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Sectional Ifbrary 



PROCEEDINGS 

OF THE 

MALACOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF LONDON. 

VOL. V. 
1902—1903. 



7 







PROCEEDINGS 



MALACOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

OF LONDON. 



EDITED BY 

B. B. WOODWARD, F.L.S., F.G.S., Etc. 

Under the direction of the Publication Committee. 



VOLUME V. 

1902—1903. 




AUTHORS ALONE ARE RESPONSIRLE FOR THE STATEMENTS IN THEIR RESI'ECTIT] 

PAPERS. 



LONDON: 

DTJLAU & CO., 37, SOHO SQUARE, W. 
1903. 



DATES OF ISSUE, VOL. V. 



No. 1 was issued to members 

No. 2 

No. 3 „ 

No. 4 

No. 5 

No. 6 



23rd April, 1902. 
1st July, 1902. 
30th October, 1902 
28th March, 1903. 
22nd June, 1903. 
31st October, 1903. 



CONTENTS OF VOL. V 



Proceedings : — 

PAGE 

Ordinary Meeting, Nov. 8th, 1901 8 

„ „ Dec. 13th, „ 8 

„ „ Jan. 10th, 1902 9 

Annual Meeting, Feb. 14th, „ 156 

Ordinary Meeting, Feb. 14th, „ 159 

„ „ Mar. 14th, „ • 159 

April nth, „ 160 

May 9th, „ 183 

„ „ June 13th, ,, 183 

„ „ Nov. 14th, „ 258 

„ „ Dec. 12th, „ 258 

„ „ Jan. 9th, 19U3 259 

Annual Meeting, Feb. 13th, „ 306 

Ordinary Meeting, Feb. 13th, „ 308 

„ „ Mar. 13th, „ 308 

„ „ April 3rd, , 309 

May 8th, „ 343 

„ „ June 12th, „ 343 



Tl COXTKNTS. 

NOTKS : — PAGE 

Further Note on the type-specimen of Valuta Roadnightce, McCoy. 

By Mrs. A. Kenyon 10 

Note on Eulota Blakeana, Newc, and E. lumt, Pils. By G. K. 

GuDE, F.Z.S 10 

Note on the \)nirmg of Pn/ra^nidala rotujidata (MnW.) mth Vitrea 

lucida (Drap.). By Monsieur E. Caziot 11 

Clausilia hiplicata (Mont.) in Hertfordshire. By B. B. Woodward, 

F.L.S 11 

Acanthinula laviellata (Jeflf.) in Buckinghamshire and Berkshire. 

By B. B. Woodward, F.L.S 11 

Note on the Opercula of Turbo prdcher, Reeve, and T. ticaomcux, 

Reeve. By G. B. Sowerby, F.L.S 12 

Land -Shells used as Models by Ancient Peruvian Potters. By 

W. M. Webb, F.L.S. (Figs.) 160 

Note on the Histology of Molluscan and other Olfactory Nerve 

Centres. By R. H. Burne, B.A., F.Z.S 184 

Marine Shells collected at Aden by Commander E. R. Shopland . 184 
Note on the Nepionic Shell of 3felo Indicus, Gmel. By B. B. 

Woodward, F.L.S 2fJ0 

Note on a Monstrosity of Rissoia parva, Da Costa. By E. R. 

Sykes, B.A., F.L.S 260 

Preliminary Note on the Anatomy of the genus Cataidtis. By 

Miss Lettice Digby 261 

Note on the dates of publication of J. E. Gray's " Catalogue of 
Piilmonata ... in the . . . British Museum. Pt. I," 
12nio, 1855 ; and of A. Moquin-Tandon's " Histoire naturelle 
des MoUusques terrestres et fluviatiles de France," 2 vols. 8vo, 

1855. By B. B. Woodward, F.L.S 201 

Note on the generic name Buliminus. By B. B. Woodward, F.L.S. 309 
Note on an abnormal specimen of A rgonauta argo. By E. A. Smith, 

F.Z.S. (Fig.) 310 

Note on Vitrina Baringoensis, Smith. By E. A. Smith, F.Z.S. . . 310 
Note on the embryonic shell of Planorhis. By J. H. Van Stone. 

(Figs.) 344 

Note on the occurrence of Piano rbis marginatus, Drap., and 
Limncea pereger (Miill.) in the Post- Pliocene of Bognor, 

Sussex. By A. Reynell 344 

Note on the supposed locality "Sulgranees," whence Dr. J. E. Gray's 
type. specimens of Indian Jurassic Ammonites were said to 
have been obtained. By W. T. Blanford, LL.D., F.R.S. . . 3J5 
Note on a .specimen of Fistidana clava, Lamk., perforating a shell 
of Mitra interlirata. Reeve. By G. B. Sowerby, F.L.S., and 
H. C. Fulton. (Figs.) 345 



CONTENTS. vii 

Papers : — „.„„ 

PAGE 

Martiu Fountain Woodward. [Memoir, with Portrait.] .... l 
Note on the type-specimen of Belemnoteuthis Montefiorei, J. Buck- 
mau, from the Lower Lias Shales between Charmouth and 
Lyme Kegis, Dorset. By G. C. Crick, F.G.S. (Plate L) . . 13 
New species of Land-Shells from New Guinea. By H B Preston 

F.Z.S. (Figs.) ' 17 

On Helicina pterophora, n.sp., from Guatemala. By E. R. Sykes 

B.A., F.L.S. (Figs.) 20 

On the Anatomy and Relationships of Valuta musica, Linn. ; with 
notes upon certain other supposed members of the Volutidce 
By S. Pace, F.Z.S. (Plate IL) 21 

Description of Ennea affectata, n.sp., from Zanzibar. By H 

Fulton. (Fig.) 32 

Description of Thersites {Rhayada) Woodwardi, xi.^^., horn N.W. 

Australia. By H. Fulton. (Fig.) 33 

On Rhiostoma Dalyi, n.sp., and Sesara megalodon, n.sp., obtained 
by the late Mr. W. M. Daly in Siam. By VV. T. Bl\nford 
LL.D., F.R.S. (Figs.) ' 34 

Contributions to the Study of the ColumbellidjB ■ No I By 

S. Pace, F.Z.S 3g 

Presidential Address : On the supposed Similarity between the 

Mollusca of the Arctic and Antarctic Regions By E A 

Smith, F.Z.S ' ' jg2 

Note on Cyprcea microdon, Gray. By E. A. Smith, F.Z.S 167 

Description of Achatina Machachensis, n.sp., from Basutoland 

By E. A. Smith, F.Z.S. (Fig.) Igg 

On Coro7ia Pfeifferi, var. gracilis, n.var., from S.E. Colombia 

By E. A. Smith, F.Z.S. (Fig.) 17q 

List of Marine Shells collected in the neighbourhood of Aden 

between J 892 and 1901. By Commander E. R. Shopland . . 171 
On the Non- Marine Mollusca from the Holocene Deposits at 

London Wall and Westminster. By A. S. Kennard & B. B. 

Woodward, F.L.S j^^ 

Notes on Holocene Mollusca from North Cornwall. By the Rev. 

R. A. Bullen, B.A., F.L.S ' 135 

Notes on Tonkinese Clausili(e, with illustrations of some unfigured 

forms, and the description of a new species. By E. R Sykes 

B.A., F.L.S. (Plate IIL) ' . . _' i89 

Description of Chaitopleura desdtuta, n.sp., from South Africa 

By E. R. Sykes, B.A., F.L.S. (Figs.) * 195 

On a collection of Non-Marine Shells, formed by Mr. J. J. Walker 

in the New Hebrides. By E. R. Sykes, B.A., F.L.S. (Figs.) 196 



VUl CONTENTS. 

Papers (co^itinued) — page 

A Synopsis of the genus Streptaxis and its allies. By G. K. 

GuDE, F.Z.S. (Plate IV.) 201 

On Ctenostreon Burckhardti, n.sp., from the Middle Oolites of 

Switzerland. By R. Bullen Newton, F.G.S. (Plate V.) . . 245 

On Helix Basileiis, Benson, from Southern India : its anatomy 
and generic position. By Lieut.-Col. H. H. Godwin-Austen, 
F.R.S. (Plate VI.) 248 

On the identity and relationships of Buccinum dermestoideum, 

Lam. : Pseudamycla, nov. gen. By S. Pace. (Figs.) . . . . 253 

Descriptions of some new forms of Ilelicoid Land-Shells. By G. K. 

Gude, F.Z.S. (Plate VII.) 2G2 

Note on the genus Pseudamycla, Pace. By S. Pace 267 

On the Anatomy of Paryphanta urnula, Pfr., with notes on 
P. Hochstetteri, Pfr., and Rhytida Greenwoodi, Gray. By 
R. Murdoch. (Fig.) 270 

Notes on Mr. W. M. Daly's Collections of Land and Fresh-water 
MoUusca from Siam. By W. T. Blanford, LL.D., F.R.S. 
(Plate VIIL) 274 

Note on Dr. J. E. Gray's Type-Specimens of Jurassic Ammonites 

from India. By G. C. Crick, F.G.S 285 

On Ammonites robustus (R. Strachey, MS.), H. F. Blanford, from 

the Himalayas. By G. C. Crick, F.G.S. (Figs.) 290 

On the Anatomy of two Land Molluscs {Helicarion (?) Willeyana 
and H. (?) Woodv;ardi, n.spp.) from New Britain and Lifu, 
Loyalty Islands, collected by Dr. A. Willey, F.R.S., in 1895-97. 
By Lieut.-Col. H. H. Godwin-Austen, F.R.S. (Plate IX.). . 296 

On the Renal Organs of Nucula nucleus, Linn. By R. H. Burne, 

B.A., F.Z.S. (Plate X.) 300 

Further description of the Animal of Damayantia carinata, 
Collinge, showing its similarity to D. Smithi, Collinge & G.-A., 
with remarks on this genus of Issel, Collingea of Simroth, and 
Isselentia of Collinge. By Lieut.-Col. H. H. Godwin-Austen, 
F.R.S. (Plate XL) 311 

Notes on the Pleistocene non-marine MoUusca at Portland Bill ; 
and on Holocene non-marine MoUusca from (1) West Ham- 
ham, Wilts ; (2) Harlton, Cambridgeshire ; (3) the down above 
Durdle Barn Door, Dorset ; and (4) Folkestone. By the 
Rev. R. A. Bullen, F.L.S 317 

On the occurrence of Neritina Orateloupiana, Fer. (hitherto mis- 
identified as N. Jtuviatilis), in the Pleistocene Gravels of the 
Thames at Swanscomb. By A. S. Kennard & B. B. Wood- 
ward, F.L.S 320 

Additions to the genus Streptaxis. By G. K. Gude, F.Z.S. 

(Plate XII) 322 



CONTENTS. IX 

Papers {continued) — page 

On Xylophaga prcestans, n.sp., from the English coast. By E. A. 

Smith, F.Z.S. (Figs.) 328 

Notes on some new or little-known members of the family 
Doridiidfe. By Sir C. N. E. Eliot, K.C.M.G. (Plate XIII, 
coloured.) 331 

Description of Cerastus Dinshawi, n.sp., from Aden, with a note on 
Otopoma claicsum, Sby., and 0. Yemenicum, Brgt. By E. R. 
Sykes, B.A., F.L.S. (Figs.) 338 

Descriptions of two supposed new species of Cyathopoma. By 

H. B. Preston, F.Z.S. (Figs.) 340 

On Shells floating on the surface of the Sea. By A. Krogh, M.Sc. 341 

On the want of a knowledge of the Animals of the genus Olioa 
as a means to the determination of the species. By F. G. 
Bridgman. [Abstract.] 346 

Notes on some British Eulimidse. By E. R. Stkes, B.A., F.L.S. 

(Plate XIV.) 348 

A List of Species of MoUusca from South Africa, forming an 
Appendix to G. B. Sowerby's " Marine Shells of South Africa." 
By E. A. Smith, F.Z.S. (Plate XV.) 354 

Notes on some Jurassic Shells from Borneo, including a new species 

of Trigonia. By R. B. Newton, F.G.S. (Plate XVI.) . . . . 4f)3 

Description of Marginella lateritia, n.sp., from the Andaman 
Islands. By J, C. Melvill, M.A., F.L.S., & E. R. Sykes, 
B.A., F.L.S. (Fig.) 410 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS IN VOL. V. 



PAGE 

^Martin Fountain Woodward Frontispiece 

^^ Beleimioieuthis Montejiorei, J. Buckman.^' (Plate I.) 13 

New species of Land- Shells from New Guinea 18 

Helicina pterophora, n.sp 20 

Anatomy of Volutidge. (Plate II.) 31 

Ennea afectata, n.sp 32 

Thersites Woodioardi, n.sp 33 

li/nostoma Dalyi, n.sp 34 

Sesara megalodon, n.sp 35 

[Ancient Peruvian Pottery embodying figures of Land-Shells.] . . 161 

Achatina Machachensis, n.sji. 169 

Corona Pfeifferi, var. gracilis, n.var 170 

C^awsiYiCE from Tonkin. (Plate III.) 194 

Chcetopleura destituta, n.sp 195 

Dendrotrochus stramineus, n.sp 197 

Draparnaudia WaU-e7'i, n.sp. 197 

Omphalotropis conella, n.sp 200 

Hitherto un figured species of Strepiaxis. (Plate IV.) 244 

Gtenostreon Burckkardti, n.sp. (Plate V.) 247 

Anatomy of Ariophanta {Nilgiria) Basileus, Bens. (Plate VI.) . . 252 
[Apical whorls, operculum, and radula of Buccimim dei'mestoideum, 

Lamk.] 256 

Iklonstrosity of Rissoia parva, Da C 260 

New Ilelicoid Land-Shells. (Plate VII.) 266 

Genitalia of Parijphanta urimla, Pfr 271 

AmpuUana Daltji, n.sp. ; Melania binodosa, n.sp. ; Palicdomus 

Sia77ie7isis,. n.si). (Plate VIII.) 284 



ILLUSTEATIONS. XI 

PAGE 

Septal suture of Juvavites robusius (Blfd.) 292 

Anatomy of two new species of Helicarion (?). (Plate IX.) . . . . 299 

Renal Organs of Nucida nucleus, Linn. (Plate X.) 304 

Abnormal specimen of Argonauta argo 310 

Damayantia of Issel. (Plate XI.) 316 

New and unfigured Streptaxis. (Plate XII.) 327 

Dorsal shields of Xylophaga dorsalis, Turton, and X prwstans, n.sp. 329 

New Doridiidae. (Plate XIII, coloured.) 337 

Cerastus Dinshatui, n.sp 338 

Cyathopoma Peilei, n.sp., and C. serendibense, n.sp 340 

Embryonic Shells of Planorbis 344 

British Eulimidae. (Plate XIV.) 353 

South African Marine Shells. (Plate XV.) 402 

New Jurassic Shells from Borneo. 

Photograph and Skiagraph of Fistulana. 

Marginella lateritia, u.s]) 410 



i (Plate XVI.) .. .. 409 
I. ) 



E II 11 A T A 



Page 166, line 18, for " Artarte" read " Astarte." 

„ 188, line 9 from the bottom, for " MuUett " read " Mallett." 
„ 188, line 3 from the bottom, for " Beddal " read " Beddoe." 
„ 192, line 22, for " Mausonensis " read " Mansonensis " ; the reading 
" Mausonensis " in the preceding line is correct, it being an 
emendation. 




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PROCEEDINGS 

OF THE 

MALACOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF LONDON. 



MARTIN FOUNTAIN WOODWAIiD. 

Born November 5, 1865. Died September 15, 1901. 

Bead 8th Xovemher, 1901. 

BroLOGicAL Science, and more particularly that branch of it in which 
this Society is peculiarly interested, has not for many years suffered 
so sad or so serious a loss as befell it on that dark September night 
when our then Secretary was drowned through the capsizing of a boat 
at the entrance of Ballinakill Harbour, on the west coast of Ireland. 

Martin Fountain Woodward, the younger son of our esteemed first 
President, Dr. Henry Woodward, was born in London on the 5th of 
November, 1865, and received his early education at the Kensington 
Grammar School, where he attended from 1875 to 1883. In October 
of the last-named year he entered the Koyal Scliool of Mines and 
Normal College of Science (now the Royal College of Science), where 
the hereditary bent of his mind found free play, and where he applied 
himself with such ardour to his studies that the following year (1884), 
on the conclusion of his geological course, he was awarded the 
Murchison Medal and prize of books. 

During the succeeding session (1884-5) he attended the zoological 
course, the last conducted by Professor Huxley in person, and was 
first on the list at both the elementary and advanced ^ examinations, 
wliile his dissection for the elementary practical examination was 
long kept as an ensample.^ 

This brought him his Associateship, while his marked ability in 
Biology led to his appointment by Professor Huxley as Assistant 
Demonstrator in October, 1885. In July of the following year he was 

1 Bracketed first in Advanced Zoology with A. V. Jennings, June, 18cS5. 

2 It had been his father's earnest desire that Martin Woodward should pass out of 

the Schools in Geology and Paleontology, hut Professor Huxley (who was Dean, 
and at that time still took a lively and active interest in the College) called upon 
Dr. Woodward and urged upon him that his son should remain attached to the 
Biological Laboratory, and not pursue the advanced geological course which his 
fatlier contemplated for him ; Huxley, with characteristic animation, exclaiming, 
"It is necessary to keep up the apostolic succession in Biology, and Martin 
AVoodward is our man ! " 

VOL. V. — MARCH, 1902. 1 



2 rROCF.EBINfiS OK TnK MALACOI.OfilCAL SOCIKTV. 

promoted to tlic rank of Demonstrator of Zoolo2;y, a status he still 
held at the time of his decease, and, to quote from the official report, 
" commenced .... an inij^uiiy into the detailed structure of 
the Molhiscan odontophore." ^ 

His zeal in his work was not only shown in tlie way in which he 
dischar2;ed his official duties, hut by the good use he made of the 
annual long vacations to yet further advance his biological studies. 
Thus in 1887 he accompanied Mr. "\V. H. Hudleston on a three 
weeks dredging cruise in the English Channel to the west of 
Portsnioutli, and accompanied the Geologists' Association on their 
excursion into Cornwall. 

In 1889 he spent three weeks at Guernsey investijrating the 
marine zoology of the island; the summers of 1890 and 1891 were 
spent at Plymouth working in the Laboratory of the Marine Biological 
Association ; subsequent vacations were passed in South Devon and at 
Sark (1896 and 1897) ; whilst on one occasion, with his friend and 
former pupil Mr. E. AV. L. Holt, he explored some of the celebrated 
dene-holes in North Kent. 

In the summers of 1899 and 1900 he joined Mr. Holt at the 
Marine Biological Laboratory of the Fisheries Board for Ireland, 
which was then stationed at Inishbofin, and the interesting series 
of Molluscan specimens that he brought back from that locality and 
exhibited at our meetings will be in the recollection of our Members. 

In the present year, having recently and successfully undergone 
an operation for hernia, he was officially acting as assistant during 
the holidays at this Laboratory, which had been moved to a position 
in Ballinakill Harbour off the hamlet of Moyard. He had this time 
been especially interested in and had collected a number of fine 
Fusoids for investigation, which with other material, we are glad to 
say, has been placed by Mr. Holt in the hands of one of our 
Members, to be worked out for the Board. 

ilartin Woodward's stay was drawing to a close when, with his 
colleague and companion of his holiday, Professor AV. Watson, he 
paid a visit on 15th September to his friend Air. Allies, the resident 
owner of Inishbofin. On the return journey they Avere delayed by 
contrar}' winds, and did not approach the harbour until after dark. 
Suddenly, as they were nearing their destination, and were within 
a mile of land, a shaii:) squall from the hills upset and sank the boat. 
Martin "Woodward, though a fairly good swimmer, never rose, and 
Mr. "Watson and the boatman in charge, after calling in vain for their 
companion, only reached land themselves with great difficulty. 

» 31th Rep. Dept. Sci. & Arts, p. 38. 



MKJIOIR OF MARTIjST F. WOODWARD. li 

It was not until September 27tli that the body was recovered on the 
site of the catastrophe, and laid to rest two daj's later in the burial- 
ground attached to the Protestant Church at Moyard. In this sad 
fashion was a promising career cut short, alas ! all too soon. 

Famed for his manipulative skill ^ and his extensive biological 
knowledge, as well as the great care and accuracy of his observations, 
Martin Woodward was not a voluminous writer, as the bibliographical 
list of his papers appended to this notice shows. All his literary 
productions, however, are characterized by that extreme care and 
attention to detail which marked the rest of his work, and his 
conclusions are firmly based on foundations of carefully ascertained 
facts, while on all points open to difference of opinion the views of 
others, however adverse, are always fully and fairly stated. 

Although, as incidentally mentioned, he started by working at the 
Mollusca, Martin Woodward's first published articles were on other 
subjects. Beginning with lighter notes contributed to minor societies, 
and with records of teratological facts that had come under his 
observation, he turned for a time to the Vertebrata, and his first 
important contributions to science comprise a series of papers on the 
dentition of certain groups of the Mammalia. Of these memoirs 
Dr. Forsyth Major, no mean authority, kindly writes : — 

" M. F. Woodward's first publication, ' On the Milk-Dentition of the 
Procavia {Hyrax) capensis and of the Rabbit,' revealed an investigator 
who was not only perfectly conversant with, and even improved upon, 
the various methods in use for examination, but who at the same 
time combined with sound reasoning a clear exposition of known as 
well as new facts. In the Procavia Woodward discovered some 
additional milk-teeth, and showed that the deciduous set of this 
genus is composed, apart from the four grinders, of three upper and 
two lower incisors and a canine in each jaw. The discovery of the 
Tertiary PlioJiyrax has imparted renewed interest in these investiga- 
tions. As to the Rabbit, Huxley's observation of an upper and 
a lower deciduous incisor, which never cut the gum but are absorbed 
in the unborn animal, was confirmed and enlarged. His ' General 
Considerations ' are, as it were, a programme of Woodward's later 
work on the Dentition of Mammals. 

"In 1893 the first part of his 'Contributions to the Study of 
Mammalian Dentition : On the Development of the Teeth of the 
Macropodidse ' appeared, and herein were described for tlie first time 
the presence of undoubted embryonic vestigial teeth in Marsupials. 



^ His latest exploit had beeu to cut sections of some photographic films for Sir 
William Abney, K.C.B. 



4 rnOCEEDIXGS OF TnK MALACOT.OGICAL SOCIETY. 

As to the nature of the much debated siiccessional premolar of 
Marsupials, reasons are adduced for the author's belief that it is in 
reality, not a replacing tooth, but a retarded milk-tooth. In the 
following year (Anat. Anz., 18U4, ix) vestigial teeth are described 
in several Rodentia, and are shown to belong to the milk -dentition. 
It is sugg(>sted that the functional molars of the Mammalia — the true 
molars so called — are to be assigned to the same set as tlie premolars, 
i.e. the second dentition (to be termed third dentition if Ave believe 
in the pre-milk dentition). The same year an able review of the 
recent work ' On the Succession and Genesis of Mammalian Teeth ' 
appeared in Science Progress (1894, i). 

" Part ii of the ' Contributions to the Study of Mammalian 
Dentition ' (P.Z.S., 1896) deals with the teeth of representatives 
of five out of the nine families of Insectivora. In this the author 
is led to view the considerable variation in the dentition of the 
Insectivoi'a as a result of suppressions in the dental scries, and of 
a tendency to reduction in the functional importance of the milk- 
dentition. Strictures are made on the tritubercular as well as on 
the concrcscent theory of the evolution of the molar cusps, and the 
discussion of these general questions is conducted by a clever handling 
of arguments taken from ontogeny, comparative morphology, and 
phylogeny. In the last publication of the series (Anat. Anz., 1896) 
Woodward sides Avith the pra-tisans of a jrre-mUh dentitioyi so far as 
Marsupials are concerned. A set of minute teeth in polyprotodont 
and diprotodont Marsupialia are described as the remnants of 
a pre-milk dentition. An analogous interpretation given by other 
Avorkers to similar slight structures in some Placentalia is accepted 
' with some reservation.' Of tliis paper it may be safeh' foretold 
that it will hold its own ground for some decades to come. One 
of the reasons for which he discontinued his researches in this 
branch of study, and would presumablj'^ have done so for years had 
he been spared, was that he Avas rightly conA-inced the last Avord 
in researches of this kind belong to palaeontology, but owing to the 
slow progress of palseontological discoveries the answers also Avould 
be slow in coming." 

Ere this series was complete, however, Martin Woodward had 
once more reverted to the Mollusca, and owing to the fortunate 
incident of his becoming Secretary to this Society in November, 1897, 
this return bid fair to result in his specializing in tliis subject, for 
all his later papers dealt with ^folluscan anatomy, and, with tAvo 
exceptions, appeared in our Proceedings, whilst ho was preparing 
material for the volume on Mollusca in the Oxford Natural History 
tliat liad been entrusted to him by its editor, Professor E. Pay 



MEMOIR OF MARTIN F. "WOODWAKD. 5 

Lankester, and his last act as a teacher had been to deliver a course 
of lectures at the Royal College of Science that embodied his pre- 
liminary notes for that work. 

In his first jMolluscan paper, that dealing with the anatomy of 
Jijjhij)podonta Macdougalli, Tate, he showed that the lattice -like 
valves, which ' gape ' yet more widely than in its nearest ally, 
Galeomma, are completely invested by the mantle as in Chlamydoconcha 
— in brief, that this pelecypod had an internal shell. 

His second paper, " On the Anatomy of Pterovera,''^ contained careful 
observations, and the results of some extended experiments, on that 
enigmatical structure the crystalline style, which he regarded with 
Hazay and Haseloff as a reserve supply of food. 

In Natalina Cajfra (Fer.) he made a special study of the buccal 
mass and its functions, contrasting them with those of the more 
familiar Testacella. 

Turning next to the larval Oyster, he showed, in contradistinction 
to another investigator, that the dimyarian stage remained, as it 
does at the present day, still to be discovered. 

Three years later he seized a proifered opportunity of describing the 
previously unknown anatomy of Mulleria, which genus he concluded 
to be closely related to the Unionidoe, although extremely specialized 
in accordance with its fixed mode of life. 

At the same time the anatomy of the minute Adeorbis was occupying 
him, and had to be described from serial sections, a most difficult 
piece of work, very ably accomplished, which resulted in the allocation 
of the Adeorbidae to a position in the systematic series between the 
Hissoiidse and the Naticida3. 

The problem of the systematic position of Donovania then claimed 
his attention, and he was able to demonstrate that it belonged to the 
liuccinidse and ranked next to Pisauia. This was the first occasion 
on which he was brought face to face with a question of nomenclature, 
an aspect of zoological study to which he was later on led to pay 
more attention. 

The fortunate chance of two members of the Volutidoe, one rare, 
the other new, coming into his hands for description caused him to 
investigate the scanty information already possessed concerning the 
animals of that family, and to point out that "we are at present 
incorporating in the Volutidee several forms derived from distinct 
stocks." His researches in this direction were unfinished, for he had 
written to his friend Mr. W. 0. Freeman, of the Imperial Agricultural 
Department for the West Indies, in Barbados, to procure specimens 
of Valuta miisica, the Linnean type, or at least first-named species. 
These specimens, with others from the same source, had recently 



b PROCEEDINGS OF THK MALACOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

iUTivcd and Tvorc awaiting liis return to town : they have now been 
placed in competent hands for investigation. ( Vide infra, p. 21.) 

Able as all these papers were, and full of suggestive observations, 
they nevertheless did not give that scope for broader generalization 
which he found in his last subject, " The Anatomy of Pleurotomaria 
Deyrichii, Hilg." Here, fortunate in his material, he was able to 
correct the observations of previous investigators, and to establish that 
this primitive rliipidoglossate Diotocardian approaches the archi- 
tcenioglossate Monotocardians, Vivipara and Nassopsis, in the position 
of the point of origin of the visceral loop, and that it is a form very 
closely related to the stock fi'om which the j\rouotocardia originated ; 
while it shows signs of a common ancestry with the Cephalopoda in 
the position of the supporting skeleton of the gills and in the possession 
of a spiral stomach-coecum. 

Martin Woodward also edited, and brought up to date by original 
notes, additions, and emendations, vols, ii-iv of the English translation 
of Korschelt & Heider's "Textbook of Embryology' of Invertebrates" 
(1899-1900). 

The amount of written matter is, however, in Martin "Woodward's 
case no index to the work he really accomplished. An ever-ready 
Avillingness to help othei's was a noted feature of his character from 
early childhood, and wide indeed was the circle that profited by his 
kindlj' assistance and advice. As evidence of the esteem in which he 
was held and the impression he made on those with whom he came 
in contact, we maj' cite the following out of a letter from the Secretary 
to the Department of Agriculture and Technical Instruction for 
Ireland, Avho writes: — "During the time he was connected with the 
Department his services were of a most valuable kind, and were 
highly appreciated, and while his high character, brilliant talents, 
and devotion to Science were admired, his personality was such that 
those with Avhom he came most in contact deplore his loss as that of 
a real friend." Professor Tilden, too, similarly expressed himself 
in his address at the reopening of the Royal College of Science for 
the present session. This encomium from official quarters cannot fail 
to find warm response from the members of this Society, who one and 
all have reason to lament a friend in the loss of their late Secrctar}' ; 
they can, therefore, fully sympathize with his intimate friends and 
relations, and yet more with that home circle of which he was all 
his years the light, and just pi'ide. 

B. B. W. 



MKMOIR OF MARTIN F. WOODWARD. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY. 



1887. " A three weeks' Dredging Cruise in the Channel, 1887 " : Abstr. Froc. 

Metropol. IScloit. Assoc, No. 20 [jip. 4]. 

1888. " Babbit with an undescended Testis, with notes on the descent of the Testis 

in the same animal" : Anat.'Soc. Gt. Brit. ^ Ireland in Jourii. Anat. ^■ 

Physiol., vol. xxii, pp. xxi-xxiii, fig. 
1888. "The Eyes of the Invertebrates": Abstr. Froc. Western Micro. Club, 

1887-8, p. 13. 
1890. "The Development of Echinoderras " : op. cit., 1889-90, pp. 10-11. 
1892. " On the Milk-Deutition of Procavia [Eyrax) capensis and of the Rabbit 

{Lepus canicult(s), with remarks on the relation of the milk and 

permanent dentitions of the Mammalia": Froc. Zool. Soc, 1892, 

pp. 38-49 ; 1 pi. 

1892. " Description of an abnormal Earthworm possessing seven pairs of ovaries " : 

op. cit., 1892, pp. 181-188 ; 1 pi. 

1893. ' ' Further observations on variations in the genitalia of British Earthworms ' ' : 

op. cit., 1893, pp. 319-321 ; 1 pi. 
1893. "Contributions to the Study of Mammalian Dentition. Part i: On the 
development of the Teeth of the Macropodidae " : op. cit., 1893, 
pp. 450-473 ; 3 pis. 

1893. " Ou the Anatomy of Ephippodonta MacdougalU, Tate" : Froc. Malac. Soc, 

vol. i, pp. 20-25 ; 1 pi. 

1894. " On the succession and genesis of Mammalian Teeth" : Science Progress, 

vol. i, pp. 438-453. 
1894. " On tlie Milk-Dentition of the Rodentia, with a description of a vestigial 
Milk-Incisor in the Mouse {Mus musculus) " : Anat. Anz., Bd. ix, 
pp. 619-631. 

1894. " Ou the Anatomy of Fleroccra, with some notes on the Crystalline Style " : 

Froc. Malac. Soc, vol. i, pp. 143-150 ; 1 pi. 

1895. "On the Anatomy of Natalina Caffra, Fer., with special reference to the 

structure of the buccal mass" : torn, cit., pp. 270-277 ; 1 pL, figs. 

1895. " Note on the Anatomy of the Larva of the European Ojster, Ostrea edulis, 

Linu." : toin. cit., pp. 297-299 ; 1 pi. 

1896. " Contributions to the Study of Mammalian Dentition. Part ii : On the Teeth 

of certain Insectivora " : Froc. Zool. Soc, 1896, pp. 557-594 ; 4 pis. 
[An abstract of this paper entitled "On the Development of the IVeth in 

certain Insectivora" appeared in the Rep. Brit. Assoc, 1895 (1896), 

p. 736.] 
1896. " On the Teeth of the Marsupialia, with special refereuceto the Pre-Milk 

Dentition" : Anat. Anz, Bd. xii, pp. 281-291. 
1898. " On the Anatomy of Mulkria Dalyi, Smith " : Froc Malac Soc, vol. iii, 

pp. 87-91 ; figs. 
1898. " On the Anatomy of Adcorhis subcarinatiis, Mont.": torn, cit., 

pp. 140-146 ; 1 pi. 

1898. [Anatomical notes to paper by G. B. Sowerby entitled " Description of a new 

South African Marine Gasteropod," and published by the Cape of Good 
Hope Department of Agriculture.] 

1899. "Some account of the .synonymy and aflBnities of Bonovania minima 

(Mont.) " : Froc Malac. Soc, vol. iii, pp. 235-238 ; figs. 

1900. "Note on the Anatomy of Valuta ancilla (Sol.), Neptuneopsis Gilchrisfi, 

Shy., and VoUitilithes abyssicola (Ad. & Rve.) " : op. cit., vol. iv, 
pp. 117-125 ; 1 pi. 

1901. "The Anatomy of Pleurotoniaria Bcyrichii, Hilg." : Quart. Journ. Micro. 

Sci., vol. xliv, pp. 215-268; 4 pis. 



I'ROCICKDINGS OF TUK JIALACOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 



ORDINARY MEETING. 

Fkiday, 8tii November, 1901. 

E. A. Smith, F.Z.S., etc.. President, in the Chair. 

J. H. Fcrriss was elected to membership of the Society. 

The President informed the members present that he had -written 
on behalf of the Society to Dr. H. Woodward expressing the deep 
sympathy felt witli J)r. and ^Irs. Woodward in the loss of their son, 
Mr. Martin F. Woodward, late Secretarj- of the Society : he then read 
a reph' received from Dr. Woodward. 

The President also read a brief biographical notice of Mr. Martin F. 
Woodward. 

The following communications were read : — 

1. "Note on the tvpe-specimen of Belertinoteuthis Montejiorei!''' By 
G. C. Crick, F.G.S., etc. 

2. " Description of two new Ilclicoid Land-Shells from British New 
Guinea." By H. B. Preston, F.Z.S., etc. 

3. "Description of a new species of Helicina from Guatemala." By 
E. R. Sykes, B.A., F.L.S., etc. 

Exhibits were placed on the table by the following : — 

E. A. Smith : A specimen of Neptuneopms Gilchristi, Shy., from 
South Africa. 

J. H. Ponsonby and E. B. Sykes : Specimens of Valuta Ponso7ihyi, 
Smith. 

E. H. Burno : A series of specimens illustrating the structure of the 
byssus in the Pelecypoda. 

H. B. Preston : A specimen of Toluta Beauii, Fisch. & Bernardi, 
from Marie Galante, A\ est Indies. 

H. B. Preston and E. B. Sykes : Specimens in illustration of their 
respective papers. 



ORDINARY MEETING. 

FitiDAY, 13tu Decembek, UOl. 

E. A. Smith, F.Z.S., etc.. President, in the Chair. 

J. McBcan, A. G. Marshall, A. Eeynell. A. C. Johansen, and W. C. 
Blake were elected to membership of the Society. 

The following communications were read : — 

1. "On the anatomy and relationships of Volnta musica, L. ; with 
notes upon certain other supposed members of the "S'olutidte." By 
S. Pace, F.Z.S., etc. 

2. " Description of a new East African Ennea and a new N.W. 
Australian Thcr sites {lilu/ffoda).'" By H. Fulton. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE IIALACOLOGICAL SOCIETY, » 

3. ^^ Elliot a Blakcana, Xewc, and E. lima, Pils." By G. K. Gude, 
F.Z.S., etc. 

4. " JSTote on the pairing of Pyramidula rotimdata (Miill.) with 
Vitrea lucida (Drap.)." By Mons. E. Caziot. 

Exhibits were placed on the table by the following : — 

H. Fulton : A very large specimen of Cyprcca fantlierina (pale 
variety). 

E. K. Sykes : Specimens of Aperostoma giganteum, Eve., A. Fisclieri, 
Hidalgo, and A. confusnm, n.sp. 

H. Fulton and S. Pace : Specimens in illustration of their respective 
papers. . 

ORDINARY MEETING. 

Friday, 10th JA^^UAIlY, 1902. 

E. A. Smith, F.Z.S., etc., Piesideut, in the Chair. 

Dr. W. T. Blanford and Mr. W. Crouch were appointed auditors of 
the accounts' of the Society. 

C. F. Ancey, L. B. Brown, Lieut. Dupuis, and Y. Hirase were 
elected to membership of the Society. 

The following communications were read : — 

1. "On an apparently new Rhiostoma and a new Sesara, obtained 
by the late Mr. W. M. Daly in Siam." By Dr. W. T. Blanford, 
F.R.S., etc. 

2. "Contributions to the Study of the Columbellidse : Part I." 
By S. Pace, F.Z.S., etc. 

3. " Description of two new Land-Shells from Dutch ]N"ew Guinea." 
By H. B. Preston, F.Z.S., etc. 

Exhibits were placed on the table by the following : — 

5. I. Da Costa : Specimens of Mitra zonata, Marryat, M. scahriuscula, 
Gray, Papuina turris, H. Ad., P. waigiouensis, H. Ad., P. exsultatis, 
Tapp -Can., and Clausilia Smithice. 

B. B. Woodward : On behalf of Mons. Caziot, the specimen of 
Tiirea lucida (Drap.) referred to in his note {infra, j). 11) ; on behalf 
of Canon Norman, Clausilia biplicata (Mont.), from Herts ; on behalf 
of Messrs. Leicester and Holland, specimens of Acanthinula lamellata 
(Jeff.), from Bucks and Berks. 

H. B. Preston : A specimen of Mitra zonata, Marryat. 

On behalf of G. H. Clapp : Specimens of Brachypodella alba, Ad. 

G. B. Sowerby : Several species of Turbo with their opercula, 
including T. pulclier, Bve. ; also various shells containing hermit crabs. 

li. A. Bullen : About eighty species of marine shells from 
Harlyn Bay, Cornwall. 

E. il. Sj^kes : A specimen of Mitra zonata, Marryat ; also co-types of 
four recently described species of Achatinellidse ; and specimens of 
Planorbis dilatatiis, Gld. 

H. B. Preston and Dr. W. T. Blanford : Specimens in illustration of 
their respective papers. 



10 PROCEEDINGS OF THE MALACOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 



NOTES 



Further Note on the Type -specimen of Voluta Roadkigut.f,, 
McCoy. {Read 8th Nov. 1901.) — With reference to the communicatiou 
read at the Malacological Society's meeting in November (Proc. Malac. Soc, 
vol. iv, p. 184), I cannot consider the matter of the type-specimen settled, 
imless the specimen stated to be the type in the National Museum 
(Melb.) corresponds in every particular to the numerous and very i)rccise 
measurements given by the late Professor Sir Frederick McCoy (Ann. & 
Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. v, vol. viii, 1881, p. 8!s). The illustration in this work 
does not seem to correspond with that in the " Thesaurus Conchyliorum." 
Sowerby's figure is that of a pei-fect shell, McCoy's shows the anterior 
extremity with a ragged or broken edge, while the 18 or 19 spiral striaj 
encircling the upper portion of the body-whorl from the outer to the 
inner lip are not shown by Sowerby, and the arrangement of the ribs 
dift'ers in the two figures. Sowerby says, "Columella tenuiter triplicata," 
and only three small plaits are visible in his figure ; whereas McCoy 
states, " three or four large oblique plaits on pillar, the hindmost but one 
the largest " : this and other differences ought to be a sure means of 
identification. Unfortunately all who could have vouched for the 
authenticity of the type-specimen have passed away. In conclusion I 
should like to point out that, although in McCoy's description of the type- 
specimen it is noted as having been found in 1^78, no specimen was 
exhibited until the specimen found at Portland (which was generally 
supposed to be the type) was purchased in 1881 ; it will be observed that 
Sir Frederick, although he says he had described the type three years 
previously to the publication of the description in 1881, does not mention 
its being in the possession of the Museum, and if it was, it seems rather 
singular that it was not made use of for the wax model for the Trustees of 
the Australian Museum, Sydney. 

Unfortunately, owing to the removal of the conchological specimens 
from the University Museum to the Technological Museum, where they 
still remain packed up, the specimens cannot be compared. 

(Mrs.) a. Kenyon. 

Note on Eulota Blakeaxa, Newc, and Eulota luxa, Pils. 
{Read 13^/i Dec. 1901.) — Some misapprehension, which it is desirable to 
rectify, concerning tlie correct synonymy of Eulota Blakeana having got 
abroad, the following note, it is hoped, will remove any doubt that may 
exist as to the identity of the above two species. 

In my first report on Helicoid Land-Shells from Japan and the Loo- 
Choo Islands (Proc. Malac. Soc, vol. iv, p. 16) I referred some shells which 
I there figured, to Eulota Blakeana, Newc. l)r. Pilsbry afterwards [jointed 
out to me that my shells were distinct from Newcouib's s[)ecies, but agreed 



NOTES. 1 1 

with the form figured by Kobelt in his Fauna Moll. Jap. Kobelt had 
also wrongly referred his shells to Newcomb's species, but he had tran- 
scribed the name incorrectly as '■'■Helix Blakei." Dr. Pilsbry's suggestion 
was that the form under consideration, which he at first thought to be 
identical with Eulota luna, should be known as Eulota Blakei, Kobelt, 
a name involving quite a diff'erent meaning and therefore sufliciently 
distinct from E. Blakeana, Newc. This suggestion was adopted by me in 
my second Report (tom. cit., pp. 74, 79). G. K. Gude. 

]N"0TE GIST THE PAIRING OF PyHAMIDVLA BOTUNDATA (MuLL ) WITH 

ViTREA LUCiDA (Drap.). {Read I3th Dec, 1901.) — Last September, 
when looking for molluscs in the department of Gard (France), I observed 
at La Foulx, on the damp and shady bank of the little stream which rises 
at St. Bonnet near the well-known Roman Bridge, an instance of pairing 
between Fi/)rimidida rotundata (Miill.) and Vitrea lucida (Drap.). On 
carefully separating the two individuals a few minutes later, I obtained 
proof that connection was absolutely established. 

Hybrid connection between dittereut species has already been reported. 
Rossmassler saw Helix nemoralis united with H. Iwrtensis. Astier saw 
at Grasse (Aljjes maritimes) Rumina decollata with Helicella variabilis ; 
Gassies, the same Rumina with Zonites algirus, and Helicella variabilis 
with tlelix Pisana. Lecoq observed in the same state near Anduze (Gard) 
Helix nemoralis with Helix aspersa, and Clausilia bidens with Pupa similis 
(Moquin-Tandon, Hist. nat. Moll. France, tom. i, p. 232). 

I do not think that offspring resulted from any of these ill-assorted 
unions. E. Caziot. 

Clausilia biplioata (Mont.) in Hertfordshire. {Read \Oth Jan. 
1902.) — This species has appeared in the Hertfordshire list in Taylor & 
Roebuck's " Record," but in none of the published county lists. Going 
tlirough the Conchological Society's Records on which Taylor & Roebuck's 
work is founded, I ascertained that the specimens were in the collection 
of the Rev. Canon A. Merle Norman, who kindly exhibits them to-night. 
There is no doubt as to the correctness of the identification of the 
species, and it is presumable, for Pickering was a very careful man, 
that the county is correct. The exact locality of occurrence would, how- 
ever, be of great interest, and it is in the hope that some Hertfordshire 
naturalists may be induced to take up the question and solve the problem 
that attention is now drawn to the subject. B. B. Woodward. 

Acanthindla lamellata (Jeff.) in Buckinghamshire and Berk- 
shire. {Head lOt/i Jan. 1902.) — Until a few weeks ago the most southerly 
recorded occurrence in tlie living state ol Acanthimda lamellata (Jeif.) was 
at Cotton Dale, North Staffordshire (Journ. Conch., vol. vi, lb90, p. 254) : 
now, however, this interesting little species has been found much farther 
south. Mr. Alfred Leicester has sent me sisecimens from a depression in 
the Chiltern Hills called "Daniels Hole," just above Aston Clinton. 
Mr. W. Holland, of the Oxford University Museum, obtained a single 
specimen in March, 18«8, from a dry ditch by Theale Lock (Kennet side), 
near Reading. This latter locality consequently represents the present 
' furthest south ' of the species in England, though in Pleistocene times 
it was found as far as West Wittering, on the shores, or nearly so, of the 
English Channel. These specimens have now been presented by their 
respective discoverers to the British Museum. 

B. B. Woodward. 



12 PJiOCEEDINOS OF THE MALACOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

Note on the OrERcuLA of Tvimo pulciier, Reeve, and T. TicAoyicus, 
Eeeve. (Head lOth Jan. 1902.) — Reeve's description of this species 
(Conch. Icon., Turbo, sp. 9) docs not inchide the operculum, which was 
jirobably unknown to tliat autlior. In my monograph of tlie genus Ttirho 
(Thes. Conch., vol. v, p. 198, pi. iv, fig. 38) I have described and figured 
the operculum with the shell ; but since, unfortunately, sometimes 
through lamentable carelessness, opercula get placed in shells to which 
they do not belong, my identification has been called in question, and 
until a few weeks ago I have been unable to confirm it. Pilsbry (Man. 
Conch., ser. i, vol. x, p. 203) considered my statement that the operculum 
of T. fxdcher, Rve., is like that of T. iiarmaiicu^, Linn., to be highly 
improbable, and thinks it will prove similar to that of T. Ticaonicus, Rve., 
and other allied species of Senectus. He further expresses a doubt (p. 202) 
whether the species be not identical with 2\ Ticaonicus, Rve. 

I am now able, through the kindness of Mr. Bernard H. "Woodward, 
Director of the Western Australian Museum, who has sent me a specimen 
with the animal intact, to prove that my dcscx'iption was substantially 
correct. The operculum of T. pidcher, Rve., is very like that of 
T. Sarmaticus, Linn. ; it is rather more convex, and the peculiar club- 
shaped processes are more regular, and more nearly equal in size. The 
specimen is from Safety Bay, Fremantle. 

Turbo Ticaonicus, Rve., of which I have specimens from the Philippines, 
difiers considerably in general contour as well as in detail from T. pulc/ier, 
Rve., and its operculum is entirely dift'erent. The latter is veiy convex, 
dark green with a whitish margin, granulous on the right side, granules 
becoming less distinct in the centre, and obsolete, leaving a smooth 
polished surface, on the left. 

G. B. SOWERBT. 



Proc. Malac. 5oc. 



Vol. V, PI. I. 



y"' 




«' BELEMNOTEUTHIS MONTEFIOREI, J. BUCKMAN." 
[= BELEMNITES SP.] 



13 



NOTE ON THE TYPE-SPECIMEN OF BELE^INOTEUTHIS MONTE- 
FIOREI, J. BUCKMAN, FROM THE LOWER LIAS SHALES 
BETWEEN CHARMOUTH AND LYME REGIS, DORSET. 

By G. C. Ceick, F.G.S., 

Of the British Museum (Natural History). 

Read 8fh November, 1901. 

PLATE I. 

About twenty years ago Professor J. Buckmani described a specimen 
from the Lower Lias shales between Charmouth and Lyme Kegis 
that he named Bclemnoteuthis Montefiorei. 

His description is very short, the chief characters enumerated being 
as follows : — 

"The original is nearly twelve inches in length. It is surmounted 
by ten rows of dark black spines ; four double rows = 8 are 1^ in. long, 
while two are 2 in. The hooks are smooth, and of a dark black colour, 
some of them are as much as two lines in length, and all of them being- 
more or less curved. 

" These hooks were doubtless attached to the arms of the animal, 
which were prehensile organs." 

"It will be seen that these rows of hooks are inclined to one 
side, no doubt arising from the contortion of the soft parts forming 
the neck." 

" The dark elevated mass below .... is the ink-bag," which, 
" with its tube, is 3i- inches long." 

" Below the ink-bag is seen a small pointed projection, f of an inch 
in length ; this represents the phragmacone of the true Belemnite." 

" Here then," the author remarks, " we seem to have the remains 
of a most interesting creature connecting the Belemnite of the past, 
a fossil sepiaceous animal now extinct, with the modern Calamary." 

The description concludes as follows : — 

"A Belemnoteutlm antiquus was figured by Dr. S. P. Woodward 
from a specimen in the cabinet of Mr. William Cunuington ; this is 
called B. antiquus, and was obtained from the Oxford Clay, near 
Chippenham. Our specimen, however, is from the Lias, and is, 
therefore, much older .... Tlie Belemnoteuthis llontefiorei may 
then be characterised as a fine fossil form derived from the Lower 
Lias Shales of the county of Dorset." 

From his description quoted above it is evident that the author 
regarded this specimen as generically identical with the forms from 



1 J. Buckman, " On the Belemnoteuthis Montefiorei'''' : Proc. Dorset Nat. Hist. & 
Antiq. Field C'hib, vol. iii (1879), pp. 141-143 : 1 pi. The volume is dated 
1879. but iu his paper Pi-ofessor Buckman speaks of " October of last year 
(1879)," which would lead one to consider that the paper was neither read nor 
published before the year 1880. 



14 PUOCEKDINfiS; OF TniC :MA LACOLOfilCAL SOCIKTY. 

the Oxford Clay of Chippenham that had been described by Pearce ' 
manj' years ])reviously iiuder this same name. It is fortunate for tlie 
sake of comparison that tlie genus Belemuoteuthis is so well known ; 
indeed, few fossilized animals have left more complete remains. 

The tj"pc-specimen of Bdemnoieuthis MontefioreA is now in the 
British j\[useum collection (No. C. 5,026). It does not bear an ori<^inal 
label statin;:^ it to be the figured specimen, but a comparison with 
Professor Buckraan's figure leaves no room for doubt. Since the figure 
was drawn for his plate, the uppermost portion of the slab has been 
detached and replaced in such a manner that the arms have now the 
same general direction as the rest of the bodj'.^ There are six double 
rows of booklets, although the relative position of the booklets in the 
outermost row on each side is not quite so clearly indicated as in the 
rest. In those double rows the bases of the booklets on one side are 
opposed to the bases of the booklets on the other side, clearly showing 
that each double row belonged to only one arm. Hence in this 
specimen there are indications of only six arms. The two outermost 
arms are, as Professor Buckman stated, longer than the rest ; they 
were apparently moi'e slender, and we note also that their booklets are 
more sparsely distributed than on the remaining four arms. Of the 
latter, the two outer ones are, as shown in Professor Biickmau's figure, 
a little longer than the others. 

The arms, in fact, can be aiTanged in thi'ce pairs ; the first pair 
consisting of the two outer arms ; the second, the two intermediate 
ones; and the third, the two inner ones. The enlarged drawing given 
by Professor Buckman admirably shows the form of the booklets, and 
enables one to compare them on the one hand with the booklets of 
Belenmoteuthis, so well figured by Owen ^ and others, and on the other 
hand with those which have been found associated with the guards 
of Beleiunites and figured by Huxley* in his classical work on the 
structure of the Belcmnitidfe ^pl. i, figs, la, 2a). The thickened obtuse 
character of their bases enables us to distinguish them from the 
booklets of Belemnoteuthis, that have their bases simply drawn out to 
a point, and to identifj- them with those of Belemnites. If, therefore, 
the booklets belonged to the same animal as the rest of the remains — 
and we see no adequate reason for supposing that they did not — their 
character warrants the separation of the present specimen from 
Belenmoteuthis and its reference to Belemnites. 

Then with regard to the number of the arras. There are now in 
the British ]\Iuseum collection a number of specimens (sixteen) from 
the Lias in the neighbourhood of Charmouth and Lyme Regis, each 
exhibiting similar uncinated arms associated usually with an ink- 
bag, and sometimes also with portions of a nacreous pro-ostracum. 



1 .T. C. Pearce: Proc. Geol. Soc., vol. iii (1842), p. 593. 

2 When fif,^ure(l by Professor Buckman the broken edge ab (in the Phitc accompanying 

this paper) was joined to the ed.se cd. 

3 R. Owen : Phil. Trans., 1844, pis. iii, v, andvi (especially). See also J. C. Pearce : 

London Geol. Journ., No. 2 (Feb 1847), pi. xvi. 
* T. U. Iluxlcy : ]\Iem. Geol. Surv., Monog. ii (Structure of the Bclcmnitidnc), 1864. 



CEICK : ON BELEMXOTEUTIIIS MOXTEFIOnEI^ J. liUCKMAN. 15 

We have cai'cfully examined all tliese, and in no instance have we 
been able to make out more than six double rows of booklets indicating 
six uncinated arms. Unfortunately, in neither of the examples figured 
by Huxley ' that show the booklets and other remains of the body 
associated with the guard, are the arms well preserved ; in tlie 
example of B. Bruguierianus (pi. i, figs. 1, \a) there are only a few 
scattered booklets, while the arms of B. elongatus (pi. i, figs. 2, In) 
are represented by a confused mass of booklets. In five examples, 
however, we have been able to clearly make out six uncinated arms ; 
of these specimens four (bearing the register numbers 47,020, 47,716, 
82,985, and C. 3,007 respectively) are from the Lias of Lyme Regis, 
and one (bearing the register number 39,901) is from the Lias of 
Charmouth. In bis monograph on the structure of the BelemnitidiB 
Professor Huxley states (p. 16) — "I have not been able to make out 
more than six or seven arms in any specimen, nor has any exhibited 
traces of elongated tentacula, though the shortness of the arms which 
have been preserved would lead one to suspect their existence." It is, 
of course, quite possible that one of the double rows of books might 
become separated during fossilization, and so give the appearance of 
a seventh arm ; but from the above-mentionecl observations it seems 
fairly safe to conclude that those Belemnites, of which any remains of 
the arms have been obtained, had only six uncinated arms. On the 
other band, Belemnoteuthis had at least ten arms (each provided with 
a double row of booklets), as is very plainly shown by a specimen in 
the British Museum collection (j^o. 25,966) from the Oxford Clay of 
Christian Malford, that was figured by G. A. Mantell in his "Petri- 
fications and their teachings," 1851, p. 459, fig. 100.* Although the 
evidence of the number of the arms cannot be regarded as positive, 
because the present specimen may originally have possessed other 
arms which are not now preserved, yet the balance of the evidence 
is certainly in favour of the separation of the specimen from Belemno- 
teuthis, and of its association with Belemnites. 

We fail to see any ground for the outline of the body as given by 
Professor Buckman. True, there are marks on the slab in about the 
positions indicated in the figure, but these are simply tool-marks that 
have been made during the development of the fossil, and certainly 
have nothing whatever to do with the form of the animal's body. 

Professor Buckman considered that the " small pointed projection, 
■f of an inch [19 mm.] in length," which is seen " below the ink-bag," 
represented " the phragmacone of the true Belemnite." The posterior 
portion of the ink-bag has been broken away since the specimen was 
figured, but the "small pointed projection" still remains. We have 
examined this very carefully, but have failed to recognize in it the 
representative of "the phragmacone of the true Belemnite"; it is 
stylifoiTU, 2'5 mm. wide at the anterior end, 1 mm. wide at the 

1 T. H. Huxley: Mem. Geol. Surv., Monog. ii (Structure of the Belemnitidae), 1864, 

pi. i, fif^. I, 1« (7?. Briif/'iierianiis), and 2, 2a [H. elonqatus). 

2 See also G. A. Mautell, "Medals of Creation," vol. ii (1854), p. 460, fig. 145; 

and J. Prestwic-li, " Geology," vol. ii (1888), p. 218, fig. 116. 



16 niocKKnrxGS of tiik malacological socikty. 

posterior end, and lias a longitudinally-wrinkled surface ; it shows no 
traces whatever of septation, and, so far as we can see, is not of the 
nature of a pliragmocone. So far as wo know, no similar structure has 
been observed in Belemnotcuthis. It is, however, known that the 
pro-ostracum of some species of Bjlemnites possessed a central ridge 
which was continued on to the conotheca ; this styliform projection 
m ly have been a portion of such a ridg-e, but we are not able to state 
definitely ; at any rate, we see nothing to prevent us from regarding 
both it and the adjacent fragments of shelly matter as parts of the 
crushed phragmocone with its conotheca and pro-ostracum. Fragments 
of the nacreous pro-ostracum are also seen lying upon and near the 
ink-bag with its contents. 

Since the characters exhibited by the British Museum specimens 
from the neighbourhood of Charmouth and Lyme llegis, in common 
with the present example, agree with the corresponding structures, so 
far as they are known, in those examples of Belemnites that have been 
described, in which the remains of tlie animal are associated with the 
'guard,' we feel justified in referring them all to the 'genus' 
Belemnites. It is not, however, possible to refer the present specimen 
to any described form, because the species of this genus hitherto 
described have been founded upon the shape of the ' guards.' 

The specimen may then be known either as Belemnites Montefiorei, 
J. Buckman, sp., or simply as Belemnites sp. By adopting the former 
name the identity of the specimen is retained ; but as somewhat 
similar remains of Belemnites, having the booklets of the arms, the 
ink-bag, and portions of the internal shell in conjunction, are found 
at diiferent horizons, this might lead to some confusion, because all 
such specimens might be referred to this species. It is, however, 
most probable that the specimens obtained at different horizons 
belonged to different species, but, according to our present knowledge, 
the form of the booklets, and the nature of the ink-bag and fraguients 
of the internal shell, are not sufiicient to distinguish these species. 
We do not, for example, see how, in the absence of the guards, the 
two specimens figured by Professor Huxley (op. cit.) under the names 
Belemnites Brugnierianm (pi. i, fig. 1) and B. elomjatus (pi. i, fig. 2) 
respectively could be distinguished. In the circumstances it seems 
therefore desirable, so far as the present specimen is concerned, to 
discard any specific name, and simply write — Belemnites sp. 



17 



NEW SPECIES OF LAXD-SHELLS FROM NEW GUINEA. 
By H. B. Preston, F.Z.S., etc. 

Read^th November, 1901, and lOfh Jannarif, 1902. 

1. Macrochlamys Papuensis, n.sp. Fig. I. 

Shell zonitiform, hyaline, pale horn colour, slightly pinkish towards 
the mouth ; whorls five, somewhat rounded, elaborately sculptured 
with growth-striae, and with close-set, very fine, and slightly waved 
spiral lines ; suture impressed, closely but strongly malleated ; mouth 
oblique ; peristome simple, forming a slight fold nearly encircling the 
umbiKcus ; the latter is fairly deep and very narrow. Alt. 14 mm. ; 
diam. maj. 23, min. 19 mm. 

Sah. — Northern coast of British New Guinea. 

The type is in the British Museum. 

This species is of a very beautiful form ; and its sculpttire readily 
separates it from the few species hitherto known from the Papuan 
region. 

2. Chloritis (Sotcobasis) globosa, n.sp. Fig. lY. 

Shell globose ; spire rather elevated ; colour dark rufous ; whorls 
five, rounded, coarsely striated with lines of growth ; mouth oblique, 
roundly ovate, contracted above ; peristome reflected, white tinged 
with lilac ; umbilicus very deep, partly concealed by the reflexed lip. 
Alt. 24 mm.; diam. maj. 30, min. 25 mm. Mouth (inside measure- 
ment), diam. 14, alt. 13 mm. 

Hah. — Northern coast of British New Guinea. 

The type is in the British Museum. 

The nearest ally of this shell appears to be Chloritis stirophora 
(Smith), from which it differs in the following particulars : its more 
elevated and rounded form, the traces of keel being much less 
apparent and the whorls more convex ; its darker colour, more rounded 
and more oblique mouth, and in the much greater extension of the 
columella over the umbilicus. 

3. Chloritis (Sflcobasis) stirophora (Smith), 
var. CoLLiNGWooDENSis, n.var. Fig. V. 

This variety, of which I have nine specimens before me, differs 
from the type mainly in its small size ; but it is also more depressed 
and less openly umbilicated. Alt. 14 mm. ; diam. maj. 25, min. 21 mm. 

^«5.— Collingwood Bay, B.N.G. 

The type is in the British Museum. 
VOL. V. — march, 1902. 2 



lO PROCEEDINGS OF THE MALACOLOGICAL SOCIETY, 

4. Chloritis (AusTRocnLOEiTis) Maforinstjl^, n.sp. Fig. III. 

Shell globose, spire rather depressed, whorls five, suture shallow ; 
aperture rounded and somewhat oblique, having a slight callosity, more 
noticeable in the columellar region. Peristome expanded and slightly 
reflexed ; umbilicus very narrow, almost concealed by reflexion of 
lip ; shell striated with growth-lines and minutely pitted on earlier 
whorls. Colour red-brown, marbled with grey ; interior of aperture 
a striking reddish bi'own. Alt. 1 1 mm. ; diam. maj. 14, min. 11 '5 mm. ; 
aperture, diam. 5, alt. 550 mm. 

JBah. — Mafor Island, coast of Dutch New Guinea. 

The type is in the British Museum. 

The nearest ally of this shell appears to be Chloritis argillacea 
(Fer.), the chief differences being that the former is more compact and 
more regularly globose, the suture slightly more shallow, the lip less 
reiiected, the umbiliciis more closer!, the growth-lines coarser, the 
pitting more minute ; and the striking coloration of the interior of 
the mouth, which is unusual in Chloritis. 

The marbled appearance is rather similar to that met with in 
Papuinn ambrosia (Aug.), but whether this is normal or not, from the 
material to hand it is impossible to say.^ 

I. 11. 




Fig. I. Ilacroehlamys Papnensis, n.sp. 

,, II. Fapiiina trochiforniis, n.sp. 

,, III. Chloritis Maforinsula;, n.sp. 

,, IV. Chloritis ffloiosa, n.sp. 

,, V. Chloritis stirophora, Smith, var. Collingivoodensis, n.var. 

5. Papuina TEocniFOEMis, n.sp. Fig. II. 

Shell conical ; spire acute; whorls 5-6, last sharply keeled, upper 
whorls having a much greater convexity in proportion than the last 



1 Since writinf^ the above dian:nosis I have ascertained that the specimens which 
I have examined wne orifi-inally preserved in alcohol, and this may account lor 
their marbled appearance. 



PRESTON : NEW LAND-SHELLS FEOM NEW GUINEA. 19 

two. Suture shallow ; aperture oblique, having a distinct callosity, 
presenting a somewhat heliciniform appearance, Peristome expanded 
and reflexed ; columella stout, with a protubei'ance at base ; umbilicus 
very narrow, partly concealed by reflexion of lip. Shell striated with 
somewhat coarse growth-lines, otherwise destitute of sculpture. 
Colour pale whitish yellow, deepening on earlier whorls. Alt. 19 mm. ; 
diam. maj. 23, min. 19 mm. ; aperture diam. 9, alt. 9 mm. 
Hah. — Mafor Island, coast of Dutch New Guinea. 

The type is in the British Museum. 

The nearest ally of this shell is Papuina grata (Mich.), from which, 
however, it differs chiefly in the following respects : the spire is more 
acute, the protuberance on the columella is less developed, the 
umbilicus much more closed, and the lip is not so much expanded ; 
moreover, there is no spiral sculpture on the base of the shell. 



20 



ON EELICIXA PTEROPHORA, n.sp., FROM GUATEMALA. 

By E. R. Stkes, B.A., F.L.S., etc. 

Bead %th November, 1901. 

Testa depressa, conoidea, tenuinscula, sub lente dense malleata, 
cornea, infra suturas et ad periplieriam zona brunnea notata, apice 
obtusulo ; anfr. 51, plano-eonvcxiuseuli, ultimxis non descendens, 
acute carinatus ; apcrtura subtriangularis, intas ad carinam castanea, 
callum tcnuissime circumscriptum emittens ; peristoma album, ex- 
pansum, reflexiusculum, ad carinam valdc rostratum, margine 
columellari sinuato, basali reflexo. Operculum ignotum. Diam. 
max. 22, min. 12 mm.: alt. 8 mm. 





Helicina pterophora, n.sp. 

Sai. — Guatemala (coll. Boucard). 

This striking shell recalls in form M. rhyncostoma, Shuttl., but may 
be readily separated by the difference in sculpture, the present species 
not being spirally striate, and also by its larger size. From 
S. rostralis, Moi'el., its shape will readily distinguish it, while 
U. oxyrhytica, Crosse & Debeaux, appears to be a much smaller and 
more conic species. 



21 



ON THE ANATOMY AND RELATIONSHIPS OF VOLUTA MUSIC A, 
Linn. ; WITH NOTES UPON CERTAIN OTHER SUPPOSED 
MEMBERS OF THE VOLUTID^. 

By S. Pace, F.Z.S., etc. 

Read Uth December, 1901. 

PLATE II. 

Although the shell of Valuta musica is such an exceedingly common 
one in collections, the living animal has not as yet been observed ; 
while only a single example, having the soft parts presei'ved, appears 
to have hitherto found its way into the hands of a conchologist. 
This was obtained by M. Marie at the lie des Saintes, Guadeloupe, 
and forwarded by him to Dr. P. Fischer, who described (5) and 
iigured the external characters and the radula. The specimen was. 
however, too badly preserved for Fischer to make out anything further 
concerning its internal anatomy. 

In view of this almost complete ignorance regarding the structure 
of V. musica the late Mr. Martin F. Woodward, who for some time 
prior to his untimely death had been bestowing particular attention to 
the morphology of the rhachiglossate Prosobranchiata, made great 
efforts to obtain further material of this species. He was particularly 
anxious to examine the anatomy of V. musica, because he considered 
that in all likelihood this species, which must be regarded as the type 
of Linnaeus' genus Valuta, was not at all intimatelj^ related to that 
possibly rather mixed assemblage of forms which are at present 
grouped together under the Yolutidte. The opportunity to test this 
surmise by actual dissection did not, however, occur ; for when at 
length, through the instrumentality of his friend and former pupil 
Mr. W. Gr. Freeman, of the Imperial Agricultural Department. Barbados, 
and Mr. L. B. Brown, of Barbados, some specimens were obtained, 
these arrived in London at the same time as the news of the sad 
accident which has deprived malacological science of one of her most 
devoted and most able students. 

The Volutes in question were subsequently kindly placed in my 
hands for examination by the executors of the late Mr. Maitin F. 
Woodward, with the request that I would report upon them to the 
Society of which he had been the Secretary. 

Whilst working at the anatomy of Valuta musica, I have, through 
the kindness of Mr. E. A. Smith, to whom my best thanks are due, 
also been enabled to examine the animal of Neptuneopsis Gilchristi, 
Sby., a spirit specimen of this rare mollusc having been recently 
acquired by him for the British Museum collection. This form had 
already been investigated by Martin F. Woodward (13), but he had 
only an imperfect example, the highly important buccal region having 



22 PltOCKKDlNGS OF THK MALACOT.OGICAL SOCIETY. 

been destroyed by a collector of radulte. I also take advantage of 
tlic opportunity to add a few notes ^ rog-arding the morphology of certain 
other supposed members of the Volutoid series. 

YoLUTA MusiCA, Linn. 

The material at my disposal consisted of five examples, all of which 
•were males, of the small pink variety. The shells, which will be 
deposited in the British Museum, measured from 4".3 to 5 cm. in 
length.^ The animals were received in their shells. They had been 
preserved in formalin, but were not in very good condition for 
dissection ; being much contracted, and in each case the visceral sac 
had entirely disappeared, decomposition having apparently set in 
before the animals were pickled. 

External charadera of the Animal. — As already mentioned, the ex- 
ternal characters of this Volute have been pretty fully described by 
Fischer (5) from a spirit specimen ; but the following particulars may 
be added to his account, bearing in mind that my material also was 
not fresh, but had been preserved in formol. 

During life V. mnsica must present an exceeding handsome 
a])pearance. The dorsal surface of the foot is covered with large 
pigment spots, having the appearance of being contractile chromato- 
])hores, upon a speckled or splashed ground. The sole of the foot is 
siiuiliirly marked, but the markings are of a paler shade. In the pre- 
sci-ved state the speckled markings are of a reddish-brown colour, 
while the larger spots are of a rich purple brown ; but it is of course 
possible that the colours of the living animal may be altogether 
(liffi-rent. As was remarked by Fischer, the introvert presents the 
very unusual feature of being pigmented like the exterior of the body. 

']l\w foot is rounded posteriori}': anteriorly it is deeply notched, has 
the angles produced and the front margin duplicated. The operciduin 
is mounted upoji a distinct opercuhir pad, and placed transversely to 
tlie long axis of the foot. I could discern no trace of any pedal pore, 
but am not prepared to deny the existence of such a structure. The 
appeiKlagen of the siphon appear to be somewhat variable ; and, as 
remarked by Fischer, they are of very unequal size. That on the right 
side is a small tongue-shaped structure lying entirely within the 
mantle edge ; while the left one is about as broad as the siphon itself, 
and, arising about half-way along the latter, runs parallel with it to 
its extremity, thus producing the appearance of a cleft siphon. The 
siphon with its appendages is pigmented, except at its hinder angle, 



' J\)r the opportunity to examine sucli of the late IMr. ^laitiu F. "Woodward's 
dissections as are preserved in the Zoological Laboratory of the Royal College 
of Science, my thanks arc dne to Dr. G. H. Howes ; and I am indebted 
to Mr. E. .A. Smith for permission to work thronuh Dr. Gray's ori<;inal 
preparations of raduhe which are now in the Itritisli Mnsenm. 

2 It is very probable tiiat this diniinntivo size of certain specimens of V. miislca is 
a sexual character. Fischer (4) has recorded that the male of Lijria dc/irioxa 
has a smaller shell than has the female ; and this type of sexual dimorphism 
would api)ear to be not at all uncommon among rrosobranchs. 



PACE : ANATOMY OF VOLUTA MUSIC A, LINX., ETC. 23 

where it is greatly thickened to form a definite posterior siphon, which 
shows slight pigmentation and is supported on cartilage. The mantle- 
edge is thin and unpigmented. In the contracted state, the ^^enis is 
hatchet- shaped and directed backwards ; it lies entirely under cover 
of the mantle. 

Pallial Complex. — The condition of the organs of the pallial complex 
presents no unusual features. The bipectinate osphradium is highly 
developed, and its folife are darkly pigmented. The laminse of the 
cfenidium are triangular in shape and unpigmented. The liypolranchial 
(jland is well developed. Its secretion was at first (as preserved in 
formol) of a rich purple colour, but this changed to a vivid green 
uuder the action of fresh water. 

Introrert. — The introvert is of comparatively large size and almost 
completely eversible. In this condition (Fig. 1) it appears as an 
elongated structure, which, is flattened dorso-ventrally and slightly 
curved upwards. Attention has already been directed to the pigmen- 
tation of the outer surface of the introvert. In the retracted state 
it lies entirely within the body-cavity, passing to the right side over 
the oesophagus, and forming a curved lenticular mass which occupies 
the greater part of the anterior region of the body-cavity and lies 
transversely to the long axis of the body. 

The musculature of the introvert is not greatly developed; it 
consists mainly of a series of strands inserted along the greater 
curvature of the introvert-sheath. 

Alimentary Canal. — The mouth appears as a conspicuous vertical 
slit at the extreme end of the everted introvert. It appears to be 
supported by a couple of small masses of cartikige. The oesophagus, 
in the everted condition of the introvert, passed straight back, 
without any convolution, from the mouth to the stomach ; and it 
appeared to be of pretty uniform calibre throughout the whole extent 
of its course. When the introvert is retracted, the oesophagus, after 
emerging from the introvert, passes sharply forward underneath the 
latter and to the riiiht side, as far as the nerve collar, where it makes 
another sudden bend and resumes its backward direction. 

Leihlein's Gland. — There is a greatly developed oesophageal 
diverticulum, forming a very prominent mass lying dorsad to the 
oesophagus (Fig. 2). It is a very stout, much convoluted, tubular 
structure, of large calibre, larger than that of the oesophagus, arising 
immediately behind the nerve-ring, and terminating in a but slightly 
enlarged, thick-walled, sphaeroidal sac. Its convolutions are bound 
up in exceedingly tough and closely adherent connective tissue ; and 
they present a very characteristic glistening appearance. In colour 
the terminal segment of the oesophageal ctecum is pure white and 
somewhat translucid, while its duct is yellowish and opaque. The 
enlarged terminal segment is closely bound up. with the oesoi)hagus ; 
but its lumen is certainly not in actual communication with that of 
the gut at this point. 

Salivary Glands. — As probably obtains in the majority of the 
higher Prosobranchiata, two pairs of so-called salivary glands are 
represented ; and both pairs lie entirely in front of the nerve-collar. 



24 ruOCEEDINGS OF THK JIALACOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

The racemose glands, wliich arc the homologues of the single pair 
met with in the less specialized forms, present a peculiar ' fluff y ' 
appearance, and in colour are translucent white, while the tubular 
glands are yellowish and opaque. 

The ducts of the racemose glands are at first straight, of fairly large 
calibre, and quite free from the oesophagus, standing out at right 
angles, one on each side of the latter, at a point just outside where 
it emerges from the introvert. After meeting the oesophagus the 
salivary ducts are continued forward as very delicate convoluted tubes 
of diminishing calibre, which run along one on each side of the 
oesophagus, and are closely bound up with it. 

The tubular glands (Fig. 2) lie entirely within the introvert when 
the latter is extriuled, but upon its retraction they project freely into 
the body-cavity. Tliey are convoluted throughout the major portion 
of their course, but for a short distance from their distal extremities, 
which are marked by a slight pyriform enlargement, they are quite 
straight. This short terminal segment is directed forwards : the tube 
then bends sharply upon itself, and becomes much convoluted, while 
its calibre undergoes regularly progressive diminution. Upon nearing 
the radula-sac, the tubular salivary glands, now extremely fine, pass 
suddenljr under the oesophagus, and meeting, give off at right angles 
a single, verj' delicate duct, which passes forward under the radula-sac. 

Raditla. — I am not at all certain that the radula of Valuta musica 
is represented with perfect accuracy by the familiar formula 0-1-0, 
since the uneleaned preparation of this organ showed what may 
possibly be the extremely minute, shapeless vestiges of lateral teeth. 
The functional teeth (Fig. 4) are of the ' rastriform ' type, so well 
described and figured by Fischer (5). The number of denticles 
appears to be inconstant: Fischer's example showed twelve well-formed 
cusps, with, on one side, three intermediate denticles. 

Nervous Si/Hem. — The most important point regarding the nervous 
system (Fig. 3) is the quite considerable length of the right pleuro- 
visceral connective ; the supra-intestinal ganglion occupying its more 
nonnal position close to the osphradium, instead of being intimately 
related to the nerve-ring, as in the Volutes described by Mai'tin F. 
\yoodward. 

Conclusions. — As will be seen, Voluta musica does not differ in its 
anatomy from those few Volutidae of whose structure any details are 
at present known, to such an extent as to justify its separation from 
the other members of that group, the most evident deviation being 
in the radula ; but even in this feature there are indications, as will 
be pointed out, of the existence of an intermediate type in Lyria 
deliciosa, and further links may reasonably be anticipated to exist 
among the laige number of species of whose anatomy nothing is as 
yet known. ^ Moreover, it must be remembered that the taxonomic 



* Since this pnper was written I have been enabled to examine the radula of Lyria 
line/ KK. Lam. : this exhibits a most perltct intermediate stage belwecn the 
y. iiiimicu and the Li/ria dc/icios(( ty2)es. 



PACE : ANATOMY OF VOLUTA 31USICA, LINN., ETC. 2o 

value of the radiila in the Prosobranchiata has been considerably 
overrated ; and that the more important characters are probably 
those vrhich. are afforded by the alimentary canal with its appended 
glands, and by the nervous system. In the morphology of its 
alimentary apparatus, V. musica is in complete accord with what is 
known in other forms referred to the Volutidae ; while, as regards 
its nervous system, the presence of a definite right pleuro-visceral 
connective is suggestive of a more primitive condition than is met 
with in any known form other than Melo Neptuni (1, figs. 74 and 75). 

Lykia deliciosa, Montrz. 

The anatomy of tbis form was investigated by P. Fischer (4) ; but, 
although he would seem to have had ample material, his description is 
anything but complete. 

Leibleui's Gland. — Fischer makes no mention of the existence of an 
oesophageal caecum in Lijria : can it be that it is absent or insignificant 
in this form ; or, may it not rather be, that what is described as the 
stomach is in reality formed by the convoluted Leiblein's gland bound 
up with the gut '? 

Salivary Glands — Fischer describes the tubular salivary glands, 
which he states open one on each side ' of the radula-sac, but he says 
nothing of the normal acinose ones, which are, presumably, also 
present. 

Radula. — Fischer's figure of the radula is a somewhat unsatisfactory 
one, but the enlarged, straight base of the tooth, and the small and 
equal size of its cusps, are rather suggestive of an approximation 
towards the V. musica type. 

JSTEPXCTKEOPsrs GriLCHEisTi, Sby. 

My specimen, like that described by Martin F. Woodward (13), 
was a female. It was preserved in spirit, had been removed from its 
shell,- and was minus tlie visceral sac when I received it Otherwise, 
notwithstandiug tlie fact that the animal had been macerated for 
a fortnight in order to facilitate removal from its shell, the tissues 
were in fairly good condition for dissection. 

External characters of Animal. — The head is produced into two 
enormous, expanded, tentacular lobes : these, although flattened, are 
stout and solid, and have their borders rounded ; they are separated in 
the middle line by a deep notch, which is continued over the dorsal 
surface of tbe head as a shallow median groove. It is noteworthy 
that the head is not quite symmetrical, the right tentacle, and more 
particularly the eye-stalk, being more developed than the left. The 
general shape of the head is shown in Fig. 5, in which the position of 
the rhynchostome, or false mouth, is also indicated. 

1 It is probable that the tubular ' salivary glaucis ' in all cases open in advance of 

the radula-sac, and not at its posterior extremity. 

2 The re<,nster number of the shell, which is in the British Museum, is "1901 : 

10-2y-10." 



26 PROCEEDINGS OF THE M.VLACOLOGICAL SOCIKTr. 

The foot is bilobed anteriorly, and its front margin is duplicated. 
It bears a conspicuous pedal pore on the sole at about its middle. 
The opercular pad is large. The siphon is very short, and the edge of 
tlie mantle is continued round its base as a very slight and incon- 
spicuous collar. Martin F. Woodward has stated that the siphon is 
devoid of appendages : my specimen, however, showed a prominent 
tongue-shaped outgrowth of the left border of the siphon at its base, 
and I have since made out the existence of a similar structure in 
AVoodward's specimen, in which its presence had been obscured by 
coagulated mucus. Tlie posterior siphon is represented by but a slight 
groove. 

The animal appeared to have been entirely destitute of colour- 
markings. The eye-spots are red in the preserved specimen. 

Introvert. — The rhynchostome, or external opening of the introvert- 
sheath, is rounded and (j^uite simple. Tlie eversible portion of the 
introvert is conical in form, somewhat flattened dorso-ventrally, and 
with the base of the cone, not at right angles to its axis, but 
facing downwards. Its walls are enormously thickened and muscular, 
especially at its base. The musculature of the introvert consists of 
two lateral series of rounded bundles arising on the body-wall, and 
inserted at close intervals along the sides of the introvert-sheath 
(Fig. 6). These bundles become more developed towards the base of 
the introvert, which is further provided with a powerful retractor, 
arising on the roof of the body-cavity and inserted dorsally on to the 
introvert-sheath. 

Alimentary Canal. — The mouth is a small vertical slit at the extreme 
end of the proboscis : it is destitute of jaws and unsupported by 
cartilage. The buccal mass is well developed, measuring about 9 mm. 
in length. Its roof is extremely thin and transparent, and so closely 
applied to the oesophagus as to give the buccal mass a crescentic 
transverse section. The initial segment of the oesophagus is perfectly 
straight, and practically buried up in the muscular roof of the intro- 
vert. After passing out of the introvert the (Esophagus becomes 
somewhat enlarged and very thick- walled. In the contracted condition 
it passes sharply forward, to the right of the retracted introvert, as far 
as the nerve-ring. Passing through this, it makes another sharp t\irn 
backwards, and appears to be continued without any break as Leiblcin's 
gland ; the ossophagus appearing to come off below, immediately 
behind the nerve-ring, as a thin-walled, and comparatively insig- 
nificant, outgrowth of what is in reality its own diverticulum. The 
explanation of this apparent anomaly would seem to be that here, as 
in perhaps the majority of instances, the point of separation of the 
cesophageal diverticulum from the oesophagus is not its true point of 
origin, the latter being situated far forward in advance of the nerve- 
collar, namely, at the point of apparent thickening of the oesophagus. 
Fi'om here, backwards, the cesophagus is so closely bound up with its 
diverticulum as to be indistinguishable from it by ordinary dissection. 
After the separation off of Leiblein's gland the oesophagus undergoes 
no further convolution ; but its walls soon become so exceedingly thin 



PACE : ANATOMY OF VOLUTA MITSICA, LINN., ETC, 27 

as to appear quite membranous, and the lumen of the gut is at the 
same time iucreased. 

Salivary Glands. — Two pairs of so-called salivary glands are present 
(Fig. 7); the one pair acinose, the other tubular. Both pairs are 
situated entirely in advance of the central nervous system. 

The acinose glands occupy a position immediately in front of the 
nerve-ring. Their acini are much mixed up, but they are so 
exceedingly brittle that I was unable to determine whether there is 
any actual communication between the glands of the right and left 
sides, such as exists in certain Toxogiossa. The racemose glands 
are in close contact with the oesophagus, and only an extremely 
short tract of their ducts is free. After becoming applied to the 
oesophageal wall the salivary ducts become exceedingly delicate, so 
delicate that I was quite unable to follow them forward to their 
pharyngeal openings. 

The tubular glands are highly developed. That part outside the 
introvert is of large calibre, and lies perfectly freely within the body- 
cavity. As is the case in V. musica, the tubular glands are sharply 
bent back upon themselves at a short distance from their distinctly 
enlarged distal extremities. They are of gradually decreasing calibre, 
and become very delicate within the introvert. Upon reaching the 
end of the radula-sac, the glands, now of extreme tenuity, pass 
under the retractor muscle of the buccal mass, and there unite to 
form a single convoluted duct of increased calibre. This convoluted 
duct forms a broad strap-shaped mass lying beneath the buccal mass, 
and might very easily be mistaken for an anterior buccal retractor. 
It was possible to trace the duct rijiht forward as far as the lips ; 
and it appeared to open into the mouth well in advance of the buccal 
mass, but I was not able to make out its actual orifice with certaintj" ; 
anyhow, unless the duct doubles back again and is excessively delicate, 
it certainly does not open upon the floor of the buccal mass, as has 
been described, possibly erroneously, in other forms. 

Radula. — The radula contained 65 rows ; and the most important 
point wliich I have been enabled to make out with regard to tliis 
interesting form is the faCt that the true formula of the radula 
(Fig. 8) is 1-1-1, and not 0-1-0 as described^ by Sowerby (11). 
I had rather anticipated finding some indication of lateral teeth in 
this form, which in the characters of its shell and operculum approxi- 
mates rather towards the fusoid type ; and therefore took particidar 
pains in the investigation of this structure, otherwise its true nature 
would most certainly have escaped me. In the fresh state ^ the lateral 

' Sowerby's figure shows suc'.i discrepaacies from my preparation, that I venture to 
question whether the radula of some other species, e.g. Cyinbiola ancilla, may 
not have been accidentady substituted for that of Ne.ptuneopsis by the mounter 
of Sowerby's slide. 

^ A radula should in all cases be examined before cleaning with potash, since vestigial 
teeth such as those in question may be much too tender to withstand the action 
of this reagent. It is nut sufficiently realized that potash is not without eli'ect 
upon chitinous material ; but that, on the contrary, delicate structures may be 
entirely destroyed by its use. 



28 PROCEEDINGS OF THE MALACOLOOICAL SOCrKTT. 

teeth, though quite unmistakably present, were phiiuly seen to be 
greatly dcgeuorate, and are probably quite functionless. They were 
of extreme tenuitj' compared with the very massive rhachidian tooth, 
aud their contours were ragged.^ Uuder the action of, even cold, 
caustic potash they were so very speedily disintegrated, that I had 
no time to make a drawing of them before they were entirely 
destroyed. 

YoLUTiLiinEs ABYSsicoLA, Ad. & E,ve. 

I have examined the dissected specimen described by Martin F. 
AVoodward, and may add the following to his account (13) of this form. 

External characters of Animal. — The tentacles aud eye-stalks are 
quite rounded, and thus unlike those of any other Volute hitherto 
recorded. The foot is scarcely at all auriculatcd ; its front margin 
is duplicated. I could find no trace of any pedal pore ; and I am 
confident, so beautifully are the specimens preserved, that I should 
have been able to detect an opening had one been present. The 
siphon, which is quite devoid of tentacular appendages, is surrounded 
by a collar-like prolongation of the mantle. 

CVMBIOLA. ANCILLA, Sol. 

The following few notes, based upon the material described by 
Martin F. Woodward, may be added to his description (13). 

External characters of Animal. — The front edge of the foot is 
duplicated. The appendages to the siphon are of very nearly equal 
Icusith, and are quite insignificant by comparison with the siphon 
itself. 

Leihhin^s Gland. — This is much convoluted, and the convolutions 
are bound up together in very tough connective tissue. The duct 
terminates in a muscular sac of not much larger calibre than the duct. 

Salicary Glands. — The tubular glands each terminate in a distinct 
pp'iform enlargement. 

lladula. — Mr. Martin F. "Woodward did not consider it necessary to 
figure the radula, since it is of the same type as that of the majority 
of the Volutes whose dentition has been examined. In my opinion, 
however, it is desirable that, wherever possible, the detailed charac- 
ters of this organ should be placed upon record, since these details 
will probably assume an increased importance in the future. I have 
therefore made a camera-lucida drawing (Fig. 9) from Woodward's 
preparation. It should be noted that the central cusp bears no dorsal 
groove, but is quite solid and rounded. The radula, as mounted, 
contains 43 teeth, and it appears to be complete. 

Vespertilio vespertilio, Linn. 

Radula. — For comparison with the radxda of Amoria Turneri, I have 
thought it advisable to figure a portion of the original preparation 
described by Dr. Gray (7) as that of V. vespertilio (Fig. 10). The 

1 It is noteworthy that degenerate lateral teeth have been recorded by Schacko (10) 
as cxistinj,' in Jimf^um » MmnHa\ Hi 'a d . 



PACE : ANATOMY OF VOLUTA MUSICA, LINN., ETC. 29 

grooved condition of the central cusp, not indicated by Gray or 
Troschel (12), should be noted. As mounted by Dr. Gray the radula 
consisted of 26 teeth. 

Amokia Turneri, Gray. 
Radula. — The original preparation figured by Dr. Gray (6 ; p. 133, 
fig. 5) as the radula of this species shows, as I had surmised, that his 
figure does not well interpret the structure of the tooth. I have 
therefore refigured it (Fig. 11). It will be seen that there is, after 
all, nothing so very peculiar about the radula of A. Turneri; and 
that it differs from that of F. vespertilio only in having the base of 
the tooth even more arched than it is in the latter form, and in the 
complete suppression of its lateral cusps with accompanying greater 
development of the central cusp. 

YoLUTOMiTRA Greenlandica, Bcck. 

Radula. — Martin P. Woodward (13) and others have assumed that 
the figure given by Troschel (12; pi. v, fig. 5^) represented a normal, 
triserial radula. This figure, however, in reality demonstrates the 
effect of pressure upon the cover-glass ; for the apparent lateral teeth 
are in reality but the broken-off bases of the highly arched rhachidian 
tooth, which appears to be alone present. This tooth would seem to be 
in every respect comparable with that of Amoria Turneri} 

Halia Priamus, Meusch. 

There now seems to be no reasonable doubt as to the coiTectness of 
the reference of this form to tlie Volutidse. The published accounts of 
its anatomy are, however, obviously based upon misconceptions as to 
the homologies of the parts ; and these inaccuracies have unfortunately 
received the imprimatur of the text- books. 

Alimentary Canal and Leihlein\ Gland. — Fischer (3) regarded the 
convolutions of the oesophageal caecum as being those of the intestine ; 
and both he and Poirier (8) have mistaken for the stomach what is 
without doubt only the enlarged terminal segment of this diverticulum. 
The true stomach is figaired by Poirier (8 ; pi. ii, fig. 4) occupying its 
normal position, and with the usual relationships ; but it is regarded 
by him merely as a bend of the intestine. The condition of Leiblein's 
gland in this form is generally regarded as quite a peculiar one, Poirier 
having described it as being in open communication with the lumen of 
the alimentary canal, at its enlarged distal end as well as proximally. 
Now, is it not in the highest degree probable that the actual facts of 
the case are, that the terminal enlargement of the oesophageal caecum is 
so closely bound up with the oesophagus, that in the process of dissection 
an apparent second opening into the gut has been artificially formed 
at this point ? It is an exceedingly easy matter to fall into error 
regarding the openings of minute ducts ; thus, I was myself very nearly 

* I had hoped to refigure the radula from Dr. Gray's preparation, but an examination 
of the slide, a temporary mount, shows that the radula itself lias unfortunately 
disappeared. 



30 PROCEEDINGS OF THE MALACOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

recorcling such a second communication between the oesophagus and 
its caecum in V. musica. The only really conclusive method of 
determining points such as the one in question is by serial-sectioning.' 
Itadula. — The raduhi appears to be in every respect similar to that 
of Amon'a Fischer (3) undoubtedly examined this organ from its 
lower surface, and arrived at quite an erroneous conclusion as to its 
true nature, since he describes it as of the formula 1-0-1, and as 
having a deep median furrow. Poirier (8) gave the formula as 1-1-1 ; 
but the supposed laterals, like those of VohUomilra, are almost 
certainly only the broken-olf ends of the highly arched base of the 
rhachidian tooth. 

Metzgeria ALiiUS (Jcffr.) \j:^Meyeria p}isilla, Sars], 

May not this form, which by Sars (9) was referred to the Muricida?, 
be more closely related to tlie Volutidae ? The shell has columella 
plaits which are quite as strongly developed as they are in some 
admitted Volutes ; and the obviously inexact figure given by Sars 
of the alimentary canal is somewhat reminiscent of the Volutoid type, 
while the radula does not appear to be so very unlike that of Psephcea 
or Volutilithes. 

REFEEENCES. 

1. Bouvtcr, E. L. : Systeme nerveux, morphologic generale, et 

classification des Gasteropodes Prosobranches : Ann. Sci. Nat., 
Zool., ser. vii, tom. iii (1887). 

2. Bouvier, E. L. : Sur le Siphon oosophagicn des Marginelles: Bull. 

Soc. Philom., ser. viii, tom. i (1889), ])p. 13-14. 

3. Fischer, P. : Monographie du genre Halia, liisso {Priamus, Beck) : 

Journ. de Couch., tom. vii (1858), pp. 141-158, pi. v. 

4. Fischer, P. : Sur I'anatoraie des Zi/ria : Journ. de Conch., tom. xv 

(1867), pp. 349-356, pi. xiii. 

5. Fischer, P. : Sur 1' Animal du Vohita musica, Linn. : Journ. de 

Conch., tom. xxvii (1879), pp. 97-106, pi. v. 

6. Gray, J. E. : On the division of Ctenobranchous Gasteropodous 

Mollusca into larger groups and families : Ann. & Mag. Nat. 
Hist., ser. ii, vol. xi (1853), pp. 124-133. 

7. Gray, J. E. : On the Teeth of the genus Mitra. Lamarck : Ann. & 

Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. ii, vol. xii (1853), pp. 129-130. 

8. Poirier, J. : Ilecherches anatomiques sur V JIaJia Priamus (Risso) : 

Bull. Soc. Malac. France, tom. ii (1885), pp. 17-50, pis. ii-iv. 

9. Sars, A. : Llollusca llegiouis Arctica? Norvegioe : Christiania, 1878. 
10. Schacko, G. : Radula Untersuchungen : Conch. Mitth., Bd. i 

(1881), pp. 122-128, pi. xxiv. 



1 It may be noted that Bouvier (2) has recorded that ia Margindla cingitlata the 
(psophageal citcmn conitmiiiicates with tlie cesopliaj^iis hy two (>peniiij,'.s .situated 
in close pro.\imity to each other; and he regards tlic diverticuhnn as being in 
this case of a similar natnre to that stated to e.\i>t in Halid, only that in 
Marghiella the snpposed loop has become obliterated by the fusion of its 
inner faces. 



Proc. Malac. Soc. 



Vol. V, PI. II. 




>^ 10 m/m. • 



ANATOMY OF VOLUTID/E. 



PACE : ANATOMY OF VOTA'TA MUSICA, LINX., ETC. 31 

11. Sowerly, G. B. : Description of a new Soufh African marine 

Gasteropod [with note upon the anatomy by Martin F. Wood- 
■ward] : Marine Investigations in S. Africa, Dept. of Agriculture, 
Cape of Good Hope, No. 5 (1898). 

12. Tro.9cM, F. H. : Das Gebiss der Schnecken, Bd. ii (1868), 

Lief. 2. 

1 3. Woodward, Martin F. : Note on the Anatomy of Voluta ancilla 

(Sol.), Neptuneopsis Gilchristi, Sby., and Volutilithes ahyssicola 
(Ad. & Rve.) : Proc. Make. Soc. London, vol. iv (1900), 
pp. 117-125, pi. X. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE II. 

Vohita nmsica, Liun. Head, etc., as seen from above : the mantle-cavity 
laid open to show the relationships of the organs of the pallial complex. 

Voluta musica, Linn. Dissection of the anterior region of the alimentary 
canal from the right side ; semi-diagrammatic. 

Vohita musica, Linn. The central nervous system as seen from the 
right side. 

Voluta musica, Linn. Portion of radula. 

Kcptiimopsis Gilchristi, Sby. View of the head from above ; the positions 
of the rhyuchostome and of the line of attachment to the neck are 
indicated by dotted lines. 

Nepfnneopsis Gilchristi, Sby. Diagram of the introvert and its muscu- 
lature. 

Neptuneopsis Gilchristi, Sby. Dissection of the anterior region of the 
alimentary canal viewed from above. The introvert and the pharynx are 
laid open, and the nerves and circulatory vessels and the left racemose 
saUvary gland are omitted. Tlie retractor muscle of the buccal mass is 
seen lying between the tubular salivary glands. 

8. Neptuneopsis Gilchristi, Shy. Portion of radula showing the vestigial 
lateral teeth. 

9. Cymbiola ancilla, Sol. Portion of radula. 

10. VespertiUo vespertilio, Linn. Portion of i-adula. 

11. Amoria Turmri, Gvay. Portions of radula. 

b.ff. right buccal ganglion. p. penis. 

b.m. buccal mass. p.ff. right pedal ganglion. 

b.w. body-wall. pl-ff- right pleural ganglion. 

,■"• i right and left cerebral ganglia. ,' , , ' , 

c .ff. ) ° o o y/i_ rhyuchostome. 

ct. ctenidium. s.a. ) right and left siphonal 

h.ffl. hypobranchial gland. s.a'. j appendages. 

i. introvert. s.e. cartilaginous support of rudi- 

i.s. introvert-sheath. mentary posterior siphon. 

l.ffl. Leiblein's gland. s.r/l. racemose ' salivary glauds.' 

n. central nervous system. sb.ff. sub-intestinal ganglion. 

ihagus. sp.g. supra-iutestinal ganglion. 



Fig. 


1. 


,, 


2. 


>> 


3. 




4, 




5. 


)» 


6. 


,, 


7, 



osphradium. t.gl. tubular ' salivary glands. 



32 



DESCRIPTION OF ENNEA AFFEOTAT.l, n.sp., FROM ZANZIBAR. 

By Huon Eulton. 

Read nth December, 1901. 

Ennea affectata, n.sp. 

Shell Rub-cylindi'ical, rimato, opaque white, seiilptuved witli oblique, 
raised striae ; whorls 7;^-, barely convex, slowlj' increasing, first four 
tapering from a rather obtuse apex, back of last whorl constricted by 
two folds ; aperture with a prominent, somewhat short, parietal plait, 
a little distance from the riglit margin of tiie peristome, two parallel 
basal lamina) far witliin, the left-hand one only just visible from the 
exterior, at a half- whorl from the peristome tliere is another parietal 
(spiral) plait, and the columella is pressed out into abroad tooth-like, 
projection extending half-way across the opening ; peristome slightly 
expanded, margins joined by a thin callus. Diam. maj. 6-5, alt. 
13"5 mm. 



Eiinm affectata, n.sp. 
Hah. — Zanzibar. 

This species is quite distinct from any other of the genus known 
to me. Ennea tri<]onodoma, Marts., is somewhat similar in its 
general characters, but is larger, not so cylindrical, and its basal plaits 
are placed quite forward, not far back within the interior as in 
E. affectata. 



DESCRIPTION OF TriERSITES (RTIAGADA) W00D1FART)I, n.sp., 
i'liOM N.W. AUSTliALlA. 

By Hugh Fulton. 

Brad Uth December, 1901. 
TlIKRSITES (Rn.VGADA) AVoODWARDI, n.sp. 

Shell imperforate, depressed globose, solid, white throughout, with 
indistinct oblique stria) or lines of growth, interspaced on the last half- 
whorl by microscopic, close-set, waved lines ; whorls 5^^-, moderately 
convex, obsoletcly keeled at the termination of last whorl; suture 
simple ; umbilical region very slightly depressed ; peristome ratluu' 
broadly expanded, margins connected by a thin callus. Diam. iiiaj. 
22, alt. lo mm. 




T/ier.iifes IVoodwnrdi, n.sp. 

ITah.—^M. Australia (B. II. Woodward). 

Comparcnl with 7'. conricfa (Cox) the present species is much more 
compressed in form, the peristome is nmre expanded, the whorls 
increase less rapidly, and the apex is more prominent. 

The type-specimen of T. Woodwnrdi is only slightly keeled towards 
the front of the last whorl, but in another example "the whole of tbe 
last whorl is keeled, while a tliird one sliows hardly any indication of 
a keel. 

Named in honour of j\fr. Bernard TI. "Woodward, Director of the 
Perth Museum, West Australia, from whom the specimens were 
received. 



VOL. V. — APRIL, 1902. 



34 



ON lUriOSTO.VA DALVr, N.sp., AND SESARA MEGALODOX, n.si-., 
OBTAINED BY THE LATE MR. W. M. DALY IX SIAM. 

By W. T. Blinford, LL.D., F.R.S., etc. 

Itvad ]0/h Jauuari/, 1902. 

Thk two shells hci'o described were sent to me with others by the 
hite Mr. "W. M. Daly shortly before he died. I hoped to have given 
a list of his Siamese collections, but have not yet been able to complete 
the identification of all the forms. 

Pitsuualoke, whence both the species come, is about 220 miles north 
of Bankok. 

1. Rhiostoji.v Dalyi, n.sp. Fig. I. 

Testa late umbilicata, convexo-depressa, solida, striatula, sordide 
albida, superne fiammulis irregularibns castaneis variegata, infra 
peripheriam fascia angusta circumdata ; spira depresso-conoidea, apice 
prorainulo, sutura canaliculata ; anfr. 5 I'otundati, nltimus cylindricus, 
antice longe solutus et descendens, superne a sutura us(}ue ad tubulum 
marginalem obtuse carinatus ; apertura obliqua, diagonalis, circularis ; 
peristoma duplex, superne ad sinistram incisum et tubulo elongato, 
retro valde curvato, anfr. penultiranm attingente, ad ambas extremitates 
aperto, munitum. Operculum testaceum, multispiratum, breviter 
cylindricum, extus planatum, intus profunde excavatum. Diam. 
maj. 26, min. vix 20 mm. ; alt. 10-5 mm. ; apert. diam. intus 8 mm. 





Fig. I. — Rhiosfoma BaJyi, n.sp. 

Hah. — Juxta Pitsuualoke, in sylvis humidis et densis. 

This is nearly allied to R. Hainesi, Pfr., and R. simplicilahre, Pfr. 
The first is larger than R. Balyi, and the diameter of its whorls 
is proportionately greater ; its mouth, too, is more expanded, but 
the highly curved tube, running back from the peristome to the 
penultimate whorl, is similar, whilst that of R. simplicilabre is 
quite differently directed, and the peristome in the latter is simple. 
R. Hanrjhtom, Bs., from Moulmein, is a much smaller form than 
R. Dalyi, and has the free portion of the last whorl shorter, and 
a very small tube arising from the peristome. The other two species 



BLAXFORD : ON RHIOSTOMA DALYI AND SESAIiA MEGALODON. 35 

of this section of Rhiostoma, R. Houm. (Haines) from Cambodia and 
R.{Pteroc\jclm) Marioni, Ancey (Bull. Mus. Marseille, 1898, i, p. 137, 
lig.), liare the free part of the last whorl much more elongate. 

R. Dalyi was obtained by its discoverer only in one locality, near 
Pitsuualoke, in very damp and dense forest. It was not common. 

2. Sesaka megalodon, n.sp. 

Testa imperforata, depresso-conoidea, fusco-fulva, cornea, superne 
trausversiui costulis minutis confertis, infra peripheriam evanesccutibus 
ornata, subtus laevis, polita, radiatim striatula; spira conoidea, apice 
obtiiso, sutura impressa ; anfr. 7 convexiusculi, lente accrescentes, 
ultimas ad peripheriam rotundatus, subtus convexus, medio ad 
periomphalum excavatus ; apertura obliqua, angusta, dentibus quatuor 
insequalibus, uno minore, aliquando fere obsoleto, in margine dextro, 
uno parvo columellari, duobus basalihus, interno mediocri, externo 
magno, lato, coarctata; peristoma albidum obtusum, intus incrassatum, 
margine basali inter dentes prof unde concavo, columellari vix expansulo. 
Diam. maj. 10, min. 9-25 mm. ; alt. 6 mm. 





Fig. II. — Sesara megalodon, n.sp. 

Sab. — Pitsunaloke, Siam. 

This Sesara is near S. infrendens (Gould), and I at first took it for 
a variety of that species, from which, however, it is distinguished 
by its very different aperture, with four teeth instead of three, 
by the different arrangement of the teeth, by its much excavated 
periomphalus, and by its larger size. The large outer tooth in the 
basal margin represents the two outer teeth of 8. infrendens, an 
approach to the present species being made by the partial union of 
these teeth in 8. infrendens var. Tichelli. 

This species is stated by Mr. Daly to be common at Pitsunaloke in 
evergreen forest. 



36 



COXTIUBL'TIOXS TO THE STUDY OF THE COLUMBELLID.E : 

i\0. I. 

By S. Vace, F.Z.8., etc. 

Head lOfh JanMury, 1902. 

The present paper is intended to form the introduction to a projeotcnl 
series ' in which the morphology, taxonomy, and distribution of the 
recent and fossil membta-s of that division of the higher Prosobrancbiata 
typitied by Linneeiis' Valuta, mercatoria will be discussed. 

As a preliminary to the detailed consideration of the characters 
and inter-relationsliips of the recognizable types of Columbellidae, 
I have tliought it advisable to give a reference list to all the specific 
and varietal names which have at various times been associated with 
supposed members of the family, since many of these names have 
failed to find their way into the monographs of the group, and because 
no existing list includes both the recent and the fossil forms. I have 
also indicated, as far as is known to me, the present location of the 
type-specimens * of the various named forms, and the localities whence 
these Avere originally derived. 

This list, after a few introductory remarks upon species and their 
nomenclature, and a reference list to the various sectional names 
which have been proposed for the Columbellidae, occupies the whole 
of the present paper. The next part will consist of notes upon certain 
forms regarding which there is at present considerable confusion, and 
will contain figures of some hitherto unfigured or badly figured types. 

I take advantage of this occasion to thank all those who are 
assisting rae in my work. P'irst and foremost among these must be 
named that genial friend of the conchological stiulent, Mr. E. A Smith, 
who by allowing me to work through the collections under his care 

' Wlien I first commeuced the study of the Colurabellidae my intention was to 
prepare an exhaustive and fully illustrated monograph of the group, in whicli 
everythiug pertaining to the family should be dealt with in the greatest possible 
detail, so that it should be a concrete study in taxonomy. However, the progress 
of my work has been so retarded by ill-health and the pressure of other 
business, and hami)ered by the extraordinary dithculty which is still experienced 
in obtaining suitable material, that I have now come to the conclusion that it 
will be of most service to malacologists if the results obtained from time to time 
are published, at all events in the first instance, as a series of more or less 
disconnected notes. 

* Every description of a new form should include a definite statement as to where 
the type-specimen, or the co-types, are to be found ; and this reference should 
accompany the diagnosis, since it is very annc.ying to have to wade through 
pages of text in the hope of finding a chance note as to the location of a type. 
Type-specimens should be easily accessible to the student, preferably in one 
or other of the national museums : in fact, I personally consider that no species 
should be regarded as being properly founded unless the type is deposited in 
one of the national museums. A local museum is a very unsuitable resting-place 
for a type, since, apart from the undesirahility of having types scattered about 
over the country, local museums are unfortunately liable to pass through periods 
of neglect, during which specimens disappear or lose their identity. 



PACE : ON thp: columbellid.^. 37 

at the British ^Museum, and by his continual readiness to assist with 
his kindly advice and valuable critical opinion, has placed me under 
an obligation which I can never hope to be able to repay. To 
Mr. C. Hedley I am in many ways indebted, and more particularly for 
the sacrifice of time and trouble by which a recent short stay in Sydney 
was rendered one of my most pleasant reminiscences : with Mr. li. 
Etheridge, jun., and the authorities of the Australian Museum, I have 
also to thanl£ him for facilities for working at the "British Museum 
of the Antipodes." My thanks are due to Dr. G. Bfeifer and the 
authorities of the Hamburg Museum for the loan of a large series of 
specimens and for granting me most exceptional facilities for working 
at that institution. Through the kindness of Mr. J. H. Ponsouby 
I have been enabled to see an extensive collection of the South African 
forms. Mr. D. J. Adcock, Mr. JT H. Gatlilf, and Dr. J. C. Verco have 
furnished me with much Australian material. The late M. Hervier 
submitted his collection of Lifu Columbellid?e to me, though I was 
unfortunately not able to work at them. Mr. J. C. Melvill kindly 
permitted me to examine the whole of the material, collected by 
Mr. r. W. Townsend in the Persian Gulf, that he subsequently 
described in colhvboration with Mr. K. Standen. Mr. H. B. Preston, 
Mr. H. Fulton, and Mr. (x. B. Sowerby have assisted me to obtain 
specimens; and Mr. C. Davies Sherborn, Mr B. B. Woodward, and 
Mr. E. R. Sykes have afforded me much help in the solution of knotty 
points of bibliography. To these, and to many others, too numerous 
for individual mention, who have given or lent me material or who 
have in other ways rendered me kindly assistance;, I would return 
my most grateful thanks. 

Some General Remarks. — The question "What is a 'species'?" 
is one which at the present time admits of no very satisfactory reply ; 
and to ansAver it becomes more and more difficult the greater the 
bulk of the material studied. When only a few specimens are before 
one it is an easy matter, in the case of the Mollusca, as with other 
groups, to divide these up into more or less natural ' species.' To 
do the same, however, when dealing with large series of examples, 
which have been collected at ditierent localities, freqtiently becomes 
a most difficult problem, and in certain groups it would even seem 
an insoluble one. This is really only what might be expected ; for 
the publication of the "Origin of Species," and the research carried 
on since Darwin wrote his epoch-making work, have rendered the 
idea of ' species ' in the Linnaean sense quite untenable. However, 
this fact, though long since recognized by the morphologists, has 
as yet hardly made itself felt among systematic malacologists. 
That some change must be made in our conception of species ' 
is certain ; but it is as yet by no means so evident in what 



1 Where, in the following pages and in future papers, the word 'species' is used, 
it must be regarded merely as a couvenieiit term to denote an assemblage of 
individuals occurring at the same station, whose variations one into another 
so graduate that they form a continuous series ; and it must not be taken 
as implying any views as to the genetic affinities of such assemblage. 



38 PKOCKEDIXGS OF THK M ALACOI.OfilCAL SOCII'.TY. 

exact direction tliis modification is to be effected. Meanwhile, what 
can be, and what must be, done is to collect data for correlation 
in the future, althougli unfortunately the conditions are at present 
very unfavourable to the conduct of really scientific work even in 
this direction. Taxonomy, regarded as the study of the inter- 
relationships of natural types, as distinguished from the founding 
of artificial sjjecies, necessitates the examination of large series of 
specimens which must have been carefully collected ^ to demonstrate 
tlie range of variation which the various forms pass through at 
the different stations where they occur. Such material is not 
ordinarily avaikible in Museums or private collections. Then 
again, taxonomic research is still further hampered bj" the traditions 
and conventions which have been handed down with an enormous 
mass of literature from the past. Under existing conditions, an 
excessive proportion of that energy which should be devoted to 
the furtherance of zoological knowledge is wasted in the futile 
attempt to solve mere questions of technical terminology. Futile, 
because the rules of nomenclature which are now, more or less, 
generally accepted, do not assure finality ; - and this altogether apart 
from the fact that these rules are based upon obsolete ideas of ' species.' 

Whether, as believed in some quarters, a changed conception 
concerning the nature of species will necessitate a new system of 
nomenclature by which the different types are to be denoted and 
distinguished, or whether the present system can be so modified as to 
accord with new ideas, need not be discussed here. There are, how- 
ever, one or two points which may be profitably considered, regarding 
the application of names to those forms which are the subject of our 
in(juiry as zoologists. 

In the first place, it is not sufficiently realized that the mere 
bestowal of a name upon a specimen which appears to be ' new ' 
is not itself of any consid(n'able scientific value ; and that it may, 
on the contrary, even be a bar to the progress of science. 

Wherever any doubt exists as to what form an author actually had 
before him when founding a species, it is by far the better plan, in my 
o])inion, to entirely discard the name in question, on the grounds 
of insufficient description, rather than to start guessing as to the 
intentions of the author. 

As regards the unwarranted 'lumping' and 'splitting' of species: 
the former practice is the more particularly deserving of censure, 
since the creation or provisional retention of doubtful species is much 
less likely to lead to confusion than is the mistaken union of really 
distinct types. 

1 The scientific niethod of colleotinj!: zoological material was discussed in an article 
contributed to Aafiire, vol. Ixiii, pp. 4 90-1. 

* For example, there are many cases among- the Columbellida^ where the same 
specilic naine has been applied to two or more forms belonging to what some 
authors wouhl regard merely as different sections ot' the same genus, while by 
others each of these sections is itself considered worthy ot j;eneric rank; 
according to the one view only one oi the s](ecitic names in quesiion is valid, 
•while Irom the other standpoint all are equally admissible. 



PACF, : ON THE columbellid.t;. 39 

While the hasty subdivision of already described species is to bo 
strongly deprecated, there is something to be said in extenuation of 
the practice of bestowing names upon specimens which more extended 
research may prove to belong to known forms. For, though the 
synonymy may be increased by these names, no ambiguity can exist 
if the new names are accompanied by a proper and sufficient description. 
In fact, if the compiler of a faunal list describes as new each species 
of whose identity he is in any way uncertain, no misconception should 
arise as to the identity of the forms recorded ; while, on the other 
hand, if he erroneously associates them with existing names, confusion 
will be inevitable. 

As to the use and abuse of varietal names : when the specimens 
of any type from a particular locality present certain distinctive 
characters, then the bestowal of a name '■ by which this geographical 
variety or subspecies may be recognized is justifiable, as being of 
distinct service to the stiulent of taxonomy and distribution ; while 
variations wliich are merely correlated with differences of station are, 
generally speaking, preferably defined by a descriptive phrase, since 
such variations are ])robably not genetic ones, but are due to the 
direct influence of the environment. On the other hand, absolutely 
no useful end is served by the naming of such merely individual 
variations as may be met with in one and the same gathering. 
Unfortunately, most of the varietal names in use among malacologists 
come under tliis last category and must in consequence be dismissed 
as quite useless synonyms. In but comparatively few cases can it be 
shown that a described variety has a restricted geograpliical range 
such as would justify its acceptance ; though many of them are 
probably variations due to differences of station.^ 

Specific Characters in the Columhellidm : The Differentiation of 
' Species.' — The most obvious feature which is demonstrated by the 
examination of a large series of almost any so-called species of 
Columlella is the enormous range of individual variation, a variability 
for which one is quite unprepared, which the series presents. When 
further it is seen how exceedingly slight are the differences between 
certain of the recognizable types, or ' species,' it becomes necessary to 
consider what characters may be regarded as of taxonomic importance. 
Size and shape seem to count for but little : in a large gathering 
of a single species taken at one and the same station, one may meet 
Avith full-grown examples only one-third the size of others. Some, 
again, may be long and narrow, others so short and stumpy as to be 
almost globose. The lip may be simple, thickened, or denticulate. 
Again, in certain forms every variety of sculpture may occur, from 
one consisting only of longitudinal ribs to another in which transverse 
striaB are alone present ; while other individuals may be absolutely 



' In my opinion this name should be expressive of the habitat. 

2 The marine MoUusca generally are subject to much greater variation in relation 

to their environment than would be imagined by those whose experience is only 

that of the museum. 



40 PKOCKKDINGS OF TUK MAr.ACOLOOICAI- SOCIK'IT. 

smooth. Tlie variability of cohur-viarking is notorious ; but strange 
thoiigh it may seem, and opposed as it is to current views as to their 
diagnostic value, I lind that colour-markings, despite tlieir enormous 
variability, arc really of great assistance in the discrimination of the 
types of ('olumbcllidaD, and the same remark applies also to other genera. 
If a careful study be made of the markings of even the most variabl-e 
forms, it will, as a rule, be possible to demonstrate the existence in 
each species of a definite and characteristic colour plan or system of 
marking, from which all the patterns, often very diverse, represented 
in the series may be derived. The protoconch is a feature pos'-essiug 
characters of great diagnostic \i\\\w : forms otherwise almost identical 
in appearance may often be at once distinguished by a comparison of 
the embryonic whorls of their shells. The periostracum, again, affords 
characters of impoi'tance, but it is usually neglected in the description 
of a species ; the same is true of the operculum. In some cases I have 
found that the easiest way to separate living specimens of closely 
allied forms has been to observe the external characters and habits 
of the animal. All hough there is no very great variation, such as is 
met Avith in some other families, in the form and arrangement of the 
lingual teeth of the Columbellidae, yet there generally are sufficient 
differences in their number, spacing, and dimensions to render the 
characters of the radula of considerable importance as a means of 
distinguishing species. 

The Classification of the Cohmiheilidm. — The large number of species 
included in this family appear to form an exceedingly homogeneous 
group, and to exhibit but few characters which can be regarded as 
of sectional value. This similarity of type is perhaps only what 
might be expected, in view of the comparative newness of the group ; 
hut, on the other hand, indications are not wanting that the similarity 
is more apparent than real, and further research, especially if this 
be directed to the structure of the soft parts, may "well reveal quite 
unexpected divergences of type. At present, however, it is a matter 
of considerable difUcidty to satisfactorily subdivide the Columbellidae 
into genera and subgenera ; and the difficulty has been much increased 
by the misdirected efforts of the mere conchologist. Xumerous sectional 
names have been proposed from time to time, but ver\ few of these 
have any real worth, and whatever value a section may have originallj- 
possessed, its true significance has in most cases been entirely lost 
sight of by subsequent authors, and species have been scattered about 
among the various genera and subgenera in an amazingly haphazard 
fashion. 

In the present state of our knowledge I do not think that Ave are 
justified in attempting much more in the way of classification than 
the mere grouping of species around certain central forms : we may 
thus speak of the ColumhcUa mercaioria group, of that of C. terpsichore, 
and so on. For the present I am referring all the forms to ColuvihcUa, 
and shall leave the question of their more jirecise classification for 
future consideration ; and, as a necessary corollary, 1 am not proposing 
new trivial names where by the strict ajjplication of the law of 
priority such would ajjitear to be demanded. 



pace: on Tin: columbellid.e. 41 



REFERENCE LIST OF SECTIONAL NAMES. 

Although it is not now my intention to discuss the classification 
of the Columbellithe, it may be of advantage to give the following 
list of the sectiontil names Avhich have been associated with supposed 
members of tlie family, and to define the type-species of each group. 
Where no type has been specified by the author, or selected by 
a later writer (from the species originally enumerated by the author 
of the section), I have recorded the first species mentioned in the 
original list, and this should, in future, be regarded as the type. 

Names printed in italics must certainly be removed from service in 
the Columbellidae, while most of those remaining are, in my opinion, 
of very little value. 

Sections of which the type-species are fossil are marked f . 

All matter printed within inverted commas is to be regarded as 
a direct quotation ; that within square brackets as having been 
supplied by the author of the present paper. 

ACEiRA [i.e., Alcira^, H. Adams. 

.aisopus, A. A. Gould, Dec. 18()0 : "Genus jEmpus [intermediate 
between Ilitra and Columhclla^ " : Proc. Eoston Soc, vol. vii, 
p. 383: Type. — ufE.japonicus, Gld. 

Gould, after describing this as a genus " intermediate between 
Mitra and Columhella,'''' goes on to say that it "plainly belongs 
to the Amphtperasidce." This discrepancy is obviously clue to the 
accidental inclusion in the diagnosis of a paragraph referring to 
another genus, apparently Crithe, which is the next in order. 

alcira, H. Adams, 1860 : " Genus [of Columbellinas] Alcira, 
H. Adams " : Proc. Zool. Soc , 1860, pp. 450-1 : Type. — A. elegans, 
H. Adams. 

ALIA, H. & A. Adams, Oct. 1853: " Sub -gen. [of Columhella] Alia, 
H. & A. Adams": Genera Ptec. Moll., vol. i, p. 183: 'Type. — 
[Not specified; C. unifasciata, Sby., selected by Chenu, 1859. j 

AMPHissA, H. & A. Adams, Aug. 1853 : "Sub-gen. [of Cominella'] 
Amphissa, H. & A. Adams" : Genera Rec Moll., vol. i, p. Ill : 
Type. — [Not specified; first sp. C. corruyata, live., selected by 
Tryon, 1883.] 

AMPHYSSA [i.e., Amp]tissa~\, H. & A. Adams.' 

AMYCLA [Nassidai], H. & A. Adams, Oct. 1853: "Genus | of 
Columbellinie] Amycla, H. & A. Ad;ims " : Genera llec. Moll., 
vol. i, pp. 186-7: Type. — '■'A. corntcidum, Olivi." 

ANACHis, H. & A. Adams, Oct. 1853: "Sub-gen. [of Columhella'] 
Anachis, H. & A. Adams" : Genera Pvec. Moll., vol. i, p. 184: 
'Type. — [Not specified ; C. scalarina, Sby., selected by Tate, 1875.] 
fANGULATOMiTKELLA, F. Sacco, 1890 : " Sczione [of Ilitrella] 
{Angulatomitrella, Sacco, 1889) " : in Eellardi, Mem. Accad. Torino, 
ser. II, vol. xl, p. 328: TYrE.— \Jsot specified; first sp. C. cvm- 
planata., Bell.] 



4'J rUOCKK.niNGS OK TlIK MA I.ACOLOfilCAL SOCIKTY. 

fARCUATOMTXRELLA, F. Sacco, 1890: " Seziono [of Mitrella'] {Arcnato- 
mitnlla), Sacco, 1889": in Bellardi, Mem. Accad. Torino, scr. ii, 
vol. xl, p. 329 : Type. — [Not specified ; first sp. C. prcecedens, 
Bell.] 

ASTYKis, H. & A. Adams, Oct. 1853 : "Sub-gen. [oi Amycla] Asti/ris, 
H. & A. Adams": Genera llec. Moll., vol. i, p. 187: 2'yi'l: — 
[jS^ot specified; " C. clausilicefonne, Kiener," selected by Tryou, 
1883.] 

The alphabetical list of si^ecies accompanying the original 
description of this group is a most miscellaneous assemblage and 
contains representatives of almost every section of Columbellidae : 
such diverse types as C. avara, Say, clausiliformis, Kien., Marqtiesa, 
Gask., unifasciata, Lam., and sagitta, Gask., being included. The 
diagnosis, moreover, enumerates no characters of sectional value. 
As might be expected, tliis group-name has been used in very 
different senses by subsequent writers : Tryon gave C. clausili- 
formis as an example, Fischer selected C. i-usacea, Gld., while the 
majority of authors apply the name to the group represented by 
6'. avara, Say, which .species is the first one in Adams' list. 

ATiLiA, H. & A. Adams, Oct. 1853 : " Sub-gen. [of Columhella'] Aiilia, 
H. & A. Adams" : Genera llec. Moll., vol. i, p. 184: Type. — 
[Not specified; C. suffnsa, Sby., selected by Chenu, 1859 ] 

The first species mentioned in Adams' (alphabetical) list of 
species is C. consj)ersa, Gask., and most authors use the name 
At ilia for the group of Columbellidae of which this form is a repre- 
sentative. The list, however, also includes such diverse types as 
C. /asp idea, Sby., and C. stiff asa, Sby. ; and the latter species, 
having been first selected as an example of the section, must be 
regarded as the type. 

BiFURCiNA [i.e., Bijurcium'], Fischer. 

BiFURCiuM, P. Fischer, June 30, 1884: "Section [of Stromhina'] 
Bifurcium, Fischer. 1884 " : Man. Conchyl., p. 638 : Tyi-e. — 
" C. bicanalifera, Sowerby." 
fBRACHELixELLA, F. Sacco. 1890: " Sottogcncre [of ColumhrUa] 
Brachelixella, Sacco 1889": in Bellardi, Mem. Accad. Torino, 
ser. II, vol. xl, p. 326 : Type. — C. Klipstcini, Micht. 

cioNELLA [i.e., ConelW], Swainson. 

ciTHAROPSis, "W. H. Pease, Nov. 3, 18G8: ^' Cifharopsix, nov. gen. 
Pease": Amer. Journ. Conch., vol. iv, p. 97: Type. — [Not 
specified; C. lacltnjma (live.).] 

This group appears to have been founded by Pease for the 
reception of the same miscellaneous asserabhige of small Polynesian 
forms for which he. a few months previously, had established the 
genus Senmiella ; and, as in the ca.se of the latter group, it is very 
difficult to say what species shotild be regarded as the type. Much 
confusion has arisen regarding these two group-names, and perhaps 
the most satisfactory course would be to discard both of them; 
but if they are to be retained it will be best, in my opinion, to 
restrict tl'ie name Citharopsis to the very distinct group of 



PACE : ox THE CO LUM BELL ID. 15. 43 

C. lacliryma (live.), which species is one of those enumerated by 

Pease, and SeinmeUa to the group of C. troglodytes, Souv. 
fcLiNOMiTR.i [y = Mitrolu)mia, Bucq., Dautz., &I)ollf.], L. Bellardi, 1889 : 

"(jlenere [of Mitridse] Clinomitra Belh (1888)": jVIem. Accad. 

Torino, ser. ii, vol. xxxix, p. 152 : Type. — C. JRovasendae, Bell. 
fcLiNUEELLA, F. Sacco, 1890: " Sottogenere [of Columhella] Clinurella, 

Sacco, 1889" : in Bellardi, Mem. Accad. Torino, ser. ii, vol. xl, 

p. 336 : Type. — [Not specified ; first sp. C. scalaris, Sacco.] 
COLOMBELLA [i.e., Columbellaj, Lamarck. 
jcoLOMBELLiNA [? Columbellidje], A. d'Orbigny, 1842: "Genre [of 

Buccinidse] Colombellina, d'Orb." : Paleont. Frang. Cret., vol. ii, 

pp. 346-7 : Type. — Rodellaria monodactyla, Desh. 
COLUMBELLA, J. P. B. cle Lamarck, May, 1799: " Colombelle, Colurn- 

belia'': Mem. Soc Hist. nat. Paris, 1799, p. 70: TYPE.—'Tohda 

mercatoria. Lin." 
]columbellabia [^i GoXwrnhGWul^l, F. Polle, 1861: '' ColumieUaria, 

Kolle [genus of Columl)elIid0e] " : Sitzuugsb. Akad. Wien, vol. xlii, 

p. 266: Type. — Caaau corallinae, Quenst. 
\coLiuiBELLiNA [i.e., Colomhellino], d'Orbigny. 
coLUMBELLOPSis, K. Bucquoy, P. Dautzenberg, & G. Dollfus, Aug. 

1882: "]S". sous-g [of Columhella] ColumbcUopsis Bucq., Dautz. 

et Dollf., 1882 " : Moll. mar. Roussillon, vol. i, pp. 77-8 : Type.— 

" Columhella minor Scacchi." 
coLimBus [= Columhella, Lam.], D. de Montfort, 1810: "Genre 

Colombelle ; en latin, Columbus " : Conchyl. Syst., vol. ii, pp. 590-1: 

Type. — " Columbus mercatorms.'" 
COLUMELLA [i.e., Columbclla\ Lamarck. 
CONELLA, W. Swaiuson, 1840 : " Conella, Sw. [n.gen. of Conina?] " : 

Treatise Malac, p. 312: Type. — "- {^ConelW] picata Sw." [=6'. 

oculata, Lam.]. 
conidea [=Pyrene, Bolt.], ^Y. Swainson, 1840: " Conidea Sw. 

[n gen. of Columbellinoe] " : Treatise Malac, p. 313: Type. — 

" C. semiptinetata {Columhella Lam )" [= C punctata, (Brug.)]. 
]coNOBBis [Pleurotomidie], W. Swainson, 1840 : " Conorhis, Sw. 

[n.gen. of Coniuie] " : Treatise Malac, p. 312: Type — '' C. 

ytoniis'] Bormiter. Sow." [non Columhella dormiior. Shy.]. 
fcosTOANACHTS, F. Sacco, 1890 : " Sezione [of AnacMs]—CostoanacJm, 

Sacco 1889 " : in Bellardi, Mem. Accad. Torino, ser. ii, vol. xl, 

p. 349: Type. — [Not specified ; first sp. C. turrita, Sacco. J 
CRASSISPIBA [Pleurotoraidpe], W. Swainson. 1840: " Crassispira Sw. 

[gen. of ColiimbellinEeJ " : Treatise Malac, p. 313: Type. — 

'•'• Pleurotoma Bottce Auct." 
fcRENisuTuiiA, M. Cossmauu, Oct. 1901 : " Crenisutura, Cossmann, 1899 

[n.n. for Thiarella, Sacco, non Swains.] " : Essais Paleoconch., pt. iv, 

pp. 245-6 : 2'ype. — " Murex thiara, Brocchi " 
CYTriAROPSis [Pleurotomidie], A. Adams, Apr. 1865 : " Genus 

Cytharopsis, A. Ad." : Ann. Nat. Hist., ser. ur, vol. xv, pp. 322-3 : 

Type. — " Cytharopsis cancellata, A. Ad." 



44 PKOCKKDINfiS OK TIIK M ALACOLOGICA [, SOCIKTV. 

f DioNTiTERKJSKA, 0. Meyer, May 31, 1887: ^' Dfutiterebra xi.^en. [?5'.g. 

of Coliimbcllay : Proc. Acad. Philad., 1887, p. 51: Type.— 

D. prima, 0. Meyer. 
DiBAPuus [? Columbellidce], 11. A. Philippi, 1817: '' Blhaphm V\i.. 

n.geu. Cteuobranchiorum " : Aruli. Naturg., vol. xiii, pt. 1, p. G3 : 

Type. — " Conohelix edentula, S\v." 
fDipryciioiiiTRA [? = Mitrolumna, Bucq., Dautz., & Dollf.], L. Bellardi, 

1889: '' Dipti/chomitra Bdl. (1888) [gen. of MitridaeJ " : Mem. 

Accad. Torino, ser. ir, vol. xxxix, p. 152: I'ype. — [Not specitiLd; 

fir.st sp. D. eximia. Bell.] 
f ECosTOANAGHis, F. 8acco, 1890 : " Sezione [of Anachis] — Ecostoanachis 

Sacco 1889 " : in Bellardi, Mem. Accad. Torino, ser. ir, vol. xl, 

p. 351 : Type. — [Not specified; first sp. 6'. cythara (Dod.).] 
fECXRAOUELiZA, W. ^1. Uabb, 1873: '• hctracheliza. Gabb, n.gen." : 

Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc, ser. ir, vol. xv, pp. 213-4 : Type. — 

a. truncata, Gabb. 
EXGixA [non Columbellidae], J. E. Gray, 1839: " E»yi)ia. n.g." : 

Zool. Beechey's Voy., Moll., p. 112: I^ype. — [Not specided ; 

first sp. E. zotiata, Gray.] 
ENZiNA [i e., Engina], Gray. 
EDPLicA, W. H. Dall, June, 1889: Euplica, n.sect. of Columhella : Bull. 

Mus. Harvard, vol. xviii, p. 187 : I'ype. — " C. turturina, Duclos." 
JMACRURELLA, L. Bellardi, 1890 : " Sottogenere [of Columhella^ Macru- 

rella, Bellardi, 1889 " : Mem. Accad. Torino, ser. ii, vol. xl, p 338 : 

Type. — [Not specified; "Emus nassoides, Grat.," selected by 

Cossmann, 1901.] 
META, L. A. Beeve, May, 1859 \_non Koch, 1835] : Genus If eta, Peeve: 

Couch. Icon., vol. xi, Meta: Tyie. — Conus Biiponti, Kien. 
fMETULELLA, W. M. Gabb, 1873: " Metuh'lla. (iabb, n.gen." : Trans. 

Amer. Phil. Soc, n.s., vol. xv, p. 200 : Type. — [Not specified ; 

C. fasiformis, Gabb, selected by Tryon, 1883] 
MiOROcriHARA, P. Fischer, June 30, 1884: "Section [of Columhella'] 

Microcithara, Fischer. 1884": Man. Conchyl., p. 638 : Type. — 

" C. harpiformis, Sowerby." 
MiTKKLLA, A. Risso, 1826 : " Mitrella (N.) [n.g. of Volutid«] ": Hist. 

nat. Europe merid., vol. iv, pp. 247-8 : Type. — [Not specified ; 

C. scripta (Linn.), selected by Mocrch, 1859.] 
MITROLUMNA, E. Bucquoy, p. Dautzenberg, & G. Dollf us, Feb. 1883 : 

" Nouv. Genre [of Voluti(he] Mitrolumna Bucq., Dautz. et Dollf.": 

Moll. mar. llous.sillon, vol. i, p. 121: Type. — ^ Mitrolumna oliio'idea 

Cantraine, sp. {Mitra).''^ 

Upon conchological grounds, nothing being known of the animal, 

I do not think that the snudl groujj of shells represented by Mitra 

olivoidea, Cantr., can be placed among the ^litridae : the columella 

folds are unlike those of Mitra, and resemble rather the peculiar 

split tooth which is met with in so many Columbellidfc. If 
C. lachrjima (live.) is correctly referred to the Columbellidae, 

Cantraiiie's Mitra olivoidea must accompany it. 



pace: ox tiik coLUMBKr.LiD.T:. 45 

.VTT/?()jroiiPirA [Pleurotomidoe], A. Adams, Apr. 18G5 : " Genus Jl/ifro- 
morjj/ia, A. Ad." : Ann. Nat. Hist., ser. ill, vol. xv, p. 322 : 
TvPE. — " Mitromorpha lirata, A. Ad." 

MiTKOPsis, W. H. Pea'^e, Jan. 2, 1868: "Genus [of Mitridje] Mi- 
iropftis " : Amer. Journ. Conch., vol. iii, p. 21 1 : Ti'PE. — " Mitrojjsis 
fnsifornm, Pease" [= C". Paumotensis, Tryon]. 

3IITSELLA [i e., Mitrella~\, Kisso. 

xiTTDELLA, W. Swaiuson, 1840- '■'■ NitideUa [gen. of Coliimbellinoe], 

Sw." : Treatise Maine., p. 313 : Type. — " Cohmihella nitida Lam." 

foRTHURELLA. F. Sacco, 1890 : " Sottogenere [of ColumbeUa\ OrthiireUa, 

Sacc., 1889": in Hellardi, Mem. Accad. Torino, ser. it, vol. xl, 

p. 343 : Type. — [ISTot specified ; first sp, C. 'proelongata, Sacco] 

PARDALiNA, F. Jousseaume, Oct. 1888 \_non Gray, 1867]: genus of 
Columbellidne, Pardalina, Jouss. : Mem. Soc. Zool. France, vol. i, 
p. 177: Type — " C. pardolina \s\(i'].''^ 

PERiSTEEA \_= Columhella, Lam.], C. S. Rafinesque, 1815: '■'■ Peristera 
E,. Columhella, Lam. [gen. of Volutidse] " : Analysis Nat., p. 145 : 
Type. — [Not specified.] 

PiSANiA [jion Columbellidfc], A. Bivona - Rernardi, April, 1832: 
'■^ Pisania'S. ['nuovo genore — della famiglia delle Colnmellarie'y^ : 
Effem. IScient. Palermo, vol. ii. pp. 8-11 : Type. — [Not specified; 
first sp. P. stn'ntida, Biv. { = P. maculosa, Lam.).] 

pusiosToMA, W. Swainson, 1840 : ^^ Ptisio stoma Sw. [gen. of Colum- 
bellinse] " : Treatise Malac, p. 313 : Type. — [Not specified ; first sp. 
C. punctata, Lam. {= (J. fidgurans, Lam.), selected by Gray, 1847.] 

PYGJi^A [= Columhella, Lam.], G. Humphreys, May 1, 1797 : " Genus 
xlv. Pycfmoia'''' : Mus. Calonn., p. 28 : Type. — [Not specified.] 

Pi-RENE, J. F. Bolten, 1798: '■'• Pyrene, Der judemtein^' : Mus. 

Bolten., p. 1 34 : Type. — "P. Rhomhiferum^^ [=G- pimctata, (Brug.)]. 

•j-scABRELLA, F. Sacco, 1890: " Sottogenere [of Cohimhella'] ScahreUa, 

Sacco, 1889": in Bellardi, Mem. Accad. Torino, ser. ii, vol. xl, 

pp. 346-7 : Type. — [Not specified ; first sp. C. proscahra, Sacco.] 

SEMiNELLA, W. H. Pease, Jan. 2, 1868: section (? genus) of 
Columbellinse : Amer. Journ. Conch., vol. iii, pp. 233-4: Type. — 
[Not specified; C. ornaia, Pse. (=C'. Garretti, Tryon), selected 
by Fischer, June, 1884.] 

When Pease established this group, his intention appears to have 
been that it should include all the minute, ribbed C!olumbellida3 
occurring in the Indo-Pacific region. The only species mentioned 
. by name in the original account of Seminella are Cithara ornata, 
Pse., and C. varia, Pse. ; the former name appears to be a manu- 
script one, and it may or may not be the form subsequently 
described as Citliaropsis ornata. Fischer has apparently assumed that 
it is, for he gives the latter as the example of the groiip ; and if the 
name Seminella is considered worthy of retention, Fischer's use of 
it for the well-marked gi'oup of C. troglodytes is, in my opinion, 
the most appropriate. As has been already mentioned, Pease, soon 
after founding this section, described the genus Citharopsis, in 
which apparently he also included all the small, costate Polynesian 
Columbellidae. 



4G PUOCK.I'.DIN'GS OF TIIK MAL.VCOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

STROMBiDEA [Strombidoc;], W. Swainson, 1840 : " Stromhidea Sw. 
[gen. of StrombiuosJ " : Treatise Malac., p. 310: Type. — [Xot 
specified; first sp. S. urceus, Mart., selected by Gray, 1847.] 
STKOMniN.v, 0. A. L. Moercb, 1852: ^'- Strombina n." : Cat. Conch. 
Yoldi, p. 8.5 : TypE. — [Xot specified ; C. gibberida, Sby., selected 
by H. & A. Adams, Oct. 1853.] 

