assigned 
to Chriotyphus among the long-scaped genera. To my mind, the 
cliaracters of the rostrum show much more affinity to several 
Euomid genera; indeed its structure is practically identical with 
that of Alexirhea, a genus which was also originally placed among 
the long-scaped Amycterides. There is such considerable difference 
of rostral structure in the Euomides, that I cannot regard them as 
constituting a homogeneous group, but a good deal of further 
study is required on this point. 

I have preferred, therefore, to describe here the species of 
Chriotyphus known to me, leaving Alexirhea (w^hich, however, I 
regard as its nearest ally) to be dealt with later. 

Chriotyphus acromialts Pasc, loc. cit., p. 19. 

Of the genus Chriotyphus, there are, before me, specimens which 
I would refer to two different species. Unfortunately, I am not 
absolutely certain which species is C. acromialis Pasc. One species 
is represented by a female from Swan River, the other by a pair 
from Onslow. The original specimens of C. acromialis came from 
Champion Bay. 

Some little time ago, I sent my specimens to the British Museum 
for comparison with the type. In reply, Mr. K. G. Blair kindly 
wrote: "15, (Swan River specimen) agrees very well with type of 
Ch. aeromialis Pasc, though the latter has not the purplish hue of 
light colour, and the distribution of the dark colour does not quite 
agree. In both these respects, our series shows considerable varia- 
tion, one specimen (Swan River) being closer than others, though 
another approaches very closely to type. Type has no tibial brush 
and appears to be of the same sex as yours." 

"14-14a, have elytral tubercles distinctly smaller, and are more 
scantily clad. They also appear longer and narrower; thoracic 
tubercles seem to me similar, though, in w^ell clothed specimens, 
they are almost hidden in light bands. One specimen of ours 



BY E. VV. FERGUSON. 251 

agrees with yours in shape (also in sloping more gradually behind), 
and has the tibial brush, though slightly less developed. It is from 
Gascoyue." 

From tlie above, it is fairly certain that my Swan River speci- 
men belongs to C. acromialis, and as, in its clothing, it differs 
rather considerably from the description of the type, I here give a 
description of the clothing, together with the chief points of dif- 
ference between it and C. tibialis. 

9. (Swan River). Clothing with the light portion forming a 
longitudinal band along each side of dorsum of head, prothorax and 
elytra, median line of prothorax with a similar though narrower 
vitta, disc of elytra mainly clothed with intermingled greyish and 
ochraceous subpubescence, centre of head, prothorax (except vit- 
t£e), irregular macules on elytra, especially near declivity, black. 
Prothorax with smaller granules than in C. tibialis, more obscured 
by clothing, apparently absent along vittse; elytra with granules 
smaller basally, larger, almost tuberculiform, about declivity, these 
most marked on second interstice, less so on third and fourth; 
tubercles not extending more than half-way down declivity. 

I am indebted, for my specimen, to Mr. H. J. Carter, who cap- 
tured it crawling along a path in King's Park, Perth. 

Chriotyphus tibialis, n.sp. 

^. Elongate, ovate, small. Black; densely clothed with dull 
golden-brown subpubescence, feebly trivittate on prothorax and 
near lateral border of elytra with lighter yellow or greyish, head 
vfiih yellow supraorbital vittae, elytra obscurely maculate with 
brown ; beneath with greyish-yellow clothing at sides of basal seg- 
ments and covering the greater parts of the last three segments, 
irrorate with small, dark spots; median vitta brownish. 

Head strongly convex, with a feeble, longitudinal impression 
and rather obscure rugose punctures in front near base of rostrum. 
Rostrum as in the genus. Prothorax (3 x 3-5 mm.) rounded on 
sides, with feeble ocular lobes; disc with a narrow, subapical con- 
striction; regularly set with moderately small, round granules, the 
apices feebly flattened and crateriform, each bearing a moderately 



252 REVISION OF THE AMYCTERIDEfc^ iii. 

long, black, decumbent seta. Sides granulate. Elytra (9x5 
mm.) elongate, ovate, apex moderately produced; base arcuate, 
with humeral angles strongly produced anteriorly; disc foveo- 
striate, the foveas small, shallow, punctiform; interstices with 
small, closely set, somewhat umbilicate, setigerous grannies, for the 
most part in single series, more or less obscured by the clothing; 
granules on second interstice slightly larger about declivity; gran- 
nies on interstices not extending down the whole of declivity. Be- 
neath without impressions. Anterior tibisB with a strong, hirsute 
brush on outer two-thirds of undersurface. 

9. Very similar, rather more ovate, without median vitta and 
convex beneath; tibia? simple. Dimensions'. (J, 13x5 mm.; 
9, 13 X 5*5 mm. 

fl"«b.— West AustraUa, Onslow (C. French). Type in Coll. 
Ferguson. 

Very similar to C. acromialis; apart from clothing, the differ- 
ences set down under that species appear sufficient to separate 
them. Unfortunately, I have never seen a male of C. acromialis, 
and do not know whether it possesses the tibial brush. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE XIV 
(Figures slightly smaller than natural size.) 

Fig.l. — Macramycterus draco W. S. Macleay,^. 
Fig. 2. — Macramycterus draco W. S. Macleay,Q. 
Fig.3. — Macramycterus i7isignis, n.sp.,^(type). 
Fig. 4. — Macramycterus insignis, n. sp. , 9 ( ty pe ). 
Fig.5. — Macramycterus Leichhardti Maclea}',^. 
Fig. 6. — Macrainycterus Leichhardti Macleay,o. 
Fig. 7. — Macramycterus Schonherri Hope,^. 
F.ig.8. — Macramycterus Schonherri Hope,Q. 
Fig.9. — Macramycterus tibialis, n.sp.,^(t3'pe). 
Y'lo.lO. -Macramycterus ohsoletus, n.sp.,^(type). 
Fig. IL — Macramycterus Boisduvali Boisd.,^. 
Fig. 12. —Macramycterus Boisduvali Boisd.,9. 

(From a photograph by H. V. Macintosh.) 



253 



ORDINARY MONTHLY MEETING. 

June 24th, 1914. 

Mr. C. Hedley, F.L.S., Vice-President, in the Chair. 

Mr. Reginald W Brp:tnall, Gower Street, Summer Hill, was 
elected an Ordinary Member of the Society. 

A communication from Mr. James A Barr, Manager of the 
Panama Pacific International Exposition, 1915, and Director of 
Congresses, was read to the Meeting by the Secretaiy. Congresses, 
Conferences, and Conventions are to be a feature of the Exposi- 
tion; and the Society had been invited to take part by holding a 
Meeting The Council was desirous of ascertaining what Mem- 
bers were likely to be able to visit the Exposition, so that a 
reply might be sent to Mr. Barr, who is engaged in drawing up 
his programme. The Secretary, therefore, would be glad to hear 
as soon as possible from Members who were contemplating a visit 
to San Francisco in 1915. 

The Donations and Exchanges received since the previous 
Monthly Meeting (27th May, 1914), amounting to 15 Vols., 
70 Parts or Nos., 18 Bulletins, 5 Reports, and 2 Pamphlets, 
received from 41 Societies, etc., and two private donors, were laid 
upon the table. 

NOTES AND EXHIBITS. 

Mr. W. W. Froggatt exhibited for his son, Mr. J. L. Froggatt, 
specimens of fossil-bones obtained at Cuddie Spring, on Gilgoan 
Station, Barwon River. Cuddie Spring is in the centre of a 
sandy depression of about 10-15 acres in extent, in open forest- 
land, about 15 miles from Mr. Allan Yeomans' homestead. When 
the locality was first discovered, a mud-spring existed. Mr. 
Yeomans sunk a well about 80 feet, and obtained a fine supply 



254 NOTES AND EXHIBITS. 

of water. At 8 feet from the surface, passing through very 
sandy loam, a deposit of bones, several feet in thickness, was 
discovered. Those exhibited were some that had been thrown 
out in the course of excavating. It is probable that there is a 
large deposit of fossil-bones that could be very easily unearthed 
in the soft loam (of what appears to have been a subartesian 
spring), and that it is well worthy of investigation by geologists. 
The authorities of the Mines Department, some years ago, sent 
collectors to visit the spot; but, at that time, the depression was 
a sheet of water due to local rains, and the specimens collected 
were simply those lying on the surface. No excavations have 
been made except in this one well. Cuddie Spring is on a free- 
hold block of 100 acres, owned by Mr. Allan Yeomans; but 
authority could be obtained by the Geological Department to 
investigate this unique deposit. 

Mr. A. A. Hamilton exhibited, from the National Herbarium, 
a series of cultivated examples of Cale7idula ojfici^ialis L., from 
the Sydney Botanic Gardens, showing prolification accompanied 
by various alterations of position. — Two forms of Bceckea densi- 
folia Sm., from the Blue Mountains, showing the effect of 
environment. The specimen from Valley Heights(about 1,000ft.) 
growing in a sheltered position, is a slender plant with rampant 
branches, and small fine leaves. The example from Newnes 
Junction (about 3,500 feet), which grows on the stony soil of a 
denuded hillside, exposed to the westerly winds, is a closely 
packed shrub, with coarse leaves and virgate branches, the whole 
plant showing the effects of the harsh conditions. — Acacia 
melanoxylon R.Br., from Austinmer, exhibiting changes of 
juvenile and adult foliage. The examples exhibited were taken 
in one case from plants 6 ft. high with pinnate (juvenile) leaves, 
which were then commencing to produce phyllodes. In the 
other form, plants 15 ft. high, with the foliage exclusively adult, 
were found reverting to the juvenile stage. — A series of leaves of 
Daviesia corymhosa Sm., showing variation, from rotundate to 
linear, obtuse, acute to long acuminate, and ranging from 1 in. 
to 7 in. long, and from 2^ in. to 1 line broad. 



I 



NOTES AND EXHIBITS. 255 

Mr. E. Clieel exhibited normal specimens of a Puff-ball (/iom- 
stella aspera Lloyd), together with other examples of what 
appeared to be the same species, having an outer shell or coating 
of cemented sand and other particles of earth adhering to the 
peridium. He suggested that the original olive-brown coloured 
spores had been ejected or washed out by rain, and the gleba 
or capillitiura left intact within the peridium; but that was now 
infested with another species of fungus resembling the moulds, 
which, together with the sterile base of the capillitium or gleba, 
was of a light slate-like colour, with an abundance of spores, so 
that tiie whole mass of hyphse somewhat resembled the kernel 
of a nut. The specimens were found at Hill Top, on the Southern 
line, usually on the surface or partially buried in the soil. Speci- 
mens identical with those exhibited, were collected at AVombeyan 
Caves in October, 1905, by Messrs. J. H. Maiden, R. H. Cam- 
bage, and E. C. Andrews, and are in the National Herbarium 
Collection, bearing a note from the late Mr. A. Grant as follows : 
— "I have examined the 'Insect-cocoons,' and found them to 
consist of a hard outer mud-wall; within this, and in close appo- 
sition to it, is a second wall composed of papier-macie material 
next to this is a soft, felt-like mass of soft material which, on 
being disturbed, sends up a cloud of very fine dust. This dust, 
on being examined under the microscope, is found to be composed 
of a; mass of fungus gonidia. This felt-like material completely 
envelops an inner, hard kernel of considerable size, and on wash- 
ing away the gonidia, a number of effete gonidiophores are 
revealed, which have grown from the kernel, and are still com- 
pletely attached to it." In the Society's Proceedings for 1905, 
p. 351, Mr. R. T. Baker recorded some notes on apparently the 
same kind of objects, collected at Wombeyan, Taralga, by Mr. H. 
J. O'Neill. 

Mr. L. Harrison exhibited specimens of, and offered remarks 
upon — (a) Two species of Pauropoda, an Order of minute myria- 
pods not hitherto recorded from Australia. The larger of the 
two species shares with Stylopaurojnis pedtinculatus of Europe 
the distinction of being the largest known pauropods, both 



256 NOTES AND EXHIBITS. 

attaining a length of IS mm. It has been found under bark 
upon the ground, in great numbers, at Lindfield, during June. 
Eggs, and larval stages with three, five, six, and eight pairs of 
legs were also exhibited. The stage with seven pairs of legs, 
recorded by Lubbock for the European Panropus huxleyi, is not 
present in the life-history of the Australian form. The eggs 
have not hitherto been found. Living individuals of this species, 
which had been in captivity for three weeks, and seemed to 
flourish in a tube containing some damp earth, were also shown. 
The second species has a smaller and more slender form, being 
less than 1 mm. in length, and is considerably rarer than the 
first, only about a dozen specimens having been taken. The 
species are generically distinct, and belong to the family Pauro- 
podidcE. As they do not conform to the short diagnosis given 
by Bagnall (Trans. Newcastle Nat. Hist. Soc, 1910), of the two 
genera comprising this family, they will probably have to be 
made the types of new genera. — (6) A species of Scutigerella, 
belonging to the second Order of minute myriapods, the Syyn- 
phyla. The only previous records of the occurrence of the Order, 
in Australia, are both West Australian. A species of Scutigerella 
is described in Michaelsen's " Fauna biid-west Australiens"; and 
Alexander (Rept. Aust. Assoc. Adv. Sci., 1913; records the oc- 
currence of a species of Scolopendrella about Perth, which is pro- 
bably the same species. Found under bark, Lindfield. — (c) A 
specimen of Geonemertes au8traliensis Dendy, taken under bark 
at Lindfield. The species has not previously been taken about 
Sydney. — (o?) Two individuals of a species oi Pontobdella, taken 
on the under side of stones in rock -pools at Long Reef, a some- 
what unusual situation. — (e) Specimens of the primitive thysa- 
nu ran insect Campodea. Alexander (/.c, 1913) states that it is 
unknown outside the Holarctic Region. It is very plentiful 
under logs and bark in the University grounds, at Lindfield, and 
in many other localities about Sydney. — (/) Two individuals of a 
species of Myriothela{Hydroidea) found under a stone at Thirroul. 
Only one species has hitherto been recorded for the Southern 
Hemisphere {M. austro-georgicp, from the Antarctic Regions,). 



257 



ADDITIONAL NOTES ON THE FERNS OF LORD 
HOWE ISLAND. 

By the Rev. W. Walter Watts. 

These Notes are the rev^ult, i^artly of the observations made by 
Mr. R. B. Oliver, of Auckland, during a recent trip, and partly of 
my own further investigations. 

i. Polystichum. 

In my paper on ''The Ferns of Lord Howe Island" (These Pro- 
ceedings, 1912, p. 395), I referred to the fern known on the Island 
as the ''Heavy Fern," as Polystichum Moorei Christ. This was due 
to the fact that this fern was so named in the National Herbarium, 
Sydney, and that the late Mr. E. Bete he had made the following- 
note on the cover: ''Not specifically different from Aspidium adi- 
antiforme (Forst.) J.Sm., {A. capense Willd.), according to KeAv, 
but Christensen supports the view of Christ, and keeps it as a dis- 
tinct species." I did not attempt to go behind this; and when Dr. 
Christ wrote, after examining the small fern that Edward King 
had collected for me, that it appeared to him to be but an umbra- 
geous variety of F. Moorei, I took it for granted that he was com- 
paring it with the so-called "Heavy Fern," and, therefore, set up 
the smaller one as a new species, under the name, Polystichum 
Kingii. Mr. Oliver was the fii-st to suggest a doubt regarding the 
identity of Dr. Christ's P. Moorei; and the result of further in- 
quirj^, ending in a letter from Dr. Christ himself, was the convic- 
tion that P. Moorei (originally returned as P. aculeatum, var. 
Moorei) was not the "heavy fern," but was identical with my P. 
Kingii. The position now stands thus: P. Kingii becomes n 



258 THK FERNS OF LORD HOWE ISLAND, 

synonym of P. Moorei, and tlie "heavy fern" has to be described 
as a new species. I am dedicating it to Mr. Thomas Whitelegge, 
who was, apparently, the first to point out how tliis fern differed 
from P. capense, with which it had been identified. 

1. P. MooREi Christ. 

P. aculeatum var. Moorei Christ, in Proc. Linn. 8oc. N.S.Wales, 
1898, p. 146; P. Kingii Watts, Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.Wales, 1912, 
p. 101. 

Western base of Mt. Gower (King, Oliver). 

Var. TENEiiUM, var.no v.; f. umbrosa, op. cit., 1912, p. 403. 

Tenerius, paleis ad stipitis basin dense et pnlchre confertis, 
stipiti supra et rhachidi subnudis. 

Dr. Christ thought this an umbrageous form of P. Moorei, but it 
is doubtful if it is limited to specially shaded places. 

Among rocks at mouth of Soldier Creek (Maiden) ; base of Mt. 
Gower (King). 

2. P. Whitkleggki, sp.nov. 

P. acliantiforme (Forst.), J.Sm. (P. capense Willd.), fid. Kew; 
P. Moorei Christ, fid. Betche in Herb. Syd., and Watts, loc. cit.; 
local name "Heavy Fern." 

Rhizoma erectum robustum, fibrosis radiculis atris,' validis densis 
instructum; stipes validus, ad 75cm. longus, paleis brunneis dense 
vestitus, mfra magnis fusco-brunneis, supra parvulis teneris pal- 
lido-brunneis ; rhachis et costee paleis similibus vestitae; frons 
ovato-lanceolata vel subtriangularis, subinsequalis, plus minusve 
curvata, pinnis lanceolatis acuminatis, sursum curvatis, piimulis 
numerosis lanceolatis sursum curvatis, pinnatilobis, lobis inferiori- 
bus ad rhachidem divisis, segmentis integris vel crenulatis vel sub- 
lobatis, aeroscopicis evolutioribus, margin ibus plus minusve recur- 
vis; sori pernumerosi, interdum fere integram frondis faciem sub- 
tus tegentes, indusio magno rotundo membranaceo, facile cadenti, 
marginibus subrecurvis. 

Fairl}^ common on mountain-slopes. 



I 



BY WALTER W. WATTS. 259 

This fern is certainly distinct from P. adiantiformr (capeiise), 
which has a creeping- rhizome, a Hrmer and more persistent indu- 
sium, and other distinguishing characters. P. adiantiforme must 
now be removed from the flora of Lord Howe Island. 

ii. Dryopteris. 

D. apicalis, D. neplirodioides, and D. decomposila have been 
recorded from the Island, the first two as indigenous. D. apicalis 
is very rare. I did not tind it during my many excursions to dif- 
ferent parts of the Island, but Mr. Oliver has sent me a specimen 
of what certainly appears to be this species. I am not quite sure 
that there has not been some confusion between D. apicalis and i>. 
nephrodioides. The latter is described (H. B. Syn., p. 266) as hav- 
ing the rhaehis smooth on the under side, and the sori solitary on 
the anterior side of each lobe; while D. apicalis is said {ibid., p. 
499) to have the rhaehis ''glanduloso-pilose," and the sori at the 
sinuses of the lobes. The specimens labelled D. nephrodioides in 
the National Herbarium, Sydney, however, scarcely have a smooth 
rhaehis, and the placing of the sori is not always easy to distin- 
guish with certainty. Christensen (Index Fil.) regards D. nephro- 
dioides as a variety of D. decomposita, but, as the late Mr. Betche 
remarked, in an Herbarium note, he cannot have seen a specimen. 
Both D. apicalis and D. nephrodioides must stand for the present, 
but I have not seen an undoubted specimen of D. decomposita from 
the Island. 

iii. Marattia. 

The Marattia of Lord Howe Island deserves closer study. Domin, 
in his "Beitriige," regards it as J/, fraxinea simply, and denies it 
rank even as var. salicina (Sm.), under which name I previously 
recorded it. But, after seeing and examining many specimens of 
M. fraxinea in North Queensland, I am convinced that the var. 
salicina, in which the sori are much less numerous, considerably 
larger, and more medial than marginal, ought to stand. Both the 
Lord Howe fern and that of North Queensland are growing in my 
bush-house, and the differences, in the young forms, are most 
marked. 



260 THB FERNS OF LORD HOWE ISLAND, 

iv. Ophioglossum. 
In my paper on ''The Ferns of Lord Howe Island," I recorded 
Ophioglossum vulgatum L., as new to the Island. Since then, I 
have gone carefully into the question of the geographical distribu- 
tion of this remarkable plant. Christensen, in his Index Fil., fol- 
lows those w^ho exclude 0. vulgatum from Australia, limiting it to 
"Europe. Madeira, Amer. bor., Asia occ," and assigning to Aus- 
tralia and New Zealand several distinct species, as follows: 0. 
Biefrichice Prantl, 0. Prantlii C. Chr., {0. lanceolatum Prantl), 
0. costatum R. Br., 0. Luersseni Prantl, 0. minimum Hook, fil., 
O. coriaceiim A. Cunn., (0. gramineum R. Br.), and 0. peduncu- 
losum Desv. My Lord Howe specimens, therefore, had to be re- 
examined. Tlie result has been to convince me that tlie supposed 
Australian si^ecies show" so few decided differences from 0. vulga- 
tum as to be indistinguishable, except as varieties, or even forms. 
In this, I follow C. Luerssen, wlio, in the Journ. Mus. Godeff., iii. 
233ff(1875), subjected the genus to exhaustive examination and 
figured the various Australian forms with much patience. Domin 
also, in his ''Beitriige zur Flora und Pflanzengeographie Austral- 
iens," Vol i., accepts the findings of Luerssen. The fact is, the 
apparent differences are not constant. Lueressen shows, it seems 
to me conclusively, that no distinctive specific characters are to be 
found in («) the number of leaves springing from one rhizome, 
{b) the length of the common stipes, (c) the form of the sterile 
leaf-section, {d) the relation between the sterile and fertile 
parts, (e) the vascular formation of the stipes, (/) the num- 
ber of the sporangia and the form of the sterile apex, (g) the 
nervature of the sterile part of the leaf, (h) the form of the sur- 
face-cells of the sterile leaf-section, (i) the presence or absence of 
a central nerve, (k) the shape and character of the spores. Where 
the variations are so marked, and the different forms run into one 
another so freely, it would seem preferable to give the name 0. 
vulgatum L., to all the specimens, with some indication of the 
general form of the plant collected, such as is attempted in the 
names "gramineum'' and "lanceolatum." For the present, I re- 
cord the Lord Howe si^ecimens as O. vulgatum L., var. lanceolatum 
Luerss. 



BY WALTER W. WATTS. 261 

V. Trke-Ferns. 

Mr. Oliver, at my suggestion, made careful notes of tlie cliarao- 
teristies of the Tree-Ferns of the Island, and 1 am venturing to 
reproduce his notes in their entirety. 

^'Alsophila robusta C. Moore. — Trunk smooth, with clean, dis- 
tinct scars. Dead fronds fall away. Stipes with linear, hrown 
scales at base. Khachis and costa? muricate througliout. No scales 
or tomentum." [But see description below.] 

"Hemitelia Moorei Bak. — Trunk rough with broken stipes of 
fallen fronds. Stipes covered with dense, linear scales. Rhachis 
and base of costae with scales more or less tliickly over tlie whole 
undersurface, and muricate below the scales; upper surface simi- 
lar, but fewer scales and fewer prickles; costae tomentose above." 

^'Cyathea brevipinna Bak. — Trunk smooth, with clean, distinct 
scars. A few scales at the base of the inner stipes; otherwise 
stipes, rhachis, and costae quite clean and muricate, except costae 
tomentose above." 

''Cyathea Macarthurii Bak. — Trunk rough with broken bases of 
fallen fronds. Dead fronds hanging from top of trunk. Stipes 
with long, linear, brown scales at base. Undersurface of rhachis 
and costae muricate, and with few scattered scales, and dense 
appressed tomentum," 

Tlie characters noted by Mr. Oliver are of the greatest impor- 
tance in the determination of the tree-ferns, the pinnae alone being 
often of little determinative value. 

Alsophila robusta was published in the Flora Australiensis as A. 
australis var. nigrescens, but it is an undoubted species, and 
Moore's name should be appropriated to this fine tree-fern. 

Alsophila robusta C. Moore, Herb. Syd.; A. australis ? var. 
nic/rescens Benth., Fl. Austr., vii., 711. 

Caudex 8-10 ped. altus, robustus, subglaber per frondicum cica- 
trices cadentium; stipes 3-5 dm. longus, turgidus, subglaucus, basi 
paleis linearibus longis (ad 4 em.) vel brevibus, albescentibus ad 
pallido-brunneis, serratis, dentibus brunneis nitentibus; frons 10-15 
dm. longa et 6-8 cm. lata, horizontaliter pinnata; pinnae ad 40 cm. 



262 THE FERNS OF LORD HOWE ISLAND. 

longae et 15 cm. latae, virides, breviter acuminatae, rhachidibus et 
costis in superiore latere dense tomentosis, siibtus muricatis, pune- 
tis cum apice rotundo brunneo nitenti; pinnulae creberrimae, ad 
10-12 cm. longae et 1-1-25 cm. latae, in pinnulas sessiles, falcatas 
divisae; pinnulis ii. integris vel crenulatis, pinnato-nervatis, mar- 
g'inibus recurvis ; sori 10-12 in singulis pinnulis ii. ; color laete-viri- 
dis, subtus subcaeruleus, siccitate fuscescens; textura firma sub- 
eoriacea. 

This fern is easily distinguished from all its congeners, even by 
the bluntish pinnae; the swollen base of the stipes is quite distinc- 
tive; it could only have been referred to ^1. australis through the 
insufficiency of the specimens available. 



263 



A REVISION OF THE MONAXONID SPECIES DE- 
SCRIBED AS NEW IN LENDENFELD'S "CATA- 
LOGUE OF THE SPONGES IN THE AUSTRALIAN 
MUSEUM." Part i. 

By E. F. Hallmann, B.Sc, Linnean Macleay Fellow of the 
Society in Zoology. 

(Plates xv.-xxiv.) 

Introduction. 

In view of the many serious inaccuracies found by Mr. White- 
legge and myself in the portions, revised by us, of the '• Cata- 
logue of the Sponges in the Australian Museum," and my further 
discovery that, contrary to Mr. Whitelegge's assumption, the 
specimens standing as the types of the species therein described 
are not in every case to be relied upon as authentic, I have 
deemed it advisable to continue much further my investigations 
in regard to those species before proceeding with other work 
intended for publication on Australian sponges. The results of 
these investigations, in so far as they pertain to the Monaxonida, 
it is the purpose of the present paper to set forth. 

The material upon which the revision has chiefly been based, 
consists of the reputedly original specimens preserved in the Aus- 
tralian Museum, and of sample-fragments of an incomplete 
duplicate set of specimens belonging to the British Museum. 
The correspondingly labelled specimens of the two sets, however, 
are not always in agreement; and among the latter are included 
examples of species which are not to be found in the existing 
collection of the Australian Museum. At the same time, a 
number of the Monaxonid species described in the Catalogue are 
unrepresented in either set of examples. In the case of the 
former specimens — all of which are labelled in Dr. Lendenfeld's 
own handwriting— the original labels, as a rule, bear only 



264 REVISION OF THE MONAXONID SPONGES, i., 

" manuscript " names, and for the published equivalents of tliese 
dependence has mainly to be placed on a synonymic list (herein- 
after referred to as the key-list) furnished by the author of the 
Catalogue at the request of the Museum Trustees some years 
after his departure from Australia : the specimens also have 
attached to them labels added by Mr. Whitelegge, indicating 
their correct names according to the key-list, and marking them 
to be the type-specimens. 

The examination of portion of this material, undertaken in 
connection with my previous paper, disclosed that many of the 
specimens were altogether incompatible with the descriptions of 
the species they purported to represent; and that, as a rule, con- 
siderable disagreement existed between description and specimen 
even in those cases in which the latter had to be adjudged as 
bevond question correctly labelled. So far as the evidence then 
forthcoming enabled one to determine, however, the discrepancies 
observed were, with two exceptions, such as it seemed necessary 
to attribute either to inaccuracy of observation on Dr. Lenden- 
feld's part or to a mislabelling of the specimens; the exceptions 
— both of which T referred to in my previous paper — were in 
connection, firstly, with Clathrissa arbnscula — the figure given 
in illustration of whicl) is in reality one of Clathriodendron arhus- 
cula\ and, secondly, with the two so-called varieties of Thalasso- 
dendron riihens, the descriptions of whose skeletal characters 
should be interchanged. The investigation of the remaining 
material, while proving the descriptions to be almost without 
exception faulty (often even to an extreme degree), has resulted 
in the discovery that errors of the kind last-mentioned are by no 
means of isolated occurrence in the Catalogue; in other words, 
that not a few of the figures are wrongly designated, and that 
in repeated instances the disparity between specimen and de- 
scription is in consequence of the fact that the description is an 
account partly of the external features of one species and partly 
of the internal features of another. The former of these extra- 
ordinary errors were comparatively easy of detection, and are in- 
dubitable, since the actual specimens from which the figures were 
taken have been found: but those affecting the descriptions only 



BY E. F. HALLMANN. 265 

became apparent, at a late stage of the investigation, as a result of 
accumulated circumstantial evidence, and have been responsible 
for the chief difficulties which the task of revision has presented. 
The alterations in nomenclature which have been found neces- 
sary in connection with the species revised are indicated in the 
lists given below. In the first list, the left-hand column gives 
the names under which the species were described or figured in 
the "Catalogue," and the right-hand the names of the species as 
now^ accepted. Where the original name is preceded by the 
sign t, it is intended to indicate that the species described by 
Whitelegge under that name w^as wrongly identified; the correct 
name of the latter species is given in the second synonymic list. 
In the case of each of the species whose name is followed by the 
sign + (only), there is good reason to believe that the original 
description was based upon two species, only one of which is w4th 
certainty known. The single asterisk(*) placed before several of 
the names indicates a doubt as to whether the specimen ex- 
amined was a genuine example of the species — and, accordingly, 
a doubt as to whether the name is really correct. Finally, the 
double asterisk(**) is employed to denote that the species is 
known only from its description; and where in addition the 
name is enclosed within brackets, the description is regarded as 
insufficient, even if it be correct, to enable one to say positively 
to what genus the species belongs. Certain of the last-mentioned 
species were referred to in my previous paper, and assigned 
doubtfully to the genus Wilsonella; but I now consider it better 
to allow them to remain under their original names. 

List A. — Synonymy of the Species, as far as revised by me, of 
Lendenfeld's "Catalogue.' 

Tethya multistella var. **Donatia lyncurium (?) var. multi- 

megastella stella. 

Tethya multisteUa var. **T)onatia lyncurium (?) var. 'micro- 

microstella stella. 

Tethya corticata. *Donatia ingaUi var. Javi.'^. 

Tethya fissurata Donatia fissurata. ^^ 

Tethya inflata "^Donatia inijalU var. IcBvis. 

Tethya phillipensis Donatia phillipensis. 

Tethya Icevis Donatia ingaUi var. la:i 




266 



REVISION OF THE MONAXONID SPONGES, 



Tethijorrhaphis Icevis 
Tethyorrhaphis tuherculata 
Tethyorrhaphis gigantea 
Tethyorrhaphis con ulosa 
Sollasella digitata 
Spirastrella australis^ 
rapillina panis (descr.) 

rapillina panis (fig.l) 

rapillina panis (fig. 2) 

rapillina ramulosa 

liaphyrus hixonil 

Fapillissa lutea 

Suherites ddmuncula 

Flectodendron elegans 

Chondrosia collectrix 

Beniera collectrix 
fEeniera australis 

Beniera megarrhaphea 

Beniera pandcea 

Beniera lobosa 

Fetrosia hehes 

Halichondria rubra 

Halichondria rubra var, 
digitata (descr.) 

Halichondria rubra var. 

digitata (fig.) 
i Halichondria mammiUata 
i Halichondria clath rifoi^mis 
fBeniochalina stalarjmitis 
fBeniochaltna lamella 

Stylotella digitata 

StyloteUcL polymastia (descr, 

Stylotella polymastia (fig.) 

Stylotella rigida 

Stylotella aplysillioides 

Bhizochalina ramsayi 

Bhizochaiina petrosia 

Gellius panis 
Gellius raphidiophora 
Tedania rubicunda 
Tedania laxa 
Tedania rubra 
Tedania tenuispina 



T ethyorrhaphis IcBvis. 
Tethyorrhaphis IcBvis. 
Tethyorrhaphis Icevis. 
Tethyorrhaphis Icevis. 
Sollasella digitata. 
Spirastrella (?) australis. 
Sixirastrella papillosa R. and D.-i- 

S. papillosa V. porosa Dj. 
Cl'iona {Fapillissa) lutea 
Spirastrella ( ?) ramulosa. 
Spirastrella (?) ramulosa. 
Cliona {Fapillissa) hixoni. 
Cliona {Fapillissa) lutea. 
*Suberites spp. 
Caulospongia elegans. 
Chondrosia (?) collectrix. 
Chondrosia { ?) collectrix. 
Beniera australis. 
Amorphinopsis megarrhaphea+ . 
H em.it edan ia a n o n ym a Crtr . + . 
** Beniera lobosa. 
Fetrosia hebes. 
Hemitedania anonyma Crtr. 
Hemitedania anonyma Crtr. 

Baspailia acjminata sp.n. 

**Hcdichondria (?) mummillata. 

Thrinacophora clathriformis. 
**Beniochalina stalagmitis. 
**Axinosia (?) lamella (? + ). 

Stylotella agminata Ridl. 
) Ciocalypta { ?) polymastia. 

Histoderma actinioides sp. n. 

Stylotella agminata Ridl. 
* *Hymeniacidon aplysillioides. 

Fhloeodictyon ramsayi. 

Fhloeodictyon petrosia. 
+ Ciocalypta (?) sp. 
** Gellius panis. 

Gellius raphidiophora. 

T. digitata var. rubicunda. 

Stylotella ag'minata Ridl. 

Tedania digitata var. rubra. 

Stylotella agminata Ridl. + . 



i 



BY E. F. KALLMANN. 



26: 



Sideroderma navicelligerum 

(descr.) 
Sideroderma navicelligerum 

(fig.) 

Sideroderma zittelii 

Eaperella ridleyi v. rohusfa 

Esperellu ridleyi var. inter- 
im edia 

Eaperella serpens 

Esperella peniciUium 

Myxilla jachsomana 

(Jlafhriodendron arhuscida 

(■lathriodendron irregularis 

Clathriodendron nigra 

Kalykenferon elegans 

Kalyhenteron silex 

Clathrissa arhuscula (descr.) 

Clathrissa arhuscula (fig.) 

Clathrissa elegans 

Clathrissa pumila 

Clathrissa pumila v. rubra 

Echinonema anchorat urn, 
V. ramosa 

Echinonema an choratum, 
V. dura 

Echinonema anchorat um 
V. lamella sa 

Echinonema levis 

Echinonema rubra 

Clathria macropora 

Clathria pyramida 

Clathria australis 

Thalassodendron digitata 
Thalassodendron typica 
Thalassodendron rubens 

V, dura 
Thalassoden dron ru h e n s 

V. lamella 
Thalassoden dron pa. u c ispin us 
Thalassodendron brevispina 

Thnlnssodendron vim inalis 

Plectispa elegans 



Hisfodrrnid actinioides sp. ii. 

Polymastia zitteli. 

Polymastia zitteli. 
Mycale ridleyi. 
Mycale ridleyi, 

Mycale serpens. 
M. {Par esperella) peniciUium. 
L issod e ndo ryx jackso n ian a . 
Clathriodendron arhuscula. 
*Clathriodendron (?) irregularis. 
Baspailia nigra. 

Echinodictyum hilamellatum Lam. 
Echinodictyum hilamellatum Lam. 
Clathrissa arborescens Ridl. 
Clathriodendron arhuscula. 

* Clathrissa (?) elegans. 

Crella incrustans Crtr. v. pumila. 
Crella incrustans Crtr. v. rubra. 
'*Echinonema [anchoratum, var.] 

ramosa 
'^Echinonema [anchoratum, var.] 

dura. 
'^Echinonema [anchoratum, var.] 
lamellosa. 
Crella incrustans Cr. v. levis(?+). 
Crella incrustans Cr. v. levis(?+). 
*Crella incrustans var. levis (?+) 
Wilsonella (?) pyramida. 
Crella incrustans v. arenacea 
Cr. (?+). 

* (Thalassodendron digitata). 
'' * ( Thalassoden dro n typi ca) . 

Clath ria ruhen s + JRhaphidoph lus 

paucispinus. 
Rhaphidophlus paucispi n us 

■i- Clathria rubens. 
Tthaphidophlus paucispin us. 
Phaphidophlus typicus Crtr. 

var. hrevispinus. 
Ophlitaspongia. hispida Crtr. 

var. viminalis. 
*E chin o clathria (?) elegans. 



268 



REVISION OF THE MONAXONfD SPONGES,!. 



Plectispa arborea 
Plectispa macropora 
Clathriopsamma lohosa 
Clathriopsamma reticulata 
Aide tin Jaxa 

Aulena gigantea 
AxineUa hispida v. gracilis 
Axinella hispida v. fenclJa 
AxineUa aurantiaca 
AxineUa inflata 
AxineUa ohtusa 
SpirophoreUa digitata 



Echinoclathria arborea. 
** {Plectispa macropora). 
Wilsonella australiensis+ . 
Bhaphidophlus reticula tus. 
"^Echinoclathria laxa. 
{? = E. gigantea). 
Echinoclathria gigantea. 
Paspailia gracilis^. 
Baspailia tenella + . 
Axi nelJa a u ran tia ca 
** (AxineUa inflata). 
**{.'ixineUa obtiisa). 
**Trachycladus digitatus {=:Spiro- 
phora digitata Ldf.) + . 



List B. — Synonymy of Monaxonid Species wrongly identified 

BY WhITELEGGE in HIS REVISION OF LeNDENFELD's " CATA- 
LOGUE " — (omitting Chalinin^). 
Reniera aiistralis(ss, p. 324) Reniera sp. 
I I alichoyidria mammiU ata{^%, Siphonochalina sp, 

p.282) 
Halichondria clathriformis{^Q^ 

p.282) 
Reniochalina stalagmitis (55, 

p.283) 
Reniochalina lameUa{sQ,^.2 8 3 ) 
Echino7iema aiichoratum var. 

ramosa{5i, p.81) 
Echinonema anchoratum var. 

o??*ra(54, p.81) 
Echinonema anchoratum var. 

lameUosa(si, p.82) 
Thalassodendron typica (54, p. 

86) 
Thalassodendron yuhens var. 

c?Mra(54, p.87) 



Chalina finitima, Whtlg. (non 

Schmidt). 
Axiamon folium g. et sp.ii. 

A xiamo7i folium g. et sp.n. 
Clathriodendron a^'huscula Ldf. 

Clathria(l) ind^irata, sp,n(l8). 

Clathria spicafa, sp.n (I8)* 

Echinodictyum hilamellatum 

Lamk. 
Rhaphidophlus paucispinus. 



*0n one page of my former paper(p.211) I have inadvertently referred 
to this species as G. diechinata, a name merely which it was at first my 



inteutiou to bestow on the species. 



BY K. P. KALLMANN. 269 

'rhalassodendrou viminalis{5i, Echinochalina intermedial \\t\g. 

p.87) 

Plectispa elegans{5i, p. 90) EchinocJathria arborea Ldf. 

Plect'ispa ar6or(5rt{54,p.89; 55, CJatJivia multipes, sp.n.(18). 

p,212) 

Plectispa inacropora{5ii, p. 89) Echinodathria ramosa, 8p.ii.(18). 

New genera have been established as follows -.—Hemitedania^ 
for Phaphisia ajionyma Carter ; Axiamon, for Reniochaiina 
lamella Whitelegge (non Lendeufeld); Pseudotrachya, for Solla- 
sella hystrix Topsent ; Stylissa, for Sfylotella Jiabelliformis 
Hentschel; and Axinosia {with Axinella s^/miio^ica Whitelegge, 
as type) to include Stylotella irregularis Kirkpatrick. Amor- 
phinopsis Carter and PapiUissa Lendenfeld have been revived — 
the latter provisionally as a subgenus of Cliona. Plectodendron 
Lendenfeld, is found to be identical with the almost forgotten 
Caulospongia Kent, and Strongylophora Dendy, to be a synonym 
of Petrosia. The genera SoUasella and Stylotella{s. sir.) are re- 
moved from the family Axinellidae and placed in the Donatiidse 
and Suberitidse respectively. 

For convenience of reference, I deal with the species in the 
same order and under the same names and family headings as in 
the Catalogue. 

Revision of the Species. 

Faniilia TETHYD^ ( = Donatiid^e). 

Genus T e t h Y a ( = Donatia). 

Of the difficulties which the identification of many of the 
species to be revised has presented, the greatest by far, from 
the point of view of the expenditure of time they have occasioned, 
have been those in connection with the several species of Tethya 
{i.e., Donafia). In the first place, it was found that the speci- 
mens labelled as the types of these species, excepting only T. 
in/lata, comprise in each case examples of two or three species 
(or varieties)— among them, in the case of 7\ corticata and 7\ 
hevis, being examples even of the genus Tethyorrhaphis (which 
outwardly are hardly to be distinguished from the accoinpanying 



270 REVISION OF THE MONAXONID SPONGES, 1., 

specimens of Donatio). And, secondly, the examination of all 
these specimens (some thirty in number), as well as many other 
examples of the genus from Port Jackson and its vicinity, 
resulted in my failure to discover any which accorded at all 
satisfactorily with the description of any one of the species. As 
a consequence, since it is practically certain that, with the 
scarcely to be doubted exception of T'. muJtistella, all the species 
in question are comprised amongst the specimens I have ex- 
amined, I have deemed it best to regard definitely as the types 
of these species in each case — T. multistella excepted — those of 
the specimens labelled as representing them which best accord 
with their respective descriptions. 

I have found the number of the rays of the spherasters to be 
very constant in specimens of the same species, and have, there- 
fore, attached importance to it as a specific character. The 
precise number of the rays not being exactly determinable (owing 
to their distribution over the surface of a sphere), I have stated, 
in the following descriptions, only the number of them that can 
actually be seen and counted. 

Tethya multistella. 

The " types," labelled as from Port Jackson, comprise three 
distinct forms, which all resemble Tethya multistella in having 
the surface subdivided into polygonal areas by pore-grooves, but 
not one of which admits of being identified with either of the 
varieties into which Lendenfeld divides the species. Some 
further specimens, left Iw Lendenfeld and exhibiting a tessellated 
surface, occur in the collection, labelled (wrongly so far as the 
specific name is concerned) " Tethya fissurata, Port Molle '; and 
these likewise are unidentifiable with T. multistella. As Len- 
denfeld records the species from Port Jackson, Port Phillip, Port 
Chalmers, and the Chatham Islands, it accordingly seems pro- 
bable that his description of it was based solely on specimens 
from one or other of the last-mentioned three localities, and that 
the specific identity of the Port Jackson specimens with these 
was merely assumed from their external resemblance thereto. It 
is not unlikely that the true types of T. tnultistella are in the 



BY E. F. KALLMANN. 271 

British Museum; though among the sponge-fragments whicli have 
been received from that Institution none labelled as T. multistella 
are included. 

The following brief descriptions of the several forms above 
mentioned — whicli on account of their surface-tessellation and 
their spiculation, could, I suppose, be designated varieties of 
Donatia lyncuriwrn — a.ve intended merel}'^ for the purpose of 
indicating the chief reasons against the acceptance of any of 
them as an example of the species here in question. 

i. This sponge, which is a common one in Port Jackson and 
adjacent localities in shallow water, is represented by a number 
of specimens. The spicules of the radial fibres are styli, which 
are generally sharp-pointed, and attain a size of about 1250 by 
16 ix\ the terminal spicules of the fibres project only a slight 
distance beyond the surface. Between the fibres in the outer 
region of the choanosome, fairh^ abundant radially directed 
slenderer megascleres occur, and in the spicular "nucleus" of the 
sponge are found comparatively short styli, some of which are 
less than 200 /x in length, Spherasters occur only in the cortex, 
and are comparatively very scarce even there; they are at most 
45 /x in total diameter, and are provided with straight, conical, 
smooth rays, the length of which may attain to three-fourths the 
diameter of the centrum, and the number of which (actually 
countable) varies from 14 to 18, Tylasters are plentiful in all 
parts of the sponge, most abundant in the superficial layer of the 
cortex; they seldom exceed 15/x in diameter and have the 
slightly expanded extremities of the rays minutely spined. 

ii, A single specimen, labelled as from Port Jackson, is remark- 
able in having spherasters, the surface of the rays of many of 
which is roughened with incipient spines; occasionally a few of 
the spines are of considerable size. In other respects this sponge 
is very similar to the preceding; but the styli attain a stoutness 
of 20 /x, and the spherasters a diameter of 55 /y.; the length of the 
rays of the latter ma}^ equal the diameter of their centrum; and 
the tylasters are rare in the choanosome, except in the inmie- 
diate surrounding of canals. 



272 REVISION OF THE MOXAXONID SPONGES, i., 

iii. Another specimen, also labelled from Port Jackson, agrees 
with those of the two preceding forms in having chiefly stylote 
megascleres and asters of two kinds; but the spherasters are 
extremely abundant throughout the entire cortex and occur 
fairly plentifully also in the choanosome, decreasing in number, 
however, towards the centre of the sponge. Many of the mega- 
scleres are blunt-pointed, and an appreciable number of them 
approximate in form to (fusiform) strongyla; their maximum 
size is about 1520 by 22 /x. The sphei*asters, the largest of which 
measure 7 b ji in total diameter, have from 13 toll (actually 
countable) rays; the rays vary from one-half to three-fourths the 
diameter of the centrum in length, and are often slightly curved, 
and occasionally forked, at the extremity. In the choanosome, 
spherasters of all sizes, from 20 /x in diameter upwards, are com- 
mon. As regards the tylasters, the same remarks apply as to 
those of the preceding forms. Radially directed megascleres, 
lying between the fibres, are not so abundant in this as in the 
preceding forms, and the surface of the sponge is hispidated by 
far-projecting spicules. 

iv. The specimens labelled ^''Tethya fissurata, Port Molle," differ 
from the foregoing, and agree with one another, in the following 
particulars : (1) the megascleres of the fibres^ the maximum size 
of which somewhat exceeds 2000 by 40 /*, are invariably rounded 
at the apex and are usually almost or quite symmetrically-ended 
(fusiform strongyla); (2) the megascleres between the fibres are 
distinctly different from the fibre-spicules (being more or less 
sharp-pointed at the apex and of much smaller size than them); 
(3) the chiasters are of two kinds, tylasters and "oxyasters"; 
and (4) the spherasters have from 19 to 23 actually countable 
rays. As in the third-mentioned variety, the spherasters are 
closely packed throughout the entire cortex and occur also 
scattered in the choanosome. The tylasters, measuring at most 
16/x in diameter, have the ends of the rays slightly expanded 
and provided with minute spines. The asters of the third kind 
attain to 23 /x in diameter, and have comparatively slender rays 
which are not expanded at the extremities, and which usually are 
blunt-pointed and provided along their whole length with not 



BY E. F. HALLMANX. 273 

numerous minute tubercles or spines; a few, however, have the 
rays sharp-pointed and free from spines (oxyasters). In spite of 
their many points of resemblance, the specimens nevertheless 
exhibit certain decided differences, the most noteworthy of which 
is in regard to the size of the sphei'asters; these attain a diameter 
of 100 /x in one specimen, only Qb /a in another, and are of inter- 
mediate size in a third. 

Tethya corticata. 
According to its description, this species is characterised by an 
irregularly conulated surface (apparently not incised by j)ore- 
grooves), obtusely pointed styli of two sizes, the larger of which 
attain a size of 2000 by 13/x, and micro.scleres of only two kinds, 
spherasters and tylasters, the formei* abundant in the cortex. 
The specimens indicated to be the types, however, as well as a 
fragment labelled Tethya corticata from the British Museum, 
while conforming fairly well with the description as regards 
external features, have mostly sharp-pointed styli, the largest of 
which measure 1600 by 28 /a, only moderately few spherasters, 
and, in addition to (chiefly cortical) tylasters, abundant choano- 
somal oxyasters, which are well distinguished from the tylasters 
both in shape and size. They are, in fact, examples of a variety 
of Donatia inyalli, differing in no essential respect from the 
specimens labelled (correctly-, I feel sure) as the types of Tethya 
/(cvis, except that in several of the latter, apparently merely in 
consequence of individual variation, the megascleres which lie 
free in the choanosome are notably of smaller size than those 
which compose the fibres. One may, therefore, regard 2\ corti- 
cata as synonymous with 2\ Icevis, and since the latter name 
rests on a more certain identification than the former, it should 
be preferred, and the sponge known as Donatia ingalli var. loivis. 

Tethya fissukata. (Plate xv., fig.3). 
In addition to the several specimens referred to above in con- 
nection with Tethya muItisteUa, the " types" of Tethya ^fissurata 
comprise two specimens which are unquestionably to be iden tilled 
with this species; yet, strangely, instead of being as the descrip- 
tion states " irregularly spherical, more or less kidney-shaped 



274 REVISION OF THE MONAXONID SPONGES, i., 

sponges, with a Hat base," they are stipitate, with a spherical 
body (in each specimen about 40 ram. in diameter), and with a 
well-developed, fairly stout stalk which divides below into a 
number of root-like processes (Plate xv., fig.3). They correspond 
exactly with the description with respect to surface-features, as 
may be seen from the figure which I furnish of one of them; and 
they also show considerable agreement in other respects. The 
description, however, makes it appear as if only one form of 
aster, a small tylaster, was present in addition to spherasters, 
whereas an oxyaster is also present; but Lendenfeld mentions 
that " a great abundance of the young stages of the larger kind 
of stellate is to be found," and I, therefore, take it that he mis- 
took the oxyasters for developmental forms of the spherasters. 
A more correct account of the spiculation is as follows : — 

The spicules of the radial fibres are almost exclusively fusiform 
strongyla with one extremity (viz., the outwardly directed) some- 
what nai-rower than the other, and attaining a maximum size of 
about 4000 by (rarely) 80 /x; the terminal spicules of the fibres, 
however, which project beyond the surface, are usually more or 
less sharp-pointed and are not so large as the others. Between 
the fibres, megascleres (styli and strongyla) of smaller size occur, 
but are rare. 

The spherasters are incompletely differentiated into two kinds: 
(l)a relatively shorter-rayed, ranging in total diameter from 
about 45// to upwards of 160//., and having from 13 to 18 actually 
countable rays of length seldom exceeding (and when least, only 
about two-thirds) the diameter of the centrum — the number and 
relative length of the rays decreasing as the size of the spicule 
increases; and (2) a relatively longer-rayed, ranging in diameter 
from less than 75 /x up to 240 /x, and having from 10 to 14 count- 
able rays, the length of which is greater than (and occasionally 
attains to twice) the diameter of the centrum. The former occur 
only in the cortex, and in some parts of it are abundant through- 
out its entire thickness; the latter are chiefly confined to the 
choanosome, where they are extremely abundant in the peripheral 
layer and gradually diminish in number towards the centre. 
Frequently in the case of the longer-rayed spherasters, and ex- 



BY E. F. HALLMANN. 275 

ceptionally in the case of the sliorter rayed, one to several of the 
rays are forked, or are once or (seldom) a few times branched, 
or, on the other hand, are truncated and rounded off at the 
extremity. 

The tylasters, which form a dense layer in the superficial part 
of the cortex and are scattered sparsely through the choanosome, 
are at most 19 /x in diameter, and have short stout rays, about 
equal in length to the diameter of the centrum, with slightly 
expanded extremities tipped with numerous minute spines. 

The oxyasters occur abundantly in all parts of the choanosome, 
but are absent from the cortex. They attain to 50 or 55 /x in 
diameter, and have only a very slightly developed centrum and 
from 6 to 8 slender, usually blunt-pointed rays, generally pro- 
vided with a few minute spines or tubercles, especially towards 
their extremities. 

Many large spherical embryos occur throughout the sponge, 
some of which are over 2*5 mm. in diameter. These have radially 
arranged stylote megascleres and, as microscleres, a very thin 
superficial layer of tylasters similar to those of the adult, and 
exceedingly minute developmental spherasters scattered sparsely 
in the cortex. 

Lendenfeld records the species from Port Molle (Queensland), 
Port Jackson, and New Zealand. The sj)ecimens described by 
me are labelled as coming from Port Jackson.* 

If this species is to be placed in the genus Donatia^ as at 
present seems necessary, then the latter can no longer be defined 
as being " without highly specialised pore-bearing grooves." 

The sponge described by Hentschel(l9) from Shark's Bay 
(Western Australia) as Donatia Jissurata var. extensa, is un- 
doubtedly a distinct species from the above. 

Tethya inflata. 

According to description, this species has a smooth {i.e., non- 
tessellated) surface with thread-shaped appendages, cylindrical 



♦The Federal trawling-steainer "Endeavour" has now obtained 
another specimen from Storm Bay, Tasmania. 



276 REVISION OF THE MONAXONID SPONGES, i., 

stylote raegascleres 2000 by 14 /x in size, and asters of two kinds 
— spherasters 60 /x in diameter and tylasters 12 /x in diameter — 
which are " particularly abundant in the skin " : rhe colour of 
spirit-specimens is stated to be light flesh-colour in the cortex, 
and dirty-yellow in the interior. In agreement with this de- 
scription, the two specimens labelled as the types have a smooth 
surface —which in one case is quite even, in the other, slightly 
tuberculate — and although without filaments and without a 
pinkish tint (their colour being pale creamy on the surface and 
brownish-yellow in the interior), 3'et at any rate they are identical 
in all other respects with specimens in the collection which 
exhibit those features. But, contrary to the description, they 
have fusiform, usually blunt-pointed (occasionally strongyla-like) 
megascleres, the largest of which are 27 /x in stoutness and less 
than 1700 /x in length; the spherasters are (comparatively) scarce 
in the cortex and attain a diameter of 60 /x or more; the tylasters 
are usually not less than 15/x(and at most are 20/x) in diameter; 
and oxyasters are present. The specimens are, in fact, forms of 
D. ingalli var. IcRvis; and a fragment labelled Tethya injiata, from 
the British Museum, is another example of the same. As I do 
not think that any reliance can be placed upon the spicule- 
measurements given by Lendenfeld, or even upon the form which 
he ascribes to the megascleres, I would, tlierefore, have but slight 
hesitation in declaring Tethya infiata to be synonymous with 
Tethya hevis, were it not for the fact of the possession by these 
specimens of oxyasters, and of the comparative non-abundance of 
their spherasters. I might mention, however, that, in the larger 
of the two "type-specimens," the oxyasters are rather few in 
number, and in places are absent (or almost so) throughout con. 
siderable tracts; while, at the same time, they are rarely more 
than 30 fi in diameter, and usually are not ver\^ markedly different 
from the largest tylasters; and thus it is conceivable, in the case 
of such a specimen, that these spicules could, through hasty 
observation, be overlooked. Also I might mention that, in some 
specimens of Tethya ht'vis, the spherasters are abundant in the 
outermost layer of the cortex; and possibly it is only to the outer- 
most laver of the cortex that Lendenfeld refers in speaking of 



BY E. F. HALLMANN. 277 

"the skin " of the sponge. Aecordinirly, taking everything into 
consideration, I think one is justified in regarding 7V///ya injiatd 
(like T. corticata) as a synonym of D. inyaUi var. Ifi'vis. 

Tetrya phillipensis. (Plate xv.. fig. 4). 

Two of the three specimens labelled as the types of Tethya 
phiUipensis, although by no means closely in accord with the 
description of this species, yet exhibit so many analogies there- 
with as regards both external and skeletal features, that one is 
justified, I think, in accepting them as the types of the species. 
The third specimen, while perhaps more closely in agreement 
with the description in the matter of skeletal chai^acters, differs 
from the other two in surface-features, and pi'ovisionallv I do not 
regard it as belonging to the same species as they. The locality of 
all three is given as Port Phillip, and this is confirmed, as regards 
the two taken to be the types, by the occurrence of a similar 
sponge in a collection from Port Phillip presented to the Austra- 
lian Museum by the late Mr. J. Bracebridge Wilson. The fol- 
lowing brief description, based on the two type-specimens and 
the one last-mentioned, will be sutiicient to show that T. phillip- 
ensis is well distinguished from any other of the forms of Donatia 
herein described: and, at present, I consider it to be an inde- 
pendent species. As contrasted with D. ingcdli, to which it 
makes nearest approach in spiculatiou, its chief diagnostic 
features are the minute pattern of the surface, the presence of 
(a few) spheres in addition to asters of three kinds, and the 
plentiful occurrence of spherasters in the choanosome. 

The sponge is of more or less globular shape, either sessile (and 
then at times somewhat depressed) or prolonged below into a 
short stalk-like portion (i.e., somewhat pyriform). The oscula 
are conspicuous and several in number. The colour in alcohol 
varies from a pale creamy-white, with a tinge of pink, to a light 
salmon. The surface, which is fairly regularly tuberculate, shows 
over its entire extent a minute reticulation (just visible to the 
naked eye): the tubercles are usually much depressed, flattened, 
and the surface as a consequence presents a slightly tessellated 
appearance. The shallow and, for the most part, narrow grooves 



278 REVISION OF THE MONAXONID SPONGES, i., 

separating the tubercles are not of the nature of specialised pore 
grooves; immediately underlying these grooves, however, and 
roofed over only by membrane, are narrow cleft-like spaces in the 
cortex, so that if a thin superficial layer of the sponge were pared 
off, the surface then would appear imperfectly divided into poly- 
gonal areas by discontinuous narrow cracks. The characteristic 
minute reticulation of the surface (Plate xv., fig. 4) is found, on 
microscopical examination, to consist of polygonal or rounded 
meshes, averaging 150/x in diameter, separated by narrow 
partitions in which are spherasters and megascleres, the latter — 
directed perpendicularly to, and slightly projecting beyond the 
surface — being the terminal spicules of the branches into which 
the radial skeletal fibres divide on entering the cortex. Super- 
imposed upon this reticulation, and immediately external to it, 
is a finer reticulation with meshes about 25 /x in average diameter, 
w^hich meshes are formed by pauciserial lines of tylasters and 
enclose each a single pore. 

The spicules composing the radial fibres are styli, which, 
almost without exception, are more or less blunt-pointed — occa- 
sionally to such an extent as to approximate in form to strongyla; 
their maximum size in the several specimens varies from 1425 
by 20 /x to 1600 by 24 /x. In the cortex, as the fibres approach 
nearer to the surface, their megascleres gradually diminish in 
size, and become cylindrical and abruptly sharp-pointed ; the 
smallest of these terminal spicules are less than 240 /x in length. 
Between the fibres, in the choanosome, a fair abundance of 
radially directed megascleres occur, which are similar in form to 
those of the fibres, except that a few of them are slenderer and 
usually gradually sharp-pointed. 

The microscleres are spherasters, spheres, tylasters, and oxy- 
asters. The spherasters are abundant throughout the choano- 
some, and, in the cortex, occur chiefly in a broad superficial layer; 
they have rarely less than 13, and normally not less than 9, 
actually countable rays, and measure at most 65 /x in diameter; 
when, as occasionally happens, the number of rays is less than 
nine, it is because of the non-development of one or a few rays, 
and the spicule is then no longer centro-symmetrical. The 



BY E. F. KALLMANN. 279 

spheres, which are equal in size to the centrum of the spherasters, 
occur sporadically both in the choanosome and the cortex; though 
few in number, they are not so rare as to excuse their being 
overlooked; in rare instances, two or three spheres may occur 
fused together. 

Although similar to one another in all the foregoing particulars, 
the specimens are nevertheless of two forms in respect of a 
number of other (spicular) characters. In one form, (i.)the rays 
of the spherasters are rarely or never as long as (and usually are 
somewhat less in length than two-thirds) the diameter of the 
centrum, and not infrequently one or a few of them are provided 
with a small spine or two (incipient branches), or are forked at 
the extremity; (ii.)the tylasters, which may attain to 19/x in 
diameter, have short stout rays usually less in length than the 
diameter of the centrum and provided with a well -developed 
terminal knob densely covered with minute spines; and (iii.) the 
oxyasters, which vary from (seldom) 20 fx to 35 /x in diameter and 
are fairly abundant, have moderately stout rays (1-5 to 3 /x in 
diameter near their base) with the distal half of their length 
covered with well-developed tubercles. In the other form, (i.)the 
rays of the spherasters are generally as long as, or slightly longer 
than, the diameter of the centrum, and rarely (if ever) exhibit 
incipient branching; (ii.) the tylasters are at most 17/x in 
diameter, and have comparatively slender rays, which are longer 
than the diameter of the centrum, and are usually only slightly 
knobbed, and which are provided with spines, not only around 
their extremity, but also for some short distance along their 
length; and (iii.) the oxyasters, which are of about the same 
diameter as those of the preceding form, have slender ravs only 
sparsely provided with tubercles. 