]k[. Cossmann lias recently renamed this group Strombocolumbm, 
under the iinprcssion that the name Strombina had been pre- 
occupied by lironn ; had he, however, consulted the original 
reference, he would have seen that Bronu used this name to denote 
the group of genera forming the family tStrombidae, and not in 
a generic sense at all. The name Strombina may therefore be 
retained with pei-fect propriety for the well-marked group of 
Columbellid?e which is typified by C. gibberula, Sby. This group 
will certainly prove worthy of generic rank. 

fsTEOMiuxKLLA, W. H. Dall, Dcc. 30, 1896: "Genus Strombijiella, 
Dall ": in Guppy & Dall, Proc. U.S. ^^at. Mus., vol. xix, p 312: 
Type. — S. acuformin, Dall. 
STROMBOCOLUMBrs [= Strombina, Moerch], il. Cossmann, Oct. 1901 : 
^^ Strombocolumbus, nom. mut. { = Strombina, Miirch 1859, 7ion 
Bronn 1849)" [_ex err.^: Essais Paleoconch., pt. iv, p. 241: 
" C. lanceolata. Sow. { = recurva, Sow. sec. Try on)." 

fxEEEBRiFUSUS, T. A. Courad, Feb. 25, 1865 : " Terebrifusus, Conrad " : 
Amer. Journ. Conch., vol. i, p. 28 : Type. — " T. amoena {Bucci- 
num) C." 

fTETRASTOMELL.v, L. Bcllardi, 1890 : " Sottogenere [of Columbella'] 
TetrastomeUa, Bcllardi, 1889 " : Mem. Accad. Torino, ser. n, vol. xl, 
p. 333: Type. — [Not specified ; first sp. C crassilabris, Bell.] 
THESBiA [Pleurotomidoe], J. G. Jeffreys, 1867 : Thesbia, Jeffr., 
section of Columbella : Brit. Conch., vol. iv, p. 359 : Type. — 
" Tritonium ? nanum, Lov. Ind. Moll. Scand. p. 12." 

\THiABELLA\_=Crenisutura, Cossm.], F. Sacco, 1890 [_non Swainson, 
1840]: " Sottogenere [of Columbella \ Thiarella, Sacco, 1889": in 
Bcllardi, Mem. Accad. Torino, ser. ii, vol. xl, pp. 344-5 : Type. — 
[jS^ot specified ; first sp. C. Rovaaendm, Sacco ] 

^THIARELLJNA [i.e., Thiarinella'], Sacco. 

fruiARiXELLA, F. Sacco, 1890: "Sottogenere [of Columbella'] Thiari- 
nella, Sacco, 1889": in Bellardi, ]\Iem. Accad. Torino, ser. ii, 
vol. xl, p. 348: Type. — C. compta, (Bronn). 
TRUNCABiA [wow ColumbellidiTe], H. Adams & L. Reeve, 1850 : 
?ng. Truncaria : Zool. Yoy. Samarang, Moll., p. 33: Type. — 
" Buccimim filosum [Ad. & Rve.]." 

fTURKicoLUMBUS, M. Cossmann, Oct. 1901 : " Ttirricolumbus, nov. sub- 
gen, [of AimcMs'] " : Essais Paleoconch., pt. iv, pp. 239-40 : 
Type. — " Col. crebricostafa, T. Woods." 
ZAFRA, A. Adams, Nov. 1860: "Genus [of Turridne] Zafra, A. 
Adams": Ann. Nat. Hist., ser. m, vol. vi, pp. 331-2: Typr. — 
Z. mitriformia, A. Ad. 



PACE : ON THE columbellid.t;. 47 



REFERENCE LI8T OF SPECIFIC AND VARIETAL NAMES. 

The following list is an attempt at a complete record of all ^ the 
trivial names, which up to the end of 1901 have been associated 
with actual or supposed * members of the Columbellida^ ; the more 
important manusci'ij)t names, typographical errors, and misquotations 
occurring in conchological literatui'e have also been included. 

While the list does not claim to be a synonymic one, certain of the 
names are indicated as being synonyms, which, as will be demonstrated 
in a future paper, must be discarded. 

The particulars entered under each name-heading are arranged in 
the following order : — 

{a) The name of the supposed species or variety. 

Those names printed in italics are ones which, in my opinion, are 
inadmissible. It must not, however, be supposed that all those 
printed in Roman type are to be regarded as valid ones ; a name not 
Ijeiug italicized merely signifies that I have not satisfied myself that 
it must be discarded. 

{h) The name of the author. 

The three members of the Sowerby family bearing the initials G. B. 
are distinguished by the numerals i, ii, and iii. 

(c) The date of publication as printed on the title-page or elsewhere 
in the volume to which reference is made. If this nominal date of 
publication can be proved to be eri'oneous, it is followed by the true 
date enclosed within square brackets. 

{d) The author's generic reference of the form in question. "Where 
practicable, this has been copied exactly, and is then printed within 
quotation marks. 

{e) The place of description. 

(/) The collection in which the type-specimen is, or was, contained. 
Any additional information not furnished in the original description 
regarding the location of the type, is placed within square brackets. 

{g) The 'type-locality,' i.e., either the habitat of the actual type- 
specimen or sf)ecimens, or the ' distribution ' of the form as given 
in the original description. 

Species and varieties of which the type-specimens are fossil are 
marked f ; where it is uncertain whether the type is based upon 
a recent or a fossil example the dagger is inverted \.. 

1 It has been my endeavour to make this list complete up to the time of writing, 
but it is yet certain to contain many imperfections, and I shall be grateful if 
readers will call attention to any names which have been omitted, or point out 
any errata, typographical or otherwise. Information as to the present location 
of many of the types is also greatly desired. 

'^ Many of the forms the names of which are included in the list as having been at 
some time or other referred to the ColumbelHdaj, are now known not to belong 
to that family ; and, with advancing knowledge, many others will certainly also 
have to be removed. On the other baud, further research will in all probability 
prove that several forms at present referred to the Pleurotomidne and to such 
genera of doubtful limits, as Pisania, are really Columbelloid in their afhuities. 



48 rnocKKnixfis of tiik jr vlacological sociktt. 

Tlie sig-n [!] is used as a mark of personal vcrififation. 

All matter printed witliin inverted commas is to be r(\2;arded as 
a dircH't (piotation ; and tliat within square brackets as having been 
supplied by the author of the present paper. 

JAiiBUEViATA, A. "Bell, ^lav, 1871 : " C.[Cu/i(»iI)('Ua] ahhreviata [n. sp.]": 

Ann. Nat. Hist., ser. iv, vol. vii, p. ;3.j6 [no fig.]: Type. — [?J : 

Loc. — lied Crag, 
f ABBKKViATA, L. Bellardi, 1890 : " Columbella (stricto sensu) ahhreviata 

Bell?'' : Mem. Accad. Torino, ser. ri, vol. xl, p. 326, pi ii, fig. 2o : 

Type. — Geol Mus., Turin: Loc. — Upper Miocene: "Colli tortonosi, 

iStazzano." 
ABBRKViATA, E. Eucquov, P. Dautzcnberg. k Vi. Dollfus, Aug. 1882 : 

Columhella .scripta (Linn.), var. 2, ahhreviata, B. 1). & IX : Moll. 

Mar. Koussillon, vol. i, p. 7o : Type. — [y] : Luc. — " Cotes de 

Barbarie." 
f AiiBUEviATA, V. Doderlein, 1802: "■\_('oI>imlcUa'] ahhreviata noh.''^ : 

Mioc. sup. Ital. centr , p. 24 [name onlyj : Type. — Coll. Doderlein : 

Loc. — Upper Miocene : Monte Gibio. 
AiiiiKEviATA, J. Hervier, Dec. 26, 1899 : " ColumheUa lachryma, Gas- 

koin — Varietas ji, ahhreviata, J. H." : Journ. Conchyl., vol. xlvii, 

pp. 381-2 : Type. — [Coll. Societe de Marie, Lyons] : Loc. — Lifu. 
AifYssrcoLA., J. Brazier, 1877 [Feb.] : " Columhella {Amycla) ahyssicola, 

n sp " : Proc. Linn. Soc. New South Wales, vol. i, p. 232 [no fig.] : 

rrp^.— ' Chevert ' Coll. [Macleay Mus., Sydney, N.S.W. (!)] : 

L^oc. — Percy I. No. 2, and Darnley I., Torres Straits; Katow, 

Brit. New Guinea. 
ACHATiffA [?= C. Gervillei, Payr.], G. B. Sowerby i, 1844 [Sept.] : 

" Columh4la achatina, nob." : Proc. Zool. Soc, 1844, pp. 50-1 [no 

fig.] : Type. — Coll. Cuming [Brit. Mus., London] : Loc. — Swaa 

Biver [?]. 
AcrcuLA [?= C lifjula. Duel.], L. A. Peeve, Apr. 18o8: " Columhella 

acicuta " : Conch. Icon., sp. 46 : Type. — Coll. Cuiuing [Brit. Mus., 

London] : Loc — " California." 
acicut.ata(J. p. B. de Lamarck), Aug. 1822: '■' Buccinum aciculatum''^ : 

Hist. nat. Anim. s. Vert., vol. vii, p. 274 [no fig.] : Type. — Coll. 

Lamarck: Loc. — [?] 
JACICULATA, E,. Tate, June, 1893: '■' '\^ColumheJla'\ an'rulata. Tate": 

Trans. R. Soc. South Australia, vol. xvii, ]>. 220 [name only] : 

Type. — [?] : Loc. — Tertiary : Gellibrand, Muddy Creek, and 

Mornington, Victoria. 
ACLEONTA [sp. iudet.], P. L. Duclos, 1835 [Apr. 1840]: " Col.— 

Acleonta " : Hist. nat. Coq. univ., pi. xi, figs. 3-4 [no descr.] : 

TYPE.—\_r\: Loc. — m 
ACHoiiODiA \= C. Brisei, Brus.], G. D. Nardo [MS.]. 
fACDFORMis, W. H. Dall, Dec. 30, 1896: " Stromhinella aruformis, 

Dall, new species": in Guppy & Dall, Proc. US. Nat. ^lus., 

vol. xix. p. 312, pi. xxix, fig. 6: 'Type: — U.S. Nat. Mus., 

Washington (No. 113,784): Loc. — " Oligocene of the Potrero, 

Piio Auiina, Santo Domingo." 



PACE : ox THE COLCMBELMD-E. 49 

■\aculeifor31is, Gr. Miclielotti [MS., =Stefani & Pantanelli, sp.]. 

f ACULKiFOR.Mis, C. cle Stofaiii & D. Pantanelli, 1878 : " Siromiina 

aculeiformis, Miclielotti [n.n. for Columbella Bellardii, !Seg., non 

Hoerues] " : Ball. 8oc. malac. Ital., vol, iv, p. 109 [no tig.]: 

Type — [?J : Loc. — Pliocene: Mitigiiano ; 8. Lazzero ; Coroucina, 

Ginestreto [nr. Sienna]. 
fACDJiiNATA, L. Beliardi, 1890: '■'■ CohimheUa {Mitrelia) acuminata. 

Bell." : Mem. Accad. Torino, ser. ir, vol. xl, p. 329, pi. ii, fig. 31 : 

Type. — Geol. Mus., Tnrin : Loc. — Upper Miocene : " Stazzano, 

S. Agata fossile." 
ACUMiXATA (K. T. Menke"), 1843: '■'• Buccinum acuminatum, m." : 

Moll. Nov. Holl., p. 20, sp 87 [no fig.]: TYPE.—[y]: Loc— 

Australia, " Hab. in litore occidentale." 
ACUMINATA \=G. rustica (Linn.)], JSTuttKll [MS.]. 
ACU3riNATA (L. A. Pteeve), Oct 1856 f? 1846]: '■'■ Iticimda acuminata''^ : 

Conch. Icon., Riciiiula, sp. 52 : Type. — Coll. Cuming [Brit. Mus., 

London] : Loc. — [?] 
fACUMiNATA (S. V. Wood), 1874 : " Terehra canalis, S. Wood var. 

acuminata \_T. exilis, ? A. Bell]": Suppl. Crag Moll., pp. 8, 203 

[no fig.] : Type. — [?] : Xoc— Pliocene (Coralline Crag). 
Acus [group of C. spicula, Duel. !, L A. Reeve, Apr. 1859 : " Cohim- 
heUa acus^': Conch. Icon., sp. 201: 2'ype. — Coll. Cuming [Biit. 

Mus., London (!)] : Loc. — " Isle of Capul, Philijjpines." 
ACUTA, \V. Kobelt [1895]: " Columhella [MitreUa) acuta Monterosato 

[MS.]" : in Martini & Chemnitz, Conch. Cab., pp. 176-7, pi. 24, 

figs. 8-9: Type.— GoW. Kobelt: Zoc— " Aufenthalt in Bade- 

schwammen an der Kiiste Nordafrikas." 
ACUTA, T. di Monterosato [MS., = Kobelt, sp.]. 
ACUTA, R. E. C. Stearns, Oct. 28, 1873: '' Anachis antta, Stearns": 

Proc. Acad. Philad., 1873, p. 345, fig. 2: Type.—I?]: Loc — 

W. Coast of Florida, at Egmont Key (E. Jewett). 
JACUTECOSTATA (R. A. Phllippi), 1844: "Buccinum acute-costafum 

n.sp." : Enum. Moll. Siciliae, vol. ii, p. 192, pi. xxvii, fig. 14: 

Type.—[]] : Loc— Calabria. 
fACUTOLiGUSTicA, E. Sacco, 1890: "Columbella {Ilitrella) turgidula 

Brocch. var. acutoligudica Sacc. [=var. 'A,' Beliardi]" Boll. 

Soc. geol. Ital., vol. ix, p. 222 : Type. — [Geol. Mus., Turin] : 

Log. — [Lower Pliocene: "ZinolapressoSavona, Albenga-Torsero."] 
fACUTOLONGiuscuLA, E. Sacco, 1890 : " Columhella {MitreUa) Lsselii 

var. acutolongiuscula Sacc. [ = var. 'A,' Sacc.]": Boll. Soc geol. 

Ital., vol. ix, p. 223 : 'Type. — [Geol. Mus., Genoa] : Loc — 

Tortonian. 
f ACDTOPERLONGA, E. Sacco, 1890 : " CohimheUa {MitreUa) complanata 

var. acutoperlonga Sacc. [ = var. ' B,' Beliardi]": Boll. Soc geol. 

Ital., vol. ix, p. 222 : Type. — [Geol. Mus., Turin] : Loc — 

Tortonian, 
ADAMSi, G. W. Trj-on, jun. [July 18] 1883 : " C. [ColumheUa 

{Anachis)'\ Adamsi, Tryon [n.n. for C. fencstrata, Rve., 7ion 

Adams] " : Man. Conch., vol. v, pp. 156-7, pi. Iv, fig. 56 : Type. — 

[Coll. Cuming, Brit. Mus., London (!)]: Xoa.— [?] 

VOL. V. — APRIL, 1902. 4 



50 PROCEEDINGS OF TJIK M A LACOI.OGICAL SOCIETY. 

ADANsoNi, K. T. Menkc, July, 1853: " Colambella Adansoni Mke.": 

Zoitsehv. Malak., vol. x. pp. 74-5 [no tig.] : 'Type. — [? j : Loc. — 

St. Vincent's 1., Cape Venle Group. 
JADDiTA, L. Bellardi, 1890 : " Columhella {Tetradomclla) addita Bell.:' : 

Mem. Accad. Torino, ser. ii, vol. xl, p. 335, pi. ii, fig. 45 : Type. — 

Geol. Mus., Turin : Loc. — Upper Miocene : " Colli tortonesi, 

Stazzano." 
ADELiN.E [group of C. terpsichorp.., Sby.], G. W. Tryon, jun. [July 18] 

1883 : " C. [ Columhella [Anavhisy] Adelmce, Tryon" : ^Man. Concli., 

vol. V, p. 155, pi. liv, fig. 47 : 7'r/v^.— [?] : Zoc— [?J 
■\adiecta [i.e., adjecta], Bellardi. 
ADiosTiNA [sp. indct., ? group of C. ligula, Duel.], P. L. Duclos, 

1835 [Apr. 1840]: ''Col.—Admtina": Hist. nat. Coq. univ., 

pi. xi, figs. 9, 10 [no doscr.] : 'J'ype. — [?1^ : Zoo. — ['?] 
fADJECTA, L. Bellardi, 1S90 : " Columhella {Macrurella) adiecta, 

Bell." : Mem. Accad. Torino, ser. ii, vol. xl, p. 339, pi. ii, fig. 57 : 

Type — Geol. Mus., Turin: Loc. — Middle Miocene: "Colli 

torinese, Rio della Batteria, Val Ceppi." 
AFFiNis, A. Risso, 1826: " C. [Columhella'] affinifi (iV.)" : Hist. nat. 

Europe mend., vol. iv, p. 205 [no fig.] : 'Type. — Mus. Paris : 

Loc. — S. Europe. 
AGNESiANA, J. C. MclviU & R. Staudeu, June 18, 1901 : " Columhella 

(Mitrella) agnesiana, sp.n." : Proc. Zool. Soc , 1901, pp. 401-2, 

pi. xxiii, fig. 3 : Type. — [Brit. Mus., London (!)] : Loc. — 

Bushire ; G. of Oman ; Maskat ; Charbar. 
AG0N.4T0DES, J. Hcrvicr, Dec. 26, 1899 : Cohmihella albina, Kien., var. 

agonatodes, Herv. : Journ. Conchyl., vol. xlvii, p. 324 : Type.— [Coll. 

Societe de Marie, Lj'ons] : Loc. — Lifu. 
fALABAMENsis (T. H. Aldrich), June 24, 1895: '•'■ Latirus alahamensis, 

nov. sp." : Bull. Amt r. Paleont , vol. i, p. 63, pi. i, fig. 17: 

7'y/'^.~Coll. Aldrich: Zoc— " Hatchetigbee Bluti^, Ala." 
ALAiiASTROiDES, W. Kobelt [1893]: " Columhella [Mitrella?) ala- 

hasfroide.^ n. [n.n. for C. alabastrum, Martens, nan Rve.] " : 

in Martini & Chemnitz, Conch. Cab., pp. 167-8, pi. xxiii, fig. 5: 

Type. — [? Zool. Mus., Kiel]: Loc. — Mauritius. 
AijABA.rriiVM \_=C. alfibastroides, Ivob.l, E. v. Martens [non Reeve], 

1880: " Columhella alabastrum Reeve" : in ^tocbius, Mceresfauna 

Mauritius, p. 247, pi. xx, fig. 13: Type.— ['^ Zool. Mus., Kiel]: 

Loc — ^Mauritius (Robillard). 
ALABASTRUM [sp. indet., ? = C. conspersa, Gask.], L. A. Reeve, 

Apr. 1859: " Columhella alnhastrum" : Couch. Icon., sp. 232 : 

Type.— Coll. Taylor [Brit. Mus., London (!)] : Zoc— [?] 
ALAEA [i.e. alba^, Petterd. 
ALA-PEPDicis ['? = C. leevigata (Linn.)], L. A. Reeve, Feb. 1859: 

^' Columhella ala-perdicis^' : Conch. Icon, sp. 145: Type. — Coll. 

Cuming [Brit. Mus , London] : Loc. — [?J 
ALBA (J. G. Jeffreys), 1842: '' Fusus alius {n.s.)" : Ann. Nat. Hist., 

vol. viii, p. 165 [no fig.]: 2'ype. — [?J : Loc. — "In Lerwick 

Sound [Shetland Is.]," 



PACE : ON THE COLUMBELLID.E. 51 

ALBA, W. F. Petterd, Apr. 1879: '■'■ Columhella alba, n.sp.": .Toiim. 

Conch , vol. ii, p. 104 [no fig.] : Trp&— [?Coll. PetterdJ : Loc — 

Blaokman's B., Tasmania. 
AXBARiA, J. Hervier, Dec. 26, 1899: Columhella alblna, Kien., var. 

albaria, J. H. : Journ. Conchjd., vol. xlvdi, pp. 321-2: Type. — 

[Coll. Societe de Marie, Lj'ousj : Loc. — New Caledonia. 
ALBELLA (C. B. Adams), Jan. 1850 : " Pleurotoma albella [n.sp.] " : 

Contrib. Conch., vol. i, p. 63 [no fig.] : Type. — [Amherst College, 

Mass.] : Loc. — Jamaica. 
ALBENS [_= C. tirania, Melv. & St.], J. C. Melvill & R. Standen, 

June 18, 1901: '■'■ jEsopus urania, sp.n. Yarietas albens, nov." : 

Proc. Zool. Soc, 1901, p. 407 : Type. — [?~\: Xoc.—Mekran Coast. 
ALBKRTisT, C. Tapparone-Canefri, Jan. 24, 1877: '' Columhella [Strom- 

bina) Albertisii, Tap. -Can." : Ann. Mus. Civ. Geneva, vol. ix, p. 281 

[no fig.]: T'ype. — [ ? Mus. Grenoa] : Loc. — " Isola di Sorong 

[N.W. New Guinea]." 
ALBiDA \_=C. scripta (Linn.)], T. di Monterosato, 1878 : Columhella 

scripta, Linn., var. albida: Giorn. !Soc. Palermo, vol. xiii, p. 104 : 

I'ype. — [?] : Log — Mediterranean. 
ALBIDA, T. di M(mterosato, Apr. 1, 1889: Mitrella Hidalgoi, Mont., 

var. alhicla: Journ. Conchyl., vol. xxxvii, p. 116 [no fig.] : Type — 

[?] : Loc. — Mogador (Ponsonby). 
ALBIDA, P. Pallary, Oct. 25, 1900: " Colnmhella {Mitrella) vulpecula, 

Monterosato [Pallary, sp. i.Yar. . . . r/ZJ/Wrts. Monterosato" : Journ. 

Conchyl., vol. xlviii, p. 279 : Type— I ?] : Loc. — Oran [Algeria]. 
ALBiNA l?=C. liffula, Duel.], L. C Kiener [1841]: "Colombelle 

albine, Columhella sbina [sic] Nobis" : Spec. gen. Coq. viv., sp. 28, 

pp. 32-3, pi. xiii, fig. 4: Tfp^.— Mus, Paris: Zoc— [?] 
ALBiN-oDULOSA, J. S. Gaskoiu, 1851 [Oct. 28, 1852]: ^^ Columhella 

alhmodulosa " : Proc. Zool. Soc , 1851, p. 3 [no fig.] : Type. — Coll. 

Gaskoin : Loc. — [?] 
ALBOCAUDATA, E. A. Smith, 1884: " Columhella alhocaudata''^ : Rept. 

Zool. Coll. Alert, pp. 495-6, pi. xliv, fig. L : TYPE. — ^vxt. Mus., 

London [!] : Loc. — " Providence Pcef, Mascarenes, in 24 fms." 
ALBOCiNCTA (W. H. Pease), 1860 : '■'• Enqina alhocincta [n.sp.]" : 

Proc. Zool. Soc, 1860, p. 142 [no fig.]: Type.— [1 Goll. Pease, 

Harvard Univ., Mass.] : Loc — Sandwich Is. 
ALBOMACULATA, G. F. Angas, Jan. 1867 : " Columhella {3Iitrella) 

ulhomaculata, n.s." : Proc. Zool. Soc, 1867, p. Ill, pi. xiii, fig. 5 : 

Type. — Coll. Angas [Brit. Mus., London (!)] : Loc- — Pt. Jackson. 
ALBONODOSA, P. P. Carpenter, 1857: '■'■ AnacMs alhonodom, n.s.": 

Cat. Mazatl. Shells, p. 512 [no fig.] : Type.— GoW. Reigen (tabl. 

2,432), Brit. Mus., London [!]: Zoc— Mazatlan. 
fALBUciANENsis, F. Sacco, 1890: '•'■ Columhella {Clinurella) albuci- 

anensis Sacc." : in Bellardi, Mem. Accad. Torino, ser. ii, vol. xl, 

p. 337, pi. ii, fig. 51 : Type — Geol. Mus., Rome (coll. Michelotti) : 

Loc. — Middle Miocene : Albugnano. 
ALBUGiNOSA, L. A. Reovo, Apr. 1859 : " Colnmbella albiiginosa'''' : Conch. 

Icon., sp. 223: Type.— GoW. Taylor [Brit. Mus., London (!) J : 

Zoc— [?] 



OJ, PKOCKEUIXGS OF THIi MA LACOLOUICA L SOCIETY. 

ALGEEiAXA, T. (li ]\[oiiterosato [MS., = Pallary, s]).]. 

AL(iEuiAXA [sToiip of C. olivoideci, (Cantr.)], P. Tallary, 1900 : " 21itro- 

lumna ahii'riana, ^Montcrosato " : Journ. Coiichyl., vol. xlviii, p. 266, 

pi. vi, lig. 6: Type. — [?] : Loc. — " Oraii (lloseville, sables 

coqiiilliers clans le port, per I'onds do 8 luetri's)." 
ALGOKNSis, G. B. Sowerby III, 1892 : " CoIumheUa algoensifs, Sowoi'by, 

n.sp." : ]\Iar. Shells S. Africa, pp. 22-3, pi. i, fig;. 21 : Type. — 

[Coll. PonsoTiby, lirit. Mus., Loudon (!)] : Loc.—^. Africa. 
ALiCE.E, P. Pallary, Oct. 25, 1900: " Columhella {Seminella) AlicefB, 

Pallary " : Joiirn. Conchyl., vol. xlviii, pp. 279-80, pi. vi, fig. 16 : 

2''ype. — r?] : Loo. — Oran [Algeria]. 
ALizoN,i5, J^ C. Melvill & 11. Standen, June 18, 1901 : " CohimheUa 

(Mitrella) alizonce, sp.n." : Proc. Zool. 8oc , 1901, p. 402, pi. xxi, 

fig. 5 : Type.— [Brit. :Mus., London (!)] : Zoc— Persian Gulf. 
ALOFA, C. Hedley, March 6, 1899 : " Columhella alofa, sp. nov '' : 

Mem. Austral. Mus., vol. iii, pp. 463-4, fig 39 : Type. — Australian 

Mus., Sydney, N.S.W. (Reg. A^o C. 6,024) [!] : Zo6'.— Funafuti. 
ALPHONsiANA [gToup of C. lavhryma, (Hve.)], J. Hervier, Dec. 26, 1899 : 

" Columhella Alphonsiana., J. Hervier " : Joiirn. Conchyl., vol. xlvii, 

pp. 387-8, pi. xiv, fig. 2 : Type. — [Coll. Societe de Marie, Lyons] : 

Loc. — Lifu. 
ALTERNATA, A. A. Gould, Sept. I860: ^'■Columhella \_Anachis] alter- 

nata " : Proc. Boston Soc, vol. vii, p. 335 [no fig.] : 'Type. — [U S. 

Nat. Mus., Washington] : Loc. — Hong Kong. 
ALVEOLATA \_ = Engina'\ (L. C. Kiener) [1835-6]: '■'■ Purpura aheolata, 

nobis": Spec. gen. Coq. viv., Purpura, p. 42, pi. ix, fig. 23: 

Type.— QoW. Massena : Loc.—[^ 
ALVEOLATA (L. A. Reeve) \J^on Kiener], Oct. 1846 : " Ricinula 

aheolata [Kien.] " : Conch. Icon., Ricinula.^ sp. 23: Type. — Coll. 

Cuming [Brit Mus , London] : Loc. — Panama (Cuming), 
f AM.ENA [? amocna'] (T. A. Conrad), Nov. 1833 : " Biucinum amamwi " : 

Foss. Shells Tert. N. America, vol. i, p. 45 [no fig.] : Type. — 

[Acad. Philadelphia]: Loc. — Eocene: Claiborne, Alabama. 
fAM^>NA l?am(£na~\, J. Ivolas & A. Peyrot, Apr. 1890 : " Columhella 

[Annclm) ammna Mayer- Eymar [MS.] " : Act. Soc. Linn. Bordeaux, 

vol. Iv, pp. 131-2, pi. i, figs. 7, 9: Type. — (Co-types) Mus. 

Zurich; coll. Ivolas & Peyrot: L^oa. — Faluns: Poutlevoy ; 

Manthelan ; and Sainte-Catherine-de-Fierbois. 
^AiLENA, ifayer- Eymar [MS., = Ivolas & Peyrot, sp.]. 
•f-AMiUGUA, II. J. L. (iiuppy, Feb. 21, 1866 : " Columbella [Sfromhi'na'] 

ambiffua, spec, nov." : Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. xxii, p. 288, 

pi. xvi, fig. 8: I'ype. — Brit. Alus., London: Zor. — Miocene: 

Jamaica. 
AMBiGUA [?= C. rustica (Linn.)], L. C. Kiener [1841] : " CohimheUa 

amhiqua, Nobis": Spec. gen. Coq. viv., sp. 8, pp. 11-2, pi. ii, 

fig. 3: rFP^.— Mus. Paris: Zoc7.— [?] 
AMiRANTiDM, E. A. Smith, 1884: ^'■Columhella amira7ifium" : Kept. 

Zool. Coll. Alert, pp. 494-5, pi. xliv. fig. K : Type. — Brit. Mus., 

London [!] : Loc. — Eagle Is., Amirantes. 
AMizosALis [i.e., zmi'zoualin'], Gray. 



PACE : ox THE COLUMBELLID^. 53 

AMCEXA [cf amcena^. 

AMPHissELLA, W. H. Dall, Sept. 26, 1881: '' ColumbeUa (Asti/ris?) 

amphissella n s." : Bull. Mas. Harvard, vol. ix, p. 91 [no fig.]: 

rrp^.—' Blake ' Coll. [U.S. Kat. Mus., Washington]: Loc — 

Yucatan Strait. 
AMPLA, A. Lesson, June, 1842 : " C. \_CoIumhelIa~\ ampla^ Less." : Rev. 

Zool. Cuv. Soc, Tol. V, p. 185 [no fig.] : Type. — ['? Coll. Lesson] : 

Zoc— "lies Gambler." 
fAMYDEA, W. H. Dall, Aug. 1890: '^ Anachis avarn var. ami/dra 

Dall": Trans. Wagner Inst., vol. iii, p. 136 [no fig.]: Type. — 

(Co-types) Wagner Inst., Pliiladelpliia ; U.S. jSTat. Mus., Washing- 
ton : Loc. — "Pliocene of the Caloosahatchie and Shell Creek, 

Florida." 
anacteola[= C. fanciata, Sby.j, P. L. Duclos, 1835 [Apr. 1840]: 

" Colomhi'lla Anacteola^' : Hist. nat. Coq. univ., pi. v, figs. 9-10 

[no descr.] : Type—I?^ : Zoc.—[;?] 
ANAiDEA [sp. indet.], P. L. Duclos [1846-58]: " C. \_C'olomhelIa'] 

Anaidea'" : in Chenu, Illust. Conch., pi. xxvi, figs. 3-4 [no 

descr.]: Type. — [?] : Loo. — [?] 
ANAKisiA \ = L:n^ina\ P. L. Duclos [1846-58]: " C. [Colomlella'] 

Anakisia " : in Chenu, Illust. Conch , pi. xxvi, figs. 17-18 [no 

descr.] : Trp^.— [?J : Zoc— [?] 
ANAKissA [i.e., Anakisia']., Duclos. 
ANCEPS [group of C. turturina, Lam.], J. Hervier, Dec. 26, 1899: 

" Columhella Deska//esi Crosse, var. j3. Crosse anceps i . Hervier" : 

Journ. Conchyl., vol. xlvii, pp. 309-10 [no fig.]: Type. — [Coll. 

Societe de Marie, Lyons] : Loc. — Lifu. 
ANDAMANiCA, G. & H. jS^evill [Oct. 26] 1875 : Columhella pardalina, 

Lam., "var. Andamanica''' : Journ. Asiatic Soc. Bengal, vol. xliv, 

pt. 2, p. 96 [no fig.]: Type. — Indian Mus., Calcutta: Loc. — 

Andaman Is. 
ANGAsi, J. Brazier, Apr. 18, 1871 : " Columhella {Mitrella) angasi[n.-n.. 

for C. interrupta., Angas ??o« Gaskoin] " : Proc. Zool. Soc, 1871, 

p. 322 : Type.— [Coll. Angas, Brit. Mus., London (!)] : Loc— 

"Shark Island, Port Jackson {^Coll. Brazier); York's Peninsula, 

South Australia {Mr. G. F. Angas); Hobart Town, Tasmania 

(jr. F. Petterd):' 
AKGELiA [sp. indet.], P. L. Duclos [1846-58]: " C. IColombella'] 

Angelia'''' : in Chenu, Illust. Conch., pi. xiv, figs. 19-20 [no 

descr.] : Type.—\J.] : Loc.— [?] 
ANGicosTATA (W. H. Peasc), 1860 : ^^ Hindsia angicostata [n.sp.] " : 

Proc. Zool. Soc, 1860, p. 142 [no fig.]: j'rp^.— [? Coll. Pease, 

Harvard Univ., Mass.] : Loc. — Sandwich Is. 
JANGLicA, A. Bell [?]\IS., = S. Wood, sp.]. 
\anglica [?Columbellid!Te] (S. V. AVood), Feb. 1874: '■'■ Lnchesis 

Anglica, A. Bell": Suppl. Crag Moll., p. 175, addendum pL, 

fig. 7: Type. — [?] : Loc. — Coralline Crag: near Orford. 
ANGULAEis, G.B. Sowerby i [Aug. 14] 1832: " Columhella angtilaris^' : 

Proc. Zool. Soc, 1832, p. 118 [no fig.] : Type.— Coll. Cuming 

[Brit. Mus , London (!)] : Loc. — Panama. 



54 PKOCEKDINGS OF THE MALACOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

fANGULATA (G. B/occM), 1814: '^Buccwum (tngulatum: nob": 

Conch. Foss. Subayjp., vol. ii, pp. 654-5, pi. xv, iig. 18: Tyi'e. — 

[Geol. Mus., Milauj : Loc. — " Fossile a San Giusto presso 

Volterra." 
fANGDLosoLABiATA, F. Sacco, 1890: " Columhella { Teirastomella) inedifa 

[Bell.] var. angulosolabiata Sacc. [= vax*. ' B,' Bellardi] ": Boll. 

Soc. geol. Ital., vol. ix, p. 223 : Type. — [Geol Mus., TurinJ : 

Loc. — Tortonian. 
fANGUSTA (G. r. Deshayes), 1824 [1835] : " Triton rmr/ustum. Nob." : 

Coq. Foss. Env. Paris, vol. ii, pp. G09-10, pi. xei, tigs. 7-0: 

Type. — Coll. Deshuyes : Loc. — lletheuil. 
ANGFSTA [group of C. scripta (Linn.)], T. cli Monterosato, 1878: 
Columht'Ua Geivillii, Payr., "Var. 3, anijUHta'''' : Giorn. Soc. 

Palermo, vol. xiii, p. 104: Type. — [?] : Loc. — Mediterranean. 
fANGXJSTA, F. Sacco, 1890: " Columhella {Macrurella) anguda, iiarc." : 

in Bellardi, Mem. Accad. Torino, ser. ii, vol. xl, pp. 339-40, pi. ii, 

fig. 58 : Type. — Geol. Mus., Borne (Coll. Miclielotti) : Loc. — 

Middle Miocene: "Colli torinese, Val Ceppi, Albugnano." 
fANGTJSTATA, F. W. Hiitton, May, 1886 : " Columhella angmtida, n.s." : 

Trans. New Zealand Inst., vol. xviii, p. 333 [no fig.] : Type. — [?] : 

Loc. — Petane. 
fANGUSTOLONGA, F. Sacco, 1890: ^'■Columhella {Mitrelhi) complanata 

var. angustolonga Sacc. [= var. 'A,' Bellardi]": Boll. Soc. geol. 

Ital., vol. ix, p. 222 : Type. — [Geol. Mus., Turin] : Loc. — 

Tortonian. 
fANGUSTOLONGA, F. Sacco, 1890: " Columhella {Columhella) curta var. 

ongustolonga Sacc. [= var. 'A,' Bellardi]": Boll. Soc. geol. 

Ital., vol. ix, p. 222 : Type. — [Geol. Mus., Turin] : Loc. — 

Tortonian. 
ANiTis, P. L. Duclos, [1846-58]: " C. IColomheUa'] Aniiis'' : in 

Chenu, Illust. Conch., pi. xvi, figs. 15-16 [no descr.] : Type. — [?] : 

Loc. — [?] 
JANNOSA (T. A. Conrad), July 1, 1865: " Surcula {Surculites) annosa, 

Conr." : Amer. Journ. Couch., vol. i, p. 213, pi. xx, fig. 9: 

Tyi'e. — [?] : Loc. — " Older Eocene " : Shark E,., New Jersey. 
ANNULATA [gToup of C. ligula, DucL], L. A. Peeve, Nov. 1858 : 

'•'■Columhella anmdata'" : Conch. Icon., sp. 101: Type. — Coll. 

Cuming [Brit. Mus., London (?)] : Loc. — " Australia." ■ 
AxyuLATur.A, J. Hervior, Dec. 26, 1899: Columhella psilla, Duel. 

[Hervier, sp.], var. annulatula, J. H. : Journ. Conchy!., vol. xlvii, 

p. 346 : Type. — [Coll. Societe de Marie, Lyons]: Loc. — Lifu. 
ANTAKCTiCA, (K. A. Phili])i)i), Dec, 1868: '■'■ Jiuccinum antardieum 

Ph.": Malak Bliitt., vol. xv, p. 222 [no fig.]: Tr/^i'.— [?] : 

Zoc— Str of Magellan (W. Acton). 
AKTiLLAKUM, L. A. Pceve, Apr. 1859: '■'■Columhella Antillaruni^'' : 

Conch. Icon., sp. 196 • Type. — Coll. Cuming [Brit. Mus., 

London (!)] : Loc. — I. of St. Thomas, W. Indies. 
APiiTH.EGEiiA, A. Lcsson, Juue, 1842: " C. [_Colamhella~\ Apldhccgera., 

Less.": Bev. Zool. Cuv. Soc, vol. v, p. 185 [no fig.]: Type. — 

['?Coll. Lesson] : Loc. — Acapulco, Mexico. 



PACK : ON THE COLUMBELLID^E. 55 

APicATA, E. A. Smith, Oct. 1, 1899 : " Culumhdla {mUdella) 
apicata'' : Journ. Conch., vol. ix, pp. 247-8, pi. v, fig-. 2 : Type.— 
[Coll. Ponsonby, Brit. Mus., Loudon (!)] : Loo. — Durban, Natal. 
APicuLATA [group of C. rustictt, (Linn.)J, T. di Monterosato [? x\lS.]. 
AEANEosA, P. L. Duclos ['? = Kiener, sp.], [1846-58] : " C. [ ColomheUa'] 
Araneosa'' : in Chenu, Illust Conch., pi. iii, figs. 17-18 [no 
descr.J: Trp^'.— [?J : Zoc— [?] 
AEANEOSA, A. A. Gould, Sept. 1860 : " Columbella [Ami/cla] araneosa'' : 
Proc. Boston Soc, vol. vii, p. 336 [no fig J : 7'r/'£ — [U.S. Nat. 
Mus., Washington] : Loo. — Kagosima B. and China coast. 
ARANEOSA [? group of C. vevsicolor, Shy.], L. C Kiener [1841] : 
" Columhella araneosa, Nobis " : Spec. gen. Coq. viv., sp. 44, 
pp. 49-50, pi. ix, fig. 4 [" Col. coronata Duel.," on plate]: 
Type.— GoW Tessier : Loo.—'' Habite I'Ocean Indien." 
ARANOSA [i.e., araneosa\ Gould. 

ARATA, L. A. Eeeve, Apr. 1859 : " Cohunbella amta " : Conch. Icon., 
sp. 185 :_ Type— GoW. Cuming [Brit. Mus., Loudon] : Zoc— [v] 
ARENOSA [i e., araneosa'], Gould. 

ARGUS [group of C. cribraria (Lam.)], A. d'Orbigny, 1845: " Colom- 
heUa «ry«<.s.— (d'Orb., 1840)": in Sagra, Hist. Jsla Cuba, pt. ii, 
vol. V, pp. 233-4, pi. xxi, figs. 34-6 [figs. "34-37" in text; 
" C. ocellata'' on plate]: Type. — [Brit. Mus., London] : Loo. — 
Guadeloupe (Hote-ssier). 
ARiciA, P. L. Duclos [1846-58]: " C.\_Colomhella'] Aricia'' : in Chenu, 
Illust. Conch., pi. xiii, figs. 9-10 [no descr.] : rrp^.— [?] : 
Loo. — [?] 
AR.MILLATA (L. A. Recve), Oct. 1856 [? 1846] : " Ricinula armillata " : 
Conch. Icon., Ricimda, sp. 47 : Type. — Coll. Cuming [Hrit. Mus., 
London] : Loo. — " Island of Ticao, Philippines " (Cuming). 
\arpula ^i.e., harpula'], G. Michelotti. 
ARTicuLATA, _M. Souverbie, July 1, 1864: '' Columlella articulata, 
Souv." : in Souverbie and Montrouzier, Journ, Conchyl., vol xii, 
pp. 271-2, pi. X, fig. 5: Type.—^\x?,. Bordeaux: Zoc— Art Is., 
New Caledonia. 
ASCANiAS [ = Nassidge] (J. G. Bruguiere), [1789]: " Buccinum 
ascanias; Nob.": Ency. Meth., Yers, vol. i, p. 275 [no fig.]: 
Type. — ['?] ; Loo. — " Sur les cotes de la Barbaric et aux environs 
de Naples." 
Asoprs [sp. indet.], P. L. Duclos [1846-58]: " C. [Colombel/a'] 
A.wpis" : in Chenu, Illust. Conch., pi. xiv, figs. 17-18 [no 
descr.]: Type.—[?]: Loo.-[?] 
ASPERSA, G. B. Sowerby i [Sept.] 1844: ''Columbella aspersa, 
nob." : Proc. Zool Soc, 1844, p. 49 [no fig.] : Tr/'^.— (Co-tvpos) 
Coll. Cuming [Brit. Mus., London (!)] ; Coll. Lady Harvey: 
Loo. — [?] 
ASPERULA [ = Nassid0e] (R A. Philippi) [? = Brocchi, sp.], 1836: 
" I^. \_Buccinum'] asperulwm, Broc." : Enura. Moll. Sieilia?, vol i, 
p. 220 [no fig.]: TYPE.—\y\. Zyc— " Catania^, Panormi, non 
valde frequens." 



56 PKOCKICDINGS OF TUK MAI.ACOLOtilCAL SOCIKTY. 

fASTENsis, L. Bellardi, 1890 : " Columhella {Tetrastomella) astensis 

i3ell." : Mem. Accad. Torino, 8or. ii, vol. xl, pp. 335-6, pi ii, 

fig. 48: Type — Geol. Mus., Turin: Loc. — Upper Pliocene: 

"Colli astesi, Valie Andona." 
^ASTENSIS, Sacco [i.e., Bellardi, sp.]. 
ASTOLKNsis, J. C. Molvill & 11. Standen, June 18, 1901 : " Columhella 

{Mitrella) astolensis, sp.n." : Proc. Zool. Soc., 1901, p. 403, 

pi. x.\iii, fig-. 4 : Type. — [Hrit. Mus., London (!)] : Zoc. — Mekran 

coast ; Astola Is. ; Charbar. 
ASTiiiCTA [_ = Bngina'] (L. A. Peeve), Oct. 1846 : "■ Ricinula as'ricta'^ : 

Conch. Icon., Ricinula, sp. 30 : Type. — Coll. Cuming [Prit. Mus., 

London] : Loc. — [?] 
ATHADOXA [i.e , atltidona^, Duclos. 
ATK[Nsoxi (J. E. Tenison- Woods), 1876 : " Jfanc/elia atlcinsoni, n.s." : 

Proc. K. Soc. Tasmania, 1875, p. 141 [no' fig.] : 2V/'£.— Coll. 

Legrand : Loc. — E. coast of Tasmania. 
ATLADONA, P. L. Duclos, 1835 [Apr. 1840]: ''Col. — Atladona'' : 

Hist. nat. Con. univ , pi. i, figs. 11-2 [no descr.l : Type. — I?]: 

Zoc— [?J 
ATLANTiCA, A. Locard, 1897: "■ Columhella Saf/r a, d'Orbigny, . . . 

var. Atlantica" : Exped. Travailleiir & Tulisman, Moll., vol. i, 

p. 142 : Type—[?] : Loc. — '' Iks du Cap-Vert." 
ATOJfATELLA [i.e., (tfomella'], Duclos. 
ATOiiELLA, P. L. Duclos, 1835 [Apr. 1840]: "Col.—Atomella'': 

Hist. nat. Con. imiv., pi. xi, figs. 5-6 [no descr.] : Type. — [?] : 

Loc.—m 

ATOIIELLA, L. A. Peeve \_non Duclos], ^oy. 1858 : Columhella atomella, 
Duel.: Conch. Icon., sp. 108: Type. — Coll. Cuming [Prit. Mus., 
London] : Loc. — West Indies. 

ATOMELLA, G. P. Sowerhy i \jio7i Duclos] [Sept.] 1844: " Colum- 
hella atomella, Duel.": Proc. Zool. Soc, 1844, p. 53 [no fig.]: 
I'ype. — Coll. Cuming [Brit. Mus., London (!)J : Zoc— West 
Indies (L. Guilding). 

ATRAMENTARiA, G. P. Sowcrhy I [Sept.] 1844 : " Columhella atra- 
mentaria. nob.": ]'roc. Zool. Soc, 1844, p. 51 [no iig.]: Type. — 
Coll. G. B. Sowerhy: Loc. — " Chatham Islnnd, Callapagos." 

ATRAMENTOSA [group of C. dorwitor, Sby.] (L. A. Peeve), June, 
1849: " Conus aframenfosus" : Conch. Icon., Conns, sp. 315 
[" 265 " in text and on plate] : Trp^.— Coll. Cuming [Prit. IMus., 
London (!)] : Loc. — " Island of Mindoro, Philippines" (Cuming). 

ATBATA, A. A. Gould, Sept. 1860: '• Columhella {Anacliis afrata''' : 
Proc. Boston Soc, vol. vii, p. 334 [no fig.]: 2'ype. — [U.S. Kat. 
Mus., Washington] : Loc. — Hong Kong Harbour. 
fATU.iTiEFORMis, ]i. Tatc, Juuc, 1893: "\_Colnmhella~\ afrafaformis, 
Tate": Trans. P.. Soc South Austral, vol. xvii, p. 220 [name 
only]: 2'ype.—[?]: Loc. — Tertiary: Gellibrand and Muddy 
Creek, Victoria. 

ATTEXUATA, G. F. Augas, Jan. 1871 : " Columhella {3Iitrell(() alienuafa, 
nsp.": Proc Zool. Soc, 1871, p. 14, pi. i, fig. 4: Type. — Brit. 
Mus., London: Loc. — Pt. Jackson. 



PACE : ox THE COLDMBELLII)^. 57 

fATTENUATA, H. Beyrich, 1854: " Columlelh attenunta Beyr. [n.n. for 
C. suhulata, Hoernes non Bellardi] " : Zeitschr. Deutsch. geol. Ges. 
vol. VI, pp. 430-1, pi. Yi, lio.. 5: Trp^.— (Figured specimen) 
Coll. Hosius: Zoc— Bocholt (AYestphalia) ; also at Reinbeck 
AUGUSTA [i.e., (i7ujusta], Deshayes. 

AURANTiA, p. L. Uuelos [? = Lamarck, sp.], 1835 [Apr. 1840]: 
''Col.—Auranfia": Hist. nat. Coci- uuiv., pi. vii, tigs. 15-16 
[no descr.] ; 2'rPE.—[?] : Zoc. — [?j 
AUKANTiA (L. C. Kiener) [?= Lamarck, sp.] [1834]: ^^ Buccinum 
aurantmm, Lam.": Spec. gen. Coq. viv., Buccinum, sp 49 
pp 50-1, pL XXV, fig. 101: ^yp^.— (Co-tvpes) Coll. Massena; 
Coll. Lamarck : Loo.—'' Habite les cotes de I'ile de Java." 
AUSANTIA [sp. indet.] (J. P. B. de Lamarck), Aug. 1822 : " Buccimim 
aurantium " : Hist. nat. Anim. s. Vert., vol. vii, p. 275 [no ti"' 1 • 
rr/-^.— Coll. Lamarck: Zoc.-[?] ^ -" " 

AUKANTiAOA, W. H. Hall, Nov. 2, 1871 : '' Astyris aurantiaca, n.s." : 
Amer. Journ. Conch., vol. vii, jjp. 115-16, pi. xv, fio- 13- 
Type.—[;?] : Z(>a— Monterey, California. 
AURANTiAOA [i.e., aarmitio], Lamarck. 

AUREA [group of C. flava (Brug.)], H. & A. Adams, Sept. 1853: 
"P. iPijrene'] aitrea, Martini" : Genera Ptec. Moll., vol i p 185 
pi. xix, tig. 8«: TYPE.—m : Zoc — [?] 
AUREA, Lamarck [?]. 

AUREA, Martini [i.e., H. & A. Adams, sp.]. 
AUREA, Moerch [i.e., H. & A. Adams, sp.]. 

AUREOLA [sp. inclet.], P. L. Duclos [1846-58]: " C. \CohmheUa~\ 
Aureola'' : m Chenu, lllust. Conch., pi. vi, figs. 17-18 i no descr ]• 
Type. — [?] : Zee— [?] 
AUKiFLPA, P. P. Carpenter, Aug. 1864: '' Anaclm pycpncea (var. 
annflim) ': Kept. Brit. Assoc, 1863, p. 626 [name oniv] • Type ~ 
[?J : Zoc— Cape St. Lucas. 
AUsTUALis (G. F. Angas), March, 1877: '' Truncana amfralk'' : 
iroc. Zool. 8oc., 1877, p. 172, pi. xxvi, fig. 5: TYPE—\n- 
Log. — Pt. Jackson. ' ^ -^ " 

AUSTRALis J S. Gaskoiu, 1851 [Oct. 28, 1852]: '' CohunheUa 
. Australis' : Proc. Zool. Soc, 1«51, pp. 5-6 [no fig]- Type — 
(Co-types) Coll. Gaskoiu and Coll. Cuming fBrit. Mifs., London! • 
Zoc— Sydney, jNT S.W. ^ -' ' 

fAUSTiiiACA, P. Hoernes & M. Auinger, Dec. 31, 1880: " CoIumheUa 
{Anachis) Austrlaca nov. form.": Ablian<ll. geol Peichsanst 
vol. xii, p 101, pi. xi, fig, 28 : rjv^.-Hof-Mineralien-Cabinet,' 
Vienna: Zoc — Niederleis. 
ADSTKiNA, J S^Gaskoin, 1851 [Oct. 28, 1852]: '' CohmheUa 
Austnna": Proc. Zool. Soc, 1851, p. 9 [no tig.]: Trp^— (Co- 
types) Coll. Cuming [Brit. Mus., London] ; Coll. Gaskoin : Log — 
" Australia." 
AVARA P. L Duclos, 1835 [Apr. 1840]: '' Colomhella avara'' : 
Jlist. nat Coq. univ., pi. i, figs. 1-2 [no descr.]: Type—{'^\- 
Log. — [?] -' '- -' 



58 PROCEEDINGS OF THE MA LA CO LOGICAL SOCIETT. 

AVARA {_=€. Brasiliensis, v. Mart.], "W. Dunker \_non Say], 1875: 

" Coiumhella {Amijcla) avara, Say" : Jahrb. Deutsch. maluk. Gos., 

vol. ii, p. 243 [no tig-.] : Tit^'.— Coll. Duuker [Mus. Jieiiin] : 

Loc. — DcsteiTO, Prov^ Sta. Cathariua, Brazil. 
AVAHA, T. Say, 1821 : Colomhella ai-ara, n.sp. : Journ. Acad. Philad., 

vol. ii, pt. 1, p. 230 [no fig.] : 'J'ype. — (Co-types) Mus. & Acad, 

Pliiladeli)liia : Loc. — [E. coast, U.S.A.] " Inhabits the coast of the 

southern states." 
AVENA (E. A. Philippi), Apr. 1846: '■'■liuccinuni avena Pli." : Zeitschr. 

Malak., vol. iii, p. 52 [no tig.] : Tym.—'i [Coll. Philippi] : 

Loc. — Chili. 
AVENA, L. A. Reeve, Feb. 1859 : " ColumlcUa avena " : Conch. Icon., 

sp. 158 : Type. — Coll. Cuming [Brit. Mus., London] : Luc. — 

"Buffalo, Cape Colony." 
AziMA, P. L. Duclos [1846-58]: " C. ^Colomhella'] Azima'' : in 

Chcnu, lllust. Conch., pi. xiii, figs. 7-8 [no descr.] : Type. — 

[?]: Loc.-m 
AzoRA, P. L. Duclos, 1835 [Apr. 1840] : " Col.—Azora " : Hist. nat. 

Coq. univ., pi. xii, figs. 3-4 [no descr.] : Type. — [?] : Loc. — [?] 
AZORiCA, H. Drouet, 1858: '■'■Coiumhella rustica Lin. (Voluta) Var. 

azorica K6h." : Mem. Soc. acad. Aube, vol. xxii, p. 169, pi. i, 

tig. 5 : 2'ype. — [?] : Loc. — Azores. Abundant: " sur les cotes de 

FloreSj de Graciosa, de San-Miguel, de Fayal, et de Pico." 



BABBi [group of C. Jflarquesa, Gask.], G. W. Tryon, jun. [July 18] 

18«3 : " C. [^Coiumhella {Milrella)\ Bahhi., Tryon [n.n. for C. lactea, 

Rve. non Kien.] " : Man. Conch., pp. 135-6, pi. 50, fig. 43: 

Type. — Coll. Cuming [Brit. Mus., London (!)] : Loc. — Gulf of 

California. 
BACCATA, J. S. Gaskoin, 1851 [Oct. 28, 1852] : " Coiumhella haccata " : 

Proc. Zool. Soc, 1851, pp. 9-10 [no fig.J : Type.— Coll. Gaskoin: 

Zoc— [?] 
|baccifera, J. Ivolas & A. Peyrot, Apr. 1890 : " Coiumhella {Anachis) 

haccifcra ilayer-Eymar [MS.] " : Act. Soc. Linn. Bordeaux, vol. Iv, 

pp. 133-4, pi. i, figs. 13-14: Type. — (Co-types) Mus. Zurich; 

Coll. Ivolas & P(!yrot : Loc. — Ealuns : Pontlevoy ; Saiute- 

Catherine-de-Ficrbois ; Manthelan. 
\baccifera, Mayer-Eymar [MS., = Ivolas & Peyrot, sp.]. 
BACULUS, L. A. Reeve, Feb. 1859: "■Coiumhella haculus^': Conch. 

Jcon., sp. 157: 7'ype. — Coll. Cuming [Brit. Mus., London (?)]: 

Loc. — " China Seas." 
BADiA, J. E. Tenison-Woods, 1876 : " Coiumhella hadia, n s." : Proc. 

R. Soc. Tasmania, 1875, p. 151 [no fig.]: Ty/e. — [?] : Loc. — 

[Swansea, E. coast, Tasmania. 
BALTKATA, A. A. Gould, Sept. 1860 : " Coiumhella \_Anachis] 

halteata " : Proc. Boston Soc, vol. vii, p. 333 [no fig.] : Type. — 

[U.S. .Nat. Mus., 'Washington] : Luc. — "Inhabits China Seas." 



PACE : ON THE COLTJMBELLID^. 59 

BALTEATA \_=C. NevUli, Tryon], G. & H. Nevill [nora. prfeocc] 

[Oct. 26] 1875: " Columbella {Mitrella) haUeata, n.sp. " : Journ. 

Asiatic ISoc. Bengal, vol. xliv, pt. 2, pp. 96-7, pi. viii, fig. 4 : 

Type. — Indian Mus., Calcutta : Log. — Mauritius. 
\bandaoensis [i.e., handonge7isis~\^ K. Martin. 
•j-BANDONGENsis, K. Martin, 1880 : " Columhella bandongensis nov. 

spec." : Tertiarsch. Java, p. 30, pi. vi, iig. 7 : 'Type. — [Geol. 

Mus., Leyden] : Loc. — Java: " Gegend von liotjitjankang aus 

westlich, bis zum Gunung Sela. Kluft des Tji Lanaug." 
BARBADENSis, A. d'Orbiguy, 1845: " Colomhella harbadensis. — (d'Orb., 

1840) \_Olivaris barbadensis, Petiver, 1702]": in Sagra, Hist. 

Isia Cuba, pt. ii, vol. v, p. 230 [no fig.] : Type. — [Brit. Mus., 

London] : Loc. — " Se halla en las Antillas." 
barbadensis, Petiver [Pre-Linnsean, ? = d'Orbigny, sp.]. 
■f-BASTKOPENSis, G. D. Harris, Apr. 9, 1895: '■^ Astyris bastropcnsis 

nov. sp." : Proc. Acad. Philad., 1895, p. 74, pi. viii, fig. 2 : Type. — 

" Texas State Museum " : Log. — " Lower Claiborne Eocene : . . . 

Little Brazos E-iver, near iron bridge, on Mosley's Perry road." 
\bayani (P. de Loriol), 1887 : " Chihdonta Bayani, P. de Loriol, 

1887 " : Mem. Pal. Suisse, vol. xiv, pp. 186-7, pi. xxi, figs. 3-5 : 

Type. — Mus. Lyons (Coll. Guirand) : Log. — Yalfin. 
BECKEKi, G. B. Sowerby iii. Mar. 1900 : " Columbella Becheri, n.sp." : 

Proc. Malac. Soc. London, vol. iv, pp. 3-4, pi. i, tig. 7 : Type. — 

[Brit. Mus., London (!)] : Log. — The Kowie [S. Africa]. 
BELizANA \_=C. fenestrata, C. B. Ad.], P. L. Duclos [1846-58]: 

"6". \_Colombella\ Belizana" : in Chenu, Illust. Conch., pi. xxii, 

figs. 9-10 [no descr.] : Tpp£. — [?] : Zoc— [?] 
BELLA (A. Garrett), Jan. 1872: '■'■ Enyina bella, Grt. [n.sp.]": 

Proc. Calif. Acad., vol. iv, p. 203 [no fig-]: TYPE.— \y~\: Log. — 

" Viti and Samoa Islands." 
BELLA (W. H. Pease), 1860: Daphnella hella : Proc. Zool. Soc, 

1860, p. 147 [no fig.] : Type. — [?] : Log. — Sandwich Is. 
BELLA (L. A. Beeve), Aug. 1846 : '■' Bicinula bella ^^ : Conch. Icon., 

Mcinula, sp. 15 : I'ype. — Coll. Cuming [Brit. Mus., London] : 

Log. — "Island of Capul, Philippines (on the reefs at low water) ; 

Cuming." 
BELLA, L. A. Reeve, Apr. 1859 : " Columbella bella'^ : Conch. Icon., 

sp. 172 : Type. — Coll. Cuming [Brit. Mus., London] : Loo. — China. 
•[bellakdensis, F. Sacco, 1890 : " Columbella (stricto sensu) bellardensis 

Sacc. " : in Bellardi, Mem. Accad. Torino, ser. ii, vol. xl, p. 325, 

pi. ii, fig. 24 : Type. — Geol. Mus., Turin : Log. — Middle Miocene : 

" Colli tortonesi, S. Agata fossile." 
\bellardii [? = C. Elipsteini, Mich.], P. L. Duclos [1846-58]: 

" C. \_Colombella\ Bellardii'''' : in Chenu, Illust. Conch., pi. xxvii, 

figs. 15-16 [no descr.] : Type.—['^] : Zo(7.— [?] 
■[bellardii, M. Hoernes, 1852: " Columbella Bellardii Hcirncs": 

Abhandl. geol. lieichsanst., vol. iii, p. 123, pi. xi, figs, \a-c: 

Type. — Hof-Mineralien-Cabinet, Yienna : Log. — Baden. 



60 PHOCEEDIXGS OF THE MALACOI.OGICAL SOCIETT. 

fBKLLAKDii, G. Seguenza, 1875: " Columhella Bellardii Seguenza 
[" = C. subtdata iJcllai'di (Non Murex subulatus Brocclii) "J " : 
Boll. Com. geol. Ital., vol. vi, p. 270: Type. — [?] : Loc. — Tipper 
zone of the Lower Pliocene : Altavilla ; Caltabiano. 
■(■BiAKATA, M. Cossmann, July 1, 1886: " Cohimbella biarafa'^ : Joiirn. 
Concliyl., vol. xxxiv, pp. 2;32-4. pi. x, fig. 3: Type. — Coll. 
Chevalier: Zoc. — " Chaumont, calcaire grossier inferieure." 

BicANALicuLATA {=C. bicunalifera., Sby.], T. L. Duclos, 1835 [Api*. 
1840] : " ColombeUa JiicanaUcidata''^ : Hist. nat. Coq. imiv., 
pi. xi, figs. 7-8 [no closer ] : TypE.—[?] : Zoc7.— [?] 

BiCANALiFKUA, G. E. Soworbj I [Aug. 14] 1832: " Cohonbella bi- 
canalifera'''' : Proc. Zool. Soc., 1832, p. 113 [no fig.] : Type. — Coll. 
Cuming [Brit. Mus., London] : Loc. — "Ad Insukis Gallapagos." 

BiCATENATA, L. A. Keeve [?] 

BiciNCTA, G. F. Angas, Jan. 1871 : " Cohimbella {Jfifrella) biciiicfa, 
n.sp." : Proc. Zool. Soc, 1871, p. 14, pi. i, fig. 3: H'yj'E. — Jirit. 
Mus., London : Zoo. — Sydney, iS'^.S.W. 

BICINCTA, A. A. Gould, Sept. 18()0 : " Coluwbella \_Aimjcla] bicincta^'' : 
Proc. Boston Soc, vol. vii, p. 335 [no fig.] : I'ype. — [U.S. ^^at. 
Mus., Wasliington] : Loc. — Hong Kong. 

BicoLOK, AV. H. Dall, Aug. 2, 18<)2 : '' Amphissa bicolor Dall " : in 
Williamson, Proe. U.S. Nat. Mus., vol. xv, pp. 213-4, pi. xx, 
fig. 4 : Type.—\^.^. Nat. Mus., Washington (Keg. No. 106,877): 
Loc. — California: "Point Sur to San Diego, and in the Santa 
]iarbara channel." 

BICOLOR, Duclos [i.e., Iviener, sp.]. 

Bicor.OK, L. C. Kiener [1841]: " Cohimbella bicolor, Nobis": Spec, 
gen. Coq. viv., sp. 41, pp. 46-7, pi. xvi, fig. 4: Type. — Coll. 
Tessier , Loc. — [?] 

BicoNiCA, L. C. Kiener [?]. 

BiDEXTATA [_= C. versicolor, Sbv.], K. T. Menke, 1843: " Columhella 
biclentata, m." : Moll. Nov. HolL, p. 23, sp. 108 [no fig.] : Type.— 
[?] : Loc. — Australia: " Hab. in litore occidentale." 

BIDEXTATA, Sowerby [i.e., Menke, sp.]. 

BiFASCiATA [i.e., hicincta~\, Angas. 

BiFASCiATA, J. HervicT, Dec 26, 1899: Cohimbella pardalina, Lam., 
var. bifasciata, J. H. : Journ. Conchj'l., vol. xlvii, pp. 306-7 : 
Type. — [Coll. Societe de Marie, Lyons]: Loc. — New Caledonia. 

BIFASCIATA [i.e., bijlam))iata'], Peeve. 

BiFLAMMATA, L. A. llecvo, Apr. 1859: '■'■Cohimbella biflammafa " : 
Conch. Icon., sp. 226 : Type. — Coll. Taylor [Brit. Mus., London(!)] : 

Zoc— [y] 

BIFLOCCATA, J. Hcrvicr, Dec. 26, 1899 : Cohimbella Carolina, Sm., 
" Varietas a. bijluccata, J. llcrvier": Journ. Conchy]., vol. xlvii, 
p. 341 [no fig.] : Type. — [Coll Societe de Marie, Lyons] : Loc. — 
New Caledonia. 

Bii'LiCATA (W. H. Dall), June, 1889: " Mitromorpha biplicata n.s." : 
Bull. Mus. Harvard, vol. xviii, p. 165, pi. xxxv, fig. 1 : Type. — 
[U.S. Nat. Mus., Washington] : Loc. — Barbados. 

BiRosTii.i, p. L. Duclos [?]. 



PACE : ON THE COLUMBELLTD.E. 61 

fBiTTNERi, R. Hoernes & M. Auingei', Dec. 31, 1880 : " ColumhelJa 
{MitrellcC) JJittneri nov. form.": Abhandl. geol. Keichsanst., vol.xii, 
p. 98, pi. xii, fig. 4 : Type. — Hof-Minoralien-Cabinet, Vienna : 
Loa. — Steinabrunn. 

BizoNALis [ = Mitridte], J. P B. de Lamarck, Aug. 1 822 : " ColumbeUa 
hizonalis'''' : Hist. nat. Anim. s. Vert., vol. vii, pp. 294-5 [no fig.] : 
Type. — Coll. Lamarck : Loc. — [?] 

BLANDA, Solander [MS., = Sowerby, sp.]. 

BLANDA, G. B. Sowerb}' i [Sept.] 1844: " ColumheUa hlanda, Sol.": 
Proc. Zool. Soc, 1844, p. 51 [no fig.] : Type. — Coll. Cuming 
[Brit. Mus , London] : Loo. — " Africa ; on tbe shore. Solander." 

BoiviNi, L. C. Kiener, [1841]: " ColumheUa Boivini, Nobis": Spec, 
gen. Coq. viv., sp. 42, pp. 47-8, pi. xi, fig. 1 : 2\'pe. — (!olL 
Boivin : Loc. — [?] 

BONASiA (E. V. Martens), [1880]: '■'■ Plicatella [Peristernia) lonasia 
n. " : in Moebius, Meeresfauna Mauritius, p. 246, pi. 20, fig. 6 : 
Type. — \J Zool. Mus., Kiel]: Zoc— Seychelles (Miibius). 

BONNEi [\.e , Boifinf^, Kiener. 
fBORSONi, L. Bellardi, 1849 : " ColumheUa Borsoni Bell. \_ = Wassa 
columhelloides, Grat., var.] " : Mem. Accad. Torino, ser. ii, vol. x, 
p. 238, pi. i, fig. 11: Type. — [?] : Loc. — Dax ; Turin; Astigiano. 
-\bobsoni, Sacco [i.e., Bellardi, sp.]. 

BOUKJOTiANA, J. C. H. Crossc, June, 1859 : " ColumheUa Bourjotiana, 
Crosse": Journ. Conchyl., vol. vii, pp. 383-4, pi. xiv, fig. 6: 
Trp^. — Coll. Crosse: Zoc— [?] 

BOViNii\i.e., Boivini']., Kiener. 

BRAsiLiANA, E. V. Martcus, Nov. 1897: '■'■ColumheUa hraniliana, n. 
[n.n. for C. arara, Dkr, non Say]": Arch. Naturg., vol. Ixiii, 
p. 171, pl. xvi, fig. 10: Type.~Qo\\. Dunker [Berlin Mus.]: 
Loc. — Desterro, S. Brazil (Fritz Miiller) ; Maldonado, Uruguay 
(Tischbein). 

BBEVis, T. di Monterosato, 1875 : ColumheUa {Mitrella) scripta, 
Lin., "var. 4, breiis" : Nuova Eiv. Conch. Inedit. [?'?i Atti Accad. 
Palermo, ser. ii, vol. v], p. 41 : Type. — [?] : Loc. — Medi- 
terranean. 
fBKEvispiEATA, F. Sacco, 1890 : " Columh/'Ua (Anachis) corrufiata 
Bell, yaw brevi.'<pirata ^aoc. [= var. 'A,' Bellardi]": Boll. Soc. 
geol. ItaL, vol. ix, p. 225 : Type. — [Geol. Mus., Turin] : Loc. — 
Astian and Piaccnzian. 

BKEVissiMA, J. Hervier, Dec. 26, 1899 : " ColumheUa hrevissima, 
J. Hervier": Journ. Conchyl., vol. xlvii, pp. 372-3, pl. xiv, 
fig. 10 : Type. — [Coll. Societe de Marie, Lyons] : Loc. — Lifu. 

BKiDGESi, L. A. Reeve, Apr. 1858 : " ColumheUa Bridgesii^^ : Conch. 
Icon., sp. 40 : Type. — Coll. Cuming [Brit. Mus., London (!)] : 
Loc. — Panama (Bridges). 

BRisKi, S. Brusina, 1870: '■'■ ColumheUa Brisei Chier.^^ : Pad. Jugoslav. 
Akad., vol. xi, pp. 60-1 [no fig.]: Type.— \_?]: Zoc— " Abita 
questa soltanto il nostro Golfo [of Venice] nolle maggiori pro- 
fondita di suolo argilloso, poste tra I'lstria e le Lagune Venete." 

BBiSEi {fi. Chiereghini) [MS., = Brusina, sp.]. 



62 rROCEKDINGS OF THK MALACOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

jiiiiSEi (G. D. Nardo) [nom. niid.,=Brusina, sp,], 1847 : " Bnccinum 

hrim., Ch., Xardo" : Sinon. mod. Specie Chiereghini, p. 47 [name 

only] : I'ype. — [?] : Loc. — [G. of Venice]. 
fBROCCiiii (G. Micholotti), 1847: '^ Fiisfis Brocchii. mihi " : J^atiirk. 

Vcrhan.dl. Haarlem, ser. ii, vol. iii, p. 281, \A. x, fig. 7 : Type. — 

Coll. Michelotti [Geol. Miis., Home] : Zoc— " Tortone." 
\bmocciiji \_=C. turfjidula, Erocchi] (M. de Serres), 1829: '■'■ Mitra 

Jirocc/iii ^ohis {Valuta turgidulta [sic], Brocchi)": Geogn. Terr. 

Tert , p. 125 [no fig.]: I'ype. — [?] : Loc. — " Les marnes 

argileuses bleucs " of the JNIidi and Italy. 
BRODERiPi, G. B. Sowerby i [Sept.] 1844 : " Columhclla Brodcripii, 

nob." : Proc. Zool. Soc , 1844, p. 53 [no fig.] : Type.— V,r\i. Mus., 

London [!] : Log. — Alboran Is. (W. J. Broderip). 
•j-BRONNi, K. Mayer-Ej-mar, July 1, 18G9: Columhclla Ihonni, ^fayer, 

n.n. for C. tiara, Hoernes, noyi Bon. : Journ. Concbyl., vol. xvii, 

p. 284: TYPE.— m-. Zoa.— [Baden.] 
BKOOKEI, L. A. Keeve, Apr. 1859: '•'■ (Johimhi'lla Brookei'''' : Conch. 

Icon., sp. 169 : Type.— QoW. Taylor [Brit. Mus., London (? Coll. 

Cuming, Brit. Mus.)] : Loa. — " Sarawak, Borneo." 
j-BUCCATA, J. Grzybowski, 1K99 : '■'■ Colnmlella hvccata n.sp." : in 

Steinmann, Neues Jabrb. Min., vol. xii, pp. 647-8, pi. xix, fig. 7 : 

2'ype. — Geol. Univ. Inst., Cracow : Loc. — Tertiary : Talara, Peru. 
fBUCciNiFORMis, B. Hoemes & M. Auinger, Dec. 31, 1880: " Colum- 

bella {Mitrella) hucciniformis nov. form." : Abhandl. geol. 

Eeichsanst., vol. xii, p. 98, pi. xii, fig. 3 : Type. — Hof-Mineralien- 

Cabinet, Yicnna : Loc. — Lapugy. 
fBUCOiNOiDKS (B. de Basterot), 1825: '■'■ F. [Fw?/s] hiccinoides. Nob. 

[n.n. for " Buc. (Fusiis) suhulatum. Brocc," non Lam.] " : Mem. 

Soc. Hist. nat. Paris, vol. ii, p. 62 [no fig.]: 2'ypE. — [? Coll. 

Basterot]: Loc. — "Fossile dans la Plaisantin, a Saucats et a 

Merignac." 
BUCCiNOiDES, P. L. Duclos [? = Sowerby, sp.] [1846-58]: " C. 

\_Colombella'] Buccinoides'''' '. in Chcnu, Illust. Conch., pi. ii, 

figs. 19-20 [nodescr.]: Trp^.— [?] : Zoc— [?] 
BUCCINOIDES, A. Lesson, June, 1842: " C. \_Columhella'] hiccinoides, 

Less." : Bcv. Zool. Cuv. Soc, vol. v, pp. 184-5 [no fig.] : 

Type. — [?Coll. Lesson]: Loc. — Acapulco, Mexico; San Carlos, 

C. America. 
BUCCINOIDES, G. B. Soworby i [Aug. 14] 1832 : " Cohnnhella 

Buccinoides''' : Proc. Zool. Soc, 1832, p. 114 [no fig.] : Type. — 

Coll. Cuming [Brit. Mus., London] : Loc. — A neon, Peru. 
■ BUCHHOLZi, E. V. Martens, Dec 1, 1881: ^' Colmnbella Buchhohi 

n." : Conch. Mittheil., vol. ii, pp. 118-19, pi. xxiii, figs. 8-10: 

TYi'E.-m-. Zo(7.— Gulf of Guinea, W. Africa. 
BURCHAEDTi (W. Dunker), 1877: " A»)>/cla BurcJiardti'DkT.^^ : Malak. 

Bliitt., vol. xxiv, p. 67 [no fig.] : Type. — [?] : Loc. — Japan. 
fBURDETi, K. Maycr-Eymar, 1898: " Columhella Burdeti M.-E." : 

Palacontogr., vol. xxx, pt. 2, p. 81, pi. xii, fig. 7: Type. — [?] : 

Loc. — AVadi-el-Melahah. 



PACE : ON THE COLUMBELLID.Tl. 63 

BTJRNUPi, E. A. Smith, Oct. 1, 1901 : " Colimh Ila {Anne Ji is) 
burnupi^' : Joui'n. Concli., vol. x, pp. 112-3, pi. i, fig. 2: 
Ti'PE.—l?^ : Log.—'' A^atal (H. Burnup)." 

c.'EciLEi\^= C. unicolor, Sby.], Philippi [MS.]. 
■\c^NOZoiC'A [i.e., Cainozoical, E. Woods [i.e. Ten. -Woods]. 

CAiLLATJDi, Calcara [?]. 
fcAiNozoiCA, J. E. Tenison- Woods, 1877: " Columbella cainowica''^ : 

Proc. R. Soc. Tasmania, 1876, p. 110 [no fig.]: :7'rP£.— Mus. R. 

Soc. Tasmania, Hobart: Loo. — Table Cape, Tasmania. 
fcALCAK^, G. Segnenza, 1875: " \_Columbella^ Calcarte (Scguenza) 

\_= Buccimim Scacchi, Calc] " : Boll. Com. geol. Ital., vol. vi, 

p. 276 : Ti^PE. — [?] : Loc. — "Zona siiperiore dell' antico pliocene" : 

Altavilla ; Peccioli, Val d'Era ; Bologna ; Cornare. 
CALiFORNiANA, J. S. Gaskoin, 1851 [Oct. 28, 1852]: "Columbella 

Califormana^^ : Proc. Zool. Soc, 1851. pp. 12-3 [no fig.]: 

TrPE. — (Co-types) Coll. Cuming and Coll. Gaskoin [Brit. Mus., 

London (,!)]: Loc. — " Sandeago, California." 
CALiFOKNiCA, L. A. Roevo, Apr. 1 859 : '■'Columbf Ila Californica'''' : Conch. 

Icon., sp. 165: Type. — Coll, Cuming [Brit. Mus., London (!)] : 

Zoa.—" California "[?]. 
CALLiGLTPTA, W. H. Dall, 1901 : " Columbella [^Anaehi's'] calliffli/pfa, 

n.sp." : Bull. U.S. Pish Comm., 1900, vol. i. p. 405. pi. Ivii, fig 13 : 

IYpe. — U.S. Nat. Mus., Washington: Loc. — "Aguadilla, Porto 

Rico." 
CALLosiuscuLA, C. Tapparone Cancfri, Jan. 24, 1877 : " Columbella 

(Stromhhui) callosiuseula Tapp. Can." : Ann. Mus. Civ. Geneva, 

vol. ix, pp. 280-1 [no fig.]: Type. — [? Mus. Genoa] : Loc. — 

"Isola di Sorong [N.W. New Guinea]." 
CAL3IEILI [= Nassitla)] (B. C, Payraudeau), 1826: '^ Bueeinum 

Calmeilii. Nob.": Cat. Annel. & Moll. Corse., pp. 160-1, pi. viii, 

figs. 7-8 : Type. — Mus. Paris : Zoa — Corsica. " Toutesles cotes, 

sur les rochers submerges." 
fcALoosAENsis, AV. H. Dall, Aug. 1890 : '■'■Anachu avara var. ealoosaensis 

Dall " : Trans. AVagner Insf., vol iii, pp. 135-6 [no fig.] : Type — 

(Co-types) Mus. Wagner Inst., Philadelphia, and U S. Nat. Mus., 

Washington: Loc. — "Pliocene of the Caloosahatchie and Shell 

Creek, Florida." 
fcAMAX, W. H. Dall, Aug. 1890 : " Anachis camax., n.s." : Trans Wagner 

Inst., vol. iii, p. 136, pi. xii, fig. 3: Type. — (Co-typts) Mus. 

Wagner Inst., Philadelphia, and U.S. Nat. Mus., Washington : 

Loc. — " Pliocene marls of the Caloosahatchie and Shell Creek 

[Florida]." 
]cA3iix [i.e., co7nax~\, Dall. 
CANALTCULATA, K. T. JSlcnlce, 1829 : " Columbella canaliculafa, Mke." : 

Verzeichn. Conch. Malsburg, p. 39 [no fig.] : Type.— GoW. Mals- 

burg : Loc. — [?] 
fcANALis (S. Y. Wood), 1848 : " Terelra canalis, S. Wood" : Monosr. 

Crag Moll., p. 26, pi. iv, fig. 4 : Type.— QoW. Wood [Brit. Mus., 

London]: Zoc— [Coralline Crag : Gedgrave]. 



64 PROCEEUINGS OF THK MALACOLOGICAL SOCIITT. 

CANAEiENSE [group of C. crihravia (Lam.)] (A. d'Orbigny), June 20, 

1839 [?] : " Biicchnim Cananense, d'Orb. " : in Webb & 

Bcrtlielot, Hist. Nat. Canaries, Moll., pp. 90-1, pi. 6, figs. 35-7 : 

I'ype. — [?]^: Loc. — " Dan.s la racine des gorgones, pechee au port 

d'Orotava, lie do Teneritfe." 
fcANCELLAEiA, F. W. Hnttou, May, 1885 : " Columhella cancellaria 

[n.sp.] " : Trans. New Zealand Inst., vol. xvii, pp. 314-5 [no 

fig.] : 2'ype. — [?] : Loc. — Petane. 
CANCELLATA (A. Adams), Apr. 1865 : " Cijfharopiiin cancdlata, A. vVd." : 

Ann. Nat. Hist., ser. iir, vol. xv, p. 323 [no fig.] : Type. — ['?] : 

Loc — Mino Sima, Japan. 
CANCELLATA, J. S. Gaskoin, 1851 [Oct. 28, 1852]: ''Columhella 

cancellaia'''' : Proc. Zool. Soc, 1851, p. 6 [no fig.] : Type. — Coll. 

Gaskoin: Loc. — AY. Indies. 
CANDESCENS, J. Hcrvior, Dec. 26, 1899: Columhella eximia. Rve., 

var. candescens, J. H. : Journ. Conchyl., vol. xlvii, p. 339 : Type. — 

[Coll. Society de Marie, Lyons] : Loc. — Lifu. 
CANDiDANS, J. C. Melvill & II. Standen, June 18, 1901 : " Columhi'lla 

{]][itreUa) llanda, 8owb. . . . Var. cajididans, nov." : Proc. 

Zool. Soc, 1901, p. 403: TrPi?— [?]: Zoc— Karacbi. 
CAPENsrs, G. B. Sowerby iii, 1892: " Columhella [^Anachis'] cnpenitis, 

Sowerby, n.sp." : Marine Shells South Africa, p. 22, pi. i, fig. 20 : 

Type — Coll. Ponsonby [Brit. Mus., London]: Loc. — Pt. Elizabeth, 

Natal. 
CARBONAPiA [ = Purpurida?] (L. A. Reeve"), Oct. 1846: " Ricimda 

carhonaria " : Conch. Icon., Ricinula, sp. 22 : Type. — Coll. Cuming 

[Brit. Mus., London] : Loc. — [?] 
fcARiBjjA, W. M. Gabb, 1873: " S. \^Stromhm<i'] Corihcea, n.s. " : 

Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc, ser. ii, vol. xv, pp. 221-2 [no fig.] : 

Type. — [?] : Loc. — Tertiary: Santo Uomingo. 
fcARiNATA, L. Bellardi, 1890 : " Columhella {Thiarclla) carinata 

(Bon.)": Mem. Accad. Torino, ser. ii, vol. xl, p. 345, pi. ii, 

fig. 71: Type. — Geol. Mus., Turin: Loc. — Upper Miocene: 

" Colli tortonesi, S. Agata fossili, Stazzano, Tetti Borelli presso 

Castelnuovo d'Asti." 
f CARINATA, Bonelli [MS., = Bellardi, sp.]. 

CARINATA, Duclos [?]. 

■f CARINATA [= C. JLilheri, Cossm.], V. Hilber [nom. prncocc], 1879: 
" Columhella carinata Hilb." : Sitzungsb. Akad. Wien, vol. Ixxix, 
p. 421, pl. i, fig. 3 : 2^YPE. — Hof-Mineralien-Cabinet, Vienna : 
Loc. — St. Florian, Steiermark. 

CAuiNATA, 11. B. Hinds, 1844 : " ColumheUa carinafa " : Zool. Voy. 
Sulphur, vol. ii, p. 39, pl. x, figs. 15-16: Type. — [?] : Loc. — 
Bodegas and San Diego, California. 

CAK.xEA, J. Hervier, Dec. 26, 1899 : " Columhella ligula, Dnclos, . . . 
Varietas /8. carnea, J. H." : Journ. Conchyl , vol. xlvii, p. 327 : 
Type. — [Coll. Societe de Marie, Lyons] : Loc. — Lifu, 

CAHNEATA [i.e., cariuafa], Hud.son [i.e.. Hinds, sp.]. 



PACE : ON THE COLUMBELLID^. 65 

CARNEOLA, J. Herviei', Dec. 26, 1899 : " CohimheUa albina, Kicner . . . 

Varietas rj. carneola, J. Hervier " : Jouru. Concliyl., vol. xlvii, 

pp. 323-4 : Type. — [Coll. Societe de Marie, Lyons] : Zoc. — Lifu 

(Goubin). 
CAKOLTN^, E. A. Smith, Sept. 19, 1876: '^ Columhdla caroling, 

sp. nov." : Joiirn. Linn. Soc, Zool., vol. xii, pp. .'i4l-2, pi. xxx, 

fig. 9: Type— Brit. Miis , London [Keg. No. 76.1.10.59 (!)] : 

Log. — Strong Is., Caroline Group. 
CAETWRiGHTi. J. C. Melvill. May 20, 1897 : " Columhella {Mitrella) 

CartivHghti, sp. nov. [Pace MS ] " : ]\Iem. Manchest. Soc, vol. xli, 

pp. 8-9, pi. vi, fig. 14: Type. — [Brit. Mus., London]: Loc. — 

'• Bahrein, Persian Gulf." 
CARTWRiGHTi, S. Pace [MS., = Melvill, sp.]. 
CASTAXEA [group of C. flava (Brug.)], P. L. Duclos [1846-58]: 

" C. \_ColomheHa] Flavida var. Castanea'''' : in Chenu, Illust. 

Conch., pi. iv, figs. 17-1 8 [no descr.] : TzPi?.— [?] : Loc.—\^^ 
CASTANEA, A. A. Gould, Jan. 1850 : " Columlella castanea [n.sp.] " : 

Proc. Boston Soc, vol. iii, p. 170 [no fig] : Trp^.— [U.S. ISTat. 

Mus., Washington] : Zoc. — Bio Janeiro. 
CASTANEA, G. B. Sowcrbv I [Aus. 14] 1832 : " Columhella 

castanea'": Proc. ZooL Soc, 1832, p. 118 [no fig.]: Type.—Q,o\\. 

Cuming [Brit. Mus., London] : Loc. — Real Llejos, C. America. 
CATENATA, G. B. Sowcrbv I [Sept.] 1844: '■'■Columhella catenata, 

nob.": Proc Zool. Soc, 1844, p. 52 [no fig.]: 2'rp^.— Coll. 

Cuming [Brit. Mus., London] : Loc. — [?] 
CAVEA, L. A. Reeve, Apr. 1859 : " ColimiheUa cavea^'' : Conch. Icon., 

sp. 203 : Type— Coll. Cuming [Brit. Mus., London (!)] : Loc.—[?] 
CEDo-NULLi, L. A. Reeve, May, 1859: '■^ Meta cedo-nulli'''' : Conch. 

Icon., Ileta., sp. 3 : Type. — Coll. Cuming [Brit. Mus., London (!)] : 

Loc.—m 

celebensis, Hinds [?] 

cebealis \^=C. Kraussi, Sby.] (P. Krauss), 1848: '■'■ Buccimim 

cereale Menke in lit." : Siidafr. Moll., p. 122, pi. vi, fig. 17 : 

Type. — [?] : Loc. — "In litore capense." 
CEEEALis, Menke [MS., = Krauss, sp.]. 

cerealis [=C. Kraussi, Sby.], L. A. Reeve, Nov. 1859: " Colum- 
hella cereaUs, Menke M.S.": Conch. Icon., sp. 118: Type. — Coll. 

Cuming [Brit. .\Ius., London] : Zoc — [?] 
cervixetta \=C. baccata, Gask.], P. P. Carpenter, Mar. 1857: 

'■^'i Columhella cervinetta, n.s." : Catal. Mazatlan Shells, sp. 618, 

p. 493 [no fig.] : Trp.ff.— Coll. Reigen [tablet 2360], Brit. Mus., 

London: Loc. — Mazatlan. 
CHLOROSTOMA, Petit [i.e., Sowerby, sp.]. 
CHLOEosTOMA, G. B. Sowerby i [Sept.] 1844: ^^ Columhella cJiloro- 

stoma, nob." : Proc Zool. Soc , 1844, p. 48 [no fig.] : Type.— Coll. 

Petit de la Saussaye [Mus. Rouen] : Loc. — [?] 
CHOAVA, L. A. Reeve, Apr. 1859 : " Columhella choava " : Couch. 

Icon., sp. 239: Type.— Coll. Cuming [Brit. Mus., London (?)] : 

Loc. — Auckland, N.Z. 

TOL. V. APRIL, 1902. 5 



()C PROCEKDINGS OF TDK MALACOI.OGICAL SOCIETT. 

CHHISOPSIS [sp. indet.], P. L. Duclos, 18:^5 [Apr. 1840]: ''Col 
Chrisopsis'^ : Hist. iiat. Coq. iiniv., pi. xiii, figs. 5-6 [uo dcscr.] : 
Tyj>e.—[?^ : Zoc— [?] 

CHKYSALLOiDKA, P. P. Carpenter, Feb. 186fi: ''? Ami/cJa cJ/ri/saUoidea, 
Cpr. n.s." : Proc. Calif. Acad., vol. iii, p. 223 [no fig.] ; TypK. — 
" iStatc Collection, No. 613": £nc. — San Pedro and !San Diego, 
California (J. G. Cooper). 

ciNciNNATA, E. V. Martens, 1880: "■ Columhella eincmnafa n." : in 
Mobius, Mecresfanna Mauritius, p. 248, pi. xx, fig. 14: TyPE. — 
[?Zool. Mus., Kiel] : Zee— Mauritius (Mcibius). 

fciNCTA, W. H. Dall, Aug. 1890 : " Mitromorpha cincta n.s." : Trans. 
Wagner Inst., vol. iii, p. 95, pi. iii, fig. 6 : TypE. — (Co-types) 
Mus. Wagner Inst , Philadelphia; U.S. Nat. INEus., Washington: 
Loc. — " Caloosahatchie Beds, on the Caloosahatchie Kiver." 
CINCTA (G. Montagu), 1803: ''[^fhicciniDn] cinctum [n.sp.] " : Test. 
Brit., pt. i, pp. 246-7, pi. xv, fig. 1 : Type.— GoW. Bryer: Loc— 
" On the shore near Weymouth." 
CLSCTA, Pulteney [i.e., Montagu, sp.]. 

ciNCTELLA, J. Hcrvier, Dec. 26, 1899 : " Columlella suhlmifi, 
Montrouzier . . . Varietas a eincteUa, J. K. " : Journ. Conchyl., 
vol. xlvii, p. 329 : Type.— [Coll. Societe de Marie, Lyons] : Loc. — 
Lifu. 

ciNGXTL.\TA, H. E. Anton, 1839: '' \_Columhena'] cingulata mihi " : 
Verzeichn. Conch., sp. 2850 [no fig.] : Type. — Coll. Anton : 

Z06'. — [?] 

fciNGULATA [group of C. olivoldea (Cantr.)], G. Seguenza, 1880: 

'■'■ Aphanitoma Grmci, Phil., Var. cingulata n." : Atti Accad. Pont. 

Lincei, ser. iii, vol. vi, p. 257, pi. xvi, fig. 19 : Type. — [?] : 

Loc. — Gallina. 
ciNNAMOMEA, J. Hcrvicr, Dec. 26, 1899 : " Columhella Peasei, v. 

Martens [Hervit-r, sp.], Varietas a. cinnamomea, J. Hervier " : 

Joiirn. Conchyl., vol. xh'ii, pp. 369-70, pi. xiv, tig. 9 : Type. — 

[Coll. Societe de Marie, Lyons] : Loc. — Lifu. 
ciRCULATA, J. Hervier, Dec. 26, 1899 : " Columhella consperm^ 

Gaskoin . . . Varietas e circulata, J. H " : Journ. Conchyl., 

vol. xlvii, p. 352 [no tig.] : Type. — [Coll. Societe de Marie, Lyons] : 

Zoc— Lifu. 
ciTHAKA, L. A. lleeve, Apr. 1859: '' ColumhcUa cithara''^ : Conch. 

Icon., sp. 230: Type.— QoW. Taylor [Brit. Mus., London (!)] : 

Loc.—m 

ciTiiARULA [ = C. harpifonniH, Sby], P. L. Duclos, 1835 [Apr. 1840] : 
" Colomhella Citharula'^ : Hist. nat. Coq. univ., pi. x, figs. 9-10 
[no descr.] : Type.—[?] : Zoc— [?]. 

CLANDESTINA, Forbcs [? MS., = Reeve, sp.]. 

CLANDKSTiNA [gTOup of C.oluoidea (Cantr.)] (L. A. Reeve), Mar. 1845 : 
Mitra clandcHtina, Forbes : Conch. Icon., Mitra, sp. 263 : Type. — 
Coll. Forbes: Loc.—[?] 



PACE : ON THE COLUMBELLIDiE. 67 

CLAKESCENS, J. Hei'vier, Dec. 26, 1899 : ^^ Columhella varians, Soweiby 

. . . Varietas «. darescens, J. H. " : Journ. Concliyl., vol. xlvii, 

p. 311 : Type. — [Coll. Societe de Marie, Lyons]: Loc. — New 

Caledonia. 
CLATHRA. A. Lesson, June, 1842: " C. \^Colu)nleUa~\ cJathra, Less.": 

Eev. Zool. Cuv. Soc, vol. v, p. 184 [no tig.]: Type. — [? Coll. 

Lesson] : Loc. — "lies Sandwich (Oalion)." 
CLATHRATA, J. Brazier [Feb.] 1877 : " Coliimhella {AnacMs) clathmta, 

n.sp." : Proc. Linn. Soc. Xew South Wales, vol. i, pp. 229-30 

[no fig.]: Type. — ' Chevert ' Coll. [Macleay Mus., Sydney, 

N.S.W. (!)] : Loc. — Katow, JS'ew Guinea. 
fcLATHRATA (F. Dujaixlin), 1835: ^^ Fusus clathratus. Duj." : Mem. 

Soc. geol. France, vol. ii, p. 294, pi. xx, fig. 6 : T'ype. — [?] : 

Log. — Faluns of Touraine. 
f CLATHRATA, H. B. Gcinitz, 1871-75: " C. \_ColumheTla\ clathrata 

Gein " : Palseontogr., vol. xx, p. 264, pi. lix, fig. 5 ; pi. Ixi, 

fig. 3: Type. — [?] : Loc. — "Im unteren Planer am Forsthause 

bei Plauen." 
f CLATHRATA, R. Tatc, Juuc, 1893: '■'■ ColnmheUa clathrata, Tate": 

Trans. E,. Soc. South Austral., vol. xvii, p, 220 [name only] : 

'J'ype. — [?] : Loc. — Tertiary: Gellibrand and Muddy Creek, 

Victoria. 
CLADsiLiA [group of C. spicula, Duel.], P. L. Duclos [1846-58]: 

" C. \_Colombella~] CJausilia'''' : in Chenu, Illust. Conch., pi. xvi, 

figs. 11-2 [nodescr.]: Trp^.— [?] : Loc.— \y'\ 
CLAUsiLiFORMis (L. C. Kicuer), 1834 : " Buccinum clatis Hi forme, 

Nobis " : Spec. gen. Coq. viv., Buccinum, sp. 48, pp. 49-50, 

pi. xiii, fig. 46 : Type. — Coll. Massena : Loc. — " Habite la 

Mediterranee, les cotes de Provence, et les iles d'Hieres " [?]. 
CLAVULUS (G. B. Sowerby i), 1833 [Apr. 16, 1834]: "■ Pleuro- 

toma clarulus'' : Proc. Zool. Soc, 1833, p. 134 [no fig.] : Type — 

Coll. Cuming [Brit. Mus., London]: Loc. — "In sinu Montijae 

Americae Centralis." 
CLEDONiDA, P. L. Duclos [1846-58] : " C. iColomhella'] CMonida'' : 

in Chenu, Illust. Conch., pi. xvii, figs. 17-8 [no descr.] : 

TYPE.-m-. Loc.—\y~\ 
cleta [sp. indet.], P. L. Duclos [1846-58]: "a iCohmheUa'] 

Clefa^^ : in Chenu, Illust. Conch., pi. xv, figs. 13-4 [no descr.]: 

TYPE.—m-. Loc.-m 

cocciNEA, T. di Monterosato, 1875 : Columhella {Mitrella) scripta 

(Linn.), " Var. 5, coccinea = Valuta Britei, (Chieregh.) Brus." : 

Nuova Eiv. Conch. Medit. [in Atti Accad. Palermo, n.s,, vol. v], 

p. 41 : Type. — [?] : Loc. — Mediterranean. 
cocciNEA [not used as a trivial name] (R. A. Philippi) : Buccinum 

Linnmi Payr,, Var. fy : Enum. Moll. Siciliae, vol. i, p. 225: 

TYPE.—m : Zoc7.— [Sicily.] 
coLLAEis, L. A. Reeve, Apr. 1859 : " Columhella collaris" : Conch. 

Icon., sp. 164: Type. — Coll. Cuming [Brit. Mus., London (!)] : 

Zoc— [?] 



68 PROCEKDINGS OF TH K MAT.ACOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

COLUMBELLAKIA (A. Scacflii), 1836: '■'■ Mitra Columhellar ia 'Nohis^^ : 
Cat. Conchvl. NeapoL, p. 10, figs. 12-3: :7'i7'£.— [?] : Loo.— 
Bay of Naples. 
] coLUMBELLiFORMis [i.e., Columhelloides~\, J. P. S. de Grateloup. 

fcoLUMBELLoiDES (B. fie Bastcrot), 1825 : " N. \_N'assa'] coliimhelloides. 
Nob.": Mem. Soc. Hist. nat. Paris, vol. ii, p. 49, pi. ii, fig. 6: 
T x I'E. -- \y CoW. Basterot] : Loo. — " Fossile a Bax, a Leognan, 
a Saiicats et dans la Touraine ; a Saint-Clement pres Angers et aux 
environs de Vienne." 

fcoLUMBELLOiDES (J. P. S. do Grateloup), 1840 [1847]: '' B. [Bucci- 
nmn\ coIumheUoides [Grat.] " : Concliyl. Terr. Tert. Adonr, 
pi. xxxvi, figs. 14, 21, 32, 34: Trp^.— [?] : Zoa.— " Dax, 
Saubrigues. Fal. bl., 2^ et., gr. inf." 

\coLVMBELLoiDES, A. d'Orbigny [= Grateloup, sp.], 1852: ^'■\_Coluin- 
bella] columbelloides, d'Orb., 1847. Buccinum columbelloides, 
Gratteloup [s?V], 1845" : Prodr. Paleont. stnitigr., vol. iii, 
p. 88 [no fig.] : Type. — [?] : Loc. — " Dax, Saubrigues ; Piemont, 
Turin." 
coLUMBULiE (S. Brusina), 1865 : " Mitra columhuJa: mihi " : Verhandl. 
zool.-bot. Gas. Wien, vol. xv, pp. 14-15 [no fig.] : Type. — ['? Coll. 
Brusina] : Loc. — Eagusa, Dalmatia. 

coMiNELLiEFOEMis, R. Tate, Dec. 1892 : " Colimihella cominell(dformis, 
spec, nov." : Trans. B. Soc. Soutb Austral., vol. xv, p. 126, pi. i, 
fig. 8 : TYPE.—\y Coll. Tate] : Loc.—'' Extending from Fowler 
Bay, St. Vincent Gulf, Cape Northumberland to Victoria." 

f COMMUNIS (T. A. Conrad), June, 1862 : Ainycla {Astyris) communis, 
n.sp. : Proc. Acad. Philad., 1862, p. 287 [no fig.] : Trp^.— [?] : 
Loc.—'' St. Mary's Biver, Md. [in the Blue Clay]." 

fcoMPLANATA, L, Bellardi, 1890: " Columlella {Mitrella) complanata, 
Bell." : Mem. Accad. Torino, ser. ir, vol. xl, p. 328, pi. ii, fig. 29 : 
Type. — Geol. Mus., Turin: Loc. — Upper Miocene: "Colli tor- 
tonesi, S. Agata fossili." 
COMPRESSA [i.e., conspersa], Gaskoin. 

fcoMPRESSTJLA, F. Sacco, 1890 : " Columlella {Ifitrelld) erythrostoma 

var. compressida Sacc. [ = var. 'A,' Bellardi]": Boll. Soc. geol. 

Ital., vol. ix, p. 223 : 'Type. — [Geol. Mus., Turin] : Loc. — Upper 

Pliocene (Astian). 
^COMPTA, L. Bellardi [ = Bronn, sp ], 1849 : " Columlella compta Bell." : 

!Mera. Accad. Torino, ser. ii, vol. x. pp. 242-3, pi. i, fig. 16 : Type. — 

['? Geol. ]\Ius., Turin]: Loc. — "Fossilo rai'issimo dei conglomerati 

delle Colle di Torino, e delle marne bigic del Tortonese." 
fcoMPTA (H. G. Bronn). 1832: "\_Fmm~\ comptus n." : Ergebn. 

Beisen Italien, vol. ii, p. 549 [no fig.] : Type. — [?] : Loc. — 

" Jiingerer Grobkalk" : Tabiano [ur. Parma]. 
COMPTA, C. E. Lischke, June 1873: " Columhella [y Mitrella] compta 

Lke.": Malak. Blatt., vol. xxi, p. 20 [no fig.]: Type.— [^ QoW. 

Lischke] : Loc. — Nagasaki, Japan. 



PACE : ON THE COLUMBELLIPS). 69 

CONCIKXA [= C.decipiens, C. B. Ad.] (C. B. Adams) [nom. prgeocc], 
Jan. 1845 : " Buccinwn concmnum " : Proc. Boston Soc, vol. ii, p. 2 
[no fig.] : TrPE. — [Coll. Adams, Amherst College, Mass.] : Loc. — 
Jamaica. 

coNCixxA, Broderip [& Sowerby]. 

CONCINNA (W. J. Broderip & G. B. Sowerby i) [May 24] 1833 : 
'^ Conus concinnus'^: Proc. Zool. Soc, 1833, pp. 53-4 [no fig.] : 
Typs. — Coll. Cuming [Brit. Mus., London]: Zoo. — G. of Cali- 
fornia. 

coNciNNA, W. Dunker [MS.]. 

CONCINNA (L. A. Reeve), Sept. 1846: ^^ Ric inula concinna^^ : Conch.. 
Icon., Ricinula, sp.35 : Tri'E. — Coll. Cuming [Brit. Mus., London] : 
Loc. — " Cagayan, Island of Mindanao, Philippines" (Cuming). 

CONCINNA, G. B. Sowerby i [1822] : " C. \_Colurnhella] concinna^^ : 
Genera Rec. & Foss. Shells, vol. ii (No. ix), pi. 248, fig. 8 : 

TYPE.—m-. Loc.—m 

CONCINNULA (J. C. H. Crosse), May, 1858 : Conus concinmdus, Crosse, 
n.n. for Conits coneinnus, Brod., non Sby., 1821 : Rev. & Mag. Zool., 
ser. II, vol. X, p. 200 : 1'ype. — [Brit. Mus., London] : Loc. — [G. of 
California.] 

fcoNiDEA, Sacco [Err. typ.]. 

fcoNiFOKMis, K. Martin, 1884 : " Columlella coniformis nov. spec." : 
Samm. geol. Mus. Leiden, vol. iii, pp. 117-8, pi. vi, fig. 118: 
Type. — Coll. Yan Dijk [Geol. Mus., Leyden] : Loc. — Ngembak, 
Java. 
CONIFORMIS, G. B. Sowerby i [Sept.] 1844: " Columhella coniformis 
nob." : Proc. Zool. Soc, 1844, p. 4y [no fig.] : Type. — Coll. Cuming 
[Brit. Mus., London] : Loc. — [?] 

]coNiGER [i.e., conigera], Martin. 

fcoNiGERA (K. Martin), 1884: '•'■ Fusus coni g er txoy. spec": Samm. 
geol. Mus. Leiden, vol. iii, p. 103, pi. vi, fig. 104 : Type. — Coll. 
Van Dijk [Geol. Mus., Leyden]: Loc. — JS'gembak, Java (Well- 
boring ' B '). 

fcoNoiDEA (J. P. S. de Grateloup), 1840 [1847] : " F. IFusufi] 
huccinoides. Bast. Var. C. conoidea " : Conchyl. Terr. Tert. Adour, 
pi xxiv, fig. 35 : Type. — [?] : Loc. — " Faluns bleus. — Marnes 
bleues coquillieres (miocene inferieur). . . . Bord., Plais., Anvers, 
Touraine." 
coNSANGuiNEA, G. B. Sowei'by iii, Dec. 1897 : " Columhella con- 
sanguinea, n.sp." : Append. Mar. Shells S. Africa, p. 11, pi. viii, 
figs. 6-7 : Type. — [Coll. Ponsonby, Brit. Mus., London] : Loc. — 
Pt. Elizabeth. 
coNSPERSA, J. S. Gaskoin, 1851 [Oct. 28, 1852]: "Columhella 
conspersa^' : Proc. Zool. Soc, 1851, p. 1 1 [no fig.] : Type. — Coll. 
Gaskoin : Loc. — [?] 
CONSPERSA [= Nassidse] (R. A. Philippi), Mar. 1849 : " Buccinum 
conspersiim Ph." : Zeitschr. Malak., vol. v, pp. 138-9 [no fig.] : 
2'ype. — ['?] : Loc — " In.suliE Canarise." 



70 rROCEEDINGS OF THE MALACOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

coxspiCTTA, C. B. Adams, July, 1852 : " Columhella conspicun Nov. 

sp." : Ann. Lye. New York, vol. v, pp. 307-8 [no tip;.] : Tri'i:. — 

[Coll. Adams, Amherst Coliei^'C, Mass.] : Loc. — Panama. 
CONTAMINATA, J". S. Gaskoin, 1851 [Oct. 28, 1852]: " CohnnheUa 

cotitaminafa" : Proc. Zool. Soc, 1851, pp. 7-8 [no fig.] : 'fypE. — 

Coll. Gaskoin : Loc. — [?] 
CONTAMINATA, Roeve [i.e., Gaskoin, sp.]. 
CONTRACTA (L. A. Keeve), Sept. 1846: ^'^ Ricinula contrada^^ : 

Condi. Icon., Ricinula, sp. 32: Type. — Coll. Cuming [Brit. Mus., 

London] : Loc. — '* Panama, and St. Elena, West Columbia " 

(Cuming). 
coNULus, H. D. do Blainville [i.e., Olivi, sp.]. 
CONULUS [?= C. scrijjfa (Linn.)] (G. Olivi), 1792 : " \^3furex'] conulus 

nobis " : Zool. Adriat., p. 154, pi. v, fig. 1 : Type. — [?] : Lnc. — 

" Si trova raro nel sodimento calcareo, die viene alia spiaggia." 
fcoNVEXULA, F. Sacco, 1890 : " Columhella {Orthurella) elongata [Bell] 

var. convexula Sacc. [= var. 'A,' Bellardi] " : Boll. Soc. geol. 

Ital., vol. ix, p. 224 : Type. — [Geol. Miis., Turin] : Loc. — 

Tortonian. 
]coBALLiNA \_= Colombclli7W~] (F. A. Quenstcdt), 1852: " Cassis coral - 

Una": Petrcfactenkunde, p. 435, pi. xxxv, tig. 1 : Type. — [?] : 

Loc. — Jurassic: Nattlieim. 
coKxNEA, L. C. Kiener [1841]: " Columhella cornea, Nobis": Spec. 

gen. Coq. viv., sp. 10, pp. 13-4, pi. iv, fig. 5 : Type. — Coll. De- 
le ssert : Loc.—[y'\ 

coRNicuLA (C. Linnanis), 1758: '■'■ Voluta cornicula" : Syst. Nat., 

lOth ed., vol. i, p. 731, sp. 362 : Type.-^ : Zoa— "Habitat in 

mari Mediterraneo." 
coiiNicuLA [ = Nassid?e] (G. Olivi), 1792: '■'\_Biiccinum'] corniculum 

nobis": Zool. Adriat., p. 144 [no fig.]: 'fYPE.—[^i'\: Loc. — 

Adriatic. 
coPNicuLATA [= C.scn'pta (Linn.)] (J. P. B. de Lamarck), Ang. 1822 : 

'■'■ Bnccinum corniculatum" : Hist. nat. Anim. s. Vert., vol. vii, 

p. 274 [no fig.]: H'ype. — Coll Lamarck: Loc. — [?] 
CORNICDLATA [group of C. scripta (Liun )] (A. Bisso), 1 826 : "P. \^Pur- 

pura] cor7iicidata (n.) " : Hist. nat. Europe merid., vol. iv, p. 168, 

fig. 88 : 1'ype. — Mus. Paris: Loc. — S.Europe. 
coRNiFOBMis [i.e., coniformis^, Sowerby. 
COEONATA [group of C. Versicolor, Sby ] P. L. ])uclos, 1835 [Apr. 

1840]: ^^ Col. Coronata" : Hist. nat. Coq. univ., pi. Aiii, figs. 

11-2 [no descr.]: Trp^.— [?] : Zoo.— ['?] 
^CORONATA [=C. Bronni, Mayer], G. Seguenza, 1880: "C. \^Colum- 

bella~\ coronata n.sp = C. tkiara Hoonies (non Bellardi)": Atti 

Accad. Pont. Lincei, scr. iii, vol. vi, p. 105, pi. xi, fig. 15 : Type. — 

[?] : Loc. — Tortonian: Benestare, Calabria. 
COKONATA, G. B. Sowerby i [Aug. 14] 1832 : " Columhella cornnala" : 

Proc. Zool. Soc, 1832, p. 114 [no fig.] : Type.— Coll Cuming 

[Brit. Mus., London] : Loc. — Gulf of Panama. 



PACE : ON THE COLITMBELLIP.'E. 71 

]coRRUGATA, L. Bellardi [in parte = Brocchi, sp.], 1849: " Columbella 
corrugata Bon. [MS.]": Mem. Acead. Torino, ser. ii, vol. x, 
pp. 236-7, pi. i, fig. 9: I'rp^.— [? Geol. Mus., Turin]: Loc— 
" Fossile non raro nolle sabbie gialle dell' Astigiano." 

]coRRVGATA, Bonelli [MS.]. 

fcoERUGATA (G. Broccbi), 1814 : " Buccinum corrugatum : nob. Buccinum 
stolatum. Ren." : Concb. Foss. Subapp., pp. G52-3, pi. xv, fig. 16 : 
Type. — [Mus. Milan]: Loc. — " Abita nell' Adriatico (lien.) [ex 
err ]. Fossile nel Piacentino." 

fcoRRUGATA, M. Hoemes, 1852 : " Columhella corrugata Bon." : 
Abhandl. geol. Reichsanst., vol. iii, p. 120, pi. xi, fig. 8 : Type. — 
(Co-types) Hof-Mineralien-Cabiuet, Vienna; Geol.-Reichs-Anst., 
Vienna ; Coll. Poppelack (Feldsberg) : Loc. — Steinabrunn ; 
Forebtenau. 
CORRUGATA (L. A. Reevo), Feb. 1847: '■'■ Buccinum corrugatum'''' : 
Concb. Icon, Buccinum sp. 110: Type. — Coll. Cuming [Brit. 
Mus., London] : Loc. — [?] 
cosTATA, P. L. Duclos [?= Valenciennes, sp.], 1835 [Apr. 1840]: 
•' Colombella Costata''' : Hist. nat. Coq. univ., pi. xii, figs. 1-2 
[no descr.] : TYPE.—m : Zoc— [?] 
COSTATA (W. H. Pease), 1860: '■'■ Engina costata [n.sp.] " : Proc. 
Zool. Soc, 1860, p. 142 [no fig.]: Type.—[;^: Zoc — Sand- 
wich Is. 
COSTATA, A.Valenciennes, 1833 [1832] : " Colomhella costata [Duclos 
MS.] " : in Humboldt & Boupland, Recueil Obs. Zool., vol. ii, 
pp. 331-2 [no fig.]: Type. — [?] : Loc. — "Habitat ad portum 
Acapulco." 
cosTELLATA, C. B. Adauis [?non Brod. & Sby., sp.], 1852 : Columhella 
costellata, Brod. : Ann. Lye. New York, vol. v, pp. 308-9 [no fig.] : 
Type. — [Amherst College, Mass.] : Loc. — Panama. 
COSTELLATA, W. J. Broderip & G. B. Sowerby i, 1829 : " Columhella 
costellata''' : Zool. Journ., vol. iv, p. 376 [no fig.] : Tyi'e. — Mus. 
Zool. Soc. : Loc.—\^^^ 
COSTELLATA, G. B. Sowcrby I [Aug. 14] 1832 : " Columhella 
costellata" : Proc. Zool. Soc, 1832, p. 118 [no fig.] : Type.—(^o\\. 
Cuming [Brit. Mus., London] : Loc. — Panama. 
costellifp:ka, W. H. Pease, Nov. 25, 1862: '■' Anachis costeUifera^^ : 
Proc. Zool. Soc, 1862, p. 279 [no fig.] : Trp£.— [?] : Loc— 
Pacific Islands. 
costulata, C. B. Adams, Jan. 1850: " Columhella costulata^'' : 
Contrib. Conch., vol. i, p. 58 [no fig.]: Type. — Amherst College, 
Mass. : Loc. — Jamaica. 

f costulata (P. Calcara), 1840: " i?. \_Buccinum'] costulatus. N." : 
Monogr. Clausil. &c. Collez. Gargotta, pp. 50-1 [no fig ] : Type. — 
Coll. Gargotta : Loc. — " JMel tufo calcareo di Montepeilegrino." 

•[costulata (F. J. Cantraine^, 1835 : " Fusus costulatus. — Nob." : 
Bull. Acad. Bruxelles, vol. ii, p. 393 [no fig.] : Trp^.— [?] : 
Loc. — " Dans les terrains tertiaires du Pelore." 



72 PROCEEDINGS OF THE MALACOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

fcosTULATA, A. Risso, 1826: "J/. [Jlitrclla'] costulata (X.)": Hist. 

nat. Europe mt'iid., vol. iv, p. 248, tig. (36: I'vpe. — Mus. Paris: 

Log. — Subfossil : S. Europe. 
COSTULATA, A. E. VcrriU [?non Cantraine, sp.], Nov. 1880: 

" Anachis costulata (Cant.) (= ColumbeUa llaliceeti Jeff.) " : 

Amer. Journ. Sci., ser. iii, vol. xx, p. 392 [name only] : Type. — 

[?] : Loo. — " Southern coast of New England." 
coSTVLiFERA [i.e., costcl/i/era], Pease 
fcKAssiLAisKis, L. Bollardi, 1890: " Columhella {Tetrastomella) crassi- 

lahris liell." : Mem. Accad. Torino, ser. ii, vol. xl, pp. 33;3-4, pi. ii, 

fig. 42: Type. — Geol. Mus., Turin: Zoi;.— "Colli torinesi, Val 

Ceppi." 
CKASsiLABKis, L. A. Rcove, Apr. 1859: ^^ Columhella crassilabris" : 

Conch. Icon., sp. 177 : Type. — Coll. Taylor [lirit. Mus., London, !)1 : 

Zoc.-[?] 
CRASSiLABRis [= C. mercutoria (Linn.)], Sowerby [MS ]. 
fcEATicuLATA, P. Doderlein, 1862: '■'■ \_Columl)ella~\ crat iculata noh.'" : 

Mioc. sup. Ital. Centr., p. 24 [name only] : Type. — Coll. Doder- 
lein : Toe. — Upper Miocene : Monte Gibio. 
fCREBEECosTATA, J. E. Teuison - Woods [June 16] 1879: ^^? ^soj)us 

crehrecostatus'' : Pi-oc. Linn Soc. New South Wales, vol. iv, p. 15, 

pi. iii, fig. 5 : Type. — [y] : Zoc. — Tertiary (probalaly Miocene) : 

" Muddy Creek, Western Victoria." 
j;csEBiiicosTATA [i.e., crehrecostata'], Tate [i.e., Ten.-Wds. sp.]. 
checi [i.e., greet], Philippi. 
CEENiPiCTA [group of (J.olhoidca (Cantr.)], P. Dautzenbcrg, 1889: 

'■'■ Mitrolumna olivoidea, Cantraine; var. crenipida, nov. var." : 

Result. Camp, scient. Prince Monaco, Fasc. i, p. 31, pi. ii, fig. 6: 

Type. — Coll. Dautzenberg : Loc. — " Plage de San Miguel 

[Azores] (d'Aguyar)." 
ciiENULATA [ = Nassida3] (J. G. Rruguiere) [1789] : '' Buccinum 

crenulatum ; Nob.": Ency Meth., Vers., vol. i, pp. 271-2 [no hg.] : 

TYPE.—\'i Coll. Hruguiere] : Zoc— [?] 
fcRKNULiFEKA, R. Tatc, Juuc, 1 893 : " [Columbel/a'] crenulifera, Tate" : 

Trans. R. Soc. South Austral., vol. xvii, p. 221 [name only] : 

Type. — ['?] : Zoc — Tertiary: Spring Creek, Victoria. 
CREPUSCULUM [sp. iudct.,- group of C. eximia, Rve.], L. A. Reeve, 

Apr. 1859 : " Columhella crepusculum " : Conch. Icon., sp. 231 : 

Type—Q,o\\. Taylor [Brit. Mus., London (!)] : Zoc— [?] 
CRiBRARiA (J. P. B. de Lamarck), Aug. 1822 : '•'■ Buccinuni cribrarium " : 

Hist. nat. Anim. s. Vert., vol. vii, p. 274 [no fig.] : Type. — Coll. 

Lamarck : Loc. — " Habite les mcrs de Java." 
CRiDSARiA, Linnaeus [i.e., Lamarck, sp.]. 
CKiBRARiA, A. d'Orbigny [? = Lamarck, sp.], 1845 : '■'■ Colombella 

cribraria — (d'Orb., 1840)": in Sagra, Hist. Isla Cuba, pt. ii, 

vol. V, p. 232 [no fig.] : Type. — [Brit. Mus., London] : Loc. — 

Cuba. 
CROCEA, J. Hervier, Dec. 26, 1899: ColumbeUa pardalina. Lam., var. 

crocea, Herv. : Journ. Conchyl., vol. xlvii, j). 307 : 'Type. — [Coll. 

Societe de Marie, Lyons] : Loc. — Lifu. 



PACE : ON THE COLUMBELLID-E. 73 

CROCOSTOMA, \_ = Engina~\ (L. A. Eeeve), Sept. 1846: " Jiicinula 

crocostoma" : Conch. Icon., Ricinula, sp. 40 : Type. — Coll. Cuming 

[Brit. Mus., Loudon]: Loc. — "Isle of Capul, Philippines" 

(Cuming). 
CEOSSEANA, Petit [i.e., Eecluz, sp.]. 
CEOSSE.VNA, C. Recluz, Nov. 15, 1851 : " ColomheUa crossiana, Eecluz " : 

Journ. Conchyl., vol. ii, p. 257, pi. vii, fig. 5: Type. — [? Coll. 

Crosse] : Loc. — Capri. 
CROSSIANA [i.e., Crosseana], Eecluz, 
CEUENTATA, 0. A. L. Morch, July, 1860 : '■'■ Mitrella [A^iachis) cmentata 

Murch": Malak. Bliitt., vol. vii, p. 95 [no fig.]: TrP£.— [?] : 

Loc. — Sonsonate. 
cuJiiNGi [group of C. spicula. Duel.], L. A. Eeeve, Feb. 1859 : 

'■' Cohimbella Cuming iV : Conch. Icon., sp. 156: Type. — Coll. 

Cuming [Brit. Mus., London (!)] : Log. — I. of Capul, Philippines. 
CUNEATA, Monterosato ['?]. 
cuNEAXiFOEMis, P. Pallarj, Oct. 25, 1900 : Columlella rustica, Linn., 

var. cuneatifonnis, Pallary : Journ. Conchyl., vol. xlviii, p. 278, 

pi. vi, fig. 17 : Type — [?] : Loc. — Arzeiv [Algeria]. 
fcuETA, L. Bellardi [? = Dujardin, sp.], 1849 : " ('olumheUa curta Bell. 

\_ = Bucciniim curtum, Duj.]" : Mem. Accad. Torino, ser. ii, vol. x, 

p. 236, pi. i, fig. 8: Type. — [?] : Loc. — " Fossile nell' arenaria 

serpentinosa, c nei conglomerati clel colle di Torino." 
\.CURTA, P. L. Duclos [? = Dujardin, sp.] [1846-58] : " C. [Colom- 

bella] Curta'' : in Chenu, Illust. Conch., pi. xxvii, figs. 17-8 

[no descr.] : Type.—[?] : Loc.—[_?^ 
fcuETA (P. Dujardin), 1835: '■' Biiccinu7)i curtum. Duj.": Mem. Soc. 

geol. France, vol. ii, p. 300, pi. xix, fig. 17 : Type.— [?] : Loc. — 

Faluns of Touraine. 
■\cvRTA, A. d'Orbigny [= Dujardin, sp.], 1852 : " [_Colmnhella] curta, 

d'Orb., 1847. Bnccinum curtum, J)vi]-AV(\.m, 1837": Prodr, Paleont. 

stratigr., vol. iii, p. 89 [no fig.] : Type. — ['?] : Loc. — " Env. de 

Tours." 
]cuRTA [= C. vittata, Stef. & Pant.], Stefani & Pantanelli [MS.]. 
fcuETANSATA, E. Tate, June, 1893 : " \_Columhella'] cnrtansata, Tate " : 

Trans. E. Soc. South Austral., vol. xvii, p. 220 [name only] : 

Type. — [?] : Loc. — Tertiary: Gellibrand and Muddy Creek, 

Yictoria. 
cuspiDATA, F. P. Marrat, Aug. 1877: " Columlella [Anachis) cuspi- 

data, n.s." : Quart. Journ. Conch., vol. i, p. 242 [no fig.] : 

Type.—I?'] : Loc.—W. Africa. 
cuviERi [= Nassidte] (B. C. Payraudeau), 1826: " Buccmnm 

Cuvieri. Nob.": Catal. Annel. & Moll. Corse, p. 163, pi. viii, 

figs. 17-8: Type. — Mus. Paris: Loc. — " Les golfes de Sagone, 

d'Ajaccio, de Valinco, de Tentilegne, de Santa-Manza." 
CYANEA \_=C. scripta (Linn.), var.], S. Chiereghini [MS.]. 
CYLiNDEiCA, J. Horvior, Dec. 26, lb99 : Columhella zelina, Duel., var. 

cyUndrica, Herv. : Journ. Conchyl., vol. xlvii, pp. 318-9 : Type. — 

[Coll. Societe de Marie, Lyons] : Loc. — Ouvea, New Caledonia. 



74 rnocKEBixr.s of the MALACOLOGICAL SOriKTY. 

fcYTHARA, p. Doderloin, 1802 : " \_Columhella] cythara noh. (C. harpula 
Miclit. var. mnj ) " : Mioc. sup. Ital. Ceiitr., p. 24 [name only] : 
Type. — Coll. l)ocleiiein : Loc. — Upper Miocene : Monte Gibio ; 
S. Agata. 
CYTHARoiDES [= C. Pecisei, Mart. & Langk ], W. H. Pease [MS.]. 

D.SDALA, H. Adams [Feb. 18] 1873: '■' MitreUa dmlala, sp. nov." : 
Proc. Zool. Soc , 187;5, pp. 205-6, pi. xxiii, fig. 2: Type. — Coll. 
Hargraves [Australian Mus., Sjxlney, i^.S.W. (!)] : Log. — New 
Hebrides. 

DALioLA, p. L. Duclos, 1835 [Apr. 1840]: ''Col.—BaJloW: Hist, 
nat. Coq. univ., pi. viii, tigs. 7-8 [no deser.] : Type. — ['?] : 
Zoc— [?] 

DALLi, E. A. Smith, Oct. 1880: '' Columhella {mtidella?) Dalli " : 
Ann. Nat. Hist , ser. v, vol. vi. p. 287 [no fig.] : Type. — Brit. 
Mus., London [!] : Loc. — Vancouver Is. 

DARAViNi, G. F. Angas, March, 1877: Columhella Larwini [n.n. for 
C. lentiginosa, Rve., non Hinds] : Proc. Zool. Soc, 1877, p. 181 [no 
fig.]: Type.— GoW. Taylor [Brit. Mus., London (!)] : Loc— 
" Morton B., Australia." 

DAUTZENBEEfii [?= C. Iceta, Braz.], J. Hervier, Dec. 2G, 1899 : " Colum- 
hella Dautzunbergi^ J. Hervier": Journ. Conchyl., vol. xlvii, 
pp. 377-9, pi. xiv, fig. 7 : Type. — [Coll. Societe de Marie, Lyons] : 
Loc — Lifii. 

DKCiriENs, C. B. Adams, Jan. 1850 : " C. \_CohmibelJa] decipiens [n.n. 
for Biiccinum concinnum, C. B. Ad.] " : Contrib Concli., vol. i, 
p. 55 : Type. — [Coll. Adams, Amherst College, Mass.]: Loc. — 
[Jamaica]. 

DEcoLLATA, S. Brusiua, 1865: " Columlella decoUata mihi, in sched. 
et in col." : Verhandl. zool.-bot. Ges. Wicn, vol. xv, pp. 10-1 [no 
fig.]: Type. — [? Coll. Brusina] : Loc. — Dalmatia. 

DECOLOii, A. A. Gould, Sept. 1860: " ColumhAla ^Amycla\ decolor'''' : 
Proc. Boston Soc, vol. vii, p. 336 [no fig.]: Type. — [U.S. Nat. 
Mus., Washington] : Log. — Loo Choo. 

DECORA [?=C'. Bigglesi, Braz.], J. Hervier, Dec. 26, 1899: " Cohim- 
hella scalpta, live., var. decora, Herv." : Journ. Conchyl.. vol. xlvii, 
pp. 315-6: Type. — [Coll. Societe de Marie] : Log. — Lifu. 
fDEcussATA, M. Cossmauu, 1893: '■'■ Zajra decussata, nov. sp." : Ann. 
Soc. malac Bclgique, vol. xviii, pp. 14-5, fig. 12: I'ype. — (Co- 
types) Coll. Chevalier [figured specinum] ; Coll. Cossraaun : Log. — 
Eocene: Parnes; Uauteville [nr. Paris]. 
fDECUssATA [group of C. oUcoidca (Cantr.)], (F. Dujardin), 1835: 
'■'■ M'dra decussata. Duj." : "Mem. Soc. geol. France, vol. ii, p. 301, 
pi. XX, fig. 13: Type. — Coll. Deshaycs : Loc. — Faluns: Touraine. 

DKCUSSATA, G. B. Sowcrbj I [Sept.] 1844: " Coluntbella decussata, 
nob." : Proc. Zool. Soc, 1844, p. 51 [no fig.] : Type. — Coll. Cuming 
[Brit. Mus., London] : Loc. — "Australia, G. Humphrey." 

DEFOPMis [Ij. k.\iQQ\{i), Oct. 1856: '' Hi c inula deformis'^ : Conch. 
Icon., Ricinula, sp. 44 : 2'ype. — Coll. Cuming [Brit. Mus., 
Loudon] : Loc. — [?] 



PACE : ON THE COLUMBELLID.E. 75 

fDEGRANffEi, A. Degrange-Touzin, May, 1895 : " Cohimlella Degrangei 

Dollfus et Daixtzemberj;- \jic~\ " : Act. Soc. Linn, Bordeaux, 

vol. xlvii, pp. 383-4 [no Hg.] : Txpe. — [? Coll. Degrange] : Lot'. — • 

Falvms : 8alies-de-Be;irn. 
]deguangei, G. Dollfus & P. Dautzenberg [MS., = Degrange-Touzin, 

sp]. 
DELiCATA, L. A. Reeve, Apr. 1859 : " ColumheUa deltcata'^ : Conch. 

Icon., sp. 171 : Iype. — Coll. Cuming [Brit. ]\[us., London] : 

Loc. — Guatemala. 
DELICATA, Keuss [i.e., Eeeve, sp.]. 
DENsiLiNEATA, P. P. Carpenter, July, 1864: ^'■'i Nitidella demilinfidta 

[n sp.] " : Ann Xat. Hist., ser. in, vol. xiv, p. 48 [no fig.] : 

Type. — Smithsonian Inst., Washington : Loo. — Cape St. Lucas 

(J. Xantus). 
DENTictJLATA, P. L. Duclos, 1835 [Apr. 1840]: " Col. — Benticu- 

lata''^ : Hist. nat. Coq. univ., pi. ix, figs. 3-4 [no descr.] : 

TYPE.—\'i^ : Zo(7.— [?] 
DENTiouLATA, Sowerby [?]. 
DER3IEST0IDEA, Kicncr [i.e., Lamarck, sp.]. 
DEKMESToiDEA (J. P. B. de Lamarck), .Aug. 1822 : " Bucclnnm dermes- 

toideum " : Hist. nat. Anim. s. Vert., vol. vii, p. 275 [no tig.] : 

Type.— QoW. Lamarck : Zoc— [?] 
DEEMESToiDES [i.e., dermestoidea'\, Angas [i.e., Lamarck, sp.]. 
DEBMESToiDES i.e., dermestoideo], Lamarck. 
DEPMESTOiDES [i.e., dermestoide(i\, Sowerby [i.e., Lamarck, sp.]. 
fDEETOCEASSTJLA, F. Sacco, 1890: '■'■ColumheUa {Anachis) semicostata 

Sacc. var. dertocrasmla Sacc. [= var. 'A,' Sacc.]": Boll. Soc. 

geol. Ital., vol. ix, p. 225 : Type. — [?Geol. Mus., Turin] : Loc. — 

[Upper Miocene : " Colli tortonesi, Stazzano."] 
DESHA YESi [? = C. turtuvina, Lam.], J. C. H. Crosse, June, 1859 : 

" ColumheUa Desliayesii, Crosse " : Journ. Conchyl, vol. vii, 

pp. 382-3. pi. xiv, fig. 4 : Type. — Coll. Crosse: Loc. — "Habitat 

in Oceania ? " 
DESHATESi, De Foliu [MS.]. 
BKSMiA, J. Hervier, Dec. 26, 1899 : " ColumheUa desmia, J. Hervier": 

Jonrn. Conchyl., vol xlvii, pp. 343-5, pi. xiii, fig. 3 : Type. — [Coll. 

Societe de Marie, Lyons] : Loc. — Lifu. 
fDEXTKOESA, J. Prestwich, 1871 : " C. \_CohimheUa'\ inrersa, var. 

dextrorsa \_ = Terehra canalifs, Wood.]" : Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, 

vol. xxvii, p. 145 [name only] : Type. — [Coll. S. Wood] : Loc. — 

[Coralline Crag : Gedgrave.] 
BiAPHANA, A. E, Verrill, June, 1882: " Astgris diapJmna Verrill, 

sp. nov., Astyris rosacea (pars) Yerrill, Proc. [U S ] Nat. Mus., iii, 

p. 408 {non Gould)": Trans. Connect. Acad., vol. v, pp. 513-5, 

pi. Iviii, fig. 2: Tr/'^.— [?]: Zoc— " Ofe Martha's Vineyard 

[Mass.] ... off Chesapeake Bay." 
DIAST.4TA, J. Hervier, Dec. 26, 1899: ColumheUa nanisca, Herv., var. 

diadata, Herv. : Journ. Conchyl., vol. xlvii, p. 366 : Type. — [Coll. 

Societe de Marie, Lyons] : Loc. — Lifu. 



76 PROCEEDINGS OF THE MALACOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

DICHROA, G. B. Sowerby i [Sept.] 1844: ^^ Columiella dichroa, nob.": 

Proc. Zool. Soc, 1844, p. 50 [no fig.]: Type. — Coll. ISowerby : 

Loc. — St. Vincent's [W. Indies] (L. (iuilding). 
DicoMATA, W. H. Dull, June, 1889: " C. [ColumbeUa'] moleculina. 

Duel, var., dicomata, ])all [n.var.] " : Bull. Mu.s. Harvard, 

vol. xviii, p. 189: 7'r/'£. -' Blake ' Coll. [U.S. Nat. Mus., 

Washington]: Loc. — Key West (Hemphill;. 
DiCTUA, J. E. Tenison- Woods, 1879 : " Cohimhella dictua. n.s." : 

Proc. 11. Soc Tasmania, 1878, pp. 34-5 [no fig.] : Type. — [? Coll. 

Atkinson, Nat. Mus. Victoria, Melbourne] : Loc. — N. Tasmania. 
DiGGLEsi, J. Brazier, Dec. 1874: '■'■ Columbella {Anachis) dic/c/lesi" : 

Proc. Zool. Soc, 1874, p. 671, pi. Ixxxiii, figs. 11-12. Type. — 

Coll. Brazier: Xoc — Fitzroy I., N.E. Australia. 
DiGiTALE, A. Lesson, June, 1842: " C. \^ColumheUa~\ digitale, Less." : 

liev. ZooL Cuv. Soc, vol. v. p. 186 [no fig.]: Type.—[^^ Coll. 

Lesson] : Loc. — Sandwich Is. 
■j-DiJKi, Iv. Martin, 1884 : " Columbella Bijlci nov. spec." : Samm. 

gaol. Mus. Leiden, vol. iii, pp. 116-7, pi. vi, fig. 117 : Type. — 

[Geol. Mus., Leyden] : Loc. — Ngembak, Java (Well-boring ' B'). 
DiLUTA, J. Hervier, Dec. 26, 1899: Columbella conspersa, Gask., var. 

dilida, Herv. : Journ. Conchyl., vol. xlvii, p. 351 : Type. — [Coll. 

Soeiete de Marie, Lyons] : Loc. — Lifu. 
DiMiNDTA, C. B. Adams, July, 1852 : " Columbella dimimita. Nov, 

sp." : Ann. Lye. New York, vol. v, p. 309 [no fig.] : Type. — 

Amherst College, Mass. : Loc. — Panama. 
DiscoMATA [i.e., dicomata'], Dall. 
-\discops [=C KUpsteini, Mich.], L. Bellardi \jion Deshayes], 1849 : 

" Columbella dincors Desh." : Mem. Accad. Torino, ser. ii, vol. x, 

pp. 229-30, pi. i, fig. 1: Trp^.— [?] : Zoc— " Possile nell' 

arenaria serpentinosa del colle di Torino." 
DiscoRS \_= C. punctata (Brug.)], G. P. Deshayes [?= Gmelin, sp.], 

1844 : Colombella discors (Gmel.), = C. semipunctata^ Lam. : m 

Lamarck, Hist. nat. Auim. s. Vert., 2nd ed., vol. x, p. 269 [no 

fig.] : Type. — Coll. Lamarck : Loc. — " Habite sur les cotes 

orientales de I'Afrique." 
Djscoiis [sp. indet.] (J. F. Gmelin) [1790] : " [ Voluta'] discors " : in 

Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., 13th ed., p. 3455 [no fig.] : Type. — [?] : 

Loc— I?] 
DissERENANs, J. Hcrvier, Dec. 26, 1899: Columbella procellarum, 

Hei'v., var. disserenans, Herv. : Joum. Conchyl., vol. xlvii, p. 350 : 

Type. — [Coll. Societu de Marie, Lyons] : Loc. — Lifu. 
DissiMiLis, W. Stimpson, Dec. 1851: '■^Columbella dissimilis" '. 

Proc. Boston Soc, vol. iv, p. 114 [no fig.] : Tyi'e. — [?] : Loc. — 

Bay of Fundy. 
fDJocDJocAuxiE [? = C. BandongeHsis, Mart.], K. Martin, 1884: 

" Columbella Ljocdjocartae nov. spec." : Samm. geol. Mus. Leiden, 

vol. iii, pp. 114-5, pi. vi, fig. 115: 'Type — [Geol. Mus., 

Leyden] : Loc. — Djokdjokarta, Java. 



PACE : ON THE COLUMBELLID.^. 



77 



fDOLioLUM, L. Bellardi, 1890: '^ Columlella {3Iacrurella) doliohirn, 
Bell." : Mem. Accad. Torino, ser. ii, vol. xl, pp. 338-9, pi. ii, 
fi?,'. 55 : Type. — Geol. Mus., Eome (Coll. Michelotti) : Loc. — 
TMiddle Miocene : " Colli torinesi. Villa Forzano." 

DOLioLUJi, C. Tapparone-Canefi-i, Jan. 24, 1877 : " Columlella {Atilia) 
doliolmn Tapp. Can." : Ann. Mus. Civ. Genova, vol. ix, p. 280 
[no fig.] : Type. — [? Mus. Genoa] : Loc. — Sorong Is., N.W. New- 
Guinea. 

DORA. Semper [?]. 

DOEi^ [? = C. hlanda, Sbv.], A. Issel, 1866: ^^ ColxmhelJa Borm, 
Issel " : Mem Accad. Torino, ser. ii. vol. xxiii, pp. 395-6, pi. i, 
figs. 3-4 : TYPE.—m : Loc.—'' Bender-Abbas," Persian Gulf. 
]dormitor \_= Conorhis] (G. B. Sowerby i) [1823]: '' \_Conus] 
Dormitor " : Genera Bee. & Foss. Shells, vol. ii, (No. xvi), pi. 267, 
fig. 8 : TYPE.—m : Zoc— Barton. 

DORMITOR, G. B. SoTverby i [Sept.] 1844 : " Columlella Dormitor, 
nob." : Proc. Zool. Soc, 1844, pp. 52-3 [no fig.]: Type.— GoW. 
Gray [Brit. Mus., London (!)] : Loc. — St. Vincents [W. Indies] 
(L. Guilding). 

DORSATA, G. B. Sowerby i [Aug. 14] 1832: " ColumheUa dorsafa'' : 
Proc. Zool. Soc, 1832, p. 120 [no fig.]: Type.— QoW. Cuming 
[Brit. Mus., London] : Loc. — I. of Muerte, B. of Guayaquil. 

DORSUosA, A. A. Gould, Sept. 1860 : " Colunihella {Anachis) 
dorsuosa'" : Proc. Boston Soc, vol. vii, pp. 333-4 [no fig.]: 
Type. — [U.S. Nat. Mus., Washington] : Loc. — Hong Kong. 

DREYFUsi, "W. TCobelt, 1893 : ColumheUa terpsi chore. Shy., var. 
Breyfnsi, Kob. : in Martini .& Chemnitz, Conch. Cab., pp. 61-2, 
pi. viii, fig. 7: Type. — Coll. Dreyfus: Loc. — Molluccas. 

DUBiA, L. A. Reeve [i.e., Sowerby, sp.]. 

DUBiA (G. B. Sowerby i), 1842 : " Stromhux duhius " : Thes. Conch., 
Stromhus, sp. 19 : Type. — Coll. Cuming [Brit. Mus., London (!)] : 
Zoc— [?] 

■DucLOSiANA, A. d'Orbiguy, 1845 : " Colombella duclosiana. — (d'Orb., 
1S40)": in Sagra, Hist. Isla Cuba, pt. ii, vol. v, p. 232, pi. xxi, 
figs. 31-3 : TYPE.—\Bx\t. Mus., London] : Zoc— St. Thomas 
and Jamaica. 

DUCLOSIANA, G. B. Sowei'bv i [Sept.] 1844 : " Columlella Ducloxi'ana. 
nob.": Proc. Zool. Soc. 1844, p. 48 [no fig.]: Type.— Coll. 
Cuming [Brit. Mus., London] : Loc. — " Coast of Malacca." 
•j-DXiJARDiNi (M. Hoernes), 1854 : " Turhinella Dujardini Horn. [n.n. 
for Colmnhella Jilosa, Duj.]" : Abhandl. geol. Reichsanst., vol. iii, 
pp. 301-2, pi. xxxiii, fig. 9 : Type. — Hof-Mineralien-Cabinet, 
Vienna: Loc. — Steinabrunn. 
^DUJARDI^'I, M. Hoernes [MS. {not 1854), = R. Hoernes & Auinger, sp ]. 
•j-DUJARDiNi, R. Hoernes & M. Auinger, Dec. 31, 1880: " ColumheUa 
{Anachis) Dujardini M. Hoern. (in coll.)": Abhandl. geol. 
Reichsanst., vol. xii, p. 99, pi. xi, figs. 17-8 : Type. — Hof- 
Mineral.-Cab., Vienna: Loc. — Lapugy. 



78 PROCEEDINGS OF THE MALACOLOGICAL SOCIKTY. 

fDTTMASi, M. Cossmann, Oct. 1901 : " Scabrella Dumasi, nov. sp." : 
Essais Paleoconch.. pt. iv, p. 255, pi. x, figs. 19-20 : Type. — 
Coll. Co.ssmann : Loc. — Tortonian : " Saubrigues (Laiides)." 

DUNKERi, G. W. Tryon. jun. [July 18] 1883: " Columhella \_Mitrell(i] 
Dunkeri, Tryon [n n. for Ami/cla varians, Dkr.] " : Man. Conch., 
vol. V, p. 129, pi. xlix, fig. 15: I'vi'e. — [?] : Loc. — [Decima, 
Japan.] 

DUPONTifL. C. Kiener) [1849-50] : " Comis Dupontii, Nobis " : Spec, 
gen. Q>0(\. viv., Contis, sp. 240, p. 273, pi. Ixi, fig. 2 : I'i'pe. — 
Coll. Dupont : Zoc.—[?] 

DYsoNi [? = C. mercatoria (Linn.)] L. A. Reeve, Oct. 1858 : '* Col/tm- 
hella Di/so)ii " : Conch. Icon., sp. 92: Tr/-/:. — Coll. Cuming 
[Brit. Mus., London (!)] : Loc. — Honduras. 

EBENUM, E,. A. Philippi [Dec] 1868: " ColumhcUa Ebenum Ph.": 

Malak. Bliitt., vol. xv, p. 223 [no fig.] : Trp^.— [?] : Loc— 

" Costa del Algarrobo, Isla blanca [Magellan]." 
fEBURNEA, P. Doderlein, 1862: '^ [_Colimbella^ e b iirne a noh.^^ : Mioc. 

sup. Ital. centr , p. 24 [name only] : 2'ype. — Coll. Doderlein : 

Loc. — Uy)per Miocene : Monte Gibio. 
ECHiNATA (L. A. Reeve), Oct. 1856 [? 1846] : " JRicimda pelunata " : 

Conch. Icon., Ricinula, sp. 54 : Type. — Coll. Cuming [Biit. Mus., 

London] : Loc. — [?] 
\edonida [sp. indet.], P. L Duclos, [1846-58]: " C. [Colombel/a'] 

J^donida'' : in Chenu, Illust. Conch., pi. xxvii, figs. 1-2 [no descr.] : 

Type.—I?^: Zoc.-[?] 
EGENA, J. Hervier, Dec. 26, 1899: CohimbeUa Dautzcnhergi, Herv., 

var. egena, Herv. : Journ. Conchyl., vol. xlvii, p. 379 : Type. — 

[Coll. Societe de Marie, Lyons] : Loc. — Lifu. 
EGEKiA, P. L. Duclos [1846-58]: " C. [ColombeJJa'] Ffjeria'' : in 

Chenu, Illust. Conch., pi. iv, figs. 19-20 [no descr.] : 2'ype. — [?] : 

Loc—l?] 
ELATA, L. A. Reeve, Feb. 1859: " Columhella elafa'^: Conch. Icon., 

sp. 155 : Tyi'e. — Coll. Cuming [Brit. Mus., London (!)] : 

Zoc— [?] 
ELECTONA, P. L. Duclos, 1835 [Apr. 1840] : " Col. — Electona" : Hist, 

nat. Coq. univ., pi. ix, figs. 11-2 [no descr.] : Type.—[?^ : 

Loc- [?] 
ELECTROiDEs, L. A Rocvc, Oct. 1858: "Columhella electroides" : 

Conch. Icon., sp. 72 : Type — Coll. Cuming [Brit. Mus., 

London (!)]: Zoa.— [?] 
ELEGANS, H. Adams, 1860 : " Alcira elegans, 11. Adams " : Proc. Zool. 

Soc, 1860, p. 451 [no fig.]: Type.— QoW. Cuming [Brit. Mus., 

London] : Loc. — Natal. 
ELEGANS, W. H. Dall, Nov. 2, 1871: '' NitideUa elcfjans, n.s." : 

Araer Journ. ('onch., vol. vii, p. 116 [no fig.] : Type, — [?] : Loc. — 

Panama (T. Bridges). 
elegans (J. E. Gray I, 1839: " Engina elegans''': Zool. Bcechey's 

Voy., p. 113 [no fig]: Type. — [Brit. Mus., London]: Loc. — 

"Inhab. Atlantic Ocean." 



PACE : ON THE C0LtrMBELLIDJ5. 79 

fELEGANS (H. C. Lea), Jan. 20, 1841 : "J/". [J///m] elegans [n.sp.J " : 

Amer. Joiirn. Sci., vol. xl, p. 102, pi. i, fig. 22: Type. — [?] : 

Loc. — Eocene : Claiborne, Alabama, 
f ELEGANS, G, Seguenza, 1880: " C. \^ColumheUa~\ elegans n sp. " : 

Atti Accacl. Pont. Lincei, ser. iii. vol. tI, pp. 259-60 [no tig.] : 

Type. — [?] : Zoc— Astian: Gallina. 
ELEGANS, G. B. Sowerby i [Aug. 14] 1832 : " ColumheUa elegmis'''' : 

Proc. Zool. Soc, 1832, p. 114 [no fig.]: Type.— CoM. Cuming 

[Brit. Mus., London] : Loc. — Guacamayo, C. America. 
ELEGANS \_ = Engina] (W. Thompson), May, 1845 : " Triton elegans, 

Thompson": Ann. Nat. Hist., vol xv, p. 317, pi. xix, fig. 1 : 

Type. — [Mus., AiTaagh] : Loc. — " Portmarnock, on the Dublin 

coast" (Dr. Farran) [V]. 
ELEGANTissiMA, Araclas [?]. 

ELEGANTDLA [gToup of C. Marquesa, Gask.], "W. Dunker [MS.]. 
ELEGANTULA, 0. A. L. Mocrch, 1860: " Mitrella {Astyns) elegnntula 

Morch [n.n. for C. pulcheUa, Sby., non Kien.] " : Malak. Blatt., 

vol. vii, p. 94 [no fig.] : Type. — [?] : Log. — Sonsonate. 
JELEVATA (I. Lea) [Dec] 1833 : " F. \_Fasciolaria^ elevata " : Contrib. 

GeoL, p. 143, pi. V, fig. 143: Type — [QoW. Lea]: Loc — 

Claiborne, Ala. 
fELONGATA, L. Bellardi, 1849 : " Columlella elongata Bell." : Mem. 

Accad. Torino, ser. ii, vol. x, pp. 241-2, pi i, fig. 15 : Type. — [?] : 

Loc. — " Fossile . . . delle marne bigie del Tortonese." 
ELONGATA, E. Bucquoy, P. Dautzenberg, and G. Dollfus, Aug. 1882 : 

Columlella scripta (Lin.), var. elongata, B., D., & D. : Moll. mar. 

Eoussillon, vol. i, p. 75, pi. xiii, figs. 3-4: Type. — [?] : Loc. — 

" Cotes de Barbarie." 
fELONGATA (J. P. 8. de Grateloup), 1840 [1847]: "5. lBuccinum~\ 

columbello'ides. Grat. Var. A, elongata": Conchyl. Terr. Tert. 

Adour, pi. 36, fig. 32 : Type. — [?] : Loc. — Saubrigues, Dax. 
ELONGATA, J. Hervier, Dec. 26, 1899 : ColumheUa marqticsana, Gask , 

var. elongata, Herv. : Journ.. Conchyl., vol. xlvii, p. 328 : Type. — 

[Coll. Societe de Marie, Lyons] : Loc. — New Caledonia. 
elongata, Lamarck [?]. 
ELONGATA, R. A. Philippi, 1836: ColumheUa rustica, Lamk., var. y3. 

elongata, mihi : Enum. Moll. Siciliae, vol. i, p. 228, pi. xii, fig. 11 : 

Type.-\J'] : Zoo.— Sicily. 
elongatula, J. Hervier, Dec. 26, 1899: ColumheUa pardaHna, Lam., 

var. elongatula, Herv. : Journ. Conchyl., vol. xlvii, p. 306 : Type. — 

[Coll. Societe de Marie, Lyons] : Loc. — I. of Pines, New Caledonia. 
EMACiATA [group of C. lachryma (Rve.)], J. Hervier, Dec. 26, 1899 : 

ColumheUa pinguis. Herv., var. emaciata, Herv. : Journ. Conchyl., 

vol. xlvii, pp. 385-6 : Type. — [Coll. Societe de Marie, Lyons] : 

Loc. — Llfu. 
EMAKGiNATA, L. A. Eccve, Apr. 1859: ^'ColumheUa emarginata" : 

Conch. Icon., sp. 190: Type. — Coll Cuming [Brit. Mus., London (^!)]: 

Xoc.-[?] 



80 PROCEEDINGS OF THE MALACOLOGICAL SOCIETY-. 

fEMBRTONALis, 0. Bocttp^ci' ("extv. 1901] : " Colunihella {Nifidella) 

embnjonalis n.sp." : Yerhandl. Vcr. Hermannstadt, vol. li, [extr.] 

p. Ifi [no tig.] : Type. — [? Coll. Boettger] : ioc — Middle Miocene : 

" Kostej : Tarau ungurului." 
fEMiNENTicosTATA, F. Sacco, 1890: '' Cohimhclla {Thiarella) thiara 

Brocch. var. emhienticodata Sacc. [= var. 'A,' Bellardi] " : Boll. 

Soc. geol. Ital, vol. ix, p. 225 : Type. — [Geol. Mus., Turin] : 

Loc. — Piacenzian and Tortonian. 
ENCAUSTicA, L. A. Bcevc. Apr. 1858: " CohimhelJa encaustica^' : 

Conch. Icon., sp. 56: Type. — Coll. Cuming [Brit. Mus., London (?)] : 

Loc.—'' Gulf of California." 
EPAMELLA, P. L. Duclos [1846-58]: " C. [^Cohmhelln'] EpamelW : 

in Chenu, Illnst. Conch., pi. v, figs. 19-20 [no descr.] : 

Trp^.— [?] : Zoa.— [?] 
EPiDELiA, P. L. Duclos [1846-58]: " C. [Cohmhelln] Epidclia'' : 

in Chenu, Illust. Conch., pi. xxv, figs. 17-8 [no fig.] : Type. — 

[?] : Loc.-m 
epidbomidea (J. C. Melvill), Oct. 1894: '' Encjina ejndromidea, 

n.sp." : Proc. Malac. Soc. London, vol. i, p. 162, fig. : Type. — 

Brit. Mus., London : Loc. — Bombay. 
\erebia [sp. indct.], P. L. Duclos [1846-58]: " T'. IColomlella] 

Erebm" : in Chenu, Illu.st. Conch., pi. xxvii, figs. 13-4 [no 

descr.]: Type.-[?']: Zoc— [?] 
fERECTA (T. H. Aldi'ich), June 24, 1895: " Sipho erecta, nov. sp." : 

Bull. Amer. Paleont., vol. iv, p. 65, pi. iv, fig. 7 : Type. — Coll. 

Aldrich: Zoc,—" Woods Bhiff, Ala." 
fERYTHEOSTOMA, L. Bellardi [Bonelli MS.], 1849 : " Columhella 

erj/fhrostoma Bon. [MS.] " : Mem. Accad. Torino, ser. ii, vol. x, 

pp. 233-4, pi. i, figs. 4-5 : Type — [? Geol. Mus., Turin] : Zoc— 

" Fossile nelle sabbie gialle dell' Astigiana." 
^ERYTHROSTOMA, Bonclli [MS., = Bellardi, sp.]. 
EssTNGTONENsis, L. A. B,eeve, Apr. 1859 : " Columhella E-i-ifnff- 

tonensis'''' '. Conch. Icon., sp. 174: Type. — Coll. Cuming [Brit. 

Mus., London] : Loc. — " Pt. Essington, Australia." 
eufulgurans, J. C. Melvill & R. Standen, July 1, 1899: Colum- 

bella fu/ffurans, Jjam., "var. a, eufulgurans^': Journ. Linn. Soc, 

Zool., vol. xxvii, p. 160 : Type. — [?] : Zoc. — Torres Straits. 
EURYTOiDES (P. P. Carpenter), July, 1864: *' Truncaria eurytoides 

[n.sp.] " : Ann. Nat. Hist., ser. iir, vol. xiv, pp. 47-8 [ no fig.] : 

Type. — Smithsonian Inst., Washington : Loc. — Cape St. Lucas 

(J. Xantus). 
EU-STOMA [? = C. ligiila, Duel.], r. Jousseaurae, Dec. 1, 1876: 

'■'■ Fyrene euitomus'^ : Bull. Soc. zool. France, vol. i, pp. 266-7, 

pi. V, figs. 3-4 : Type. — [Coll. Jousseaurae] : Loc. — [?] 
EUTERPE, J. C. Melvill, 1893 : " Columhella {Mifrella) Euterpe, 

sp. nov.": Proc. Manchester Soc, ser. iv, vol. vii, pp. 5-6, pi. 1, 

fig. 9 [pi. " 2 " in text] : Type.— Biit Mus., London [!] : Loc— 

Bombay. 



PACE : ON THE COLUJIBET.LTD^. 81 

fExiLis (A. Bell), May, 1871 : " Terehra exilis, A. Bell, n.sp." : Ann. 

Nat. Hist., ser. iv, vol. vii, p. 355 [no fig.] : Type. — [?] : Loc. — 

Crag, 
f EXILIS, W. M. Gabb, 1873 : Stromhina exilis, n.sp. : Trans. Anier. Phil. 

Soc, ser. ii, vol. xv, p. 222 [no fig.] : Type. — [?] : Loc. — 

Tertiary : Santo Domingo. 
fExiLTs, W. M. Gabb, 1881 [nM 1873]: " S. \^S!,trombi7i(i] exilis, 

Gabb. n.s," : Journ. Acad. Philad., ser. ii, vol. viii, p. 356, pi. xlvi, 

fig. 41 : Type. — [?] : Loo. — Pliocene Clay: Limon Peninsula, 

Costa Rica. 
EXILIS, E. A. Philippi, May. 1849 : " Columbella exilis 'Ph.. [n.sp.] " : 

Zeitscbr. Malak., vol. vi, p. 23 [no fig.]: Type. — [? Coll. 

Philippi] : Zoc— Aden (T. Philippi). 
ExmiA (L. A. Eeeve), Oct. 1856 [? 1846]: " Ricinula eximia^' : 

Conch. Icon., Riciniila sp. 45 : Type. — Coll. Cuming [Brit. 

Mus., London] : Loo. — " Island of Corrigidor, Bay of Manila " 

(Cuming), 
ExiMiA, L. A. Reeve, Apr. 1859: " Columlella eximia''' : Conch. 

Icon., sp. 222 : Trp^.— Coll. Taylor [Brit. Mus., London (!)] : 

Loc.—m 

EXOLESCENs, J. Uervior, Dec. 26, 1899 : Columhella galaxias, Rve., 

var. exolescens, Herv. : Journ. Conchyl., vol. xlvii, p. 341 : Type. — 

[Coll. Societe de Marie, Lyons] : Loc. — Lifu, 
EXTENsuM (W. Dunker), Oct. 1849 : " Buccinum extensum Dkr." : in 

Philippi, Abbild. Conch., vol. iii, Buccinum, p. 18, pi. ii, fig. 11 : 

Type. — [? Mus., Berlin] : Loc. — Java. 

FABA [i.e., fahnl(i'\, Sowerby. 

FABULA, Reeve [i.e., Sowerby, sp.]. 

TABULA, G. B. Sowerby I, [Sept.] 1844: '■'■Columhella Fahula, nob. . . . 

C. Sadonosta Duel.": Proc. Zool. Soc, 1844, p. 50 [no fig.]: 

Type. — Coll. Cuming [Brit. Mus., London] : Loc. — " Bay of 

Muerte, island of Corregidor " (Cuming). 
FALEONTA [sp. iudet.]. P. LJ Duclos, 1835 [Apr. 1840]: " Col— 

Faleoyita^' : Hist. nat. Coq. univ., pi. i, figs. 5-6 [no descr.] : 

TYPE.—m-. Loc.—m 

JFALLAX, Arminger [i.e., Hoernes & Auingei', sp.]. 

fFALLAX, R. Hoernes & M. Auingei', Dec. 31, 1880: "Columhella 
(Mitrella) fallax nov. form. [n.n. for C. suhulata, Bellardi, nan 
Brocchi] " : Abhandl. geol. Reichsanst., vol. xii, pp. 96-7 [no fig.] : 
Type. — [?] : Loc. — [" Fossile . . . delle sabbie gialle dell' 
Astigiana."] 
FARiNOSA \_ = Engina'] (A. A. Gould), 1852: "Buccinum [Pollia'] 
farinosum (Gould) " : Moll. U.S. Expl. Expdn., pp. 255-6, pi. 19, 
figs. 313-313«: Type.— [U.S. Nat. Mus., Washington]: Loc— 
" Kauai, Sandwich Islands." 

JFASCELLiNA, P. L. Duclos [1846-58] : " C. [Colomhella] Fascellina'' : 
in Chenu, Illust. Conch., pi. xxvii, figs, 19-20 [no descr. J : 
Type.—[?^: Xoc— [?] 

VOL. v.— APRIL, 1902. 6 



82 PUOCEEDlXt:S OF TIIK MALACOLOGICAL SOCIKIY. 

^FASCiATA [group of C. flava (Brug.)], R. Biillen Nuwton [ivm 

Sowerby], Nov. 1900: '' Columbella fasciata, G. B. Sowerby": 

Geol. Mag., n.s., dec. iv, vol. vii, p. 511 [no fig.]: Type. — 

(Co-types) Coll. Geol. Surv. Egypt: Loc. — "50 foot beach, 

Gemsah; raised beach 20 feet above sea at Gliarib Lighthouse." 
FASCiATA, G. B. Sowerby i, 1825: " Columhella fasciata^^ : Cat. 

Shells Taukerville, App. p. xxv [no fig.] : Type. — Coll. Tanker- 

ville [Brit. Mus., London (!)] : Loc. — E. Indies. 
FASCioLATA \_= C. Peasei, Mart. & Langk.], J. Hei'vier, Dec. 26, 

1899 : Columbella nanisca, Herv., var. fmciolata, Herv. : Journ. 

Couchyl., vol. xlvii, pp. 366-7 : Type. — [Coll. Societe de Marie, 

Lyons] : Loc. — Lifii. 
FASCiOJ.ATA [ = ]S'assidfe] (J. P.B. de Lamarck), Aug. 1822 : '■'■Buccimnn 

fmciolatum''' : Hist. nat. Anim. s. Vert., vol. vii, pp. 272-3: 

ri'P^.— Coll. Lamarck : Zoc— [?] 
FASTiaiATA [i.e., fiistigata], Sowerby [i.e., Kicner, sp.]. 
FAUROTi [group of C. terpsiclwre, Sby.], F. Jousseaume, Oct. 1888: 

" Atilia Fauroti''^ : Mem. Soc. zool. France, vol. i, pp. 177-8 [no 

fig.] : Type. — [Coll. Jousseaume] : Loc. — Obock (Faurot). 
FENESTRATA, C. B. Adams, Jan. 1850: " Columbella fcmestrata" : 

Contrib. Conch., vol. i, pp. 57-8 [no fig.] : Type. — Mus. Amherst 

College, Mass. : Loc. — Jamaica. 
fenestbata [= C. Adamsi, Tryon], L. A. Reeve, Apr. 1859 : ^^Colum- 
bella fenestrata" : Conch. Icon., sp. 175: Type. — Coll. Cuming 

[Brit. Mus., London (!)]: Zoc— [?] 
ferruginea, C. B. Adams [?]. 
FERRUGIN08A, Reeve [?]. 
FESTiVA, P. L. Duclos [? = Kiener, sp.] [1846-58]: " ClColombelW] 

Festiva^^ : in Chenu, lUust. Conch., pi. i, figs. 17-8 [no descr.] : 

Type.—[?']: Zoc— [?] 
FESTIVA, L. C. Kiener [1841] : " Columbella /estiva, Nobis": Spec. 

gen. Coq. viv., sp. 12, pp. 15-6, pi. xi, fig. 4 : Type. — Mus. Paris : 

Zoc— [?] 
FESTIVA, L. de Laborde, 1830: ^' Columbella festira. Nob.": Voy. 

Arable Petree, p. 66, pi. 65, fig. 39 : Type.—I?] : Loc.—" Mer 

Rouge." 
FiLAMENTOSA, "W. DunkcT [MS., = Tryon, sp.]. 
FiLAMENTOSA [gToup of C. marquesa, Gask.], G. "W". Tryon, jun., 

[July 18] 1883: " C. \_Columbella {Anachis)] Jilamentosa, Dunker" : 

Man. Conch., vol. v, p. 157, pi. 55, fig. 62: ^rp^.— [? Coll. 

Tryon] : Loc.—" So. Pacific Ocean." 
riLBYi, G. B. Sowerby iii. Mar. 20, 1888 : " Columbella filbj/i, sp. 

nov.": Proc. Zool. Soc, 1888, p. 208, pi. xi, figs. 8-9: Type.— 

Coll. Filby [Mus. Hamburg] : Loc.—" S. Sea ? " 
FiLiCTNCTA, C. Tapparonc-Cauefri, Jan. 24, 1877 : " Columlella 

{MitreUa) filicincta Tapp.-Can." : Ann. AEus. Civ. Genova, vol. ix, 

pp. 279-80 [no fig.]: Trp^.— [?Mus. Genoa]: Zoc— " Isola di 

Sorong " (N.W. New Guinea). 



PACE : ox THE COLTJMBELT,ID,E. 83 

FiLMER^ [gi'oiip of C. flava (Brug.)], G. B. Sowerby in, March, 

1900: " Coluinhella FilmercB, n.sp." : Proc. Malac. Soc, London, 

vol. iv, p. 3, pi. i, fig. 8: Type. — [Brit. Mus., London, Reg. 

]N'o. 1900.5.22.69(1)]: Zoc— Pondoland. 
FiLOSA \_=C. plurisulcata, Eve.], G. F. Augas, Jan. 1867 : " ^sopns 

filosus, n.s." : Proc. Zool. Soc, 1867, p. Ill, pi. xiii, fig. 6: 

Type. — Coll. Angas [Brit. Mus., London]: Loc. — Pt. Jackson, 
FILOSA (P. P. Carpenter), Mar. 1865 : " Mitromorplia filosa [n.sp] " : 

Ann. Nat. Hist., ser. in, vol. xv, p. 182 [no fig.] : Type. — Coll. 

Boyce (TJtica, N.Y.) : Loc. — Sta. Barbara (Jewett). 
\filoha, p. L. Duclos [? = Dujardin, sp.] [1846-58] : " C .{^Colomlella] 

Filosa^^ : in Chemi, Illust. Conch,, pi. xxvii, figs. 7-8 [nodescr.] : 

TYPE.—m-. Zoc— [?] 
fFiLosA, P. Dujardin, 1835: '■' ColumleUa fihm. Duj," : Mem. Soc. 

geol. France, vol. ii, pt. 1, p. 302, pi. xix, fig. 26: Type. — ['?] : 

Loc. — Faluns : Ferriere-Larqon and Semblangay. 
FILOSA \_=C. Stearnsi, Tryon], E-. E. C. Stearns [nom. praeocc], 

Oct. 28, 1873: '' Nitidella filosa, Stearns": Proc. Acad. Philad., 

1873. pp. 345-6 [no fig.]: 5"Vp£.— [?]: Zoc— Tampa Bay, W. Coast 

Florida (E. Jewett). 
FiscHEET [group of C. dormttor. Shy.], J. Hervicr, Dec. 26, 18^9: 

" ColumbeUa Fiseheri, J, Hervier" : Journ. Conchyl., vol. xlvii, 

pp. 389-91, pi. xiv, fig. 8 : Type. — [Coll. Societe de Marie, Lyons] : 

Loc. — Lifu (Goubin). 
FLAMTXEA, A. Risso, 1826: "If. [Ml f reiki.'] fnminea CN.)'' : Hist. 

nat. Europe merid , vol. iv, p. 248, fig. 144: Type. — Mus. 

Paris : Loc. — S. Europe. 
FLAMiNEA, Scacchi [i.e., Risso, sp.]. 
FLAMMEA (J. F. Gmclin) [1790] : " \_Voluta] fiammea^'' : in Linnfeus, 

Syst. Nat., 13th ed., vol. i, p. 3435 [no fig.] : Tip^.— [?] : 

Loc.—m 

FLAM3IEA [ = C marquesa, Gask.], W. H. Pease [MS.]. 

FLAMMULATA, T. di Montcrosato, 1878 : Columhella scn'pta, Linn., var. 
Jlammulata : Giorn. Soc. Palermo, vol. xiii, p. 104 : 2'ype. — [?] : 
Loc. — Mediterranean. 

FLAMMULATA, P. Pallaiy, Oct 25, 1900 : ColumbeUa scripta (Lin.), 
\slX . flammulata : Journ. Conchyl,, vol. xlviii, p. 278 [name only] : 
Type. — [?] : Loc. — Oran, Algeria. 

FLAVA (J. G. Bruguiere) [1789] : '•'■ Buccinxim flavum; Nob." : Ency, 
Meth., Vers, vol. i, p. 281 [no fig.] : Trp^.— [?] : Loc—^ 

FLAviDA, J, P, B. de Lamarck, Aug. 1822: '' Colombella Jlartda 
y = Buccinwn flavum, Brug.] " : Hist, nat, Anim. s. Vert., vol. vii, 
p. 294 [no fig,] : Trp^.— Coll. Lamarck : Zoc— [?] 

FLAVIDA [= C*. scripta (Linn.)], T. di Monterosato, 1878 : ColumbeUa 
scripta, Lin., var. flavida : G-iorn. Soc. Palermo, vol, xiii, p. 104 : 
Type. — [?] : Loc. — Mediterranean. 
fFL.iviDjsFORMis [group of Cfluva (Brug.)], K, Martin, 1884 : " Colum- 
beUa flavidceformis nov, spec." : Samra, Geol. Mus. Leiden, vol. iii, 
pp. 1 15-6, pi. vi, fig. 116 : Type. — [Geol. Mus,, Leyden] : Loc. — 
Ngembak, Java. 



84 piioci:iU)iXGs of tuk malacological socikty. 

FLAVicrLA, J. Hcrvior, Dec. 26, 1899: Columhella articuhta, Sotiv., 

var. flavidtda, Herv. : Journ. Concliyl., vol. xlvii, p. 337 : TypK. — 

[Coll. Societe de Mavie, Lyons] : Zoc. — New Caledonia. 
FLAViLiNEA, J. C. IMolvill, 1893: " Columbel/a {Mitrella) flavilinea, 

sp. nov." : Proc. Manchester Soc, ser. iv, vol. vii, p. 5, pi. i, fig. 8 : 

Type. — Brit. Mns., London [!] : Loc. — Bombay. 
FLEXUOSA, F. W. Hutton, Jan. 1878: '■'■ Pj/rene Jiexuosa, Hutton, Sp. 

nov." : Journ. Couchyl., vol. xxvi, p. 23 [no fig.] : Type. — Otago 

Mus., Dunedin, New Zealand: Loc. — Auckland, New Zealand 

(P. F. Cheeseman). 
FLEXUOSA (J. P. B. de Lamarck), Aug. 1822 : " B uccimim flexuosum " : 

Hist. nat. Anim. s. Vert., vol. vii, p 274 [no fig.] : Type. — Coll. 

Lamarck : Loc. — " Habite Ics Mers de I'lsle-de-France." 
FLOCCATA, L. A. Reeve, Apr. 1859: '■'■ Columhella floccata^^ : Conch. 

Icon., sp. 160 : Type. — Coll. Cuming [Brit. Mus., London] : Loc. — 

Buffalo, Cape Colony. 
FLUCTUATA, G. B. Sowerby i, [Aug. 14] 1832 : '■'■ Columhella fluctuata^'' : 

Proc. Zool. Soc, 1832, p. 115 [no fig.]: Type.—CoW. Cuming 

[Brit. Mus., Jjondon] : Loc. — "Gulf of Nocoiyo [i.e. Nicoya]." 
FircTUosA [? = C. fltictuata, Shj.^, P. L. Duclos [1846-58] : " C. 

[ Colomhella^ Fluctuosa " : in Chenu, Illust. Conch., pi. xiii, figs. 11-2 

[no dcscr.] : Type--^ : Loc.—[_'i'\ 
FORMOSA, J. S. Gaskoin, 1851 [Oct. 28, 1852] : " Columhella fonnosa'' : 

Proc. Zool. Soc, 1851, pp. 11-2 [no fig.]: Type. — Coll. Gaskoin: 

Loc.—l?^ 
FORMOSA, L. A. Reeve [i.e., Gaskoin, sp.]. 
FORTicosTATA (L. A. Reevc), Oct. 1846: '^ Hicinula forficosfafa^^ : 

Conch. Icon., Ricinula, sp. 29 : Type. — Coll. Cuming [Brit. Mus., 

London] : Loc. — [?] 
]fossilis, R. a. Philippi, 1836 [not used as a trivial name] : " Colum- 

bellartistica, var. «" : Enum. Moll. Sicil., vol. i, p. 229: Type. — [?]: 

Loc. — " Prope Cefali Melazzo et Palermo.'' 
FOVEOLATA [?-Nassid8e] (W. Dunker), Apr. 1847: ^^ Buccinum 

foveolatum, Dkr. [n.sp ] " : Zeitschr. Malak., vol. iv, p. 63 [no 
■fig.]: Type.—I?]: Zoc.-E. Indies. 
FRAGARiA ( W. AVood), 1828: " [ Fb/«^rt] Fragaria^^ : Suppl. Index 

Test., p. 11, pi. 3, fig. 27 : Type.— QoW. Mawe : Zoc— [?] 
FREYTAGi, H. v. Maltzan, May, 1884 : " Columhella [Anachis) 

Freytagi n." : Nachrbl. Deutsch. malak. Ges., vol. xvi, p. 72 [no 

fig.] : 'Type. — [?] : Loc. — Goree, W. Africa. 
FULGiDA, L. A. Reeve, Apr. 1859: '■'' Columhella fulgida'''' : Conch. 

Icon., sp. 178: Type.—^oW. Cuming [Brit. Mus., London (?)]: 

Loc. — " Port Lincoln, Australia." 
FULGiDULA, J. Hcrvicr, Dec. 26, 1899: Columhella procellarum, Herv., 

var. fulgidula., Herv. : Journ. Conchyl., vol. xlvii, p. 350 : Type. — 

[Coll. Societe de Marie, Lyons] : Loc — Lifu. 
FULGURAxs [?= C. Kraussi, Sby.J (F. Krauss), 1848: " Pleurotoma 

{Mangelia, Leach) fulgurans Krauss " : Siidafr. Moll., p. 109, 

pi. vi, fig. 11 : Tfp£'.— [?] : Zoc— Knysna. 



PACE : ON THE COLTTMBELLID^:. 85 

FULGURANs, J. P. B. de Lamarck, Aug. 1822: " Cohimhella fidgiiram " : 

Hist. nat. Anim. s. Vert., vol. vii, p. 296 [no fig.] : Type. — Coll. 

Lamarck : Loc. — " L'Ocean indien ? " 
FULGUEATA, J. Hervier, Dec. 26, 1899: ColumhcUo pardaUna, Lam., 

xax. fulgurata, Herv. : Joiirn. Conchjd., vol. slvii, p. 307 : Type. — 

[Coll. Societe de Marie, Lyons] : Luc. — Loyalty Is. 
FDLMiNEA, A. A. Gould, 8ept. 1860 : " Columbella {Anachis) 

fulminea'" : Proc. Boston Soc, vol. vii, p. 334 [no fig.] : Type. — 

[TJ.IS. Nat. Mus , AVasliington] : Loc. — St. SimonsBay. 
FULVA, S. Brusina, 1870 : " il/. \_i]iUra] columbellaria Seacli. [sic] var. 

Juha Nar." : Ead. Jugoslav. Akad., vol. xi, p. 58 [no tig.] : 

Type — Coll. Brusina: Loc. — " Sedimento del nostro littorale 

[Gulf of Venice] di sabbia cbe scorre fra tSottomarina e Brondolo." 
FULVA, A. JSTardo [MS., = Brusina, var.]. 
FULVA, G. B. Sowerby I, [Aug. 14] 1832: '' Columlella fulva" : 

Proc. Zool. Soc, 1832, p. 115 [no fig.]: Type.—^oW. Cuming 

[Brit. Mus., London] : Loc. — Panama. 
FULVASTPA, J. Hervier, Dec. 26, 1899 : Cohimhella troglodytes, Souv., 

var. fulvastra, Herv. : Journ. Conchyl., vol. xlvii, p. 374 : Type. — 

Coll. Dautzenberg : Loc — JN^ew Caledonia. 
FULVESCENS, J. Hervier, Dec. 26, 1899 : Columhella varians, Sby-, var. 

fukescens, Herv.: Journ. Concbyl., vol. xlvii, p. 312: Type. — 

[Coll. Societe de Marie, Lyons] : Loc. — New Caledonia. 
FUNicuLATA (L. A. Ptceve), Aug. 1846: '■'■ Ricinula funicidata^^ : 

Conch. Icon., Ricinula, sp. 16 : Type. — Coll. Cuming [Brit. Mus., 

London] : Loc. — [?] 
FUNICULATA [gTOup of Cflttva (Brug.)], M. Souverbie, Apr. 1, 1865 : 

" Columbella funiculata, Souv." : in Souverbie & Montrouzier, 

Journ. Conchyl., vol. xiii, pp. 157-9, pi. v, fig. 8 : Type. — Mus. 

Bordeaux : Loc. — New Caledonia. 
fFUNicuLATA, J. E. Teuison-Woods [MS.]. 
FuscA [i.e., fuscata'], Sowerby. 
FUSCATA, Adams [i.e., Sowerby, sp.]. 
\FuscATA[ = Terehra']{(j.'QYOQ.Qh\), 1814: '■'■ Buccinum fuscatum: nob." : 

Conch. Foss. Subapp., vol. ii, pp. 344-5 [no fig] : Type. — [Geol. 

Mus., Milan] : Loc. — "Fossile nel Piaoentino, in Piemonte e nelle 

Crete Sanesi." 
FUSCATA, G. B. Sowerby i, [Aug. 14] 1832: " Columhella fuscata''^ : 

Proc. ZooL Soc, 1832, p. 117 [no fig.]: Type.— Coll. Cuming 

[Brit. Mus., London]: Loc. — "Panama, St. Elena, and Monte 

Christe." 
FuscosTEiGATA, P. P. Carpenter, July, 1864 : " ? Aiiacliis fuscostrujafa^' 

[n.sp.] : Ann. Nat. Hist., ser. in, vol. xiv, p. 49 [no fig.] : 7Ype. — 

Smithsonian Inst., Washington : Loc. — Cape St. Lucas (J. Xantus). 
FusrroRMis, H. E. Anton, 1839: " [Columhella^ fusi/ormis mihi " : 

Verzeichn. Conch., sp. 2843 [no fig.]: Type. — Coll. Anton: 

Zoc— [•?] 
frusiFOEMis, W. M. Cxabb, 1873: " i/. [Mettclella'] fusiformis, Gabb, 

n.s." : Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc, ser. ir, vol. xv, p. 206 [no fig.] : 

Type. — [?] : Loc. — Tertiary: San Domingo. 



8G PllOCEEDINGS OF TUK MALACOLOGICAL SOCIKTY. 

FusiFORMis, R. B. Hinds, Oct. 1844 : " Columhella fusiformis " : Zool. 

Voy. Sulpluir, vol. ii, p. 38, pi. x, figs. 17-8 : Tr/'i-.— [?] : Loc— 

Voragiui, West Coast Amcric'ii. 
FUSIFORMIS \_=C. Guildingi, Sby.], Nuttal [MS.]. 
FUSIFORMIS [_= C. fem'strata, C. B. Ad.], A. d'Orbigny, 1845 : 

'■'■ Colomhdla fusiformis. — (d'Orb., 1840) " : in Sagra, Hist. Isla 

Cuba, pt. ii, vol. v, p. 23o, pi. xxi, figs. 25-7 : Type. — [Brit. 

Mus., London (!)] : Loc. — Martinique and Jamaica. 
FUSIFORMIS (W. H. Pease), 1860: " Conus fusifornm.^ Pease": 

Proc. Zool. Soc, 1860, p. 398 [no fig.] : Type.— {loW. Cuming 

[Brit. Mus., London (!)] : Loc. — Sandwich Is. 
FUSIFORMIS ( W. H. Pease), June 27, 1 865 : ^'■Engina fusiformis [n.sp.] " : 

Proc. ZooL Soc, 1865, p. 513 [no fig.]: Trp^. — [VColl. Pease, 

Harvard Univ., Mass.] : Loc. — " Islands of the Central Pacific." 
FUSIFORMIS [=C'. Paumotensis, Trj'on], AY. H. Pease [nom. pra3occ.], 

Jan. 2, 1868 : " Mitrojpsis fusiformis, Pease " : Amer. Journ. Conch., 

vol. iii, p. 212, pL xv, "fig. 2: Type.— \JQo\\. Pease, Harvard 

Univ., Mass.] : Loc. — Paumotus. 
FUSIFORMIS, W. H. Pease, Nov. 3, 1868 : " Columhella fusiformis, 

Pse. [n.n. for C. pnsilla, Pse.] " : Amer. Journ. Couch., vol. iv, 

p. 122: Type. — [? Coll. Pease, Harvard Univ., Mass.]: Loc. — 

[Kingsmill Is.] 
FUSIFORMIS, Sowerby [i.e., Hinds, sp.]. 
FUSiLLUS [sp. indet j, L. A. Eecve, Apr. 1859 : " Columhella 

fiisiUus'' : Conch. Icon., sp. 16: Type.— QoW. Taylor [Brit. Mus., 

London (!)]: Zo(7.-[?] 
FUSTiGATA, L. C. Kiener [1841]: '■^ Columhella fustigata, Nobis": 

Spec. gen. Coq. viv., sp. 17, pp. 20-1, pi. v, fig. 3: Type. — Mus. 

Paris : Loc. — " Habite les mers des Antilles, les iles Saintes." 

GALAXiAS [group of C. eximitt, Eve.], L. A. Reeve, Apr. 1859: 

^'■Columhella qataxias " : Conch. Icon., sp. 229 : Type. — Coll. Taylor 

[Brit. Mus., London (!)] : Loc.—m 
fcALBiNA, L. Bellardi, 1890 : " Columhella {iracrurella) galhina, 

Bell." : Mem. Aocad. Torino, ser. ii, vol xl, p. 340, pi. ii, fig. 60 : 

TYPE. — Qeo\. Mus., Turin: Loc. — Middle Miocene: "Colli 

torincsi, YalCeppi." 
fGALVESTONENsis, G. D. Harris, Dec. 2, 1895: '^ Stromhi?ia gihherula 

Sby, var. galvesionensis, n.var." : Bull. Amer. Paleont., vol. i, 

p. 103, pi. X, fi<r. 6: Type. — [?] : Loc. — Upper Miocene: 

Galveston (Deep Well Boring). 
GAASAPATA [i.e., gausnpata'], Gould. 
GARREiTi (W. H. Pease), 1860 : " Ci/thara qarreftii [n.sp.] " : 

Proc. Zool. Soc., 1860, p. 147 [no fig.]: TiW.— [? Coll. Pease, 

Harvard Univ., Mass.] : Loc. — Sandwich Is. 
GARRETTi, G. W. Trvon, Jun., [July 18] 1883: " C. [Columhella 

(Seminella)^ Garretti, Tryon [n.n. for Citharopsis ornata, Pse.]": 

Man. Conch., vol v, pp. 166-7, pi. 56, fig. 94: Type.— [^ Coll. 

Pease, Harvard Univ., Mass.] : T^or. — Tahiti. 
GASKOiGKEi [i.e., Gaskoini~\, Carpenter. 



PACE : ON THE COLITMBELLID.T:. 87 

GASKOiNi \_=C. tmiiata, Phil.], P. P. Carpenter, 1857: '■'■ Anacliis 

Gaskomi, n.s." : Catal. Mazatl. Shells, No. 652 [no fig.] : Ti'pe. — 

(Destroyed) : Loc. — Mazatlan. 
GAUSAPATA, A. A. Goulcl, Jan 1850: " Columhella gausapata'''' : Proc. 

Boston Soc., vol. iii, p. 170 [no fig.]: Trp^.— [U.S. JSTat. Mus., 

Washington] : Znc. — Pnget Sound. 
foEMBACANA, K. Martin, 1884 : " Columhella gemlacana nov. spec." : 

Samm. Geol. Mus., Leiden, vol. iii, p. 114, pi. vi, fig. 1 14 : Type. — 

Coll. Van Dijk [Geol. Mus., Leyden] : Log. — Ngembak, Java. 
GEMMULATA (G. P. Deshayes), 1863: "■ Pleurotoma gemmulata. Desh." : 

in Maillard, Notes lie Reunion, 2nd ed., vol. ii, Suppl. e, pp. 107-8, 

pi. xii, figs. 8-10: Type. — [? Mus. Reunion]: Loc. — Reunion. 
GERViLii [i.e., G('rviUei~\, Payraudeau. 
GKRViLLEi (B. C. Pavraudeau), 1826: "■ Mitra Gervillii. Nob.": 

Cat. Annel. & Moll."" Corse, p. 165, pi. viii, fig. 21 ; Type.—Mw?.. 

Paris: Loc. — Corsica. 
gibberula, G. B. Sowerby i, [Aug. 14] 1832: " Cohimhella gihhenda^'' : 

Proc. Zool. Soc, 1832, p. 115 [no fig.]: Type.— Qoll. Cuming 

[Brit. Mus., London]: Loc. — "Bay of Caraccas and Puerto 

Portrero." 
GiBBOSA, P. L. Duclos [ = Valonciennes, sp.], 1835 [Apr. 1840]: 

" Col. — Gihhosa'''' : Hist. nat. Coq. univ., pi. v, figs. 5-6 [no 

descr.] : Trpi?.— [?] : Zoc— [?] 
GIBBOSA (A. Garrett), Jan. 1 872 : '■'■ Enginagilhosa, Grt." : Proc. Calif. 

Acad., vol. iv, p. 203 [no fig.] : Type.— [;<!'] : Loc.—'' Habitat, Yiti 

and Samo Islands " 
GIBBOSA, A. Valenciennes, 1833 [1832]: " ColombeUa gihlom {_=C. 

stromhiformis, Shy., 7ion Lam.] " : in Humboldt & Bonpland, Recueil 

Obs. Zool., vol. ii, p. 331 [no fig.] : Type. — [?] : Loc. — Acapulco. 
GiBBOSULA, Broderip [i.e., d'Orbigny, sp.]. 
GiBBOSDLA, A. d'Orbigny [1841] : " Columhella giihosula, Broderip " : 

Voy. Amerique merid., vol. v, jit. 3, p. 430 [no fig.] : Type. — [?] : 

Loc. — Payta (Fontaine). 
GiLVA (K. T. Menke), Dec. 1847 : " Buccinum giltum m." : Zeitschr. 

Malak., vol. iv, pp. 180-1 [no fig] : ^rp^.— Coll. Menke : Loc— 

Mazatlan (H. Melchers). 
foiRONDiCA, E. A. Benoist [?MS.]. 
GLABER (A. Risso), 1826: "■ F. \_Fi(,ms\ glaher (n.) " : Hist. nat. 

Europe merid., vol. iv, p. 207, tig. 129: Type. — Mus. Paris: 

Loc. — S. Europe. ■ 
GLABEBBIMA {J. E. Gmeliu) [1790]: "■\_Bucciniim~\ glaherima''^ : in 

Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., 13th ed., p. 3488 [no fig.] : Trpir.— [?] : 

Loc.—m 

fGLOBOSA, P. A. Millet, 1854: " IColumlella] Globosa, Millet": 
Paleont. Maine & Loire, p. 165 [name only] : Type. — [?] : Loc. — 
" Sceaux, Thorigne, Saint-Michel, Reneauleau." 
GOUBiNU, J. Hervier, Dec. 26, 1899: " Cohimhella Gouhiiii, J. 
Hervier" : Journ. Conchyl., vol. xlvii, pp. 332-3, pi. xiii, tig. 1 i 
Type. — [Coll. Societe de Marie, Lyons] : Loc, — Lii'u. 



88 PROCEEDINGS OF THE MALACOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

oouLDi, Agassiz [MS., = T{eeve, sp.]. 

GOULDi, p. p. Carpenter, 1856 [Jan. 7, 1857] : "^NUideUa Gouldii, 

n.s." : Proc. Zool. Soc, 1856, p. 208 [no fig.] : TyPE.—CoW. Gould : 

Loc.—'' Sta. Barbara." 
GOXTLDi, L. A. lleeve, Nov. 1858 : Columhella Gouldii, Agassiz 

MS.: Conch. Icon., sp. 135: Type. — Coll. Cuming [Brit. Mus., 

London (?)] : Loc. — jS'cw York Harbour, 
GOULDIANA, Agassiz [MS., = Stimpson, sp.]. 
GOULDiANA, "W. Stimpson, 1851 : " C. \_Columlella~\ Goiildiana, Ag., 

MS.": Shells New England, p. 48 [no fig.] : I'yp^.— [?] : Loc— 

Massachusetts Bay. 
GOWLANDi[i.e., GowUandi~\, Brazier. 
GOWLLiNDi, J. Brazier, Dec. 1874 : " ColumbeUa (AnacJiis) 

gmvllandi^^ : Proc. Zool. Soc, 1874, p. 671, pi. Ixxxiii, fiy;s. 15-6: 

Type. — Coll. Brazier [Brit. Mus., London] : Loc. — Eclipse I., 

Claremont Group, N.E. Australia. 
fGRACiLiOR, G. Seguenza, 1880: Columhella coronata, Seg., " var. 

A. gracilior''^ : Atti Aecad. Pont. Lincei, scr. iii, vol. vi, p. 106: 

Type. — [?] : Loc. — Tortonian : Calabria. 
fGRACiLiRATA, J. E. Tenison-Woods [?]. 
GRACILIS, C. B. Adams, July, 1852 : " Columhella gracilis. Nov. sp." : 

Ann. Lye. New York, vol. v, p. 313 [no fig.]: Type. — Amherst 

College, Mass. : Loc. — Panama. 
•f-GRACiLis, J. Ivolas & A, Peyrot, Apr, 1890: " Columhella {Mitrella) 

gracilis Mayer-Evmar [MS.] " : Act, Soc. Linn. Bordeaux, vol. Iv, 

p. 128, pl."i, figs. 6, 10 : y'rp^.— (Co-types) Mus. Zurich; Coll. 

Ivolas & Peyrot : Loc. — Faluns: Pontlevoy; Saiute-Catherine-de- 

Eierhois. 
]gracilis[=C. amama, Conr.] (I. Lea), [Dec] 1833 : " T. [Tcrehra^ 

gracilis" : Contrib. GeoL, p. 166, pi. v, fig. 171 : Type. — [Coll. 

Lea] : Loc. — Claiborne, Alabama. 
■foBAciLis, Mayer-Eymar [MS.,=Ivolas & Peyrot, sp.]. 
GRACILIS, W. H. Pease, Nov. 3, 1868: '^ Citharopsis gracilis, Pease" : 

Amer. Journ. Conch., vol. iv, pp. 97-8, pi. xi, fig. 20 : Type. — 

[?Coll. Pease, Harvard Univ., Mass.] : Loc. — Paumotus. 
fGRACiLLiMA, K. Martin, 1895: ^'Columhella (Stromhina) gracillima 

spec, nov," : Foss, Java, p, 121, pi, xviii, figs. 274-5: Type. — 

[Geol, Mus., Leyden] : Loc. — Sonde, district of Gendingan, Java. 
fcRADATA, R. J. L. Guppy, Feb. 21, 1806: " Columhella \ iSfrombina'] 

gradata, spec, nov." : Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. xxii, pp 288-9, 

pi. xvi, fig. 10 : Type. — Brit. Mus., London : Loc. — Miocene : 

Jamaica. 
^GEjECi [i.e., Greci~\, Philippi. 
fGRANOsA, II. Tate, June, 1893 : " [Columhella'] granosa, Tate " : Trans. 

R. Soc. South Austral., vol. xvii, p. 220 [name only] : Type. — [?] : 

Loc. — Spring Creek, Victoria. 
fGRANULiFERA (T. A. Conrad), June, 1862: '^ A. [Amgcla (Asfi/ris)] 

arara, var. granulifcra'''' : Proc. Acad. Philad., I8ti2, p. 287 [no 

fig.]: 7Vp£.— [?]:" Zoc.—" Blue Clay": St. Mary's B., Maryland. 



PACE : ox THE COLUJIBELLID^. 89 

GEANULOSA [group of C. oUvoidea (Cantr.)], A. Locard, 1886 : 
^'- Mitroltimna granulosa, Nov. sp. [n.n. iov Mitra oUvoidea (Cantr.), 
var. granulosa^ ]Vlonter.] " : Prodr. Malac. FranQ., Moll, mar., 
pp. 109, 542: Type. — [?] : Loc. — " La Mediterranee : Cannes, 
dans les Alpes-Maritimes (iVob.)." 
GRANULOSA [gToup of C. oUi'oidea (Cantr.)], T. di Monterosato, 1878 : 
Columhella Greci, Phil., var. gramilusa : Giorn. Soc. Palermo, 
vol. xiii, p. 104 : Type. — ['?] : Loc. — Mediterranean. 
]aRAYi[i.e., Greci\ Philippi. 

fGKECi, K. A. Philippi. 1844 : " Columhella Greci n.sp." : Enum. Moll. 
Sicilise, vol. ii, p. 194, pi. xxvii, tig. 18: Type. — [?] : Loc. — 
" Ad Pezzo prope Khegium Calabrioe." 
GKisEA (E. A. Smith), 1884: '■'• Pleurotoma {Befrancia'^) qrisea''^ : 
Kept. Zool. Coll. Alert, pp. 489-90, pi. xliv, tig. c: Type.— Brit. 
Mus., London : Loc. — " Etoile Island, Amirantes." 
■\grumbeli [i.e., Guembeli^, Hoernes & Auinger. 
GUALTEKiANA, A. Risso, 1826: " C. \_Colum.bella'] gualteriana (n.) " : 
Hist. nat. Europe merid., vol. iv, p. 206 [no tig.] : Type. — Mus. 
Paris: Loc. — S.Europe. 
GUATE3IALENSIS [= C'. Untigmosa, Hinds], L. A. Reeve, Apr. 1859: 
" Columhella Guatemalensis " : Conch. Icon., sp. 198 : Type. — 
Coll. Cuming [Brit. Mus., London (!)]: Loc. — Guatemala. 
feuEMBELi, R. Hoernes & M. Auinger, Dec. 31, 1880: " Columhella 
{Anachis) Gumbeli nov. form. [ti.n. for C. corrugata, M. Hoernes, ■ 
tion Bellardi] " : Abhandl. geol. Rcichsanst., vol. xii, p. 102, pi. xi, 
figs. 8-11: Type. — Hof-Mineralien-Cabinet, Vienna: Loc. — 
Steinabrunn. 
GuiLDFOPiTiA [i.e., GuUfordia^, Risso. 

GuiLDiNGi, G. 13. Sowerby I, [Sept.] 1844: " Columhella Guildingii, 
nob." : Proc. Zool. Soc, 1844, p. 53 [no fig.] : ^fp^.— Brit. Mus., 
London [!] : Loc. — St. Vincent's, W. Indies (L. Guilding). 
GuiLFORDiA, A. Risso, 1826: " C. \_Coluinhella'] guilfordia (n.) " : 
Hist. nat. Europe merid., vol. iv, pp. 205-6, fig. 87 : Type. — 
Mus. Paris : Loc. — S. Europe. 
]gumbeleti[\.q., Guemheli\ Hoernes & Auinger. 
\gvmbeli [i.e., Guemheli\ Hoernes & Auinger. 
GUTTATA (G. V. d. Busch), Mar. 1844 : '■'■ Fusus guttatus v. d. Busch " : 
in Philippi, Abbild. Conch., vol. i, pp. 109-10, Fusus, pi. i, fig. 6 : 

TYPE.—m- ZOC — [?] 

GUTTATA [group of C. crihraria (Lam.)], G. B. Sowerby i, [Aug. 14] 

1832 \jion Sowerby, 1844] : " Columhella guttata ^^ : Proc. Zool. 

Soc, 1832, p. 118 [no fig.]: Tfp^.— Coll. Cuming [Brit. Mus., 

London] : Loo. — Panama. 
GUTTATA \_=C. pu7ictata. Shy.], G. B. Sowerby i, [Sept.] 1844 [non 

Sowerby, 1832] : " Columhella guttata, nob." : Proc. Zool. Soc, 

1844, p. 50 [no fig.]: TrPi?.— (Co-tvpes) Coll. Norris ; Coll. 

Stainforth: Zoc— [?] 
GUTTUROSA [&p. indet.], P. L. Duclos, 1835 [Apr. 1840] : " Colomhella 

Gutturosa^' : Hist. nat. Coq. univ., pi. ix, figs. 9-10 [no descr.] : 

rrp£.— [?] : Loc.—[?] 



90 niOCEEDINGS OF THE MALACOI.OGICAL SOCrETY. 

HiEMASTOMA, G. B. Sowerby i, [Aug. ]4] 1832 : " ColumhelJa 

hfemastoma^'' : Proc, Zool. Soc, 1832, p. 116 [no fig.]: Tyi'E. — 

Coll. Cuming [Brit. Mus., London] : Loc. — Gallapagos, Panama. 
fnAiTENSis, G. B. Sowerby, May 16, 1849: " ColumbeUa ITnitensis''' : 

in J. C. Moore, Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc., yol. vi, p. 46 [no fig.] : 

Type. — [? Coll. J. S. Heniker] : Loc. — Tertiary : San Domingo. 
HALDEMANi \y = Nassiclcc] (W. Dunker), Apr. 1847: '■'■ Buccinum 

Maldemani, Dkr." : Zeitscbr. Malak., vol. iv, p. 62 [no fig.] : 

Type. — [?] : Loc. — " Patria IndiiB orientalis." 
HALDENSis [? IIaldemam~\, Dunker. 
HALi.TiiETi, J. G. Jeffreys, 1867: ^' CoJumheUa haliceeti, Jeffreys": 

Brit. Concb.. vol. iv, pp. 356-8, pi. vi, fig. 5 : I'ype. — [?] : 

Xo(7.— N.N.W. of Tnst, etc. 
HALiETi [i.e., Haliceeti'], Jeffreys. 
HALiNECETi [i.e., ILali(eeti~\, Jeffreys. 
HALYETi[i.(i., Raliceeti'], Jeffreys. 
HANETi, Petit de la Saussaye, Feb. 15, 1850: " Colombella hanefi, 

nobis": Journ. Coucbyl., vol. i, pp. 57-8, pi. iii, fig. 4 : Type. — 

Coll. Petit [Mus. Eouen] : Xoc— (?) Mazatlan. 
HANLEYT, G. P. Desbayos, 1863: '■'• Columhella LLanleyi. Dash, [n.sp.]": 

in Maillard, Notes lie Reunion, 2nd ed., vol. ii, suppl. e, pp 131-2, 

pi. 13 (xl), figs. 8-10 : Type.—\J Mus. Beunion] : Zoc— Bcunion. 
HAXLEYi (H. Dobrn), Nov. 1861 : '' Mitra Eanlcyi Dobrn" : Malak. 

Bliitt., vol. viii, pp. 138-9 [no fig.] : TrPi?. — (Co-types) Coll. 

S. Hanley [Brit. Mus., London (!)] : Zoc— [?] 
HARP.EFORMis [i.e., huyi for mis'], Sowerby. 
HAiiPAFOEMis [i.e., harpiformis], Sowerby. 
HARPiFORMis, G. B. Soworby I, [Aug. 14] 1832: " Columhella Harj)!- 

formis'' : Proc. Zool. Soc, 1832, p. 113 [no fig.]: Type.— CoW. 

Cuming [Brit. Mus., London] : Loc. — Gulf of Panama. 
fHAEPULA (G. Micbelotti), 18-lU: ^^ Buccinum arpula [sic] mibi " : 

Ann. Sci. Lomb.-Veneto, vol. x, p. 162 [no fig.]: Type. — Coll. 

Micbelotti [Geol. Mus , Rome] : Loc. — "Fossile dell' Astigiana." 
JHATJERi, R. Hoernes & M. Auinger, Dec. 31, 1880 : " Colubella [sic] 

{Anachis) Raueri nov. form." : Abbandl. geol. Reicbsanst., vol. xii, 

pp. 103-4, pi. xi, figs. 15-6 : Type. — Hof-Mineralien-Cabinet, 

Vienna : Loc. — Niederleis. 
HEBii^EA [ = J//Ym], J. P. B. de Lamarck, Aug. 1822: ^^ Colomhella 

hehrcea " : Hist. nat. Anim. s. Vert., vol. vii, p. 295 [no fig.] : 

Type.— QoW. Lamarck : Zoc— [?] 
HEBiiiDARUM, J. Horvicr, Dec. 26, 1899 : Columbella versicolor, Sby., 

var. Llehridarum, Herv. : Journ. Concbyl., vol. xlvii, p. 311: 

Type. — [Coll. Societe de Marie, Lyons] : Loc. — " L'ile Ambrym," 

New Hebrides (Jamond). 
fnELVETiCA, K. Mayer-Eymar, July 1, 1869: " Columhella Helvetica, 

Mayer [n.n. for C. curta, Hoern., non (Duj.)] " : Journ. Concbyl., 

vol. xvii, pp. 282-3, pi. x, fig 2 : Type. — [? Coll. Mayer-Eymar J : 

Loc. — " Le Jura Suisse, au niveau des faluns do la Touraine." 



PACE : ON THE COLUMBELLIDiE. 91 

HELViA [sp. indet.], P. L. Duelos [1846-58]: " C. [ColombeUa^ 
Hehia'''' : in Cheiiu, Illust. Conch., pi. i, figs. 19-20 [no closer.] : 
TvPE—[?]: Zoc.—l?] 
fHEMioTHONE, J. E. Tenison-Woocls, [June 16] 1879 : " Coliimbella 
hemiothone^^ : Proc. Linu. Soc. New 8onth Wales, vol. iv, p. 14, 
pi. iii, fig. 8 : Type. — [?] : Loc. — Tertiary (probably Miocene) : 
Muddy Creek, Western Victoria. 
HERCiLiA \=C. scripta (Linn.), var.], S. Chiereghini [MS.]. 
JHEEKLOTSi, K. Martin, 1880: ^^ Columhella HerJdotsi nov. spec": 
Tertiarscb. Java, pp. 29-30, pi. vi, fig. 6 : Type.— [Gaol. Mus., 
Ley den] : Loc. — S. Java. 
■\hetepostpopha [=C. inversa (Nyst)] (S. Y. Wood), Sept. 1842: 
" Tereira heterostropha, n.s." : Ann. JSfat. Hist., vol. ix, p. 540 
[name only]: Type. — [?] : Loc. — Coralline and Red Crag: Ged- 
grave ; Sutton. 
HiDALGOi, T. di Montei'osato, Apr. 1, 1889: " MitreUa Ilidalgoi, 
Monterosato nov. sp." : Journ. Concbyl., vol. xxxvii, p. 116 [no 
fig.] : Type. — [?] : Loc. — " Casa Blanca et Tanger (Ponsonby) ; 
Cadix (Hidalgo)." 
HiNDSi, J. S. Gaskoin [MS., = Peeve, sp.]. 

HiNDSi, L. A. Reeve, Nov. 1858: Columlella Hindsii, Gaskoin: 
Concb. Icon., sp. 143 : Type. — Coll. Cuming [Brit. Mus., London] : 

LoG.—m 

HiRTjNDO, J. S. Gaskoin, 1851 [Oct. 28, 1852] : ''CnlumheUa hirundo'' : 

Proc. Zool. Soc, 1851, p. 12 [no fig.]: Type. — Coll. Gaskoin: 

Loc. — " Per the ' Samarang.' " 
EiSTRio \_=Emjina] (L. A. Reeve), Sept. 1846 : '•^ Ricinida histrio^'' : 

Concb. Icon., Ricmula, sp. 36 : Type. — Coll. Cuming [Brit Mus., 

London] : Loc. — " Island of Burias, Pbilippines " (Cuming). 
fnoEENESi, K. Mayer-Eymar, July, 1869 : " Columlella Hoernesi 

Mayer": Journ. Concbyl., vol. xvii, pp. 283-4, pi. x, fig. 3: 

Type. — \y (^oW. Mayer-Eymar]: Loo. — Ealuns : Pont-Levoy ; 

Mantbelan. 
HOiTESSiERi [i.e., Hotessieri~\, d'Orbigny. 
HOLBOELLi, Beck [?]. 
HOLBOELLi (H. P. C. Moeller), 1842: " i^. IFusus'] Llolbdllu noh. 

[n.sp.]": Index Moll. Groenland., p. 15 [no fig.]: Trp^.— Coll. 

Moeller : Loc. — " Groenland." 
HOP DACE A [i.e., hordeacea\, Pbilippi. 
HOEDEACEA, R A. PMlippi, May, 1849 : " Columlella hordeacea Ph." : 

Zeitscbr. Malak., vol. vi, pp. 23-4 [no fig.]: Trp^.— [? Coll. 

Pbilippi] : Loc— Men. (T. Pbilippi). 
JHOEDEOLA, M. Cossmauu, Dec. 31, 1897 : " Columlella \_Atilia'\ hordeola, 

nov. sp." : Bull. Soc. Guest France, vol. vii, p. 321, pi. vi, fig. 38 : 

Type. — Coll. Bourdot : Loc. — Eocene: Bois-Gouet [Loire-Inf.]. 
]HonNESi [i.e., ILoernen'], K. Mayer-Eymar. 
HOTESSERiANA [i.e., IIotessieri\ d'Orbigny. 



92 PROCEEDINGS OF THE MALACOT.OGICAL SOCIETY. 

HOTESSiERi [= C. Gnildingi, Sby.], A. d'Orbifj^ny, 1845 : " Colomlella 

Hotessieri. — (d'Orb., 1840.)": in Sa-jra, Hist. Isla Cuba, pt. ii, 

vol. V, p. 234, pi. xxi, figs. 37-9 : TyPE. — [Brit. Mus., London] : 

L DC. — Guadeloupe (Hotcssier) . 
HUMERosA, P. P. Carpenter, Mar. 14, 1865 : " Colmnhella hmnorosa'" : 

Proc. Zool. Soc, 1865, p. 281 [no fig.] : Ttpe. — Smithsonian 

Inst., Washington : Zoc. — Acapuleo. 
HYACiKTHA [ = C. Peusei, Mrtns. & Langk.], J. Hervior, Dec. 26, 

1899: Coliunhella nanisca, Hcrv., var. hyacintha, Herv. : Journ. 

Conchyl., vol. xlvii, p. 367, pi. xiii, tig. 10 : 'Type. — [Coll. Societe 

de Marie, Lvons] : Loc. — Lifu. 
HYALiNA (G. Montagu), 1803: ''\_roluta'\ ITyalina [n.sp.] " : Test. 

]Srit., Suppl., p. 101, pi. 30, fig. 1 [' pi. '29, fig. 5,' in text] : Type.— 

Coll. Laskcy : Loc. — "On the Shell Bank, near Dunbar." 

IDA, P. L. Duclos [1846-58] : " C. [Colombella'] Ida'': in Chenu, 

Illust. Conch., pi. xiv, figs. 11-2 [no descr.] : Type. — [?] : 

Zoc— [?] 
IDA, W. Kobelt [non Duclos], 1897 [1893] : " Colmnhella {Anachis) 

ida Duclos" : in Martini & Chemnitz, Conch. Cab., p. 164, pi. 22, 

fig. 156: rr/'7.\—[? Coll. Kobelt] : Zoc— Mauritius. 
IDALINA, P. L. Duclos, 1835 [Apr. 1840]: " Col.—Idalina'' : Hist. 

nat. Coq. univ., pi. ix, tigs. 5-6 [no descr.] : Type. — [?] : 

Zoc— [?] 
iDOSiA[ = i:n(;ina'], P. L. Duclos [1 846-58] : " ClColomht'lla'] Idosia" : 

in Chenu, Illust. Couch., pi. xxii, figs. 15-6 [no descr.] : Type. — 

[?]: Loc.-l?] 
IDULIA [? group of C. versicolor, Sby.], P. L. Duclos, 1835 [Apr. 

1840]: ''Col.—Idulia'': Hist. nat. Coq. univ., pi. x, figs. 3-4 

[no descr.] : Type. — [?] : Loc. — [?] 
ILAIRA [sp. indet.], P. L. Duclos [1846-58]: " C. \Colomhella'] 

Ilaira'' : in Chenu, Illust. Conch., pi. xv, figs. 11-2 [no descr.] : 

Type.—I?] : Zoc— [?] 
ILLIBATA, J. Hervier, Dec. 26, 1899 : Columhclla alabaatroides, Kob., 

var. illihata, Herv. : Journ. Conchyl., vol. xlvii, p. 342 : Type. — 

[Coll. Societe de ^Marie, Lyons] : Loc. — Lifu. 
iMMACULATA, J. Hcrvier, Dec. 26, 1899 : Columhella striatula, Dkr., 

var, immaculata, Herv. : Journ. Conchyl., vol. xlvii, p. 363 : 

Type. — [Coll. Societe de Marie, Lyons] : Loc. — Xew Caledonia. 
IMPOLITA, G. B. Sowerby i, [Sept.] 1844 : " Columhella impolita. 

nob.": Proc. ZooL Soc, 1844, p. 51 [no fig.] : Type.—^oW.. 

Cuming [Brit. Mus., London] : Zoc — [?] 
iNCERTA, J. Hervier, Dec. 26, 1899: Columhella eximia. Eve., var. 

incerta, Herv. : Journ. Conchyl., vol. xlvii, p. 338 : Type. — 

[Coll. Societe de Marie, Lyons] : Zoc — Lifu. 
INCERTA, 11. E. C. Stearns. Dec. 1892: '' Nitidelln incerfn Stenrns" : 

Nautilus, vol. vi, p. 88 [no fig.] : Type.— CoW. Habcl [U.S. Nat. 

Mus., AVashington (No. 122,013)]: Loc. — Galapagos Is. 
iscRASSATA (0. F. Mullcr) [i.e., Strom, sp.]. 



PACE : ON THE COLIJMBELLID^. 93 

INCRASSATA [ = Nassidse], H. Strom, 17^8: '■'■ Buccinmn {Tncrassa- 

turn)": J^orske Vidt-nsk. Skrifter, vol. iv, p. 369, pi. xvi, fig. 25 : 

TypE. — [?] : Loo. — Norway, 
INCUBITANTES [=C mercatovid (Linn.)], F. H. Martini [not used as 

a trivial name]. 
fiNCUNCTABiLis, A. di Grcgorio, Jan. 1890 : " Coltimhella elcvata (Lea) 

De Greg. , . . var. incunctahilis De Greg." : Ann. Geol. Pal., 

livr. 7, p. Ill, pi. viii, figs. 2da-i : Type. — Coll. Gregorio : 

Loo. — Claiborne, Alabama. 
INDICA, L. A. Reeve, Oct. 1858: '■' ColumlelU Indica'^ : Conch. 

Icon., sp. 66: Type. — Coll. Cuming [Erit. Mus., London (?)] : 

Loc. — " India." 
fiNEDiTA, L. EelLirdi, 1890 : " Columhella {Tefrastomella) incdita 

Bell." : Mem. Accad. Torino, ser. ii, vol. xl, p. 334, pi. ii, fig. 44 : 

Type. — Geol. Mas., Turin : Loc. — Upper Miocene: "Colli tortonesi, 

Stazzano." 
fiNFLATA, L. Bellardi, 1890: ^^ Columhella {Conidea) inflata Bell.": 

Mem. Accad. Torino, ser. ii, vol. xl, p. 327, pi. ii, fig. 28 : Type. — 

Geol. Mus., Turin : Loc. — Middle Miocene : " Colli torinesi ; Val 

Ceppi." 
f INFLATA, W. M. Gabb, 1873 : *' 8. \_Sfrombma'] inflata, Gabb. n.sp." : 

Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc, ser. ir, vol. xv, p. 221 [no fig.] : Type. — 

[?] : Loc. — Tertiary : San Domingo. 
fiNb'LATA, G. Seguenza, 1880: " C. \_ Columhella'] inflata n.^).'" : Atti 

Accad. Pont. Lincei, ser. iir, vol. vi, p. 105, pi. xi, figs. 13-13«: 

Type. — [?] : Loc. — Tortonian : Benestare, Calabria, 
f INFLATA, G. Seguenza, 1880: " C. \^Columbella'] semicaudata Bonelli. 

Var. inflata n." : Atti Accad, Pont. Lincei, ser. in, vol. vi, p. 260 : 

Type. — [?] : Loc. — Astian : Calabria. 
iNFtiLATA, J, Hervier, Dec. 26, 1899: Columhella Peasei, Mart. 

[Her-vier, sp.], var. infulata, Herv. : Journ. Conchyl., vol. xlvii, 

pp. 370-1 , pi. xiv, fig. 95 : Type. — [Coll. Societe de Marie, 

Lyons] : Loc. — ^Lifu. 
INFUMATA, J. C. H. Crosse, Jan. 1, 1863: ^^Coltimhella infumata'^ : 

Journ. Conchyl., vol. xi, pp. 84-5, pi. i, fig. 3 : Type. — Coll. 

Crosse : Loc. — St. Vincent's Gulf, South Australia. 
iNORNATA [group of C. lachri/ma (Rve.)], J. Hervier, Dec. 26, 1899 : 

Columhella Stephe»i, Mel v. & St., var. inornata, Herv. : Journ. 
f Conchyl., vol. xlvii, pp. 386-7 : Type. — [Coll. Societe de Marie, 

Lyons] : Loc. — Lifu. 
f INORNATA, F. Sandberger, 1863: '^ "i Columhella inornata, Sandb." : 

Conch. Mainzer Tert., p. 230, pi. xvi, fig. 12 : Type. — [? Coll. 

Sandberger] : Loc. — " Aus dem Meeressande von Weinheim." 
iNSCEiPTA, J. Brazier, [Feb.] 1877: " Columhella (Amijcla) inscnpfa, 

n.sp." : Proc, Linn. Soc. New South Wales, vol. i, pp. 230-1 [no 

fig.] : TvPE.—'ChexerV Coll. [Macleay Mus., Sydney, N.S.W. (!)] : 

Loc. — Percy Is., No. 2, N.E. Australia; Cape York, N. Australia; 

Darnley I., Torres Straits ; Katow, New Guinea ; "Warrior Reef, 

Torres Straits. 



94 I'UnCKEDINGS OF THE MALACOI.OGICAL SOCIKTT. 

fiNSCULi'TA, K. Martin, 1895: '■'■ Colmnhella (s. sir.) ffan'da Lam.; 

var. uov. iniiculpta\= C. lacteoidcs, Mart.]": Foss. Java, p. Il20 

[uo fig.] : Typjc. — [Geol. Miis., Leyden] : Zoc. — Java. 
iNsiGNis (A. Adams), July, 1853: " Mitra insignis, A. Adams": 

Ann. Nat. Hist., ser. ir, vol. xii, p. 49 [no fig.] : Type. — Coll. 

Cuming [Erit. Mua., London] : Loc. — " Kains Island." 
f INSIGNIS, H. B. Geinitz, 1871: " C. \_Columhell(i] insipiis Gcin." : 

Pala^ontogr., vol. xx, p. '2()4, pi. lix, fig. 4 : Type. — [':*] : Loc. — 

" Im unteren Planer am Forsthause bei Plaucn." 
]iXTASTUiATA [i.e., interstriatu^, Conrad. 
iNTEiiEK.iTA, J. Hcrvier, Dec. 26, 1899: CohiinheUa conapersa, Gask., 

var. intemerata, Hcrv. : Journ. Conchyl., vol. xlvii, p. 352 : 

'Type. — [Coll. Societe de Marie, Lyons] : Loc. — Lifu. 
iNTERMissA, J. Hcrvier, Dec. 26, 1899 : Columhella Lifouana, Herv., 

var. intermissa, Herv. : Journ. Conchyl., vol. xlvii, p. 360 : 

Type. — [Coll. Societe de Marie, Lyons] : Loc. — Lifu. 
fiNTEKPOsiTA, G. Segueuza, 1880: " C'. \_Columhella] interposita 

n.sp. " : Atti Accad. Pont. Lincei, ser. in, vol. vi, p. 105, pi. xi, 

fig. 14: Type. — [?] : Loc. — Tortonian : Benestare, Calabria. 
INTEEPUNCTA, J. Hervier, Dec. 26, 1899 : Colmnhella vetudata, Sb}'., 

var. interpimcta, Herv. : Joiirn. Concbyl., vol. xlvii, p. 343 : 

Type. — [Coll. Societe de Marie, Lyons] : Loc. — Lifu. 
iNTEiiituPTA [ = C. Angasi, Braz.], G. F. Angas [nom. prseocc], 

Jan. 1865 : " Columhella internipta, nob." : Proc. Zool. Soc, 1865, 

p. 56, pi. ii, figs. 9-10: Trp/..— Coll. Au gas [Brit. Mus., London(!)] : 

Loc. — "York's Peninsula, South Australia." 
INTEKRUPTA, J. S. Gaskoiu, 1851 [Oct. 28, 1852]: ''Columhella 

interrupta" : Proc. Zool. Soc, 1851, pp. 3-4 [no fig.]: Type. — 

Coll. Gaskoin [Brit. Miis., London] : Loc. — [?] 
INTEBEUPTA [ = Pleurotomidse] (L. A. Reeve), [Aug.] 1846: "■Mangelia 

interrupta [n.sp.]": Proc. Zool. Soc, 1846, p. 61 [no fig.]: 

Type. — Coll. Cuming [Brit. Mus., London (!)] : Loc. — I. of Ticao, 

Philippines (Cuming). 
\iKTERSTPiATA (T. A. Conrad), 1855 : " iV. [_Nnssa~\ intastriata [sic], 

Con." : in Blake, Expl. Surv. Railr. Route Mississippi Pacific, 

Prelim. Geol. Rep. [House Doc. 129], App. p. 17 [no fig.] : Type. — 

[?] : Loc. — " San Pedro, Recent formation." 
ixTEiiTEXTA [i.e., intcvta^, Gaskoin. 
INTEXTA, J. S. Gaskoin, 1851 [Oct. 28, 1852] : " Columhella infexta" : 

Proc. Zool. Soc, 1851, p. 7 [no fig.]: Trp^.— (Co-types) Coll. 

Cuming [Brit. Mus., London] ; ("oil. Gaskoin : Loc. — " Australia." 
INTINCTA (L. A. Reeve), Dec. 1846: '' Buccinum intinctum''' : 

Conch. Icon., Buccinum, sp. 32 : Type. — Coll. Cuming [Brit. Mus., 

London (!)] : Zoc7.— [?] 
fiNVERSA (H. Nyst), 1835 : " Terelra inverna, Nob. " : Rech. Coq. 

Foss. Anvers, p. 34, pi. v, fig. 49 : Type. — Coll. Nyst : Loc. — 

Antwerp. 
lODosTOMA, J. S. Gaskoin, 1851 [Oct. 28, 1852]: ''Columhella 

lodostoma^^ : Proc. Zool. Soc, 1851, p. 13 [uo fig.]: Type. — 

Coll. Gaskoin [Brit. Mus., London (!)] : Loc, — Pt. Essington. 



PACE : ON THE COLrUBELLID^. 95 

loxiDA [sp.indet.], P. L. Diiclos, 1835 [Apr. 1840] : " Col.—Ionida " : 

Hist. nat. Coq. uuiv., pi. vii, fif^s. 5-8 [no descr.] : Type. — [?] : 

Zoc— [?] 
lONinA, E. Ravenel, Feb. 1861 : " Columhella iontha^'' : Proc. Acad. 

Philad., 1861, pp. 42-3 [no fig.]: Tite.—I?^: Zoa.—" From 

stomach of fish caught off Charleston Bar." 
lOSTOMA (L. A. Reeve), Sept. 1846: ^'- Ricinula iostoma'^ : Conch. 

Icon., Ricinula, sp. 37 : Type. — Coll. Adamson : Loc. — [?] 
lozoNA [group of C. lachryma (E,ve.)], J. Hervier, Dec. 26, 1899 : 

^'Columhella iozona, J. Hervier": Journ. Conchyl., vol. xlvii, 

pp. 388-9, pi. xiv, figs. 4-4« : Type. — [Coll. Societe de Marie, 

Lyons] : Loc. — Lifu. 
jiPHis, P. L. Duclos, 1835 [Apr. 1840]: " Col.—Iphis'' : Hist. nat. 

Coq. univ., pi. 13, figs. 11-2 [no descr.] : Type.—^ : Zof?.— [?] 
IREORATA, L. A. Reeve, Feb. 1859 : " Columhella irrorata^'' : Conch. 

Icon., sp. 153 : Type. — Coll. Cuming [Brit. Mus., London (!)] : 

Loc. — " Australia." 
IS.4BELLINA, J. C. H. Crosse, Apr. 1, 1865 : " Columhella isahellina" : 

Journ. Conchyl., vol. xiii, pp. 229-30 [no fig.] : Type. — Coll. 

Crosse : Loc. — [?] 
isomella [?= C. pulchella (Bl.)], P. L. Duclos, 1835 [Apr. 1840]: 

" Col. — Isomella'^ : Hist. nat. Coq. univ., pi. ix, figs. 7-8 [no 

descr.]: Trp^.— [?] : Zoc— [?] 
ISOMELLA, J. Hervier \jion Duclos], Dec. 26, 1899: " Columhella 

isomella, Duclos" : Joum. Conchyl., vol. xlvii. pp. 360-2, pi. xiii, 

fig. 7 [var. suhfelina, Herv.] : Type. — [Coll. Societe de Marie, 

Lyons] : Loc. — Lifu (Goubin). 
fissELi, F. Sacco, 1890 : " Columhella {Mitrella) Tsseli Sacc. " : in 

Bellardi, Mem. Accad. Torino, ser. ii, vol. xl, p. 331, pi. ii, fig. 37 : 

Type. — Geol. Mus., Turin: Loc. — Upper Miocene: " Colli tortonesi, 

Stazzano." 
fiTHiTOMA, W. H. Dall, Aug. 1890: '■' Anachis ifhtfoma n.s.^^ : Trans. 

Wagner Inst., vol. iii, pp. 136-7, pi. xii, fig. 6 : Type. — (Co-types) 

Wagner Inst., Philadelphia ; US. Nat. Mus., Washington: Loc. — 

" The Caloosahatchie [Florida] marl." 
■\iTHOTOTOMA [i.e., itliitoma^, Dall. 

jAPix, P. L. Duclos [1846-58] : " C.\_Colom.hella'] Japix " : in Chenu, 
Illust. Conch., pi. xxii, figs. 13-4 [no descr.]: Type. — [?] : 
Loc.—\T\ 

JAPONicA, A. A. Gould, Dec. 1860: ^' ^sopus japonicus, n.sp. " : 
Proc. Boston Sue, vol. vii, p. 383 [no fig.] : Trp^.— [U.S. Nat. 
Mus., Washington] : Loc. — Kagosima Bay, Japan. 

JAPONiCA [=C. polf/nyma, Pils.], E. v. Martens [nom. proeocc], 
Nov. 1897 : " Columhella japonica n. [n.n. for C. misera, Dunker, 
7ion Shy.]": Arch. Naturg., vol. Ixiii, p. 170, pi. xvi, fig. 6: 
J'ype. — (Co-types) Coll. Dunker ; Coll. Hilgendorf : Loc — Naga- 
saki (Dunker) ; Japan (Hilgendorf). 



90 PROCKEDIXGS OV THE MALACOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

JAPONICA, L. A. Reeve, Apr. 1858: " Columlella japonica''' : Couch. 

Icon., sp. 45 : Type. — Coll. Cuming [Brit. Mus., Loudon] : Loc. — 

"Japan." 
JASPiDEA, Gr. B. Sowerby i, [Sept.] 1844: " Columhella jaspidea, 

nob.": Proc. Zool. Soc., 1844, p. 50 [no fig.]: Type.— Go\l. 

Cuming [Brit. Mus., London (?)] : Loc. — Is. of Ticao (Cuming). 
JAYACEXsis, J. S. Gaskoin [ MS., = Reeve, sp.]. 
JAVACEXsis [_= C. fasciata, Sby.], L. A. Reeve, Jan. 1858: 

Columhella javacensis, Gaskoin : Conch. Icon., sp. 22 : Type. — 

ColL Cuming [Brit. Mus., London (!)] : Loc. — Java. 
jAVAENSis [i.e., jaracemis^, Gaskoin [i.e., Reeve, sp.]. 
JODOSIA [i.e., idosia'], Duclos. 
JODOSTOMA [i.e., iodostoma^, Gaskoin. 
JONIDA [i.e., ionida], Duclos. 
joNTnA\\..G., iontha\ Ravenel. 
fjUNGHUHNi (K. Martin), 1880 : " Buccinum Jnnghuhni nov. spec." : 

Tertiiirsch. Java, p. 38, pi. vii, fig. 6 : Type. — [Geol. Mas., Lej'den] : 

Loc. — S. Java. 

]KAnBERi [=C. Bronni, Mayer-Eymar], R. Hoernes & M. Auinger, 
Dec. 31, 1880 : " Columhella {Nitidella) luirreri nov. foi'm [u.n. 
for C. tiara, M. Hoern., nan Brocchi] " : Abhandl. geol. Reichsaust., 
vol. xii, pp. 93-4, pi. xi, figs. 4-5 : Type. — Hof-Mineralien- 
Cabinet, Vienna : Loc. — Baden ; also from Voslau and Soos, 
Forchtenau and Mederleis. 
•[KATHARINE, R. Hoernes & M. Auinger, Dec. 31, 1880 : " Columhella 
{Nitidella) Katharine nov. form " : Abhandl. geol. Reichsanst., 
vol. xii, p. 94, pi. xi, figs. 6-7 : Type. — Hof-Mineralien-Cabinet, 
Vienna : Log. — Porzteich. 

KiENEEi [sp. indet., group of C. terpsichore, Sby.], E. v. Martens, 
jS'ov. 1897 : Columhella terpsichore, Sby., *' var. Kieneri, n. 
[= C. terpsichore, Kien., non Sby.] " : Arch. Naturg., vol. Ixiii, 
p. 168 : Type. — Coll. Piitel : Loc. — " Polynesien nach Kiener." 

KiENEEiA [y Kiener i^, P. L. Duclos [1846-58]: " C. \_Colomhella'] 
Kieneria''^ : in Chenu, Illust. Conch., pi. xxv, figs. 19-liO fno 
descr.] : Trp/?.— [?] : Zoc— [?] 

kineria [i.e., Kieneria'], Duclos. 

KiROSTEA, p. L. Duclos, 1835 [Apr. 1840] : " Colomhella Kirostra " : 
Hist. nat. Coq. univ., pi. xi, figs. 1-2 [no descr.] : 2'ype. — [?] : 

Loc.—m 

KiTCHiNGi, G. B. Sowerby in, Apr. 1894 : " Columhella kitchingi 
Sowerby, n.sp." : Journ. Conch., vol. vii, p. 370 [no fig.] : 
TYPE.—m-. Zoc— "Green Point, Cape of Good Hope" (L. 
Kitching). 

fKLiPSTEiNi, G. Michelotti, 1847 : " Columhella Klipsteini. milii [u.n. 
f or C. semipunctata, Bell. »&Mich.,wo?i Lam.]": Natuurk. Verhaudel. 
Haarlem, ser. ii, vol. iii, p. 308, pi. xvii, fig. 5 : Type. — (Co- 
types) Mus. Soc. HolL, Haarlem; Coll. ;^^iche';atti [Geol. Mus., 
Rome] : Loc. — Miocene : " La colliue de Turin." 



PACE : ON^ THE COLUHBELLTD^. 97 

]korreri [i.e., K<vreri\ Hoernes & Auinger. 
KKvussr, Gr. B. Sowerby i, [Sept.] 1844: " Colnmbella Kraussii 
nob." : Proc. Zool. Soc, 1844, p. 53 [no fig.] : 2'fp£'.— Brit. Mus., 
London [!] : Loc. — Natal (Krauss). 

L.iBECULA, A. A Gould, Feb. 1862: '^ Mangel ia {Astyr is) lahecula 

[n.sp.] '' : Proc. Eoston Soc, vol. viii, p. 281 [no fig.] : Type. — 

[?] : Loc. — " Dredged off the Coast of Georgia." 
]labiosa^ Lowel-Reeve [i.e., J. de C. Sowerby, sp.]. 
LABiosA, G. B. Sowerby i [1822]: " C. [Colunibella] lahiosa^'' : 

Genera Rec. & Foss. Shells, vol. ii {l^o. ix), pi. 248, fig. 2 : 

TvPE.—m : Zoc— "From California." 
f/:^s/i9.?.4 [= Nassidae], J. de C. Sowerby [Nov. 1824]: ^' Buccinum 

labiosum" : in J. Sowerby, Mineral Coach., vol. v, p. 122, pi. 471, 

fig. 3: TyPE.—[?y. Zoc.—Cnig. 
LACEPEDEi [=]S'assidae] (B. C. Payraudeau), 1826: " Buccimim 

Lacepedii. Nob." : Catal. Annel. & Moll. Corse, pp. 161-2, pi. viii, 

figs. 13-4: TvPE. — Mus. Paris: Loc. — Corsica: " Ajaccio, Valinco, 

Santa-Manza, Santa-Giulia." 
LAOffPTMA, J. S. Gaskoin [MS., = Reeve, sp.]. 
LACHRYMA (L. A. Reeve), March, 1845: Mitra lachryma : Conch. 

Icon., Mitra, sp. 258 : Type.— QoW. Metcalfe : Zoa.— [?] 
LAcnRY3iA, L. A. Reeve, Nov. 1858 [ = Reeve, sp., 1845] : " Colum- 

hella lachryma [Gask., MS.]": Conch. Icon., sp. 125: Type. — 

Coll. Cuming [Brit. Mus., London] : Loc. — [?] 
LAOSiMA [i.e., Itiohryma^, Gaskoin [i e.. Reeve, sp.]. 
laotea[s];). indet.], P. L. Diiclos, 1835 [Apr. 1840]: "Col. — Lactea" : 

Hist. nat. Coq. univ., pi. i, figs. 3-4 [no descr.] : Type. — [?1 : 

Loc.—[?] 
LACTEA (L. C. Kiener) [1834] : " Buccmum lacteum. Nobis" : Spec. 

gen. Coq. viv., Buccinwu, p. 53, pi. xviii, fig, 67 : Type. — Coll. 

Woldemar : Loc. — " Mers de I'lnde." 
LACTEA [group of C. Tustica (Linn.)], T. di Monterosato, 1875 : 

Colunibella rustica, Lin., var. lactea : Atti Accad. Palermo, ser. ii, 

vol. V, p 41 : Type. — [?] -.'Loo. — Mediterranean. 
LACTEA [group of C. oUvoidea (Cantr.)], T. di Monterosato, 1878: 

Colunibella Greci, Phil., var. lactea : Giorn. Soc. Palermo, vol. xiii, 

p. 104: 2'ype. — [?] : Loc. — Mediterranean. 
LACTEA, T. di Monterosato, 1878: Colunibella Brisei, Brns., var. 

lactea: Giorn. Soc. Palermo, vol. xiii, p. 104: Type. — [?] : 

Loc. — Mediterranean; Adriatic. 
LACTEA [not used as a trivial name], R. A. Philippi, 1836 : " Buecinum 

LinncBi, Payr., Var. ^": Enum. Moll. Sicilise, vol, i, p. 225: 

TYPE.—m : Zoc— [Sicily.] 
LACTEA [= C. Babbi, Tryon], L. A. Reeve [nan Kien.], Nov. 1858 : 
Colunibella lactea (Kiener) : Conch. Icon., sp. 120 : 7'ype. — Coll. 

Cuming [Brit. Mus., London (!^] : Loc.—Guli of California (Babb), 
LACTEA [=C. idalina, Duel.], G. B. Sowerby i [wo« Kien.], 1844 : 
" Col. lactea, Bucc. lacteum Kiener" : Thes. Conch., sp. 56 : 
TYPE.—m : Loc— [?] 

VOL. V. APRIL, 1902. 7 



98 PEOCEKDINOS OF THE MALACOLOGTCAL SOCIETY. 

fLACTEOiDES [p;roiip of C. flma (Brus;.)], X. Martin, 1880: " Colum- 
bella lacteoides nov. spec." : Tertiarsch. Java, pp. 30-1, pi. vi, 
fig. 8 : Type. — [Gcol. Mus., Leyden] : Loc. — Java. 

LACTESCEXS, Montrouzicv [i.e., Souverbie, sp.]. 

LACTESCENS [?;roup of C. pardalina, Lam.], M. Souverbie, Apr. 1, 
1866: '■'■ CoJumbeUa lacteHcens, Souv." : Journ. Conchyl., vol. xiv, 
pp. 144-5, pi. vi, fig. 5: Type. — Mus. Bordeaux: Loc. — "Ins. 
Art. (Arcbip. Caledon.)." 

LJiTA, J. Brazier, [Feb.] 1877 : " Cohimhella {Asfyris) lata, n.sp." : 
Proc. Linn. Soc. New Soutli "Wales, vol. i, pp. 232-3 [no fig.]: 
Tri'^.— ' Cbevert ' Coll. [Macleay Mus., Sytbiey, N.S.W. (!)]: 
Loc. — Damley I., Torres Straits. 
fL.a;viGATA, H. E. Anton, 1839: "l^ColumbeUa'] laevigata mibi " : 
Verzeicbn. Concb , sp. 2842 [no fig.] : Type. — Coll. Auton : 
Zoc.—" Fossil, Grobkalk." 

L^viGATA \_=C. scripta (Linn.)], A. Bivona-Bernardi, Apr. 1832: 
'■* Pisania Icevigata, JS^." : Effem. Scient. Sicilia, vol. ii, pp. 12-3, 
pi. ii, fig. 7 : Type. — [?] : Loc. — " Abita nel mare di Palermo e 
di Messina." 

LJ=:viGATA, C. Linnaeus, [Jan. 1] 1758: "\^Buccinum~\ laevigatum'''' : 
Syst. Nat., lOtb ed., p. 741, sp. 414 [no fig.]: Type.~\J ^o\\. 
Linnaeus] : Loc. — "Habitat in M. Mediterraneo " [erroneous]. 

LAEVIGATA, K. T. Menke [= Linnaeus, sp.], July, 1853 : " Columhi'lla 
laevigata m." : Zeitschr. Malak., vol. x, p. 76 [no fig.] : Type. — [?] : 
Loc. — [West Indies, etc.] 

LMVis Y=^Erato\ T. Brown, 1844: " C. [ColumheUa'] Icevis '' : 
Illust. Rec. Concb , 2nd. ed., p. 4, pi. x, fig. xv [refers to 1st ed., 
pi. Ii, fig. 15, wbich I cannot trace as baving been published]: 
Type. — [?] : Loc. — " Found in deep water in Salcomb bay." 

fL^vis (D. E. Eicbwald), 1829 : " F". [ Voluta {Mitra)] laevis, n.": Zool. 
specialis, vol. i, p. 297, pi. v, fig. 14 [fig. reversed] : Type. — [?] : 
Loc. — " Hab. calcem Poczaiowensem." 

fLiEvis, R. P. AVhitfield, 1894: " Strombina {Amycla) Icevis, n.sp." : 
Monogr. U.S. Geol. Surv., vol. xxiv, p. Ill, pi. xx, figs. 1-4: 
Type. — U.S. Nat. Mus., Washington: Loc. — "In the gray 
micaceous Miocene marls" : Jericbo, N.J. ; Sbilob, N J. 

LAFRESNAYT, P. Fischer & A. C. Bernard!, April, 1857: " Columbella 
Lafresnayi'''' : Journ. Conchyl., vol. v, p. 357, pi. xii, figs. 4-5: 
Type. — [?] : Loc. — Marie-Galante, W. Indies. 

x^A'^c.s;o/>^r^, J. Hervier, Dec. 26, 1899: Cohimhella pardalina, Lam., 
var. lanceolata, Herv. : Journ. Conchyl., vol. xlvii, pp. 307-8 : 
Type. — [Coll. Societe de Marie, Lyons]: Loc. — Lifu. 

lanceolata, Kiener [i.e , Sowerby, sp.]. 

LANCEOLATA, A. Locard, 1886: " Columbella lanceolata, Nov. sp. [n.n. 
for C. scripta, Linn., var. elongata, Bucq., D., & D.]": Prodr. 
Malac. Fr., Moll, mar., pp. 102, 539: IV/-^.— [?] : Zoc— "La 
Mediterranee : Saint-Tropez, Saint-Raphael, dans le Yar (Nob.)." 



PACE : ox THE COLUJIBELLII)^. 99 

LANCEOLATA, G. B. Sowerby i, [Aug. 14] 1832 : " ColumheUa 

lanceolata'^ : Proc. Zool. Soc, 18;32, p. 116 [no fig.] : Type. — 

Coll. Cuming [Brit. Mus., London] : Loc. — Gallapagos. 
LANGLETi, G. B. Soworbv III, Dec. 1897 : " Colamhella Langleyi, 

n.sp.": Append. Mar. 'Shells S. Africa, p. 8, figs. 8-9: Type.— 

[?] : Loc.—^i. Elizabeth (Crawford). 
JLATECOSTATA, 0. Boettger [extr. 1901]: ^'ColumheUa {Anachis) 

ffuembeli.'R.'Ko. . . . var. latecostaf an.'" : VerhantU. Ver. Hermaun- 

'stadt, vol. li [extr.]. p. 18 [no fig] : Type.—[? Coll. Boettger] : 

ZiOC. — '' Kostej : Parau ungarului." 
LATEFLOCCATA, J. Hervier, Dec. 26, 1899 : Columhella Loyaltyensis, 

Herv., var. latefloccata, Herv. : Journ. Conchyl., vol. xlvii, p. 349 : 

Type. — [Coll. Societe de Marie, Lyons] : Loc. — Lifu. 
LAUTA [group of C. troglodytes, Souv.J, W. Dunker [MS.]. 
LAUTA ' = Enyina\ L. A Reeve, 1486 [i.e , 1846]: "■Ricinulalauta'''' : 

Conch. Icon., Ricinula, sp. 24 : Type. — Coll. Cuming [Brit. Mus., 

London] : Loc. — [?] 
LAXA, J. Eervier, Dec. 26, 1899: Columlella pardalina. Lam., var. 

laxa, Herv. : Journ. Conchyl., vol. xlvii, p. 306 : Type. — [Coll. 

Societe de Marie, Lyons] : Loc. — I. of Pines, New Caledonia. 
LEGRANDi, J. E. Teuisou-Woods, 1876 : " ColumheUa legrandl, n.s." : 

J'roc. R Soc. Tasmania, 1875, p. 152 [no fig.]: Type.—^: 

Loc. — King's I., Tasmania. 
LEMNiscATA, J. Hervicr, Dec. 26, 1899 : ColumheUa Peasei, Martens 

[Hervier, sp.], var. lemniscata, Herv. : Journ. Conchyl., vol. xlvii, 

p. 370, pi. xiv, fig. 9« : Type. — [Coll. Societe de Marie, Lyons] : 

Loc. — Lifu. 
LEN-TiGiNosA, R. B. Hiuds, [Oct.] 1844: " ColumheUa lentiginosa^^ : 

Zool. Voy. Sulphur, vol. ii, p. 39, pi. x, figs. 21-2: Type.—[j!'\: 

Loc. — Gulf of JNicoya [Costa Rica]. 
LENTi&iNOSA [=C. Darwini., Aug.], L. A. Reeve [non Hinds], Apr. 

1859: Columhella lentiginosa, Hinds: Conch. Icon., sp. 240: 

Type.— QoW. Taylor [Brit. Mus., London (!)] : Loc.—'' Morton B., 

Australia" (Strange). 
LEONTOCROMA [group of C. olivoidea (Cantr.)] (S. Brusina), 1866: 

' ' Mitra leontocroma, mihi ' ' : Contrib. Fauna Moll. Dalmati [ Verhandl. 

zool. -hot. Ges. Wien., vol. xvi, Suppl.], pp. 34-5 [no fig.] : 

Type. — [?] : Loc. — Dalmatia. 
JLEPiDA, P. L. Duclos, 1835 [Apr. 1840] : " Col.—Lepida'' : Hist. 

nat. Coq. univ., pi. xiii, figs. 3-4 [no descr.] : Type. — [?] : 

Zoc— [?] 
LEUCOSTiCTA [ = C. punctata (Brug.)], H. F. Link, Mar. 29, 1807: 

" C. [^Columhella^ leucosticta" : Beschr. Samml. Univ. Rostock, 

pt. ii, p. 94 [no fig.] : Type. — Univ. Rostock : Loc. — [?] 
LEucosTOMA, J. S. Gaskoin, 1851 [Oct. 28. 1852]: ''Columhella 

leucostoma''^ : Proc. Zool. Soc, 1851, p. 4 [no fig.] : Type. — Coll. 

Gaskoin [Brit. Mus., London] : Loc. — [?] 
LEucoziA \_= Engina\ P. L. Duclos [1846-58]: " C. \^Colomhella~\ 

Leucozia'" : in Chenu, Illust. Conch., pi. xxii, figs, 5-6 [no 

descr.]: Trp^.— [?] : Zoc— [?] 



100 PROCEEDINGS OF THE MALACOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

LEVANiA [sp. indct.], r. L. Duclos [1846-58]: " C. \Colomhella\ 

Levania " : in Chenu, Illust. Conch., pi. xxii, figs. 7-8 [no clcscx'.] : 

TYrK.—\J\. Zo(7.— [?] 
LEviGATA [=(7. Icevigata (Linn.)], P. L. Duclos [1846-58]: " C. 

\^Colomhella~\ Levigata" : in Clicnu, Illust. Conch., pi. xxii, 

tigs. 17-20 : TrP£.— [?]: Xoc— [?] 
fLETiGATA, A. Risso, 1826: '\ M. \_Mitrella] levigata (N".)": ^Tist. 

nat. Europe merid., vol. iv, p. 248 [no fig.] : IVfi;. — Mus. 

Paris : Loc. — S. Europe. " Se trouve subfossile." 
]levis [i e., Icecis'], Whitfield. 
LiFouANA, J. Hervier. Dec. 26, 1899: " Cohimhella lifouana, J. 

Hervier": Joum. Conchyl.. vol. xlvii, pp. 358-60, pi. xiii, tig. 6: 

TyPE. — [Coll. Societe de Marie, Lyons] : Loc. — Lifu. 
LiGATA [i.e., lyrata], Sowerby. 
LIGHTFOOTI, E. A. Smith, Oct. 1, 1901 : " Columhella {Astyris) 

liqhtfootV : Journ. Conch., vol. x, p. 112, pi. i, tig. 3: Type. — 

[?] : Loo.—'' Kalk Bay, Cape Colony (R. Lightfoot)." 
LIGDLA, p. L. Duclos, 18"35 [Apr. 1840]: ''Col. — LiguW : Hist. 

nat. Coq. univ., pi. xi, figs. 11-6 [no descr.] : Type. — [?] : 

Loc.—m 

■\ligulifoemis [i.e., lignloides], Doderlein. 

fLiGULOiDES, p. Doderlein, 1862 : " '\_Columhella] liguloides nob.": 

Mice. sup. Ital. Centr., p. 24 [name only] : Type. — Coll. 

Doderlein : Loc — Upper Miocene : Monte Gibio ; S. Agata. 
LiMATA [i.e., lunata~\. Say. 
fLiMONENSis, W. M. Gabb, 1881 : " S. \_Stromhina~\ Limonensis, Gabb, 

n.s.'' : Journ. Acad. Philad., ser. ii, vol. viii, p. 356, pi. 46, 

fig. 40 [fig. inaccurate] : Type. — [?] : Loc. — Pliocene Clay : 

Limon Peninsula, Costa Rica. 
LiNCOLNENsis, L. A. Reeve, Apr. 1859: " CohonbeUa Lincolnensis " : 

Conch. Icon., sp. 1 84 : Trp^.— Coll. Taylor [Brit. Mus., London (!)] : 

Loc. — "Port Lincoln, Australia." 
JLiNDERi, R. Tournouer, July 1, 1874 : " Columhella Linderi'" : 

Journ. Conchyl., vol. xxii, pp. 298-300, pi. x, fig. 2 : Type. — Coll. 

Tournouer : Loc. — Lower Miocene (Aquitauian) : Merignac, near 

Bordeaux. 
LiNEATA, W. H. Pease, 1860: " Coliinihella lineata, Pease": Proc. 

Zool. Soc, 1860, pp. 399-400 [no fig.]: Type.— QoW. Cuming 

[Brit. Mus., London] : Loc. — Sandwich Is. 
LiNEATA [= Engina] (L. A. Reeve), Oct. 1 856 : " Bicinnla lineata " : 

Conch. Icon., Ricinula, sp. 51 : Type. — Coll. Cuming [Brit. Mus., 

London] : Loc. — " Island of Ticao, Philippines" (Cuming). 
LINEATA, R. E. C. Steams, 1873: *' Amp/itssa {'i versicolor, Dall, 

var.) lineata, Stearns" : Proc. Calif. Acad., vol. iv, pi. i, fig. 8 [no 

descr.] : I'ype. — [?] : Loc. — [?] 
lineolata [= C. dermestoidea (Lam.)], J. Brazier, Apr. 1889: 

" Columhella lineolata Pease (Brazier) = C. dermestoides Angas 

(non Kiener) " : Joiirn. Conch., vol. vi, pp. 67-8 [no fig.] : 

Type. — Coll. Conchologioal Soc. : Loc. — '* Hunters Bay, Middle 

Harbour, Port Jackson." 



PACE : ON THE COLUMBELLID.^. 101 

LiNEOLATA, A. A. Gould, Sept. 1860 : " Cohimhella \_Amycla\ 
lineolafa " : Proc. Boston Soc, vol. vii, p. 335 [no fig.] : Type. — 
[U.S. Nat. Mus., Washington] : Loc. — Hong Kong, 
f LINEOLATA (J. P. S. de Grateloup), 1840 [1847] : '' Fasus mitrceformin. 
Grat. Var. c. lineolata''' : Conchyl. Terr Tert. Bassin Adour, 
pi. 46, fig. 25 : Type. — ['?] : Loc. — " Faluns bleus. Marnes 
bleues coquillieres (Miocene inferieur) " : Saubrigues, Dax. 

LINEOLATA, J. Hci'viei", Dec. 26, 1899 : ColumbeUa striatida, Dkr., 
var. lineolata, Herv. : Journ. Concbyl., vol. xlvii, p. 363: Type. — 
[Coll. Societe de Marie, Lyons] : Loc. — Lifii. 

LINEOLATA [gi'oup of C. terpsicliore., Sby.], L. C. Kiener [1841]: 
^'■Cohimhella lineolata, Nobis": Spec. gen. Coq. viv., sp. 61, 
pp. 57-8, pi. xiii, fig. 3 [" C. terpsichore, "Wood." on plate] : 
Type. — Mus., Paris: Loc. — " Habite I'Ocean Pacifique, les cotes 
du Chili." 

lineolata, W. H. Pease [MS., = Brazier sp.]. 

LiNiGERA, p. L. Duclos [1846-58]: " C. '\_Colomhella\ Linigera^'' : in 
( henu, Illust. Conch., pi. xvii, figs. 13-4 [nodescr.]: Type. — [?]: 

Loc.—m 

LiNN^i, Calcara [?]. 

LiNN^i (B. C. Payraudeau), 1826: '^ Buccinum Linncei. Nob.": 

Catal. Annel. & Moll. Corse, p. 161, pi. viii, fi.gs. 10-2: Type. — 

Mus. Paris : Loc. — Corsica. 
LiRATA [= Pleurotomidse] (A. Adams), Apr. \865 : \^' MitromorpJia 

lirata, A. Ad." : Ann. Nat. Hist., ser. iir, vol. xv, p. 322 [no 

fig.]: Type. — [Brit. Mus., London] : Loc. — " Simonescki ; Seto- 

Utchi [Japan]." 
LI RAT A [i.e., 1 1/ rat a], Sowerby. 
JLiEATA, 11. Tate, June, 1893: " Columlella lirata, Tate": Trans. E.. 

Soc. South Austral., vol. xvii, p. 220 [name only] : Type. — [?] : 

Loc. — Spring Creek, Victoria. 
LiscHKEi, E. A. Smith, feb. 18, 1879 : " Columhella {Atilia) lischhei ": 

Proc. Zool. Soc, 1879, pp. 207-8, pi. xx, fiig. 41 : Type.— V,Yii. 

Mus., London [!] : Loc. — N. of Kiushiu, Japan (H. C. St. John}. 
LivESCENs, L. A. Keeve, Feb. 1859: " Columhella livescens" : Conch. 

Icon., sp. 148: Type.~Co\1. Cuming [Brit. Mus., London (!)] : 

Loc. — I. of Luzon, Philippines. 
LiviDA, G. B. Sowerby i, [Aug. 14] 1832: ^'ColumbeUa livida^'' : 

Proc. Zool. Soc, 1832, p. 117 [no fig.]: Type.— CoU. Cuming 

[Brit. Mus., London] : Loc. — Panama. 
LONGiCAUDA, M. Cossmauu, Oct. 1901 : ^'■Atilia (Macrurella) longicauda, 

nobis [n.n. for C. suhulata, Duel., non Brocchi] " : Essais 

Paleoconch., pt. 4, p. 245, footn. : TYPE.—\y^ : Xoc— [?] 
fLONGispiRATA, F. Sacco, 1890: " ColumbeUa (Macrurella) pronassoides 

Sac. var. longispirata Sacc. [= var. 'A,' Sacco]": Boll. Soc. 

geol. Ital., vol. ix, p. 224 : Type. — [Geol. Mus., Turin] : Loc. — 

Tortonian. 
j-LONGisTOMA, J. Gi'zybowski, 1899 : " Columhella longistoma n..sp. " : 

in Steinmann, Neues Jahrb. Min., Suppl. vol. xii, p. 648, pi. xix, 

fig. 9 : Type. — Geol. Univ. Inst., Cracow : Loc. — Talara, Peru. 



102 PROCEEDINGS OF THE MALACOLOOICAL SOCIETY. 

lOTALTYENSis, J. Hei'vier, Dec. 26, 1899: " Columhella loyaltyensis, 

J. Hervier " : Joum. Conchyl., vol. xlvii, pp. 347-9, pi. xiii, iig. 4 : 

Type. — [Coll. Societe de Marie, Lyons] : Loc. — Lifu (Goiibin). 
-LUCM, W. Kobclt [1892]: Columhella solidula, Kve., var. Luces 

(?ii.sp.): in Martini & Chemnitz, Conch. Cab., p. 49, pi. vi, 

figs. 17-8: Tr/^^.— Coll. Kobclt : Zoc— California. 
LUGESCENS, J. Hervier, Dec. 26, 1899: Columhella varians, Sby., var. 

lucescens, Herv. : Journ. Conchyl., vol. xlvii, p. 312 : Type. — [Coll. 

Societe de Marie, Lyons] : Loc. — New Caledonia. 
LUCiDA, J. Hervier, Dec. 26, 1899 : Columhella varians, Sby., var. 

lucida, Herv. : Journ. Conchyl., vol. xlvii, p. 312 : Type. — [Coll. 

Societe de Marie, Lyons] :. Log. — New Caledouia. 
LUCiDioK, J. Hervier, Dec. 26, 1899: Columhella Loyal! yenais, Herv., 

var. lucidior^ Herv. : Joui'n. Conchyl., vol. xlvii, p. 349 : Type. — 

[Coll. Societe de Marie, Lyons] : Loc. — Lifu. 
LUGUBPis [group of C. fiava (Brag.)], L. C. Kicner [1841]: 

'■'■Columhella lugtihris, Nobis'": Spec. gen. Coq. viv., sp. 24, 

pp. 28-9, pi. viii, fig. 2 : Type. — Mus. Paris : Loc. — " Habite 

les mers des Indes." 
LUMBRicus [group of C. spicula, Duel.], L. A. Reeve, Apr. 1859: 

'■'Columhella lumhricus^' : Conch. Icon, sp. 186: Type. — Coll. 

Cuming [Brit. Mus., London (!)] : Loc. — " Isle of Capul, 

Philippines." 
LUNATA (T. Say), Feb. 1826: " Nassa hmafa^' : Journ. Acad. 

Philadelphia, vol. v, pp. 213-4 [no fig.] : Type. — (Co-types) 

Academy and Mus., Philadelphia: Loc. — Southern States, U.S.A. 
LUXATA, G. B. Sowerby i [= Say, sp.], 1 844 : " Col. luuata. nob. Nasm 

Say; Buccinum Gould": Thes. Conch., sp. 9U : 'Type. — [?Coll.' 

Gould] : Loc. — " Massachusetts, Dr. Gould." 
LUNULATA [— C. pusUlu, Sby.], C. B. Adams [MS.]. 
LUTEA, H. V. Maltzan, May, 1884: " Columhella (Mitrella) Broderipi 

Sow. var. lutea n.'' : Nachrbl. Deutsch. Malak. Ges., vol. vi, p. 71 

[no fig.] : Type. — [?] : Loc. — Goree, W. Africa. 
LUTEA, P. Pallaiy, 1900 : Columhella rustica (Linn.), var. luUa, 

Pallary : Journ. Conchyl., vol. xlviii, p. 278 : Type. — [?] : Log. — 

Dept. Gran, Algeria. 
LUTEA, J. R. C. Quoy & J. P. Gaimard, 1832: " Colomhella lutea, nob." : 

Zool. Voy. Astrolabe, vol. ii, pp. 587-8, pi. 40, figs. 23-4 : 

Type. — Mus. Paris: Log. — ? Tonga-Tabou, 
LUTEOFASGiATA [= C. cJwava, Rvc.] (F. A¥. Hutton), Apr. 1881 : 

" Defranchia [sic] hdeo-fasciata " : Trans. N. Zealand Inst., vol. xiii, 

p. 201 [no fig.]: TYPE.—\y~\: Xoc— Port Lyttleton, N.Z. 
LUTEOLA, L. C. Kiener [1841] : " Columhella luteola. Nobis" : Spec. 

gen. Coq. viv., sp. 9, pp. 12-3, pi. iv, fig. 2 : Type. — Mus. Paris: 

Zoc— [?] 
LYEATA, G. B. Sowerby i, [Aug. 14] 1832: " Columhella lyrata'' : 

Proc. Zool. Soc, 1832, p. 114 [no fi-.] : 7'i-py.-.— Coll. 'Cuming 

[]5rit. Mus., Loudon] : Loc. — Gulf of Panama; Chiriqui. 



FACE : ox THE COLUMBELLID^. 103 

LYSiDiA, P. L. Duclos [1846-58]: " C. \_Colomhelld] Lysidia'' : ia 
Chenu, lllust. Conch., pi. xxvi, figs. 15-6 [no descr.1: Type. — ['?]: 
Zoc— [?] 

LTSisKA, P. L. Duclos [1846-58]: " C. \_ColomheUa] LtjsisW : in 
Chenu, lllust. Conch., pi. vii, tigs. 17-8 [no descr. ] : Type. — [?] : 

Loc.—m 

MACROSTOMA, H. E. Antou, 1839 : " [Cohmbella'] macrostoma mihi " : 
Verzeichn. Conch., p. 87, sp. 2837 [no fig.] : Type. — Coll. Anton: 

Loc.—m 

MACROSTOMA, L. A. Reove [non Anton], Apr. 1859 : Columhella 

macroduma, Anton MS.: Conch. Icon., sp. 49: Type. — Coll. 

Cuming [Brit. Mus., London] : Loc. — California. 
MACROSTOMA, L. A. Reove, May, 1859 [wow Reeve, sp., Apr. 1859]: 

Meta macrostoma, Anton ?MS. : Conch. Icon., Mda, sp. I: Type.— 

Coll. Cuming [Brit. Mus., London] : Loc. — [?] 
MACtJLATA, T. di Monterosato, 1878: " Columhella Brisei, Brus., var. 

maculata^^ : Giorn. Soc. Palermo, vol. xiii, p. 104: Type. — [?] : 

Loc. — Mediterranean and Adriatic. 
MACULATA (W. H, Pease), Oct. 7, 1869: '■' Engina lineata, Rve. var. 

maculata. Pease": Amer. Journ. Conch., p. 76, pi. viii, fig. 12: 

Type. — [?] : Loc. — " Insul. Apaian." 
MACFLiFERA, J. Hervier, Dec. 26, 1899 : Coluoibella varians, Sby., 

var. macuUfera, Herv. : Journ. Conchyl., vol. xlvii, p. 312: 

Type. — [Coll. Societe de Marie, Lyons] : Loc. — New Caledonia. 
MACULOSA \_=C.dermestoi(lea (Lam.)], W. H. Pease, Aug. 1, 1871: 

" Columbella maculosa, Pse. \n.n. for C. dermestoides, Ang. mm 

Lam.] " : Amer. Journ. Conch., vol. vii, p. 22 [no fig.] : Type. — 

[?] : Loc. — Australia. 
MACULOSA, G. B. Sowerby i, [Aug. 14] 1832 : " Columbella maculosa'''' : 

Proc. Zool. Soc, 1832, p. 116 [no fig.]: Type.— Coll. Cuming 

[Brit. Mus., London] : Loc. — Guacamayo, C. America, 
f MAGNA, A. Neviani, 1887 : " Columbella corrugata Bell. Var. magna " : 

Boll. Soc. geol. Ital., vol. vi, pp. 192 and 203 [name only] : 

Type. — [?] : Loc. — " Le argille che occnpano i pressi di Cotrone, 

e che per le colHne del Vescovatello si estendono verso Isola 

Capo Rizzuto." 
fMAGNicosTATA, F. Sacco, 1890 : " Columhella {Anachis) magni- 

costata Sacc." : in Bellardi, Mem. Accad. Torino, ser. ii, vol. xl, 

p. 350, pi. ii, fig. 79 : Type. — Geol. Mus., Turin : Zoc— Upper 

Miocene : " Colli tortonesi, Stazzano." 
MAJOR, E. Bucquoy, P. Dautzenberg, & G. Dollfus, Eeb. 1883: 

Mitrolumna olivoidea (Cantr.), var. major, B., D., & D. : Moll. mar. 

Roussillon, vol. i, p. 122, pi. xv, figs. 36-7 : Trp^.— [?] : Loc— 

Roussillon. " Faune des eponges (M. Guillion)." 
f MAJOR (J. p. S. de Grateloup), 1 840 [1847] : '' F. \_Fusus'] mitrceformis. 

Var. A. major ^^ : Conchyl. Terr. Tert. Adour, pi. 24, fig. 37: 

Type. — [?] : Loc. — "Faluns bleus. Marnes bleues coquillieres 

(Miocene inferieur) " : Saubrigues, Dax. 



104 PROCEEDINGS OF THE MALACOl.OGICAL SOCIETY. 

MAJOR, A. Lorard, 1886: " Mitrohimna major, nov. sp." [n.n. for 

M. oliroidea (Cantr.), var. major, B., D., & D.] : Prodr. Malac. 

Fr., IVloll. mar., pp. 189, 542: TrPE.~[? Coll. Locard] : Loc— 

" La Mediterranee : les Martigues, dans les Bouchcs-du-llhone 

(N.b.)." 
MAJOR [_= C. scripta (Linn.)], T. di Monterosato, 1878 : CohimheUa 

siripta, Lin,, var. major: Giorn. Soc. Palermo, vol. xiii, p. 104 : 

Type. — [?] : Loc. — Mediterranean. 
MAJOK, P. Pallary, Oct. 25, 1900: Columlella riistica (Lin.), var. 

major, Pallary : Journ. Conchyl., vol. xlviii, p. 277 : Tvpe. — [?] : 

Loc. — Oran [Algeria]. 
MAJOR (R. A. Philippi) [not used as a trivial name], 1836 : 

'■'■ Buccimim Linncei Pa}T. Var. /3": Enum. Moll. Sicilia), vol. i, 

p. 225 : TYPE.—m : Xoc— Sicily. 
MAJOR, G. B. Sowerby i, [Aug. 14] 1832: ^^ Coluntlella major ^^ : 

Proc. ZooL Soc, 1832, p. 119 [no fig.]: Type.— Coll. Cuming 

[Brit. Mus., London] : Loc. — I, of Muerte. 
JMAjruscuLA, J. Ivolas & A. Peyrot, Apr. 1890: " Cuhimbella (AnacJiis) 

majuscida Mayer-Eymar [MS.] " : Act. Soc. Linn. Bordeaux, vol. Iv, 

pp. 132-3, pi. i, figs. 11-2: Type. — Mus. Zurich: Loc. — Faluns: 

Manthelan ; Fcrriere-Larcon. 
]majuscula, Mayer-Eymar [MS., = Ivolas & Peyrot, sp.]. 
MALEDiVENSis, Keeve [?]. 
MANGELioiDEs, L. A. Eeeve, Apr. 1859: " Cohtmbella Mangelioides^^ : 

Conch. Icon., sp. 197 : Type. — Coll. Cuming [iJrit. Mus., 

London (!)]: Loc. — W. Indies. 
[maozima [sp. indet.]. P. L. Duclos [1846-58]: " C. [Cohmlelhi^ 

Maozima'''' : in Chenu. Illust. Conch., pi. xxvii, figs. 5-6 [no descr.] : 

Trp^.— [?]: Xoc— [?] 
MABGARiTA, Dunker [?]. 
MARGARITA, L. A. liecve, Apr. 1859: " Cohmbella marpan'ta ^' : 

Conch. Icon., sp. 168 : Type. — Coll. Cuming [Brit. Mus., 

London (!)] : Loc. — Sandwich Is. 

MAPGAPiTA, Sowerby [i.e., Keeve, sp.]. 

MAPGAPiTULA [i.e., margarita~\, Eeeve. 

MARGiNALBA, Blainville [?]. 

^(MARGiNATA, Bcllai'di [& Michclotti, sp.]. 

JMARGiNATA, L. Bcllardi & G. Michelotti, 1840 : " Cohmilella 

marginata Bell, et Mich." : Mem. Accad. Toiino, ser. ii, vol. iii, 

pp. 136-7, pi. iii, fig. 17: JiT£.— (Co-types) Coll. Bcllardi; Coll. 

Michelotti [Geol. Mus., Bome] : Loc. — " Fo!?sile del Colle di 

'i'orino, Bio della Butteria, villa Foriiano, Baldisseri." 
[mapgikata [sp. indet.], P. L. Duclos [1846-58] : " C. \_CoIomleUa'] 

Murqinata" : in Chenu. Illust. Conch., pi. xxvii, figs. 9-10 [no 

descr.]: TrpjF.— [?] : Zoc— [?] 
MAEI.S, J, Brazier, [Feb.] 1877 : " CoJmnheUa {AmycJa) marice, 

n.sp." : Proc. Linn. Soc. New South "Wales, vol. i, p. 230 [no fig.] : 

7'r/'^.— ' Chevert ' Coll. [Macleay Mus., Sydney, Is\S.W. (!)] : 

Loc. — Hall Sound, 2sew Guinea. 



PACE : ON THE COLUMBELLIB^. 105 

JMARr^, J. Depontaillier, Apr. 1881: " Coliimlella Marm [n.sp.] " : 

Journ. Conchyl., vol. xxix, pp. 178-9 [no tig] : Tffe. — [? Coll. 

Depontaillier] : Loc. — Pliocene : " Moulin de I'Abadie [nr. 

Cannes]." 
3IABMINIA [= Pisania], A. E,isso, 1826 : " Mitrella marminea {N.) " : 

Hist. nat. Europe merid., vol. iv, p. 272, fig. 64 : Type. — Mus. 

Paris: Zoc. — S. Europe. 
MAEMORATA, J. E. Gray, 1839: ^' Columhella marniorata^^ : Zool. 

Eeechey's Yoy., p. 129, pi. 36, fig. 11: Trp^.— [Brit. Mus., 

London] : Loc. — [?] 
MARJioRATA, T. di Mouterosato, 1878: Columhdla riistica (Lin.), var. 

mar mo rat a: Giorn. Soc. Palermo, vol. xiii, p. 103: Type. — [?] : 

Loc. — Mediterranean. 
MARMOREA, S. Brusiua, I860: " Columhella marmorea niihi " : Ver- 

handl. zool. -hot. Ges. Wien, vol. xv, pp. 9-10 [no fig.] : Type. — 

[? Coll. Prusina] : Loc. — Dalmatia. 
MARauKSA, J. S Gaskoiii, 1851 [Oct. 28, 1 852] : " ColumlellaMarquem'' : 

Proc. Zool. Soc, 1851, p. 8 [no fig.] : Trm— (Co-types) Coll. 

Gaskom [Brit. Mus., London (!)]; Coll. Gubba : Loo. — Marquesas. 
MARQVESAKA [i.e., Marquesa~\, Gaskoin. 
MABTENSi[_ = C. hella, Rve.], C. E. Lischke, Feb. 1871 : " Culumhella 

Martensi Lke." : Malak. Blatt., vol. xviii, pp. 40-1 [no fig.] : 

2'rP£.— Mus. St. Petersburg : Zoc. —Gulf of J^agasaki (N. Birileft). 
MAURA, G. B. Sowerby i, [Aug. 14] 1832: " Culumhella Hilaura'" : 

Proc. Zool. Soc, 1832, p. 117 [no fig.]: Trp£.— Coll. Cuming 

[Biit. Mus., London] : Loc. — " Panama and Gallapagos." 
fMAYERi, M. Hoernes, 1852: '■^Culumhella JUat/erl Horn'' : Abliandl. 

geol. Reichsanst., vol. iii, pp. 066-7, pi. 51, fig. 1 : Type. — Hof- 

Mineralien-Cabinet, Vienna : Loc. — "Unterer Tegel": Forcbtenau. 
MELANiDA [sp. indet.], P. L. Duclos [1S46-58] : " C. \_Colomhella~\ 

Melanida" : in Chenu, lUust. Conch., pi, xix, figs. 7-8 I no descr ] • 

TrPE.—m-. Zoa.— [?] 
iiELEAGPis [= C'. nodalma, Duel.], P. L. Duclos, 1835 [Apr. 1840]: 

" Cul. — Meleagris'''' : Hist. -nat. Coq. univ., pi. iv, figs. 15-6 fno 

descr.]: Trp^.— [?]: Zoc— ['?] 
MELEAGRIS, Kieuer [i.e., Duclos, sp.]. 
JMELiDA, p. L. Duclos [1846-58]: " C. lCulomhella'\ Mel I da " : in 

Chenu, lllust. Couch., pi. xxvii, figs. 3-4 [no descr.] : Type. — [?] • 

Loc.—m ' 

MELiTENSis \^= C. })iarffarita, Bve.]. 

MELiTOMA, J. C. Melvill & Pt. Standen, June 18, 1901 : " Cohnnhella 
{Semindla) melituma, sp.n." : Proc. Zool. Soc, 1901, p. 405 
pi. xxiii, tig. 5 : Type. — [Brit. Mus., London (!)] : Loc. — Karachi. 

MELViLLi, C. Hcdley, Alarch 6, 1899 : " Culumhella melvtUi, sp. nov." : 
Mem. Austral. Mus., vol. iii, p. 463, fig. 38 : Type. — Australian 
Mus., Sydney, N.S.W. [!] : Loc. — P'unaiuti. 

MEKALETTA. P. L. Duclos [1846-58]: '' Colomhella MenaleUa'" : in 
Chenu, lllust. Conch., pi. xv, figs. 3-4 [no descr.]: Type — [r'l • 
Loc.—\^i\ ^' 



100 rnOCEKDTNGS OF THE MALACOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

MEXDiCAiiTA, Lamarck [i.e., Linnaeus sp.]. 

MENDicARiA \_ = Engma\ (C. Linnaeus), [Jan. 1] 1758: " [ Fo/w/'rt] 

me7idicaria" : Syst. Nat., 10th ed., vol. i, p. 731, sp. 360 [no 

fig.] : Type.—\;^] : Loc.—" Habitat in Asia." 
■j-MENEGHiNiANA, A. Isscl, 1869: " Columbella Meneghiniana, Issel " : 

Alalac. Mar. llosso, pp. 266-7, pi. iii, fig. 10 : Type. — Mus. Turin : 

Loc. — Red Sea. 
iiEXKEAXA [= C. (icuminata, Mke.], L. A. Reeve, Oct. 1858: 

" ColumheUa Menkeana [n.n. for ' Columhella acuminata, Menke 

(not of Nuttall) '] " : Conch. Icon., sp. 69 : Type. — ^^oW. Cuming 

[Brit. Mus., London] : Loc. — Australia. 
MEPCAriNA [i.e., mercatoria'\, Linnaeus. 
MEHCATOitiA (C. Linnaeus), [Jan. 1] 1758: ^'■\_Voluta~'\mercatoria" : Svst. 

Nat., 10th ed., vol. i, pp. 730-1, sp. 357 : Type.— [VoW. Limifeus, 

Linnean Soc, London] : Loc. — "Habitat in M. Mediterraneo." 
MEHCATOPiA, Lamarck [i.e., Linnaeus sp.]. 
fMEiiiANi, K. Mayer-Eymar, July 1, 1869 : " Columhella Aferiani, 

Mayer": Journ. Conchyl., vol. xvii, pp. 284-5, pi. x, f3g. 4: 

Type. — [?] : Loc. — " Helvetien inferieur (Couches de Manthelan) 

du mont d'Uken (Argovie)." 
MERITA, J. Brazier, [Feb.] 1877 : " Columhella [Amycla) merita, 

n.sp." : Proc. Linn. Soc. New South Wales, vol. i, p. 231 [no fig.~ 

Trp^.— ' Chevert ' Coll. [Macleay Mus., Sydney, N.S.W. (!); 

Loc. — Darnley I., Torres Straits. 
MEPocTEA [= C. rustica (Linn.)], S. Chiereghini [MS.]. 
METANiEA, P. L. Duclos [1846-58] : " C. \^Colomhclla'\ Metanira " : in 

Chenu, lllust. Conch., pi. xviii, figs. 19-20 [no descr.] : Type. — 

['0 : Loc.-m 
METCALFEi (L. A. Resve), June, 1860 : " Terebra Metcalfei " : Conch. 

Icon., Terebra, sp. 139: Type.— QoW. Metcalfe [Brit. Mus., 

London] : Loc. — W. Indies? 
METULA (R. B. Hinds), Oct. 1843 : " Clavaiula metula^^ : Proc. Zool. 

Soc, 1843, p. 44 [no fig.] : Type.— GoW. Belcher: Zoc— [?] 
NicANS, W. H. Pease [MS., = Tryon, sp.]. 
MiCANS [group of C. Iwescen^, live.], G. W. Tiyon, jun., [^lar. 26] 

1883 : " C. \_Columbella~] mican.i, Fease " : Man. Conch., pp. 124-5, 

pi. 48, fig. 85 : Type. — [? Coll. Tryon] : Loc. — " Paumotus Isles 

(I'ease) ; Viti Isles (Garrett)." 
MiCHAUi [gToup of C. Iroglodytes, Souv.], J. C. H. Crosse & P. Fischer, 

Uct. 1863 : " Columhella Michaui, Crosse et Fischer, MS." : Journ. 

Conchyl., vol. xi, pp. 377-8, pi. 13, fig. 5 : Type. — CoU. Crosse: 

Loc. — "In insula Poulo-Condor dicta, Cochinchinae." 
wiLLEPUNCTATA [gToup of C. pulckrior, C. B. Ad.], p. p. Carpenter, 

July, 1864 : "-'i Nitidella niillepunctata [n.sp.] " : Ann. Nat. Hist., 

ser. Ill, vol. xiv, p. 48 [no fig.] : Tr/'i. — Smithsonian Inst., 

Washington : Loc. — Cape St. Lucas (J. Xautus), 
MiLTOSTOMA, J. E. Tcuisou- Woods, 1877 : " Columhella miltodoma, 

n.s." : Proc. R. Soc. Tasmania, 1876, ])p. 134-5 [no tig.] : Type. — 

Mus. R. Soc. Tasn)ania : Loc. — N. Coast, Tasmania (W. F. Petterd). 



PACE : OJf THE COLUMBELLID.^. 107 

MiNDOBENSis, J. S. Gaskoin [MS., = Reeve, sp.]. 

MiN-DORENsrs, L. A. Reeve, Apr. 1«59 : " ColumleUa Mindorensis'" : 

Conch. Icon., sp. 193 : Trp£.— Coll. Taylor [Brit. Mus., London(!)] : 

Zoc. — Puerto Galero, Mindoro. 
MINIMA [i.e., mhmtn'], Angas [i.e., Tenison-Woods. sp.]. 
MINIMA, E. Bucquoy, F. Daiitzenberg, & G. Dollfus, Aug. 1882: 

Columbella rustica (Linn.), var. 3, minima, B., 1)., &D. : Moll. mar. 

Roussillon, vol. i, p. 73 : Type. — [?] : Loc. — " Cotes de Barbarie." 
MINIMA [= C. speciosa, Aug.], J. S. Gaskoin [MS.]. 
MINIMA, J. Hervier, Dec. 26, 1899: " Culumbella oselmonfa, Duclos 

varietas minima, J. Hervier": Journ. Conchyl , vol xlvii, pp. 371-2: 

Type. — [Coll. Soeiete de Marie, Lyons] : Loc. — Lifu (Goubin). 
fMiNiMA, F. Sacco, 1890: ^^ Columbella {^Clinurella) minima Sacc." : 

in Bellardi, Mem. Accad. Torino, ser. ii, vol. xl, p. 338, pi. ii, 

fig. 54 : Type. — Geol. Mus., Turin : Loc. — Upper Pliocene : 

" Colli astesi, Valle Andona." 
MINIMA [i.e.,mmM^ff], J. E. Tenison-Woods, 1878: " C. [Columhella'] 

mmima, Angas [s«c] " : Proc. R. Soc. Tasmania, 1877, p. 32 [no 

fig ] : Type. — [?] : Loc. — Tasmania. 
MINOM, C. B. Adams [?]. 
•{•MINOR, W. H. Dall, Aug. 1890: Astyris profundi, Dall, var. minor, 

Dall: Trans. Wagner Inst., vol. iii, p. 137: Type — (Co-types) 

Wagner Inst., Pliiladelpbia ; U.S. Nat. Mus., Washington : 

Loc. — "Pliocene of the Caloosahatchie beds and Shell Creek, 

S.W. Florida." 
MINOR, P. Dautzenberg, 1900 : Columbella striata. Duel., var. 

minor: Mem. Soc. zool. France, vol. xiii, p. 183: Type. — [? Coll. 

Dalmas] : Loc. — Branco 1., C. Yerde Group, 
f MINOR (J. P. S. de Grateloup), 1840 [1847]: ^'- Fiisus huccinoides. 

Bast. Var. a. minor'" : Conchyl. Terr. Tert. Adour, pi. 24, fig. 33: 

Type. — [?] : Loc. — " Faluns jaunes. — Faluns superficiels. — 

(Miocene superieur)" : Saint Paul a Dax. 
fMiNOR (J. P. S. de Grateloup), 1840 [1847] : '' F. \Fusus^\ 

mitrmformis. Var. b. minor " : Conchyl. Terr. Tert. Adour, 

pi. 24, fig. 38 : Type. — [?] : Loc. — " Faluns bleus. Marnes 

bleues coquillieres (Miocene inferieur) " : Saubrigues, Dax. 
MINOR, J. Hervier, Dec. 26, 1899: Culumbella pardalina. Lam., var. 

minor, Herv. : Journ. Conchyl., vol. xlvii, p. 306 : Type. — [Coll. 

Soeiete de Marie, Lyons] : Loc. — Lifu. 
MiNOP [=C'. scr ipta {hmn.)'],T. dil Montorosato, 1878: Columbella 

scriptn, Lin., var. minor: Giorn. Soc. Palermo, vol. xiii, p. 104: 

Type. — [ ?] : Loc. — Mediterranean. 
MINOR [group of C. olnoidea (Cantr.)], T. di Monterosato, 1878: 

Columbella Greci, Phil., var. minor: Giorn. iSoc. Palermo, vol. xiii 

p. 104: Type. — [?] : Loc. — Mediterranean. 
MINOR [=C. rustica (Linn.)], P. Pallary, Oct. 25, 1900 : Columbella 

rustica (Linn.), var. minor, Pallary: Journ. Conchyl., vol. xlviii 

p 277: Trp^.— [?]: Zoc— Oran [Algeria]. 
MINOR, A. Scaechi, 1836: ''[Columbella'] minor Nobis": Catal. 

Conch. Neapol , p. 10, fig. 11 : Type. — \^^]: Zoc— Bay of Najjles. 