Remarks. — Among the fragments received from the British 
Museum, there is one labelled Tethya phillipensis which, in 
skeletal characters (excepting that the spherasters are at most 
only about 55 /x in diameter), is in various respects intermediate 
between the two above-described forms. Unfortunately this 
fragment was used up in the preparation of sections from it, 



280 REVISION OF THE MONAXONID SPONGES, i., 

without a proper examination of its surface-features having been 
made; but if the specimen, from which it was taken, exhibits the 
characteristic dermal reticulation that would prove it to be also 
a form of Donatia phiUipensis, then I would be inclined to say 
that a separation of these forms, as distinct varieties, is not 
feasible. 

The specimen referred to in the opening paragraph, which I do 
not consider to belong to D. phiUipensis, differs from the type- 
specimens of that species chiefly in the absence of a dermal 
reticulation and of subdermal clefts in the cortex, and in almost 
all respects is closely similar to D. ingalli var. Icevis. In it, 
however, just as in D. phiUipensis, spherasters are abundant in 
the choanosome and spheres are present. Concerning its mega- 
scleres, exactly the same remarks apply as to those of D. phiUip- 
ensis, excepting that the largest attain a length of 1670 /x. The 
spherasters have from 9 to 13 countable rays, the length of which 
is less than the diameter of the centrum, and which rarely (if 
ever) exhibit any tendency to branch. Spherasters with one or 
more rays completely aborted were not observed. The tyl asters 
are rarely more than 16*5 /x in total diameter, and their rays, 
which are shorter than the diameter of the centrum, have well- 
developed terminal knobs densely covered with minute spines; 
an extremely few, however, ranging in diameter from about 16 
up to about 23 /x in diameter, have the rays less markedly 
knobbed, and provided with spines for some distance along their 
length. The oxyasters, which are abundant, occasionally attain 
to 43 fi in diameter, and have, as a rule, stout rays (2 to 4 /a in 
diameter at the base), the distal half of the length of which is 
covered with well-developed tubercles; some of the more slender- 
rayed spicules (? developmental forms), however, are without 
tubercles; in a small proportion of cases, the rays, which in such 
instances are usually stunted, are provided along their whole 
length with tubercles, and the spicule then often closely ap- 
proaches in form to the oxyasters of D. ingaUi as figured by 
Bowerbank (3, PI. v., fig, 17). In no other example of Donatia 
examined by me, does the tuberculation of the rays of the oxy- 
asters reach quite such a degree of development. 



BY E. F. KALLMANN. 281 

Tkthya L^VIS. 

The sponge, which T identify as Tethya hcv^^^ is a common one 
in the neighbourhood of Port Jackson, and is represented in tlie 
Australian Museum by some dozens of examples. Tlie specimens 
labelled as the types of Tethya corticata and Tetliya iiifiata, as 
well as the fragments labelled with the same names from the 
British Museum, are, as already stated, examples of it; and it is 
represented (along with several examples of Tethyorrhaphis 
l(fvis) among the specimens labelled as the types of Tethya hcvis. 
There can be no doubt, also, that the species is identical with 
the Tethya ingalli recorded from Port Jackson by Sollas(36); but 
as proof is yet lacking of its strict identity with Bowerbank's 
species of that name, the locality of which is Western Australia, 
I propose to regard it as a variety thereof, and to designate it 
D. ingalli var. Icp.vis. 

The sponge, which appears always to be more or less spherical 
in shape, and to grow attached to the substratum by root-like 
processes, is chiefly distinguished, so far as external features are 
concerned, by the entire absence of any sign whatsoever of 
surface- tessellation, and by the very small size of the oscula, — 
the latter being, as a rule, at any rate in the case of pi-eserved 
(and contracted) specimens, almost or quite invisible. The pores 
are not discernible; and there is no perceptible minute reticu- 
lation of the surface as in D. phillipensis. The surface is mam- 
millated, the elevations varying in shape in different specimens, 
or even in different parts of the same specimen, from low and 
dome-like to verruciform; in most specimens, a certain proportion 
of these elevations are provided apically with a thread-like pro- 
cess, at the extremity of which a bud is often to be observed. 

The two previous accounts of the sponge are not quite full and 
accurate concerning its spiculation, more especially in regard to 
the megascleres. These spicules are imperfectly differentiated 
into three kinds, the typical representatives of each of which are 
distinguished not only by their form and size, but also by their 
different situation in the sponge. The spicules of one kind are 
chiefly or exclusively confined to the fibres and ahnost entirely 
compose them; these attain a maximum length varying between 



282 REVISION OF THE MONAXONID SPONGES, i., 

1'5 and 1*9 mm., (but only in rare specimens exceeding l*6/x) and 
a maximum stoutness approximating to 30 /x. The spicules of 
the second kind, which are typically of much smaller size than 
the preceding, though connected with them by a perfect grada- 
tion, contribute to form a "nuclear" skeleton surrounding the 
centre from which the fibres radiate, and are found also in the 
cortex in the penicillately outspread terminations of the fibres; 
the smallest of them measure less than 275 by 10 /x. Those of 
the third kind occur between the fibres, chiefly in the more peri- 
pheral part of the choanosome, and they vary markedly in size 
and abundance in different specimens. All three kinds are alike 
styli, which gradually taper towards the basal end and usually 
exhibit a faint constriction just immediately above that end: but 
the first-mentioned, or chief fibral, spicules are fusiform, and 
almost invariably have the apical end more or less rounded off so 
as occasionally to approximate in form to strongyla; the second 
are nearly cylindrical in shape, and are more or less abruptly 
sharp-pointed; while those of the third kind taper gradually to 
a usually very fine point. As already stated, the last-mentioned 
spicules are subject to considerable variation in size and number. 
Thus in one specimen (which is to be regarded as strictly typical 
of the var. Icevis) these spicules are very few in number and rarely 
exceed 600 by 6 jx in size; whereas in most of the specimens 
labelled by Lendenfeld as the types of Tethya inflata and Tethya 
corticata, they are, on the other hand, extremely abundant and 
about equal in size to the spicules composing the fibres. Other 
specimens which I have examined are less widely divergent in 
these respects, and at present (although further investigation is 
necessary in order to settle the point) I do not think that the 
differences in question are varietal, more especially as they do 
not appear to be associated with any constant differences in 
respect of other characters. 

The spherasters are almost entirely confined to the more super- 
ficial part of the cortex, and to the outermost region of the 
choanosome adjoining the cortex; the largest have a maximum 
diameter varying in different specimens from 60 to 85 /x ; the 
rays, which in length are about equal to the diameter of the 



BY E. F. KALLMANN. 283 

centrum, are rarely if ever bifurcate or branched, and their 
number (actually countable) varies (in the same specimen) from 
9 to 13. The chiasters (tylasters) form a very thin layer at the 
surface of the sponge and are scattered through both the cortex 
and the choanosome - more abundantly, in the former region, 
especially in the innnediate surrounding of the canals traversing 
it; they measure from 10 or 1 1 /z up to from 17 to (rarely) over 
20 fx in diameter, have from 6 to rarely more than 10 moderately 
stout rays, which are provided with a well-developed terminal 
knob covered with minute spines, and exhibit a fairly well- 
marked centrum, the diameter of which may equal or even 
slightly exceed the length of the rays. The oxyasters are entirely 
confined to the choanosome, are usually abundant, and vary in 
maximum diameter in different specimens from about 30 to 
slightly upwards of 40 ^u; they have from 5 to 9 rays, which are 
provided over their distal moiety with tubercles, some of which 
are elongated so that the rays may appear branched. 
Loc. — Port Jackson. 

Genus Tethyorrhaphis. 

According to their description, the four species, ascribed by 
Lendenfeld to this genus, are distinguished both by differences 
in the shape and degree of development of protuberances on the 
surface, and by a number of points of difference in spiculation. 
Thus, in the case of 7\ Icevis and 7'. gigantea, the brushes, formed 
by the skeletal fibres on approaching the surface, are stated to 
be lacking in the shorter stylote spicules present in the other 
species; in the same two species and in T. conulosa, asters of two 
kinds, spherasters and chiasters, are mentioned as occurring, but 
in T. tuberculata only chiasters; and the peculiar microscleres 
characteristic of the genus are described as strongylote in T. 
Iwvis, simply as "diact" in T. tuberculata, and as oxeote in T. 
gigantea and T. conulosa. I have examined all available ex- 
amples (some twenty in number) of the genus, including those 
labelled as the types of the several species; but I have failed to 
find any differences among them in spiculation, except as regards 
the size and relative abundance of the several kinds of micro- 



284 REVISION OF THE MONAXONID SPONGES, i., 

scleres. Considerable diversity, indeed, exists among them in 
the character of their surface-elevations, these being either few 
or numerous, and either rounded (varving from wart-shaped to 
dome-like) or conical (and then sometimes prolonged each into a 
filament). But the various differences observed are apparently 
merely the outcome of individual variation. 

The labelled specimens, excepting those purporting to repre- 
sent T. conulosa and T. tuberculata, are in fair agreement with 
the description of the species whose name they bear, as regards 
outward chaiacters, and it is beyond reasonable doubt that they 
are authentic examples of those species: while among the remain- 
ing specimens, there are some which exhibit the external features 
ascribed to T. tuberculata, and others, again, having the surface 
provided with tapering conical processes, which presumably are 
to be identified with 7\ conulosa. Accordingly, I look upon 
Lendenf eld's four species of Tethyorrhaphis as representing but 
a single species, which we may call Tethyorrhaphis Icevis. 

In every respect, Tethyorrhaphis loevis resembles a species of 
Donatia except in possessing, in addition to asters, microscleres 
in the form of small blunt-ended rods (microstrongyles) densely 
covered with minute spines, and along with these a number of 
forms variously intermediate between them and chiasters. 
Asexual propagation, by means of buds, occurs, and in the same 
way as in Donatia. The superficial appearance of the sponge, 
owing to the absence of any trace of pore-grooves, approaches at 
times very closely to that of T. ingalll var. Icevis; and, in some 
cases, microscopical examination is necessary before one can say 
with certainty to which of the two species a given specimen 
belongs. 

The spicules composing the radial fibres within the choano- 
some are blunt-pointed, fusiform styli, frequently almost or quite 
symmetrically ended (i.e., strongyla); their maximum size varies 
in different specimens from 1850 by 30/x to 2300 by 38/x. Near 
the surface of the sponge, the fibres expand penicillately, and 
their fusiform spicules are there largely replaced by shorter, 
abruptly sharp-pointed, and more cylindrical styli of various 
lengths down to 280 /x or less. Spicules similar to the latter 



BY E. P. KALLMANN. 285 

occur also, abundantly, disposed concentrically around the centre 
from which the fibres radiate, forming a well-marked spherical 
" nucleus " to the sponge. Between the fibres elsewhere, mega- 
scleres are rare or absent. The spherasters are found chiefly in 
the outer region or the cortex, and in the peripheral layer of the 
choanosome close beneath the cortex; they are provided with, 
usually, from 11 to 15 actually countable rays, and vary in their 
maximum total diameter, in diff'erent specimens, from about 50 to 
90 /x. It appears to be the rule that, in specimens in which the 
maximum diameter of the spherasters is less than 70 //, the rays, 
for the most part, are shorter than the diameter of the centrum, 
and frequently are bifurcate at the extremity; whereas when the 
spicule is of greater diameter than 70 /x, the rays appear usually 
to be longer than the diameter of the centrum and to be only 
very rarely forked. The chiasters (which are almost entirely 
confined to the choanosome) are sometimes abundant, sometimes 
rather scarce; they usually have from 6 to 10 rays, the surface of 
which is minutely tuberculate. The diameter of the chiasters that 
occur in the cortex rarely exceeds 12 or 13/x, while those within 
the choanosome range in diameter up to 18 or 20 /x; also, in the 
case of the smaller chiasters, whether in the cortex or the choano- 
some, the rays usually are slightly expanded at the tip, whereas 
the larger ones approach more closely in form to oxyasters, and, 
in addition, they occasionally exhibit a branching of their rays; 
there would thus appear to be an incipient differentiation of the 
chiasters into two forms, tyl asters and oxyasters. As inter- 
mediates between the chiasters and the microstrongyles, some- 
what plesiaster-like forms are commonly met with, in which the 
rays proceed, not from a common centre, but from a shorter or 
longer axis, and are usually also reduced in number. In addition 
to these, triradiate or Y-shaped forms are frequent, as well as 
bent rods derived from the latter through the loss of one ray. 
The microstrongyles occur in moderate abundance throughout 
the entire cortex and are densely aggregated to form a thin layer 
immediately below the surface; they are also scattered through 
the choanosome, gradually decreasing in numbers towards the 
centre of the sponge. They vary from 6 to (rarely) 20 /x in 



286 REVISION OF THE MONAXONID SPONGES, i., 

length and up to 3 /x or slightly more in stoutness. In their 
earliest developmental stages, they have the form of very slender 
centrotylote amphioxea. 
Loc. — Port Jackson. 

Familia SOLLASELLID^. 

From the description given below, it will be seen that Solla- 
sella di'jitata^ the single species on which this family was founded, 
is unquestionably aberrant, and that it cannot with any justifica- 
tion be retained in the Axinellidce^ to which it is generally re- 
garded as belonging. Nor can it be referred to any other of the 
recognised families as ordinarily defined. In some features, 
however, it shows a striking similarity to certain Donatiidce. 
Thus its cortex appears to be exactly similar in character to that 
of the genera Donatia and Xenospongia] it further resembles 
Xenospongia and some species of Donatia in having inhalant 
pore-like apertures localised along lines; and, although not pos- 
sessed of a typically radiate skeleton — being of ramose habit — is 
provided, externally to the core-region, with a system of fibres 
which run perpendicularly to the surface, and expand penicill- 
ately in the cortex. Accordingly, for the reception of the genus 
Sollasella, either the family Sollasellidc^. wall have to be retained, 
or the DonatiidcE defined in a broader sense; and of the two 
alternatives, I think the latter has most to recommend it. It is 
to be noted that, in Donatia itself, the skeleton is not completely 
radiate, since there is present a central core-region in which the 
spicules have a confused arrangement, and, besides this, the 
spicules Iving between the radial fibres are not always radially 
directed. 

Topsent(47) has referred, to the genus Sollasella, the species 
originally described by him as Trachya hystrix. As it now 
becomes evident that this is a markedly different type of sponge 
from S. digitata, I venture to propose for its reception a new 
genus, Pseudotrachya^ to be placed provisionally in the Axinellido'. 

Sollasella Lendenfeld. 
Donatiid?e(?), typically of ramose habit, with well-dev^eloped 
fibrous cortex and wdth linearly disposed inhalant openings leading 



nV K. F. HALLMANN. 287 

into chones. Microscleres absent. The me,2:ascleres are of two 
kincls^the larger, monactinal (typically sul^tylostrongyla): the 
smaller, diactinal (oxea). The skeleton of the interior, consist- 
ing chiefly of longitudinal spicule-biindles and variously oriented 
scattered spicules, is supplemented in the axial region by a reti- 
culation of fibres composed of a sponginous substance, and in the 
extra-axial region by radiating spicule-fibres, which continue iuto 
the cortex. 

SoLLASELLA DIGITATA. (Plate XV., figs.1,2; and text-fig. 1). 

The species is represented by the incomplete type-specimen 
(PI. XV., fig 2), by a correctly labelled fragment from the British 
Museum, and by an entire specimen (PI. xv,, fig.l) from an un- 
known locality, probabh^ obtained by the " Thetis " Expedition. 

External features. — Sponge ramose, stipitate ; stalk and 
branches short, stout and cylindrical, the latter extending up- 
wards and outwards in various directions without anastomosis. 
Surface even, very sparsely hispid with singly dispersed long 
spicules that project 2 or 3 mm. beyond it, and conspicuously 
characterised by a polygonal areolation formed by lines of uni- 
serially disposed, closely approximated, small shallow pits; these 
pits are terminated below by a microscopically cribriporal mem- 
brane, which roofs over an inhalant chone. The oscula are few, 
scattered, small; they measure up to 2 mm. in diameter. Con- 
sistency very firm, dense, and tough. Colour in alcohol brownish. 

In one of the specimens (PI. xv., fig.2), the surface-areolation 
is generally hexagonal, the areolae average between 2 and 3 mm. 
in width, and the pore-pits, which are usually elliptical in out- 
line, measure from 0*2 to 0*5 mm. in their longer diameter. In 
the other, the type-specimen, the areolae are, as a rule, much 
elongated in the longitudinal direction of the branches, but are 
very variable in length, and measure only 1 to 2 mm. in width; 
while, at the same time, the pits are comparatively small, being 
rarely as much as 0*2 mm. in diameter. Neither of the speci- 
mens affords any particular justification for Lendenfeld's state- 
ment that the polygonal fields (areolas) are " expressions of the 
terminations of the surface-tufts of the spicule-bundles " ; nor do 



288 REVISION OF THE MONAXONID SPONGES, 1., 

tliey at all substantiate his statement that these fields " are 
divided from each other by sharply defined incisions " unless the 
word " incisions " is used in a quite unusual sense. The two 
specimens are of nearly the same height, viz., 120 mm., which is 
20 mm. less than the maximum height recorded by Lendenfeld. 

Internal structure. — A transverse section across a branch per- 
mits three regions to be distinguished with the naked eye : (i.) a 
pale-coloured external layer, or cortex, which, in different parts 
of the sponge, varies in width from about 0*8 to 1*5 mm.; (ii.) a 
deeply brownish-coloured subcortical layer, usually much wider 
than the cortex, but in widtli rather variable: and (iii.)a broad 
axial region or core, also brownish-coloured, distinguishable from 
(ii.) by reason of its being traversed longitudinally by numerous 
spicule-strands, the cut ends of which show clearly on the surface 
of the section. In the figure of the type-specimen {PI. xv., fig. 2) 
a branch is seen in longitudinal section, showing the relative 
extents of these three regions. In this example, however, the 
subcortical tissue has mainh^ disappeared owing to maceration 
(which it undergoes more readily than do the other tissues), and, 
as a result, a system of fibres, crossing the subcortical layer and 
passing into the cortex, is brought into view. Owing to these 
fibres, the cortex cannot ])e peeled off separately, but, in its 
removal, drags with it most or all of the underlying layer. In a 
longitudinal section of a branch, ordinarily, the subcortical region 
is not recognisable as a layer distinct from the core-region (Len- 
denfeld includes them both under the tenn " pulpa ' ); but the 
demarcation between the subcortical layer and the cortex is well- 
pronounced, owing to their difference in colour, and to the 
presence, immediately beneath the latter, of a narrow zone of 
lacunar and canals. Lendenfeld 's statement that these lacunae 
(and canals) form a " nearly continuous cavity " beneath the 
cortex, appears to be somewhat exaggerative. 

On treatment with a macerating agent, such as caustic potash, 
the two outer layers of the sponge readily soften and come away, 
leaving intact the stout core, the thereby exposed surface of 
which bristles sparsely with long spicules projecting, nearly per- 
pendicularly, 1 to 3 mm. beyond it. The core is very resistant 



BY E. P. KALLMANN. 



289 



r-\ 



to maceration, but after prolonged ti'eatment, aided 
by washings with a pipette, it becomes reduced to a 
reticulation of fibres composed of a substance nnu;li 
resembling spongin, entangled with which, and ap- 
parently for the most part independent of it, are 
numerous indifierently oriented oxea. Many of the 
apparently free spicules, however, prove, on close sci'u- 
tiny, to be ensheathed, over portion at least of tlieir 
length, with a thin layer of spongin continuous with 
that of the fibres; and the long spicules (subtylo- 
strongyles) which project from the core, are likewise 
found to be held in position by a partial covering of 
spongin. The sponginous fibres are not provided with 
an axial core of longitudinally disposed spicules. 

Skeleton. — The skeleton of the axial region consists, 
in addition to the spongin-reticulation and the irregu- 
larly disposed oxea, of ill-defined longitudinal strands 
of loosely associated oxea and subtylostrongyla. The 
reticulation of spongin-fibres is exceedingly irregular 
in pattern, and the fibres themselves are very vari- 
able in stoutness and uneven in their outlines. The 
spongin has a faintly brownish-yellow tint, and is of 
low^ refractive index, and is readily stainable. 




Fig. 1. — SolUisella diqitata. a, Subtylostrongyla. a', Basal ex- 
tremities of ditto, h, Oxea. h\ Extremities of oxea. 

Immediately surrounding the core-region, and forming the 
inner limit of the subcortical layer, is a narrow belt of longi- 



290 REVISION OF THE MONAXONID SPONGES, 1., 

tudinally disposed spicules, which are chiefly subtylostrongyla. 
This belt is crossed, at rather wide intervals in a radial direc- 
tion, by single spongin-fibres, each ensheathing the basal portion 
of a subtylostrongyle; and immediately external to the belt, the 
already-mentioned radial fibres, composed of closely packed 
parallel oxea, take origin, each fibre having, as its axis, one of 
these radially directed long spicules. The remaining skeleton 
of the subcortical layer consists of abundant oxea arranged in an 
irregular, somewhat halichondroid, fashion, even if, for the most 
part, more or less longitudinally directed. 

The radial fibres increase in stoutness on their way across the 
subcortical layer, and on their arrival at the cortex sometimes 
exceed 200 fi in diameter. On entering the cortex, each fibre 
spreads out into a widely divergent brush, the terminal spicules 
of which project slightly beyond the surface. Apart from the 
occasional long spicules which project from the surface, these 
spicule-brushes constitute the entire cortical skeleton. 

Spicules. — {a) The oxea are very slightly fusiform, mostly 
straight, and nearly always irregularly ended, very frequently 
having abrupt, more or less mucronate, sharp points. They vary 
from about 340 to 760 /x, but are usually between 450 and 650//. 
in length, and attain (rarely; to 15 or 16 /x in stoutness. (6) The 
so-called subtylostrongyla are usually only very faintly expanded 
at the basal end, and often are without any sign of such enlarge- 
ment; occasionally, however, the phyma is so well developed that 
the spicule could be called a tylostrongyle. They are nearly 
always quite straight, taper slightly from base to apex, and vary 
from (rarely) less than '2 mm. to upwards of 4 mm. in length, and 
from 10 to 35 /x in diameter measured just above the base. 
Among the slenderest spicules, there are some which are gradu- 
ally sharp-pointed at the apex, i.e., are subtylostyli. 

Histology. Rounded cells, about 12/x in diameter, containing 
brownish granules, occur abundantly in all parts excepting the 
cortex. The flagellated chambers are confined to the axial 
region of the sponge, and are of rounded shape, measuring about 
25 /x in diameter. The cortex consists of a dense fibrous tissue, 
resembling that of the cortex of Donatia. 



BY E. F. HALLMANN. 291 



Familia SPIRASTRELLID^. 



Of tlie five species of Splrastrellidce described in tlie Cata- 
logue, one, Papillifia panis, is a Spirastrella, identical partly 
with S. papulosa R. and D., and parth'^ with S. papUlosa var. 
porosa Dendy; two, iSpirastrella australis and Fapillina ramu- 
lofia, are, in virtue of their outward form and spiculation, like- 
wise referable to Spirasti'ella, yet exhibit a character apparently 
not possessed by any other species of the genus; and the remain- 
ing two, Raphyrus hixonii and Papillissa hUea, belong to the 
genus Cliona (sens, anipl.). Vosmaer reccntly(50), after a com- 
prehensive study of the genus Spirastrella based on numerous 
specimens, including the types of many of its described species, 
has expressed the opinion that, of the thirty-four (excluding the 
insufficiently described) species known to him, which are referable 
to this genus, all but two are to be regarded as no more than 
forms or " tropi " of a single species, .S'. purpurea. Of the three 
species of Spirastrella indicated above, *S'. australis was dismissed 
by Vosmaer as insufficiently described to admit of an opinion 
regarding it, and S. ramulosa (probably thought by him to be a 
species of Cliona) he does not mention; while *S'. papillosa (more 
especially its variety porosa), although taken into account by 
him, seems not ty have received due consideration. Accordingly, 
in dealing with these species, even while not intending to furnish 
a detailed description of them in this paper, it seemed to me 
necessary that I should attempt to determine, if possible, whether 
they admitted or not of being specifically distinguished from *S'. 
purpurea (sens. ampL). At the outset, little hope was felt of 
arriving at a definite conclusion, inasmuch as Vosmaer allows, in 
the case of this species, exceedingly wide variation in almost 
every character that can be utilised for species-differentiation; 
but though it was found impossible to come to a decision regard- 
ing .S'. papillosa, it very soon became evident that S. australis 
and S. ramulosa are species quite of a distinct kind; and, indeed, 
it is only provisionally that I refer them to the genus. 

The peculiar and distinctive feature of these two species is their 
possession of a skeleton consisting in part of a system of exceed- 
ingly stout " fibres " which remain intact when the sponge is 



292 RKVISION OF THE MONAXONlD SPONGES,!., 

macerated by means of caustic potash, and which consist of 
closely packed spicules held together by what appears to be a 
kind of connective tissue. A skeleton of similar nature, though 
of very different conformation, is possessed also by Cliona hixonii; 
but I have so far met with nothing of a like kind in any other 
of the species of Spirastrella that I have examined, nor has such 
a skeleton been mentioned by Vosmaer.* It would seem not 
unlikely, therefore, that .V. australis and S. ramulosa are more 
closely related to Cliona than to Spirastrella: and the question 
arises as to what particular features are to be regarded as essen- 
tially distinguishing the two genera. To this question, I do not 
think a satisfactory answer can, at present, be given. The dis- 
tinction recognised by Vosmaer is summed up in his statement 
that, "whereas the latter (Cliona) begins its post-larval life by 
boring into calcareous matter, Spirastrella never does so " : but 
although this may ultimately prove of value as a basis for 
separating the two genera, the fact remains that the life-history 
of most of the species included in the genus Sjnrastrella is as yet 
unknown to us. At present, the practical difficulty which pre-' 
sents itself is how to determine, in a given case, whether a 
massive sponge seemingly a Spirastrella has or has not been in 
early life a boring sponge; and in striking illustration of this, is 
the fact that Vosmaer himself has confounded with Sjnrastrella 
ptirpnrea a species that undoubtedly should be referred to 
Cliona. I refer to Spirastrella, areolata Dendy, which in the 
areolation of its surface and in its possession of spined microxea 
(apparently overlooked by Vosmaer) shows so close an analogy 
with Clio7ia hixonii as to render unquestionable the close re- 
lationship of the two. There is a number of species also - unre- 
ferred to by Vosmaer — concerning which it is an entirely open 

* I think it is exceedingly probable, however, that Spirastrella rohasta 
(Carter) Dendy(14) — which was regarded by Carter as a variety of Spira- 
strella cimcat7-ix—wi\\ be found to possess an analogous type of skeleton. 
I have seen only a thin section of this sponge — one presented to the Aus- 
tralian Museum by Prof. Dendy — and although this is insufficient to pro- 
vide unmistakable evidence of liie presence of such "fibres," neverthele.ss 
the structure of the skeleton, as displayed tlieiein, exhibits, on the whole, 
a marked similarity l(^ that of S. australis. 



BY E. P. KALLMANN. 293 

question whether they belong to Spirastrella or Cliona; one may 
mention, for example, Cliona phallica Leidy(25), and several 
speeies described by Verrill(49), viz., Heter'oclioiiacribraria, Spira- 
strella mollis, and apparently also Polymastia var'i.a. 

Having examined an undoubted example of Sph^astrell a fibrosa 
Dendy(14), from the type-locality, I agree with Vosmaer that 
this species does not belong to Spii^astreUa', I find it to be con- 
generic with the species described by me(15) under the name 
Latrunculia conulosa. 

Spirastrella australis. (PL XV., fig.o; PL xvii., fig.3). 

The species is well represented in the collection, botli by a 
number of the original specimens and by others more recently 
obtained; among the latter, there is a single small one which 
diiFers from the rest in being of submassive form. The chief 
distinguishing characters of the species are its typically com- 
pressed plate-like form, its smooth and even surface without 
tubercles or papilla?, and the density and compactness of its sub- 
stance; in addition to these, but becoming manifest only when 
the sponge has been macerated, is the reticulation of stout cord- 
like " fibres " forming the main skeleton. An adequate idea of 
the conformation of this skeleton may be obtained from the figure 
(PL xvii., fig.3). Apart from being lamellar, the sponge is with- 
out definite habit; occasional specimens are more or less regularly 
flabelliform. Contrary to the description, apparently in no case 
do oscula occur on either of the flattened surfaces of the sponge, 
but only along its margin; and these are of minute size. Len- 
denfeld's description of the canal-system, also, appears to me to 
be quite without value. 

In thin sections cut transversely through the entire thickness 
of the sponge, the naked eye can distinguish (i.)a less compact 
middle region within which are denser areas corresponding to 
transected "fibres," and, on either side of this, (ii.) a more com- 
pact superficial layer of mottled appearance (because not uniformly 
dense), which extends to the surface and has a width of 1-2 mm. 
Under the microscope, the demarcation between these regions is 
indistinct, and what difference there is, in their appearance. 



294 REVISION OF THE MONAXONID SPONGES, i., 

seems mainly to be due to differences in the closeness of aggrega- 
tion of the spicules, and particularly of the microscleres, the 
abundance of which, throughout all parts of the sponge, constitutes 
a marked characteristic of the species. 

The tylostyli are straight non-fusiform spicules, very gradually 
tapering throughout the greater part of their length, and, as a 
rule, terminating in a sharp point; their length ranges from 
(rarely) less than 390 /x to 610 /x, while the stoutest of them are 
11 /J. or 12/x in diameter. The spirasters are separable into two 
groups: (i.) those which occur in great abundance throughout 
the whole interior, and (ii.) those which are almost exclusively 
confined to a very thin superficial layer of the sponge. The 
former are stout, with a straight axis, and with close-set large 
spines, which are not uncommonly as much as 20 /x in length, 
and are frequently more or less curved in the manner of a rose- 
thorn; inclusive of spines, these spicules measure 35 /x to 60 /x in 
length, by 30 /x to 55 /x in breadth. The spirasters of the second 
group, which are usually of much smaller size than the preceding, 
are very variable in form, and perhaps are divisible into several 
kinds; of chief importance concerning them, however, is the fact 
that they include forms much resembling the " lophasters " of 
Timea lophastrcea Hentschel(19), as well as forms intermediate 
between such and spirasters of more typical shape. 

Loc. — Port Jackson. 

Papillina panis. 

In connection with this species, a difficulty presents itself 
which, in spite of the fact that over a dozen specimens (all 
labelled as Papillina paiiis by Lendenfeld) are at hand, cannot 
be solved until additional material is forthcoming. The speci- 
mens, while extremely alike in all other essential respects, are in 
some cases provided with small oscula, in others instead with one 
or several sieve-areas; in no observed instance do both oscula 
and sieve-areas occur in the same specimen. So far as I can 
see, if there is another difference between the two forms, it lies 
in this, that, generally speaking, the oscula-bearing specimens are 
rather of conical or wedge-shaped form, while the sieve-bearing 



BY E. F. KALLMANN. 295 

specimens are low and broad, or (less frequently) more or less 
compressed into plate-like form, and have a flattened upper 
surface. In both forms, the oscula or the sieve-areas, as the case 
may be, occur on the upper aspect of the sponge. There can 
scarcely be any doubt that the form with oscula is identical with 
Spirastrella papulosa Ridley and Dendy, although the oscula are 
very much smaller than in the type of that species; while it is 
equally certain that the form with sieve-areas is identical with 
aS'. papulosa var. porosa Dendy(14) from Port Phillip. What I 
cannot decide is whether we have to do with a single form or 
with two distinct forms. 

The sieve-areas, which measure several square inches each in 
extent, are free from the tubercles that occur in other parts of 
the surface, and are usually slightly depressed below the level of 
the surrounding surface; they are perforated by close-set circular 
pores (measuring from 75^ to 160/x in diameter, and between 
100 /x and 200 /x in distance apart), and thus present an appear- 
ance very much resembling that of the pore-bearing surface of 
certain polyporaceous fungi (e.g., Polyst ictus). Possibly it is to 
these sieve-areas that Lendenfeld refers, when he speaks of 
"movable membranes" by which "for the most part" the "vents" 
are covered; but it is strange that he makes no reference to their 
perforate or sieve-like character. Tlje " perforated membranes," 
or " inhalant pore-sieves," which he mentions as occupying the 
depressions between the papillae, are dift'erent, and correspond to 
what is described by Dendy(Zoc. cit.) as a "beautiful pore-bearing 
membrane" stretched between the "conuli." This membrane 
has a minutely reticulate appearance, which, in some specimens, 
is very distinct, in others scarcely perceptible; but it is not, to 
the naked eye or even with the aid of a lens, " perforate " or 
" porous " in the sense of " sieve-like." 

As far as I know, oscular sieve-areas in the genus Spirastrella 
have been observed only in *S'. papulosa var. porosa. Vosmaer 
makes no mention of the occurrence of anything of the kind in 
any of the numerous forms of Spirastrella studied by him; nor, 
by the way, does he comment upon their occurrence in S. papul- 
osa var. porosa — '<xi\ omission difficult to account for, since he 



296 REVISION OF THK MONAXONID SPONGES,!,, 

quotes this sponge in support of his reasons for regarding ^S". 
papulosa and *S'. cunctatrix as identical. There is good reason to 
believe, therefore, that S. papillosa var. porosa — even though it 
should prove to be merely a variant of >S'. papillosa — belongs to a 
species quite distinct from any other that Vosmaer would include 
under >S', purpurea : as we have yet no proof that it and *S'. 
papillosa are connected by intermediate forms, and as the dis- 
tinction between the two seems so definite, I am inclined to 
regard it as at least an independent variety. 

Seeing that Vosmaer considers that no importance can be 
attached to the presence or absence of papillae as an indication 
of specific difference, I ma}^ mention that ever}^ specimen of S. 
papillosa and of its variety I have seen, is not only provided 
with papillae, but these always have the same characteristic ap- 
pearance, and are always distributed over all parts of the surface 
except in the neighbourhood of the oscula or upon the sieve-areas. 
There may be considerable variability in the degree of develop- 
ment of these papillae as regards their size, but scarcely any as 
regards their relative number* ; when least pronounced, they 
resemble those of the specimen figured by Vosmaer (PI, iii,, fig.o). 
Besides S. papillosa, I am acquainted with at least five that I 
believe to be quite distinct species of Spirastrella, and, in the 
matter of papillae, no specimen of these makes any approach to 
S. papillosa. 

The character of the papillae in S. papillosa is such as to suggest 
that they are morphologically related to the papillae and areolae 
of Cliona {Papillissa) lutea and its allies; because of this, I am 
inclined to attach importance to the fact that, in many specimens, 
both of S. papillosa and of its variety, I have found incorporated, 
pieces of shell and other calcareous fragments which, in every 
case, showed the characteristic perforations due to a boring 
sponge. 

It remains to be mentioned that, in connection with the two 
figures given in the "Catalogue"(Pl. i., figs. 1-2), which purport to 
be in illustration of Papillina panis, a serious mistake has been 
made : the first is unmistakably a figure of Cliona {Papillissa) 
lutea, and the second is one of Spirastrella(i) ramulosa. 



BY E. F. KALLMANN. 297 

Papillina ramulosa. (PL xxii., fig.5). 

In addition to the type-specimens, five in number and well- 
preserved, another example of the species (correctly labelled) is 
included among the fragments received from the British Museum. 

As I already have had occasion to mention, a figure of a 
specimen of Sph^astreUai}.) ramulosa is given in the Catalogue 
(PI. i., fig. 2), but is wrongly indicated as being one of Pa'pillina 
panis. In regard to the external features of the species, the 
original description may stand without amendment, except in one 
particular : the small circular openings scattered over the surface 
are not oscula, as Lendenfeld has stated, but simply holes due to 
the presence, here and there beneath the surface, of symbiotic 
operculate Cirripedes. These openings, then, are of the same 
nature as those which Lendenfeld also described as oscula in the 
case of Cliona lutea. In view of such an error, indicative as it 
is of extremely superficial and hasty observation, one need 
scarcely remark how little is the value to be attached to the 
statements concerning the minuter details of the canal-system. 
As in *S'. australis, the whole interior of the sponge, quite to the 
surface, is very dense, and canals are few and of small size. The 
largest canals, which run in an ascending direction, are usually 
very much less than 1 mm. in diameter; they are always easily 
traceable to immediately beneath the surface of the upper parts 
of the sponge, and some of them, at least, can be seen to terminate 
in very minute oscula. 

The peculiar "fibres" composing the main skeleton, as revealed 
in a macerated specimen, are arranged dendritically: owing to 
their mode of branching, they exhibit a tendency to become 
restricted in their disposition to a limited number of vertical 
planes of branching, or, in other words, to be arranged in flabel- 
late systems. They are from more or less strap-shaped to cylin- 
drical, and (in the only specimen in which they were examined, 
one measuring 1 20 mm. in height) measure about 1 mm. in stout- 
ness at the base of the sponge, and about 05 mm. at its top. 
Anastomosis between the "fibres" occurs, but it is not very 
frequent, except in the older portions of the sponge. 

6a 



298 RKVISIO^S OF THE MONAXONID SPONGES, i., 

Between the "fibres,'' megascleres are scattered in profusion 
and without apparent order. Spirasters likewise occur in all 
parts, but onl}^ in moderate abundance (as compared with those 
of S. australis) except at the surface, where they form a dense 
layer varying in width from about 100/x to 450 /x, 

I'he tylostyli are typically straight, and are usually more or 
less rounded off at the apex, so as occasionally to resemble tylo- 
strongyla; the largest vary in length, in different specimens, from 
440 /x to 560 /x and are about llyu, in diameter. The spirasters 
are roughly divisible into two groups: (i.) those of larger size 
and more regular and typical form, provided with large spines, 
which comprise the majority of the microscleres scattered through- 
out the interior of the sponge; and (ii.) those of smaller size and 
variable form, with comparatively small spines, which chiefly 
compose the dermal crust. The largest of the former measure 
45 by 8/x, exclusive of spines: and their spines are, at most, IL' /x 
in length. 

Remarks. — I have carefully examined many of the Cirripede- 
shells that occur in the specimens of this species, but in no case 
have I been able to detect (as in Cliona lutea) any sign of their 
perforation by the sponge. 

Z/OC. — Port Jackson. 

Raphyrus hixonii. (Pl.xvi., figs.l, 2). 

This species, so far know^n only in the free or raphyroid stage, 
is conspicuously characterised by a beautifully regular areolation 
of the surface (PL xvi., fig.l), the areolae being circular in outline, 
of diameter varying (gradually) over different parts of the surface 
from 3 to 6 /x, and placed at intervals apart of from 2 to 3-5 /xf 
the pattern of the areolation, when viewed from a distance, con- 
sequently appears hexagonal. Judging from the material at my 
disposal, which consists of some half-dozen large pieces of the 
original specimens (including the piece figured by Lendenfeld), 
and a small complete specimen obtained recently, the areolae — 
except rarely and apparently abnormally — are situate on a level 
with the general surface, and are distinguishable to the eye only 
by reason of their difference in colour from the intervening areas; 



BY E. F. HALLMAXN. 299 

only over a limited portion of the surface of one specimen are the 
areola^ at all depressed and pit-like. Accordingly, in conveyinc^ 
the impression that the reticulation of the surface is produced 
entirely by a "network .... of projecting lines " with "poly- 
gonal meshes " in which are "depressions about 4 or 5mm. deep," 
the original description is quite misleading: one can see, indeed, 
from the figure in the " Catalogue '' (PI. i., fig.3) how free from 
any pitted appearance is the portion of the surface therein shown. 

The description is inaccurate also in several statements regard- 
ing the excurrent canal-system. We are told that vents are 
scattered over the surface and lead into short conic tubes, which 
are not oscula but praeoscula: that these " short '' (sic) tubes, 
which in the case of the original specimen are " nine in number 
and measure 250 mm. long by '20 mm. wide at the mouth," have 
their walls covered throughout by a reticulation similar to that 
of the exterior surface; and that proper oscula, 2 to 10 mm. in 
diameter, are scattered over the whole surface including the sides 
of the conic tubes. After the most careful examination of the 
several specimens, I can find no reason to doubt (what, even at 
first sight, seemed most probable) that all the tubes referred to, 
including those leading from the so-called oscula, are nothing 
more than excavations made by crustaceans and other boring 
organisms, a considerable number of which are still present in 
most of the tubes: it is significant, also, that many of the smaller 
tubes are entirely filled with sand and mud. The tubular ex- 
cavations are everywhere lined with a dense tough rind, often 
exceeding 1 mm. in thickness, composed almost entirely of closely 
packed megascleres: on no part of their wall, have T seen any 
trace of areolation. 

If the soft tissues be removed by means of a macerating agent, 
there remain (Pl.xv., fig. 2) finally (i.) the rind-like cortical layer 
forming the outer surface: (ii.)the rind which lines the above- 
mentioned cavities: and (iii.) extending through the whole interior, 
a coarse network of somewhat flattened or strap-shaped trabecula?, 
similarly constituted to the ''fibres" of Spirastrella australis and 
SpirastreUai}.) ramulosa, which are ordinarily 0-5 mm. to 1 mm. 
broad, and enclose meshes, on the average, several millimetres in 



300 REVISION OF THE MONAXONID SPONGES,!., 

width. In reference to the pattern of this network, I need only 
mention here that, in the peripheral layer of the sponge, to a 
considerable distance below t.he surface, the trabecules are so 
arranged as to form incomplete boundaries between elongated 
" cells," the outer ends of which correspond in position with the 
areolae of the surface, and the disposition of which, relatively to 
one another and to the exterior, is exactly similar to that of the 
cells of a honeycomb. In the case of the small specimen before 
me, the trabecule forming these cells still retain their separate 
individuality, thus enabling one clearly to distinguish between 
(i.)main ones, relatively few in number, running in the longi- 
tudinal direction of the cells, i.e., perpendicularly to the surface, 
and (ii.)more numerous transverse or connecting ones; but in 
the large (and older) specimens, presumably as the result of the 
increase in width and gradual concrescence of the trabeculse, and 
of the consequent reduction (even to the point of complete 
obliteration) of the intervening meshes, the condition is such 
that the cells are divided from one another by almost or quite 
comp'ete partitions, and thus bear a structural likeness to the 
cells of honeycomb, which is almost perfect. 

The cortical rind, which is of very firm, dense, and fairly tough 
consistency, varies in thickness, in the different parts of the 
surface, from about 0-5 mm. to upwards of 1 mm. In the macer- 
ated sponge, it separates from the underlying skeleton with the 
greatest ease, and is then seen to be not less thick, or scarcely 
less thick, at the position of the areolae than elsewhere; accord- 
ingly, the original description seems again to be at variance with 
fact, when it speaks of " membranes which extend in the meshes 
of the surface-network," and mentions, further, that these mem- 
branes have " groups of smaU pores " situated in them and are 
" very thin and delicate." The skeleton of the cortex, apart 
from a thin external layer of microscleres (of the two non-oxeote 
kinds) consists of closely packed tylostyles, the most superficially 
situated of which are disposed vertically to the surface; within 
the circular meshes or areolae, the skeleton is much less dense, 
and the cortex is, consequently, much softer than in the intervals 
between. 



BY E. F. KALLMANN. 301 

Spicules. - The tylostyli are straight or nearly so, gradually 
sharp-pointed, and of approximately uniform diameter throughout 
more than three-fourths of their length; are usually provided 
with a phyma of moderately large size, which is of very variable 
shape, and is frequently asymmetrical and misshapen ; and 
measure from 330 to 450 /x in length by 12-5 /ut, at most, in 
diameter. Styli, of similar dimensions, occur, but are compara- 
tively rare. The microscleres are of three kinds: (i.) spirasters 
of variable form; frequently with a straight or nearly straight 
axis; with usually more or less radially disposed, not numerous, 
spines, the length of which is not greater than the diameter of 
the spicule; rarely more than 30 jx long; and in different speci- 
mens varying in maximum diameter from 5 to 7 /x, exclusive of 
spines. (ii.) Minutely and closely spined, generally straight, 
truncately-ended rods; 7 to 19 /x in length; and seldom more 
than 3/x in diameter, inclusive of spines. (iii.) Sharp-pointed 
slender acanthoxea; with a not very pronounced, elongate, median, 
spiral flexure of usually less than one complete turn ; with 
linearly and usually spirally arranged, sharp, slender spines, the 
length of which sometimes exceeds the diameter of the spicules; 
varying in length from 55 to 110/x; and rarely more than 2*5 /x 
in diameter. 

Log. — Port Jackson. 

Remarks. — I regard this species, provisionally, as belonging to 
a subgenus of Clio7ia, having as its type Papillissa lutea Lendf,, 
and including Spirastrella areolata Dendy(l^). 

Very closely allied to Cliona hixonii— sXthow^h to be regarded, 
I think, as a quite distinct species - is another large sponge from 
Port Jackson (represented in the Australian Museum by a single 
specimen), in which (PI. xvi., figs.3, 4), instead of a simple areola- 
tion of the surface, there are low papillae of very uniform size, 
shape, and distribution, and more widely separated from one 
another than the areolae of C. hixonii; and in which, also, the 
microscleres corresponding to those termed by me spirasters in 
the above description, are comparatively short and stout, and 
provided with close-set, fairly large spines that often show a 
tendency to assume a whorled arrangement. 



362 REVISION OF THE MOXAXONID StONGES, 1., 

Topsent(46), in describing Clioiia celata, has drawn attention 
to a number of points of resemblance between it and C. hixoriii, 
and expresses the opinion that "un rapprochement entre les deux 
especes est tout indique." The additional information which I 
have furnished concerning the microscleres of the latter, shows, 
how'ever, that there is not such a close analogy between the 
spiculation of C. celata and that of C. hixonii as Topsent sup- 
posed, and particularly is it questionable whether the oxea 
" lisses, aceres aux deux bouts, legerement courbes, tres fins " of 
the former are homologous with the acanthoxea of the latter. 

In their possession of a vestigial spiral flexure, and of spines 
linearly and in some degree spirally disposed, the acanthoxea of 
C. hixo7ni, as well as those of the next-described species {C. 
hUea),* exhibit characters which render it practically certain 
that they are derivatives of spirasters. They are, thus, quite 
unlike the acanthoxea of such species as C. vastijica Hancock, C. 
stationis Nassanow, and C. velans Hentschel, which are quite 
devoid of any sign of spirality, which are provided with numerous 
very minute uniformly distributed spines, and which frequently 
exhibit a centro tylosis: the latter spicules, indeed, are regarded 
by Topsent as belonging to the category of megascleres, I con- 
sider it exceedingly probable, therefore, that acanthoxea have 
originated in the genus Clio7ia in tw^o independent ways; and it 
is possible that those of C. vastijica, etc., are derived from smooth 
oxea such as do occur in some species of Cliona, and which 
perhaps are of common origin with the tylostyli. 

Papillissa lutea. (PL xviii., figs.l, 2) 

Though I do not doubt that the several specimens labelled 
Papillissa lutea, in Lendenfeld's handwriting, are genuine ex- 
amples of the species, I am at a loss to account for the absence 
of any reference in his description to the fact that they are 

* 111 Cliona areoiata (formerly known as Spirasfrdla artolata) also, of 
which species I have seen a mounted section presented lo the Australian 
Museum by Professor Deiidy, the acanthoxea are undouljledly spiraster- 
derivatives; and, in the case of C. margaritifene Dendy(l5), an actual 
transition between acanthoxea and spirasters has been recorded. 



BY E. F. HALLMANN. 303 

almost completely packed throughout with the shells of operculate 
Cirripedes, and I cannot understand how, under the circum 
stance, Lendenfeld was able to speak with confidence concerning 
the arrangement of the canals One can only assume that he 
looked upon the inclusion of the shells as fortuitous, and on that 
account scarcely worthy of mention, and that his opinion regard- 
ing the canal-system was arrived at by inference rather than 
actual investigation. The most considerable mistake, however, 
made by Lendenfeld in connection with this species, lies in the 
fact that a specimen of it has been figured by him in the Cata- 
logue (PI. i., fig.l) as Papillina panis. 

In agreement with the description of the species, the type- 
specimens are massive, irregular, more or less laterally expanded 
{i.e., depressed) sponges of moderate size, are covered with papillae 
(of variable size and distribution), are of a yellowish-white colour 
in spirits, and (in some cases) exhibit circular oscula-like openings 
scattered irregularly over the surface. Lendenfeld sa3^s of these 
openings, or " vents " as he terms them, that they are not true 
oscula, but " lead into a system of vestibular lacunae which 
occupies the interior of the sponge " : in view of the fact that, in 
almost all other respects, the specimens afford practically indis- 
putable evidence of their identity with Papillissa lutea, I venture 
to say that, as regards the nature of the "vents," Lendenfeld 
was entirely in error. In every case, I have found that these 
openings are situated each immediately above the orifice of an 
inhabited Cirripede-shell; and it is clear that they are simply 
the means whereby the crustaceans maintained communication 
with the exterior. All indications point to the fact that, with 
continued growth of the sponge, these openings gradually become 
closed over and finally disappear from external view.* It is 



* At the time of writing the above, I was inclined to attach some im- 
portance to the presence of these Cirripedes, thinking it likely that the 
case was one of regular symbiosis; but I iiave since observed sporadic 
occurrences of a similar association in vaiious species. Owing to the 
abundance of these shells in the specimens, 1 have not been able to deter- 
mine, with certainty, whether C. lutea ipossesses anything analogous to the 
trabecular skeleton of C. hixonii or not. 



304 REVISION OF THE iMONAXONID SPONGES, i., 

interesting to note that man}^ of the shells, even in the upper 
part of the sponge, are penetrated by tubular excavations similar 
in nature to those produced by other species of Clioria. 

Spicules. — The tylostyli are straight or nearly so, gradually 
sharp-pointed, and of nearly uniform diameter throughout three- 
fourths or more of their length; they are provided with a rather 
large phyma of variable but usually symmetrical shape, which is 
often surmounted by a smaller dome; and they measure from 
about 300 to 490 /x. in length by 13/x in maximum diameter. 
Occasional styli of the same dimensions are met with. The 
microscleres are of three kinds : (i.) spirasters, of variable form; 
usually with a nearly straight axis; provided with spines of 
medium length, rarely exceeding the diameter of the spicule, and 
more or less spirally disposed; rarely less than 25 or more than 
45 [x in length; and measuring up to 6 /x in stoutness, exclusive 
of spines, (ii.) Cylindrical, slightly undulating or spiral, trun- 
cately-ended, very minutely and closely spined rods; seldom less 
than 10 /x or more then 30 /x in length; and rarely exceeding 3 /x 
in diameter, exclusive of spines, (iii.) Spined microxea; similar 
to those of (Jliona hixoni; bb to 110/x in length. 

Log. — Port Jackson. 

Remarks. — For reasons indicated in my remarks on Cliona 
hixoni, I propose that Papillissa be provisionally retained as a 
subgenus of Cliona. 

Familia SUBERITID^. 
In addition to Flectodendrori elegans, dealt with below, 
there is described in the Catalogue, under this family, a 
species, recorded from Port Jackson and the South Coast of 
Australia, to which Lendenfeld attached the. name Suberites 
domuncula Nardo. The identity of this sponge, I have been 
unable to determine. A specimen labelled, in Lendenfeld 's 
handwriting, ''Suberites domuncula, Port Jackson," is pre- 
served in the Australian Museum, and a fragment of a speci- 
men, bearing the same name and locality, has been received 
from the British Museum ; but these agree neither with the 
description given nor with one another, — although- both, how- 



BY E. P. KALLMANN. 305 

ever, are examples of species of Suhtrites, and both exhibit 
much the same pattern of skeleton as that apparently of the 
species described. For one thing, their spicules are too large, 
— the maximum sizes of these, in the two cases, being respec- 
tively 800 by 14/x and 10-40 by 19/x, as against 700 by 8 /x, tin; 
size stated by Lendenfeld ; and in addition to this, the spicules 
of the second {i.e., the British Museum) specimen are not 
"constricted below the bulb," and are almost as frequently 
rounded off at the apex as they are "sharp-pointed," while 
those of the first-mentioned, although actually narrowed to- 
wards the base and gradually sharp-pointed at the apex, are 
characterised, not by a "spherical bulb," but by one, the sur- 
face of which, as a rule, is uneven and somewhat tuberculate. 
Lendenfeld also states, concerning the spicules, that "the bulb 
is situated a little below the termination : the truncate end of 
the spicule appears as a slight centrally situated excrescence 
of the bulb" ; but in neither of the specimens do the spicules 
exhibit such a peculiarity, save exceptionally. 

Nevertheless, in view of the frequently only rough approxi- 
mation to accuracy of the measurements and descriptions of 
spicules given in the Catalogue, I should, perhaps, have been 
disposed to regard the Australian Museum specimen as a 
genuine example of the species, but for the fact that it also 
fails to comply with the description in certain additional 
respects. The description states that the sponge "always 
forms the abode of a crab" ; that the largest Australian speci- 
mens measure only 35mm. in breadth and 15mm. in height: 
and that the main exhalant canals, 1mm. wide, "are not rare 
in the interior and pour their contents into the wide and short 
oscular tube." On the other hand, the specimen is merely 
borne loosely (in the form of a thick concave plate) upon the 
back of a crab; measures 60mm. long by 45mm. broad; and 
is without apparent oscula or canals visible to the naked eye. 
This specimen is apparently of the same species as one in the 
British Museum labelled ''Suherites lamella, Port Jackson." 

There is also included, among the fragments received from 



306 REVISION OF THE MONAXONID SPONOES, i., 

the British Museum, a tiny piece labelled "Suberitella lajca, 
Port Jackson," the spicules of which correspond to the 
description of those of the so-called Suberites doniuncula ex- 
actly in every way, excepting that they never attain to more 
than 300 /x in length. It would be interesting to know whether 
this sponge agrees with the description of the species in ques- 
tion in other respects ; if it does, one would be justified, I 
think, in identifying the latter (as recorded from Port Jack 
son) with it. 

Plectodendron elegans. (PI. xviii., fig.l). 

In the pattern of its skeleton and the form of its spicules, 
Phctodendron degans bears an almost exact resemblance to a 
species, represented in the Australian Museum by two speci- 
mens from N.W. Australia, which I unhesitatingly identify 
as Caulospongia verticillata Kent(22): as the two species are 
congeneric, and each is the type of its genus, Phctodendron 
is, consequently, a synonym of Caulosjmngia. Kent described 
also, from an unknown locality, CaidosiJongia plicafa; and 
Bowerbank (3a) described, at a later date, as new, from 
A^'estern Australia, (liaJnia verficdlafa; — both of which 
species appear to me to be identical with CauJos'pongia verti- 
cdlata. In spite of these several descriptions of its type- 
species, the genus Caulospongia, for some reason, never gained 
recognition, and since the time of its erection (1871) has 
apparently received no other mention than that by Vosmaer'50), 
who lists it among the genera, the systematic position of which 
" absolut unsicher oder unbekannt ist," and that by Topsent(46), 
who quotes it as a synonym of Semisuherites Carter(^): but for 
this identification, there appears to be no foundation. 

The main skeleton, in the several species of Caulospongia 
known to me, is a very irregular, small-meshed reticulation of 
spicules and spiculo-spongin fibres, some of which fibres are 
stout and densely multi-spicular : the pattern of the skeleton 
is such that, if the stouter fibres were absent, one might 
describe it as confusedly renieroid. In C . elegans, spongin is 



6V E. F. KALLMANN. 307 

barely more than sufficient in quantity to bind the spicules 
together ; but in another (undescribed) species, it is developed 
fairly abundantly and forms a well-defined sheath to all but 
the slenderest fibres. The spicules are of a single kind, and of 
characteristic form; they are tylostyli with a much depressed 
phyma, which makes them appear nail-shaped. Of the dermal 
skeleton of C . rrrfiri/h/fa I cannot speak, since both specimens 
ac my disposal have the surface completely abraded ; but in ('. 
eler/a/is, and in the undescribed species, (which comes from 
the south coast of Australia, and in habit somewhat resembles 
C. elegans), there is a well-defined dermal membrane contain- 
ing tangential, reticulately-arranged spicules and provided 
also with slightly projecting spicules directed vertically. The 
dermal membrane of C. elegans is thin and translucent : that 
of the undescribed species is much more densely charged with 
spicules, and, in the dry sponge, appears as a well-marked, 
easily separable, whitish pellicle. 

This combination of characters, to which might be added 
the non-massive external form of the sponge(Pl.xviii., fig.l), 
definitely distinguishes CaulosjjoDfila from any other genus of 
the Suherifida'. Indeed, owing to the considerable degree of 
development of spongin, it is somewhat doubtful whether the 
genus really is related to the Suberi/idce, although in Laxo- 
suherifes, spongin, in small amount, is said to occur. 

Lendenf eld's description of C. elegans is, in the main, cor- 
rect, and is sufficient to enable the species to be identified : in 
the type-specimens, the spicules measure from (rarely) less 
than 140 /x to 220 /x in length, and attain 11 /x in diameter 

Loc. — Port Jackson. 

Familia CHONDROSID^. 

Chondrosia collectrix. 

Introdactorg.' — The type-specimen, allowance being made 

for its being only a portion of the original, is consistent in 

every way with the description except as regards colour, and 

perhaps also certain features of the canal-system — more espe- 



308 REVISION OP THE MONAXONID SPONGES, i., 

cially those involved in the statement that "subdermal cavi- 
ties are found in the shape of tangentially extended canals 0-2 
mm. below the surface, which are, on an average, 01 7mm. 
wide, and connected with inhalant pores on the outer surface 
by straight or curved canals, 0024mm. in diameter." The 
presence of these subdermal spaces, canals, and pores, I have 
been unable to demonstrate ; but the sponge is so loaded with 
foreign matter, including abundant and often large sand- 
grains, that thin sections are possible only after prolonged 
desilicidation, and it is then very difficult to distinguish be- 
tween spaces proper to the sponge and those due to particles 
removed. I have found another (apparent) example of the 
species, however, which, throughout considerable portions of 
the interior, is comparatively free from inclusions ; and this 
differs from the type-specimen in other respects also. It has 
been described by Whitelegge(56) under the name Reniera colJec- 
tn,r, of which species it is labelled as the type ; for the reasons 
given below, 1 am of opinion that it is correctly labelled so, 
and accordingly hold Ckondrosia collect rix and Reniera coUec- 
trix to be synonymous. 

Descripfion,. — The sponge is provided with a thin cortex, 
not easily separable nor distinctly marked off from the under- 
lying tissue, which is of a pale greyish or dirty- white colour, 
and generally about 0-2 or 0-3mm. in thickness. In the type- 
specimen of Reniera collectrid, the colour of the choanosome, 
where not disguised by foreign inclusions, is brownish-yellow, 
and this is in accordance with Lendenf eld's statement regard- 
ing the internal colour of Chondrosia collecfrir: but in the 
type-specimen of the latter species, the colour is greyish, and 
scarcely different from that of the cortex. The two specimens 
also differ very considerably in consistency. The former, 
where most free from inclusions, is dense, fleshy, firm, and 
fairly tough ; but the latter, owing to the abundance and 
mainly arenaceous nature of the foreign elements, is, for the 
most part, hard and gritty. The "slightly conulated" appear- 
ance of portions of the surface, referred to by Lendenfeld, is 



BY E. F. KALLMANN. 309 

merely an unevenness due to the presence, close below the cor- 
tex, of occasional, rather large grains of sand, etc. ; whal 
other inequalities of the surface there are, appear to be the 
result rather of irregularity of growth than of any definite 
tendency or habit of growth. Oscula, or openings resembling 
oscula, were observed only in the complete specimen ; they are 
situated in two small groups, and in each group are closely 
arranged, and of variable diameter up to 2-5mm. The canals 
traversing the sponge are comparatively few in proportion to 
its mass, and at most only about 1mm. in diameter. 

(The following brief account of the minute anatomy is in- 
tended mainly only as a guide to the identification of the 
species. A fuller description is necessary, but is scarcely pos- 
sible with the material at my disposal, the condition of preser- 
vation of which, after nearly thirty years in spirit, leaves 
much to be desired.). 

The cortex is without fibrous tissue, and consists of a kind 
of chondrenchyma. The mesogloea is very extensively deve- 
loped and characterised by a peculiar vesicular structure due 
to numerous very distinctly outlined, apparently empty, oval 
cells (cystencytes), which are arranged in clusters rather than 
uniformly distributed, and measure 15/x to liO/x in diameter. 
There is no proper skeleton, nor anything of the nature of 
connective tissue fibres. The chamber-system appears to be 
eurypylous. The flagellated chambers vary in shape, from 
oval to nearly spherical ; in the type-specimen, presumably 
owing to contraction, they are very seldom much more than 
30 /x (yet may attain to 40 /x) in diameter ; but in the other spe- 
cimen {Eeniera collectrix)^ they are usually between 35 and 
40 /x in diameter, while a certain few, which are more elongated 
and relatively narrower than the others, measure 45 by 30 
to 35 /x. Inside most (if not all) of the smaller canals, lying in 
contact with, or in close proximity to, their wall, there occur 
a variable number of irregularly rounded cells, measuring 10 
to 12/x in diameter; the nature of these is not clear, but pos- 
sibly they are algae. 



310 REVISION OF THE MONAXONID SPONGES, i., 

l.oc. — Port Jackson. 

Renuirks. — Whether the species belongs naturally to Chon- 
dfosia, is doubtful : but it conforms more closely to the defini- 
tion of that genus than of any other, and there is scarcely 
sufficient ground to warrant the introduction of a new genus 
for it. 

It is quite possible that the differences between the two 
specimens described may prove to be specific. 



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13. Ditto. Part ii. Op. cit., viii., 1896, pp. 14-51. 

14. Ditto. Part iii. Op. cit., ix., pp.230-2r)9. 



BY K. F. KALLMANN'. 31 I 

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pedition." Natural History Reports, Vol. iv., 19uS. 

25. Leidy, J.— "The Boring Sponge, Cliona." Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc. 

Philadelphia, 1889, Pt. i., pp. 70-75. 

26. Lendenfeld, R. yon.— "Die Chalineen des Australischen Gebietes." 

Zool. .Jahrb., ii., 1887, pp. 723-828. 
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Australian Museum, Sydney." London, 1888. 
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ix., 4, 1889, pp.113-127; Abh. Senck. Ges., xvi., Heft 2, 1S90, 

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Kaiserl. Leop. -Carol. Deutsch. Akad. Naturf., Ixix., 1896-7, pp. 1-251. 

30. LiNDGREN, N — " Beitrag zur Kenntuiss der Spongienfauna des Malai- 

schen Archipels und der Chinesischen Meere." Zool. Anz., xx.. 
1897, pp. 480-487; Zool. Jahrb., Abt. f. Syst., xi., 1898, pp.283-378. 

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rrhaphidffi.'" Danish Ingolf Expedition, vi., Pt. I. 1902. 

31a. Ditto. Part ii. Desmacidonidse (partim). Op. cit., 

vi., Pt.2. 1905. 



312 REVISION OF THE MONAXONID SPONGES, 1., 

31b. LuNDBECK, VV. — Ditto. Partiii. Desuiacidonicl£e(partim). Op. cit., 
vi., Pt.3, 1910. 

32. Pick, F. K.— "Die Gattung Raspailia." Arch. f. Naturg., 1905, i., 

Heft 1, pp. 1-48. 

33. Ridley, 0. S. — "Spongida. " Reports on the Zoological Collections 

made in the Indo-Pacific Ocean during the Voyage of H.M.S. 
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onida collected by H.M.S, 'Challenger'." Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. 
(5), xviii., 1886, pp.325-351. 

34a. " The Monaxonida." Reports on the 

Scientific Results of the Voj'age of H.M.S. "Challenger," Zoology, 
XX., 1887. 

35. Row, R. \y . H. — " Report on the Sponges collected by Mr. Cyril 

Crossland in 1904-5. Part ii. Mon-calcarea." Journ. Linn. Soc. 
London, Zool., xxxi., 1911, pp. 287-400. 

36. SoLLAS, VV. J. — "The Tetractinellida." Reports on the Scientific 

Results of the Voyage of H.M.S. " Challenger," Zoology, xxv. 

37. SoLLAS, I. B. — " The Inclusion of Foreign Bodies by Sponges, with a 

Description of a new Genus and Species of Monaxonida." Ann. 
Mag. Nat. Hist. (8), i., 1908, p. 395. 

38. Thiele, J. — " Studien iiber pazifische Spongien." ' Zoologioa,' Heft 

24, 1898. 

39. Ditto. ii.Teil. Op. cit., Heft 24, 1899. 

40. —^ " Kieselschwanime von Ternate. i." Abh. Senckenb. 

Naturf. Gesell., xxv.. Heft i., 1900, pp. 19-80. 

41. Ditto, ii. Op. cit, xxv.. Heft iv., 1903, pp.933-967. 

42. "Die Kiesel- una Hornschwiimme der Sainmlung Plate." 

Zool. Jahrb. Suppl. vi.. Dr. L. Plate, " Fauna Chilensis" : iii.. Heft 

3, 1905, pp. 407-496. 
43. ToPSENT, E. — " Contribution a I'Etude des Spongiaires de I'Atlantique 

Nord," Resultats des Campagnes Scientifiques du Prince de 

Monaco, Fasc. ii., 1892. 
44.- "Spongiaires de la Bale d'Amboine." Revue Suisse 

Zool,, iv., 1897, pp. 421-487. 
45, "Introduction a I'Etude monographique des Monax- 

onides de France. Classification des Hadromerina." Arch. Zool. 

exp. et gen. (3), vi., 1898, pp.91-113. 
46. " Etude Monographique des Spongiaires de France, 

iii. Monaxonida (Hadromerina)." Arch. Zool. exp. et gen. (3), viii., 

1900, pp. 1-331. 
47, "Spongiaires des Acores." Resultats des Campagnes 

Scientifiques du Prince de Monaco; Fasc. xxv., 1904. 
48. Bull, rinstit. Oc^anogr., 1912, No. 252, pp. 1-12. 



BY E. F. HALLMAXN. 313 

49. Verrill, a. E.— "Characteristic Life of the Bermuda Coral Reefs. 

Porifera." Trans. Conn. Acad., xii., 1907, pp. 330-344. 

50. VosMAEK, ii. C J. — "Porifera." Die Klasseii uiul Ordnungeii de.s 

Thierreichs, ii., 1887. 

51. — " The Porifera of tiie fSiboga-Kxpedition. ii.Thc 

Genus Spirastrella." Siboga-Expediiie, Monogr. vi.a, Livr. lix., 

1911, pp. 1-67. 
52, "Oil the Distiuction between the (jGuera, Ax inell'f, 

Phake/iia, Acan.thella, a.o." Zool. Jahrb. 8uppl. xv., Bd. i., 1912. 
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Mus., iii., Part 5, 1897, pp. 323-332. 
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of New South Wales." Rec. Austr. Mus., iv., No.2, 1901, pp.55-118. 
55. "Supplementary Notes to the Report on 

Sponges from the Coastal Beaches of New South Wales. Op. cil., 

iv., No.5, 1902, pp.21 1-216. 
56. "Notes on Leudenfeld's Types described in 

the Catalogue of Sponges in the Australian Museum.*' Op. cit., iv., 

No.7, 1903, pp.274-288. 
57, ■ "Scientific Results of the Trawling Expedi- 
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10, 1907, pp.487-515. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATES XV. -XXIV. 
Plate XV. 
Fig A.— Sollasella digilata Lendenfeld; ( x §). 
Fig.'2.—Sollasella digitafa Lendenfeld, from the type; ( x §). 
Fig.3. — Donalia /ssurata Lendenfeld; (slightly reduced). 
Fig. 4. — Donatia phiUij)e7Viis Lendenfeld ; surface-section showing the 

dermal reticulation, the primary meshes of which are subdivided 

(by lines of tylasters) into smaller meshes, each enclosing a pore; 

( X 18). 
Fig.o. — SjnraslrtHa{1) audralis Lendenfeld; a tiabellatc example; ( x h). 
Fig, 6. — Polymastia zilteli, from the type of Sideroderma zittelii Lendenfeld; 

(nearly nat. size). The specimen is in a fragmentary condition. 

Plate xvi. 

Fig. 1. — Cliona {Fa])Ulissa) hixoni, from the type of Raphyriis hixonii Len- 
denfeld ; portion of the cxteri(U', showing tlie character of the 
surface-areolation; ( X ^■). 

Fig.2. — Cliona {Papillis'ia) hixoni; showing the skeleton (after maceration 
by means of caustic potash) of a thick slice of a small specimen; 
(nat. size). 



314 REVISION OF THE MONAXONID SPONGES,!., 

Figfi.S-4.—Ciiona (Papillis-sa) sp., allied to C/iona liixonii; portions of the 
concave and convex surfaces respectively of a specimen having the 
form of a thick, curved plate, showing the cliaracter and arrange- 
ment of the surface-papillfe; ( x 5). 

Plate xvii. 

Figs. I, 2. — C/i07ia {Papillissa) lutea, from the types of Papillissa lutea 
Lendenfeld; ( x ^). 

Fig. 3. — Spi7Xistrella(l) austra/is Lendenfeld; showing the skeleton (as pre- 
pared by maceration by means of caustic potash) of the specimen 
illustrated in PI. xv., fig.5; ( x h). 

Fig. 4. — Amorphmopsis megarrhaphea hendeuield; dermal skeleton; ( x 8). 

Fig.5. — Amorphinopsismeyarrhaphea Lendenfeld; pattern of the skeleton as 
shown in portion of a moderately thin section ( x 10 approximately). 

Fig. 6. — Tcdania digitata var. rubicunda, from the type of T. rubicunda 
Lendenfeld; ( x ^). 

Plate xviii, 

YigA. — Cmdospongia, elegans, from the type of Plectodendron elegans Len- 
denfeld; ( x 5). 

Fig.2. — A xiamon folium, sp.nov. ; ( x^). 

Fig.3. — A xiamon folium (var.?); ( x ^). 

Fig. 4. — Hemitedania anovi/7na Carter ; from a specimen of somewhat carti- 
laginous consistency, and with coarse-fibred skeleton; ( x ^). 

Plate xix. 
Fig. 1. — Hemitedania anonyma Carter, from a specimen labelled as the 

type of Halichondria rubra Lendenfeld; ( x f ). 
Fig.2. — Hemitedania anonyma', from a macerated, coarse-fibred specimen; 

(xi). 
rigs.3, 4, 5. — Hemitedania anonyma; illustrating various forms assumed 

by examples of this species; ( x h approximately). 

Plate XX. 

Fig.L — Clialina fnitiina WWiiaXegge [won Schmidt); an incomplete speci- 
men. 

Y'lg.l.— Phlnodidyon ramsayi, from one of the co-tj'pes of Rhizochalina 
ramsayi Lendenfeld; illustrating a specimen of irregular shape pro- 
vided with many root-like processes. 

Fig.3. — Phkeodictyon ramsayi var. pyriformis{yA,T.uov.) ; portion of the 
upper surface showing the sieve-like area formed by the closely 
apposed oscula; ( x 5) 

FigsA-5. — Phl(Todictyon ramsayi; tangential sections close beneath the 
surface, showing the pattern of the reticulation formed by fibres of 
the ])ast-la3'er in the wall of the fistula and in between the fistulas 
respectively; ( x 10). 



BY E. F. KALLMANN. 315 

Plate XX i. 

Figs. 1, 2, 3, 4.— 5^.v/o/c//a agminala Ridley, from type-specimens of Stylo- 
tella digitala Lendenfeld, and of Tcdunia laxa Lendenfeld;( x h ap- 
proximately). 

Fig.5. — iStylotella ay77imata Ridley; fiutlier illustrating the variable hal)it 
of the species. 

Plate xxii. 

Fig. 1. — Axintlla auranliaca Lendenfeld; longitudinal median section taken 
at the extremity of a thin branch; ( x 15). 

Fig.2.~ Sty lotella aijminata Ridley; longitudinal .section taken at the ex- 
tremity of a branch; ( x 12). 

Fig.3. — Histoderma actinioides, sp.nov.;( x| approximately). 

Fig. 4. — PhlfModictyoii rmnaayi Lendenfeld, var. py r if ormis (war. nov.) ; 
inner surface of longitudinally bisected specimen, showing disposi- 
tion of oscular canals; ( x f ). 

Fig.6. — Spirastrellail) ramulosa Lendenfeld; showing the skeleton which 
remains after maceration by means of caustic potash; ( x f ). 

Fig.6.— /?aspaiaa tendla Lendenfeld; longitudinal median section taken 
at the extremity of a branch; ( x 12). 

Fig. 7. — Raspailia gracilis Lendenfeld; longitudinal section of a branch; 
(x9). 

Plate xxiii. 
¥\g.\. Raspailia gracilis, from the type of Axindla hinpida var. gracilis 

Lendenfeld; ( x j). 
Figs.2-3. — Raspaila ttnella, from the types of Axinella hispida var. tendla 

Lendenfeld; ( x j approximately). 
Fig. 4. — Ras2milia agminala, sp.nov.; from the specimen Avrongly Hgured 

in the Catalogue (PI. ii., tig. 1) in illustration of Halichondria rubia, 

var. digitata Lendenfeld ;( x ^'). 
Fig. 5. — Chalinodtndron dtndrilla Lendenfeld; ( x^). 

Plate xxiv. 
Y'\g.\,—Mycale (Parcspcrdla) peiiicilliam Lendenfeld; dermal skeleton; 

( X 18). 
Vig.2. — Tedania digitata var. rubicunda Lendenfeld ; dermal skeleton . 

(xl8). 
Figs. 3, 4, 5. — Hemiledauia anonyma Carter; dermal skeleton; ( x 18). 
Fig.6. —il///ca/e serpen Lendenfeld; dermal skeleton. 
Figs.7, 8. — A xiamon folium, sp.nov.; pattern of the skeleton as shown in 

moderately thin sections. Fig. 7, ( x 10). 



316 



THE BONDI ANTICLINE. 

By C. Hedley, F.L.S. 

(Plates xxv.-xxvii.) 

To ascertain the quality and position of coal-seams beneath 
and inland from Sydney, a series of bores were drilled to a great 
depth. As a result, the conformation of the remotely underlying 
strata is unusually well known in this neighboufhood . 

Sections* composed from these borings develop a central 1)asin 
risintr to the coast on the one side, and to the Blue Mountains on 
the other. This basin is here regarded as the lap of a fold. Had 
the basin existed before the deposition of the strata it contains, 
then salt would have accunuilated in an area of internal drainage 
below sea-level. Further, the steep slope, on the western side, 
of about five thousand feet in forty miles would have thrown 
brisk streams, and would not have supported such swamps as 
grew the coal. Consequently, the bowed strata were not laid 
down in their present attitude, but on an almost level surface. 
So considerable deformation of the original coal-horizon has 
therefore happened. Since drawing the following sketch, it 
occurs to me that the watershed, on which was laid down the 
Hawkesl)ury Sandstone, might have desc-ended inland westwards, 
while the granite mountain-range, whose waste supplied its 
materials, was situated seawards and to the east. This would 
harmonise with deeper, coarser deposits on the east becoming 
finer and thinner on the west. 

Compressive crustal action has already been suggested {ante^ 
xxxvi., p. 14) as an agent competent to effect the changes that 
have taken place. On this hypothesis, both the coal and the 
.succeeding shale and sandstone were spread evenly on an almost 
level floor, and by subsequent earth-movements were compressed 
and bent, first into smaller, then into larger, folds — was elets on 
a wave (text-fig. 1). 



Came, Mem. Geol. Survey N.S.W., Geol. vi., 1908, p,160. 



BY C. IIEDLEY, 



317 



Various alternations of Wianamatta shale and Hawkesbiiry 
sandstone indicate the former, while the latter are represented 



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■^ 


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Fig.l. 



by the anticlinal ridge of the Blue Mountains and by the syn- 
clinal trough from Blacktown to Campbelltown. The sti'ata 



318 THE BONDI ANTICLINE, 

rising witli increased rapidity near Sydney* point to the com- 
pletion of tlie series by an anticline on the east. It is proposed 
to name this the Bondi Anticline. Apparently its crest lay 
beyond the present coast, and though now shattered and sunk, 
may yet be traced from its dyke-complex, and from the crushing 
of the rocks before it. 

In its prime, the Bondi anticline probably rose to a consider- 
able height, for denudation has pared off from its flanks the 
Wianamatta shale and some sandstone as well. The drowned 
valley of Port Jackson indicates recent subsidence: so that the 
anticline sank, perhaps through the withdrawal of a fluid core, 
perhaps through being involved in another and larger folding 
movement, or perhaps through faulting. 

Evidence in support of this idea is offered from the radiating 
dykes and from the crushing of the shale. 

(1) The radial dykes. — Around S3'dney, the sandstone-rocks 
are fissured by a series of dykes, some of which run roughly 
north and south, and others cross at about right angles. Both 
are of later date than the crushing of the shale, as they traverse 
the distorted strata indifferently. 

It was remarked by Mr. G. A. Waterhouse that the easterly 
and westerly series assumed a radial direction, and converged 
to a point east of Bondi. f 

If the Bondi anticline swelled to bursting point and then 
cracked lengthwise and crosswise, these dykes Avould be the casts 
of those cracks (Platexxv.). By their direction, the hypothetical 
anticline might be restored as a crescent billow convex to the 
present coast and rising in the centre. When pressure was 
relieved by the bursting of the lava into dykes, the folding move- 
ment was perhaps arrested. 

(2) The mashing of tlte anticline. — In the composition of the 
Hawkesbury Sandstone, the Rev. J. E. Tenison- Woods dis- 
tinguished a smaller stratification, whose lines are mostly in- 
clined to the horizon, as " laminae," and a greater division, 

* David & Pittman, Journ. Roy. Soc. N. S.Wales, xxvii., 1893(1894), p. 459. 
t Morrison, Rec. Geo). Survey N.S.W., vii., 1904, p.261. 



BY C. HEDLKV. 319 

iiicludiiii,' O710 or more series of laminoe, as "layers." Between 
tliese layers, there is often a bed of shale. This shale may be 
yards in thickness, reduced to a thin sheet or spattered about in 
discs and pebbles. 

Near Sydney, the lip of the basin bearing the brunt of the 
pressure, the shale is rarely undisturbed. Frequently, it rests on 
a floor which curves abruptly up and down, and underlies a roof 
which, in a short space, makes equally sudden contortions (Plate 
xxvi.). From its nature, the shale, deposited horizontallv in 
calmest pools, could not have formed on such a floor or under 
such a roof. Into present positions the shale has slid over a 
strange floor, and been wedged under a misfit roof. Sometimes 
a shale bed thinning out is continued by a stream of biscuit- 
shaped flakes. These are morsels chewed in the jaws of the 
sandstone layers. Fish-remains are abundant in some shale- 
beds, and such are usually distorted by a very slow oblique pres-^ 
sure they have undergone. The sudden bumping of stranded 
icebergs could not account for the screwing these fcjssils have 
received. Besides, under floating ice the shale would disintegrate 
rather than bend or break. Pressure, too, is perhaps expressed 
by the readiness of exposed shale to crumble away, due to the 
breaking of its grain. 

The butter would ooze out, if pressure were put upon a pile of 
slices of bread and butter. So where hard sandstone and soft 
shale were squeezed together, the shale first gave way, and thus 
furnishes the most obvious evidence of displacement. To some 
extent, the false bedding disguised dislocation, but, though less 
apparent, the sandstone exhibits its own signs of disturbance. 
Continually it falls in belly-sags, and rises in back-humps, the 
imprint of thrust-movements. Layers are rolled over or telescoped 
into each other, and in places the sandstone is curled like 
carpenter's shavings (Plate xxvii.). 

Such phenomena are well known. Mr. C. S. Wilkinson* 
described disturbed beds at Fort Macquarie, Woolloomooloo, and 
Flagstaff Hill, where there were "angular boulders of the shale 



* Wilkinson, Journ. Roy. 8oc. N.S.VV., xiii., 1879(1880), p. 106. 



320 THE BONDI ANTICLINE. 

of all sizes up to twenty feet in diameter, embedded in the sand- 
stone in the most confused manner"; also rounded pebbles of 
shale "usually ovalin shape and embedded in such a manner that 
the longer axis of the pebble is nearly always inclined, or dips 
towards the South-west." Tn his matured opinion, these i-oeks 
were broken and pushed by the movement of ice.* 

Contorted beds at Coogee were figured and described by Prof. 
David, t who accepted Mr. Wilkinson's explanation that the dis- 
turbance was caused by the grounding of contemporary icebergs. 
Objections to this theory were raised by the Rev. J. E. Tenison- 
Woods,i who contended that the usual accompaniments of ice- 
action, such as transported and engraved stones, moraines, till, 
glacial mud, or boulder clay, are here absent. He considered 
that the breaking and scattering of the sliale might have been 
accomplished b}- the floods of contemporary streams. 

Mr. R. D. Oldhamll was not convinced that the evidence ad- 
vanced by Mr. Wilkinson proved the presence of glaciers. 

Neither afloat nor aground does ice work thus. Transported 
rocks, so constant a feature of ice, and so easy to detect, are 
absent here. It is now submitted that neither ice-action nor 
contemporaneous denudation satisfactorily explains the crushed 
shales. On the contrary, it is thought that their injuries were 
received when they were caught in the press of the Bondi anti- 
cline, and ground lietween moving masses of sandstone, and that 
the disturbances arose from a series of thrusts and folds started 
in the yielding and quaking mass by the advancing anticline. 

From an economic point of view, it will be of importance to 
consider if the coal-deposits in this area have deteriorated by 
crushing. 

The dune-and-pond origin of the Hawkesbury Sandstone, so 
ably advocated by Tenison-Woods, would be favoured by the 
withdrawal of the ice-hypothesis. 



* Wilkinson, Mem. Dept. Mines, Pal. iii., 1890, p. 28, footnote. 

t David, Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, xliii., 1887, pp. 190-196. 
Ten. -Woods, Proc. Roy. Soc. N. S. Wales, xvi., 1882(1883), p. 75. 
II Oldham, Rec. Geol. Survey India, xix., 1886, p. 43. 



RY C. HEDLEY. 321 

Til conclusion, the Boiidi anticline is suggested as the medium 
of that tremendous driving force which thrust down the l)asin 
now outlined by the Wianamatta shale, till the Prospect la\a 
squirted through its broken floor, displaced the Hawkesbiuy 
liiver from Camden to Windsor, and pressed up the Blue 
Mountain ridge behind. The giant fold, of which it was a part, 
relaxed its grip and died in its youth, as the anticline cracked 
and burst. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATES XXV.-XXVIL 

Plate XXV. 
Scheme of an anticline deduced to match the Blue Mountain ridge and 
the Pairamatta trough, and to account for the disturbed .shales and sand- 
stones about Sydney. From the paths of the radial dykes it is developed 
as a crescent directed west and swollen medially near Bondi. Based on 
the Geological Sketcii Map of Sj'dney, Dept. Mines, 1903. 

Plate xxvi. 
Example of a crumpled sheet of shale regarded as entangled in a slide 
of the sandstone-beds. Opposite Cremorne Wharf, Milson Road in the 
foreground. Drawn l)y Miss P. Clarke. 

Plate xxvii. 
A series of coils of sandstone which, it is presumed, were slowly rolled 
up and together when a superincumbent mass of rock was launched across 
them. From the road side, between Seaforth and the Spit, east side of 
Middle Harbour. Photographed by Dr. H. G. Chapman. 




322 



ORDTXAT^Y MOXTHLY IMEETIXG. 

July 29th, 1914. 
Mr. C. Hedley, F.L.8., Vice-President, in the Chair. 

The Chairman called attention to the programme of the Meet- 
ing of the Britisli Association for tlie Advancement of Science, 
in Sydney, August 20-26th, and particuhirly requested intending 
members to facilitate the work of the Hon. Treasurer [Dr. H. G. 
Chapman, Royal Society's House, 5 Elizabeth Street Nortli] by 
forwarding their subscriptions without delay. 

Reference was made to the decease of Mr. Richard Helms, for 
some time a Member of tlie Society, in the interval since the last 
Meeting. Mr. Helms had a considerable knowledge of the ento- 
mology of New Zealand, where he resided before coming to Aus- 
tralia. For some years, he was an officer in the Department of 
Agriculture of New South Wales, afterwards in West Australia, 
and, subsequently, again in New South Wales. As naturalist of 
the Elder Exploring Expedition to Central Australia, he did 
excellent work. Evidence of glaciation on the Kosciusko Plateau 
was first brought prominently^ into notice by him; and this was 
subsequently confirmed and amplified in collaboration with Prof. 
David, and Mr. Pittmann. Mr. Helms also prepared a very 
useful account of the physiography, flora, and fauna of the 
Plateau. 

It was resolved that an expression of sympathy and good- will 
should be tendered to Mr. R. J. Tillyard, concerning whom a 
disquieting, but haj^pily somewhat exaggerated announcement in 
connection with a railway accident, appeared in the morning 
papers. 

The Donations and Exchanges received since the previous 
Monthly Meeting (24th June, 1914), amounting to 19 Vols., 



NOTES AND EXHIBITS. 323 

117 Parts or Nos., 23 Bulletins, 2 Reports, and 7 Pamphlets, 
received from 79 Societies, etc., and two authors, were laid upon 
the table. 

NOTES AND EXHIBITS. 

Mr. Hedley exhibited an advance copy of a monon'raph of Aus- 
tralian Rhopalocera, by Messrs. G. A. Waterhouse and G. Lyell, 
just published, a most important addition to entomological liter- 
ature, and especially noteworthy because every known species is 
floured. 

Mr. Fred Turner exhibited, and contributed notes on, the fol 
lowing grasses, now apparently acclimatised in Australia. The 
seeds of most of these grasses have, no doubt, been accidentallv 
introduced with agricultural and other seeds, or in packing 
material. The other species are evidently escapees from cultiva- 
tion, though none of them have been collected on cultivated areas. 
Agi'ostis jmlchella Guss., (Sicily); near Parramatta, 1905. Ag7'ostis 
si!o/o?ii/er« Linn.,(Eui"ope); Shoalhaven River, 1899. Alopecurus 
a^res^is Linn., (Europe); near Stonehenge, 1906. Alopecurus pra- 
tensis Linn., (Europe); near Berry, 1901. Arena jyraUnsis Linn., 
(Europe and Asia); near Bega, 1893. Ai^ena puhescens Huds., 
(Europe and Asia); near Candelo, 1893. Cynosurus cristatus 
Linn., (Europe); near Robertson, 1912. Cynosurus echinatus 
Linn., (Europe and Oi-ient); near Cooma, 1899. Festuca gIgcuUea 
Vill., (Europe, Asia, and Africa) ; near Uralla, 1905. Festuca 
loliacpa Huds., (Europe); Coolangatta, 1899. Festuca pratensis 
Huds.,('Europe); near Delegate, 1893. Phleum areiiariitm Linn., 
(Europe) ; Shoalhaven River, 1899. Phleum jrratense Linn., 
(Europe) ; Tenterfield, 1905, and Moruya, 1895. Poa distans 
Li\\\n., = Glyceria distans Wahlenb., (Europe); Coolangatta, 1899. 
Poa neynoralis Linn., (Europe and Asia): near Tenterfield, 1905. 
— When the plates from Bauer's " lUustrationes florae Nova» 
Hollandi^e," tkc, presented to the Society by Hev. J. Lament, 
F.L.S., were under notice at the last Meeting, Mr. Turner re- 
marked that he remembered having conmiunicated, for the author, 
a paper entitled " Ferdinand Bauer and some of his Drawings,'' 
by the late Rev. Dr. Woolls, F.L.S., to the Horticultural Society 



324 NOTES AND EXHIBITS. 

of New Soiitli Wales some years ago. He now supplied the 
information, that the paper was read at a meeting on 9th April, 
1889; and was subsequently published in the " Rural Austra- 
lian," 1st May, 1889, at that time the otlicial organ of the iSofiety. 

Mr. MeCulloeh exhibited a copy of the first part of the "Aus- 
tralian Zoolocrist," a new publication issued by the Royal Zoo- 
logical Society of New South Wales. Attention was drawn to 
the large-sized page and plate, which are particularly convenient 
for certain classes of work. He also exhibited a specimen of an 
interesting fish, Jordanidia solandri Cuv. it Val. It w^as origin- 
ally noticed bv Solander, naturalist to Cook's first voyage to 
Australian waters, who described it us Scomber macrophthcdmus^ 
a manuscript name afterwards altered to GeAwpyluH solandri by 
Cuvier k Valenciennes. Tt w^as also named Thyrsites lyiicropus 
by McCoy, while Waite has recently pi-oposed the new generic 
and specific names Bexea farci/era foi- it. Tt proves to belong to 
the o-enus Jordanidia Snyder, however, and should, therefore, be 
called J. solandri. 

Mr. Mitchell exhibited specimens of a fossil fish, found in the 
Newcastle Coal-Measures. It probably belongs to the Paheonis- 
cidin. This fossil is interesting, because it is the only one yet 
obtained from the Coal-Measures in a good state of preservation. 
The specimens were found in a railway cutting at the junction 
of the New^castle Wallsend Coal Company's line with the Great 
Northern Railway. The geological horizon of the occurrence of 
these fossils is about 200 feet below^ the Borehole Coal-seam of 
the Newcastle Series. He also reported the occurrence of the 
trilobite, Calymene nasuta, in the Upper Silurian rocks of 
Bowning. 

Mr. A. A. Hamilton showed a series of botanical specimens 
from the Botanic Gardens, Sydney, including: (1) Lactuca virosa 
Linn., (Cult.), showing complicated prolifieation. An umbel of 
abortive flowers projects from the primary eapitulum, which is 
reduced to a foliaceous involucre. The flowers consist of an in- 
volucre supporting a series of florets, which have united, and form 



NOTKS AND kXhibits. 325 

ail cnvel()|K' (K't'Ui)>'iiig- the greater jxirt oi' tli(^ llowei-, i)arlially 
ciielosing the lew reiiiaiiiiiig' ilorets, a tliirtl primitive llower tilling 
the \ac*aii('y on the opposite( side. In some of the llowers, the 
iinohicral bracts are broadened at the expense oi* tlieir length, and 
a number of tlie ilorets liave developed an inflated corolla, togetlier 
with suppression of the pappus.— (2 j /jL>om<m versicolor Maiasn., 
[Jliiia lobala Cerv.) ; cultivated; showing prolitication, fasciation, 
and torsion. The normally attenuated base of the corolla is elong- 
ated, and an abortive llower, with its apex produced into long 
points, proceeds from between the corolla-lobes, which are severetl 
to thrice their usual depth. The calyx, which in the perfect llower 
has a sliort tube and lobes with a basal dilation, has separated 
into distinct sepals, wdiich have elongated and lost their dilation, 
and, in some cases, represent the whole flower. The rhachis of tlie 
proliferous ui)per portion of the raceme is fasciated; ilowers are 
observed with twisted, infertile stamens ; and stem-]ea\es and 
llowers are contorted. — (3 )/V^?(>.r( perennial ; Hort. var.), showing 
virescence developing into frondescence. In the early stages of the 
trouble, the somewhat imp(nerished, but sexually perfect, flowers 
were unable to colour their petals, and, as it became more acute, the 
whole series of organs constituting the flower gradually lost their 
floral character. Anally degenerating into tufts of leaves. — (4) 
Conospervtum spp. The difference between C. <n'icifolinm iSm., 
and C. laxifoliufH Sm., is, according to the Flora Austr., a foliate 
one, based chiefly on the length and })readth of tiie leaves. Jn the 
specimens exhibited, the leaves are graded, from the ty])ical, sliort, 
and narrow^ form in ('. erici folium, to the broader and longer 
leaves of ('. la.rifoliuiii ; so that the two species are merged into one 
coidinuous series, in which a dirticulty arises as to where the di\i(l- 
ing line should be drawn, —^(.j)i)o(io7irfv/ pi)inata 8ni. ])escriptioii 
of fruit-capsules, not i)reviously described, as far as known: four- 
or fre(|uently Kve-angled, with a few long hairs on the top, mem- 
branous, the wings undulate-wrinkled, viscid, dotted with resinous 
glands. Peduncles J in. long. Sepals ciliate, lanceolate, ai)out 2 
lines long. — {^) Telopea species issima R.Br., showing leaf-varia- 
tion. Margins entire, serrate, or lobed: leaves from 2-9 inches 



326 NOTES AND EXHIBITS. 

long, and from |-3 inches broad. — (7) Notelrea lo7igi/olia Yent., 
showing leaf-variation : ovate-lanceolate to orbicular. Some 
measurements : 7 x 3; 6 x 1 J; 44 x 3: 4 x 1; 3 x J; 2 x 2 inches. 

On behalf of Mr. C. T. Musson, Mr. Fletcher showed specimens 
of the coral-like surface-roots of Macrozamia spiralis [N.O. 
CYCADEiE], and transverse sections mounted in the fresh condi- 
tion, showing the presence of an endophytic green alga, Anahcena 
cycadearum {Nostocacece) [vide Tubeuf, Diseases of Plants, p. 542]. 



327 



A REVISION OF THE MONAXONID SPECIES DE- 
SCRIBED AS NEW IN LENDENFELD'S "CATA- 
LOGUE OF THE SPONGES IN THE AUSTRALIAN 
MUSEUM." Part ii. 

By E. F. Hallmann, B.Sc, Linnean Macleay Fellow of the 
Society in Zoology. 

(Plates xv.-xxiv.) 

Familia HOMORRHAPHID^. 

Subfamilia Renierin^. 

Reniera collectrix. 
For various reasons one is obliged to conclude that this 
species was founded on specimens of Cliondrosia ( ?) collect rlj., 
the mistake in all probability having been due to the fact that 
the specimen examined by Lendenfeld for description hap- 
pened to contain a considerable number of foreign spicules 
derived from a litnlcra growing in contact with it. This, in 
the first place, is the conclusion to be drawn from the osten- 
sible type-specimen, as well as from a fragment labelled 
litnicra collectrix that comes from the British Museum, — 
both of which are examples of the species I have named. The 
fragment referred to is practically free from spicules, but the 
complete specimen (which is encrusted in many places by other 
sponges, including Rcnicra) shows here and there — as already 
mentioned by Whitelegge(56), who himself regarded them as 
proper to the sponge — patches of small oxea, which occur more 
especially in some parts near the surface. Furthermore, this 
specimen, apart from the fact of its being without proper 
spicules, is consistent with the description of R<nur<( collect r'l.r 
in every respect excepting only that its oscula are but 2-5mm. 
wide instead of 5mm. And a point particularly to be noted 
in connection with the description is the statement therein 



328 



REVISION or THE MONAXONID SPONGES, 11. 



that the consistency of the sponge is very hard : for this in 
itself is an indication that the species described was not a 
licnlera. Finally, some significance attaches to the fact that 
although the specimen in question was undoubtedly known to 
Lendenfeld, — as is shown by its having a label written by him 
attached to it — he omitted to take it into account in his 
description of (lioiulrosKi colU'cirix, which he states to be an 
"incrusting" sponge, attaining only "a height of 20mm., and 
a breadth of 60mm." ; and thus it seems certain that the real 
identity of this specimen was unsus])ected. Accordingly, al- 
though it is difficult to believe that CJioudrox'ia (?) rolhctrix 
could under any circumstances be mistaken for a species of 
Rtnieru, all the evidence supports the view that such a mis- 
take was actually made. 

Reniera australis. (Text-fig. 2). 
Inlvoductory. — The type specimen, which is preserved in 
alcohol, has the form of a thick layer covering one side of a })iece 
of blackish wood, which has imparted to the sponge a brown 
stain. Although at first sight not appearing 
so, it consists of two specimens united later- 
ally, one of which has grown o^■er the edge of 
the other in such a way as to j^roduce an ap- 
pearance of continuity. Both specimens are 
generically the same — Reniera: but one of 
them has a rugged and granular surface, a 
somewhat olive-brown colour, and spicules 
measuring 80 to 125/7. in length by 5//, in 
maximum stoutness; while the other, which is 
the smaller, has a smooth surface, a yellowish 
to faintly reddish-brown colour, and spicules 
mcasuriiig 60 to (rarely) 115 /x in length by at 
most -t-5 \L in diameter. And there is also, apparently, a slight 
difference between them with regard U^ the mode of arrange- 
ment of the skeleton. It is not unlikely that the two arc 
specifically distinct : and I, therefore, take the latter to be the 
representative of the species, since it agrees the better with 




Fig. 2. — Reiiitra au->- 
tralis. Oxea. 



BY E. F. KALLMANN. 329 

Lendenfeld's description. As this, the only specimen avail- 
able, is small, incomplete, and much damaged, it unfortu- 
nately affords but little information regarding the external 
features of the species ; and with respect to these, accordingly, 
I can only quote the original description, which was based 
apparently upon several specimens. 

iJexcrljJtion. — "Massive, lobose, horizontally: extended, more 
or less incrusting sponges, with dome-shaped protuberances on 
the upper surface, on the summits of which the circular, 3 to 
5mm. wide, oscula are situated. Surface smooth. The sponge 
attains a height of 30mm., a length of 150 to 200mm., and a 
width of 100mm. Colour in the living state rosy red, in spirit 
grey." The consistency is soft and fragile, and the texture 
slightly porous. A very thin and delicate, non-separable, der- 
mal membrane is present, and when this is removed (by cut- 
ting a thin shaving from the surface) the structure immediate- 
ly beneath is seen to be minutely and irregularly honeycomb- 
like. 

The skeleton-reticulation (as it appears in rather thin sec- 
tions) does not extend continuously, as is perhaps usually the 
case in Reniera, but is interrupted by many wider or narrower 
gaps in which there occur only a comparatively few scattered 
spicules. The pattern of the reticulation is very irregular. 
Main fibres, 3 to 5 spicules broad, usually not traceable for 
any considerable distance and not disposed in orderly paral- 
lelism with one another, run at varying distances apart in a 
general surfaceward direction ; and between these, in addition 
to some inter-reticulating, 2 to 3 spicules broad, connecting 
fibres, is a unispicular meshwork, the meshes of which, for the 
most part, are formed not of spicules placed end to end, but 
of intercrossing spicules. A noteworthy feature of the skele- 
ton, though one which perhaps is not uncommon in Reniera, 
is the occurrence here and there, only at irregular and very 
wide intervals, of broad strings of loosely associated parallel 
spicules, which appear to be without relation to the rest of the 
skeleton or to one another, and run in various directions 



330 REVISION OF THE MONAXONID SPONGES, 11., 

through the sponge; they are variable (20 to 100 /x) In width, 
and their spicules — as are also the scattered spicules oJ the 
skeleton — are shorter and slenderer than most of those com- 
posing the reticulation. Strings of spicules analogous to these 
are met with in Tedania and Hemitedania. The dermal skele- 
ton is an irregular polygonal reticulation of pauciserial fibres, 
the meshes of which average about 120 /x in width. 

The oxea are slightly curved, gradually sharp-pointed, and 
measure 60 to 115 /x in length by 4*5 fx in stoutness. 

The flagellated chambers are spheroidal, and closely 
arranged; they measure about 40 /x in diameter. The nuclei 
of the choanocytes are large, averaging slightly more than 
2*5 /x in diameter. 

Lor. — Port Jackson. 

Remarks.— Vnd&v the name Reniera australis, Whltelegge{53) 
has recorded several specimens from Funafuti which, in my 
opinion, after examination of the original preparations, be- 
long to two different species both distinct from the sponge 
described above. In one of these species, the skeleton consists 
of a unispicular reticulation and of scattered foreign particles ; 
while, in the other, the spicules do not form a meshwork at all, 
but are disposed in a quite irregular halichondroid fashion. 
The oxea in both species attain a length of between 130 and 
140 /x. 

Dragnewitsch(16), in a paper which I have not seen, has also 
recorded as Reniera australis Lendenfeld, a sponge from 
Singapore. 
Reniera megarrhaphea. (PL xvll., figs.5, 6; and text-fig.3). 
Initroductory . — Whether this species Is properly represented 
b}^ the specimen described by Whitelegge, it is not at present 
possible, with complete certainty, to say. The chief reason 
for doubt is the fact that the specimen, which unfortunately 
is only a small portion of the original, fails to enable one to 
reconcile it with Lendenfeld 's description as regards external 
features ; it is not digitate or lobose, but is portion of what, 
to all appearance, was a massive sponge unprovided with lobes 



BY E. F. KALLMANN. 331 

or prominences of any kind. But in its skeletal character, it 
exhibits considerable agreement with the description, except 
in one particular. Thus, in keeping with what is therein 
stated, its skeleton consists of bundles of spicules arranged 
somewhat in the manner of a network, spongin is not discern- 
ible, the spicules of the bundles are oxea of large size, and 
there are present smaller spicules of a different kind. But th^ 
last-mentioned spicules are stated by Lendenfeld to be oxea, 
and to occur interstitially in some abundance ; whereas in the 
specimen, as Whitelegge has already made known, they are 
styli, and, moreover, are comparatively scarce except in the 
dermal region. This discrepancy in the matter of spiculation, 
however, cannot be regarded as serious. For, in the first place, 
as the smallest of the oxea are of about the same size as the 
styli, one can see how, through hasty or careless observation, 
the mistake could easily be made of supposing that all the 
smaller spicules were oxea ; and in the second place, as regards 
their abundance, it is possible that in some parts of the sponge 
the smaller spicules are plentiful, inasmuch as Whitelegge also 
has described them as numerous. Consequently, the only 
serious obstacle to the acceptance of the specimen, as a genuine 
example of Eeniera megarrha/phea, is its apparent non-agree- 
ment therewith in respect of external features ; but as this 
may possibly be due merely to its incompleteness, I according- 
ly propose that the specimen (which, for reasons stated below, 
I refer to the genus Amorphinopsis) be definitely adopted as 
the type. 

Description. — Sponge more or less massive: its precise external 
form not with certainty known. Oscula scattered, variable in 
size (up to 2 mm. in diameter), irregular in shape, perhaps re- 
stricted in their occurrence to the more elevated parts of the 
surface. The surface is generally even, but may become, in 
places, deeply wrinkled or folded. No dermal membrane is 
recognisable. The arrangement of the dermal skeleton is such 
that the surface exhibits a minutely reticulate or a perforate 
pattern (Plate xvii., fig.5), the one or the other according as the 



332 



REVISION OF THE MONAXONID SPONGES, 11. 



interstices, the diameter of which varies from about 150 to 400/x, 
are separated by relatively narrow lines or by relatively broad. 
The interior of the sponge is traversed by abundant canals, of 

which the largest measure 4 mm. in 
diameter; and, in consequence of 
this, its structural appearance, as 
shown on a cut surface, somewhat 
resembles that of well aerated bread. 
The consistency is firm and moder- 
ately tough. The colour in spirit is 
greyish-brown within, and yellowish- 
grey on the surface. 

The main skeleton(Pl. xvii., fig. 6) 
is halichondroid, consisting of a 
dense, irregular, ill-defined mesh- 
work of spicule-bundles; fibres, in 
the proper sense of the term, can 
scarcely be said to be present, and 
even the bundles as a rule are not 
very distinct as such. Frequently 
the dispositiot) of the spicule-bun- 
dles is such as to produce a some- 
what lattice-like pattern; but even 
so, the pattern is much confused. 
For the most part, the bundles are 
multispicular, and the meshes of the 
network are very much less in width 
Aviorphmopsis mega- ^han the length of the spicules. The 

rrhaphea. a, Principal spicules, -, , i^- i -• /ii i. a 

, ,, , . ^ . , dermal reticulation (the meshes ot 

a', Abnormal forms (very rare) 

of the preceding, with acces- ^^^^^i^h, as already stated, measure 
sory actines near one extremi- in diameter from 150 to 400 /x) is 
ty. 6, Dermal styli. formed by coarse fibres, varying 

from 130 to upwards of 280 /x in stoutness, composed of oxea 
similar to those of the main skeleton. Supported upon these 
fibres are closely-crowded short styli, which stand perpendicu- 
larly to the surface with their apices directed outwards. Styli 
similar to these also occur scattered sparsely through the interior. 




BV E. F. HALLMANN. 333 

Spicules. — (a) The oxea, which range in length, with incrensing 
stoutness, from very rarely less than 220 to about 950 /x and 
attain a maximum diameter of 31 /x, are very slightly curved, 
fusiform spicules, tapering from the middle of their length 
gradually to sharp points, and peculiar in the fact that their 
outer or c<mvex side is curved somewhat angulately as compared 
with their concave side. The last-mentioned feature is usually 
best marked in the stoutest spicules As modifications of the 
oxea, a few styli occur, which are evidently the result of a partial 
atrophy as regards length, and the rounding off of the extremity, 
of one actine. Further, a peculiar abnormality is occasionally 
shown, perhaps too rare to be considered of phylogenetic signi- 
ficance, in which the spicule is provided near one extremity with 
one to several short accessory actines, so as to resemble a 
Tetraxonid mesoclad. 

(6). The styli are straight or slightly curved, somewhat fusi- 
form, and gradually sharp-pointed at the apex. They measure 
from 160 to 250 /x in length, and are at most 9 /x in diameter. 

Loc. — Port Jackson. 

Remarks. — The species is, without doubt, of the same genus as 
Uymeniacidon (?) foetida Uendy(ll), concerning whose correct 
generic designation, however, there is considerable difi'erence of 
opinion. It has been referred by Topsent(44) to the genus Amor- 
phinopsis; by Dendy at a later date(15) to LeucophUtus; and by 
Lindgren(30), Thiele(42), and again quite recently by Hentschel(21), 
to Ciocalyptii. I cannot agree that such species, possessing a 
halichondroid main skeleton of oxeote spicules and a dermal 
skeleton of erect styli, are correctly assignable to Ciocalypfa; 
nor can I see any better reason why they should be referred to 
Leiicophloeus, the type-species of which, L.massalis Carter (6), 
besides lacking their characteristic dermal skeleton, has a 
main skeleton composed of styli. On the other hand, in the 
forms of their spicules, Hyineniacidon (?) fatida and llenUrd 
nvcyarrhapJiea agree with Carter's Amorphinopsis excaiuuis 
very closely ; though, unfortunately, we do not know whether 
in this, the type species of Amorphinopsis, the stylote spicules 
form a dermal skeleton. There is, however, a probability that 



334 REVISION OF THE MONAXONID SPONGES, ii., 

they do ; for Lindgren {Joe. cif.) has described as Ciocalypfa 
fcntida, a sponge which, while exhibiting the characteristic 
skeletal features of Hymeniacidon ( ?) fwtida, also bears so 
striking a resemblance in its stelliform surface-pattern to 
Amorphinopsis excavans that he regarded it as sufficient to 
establish the identity of these two species. The evidence is 
sufficient, therefore, to render it advisable, for the present, to 
assign //. faetidd and E. megarrhaphea to the genus Amorph- 
hi apsis. 

The character of the main skeleton in these two presumable 
species of Amorphinopsis suggests that the genus is related to 
Halichondria and Topsentia; and one cannot regard it as other 
than significant, therefore, that whilst oxea exhibiting the pecu- 
liarity of form of those of R. megarrhaphea are of very rare 
occurrence, closely similar spicules are found in Topsentia colossea 
LundbeckOl), = 7^. pachastrelloides, Jide Topsent(47). In the 
genus Halichondria also, somewhat similar spicules are possessed 
by H. Jirma Bowerbank(2c). Accordingly, I would say that 
these three genera, which at present are referred to three different 
families, ought to be included in the same family, either the 
Epipolasidce or the RaploscleridcE — and perhaps preferably in the 
former, since it seems now generally to be conceded that Topsentia 
and (some species at least of) Halichondria have originated from 
Astromonaxonellida. If such a classification were adopted, the 
genera Pyloderma{2i)^ Eumastia, Trachyopsis{i5) and MigasiZl)* 
might also be admitted in the Epipolasidce; and it would then be 
advisable to divide this family into three subfamilies — Coppa- 
tiinae, Streptasterinse, and Halichondriinse. 

Reniera pand^a. 
The specimen labelled as the type of this species — a descrip- 
tion of which has already been furnished by Whitelegge(56) — 
agrees excellently with the original description so far as skele- 
tal characters are concerned, but is wholly incompatible there- 
with in other respects ; its spiculation, in consequence of which 
Whitelegge referred it to the genus Ehaphisiuy is similar to 
* The name Migas is preoccupied for a genus of spiders. 



BV £. F. HALLMANN. 335 

that of IJ einitedania (inonijnia Carter i^v'ide Appendix), and of 
that species I consider it to be an example. This discrepancy 
between the ostensible type-specimen and the description of 
the species renders extremely significant the fact that the 
skeletal characters ascribed by Lendenfeld to Reniera 'pandcta 
are not only quite inappropriate to the genus to which he has 
assigned it, but are even inconsistent with his definition of the 
family to which it belongs; for the Ilomorrha'phidce. are de- 
fined by him as having only oxeote or strongylote megasclera, 
whereas the spicules of Rtniera -pandaia are stated to be 
stylote. 

The evidence regarding Reniera iKuidica seems to me, there- 
fore, to justify the conclusion that the skeletal characters 
attributed to it are those of a different species from that upon 
which the description of its external characters was based, 
and that the latter species, represented by the above specimen, 
is that to which the name Reniera fandcta was intended by 
Lendenfeld to apply ; but, as to the identity of the former 
species, I am yet unable to express an opinion. 

Under the circumstances, I consider that the name Reniera 
pandcta should be regarded as a synonym of Heniitedania 
anonyma. 

Rp:niera lobosa. 

No specimen labelled as Reniera lobosa occurs either in the 
collection of the Australian Museum or among the fragments 
recently received from the British Museum ; and no sponge 
admitting of identification with the species is known to me. 

Petrosia hebes. (Text-fig.4). 
Introductory. — As Whitelegge has already indicated, the 
specimen standing as the type is sufficiently in agreement with 
the description of the species to obviate any doubt as to its 
being a genuine example thereof, but the description omits 
certain important particulars concerning the spiculation. To 
this it may be added that the specimen is specifically identical 
with a fragment labelled Petrosia hebes from the British 
Museum. The information furnished by Whitelegge is very 



S36 



REVISION OF THE MONAXONID SPONGES, 11. 



meagre, and, moreover, is found to be not quite accurate. The 
species consequently needs redescription. Unfortunately, the 
specimen is only a very small piece of the original, and affords 
no information concerning the external form, or the character 
and arrangement of the oscula. In regard to these features, 
therefore, I have in the following description, in order to 
make it as far as possible self-complete, rewritten what is 
stated in the original description. 




Fig. 4. — Petrosia hebes. a, Strongyla. 6, Oxea. 

Description. — "Irregular, massive sponges, horizontally ex- 
tended, 80mm. broad and 30mm. high ; with digitate processes 
oa the upper surface, which attain a length of 40mm. and a 
thickness of 15mm. ; they are irregularly curved, knotty, and 
often flattened. The surface is smooth. Oscula inconspicuous 
and scattered, circular, 1 to 3mm. in diameter." 

The single piece, which is preserved in alcohol, shows a 
thin, delicate, non-separable dermal membrane. The consis- 
tency is firm and fairly hard, but brittle and somewhat pul- 
verable. The texture is finely porous; the colour, light yellow- 
ish-grey. 



BV £. F. KALLMANN. 33 < 

The main skeleton is a coarse, irregular, reticulation of very 
stout fibres, oftt-n exceeding 30U /x in thickness, composed of 
densely packed strongylote and substrongylote spicules un- 
ccniented by spongin. The meshes of the reticulation, which 
are usually more or less rounded in outline, are of very vari- 
able width, averaging, say, 500 /x. Within the meshes are 
abundant scattered spicules, which sometimes form rather 
dense masses ; these spicules for the most part arc similar to 
those forming the fibres, but comprise also fairly numerous, 
slenderer, oxeote spicules of a distinct kind. At the surface, 
the outermost transverse fibres of the main skeleton constitute 
a subdermal reticulation that extends horizontally immediate- 
ly beneath and in contact with the dermal membrane. The 
dermal membrane is provided with numerous horizontally 
directed oxea (similar to those scattered in the choanosome) 
which in general are arranged reticulately, forming meshes of 
about 120 fj, in diameter. Where the membrane overlies the 
interstices of the subdermal reticulation, it is pierced by round 
pores, each of which singly occupies one of the meshes of the 
dermal reticulation. 

Spicules.— (b). The strongyla are more or less curved, 
range in length from (rarely) less than 40 to about 280 //, and 
attain a maximum diameter of 17 /x; the shortest have an ave- 
rage stoutness of about 7 /x. Generally speaking, the longer 
spicules are less curved than the shorter, and are less bluntly 
rounded off at their extremities, so that very often they might 
more correctly be termed sub-strongyla, or even, at times, sub- 
oxea. Also, the shorter spicules are often somewhat angulately 
curved. Of the longer spicules, an occasional one is asymmet- 
rical with regard to opposite ends, approximating to the form 
of a bluntly pointed stylus. 

((f). The oxea also are more or less curved, though usually 
in less degree than the strongyla : and their curvature likewise 
is often slightly angulate. The greater degree of curvature 
and of angularity of curvature are, however, as in the case of 
the strongyla, more frequently shown by the shorter than by 



338 REVISION OF THE MONAXONID SPONGES, ii., 

the longer spicules. They range in length, with increasing 
stoutness, from 30 to 255 /x, and attain a maximum diameter 
slightly exceeding 8/z.; the shortest vary in diameter from 2 to 
4/x. Intermediate forms between the oxea and strongyla, if 
they exist, are very rare. 

Loc. — Port Jackson. 

Remarks.' — Fetrosia hehes agrees in essential general fea- 
tures with P. crassa Carter, which, according to Lundbeck, is 
closely allied to F. dura Nardo, the type-species of the genus. 
The species is of interest, as it appears to afford indubitable 
proof of the very near relationship to Fetrosia of the genus 
Strongylophora Dendy(15), which was placed by its author in 
the Gelliinai, although regarded by him as being of somewhat 
doubtful systematic position. I am even inclined to think 
that the two genera will have to be united, though it is pos- 
sible that their combined species may be found capable of 
separation into two genera upon a new basis of distinction. 
One finds that Thiele (41), prior to the establishment of 
Dendy's genus, has referred to the genus Fetrosia, without 
comment, a species {F. strongylata), which possesses exactly 
the same peculiarities of spiculation as Strongylopkora duris- 
siina; and these two species differ from Fetrosia Iiebes appa- 
rently only in one noteworthy feature, viz., the uniformly 
small size of their dermal oxea. 

Halichondria rubra. 

As Whitelegge(54) has indicated, the specimens labelled as the 
types of this species and of its variety digilata are similar in 
skeletal characters to Rhaphisia{Hemitedania, g.nov) anonyma 
Carter ; indeed, the only feature which at all distinguishes 
them is their tubular digitate habit (resembling that of Sipho- 
noc/ialina), and as other specimens occur in the collection 
which are intermediate between digitate and submassive in 
external form, this cannot be regarded as of specific value. 
Whitelegge makes it appear as if the specimens were quite 
satisfactory examples of Halichondria rubra, and actually 



BY E. F. HALLMANN. 339 

mentions that one of them "appears to be a portion of the 
figured type of the variety"; the fact is, however, that 
although the specimens show many points of agreement with 
Lendenf eld's description, yet as regards external features, in 
one respect at least, they are absolutely incompatible with that 
description; for Lendenf eld states that the oscula "are scat- 
tered and of varying size, 2 to omm. in diameter," whereas 
the specimens have no oscula other than the openings at the 
extremities of their tubular branches. It is impossible to sup- 
pose that such a mistake could arise through inaccuracy of 
observation, and it is equally difficult to believe that the spe- 
cimens are not in some way connected with the species they 
purport to represent — since (i.) they accord with the descrip- 
tion as far as skeletal features are concerned; (ii.) they occur 
in the collection under several independent labels all bear- 
ing the same name; and (iii.) a fragment from the British 
Museum labelled ''HaUchondria rubra var. tefieUa" belongs 
to the same species. The only explanation seems to be that 
Lendenfeld's descriptions of H. rubra and its variety were 
derived each from two different species — the second para- 
graphs of the descriptions, relating to internal features, from 
specimens of Hemitedania anonymu; and the first paragraphs, 
having reference to external features, from specimens of some 
species (or, it may be, two species) quite distinct. What the 
latter species may have been, I am unable to suggest, and it 
is scarcely of importance to know: the name Ilalichotidria 
rubra, including the varietal name digkata, must be consi- 
dered to belong rather to the species exemplified by the type- 
specimens, and hence to be a synonym of H eimtedania aiiony- 
ma. (Vide Appendix). 

In connection with //. rubra var. d'ujlfata, conclusive proof 
is forthcoming that an additional serious mistake was made. 
Contrary to the statement of Whitelegge quoted above, the 
figure given in the Catalogue (Pl.ii., fig.l) is obviously not 
illustrative of Hemitedaula anonywa, and at first I therefore 
thought it must portray the other species implied in the 



540 REVISION OF THE MONAXONIC SPONGES, il., 

description. This, however, is not the case, for I have since 
found the actual specimen from which the figure was taken, 
and it is a comparatively quite small sponge ; it is labelled in 
Lendenfeld's handwriting with a name (^' licmodaihr'ia arhus- 
cula'^) which is given in the key-list as the manuscript syno- 
nym of Clathrlodtndron arhuscula, but even this information 
is incorrect, for it proves to be a new species of lias'pa'dia — E. 
afjminata {vide Appendix). 

Halichondria mammillata. 

In the case of this species, neither the ostensible type-speci- 
men in the Australian Museum nor the specimen labelled as 
representing it in the British Museum is in the least capable 
of being reconciled with the description of the species ; and, so 
far, I have met with no sponge to which the name Hallchon- 
dria marmnUlata is, in my opinion, applicable. The specimens 
in question have already been referred to by Whitelegge, from 
whose remarks one would gain the impression that the former 
is undoubtedly a genuine example of the species and that 
therefore Lendenf eld's description simply is inaccurate with 
respect to the dimensions of the spicules. In point of fact^ 
however, this specimen is quite as much at variance with the 
description in external as in internal features, being a tubu- 
lar digitate sponge belonging to an (apparently undescribed) 
species of Siphonochalina. The British Museum specimen, on 
the other hand, has a skeleton consisting almost entirely of 
foreign spicule-fragments (but conta^ining in addition proper 
spicules in the form of scattered slender strongyla and sigma- 
ta) and belongs to an undetermined species of CJiondrojJsis. It 
is possible that the latter, of which I have seen only a frag- 
ment, is an example of the species described by Lendenf eld in 
his "Monograph of the Horny Sponges" under the name of 
Stf/mf( fella {i.e., Chondro2)si.s) rorficdfd vsly. mannndldris, and 
accordingly that it possesses external features very similar in 
kind to those ascribed to Il(d'\rhoudr\a mammdlata. If this 
should prove to be the case, there would be reason to suspect 
that the description of Halichondria mammillata was based 



I 



BY E. F. KALLMANN. 341 

partly on one, and partly on another, of two quite distinct 
species. For the present, in the absence of any proof to the 
contrary, the species should, I think, be looked upon as a 
correctly described and valid one, belonging — though perhaps 
doubtfully — to the genus to which Lendcnfeld assigned it. 

Halichondria clathripormis. (Text -fig.5). 

Int7'oductory. — A\though Whitelegge(56) seems to have defin- 
itely accepted, as the type of this species, the Australian 
Museum specimen labelled as such, it is nevertheless obvious 
from his description of it that it cannot be an example of Len- 
denfeld's //alir/KHK/ria rhifJiriforinh, for in no respect does it 
agree with the latter as described except in its possession of 
oscula of moderately large size. I find it to be of the same 
species as the sponge (of extremely common occurrence on our 
beaches after storms) which Whitelegge'^(54) previously de- 
scribed under the name illinJiua finltuna Schmidt, believing 
it to be identical with the ArervorhdIifHf finifi/fift recorded 
from the east coast of Australia by Ridley(34) ; this, however, 
it certainly is not, since unlike the latter it contains multi- 
serially arranged spicules in the secondary fibres. What the 
correct name is I am unable to say, though I have reason to 
believe that the species will prove to be one of those described 
b}" Lendenfeld under the generic name Chriliiiojjora. In order 
to prevent confusion, I would recommend that this sponge be 
known, for the present, as Challna finitima Whitelegge {non 
Schmidt). A figure of the specimen referred to is shown on 
Pl.xviii.(fig.l). 