108 PROrEEDINGS OF THE MAT-ACOLOfilCAL SOCIETY. 

Mixirs [i.e., minor'], R. A. Pliilippi [i.e., Scacchi, sp.]. 
Mixus [i.e., minor'], Scacchi. 

MiNuscaiA., A. A. Gould, Sept. 1860: ^' Columhella {Anachii^) 
viiniisciila" : Proc. Boston Soc, vol. vii, pp. 334-5 [no fig-]: 
Tri'E. — [U.S. Nat. Mus., Washington]: Zoc. — Ousima. 
MiNUTA, A. A. Gould, Sept. 1860: " Cohimhflla {Anachis) minxda''' : 
Proc. Boston Soc, vol. vii, p. 334 [no fig.] : rrPA'.— [IJ.S. Nat. 
Mus., "Washington] : Loc. — China Seas. 
jiixiJTA [=C'. Tenifioni, Tryon], J. E. Tenison-Woods [nom. prreocc], 
1876: " Columhella minuia, n.s." : Proc. li. Soc. Tasmania, 1875, 
p. 152 [no fig]: Type. — ['?] : Zoc — Swansea (E. Coast, 
Tasmania). 
]miock\ica, Mayer-Eymar [?MS.]. 

■j-MioPEDEMONTANA, F. Sacco, 1890: " Columhella {Tetrmtomelln) 
miopedemontanii Sacc." : in Bellardi, Mem. Accad. Torino, ser. ii, 
vol. xl, p. 334, pi. ii, fig. 43 : Type. — Geol. Mus., Turin : Loc. — 
Middle Miocene: " Colli torinesi, Val Ceppi." 
JMiRA, W.H. Dull, Dec. 30, 1896: '^ Sfrombina mira, Dall, new species": 
in Guppy & Dall, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus., vol. xix, pp. 312-3, 
pi. xxix.fig. 7: Type.— JJ.S. Nat. Mus., AVasliington(No. 113,713) : 
Zoc. — " Oligocene of the Isthmus of Darien, near Gatun, Rowell, 
Hill, and others." 
MISER, G-. B. Sowerby i, [Sept.] 1844: " Columhella miser, nob.": 
Proc. Zool. Soc, 1844, p. 50 [no fig.]: Trp^.— (Co-types) Coll. 
Bean; Coll. Sowerby : Zoc. — [_Y] 
MiSEiiA [i.e., miser], Sowerby. 
fMississiPiENSis, 0. Meyer & T. H. Aldricb, July, 1886: " Columhella 
mississippiensis, n.sp." : Journ. Cincinnati Sue, vol.ix, p. 43, pi. ii, 
fig. 17: Type. — V.o\\. Meyer, or Coll. Aldrich: Loc. — Newton. 
MiTB.EFORMis [i.e., mitriforinis], A. Adams. 
|mitr.eforjiis (G. Brocchi), 1814: '' Murex miirmformis : nob.": 
Conch. Foss. Subap., pp. 425-6, pi. viii, fig. 20: Type. — [Geol. 
M us., Milan] : Loc. — ' ' Fossile presso Castell' Arquato nel Piaccntino 
e in Valle di Andona in Piemonte." 
\MiTiiJEFOiiMis (H. Bronn) [?= Brocchi, sp.], 1827: ''\Fusns] 
mitrmjormis nob. Murex mitroiformis Brocch." : Zeitsohr. Mineral., 
1827, pt. ii, p. 534 [name only]: TYPE.— \y]: Loc. — " Sub- 
apennincn-Formazion der Gegend von Castell' arquato im Piacenti- 
nisclien." 
fjiiTRJCFOKMis (J. p. S. do Gratelonp) [non Brocchi], May 20, 1833: 
'■' Fusiis mitr<xformis [Brocchi sp.] " : Act. Soc Linn. Bordeaux, 
vol. vi, p. 40 [no fig.]: Type. — [?] : Loc. — "Faluns bleus 
precites" : Dax. 
MiTR.EFonms [i.e., mitriforinis]. King [& Broderip]. 
MiTiiATA, Menkc [ ?MS., =Ileeve, sp.]. 

iiiTRATA, L. A. Reeve, Oct. 1858: Columhella mitrata, Menke : 
Conch. Icon., sp. 84: Type. — Coll. Cuming [Brit. Mus., London]: 
Loc. — " New Holland." 



pace: on the coltjmbellidj!:. 109 

MITRIFOEMTS, A. Adams, Nov. 1S60 : " Zafra mitrifonnis, A. Adams" : 

Ann. Nat. Hist., ser. iii, yoI. vi, p. 332 [no fig.] : Type. — [Coll. 

Adams, Brit. Mus., London] : Loc. — Mino-Sima, Japan. 
MiTRiFORMis, P. P. Kin,2j & W. J. Brodcrip, Sept. 1831 : " Columbella 

mitriformis''' : Zool. Journ., vol. v, p. 349 [no fig.]: Type. — (Co- 

tj'pos) Brit. Mus., London ; Coll. King ; Coll. Broderip: Loc. — [?] 
MiTRULA (W. Dunker), Oct. 1849: '' Buccinum mitnda Dki'." : in 

Philippi, Abbild. Conch., vol. iii, Buccinum, pp. 17-8, pi. ii, fig. 9 : 

rr/'i?.— [? Mus. Berlin] : Zoc— Manilla. 
MODESTA, L. C. Kiener [1841] : " CoJumheUa modesta. Nobis" : Spec. 

gen. Coq. viv., sp. 18, p. 22, pi. xi, fig. 2 : Type. — Mus. Paris : 

Zoc— [?] 
MODESTA (W. L. Powys), [Sept. 25] 1835: '■'Buccinum moclestum^'' : 

Proc. Zool. Soc, 1835, p. 94 [no fig.]: jTfp^'.— Coll. Cuming 

[Brit. Mus., London] : Loo. — " Bay of Montija." 
MCESTA, C. B. Adams, July, 1852: " CoJumheUa inossta. Nov. sp." : 

Ann. Lye. New York, vol. v, pp. 318-9 [no fig.] : Type. — [Amherst 

College, Mass.] : Zcjo. — Panama. 
MOLKCCLiNA, P. L. Duclos, 1835 [Apr. 1 840] : " Colomhella Moleculina''' : 

Hist. nat. Coq, univ., pi. ix, figs 1-2 : Type. — [?] : Zoc— [?] 
MONiLiFEEA (W. H. Pease), 1860: '■' Enqina monilifera [n sp.] " : 

Proc. Zool. Soc, 1860, p. 142 [no fig.] : Trp^.— [ ? Coll. Pease, 

Harvard Univ., Mass.] : Loc. — Sandwich Is. 
MONILIFERA, G. B. Sowerby I, [Sept.] 1844: " Cohimbella nioniUfera, 

nob.": Proc. ZooL Soc, 1844, p. 53 [no fig.] : Trp^.— Coll. 

Cuming [Brit. Mus., London] : Loc. — W. Indies (G. Humphrey). 
^MONODACTYLA [= ColomhelUrm'] (G. P. Deshayes), 1842 : '' Rostellaria 

monodactyhis" : in Leyracrie, Mem. Soc. geol. France, vol. v, 

p. 14, pi. 17, fig. 15 : Type. — [Coll. Leymerie] : Loc. — Neocomian: 

Marolles. 
^monodactyla (A. d'Hrbigny) [ = Deshayes, sp.], 1842 : " Colombellina 

7nonodactylus, d'Orbigny " : Paleont. Franq., Terr. Cret., vol. ii, 

pp. 347-8, pi. 226, figs. -2-5 : Type. — GoW. Leymerie: Loc. — 

"Dans le calcaire jaune a spatangues du terrain neocomien, 

a Marolles (Aube)." 
fMORAVicA, R. Hoernes & M, Auinger, Dec. 31, 1880: " CohimleUa 

(AnocJus) Morarica nov. form": Abhandl. geol. Reichsanst., 

vol. xii, p. 101, pi. xii, figs. 1-2 : Type. — Hof-Mineralien-Cabinet, 

Vienna: Loc. — Jaromierzic. 
fMULTicosTATA, M. Blanckenhom, [Nov.] 1901 : " Columhella midti- 

costata- '0..%^.'" : Zeitschr. Deutsch. geol. Ges., vol. liii, p. 391, 

pi. XV, fig. 12: Type. — Coll. Schweinfurth : Loc. — " Cucullata- 

Sande am Mokattam." 
MTJLTiLiNEATA, W. H. Dall, June, 1889: " Ashjris miiUilinenta 

Dall" : Bull. Mus. Harvard, vol. xviii, p. 190 [no fig.]: Type.— 

[?U.S. Nat. Mus., Washington]: Loc. — "U.S. Fish Commission 

Stations 2592, 2595, 2601, 2602, and 2614 in from 63 to 168 

fms., sand." 



no rnocEF.BiNGs of the malacologtcal society. 

fM0LTiPLicATA (H. C. Lea), Jan. 1841 : " Terelra muUiplieata [n pp.] " : 

Amer. Joiirn. Sci., vol. xl, p. 101, pi. i, fig. 19 : Type. — [?] : Loc. — 

Eocene : Claiborne, Alabama. 
irrLTivoLUTA, L. A. Reeve, Apr. 1859: " Columhella muUivolufa'''' : 

Concli. Icon., sp. 1 63 : Type. — Coll. Cuming [Brit. Mus., London (?)] : 

Zoc— [?] 
MUNDATA, J. Hervicr. Dec. 26, 1899: Columhella LotjalUjensis,'K&cv., 

var. mundafa, Herv. : Journ. Conchyl., vol. xlvii, pp. 348-9 : 

Type. — [Coll. Societe de Marie, Lyons] : Loc. — Lifu. 
MUXDULA (J. C. Melvill & 11. Standcn), Oct. 1895: '' E. lEnfjim'] 

tmmdala sp. nov." : Journ. Conch., vol. viii, p. 105, pi. ii, tig. 6 : 

TYPE.—[y~\: Zo(7.— Lifu. 
MUTABiLE. Lamarck [i e., Linnoeus, sp.]. 
Ji/f/r.'i5/i£' [ = Nassidte] (C. Linnaeus), [Jan. 1] 1758 : " [Buccinu>)i~\ mu- 

tahiW: Syst.Nat., inthed.,p. 738[nofig.]: Trp^'.— [Coll. Linnaeus, 

Linnean Soc, London] : Loc. — " Habitat in M Mediterraneo." 
]mutica, J. P. B. de Lamarck, 1 803 : " Mitra mutica, n." : Ann. Mus. 

Paris, vol, ii, p. 60 [no fig.]: Type. — Coll. Lamarck: Loo. — 

Grignon [Paris Basin]. 

NANA (L. W. Dillwyn), 1817 : Volutanana: Catal. Rec. Shells, vol. i, 

p. 536 [no fig.']: Trp^?. — [?] : Zoc— " Inhahits the Medi- 
terranean." 
NANA [group of C. varians, Sby ]. P. L. Duclos, 1835 [Apr. 1840] : 

" Col. — [ Colomhella] Nana^'' : Hist. nat. Coq. univ., pi. viii, figs. 4-8 

[nodescr.]: Type.—^: Loc.—[;^ 
NANA, W. Diinker, Aug. 1871 : " Columhella {Anachis) nana Dkr." : 

Malak. Bliitt., vol. xviii, p. 157 [no fig.] : I'r/'.E. — Coll. (jodelfroy 

[Mus. Hamburg] : Loc. — Yiti Is. 
NANA, L. C. Kiener [ = Duclos, sp.], 1841 : " Cohimhella nana, 

Michaud" : Spec. gen. Coq. viv., sp. 48, pp. 53-4, pi. xiv, fig. 4 : 

Type. — Mus. Paris : Loc. — [?] 
iv^.v^ [ = Pleuroton-iid8e] (S. Loven\ May 13, 1846 : " T. S^Tritoniwm] 

'^ namim n.'' : Ofv. Akad. Forhandl., vol. iii, p. 144 [no fig]: 

TYPE.—iy]: Zoc— " Finm." 
NANA, Michaud [MS., = Duclos, sp.]. 
NANiscA [ = C. Peasei, Mart. & Langk.], J. Hervier, Dec. 26, 1899 : 

" Columhella nanisca, J. Hei'vier [ ? == C. nana, Dkr., no7i Mich.] " : 

Journ. Conchyl., vol. xlvii, pp. 363-7, pi. xiii, figs. 8-10 : Type. — 

[Coll. Societe de Marie, Lyons] : Loc. — Lifu. 
JNASiOLETTA, P. L. Duclos, 1835 [Apr. 1840]: " C. {Colomhella^ 

Nasioletta" : Hist. nat. Coq. univ., pi. xiii, tigs. 15-6 [nodeBcr.] : 

TYPE.—m-. Loc.—m 

^NASS^FORMis [i.e., 7iassoides], Grateloup. 

^NASSOiDES, L. BelLardi [in parte = Grateloup sp.], 1849: " Columhella 
Nassoides ^c\\. [^Fusua nassoides, Grat.]": Mem. Accad. Torino, 
ser. II. vol. x, pp. 240-1, pi. i, fig. 13: Tiv^.— [?] : Loc— 
" Fossile .... nolle marne bigie di Castelnuovo e del Tortouese, 
e , . . . neir arenaria del colle di Torino." 



PACE : OK TOE COLTTMBELLTDjE. 1 1 1 

JNASSOTDES (J. P. S. (le Grrateloup), Oct. 15, 1827 : " Faxiia nassoiden " : 

Act. Jioc. Linn. Bordeaux, vol. ii, p. 15 [no fig.]: Type. — [?] : 

Zoo. — Faluns : Saint-Jean de Marsac. 
JNAssoiDES (J. P. S. de Grateloup), 1840 [1847]: '' Mitra nassoidcs. 

Grat.": Conchyl. Terr. Tert. Adour, pi. 46, figs. 18-9: Type.— 

[?] : Loo. — Lower Miocene : Saubrigues, Dax. 
NASUTA [= C. Brisei, Brus.], S. Brusina [non Gmel.], 1865: 

" Columbella nasuta Gmelin'': Verhandl. zool.-bot. Ges. "Wien, 

vol. XV, p. 11 [no tig.] : Type. — [? Coll. Brusina] : Loo. — ''Viva 

nelle acque profonde di Zara e Lesina, Curzola e Lagosta 

[Dalmatia]." 
NASUTA [sp. indet.] (J. F. Gmelin) [1790]: " \^Vbluta] nasuta'''' : in 

Linnaeus. Syst. Nat., ISth ed., p. 3455 [no fig.]: Type.—I?^: 

Zoo.- [?] 
NASUTA, K. T. Menke, Apr. 1851 : " Cohimhella nasuta Mke." : 

Zeitschr. Malak., vol. vii, p. 184 [no fig.]: Trps. — [? ColL 

Menke] : Zoo. — Mazatlan. 
NATALENSis 'J. C. MelviU), Mar. 1895 : " Engina Natalensis, n.sp." : 

Proc. Malac. Soc, London, vol. i, pp. 226-7, pi. xiv, fig. 12: 

Type. — Brit. Mus., London: Zoo. — Natal. 
[naxia [sp. indet.], P. L. Duclos, 1835 [Apr. 1840]: " Colomhella 

Naxia'''' : Hist. nat. Coq. univ., pi. xiii, figs. 1-2 [no descr.] : 

Type.—\J\. Zoc— [?] 
NAXIA, Menke [?]. 
NEBDLOSA, A. A. Gould, Sept. 1860 : " Columhella [Anachis) nehulosa " : 

Proc. Boston Soc, vol. vii, p. 333 [no fig.] : Type.—[\J.^. Nat. 

Mus., Washington] : Zoo. — China seas. 
fNEGLECTA, L. Bellardi, 1890: "Columhella (Macrurella) negleda, 

Bell." : Mem. Accad. Torino, sev. ii, vol. xl, p. 340, pi ii, fig. 61 : 

TYPE.—Geo\. Mus., Rome (Coll. Michelotti) : Zoc— Middle 

Miocene : " Colli torinesi, Val Ceppi." 

NEGLECT A, "Wjville [?]. 

NEMESIS [group of C. rustiea (Linn.)], S. Chiereghini [MS.]. 
NEPTUNiA [sp. indet.], P. L. Duclos [1846-58]: " C. [Colombella'] 

Neptunia''^ : in Chenu, lUiist. Conch., pi. xxvi, figs. 19-2() [no 

descr.]: Type.—\J\. Zoc— [?] 
NERiTEA [ = Nassid8e] (C. Linngeus), [Jan. 1 ] 1 758 : "[Buccinum'] Neri- 

teum'": Syst.Nat., 10thed.,p. 738[nofig.]: rrps.— [Coll. Linnaeus, 

Linnean Soc, London] : Zoo. — " Habitat in M. Mediterraneo." 
NEviLLi, G. W. Tr^^on, jun., [July 18] 1883: " C. iColumhelli 

{SeniineUa)'] Nev'iUi, Tryon [ji.n. for C halteata, G. & H. Nev., 

non Gld.] " : Man. Conch., vol. v, p. 173, pi. 57, fig. 25 : Type.— 

[Indian Mus., Calcutta] : Zoo. — Mauritius. 
NiGEESCENS, J. Hcrvier, Dec. 26, 1899: Columbella pardalina, Lam., 

var. nigrescens, Herv. : Joiirn. Conchyl., vol. xlvii, p. 306 : 

Type. — [Coll. Societe de Marie, Lyons] : Zoo. — Ambrym & 

Mallicolo, New Hebrides; Lifu (Goubin). 
NIGRICANS, G. B. Sowerby i, [Sept.] 1844: " Cohtmhella nigricans, 

nob.": Proc. ZooL Soc, 1844, p. 52 [no fig.]: Type.—Qo\\. 

Cuming [Brit. Mus., London] : Zoo. — " Gallapagos Islands." 



112 PROCEEDIXGS OF TtlE MALACOLOGICAL SOCIKTV. 

NiGREcosTATA [f!:roup of C. Urpsicliore, "^by.], E. A. Smith, 'N'ov. 5, 

1878: " Columbi'Ua {Anachis) niffrico-stata" : Proc. Zool. Soc. 

1878, p. 807, pi. 2, fig. 6 : Type.— Brit. Mus., London [!] : Zoc— 

Andcimim Is. 
NiGROFcsc.v. P. P. Carpenter, 1857: " Anachis niqrofnsca, n.s." : 

Catal. Maz^itl. Shells, sp. 649, p. 509 [no fis:.] : TypE.—V,vit. 

Mus., London [Coll. Reigen, tablet 2427 (!)] : Zoc— Mazatlan. 
NiGROpuxcTATA, G. B. Soworby I, [Aug. 14] 1832: '■'■ Colnmbella 

tiigro-pundata'''' : Proc. Zool. Soc., 18.32, ji 117 [no fig.]: Tvri:. — 

Coll. Cuming [Brit. Mus., London] : Loc. — Lord Hood's Islands. 
NiPHETODES ['? = C. Loyalti/emis, Herv.], J. Hervier, Dec. 26. 1899 : 

Colnmhelhi psilla. Duel., var. niphetodes, Herv. : Journ. Conchyl., 

vol. xlvii, p. 346: Type. — [Coll. Societe de Marie, Lyons]: 

Loc. — Lifu. 
NisiTELLA, p. L. Duclos, 1835 [Apr. 1840]: ''Col.—Nisitdla'': 

Hist. nat. Coq. xmiv., pi. vii, figs. 9-10 [no descr.] : Type. — [?] : 

Loc.-m 

NITESCENS, J. Hervier, Dec. 26, 1899: Colw/ihella lachryma, Gask., 
var. nitescens, Herv. : Journ. Conchyl., vol. xlvii, p. 382 : Type. — 
[Coll. Societe de Marie, Lj-ons] : Loc. — Lifu. 

NiTiDA [group of C. marquesa, Gask.] (L. C. Kiener) [1839-40]: 
'■'■ Pleurotoma nitida, Nobis.": Spec. gen. Coq. viv., Pleurotoma, 
sp. 43, p. 66, pi. xxvii, fig. 4: Type. — ^his. Paris: Loc. — 
'' Habite I'Ocean Indien, les cotes de I'ile de France." 

KiTiDA [? = C. niUdula (Linn.)], J. P. B. de Lamarck, Aug. 1822: 
" Colomhella nitida'''' : Hist nat. Anim. s. Vert., vol. vii, p. 295 
[no fig.]: Type. — Coll. Lamarck: Loo. — "Habite les mers des 
Antilles." 

NiTiDULA [sp. indet.] (C. Linnoeus), [Jan. 1] 1758: ^'\_Buccinuni\ 
nitidulum^^ : Syst. Nat., lOth ed., vol. i, p. 741, sp. 413 [no fig.]: 
2''ype. — [? Coll. Linnaeus]: Loc. — *' Habitat in M. Mediterraneo." 

NITIDULA [=C. nitida, Lam.], G. B. Sowerby i [1822]: " C. 
[^Ciduinhella^ nitidida; Buccinum iiitiduhtm, auctorum " : Genoi'a 
Rec. & Foss. Shells, vol. ii (No. ix), pi. 218, fig. 7 : Type.—[?'] : 

Loc.—m 

NiTiDULiNA, A. Locard, 1896 [1897]: " Cohimhella nitidulina, Jjocard'^ : 

Exped. Travailleur & Talism., Moll., p. 143, pi. xiv, figs. 10-3: 

Type. — [?] : Loc. — W. of Morocco ; W. of Soudan ; Azores. 
NIVALIS, J. Hervier. Dec. 26, 1899 : Culumbella ligida, Duel., var. 

nivalis, Herv. : Journ. Conchyl., vol. xlvii, pp. 326-7 : Type. — 

[Coll. Societe de .Marie, Lyons] : Loc. — Lifu. 
NIVEA, H. E. Anton. 1839: " \_Columbella^ «/rmmihi": Verzeichn. 

Conch., sp. 2841 [no fig.] : Tjt^.— Coll. Anton : Zoc— [?] 
NIVEA, E. Ravenel, Feb. 1861: '^ ColumbeUa nivea" : Proc. Acad. 

Philad., 1861, p. 43 [no fig.] : Type.—^ : Zoc— From stomach 

of fish caught off Charleston Bar. 
NIVEA, G. B. Sowerby i, [Sept.] 1844: " ColumheUa nivea. nob.": 

Proc. Zool. Soc, 1844, pp. 51-2 [no fig.]: Type. — Coll. Cuming 

[Brit. Mus., London]: Zoc — [?] 



PACE : ON THE COLUMBELLID^. 113 

NiTEOMAEGiNATA, E. A. Smith, Feb. 18, 1879 : " ColimheUa {Atilia) 

niveomarginata'' : Proc. Zool. Soc, 1879, p. 208, pi. xx, fig. 42: 

Type. — Brit. Mus., London f!] : Loc. — Ukushima, Goto I., Japan 

(H. C. St. John). 

NivosA, L. A. Reeve, Apr. 1859 : " Columhella nivosa " : Conch. Icon., 

sp. 166: Type.— QoW. Taj^lor : Zoc— Guatemala. 
NivosuLA, J. Hervier, Dec. 26, 1899: Columhella CarolincB, Sm., var. 
nivosula, Herv. : Journ. Conchyl., vol. xlvii, p. 341 : Type. — 
[Coll. Societe cle Marie, Lyons] : Loc. — Lifu. 
NODAiiNA, P. L. Duclos, 1835 [Apr. 1840]: " Col.—Nodalina'': 
Hist. nat. Coq. univ., pi. iii, figs. 5-6 [no descr.] : TYPE.—\jt'\ : 
Loc. — [?] 
NODicosTATA (W. H. Peasc), Apr. 2, 1868: '' Engina 7iodicostata, 
Pease" : Amer. Journ. Conch., vol. iii, pp. 274-5, pi. 23, fig. 8 : 
Type. — [?Coll. Pease, Harvard Univ., Mass.]: Loc. — "Paumotus." 
NODULOSA [= C. varians, Shy.], Nuttall [MS.]. 

NODULOSA (W. H. Pease), Oct. 7, 1869 : '' Engina nodulosa, Pease" : 
Amer. Journ. Conch., vol. v, p. 71, pi. viii, fig. 11 : Type. — 
]? Coll. Pease, Harvard Univ., Mass.]: Loc. — " Insl. Ebon 
Polynesia]." 
J-NODXJLOSA, E. Tate, June, 1893: ''iCohmhella] nodulosa, Tate": 
Trans. R. Soc. South Austral., vol. xvii, p. 220 [name only] : 
TYPE.—m : Zoc— Gellibrand & Muddy Creek (Victoria). 
NOMADiCA, J. C. Melvill & R. Standen, June 18, 1901 : " Columhella 
{Mitrella) nomadica, sp.n." : Proc. Zool. Soc, 1901, p. 404, pi. xxi 
fig. 7 : Type.— [QoW. S. Pace] : Zoc— Karachi. 
NOTATA, J. Hervier, Dec. 26, 1899: Columhella isomella, DucL 
[Hervier sp.], var. notata, Herv. : Journ. Conchyl, vol. xlvii, 
p. 362 : Type.— [QoW. Societe de Marie, Lyons] : Loc.—lAiu. 
mTBEciJLATA, L. A. Rcevc, Apr. 1859: "■ CoUmhella nubeculata'' : 
Conch. Icon. , sp. 234 : Type.— QoW. Taylor [Brit. Mus. , London(!)] : 
Loc. — [?] 
NUBiGERA, J. Hervier, Dec. 26, 1899: Columhella jaspidea, Sby., var. 
tiuhigera, Herv. : Journ. Conchyl., vol. xlvii, p. 356 : Type. — [Coll. 
Societe de Marie, Lyons] : Loc. — IS'ew Caledonia. 
NFBiLA, J. Hervier, Dec. 26, 1899 : Columhella alhina, Kien., var. 
tmhila, Herv. : Journ. Conch., vol. xlvii, p. 322 : Trp^.— [Coll. 
Societe de Marie, Lyons] : Loc. — New Caledonia ; Lifu. 
NTTCLEUS, L. C. Kiener [1841]: " Columhella nucleus, Nobis.": Spec, 
gen. Coq. viv., sp. 11, pp. 14-5, pi. iii, fig. 4: T'rp^.— Coll. 
Delessert: Loc. — [?] 
NUMiciA, P. L. Duclos [1846-58] : " C. [Colomhella'] Numicia'' : in 
Chenu, Illust. Conch., pi. xxvi, figs, 9-10 [no descr. 1 : Type--^?! ■ 
Loc.—[?'] ^ ^ ■ 

NUMiDiCA [i.e., numicia'\, Duclos. 
NUPECULATA [i.e., nuheculata~], Reeve. 

NFX, L. A. Reeve, Apr. 1859: ''Columhella mix": Conch. Icon., 
sp. 227: Type.— Coll. Cuming [Brit. Mus., London (!)]: Loc— 
' ' Port Adelaide, mw Holland. " 

VOL. v. — JULY, 1902. 3 



114 PROCEEDINGS OF THE MALACOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

NYCTEis [=C. fencstrata, C. B. Ad.], P. L. Duelos [1846-58]: 
" C. [^Colomhella] Nydeis'' : in Chenu, Illiist. Conch., pi. xvii, 
figs. 6-8 [no descr.] : Tr/v^.— [?] : Loc.-\y~\ 

NTMPHA, L. C. Kicncr [1841] : " Cohmhella nympha, ]S"obis" : Spec, 
jien. Coq. viv., sp. 29, pp. 33-4, pi. x, fig. 4 : Typk.—M.\\^. Paris : 
£oc. — "Habite I'Ocean Indian, les cotes des Sechelles." 

OBESA (C. B. Adams), Jan. 1845 : " Buccinum obesum^' : Proc. Boston 
Soc, vol. ii, p. 2 [no fig.]: 7'rPA\— [? Amlierst College, Mass.] : 
Zoo. — Jamaica. 
OBESA (R. B. Hinds), 1843 [June, 1844] : " Terehra ohesa [n.sp.] " : 
Proc. Zool. Soc, 1843, p. 158 [no fig.] : Type.— QoW. Cuming 
[Brit. Mus., London (!)] : Zoc— [?] 
OBESA, L. A. Reeve [non C. B. Adams], Nov. 1858: " CoJnmhella 
ohesa [C. B. Ad.]" : Conch. Icon., sp. 141 : Type.— QoW. Cuming 
[Brit. Miis., London] : Log. — ['?] 
OBESULA, J. Hervier, Dec. 26, 1899: '' CohmiMla obcstda, J. 
Hei-vier" : Journ. ConchyL, vol. xlvii, pp. 376-7, pi. xiv, fig. 6 : 
Type. — [Coll. Societe de Marie, Lyons] : Loo. — Lifu. 
OBESULA, T. di Monterosato, 1878: Cohmhella Gervillii, Payr., 
"Var. 4, ohesula'' : Giom. Soc. Palermo, vol. xiii, p. 104: 
Type. — [?] : Zoo. — Mediterranean. 
OBESULA, P. Pallary, Oct. 25, 1900 : Columhella rustica (Linn.), var. 
Qhes^lla, Pallary : Joura. Conchyl., vol. xlviii, p. 278, pi. vi, fig. 18 : 
TYVE.—\_^ : Zor;.— Oran; mers el Kebir, Beni Saf [Algeria]. 
OBLiTA, L. A. Reeve, Apr. 1859 : " Columhella ohlita" : Conch. Icon., 
sp. 202 : Type.— Coll. Ciiming [Brit. Mus., London (!)] : Zoo.- 
Peru. 
foBLOXGA, L. Bollardi, 1890: ''Columhella {Mitrella) oblonya BoW : 
Mem. Accad. Torino, ser. ii, vol. xl, p. 331, pi. ii, fig. 36 : Type.— 
Coll. Rovasenda : Zoc— Upper Miocene : " Tctti Borelli." 
foBLONGA, P. A. Millet, 1854: '' lColumhella'\ Ohlonga, Millet": 
Palcont. Maine et Loire, p. 165 [name only] : TYPE.—\_^ : Zoc— 
" Thorigne, Sceaux, Reneauleau." 
OBXUBiLA, J. Henaer, Dec. 26, 1899: Cohmhella nuheculata, Hive., 
var. ohmhila, Herv. : Journ. Conchyl., vol. xlvii, p. 343 : Type. — 
[Coll. Societe de Marie, Lyons] : Zoc. — Lifu. 
OBSCUKA, p. L. Duelos [? = Sowerby,sp.] [1846-58] : " C. \ Cohmhella'] 
Ohscura'' : in Chenu, Illust. Conch., pi. v, figs. 17-8 [no descr.] : 
Type.-I?]: Zoc.—[_?] 
OBSCUEA, G. B. Sowerbyi, [Sept] 1844: " Col ohscur a, "S oh.' : Proc 
Zool. Soc, 1844, p. 49 [no fig.]: Type.— Coll. Cuming [Bnt 
Mus., London] : Zoc— "N.W. Coast of New Holland." 
oBSOLESCExXS, J. Hcrvicr, Dec. 26, 1899: Columhella psilla. Duel. 
[Hervier, sp.], var. ohsolescens, Herv. : Journ. Conchyl., vol. xlvii, 
pp. 345-6 : Type.— [Coll. Societe de Marie, Lyons] : Zoc— Lifu. 
ODSOLETA [= C. haccata, Gask.], P. P. Carpenter, 1857 : " ? Columhella 
cervinetia, var. ohsoleta" : Catal. Mazatl. Shells, sp. 6l8h [no fig.] : 
Type.— Brit. Mus., London (Coll. Reigen, No. 2361]: Zoc— 
Mazatlan. 



PACE : OlSr THE COLUMBELLTD^. 115 



OBsoiETA (E. A. Philippi) [non Bvonnl 1836: ^' Mtm oL....^ 
±^ronn : Enum. :\Ioll. Sicilise, vol. i, p. 230 : Type.—[?'\ ■ Loo — 
Catania, etc., Sicily. 

OBTUSA, G. B. Sowerby i, [Aug. 14] 1832: '' ColimbeUa obtusa" : 
Proc Zool. Soc, 1832, p. 117 [no fig.]: ^ypis.— Coll. Cuming 
L±!rit. Mus., Lonrlon] : Zoc— Huaheine (Society Is.). 

ocBLLAjii [sp. indet.l (J. F. Gmelin) [1790] : " [ Folutal ocellata " : 
m Linnaeus, Syst. IS-at., 13th ed., p. 3455 : TrPE.—m • 
Zoc— [?] '■ L J • 

^^^f'if^i t=<^- Migrans, Lam.], H. F. Link, Mar. 29, 1807: 
t. \_Columhella\ ocellata''': Beschr. Samml. Univ. Rostock 
pt. 11, p. 94 [no fig.] : Trp^.— Univ. Rostock : Lor.—\n 

OCELLATA K. T. Monke [?=Gmelin, sp.], 1828 : - Cohmbella ocellata, 
m. ( Foluta ocellata, Gm.) " : Synops. Moll., p. 37 [name only] : 
T'fp^.— Coll. Menke : Zoc— [?] ^ 

OCELLATA [ = C Iccvigcda (Linn.)], A. d'Orbigny, 1845 : " Colombella 
ocellata.~{(i'Orh., 1840) [Gmelin sp.] " : in Sagra, Hist. IslaCuba, 
pt. 11, vol. V, p. 231 [no fig., not pi. xxi, figs. 34-61 : Type.— 
[Bnt. Mus., London (?)] : Zoc— Cuba ; St. Lucia. 

OCELLATA [i.e., argils'], A. d'Orbigny. 

OCELLATA, L. A. ReevB, Apr. 1859: " Columbella ocellata'': Conch. 
Icon., sp 237: Trp^.-Coll. Cuming [Brit. Mus., London (!)] : 
Zoc — [?] ^ ^-' 

OCELLATA, SagTa [i.e., d'Orbigny, sp.]. 

ocELLATULA, J. Hervier, Dec. 26, 1899 : " Cokmhella ocellatula, 
J. Hervier : Journ. Conchyl., vol. xlvii, jjp. 367-8, pi. xiii, fig. 1 1 • 
irp£.— [Coll. Societe de Marie, Lyons] : Zoc— Lifu (Goubin). 

OCTOPLICATA [?]. 

OERSTEDi [i.e., Orstecli], von Martens. 
toFFEETA, F. Sacco, 1890 : " Columbella {Macrurella) offerta, Sacc " • 

in Bellardi, Mem. Accad. Torino, ser. ii, vol. xl, p. 341, pi. ii 

.5;. 1?? ;. ^'^'^^•-'^eol. Mus., Turin : Zoc— Middle Miocene : 

" Colli diAlbugnauo." 
OLiviFOPms [i.e., olivoidea'], Cantraine. 
OLivoiDEA (F. J. Cantraine), 1835: '' Mitra olivoidea.— Noh." ■ BuU 

Acad. Bruxelles, vol. ii, p. 391 [no fig.]: Typl.-VB: Loo.— 

Mediterranean; Adriatic. 
oPHoi^iA, P. L. Duclo.s, [1846-58]: "6'. IColombella'] Ophonia" : 

in Chenu, Illust. Conch., pi, xvi, figs. 5-6 [no descr.] : Type — 

[?] : Zoc — [?] 
toppLETA, L. Bellardi, 1890 : " Columbella {Macrurella) oppleta, 

Bell. : Mem. Accad. Torino, ser. ii, vol. xl, p. 339, pi. ii, fig. 56 • 

irp^.— Geol. Mus., Turin: Zoc— Middle Miocene: " ColH 

tonnesi, Val Ceppi." 
[OSASYA [sp. indet.], P. L. Duclos [1846-58]: "6'. [ColomheUa^ 

Orasya ' : m Chenu, Illust. Conch., pi. xxvii, figs. 11-2 [no descr 1 • 

Type.—I?]: Zoc— [?] ^ l ^ 

oRiTHiA (S. Chiereghini) [MS., = Nardo sp.]. 
OKiTHiA [group of C. olivoidea (Cantr.)], G. D. ^rdo, 1847 : " Vol. 

Orithia, Ch. Mitra columbellaria, Saechi [sic] " : Sinon. Mod. 



116 PKOCEEDINGS OF THE MALACOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

Specie Chiei-cghini, p. 47 [no tig.] : Tr/Vs.— [?] : Loc.—'' Trovata 

nul sedimcnto\lcl litoralc [G. of Venice]." 
\ORNATA (A. d'Orbiguv), 1842: '' ColombeUina omaia, d'Orbignj'": 

Paleont. Franq. Cret., vol. ii, pp. 348-9, pi. 22G, tigs. 6-7 : 

Type. [?] : Loo. — " Dans les gres do la partie inferieur des 

craies chloritees, a Cassis (Bouches-de-Rlione)." 
OKNATA [iiToup of C. trofflodi/tes, Souv.], W. H. Pease, IS'ov. 3, 1868 : 

''Citharopsis ornata, Pease" : Amer. Journ. Conch., vol. iv, p. 97, 

pi. xi, tig. 19: Trp^.—[? Coll. Pease, Hai-vard Univ., Mass.]: 

Loc.—Ta\Ai\. ^^, ^ 

foENATA E Kavencl, 1859: '' Cohmhella ornata'': Proc. Elliott hoc. 

(Cha'rlcston), vol. i, p. 281 [no tig.]: T'r/'i?.— [?] : Zoc— "Post 

pleiocene.— Wando River, So. Ca." . 

OEPniA, P. L. Duclos [1846-58] : "6'. [Colomhelh:] Orpha : m 

Chenu, Illust. Conch., pi. xv, tigs. 1-2 [no descr.]: Tip^.— [?] : 

T t r9"i 
OESTEDi, E. V. Martens, Nov. 1897 : " Columhella urstedi n." : 

Arch'. Naturg., vol. Ixiii, p. 172, pi. 16, fig. 11: Trp£\— Coll. 

Dunker [Mus. Berlin]: Zoc— Los Bocorones Is., W. Coast, 

C. America (A. S. Orsted). 
OBTiGiA [sp. indet.], P. L. Duclos [1846-58]: " C. [Colombella] 

Ortigia'' : in Chenu, Illust. Conch., pi. xxii, figs. 1-2 [no descr.] : 

OPrflv^'iTsp indet!], P. L. Duclos [1846-58]: " C. IColombella] 

Ortonia'': in Chenu, Illust. Conch., pi. xx^^, figs. 13-4 [no 

descr.] : rrp^.-[?] : Xoc.-[?] . 

ORTZi (W. Dunker), Apr. 1847: '' Buccmwn \_' tolumheUiJonnm \ 

oryza, Dkr." : Zeitschr.Malak., vol. iv, p. 64 [no fig.] : Tit/^.— [?] : 

Loc- [?] 
foRYZA, R. Tate [MS.]. 
osoiLLATOiiiA [group of C. crihraria (Lam.)], Sowerby [?]. 
OSELMONTE, P. L. Duclos, 1835 [Apr. 1840]: ^^Col-Oselmonte''. 

Hist. nat. Coq. univ., pi. vii, figs. 13-4 [no descr.] : Iyi'k.—\J\ : 

ioc— [?] 
osTREicoLA, J. C. MclviU [MS., = Sowerbj, sp.]. 
osTREicoLA, E. A. Smith [i.e., Sowerby, sp.]. , „ , , , . « 

osTREicoLA, G. B. Sowerby in, Jan. 17, 1882: " Cohmhella {AnaeJus) 

ostreicola, sp. nov. [MelviU MS.]": Proc. Zool Soc, 1882, 

pp. 119-20, pi. V, fig. 10: Tipy^.— Coll. J. C. Melvill : Lor.— 

"Florida, on Ostrea virginica (Melvill)." 
toTWAYENsis, R. Tate, July, 1895: '' Columhella Otivai/msis, Tate. 

m.s." : Trans. R. Soc. South Austral., vol. xix, p. 1 1 1 [name only] : 

TrpE.—[?^ : Zoc/.— Eocene : Cape Otway, Victoria. 
ouvEANA, J. Hervicr, Dec. 26, 1899: Columhella flava, Brug., var. 

ouveana, Herv. : Journ. Conchyl., vol. xlvu, p. 320: Type.— 

fColl. Societe de Marie, Lyons] : Zoc— Ouvea. 
ouvEENSis, J. Hervier, Dec. 26, 1899 : Columhella versicolor, Sby., 

var. oureensis, Herv. : Journ. Conchyl., vol. xlvii, pp. 310-1 : 
7',7.y7._[Coll. Societe de Marie, Lyons] : Zor.— Ouvea. 



TACE : ox THE COLUJIBELLID^. 117 

ovATA, J. Hervier, Dec. 26, 1899: Columhella amiranthim, 8m., var. 

ovata, Herv. : Journ. Conchyl., vol. xlvii, p. 315: Typje.— [Coll. 

Societe de Mario, Lyons] : Zoo. — Lifu. 
OVATA (W. H. Pease), June 27, 1865 : " Unffina ovata " : Proc. Zool. 

Soc, 1865, p. 513 [no %.] : Type.- [?] : Zac— " Islands of the 

Central Paciiie." 
ovuLATA, J. P. B. de Lamarck, Aug. 1822: " Colomhella ovulata" : 

Hist. nat. Anim. s. Yert., vol. vii, p. 295 [no fig.] : TYrE.—GoH. 

Lamarck : Zoo. — [?] 
OVULATA, Sowerby [i.e., Lamarck, sp.]. 
ovuLoiDES [= C. ovulata, Lam.], C. B. Adams, Jan. 1850 : " Colum- 

hella oniloides " : Contrib. Conch., vol. i, pp. 53-4 [no fig.] : 

TYPE.—\y Coll. Barrett] : Zoc— Turk's Is., Bahamas. 
ovvLoiDES, L. A. Eeeve [ = C. B. Adams, sp.], May, 1859 : Meta 

ovuloides, C. B. Ad., MS. : Conch. Icon., Meta, sp. 2 : Type.— 

(Co-types) Coll. Taylor ; Coll. Cuming [Brit. Mus., London]. 
oxiLLiA, P. L. Duclos [1846-58]: " C. IColomhella'] Oxillia" : in 

Chcnu, Illust. Conch., pi. xvii, figs. 9-10 [no descr.] : TYPE.—m : 

Zoo. — [?] 

foxiEYi, J. E. Tenison-Woods, 1877: '' Cohmhlla oxleiji. n.s." : 
Proc. B. Soc. Tasmania, 1876, p. Ill [no fig.] : Type.—IIu^. R. 
Soc. Tasmania, Hobart: Zoc— Tertiary : Table Cape, Tasmania. 
oxYLLiA [i.e., oxiUia'\, Duclos. 

PACEi [= C. Peasei, Herv., non Mart. &Langk.], J. C. Molvill [MS., 

non Melvill & Standen, 1896]. 
PACEI [= C. Steplieni, Melv. & St.], J. C. Melvill & R. Standen [nom. 

praeocc], Jfov. 12, 1896: " Cohmbella {Scmmella) Paceis]). nov.'' : 

Journ. Conch., vol. viii, pp. 275-6, pi. ix, fig. 5: TvPE.—m: 

Zoo. — Lifu. 
PACEI, E. A. Smith, .Inly, 1895: '' Coltimbella {Mitrella) Pacei" : 

Ann. :N'at. Hist., ser. vi, vol. xvi, pp. 5-6, pi. i, fig. 7 : Type. — 

[(Co-types) Indian Mus., Calcutta; Brit. Mus., London (!)] : Zoc. 

— Off the Coromandel Coast. 
rACHTDERiiA, P. P. Carpenter, 1857: '' Anackis {^ costellata var.) 

pachi/dcrma'' : Catal. Alazatl. Shells, sp. 6463 [no fig.]: Type.— 

Brit. Mus., London (Coll. Beigen tablets 2422-3) : Zoc— Mazatlan. 
PACSYDEPJiATA [\.Q.,j)achjderma\, Carpenter. 
PAcmcA, J. S. Gaskoin, 1851 [Oct. 28, 1852] : ''Columhella Pacifica'' : 

Proc. Zool. Soc, 1851, pp. 4-5 [no fig.]: Type.— Coll. Gaskoin: 

Zoc. — Sandwich Is. 
PADoyosTA [sp. indet.], P. L. Duclos, 1835 [Apr. 1840]: " Col.— 

Padonosta'' : Hist, nat. Con. univ., pL vi, figs. 3-4 [no descr. 1 : 

TYPE.—m : Zoc.—\:^ f ' = L J 

PMciLA [i.e., poscila'], Sowerby. 
fPALABUANENsis, K. Martin, 1858: ''Columhella (s.str.) palahiianensis 
spec, nov." : Eoss. Java, pp. 120-1, pi. xviii, fig. 273 : Type.— 
[Geol. Mus., Leyden]: Zoc— "Tji Djarian, beim Kampong 
Odeng [Java]." 



118 PROCEEDINGS OF THE MALACOLOGICAL SOCIEXl'. 

PALLEscENs [group of C. 7iodaUna, Duel.], A. "Wirnmer, 1880 : 

Columlellafuscata, ^by., "Varietas: pallescens, mihi": Sitzungsb. 

Akad. Wicn, vol. Ixxx, pt. 1, p. 481 [no fig.] : Type.—[_^ Mus. 

Yienna] : Loc. — Galapagos Is. 
PALLIDA, (x. P. Deshaycs, 1844 : " Columhclla pallida. Desh. [n.n. for 

C. nmia, Kien., non Dillw.]": in Lamarck, Hist. nat. Anim. s. 

Vert., 2nd ed., vol. x, pp. 278-9 [no fig.]: T'it^. — [Mus. 

Paris]: Zoc— [?] 
PALLIDA, W. H. Pease [?]. 
PALLIDA, R. A. Philippi, Apr. 184G : " Columhella pallida Ph." : 

Zcitschr. Malak., vol. iii, pp. 53-4 [no fig.] : Tit^.— [? Coll. 

Philippi] : Loc. — Mazatlan. 
PALLiDiOK, J. Hcrvier, Dec. 26, 1899 : Columhella articulata, Souv., 

var. pallidior, Hcrv. : Journ. Conch yl., vol. xlvii, p. 337 : Type. — 

[Coll. Societe de Marie, Lyons] : Lor. — Lifu. 
PALMEPIXA [group of C. pardaliua. Lam.], P. L. Duclos, 1835 [Apr. 

1840] : " Col. — Palmerina " : Hist. nat. Coq. univ., pi. i, figs. 15-6 

[no descr.] : Trpi?.— [?] : Xoc— [?] 
PALUMBiJs^v [group of C. turturina, Lam.], A. A. Gould, Jan. 1845: 

^'■Columhella palumiina'" : Proc. Boston Soc, vol. ii, p. 27 [no 

fig.] : Type.—\;^ : Zoc— Sandwich Is. 
PAMiLA, P. L. Duclos [1846-58]: " C. IColomhella'] PamiW : in 

Chenu, Illust. Conch., pi. xxii, figs. 11-2 [no descr.] : Tyj'E. — [?] : 

Loc.—m 
fPAPiLLiFERA (K. Martin), 1884: *' Foluta pajnllifera nov. spec": 

Samml. Gcol. Mus. Leiden, vol. iii, pp. 93-4, pi. v, fig. 94 : 

Type. — Coll. Van Dijk [Geol. Mus., Leyden] : Loc. — Ngembak, 

Java (Well-Boring ' B '). 
PARDALiNA, J. P. B. cle Lamai'ck, Aug. 1822 : " Colomhella pardalina " : 

Hist. nat. Anim. s. Vert., vol. vii, p. 295 [no fig.] : Type. — Coll. 

Lamarck : Loc. — [?] 
PAiwAi.iR [= C. sulcosa, Sby.], E. B. Hinds [MS.]. 
PAiiDALis i.e., pardalina^, Lamarck. 
PARioLiDA, P. L. Duclos, 1835 [Apr. 1840] : " Colomhella Pariolida " : 

Hist. nat. Coq. univ., pi. vi, figs. 1-2 [no descr.] : Type. — [?] : 

Loc.—m 
PABTHENicA [= C. Peasei , Marts. & Langk.], J. Hervicr, Dec. 26, 

1899: Columhella nanisca, Hew. vixr. 2^citi/i('nica, Herv." : Journ. 

Conchyl., vol. xlvii, p. 365 : Type. — [Coll. Societu de Marie, 

Lyons] : Loc. — Lifu. 
fpAEVA (H. C. Lea), Jan. 20, 1841: ^^ Piiccinu))) parvum" : Amer. 

Journ. Sci., vol. xl, p. 100, pi. i, fig. 17: Ti'pe. — [?] : Loo. — 

Eocene : Claiborne, Alabama. 
PAPVA ("W. H. Pease), Apr. 2, 1868 : " Engina parva, Pease " : Amer. 

Joum. Conch., vol. iii, p. 276, pi. 23, fig. 11 : TYPE.— m : Loc— 

Paumotus. 
PAuvA (W. H. Pease), Kov. 3, 1868: " Conus parvus, Pease [n.n. for 

C. ficsifonnis, Pse, 1860] " : Amer. Journ. Conch., vol. iv, p. 126 : 

Type. — [Coll. Cuming, Brit. Mus., London (!)] : Loc. — [Sand- 
wich Is.] 



PACE : ON THE COLUMBELLID^. 119 

fpARVA, F. Sacco, 1890 : " Columhlla {Anachis) parca Sacc." : in 

Bellardi, Mem. Accad. Torino, ser. ir, vol. xl, p. 349, pi. ii, fig. 77 : 

Type.— Gqo\. Mus., Tui'in : Loc. — Middle Miocene : " Colli 

torinesi, Monte dei Cappuccini." 
PAKYA, G. B. Sowerby i, [Sept.] 1844: " Columhella parva, noh.^' : 

Proc. Zool. Soc, 1844, p. 52 [no fig.]: Type.— Coll. Cuming 

[Brit. Mus., London]: Loc. — "Monte Christi, West Columbia" 

(Cuming). 
PAEVULA (W. Dunker), Apr. 1847 : " Buccinum [' Columhelliformia^~\ 

parvulum, Dkr." : Zeitschr. Malak., vol. iv, p. 64 [no fig.] : 

TYPE.—m : Loc.—'' Ind. occid. ? " 
fpAEvuLA (J. P. S. de Grateloup), May 20, 1833 : " Ftisus luccinoides. 

De Bast. Varietas b. parvuld. Nob." : Act. Soc. Linn. Bordeaux, 

vol. vi, p. 40 [no fig.]: Type.—[?']: Loc. — ''Possile a Dax. 

Faluns jaunes de St-Paul." 
fpARVuLA (J. P. S. de Grateloup), 1840 [1847]: " ^. \_£uccinum'] 

columlelloides. Var. b. parvula " : Conchyl. Terr. Tert. Adour, 

pi. 36, fig. 34 : Type. — ['?] : Loc. — Saubrigues, Dax. 
fpAKYULA [=C'. mitrceformis (Grat.)] (J. P. S. de Grateloup) [?]. 
fpAEVULOPLiCATA, F. Sacco, 1890 : " ColumheUa {Tetmstomella) inedita 

[Bellardi] \2a\ parvulopUcata, Sacc. [ = var. 'a,' Bellardi]": Boll. 

Soc. geol. Ital., vol. ix, p. 223 : Type. — [Geol. Mus., Turin] : 

Loc. — Tortonian. 
PAUMOTENSis, G. W. Tryou, jun., [July 18] 1883: " C. \_Cohimhella 

{Mitropsisy] Paumotensis, Tryon [n.n. for Mitropsis fusiformis, 

Pse.] " : Man. Conch., vol. v, p. 180, pi. 58, fig. 56 : Type.— 

[? Coll. Pease, Harvard Univ., Mass.] : Loc. — Paumotus. 
PArioLiDA [i.e., 2J(f>"iolida], Duclos. 
PAVONiNA, R. B. Hinds, [Oct.] 1844: '^ColumheUa pavonina^^ : 

Zool. Yoy. Sulphur, vol. ii, p. 39, pi. x, figs. 19-20 : Trp^.— [?] : 

Loc. — ? America. 
PAYTALWA [ = C. Paytensis, Less.], P. L. Duclos, 1835 [Apr. 1840] : 

" Col. — Paytalida''^ : Hist. nat. Coq. univ., pi. v, figs. 11-2 [no 

descT.]: Type.-^: Zoc— [?] 
PATTENSis, B. P. Lesson, 1830: " Cohimbella pai/tom's, Iiess.'^ : Zool. 

Voy. Coquille, vol. ii, pt. 1, pp. 402-3 [no fig.] : Type. — [ ? Mus. 

Paris] : Loc. — Payta, Peru. 
PAYTiLiDA [i.e., Paytalida\ Duclos. 
PEASEi, J. Hervier \jion Marts. & Langk.], Dec. 26, 1899 : " ColumheUa 

Peasei, v. Martens": Journ. Conchyl., vol. xlvii, pp. 368-71, 

pi. xiv, figs. 9-95 : Type. — [Coll. Societe de Marie, Lyons] : 

Loc. — Lifu. 
PEASEI, E. V. Martens & B. Langkavel, 1871 : " Colunibella (Seminella) 

Peasei nobis [n.n. for Cyihara varia, Pse.] " : Donum Bismarck., 

p. 23, pi. i, fig. 17: Trpi?. — [ ? CoU. Friederichs-AVerderschen 
.Gymnas., Berlin] : Loc. — " Sandwich Inseln." 
fpECTJLiAEis, II. J. L. Guppy, Sept. 1874: " ColumheUa 2)eculiaris" : 

Geol. Mag., 1874, p. 411, pi. xviii, fig. 20: TYPE.—[y] : Loc— 

"Pliocene, Trinidad." 



120 I'ROCKEDIXGS OF XUIO MALACOLOGICAL SOCIET\. 

PEDicuLus, T. di Montcrosato, 1878 : Coliimbella Brisei, Brus., var. 

^' pedicidus, Monts." : Giorn. Soc. Palermo, vol. xiii, p. 104: 

Typji. — [?J : Zoc. — Coast of Barbary ; Palermo. 
PEDICULUS, Scacclii [?]. 
fpiiDROANA (T. A. Conrad), 1855: " iV. \_Nass(f\ pedroana, Con.": in 

Elake, Expl. Surv. Eailr. lloutc Mississipi Pacific, Prelim. Geol. 

Pep. [House Doc. 129], App., p. 17 [no lig.] : rr/v;.— [?] : 

Loc. — " San Pedro. Eecent formation." 

PELAGIA, L. A. Reeve, Apr. 1859: '■'■ Colimihella pelagia'''' : Conch. 
Icon., sp. 238 : Tyve.—^oW. Cuming [Brit. Mus., London (?)] : 

Loc.—\;i~\ 

PELEEi [group of C. mercatoria (Linn.)], L. C. Kiener [1841] : 
" ColumheUa peleei, Nobis" : Spec. gen. Coq. viv., sp. 20, pp. 24-5, 
pi. V, fig. 2 : Type. — Mus. Paris : Loc. — Martinique. 

PELEEI, L. A. Eeeve [i.e., Kiener, sp.]. 

I^PELLONIA [sp. indet.], P. L. Duclos [1846-58]: " C. \_Colomhella\ 
Fellonia" : in Chcnu, Illust. Conch., pi. xviii, figs. 17-8 [no 
descr.]: TvPE.—[;?y. Zoc— [?] 

PELLUCiBA [group of C. roHda, Eve.], W. H. Pease, 18G0 : " Colum- 
bella pellucida, Pease": Proc. Zool. Soc, 1860, p. 399 [no fig.] : 
Ttpe. — Coll. Cuming [Brit. Mus., London] : Loc. — Sandwich Is. 

PELLUCIDA [ = Nassid8e], L. A. Eeeve, Apr. 1859: " Colnmhella pel- 
lucida^^ : Conch. Icon., sp. 199: Type. — Coll. Cuming [Brit. Mus., 
London (!)] : Loc—l^] 

i>el'>tj.va[? group of C. pardalina, Lam.], P. L. Duclos, 1835 [Apr. 
1840] : " Col. Felotina'' : Hist. nat. Coq. univ., pi. ii, fiss. 5-6 
[no descr.] : Type.—[?^ : Loc.—[?] 

PENiciLLATA, P. P. Carpenter, May, 1865: "? AnacMs penicillata 
[n.sp.] " : Ann. Nat. Hist., ser. iii, vol. xv, p. 398 [no fig.] : 
Type.— Coll Boyce, Utica, N.Y. : Zoc— Sta. Barbara (Jewett) ; 
S. Diego, Catalina I. (Cooper). 

fpEKACUTESPiKATA, F. Sacco, 1890: '■'■ColumheUa {ColumheUa) curta 
xax. jieracutespirata Sacc. [ = var. ' b,' Bellardi] " : Boll. Soc. geol. 
Ital., vol. ix, p. 222 : Type.— [Gcoi. Mus., Turin] : Loc— 
Helvetian. 

fPERFEEviDA, W. H. Dall, Dcc. 1900: "■ Astyris perfenida Dall": 
Trans. Wagner Inst., vol. iii, p. 1197 [no descr.], pi. xli, fig. 10 : 
Type. — ['?] : Loc. — " Oligocene sands of Oak Grove, Florida." 

PEKMAGNA, W. H. Dall [?]. 

PERMODESTA, W. H. Dall, Mar. 7, 1890 : " ColumheUa \_Astyris'\ 
permodesta sp. nov." : Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus., vol. xii, pp. 327-8, 
pi. v, fig. 4: Type.—\J.^. Nat. Mus., Washington: Zoc— "Off 
the Santa Barbara Islands California." 

PEEPiCTA, W. H. Dall, 1901: ^^ ColumheUa perpicta, n.sp.": Bull. 
U.S. Fish Comm., 1900, vol. i, p. 405, pL 57, fig. 12 : Type.— 
U.S. Nat. Mus., Washington: Zoc — "Mayaguez, Porto Eico, not 
uncommon in about 100 fathoms." 



PACE : ON THE COLUMBELLID^. 121 

PERSiGXATA [gToup of C. varimis, Sby.], J. Hervier, Dec. 26, 1899: 

ColumheUa poicila^ Sby., var. persignata, Herv. : Journ. Conchyl., 

vol. xlvii, p. 313: Type. — [Coll. Societe de Marie, Lyons]: 

Loc. — Lifu. 
PERTUSA, L. A. Reeve, Apr. 1859: '■'■ ColumheUa pertma'''' : Conch.. 

Icon., sp. 161: Type. — Coll. Cuming [Erit. Mus., London (!)]: 

Loc. — (Guatemala. 
PERVERSA [=C. nivea, Sby.], W. Kobelt [ex. err.], 1897 [1895]: 

" ColumheUa [Stromhina) perversa m. [n.n. for C. nivea, live, nan 

Sby.] " : in Martini & Chemnitz, Conch. Cab., p. 189, pi. xxvi, fig. 6: 

Type.— [Qoll. Cuming, Brit. Mus., London] : Loc.—\J'] 
jpETEEsi, V. Hilber, 1879 : " ColumheUa Petersi, R. Hoern. u. Ailing, in 

Coll." : Sitzungsb. Akad. Wien., vol. Ixxix, pp. 420-1, pi. i, fig. 2 : 

Type. — Hof-Minerali en- Cabinet, Vienna: Loc. — St. Florian, 

Steiermark. 
■\fetersi, R. Hoernes & M. Auinger [MS., = Hilber, sp.]. 
PFEiFFERi [ = ]S'assid8e] (R. A. Philippi), July, 1844: '■'• Buceinum 

Pfeifferi, Ph.": Zeitschr. Malak., vol. i, p. Ill [no fig.]: 

Type.— {;}']: Zoa-[?] 
PHALAENA (R. P. Lesson), Aug. 1842: "5. \_Buccinum~\ plialaena., 

Lesson " : Rev. Zool. Cuv. Soc., vol. v, p. 237 [no fig.]: Type.—\^'\ : 

Loc. — A capulco . 
PHASiNOLA \_ = Engma\ P. L. Duclos, 1835 [Apr. 1840]: ''Col. — 

Phasinola'''' : Hist. nat. Coq. univ., pl.viii, tigs. 13-6 [no descr.] : 

Type.—[?^ : Loc.—l?^ 
PHAULA, J. C. Melvill & R. Standen, June 18, 1901 : " ColumheUa 

(Seminella) phaula, sp.n." : Proc. Zool. Soc., 1901, p. 405, 

pi. xxiii, fig. 6 : Type. — [Brit. Mus., London (!)] : Loc. — 

Karachi. 
PHiLiA [sp. indet.], P. L. Duclos [1846-58] : " C. IColomhelW] 

Plulia " : in Chenu, lUust. Conch., pi. xvi, figs. 3-4 [no descr.] : 

TYPE.-m-. Loc.—m 

PHiLippiANA [group of C. eximia, Rve.], W. Dunker [MS.]. 
fpHiLippii, G. Seguenza ['?MS.]. 

PHiLiPPiNARUM, Recluz [i.e., Reeve, sp.]. 

philippinarum\_= C. epameUa, Duel.], L. A. Reeve, 1842 [Feb. 1843] : 
" ColumheUa Plulippinarum " : Proc. Zool. Soc., 1842, p. 199 
[no fig.] : TYPE.—^Yxt. Mus., London [!] : Xoc;.— [?] 

PHiLODiciA, P. L. Duclos [1846-58] : " C. \Colomhella~] PhUodicia " : 
in Chenu, Illust. Conch., pi. xv, tigs. 7-8 [no descr.] : Type. — [?] : 

Loc.—m 

PHYLiNA, P. L. Duclos [1846-58] : " C. [^Colomhella'] Phjlina''' : in 

Chenu, Illust. Conch., pi. xv, figs. 9-10 [no descr.] : Type. — [?] : 

Zoc— [?] 
PIC at A [= C. ovulata, Lam.], W. Swainson, 1840 : " \_Conella^ picata 

Sw.": Treatise Malac, p. 312, fig. 17«: Type.—\J\: Zoc— [?] 
PICTA [group of C. pardalina, Lam.], L. A. Reeve, Feb. 1859: 

" ColumheUa picta'''' : Conch. Icon., sp. 146: Type. — Coll. Cuming 

[Brit. Mus., London (!)] : Zoc— [?] 



122 riiOCKEDIXGS OF TUE MALACULOGICAL SOCIETY. 

PICTA [i.e., picata'], Swaiuson. 

PICTA, W. Turton, 1826: '■'■ Pihrpura pida'''' \ Zool. Jouru., vol. ii, 

pp. 365-6, pi. xiii, fig. 8: 2'iTi?.— Coll. Turton : Zoc— British 

Channel. 
PiCTUEATA, J. Hcrvier, Dec. 26, 1899 : Coliuahellu pardalina^ Lam., 

var. pichirtda, Herv. : Journ. Couchyl., vol. xlvii, p. 307 : TyPE. — 

[Coll. Societo do Marie, Lyons] : Loc. — Lifu. 
piLoSA [i.e.,,^/osff], Angas. 
piNGUis, J. Hervier, Dec. 26, 1899: " Columhella pinguis, J. Hervier" : 

Journ. Conchyl., vol. xlvii, pp. 384-6, pi. xiv, fig. 3 : Type. — 

[Coll. Societo de Marie, Lyons] : Loc. — Lifu. 
fpisANiopsis, F. W. Hutton, May, 1885: '■'■ Columhella jf'isaniojysis 

[n.sp.] " : Trans. New Zealand Inst., vol. xvii, p. 314 [no fig.] : 

TYPE.—m : Zoc— Pctane, N.Z. 
PLANAXiFOHMis \_= C bichicta, Gld.], G. B. Sowerby iir, Oct. 1894 : 

" Columbella {Amycla) planaxiformis, n.sp." : Proc. Malac. Soc, 

vol. i, p. 153, pi. xii, fig. 1 : Type. — [Brit. Mus., London (!)] : 

Loc— Hong Kong Harbour. 
PLEEi [i.e., Fclcei'], Kiener. 
PLEUKOXOMOiDES, H. A. Pilsbry, 1895 : " Columhella [Atilia ?) pleuro- 

tomoidcs, n.sp." : Catal. Mar. Moll. Japan, p. 39, pi. i, fig. 6 : J'YrE. — 

[Acad. Philadelphia]: Loc. — " Banda, Boshiu [Japan]." 
PLiCAKiA [group of C. Marqm'sa, Gask.], A. Montrouzicr, July 1, 1862 : 

" Col uinhdla 'pl icaria^ Montr." : in Souverbie & Montrouzier : Journ. 

Conchyl., vol. x, pp. 234-6, pi. ix, fig. 3 : Type. — Mus., Bordeaux : 

Loc. — Art L, New Caledonia. 
PLiCATULA, W. Dunker, Mar. 1853: '■'■ Buccinum {Columhella) plicatulmn 

Dkr." : Zeitschr. Malak., vol. x, pp. 58-9 [no fig.] : 7'rPA'.— [?] : 

Zoc.—" Puerto Cabello." 
piiCATULA, AY. Dunker, Aug. 1871 \_non Dunker, 1853] : " Columhella 

{Nitidella) plicatida Dkr." : Malak. Blatt., vol. xviii, p. 158 [no 

tig.] : Type. — Coll. Godeffroy [Mus. Hamburg] : Loc. — Yiti. 
PLUKisuLCATA, L. A. Eeevo, Apr. 1859: '■'■ Columbella plurisidcata'''' : 

Conch. Icon., sp. 233 : Type.— GoW. Taylor [Brit. Mus., London (!)] : 

Loc.—m 

PLUTONiDA [ = C. fenestrata, C. B. Ad.], P. L. Duclos [1846-58] : 

" C. [Colomhella^ Plutonida'^ : in Chenu, Illust. Conch., pi. xvi, 

figs. 1-2 [no descr.] : Type.—[?] : Zrvc— [?] 
pcEciLA, G. B. Sowerby i, [Sept.] 1844 : " Cohimhella poecila., nob." : 

Proc. Zool. Soc, 1844, pp. 48-9 [no fig.]: T'lvv;.— Coll. Cuming 

[Brit. Mus., London] : Loc. — Matnog (Cuming). 
\P0LITA (H. Broun.) [ ? = Ilenicri, sp.], 1827 : " \_Fusus]politus nob. 

[ = Murex politus, Ren., M. subulatus, Brocchi] " : Zeitschr. 

Mineral., 1827, pt. ii, p. 534 [name only] : Type. — [?] : Loc. — 

" Subapennincn-Formazion der Gcgend von Castell' arquato im 

Piacentinischen . ' ' 
fpoLriA (P. Calcara), 1841 : '^ Fusus politus. Bvonu .... Murex 

subulatus, Broc." : Mem. Conch, foss. Altavilla, p. 56 [no fig.] : 

Type.—I?'] : Zoc— Altavilla. 



PACE : ON THE COLXJMBELLIDiE. 123 

POLiTA (F. J. Cantraino), 1835: '■'■ Buccinum politum \_=ILurex 

politus, Renieri] " : Bull. Acad, Bruxelles, vol. ii, p. 392 [no fig.] : 

TYPE.—m : Zoc— [?] 
POLITA, G. & H. Nevill, [Oct. 26] 1875: '' Zafm polita, n.sp." : 

Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. xliv, pt. ii, p. 97, pi. viii, fig. 5 : 

Type. — Indian Mus., Calcutta: Loo. — Mauritius. 
^POLITA, E. A. Philippi [i.e., Bronn., sp.]. 
POLITA, L. A. Reeve, Apr. 1859 : " Columbella polita " : Conch. Icon,, 

sp. 221 : Type.— GoW. Taylor [Brit. Mus., London (!)] : Zo6\— [?] 
POLITA, S. Renieri [?]. 
fpoLONiCA (G. G. Pusch), 1837: "JYassa columhelloides, Basterot. Var. 

polonica m." : Polens Paliiont., p. 123, pi. xi, fig. 9 : Type. — [?] : 

Loc. — Korytnice ; VolhjTiien. 
POLYCHROA, J. Hervier, Dec. 26, 1899: Columbella alhina., Kien., var. 

polycliroa.! Herv. : Journ. Conchyl., vol. xlvii, p. 322 : Type. — 

[Coll. Societe de Marie, Lyons] : Loc. — Lifu. 
fpoLYGiKATOSPiEA, F. Sacco, 1890: " Columbella [Mitrella) erythrostoma 

var. polygiratosjnra Sacc. [=var. 'b,' Bellardi] " : Boll. Soc. 

geol. Ital, vol. ix, p. 223 : Type. — [Geol. Mus., Turin] : Loc. — 

Upper Pliocene (Astian). 
POLYNYMA [group of C. terpsichore, Sby.], H. A. Pilsbry, March, 1901 : 

" Columbella polynyma n.n. [for C. inisera, Dkr. non Sby.] " : 

Proc. Acad. Philad., vol. liii, pp. 196-7 [no fig.] : Type. — Acad. 

Philadelphia (Jfo. 80,556) : Loc. — " Kumihama, prov. Tango 

[Japan]" (Y. Hirase). 
fpoKCATA, P. Fischer & R. Tournouer, Jan. 1873 : " Columbella porcata, 

Fischer et Tournouer " : Journ. Conchyl., vol. xxi, pp. 70-1, pi. vi, 

fig. 9 ['f. 1' in text]: Trpi?.— [?] : Zoc. —Upiier Miocene: 

Cabrieres, Vaucluse. 
POECATA, L. A. Reeve, Apr. 1859: " Columbella porcata'''' : Conch. 

Icon., sp. 195 : Type. — Coll. Cuming [Brit. Mus., London] : 

Zoc— [?] 
fpoRTisir, F. Sacco, 1890 : " Columbella {Macrurella) piortisii, Sacc." : 

in Bellardi, Mem. Accad. Torino, ser. ii, vol, xl, p, 340, pi. ii, 

fig. 59 : Type. — Geol. Mus., Rome (Coll. Michelotti) : Loc. — 

Middle Miocene : " Colli di Albugnano." 
fpEiECEDENS, L. Bellardi, 1890 : " Columbella {Mitrella) prcecedens 

Bell." : Mem. Accad. Torino, ser. ii, vol. xl, p. 329, pi. ii, 

fig. 32 : Type. — Geol. Mus., Turin : Loc. — Upper Miocene : 

" Colli tortonesi, S. Agata fossili, Stazzano." 
PEETEii, p. L. Duclos [1846-58]: " 6'. \_Colombella'] PretrW : in 

Chenu, Illust. Conch., pi. xvi, figs. 7-8 [no descr.] : Type. — [?] : 

Loc.—m 

fpEiMA (0. Meyer), May 31, 1887: '■'■ Dentiterebra prima n.sp.": 
Proc. Acad.' Philad., 1887, p. 52, pi. iii, fig. 2: Type.—^oW. 
0. Meyer: Loc. — Eocene : " Claiborne, Ala." 
PEOCELLAEUM, J. Hervicr, Dec. 26, 1899 : " Columbella procellarum., 
J. Hervier " : Journ. Conchyl., vol. xhdi, pp. 349-50, pi. xiii, 
fig. 5 : Type. — [Coll. Societe de Marie, Lyons] : Loc. — Lifu 
(Goubin). 



124 PKOCEEDINGS OF THE MALACOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

PKOCKUA, A. Locard, 1886 : " Columhella proccra, jS'ov. sp. [n.n. 

for C. rustiea (Linn.), var. elongata, Phil.] " : Prodr. Malac. Fr., 

Moll. Mar., pp. 101, 538-9 [no fig.]: rrr^.— [yColl. Locard]: 

Loc. — Mediterranean [various localities]. 
PEOCEKA, G. E. Sowerby i, [Aug. 14] 1832: " Columbella procera" : 

Proc. Zool. 8oc., 1832, p. 119 [no fig.] : Type.— CoW. Cuming 

[Brit. Mus., London] : Loc. — Panama. 
fpRocoRRUGATA, F. Sacco, 1890: " Columbella {Anachis) procorrugata 

Hacc." : in Bellardi, Mem. Accad. Torino, ser. ii, vol. xl, p. 349, 

pi. ii, fig. 76 : TiTK. — Gcol. Mus., Turin : Loc. — ^liddlc Miocene : 

" Colli toriucsi, llio della Batteria (Val Halice), Villa Forzano." 
PKODUCTA, J. Hervier, Dec. 26, 1899 : Columhella lachryma, Gask., 

\ixv. producta, Herv. : Journ. Conchyl., vol. xlvii, p. 381 : Tvi'E. — 

[Coll. Societe de Marie, Lyons] : Loc. — Lifu. 
fpRonrcTESPiRATA, F. Sacco, 1890: '■'■Columhella {Columhella) curta 

var. productespirata, Sacc. [=var. ' c,' Bellardi]": Boll. Soc. 

geol. Ital., vol. ix, p. 222 : Type. — [Geol. Mus., Turin] : Log. — 

Helvetian. 
fpROELONGATA, F. Sacco, 1890: " Columhella {Orthurella) proelongata, 

Sacc." : in Bellardi, Mem. Accad. Torino, ser. ii, vol. xl, p. 344, 

pi. ii, tig. 68 : TrPE.—Gtiol. Mus., Eomc (Coll. Michelotti) : 

Loc. — Middle Miocene : " Colli di Albugnano." 
PROFUNDI, AV. H. Dall, Mar. 8, 1889: ^' Astyr is profundi n.s." : 

Bull. Mus. Harvard, vol. xviii, p. 192, pi. xxxv, tig. 3 : Type. — 

'Blake' Coll. [U.S. Nat. Mus., Washington] : Loc.—'' Off MoiTO 

Light, Havana." 
fpROLixA, L. Bellardi, 1890: "Columhella {Mitrella) prolixa Bell.": 

Mem. Accad. Torino, ser. ii, vol. xl, p. 333, pi. ii, fig. 41 : Type. — 

Geol. Mus., Turin: Log. — Upper Pliocene: "Colli Astesi, Valle 

Andona." 
fpRONAssoiDKs, F. Sacco, 1890: " Columhella {Macrurella) pronassoides, 

Sacc." : in Bellardi, Mem. Accad. Torino, ser, ii, vol. xl, pp. 342-3, 

pi. ii, fig. 66 : Type. — Geol. Mus., Turin : Loc. — " Colli tortonesi, 

S. Agata foss., Stazzano " (Upper Miocene); " Savona Fornaci" 

(Lower Pliocene). 
PROPiNQUA [group of C. pardalina (Lam.)], E. A. Smith, June 16, 

1891 : " Columhella 2»'opinqua" : Proc. Zool. Soc, 1891, pp. 405-6, 

pi. xxxiii, fig. 3 : 2'ype. — Brit. Mus., London [!] : Loc. — Aden. 
PStuPiSQUANS [i.e., 2)ropinqua\ Smith. 
fpRoscABRA, F. Sacco, 1890 : " Columhella (Scahrella) j}roscabra 

Sacc." : in Bellardi, Mem. Accad. Torino, ser. ii, vol. xl, p. 347 

[no fig.] : Type. — Geol. Mus., Home (Coll. Michelotti) : Loc. — 

Middle Miocene : " Albugnano." 
PROSCRiPTA, E. A. Smith, Apr. 1, 1890: "Columhella {Blitrella) 

proscripta" : Proc. Zool. Soc, 1890, p. 308, pi. xxiv, fig. 12: 

Type. — Brit. Mus., London [!] : IjOC. — St. Helena (on floating 

sea-weed). 
piiOSYMxiA [sp. indet.], P. L. Duclos [1846-58]: " C. \_Colomhella'] 

Prosi/mnia " : in Chenu, Illust. Conch., pi. xxvi, figs. 7-8 [no 

descr.] : T'yp^.— [?] : Zoc— [?] 



pace: on the columbellid.i;. 125 

frKoxiJiA, L. Bellardi, 189U : " Cohimbella (Macrurella) 2^^'oxinw- 
Bell." : Mem. Accad. Torino, ser. ii, vol. xl, p. 342, pi. ii, fig. 65 : 
TrPE. — Gcol. Mils., Turin: Zoc— Middle Miocene: "Colli 
torinesi, Val Ceppi." 

fpsEUDOscEiPTA, A. d'Orbiguy, 1852: ^'- [^CoIuiiiheUa^ psendo-scripta, 
d'Orb. 1847 [n.n. for C. scripta, Bellardi, non Lam.] " : Prodr. 
Paleont. Stratigr., vol. iii, p. 175 [no fig.] : Type. — [?] : Loc. — 
" Astezan." 

P8ILLA [? = C. haccafa, Gask.], P. L. Duclos [1846-58]: " T'. 
Colomhella\ Psilla" : in Chenu, Illiist. Conch., pi. xv, tigs. 5-6 
"no descr.] : Type. — ['?] : Loc. — ['?] 

PSILLA [? = C. Loyaltyensis, Herv.], J. Hervier [wom Duel.], Dec. 26, 
1899: " Colmnhclla psilla, Duclos" : Journ. Conchyl., vol. xlvii, 
pp. 345-7 [no tig.] : Type. — Coll. Societe do Marie, Lyons] : 
Loc. — Lifu. 

PUDiCA, J. Brazier, [Feb.] 1877 : " Columhclla {Amycla) pudica, 
n.sp." : Proc. Linn. Soc. New South Wales, vol. i, pp. 231-2 
[no tig.]: Trpzr.— ' Chevert ' Coll. [Macleay Mus., Sydney, 
N.S.W. (!)] : Zo6'.— Darnley I., Torres Straits. 

PUELLA, L. A. Reeve [= Sowerby, sp.], Oct. 1858: Columlella 
puclla, Sowerby MS. : Conch. Icon., sp. 65 : Type. — Coll. Cuming 
[Brit. Mus., London] : Loc. — "Philippine Islands." 

PUELLA, G. B. Sowerby i, [Sept.] 1844 : " Columlella Pnella, nob." : 
Proc. Zool. Soc, 1844, p. 52 [no fig.] : Trpi?.— Coll. Cuming 
[Brit. Mus., London (!)] : Loc. — I. of Burias (Cuming). 

PULCHELLA (H. D. de Blainville) [Aug. 1, 1829]: " Biiccimim. 
pulchellum^' : Faune Frang., Moll., pp. 178-9, pi. 7, fig. 4 
['fig. 7-8' in text]: Type.— Coll. Deshayes : Zoc._" De la 
Mediterranee " [erroneous]. 
fpuLCHELLA (F. Dujardin), 1835: "■ Buccinum pidchelliim. Duj." : 
Mem. Soc. geol. France, vol. ii, pt. 1, p. 299 [no fig.] : 
Type. — [?] : Loc. — Faluns : Touraine. 

PULCHELLA, L. C. Kieuer [i.'e., Blainville, sp.]. 

PULCHELLA, G. B. Soworby I [ = Blainville, sp.], 1844 : " Col.pulchella, 
nob Buccm. pulchellum, Kiener " : Thes. Conch., sp. 57 : 

TYPE.—m-. Loc.—m 

PULCHEKRiMA, G. B. Sowcrby I, [Ang. 14] 1832: '■'■Columlella 
pulcherrima'''' : Proc. Zool. Soc, 1832, p. 113 [no fig.]: Type. — 
Coll. Cuming [Brit. Mus,, London]: Loc. — Gulf of Dulce, 
C. America. 

PULCHBA (L. A. Reeve), Aug. 1846: '■'■ Ricinula pulchra'''' : Conch. 

Icon., Ricinula, sp. 20: Type. — Coll. Cuming [Brit. Mus., 

London]: Loc. — "Island of Capul, Philippines (on the reefs 

at low water) ; Cuming." 
puLCHRioR, C. B. Adams, July, 1852: '■'■ Columhella pulchrior, Nov. 

sp." : Ann. Lye. New York, vol. v, p. 320 [no fig.] : Type.— 

[Amherst College, Mass.] : Loc. — Panama. 



126 PROCEEDINGS OF THE MALACOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

PULCHRIOK, P. P. Carpenter [7ion C. B. Ad.], Aug. 1804: " Anachis 

pukknor fC. B. Ad.]": Kept. Brit. Assoc., 1863, p. 626 [name 

only] : Tvpj:. — Smithsonian Inst., Washington : Loc. — Cape 

St. Lucas (Xantus). 
PULTCARis, A. Lesson, June, 1842 : " C, \_Columhella^ Palicaris, 

Less ": Rev. Zool. Cuv. Soc, 1842, pp. 185-6 [no fig.] : Type.— 

[? Coll. Lesson] : Loc. — " lies Marquises." 
PULLA, J. S. Gaskoin, 1851 [Oct. 28, 1852]: " Columbella pulla'' : 

Proc. Zool. Soc, 1851, pp. 6-7 [no fig.] : 'Tvp/:. — Coll. Gaskoin: 

Zoc— [?] 
rvLLVLA, J. Hervier, Dec. 26, 1899 : Columhella psilla, Duel. 

[Hervier, sp.], var. pullula, Herv. : Journ. Conchyl., vol. xlvii, 

p. 346 : Type. — [Coll. Societe de Marie, Lyons] : Loc. — Lifii. 
PUMILA, W. Dunker, Jan. 1860: " Columlella pumila Dkr.": Malak. 

Blatt., vol. vi, pp. 224-5 [no fig.]: TrPi?. — [Univ. Mus., 

Heidelberg]: Loc. — Decima, Japan. 
PUMILA, Montrouzier [i.e., Souverbie, sp.]. 
pujiiLA [= C. regulus, Souv.], M. Souverbie [nom. prffiocc], July 1, 

1863 : " Columhella pumila, Souv." : in Souverbie & Monti'ouzicr, 

Journ. Conchyl., vol. xi, i)p. 281-2, pi. xii, fig. 4 : Type. — Mus. 

Bordeaux : Loc. — " Bale Boisee," New Caledonia. 
puMiLio [?= C. nivea, Sby.], L. A. Eeeve, Feb. 1859 : " Columhella 

pumilio^' : Conch. Icon., sp. 147 [the figure is reversed] : Type. — 

Coll. Cuming [Brit. Mus., London (!)] : Loc. — Cumana, Venezuela. 
pUiSrcTATA (J. G. Bruguiere) [1789]: '■'■ Buccinum punctatum; !N"ob." : 

Ency. meth.. Vers, vol. i, p. 281 [no fig.] : I'ype. — [?] : Loc. — 

" La cote Est de I'Afrique." 
PUNCTATA [? = C. pidchrior, C. B. Ad.] (L. C. Kiener) [1834]: 

'■'■ Buccinum punctatum, Nobis": Spec. gen. Coq. \i\., Buccinum, 

sp. 73, p. 74, pi. xiv, fig. 51 : Type. — Coll. Massena : Loc. — [?] 
PUNCTATA \_ = C. fulgurans. Lam.], J. P. B. de Lamarck, Aug. 1822: 

" Colotnhelln punctata^'' : Hist. nat. Anim. s. Vert., vol. vii, p. 297 

[no fig.]: Type. — Coll. Lamarck: Loc. — " Habite I'Ocean indien." 
PUNCTATA [i.e., punctulata], Risso. 
PUNCTATA [group of Cflttvu (Brug.)], G. B. Sowerby i \jion Brug., 

nee Sby. 1844], 1820-5 [1822]: " C. IColumlella^^ 2^^^^^ctata ; 

Buccinum punctatum, Brug.": Genera Rec. & Foss. Shells, vol. ii, 

(No. ix) pi. 248, fig. 5 : TYPE.—\y] : Loc.—[;^'] 
PUNCTATA ['?= r. fasciata, Sby.], G. B. Sowerby i. [Sept.] 1844 

'no7i Sowerby, sp. 1822]: " Columhella punctata'''' : Thes. Conch., 

'index] sp. 59 [' Col. guttata, nob.' in text] : Type. — (Co-types) 

Coll. Norris; Coll. Stainforth : Zoc— [?] 
fpuNCTOSTRiATA, C. W. Johuson, Apr. 17, 1899: " Columhella jmncto- 

st ri at a n.sTp. '" : Proc. Acad. Philad., 1899, p. 76, pi. ii, fig. 4: 

Type. — 'Isaac Lea' Coll., Acad. Philadelphia: Loc. — Lower 

Claiborne Beds : Berryman's Place, three miles north-east of Alto, 

Cherokee Co., Texas. 
PUNCTULATA, Linnccus [i.e., Risso, sp.]. 



PACE : ON THE COLTJMBELLIDiE. 127 

PUNCXULATA, A. Risso, 1826: '* C. \_Cohimhella] pimdulata" '. Hist. 

nat. Europe merid., vol. iv, p. 206 [no fig.] : Type. — Mus. Paris : 

Loa. — S. Europe. 
PUNGENS, A. A. Gould, Sept. 1860 : " ColumheUa {Stromhina) 

pungens " : Proc. Boston Soc, vol. vii, p. 336 [no fig.] : Type. — 

[U.S. Nat. Mus., Washington] : Loc. — ^t. Lloyd, Bonin Is. 
PUPA, G. B. Sowerby in, Oct. 1894 : " ColumleUa (Mifrella?) pupa, 

n.sp." : Proc. Malac. Soc. London, vol. i, pp. 153-4, pi. xii, fig. 2 : 

Type. — [Brit. Mus., London] : Loc. — Hong Kong harbour. 
pupoiDEA, H. Adams, Jan. 2, 1872 : '■'■ Zafra pupoidea, sp. nov." : Proc. 

Zool. Soc, 1872, p. 14, pi. iii, fig. 27 : Type. — Coll. Hargraves 

[Australian Mus., Sydney, N.S.W.] : Loc. — New Hebrides. 
PURA, A. E. Yerrill, June, 1882 : '•'■ Astyris pura Verrill, sp. nov." : 

Trans. Connect. Acad., vol. v, p. 515 [no fig.]: Type. — [?U.S. 

Nat. Mus., Washington]: Loc. — "Off ^Martha's Vineyard; off 

Chesapeake Bay." 
PURPUPASCExs [_— C. dormitor, Sby.], C. B. Adams, Jan. 1845: 

" ColumleUa purpurascens^'' : Proc. Boston Soc., vol. ii, p. 2 [no 

fig.]: Type. — [? Coll. Adams] : Loc. — Jamaica. 
prRPDEEA [group of C. Peasei, Marts. & Langk.], H. Adams, Feb. 

1873: '■^ Zafra purpurea, sp. nov.": Proc. Zool. Soc, 1873, 

p. 206, pi. xxiii, fig. 3 : Type. — Coll. Hargraves [Australian Mus., 

Sydney, N.S.W. (!)] : Loc.—^q^ Hebrides. 
PUEPUROIDES, H. E. Anton, 1839: "■ \_Columhella~] purpuroides mihi": 

Verzeichn. Conch., sp. 2852 [no fig.]: Type. — Coll. Anton: 

Loc.—m 

pusiFOBMis \\.Q., fusiformis], Pease, 

pusiLLA (W. H. Pease), 1860: '•'■ Gythara pusilla [n.sp.]": Proc. 

Zool. Soc, 1860, p. 147 [no fig.] : TYPE.—\ji Coll. Pease, Harvard 

Univ., Mass.] : Loc. — Sandwich Isles. 
PUSILLA [group of C. Marquesa, Gask.] (AV. H. Pease), 1860: 

'■'■ Bistorsio pusilla. Pease": Proc. Zool. Soc, 1860, p. 397 [no 

fig.]: Type. — Coll. Cuming [Brit. Mus., London]: Loa. — 

Sandwich Is. 
PUSILLA, W. H. Pease, Nov. 11, 1862 : " ColumheUa pusilla [n.sp.] " : 

Proc. Zool. Soc, 1862, p. 244 [no fig.] : Type. —\;i Coll. Pease, 

Harvard Univ., Mass.] : Loc. — " Kingsmill Islands." 
PUSILLA (L. Pfciffer), 1840: ^' Buccinum pusillum, Pfr." : Ai'ch. 

Naturg., vol. vi, p. 257 [no fig.] : Type. — [?] : Loc. — Cuba. 
PUSILLA [group of C. lunata, Sby.], G. B. Sowerby i, [Sept.] 1844: 

" ColumleUa pusilla, nob." : Proc. Zool. Soc, 1844, p. 53 [no 

fig.] : ri7^£.— Coll. Cuming [Brit. Mus., London] : Loc.—^\.. 

Vincent's, W. Indies (L. Guildlng). 
pusioLA, W. Dunker, Aug. 1871 : " ColumheUa {Anachis) pusiola 

Dkr." : Malak. Bliitt., vol. xviii, pp. 157-8 [no fig.]: Type. — 

Coll. Godeffroy [Mus. Hamburg] : Loc. — Viti. 
fpYGMJEA, L. Bellardi, 1890 : " ColumheUa {Mitrella) pygmcea 

Bell." : Mem. Accad. Torino, ser. ii, vol. xl, pp. 330-1, pi. ii, 

fig. 35: Type. — (Co-types) Coll. Rovasenda [figured specimen]; 

Geol. Mus., Turin : Zoc— Upper Miocene : "Tetti Borelli." 



128 PKOCEEDINGS OF THE MALACOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

fpYGM^DA, W. H. Dall, Aug. 1890: '' Mitromorplia py(jmma Ball": 
Trans. Wagner Inst., vol. iii, pp. 95-6, pi. 10, fig. 3: Tyi'e. — (Co- 
types) Wagner Inst., Philadelphia; U.S. I^at. Mus., Washington: 
Loc. — Caloosahatehic Marl. Florida. 

PYHN.r.A [ = ]S'assid8e] (J. P. B. de Lamarck), Aug. 1822 : '' Itanella 
pyijmcca^' : Hist. nat. Anim. s. Yert., vol. vii, p. 154 [no fig.] : 
Typj:. — Coll. Lamarck: Loc. — " Habite dans la Manche, sur les 
cotes du Havre." 

PYGMJiA, G. B. Sowerby i, [Aug. 14] 1832: '■ ColumhcUa jnjgmcea^^ : 
Proc. Zool. Soc, 1832, p. 119 [no fig.]: Tyi'k.—QoW. Cuming 
[Brit. Mus., London] : Loc. — S. Elena, C. America. 

PYRAMiDALts, G. B. Sowcrby III, Apr. 1894 : " Columhella {MitreUa) 
pyramidalu Sowcrby, n.sp." : Journ. Conch., vol. vii, p. 370 [no 
fig.]: T'lvv;.— [?] : Zr>o.—" Port Elizabeth." 

PYiiosTOJiA, G. B. Sowcrby i, [Aug. 14] 1832: "Columhella 
pyrostoma'^ : Proc. Zool. Soc, 1832, pp. 116-7 [no fig.]: I'ype. — 
Coll. Cuming [Brit. Mus., London] : Loc. — " Panama and Galla- 
pagos." 

QUiNCTiLiA [i.e., quintilia^, Duclos. 

QUixriLiA [? group of C. pardalina, Lam.], P. L. Duclos [1846-58]: 

" C. \_ColoinbeUa~\ Qumtilm'' : in Chenu, Illust. Conch., pi. xix, 

figs. 13-4: TYPK.—[?y. Loc.—[?^ 
QUiNTiLLA [i.e., qtiinti'liaj, Duclos. 

nABATONGENSis, Schmaltz [?]. 

RASOLTA [? group of C. rcrsicolo}\ Sby.], P. L. Duclos, 1835 [Apr. 
1840] : " Col. — Rasotia [sic]": Hist. nat. Coq. univ., pi. x, 
figs. 7-8 [no descr.] : Type.—]J'] : Zoc— [?] 
riAsoTiA [i.e., rrtso/w], Duclos. 

RAVENELi, W. H. Dall, Mar. 8, 1889 : Astyris Raveneli, J)a\\ {Colum- 
hella nivea, llav., tion Sby.) : Bull. Mus. Harvard, vol. xviii, 
p. 190 [no fig.]: TYrE.—[?]: Loc— OS the Coast of Florida, 
205 fms. (Dr. Rush) ; off Hatteras, 124 fms. (U.S. Fish. Comm.). 
j-RECTECAUDATA, F. Sacco, 1890: ^'Columhella {Thiarella) carinata 
Bon. var. rectecaudata Sacc. [ = var. 'a,' Bellardi] " : Boll. Soc. 
geol. Ital., vol. ix, p. 225 : 7'rw.'.— [?Geol. Mus., Turin] : Loc— 
Tortonian. 
fEECTicosTATA, F. Sacco, 1890: '■'■ Cohiiuhella {Anaclds) recticostata 
Sacc." : in Bellardi, Mem. Accad. Torino, ser. ir, vol. xl, p. 350, 
pi. ii, fig. 78 : Type. — Geol. Mus., Turin: Loc — Upper Miocene : 
" Tetti Borelli presso Castelnuovo d'Asti." 
liEccRVA (L. A. lleeve), Oct. 1856 [?1846]: '■'■ Ricinula rccurva^^ : 
Conch. Icon., Ricinula, .sp. 53 : Type. — Coll. Cuming [Brit. Mus., 
London] : Loc — " Lord Hood's Island, Pacific Ocean " (Cuming). 
REcuEVA, G. B. Sowcrbv i, [Aug. 14] 1832: " Columhella recurva^^ : 
Proc. Zool. Soc, 1832, p. 115 [no fig.]: Type.— Coll. Cuming 
[Brit. Mus., London] : Zoc— "Isle of Plata." 
JRECUKViCAUDA, L. BcUurdi [?MS.]. 



pace: OJf THE COLUMBELLIDJ;. 129 



KEEVEI, P. P 

for C. Sta-Bar 



Carpenter, 1864: '^ C. IColumhella'] Reevei, Cpr fn n 
r. ,f«'*^«''^'^«^«' Cpr.] " : Kept. Brit. Assoc, 1863, p. 567 • 
fyPE.~Qo\\ Jewett: Zoc'.-"C. [Cape] S. Lucas, Xantus: 
Acapulco, JNewberry; Guacomayo, Mus. Smiths " 
REEVEi (G W. Tryon, jun.), [July 18] 1883 : - E. [_Engma\ Reevei, 
iryon [n.n. tor Ricimda alveolata, Reeve, no7i Kien.] " • Man 
Conch vol V, p. 191, pi. 62, fig. 29: Type.-IQoW. Cuming; 
?i r.?vn-' I^ojidon]: Zac.-- Panama to Cape St. Lucas, L. 
Cal. [Oaliiornia], Australia (Brazier)." 

EEGELATA, J. Hervier, Dec. 26, 1899: Columhella psilla, Dud 
[Hervier, sp.], var. regelata, Herv. : Journ. Conchyl., vol xlvii 
p. o46 : Type.— IGoW. Societe de Marie, Lyons] : Zoc— Lifu. ' 

EEGULUs M. Souverbie, Jan. 1, 1864 : " Columhella regulus, Souverbie 
[n.n. tor C. piimila, Souv., non Dkr.] " : Journ. Conchyl., vol xii 
p. 41 : Trp^.— Mus. Bordeaux : Xoc— " Bale Boisee," New 
Caledonia. 

BESPEnsA [= C. Peasei, Marts. & Langk.], J. Hervier, Dec. 26, 1899 • 
tolumbella namsca, Herv., var. respersa, Herv. : Journ Conchvl 
vol. xlvii^ p. 367 : 7'yp^.-[Coll. Societe de Marie, Lyons]'! 

METiAmA^J. Hervier, Dec. 26, 1899: Columhella articulata, Souv.. 
var. retiaria Herv.: Journ. Conchyl., vol. xlvii, pp. 336-7: 
Type.— [GoW. Societe de Marie, Lyons] : Zor'— Lifu 
iRETicuLAXA, T. A. Courad, June, 1862: Amy da {Astyris) reticulata, 
n.sp. : Proc. Acad. Philad., 1862, p. 287 [no fig 1 • TYPE—[n- 
Zoa—[? Miocene] " Virginia." ^ j • i/^i.. l-J- 

Reticulata[^ = C. rustica (Linn.)], J. P. B. de Lamarck, Aug. 1822 ■ 
tolombella reticulata'': Hist. nat. Anim s Vert vol vii 
p. 295 [no fig.] : Type.~Qo\1, Lamarck : Loo.—\9^ '' 
EETUSA,H. E. Anton, 1839: " [Columhella^ retusa mM'' : Verzeichn 

Conch., sp. 2847 [no fig.] : Type.— Coll. Anton : Loc.—m 
rhombifera [ = C. punctata (Brug.)], J. F. Bolten, 1 798 : " P. [P^,rene^ 
Rhomhiferum'' : Mas. Bolten., pt. 2, p. 134 [no fig.]: Type — 
ColL Bolten : Zoa.—[?] . *- ^ \- ■l^^'^- 

BHOMiFEPA [i.e., rhomhifera'], Bolten. 
tRiKGENS L Bellardi, 1890: ^^ Columhella (stricto sensu) ringens 
Bell. : Mem Accad. Torino, ser. ii, vol. xl, p. 324, pi. ii, fig. 22 • 
^rp£._Geol. Mus., Turin: Zoc.— Middle Miocene: "Colli 
torinesi, Albugnano." 
tfiissoiDEs (J P. S. de Grateloup), 1833: " JV«.ss« rissoUes. Nob " • 
Act. Soc. Lmn. Bordeaux, vol. vi, pp. 271-2 [no fig.] : Type — [H ' 
Log.—'' Fossile a Dax. Faluns jaunes de Saint-Paul." 
\Bi88oiDE,, A d'Orbigny [=Grateloup, sp.], 1852: ^' lColumhella^ 
r^ssoides, d'Orb., 1847. Ruccmum rissoides, Gratteloup [sic] 

T Vo?'°'?- ^'^^^^''*- Stratigr., vol. iii, p. 88 [no tig.] :' 

TYPE.—[?y. Zoc— "Dax." '- ° '' 

ROBiLLAKDi, G. B. Sowerby irr, Mar. 1894: " Columhella Rohillardi, 
n.sp. : Proc. Malac. Soc. London, vol. i, p. 46, pi iv fi'v 15- 
Type.— -Exit. Mus., London [!] : Zoc— Mauritius. ' "" 

VOL. v.— JULY, 1902. g 



130 TEOCEEDINGS OF THE MALACOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

KOBLiNi, J. E. Tenison- Woods, 1876 : " Columhella rohlini, n.s." : 
Proc, R. See. Tasmania, 1875, pp. 151-2 [no fig.]: ^r/'i;.— [?] : 
Loc. — E. Coast, Tasmania. 

iiORiDA, L. A. llcove, Apr. 1859: ^^ Columhella rorida^' : Concli. 
Icon., sp. 176: Type. — Coll Cuming [Brit. Mus., London (!)] : 
Loc. — " Lord Hood's Island (found on Avicula margaritifera, in 
coral sand, at a depth of six fathoms) ; Cuming." 

KOSACEA (A. A. Gould), Jan. 1, 1840 : '■'• Buccinum rosaceum'''' : Amer. 
Journ. Sci., vol. xxxviii, p. 197 [no fig.] : Type. — [?] : Loc. — [?] 

ROSACEA, L. A. Reeve, Apr. 1859: ^^ Columhella rosacea^': Conch. 
Icon., sp. 183: Type. — Coll. Cuming [Brit. Mus., London (!)] : 
Zoc— [?] 

ROSACEA, Stimpson [i.e., Gould, sp.]. 

liOSALiA [i.e., rasolia\ Duclos. 

nosAPiA [i.e., rosacea\ Gould. 

ROSEA [group of C.spicula, DuclJ, J. S. Gaskoin [MS.]. 

liosEA (L. A. Reeve), Oct. 1856 [V 1846] : " Ricinula rosea " : Conch. 
Icon., Ricinula, sp. 46 : Type. — Coll. Cuming [Brit. Mus., 
London] : Loc. — "Island of Masbate" (Cuming). 

BosEA [i.e., rosacea']. Reeve. 

ROSEOTiNCTA, J. Hcrvicr, Dec. 26, 1899 : " Columhella roseotincta, 
J. Hervier": Journ. Conchyl., vol. xlvii, pp. 373-4, pi. xiii, 
fig. 12 : Type.— [GoW. Societe de Marie, Lyons] : Zoc— Lifu. 

nosiDA [i.e., rorida]. Reeve. 
fROVASENDiE, L. BcUardi, 1889: "■ Clinomitra Rovasendce Bell.": 
Mem. Accad. Torino, ser. ii, vol. xxxix, p. 152, pi. vi, fig. 51 : 
Type. — (Co-types) Coll. Rovasenda [figd. spec] ; Gcol. Mus., 
Turin : Loc. — " Colli torinesi, termo-foura, I'arissimo ; — Yal Ceppi, 
raro." 
fROVASEjfDiE, F. Sacco, 1890 : " Columhella {Tliiarella) Rovasendcn 
Sacc. " : in Bellardi, Mem. Accad. Torino, ser. it, vol. xl, p. 345, 
pi. ii, fig. 70: rr7>A-.— Geol. Mus., Turin (Coll. Rovasenda): 
Loc. — Upper Miocene : " Tctti Borelli presso Castclnuovo d'Asti." 

nuBicuNDA, J. Hervier, Dec. 26, 1899: Columhella striafula, Dkr., 
var. ruhicimda, Herv. : Journ. Conchyl., vol. xlvii, p. 363 : 
Type. — [Coll. Societe de Marie, Lyons] : Lor. — Lifu. 

iiuBicuNDA [i.e., ruhicundula'], Quoy & Gaimard. 
RUBicuNDULA, J. R. C. Quoy &, J. p. Gaimard [1833]: " Colomhella 
ruhicundula, nob." : Zool. Voy. Astrolabe, vol. ii, pp. 588-9, 
pi. 40, figs. 25-6 : Type. — Mus. Paiis : Zoc— Tonga-Tabou. 

liUBiGiNOSA [^=Mitra'], F. W. Hutton, 1873: " C IColumhella'] 
(Atilia) ruhiqinosa, sp. nov." : Catal. !Mar. Moll. New Zealand, p. 20 
[no fig.]: T'r/'A'.— [? Colonial Mus., Wellington, KZ.]: Loc— 
Chatham Islands. 
RUBRA, E. V. Martens, 1881 : " Columhella'^ nihra^' : Sitzungsb. Ges. 
Katurf. Berlin, 1881, pp. 76-7 [no fig.] : Type.—' Gazelle' Coll. 
[Mus. Berlin] : Loc. — E. Coast of Patagonia. 
nuBHA, T. di Monterosato, 1878 : Columhella Gervillii, Payr., var. 
ruhra: Giorn. Soc. Palermo, vol. xiii, p. 104 : Type. — [?] : Loc. — 
Mediterranean. 



PACE : ON THE COLTJMBELLID^. 131 

EUDis, Gr. B. Sowerby i, [Sept.] 1844: "■ Columhella rtidis. noh.^^ : 

Proc. Zool. Soc, 1844, p. 48 [no fig.] : Ttpe.— Coll. Cuming 

[Brit. Mus., London] : Loo. — I. of Nevis. 
KUFA, K. T. Menke, July, 1853 : " Columhella rufa Mke." : 

Zeitschr. Malak., vol. x, p. 75 [no fig.]: Type. — [?] : Loo. — 

St. Vincent's, Cape Verde Group. 
KUFOLiNEATA [group of C. striotula, Dkr.], J. Hervier, Dec. 26, 

1899 : Columhella lifouana, Herv., var. rufoUneata, Herv. : Journ. 

Conchyl., vol. xlvii, pp. 359-60 : Type. — [Coll. Societe de Marie, 

Lyons] : Loo. — Lifu. 
KUFOPiPERATA, E. A. Smith, 1884: ^'' Columhella rufopiperata'''' '. 

Kept. Zool. Coll. Alert, p. 494, pi. xliv, fig. i : TYPE.—^xxt. Mus., 

London [!] : Loo. — " Etoile Island, Amirantes, 13 fms." 
RtJFOTiN-CTA, P. P. Carpenter, 1857: '■'• AnacTik rufotincta, n.s." : 

Catal. Mazatl. Shells, pp. 511-2 [no fig.]: Type. — Coll. Reigen, 

Brit. Mus., London: Loo. — Mazatlan. 
KUGOSA, G. B. Sowerby i, [Aug. 14] 1832: " Columhella rugosa''^ : 

Proc. Zool. Soc, 1832, p. 115 [no fig.]: Trp^.— Coll. Cuming 

[Brit. Mus., London] : Loo. — Panama, Xipixapi. 
HTJGTJLOSA, G. B. Sowerby I, [Sept.] 1844: '■'■ Columhella rugidosa. 

nob.": Proc. Zool. Soc, 1844, p. 51 [no fig.] : Type.—Co^. 

Cuming [Brit. Mus., London] : Loo. — " Gallapagos Is." (Cuming). 
EUMiLiA, P. L. Duclos [1846-58] : " C. \_Colomhella?^ Rumilia " : in 

Chenu, Illust. Conch., pi. xvii, figs. 15-6 [no descr.] : Type. — [?] : 

Zoc— [?] 
KusHi, W. H. Dall, June, 1889: AnacMs amphissella, Dall, var. 

Rushii, Dall: Bull. Mus. Harvard, vol. xviii, pp. 188-9 [no fig.] : 

^FP^.—' Blake ' Coll. [U.S. Nat. Mus., Washington]: Loo.— 

" Off Fowey Rocks, Florida Straits (Dr. Rush)." 
EussELi, J. Brazier, Dec. 1874: ''■Columhella {Mitrella) riisseW'' : 

Proc ZooL Soc, 1874, p. 671, pi. Ixxxiii, figs. 17-8: Type.— 

Coll. Brazier: Loo. — Eclipse I., Claremont Group, N.E.Australia. 
BUSTICA, Lamarck [i.e., Lin.na3us, sp.]. 
ETJSTiCA (C.Linneeus), [Jan. 1] 1758 : " [ Voluta'] rustica''^ : Syst. Nat., 

10th ed., vol. i, p. 731, sp. 358 [no fig.] : Type. — [? Coll. Linnaeus, 

Linnean Soc, London] : Loo. — " Habitat in M. Mediterraneo." 
RUSTioA, Sowerby [i.e., Linnaeus, sp.]. 
fRUSTicoiDEs, A. Heiiprin, May, 1887: " Columhella rusticoides, nov. 

sp." : Trans. Wagner Inst., vol. i, p. 81, pi. 8, fig. 9*': Type. — 

[? Wagner Inst., Philadelphia] : Loo. — CaloosahatchieBeds, Florida. 
RUTiLA (L. A. Reeve), Oct. 1856 [? 1846] : '■'• Ricinula rutila " : Conch. 

Icon., Ricinula, sp. 49 : Type. — Coll. Cuming [Brit. Mus., London] : 

Loo.—m 

SAAHARATA [i.e., saccharata'\, Reeve. 

SACCHAEATA, L. A. Recve, Apr. 1859 : " Columhella saccharata" : Conch. 

Icon., sp. 187: Type. — Coll. Cuming [Brit. Mus., London (!)]: 

Log. — "Van Diemen's Land." 



132 PROCEEDINGS OF THE MALACOLOGICAL SOCIEir. 

sacci/a/;ata r? = C. miUostoma, Ten. -Woods], II. Tate & W. L. May 

[«o«liceve], Dec. 19, 1901 : '^ Columbella saccaharata [sic], Iteeve": 

Proc. Linn. Soc. New South Wales, 1901, p. 306, pi. xxiv, fig. 19 : 

7'r7>y,-. _[? Coll. May] : Z(;c'.— Tasmania : "Oyster Bay, Dr. 

Milligan (Erit. Mus. types [erroneous]) ; N. Coast ; Frederick 

Henry Buy, very common, AV. L. May." 
fsACcoi, M. Cossmann, Oct. 1901 : '■'■ Macrxirella Saccoi, nobis \_n.n. for 

C. angii^ta, Sacco, no7i Deshaycs] " : Essais Paleoconch., pt. 4, pp. 

243, footn., & 245 : ^rw^.— [Coll. Michelotti, Geol. Mus., Home] : 

Loc. — [Middle Miocene : " Colli torinesi, Val Ceppi, Albugnano "]. 
•fsACCoi, K. Mayer-Eymar, Apr. 1, 1897 : " Columhella Saccoi, Mayer- 

Eymar": Joum. Conchyl., vol. xlv, pp. 147-9, pi. iv, fig. 7: 

Typj:. — [?] : Loo. — Upper Tertiary : Saucats. 
SADONOsrA [i.e., padonosta], Duclos. 
SAGENA, L. A. Reeve, Apr. 1859 : '■^Columhella sagena ": Conch Icon., 

sp. 162 : Type. — Coll. Cuming [Brit. Mus., London] : Loc. — Japan. 
SAGiTTA 1= C. fenedrata, C. B. Ad.], J. S. Gaskoin, 1851 [Oct. 28, 

1852]: " Columhella sagitta" : Proc. Zool. Soc., 1851, pp. 10-1 

[no fig.]: Type. — "Cab. Metcalfe, Cuming, Gaskoin, etc.": 

Loc. — " Africa ; West Indies." 
SAOiTTA [group of C. eximia, Rve.], W. H. Pease [MS., 7ion Gaskoin]. 
SAGRA [= C. idalina, Duel.], A. d'Orbigny, 1845 : " Colomhella 

sagra. — (cl'Orb.) " : in Sagra, Hist. Isla Cuba, pt. ii, vol. v, p. 233, 

pi. xxi, figs. 28-30: 7'rp^.— [Brit. Mus., London (!)] : Loc— 

" Guadaloupe." 
SAiNTPAiEiANA, H. CaiUct, July 1 , 1 864 : " Columhella Saint-Pairiana'^ : 

Journ. Conchyl., vol. xii, pp. 279-82, pi. xi, fig. 4 : Type. — (Co- 
types) Coll. Crosse ; Coll. Caillet : Loc. — Marie Galante, W. 

Indies. 
sAMAXENsis, W. H. Dall, June, 1889: ''A. [Anach/s^ samanensis 

Dall [var. of ' Anachis alhella, C. B. Adams']": Bull. Mus. 

Harvard, vol. xviii, p. 188 : Type.—[_^ : Loc. — "Florida and the 

Keys, and Samana Bay, St. Domingo." 
SAMATjiE \_= C. scripta (Linn.), var.], S. Chiereghini [MS.]. 
sANCTJE-HELEif^, E. A. Smith, Apr. 1, 1890 : " Columhella {MitreUa) 

sanctoi-helence^'' : Proc. Zool. Soc, 1890, pp. 262-3, pi. xxi, fig. 12 : 

Type. — Brit. Mus., London: Loc. — St. Helena. 
SANDwicHENsis [group of C. ttirturma, Lam.], W. H. Pease, June, 

1861 : " Columhella sandioichensis " : Proc. Zool. Soc, 1861, 

p. 244 [no fig.]: Type.— \y GoW. Pease, Harvard Univ., Mass.]: 

Loc. — Sandwich Is. 
SANSoNATENSis [i.e., Soiisonatensis], Miirch. 
SANTA-PAPPARENSis [ = C*. JReevei, Cpr.], P. P. Carpenter, 1856 

[Jan. 7, 1857] : '■'■Columhella Santa-Barbarensis, n.s." : Proc Zool. 

Soc, 1856. p. 208 [no fig.]: Type.— Coll. Gould: Zor.— St. 

Barbara [?]. 
SATouiDA, P. L. Duclos [1846-58] : " C. [Colomhella^ Satorida " : in 

Chenu, Illust. Conch., pi. xxvi, figs. 1-2 [no descr.] : Tyre. — [?] : 

Loc.-\^q 



PACE ; ON THE COLUMBELLID^. 133 

SBiNA [i.e., albin(i\, Kiener. 
fscABRA, L. Bellardi, 1848: " Columhella scabra Bell.": Mem. Accad. 

Torino, ser. ii, vol. x, pp. 244-5, pi. i, fig. 19: Type. — [?GeoI. 

Mus., Turin] : Loc. — tipper Miocene : " Colli Tortonesi." 
]scABRA^ Sacco [i.e., Bellardi, sp.]. 
scAOOHiAyA \_non Columbellidsc] (R. A. Philippi), 1844 : " Buccinum. 

Scaccliianum Ph. [n.n. for Purpura, picta, ycacchi, non Turton] " : 

Enum. Moll. Sicilios, vol. ii, p. 188, pi. xxvii, fig. 5 : Type. — [?] : 

Loa. — " ]S'eapoli, Panormi, Tarenti." 
scACCHii (P. Calcara), 1840: " ^. \Buccinum'\ Scacchi. N. [n.n. for 

Columhella minor, Scacclii] " : Monogr. Clausil, etc., Collez. Gargotta, 

p. 51 : Type. — Coll. Gargotta : Loo. — Palermo. 
fscALAKATA, F. Sacco, 1890: " Columlella {Conidea) scalarata Sacc." : 

in Bellardi, Mem. Accad. Torino, ser. ii, vol. xl, p. 327, pi. ii, 

fig. 27 : Type. — Geol. Mus., Turin : Loc. — Middle Miocene : 

" Colli torinesi, Val Ceppi." 
scALAEiNA, G. B. Sowerby i, [Aug. 14] 1832 : " Columhella scalarina^^ '. 

Proc. Zool. Soc, 1832, p. 116 [no fig.]: Type.— GoW. Cuming 

[Brit. Mus., London] : Loo. — Panama, Chiriqui. 
scALAKis, J. Hervier, Dec. 26, 1899 : Columhella varians, Sby., var. 

scalaris, Herv. : Journ. Conchyl., vol. xlvii, p. 312: Type. — [Coll. 

Societe de Marie, Lyons] : Loo. — Lifu. 
SCALARIS, W. Kobelt, 1897 [1892] : Columhella mercatoria, Lin., 

var. scalaris, Sby., MS. : in Martini & Chemnitz, Conch. Cab., 

p. 5, pi. i, figs. 8-9 : Type.—[;^ Coll. Kobelt] : Xoc— [?] 
f SCALAKIS, P. Sacco, 1890 : " Columhella {Clinurella) scalaris Sacc." : 

in Bellardi, Mem. Accad. Torino, ser. ii, vol. xl, pp. 336-7, pi. ii, 

fig. 50 : Type. — Geol. Mus., Turin : Loc. — Middle Miocene : 

" Colli torinesi, presso Pino torinesi." 
SCALARIS, Sowerby [MS., = Kobelt, var.]. 
SCALARIS [i.e., scalaritia^, Sowerby. 
'fscALATA [i.e., scalarata~\, Sacco. 
scALPTA, L. A. Reeve, Apr. 1859: ^' Colmnhella scalpta'''' : Conch. 

Icon., sp. 235: Type.-^GoW. Taylor [Brit. Mus., London (!)] : 

Loc.-m 

SCHRAJI3II (J. C. H. Crosse), Jan. 1, 1863: '■'■ Migina Schrammi 
[n.sp.] " : Journ. Conchyl., vol. xi, pp. 82-4, pi. i, fig. 7 : 
Type. — Coll. Crosse : Log. — " Habitat in insula Guadeloupe dicta." 

SCHRAMMI, S. Petit de la Saussaye, Nov. 1,1853: " Colomhella Schrammi, 
Nobis " : Journ. Conchyl., vol. iv, pp. 364-5, pi. xii, figs. 3-4 : 
Type. — [? Coll. Petit, Mus. Rouen] : Loc. — " Sous les pierres, a 
I'extremite nord delaGrand-Baie(Pointe-a.-Pitre) " [Guadeloupe]. 
fscRiPTA, L. Bellardi ['? = Linnaeus, sp.], 1849: "Columhella scripta 
Bell. [= Murex scriptum, Linn.]": Mem. Accad. Torino, ser. ii, 
vol. X, pp. 230-2, pi. i, fig. 2: Type.—^: Zoa.— Tortona, 
Villalvernia, Astigiana. 

SCRIPTA [sp. indet.], P. L. Duclos, 1835 [Apr. 1840] : " Colomhella 
Scripta " : Hist. nat. Coq. univ., pi. iii, figs. 1-2 [no descr.] : 

TYPE.—m-. Loc.—m 



134 PROCEEDINGS OF THE MALACOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

scniPTA [= C versicolor, Sby.], J. P. B. de Lamarck [nom. prajocc], 

Aug. 1822: *^ Colombella scripta" : Hist. nat. Anim. s. Vert., 

vol. vii, p. 295 [no tig.] : Tvi'e. — Coll. Lamarck : Loc. — [?] 
scitirTA (C. Linuoeus), [Jan. 1] 1758 : " [_Iliirex'\ scriptus^': Syst. Nat., 

10th od., p. 755, sp. 496: Tvpk. — [Coll. Linnaius, Linn. Soc. 

London] : Zoo. — " Habitat in M. Mcditerraneo." 
SCUTULATA, L. A. llcevc, Apr. 1859: " Columhella scutulata'^ : Concli. 

Icon., sp. 191 : TiTJC. — Coll. Cuming [Brit. Mus., London (!)] : 

Loc.—[?] 
SECALiNA, E. A. Philippi [?]. 
SEGESTA [sp. indet.], P. L. Duclos [1846-58]: " C. [Colomhella] 

Segesta^^ : in Chenu, Illust. Conch., pi. xxvi, figs. 5-6 [no descr.] : 

TYPE.—m : Loo.—m 

SELASPHORA, J. C. Mclvill & K.. Standcn, June 18, 1901 : " Columhella 
(Seminclla) selasphora, sp.n." : Proc. Zool. Soc, 1901, p. 406, 
pi. xxiii, fig. 7 : Type. — [Brit. Mus., London (!)] : Loc. — Karachi. 
SEMEx, W. Dunker [MS.]. 

fsEMiCAUDATA, L. Bcllardi [Bonelli MS.], 1849: ^^ Columhella semi- 
caudata Bon." : Mem. Accad. Torino, ser. ii, vol. x, pp. 232-3, 
pi. i, fig. 3: Type.— [y^eol. Mus., Turin] : Ztyc— "Fossilc fre- 
quentissimo nellc sabbie gialle dell' Astigiana." 

\se?iicaudata, Bonelli [MS., = Bellardi, sp.]. 
SEMicoNVEXA (J. P. B. dc Lamarck), Aug. 1822: '^ Buccinum semi- 
convexum" : Hist. uat. Anim. s. Vert., vol. vii, p. 272 [no fig.] : 
Type. — Coll. Lamarck : Loc. — [?] 
SEMicosTATA (Cantraiuc) [?]. 

fsEMicosTATA, F. Sacco, 1890 : " Columhella {Anachis) semicostata 
Sacc." : in Bellardi, Mem. Accad. Torino, ser. ii, vol. xl, p. 352, 
pi. ii, fig. 86 : Type. — Geol. Mus., Turin : Loc. — " Colli tortonesi, 
Stazzano " (Upper Miocene); " Albenga-Torsero, Zinola " (Lower 
Pliocene) ; " Colli Astesi " (Upper Pliocene). 

jsEMicosTATA, J. E. Tcuison-Woods, [June 16] 1879: " [?] yEsopits 
semicostatus " : Proc. Linn. Soc. New South AValcs, vol. iv, pp. 14-5, 
pi. 3, fig. 9 : Type. — [?] : Loc. — Tertiary (probably Miocene) : 
Muddy Creek, Western Victoria. 
semilucida [= C. Peasei, Marts. & Langk.], J. Hervier, Dec. 26, 1899 : 
Columhella nanisca, Herv., var. semilucida, Hcrv. : Journ. Conchyl., 
vol. xlvii, p. 365 : Type. — [Coll. Societe de Marie, Lyons] : 
Loc. — Lifu. 
SEMiPiCTA, G. B. Sowerby iii, Oct. 1894: '^ Columhella {Mitrella) 
semipicta, n.sp." : Proc. Malac. Soc. London, vol. i, p. 154, 
pi. xii, fig. 3 : Type. — [Brit. Mus., London] : Loc. — Hong Kong 
Harbour. 

fsEMiPLicATA, F. Sacco, 1890 : " Coluinhella {Anachis) semiplicata 
Sacc." : in Bcllardi, Mem. Accad. Torino, ser. ii, vol. xl, p. 352, 
pi. ii, fig. 85: Type. — (Co-types) Geol. Mus., Turin; Coll. 
llovasenda : Loc. — Upper Miocene : " Colli tortonesi, Stazzano, 
Tetti Borelli presso Castelnuovo d'Asti." 



PACE : ON THE COLUMBELLID^. 135 

SEMiPLicATA, R. E. C. Stearns, Sept. 30, 1873 : ^'- AnacMs semiplicata., 
Steams " : Proc. Acad. Philad., 1873, pp. 344-5, fig. : 
Type.—\J'\\ Loc.—W. Coast, Florida (E. Jewett; R. E. C. 
Stearns). 

SEMiPOLiTA, J. Her\'ier, Dec. 26, 1899 : Columhella jaspiclea, Sby., 
var. semipolita, Herv. : Journ. Conchyl., vol. xlvii, p. 356 : 
Type. — [Coll. Societe de Marie, Lyons] : Loc. — Lifu. 

■\SEMIPUNCTATA [=C. KUpsteiiii, Mich.], L. Bellardi & G. Michelotti 
\non Lamarck], 1841 : " Columbella semipunctata Lam.": Mem. 
Accad. Torino, ser. ii, vol. iii, p. 136, pi. iii, figs. 5-6 : 
Trp^.— (Co-types) Coll. Bellardi; Coll. Michelotti [Geol. Mus., 
Rome]: Loc. — " Fossile raro del Colle di Torino, rio della 
Batteria, Baldisseri." 
SEMIPUNCTATA [= C punctata (Brug.)], J. P. B. de Lamarck, Aug. 
1822: '■'■ Colomhella semipunctata''': Hist. nat. Anim. s. Vert., 
vol. vii, p. 294 [no fig.] : Type. — Coll. Lamarck : Loc. — " Habite 
sur les cotes orientales de I'Afrique." 

sEMiscuLPTA, G. & H. J^evill, [Oct. 26] 1875: ^^ Zafra semisculpta, 
n.sp." : Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. xliv, pt. ii, p. 97, pi. viii, 
figs. 6-7: Type. — Indian Mus., Calcutta: Loc. — Cape Negrais, 
Burmese Coast (Blanford). 
fsEPTEMcosxATA, R. Tate [MS.]. 

SEEEATA, P. P. Carpenter, 1857: " Anachis serrata, n.s." : Catal. 
Mazatl. Shells, pp. 509-10 [no fig.] : Trp^.— Brit. Mus., London 
(Reigen Coll., tablet No. 2428) [!] : ioc?.— Mazatlan. 

fsEREESi, F. Fontannes, Feb. 1880 : " Columbella semicaiidata, Bonelli 
Var. [?n.sp.] Serresi^ Fontannes": Invert. Bassin. Tert. s.-e. 
France, vol. i, pp. 90-1, pi. vi, fig. 12: 7'rp^.— [?] : Zoc— "Les 
argiles sableuses de Millas (Pyrenees-Orientales)." 

SERTULAEiTJM, A. d'Orbiguy [1841] : " Columhella sertularium, d'Orb." : 
Voy. Amerique merid., vol. v, pt. 3, p. 431, pi. Ixi, figs. 13-7: 
Type. — [?] : Log. — " La baie de San-Blas, en Patagonie." 

SETCHELLENSis, E. A. Smith, 1884: '■'■Columhella seychellensis^'' : 
Rept. Zool. Coll. Alert, p. 493, pi. xliv, fig. g : Trp^;.— Brit. Mus., 
London: Loc. — Sej'chelle Is. 

siDEREA (L. A, Reeve), Aug. 1846 : " Ricinula siderea " : Conch. Icon., 
Eicimda, sp. 14 : Type. — Coll, Cuming [Brit. Mus., London] : 
Loc. — "Island of Burias and Masbate, Philippines (on the reefs 
and under stones at low water) ; Cuming." 

siGALOEssA, J. Hervicr, Dec. 26, 1899 [^ non Melv. & St.]: Columhella 
conspersa, Gask., var. sigaloessa, Melv. & St. : Journ. Conchyl., 
vol. xlvii, p. 352 : Type. — [Coll. Societe de Marie, Lyons] : Loc. 
—Lifu. 

SIGALOESSA, J. C. MelviU & R. Standen, Nov. 12, 1896 : " Columhella 
{Mitrella) sigaloessa sp. nov." : Journ. Conch., vol. viii, p. 276, 
pi. ix, fig. 6 : Type. — [Manchester Mus., Owens College, Man- 
chester] : Loc. — Lifu. 



136 PROCEEDINGS OF THE MALACOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

siMiLis, E. Ravenel, Feb. 1861 : " Columhella sitnilis" : Proc. Acad. 

Philad., 1861, pp. 41-2 [no fig.] : TyPE.— l?']: Zoc.—" Common 

on the Coasts of North and South Carolina." 
f SIMPLEX (K. Martin), 1880: '■'■ Bticcinmn {Bullia) simplex nov. spec." : 

Tertiiirsch. Java, pp. 37-8, pi. vii, fig. 2 : TrrE. — [Gcol. Mus., 

Lcyden] : Loo. — S. Java. 
fsiMPLicuLA, F. Sacco, 1890 : " Columhella {Scabrella) scabra Saec. 

var. simplimla Sacc. [=var. 'a,' Bellardi] " : Boll. 8oc. geol. 

Ital., vol. ix, p. 225: Type. — [^^^eol. Mus., Turin]: Loo. — 

Tortonian. 
siMPROJfiA, P. L. Duclos [1846-58] : "6'. \^Colomhella~\ Simpronia": in 

Chenu, Illust. Conch., pi. xv, figs. 19-20 [no descr.] : Type. — [?]: 

Zoc.—[?^ 
SINENSIS, Debeaiix [?]. 
^/JViw^/^ (J. C. Melvill), Mar. 1895: '^ Engina Sinensis, n.s^.''^ : Proc. 

Malac. Soc. London, vol. i, p. 227, pi. xiv, fig. 14 : Type. — Brit. 

Mus., London : Loc. — " China Seas." 
SINENSIS, G. B. Sowcrhy in, Oct. 1894: ^'■Columhella (Anachis) 

Sinensis, n.sp." : Proc. Malac. Soc. London, vol. i, p. 154, pi. xii, 

fig. 5 : Type. — [Brit. Mus., London] : Zoo. — Hong Xong Harbour. 
6INUATA, G. B. Sowcrby, Nov. 3, 1874 : " Columhella {Anachis) 

sinuata, sp. nov." : Proc. Zool. Soc, 1874, p. 600, pL Ixii, 

figs. 2-2a [the figures erroneously numbered ' 3 & 3a'] : Type. — 

[?] : Loc— " Upper California." 
SMiTHi, G. F. Angas, Mar. 1877 : " Columella [sic] {Anachis) 

smithi, n.sp.": Proc. Zool. Soc, 1877, p. 172, pi. xxvi, fig. 7: 

Type. — [?] : Loc. — Port Jackson. 
SOLIDULA, L. A. Eeeve, Feb. 1859: "Columhella solidula" : Conch. 

Icon., sp. 149 : Type. — Coll. Cuming [Brit. Mus., London (!)] : 

Zoc— [?] 
j[SONAiiSENSis [i.e., Souarsensis'], Degi'ange-Touzin. 
soNSONATENSis, 0. A. L. Morch, July, 1860: " Pygmcca Sonsonatensis 

Mcirch " : Malak. Blatt., vol. vii, p. 92 [no fig.] : 7'it^.— [?] : 

Loo. — " Sonsonate." 
f SOPHIA, 0. Boettger [extr., 1901]: "Columhella {Mitrelln) sopMce 

n.sp." : Verhandl. Ver. Hermannstadt, vol. li [extr.], p. 17 [no 

fig.]: Type. — I^ CoU. Boettger]: Z o a — Middle Miocene: 

" Kostej : Valea semini." 
soKDiDA, A. d'Orbigny [1841]: " Columhella sordida, d'Orb." : Voy. 

Amerique merid., vol. v, pt. 3, p. 430, pi. Ixxvii, figs. 2-4 : 

Type. — [?] : Loo. — " Les fonds sablonncux des environs d'Arica, 

d'Islay et du Callao, au Perou." 
f SOUARSENSIS, A. Dcgrangc-Touzin, May, 1895: "Columhella (S.g. 

Atilia) Souarsensis Nobis" : Act. Soc. Linn. Bordeaux, vol. xlvii, 

pp. 382-3, pi. ix, fig. 6 : T'ipj?.— [?] : Zoc— Faluns : Paren, 

Salespisse. 
souvERBiEi, J. C. H. Crosse, Apr. 1, 1865 : " Columhella Souverhiei 

[n.sp.]": Journ. Conchyl., vol. xiii, pp. 161-3, pi. v, fig. 9: 

Type. — Mus. Bordeaux : Loc. — Art I., New Caledonia. 



PACE : ON THE COLUMBELIID^. 137 

sowEEBYi, P. L. Duclos [1846-58] : " C. \_Colomlella7\ 8owerhji'' : 

in Chenu, Illust. Conch., pi. xix, figs. 5-6 fno descr.1 : Type.— 

[?J: Zoc.-[?] 
SPADiCEA, E. A. Philippi, Apr. 1846: " Coluinbella s^mdicea Vh. " : 

Zeitschr. Malak., vol. Hi, p. 54 [no fig.] : TrrE.—[? Coll. Philippi] : 

Loo. — Mazatlan. 
SPAKSA, L. A. Reeve, Apr. 1859: " Columbella sparsa" : Conch. 

Icon., sp. 200 : Trpi;.— Coll. Cuming [Brit. Mns., London (!)] : 

Zoo. — [?] 
SPECIOSA, G. F. Angas, Jan. 1877: " Colimlella {Anachis) speciosa, 

n.sp." : Proc. Zool. Soc, 1877, p. 35, pi. v, fig. 3 : TYPE.—\^At. 

Mus., London] : Zoc— Pt. Jackson. 
SPECTRUM [group of C. varians, Sby.], L. A. Reeve, Apr. 1859 : 

" Columbella spectrum": Conch. Icon., sp, 194: Type. — Coll. 

Cuming [Brit. Mus., London (!)] : Loc.—l. of Mindoro. 
SPELTA, W. Kobelt, 1897 [1893]: '' ColumheUa {Mitrella) spelta 

Monterosato [MS.] " : in Martini k Chemnitz, Conch. Cab., 

pp. 174-5, pi. 24, figs. 3-5, 10: Type.— Coll. Kobelt: Loc— 

" Nordafi'ikanischen Kiiste in Badeschwiimmen." 
SPELTA, T. di Monterosato [MS., = Kobelt, sp.]. 
sPHffiRiCA [group of C. lachryma, Gask.], J. Hervier, Dec. 26, 1899: 

ColumbeUa mblachrijma, Herv., var. sphoerica, Herv. : Journ. 

Conchyl., vol. xlvii, p. 384: Trp^'.— [Coll. Societe de Marie, 

Lyons] : Loc. — Lifu. 
SPicA (J. C. Melvill & R. Standen), Oct. 1895 : "Z". [TJngina] spica 

sp. nov." : Journ. Conch., vol. viii, pp. 105-6, pi. ii, fig. 12 : 

:Z^rp£;.— [Coll. J. C. Melvill] : Zoc— Lifu. 
spiCANTHA [i.e., spirantha], Ravenel. 
spicuLA, P. L. Duclos [1846-58]: " C. \_Colombella\ SpicuW '. in 

Chenu, Illust. Conch., pi. xvi, figs. 9-10 [no descr.] : TYPE.—\f\ : 

Loc. — [?] 
spiKANTHA [group of C. lunata (Say)], E. Ravenel, 1859 : " Colum- 
beUa spirantha'' : Proc. Elliott Soc. (Charleston), vol. i, pp. 281-2 

[no fig.] : Type.—[?] : Loc.—'' Wando River, So. Ca. [Carolina]." 
spiRATELLA, E. V. Martcus, 1880: '' Columbella spiraiella n." : in 

Moebius, Meeresfauna Mauritius, p. 248, pi. xx, fig. 12: Type. — 

[?Zool. Mus., Kiel]: Loo. — Mauritius (Moebius). 
SPIZANTHA [i.e., spirantha], Ravenel. 
SPLENDIDULA, G. B. Sowcrby I, [Sept.] 1844 : " Columhella splendidiila, 

nob." : Proc. Zool. Soc, 1844, p. 49 [no fig.] : Trp^.— Coll. 

Cuming [Brit. Mus., London] : Loc.—l. of Corrigedor, Bay of 

Manilla. 
SPONGIARUM [group of C. rustica (Linn.)], P. L. Duclos, 1835 [Apr. 

1840]: ''Col. Spongianim" : Hist. nat. Coq. univ., pi. iii, 

figs. 13-6 [no descr.]: Trp^.— [?] : Zoa.— [?] 
SPURCA, G. B. Sowerby i, [Aug. 14] 1832: " ColumbeUa sptirca": 
Proc. ZooL Soc, 1832, p. 113 [no fig.] : Trpir.— Coll. Cuming 

[Brit. Mus., London] : Loc.—" Inner Lobos Island [Peru]." 
spurea [i.e., spurca'], Sowerby. 
■\sTAzzANENSis, L. Bellardi [?MS.]. 



138 PROCEEDINGS OF lUE MALACOLOGICAL sJOCIETY. 

STEAKXsi, G. W. Tiyon, jun., [July 18] 1883: " C. \_Columhella 

{Seminella)~\ Stearnsii, Tryon [n.u. for C. filosa, Stearns, non 

Angas]": Man. Couch., vol. v, p. 179, pi. 58, fig. 48: Type. 

— ['?] : Loc. — Tampa Bay, Florida. 
STEDiKNi \_=C. Peasei, Herv., non Marts. & Laugk.], J. C. Mclvill 

[MS., non Mclv. & St., 1897]. 
STEPUENi, J. C. Melvill & R. Staudeu, July 1, 1897 : " C. [Colum- 

bella^ {SemineUa) Stepheni n.u. [for C. Pacei, Mclv. & St., non 

Smith]": Journ. Conch., vol. viii, p. 407: 7'r/'^.— [?] : Loc— 

Lifu. 
STMAMiNEA, J. Hcrvier, Dec. 2G, 1899: Columhella c/lbma, DncL, 

var. straminea, Herv. : Journ. Conchyl., vol. xlvii, p. 324 : Type. — 

[Coll. Societe de Marie, Lyons] : Loc. — Lifu. 
STRENELLA, P. L. Duclos, 1835 [Apr. 1840]: " Colombella Strenella" : 

Hist. nat. Coq. uuiv., pi. viii, ligs. 1-3 [no descr.] : Type. — [?] : 

Loc.—l?] 
fsTRiAEELLA (P. Calcara), 1841 : "■ Mitra striarella. N." : Mem. Conch. 

foss. Altavilla, p. 66, pi. ii, fig. 9 : Type.—I^] : Zoc— Alta^dlla. 
STRiARELLA, Cantraiuc [?]. 
STiiiATA [= C. typostigma, Brus.] (S. Brusina) [nom. prseocc], 1865 : 

^^ Mitra striata mihi": Verhandl. zool.-bot. Ges. Wien, vol. xv, 

p. 14 [no fig.] : Type. — [? Coll. Brusina] : Loc. — Zara, Dalmatia. 
STRIATA, p. L. Duclos, 1835 [Apr. 1840]: " Colombella Striata": 

Hist. nat. Con. univ., pi. vi, figs. 5-8 [no descr.] : Type. — [?] : 

Zoc— [?] 
STRIATA, K. T. Menko, 1829 : " ColnmheUa striata, Mke." : Verzeichn. 

Conch. Malsburg, pp. 38-9 [no fig.]: Type. — Coll. Malsburg: 

Loc.—m 

STBiATA (W. H. Pease), Apr. 2, 1868: "■ Engina striata, Pease": 

Amer. Journ. Conch., vol. iii, pp. 275-6, pi. 23, fig. 10: 

Type. — [?] : Loc. — Paumotus. 
•{•STRIATA, G. Seguenza, 1880: Columbella coronata, Seg., "Var. p. 

striata": Atti Accad. Pont. Lincei, ser. in, vol. vi, p. 106, 

pi. xi, fig. 15rt: Type. — [?] : Loc. — Tortonian: Benestare, 

Calabria. 
^stpiatella [i.e., striarella], Calcara. 
STRi.vnjL.\, W. Dunker, Aug. 1871: '^ Amgcia {Astyris) striatula 

Dkr.": Malak. Blatt., vol. xviii, pp. 155-6 [no fig.] : Type.— CoW. 

Godeffroy [Mus. Hamburg] : Loc. — "Habitat ad insulas Viti." 
STEicTA, R. B. "Watson, June 12, 1882 : " Columbella {Pyrene) stricta, 

n.sp." : Journ. Linn. Soc, vol. xvi, pp. 340-1 [no fig.] : Type. — 

'Challenger' Coll., Brit. Mus., London : Loc. — W. Indies, N. of 

Culebra Is. 
STRiGATA, L. A. Reeve, Feb. 1859: " Columbella strigata" : Conch. 