On the other hand, the British Museum specimen (labelled 
JiaVichondria rJaihriformifi) referred to by Whitelegge — a 
small piece of which I have had the opportunity of examining 

* Whitelegge's failure to perceive this idemity is attributable partlj' to 
the fact that the specimen is incomplete and lacking in a shape suggestive 
of the species, and partly to the fact that, unlike all other specimens 
known to him, it is preserved in alcohol with the soft tissues intact and in 
this condition does not display the peculiar looseness of texture of the 
skeleton nor the distinctive dermal pattern wliich are the two most notice- 
able features of the sponge in the dry state of preservation. 



342 



REVISION OF THE MONAXONID SPONGES, 11. 



— presents features which, if allowance be made for probable 
errors of omission in the original description, afford very good 
reason for believing it to be a genuine example of the species. 
For not only do its megascleres mostly conform to the descrip- 




¥\g.5.— Thrinaeophora{t)dathriformis. a, Principal oxea. a', Strongy- 
lote spicules (presumably abortive forms of the preceding; exceedingly 
scarce), a". Extremities of principal oxea. h, Interstitial oxea and 
styli. 

tion, "oxystrongyla slightly curved in the middle and very 
slightly tapering towards the ends," but — what is especially 
significant — they also exhibit, at one or both extremities, "a 
very narrow and sharp spine." This last-mentioned pecu- 



BY E. F. KALLMANN. 343 

liarity, however, is not as Lendenf eld's statement with regard 
thereto would imply, a feature of all the spicules, nor perhaps 
even of a majority of them ; and also at variance with the 
description are the facts that the megascleres (which attain to 
considerably greater dimensions than stated either by Lenden- 
feld or Whitelegge) are of two kinds, and that microscleres are 
present in the form of trichodragmata. Yet to these discrepan- 
cies no importance can be attached, inasmuch as the tricho- 
dragmata, owing to their minuteness of size, and the mega- 
scleres of one kind, owing to their comparative fewness and not 
very marked difference in form from the others, could very 
easily escape detection, and, in fact, were overlooked by White- 
legge ; while, as regards the matter of the size of the mega- 
scleres, it has to be borne in mind that the measurements given 
in the Catalogue are seldom accurate. Accordingly, I have no 
doubt that the British Museum specimen is correctly labelled, 
and propose that it be taken as the type of the species — now 
to be known as Thrlnaco'phora ( ?) rlafhriformis. 

Descriptio)i. — For an account of the external features, one 
must depend, for the present, upon the rather meagre infor- 
mation afforded by the original description, which is as fol- 
lows : — "Sponge lobose, massive, attaining to a height of 250 
mm., erect, attached by a small base, with very large and con- 
spicuous oscula, 10mm. wide, which lie scattered on the sum- 
mits of the lobes, and a smooth surface." It is well to be re- 
minded of the possibility, however, that this portion of Len- 
denf eld's description and the remaining portion of it having 
reference to the internal features may have been based respec- 
tively upon two different species. 

The skeleton consists, in part, (i.) of a ramifying system of 
multispicular plumose "funes" (compound fibres), which are 
distinguishable into (a) stouter and more compact primary 
ones, 0-5 mm. to perhaps 1 mm. or more in diameter and rela- 
tively few in number, constituting the chief axes of the skele- 
ton, and (b) slenderer secondary ones running off from these 
to the surface, usually with much branching and some amount 



344 REVISION OF THE MONAXONID SPONGES, ii., 

of interconnection; and, in part, (ii.) of an irregular reticu- 
lation composed of thin pale-coloured horny fibres and of 
somewhat disorderly disposed spicules which for the most part 
are not enclosed within the horny fibres, but merely held to- 
gether by them. The funes, also, are composed of reticulating 
horny fibres and spicules, but in them the meshes of the reti- 
culation are much smaller and the spicules are much more 
uniformly oriented, the latter being in general not widely in- 
clined from the longitudinal direction of the particular fune 
containing them ; the funes are rendered plumose by the 
obliquely outward inclination of their most exteriorly situated 
spicules, some of which give rise to occasional short wispy 
strands. 

In the single thick section^ examined by me, these two types 
of skeleton-pattern — axinellid in the one case, somewhat 
approaching to halichondroid in the other — occur for the most 
part separately from each other. Thus, on the one side of a 
primary fune, which approximately coincides (probably mere- 
ly by chance) with the mid-line of the section, the pattern is 
mainly of the former type ; while on the opposite side of it, the 
pattern is mainly of the latter or more halichondroid type. 
The structure of the funes is such, however, that they might 
be interpreted simply as more condensed portions of the skele- 
ton, in which at the same time the spicules tend towards a dis- 
position in a common direction. 

There is no dermal skeleton ; and, furthermore, in a superfi- 
cial layer of the sponge, varying from about 150 to 600 /x or so 
iu width, no spicules occur except those composing the (some- 
what distantly separated) extremities of the outwardly run- 
ning fibres. As regards its histology, this layer (as seen in a 

* In thin sections, as may easily be understood, the funes do not appear 
as such; and as a consequence, the arrangement of the skeleton seems to 
be rather confused. At first, having only examined such sections, I was 
disposed to regard as fairl}' satisfactory Lendenfeld's statement that " the 
skeleton consists of bundles of loosely disposed spicules, which are con- 
nected by verj' numerous others, scattered in such a way that the whole 
often appears like a dense mass of irregularly disposed spicules." 



BY E. F. KALLMANN. 345 

thin stained section) gradually assumes towards its exterior a 
structure somewhat resembling that of a stratified epithelium. 

Spicules. — {a) The prevailing megasclere — that participating 
in the formation of the fibres — is a symmetrically curved, slightly 
fusiform, irregularly ended amphioxea, varying in length from 
about 240 /x (in the case of the slenderest) to slightly more than 
500/x, and in diameter from (seldom less than) 13 up to about 28 /x. 
The curvature when most pronounced is usually somewhat angu- 
late. Except in the case of the slenderer (? immature) indi- 
viduals, which for the most part (or perhaps exclusively) occur 
only between the fibres, the spicule narrows to its extremities as 
a rule, not by a continuous gradual tapering but by a series of 
more or less abrupt contractions that commence not farther than 
30 /x from the extremities. The endmost contraction is frequently 
very pronounced, and the spicule is thereby rendered apicu- 
late ; the terminal portion of the spicule is then either sharp- 
pointed, resembling a mucro, or is rounded off at the point 
and nipple-shaped. A small proportion of the spicules are in- 
termediate in the form of their extremities between oxea and 
strongyla, and rare styli also occur, the form of which clearly 
shows them to be the result of failure on the part of one of the 
actines of the oxea to attain to its normal development. In 
addition, there are present exceedingly scarce (apparently) ab- 
normal, forms of cylindrical shape, either symmetrically ended 
(strongyla) or with one extremity abruptly narrowed, which 
range in length from less than 60 to (very rarely) upwards of 
180 /x, and in stoutness from 8 to 14/x; they recall the some- 
what similar spicules of Gellius rhaphidophora, and should perhaps 
be reckoned as constituting a form distinct from the above 
spicules. 

(b) The second form of megasclere is comparatively rare, and 
occurs scattered. Like the preceding, it is diactinal and very 
often exhibits some degree of irregularity in the formation of its 
extremities; but it differs in being of greater length and rela- 
tively slenderer, in having always more or less rounded ex- 
tremities, and in being as a rule without curvature. The length, 
seldom if ever less than 500 /x, may attain to 810 /ix; and the 



346 REVISION OF THE MONAXONID SPONGES, 11., 

diameter, which is usually between 3 and 1 1 /x, may in rare 
instances be as great as 1 8 /x. 

(c). The trichodragmata are fairly abundant, but are not readily 
detected owing to their small size; they measure 12 /x long by 
6 /x or less in diameter. The trichites composing them are 
usually arranged in a somewhat confused fashion. 

Lor. — Port Jackson. 

Genus Reniochalina. 

No species identifiable with either of the two {^R. stalag- 
mites and R. lanieUa) for which this genus was established, is 
known to me. The two specimens purporting to be their types, 
a brief description of which has been given by Whitelegge 
(who seems to have been satisfied to regard them as the genu- 
ine types), are quite irreconcilable with Lendenfeld's account 
of the species, either in external features or in skeleton : as 
they appear to me to be specifically identical (though possibly 
of different varieties) and not to be assignable to any hitherto 
established genus I have described them (in the Appendix to 
this paper) under the name Axiamon folium. 

The specimens in question, it should perhaps be mentioned, 
arc not labelled actually as Reniochalina stalagmites and 
Reniochalina lamella, but as ^'Chalinodendron stalagmites'^ 
and "Re?iiero2)la.x iatithella" — the latter names being those 
given in the key-list as the manuscript synonyms of the for- 
mer. However, among the fragments received from the 
British Museum there is one labelled ''Reniochalina stalag- 
mites," which is identically similar to "Chalinodendron stalag- 
mites," as well as two others (of different species) labelled 
respectively ''Reniochalina arhorea" and "Reniochalina spi- 
culosa," which also are examples of the genus Axiamon. In 
the face of these facts, I can only surmise that Lendenfeld 
originally intended to employ the name Reniochalina for a 
genus different from that for which finally he adopted it — and 
for which presumably he considered it more appropriate. 

The genus Reniochalina was defined by Lendenfeld as fol- 
lows: — "Lamellar, thin, branched, more or less flower-shaped 



BY E. F. KALLMANN. 347 

Renierinae, with smooth surface and fibrous skeleton ; the 
spicules are partly embedded in spongin." From the descrip- 
tions of the two species, we learn, further, that the skeleton 
consists of "three systems of fibres — one longitudinal extend- 
ing from the base to the margin of the lamella, the second 
transverse, and the third perpendicular to the plane in which 
the other two extend" ; that these fibres, thus forming a rec- 
tangular meshwork, consist of bundles of somewhat irregular 
spicules ; and that the spicules are pointed diactinals of mode- 
rate size accompanied or not by relatively few styli. In the 
typical species, R. sfalag??rites, the spicules are oxea exclusive- 
ly. It would appear, therefore, that Reniochalina is very 
similar to the genus Axinosia established by me in the present 
paper for Axinella symhiotica Whitelegge and like species, ex- 
cepting that, in the latter, the spicules are predominantly 
styli. Several species (as yet undescribed) differing from Axino- 
sia apparently only in the fact that their spicules are exclusive- 
ly or almost exclusively oxeote are known to me ; and for the 
accommodation of such species, I think, the genus Reniocha- 
lina might provisionally be made to serve. I am doubtful, 
however, whether these species will ultimately be found separ- 
able from the genus Reniera, unless on the additional ground 
of their lamellar external form. 

It will be noticed in the case of Reniochalina lamella that 
the description which Lendenfeld gives of its external charac- 
ters, wherein the surface of the sponge is stated to bear conuli, 
is contradictory to his definition of the genus. There is reason 
to suspect, therefore, that the external features ascribed to 
this species are those of a different sponge from that upon 
which the description of its skeletal characters was based and 
to which the name Reniochalina lam ell a. was intended to 
apply. 

Familia HETERORRHAPHID^. 

Subfamily Stylotelli n^. 
Under this subfamily, erected expressly for their reception, 
there are described in the Catalogue four species, for which 



348 REVISION OF THE MONAXONID SPONGES, ii., 

Lendenfeld introduces the new genus Stylotella. The Stylo- 
tellince are defined as H eterorrhaphidce without differentiated 
microsclera, and without a hard spicular rind ; and Stylotella 
is stated to have as its distinguishing characters: (i.) a very 
soft texture, and (ii.) megasclera in the form of styli, scatter- 
ed and in bundles. Of the four species I am able to identify, 
with certainty, only two, *S'. digltata and S. 'polymastia. The 
latter of these proves to belong to the genus Ciocalypfa (or 
perhaps to Leucophloeus) ; while the former, which was the 
first to be described and which I propose to regard as the type- 
species, is found to be identical with the earlier described 
Hymeniacidon agminata Ridley(33). This species, however, 
as will be seen from the description given below, differs con- 
siderably from typical species of Jlymeniacidon, and undoubt- 
edly requires to be placed elsewhere ; for its reception the 
genus Stylotella may therefore be retained, with the following 
definition: — "Typically non-massive Suberitidae( ?), of compa- 
ratively soft consistency, with a well-defined dermal mem- 
brane which is provided with tangentially placed spicules and 
is underlain by subdermal spaces, and with a main skeleton 
composed of longitudinal spicule-fibres (devoid of spongin) and 
of scattered spicules. The spicules are typically of a single 
kind, styli or subtylostyli ; microscleres are absent." 

The genus, which is of doubtful systematic position, I refer 
to the Sub er it idee chiefly on account of the character of the 
skeleton, and the seemingly greater difficulty of justifying its 
inclusion in any other family. The serious objection to this 
is, of course, the absence of tylostylote spicules ; but as regards 
the other features in which it departs from typical Suheritidce 
it may be pointed out that the possession of a dermal mem- 
brane is characteristic of P send o sub erites and Caulospongia 
(^= Plectodendron) , and that most species of Semisub erites and 
Laxosub erites are of soft consistency. 

Lendenfeld's Stylotella aplysillioides appears, from its de- 
scription, to belong to Hymeniacidon; and his fourth species, 
S. rigida, I regard (provisionally) as a synonym of S. agminata. 



BY E. F. KALLMANN. 349 

Of the several species which other authors have assigned to 
the genus, there is only one, I think, that can be permitted 
to remain therein, viz., S. digitata var. gracilis Hentschel 
(21) ; and as this has the styli partially differentiated into two 
kinds, it may be looked upon as an independent species. Hent- 
schel's S. flabdlifonnisy described in the same pajDer as the 
preceding, appears not to be referable to any hitherto estab- 
lished genus, and accordingly I propose to constitute it the 
type of a new genus, Stglism, to be placed in tiie Axinel- 
lidw. The species which Topsent(W) has referred to Siylo- 
tella, under the impression that his genus Stylinos was 
identical therewith, ought perhaps to be included in Hymeni- 
acidoii, as Dendy has maintained. It is very doubtful, how- 
ever, whether Stylinos jullieni, the type species of Topsent's 
genus, can thus be disposed of. The so-called Stylotella i?'re- 
yularis Kirkpatrick i23), appears to be related to, and is per- 
haps truly congeneric with, the two species described by White- 
legge(57) under the names Phakdlia inidtifonnis and Axinel- 
la symhlotica; at any rate, these three species, — and also, 1 
should say, Axinella arhorescens R. & D. — might very well 
be referred tentatively to a single genus, and I, therefore, 
venture to create for them the genus Axhiosia (with Axinella 
symhiotica as the type-species) which I would define thus : 
Axinellidce, typically of ramose or lamellar habit, with a reti- 
culate, subrenieroid, skeleton formed by plurispicular main 
fibres joined at more or less regular intervals by uni- or pauci- 
spicular transverse fibres. Spongin is comparatively scantily 
developed. The spicules are moderately small conical styli, 
together with typically fewer strongyla and (or) oxea, all of 
approximately the same dimensions. Microscleres are absent. 

Stylotella digitata. (PL xix., figs. 1-5; PL xx., fig.2; and 
text-fig.6). 

Introductory. — This species, now to be known as Stylotella 
ayminata Ridley, is represented in the collection of the Aus- 
tralian Museum by sixteen specimens, all from Port Jackson ; 



350 



REVISION OF THE MONAXONID SPONGES, 11., 



ill addition to the single type-specimen, which is labelled 
"Trimcatella diyitata" and conforms closely to Lendenfeld's 
description, these also include the specimens labelled as the 
types of Stylotella rigida, Tedania laxa, and T. tenuispina — 
which three species, for reasons more clearly indicated in due 
course, I propose to regard as synonyms of S. agminata. Two 
further examples of the species occur also among the frag- 
/-v ments of sponges received from the British 
Museum, one labelled ''Truncatella 7?iicro- 
pora" (a MS. name), the other mistakenly 
labelled as "Glathriodendroji irregularis." 
Among these fragments there is also one 
labelled ''Stylotella digitata, Port Nelson, 
N.Z.," but this proves to belong to quite a 
different species ; as a consequence there is 
reason to doubt Lendenf eld's correctness in 
recording the species from any locality other 
than Port Jackson. 

Description.- — The external features of the 
species have already been sufficiently de- 
scribed by Ridley and by Lendenfeld : in 
regard thereto, the latter author's descrip- 
tions of Stylotella digitata and Tedania laxa 
are applicable, but not strictly his descrip- 
tions of S. rigida and T. tenuispina. The 
oscula, concerning which these several de- 
scriptions are not quite in agreement, ap- 
pear always to be few in number, scattered, 
and small ; and usually to be more or less 
closed over by extensions of the dermal 
membrane. Ridley(33) has given a figure 
which conveys a very good idea of the form commonly assumed 
by erect specimens with cylindrical branches, and to this, I 
now add several others — one of which (Pl.xix., fig. 3) shows 
an erect form, with crowded compressed parts due to imper- 
fectly differentiated branches; while another (Pl.xix., fig. 4) 



Fig. 6. 

Stylotella agminata. 
a, Styli (or subty- 
loatyli). a', Basal 
extremities of sub- 
tylostyli. 



BY E. F. KALLMANN. 



351 



illustrates a more reticulately branched example of the species. 
The latter specimen, which consists of somewhat flattened, 
anastomosing branches forming a reticulate mass, approxi- 
mates to Lendenf eld's description of Tedania laxa, though not 
so closely as do two other specimens which occur among the 
type-specimens of that species ; and which, on account of their 
somewhat irregularly arranged skeleton, I at first thought to 
be specifically different from the rest. I mention this because, 
whereas Lendenfeld states that Stylotella digitata is intensely 
orange-coloured, and Tedania tenuis'pina bright orange-yellow 
in the living state, he states, of Tedania laxa, that "the colour 
of the living sponge is bright brick-red"; and it is possible, 
therefore, that two varieties of S. agm'nuita occur, which differ 
in colour, and perhaps, to a slight extent also, in other 
respects. 

The main skeleton (Pl.xx., fig. 2) exhibits great variability 
iti its precise mode of arangement, but always consists (i.) of 
longitudinally-running spicule-fibres, which are unconnected 
by cross-fibres, and from the most peripherally situated of 
which, short branches arise that pass outwards to the surface ; 
and (ii.) of spicules which, though they are sometimes abun- 
dant, for the most part lie scattered singly. Diversity in the 
conformation of the skeleton results through variation in 
number of the scattered spicules, and through differences in 
stoutness of the main fibres, and in their distance apart. For 
descriptive purposes, four chief types of arrangement are dis- 
tinguishable ; but apparently all gradations between these 
occur, and different types may be found in different parts of 
one and the same specimen. (i.). The fibres are closely 
arranged, running parallel to one another at a distance apart, 
which may be even less than their own diameter; and scat- 
tered spicules are scarce or absent : this condition, which is 
uncommon, appears most usually to be met with in slender 
cylindrical branches. (ii.).The fibres are more widely separated, 
and scattered spicules occur in greater or less abundance, 
usually crossing one another in all directions so as to produce. 



352 KEVISION OF THE MONAXONID SPONGES, ii., 

when most abundant, the appearance of an irregular reticula- 
tion extending between the fibres ; in this case, as in the pre- 
ceding, the fibres are usually comparatively stout, being often 
as much as 130/x or more in diameter, (iii.). The arrangement 
of the scattered spicules is as in (ii.), but the fibres are slender, 
20 to 70 fx in diameter, and run sinuously, with frequent inter- 
osculation, (iv.) The fibres are rather slender and somewhat 
distantly separated from one another, while the scattered spi- 
cules are only moderately abundant, and are sometimes, in 
considerable proportion, disposed more or less longitudinally. 

The first-mentioned type of arrangement is shown to best 
advantage by the British Museum fragment above referred to, 
labelled "Clathriodendroii irregularis" ; the second, by cer- 
tain of the type-specimens of Tedania laxa; the third, also by 
specimens of T. laxa; and the fourth, by the type-specimen 
of Stylotdla digitata. The third type of arrangement, or 
something intermediate between it and the first, is the com- 
monest and most typical. 

The dermal membrane overlies wide subdermal spaces, and 
is supported upon the extremities of short fibres* — branches 
from the outermost of the longitudinal fibres — which are 
directed towards it more or less perpendicularly. The dermal 
skeleton consists of horizontally disposed spicules which, in 
general, are either loosely scattered without order, or are 
arranged somewhat in an irregular paucispicular network ; 
around the oscula, however, they become more numerous and 
are disposed radiately. Occasionally, fibres from the main 
skeleton enter and run in the dermal membrane for a short 
distance before terminating. 

The spicules are of a single kind, subtylostyli, usually with 
only a very slightly developed oblongish head, which is marked 
off by a scarcely perceptible constriction ; occasionally the head 
is rendered more pronounced by a subterminal annular en- 
largement. They are cylindrical throughout the greater part 
of their length, taper gradually to a sharp point, and vary 
from straight to curved (or sometimes flexuous) ; usually the 



BY E. F. HALLMANN. 353 

curvature is slight, and the proportion of straight to curved 
spicules about equal ; but, at times, most of the spicules are 
curved, and some of them much curved. Their maximum size 
varies in different specimens, from 286 by 6 /x to 305 by 9 fi; 
while the shortest spicules in any given specimen arc of be- 
tween one-half and two-thirds the length of the longest. 
Loc. — Port Jackson. 

Stylotklla polymastia. (Text-fig.7). 

Introductory. — The species is represented in the collection 
of the Australian Museum apparently only by a tiny frag- 
ment, labelled ''Truncatella jyolymastia," received from the 
British Museum. Judged by its spiculation, the fragment is 
undoubtedly a genuine example of the species, but unfortu- 
nately it is so small, that scarcely any information is obtain- 
able from it concerning other characters. Nevertheless, it 
enables one to say that the species is certainly not assignable 
t^ the genus Stijlotella as defined above, but, in all probabi- 
lity, belongs to CiocalyjMa — under which genus I propose to 
bring it. 

In connection with the figure which appears in the Cata- 
logue (Pl.iv., fig.i.) in representation of this species, a serious 
error has been made. As I already have had occasion to men- 
tion, the actual specimen, from which this figure was taken, 
is still in existence (labelled in Lendenf eld's handwriting Side- 
rodcrma navicelligerum R.&D.), and belongs to a hitherto un- 
known species of Histoderma, described, in the Appendix 
hereto, as //. actimoides. One can see, on comparing the 
figure in question with Lendenf eld's description of Stylofella 
polyniasfia, that the two are not compatible, although show- 
ing in some respects an apparent agreement. 

In order to make the following description of the sj)ecics as 
complete as possible, I have repeated Lendenf eld's description 
of its external features ; but it should be borne in mind that, 
possibly, this description is not applicable. In consequence of 
the small size of the fragment, I have not succeeded in secur- 
ing sections cut in the proper direction to enable me to deter- 



354 REVISION OF THE MONAXONID SPONGES, il., 

mine the exact arrangement of the skeleton, and my descrip- 
tion of this is consequently to be regarded as only approxi- 
mately correct. 

Description. — "Massive sponges with numerous, irregular, 
mostly fistular processes arising from the upper surface. The 
sponge is attached by a broad base and attains a maximum 
diameter of 300mm. The oscula are situated terminally on the 
summits of the processes." 

The main skeleton consists of dendritically branching, and 
occasionally interuniting, stout, plumose "funes" ; and of 
numerous scattered spicules, the latter here and there form- 
ing dense masses connecting the "funes." The "funes" are 
either single fibres, or are composed each of several inti- 
mately associated fibres ; these fibres consist of a spongin-axis, 
usually enclosing some longitudinally disposed spicules, and of 
numerous spicules which project from this axis at varying 
angles, some of them directed almost perpendicularly outwards 
in an echinating fashion. At the surface, the columns pass 
into broad, dense brushes of almost parallel spicules, the outer 
ends of which, apparently, give support to a dermal mem- 
brane ; intermingled with the spicules of the brushes, are, 
sometimes, numerous irregularly disposed spicules. Whether 
there is a special dermal skeleton, is not quite certain; but, 
here and there, lying upon the outer ends of the brushes, 
horizontally directed spicules, forming a thin layer, were 
observed. 

Spicules. — {a). The spicules which chiefly compose the fibres 
are straight or very slightly curved, gradually sharp-pointed, 
fusiform styli with a narrow handle-like basal end, of diame- 
ter sometimes less than half that of the thickest portion of the 
shaft, measuring from about 400 to 720 /x in length, by rarely 
more than 25 /x in maximum diameter. The longest spicules 
(those, say, of length exceeding 600 yu.) are seldom, if ever, more 
than 20 /x in diameter ; are always less distinctly narrowed at 
their basal end than the shorter, and relatively stouter spi- 
cules ; and are connected by spicules of every intermediate 
grade with 



BY E. i\ HALLMANN. 



355 



(b). Straight or slightly curved, gradually sharp-pointed, 
usually slightly fusiform styli, abundant in the superficial 
skeleton and scattered throughout the interior. These, which 
range in size from less than 300 by 5/x to upwards of 650 by Ibji, 
are probably not at all separable from 



n 



II 




E^g.7, — Ciocalypta polymastia. Styli, showing transitions frotr; one 

form to another, 
(c-). More or less curved styli, comparatively few in num- 
ber, apparently occurring only as scattered spicules, ranging 
in length from 160 to upwards of 300//, and measuring, at 
most, 8 /x in diameter. 



356 REVISION OF THE MONAXONID SPONGES, ii., 

Rare oxea, of the size of the smallest styli, were observed, 
v/hich possibly are of foreign origin, since no intermediates 
between them and the styli were observed. The larger spi- 
cules, however, are certainly never oxea, nor do they ever 
approach to an oxeote form : though occasionally, through 
rounding off at tlieir apical end, they may pass into strongyla. 

Loc. — East coast of Australia. 

Remarks. — In the form of its spicules, Ciocalypta polymas- 
tia somewhat resembles the type-species of Leucophlceus — i.e., 
fnassalis Carter(6) ; and it appears to agree with the latter 
also in certain features of the skeleton. I am inclined to think, 
therefore, that the two species are congeneric. What the pre- 
cise arrangement of the skeleton is, in the latter species, how- 
ever, Carter's description does not make quite clear ; and sub- 
sequent writers, acquainted with the species, have omitted to 
state explicitly. Ridley and Dendy(34a) expressed the opinion 
that Leucophlceus cannot be distinguished from Hymeniaci- 
don; but, at a later date, Dendy(l4) states that Leucophlceus 
massalis is identical with Ciocalypta penicillus (the type-species 
of Ciocalypta) f and mentions that, since the resemblance be- 
tween these two species was pointed out by Carter himself, he 
is unable to understand why the genus Leucophlmus should 
have been proposed. In view of this, I am at a loss to under- 
stand why, subsequently, Dendy(15) recognised LeucophlcEus 
as a distinct genus, related to Ilyineniacidon. If it be correct 
that L. m-assalis approaches rather to Uymeniacidon than to 
Ciocalypta in the character of its skeleton, then, beyond ques- 
tion, the species described above is not assignable to Leuco- 
phlceus, since its fibres are decidedly of the axinellid type. 

Topsent (45) in a paper which I have not seen, has appar- 
ently wrongly recorded, as Stylotella polymastia, a sponge 
from Amboina; for Kirkpatrick(23), speaking with reference 
to Hymeniaciclon conulosum Topsent, mentions that "the 
nearly related species Stylotella polymastia Lendenfeld, re- 
ferred to by Topsent (Z.c, p.466), is synonymous with Hy- 
meniacidon foiest rat u77i(Rid[ey) ." 



BY E. F. KALLMANN. 357 

Stylotella RIGIDA. 

The specimen labelled as the type of this species (under the 
MS. name ''Trancatella riykla'), as well as a fragment labelled 
Stylotelhi, riyida from the British Museum, are specifically the 
same; and, in skeletal characters, accord with Lendenfeld's 
description ; but in one conspicuous feature attributed to Sty- 
lotella riyida — viz., the possession of oscula 1 to 3mm. in 
width, and situated at the extremities of the digitate processes 
- -they are completely lacking. As a matter of fact, they are 
examples of Stylotella ayniinata Ridley. One is justified in 
concluding, therefore, that the description of Stylotella riyida 
confounds the external features of one species with the inter- 
nal features of another, the latter being that represented by 
the type-specimen ; and as the former is unknown and indeter- 
minable, we may, accordingly, look upon S. riyida as, in effect, 
a synonym of ^S'. ayniinata. An independent reason for sus- 
pecting that some such mistake as this was made in connection 
with jS'. riyida, is afforded by its specific name, the implication 
of which is in direct contradiction to Lendenfeld's definition of 
the genus Stylotella as "Heterorrhaphidge of very soft tex- 
ture." 

Dendy(14) has mistakenly referred to this species, under the 
name Kymeniacidon riyida, a sponge from Port Phillip. As 
the description given of the latter is sufficient for its identifica- 
tion, I propose that it be called Hymeniacidon victoria na. 

Stylotella aplysillioides. 

The specimen preserved in the Australian Museum as the 
supposed type of this specieg — for the reason that it is labelled, 
in Lendenfeld's handwriting, with the name ("Truncatellina 
cinerea") given in the key-list as the manuscript synonym of 
Stylotella aplysillioides — is a small, very thinly incrusting 
sponge, apparently belonging to the genus Mycale, with a thin 
dermal layer of foreign particles, and a main skeleton consist- 
ing (i.) of unconnected ascending fibres composed of foreign 



358 REVISION OF THE MONAXONID SPONGES, ii., 

(mostly spicule-) fragments, (ii.) of sparsely scattered subty- 
lostyli measuring rarely as much as 130 by 3-5/x and (iii.) of 
a very few, scattered, slender toxa and anisochelge, the latter 
measuring, at most, 17/x long. It is quite a different type of 
sponge, therefore, from that denoted by Lendenf eld's descrip- 
tion, having no feature of resemblance thereto except an in- 
crusting habit of growth, and even in this respect being not 
quite similar, since the layer it forms is only about 1mm. in 
thickness. Accordingly, in my opinion, it cannot possibly be 
accepted as the type-specimen. 

A fragment from the British Museum, labelled StyJoteUa 
aplysillioides, is also totally unlike the described sponge of 
that name, and belongs to the genus Dendoricella — its spicules 
being skeletal oxea, dermal tylota, isochelae arcuatae, and two 
sizes of sigmata. 

Hence we are left with no clue as to the identity of Sfylo- 
tella (rpJi/sinioides except its rather brief description, which, if 
it can be relied upon, indicates that the correct position of the 
species is in the genus Hymeniaculon. To this genus, then, 
the species may, for the present, be regarded as belonging. 
The only other species of Hymemacidon known from Port 
Jackson, is that recorded by Ridley(33) under the name H. 
caruiicuht Bowerbank ; this is also a horizontally extended 
sponge with surface-elevations, but its spicules are stated to 
attain a size of 290 by 8 ft, while those of H. aplyf^illioides, 
according to Lendenfeld, measure only 130 by 6 /x. 

Subfamilia Phlceodictyin^. 

Rhizochalina ramsayi. (PI. XX., figs. 2 5; PI. xxi., fig.4; and 
text-fig.8). 

The types consist of three half -specimens (derived by vertical 
bisection of the originals), and a thick, median, vertical slice 
of a fourth specimen. The sponge is massive, more or less glo- 
bose, provided on its upper aspect with numerous thin-walled 
erect fistulae, and below with few (sometimes only one) or 



BY E. F. KALLMANN. 359 

many, usually branched, stout, root-like processes. The fistu- 
lae are, almost without exception, widely open at their distal 
end, thv^ugh this appears to be due to their having had the 
extremity broken off. The roots are tapered, and convey the 
impression that they serve the function of anchoring the 
sponge in mud ; according to the original description, they 
may attain to a length of 300mm. The largest specimen (PI. 
XX., fig. 2) is of comparatively irregular form, being elongat- 
ed in one horizontal direction, and compressed at right angles 
thereto; it measures 230mm. in length, by 180mm. in height; 
and (though only a half-specimen) is provided with about a 
dozen roots. 

The original description states that, in addition to fistulae, 
there occur on the upper surface of the sponge, at its centre, 
two to five much wider and shorter tubes, 20mm. wide and 
only 25mm. high, the cavities of which are occupied by a reti- 
cular structure : unfortunately, in the type-specimens, owing 
no doubt to their not being symmetrical halves of the origi- 
nals, none of these tubes are present. It happens, however, 
that the trawling steamer "Endeavour" has recently obtained, 
from off the coast of New South Wales several specimens of a 
sponge closely related to rhheodictyon ramsayi — I propose to 
designate it a variety, pyrifoi^mis , of this species — which pro- 
vides the clue to the nature of these tubes. 

The variety is a stoutish, pear-shaped sponge without roots, 
which evidently, in life, was attached by its narrower end to 
a hard substratum. The fistulae, which are short and stout, 
are usually not numerous, and may be altgether absent ; as, in 
the only specimens so far obtained, they are all more or less 
damaged, it is not known whether their extremities are open 
or closed. A characteristic feature of the sponge is the 
arrangement of its oscula (Pl.xx., fig. 3), which open side 
by side to the number of between 50 and 100, together form- 
ing a slightly depressed, oval or circular, honeycombed area 
occupying the centre of the upper surface. This oscular sieve 
differs from that of the typical form of the species, as describ- 



360 



REVISIOI'I OF THE MONAXONID SPONGES, 11., 




ed by Lendenfeld, in the fact that its margin is not prolonged 
upward into a tube, but is level with the surrounding surface. 
The oscular canals are arranged in a manner conforming with 
the general symmetry (Pl.xx., fig.4) : a few run upwards 
axially from the stalk, separated from one another only by 
thin partitions, while the remainder — which start from differ- 
ent points quite close beneath the surface — traverse the sponge 
radiately, in such manner as to come into parallelism with the 
axial direction before the oscula are reached. 
Other canals also occur, each of which is 
continuous with the lumen of a fistula. 

As far as can be judged from the incom- 
plete specimens of the typical form of the 
species, the arrangement of its canals is much 
the same as in the variety. (The probability 
is that the canals, which connect with the 
fistulfe, are inhalant in function). 

The structure of the skeleton also is very 
similar in both forms, except that, in the 
root-like processes of the type, the main 
skeleton consists almost entirely of stout 
longitudinal fibres (50 to 200 /x in diameter) 
closely arranged like the strands of a rope; 
while, in the peduncle of the variety, the 
corresponding fibres are much more widely 
separated, and the intervening spaces are oc- 
cupied by a renieroid, for the most part uni- 
spicular, reticulation, similar to that which 
is general throughout the body of the sponge. 
Phlceodictyon ramsayi. rphe fibres of the roots or peduncle, as the 
case may be, continue into the body of the 
sponge and spread dendritically through it, at a considerable 
average distance apart ; here and there, they are connected by 
cross-fibres. Between the fibres, as already indicated, the 
skeleton consists of a renieroid reticulation. The fibres are 
composed of very closely packed, parallel spicules, which, 
apparently, are held together by a minute quantity of spongin. 




Fig. 



BY E. F. KALLMANN. 361 

The bast-layer consists of an irregular, unilamellar reticula- 
tion (PI. XX., figs. 4,5) of stout fibres immediately underlying 
the dermal membrane, and of numerous, inwardly directed, 
short, lamellar extensions of the same. The dermal skeleton 
proper is a single layer of horizontally disposed spicules cross- 
ing each other in all directions, and thus producing a some- 
what lattice-like pattern. 

The spicules are the same in all parts of the sponge — oxea, 
Slightly and somewhat angularly curved, nearly cylindrical 
throughout the greater part of their length, and gradually 
tapering to sharp points. In the typical form of the species, 
their maximum size is 195 by 8/x, and their length ranges from 
130 to 195 /i (but is very rarely less than 150 fx); in the variety, 
the spicules are a little larger, attaining to a size of 220 by 
9-5 /x. 

The typical form of the species comes from Port Jackson. 

Rhizochalina petrosia. (Text-fig. 9). 
The evidence indicates, beyond reasonable doubt, that, 
under this name, Lendenfeld has combined portions of the 
descriptions of two quite different species. In the Australian 
Museum, labelled, in that author's handwriting, with the MS. 
name corresponding (according to his key-list) to Rhizochalina 
petrosia, is a small, gauzy-textured, branch-shaped sponge, 
apparently belonging to the genus Ciocalypta, the spicules of 
which are oxea of exactly the dimensions stated in the descrip- 
tion, viz., 700 by 15/z; and from the British Museum comes a 
small fragment labelled Rhizochalina petrosia, which both 
belongs to the genus Rhizochalina (i.e., Phloeodictyon) and 
exhibits skeletal characters such as render the specific name 
petrosia extremely appropriate, but in which the oxea are, at 
most, only 165 by 8-5 /x in size. Thus the former specimen 
possesses the skeletal features ascribed to the species, but is 
entirely different to it in external form ; while the British 
Museum specimen (the external form of which I do not know), 
in spite of the above-mentioned serious disagreement with the 

10 



362 



REVISION OF THE MONAXONID SPONGES, 11., 



description, affords practically indisputable reason for believ- 
it to exemplify the species to which the name R. petrosia was 
intended to apply. The question, as to which of these speci- 
mens is to be considered the type of the species, appears to me 
one that might be decided quite well by the toss of a coin ; but 
as the latter best accords with the name, I propose that it be 
taken as the type — the species thus requiring to be called 
Phhieodictyon petrosia. 

An adequate description of Ph. petrosia cannot, at present, 
be given, as the small fragment at my disposal consists of 
scarcely more than a portion of the rind. As far as can be 
judged from this, however, the species is distinct from any 
other that has been described. The rind is 
usually well-developed, attaining to a thick- 
ness of nearly 2 /x ; its skeleton consists of 
an approximately rectangular, coarse reticu- 
lation of stout fibres, measuring up to 150 /x 
in diameter, composed of closely and not 
very regularly packed oxea uncemented by 
spongin. The skeleton bears a marked re- 
semblance to that which is characteristic of 
many species of Petrosia. A dermal skele- 
ton proper, external to the rind, appears to 
be absent. What little of the main skeleton 
is shown, consists mainly of scattered spicules 
exhibiting a tendency towards an arrange- 
ment in an irregular subrenieroid manner; 
but there also occur, at intervals, very stout 
fibres, similar to those of the rind, which 
apparently belong to inwardly-directed ex- 
tensions of the latter, such as have been noticed in Ph. ramsayi. 
The spicules, which are the same in the rind as in the main 
skeleton, are somewhat angulately curved and abruptly sharp- 
pointed oxea, ranging in length from 1 30 to 165/x, and measuring 
seldom less than 6 and not more than 8*5 /x in stoutness. 
Loc. — Port Jackson. 




Fig. 9. 

Phlceodiclyon petrosia 
Oxea. 



BY E. F. KALLMANN. 363 

Subfamilia G e l l i n .e. 
Gellius panis. 
The species is without a type-specimen, and, so far, I have 
met with no sponge identifiable with it. There appears to be 
no reason to doubt that the species belongs to the genus to 
which Lendenfeld has referred it. 
Loc. — Port Jackson. 

Gellius raphidiophora. (Text-fig. 10). 

Introductory. — The type-specimen conforms recognisably to 
the description, but the latter is at fault regarding the size of 
the sigmata and the maximum stoutness (which is 9-5, not 6/x) 
attained by the oxea, and also omits to mention that the oxea 
are of three kinds, two of which — hence rather to be termed 
raphides —occur in dragmata : that raphides, however, were 
present in the original specimen, is both indicated by the 
description and implied by the specific name. 

I have lately collected three specimens (from the underside 
of rocks exposed at low tide, near Port Jackson), which appar- 
ently in no way differ from the type of the species, excepting 
that their spicules are much slenderer, the stoutest oxea hav- 
ing (as it happens) only about the same diameter as that 
stated by Lendenfeld. As these specimens differ also among 
themselves (to the extent of 1'5/x) in the diameter of their 
stoutest spicules, it is practically certain that they are not 
varietally distinct from the typical form, and, therefore, I 
have taken them into account in drawing up the following 
description. 

Description. — Sponge massive, depressed, basally encrusting. 
Surface even or slightly undulated, smooth, very minutely reticu- 
late (owing to the dermal skeleton). Oscula few, scattered, 
marginally flush with the general surface, measuring up to 3 mm. 
in diameter. Colour in life, bright yellow; in alcohol, light 
yellowish-grey. Consistency fairly soft and friable. The interior 
is traversed in various directions by many canals measuring up 
to 2 or 3 mm. wide; otherwise the structure is fairly compact. 



364 



REVISION OF THE MONAXONID SPONGES, 11. 



Of the four specimens at hand, the largest measures 100mm. long, 
by 70 mm. broad, and from 2 to 15 mm. in thickness; according 
to the original description, the sponge may grow to a thickness 
of 50 mm. 

The main skeleton is an irregularly renieroid, paucispieular reti- 
culation, the pattern of which usually appears much confused 
owing to the great number of scattered bundles of raphides: 
spongin is present in minute quantity, though apparently only at 
the angles of the meshes. In the most superficial region, loose 
polyspicular strands of spicules occur, which run perpendicularly 
to the surface and terminate in slightly projecting tufts coinciding 
in position with the nodes of the dermal reticulation. The dermal 
reticulation, for the most part, is triangular in pattern, and has 
the sides of its meshes formed of from two to five roughly parallel 
spicules. 




Fig. 10. — Gellhis raphidiophora. a, Oxea. 6, Sigmata. c, Longer raphides. 
d, Shorter raphides. e, Microstrongyles. 

Spicules. — (a) Slightly curved oxea, very nearly cylindrical 

throughout the greater part of their length, and tapering gradually 

to sharp points. Size* : (i) 150 to 215 by 9-5/x; (n) 120 to 195 by 

^ 

* The two sets of measurements — which refer to the range in length of 
the spicules, and to their maximum stoutness — are taken from the speci- 
mens whose spicules are the most different in point of size; the former 
measurements are those of the type-specimen. 



BY E. F. HALLMANN. 365 

( b ) Longer raphides, occurring only in dragmata, straight, cylin- 
drical, gradually sharp-pointed, and slightly dilated at intervals. 
Size : (i)130 to 255 by 2-5 /x; (u)120 to 245 by 1-5 /x. 

(c) Shorter raphides, occurring only in dragmata; straight, fusi- 
form. Size : (i)45 to 120 by 4-5 jx; (ii)40 to 95 by 2*5 /x. 

(fZ)Sigmata, very variable in size, but apparently not separable 
into two groups; the larger, as well as many of the smaller, are 
intermediate in shape between ordinary and flagellate sigmata. 
Length : (i)15 to 76 /x; (u)15 to 70 /x. Stoutness : (*)3-7 /x; {ii) 
1-5 /x. 

(e)Microstongyles, often somewhat pointed at one or both ex- 
tremities ; rare, but occurring in all specimens. Size : 16 to 50 by 
(i) 3 to (ii) 4 /x. 

Loc. — Port Jackson. 

Remarks. — On the evidence of a single specimen from Port 
Phillip, which I identify as Gellius phillipensis Dendy(12), this 
latter species is not more than a variety of G. rapliidiophora, from 
which it differs chiefly in the fact that its longen raphides are 
immeasurably fine. In the specimen referred to, microstrongyles 
also occur, but are exceedingly rare, only a single example having 
been found in two slide-preparations. 

G. raphidiophora is distinguished from all other species of the 
genus, not only in having two sorts of raphides, but also in the 
possession of microstrongyles; its sigmata, too, are of unusual 
form, and recall those of certain species of Biemna — e.g., B. chilen- 
sis Thiele(42), and B. hamifera Lundbeck(31). This fact con- 
cerning the sigmata seems not unwortliy of notice, since also in 
Biemna the microscleres may include raphides and — if not micro- 
strongyles exactly — siliceous globules. Actual microstrongyles, in 
association with raphides and sigmata, are elsewhere known to 
occur only in the somewhat aberrant Tylodesma microstrongyla 
Hentschel(21), and AUantophora plicata Whitelegge(57), two 
species which, I think, are allied to one another, though scarcely to 
be regarded as congeneric; but whether these microstrongyles 
(showing as they do some trace of centrotylosis) are homologous 
with those of G. raphidiopfiora, it is at present impossible to sa}^ 



366 REVISION OF THE MONAXONID SPONGES, ii., 

Tedania rubicunda. (PL xvii., fig.4; and text-fig. 11). 
Introductory. — The type-specimen — labelled ''Pellina rubi- 
cunda" — although somewhat at variance with the description as 
regards spiculation, is so closely in agreement therewith, in most 
other respects, that any doubt as to its genuineness is quite pre- 
cluded. The spicules are not, as Lendenfeld has stated, mainly 
tylota, but mainly styli — the former being abundant only in the 
dermal layer; furthermore, oxea are entirely absent, the tylota 
have conspicuously spined extremities, and the trichites are 
minutely spinulous. Thus, the spiculation — and, I might add, the 
general arrangement of the skeleton also — conform to those of T. 
digitata, of which species, therefore, T. rubicunda may, for the 
present, be considered a variety. 

Descriptioyi. — The single specimen (PI. xvii., fig. 4) is a sessile, 
massive sponge, with a somewhat cylindriform, stoutish body, 
about 80 mm. in diameter and 100 mm. in height ; which divides 
above into two larger, and is provided also, towards its upper 
aspect, with several smaller, digitiform, tapering lobes or pro- 
cesses. There is a well-defined dermal membrane, and the surface 
generally, except where bruised and damaged, is smootli and glab- 
rous; the processes, however, show a few, usually quite shallow, 
longitudinal furrows or wrinkles. According to the original 
description, the processes are traversed by a central oscular tube, 
and have, at their summit, a number of small oscula. The first 
part, at least, of this statement is not strictly correct; except in 
their lower portion, the processes are traversed by distantly 
separated canals, and these are of small size, usually less than 1 
mm. in diameter. These canals run longitudinally, gradually con- 
verging as the process becomes narrower, and (perhaps not in all 
cases) finally unite, at a variable distance from the extremity of 
the process, to form a single fairly wide canal. This terminal canal, 
no doubt, communicates with the exterior at the apex of the pro- 
cess, though the manner of accomplishment of this is not apparent 
in the present specimen ; if it is by means of oscula, as is probably 
the case, these must be very small. The chief excurrent canals, 
both in the processes and in the body of the sponge, are surrounded 



BY £. F. KALLMANN. 367 

by a relatively very broad layer or wall of collenchymatous tissue, 
which, to the naked eye, has a somewhat gelatinous and translucent 
appearance as compared with the surrounding denser tissue. The 
specimen, which is preserved in alcohol,, is of a dull yellowish- 
white colour; it is of rather soft consistency, and is very easily torn 
asunder. In the living state, according to the original description, 
the colour is a bright orange-red, which is more pronounced and 
mtense on the surface than in the interior. 

In the body of the sponge, the main skeleton consists of a rather 
dense and confused, somewhat renieroid, reticulation of single 
spicules and of spicule-bundles (or short, paucispicular fibres), 
traversed at close intervals by well-defined, multispicular fibres 
(usually less than 50/x in stoutness) running, for the most part, in 
a surfaceward direction; scattered through the reticulation are 
raphides, which occur both singly and in bundles. In the processes, 
however, in correspondence wdth an increase in development of the 
multispicular fibres, the reticular component of the skeleton is 
more or less reduced, and, in their more central region, may occa- 
sionally disappear altogether; in the latter case, the skeleton con- 
sists almost exclusively of closely approximated, longitudinally- 
running fibres, the diameter of the stoutest of which may exceed 
200/x. The fibres are everywhere composed of loosely aggregated, 
parallel styli, together with a small proportion of tylota. Spongin 
is entirely absent. In the extensively developed collenchyma sur- 
roimding the canals, the only skeletal elements are singly scat- 
tered raphides and tylota, the former abundant, the latter usually 
scarce. The ectosomal skeleton consists of closely approximated, 
slightly divergent, vertical tufts of tylota, with numerous raphides 
scattered between; the tufts often, though not usually, are j^ro- 
longed inwards into loose straggling strands (of tylota) connect- 
ing with the multisi^icular fibres of the main skeleton ; but in many 
places, especially where the dermal layer is immediately underlain 
by collenchyma, a discontinuity exists between the dermal and main 
skeletons, which is very marked. 

Spicules. — (rt)The styU are (as a rule, slightly) curved, or rarely 
straight spicules, of nearly uniform diameter throughout their 



368 



REVISION OF THE MONAXONlD SPONGES, 11, 



entire length except for a distance of about 5/a (or less) through 
which they taper to a sharp point; proceeding towards the basal 
end, however, they usually undergo a slight contraction, and then 
usually expand again, though only very slightly, at their extremity. 
Their length, which very rarely falls below 
160 /x, may attain to 215 /x, and, on the 
average, is nearer to the latter figure than to 
the former ; the diameter of the stoutest 
\ \\ is 6 /i,. 

(6) The tylota are straight or nearly so, 
with cylindrical or slightly fusiform shaft, 
and with elongate narrow heads, the ex- 
tremities of which are truncate, and provided 
with about a dozen spines, averaging, say, 
2 /x long; they range between 190 and 240/x, 
and are seldom less than 210 /x in length, 
while their diameter is rarely, if ever, more 
than 3" 5 /x. 

(c)The raphides (onychetse) are straight, 
asymmetrically fusiform, stylote, tapering 
gradually to a tine point at one end and to 
a truncated extremity at the other; their 
region of maximum stoutness lies nearer to 
the latter or basal end. Their base is fre- 
quently rendered apiculate by a minute spine 

^^^•^^- situated at its edge, i.e., outside the line of 

T. diqitata var. ruhi- . . • e ,^ ^^ 

' o. 1- I. continuation ot the axis or the spicule; some- 

cunda. a, otyli. n, . 

Tylota. (Onychela; times there appear to be two such spines, 
not figured ; similar The basal moiety (only) of the spicule is 
in spinulation to covered with minute spinules, which decrease 

^° ^ ° * ^ in size towards the middle of the spicule and, 
var. rubra). . n • 

gradually becoming indistinct, finally give 

place to a scarcely more than perceptible roughness of the 
surface. The raphides are, at most, 1 -8 /x in diameter, and vary 
in length from 35 to 130/x; individuals of length between 60 
and 90 /x, however, are rare, thus indicating a partial differentia- 
tion of the spicules into two groups. The smaller raphides are 



BV E. t\ HALLMANN. 369 

scarce, except in the derinal skeleton, where their number equals, if 
it does not exceed, that of the longer ones. 

Loc. — Port Jackson. 

Uemarka. — In the aggregate of its ciiaracters, T. diyitata var. 
ruhicunda appears to be well distinguished from any hitherto 
described variety of the species, and, in many respects, diverges so 
widely from the typical form as almost to justify its recognition as 
an independent species; possibly, however, it may prove to be 
identical with the insufficiently described T. digitata var. fibrosa, 
R. and D., which is recorded from the same locality (Port Jack- 
son ) . Its chief diagnostic features are the digitate, massive, exter- 
nal form; the well-defined asponginous fibres; the considerable 
range in length, and partial separation into two groups of the 
raphides; and the character of the extremities of the tylota. 

Hentschel(20), misled by Lendenfeld's description of Tedania 
rubicunda, has briefly described, under that name, a sponge, from 
the west coast of Australia, in which the dermal spicules are amphi- 
strongyla (apparently with non-spinose extremities), and which, 
in other respects also, differs markedly from the sponge here re- 
described. 

Tedania laxa. 

Labelled in Lendenfeld's handwriting "Truncatella laxa" — the 
MS. synonym of Tedania laxa — there are, in all, twelve specimens, 
eleven occurring together in one jar, and one separately. They 
vary very considerably in their exact external form, though all are 
much alike in colour, consistency, and surface-appearance; and all 
agree in being composed of clustered, usually more or less inter- 
united, moderately slender branches. Some, for example, Iiave tlie 
branches very intimately intergrown and partially fused witli one 
another, in such a way as to give rise to a rather compact reticulate 
mass, and are thus, as regards external form, apparently in close 
agreement with the description of the species; whereas others are 
more erect and arborescent, and include among them several tliat 



370 REVISION OF THE MONAXONlD SPONGES, II., 

exhibit a conspicuous resemblance to tiie type-specimen of Stylo- 
tella digitata ( = S. agminata). While external examination of 
the specimens afforded no reason to doubt that at least the more 
massive-looking would be found in complete conformity with the 
description of T. laxa, microscopical examination yielded, in every 
case, the same result, and showed them to be no more than a series 
of forms of Stylotella agminata. Yet, at the same time, there was 
presented the very striking coincidence that, in the arrangement of 
their skeleton and approximate size of their spicules, the specimens 
actually do agree with the description of T. laxa, almost perfectly. 
In the face of such evidence, a contention that the specimens are 
other than examples of this species cannot well be sustained; and 
one has to conclude that Tedania laxa is no more than a synonym 
of Stylotella agminata. The probability of the correctness of this 
conclusion is supported by other considerations, as follows: — 
According to its description, T. laxa differs from S. agminata only 
in the following particulars ; the sponge grows to a comparatively 
large size (nearly twice that of the largest specimen of S. agminata 
in the collection) ; oscula are not apparent; the colour of the living 
sponge is bright brick-red; and the spicules, in addition to styli, 
include tylota, oxea, and rare trichites. But the difference in mere 
size of the sponges is of very doubtful importance, as also is their 
difference in colour ; the oscula of S. agminata are often very diffi- 
cult to make out (owing apparently to their becoming closed over, 
as a result of contraction, by the dermal membrane) ; and there is 
present, in this species, a small proportion of slender megascleres 
which, without critical inspection, could very easily be mistaken for 
trichites. Also, allowance must be made for the fact that, in regard 
to matters of spiculation, the Catalogue is often seriously at fault; 
and of especial significance in this connection is the erroneous 
spiculation ascribed to Tedania rubicunda and T. rubra. And, 
finally, it is to be noted that the pattern of the skeleton of S. agmi- 
nata bears no inconsiderable resemblance to that (in certain parts) 
of T. rubicunda, and, indeed, might be described in precisely the 
same terms as Lendenfeld, in his description of the latter species, 
employs. 



BY E. F. HALLMANN. 371 

Tedania rubra. (Text-tig. 12). 

Introductory. — Altiiougii the specimen which I describe here- 
under, is far from satisfactorily agreeing with tlie original descrip- 
tion, yet, as it is labelled in Lendenfeld's handwriting witli the 
name ("Truncatella renieroides"), given in the key-list as the MS. 
equivalent of T. rubra, and as it actually is a Tedania, the balance 
of evidence undoubtedly points to its being a genuine example of 
the species, and justifies the conclusion that the original description 
is inaccurate. The latter states, among other things, that oscula 
are present, which measure 2 to 3 mm. in width; tliat the fibres 
consist (only) of spicules; and that the spicules are styli measuring 
on the average 200 x 6/x, tylota, oxea, and irregularly curved, hair- 
like spicules. In the specimen, on the other hand, there are no evi- 
dent oscula (though scattered over the exterior, there is a number 
of small oscula-like openings, due to the presence of operculate cir- 
ripedes close beneath the surface) ; the fibres are composed of spi- 
cules cemented and usually also ensheathed by spongin; oxea are 
entirely absent; the styli measure at most 205 x 6/x; the "tylota" 
have spined, and scarcely at all expanded, extremities; and the 
hair-like spicules (spinulous rap hides) are almost invariably 
straight. As an indication of the limited importance attachable 
to these discrepancies, it may be remarked, firstly, that those in 
connection with the spiculation are almost exactly the same as 
have been found to occur in the case of Tedania ruhicunda, and, 
secondly, that the actual mistake of describing, as oscula, holes 
caused by symbiotic cirripedes, was made by Lendenfeld in the 
case of Cliona lutea and of Spirastrella ramulosa. 

The megascleres(and, at first sight, also the raphides)of T. rubra 
resemble so very closely those of T. digit ata var. rubicunda, that 
had I examined no more than preparations of their spicules, I 
should certainly have pronounced the two sponges to be specifically 
identical; in view of its well-developed spongin-fibre, however, the 
like of which apparently has not been met with in any other of the 
numerous known forms of T. digitata, it seems necessary that T. 
rubra should be ranked as an independent variety. 



3/2 REVISION OF THE MONAXONID SPONGES, 11., 

Description. — The single specimen is a solid massive sponge, of 
somewhat brick-siiaped form (but with rounded angles and partly 
uneven surface), measuring 55 mm. in height, and 45 mm. by 30 
mm. in cross-section; the inequalities of the surface are mostly 
restricted to the upper aspect of the sponge, and take the form of 
conical, dome-shaped, or papilliform elevations of small size, the 
largest (which is of exceptional size) measuring 6 mm. in height, 
and 5 mm. across at its base. There is a well-developed, non- 
separable, dermal membrane, with smooth, almost glabrous, sur- 
face. Oscula of minute size, certainly less than 0-5 mm. in width, 
are probably present, and, judging by the direction of the main 
excurrent canals, occur on the upper surface, generally (though 
apparently not exclusively) at the summits of the elevations; as, 
however, the canals are of very small size (being rarely as much as 
1 mm. in diameter), and are not traceable, owing to their partial 
collapse, all the way to the surface, the existence of undoubted 
oscula could not be demonstrated. 

The colour in alcohol is yellowish within, and dull white on the 
surface. In consistency, the sponge is moderately firm, yet com- 
pressible, and, by reason of its fibrous skeleton, is resilient and 
fairly tough. 

The main skeleton is a reticulation of spiculo-spongin fibres be- 
tween which there lie scattered, w^ithout recognisable order and in 
varying abundance, usually not numerous megascleres and 
raphides, the latter occurring both singly and in bundles; entering 
into its composition also, but not contributing to form the reticula- 
tion, are occasional (yet constantly occurring) continuous strands 
of loosely associated, parallel spicules uncemented by spongin. 
The spicules of the sponginous fibres are styli and tylota, the latter 
relatively very scarce except in the ectosomal region ; in the aspon- 
ginous fibres, on the other hand, the tylota may predominate over 
the styli, and also a few raphides make their appearance. The 
scattered megascleres are chiefly tylota. The skeleton-reticulation 
consists chiefly of multispicular main fibres (with compact spicule- 
core, on tlie average less than ten spicules broad) running irregul- 
arly, usually not much more than a spicule's length apart, and 



BY E. F. KALLMANN. 373^ 

with occasional branching and anastomosis, in a general surfaee- 
ward-direction ; the connecting fibres, which vary from unispieular 
to rarely multispicular, occur at rather variable intervals, and, 
where the main fibres are more widely separated, from between 
them an irregular inter-reticulation. As the surface is nearly 
approached, the connecting fibres disappear, and the outwardly- 
running fibres become split up into numerous closely-arranged 
and parallel strands of loosely-associated tylota, ending at the sur- 
. face, each in a slightly penicillate tuft ; in the dermal skeleton thus 
constituted, there occur in addition to the vertically arranged spic- 
ule-strands only a very few scattered raphides. In places — though 
this seems to be exceptional — the dermal skeleton, while otherwise 
unchanged in character, appears not to be in continuity with the 
main skeleton. The extent to which spongin is developed in con- 
nection wath the fibres, varies considerably in different parts; fre- 
quently it forms a quite conspicuous sheath which, in thickness, 
may exceed the diameter of the spicule-core, the fibre as a conse- 
quence attaining sometimes to a stoutness of iOfi or more ; usually, 
however, it is barely more than sufficient to hold the spicules to- 
gether ; while towards the surface, it further diminishes in quantity 
and fmally disappears. The main excurrent canals are surrounded 
by a narrow layer of collenchymatous tissue in which the only 
skeletal elements are scattered tylota and raphides. 

Spicules. — The megascleres, as already stated, are hardly distin- 
guishable from those of T. digitata var. ruhicunda — even in size 
being not materially different. The styli (when full-grown) vary 
in length from 155 to 200/a, and are at most 6/x in diameter; the 
tylota are never less than 175/zin length, and attain a maximum 
size of 230 X 4 ^. The very slenderest immature tylota, it was 
noticed, have the axial canal open at one end, and, at that end, 
their spines are less advanced in development than at the other. 

Raphides (onychetse) occur of all lengths between 20 and 155/x, 
but those exceeding 135 /x are scarce; there is also a rarity of indi- 
viduals of certain intermediate sizes, with the consequence that, 
roughly, three groups are recognisable, having the follow^ing 
approximate ranges of length: (i.) 20-40 /* ; (ii.) 55-70 /x ; (iii.) 



374 



REVISION OF THE MONAXONID SPONGES, 11, 



90-155/jt. Those of the third group are the most abundant, while 
those of medium size, which are the least frequent, are compara- 
tively very scarce. Besides differing in size, the raphides of the 
three groups exhibit, as a general rule, certain appreciable differ- 
ences in other respects also, though all agree in being very gradu- 
ally sharp-pointed at one extremity, and abruptly truncated at the 
other, in being more or less spinulous, and in having the spinules 
pointing in the direction of, and progressively increasing in size 

towards, the truncated or basal 
end of the spicule. (i.) The 
smallest raphides are conical in 
shape, tapering gradually from 
base to apex; are spinulous over 
their entire extent ; and are 
usually much less than 1 /x in 
diameter. (ii.) The rather rare 
raphides of intermediate size are 
fusiform, with the region of great- 
est stoutness nearer to the basal 
end than to the middle of their 
length; are provided over their 
whole length with spinules which 
attain to a larger size than those 
of either (i.) or (iii.); and are 
always relatively stout in pro- 
portion to their length, their 
diameter being seldom much less 
than 2/x. (iii.) The longest 
raphides are slightly fusiform, 
with the region of greatest stout- 
ness situated nearer to the 



m^ 



Fig. 12. 

T. digitata var. rubra, a, Styli. 

h, Tylota. c, Onychetse. 



middle of their length than to the basal end ; have a merely 
roughened surface, or (as a rule, only in the case of the stoutest) 
are perceptibly spinulous over their basal moiety only; are com- 
monly terminated at their truncated end by a slender spine; and 
vary in stoutness from less than 1 yu to slightly more than 2 /x. 
Loc. — Port Jackson. 



BY E. F. KALLMANN. 375 

Tedania TENUISPINA. 

The specimen purporting to be the type of this species — and, 
moreover, the only specimen, either in the collection of tlie Aus- 
tralian Museum or among the fragments received from the British 
Museum, which is labelled a?i representing the species — is con- 
siderably at variance with the description of Tedania tenuispina 
in regard to its outward form, and departs therefrom also in some 
other respects, — being, in fact, an example of Stylotella agminata. 
Nevertheless, in skeletal characters it exhibits, on the whole, a very 
considerable degree of correspondence with that description ; and 
were the specimen but possessed of the external habit ascribed to 
T. tenuispina, one would not hesitate at all to accept it as an 
example thereof. Accordingly, the question presents itself as to 
whether the alleged type-specimen should be rejected as wrongly 
labelled, and as having no relation whatsoever to the species under 
consideration; or whether the description should be regarded as 
an erroneous one, combining an account of the external features of 
one species with that of the internal features of another, the latter 
species being that which is exemplified by the type-specimen. The 
evidence is insufficient to enable one to decide positively ; but, for 
the following reasons, I am disposed to give preference to the view 
that the description confuses two species, one of which is StijloteUa 
agminata. In the first place, the external form ascribed to T. 
tenuispina is opposed to the likelihood of its belonging to Tedania, 
inasmuch as the species of that genus appear always to be more or 
less massive in habit; and it is an admissible assumption, therefore, 
that the species has been either generically misnamed or else mis- 
described in respect of its external characters. Secondly, the 
description is open to suspicion owing to an apparent incongruity ; 
for, in the paragraph relating to the outward characters of the 
sponge, it is stated that the surface is "roughened by projecting 
spicules" — which would seem unlikely except in the case of a 
sponge having spicules of fair length, say, 0-5 mm. or more; 
whereas, according to the latter part of the description^ the 
spicules have a length of only 220 /x. Thirdly, no reliance can be 



376 KEVISION OF THE MONAXONID SPONGES, ii. 

placed upon the statement that, in addition to stj^li, "a few tylota 
and oxea are also found"; for Lendenfeld has erroneously also 
attributed all these three kinds of megascleres to each of the other 
three species assigned by him to Tedania. Fourthly, the descrip- 
tion is not in accordance with Lendenfeld's definition of Tedania, 
inasmuch as it contains no mention of the occurrence of raphides 
in the species. And, lastly, owing to the doubt which thus attaches 
to the account given of the spiculation of Tedania tenuispina, it is 
impossible to assert that the ostensible type-specimen is tiot an ex- 
ample of the species upon which the description of the skeletal 
characters of Tedania tenuispina was based, for in other respects, 
it agrees with that description sufficiently well. 

I propose, therefore, to regard Tedania tenuispina as practically 
synonymous with Stylotella agminata. 



For Reference List of Literature, see antea, pp. 3 10-3 13. 
For Explanation of Plates xv.-xxiv., see antea, pp. 3 13-3 15 



377 



FURTHER NOTES ON THE BOTANY OF LORD 
HOWE ISLAND. 

(Fifth Paper.*) 

By J. H. Maiden. 

(Plate xxviii.) 

Additional BibJ iograjyhicnl Notes. 

L McGiLLiVRAY, J.— Letters from, in Hooker's New Journ. of 

Botany, vi., 353 (1854). 
2. Rev. W. B. Clarke's Presidential Address, Proc. Roy. Soc. 
N.S.W., iv., 37(1870). 
The following extract from a letter, written by Mr. Charles 
Hedley, on the island during his visit in Septemljer, 1908, is very 
interesting. Both he and Mr. W . S. Dun collected botanical 
specimens freely, and presented the whole of their collections to 
the National Herbarium, Sydney. 

" When I asked what I could do for you on Lord Howe Island, 
you replied that material from the high ground would be par- 
ticularly acceptable. 

" Mt. Gower forms a massive block, the Hat summit of which, 
according to the guides, is only accessible by a spur running from 
the head of Erskine Valley, and as far as we could see, except at 
this point, the mountain is surrounded by tiers of huge wall-like 
precipices. It will illustrate the steepness of the track to say 
that the wild pigs have never been able to reach the summit, and 
that a dog, which accompanied us, had to be handed up from 
ledge to ledge over what the islanders call the 'getting-up 
places.' 

"The summit is a plateau of about 200 acres, which at a dis- 
tance appears almost level. Actually, several small streams 

* The other papers will be found in these Proceedings, xxiii., 112(1898); 
xxiv., 381(1899); xxvi., 156(1901); xxvii., 347(1902). 

n 



378 NOTES ON THE BOTANY OF LORD HOWE ISLAND, V., 

excavate the plateau into shallow valleys, and then discharge in 
waterfalls over tremendous cliffs. These liltle dells have a 
beneficent effect on the vegetation, since the plants here escape 
distortion and hedging by the wind, and grow in shelter to their 
natural proportions, 

" Low trees about 20 feet in height, and shrubs, grow densely; 
the ground is hidden by interlacing bowers, and progress through 
them by stooping and crawling is sIoav and awkward. The tallest 
tree is Dracophyllum {Fitzgeraldi) which reaches a maximum 
height of 40 feet. Tree-ferns and palms, which are equally 
abundant, overtop the level of the scrub. Whereas the palms of 
the low lands are markedly gregarious, sometimes occupying 
tracts to the exclusion of other plants, the mountain palms grow 
here and there sporadically among the other trees. 

"Abundant moisture was a dominant expression of the flora. 
' Here are cool mosses deep,' though we cannot finish the Tenny- 
sonian verse. Trunks, particularly of tree-ferns, appeared as 
green columns, so clothed were they with moss or Hymeno- 
jjhyllum. Epiphytes straggled evei-ywhere, and a large propor- 
tion of trees threw out adventitious roots. Ferns grew luxu- 
riantly, taking the place of herbs. Indeed, a Plantago {Hedleyi, 
n.sp., J.H.M.) on the track, and a straggling large-leaved plant 
Avith composite flower-heads in the axils (Elatostemma reticulatiim) 
were almost the only herbs seen. 

" The lowland flora had, of course, almost disappeared, the 
banyan ( Ficus columnaris) goes a short distance up the hill. The 
last stunted Pandanus [Forsteri) was left about the 2,000 feet 
zone. The Exocarpus {homodada) is one of the few species I 
recognised as having an uninterrupted range from top to bottom. 
But the coast-flora has representatives. A small orchid replaces 
the beach-congener. A pepper grows taller, and has a larger, 
rounder leaf. Wilson says the mountain ' kava ' has a red seed, 
but the lowland one a yellow.'* [Fiper ejccelsiwi is the only known 
kava). 

Specimens of the following plants were brought from the 
summit of Mt. Gower : — Driniys Iloweana F.v.M.; Pittosporum 
crioloma F.\'.M. lI' C. Moore: Dysoxylou pachyphyllum HemaX.; 



BY J. H. MAIDEN. 



79 



Metrosideros iicrvulosa Q. Moore k F.v.M., a bush about 10 ft. 
(foliage only); Coprosma pntida F.v.M. it Moore; Randia stipu- 
laris Ch. Moore ck F.v.M.; Brachycome segmentosa F.v.M., about 
600 feet below; Olearia Balli F.v.M.; Olearia Mooneyi F.v.M., 
(tree 15 feet, up to 8 inches diameter); Senecio hisn/aris Bentli.; 
TecomaaiLstro-cahdonica^uvm..] Neci7na rhabdotlunniioides F.v.M , 
(about 10 feet; common on summit); Flantago Hedleyi, n.sp.; 
Fiper excelsum Forst., (10 feet); Fxocarpns homocJada Ch. Moore 
it F.v.M.; EJafostemmareticuJatumWQd()i.,{t\\\H, and the Plantago, 
the only herbs growing on the summit); Dendrohium yracilicaule 
F.v.M.; Luznlalongiflora Benth.; Clinostigma Mooreanum F.v.M., 
together with ferns. 

Admiralty Islets. 

Mr. Hedley writes: — "Hemsley* notes the lack of information 
on the flora of Ball's Pyramid and the Admiralty Islands. We 
landed on the largest of the Admiralty Islands foi- the purpose 
of gathering sea-birds' eggs. The flora proved uninteresting. 
There are no trees, but a few shrubs, not in flower, clinging to the 
steep north side. The southern slopes are set with scattered 
grass-tussocks among which the Wideawakes [Sterna fuliginosa) 
and Gannets [Snla cyanops) were laying their eggs. The grass 
happened to be in flower. Among the tussocks trailed the New 
Zealand Spinach and a Mesemhryanthemum. There was a salt- 
bush, a giant sedge; and Sonchus oleraceus had established itself." 

The plants collected by Mr. Hedley on the Admiralty Islet 
are : — Lepidnwi /oliositm Desv., Erechtites quadridentata DC, 
Alesemhryanthemum cequilaferaleilEiw., Tetragonia expansa Murr., 
(N.Z. Spinach), Cyperus hiematodes Endl., Foa cccspitosa For.st., 
the common tussocky grass of the islands. 

The following species is deemed to be new : — 

PLANTAGINACE.E. 
Plantago Hedleyi, n.sp. 
Slopes of Mount Gower, April, 1898. Leaf only(J.H.M.). 
" Common on rocky ledges on the crest of Mt. Gower, 2,8-iOft." 
September, 1908 (C. Hedley and W\ S. Dun). 

* Annals of Botany, x., p.'230(1896). 



380 NOTES ON THE BOTANY OF LORD HOWE ISLAND, V., 

Top of Mt. GoNver. December, 1910 (Dr. T. Harvey Johnston). 
(The type). 

Eastern face of Mt. Lidgbird. Au.^ust, 1911 (Rev. W. W. 
Watts). 

Herba perennis, radice lignosA. Folia lanceolato-spathulata, 
5-23 cm. longa, circa 3 cm. lata, superne basi pilosa parte majore 
glabra. Flores in spica 4-8 cm. longa, bractea exteriore carinata, 
margine ciliata, 5-6 mm. longa, superne basi pilosa. Sepala 4, 
inargine scariosa, carinata, circiter 4 mm. longa. Corollse tubus 
4-locularis, nervo medio, margine leniter scariosa, tubo corollse 
lobis circiter bis sequilongo. Stamina 4, filamentis corollse cir- 
citer bis sequilongis. .Stylus simplex, breve pilosus, petala valde 
superans. 

Capsulam maturam non vidi, operculo cum stylo persistente 
deciduente, ovulis placentae liberse centrali compressse irregu- 
lariter spathulatse adh?erentibus. 

A perennial with a woody root-stock. 

Leaves lanceolate-spathulate, 2 to 9 inches long (say 5 to 23 
cm.) with an average width^ in the lanceolate portion, of 1 to H 
inch (2i-4cm.). The base of the leaf has tufts of long hairs on 
the inner side. The leaves as a whole are glabrous, with the 
exception of a slight sprinkling of silky hairs on some of them. 
Flower-staJk long and glabrous, with a few silky hairs under the 
spike, the spike exceeding the leaves. Floicers : spike 4-8 cm. 
long, outer bract keeled, with ciliate edge, from 5-6 mm. long 
with tuft of hairs at base inside. Sepals 4, with scarious margins, 
keeled, about 4 mm. long. Corolla-tube 4-lobed, with a central 
nerve and very slightly scarious margins. The tube is about 
twice as long as the corolla-lobes. Stamens 4, with filaments 
about twice as long as the corolla. Anthers cordate, the con- 
nective pointed at the top. Style shnple, besprinkled with .short 
hairs, greatly exceeding the petals. Immature caps2ile (ripe 
capsule not seen) opens circumsciss, the opercular portion falling 
off with the long persistent style, leaving the ovules attached to 
a compressed, irregularly spathulate, free central placenta. 

AJinity.— It seems to come nearest to P. aucklandica Hook, f., 
a New Zealand species, but the latter seems to differ from F. 



BY J. U. MAIDEN. 381 

HtidJeyl in the leiii^^li of the leaves, wliich are only 5-lOcni. long, 
obscurely sinuate-dentate in P. nucklandica instead of entiie, and 
usually much longer as in the new species. 

The leaves of P. auckhtndica are also ovate and obovate. 

The ovarium in P. Hedleyi is much shorter than the cah\x, and 
5-7 seeded, instead of (?) twice the length of the calyx and 
2-seeded in P. aucklandica. The placenta is also different in 
shape in I*, aucklandica. 

The circunisciss line is always visible round the ovarium in the 
new species. 

CRUCIFER.E. 
Capsella Bursa-Pastoris McEnch. 

Mr. Hedley writes: — "In view of your note on Capsella Pursa- 
Pasforis (Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S.Wales, xxiii., 1898, p. 121, foot- 
note), I looked out for it. What seemed to be this, is marked as 
from Waterhouse's cultivation paddock."' Mr. Hedleys surmise 
is correct. 

Lepidium foliosum Desv. (also on Ball's Pyramid) of my former 
paper (op. cit., xxiii., p. 123), is in A. Thellung's " Die Gattung 
Lepidium {L.) R.Br.'' (Zurich, 1906), called L Hoivei-insidit 
Thell., n.sp. 

VIOLACE^. 
Hymexanthera nov.e-zelandi^ Hemsl., Kew Bulletin, 1908,p. 90. 

The species hitherto recorded for Lord Howe Island as H. 
latifolia Endl. (See Hemsley, Ann. Bot., x., 231). 

Hemsley states that it differs from the New Zealand specimens 
in having apparently thinner leaves, as seen in the dried condition 
at least. The flowers are exactly the same. 

KL.EOCARPACE^ (formerly in Tiiiacete). 
El^ocarpus sp. (These Proceedings, xxvii., 1902, 347). 

"Mueller (Fragm., ix., 77) includes the genus Eht'ocarpus (T\\\- 
acese) : ' El?eocarpus foliatione, qua? tantum nota, E. foveolato 
similis,' but there is no specimen in any of the collections re- 
ceived at Kew.' Hemsley, Ann. Bot., x., 232. 

I had overlooked the above reference. We still have not 
sutftcient material to determine this plant specifically. 



382 NOTES ON THR BOTANY OF LOKD HOWE ISLAND. V., 

MEI.IACE.^:. 

Dysoxvlon pachy'phyllum Hemsley. 

The plant recorded as D. Fraseriannm Benth., (Zoc. ciV., p.l24) 

lias been described by Hemsley as a ne%v species. See Hemsley 

in Icones Plantarum, t.2827, and my Forest Flora of New South 

Wales, Part xxv., p. 82, and Part xxx., p. 173. 

SAPINDACE^. 

DODON.EA VISCORA L. 

D. lanceolata F.v.M., of Hemsley, Joe. cit., p. 234, should he D. 
viscosa L., according to Prof. Radlkofer in a letter to me. 
MYRTACE.E. 
ACICALYPTUS FULLAGARI F.V.M. 

Further on the road (Erskine Valley — lower road) where the 
aneroid gave a level of 700-1800 feet, Mr. Hedley notes the 
" Scaly Bark '" as fine large trees. 

PRIMULACE.E. 
Anagallis arvensis L. 
Collected on the Island by Mr. Hedley. It is a new record. 
OLEACE.E. 
NoTEL.i:A quadristaminea Hemsl. 
On entering the Erskine Valley by the " lower road," i.e., the 
track along the Lidgbird cliffs, we came on a forest of Blue Plum 
(These Proceedings, xxiv., 1899, p.381). 
BIGNONIACE.E. 
Tecoma austro-caledonica Burm. 
Mr. Hedley writes : — " In view of your note (These Proceed- 
ings, xxiii., 1898, p. 132) on Tecoma, I put in a few Howers. Mr. 
Dun verified my observation that the Island plant is without 
anv smell. I believe T. anstralis has an unpleasant odour." The 
Australian plants placed under the name 2\ australis R.Br., 
require further examination, and will probably be found to 
include more than one species. The coastal (Australian) form 
has sweet-scented flowers. The flowers of specimens from Mudgee, 
Werris Creek, and some other Xew South Wales localities, have 
an offensive smell, attracting blow-flies. 



BY J. H. MAIDEN. 383 

PIPERACE.^. 

Pepkromia affinis Domin, in Qu«HMislaii(l A^ric. J<»urn. xxi^ ., 
222, 1910. 
Prof. Domin told nic vt>rl)ally tliat tlie plant atlrilnited to P. 
refiexa A. Dietr., from r.orcl Howe Island {see Hemsley, Ann. 
Bot., X., 249) is his /^ affinis. 

PALMK.E 
Hedyscepe Canterburyana F.\.M. 
This Palm fruited for the first time in the Botanic Gardens, 
Sydney, in August, 1913. See a note of its flowering, together 
with a photograph, in these Proceedings, xxiv., 1899, p. 382. 
HowEA Belmokeana Becc. (These Proceedings, xxiii., 1 898,p.l37. 
See a paper ''Dichogamie Proterandre chez le Kentia (Howea) 
Belmoreana", par J. Daveau (Journal de Botanique, IG Janvier, 
1896). 

PANDANACE.5-:. 

Pandanus Fursteri F.v.M. and C. Moore. (These Proceedings, 

xxiii., 1898, p.UO.) 

Warburg, in his monograph,* synonymised P. Moorei F.v.M., 

with P. Porsteri, as I had surmised. So that there is only one 

species on the island. He figures a drupe (Fig.l3,E). 

GRAMINE.^. 
Paspalum distichum L. 
In These Proceedings, xxiii., 1898, p. 143, I pointed out that, 
in this grass, we had three and even four spikes, and suggested 
the name anomalum for this form. Mr. W, B. Hemsley (then 
of Kew) Avrites : "The production of three spikes is not a rare 
occurrence, and hardly justifies the distinction of this form as a 
variety." 

FILICES. 
The Rev. W. A\^. Watts has published a paperf on "The Ferns 
of Lord Howe Island," and I propose to leave the critical revision 
of the species to him. 

* " Das Pflauzenreich " (Pandanaceai). 
t These Proceedings, xxxvii., 1912, 395. 



384 NOTES 0\ THK BOTANY OF LOUD HOWE ISLAND, v. 

I desire to thank Mr. E. Cheel for kind assistance in the 
preparation of tliis paper. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XXVIII. 
Plantago Hedltyi, ii.sp. 

A, Small plant, nalural size, showing woody root-stalk. 

B, Flower. The calyx-lobes have scarious edges and a narrow keel; r, one 

lobe removed. Tlie anthers cordate, the connective pointed at the 
top. 
1), Bract, ciliate edge, tuft of hairs at the base inside; broadh- keeled. 

E, Flower-tube opened out, showing the attachment of the filaments 

between the lobes of the corolla. 

F, Pistil. 

G, Immature capsule. 

H, The upper opercular portion of the capsule separated from the lower 
part, in wliich remains the free central placenta with from o to 7 
ovules. 

I, The placenta, showing the depressions where the ovules were attached. 

K, Part of leaf from a larger plant, showing tufts of long hair at the base, 
on the upper side of the leaf. 



385 



A STUDY OF THE LEAF-ANATOMY OF SOME NATIVE 
SPECIES OF THE GENUS ANDROPOGOX. 

[N.O. GRAMINK.E.] 

By E. Breakwkll, B.A., B.Sc. 
(Plates xxix. xxxiii.) 

The microscopic anatomical examination of the leaves of some 
native species of the genus Andrapogon, as discussed in the fol- 
lowing pages, was made for two purposes. Firstly, to investigate 
any similarities or differences that may exist in the general and 
detailed internal structure of the leaves of different species; and, 
secondly, to investigate any oecological characteristics in the 
structure of the leaf, which may be associated with, and accom- 
pany, the general habit and habitat of the plant in question. 

The method adopted, in preparing the sections, was briefly as 
follows. The fresh leaves, in small pieces, were fixed in picro- 
acetic acid. Great difficulty was at first experienced in elimin- 
ating the siliceous elements from the leaves; but, eventually, a 
successful method was found in soaking them, for some consider- 
able time, ranging from 8 to 12 hours, in a 50 per cent, solution 
of hydrofluoric acid and water. 

The embedding, cutting, staining, and mounting were per- 
formed by Mr. W, A, Birmingham, of the Biological Branch of 
the Department of Agriculture, to whom I am much indebted for 
the really excellent manner in which he prepared the specimens. 
My thanks are also due to Mr. G. P. Darnell Smith, B.Sc, F.I.C., 
F.C.S., Biologist, for his courtesy, and for permission to use the 
biological apparatus. The stains used were haematoxylin and 
erythrosin. It was found necessary to decolourise after staining 
in haematoxylin. These two stains appear to give a fairly good 

12 



386 LEAF-ANATOMY OF THE GENUS ANDROPOGON, 

differentiation. The methods adopted, in embedding and mount- 
ing, were similar to those used in ordinary microtechnique. 

Andropogox intermedius R.Br. (Plate xxx.). 

In the widest portion of the leaf, there are nine primary 
bundles, i.e., bundles in which the sclerenchyma is in direct con- 
tact with the phloem or xylem, or separated from the latter by 
thin-walled cells only. The primary bundle of the midrib is the 
largest. There are 33 secondary bundles, i.e., bundles in which 
phloem and xylem are completely surrounded by chlorophyll- 
bearing cells. 'I'here are also present six bundles of an inter- 
mediate type. In these bundles, the sclerenchyma is developed 
under the bundle, but separated from the phloem and xylem of 
the bundle. The primary bundles are surrounded by thick- 
walled cells — the mestome sheath. On the outer side of these 
are thin-walled parenchyma-cells which, in this case, are very 
indistinct. 

Midrib. — In the widest portion of the midrib there are three 
primary bundles, and these are open above and below. The 
chlorophyll-bearing parenchyma-cells, surrounding the middle 
bundle, are smaller than those surrounding the mestome bundles. 
The sclerenchyma on the lower surface of the midrib is well 
developed, but that on the upper surface consists of but few cells, 
which are in direct contact with the epidermal cells. 1~he scler- 
enchyma on the superior surface of the other two primary 
bundles is much better developed than that of the middle primary 
bundle. The phloem tissue is extremely well developed in all 
the primary bundles, and this also applies to the xylem tissue. 
Xylem and phloem tissue are also developed in the secondary 
bundles, the former preponderating. 

The epidermal cells on the lower surface are extremely irregular 
in size. The cuticle, by which they are protected, is not par- 
ticularly thick, except over the primary bundles, and at the 
edges of the leaf. The epidermal cells on the upper surface are 
as small as those on the lower surface only under the secondary 
bundles. In all other cases, they are considerably extended in 
size, penetrating deeply into the mesophyll-tissue. These cells. 



BY E. BREAKWELL. 387 

termed by Warming hinge-cells, and known in American liter- 
ature as bulliform cells, are not fan-shaped, hut in rows ranging 
in series from 5 to 8, and situated between the primary bundles. 
Stomata are found on both surfaces of the leaf, the proportion 
on the lower surface to that on the upper surface being approxi- 
mately as 3 : 1. They appear on the upper surface at the edges 
of the series of bulliform cells, and also occasionally about the 
centre of the series. 

Andropogon affinis R.Br. (Plate xxix., fig. 2). 

In the widest portion of the leaf, there are eight primary 
bundles, forty-four secondary bundles, and three intermediate 
bundles. 

In the midrib proper, there is only one primary bundle. On 
each edge of the midrib, there is also a primary bundle, 
and that of the midrib is not as large as the others. The 
chlorophyll-bearing cells of the midprimary bundle are irregular 
in size, and smaller than those of the other bundles. As in A. 
inter medius, they are not continued right round the bundle, but 
are interrupted, on both the superior and inferior surfaces, by 
sclerenchyma. The chlorophyll-bearing cells of the secondary 
bundles are much larger than those of the primary bundles, and 
the mesophyll-sheath is very distinct, 'i'he sclerenchyma on the 
inferior surface of the primary bundle is not as well developed 
as in A. hitermedius, nor is that on the superior surface. The 
sclerenchyma on the superior surface of the primary bundles at 
the edge of the midrib is better developed than in any of the 
other primary bundles, and is in direct contact with the bundles. 
Generally speaking, there is not the same development of scler- 
enchyma right throughout the leaf as in A. intermedins. 

The epidermal cells on the inferior surface are irregular in 
size, and are protected by a thin cuticle, which, however, is not 
nearly so well developed as that of A. intermedins. The epider- 
mal cells on the superior surface are bulliform in character, with 
the exception of those over the primary bundles. They penetrate 
the mesophyll-tissue more than do those of A. intej^medins, are 
distinctly fan-shaped in character, and arranged in series of 5 to 



388 LEAF-ANATOMY OF THE GENUS ANDROPOGON, 

7. The stomata are present on both the inferior and superior 
surfaces, and in about the same proportion, approximate!}^ 3:1. 
Occasional trichomes can be seen on the inferior surface. 

Andropogon sericeus R.Br. (Plate xxix., fig. 1). 

Leaves of this grass, from two widely divergent localities, viz., 
Nyngan and the Botanic Gardens, were examined, but no essen- 
tial difiierences between them could be found. In the widest 
portion of the leaf, there are five primary bundles, thirty-two 
secondary bundles, two intermediate bundles, and ten bundles of 
a secondary type, but which have sclerenchyma developed on the 
inferior surface. 

As in A. affinis and A. hitertnedius, there is only one primary 
bundle in the midrib proper. The sclerenchyma, both on the 
superior and inferior surfaces of this bundle, is much better 
developed than is that of A. ajfinis. The development of scler- 
enchyma throughout the leaf, is much greater than in A. affinis, 
but not so great as in A, ischcemu7)i. 

The epidermal cells on the inferior surface are very irregular 
in character, and very many are papilliform. The epidermal 
cells on the superior surface partake of the character of bulliform 
cells except, as in A. ajfinis, above the primary bundles. 'I'hey 
are more numerous, however, than in A. affinis, in series of 7 to 
9, and decidedly fan-shaped in character. Trichomes and stomata 
are numerous on the inferior surface, and a few of the latter may 
be seen on the superior surface. Those on the inferior surface 
are, as a rule, guarded by papilla-like cells. The cuticle is com- 
paratively thin, and, unlike A. ischcemum, of uniform consistency 
throughout. 

Andropogon iscHiEMUM Linn. (Plate xxxi.). 
In a transverse section, there may be seen four types of bundles, 
namely, primary, secondary, intermediate, and a fourth type, 
which has sclerenchyma developed on both the superior and 
inferior surfaces, but not in direct contact with it. In the 
widest portion of the leaf, there are eleven primary bundles, 
forty-six secondary bundles, twenty of an intermediate type, and 
two of the fourth type. 



BY K. BREAK WELL, 389 

There are three primary bundles in tlie midrib. The middle 
primary bundle has sclerenchyma well developed, on both the 
superior and inferior surfaces. The middle primary bundle is 
not larger than the other two primary bundles of the midrib. 
Each lateral primary bundle has sclerenchyma better developed 
than in most of the other species. A characteristic feature of 
this grass is the extreme development of the sclerenchyma on 
the superior surface of the midrib, extending the greater part of 
the distance between the primary bundles. Generally speaking, 
the secondary and intermediate bundles of this species are more 
crowded and more numerous than those of the other species. 

The epidermal cells on the inferior surface are very irregular 
in size, some being exceptionally large. The cuticle is much 
thicker than in A. ajfiiiis, A. sericeus, and A. intermedhis, and is 
more developed under the midrib and at the leaf-edges. The 
cells on the superior surface are mostly bulliform in character. 
They differ, however, from the bulliform cells of the species pre- 
viously cited, in being much wider, not fan-shaped, and protected 
by a well developed cuticle. Stomata are very numerous on the 
inferior surface, but are not as plentiful on the superior surface 
as in A. ajjinis, A. intertnedius, and A. sericeus. Trichomes are 
numerous. 

Andropogon refractus R.Br. (Plate xxxii.). 

In a transverse section of the widest portion of the leaf, there 
may be seen nine primary bundles. The secondary bundles are 
not so numerous as those cited in the other species, being only 
twenty in number. The intermediate bundles are very numerous, 
there being twenty-one of these. 

The midrib is very wide, embracing bodily three primary 
bundles, and extending so that two other primary bundles border 
it at the edges. The middle primary bundle has well developed 
sclerenchyma on the inferior surface, somewhat wedge-shaped in 
character, and projecting well beyond the level of the epidermis. 
It also encircles the greater part of the phloem-tissue. On the 
superior surface, it extends from the epidermis to the xylem- 
tissue, and surrounds the latter throughout the greater part of 



390 LEAF-ANATOMY OP THE GENUS AXDROPOGON, 

its extent. The extreme development of sclerenchymatous tissue 
results in the elimination of many of the chlorophyll-bearing 
cells, so that the latter are only few in number. 

All the primary bundles have the sclerenchyma well developed, 
and in direct contact with the phloem- and xylem-tissue. It does 
not, however, surround the phloem- and xylem-tissue as in the 
case of the primary bundle; and, consequently, the chlorophyll- 
bearing cells aie more numerous and more regular in size than 
in the case of that bundle. The intermediate bundles are com- 
pletely sumjunded by chlorophyll-bearing parenchyma, but the 
sclerenchyma is extremely well developed on the inferior surface, 
and projects well beyond the level of the epidermis. 

The epidermal cells on the inferior surface are uniform in size. 
Over many of the primary and intermediate bundles, they become 
more or less lignified, and take on the character of sclerenchyma- 
cells. Between the masses of sclerenchyma mentioned above, 
the epidermal cells are arranged in grooves. In some cases, the 
apical cell of the conical masses of projecting sclerenchyma is 
extremely large. Throughout the whole of the inferior surface, 
the epidermal cells are protected by an extremely thin cuticle. 
The epidermal cells on the superior surface take on the character 
of bulliform cells. These are noteworthy inasmuch as they form 
a double row of cells, the bottom row being much larger than 
that above. These cells extend throughout the whole space 
between the primary bundles, and have not the fan-shaped char- 
acteristics present in the other species. The stomata are numerous 
on the inferior face, and, in most cases, are sunk in the epidermal 
grooves between the masses of sclerenchymatous tissue. A few 
stomata may be seen on the superior face, but they are not as 
plentiful as in the other species. 

Andropogon bombycinus R.Br. (Plate xxxiii.). 

The anatomical structure of a leaf closely resembles that of A. 
rffractus. The principal points of difference are : — 

(1.) The number of secondary bundles is smaller. 

(2.) The sclerenchymatous masses developed under the primary 
and intermediate bundles are larger. 



BY K. BKEAKWELL. 



391 



(3.) The epidermal cells on the superior surface have subimposed 
two, three, and sometimes four layers of similar uncoloured paren- 
chymatous cells. 

(4.) No stomata can be perceived on the superior surface. 

(5.) A girdle-canal is present. 

From an anatomical standpoint, the species under discussion 

may be divided into three groups, viz. : — 

(Andropogon iiiterniedius. 

Group \.\A. affinis. 

\.A. sericeus. 

Group ii. Andropogon ischcetnum. 

^ ... (Andropogon refr actus. 

Group in.- ^ . ,. 

l^. intermedium. 

In considering the first group, it may be seen that there are 
certain well defined points of difference between A. intermedius 
and the other two species ; and also less defined differences 
between A. affinis and A. sericeus. In A. intermedius^ there are 
more primary bundles in the midrib, than in A. affinis or A. 
sericeus. The intermediate bundles, with a corresponding de- 
velopment of sclerenchyma, are also more numerous than those 
of the other two species; and the bulliform cells are not as 
distinctly fan-shaped. A. sericeus differs from A. affinis only in 
the slightly greater development of the sclerenchyma, and in 
the slightly greater number of bulliform cells in each series. 

A. ischcemum differs from the first group in the much greater 
development of the sclerenchymatous tissue, which, however, is 
not as great as that of the third group. The cuticle is also much 
thicker, on both the superior and inferior surfaces, than that of 
the previous species. Another characteristic difference is the 
nature of the vascular bundles, which are much more numerous, 
and more densely crowded than in any of the other species. 

A. refractus and A. homhyci^ius differ widely from any of the 
species of the other two groups. The extreme development of 
sclerenchymatous tissue, the thick nature of the cuticle on both 
the superior and inferior surfaces, and the arrangement of 
stomata in grooves on the inferior surface, are well marked 
characteristics, which are not seen in any of the other species. 



392 LEAF-ANATOMY OF THE GKNUS ANDROPOGON, 

Ecological cha7'acte7'istics. 

Tlie morphological structure of the leaves of A. re/ractits and 
A hombycinus shows well marked xerophytic characteristics. The 
well dexeloped sclerenchymatous tissue, besides aiding in the 
mechanical strength of the leaf, also has a connection with the 
dry environment {see Warming, Ecology of Plants). The cuticle 
is also extremely thick on both the superior and inferior surfaces, 
thus depressing transpiration. 

The presence of strata of water-storing cells, on the superior 
surface, is also a v/ell marked xerophytic characteristic. Whether 
the bottom layer functions as hinge-cells, curling up the leaves on 
losing their turgescence, is uncertain. It has been pointed out 
by Warming and others, that, wdien hinge-cells occur and func- 
tion in rolling the leaf when diminished transpiration is neces- 
sary, the stomata mainly occur on the superior surface, and are 
thus protected . The stomata, in the two species in question, are 
mostly confined to the inferior surface; and it is difficult to see 
what advantage the leaf would have, so far as the stomata are 
concerned, if it were rolled up. The stomata, being arranged 
mostly in grooves, are well protected, when the leaf is in the flat 
position. This xerophytic stomatal arrangement is also referred 
to by T. Holm* in discussing some of the lowland species of the 
Rocky Mountains, Colorado, 

The presence of "girdle-canals " in A. homhyciniis is also pro- 
bably a xerophytic characteristic, designed to depress transpira- 
tion. These are referred to by Giltay, as occurring in some 
arenicolous grasses. 

The habitat of these two species corresponds, to a very large 
extent, with their xerophytic characteristics. A. refractus is 
distributed over a great part of JS'ew South Wales, and is com- 
monly foumd in sandy and rocky situations A. hombycinus is 
confined mostly to the interior, and is often found on sand-hills. 

In A. ischcemum, the xerophytic characteristics are not as well 
marked as are those of A. rejractus or A. hombycinus, but it may 
be considered more xerophytic than A. intei'medius, A. affinis, 

* Botanical Gazette, Vol. xlvi. 



BY E. BREAKWELL. 393 

or A. sericeiis. This is seen in the crowded vascular bundles, the 
amount of sclerencliymatous tissue, and in the thick cuticle. 
Although the bulliforni or hinge-cells on the upper surface are 
distinctly fan-shaped, the advantage in the folding of the leaf is 
somewhat uncertain, as most of the stomata are confined to the 
inferior surface. 

A. ischcf^miim is a grass well adapted to sandy and rocky situa- 
tions. In "L'Herb, Bossier " (vi., 971), it is mentioned as oc- 
curring connnonly in sandy places in the Geneva Valley; and 
also in rocky places on the side of the Alps. In Australia, it 
grows on the Drummond Ranges in West Australia 

A. inter'ineditts, A. ajfiais, and A. sericeus do not show, in their 
structure, any well marked xerophytic characteristics, and are 
inclined to be more mesophytic in their nature. This is seen in 
the comparatively small amount of sclerencliymatous tissue, the 
comparatively thin cuticle, and in the distribution of the stomata, 
which are numerous on both faces of the leaf. 

A. hitermedius is spoken of as thriving best on river-banks in 
ISew youth Wales. In Africa, a variety of this grass is also 
mentioned by Stapf as commonly occurring on the banks of 
rivers. 

A. sericeus, however, is commonly spoken of as a drought- 
resistant grass; but I cannot reconcile this view with my practical 
experience with it. Rather does its habit correspond more to 
the mesophytic type. The grass has died out at Cowra, Wagga, 
and Bathurst Experiment Farms; and although a good catch 
was secured, under moist conditions, at Nyngan Demonstration 
Farm, the plot is always quick to show the effect of dry weather. 
On the other hand, the structure of the leaf, with its numerous 
stomata and comparatively thin cuticle, indicates the possible 
adaptability of the grass to irrigable conditions. This has been 
practically demonstrated at Bathurst Experiment Farm, where 
the grass made a profuse and succulent growth under irrigation. 
As soon as the effects of the latter were removed, the jrrass 
quickly died out. 

My experience has also been that, in its natural state, it is 
more commonly found on the better and moister soils; and that. 



394 LEAF-ANATOMY OF THE GENUS ANDROPOGON. 

even in the plains of the interior, although it responds readily 
to rain, it will quickly "brown-up" under dry weather-conditions. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATES XXIX.-XXXIIL 

Explanation of References. 
S, Stereome — P, Phloem— X, Xylem — C.P, Chlorophyll-bearing Paren- 
chyma — B, Bulliform cells — M.S, Mestome-sheath- St, Stoma — U.P, Un- 
coloured Parenchyma — M.Bj, Primary Mestonie-sheath — M.Bo, Special 
form of secondary bundle — M.B,, Secondary Mestoine-bundle — M.B^, In- 
termediate Mestome-biindle, 

Transverse sections of leaves of species of Andropogon. 

Plate xxix. 
Fig.l. — Andropogon sericeuf, R.Br. 
Fig. 2. —.4. affinU R.Br. 

Plate XXX. 
A. intermedhis R.Br. 

Plate xxxi. 
A. ischcRmum Linn. 

Plate xxxii. 
A. refractus R.Br. 

Plate xxxiii. 
A. hombycinus R.Br. 



395 



ORDINARY MONTHLY MEETING. 

August 26th, 1914. 
Mr. W. S. Dun, President, in the Chair. 

The President referred to the decease of Sir Normand 
MacLaurin on 24th inst., the senior surviving Original Member 
of the Society, enrolled in 1874. After perusing the well-de- 
served tributes to Sir Normand's worth, in many capacities, in 
the newspapers of the last two days, the President said that 
Members would be able to realise afresh his kindness in attend- 
ing the Meeting of the Society in June of last year, to unveil a 
portrait of his old friend, the late Professor W. J. Stephens, 
painted and presented by Miss Stephens. Speaking from per- 
sonal knowledge of the men by whom, and the circumstances 
under which, the Society was launched nearly forty years ago, 
and under the stimulating influence of an appreciative audience 
and a congenial subject. Sir Normand, by his genial presence and 
by his admirable address, contributed in greatest measure to 
the success of one of the most notable Meetings the Society had 
ever held. 

On the motion of the President, it was resolved, that an 
expression of the Society's regret, of its appreciation of Sir 
Normand's long connection with the Society, and of sympathy 
should be tendered to Dr. Charles M. MacLaurin. 

The Donations and Exchanges received since the previous 
Monthly Meeting (29th July, 1914), amounting to 16 Vols, 67 
Parts or Nos., 6 Bulletins, and 1 Pamphlet, received from 
53 Societies, etc., were laid upon the table. 

NOTES AND EXHIBITS. 

Mr. W. W. Froggatt showed a number of loose plates from 
"Gould's Mammals of Australia"; and a series of Loranths from 
the interior. 



396 NOTES AND EXHIBITS. 

Mr. H. L. White, of Belltrees, sent, for exhibition, four fossil 
vertebrae from about the median portion of the dorsal region of 
Cimoliosaurus australis Owen, found about 50 miles west of 
Richmond, Queensland, wliere an extensive deposit of fossil 
remains is said to occur. There are three known types of these 
Ichthyopterygians in the Lower Cretaceous of Australia, viz., 
Cimoliosaur'us, Ichthyosaurus, and Plesiosanrus, remains of which 
have been found in Queensland and New South Wales. 

Mr. E. Cheel exhibited fresh specimens of the common ground- 
sel {Senecio vuhjaris L.) attacked with Pucciiiia tasmanica Diet , 
collected at Gordon by Mr. A. H. S. Lucas. For previous 
records, see the Society's Proceedings, 1910, xxxv., pp.524 and 
805. 

Mr. G. A. Waterhouse exhibited a long series of the five de- 
sciibed geographical races of I'isijjhone abeotia Don. 

Mr. A. A. Hamilton showed a series of specimens from the 
National Herbarium, including {l)JIt/pochaeris {ip.{W est Maitland; 
W. M. Carne; April, 1914), showing prolification of the inflor- 
escence. In the initial stages, the ray-florets are suppressed, the 
achenes attenuated, and the pappus contorted, the capitula being 
finally reduced to a series of bracts. In the more complicated 
case, a lateral stem arises from the base of the primary plant, 
bearing a second plant, which, in its turn, has produced a third, 
the two latter having the appearance of stolons but not rooting. 
From the primary capitula of the intermediate plant, peduncles 
are produced, upon which abortive florets are situated, one above 
the other at short distances apart, the stems continuing through 
them, and terminating in secondary capitula in which the process 
is repeated, the secondary peduncle also perforating one or more 
florets. — {'2)Primul(i vulgaris Huds., [Sydney Botanic Gardens 
(cult.); W. Challis; October, 1913] exhibiting prolification of the 
inflorescence accompanied by fasciation. A few flowers ascend 
in the usual manner from the short caudex, which has elongated 
and become fasciated; upon the apex of this secondary stem, an 
abnormal number of involucral bracts are produced, indicating 
that several scapes are represented; a second series of flowers arise 



NOTES AND EXHIBITS. 397 

among the bracts, some of which consist of a calyx, while the 
remainder are seen to be in various stages of imperfection. — 
('3) Velleya paradoxa R.Br.,(Dubbo; J.L. Boorman; January,191 4) 
showing foliar prolification of the inflorescence accompanied by 
fasciation and spiral torsion. Stems bearing tufts of leaves, to- 
gether with abbreviated racemes of mostly abortive flowers, are 
noted rising from the floral bracts, which aie in some cases repre- 
sented by radical leaves. — (4)InMoore"s "Handbook of the Flora 
of N.S.Wales," one of the characters relied on for the separation 
of Scaevola sitaveohns R.Br., from *S^. microcai'pa Cav., is the size 
of the leaves, which are stated to be often large in the former 
and rather small in the latter. In the specimens exhibited (those 
of .S'. suaveolens being the largest to be found on Lady Robinson's 
Beach) this character is reversed. — (5) /ItYtcia elongata Sieb., 
(Waterfall; A. A. Hamilton; June, 1914), a series of examples 
(including suckers) from an individual plant, showing variation 
in length and habit of foliage, the suckers exhibiting juvenile 
leaves and attenuated phyllodes. — {Q)Grevillea sericea R.Br., 
(Lawson; A. A. Hamilt<m; November, 1913), an example with 
an exceptionally elongated raceme, consisting of some thirty 
flowers, the normal raceme seldom comprising more than half 
that number. — (7) Tecoma australis R.Br., (Cook's River; A. A. 
Hamilton; November, 1913), showing leaf- variation. The num- 
ber of leaflets ranges from one to thirteen; they vary greatly in 
size, and the margins may be either entire or serrate. — (8) Four 
cyperaceous plants not recorded previously for the localities men- 
tioned : Heleocharis multicaulis Sm., Newcastle (A. A. Hamilton; 
October, 1911); Tricostidaria pauciflora Henth., Otford (A. A. 
Hamilton; November, 1911); Lepidosperma Neesii Yi\x\\t\i, Went- 
worth Falls (A. A. Hamilton; April, 1914); and Mesomelcena 
deusta Benth., Leura (A. A. Hamilton; April, 1914). 



398 



A REVISION OF THE MONAXONID SPECIES DE- 
SCRIBED AS NEW IN LENDENFELD'S "CATA- 
LOGUE OF THE SPONGES IN THE AUSTRALIAN 
MUSEUM." Part iii. 

By E. F. Kallmann, B.Sc, Linnean Macleay Fellow of the 
Society in Zoology. 

(Plates xv.-xxiv.) 

Familia DESMACIDONID^. 

Subfamilia Esperellin^. 

Under this subfamily, Lendenfeld describes four new species, 
one of which — wrongly named Sideroderma zittelii —is found to 
belong' elsewhere ; the other three, he correctly assigned to the genus 
Esperella. In addition, he records Sideroderma naricelligerum R. 
& D., from Port Jackson; but, for reasons stated in connec- 
tion with my remarks on Sideroderma zittelii, I consider this record 
too doubtful for acceptance. One of these species of Esperella (or 
Mycale, as it is now called), namely E. penicillium, belongs to the 
small group of related species for which DendydS) has proposed 
the genus Paresperella. Concerning the necessity for this genus, 
there is room for difference of opinion; and Hentschel(20), the 
only author who has since had occasion to deal with a Paresperella- 
species, does not recognise nor even mention it. I propose to take 
a middle course, and to regard Paresperella as a subgenus of 
Mycale. As the species of Mycale number considerably over one 
hundred, and comprise a wide diversity of forms, it is much to be 
hoped that a subdivision of the genus, into a number of subgenera, 
will be found possible. One other group, at least, which seems de- 
serving of subgeneric rank is that comprising the species character- 
ised by the possession of pore-grooves, viz., M. lingua Bow., M. 



BY E. P. KALLMANN. 399 

artica^ Frstdt., 3/. placoides Cart., M. murrayi R. & D., and 
M. dendyi Row ; and for this group, of which M. lingua would be 
considered the type, the name Raphiodesma Bow.(l) stands avail- 
able. Also it is probable, in virtue of the peculiarities of their 
chela\ tliat M. parasitica Cart., and the closely related M. ancorina 
Wlitlg.(57), ~ for the former of which Carter(8) introduced the 
genus Pseudoesperia — are entitled to subgeneric distinction. A 
figure of a chela, that undoubtedly came from a Pse^idoesperia- 
species, is given in Bowerbank's Monograph(Vol. i., fig. 135; with 
the information, ''from a circular group on the interstitial mem- 
branes of an undescribed species of Hymeniacidon, from Fre- 
mantle, Australia." For this undescribed sponge, although known 
to him only from a single spicule, Gray(17) proposed the generic 
name Grapelia; and this, being of older date than Pseudoesperia, 
would perhaps require to be employed if the subgenus were 
adopted. Another possibly admissible subgenus of Mycale is Pro- 
toesperia, proposed by Czerniavsky (10) for certain species from 
the Black Sea; and, as I have lately made known (18), it was for 
a species of Mycale, of somewhat divergent type, that Lendenfeld 
introduced the genus Arenochalina. 

In the event of its being considered advisable to establish other 
subgenera, the possible validity of certain names proposed by Gray 
(e.g., Coryhas for M. lobata, Aegagropila for M. aeqagropiJa^ and 
Carmia for M. macilenta) should receive consideration. 

I might here record the fact that Cladorhiza waitei Whtlg.'57) 
belongs to the genus Mycale. 

* M. lingua Bow., var. artica Fristedt, which, as it differs from M. 
lingua in the dimensions of its spicules, must be an independent species 
according to Lundbeck(31a). 

fl am acquainted with a species from Port Philhp (provided, like M. 
ancorina, with anisochele-rosettes of two kinds) which I formerl}' believed 
to be M. parasitica, having assumed that the non-mention of the occurrence 
of rosettes of a second kind in Carter's and in Dendy's account of that 
species was due to an omission. But recently Hentschel(20) has described, 
from Western Australia, Mycale parasitica var. arenosa, in which, also, 
rosettes of one kind only are said to be present. It is possible, therefore, 
that M. parasitica has been correctly described in regard to its spiculation, 
and that the species above referred to is a new one. 



400 REVISION OF THE MONAXONID SPONGES, iii., 

SiDERODERMA ZITTELII. (Pl.XV., fig.6). 

The description of this sponge, which atttributes to it a unique 
combination of the spicular characters, proves to be erroneous in 
two vital particulars; the triehites, mentioned therein as forming 
tlie cortical skeleton, are, in reality, small tylostyli, and chelae are 
absent; also, there are no oxea present, though some of the prin- 
cipal megaseleres are so narrowed at the base as closely to resemble 
oxea. The general characters of the species are, in fact, distinctly 
those of the genus Polymastia; and this, it would appear, was sub- 
sequently discovered by Lendenfeld himself, for, among the frag- 
ments received from the British Museum, there are two of this 
species, one labelled actually Polymastia zittelii, the other bearing 
the MS. name "Polymastia australis." There is only one specimen 
(PI. XV., fig. 6) of the species in the Australian Museum, the claim 
of which to be considered the type-specimen rests on the fact that 
it is labelled, in Lendenfeld's handwriting, with the manuscript 
name "Zittelia cligitata" the published equivalent of which is given 
in the key-list as Sideroderma zittelii; and on the fact that, except 
in the mentioned particulars and in some minor points in relation 
to the dimensions of the spicules, it corresponds in every way 
exactly with the description. One can only suppose that the chelae, 
mentioned by Lendenfeld as occurring in the outer layer of the cor- 
tex, were foreign; and the other errors are explicable on the sup- 
position that the spicules were examined and measured only in situ. 

The species is nearly related to P. insidis Thiele(42), and per- 
haps also to P. affinis Thiele(42), both of which it resembles in 
this respect, namely, that the largest or fibre-forming spicules fre- 
quently exhibit bulbous dilatations of their shaft. The following 
brief account of the spiculation, taken along with Lendenfeld's 
description of the external features and {vide infra) his figure of 
the sponge (27, PI. ii., fig. 2), will be sufficient to enable one to 
identify the species. 

/S'p?ci(7es.— These are: (1) Elongated, fusiform styli; forming 
the fibres and also scattered between ; frequently polytylote ; 
sharp-pointed at the apex; narrowing much (sometimes almost 
pointed), at the base; with a maximum diameter of 22 /x, and a 



BY E. F. KALLMANN. 401 

lengtli which, usually exceedino 900/a, ranges from (rarely less 
than) 500/A up to 1 200 /x (ii) Small tylostyli; composing the cor- 
tical skeleton and scattered in the choanosome; as a rule, slightly 
curved; 80 to 135/x long-, and seldom as much as 4-5/x in diameter, 
(iii) Larger tylostyli; occurring- only in the choanosome; closely 
resembling the preceding in shape, and possibly connected with 
them by intermediate forms; 145 to 210/x in length, and up to 1 n 
in diameter. 

It remains to be mentioned, that the type-specimen of Polymas- 
tia zittelii bears a likeness so extremely close to the figure given in 
the Catalogue (PI. ii., fig. 2), with the title Sideroderma navicelli- 
gerum R. & D., as to enable, one to say, with the utmost posi- 
tiveness, that the original of the figure actually was a specimen of 
P. zittelii. Moreover, I am inclined to doubt, on the evidence avail- 
able, whether Lendenfeld really had a specimen of Sideroderma 
navicelligerum at his disposal. The only specimen in the Aus- 
tralian Museum bearing Lendenfeld's label certifying it to be one 
identified by him as such, namely, a specimen labelled "Desmacidon 
polymastia^' (wiiich name is given in the key-list as the MS. syno- 
nym of S. navicelligerum), is found to be an example of a new 
species of Histoderma — H. actinioides {vide Appendix). This 
exhibits so many analogies with S. navicelligerum as to render 
quite possible its having been mistaken for that species, at any 
rate by so careless an observer as Lendenfeld was at the time of 
writing the Catalogue; and, moreover, there is reason to believe 
that Lendenfeld did not examine his "Sideroderma navicelli gerum" 
very critically, since his description of it, practically word for 
word, even to the minutest details regarding the spicule-measure- 
ments, is copied from Ridley and Dendy's preliminary account of 
S. navicelligerumiSi). But most remarkable to relate, in connec- 
tion with this specimen, labelled "Desmacidon polymastia/' is the 
fact that it is figured in the Catalogue (PI. iv., fig. 1) as an ex- 
ample of Stylotella polymastia! 

Taking everything into consideration, I think we are justified in 
regarding Lendenfeld's Sideroderma navicelligerum as a s>iion>Tii 
of Histoderma actinioidjes. 

13 



402 REVISION OF THE MONAXONID SPONGES, ill., 

Ridley and Dendy (34a), in their remarks on Sideroderma, refer 
to the fact of their having been enabled "through the kindness of 
Dr. R. V. Lendenfeld, to examine a second species (of the genus) 
which occurs in his large collection of Australian sponges." Pro- 
bably this species has generally been thought to be Sideroderma 
zitelii, but one must now conclude that it has never been 
described. 

ESPERELLA RIDLEYI. ( Text-fig.l3.) 

Introductory. — The species is represented in the collection by 
two specimens, one of which is that figured in the Catalogue in 
illustration of the variety rohusta, while the other is labelled as 
the type of the variety intermedia. As the two are exactly alike in 
all but details of shape, it would seem as if the latter were incor- 
rectly! labelled — for, according to description, the variety inter- 
media should be distinguished by a much softer and more elastic 
consistency, due to its fewer spicules and finer fibres; however, a 
British Museum specimen, labelled as belonging to this same 
variety, is (at any rate in its spiculation) likewise precisely similar 
to the variety rohusta. Under the eireumstances, and in view of the 
fact also that the only stated differences between them are insuffi- 
cient as a basis for distinction, we may reasonably and safely 
assume that the two so-called varieties are identical. 

A British Museum specimen labelled with the MS. name "Espe- 
rella ridleyi var. mollis^' (and, indeed, bearing a certain degree of 
outward resemblance to the present species, due to its trabecular 
structure) proves to belong to a species of Echinochalina, with 
spiculation similar to that of Echinochalina intermedia Whitelegge 
{vide 18). 

Of the several errors needing correction in the original descrip- 
tion, there is one that calls for special mention. This is the state- 
ment that, among the microscleres, diancistra occur, which are 
rare and confined to the surface. The occurrence of diancistra 
along with anisochelae — of which we have no instance except in 
the very doubtful case of Schmidt's Vomerula tihicen — would be 
of oreat interest as affording conclusive evidence of a relationship 



BY E. F. KALLMANN. 403 

between the genera Mycale and Hamacantha. After the most 
thorough search, however, I have failed to find any such spicules, 
and am confident, therefore, in the assertion that those observed by 
Lendenfeld must have been of foreigni origin. In support of this 
also is the fact of the very close correspondence in spiculation 
between M. ridleyi and certain other species of Mycale, which we 
well know to be without diancistra. 

Both specimens are dry, and bear every appearance of having 
underg-one complete maceration; here and there only, they show 
the faintest traces of what was probably a continuous and well- 
defined dermal membrane. The specimens were in this same con- 
dition, no doubt, when Lendenfeld described them — as may be 
judged from the figure he has given of the type-specimen. Accord- 
ingly, in relying upon that figure and the following description of 
external features of the species as aids to its identification, one 
must allow for the possibility that the therein indicated trabecular 
structure of the sponge may be wholly internal, and, in the un- 
damaged specimen, concealed from view by the dermal membrane. 

Description. — The sponge, which is probably semi-encrusting or 
submassive at the outset of its growth, grows up into one or several, 
usually branching, stout stems, which may attain a height of 500 
mm. These stems (and their branches) are made up of anastomos- 
ing trabeculae. The latter are roughly circular in cross-section, and 
measure from 3 mm. to (rarely) 7 mm. in diameter; their surface 
(in the absence of dermal membrane) i^ highly rugose. In the 
more central portion of the stems, especially in the older parts of 
the sponge, the trabeculae become more or less fused together, thus 
to a great extent losing their individual outline, and tending in 
some measure to give rise to a solid axis; the (simple or branched) 
superficial trabeculae, for the most part, project separately out- 
wards, in an obliquely upward direction. The characteristic 
appearance of the sponge is well portrayed in the figure which 
Lendenfeld has given of the type-specimen. This, which is much 
less stoutly proportioned than the second specimen, measures 380 
mm. in height, and has attached to it, near the top, three large 
bivalve shells, over the surface of which it has formed a thin crust. 



404 



REVISION OF THE MONAXONID SPONGES, 111., 



The main skeleton is a very irregular, small-meshed reticulation 
of stout, spieular fibre, of diameter often exceeding 100 mm. The 
spicules of the fibres are closely packed together side by side, while 
the spongin-cement, which unites them, is inconspicuous on account 
of its pale colour, and, only in connection with the slenderer con- 
necting fibres, forms a visible sheath. Owing to the washed-out 
condition of the specimens, scarcely any interfibral substance 




Fig. 1.3. — Mycah ridleyi. 
c, Smaller anisochel«. 
/, Smaller sigma. g, Toxa 



a, Styli. b, Larger anisochela?. 

d, Isochelse. e, Larger sigma. 

Microxea (trichites). 



remains; but what little there is, serves to show that, in all pro- 
bability, microscleres were abundantly scattered everywhere 
through the tissues. The dermal skeleton is a more or less confused, 
somewhat lattice-like, reticulation, formed by the branching and 
anastomosing of strands of loosely associated subtylostyli similar 



BY E. P. HALLMANxV. 405 

to those of the main skeleton; also, there occur, in the dermal 
membrane, microscleres in gi-eat abundance, and the most numerous 
of these are the smaller anisochelas, the isochelae, and the smaller 
sigmata, wliile the larger sigmata are the rarest. 

Spicules, —(a) Subtylostyli; with elongated oval heads, nar- 
rower than the middle of the shaft; typically straight, though 
often, in slight degree, variously curved; gradually sharp-pointed; 
slightly fusiform, with the apical half of their shaft of greater 
average stoutness than the basal. Length, 250 /x to 305 /x: 
maximum stoutness, 9 or 10 /x. 

(6). Larger anisochelse; 40-45 /x long, 13-17 /x wide;* 15-18-5 /x 
broad; occurring singly and in rosettes. The upper alse and palm 
are of equal length, approximately one-half that of the spicule; 
the upper tuberculum is 7-5-11 /x long, and about one-fourth of 
this in breadth; the distance between the free ends of the two 
palms is about 15 /x. Rosettes appear to be rare and always 
composed of comparatively very few chelae; they were found only 
in the dermal membrane, and the greatest observed number of 
spicules composing any one of them was eight. 

(c). Smaller anisochelse; 18-22-5 /x long, 6-7' 5 /x wide, 4*5-8 /x 
broad; occurring singly. The upper alte and palm are about 
equal in length, which is approximately three-tifths that of the 
spicule; the distance between the free ends of the palms is about 
3-5 /x. 

(o?). Isochelae palmatse; 7-5-12 /x long, at most 3 /x wide, and 
3-3-5 /x broad. These are the most abundant of the microscleres, 
at any rate in the dermal membrane. 

(e). Larger sigmata; 72^ to (rarely) 20 /x in length from bend 
to bend; and, at most, slightly over 6 /x in stoutness. 

(/). Smaller sigmata; very slender; varying in length from 
15 /x to 35 /x. 

* In using, for convenience' sake, the ordinarily synonymous terms luide 
and broad in order to express the t\To principal transverse dimensions of a 
chela, I imply by the former the maximum cross-measurement of the 
spicule as seen in profile, or, more precisely, the distance from the free 
or distal end of the (in case of anisochehe, major) palm to the posterior 
edge of the shaft; and by the latter, the maximum cross-measurement of 
the spicule as seen from the front. 



406 REVISlO>r OF THE MONAXONID SPONGES, iil., 

(g). Slender toxa, 30-63 /x long ; occurring singly and in 
dragmata. 

(h). Slender microxea, 20-35 /x long; occurring in dragmata, and 
also singly. 

Loc. — Western Australia. 