Icon., sp. 154: Type. — Coll. Cuming [Brit. Mus., London (?)] : 

Zoc— [?] 
fsTRioLATA, P. Dodciicin, 1862: "■ [_Columbella^ striolata noh." : Mioc. 

sup. Ital. Centr., p. 24 [name only] : Type. — Coll. Doderlein : 

Loc. — Upper Miocene : Monte Gibio ; S. Agata. 



PACE : ON THE COLUMBELLID^. 139 

fsTEiOLATA, J. Ivolas & A. PejTot, Apr. 1890 : " Columlella {Mitrella) 
semicaudata, var., striolata. M.-E. [MS.] " : Act. Soc. Linn. 
Bordeaux, vol. Iv, p. 130: Type. — Mus. Zurich: Loc. — Faluns: 
Pontlevoy. 
^STRIOLATA, K. Maycr-Eymar [MS., = Ivolas & Peyrot, var.]. 

STRix, E. B. "Watson, June 12, 1882: " Columbella {Pyrene) strix, 
n.sp." : Journ. Linn. Soc, vol. xvi, pp. 338-9 [no fig.] : Type. — 
'Challenger' Coll., Brit. Mus., London : Loc. — N. of Culebra Is., 
Danish West Indies. 

STB03IBIFOI13IE {W. Wood) [? = Lamarck, sp.], 1828: "\_Buccmum'] 
Stromhiforme^'' : Suppl. Index Test., p. 12, pi. 4, tig. 18 [no 
descr.] : Type. — Brit. Mus., London : Loc. — [?] 

STEOMBiFORMis, J. P. B. de Lamarck, Aug. 1822 : " Colomhella stromhi- 
formis " : Hist. nat. Anim. s. Vert., vol. vii, p. 293 [no fig.] : 
Type. — Coll. Lamarck : Loc. — "Habite la mer Pacifique, sur los 
cotes d'Acapulco." 

STEOMBiFOEMis, G. B. Sowcrby I [? non Lamarck] [1822] : " Colum- 
hella stromhiformis'^ : Genera Kec. & Foss. Shells, vol. ii (No. ix), 
pi. 248, fig. 1 [no descr.] : Type.—[_?'] : Zoc— [?] 

STYLiNA, P. P. Carpenter [?]. 
fsxYLiOLA, W. H. Dall, Dec. 1892: "Columbella {AnacJds) styliola 
n.s. " : Trans. Wagner Inst., vol, iii, p. 242, pi. 13, fig. 11 : 
Type. — (Co-types) Wagner Inst., Philadelphia; U.S. Nat. Mus., 
Washington: Loc. — Miocene: Cape Fear K., Florida. 

suadela \_— C. mercatoria (Linn.)], S. Chicreghini [MS.]. 

siTBACTA, E. B. Watson, June 12, 1882 : Columlella Strix, Wats., var. 
suhacta, Wats. : Journ. Linn. Soc, vol. xvi, p. 339 [no fig.] : 
Type. — 'Challenger' Coll., Brit. Mus., London: Loc. — Sombrero 
Is., West Indies. 
fsuBBOKSONi, F. Sacco, 1890 : " Columlella sub Borsoni Sacco [n.n. 
for Mitra turgidula, Grat. «o?iBrocchi] " : in Bellardi, Mem. Accad. 
Torino, ser. ir, vol. xl, p. 330 [no fig.]: Type. — [?] : Loc. — 
['Dax, St. Paul. Fal. jaun., 2^ et., gr. sup. (Italic).'] 

SUBCARNEA, ^ . HexYiQV, Dco. 26, 1899: Columbella Striatula, Dkr., 
var. subcarnea, Herv. : Journ. Conchyl., vol. xlvii, p. 363 : 
Type. — [Coll. Societe de Marie, Lyons] : Loc. — Lifu. 

SUBCOSTATA [i.e., subcostulata'], C. B. Adams. 

STJBCOSTTJLATA, C. B. Adams, Jan. 1845 : " Columbella subcostulata^' : 
Proc Boston Soc, vol. ii, p. 2 [no fig.]: Type. — [?Coll. Adams, 
Amherst College, Mass.] : Loc. — Jamaica. 

suBDENTATA, Ecuieri [?]. 
fsuBECosTATA, F. Sacco, 1890 : " Columbella (Anachis) corrugata 
[Bellardi] var. subecostata Sacc. [= var. ' b,' Bellardi] " : Boll. Soc 
geol. Ital., vol. ix, p. 225 : Type. — [Geol. Mus., Turin] : Loc. — 
Astian ; Piacenzian. 

subfelina [group of C. striatula, Dkr.], J, Hervier, Dec. 26, 1899: 
Columlella isomella, Duel., var. subfelina, Herv. : Journ. Conchyl., 
vol. xlvii, pp. 361-2 : Type. — [Coll. Societe de Marie, Lyons] : 
Loc. — Lifu. 



140 PROCEEDINGS OF THE MALACOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

j-srBFKAXA, G. D. Harris, May 4, 1899: '^ Asti/ris suhfraxa, n.sp." : 

Bull. Amor. Paleont., vol. iii, pp. 58-9, pi. 7, fig. 11: Type. — 

Paleont. Mus., Cornell Univ., Ithaca, N.Y. : Loc. — " Alabama : 

Woods JBliifi." 
suisLACHUYMA [group of C. lackryma, Rvc], J. Hcrvier, Dec. 26, 1899 : 

" Columbella suhlachryma, J. Hervier " : Journ. Conchyl., vol. xlvii, 

pp. 382-4, pi. xiv, fig. 1 : Type. — [Coll. Societe de Marie, Lyons] : 

Loc. — Lifu. 
suBLACTESCENS, J. Hervier, Dec. 26, 1899: Columbella pardalma, 

Lam., var. sublactescens, Herv. : Journ. Conchyl., vol. xlvii, p. 308 : 

Type. — [Coll. Societe de Marie, Lyons] : Loc. — Lifu. 
suBLiEvis, A. Montrouzier, July 1, 1864 : " Columbella (Fisania?) siib- 

loivis, Montr." : in Souverbie & Montrouzier, Journ. Conchyl., 

vol. xii, pp. 270-1, pi. X, fig. 4 : Type. — Mus. Bordeaux: Loc, — 

Art. I., New Caledonia. 
fsuBNAssoiDES, A. d'Orbiguy, 1852 : " \_Columbella'] subnassoides, d'Orb. 

1847. Mi'tra nassoides, Grattcloup [sic], 1847": Prodr. Paleont. 

Stratigr., vol. iii, p. 88 [no fig.] : Type.—[?] : Loc.—" Dax, 

Saubrigues." 
suBNYMPHA, J. Hcrvier, Dec. 26, 1899 : Columbella articulata, Souv., 

var. subnympha, Herv. : Journ. Conchyl., vol. xlvii, p. 336 : Type. — 

[Coll. Societe de Marie, Lyons] : Loc. — New Caledonia, Lifu, and 

I. of Pines. 
SVBOBSCUPA [= C. Peasei, Marts. & Langk.], J. Hervier, Dec. 26, 1899 : 

Columbella nanisca, Herv., var. subobscura, Herv. : Journ. Conchyl., 

vol. xlvii, p. 366, pi. xiii, fig. 9 : Type. — [Coll. Societe de Marie, 

Lyons] : Loc. — Lifu. 
suBPHiLODiciA, J. Hervicr, Dec. 26, 1899 : " Columbella subpMlodiciay 

J. Hervier " : Journ. Conchyl., vol. xlvii, pp. 333-5, pi. xiii, fig. 2 : 

Type. — (Co-types) [Coll. Societe de Marie, Lyons]; Coll. P. 

Dautzenberg: Loc. — Lifu (Goubin) ; Noumea (E. Marie). 
fsuBSCRiPTA, A. d'Orbigny, 1852: '■'■\_Columbella^ subscrijJta, d'Orb., 

1847 \_n.n. for C. scripta, Bellardi, ?iow (Linn.)] " : Prodr. Paleont. 

Stratigr., vol. iii, p. 89 [no fig.] : Tr/'A'.— [?] : Zyc— " Tortona." 
suBTDRRiTA, P. P. Cai-pentci", Feb. 1866: '■'■ Anachis subturrita, Cpr. 

n.s.": Proc. Calif. Acad., vol. iii, p. 223 [no fig.]: Type.—[?]: 

Loc. — San Diego, California (J. G. Cooper). 
fsuBULATA, L. Bellardi \jion Brocchi], 1849 : " Columbella subulata 

Bell. [= Murex subulatus, Brocc] " : Mem. Accad. Torino, ser. ii, 

vol. X, pp. 238-40, pi. i, fig. 12: TrP£.— [?] : Zoc— "Fossile 

. . . delle sabbie gialle dell' Astigiana." 
\svBVLATA, Bonelli [MS., = Bellardi, sp.]. 
fsTiBTrLATA (G. Brocchi), 1814: ^' 3hirex subulatus: nob.": Conch. 

Foss. Subap., p. 426, pi. viii, fig. 21 : Type. — [Geol. Mus., 

Milan] : Loc. — "Fossile ncl Piacentino." 
srBULATA, P. L, Duclos, 1835 [Apr. 1840]: '' Col— Subulata" '. 

Hist. nat. Coq. univ., pi. ix, figs. 15-6 [no descr.] : Type. — [?] : 

Xoc— [?] 



PACE : ON THE COLUMBELLIDiE. 141 

suBtTLATA, G. B. Sowovby I, [Sept.] 1844 : " Columhella subulata, 

nob.": Proc. Zool. Soc, 1844, p. 52 [no fig.]: Type.— i^oW. 

Norris : Loc. — [?] 
SUBVIXEEA, E. A. Smith, Feb. 18, 1879 : " Columhella {Zafra) 

siibvitrea" : Proc. Zool. Soc, 1879, p. 209, pi. xx, fig-. 43: 

Ti-PE. — Brit. Mus., London [!] : Loc. — " South of Niphon 

[Japan] " (H. C. St. John). 
succiNEA [group of C. troglodytes, Souv.], J. Hervier, Dec. 26, 1899: 

''■Columhella mccinea, J. liervier": Journ. Conchyl., vol. xh-ii, 

pp. 375-6, pi. xiv, fig. 5 : Type. — [Coll. Societe de Marie, 

Lyons] : Loc. — Lifu. 
SUFFUSA, G. B. Sowerby i, [Sept.] 1844 : " Columhella suffma nob." : 

Proc. Zool. Soc, 1844, p. 52 [no fig.] : Type. — Coll. Cuming 

[Brit. Mus., London]: Loc. — "Pacific Ocean" (H. Cuming). 
suGiLLATA, L. A. Reeve, Apr. 1859 : " Columhella sugillata^^ : Conch. 

Icon., sp. 189: Type.— Coll. Cuming [Brit. Mus., London (!)] : 

Loc. — " China Seas." 
fsuLCATA (G. P. Deshayes), 1824: '^ Fnsus sidcatus. Nob.": Coq. 

Foss. Env. Paris, vol. ii, pp. 353-4, pi. Ixxvi, figs. 1-2 : Type. — 

Coll. Deshayes [Ecole des Mines, Paris] : Loc. — " Soissons, 

Retheuil." 
SULCATA [sp. indet.], P. L. Duclos, 1835 [Apr. 1840] : " Col. 

Sulcata''^: Hist. nat. Coq. univ., pi. i, figs. 13-4 [no descr.] : 

TYPE.—m : Loc.—m 
fsuLCATA (J. Sowerby) [Oct. 1822]: ^' Bicccinum sulcatum^': Mineral 

Conch., vol. iv (No. 65), p. 103, pi. 375, fig. 2 : Tfp^. — [?] : 

Log. — " From the Crag of Ramsholt." 
SULCOSA, G. B. Sowerbjr i, [Aug. 14] 1832 : " Columhella sulcosa" : 

Proc. Zool. Soc, 1832, pp. 118-9 [no fig.]: Type.— Coll. Cuming 

[Brit. Mus., London] : Loc. — " Annaa, or Chain Island, and Lord 

Hood's Island." 
fsuLCULAXA, Searles V. Wood, May, 1879: ^'Columhella? {Astyris) 

sulculata, S. "Wood " : 2nd Suppl. Crag. Moll., pp. 4-5, pi. i, 

fig. 3: T'rp^.— Coll. Dr. Reed: Zoo.— Red Crag: "Sutton, 

Shottisham." 
suLPHOEEA, J. Hervier, Dec. 26, 1899: Columhella striatula, Dkr., 

var. sulphurea, Herv. : Journ. Conchyl., vol. xlvii, p. 363 : 

Type. — [Coll. Societe do Marie, Lyons] : Loc. — Lifu. 
SUPRAPLICATA, E. A. Smith, Oct. 1899 : " Columhella {Mitrella) 

supraplicata [n.sp.] " : Ann. Nat. Hist., ser. vii, vol. iv, p. 244 

[no fig.] : Type. — Indian Mus., Calcutta: Loc. — "Off Travancore 

coast [7^ 17' 30" N., 76° 54' E.] in 430 fath." 
susPECTA, J. Hervier, Dec. 26, 1899 : Columhella cons})ersa, Gask., 

var. suspecta, Herv. : Journ. Conchyl., vol. xlvii, pp. 352-3 : 

Type. — [Coll. Societe de Marie, Lyons] : Loc. — Lifu. 
suTOEis, W. Kobelt, 1897 [1893]: ^'Columhella {marquesa var.?) 

Sutoris n." : in Martini & Chemnitz, Conch. Cab., p. 130, 

pi. xix, figs. 3-4 : rj'P^.— Coll. Kobelt : Zoc— Upolu. 
svTUPALis, J. E. Gray [MS.,==Griflith & Pidgeon, sp.]. 



1-12 PROCEEDINGS OF THE MALACOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

suTUKALis, E. Griffith & E. Pidgcon, 1834: ^^ Colunibella suttiralis, 
Gray": in Cuvior, Anim. Kingd., cd. Griffith, vol. xii, p. 596, 
pi. 41, fig. 3: TypE.—[?]: Zoc— [?] 

svELTA [i.e., spelta], W. Kobolt (Montcrosato MS.). 

swAiysoxi, Dunkor [i.e., Mcirch, sp.]. 

swAixsoKi [= C nitida, Lam.], 0. A. L. Miirch, Mar. 1859: 
" C. [JViiid('l/(t~\ Swainsoni Nob. \ji.n. for C. nitida, Swains., non 
Lam.J " : Journ. Conchyl., vol. vii, p. 257 [no fig.] : Type. — [?] : 
Loc.—m 

SYRIA, P. L. Duclos [1846-58] : " C. [Colomhella'] Syria'' : in Chenxi, 
Illust. Conch., pi. xxiii, figs. 1-2 [no dcscr.] : Type. — [?] : 
Zoc.—[?] 

SYRiACA, T. di Monterosato, Dec. 26, 1899: ^' Columhella rustica 
Linne, var. syriaca Montcrosato " : Journ. Conchyl., vol. xlvii, 
p. 401 : TyPE.—\^^ Coll. Monterosato] : Zoc— Coast of Syria. 

TABVLA [i.e., fabula'j, Sowerby. 

TJENIATA, A. Adams & L. A. Reeve, 1848: " Columhella teeniata'" : 

Zool. Voy. Samarang., Moll., p. 34, pi. xi, fig. 19: Tita-.— [?]: 

Loc. — Borneo. 
TJ.NiATA, H. F. Link, Mar. 29, 1807 : " C. [Coliimbella'j^ iceniata" : 

Beschr. Samml. Univ. Eostock, pt. ii, p. 94 [no fig.] : Type. — 

Univ. Rostock : Loc. — [?] 
TyENiATA [ = C. Guskoini, Cpr.], R. A. Philippi [nom. prseocc], 

Apr. 1846 : " Columhella iceniata Ph." : Zeitschr. Malak.. vol. iii, 

pp. 54-5 [no fig.] : Tr/'/f.— [? Coll. Philippi] : Zoc— Mazatlan. 
TjENIOLAta, J. Hcrvier, Dec. 26, 1899: Coltimbella Daiitzenhergi, 

Herv., var. taniolata, Herv. : Journ. Conchyl., vol. xlvii, p. 379 : 

Type. — [Coll. Societe de Marie, Lyons] : Loc. — Lifu. 
T^NiOLATA, W. Kobelt, 1897 [1895]": ^ ColumbeUa (Mifrella) 

marquesana var. tcBniolata m. [n.n. for C tamiata. Ad. Sc Rve., 

non Phil.]": in Martini & Chemnitz, Conch. Cab., pp. 192-3, 

pi. 26, fig. 14: TYPE.— m-. Zoc— Borneo. 
tamelana [sp. indet.], P. L. Duclos, 1835 [Apr. 1840] : " Columbella 

Tamelana" : Hist. nat. Coq. nniv., pi. xiii, figs. 9-10 [no descr.] : 

TYPE.—m-. L0G.—\;}'] 

TANKERViLLEi [group of C. flava (Brug.)], J. Hervier, Dec. 26, 1899: 
" Columhella tringa (Linne), de Lamarck .... Yarietas 
Tanhervillei Montrouzier [MS.] " : Journ. Conchyl., vol. xlvii, 
pp. 316-7 [no fig.]: I'ype. — [Coll. Societe de Marie, Lyons]: 
Loc. — New Caledonia. 

TAXKEHviLLEi, Montrouzicr [MS., = Hervier, sp.]. 

fTAURINENSIS, F. SaCCO [?]. 

TAYLORiANA, L. A. Rccve, Apr. 1859: "Columbella Tai/loriana'' : 

Conch. Icon., sp. 225 : Type. — Coll. Taylor [Brit. Mus., 

London (!)]: Loc. — N.W. Australia. 
TELEA, p. L. Duclos [1846-58]: " C. \ Colomhella'] Telea'' : in 

Chenu, Illust. Conch., pi. xxv, figs. 13-4 [no descr.] : Type. — [?] : 

Zoc— [?] 



PACE : ON THE COLUMBELLID^. 143 

TELLiNEATA [i.e., trUineato], Reeve. 

TEi^EBKiCA, L. A. Eeevc, Apr. 1859 : " Columbella tenehrica''^ : Conch, 
Icon., sp. 204 : Type.—QoW. Cuming [Brit. Mus., London (!)] : 
Zoo.— [?] 

TENisoNi, G. W. Tryon, jun., [Mar. 26] 1883 : " C. [Columhella 
{Mitrella)~\ Temsoni, Tryon [n.n. for C. minuta, Ten.-Wds., non 
Gld.]": Man. Conch., vol. v, p. 128, pi. 49, fig. 10: Type.— 
Coll. Tryon : Loa. — Tasmania. 

TENUIS, .1. S. Gaskoin, 1851 [Oct. 28, 1852] : " Columbella temm'"' : 
Proc. Zool. Soc, 1851, p. 2 [no fig.]: Type.— GoW. Gaskoin: 

Loo.—m 

TEOPHANiA [sp. indct.], p. L. Duclos [1846-58] : " C. [Colombella'] 

Teophania" : in Chcnu, Illust. Conch., pi, xx, figs. 1-2 [no 

descr.] : TYPE.—\y] : Zoc— [?] 
f TEEEBEA.LE (J. P, B. dc Lamarck), 1 803 : Buccinum terehrale : Ann. Mus. 

Paris, vol. ii, p. 164 [no fig.]: Type. — Coll. Defrance : Loc. — 

Grignon, 
fTEREBRALis, L. Bellardi, 1852 : " Columhella terehralis, Bell. — 

Buccinum terelrale, Lk." : Mem. Soc. geol. France, ser. ii, vol. iv, 

p. 221 [no fig.] : Trp^— Coll. Perez : Zo6\— "La Palarea." 
fTEKES, L, Bellardi, 1890: " Columbella {Tetrastomella) teres Bell,": 

Mem. Accad. Torino, ser. ii, vol. xl, p. 335, pi. ii, fig. 46 : 

Type. — Geol. Mus., Turin: Loc. — Lower Miocene: " Savona- 

Zinola." 
TERPsiCHOEE, Greene [?]. 
TERPSICHORE [= C. Kieueri, v. Marts.], L. C. Kiener [non Sby.] 

[1841]: ^'■Columbella terpsiehore, Sowerby " : Spec. gen. Coq. 

viv., sp. 52, pp. 58-9, pi. xii, fig. 1 : Type. — Mus. Paris: Loc. — 

" Habite la mer du Sud." 
TERPSICHORE, Leathcs [MS.,= Sowerby, sp.]. 
TERPSICHORE, K. T. Menkc [_non Sowerby], Apr. 1851 : " Columhella 

Terpsicliore Sow." : Zeitschr. Malak., vol. vii, pp. 185-6 [no fig.] : 

Type. — [? Coll. Menke] : .Loc. — Mazatlan. 
TERPSICHORE, G. B. Sowcrby i [1822] : " C. [Columbella'] Terpsichore; 

Buccinum Terpsichore, Leathes M.S." : Genera Rec. &ross. Shells, 

vol. ii (No. ix), pi. 248, fig. 6 : Type.—I?] : Zoc— [?] 
TERQTJEMi, F. Jousscaume, Dec, 1, 1876: ^' Strombina Terquemi" : 

Bull. Soc. zool. France, vol. i, pp. 265-6, pi. v, figs. 1-2 : Type. — 

Coll. Jousseaume : Loc, — [?] 
TESSELLATA \_= C. lentiginosa, Hinds], C. B, Adams, July, 1852: 

" Columhella tessellata. Nov. sp." : Ann. Lye. ISTew York, vol. v, 

p. 323 [no fig.] : Type. — [Mus. Amherst College, Mass.] : Loc. — 

Panama. 
TESSELLATA [group of C. Toridu, Rve.], "W. Dunker, Aug. 1871 : 

" Amijcla {Astyris) tesselata Dkr." : Malak. Bliitt., vol. xviii, 

p, 156 [no fig.] : Type. — Coll. Godeffroy [Mus. Hamburg] : 

Loc. — "Habitat ad ins. Paumotu." 
TESSELLATA [ = C. (Urmestoidea, Lam.], J, S, Gaskoin [MS.]. 



144 rilOCEEDIXGS OF THE MAL.VCOLOCilCAL SOCIETY. 

fTESTj; (A. Aradas), 1847: " Buce. Testcc—wxCiYi'': Atti Aceail. 
Giocn., sci'.ii, Aol. iv, pp. 84-6 [refers to previous publication : "II 
Caronda anno 2, n. 7," which I liave not been able to trace] : 
Tvi'K. — Coll. Testa : Loc. — " Gravitelli presso Messina." 
TESTisA [sp. iudet.], P. L. Duclos, 1835 [Apr. 1840] : " Col. 
Tcstina" : Hist. uat. Coq. univ., pi. vii, fip,s. 11-2 [no descr.] : 
TyrK.—[?] : Loc.—[?^ 
TESTUDiNARiA, H. F. Link, Mar. 29. 1807: " T. ICohmbella] 
testndmaria " : Bcschr. Saniml. Univ. Rostock, pt. ii, j). 95 [name 
only] : Tyve. — Univ. Rostock : Loc. — [?] 

|tetkagonostoma, F. Fontannes, 1881: " Strombina {?) tetraff07iostoma 
[n.sp.] " : Ann. Soc. Agric. Lyon, ser. v, vol. iii, p. 81 [no fig.] : 
TypE. — ['?] : Loc. — " Marne a Cerithium vulgatum''^ : Bollenc. 
TnEiiPSiciionE [i.e., U'rpsichore\ Leathes [MS., = Sowerby, sp.]. 

^THiAPA, Bonelli [MS., = Brocchi, sp.]. 

fiHiARA (G. Brocchi), 1814: ^^ Murex thiara : nob.": Conch, foss. 
siibap., p. 424, pi. vii, fig. 6 : Type. — [Geol. Mus., Milan] : Loc. — 
" Fossile nel Piacentino c a Sogliano presso Cesena." 

\tiiiapa (H. Bronn) [? = Brocchi, sp.], 1827: " [7^«s«s] thiara nob. 
Mure.v thiara Brocch." : Zeitschr. Mineral., 1827, pt. ii, p. 534 
[name only] : Type. — [?] : Loc. — " Subapenninen-Formazion der 
tircgend von Castell' arquato im Piaccntinischen." 

^riiiTo.vA [i.e., ■ithitoma'], Dall. 
THORRENTi, Mittre [?]. 

^TiAUA [i.e., thiara^, Brocchi (Bonelli MS.). 

f TIARA, M. Hoemes [?«.o» Brocchi (Bonelli MS.)], 1852 : " ColumbcUa 
^/V?m Bon." : Abhandl. geol. Reichsanst., vol. iii, pp. ll9»Sc667, 
pi. 11, tigs, la-e [not pi. 51, figs. 2rt-r] : Type. — (Co-types) Hof- 
Mineralien-Cab. and Geol. Reichsanst., Vienna: Loc. — Grand; 
Baden ; Bischofswarth. 
TiCAOifis, G. B. Sowerby I, 1844 : " Col. Ticaonis nobis ": Thcs. Conch., 
sp. 68 : Type. — Coll. Cumins; [Brit. Mus., London] : Loc. — 
I. of Ticao. 
riGiuxA [group of C. versicolor, Sby.], P. L. Duclos, 1835 [Apr. 1840] : 
" Colombella Tigrina^'' : Hist. nat. Coq. univ., pi. i, figs. 7-10 [no 
descr.] : TrPE.—[?] : Zoc— [?] 
TiNCTA, P. P. Carpenter, July, 1864 : " ? Anachis tincta " : Ann. Nat. 
Hist., ser. in, vol. xiv, pp. 48-9 [no fig.] : Type. — Smithsonian 
Inst., Washington : Loc. — Cape St. Lucas (J. Xantus). 

JTORCAPELi, F. Fontannes, Feb. 1880: " Strombina tiara, Brocchi Var. 
Torcapeli, Fontannes": Invert. Bassin Tort. s.-e. France, vol. i, 
pp. 95-6, pi. vi, fig. 16 : Type. — [?] : Loc. — " Les argiles a Pecten 
comitatus de Bourg-Saint-Andeol (Ardoche)." 
TORVA (L. W. Dilhvvn), 1817 : Voluta torva, Solander MS. : Catal. 
Rec. Shells, vol.'i, pp. 633-4 [no fig.]: Type.— [;}']: Loc— 
Barbados. 
TonvA, Solander [MS.,=Dillwyn, sp.]. 



PACE : ON THE COLUMBELLID^. 145 

fTOtriiNOTJEEi, E. A. Benoist, 1873 : " Columhella Tournoiceri (N'obis)" : 
Act. Soc. Linn. Bordeaux, vol. xxix, pj). 395-6 [no fig.] : 
Type. — [?] : Loc. — " Sables a JYerita, a la Salle, commune cle la 
Brede, et au moulin de Bernachon." 
TOWNSENDi, J. C. Melvill& E. Standen, June 18, 1901 : " Columhella 
{Seminella) Towmendi, sp.n." : Proc. Zool. Soc., 1901, p. 406, 
pi. xxiii, fig. 8 : Type. — [Brit. Mus., London (!)] : Loo. — 
Karachi. 
fTEANsiENs, L. Belkrdi, 1890: ''Columhella {Mitrella) transiens 
Bell." : Mem. Accad. Torino, ser. ii, vol. xl, p. 330, j^l. ii, 
fig. 34 : Type. — Geol. Mus., Turin : Loc. — Tipper Miocene : 
" Colli tortonesi, Stazzano." 
TBANSLiEATA, E. Raveucl, Feb. 1861 : " Columhella translirata'^ : Proc. 
Acad. Philad., 1861, p. 42 [no fig.] : Type--^ : Loc— 
" From the stomachs of fish off Charleston bar." 
TEANSVERSA [group of C. striatula, Dkr.], J. Hervier, Dec. 26, 
1899: Coiumbella isomella, Duel., var. transversa, Herv. : Journ. 
Conchyl., vol. xlvii, p. 361 : Type.— [CoW. Societe de Marie, 
Lyons] : Loc. — Lifu. 
TRE3IULINA, J. Hervier, Dec. 26, 1899 : Columhella eximia, Rve., 
var. tremuUna, Herv. : Journ. Conchyl., vol. xlvii, p. 338 : 
Type. — [Coll. Societe de Marie, Lyons] : Loc. — New Caledonia. 
^TitiACCATA [i.e., hiarata'], Cossmann. 
TEiANGTJLiFERA, H. V. Maltzau, May, 1884 : " Columhella {Mitrella) 
trianguliferan.^^ : Nachrbl. Deutsch. malak. Ges., vol. vi, pp. 71-2 
[no fig.] : Type. — [?] : Loo. — Goree, W. Africa. 
TEiFASciATA, J. Hcrvier, Dec. 26, 1899 : Columhella suhlcevis, Montr., 
var. trifasciata, Herv. : Journ. Conchyl., vol. xlvii, p. 329 : Type. — 
[Coll. Societe de Marie, Lyons] : Loc. — Lifu. 
TEIFASCIATA [= Engina] (L. A. Reeve), Sept. 1846: "■ Ricinula 
trifasciata'''' : Conch. Icon., Ricinula, sp. 41 : Type. — Coll. Cuming 
[Brit. Mus., London] : Loc. — " Island of Bohol, Philippines 
(Cuming)." 
trilixeata [non Columbellidae] (L. A. Heeve), Feb. 1847 : " Buccinum 
trilineatum''^ : Conch. Icon., Buccinum, sp. 98: Type. — Coll. 
Cuming [Brit. Mus., London] : Loc. — [?] 
tringa, 0. G. Costa [i.e., Lamarck, sp.]. 

TRiNGA [group of C.flava (Brug.)], P. L. Duclos, 1835 [Apr. 1840] : 
" Col. Tringa" : Hist. nat. Coq. univ., pi. iv, figs. 7-8 [no descr.] : 
Type.—\J\. Loc.—m 
TRINGA [ = C. rustica (Linn.)] (J. P. B. de Lamarck) [? = Linnaeus, sp.], 
1811 : ^' Ultra tringa''^ : Ann. Mus. Paris, vol. xvii, p. 211 [no 
fig.]: Type. — Coll. Lamarck: Loo. — " Habite la Mediterranee, 
les cotes d'Afrique." 
TRINGA [sp. indet.] (C. Linnaeus), [Jan. 1] 1758 : " Foluta Tringa" : 
Syst. Nat., 10th ed., vol. i, p. 731, sp. 361: Trp^.— [Lost] : 
Loc. — " Habitat in M. Mediterraneo." 
TRINGA \^= C. nitida, Lam.], J. S. Schroeter [?=Linnaeus, sp.], 1783 : 
" Voluta Tringa. Linn.": Einl. Conch., vol. i, pp. 220-1, pi. i, 
fig. 12: Type. — Coll. Schroeter : Loc. — Mediterranean [?] 

TOL. T.— JULY, 1902. 10 



146 PROCEEDINGS OF THE MALACOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

TiuNGA [group of C. flava (Brug.)], G. B. Sowerby i [non Lam.], 

1844: " CW. Tringa. nob. Mitra Lam.": Thes. Conch., sp. 24: 

Type. — Coll. Cuming [Brit. Mus., London] : Loc. — ? South Seas. 
fiRiNODis, G. Mcneghini, 1878 : " Cohmhella trinodis Meneghini " : 

in Stefani & Pantanelli, Bull. Soc. malac. Ital., vol. iv, pp. 108-9 

[no fig.]: Type. — [?] : Loo. — Pliocene: " Opini, Castagno [nr. 

Siena]." 
TRiTiciLM, Solandcr [MS.]. 
TRimirEALis [= Triumplm distorta (Linn.)], P. L. Duclos, 1835 

[Apr. 1840]: ''Col. Triumphalis'' : Hist. nat. Coq. nniv., pi. v, 

figs. 13-6 [no descr.] : Trp^.— [?] : Zoc— [?] 
TROGLODYTES, M. Souvcrbie, Apr. 1, 1866: " Columbella troglodytes, 

Souv." : Jouru. Conchyl., vol. xiv, pp. 145-7, pi. vi, fig. 4; 

Type. — Mus. Bordeaux: Loc. — "He Art (Archip. caledon)." 
riiopjiANiA [i.e., teophania~\, Duclos. 
TRTJMBUM.I (A. A. Gould) [? = Linslcy, sp.], Sept. 1848 : Fusus 

TrimihuUi, Linsley MS. : Amer. Journ. Sci., ser. ii, vol. vi, pp. 235-6, 

fig. 7 : Type. — Coll. Linsley : Loc. — Connecticut. 
TRUMBULLi [sp. iudct.] (J. H. Liusley), 1845: ''Fusus Trumhulli, 

Nobis" : Amcr. Journ. Sci., vol. xlviii, p. 285, figs. 1-2 : Type. — 

Coll. Linsley: Loc. — " Stomach of haddock, Stonington." 
fTRTTNCATA, W. M. Gabb, 1873: " F. lEctracheUza] truncata. Gabb, 

n.s." : Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc, ser. ir, vol. xv, p. 214 [no fig.]: 

Type. — [?] : Loc. — Santo Domingo. 
TTJBERCuiATA, L. A. Eeevc, Apr. 1859: "Columbella tulerculata'''' : 

Conch. Icon., sp. 173: Type. — Coll. Cuming [Brit. Mus., 

London (!)] : Zoc— [?] 
TUBERCULOSA (W. H. Peasc), Nov. 11, 1862 : " Fngina tuberculosa^^ : 

Proc. Zool. Soc, 1862, p. 243 [no fig.] : Type.—I?] : Loc— 

" The Pacific Islands." 
TUBEROSA, P. P. Cai-penter, May, 1865 : " Amgcla tuberosa [n.sp.] " : 

Ann. Nat. Hist., ser. in, vol. xv, p. 398 [no fig.] : Type.— GoW. 

Boyce (Utica, N.Y.) : Loc — " Sta. Barbara, recent and fossil 

( Jewett) ; coast of California north to Monterey ; Catalina Island 

(Cooper)." 
TumDA [sp. indet.], P. L. Duclos, 1835 [Apr. 1840]: ''Col 

Tumida''^ : Hist. nat. Coq. univ., pi. xiii, figs. 13-4 [no descr.] : 

TYPE.—m : LoG.—[?~\ 
TUMiDA, L. A. Reeve [? = Duclos, sp.], Oct. 1858 : Columbella 

tumida, Duel. : Conch. Icon., sp. 63 : Type. — Coll. Cuming [Brit. 

Mus., London (!)] : Zyc— [?] 
TVRBATA, J. Hervier, Dec. 26, 1899: Columbella procellarum, Herv., 

var. turbata, Herv. : Journ. Conchyl., vol. xlvii, p. 350 : Type. — 

[Coll. Societe dc Marie, Lyons] : Loc — Lifu. 
ruRBiDA [i.e., turbita~\, Duclos. 
TURBiNELLA [= Fngina~\ (L. C. Kiener) [1835-6]: "Purpura 

turbinella, nobis": Spec. gen. Coq. viv., Furpura, pp. 29-30, 

pi. ix, fig. 25 : Type.— Coll. Massena : Loc.—[?] 



PACE : ON THE COLUMBELLID^. 147 

JTUEBiNELLA, F. Sacco, 1890: '■' ColumbeUa [Anachis) turbinellus 
Sacc." : in Bellardi, Mem. Accad. Torino, ser. ii, vol. xl, p. 350, 
pi. ii, fig. 80 : Ti'PE. — Geol. Mns., Turin : Lon. — Lower Pliocene : 
" Albenga Torsero." 
TURBiTA [sp. indet.], P. L. Duclos, 1835 [Apr. 1840] : " Colomlella 
Turbita'''' : Hist. nat. Coq, univ., pi. ii, figs. 1-2 [no descr.] : 
TYPE.—m : Zoc.—[?^ 

fTUEGrDA, L. Bellardi, 1890 : " ColumbeUa {Macrurella) turgida, 
Bell." : Mem. Accad. Torino, ser. ir, vol. xl, p. 341, pi. ii, fig. 62: 
TYPE.—Gieol. Mns., Rome (Coll. Michelotti) : Z'^ir-.— Middle 
Miocene : " Colli torinesi, Albugnano." 

TVRGiDA^ T. di Montcrosato, 1878 : ColumbeUa scripta, Lin., var. 

turgida: Giorn. Soc. Palermo, vol. xiii, p. 104: Type. — [?] : 

Z c. — Mediterranean . 
fTURGiDTjLA (G. Brocchi), 1814: " Valuta turgidida: nob.": Conch. 

Poss. Subap., p. 319, pi. iv, fig. 4: Type. — [Geol. Mns., Milan] : 

Log — " Fossile nelle Crete Sanesi e nel Piemonte." 
•j-TTJRGiDtTLA, W. H. Dall, Dec. 1900 : ^' Astyris turgidula Dall 

[/i.s/?.] " : Trans. Wagner Inst., vol. iii, p. 1196, pi. xl, fig. \2b [no 

descr.]: Type. — [?]: Loc. — "Ballast Point, Tampa Bay [Florida], 

silex beds." 
fTUEGiDULA (J. P. S. do Grateloup) [no7i Brocchi], 1840 [1847] : 

" M. [Mitra'] tiirgidula. Brocc." : Conchyl. Terr. Tert, Adour, 

Mitra, pi. i, fig. 23 [no descr.]: Trpi?.— [?] : Zoa.— "Dax, 

St-Panl. Fal. jaun., 2^ et., gr. sup. (Italie)." 
■\turgidulta [i.e., turgidula~\, Brocchi. 

TURNBULLi [i.e., TrumbulW], Linsley [MS., Gould, sp.]. 
fTTJEONicA, K. Mayer-Eymar, July, 1869 : ^^ ColumbeUa Turonica, Mayer 

[n.n. for C. curta, Hoern., non (Duj.)] " : Joum. Conchyl., vol. xvii, 

pp. 285-6, pi. x, fig. 5: 7'rP£.—[Hof -Mineral- Cab., or Geol. 

Eeichsanst., Vienna] : Loc. — [Enzesfeld.] 

TUREictTLA, Sowerby ['?]. 

JTUEEicULA, K. p. Whitfieldi July 1, 1865 : " ColumbeUa turricula^^ : 
Amer. Journ. Conch., vol. i, p. 261, pi. 27, fig. 1 : Type. — [Amer. 
Mus. Nat. Hist,, N. York] : Zoo. — Claiborne, Alabama. 

JTUEEicuLATA (G. P. Deshaycs), 1824: "Triton turriculatum. Nob.": 
Coq. Foss. Env. Paris, vol. ii, pp. 608-9, pi. Ixxx, figs. 7-12 : 
Tyre. — Coll, Deshayes [Ecole des Mines, Paris] : Loo. — 
" Grignon, Mantes, Mouchy." 

JTUEEiGEKA, K. Martin, 1883: "ColumbeUa turrigera nov. spec": 
Samml. Geol. Mus. Leiden, vol. i, pp. 220-1, pi, x, fig. 19: 
rrp£.— ' Batavia ' Coll. [GeoL Mus., Leyden] : Loc.— "T]i 
Longan bei Selatjau [Java]." 

fiTjEEiTA, J. Grzybowski, 1859 : " ColumbeUa turrita n.sp." : in 
G. Steinmann, Neues Jahrb. Min., Suppl. vol. xii, p. 648, pi. xix, 
fig. 11 : Type. — Geol. Univ. Inst,, Cracow: Loc. — Paj-ta, Peru. 



148 PROCEEDINGS OF XHE MALACOLOGICAL SOCIEIT. 

fTUEEiTA, F. Sacco, 1890: '* Columlella {Anachis) turrita Sacc." : in 

Bollardi, Mem. Accad. Torino, ser. ii, vol. xl, p. 349, pi. ii, fig. 75 : 

Tvi'K. — Gco\. Mus., Turin: Zor. — Middle Miocene: "Colli 

torinesi, Val Ceppi." 
TURRITA, G. B. Sowcrby i, [Aug. 14] 1832: " ColiimMla turrita": 

Proc. Zool. Soc, 1832, p. 115 [no fig.]: Tvpe.— Coll. Cuming 

[Brit. Mus., London] : Loc. — Bay of Montijo ; St. Elena 

(C. America). 
TUETURiNA, J. P. B. de Lamarck, Aug. 1822: " ColomheUa turturina'^ : 

Hist. Nat. Anim. s. Vert., vol. vii, p. 296 [no fig.] : T'lvv^.— Coll. 

Lamarck : Loc. — [?] 
^TUHUXicA [i.e., ttironica^, Maz. [i.e., Mayer-Ejmar, sp.]. 
tyler/t; [group of C.pardalina, Lam.], E. Griffith & E. Pidgeon, 1834 : 

" Columhella Tylerce, Gray" : in Cuvier, Anim. Kingd., ed. 

Griffith, vol. xii, p. 596, pi. 37, fig. 1 : Tr/'ir.— [?] : Loc.—m 
TYLEiii, J. E. Gray [M8., = Griffith & Pidgeon, sp.]. 
TYPOSTiGMA [group of C. oUvoidea (Cantr.)] (S. Brusina), 1866: 

'■'■ Mitra typostigma Brusina [n.n. for M. striata, Brus., non 

Lam.] " : Contrib. Fauna Moll. Dalmati [Verhandl. zool. -hot. 

Ges. Wien, vol. xvi, Suppl.], p. 67 [no fig.]: Tyhk. — [? Coll. 

Brusina] : Loc. — Dalmatia. 

uNCiNATA, G. B. Sowerby i, [Aug. 14] 1832 : " Columhella uncinata" : 

Proc. Zool. Soc, 1832, p. 114 [no fig.]: Trr£.— Coll. Cuming 

[Brit. Mus., London] : Loc. — " Isle of Muerte, Bay of 

Guayaquil." 
TJNDATA, p. p. Carpenter, July, 1864 : " Amycla imclata Carp. 

n.sp." : Proc, Calif. Acad., vol. iii, p. 159 [no fig.] : TrnE. — Coll. 

Geol. Surv. Calif, (species 1067): Loc. — " Catalina Island, not 

rare, 30-40 fms." 
TJNDATA [group of C.flava (Brug.)], P. L. Duclos, 1835 [Apr. 1840] : 

" Col. Undata'''' : Hist. nat. Coq. univ., pi. iv, figs. 3-4 [nodescr.J : 

TYPE.—m-. Loc.—m 

UNicoLoii, T. di Monterosato, 1878: Columhella Gervillii, Paja'., var. 

unicolor: Giorn. Soc. Palermo, vol. xiii, p. 104: Type, — [?] : 

Loc. — Mediterranean. 
TJNicoLOR, G. B. Sowerby i, [Aug. 14] 1832 : " Columhella unicolor " : 

Proc. Zool. Soc, 1832, p. 119 [no fig.]: Type.— GoW. Cuming 

[Brit. Mus., London] : Loc. — Lord Hood's I., Gallapagos. 
UNiFASciALis, J. P. B. dc Lamarck, Aug. 1822 : " ColomheUa uni- 
fascialis " : Hist. nat. Anim. s. Vert., vol. vii, p. 297 [no fig.] : 

Ty/'e. — Coll. Lamarck: Loc. — " Habite les mers de I'lle-de- 

France." 
iTNiFASciATA [group of C. oUvoidea (Cantr.)], T. di Monterosato, 1878 : 

Columhella Greci, Phil., var. unifasciata : Giorn. Soc Palermo, 

vol. xiii, p. 104 : Type. — [?] : Loc. — Mediterranean. 
UNIFASCIATA, T. di Moutcrosato, 1878 : Columhella scripta, Lin., var. 

tmifasciata : Giorn. Soc Palermo, vol. xiii, p. 104: Type. — [?] : 

Lor. — Mediterranean. 



PACE : ON THE COLUMBELLID^. 149 

UNiFAsciATA [ = jSTassidse] (A. Risso), 1826: "iV. \_N'anina] imifasciata 
(n.)": Hist. nat. Europe merid., vol. iv, p. 151, tig. 61: 
Type. — [?] : Loc. — Mediterranean. 

UNIFASCIATA, G. B. Sowerby i, [Aug. 14] 1832: " Cohmbella 
tm/fasciaia'' : Proc. Zool. Soc, 1832, p. 114 [no fig.]: Tvpe. — 
Coll. Cuming [Brit. Mus., London] : Z'jc— Valparaiso. 

rNisxjLCATA [?= C. miltostoma, Ten.-Wds.], W. Kobelt, 1897 [1892] : 
" Columhella {Mitrella) unimlcata n." : in Martini & Chemnitz, 
Conch. Cab., pp. 119-20, pi. xvii, figs. 15-6: 7'r/'7?.— [? Coll. 
Kobelt] : Loo. — Tasmania. 

tiNizoNALis, J. E. Gray, 1839: ''Columhella unizonalis" : Zool, 
Beechey's Voy., Moll., p. 129 [no fig.]: Tfp^.— [Brit. Mus., 
London] : Lot:. — " Inhab. Arica, coast of Peru." 

URANIA, J. C. Melvill & E. Standen, June 18, 1901: "■ u^sopus 
urania, sp.n." : Proc. Zool. Soc, 1901, p. 407, pL xxiii, fig. 9: 
Type. — [Brit. Mus., London (!)] : Loc. — Mekran Coast. 

uvANiA, P. L. Duclos, 1835 [Apr. 1840]: " Col.— Uvania" : Hist, 
nat. Coq. univ., pi. x, figs. 5-6 [no descr.] : Type. — [?] : 

Loo.—m 

VALGA [= C corrugata (Eve.)], W. Cooper [non Gould], 1860: 

" Columhella valga [Gld.] " : in United States, Eept. Expl. Surv. 

Mississippi Pacific, vol. xii, book ii, p. 373 [no tig.] : Type. — 

[U.S. Nat. Mus.. AVashington] : Loc. — " Straits of de Fuca." 
VALGA, A. A. Gould, Jan. 1850 : " Columhella valga [n.sp.] " : Proc. 

Boston Soc, vol. iii, pp. 169-70 [no tig.] : Trp^.— Coll. U.S. 

Expl. Expdn. [U.S. Xat. Mus., Washington] : Zoa— (?) Pacific. 
VALiDA, L. A. Eeeve, Feb. 1859 : " Columhella valida^^ : Conch. Icon., 

sp. 151 : Type.— Coll. Cuming [Brit. Mus., London (!)] : Loc. — 

Gautemala. 
valveta [sp. indet.], P. L. Duclos, 1835 [Apr. 1840]: " Col.— 

Valveta " : Hist. nat. Cotx- univ., pi. xiii, tigs. 7-8 [no descr.l : 

TYPE.—m-. Loc.—m 

VAiuA [= C. Peasei, Marts'. & Langk.] (W. H. Pease) [nom. prgeocc], 

1860 : " Cytliara varia'' : Proc. Zool. Soc, 1860, p. 147 [no fig.] : 

Type. — [Brit. Mus., London] : Loc. — Sandwich Is. 
VAEiA, G. B. Sowerby i, [Aug. 14] 1832: "Columhella mria" : 

Proc. ZooL Soc, 1832, p. 116 [no fig.]: Type.— Coll. Cuming 

[Brit. Mus., London] : Loc. — Panama. 
vabiabile [ = Nassidse] (E. A. Philippi), 1836 : " Buecimm variabile 

mihi " : Enum. Moll. Sicilise, vol. i, p. 221, pi. xii, figs. 1-7 : 

Type. — [?] : Loc. — " Frequentissimum in littore Sicilise." 
VARIABILIS (W. H. Pease), Apr. 2, 1868 : '■'■ Engina variahilis, Pease": 

Amer. Journ. Conch., vol. iii, p. 275, pi. 23, fig. 9 : Type. — [?] : 

Loc. — Paumotus. 
vAniABiLis [= C. mercatoria (Linn.)], H. C. F. Schumacher, 1817 : 

" Columhella variabilis. Voluta mercatoria, Lin." : Syst. Hab. Vers 

Test., p. 245 : Type.—{;}'] : Zoc — [?] 



150 PEOCEEDINGSi OF THE MALACOLOGICAL SOCIEXT. 

VAiiiAxs [^ C. Dioikeri, Tiyon] (W. Dunker) [uom. preeocc], Jan. 

1860: " iV«ss« iwvrt«s Dkr." : Malak. Matt., vol. vi, p. 231 [uo 

j&g.] : Tyi'e. — Univ., Heidelberg: Loc. — Decima, Japan. 
fvARiANs, F. W. Huttou, May, 1885 : " Columhella varians [n.sp.] " : 

Trans. New Zealand Inst., vol. xvii, p. 314, pi. x\iii, fig. 2 : 

Type. — [?] : Loo. — " Wanganui and Pctane." 
VAMANS, G. B. Sowerby i, [Aug. 14] 1832: " Columhella varians'^: 

Proc. Zool. Soc, 1832, p. 118 [no fig.]: Tvpk.— Coll. Cuming 

[Brit. Mus., London] : Loo. — Hoods I., dallapagos. 
VARicosA, J. S. Gaskoin, 1851 [Oct. 28, 1852] : " Columbellavaricosa''^ : 

Proc. Zool. Soc, 1851, p. 5 [no fig.] : Type. — Coll. Cuming [Brit. 

Mus., London]: Loo. — " Pcyta, Peru." 
VARIEGATA [sp. iudct.], K. T. Meuke, 1828: " Columhella variegata, 

m. (Martin. Conch. Cab. ii. fig. 462) " : Synops. Mollusc, p. 37 

[name only] : Type. — Coll, Menke : Loo. — [?] 
VARIEGATA, T. di Monterosato, 1878 : Columhella scripta, Linn., var. 

variegata: Giorn. Soc. Palermo, vol. xiii, p. 104: Type. — [?] : 

Loc. — Mediterranean. 
VARIEGATA, T. di Moutcrosato, 1878 : Columhella GerviUii, Payr., 

var. variegata: Giorn. Soc. Palermo, vol. xiii, p. 104 : Type. — [?] : 

Loc. — Mediterranean. 
VAKiEGATA, R. E. C. Stcams, May, 1873 : '^ Astyris variegaia,^tediXn?," : 

Proc. Calif. Acad., vol. v, p. 81, pi. i, fig. 5 : Tr/^^.— [?] : Loc— 

San Diego, California. 
fvARiESPiEATA, F. Sacco, 1890 : " Columhella {Tetrastomella) crassilahris 

[Bellardi] var. varicspirata Sacc. [=var. 'a,' Bellardi] " : Boll. 

Soc. geol. Ital., vol. ix, p. 223 : Type. — [Geol. Mus., Turin] : 

Loc. — Helvetian . 
fvAssEURi (M. Cossmann), July 1, 1885: '^ Metiila Vasseuri^' : Journ. 

Conchyl., vol. xxxiii, pp. 205-6, pi. viii, fig. 4 : Loc. — Grignon. 
veatleyi [i.e., Wheatleyi\ do Kay. 
VELATA, L. A. Reeve, Apr. 1859 : " Columhella velata " : Conch. Icon., 

sp. 182: TrPT?.— Coll. Taylor : Zoc— [?] 
veleda [group of C. terpsichore, Sby.], P. L. Duclos [1846-58]: 

" C. \_Colomhella'\ Veleda ^^ : in Chenu, lllust. Conch., pi. vii, 

figs. 19-20 [no descr.] : TYPE.—m : Zoc— [?] 
VENiLiA, P. L. Duclos [1846-58]: '' C. [Colomhella'] Fenilia'' : in 

Chenu, lllust. Conch., pi. xvii, tigs. 1-2 [no descr.] : Tyj'e. — [?] : 

Loc.—m 

VEXTLEYi[i.e., W/ieatlegi'j, de Kay. 
fvEXTiiosocoARCTATA, F. Sacco, 1890: " Columhella {Clinurella) 

Borsoni Bell. var. ventrosoeoarctata Sacc. [= var. ' a,' Bellardi] " : 

Boll. Soc. geol. Ital., vol. ix, p. 224: riT/,'.— [? Geol. Mus., 

Turin] : Loc. — Tortonian »& Helvetian. 
VENULATA [group of C. cximia, Rve.], G. B. Sowerby lu, Oct. 1894: 

" Columhella {Mitrella) venulata, n.sp. " : Proc. Maiac. Soc. 

London, vol. i, p. 153, pi. xii, fig. 4 : Type. — [Brit. Mus., 

London (!)] : Loc. — Hong Kong Harbour. 
VEXisTA \_ = C. margarita, Rve.], W. H. Pease [MS.]. 



PACE : ON THE COLUMBELLIDiE. 151 

VENUSTA [= C. Gaskoini, Cpr.], L. A. Eeeve, Nov. 1858 : " Columhella 
venusta [= C. tceniaia, Phil., non Ad. & Rve.] " : Conch. Icon., 
sp. 130: Type. — Coll. Cuming [Brit. Mus., London] : Loc. — [?] 

VENUSTA, G. B. Sowerby i, [Sept.] 1844 : " Columhella venusta, nob." : 
Proc. Zool. Soc, 1844, p. 49 [no fig.]: Trp^'.— Coll. Cuming 
[Brit. Mus., London] : Loc. — '* Swan Eiver Settlement." 
fvENTJSTA, G. B. Sowerby, May 16, 1849: " Columhella vemista^^ : in 
J. C. Moore, Quart. Joum. Geol. Soc, vol. vi, pp. 46-7, pi. ix, 
fig. 6 : Type. — [?] : Loc. — Tertiary : San Domingo. 

vEKRiLLi, W. H. Dall, Sept. 26, 1881 : " Columhella {Astyris) VerrilU 
n.s. " : Bull. Mus. Harvard, vol. ix, pp. 91-2 [no fig.] : Type. — 
'Blake' Coll. [U.S. Nat. Museum, Washington]: Zoc— Gulf of 
Mexico and Caribbean Sea. 

VEESicoLOE, W. H. Dall, Nov. 2, 1871 : " AmpMssa versicolor, n.s." : 
Amer. Journ. Conch., vol. vii, pp. 111-4, pi. 13, fig. 2 [radula] ; 
pi. 14, fig. 2 [operculum] ; pi. 16, figs. 10-1 [shell] : Type.—[?] : 
Loc. — W. Coast N. America, Sitka to Neah Bay. 

VEESICOLOE, G. B. Sowerby i, [Aug. 14] 1832: " Columhella versi- 
color": Proc. ZooL Soc, 1832, p. 119 [no fig.] : T'rp^.— Coll. 
Cuming [Brit. Mus., London] : Loc. — " Annaa, or Chain Island." 

VESTALIA, p. L. Duclos [1846-58] : " C. [Colomhella'] Vestalia" : in 
Chenu, lUust. Conch., pi. xv, tigs, 15-6 [no descr.]: Type. — [?] : 

Loc.—m 

VEXiLLiTM, L. A. Beeve, Apr. 1858 : " Columhella vexillum " : Conch. 

Icon., sp. 57 : Type. — Coll. Cuming [Brit. Mus., London (?)] : 

Loc.—'^ Gulf of California." 
fviALENsis, F. Sacco, 1890 : " Columhella {Clinurella) vialensis Sacc." : 

in Bellardi, Mem. Accad. Torino, ser. ii, vol. xl, p. 338, pi. ii, 

fig. 53: 1'ype. — Geol. Mus., Turin: Loc. — Lower Pliocene: 

" Viale presso Montafia." 
fviciNA, L. Bellardi, 1890: " Columhella {Macrurella) vicina, Bell." : 

Mem. Accad. Torino, ser. ii, vol. xl, p. 341, pi. ii, fig. 64 : Type. — 

Geol. Mus., Turin : Loc. — Middle Miocene : " Colli torinesi, Piano 

dei Boschi presso Pino-torinese." 
•f-viLiALVEENiENSis, F. Sacco, 1890 : " Columhella {Tetrastomella) 

villalverniensis Sacc" : in Bellardi, Mem. Accad. Torino, ser. ii, 

vol. xl, p. 335, pi. ii, fig. 47 : Type. — Geol. Mus., Turin: Loc— 

Lower Pliocene : " Villalvernia, Fontanili." 
]riLLAVEPDiENSis [i.e., Villalverniensis'], Sacco. 
viNCTA, E. Tate, June, 1893: ^'■Columhella {Mitrella) vincta, spec 

nov." : Trans. R. Soc. South Austral., vol. x\Tii, p. 190, pi. i, fig. 1 1 : 

Type. — [?] : Loc. — " Fowler and Streaky Bays, Middleton, and 

Cape Northumberland, S. Australia ; also north coast of Tasmania." 
viOLACEA [= C. Peasei, Marts. & Langk.], J. Hervier, Dec 26, 1899 : 

Columhella nanisca, Herv., var. violacea, Herv. : Journ. Conchyl., 

vol. xlvii, p. 366 : Type. — [Coll. Societo de Marie, Lyons] : 

Loc. — Lifu. 
viRGiNEA [? group of C. pardalina. Lam.], P. L. Duclos, 1835 [Apr. 

1840]: " Col. Virffinea" : Hist. nat. Coq. univ., pi. ii, figs. 15-6 

[no descr.]: Type.—I?]: Loc.—l?] 



152 PROCEEDINGS OF THE MALACOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

viEGiNEA [group of C. Pcasei, Marts. & Langk.], A. A. Gould, Sept. 

1860 : " Columbella \_Pyrene^ virginea " : Proc. Boston Soc, vol. vii, 

p. 335 [no tig.] : Typjc. — [U.S. Nat. Mus., AVashington] : Loc. — 

China Seas. 
viR'iiNEA, Lamarck [i.e., Duclos, sp.]. 
viRiDULA (L. A. Ecevc), Jan. 1846 : Pleurotoma viridula (Mciller) 

[Reeve sp.]: Conch. Icon., Pleurotoma, sp. 306: Typk. — Coll. 

Taylor : Loc. — Greenland. 
viTENSis, W. Dunker, Aug. 1871 : " Columhella {Nitklella) Vitensis 

Dkr." : Malak. Bliitt, vol. xviii, pp. 156-7 [no fig.] : Type.— GoW. 

Godeffroy [Mus. Hamburg] : Loo. — [Viti Is.]. 
viTTATA, L. A. Reeve, Apr. 1859: " Columhella vittata" : Conch. 

Icon., sp. 192 : Type. — Coll. Cuming [Brit. Mus., Loudon] : 

Loc. — " Ilba, Province of Zambales, Island of Luzon, Philippines." 
t VITTATA, C. de Stefani & D. Pantanelli, 1878: " Columhella vittata 

nobis [n.n. for ' C. curta (non Duj.) nobis, olim']": Bull. Soc. 

raalac. Ital., vol. iv, pp. 107-8 [no fig.] : Type.—\J'\ : Loc— 

Pliocene: Tressa; Pcscaia [nr. Siena]. 
viiTiFERA, J. Hervier, Dec. 26, 1899 : Columhella psilla, Duel. 

[Hervier, sp.], var. vittifera, Herv. : Journ. Conchyl., vol. xlvii, 

p. 346 : Type.— [CoW. Societe de Marie, Lyons] : ioc— Lifu. 
vuLPECULA, P. L. Duclos [? = Sowcrby, sp.] [1846-58]: " C. 
Colomhella'] Vulpecula" : in Chenu, lUust. Conch., pi. xii, figs. 19-20 

>o descr.] : Type.—[?^ : Loo.—[?] 
VULPECULA, T. di Monterosato [MS., = Pallary, sp.]. 
VTTLPECULA, P. Pallary, Oct. 25, 1900 : " Columhella {Mitrella) vulpe- 

cula, Monterosato": Journ. Conchyl., vol. xlviii, p. 279, pi. vi, 

fig. 8: riTi?.-[? Coll. Pallary]: Zac.—Oran [Algeria]. 
VULPECULA [group of C. pardalina, Lam.], G. B. Sowerby i, [Sept.] 

1844: '■'■Columhella vulpecula, nob.": Proc. Zool. Soc, 1844, 

p. 50 [no fig.] : Type. — Coll. Cuming [Brit. Mus., London] : 

Zoc— [?] 
vuLPisA, M. H. C. Lichtenstein [nom. mid.], 1837: "Columhella 

vtilpina n.sp." : Verz. Samml. ncuholl. Naturalien [Sale Catal.], 

p. 8 : Type.— CoW. Lhotsky : ioc— New Holland. 

fwERNERi [group of C. oUvoidea (Cantr.)] (0. Boettger) [extr., 1901] : 
"intra {Dipti/chomitra) tverneri n.sp." : Yerhandl. Ver. Hermann- 
stadt, vol. li [extr.], p. 15 [no fig.]: T^r/'i?.— [? Coll. Boettger]: 
Loc. — Middle Miocene : "Kostej: Parau ungurului," 
WHEATLEYi [gi'oup of C, luiiata (Say)] (J. E. de Kay), 1843: 
" Buccmum wheatleyi^^ : Nat. Hist. New York, Moll., p. 132, pi. \u, 
fig. 162: Trwr.— "State Collection" [Albany, N.Y.] : Loc— 
N. York Harbour (C. M. AVheatley). 

jn-nofEPi, R. Hoernes & M. Aviinger, Dec, 31, 1880: "Columbella 
{Engina) Wimmeri no\. form": Abhandl. gcol. Reichsanst , vol. xii, 
p. 104, pi. vii, figs. 21-3: T'itj?. — Hof-Mineralien-Cabinet, 
Yienna: Lo<: — Mollersdorf; Soos. 



PACE : ON THE COLUMBELLID^. 



153 



XANTHOLEUCA (G. B. Sowerby), Jan. 17, 1882 : '' Migina xantholeuca, 

sp. nov. " : Proc. Zool. Soc, 1882, p. 119, pi. v, fig. 9 : Type.— 

Coll. J. C. Melvill : Zoc— Mauritius. 
XATERiANA, .1. E. Tenison-Woods, 1877 : " Columhella xaveriana, n.s." : 

Proc. R. 8oc. Tasmania, 1876, p. 134 [no fig.]: Type.—^uh. R. 

Soc. Tasmania [Hobart] : Zoo.— JST. Coast, Tasmania. 
xiPHiTELLA [? = C. rustica (Linn.)], P. L. Duclos, 1835 [Apr. 1840] : 

'' Col-XiphitelW : Hist. nat. Coq. univ., pi. ix, figs. 13-4: 

Tr/'^.— [?]: Loc.—m 

YAUSAPATA [i.e., gcmsapato], Gould. 

TOLDiNA, p. L. Duclos, 1835 [Apr. 1840] : " Cohmbella Yoldina'' : 

Hist. nat. Coq. univ., pi. viii, figs. 9-10 [no descr.] : Type.—[?^ : 

Zoc.-l?] 
YORKENSis, Crosse [MS., = Crosse & Fischer, sp.]. 
YOKKENSis [group of C. senitconvexa (Lam.)], J. C. H. Crosse & 

P. Fischer, 1865 : " Columhella Yorkensis, Crosse, ms. " : Journ. 

Conchyl., vol. xiii, p. 55, pi. ii, fig. 6 : Type.— GoW. Angas 

[Brit. Mus., London (!)] : Zoc. —York Peninsula. 

zATPicimi (J. C. Melvill), Mar. 1894: '' Engina zatricium, n.sp,": 

Proc. Malac. Soc. London, vol. i, p. 51, fig. : Type.— ['Brit Mus., 

London] : Loc. — " Lifu, Loyalty Islands (Rev. James Hadfield)." 
ZEBBA, W. Dunker [MS.,= Kobelt', sp.]. 
ZEBBA, J. E. Gray [MS.,= Sowerby, sp.]. 
ZEBBA [= Engma], W. Kobelt, 1897 [1896] : ''Columhella {Engina) 

zehra Dxxnker " : in Martini & Chemnitz, Conch. Cab., nevr ed., 

pp. 273-4, pi. 36, figs. 5-6: Type. — Mus. Senckenbcrg : Loc. — 

Polynesia. 
ZEBRA [group of C. terpsichore, Sby.], G. B. Sowerby i [? =Wood, 

sp.], 1844: " Col. Zehra Gray" : Thes. Conch., sp. 46, fig. 105: 

TYPE.-iy] : Zoc.—" New Zealand." 
ZEBRA (W. Wood), 1828 : " [Buccimim'] zehra " : Suppl. Index Test, 

p. 13, pi. 4, fig. 30 [no descr.]: Type.— Coll. Gray: Loc— 

" Pacific Ocean." 
ZEBRA, Zelebor [?]. 
ZEBBioLATA [= C. Peasei, Marts. & Langk.], J. Hervier, Dec. 26, 

1899: Columhella nanisca, Herv., var. zehriolata, Herv. : Journ. 

Conchyl., vol. xlvii, p. 365, pi. xiii, fig. 8 : Type.— [Qoll. Societe 

de Marie, Lyons] : Loc. — Lifu. 
ZELiNA, P. L. Duclos, 1835 [Apr. 1840] : " Col. Zelina" : Hist. nat. 

Coq. univ., pi. iv, figs. 5-6 [no descr.] : Type.—\]^ : Zoc— [?] 
zepa {_ = Engina\ P. L. Duclos [1846-58] : "61 S^ColomhelW] Zepa" : 

in Chenu, lUust. Conch., pi. xix, figs. 9-10 [no descr.]: 

Type.—[?]: Zo(7.— [?] 
fziTTELi, R. Hoernes & M. Auinger, Dec. 31, 1880: ''Columhella 

{Anachis) Zitteli nov. form." : Abhandl. geol. Reichsanst., vol. xii, 

p. 99, pi. xi, figs. 19-21 : rrra.— Hof-Mineralien-Cabinet, Vienna : 

Loc. — Lapugy. 



154 PKOCEEDINGS OF XnE MALACOLOGICAL SOdETY. 

zoNALE (A. A. Gould), Sept. 1848: " Buccinum zonule [Linsley 

MS.] " : Amer. Jouni. Sci., scr. ii, vol. vi, p. 236, fig. 8 : Tri'E. — 

[?] : Zoc. — Connecticut. 
zoNALis [_=JEngina], J. P. B. do Lamarck, Aug. 1822 : " Colombella 

zotialifi^' : Hist. uat. Anim. 8. Vert., vol. vii, p. 297 [no fig.]: 

TFrE.—Goll. Lamarck : Zoc— [2^ 
ZONALIS [= C. zonule, Gld.], J. H. Linsley [MS.]. 
zoNATA, A. A. Gould, Sept. 1860 : " Columbella {Anachis) zonatu^^ : 

Proc. Boston Soc, vol. vii, p. 334 [no fig.] : Type. — [?] : Loc. — 

Kagosima. 
ZONATA [ = JEnfftna'] (L. A. Eeeve), Sept. 1846 : '^ Micinula zonatu'^ : 

Conch. Icon., Ricinula, sp. 33: Type. — Coll. Cuming [Brit. Mus., 

London]: Loc. — " Charles Island, Gallapagos." 
zoNiFEPiA [group of C. ligula, Duel.], J. Hervier, Dec. 26, 1899: 

. Columbella alhinu, Kien., var. zonifera, Herv. : Journ. Conchyl., 

vol. xlvii, p. 323 : Type. — [Coll. Societe de Marie, Lyons] : 

Loc. — Lifu. 
ZOPILLA [sp. indet.], P. L. Duclos [1846-58]: " C. {Colomhella] 

Zopilla " : in Chenu, Illust. Conch., pi. xix, figs. 1 1-2 [no descr.] : 

TYPE.—m-. Loc.—m 

ZTTLMis, P. L. Duclos [1846-58]: " C. \_Colomhellu^ Zulmis^' : in 
Chcmi, Illust. Conch., pi. xxiv, figs. 21-2 [no descr.] : Type. — 

[?] : Z.c'.-[?] 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE MALACOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 



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ANNUAL G EX Ell A 1, :\1 E E T I N G. 

Fhiday, 14rn Fehrvaky, 190:2. 

E. A. Smith, F.Z.S., etc., Picsideut, iu the Chair. 

Mr, H. Fulton aud Mr. W. M. AVobb wore appoiuted scnitiuoors. 
Tho following report was road : — 

"Your Council, in presenting thoir niutli Annual lieport, have, as 
of old, to chronicle a year of steady progress. 

During the past year thirteen new members have been elected, 
while the Society has lost by death, beyond their lamented Secretary, 
Mr. Martin F. Woodward, of whom a special memoir has been given, 
two other members, namelj-. Professor Kalph Tate and Mr. Mahon 
Daly. Seven members have also been removed from tho list owing 
either to resignation or other causes. 

The membersliip of tlu^ Society on December 3 1st, 1901, stood as 
follows : — 

Grdinary members 92 

Correspoudiuji' members 79 

Total 171 

the total having remained at 108 during the two preceding years. 

The financial position of the Society remains thorouglily satisfactory', 
the balance in hand at the close of the year being £4.4 Is. 5d., the 
largest yet shown, whih> iu addition the sum of £50 still remains 
invested in Metropolitan 2\ per cent. Stock. 

Thirty communications have been made to the Society by eighteen 
authors. 

Since the last Annual (reneral Meeting three more numbers of the 
' Proceedings * have been issued, forming the last half of Vol. IV, 
comprising 115 pages, with title-page, index, contents, thirteen plates, 
and numerous illustrations iu the text. 

Your thanks are due to the following gentlemin, who liave borne 
a portion of the cost of illustration, or have assisted by furnishing 
drawings : Dr. W. T. Blanford, S. 1. Da Costa, U. C. Ciick, Colonel 
(iodwin-Austen, 0. K. (nide, 11. Murdoch, S. Pace, H. A. Pilsbry, 
E. A. Smith, G. B. Sowerby, and E. P. Sykes. 

Further, your thanks are speiially due to the Council of the Liunoan 
Society, through whose kindness the Society has been permitted, 
as in previous years, to hold its meetings in Burlington House." 

The foregoing Keport was put to the meeting from the Chair, and 
adopted as the Annual Keport of the Society. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE MALACOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 157 

The followiug wore elected as Officers and Council for the year 1902 : 

President. — E. A. Smith, F.Z.8., etc. 

Vice-Presidents. — W. T. Blanford, LL.D., F.R.8., etc. ; Rev, Canon 
A. Merle Norman, D.C.L., F.ll.S., etc. ; E. R. Sykes, B.A., 
F.L.8., etc. ; Henrj' Woodward, LL.D., F.R.S., etc. 

Treasurer. — J. H. Ponsonby, F.Z.8., etc. 

Secretary. — R. H. Burne, B.A., F.Z.8., etc. 

Editor.—^. B. Woodward, F.L.S., etc. 

Other Memhers of Council. — Rev. R. Ashinj^ton Bullen, F.L.8., etc. ; 
(>. C. Crick, F.G.S., etc. ; Lieut.-Col. H. H. Godwin-Austen, 
F.R.8., etc. ; G. K. Gude, F.Z.S., etc. ; Professor G. B. 
Howes, LL.D., F.R.8., etc. ; S. Pace, F.Z.S., etc. 

Votes of thanks were passed to the Retiring Officers, the Auditors, 
and the Scinitineers. 

The President, Mr. E. A. Smith, made some remarks on the supposed 
similarity in the Mollusca of the Arctic and Antarctic regions. He 
dealt specifically with eleven species stated to be common to the 
two faunas, and expressed the view that the evidence of specific 
identit}^ was not sufficiently strong to justify the conclusions that 
had been drawn. 



OBITUARY NOTICES. 

Professor Ralph Tate, F.G.S., etc., who joined this Societj' in 
1894, was bora at Alnwick in 1840, and was educated at Cheltenham 
Training College, whence he w^ent in 1857 to the Royal School of 
Mines. After teaching for a time at the Polytechnic he went to 
Belfast as teacher of Natural Science at the Philosophical Institution, 
where he principally interested himself in Botany, non-marine Con- 
chologj-, and Palaeontology. In 1861 he became a Fellow of the 
Geological Society, and in March, 1864, obtained the post of Assistant 
Curator to that Society, and worked at their collection, especially 
the South African fossils. At the same time he did not neglect his 
botany, while m 1866 he brought out his "Plain and easy account 
of the Land and Fresh- water Mollusks of Great Britain," which at the 
time was the best book of its kind. Such was the merit of his work 
in these different lines that he had the distinction of being elected an 
Associate of the Linnean Society in April, 1867. He was elected 
a Fellow of that Society in December, 1883, but withdrew in 1896. 

In 1867 he was sent by the Central America Association on an 
exploring expedition to Nicaragua, and in the succeeding year to the 
pro\T.nce of Guyana in Venezuela, the conchological results of which 
were contributed to the American Journal of Conchologj-. 

Subsequently he conducted mining classes at Bristol, and in 1868 
brought out his "Ajopendix" to S. P. Woodward's "Manual of the 
Mollusca." 



158 PROCEEDINGS OF THE MALACOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

In 1871 he was appointed teacher to the Mining School established 
by the Cleveland Ironmasters, first at Darlington and then at Iledcar, 
until in 1875 he obtained the post of Professor of Natural Science on 
the Elder Foundation at the University of SoTith Australia in Adelaide. 
Here the serious Avork of his life began, and he Avorked at it with all 
his energy. In addition to his professorial duties he devoted himself 
to the advancement of science in the land of his adoption, and by 
his untiring efforts largely assisted in raising it to its present status. 
The " Philosophical Society," when he went out, was not altogether 
a flourishing body, but he persuaded others to join him in publishing 
original articles in its proceedings, instead of sending them to more 
widely known European journals, and so increase the utility of the 
Society, which, under his presidency (1878-80), became the "Royal 
Society of South Australia." In all some ninety odd papers were con- 
tributed to its volumes by him ; some few of these were on botany or 
general geology, and about thirty on recent moUusca, but the greater 
number were on the fossil mollusca of the Tertiary beds of the 
Australian Continent. Other papers of his on the same subject 
appeared in the Proceedings of the Royal Society of Tasmania, of 
the Linnean Society of New South "Wales, and of the Australian 
Association for the Advancement of Science, of which he was president 
in 1893. Out of the 380 species recognized by Mr. G. F. Harris 
in his " Catalogue of Tertiary Australian Molhisca in the British 
Museum," 225 are species established by Tate, an index to the amount 
and value of his labours ! 

In the Autumn of 1896 he paid a visit to England, and contributed 
to the Proceedings of this Society a paper "On the discovery of 
a recent species of Arcoperna^' (Proc. Malac. Soc, vol. ii, p. 181). 

He continued to work on with unflagging zeal until the Summer of 
1900, when heart trouble became serious, and he finally succumbed to 
the malady on September 20th. His very last work was "A revised 
Census of the Marine Mollusca of Tasmania," undertaken in association 
with Mr. W. L. May (Proc. Linn. Soc. New South Wales, 1901, 
pt. 3), of which he was only able to finally complete the first 24 pages, 
the task of seeing the rest of the work through the press devolving on 
his co-author, assisted by Mr. C. Hedley. 

A fuU list of his scientific wi'itings will be found appended to the 
memoir of him by Professor Blake (Geol. Mag., 1902, p. 87), to which 
we are mainly indebted for the foregoing details. 

William Mahon Daly was born in the early sixties on the Shevaroy 
HiUs in the Madras Presidency, India, where his father was the owner 
of a coffee plantation. The son was brought up in India, and in time 
succeeded, with his elder brother, to the management of his father's 
estate. This he left about 1895 to take charge of a coffee plantation 
in the Kadur district of Mysore, where he obtained the specimens 
of the new genus Mulleria, named in his honour M. Dalyi, by 
E. A. Smith (Proc. Malac. Soc, vol. iii, p. 14).^ In 1898 he received 

^ The anatomy of this species was described later (Proc. Malac. Soc, vol. iii, p. 87) 
by the late Martin F. "Woodward, from specimens obtained by Mr. H. Bonner. 



PEOCEEDIKGS OF THE MALACOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 159 

an appointment in the Forest Department of Siam, and was stationed 
for some time at Pitsunaloke, some 200 miles due north of Bangkok, 
and subsequently at Lampoon, further north near Chieng Mai. He 
died of fever about November, 1900, when on his way to the last- 
named place to obtain medical treatment. Mr. Daly became a member 
of the Malacological Society in 1 894. \_From notes supplied by Br. W. T. 
Blanford.'\ 



ORDINARY MEETING. 
Friday, 14th February, 1902. 
E. A. Smith, F.Z.S., etc., President, in the Chair. 
Percy F. Kensett was elected to membership of the Society. 
Exhibits were placed on the table by the following : — 
Dr. H. C. Sorby : Specimens of British MoUusca and lantern slides 
of the same, demonstrating methods for preserving the natural colours. 
B. B. "Woodward : Lantern slides showing molluscan Shell Characters. 
G. K. Gude : Drawings of Helicoid Land- Shells. 
G. B. Sowerby : Types of Marine Molluscs from the collection of the 
late M. Thomas. 

H. Fulton : Tj^De-specimens of new species and varieties of Land- 
Shells from New Guinea. 

H. B. Preston : A collection of Darts of British Helicidse. 

E. A. Smith : Specimens of Isomeria orcas (Koch) with remarkable 
thickening of the peristome. 

F. G. Bridgman: A small form of Physa fontinalis (Linn.) from 
near Norwich. 



ORDINARY MEETING. 

Friday, 14th March, 1902. 

E. A. Smith, F.Z.S., etc., President, in the Chair. 

Miss Mary L. Hett, Archibald Campbell, and F. G. Bridgman were 
elected to membership of the Society. 

The following communications were read : — 

1. " List of Marine Shells collected near Aden from 1892 to 1901." 
By Commander E. R. Shopland. 

2. "On Non-Marine Mollusca fi'om the Holocene of Westminster and 
London Wall." By A. S. Kennard and B. B. Woodward, F.L.S., etc. 

3. " Note on Cyprceamicrodon of Gray." By E. A. Smith, F.Z.S., etc. 
Exhibits were placed on the table by the following : — 

B. B. Woodward : Specimens of Assiminea Grayana (Leach) from 
Ribe, Denmark. Hitherto the species had been found only in Kent 
and the Thames Valley. 

S. Pace : A collection of the species of Columbellidfe occurring 
near Aden. 



160 PROCEKDINGS OF THE MALACOLOGICAL SOCIETY:. 

H. U. Prestou : The original specimens of Vitrea glabra (Studer) 
from which the species was first identified as British. 

A. 8. Kcnnard : A specimen of Dreissensia polymorpha (Pallas) from 
the Holocene of Clifton Hampden. The species is generally considered 
to be a recent importation. 

E. R. Sykes : A specimen of Valuta Rossiniana (Bernardi). 

E. A. Smith, A. S. Kennard, and B. B. "Woodward : Specimens in 
illustration of their papers. 



ORDINARY MEETING. 
Friday, 11th April, 1902. 
E. A. Smith, F.Z.S., etc., President, iu the Chair. 
The following communications were read : — 

1. "Notes on Mollusca, Terrestrial and Marine: (i) from the Late 
Celtic (early Iron Age) burial-ground of Harlyn Bay ; (ii) from 
a Bronze Age interment, Harlyn cliffs ; (iii) from a Neolithic potter's 
hut, Constantino Island ; (iv) from kitchen middens on Constantine 
cliff, and at Constantine Church." By the Bev. E. Ashington BuUen, 
F.L.S., etc. 

2. " Description of a new species of Achatina from Basutoland." 
By E. A. Smith, F.Z.S., etc. 

3. "On Corona Pfeijferi, var. gracilis, n.var., from S.E. Columbia," 
By E. A. Smith, F.Z.S., etc. 

4. "Notes on the Clausilim of Tonkin." By E. R. Sykes, B.A., 
F.L.S., etc. 

5. "Note on the histology of Molluscan and other olfactory nerve 
centres." By B. H. Burne, B.A., F.Z.S., etc. 

Exhibits were placed on the table by the following : — 

"W. M. Webb : Photographs of pottery from ancient Peruvian graves 
moulded into the form of molluscan shells. 

R. H. Burne : A specimen of Axinus flexuosus (Montagu) with the 
vermiform foot extended. 

The Rev. R. A. Bullen, E. A. Smith, E. R. Sykes, and R. H. Burne : 
Specimens in illustration of their papers. 



NOTES. 



Land-Shells used as Models by Ancient Peruvian Potters. {Read 
Uth March, 1902.)— Towards the end of 1901, Sir Spenser St. John, 
formerly H.M. Minister resident in Peru, disposed of his large collectiou 
of ancient Peruvian pottery. Mr. Stevens, the well-known auctioneer, in 
whose hands the specimens were placed, very kindly gave the writer every 
facility for examining and photographing them. The vessels iu question 



NOTES. 



161 



came from graves in which they had been placed with the mummies of 
the old Peruvians, who buried their dead in a sitting posture and tied up 
in a sort of bale. Some of the pots originally held food and others drink, 
intended " for the use of the spirit of the deceased during his journey to 
the other world." The designs of the various articles were nearly all 
borrowed from animal sources, plant structures were very rarely copied ; and 
the majority of the human faces and figures represented were intentionally 




Fig. 1. 



Fig. 



grotesque ; nearly all showed clever modelling and a very much higher order 
of art than that to be seen in the drawings with which one piece of 
pottery, at least, was embellished. Two examples among the four hundred 
which were dispersed on October 10th are of some interest to the members 
of this Society. The first (Fig. 1) represents a snail shell, which may 
well have been copied from some helicoid species, with the mouth 
forming the opening of the vessel, and brought round to the upper or 
spire side of the shell. This specimen is now in the possession of the 
Rev. R. Ashington Bullen. The other piece of pottery which is worthy 
of mention in this connection (Fig. 2) is a bottle or flask, which like 
many others is provided with a hollow handle communicating with and 
supporting the neck. The body of the vessel is not, as is often the case, 
fashioned in the shape of a human head, but is embellished instead with 
three bulimoid snails in relief. In these the eye-bearing tentacles are 
directed backwards against the shell, and support for them is thus gained 
at the expense of accuracy. The Rev. Randolph Bereus is now the 
possessor of this vessel, which unfortunately is cracked. 

Wilfred Mark Webb. 



VOL. y. — JULY, 1902. 



11 



162 



PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 

ON THE SUPPOSED SIMILARITY BETWEEN THE MOLLUSCA OF 
THE ARCTIC AND ANTARCTIC REGIONS. 

By Edgar A. Smith, F.Z.S., etc. 

Read lifh Februari/, 1902. 

During the past year, whilst working out the Mollusca obtained by 
the "Southern Cross" in the Antarctic regions, I had occasion to 
compare the forms from that part of the globe with those from the 
Arctic regions, and I was interested to ascertain how far the supposed 
resemblance between these two assemblages was real or otherwise. 
1 should mention that this subject has been more or less fully discussed 
by Professor D'Arcy Thompson, Dr. G. PfefFer, and others, but not solely 
from the molluscan point of view. I therefore thought that a few 
remarks upon this subject might be of interest to the members of this 
Society. Sir John Murray, in the Transactions of the Royal Society 
of Edinburgh, vol. xxxviii, in his memoir upon tlie deep and shallow- 
water marine fauna of the Kerguelen region of tlie great Southern 
Ocean, has referred to this subject at some length, and has given 
a list of identical and closely allied species found in the extra -tropical 
r(>gions of the northern and southern hemispheres and \mknown hitherto 
within the tropics. This list includes invertebrates of all orders, but 
the Mollusca, with which alone we are at present concerned, are as 
follows : — 

1 . Glomus nitens, Jeff. 

2. Kellia suhorbicularis (Mont.). 

3. MytiluH edulis, Linn. 

4. Dentalrum keras, Watson. 

5. Homalogyra atomus (Phil.). 

6. lanthina rotundata. Leach. 

7. Natica {Lunatia) GroenJandica, Beck. 

8. Odostomia Bissoides, Hanley. 

9. Puncturella Noachina (Linn.). 

10. Trochus [Margarita) in/nndibulum, Watson. 

11. ? Doris tuherculata, Cuvier. 

Since these species have been quoted from the Reports on the 
Gastropoda and Lamellibranchiata of the "Challenger" Expedition by 
the Rev. R. Boog Watson and myself respectively, I have thought it 
advisable to re-examine each of them so as to establish the correctness 
of the identifications, and to make such observations upon the known 
distribution of the various species and genera as may tend to elucidate 
the occurrence of the forms in question in such remote localities. 



SMITH : ON ARCTIC AND ANTARCTIC MOLLTJSCA. 163 

1 . Glomus nitens, Jeffreys. — This species was originally described 
froEQ specimens dredged in 1,750 fathoms at the entrance of Davis 
Straits, also off the west and south of Ireland in 557-1476 fathoms. 
It was obtained by the "Challenger" in 1,900 fathoms off the Rio 
de la Plata. This identification was based on the examination and 
comparison of a single specimen from the latter locality. Although at 
the time considered to be the same as G. nitens, I do not now feel 
absolutely convinced of the identification. The comparison of a single 
example of such a minute form which is without any marked feature, is 
always unsatisfactory and inconclusive, and a recent re-examination of 
the shell in question seems to show that the concentric lines of growth 
are coarser than in typical examples. I should add that at the time 
when the Report on the "Challenger" Bivalves was written I had 
only a few poor representatives of the species for comparison. Since 
that time the British Museum has obtained a good series dredged by 
the "Porcupine" Expedition of 1869. I should further add that the 
genus is represented by a few very similar forms in the West Indian 
region, and also in deep water off Japan. 

2. Kellia suboebiculakis (Montagu). — A common British species 
recorded, on the evidence of two specimens, from Kerguelen Island. 
It is also known from Massachusetts (Gould), the Canary Islands, 
St. Helena (Smith), Port Elizabeth, Cape Colony (Sowerby), Mazatlan 
(Carpenter). Another species (A", rotunda, Deshayes), doubtfully 
separable from the present form, has been quoted from Queensland 
(Deshayes), New South "Wales (Angas), Bass Straits (Smith), Cape 
Colony (Sowerby). Although it might be hazardous without a knowledge 
of the soft parts to declare that the two forms mentioned are certainly 
conspecific, I must say on the evidence of the shells alone I fail 
to perceive where the line of demarcation occurs. I imagine that 
difference in locality was the chief reason which induced Deshayes to 
separate his so-called species from the well-known European form. 

Like the foregoing Glomus nitens, the present species offers no 
specially distinctive conchological characters which will sepai'ate it, 
beyond doubt, from other allied forms. The genus is cosmopolitan. 

3. Mytilus edulis, Linn. — Since Sir John Murray quoted this 
well-known mollusc in his list of species from the extra-tropical 
regions of the northern and southern hemispheres, it has been cited 
from Cape Colony (Sowerby), Rio Grande do Sul and St. Catharina on 
the east coast of South America (Von Jhering). The South African 
locality may be erroneous, for the M. meridionalis of Krauss, said by 
Sowerby to be a variety of edulis, is monomyarian, and quite distinct 
from the common European shell, which is dimyarian. M. edulis has 
been quoted from New Zealand (Hutton, Smith, etc.), Great Barrier 
Island, Auckland Islands, Campbell Island (Hutton), Kerguelen Island 
(Smith). Also from California as M. trossulus, Gould, considered by 
Jeffreys and Dr. von Jhering sjTionymous with M. edulis. 

From the foregoing remarks it is seen that this species has such an 
extensive distribution that its occurrence in Arctic and Antarctic 
seas is in no way surprising. The members of this genus also are 



164 ri{OCEKi)iN(;s ok the malacological sociktt. 

particularly adapted for a wide distribution ; bciiii;- attached by a byssus 
to wood and other lioatiug bodies, they would naturally be carried in 
all directions by ocean currents. 

4. Dentalium keuas, Watson. — Dredged by the "Challenger" in 
the Xorth Pacific off Japan in 2,050 fathoms and in the South racific 
in 2,100 fathoms, but since recorded from the Gulf of Mexico in 
1,568 fathoms. Eoth Dr. Watson and Dr. Dall agree in the identi- 
fication of the tropical specimens with this species. Under these 
circumstances it must be removed from the list of species supposed to 
occur only in extra-tropical regions. 

5. JIoMALOGYRA ATOMUs (Philippi). — British, Norwegian, Medi- 
terranean. Madeiran, and from the .Southern Ocean between Marion 
Island and Prince Edward Island in 140 fathoms. The identification of 
this species from the last-named locality rests upon the examination of 
" a single, slightly weathered specimen " dredged by the "Challenger." 
I have seen this atom, and although it certainly has very much the 
aspect of this species, and one cannot with certainty say that it is 
different, still, considering the ct)ndition of the specimen and its 
minuteness, one cannot equally declare that, beyond a doubt, it is 
conspecific. I can well imagine it to be mei'ely the embryonic shell 
of some Gastropod which eventually attains much larger dimensions. 

6. Ianthina rotundata, Leach. — In respect of distribution this 
species is scarcely worth consideration. Being pelagic throughout its 
existence, one vf^ould not be surprised to meet with it both north and 
south of the tropics. The same or allied forms have been met with 
everywhere in warm latitudes. 

7. Natica (Lunatxa) Groenlandica, Beck. — On*; specimen considered 
bj'' Watson to belong to this well-known Arctic form was recorded 
by him from Heard Island in 75 fathoms. This is another instance 
in which one feels doubt about pronouncing with absolute certainty 
the correctness of the identification. Although veiy similar indeed 
to some examples of J^. Groenlandica, still it differs from most of them 
in being imperforate. In this respect it agrees -with JV. fartilis of 
Watson, which was dredged at a neighbouring station in the Kerguelcn 
legion. Another feature common to both is the presence of a pale zone 
below the suture in the body-whorl. On comparing these specimens 
I cannot understand why Dr. Watson should have separated the 
Heard Island specimen from the rest. iV^. fartilis, being devoid of 
colour-markings, has much the aspect of both JS. Groenlandica and 
N. affinis, also a northern form. 

8. Odostojiia RissoiDEs, Hanley. — This well-known British species 
is quoted by Watson from between Marion Island and Prince Edward 
Lsland in 50-140 fathoms. The identification was based upon two 
specimens only, and Dr. Watson distinctly says, "I give this species 
on the authority of Dr. Gwyn Jeffreys." After a careful examination 
of the two shells in question I cannot agree "with this determination. 
In the first placi' they exhibit only a faint trace of a cohunellar tooth 



SMITH : ON ARCTIC AND ANTAKCTIC MOLLUSCA. 165 

or fold, and they are of a different texture. It is one of those cases 
of uncertainty which arise through a very close resemblance, and 
which would probably be cleared up if we had a good series of 
specimens for comparison. 

9. PuNCTUHELi-A NoACHiNA (Linna3us). — This well-known northern 
form was obtained by the " Challenger " expedition at four stations in 
the Kerguelen region, also in the Straits of Magellan. Conchologically 
there seems to be no reason for separating the specimens obtained at 
these localities. The species has, however, such a wide range in 
Northern seas, the west coast of North America, Japan, etc., that 
its occurrence anywhere would not be surprising. Moreover, there 
are several not very dissimilar forms known from the West Indian 
region, and the genus occurs in all four quarters of the globe. 

To quote another example of wide range in the genus I would refer 
to Funclurella Astunana of Fischer, which is known from the Bay of 
Biscay, the West Indies, and off the west coast of Ceylon. 

10. Tkochus (Margakita) infundibulum, Watson. — A beautiful deep- 
water species from off Bermuda, 1,075 fathoms; off Marion Island m 
the Southern Ocean in 1,375 fathoms (^"Challenger"); 100 miles 
eastward of the entrance to Chesapeake Bay, 1,685 fathoms (Dall) ;. 
(jiulf of Manaar, Ceylon, 738 fathoms (" Investigator"). 

Slight differences, as might be expected, are observable in the 
specimens from these localities, still not sufficient to give them distinct 
specific rank. It will be noticed that all are from great depths, 
where cases of very remarkable distribution have been shown to occur. 

11. ? DoEis TUBERCULAiA, Cuvicr. — This well-known northern 
Nudibranch was (j^uotod by myself from Kerguelen Island in the 
Keport upon the Mollusca obtained by the " Trausit of Venus Expe- 
dition " to that island, the identification resting upon the authority of 
Mr. P. S. Abraham, who at the time had been naming the species 
in the Museum collection. But a greater master in the study of 
tlie Nudibranchiata, Dr. Rudolf Bergh of Copenhagen, has since 
declared this form to be both generically and specihcally distinct, 
and designated it with the -name of Archidoris Kerguelenomn. This 
species was also found by the " Southern Cross" naturalists at Cape 
A dare, Victoria Land. 

This concludes the discussion of the individual species under con- 
sideration, and I will now try to summarize the result. 

In the first place six out of the eleven species are probably wrongly 
identified, namely, the Glomus, Kellia, Uomalogyra, Natica, Odostomia, 
and Doris. Excepting in the case of the JJoris the identifications 
were based upon either one or two specimens, and all, with the 
exception of the Natica, are very small and insignificant, without any 
striking features, so that it becomes quite impossible to decide their 
identification with any approach to certainty. 

Of the remaining five species, whose determination appears to be 
admissible, the lanthina, being pelagic, scarcely comes within tbe 
scope of the discussion, the My til us is almost cosmopolitan, the 



166 PKOCKEDINOS OK TIIK MALACOLOCilCAL SOCIETY. 

31firf/nn'fa, besides occuiTing in tlio uortli Atlantic and the Southern 
Ocean, has also been found in the Indian Ocean, likewise the Dentalium 
and PundnreUa are both so widely distributed that their occurrence 
in deep Avater in intra -tropical latitudes is \^iY\ probable. 

Hence 1 think that in reality there is practically no identity between 
the northern and southern molluscan faunas. Moreover, putting aside 
specitic identity, we do not discover any similarity from a generic 
point of view, for not one of the eleven genera quoted has a limited 
distribution ; on the contrary, with the exception of Glomus and 
JIomalo(iyra, of which we know comparatively little, all have practically 
a worldwide range. 

In conclusion, I would also point out that I do not find any peculiar 
specific or generic identity in the published lists of Arctic and 
Antarctic Mollusca. Certain genera are usually considered boreal 
types, such as 

Admete. Yoldia. 

Trichotropis. Vyprina. 

Bela. Artarte. 

Velutina. Lyonsia. 

Lmnellaria. Mya. 

Buccinum. Cyrtodaria. 

Trophon. Saxicava, etc. 

Liomesus. 

Now it is a suggestive fact that not one of these genera is exclusively 
restricted to the two regions under discussion. One or two are solely 
Arctic, and the rest, although having both northern and southeru 
representatives, also occur at intermediate stations or have a con- 
siderably wide distribution. 

On the other hand, it may be shown that certain Antarctic genera 
axe restricted to that region and do not occur in the north, although 
met with in other parts of the world. Among these may be cited 
JSufJiria, Bullia, Photmula, Siphonaria, Ranella, Acanthina^ Folnta, 
Stnithiolan'a, Cominella, and Modiolarca. 

It is a notorious fact that Mollusca from high latitudes and from 
deep water are to a great extent devoid of bright colours. Even this 
prevailing dull appearance of the shells from the Arctic and Antarctic 
areas is almost enough to suggest an imaginary resemblance. 

Although much might be written upon this subject, indeed the 
discussion might be prolonged to any extent, I think enough has 
been said to show tlie fallacy of this bipolar theory, at all events from 
a molluscan point of view. 

Nevertheless, Dr. Pfeffer, referiing to the examination of collections 
received from Patagonia, observes — "One thing can be affirmed with 
decision, that the theory of the great similarity of the faunas of 
higher northern and southern latitudes receives new support from the 
working out of nearly all groups ; and the accord between the two 
faunas extends to hundreds of genera." 

Perhaps some day he will publish a list of these forms. We shall 
then be in a position to judge to what extent these hundreds of genera 
are bipolar. 



167 



NOTE ON CYPR^A MIGROBON, Gkay. 
By Edgar A. Smith, F.Z.S., etc. 

Read \ith March, 1902. 

In the Journal of Concliology, vol. x, pp. 117-119, Mr. J. C. Melvill 
has made some remarks on Cyprcea chri/mlis, Kiener, and C. microdon, 
Gray, maintaining that they are synonymous, and that authors have 
mistaken another species for C. microdon. 

The object of the present note is, in the fii'st place, to point out that 
I fail to discover, except in the case of Weinkauff among the mono- 
graphers, that any misconception of the latter species has occurred ; 
secondly, that it has always been rightly recognized in the British 
Museum collection ; and finally, that the type of the species is not in 
the Gray Collection. 

G. B. Sowerby, sen., G. B. Sowerby, jun., Reeve, Kiener, Roberts, 
and Weinkauff are the authors who have published illustrated 
monographs of the genus Cyprcea. Sowerby, sen., in the " Concho- 
logical Illustrations," figured C. microdon on pi. i, fig. 3, This was 
copied by Kiener (Coquilles vivantes, pi. Ivi, fig. 5). Eeeve (Conch. 
Icon., pi. xxiv, figs. I39«-i) gave an enlarged figure of a shell, now 
in the British Museum, from the collection of Mr. Gaskoin, which 
agrees with Sowerby's figure, save only that it is enlarged. The shell 
depicted by Reeve is the true microdon of Gray. In the monograph 
by Sowerby, jun. (Thesaurus Conchyl., vol. iv, p. 30, pi. 323, 
figs. 385-6), it is accurately described, and correctly, though rather 
roughly figured. This figure was reproduced by Roberts in Tryon's 
Manual of Conchology, vol. vii, pi. v, figs. 74, 75. 

Cyprcea chrysalis, which evidently, as Mr. Melvill observes, is the 
same as C. microdon, was figured by Kiener (op. cit., pi. liv, figs. 4, 4«). 
These figures have been copied by Sowerby, jun., Roberts, and 
Weinkauff, but are not given in Reeve's " Conchologia Iconica " as 
stated by Melvill. • 

Roberts and Sowerby do not appear to have recognized the fact that 
Kiener's species was the same as the one they depicted under the 
name of C. microdon. 



^ Journ. of Conch., vol. vii, p. 121. 



168 rUOCF.KDINGS OF THK M AI,ACO],OGICAL SOCIKTY. 

lu the Museum there are eleven specimens of microdon — one from 
the Cuming- Collection, one from Gaskoin's collection, the Grayian 
co-type, two from the "Challenger" collection from Fiji, one fi'om 
Aden presented by Capt. E. K. Shopland, and five from Mauritius 
received from Mr. Robillard. The last-named I consider to be most 
representative of the species. 

All of these have been named microdon for many years, and there- 
fore I fail to appreciate Mr. Melvill's remark that " In our National 
Collection at South Kensington it has not been fully understood as 
a species." I may say also 1 have hunted in vain for the " specimen 
or two mixed up with C. fimhriata." 

The species named by Mr. Melvill Cyproia minorideiis, which he 
supposes to have been mistaken by authors for C. microdon, is perhaps 
separable from C. Jimhriata on account of its generally less pyriform 
shape and the absence of the dark dots on the sides of the base. This 
form is figured by Sowerby (Thesaurus, pi. 323, figs. 390, 391), and 
these figures are copied by Roberts (op. cit., pi. v, figs. 76, 77). 
Examples of this form in the National Collection ai'e from Natal, 
Mauritius, the Seychelles and Fiji Islands, and Savage Island. 

With regard to the type of C. microdon being in the Gray Collection, 
I must say at once that such is not the case. Gray quoted the species 
from Mr. Stutchbury's collection as well as his own. The only 
example in his collection is the ' decorticated ' shell mentioned by 
Melvill. This certainly is not the type, for it is smaller than the 
dimensions given, and has no trace of the minute brown dots 
mentioned in the description. It is probably the shell referred to in 
the sentence " When worn the shell is marked with an obscure central 
yellowish band." 

In conclusion, I should point ont that Gray's initials were J. E., 
not S. ; that his paper was issued in vol. iv, not vol. vi, of the 
Zoological Journal, and that the copy of his description of C. microdon 
is carelessly transcribed as regards the punctuation ; that both 
measurements are inaccurately given, f and | should be f and \ 
respectively ; and finally, the paragraph commencing " Though 
worn," etc., stands in the original " Wlien worn," etc. 



169 



DESCRIPTION OF ACHATINA MACHACHEN8IS, n.sp., FROM 
BASUTOLAND. 

By Edgar A. Smith, F.Z.S., etc. 

Read Uth April, 1902. 

The specimens about to be described have been presented to tbe British 
Museum by E,. Crawshay, Esq., by whom they were collected on Mount 
Machacha, in Basutoland, at an elevation of about 10,000 feet. I have 
designated this form Achat ina Machachensis because a geographical 
name may be of some service to others in the identification of examples 
of this genus from the locality indicated. 

It is the first species recorded from 
Basutoland, and although exhibiting in 
some respects a relationship to the woW.- 
known A. zehm, it seems, on account of 
its elongate-ovate form, to be worthy of 
specific separation. A. rhahdota of Melvill 
and Ponsonby ' is very similar as regards 
general form and the style of markings, 
but is described as decussately granulated, 
a feature entirely absent in the present 
species, which, moreover, appears to have 
more convex whorls, presuming that the 
figure of A. rhabdota is accurate, for their 
form is not described in the authors' 
diagnosis. 

AcHATiNA Machachensis, n.sp. 

Testa elongato-ovata, mediocriter tenuis, 
sub periostraco tenui nitido flavo alba, 
strigis longitudinalibus arcuatis, rufo-nigris, 
interdum plus minus undulatis vel bifur- 

catis picta ; spira producta, leviter convexa, ad apicem obtusa ; 
anfractus septem, convexiusculi, lineis incrementi obliquis tenuibus 
striati, sutura lineari incrassata, alba, sejuncti, ultimus antice sensim 
descendens ; apertura inverse auriformis, longit. totius ^ hand sequans, 
intus cserulescens, sub-margaritacea, strigis nigris translucentibus ; 
columella parum arcuata, antice albida, oblique breviter truncata, 
superne callo tenui cterulesceute labro juncta. 

Long. 58, lat. 31 mm. ; apertura long. 28, lat. 16 mm. 

Exemplum alterum, long. 52, lat. 27 mm. ; apertura long. 25, 
lat. 15 mm. 

Besides in the characters already referred to, this species also differs 
from A. rhabdota in the form of the aperture. A. Craivfordi, Morelet, 
from Port Elizabeth, is also very similar in general outline, but is 
somewhat thinner, finely granulated, and with lighter - coloured 
markings. 




Achatina Mtu-}(((ch(itsis, n.sp. 



Ann. Mag. Xat. Hist., 1898, p. 29, pi. viii, fig'. U. 



170 



ON CORONA FFEIFFERI, vau. GRACILIS, n.vak., FROM 
S.E. COLOMBIA. 

By Edgar A. Smith, F.Z.S., etc. 

Read nth Jpril, 1902. 

Thk shell about to be described was obtained at the Rio Caqueta, 
S.E. Colombia, and has recently been acquired by the British Museum, 
It appears to be a variety of Orthalicus Pfeifferi, 
Hidalgo, and is remarkable for its elongate and 
very slender ^ form, and the black colour of the 
aperture and of the external markings. The 
longitudinal reddish and slightly wavy lines 
which are characteristic of typical specimens 
are less conspicuous in the present variety. 
Its length is 67 mm. and diameter 23, whereas 
a normal example is 60 mm. long and 24 broad, 
the aperture in both being 26 mm. in length. 

Corona is considered by Pilsbry * to be a 
subgenus of Liguus, and to include Helix 
regma, Ferussac, Achatma perversa, Swainson, 
Buliimis incmis, Hupe, and B. regalis, Hupe, 
which are probably all forms of one and the 
same species. In my opinion these so-called 
species are more nearly related to some of the 
species of Metorthalicus, e.g., M. atramentarius, 
Pfeiffer, and M. Adansoni, Eeeve, than to 
Liguus. 

I do not think Mr. Pilsbiy had seen specimens 
of Corona Pfeijf'eri, or he never would have 
placed in the genus Oxystyla a shell which is 
scarcely separable from the four so-called species of Corona referred to. 




Corona Pfeifferi, var. 
gracilis, n.var. 



' Hence the name gracilis which I propose for this new variety. 
'^ Man. Conch., ser. ii, vol. xii, p. 175. 



171 



LIST OF MARINE SHELLS COLLECTED IN THE NEIGHBOURHOOD 
OF ADEN BETWEEN 1892 AND 190L 

By Commander E. E,, Shopland. 

Read Wth March, 1902. 

The shells enumerated in the following list were, with the seven 
exceptions noted, collected witliin a radius of six miles from Steamer 
Point, Aden, chiefly on the shores of the Inner Harbour, by dredging 
in from three to eleven fathoms in and south of the harbour, and from 
the coral brought in from Little Aden for making lime. 

All the species marked with an asterisk (*) have been described 
from types now in the British Museum (Natural History).' 

In compiling the list it has been considered advisable to follow 
a well-known work rather than attempt the almost hopeless task of 
adjusting the nomenclature to the latest standards. This list has 
therefore been drawn up in accordance with the " Catalog der 
Conchylien-Sammlung von F. Paetel." 

CEPHALOPODA. 

Argonauta tuberculosa, Lk. 



GASTROPODA. 



lanthina fragilis, Lk. 
Murex anguliferus, Lk. 

,, Cm-boneri, Jouss. 

,, clavus, Kien. 

,, cyclostomusy Sowb. 

,, fenestratus, Chem. 

,, haustellum, L. 

,, pinnatus, Wood. 

,, ramosus, L. 

,, rota, 8owb. 

,, secundus, Lk. 

,, ternispina, Lk. 

,, varicosus. Sowb. 
Pyrtila paradisiaca. Mart. 



Fisania Crosseana, Souverb. 

,, ignea, Gmel. 
(, ,, ignea (sulcate variety). 

,, picta, Rve. 

,, situla, Rve. 
Pollia contracta, Rve. 

,, marmorata, Rve. 

,, rtibiginosa, Rve. 

,, undosa, L. 
Fusus forceps, Perry. 
Pleurotoma albifuniculata, Rve. 

,, aimcta, Smith. 

,, Baynhami, Smith. 

,, catena, Rve. 



* Commander Shopland's collection was acquired by Mr. Hormusjee Cowasjee 
Dinshau, ot Aden, who presented it to the National Collection. — Ed. 



172 



ruocKEDiN(3s or tuk malacoi.ogical society. 



Pleurotoma cecchi, Jouss. 

,, cinguUfera, Lk. 

,, cfrnu/aris, Lk. 
^ ,, Joitsst'aiimi, Molv. 

,, latisinuata, E. Smith. 

,, Makimonos, Jouss. 

,, ohtusicostata. Smith. 

,, otifoma, Jouss. 

,, Pouloensis, Jouss. 

,, tigrina, Lk. 

,, ttihcrcidata, Gray. 

,, unifasciata, Smith. 

,, variabilis, Smith. 

,, vidua, II ve. 

,, violacea, Hinds. 
Defrancia carinulata, Souvcrb. 

,, foraminata, live. 

„ Horncana, E. Smith. 

., nexa, K.ve. 

,, Philippinensis, Rve. 
rubicunda, Gould. 
Paphnella Boholensis, live. 

,, citharella, Lk. 

,, crebriplicata, Rve. 

,, Cumingi, Powis. 

,, cglindrica, Rve. 
^ ,, fencstrata, Melv. 
rissoides, live. 
Triton anfiquatus, Hiuds. 

,, aqnatilis, live. 

,, bradeatus, Hinds. 

,, cancellatus, Lk. 

,, ,, V. decipiens, Rve. 

,, clandestinus, Chem. 

,, convolutus, Brod. 

,, labiosus, "Wood. 

,, macidosus, Cht;m. 

,, pilearis, L. 

,, Ranzani, Bitinc. : from So- 
cotra. 

,, retuMis, Lk. 

,, ntbeeula, L. 

,, tr Hi neat us, Rve. 

,, vespaceus, Lk. 
Persona adieus, Jouss. 

,, SJwplandi, Jouss. 
Panella anceps, Lk. 

,, concinna, Dunkcr. 

,, granifera, Lk. 

,, livida, live. 



Panel /a spinosa, Lk. 

,, tubereulata, Rrod. 
Bullia Mauritiana, Gray. 

,, 2 a/lit ens is, GnieL 
P/iios roseatus, Hinds. 
Cgllene O'ragi, live. 
JVassa albescens, x.fenestrata, Dkr. 

,, arcularia, L. 

,, ccelata, A. Ad. 

,, concinna, Powis. 

,, coronata, Lk. 

,, dermestina, Gould. 

,, Erythraa, Issel. 

,, fissilabris, A. Ad. 

,, gemnnilata, Lk. 

,, lentiginosa, A. Ad. 

,, Marrati, Smith. 

,, nodifera, Powis. 

,, papulosa, L. 

,, persica, Mart. 
^ ,, polgchroma, Alelv. 

,, pulla, L. 

,, variegata, A. Ad. 

,, verrucosa, A. Ad. 

,, Zaihensis, Jouss. 
Jiburna Borneensis, Sowb. 

,, Valentiana, Swain. 
Purpura eehinata, Blain. 

,, fasciata, Dkr. 

,, hippocastanum, L. 

,, mancinella, Lk. 

,, persica, L. 

,, Rudolphi, Lk. 

,, sacellum, Chem. 
liicinula chrysostoma, Desh. 

,, concattnata, Lk. 

,, elata, Blain. 

,, Jiscellum, Chem. 
.^ ,, indigoferum, Melv. 

,, lobata, Blain. 

,, marginatum-altigona, Jouss. 

,, nodulosa, C. B. Ad. 

,, ricinus, L. 

,, tubereulata, Blain. 

,, undata, Chem. 
Rapana bullosa, Sol. 
*Coralliophila Arabica, Melv. 

,, costularis, Lk. 

,, squamulosa. live. 

,, violacea, Kien. 



SnOPLAND : LIST OF IIARINE SHELLS FROM ADEN. 



171 



Magxlua antiquum, Lk. 
Oliva bulbom, Jouss. : from ]5('r- 
bera. 

,, inflata, Lk. 
Ancillaria acuminata, Sowb. 

,, albisuleata, Sowb. 

,, castanea, Sowb. 

,, exigua, Sowb. 

,, fulva, Swain. 

,, ovalis, Sowb. 

,, striolata, Sowb. 
Fasciolaria trapczinm, L. 
Latirus Forskali, Tapp.-Can. 

,, PauluccicB, Tapp.-Can. 

,, poly g onus, L. 

,, smaragduluH, L. 

,, turritus, Gmel. 
Vasum. cornigerum, Lk. 
Mitra ajfinis, live. 

,, amahihs, live. 

,, armillata, Kve. 

,, aurantia, Gmel. 

,, aureolata, Swain. 

,, hella, Pse. 

,, Bovei, Kien. 

,, cceligena, Rve. 

,, carnicolor, E-ve, 

,, circidata, Kien. 

,, clatlirata, E.ve. 

,, concentrica, Kve. 

,, coriacea, Rve. 

,, crenifera, Lk. 

,, crenulata, Chom. 

,, cucumerina, Lk. 

,, dermestina, Lk. 

,, episcopalis, L. 

,, ericea, Pse. 

,, ferruginea, Lk. 

,, Jissurata, Lk. 

,, foveolata, Dkr. 

,, fukescens, Swain. 

,, innesi, Jouss. 

,, insculpta, A. Ad. 

,, interlirata, Rve. 

,, I iter at a, Lk. 

,, lubens, Rve. 

,, marginata, Sowb. 

,, militaris, Rve. 

,, mucronata, Swain. 
J, ,, nehriaft, Melv. 



Mitra obeliscus, Rve. 

,, Pacifica, Rve. 

,, Pharaonis, A. Ad. 

,, pretiosa, Rve. 

,, proeissa, Rve. 

,, rotundilirata, Ptve. 

,, rufescens, A. Ad. 

,, Rv/ppelU, Rve. 

,, svabriuHcula, Gray. 

,, semifasciata, Lk. 

,, Shoplandi, Melv. 

,, tabanula, Lk. 

,, turgida, Rve. 

,, ustulata, Rve. 

,, variegata, Sowb. 

,, vexillum, Rve. 

,, vulpecula, L. 

,, xerampelina, Melv. 
Marginella elandestina (near), 
Broccb. 

,, gibboaa, Jonss. 

,, Mazagonica, Melv. 

,, obtusa, Sowb. : from Ber- 
bera. 

,, scripta. Hinds. 

,, Terceriana, Petit. 

,, Verdensis, Smith. 
Columbella albina, Kien. 

,, albinodulosa, Gask. 

,, alreolata, Kien. 

,, aspersa, Sowb. 

,, astricta, Rve. 

,, concinna, Rve. 

,, conspersa, A. Ad. 

,, cribraria, Lk. 

,, fabula, Rve. 

,, flava, Brug. 

,, Hanleyi, Desh. 

,, ligula, Duel. 

,, lyrata, Sowb. 

,, mendicaria, L. 

,, mercatoria, L. 

,, miser, Sowb. 

,, propinqua, Smith. 

,, regulus, Souverb. 

,, Terpsichore, Leathes. 

,, zea, Melv. 

,, zonata, Rve. 
Harpa minor, Rumph. 

,, ventricosa, Lk. 



174 



PROCKEDIXGS OF TflK M.VLACOI.OGICAL SOCIETY. 



Cassis exarata, llvo. 

,, Fauroti, Jouss. 

,, glauca, L. 

,, pila, live. 

,, rufa, L. 

„ torquata, Rve. 

,, vihex, L. 
DoUum Qaemanju, Jouss. 
Sycotypus ficoides, Lk. 

,, ficiis, L. 
Lamellaria perspicua, L. 
Natica cernica, Jouss. 

,, Chinensis, Lk. 

,, CoUiei, llecl. 

,, didyma. Bolt. 

,, For shall, Chem. 

„ maculosa, Lk. 

,, mamilla, L. 

,, Marochieftsis, Gmel. 

,, melanostoma, GraeL 

,, plicatula, Niitt. 

,, Powisiana, KecL 

,, pulicaris, PhiL 

,, simi(B, Chem. 

,, tceniata, Menke. 
^ ,, tela-aranea, Melv. 
Naticina panilla, GmeL 
Sigaretus Cuvierianiis, RecL 

,, planu/afus, RecL 
Scalaria clathrus, L. 

,, decussata, Lk. 
Acrilla gracilis, H. Ad. 
Terebra alhomarginata, Desh. 

,, Babylonia, Lk. 

,, ctBrulescens, Lk. 

,, consobrina, Desh. 

,, orruf/afa, Lk. 

,, Gottoemis, E. Smith. 

,, Laniarcki, Kien. 

,, ligata. Hinds. 

,, nassoides. Hinds. 

,, Felly i, E. Smith. 

,, Souleyeti, Desh. 

,, straminea. Gray. 

,, ,, V. serotina, Ad. & 

Rve. 

,, tessellata. Gray. 

,, Uxtilis, Hinds. 
PyramideUa mitralis, A. Ad. 

,, Paeteli, Dhru. 



Pyramidnlla propinqua, A. Ad. 

,, variegata, A. Ad. 
ObeliscHs dolabratus, L. 

,, sulcatus, A. Ad. 

,, terebelloides, A. Ad. 
Ringicula acuta, Phil. 

,, propinquans, Hinds. 
Elusa bnmeoinaculata, Melv. 
*Aclis excereta, Melv. 
Eulima acuta, Sowb. 

,, brevis, Sowb. 

,. Martini, A. Ad. 
^ ,, Shoplandi, Melv. 

,, solidula, Ad. & Rve. 
*Leiostraca cojistcllata, Melv. 
Stylijer exaratus, A. Ad. 

„ fastigiatus, A. Ad. 

,, solididus. Ad. & Rve. 
Solarium cylindraceiim, Chem. 

,, dorsuosum. Hinds. 

,, hybridiim, L. 

,, infundibalifonne, Gmel. 

,, Icecigatum, Lk. 

,, perspectiviunculum, Chem. 

,, perspectivum, L. 

,, regium, Hanley. 

,, variegatum, Gmel. 
Conus aciiminatus, Hwass. 

,, Adansoni, Lk. 

,, Adenensis, Smith. 

,, arenatus, Hwass. 

,, betulinus, L. 

,, bullatus, L. : from Berbera. 

,, capitaneus, L. 

,, catus, Hwass. 

,, Ceylonensis, Hwass. 

,, clytospira, Melv. & Stand. 

,, Cuvieri, Crosse. 

,, Erythrceensis, Beck. 

,, ,, V. adustus, Sowb. 

,, Jlavidus, Lk. 

,, f ami gains (= Lagardi, 
Jouss.). Hwass. 

,, gemynulatus, Sowb. : from 
Bulbar. 8 fms. 

,, generalis, L. 

,, geographus, L. 

,, inscriptus, Rve. 

,, ,, V. Keati, Sowb. 

,, lineatus, Chem. 



SHOPLAND : ITST OF MARINE SHELLS FROM ADEN. 



175 



Conus lividus, H^yass. 

,, luotificus, Hve. 

,, miles, L. 

,, minimus, L. 

,, mitrattis, Hwass. 

,, nemocanus, Hwass. 

,, nussatella, L. 

,, pusillus, Chem. 

,, quadratomaculafus, Sowb. : 
from Bulhar, 8 fms. 

,, quercinus, Hwass. 

,, splendidulus, Sowb. 

,, striatus, L. 

,, sulphur atus, Hwass. 

,, Sumatrensis, Hwass. 

,, tceniatus, Hwass. 

,, tessellatus, Hwass. 

,, textile, L. 

,, Tkomasi, Sowb. 

,, Traversianus, Smith. 
Stroiiilus Belutschiensis, Melv. 

,, columha, Lk. 

,, cylindricus, Swain. 

,, dentatus, L. 

,, floridus, Lk. 

,, fusiformis, Sowb. 

,, gihberulus, L. 

,, lineatus, Lk. 

,, Mauritianus, Lk. 

,, plicatus, Lk. 

,, Ruppelli, E,ve. 

,, terehellatus, Sowb. 

,, tricornis, Lk. 

,, urceiis, L. 

,, variabilis, Swain. 
Pterocera hryonia, Gmel. 

,, Scorpio, L. 
Rostellaria curta, Sowb. 

,, curvirostris, Lk. 
Cyprcea clandestina, L. 

,, cruenta, v. coloba, Melv. 

,, erosa. L., v. nebutes, Melv. 

,, ErythrcBensis, Beck. 

,, exusta, Sowb. 

,, fabula, Kien. 

,, felina, Gmel. 

,, fimbriata, Gmel. 

,, ,, V. macula, A. Ad. 

,, gangrenosa, Sol. 

,, helvola, L. 



Cyprcea histrio, Gmel. 
,, Isabella, L. 
,, lentiginosa, Graj'. 
,, Lienardi, Jouss. 
,, Listeri, Gray. 
,, lynx, L. 
,, Mauritiana, L. 
,, microdon. Gray. 
,, moneta, L. 
,, nucleus, L. 
,, ocellata, L. 
,, pantherina, Sol. 
,, pulchra, Swain. 
,, punctata, L. 
,, quadrimaculata, Gray. 
,, talpa, L. 
,, tigris, L. 
,, turdiis, Lk. 
,, 'furneri, Jouss. 
,, undata, Lk. 
,, vitellus, L. 
,, zigzac, L. 
Trivia staphylea, L. 

,, ,, V. limacina, Lk. 

Ovula lactea, Lk. 

,, ovum, L. 
Birostra spelta, L. 
Cancellaria elegans, Sowb. 

hystrix, Rve. 

melanostoma, Sowb. 

scalarina, Lk. 
Cerithinm albovaricosum, Smith. 

asperum, L. 

bifasciatum, Sowb. 

cceruleum, Sowb. 

clypeomorus, Jouss. 

columna, Sowb. 

contr actum, Sowb. 

echinatum, Lk. 

Erythrceense, Lk. 

fasciatum. Mart. 

fluviatile. Pot. Mich. 

Kochi, Phil. 

lacteum, Kien. 

pingue, A. Ad. 

recurvum, Sowb. 

rostratum, Sowb. 

Ruppelli, Phil. 

scahridum, Phil. 

Shoplandi, Melv. 



170 



PROCEFDINGS OF TUF MALACOLOGICAL SOCrETY. 



Ceritkium tuhercidatnin, L. 

,, tuberosum, Fabr. 

,, Yerburi/i, Smith. 
I'ertagns cedo-nuUi, Sowb, 

,, fasciatm, Briig. 

,, oheliscus, Brug. 
^'Bitfinm chrifnomaUum, Molv. 
Triforis cingnlafus, A. Ad. 

,, collar is, Hinds. 

,, corrugatus, Hiuds. 
Littorina alienea, Rve. 

,, grano-costata, live. 

,, Natalensis, Krauss. 

,, scabra, L. 
Modulus candidus. Petit. 

,, tectum, Gmel. 
Planaxis hreviculus, Desli. 

„ Savignyi, Desh. 

,, sulcntus, Lk. 
Rissoina Bertheloti, Aud. 

,, clathrata^ A. Ad. 

,, concinna, A. Ad. 

,, insculpta, Melv. & Stand. 

„ insignis, Ad. & Rve. 

,, pachy stoma, Melv. 

,, Sequenziana, Issel. 

,, Sidmondiana, Issel. 

,, spirata, Sowb. 

,, tridentata [— curta, Sowb.), 
Mich. 
Onoba delicnta, Monteros. 
Turritella columnaris, Kieu. 

,, macula fa, Rve. 
Calyptrcea cicatricosa, live, 
jji ,, Edgariana, Melv. 

,, equestris, L. 
Crepidula Walshi{ = Plana, Ad. & 

Rve.), Herms. 
Narica cancellata, Chem. 

,, ligata, Reel. 
Nerita chrysostoma, Red. 

,, plexa, Chem. 

,, polita, L. 

,, Rumphi, Reel. 
Neritina fetiilletti, Aud. 
Phasianella lineolata, Wood. 



Phasianella nivosa, Rve. 
Tarho coronatus, v. granulata, 
Gmel. 

,, elegans, Phil. 

,, petholatus, L. 

,, pustulaius, Rve. 

,, radiatns, Gmel. 
Leptothyra Iceta, ^lontr. 

,, pilula, Dkr. 
,y. ,, Yemenensis, Melv. 
Rotella cartieolata, Melv. 
^'Delphinula diplocostira, Melv. 
Cardi)ialia virgata, Gmel. 
Troclius dentatus, Forsk. : from 
Berbera. 

,, infundibulum, v. Erythreeus, 
Brocchi. 
Clanculus Pharaonis, L. 
Monodonta dama. Phil. 

,, obscura, Wood. 
Euchelus hicinctus, Phil. 

,, Belpretei, Caramagna. 

., proximus, A. Ad. 
Thalotia Torresi, var., E. Smith. 
Zizyphinus scohinattis, A. Ad. 
Agagus Agagus, Jouss. 
Gibbula Dorice, Caramagna. 
Minolia Caifassii, Caramagna. 

,, rotellceformis, Phil. 
Margarita variabilis, A. Ad. 
VitrinellaMenegherii, Caramagna. 
JIaliotis multiperforata, Rve. 

,, varia, L. 
Fissurella Ruppelli. Sowb. 
Parmophorus unguis, L. 
Patella plumbea, Lk. 

,, radians, Gmel. 
Buccinulus solidulux, L. 
Mydatina physis, Lk. 

,, velum, Chem. 
Bulla ampulla, L. 
Atys cylindracea, Helb. 

,, ferruginea, Ad. 

,, naucum, L. 
Umbrella Indica, Lk. 



SCAPHOPODA. 
Dentalium octagonum, Lk. Denfalium SJioplandi, Jouss. 



SHOPLAXD : LIST OF MARINE SHELLS FROM ADEX. 



177 



PELECYPODA. 



Pholadidea Fauroti, Jouss. 
ParapJioldH quaclrizonallH, Spglr, 
Martesia striata, L. 
Gastrochcena Ruppelli, Desh. 
Aspergillum vaginiferum, Lk. 
Solen brevis, Gray. 
Cornells, Lk. 
cultelus, L. 
dactylus, Jouss. 
Gouldi, Conrad. 
trunctitus, Sowb. 
Machcera Japonicn, Dkr. 
*Novaculina xi/reces, Melv. 
Tugonia nohilis, A. Ad. 
Corbula Tahitensis, Lk. 
Anatina hupidida, Cuv. 

,, lahiata, live. 

,, suhrostrata, Lk. 
*Thracia Adenensis, Melv. 

,, Austral ica, Rve. 
Mactra achatina, Chem. 

,, crista, Jouss. 

,, decora, Desh. 

,, Fauroti, Jouss. 

,, ,, V. alba, Jouss. 
Lutraria curta, Desh. 

,, intermf^dia, Desh. 
Standella ^gyptiaca, Chem. 

,, capillacea, Desh. 

,, SoJanderi, Gray. 
Raeta Abercrombiei, Melv. 
CiBcella Zebuensis, Desh. 
Asaphis dfflorata, L. 
^Pnammobia amianta, Melv. 

,, contraria, Desh. 

,, elegans, Desh. 

,, marmorea, Desh. 

,, oecidens, Chem. 

,, pallida, Desh. 

,, rubicunda, Desh. 

,, Weinkauffi,, Crosse. 
Soletellina Adamsi, Desh. 
Tellina Adenensis, Smith. 

,, caseus, Sowb. 

,, concentrica, Gould. 

,, coxa, Jouss. 

,, crucigera, Lk. 

,, Deshaycsii, Hanley. 

VOL. V. JULY, 1902. 



Tellina edentula, Spgir. 

,, foliaeea, L. 

,, holabana, Melv. 

,, injlata, Chem. 

,, laciinosa, Chem. 
^ ,, manumissa, Melv. 

,, methoria, Melv. 

,, micans, Hanley. 

,, obliqua, Sowb. 

,, ostracea, Lk. 

,, perplexa, Hanley. 

,, Pharaonis, Hanley. 

,, rastellum, Hanley. 

,, rubella, Desh. 

,, rugosa, Born. 

,, scobinnta, L. 

,, staurella, Lk. 

,, sub pallida, Smith. 

,, sulcata, "Wood. 

,, virgata, L. 
^ ,, Temenensis, Melv. 

Donax clathratiis, Rve. 
^ ,, epularis, Melv. 

,, jEryth'ceus, Bertrand. 

,, scalpellum, Gray. 
Scrobicularia Vaillanti, Jouss. 
Amphidesma Chinense, A. Ad. 

,, crenatum, Ad. & Ang. 

,, lamellosum, Sowb. 
,^ ,, Shoplandi, Melv. 
"^^ Cuming ia occatilla, Melv. 
Papilla glabrata, Desh. 
Mesodesma obtusum. Cross. & F. 
Tivela ponderosa, Koch. 
Meretrix lusoria, Chem. 
Callista costata, Chem. 

,, erycina, L. 

,, Jlorida, Lk. 

„ lilacina, Lk. 

,, umbonella, Lk. 
Caryatis Hebrcea, Lk. 

,, pur a, Desh. 

,, varians, Hanley. 
LioconcJia lentiginosa, Chem. 

,, tigrina, Lk. 
Crista pectinata, L. 
Circe Arabica, Chem. 

,, callipyga, Born. 

12 



178 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE MALACOLOOIC.VL SOCIETT. 



Virce corrugata, Chem. 
,, intermedia, Rve. 
,, scripta, L. 

,, ,, \. fulgnrata, Rve. 
Sunelta contempta, E. Smith. 

,, ejfossa, Hanley. 
Tiipes Beshayesi, Hanley. 
,, disruptus, Sowb. 
,, florid us, var., Lk. 
,, geograpkiem, Gmel. 
,, litterattis, L. 
,, Ifalahnricus, Chem. 
,, obsvuraius, Desh. 
,, ,, V. quadriradiafa, 

Desh. 
,, pinguis, Chem. 
,, radiafus, Gmel. 
,, sulcosus, Jjk. 
,, textrix, Chem. 
Anaitis fol iacea, Phil. 
Chione crixpafa, Desh. 
,, DJiboutiensis, Jouss. 
,, flammea, Lk. 
,, Lamar cki, Gray. 
,, lamt'l/osa, Chem. 
Doainia alia, Dkr. 
,, hepatica, Lk. 
,, hiafrio, Gmel. 
,, ptibesccns, Phil. 
,, radiata, Rve. 
Venerupis ( Claudiconifra) madre- 
porica, Jouss. 
,, inacrophglla, Desh. 
*Corallio2)haga Arabica, Melv, 
,, coralliophaga, Gmel. 
,, decmsata, Rve. 
Petricola Hemprichi, Issel. 
^ ,, lyra, Melv. 
Choristodon lapicidum, Chem. 
Cardium assimile, Rve. 
,, Australe, Sowb. 
,, Jacunosum, Rve. 
,, latum, Born. 
,, pftendolinia, Lk. 
,, rtibictmdnm, var., Rve. 
,, rugoaum, Lk. 
Chama fragum, Rve. 
,, gryphoides, L. 
Tridacna erocea, var., Lk. 
,, Cumingi, Rve. 



Lucina concinna, H. Ad. 
,, dentifera, Jouss. 
,, exasperata, Rve. 
,, Fischeriana, Issel. 
,, gemma, Rve. 
,, Semper iann, Issel. 
Loripes clausa, Pliilippi. 
Diplodonta rotundafa, Mont. 
Pythina paula, A. Ad. 
Scintilla faba, Desh. 
,, Oboclcensis, Jouss. 
,, ovulina, Desh. 
,, pisiim, Sowb. 
Crassatella radiata, Sowb. 
Cardita antiquata, Poli. 

,, semiorhicidata, L. 

,, sulcata, Lk. 

,, variegata, Brug. 
Mytilicardia gubernaculum, Rve. 
Mytilus ater, Zeleb. 

,, pictus. Born. 
Crenella Cumingiana, Dkr. 
Modiola auriculata, Krauss. 

,, lignea, Rve. 

,, SirceJiensis, Jouss. 
Lithodomtis cinnamomina, Lk. 

,, Erythrceensis, Jouss. 

,, lithophagus, var., Lk. 
Septifer excisus, Wicgm. 
Avicula marmorata. Eve. 
Meleagrina margaritijera, L. 
Malleus alb us, Lk. 
Crenatula picta, Gmel. 
Pinna alta, Sowb. 

,, bicolor, Chem. 

,, nigra, Chem. 
Area navicularis, Brug. 

,, scapha, Chem. 

,, tortuosa, L. 

,, zebra, Swain. 
Barbatia Domingcnsis, Lk. 

,, Eelblingi, Chem. 

,, imbricata, Brug. 

,, nirea, Gmel. 

,, obliqnata, Wood. 
Anomalocardia clathrata, Rve. 
Scapharca Nafulensis, Krauss. 
Cucullcea concamerata, Chem. 
Pectuncnlus pecteniformis, Lk. 
.V. ,, tequlicius, ^Molv. 



SHOPLAND : LIST OF MARINE SHELLS FROM ADEN. 



179 



Pectunculina multidriata, Forsk. 
Leda sculpt a, Iswel. 
Pecten flahelloides, Rve. 

Layardi, var., Rve. 

luculentus, var., live. 

plica, L. 

sanguinolentus, Gmel. 

senatorius, Gmel. 

Singaporinus, Sowb. 

squamosus, v. lividus, Rve. 

suhplicatus, Sowb. 

Townsendi, Sowb. 

Tranquebaricus, Gmel. 



Lima paucicostata, Sowb. 

,, sc libra, Born. 

,, tenera, Cbem. 

,, tenuis, H. Ad. 
Plicatula iinbrieata, Menke. 
Pedum spondyluideum, Gmel. 
Anomia achmus, Gray. 
Placuna placenta, Lk. 
Vulsella lingua-J'elis, Rve. 
Ostr''.a crista- gain, L. 

,, cucullata. Born. 

„ hyotis, L. 



180 



ON THE NON-MARINE MOLLUSCA FROM THE 
HOLOCENE DEPOSITS AT LONDON WALL AND WESTMINSTER. 

By A. S. Kennaed and B, B. Woodwaed, F.L.S., etc. 

Bead \Uh March, 1902. 

1. London Wall. 

DuEiNG the year 1901 extensive excavations were made in Finsbury 
Circus and London Wall for the foundations of buildings for the 
London Wall Estate Company. Facilities were affoi'ded us to visit 
and examine the sections, and we have secured numerous objects of 
interest. As is so often the case with Holoccne deposits, the sections 
varied greatly, but there were always three well-marked layers. The 
lowest bed was Pleistocene gravel, 4 to 5 feet thick, resting on the 
London Clay. This was succeeded by an alluvial deposit of peaty clay 
from 4 to 8 feet thick, containing the remains of mollusca, as well as 
numerous objects belonging to the Eoman pei'iod, such as broken 
bones, fragments of Samian ware and other pottery, besides large 
quantities of Osfrea edulis, Linn., Mytilus edulis, Linn., and Cardium 
edule, Linn. ; whilst a few examples of Littorina littorea (Linn.), 
JJuccinum vndatiim, Linn., and Ilacoma haltica (Linn.) also occurred. 
Tlie uppermost bed was ' made earth,' consisting of the debris of the 
city : it included large quantities of old leather, mctlifeval pottery, 
broken greybeards, etc., and was, in fact, a great dustbin accumulation. 
On the north-eastern side of the excavation, the lower part of the 
alluvial layer was evidently deposited by a large stream, in all 
probability the Wallbrook. iS^umerous traces of ' pile dwellings ' were 
disinterred in this spot. The non-marine mollusca were all obtained 
from the alluvial layer, of which the major part was accumulated 
during the Eoman period, whilst the upper portion Avas deposited 
between the close of that period and Norman times. All the species 
occurred in the Koman layer; the later deposits, though yielding more 
examples, contained far fewer species. Helix aspersa occurred at the 
base, whilst one example of Vitrea cellaria was found still attached to 
part of a ' pile dwelling.' 



KEXNARD & WOODWARD : HOLOCEXE MOLLUSCA OF L0:N'D0N WALL, ETC. 



181 



The species of nioUusca obtained were : — 



Agriolimax agrestis (Linn.). 
Fitrea cellaria (Miill.). 

,, nitida (Miill.). 
Hygromia hispida (Linn.). 
Vallonia pulchella (Miill.). 
Helix aspersa, Miill. 

,, nemoralis, Linn. 
CoehUcopa luhrica (Miill.). 
Succinea elegans, llisso. 
Carychiiim minimum, Miill. 
Velletia lacustris (Linn.). 
Limncea pereqer (Miill.). 

,, palustris (Miill.). 

,, stiignalis (Linn.). 
Physa fontinalis (Linn.). 

,, hypnorum (Linn.). 
Planorhis corneus (Linn.). 



Plmiorhis albus, Miill. 

,, glaber, JeS. 

,, nautileus (Linn.). 

,, marginatus, Drap. 

,, vortex (Linn.). 

,, spirorhis, Miill. 

,, contortus (Linn.). 

,, fontanus {\A^ii.). 
Bithynin tentaculnta (Linn.). 

,, Leachii (Shepp.). 
Valvata piscinalis ( M iill. ) . 

,, cristata, Miill. 
Sphcerium corneum, Linn. 

,, lacustre, Miill. 
Pisidiuin pusillum, Gmel. 

,, nitidum, Jenyns. 

,, milium, Held. 



Of these the most noteworthy are Planor bis glaber, P. fontanus, and 
Sphcerium lacuitre. 

Planorbis glaber is extremely rare in Holocene beds, being known 
only from Westminster, Kaine, Barry Docks, and from alluvial deposits 
near Edinburgh. It was not an abundant form at London Wall, but 
was far more prevalent than P. albus. 

P. fontanus is another rare form in Holocene beds, but it has been 
found at Raine, Crossness, Charlton, the Lea Valley, Westminster, 
and the Hampshire tufaceous beds. 

Sphcerium lacustre has hitherto been represented in a fossil state 
solely by specimens in the York Museum, said to come from the 
Pleistocene of Barnwell. It is a widely distributed foim in these 
Islands at the present day, and is certainly not a modern introduction ; 
but since its habitat is usually muddy ponds or ditches, it is uulikely 
to be found in the stream deposits which form the vast majority of 
our fossiliferous Pleistocene and Holocene beds. 