Remarks. — M. ridleyi is the fifth species of the genus known 
to possess isochelse, the other four heing M. plumosa Carter, M. 
parishi Bowk., M. isochela Hentschel(20), and M. pectinicola 
Hentschel(20); an undescribed sixth is represented in the British 
Museum by a specimen labelled (by Lendenfeld) with the MS. 
name '^EspereUa australisJ' On the assumption that the toxa 
observed by Ridley(33) in Bowerbank's preparations of M. pectini- 
cola were proper, all these species likewise agree in the possession 
of toxa, besides showing a very close correspondence (with each 
other) in the remaining features of their spiculation. 

EsPERELLA SERPENS. (Pl.xxiv., fig. 6; and text-tig. 14). 

Description. — The single type-specimen (as also a fragment 
labelled Esperella serpens from the British Museum) corresponds 
satisfactorily to Lendenfeld's description of the species. It is a 
cake-shaped sessile sponge, measuring 80 mm. in length, 50 mm. 
in breadth, and about 25 mm. in height, the visible external por- 
tion of Avhich is formed by confusedly anastomosing irregular lax 
processes, usually more or less round in cross-section and averiaging 
2 or 3 mm. in diameter. On cutting through the specimen, the 
more compact — and, at first sight, seemingly solid — interior is 
found to have a structure affording reason for believing it to have 
resulted through the very complete and intimate fusion of what 
originally were similar processes. In alcohol (perhaps largely 
owing to imperfect preservation) the consistency is soft, almost 
pulpy: and the whole sponge is exceedingly fragile. The colour 
is a dull faintly yellowish pale grey. The dermal membrane is 
thin and delicate. Oscula were not observed. 

The main skeleton is exceedingl}^ reduced, being composed 
almost entirely of sparsely and quite irregularly scattered slender 
tylostyli. The dermal skeleton, although much better developed, 
is also comparatively scanty; it consists of ramifying spicular 



BY E. F. KALLMANN. 



407 



fibres, seldom more than 20 /x broad, which here and there are 
partially connected by loose spicule-bundles. The dermal mega- 
scleres are similar to those of the interior. Scattered micro- 
scleres— anisochelfe, sigmata, and trichodragmata— are compara- 
tively scarce; the chelae do not form rosettes. In the dermal 
membrane, chehe and sigmata are more frequent than in the 
choanosome, and trichodragmata apparently do not occur. 

Scattered through the sponge are 
small patches of foreign material, com- 
prising sand-grains, spicule-fragments, 
foraminifera, etc. ; and immediately 
surrounding each of these patches there 
occur a few fibres and spicule-bundles 
such as elsewhere are seldom met with 
except in the superficial (i.e., the dermal) 
skeleton. These patches presumably 
occupy spaces (lacunm relictce) origin- 
ally due to, and now almost obliterated 
by, the fusion of once separate pro- 
cesses of the sponge, as suggested above 
— or, in other words, are, strictly speak- 
ing, external to the sponge — and, on 
this view, the spicule-bundles and 

fibres referred to, that occur seemingly Fig. H.—Mycale serpens, a 
within the sponge, are really portions lylostyli 
of the dermal skeleton. To a miscon- 
ception arising from the presence of 
such fibres and bundles in the preparations examined by him, 
was probably due Lendenfeld's incorrect description of the main 
skeleton as consisting of "longitudinal spicule-bundles,* which 
are on an average .... 0' 15 mm. apart," etc. 

Spic7des. — {a)T\iG tylostyli are straight or (less frequently) 
variously curved, gradually sharp-pointed, slender spicules with a 
well-developed elongated phyma; the shaft is slightly narrower 

* By " spicule-bundles,'' Leudenfeld always (in the "Catalogue") means 
"fibres composed solely of spicules" ; this is most clearly shown in his 
description of Sideroderma zittelii. 




of tylostyli 
c, Sigmata. 



a', Basal ends 
6, Anisoclielse. 
d, Trioiiites. 



408 REVISION OP THE MOKAXONID SPONGES, ill., 

towards the base than at the middle. They measure from 220 /a 
to 295 /x in length and are seldom as much as 5 /x in diameter. 

(b) The anisochelse are of the ordinary form; they are variable 
in stoutness and range in length from 18 to 27 /tx. 

(c) The sigmata are very slender, seldom much more than 1 /x 
in diameter; they are simple and contort, and vary from 18-5 to 
29 /x in length, measured from bend to bend. 

(c?) The trichodragmata are 12 to 2b fi long, and usually less 
than 5 /x in stoutness. The trichites composing them are some- 
times partially fused, so that the dragma remains intact even 
after boiling in nitric acid, and are sometimes differentiated into 
separate microxea. Microxea also occur scattered singly, but as 
such are extremely rare. 

Embryos. — The examined portion of the sponge teems with 
aspiculous embryos of approximately spherical form, the largest of 
which measured 150 /x in diameter. 

Log. — Port Jackson. 

Remarks. — The species that seems most closely related to M. 
serpens is M. fistulifera Row(35). In the latter, trichodragmata 
have not been observed and the processes bear each an osculum 
at the summit. If similarly located oscula occur in M. serpens, 
they must be extremely small; but I am unable to say positively 
they are absent, owing to the poor preservation and pulpy con- 
dition of the specimen. 

EsPERELLA PENiciLLiUM. (Pl.xxiv., fig.l; and text-fig.l5). 

Introductory. — As the specimen which I take to be the type 
of this species is not entirely in agreement with the description 
of the species, I might mention that its claim to be so considered 
is proven, both by the fact that it is labelled in Lendenfeld's 
handwriting with a manuscript name — " Esperia incrustans'^ — 
which according to the key-list stands for Esperella periicillium — 
and by the fact, also, that it agrees in all essential respects with 
a British Museum specimen labelled Esperella penicillium. The 
species belongs to the subgenus Paresperella and is related to 
F. moluccensis Thiele(41), /^ bidentata Dendy(15), F.repens White- 
legge(57), and F. dichela Hentschel{20)— apparently more closely 



BY E. F. KALLMANN. 409 

to the two last mentioned, because like them and unlike the 
others (as described), it possesses smaller, scattered anisochelte in 
addition to those which form rosettes. 

The type-specimen consists of only a few ill -preserved scraps 
attached to pieces of shell and other debris. This condition of 
the specimen would lead one to suppose that the species is of 
encrusting habit, and the manuscript specific name " hicriistans " 
implies the same. According to Lendenfeld's description, how- 
ever, the sponge is " composed of anastomosing branches on an 
average 7 mm. thick." One might conclude, therefore, that the 
sponge is variable in habit; but, for the present, I think it would 
be as well to disregard altogether what has been stated concein- 
ing the outward features of the species, and, for its identification, 
to rely solely upon skeletal characters. 

Unfortunately, owing to the fragmentary condition of the 
specimen, several points in connection with the skeleton, of pos- 
sible diagnostic value, have not admitted of elucidation; among 
other things, it could not be determined whether, as Lendenfeld's 
description implies, the reticulate character of the skeleton 
results simply through the interosculation of dendritically branch- 
ing longitudinal fibres, or whether it is due to the union of longi- 
tudinal by means of transverse fibres. 

Description. — The main skeleton is a loose reticulation of 
spicule-fibres devoid of spongin, the stoutest of which exceed 150/x 
in diameter. Close beneath the surface, the outwardly-running 
fibres subdivide each into a number of divergent strands, whose 
penicillately outspread extremities support the dermal membrane. 
The dermal skeleton is a wide-meshed, somewhat lattice-like 
reticulation, the meshes of which, formed by interconnecting, 
branched, paucispicular fibres, are, as a rule, sparingly subdivided 
by independent short spicule-strands, and single spicules. There 
are also present in the dermal membrane a few scattered micro- 
scleres of the same three kinds as occur interiorly. 

Spicules. — (a). The megascleres in general agree exactly in 
form with those of P. bidentata{i5); in rare cases, however, the 
small apical tines are wanting, and the spicule is then a subtylo- 
strongyle. These tines are usually two in number, occasionally 



410 



REVISION OF THE MONAXONID SPONGES, 111., 



^ 



w 



\i 



three : when one only is developed, it is situated not centrally, 
i.e., not in continuity with the axis of the spicule, but laterally. 
The spicules are from 325 to 410 /x long by 8 /x at most in 
diameter. 

(6)Largeranisochel3e, occurring 
fairly abundantly in rosettes, 
and in lesser number scattered 
singly; they closely resemble in 
form those of P. hidentata, but 
are larger, measuring from 34 to 
39/x in length. 

(c). Smaller, scattered aniso- 
chelse, in form much like the 
preceding, measuring from 1 8 to 
22-5 fjL in length; they are about 
as numerous as the scattered 
larger chelse. 

{d). Sigmata, similar to those 
of P. hidentata; fairly abundant; 
measuring 44 to 48 /x long from 
bend to bend, by at most 3/x 
thick in the middle. 
Log. — Port Jackson. 
Remarks. — From the same 
locality as P. pe7iicilliu7n, comes 
P. repens Whitelegge. The 
a, Subtylostyli. a', Apical ends of latter, judging from its descrip- 
subtylostyli. 6,Larger anisochelse. tion-for I have been unable to 

6 '.Developmental form of preceding. ^ i • i i 

' ^ , , , find any specimen or mounted 

c,Smaller anisochelae. a,Sigmata. . ,._ . _ 

slide or it diners from F. peni- 

cillium in quite a number of points, but the differences are of 

degree rather than of kind, and may be due to nothing more 

than individual variation. Whether this is so, it is not yet 

possible to decide, since both species are known only from single 

specimens. 

The several species, P.penirAUiiim, P. moluccensis, P. hidentata, 

P. repens, and P. G?icAe?a— enumerating them in the order in 




Mycale 



Fig. 15. 
{Par taper ella) 



penicilLium. 



BY E. F. KALLMANN. 411 

which they were described — are obviously so closely related that 
they might be ranked as varieties of a single species. The second 
and third mentioned, however, according to their descriptions, 
are lacking in the smaller chelae found in the others; if this be 
so, one might regard these two as varieties of one species, P. 
moluccensis, and the remaining three as varieties of a second 
species, P. penicillium. 

Subfamilia Ectyonin^e. 

With the exception of Lissodendoryx jacksoniana, described 
below, all the species which I have so far succeeded in identifying 
of the Ectyoninae described in the Catalogue have already been 
dealt with, at least sufficiently to render possible their identifica- 
tion, in my former paper. The fuller treatment of such of them 
as require further description, I propose to defer until a suitable 
opportunity offers itself of my undertaking a general revision of 
the Australian Besmacidonidce. 

It is necessary here to refer, however, to certain alterations 
which a knowledge of additional facts has led me to consider 
advisable in the conclusions I expressed regarding the four species, 
Echinonema levis, E. rubra, Clathria macropora, and C. australis. 
As already stated, the specimens labelled as the types* of the first- 
mentioned three (as also the specimens representing them in the 
British Museum) are examples of a single variety of Crella incrus- 
tans, while those of the fourth species belong to another variety of 
the same— the variety arenacea Carter ; and thus, although corres- 
ponding exactly — except (in one important particular) those of 
Clathria macropora — with the descriptions of the species they 
respectively purport to represent as regards external features, 
they are all rather considerably at variance therewith in the mat- 
ter of spiculation. Nevertheless, except in the case of Clathria 
australis (which is described as possessing only scarce acantho- 
styles) the latter discrepancies are such as might conceivably be 

*They are labelled as the types by Mr. Whitelegge. Their original 
labels in Lendenfeld's handwriting bear only the iM8. names ''Clathria 
levis," ''Clathria rubra," "Clathria macropora," and "Clathria Jlabellum" 
respectively. 



412 REVISION OP THE MONAXONID SPONGES, iii., 

due to carelessness of observation ; and hence I decided to accept as 
correctly labelled the ostensible specimens of Echinonemd\ levis 
and E. rubra, and to reject as bogus those of Clathria macropora 
and C. australis. It is now my opinion that the descriptions of 
E. levis, E. rubra, and perhaps also Clathria australis combine 
each a description of the outward characters of one species with 
one of the inward characters of another — the former of which 
species is alone represented by the specimens; and that the chief 
ground of my rejection of the specimens labelled 'C'Zof^/^r/a macro- 
pora — namely, the unlikeliness of Lendenf eld's having mistaken 
for oscula, holes produced by crustaceans — is untenable, inasmuch 
as such mistakes actually have since been found to have been made 
by him in connection with Cliona Jiixoni, C. lutea, and apparently 
also Tedania rubra. Consequently, as synonyms of the sponge 
which I described in my previous paper as Crella incrustans var. 
levis, I would now write Clathria macropo7'a, Echinoiiema levis 
(? pars), and Echinonema rubra ( ? pars); and should a Port 
Jackson species possessing the skeletal characters ascribed by Len- 
denfeld to Echinonema levis prove to be existent, I think it would 
be preferable to give to the former sponge the name Crella incrus- 
tans var. macropora, and to employ the specific name levis for the 
latter. 

Those of the remaining species not yet identified are : Clathrissa 
elegans, Clathriodendron irregularis, Plectispa macropora (the 
type of Plectispa), P. elegans, Thalassodendron typica{the type of 
Thalassodendron) , T. digitata, and, lastly, the three which through 
some misconception Lendenfeld described as varieties of Echino- 
nema anchoratum Carter. The last mentioned are nominally re- 
presented in the Australian Museum by specimens which, while 
labelled with the names that the key-list indicates to be the MS. 
synonyms of their published names, accord neither in external nor 
internal features with tlieir descriptions; — the variety ramosa being 
represented by an imperfect example (labelled "Ceraospina arbus- 
cula") of Clathriodendron arbuscula, and the two varieties dura 
and lamellosa by specimens (labelled " Antherospongia dura" and 
^^Ceraospina flahelluni") of the species which(18) I have named re- 



BY E. F. HALLMANN. 413 

spectively Clathria indurata and C. spicata. Also, Plectispa ele- 
gans is falsely represented by a specimen of Echinoclathria arho- 
rea* But with these exceptions no example labelled with tlie name 
of any of the species enumerated above is to be found either in 
the Australian Museum or among the fragments from the British 
Museum. Occurring among the latter, however, tliere is an un- 
attached label inscribed with the name Clathriodendron irregularis, 
so that this species is in all probability represented by an example 
in the British Museum. 

Myxilla jacksoniana. (Text-fig. 16). 

Introductory. — As the type of this species I take the sponge re- 
presenting it in the British Museum, which agrees fairly closely 
witli the original description; the ostensible type-specimen in the 
Australian Museum is mislabelled, being in reality an example of a 
species of Gellius, closely related to G. raphidiophora. Having 
only a small fragment at my disposal I am unable to say any- 
thing concerning the outward characters of the species. The 
original description states in reference thereto merely that the 
sponge is massive, lobose, and provided with conspicuous oscula; 
but it may be that this statement is incorrect, since it is one that 
would apply very well to the false type-specimen. 

Description. — The skeleton is a renieroid reticulation with for 
the most part quadrangular and triangular meshes, the sides of 
which are formed each of one to three (or rarely more) spicules; 
the spicules have a not very orderly arrangement, and in many 
places, as a consequence, the reticular pattern is ill-defined. Defi- 
nite fibres are apparently not developed, and spongin is indis- 
cernible. The spicules of the mesh-work are styli, together with 
a very appreciable proportion of shorter and stouter stronglya 
which undoubtedly are derivatives of the styli. Occurring scattered 

*That my identification of this species with Lendenfeld'a Plectispa 
arhorea is correct, is supported by the fact that the MS. synonym of 
Plectispa arborea is, according to the key-list, ^'Plectochalina hal7Jie"—a. 
name which would be more appropriate in its application to Echinoclathria 
arborea (owing to the species' resemblance in reticulate structure to Halmt 
nidus-vesparum) than to any other species described in the Catalogue. 



414 



REVISION OF THE MONAXONID SPONGES, 111. 



are very few tylota and moderately abundant chelae and sigmata, 
the last-mentioned predominating. The microscleres are most 
numerous surrounding the canals. The dermal skeleton appears to 
be developed interruptedly, but this may be in consequence of the 

\ " 





/? 



11 



n 



u 



r\ 



w 




Fig. 16. — Lissodendoryx jacksoniajia. a, Principal styli. 
a'jStrongylifoim modifications of principal spicules. 
6, Auxiliary tylota. c.IsochelaB arcuatae. rf,Sigmata. 

abrasion of portions of the original surface; here and there, in 
patches, closely-arranged short strands of tylota occur, disposed 
vertically to the surface; while in the relatively broad intervals 
between these gToups of strands the main skeleton extends almost 



BY E. F. KALLMANN. 415 

or quite to the surface,' and in the outermost layer a few scat- 
tered tylota only, mostly more or less vertically directed, are to be 
seen. 

Spicules. — (rt)The principal megascleres are smooth styli and 
strongyla, the former being about ten times as numerous as the 
latter. The styli, which vary from (rarely less than) 140 to about 
185 /i in length, and very seldom exceed 7 /x in diameter, are 
straight or sliglitly curved (more especially near the basal end), 
often very faintly dilated at the base, nearly cylindrical throughout 
the greater part of their length, and, as a rule, gradually sharp- 
pointed; the pointed end almost invariably exhibits irregularities 
such as are commonly shown by spicules of the Axinellidae, and in 
extremely rare cases is provided with a few minute spines, less 
rarely an odd spine is to be observed on other portions of the 
shaft. The slenderest forms are tylostyli, which are equal in length 
to the fully-grown spicules. The strongyla range in length from 
about 50 to upwards of 160 /x, and their maximum stoutness, 
which is attained only by the shorter spicules, is 9-5/x; they not 
infrequently show a deformity in the shape of a bulbous swelling. 
Spicules of intermediate form between the longest strongyla and 
the styli occur, but are rather rare. 

(5) Straight tylota, with nearly cylindrical shaft (often slightly 
narrower at one end), and well-developed oval heads; measuring 
from 155 to 195 jx long and at most 5*5 [x in stoutness. 

(c)Isochel8e arcuatae of ordinary shape; with well curved shaft, 
slightly antero-posteriorly compressed; varying in length from 12 
to 23 /x. Individuals of medium length are rare in proportion to 
those of greater and of lesser length. 

(d) Sigmata; simple and contort; measuring between 1 9 and 
36 /x in length from bend to bend, and up to 3// in stoutness. 

Embryos. — Deeply brownish-tinted embryos of oval shape, the 
largest measuring 320 by 270 /x, were present, and most of them 
contained spicules. The spicules were always of three kinds, viz., 
straight or (very often) flexuous slender tylota, exceedingly slen- 
der sigmata, and developmental chelae. Usually the tylota, like the 
microscleres, were scattered; but in a few instances they were 



416 REVISION OF THE MONAXONID SPONGES, iii., 

arranged in a radiating bundle placed towards one end of the 
embryo. 

Bemarks. — Lundbeck has noted the embryonic spicnlation in 
quite a number of Myxillinae, but in every case observed by him, 
contrary to what happens in the present species, the basical mega- 
scleres make their appearance in advance of the auxiliary. In 
reference to Grayella pyrula and Grayella gelida, Lundbeck(31b, 
p. 33), says: "It is worthy of notice that the first occurring 
spicules here are the spined dermal spicules, while elsewhere in the 
Myxilleae it is the skeletal spicules which occur first." These ex- 
ceptions, however, are only apparent, since, as I have previously 
pointed out(18), the dermal spicules of Grayella undoubtedly cor- 
respond morphologically to the skeletal spicules of normal Myxil- 
linse, and vice versa. 

L. jacksoniana is probably most nearly related to the species 
recorded from Port Phillip by Carter(7) as Halichondria isodic- 
tyalis and by Dendy(13) as Myxilla isodictyalis; but it is hardly 
likely that the two are identical, since in the case of the latter no 
mention has been made of the occurrence of strongylote modifica- 
tions of the skeletal spicules. The original Lissodendoryx isodic- 
tyalis Carter(5), comes from Puerto Cabello, Venezuela, and pro- 
bably is not identical with the Port Phillip sponge. 

Familia AXINELLID^. 

Under this, the final family dealt with in the Catalogue, Lenden- 
feld describes six species, five of which are referred to the genus 
Axinella, and one to a new genus Spirophorella. Each of these, 
with the exception of the last-mentioned, is (nominally) represented 
in the Australian Museum by a specimen duly labelled in Lenden- 
feld's handwriting, but only in the ease of one, Axinella auran- 
tiaca, is it possible to reconcile the specimen with the description. 
It seems quite beyond doubt, however, that the descriptions of two 
of the species — namely, those designated varieties of A. hispida 
Montagu — are erroneous, the probability being that each is made 
up of portions of the descriptions of two entirely different species. 
For in the diagnosis introductory to these descriptions, we are told 



BY E. F. KALLMANN. 417 

that the spieulation is composed of "large and long styli and spined 
oxea," together with "microselera" in the form of "styli and oxea, 
long and very slender, in bundles (trichites)"; whereas in the 
descriptions themselves, in contradiction to this, we find it stated, 
in the case of one variety, merely that "the spicules of the support- 
ing skeleton are 014 mm. long and 0005 mm. thick," and in the 
case of the other, that "the spicules of the supporting skeleton are 
chiefly styli, 0-2 mm. long and 0005 mm. thick. Nor are these con- 
tradictory statements the only indication of error; the diagnosis 
referred to is clearly only an intended copy, with a few alterations 
in terms, of the description of Bictyocylindrus hispidus given by 
Bowerbank(2), yet, in Bowerbank's description, no mention is 
made of "spined oxea," but only of spined styli, and no warrant is 
to be found for the statement that the "styli and oxea, long and 
very slender" occur in bundles It is unaccountable also why Len- 
denfeld calls the last-mentioned spicules microsclera, especially 
since he states, in his definition of Axinella, that the genus is with- 
out microsclera. Because of these anomalies, and as the specimens 
left by Lendenfeld to represent his varieties of Axinella hispida 
agree in some measure with the descriptions so far as external 
features are concerned, and actually are examples of species of 
Raspailia, I have thought it proper to regard them as the types. I 
consider the specimens to be representative of two distinct species 
to be designated Raspailia gracilis and E. tenella respectively. 

Axinella hispida, var. gracilis. (PI. xxiii., fig.l; PI. xxii., 
fig. 7; and text-fig. 17). 

Description. — Sponge erect, arborescent; with dichotomous and 
polytomous branches, seldom uniting by anastomosis. The 
branches are short, stiff, cylindrical, or slightly tapered, and some- 
times sharply pointed at their end. Surface hispid with spicules, 
which project 1 mm. or so beyond it. Oscula apparently absent. 
Colour in spirit pale grey, for the most part with a faint tinge of 
purple. Consistency fairly tough, compressible, and resilient. 

The single specimen (PI. xxiii., fig. 1), 80 mm. in height, is 
attached to a stone by an expanded disc-like base, from which two 

H 



418 REVISION OF THE MONAXONID SPONGES, ill., 

short stalks, each about 5 mm. in diameter, and each with its own 
"head" of branches, arise independently. The stoutest branches 
are 4 to 5 mm. in diameter ; the slenderest, about 2 mm. 

The skeleton, as seen in section, presents quite different aspects 
according- as the mounting- medium is balsam or glycerin. In the 
latter medium, the spicules being thereby rendered almost indis- 
cernible, it appears as if mainly consisting of a small meshed 
irregular reticulation of colourless, or (in older parts of the 
sponge) faintly yellowish-tinted, spongin fibres, of diameter sel- 
dom exceeding 50 or 60/x; the reticulation, which is not more con- 
densed in the axial than in the peripheral region of the branches, 
and in pattern bears a certain slight resemblance to that of the 
skeleton of Euspongia, is formed by longitudinal main fibres pau- 
ciserially cored by principal spicules and by a network of connect- 
ing fibres which are without contained spicules. 

On the other hand, in sections mounted in balsam, the spongin 
fibres are difficult to perceive, and may even be quite invisible; 
and the skeleton then shows itself as a lattice-like interlacement of 
longitudinally-running (or, if near to the surface, slightly out- 
wardly-trending), mostly paucispicular, loose strands of principal 
spicules, interspersed between which, in comparatively small num- 
ber, are single spicules likewise with a generally longitudinal orien- 
tation. In addition, isolated single spicules constantly occur, which 
are disposed transversely to the prevailing direction, and are con- 
sequently very noticeable even although comparatively few. The 
interlacing spicule-strands are constituted partly by the spicules 
which core the main spongin-fibres and partly by spicules which 
lie extra-fibrally ; some of the latter are directed with their apex 
pointing to the contrary direction, i.e., towards the base of the 
sponge Echinating acanthostyli occur only sparsely and irregu- 
larly upon the fibres of the interior; and since (in balsam) the 
fibres themselves are not readily perceived, these acanthostyli 
appear at first sight as if scattered. On the other hand, in connec- 
tion with the superficial fibres (comprising not only those situated 
most externally, i.e., in immediate juxtaposition to the dermal 
layer, but usually also most of the longitudinal fibres running near 



BY E. F. KALLMANN. 419 

to the surface) aeanthostyles are abundantly developed; these 
superficial aeanthostyles are located entirely upon the external 
aspect of the fibres supporting- them, and are thus directed per- 
pendicularly to the surface with tlieir apices outwards. 

In the outermost region of the main skeleton, a considerable pro- 
portion of the short spongin-fibres, whose disposition is more or 
less at right angles to the surface, ensheathe each the basal portion 
of one or several of the outwardly-projecting long tylostyli to 
which is due the already-mentioned hispidity of the surface. The 
dermal skeleton proper consists of scattered clusters and bundles of 
styli and oxea (auxiliary spicules), which are mostly directed more 
or less parallel to the surface, and, contrary to what usually is the 
case in Raspailia, are never disposed in outwardly-directed diver- 
gent tufts situated around the points of exit of the long projecting 
spicules. 

Spicules.— (a)The principal megascleres are styli and tylostyli 
and intermediate forms, together with relatively very few oxea. 
The styli and tylostyli (the latter of which are the more numerous) 
are sharp-pointed and more or less curved spicules, typically with 
the curvature most pronounced in, and often restricted to, their 
basal moiety; the very slenderest are not infrequently flexuously 
curved (flagelliform). They range from about 4'_'0 to 1580 /x in 
length, and attain a maximum diameter of 15//. The two forms, 
styli and tylostyli, show some degree of differentiation from each 
other, but not sufficient to admit of their separation into two 
groups. The styli are, in general, the shorter and relatively stouter 
spicules (being rarely less than 11 /x in diameter), and, unlike the 
tylostyli, are usually a trifle stouter towards the middle of their 
length than at the base. The tylostyli, which usually have only a 
slightly developed phyma, are very variable in stoutness (the slen- 
derest of them being less than 3 /x in diameter), and are seldom 
below 800 /x, and rarely, if ever, below 500 /x in length. The 
slenderest spicules are usually not expanded at the extreme base, 
but at some short distance above it, and then not as a rule bul- 
bously, but elongately and somewhat irregularly; and a consider- 



420 



REVISION OF THE MONAXONID SPONGES, 111. 




able proportion of them ex- 
hibit no basal enlargement 
at all. It is to be noted 
that styli are unrepresented 
among the spicules which 
project from the surface, 
while they comprise almost 
all of those spicules above- 
mentioned which are dis- 
posed transversely to the 
longitudinal direction. 

The oxea are curved fusi- 
form spicules varying in 
length from 430 to 1040 /x, 
and in diameter from (seldom 
less than) 7 up to 12 /x. At 
a rough estimate, they num- 
ber somewhere between one 
and five per cent, of the 
principal megascleres. 

{b)The acanthostyles, when 
fully developed, are conical 
spicules with recurved spines 
(about 3 jx high), measuring 
from 65/Ato 102/x in length, 
and at their base 10 fx in 
diameter exclusive of spines; 
the spines are scattered uni- 
formly and pretty closely 
over the whole surface. A 
considerable number of im- 
mature acanthostyles also 
occur — of only slightly lesser 
length than the fully devel- 
oped — which are usually pro- 
vided with a slight basal 
Fig.ll. — Raspailia gracilis, a, Principal knob and are more and more 
spicules; styli, subtvlostvli, and scarce • , i • i • 

oxea. a',Basal ends of principal spicules, ^^l^^t^^y spmed m propor- 
6,Acanthostyli. c, Auxiliary styli and tion as thev are slender, 
oxea. •' 



BY E. F. KALLMANN. 421 

(c)Tlie auxiliary spicules are straight or slightly curved oxea 
and styli (together with intermediate forms), which are aj^proxi- 
mately equal in size and number,— the styli being, if anything, 
somewhat the stouter and more numerous. They measure from 
260 to about 410/t in length, and, at most, 3-5/x in diameter. The 
longest of the styli are scarcely, if at all, distinguishable from cer- 
tain of the shortest and slenderest of the principal spicules. The 
auxiliary spicules are chiefly conlhied to tlie dermal layer, where, 
as previously stated, they are disposed in bundles; in the interior 
they lie scattered, either singly or (more usually) in pairs. 

Loc. — Port Jackson. 
AxiNELLA HISPIDA, var. TENELLA. (PL xxiii., figs.2, 3; Pl.xxii., 
fig.6; and text-fig, 18). 
Description. — Sponge erect, ramose, stipitatej of small size; 
with the branches disposed in one plane or in overlapping planes. 
Branches compressed in the plane of branching, and; usually 
increasing in breadth upwards; stalk relatively very slender, and 
cylmdrical or only slightly compressed. Surface hispid with 
spicules, which often project more than 1 mm. beyond it. Oscula 
apparently absent. Colour in spirit pale grey. Consistency firm, 
tough and elastic. 

Of the two type-specimens, the larger and more robust (PI. xxiii., 
fig. 2) measures 60 mm. in height and 1-5 mm. in diameter of stalk, 
and for the most part has only slightly compressed branches, which 
spread in the one plane. The slightly smaller, and more profusely- 
branched specimen (PI. xxiii., fig. 3) has the branches very much 
flattened, and in consequence of the bifurcation of the stalk, is 
biflabellate; as, also, the branches are somewhat curled, it assumes 
a slightly aborescent form. Both specimens are (in alcohol) of a 
light yellowish-grey colour. 

The main skeleton is composed in exactly the same way as m B. 
gracilis, but the longitudinally-directed extra-fibral spicules are 
more numerous in the present species, and th^y thus (unless the 
sections examined be fairly thin) tend to obscure the lattice-like 
pattern due to the interlacement of the spicule-strands. The spon- 
gin-fibres are colourless and (in balsam) quite invisible. 



422 REVISION OP THE MONAXONID SPONGES, iii 




Fig. 18. — Raspailia tenella. a, Principal spicules; styli and subtylostyli. 
a', Basal ends of principal spicules. 6,Acantho8tyli. c, Auxiliary oxea 
and styli; c',the same, drawn to a larger scale. 



BY E. F. KALLMANN. 423 

The dermal skeleton, on the other hand, is quite different from 
that of R. gracilis and very closely resembles that of B. viminalis 
as depicted by Pick (32, PI. iii., fig. 1). Externally to the fibres 
and the spicules of the main skeleton is a soft-tissued dermal layer, 
usually not less than 300 /x in thickness, and almost entirely free 
from scattered spicules; and this layer, which is crossed by the 
deeply-embedded long tylostyli which project beyond the surface, 
gives support superficially to elegantly radiate projecting tufts of 
auxiliary spicules. These tufts occur not only at the points of 
emergence of the tylostyli, but also between them. 

Spicules. — (a) The principal megascleres are exclusively styli 
and tylostyli, which are similar in form and about equal in stout- 
ness to the corresponding spicules of R. gracilis, and, like them 
(though to a less appreciable extent), exhibit some degree of dif- 
ferentiation into two groups ; they range in length from about 380 
to 1970 ix and obtain a diameter of 18 /x. 

(6) The acanthostyles, when full-grown, are conically or slightly 
basally-knobbed spicules, with recurved spines (about 3 /x highj, 
measuring 63 to 85 /x in length, and at their base 8 /x at most in 
diameter; the spines are scattered uniformly and pretty closely 
over the entire surface. The slender immature spicules range in 
length from less than 30/x to upwards of 60/x; the slenderest have 
almost invisibly minute spines, and are provided with a well- 
developed basal knob. 

(c)The auxiliary spicules are styli and oxea; intermediate forms 
between these are rare or absent. The styli, which are by far the 
more abundant, are straight or (more usually) slightly curved, and 
taper towards the base; they vary between 280 and 410/x in length, 
and attain to 4-5/x in diameter. The oxea are shorter and slender, 
being very rarely more tlian 3 40/x in length, or more than 3/i in 
diameter. Apparently the latter occur only as single and paired 
scattered spicules in the interior; while tlie styli are found both in 
the interior (nearly always in pairs) and in the dermal tufts. 

Loc. — Port Jackson. 



424 REVISION of THE MONAXoKID SPONGES, ili., 

AxiNELLA AURANTiACA. (PI. xxii., fig.l; and text-fig.l9). 

Introductory. — Fortunately Lendenfeld has furnished us with a 
figure of this species, and the actual specimen from which the 
figure Avas taken is extant. Otherwise, owing to a mistake in the 
original description, — wherein the spicules are stated to be styli, 
instead of oxea (with only occasional styli) and flexuous strongyla 
— the species in all probability could never have been identified. 
But, with this exception, the description is fairly appropriate; 
and the omission from it of any mention of strongyla is attribut- 
able to the fact that these spicules are sometimes sufficiently scarce 
to be easily overlooked. The inaccuracies in this case, therefore, 
are to be explained as due to careless observation, and not to the 
commingling of the descriptions of two different species. 

Description. — Sponge arborescent, erect, stipitate; with cylin- 
drical pointed branches, which multiply by frequent dichotomy and 
occasionally anastomose at points of contact. The branches in- 
crease in stoutness towards the base, and may there attain a dia- 
meter of 12 nun. The surface is minutely granular, owing to the 
impingement upon it at very close intervals of outwardly running 
skeletal fibres. There is present a very thin, but well-defined der- 
mal membrane, which remains intact when the sponge is carefully 
macerated with caustic potash solution. Small oscula, about 1 
mm. in diameter, occur scattered at rather distant intervals. The 
canals leading into the oscula, — not only the main canals which 
open into the oscula, but also their chief tributaries — run for some 
distance immediately beneath the dermal membrane, and are faintly 
discernible through it. The specimen of Lendenfeld's figure 
measures 120 mm. in height, and is in an unusual degree profusely 
branched; large specimens may attain a height of 200 mm. The 
colour in life, according to the original description, is bright 
orange; spirit specimens are yellowish-gxey, and those preserved 
in the dry state whitish. Except for a soft superficial layer about 
1-5 mm. in thickness, the consistency is in alcohol very firm and 
tough, particularly in the older portions of the sponge. Dry speci- 
mens vary in consistency and texture, and present a very different 



BY E. F. KALLMANN. 



425 



appearance, according to the extent to which the fleshy substance 
has been removed. Those dried without previous maceration are 
slightly shrunken, have a rough, granu- 
lar, usually uncracked surface, and are 
hard and brittle; on the other hand, 
well macerated and washed-out speci- 
mens, which are moderately flexible, 
show in each of the branches a dense 
core, and from this numerous short 
fibres stand out like bristles, producing 
an appearance not unlike that of a 
worn-down bottle-brush. The skeleton 
consists (i.) axially, of a stout, densely 
spicular, core occupying the whole in- 
terior of the branches to within about 
1-5 mm. of the surface; and (ii.)extra- 
axially, of non-plumose, sometimes 
slightly wispy multispicular fibres, 
which, issuing in an obliquely upward 
direction from the core, run outwards 
at fairly regular distances apart, gradu- 
ally curving on the way, to meet the 
surface almost at right angles. These 
fibres, which are composed of oxea held 
together by a barely discernible amount 
of spongin, usually remain unbranched, 
and are not connected by transverse 
fibres. Scattered spicules occurring 
between the fibres are extremely rare 
in the more superficial, canal-traversed, 
region of the sponge, but become 
more numerous in proximity to the 
core, and are there sometimes rather 
abundant. It is apparently owing to 
the gradual addition to the core, as 

FigAQ-Aximlla miraiUiaca. crrowth proceeds, of the innermost 
a.Uxea and occasional styli. » i • , 

6,Strongyla. 01 these spicules, (oxea) lynig circum- 




426 REVISION OF THE MONAXONID SPONGES, iii., 

jacent to it, that the core becomes stouter with age; for one 
finds, in the older portions of the sponge, that the core consists of 
an outer (secondarily formed) layer composed of fairly closely 
packed oxea, and of an axial region which is differently constituted. 
In spite of the increase in size of the core, no appreciable reduc- 
tion occurs in the width of the layer extending between it and the 
surface, nor does there seem to be any marked diminution in the 
number of the scattered spicules. The axial or first-formed region 
of the core, as seen in sections of an appropriate thickness, ex- 
hibits a structure very similar to that figured by Vo8maer(52) 
in illustration of the skeleton of the type-species of Axinella. It 
consists of: (i.) numerous longitudinally-running, and interlacing, 
multispicular fibres (''funieles"), which are similar in character to 
the already mentioned fibres that run out to the surface, and form 
a kind of reticulation with narrow eloJigated meshes; (ii.) inter- 
mingled with these, numerous slenderer diffuse strands, likewise 
composed of oxea, and usually more or less oblique to the axial 
direction; and (iii.) singly-occurring elongated flexuous strongyles,* 
which are interwoven with the fibres. 

Spicules. — In different specimens, one finds differences in the 
sizes of the spicules, more particularly of the oxea, the differences 
being chiefly in stoutness and in average length. The maximum 
length, both of the oxea and the strongyla, appears to be fairly 
constant; but the relative number of spicules which attain to this 
varies considerably, and may sometimes be extremely small. The 
spicules which, throughout the description, have been referred to 
simply as oxea, include also a number of styli; these styli are 
usually rare, but, in one of several slides prepared from different 
parts of the type-specimen, they were met with rather frequently. 
Variability is shown also in the relative abundance of the 



* Whitelegge(54) says regarding the arrangement of the strongyles that 
they are "usually disposed at right angles to the columns of oxeote spicules 
in the main fibres." On the contrary, it seems to be the rule that, lika 
almost all the other spicules composing the core, they have a more or less 
longitudinal disposition. 



BY E. P. KALLMANN. 427 

strongyles, which, always far fewer than the oxea, are sometimes 
very scarce. The characters of the spicules are as follows : — 

(a) The oxea (and occasional styli)are in general slightly curved; 
are cylindrical to within a short distance (at most 40 /x) of their 
extremities; and taper, either evenly or somewhat irregularly, to 
usually sharp points. They range in length from about 220 to 
500 fx, occasionally to as much as 600/x; in some specimens, rela- 
tively very few exceed 400/a. The stoutest are sometimes not more 
than 12/x in diameter, and even so may be comparatively scarce; 
but, in other cases, spicules exceeding 12/x in stoutness are quite 
plentiful, and a diameter of as much as 17 ju, may be attained. 
Spicules of all degrees of stoutness down to 2/x, and even less, are 
present. 

(b)The strongyla are cylindrical and, in general, variously and 
irregularly flexuous. They vary in length, independently of dia- 
meter, from about 300 to upwards of 900/x; the longest observed 
in any specimen measured 1120/x. The maximum stoutness is 
usually between 6 and 8/x, but in occasional specimens may reach 
11 /x. According to Whitelegge's measurements, the strongyla 
may attain a length of 1500/x, but apparently this is an over- 
statement. 

Loc. — Port Jackson and neighbourhood. 

AXINELLA INFLATA. 

I have failed to find, either in the collection of the Australian 
Museum or among the fragments received from the British 
Museum, any species which — in skeletal characters, at any rate — 
conforms to the description of Axinella inflata even in a remote 
way. An ostensible type-specimen (labelled ^'Dictyocylindrus 
inflata") does, indeed occur, and, in certain outward features, it 
exhibits points of agreement with the description; thus it is of 
"ramifying" habit, attains approximately to "a height of 100 
mm.," and is also of "soft and resilient consistency" ; but these 
resemblances are clearly only accidental, inasmuch as the branches 
are not "cylindrical," but more or less compressed, and are not 
terminally inflated, but, on the contrary, are much flattened at 



428 REVISION OF THE MONAXONID SPONGES, iii., 

the extremities. The specimen (PI. xxiii., fig. 5), which possesses 
a sparse reticulate skeleton of slender horny fibres cored with small 
strongyla, is identically similar to a fragment from the British 
Museum labelled Chalinodendron dendrilla, — and to that species it 
undoubtedly belongs. 

For the identification of Axinella inflata, accordingly, one will 
have to depend solely on the scanty description of the species. 
If this description is con-ect, the species does not belong to Axi- 
nella in the strict sense, but to a new genus apparently possessing 
athnity \\ii\i A xinosia (vide p. 349). Until it is rediscovered, how- 
ever, and its precise nature known, and while the genus Axinella 
still remains ^'a receptacle for all Axinellidie which do not belong to 
more clearly defined genera," the species perhaps had better remain 
known, for the present, by its original name. 

Axinella obtusa. 

The same remarks apply to this species as have been made above 
in the first sentence and concluding paragraph of my remarks in 
reference to Axinella inflata, to which species A. obtusa appears, 
from its description, to be very closely related. A specimen labelled 
in Lendenfeld's handwriting, "Dictyocylindrus obtusa" the MS. 
name corresponding to A. obtusa, according to the key-list — 
occurs in the Australian Museum, but neither in external nor inter- 
nal features does it comply with the description of the species; it 
belongs to an undescribed species of Raspailia, similar to R. 
tenella, in the size and form of its spicules, and also in the posses- 
sion of radiate tufts of dermal spicules, but approaching rather to 
R. gracilis in the precise pattern of its skeleton. In its external 
shape, however, irrespective of its relatively small size and slender 
proportions, the specimen exhibits a very considerable degree of 
correspondence with the description ; and it is just possible, there- 
fore, that the outward description of A. obtusa was based upon a 
much larger and more stoutly proportioned specimen of the same 
Raspailia species. Consequently, if, as seems not unlikely, this 
species should be found to grow to the size to which A. obtusa is 



BY E. F. IIALLMANN. 429 

stated to attain, there would be justification for regarding the lat- 
ter species as synonymous partly with the former (which would 
then have to be called Ttaspailia ohtusa) and partly with Axinella 
in flat a. 

Spirophorella digitata. 

In the absence of a type-specimen, it is impossible to speak with 
certainty regarding this species; but there are peculiar circum- 
stances surrounding it, which justify the suspicion that some 
serious mistake in connection therewith has been made. In the 
first place, one is at a loss to understand why a new genus was 
introduced for its reception, for, apart from the fact that Carter 
had some years previously proposed the genus Trachyeladus for a 
species with essentially similar spiculation, Lendenfeld, in his 
paper on the Australian Chalininse — published just immediately in 
advance of the Catalogue — had himself already proposed a genus 
Spirophora, whose definition and that of Spirophorella are virtu- 
ally identical. Besides this, the identity of Spirophora with 
Trachyeladus had been pointed out by Dendy, in his criticism of 
the paper above referred to, prior to the publication of the Cata- 
logue. If it be suggested, in explanation, that Lendenfeld must 
have considered the slight differences to be of generic value which 
he ascribed to the species respectively assigned by him to Spiro- 
phora and to Spirophorella, the further question needs to be 
answered as to why he referred the two genera to different families, 
and having done so, why he has omitted, in his remarks on the lat- 
ter, to make any reference whatsoever to the former, while yet 
deeming it of sufficient importance to observe that Spirophorella 
"appears very similar to Spiretta" — a Tetractinellid genus having 
no other special point of agreement with the genus in question than 
the possession of spiral microscleres. One cannot suppose that the 
idea of a relationship between his species of Spirophora and Spiro- 
phorella did not occur* to Lendenfeld, since evidently the one 
generic name is coined from the other; and, furthermore, it would 
seem as if he shortlv afterwards decided to regard the two genera 



430 REVISION OF THE MONAXONID SPONGES, iii., 

as identical, for in his paper(28) published but a year later than 
the Catalogue, in which a complete classification of the sponges 
is proposed, only one of these genera, viz., Spirophorella, receives 
mention. Hence one would have thought that, as a precaution, in 
view of the possibility of its becoming necessary later to unite the 
genera, the author would have avoided using similar specific names 
in the two cases; yet we find that the first-described of the two 
species of Spirophora and the single species of Spirophorella are 
both designated digital a, a name which moreover, is altogether 
inappropriate as applied to the latter, since the species is, accord- 
ing to description, "irregular, massive." The explanation of these 
anomalies, I think, must in some way be connected with the fact 
that the manuscripts of the Catalogue and of the paper on the 
Chalininae were in course of preparation at one and the same time. 
It is possible that Lendenfeld, having at first intended to refer the 
the genus Spirophora to the GelliinaB, and having described two 
species of it for inclusion in his paper on the ChalininaB, after- 
wards decided to refer the genus to the Axinellidre, and to intro- 
duce it in the Catalogue, but through an oversight omitted to delete 
the paragraphs relating thereto from the manuscript of the former 
paper; hence, that Spirophorella is merely another spelling for 
Spirophora — preferred perhaps on account of the similarity be- 
tween the names Spirophora and Spiriphora; and that Spiro- 
phorella digitata is nothing more than Spirophora digitata 
wrongly described in respect of its external characters. Support 
to this suggested explanation is provided by the fact that, in the 
key-list of Lendenf eld's manuscript names, Spirophora digitata 
is written as the MS. synonym of Spirophorella digitata. 

Several specimens labelled Spirophora digitata, in Lendenfeld's 
handwriting, occur in the Australian Museum, and these I regard 
as correctly representing that species, which must now be called 
Trachycladus digitatus. Contrary to Lendenfeld's description, 
however, the megascleres are not styli, but almost exclusively oxea, 
and the microscleres are of two kinds, spirulce and microstrongyles. 
A description of this, and of some other species of Trachycladus, 
will be given in my next paper. 



BY E. F. KALLMANN. 431 

APPENDIX. 

H E M I T E D A N I A , gen.llOV. 

Tedaniinse in which the skeleton is a reticulation of spiculo- 
spongin fibre, and the only niegascleres are smooth oxea or 
tornota. The raphides are spinulous, and are typically provided, 
near one extremity, with a bulbous dilatation. 

The raphides of Amorphiiia anotiyma, I find, exhibit characters 
which render it certain that the species is closely allied to Teda- 
nia, and particularly to such species as T. pectinicola and 7\ 
fuegieiisis Thiele(42); and as its possession of well-defined spon- 
ginous fibres is additional reason against the inclusion of this 
species in the genus Rhaphisia, to which Dendy referred it (and 
which, by the way, Lundbeck(31) with some justification regards 
as a synonym of Gellius), I accordingly propose for its reception 
a new genus, Ilemitedania. 

Spinulous raphides — or onychetse, as Topsent(48) has termed 
them— peculiar in having a subterminal bulb, occur also in two 
undescribed species (represented by specimens in the Australian 
Museum) in which the megascleres are styli and strongyla, and 
which, in skeletal structure, differ markedly both from typical 
species of Tedama and from each other. One of these species, 
for which a new genus will certainly be required, is remarkable 
in possessing peculiar acanthostyle-like spicules, which undoubt- 
edly are derivatives of onychetse, but attain a size of 115 by 6 /*; 
they have a slightly roughened surface, a subfusiform shape, and 
an abruptly truncated base provided with a central mucro and a 
circumferential whorl of minute spines. Another species, which 
I consider to be related to Tedania, and for which a new genus 
is probably necessary, is that described by Kirkpatrick(24) under 
the name Oceanapia tantula. 

Concerning the systematic position of Tedania and its allies, 
there is not yet agreement of opinion, though generally they are 
placed along with the genera formerly included in the subfamily 
Dendoricinae; Dendy, however, has always favoured the recogni- 
tion of a subfamily Tedaniinse which he would include in the 
Hajtloscleridce. In view of the ditticulty in classification occa- 
sioned by the genus Hemitedania, it seems to me advisable, if 



432 REVISION OF THE MONAXONID SPONGES, iii., 

not necessary, to retain the family Tedaniinae, though, at present, 
I am unable to form an opinion as to whether it should be placed 
under the Haploscleridce or the Desmacidonidce. A very con- 
siderable resemblance certainly exists between Trachytedania 
and certain Myxilline genera like Lissodendoryx, but inasmuch 
as no form of spicule, affording evidence of an homology with 
the onycheta, is known in any of these genera, there is no suffi- 
cient warrant for regarding the resemblance as other than the 
result of convergent evolution. 

Hemitedania anonyma Carter. (PI. xviii., fig.4; PL xix., figs. 1-5; 
PI. xxiv., figs. 3-5; and text- fig. 20). 

1886. Amorphina anonyma', Carter(7), p. 49. 

1895. Rhaphisia anonyma; Dendy(12), p. 2 5 6. 

\^'6S. Renter a pand(ea{^3iYt\m); Lendenfeld(27), p. 79. 

. HalichoTidria ?'?fc6?-a(partim); Lendenfeld(27), p.81. 

. Halichondria rubra var. diyitata{^3iYt\m); Lendenfeld(27), 

p.81; not PI. ii., fig.\{ = Raspailia agminata, sp.n.), 
1901. Rhaphisia rubra; Whitelegge(54), p 77. 
IQO'2. Rhaphisia pandcea; Whitelegge(56), p. 281. 

The material at my disposal comprises some twenty specimens 
from Port Jackson and neighbouring localities; a specimen from 
Port Phillip; and a slide-preparation of Rhaphisia anonyma, pre- 
sented to the Australian Museum by Prof. Dendy. 

Description. —In the simplest form, the sponge is an irregu- 
larly digitate cluster of stout branch-like parts (PI. xix., figs. 1-4), 
which are united below, forming a sessile base; the branches are 
tubular, with a single osculum at the summit, are cylindrical 
and slightly tapered, may attain to a length of 200 mm or more, 
and, while ordinarily not much less than 20 mm. in diameter, 
vary in stoutness in different specimens from 10 to 30 mm. More 
usually, however, a formation into separate tubes is only partially 
effected, and the sponge accordingly consists, in part, of more or 
less flabellate portions with marginal oscula (PI. xix., fig.5). 
Finally, the branching habit is often almost entirely suppressed, 
and the sponge is then lobose, semi-massive, as a rule more or 
less compressed, with the oscula situated on the uppermost and 



BY E. F. HALLMANN. 433 

prominent parts. The surface is free from cliaracteristic in- 
equalities, and, in general, is smooth and even; a dermal mem- 
brane is present, and, though thin, is usually well-defined. The 
oscular tubes, whose diameter varies from 3 to (rarely) 10 mm., 
are lined by a stouter and tougher membrane, which also forms 
numerous diaphragm-like dissepiments stretching across their 
lumen. Concerning the life-colour, which is known with certainty 
only in the case of Port Phillip specimens, Dendy states that 
" orange is the prevailing tint and there are no very great de- 
viations from this" ; the colour in spirit ranges from dull yellowish- 
white to a pale brown. Well preserved specimens are of firm, 
sometimes slightly cartilaginous, moderately tough consistency, 
and are brittle rather than flexible; but apparently the sponge 
readily undergoes some amount of maceration, with the result 
that, as a rule, spirit specimens are comparatively soft, com- 
pressible, and resilient. The consistency depends to some extent 
upon the degree of coarseness of the fibres, which is variable. 
Specimens dried in the ordinary way (without previous removal 
of the sarcode) are light, open, and somewhat bread-like in 
texture, and, considering their horny fibrous skeleton, are some- 
what brittle. The fibrous reticulate skeleton, obtained by treat- 
ment with caustic potash, presents certain constant features, but, 
in different specimens, varies greatly in the closeness of its 
texture and in elasticity, and to some extent also in colour and 
pattern. A dense irregular network of stouter (primary) fibres 
bounds each of the oscular tubes, and from this -taking the 
(simple) case of a separate branch dendritically branching, 
secondary fibres run out (in a slightly upward direction) to the 
surface; these secondary fibres, which to within a short distance 
of their outer extremities are connected together by (usually 
plexus-forming) cross-fibres, are disposed in such a way that the 
skeleton, viewed from the exterior, presents a very imperfectly 
honeycomb-like structure. The colour of the skeleton varies 
from yellowish-white to golden-yellow, according to the degree of 
development of spongin. 

As seen in section under the microscope, the skeleton-reticula- 
tion is of a very irregular pattern, and the fibres are of very 

15 



434 



REVISION OF THE MONAXONID SPONGES, 111. 



varying stoutness; the latter are composed of roughly parallel 
spicules cemented by spongin, which usually forms a distinct 
sheath, but sometimes is barely more than sufficient in quantity 
to hold the spicules together. The primary fibres attain a 
diameter ranging in different specimens from about 80 to 130/x, 
while the slenderest of the connecting fibres are but two or three 
spicules broad; single connecting spicules also occur. In the 
meshes of the reticulation, megascleres are scattered in some 
abundance, together with a few raphides; in the canal-traversed 
soft tissues occupying the wider interstices of the skeleton, on 

A 



Fig.20. — Hemitedania anonyma. a,Oxea, from each of three different 
specimens. 6,0nychet£e. 

the Other hand, it is the raphides which are the more numerous. 
In addition to the fibres which compose the reticulation, separate 
strands of loosely associated parallel spicules, free from spongin, 
occur, sometimes consisting of oxea alone, more frequently of 
oxea and raphides in variable proportion, and apparently some- 
times of raphides alone. The raphides also occur in dragmata, 
but these are sometimes extremely scarce. The dermal skeleton 
consists of vertical lufts of megascleres projecting slightly beyond 
the surface, and usually so disposed in linear series as to produce 



BY E. F. KALLMANN. 435 

a more or less distinctly reticulate pattern; these tufts, for the 
most part, are the outer ends of radiating spicule-strands into 
which the outwardly running (secondary) fibres of the main 
skeleton break up on nearing the surface. 

Spicules. — (a.) The oxea are mostly straight or nearly so, and 
abruptly sharp-pointed (tornotiform); among them, rare indi- 
viduals occur, which are more or less rounded off at one extremity 
(stylote). Their maximum size in different specimens is fairly 
constant as regards length, but variable as regards stoutness : 
in Dendy's slide of Rhaphisia anonyma, they measure from 155 
to 265 /x in length by at most 6 /z in diameter; in the type-speci- 
men of Renie7'a pandcea, 165 to 245 by 8 /x; in the type-speci- 
men of ''^Halichoitdria rubra" 160 to 230 by about 7 /x; and in 
another specimen, of unusually cartilaginous consistency, 150 to 
275 by 12/x. 

(6.) The raphides are straight, slightly fusiform, asymmetrical 
with regard to opposite extremities; they taper gradually to a 
very fine point at one extremity, are abruptly truncated and 
produced into a minute extra-axial mucro at the other, and, at a 
distance of between one-sixth and one-tenth their length from 
the latter end, exhibit a small bulbous dilation. The spinules 
are very minute, are most pronounced at the basal end of the 
spicule, and, gradually diminishing in size, finally become indis- 
cernible somewhere about the middle of the spicule. The spicules 
are of two sizes, the larger being the more numerous. The 
smaller occur plentifully in Dendy's slide of R. anonyma, but, in 
all the other specimens examined, including the one from Port 
Phillip, they are rather rare and in some cases apparently absent. 
In the two Port Phillip examples, the longer raphides measure 
from 135 to 175 /x, while in the Port Jackson examples, with 
one exception (viz., the specimen with oxea 12/x in diameter), 
they are shorter, having a maximum length varying between 138 
and 150/x; their maximum stoutness varies in different speci- 
mens, proportionately with that of the megascleres, from less 
than 1 /x to about 2 /x. The smaller raphides are extremely 
slender, and seldom more than 40 or 50 /x long. 

Locs. — Port Jackson and neighbourhood; Port Phil h' p. 



436 



REVISION OF THE MONAXONID SPONGES, 111., 



HiSTODEKMA ACTiNioiDES sp.nov. (PI. xxii., fig.3; and text-fig.21 ). 

188S. Sti/lotella poli/7nastia (err.), Lendenfeld(27), PL iv., fig.l. 

. Sidfj'oderma navicelligerum R. et D. (err), Lendenfeld(27), 

p.210. 
The sponge is of massive rounded form, and apparently grows 

attached by a narrow base. From the surface, over its entire 
extent, arise numerous longer or shorter 
digitiform, tapering, lax tubular pro- 
cesses (with thin membranous wall), 
which somewhat resemble the tentacles 
of a sea-anemone. Between the pro- 
cesses, the surface is smooth, and either 
even or much wrinkled. Oscula appear 
to be absent. The colour in alcohol is 
pale yellowish-grey within, and more 
whitish on the surface. The consist 
ency is firm, compact, moderately 
tough and compressible, yet brittle 
rather than elastic. The dermal layer 
does not form a noticeable rind, but is 
thin and closely adherent to the under- 
lying tissue. 

The single example*(Catalogue, PL 
iv., fig.l), which is a half-specimen, 
would, when complete, measure about 
100 by 80 by 55 mm., in its three prin- 
cipal diameters. The tubular processes 
vary in length up to about 20mm., and 
are 2 to 4 mm. wide at the base. 

The main skeleton consists of non- 
reticulating fibres running in various 
a, directions without rei^ular course, and. 




Fig.21. 

Histoderma actinioidei^ _ 

Tylota. a'.Extiemities of scattered between these, of plentiful 
tylota. MsocheL-earcuatae. ^.^^j^ spicules, and spicules aggregated 



c,Sigmata. 



in bundles and strands. The fibres 



* Another specimen of the species has since been found annoug a collec- 
tion of sponges belonging to the Department of Biology, Sydney University, 
and is figured in the present paper. 



BY E. F. KALLMANN. 437 

are of very variable stoutness, occasionally attain to 100 // in 
diameter, and are composed of roughly parallel spicules usually 
not very compactly arranged. 8pongin appears to be entirely 
absent. The microscleres are scattered chehe and sigmata, the 
former rare except in the outermost layer of the dermis, the 
latter fairly abundant and occurring only in the choanosome. 
The dermal layer, which is never much more than 100 /x in thick- 
ness, is provided with moderately abundant single spicules dis- 
posed horizontally in several layers and crossing one another in 
various directions. In the fistuhc, however, the dermal skeleton 
(which is there the only skeleton) undergoes a gradual alteration 
in its arrangement, and towards their extremities becomes a 
reticulation of stout fibres. The meshes of this reticulation are 
tympanised by a thin membrane, which is perforated with numer- 
ous rounded pores varying from 15 to upwards of 80// in diameter. 

Spicules.- («.) The megascleres, which vary in form from tylota 
to strongyla, the tylota being the more numerous, are nearly or 
quite straight and scarcely, if at all, stouter at the middle than 
towards the ends. The end-swellings of the tylota are elongate 
and oblongish in shape, and, as a rule, are more pronounced in 
the stouter spicules than in the slenderer. The very slenderest 
(developmental) spicules are invariably strongyla, and usually 
taper slightly from one end to the other. The maximum size of 
the megascleres is 430 by 10/x, and their length seldom falls 
below 320 /x. 

(6.) Isochelse arcuatse, 12*5 to 18 /x long, with the distal end of 
the aljie pointed and abruptly incurved, and apparently with a 
tooth-like prolongation of the tubercula. 

(c.) Simple and contort sigmata, 33 to 42 /x long from bend to 
bend, and at most 3*5 /x stout. 

Embryos. — A few embryos of oval shape, the largest measuring 
900 by 600 /x, were observed, most of which were provided with 
spicules in the form of equal-ended tylota of size rarely exceeding 
190 by 2 /x. The spicules were usually scattered throughout the 
entire body of the embryo, but, in a few cases, were chiefly 
collected in a loose bundle situated near one end. The largest 
embryo without spicules measured 700 by 500//,, but others, of 



■438 REVISION' OF THE MOXAXONID SPoNGKS, ill., 

smaller size than this, were present, which contained quite 
abundant spicules. 

Loc. — Port Jackson. 

Raspailia agminata, sp.n (PI. xxiii., fig.4; and text-tii,'.22). 
ISSS. II a! ichoud?'ia rubra var. digitata {err.) Lendenfeldl27), PI, 
ii., fig.l. 

Description. — Sponge a compact tussock-like sessile cluster of 
erect tapered branches, which combine below into gradually 
fewer and stouter stems ultimately proceeding from a narrow 
area of attachment. An adequate idea of the outward form is 
conveyed by the figure of the single specimen (PI. xxiii., fig.4), 
which measures 95 mm. in height. The surface is smooth, or in 
places minutely pustulate; and is sparingly hispid with spicules 
which project about 1 mm. beyond it. The colour in spirits 
is greyish-white, and the consistency fairly tough, compressible, 
and resilient. 