In 1890 eleven species of shells were described' from a similar 
deposit at Moorfields, and the large size to which many of the examples 
attained was remarked upon. The examples from London Wall are 
equally noteworthy. Succinea elegans attains a length of 18 mm., 
Phyaa hypnorum 14 mm., and Limncea palustris 22 mm., whilst 
Platiorbis corneus attains a breadth of 25-5 mm., P. marginatus 16 mm., 
P. vortex 8 mm., and P. fontanus 7'5 mm. Helix aspersa is not un- 
common, and occurs throughout the Roman layer. 



' B. B. Woodward, " Ou the Pleistoceue (non-Marine) Mollusca of the London 
District " : Proc. Geol. Assoc., vol. xi, p. 339. 



182 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE M.VLACOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 



2. "Westminster. 

Shells have also been obtained lately from the excavations made in 
Whiteliall for the foundations of the new War Office. They occurred 
in a bed of peaty loam at a depth of some 1 5 feet from the surface, and 
are probably of the same age as those described by one of us in 1890.' 
It is well known that the immediate vicinity of Westminster Abbey 
was in historic times an island called Thorney, and there can be no 
doubt that this bed was deposited by one of the boundary streams. 
From the absence of relics of human occupation, it may be Roman or 
pre-Roman. 

The species of mollusca obtained are twenty-two in number, viz. : — 



Pyramidnla rotundata (Miill.). 
Hygromia hispida (Linn). 
Helix nemoralis, Linn. 
Vullonia pulcheUa (Miill.). 
Vertigo antivertigo (l)rap.). 
Succinea elegans, Risso. 
Carychiuin. minimum, Miill. 
Limnoia auricidaria (Linn.). 

,, pereger (Miill.). 

,, palusttis (Miill.). 

,, truncatula (Miill.). 



rianorhis corneus (Linn.). 

,, alius, Miill. 

,, marginatus, Drap. 

,, contortus (Linn.). 
Jiithy)iia tentaculata (Linn.). 
Vahuta piscinalis (Miill.). 

,, cristata, Miill. 
Nentina fiuv iatilis ( Linn . ) . 
Anodonta cygnoia (Linn.). 
Sphceriuin corneum (Linn.). 
Fisidium amnicum (Miill.). 



These are all common forms in Holocene beds, and call for no 
extended notice. 



1 Loc. cit., p. 341. 



183 



ORDINARY MEETING. 

Teidat, 9th Mat, 1902. 

E. R. Sykes, B.A., F.L.S., Vice-President, in the Chair. 

The following communications were read : — 

1. " A Synopsis of the genus Streptaxis and its allies." By G. K. 
Gude, F.Z.S. 

2. " On a new Ctenostreon from the Middle Oolites of Switzerland." 
By R. Bullen Newton, F.G.S. 

3. " On a new species of Chcetopleura from South Africa." By 
E. R. Sykes, B.A., F.L.S. 

4. •' The Myology of Pholasr By R. H. Bume, B.A., F.Z.S. 

Exhibits were placed on the table by the following : — 

A. Hale: Specimens of Auricula atiris-midce (Linn.) from the river 

Selangor, showing flattening of the anterior surface. 

Rev. R. Ashington Bullen : Two new records from Harlyn Bay 

(from a late Keltic burial - gi'ound), Vitrea nitidula (Drap.) and 

Pyramidula rotundata (Miill.). 

5. Pace : Series of Columhella epamella, Duel., and Columhella 
idalina, Duel. 

E. R. Sykes : Types of six new species of Land-Shells from Perak ; 
an unusually fine specimen of Murex tenuispina (Lam.) ; an abnormal 
shell of Modiolaria discors (Linn.). 

R. H. Burne : A Pearl Oyster with islets of nacre in the ligament. 

G. K. Gude, R. BuUen Newton, E. R. Sykes, and R. H. Bui'ne : 
Specimens in illustration of their papers. 



ORDINARY MEETING. 
Feidat, 13th June, 1902. 
E. A. Smith, F.Z.S., President, in the Chair. * 

The following communications were read : — 

1. "On Helix Basileus of Benson from Southern India : its anatomy 
and generic position." By Lieut. -Colonel H. H, Godwin-Austen, F.R.S. 

2. "On the anatomy of some Httle-known Land Mollusca from 
New Britain and Lifu, Loyalty Islands, collected by Dr. Arthur "VViUey, 
F.R.S." By Lieut.-Col. H. H. Godwin-Austen, F.R.S. 

3. " On a small collection of Non-Marine Shells formed by Mr. J. J. 
Walker from the New Hebrides, Banks and Torres Islands." By 
E. R. Sykes, B.A., F.L.S. 

4. "On the Identity and Relationships of Buccinum dermestoideum, 
Lam." By S. Pace, F.Z.S. 

Exhibits were placed on the table by the following : — 
R. Bullen Newton : Plaster reproduction of Gisortia Gisortiensis, 
Passy, from the Paris Basin. 

VOL. V. — OCTOBER, 1902. 13 



184 PROCEEDINGS OF THE MALACOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

E. R. Sykos : Eulimidtv from Guernsey and other localities, including 
£. anceps, Marshall. 

E. A. Smith : Sinistral and other forms of Helix ncmoralis from 
Bundoran, Donegal. 

E. 11. Sykes : Siiecimens in illustration of his paper. 



NOTES 



Note on the Histology of Molluscan and other Olfactory 
Nerve Centres. {Read Wth April, 1902.)— The late Mr. Martin F. 
Woodward, in his valuable account of the anatomy of Pleurotomaria 
Bez/ric/iii, Hilg. (Quart. Journ. Micro. Sci., vol. xliv, p. 215), draws 
attention (p. 226), w-heu dealing with the minute structure of the 
branchial ganglia, to a number of " cm-ious dim bodies " lying near the 
periphery of the central mass of the ganglion, " which at first sight 
suggest large ganglionic cells." That such is not their real nature he 
infers from the entire absence of niiclei in them, as well as from their 
want of sharpness of outline. He finally concludes that "they are in 
reahty bundles of fibre, rather more closely packed than usual." 

It is interesting as a commentary upon this observation by Woodward 
to recall that similar local condensations of the neuropile or glomeruli, as 
they are usually termed, occur in many groups of the animal kingdom, and 
always apparently, as in this case, in nerve centres that innervate sense 
organs of a more or less undoubted olfactory nature. The following 
examples may be cited : the olfactory bulbs of all Vertebrates ; the 
antennary lobes of Insects and Myriopods ; the globuli of Crustacea (the 
centres for the innervation of the antennules) ; and, among Polychpete 
Worms, a lobe of the brain of Aphrodite that probably is related to the 
nuchal region. 

It will be observed that in all these instances the sense organs 
innervated from these glomerulated centres are, at any rate probably, 
olfiictory ; and the same is true for Pleurotomaria, in which the 
osphradium is directly innervated by this glomerulated branchial ganglion. 

What the physiological meaning of this very widespread association 
of a glomerulated neuropile with the sense of smell may be is not yet 
explained, but the facts as they stand are of no little interest. 

R. H. Burne. 

Marine Shells collected at Aden by Commander E. R. Shopland. 
— The following species were accidentally omitted from the list published 
in the last number of these " Proceedings " (p. 175), viz. : — 
Leptoconchus serratiis, Desh. 
Cyprcea annulus, L. 
„ Arabica, L. 
„ cameleopardalis, Perry. 
„ carneola, L. 
„ caurica, L. 
„ cribraria, L. 



185 



XOTES OX HOLOCEXE MOLLUSCA FEOM XOETH CORXWALL. 

By the Eev. E. AsHnrGiox Builex, B.A., F.L.S., etc, 

P^ad nth April, 1902. 

HliELTN' Bat is situated about two and a half miles to the north-west 
of Pad--tow, and the mollusca mentioned in this communication are 
partly from the prehistoric burial-ground discovered there ia August, 
1900, and partly from neighbouring localities near Constantine Bay. 
The graves at Harlyn Bay were covered with bright blown sheU-sand 
of ancient date, there being a weU-developed top-soil from a foot to 
a foot and a half in depth, covered with a strong growth of grass. 
Since only surface-finds (within plough depth) of Roman coins have 
been made in this and other Cornish localities, the blown sand is of 
pre-Boman date. This blown sand was from 3 to 15 feet in deyjth 
over the graves, the lower measurement representing the foot of the 
old grass slope. 

The Royal Institution of Cornwall undertook the excavation, and 
removed about 2,000 tons of sand from the site in 1900, Their main 
object, however, was to discover the age of the interments by securing 
human skulls and other bones and also any objects of metal. The 
graves are in tiers in places, and in the lowest graves no objects of 
metal have been found, so that the earlier interments seem to belong 
to men of ' Neolithic ' culture, the later and upper graves having 
yielded objects in bronze (fibulae of the La Tene type) and iron. 
These latter are very scarce. The mollusca occurred under and in 
the graves and in kitchen-middens to the south of the interments, 
according to the following lists : — 

I. Haeltx Bay (pre-Roman) BrEiAL-GEor>T). 

A. TJnder the Grave-level (in clat/ei/ sand), 

Maeint; : — Patella vvJgata, Linn. 

yoN-^MAEiNT: : — Hygromia granulata (Aid.), H. montivaga (West.), 
Vallonia pidchella (Mull.), Helix nemoralis, Linn., Cochlicopa lubrica 
(Miill.), Pornatias refiexus (Linn.). 

B. Grave-level (under upper rubble-layer). 

Maein-e : — Purpura lapilhi^ (Linn.), Littorina ohtusata (Linn.), 
Mo'iiodonta crassa (Mont.), Patella vulgata, Lion., Helcion pellucidmn 
(Linn.), Mytilns edulis, Linn. 

Tools fashioned from Patella and ^lyfilm. Also sepiostaire from 
Sepia officinalis, Linn., in some graves. 



186 PROCEEDINGS OF THE MALACOIOGICAL SOCIETY. 

Non-Marine: — Vitrea nitidula (Drap.), Pyramidula rohmdafa 
(^riill.), IFelicella larbara (Linn.), H. caperata (Mont.), U. itala 
(Linn.), Iliigromia granidata (Aid.), IT. montivafia (West.), Helix 
nemoralis, Linn., U. hortensis, Miiller, Pomatias reflexus (Linn.). 

C. From the bright sand. 

!N'on-Martne : — Helicella virgata (Da Costa), U. caperata (Mont.), 
H. harbara (Linn.). 

D. Kitchon-Middcn South and East of Harlyn Burial-gi-ound, but 

within its outer fence. 

Marine: — Purpura lapillus (Linn.), mostly broken shells,^ Patella 
vulgata, Linn., Mytilus edulis, Linn. 

Non-Marine : — Helix aspersa, Miill., H. nemoralis, Linn., largo 
specimens. 

E. Kitchen-Midden in next field South of Harlyn Burial-ground, 

under a tumulus from 11 to 13 feet in depth. 

Marine : — Patella vulgata, Lmn., Cardiuni edule, Linn., Ostrea 
edulis, Linn. 

[A fragment of the last named resembles pieces found abundantly 
in the burial-ground that are of a pure translucent white texture and 
evidently used in the fabrication of small shell-implements. Vide 
supra I, B : also my " Harlyn Bay," 2nd ed., plate 5.] 

Non-Marine: — Vitrea nitidula (Drap.), Helicella harhara (Linn.), 
Vallonia pulchella (Miill.), Helix aspersa, Miill., abundant, Cochlicopa 
luhrica (Miill.). 

II. Harlyn Cliff. — From an early bronze age, cremated inteiment, 
in an inverted urn of very coarse pottery, ^ inch thick. 

Non-Marine: — Helix nemoralis, Linn., Pomatias reflexus (Linn.). 

These shells were placed round the urn, about a bushel in all. 
Mr. Harold Hellyar and his brothers discovered this and excavated the 
spot, January 1st, 1902.'^ 

III. — Constantine Church is about a mile and a half to the westwai'd 
of Harlyn Bay. The scanty remains are very ancient, anterior to the 
departure of the Eomans in 410 a.d. 

The thick walls were built of fragments of slate without mortar. 
The tower is built round a large rounded boulder of Cataclew stone, 
derived from an intrusive dyke, which occurs in the slate between 
Trevose Head and Cataclew Point. South of the church there is 
a kitchen-midden in which coarse pottery occurs. 



^ Mr. A. Santer Kennard compares these with shells from Ireland, broken most 

probably to extract the purple dye. 
2 For description of this interniPnt vide my " HarhTi Bay and the Discoveries of its 

Prehistoric Remains" : Swan Sonncnschein &"Co., 2nd cd., 1902. 



BtJLLEN : HOLOCENE MOLLTJSCA FROM NOETH CORNWALL. 1&7 

The marine shells there are: — Purpura lapiUus (Linn.), Patella 
vulgata, Linn., Cardium edule, Linn., Mytilus edulis, Linn. 

The nearest place now for the last-mentioned mollusc is said (by 
Mr. Hellyar, sen., of Harlyn House) to be Padstow Harbour, about 
four miles distant. 

IV. — About half a mile to the westward occurs the kitchen-midden 
on the low sea-cliff at Constantino Bay, described by Mr. Spence Bate 
in 1864.' Here, again, the three prevailing species occur, Patella 
vulgata, Purpura lapillus, and Mytilus edulis. 

Underlying the shell-mound there is a raised beach. This kitchen- 
midden having been previously described, I will only say that the 
description Spence Bate gives, though in the main correct, is not quite 
consonant with the facts as now observable. Mr. George Bonsor, an 
expert anthropologist, was with me in October, and we found hearths 
at several levels down to a depth of 8 feet, with burnt bones and 
burnt Mytilus shells. Mr. Harold Hellyar has also, in digging into 
the mound, found evidence of long occupation, the pottery fi-om the 
lower levels being coarse and hand-made, that from the higher part 
being tui'ned on the wheel. 

V. CoNSTANTiNE IsLAND. — About fifty yards from the mainland is 
a detached mass of slate covered with sand and overgrown with grass 
yielding numerous flint-flakes on the surface. Neolithic man had 
built here a hut of unusual form, ellipsoid in shape, with a low 
entrance about 4 feet long. Inside the hut occurred a hearthstone 
with evidence of fire upon and round it. In the month of January, 
1902, I visited the hut with Mr. R. Mallett, and we found the 
following shells : — 

{a) From their condition the three following belong to the Raised 
Beach and Head, the former well and the latter poorly developed. 

Maeine : — Purpura lapillus (Linn.), Patella vulgata, Linn. 
Non-Maeine : — Pupa muscorum (Linn.). 

{h) From the Neolithic floor. 

Maeine : — Littorina littorea (Linn.), Patella vulgata, Linn., Cardium 
edule, Linn., Mytilus edulis, Linn. 

The last two also occurred outside the hut, where, too, were a hearth 
and bones of animals of the same species as those from "within.- 

Non-Maeine : — Helicella itala (Linn.), Helix aspersa,^ Miill., one 
specimen, S. nemoralis, Linn., abundant, H. hortensis, Miill. 



1 "On a Cornish Kjokkenmodding " : Trans. Devonshire Assoc, vol. i (1862-6), 

pp. 139- 

2 For list of these, identified for me by Mr. E. T. Newton, F.R.S., etc., vide 

" Harlj-n Bay," 2nd ed., p. 32. 
^ I found none on the island itself, otherwise the nearest point of the present 
occurrence of M. aspersa seems to be about a furlong inland. 



Ibb PROCEEDINGS OF THE MALACOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

Nourn Cornwall : Table of occurrence of Marine and Teeeesteial 
MoLLUscA OF Pre-IIoman Date. 



Marine. 

Sepia officinalis, lAnn, 
Purpura lapillus (Liim.) ... 
Littorina littorea (Liuu.) ... 

,, ohtusata (Liim.) 
Monodon tn crassa ( Mout. ) . . . 
Patella ruk/ata, Liun. 
Helcion pcllucidiim (Linu.) 
Cardium cdule, Liuu. 

Ostrea ediilis, Linu 

Mi/tilus edulis, Liun. 

Non-Mauine. 
Vitrea nltidula (l)nip.) 
Pyromidula rotundata (Miill.") 
a. Eelicella virgata (Da C.)... 

,, itala (Linn.) 

,, caperata (Mout.) ... 
n. ,, barbara (Lmw.) 
a. Hygromia yranulata (Aid.) 

,, montivaga (West.) ... 
a. Helix aspcrsa, Miill. 
a. ,, neinoralis,'- Liun. ... 
a. ,, hortensis,^ Miill. ... 
a. Vallonia pulchclla (Miill.). 
a. Cuchlicopa Uibriea (Miill.).. 
a. Papa muscorum (Liun.) ... 
a. Pomatias reflcxus i (Liuu.) 













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My sincere thanks are due to Mr. B. B. Woodward and Mr. E. A. 
Smith for the trouble they have taken over the Hygromia montivaga, 
AA^'est., and especially to J)r. Eottger for identifying the shell, which 
is a new record for England ; also to Mr. B. B. Woodward and 
Mr. A. Santer Kenuard for the identification of critical species ; 
while to !Mr. Keddie Mullett, the owner of the Harlyn Bay site, I am 
peculiarly indebted for access to his grounds and specimens. 

r.S. — The statement on p. 185. that the lower interments are 
all of Neolithic age, appears fi-om later investigations to need some 
(pialification, an iron ' ornament ' having been discovered at that 
level. The llev. D. Gath Whitley considers the whole cemetery to be 
' Neolithic ' with a few later intrusions, Avhile Dr. Beddal thinks it 
represents the period after the Gallo-Belgic coucj^uest and before the 
Roman Invasion. [Vide No. 48, Journal K.I. of Cornwall.] 



Probably brou<,'lit from further inland. I have seen no recent specimens near the 
places namt'd, but of course this is only negative evidence. Of the non-marine 
mollusca those miuked ' a.' are abundant. 



189 



NOTES ON TONKINESE CLAUSILIAi, WITH ILLUSTRATIONS OF 
SOME UNFIGURED FORMS, AND THE DESCRIPTION OF A NEW 

SPECIES. 

By E. R. Sykes, B.A., F.L.S., etc. 

Eead llth April, 1902. 

PLATE III. 

Recently I have examined a large series of specimens, some named by 
Dr. von Moellendorif and others needing determination, which were 
collected in Tonkin by Herr Fruhstorfer. It became necessary, for 
my own use, to compile a list of the forms recorded from the district, 
and I thought that the references, etc., might be of service, if 
published in an alphabetical list. In addition to those catalogued, 
one species, C. Bautzenhergi, will, I understand, be described by 
Dr. von Moellendorif, and I append the diagnosis of another, 
C. Chiemhoaensis, which appears to me to be new. The present 
opportunity has also been taken to illustrate a number of species 
and forms, described but not figured by Dr. von Moellendorif. 
Localities given in the following references without any recorder's 
name are those cited in the original descriptions of the forms ; the 
letter (F.) denotes unpublished localities due to the energy of Herr 
Fruhstorfer. 

Geographically the country is not well defined, but may, I think, be 
taken broadly as the region watered by the Song-Ka. 

LIST OF SPECIES. 

1. Ardotjiniana, Heude. 

Clausilia Ardouiniana, Heude: Moll. terr. Fleuve-Bleu, 1882, 

p. 118, pi. xxi, fig. 4. Bavay & Dautzenberg : Journ. de 

Conchyl., 1899, vol. xlvii, p. 50, pi. iii, fig. 3. 

Synonym : Nenia horrida, Mabille : Moll. Tonk. diagn., 1887, p. 16 ; 

Bull. Soc. Malac. France, 1887, vol. iv, p. 109, pi. iii, figs. 9, 10. 

Hab.—BaiQ d' Along (B. & D.). 

2. AFEicoMA, Bav. & Dtz. 

Clmisilia auricoma, Bavay & Dautzenberg : Journ. do Conchyl., 
1899, vol. xlvii, p. 277, pi. xii, fig. 2. 
Hah. — Cha-Ba and Lakes Ba-Be. 

3. Babeensis, Bav. & Dtz. 

Clausilia Baheensis, Bavay & Dautzenberg: Journ. de Conchyl., 
1899, vol. xlvii, p. 278, pi. xii, fig. 3. 
Hab. — Lakes Ba-Be. 

4. Backanensis, Bav. & Dtz. 

Clausilia Backanensis, Bavay & Dautzenberg: Journ. de Conchyl., 
1899, vol. xlvii, p. 281, pi. xii, fig. 5. 
Hah. — Bac-Kan. 



190 PROCEEDINGS OF THE MALACOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

5. BiLLETi, H. Fischer. 

Clausilia Uillcti, H. Fischor : Bull. Sci. France Belgique, 1898, 
vol. xxviii, p. 324, pi. xviii, figs. 28-31. 
Hah. — Deo-Mii-Phuc. 

6. CALLisTOMA, Bav. & Dtz. 

Clausilia callistoma, Bavay & Dautzenbcrg : Journ. de Concliyl., 

1899, vol. xlvii, p. 41, pi. ii, fig. 3. 
Hob. — From Lang-ISon to That-Ke. 

7. CALLISTOMELLA, BaV. & Dtz. 

Clausilia cnllistomella, Bavay & Dautzcnberg: Journ. de Concliyl., 

1900, vol. xlviii, pp. 115, 447, pi. x, fig. 8. 
Rab. — Bac-Kan. 

8. CouDEiNi, Bav. & Dtz. 

Clausilia Coudeini, Bavay & Dautzenberg: Journ. do Concliyl., 
1899, vol. xlvii, p. 42, pi. ii, fig. 4. 
Hah. — Between Lang-Son and That-Ke. 

9. DiCHKOA, Bav. & Dtz. 

Clausilia dichroa, Bavay & Dautzenberg : Journ. de Conchyl., 
1899, vol. xlvii, p. 287, pi. xii, fig. 8. 
Hah. — Bac-Kan. 

10. DiPLOCHEiLus, MlldflF. (PI. Ill, Fig. 3.) 

Ph(edusa (^Hemiphcedma) diplocheilus, Mocllcndorff : Nachrbl. 
Deutsch. Malak. Ges., 1901, p. 77. 
Hah. — Mauson Mts. 

11. DoRRi, Bav. & Dtz. 

Clausilia Dorri, Bavay & Dautzenberg: Journ. de Conchyl., 1899, 
vol. xlvii, p. 283, pi. xii, fig. 6. 
With varieties elongata, minor, cristata. 
Hah. — Near Lakes Ba-B6. 

12. DUELLA, Mabille. 

Clmisilia duella, Mabille : Moll. Tonk. diagn., 1887, p. 16 ; Bull. 
Soc. Malac. France, 1887, vol. iv, p. 115. Bavay & 
Dautzenberg: Journ. de Conchyl., 1899, vol. xlvii, p. 46, pi. i, 
fig. 7. 
Hah. — Between Lang-Son and That-Ke (B. & D.). 

13. EUPLEiTRA, Bav. & Dtz. 

Clausilia eupleura, Bavav & Dautzenberg : Journ. de Conch vl., 
1899, vol. xlvii, p. 291, pi. xii, fig. 11. 
.flai.— That-Ke. 

14. FALCIFERA, BaV. & Dtz. 

Clausilia falcifera, Bavay & Dautzenberg : Journ. de Conchyl., 
1899, vol. xlvii, p. 290, pi. xii, fig. 10. 
Hah. — Between Bac-Kan and That-Ke. 

Subsp. 3I0NTAXA, Mlldlf. 

Phcedusa falciformis [sic], subsp. montana, Moellendorff : Nachrbl. 
Deutsch. Malak. Ges., 1901, p. 77. 
Hah. — Mauson Mts. 



SYKES: ON TONKINESE CLATJSILI^. 191 

15. Faegesiana, Hcle. 

Clausilia Fargesiana, Heude : Mem. Hist. Nat. Emp. Chinois, 
1885, vol. iii, p. 119, pi. xxxi, fig. 3. Mabille : Bull. Soc. 
Malac. France, 1887, vol. iv, p. 111. 
The reference given by Bavay & IJautzenberg (Journ. de Conchyl., 
vol. xlvii, p. 45, pi. ii, fig. 6) relates to the shell which Dr. vou 
Moellendorff is about to describe as C. Lautzenbergi. 
Hah. — Tonkin. 

16. FREri, Bav. & Dtz. 

Clausilia Freyi, Bavay & Dautzenberg: Journ. de Conchyl., 1899, 
vol. xlvii, p. 44, pi. ii, fig. 5. 
^fli.— Cho-Moi. 

17. GASTEODES, Mlldff. (PI. Ill, Fig. 10.) 

Phmdusa [Hemiflimdma) gastrodes, Moellendorff : Nachrbl. Deutsch, 
Malak. Ges., 1901, p. 78. 
^a5.— Mauson Mts. 

18. GASTEUM, MlldfE. (PI. Ill, Fig. 6.) 

FJmdusa {Hetniphcadusa) gastrum, Moellendorff: Nachrbl. Deutsch. 
Malak. Ges., 1901, p. 77. 
^«i.— Than-Moi. 
Subsp. VENTEicTJLUs, Mlldff. : loc. cit., p. 78. 

19. Geeett, Bav. & Dtz. 

Clausilia Gereti, Bavay & Dautzenberg : Journ. de Conchyl., 
1900, vol. xlviii, pp. 115, 447, pi. x, fig. 8. 
Hah. — Bac-Kan. 

20. GiAEDi, H. Fisch. 

Clausilia Giardi, H. Fischer: Bull. Sci. France Belgique, 1898, 

vol. xxviii, p. 323, pi. xviii, figs. 22-27. Bavay & 

Dautzenberg: Journ. de Conchyl., 1899, vol. xlvii, p. 50, 

pi. xii, fig. 2. 

^ai.— Deo-Ma-Phuc ; between Lang-Son and That-Ke (B. & D.). 

21. GisoTA, Bav. & Dtz. 

Clausilia gisota, Bavay &• Dautzenberg : Journ. de Conchyl., 
1899, vol. xlvii, p. 280, pi. xii, fig. 4. 
iZaJ.— That-Ke. 

Subsp. PLATYXOMA, Mlldff. 

Fhcedusa {Hemiphcedusa) gisota, subsp. platyloma, Moellendorff: 
Nachrbl. Deutsch. Malak. Ges., 1901, p. 79. 
^rtS.— Than-Moi. 

22. Geangeei, Bav. & Dtz. 

Clausilia Grangeri, Bavay & Dautzenberg : Journ. de Conchyl., 
1899, vol. xlvii, p. 46, pi. iii, fig. 8. 
Hah. — Between Lang-Son and That-Ke, etc. 
Subsp. apiostoma, Mlldff. 

Flmdusa {Hemiphcedusa) Grangeri, subsp apiostoma, Moellendorff : 
Nachrbl. Deutsch. Malak. Ges., 1901, p. 78. 
JT«J.— Than-Moi. 



192 PKOCEEDINOS OF THE MALACOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

Subsp. LTTEOSTOMA, Mlldff. 

Phccdusa {Hemiphcedusa) Grangeri, subsp. lyteostoma, Moellendorff : 
torn, cit., p. 79. 
^ai.— Thixn-Moi. 

23. Hamonvillei, Bav. & Dtz. 

Clausula Ilamonvillel, Bavay & Dautzenberg: Joum. de Conchyl., 
1899, vol. xlvii, p. 295, pi. xii, fig. 14, with var. ohsoleta. 
Hah. — Bac-Kan. 

24. HoussAYi, H. Fiscb. 

Clausula Iloussayi, H. T'ischer : Bull. Sci. France Belgique, 1898, 
vol. xxviii, p. 325, pi. xvii, figs. 32-36. 
Hah. — Deo-Mao-Phuc ; Cao-Bang. 

25. Lemtrei, Bav. & Dtz. 

Clausula Lemyrei, Bavay & Dautzenberg : Journ. de Conchyl., 
1899, vol. xlvii, p. 275, pi. xii, fig. 1. 
iZ"«i.— Than-Moi (F.). 

26. iTPEA, Mab. 

Clausula lypra^ Mabille : Bull. Soc. Malac. France, 1887, vol. iv, 
p. 117. 
^ffS.— Tonkin. 

27. Mausoneijsis, Mlldff., nom. emend. (PI. Ill, Fig. 9.) 
Phcedusa {Rufospira) Mausonensis, Moellendorff: Nachrbl. Deutsch. 

Malak. Ges., 1901, p. 76. 
Hah. — Mauson Mts, 

28. Messageei, Bav. & Dtz. 

Clausula {Pseudonenla) Messageri, Bavay & Dautzenberg : Journ. 
de Conchyl., 1899, vol. xlvii, p. 46, pi. iii, fig. 1. 
Hah. — Between Lang-Son and That-Ke. 

29. oputhalmophana, Mab. 

Clausula ophthalmophana, Mabille: Moll. Tonk. diagn., 1887, 
p. 17; Bull. Soc. Malac. France, 1887, vol. iv, p. 119, pi. iii, 
figs. 4, 5. 

i7«J.— Than-Moi (F.). 

Mabille gives ophthalmorica in the explanation of the plate. 

30. geientAlis, Mab. 

JVenia orlentalls, Mabille : Moll. Tonk. diagn., 1887, p. 17 ; Bull. 
Soc. Malac. France, 1887, vol. iv, p. 108. 
J3fl5.— Lang-Son, Than-Moi (F.). 

31. Paviei, Morlet. 

Clausula Pavin, Morlet: Journ. de Conchyl., 1892 [?1893], 
vol. xl, p. 319, pi. vii, fig. 1. 
Jlah. — Than-Moi. 

32. polydona, Mab. 

Clausula polydona, Mabille: Moll. Tonk. diagn., 1887, p. 15; 
Bull. Soc. Malac. France, 1887, vol. iv, p. 114. 
Hah. — Tonkin. 



SYKES: ON TONKINESE CLATTSILIiE. 193 

33. RHOPALOiDES, MUdff. (PI. Ill, Fig. 4.) 

Fhcedusa ( Oospira) rliopaloides, Moellendorff : Nachrbl. Deutsch. 
Malak. Ges., 1901, p. 115. 
Hob. — Islands Madeleine and De la Table. 

Subsp. LEPTOSPIRA, Mlldff. (PL III, Eig. 1.) 

P. rhopaloides, snbsp. leptospira, Moellendorff : torn, cit., p. 116. 
Hab. — I. Madeleine. 

Subsp. MICEOTHYEA, Mlldff. (PI. Ill, Fig. 7.) 

p. rhopaloides, subsp. microthyra, Moellendorff : torn, cit., p. 116. 
Hah.—l. de la Table, Mauson Mts., I. of Bah-Muu (F.). 

Subsp. Kebavica, Mlldff. 

P. rhopaloides, subsp. Kebavica, Moellendorff: torn, cit., p. 116. 
Hah. — I. Kebao. 

34. RUMiNiFOEMis, Mab. (PI. Ill, Fig. 8.) 

Clausilia ruminiformis, Mabille : Moll. Tonk. diagn., 1887, p. 16 ; 
Bull. Soc. Malac. France, 1887, vol. iv, p. 112. 
iTaS.— Than-Moi (F.). 

35. sEMiPOLiTA, Bav. & Dtz. 

Clausilia semipoUta, Bavay & Dautzenberg : Journ. de Conchyl., 
1899, vol. xlvii, p. 288, pi. xii, fig. 9. 
Hah. — Between Bac-Kan and That-Ke. 

36. STENOTHTEA, MlldfP. (PI. Ill, Fig. 2.) 
Phcedusa{Pseudonenia) stenothyra, Moellendorff : Naclirbl. Deutsch. 

Malak. Ges., 1901, p. 116. 
Hah. — I. Kebao. 

37. Stkesi, Bav. & Dtz. 

Clausilia Syhesi, Bavay & Dautzenberg : Journ. de Conchyl., 
1899, vol. xlvii, p. 293, pi. xii, figs. 12, 13, with var. major. 
Hah. — Between Cho-Moi and Bac-Kan. 

38. Thatkeana, Bav. & Dtz. 

Clausilia Thatkeana, Bavay & Dautzenberg : Journ. de Conchyl., 
1899, vol. xlvii, p. 285, pi. xii, fig. 7, with vars. ohesa, minor. 
Hah.— Near That-Ke. 

39. THEKisTicA, Mab. 

Clausilia theristtca, Mabille: Moll. Tonk. diagn., 1887, p. 15; 
Bull. Soc. Malac. France, 1887, vol. iv, p. 118. 
^«5.— Tonkin. 

40. Vanbuensis, Bav. & Dtz. 

Clausilia Vanhuensis, Bavay & Dautzenberg : Journ. de Conchyl., 
1899, vol. xlvii, p. 38, pi. ii, fig. 1. 
Hah. — Eoute from Son-La to Van-Bu. 

41. Yatheleti, Bav. & Dtz. 

Clausilia Vatheleti, Bavay & Dautzenberg : Journ. de Conchyl., 
1899, vol. xlvii, p. 39, pi. ii, fig. 2. 
^5.— Van-Bu. 



194 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE MALACOLOOICAL SOCIETY. 



42. Clausilia CniEMHOAENsrs, n.sp. (PL III, Fig. 5.) 

Testa fusiformis, subrimata, sinistrorsa, solida, castaneo-brunnca, 
apice obtusulo. Aiifr. 10-10^, primi couvexiusculi, reliqui fere plani, 
dense subtiliter filo-striati, sutura distincta scjuncti. Apertura 
mediocris, ovato-quadi'ata ; peristoma continuum, modice solutum, 
valde incrassatum et reflexum, albidum. Lamella) modicse, superior 
verticalis, marginalis, inferior intus incrassata, rapide ascendens, 
subcolumellaris emersa. Plica principalis longa, lunella arcuata. 
Alt. 20*5, diam. max. 5 mm. ; alt. apert. 5, lat. apert. 4 mm. 

Hai. — Chiem-Hoa (H. Fruhstorfer). 

This species recalls in form C. Thatkeana. It may be conveniently 
separated from it by its much smaller size, and by the white lip ; the 
lamella inferior also is thicker and ascends more rapidly into the shell ; 
the mouth is also more contracted. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE III. 



"IG. 1. 


Clau 


silia rhopaloides, Mlldff., var. leptospira, Mlldff. 


2. 




stenothyra, MUdli'. 


„ 3. 




, diplocheilus, MlldfiE. 


„ 4. 




rhopaloides, MlldfE. 


„ 5. 




Chiemhoaensts, n.sp. 


6. 




, gastrmn, Mlldff. 


>) 7. 




rhopaloides, Mlldff., var. microthyra, Mlldff 


„ 8. 




ruminiformis, Mabille. 


9. 




, Mausonensis, Mlldff. 


„ 10. 


1 


gastrodes, Mlldff, 



Proc. Malac. Soc. 



Vol. V, PI. I IF. 




J. Green del. 



CLAUSILI/E FROM TONKIN. 



195 



DESCKIPTION OF CHMTOPLEURA BESTITUTA, n.sp., FROM 
SOUTH AFRICA. 

By E. E. Sykes, B.A., F.L.S., etc. 

Read 9th May, 1902. 

Chjetopleuea destittjta, n.sp. 

Shell oblong-ovate, elevated, the dorsal ridge obtuse. Colour (in 
the type) generally light-brown on the central areas and nearly black 
on the lateral areas, but often marbled with variegated colouring. 

Valves strong, obtusely beaked ; central areas sculptured with 
longitudinal threads, the interstices being punctate. Lateral areas 
slightly raised and smooth, being marked only by the lines of growth. 
Interior of valves white, faintly tinged with brown. Anterior valve 
having 9, central 1, and posterior 9 slits : the teeth strong, and 
coarsely, indistinctly pectinate. Girdle leathery brown, with a few 
scattered hairs. Length (when alive) probably about 35 mm., 
breadth 20 mm. 




Chcetopleura destituta, n.sp. 

ITal. — Durban (coll. Mrs. Trotter, comm. H. Burnup). 
The type has been presented to the British Museum by Mr. Burnup, 
Belonging to the group of C. fuha (Wood) and C. piistulata (Krauss), 
but may be distinguished from the latter by the fact that the lateral 
areas are quite smooth. Of C. pustulata there is a fine specimen in 
the British Museum, measuring about three times the length given by 
Krauss. 



196 



ON A COLLECTION OF NON-MARINE SHELLS, FORMED BY 
MR. J. J. WALKER, IN THE NEW HEBRIDES. 

By E. R. Sykes, B.A., F.L.S., etc. 

Read Uth June, 1902. 

The shells noticed in the following pages were collected by Mr. J. J. 
"Walker during the cruise of H.M.S. " Ringaroorua " in the New 
Hebrides between June and October, 1900. The collection is of 
interest, not only on account of the three new forms discovered, 
but also for the very careful localization of the species, which forms 
a useful contribution to our knowledge of the fauna of those islands. 
All the specimens have been kindly presented by Mr. Walker to the 
British Museum. 

1. Rhenea kapida. (Pfr.). 
Hah.— Port Fila, Efate. 

2. MicKocrsTis gutxuia (Gould). 
Hah.— Port Fila, Efate. 

I consider that Hyalina Laynrdi, Thomson (Proc. Zool. Soc, 1885, 
p. 25), is only a synonym for this well-known species. 

3. Teochomorpha etjbens, Hartman. 

Hah. — Terebu and Renee River, Espiritu Santo ; Havannah 
Harbour, Efate. 

4. Trochomoepha convexa, Hartman. 

Hah. — Terebu and Renee River, Espiritu Santo. 

5. Trochomorpha, sp. 

Hah. — Ravenga, Vanua Lava ; Renee River, Espiritu Santo. 
A puzzling form, approaching T. approximata. 

6. DENDROTROcnus Layardi (Hartman). 
Hah. — Renee River, Espiritu Santo. 

7. Dendrotrochus Eva (Pfcilfer). 
Hah.— Port Fila, Efate. 

8. Dendrotrochus straminetts, n.sp. (Fig. I.) 

Shell belonging to the group of J). Eva, but more depressed, much 
smaller and thinner, being almost translucent, nnd of a pale yellowish- 
white colour, with half a whorl less. The surface is finely malleated, 



SrEES : ON NON -MARINE SHELLS FROM THE NEW HEBRIDES. 197 

producing somewhat the effect of spiral striation. The mouth is 
subquaclrate, with a lightly thickened white lip. Alt. 7*5, diam. 
max. 12 mm. 




Fio. I. — Bendrotrochns stramineus, n.sp. 

Hah. — Lo ; Yanua Lava. 

Four specimens, three being immature, but all in good condition, 
from the former, and one dead shell from the latter locality. 

9. Deapaenaudia "Walkeei, n.sp. (Fig. II.) 

T. sinistrorsa, anguste umbilicata, trochiformis, solidiusciila, oblique 
striata, apice subacuto ; anfr. 6, plano-convexi, ultimus obsolete 
carinatus ; apertura perobliqua, subovalis ; peristoma tcnue, margine 
externo subreflexo, columellari superne in laminam triangularem 
reflexo. Alt. 6'5, diam. max. 6 mm. 
Sah. — Renee Kiver, Espiritu Santo. 

At first I was under the impression that D. singularis (Pfr.), which 
is described as '■^subacute carinatus,''^ had been misunderstood, and that 
the present form belonged there ; but since there 
exists in the British Museum a tablet of the form 
known under the name of singularis, bearing on 
the back, in Pfeiffer's writing, the name and 
original locality, I have felt compelled to describe 
the species under consideration. It may be readily 
separated from B. singularis by its smaller size, 
Fig. ll.-Draparnaudia f ^^\ ^^ its being only slightly, instead of strongly 
Walkeri, n.sp. keeled ; while, as compared with the specimen of 
Gassies' D. t'urgidula, from his collection, and now 
in the British Museum, the present shell is a trifle more conic, while 
the whorls are flatter, and the suture not so deeply impressed. 

10. Plaoostylus Salomonis (Pfr.). 
Hah. — Terebu, Espiritu Santo. 

11. Placostylus Hartmani, Kobelt. 

Hah. — Terebu and Renee River, Espiritu Santo. 

12. Placostylus bicolor (Hartman). 
Hab. — Renee River, Espiritu Santo. 

13. Plaoostylijs (?) Bernieri (Hartman). 
Hah. — Renee River, Espiritu Santo. 

14. DiPLOMORPHA Delantouri, Hai'tmau. 
Hah. — Renee River, Espiritu Santo. 




198 PROCKEDINGS OF THK MALACOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

15. DiPLOMORPHA Latakdi, Ilartman. 
Rab. — Port Fila and Undine Bay, Efate. 

16. Partula fraterka, Hartman. 

Hab. — llavenga, Vanua Lava ; Lakona, Gana. 

17. Pabtula aueaniana, Hartman. 

Hab. — Lo and Hiu, Torres Is. 

Mr. H. H. Smith, who kindly compared a specimen from each 
locality with Hartraan's type, notes that the Hiu Island form is 
" indistinguishable from the type," while of the Lo Island shells 
he writes that they are " near auraniana, but there is nothing exactly 
like it in the collection." I consider this latter to be only a local race. 

18. Partula ptramis, Ilartman. 

Hab. — Renee River and Terebu, Espiritu Santo. 

One specimen from the former locality was kindly identified by 
Mr. H. H. Smith, who notes "apparently P. pyramis, Hartman. 
There are two examples in coll. Hartman, one of which is slightly 
abnormal, and neither is in first-rate condition, as they are weathered, 
but the yellow periostracum still shows. P. albescens is close, but has 
flatter whorls." I strongly suspect that the two will prove to be 
forms of the same species, and that the synonymy will include 
P. eburnea, P. eximia, and P. proxima, all of Hartman, which forms 
may be local races, but not, I think, vaHd species. 

19. Rhachis Magenii (Gassies). 
Hab.— VoYi Fila, Efate. 

One specimen only. 

20. SuBULiNA ocTONA (Chemu.). 
Hah.— ?oxt Eila, Efate. 

21. Opeas oparica, Pfr. 

Hab. — Port Fila, Efate ; Vanua Lava ; Valua (Banks Is.). 

22. SucciNEA, sp. 

A single specimen from Valua (Banks Is.) ; and one also from Port 
Fila, Efate. 

23. Ptthia "Wallace!, Pfr. 
Hab. — Undine Bay, Efate. 

24. Melampus luteds, Q. & G. 
Hab. — Resolution Bay, Tanna. 

25. Melampus fasciatus, Desh. 
Hab. — Resolution Bay, Tanna. 
A small variety. 

26. Melampus parvulus, Nuttall. 
Hai. — Resolution Bay, Tanna. 

M. Bupontianus, Morel., appears to be a synonym. 

27. Melampus, sp. 
iZfl^.— Port Fila, Efate. 



STKES : ON NON-MAEINE SHELLS FEOM THE NEW HEBKIDES, 199 

28. AuEICtTLUS ELONGATUS, PaiT. 

Hah. — Resolution Bay, Tanna. 

29. Melania costata, Q. & G. 
Hah. — Havannah Harbour, Efate. 

30. Melania aspikans, Hiuds. 
Hah. — flavannali Harbour, Efate. 

One specimen is evenly spii-ally striate all over, not on the lower 
portion of the whorls only, but it is, I think, only a variety. 

31. Melania eulgdeans, Hinds. 
Hai. — Havannah Harbour, Efate. 

32. Melania Leefei, Brot. 

Hah. — Havannah Harbour, Efate. 

33. Melania, sp. 

Hab. — Renee River, Segond Channel, Espiritu Santo. 

One specimen ; it is allied to M. Leefei, Brot, but the shell is more 
elongate, and the earlier whorls are longitudinally ribbed. Compared 
with M. fiilgurans, Hinds, which it resembles in sculptui'e, the whorls 
are more inflated and the spirals more marked. 

34. Melania scipio, Gould. 
Hah. — Valua (Banks Is.). 

M. verruculum, Morel., is a synonym. 

35. Truncatella valida, PfeifEer. 
Hah. — Resolution Bay, Tanna. 

Probably this is the same shell as was recorded from the New 
Hebrides by Mons. Mabille under the name of T. pacijica^ Pease. 

36. OsTODES FOENICATUM (Pfr.). 

Cyclostoma fornicatum, Pf eiffer : Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1852, p. 146. 
,, Reclu%ianum, Pf eiffer : op. cit., 1853, p. 51. 
Hah.— ?ort Fila, Efate. 

Yar. Macgilliveati (Pfr.). 
Cyclotus Macgillivrayi, Pf eiffer: Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1855, p. 103. 

Hah. — Renee River, Espiritu Santo ; Port Fila, Efate. 

These forms are very difficult to deal with satisfactorily, but I have, 
fortunately, had the advantage of examining the original series in the 
British Museum. 0. fornicatum and 0. Recluzianum appear to be 
absolutely identical, while 0. Ilacgillivraiji is a larger form, with the 
last whorl more rounded and the spire more produced. I have not, 
however, been able to satisfactorily di\ide the series, and intermediate 
forms occur. The largest specimens measure over 14 mm. in diameter. 
Kobelt and Moelleudorff place 0. fornicatum in Lagocheilus and the 
others in Gonatorhaphe, but I think they really belong to Ostodes. 

37. Omphaloteopis vakians, Moelleudorff ? 

Hah.— Voxi Pila, Efate. 

The specimens are dead, but from the diagnosis and dimensions 
given I believe them to belong to this unfigured species. 

VOL. V. — OCTOBEE, 1902. 14 




200 PKOCEEDINGS OF THE MALACOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

38. OMrnALOTRons, sp. 

Hah. — llenee River, Espintu Santo. 

A single dead shell, belonging to the same group as the last species. 

39. Ojiphaloteopis conella, n.sp. (Fig. III.) 

Testa perforata, ovato - conoidalis, opaca, 
solidula, brunnea, spira bene elata ; anfr. 6^, 
plano-convexi, liris numcrosis cincti, ultimus 
ad peripheriam carinatus, circa port'orationem 
fortius filo-carinatus, sutura bene impressa, 
apertura angulato-ovalis, peristomate simplici, 
p , TTj margine columellari subreflexo. Alt. 4 '2, 

Omphalotropis conella, n.sp. diara. max. 3-1 mm. 

Rab.—VoYi Fila, Efate. 

A pretty little shell, somewhat trochoid in shape, with numerous 
spiral lirae. 

40. PtrPINA CUMINGTANA, Pfr. 

Hab. — Resolution Bay, Tanna. 

41. Helicina subl^vigata, Pfr. 

Hab. — Port Fila, Efate ; Terebu and Renee River, Espiiitu Santo ; 
Valua ; Vanua Lava ; Gana ; Hiu ; Lo. 

A veiy variable shell in colour, shape, and size ; I believe 
H. Layardi, Hartm., to be a synonym. 

42. Helicina articulata, Pfr. 
Hab.—?oYi Fila, Efate. 

43. Neritina subgranosa, Reel. 
Hah. — Havannah Harbour, Efate. 

44. Neritina Wallisiana, Reel. { = variegata, Lesson). 
Hab. — Vanua Lava ; Valua (young shells). 

45. Neritina bicolor. Reel. (?). 

Hah. — Renee River, Segond Channel, Espiritu Santo. 

46. Septaria suborbicularis, Sby. 

Hah. — Renee River, Espiiitu Santo ; Valua. 



201 



A SYNOPSIS OF THE GENUS STREPTAXIS AND ITS ALLIES. 

By G. K. Gtjde, F.Z.S., etc. 

Mead 9th May, 1902. 

PLATE IV. 

The genus Streptaxis was established in 1837 by J. E. Gray,^ who 
included therein six species, i.e., 8. comboides, S. llaugerce, S. contusa, 
S. deformis, S. nobilis, and S. pagoda. Of these 8. pagoda has since 
been removed from the genus, being now regarded as pertaining to the 
genus Gihbus. Tryon, in 1885, enumerated 100 species, not including 
the species of Happia and 8colod()nta, which then numbered fifteen. 
At the present moment the number of known species is 163, exclusive 
of Mappia and 8colodotda, which contain thirteen and seventeen 
species respectively. 

Pfeiffer divided the genus into six sections : Artemon, Scolodonta, 
Ammonoceras, Eustreptaxis — the last being split into two groups, 
Odontartemon and JDiscartemon. Mons. Ancey proposed two further 
sections, Lamelliger for 8. 2'roherti, and Oophana for 8. hulhulus and 
8. Michani ; while Mr. J. W. Taylor contributed yet another section, 
Gonaxis, for his 8. Gihbonsi. Tryon ^ rightly states that the 
peculiarities upon which the three last sections are based are 
shared more or less by several other species, and that the recognition 
of these sections could scarcely serve a useful purpose. He adopted 
Pfeiffer's classification, except that he made Ammonoceras a subdivision 
of Artemon, united 8colodonta with it, and included Odontartemon as 
a third subdivision of Eustreptaxis. 

The next attempt to revise the genus was by Bourguignat,^ who 
separated all the species with a non-deviated axis as not only alien to 
8treptaxis, but as having no affinity with the Testacellidse. For these 
species he created a new family, Artemonidse, to be placed between 
Helicarionidse and Helicidae, and to contain nine genera, viz. : — 
1, Gibbonsia, with one species, 8. gigas; 2, Tayloria, for 8. ventrosa 
and 8. Jouberti; 3, Happia, new name for Ammonoceras, Pfr. (pre- 
occupied in Cephalopoda), type H. vitrina ; 4, 8colodonta, Doering, 
type 8. Semperi; 5, Drepanostomella, with one species, 8. ammoniti- 
Jormis ; 6, Colpanostoma, one species, 8. Leroyi ; 7, Artemon, Beck, 
type 8. candidus; 8, Biscartemon, Pfr., type 8. discus; and 9, 
Alcidia, type 8. Cypsele. Since these new genera are entirely based 



' Mag. Nat. Hist., n.s., vol. i, p. 484. 

"^ Man. Conch., ser. ii, vol. i, p. 57. 

^ Mollusques de I'Afrique equatoriale, 1889, p. 36. 



202 PROCEEDINGS OF THE MALACOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

on conchological characters, without corroboration of anatomical details, 
their value is extremely doubtful ; moreover, the removal of these 
species from the Testacellida? without anatomical evidence is un- 
waiTanted. I would make exception in favour of Colpanostoma and 
Taijloria, which are here retained as subgenera, and tliis notwith- 
standing Dr. von Martens' conjectures that they maj- be juvenile 
states of Streptaxis} Spceiiuens of Colpanostoma Leroyi in my 
possession do not bear out this conjecture, for they are undoubtedly 
matui'e. Bourguignat also reconstructed the genus Streptaxis, raising 
it to family rank ; after eliminating his Artemonidae he split up the 
remainder into four genera, viz : — 1, Streptaxis, Gray, with S. contusus 
as type, containing " S. Funcki, S. epidylium, S. Dunkeri, etc.," and 
doubtfully S. nohilis, S. Blandingiana, S. rimata, S. Monrovia, etc. ; 
2, Gonaxis, Taylor { — Eustreptaxis, Vh\-\- Lamelliger and Oophana, 
Ancey), containing most of the African species and the American and 
Asiatic forms with parietal teeth ; 3, Marconia, Bourg., containing 
Ennea lata. Smith, and E. vitrea, Morel., with Streptaxis enneoides, 
Mart., and two new species, S. gihhosa and S. recta ; and 4, Edentu- 
lina, Pfr., which is considered a section of Ennea by Dr. von Martens. 
Furtlier additions to the group proposed by Mons. J. Mabille were : 
the genus Pseudartemon,^ for a single species, P. Bourgtiignati, and 
the genus Stremmatopsis,^ also for a single species, S. Poirieri. Here, 
again, we have no anatomical evidence, and since the shell of the 
former sufficiently resembles Seolodonta to warrant its inclusion in 
that genus, I am constrained to reject Pseudartemon, while Strem- 
matopsis appears to me only of sectional value, and I have consequently 
added it as a fourth subsection of Eustreptaxis. Dr. von Mollendorff 
created a section, Micrarfemon, for a species from the Philippine 
Islands,* the inclusion of which in Streptaxis appears to me somewhat 
dubious, but pending an examination of the soft parts it may be 
advisable to retain it. Finally, Dr von Martens proposed a section, 
Imperturhatia (allied to Artemon), for the reception of four- new species 
fi'om the Seychelles.* 

The distribution of Streptaxis is somewhat peculiar. The species 
range over the warmer parts of Asia, Africa, and South America. 
Asia is the richest in species, being credited with no less than 77, 
distributed as follows: — India and Burma 24, Indo-China 25, China 13, 
including one doubtful record, Ceylon 4, Malaya, including the Samui 
Islands, 11, Nicobar Islands 1, Andaman group 3, and Philippine 
Islands 1, Africa, including the six Mascarene Island shells, has 48 
species, of which four are doubtful records. In East Africa they range 
from Somali in the north to Zanzibar in the south, while they extend 
westwards through British Central Africa and the Congo to the 
Cameroons and the Guinea Coast. South America has only 37 species, 
including three doubtful records ; they range from Brazil to Guiana, 

1 Dc'utsch. Ost-Afrika, vol. iv (1897), p. 32. 

2 Bull. Soc. Malac. Fr., vol. iv (1887), p. 126. 

3 Loc. cit., p. 132. 

* Berichte Senck. Xaturf. Ges., 1890, p. 190. 
5 Mittl. Zooh Mus. Berlin, vol. i (1898), p. 12. 



GUDE : ON THE GENUS STBEPTAXIS AND ITS ALLIES. 203 

Venezuela, and as far north as Trinidad and Barbados, while on the 
west coast they extend from Peru to New Grenada. One species 
is of unknown habitat. 

The genera Happia and Scolodonta are almost confined to South 
America, ranging from Argentina in the south, through Brazil, as far 
north as St. Vincent and Grenada in the West Indies, and on the 
west coast from Cliili to Ecuador; one species is found in the 
Comoro Islands and one in Tonkin. 

No fossil forms of Streptaxis are known. Mr. Sykes and Mr. Bullen 
Newton have kindly called my attention to the fact that Omphaloptyx 
supracostata, Boettger, from the Upper Oligocene, is supposed to be 
allied to Streptaxis. A statement to this effect appears in some 
books, notably Fischer's Manuel de Conchyliologie (1883, p. 453) and 
Tryon's Structural and Systematic Conchology (vol. iii, 1884, p. 16) ; 
but a reference to Boettger' s original words ^ shows it is to Ennea^ and 
not to Streptaxis, that Omphaloptyx is considered to be related. 

Several species having remained unfigured, I have thought it useful 
to figure these so far as possible, and Mr. E. A. Smith, with his 
customary courtesy, has given me access to some of Pfeitfer's types 
in the British Museum. These are S. Leonensis, S. eburneus, 
S. gibhosus, and S. sinuosus. Two other unfigured species are 
S. Anceyi, Mab., and S. diplodon, Mlldff., which I am also enabled 
to illustrate from specimens in the British Museum. 

While looking over the collection at the British Museum I found 
a tablet with two shells labelled S. subbulbidus, Mlldff., apparently an 
unpublished name. Dr. von Mollendorff informs me that he has no 
recollection of the shells, and since Mr. Smith states that they were 
received from Mr. Fruhstorfer, it would appear that the latter has 
attached the above manuscript name to them without Dr. von 
Mollendorff' s authority. I append a short diagnosis of this species. 
[P.S. — It has since been described by Dr. von Mollendorff - as a new 
subspecies of S. Siamensis, Pfr., but I still consider it worthy of 
specific rank.] 

Streptaxis subbulbulus, Mlldfi. PI. IV, Figs. 16-18. 

Shell whitish, diaphanous, narrowly umbilicated, depressed, sub- 
cylindrical, strongly costulate above, shining below, strongly costulate 
inside the umbilicus; whorls 6|, rapidly increasing, the last gibbous 
behind the constricted aperture ; aperture semi-ovate, upper margin 
sinuate, receding slightly, peristome strongly thickened and reflected ; 
parietal wall with one entering compressed fold, three equidistant 
conical teeth on the peristome, one on the right margin, two basal. 
Alt. 9, diam. 8 mm. 

Hab. — Siam : Hinlap. Two specimens. 

Type in the British Museum, The new species resembles S. bulbulus 
in outline, but it is smaller and the teeth on the peristome are 
differently arranged. 

1 Berichte Senck. Naturf. Ges., 1873-4, p. 64. 

2 Nachi". Elatt. Deutsch. Malak. Ges., 1902, p. 154. 



204 PROCEEDINGS OF THE MALACOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

STRErTAXIS, Gray. 

Slreptaxis, Gray: Mag. Nat. Hist., N.s., vol. i (1837), p. 484. 

Shell oval, heliciform, but often oblique, profoundly umbilicated, 
ridged, striate above, smooth and usually polished below, last whorls 
usually debating more or less from the original axis ; aperture lunar, 
with or without teeth, lip slightlj^ thickened and reflected. 

The animal has a very long neck and short tail ; the superior 
tentacles are narrow and long; the labial palpi narrow, as long as the 
iuferior tentacles ; genital orifice on the right side, distant from the 
superior tentacle, and closer to the respiratory orifice. Dentition 
similar to that of Glandina; central tooth simple (Try on). 

Section I. Eustreptaxis, PfeifPer. 

Axis of the shell oblique, owing to the fact that some of the whorls 
are inclined obliquely to the rest. 

Subsection 1. Edentulce (=b. genuincB), Pfeiffer. 

Mon. Helic, vol. i (1848), p. 3, =Artemon, Pfr., Malak. Bliitt., vol. ii 
(1856), p. 172, in part, not Artemon, Beck. + Gonaxis, Taylor, 
Journ. Conch., vol. i (1877), p. 252. -|- Lamelligee and Oophana, 
Ancey, Le Naturaliste, 1882, p. 399. + Algidia, Boarg., Moll. 
Afr. equat., 1889, p. 46. + Maeconia, Bourg., op. cit., p. 135. 

1. Steeptaxis nobilis, Gray. 

Streptaxis nohilis, Gray: Mag. Nat. Hist., n.s., vol. i (1837), p. 485, 
figs. 60rt, h ; Troschel, Wiegm. Arch. Naturg., vol. iv, pt. 2 
(1838), p. 274 ; Philippi, Abbild. & Beschr., vol. i (1843), p. 48; 
Pli-., Mon. Helic, vol. i (1848), p. 4; id., Cheran. Conch. Cab., 
2nd ed., Ilelix, vol. iii (1854), p. 395, pi. cxlix, figs. 10, 11; 
Chenu, Man. de Conch., vol. i (1859), p. 451, fig. 3361 ; Tryon, 
Man. Conch., ser. ii, vol. i (1885), p. 67, pi. xiii, figs. 53, 54, 
61, 62. 

Helix Monrovia, Rang: Ann. Sci. Nat., vol. xxiv (1831), p. 16, 
pi. iii, fig. 3 ; Philippi, Abbild. & Beschr., vol. ii (1846), Helix, 
p. 85, pi. vii, fig. 9 : Pfr., Mon. Helic, vol. i (1848), p. 85. 

Stre^itaxis Monrovia, Mart. : Malak. BlJitt., vol. xiii (1866), p. 104 ; 
Dohrn, tom. cit, p. 136, vol. xxii (1875), p. 203; Chemn., 
Conch. Cab., 2nd ed.. Helix, vol. iii (1853), p. 355, pi. cxxxvi, 
figs. 5, 6 ; Pfr., Mon. Helic, vol. iii (1853), p. 81. (Status 
juvenilis.) 

Streptaxis Monroviana, Dohrn: Nov. Conch., vol. v (1877), p. 26, 
pi. cxlii, figs. 1-6. 

Helix Bland ingi ana. Lea : Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc, ser. ii, vol. vii 
(1841), p. 459, pi. xii, fig. 9. 

Streptaxis Blandingiana, Pfr. : Mon. Helic, vol. i (1848), p. 4. 

Helix Reclnsiana, Petit: Revue Zool., 1841, p. 99; Per., Hist., 1851, 
p. 393, pi. xcv, fig. 1. 

Streptaxis Reclusiana, Pfr. : Svmb., vol. ii (1842), p. 110; Philippi, 
Abbild. & Beschr., vol. ii (1846), Helix, p. 128, pi. viii, fig. 3; 



GtTDE : ON THE GENUS STREFTAXIS AND ITS ALLIES. 205 

Pfr., Chemn. Conch. Cab., 2nd ed., Helix, vol. i (1853), p. 18, 
pi. cii, figs. 10-12; id., Men. Helic, vol. i (1848), p. 6; id., 
Nov. Conch., vol. v (1877), p. 27, pi. cxlii, fig. 2. 

Streptaxis Recluzimia, Pfr.: Mon. Helic, vol. v (1868), p. 440; 
Tryon, Man. Conch., ser. ii, vol. i (1885), p. 67, pi. xiii, 
figs. 41, 42. 

Streptaxis rimata, Pfr. : Zeit. Malac. vol. iv (1847), p. 48 ; id., 
Chemn. Conch. Cab., 2nd ed., Relix, vol. ii (1853), p. 16, pi. ciii, 
figs. 1-3 ; id., Mon. Helic, vol. i (1848), p. 5; vol. iii (1853), 
p. 286 ; id., Nov. Conch., vol. v (1877), p. 27, pi. cxlii, fig. 4 ; 
Tryon, Man. Conch., ser. ii, vol. i (1885), p. 67, pi. xiii, fig. 68. 

Streptaxis rimatus, Pfr. : Mon. Helic, vol. v (1868), p. 440. 
Sab. — Liberia (Pang) ; Guinea (Petit) ; Sierra Leone (Morelet). 

2. Streptaxis rectus, Bourguignat. 

Marconia recta, Bourg. : Moll. Afr. equat., 1889, p. 138, pi. vii, 

figs. 4, 5. 
Ennea [Edentuliyia) recta. Mart. : Deutsch. Ost-Afi\, vol. iv (1897), 

p. 14. 
Sah. — East Africa : Usagara, Ugogo, Ukimbu. 

2a. Var. latula. Martens. 

Ennea (Edenfulina) latula, Mart. : Nachr. Blatt. Deutsch. Malak. Ges., 

1895, p. 175. 
Ennea {Edentulina) recta, var. latula. Mart. : Deutsch. Ost-Afr., 
voL iv (1897), p. 14, pL ii, fig. 8. 
Sab. — Butumbi, south of Albert Edward Nyanza. 

3. Streptaxis Marconi, Gude, nom. nov. 

Marconia gibbosa, Bourg.: Moll. Afr. equat., 1889, p. 137, pi. vii, 

figs. 6, 7. (Not Streptaxis gihhosus, Pfr.) 
Ennea {Edentulina) gibbosa, Mart.: Deutsch. Ost-Afr., vol. iv (1897), 

p. 14. 
Hab. — East Afiica : Usagara, TJgogu. 

4. Streptaxis latus, Smith. 
En7iea lata. Smith: Proc Zool. Soc, 1880, p. 347, pi. xxxi, fig. 4. 
Gibbm {Edentulina) latus, Tryon: Man. Conch., ser. ii, vol. i (1885), 

p. 84, pi. xvii, figs. 34, 35. 
Marconia lata, Bourg. : Moll. Afr. equat., 1889, p. 136. 
Ennea {Edentulina) lata. Mart.: Deutsch. Ost-Afr., vol. iv (1897), 
p. 14. 
Hab. — East Africa : between Lake Tanganyika and Zanzibar, 
TJsagara. 

5. Streptaxis translucidus, Dupuys & Putzeys. 
Streptaxis translucidus, Dup. & Putz. : Bull. Seances Soc. Eoy. Malac. 
Belg., vol. xxxvi, 1901 (1902), p. Ii, fig. 21. 
Hah. — Congo Eree State : Nseudwe. 



206 PROCEEDINGS OP THE MALA.COLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

6. Streptaxis Gafdiont, Dupuys & Putzcys. 
Streptaxis Gaudioni, Dup. & Putz. : Bull. Seances Soc. Eoy. Malac. 
Belf?., vol. xxxvi, 1901 (1902), p. Hi, fig. 22. 
Hah. — Cougo Free State : Nseudwe. 

7. Streptaxis vitreus, INforelct. 
Ennea vitrea, Morel. : Voyage Welwitsch, 1868, p. 84, pi. ii, fig. 3. 
JEnnea {Ed&ntidina) vitrea, Pfr. : Mon. Helic, vol. vii (1876), p. 499. 
Gihbus {Edentulina) vitreus, Tryon : Man. Conch., ser. ii, vol. i (1885), 
p. 84, pi. xvii, fig. 33. 
Hab. — Angola. 

8. Streptaxis Craveni, Smith. 

Streptaxis Craveni, Smith : Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. v, vol. vi 
(1880), p. 280, pi. xxxii, fig. 5; Tryon, Man. Conch., ser. ii, vol. i 
(1885), p. 67, pi. xvi, figs. 6, 7 ; Mart., Deutsch. Ost-Afr., vol. iv 
(1897), p. 31, pi. ii, figs. 35, 36. 

Gonaxis Craveni, Eourg. : Moll. Air. equat., 1889, p. 134. 
Hab. — East Africa : Mombasa, Usambara, Usagara. 

9. Streptaxis suturalis. Martens. 

Streptaxis suturalis, Mart.: Malak. Bliitt., vol. vi (1860), p. 19; 
Pfr., Mon. Helic, vol. v (1868), p. 439; Mart., Binnen-Moll. 
Venezuela's, 1873, p. 165, pi. ii, fig. 3 ; Tryon, Man. Conch., 
ser. II, vol. i (1885), p. 68, pi. xii, fig. 23. 
Hah. — New Grenada. 

10. Streptaxis Dunkeri, Pfeiffer. 

Streptaxis Dunkeri, Pfr. : in Philippi, Abbild. & Beschr., vol. ii 
(1845), p. 7, Helix, pi. vi, fig. 15 ; id., Mon. Helic, vol. i 
(1848), p. 5; id., Chemn. Conch. Cab., 2nd ed., Helix, vol. ii 
(1853), p. 16, pi. cii, figs. 1-3 & figs. 35, 36 (juv.) ; Mart., 
Ost-Asicn, Zool., vol. ii (1867), p 7, pi. xix, fig. 3 ; Hidalgo, 
Journ. de Conch., 1870, p. 39; Trvon, Man. Conch., ser. ii, vol. i 
(1885), p. 68, pi. xiii, figs. 57, 62,' 63. 
Hab. — Brazil: Bio Janeiro (Pfr.) ; Corcobado (Hid.). 

10«. Var. CLAusA, Lobbecke. 
Streptaxis Dunkeri, var. clausa, I>6bb. : Nachr. Blatt. Deutsch. Malak. 
Ges., 1881, p. 50; Jahrb. Deutsch. Malak. Ges., vol. ix (1882), 
p. 4, pi. i, figs. 4, 5 ; Tryon, Man. Conch., ser. ii, vol. i (1885), 
p. 68, pi. xiii, figs. 65-67. 

11. Streptaxis Funcki, Pfeiffer. 
Streptaxis Funcki, Pfr.: Proc Zool. Soc, 1847, p. 229; id., Mon. 
Helic, vol. i (1848), p. 436 ; id., Chemn. Conch. Cab., 2nd ed., 
Helix, vol. ii (1853), p. 17, pi. ci, figs. 40, 41 ; pi. ciii, figs. 16, 
17 (juv.); Mart, Malak. Hlatt., vol. vi (1859), p. 61; id., 
Binnen-Moll. Venezuela's, 1873, p. 165; Tryon, Man. Conch., 
ser. II, vol. i (1885), p. 68, pi. xiv, figs. 69-72. 
Hab — Venezuela : Merida (Mart.) ; New Grenada (Pfr.). 



GUDE : ON THE GENUS STEEPTAXIS AND ITS ALLIES. 207 

12. Steeptaxis sxtbeegularis, Pfeiffer. 
Streptaxis suhregularis, Pfr. : in Philippi, Abbild. & Besch., vol. ii 
(1846), p. 127, Helix, pi. viii, fig. 12; id., Mon. Helic, vol. i 
(1848), p. 4; id., Chemn. Conch. Cab., 2nd ed.. Helix, vol. ii 
(1853), p. 15, pi. ci, figs. 36-39; id., Mon. Helic, vol. iv(1859) 
p. 329; A. D. Brown, Journ. de Conch., 1869, p. 71 ; Pfr., Mon 
Helic, vol. vii (1876), p. 491; Tryon, Man. Conch., ser. ir 
vol. i (1885), p. 68, pi. xii, figs. 16-18. 
Hab. — Brazil: Eio Janeiro (Pfr.). U.S.Colombia: Bogota (Pfr.) 

13. Streptaxis conttjsus, Ferussac 
Helix {Helicogena) contimdata, Fer. : Prod., 1821, No. 41. 
Helix contusa, Fer : Prod., p. 67; Wood, Index, Suppl., 1828, 

pi. vii, fig. 39; Rang, Ann. Sci. Nat., 1831, p. 5; Desh., Traite 

Elem. Conch., 1850, pi. Ixxxiii, figs. 11, 12; Fer., Hist., 1851, 

p. 390, pi. xxxi, fig. 1 ; pi. xxxix b, figs. 5, 6 (with animal) ; 

M. E. Gray, Fig. Moll. Anim., vol. iii (1859), pi. cclxxxix, fig. 1. 
Artemon contusus, Beck: Index, 1838, p. 48. 
Streptaxis contusa, Gray : Mag. Nat. Hist., n.s., vol. i (1837), p. 484 ; 

Sowby., Conch. Man., 2nd ed. (1839), p. 266, figs. 269, 270; 

Phil., Abbild. & Beschr., vol. ii (1846), p. 127, Helix, pi. viii, 

fig. 1 ; Pfr., Mon. Helic, vol. i (1848), p. 6; Gould, U.S. Expl. 

Exped., Moll. (1852), p. 71, pi. v, fig. 70; Pfr., Chemn. Conch. 

Cab., 2nd ed., Helix, vol. ii (1853), p. 17, pi. cii, figs, 4-6; 

Adams, Genera, vol. ii (1858), p. 185, pi. Ixxvii, fig. 1 ; Chenu, 

Man de Conch., 1859, p. 450, tig. 3358 ; Hidalgo, Viaje Pacif. 

Molusc, pt. i (1869), p. 41 ; Woodward, Manual, 4th ed. (1880), 

pi. xii, fig. 6. 
Streptaxis contusus, Pfr. : Mon. Helic, vol. v (1868), p. 440 ; 

Hidalgo, Journ. de Conch., 1870, p. 39; Tryon, Struct. Syst. 

Conch., vol. iii (1884), pi. xcii, fig. 55 ; id., Man. Conch., ser. ii, 

vol. i (1885 \ p. 68, pi. xiv, figs. 76-78 ; Fischer, Man. de Conch., 

1887, pi. xii, fig. 6. 
^«^.— Brazil: Bio Janeiro ; Corcobado (Hidalgo). 

14. Streptaxis- tjberiformis, Pfeiffer. 
Streptaxis uberiformis, Pfr.: Proc Zool. Soc, 1848, p. 108; Zeit. 
Malak., vol. v (1848), p. 89; id., Mon. Helic, vol. iii (1853), 
p. 287; Hidalgo, Journ. de Conch., 1870, p. 39; 1875, p. 128, 
pi. vii, fig. 8 ; Tryon, Man. Conch., ser. ii, vol. i (1885), p. 68, 
pi. xiv, fig. 94. 
Artemon uberiformis, Bourg. : Moll. Afr. equat., 1889, p. 44. 
Hah. — Brazil : Bio Janeiro (Pfr.) ; Corcobado (Hidalgo). 

15. Streptaxis alveus. Hunker. 
Streptaxis alveus, Dunk. : in Phil., Abbild. & Beschr,, vol. ii (1845), 

p. 6, Helix, pi. vi, fig. 14 ; Pfr., Mon. Helic, vol. i (1848), p. 4; 

id., Chemn. Conch. Cab., 2nd ed.. Helix, vol. ii (1853), p. 15, 

pi. ci, figs. 33-35; Tryon, Man. Conch., ser. ii, vol. i (1885), 

p. 69, pi. xxvii, fig. 11. 
Alcidia alveus, Bourg. : Moll. Afr. equat., 1889, p. 47. 



208 TEOCEEDINGS OF THE MALACOLOGICAL SOCIETT. 

Helix contermina, Reeve : Conch. Icon., Helix, 1854, pi. cxci, 
fig. 1342 ; Tryon, Man. Conch., ser. ii, vol. i (1885), pi. xii, 
fig. 29. 
Hab. — Brazil : New Freiburg (Pfr.). 

16. Streptaxis Deshayesiantjs, Crosse. 
Streptaxis Deshayesimius, Crosse : Joum. de Conch., 1863, p. 388 ; 
1867, p. 202, pi. V, fig. 3; Pfr., Mon. Helic, vol. v (1868), 
p. 441 ; Hidalgo, Yiaje Pacif. Molusc, pt. i (1869), p. 45, pi. iii, 
figs. 5, 6 ; id., Journ. de Couch., 1870, p. 39 ; Tryon, Man. Conch., 
ser. II, vol. i (1885), p. 69, pi. xiv, fig. 97. 
Hab. — Brazil : Botafogo ; Corcobado (Hidalgo). 

17. Streptaxis turbinattjs, Morelet. 

Streptaxis turbitiata, Morel. : Voyage Welwitsch, 1868, p. 58, pi. i, 

fig. 8. 
Streptaxis turbtnafus, Pfr. : Mon. Helic, vol. vii (1876), p. 492; 

Tryon, Man. Conch., ser. ii, vol. i (1885), p. 69, pi. xii, figs. 24, 25. 
Gonaxis turbinata, Bourg. : Moll. Afr. equat., 1889, p. 133. 
Hab. — West Africa : Angola (Morel.). 

18. Streptaxis deplanatus, Pfeiffer. 

Streptaxis deplanata, Pfr. : in Phil., Abbild. & Beschr., vol. ii (1845), 

p. 8; vol. ii (1846), p. 128, Helix, pi. viii, fig. 9; id., Mon. 

Helic, vol. i (1848), p. 6; id., Chemn. Conch. Cab., 2nd ed., 

Helix, vol. ii (1853), p. 18, pi. cii, figs. 24-26. 
Streptaxis deplanatus, Pfr. : Mon. Helic, vol. v (1868), p. 440; Tryon, 

Man. Conch., ser. ii, vol. i (1885), p. 69, pi. xiv, figs. 84-86. 
Hab.—'i 

19. Streptaxis Welwitschi, Morelet. 

Streptaxis Wehcitschi, Morel.: Voyage Welwitsch, 1868, p. 57, pi. i, 
fig. 7 ; Pfr., Mon. Helic, vol. vii (1876), p. 493 ; Trj'on, Man. 
Conch., ser. ii, vol. i (1885), p. 69, pi. xiv, figs. 73-75. 

Gonaxis Welwitschi, Bourg. : Moll. Afr. equat., 1889, p. 133. 
Hab. — West Africa : Angola (Morel.). 

20. Streptaxis nautilus, Sarasin. 

Streptaxis nautilics, P. & F. Sarasin : Land-Moll. Celebes, 1899, p. 220, 
pi. xxvi, fig. 272 ; pi. xxxi, fig. 307 (anat.). 
Hab. — North Celebes : Sudara Volcano. 

21. Streptaxis prosteatus, Gould. 

Streptaxis prostrata (Gould, MS.), Jay: Catalogue, 1850, p. 117; 
Gould, Proc Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist, vol. vi (1856), p. 12; Pfr., 
Mon. Helic, vol. iv (1859), p. 330; Gould, Otia Conch., 1862, 
p. 220 ; Ancey, Bull. Soc. Malac Fr., vol. v (1888), p. 66. 

Streptaxis prostratiis, Pfr.: Mon. Helic, vol. v (1868), p. 440; 
Tryon, Man. Conch., ser. ii, vol. i (1885), p. 69, pi. xxvii, fig. 9. 

Gonaxis prostratus, Bourg. : Moll. Afr. equat., 1889, p. 133. 
Hab. — West Africa : Liberia, Cape Palnias (Gould) ; Ivory Coast, 

Grand Bassam (Ancey) ; Guinea Coast (Morelet). 



GUDE : ON THE GENUS STBEPTAXI8 AND ITS ALLIES. 209 

22. Streptaxis albidtjs, Pfeiffer. 

Slreptaxis allida, Pfr. : Phil., Abbild. & Beschr., vol. ii (1845), p. 7 ; 

vol. ii (1846), p. 128, pi. viii, fig. 5; id., Mon. Helic, vol. i 

(1848), p. 6 ; id., Chemn. Conch, Cab., 2iid ed., Helix, vol. ii 

(1853), p. 19, pi. ciii, figs. 4-7. 
Streptaxis albidus, Pfr. : Mon. Helic, vol. v (1868), p. 440 ; Paetel, 

Catalogue, 1869, p. 83; Tryon, Man. Conch., ser. ii, vol. i 

(1885), p. 70, pi. xiv, figs. 79-81. 
Gonaxis alhidus, Bourg. : Moll. Afr. equat., 1889, p. 133. 
Hah. — ? (Guinea, Paetel). 

23. Streptaxis gibbosus, Pfeiffer. PI. IV, Figs. 7-9, 

Streptaxis gibhosa, Pfr. : Mon. Helic, vol. iv (1859), p. 330. 
Streptaxis gihhosus, Pfr. : Mon. Helic, vol. v (1868), p. 440. 
(jlonaxis gibhosus, Bourg. : Moll. Afr. equat., 1889, p. 133, 

HaJ). — New Grenada : Baranquilla. 

Illustrations from the types in the British Museum. 

24. Streptaxis Candei, Petit. 

Helix Candei, Pet. : Rev. Zool., 1842, p. 177. 

Streptaxis Candei, Phil. : Abbild. & Beschr., vol. i 0843), p. 49. 

Streptaxis Candeana, Pfr.: Symb., vol. ii (1842), p. 109; id., Mon. 
Helic, vol. i (1848), p 7"; Bland, in C. B. Adams, Contrib. No. 12 
(1852), p. 231 ; Pfr., Mon. Helic, vol. iv (1859), p. 331. 

Streptaxis Candeanus, Pfr. : Mon. Helic, vol. v (1868), p. 441 ; Mart., 
Binnen-Moll. Venezuela's, 1873, p. 165 ; Tryon, Man. Conch., 
ser. II, vol. i (1885), p. 70, pi. xiv, figs. 89-91 ; Boettger, Nachr. 
Blatt. Deutsch. Malak. Ges., 1889, p. 27. 

Gonaxis Candeanus, Bourg.: Moll. Afr. equat., 1889, p. 133. 

Streptaxis deformis, Pfr. (not of Per.) : Mon. Helic, vol. i (1848), p. 7 ; 
Phil., Abbild. & Beschr., vol. ii (1846), p. 128, Helix, pi. viii, 
fig. 2 ; Pfr., Chemn. Conch. Cab., 2nd ed.. Helix, vol. ii (1853), 
pi. ciii, figs. 22-25. 

Helix deformis, Desh. (not of Per.) : in Per., Hist., vol. i (1851), p. 392. 

Helix comboides, var. edentula, Moricand: Mem. Soc phys. Geneve, 
vol. xi (1846), p. 154. 

Hah. — Venezuela : Caracas (Mart.). New Grenada : Baranquilla 
(Bland). Brazil: Bahia (Moric) ; Pernambuco (Boettger). 

25. Streptaxis Gibbonsi, Taylor. 

Gonaxis Gibbonsi, J. W. Tavlor : Journ. Conch., vol, i (1877), p. 252, 
pi. ii, fig. 1 ; Bourg., Moll. Afr. equat., 1889, p. 133. 

Streptaxis Gibbonsi, Tryon: Man. Conch., ser. ii, vol. i (1885), p. 70, 
pi. xiv, figs. 82, 83. 

JEnnea {Edentulina) Gibbonsi, Mart. : Deutsch. Ost-Afr., vol. iv (1897), 
p. 15. 
^a^.— Zanzibar. 



210 PKOCEEDINGS OF THE MALACOLOGICAL SOCIETr. 

26. Steeptaxis Kieki, Dohrn. 
Streptaxis Kirhii, Dohrn: Proc. Zool. Soc, 1865, p. 232; Pfr., Mon. 

Helic, vol. V (1868), p. 441. 
Streptaxis Kirki, Mart.: Deutsch. Ost-Afr., vol. iv (1897), p. 32; 

Smith, Proc. Zool. Soc, 1899, p. 582, pi. xxxiii, figs. 7, 8. 
Gonaxis Kirki, Bourg. : ]\Ioll. Afr. equat., 1889, p. 133. 

Uab. — Central Africa : Island Mumba in Lake Nyassa (Dohrn) ; 
Zomba Plateau (Smith). 

27. Streptaxis micans, Putzeys. 
Streptaxis micans, Putz. : Bull. Seances Soc. Hoy. Malac. Belg., 
vol. xxxiv (1899), p. Iv, tig. 2. 
Mah. — Congo Free State : Waregga. 

28. Streptaxis Nsetjdweensis, Putzeys. 
Streptaxis Nseudweetixis, Putz. : Bull. Seances Soc. Roy. Malac. Belg., 
vol. xxxiv (1899), p. Iv, fig. 3. 
Hab. — Congo Free State : Nseudwe. 

29. Stkeptaxis Kibweziensis, Smith. 

Streptaxis Kibweziensis, Smith : Proc. Malac. Soc, vol. i (1894), 
p. 165, fig. 1 ; Mart., Deutsch. Ost-Afr., vol. iv (1897), p. 31. 
Hab. — British East Africa : Kibwezi, Mt. Kenia. 

30. Steeptaxis Mamboiensis, Smith. 

Streptaxis Mamboiemis, Smith : Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. vi, vol. vi 
(1890), p. 160, pi. vi, fig. 1; Mart., Deutsch. Ost-Afr., vol. iv 
(1897), p. 31. 
Sab. — German East Africa : Mamboya ; TJsambara. 

31. Steeptaxis enneoides, Martens. 

Streptaxis enneoides, Mart. : Mon. Ber. k. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, 
1878, p. 295, pi. ii, figs. 5, 6 ; Tryon, Man. Conch., ser. ii, vol. i 
(1885), p. 71, pi. xvi, fig. 5 : Mart., Deutsch. Ost-Afi'., vol. iv 
(1897), p. 31, pi. ii, fig. 29. 

Marconia enneoides, Bourg. : Moll. Afr. equat., 1889, p. 137. 

ITah. — British East Africa : Ukamba ; Taveta. German East Africa : 

Kilima-njaro ; Usagara ; TJgogo ; Ukimbo. 

32. Steeptaxis BoTTEGOi.Martens. 

Streptaxis Bottegoi, Mart. : Ann. Mus. Civ. Genova, ser. ii, vol. xv 
(1895), p. 63 ; id., Deutsch. Ost-Afr., vol. iv (1897), p. 31, pi. ii, 
fig. 28. 
Hab. — SomaU : Giuba. 

33. Steeptaxis Bloyeti, Bourguignat. 
Gonaxis Bloijeti, Bourg. : Moll. Afi". equat., 1889, p. 134, pi. vii, 

figs. 1-3. 
Streptaxis Bloyeti, Mart. : Deutsch. Ost-Afr., vol. iv (1897), p. 31, 

Hab. — East Africa : between Usagara and Ugogo. 



GTJDE : ON THE GENUS STREPTAXIS AND ITS ALLIES. 211 

34. SxREPTAxis PFSiLLUS, Martens. 

Streptaxis pusillus, Mart. : Deutsch. Ost-Afr., vol. iv (1897), p. 32, 
pi. ii, fig. 31. 
Mab. — German East Afi-ica : Bukendo. 

35. Streptaxis Johnstoni, Smith. 

Streptaxis Johnstoni, Smith : Proc. Zool. Sec, 1899, p. 581, pi. xxxiii, 
figs. 5, 6. 
Mah. — ^British Central Airica : Nyika Range ; Zomba Plateau. 

36. Streptaxis brevicitltts, Smith. 

Gibhus (Gonidomus) hreviculus. Smith : Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. vi, 

vol. vi (1890), p. 161, pi. vi, fig. 3. 
Ennea (?) brevicula, Mart. : Deutsch. Ost-Afr., vol. iv (1897), p. 15. 
Mah. — East Africa : Usagara. 

37. Streptaxis denticulatus, Dohrn. 

Streptaxis denticulatus, Dohrn : Jahrb. Deutsch, Malak. Ges., vol. v 
(1878), p. 152. 
Hab. — British East Africa : Mombasa. 

38. Streptaxis ordinarius, Smith. 

Streptaxis ordinarius, Smith : Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. vi, vol. vi 
(1890), p. 160, pi. vi, figs. 2, 3 ; Mart., Deutsch. Ost-Afr., vol. iv 
(1897), pp. 32, 296. 
jffab. — German East Africa : Mamboya ; between Ukuledi and 

Umbekuru. Zanzibar : Kokotoni. 

39. Streptaxis Mozambicensis, Smith. 

Streptaxis Mozambicensis, Smith : Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. v, vol. vi 
(1880), p. 429; id., Proc. Zool. Soc, 1881, p. 280, pi. xxxii, 
fig. 6 ; Tryon, Man. Conch., ser. ii, vol. i (1885), p. 70, pi. xiv, 
figs. 87, 88 ; Mart., Deutsch. Ost Afr., vol. iv (1889), p. 32. 

Gonaxis Mozambicensis, Bourg. : Moll. Afr. equat., 1889, p. 133. 
Hab. — British East Africa : between Lake Nyassa and the East Coast. 

Subsection 2. Bente parietali mtmitce. 
Pfr. : Mon. Helic, vol. iv (1859), p. 328. 

40. Streptaxis ovatus, Pfeiffer. 

Streptaxis ovata, Pfr. : in Phil., Abbild. & Beschr., vol. ii (1845), p. 8 ; 

vol. ii (1846), p. 128, Belix, pi. viii, fig. 4 ; id., Mon. Helic, 

vol. i (1848), p. 7 ; id., Chemn. Conch. Cab., 2nd ed.. Helix, 

vol. ii (1853), p. 20, pi. cii. figs. 7-9. 
Streptaxis ovatus, Pfr.: Mon. Helic, vol. v (1868), p. 441 ; Tiyon, 

Man. Conch., ser. ii, vol. i (1885), p. 71, pi. xiv, figs. 92, 93. 
Gonaxis ovatus, Bourg. : Moll. Afr. equat., 1889, p. 133. 
Hab. — ? (Gaboon, Bourg.). 



212 PEOCEEDINGS OF THE MALACOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

41. Stkeptaxis deflexus, Souleyet. 
Helix deflexa, Soul. : Voyage Bonite, Zool., vol. ii (1852), p. 506, 
pi. xxviii, figs. 30, '31 ; M. E. Gray, Fig. Moll. Anim., vol. iii 
(1859), pi. cclxxxix, fig. 3. 
Streptaxis deflexa, Pfr. : Mon. Helic, vol. iv (1859), p. 331, 
Streptaxis deflexus, Pfr. : Mon. Helic, vol. v (1868), p. 441 ; Tryon, 
Man. Conch., ser, ii. vol. i (1885), p. 71, pi. xiv, figs. 95, 96; 
Mullcndorfe, Nachr. Blatt. Deutsch. Malak. Ges., 1898, p. 66. 
Hab. — Aunam : Touranne. 

42. Streptaxis solidulus, Stoliczka. 
Streptaxis solidulus, Stol. : Journ. Asiat. See. Beng., 1871, p. 166, 
pi. vii, fig. 10; Pfr., Mon. Helic, vol. vii (1876), p. 493; 
Hanley & Theob., Concli. Ind., 1879, pi. xcviii, fig. 7; Nevill, 
Hand-List Ind. Mus., vol. i (1878), p. 3; Tryon, Man. Conch., 
ser. II, vol. i (1885), p. 71, pi. xiv, fig. 99. 
Hab. — Burma: Moulmain (Stol.) ; Pathingtoung (Nevill). 

43. Streptaxis Fischeri, Morlet. 
Streptaxis Fischeri, Morlet : Moll. Tonkin, 1886, p. 2 ; id., Journ. de 
Conch., 1886, p. 274, pi. xii, fig. 1 ; Mabille, Bull. Soc. Malac. 
Fr., vol. iv (1887), p. 128. 
iZ«i.— Tonkin. 

44. Streptaxis Thebawi, Godwin-Austen. 
Streptaxis Thehawi, G.-A. : Proc. Zool. Soc, 1888, p. 243. 
Ual. — Burma : Pingoung. 

45. Streptaxis pellucens, Pfeiffer. 
Streptaxis pellucens, Pfr.: Proc Zool. Soc, 1862, p. 273, pi. xxxvi, 
fig. 6; Mouhot's Travels, vol. ii (1864\ plate, fig. 6; Mart., 
Ost-Asien, Zool., vol. ii (1867), p. 85 ; Pfr., Nov. Conch., 
vol. iv (1871), p. 29, pi. cxv, figs. 11, 12; Tryon, Man. Conch., 
ser. II, vol. i (1885), p. 71, pi. xiv, figs. 98-100; Ancey, Bull. 
Mus. Marseille, vol. i (1899), p. 126, pi. ix, fig. A. 
Gonaxis pellucens, Bourg. : Moll. Afr. equat., 1889, p. 133. 
Hab. — Laos (Mouliot) ; Luang Prabang (Ancey) ; Siam (Pfr.). 

Aba. Var. major, Morlet. 
Streptaxis pellucens, var. major, Morlet: Journ. de Conch., 1883, 
p. 105, pi. iv, fig. 2. 
.Sr^i.— Cambodia : Elephant and Day Crahom Mountains, Mekong. 

46. Streptaxis Michaui, Crosse & Fischer. 
Unnea Michaui, Crosse & Fisch. : Journ. de Conch., 1863, p. 270, 

pi. X fi"'. 4. 
Streptaxis Michaui, Pfr. : Mon. Helic, vol. v (1868), p. 443; Tryon, 
Man. Conch., ser. ii, vol. i (1885), p. 72, pi. xiv, figs. 7, 8 ; 
Tenison-Woods, Proc. Linn. Soc. New South Wales, ser. ii, vol. iii 
(1888), p. 1009. 
Oophana Michaui, Ancey: Le Naturaliste, vol. vi (1884), p. 508. 
Hab. — Poulo Condor. 



GtTDE : ON THE GENUS STEEPTAXIS AND ITS ALLIES. 213 

47. Steeptaxis exacuttjs, Gould. 
Streptaxis exacutus, Gould : Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., vol. vi (1856), 

p. 13; id., Otia Conch., 1862, p. 220; Pfr., Mon. Helic, vol. v 

(1868), p. 442 ; id., Nov. Conch., vol. iv (1871), p. 30, pi. cxv, 

figs. 13, 14; Nevill, Hand-List Ind. Mus., vol. i (1878), p. 3; 

Tryon, Man. Conch, ser. ir, vol. i (1885), p. 72, pi. xiv, 

figs. 11, 12. 
Streptaxis exacuta, Pfr.: Malak. Blatt., vol. iii (1856), p. 258; id., 

Mon. Helic, vol. iv (1859), p. 331; Hanley & Theob., Conch. 

Ind., 1879, pi. xcviii, figs. 8-10. 
Goniaxis exacutus, Bourg. : Moll. Afr. equat., 1889, p. 133. 
Hah. — Burma : Moulmain (Gould). 

48. Stkeptaxis mirieicus, Mollendorff. 

Streptaxis mirificus, MUdff. : Proc. Zool. Soc, 1894, p. 147, pi. xvi, 
figs. 1, 2. 
Hah. — Samui Islands, Gulf of Siam. 

49. Streptaxis Sankexi, Benson, 

Streptaxis Sankeiji, Bens. : Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. m, vol, iii 
(1859), p. 472 ; Pfr., Mon. Helic, vol. v (1868), p. 442; Nevill, 
Hand-List Ind. Mus., vol. i (1878), p. 3; Hanley & Theob., 
Conch. Ind., 1879, pi. viii, fig. 7 ; Tryon, Man. Conch., ser. ii, 
vol. i (1885), p. 72, pi. xiv, figs. 2, 3. 

Streptaxis Sanheyanus, Stol. : Journ. Asiat. Soc. Beng., 1871, pt. 2, 
p. 167, pi. vii, fig. 14. 
Hah. — Burma: Moulmain (Bens.) ; Tenasserim (Nevill). 

50. Streptaxis Hanletanus, Stoliczka. 

Streptaxis Hanleyanus, Stol. : Journ. Asiat. Soc. Beng., 1871, p. 168, 
pi. vii, fig. 15 ; Pfr., Mon. Helic, vol. vii (1876), p. 494 ; Nevill, 
Hand-List Ind. Mus., vol. i (1878), p. 3; Tryon, Man. Conch., 
ser. II, vol. i (1885), p. 72, pi. xiv, figs. 9, 10. 
Hah. — Burma: Moulmain (Stol.); Pakoungtoung (Nevill). 

51. Streptaxis Sinensis, Gould. 

Streptaxis Sinensis, Gould : Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., vol. vi 
(1859), p. 424 ; id., Otia Conch., 1862, p. 103 ; Mart., Ost-Asien, 
ZooL, vol. ii (1867), p. 57 ; Pfr., Mon. Helic, vol. v (1868), p. 445 ; 
Eastlake, Proc. Acad. Philad., 1882, p. 235; Mlldff., Jahrb. 
Deutsch. Malak. Gas., voL x (1883), p. 272, pi. x, fig, 7 ; Tryon, 
Man. Conch., ser. ii, vol. i (1885), p. 73, pi. xv, figs. 32, 33. 

Streptaxis erythroceros, MUdfF. : Jahrb. Deutsch. Malak. Ges., vol. viii 
(1881), p. 311. 
Hah. — China : Hongkong (Gould) ; Kwan-tung (Mlldlf.). 

b\a, h, c. Vars. media, attenuata, and nana, Mlldff, 

Streptaxis Sinensis, vars. medius, attenuatus, and nanus, Mlldff. : Jahrb. 
Deutsch. Malak. Ges., voL x (1883), p. 273. 



214 PEOCEEDINGS OF THE MALACOLOGICAL SOCIETT. 

51d. Var. Bavati, Ancey. 

Streptaxis Sinensis, var. Bavayi, Ancey : Bull. Mus. Marseille, vol. i 
(1898), p. 127, footnote. 
Hab. — Tonkin : Viinbu. 

52. Streptaxis Collingei, Sykes. 
Streptaxis Collingei, Sykes: Journ. Malac, vol. ix (1902), p. 22, 

pi. iii, fifjs. 8-10. 
Streptaxis (Discartemon) Collingei, Mlldff. : Nachr. Blatt. Deutsch. 
Malak. Ges., 1902, p. 136. 
Hab. — Malay Peninsula : Kelantan. 

53. Streptaxis Souleyetianus, Petit. 
Helix Soxdeyctiana, Petit: Rev. ZooL, 1841, p. 99; Desh., in Fer., 

Hist., 1851, p. 393, pi. xcv, fig. 2 ; Chenu, Man. de Concli., 1859, 

p. 450, fig. 3357. 
Streptaxis SouUyetiana, Pfr. : Symb., vol. ii (1842), p. 110; Phil., 

Abbild. & Beschr., vol. i (1843), p. 48; vol. ii (1846), p. 130, 

Eelix, pi. viii, fig. 6; Pfr., Mon. Helic, vol. i (1848), p. 8; id., 

Chemn. Conch. Cab., 2nd ed.. Helix, vol. ii (1853), p. 20, pi. cii, 

figs. 21-23. 
Streptaxis Souleyetiamis, Pfr.: Mon. Helic, vol. v (1868), p. 443; 

id., Proc. Zool. Soc, 1868, p. 260 ; Nevill, Hand-List Ind. Mus., 

vol. i (1878), p. 4; Tryon, Man. Conch., ser. ii, vol. i (1885), 

p. 73, pi. xiv, figs. 4-6. 
Streptaxis {Eustreptaxis) Souleyetiamis, Mart. : Mittl. Mus. Berlin, 

vol. i (1898), p. 10, pi. ii, figs. 2-4; Wiegm., ib., p. 46 (anat.). 
Hab. — Seychelles : Mahe, Praslin, Silhouette (Mart.). 

54. Streptaxis Camerunensis, D'Ailly. 
Streptaxis Camerunensis, D'Ailly : Bihang k. Svensk. Akad. Handl., 
vol. XX (1896), No. 2, p. 5, pi. i, figs. 1-5. 
Hah. — Cameroons : Bonge; Bibundi. 

55. Streptaxis costulattts, MollendorflP. 
Streptaxis costulatus, Mlldff. : Jahrb. Dcutsch. Malak. Ges., 1881, 
p. 312; 1883, p. 275, pi. x, fig. 8 ; Tryon, Man. Conch., ser. u, 
vol. i (1885), p. 73, pi. XV, figs. 27, 28^. 
Hah. — China : Kwan-tung. 

55«. Var. subcostulata, Mullendorff. 
Streptaxis costulatus, subsp. suhcostulatus, Mlldff. : Nachr. Blatt. 
Deutsch. Malak. Ges., 1901, p. 65. 
Hab. — Tonkin : Lang-son ; Than-moi. 

56. Streptaxis comboides, Orbigny. 

Helix comboides. Orb. : Mag. ZooL, vol. v (1835), Moll., p. 3; id.. 
Voyage Amer. merid., 1837, p. 233, pi. xxiii, figs. 14-18; Chenu, 
Man. de Conch., 1859, p. 450, fig. 3359; p. 451, fig. 3360. 

Artemon comboides, Beck: Index, 1838, p. 48. 



GTTDE : OX THE GENUS STREPTAXIS AND ITS ALLIES. 215 

Streptaxis comhoides, Gray: Mag. Nat. Hist., n.s., vol. i (1837), 
p. 484; Phil, Abbild. & Beschr., Yol. ii (1846), p. 129, Selix, 
pi. viii, fig. 10; Pfr., Mon. Helic, vol. i (1848), p. 8; id., 
Chemn. Conch. Cab., 2nd ed., Helix, vol. ii (1853), p. 21, pi. cii, 
figs. 13-16; Tryou, Struct. Syst. Conch., vol. iii (1884), pi. xcii, 
fig. 56 ; id., Man. Conch., ser. ii, vol. i (1885), p. 73, pi. xv, 
figs. 34-36 ; Ancey, Jonrn. Conch., vol. vii (1892), p. 90 ; Mart., 
Sitz. Ber. Ges. Naturf. Berlin, 1895, p. 33 ; Paravicini, Boll. Mus. 
Torino, vol. ix (1894), No. 181, p. 1. 

Gonaxis comhoides, Bourg. : Moll. Afr. equat., 1889, p. 133. 
Hah. — Bolivia: Prov. Chiquito (Orb.). Brazil: Matto Grosso 

(Ancey). Paraguay : Eio Apa (Paravicini). 

b^a. Yar. elata, Moricand. 

Helix comhoides, var. elata, Moric. : Mem. Soc. phys. Geneve, vol. xi 
(1846), p. 155. 
Hah. — Brazil : Bahia. 

57. Stkeptaxis diespitee, J. Mabille. 

Streptaxis diespiter, Mab. : Bull. Soc. Malac. Fr., vol. iv (1887), 
p. 127, pi. iii, figs. 7, 8. 
Hah.— Tonkin. 

58. Streptaxis Fagoti, J. Mabille. 

Streptaxis Fagoti, Mab. : Bull, Soc. Malac. Fr., vol. iv (1887), p. 130, 
pi. iv, figs. 7, 8. 
Hah. — Tonkin. 

59. Streptaxis Anceti, J. Mabille. PI. IV, Figs. 13-15. 
Streptaxis Anceyi, Mab, : Bull. Soc. Malac. Fr., vol, iv (1887), p, 128. 
J?ff5.— Tonkin. 
Illustrations from specimens in the British Museum. 

60. Stkeptaxis boeealis, Heude. 

Streptaxis horealis, Heude : Moll. terr. Fleuve Bleu, pt. i (1882), 
p. 79, pi. xviii, fig. 26 ; MlldfP., Jahrb. Deutsch. Malak. Ges., 
1883, p. 274 ; Tryon, Man. Conch., ser. ii, vol. i (1885), p. 73, 
pi. XV, figs. 19-21. 
Hah. — China : Ngan-whei. 

61. Stkeptaxis Celebicus, P. & F. Sarasin. 

Streptaxis Celehieus, Sarasin : Land-Moll, Celebes, 1899, p. 221, 
pi. xxvi, fig. 273. 
Hah. — North Celebes : Lokon Volcano. 

62. Stkeptaxis occroENTALis, Heude, 

Streptaxis occidentalis, Heude: Moll. terr. Fleuve Bleu, pt. ii (1885), 
p. 118, pi. xxx, fig. 23. 
Hah. — China: Fong-siang, 

yOL. V. — OCTOBER, 1902. 15 



216 PROCEEDEN'GS OF THE SIALACOLOGICAL SOCIETr. 

63. Steeptaxis orientalts, Heiide. 

Streptaxin orientalis, Heude : Moll. ten*. Fleuve Bleu, pt. ii (1885), 
p. 118, pi. XXX, fig. 22. 
JETab. — China. 

64. Steeptaxis Doeki, Dautzenberg. 

Streptaxis {Eustreptaxis) Borri, Dautz. : Journ. de Conch., 1893, 
p. 160, pi. vii, fig. 3. 
nah. — Tonkin : Haiphong. 

65. Steeptaxis Petiti, Gould. 
Streptaxis Petiti, Gould : Boston Journ. Nat. Hist., vol. iv (1844), 
p. 456, pi. xxiv. fig. 7 ; Phil., Abbild. & Bcschr., toI. ii (1846), 
p. 130, Helix, pi. viii, fig. 11 ; Pfr., Mon. Helic, vol. i (1848), 
p. 8; id., Chemn. Conch. Cab., 2nd ed., Helix, vol. ii (1853), 
p. 21, pi. ciii, figs. 8-11 ; Gould, Otia Couch.. 1862, p. 183; 
Nevill, Hand-List Ind. Mus., vol. i (1878), p. 3 ; Hanley & Theob., 
Conch. Ind., 1879, pi. viii, fig. 4; Tryon, Man. Conch., ser. ii, 
vol. i (1885), p. 74, pi. xiv, figs. 16-18. 
Eah. — Burma: Tavoy (Gould) ; Tenasserim (Nevill). 

66. Streptaxis glaber, PfeiflFer. 
Streptaxis glabra, Pfr.: Proc. Zool. Soc, 1849, p. 126; id., Chemn. 

Conch. Cab., 2nd ed.. Helix, vol. ii (1853\ p. 21, pi. cxxiv, 

figs. 4-7 ; id., Mon. Helic, vol. iii (1853), p. 287 ; vol. iv (1859), 

p. 332. 
Streptaxis glaler, Pfr.: Mon. Helic, vol. v (1868), p. 445 ; Tryon, 

Man. Conch., ser. ii, vol. i (1885), p. 74, pi. xv, figs. 24-26. 
Gonaxis glaber, Bourg. : Moll. Afr. equat., 1889, p. 133. 

Hab. — Venezuela : Puerto Cabello (Pfr.)* British Guiana : 
Demerara (Pfr.). 

67. Streptaxis deformis, Ferussac. 

Helix deformis, Per. : Prod., 1821, p. 30, No. 42 ; Hist., vol. i (1850), 
pi. xxxii A, fig. 1 ; Wood, Index, Suppl., 1828, pi. vii, fig. 40. 

Artemon deformis. Beck: Index, 1838, p. 48. 

Streptaxis deformis, Gray : IMag. Nat. Hist., N.s., vol. i (1837), 
p. 484; Chenu, Man. de Conch., 1859, p. 451, fig. 3362 ; Pfr., 
Mon. Helic, vol. iv (1859), p. 332; Guppy, Ann. & Mag. Nat. 
Hist., ser. iii, vol. xvii (1866\ p. 53 ; Bland, Amer. Journ. 
Conch., vol. iv (1869), p. 182 ; Mart., Binnen-Moll. Yenezuela's, 
1873, p. 165; Tryon, Struct. Syst. Conch., vol. iii (1884), 
pi. xcii, fig. 57; id., Man. Conch., ser. ii, vol. i (1885), p. 74, 
pi. xxvii, fig. 10 ; Quelch, Timehri, n.s., vol. iv (1890), p. 37; 
Smith & Feilden. Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. vi, vol. viii (1891), 
p. 251 ; Smith, Jouni. Conch., vol. ix (1898), pp. 27, 29, figs. 5, 
6 (juv.). 
Hab. — Tenezuela: Caracas (Mart.). Dutch Guiana : Surinam (Pfi\). 

British Guiana : Demerara (Quelch). Trinidad : Cotoras and other 

islands in Gulf of Paria (Bland). Barbados (Smith & Feilden). 



GUDE : ON THE GENUS STREPTAXIS AND ITS ALLIES. 217 

68, Steeptaxis normalis, Jousseaume. 

Streptaxis normalis, Jouss. : Mem. Soc. zool. Fr., vol. ii (1889), 
p. 247, pi. ix, figs. 19-21. 
Hah. — Venezuela : Valencia ; San Sebastian. 

69. Streptaxis Pfeifeeei, Zelebor. 

Streptaxis Pfeifferi, Zel. : Verh. zool. bot. Ges. Wien, vol. xvii 
(1867), p. 806; vol. xix (1869), p. 875; Pfr., Mon. Helic, 
vol. V (1868), p. 444 ; Tryon, Man. Conch., ser. ii, vol. i 
(1885), p. 74, pi. xiv, fig. 13. 

Streptaxis Pfeijferianus, Stol. : Journ. Asiat, Soc. Beng., vol. xl, pt. 2 
(1871), p. 161, pi. viii, fig. 6. 
Bab. — Mcobar Group : Camorta. 

69a. Var. pumilio, Morch, 

Journ. de Conch., 1876, p. 359 ; Nevill, Hand-List Ind. Mus., 
vol. i (1878), p. 2. 
Sab. — Nicobar : Camorta (Morch). 

695. Var. minor, Mtirch. 

Journ. de Conch., 1876, p. 359; l^evill, Hand-List Ind. Mus., vol. i 
(1878), p. 2; Godw.-Aust., Proc. Zool. Soc, 1895, p. 443. 
Hah. — Nicobar : Teressa, Katchal (Morch) ; Car Nicobar (Nevill). 
Andaman Group : Little Andaman (G.-A.). 

To. Streptaxis Foetunei, Pfeiffer. 

Streptaxis Fortunei, Pfr.: Proc. ZooL Soc, 1854, p. 149; id., Mon. 
Helic, vol. iv (1859), p. 332. 
Hab. — China : Shanghai. 

71. Streptaxis poerectus, Pfeiffer. 

Streptaxis porrectus, Pfr.: Proc. Zool. Soc, 1862, p. 273; Mart., 

Ost-Asien, Zool., voL ii (1867), p. 85 ; Pfr., Mon. Helic, vol. v 

(1868), p. 442; Ancey, Bull. Mus. Marseille, vol. i (1899), 

p. 127. 

Hab. — Cambodia (Pfr.) ; Siam (Mart.). Laos : Louang Prabang 

(Ancey). 

72. Streptaxis Maugee^, Gray. 

Streptaxis Mauqerce, Gray: Mag. Nat. Hist., n.s., vol. i (1837), 
p. 486, figs. 60c, 60(^; Phil., Abbild. & Beschr., vol. i (1843), 
p. 48; Pfr., Mon. Helic, vol. i (1848), p. 8; Morelet, Voyage 
Welwitsch, 1868, p. 45. 
Hab. — Sierra Leone (Gray) ; Guinea (Morel.). 

73. Steeptaxis elongatus, Fulton. 

Streptaxis elongatus, Fulton: Proc. Malac. Soc, vol. iii (1899), 
p. 302, fig. 2. 
Hab.—'i [? East Afi-ica]. 



218 TROCEEDINGS OF THE MALACOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

74. Streptaxis sinuosus, Pfeiffer. PL IV, Figs. 10-12. 

Streptaxis simiosa, Pfr. : Proc. Zool. Soc, 1861, p. 23; id., Malak. 

Bliitt., vol. vii (1861), p. 239. 
Streptaxis shuiosus, Pfr. : Men. Hclic, vol. v (1868), p. 443. 

Hab. — Cochin China. 

The illustrations from tlie types in the British Museum. 

75. Streptaxis Schweitzeri, Dohrn. 

Streptaxis Schweitzeri, Dohrn : Jahrb. Deutsch. Malak. Ges., 1878, 
p. 153. 
ITab. — Liberia. 

Subsection 3. Odontartemon, Pferffer. 

Malak. Bliitt., vol. ii (1856), p. 172. (Pariete aperturali et peristomate 
armatis: a, Ovatoe. Pfr. : Mon. Helic, vol. iv, 1859, p. 328.) 

76. Streptaxis decipiens, Crosse. 

Streptaxis decipiens, Crosse: Journ. de Conch., 1865, p. 228; 1867, 
p. 202, pi. V, fig. 4; Pfr., Mon. Hclic, vol. v (1868), p. 445; 
Tryon, Man. Conch., ser. ii, vol. i (1885), p. 75, pi. xv, fig. 44; 
Ancey, Journ. Conch., vol. vii (1892), p. 90. 
Mai. — Chili (Crosse). Brazil: prov. Matto Grosso (Ancey). 

77. Streptaxis Burmanicus, "W. T. Blanford. 

Streptaxis Burmanicus, W. T. Blanf. : Journ. Asiat. Soc. Beng., 1865, 

pt. ii, p. 81 ; Stoliczka, op. cit., 1871, p. 163, pi. vii, figs. 5-7; 

Pfi'., Mon. Helic. vol. v (1868), p. 444; Nevill, Hand-List Ind. 

Mus., vol. i (1878), p. 2 ; Tryon, Man. Conch., ser. ii, vol. i 

(1885), p. 75, pL xiv, fig. 14. 
Streptaxis Birmanica, Hanley & Theob. : Conch. Ind., 1876, p. 4, 

pi. viii, fig. 10 (not fig. 5 as cited). 
Mah. — Buima : Arracan, Toongoop (Blanf.), Rangoon. 

78. Streptaxis bombax, Benson. 

Melix homhax, Bens. : Ann. & Mag. JS'at. Hist., ser. iii, vol. iii (1859), 

p. 186; Mart., Malak. Blatt., vol. vi (1859), p. 6; Pfr., Mon. 

Helic, vol. V (1868), p. 151. 
Streptaxis, junior, Stoliczka : Joum. Asiat. Soc. Bong., 1871, p. 167; 

Pfr., Mon. Helic, vol. vii (1876), p. 159. 
Streptaxis hombax, Hanley & Theob. : Conch. Ind., 1870, pi. xxxi, 

figs. 1, 4 (juv.); 1875, pi. clvi, fig. 9; Theob., Journ. Asiat. 

Soc. Beng., 1876, p. 187, pi. xiv, fig. 6. 
Hab. — Burma: Moulmain. 

79. Streptaxis lm\is, W. T. Blanford. 

Streptaxis Im-is, W. T. Blanf. : Proc. Zool. Soc, 1899, p. 765, pi. 1, 
figs. 11, 12. 
Hab. — Burma : Tenasserim. 



GTJDE : ON THE GEN0S STUEPTAXIS AND ITS AXIIES. 219 

80. Steeptaxis Teoberti, Petit. 

Helix Troherti, Petit: Rev. Zool., 1841, p. 100. 

Streptaxis Troherti, Pfr. : Symb., vol. ii (1842), p. 110; id., Mon. 
Helic, vol. i (1848), p. 10 ; Morelet, Voyage Welwitsch, 1868, 
p. 58, pi. i, fig. 6; Tryon, Man. Conch., ser. ii, vol. i (1885), 
p. 75, pi. XV, fig. 57 ; Ancey, Bull. Soc. Malac. Fr., vol. v (1888), 
p. 66. 

Lamelliger Troherti, Ancey: Le Naturaliste, vol. vi (1884), p. 508. 

Gonaxis Trolerti, Bourg. : Moll. Afr. equat., 1889, p. 133. 

Hah. — Sierra Leone : Fourecariali (Ancey). Angola : Golungo-alta 

(Morel.). Guinea (Petit). 

81. Steeptaxis ANDAiiANictrs, Benson. 

Streptaxis Andamanica, Bens. : Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. m, vol. vi 

(1860), p. 192; Hanley & Theob., Conch. Ind., 1876, p. 4, 

pi. viii, fig. 6. 
Streptaxis Andamamcus, Pfr.: Mon. Helic, vol. v (1868), p. 444; 

Nevill, Hand-List Ind. Mus., vol. i (1878), p. 2; Tryon, Man. 

Conch., ser. ii, vol. i (1885), p. 75, pi. xiv, figs. 1, 15 ; Godw.- 

Aust., Proc. Zool. Soc, 1895, p. 443. 
Hah. — Andaman Group : Great Cocos, Little Cocos (Nevill). South 
Andaman: Port Blair (G. -A.). 

82. Steeptaxis Blanfoedianus, Theobald. 

Streptaxis Blanfordianus, Theobald : Joum. Asiat. Soc. Beng., 1865, 
p. 245 ; Stoliczka, op. cit., 1871, p. 163, pi. vii, figs. 8, 9 ; Pfr., 
Mon. Helic, vol. vii (1876), p. 494 ; Tryon, Man. Conch., ser. ii, 
vol. i (1885), p. 75. pi. xv, figs. 22, 23; Godw.-Aust., Proc. 
Zool. Soc, 1895, p. 443. 

Streptaxis JBlanfordi, Hanley & Theob. : Conch. Ind., 1876, p. 4, 
pi. viii, fig. 5 (not fig. 10 as cited) ; Nevill, Hand-List Ind. 
Mus., vol. i (1878), p. 2. 
Hab. — Burma : Pegu ; Aracan (Nevill). Shan States (Nevill). 

Andaman Group: Cocos I., var. (G.-A.). 

83. Steeptaxis obtusus, Stoliczka. 

Streptaxis ohtusus, Stol. : Joum. Asiat. Soc. Beng., 1871, p. 166, 
pi. vii, figs. 11-13 (shell), pi. viii, figs. 1-4 (anat.) ; Pfr., Mon. 
Helic, vol. vii (1876), p. 495 ; Tryon, Man. Conch., ser. ii, vol. i 
(1885), p. 76, pi. XV, fig. 45. 
Hab. — Burma: Moulmain (Stol.). 

84. Steeptaxis Puchsianits, Gredler. 

Streptaxis Fuchsianus, Gredl. : Jahrb. Eeutsch. Malak. Ges., 1881, 
p. 16, pi. i, fig. 2 ; Heude, Moll. terr. Fleuve Bleu, pt. ii (1882), 
p. 78, pi. XX, fig. 30 ; Tryon, Man. Conch., ser. ii, vol. i (1885), 
p. 76, pi. XV, figs. 39, 40. 
Hab . — China : pro v. Hu-nan. 



220 PKOCEEDINGS OP THE MALACOLOGICAL SOCIETr. 

85. Streptaxis bidens, Mollenclorff. 

Strcptaxis hidens, Mlldfi. : Nachr. Blatt. Dcutsch. Malak. Ges., 1883, 
p. 67 ; id., Jahrb. Deutsch. Malak. Ges., 1883, p. 276, pi. x, fig. 9 ; 
Tryon, Man. Conch., ser. ii, vol. i (1885), p. 76, pi. xv, figs. 37, 38. 
Hab. — China : Island Hainan. 

86. Streptaxis teidens, Mollcndorff. 

Streptaxis tridens, Mlklff. : Nachr. Blatt. Deutsch. Malak. Ges., 1898, 
p. 67. 
JSab. — Annam : Boloven. 

87. Streptaxis distoetus, Jonas. 

Helix {Streptaxis) distorta, Jonas : in Phil., Abbild. & Beschr., vol. i 

(1843), p. 48, ITelix, pi. iii, fig. 3. 
Streptaxis distorta, Pfr. : Symb., vol. iii (1846), p. 52 ; id., Mon. Helic, 

vol. i (1848), p. 10; id., Chemn. Conch. Cab., 2nd ed., ITelix, 

vol. ii (1853), p. 23, pi. ciii, figs. 18-21. 
Streptaxis distortus, Pfr. : Mon. Helic, vol. v (1868), p. 447 ; Tryon, 

Man. Conch., ser. ii, vol. i (1885), p. 76, pi. xv, figs. 58-60. 
Oonaxis distortus, Bourg. : Moll. Afr. equat., 1889, p. 133. 
Hab. — Guinea (Jonas); Island Rodriguez (Pfr.). 

88. Streptaxis Peroteti, Petit. 

miix Peroteti, Petit: Rev. Zool., 1841, p. 100; Hanley & Theob., 

Conch. Ind., 1876, p. 40, pi. xcviii, figs. 5, 6. 
Helix {Streptaxis) Perroteti, Phil.: Abbild. & Beschr., vol. i (1843), 

p. 48. 
Streptaxis Perroteti, Pfr.: Symb., vol. ii (1842), p. 110; id., Mon, 

Helic, vol. i (1848), p. 9. 
Streptaxis Perrotteti, Pfr. : Mon. Helic, vol. iii (1853), p. 288 ; id., 

Chemn. Conch. Cab., 2nd ed.. Helix, vol. iii (1854), p. 394, 

pi. cxliii, figs. 29-31. 
Streptaxis Perotteti, Nevill : Hand-List Ind. Mus., vol. i (1878), 

p. 4; Tryon, Man. Conch., ser. ii, vol. i (1885), p. 76, pi. xv, 

figs. 68, 69. 
Hab. — India: Nilgherries (Petit) ; Ootacamund; Coonoor (Nov.) ; 
Anamullay Hills, var. (jSTevill). 

88a. Var. Footei, W. T. Blanford. 
Streptaxis Perroteti, var. Footei, Blanf. : Journ. Asiat. Soc. Beng., 

1861, p. 358, pi. ii, fig. 6. 
Streptaxis Footei, Pfr. : Mon. Helic, vol. v (1868), p. 448. 
Hab. — India: Patchamullay Hills (Blanf.). 

89. Streptaxis "Watsoni, W. T. Blanford. 
Streptaxis Watsoni, Blanf. : Journ. Asiat. Soc. Beng., 1860, p. 126; 
Pfr., Mon. Helic, vol. v (1868), p. 447; Hanley & Theob., 
Conch. Ind., 1876, pi. viii, fig. 8 ; Nevill, Hand-List Ind. 
Mus., vol. i (1878), p. 4 ; Tryon, Man. Conch., ser. ii, vol. i 
(1885), p. 77, pi. XV, fig. 64. 
Hah. — India : Koondali Hills, Nilgherries (Blanf.). Sispara ; var. 
Ootacamund ; var. Wynaad (Nevill). 



GTJDE : ON THE GENUS STREPTAXIS AND ITS ALLIES. 221 

90. Steeptaxis aberbatus, Souleyet. 

M'elix aherrata (Soul.), Petit: Rev. ZooL, 1841, p. 101; Souleyet, 

Voyage Bonite, ZooL, vol. ii (1853), p. 505, pi. xsviii, figs. 32-34; 

M. E. Gray, Figs. Moll. Anim., vol. iii (1859), pi. cclxxxix, 

fig. 4. 
Sireptaxis aherrata, Pfr. : Symb., vol. ii (1842), p. 109 ; Phil., 

AbbUd. & Beschr., vol. i (1843), p. 49; vol. ii (1846), p. 129, 

miix, pi. viii, fig. 7; Pfr., Mon. Helic, vol. i (1848), p. 10; 

id., Chemn. Conch. Cab., 2nd ed., Helix, vol. i (1853), p. 24, 

pi. cii, figs. 27-30. 
Streptaxis alerratus, Pfr.: Mon. Helic, vol. v (1868), p. 448; 

Tryon, Man. Conch., ser. ii, vol. i (1885), p. 77, pi. xv, 

figs. 65-67 ; Mlldff., Nachr. Blatt. Deutsch. Malak. Ges., 1898, 

p. 66. 
Gonaxis aherratus, Bourg. : Moll. Afr. equat., 1889, p. 133. 
Hah. — Annam : Touranne (Petit). 

91. Steeptaxis Theobaldi, Benson. 

Streptaxis Theohaldi, Bens. : Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. iii, vol. iii 
(1859), p. 187; Pfr., Malak. Blatt., vol. vi (1859), p. 35; id., 
Mon. Helic, vol. v (1868), p. 449; Hanley & Theob., Conch. 
Ind., 1876, pi. viii, fig. 9 ; Godw.-Aust., Journ. Asiat. Soc. 
Beng., 1876, pi. viii, fig. 15 ; Nevill, in Anderson, Zool. Res. 
Exped. Yunnan, vol. i (1878), p. 885 ; Tryon, Man. Conch., ser. ii, 
vol. i (1885), p. 77, pi. xvi, figs. 86 & 14. 
Hab. — India : Khasi Hills, Assam (Pfr.). Burma : Dikrang Yalley 

(G.-A.) ; Bhamo (Nevill). 

92. Streptaxis Daelaensis, Godwin-Austen. 

Streptaxis Daflaensis, Godw.-Aust. : Journ. Asiat. Soc. Beng., 1876, 
p. 317, pi. viii, fig. 14; Tryon, Man. Conch., ser. n, vol. i 
(1885), p. 77, pi. XV, figs. 74-76. 
jETai.— India : Dafla HUls (G.-A.). 

93. Streptaxis pyrieoemis, Pfeiffer. 

Streptaxis pyriformis, Pfr. : in Phil., Abbild. & Beschr., vol. ii (1845), 
p. 8 ; p. 129, Helix, pi. viii, fig. 8 ; id., Mon. Helic, vol. i (1848), 
p. 10; id., Chemn. Conch. Cab., 2nd ed.. Helix, vol. i (1853), 
p. 24, pi. cii, figs. 31-34 ; Tryon, Man. Conch., ser. ii, vol. i 
(1885), p. 77, pi. XV, figs. 61-63. 

Streptaxis piriformis, Pfr. : Mon. Helic, vol. iv (1859), p. 334. 
Hah. — Mascarene Islands : Rodriguez. 

94. Streptaxis Beddomei, "W. T. Blanford. 

Streptaxis Beddomei {l^exill, MS.), W. T. Blanf. : Proc. Zool. Soc, 1899, 
p. 765, pi. 1, figs. 4, 5. 
Hab. — India : Animalai Hills. 

dia. Var. major, Blanf. 
Streptaxis Beddomei, var. major, Blanf. : torn, cit., pi. 1, figs. 6, 7. 
Hab. — India : Tinnevelly Hills. 



222 PROCEEDINGS OF THE MALACOLOGICAL SOCIETr. 

95. Streptaxis scalptus, W. T. Blauford. 
Streptaxis scalptus, W. T. Elauf. : Proc. Zool. Soc, 1899, p. 706, pi. 1, 
figs. 8-10. 
Hab. — India : Salem ; Mysore. 

96. Streptaxis Cumingianus, Pfeiffer. 

Streptaxis Cnmingiana, Pfr. : Proc. Zool. Soc, 1849, p. 126 ; id., 
Chemn. Couch. Cab., 2nd ed., Helix, vol. i (1853), p. 23, pi. cxxiv, 
figs. 8-11 ; id., Mon. Helic, vol. iii (1853), p. 288. 

Streptaxis Cioningiatius, Pfr.: Mon. Helic, vol. v (1868), p. 447; 
Tiyon, Man. Conch., ser. ii, vol. i (1885), p. 78, pi. xv, figs. 54-56. 
Hah.'—? (? Brazil, Tryon). 

97. Streptaxis streptodon, Moricand. 

Helix (Streptaxis) streptodon, Moric : Journ. de Conch., 1851, p. 369, 

pi. X, tig. 1. 
Streptaxis streptodon, Pfr. : Mon. Helic, vol. iii (1853), p. 288 ; Tryon, 

Man. Conch., scr. ii, vol. i (1885), p. 78, pi. xv, figs. 52, 53. 
Hab. — Brazil : Bahia (Moric). 

98. Streptaxis dejectus, Petit. 
Helix {Streptaxis) dejecta, Petit: Rev. Zool., 1842, p. 176. 
Helix {Helicodonta) coinboides, var. £)-asiliensis, Moric : Mem. Soc. 

phys. Geneve, vol. vii (1836), p. 417 {dejecta, Moric, et 

CImiquitcnsis, Orb., olim). Moric. : torn, cit., p. 418. 
Helix coinboides, var. Brasiliensis, Moric : Mem. Soc. phys. Geneve, 

vol. xi (1846), p. 155. 
Streptaxis dejecta, Pfr. : Symb., vol. ii (1842), p. 110 ; Phil., Abbild. & 

Beschr., vol. ii (1845), p. 7, Helix, pi. vi, fig. 17; Pfr., Mon. 

Helic, vol. i (1848), p. 9; id., Chemn. Conch. Cab., 2nd ed.. 

Helix, vol. ii (1853), p. 22, pi. cii, figs. 17-20. 
Streptaxis dejectus, Pfr. : Mon. Helic, vol. v (1868), p. 447 ; G. Pfeffer, 

Jahrb. Deutsch. Malak. Ges., 1878, p. 70 (anat ) ; Tryon, Man. 

Conch., ser. ii, vol. i (1885), p. 78, pi. xv, figs. 47-49. 
Gonaxis dejectus, Bourg. : Moll. Afr. etpat., 1889, p. 133. 
Hah. — Brazil : Bahia. 

99. Streptaxis Latardianits, Benson. 

Streptaxis Layardiana, Bens.: Ann. & Mag. Kat. Hist., ser. ii, vol. xii 
(1853), p. 90; Pfr., Mon. Helic, vol. iv (1859), p. 332 ; Hanley & 
Theob., Conch. Ind., 1876, pi. xcviii, figs. 1, 4. 

Streptaxis Lai/ardianus, Pfr.: Mon. Helic, vol. v (1868), p. 445; 
Tryon, Man. Conch., ser. ii, vol. i (1885), p. 75, figs. 22, 23. 
Hah. — Ceylon. 

100. Streptaxis Cixgalexsis, Benson. 

Streptaxis Cingalensis, Bens. : Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. ii, vol. xii 
(1853), p. 91; Pfr., Mon. Helic, vol. iv( 1859), p. 333; Hanley & 
Theob., Conch. Ind., 1876, pi. xcviii, figs. 2, 3; Tryon, Man. 
Conch., ser. ii, vol. i (1885), p. 78, pi. xv, figs. 50, 51. 
Hab. — Ceylon. 



GUDE : ON THE GENUS STREPTAXIS AND ITS ALLIES. 223 

101. Streptaxis geacilis, 0. Collett. 
Sir eptaxis gracilis, 0. Collett: Proc. Malac. Soc, vol. iii (1898), p. 1, 
with 3 figures. 
Mab. — Ceylon : prov. Uva. 

102. Str?:ptaxis Ravan^, "W. T. Blanford. 
Streptaxis Ravance, W. T. Elanf. : Proc. Zool. Soc, 1899, p. 768, pi. 1, 
figs. 13-15. 
Hab. — Ceylon. 

103. Streptaxis Canakicijs, "W. T. Blanford. 
Streptaxis Canarica, W. T. Blanf. : Journ. Asiat. Soc. Beng., 1869, 
p. 142, pi. xvi, fig. 11; Hanley & Tiieob., Conch. Ind., 1876, 
pi. clvi, figs. 7, 8. 
Streptaxis Canaricus, Pfr. : Mon. Helic, vol. vii(1876), p. 497; Tryon, 
Man. Conch., ser. ir, vol. i (1885), p. 78, pi. xv, figs. 70-72. 
Hab. — India : prov. South Canara. 

104. Streptaxis stjbacutus, W. T. Blanford. 
Streptaxis subacutus,^. T.'R\.-<xn.i.: Proc. Zool. Soc, 1899, p. 767, 
pi. 1, figs. 1-3. 
Hal. — India : South Canara. 

105. Streptaxis Siamensis, Pfeiffer, 
Streptaxis Siamensis, Pfr. : Journ. de Conch., 1862, p. 42, pi. vi, 
fig. 3; Mart., Ost-Asien, Zool., vol. ii (1867), p. 85; Pfr., Mon. 
Helic, vol. V (1868), p. 449 ; Tryon, Man, Conch., ser. ii, vol. i 
(1885), p. 79, pi. XV, tig. 73. 
Hab. — Siam. 

105«. Var. depressa, Mollendorff. 
Streptaxis Siamensis, subsp. depressa, MUdff. : Proc. Zool. Soc, 1894, 
p. 146. 
Hab. — Island Samui, Gulf of Siam. 

106. Streptaxis pachtglottis, Mollendorff. 
Streptaxis pachj glottis, Mlldff. : Kachr. Blatt. Deutsch. Malak. Ges., 
1900, p. 118. 
Hab. — South Annam. 

107. Streptaxis diplodon, MollendorfP. PL IV, Figs. 19-21. 
Streptaxis diplodon, Mlldff. : Nachr. Blatt. Deutsch. Malak. Ges., 1900, 
p. 118; 1901, p. 45. 

Hab. — South Annam ; Island Baimin. (Illustrations from specimens 
in the British Museum.) 

108. Streptaxis the^cola, Heude. 
Streptaxis theacola, Heude: MoU. teiT. Fleuve Bleu, pt. iii (1890), 
p. 151, pi. XXXV, fig. 25. 
Hab. — China: Ou-yan. 



224 PEOCEEDINGS OF THE MAXA.COLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

109. SlllEPTAXIS SiMONIANUS, Houclc. 

Streptaxis Simomanus, Heude : Moll. terr. Fleure Bleu, pt. iii (1890), 
p. 151, pi. XXXV, fig. 26. 
Mab. — Cochin China : Tay Ninh. 

110. Streptaxis cristatellus, Mollendorff. 
Streptaxis ( Odontartemon) cristatellus, Mlldff . : Nachr. Blatt. Deutsch. 
Malak. Ges., 1901, p. 66. 
Sab. — Tonkin : Mauson Mountains. 

111. Streptaxis Heudei, Schmacker & Boettger. 
Streptaxis Heudei, S. & B. : Nachr. Blatt. Deutsch. Malak. Ges., 1891, 
p. 147, pi. i, fig. 1; Gude, Froc. Malac. Soc, vol. ii (1896), p. 23, 
fig. 2. 
Sab. — Formosa. 

112. Streptaxis paulus, Gude. 
Streptaxis paulus, Gude : Proc. Malac. Soc, vol. ii (1896), p. 23, fig. 1. 
Hab. — ? China. 

113. Streptaxis Deplajjchei, Drouet. 
Streptaxis Deplanchei, Drouet : Mem. Soc. Acad. Aube, vol. xxiii 
(1859). p. 352 (reprint p. 56), pi. i, figs. 6-9 ; Pfr., Mon. Helic, 
vol. V (1868), p. 450; Tryon, Man. Conch., ser. ii, vol. i (lH85), 
p. 79, pi. xvi, figs. 80-82. 
Gonaxis Deplanchei, Bourg. : Moll. Afr. equat., 1889, p. 133. 
Hab. — French Guiana : Ilet-la-Mere. 

114. Streptaxis concinnus, W. T. Blanford. 
Streptaxis coticimius, W. T. Blanf. : Journ. Asiat. Soc. Beng., 1880, 
p. 203, pi. ii, fig. 11 ; Tryon, Man. Conch., ser. ii, vol. i (1885), 
p. 79, pi. xvi, figs. 90-92. 
Hab. — India: Mysore. 

115. Streptaxis pronus, W. T. Blanford. 
Streptaxis pronus, W. T. Blanf.: Journ. Asiat. Soc. Beng., 1880, 
p. 204, pi. ii, fig. 12 ; Tryon, Man. Conch., ser. n, vol. i (1885), 
p. 79, pi. x\-i, figs. 93-95. 
Hab. — India : Tinnevelly, 

116. Streptaxis personatus, W. T. Blanford. 
Streptaxis personatus, W. T. Blanf. : in Theob., Cat. Brit. Ind., 1876, 

p. 33 (nom. nud.) ; W. T. Blanf., Journ. Asiat. Soc. Beng., 1880, 
p. 202, pi. ii, fig. 10; Tryon, Man. Conch., ser. ii, vol. i (1885), 
p. 80, pi. xvi, figs. 83-85. 
Hab. — India : Madura. 

117. Streptaxis compressus, W. T. Blanford. 
Streptaxis compressus, W. T. Blanf. : in Theob., Cat. Brit. Ind., 1876, 

p. 33 (nom. nud.) ; W. T. Blanf., Journ. Asiat. Soc. Beng., 1880, 
p. 201, pi. ii, fig. 13 ; Tryon, Man. Conch., ser. ii, vol. i (1885), 
p. 80, pi. xvi, figs. 96, 97, 100. 
Hab. — India: Tinnevelly. 



GITDE : ON THE GENUS STREPTAXIS AND ITS ALLIES. 225 

118. Streptaxis Dugasti, Morlet. 

Streptaxis Dugasti, Morlet : Journ. de Concli., 1892, pp. 82, 315, 
pi. vii, fig. 5. 
Hah.—Toukm. 

119. Steeptaxis Motjhoti, Pfeiffer. 

Streptaxis Mouhoti, Pfr. : Proc. Zool. Soc, 1862, p. 273; id., Mon. 

Helic, vol. V (1868), p. 446. 
Gonaxis Mouhoti, Bourg. : Moll. Afr. equat., 1889, p. 133. 

119«. Var. JoHswicfli, Martens. 

Streptaxis Johswichi, Mart. : Mon. Ber. Berl. Akad., 1864, p. 528. 
Streptaxis Mouhoti, Mart. : (not of Pfr.) Ost- Asian, Zool., vol. ii 

(1867), p. 84, pi. xxii, fig. 22 ; Tryon, Man. Conch., ser. n, vol. i 

(1885), p. 80, pi. XV, fig. 46. 
Streptaxis Mouhoti, var. Johswichi, Mart. : Zool. Pec, vol. i (1864), 

Moll., p. 224; Pfr., Mon. Helic, vol. v (1868), p. 446; vol. vii 

(1876), p. 496; P. Fischer, Bull. Soc. Hist. Nat. Autun, vol. iv 

(1891), p. 17. 
Sab. — Siam : Petshaburi. 

120. Steeptaxis bulbultts, Morelet. 

Ennea hulhulus, Morel.: Eev. Zool., 1862, p. 477; Crosse & Pisch., 

Journ. de Conch., 1863, p. 272, pi. x, fig. 3; p. 355, pi. xiv, 

fig. 5. 
Streptaxis hulhulus, Pfr. : Mon. Helic, vol. v (1868), p. 445 ; Tryon, 

Man. Conch., ser. ii, vol. i (1885), p. 80, pi. xv, figs. 41-43; 

Tenison- Woods, Proc. Linn. Soc. New South Wales, ser. ii, vol. iii 

(1888), p. 1009. 
Oophana hulhulus, Ancey : Le Nat., vol. vi (1884), p. 508. 
Streptaxis [OopJiana) hulhulus, Mlldff. : Proc. Zool. Soc, 1894, p. 148. 
Gonaxis hulhulus, Bourg. : Moll. Afr. equat., 1889, p. 133. 

Hah. — Pulo Condor (Morel.) ; Island of Samui, Gulf of Siam 
(MlldfP.). 

121. Streptaxis subbulbulcs, Mollendorff. PI. IV, Figs. 16-18. 

Streptaxis Siamensis, Pfr., subsp. suhhulhulus, MUdff. : Nachr. Blatt. 
Deutsch. Malak. Ges., 1902, p. 154. 
See also supra, p. 203. 
Hah. — Siam : Hinlap. 

122. Streptaxis strangulattts, Mollendorfi". 

Streptaxis {Oophana) strangulatus, Mlldff. : Proc. Zool. Soc, 1894, 
p. 148, pi. xvi, fig. 5. 
Hah. — Island of Samui, Gulf of Siam. 

123. Streptaxis Leonensis, Pfeiffer. PI. IV, Figs. 1-3. 
Streptaxis Leonensis, Pfr. : Mon. Helic, vol. iv (1859), p. 333. 
Hah. — Sierra Leone. 
The illustrations are from the types in the British Museum. 



226 rEOCEEDINGS OF THE MALACOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

124. Streptaxis eburneus, PfeifPer. PI. IV, Figs. 4-6. 
Streptaxis ehurnea, Pfr. : Proc. Zool. Soc, 1861, p. 23; id., Malak. 

Blatt., vol. vii (1861), p. 240. 
Streptaxis ehurneus, Pfr. : Mon. Helic, vol. v (1868), p. 447. 
JIah. — Cocliin China. 
The illustrations are from the types in the British Museum. 