The main skeleton, which is not condensed in the axial region, 
consists : (i.) of an irregular wide-meshed reticulation of pale 
slender spongin-fibres echinated, as a rule unilaterally, by moder- 
ately closely-spaced acanthostyles, the principal fibres of which 
are cored by pauciserial tylostyli, while the (usually plexus-form- 
ing) connecting fibres are with rare exceptions aspiculous; and 
(ii.)of, for the most part, longitudinally-directed styli and tylo- 
styli lying between the fibres. In sections mounted in balsam, 
the spongin is scarcely or not at all discernible, and the by no 
means dense skeleton appears as if composed solely of spicules. 
An outermost layer of the sponge, which is sometimes as much 
as 05 mm. in width, though usually much narrower, is com- 
paratively or quite free from spicules, excepting that it is crossed 
by the long styli, which hispidate the surface and give support 
superficially to tufts of small (auxiliary) spicules surrounding 
the points of exit of these styli. Auxiliary spicules also occur, 
in very small number, and usually not singly, but in pairs, 
scattered through the interior. 

Spicules. — (a.) The principal megascleres are partially diflfer- 
entiated into groups, styli and tylostyli, the latter of which are 
almost invariably sharp-pointed, while the former are often more 



BY E. F. KALLMANN. 



439 



or less rounfU'd off at tlic apex and occasionally pass into more 
or less abbreviated stn^ngyla ; 
both kinds are (usually not much) 
curved, especially in their basal 
moiety. The tylostyli, which are 
seldom, if ever, less than 950 fi 
long, are of very varying stout- 
ness, and have the bulb less pro- 
nounced in proportion as they 
are stouter; between tylostyli and 
styli of the same length, there 
are all intermediate gradations. 
The styli are always proportion- 
ately stouter than the tylostylij 
and range in length from about 
450 to 2800 /x ; their maximum 
diameter is 28 /x. 

(6.) The acanthostyles are 
straight, conical spicules, measur- 
ing at most 12-5 /x in stoutness, 
and varying from 80 to upwards 
of 190/x, though rarely exceeding 
150 /i in length. The spines are 
recurved, generally between 2 
and 4 /x in height, and nearh^ 
always are more or less reduced 
in number over portion of the 
basal half of the spicule. 

(c.)The auxiliary spicules are 
styli and asymmetrically-ended 
oxea, straight or slightly curved, 
the latter comparatively few in 
numVjer and, on the average, 

shorter and slenderer than the fiaspailia ayminata. a, a'.Piincipai 
styli. They measure from 245 to «Pi^"!e«. «tyli and tylostyli with 
•^ A • occasional sub.stroiigvla. a .Basal 

about 400/Min length, and seldom ends of principal spicules. h,Aciiu- 
as much as 6 u in stoutness. thostyli. r Auxiliary oxea and 

styli. c', Ihe same drawn to a 

Loc— Port Jackson. larger scale. 




Fig.2i 



440 REVISION OF THE MON'AXOXlD SPONGES, iii., 

Remarks. — The occurrence, as in this species, of auxiliary 
spicules in pairs — in incipient dragmata, as it were — is perhaps 
not uncommon in the genus RaspaiHa; although, as far as I am 
aware, no mention of it has hitherto been made. I have observed 
it not only in the three species of this genus described in the pre- 
sent paper, but also in R. atropurpurea (Carter) Whitelegge'54), 
and in the allied genus ClathriodeiidroiiiiS) . 

A X I A M N , gen.nov. 
Axinellid?e(?), typically of ramose or flabellate habit, and with 
conuloseor lamelliferous surface, in which the characteristic mega- 
sclere is an oxea with spinose extremities, and the skeleton is a 
lattice-like reticulation of fibres formed of these spicules (and 
admissibly also of derivatives of them) cemented and ensheathed 
by spongin. Microscleres are absent. 

The nearest approach I know of to the type of skeleton-reticu- 
lation typical of this genus, I have observed in an undescribed 
sponge from New Zealand; but, in the latter — which thus belongs 
to an unnamed genus — tlie fibres are cored by smooth styli, and 
echinated by rare distally spined rhabdostyli. I have also ob- 
served a somewhat similar type of skeleton in an undescribed 
species of Trikentrion from North-west Australia. As it seems 
highly probable that the New Zealand sponge is generically 
related to Trikentrio-ii (but distinguished in having stylote instead 
of oxeote megascleres and cladose acanthostyli with only one 
basal actine instead of several), I am inclined to think that 
Axiamon also is related to Trikentrion, and thus of "Ectyonine" 
urigin. Since, however, the genus is lacking in any character 
that would warrant its inclusion in the Desmacidonidce as at 
present defined, the only course open seems to be to place it in 
the Axinellidce. 

In the form of its spicules, the type-species, A. folium, sp.nov., 
shows analogies, probably indicative of relationship, with ^arecAiwa 
raspailioides Hentschel(21); and it also presents points of agree- 
ment with Thrinacophora fnniformis Ridley k Dendy. 

A species, which, I believe, will be found to belong to Axiamon, 
has been described by Carter(6), from Australia(?j, under the name 



BY E. F. HALLMANN. 441 

Ptilocaulis rujidns. But there is perhaps equal justification for 
the view expressed by Tlnele(39), that this species sliould be 
included in the «;enus Pkycopsis; and it is quite likely that I*hy- 
copsis and Axiamon are closely allied. 

AxiAMON FOLIUM, sp.nov. (PI. xviii., figs. 2, 3; PI. xxiv., figs 7, 8; 
and text-fig.23). 

1902. Reniochalina stalagmifes{cvv.) + Reniochalina la7neUa{eri\), 
Whitelegge(56), p.283. 

Two specimens only are at hand - those which Whitelegge 
very briefly and not quite accurately described as the types 
respectively of Reniochalina stalagmites and Reniochalina lamella; 
and as these differ to some extent in certain external features, 
and may thus be varietally distinct, it is advisable to mention 
that I choose, as the typical specimen, that which Whitelegge 
took to be R. stalagmites. 

Description. — Hponge flabellate, stipitate; the lamina entire, or 
palmato-digitate, or deeply dissected into branch-like parts. 
Surface ornamented with longitudinal close-set septiform ridges, 
usually either deeply notched at short intervals or segmented 
into separate languettes; between the ridges, the lamina is ex- 
ceedingly thin except in the rt!gion of the stalk. Consistency in 
the dry state, dense, hard, tough, fiexible within limits; colour 
greyish-brown. 

The digitate typical specimen (PL xviii., fig. 2), which is incom- 
plete below, measures 250 mm. in height, and is provided with 
highly segmented ridges averaging 3 mm. in height, and set at a 
distance apart of irom 2 to 3 mm. The second specimen (PI. 
xviii., fig. 3), 145 mm. in height, has continuous though deeply 
crenate ridges, averaging 1*5 mm. in height and 1 to 2 mm. in 
distance apart. 

The main skeleton is a compact lattice-like reticulation with, 
for the most part, rhomboidal meshes, composed of spongin- 
ensheathed spicules arranged (somewhat confusedly) in pauci- 
serial fibres; the sides of the meshes are of about a spicule's 
length. Better defined primary fibres are sometimes observable 
running longitudinally and gradually trending outwartls; but, as 



442 



REVISION OF THE MONAXONID SPONGES, iii., 



a rule, no distinction between main and connecting fibres can be 
drawn. Spongin is developed only in relatively slight amount 
in the younger parts of the sponge, but later comes to form well- 
defined fibres (up to 60 /x in diameter) enclosing the spicules and 
rounding off the angles of the meshes. Many spicules, however, 
remain uncovered by spongin; and, on the other hand, a small 




Fig. 23. — A xiamon folium. a,Principal oxea, anisoxea, and atyli. 
a'. Extremities of principal spicules. h, Interstitial stylus. 
6',Basal extremities of interstitial styli. r, Dermal styli. 

proportion of short fibres are to be found composed entirely of 
spongin. The spiculation consists almost entirely of the char- 
acteristic oxea and of unequal-ended derivatives of these (anis- 
oxea); but here and there, in some parts of the sponge at least, a 
long slender stylus may be met with: and, in the most superficial 
layer of the sponge, a very few small dermal spicules occur, lying 
scattered. The surface is rendered hispid by anisoxea projecting 
singly or in twos or threes, for three-fourths or more of their 
length, usually in an obliquely upward direction. 

ASpiciihs. — (a.) The oxea and anisoxea, which range from 180 
to 420 i-L in length, and up to 2 1 /x in stoutness, are moderately 



BY E. F. KALLMANN. 443 

(and, as a rule, slightly angulately) curved, the oxea symmetri- 
cally so, the anisoxea only in their basal moiety. The shortest 
and slenderest spicules are invariably oxea, the longest and 
stoutest, anisoxea; those of intermediate dimensions include both 
oxea and anisoxea, and all possible gradations between them. 
Many of the slenderest oxea are (gradually) sharp-pointed at 
both ends, and most of the anisoxea are (somewhat abruptly) 
either sharp-pointed or more or less bluntly rounded off at the 
basal end; but, with these exceptions, the extremities of the 
spicules are almost invariably surmounted by a cap of minute 
spinules. Occasional spicules are stylote. 

{b.) Exceedingly rare, long, slender styli, tapering very gradu- 
ally to a fine point at the apex, sometimes abruptly somewhat 
pointed at the base, and measuring from about 550 to 1200 /u- in 
length by 7 to 12 /x in stoutness. 

(c.) Small dermal styli, straight or variously bent or fiexuous, 
either gi-adually or more or less abruptly sharp-pointed, and, in 
the latter case, usually provided near the apex with a few minute 
spines; measuring 190 to 280 /x in length by 3 to 5 /x in stoutness. 

Loc. — Western Australia. 

Remarks. — In the British Museum, in addition to a specimen 
of this species (labelled '■''Reniochaliiia stalagmites'' ), there occur 
two further examples of the genus Axiamon, labelled respectively 
"• Reniochali7ia spiculosa Port Jackson," and ^^ Reniochalina 
arhorea^ New Zealand." These haveoxeote and anisoxeote mega- 
scleres of almost or quite identically the same size and form as 
those of the type-species, but they appear to be etitirely lacking 
in the other kinds of spicules. The former, of which I have seen 
only a small fragment, is apparently not widely different in 
surface-features from the typical specimen of A. folium: but the 
latter— which is represented also in the Australian Museum, by 
an almost complete specimen- has a peculiar densely conulose 
surface, and is obviously a quite distinct species. 



For Reference List of Literature, see aiitea, pp.310-3L5. 



444 REVISION OP THE MONAXONID SPONGES, ill., 

EXPLANATION OF PLATES XV.-XXIV. 

Plate XV. 

Fig. L — Solla>if-JI,<i diijitata Lendenfeld; ( x §). 

Fig. 2. — SoUasdia dujitatd Lendenfeld, from the t3'pe; ( x g). 

Fig.3. — Donatid Jissnrata Lendenfeld; (slightly reduced). 

Fig. 4. — Donatia philliptiisis Lendenfeld; surface-section showing the 

dermal reticulation, the primary meshes of which are subdivided 

(by lines of tylasters) into smaller meshes, each enclosing a pore; 

( X 18). 
Fig.5. — SpirastreUaC!) anstralis Lendenfeld; a flabellate example; ( x ^). 
Fig. 6. — Polymastia zitteli, from the type of Siderodermazittelii Lendenfeld; 

(nearly nat. size). 'J'he specimen is in a fragmentary condition. 

Plate xvi. 

Fig. L — Cliona [Pajnllissa) hixoni, from the type of Baphyrwi hixonii Len- 
denfeld ; portion of the exterior, showing the character of the 
surface-areolation; ( x f ). 

Fig. 2. — Cliona {Papillissa) hixoni; showing the skeleton' (after maceration 
by means of caustic potash) of a thick slice of a small specimen; 
'nat. size). 

Figs.3-4. — Cliona. (Papillissa) sp., allied to Cliona hixonii; portions of the 
concave and convex surfaces respectively of a specimen having the 
form of a thick, curved plate, showing the character and arrange- 
ment of the surface-papillae; ( x f ). 

Plate xvii. 

Figs. 1,2. — Cliona [Papillissa) lutea, from the t3'pes of Papillissa Intea 
Lendenfeld; ( x ^). 

Fig. 3 — Spirastrella{t) anstralis Lendenfeld; showing the skeleton (as pre- 
pared by maceration b}^ means of caustic potash) of the specimen 
illustrated in PI. xv., fig.5; ( x h)- 

VyifA.—Amofjj/iinopsis meyarrhaphfa Lendenfeld; dermal skeleton; ( x 8). 

Fig.5. — Amorphinopaismeyarrhaphea Lendenfeld; pattern of the skeleton as 
shown in portion of a moderately thin section ( x 10 approximateh). 

Fig. 6. — Tcdania digitata var. rubicunda, from the type of T. rnhicunda 
Lendenfeld; ( x i). 

Plate xviii. 

Y\gA.-- Ca^dospongia elf^gans, from the type of Plectodendron elegans Len- 
denfeld; ( x f). 

Fig. 2. — Axiamonfoliuvi, sp.nov. ; ( x ^), 

Fig.3. — Axiamonfoliuvi (var.?); ( x ^). 

Fig. 4. — Htmitfdania ano7i7/ma Carter ; from a specimen of somewhat carti- 
laginous consistency, and with coarse-fibred skeleton; ( x ^). 



BY K. F. KALLMANN. 445 

Plate xix. 

Fig. 1. — Hemitedania anoiiyma Carter, from a specimen lal)elled as the 

type of Halichondria rubra Lendeiifeld; ( x ^). 
F"'ig.2. — Hemitedania anonyma', from a macerated, coarse-fibred specimen; 

Figs.3, 4, 5. — Hemitedania anonyma; illustrating various forms assumed 
by examples of this species; ( x h approximately). 

Plate XX. 

Fig. 1. — C/ia/ma ^mVma Whitelegge (non Schmidt); an incomplete speci- 
men. 

Y\g.2. — Phlceodictyon ramsayi, from one of the co-types of Rhizochalina 
7'amsayi Lendenfeld; illustrating a specimen of irregular shape pro- 
vided with many root-like processes. 

Fiir.3. — Phlceodictyon ramsayi var. pyri/ormis (va,r.uov.) ; portion of the 
upper surface showing the sieve-like area formed by the closely 
apposed oscula; ( x |) 

Figs. 4-5. — Phlceodictyon ramsayi \ tangential sections close beneath the 
surface, showing the pattern of the reticulation formed by fibres of 
the bast-layer in the wall of the fistula and in between the fistulas 
respectively; ( x 10). 

Plate xxi. 

Figs.l, 2, 3,4. — Stylotella agminata Ridley, from type-specimens of Stylo- 
tella digitata Lendenfeld, and of Tedania laxa Lendenfeld; ( x^ ap- 
proximateh'). 

Y^g-^.— Stylotella agminata Ridlej'; further illustrating the variable habit 
of the species. 

Plate xxii. 

Fig.L — Axinella aurantiaca Lendenfeld; longitudinal median section taken 
at the extremity of a thin branch; ( x 15). 

Fig.2. — Stylotella agminata Ridley; longitudinal section taken at the ex- 
tremity of a branch; ( x 12). 

Fig.3. — Histoderma actinioides, sp.nov.; ( x f approximately). 

Fig. 4. — Phlaodictyon ramsayi Lendenfeld, var. 'pyri/ormin {wa,v.uo\'.) ; 
inner surface of longitudinally bisected specimen, showing disposi- 
tion of oscular canals; ( x f ). 

Fig.6. — Spirastrellail) ramulosa Lendenfeld; showing the skeleton which 
remains after maceration by means of caustic potash; ( x |). 

Fig.6. — RaspaiAa tenella Lendenfeld; longitudinal median section taken 
at the extremity of a branch; ( x 12). 

Fig. 7. — Raspailia gracilis Lendenfeld; longitudinal section of a branch; 
(x9). 



446 REVISION OF THE MONAXONID SPONGHS, ill., 

Plate xxiii. 

YigA.Baspailia gracilis, from the type of Axindla hinpida var. gracilis 

Lendeiifeld; ( x |). 
Figs.2-3. — Raspaila tenella, from the tj'pes of Axinella hispida var. tenella 

Lendenfeld; ( x | approximately). 
Fig. 4. — Raspailia ngminata, sp.nov.; from the specimen wrongl}' figured 

in the Catalogue (PI. ii., fig. 1) in illustration of Halichondria rubra, 

var. digitata Lendenfeld; ( x f). 
Fig. 5. — Chalinodtndron dendrilla Lendenfeld; { x |). 

Plate xxiv. 

Fig. 1. — Mycale {Paresperella) penicillium Lendenfeld ; dermal skeleton ; 

(xl8). 
Fig. 2. — Tedania digitata var. rubicunda Lendenfeld; dermal skeleton; 

(xl8). 
Figs. 3, 4, 5. — H emitedania (inonyma Carter; dermal skeleton; ( x 18). 
Fig. 6. — Mycale serpens Lendenfeld; dermal skeleton. 
Figs.7, 8.— Axiaonoii folium, sp.nov.; pattern of the skeleton as shown in 

moderately thin sections. Fig. 7, ( x 10). 



447 



PETROLOGICAL NOTES ON VARIOUS NEW SOUTH 
WALES ROCKS. 

By W. N. Benson, B.A., B.Sc, F.G.S., Linnean Macleay 
Fellow of the Society in Geology. 

i.Rocks of Nullum Mountain, near Murwillumhah. 
Some years ago, the writer spent a day at Murwillumbah, and 
examined Nullum Mountain, which lies five miles to the south- 
west of the town. Nothing yet has appeared concerning- the geology 
of this area, so that a few notes may be given here to call attention 
to the spot. The mountain forms a short ridge, standing promi- 
nently in front of the range. Its relief is due to the presence of an 
inclined sheet of granophyre, which dips towards the north. The 
main mass of the mountain is composed of gnarled slaty rocks of 
the Brisbane Schists, of Lower Palaeozoic or even earlier age. The 
inclined sheet outcrops on the southern side of the ridge, and is 
exposed on the northern slopes of the mountain for some distance 
down its face. At the base, various dykes have been noted. The 
sill consists chiefly of granophyre composed of small crystals of 
orthoclase and acid plagioclase, partly allotriomorphic, partly idio- 
morphic, surrounded by a granophyric intergrowth of quartz and 
orthoclase. A little biotite occurs and magnetite, but the bulk of 
the ferromagnesian constituents are altered into regular patches 
and spherulites of chlorite, and grains of epidote. A few apatite 
crystals are also present. 

The rock of the upper surface of the sheet exposed on the north 
slope shows frequently no granophyric structure, but has a traehy- 
tic habit. It consists of a pilotaxitie felt of felspar-laths, both 
orthoclase and acid plagioclase, and frequently an untwinned fels- 
par of the same refractive index as Canada balsam, possibly anor- 
thoclase, together with a fair amount of interstitial quartz. The 



448 PETROLOGICAL XOTES ON N. S. "WALES ROCKS, 

pyroxene is a normal grey augite, forming small prisms more or 
less altered to chlorite and epidote, magnetite and ilmenite in 
small grains and plates. Xenocrysts are present, that seem to have 
been derived from a dolerite : they may occur aggregated or singly, 
and are rather corroded. The basic plagioclase is being replaced 
by irregular patches of albite; the pyroxene is a grey augite, with a 
basal striation and varying optic axial angle, sometimes large, but 
in two instances almost 0°. This indicates that it is an enstatite- 
augite. Large plates of ilmenite occur also. The vesicles of the 
rock are filled with quartz and chlorite. 

The majority of the dykes on the north face of the mountain are 
traehyandesites, related to the last rock. They are fine-grained 
green rocks, showing phenocrysts of plagioclase and orthoclase in 
a matrix of laths of the same minerals. The coloured constituents 
have been largely decomposed, but are sometimes seen to be minute 
prisms of grey augite, with rarely large chlorite-pseudomorphs 
after the same mineral: the extinction-angle of these pyroxenes is 
quite high ; alkaline pyroxenes or amphiboles are not recognisable. 
^Magnetite occurs in large and in very minute grains. Considerable 
variation is seen in the grainsize of the ground-mass, and in the 
proportion between the potash and lime-soda felspar, the decrease 
in the former indicating a passage towards the andesites. 

A quite different type of dyke occurs in a road-cutting near the 
foot of the mountain, adjacent to one of the more basic green 
dykes. It consists entirely of colourless minerals, being a very 
fine-grained mixture of andesine, quartz and a minor amount of 
orthoclase, with a few small phenocrysts of quartz and andesine. 
The rock is much obscured by sericite. 

One cannot be certain yet of the affinities of these rocks. From 
a maeroscopical examination of the writer's collection. Dr. Jensen* 
considered that they might be riebeckite-traehytes, and he himself 
found dykes of alkaline trachyte in the neighbourhood of Murwil- 
lumbah; the microscopical study, however, has not confirmed the 
presence of riebeckite. 

* Report Aust. Assoc. Advt. of Science, 1911, p. 193. 
[Printed oflF, 16th September, 1914.] 



PL.S.N.S.W. 1914. 












r4 




II 



12 



Macrainycterus spp. 



P.L.S.N.S.W. 191 




SoJlat^ella, Donatia, SpirastriHa, Poli/(/(((sfi«. 



P.L.S.N.S.W. I9l4. 




Cll'nia (P„,,illissn). 



'.L.S.N.S.W. 1914. 




Vlioiia fiV(jM'///ss«), Sin mat rrl I II, Ainorjilti iioptiis, 'I'r'h 



P.L.S.N.S.W. 1914. 




Caidosiiongia, Axiamon, Hiinitidaitia. 



P.L.S.N.S.W. 1914. 




Hcinitcdtiiiia anonunui Carter. 



P.L.S.N.S.W. 1914. 




VhaliiHi, PhhtwUctijon. 



'L.S.N.S.W. 1914 




Stylotella agmhuita. 



P.L.S.N.S.W. 191 




.■l^utt//(i, 6i'./iu{t...(, ii,M'..../t, //.a, J'l,UtvliCt\,vi,, ij.i.a*C,t.'.<i, ii'«6j-u..'uf. 



P.L.S.N.S.W. 1914. 




Rdxixtilid, Chdliiioih'itilroii. 



P.L.S.N.S.W. 1914. 







^^^^^:m y^M 





Mijidlr, Trdania, Hen,ite<hinia, Ar,antOi. 



P.L S.N.S W. 1914. 




Plant ago Ilcdlcyi. n. sp. 



P.L.S.N.S.W. 1914. 




h b 



Andropogon scficcus. 



A. liljiiiiii. 



P.L.S.N.S.W. 1914-. 




Aiulropogoit intcvinc^ iii>> K.Hr. 



P.L.S.N.S.W. 1914- 




An(lroi>ogoii isclifeiiiinii Lin 



P.L.S.N.S.W. 1911 




^-.-P-. 



A)ulroi>ofjoi} rcfi'dctus K.Br. 



P.L.S.N.S.W. 1914. 



'^tt, s 




Attdropogoii hoinhyciiKis R.Br. 



BY W. N. BENSON. 449 

It may be suggested tliat the suite is related to the granophyres 
and audesites of the West Moreton District, described by Messrs. 
Wearne and Woolnoughf. The latter has found a very interesting 
igneous complex to occur associated with the andesitic mass of 
Mount Warning, adjacent to Nullum Mountain. + A rich field of 
discovery awaits the petrological investigator in this district. 

ii. Inclusions in a dyke at Gerringong. 

The dyke under consideration occurs on the beach at Gerringong, 
and is recorded as No. 16 in Mr. Harper's list*. It splits up into 
overlapping lenticular branches. In places, the rock is full of 
steam-cavities, which are arranged in bands parallel to the boun- 
daries of the intrusion. Here and there are inclusions in the vol- 
canic rock, at one spot so abundant as to make up nearly half the 
bulk of the rock. About thirty slices of these have been studied, 
with the results here presented. The dyke-rock itself is a basalt, 
consisting of idiomorphic prisms of purple augite and laths of 
labradorite, Avith a fine even grain-size. As accessory constituents 
are present magnetite, small brown pleochroic crystals of horn- 
blende, and very minute needles of apatite. No glass is to be seen. 
Chlorite and epidote are present in varying amount. 

The rocks of the inclusions are derived from a gneissic complex, 
that must lie at great depth below the present surface (Upper 
Marine Permo-Carboniferous rocks). They consist of alkali- 
felspar gneisses and quartz-schists, with a few gabbroid rocks. 
Interesting features are brought about by the partial melting and 
absorption of the inclusion in the basalt-magma, some of which 
recall the observations of Lacroix on the granite-xenoliths in the 
basaltes of the Auvergne. 

The best preserved gabbro was obtained by Mr. Aurousseau, 
who kindly permitted me to study it. It is a coarse-grained rock 
consisting chiefly of labradorite. The augite is in large ophitic 
grains, and slightly chloritised. Magneti'te is also present. Another 

t '* Notes on the Geology of West Moreton, Queensland." Proc. Roy. 
Soc. N. 8. Wales, 1911, pp. 137-159. 

iJlVeibal communication. ^ 

* Rec. Geol. Surv. N. S. Wales, 1905, Vol. viii., Pt.2, p. 105; also PIat«dtix, > ." i 

1 




450 PETROLOGICAL NOTES ON N. S. WALES ROCKS, 

specimen is of medium grain-size, and is composed of labradorite, 
subophitic augite, abmidant magnetite and a little ciuartz. The 
augite has a peculiar spongy habit, containing felspar in irregular 
patches and numerous schiller-magnetites. Here and there, in irre- 
gular bays cutting across the large crystals, are patches of fine- 
grained lathy felspar, small augite, ilmenite, and magnetite-grains, 
with a general basaltic appearance. In such areas, there is some- 
times a regular arrangement of the magnetite, as if pseudomor- 
phous after a former crystal. These structures, together with the 
spongy nature of the augites, suggest a partial recrystallisation of 
the rock under the heat of the surrounding basalt-magma. The 
large amount of decomposition-products in this rock greatly hin- 
ders its elucidation. 

The inclusions of the metamorphic series are of several kinds. 
One is an alkali-felspar gneiss, consisting of microperthite, ortho- 
clase, quartz, and a very little plagioclase. It has a blastogranitic 
structure, and the quartz shows, very strongly, marked strain- 
effects. Another type contains. w4th orthoclase, a considerable 
amount of andesine. A third type has a very gneissic structure, and 
consists of abundant quartz, andesine, a little orthoclase, diopside 
and sphene ; its composition is, therefore, that of a type of gTano- 
diorite. There are, in addition, numerous fragments of felspathic 
quartz-rocks. Several of these are very coarse-grained and poor in 
felspar, resembling crushed vein-rock. The others are altered 
quartzites, and are more or less felspathic. Both are greatly 
crushed, with occasionally long mylonitic streaks, which lie along 
the direction of crystalloblastic schistosity or obliquely to it. The 
crystalloblastic structure is very pronounced; the felspar of the 
vein-rocks is in large plates ; that of the schists proper is dissemi- 
nated in small grains throughout the rock. 

The contact-effects may be divided into absorption, melting and 
recrystallisation, and these occur frequently in association. The 
first is well seen on the actual contact of an inclusion with the 
basalt. The difference betwen the boundaries of the quartz-grains 
and the felspars is most striking. As is usually the case, there is 
a strong reaction-rim developed round the corroded surface of the 



BY W. N. BENSON. 451 

quartz, and this rim consists of minute colourless prisms of diop- 
side. Around the felspar, no such rim exists ; this mineral appears 
to have been absorbed into the basalt-magma much more quickly 
than the quartz-grains, which project out from the general boun- 
dary of the inclusion into the basalt or are even isolated in it. The 
single instance of a pyroxene-bearing gneiss shows how much less 
readily is the pyroxene absorbed than the felspar. It has been 
shown that this order of solubility holds also in the case of the basic 
felspar and augite of the gabbroid inclusions of Dundas.* 

The rocks with glass are few in number. In the granodiorite, it 
occurs in irregular dull-brown patches, more or less cryptocrystal- 
line with sometimes slag-like skeleton-crystallites, sometimes pene- 
trated by laths of secondary felspar growing in from the felspar 
that forms the boundary to the droplet of glass. Frequently, the 
glass is replaced by chlorite. In another slide, the melt from the 
gneiss has clearly mingled with the basalt-magma. The zone of 
mingling is about J inch wide; farthest from the basalt, residual 
quartz-grains lie in a base originally glassy but now chiefly chlorite 
and epidote. Nearer the basalt, the glass is filled with felspar- 
laths in addition to the two decomposition-minerals, and small 
reaction-rims are seen about the quartz-grains. Nearer still, mag- 
netite and purple augite-grains occur, and the epidote and chlorite 
are less abundant; gradually this passes into the normal basalt. 
One would expect that the felspar varies in composition in the dif- 
ferent stages, but, unfortunately, a determinative set of readings 
could not be obtained. The same feature of absorption was seen 
where there was no glass present. In one slide, one may follow, 
for the space of about a centimetre, a vein, projecting from the 
basalt into the gneiss, becoming poorer in coloured constituents as 
it goes; in another, veins of finely crystallised rock, scarcely a 
millimetre in width, traversing alkali-felspar grains in the gneiss, 
have abundant finely divided magnetite in the centre, but are free 
from it at the sides. In such veins, the felspar-laths make a felt 



* " The Volcanic Necks of Hornsby and Dundas," Proc. Roy. Soc. 
N. S. Wales, 1910, p. 542. 



452 PETROLOGICAL NOTES ON N. S. WALES ROCKS, 

like that of some traclij'tes, and augite occurs in broad spongy 
plates of considerable size. 

Finally, there is one instance of the partial recrystallation of 
an orthoclase-grain in the gneiss to a variolitic mass of felspar- 
laths. This change occurs at isolated spots in our rock, but among 
the inclusions of granite in the basalts of the Auvergne, Prof. 
Lacroix* has found a rock in which the felspar is entirely changed 
in this manner. 

Some features recall the observations of Heineck on the melting 
down and mingling of granite with basalt-lava in Bohemia, but the 
process in our rocks is not nearly so far advanced as in the 
Bohemian f. 

iii. Granitic Inclusions in the Volcanic J^ecks of Dundas and 
No7'tons Basin. 

In my account of the inclusions in the volcanic neck at Dundas, 
there is no mention of granite. Shortly before the quarrying 
operations ceased there, Mr. Aurousseau obtained a, granite-inclu- 
sion, which he has handed to me for description. It differs from 
the majority of the xenoliths in being merel}' accidental not cog- 
nate with the including basaltic rock. It resembles the Gerringong 
inclusions discussed above. It has suffered considerable jjressure, 
the quartz is greatly strained, and there is some peripheral crush- 
ing of the felspar-grains. These consist of large orthoclases, and 
smaller less irregularly shaped oligoclases. A little decomposed 
biotite is present. The whole rock has a dirty appearance, and is 
clouded with dust, kaolin, sericite, magnetite, and a considerable 
amount of carbonate. 

A granitic inclusion has been found in the volcanic neck at Nor- 
ton's Basin, on the Nej^ean River, above Penrith. It also is greatly 
shattered and full of carbonate veins. The structure appears to be 
crystalloblastic, rather than a normally aplitic one; though this 

* Les Enclaves des Roches volcaniques, p. 64. 
t (j!e(jlogische-petrographische Verhaltnisse der Unigegend voii Rothan 
iin bohmische Erzgebirge. Neu. Jahrb. fiir Min.Beil., Band xxiii., pp. 475- 
527. 



BY W. N. BENSON. 453 

is not definitely marked. The component minerals are orthoclase 
and quartz, and do not show much strain-effect. This rock 
may belong to the same ancient series as the inclusions in the 
Gerringong dyke. 

iv. Bowling ite at Dundas and elsewhere. 

Considerable difficulty was experienced, in the study of the Dun- 
das inclusions, in the determination of the decomposition-products 
of olivine. The most common material is a green felted mass of 
very fine fibres, and this was doubtfully referred to pilite, actino- 
lite, anthophyllite and talc*. 

In examining, in Paris, Prof. Lacroix' collection of slides illus- 
trative of his work "La Mineralogie de la France et ses Colonies," 
it was found that the bow^lingite of that collection was identical 
with the decomposition-product in the Dundas rocks, which, also, 
is the usual product of olivine in all the basalts in the Sydney 
district. The mineral is a hydrous silicate of iron,magnesia, and 
a varying amount of alumina. Prof. Lacroix thinks it is probably 
identical with the platy mineral, iddingsite ; but the name 
bowlingite should have priority, Tt is distinguished by its 
strong pleochroism, and birefringence, combined with a straight 
extinction. 



Proc. Roy. Soc. N. S. Wales, 1910, p.509. 



454 



GONTUIBUTIONS TO A KNOWLEOGE OF AU.STRA- 
LlAX CULICIDJ:. No i. 

By Frank 11. Taylor, P\E.S. 

(riatcs xxxiv.-xxxvii.) 

(From tJic Aiisiralum Institute of 'I'ropicaJ Mrdirinr.) 

The i>i-os(.Mi( pnpor I'ontnins descriptions of seven new species 
ami one \ arioty, l)osi(l('s additional rocords for several previously 
known species. The new species are distributed in the following 
ucnera : StC(ionii/i(( (one). Acdimorphus (one), Culicadu (two), 
('///r,r(one), IS husr a [one), and Men olc pis f [one). The type-speci- 
mens lune been deposited in the Institute collection. 

Pykktophorus athatipes (Skuse). 

Proc. Linn. Soc. N.8.Wales,(2), iii.. p. 1755 (1888) ; Taylor, /.c, 
xxxviii., p. 748 (1014). 

l>r. ,1. H. Cleland has presented a specimen of this Anoi>heline to 
tbc Institute, whicb was taken by liini on Milson Island, Hawkcs- 
bury, River, N.8.W. 

MVZOKHYNCHUS BAKBIROSTRIS (V.d. Wulp). 

Leyden Museum Notes, vi., p. 4l)(1884) ; Theobald, Mon. Culi- 
cid.. v.. p. 50 (1910). 

y/a/). Hilly, Portuguese Tiuior(ll. Cupper-Mudd). 

Numerous specimens of the above species bave been received 
from j\lr. Cupper-Mudd. in addition to specimens of another Ano- 
pheline. which appears to be Xi/ssorlii/)ichus annulipes (Walker). 
The latter. howe\er, were too damaged by mould to be determined 
witb certainty. 

Nyssorhynchus annulipes (Walker). 
Ins. Saund., p. 4;>;H1850) ; Theobald, Mon. Culicid., i., p. 164 
(1901) ; Taylor, Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S. Wales, xxxviii., p.749(1914). 



BY FRANK H. TAYLOR. 455 

Ilah. — Overland Corner, S. Australia (Dr. Clelarid); Yerran- 
derie, Xarn^rninc, N.S.W.,(I)r. Fcrj^usoii j ; Sfilorrioii Islands (W. 
W. Froggatt). 

The specimens from tlie Solomon Islands are somewhat rnhhed, 
})ut little (loubt exists as to their correct identification. 

Armigeres obturbans (Walker). 

(PI. xxxiv., figs. 1, 2.) 

Proc. Linn. Soc. Loiul., iv., p. 91(1860), Cule.r ; Theobald, Mon. 

Culicid., i., p. 32.'>(1-H)1), Armigeres; Blanchard, CR. Soc, Biol., 

iii., p. 1046(1901), JJesvoidya; Theobald, Mon. Culicid., iii., p.l38 

(190:}), Desvoidea; Brunetti, Rec. Ind. Mus., iv., p. 440 (1912) 

Rlanchardiomyia; Edwards, Bull. Ent. Research, iv., p. 224(191.'>). 

II ah. — Milne Bay, Kerema, Papua (Dr. Breinl). 

MUCIDUS ALTERNANS (Westwood). 

Ann. Soc. Ent. Er., iv., p. 681(1835); Theobald, Mon. Culicid., 
i., p. 269 (1901) ; Taylor, Ann. Report Aust. Inst. Trop. Med., [). 
58, pi. xiii., figs. 9-10 (1911), 1913. 

Hafe.— Yarrawin, N.S.W. (W. W. Froggatt). 

Stegomyia scutkllaris (Walker). 
(PI. xxxiv., figs. .3-4.) 
Journ. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond., iii., p. 77 (1859) ; Tlieobald, iVIon. 
Culicid., v., p. 155 (1910). 

//a^;.— Darwin, X. Territory (G. F. Hill; 10/11/13). 
This is the first occurrence of the above species on the mainland 
of Australia. Mr. Hill states that it is a day-biting species. 

Stegomyia fasciata (Fabr.). 

Syst. Antl., 36 (1805) ; Theobald, Mon. Culicid., i. 289 (1901). 

Ilah. — Maclean, Grafton, Casino, Tabulara, N.S.W. (Dr. Fer- 
guson). 

A very distinct variety occurs in Townsville, which has the 
thoracic clothing of a light fawn-colour, and has the lyre-shaped 
ornamentation only on its lateral edges, the median longitudinal 
lines of white scales being entirely absent. In other respects, it is 
typical. 



456 AUSTRALIAN CULICID^E, i., 

Stkgomyia pseudoscutellaris Theobald. 

Entomologist, xliii., No.565, p.l56(1910). 
Hab. — Samarai Island, Papua{Dr. Breinl). 
This species was originally described from Suva, Fiji ; and is 
said, by Bahr, to be a transmitter of Filaria. 

Stegomyia hilli, n.sp. 
(PI. XXXV., fig. 5.) 

Head black, with a line of white, upright-forked scales at the 
base. Thorax clothed with dark scales. Abdomen black. Legs 
})lack. 

9. Head black, clothed with blacky flat and upright-forked 
scales, with a narrow line of upriglit-forked ones at the base, and 
a row of small flat white ones bordering the eyes; antennae dark 
brown, verticillate hairs black, second segment clothed with small, 
brown, flat scales, basal lobes brown; palpi slender, clothed with 
black scales. 

Thorax dark brown, clothed with small, brown, spindle-shaped 
scales; scutellum light brown, clothed with brown, flat scales, bor- 
der-bristles black ; metanotum brown, prothoracic lobes fairly pro- 
minent and clothed w^th small, pale, flat scales, and a few dark 
bristles. Halteres with pale stems and dark knobs. 

Abdomen clothed with purplish-black scales, first segment with 
a few pale bristles in addition, posterior border-bristles pale and 
very short, apex of abdomen with a dense tuft of black bristles, 
segments five to seven with comparatively large, creamy, apical, 
lateral spots; venter creamy-white, apex dark and clothed with 
dark bristles. 

Legs purplish-black, femora pale beneath except the apex; 
ungues equal and simple. 

Wings with the costa clothed with dark brown scales, veins 
clothed with flat, comparatively broad, brown scales only; first 
fork-cell longer and slightly narrower than the second, base of the 
former nearer the base of the wing than that of the latter ; stem of 
the first fork-cell scarcely half the length of the cell, stem of the 
second fork-cell about two-thirds the length of its cell; anterior 



BY FRANK H. TAYLOR. '^^ 

basal cross-vein longer than the anterior cross-vein, and not quite 
twice its own length distant from it. 

Length, 5 mm. 

//«&.— Melville Island, North Australia (G. F. Hill; 12/4/14). 

Described from two specimens. The clotliing of the thorax, 
w^ngs, and abdominal ornamentation renders this a conspicuous 
species. I have much pleasure in dedicating this species to its dis- 
coverer. Co-type in Mr. Hill's collection. 

Ch^tockuiomyia sylyestris Theobald. 
Mon. Culicid., v., p. 196(1910). 
Hah. — Innisfail, Queensland (E. Jarvis). 

Scutomyia notoscripta (Skuse). 
(PI. xxxv.^ figs. 6-7). 

Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.Wales, (2), iii., p. 1738(1888); Theobald, 
Mon. Culicid., i., p. 286(1901) ; v., p. 200(1910). 

Hah. — Murwillumbah, N.S.W.(Dr. Ferguson) ; Toorak, Victoria 
(Dr. Cumpston) ; Eidsvold, Queensland (Dr. Bancroft), Towns- 
vi]le(Dr. Priestley). 

We have also received specimens of a well defined variety of the 
above from Dr. Bancroft and ]\lr. G. F. Hill, in which the two, 
short, lateral, silvery lines, on either side of the median one on the 
thorax, are entirely absent; in other respects it is quite typical. 
Mr. HilFs specimen is evidently starved, as it measures only 2-5 
mm. 

Hah. — Eidsvold, Queensland; Darwin, Northern Territory. 

-^dimorphus australis, n.sp. 

Head with brown and white flat scales, wdth narrow-curved ones 
behind. Thorax with dark brown, narrow-curved scales. Abdomen 
unhanded, with white, lateral, basal spots. Hind-legs with wliite, 
basally banded tarsi. 

^. Head clothed with alternate patches of dark brown and white 
flat scales, with narrow-curved ones beliind, and black and pale 
upright-forked ones, tlie pale ones at tlie base; proboscis black; 
antenuEe dark brown, basal lobes and basal half of second segment 
pale; palpi clothed with black scales; eyes deep purplish-black. 



458 AUSTRALIAN CULICIDJH, i., 

Thorax black, clothed with dark brown, narrow-curved scales, 
and a few golden ones on the sides; prothoracic lobes black, clothed 
with white, narrow-curved scales; scutellum pale brown, clothed 
with white, flat scales ; pleurae clothed with white, flat scales ; meta- 
notum pale brown. 

Abdomen pale, unhanded, clothed with black scales with a cop- 
pery tint, first segment with a few dark hairs also, with white basal 
lateral spots to all the segments, posterior border-bristles pale; 
venter pale beneath, penultimate and apical segments dark-scaled. 

Legs black, with coppery reflections, with basal pale spots on 
tlie first and second tarsi of the fore- and mid-legs; hind-legs with 
the first three tarsals with white basal banding, the fourth un- 
handed, fifth all white ; ungues equal and simple. 

Wings with the costa, subcostal, and first longitudinal veins 
densely clothed with black scales, remaining veins and fringe 
clothed with dusky-brown scales ; first fork-cell longer and but little 
narrower than the second, stem of the former about one-third the 
length of its cell, stem of the latter about one-half the length of 
the cell; base of the first fork-cell nearer the base of the wing than 
that of the second fork-cell ; anterior basal cross-vein about its own 
length from the aiy;erior cross-vein, halteres pale. 

Length, 2-5 mm. (vix). 

Hah. — Townsville, Queensland. 

Described from a single perfect specimen taken while biting in 
the daytime. The above species is relatively close to A. alhoanmi- 
latus Theobald, but can be distinguished from it by the leg-banding, 
ungues, and wing-venation. 

Var. DARWiNi, n.var. 
(PI. XXXV., fig. 8.) 
^. Head-clothing similar to type. Antennae pale, plumes brown. 
Thorax as in the type. Legs as in the type; ungues of fore- and 
mid-legs very unequal, the larger much curved and with a compara- 
tively large tooth, hind equal and simple. Wings with the costa, 
subcostal, and first longitudinal veins'black-scaled, but not as 
densely as in the type; stem of the first fork-cell about three- 



BY FRANK H. TAYLOR. 459 

fourths the length of the cell, stem of the second fork-cell nearly 
as long as the cell. Length, 3 mm. 
//«6.— Darwin, Northern Territory(G. F. Hill; 21/12/13). 

Macleaya tremula Theobald. 
(PI. XXXV., fig.9.) 
Entomologist, xxxvi., p. 155(1903). 

Hah. — Eidsvokl, Queensland (Dr. Bancroft), Stannary Hills 
(Queensland Museum). 

CULICADA FERGUSONI, n.Sp. 

Head clothed with golden scales. Thorax golden. Legs un- 
handed. Abdomen with white, incomplete, apical banding. 

(J. Head black, clothed with golden, narrow-curved and upright- 
forked scales, and small, pale, flat, lateral ones, with golden bristles 
overhanging the eyes from the centre; eyes black; antennae pale, 
nodes dark, plumes dusky; palpi black-scaled, longer than the 
proboscis, penultimate and apical segments pale at their bases, 
clothed with black hairs; proboscis black. 

Thorax pale brown, clothed with golden scales; prothoracic lobes 
prominent; scutellum clothed with narrow-curved, golden scales; 
pleurae yellowish-brown clothed with broad, white, flat scales ; meta- 
notum brown. 

Abdomen black-sealed; segments with broad, white, apical, 
lateral spots, which give them the appearance of being banded, 
penultimate segment with a narrow, apical, white band, apical seg- 
ment almost entirely clothed with white scales; venter clothed with 
pale scales. 

Legs black, knee-spot pale in the fore- and mid-legs, light ochra- 
ceous in the hind, tibio-tarsal spot ochraceous, femora pale be- 
neath; ungues of fore- and mid-legs unequal, the larger with a 
single tooth, hind equal and simple. 

Wings with the costa black, veins clothed with dusky-brown 
scales ; first fork-cell longer and narrower than the second, stem of 
the former about one-half the length of its cell, stem of the latter 
about two-thirds the length of the cell; anterior basal cross-vein 
longer than the anterior cross-vein, and about once and one-half 



460 AUSTRALIAN CULICIDJE, 1., 

its own lengtli distant from it; fringe dusky. Halteres with the 
stems pale, and knobs light brown. 

Length, 5 mm. 

9. Similar to ^. Palpi black-scaled ; antennae dark brown, 
basal lobes and base of second segment pale. The lateral spots on 
the abdomen not so prominent as in the $: sixth and seventh 
•segments with apical banding. Ungues equal and simple. Length, 
5-5 mm. 

JIah. — Milson Island, Hawkesbury River, N.S.W. 

Described from one male and one female, bred by Dr. Ferguson. 
Type-male in Coll. Ferguson. 

Cui.ICADA VICTORIENSIS, n.sp. 

(PI. xxxvi., fig. 10.) 

Head clothed with golden, narrow-curved scales, and black, 
lateral ones. Thorax clothed with narrow-curved, pale golden 
scales. Abdomen black-scaled, unhanded, with white lateral 
spots. Tarsi with basal banding. 

9. Head black, clothed with golden, narrow-curved and 
upright-forked scales, and black, flat, lateral ones, with a fringe 
of small, narrow-curved, golden ones bordering the eyes, with 
golden bristles overhanging the latter from the centre; antennae 
black, verticillate hairs black, basal lobes dark brown, with 
creamy flat scales on their inner surfaces, basal two-thirds of 
second segment pale; palpi black-scaled, slender, second segment 
mottled with white scales, apex white; proboscis black; eyes 
purplish-black, with silvery spots; clypeus black. 

Thorax dark chestnut-brown, with a narrow, median, longi- 
tudinal, black line extending from the anterior end to opposite 
the wing-roots, clothed with narrow-curved, pale golden scales, 
the posterior end and scutellum paler: scutellum clothed with 
pale golden, narrow-curved scales, and golden border-bristles; 
pleurae yellowish-brown, clothed with creamy flat scales; meta- 
notum light brown. 

Abdomen clothed with black scales, first segment clothed with 
yellowish scales and hairs, the second to fourth segments with 
median, basal, creamy-yellow spots, all the segments v/ith white 
lateral, basal spots; venter mottled with creamy and dark scales. 



\ 



BY FRAXK n. TAYLOR. 461 

Wings clothed with black scales: first fork -cell longer and 
narrower than the second, their bases level; stem of the first 
fork-cell one-half the length of its cell, stem of the second two- 
thirds the length of the cell; supernumerary and anterior cross- 
veins level, the anterior basal cross- vein the same length as the 
anterior cross-vein, and about twice and one-half its own length 
from it: fringe black. 

Legs black, femora ochraceous beneath, knee-spots ochraceous; 
fore- and mid-tibife mottled, first three tarsi of fore- and mid-legs 
with creamy basal banding, all the tarsi of the hind-legs banded; 
ungues all equal and uniserrate. 

Length, 5' 5 mm. 

Bab. — roomk, Victoria (23/4/14). 

Described from a single specimen, presented to the Institute 
by Dr. Cumpston. It can be distinguished from C. hupengary- 
ensis Theobald, by its banded legs, unbanded abdomen, the 
clothing of the thorax, and the serrated ungues. 

CuLiCADA AUSTRALis (Erichson). 

Archiv fiir Naturg., viii., p. 4 70(1842); Theobald, Mon. Culicid., 
ii., p.91(1901). 

Hah. — Hilltop, Narromine, N.S.W.(Drs.Cleland and Ferguson). 

This species is placed in the genus Culicada on account of the 
wings having short fork-cells; the vein-scales being clothed with 
larger and denser scales than in Culex; and the palpi being com- 
posed of four segments, the apical one small and nipple-shaped. 

Culicada vittiger (Skuse). 

Proc Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales, (2), iii., p. 172«(1888); Theobald, 
Mon. Culicid., i, p.387(1901); Taylor, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. 
Wales, xxxviii., p. 753, PI. xxx., figs. 1-2 (1914). 

//a6.— Nowra, N. S. W. (Dr. Cleland), Yarrawin (W. W. 
Froggatt); Eidsvold, Queensland (Dr. Bancroft), Cardigan (F. H. 
Taylor). 

Culicada flavifrons (Skuse). 
Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales, (2), iii., p.l735 (1888); Taylor, 
I.e., xxxviii., p. 751 (1914). 



462 AUSTRALIAN CULICIDJS, i., 

A specimen of this species was kindly lent to me by Mr. 
Froggatt, Government Entomologist of New South Wales, which 
was taken by him on the Clarence River, Northern New South 
Wales. 

The ungues of the fore- and raid-legs are equal and uniserrate, 
of the hind-legs equal and simple. 

CuLiCADA TASMANiENSis Strickland. 

Entomologist, xKv., No.576, p.181 (1911); Taylor, Trans. Ent. 
Soc. Lond., 1913, p.687, PI. xli., figs. 3-4 (March 31, 1914). 

Hab. — Kelso, Hobart, Lindisfarne, St. Helens, Tasmania (F. 
M. Littler). 

Edwards [Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (8), ix., p.526(1912)] places 
this species as a synonym of C. criicians Walker, remarking that 
Walker's type is in poor condition, but quite recognisable as 
being the same as Strickland's species. 

CuLicADA VANDEMA Strickland. 
(PI. xxxvi., fig. 11.) 
Entomologist, xliv., No.577, p. 202(1911). 
Hah. — Wedge Bay, Tasmania (F. M. Littler). 

CULICELSA VIGILAX (Skuse). 

Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales, (2), p.l731 (1888) ; Edwards, 
Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (8), ix., p. 524 (1919); Taylor, Proc. Linn. 
Soc. N. S. Wales, xxxviii., p.756(19l4). 

Hah. — Rydalmere, Maclean, N.S.W. (Dr. Ferguson); Vailala, 
Lese, Papua (Dr. Breinl). 

Edwards gives C. procax Theob., {nee Skuse) as a synonym. I 
think this must be an error, as the species, Theobald redescribed, 
agrees with Skuse's type. 

CULICELSA ALBOANNULATA (Macquart). 

(Plate xxxvi., figs. 12-1 3.) 

Dipt. Exot. Suppl., iv., p.l0(1850); Theobald, Mon. Culicid., i., 
p.389(1901). 

Hah. — The Oaks, N.S.W.(Dr. Ferguson); Eidsvold, Queens- 
land (Dr. Bancroft), Stannary Hills (Queensland Museum). 



I 



BY PRANK H. TAYLOR. 463 

CULEX BIOCELLATUS, n.Sp. 

(Plate xxxvi., figs. 14-15.) 

Head clothed with golden scales. Thorax brown, clothed with 
golden scales, Abdomen black-scaled, with ochraceous basal 
banding. Legs with the first three tarsi basally banded. 

9. Head brown, clothed with golden, narrow-curved and 
upright-forked scales, with small, flat, golden ones laterally; pro- 
boscis black, with the middle third mottled with golden scales; 
palpi black-scaled; eyes black and silvery; antennae black, basal 
lobes and base of second segment yellow. 

Thorax brown, clothed with golden, narrow-curved scales; pro- 
thoracic lobes clothed with flat, golden scales and bristles; scu- 
tellum yellow, clothed with golden, narrow-curved scales; pleurae 
brown, clothed with creamy, flat scales and golden bristles; meta- 
notum yellowish-brown. 

Abdomen pale, black-scaled, first segment clothed with creamy 
scales and golden bristles, the second and fifth to seventh seg- 
tnents with broad, ochraceous, basal banding, remaining segments 
with narrow banding, all the segments with lateral, white, basal 
spots, posterior border-bristles golden; venter with the first two 
segments creamy-yellow, remaining segments with creamy-yellow, 
basal banding. 

Legs black-scaled; fore-legs with the femora creamy-yellow 
beneath, tibiae and first tarsals mottled with yellow scales beneath, 
first and second tarsi with basal pale spots, remaining tarsi un- 
handed; mid-legs with the basal two-thirds of the femora pale 
beneath, the base and apex with golden rings, the first three 
tarsi with white basal bands; hind-femora creamy, with a broad, 
almost apical, black band and an apical pale ring, the first three 
tarsi with broad, white, basal banding; ungues of fore- and mid- 
legs equal and uniserrate, hind equal and simple. 

Wings clothed with black scales, with a yellow costal spot at 
the base, and another extending to the first longitudinal vein 
immediately above the first fork-cell; fringe black; first fork-cell 
longer and scarcely narrower than the second: the anterior basal 
cross-vein longer than the anterior cross-vein, and about once 



464 AUSTRALIAN CULICID^, 1., 

and one-half its own length distant from it. Halteres creamy- 
yellow. 

Lengthy 4 mm. 

Hah. — Milson Island, Hawkesbiiry River, N.S.W, 
Described from specimens taken by Drs. Ferguson and Cleland. 
It is a very handsome and well defined species. 

CuLEX FATIGANS Wiedeman. 

Aussereurop. zweiflug. Insecten, p.lO (1828); Theobald, Mon. 
Culicid., i, p.l51(1901). 

Hah. — Casino, Tabulam, Milson Island, N.S.W. (Dr. Ferguson); 
Toorak, Yictoria(Dr. Cumpston). 

CuLEX OCCIDENTALIS Skuse. 

(PL xxxvii., figs.16-17.) 

Proc. Linn. 8oc. N. S. Wales, (2), iii., p.l729( 1888); Theobald, 
iVJon. Culicid., i., p.419(1901); Taylor, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. 
Wales, xxxviii., p.756(1914). 

Hah. — Sydney, Yerranderie, The Oaks, Milson Island, N.S.W. 
(Dr. Ferguson); Eidsvold, Queensland (Dr. Bancroft). 

Dr. Bancroft has recently sent me a series of a variety of this 
species, in which the hind spical tarsus is pure white. It con- 
forms with typical specimens in other details. 

CuLEX TiGRiPES Grandpre et Charmoy. 
(PI. xxxvii., Hg.l8.) 
Les Monst. (Planters' Gaz. Press) 1900; Theobald, Mon. Culi- 
cid., ii., p.34(1901). 

i/a6.— Rydalmere, N.S.W. (Dr. Ferguson). 

CuLEX SITIENS Wied. 

Aussereurop. zweifiiig. Ins., i., p. 543 (1828); Culex annuli- 
rostris Skuse, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales, (2), iii., p. 17 37(1 888); 
Theobald, Mon. Culicid., i., p.360(1901); Edwards, Bull. Ent. 
Research, iv., p. 232 (1913). 

Hah. — Kerema, Lese, Papua (Dr. Breinl). 

I have examined a long series of C. annulirostris Skuse, from 
various localities, and have found specimens which exactly agree 
with Theobald's description of C. sitiens Wied. 



BY FRANK H. TAYLOR. 465 

CiENOCEPHALUS CONCOLOR Taylor. 

Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1913, p. 700, PI. xlii., figs. 16-1 7 (1914). 
Hab. — Kelso, Tasmania. 

Specimens of this species have been received from Mr. F. M. 
Littler. They are larger, 6*5 mm., but are quite typical. 

FiNLAYA POiciLiA Theobald. 

Mon. Culicid., iii., p.283 (1903); v., p.464 (1910). 
//a6. - Kerema, Papua (Dr. Breinl). 

►SkUSEA 13ANCR0FTI, n.Sp. 

(PI. xxxvii., fig. 19.) 

Head clothed with brow^n and white flat scales, and black 
upright-forked ones. Abdomen brown, unhanded, with small, 
lateral, white spots. Legs brown, unhanded. 

(J. Head brown, clothed with mixed brown and white flat 
scales, with a few, dark, upright-forked ones at the base; antennae 
pale, nodes black, basal lobes black; proboscis brown, the apical 
third swollen, palpi black, with a few black bristles at the apex; 
clypeus black; eyes black and silvery. 

Thorax brown, clothed with pale, narrow, curved scales; scu- 
tellum light brown, clothed with pale, narrow, curved scales ; 
pleurae yellowish-brown, clothed with white, flat scales; meta- 
notum brown. 

Abdomen clothed with dark brown scales, segments with small, 
lateral, basal, white spots; venter clothed with pale scales. 

Legs brown, femora pale beneath; ungues of fore- and mid-legs 
unequal, tiie larger with a single tooth, hind-ungues equal and 
simple. 

Wings wi(h the costa dusky brown, veins clothed with brown 
scales; first fork-cell longer and narrower than the second, base 
of the latter nearer the base of the wing than that of the former; 
supernumerary and anterior cross- veins almost in a straight line, 
anterior basal cross-vein shorter than the anterior cross-vein, and 
nearly thrice its own length distant from it. 

Lenfjth., 2-5 mm. 



466 AUSTRALIAN CULICID^, i., 

9. Similar to ^. Antennae dark brown, basal lobes paler; palpi 
black-scaled, bristles brown; fore- and mid-ungues equal, uni- 
serrate, hind equal and simple. 

Wings with the first fork-cell longer and narrower than the 
second, stem of the former about two-thirds the length of the 
cell; anterior basal cross-vein a little more than twice its own 
length from the anterior cross- vein. 

Length, 3 mm. 

Hah. .Eidsvold, Queensland (Dr. T. L. Bancroft). 

Close to *S'. diurna Theob., but can be distinguished from it by 
the head-ornamentation, the wing- venation, and the fore- and 
mid-ungues. I have much pleasure in dedicating this species to 
its discoverer. Dr. Bancroft writes that it is a sylvan species, 
and bites man. 

Menolepsis(I) tasmaniensis, n.sp. 
(Pl.xxxvii., fig. 20.) 

Head clothed with creamy-yellow and dark brown scales. Legs 
brown. Abdomen black-scaled, unhanded. 

9. Head dark brown, clothed with creamy-yellow, narrow- 
curved scales, with mixed black and creamy-yellow, upright - 
forked ones, and a patch of bronzy-brown, narrow-curved ones 
on either side in front, the lateral, flat scales small and creamy- 
white, with a small patch of dark ones in their midst ; eyes 
purplish-black and silvery, border-bristles dark, with some golden- 
yellow ones overhanging the eyes from the centre; palpi ap- 
parently three-jointed, pale, clothed with dark scales, and a few 
scattered pale ones with numerous black bristles; proboscis black; 
antennae brovrn, second segment pale, basal lobes dark brown, 
and clothed with small, dark, outstanding, narrow scales. 

'J'horax chestnut-brown, clothed with small, narrow-curved, 
creamy scales, with a lateral, pre-alar row of white, outstanding, 
flat ones, and numerous, yellowish bristles at the roots of the 
wings; scutellum chestnut-brown, clothed with creamy, narrow- 
curved scales, posterior border-bristles golden; prothoracic lobes 
chestnut-brown, clothed with creamy, narrow-curved scales ; 
pleurae brown, clothed with creamy-white, flat scales and yellow 



BY FRANK H. TAYLOR. 467 

bristles ; raetanotum chestnut-brown, with a patch of white, 
curved, and fiat scales on the posterior third. 

Abdomen brown, first and second segments very hairy, remain- 
ing segments more or less hairy; first segment with mixed pale 
and dark brown scales, the second and third segments with a few 
white scales at their bases, seventh segment with white basal 
banding, segments two to seven with white, lateral, basal spots; 
venter white-scaled. 

Legs brown, femora, tibiye, and first tarsals mottled with white 
scales, knee-spot pale; ungues equal and uniserrate 

Wings with the costa subcostal, and first longitudinal veins 
clothed with dark brown scales; first fork-cell longer and narrower 
than the second, base of the former nearer the base of the wing 
than that of the latter; stem of the first fork-cell one-third the 
length of its cell, stem of the second one-half the length of the 
cell; anterior basal cross-vein longer than the anterior cross-vein, 
and about one-fifth its own length distant from it. Halteres 
with pale stems and dusky knobs. — ^ 

Length, 6*5 mm. 

i^a6.— Wedge Bay, Tasmania (F. M. Littler). 



EXPLANATION OF PLATES XXXIV. -XXXVIL 

[Figs.1,2, 6, 8, 11 to 18, and 20 (X 16); figs. 3, 4, 5, 7,9, 10 and 19 ( x 40).] 

Plate xxxiv. 

Fig. 1. — Armiqe7-es ohturhans{^'si\kQv) ? ; head. 
Fig.2. — Armigeres obturhans (Walker) 9 ; wing. 
Fig, 3. — Stegomyia Scutellaria (Walker) i ; head. 
Fig. 4. — Stegomyia sc-«<e//arw (Walker) S ; wing. 

Plate XXXV. 

Fig. 5. — Stegomyia hilli, n.sp., 9 ; wing. 

Fig. 6. —Scutomyia notoscripta (Skuse) i ; head. 

Fig.7. — Scutomyia notoscripta (Skuse) i ; wing. 

Fig. 8. — ^EdimorpJms australis var. darwini, n.var., S ; wing. 

Fig.9.— ilfac/mya tremida Theobald, 9 ; wing. 



468 AUSTRALIAN CCLICI D^F.,i. 

Plate xxxvi. 

Fig. 10. — Cidicada victoriensis, n.sp., 9 ; wing. 
¥ig. II. --Culicada vandema Strickland, 9 ; wing. 
Fig. 12. — Gidicelsa cdhoanniUata (Macq. ) 6 ; head. 
Fig. lii. — Culicelsa alboaimidata' {M-Acq. ) <i ; wing. 
Fig.li. — Cidex biocellatus, n.sp., 9 ; head. 
Fig. 15. — Cidex biocellahis, n.sp., 9 ; wing. 

Plate xxxvii. 

Fig. 16. — Culex occidentalis Skuse, i ; head. 
Fig. 17. — 6'?<^ea: occidentalis Skiise, 9 ; wing. 
Fig.18. —Gtdfx tigripes G. et C, 9 ; wing. 
Fig. 19. — Skitsea bancrofli, n.sp., 9 ; wing. 
Fig.20. — Me7iolejn8{l) tasmaniensis, n.sp.,^; wing. 



469 



ORDINARY. MONTHLY MEETING. 

September 30th, 1914. 

Mr. W. S. Dun, President, in the Chair. 

A letter from Dr. C. MacLaurin was communicated, returning 
thanks for the expression of the Society's sympathy, evoked by 
the decease of Sir Normand MacLaurin, the senior surviving 
Original Member of the Society. 

By the kindness of the Local Hon. Secretary, British Associa- 
tion for the Advancement of Science (Sydney Meeting, August, 
1914), copies of the Sydney Address of the President (Prof. 
Bateson) were available for distribution to Members of the 
Society (on application to the Secretary) 

The Donations and Exchanges received since the previous 
Monthly Meeting 1 26th August, 1914), amounting to 5 Vols., 
41 Parts or Nos., 2 Reports, 1 Map, and 6 Pamphlets, received 
from 37 Societies, etc., and two private donors, were laid upon 
the table. 

NOTES AND EXHIBITS. 

The Rev. W. W. Watts exhibited a specimen of Robert 
Brown's FJatyzoraa microphyllum, showing a character generally 
overlooked in descriptions, probably because seldom present, 
namely, a cluster of small, filiform leaves, growing out of the 
rhizome, close to the clustered fertile fronds. These are, in all 
probability, the sterile fronds; they are quite entire, and only 
about one-fifth the length of the fertile fronds. Though omitted 
in most descriptions, these small fronds were not overlooked by 
Robert Brown, who wrote at the end of his description (Prodr., 



470 NOTES AND EXHIBITS. 

p.l60) : "Frondes ex eodem rhizomate compresso-filiformes, 
indivisse." 

Mr. Froggatt exhibited a fine series of specimens of male and 
female Mountain-grasshoppers, Acridopeza reticulata {Locustidce). 
They were received from Mr. Arthur McConochie, Gnomery 
Station, Brewarrina, who reported that they were feeding on 
Sowthistle. He showed, also, branchlets of Peppermint-gums 
from Salisbury Park, near Uralla, girdled by the larvae of some 
undetermined longicorn beetle, which remains in the fallen 
branches. There are thousands of acres of the open forest- 
country, where the surface of the ground is littered with dead 
branchlets. 

Mr. A. A. Hamilton showed a .series of plants from the 
National Herbarium comprising : Zinnia elegans Jacq., Sydney 
Botanic Gardens (J. H. Camfield; April^ 1906), showing floral, 
and foliar prolification of the inflorescence. The ray florets are 
elevated on adventitious stems which arise from the still adherent 
floral bracts, the lamina of the ligula at this stage exhibits vires- 
cence, and is seen to enclose an abortive, miniature flower-head. 
In both ligulate and tubular Howers the achenes are early 
attenuated and infertile. — Zinnia Hort. var.. Hunter's Hill (H. 
Deane, 1902), showing lateral, foliar prolification of the inflores- 
cence. Reduced branches with opposite leaves and miniature 
foliaceous flowers arise from the axils of the involucral bracts of 
the primary flower-head, its tubular florets are raised on lengthy 
peduncles, and several ray-florets are represented by lateral leafy 
ligulse, the remainder being suppressed. — Citrus medica Linn., 
Beecroft (W. M. Carne; August, 1914), showing dialysis of the 
carpels. The pericarp is seen to be laterally ruptured, and the dis- 
jointed placentas have protruded, disclosing the seeds. — Carc?2^ws 
lanceolatus Linn.(W.Muggridge; February, 1904), showing lateral, 
foliar prolification of the inflorescence. A series of pedunculate 
adventitious buds consisting of involucral bracts, and with no 
trace of reproductive organs, occurs within the ordinary involucre 
of the capitate inflorescence.— 6^ooc?e?ua dimorpha Maiden & 



NOTES AND EXHIBITS. 471 

Betche, Leura(A. A. Hamilton; April, 1914), showing a rosette 
of basal leaves on one of its branches. The plant, which is a 
swamp-dweller, had been overturned, and was lying on its side. 
While in this position, it had produced a basal rosette on the 
prostrate branch, and rooted it, thus strengthening its resistance 
to further displacement in its unstable environment. — Acacia 
suaveolens Willd., Cook's lliver(A. A.Hamilton; August, 1914), 
an example showing a reversion to juvenile foliage. The plant 
was found growing in a favourable situation, appeared to be 
normally healthy, and exhibited no sign of ill-usage, which would 
be likely to interfere with its ordinary growth. Examples of 
this species from Leura (A. A. Hamilton; April, 1914), were 
exhibited, showing the sclerophyllous phyllodes of this xerophyte. 
It was noted that, on the higher elevations of the Blue Mountains, 
A . suaveolens is to be found only on the tops of bleak, stony, soil- 
denuded ridges. A series of leaves was also shown to illustrate 
variation (A. A. Hamilton; Blaxland; June, 1914) chiefly in the 
relative proportions of length to width; some measurements are, 
4i X I; 3 X I; IJ x |; 6 x f^; 4| x -J; 11 x ^V inch.— A^mi/aa^ glycy- 
phylla Sm., Waterfall^ A. A. Hamilton; June, 1914), a series of 
leaves showing morphological divergences in size, texture, and 
shape. The apices of the leaves vary from obtuse to acute and 
acuminate, and their bases from cordate, rotundate, or elliptical 
to lanceolate. Measurements, 4| x 1; 2| x If; 3 x |; 2 x :^; 1 x J 
inch. 

Mr. E. Cheel exhibited a fine series of specimens, representing 
the following species of Dillwynia : D. parvifolia R.Br., (D. 
ericifolia var. parvifolia Benth.); between Flemington and Lid- 
combe (late Rookwood, August, 1898. Fresh specimens again 
collected in September, 1914). — D. peduncularis Sieb., {D. erici- 
folia var. peduncularis Benth.), common in the neighbourhood of 
Randwick; Kahibah, near Newcastle; and Hill Top to Mount 
Jellore, on the Southern Railway line. — D. phylicoides A. Cunn , 
[D. ericifolia var phylicoides Benth.), Mount Victoria, Lawson, 
and several other localities in the Blue Mountains, — The above 
species are united with D. ericifolia Sm., as varieties by Bentham, 



472 NOTES AND EXHIBITS. 

but the different habit, distribution, and character of the foliage 
and flowers enables one to separate them easily from that species. 
Examples of a species, probably undescribed, collected at Bishops- 
court, near Rand wick, in August, 1898, and other localities as 
far as Hill Top, where it is very common, having distinctly 
spinescent branches, were also exhibited, together with typical 
specimens of D. eyicifoJia Sm., D. fJoribunda Sm,, D. brunioides 
Meissn., D. juniperiiia Sieb., and D. cinerascens R. 13r., for com- 
parison with the above.— Mr. Cheel also showed fresh, flowering 
specimens of Callistemon viminalis (Sol.) Cheel,* from a private 
garden at Flemington, where there are nine fine shrubs about 
15-18 feet high, all in full flower at the present time. — A flower- 
ing spike, about 5 J inches long, from a hybrid of C. lanceolatus 
X C. acuminatus, together with a spike from typical C. lanceo- 
latus DC, for comparison. The characters of the leaves and 
habit are intermediate between the two. 

Dr. C. Hall showed a remarkable series of hybi-id Freesias. 

Mr. E. C. Andrews sent, for exhibition, specimens of ordinary 
red fruits, and also yellow fruits of Fitsanus acuminatus R.Br., 
the Quandong, with a basal elongation of the pericarp; from 
Bogan River, near Tottenham. 



* Australian Naturalist, ii.(l913), 185. 



473 



THE EVOLUTION OF THE EUCALYPTS IN RELA- 
TION TO THE COTYLEDONS AND SEEDLINGS. 

By Cuthbert Hall, M.D., Ch.M. 

(Plates xxxviii.-lxix.) 

Introductory. — Although so much work has been done in 
elucidating the botanical, chemical, industrial, and other rela- 
tions of the various species of Eucalyptus, the subject of the seed- 
lings, and especially of the form of the cotyledon-leaves, and the 
part the latter have taken in the evolution of the genus, has 
received scant attention. Our two main contributions, so far, 
have been from Lubbock, in his "On Seedlings," in which the 
seedlings of ten species are described; and from Baron von 
Mueller, in his " Eucalyptographia," in which he gives drawings 
of the cotyledons of twenty species; but some of these are far 
from accurate, especially in the case of E. amygdalina and E. 
globulus. In this research, I have investigated the seedlings of 
nearly 150 species, and so have been able to compare one with 
another, and to trace the development of the higher from the 
more primitive forms, and gain an idea of the influences which 
brought this about. 

I am under a deep debt of obligation to Mr. R. T. Baker, 
F.L.S., for supplying seeds that were botanically correct, and for 
identifying the species where seeds were collected by myself; to 
Mr. H. G. Smith, F.C.S., for help and advice, and to Mr. T. C. 
Roughley, of the Technological Museum, Sydney, for the ex- 
cellent series of photographs of the mounted seedlings taken by 
him. The seeds of most of the Western Australian species were 
obtained from Mr. J. Staer, and so I have to rely on his naming 
of them. Those from him were E. calojihylla, E. cornuta, E. 
diversicolor, E. eudesmioides, E. gomphocephala, E. leptopoda, E. 
Lehmanni, E. loxophleba, E. mm-ginata, E. occidentalis, E. per- 
foliata, E. platyj)hylla, E. jjolyanthema, E. redunca, E, mlubris^ 



474 EVOLUTION OF THE EUCALYPTS, 

E. striaticalyx, and E. Todtiana. Professor Ewart, of Melbourne, 
kindly supplied E. Muelleriaiia; and Mr. R. H. Cainbage, E. 
Moorei. 

The seeds were planted in boxes, in ordinary potting soil 
consisting of a mixture of sand, leaf-mould, and loam; and were 
covered with a mulch of tan-bark. Germination usually took 
place at the end of a week, though often stray seedlings would 
appear a week or fortnight later, especially if cool cloudy weather 
succeeded hot sunny conditions. Sometimes seeds, though 
known to be fresh and, therefore, supposedly fertile, failed to 
germinate at all. In other cases, a few germinated, but chemical 
and physical conditions seemed to be adverse, and it was impos- 
sible to grow them to any size. Notable among these, were E. 
Dawsoni, E. camphora, E. fastigata^ and E. dextropinea. In 
other instances, the seed had been kept so long, that most, if not 
all, the fertile seeds had perished. It must be remembered that 
most of the Eucalypts have specialised in their liking for a 
particular soil and certain climatic conditions for unknown ages, 
and unless they can get these to their liking, they do not thrive. 
September appears to be the best month in which to plant. 

2^he keeping qualities of Eucalyptus seeds in a dry state. 

This faculty is very marked in most of the species. The seeds 
used in this research were all grown in the soil, but Professor 
Ewart, of Melbourne, by soaking in water, then placing on filter 
paper in glass dishes in a germinating chamber, had ^'^ % of 
seeds of E. rostrata germinate after keeping 37 years, 1*2% of 
E. leptopoda after 30 years, 11% of ^. diversicolor after 24 years, 
and 9% of E. cor nuta aiter 22 years. With the exception of E. 
calophylla, all these have small cotyledons, and E. leptopoda and 
E. cornuta have deeply bifid ones. A great many of the seeds I 
used were obtained from the specimen-cases of the Technological 
Museum, Sydney, where they had lain, after falling from the fruit 
on its drying, and dehiscence occurring. In many instances, 
only a few seeds were procurable, and most of these may not 
have been fertile in the first instance. If a large quantity of 
seed was obtained and carefully preserved, I believe Eucalyptus 



BY CUTHBERT HALL. 475 

seeds could be made to keep for much longer periods than found 
here. Seed of E. Baileyana, after 23 years, failed to germinate; 
and others that also gave no result were E. lactea (19 years), E. 
qiiadranyulata {\%), E. sideroxylon (11), E. melliodo7'a (I'.l), E. 
Miielleri (\Q), E. tet'minalis (12), E. angophoroides {\\), E. vitrea 
(12), E. dextropineailS and 18), E. Dawsoni{lS), E. hcemastoma 
(16), E. f?\ixinoides (IS), E. acacicpformisi^W)^ E. LiLehm<i7iniana 
(19), E.fastigata (13), E. pyri/ormis {'21), E. albe7is (12), and E. 
tessellaris (12 years). On the other hand, E. Risdoid {^ years), 
E.carnea{\\), E. Stuartia'na(lO), E. ovali/olia{\2), E. Woollsiana 
(8), E. pendnla (1\), E. hemilampra(9), E. pjinctata (\^), E. 
umbra (6), E. viridis {\\), E. paludosa (l^), E trachyphloia {\^), 
E. Eosfiii(7 ), E. pulvenilenta(lO), E. Baeuerleni{lO), E Macarthiiri 
(8), E. 7iigra{l'S), E. goniocalyx{\3), E. conica{\\), E. camphor a 
(12), E. gracilis{S), E. Planchoniana{l\), E . intertexta{\0), E. 
Morrisii{\\), E. aggregata(\3), E, de(dhata{\2), E. marginata{l), 
E. ajfinis{l0), E. hcemasto^na var. micranthailQ), and E. obliqua 
(18 years), all germinated after such prolonged periods of pre- 
servation. That seeds of E. obliqua and E trachyphloia should 
keep 18 years, and E. Jwrnastoma var. 7nicrantha and E. pu7icta(a 
16 years, is a remarkable testimony to the power of the seeds of 
this genus of withstanding dessication for prolonged periods. 

Much has been written, especially by foreign observers, as to 
" the variability of Eucalyptus under cultivation." I have not 
found this to be so, even after growing seedlings of the same 
species from widely separated localities. They have invariably 
come true. We may get some fluctuations or slight departures 
from the normal, but when species have been botanically identified 
by an expert, who knows the Eucalypts, this supposed variability 
has not been found to occur. Many of the mistakes have been 
due to trusting to the vernacular names of collectors, who had a 
very imperfect botanical knowledge. Again as to hybridism, I 
have been keenly on the alert to discover instances of this, but, 
after examining thousands of seedlings from different species, I 
have not seen one single instance of it so far. 

Although the seedlings of many species differ so markedly 
from one another, that they could be detected at once, 1 have 



476 



EVOLUTION OF THE EUCALYPTS, 



hitherto found them uniform throughout, though there may be 
sHght differences in size, vigour, etc. tStill, knowing that hybrid- 
ism has actually been proved in the genus Acacia (Proc. Linn. 
Soc. N. S. Wales, xxxv., Pt.2), of which, as of the Eucalypts, so 
many species occur in Australia, we may hope soon for actual 
demonstration of such occurring in the latter. Up to the present, 
though much lias been said as to one species being a hybrid of 
two others, we have had no actual proof. 

Fruits and Seeds. — In Eucalyptus, the fruit is a capsule open- 
ing at the top in three to six valves, which dehisce along their 
centre. In E. phcenicea, there are only two cells. Fruit generally 
many- seeded, the majority, or all but one, being sterile. In the 
cori/mbosa-grouip, of which E. corymhosa may be taken as the 
type, there is generally only one fertile seed to each cell, and 
this is vertically compressed, and flattened from before back- 
wards, the hilum showing as a paler depression in the middle of 
the ventral surface, and the testa is frequently prolonged into a 
membranous appendage to aid distribution by the wind. In E. 
corymhosa^ the posterior angle is keeled. In most of the other 
Eucalypts, the fertile seeds are more luimerous, and are com- 
pressed and angled laterally, according to their position in the 
cell: the hilum is at the narrower inner extremity, and the larger 
outer extremity is rounded to the shape of the wall of the cell. 
The sterile seeds are light brown, narrow or linear, the fertile 
ones dark brown or black. 

The testa is membranous, brown or black, and has not under- 
gone much modification, except in the development of the afore- 
said membranous appendage in the Corymbosas, and some allied 
northern species. 

Endosperm is absent. 

Embryo. — As endosperm is not present, the form of the embryo 
depends on the shape, size, and manner of folding of the coty- 
ledons. The length of the petioles in the embryo depends on 
the distance from the junction of lamina and petiole to the 
superior pole of the radicle; and, in most species, is probably 
fairly short before germination. In E. citrwdora and E. macn- 
lata, the cotyledons are almost sessile. In E. marginata, the 



BY CUTHBERT HALL. 477 

hypocotyl is subterranean, and the failure of this to elongate, by 
growth in germination, is compensated for by the great elonga- 
tion by growth of the petioles, so as to raise the laminae well 
above the ground. A similar condition obtains in Aiigophora 
cordifolia, where the hypocotyl is short, and the petioles long. 
E. calofjhylla and E. Todtiana also have fairly long petioles. 

Radicle. —A series of sections of the seeds for microscopic 
examination would be necessary to give the shape and length of 
the radicle, and with such small seeds as the majority of the 
species possess, this would be difficult of accomplishment. As 
far as I have been able to observe, in the larger seeds, the radicle 
is short, thick, and truncate, resting on the lower pole of the 
seed from which it emerges in the corymbosa-groxx^; or against 
the hilum, from the neighbourhood of which it emerges, in the 
globulus- and allied groups. 

Cotyledon- Leaves. — Lubbock states that, in the great majority 
of plants, the cotyledons are entire. In tlie Eucalypts, however, 
emargination in a greater or less degree is more common, and in 
some species, reaches an extreme degree. As this appears to be 
a response to Australian xerophytic conditions, it indicates that 
the species with simpler, entire cotyledons are those of the more 
primitive type; while those, with emarginate cotyledons, are of 
the more evolved and developed type, and this bears out the 
researches on the botanical and chemical characters of the genus. 
Botanically and chemically, the " Bloodwood "- or coryrabosa- 
group has been considered the most primitive, and to most closely 
approach the allied genus Angophora, and the seedlings bear this 
out. Iti my companion paper to this, "The Seedlings of the 
Angophoras," (Proc. Roy. 8oc. N. S. Wales, Vol. xlvii.), I have 
sliown that all, except A. cordifolia, have reniform, entire coty 
ledons. Those of E. corymbosa and its congeners are of the same 
form, and quite indistinguishable. The primary leaves, however, 
serve to separate them, as in the Corymbosas they are petiolate, 
and alternate after the first or second pair, in many cases 
becoming peltate as well. Both, however, have stellate hairs on 
the early leaves. After growing the seedlings of such a large 
number of species, and comparing them, it was seen that a very 



478 EVOLUTION OF THE EUCALYPTS, 

interesting and instructive classification of tliera, according to 
size and shape of cotyledons, could be made; and that, in many 
instances, this tentative arrangement followed certain morpho- 
logical and chemical lines in a manner hitherto unsuspected by 
workers on the subject of Eucalyptology. (Certain species were 
found to adhere to the entire type of cotyledon, and in the case 
of the Eastern Australian Stringybarks, this adherence was very 
close. In other instances, there seemed a return to the primitive 
type of cotyledon, as in E. dumosa and E. incrassata. What 
species represent the prototype of the emarginate form, whether 
it appeared suddenly or gradually, in what part of the continent 
it first developed, cannot at present be told. Fuller knowledge 
of the seedlings of the remaining species of Eucalypts, and a 
consideration of their distribution, may give a ke}^ to solve the 
problem. However, just as we have the Corymbosas with large, 
entire cotyledons, so we have the group, like E. marginata, with 
large, emarginate ones: then we have the peppermint-group, with 
smaller cotyledons, slightly or hardly at all emarginate; then a 
large collection of species, all more or less emarginate, but with 
cotyledons gradually diminishing in size, till we get the almost 
minute ones of E. rostrata and E. viridis; and finally, the ex- 
tremely bifid species of the E. squamosa type. We may thus 
place the Eucalypts in two great cotyledonary classes, entire and 
emarginate, and group them as follows. 

{.Entire Cotyledons. 

(a). Blood woods or Corymbosas, characterised by very large 
or medium-sized cotyledons, usually reniform in shape, and 
resembliiig those of the Angophoras, comprising E. calophijUa, 
E. perfoliata, E. exiniia, E. cofynibosa, E. trachyphloia.^ E. citrio- 
dora, E. maculata, and E. %7itermedia. The primary leaves very 
soon become alternate, and generally peltate; they are petiolate, 
and covered with glandular hairs. 

(6). Cotyledons of medium size to small, reniform, entire; 
primary leaves opposite, shortly petiolate, covered with glandular 
hairs: mainly Stringybarks, with reniform anthers. — E. hevopinea^ 
E. dextropiiiea, E. Wilkinsoniana, E. euyenioides, E. capitellata, 



BY CUTHBERT HALL. 479 

E. mdcrorhyncha^ E. nig7'a, E. obliqua, E. Miielleriayia^ E. Afar^s- 
deni (sp.nov.) J E. fastiyata, and E. regnans. The last-named has 
a smooth bark, but otherwise the seedling resembles the others. 

(c). Cotyledons small, reniform or. orbicular; leaves smooth and 
petiolate. E. dumosa, E. popuhfolia, E. quadrangulata, E. poly- 
bractea, and E. iricrassata. It is probable that these, in under- 
going reduction in size, have reverted to the primitive type as 
regards shape. 

ii. Emarginate Cotyledons. 

(a). Cotyledons large, obcordate, cuneate at base, petioles long. 
E. marginata, E. Todtiana^ E. megacarpa, and E. santali folia. 
The last-named shades off into the following group. 

{b). Cotyledons medium to small, emargination moderate, slight 
or even practically absent. Primary leaves smooth, as a rule, 
and sessile. In most cases, the under sides of the leaves and 
cotyledons are tinged deep purplish-red. Most of these species 
contain eucalyptol, and many of them phellandrene and piperi- 
tone. The anthers are generally reniform. This group comprises 
E. Plaiichoniana, E. pilularis, E. acmenioides, E. umbra, E. 
carnea, E Risdoni, E. linearis, E. phlebophylla, E. hcemastoma, 
E. stricta, E. Bossii, E. striaticalyx, E. piperita, E. amygdalina, 
E. coccifera, E. vitrea, E. Luehmanniana, E. 07'eades, E. Sieberi- 
ana, E. Delegatensis, E. campanulata, E. Andrewsi , E. coriacea, 
E. dives, E. radiata, E. apiculata, E. virgata, E. obtusifiora, E. 
stellulata, and E. Moorei. 

(c^) Cotyledons smaller, more or less transversely oblong, 
emargination moderate or very slight; primary leaves generally 
smooth, petiolate, or sessile, the latter often glaucous. In this 
group may be placed the Ironbarks and most of the Boxes, with 
anthers opening by pores; the remainder mostly have parallel 
anthers. In this group are E. botryoides, E. saligna, E. robusta, 
E. Baeuerleni, E. propinqua, E. microcorys, E. panicidata, E. 
crebra, E. sideroxylon, E. melanophloia, E. siderophloia, E. albens, 
E. hemiphloia, E. 7'esinifera, E. punctata, E. Muelleri, E.fasci- 
culosa, E. longifolia, E. diversicolor, E. leucoxylon, E sp.nov. 
(R. T. Baker), E. patentinervis, E. vimiiialis, E. saligna var. 
pallidivalvis, E. Perriniana, E. Gunnii, E. Stuartiana, E. cinerea, 



480 EVOLUTION OF THE EUCALYPTS, 

E. Smithii^ E paludosa, E. lactea, E. melliodora, E. sideroxylon 
var. pallens, and E. acervula. 

(c^). Cotyledons very small, transversely oblong or triangular, 
emargination slight or practically absent. Primary leaves gener- 
ally smooth and petiolate. Where the petiole is so small, it is 
sometimes almost impossible to know whether to put some of 
these in this group or in i.(c). Comprised in this group are E. 
Macarthur\ E. ruhida, E. pidverulenta, E. Morrisii, E. macu- 
losa, E. odoraia, E. Behriana, E. dealbata, E. ovalifolia, E. 
sp.nov., (R. T. Baker), E. Woollsiana, E. conica, E. intertexta, 
E. Fletcher i, E. nova-anylica, E. viridis, E. affinis, E. camphor a, 
E. aggregata, E. rostrata, E. acaciceformis, E. Rodwayi, E. tereti- 
cornis var. linearis, E. tereticornis, E. Parramattensis, E. Bosisto- 
ana, and E. folyhractea. 

(c^). Cotyledons larger than in ii.(c^), more deeply emarginate, 
lobes obovate-oblong, obtuse, divergent. In many, the primary 
leaves are sessile and glaucous. It will be seen that this group 
shades olf from (c^), just as (c") may be taken to shade off from 
(c^) in the other direction. Comprised in it are E. eudesmioides, 
E. gomphocephala, E. Lehmanni, E. cosmophylla, E. corynocalyx, 
E. hemilampra, E. eUeophora, E. goniocalyx, E. urnigera, E. 
unialata, E. Maideni, E. glohnhis, and E. sp.nov.,(R. T. Baker). 

{d). Cotyledons deeply bifid, the emargination being carried to 
an extreme degree; hence they may be termed Y-shaped. The 
lobes or limbs of the Y are finally so reduced as to be merely 
linear. The primary leaves are generally opposite, and linear or 
linear-lanceolate. This comprises E. comnta, E. polyanthema, E. 
occidentalis, E. salubris, E. leptopoda, E. loxophleha, E. redunca, 
E. gracilis, E. pendula, E. calycogona, E. uncinata, E. cneori- 
folia, E. oleosa, E. salmonophloia, and E. squamosa. 

Description of Eucalyptus Seedlings. 
i. Cotyledons entire. 
{a.) Cotyledons large to medium, mostly reniform ; primary 
leaves generally with stellate hairs, frequently peltate. 

E.calophylla R.Br. (Plate xxxviii., fig. 1).— My results agree 
with Lubbock's. Note should be made of the large reniform- 



BY CUTHBERT HALL. 481 

orbicular cotyledons, the largest so far known among Eucalypts, 
and larger than any in the Angophoras; the petioles are really 
longer than are shown in Lubbock's diagram, and the leaves 
alternate from the beginning. The incipient emargination men- 
tioned by Lubbock is usually due more to separation and splitting 
during germination. The stellate hairs on the petioles of coty- 
ledons are unusual. The earlier leaves tend to become peltate 
for a few pairs, a character they afterwards lose. The leaves 
are very like those of E. corymbosa. It is noteworthy that this 
species and E. Jicifolia are the only ones of the Corymbosa- or 
Blood wood-group found in South-western Australia. (PI. Ixix., 
fig.4). 

E. corymbosa^m. {Plate xxxviii., fig. 4). — Hypocotyl erect, 
terete, glabrous, 1-2 cm. long. Cotyledons LI x 0*8 cm., petiole 
0-7 cm., entire, reniform, glabrous, purplish on under surface, 
sometimes with a small apical point. Stem erect, terete, herba- 
ceous, ultimately woody, greenish but drying to red, covered 
with glandular hairs. Leaves alternate, petiolate, entire, ovate 
to oval; lateral veins rather oblique, open; petioles and laminae 
covered with glandular hairs. In the very young stage, the 
leaves have a purplish tinge. First pair, L3 x 0*5, petiole 0-7; 
second pr., 2-5 x 0*9, petiole 1; third pr., 3*2 x L2, petiole 1 cm. 
First internode 2-5, second internode L2cm. Leaves assume a 
peltate character, which they lose again. Later leaves are cori- 
aceous, smooth and shining, large and broad, with lateral veins 
parallel, more closely set and almost at right angles to the mid- 
rib. (PI. Ixix., figs. 3, A, D). 

E. eximia Schau. (Plate xxxix., fig.l). — Cotyledons resemble 
those of E. corymbosa, but are slightly smaller. Internal concave 
border shallower, petiole shorter. Leaves entire, alternate, 
obtuse, ovate, petiolate. First pr. L4 x 1, petiole LI; second pr. 
2-7x1 '5, petiole 0*7 cm. Stem and leaves covered with glandular 
hairs. After the third pair, the leaves become peltate for a 
few pairs. They have a peculiar bluish-green appearance. Vena- 
tion a little oblique and open. Leaves broader, but shorter than 
in E. corymbosa. 

E. Jicifolia Y.YM.—See Lubbock's " On Seedlings." 



B R A R 
1 # V> 



482 EVOLUTION OF THE EUCALYPTS, 

E. trachyphloia F.v.M. (PI. xxxviii., fig.3). — Cotyledons reni- 
form, entire, glabrous, 0-7 x 0-45, petiole 0-3 cm. Leaves oval 
then lanceolate, opposite, soon alternate and vertical, obtuse, 
entire, petiolate. Stem and leaves covered with glandular, 
stellate hairs. Stem erect, terete, green. The cotyledons are 
smaller than in E. corymbosa, corresponding with the smaller 
fruit. This is interesting, as the species occurs at Narrabri, 
where the climate is very hot, and much drier than on the coast. 
This reduction is to meet the hot, drier climate. The first leaves, 
too, are smaller, first pr. being 0'7 x 0*4, petiole 0-3; second pr. 
0-9 X 0-6, petiole 0-3; third pr. 1 x 0'4, petiole 0-4; fourth pr. 
] -5 X 0-9, petiole 6 cm. Peltate leaves not seen so far as grown. 

E. intermedia R. T. Baker (PI. xxxviii., fig.2). - Hypocotyl 
terete, glabrous, 0*6 cm. Cotyledons reniform, lighter green on 
under surface, very slightly emarginate, 1 x 0-6, petiole 0-4 cm. 
Leaves entire, opposite, soon alternate, lanceolate, obtuse, taper- 
ing to petiole, lighter colour on under surface. First pr. 1*2 x 0*6, 
petiole 0-2; second 1-5 x 0*8, petiole 0-4; third 3x1, petiole 0*4 
cm. Stem and leaves covered with glandular hairs ; peltate 
leaves not observed. Mr. Baker rightly separated this species 
from E. eximia and E. corymbosa. It differs in one very import- 
ant matter in that, in many cotyledons, there is slight but distinct 
emargination. These are also smaller. The leaves, too, are dis- 
tinct. The lateral veins are transverse, and the intramarginal 
vein close to the edge. 

E. per/oliata R.Br. (PI. xxxix., figs.2-3). - Seed, supplied by Mr. 
J. Staer, gave seedlings of two kinds. In one, the cotyledons 
were larger, 1-5 x 0-9, petiole 5 cm., reniform, entire, glabrous, 
dark green. Leaves oval, obtuse, opposite. In the other, coty- 
ledons not so broad, 1-3 x 0-9, petiole 0*3 cm., laminae purplish on 
under surface. Leaves ovate, not so obtuse. In both cases, 
leaves shortly petiolate, and they and stem covered with glandular 
hairs. 

E. citriodora Hook. (PL Ixv., fig.l; Pl.lxix., fig.2). -Hypocotyl 
glabrous, terete, 0-9cm. long. Cotyledons orbicular-reniform, almost 
sessile, entire, sometimes with apical tooth, glabrous, 0*7 cm. in 
diameter. Leaves ovate, then lanceolate and peltate, obtuse, 



BY CUTHBERT HALL. 483 

alternate, petiolate, drying a yellowish-brown, citron-scented. 
First pr. opposite, 1 x 0-3, petiole 0*2; second 1*2 x 0-5, petiole 04; 
third l'8xO"7, petiole 0*4 cm. Stem and leaves rough, with 
short glandular hairs. 

E. macidata Hook. (PI. xliv., fig.l). — Hypocotyl erect, terete, 
glabrous, 0*9 cm. long. Cotyledons as in E. ciiriodora, but 
smaller and more orbicular, subsessile, entire, 0*65 cm. in diameter. 
Leaves ovate, obtuse, alternate, petiolate, then peltate for a few 
pairs, becoming again petiolate, dark green. Venation oblique, 
with often two main lateral veins springing from near petiole. 
(This is seen, too, in E. citriodora). Leaves and stem have 
glandular hairs. These two species are of special interest. E. 
cit7'iodora has sometimes been put as a variety of E. macidata, 
but should not. However, they raise a point I wish to emphasise, 
that when, in allied species, the fruits closely resemble each 
other or are practically identical, the cotyledons also resemble 
one another. This obtains specially in these two species, and 
their being subsessile, separates them from all other species of 
Eucalypts, yet they differ in primary leaves, oils, bark, timber, 
habitat, etc. The colour of E. citriodora, on drying, is also worthy 
of comment, and is probably due to its chemical composition. The 
peltate leaves emphasise their relation to the Bloodwoods. The 
primary leaves of E. macidata have some resemblance to those of 
E. eximia. 

i.(6). Eucalypts with reniform, entire cotyledons; "stringy" 
bark ; shortly petiolate primary leaves with glandular hairs. 
Though the cotyledons are entire and the leaves hairy, the group 
differs from the Bloodwoods in the primary leaves being opposite 
and shortly petiolate. 

E. kevopinea R. T. Baker (PI. xL, figs. 1-2). — Hypocotyl terete, 
glabrous, reddish, 0-7 cm. long. Cotyledons obtusely quadri- 
lateral, reniform or cuneate at base, entire, glabrous, reddish 
underneath, 0*9 x 0"8, petiole 0*3 cm. Leaves broadly lanceolate, 
subacute then acute, opposite, shortly petiolate, margin waved or 
slightly serrate, venation pinnate. First pr. 2 x 0*9 ; second 
3-5x1 '5 cm. Stem and leaves with glandular hairs. Stem 
terete, reddish. First internode 0*7; second 0-8; third 2 cm. 



484 EVOLUTION OF THE EUCALYPTS, 

The later leaves, tenth to fifteenth pairs, are broad, coriaceous, 
sessile, often cordate at base, acute, alternate. 

E. dextropinea R. T. Baker (PI. xL, fig.4). — Hypocotyl terete, 
glabrous, reddish, 0'6 cm. Cotyledons smaller than in E. Icevo- 
pinea, reddish-purple on under side, sometimes slightly emarginate, 
0-8 X 0'7, petiole 0-4 cm. Leaves broader than in E. Irevopinea, 
purplish-red on under surface, dark green, subsessile, opposite, 
obtuse, margin waved or serrated, ovate-lanceolate, veins pinnate 
and looped. First pr. 2*1 x 1; second 3*6 x 1*5; third 4 x 1-8 cm. 
First internode 0-4, second 0-5, third 0-6 cm. Stem terete, 
greenish, and it and leaves covered with stellate hairs. 

E. Wilkinsoniana R, T. Baker (PI. xli., fig. 2). —Hypocotyl 
erect, terete, glabrous, 1 cm. Cotyledons smaller than in E. 
loivopinea, reniform, entire, glabrous, 0-4 x 0-3, petiole 0*3 cm. 
Leaves ovate or oval, petiolate, margin serrate or sinuate, obtuse, 
opposite, venation pinnate. First pr. 1-5 xO" 6, petiole 0*4; 
second 3 x 1*2, petiole 0-5; third 3-3 x To, petiole 0*4 cm. Stem 
and leaves covered with glandular hairs. First internode 0*9, 
second 1-8, third 1-6 cm. Leaves, especially from fourth to 
seventh pairs, have margins much more sinuate than in E. nigra. 

E. macrorhyncha F.v.M. (PL Iviii., fig. 6). — Hypocotyl as in 
other members of the group. Cotyledons as in E. Wilkinsoniana, 
only very dark purple on under surface. Leaves ovate-lanceolate, 
obtuse, opposite, petiolate, margin sinuate. First pr. 2 x 0'9, 
petiole 0-6; second 3 x 1*8, petiole 0*5 cm. First internode 1*2, 
second 2-5, third 1-8 cm. Stem and leaves covered with glandular 
hairs. 

E.capitellata Sm. (PI. Iviii., fig.7).— Cotyledons as in E. Wil- 
kinsoniana, only rather cuneate at base, petiole longer. Leaves 
much like those of E. macrorhyncha, only narrower. 

E. 7iigra R. T. Baker (PI. lix., fig. 1).— Cotyledons and leaves 
closely resemble those of E. Wilkinsoniana, but leaves not so 
obtuse and rounded at apex as in that species. 

E. eugenioides Sieb. (PL xliii., fig. 2). — Cotyledons reniform, 
smaller than in E. Wilkinsoniana, 0"3x0-25, petiole 0-3 cm. 
Leaves narrower than in the other Stringybarks, lanceolate, 
opposite, decussate, petiolate, subacute, margin sinuate. First pr. 



BY CUTHBERT HALL. 485 

ri X 05, petiole 0-5; second 2 x 06, petiole 05 cm. First inter- 
node 1"2, second 2*4, third 1-6 cm. Stem and leaves covered 
with stellate hairs. The seedling of E eugenioides is very dis- 
tinct from those of the others of the group. 

B. Muelleriana A. W. Howitt (PI. li., fig. 5). — Hypocotyl terete, 
covered with stellate hairs, 6 cm. Cotyledons reniform, entire, 
larger than those of E. Icevopinea, glabrous, 0*9 x 0*8, petiole 
0*3 cm. Leaves opposite, entire, broadly lanceolate, decussate, 
obtuse, shortly petiolate. Margin not sinuate as in E. Icevopinea. 
First pr. 1-3 x 08, petiole 0-3; second 2x1, petiole 0-25; third 
2-6 X l-'J, petiole 0-2 cm. First internode 0*3, second 0*4, third 
0*6, fourth 0*7 cm. Internodes much shorter than in E. Icevo- 
pinea. Stem and under surface of midrib covered with fine, 
glandular, reddish hairs. Upper surface of leaves smooth and 
shining. This confirms the observation of A. W. Howitt as to 
the smooth, shining character of the juvenile foliage. Study of 
the seedlings confirms the specific nature of E. Muelleriana as 
distinct from E. pilularis. They have nothing in common, except 
a superficial resemblance of the fruits. The cotyledons and pri- 
mary leaves are distinct, and they should never be placed 
together. 

E. obliqua L'Her., Hobart, Tas. (PI. Ixiii., fig.3). — Cotyledons 
orbicular-reniform, entire, reddish on under surface, 0*4x0*35, 
petiole 0*3 cm. Leaves opposite, shortly petiolate, decussate, 
lanceolate, obtuse, lateral venation oblique, margin slightly 
sinuate. First pr. 1*8x0*7, petiole 0*3; second 2*8x1, petiole 
0*2; third 3x1, petiole 0*2 cm. First internode 0*6, second 2*5, 
third 3*5 cm. Stem reddish. Stem and leaves covered with 
stellate hairs, but these shorter than in E. Icevopinea. 

E. obliqita, Alt. Gambier, S.A. (PI. Ixiv., fig.l). — In this form, 
the cotyledon-leaves are larger than in the Tasmanian, and the 
primary leaves broader and more ovate. 

E. Marsdeni, sp.nov.; Toongabbie, N.S.W. (PI. Ixvii,, fig.4).— 
Hypocotyl terete, glabrous, reddish, 0*4 cm. long. Cotyledons 
the smallest seen in the Stringybarks, 0*25 x 0*2, petiole 0*2 cm., 
orbicular-reniform, entire, purplisli on under surface, glabrous. 
Leaves opposite, decussate, obtuse, shortly petiolate, lanceolate, 



486 EVOLUTION OF THE EUCALYPTS, 

venation pinnate, ratlier oblique, edges sinuate. First pr. 0*8 x 0"3, 
petiole 0*25; second 1*5 x 0-6, petiole 0-3; third 3-6 x 0-8, petiole 
0-3 cm. First internode 0-3, second 0*4, third 0*9, fourth 2 cm. 
Stem reddish, and both it and leaves covered with fine stellate 
hairs. This seedling has some resemblance to those of E. Moorei 
(Maiden), and E. euyenioides. 

E. regnans F.v.M. (PL Ixvi., fig. 1). — Cotyledons reniform, 
entire, 0'6 x 0-45, petiole 0-3 cm. Leaves opposite, ovate-lanceo- 
late, with sinuate and slightly serrate margins, petiolate, vena- 
tion somewhat oblique, intramarginal vein close to edge, upper 
surface smooth and shining; lower surface with a few stellate 
hairs; oil-dots few in number. First pr. 2-5 x 1, petiole 0*3; 
second 3*3 x 1*5, petiole 0-3 cm. First internode 0-5, second 08 
cm. Stem and leaves covered with short, glandular hairs. 
Although this species has a smooth bark, the seedling is so much 
of the type of the Stringybarks, that I have placed it with them. 
The reniform anthers, it possesses, also support this grouping. 

E. fastigata Deane & Maiden (PI. Iviii., fig. 5). — Cotyledons 
small, reniform or triangular, petiolate. Leaves opposite, but 
soon alternate, entire, shortly petiolate, then petioles longer, 
lanceolate, acute, oil-dots fairly numerous. Venation oblique; 
intramarginal vein away from edge and looped with lateral 
veins. Leaves and stem covered with fine hairs, but soon becom- 
ing smooth. This seedling is quite distinct from that of E. 
regnans^ having smaller cotyledons, much narrower lanceolate 
leaves of fine texture, and fairly plentiful oil-glands, so agreeing 
with the results of the distillation of the oils. 

i.(c). Cotyledons small, entire, reniform or orbicular. Leaves 
mostly glabrous and petiolate. 

E. Dmvsoni R. T. Baker (PI. Iviii., fig.4). — Cotyledons reniform, 
glabrous, 0*4 x 0*3, petiole 0-3 cm. Leaves entire, opposite, de- 
cussate, glabrous, petiolate, lanceolate, acute. I was able to 
raise only one seedling of this species, but, by comparison, a great 
difi'erence will be seen between it and those of E. ovalifolia and 
E. polyanthema. 

E. dumosa A. Cunn.(Pl. liii., fig. 2; PL Ixix., fig. 5). — Cotyledons 
reniform-orbicular, glabrous, 0*25 x 0*2, petiole 0-3 cm. Leaves 



BY CUTHBERT HALL. 487 

opposite, petiolate, lanceolate, glabrous, obtuse. First pr. linear- 
lanceolate; second 1 x 0*4, petiole 0*6; third 1-8 x 0*6, petiole 06 
cm First internode 0*6, second 1-2, third IScm. The cotyle- 
dons are worthy of note, as they differ so greatly from those of 
the rest of the Mallees, especially those of the E. gracilis type. 

E. populi/olia Hook. (PI. xlvii., fig. 2). — Cotyledons very small, 
obtusely quadrilateral or orbicular, entire, glabrous, petiolate, 
0'15x01, petiole 0-15 cm. Leaves opposite, entire, petiolate, 
glabrous, lanceolate, subacute. First pr. 0*9 x 0*3, petiole 0*4; 
second 1*2 x 0*5, petiole 0*5; third 16 x 06, petiole 03 cm. First 
internode 0-4, second 0*3, third 04 cm 

E. quadrangnlata Deane k Maiden (PI. xliv., fig. 7). — Cotyle- 
dons orbicular- reniform, reddish on under surface, 0*25 x 0*2, 
petiole 0-15 cm. Leaves narrow-lanceolate, glabrous, opposite, 
subacute, sessile, reddish on under surface. 

E. iiicrassata Labill. (PL Ixvi., fig.3). — Cotyledons reniform, 
entire, glabrous, purplish-red beneath, 0-6x0*5, petiole 0*5 cm. 
Leaves opposite, decussate, entire, glabrous, obtuse, petiolate. 

E. Moorei Maiden &l Cambage (PI. Ixvi., fig. 2). — Cotyledons 
small, orbicular-reniform, glabrous, purplish on under surface, 
0-2.X 0*15, petiole 0*15 cm. Leaves opposite, decussate, sessile, 
lanceolate, obtuse, glabrous, entire, dark green. First pr. 1 x 05, 
second 2*5 x 0*7, third 3 x 0*8 cm. First internode 0*2, second 
0*4, third 1, fourth 1*8 cm. Stem purplish-red, covered with 
short, stellate hairs, terete. This species has been said to be 
closely related to E. stellidata, but the seedlings are very different, 
both as to cotyledons and primary leaves; these latter, in E. 
stellidata, being ovate or almost orbicular. 

ii. Eucalypts with emarginate cotyledons. 

(«). Cotyledons large, slightly emarginate, cuneate at base, 
petioles long. 

E. marginata Sm. — Described in Lubbock's "On Seedlings." 
Mr. Maiden's figure, Plate xl., "Critical Revision of Eucalyptus," 
and description are really of E. calophylla. This error was 
corrected later. The cotyledons are much more asymmetrical 
than shown by Lubbock (PI. Ixix., fig. 6). 



488 EVOLUTION OF THE EUCALYPTS, 

E. Todtiana F.v.M.(Pl.xli,, fig.l ). — Hypocotyl terete, glabrous, 
reddish, 1-3 cm. long. Cotyledons somewhat like those of E. 
marginata but more symmetrical, obtusely quadrilateral, slightly 
emarginate, cuneate at base, 1 •8x1-2, petiole 0*9 cm. Petiole 
terete, glabrous, reddish, grooved on upper side at distal ex- 
tremity. Leaves opposite, decussate, broadly lanceolate, tapering 
at base, coriaceous, obtuse, sessile, dark green, glabrous, lateral 
veins oblique, parallel. 8tem terete, reddish, with a few glandular 
hairs. First pr. of leaves 3-6 x 1 '6; second 4x1-6 cm. First 
internode 0*6, second 0-6, third 0-5 cm. 

E. megacarpa F.v.M. (PL lii., fig.3) — Hypocotyl short, terete, 
reddish, glabrous, 0-6 cm. long. Cotyledons resemble those of 
E. l^odtiana, but broader, and petiole shorter and narrower. 
They are obtusely oblong, trinerved, 1-5 x 1, petiole 0-7 cm., base 
of lamina cuneate. Leaves entire, opposite, decussate, obtuse, 
sessile, glabrous, broadly lanceolate, venation pinnate, open, 
intramarginal vein ill defined. First pr. 4x1-5, second 4*5 x 1-8 
cm. First internode 0-7, second 2-5, third 2 cm. Stem terete, 
reddish, glabrous. 

E. santcdifolia F.v.M.(Pl.l.,fig.5) — Hypocotyl terete, glabrous, 
0-7 cm. long. Cotyledons smaller than in E . megacarpa but of 
same form, obtusely quadrilateral, cuneate at base, slightly 
emarginate, 1 x 0*7, petiole 0-5 cm. Leaves opposite, decussate, 
glabrous, sessile, ovate, obtuse, cordate at base, lateral veins 
parallel, somewhat oblique. First pr. 2-4x1-1, second 3x1-4, 
third 3 1 x 1-6 cm. First internode 0-4, second 0-2, third 0-6, 
fourth 1-2 cm. Stem reddish, terete, glabrous. 

The above four species form a good group, as far as the seedlings 
are concerned, E . marginata being most removed from the others 
in its asymmetrical cotyledons, long petioles, and subterranean 
hypocotyl. They all have broad, sessile leaves, which are large 
from the very first pair. 

ii.(6). Eucalypts with cotyledons large then smaller, usually 
obtusely quadrilateral, slightly emarginate, leaves usually sessile. 
Undersurface of cotyledons and leaves generally tinged deep 
purplish colour. This group comprises the " Peppermints " and 
their near allies containing phellandrene, eucalyptol, and pinene. 



BY CUTHBERT HALL. 489 

It is confined to South-eastern Australia and Tasmania. In 
nearly all cases, the anthers are kidney-shaped. 

E . Planchoniana F.v.lVl.(Pl.Ux., fig. 3; PI. lxix.,figs.7 and D).— 
Hypocotyl erect, terete, glabrous, reddish, 1 cm. long. Cotyle-. 
dons eraarginate, under side reddish, glabrous, obcordate, cuneate 
at base, 1*1 x 0*9, petiole 0-5 cm. Leaves opposite, decussate, 
lanceolate, subacute, glabrous, tapering at both ends, sessile, edges 
waved First pr. 3-6 x 1, second 4x1 cm. First internode 1*3, 
second 1*2 cm. Stem reddish, terete, glabrous. The cotyledons 
in this species are the largest in the group, but the seedling has 
much resemblance to that of E . pilularis in other respects. Its 
oil, also, is of the same class. This species has parallel anthers, 
however. 

E. pilularis Sm.(Pl.lix., fig. 2).— Cotyledons reniform, glabrous, 
deep purple beneath, 0-6 x 0-3, petiole 0*3 cm. Leaves opposite, 
lanceolate, subacute, sessile, tapering at bolh ends, becoming 
cordate with rounded auricles at base, glabrous, margin waved, 
purplish-tinged on under sides. First pr. 2-4 x 0-7, second 3-6x 1 '4, 
third 6x1-6 cm. First internode 0*9, second 1*2, third 2-4, fourth 
2 cm. Stem terete, glabrous, purplish. This seedling bears no 
resemblance whatever to that of E. Muelleriana. 

E. acmenioides Schau.(Pl. Ivii., fig.l; PI. Ixix., fig. 8). — Cotyle- 
dons obtusely quadrilateral, slightly emarginate, slight tinge of 
reddish-purple beneath, 0*6 x 0*5, petiole 0*3 cm. Leaves lanceo- 
late, opposite, sessile, obtuse then subacute, tapering at base, then 
cordate and stem-clasping, glabrous, entire. First pr. 1-8 x 0-6, 
second 2*2 x 0*7, third 3 x 0-8 cm. First internode 1 '6, second 
1-8, third 1-8 cm. Stem terete, glabrous. 

E. umbra R. T. Baker (PI. xli., figs. 3-4).^ — Cotyledons resemble 
those of E acmenioides^ but are a little smaller. The first pair 
of leaves generally shortly petiolate, the next and following being 
sessile and cordate at base and ovate-lanceolate, broader than in 
E . acmenioides^ the venation also being pinnate, parallel, and less 
oblique. 

E. carnea R. T. Baker (PI. Ivii., fig. 2). — This seedling closely 
resembles E. umbra, but the cotyledons are smaller, and the 
emargination very slight. The first pair of leaves has petioles 



490 EVOLUTION OF THE EUCALYPTS, 

0-3 cm. long, the second pair subsessile, and the following leaves 
closely resembling those of E . umhra. 

E . Risdoni Hook. f.(Pl.lx., fig.l).— Cotyledons obtusely quadri- 
lateral, slightly emarginate, cuneate at base, 0-4 x 0-35, petiole 
0-3 cm. Leaves opposite, decussate, sessile, obtuse, ovate, then 
triangular with cordate base, glabrous, entire. First pr. 1*8 x 0-9, 
second 2*5 x 1*8, third 2 x l-2cm. Leaves and cotyledons purplish 
beneath. First internode 1, second 1-2, third 1*3 cm. Stem 
terete, glabrous, purplish. This seedling is strikingly dissimilar 
to that of K. amyydalina, with which it was synonymised by 
Mueller. The primary broad ovate then triangular leaves are 
entirely different from those of E. amygdalina. 

E. linearis A. Cunn.(Pl. Ix., fig.5). — Cotyledons triangular, 
slightly emarginate, cuneate at base, 0*45 x 0-45, petiole 0*4 cm. 
long, deep purple on under side. Leaves opposite, decussate, 
subsessile, lanceolate, obtuse. First pr. 1-5 x 0*45, second 2-5 x 0-6, 
third 2*6 X 0-5 cm. First internode 0-5, second 1, third 1*2 cm. 
Stem and under sides of leaves are purplish. The cotyledons of 
this species are quite distinct from those of E. amygdalina (Tas- 
manian form), being larger and triangular, and the emargination 
more distinct. The primary leaves of both are much alike. 

E. phlehophylla F.v.M. (PI. Ixiv., fig.3). —Cotyledons obtusely 
quadrilateral, slightly emarginate, 0"6 X 0*5, petiole 0-4cm. Leaves 
opposite, lanceolate, subacute, shortly petiolate for three pairs, 
then sessile, lateral veins oblique, glabrous. First pr. LI x 0*4, 
sessile; second pr. 1 •3x0-5, petiole 0'3; third 1*8 x 0-8, petiole 
0-25; fourth 2*5 x LI cm., sessile. First internode, 0*5, second 
0-4, third 0*4, fourth 0-6 cm. Stem terete, glabrous, reddish. 

This species has been synonymised with E. coriacea, but the 
seedlings are very distinct, the former having larger cotyledons, 
and the primary leaves lanceolate instead of oval. The inter- 
nodes are also shorter, the leaves being thus more crowded. I 
must, therefore, disagree with the placing of them under the one 
species by Mueller and Maiden. 

E. hcBmastoma Sm.(Pl.lvii., fig.3),— Cotyledons obtusely quadri- 
lateral, slightly emarginate, glabrous, deep purple beneath, 
0'5 X 0*3, petiole 0'5 cm. long. Leaves lanceolate, tapering at 



BY CUTHBERT HALL. 491 

base, opposite, decussate, obtuse, petiolate then sessile, glabrous, 
purplish OQ under sides. First pr. 2*5 x 0*7, petiole 0*5; second 
5x2, subsessile; third 5x2 cm., sessile. Lateral veins parallel, 
oblique. First internode 0*6, second 1, third 3cm. Stem terete, 
glabrous. 

E . stricta Sieb. (PI. liv., fig. 5). -Cotyledons almost orbicular, 
emargination slight or none, 0*5 x 0*4, petiole 0-4cm., deep purple 
beneath. Leaves opposite, lanceolate, obtuse, entire, glabrous, 
shortly petiolate then subsessile, purplish beneath, venation 
oblique, pinnate. First pr. 2*2 x 0-9, petiole 0*3; second 3-3 x I'l, 
petiole 2 cm. First internode 0*6, second 1, third 0-8 cm. 

E. Eossii R. T. Baker and H. G. Smith (PI. xlviii., fig.6).— 
Cotyledons closely resembling those of E. stricta, and are slightly 
emarginate, and broader than in that species. Leaves lanceolate 
and petiolate, then oval or ovate and subsessile, obtuse, opposite, 
entire, glabrous, venation somewhat oblique, tinged red on under 
sides. First pr. l-5xO-6, petiole 0*3; second 2 4x1*2 cm., sub- 
sessile. First internode 0*6, second 1*1, third 1*1 cm. 

Messrs. Baker and Smith class E . Rossii with the eucalyptol- 
pinene group, and E . stricta with the euealyptol-pinene-aroma- 
dendral group, the members of which, as a rule, have parallel 
anthers, while these have reniform anthers. The seedlings ex- 
plain the seeming anomaly, as these species are now shown to 
have great affinity to the " Peppermint " group, and, apart from 
their chemical composition, should be placed therein. 

E . striaticalyx (PI. Iv., fig.3). — Hypocotyl terete, glabrous, 
reddish, l*5cm. long. Cotyledons obtusely quadrilateral, glabrous, 
purplish on under sides, 0*6 x 0*5, petiole 0*5 cm. Leaves entire, 
glabrous, opposite, obtuse, petiolate, ovate-lanceolate or ovate. 
First pr. 1*2 x 0*5, petiole 0-6; second 2x1, petiole 06 cm. First 
internode 0*6, second 0*9, third 1*7 cm. Stem terete, glabrous. 
Though the cotyledons are of the same form, the leaves are 
different from those of the others of the group. 

E. piperita Sm. (PI. Ix., fig.3; PI. Ixix., fig. 9).-- Cotyledons ob- 
tusely oblong, slightly emarginate, purplish on under sides, 0*6 x 
0*5, petiole 0*2 cm. Leaves opposite, ovate-lanceolate, obtuse, 
petiolate then sessile, glabrous, entire. First pr. 1*3 x 06, petiole 



492 EVOLUTION OF THE EUCALYPTS, 

0*3; second 2-5x1, subsessile; third 3-3x1 cm., sessile. Leaves 
have slight reddish tinge underneath. First internode 1, second 
0-6, third 1*3, fourth 2-5 cm. 

A', amygdalhia Labill. — Before seeing the remarks of Messrs. 
Baker & Smith, in their "Eucalyptsof Tasmania," on this species, 
I had been puzzled by the marked difference between the seedlings 
of the Tasmanian E.amygdalina and those of the mainland. This 
was explained in the light of the knowledge of the oils and 
morphology of the two. 

E. amygdalina (Hobart, Tas.) (PI. Ixi.. fig.4; PI. Ixii , fig.2). — 
Cotyledons small, obtusely quadrilateral, emargination slight or 
absent, 0-3 x 0*25, petiole 0*3 cm. Leaves opposite, as far as seen, 
narrow-lanceolate, tapering at both ends, subacute, sessile or sub- 
sessile, edges sometimes waved, a few stellate hairs on midrib. 
First pr. 0-8 x 0-25, second M x 0-3, third 1-3x0-3, fourth 
1-8 X 0*3 cm. First internode 0*3, second 0*6, third 0-8. fourth 
1 cm. Stem purplish, terete, covered with glandular hairs. 

E. amygdali7ia (Yarra Junction, Vic.) (PL Ixii., fig.l; PI. Ixix., 
fig. 11). — In this, the cotyledons are larger, the emargination 
more pronounced, and the leaves opposite but much broader, 
ovate-lanceolate, obtuse, cordate at base, glabrous. The stem is 
also glabrous. In E. amygdalina from Laurel Hill, N.S.W., the 
primary leaves are of the same character, but not so broad. 

E. cocci/era Hook. f. (PI. Ix., fig.2). — The seedlings of this 
species are very characteristic, and the dried specimen makes a 
beautiful object when mounted. Cotyledons obtusely quadri- 
lateral, cuneate at base, slightly eraarginate, 0-5 x 0-4, petiole 
0'3cm. Leaves entire, opposite, glabrous, oval, obtuse, sessile, 
petioles at first scabrous. First pr. 1x0-7, second 1-4 x 1, third 
2*1 X 1*2 cm. Stem terete, scabrous; stem and undersides of 
cotyledons and leaves deep purplish-red. 

E. Luehmanniana F.v.M. (PI. Ixii., fig. 3; PL Ixix., fig. 10).— 
Cotyledons obtusely quadrilateral, slightly emarginate, cuneate 
at base, 0-6 x 0*5, petiole 0-5 cm. Leaves opposite, entire, 
glabrous, broadly lanceolate, tapering at base, obtuse, venation 
fairly oblique, intramarginal vein away from edge, and showing 
the characteristic looping arrangement, such as is met with in 



BY CUTHBEHT HALL. 493 

this group. First pr. 1-8 x 0-8, petiole 0*4; second 2-5 x 1-1, 
petiole 0-3; third 3-6 x 2, petiole 04 cm. Stem terete, glabrous. 
Stem and undersides of leaves and cotyledons deep purple. 

E. oreades R. T. Baker (PI. xlii., fig.4). — The cotyledons are 
alnjost identical with those of E. Luehrtianniana. The leaves 
are similar, but are larger, broader, and more ovate than in that 
species. In both, the leaves are shortly petiolate. 

E. Sieheriana F.v.M. (Pl.lxii., fig.5). — The cotyledons are also 
very like those of E . Luehmaiiniana. The leaves are ovate- 
lanceolate, obtuse, opposite, large, first pair shortly petiolate then 
sessile, tapering to base. Venation as in .E*. Luehmanniana. 

The above three spec