125. Streptaxis Elisa, Gould. 
Streptaxis Elisa, Gld. : Proc. Post. Soc. Nat. Hist., vol. vi (1856), 
p. 13; id., Otia Conch., 1862, p. 220; Pfr., Mon. Helic, vol. v 
(1868), p. 448. 
Hub. — Mergui Archipelago. 

126. Streptaxis Roebelini, Mollendorff. 
Streptaxis Roehelini, Mlldff. : Proc. Zool. Soc, 1894, p. 147, pi. xvi, 

figs. 3, 4. 
Mab. — Island of Samui, Gulf of Siam. 

127. Streptaxis Plussensis, De Morgan. 

Streptaxis Plussensis, De Morgan : Bull. Soc zool. Prance, vol. x 
(1885), p. 371. pi. V, fig. 1. 
^«J.— Perak : Plus Valley, Mount Tchehel. 

128. Streptaxis pachychilus, Mollendorff. 
Streptaxis pachychilus, MUdjff. : Nachr. Blatt. Deutsch. Malak. Ges., 

1884, p. 171 ; id., Jahrb. Deutsch. Malak. Ges., 1885, p. 374. 
Hab. — China : Kwang-si. 

Section II. Discaetemon, Pfeiffer. 

Malak. Blatt., vol. ii (1856), p. 173. Pariete aperturali et peristomate 

armatis: b, discoideae. Mon. Helic, vol. iv (1859), p. 328. 
Shell discoidal or depressed, conoidal, volutions regular ; openly 
umbilicated ; aperture transverse, somewhat basal, outer lip refiected 
or expanded, thickened, and, together with the parietal wall, usually 
armed with teeth. Tryon : Man. Conch., ser. ii, vol. i (1885), p. 58. 

129. Streptaxis discus, Pfeiffer. 
Streptaxis discus, Pfr.: Proc. Zool. Soc, 1851, p. 252; id., Mon. 
Helic, vol. iii (1853), p. 289 ; id., Chemn. Conch. Cab., ser. ii, 
Helix, vol. iii (1854), p. 394, pi. cxlv, figs. 15-17 ; Tryon, Man. 
Conch., ser. ii, vol. i (1885), p. 66, pi. xvi, figs. 77-79. 
Biscartemon discus, Bourg. : Moll. Afr. equat., 1889, p. 46. 
Mab.—'i (Brazil, Bourg.). 

130. Streptaxis crtptodon, Moricand. 
Helix (Streptaxis) crijptodon, Moric : Journ. de Conch,, 1851, p. 370, 

pi. X, fig. 2. 
Streptaxis crijptodon, Pfr. : Mon. Helic, vol. iii (1853), p. 289 ; Tryon, 

Man. Conch., ser. ii, vol. i (1885), p. 66, pi. xvi, figs. 87-89. 
Hiscartemon cryptodon, Bourg.: Moll. Air. equat., 1889, p. 46. 
Hab. — Baazil : Bahia. 



GUDE : ON THE GENUS STBEPTAXIS AND ITS ALLIES. 227 

131. Stkeptaxis Crossei, Pfeiffer. 

Streptaxis Crossei, Pfr. : Journ. de Conch., 1867, p. 43, pi. i, fig, 1 ; 
Hidalgo, Yiaje Pacif. Molusc, pt. i (1«69), p. 43, pi. iii, figs. 1, 
2; id., Journ. de Conch., 1870, p. 39; Tryon, Man. Conch., 
ser. II, vol. i (1885), p. 67. pi. xvi, figs. 3, 4. 

Discartemon Crossei, Bourg. : Moll. Afr. equat., 1889, p. 46. 
Hal. — Brazil: Corcobado (Pfr.) ; Botafogo (Hid.). 

132. Streptaxis Lemyrei, Morlet. 

Streptaxis Lemyrei, Morlet: Journ. de Conch., 1883, p. 104, pi. iv, 
fig. 1 ; 1889, p. 122 ; Tryon, Man. Conch., ser. ii, vol. i (1885), 
p. 67, pi. xvi, figs. 12, 13. 
Hah. — Cambodia : Kampot. 

133. Streptaxis parabiscus, Mollendorff. 

Streptaxis {Discartemon) paradiscus, Mlldff. : Nachr. Blatt. Deutsch. 
Malak. Ges., 1900, p. 117. 
Hah. — Annam : Phuc-son, near Touranne. 

134. Streptaxis planus, Fulton. 

Streptaxis planus, Fulton: Proc. Malac. Soc, vol. iii (1899), p. 214, 
pi. xi, fig. 2. 
Hal. — South Celebes. 

Section III. Artemox, Beck. 

Beck, Index, 1838, p. 48 ; Pfr., Malak. Blatt., vol. ii (1856), 
p. 172. (Edentulse : a, subregulares. Pfr., Mon. Helic, vol. i, 
1848, p. 3.) + GiBBONsiA, Bourg.: Moll. Afr. equat., 1889, 
p. 38. 

Shell helicifoiTB, rather flattened, whorls regular, aperture without 

teeth, outer lip often slightly thickened and expanded or subreflected. 

Tryon: Man. Conch., ser. ii, vol. i (1885), p. 57. 

135. Streptaxis candidijs, Spix. 

Solarimn candidum, Spix: Test. Brasil., 1827, pi. xvii, figs. 3, 4. 
Solarium vitreum, Spix : Test. Brasil., 1827, pi. xvii, fig. 5. 
Helix perspectiva, Wagner: in Spix, Test. Brasil., 1827, p. 24. 
Helix Candida, Moricand : Mem. Soc. phys. Geneve, vol. vii (1836), 

p. 421 (a, striata) ; vol. ix (1841), p. 57, pi. iv, fig. 1. 
Artemon Candidas, Beck: Index, 1838, p. 48; Bourg., Moll. Afr. 

equat., 1889, p. 44. 
Streptaxis Candida, Pfr.: Mon. Helic, vol. iii (1853), p. 286; id., 

Chemn. Conch. Cab., 2nd ed., Helix, vol. ii (1853), p. 15, pi. ciii, 

figs. 29, 30. 
Streptaxis candidus, Pfr.: Mon. Helic, vol. v (1868), p. 439; 

Hidalgo, Viaje Pacif. Molusc, pt. i (1869), p. 42 ; id., Journ. de 

Conch., 1870, p. 40; Tryon, Man. Conch., ser. ii, vol. i (1885), 

p. 61, pi. xii, figs. 1-3. 



228 PEOCEEDINGS OF THE MALACOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

Helix Spuiana, Pfr. : Symb., vol. i (1841), p. 40; id., Mon. Helic, 
vol. i (1848), p. 404 ; id., Chemn. Conch. Cab., 2nd cd., Belix, 
vol. i (1852), p. 146, pi. xix, figs. 1-3 ; Fer., Hist., vol. i 
(1850), p. 177, pi. cii, figs. 10-12. 

Streptaxis Spixiana, Alb. : Die Helic, 1850, p. 132. 

Strepfaxis Spixianus, Paetel : Cat., 1869, p. 83. 

Ilah. — Brazil (Wagner): Bahia (Beck); Island of St. Catharine 

(Hidalgo). 

135fl5. Var. l^evissima, Moricand. 

Selix Candida : /3, Icevissima, Moric. : Mem. Soc. phys. Geneve, vol. vii 
(1836), p. 421. 
Hah. — Brazil : Bahia. 

136. Streptaxis politus, Fulton. 

Streptaxis politus, Fulton: Proc. Malac. Soc, vol. iii (1899), p. 302, 
fig. 1. 
Hah. — Brazil. 

137. Streptaxis helios, Pilsbry. 

Streptaxis helios, Pils. : Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad., 1897, p. 477 ; 
? Chemn. Conch. Cab., 2nd ed.. Helix, vol. ii (1853), pi. ciii, 
figs. 29, 30 {Candida, var), fide Pilsbry. 
Hah. — Brazil. 

138. Streptaxis tumulus, Pilsbry. 
Streptaxis tumulus, Pils.: Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad., 1897, p. 478. 
Hah. — Brazil. 

139. Streptaxis capillosus, Pilsbry. 

Streptaxis capillosus, Pils. : Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad., 1897, p. 478. 
Hah. — Brazil : prov. Bahia. 

140. Streptaxis decussatus, Pilsbry. 

Streptaxis decussatus, Pils. : Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad., 1897, p. 479. 
Hah. — Brazil. 

141. Streptaxis gigas. Smith. 

Streptaxis gigas, Smith : Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. v, vol. vi 
(1880), p. 429; id., Proc. Zool. Soc, 1881, p. 279, pi. xxxii, 
fig. 4 ; Mart., Deutsch. Ost-Afr., vol. iv (1897), p. 30. 

Gihhonsia gigas, Bourg. : Moll. Afr. equat., 1889, p. 38. 
Jlai. — British East Afi'ica : between Lake Nyassa and east coast. 

142. Streptaxis regius, Lobbecke. 

Streptaxis regius, Lobb. : Nachr. Blatt. Deutsch. Malak. Ges., 1881, 
p. 50 ; id., Jahrb. Deutsch. Malak. Ges., 1882, p. 3, pi. i, figs. 1-3 ; 
Tryon, Man. Conch., ser. ii, vol. i (1885), p. 62, pi. xvi, 
figs. 10, 11. 
Hah.—? Brazil. 



GUDE : ON THE GENUS STREPTAXIS AND ITS ALLIES. 229 

143, Streptaxis inteemedius, Albers, 

Streptaxis intermedia, Alb. : Malak. Bliitt., vol. iv (1857), p. 95 ; Pfr.) 

Mon. Helic, vol. iv (1859), p. 328. 
Streptaxis i^itermedius, Pfr. : Mon. Helic, vol. v (1868), p. 439; 

Tryon, Man. Conch., ser. ii, vol. i (1885), p. 61, pi. xii, figs. 4-6. 
Artemon intermedius, Bourg. : Moll. Afr. equat., 1889, p. 44. 
Streptaxis Wagneri, var., Pfr. : Chemn. Conch. Cab., 2nd ed., Helix, 

vol. ii (1853), p. 15, pi. ciii, figs. 26-28. 
Hah. — Brazil. 

144. Streptaxis Wagneri, Pfeiffer. 

Helix Wagneri, Pfr. : Symb., vol. i (1841), p. 40 ; id., Mon. Helic, 

vol. i (1848), p. 405 ; id., Chemn. Conch. Cab., 2nd ed.. Helix, 

vol. i (1851), p. 147, pi. xix, figs. 4-6. 
Streptaxis Wagneri, Pfr. : Mon. Helic, vol. iii (1853), p. 286 ; Tryon, 

Man. Conch., ser. ii, vol. i (1885), p. 62, pi. xii, figs. 9-11. 
Artemon Wagneri, Bourg. : Moll. Afr. equat., 1889, p. 45. 
Helix Cojfreana, Moricand : Mem. Soc. phys. Geneve, vol. ix (1841), 

p. 58, pi. iv, figs. 2, 3. 
Hab. — Brazil. 

145. Streptaxis costulosfs, Pfeiffer. 

Helix costulosa, Pfr.: Proc. Zool. Soc, 1852, p. 136; id., Mon. Helic, 
vol. iii (1853), p. 159 ; id., Chemn. Conch. Cab.. 2nd ed.. Helix, 
vol. iii (1854), p. 499, pi. clxi, figs. 29-31; id., Mon. Helic, 
vol. iv (1859), p. 184. 

Streptaxis costulosus, Tryon: Man. Conch., ser. ii, vol. i (1885), p. 63, 
pi. xii, figs. 30-32. 

Artemon costulosus, Bourg. : Moll. Afr. equat., 1889, p. 45. 
Hah. — Venezuela. (Solomon Islands, Pfr. !) 

146. Streptaxis aperttjs. Martens. 

Streptaxis apertus : a, siihglobosus. Mart. : Malak. Blatt., vol. xv (1868), 
p. 180; Pfr., Mon. Helic, vol. vii (1876), p. 491 ; G. Pfeffer, 
Jahrb. Deutsch. Malak. Ges., 1878, p. 69, figs. 9, 10 (anat.). 

Alcidia aperta, Bourg. : Moll. Afr. equat., 1889, p. 47. 

146«. Var. bepressa. Martens. 

Streptaxis depressus (Mart.), Heynemann: Malak. Blatt., vol. xv (1868), 

p. 101, pi. iv, fig. 2 (anat.). 
Streptaxis apertus : /3, depressus, Mart. : Malak. Blatt., vol. xv (1868), 
p. 180. 
Hah. — South Brazil. 

147. Streptaxis Usambarichs, Craven. 

Helix Usamharica, Craven : Proc. Zool. Soc, 1880, p. 216, pi. xxii, 

.fig. 6. 
Helix (? Mesodon) Usamharica, Tryon : Man. Conch., ser. ii, vol. iii 
(1887), p. 155, pi. xxxii, figs. 100 & 1, 2. 



230 PROCEEDINGS OF THE MALACOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

Dorcasia Usamharica, Pils. : in Tryon, Man. Conch., ser. it, toI. ix 

(1895\ p. 173. 
Streptaxis Usamharicm, Mart. : Zool. Roc, vol. XYii(1880), Moll. p. 71. 
Hub. — German East Africa : Usambara. 

148. Streptaxis Kollandi, Bernardi. 
Helix {Strej)taxis) Rollandi, Bern. : Journ. de Conch., 1857, p. 187, 

pi. vi, fig. 2. 
Streptaxis Rollandi, Pfr. : Mon. Hclic, vol. iv (1859), p. 329; Tryon, 
Man. Conch., ser. ii, vol. i (1885), p. 62, ^\. xii, figs. 12, 13. 
Eah.—Bi-Az\\. 

149. Streptaxis Paivanus, PfeifPer. 

Streptaxis Paivana, Pfr. : Journ. de Conch., 1867, p. 43, pi. i, fig. 2 ; 

Hidalgo, Yiaje Pacif. Molusc, pt. i (1869), p. 44, pi. iii, figs. 3, 4. 
Streptaxis Paivanus, Pfr. : Mon. Helic, vol. v (1868), p. 440 ; Hidalgo, 

Journ. de Conch., 1870, p. 39 ; Tryon, Man. Conch., ser, ii, vol. i 

(1885), p. 62, pi. xii, figs. 7, 8. ^ 
Alcidia Paivana, Bourg. : Moll. Afr. equat., 1889, p. 47. 
^«5.— Brazil : Macahe (Pfr.) ; Cabo Frio (Hid.). 

150. Streptaxis cavicola, Gredler. 

? Streptaxis cavicola, Gredl. : Jahrh. Deutsch. Malak. Ges., 1881, p. 19 ; 

id., Malak. Blatt., vol. ix (1886), p. 9; Tryon, Man. Conch., 

ser. II, vol. ii (1886), p. 216. 
Nanina cavicola, Heude : Moll. terr. Pleuve Bleu, pt. i (1882), p. 13, 

pi. xix, fig. 7. 
Chalepotaxis cavicola, MlldfF. : Ann. Mus. Zool. Acad. imp. Sci., 

S. Petersb., vi (1901), Uebers.-Tab. 1, col. 3. 
Sab. — China : prov. Hu-nan. 

151. Streptaxis coxoideus, Pfeiffer. 

Streptaxis conoidea, Pfr. : Proc. Zool. Soc, 1854, p. 149 ; id., Mon. 
Helic, vol. iv (1859), p. 330. 

Streptaxis conoideus, Pfr. : Mon. Helic, vol. v (1868), p. 440; ]\rai-t., 
Binnen-Moll. Venezuela's, 1873, p. 166, pi. ii, fig. 2; Tryon, 
Man. Conch., ser. ii, vol. i (1885), p. 62, pi. xii, figs. 19, 20. 
Hah. — Venezuela: Caracas (Mart.). (Malay Peninsula, Pfr. !) 

152. Streptaxis episttlium, Miiller. 

Helix epistylium, Miiller: Hist. Verm. terr. fluv., vol. ii (1773), p. 57, 
No. 250. 

Artemon epistyliitm. Beck : Index, 1838. p. 48. 

Streptaxis epistylium, Shutt. : Jklitth. naturf. Ges. Bern, 1853, p. 306 ; 
Pfr., Malak. Bliitt., vol. i (1854), p. 58; id., Mon. Helic, vol. iv 
(1859), p. 329 ; Morch, Journ. de Conch., 1876, p. 374. 
Hah. — ? (Guinea, Morch ; Central America, Beck). 

153. Streptaxis Ctpsele, Pfeiff'er. 
Helix Cypsele, Pfr. : Zeits. fiir Malak., vol. vi (1849), p. 78; id., 
Chemn. Conch. Cab., 2nd edi.,, Helix, vol. i (1851), p. 384, 
pi. xii* figs. 8-10 ; id., Mon. Helic, vol. iii (1853), p. 217. 



GTJDE : ON THE GENUS STBEPTAXIS AND ITS ALLIES. 231 

Ohha Cypsele, Pf r. : Malak. Blatt., vol. ii (1856), p. 136, No. 1220. 
Streptaxis Cypsele, Mart.: Malak. Bliitt., vol. xv (1868), p. 180; 

Tryon, Man. Conch., ser. n, vol. i (1885), p. 63, pi. xvi, 

fig's. 98, 99. 
Alcidia Cypsele, Bourg. : Moll. Afr. equat., 1889, p. 47. 
Hah. — Brazil. 

Section IV. Stremmatopsis, J. Mabille. 
J. Mabille: BuU. Soc. Make. Fr., vol. iv (1887), p. 132. 
Shell having the last whorl strongly compressed below ; aperture 
vertical, oval, contracted by the outer margin, which is grooved, raised 
in the middle, and terminated by a slight slope which unites with the 
columellar margin ; columella curved, widely dilated, callous. 

154. Steeptaxis Poieieri, J. Mabille. 
Stremmatopsis Poirieri, Mab. : Bull. Soc. Malac. Pr., vol. iv (1887), 
p. 131, pi. i, figs. 15, 16. 
Eah.—Toukm. 

Section V. Impertubbatia, Martens. 
Martens: Mittl. Zool. Samml. Mus. Naturk, Berlin, vol. i (1898), 
p. 12. Shell pale yellowish-grey, regular, depressed conoid, with 
prominent radial sculpture and open umbilicus ; aperture tooth- 
less, with distinctly reflected margin, the basal margin projecting 
in the middle. 

155. Steeptaxis constans, Martens. 

Streptaxis {Imperturhatia) constans. Mart. : Mittl. Zool. Samml. Mus. 
Naturk. Berlin, vol. i (1898), p. 11, pi. ii, fig. 5; Wiegmann, 
torn, cit., p. 48, with figures (anat.). 
Mab. — Seychelles : Mahe. 

155a. Var. Silhottett.^, Martens. 
Streptaxis {Imperturhatia) constans, var. Silhonetta, Mart. : Mittl. 
Zool. Samml. Mus. Naturk, Berlin, vol. i (1898), p. 12. 
Hah. — Seychelles : Silhouette. 

156. Steeptaxis violascens, Martens. 

Streptaxis {Imperturhatid) violascens, Mart. : Mittl. Zool. Samml. Mus. 
Naturk. Berlin, vol. i (1898), p. 12, pi. ii, fig. 7. 
Hah. — Seychelles : Mahe. 

157. Steeptaxis peeelegans. Martens. 

Streptaxis {Imperturhatia) perelegans, Mart. : Mittl. Zool. Samml. Mus. 
Naturk. Berlin, vol. i (1898), p. 12, pi. ii, fig. 6. 
Hah. — Seychelles : Mahe. 

158. Steeptaxis Beaueei, Martens. 
Streptaxis {Imperturhatia) Braueri, Mart. : Mittl. Zool. Samml. Mus. 
Naturk. Berlin, vol. i (1898), p. 13, pi. ii, fig. 8; Wiegmann, 
ib., p. 49, with figures (anat.). 

VOL. V. — OCTOBER, 1902. 16 



2.32 PROCEEDrNGS OP TITE MALACOLOGICA.L SOCIETY. 

Section VI. Colpaxostoma, Bourgiiignat. 
Bourg. : Moll. Afr. equat., 1889, p. 43. 
Shell openly urabilicated, vontrose, spire convex ; transparent, 
o])aline, shining, furrowed by strong lamelliform flexuous radiations. 
Aperture hollowed out, nearly circular, peristome reflected, except at 
the upper margin around the channel. 

159. Streptaxis Leroyi, Bourguignat. 

Colpanostoma Leroyi, Bourg. : Moll. Afr. oquat., 1889, p. 48, pi. i, 
figs. 1-3; Mart., Deutsch. Ost-Afr., vol. iv (1897), p. 33. 
Hab. — Mount Nguru, between Ukamba and Ussagara. 

Section VII. Taylobia, Bourguignat. 

Bourg.: Moll. Afi\ equat., 1889, p. 38. 
Shell thin, opaque, covered with a deciduous cuticle, of a chestnut- 
broAvn colour. Spire convex, with flexuous lamellate striations ; 
umbilicus deep, moderate, funnel-shaped. Aperture hollowed out. 
Peristome somewhat thickened, well reflected, except at the upper 
margin. 

160. Streptaxis Jouberti, Bourguignat. 

Tayloria Jouberti, Bourg.: Moll. Afr. equat., 1889, p. 47, pi. ii, 
figs. 6-9 ; Mart., Deutsch. Ost-Afr., vol. iv (1897), p. 33. 
Sab. — Near Lake Tanganyika. 

161. Streptaxis ventrosus, Taylor. 

"i Zonites ventrosa, Taylor: Journ. Conch., vol. i (1877), p. 253, 

pi. ii, fig. 2. 
Tayloria ventrosa, Bourg.: Moll. Afr. equat., 1889, p. 39; Mart., 
Deutsch. Ost-Afr., vol. iv (1897), p. 33. 
Hah. — Zanzibar. 

162. Streptaxis iteratus, Martens. 

Tayloria iterata. Mart.: Deutsch. Ost-Afr., vol. iv (1897), p. 33, 
with 3 figures. 
Hab. — German East Africa : Uluguru. 

Section VIII. Micrabtemon, Mollendorff. 

Mlldfi'. : Ber. Senck. naturf. Ges., 1890, p. 190. 
Shell small, regular, helicoid, depressed, narrowly perforate ; with 
a parietal lamella and basal tooth. 

163. Streptaxis Boettgeri, Mollendorff. 

Streptaxis {Micrartemon) Boettgeri, Mlldff. : Bar. Senck. naturf. Ges., 
1890, p. 190, pi. vii. fig. 1; Semper, Reisen, vol. viii (1898), 
p. 2, pi. i, fig. 1 ; Mlldff., Abhandi. naturf. Ges. Gorlitz, vol. xxii 
(1898), p. 29 (reprint, p. 4). 
Hab. — Philippine Islands : Cebu ; Negros ; Guimaras. 



GUDE : ON THE GENUS STREPTAXIS AND ITS ALLIES. 233 

HAPPIA, Bourguignat. 
Bourg. : Moll. Afr. equat., 1889, p. 39. = Ammonoceros, Pfr. : 

Malak. Bliitt., vol. ii (1856), p. 122 (not A7nmonoceros, Lamarck, 

1822). 
Shell umbilicated, depressed, flattened or slightly convex above ; 
fragile, corneous, olivaceous or yellowish. Aperture semi-oval or 
semicircular, not descending. Peristome simple, acute. Last whorl 
predominating. 

1. Happia Floea, Pfeiffier. 
Helix Flora, Pfr.: Zeits. fiir Malak., vol. vii (1850), p. 68; Reeve, 

Conch. Icon., Helix, 1852, pi. xcvii, fig. 534; Pfr., Mon. Helic, 

vol. iii (1853), p. 103; id., Chemn. Conch. Cab., 2nd ed.. Helix, 

vol. iii (1854), p. 306, pi. cxxvii, figs. 1-3; Hidalgo, Joum. de 

Conch., 1870, p. 34. 
Hyalina Flora, Pfr.: Malak. Blatt., vol. ii (1855), p. 55, No. 124; 

Miller, op. cit., vol. xxv (1878), p. 161. 
Hyalina {Ammonoceras) Flora, Mart.: Die Heliceen, 2nd ed. (1860), 

p. 72; id.. Conch. Mitth., vol. ii (1883), p. 156; Reibisch, Abh. 

Nat. Ges. Isis, 1896, p. 55. 
Streptaxis Flora, Tryon: Man. Conch., ser. ii, vol. i (1885), p. 64, 

pi. xxvii, fig. 4. 
Ammonoceras Flora, Cousin: Bull. Soc. zool. Prance, vol. xii (1887), 

p. 246 (reprint, p. 60). 
Happia Flora, Bourg. : Moll. Afr. equat., 1889, p. 40. 

Hab. — Ecuador: Nanegal (Mart.); Quito (Hid.); Gualea (Cousin) ; 
Valle del Pastaga (Reibisch). New Grenada: Andes (Pfi'.). 

2. Happia Andicola, Philippi. 
Helix Andicola, Phil.: Malak. Blatt., vol. xiii (1866), p. 39; Pfr., 

Nov. Conch., vol. ii (1866), p. 295, pi. Ixxii, figs. 1-3. 
Helix Andium, "Phil.," Pfr. : Malak. Blatt., vol. xiv (1867), p. 79 ; 

id., Mon. Helic, vol. v (1868), p. 246. 
Selenites Andium, Tryon : Man. Conch., ser. ii, vol. ii (1886), p. 207, 
pi. Ixi, figs. 3-5. 
Hah. — Chili: Andes Talcaregue. 

3. Happia eitspika, Pfeiffer. 
Helix euspira, Pfr.: Proc. Zool. Soc, 1854, p. 54; Reeve, Conch. 

Icon., Helix, 1854, pi. clxxxv, fig. 1277 ; Pfr., Mon. Helic, 

vol. iv (1859), p. 108. 
Helix (Discus) euspira, Pfr. : Malak. Bliitt., vol. ii (1855), p. 125, 

No. 457a. 
Hyalina [Ammonoceras) euspira, Mart. : Binnen-MoU. Venezuela's, 

1873, p. 167. 
Macrocyclis euspira, Bland: Ann. Lye New York, vol. xi (1874), 

p. 73; W. G. Binney, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad., 1875, 

p. 247, pi. xxi, fig. 3 (anat.). 
Selenites euspira, Tryon: Man. Conch., ser. ii, vol. ii (1886), p. 207, 

pi. Ixi, fig. 6. 
^«^.— Brazil (Pfr.); Venezuela (Mart.). 



234 PROCEEDINGS OF THE MALACOIOGICAL SOCIETY. 

4. Happia cycltna, Cousin. 
Ammonoceras cyclina, Cousin: Bull. Soc. zool. France, vol. xii (1887), 
p. 245 (reprint, p. 59), pi. iv, fig. 6. 
Hab. — Ecuador. 

5. Happia Cuzcana, Philippi. 

Helix Citzcana, Phil.: Malak. Bliitt., vol. xvi (1869), p. 37; Pfr., 

Nov. Conch., vol. iii (1869), p. 476, pi. cii, figs. 22-24; 

Hidalgo, Viaje Pacif. Molusc, pt. i (1870), p. 26, pl.fii, figs. 8, 9 ; 

Pfr., Mon. Helic, vol. vii (1876), p. 151. 
Streptaxis Cuzcana, Tiyon : Man. Conch., ser. ii, vol. i (1885), p. 64, 

pi. xiii, figs. 46, 47. 
Happia Cuzcana, Bourg. : Moll. Afr. equat., 1889, p. 40. 
Helix Baezensis, Hidalgo: Journ. de Conch., 1869, p. 411; 1870, 

p. 38, pi. vi, fig. 2. 
Hyalina Baezensis, Miller: Malak. Bliitt., vol. xxv (1878), p. 161. 
Hab. — Peru: Cuzco (Phil.). Ecuador: Baeza (Hid.). 

6. Happia viteina, Wagner. 

Helix vitrina, Wagner: in Spix, Test. Bras., 1827, p. 25; Pfr., 

Mon. Helic., vol. i (1848), p. 109; Reeve, Conch. Icon., Hdix, 

1852, pi. cix, fig. 613 ; Pfr., Chemn. Conch. Cab., 2nd ed., Helix, 

vol. ii (1853), p. 101, pi. Ixxxiv, figs. 14-16. 
Helix circumplexa, Fer. : Hist., vol. i (1839), p. 19, pi. Ixxxiv, figs. 5, 6. 
Helix vahcefonnis, "Nyst.": Chemn. Conch. Cab., 2nd ed.. Helix, 

vol. ii (1853), p. 101. 
Solarium imperforatum, Spix: Test. Bras., 1827, pi. xvii, fig. 6. 
Solarium pygmmum, Spix: op. cit., pi. xvii, fig. 7. 
Helix nana (juv.), Wagner: in Spix, Test. Bras., 1827, p. 25. 
Helix [Helicella) vitrina, Moricand : Mem. Soc. phys. Geneve, vol. vii 

(1836), p. 421. 
Ammonoceras vitrina, Pfr. : Malak. Blatt., vol. ii (1856), p. 122, 

No. 459. 
Discus vitrinus, H. & A. Ad. : Genera, vol. ii (1858), p. 117. 
Patula vitrina, Albers : Die Heliceen, 1850, p. 65. 
Hyalina [Ammonoceras) vitrina, Mart. : Die Heliceen, 2nd ed. (1860), 

p. 72. 
Helix vitrina, Hidalgo : Journ. de Conch., 1870, p. 36. 
Streptaxis vitrina, Tryon : Man. Conch., ser. ii, vol. i (1885), p. 64, 

pi. xiii, figs. 38-40, 
Happia vitrina, Bourg.: Moll. Afr. equat., 1889, p. 40; Pilsbry, 

Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad., 1900, p. 386. 
Streptaxis {Happia) tumescens, Suter : Rev. Mus. Paulista, vol. iv 

(1900), p. 330, pi. iii, fig. 4. 
Hab. — Brazil : Bahia (Moric.) ; Rio Janeiro (Hid.) ; Sao Paulo 
(Sut., PUs.). 

7. Happia Iheringi, Pilsbry. 

Happia Iheringi, Pils. : Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad., 1900, p. 385, 
pi. xii, figs. 1-3. 
Hah. — Brazil : prov. S5o Paulo. 



gtjde: on the gextts streptaxis and its allies. 235 

8. Happia ammonoceras, Pfr. 

Helix ammonocer as, Pfr.: Proc. Zool. Soc, 1854, p. 54; Peeve. 

Conch. Icon., Helix, 1854, pi. cxci, fig. 1338; Pfr., Mon. Helic.j 

vol. iv (1859), p. 104 ; Bland, Ann. Lye. jS'ew Tork, vol. xi 

(1874), p. 86. 
Helix {Ammonoceras) ammonoceras, Pfr. : Malak. Blatt., vol. ii (1856), 

p. 122, Xo. 460«. 
Streptaxis ammonoceras, Tryon : Man. Conch., ser. n, vol. i (1885), 

p. 65, pi. xiii, fig. 52. 
Scolodonta ammonoceras, Bourg. : Moll. Afr. equat., 1889, p. 41. 
Streptaxis {Ammonoceras) ammonoceras, Smith : Proc. Malac. Soc, 

vol. i (1895), p. 315. 
Streptaxis {Happia) ammonoceras, Suter : Pev. Mus. Paulista, vol. iv 

(1900), p. 330. 

Hah. — New Grenada : Santa Anna (Pfr.). Brazil : S5o Paulo 
(Suter). "West Indies : Grenada (Smith). 

9. Happia Moyobambensis, Moricand. 

Helix Moyobambensis, Moric. : Eev. & Mag. Zool., vol. x (1858), 
p. 450, pi. xiii, fig. 3 ; Pfr., Mon. HeHc, vol. v (1868), p. 176. 

Streptaxis Moyohamhensis, Tryon: Man. Conch., ser. n, vol. i (1885), 
p. 65, pi. xiii, figs. 55, 56. 

Happia Moyohamhejisis, Boui'g. : Moll. Afr. equat., 1889, p. 40. 

Hah. — Peru: Moyobamba. 

10. Happia ammonifoemis, Orbigny. 

Helix {Helicella) ammoniformis. Orb. : Mag. de Zool., vol. v (1835), 

Moll. p. 5 ; id., Voy. Amer. merid., 1837, p. 248, pi. xxvi, 

figs. 10-13 ; Desh., in Per., Hist., vol. i (1839), p. 9, pi. Ixix b, 

fig. 1; Pfr., Mon. HeKc, vol. i (1848), p. 110; Reeve, Conch. 

Icon., Helix, 1851, pi. Ixi, fig. 307. 
Helix ammoniformis, M. E. Gray: Fig. Moll. Anim., vol. iii (1859), 

pi. cclxxxvii, fig. 9. 
Helix {Ammonoceras) ammoniformis, Pfr. : Malak. Blatt., vol. ii 

(1856), p. 122, Xo. 460. 
Hyalina {Ammonoceras) ammoniformis, Mart. : Malak. Blatt., vol. xiv 

(1868), p. 175. 
Streptaxis {Ammonoceras) ammoniforynis, Doring: Jahrb. Deutsch. 

Malak. Ges., 1878, p. 131 ; Paravicioi, Boll. Mus. Torino, vol. ix 

(1894), Xo. 181, p. 1. 
Streptaxis ammoniformis, Tiyon : Man. Conch., ser. ii, vol. i (1885), 

p. 65, pi. xiii, figs. 43-45. 
Drepanostomella ammonitiformis, Bourg. : Moll. Afr. equat., 1889, 

p. 43. 

Hai. — Bolivia : prov. Yungas (Orb.). Argentina : La Plata, 
Tucuman (Diiring, Parav.). Brazil: Porte Alegre (Mart.). 



236 PROCEEDrNGS OF THE MALACOLOOICAL SOCIETY. 

11. Happia Argentina, Strobol. 

Hyalina Argentina, Strobol : Mat. Malac. Argent, morid., vol. iii 

(1874), p. 9, pi. i, fig. 1. 
Streptaxis [Scolodonta) Argentina^ During: Bol. Acad. Cienc. Cordoba, 

vol. ii (1875), p. 310; id.. Period. Zool. Buenos Ayres, vol. ii 

(1875), p. 229. 
Streptaxis (Scolodonta) Argentinus, Doling: Jahrb. Doutsch. Malak. 

Ges., 1878, p. 131. 
JTelix {Hyalina) Argentina, Pfr. : Mon. Helic, vol. vii (1876), p. 450. 
Streptaxis Argentina, Tryon : Man. Conch., ser. ii, vol. i (1885), p. 66, 

pi. xiii, figs. 58-60. 
Scolodonta Argentina, Bourg. : Moll. Afr. equat., 1889, p. 41. 
Mab. — Argentina: Mondoza ; Bahia Blanca (Strob.). 

12. Happia Lizaezaburui, Jousseaume. 

Ammonoceras Lyzarzahurui, Joiiss. : Bull. Soc. zool. France, vol. xii 

(1887), p. 174 (reprint, p. 10), pi. iii, fig. 17. 
Ammonoceras Lizarzaburui, Cousin: ibid., p. 246 (reprint, p. 60). 
Mab. — Ecuador : San Nicolas. 

13. Happia Dalltana, Ancey. 
Happia Balliana, Ancey : Journ. Conch., vol. vii (1892), p. 90. 
Hab. — Bolivia : Santa Cruz de la Sierra. 

SCOLODONTA, Doring. 

During: Bol. Acad. Cienc. Cordoba, vol. i (1874), p. 438. + Psetjd- 

artemon, J". Mabille: Bull. Soc. Malac. Fr., vol. iv (1887), p. 126. 

Shell openly umbilicatcd, depressed, thin, whitish - diaphanous, 
sometimes more solid, olivaceous ; distinctly striated. Flattened 
above, rounded below ; aperture rounded, sub-basal. Peristome simple, 
acute, margins converging. 

1. Scolodonta chalicophila, Orbigny. 

Selix chalicophila, Orb.: Mag. de Zool., vol. v (1835), Moll. p. 6; 
id., Voy. Amer. merid., 1837, p. 251, pi. xxvii, figs. 8-11 
{calicophila on explanation of plate); Pfr., Mon. Helic, vol. i 
(1848), p. 90; Desh., in Fer., Hist., vol. i (1850), p. 85, 
pi. Ixxxiii, figs. 7, 8; Keeve, Conch. Icon., Helix, 1854, pi. ccix, 
fig. 1481 ; Pfr., Mon. Holic, vol. iv (1859), p. 76. 

Hyalina chalicophila, Pfr. : Malak. Bliitt., vol. ii ( 1 855), p. 124, No. 344. 

Streptaxis chalicophila, Mart.: Malak. Bliitt., vol. xv (1868), p. 182. 

Streptaxis chnlcophila, Tryon: Man. Conch., ser. ii, vol. i (1885), p. 63, 
pi. xii, fig. 21. 

Scolodontii chalicophila, Bourg. : Moll. Afr. equat., 1889, p. 41. 

Happia chalicophila, var., Ancey: Boll. Mus. Torino, vol. xii (1897), 
No. 309, p. 8. 
Hah. — Bolivia: Chiquitos (Orb.). Argentina: San Lorenzo, prov. 

Jujuy (Ancey). 



GUDE : ON THE GENUS STREPTAXIS ANB ITS ALLIES. 237 

2. ScoLODONTA SKiAPHiLA, Orbigny. 
Helix shiaphila, Orb. : Mag. de Zool., vol. v (1835), Moll. p. 5; id., 

Voy. Amer. merid., 1837, p. 249, pi. xxvii, figs. 4-7 ; Pfr., Mon. 

Helic, vol. i (1848), p. 90 ; Desh., in Fer., Hist., vol. i (1850), 

p. 86, pi. Ixxxiii, figs. 9, 10; Reeve, Conch. Icon., Helix, 1854, 

pi. ccix, fig. 1480. 
Circinaria skiaphila, Beck: Index, 1838, p. 23. 
Streptaxis skiaphila. Mart. : Malak. Blatt., vol. xv (1868), p. 182; 

Tryon, Man. Conch., ser. ii, vol. i (1885), p. 63, pi. xii, fig. 22. 
Scolodonta skiaphila, Bourg. : Moll. Afr. equat., 1889, p. 41. 
Hab. — Bolivia : Andes, between Moros and Cochabamba. 

3. ScOLODONTA HYLEPHILA, Ol'bigny, 

Helix hylephila. Orb. : Mag. de Zool., vol. v (1835), Moll. p. 7 ; id., 
Yoy. Amer. merid., 1837, p. 253, pi. xxviii, figs. 13-16; Pfr., 
Mon. Helic, vol. i (1848), p. 150; Desh., in Fer., Hist., vol. i 
(1850), p. 99, pi. Ixxxvii, fig. 3; Reeve, Conch. Icon., Helix, 
1854, pl. ccix, fig. 1482. 

Artemon hylephilus, Beck: Index, 1838, p. 48. 

Hyalina hylophila, During : Period. Zool. Buenos Ayres, vol. i (1874), 
p. 114. 

Streptaxis hylephila. Mart.: Malak. Blatt., vol. xv (1868), p. 182; 
Tryon, Man. Conch., ser. ir, vol. i (1885), p. 64, pl. xii, fig. 33. 

Streptaxis [Swlodonta) hylephila, Doling: Jahrb. Deutsch. Malak. Gres., 
1878, p. 131. 

Scolodonfa hylephila, Bourg. : Moll. Afr. equat., 1889, p. 42. 
Hab. — Bolivia: Chiquitos (Orb.). 

8a. Var. ochthephila, Orbigny. 
Helix ochthephila, Orb.: Mag. de Zool., vol. v (1835), Moll. p. 6; 

Reeve, Conch. Icon., Helix, 1854, pl. ccix, fig. 1478. 
Helix hylephila, var. minor, Orb. : Voy. Amer. merid., 1837, p. 254, 

pl. xxviii, figs. 9-12. 
Helix hylephila, var. ochthephila, Pfr. : Mon. Helic, vol. iv (1859), 

p. 176. 
Streptaxis hylephila, var. ochthephila, Tryon : Man. Conch., ser. ii, 

vol. i (1885), p. 64, pl. xii, tig. 28. 
Scolodonta achthephila, Bourg. : Moll. Afr. equat., 1889, p. 42. 
Hab. — Argentina : La Plata, Corrientes (Doring). 

33. Var. TODROS, Paravicini. 
Streptaxis hylephila, var. todros, Parav. : Boll. Mus. Torino, vol. ix 
(1894), No. 181, p. 2. 
Hab. — Paraguay. 

4. ScoLODONTA BotTNOBCENA, Orbigny. 
Helix Bounohcena, Orb. : Mag. de Zool., vol. v (1835), Moll. p. 7 ; id., 
Voy. Amer. merid., 1837, p. 253, pl. xxviii, figs. 17-20; Pfr., 
Mon. Helic, vol. i (1848), p. 150; Desh., in Fer., Hist., vol. i 
(1850), p. 87, pl. Ixxxiv, figs. 7, 8; Reeve, Conch. Icon., Helix, 
1854, pl. ccix, fig. 1477; Pfr., Mon. Helic, vol. iv (1859), 
p. 123. 



238 PROCEEDINGS OF TUE MALACOLOGICAL SOClEXr. 

Artemon Buuohdnus, Beck: Index, 1838, p. 48. 

Hygromia Boumboina, Pfr. : Malak, liliitt., vol. ii (1855), p. 127, 

No. 621. 
Streptaxis Bonnohcena, Mart. : Malak. Bleitt., vol. xv (1868), p. 182; 

Tryon, Man. Conch., ser. ii, vol. i (1885), p. 64, pi. xii, fig. 34. 
Scolodonta Boiiiioba/ia, Bourg. : Moll. Afr. equat., 1889, p. 42. 
.ffiri.— Bolivia : Cliiqiiitos (Orb.). Brazil (Bourg.) [?]. 

5. ScoLODONTA OMALOMOEPHA, Orbigny. 

Helix omahmorpha, Orb. : Mag. de Zool., vol. v (1835), Moll. p. 5 ; 
id.. Toy. Amer. nierid., 1837, p. 249, pi. xxvii, figs. 1-3; Pfr., 
Mon. Helic., vol. i (1848), p. 109; Desh., in For., Hist., vol. i 
(1850), p. 84, pi. Ixixc, fig. 1; Reeve, Conch. Icon., Helix, 
1854, pi. ccix, fig. 1483; Pfr., Mon. Helic., vol. iv (1859), 
p. 74. 

Patula omahmorpha, Albers : Die Hcliccen, 1850, p. 65. 

Discus omahmorpha, H. & A. Ad.: Genera, vol. ii (1858), p. 117; 
Chenu, Man. Couch., 1859, p. 424, fig. 3138. 

Helix {Hyalina) omahmorpha, Pfr. : Malak. Bliitt., vol. ii (1855), 
p. 125, No. 458. 

Hyalina {Ammonoceras) omalomorpha, Mart. : Die Heliceen, 2ud ed. 
(1860), p. 72. 

Streptaxis omalomorpha, Tryon: Man. Conch., ser. ir, vol. i (1885), 
p. 64, pi. xii, fig. 14. 

Happia omalomorpha, Bourg. : Moll. Afr. equat., 1889, p. 40. 
Hab. — Bolivia : prov. Valle Grande. 

6. ScoLODONTA Thomasi, Pfeillcr, 

Helix Thomasi, Vh. : Proc. Zool. Soc, 1854, p. 54; Reeve, Conch. 

Icon., Helix, 1854, pi. cxc, fig. 1332; Pfr., Mon. Helic, vol. iv 

(1859), p. 102. 
Hyalina Thomasi, Pfr. : Malak. Bliitt., vol. ii (1855), p. 124, 

No. 468rt. 
Ammonoceras Thomasi, H. Ad. : Proc. Zool. Soc, 1870, p. 375. 
Streptaxis Thomasi, Tryon: Man. Conch., ser. ii, vol. i(1885), p. 05, 

pi. xiii, fig. 48. 
Streptaxis [Ammonoceras) Thomasi, Smith : Proc. Malac Soc, vol. i 

(1895), p. 303. 
Scohdonta Thomasi, Bourg. : Moll. Afr. equat., 1889, p. 41. 

Hab. — New Grenada : Manuato (Pfr.). "West Indies : St. Vincent ; 
Grenada (Smith). 

7. ScoLODONTA TEOCHiLioNErDEs, Orbigny. 
Helix trochilioneides, Orb.: Mag. de Zool., vol. v (1835), Moll. p. 6; 
id., Vov. Amer. merid., 1837, p. 251, pi. xxvii, figs. 12-15; 
Pfr., Mon. Helic, vol. i (1848), p. 113; Desh., in For., Hist, 
vol. i (1850), p. 85, pi. Ixix c, figs. 7, 8; Reeve, Conch. Icon., 
Helix, 1854, pi. clxxxi, fig. 1247 ; Hidalgo, Journ. de Conch., 
1870, p. 38; id., Viaje Pacif. Molusc, pt. i (1872), p. 28. 



GUDE : ON TFE GENUS STBEPTAXIS AND ITS ALLIES. 239 

Helix trochilionoides, Pfr. : Chemn. Concli. Cab., 2nd ecL, Helix, vol. ii 

(1853), p. 113, pi. Ixxxv, figs. 27-29. 
Helix {Hyalina) trochiliodes, Albers : Die Heliceen, 1850, p. 67. 
Hyalina trochilioneides, Pfr.: Malak. Bliitt., vol. ii (1855), p. 124, 

No. 476. 
Helicella trochilioides, H. & A. Ad. : Genera, vol. ii (1858), p. 119. 
Helicella trochilioneides, Chenu : Man. de Conch., 1859, p. 424, 

fig. 3139. 
Streptaxis trochilionoides, Mart. : Malak. Blatt., vol. xv (1868), p. 182. 
Streptaxis trochilioneides, Tryon : Man. Conch., ser. ii, vol. i (1885), 

p. 65, pi. xiii, figs. 49-51. 
Helix (Ammonoceras) trochilioneides, Lubomirski : Proc. Zool. Soc, 

1879, p. 719. 
Happia trochilioides, Bourg. : Moll. Afr. equat., 1889, p. 40. 
Happia trochilioneides, var., Ancey : Boll, Mus. Torino, vol. xii (1897), 

No. 309, p. 8. 
Hob. — Bolivia : Lagnna (Orb.). Peru : Lima (Hid., Lub.). 
Argentina : Tala, prov. Salta (Ancey). 

8. ScoLODONTA Paeaguatana, Pfeiffer. 
Helix Paraguayana, Pfi'. : Synib., vol. ii (1842), p. 93 ; id., Mon. Helic, 

vol. i (1848), p. 85 ; Reeve, Conch. Icon., Helix, 1854, pi. ccix, 

fig. 1479. 
Petasia Paraguayana, Pfr. : Malak. Blatt., vol. ii (1855), p. 128. 
Patula Paraguayana, Doring : Jahrb. Deutsch. Malak. Ges., 1878, 

p. 132. 
Hyalinia Paraguayana, Doring : Period. Zool. Buenos Ayres, vol. i 

(1874), p. 114; Tryon, Man. Conch., ser. ii, vol. ii (1886), 

p. 175, pi. liii, fig. 57. 
Seolodonta Paraguayana, Bourg. : Moll. Afr. equat., 1889, p. 42. 
Hyalinia (Comilus) Paraguayana, Paravicini : Boll. Mus. Torino, 

vol. ix (1894), No. 181, p. 2. 
Helix elevata, Orb. (not of Say) : Mag. de Zool., vol. v (1835), Moll. 

p. 6 ; id., Voy. Amer. merid., 1837, p. 254, pi. xxviii, figs. 5-8. 
Hab. — Paraguay: Montevideo (Orb.); San Pedxo (Parav.). 

9. ScoLODONTA OEBicuLA, Orbigny. 
Helix orhiciila. Orb.: Mag. de Zool., vol. v (1835), Moll. p. 6; id., 

Voy. Amer. mend., 1837, p. 250, pi. xxvii, figs. 16-19 ; Pfr., 

Mon. Helic, vol. i (1848), p. Ill; id., Chemn. Conch. Cab., 

2nd ed.. Helix, vol. ii (1853), p. 101, pi, Ixxxiii, figs. 32-34; 

Desh., in Per., Hist., vol. i (1850), p. 86, pi. Ixxxiii, figs. 5, 6 ; 

Reeve, Conch. Icon., Helix, 1852, pi. cvii, fig. 602. 
Helix {Patula) orhicula, Albers : Die Heliceen, 1850, p. 65. 
Hyalina orhicula, Pfr. : Malak. Blatt., vol. ii (1855), p. 124, No. 464, 
Discus orhicula, H. & A. Ad. : Genera, vol. ii (1858), p. 117. 
Streptaxis orhicula, Mart. : Malak. Blatt., vol. xv (1868), p. 182 ; 

Tryon, Man. Conch., ser. ii, vol. i (1885), p. 65, pi. xiii, 

figs. 35-37. 
Happia orhicula, Bourg. : Moll. Afi-. equat., 1889, p. 40. 
Hah. — Bolivia: Santa Cruz (Orb.). 



240 PKOCEEDINGS OF THE MALACOLOGICAL SOCIEXr. 

10. SCOLODONTA NITIDTJLA, Dohm. 

Ammonoeeras nitidulus, Dohi'n: Johrb. Deutsch. Mulak. Ges., 1882, 
p. 97. 
Hub. — Brazil : Pard. 

11. ScOLODONTA INTEIIKUPTA, Sutci. 

Streptaxis {Ilappia) interrupta, Suter : llev. Mus. Paulista, vol. iv 

(1900), p. 331, pi. iii, tig. 5. 
Scohdonta interrupta, Pils. : Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Pliilail., 1900, 

p. 385, pi. xii, figs. 6-8. 
Hah. — Brazil : prov. Sao Paulo. 

12. ScOLODONTA BoTJEGUIGNATI, Malnllc. 

Psaidartemon Boiirguignati, Mab. : Bull. Soc. Malac. Fr., vol. iv 
(1887), p. 125, pi. iv, figs. 4-6. 
iZrti.— Tonkin. 

13. ScoLODONTA Semperi, Dciring. 
Streptaxis {Scohdonta) Semperi, During: Bol. Acad. Cienc. Cordoba, 
vol. i (1874), pp. 439, 440, with fig. (radula) ; 8trobel, ib., vol. ii 
(1875), p. 311; During, Period. Zool. Buenos Avros, vol. ii 
(1875). p. 230; id., Nachr. Blatt. Deutsch. Malak.'Ges., 1876, 
p. 4; id., Jahrb. Deutsch. Malak. Ges., 1878, p. 131. 
Scohdonta Semperi, Bourg. : Moll. Afr. ec^uat., 1889, p. 41. 
Hah. — Argentina : Cordoba ; Mendoza. 

14. ScoLODONTA Amazonica, Dohm. 
Ammonoceras Aniazonicus, Dohi-n : Jahrb. Deutsch. Malak. Ges., 1882, 

p. 97. 
JIah. — Brazil : Para. 

15. ScoLODONTA spiEORBis, Dcshajes. 

Helix spirorhis, Desh. : in Fer., Hist., vol. i (1850), p. 83, pi. Ixxxii a, 
figs. 1-3; Pfr., Mon. Helic, vol. iii (1853), p. 110; Hupe, in 
Castelnau, Exped. Amer. sud, Zool., vol. iii (1854), ^Moll. p. 14. 

Helix {Fafula) spirorhis. Mart. : Ost-Asien, Zool., vol. ii (1867), p. 8. 

Scohdonta spirorhis, Bourg. : Moll. Afr. equat., 1889, p. 41. 
Hah. — Brazil : Rio Janeiro. 

16. ScoLODONTA MUTATA, Gould. 

Helix tnutata, Gould: Exped. Shells, 1846, p. 19; id., Proc. Boston 
Soc. Nat. Hist., vol. ii (1846), p. 167; Pfi-., Mon. Uelic, vol. i 
(1848), p. 100. 

Hijalina sp. {? miifafa), Mart. : Ost-Asien, Zool., vol. ii (1867), p. 6. 

Scohdonta mutata, Bourg. : Moll. Afr. equat., 1889, p. 42. 

Hah. — Brazil : Rio Janeiro (Gould) ; llhadas Flores (Boettger). 

17. ScoLODONTA PUPILLA, Morclot. 

Streptaxis pupilla, Morel. : Joum. de Conch., 1887, p. 283, pi. ix, 
fig. 2. 
Hah. — Comoro Islands: Great Comoro. 



GUDE : ON THE GENUS STIiEPTAXIS AND ITS ALLIES. 



241 



Spurious Streptaxis. 
Selix prohlematica, Pfr. : Zeits. fiir Maluk., vol. ix (1852), p. 91 ; id., 

Mon. Helic, vol. iii (1853), p. 87; Reeve, Conch. Icon., Ilelix, 

1854, p. 182, fig. 1264 ; Pfr., in Chemn., Conch. Cab., Ilelix, 

vol. iii (1881), p. 471, pi. clvii, figs. 3, 4. 
Nanina prohUmatica, Gray: Catal. Pulmon., pt. i (1855), p. 141. 
UtreptaxiH problematica, Tryon : Man. Conch., ser. ii, vol. i (1885), 

p. 66, pi. xii, fig. 15. 
Regidoma grandis f juv.). Mart. : Malak. Bliitt., vol. xi (1864), p. 109 ; 

Pfr., Mon. Helic, vol. v (1868), p. 144. 



INDEX. 

Generic and subgcneric names are printed in small capitals, 
synonyms in italics. 



abeiTatus, Soul., 90. 
achthepidla, Pourg. (Scolodonta), 

3«. 
albidus, Pfr., 22. 
Alcidia, Bourg., p. 204. 
alveus, Dunk., 15. 
Amazonica,Dohrn( Scolodonta), 14. 
ammoniformis. Orb. (Happia), 10. 
ammonoceras, Pfr. (Happia), 8. 
Aaimonoceros, Pfr., p. 233. 
Anceyi, Mab., 59. 
Andamanicus, Pens., 81. 
Andicola (Happia), 2. 
Andium (Happia), 2. 
apertus, Mart., 146. 
Argentina, Strob. (Happia), 11. 
Aetemon, Beck, p. 227. 
Artemon, Pfr., p. 204. 
attenuata, Mlldff., 51^. 
Baezensis, Hid. (Happia), 5. 
Bavayi, Anc, bid. 
Beddomei, Blanf., 94. 
bidens, MlldfP., 85. 
Jiirmanica, H. & Th., 77. 
Ulandingiana, Lea, 1. 
Blanfordi, H. & Th., 82. 
Blanf ordianus, Theob., 82. 
Bloyeti, Bourg., 33. 
Boettgeri, Mlldii., 163. 



bombax, Bens., 78. 
borealis, Hde., 60. 
Bottegoi, Mart., 32. 
Bounoboena, Orb. (Scolodonta), 4. 
Bourguignati, Mab. (Scolodonta), 

12. 
Brasiliensis, Moric, 98. 
Braueri, Mart., 158. 
breviculus. Smith, 36. 
bulbulus. Morel., 120. 
Burmanicus, Blanf., 77. 
Camerunensis, D'Ailly, 54. 
Canaricus, Blanf., 103. 
Candeana, Pfr., 24. 
Candei, Petit, 24. 
Candida, var., 137. 
candidus, Spix, 135. 
capillosus, Pils., 139. 
cavicola, Hde., 150. 
Celebicus, Saras ,61. 
chaHcophila, Orb. (Scolodonta), 1. 
Chiquitensis, Orb., 98. 
Cingalensis, Bens., 100. 
circumplexa. Per. (Happia), 6. 
clausa, Lobb., 10a. 
Cojfreana, Moric, 144. 
Collingei, Sykes, 52. 
CoLPANOSTOMA, Bourg., p. 232. 
comboides, Moric, 24, 97. 



242 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE MALACOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 



comboidcs, Orb., 56. 
compressus, Blanf., 117. 
concimius, Blanf., 114. 
conoideus, Pl'r., 151. 
constans. Mart., 155. 
contermina, lleeve, 15. 
contundata, Fer., 13. 
contusus, Fer., 13. 
costulatus, Mlkllf., 55. 
costulosus, Pfr., 145. 
Craveni, Smith, 8. 
cristatellus, Mlldff., 110. 
Crossei, Pfr., 131. 
cryptodon, Moric, 130. 
Cumingianus, Pfr., 96. 
Cuzcana, Phil. (Happia), 5. 
cyclina, Cous. (Happia), 4. 
Cypsele, Pfr., 153. 
Daflaensis, G.-A., 92. _ 
Dalliana, Anc. (Happia), 13. 
decipiens, Crosse, 76. 
decussatus, Pils., 140. 
deflexus, Soul., 41. 
deformis, Fer., 67. 
deforynis, Pfr., 24. 
dejecta, Moric, 98. 
dejectus, Petit, 98. 
denticulatus, Dohrn, 37. 
deplanatus, Pfr., 18. 
Deplanchei, Drouet, 113. 
depressa, Mart., 146«!. 
depressa, Mlldff., 105«. 
Deshayesianus, Crosse, 16. 
dicspiter, Mab., 57. 
dlplodon, Mlldff., 107. 
DiscARTEMON, Pfr., p. 226. 
discus, Pfr., 129. 
distortus, Jon., 87. 
Dorri, Dautz., 64. 
Dugasti, Mori., 118. 
Dunkeri, Pfr., 10. 
ebumeus, Pfr., 124. 
edentula, Moric., 24. 
elata, Moric, 56a. 
elevata, Orb. (Scolodonta), 8. 
Elisa, Gould, 125. 
elongatus, Fulton, 73. 
enneoides, Mart., 31. 
epistylium, Miill., 152. 
erythroceros, Mlldff., 51. 



euspira, Pfr. (Happia), 3. 

EUSTREPTAXIS, p. 204. 

exacutus, Gould, 47. 
Fagoti, Mab., 58. 
Fischeri, Mori., 43. 
Flora, Pfr. (Happia), 1. 
Footei, Blanf., 88fl!. 
Fortunei, Pfr., 70. 
Fuchsianus, Gredl., 84. 
Funcki, Pfr., 11. 
Gaudioni, Putz., 6. 
Gibbonsi, Taylor, 25. 
GiBBONsiA, Bourg., p. 227. 
gibbosa, Bourg., 3. 
gibbosus, Pfr., 23. 
gigas, Smith, 141. 
glaber, Pfr., 66. 
GoNAXis, Taylor, p. 204. 
gracilis, Collett, 101. 
Hanleyanus, Stol., 50. 
Happia, Bourg., p. 233. 
helios, Pils., 137. 
Heudei, Schm. & Bttgr., 111. 
hylephila, Orb. (Scolodonta), 3. 
Iheringi, Pils. (Happia), 7. 
imperforatum, Spix (Happia), 6. 
Imperttjrbatia, Mart., p. 231. 
intermedins, Alb., 143. 
interrupta, Sut. (Scolodonta), 11. 
iteratus. Mart., 162. 
Johnstoni, Smith, 35. 
Johswichi, Mart., 119a. 
Jouberti, Bourg., 160. 
Kibweziensis, Smith, 29. 
Kirkii, Dohrn, 26. 
Isevis, Blanf., 79. 
laevissima, Moric, 135a. 
Lamelliger, Anc, p. 204. 
latula. Mart., 2a. 
latus. Smith, 4. 
Layardianus, Bens., 99. 
Lemyrei, Mori., 132. 
Leonensis, Pfr., 123. 
Leroyi, Bourg., 159. 
Lizarzaburui, Jouss. (Happia), 1 2. 
Lyzarzaburui, Jouss. (Happia), 12. 
major, Anc, 45a. 
major, Blanf., 94a. 
major, Mori., 45a. 
Mamboiensis, Smith, 30. 



GUDE : ON THE GENUS STREPTAXIS AND ITS ALLIES. 



243 



Marconi, Gude, 3. 
Mabconia, Bourg., p. 204. 
Maugerse, Gray, 72. 
media, Mlldlf., 5\a. 
micaiis, Putz., 27. 
Michaui, Cr. & Fisch., 46. 
MiCKAKTEMON, Mlldflf., p. 232. 
minor, Morch, 695. 
mirificus, Mlldff., 48. 
Monrovia, Rang, 1. 
Monroviana^ Dohrn, 1. 
Mouhoti, Pfr., 119. 
Moyobambensis, Moric. (Happia), 9. 
Mozambicensis, Smith, 39. 
mutata, Gould (Scolodonta), 16. 
nana, Mlldff., 51c. 
nana, Wagn. (Happia), 6. 
nautilus, Saras., 20. 
nitidula, Dohrn (Scolodonta), 10, 
nobilis. Gray, 1. 
normalis, Jouss., 68. 
Nseudweensis, Putz., 28. 
obtusus, Stol., 83. 
occidentalis, Hde., 62. 
ochthephila, Orb. (Scolodonta), Za. 
OnONTAKTEMON, Pfr., p. 218. 
omalomorpha, Orb. (Scolodonta), 5. 
OoPHANA, Anc, p. 204. 
orbicula, Orb. (Scolodonta), 9. 
ordinarius, Smith, 38. 
orientalis, Hde., 63. 
ovatus, Pfr., 40. 
pachychilus, Mlldfl., 128. 
pachyglottis, Mlldff., 106. 
Paivanus, Pfr., 149. 
paradiscus, Mlldff., 133. 
Paraguay ana, Pfr. (Scolodonta), 8. 
paulus, Gude, 112. 
pellucens, Pfr., 45. 
perelegans. Mart., 157. 
Peroteti, Petit, 88. 
personatus, Blanf., 116. 
perspectiva, Wagn., 135. 
Petiti, Gould, 65. 
Pfeifferi, Zeleb., 69. 
Pfeijferianus, Stol., 69. 
piriformis, Pfr., 93. 
planus, Fulton, 134. 
Plussensis, De Morgan, 127. 
Poirieri, Mab., 154. 



politus, Fulton, 136. 
porrectus, Pfr., 71. 
problematica, Pfr., p. 241. 
pronus, Blanf., 115. 
prostratus, Gould, 21. 
PSEVDABTEMON, Mab., p. 236. 
pumilio, Morch, 69«. 
pupilla, Morel. (Scolodonta), 17. 
pusillus. Mart., 34. 
pygmcBum, Spix (Happia), 6. 
pyriformis, Pfr., 93. 
Ravanae, Blanf., 102. 
Reclusiana, Petit, 1. 
rectus, Bourg., 2. 
regius, Lobb., 142. 
rimata, Pfr., 1. 
Roebelini, MUdff., 126. 
RoUandi, Bern., 148. 
Sankeyanus, Stol., 49. 
Sankeyi, Bens., 49. 
scalptus, Blanf., 95. 
Schweitzeri, Dohrn, 75. 
Scolodonta, Doring, p. 236. 
Seraperi, Doring (Scolodonta), 13. 
Siamensis, Pfr., 105. 
Silhouettae, Mart., 155«. 
Simonianus, Hde., 109. 
Sinensis, Gould, 51. 
sinuosus, Pfr., 74. 
skiaphila, Orb. (Scolodonta), 2. 
solidulus, Stol., 42. 
Souleyetianus, Petit, 53. 
spirorbis, Desh. (Scolodonta), 15. 
Spixiana, Pfr., 135. 
strangulatus, MlldfE., 122. 
Stremmatopsis, Mab., p. 231. 
streptodon, Moric, 97. 
striata, Moric, 135. 
subacutus, Blanf., 104. 
subbulbulus, Gude, 121 & p. 203. 
subcostulata, Mlldff., 55a. 
subglobosus. Mart., 146. 
subregularis, Pfr., 12. 
suturalis. Mart., 9. 
Taylokia, Bourg., p. 232. 
thesecola, Hde., 108. 
Thebawi, G.-A., 44. 
Theobaldi, Bens., 91. 
Thomasi, Pfr. (Scolodonta), 6. 
todros, Parav. (Scolodonta), 3&. 



244 rKOCEEDINOS OF TUE MAI.ACOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

tninsluoiilu?:, Piitz., 5. vali-fFformis, Nyst. (Happia), G. 

tridons. Mlldlf., 86. ventrosus, Taylor, 161. 

Troborti, Petit, 80. violascons. Mart., 156. 

trooliiliououles, Orb. (Scolo- vitreiim, Spix, 185. 

lionta), 7. vitrous, ^lorol., 7. 

fumfscftts, Sut. (ITappia), 6. vitrina, Wairn. (Happia), 6. 

tumulus. Tils.. 138. "VN'agnori, Pfr., 144. 

turbiuatus, ATorel., 17. TTiupwri, var.. 143. 

uborifonnis, Pfr., 14. Watsoui. Blanf.. 89. 

I'sambaricus, Craven, 147. "Welwitsohi, Morel., 19. 

APPEXDIX. 

Siuce the foregoing page? passed through the press some additional 
species and varieties have been published. To complete the record 
of the genus they are here appended. These increase the number of 
Asiatic species to 79, and the total to 165. 

105J. Streptaxis Siamensis, Pfi'., var. smcLOBOSA, Mlldff. 
Sfrf/itaxis Siamensis, subsp. suIxjJohosus, Mlldlf. : X'achr. Blatt. Deutsch. 
Malak. Ges.. 1902, p. 154. 
JIab. — Siam : Hinlap ; Muoklek. 

105c. Yar. EXPAifsiLABKis, Mlhlff. 
Sfrepfaxi's Siavit^nsis, subsp. twpansilahris, Mlldff . : Nachr. Blatt.Deutsch. 
Malak. Ges., 1902, p. 154. 
JIab. — Siam: Ko-si-chang. 

105d. Var. cixgulata, MUdif. 
Sfrepfajris Siamensis, subsp. citiffulatm, MUAff. : Nachr. Blatt. Beutsch. 
Malak. Ges., 1902, p. 85; Mart., Ost-Asien, Zool., vol. ii (1867), 
p. 85. 
Ilab. — Siam. 

164. Stkeptaxts Stkesi, Collinge. 
Sfrepfaxi's St/l-esi, Collinge : Journ. Malac, vol. ix (1902), p. 72, 
pi. iv, figs. 1, 2. 
Sab. — Malay Peninsula : Biserat, State of JiUor. 

165. Stkeptaxis stkiatfla, Collinge. 
Sfrfpfaxis sfriafula, Collinge: Joui'n. Malac, vol. ix (1902), p. 73, 
pi. iv, figs. 3, 4. 
JIab. — Malay Peninsula : BeHmbing, State of Ligeh. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE IV. 

Figs. 1-3. Streptajus Leoneusis. Pfr. Figs. 13-15. Streptaxis Anoevi, Mab. 

4-6. ,, eburneus. Pfr. „ 16-18. ,, subbulbulus, Mllilff. 

7-9. ,, gibbosu?, Pfr. „ 19-21. ,, diplodon, MlldfE. 
,, 10-12. ,, sinuosus, Pfr. 




Vol. V, PI. IV. 










10 




11 







19 



^^75^. 




20 




21 




J. X. i-'itcii d.-;. 

HITHERTO UNFIGURED SPECIES OF STREPTAXIS. 



245 



ON CTENOSTREON BURCEHARBTI, n.sp., FROM THE MIDDLE 
OOLITES OF SWITZERLAND. 

By R. BuLLEN Newton, F.G.S., etc. 

Read 9th Mmj, 1902. 

PLATE V. 

Eathek less than two years ago, the British Museum was indebted to 
Professor Rudolph Burckhardt, of the University of Bale, for some 
interesting material illustrative of a new species of Ctenostreon, 
which had been obtained by himself and his friend Dr. Ernst 
Sauerbeck from the Macrocephalites macrocephalus zone at Tschapperli, 
near Bale in Switzerland. Eight examples of the Lamellibranch 
were sent, the two best preserved forming the subject of the present 
communication. Included in the same donation were two specimens 
of Ctenostreon pectiniformis (Schlotheim) [ = Lima prohoscidea, 
J. Sowerby], which ranges through the Lower Oolite rocks into 
strata of Kimeridge age ; these were sent for purposes of comparison. 
The particular zone yielding this new Ctenostreon represents the basal 
member of the Callovian period, and consequently forms part of the 
Middle Oolite deposits ; the term Callovian being better known in 
England, perhaps, as the Kellaways Rock. 

Dr. August Tobler, one of the latest writers upon the geology of 
this area of Switzerland, furnishes the following list of moUuscan 
species characterizing the Callovian beds at Tschapperli ' : — 

Macrocephalites macrocephalus (Schlotheim). 
PerispMnctes tripUcatus (Quenstedt). 
Reineckia anceps (Reinecke). 
Cosmoceras Jason (Zieten). 
Pleuromya tenuistria, Agassiz. 
Rhynchonella triplicosa, Quenstedt. 
Ctenostreon proboscideum (J. Sowerby). 
Astarte, sp. 
CucuUcea, sp. 

In remarking upon the genus it may be mentioned that Ctenostreon 
was established by EichwakP in 1868 for the reception of two species : 
{a) Ctenostreon distans, Eichwald, from Russia, said to belong to the 
Neocomian, but in reality of Portland age ( = Olcosiephamis virgatus 
zone), and therefore Upper Oolitic ; (h) Ctenostreon prohoscideum 
(J. Sowerby), now regarded as synonymous with C. pectiniformis, 



^ "Der Jura im Sudostender Oberrheinischen Tiefebene": Verhaiidl. nat. Ges. Basel, 

vol xi (1896), pt. 2, p. 306. 
* Lethsea Rossica, vol. ii (18C8), pp. 455-458, pi. xx, fig. 12. 



24G PROCEEDINGS OF THE MALACOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

Schlotlicim, from the Oolite of England, Russia, South America,' and 
other countries. 

The original diagnosis refers to the shell as being subequivalve, 
subequilateral, and radiately costated, with a cardinal margin auricled 
at both ends ; the cardinal area includes a triangular, central, oblique, 
and oval fossula ; on the anterior side is a prominent byssal orifice ; 
the umbones are straight and acute. 

Eichwald appreciated the fact that this genus combined the 
characters of Odrea, Pecten, Lima, and Spondylus. He states that it 
is lamellose as in Ostrea and Lima, and slightly irregular as in both 
these genera, but the ribs are more regular than in the Oysters. Both 
valves are moderately convex and nearly equal as in Lima, both have 
wide expansions as in Pecten, and the ribs are mostly furnished with 
tubular prolongations as in Spondylus. The large opening for the 
passage of the byssus distinguishes it from Liyna and Spondylus, 
whilst the shell is not fixed by its apex as in the Oysters, but by 
the byssus as in Pecten. 

The geological distribution of Ctenostreon extends from the Lias 
through the Oolite period, when it attained its maximum development, 
into Cretaceous times ; its occurrence in the Lias of Chili, South 
America, having been reported by Moricke^ in 1894, whilst Stoliczka^ 
has identified certain forms in the Cretaceous strata of Europe and 
India. 

Ctenostreon Burckhardti, n.sp. (Plate V.) 

Shell large, thick, suborbicular, nearly equilateral, moderately 
convex, covered with undulating lamellae of growth, costse few 
(7 or 8), radial, elevated, rounded, forming fistulous plications and 
terminating in large cylindrical spines ; interstitial spaces wide, 
excavated, equal ; posterior ears vertically ridged, and with a well- 
defined border ; anterior ears with a thickened, reflected margin, 
fonning an elongate byssal orifice. 

Dimensions of opposite valves belonging to different individuals : — 





Calculated 


Calculated 




without spines. 


with spines. 


( Umbono-ventral 
Left Valve | Antero -posterior 


134mm. 


195 mm. 


125 „ 


165 „ 


1 Depth, about . . . 


40 „ 




I Uinbono-veutral 


150 „ 


. 155 „ 


Right Valve | Autero-posterior 


125 „ 


170 „ 


( Depth, about ... 


45 „ 





The principal points of difference between this shell and C. pectini- 
formis, to which it is most nearly related, are its fewer costse, the 
presence of wider interstitial spaces, and the stronger development of 
the spinous prolongations. For purposes of comparison the number 
of ribs on the chief Jurassic species may be referred to as follows : — 

> G. Steinmann: Neues Jahrbuch, 1881, Beilage Bd. i, p. 256 (Bolivia). 

2 " Versteinerungcn des Lias uud Unteroolith von Chile ": Neues Jahrbuch, 1894, 

Beilaf^e Bd. ix, p. 35. 

3 "Cretaceous Pelecypoda of Southern ludia " : Pahtontologia ludica, 1871, 

pp. 414-416, 422. 



I'KOC. MALAC. SOC. 



Vol. r., /•/. r 




II. R. Hoi.DiR, Phot 



CTKNOSTKEOX lUKC'KMAKDTI, N.sr 



NEWTON : ON A NEW CTEXOSTREON. 247 

C. pectiniformis, Schlotheim, has from 11 to 14. 
C. distans, Eichwald, has from 7 to 8. 
C. hector, Orbigny, has about 18. 
C. Wrighti, Bayle, has about 10. 

It will thus be observed that the Russian form C. distans approxi- 
mates more closely to the Swiss species in the number of its costal 
rays, but in other characters it is different, and moreover shows no 
tubular prolongations or any evidence of the fistulosity of the ribs. 

The spines, which mark the different periods of growth in the life 
of the mollusc, are equidistant, long, tubular, sometimes bulbous, 
tapering, or of nearly equal diameter throughout, whilst the basal 
commencement of each develops as a cylindrical fold from the shell- 
margin, as in Spondylus, and forms a median groove. The spines are 
also of large diameter, frequently measuring 15 millimetres, thickly 
walled, sometimes compressed, often flexuous and curving over the 
ventral margin, where they meet those of the opposing valve ; their 
surfaces are ornamented with fine concentric striations. 

This species is represented by a left valve (PL V, Fig. 1) exhibiting 
a handsome test showing the bold convex costae with their tubular 
prolongations, one of which measures 70 mm. in length, although with 
an incomplete end ; the spinous processes of the opposing valve are 
also seen in the ventral region, otherwise that valve is mostly hidden 
by matrix. The margins of the anterior auricles are much thickened 
and rolled back, as is the case in all Ctenostreons that I have examined, 
but the details of the byssal orifice are not clearly defined. 

The second specimen of importance is the right valve of a larger 
individual than the former, showing two prominent spines on the 
posterior side of the shell, one being compressed and with a tendency 
to a closed end. The other spines are mostly detached at their bases, 
thus giving the fistulose character to the ribs. This specimen also 
shows the bold lamellose structure of the shell ; no opposing valve can 
be traced. The median groove and folded character of the spines as 
they arise from the test is well seen in a fragmentary valve ,P1. V, 
Fig. 2) of another shell. Further examples, which are otherwise of 
imperfect preservation, exhibit the widely scalloped margins of the 
valves produced by the elevated ribs and the concave interstitial spaces. 

In conclusion, I have to thank Dr. Ernst Sauerbeck for some 
interesting notes and drawings accompanying the specimens collected 
by himself and Professor Burckhardt ; these, although not here 
incorporated, were valuable for reference. A word of praise is also 
due to Mr. H. R. Holder for the excellent photographs from which 
the illustrations have been prepared. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE V. 

Fig. 1. — Ctenostreon BurcJchardti, n.sp. A left valve exhibiting the radial costae and 

their tubular spinous prolongations. One-half nat. size. 
Fig. 2. — Portion of internal surface of a valve with tubular spines proceeding from 

the outer margin, showing folded growth and median groove. Nat. size. 



VOL. V. — OCTOBER, 1902. 17 



248 



ON HELIX BASILET7S, BENSON, FROM SOUTHERN INDIA : 
ITS ANATOMY AND GENERIC POSITION. 

By Lieut. -Colonel H. H. Godwin -Austen, F.R.S., etc. 

Read IZth June, 1902. 

PLATE VI. 

Malacologists interested in the generic position of species of Indian 
Land Mollusca are very greatly indebted to Dr. Thurston for the 
trouble and pains he took to obtain an individual of this fine species, 
" a giant among the Testacea of Hindustan," as Benson writes. 
To Dr. Thurston we already owe our thanks for examples of a number 
of species not only interesting, but valuable, because nothing was 
known of their anatomy, or of their relationships. The very large 
forms are not usually abundant, and their size renders it difficult to 
preserve the animal, unless the collector starts for their habitat 
properly equipped for the purpose. For many years I have been 
hoping to obtain the animal of the species under consideration, and 
I have now to thank my friend Dr. Blanford for entrusting one to 
me for examination, a piece of work which has proved as absorbing as 
was that on another species from the south of India, viz. Ariophanta 
ampulla, described last year in these pages (vol. iv, p. 187). 

The shell of iielix Basileus was described by Mr. W. H. Benson 
in the Annals and Magazine of Natural History, ser. in, vol. vii 
(1861), p. 81. He says, " This mag-niflcent species (received through 
Lieut. Charles Annesley Benson), measuring nearly three inches in 
diameter, was discovered by Lieut. W. Cox, of the 45th Madras 
Kegiment of Infantry." 

Animal. — General colour a ruddy ochre, the peripodial margin 
streaked with lilac. No parallel grooves above, as in Macrochlamys 
and most genera of the Zonitidae. The general surface of the foot is 
smooth ; seen from above a fine groove runs down the centre of its 
rounded dorsal surface, having fine close grooves leading from it ; they 
soon disappear, and the surface is broken up into irregular, small, oval 
or diamond-shaped papillae. The sole of the foot is pale ash-grey in 
colour and quite smooth, although the spirit has contracted it into an 
irregular fold on the centre line. The mucous gland is linear and long, 
without any overhanging lobe. The mantle-margin forms a continuous 



GOBWIN-ATJSTEN : ON HELIX BASILEUS, BENS. 249 

plain border to the peristome ; there are no shell-lobes. The right 
dorsal lobe is fairly large, the left formed into two distinct lappets, 
only separated by a narrow slit. The anterior part is a large solid 
fleshy mass of a dark reddish-brown colour upon a paler flattened 
base ; the posterior is of the same character, but paler in colour. The 
visceral sac is darkly coloured near the mantle-margin, beginning with 
a narrow, dark grey, band adjacent to the edge. It is then closely 
mottled with black for 13 mm. backwards, gradually shading off. 
On the side of the rectum and following the suture is a band with 
a white ground very finely speckled with black. The renal organ 
is conspicuous, 17 mm. long by 3-5 mm. wide, of an ochre-brown tint, 
with a very blackly mottled margin of the same breadth on the inner 
or sutural side of the visceral whorl. The integument covering the 
heart was too opaque to show that organ, owing perhaps to the 
action of the alcohol. 

Generative Organs. — The retractor muscle of the penis is attached to 
the end of a caecum given off at the main bend. There is no flagellum : 
the vas deferens joins the point of a rounded knob-like process. The 
amatorial organ is large, bent on itself, tapering towards the retractor 
muscle end. The spermatheca is small, an ovate-shaped bag on a short 
stalk. In this specimen it was pointed in form (PI. VI, Fig. 3, sp.), 
owing to the presence of a spermatophore. On cutting open the 
envelope this was found to consist of a long cylindrical capsule (Fig. 3«), 
rather solid, and 29 mm. in length. No spined portion was seen, for 
most unfortunately it fell from the glass slip on to the ground, and 
a certain portion was broken off. There was sufficient to show that 
the organ in this genus differs very much in its conformation from 
the type of spermatophore found in MacrocMamys, Benmnia, and Girasia. 
The genitalia, compared with other species known to me, come 
nearest to that of Nilgiria solata} 

The salivary gland is large and wide, in one mass, spreading in 
a thin layer over the capacious stomach. Only one duct was observed 
(the other may have been broken), this, close to the more solid anterior 
part, divided into two. 

The radula (Fig. 5) is very broad, 5-5 mm., its length being 11 mm. 
The rhachidian tooth is tricuspid, the admedian teeth are elongate 
with a cusp on the outer side, the laterals are aculeate, slightly curved 
in foi'm, they become shorter and more slender, and the outermost are 
blunt and minute, thus resembling those of Ravana politissima (Pfr.), 
but the formula is different, viz. : — 56 : 2 : 28 : 1 : 28 : 2 : 56. This 
formula corresponds within 2 of Nilgiria Chenui, but in that species 
the admedian teeth are tricuspid. 

The jaw (Fig. 4) is solid, with a central projection on a concave 
cutting edge. 

Benson, judging from shell characters alone, was quite right in 
saying, " Helix Basileus is related to the Cingalese group containing 



^ In Ariophanta Balyi it may be noticed what a very small and rudimentary 
flagellum is present near the Junction of the vas deferens with the penis. 



250 PROCEEDINGS OF THE MALACOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

H. Chenui and R. gamma, Pfr., approachinfjj the latter in the more de- 
pressed spire and the want of solidity, and ditfcring from both shells 
in its planate whorls and simple suture." After some further remarks 
regarding H. Chenui, he alludes to the shell of R. Ilumphreysiana, 
Lea, as being somewhat similar on the under side, and it was very 
natural that he should make a comparison between these two large 
species.' 

I place the species under review in the subgenus Nilgiria ; it agrees 
in all its chief characters with those species of that subgenus hitherto 
known to me, except in the dental formula and in the shape of the 
central and admedian teeth, which, curiously enough, are like those 
of Ariophanta [Indrella) ampulla (Bens.). 

I have more than once alluded to the distinctness of the molluscan 
genera of the family Zonitidoe in southern India and Ceylon. 
Nothing corresponding to them as far as the anatomy is concerned 
has been found for any distance outside the Peninsula area. Ario- 
phanta interrupta (Bens.) is an exception and was collected by me in 
the Jessore District, near Calcutta, having pushed its way thus far 
to the eastward, but I did not find it on the left bank of the 
Brahmaputra River. A. interrupta occurs on the right bank of the 
Ganges in the R-ajmahal Hills, and could very easily be transported 
down that river and on to the area on the eastern side. The land- 
shells of the delta must all have had their original home higher up 
the Gangetic valley on the one side, or the Brahmaputra on the other. 

It is interesting to find so many species of laud mollusca in southern 
India and Ceylon differing so widely in the form of their shells and 
yet having the animals on a common plan. This feature, however, 
is met with in other families. A distinctly parallel case on a smaller 
scale maj' be noted even in the Zonitidae. In the western and eastern 
Himalaj'as the genus Bensonia is represented not only by large, strongly 
built shells, but also in the latter area by a thin and transparent form 
not yet described and unlike the first in every way. 

In Tenasserim and the Malay Peninsula we do not find molluscs 
resembling Nilgiria in their anatomj^, but we find other typical 
groups, Xesta and Hemiplecta, predominant, with characters of their 
own. Macrochlamys, from being the commonest form in Bengal, the 
Himalayas, and Assam, ranging to Burmah and even to the Andamans, 
is scarce in the Malay Peninsula, and I doubt very much if, when the 
species at present put into tliis genus from Malayana and Japan, etc., 
come to be dissected, they will be found to agree with the typical 
Indian forms. 

Up to the present time I have not seen a MacrochlamyH from 
either Borneo or the Celebes. Species with shells somewhat like 
those of Macrochlamys, such as Everettia consul, E. jucunda, and 



I may point out that in H. Hiimphreysiana, the type of the genus Hemiplecta, 
from Singapur, the animal differs from H. Basileus in many important characters, 
viz. : (1) the genitalia ; (2) the form of the teeth ; (.3) the formula of the radula ; 
(4) the presence of shell-lobes, the most striking among the external characters ; 
and (5) the type of sole of foot. 



G ODWIJT- AUSTEN : ON HELIX BASILEUS, BENS. 251 

E. MoeUendorffi, are in no sense related to that genus. In these 
Bornaan forms the most striking difference from MacrocJilamys is seen 
in the genitalia, in the form of the amatorial organ and its dart. We 
find this same structure of the amatorial organ is not confined to the 
genus Everettia, but recurs in species with very differently formed 
shells, such as Dijakia Hugonis, B. Rumphii, and 2>. rareguttata, 
which Semper included in Ariophmita, and thus, in fact, we have 
in the Malay Archipelago a local generic group very similar to one 
found in southern India. 

It may be noted I do not accept the subgeneric title of Xestina 
for the southern Indian forms, because a genus should be properly 
described, and a type- species indicated. If this rule were always 
followed much uncertainty and confusion would be avoided. 

The histoiy of Xestina may be summed up as follows : — 

Albers: "Die Heliceen," 1860, pp. 50, 51. Created Xesta, gave 
a description of the shell characters, and made two divisions : — 
(a) Testa soUdida; type, Nanina StiiarticB, Sow., from Celebes. 
{b) Testa pellucida ; type, N. citrina^ Linn., from Amboina. 

Semper: "Reisen im Archipel der Philippinen," 1870, pp. 55-68. 
Divided Xesta into three groups, unnamed. 

Pfeffer: Jahrb. Deutsch, Malak. Ges., 1878, p. 257. Indicated 
Xestina, did not describe it, but in connection with it mentioned 
first and more particularly the species N. Siamensis, thereby 
indicating this species possessed the characters of his new genus 
better than any other ; next he alludes to H. Isabellinus (since 
shown to be a Ewplectd) and four other species. 

Pfeffer: Abh. Ver. Hamb., vol. vii, pt. 2 (1882), p. 13. Stated that 
Semper' s group of five South Indian species comprised the 
genus Xestina ; but neither the characters of the genus nor 
the type are indicated. 

Godwin - Austen : " Land and Fresh -water Mollusca of India," 
vol. i (1888), p. 253. First refers to the genus Nilgiria, 
giving solata, Bs., as the type ; he described the characteristic 
points of the genus and the anatomy of the type in the same 
work, vol. ii (1898), pp. 77, 78, since found by him to 
agree with two species, Nanina Tranquebarica and N. bistrialis, 
which are included in Semper's group of Xesta above alluded to. 

Touching Pfeffer' s first work of 1878, the anatomy of N, Siamensis 
has, I believe, not yet been described, but supposing that it should 
turn out to be peculiar and of generic value, would it not be entitled 
to Pfeffer's name Xestina ? He at the time was discussing the form 
of the foot in the IS^aninidae, and did not carry his investigations with 
reference to Siamensis much beyond that point ; he may have had 
the form of the shell also in mind, but it is impossible now to interpret 
exactly, owing to the lapse of time and the work done since by others, 
what Pfeffer understood as the typical characters of Xestina, but it 
seems to me that the species Siamensis, the first he selected, expressed 
them most forcibly at that period. 



252 PROCEEDINGS OF THK MALACOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE VL 

Fig. 1. Animal, shell removed, viewed from the left side, showing renal organ, etc., 
and position of the amatorial organ within the visceral sac. 

,, la. Animal viewed from the front, showing mantle-edge and dorsal lobes. 

,, lb. Animal seen from the back, showing mucous gland. 

,, 2. Mantle-margin, much enlarged, with part of sole of the foot. 

,, 2a. Mantle-margin, showing more of the right side. 

,, 3. Generative organs separated out. 

,, 3a. Portion of spermatophore removed from the spermatheca. 

,, 4. Jaw. 

,, 5. Teeth of the radula, at various points in the row. 

am. or. amatorial organ. post, l.d.l. posterior left dorsal lobe. 

ant. l.d.l. anterior left dorsal lobe. r. renal organ. 

c.r.p. caecum of the penis and r.m. retractor muscle. 

retractor muscle. r.m.p. retractor muscle of penis. 

ffeu. ap. generative aperture. s. slit, dividing the anterior left 

h. heart. dorsal lobe from the posterior. 

ot. ovitheca (supposed). sp. spermatheca. 

ov. oviduct. v.d. vas deferens. 



Proc. Malac. Soc 

la 



Vol. V, PI. VI. 




H. H. G.-A. del. 

ANATOMY OF ARIOPHANTA (NILGIRIA) BASILEUS, BENS. 



253 



ON THE IDENTITY AND EELATIONSHIPS OF BUCCINUM 
BERMESTOIBEUM, Lam.: FSEUBAMYCLA, nov. gen. 

By S. Pace. 

Eead ISdA June, 1902. 

The object of the present note is to dispel the existing confusion 
regarding the designation of the common Australian Mollusc which 
is perhaps best known to collectors as Columbella lineolata, Pse. 

Lamarck appears to have been the first to meet with the species, 
and his description ^ of Buccinum dermestoideum, although not a very 
full one, would apply perfectly well to the shell subsequently figured - 
under this name by Kiener from the Lamarckian collection. Kiener's 
figure is unmistakably intended to represent the Australian species, 
and not Nassa cornicula (Olivi) as has generally been assumed by 
later authors in consequence of both Lamarck and Kiener having 
given the Mediten-anean as the habitat of B. dermestoideiim (as also 
of so many other forms known not to occur in that sea). The equally 
erroneous locality ' West Indies ' came next to be associated with this 
species : the specimens from the Cumingian collection, now in the 
British Museum, that were figured by both Sowerby ^ and Reeve * 
as Columbella dermestoides, being stated to come from that region. 
Angas® was the first to record the true habitat of this Mollusc, and 
he correctly identified specimens from South Australia and from Port 
Jackson as belonging to the species figured by Kiener ; but, at a later 
date, imagining that his detennination must have been erroneous in 
view of the discrepancy in the recorded distribution, he adopted 
Pease's manuscript name of Columbella lineolata. Meanwhile Pease, 
considering Lamarck's species to be identical with Olivi's Buccinum 
corniculum,^ had renamed ' the Australian shell Columbella tnaculosa, 
a name which he and others have frequently misquoted as maculata. 
To make matters worse, specimens in the British Museum have for 



' Hist. nat. s. Vert., vol. vii, p. 275. 

* Spec. gen. Coq. viv., Buccinum, sp. 51. 
3 Thes. Conch., Columbella, sp. 58. 

* Conch. Icon., Columbella, sp. 144. 

5 Proc. Zool. Soc, 1865, p. 167 ; 1867, p. 195. 
^ Zool. Adriat., p. 144. 

* Amer. Journ. Conch., vol. vii, p. 21. 



254 PROCEEDINGS OF THE MALACOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

years been labcUftd (in Aiif^as' handwriting) Columhella tessellata, 
Gask., and shells have been pretty widely distributed among collectors 
under this name. 

The main features of the literary history of Buccinum dermestoideum 
may be tabulated as follows : — 
1822, Aug. '■'■ Buccmum dermestoideum " : J. P. B. de Lamarck, Hist, 

nat. Anim. s. Vert., vol. vii, p. 275 [no fig.]. 
1834. '■'■Buccinum dermestoideum, Lam." : L. C. Kiencr, Spec. gen. 

Coq. viv., Buccinum, sp. 51, pi. xxv, fig. [fair] 100. 
1844. " Col.dermestoides .... Bueon. dermestoides,X.ieneT" : 

G. B. Sowerby i, Thes. Conch., Columhella, sp. 58, p. 131, 

pi. xxix, fig. [poor] 123. 
[?] 1851, Dec. 25. Colomhella dermestoides. Lam. : S. Petit de la 

Saussaye, Journ. Conchyl., vol. ii, p. 429 [name only, as 

coming from Guadeloupe]. 
1853, Oct. '■'■ Amycla dermestoidea. Lam.": H. & A. Adams, Genera 

Rec. Moll., vol. i, p. 187 [name only]. 

1858, Nov. ^'' Columhella dermestoides . . . Buccinum dermestoides, 

Kiener " : L. A. Reeve, Conch. Icon., Columhella, sp. 144 
[fig. poor]. 

1859. "-4. [Amycla'] dermestoidea (Buccinum), Lamarck " : J. C. Chenu, 

Man. Conchyl., vol. i, p. 202 [name only], fig. [good] 1099. 
1865, Jan. 24. ^'Columhella (Mitrella) dermestoides. Buccitium der- 
mestoides, Kiener": G. F. Angas, Proc. Zool. Soc, 1865, 
p. 167 [no fig.]. 

1867, Feb. 14. " Columhella (Amycla) dermestoides. Columhella der- 

mestoides, Kiener": G. F. Angas, Proc. Zool. Soc, 1867, 
p. 195 [no fig.]. 

1868. "■Columhella (Amycla) dermestoides, Kiener": J. C. Cox, 

Land & Mar. Shells Austral., p. 6 [name only]. 
1871, Aug. 1. " Columhella maculosa, Pse. [n.n. for C. dermestoides, 

Aug., non Lam.] " : W. H. Pease, Amer. Joum. Conch., 

vol. vii, pp. 21-2 [no fig.]. 
1877, Feb. Columhella lineolata, Pease, non C. dermestoides, Kien. : 

J. Brazier, Proc. Linn. Soc. New South Wales, vol. i, p. 231 

[no fig.]. 

1877, Mar. 6. Columhella lineolata, Pease : G. F. Angas, Proc. Zool. 

Soc, 1877, p. 182 [no fig.]. 

1878, Nov. 5. Columella [sic] lineolata, Pease: G. F. Angas, Proc 

Zool. Soc, 1878, p. 865 [name only]. 
1883. Columhella (Amycla) dermestoidea, Lam. : G. "W. Tryon, Syst. 

Conch., vol. ii, p. 179, pi. Ivi, fig. [fair] 89. 
1883, July 18. " C. \_Columhella (Mitrella)] dermestoides, Kiener" : 

G. W. Tryon, Man. Conch., vol. v, p. 131, pi. xlix, fig. 

[copies Kiener] 25. 
1883, July 18. " C. [Columhella (Mitrella)'] lineolata (Tea?,e), Br ayAer" : 

G. "W. Tiyon, Man. Conch., vol. v, p. 138, pi. Ii, fig. 

[poor] 53. 
1889, Apr. " Columhella lineolata, Pease (Brazier) = C. dermestoides, 

Angas " : J. Brazier, Joum. Conch., vol. vi, pp. 67-8 [no fig.]. 



PACE : ON BUCCINUM DERMESTOIDEUM, LAMK. 255 

1889. " C. \_Colum'bella] lineolata, Pearse [sic]": T. Whitelegge, 
Invert. Fauna Port Jackson, p. 90, sp. 306 [no fig.]. 

1893. " Columlella lineolata, Pease, = C. dermestoides, Ang., non 
Kien. " : D. J. Adcock, Aquat. Moll. South Austral., sp. 115 
[name only]. 

1895. ^'' Columiella (Ifitrella) lineolata, Brazier": W. Kobelt, in 

Martini & Chemnitz, Conch. Cab., Columbella, p. 214, 
pi. xxix, fig. 12 [merely copies Tryon]. 

1896. " Columbella (Mitrella) dermestoidea, Kiener " : "W. Kobelt, in 

Martini & Chemnitz, Conch. Cab., Columbella, p. 234, 

pi. xxxii, fig. 1 [copies Kiener]. 
1901, Dec. 19. " C. \_Columbella^ lineolata, Brazier": R. Tate and 

W.L. May, Proc. Linn. Soc. New South Wales, 1901, p. 366 

[name only]. 

. Columbella lineolata : W. H. Pease, MS. 

. Columhella maculata : W. H. Pease, MS. 

, Columbella tessellata : J. S. Gaskoin, MS. 

Since the publication of Sowerby's Columbella monograph, authors, 
while differing widely as to the specific name of the Australian shell, 
have all agreed that it should be classed among the Columbellidae ; 
although by several it has been referred to Adams' genus Amycla, 
which, strictly speaking, is Nassoid and not Columbelloid in its affinities. 
Upon purely conchological grounds this association of Buecinum 
dermestoideum with the Columbellidae was fully justified, since the 
shell presents no characters of more than specific importance by which 
it can be separated from species which are beyond question true 
members of that family, and nothing has hitherto been known 
regarding the internal anatomy of this form. Recently, however, 
the examination of the dried-up remains of several animals which 
I have been enabled to soak out of shells in my own collection ' 
has proved conclusively that the species must be removed from the 
Columbellidae ; and, since it is not possible to assign it to any 
established genus, I am proposing for its reception the new genus 
Pseud AMxcLA. 

PSEUDAMYCLA DEKMESTOIDEA (Lam.). 

Shell and Operculum. — The shell of this species is too well known to 
require detailed description : it is readily recognized among Australian 
Prosobranchs by its Amyclaeforra contour, and its smooth or spirally 
striated whorls with their prettily tessellated marking. The protoconch 
(Pigs. 1-3) is not sharply differentiated from the nepionic shell: its 
whorls are smooth and devoid of marking. The periostracum is thin 
and adherent, transparent and of a somewhat greenish tinge. The 
operculum (Figs. 4 and 5) pale-hom coloured, rounded and with apical 
or sub-apical nucleus. 

External characters of Animal. — It is not yet possible to say very 
much regarding the external characters of the animal of Pseudamycla 



' These were collected in Sydney Harbour. 



256 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE MALA.COLOGICAL SOCIETY. 



dermestoidea. The body is apparently marbled with dark ^ey over 
its upper surface, while the sole of the foot is unpigiuented. The 
tentacles appeared very short and stout, and although they arise very 



\ ^tKnv 




Figs. 1-3. Various aspects of the apical whorls (slightly worn) of a young 
individual : the protoconch is shaded. 

4. Operculum. 

5. Ditto of another specimen. 

6. Portion of radula. 

7. Isolated lateral tooth viewed from its lower surface, showing mode of 
articulation. 

8. Ditto. 

9. Ditto viewed from the upper surface, showing depression which receives 
the outer cusp of the preceding tooth. 

10. Isolated rhachidian teeth seen from below, showing mode of articulation. 

11. Rhachidian tooth, lateral view. 

(Figs. 7 to 11 are drawn to the same scale.) 

close tofjether they do not seem to be connate as are those of all 
Columbellidae with which I am acquainted : the black eye -spots are 
borne near their bases on the external border. A pair of short caudal 



PACE : ON BUCCINUM DERMESTOIDEUM, lAMK. 257 

tentacles, such as are met with in most species of Nassidae, are 
seemingly present, though I was not able to make them out quite 
satisfactorily. 

Radida. — The characters of the radula (Figs. 7-11) at once separate 
Pseudamycla from the Columbellidae ; and, while the radula is some- 
what similar in type to that met with in Pisania, Tritonidea, Cominella, 
etc., nothing quite like it is known to me as being represented in any 
Buccinoid genus. Prof. H. M. Gwatkin also, who has kindly examined 
a specimen for me, can find nothing comparable with it among his 
extensive collection of radulae. The radul» of seven individuals 
were examined, and in each the structure was substantially the 
same. It consists of about 100 rows of the formula 1-1-1. The 
tridentate central tooth is remarkable for its comparatively small size, 
and for being much longer than it is broad. The laterals, having their 
bases much prolonged backwards, are roughly triangular in outline : 
they are ai'med normally with four cusps, but a minute denticle is 
occasionally present at the base of one or other of the cusps. The teeth 
appear to articulate with each other in the manner indicated in the 
figures, which were drawn after examining a large number of isolated 
teeth mounted in various positions in different media and under 
varying conditions of illumination, and they represent what I believe 
to be the true form of the teeth ; but the correct interpretation of the 
structural details of a radula is always difficult, and, no matter how 
much time be expended upon the investigation, the result is never 
entirely satisfactory. 

Regarding the systematic position of Pseudamycla. The supposed 
possession of caudal tentaculae would strongly suggest affinity with 
Nassa and BuUia, and the shell is also not so very dissimilar, but the 
characters of the radula absolutely preclude any closer association 
with these groups than with the Columbellidae. The radula of 
Lonovania minima (Mont.) as figured' by the late Martin Woodward 
presents considerable similarity to that of Pseudamycla, but the details 
recorded are insufficient to enable me to judge if this resemblance 
is more than a merely superficial one. Anyhow, pending further 
investigation of the soft parts, Pseudamycla may best be placed among 
the Pisaniinae. 

As to whether any other supposed species of Columbellidae will have 
to be transferred to Pseudamycla, only further anatomical research 
will decide, but I think it at least highly probable that Columhella 
miltostoma, Ten.-Wds., from Tasmania, will prove to be closely related 
to P. dermestoidea, and may even be conspecific with it. 

' Proc. Make. Soc. Lond., vol. iii, p. 238. 



PACE : ON buccinum: dehjiestoideuj/, lame. 257 

tentacles, such, as are met with in most species of Nassida?, are 
seemingly present, thoiigii I was not able to make them out quite 
satisfactorily. 

Radula. — The characters of the radula (¥igs. 7-11) at once separate 
Pseudamijcla from the Columhellidfe ; and, while the radula is some- 
what similar in type to that met with in Pisania, Tritonidea, Cominclla, 
etc., nothing quite like it is known to me as being represented in any 
Buccinoid genus. Prof. H. M. Gwatkin also, who has kindly examined 
a specimen for me, can find nothing comparable with it among his 
extensive collection of radulse. The radulae of seven individuals 
were examined, and in each the structure was substantially the 
same. It consists of about 100 rows of the formula 1-1-1. The 
tridentate central tooth is remarkable for its comparatively small size, 
and for being much longer than it is broad. The laterals, having their 
bases much prolonged backwards, are roughly triangular in outline : 
they are armed normally with four cusps, but a minute denticle is 
occasionally present at the base of one or other of the cusps. The teeth 
appear to articulate with each other in the manner indicated in the 
figures, which were drawn after examining a large number of isolated 
teeth mounted in various positions in different media and under 
varying conditions of illumination, and they represent what I believe 
to be the true form of the teeth ; but the correct interpretation of the 
structural details of a radula is always difficult, and, no matter how 
much time be expended upon the investigation, the result is never 
entirely satisfactory. 

Kegarding the systematic position of Pseudamyda. The supposed 
possession of caudal tentaculoe would strongly suggest affinitj' with 
Nassa and Bullia, and the shell is also not so very dissimilar, but the 
characters of the radula absolutely preclude any closer association 
with these groups than with the Columbellidoe. The radula of 
Donovania »«m?«i« (Mont.) as figured' by the late Martin Woodward 
presents considerable similarity to that of Pseudamyda, but the details 
recorded are insufficient to enable me to judge if this resemblance 
is more than a merely superficial one. Anyhow, pending further 
investigation of the soft parts, Pseudamyda may best be placed among 
the Pisaniinae. 

As to whether any other supposed species of Columbellidae will have 
to be transferred to Pseudamyda, only further anatomical research 
will decide, but I think it at least highly probable that Cdumldla 
miltostoma, Ten.-Wds., from Tasmania, will prove to be closely related 
to P. dermsstoidea, and may even be conspecific with it. 



1 Proc. Malac. Soc. Lond., vol. iii, p. 238. 



VOL. v. — APRIL, 1903. 18 



258 



ORDINARY MEETLXG. 

Friday, Hxn November, 1902. 

E. A. Smith, F.Z.S., President, in the Cliair. 

The following comraiuiications were read : — 

1. "Description of some new Helicoid Land-Shells." Bj G. K. 
Gude, r.Z.S. 

2. "Note on the genus Pseicdaim/c/a." By S. Pace. 

3. "On the anatomy of Pari/phaxta urniila, Pfr. ; with notes on 
Paryphanta Hochstetteri, Pfr., and Rhjtida Greenwoodi, dray." By 
K. Murdoch. 

Exhibits were placed on the table by the following : — 

H. Pulton : A specimen of Fistulana clava, Lam., piercing and 
partly absorbing (?) shells of Mitra interlirata and Nassa Gruneri ; 
ova and young shells of Melo Indicus, Gmel. 

Miss Loddor : A collection of Tasmanian and West and South 
Australian shells. 

B. B. Woodward : TestaceUa hnliotidea^ from near Cheltenham, the 
second authenticated occurrence for Gloucestershire. 

A. S. Kennard : Hycjrotina revelata, from near St. Michael's Mount, 
Cornwall ; Splmriiim pallidum, Gray, from the Pleistocene of 
Barnwell. 

E. E,. Sykes : Species of Rhiostoma ; a series of specimens of 
Cardium yiodosum, Turton, showing variety of internal coloration; 
distorted specimens of Trivia Europcea, Mont. ; specimens of VoliUa 
Qi(cketti, Smith, and V. Africana^ Keeve. 

G. K. Gude : Specimens in illustration of his paper. 



ORDINARY MEETING. 

Friday, 12th December, 1902. 

E. A. Smith, F.Z.S., President, in the Chair. 

Richard Henry Stevens was elected to membership of the Society. 
The following communications were read : — 

1. " Notes on Mr. W. M. Daly's collection of Land and Fresh-water 
Mollusca from Siam." By W. t. Blanford, LL.D., F.ll.S. 

2. "Note on J. E. Grav's type-specimens of Jurassic Ammonites 
from India." By G. C. Crick, F.G.S. 

3. " I'rcliminary note on the genus Cafanlns.''^ By ^liss Digbv. 

4. "Note on a Monstrosity of Rissoia parva, Da Costa." By E. E. 
Sykes, B.A., F.L.S. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE MALACOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 259 

Exhibits were placed on the table by the following : — 

F. Gr. Bridgman: A series of specimens of Oliva erythrostomn, Lara., 
0. tremulina, Lam., and 0. nohilis, live. The validity of separating 
these species was called in qnestion in view of the instability of the 
shell characters. 

E. A. Smith : Some snpposed new species of shells from the 
Maldive Islands. These shells form part of the collections made by 
Mr. J. Stanley Gardiner, and are the first important series of marine 
shells received from these islands. Particular attention was called to 
a small species of Janira. 

Kev. K. Ashington Bullen: A series of specimens of Cyprcea 
tigris, Linn., from Mombasa, showing colour variation. Specimens of 
Uygromia montivaya, West., a Lusitanian form, from the Pleistocene 
in Cornwall. The shells were found beneath preliistoric graves at 
Harlyn Bay : the nearest locality for the living shell is Spain and 
Portugal. 

Dr. W. T. Blanford and E. E.. Sykes : Specimens in illustration of 
their papers. 



ORDINARY MEETING. 

Friday, 9th January, 1903, 

E. A. Smith, F.Z.S., President, in the Chair. 

Miss Lettice Digby and the Rev. William H. Webster were elected 
to membership of the Society. 

The following communications were read : — 

1. "Note on the dates of publication of J. E. Gray's 'Catalogue 
of Pulmonata ... in the . . . British Museum, Pt I,' 12mo, 
1855, and of A. Moquin-Tandon's ' Histoire naturelle dcs Mollusques 
terrestres et fluviatiles de France,' 2 vols. 8vo, 1855." By B. B. 
Woodward, F.L.S. 

2. " On Ammonites rohudus (E,. Strachey, MS.), H. F. Blanford, 
from the Himalaya." By G. C. Crick, F.G.S. 

3. "On the renal organs of Nucula nucleus, Linn." By E.. H. 
Burne, B.A., F.Z.S. 

Exhibits were placed on the table by the following: — 

F. G. Bridgman : Some varieties of Olka irisans, Lam., and 
0. maura, Lam. 

E. R. Sykes : Specimens of Ahcra hxdlata, Miill., showing extreme 
variation in size. The largest specimens came from the west coast of 
Ireland, the intermediate size from the English Channel, and the 
smallest from off Norway. 

R. H. Burne : An oyster attached to the carapace of a crab. 



260 



NOTES 



Note on the Nepionic Shell of 3Iet.o Ixdtcus, Gmel. {Read 
lith November, 1902.) — The embryo shells extracted from the egg-cluster 
of Melo Indiciis, Gmel., exhibited to-night by Mr. Fidton, show one 
extremely interesting feature. In most gastropod shells the apical whorls 
(protoconch, or nucleus) are distinctly marked off' from the succeeding 
whorls by a well-defined line, and whilst either plain or having a sculpturing 
of their own differ in any case in ornamentation from the later or adult shell. 

It has generally been held that this line of demarcation, indicative of 
a pause in the growth of the shell, also showed the extent of the growth 
of the shell within the egg, the deposition of shell bearing the markings 
of the adult not taking place until after exclusion from the egg. 

In the present instance, however, every one of the young, or nepionic 
shells, extracted from the egg-capsules has begun to form shell having the 
colour-markings of the adult, so that in this case the pause in growth, 
which, moreover, is but faintly marked, if at all, affords no measure of 
the extent of the shell formed within the egg, shell formation having 
been resumed on the adult plan prior to exclusion. 

It would be a matter of great interest to learn if other similar instances 
occur, or whether the present is an exceptional exami)le. 

B. B. Woodward. 

Note on a Monstrosity of Rtssoia parva. Da Costa. {Read 
I2t/i December, 1902.) — In a haul of thedredge taken in from 5 to 10 fathoms 
oft' the north of Guernsey last Summer there occurred a large number 
of RisM)ia parva, including specimens of the usual colour and of the 
var. nigra, Korman. 



Monstrosity of Sissoia parva, Da C. 

One specimen of a distorted form was taken in which the earlier whorls 
are quite regular, but suddenly — owing probably to an injury to the 
animal — the shape is entirely altered and the sculpture ceases, the shell 
becoming smooth. The whorl is flattened vertically, being squeezed out, 
and a large l)road carination appears. The specimen was alive, but 
immature, and, unfortunately, was not detected until the animal was dead. 

E. R. Sykes. 



NOTES. 261 

Peeliminart Note on the Anatomy of the genus Catavlus. 
[Read \2th December, 1902.) — The genus Cataulus, at present included 
in the subfamily Pupiniute, is restricted exclusively to the Cingalese 
district, and the twelve species (eleven of which are terrestrial and one 
arl)oreal) I have worked at were obtained by Mr. 0. CoUett at altitudes 
between 500 feet and 4,000 feet. All bear a striking resemblance to one 
another, both as regards their external appearance and their internal 
anatomy, and differ only in minor details. 

Among other interesting points about the genus is the fact that it 
possesses many rhipidoglossate characteristics, pre-eminently as regards 
(1) the nervous system, (2) the kidneys, (3) the looping of the intestine, 
(4) the epipodium ; while on the other hand it has a tsenioglossate radula 
of littorinoid form. FLU-tlier, it has neither gill nor lung, the mantle 
acting as a pulmonary sac. Air is introduced into the mantle-cavity 
through an opening within the peristome ; this communicates with a tube 
which traverses the last whorl of the shell. Possibly the left kidney 
(cf. the papillated sac of- TrocJms) acts as a lung. Partly between the 
right and left kidneys and pai'tly between the left kidney and the intestine 
there lies a pigmented sac, containing two species of Infusoria, hitherto 
unidentified. 

In a forthcoming paper the anatomy of Cataulus will be more minutely 
described, and its affinities discussed, revealing a close relationship to the 
Paludiuidse. Lettice Digby. 

Note on the d-ates of publication of J. E. Gray's " Catalogue op 

PULMONATA . . . IN THE . . . BRITISH MuSEUil. Pt.. I," 12mO, 1855 ; 

and of a. Moquin-Tandon's " Histoire natorelle des Mollusques 

TERRESTRES ET FLUVIATILES DE FrANCE," 2 Vols. 8vO, 1855. {Head 

9th January, 1903.) — These two authors having proposed new names 
in their respective works, that in one case at all events relate to the same 
species, it became necessary to find out which should have precedence. 

From inquiries instituted at the British Museum it ajDpears that Gray's 
work was completed early in April, 1855, and issued by the 18th of the 
same month. 

Through the kindness of Messrs. Dulau & Co. the following particulars 
concerning Moquin-Tandon's work have been extracted from their copy of 
the " Bibliographie de la France," the additional details ascei'taiued by 
comjjutation being added in [ ] :— 

Livr. 1 and 2, 17 sh. [= vol. i, pp. i-viii, 1-256]: 14, vii, 1855. 
Livr. 3, 10 sh. [= vol. i], pp. 257-4ia ; 9 pis. : 18, viii, 1855. 
Livr. 4 and 5, 23 sh. [= vol. ii, pp. 1-368] : 19^1, 1856. 

Livr. 6 and last, 17 sh. [= vol. ii, pp. 369-646] : 26, iv, 1856. 
Hence it appears that the whole of the systematic portion, or vol. ii, was 
issued in 1856, and not, as dated on the title-page, 1855. 

Gray's names consequently have precedence over Moquin-Tandon's, as, 
for example, Milax, Gray, which supersedes Amalia, Moquin-Tandon. 

B. B. Woodward. 



262 



DESCRirilONS OF SOME NEW FORMS OF IIELICOID LAND-SHELLS. 

By G. K. GuDE, F.Z.8., etc. 

Head lilh November, 1902. 

I'LATE VII. 

Some of the shells forming the subject of the present paper have 
heen in the British Museum, in the collections of Mr. Ponsouby and 
Mr. Da Costa, or in ray own possession, for several years ; and altliough 
the fact of their being undescribcd has never been disputed, I have 
hitherto hesitated to deal with them, hoping that some one more 
comjjetent would do so. 

1. LABTKiNTnus Baeki, Dautz., var. diminijta, var. nov. 
PI. VII, Figs. 1-4. 

DifPers from the type described by Dautzenberg ^ by its smaller size. 
In the characters of the aperture and peristome it agrees closely with 
the type. 

Diam. maj. 27, min. 23 mm. ; alt. 11 mm. 
Hah. — Perene, Peru. Altitude 900 metres. 

Diam. maj. 24-5, min. 21 mm. ; alt. 11*5 mm. 
Jlah. — Sagarmo, Peru. Altitude 1,000 metres. 
Two specimens received from Mr. AY. F. H. Eosenberg in 1899. 
This habitat is considerably farther south than that of the type. 

2. Thersites (Badistes) meeidionalis, n.sp. PI. YII, Figs. 5-7. 

Shell narrowly umbilicated, sublenticular, finely striated, whitish 
with 3 pale butf bands ; the first subsutural, sharply defined ; the 
other two more or less diffused, one above and one below the 
periphery; the base becomes pale brown towards the umbilicus. 
Spire depressed, suture margined, apex obtuse. "VVhorls 5, flattened 
above, increasing regularly ; the last acutely keeled at first, becoming 
rounded and dilated towards the mouth, tumid below, not descending 
anteriorlj'. The first four whorls are finely granulated; the last shows 
a few traces of si)iral lines above, but below the periphery it is 
ornamented with distinct wavy incised spirals. Aperture oblique, 
subovate ; margins subparallel ; peristome white, thiehcned and 
refiexed, columellar margin dilated, partly covering the narrow but 
deej) umbilicus. 

Diam. maj. 28, min. 23-5 mm. ; alt. 16o mm. 

27 '^2 14 

11 11 ^ ' 1 11 ■"■^ 11 11 ^^ 11 

JTab. — South Australia. 
Type in my collection. 

» Joum. (lu Coucliyl., torn, xlix (1901), p. 306, pi. ix, fig.«. 1-3. 



GUDE : ON NEW HELICOID LAND-SHELLS. 263 

Two specimens were received in 1893 from Mr. Sowcrby as Helix 
HowarcU, Ang. The present shell, however, is larger and more 
depressed than that species, the sculpture is different, and the 
aperture is more rounded in outline, while the umbilicus is narrower 
and partly covered by the columellar margin of the peristome. 
T. mericUondis also resembles T. patmelis, but the latter has the 
whorls more rounded, is less depressed, and is totally devoid of keel. 

Mr. Ponsonby possesses a specimen of the new species, measuring 
30 X 25 X 17 mm. An interesting instance of tenacity of life was 
observed with the specimens under discussion. They were received 
on November 13th, 1S93, when they were placed in a bos and put on 
one side ; on July 7th, 1894, on being brought out for re-examination, 
the animals were found to be still alive, and being placed on some 
damp moss they soon began to crawl about. 

3. Leptarionta venusta, n.sp. PI. VII, Figs. 8^11. 

Shell subcovered perforate, trochoid, very finely striated, thin, but 
solid, shining, chalky white, suifused with greenish yellow round 
the umbilicus and with a brown umbilical patch; variously banded 
with pale or dark brown or black, iSpire trochoid, suture impressed, 
apex obtuse. Whorls 3^, rounded at the periphery, inihited, increasing 
slowly at fii-st, the last widening rather suddenly, dilated and becoming 
obtusely angulated towards the mouth, descending shortly in front, 
a little excavated around the umbilicus, and slightly gibbous behind 
the basal margin of the peristome. Aperture oblique, transverse, 
subtrigonal ; peristome white, the margins slightly thickened and 
expanded, the basal margin reflexed, the columellar margin slightly 
dilated and overhanging the narrow perforation of the umbilicus. 

Diam. maj. 20*5, min. 16 mm. ; alt. 12-5 mm. 
19 14-.5 12 

„ „ 22-5, „ 17 „ 11-5 „ 

Sah. — Chiriqui, Panama. 

Compared with L. Costaricensis, Roth, its nearest ally, Z. vemtsta 
is smaller, more elevated in the spire, rounded instead of keeled at 
the periphery, while the aperture is less spread out, and the umbilicus 
is reduced to a narrow perforation, partly covered by the slightly 
dilated columellar margin. The spiral sulci of its congener are 
absent. 

In regard to coloration and banding the same range of variation 
appears to obtain in the two species, and there can be no doubt that 
they are divergent descendants from a common stock. The banding, 
may consist of a narrow, brown, periphertil band, or of two broader, 
supra-peripheral bands, either black or rich chestnut brown; in the- 
latter case the colouring of the bands is intensified at the edges, 
especially the lower ; in some specimens there are two supra-peripheral 
bands of a pale brown or greenish yellow, occupying nearly the 
whole of the upper surface, leaving only two narrow white zones, one 
below the suture and the other between the two bands. 



264 PKOCEEDINGS OF THE JIALACOLOniCAL SOCIETY. 

A rather distinctive and pretty type of colour variety, for -which 
I propose the name hlanda, var. nov., is that shown in Fig. 11. Tlie 
upper lialf is of a pale oclireous brown, bordered at the poi'ii)hery 
by a narrow band of a rich deep chocolate colour, sharply defined at 
its lower edge, but diffused above ; there is a broad zone of the same 
shade just behind the upper margin of the peristome, somewhat 
diffused near the periphery, and a very narrow line, also of the same 
shade, occurs just under the suture ; the base is similar to that of 
the type. 

Several specimens -were received in October, 1899, from Mr. Rosenberg, 
Kepresentativc suites from the same source are also in the ]}ritish 
!^[useum, and in the collections of Mr. Ponsonby and j\[r. Da Costa. 
I am not aware that the species is represented in any other collections. 

4. Xesta DwiPANA,^ n.sp. PI. VII, Figs. 15-17. 

Shell narrowly perforated, depressed conoid, thin, fragile, pale 
corneous, translucent, sliining, finely striated with obsolete microscopic 
spirals. Spire depressed, suture linear, apex obtuse. Whorls 5, 
rounded, closely coiled, the last increasing rather suddenly, not 
descending in front ; sharply angular at first, becoming rounded 
towards the mouth. Aperture obli(|ue, semirotundatc ; peristome thin, 
straight, acute ; columellar margin slightly rcflexed over the narrow 
umbilical perforation. 

Diam. maj. 12, min. 10 mm. ; alt. 7 mm. 

Hah. — Passaroean, Java. 

Type in my collection. 

Three specimens collected by Mr. Fruhstorfer, and received from 
him in September, 1891, as H. Jenynsi, Pfr. When PfeifFia- first 
described II. Jenynsi ^ its origin was not known. Later he indicate d 
Tanna Island, Xew Caledonia, as its habitat.^ This was subse(|uently 
corrected to Tanna Island, New Hebrides.^ Professor von Martens 
gives Eastern Java and Querimba Island, east coast of Africa, as 
habitat ; '" the former record being based on specimens collected by 
Zollinger and labelled Nanina pmilla, Mouss., inMousson's collection. 
The otlier record was based on specimens collected by Professor 
W. Peters. The New Hebrides record is an extremely doubtful one, 
for in spite of diligent search it has never been confirmed ; the 
reference is probably due to a mistaken identification. There only 
remain, therefore, the two localities Eastern Africa and Java to be con- 
sidered. Mr. Smith, with his iisual courtesy, has allowed me to examine 
Pfeiffer's types of H. Jenynn in the Cuming Collection, and these 
leave no doubt as to their correct inclusion in the genus Martensia, 
confined, I believe, to East Africa. Moreover, a couple of specimens 
from Mozambique received by me from Mr. Ancey agree with the 

' Yava Dwipa (Barlcv Island), an ancient name of Java. 
2 Pioc. Zool. Soc, 1845, p. 181. 
s ]\Ion. Helic, iv (IS^O), p. 32. 

♦ :\I.)n. Ilclic, V (1.SG8), p. 84. 

* Pruuss. Exped. Ost-Asieu, Zool., Bd. ii (1807), p. '254. 



GUDE : ON NEW HELICOID LAND-SHELLS. 



265 



types. The only question now remaining is whether Mousson's 
isianma pusiUa is really identical with Pfeitfer's species, a question 
which the diagnosis by Von Martens is insufficient to decide. That 
the shells now under consideration are really different from Pfeiffer's 
types there is no doubt, and whether they pertain to Mousson's species 
comparison only can decide. Since Mousson's types are not accessible, 
I consider the most prudent course to pursue is to ignore Mousson's 
name and to treat the present shells as belonging to an undescribed 
form. Von Martens has recorded for M. Jenynsi, in addition to Querimba 
Island and Mozambique, a number of localities in German East Africa.^ 
He also refers to the fact that the species occurs in Java and the 
Kew Hebrides, and is more or less restricted in East Africa to the 
coast district, so that, he thinks, an introduction from the East is 
not improbable ; although, as he continues, its close affinity to Mozam- 
bicensis, an inland species, is opposed to this theory. 

The differences between Xesta Bwipana and Martensia Jenynsi can 
best be given in tabular form : — 





Jenynsi. 


Dwipana. 


Shell. 


Thick, solid, opaque, 


yellowish 


Thin,fragile,translucent, 




white. 




corneous. 


Spire. 


Elevated conoid. 




Depressed. 


Last whorl. 


Keeled all round. 




Angular at first, rounded 
at the mouth. 


Base. 


Rounded. 




Swollen. 


Aperture. 


Crescent-shaped. 




Semi-rotund. 


Sculpture. 


Distinct spirals. 




Obsolete microscopic 
spirals. 



For better comparison I have added figures of M. Jenynsi from 
Mozambique (PL VII, Figs. 12-14). 

5. GuppTA FuLTONi, n.sp. PI. VII, Figs. 18-20. 

Shell imperforate, conoid, pale corneous, ornamented above with 
transverse brown zones, finely striated, lustreless above, shining 
below. Spire conoid, suture margined, apex obtuse. Whorls 6^, 
subplane above, tumid below, increasing slowly and regularly, last 
not dilated, not descending anteriorly, surrounded at the periphery by 
an acute, slightly exserted keel. Aperture nearly vertical, unevenly 
crescent- shaped ; peristome thin, straight, acute ; columellar margin 
slightly dilated. Diam. 5, alt. 3 5 mm. 

Hah. — Cocos Island, Pacific Ocean. 

Type in my collection. 

Two specimens were received from Messrs. Sowerby & Fulton as 
Guppya Ropliinsi^ Dall. Upon comparison with Dall's description 
and figures * they proved to be different, and I was at first inclined 



1 Deutscli. 0st-2Vfrica, Bd. iv (1897), p. 49. 

2 Pioc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad., 1900, p. 97, pi. viii, %s. o, 6. 



266 PROCEEDINGS OF THE MALACOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

to refer them to the var. comdus tlescribcd hy Professor von Martens,^ 
but that shell is more elevated in the spire ; and the differences 
between the present shell and G. Ilopkinsi are sufficient, in my 
opinion, to warrant its being considered a separate species. No trace 
of spirals can be detected in G. Fultoni, and although 1 mm. less in 
diameter than G. Hojjhinsi, it possesses one whorl more; it is also 
more conoid in the spire, and the whorls are flattened above; the 
acute exscrted keel runs up the earlier whorls margining the suture, 
a feature totally wanting in G. Ilopkinsi. 

6. Ganesella rROCERA, Gude. PI. YII, Figs. 21-24. 
Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. vii, vol. x (1902), p. 333. 

** Shell narrowly umbilicated, trochoid, thin, solid, corneous, very 
finely striated, minutely granulated above and decussated with spiral 
lines below the periphery. Spire conical, slightly globose ; suture 
margined, apex obtuse. Whorls 9, flattened above, a little swollen 
below, increasing slowly and regularly, the last not descending 
anteriorly, and scarcely dilated towards the mouth, with an acute 
pinched keel at the periphery, which is continued upwards above 
the suture. Aperture oblique, subquadrate ; peristome thin, acute, 
slightly thickened, its margins distant, upper nearly straight, a little 
reflected, forming an angle with the basal margin, which is arciuite 
and well reflected ; columellar margin dilated above and partly 
covering the narrow umbilicus." , 

Diam. maj. 14, min. 12-5 mm. ; alt. 17 mm. 

Hah — Than-moi, Tonkin. 

Type in my collection. 

G. procera resembles G. eximia, MlldfP., but is larger and wider at 
the base, the keel is more prominent and pinched, and the umbilicus is 
narrower; the surface is minutely granidated above and spirally 
striated below, featui'cs which are lacking in G. eximia. G. phonica, 
G. eximia, and G. procera form a group of which G. phonica is the 
smallest and G. procera the largest. Mr. Ponsonby possesses a specimen 
similar to the type. The species is now figured for the first time. 
Fig. 24 shows the granulated surface of the last whorl behind the 
peristome (enlarged j. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE YII. 

Figs. 1-4. Lahyrinthus Baeri, var. dimhmta, var.n. 

,, 5-7. Thersites [Badistes) meridionalis, n.sp. 

,, 8-lQ. Lcptarionta irinisfa, n.sp. 

,, 11. Lcptarionta veniista, var. blanda, var.u. 

,, 12-14. Martoisia Joiyusi, Viv. 

,, 1.5-17. Xcsta Bwipana, n.^]). 

,, 18-20. Guppya Fultoni, n.sp. 

,, 21-24. Ganesella procera, Gude. 

1 Sitz. Ber. Ges. uaturf. Fr., Berlin, 1902, p. 59. 



Proc. Malac. Soc. 



Vol. V, PI. VII. 








18" 19 




20 






NEW HELICOID LAND-SHELLS. 



267 



NOTE OX THE GENUS PSETJDAMYCLA, Tacb. 
By S. Pace. 

Read \Wi November, 1902. 

When founding ^ the genus Pseudamycla for the reception of Buecinum 
dermestoideum, Lara., the suggestion was hazarded that Columhella 
miltostoma, Ten.-Wds., might prove to belong to this genus; and the 
subsequent partial examination of the soft parts of the latter species, 
which appears to be specifically distinct from P. dermestoidea, has fully 
justified that surmise. There being thus two known species of 
Pseudami/cla, it is now possible to give some account of the characters 
of the group, 

PSEUDAMYCLA, Pace. 

Diagnosis. — Ehachiglossa {sensu lato) having the central tooth of 
the radula small, narrow, and tricuspid ; and the lateral teeth of the 
form of elongated triangular plates, which are pointed posteriorly and 
dentate anteriorly. Shell amycla^form. Operculum with sub-apical 
nucleus. 

Type-species. — Buecinum dermestoideum, Lam. 

Bistrihution. — The genus appears to be absolutely confined to the 
south-east coast of Australia and to Tasmania. In this region it is 
represented by two species which are recorded, perhaps erroneously, as 
occurring side by side : P. miltostoma would appear to be more 
typically Tasmanian, while the type-species is more characteristic of 
New South Wales and Victoria. 

Shell. — The shell in its form closely resembles that of Nassa {Amycla) 
cornicula (Olivi), with which the type-species has in fact been 
confounded, and those of the amycloeform species of Columbellidce. 
In both species a small denticle, similar to that so highly characteristic 
of Pisania, is occasionally present posteriorly upon the inner wall of 
the mouth of the shell. 

Radula. — A somewhat remarkable detail to which attention was 
not especially drawn when describing the radula of P. dermestoidea, 
although it was indicated in one of the figui'es {ante. p. 256, Fig. 6), 
is the fact that each row of the radula is asymmetrical, in the sense 
that while the lateral tooth of the one side is set in advance of the 
central tooth, the corresponding one of the opposite side lies to an 
equal extent behind it. This character is common to both species. 

' See these Proceedings, ante, p. 255. 



268 PROCEEDINGS OF THE MALACOLOGICAL SOCIEXr. 

Affinities. — By the kindness of Mr. E. "R. Sykos, I have been enabled 
to compare the animal of Bonovania minima (Mont.). The simihirity 
between the radiila of this and of Psci<(/a»ii/cla proves to be more than 
a merely superficial one; and Pseudainijc/a in the characters of tliis 
orf^an may be said to occupy a position intermediate between Bonovania 
and Fisunia. 

PsEUDAMYCLA DERMESTOiDEA (Lam., as Buccinum). 

"Whorls of the shell havinj^ fine spiral striae, not grooved ; peristome 
uncoloured ; tesselhited markinj^s well defined. 

JIab. — Occurs at several stations in New South Wales, Victoria, and 
South Australia ; and it is also recorded from Tasmania, 

Spionymy. — (Of. ante, pp. 254-5.) 

PsEUDAMTCLA MiLTOSTOJiA (Tcn.-Wds., as Columhella). 

"WTiorls of the shell spirally grooved, the grooves pigmented ; 
peristome coloured ; markings not sharply defined. 

Ilab. — This form appears to be typically Tasmanian ; but it also 
extends to the opposite shore of Australia. 

Synonymy. 

1877. '■'■ Columlella miltostoma, n.s." : J. E. Tenison-Woods, Proc. 

Itoy. Soc. Tasmania, 1876, pp. 134-5 [no fig.]. 

1878. " ColumheUa miltostoma, Tenison- Woods": J. E. Tenison-Woods, 

Proc. Koy. Soc. Tasmania, 1877, p. 32 [name only]. 
1883, Mar. 26. " C. \_ColiimbcUa] miltostoma, Tenison- Woods [ = C. 

scmiconvexa, Lam.]": (L "W. Tryon, Man. Conch., vol. v, 

p. 125, pi. xlviii, fig. 93 [poor; not figs. 87-92]. 
1892. Columbella miltostoma, Ten.-Wds. = "■"■ Columbella {Mitrelhi) 

semiconvexa, Lamarck " : AV. Kobelt, in Alartini & Chemnitz, 

Conch. Cab., CoUonbella, p. 83 [quotes Tryon]. 
1892. " Culumhella {Mitrella) unisidcata n.": W. Kobelt, in Martini & 

Chemnitz, Conch. Cab., Columbella, pp. 119-20, pi. xvii, 

figs. 15-6. 
1901, Dec. 19. " C. \_Columbella~\ saccaharata [sic], lleeve [inch 

C. miltostoma, Ten-Wds. & C. imisulcata, Kob.]": 11. Tate & 

W. L. May, Proc. Linn. Soc. iVew South Wales, 1901, 

p. 366, pi. xxiv, fig. 19. 
This species is usually much smaller than P. dermesfoidt-a, the shell 
is also more depressed, and the suloation at the base of the pillar is 
finer. The whorls exhibit none of the fine spiral striation of 
P. dermcstoidea, but are sculptured with more or less well-defined, 
eiiuidistant, spiral grooves. Of these gi'ooves, the one immediately 
below the suture is generally more prominent than the others, and 
occasionally it alone can be distinguished. In fresh specimens the 
grooves appear as fine threads of colour. The markings of the shell 
are different to those of P. dermestoidea in character; and, except for 
the spiral lines, are generally but ill-defined. Though showing a 
tendency towards tessellation, the marking normallj^ consists of 
comparutivel)' large, but faint blotches ; and these do not unite to 



pace: 0^ THE GENUS PSEUDA.VrCLA. 269 

form a dark band at the periphery, as do the markings of P. dermestoidea. 
The dark coloration, red or brown, of the peristome seems to be 
absolutely diagnostic. The periostracum is usually dark in colour, and 
not greenish, but yellowish to umber-brown in tint. 

The operculum, while resembling that of P. dermestoidea, appears to 
be even more variable than in that species. 

External cliaracters of A7iinial. — The following particulars regarding 
the external characters are based upon the examination of the soft 
parts of three individuals soaked out from shells in my own collection. 

The body appeared thickly covered with brown speckling, the 
pigmentation extending over even the sole of the foot. The tips of the 
tentacles are unpigmented, and the line of demarcation is quite sharp. 
The introvert is pigmented. The tentacles, which appeared to be very 
short and blunt, are connate. The eye- spots are large, and are situated 
dorsally near the bases of the tentacles. The foot is somewhat 
expanded anteriorly, and its front margin is veiy prominently 
duplicated ; posteriorly it appeared to be bluntly pointed, and was 
apparently destitute of caudal tentacles.^ The penis is of large size, 
and is long and tapering in form. At first it is directed forwards, but 
it almost immediately becomes sharply twisted and bent upon itself, 
so that its pointed extremity is directed posteriorly. The penis 
is perforated by a wide central lumen, and the external opening is 
terminal in position. 

The radula of P. miltostoma is very similar to that of P. dermestoidea ; 
it is, however, considerably smaller, and contains a lesser number of 
teeth — about 85 rows. The teeth are not so large as those of 
P. dermestoidea, and they are even more attenuated than they are in 
that species : the central tooth also is less strongly dentate. 



' The caudal tentacles recorded, with considerahle hesitation, as present in P. dermes- 
toidea, will probably prove not to exist in that form either. 



270 



ON THE ANATOMY OF PARYPHAKTA URXULA, Tfr., WITH NOTES 
ON P. EOCHSTETTERI, Pfr., AND RMYTIBA GREEXWOODI, Gkay. 

By R. Murdoch. 

Read liih November, 1902. 

An example of that rare species, Panjphanta urnula, Pfr., has recently 
been forwarded to me by my friend ^Mr. Henry Suter, of Auckland, 
for which my best thanks are here tendered to him. The specimen 
was preserved in alcohol, and in extracting the animal its apical 
whorls were broken off, but apart from this it is in a fairly good 
state of preservation. 

The animal is blue-black in colour, the anterior portion of the body 
being darkest. The rugOD are irregular, somewhat larger on the 
neck and sides than on the tail. A minute line-like groove surrounds 
the foot-margin, as in P. Uocltstetteri. The foot is comparatively 
broad, with the tail acutely pointed and flattened above. The foot- 
sole is a dirty yellowish-white in the middle area, becoming darker 
around the margins. The mantle has a sharp, even margin, which 
is of a darkish colour, and from the under side of the mantle project 
to right and left, small fleshy ridges or lappets. The tentacles are 
completely retracted, and the labial projections much contracted and 
not very distinct. The genital pore is in the usual position. A small 
portion of the vagina is everted, and the orifices of the male and female 
organs appear to be distinct. 

The buccal mass is large and similar to the corresponding organ in 
other members of the group ; the oesophagus enters in the anterior 
third and has a small salivary duct on either side. The salivary 
glands are oblong, compact masses, readily separated. The dentition 
has been described and figured by Suter,' and the radula before mo 
agrees perfectly with his description. 

The kidney is somewhat tongue-shaped, the posterior half yellowish 
in colour, while the anterior portion is white, thin, and semi-transparent. 
The ureter follows a similar course to that in Helix ; but the rectal 
portion is open. The pericardium is about one-third the length of the 
kidney, and situate on the left, slightly concave, side of the latter. 
The outer wall of the pulmonary chamber is semi-transparent, and 
the venation, with the exception of the pulmonary vein, is very 
indistinct. 



1 TranP. New Zeal. Inst., vol. xxiv, p. 286, pi. xx, fig. I; Journal of Malacology, 
1899, vol. vii, pt. 3, p. 51. 



MtTRDOCH : ANATOMY OF PARYPHANTA URNVLA. 271 

The pedal gland forms a small tube resting on the floor of the body- 
cavity ; towards its posterior end it takes a sharp turn from right to 
left, thence downward into a cavity in the foot, is shortly folded back 
to the right, and terminates in a slight enlargement ; the latter is 
attached to the walls of the cavity by fine connective tissue. Several 
small nerve threads proceed into the cavity, and the most prominent 
of these is attached to the terminal enlargement of the gland. 

The retractor muscle of the buccal mass, which consists of a number 
of strong bands somewhat loosely connected by muscular tissue, is 
veiy large, almost, if not quite, equalling the pedal muscles in size ; 
it rests above the latter muscles, and coalesces with them immediately 
before their attachment w^th the columella of the shell. The tentacle 
retractors arise separately from the posterior portion of the pedal 
muscles, and bifurcate towards the anterior ends, the lesser branches 
uniting with the inferior tentacles. The right ocular retractor passes 
between the branches of the genital system. The muscles to the foot 
and body form wide belts, which consist of very numerous strands, 
and have a continuous attachment with the sides of the foot and the 
immediately adjoining body- walls. There are no free, separate bands 
progressively attached to the sides of the foot, as in Helix. 



It- 




The Genitalia of Paryphanta urnula, Pfr. 

The penis (see Figure, p.) in its anterior half is slender and slightly 
darkish in colour, thence large and sac-like, with the retractor 
muscle {r.m.) attached to the posterior end. The vas deferens [v.d.) 
separates from it a little below the apex, forms a small tube, and 
shortly before its junction with the oviduct {ov.) is abruptly reduced 
to an exceedingly slender convoluted tube. The interior walls of the 
sac -like portion of the penis are covered with small papillae, and 
the narrow slender portion with small irregular plications. The 
spermatheca {xp.), where it separates from the oviduct, is large and 
sac -like, thence contracted to a slender tube that follows the 
convolution of the uterus, to which it is attached by fine tissue. 
From the interior walls of the sac-like portion arise numerous 



2/2 TROCEKDINGS OF TUE MALACOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

irregular folds, Laving a distinctly granular appearance. The cavity 
of this portion contains a free spongy mass, elongated, somewhat flat, 
and irregular in outline. On its middle longitudinal portion are two 
or three riblets, which branch and anastomose, and from which 
irregular lesser riblets proceed towards the margins. It appears to 
be a peculiar form of sperinatophorc, and in its sponge-like texture 
differs from any I have hitherto met with. The uterus is finely 
sacculated. Tliere is a large albumen gland {al.g.). The herm- 
aphrodite duct {li.d.) is densely convoluted, and has no indication of 
an appendix. 

From P. Ilochstettcri, Pfr., and P. Edwardl, Suter, it differs in the 
more sac-like termination of the penis and the very distinct form of 
the spermatheca. 

Compared Avith P. Hochstetteri there does not appear to be any 
appreciable difference in the arrangement of the muscles. In the 
latter species thej^ are readily followed ; a portion of the pedal muscles 
proceeds to the anterior limits of the foot, also several strands ter- 
minate in the body-wall beneath the ocular tentacles. The kidney 
is somewhat narrow and crescent-shaped ; it is rather less than one- 
third of the length of the pulmonary sac and a little more than twice 
the length of the pericardium. The reflexed portion of the ureter 
forms a wide tube, while the rectal ureter is open as in P. urmda. 
The venation of the pulmonary sac is pigmented and well defined. 
The great pulmonary vein receives numerous branches from the left 
or cardiac side, several of which are comparatively large, and these 
are correspondingly well-marked afferent vessels. On the intestinal 
side the venation is slightly more dense. When compared with IleUx 
ai^persa the venation is seen to be markedly less dense and also to 
differ in the arrangement of the great branches. 

In Rhytida Grcenwoodi, Gray, the kidncj^ is tongue-shaped, short, 
and the anterior portion thin as in Paryphanta urnula; it is about 
two-fifths of the length of the pulmonary sac and rather less than 
twice the length of the pericardium. The venation of the pulmonary 
sac, with the exception of the great vein, is very indistinct. 

The genitalia of this species also demand some mention. Collinge 
gave a description of the anatomy in the Annals and Magazine of Natural 
History (ser. vii, vol. vii, Jan. 1901, pp. 66-68, pi. i, figs. 1-16), and 
the writer gave a notice of the species in the Proceedings of this 
Society (vol. iv, pt. 4, March, 1901, pp. 166-168 and I7l,_ pi. xvii, 
figs. 5, 6, 6a, 6b). The above quoted descriptions differ in respect 
to the shape of the male organ. Collinge describes it as a long narrow 
tube folded upon itself, the distal limb scarcely distinguisliable until 
separated by dissection, and the free terminal portion of the latter 
becoming slightly larger and almost sac-like. In the specimens that 
came under my notice it is much shorter and more sac-like, the 
distal limb, or what I termed the epiphallus, similarly folded, but 
lacking the terminal enlargement. 

Ilecently I received several examples from Shannon, Manawatti, 
and Mr. H. Suter has kindlj^ given me others from Taranaki. The 
Shannon specimens agree well with my description and figures, except 



MURDOCH: ANATOMY OF PARYPIIANTA URNVLA. 2/3 

that the contracted middle portion of the spermatheca is twisted in 
some examples and not in others, also the length of the vagina is 
slightly variable, and in some cases shorter than it appears in my fig. 6. 
Of the three specimens from Taranaki, two are similar to those above 
mentioned, while the third more nearly resembles the form described 
by Collinge. The penis is a long narrow tube almost imiform in size, 
similarly folded upon itself, and forming a small tightly coiled loop at 
the point where the distal portion becomes free. It has not so great 
a length as indicated in Collinge's fig. 14, and has no terminal 
sac-like enlargement. In other respects the anatomy does not appear 
to difi'er in the sKghtest degree from the several other specimens 
examined. The whole of the specimens which have come under my 
notice are undoubtedly Rhytida Greenwoodi, and there seems but 
little doubt that those investigated by Collinge belong to the same 
species. 



VOL. V. — APRIL, 1903. 19 



274 



NOTES ON MR. W. M. DALY'S COLLECTIONS OF LAND AND 
FRESH-WATER MOLLUSCA FROM SLVM. 

By W. T. Blanfoud, LL.D., F.R.S., etc. 

Read Vlth December, 1902. 

PLATE YIIL 

TnK late l\rr. "W. ^lahon Daly, by whose untimely death from fever 
iu December, 1900, the Society lost a valuable member, was en2;a<i:e(l 
during the last two years of his life in the Forest Department of the 
Siamese Government. In Siam, as in India, he made large collections 
of land and fresh-water Mollusca, and on tliree occasions he sent 
specimens to me for identification. In the last letter that I received 
from him, dated 12th October, 1900, with a box of shells from 
Lampun in North Siam, he forwarded some notes on species previously 
sent, and suggested that these notes might be put into shape and 
inserted in the Society's journal. I think the best use I can make 
of the notes is to insert them in a list of the species that I have been 
able to identify. The greater part of this paper was written in 1901, 
but I was unable to finish it then. 

The bulk of the collections are from Pitsunaloke, rather more than 
200 miles north of Bangkok, and from Lampun about 150 miles 
farther north and near Chieng Mai (Zimme).' This last place is the 
chief town of the Laos country. A few specimens are without any 
definite locality. 

Some of Mr. Daly's Siam collections have now been received in 
England, and by the kindness of Mr. II. B. Preston I have had an 
opportunity of examining them. The most important form not 
previously received is the fine AmpuUaria described below as A. Bahji. 
There are several fresh-water shells that I have not identified, but 
they are mostly represented by single specimens without any defined 
locality, and it is not quite certain that they are from the upper 
Menam valley around Pitsunaloke and Lampun. 



^ This town affords an object-lesson in the system of spelling Oriental place-names. 
It was formerly Ivnown on maps as Zimine or Zimiiiay, and a snail found in tlie 
neighbourhood was called Hemiplerfa Zimmntjeiisis (I'roc. Zool. Soc, 1888, 
p. 241). Then some French travellers used the spelling Xiong Mai, hence 
Amphidromns Xieng.iift noticed further on. In Mr. H. Warington Smyth's 
" Five Years in Siam " the ])lace ai)pears as Chieng Mai, and tliis is probably 
a nearly correct representation in English of the name as pronounced. In Stieler's 
Atlas the name is printed Schieng Mai fZimme) in one map, and Kiang Mai in 
another. If the Laos language resembles Burmese in its orthography, which is 
likely, the correct transliteration is probably Khyeng Mai. 



BLANfORD : LAND AXD FRESH-WATER MOLLUSCA FROJI SIAM. 275 

GASTEROPODA. 

Family TESTACELLID^. 

1. Streptaiis porrectus, Pfr., var. Lampun. 

This is of about the same size as typical S. porrectus, and is principally 
distinguished by having a small tooth inside the right margin of the 
aperture, opposite the crest of the parietal lamella. One specimen, 
greatly distorted through an injury to the shell when half grown, 
is noted as " Found under plantain-trees generally." 

Two other species of Streptaxis (one example of each), which I have 
not succeeded in identifying, were sent without definite locality. 

Family LIMACID^. 

2. Crtptosoma prjestans (Gould). No precise locality. 

This agrees better with C. prcRdann than with C Siamense, Haines. 
The former is widely distributed in Burma, from the neighboui'hood 
of Bhamo to Tavoy. 

[" Found during the rains only, in July and August, in verj'- damp 
forest. These shells have a very gummy substance, which it is difficult 
to get off when handled."— W. M. D.] 

3. MACROCHLAMrs PUMiCATA (Morelet). Ser. Conch., iv (1875), p. 248, 
pi. xii, fig. 2. 

A single specimen was sent, which, although very close to Morelet's 
species, is perhaps not absolutely identical. Numerous additional 
shells have been received by Mr. Preston. 

["Common in evergreen forest. Never found in open or dry 
forest."— W. M. D.] 

4. Macrochlamts molecdla, Bens. Lampun. 

Several specimens of this small species were sent, and they show 
passage from a form nearly resembling the type from Ban goon into 
a turbinate variety with a more raised spire. A specimen of the 
former with a major diameter of 5 mm. is 3 mm. high ; one of the latter 
measures 5 4 mm. in diameter by 3*7 mm. in height. 

Specimens from Moulraein and the Kluisi Hills were identified by 
Nevill (Handl., i, p. 38) with the oiiginal form from Rangoon. It is 
not, therefore, surprising that this species should be found in Siam also. 

5. Macrochlamts Dugasti, Morlct. Journ. de Conch., 1891, pp. 25, 
239, pi. V, figs. 1, \a. Lampun and Pitsunaloke. 

This is evidently a very common form in the upper Menam valley. 
It is a singularly globose shell, more so than any of its allies with 
which I am acquainted; and owing to the fact that in the figures above 
quoted, altliough views of the upper and lower surface are given, none 
is furnished showing the most characteristic aspect, it is by no means 
easy to identify the species. Moreover, the shell is described as SKpra 
vix convexa, the last whorl is said to be infra suhplanatus, and the 
peristome is characterized by labro svperne ad iiiHertmiem anfradus 
jiemdtimi incisura discreto, none of which particulars (the last character 



276 ruocr.KDixos of the malacological society. 

niiiy be an iudividual pccTiliavity) at^roos with Mr. Daly's specimens. 
A sliell, however, beloiij:;;ing' to Mr. Ponsouby, which, he informs 
me, is an authentic specimen of M. Dagasti, althou<!:h distinr^uished 
by a higher spire, is, 1 think, clearly a variety of the Upper Siamese 
form. The latter I describe as follows : — 

Testa subobtecte perforata, depresso-globosa, pallide fulvo-cornea, 
Ijievis, nitida, vix striatula ; spira convexa vel depresso-conoidea, apices 
obtuso, sutura irapressa ; anfr. 7, convexi, lente accrescentes, ultimus ad 
pi'rii)hcriain rotuiidatus, antice panlulo descendcnis, subtus tiimidus ; 
apertura obliqua, lunaris ; peristoma obtusum, albidiim, margine dextro 
sinuato, basali subi'ccto, vix arcuato, columellari cxpansulo, ad 
insertionem in laminam triangularem desinente. Diam. maj. 14, 
min. 13 mm. ; alt. 10 mm. 

In some specimens the upper surface is darker-coloured than the 
lower, and the junction of the two shades at the periphery of the shell 
is marked by a fine groove which does not extend all the way round. 
This character is found in only a few specimens, and is doubtless 
accidental. There is considerable variation in the height of the spire. 

In the slightly thickened peristome and the slight arcuation of its 
basal margin, this shell shows a considerable resemblance to the 
liurraese 31. petasus (Bs.), which, however, has not the globose form 
of 3f. Bugasti. 

The shell of one specimen contained the dried- up animal; and this 
I sent to Colonel Godwin-Austen, to whom I am indoht(>d for the 
following details. He succeeded, after soaking the dried mass, in 
ascertaining that the sole of the foot was divided longitudinally into 
three areas ; there were the usual pcripodial fringe and grooves, ;uid 
a short overhanging lobe above the mucous pore. There Avas apparently 
a right shell-lobe, but this could not be distinctly made out, nor could 
it be ascertained whether a left .shell-lobe was present. The long 
flume of a spermatophore was found, indicating that the spermatheca 
must be very long in this species. After ranch soaking the jaw and 
radula were found. The jaw is curved slightly, but has no median 
projection on the cutting edge. The teeth of tlie radula are arranged 
in rows of 40 : 2 : 9 : 1 : 9 : 2 : 40 (51 : 1 : 51) teeth. The median 
tooth is tricuspid, the inner laterals, or admedians, have each a single 
cusp on the outer side, the marginals are minute and bicuspid. On the 
whole the characters agree sufficiently with Macrochhvngn to rendcn* 
it probable, in Colonel Godwin-Austen's opinion, that M. Dugaufi 
belongs to that genus. 

The original locality of II. Bugmti was said to be in forests on the 
banks of the Menara Pinh, Western Laos. The Meuani Pinh is 
probably the same as the Me Ping, shown in maps as running near 
Chieng Mai. 

6. Mackochlamts anceps (Gould). 

Two small specimens of a shell which T take to be a variety of this 
species were sent to me in the first collection I received from Mr. Daly. 
A thii'd occurs amongst the shells received by Mr. Preston. One of 
them, apparently adult, measures only 12 by 11mm. in the two 



BLANFOED : LAND AND FRESH- WATER MOLLIJSCA FROM SIASI. 277 

diameters and 6 mm. in height, whereas the typical form from Tavoy 
measured 17, 16, and 9 mm. The colour of the Siamese shell, too, 
is light yellowish f ulvons, not whitish horny, and the spire is rather 
lower than in the tjpical Tenasserim form. 

The anatomy of M. anccps was described by Stoliczka (Journ. 
Asiat. Soc. Bengal, 1871, pt. ii, p. 233, pi. xvii, figs. 1-3), who 
referred the species to the genus Rotula of Albers. Godwin-Austen 
(Proc. Malac. Soc, vol. iii, p. 174) has shown that this form must be 
included in Macrochlamys^ despite its being sharply carinate. 

7. Hemiplegia distincta, Pfr. 

Helix distincta, Pfr. : Zeitschr. Malak., 1850, p. 69 ; Mart. & Chemn., 

2nd ed.. Helix, No. 8^3, pi. cxxxiv, figs. 1, 2 (1852); 

Morlet, \_Arioj)hanta (Hemiplecta)'], Journ. de Conch., 1891, 

p. 231. 
Helix Neptunus, Pfr.: Proc. Zool. Soc, 1861, p. 190; id., Novit. 

Conch., p. 176, pi. xlviii, figs. 1, 2. 
Helix Pluto, Pfr. : Proc. Zool. Soc, 1862, p. 268; id., Novit. Conch., 

p. 210, pi. It, figs. 8, 9. 
Helix pernohilis, Fer. : apud Pfr., Novit. Conch., p. 177, pi. xlviii, 

figs. 3 & 4, nee Fer. 
Hemiplecta Neptuna, G-A. : Proc Malac. Soc, vol. iv, p. 33. 

I have compared the shells sent by Mr. Daly with the types of 
H. distincta from Cuming's collection in the Natural History Museum. 
Mr. Smith, to whom 1 am indebted for calling my attention to these 
and to the types of H. Neptunus, assures me that there is no doubt 
they are the original specimens in both cases. Owing to the fact 
that H. distincta, when originally described, was said to be from the 
Moluccas, there has been much confusion as to its identification, and 
it is, I think, owing to this that Colonel Godwin- Austen has referred 
Mr. Daly's shells to H. Neptunus, and has regarded this and H. distincta 
as different species. One of the shells sent by Mr. Daly is scarcely 
distinguishable from one of the types of U. distincta. Another 
specimen from Mr. Daly agrees better with H Neptunus, whilst 
a third approaches H. Pluto, and I regard all as varieties of the same 
species. The shell identified by Pfeiffer as H pernohilis must, 
I think, be another variety, but the original H. pernobilis of Ferussac 
(only known from his figure) may be quite distinct, the reversed 
basal margin of the peristome, the external coloration, and the 
banding inside the mouth as represented in the figure being very 
different from the Siamese form. 

The locality of the Molucca Islands, originally quoted by Pfeiffer 
for H. distincta when the shell was first described in 1850, appears 
to have been correcttd by Haines (Ann. Lye New York, vi, 1856, 
p. 158). The locality was evidently regarded as erroneous by Pfeiffer, 
for it is not mentioned in the later supplements to his Mon. Helic. Viv. 
The figure in Martini & Chemnitz is not good, and appears not to 
have been taken from anj^ of the types in the Cuming Collection. 
There is evidently also much confusion as to the forms dissected by 
Semper. 



278 PROCEKDINGS OF TUK M ALACOLOUICAL SOCIETY. 

The shell has a curious resemblance to the Malabar H. laaihus, 
Bens., both in form and in its peculiar sculpture. 

The occurrence of H. distincta at Chieng ^lai has already been 
recorded by Morlet, Journ. de Conch., 1891, p. 231. 

[*' Very common at Pitsuualoke, but rare in the North Laos States. 
Generally found in forests of the ' Eng ' {Dipterocarpus tuberculutus). 
After a (forest) tire in the hot season it is a common occurrence to see 
eight or ten dead shells all together in the hole of a tree. The Laos 
eat this snail, and pronounce it ' sweet and delicious.' " — W. M. D.] 

8. Hemiplecta ? Danae, Pfr. Pitsunaloke. 

Three specimens sent show some variation. Two agree well with 
the type in the ^latural History Museum, the third has a higher spire. 
The original type was obtained by Mouhot, and was said (Froc. Zool. 
Soc, 1862, p. 268) to be from " Lao Mountains, Cambodia." It is 
scarcely necessary to say that the Laos are a people who inhabit 
Northern Siam, not Cambodia. 

[" Found at Pitsuualoke in bamboo jungle, but not common. I have 
not met with a single specimen in the Laos States." — W. M. D.J 

9. Sesaea megalodon, Blf. Proc. Malac. Soc, ante, 1902, p. 35. 
["Common at Pitsuualoke. Found in evergreen forest." — 

W. M. D.] 

Family HELICID^. 

10. Ganesella capitium (Bens.). Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. ii, 
vol. ii(]848), p. 160. 

The occurrence of this shell in Siam had already been noted by 
Morelet (Ser. Conch., iv, p. 254). As I pointed out in 1865 (Journ. 
Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. xxxiv, p. 93), Uelix Itanola, Bens., is not 
distinguishable from Ganesella capitium, although the latter is keeled 
and the former is not. 

Including G. hariola, G. capitium has a very wide range, being 
found in Southern India (Nullymalay Hills), Behar, both south of 
the Ganges and at the base of the Himalayas, Upper Burma, Pegu, 
and Siam from the north to Bangkok. 

The Siamese specimens sent are sharply keeled, and resemble Indian 
shells (typical G. cnpitium), except that they are lower in the spire. 

[" Found all over Siam, but not common." — W. M. D.] 

11. Helix (Plectotropts) Oldhami, Bens. Lampun. 

This is another rather widely ranging form, being known previously 
from Assam to Pegu. 

Specimens of II. tapeina, Bens., and II. Uuttoni, Bens., were also 
received. Neither of these has a precise locality, and it is not quite 
certain whether they were really from Siam. 

12. Amphidromus glaucolarynx, Dohrn. Pitsunaloke; Lampun. 

Several shells sent by Mr. Daly appear to me to belong to the above 
si)ecies, var. ft (Proc. Zool. Soc, 1861, p. 207). They arc small, 



BLANFORD : LAND AND FRESH- WATER MOLLTJSCA FROM SIAM. 279 

varying in length from 25-5 to 31 mm., and form a complete 
passage into A. moniliferus (Gould), (Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., 
vol. ii, 1846, p. 99), with which A. Theobaldianus {Bens.), (Ann. & Mag. 
Nat. Hist., ser. ii, 1857, p. 329), appears to be identical (see Hanley, 
Conch. Ind., p. xi, note). Should this be confirmed it is probable 
that Gould's name will have to be adopted for this rather handsome 
Aniphidro7nus. 

13, Amphideomtjs Xiengensis, Morlet. Journ. de Conch., 1891, 
pp. 27, 240, pi. V, figs. 4, 4a. Pitsunaloke ; Lampun. 

The figure quoted is that of a larger shell with the spire more 
elongate than in the specimens sent by Mr. Daly. There is, however, 
considerable variation in this respect, and Ancey (Bull. Mus. Marseilles, 
vol. i, p. 134) has noticed the variability of tbis species. A specimen 
sent from Pitsunaloke is 32 mm. long by 17 mm. wide, whilst one from 
Lampun measures 23-5 by 13 mm., and anotber 26 by 15 mm. 

Morlet, in describing this species, points out that it is allied to 
A. filozonatus, Mous., from Java. 

The name Xiengensis is derived from the chief town of the Laos 
States. 

14. Amphideomus Xiengensis, var. Teyoni, Pfr. Pilsbry : Man. 
Conch., ser. ii, vol. xiii, p. 196. 

This, at first sight, appears quite distinct from A. Xienffensis, but 
the two pass into each other. A. Xiengensis is often a white, almost 
porcelanic shell, with vertical purplish brown bands, more or less 
interrupted, on all the whorls, and with two broad dark stripes 
separated by a broad wbite stripe round the base. The var. Tryoni is 
pale to rich yellow, with only two well-defined dark stripes round the 
basal portion of the last whorl, much as in the common Burmese 
A. Sinensis (Bens.), which differs by being a less slender form. 

Specimens vary in length from 27 to 3;^ mm. I am indebted to 
Mr. Preston for calling my attention to Pilsbry's description of this 
variety. 

[" These very handsome .shells are common in both North and South 
Siam. The Karens use the shells as ornaments for small children. 
There are about five different species."— \Y. M. H.] (This note refers 
to all the species of Amphidromus. The use of shells of Amphidromus 
as ornaments by the Karens has been noticed before, I think, by 
Mason, and certainly by Theobald.) 

Family PUPID^ (?). 

15. Ceeasttjs Siamensis (Redf.). Pitsunaloke. 

I am doubtful about the generic relations of this species, and 
by no means satisfied that it is an ally of C. distans (Pfr.) and 
C. Ahyssiniciis (Kiipp.). 

[" Yery common in long elephant grass. Not met with in the Laos 
States. I have not taken a single specimen near Lampun." — 
W. M. D.] 



280 rROCEEDI>'GS OF TUF, MALAOOLOiaCAT, SOCIETY. 

Family STENOGYRIDiE. 

16. Opeas Walkeei (Bens ). Lampun. 

This species, origiually described from the Andaman Islands, Avas 
found in the Shan States of Eurma by Mr. F. Feddcn (Theobald, 
Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, 1870, pt. ii, p. 39-5; Ncvill, Handlist Moll, 
lud. Mus., i, p. 165). Its occurrence in Northern Siam is therefore 
not surprising. 

This is perhaps the same as Stenogyra turricula, v. Martens (Ostas. 
Zool., ii, 1867, p. 82, pi. xxii, fig. 7), hut it cannot be the original 
S. turricida, v. Mart. (Proc. Zool. Soc., 1860, p. 9). 

[" Bare. Found on moss and brick walls." — W. M. D.] 

17. Opeas gkacile (Hutton). Lampun. 

Immature specimens, probably of this species, have already been 
reported from Chieng Mai by Morlet (Journ. de Conch., 1891, p. 232). 
["Found on brick walls. iNot common." — W. M. D.] 

Family LIMN.^ID^. 

18. Planokbis EXtjSTUS, Lesh. Lampun. 

Family CYCLOPHORIDiE. 

19. Ctclophorus speciosus (Phil.). 

["Common all over Jlorth and South Siam, especially where there 
are rocks, or limestone caves. Eaten by the Karens and Laos after 
dropping in hot water for a few minutes. It is found in teak forests 
mostly.''— W. M. D.] 

20. Ctclophortjs floeidtjs, Pfr. 

A considerable number of specimens amongst Mr. Daly's collections 
agree with the description of this species, but appear also to be merely 
a variety of C. fidguratus, Pfr., the common Pegu form. 

21. ScABEiNA Laotica, Mlldff. Nachrbl. Deutsch. Malak. Ges., 1897, 
p. 35. Lampun. 

Except in one respect, this shell agrees with the description quoted. 
The exception is that the peristome in Mr. Daly's specimens is simple 
and slightly expanded, not ' multiplicatum ' as it is described by 
Mollendorff. But the difference may verj- possibly be due to none 
of the shells from Lampun being fullj^ mature. (Since writing the 
above I have seen another specimen in Mr. Daly's collection with 
a thickened subduplex peristome.) 

[The small shells are ribbed and are not common. Found only 
where rocks occur." — "W. M. D.] 

22. Rhiostoma Bebnardii, Pfr. Lampun. 

The two specimens sent agree fairly with the figures published 
(Journ. de Conch., x, 1862, p. 45, pi. vi, fig. 5 ; Couch. Icon., No. 23), 
but are smaller in dimensions (diam. maj. 14, min. 1 1 mm. ; alt. 6 mm,). 

This species and P. {lih.) tener are intermediate in character between 
typical Rhiostoma, with the last whorl free for some distance near 



BLANFOKD : LAND AND FKESH-WATER MOLLUSCA FROM SIAM. 281 

the aperture, and the forms of Pterocydus inhabiting the countries 
to the east of the Bay of Bengal. P. Marioni, Ancey (Bull. Mus. 
Marseille, i, 1898, p. 137, pi. ix, fig. F), is a typical Rhiostoma, 
near P. Housei, with Avhich it has been united by Dautzenberg. 
["Not common. Found on rocks only." — W. M. D.] 

23. Ehiostoma Dalti, Blf. Proc. Malac. Soc, ante, 1902, p. 34. 
This is perhaps only a variety of R. Hainesi (Pfr.). 

["Not common. Only taken at Pitsunaloke in one locality, in very 
dark and dense forest." — W. M. D.] 

24. PiTPiNA aetata, Bens, Lampun. 

The four shells sent appear to me to agree very fairly with typical 
Moulmein specimens. I doubt whether the common Pegu form 
(the identity of which with the real P. Peguensis, Bens., is open to 
grave doubt) can be distinguished from P. artata. This subject has 
been discussed by Colonel Godwin- Austen (Land & F. W. Moll. India, 
vol. ii, pp. 34-41). 

["Very rare. I only got seven shells after hunting in different 
places for many days." — W. M. D.] 

Family VIVIPARID^. 

25. ViviPARA ciNGUiATA, V. Mart. Lampun, 

This is regarded by Nevill (Handlist Moll. Ind. Mus., vol. ii, p. 22) 
as a subspecies of V. Benfjalensis, Lam., probably with justice. 

["Very common. Eaten by the Laos. On 15th October cleaned 
fifteen specimens, and all were full of young." — W. M, D.] 

26. ViviPAEA TROCHoiDES, V. Mart, Lampun and Pitsunaloke, 
[" Common in swamps and open marshy land," — W. M. D.] 

27. ViviPARA Eyeiesi, Morelet, 

The only specimen received came with shells from Pitsunaloke, and 
is probably from that neighbourhood. 

Family AMPULLAPIID^. 

28. Ampullaeia polita, Desh. 

A typical specimen without exact locality. 

29. Ampctllaeia conica, Gray. Pitsunaloke ; Lampun. 

30. Ampullaeia geacilis, Lea. Lampun. 

[" Very common, and often found for many miles inland after 
floods."— W. M. D.] 

There are young shells of at least one other Ampiillaria, perhaps 
of two species, but they are too immature to be identified. 

31. Ampullaeia Dalyi, sp. nov, {vel A, tuebinis, Lea, subsp, DALn). 

PI. VllI, Fig, 1, 
Testa subobtecte perforata, globosa, olivacea, fasciis angustis crebris 
saturatioribus verticaliter picta, loevis, striis iucremeuti lineisque 



282 PKOCEEDINGS OF THE MALACOLOGICAL SOCIEir. 

ini])ressis (lecussata; spira paruni exscrta, convexa, sutura impressa ; 
aut'r. 5, supernc couvexi, ultimus paulatim descendens, mapjnus, 
tuniidus, subtus angustior; apcrtura subovalis, supernc angulata, 
iiitus livida, obsolete fasciata ; peristoma baud incrassatum, albidum, 
Diiirjiinibus callo junctis, basali expausulo, columellari curvato. Alt. 
ad basin perii^tomatis 83, lat. 78 mm. ; operc. 60 longum, 35 mm. latum, 

Uab. — Siam. Type in tlie liritisb Museum. 

Numerous specimens of tliis fine AmpuUaria have been received by 
Mr. Preston. Tiiej^ are in all probability from tlie upi)er Meuam 
valley, but the exact locality has not been recorded. The general 
form is that of A. turbinis, Lea, but the present shell is at once 
distinguished bj' the want of the longitudinal coloured bands on the 
■svhorls, especially conspicuous inside the mouth, and by the dark 
transverse vertical stripes. The latter are very characteristic ; 
something similar, though not so well marked, is often seen on the 
South Indian form of A. globosa, figured by Hanley (Conch. Ind., 
pi. cxiv, fig. 1), under Swaiuson's name of A. carinata [A. globosa, 
var. carinata, Nevill, Cat. Moll. Ind. Mus. Calcutta, fasc. E, 
1885, p. 3). 

Family MELANIIDiE. 

32. Melania tubeeciilata (Miill.). 

33. Melania Schomburgki, Hanley. 

34. Melania variabilis, Bens. 

35. Melania scabra (Miill.). 

["All these are very common in the rivers. The large ones 
{M. variabilis) are sold in the market and eaten by the Laos." — 
W. M. D.J 

36. Melania binodosa, sp. nov. {rel M. spinat^, subsp.). 
PI. VIII, Fig. 2. 

Testa turrita, subfusiformis, albida, epidermide fusco-oKvacea 
induta ; spira elevatoconica, apice eroso, sutura baud impressa ; anfr. 
ad 6 (3^ superstitcs), convexi, omnibus liris duabiis nodiferis spiraliter 
armatis, ultimo etiam costis quatuor, infera subobsoleta, infra medium 
circumdato, apcrtura elliptico - rhombea, antice et postice angulata, 
iutus sulcata, sulcis cum costis exterais eongruentibus ; peristoma 
tenue, antice ad basin productum, marginibus callo junctis, cxterno 
recto, columellari retro-sinuato. Long. 42, diam. 23 mm. ; ap. 21 longa, 
intus 12 mm. lata. 

Uab. — Siam, in fluminibus majoribus. Type in the British Museum. 

The nearest ally of this Melania, so far as I can ascertain, is 
M. {Melanoides) spinata, God.-Aust., from Cachar (Proc. Zool. Soc, 
1872, p. 514, pi. xxx, fig. 1 ; Conch. Ind., pi. cix, fig. 1), but that 
has a higher spire, the mouth is smaller in proportion, and the 
columella more deeply curved backward above the basal termination 
of the aperture. The sculpture is similar, except that the keels round 
the base are more numerous. Another shell showing some resemblance 
to the present species is that frum the Burmese Shan States figured 



BLANFOKD : LAND AND FRESH-WATER MOLLTJSCA FROM SIAM. 283 

by Theobald as M. variabilis, var. pyramiclaUs (Journ. Asiat. Soc. 
Bengal, xxxiv, 1865, pt. 2, p. 274, pi. ix, fig. 7; see also Conch. 
Ind., pi. Ixxv, fig. 3). The sculpture is different, as there are three 
nodose ridges round the whorls instead of two. A third allied form 
is Melania pagodula, Gould, from Tenasserim (made by H. Adams the 
type of a separate genus, Brotia, Proc. Zool. Soc, 1866, p. 150), but 
this has only a single spiny ridge round the whorls. Lastlj% 
M. prcemordica, Tryon, from Pegu (Amer. Journ. Conch., ii, pt. 2, 
1866, p. Ill, pi. X, fig. 3), resembles M. linodosa in shape, except 
that, judging from the figure, the aperture is narrower, and the ridges 
round the whorls are smooth, not nodose. 

A smaller specimen measures 38 mm. in length and 22 mm. in 
breadth. 

[" Common in large rivers." — W. M. D.] 

37. Paludomus Siamensis, sp. nov. PI. VIII, Fig. 3. 

Testa ovato-conica, solidiuscula, epidermide olivacea vel fusco- 
olivacea induta, sub epidermide albida, fasciis latis spiralibus castaneis 
circumdata, infra suturam et ad basin distincte, versus peripheriam 
obsolete sulcata ; spira conica, apice acuto, erosulo, sutura im- 
pressa ; anfr. ad 6 convexi, ultimus f testae vix superans ; apertura 
verticalis, ovata, superne angulata, intus trifasciata, fascia media 
cantoris angustiore ; peristoma tenue, acutum, marginibus callo junctis, 
basali columellarique dilatatis, intus incrassatis. Operculum normale. 
Long. 11, diam. 7*5 mm. ; ap. long. 7, lat. 5. 

Hah. — Siam, in valle superiore Menam fluminis. Type in the 
British Museum. 

I have no exact locality, but it is evident that this Paludonms, the 
first, so far as I can learn, that has been recorded from Siam, is from 
the upper Menam valley. 

A species referred by its describer, Commandant L. Morlet, to the 
Assamese P. conica, Gray, has been obtained in Cambodia (Journ. de 
Conch , xxxvii, 1889, p. 146). 

The largest specimen I have seen is 12 by 8 mm. The extreme 
apex is wanting in all the shells. 

The present species is most nearly allied to P. regulata, Bs., from 
Pegu, but that is considerably larger ; the spiral sulcation is much 
stronger, the spire longer and the mouth shorter in proportion. There 
are only three chestnut spiral bands in P. Siamensis instead of four, 
and the second is narrower than the others, whereas in P. regulata 
there are usually four, all of equal breadth ; but this is not a character 
of importance, for these coloured bands vary in different individuals. 

PELECYPODA. 

Family U^IOXID^. 

38. Unio Housei, Lea. 

39. Unio gkavidus, Lea. 

40. Unio ceispatus, Gld. 

[" Common in all rivers." — W. M. D.] This applies to all three 
species. 



284 PUOCEEDINCS OK Tllli M.VLACOLOOICAL SOCIETY. 

Family CYKENID^. 

41. CoRBicuLA, two or three species. Lampun, etc. 

The specimens sent ai'c of two sizes, large and small. Some of the 
smaller shells may be the younc; of the larger, which agree fairly witli 
C. rhotnboidea, Prime. Upwards of thirty species appear to have been 
named from Indo-China, and as I have no faith in the validity of 
these specific forms, I do not think time would be well spent in 
endeavouring to identify Mr. Daly's sliells. 

[" Very common. I picked up dozens in my compound, which was 
flooded during the recent rains. All were empty, having been eaten 
by some small insect." — W. M. D.] 

This note is of interest as it shows the migratory tendencies of 
Corhicula. A compound is the enclosure round a house. In August, 
1900, Mr. Daly wrote to me that his compound was 4 feet underwater. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE YIII. 

Fig. 1. AmpuUaria Bahji, n.sp. 
,, 2. Me/atiia bijwdosa, n.sp. 
,, 3. Faludomus Sianicnsiis, u.sp. 



Pro 



C.lVlAI^AC. OOC. 



Y01..Y.P1..YIII. 




J. Qreen. del . et itlj.. l[mj;eni.3ros .: 

I.AMPULLARIA DALY I. 2.MELANIA BINODOSA. 
3. PALUDOMUS SIAMENSIS. 



285 



NOTE ON DR. J. E. GRAY'S TYPE-SPECIMENS OF JURASSIC 
AMMONITES FROM INDIA. 

By G. C. Ceick, F.G.S., 
Of the British Museum (Natural History). 

Bead \2th December, 1902. 

In the first volume of his work entitled " Illustrations of Indian 
Zoology ; chiefly selected from the collection of Major-General 
Hardwicke," published in 1830-32, J. E. Gray gave, on plate c, four 
figures of three species of Ammonites which he named A. Nepaulensis 
(figs. 1 and 2), A. Wallichii (fig. 3), and A. tenuistriata (fig. 4). 
According to the legend on the plate, which is dated 1829, they all 
came from " Sulgranees, Nepaul." The species were not described. 

Of these specimens three, viz., the originals of figs. 1, 3, and 4, are 
in the British Museum collection, and bear respectively the register 
numbers C. 5,052, C. 5,041, and C. 5,051 ; the other specimen, the 
original of fig. 2, we have not been able to identify. 

Although the conclusions respecting A. Wallichii. and A. tenuistriata 
recorded below have already been briefly stated elsewhere,^ the 
published figures of these specimens differ so much that a fuller 
explanation seems to be necessary. 

1. Ammonites Nepaulensis, Gray. 

Although some of the matrix has been removed since Gray's figure 
was drawn, there is abundant evidence that the specimen in the British 
Museum collection bearing the register number C. 5,052 is the original 
of Gray's fig. 1.* The drawing is of the natural size, but is reversed ; 
it shows that the fossil is partially enclosed in a nodule, a portion 
of only one side of the outer whorl being exposed. Since Gray's 
figure was drawn, an attempt has been made to clear the matrix from 
the rest of the outer whorl ; the commencement of the outer whorl 
has been successfully cleared, but the greater part of the whorl that 
was covered by matrix has been injured during the operation. There 
is, however, no difiiculty whatever in recognizing the fossil as the 
original of Gray's fig. 1. 



G. C. Ci-ick : List of Types aud Figured Specimens of Fossil Cephalopoda iu tlie 

British Museum (Natural History), 1898, pp. 26 and 29. 
Ibid., p. 22. 



286 rUOCKKniNGS ok the MAI.ACOr.OGICAT, SOCIKTT. 

This fdssil was transferred to tlic British ^riisenra from the ^rusenra 
of Practical Geolo.a;y in 1880, Avith a Libel belonging to that Museum 
bearing the inscription "Oolitic: Niti Pass. Ammonites Nepalenais. 
Coll. by Col. Straclic}'." This last statement is erroneous; the fossil 
could not have been collected by Colonel Straeliey, because the specimen 
is figured in Gray's work, which is dated 18.)0-32, whereas Colonel 
Strachey's specimens were not obtained until tlie years 1848 and 1849.^ 

The Pahcozoic and Secondary fossils collected by Strachey were 
described, the former by J. W. Salter and the latter by H. E. Blauford, 
in 18G5, in a work the title-pa,i!;e of which reads as follows: — 
" PaloDontology of Niti in the Nortliern Himalaya: being descriptions 
and figures of the Palaeozoic and Secondary Fossils collected by 
Colonel llichard Strachev, R.E. Descriptions by J. W. Salter, F.G.S., 
A.L.S , and H. F. Elanforci, A.R.S.M., E.G.S. Reprinted with slight 
corrections for private circulation from Colonel R. Strachey's forth- 
coming work ^ on the Physical Geography of the Northern Himalaya. 
Calcutta: 0. T. Cutter, 'Military Orphan Press. March, 1865." All 
the plates are marked vol. ii, and are numbered from 1 to 23. 

In the copies of this work that are in the libraries of the Geological 
Department of the Bi'itish Museum, of the Geological Society of 
London, and of the Museum of Practical Geology respectively, the first 
nine plates are photographs of engraved plates, whilst the rest (10-23) 
were lithographed and printed in Calcutta. It would thus seem that 
this was the manner in which the plates were issued with the work. 
Rut the library of the Geological Department of the British Museum 
also contains a set of plates, presented by Sir Richard Straeliey in 1892, 
The first nine are engraved, and it is evident that it was from precisely 
similar imprints that the photographs issued with the work were taken ; 
plates x-xiii, xvi-xviii, and xxi-xxiii were drawn and lithographed 
by AV. H. Baily, the others, xix and xx, by C. R. Bone ; and they 
were all printed by Ford & West, evidently in England. The two 
sets of plates present, in the drawing of the specimens, sufficient 
differences to show that the ' English ' set was not copied from the 
' Indian,' but that most of the figures, at any rate, were re-cbawn 
from the actual specimens, additional details being given in several 
instances.^ General Sir Richard Strachey informs me that the 
'English' set of plates has never been "formally published," so far 
as he knows — " certainly not in England." 

In that work Blanford figui'od an example of Ammonites Nepaulensis 
(pi. xiv, figs. \a, h), and at first sight one is scarcely prepared to 
regard this specimen as one of the examples figurcMl by Gray, but 
a close examination leads us to believe that it is the example represented 
in Gray's fig. 1. 

In lilant'ord's figures, which are reversed, the piece of matrix still 
remaining at the aperture of the shell is not shown, and the injured 

1 Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. vii (1851), p. 294. 
' This work was never published. 

^ Compare, for example, in the two sets, pi. xi, fijis. Ir, Ic; pi. xiii, fig. Irt ; 
pi. XV, fig. \a\ pi. xvi, figs. Irt, 2(1 ; pi. xvii, figs. 2t, b; pi. xxi, fig. \b. 



CRICK : JTTKARSTC AMMONITES FROM INDIA, 287 

portion of the whorl, which is the portion on the right in fig. la, has 
been restored. That the whorl has been restored can be readily seen ; 
the scnlpture on the last half of the outer whorl has evidently been 
copied, though not very correctly, from the actual specimen, and also 
the few fine ribs at the commencement of the outer whorl ; but the 
ribbing of the intervening portion is obviously so inconsistent with 
the rest that it cannot possibly have been copied from an actual 
example ; this, in fact, is the restored portion. Further, the appearance 
of the last three ribs at the anterior part of the specimen corresponds 
exactly to the exserted portion of these ribs in Gray's type-specimen. 
The width of the umbilicus is more nearly correctly represented in 
Gray's figure ; this is relatively far too wide in Blanford's figure. 
The ribbing also is much too irregularly represented in Blanford's 
figure. 

Blanford's fig. lb, if taken from this specimen, is perfectly imaginary 
so far as the right-hand portion of the fi.gure is concerned, for this 
side of the fossil is completely obscured by matrix. Blanford admits 
that the figures are incorrect, for he says " the overlap of the whorl 
is considerably greater than is represented in the figures, Plate xiv, 
and the aperture or section of the whorl, longer and more compressed- 
ovate than in fig. 1^." We think, however, it is clear that the 
original of Gray's fig. 1 is the original also of Blanford's pi. xiv, 
figs, la, b. This is the fossil in the British Museum collection bearing 
the register number C. 5,052. The 4iniensions of the exserted portion 
of the fossil, as nearly as can be measured, are : diameter of shell, 
101 mm. ; height of outer whorl, 46-5 mm. ; thickness of outer whorl, 
estimated at about 37 mm. ; width of umbilicus, 23 mm. 

2. Ammonites Wallichii, Gray. 

Gray's type-specimen is in the Brit. Mus. collection (No. C. 5,041).^ 
There can be no doubt about the identification of the specimen, because 
Gray's figure, drawn of the natural size though reversed, represents 
the injured portion of the outer whorl, and also indicates the small 
shell imbedded in the matrix at the anterior end of the fossil ; the 
diameter is fairly accurately represented, but the width of the 
umbilicus is a little too narrow. The dimensions of the specimen 
are as follows : diameter of shell, 94 mm. ; height of outer whorl, 
33-5 mm. ; thickness of outer whorl, 31-5 mm. ; width of umbilicus, 
37 mm. 

H. F. Blanford, in J. W. Salter & H. F. Blanford's "Paleontology 
of Mti in the Northern Himalaya," 1865, figured this species (pi. xv, 
figs, la and b), and a comparison of his figures with Gray's type — 
the form of the anterior end and the presence there of a small shell 
imbedded in the matrix — shows conclusively that they must have 
been drawn from that fossil. The eroded portion of the whorl has, 
however, been restored, both in figs, la and b. The dimensions of 



G. C. Crick: List of Types and Figured Specimens of Fossil Cephalopoda in the 
British Museum (Natural History), 1898, p. 29. 



288 niOCEEDINGS OF TlIK MALACOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

tlic specimen arc not accurately drawn. On the same plate there is 
a drawing of a suture-line, Avhich is referred to fig. 2. 

In tlie text of his work (p. 84) Blanford refers to Ammonites 
WaUichii \\\e following figures: pi. xv, figs. \a-c] pi. xix, figs, la-c, 
la-c. Now figs. \(i and h in pi. xv represent Gray's type-specimen, 
but there is no figure lettered \c in any copy of this plate that we 
have seen. There is a suture-line on this plate numbered in the 
'Indian' set 2h and in the ' English' set 2f/, fig. 2 being named in 
each case A. tcnuisfn'afKS, but that it does not belong to that 
species is evident from ISlanfurd's remark in his description of the 
species that " the sutures are not visible." Now the suture-line of 
Gray's type-specimen has been painted in as if for the purpose of 
being drawn, and one must admit that at least portions of it closely 
resemble fig. 2b (or 2d), but the lateral lobe is represented very much 
too deep. It seems, however, that the suture -line is intended for 
that of Gray's type, and should therefore have been lettered Ic. 
This drawing, like figs, la and b, is also reversed. 

3. Ammonites tenuistriata, Gray. 

The original of Gray's figure of this species is in the British Museum 
collection (No. C. 5,051).' Gray's figure is of the natural size, but is 
reversetl. Some of the matrix has been removed since the specimen 
was figured by Gray, but there are still indications on the fossil of the 
original extent of the matrix. There can be no doubt whatever about 
its being the figured specimen. It is accompanied by a label belonging 
to the Museum of Practical Geology, bearing the following inscription : 
" Oolitic : Niti Pass. Ammonites tenuidriatus. Coll. by Col. Strachey 
(belongs to Brit. Mus.)." The statement that it belonged to the 
Strachey Collection is obviously erroneous, for, as we have already 
stated, Gray's figures were published many years before Colonel 
Strachey's fossils were collected. Moreover, according to Gray, the 
type came from " Sulgranecs, Nepaul." 

The National Collection also contains the specimen (No. C. 5,039) 
figured by H. P. Blanford in Salter & Blanford's "Palaeontology of 
Niti," pi. xiv, fig. 2, and the natural mould (No. C. 5,036) from wliich 
was made the gutta-percha cast figured in pi. xv, fig. 2a of the same 
work ; both specimens belonged to the Strachej' Collection, and were 
transferred from the Iiluseum of Practical Geology in 1880. As the 
former specimen is only doubtfully referred to this species, it seems 
evident that the two examples of this species examined and mentioned 
by Blanford (op. cit., p. 78) were those represented in ])1. xv, fig. 2^, and 
pi. XV, figs, 'lb, 2c. iJlanford states tliat one of the specimens which he 
examined was " Hardwiike's [i.e. Gray's] type," and since fig. 2« 
cannot possibly be that type, we are forced to conclude that figs. 2b, 2c 
of pi. XV were drawn from the type-specimen ; and a comparison of 
the figures with the specimen supports that conclusion, Blanford's 



' G. C. Crick : List of Tyjjcs and Fifrured Specinieus of Fossil Cephalopoda in the 
British Museum (Natural History), 1898, p. 26. 



CRICK : JURASSIC AJIMOXITES FROII IXDIA. 289 

figures having been drawn from a portion of tlie specimen after some of 
the matrix had been removed. This view is further supported by tlie 
copy of fig. 2h in the ' English ' set of the plates already alluded to, 
the line indicating the original extent of the matrix as seen in Gray's 
figure being clearly indicated, as well as the small irregularly-shaped 
patch from which the test has been chipped off. The suture-line on 
the same plate numbered in the ' Indian ' set of plates 2b, and in the 
' English ' set 'Id, does not, as we have already stated, belong to 
A. tenuutriatuH^^ but to Wallichii, and should have been numbered \c. 
As we have already pointed out elsewhere,^ Elanford misquotes Gray's 
species as '■'• Amm. tenunulcatus^^ ; but he corrects the mistake in the 
list of * Errata ' given on p 112. 

Although the dimensions of the specimen cannot be given with 
absolute certainty, the fossil has been cleared enough to enable these 
measurements to be indicated approximately. They are as follows : 
diameter of the shell, 84 mm. ; height of outer whorl, about 32-5 mm. ; 
thickness of outer whorl, probably about 27 mm. ; width of umbilicus, 
about 31mm. One of the inner whorls is also revealed; it has a 
diameter of 14 mm.; the height of the whorl at this diameter being 
4"1 mm., and the width on the umbilicus 5*2 mm. 

The conclusions arrived at in the preceding note may be expressed 
as follows : — 

Ammonites Nepaulensu, J. E. Gray : Illustrations of Indian Zoology, 
vol. i (1830-32), pi. c, fig. 1 (reversed). Ammonites Nepalensis, 
J. E. Gray : H. F. Blanford, in J. W. Salter & H. F. Blanford, 
Paljcont. iS"iti, 1865, p. 77, pi. xiv, figs. 1«, h [much restored]. 
Sulgranees, Nepaul \_fide Gray]. Specimen in British Museum 
(Nat. Hist.), register No. C. 5,052. 

Ammonites Wallichii, J. E. Gray : Illustrations of Indian Zoology, 
vol. i (1830-32), pi. c, fig. 3 (reversed). Ammonites Wallichii, 
J. E. Gray : H. F. Blanford, in J. W. Salter & H. F. Blanford, 
Palaeont. Niti, 1865, p. 84, pi. xv, figs. \a, b, and the suture- 
line 2d (reversed). In some impressions of this plate the suture- 
line is lettered 2b ; in all cases it is wrongly named ^. tenuistriatus. 
Sulgranees, Nepaul \_fide Gray]. Specimen in British Museum 
(Nat. Hist.), register No. C. 5,041. 

Ammonites tenuistriata, J. E. Gray : Illustrations of Indian Zoologv, 
vol. i (1830-32), pi. c, fig. 4 (reversed). Ammonites tenuistriatus, 
J. E. Gray : H. F. Blanford, in J. W. Salter & H. F. Blanford, 
Palajont. *Niti, 1865, p. 78, pi. xv, figs. 2b, c (not 2d). Only 
a portion of the specimen is figured. Sulgranees, Nepaul 
\^fide Gray]. Specimen in British Museum (Nat. Hist.), register 
No. C. 5,051. 

^ The fact that the suture -line did not belong to A. teniiistriatns wa.s surmised by 

F. Stoliczka, Mem. Geol. Surv. India, vol. v (1866), p. 101, footnote. 
* G. C. Crick : List of Types and Figured Specimens of Ffissil Cephalopoda in the 
^ British Museum (Natural History), 1898, p. 26. 



VOL. V. — AI'KIL, 1903. 20 



290 



ON AMMONITES ROBUSTUS (R. STRACHEY, MS.), H. F. BLAXFORD, 
FROM THE HIMALAYAS. 

By G. C. Crick, F.G.S., 
Of the British Museum (Natural History). 

Head 9 th Jan Hart/, 1903. 

In 1851 Captain (now Sir) Richard Strachey commnnicated to the 
Geological Society of London a paper " On the Geology of Part of the 
Himalaya Mountains and Tibet," based upon the observations which 
he made during the years 1848-49. The Palaeozoic and Secondary 
fossils therein mentioned were described in 1865, the former by 
J. \Y. Salter and the latter by H. F. Blanford, in a joint work of 
which the title-page reads as follows: " Paloeontologj' of Niti in the 
Northern Himalaya : being descriptions and figures of the Palaeozoic 
and Secondary Fossils collected by Colonel Kichard Strachey, It.E. 
Descriptions by J, W. Salter, F.G.S., A.L.S., and H. F. Blanford, 
A.R.S.M., F.G.S. Reprinted with slight corrections for private 
circulation from Colonel R. Strachey' s forthcoming work ' on the 
physical geography of the Northern Himalaya. Calcutta : 0. T. Cutter, 
Military Orphan Press. March, mdccclxv." 

" The [Strachey] collection," says Salter (p. 2), " was brought 
home numbered and catalogued, but still required months of patit-nt 
work in breaking up and chiselling out the specimens. When finally 
arranged upon tablets, with localities, he [Colonel Strachey] placed them 
all in the colonial collections of the Museum of Practical Geology, and 
left me the more pleasant task of comparing and describing them." 
AVithout doubt, Strachey attached to the fossils the names which 
Salter and Blanford subsequently adopted in their descriptions. In 
a footnote on p. 80 Salter states that " all the figured specimens of 
Colonel Strachey' s collection have been liberally presented by that 
gentleman to the Museum of Practical Geology, London." The 
Strachey Collection is now, however, in the British ^Museum, being one 
of the collections of foreign fossils transferred to this Museum from 
the Museum of Practical Geology in 1880. 

Among the species described and figured by Blanford in the work 
above mentioned was Ammofiites robustus, R. Strachey MS. (p. 85, 
pi. xvi, figs. la-e). The two specimens which he figured and 

* This work was never published. 



CRICK : ON AMMONITES ROBUSTVS, BLFD. 291 

referred to this species are in the British Museum collection 
(Nos. C. 5,050 and C. 5,046). Although Triassic fossils, they were 
described as of Jurassic age, and hence probably escaped the notice 
of Dr. E. V. Mojsisovics,^ for they do not appear to be mentioned in 
his comparatively recent work on the Upper Triassic Cephalopoda 
of the Himalayas ; nor do they seem to have been mentioned by 
Stoliczka^ in his revision of all the known fossils from that district. 
Blanford characterised the species as a very variable form, but the 
two figured specimens appear to be specifically distinct, and although 
both are referable to the same section Juravites of Mojsisovics, one 
(No. C. 5,050) belongs to the subgenus Grieshachites and the other 
(No. C. 5,046) to the subgenus Anatomites of the same author. We 
have reserved Blauford's name for the original of his figs. \a and c, 
and have given a new name — Juvavites (Anatomites) expansus — to the 
original of his fig. Ih. In his description of Ammonites rohustus, 
Blanford gave the dimensions of three examples which he designated 
a, b, and c respectively ; b and c are evidently the two figured specimens 
just referred to. Now there is in the British Museum (No. C. 6,790), 
and forming part of the Strachey Collection, another specimen (from 
Lakhur, Niti Pass) labelled Ammonites robustus, the dimensions of 
which lead us to conclude that this is the example which Blanford 
designated a. It differs, however, so much from the other two 
examples that we regard it as specifically distinct, and propose for 
it the name Juvavites ( Grieshachites) Strachey i. 

Descriptions of the three species are appended. 

In 1855 F. V. Hauer ' described under the n^ixxie Ammonites robustus 
a species from the Trias of Hallstatt, but Strachey' s specimens are in 
no way related to that species. 

1. jT7VAyiTE8 (Geiesbachites) eobustus (Blauford). 

1865. Ammonites rohustus (pars), H. F. Blanford: in J. "W. Salter & 

H. F. Blanford, Paleeont. Niti, p. 85, pi. xvi, tigs, la, c 

(not lb = Juvavites (Anatomites) expansus). 

Shell discoidal, involute, somewhat inflated ; greatest thickness at 

about the middle of the lateral area, nearly one-half of the diameter 

of the shell ; height of outer whorl rather more than one -half of the 

diameter of the shell. Whorls (? number) ; inclusion almost complete ; 

umbilicus about one-ninth of the diameter of the shell in width, deep, 

with steep sides, and subangular margin. Whorl broadly oval in 



> E. V. Mojsisovics, " Beitrage zur Kenntniss der obertriadisclien Cephalopoden- 

Fauna des Himalaya": Denkschr. k. Akad. Wissenscli. "Wien, math.-naturw. 

CI., Bd. Ixiii (1896), pp. 575-701 ; and Pal. Ind., ser. xv, vol. iii, pt. 1 (1900 . 
' Geological Sections across the Himalayan Mountains, from Waugtu-bridge on the 

Eiver Sutlej to Sungdo on the Indus : with an account of the formations in 

Spiti, accompanied by a revision of all known fossils from that district. Mem. 

Geol. Surv. India, vol. v (1866), pp. 1-154, 10 pis. See, Table of Cephalopoda, 

pp. 149-153. 
•* F. V. Hauer, " Beitrage zur Kenntniss der Cephalopoden- Fauna dar Hallstiitter 

Schichten ": Denkschr. k. Akad. Wissensch. Wien, vol. ix (1855), p. 147, pi. ii, 

figs. 1, 2 ; pi. iii, figs. 1-3. 



292 PROCEEDINGS OF Tni'. :M Ar.ACOI.OGICAL SOCIETY. 

transverse poctioii, a little liiixlier tliau wide, indented to fully one-half 
of its height by the preceding: whorl ; pcripherj' broadly rounded, 
somewhat flattened, fairly well-defined by a row of tubercles on each 
side ; sides gently convex, their eentral ])ortion being; the most 
prominent ; inner area narrow, fairly well-defined, convex, nearly 
perpendicular to the plane of symmetry of the shell. ]?ody- chamber 
occupying at least five-sixths of the outer whorl ; aperture not seen. 
Cliambers shallow ; septal suture ^ as in the accompanying figure. 



r<tlf> 



Septal suture of Juvavitcs robusfits (Blfd.). The details of the external saddle are 
not well preserved. 

Test with narrow, prominent, rounded ribs, some of which bifurcate 
near the umbilical margin, the branches again bifurcating at about the 
centre of the lateral area, and some yet again at the margin of the 
periphery, the latter point of bifurcation being marked on the greater 
part of the body-chamber by an elongated node, there being 8 or 9 
nodes on the last half of the outer whorl ; the ribs do not pass on to 
the inner area of the whorl, and they are all — except possibly those 
on the anterior part of the body- chamber — interrupted for a short 
distance at the centre of the periphery. There are no nodes on the 
earliest part of the body-chamber. 

The present species is represented in the Strachey Collection by 
a fairly well-preserved example, the original of Blanford's, pi. xvi, 
figs, la, c, which we regard as the type-specimen. The specimen 
appears to be complete, five-sixths of the outer whoid being occupied 
bv the body-chamber. Blanford (op. cit., p. 85) gave the dimensions 
of three examples which he designated a, b, and c ; this is possibly the 
example marked c, but if so, the thickness of the whorls is much 
greater than that author gives. The elongated nodes at the margin 
of the peripheiy of the last half of the outer whorl are not well shown 
in Blanford's figure. Its dimensions are : — j^^^^ 

Diameter of shell ... ... ... ... 67 

"Width of umbilicus ... ... ... 7'5 

Height of outer whorl ... ... ... 34 

Thickness of outer whorl ... ... ... 32-5 

Ti/pe.—'BM. Coll., No. C. 5,050. 

Horizon and Locality. — The example of this species is from Niti, 
and probably from the same horizon as that which has yielded the 
specimens here referred to Juvavites {Grieshachites) Strachey i and 
Juvavites [Anatomitrs) expansus respectively, i.e. from the Daonella- 
beds of the Upper Trias. 

The present species comes very near Juvavites (Grieshachifes) Strachey i, 
but differs from that species in having its greatest thickness at the 

' Tlie line of in.sertion of the septum into the wall of the shell ; most frequently 

termed the suture-line. 



CKICK : ON AMMONITES EOBUSTUS, BLFD. 293 

middle of the lateral area instead of almost close to the umbilicus, 
and in having smaller and closer-set nodes at the margin of the 
periphery. Compared with J. {G.) Stracheyi, the difference in the 
form of the aperture of the shell, or transverse section of the body- 
chamber, is, judging from the recent Nautilus, such as might indicate 
merely a sexual difference between that species and the present one ; ^ 
but we are led to think that such is not the case, because the difference 
in the form of the transverse section of the whorl is shown even in 
the younger whorls, and this difference, we think, would, if merely 
sexual, not be apparent in the young shell,* and in fact would not 
be well marked until the animal had arrived at maturity.^ 

2. JuvAviTES (Griesbachites) Stracheyi, sp. nov. 
1865. Ammonites robustus (pars), H. F. Blanford : in J. W. Salter & 
H. F. Blanford, Pal^ont. Mti, p. 85. 

Shell discoidal, involute, somewhat inflated ; greatest thickness 
almost close to the umbilical margin, about one half of the diameter 
of the shell ; height of outer whorl about five-ninths of the diameter 
of the shell. Whorls six or seven ;• inclusion nearly complete ; 
umbilicus about one-tenth of the diameter of the shell in width, 
deep, with subangular margin and steep sides. Whorl oval in 
transverse section, somewhat higher than wide ; indented to nearly 
one-half of its height by the preceding whorl ; periphery broadly 
convex, somewhat flattened, fairly well-defined by a row of 
tubercles on each side ; sides feebly convex, sloping away from the 
umbilical margin ; inner area naiTow, convex, almost perpendicular 
to the plane of symmetry of the shell. Body- chamber occupying 
at least one-half of the last whorl ; aperture not seen. Chambers not 
seen ; septal suture imperfectly known. Test with narrow, prominent, 
rounded ribs, which usually bifurcate at about the middle of the 
lateral area, one branch or sometimes both branches again bifurcating 
near the margin of the periphery, the latter point of bifurcation being 
sometimes marked by a longitudinally elongated node, there being on 
the last half of the outer whorl eight of these nodes on each margin 
of the periphery ; nodes probably not confined to the body- chamber ; ^ 
ribs not passing on to the inner area of the whorl, and all interrupted 
for a short distance on the median portion of the periphery. 

This species is represented by only one example. This is the 
largest of the examples of Ammonites rohustits, the dimensions of 
which are given by Blanford (op. cit., p. 85). The portion of the 



' See figures by Dr. A. Willev, Nat. Sci., vol. vi (1895), p. 411 ^ also Dr. A. Willey's 
" Zoological Results," jit. vi (1902), p. 742. 

* Dr. Willev states that it is impossible to distinguish the sexes in young shells of 

the living Nautilus. Nat. Sci., vol. vi (Juue, 1895), p. 412. 
' According to Dr. Willey's observations, propagation takes place in the recent 
Nautilus only after the last septum has been formed. A. Willey's " Zoological 
Results," pt. vi (1902), p. 746. 

* Since the nodes are quite prominent at the commencement of the body-chamber, 

one is led to think that they existed also on at least a portion of the septate part 
of the shell. 



294 PROCEEDINGS OF THE MALACOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

outer ■whorl that is preserved formed part of tlie body-chamber. The 
specimen is broken transversely across the centre, the fracture revealing 
the dimensions and form of some of the inner whorls. It shows that 
up to a diameter of at least 40 mm. the periphery is broadly rounded 
and continuous with the sides, and that the whorls up to a diameter 
of more than 52 mm. are wider than high, whilst before reaching 
a diameter of 80 ram. the whorls are higher than wide. Its 
dimensions are : — 

mm. 
Diameter of shell ... ... ... ... 80 

Width of umbilicus ... ... ... ... 8"5 

Height of outer whorl ... ... ... 44 

Thickness of outer whorl ... ... ... 39'5 

The specimen, being broken transversely across, allows us to give 
the thickness and height of the whorl at various diameters, thus : — 

Diameter 52 ... 37 ... 26 ... 19 mm. 

Thickness 33 ... 26 ... 19 ... 12 ,, 

Height of whorl... 26-5 ... 19-5 ... 12 ... 9*5 „ 
T^pe.—BM. Coll., No. C. 6,790. 

Horizon and Locality. — The specimen formed part of the Strachey 
collection from the Himalayas, and when transferred to the British 
Museum collection from the ^luseum of Practical Geology, Jermyn 
Street, was labelled " Ammonites robustus. Oolitic, Niti I'ass." The 
specimen bears in ink the name " Lakhur," with the figures " 28 " 
under it. Mojsisovics records three examples of his Grieshachitcs 
Ilanni from the "dark slaty limestone of the Laonella beds of Lauka," 
and this is probably the horizon and locality which has yielded the 
present example. 

Two species of this genus have been described from the Himalayas, 
viz., Ammonites Medleyanus, Stoliczka,' and Grieslachites Ilanni, 
Mojsisovics ; "^ the present species differs from the former by its 
prominent ribbing even on an internal cast, and from the latter by 
its smaller umbilicus, its more distinctly bifurcated ribs, and fewer 
nodes at the margin of the periphery. 

3. JuVAVITES (AjfATOMITEs) EXPANSU8, sp. nOV. 

1865. Am)nonite8 rohustiis (pars), H. F. Blanford : in J. W. Salter & 
H. F. Blanford, Paljeont. Niti, p. 85, pi. xvi, fig. U {not 
figs, irt, c = Juvavites [Grieshachites) robustus). 
Shell rapidly expanding, inflated ; greatest thickness at the 

■umbilical margin, about five-sevenths of the diameter of the shell ; 

height of outer whorl nearly one-half of the diameter of the shell. 

Whorls few (? number) ; inclusion almost complete ; umbilicus narrow, 



' F. Stoliczka, " Geological Sections across the Himalayan ^fountains, " etc. : Mem. 
Geol. Surv. India, vol. v, p. 54, pi. iv, fig. 5. E. v. Mojsisovics, " Beitrage 
zur Kenntniss der obertriadischen Cephalopodeu- Fauna des Himalaya": 
Denkschr. k. Akad. AVissensch. Wien, math.-iintui^w. CI., Bd. Ixiii (1896), 
p. 60.5. pi. X, fig. 2. 

2 E. V. Mojsisovics: op. cit., Bd. Ixiii (1S96), p. (H)?, pi. x, fig-5. 3-5. 



CRICK : ON A3LM0XITES ROBUSTUS, BLFD, 295 

deep, with steep sides and a subangular margin. "Whorl semi-elliptical 
in transverse section, its width one and a half times its height; 
indented to about one-third of its height by the preceding whorl ; 
periphery broadly convex, with a narrow median depression, im- 
perfectly defined ; sides flattened, feebly convex ; inner area well 
defined, rather broad, nearly perpendicular to the plane of symmetry 
of the shell. Body-chamber (? length) ; aperture not seen. Chambers 
shallow ; septal suture imperfectly known. Test with narrow, 
prominent, rounded ribs, which bifurcate at various places on the 
lateral area ; they are all interrupted at the centre of the peripheral 
area, the ribs being usually opposite, but sometimes alternating; 
occasionally there is a groove, somewhat wider than the spaces 
between the ribs, running from the periphery to the umbilical margin. 
The only example of this species in the British Museum collection 
is one of the specimens figured by Blanford (I.e., pi. xvi, fig. \b) as 
Ammonites robustus. It is probably the example b, the dimensions of 
which are given on p. 85. It is incomplete, being entirely septate ; 
and unfortunately the suture-line cannot be well made out. At the 
peripheral depression the ribs are usually opposite, but at the anterior 
portion of the specimen they become alternating. The periphery is 
not quite so much depressed as represented in Blanford's figure. Its 
dimensions are : — 

mm. 
Diameter of shell (entirely septate) ... 56-5 
Width of umbilicus ... ... ... 8 

Height of outer whorl ... ... ... 27"5 

Thickness of outer whorl... ... ... 40 

Ti/pe.—KM.. Coll., No. C. 5,046. 

Ilorizon and Locality. — The single example representing this species 
is from Niti, and, judging from the matrix, probably from the same 
horizon as the example which we have referred to Juvavites ( Gries- 
bachites) Stracheyi, i.e. from the Baonella-hedis, of the Upper Trias. 

Prom the Himalayas Dr. E. von Mojsisovics has described three 
species referable to the subgenus Anatomites, viz., Juvavites 
(Anatomites) Bambanayensis,^ J. {A.) Eugenii,'^ and J. {A.) Caroli,^ all 
from the ' Karnische Stufe,' and from the Daotiella-heds. The present 
species comes nearest to the first-mentioned, but that is smaller and 
more inflated ; still, we believe, both species come very nesir Anatomites 
rotundas * from the ' Karnische Stufe ' of Aussee, Austria. From the 
two other specimens also referred by Blanford to Ammonites robustus 
the present species is at once distinguished by the absence of marginal 
tubercles, its more inflated form, and more finely ornamented shell. 

1 Dr. E. V. Mojsisovics, " Beitrage zur Kenntniss der obertriadischen Cephalopoden- 
Fauna des Himalaya " : Deukschr. k. Akad. Wissensch. Wien, math.-naturw. 
CI., Bd. Ixiii (1896), p. 603, pi. xi, fig. 1. 

* Dr. E. V. Mojsiso\-ic9: op. cit., p. 604, pi. xi, fig. 3. 
' Dr. E. V. Mojsisovics: op. cit., p. 605, pi. xi, fig. 2. 

* Dr. E. V. Mojsisovics : Ceph. der Hallstatter Kalke, Bd. ii, p. 98, pi. xc, figs. 6-9 ; 

pi. cxxvi, tig. 11 ; pi. cxcv, fig. 11. 



296 



ON THE ANATOMY OF TWO LAND MOLLUSCS {nELICARION (?) 
WILLEYANA AND H. (?) WOOBWARBl, n.spp.) FROM NEW 
BRITAIN AND LIFU, LOYALTY ISLANDS, COLLECTED BY 
DR. ARTHUR WILLEY, F.R.S., IN 1895-97. 

By Lieut. -Colonel H. H. Godwin-Austen, F.R.S., etc. 

Read Uth June, 1902. 

PLATE IX. 

Thk two species which I describe in this paper were entrusted to 
me with sevei'al others by our late lamented Secretary, Martin F. 
AVoodward, saying he thought tbey would interest me. It was the 
last time I saw him, and it has naturally been a matter of deep 
regret to me, throughout the time devoted to these shells, that, with 
other members of this Society especially, I can never receive again 
liis real, sympathetic and valuable aid in work of this nature. Of the 
remaining'species, which are all small forms, I hope to communicate 
descriptions later on. 

Those who have worked at these small glassy shells know how 
extremely difficult it is to determine their species : the question of 
their generic position is in many cases even more difficult — I may say 
impossible — to solve from the shell characters alone. The animals, 
however, when well preserved — and Dr. Willey's specimens were — 
present in many points of their anatomy characters which are distinct 
enough to render determination quite easy, and this is well shown on 
a comparison of the soft parts of the two animals now described. 
Generic determination, as in this case, will not become easier until 
niorj is known of the animals of the various genera and subgenera 
living in the part of the world from which these species come. So 
many species are only partly known, often owing to the paucity and 
bad preservation of material ; sometimes only the shell and radula 
liave been described. For this reason I have placed both Dr. Willey's 
species in UeJicarim, a genus which already contains a very varied 
lot of animals. I consider we have not yet arrived at the stage 
when subgeneric divisions can be made with satisfactory results, and 
while so much new and fresh material has yet to be collected in the 
many thousand islands of the Malay Archipelago and Pacific Ocean. 

1. HeLICAUION (?) WlLLEYANA, n.sp. 

iT-^i.—Gazelle Feninsula, New Britain (Dr. A. AYilley). 

The shell, which has five whorls, is quite smooth. The animal 
(Figs. 1, 1«, W) has an extremely long foot, with a well-developed, 
overhanging lobe above the mucous gland ; it is rounded above, with 



GODWIN-AUSTEN: ANATOMY OF NEW HELICARION {?). 297 

a well-marked furrow 13'iug in the centre line, from which the main 
parallel side furrows ai'e given oif. The general colour is pale horny, 
with darkish grey near the tentacles and extremity of the foot. The 
sole of the foot is narrow, with a distinct central area. The peripodial 
margin is broad, with indistinct fringe lines, and two close parallel 
lines above it. Both the right and left shell-lobes are large, broad, 
elongate, and thin ; on both can be seen a central vein, with branch 
veins leading towards the margin. The right dorsal lobe is rather 
small, the left is in two distinct parts ; the posterior, although so 
extremely thin and transparent, was very well seen. It is evident 
that in life the shell-lobes spread over the entire upper surface of 
tlie shell. 

The generative organs (Fig. \c) are simple. The penis is seen on 
the left dorsal side on removing the mantle-zone (Fig. !«); it is 
bent on itself. The position of the retractor muscle cannot be made 
out, but it very probably has its attachment at this point ; a muscle 
attachment is seen lower down. The spermatophore is indicated at 
the distal end by some regular oblique folds. The vas deferens is 
an extremely thin thread, becoming larger and more swollen close 
to the male organ, along the side of which it is attached by muscular 
tissue. The spermatheca is short, with a blunt knob, pointed where 
the retractor muscle is attached ; the latter is large and flat, and 
nearly as long as the spermatheca. The free oviduct above is narrow, 
long, and coiled. 

The jaw (Fig. \d) is concave on the cutting edge with a central 
projection. The radula (Fig. le) in the single specimen examined is 
evidently abnormal in all the central area ; the centre tooth could not 
be seen (by analogy it would be of the usual tricuspid form) ; the 
admedian teeth are very irregular in size and form, the plates having 
developed, at their point of origin, two or three together ; the type of 
admedian teeth could, however, be discerned on one side, where five of 
the plates became regular and normal, and they present one single tooth 
with a small cusp on the outer side ; the marginals that follow are 
curved and bicuspid, the inner point being longer than the outer. 
They are quite perfect in form. The formuhx would, 1 estimate, be 
35 : 12 : 1 : 12 : 35 ; taking the total breadth of the radula, in 
its central area, and the number of admedian teeth that would fill 
tlie interval ; it is also pretty clearly seen whether two or three teeth 
are grown together. There is only one other sj)ecimen left, which 
shows the form of the animal and its mantle-lobes so well that I have 
refrained catting it up merely to extract another radula. 

The interesting points in this species are the great length of the 
foot and the great expanse of the shell-lobes, with the conspicuous 
central vein. The Doctors ISarasin, in their work "Die Land-Mol- 
lusken von Celebes," pi. xvii, fig. 149, show a somewhat similar veined 
structure in the large right shell-lobe of Relicarion Idea. The radula 
is of a ditferent type, with multiserrated marginals, and the foot of 
the animal is widely different in form from that of the present species, 
so I think it safe to say this New Britain form has little relationship 
with that species. 



298 PROCEEDINGS OF THE MALACOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

In this species the following characters may be also noted : (1) the 
absence of the amatorial organ ; (2) the simple form of the penis, with 
no kalk-sac or caecum at the retractor muscle ; (3) the very small 
number of teeth in each row of the radula, that is to say, the 
radula is very narrow as compared with those of some species of 
Helicarion. Thus far it agrees with Uelicarion pennolle, Stoliczka, 
from Penang, and as regards characters 1 and 2 with //. Kukenthali 
and II. Halmaherica, Kobelt, from the Celebes, but in these two last 
the type of radula is quite difPerent ; they have 320 and 602 teeth 
respectively in each row, as against only 95 in H. Willeyana. It does 
not agree with Lamprocystis, as typified by L. succinea, for in this 
genus i'f offer places several ovo viviparous species, and we find this 
last character common to Microcystis and Fretum, Sykes { = JSurypu8, 
Semper). It finds no place in Semper's group with chitinous papillate 
striicture in the penis, his ' Reizepapillen ' l^ = Pseiulhelicarion of Von 
Mollendorff ; type Helix ceratodes, Pfr.). 

It is interesting to note that in the simple form of the penis, 
combined with the absence of the amatorial organ, this species agrees 
exactly with Videna, Discus, etc. {vide Wiegmann), Dendrotrochus 
conicoides, Trochotnorpha timorensis, T. planorhis, and 2\ tardea (see also 
Proc. Malac. Soc, vol. i, pi. xix, fig. 3, Discus hicolor). Although 
these species have no shell-lobes, while their shells are discoidal, 
sharply keeled and altogether so very different to the globose shells 
of Dr. Willey's collecting, may not their relationship lie in the above- 
named direction rather than with chlamydate moUuscs inhabiting the 
same region, but having a distinct origination. 

2. Helicarion (?) Woodwardi, n.sp. 

Hah. — Lifu and Island of Pines, Loyalty Islands (Dr. A. Willey). 

Shell (Pig. 1g) imperforate, very globose, shiny ; sculpture consisting 
of beautiful, tine, regular, somewhat wavy, longitudinal striation, 
broken up by very fine transverse grooves into minute dots ; the colour 
in one example is of a pinkish tint, in two others it is paler and 
greyer ; spire depressed, suture very shallow, apex flatly convex ; 
whorls 4, regularly increasing; aperture broadly lunate, oblique; 
peristome thin, slightly reflected near the umbilicus. Major diameter 
7-25 mm., and of a specimen from the Island of Pines, 7-75 mm. 

Animal (Pigs. 2, 2a, 2b) pale-coloured, with a broadish dark band on 
either side of the neck, separated by a pale dorsal space, and having two 
very distinct i)arallel grooves on the central line broken up by cross 
grooves into oblong spaces. The foot has a short horn above the 
mucous gland, and the peripodial margin is distinctly fringed; the 
foot beneath is divided. The right shell-lobe is broad, and narrows 
rapidly. The left shell-lobe (Figs. 2,2a, 2b ) is broad and well developed, 
larger' decidedly than the right. The dorsal wall of the branchial 
sac is black, mottled, and streaked Avith white. 

Genitalia (Figs. 2c, 2d). — The retractor muscle of the penis is 
attached to a short straight caecum, at the base of which the vas 
deferens enters ; this last, slightly convoluted, lies close against the 
lower thick body of the male organ up to its basal end. Under 



Proc. Malac. Soc. 



Vol. V, PI. IX. 





0) 



r.s.l 




Ea 



H. H. G.-A. del 




cr 



-?■ 



ANATOMY OF TWO NEW SPECIES OF HELICARION (?). 



GODWIN- AUSTEN : ANATOMY OF NEW IIELICAItlON (?). 



299 



slight pressure and transmitted light (Fig. 2^), what I take to be 
the spermatophore became visible. It is simple in form and devoid 
of spines, the two ovoid, solid, dark masses which are visible probably 
being a hardened collection of spermatozoa; the portion between 
X and x' has well-defined sides, and a lustrous appearance. 

The spermatheca is moderately long, swelling slightly at the 
posterior end. 

The radula (Fig 2/) has the formula 35 : 2 : 10 : 1 : 10 : 2 : 35. 

The central tooth is tricuspid, the admedians have one strong cusp 
on the outer side; in the 11th and 12th the cusp rises nearer to the 
point, then follow nine bicuspid teeth, succeeded by a well-marked 
tricuspid series, while the outennost teeth are very small with three 
serrate teeth. The jaw (Fig. 2e) is high in proportion to its width, 
semicircular above, solid in form, with a very small central projection 
on a slightly concave cutting ridge. 

Some of the remarks on the previous species apply equally to this 
one. The penis differs by the presence of a caecum from which the 
retractor muscle is given off; there is also considerable difference 
in the form of the jaw, and in the marginal teeth of the radula. 
The animal is not at all alike in the proportion of its parts to one 
another. I find it equally difficult to place it with certainty in any 
existing subgenus of micro-helices. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE IX. 

Kelicarion (?) Willeyana. 
Fig 1 Animal, shell removed, ^•iewecl from the right side, x 5-3. 

la. Auimal, shell removed, viewed from the left side ; left shell-lobe turned 

down, showing under side, x 5-3. 
\h. Left shell-lobe, in natural position, the divided left dorsal lobe below, x 5-3. 

,' \c. The generative organs, x 8-25. 

,, \d. Jaw. X 20. . . . w , 

\e. Teeth of the radula : 8th-l 3th admedian, and outermost laterals. 

Eelicarion (?) Woodwardi. 
Fig. 2. Anterior part of the animal, viewed from the right, x 5-3. 
, 2a. Auimal viewed from the left, x 3. 
', 2b. Auimal seen from above, shell removed, x 5-3. 
', 2c. The generative organs, x 8-25. 
' 2d. The penis, much enlarged, showing position of spermatophore. x 16. 

'' 2e. Jaw. x 20. , , , , 

2/. Various teeth of the radula, from the rhachidian to the last laterals. 
'', 2g. SheU. x 3. 

c.r.p. cfficum of the penis and retractor r.d.l. right dorsal lobe. 

jjjyg(>le_ r.m.p. retractor muscle of penis. 

l.d.l. left dorsai lobe. " r.s.l. right shell-lobe. 

Is.l. left shell -lobe. res.ap. respiratory aperture, 

oviduct. ^P- spermatheca. 

v.d. vas deferens. 



ov. 



p. perns. 



3oa 



ON THE RENAL ORGANS OF NUCULA NUCLEUS, Linn. 

By R. H. BuKNE, B.A., F.Z.S., etc. 

JRead 9th January, 1903. 

PLATE X. 

The anatomy of many members of the Protobranchia has been in- 
vestigated with considerable care during the last ten years, and has 
been found to show in many points indications of the retention in 
these forms of a very primitive and unspecialized condition. 

Amongst the organs distinguished by primitive characteristics are 
the organs of Bojanus, and they, especially in their relations Avith the 
genital ducts, are without doubt of very great interest. In 1891 
Pelseneer ^ drew attention to the fact that in Nucida nucleus, Leda 
pella, and SoJenonii/a togata the genital duct communicated with the 
exterior throtigh the organ of Bojanus, opening into that organ, not, 
as it does in several other lamellibrauchs of a low type, just M'ithin 
the external orifice, but close to the pericardium. The importance of 
this announcement is obvious, for this arrangement points towards 
a yet earlier stage in the specialization of the lamellibranch caelom, 
in which the genital, pericardiac, and renal caelomic cavities were in 
open communication, and the genital products escaped, as they now do 
in Aplacophora, through the pericardium and nephridia — a stage but 
little in advance of the condition characteristic of Annelids, in which 
the genital products are formed at certain points upon the walls of 
a general caelomic cavity, and escape from that cavity through peritoneal 
funnels comparable to tlie Molluscan kidney.- This observation was 
later on confirmed by Stempell,^ so far as concerns Solenomya, but 
apparently the like condition does not occur in the members of the 
Kuculidic and Ledida) examined by him * or by Drew.* For instance, 

1 P. Pelseneer, " Coutribution a I'etude des Lamellibranches " : Arch, de BioL, 

torn, xi (1891), p. 165. 
^ Goodrich, " (Ju the Ca'lom, Genital Ducts, and Nephridia " : Quart. Journ. Micro. 

Sci., vol. xxxvii (189')), p. 477. 
' Stempell, " Zur Anatoniie von Solenomya togata, Poli " : Zool. Jahrb., Bd. xiii 

(1900), p. 141. 
* Stempell, " Beitrage zur Kenntniss der Nuculiden " : Zool. Juhrb. (Fauna 

Chilensis), Bd. i (189«), p. 398. 
5 Drew, " Some Observations on the Habits, Anatomy, and Embrvologv of members 

of the Protobranchia": Auat. Anz., Bd. xv (1899), p. 503. ""The Life- 

Historv of Nxcida delphinodonta (Mighels) ": Quart. Journ. Micro. Sci., vol. xliv 

(IQJlj^ p. 380. 



BURNE : RENAL ORGANS OF NUCULA NUCLEUS. 301 

in YolJia limatula the p;enital duct is described and figured by Drew 
as opening into the organ of Bojanus close to its external orifice, 
as he says it also does in Nucula proxima and N. deJpJdnodonta ; 
although in the latter case he is not prepared to say that it has not 
also a connection with either the pericardium, or the reno-pericardiac 
duct. In Leda sulcata, L. pella, and Malletia Chilensis, Stempell 
describes the passage of the genital duct into the organ of Bojanus 
close to its external opening, but notes in addition in Leda sulcata 
an open communication between the pericardiac arm of the kidney 
(close to the pericardium) and the uro-genital cloaca formed by the 
union of the genital duct and ureter. In Malletia this ' gono- 
pericardiac ' duct is represented by a solid cord. Pelseneer, in 
a second paper, ^ revises his former description of these parts in Nucula, 
Leda, and Bohnomya, and states that in these forms, as well as in 
Yoldia hyperhorea, the genital duct opens into the pericardiac arm 
of the kidney, where it passes into the reno-pericardiac duct, but that 
a secondary connection leads directly from this point of confluence of 
the two organs to the external renal opening — a statement that may 
well be a reverse interpretation of a condition similar to that recorded 
by Stempell for Leda. 

In face of these somewhat conflicting accounts, further investigation 
into the relationship between the genital ducts and the organ of 
Bojanus in these genera is much needed. But, as may be gathered 
from the want of unanimity in the descriptions of even the same 
species, these parts, from their delicacy and close apposition, are 
extremely diflicult to disentangle with any certainty except in really 
well-preserved material. Amongst several indifferently preserved 
series of sections of Nucula nucleus, I was fortunate enough to get one 
in exceptionalh" good condition, so that I am in a position to add yet 
another description of the anatomy of these organs, which, so far as 
the siJecimen is concerned, should be reliable. 

In any transverse section, taken close in front of the nephrostomes, 
the longitudinally pleated genital duct (PI. X, Figs. 1 and 2, od.) — in 
this particular instance the oviduct — is found lying on either side 
below the pericardium, between the body-wall and the excurrent arm 
of the kidney and above the cerebro-visceral connective. From this 
level it can be traced backwards, below and to the outer side of the 
reno-pericardiac duct, the latter being tightly wedged in between it 
and the excurrent arm of the organ of Bojanus. The duct now turns 
■ inwards towards the mesial plane, meets the antero -lateral wall of the 
ureter above the cerebro-visceral connective, and opens into it, 
converting the distal part of the ureter into a uro-genital cloaca 
(Fig. 2, ug.c). The reno-pericardiac duct, as just stated, lies for the 
first part of its course upon the dorsal surface of the oviduct. As 
it makes its way towards the deep surface of the ureter to pass 
behind it to the pericardiac arm of the kidney, it occupies the 
angle formed by the union of the genital duct and the ureter, and 

* Pelseneer, Eecherches Moll, archaiques : Mem. Cour. Acad. Roy. Belgique, t. Ivii 
(1899 [i.e. 1901]], p. 62. 



302 PROCEEDINGS OF THE MALACOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

at this point opens into the uro-genital cloaca, just dorsal to the 
opening of the genital duct (Figs. 2 and 3, x). The opening is 
a simple perforation of the apposed walls of the duct and cloaca, and 
is in no waj' drawn out to form such a tubular connection as that 
described by Stempell in this position in Leda. There is no doubt 
whatever that the opening of the genital duct is into the uro-genital 
cloaca in front of and below this ' gono-pericardiac ' pore, and not, as 
Pelseneer finds in his specimens, into the reno-pericardiac duct. The 
meaning of this connection is somewhat obscure. It is certainly not 
an artifact, for it is present and perfectly symmeti'ically on both sides, 
besides having been noted in several other genera. Is^or is it easy to 
see by what physiological need such an opening would be called 
into being. It would no doubt serve to rapidly remove products of 
excretion from the pericardial cavity, were such present ; but in these 
lowly forms the pericardial epithelium is not yet specialized to 
form an adventitious excretory organ (Grobben's glands, Keber's 
organ). It is most probably, as Stempell suggests, the original passage 
of the genital duct into the kidney, in course of being supplanted by 
the direct path through the uro-genital cloaca. 

To turn now to the anatomy of the organs of Bojanus (Figs. 1 and 4), 
which, although not so important as the connection between the kidney 
and the genital duct, is yet of some considerable interest. In the 
descriptions of these organs in the Protobranchia given by Pelseneer, 
Stempell, and Drew, there is a general similarity. Typically, in the 
Nuculidge and Ledidse each organ is tubular and U-shaped, with the 
convexity of the U directed forward (it is turned backward, according 
to Pelseneer, in Nucula nucleus), and with the pericardiac and external 
openings lying nearly in the same transverse plane at the free end of 
either arm of the U. The tube of which the kidney consists is 
generally very long {Leda, Yoldia), and is more or less sacculated or 
arborescent and coiled. The arborescence is specially marked in 
Malletia. The distal part of the excurrent arm is smooth without 
sacculations. The entire organ, except the reno-pericardiac duct and 
the ureter, is lined by excretory epithelium. In most cases [Leda 
sulcata, L. pella, Malletia Chilensis, Yoldia hyperhorea) there is an open 
communication between the pericardiac arms of either side. 

From a comparison of three series of transverse sections of Nucula 
nucletis, it appears that in all essentials the organs of Bojanus in this 
species resemble those of other Nuculidoe and Ledida;. They are in 
the first place lined throughout (except for the reno-pericardiac duct 
and ureter) by excretory epithelium. Each is U-shaped, with the 
convexity of the U directed forward. But the limbs of the U are 
very short, far shorter than as figured by Stempell in Leda sulcata or 
described by Drew in Yoldia, and are not coiled, but give o£E many 
sacculations and arborescent processes. 

The hinder end of the pericardiac arm of the kidney lies below the 
posterior parts of the pericardium at some little distance in front of 
the posterior adductor. It opens freely into its fellow of the opposite 
side. In front it stretches forward and diagonally outwards below 
the pericardium, and gives off several arborescent processes. The most 



BtJRNE : RENAL ORGANS OF NUCULA NUCLEUS. 303 

important of these are : one, extending upwards and inwards beside 
the rectum and between it and a coil of the intestine (Fig. 3, arb. 1), 
and two that run downwards and forwards, embracing the hindermost 
gut coil (Fig. 4, arh. 2). Shortly after giving off these diverticula the 
pericardiac arm of the organ bends back upon itself to form the 
excurrent arm (Figs. 3 and 4, exc. a.). The latter is quite short, 
somewhat inflated, and without arborescent processes. Near its hinder 
end it opens to the exterior below the attachment of the gill by a short 
uro- genital cloaca that passes above the cerebro-visceral connective. 
From the convexity of the U several arborescent processes are given 
off, and ramify amongst the viscera, extending some way alongside 
the stomach (Fig. 1, arh. 3). The reno-pericardiac duct is of some 
length. It opens into the pericardium by a nephrostome (Figs. 1 
and 2, neph.) situated in the floor on a level with the hinder margin 
of the ventricle, and slightly in advance of the external renal orifice. 
From the nephrostome it passes bacltwards, internal to the ureter, to 
open into a little diverticulum in the floor of the pericardiac arm of 
the kidney, on a level with the anterior limit of the communication 
between the two organs. 

The renal epithelium, which lines all parts of the organ except the 
reno-pericardiac duct and ureter, consists of large rounded cells, con- 
taining vacuoles and a few concretions. The cells are provided with 
a few long straggling cilia. The reno-pericardiac duct consists of 
a low columnar epithelium covered with remarkably long coarse cilia. 
The epithelium of the ureter is strongly ciliated, and a similar ciliated 
epithelium extends for some distance upon the body-surface, around 
the uro-genital opening. 

Without doubt these kidneys are of a very primitive type, as shown 
particularly by their continuous excretory lining. There has been 
some little discussion as to whether the U shape with anterior con- 
vexity is also a primitive feature. It seems that as regards Nucula 
this condition may very well be a modification, indirectly produced by 
mechanical means, of what was admittedly in all probability the 
original form of laraellibranch kidney, a simple tube leading directly 
from the pericardium to the exterior. In Nucula, and, I believe, in 
other protobranchs, the stomach is remarkable for its relatively great 
size, and extends backwards between and below the anterior horns 
of the pericardium. The pericardium, on the other hand, is peculiarly 
short and broad, forming a crescentic sac with forwardly directed horns. 
The heart likewise is antero-posteriorly compressed, with long spindle- 
shaped auricles that run forwards to the extremities of the pericardial 
horns. This peculiar form of the pericardium and heart can be most 
rationally explained as the result of pressure exerted by the enlarged 
stomach, whereby the central part of the pericai'dium has been pushed 
backwards and compressed, while the lateral parts ai'e held fast in 
front by the attachment of the auricles to the efferent vessel in the 
gill axis. The nephrostomes, which lie not far on either side of the 
mesial line of the pericardium, would share in its backward migration, 
and as the reno-pericardiac ducts pass outwards in front of the 
ureters, the latter also would be involved in the backward movement, 



304 PROCEEDINGS OF THE MAI,ACOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

leaving; the middle part of tlie tube as the foi'ward convexity of the U. 
Thus the U foi'iuation in this case, and in Solenomya and lamellibranchs 
in general, is probably due to very different causes. For in the latter 
it appears that the anterior end of the pericardium with the 
nephrostomcs has been the fixed point, and that the middle part of 
the renal tube has been drawn backwards by the general backward 
growth of the body. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE X. 

Fio. 1. — Diagram of the rin;lit organ of Bojanus and neighbouring parts of Nucula 

nucleus, seen from the side. 
,, 2. — Diagram shomng the relation of the o^-iduct and organ of Bojanus. 
,, S.-^Part of transverse section of Nucula nucleus, passing through the opening 

between the reno-pericardiac duct and the uro-genital cloaca. 
,, 4. — Diagram of the organs of Bojanus viewed from above. 

arb. 1-3. arborescent processes of the organ of Bojanus. 

cv.c. cerebro-Wsceral connection. 

exe.a. excun-ent arm of the organ of Bojanus. 

int. intestine. 

neph. nephrostome. 

od. oviduct. 

pc. , pc' . pericardial cavity and cut edge of pericardial floor. 

pea. pericardial arm of the organ of Bojanus. 

rect. rectum. 

rp.d. renO'pericardial duct. 

ug.c. uro-genital cloaca. 

X. opening between rp.d. and ug.e. 



X 

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PROCEEDINGS OF THR MALACOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 



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306 PROCKEDINGS OF THE MALACOLOGICAL SOCIKTV. 



ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING. 

FHroAT, 13th Febrttaky, 1903. 

E. A. Smith, F.Z.S., etc., President, in the Chair. 

Mr. H. Fulton and Mr. Alexander Reynell were appointed scrutineers. 
The following report was read : — 

"Your Council, in presenting their tenth Annual Eeport, have to 
record a continuance of the steady progress chronicled in former years. 

During the past year ten new members have been elected, while 
the Society has lost by death four members, namely, Mr. 0. Collett, 
Mr. J. C. Mansel-Pleyd'ell, Major-Gencral L. Tripe, and the Rev. W. T. 
AVhan. Nine members have also been removed from the list owing 
either to resignation or other causes. 

The membership of the Society on December 31st, 1902, stood as 
follows : — 

Ordinary members 89 

Corresponding members 79 

Total 168 

The total for the preceding year was 171. 

The financial position of the Society remains thoroughly satisfactory, 
the balance in hand at the close of the year being £26 5s. 6d., wliile 
in addition the sum of £50 still i-emains invested in Metropolitan 
2^ per cent. Stock. The reduction of the balance in hand at the 
beginning of the year by some £18, is accounted for by the increased 
expenditure incun'cd in printing the ' Proceedings,' owing mainly to 
the size of the two papers mentioned below. 

Since the last Annual General Meeting three more numbers of the 
' Proceedings ' have been issued, forming the first half of Vol. V, 
comprising 257 pages, with six plates, a frontispiece (portrait of 
Martin F. "Woodward), and numerous illustrations in the text. 
Mr. Pace's reference list of the names of Columbollidoe alone occupied 
119 pages; this and Mr. Gude's 'Synopsis of the genus Streptaxis' 
form two solid contributions to Molluscan literature of very great value. 

Your thanks are due to the following gentlemen, who have borne 
a portion of the cost of illustration, or have assisted bv furnishing 
drawings :— Dr. W. T. Planford, G. C. Crick, H. Fulton," Lieut. -Col. 
H. H. "Godwin- Austen, G. K. Gudc, R. B. Newton, S. Pace, H. B. 
Preston, E. A. Smith, E. 11. Sykes, W. M. Webb, and Dr. H. 
Woodward. 

Further, your thanks are specially due to the Council of the Linnean 
Society, through whose kindness the Society has been permitted, as 
in previous years, to hold its meetings in Burlington House." 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE MALACOLOGICAL SOCIETY. .307 

On the motion of Mr. Fulton, seconded by Mr. lleynell, the foregoing 
"was adopted as the Annual Report of the Society. 

The following were elected as Officers and Council for the year 1903 : 

President. — E. A. Smith, F.Z.S., etc. 

rice-Fresidents.—\Y. T. Blanford, LL.D., F.R.S ; Professor W. A. 
Herdman, F R.S. ; E. 11. Sykes, B.A., F.L.S. ; H. Wood- 
ward, LL D., F.R.S. 

Treamrer. — J. H. Ponsonby, F.Z.S. 

Secretary.— R. H. Eurne, Ji.A., F.Z.S. 

Mitor.—B. B. Woodward, F.L.S. 

Other Members of the Council. — G. C. Crick, F.G.S. ; Lieut.-Col. 
H. H. Godwin -Austen, F.R.S. ; G. K. Gnde, F.Z.S. ; 
Professor G. B. Howes, LL.D., F.R.S. ; Rev. Canon Merle 
Norman, D.C.L., F.R.S. ; W. G. Ridewood, D.Sc, F.L.S. 

On the motion of Mr. Bullen Newton, seconded by Mr. Manger, 
a vote of thanks was passed to the Retiring Members of Council, the 
Auditors, and the Scrutineers. 



OBITUARY NOTICES. 

Oliver Collett, F.R.M.S., who died somewhat suddenly at Colombo 
on 13th June, 1902, from an attack of dysentery, when only 35 years 
old, became a member of this Society in 1896. 

While actively engaged in his vocation as a tea planter he did much 
excellent scientific work, especially among the Mollusca. 

He contributed only one paper to our " Proceedings," and that was 
a "Description of Streptaxis gracilis, n.sp., from Cejdon " [\o\. iii, 
1898, p. 1), but he most generously placed material at the disposal 
of his co-workers : a number of new species discovered bj- him have 
been described by Lieut.-Col. (J od win- Austen and Mr. E. R. Sykes, 
and the important investigation " On the Anatomy of the genus 
Acavus, Montfort" by Mr. W. B. Randies (vol iv, 1900, p. 103) was 
undertaken at his suggestion. and on material supplied by him, while 
researches on the anatomy of the genus Cataulus are at pre.-^ent being 
conducted by Miss Lettice Digby ^ on specimens collected by him. 

John Clavell Mansel-Pleydell, F.L.S., F.G.S., etc., who was an 
original member of this Society, was born in 1817. He completed his 
education at St. John's College, Cambridge, and on the death of bis 
father in 1863 succeeded to the family estates in Dorset. Keenly 
interested in natural history, especially that of his own county, he 
published works on the Flora (including a section on the Geology), 
the Birds, and the Mollusca of Dorset, while he was chief founder 
in 1875 and afterwards President of the Dorset Natural History and 
Antiquarian Field Club, to the "Proceedings" of which he was a con- 
stant contributor. The Dorset County Museum was also very largely 



^ See her preliminary note, ante, p. 261. 



308 PROCEEDINGS OF THE MALACOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

iii(I('bt(Ml to liiin for many contributions in almost every department. 
His enthusiasm ho kept to the last; indeed, lie may be said to have in 
the end sacriliecMl liims(;lf to the cause of science, the effort to attend 
the meetin<? at Dorchester, where he was to deliver his annual address 
to the Dorset Field Club, pi^oving too much for him, and he passed 
away 3rd May, 1902. 

ORDINARY MEETING. 

Friday, 13th February, 1903. 

E. A. Smith, F.Z.S., etc., President, in the Cliair. 

In the regrettable absence, through sudden illness, of Professor 
G. B. Howes, LL.D., F.ll.S., Avho had undertaken to address the 
Society on "The Molluscan Larva in Classification," Mr. J. E. S. 
Moore delivered a lecture, illustrated bj^ lantern slides, i^pon the 
problem presented by the presence of marine forms of Mollusca and 
other animals in I>;ike Tangiinyika. After a short summary of the 
(juestions involved in the problem, he gave an account of the structural 
features of the country in the region of the great African lakes, in its 
bearings upon the probable source of the marine forms of life found in 
Lake Tanganyika. 

After some remarks by the President, Dr. Henry Woodwanl, 
Dr. Blanford, and others, a vote of thanks was passed to the lecturer. 



ORDINARY MEETING. 

Friday, 13th March, 1903. 

Dr. W. T. Blanford, F.R.S., Vice-President, in the Chair. 

Mr. W. a. Randies was elected to membership of the Society. 
The following communications were read : — 

1. "Further description of the animal of Damayantia carinata, 
Collinge, showing its similarity to I). Smif/ii, Cllge. & G.-A., with 
remarks on this genus of Issel, CoUinqea of Simroth, and Isselentia of 
Collinge." By Licut.-Col. H. H. Godwin-Austen, F.R.S. 

2. "Note on the generic name HulimhmsJ' By B. B. Woodward, 
F.L.S. 

3. " Xotes on the Pleistocene non-marine Mollusca at Portland Bill ; 
and on Holocene non-mai-ine Mollusca from (1) West Haniham, AVilts ; 
(2) Harlton, Cambridgeshire ; (3) the Down above Durdle Barn Door, 
Dorset ; and (4) Folkestone." By the Rev. R. Ashington Bullcn, F.L.S. 

4. "On the occurrence of Neriima Gratelon plana, For., in the 
Pleistocene gravels of the Thames at Swanscomb." By A. S. Kennard 
and B. B. Woodward, F.L.S. 

Exhibits were placed on the table by the following : — 
F. G. Bridgman : Specimens of Olha tigrina^ Lam., and 0. peruviana j 
Lam., with varieties. 



NOTES. 309 

B. B. Woodward for J. B. Tomlin : Specimens of Vertigo Lilljehorgii, 
Westl., from Ballyuahinch, Galway ; V. Moulinsiana, Dup., from 
Wickeu Fen ; F. ITeldi, Clcss., from Co. Antrim ; Pseudamnicola 
anatina (Drap.), from Oalton Broad ; and Succinea oblonga, var. agono- 
stoma, Kstr., from Lower Loch Erne. 

The Rev. R. Ashington Bullen, A. S. Kennard, andB. B. Woodward : 
Specimens in illustration of their papers. 



ORDINARY MEETING. 

Friday, 3rd April, 1903. 

E. A. Smith, F.Z.S., etc.. President, iu the Chair. 

The following communications were read : — 

1. " Additions to the genus Streptaxis." By G. K. Gude, F.Z.S. 

2. "On a new species of the genus Xglopkaga from the English 
Coast." By E. A. Smith, E.Z S. 

3. " Kotes on some new or little-known members of the family 
Doridiidai." By Sir Charles Eliot, K C.M.G. 

4. " On a new species of Cerastus from near Aden, with a note on 
Otopoma clausum, Sby." By E. B. Sykes, B.A., F.L.S. 

5. " Desci'iptions of two supposed new species of Cijathopoma.'''' By 
H. B. Preston, F.Z.S. 

6. "On shells floating on the surface of the sea." By August 
Krogh, M.Sc. (Communicated by A. C. Johansen, M.Sc.) 

Exhibits were placed on the table by the following : — 

E. A. Smith : An abnormal specimen of Argonauta, and specimens 
of Vitrina Baringoemis, Smith. 

A. S. Kennard : Recent and fossil specimens of Eulota fruticum 
(Miill.), from England and Central Europe. 

E. R. Sykes : Cassidaria tyrrhena, Chemn., from off the Scilly Isles, 
and Tritonofusus fusiformis (BrocL), from the west coast of Ireland. 

E. A. Smith, E. R. Sykes, and H. B. Preston: Specimens in illus- 
tration of theii" papers. 



NOTES 



Note ox the generic name Bulimixus. {Read \Zth March^ 1903.) — 
In 1831, Ehrenberg (Symbolae Phys.) proposed the name Bulimina for 
a genus of laud-shells having for type the Bulinnis labrosus of Olivier. 
Beck, in 1837, appears to have converted this into BuUminus, and in this 
form it has been employed ever since. The name, however, cannot 
stand, it having been already given by D'Orbigny iu 1826 to a genus of 
Foraminifera (Ann. Sci. nat., torn, vii, p. 269). 

Tlie next oldest name for species ot this group is that of Ena, proposed 
by Leach in the proof-sheets of his Synopsis Moll. Gt. Brit. (p. 80) that 



310 



PROCEEDINGS OF THK MALACOLOGICAL SOCIKTT. 



were circulated in 1820, and cited by Turton in synonymy in 1831, from 
which last year the generic name will therefore date, the type species 
being the Bulimus montamis of Drap. The generic name in this case 
carries with it the family name, and I propose, therefore, to substitute 
Eniiia> for Buliminida). These alterations are proposed, I am glad to say, 
with the full concurrence of Dr. Pilsbry. B. B. Woodwakd. 

Note on an abnormal specimen of Argonauta ajrgo. {Read 3rd 
April, 19(13.) — A very interesting specimen of this shell has recently been 
presented to the Britisli Museum by Mr. AV. T. ]\Ianger. It is remarkable 
on account of an abnormality in the thickened columella on the left side. 
The peculiarity consists in the formation at this part of the shell of 
a double sinuation, instead of a single curve as usual. 




It is somewhat hazardous to suggest the exact c;iuse of this irregularity, 
but we may, I think, safely conclude, that it must be the result of some 
deformity in the palmate arm of the animal, which, in life, clasjied that 
side of the shell. E. A. Smith. 

Note on Vithina Bahinooj^xsis, Smith. (Read ?,rd April, 1903.) — 
This species was described in the first volume of these "Proceedings" 
from specimens collected by Dr. J. W. Gregory at Baringo, and in the 
lower forest zone of Kenia. Other specimens recently sent to the British 
IMuseum were obtained by Sir Charles Eliot in bamboo forests in the 
Kenia province at an elevation of 8,000 to 10,000 feet. He sends the 
following interesting observation resjiecting them: — "Their ap])earance 
is decidedly cryptic, and when crawling on the stems of the bamboos 
on which they live, they are hardly distinguishable among the scraps of 
moss, lichen, and old scars." E. A. Smith. 



311 



FURTHER DESCRIPTION OF THE AMMAL OF DAMAYANTIA 
CARINATA, COLLINGE, SHOWIXG ITS SIMILARITY TO 
B. SMITHI, COLLINGE & G.-A., WITH REMARKS ON THIS 
GENUS OF ISSEL, COLLINGEA OF SIMROTH, AND ISSELENTIA 
OF COLLINGE. 

By Lieut. -Colonel H. H. Godwin-Austen, F.R.S., etc. 
Read Uth March, 1903. 
PLATE XI. 
A SPECIMEN labelled ^^ Damayantia carinata? Collinge," has been kindly 
entrusted to me for dissection by Mr. Edgar Smith, of the British 
Museum (Xatural Histoiy). It is the smallest of three sent from 
North Borneo by Mr. Shelford, and is the first Bornean slug-like 
mollusc I have as yet seen in which the external form, and proportion 
of the parts to one another, correspond closely with Issel's figure of 
Damayantia dilecta (1). Anyone making the comparison can feel very 
certain he has a representative species of Issel's genus to deal with. 
When I joined Mr. W. Collinge in writing a paper on Bornean sings 
in 1895 [2), the one species then placed in the genus, viz. Damayantia 
Smithi, was not quite so strikingly like D. dilecta, a single example of 
which I have also lately examined at the British Museum. D. carinata, 
the subject of this paper, I consider is very close to the type. It should 
be borne in mind that in representations of these animals preserved 
in alcohol, the spread of the mantle-lobes over the shell is largely 
dependent (1) on the freshness of the animal when put into the spirit, 
(2) on the shrinking and crinkling they at once undergo. 

I propose, in the first place, to describe the animal of B. carinata, 
and then to make some remarks both on the previous work by 
Mr. Collinge and myself in 1895 and on some of that wbich 
Mr. Collinge has since done. 

The length of the specimen of D. carinata, which was received by 
the British Museum in 1902, is 26 mm. It is not a fully grown 
example, but is in fair preservation. Its most striking extei'nal 
cluiracter is the extremely long narrow foot, posteriorly much com- 
pressed at the sides and rising into a sharp dorsal keel, which 
terminates in an overhanging small lobe above a small mucous gland. 
(PI. XI, Figs. 1 and 1«.) In this specimen there is no sign whatever 
of the jagged or toothed appearance of the keeled foot observed in the 
specimen of D. carinata described by Mr. Collinge. This appearance 
may therefore be due to epidermal destruction, produced by muscular 
splitting strain. As is well known by those who have collected these 
exotic slugs, and noticed by Semper and others, some species fling the 
tail right and left with great force and rapidity when they are touched, 
and will thus throw themselves off the hand ; such action might 
readily split the very sharp line of the keel and the resultant fractures 
be intensified in the spirit. In such case it would not be a structural 
character to be used in a specific sense. The sole is divided into 
a central and side areas. 

The general colour of the animal is pale ochraceous throughout, 



312 PROCEEDINGS OF THE MALACOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

with a, dark shade over the extremity of the foot, comTncncinp: just 
behind the visceral mass, where the keel rises, and extending diasz,onally 
to the mucous <j;land ; this shade of colour is intensified alonp; the line 
of the keel just below the pale margin, and again on the lower margin. 
The upper surface of the mantle is pale grey. Tbe peripodial margin 
is of the same colour as the rest of the body, with three grooves above 
it (Fig. Ic; see also {2) pi. xi, fig. 6, and {3) pi. Ixxiii, fig. 4'). 
The visceral sac is situated well forward, and the mantle completely 
covers the shell. There is a raised bank-like ridge on the right 
posterior margin, commencing just beliind the respiratory orifice, con- 
tinuing round to the back of the visceral mass, and meeting another on 
the left side. Between these right and left ridges, the shell area is 
flattish, and a slight median fold is seen in the centre of it. On cutting 
and turning back the mantle the extremely thin membranaceous 
rudimentary shell is exposed to view, and the apex of the visceral sac 
is seen through it (Fig. lb). In this specimen the shell did not extend 
beyond this in a posterior direction, and there was, therefore, not the 
slightest indication of an apex to the shell. 

The eye and oral tentacles are well seen ; in this spirit specimen the 
mouth (Fig. \c) is extended and protruded forward, disclosing the jaw, 
and is surrounded by a circle of globose tubercles. In Fig. \c are also 
shown the three peripodial grooves, which are not easily made out near 
the extremit)' of the foot, owing to some loss of the surface in the 
spirit. 

The buccal mass is spherical, the radula very broad, and under 
a moderate power of a beautiful delicate gauzy texture. Further 
examination shows an enormous number of close- set, elongate teeth, 
all very similar in shape, in each row (Fig. ](/), only differing by 
becoming shorter towards the margin, the formula being : — 

204 : 1 : 204. 
The centre tooth is evenly tricuspid, long, and narrow, the laterals are 
evenl}' bicuspid, the outer cusp being slightly the larger, the outermost 
teeth are evenly tricuspid. The jaw (Fig. 1/) is straight in front, with 
a slight concavity in the middle. 

Unfortunately, I did not secure the generative organs complete. 
The penis was broken off, as also was the spermatheca. The amatorial 
organ (Fig. 1^) remained with the oviduct and part of the vas deferens. 
The form of the amatorial organ is like tluit of Damaymitia Snittlu ; it 
is bent on itself, and the calcareous dart was found. AYhat is seen 
agrees with the corresponding parts found in former dissections of tliat 

^ "With rof^ard to these two sets of drawinjrs, there is this difference to he noted 
between them: those on plates Ixxiii-lxxv, " Land and Fre^^h-^\ater Mollusca 
of India," are my orif;-inal drawin<::s, made on antcprajdiie paper at tlie lime 
the dissections were in hand, and eventually translerrt d to stone ; those on 
plates xi-xiv m the I'roc. Zool. iSoc. were copied from tlum and put on stone by 
Mr. Smit — they have lost a little owing to the fact that this draughtsman was 
not aciiuninted with the subject he was drawing and did not have the dissections 
before him. All the ligures on plate Ixxiii are from the specimen oi I)amayan(ta 
Smitlii, and the generative organs (tigs, l-ld) compare well with the drawings 
made by Mr. Collinge (pi. xi, tigs. 9, 10) from his dissections. 



GODWIN-AUSTEI^ : ON DA3IAYANTIA, ETC. 313 

species, and with Mr. Collinge's description and di'awingfor J), carinata 
(4, p. 299, pi. ii, fig. 23). A portion of the vas deferens, including an 
immature spermatophore, is also preserved (Fig. \e). 

The characters of the odontophore and of the jaw (not described by 
Mr. CoUinge) constitute very important points, agi'eeing as they do 
with the original description [2, p. 243) of those occurring in B. Smithi, 
and with the figures on (<f ) pi. Ixxiii, tigs. 5, 6, and the copies of them 
on {2) pi. xi, figs. 7, 8. These characters in the genus Damayantia at 
once separate it widely and conclusively from other associated slug- 
like species, which fall into the genus Parmarion and its subgeneric 
divisions, Micropannarion, Collinfiea, etc. 

Mr. Collinge writes (4, p. 297): — "In 1895 (5), in conjunction 
with Lieut. -Col. H. H, Godwin-Austen, I described a new sj^ecies 
of Damayantia from Borneo, and two new species of Microparmarion, 
Simr. All three, however, were generically wrongly assigned. For 
the latter two 8imrotli (5) has constituted a new genus Collinyea, and 
in this the former must now he placed^ I take exception to this con- 
clusion. 

Again {If, p. 303), under the genus CoUingea, the following occurs: — 
"In 1895 {3) I described, in conjunction with Lieut. -Col. H. H. 
Godwin-Austen, a slug-like mollusc from the Poeh Mountains, Sarawak, 
to which the name Damayantia Smithi was given. At that time I had 
not seen Issel's description {1) and figures of D. dilecta, but Lieut.-Col. 
Godwin-Austen was of opinion that the specimens from the Poeh 
Mountains belonged to Issel's genus. Having recently seen a specimen 
of D. dilecta and compared it with Issel's description and figures, I hare 
no hesitation in at once removing the specimen named D. Smithi from that 
genus. Through the kindness of Mr. Edgar A. Smith I have had the 
opportunity of examining this very interesting mollusc, and am now 
able to give an emended description of it and some further particulars 
respecting its internal structure." The conclusion indicated in italics 
is a somewhat hasty one to arrive at, and it seems to me there is here 
both confusion of species and ideas, due in the first place to our writing 
a joint paper, one of us in Birmingham, the other in Surrey, and never 
comparing together, then or since, the material we were working at; 
secondly, to the subsequent misplacing of those species in the bottles 
in the I3ritish Museum. Any resorting or any change of the original 
nomenclature, that might have become necessary, should have been 
made in concert and after due consultation and agreement. To satisfy 
myself I have lately, thanks to Mr. Edgar Smith, also looked over 
the material in question and found three jars labelled respectively : — 

No. 1. "95-9-18 (sp. 5, 6, 7). Damayantia Smithi." — This jar 
contained onlj- o?ie specimen of what I take to be Microparmarion 
Simrothi, certainly not Damayantia. 

No. 2. " 95-9-18 (sp. 3, 4). Microparmarion PoUonerai.''^ — This 
contained two specimens of this species, together with the generative 
organs. These agree with those drawn by me {3, pi. Ixxv, fig. 7), and 
also with Mr. Collinge's drawings {2, pl. xiii, figs. 22, 23). 

No. 3. "95-9-18 (sp. 1, 2). Microparmarion Simrothi.''— In 
this last was found, («) the shell, animal, and generative organs of 



314 PKOCEEDINGS OF THE MALACOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

2L Siiurotht; {b) the shell .and animal of J). Smithi, but the generative 
organs were not found — such extixniiely small dissections have every 
chance of being lost, unless placed in separately labelled small glass tubes. 
The generative organs of M. Simrothi, on re- comparison, agree both with 
my drawings {3, pi. Ixxiv, tigs. 5, 5^) and ]\Ir. Collinge's {2, \A. xiii, 
figs. 32-34). The shell and what remains of the animal oilJamayantia 
Smithi also agree well with my drawings {3, pi. Ixxiii, figs. 2, and 1, 
\a, \b respectively). The shell I recognized as the very same which 
I removed from the animal of that species. Most fortunately I have 
in my collection of radulge (now in the Natural History Museum) 
the one taken from the typical specimen of D. Smithi (Fl. XI, Fig. 2c), 
and supposing the generative organs be set on one side, I maintain 
that no confusion of species has occurred. Mr. Collinge, at the top of 
(4) P- 304, says, regarding the species sent him originally by Mr. Smith, 
"one of these Godwin-Austen figured {3, pi. xi, figs. 1-6) . . . ." 
These figures include the animal and sliell, but he omits to mention 
figs. 7, 8, and 12, viz., the jaw, radula, and calcareous dart respectively 
of the same animal I dissected; the fir,st two, 7 and 8, are the most 
important characters in this question of identity, and alone dispose of 
the remainder of the above quoted sentence, "which undoubtedly 
belongs to the genus Collincjea, Simroth." Having removed the 
species Smithi from Damaijantia, I turn next to what ^Ir. Ccjllinge 
writes on (4) p. 304, under its new position of ColUngea Smithi; a few 
words of the original description of the animal in the Proc. Zool. Soc. 
are quoted in a footnote, and fault is found with my drawing of the 
animal of Damayanlia Smithi {2, pi. xi, figs. 1, 2). It is put very 
bluntly, "the figure is wrong in showing this," referring to a black 
streak on the side of the foot. Does Mr. Collinge really suppose tlio 
black streak in figs. 1, U {3), or figs 1, 2 {2), was put in by way of 
adornment? It would have avoided much confusion and all this 
writing, had Mr. Collinge looked over tliese Bornean species in the 
three jars with me, before creating new species and genera. The 
black streak cannot be eliminated in this way, for it occurs not only 
in the drawing but also in tlie description ; neither can the radula 
(fig. 8), the jaw (fig. 7), nor the shell (fig. 4), {2, pi. xi). All this is 
most important evidence that the species named after Mr. Edgar Smitli 
in 1 895 cannot certainly belong to the genus Collincjea. In botli the 
Bornean species it may be notetl that the radula is not in the least like 
that of Uamai/antia Smithi. Simroth created the genus Colliiif/ca in 
August, 1897 (5), and made it a second genus of his Jlicrojjarmarion 
group of the Malayan slug-like forms, further divided by him into 
two subgenera — (1) C. Stnibclli of Java, (2) C. PuUonerai and 
C Simrothi of Borneo — the only subgeneric distinction being a slight 
difference in the form of the mantle-lobes. The reasons for forming 
this genus distinct from Microparmarion are to be found in the above 
excellent paper by Professor Simroth. Unfortunately, he docs not 
describe the subgenus in full, but brackets two species togetlu^r, which 
on close inspection of the anatomy do not agree, more particularly 
in the form of tlie penis [vide 2, tigs. 22-24 of jMicropormarion 
Polloiterai, and figs. 32-34, JUicroparmarion Simrothi). The first 



GOD WIN- AUSTEN : ON VAMAVANTTA, ETC. 315 

named, PoUonerai, I accept and consider to be the type of the sub- 
genus CoUingea, though rather as a subgenus of Parmarion, and not of 
Microparmarion^ a typical Javan genus, for this last I consider to be 
more appropriately another subgenus of Parmarion. I have very 
lately again examined the generative organs of both Pollonerai and 
Simrothi i, types) at the Natural History Museum. For want of more 
material Simrothi must for the present remain in Microparmarion; 
and next looking at the figures {If, 34, 35, 36, pi. ii) of the generative 
organs of Collinge's CoUingea Smithi I came to the conclusion he 
had a specimen of Microparmarion Pollonerai in hand, and not the 
Damayantia Smithi, as I understood that species in 1895, and under- 
stand it now. This investigation has led to the notice of another 
genus formed by Mr. Collinge for the reception of Bornean slug-like 
molluscs, viz. hselentia (4, p- 305), and noting (p, 307) that the type 
oi Isselentia glohosa, Collinge, was to be seen in the Natural History 
Museum, I, with Mr. Edgar Smith's kind aid, found a jar labelled 
Isselentia plicata, Collinge, containing two specimens from the Poeh 
Mountains, Sarawak. It bore the date 1895, 9, 18, and on looking up 
the entries of this period in the Museum Eegister, it corresponded to the 
presentation in that year by Mr. Everett of the three species previously 
noticed and examined by me. The jar contained two specimens, one from 
which the generative organs, etc., had been extracted, and one perfect 
specimen. I at once recognized these to be Damayantia Smithi, and 
a comparison with my drawings of that animal [3, pi. Ixxiii, figs. 1, 
\a, \h) confirms me in the correctness of this identification. 1 give 
a drawing of one of these (PI. XI, Figs. 2, 2«), and have extracted the 
radula, which is exactly like tliat of B. Smithi (Fig. 2c). These two 
specimens labelled Isselentia plicata are, in fact, the typical Damayantia 
Stnitki sent hom-C by Everett, and they should be placed in jar No. 1, 
which has this title, with the shell I found in jar No. 3. 

Although labelled Isselentia plicata, I believe these represent 
Mr. Collinge's species Isselentia glohosa (4, P- 307). He says the 
differences are extremely small, "animal smaller, but not at all unlike 
I. plicata'''' \ further on, "AYhen recently examining these two specimens 
I felt inclined to refer them to /. plicata, but an examination of the 
generative organs shows that they exhibit some important differences " 
(4, pi. iii, fig. 50). On searching for these differences in this figure 
1 was struck by its wonderful similarity to {2) fig. 9, pi. xi, and on 
superimposing a tracing of this last upon it, it is absolutely the same 
in all its parts, with the exception of the penis ; this organ in fig. 50 
is longer and of somewhat difterent outline, and the proportion of its 
length to the length of the amatorial organ differs in the two figures, 
in fig. 50 it seems too long. They may both, however, be compared 
with my drawing of the genitalia of Damayantia Smithi, {3) pi. Ixxiii, 
figs. 7, 7a, 7b, made in 1895, and more particularly to the form of the 
penis in figs. 7a, 7h, and 10 by Mr. Collinge {2, pi. xi). 

I have already referred to changes of the soft parts produced in 
alcohol. iJr. Collinge in Isselentia plicata shows in (4) pi. i, fig- 15, that 
the keel of the foot is crinkled up ; this is seen as an uneven jagged 
edge in profile (4, figs. 13, 14), described as a wavy keel of a deep yellow 



31 C PROCEEDINGS OF THE MALACOLOGICAI. SOCIETY. 

colour; the wavinoss points merely to the foot being much longer in 
life. Simihir contraction is sliown and described as a specitic character 
on the edge of the mantle This can, 1 imagine, l)c only n post mortem 
state due to great contraction, and in all probability would not be seen 
in the living animal, or in one killed in water and then put into spirit. 
However, tbere is no necessity for the creation of another genus, viz. 
Jsaelentia, for Boriiean slugs. All the species I have as yet seen fall 
into two Avell-marked divisions : — 

1 . Bamayantia^ with its very peculiar radula (PI. XI, Figs. \g and 2r). 

2. CoUingea, formerly Microparmarion, with a radula of the tyi)e 
of Parmarion, 

Isselentia is more probably a subgenus of Damaijantin, if that genus 
is to be subdi-vided, and is distinguished by having the mantle-lobes 
less developed, while those of D. dilecta and D. variuaia have coalesced 
or grown tog(!ther, as shown in PI. XI, Figs. 1, \a, 2, and 2a. 

Xeither Mr. Collin ge nor myself have had the advantage of seeing 
any of these Bornean slugs alive, and it is not a matter of any very 
great importance whether D. Smithi, I), plicata, and D. globosa are 
different species or not. 

EEFERENCES. 

1. Issel {A.). — " MoUuschi Borneensi " : Ann. Museo Civico Geuova, 

vol. vi (1874), pp. 366-486, pis. iv-vii. 

2. Collinge [W. E.) and Godwin- Auden [H. H.). — "On the structure 

and affinities of some new species of Molluscs from Borneo": 
Proc. Zool. Soc, 1895, pp. 241-250, pis. xi-xiv. 

3. Godwin - Austen {H. H.). — "Land and Fresh-water Mollusca of 

India," vol. ii, pt. 8 (1898), pp. 55-60, pis. Ixxiii-lxxv. 
J^. Collinge ( W, E.). — " On the anatomy of a collection of Slugs from 

Xorth-West Borneo": Trans. Boy. Soc. Edinburgh, vol. xl 

(1902), pp. 295-312; 3 pis. 
5. Simroth {H. Ji.). — " Ueber die Gattungen rarmacocldea, Parmarion, 

und Microparmarion'''': Zool. Jahrb., Bd. xi, Syst. (1898), 

pp. 151-172, pi. XV. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE XL 
Damayantia carinata. 

Fig. 1. Animal, viewed from the right side, x 2"3. 

,, la. Auimal, viewed from the k'it side, x 2'3. 

,, \h. Animal, viewed from above, the mautle and shell removed to show visceral 

sac. X 4'5. 

,, \c. Left side of head, showing mouth and the three peripodial grooves, x 8. 

,, \d. Part of the generative organs, x 4'5. 

,, \e. Portion of a spermatophore. x 58, 

,, 1/. Jaw. X 24. 

,, \g. Median, adjacent, and three outside teeth of the radula. x 1,100. 

Damayantia Smithi. 
Drawn from a specimen in Nat. Hist. Museum, labelled "2). plicata, 95-9-18." 
Fi&. 2. Animal, viewed from the riglit side, x 2'5. 
,, 2ff. Animal, viewed from the left side, x 2"5. 
,, 'lb. Jaw. X 12. 
,, 'Ic. Median and adjacent teeth of the radula. x .^oQ. 



Vol. V, PI. XI. 




H. H. G.-A. de 



DAMAYANTIA OF ISSEL. 



317 



NOTES ON THE PLEISTOCENE NON- MARINE MOLLUSCA AT 
PORTLAND BILL ; AND ON HOLOCEXE NON - MARINE 
MOLLUSCA FROM (1) WEST HARNHAM, WILTS ; (2) HARLTON, 
CAMBRIDGESHIRE ; (3) THE DOWN ABOVE DURDLE BARN 
DOOR, DORSET ; AND (4) FOLKESTONE. 

By the llev. R. Ashington Bctllen, F.L.S., etc. 

Head \Zth March, 1903. 



I. Portland Bill. 

During a risit to Portland Bill on June 23rcl, 1902, I was able to add 
one more definite species to the mollusca of the late Pleistocene deposit 
near the Bill. Two specimens of Helix nemoralis were found. 
Hitherto the Helix -^hall's, have not been specifically identifiable. 

LimncBti pereger and Limncea tnmcatula were also met with on this 
occasion in greater abundance. Numerically the relative quantities 
obtained have been as follows : — 



ISpecies. 1894. 


1900. 


1902. 


Total. 


Helicella itala (Linn. ) 


1 
5 

56 

41 

4 

1 
1 


2 
10 

1 

28 

9 

22 

16 


9 

16 

I 

2 

1 

136 

14 

29 

44 


11 


Hygromia kispida (Linn.) 

Hygromia rufexcens ( Penn. ) ... 

Vallonia pidchella (Miill. ) 

Helix neniorulis, Linn 


1 

26 

6 

2 


Helix, sp 


2 


Pupa muscorutn ( Linn. ) 


220 


Sitccinea oblotiga, Drap 

LitnncBci pereger (Miill.) 


64 
55 


Limncea truncatula (Miill.) 

Pomatins elegans (Miill.) ...... 

P'istdiuni, sp 


60 
1 
1 









The curious feature of the above list (for 1902) is the abundance 
of three forms, P. muscorum, Limtuea pereger, and Z. truncatula, the 
diminished number of S. oblong a, and the comparative scarcity of 
such generally abundant Pleistocene forms as Helix nemoralis and 
Pomatias elegans. But, as Sir Joseph Prestwich used to say, 
" Quaternary geology has many blanks." 

The records for 1894 and 1900 were published in the Geological 
Magazine, pp. 431 and 286 of the respective years. The pale 
single-banded variety of H. nemoralis represented at Portland Bill 
is still abundant at White Nore on the Dorset coast. Very large 
specimens also occur at Harlyn Bay, Cornwall, in the kitchen midden 
just outside tiie late Celtic cemetery, and Dr Scharff has recently 
sent me three fine and massive specimens from Dog's Bay, Connemara. 



318 



I'KOCKKDINGS OF THE MALACOLOGICAL SOCIKTY. 



II. "West Harnham, near Salisbury. 

Tlie shells mentioned in the following list were procured from 
a Holoccne rainwush clearly e.\posed in the West Harnham Chalk- 
pit. The depth of the deposit varied from 5 feet at the bottom of 
the hill to 2 feet at the top of the pit, which is considerably below 
the summit of the hill. The shells are not plentiful : — 

Arion atcr (Linn.). Helix nemoralis, Linn. 

ITrliceUa itala (Linn.). Azeca tridens (Pult.). 

JTfiijromia liixpidn (Linn.). Ccecilianella acicula (Miill.). 

ValJonia pulchella (Miill.). Fupa muscormn (Linn.). 

IlelicUjona arbustorum (Linn.). Pomatias elegans (Miill.). 

III. Harltox, Cambridgesuire. 

This place is about 8 miles from Cambridge. The Rector is the 
veteran geologist, the llev. Osmond Fisher, F.Gr.S. The shells were 
collected in 1895, 1897, and 1899, from a field opposite the pond, 
and just across the road. Mr. Fisher, on my inquiring in 1895 
about the occurrence of Helicifiona arhmtorum in his neighbourhood, 
told me that he had seen and taken a living specimen about thirty years 
before. The held has been partly worked for coprolites (Lower Green- 
sand), but the part from which the mollusca came has not been 
disturbed by such operations. The shells are cast out by moles with 
the soil. A small piece of unglazed llomano-British pottery, turned 
on the wheel, gives the date of the deposit, which is interesting from 
the abundance of H. arbusforum in a sub-fossil condition. The 
mixture of fresh-water shells and the number of species of Vertigo 
and Zmrt!^; present, mc\vi(\.m^ Ilihtx g agates (Drap.), point to paludal 
conditions which ceased many centuries ago. The species represented 
are : — 



Limax maximus,^ Linn. 
Limax arborum, Bouchard- 
Chan tereaux, 
Agriolimax agrestis (Linn.). 
Agriolimax Icevis (Miill.). 
Milax gagatea ( D rap . ) . 
Vitrea crystallina (Miill.). 
Vitrea nitidula (Drap.). 
Vitrea radiatula (Alder). 
Arion ater (Linn.). 
Pyramidula rotundata (Miill.). 
Th'licclla itala (Linn). 
JTggromia Iiispida (Linn.). 
VaUonia pulchella (Miill.). 
Helicigona lapicida (Linn.). 



Helicigona arbustorum (Linn.). 
Helix ne moral is, Linn. 
Cochlicopa lubrica (Miill.). 
CiEcilianella acicula (Miill.). 
Pupa cylindracea (Da C). 
Pupa muscorum (Linn.). 
Vertigo anticertigo (Drap.). 
Vertigo pygmcea (Drap.). 
Vertigo anytistior, Jeff. 
Clausilia bidentata (Strom.). 
Succinea putris (Linn.).^ 
Carychium minimum (Miill.). 
Limncea truncatula (Miill.). 
Planorbis marginatu>t (Drap.). 
Pomatias elegans (Miill.). 



' Specimen unfortunately lost, but undoubtedly correct, both from its size and having 

the apex at the right upper corner. 
^ Dwarfed variety. 



BULLEN : ON POST-TERTIARY NON-MARINE MOLLUSCA. 319 

Helix aspersa also occurred, but since it was not among the ejecta 
of the mole-heaps it is not included in the above list, although it 
resembles the other shells in condition. 

IV. The Down above Dcjrdle Barn Door and behind Swyre 
Head, Dorset. 

I examined the cliff-section where accessible for a deposit resembling 
the late Pleistocene deposit at Portland Bill, but was unsuccessful. 
I then turned my attention to the ejecta of the mole-hills and rabbit- 
warrens. The list of finds was as under : — 

Vitrea nitidula (Drap.). Helix aspersa, Miill. 

Anon ater (Linn.). Helix nemoralis, Linn. 

Pyramidula rotundata (Miill.). Ena ohscura (Miill.). 

Helicella itala (Linn.). Pupa secale, Drap. 

Helicella virgata (Da C). Pupa muscorum (Linn.). 

Hygromia hispida (Linn.). Vertigo pygmcea (Drap.)- 

Vallonia pulchella (Mull.). Pomatias elegans (Miill.). 

Y, Folkestone. 

The following species were procured from a section exposed by the 
cutting of a wide driving-road under the South Downs at the back 
of the town, about a mile from the sea. Unfortunately, my time 
was rather short, or no doubt the list of species would be longer. 

The general nature of the section examined is similar to the 
Neolithic and Roman layers exposed at Buckland, near Dover, in 1878, 
and described by me in these " Proceedings," vol. iii, p. 162. 

Helix aspersa is especially in evidence. The section exposed varies 
in depth from about 4 to 6 feet and over. The list of shells is as 
follows : — 

Arion ater (Linn ). Hygromia hispida (Linn.). 

Helicella itala (Linn.). Vallonia pulchella (Miill.). 

Eelicella catitiana (Montagu). Helix aspersa, Miill. 

Helicella cartusiana (Miill.). Helix nemoralis, Linn. 
Hygromia rxifescens (Penn.).' 

In conclusion. I have to thank my old friend the Rev. Osmond 
Fisher for invaluable information about the Harlton deposit and 
guidance to the undisturbed part of the field, and Mr. B. B. AVoodward 
for identifying the specimens of Vertigo from Harlton, and the muti- 
lated shells of P. secale and E. ohscura from above Durdle Barn Door ; 
the latter is more strongly striated than usual, and P. secale has lost 
its peristome and part of the body- whorl. Mr. Woodward also agrees 
with my identification of M. gagates. 



;32() 



ox TFIE OCCURllEXOE OF NERITINA GRATELOUPIANA, FER. 
(HITHERTO MISIDENTIFIED AS N. FLUVIATILIS), IN THE 
PLEISTOCENE GRAVELS OF THE THAMES AT SWANSCOMB. 

By A. S. Kenxard and B. B. Woodward, F.L.S., etc. 

Read Uth March, 1903. 

In 1900 a new section was opened in the hip;h terrace 2:ravel of the 
Thames at Swanscomb, and yielded large numbers of mollusca as well 
as abundant remains of vertebrata. This was of great importance, 
since the horizon had hitherto afforded but very few bones or shells. 
The first account of this deposit was by the late Mr. H. Stopes,' 
whilst in 1901 we described the mollusca.- In these papers Neritina 
flnmatiUn (Linn.) was recorded as occurring there in great numbers, 
it being in fact the commonest form. We had, however, our doubts 
as to the correct determination, and a close examination of thousands 
of examples convinced us of our error in referring the Swanscomb 
Neritina to the existing English, species. Through the kindness of 
Mr. H. Preston examples were submitted to Dr. 0. Boettger, and he 
at once identified them as N. Grateloupiana^ Fer. [=-crenuJato, Klein), 
and stated that the form was represented in his collection from the 
Upper Miocene of Iliider, near Dinkelscherben in Bavaria ; Pflummern, 
in Wiirtcmberg ; and Neuberg-a.-Donau, in Bavaria ; and from the 
Middle Miocene of Kosteg, Comitat Krasso Szorenyi, in Hungary. 

According to Sandberger,^ the species occurs in the Upper Miocene 
at Vermes near Delsberg, Berlingen um Untersee, Mammern, Rath 
near Weiach, Littenhaid near Wyla, Schwammcndingen, and Kiipfnach, 
in Switzerland; .at Engelswics near Mosskirch, and Dettighfen near 
Thiengen, in Baden ; at Deutscbhof near Pflummern, Altheim near 
Ehingen, Heggbach, and Biberach, in Wiirtemberg; at Giinzburg, 
H;iuf>dsburg, Reisensburg, Landcstrost, Hader near Dinkelscherben, 
and Schwenditobel near Pfrungen, in Bavaria ; at Hoflein, Hauskirchen, 
Feldsberg, and Brunn near Vienna, in Austria ; at Radmanyest. in 
Hungary ; and at St. Agata near Tortona, in Piedmont : while from 
the Lower Miocene he records it from Mandillot and ^fainot near Dax. 

The nearest living form is Neritina Dafiubiaii.s, Mlf. As we have 
already stated, it was the commonest shell at Swanscomb, occurring 

1 1900. H. Stopes, "On the discovery of Neritina fluviatUis with a Pleistocene 
fauna and worked flints in High Terrace Gravels of the Thames Valley" : 
Journ. Anthrop. Inst., vol. xxix (n.s., vol. ii), pp. 302-3. A second edition of 
the reprint, issued by the author in July, 1901, contains a fuller list of species 
found u]) to that date. 

* A. S. Kennard & B. B. Woodward, " The Post-Pliocene Non-Marine Mollusca of 
the South of Eni,'land" : Proc. Geol. As.soc, vol. xvii, pp. 238-9. 

^ " Land- und Siisswasser-Conchylien der Vorwelt." 



KENNAUD & WOODWAKD : ON XKIilTIXA GBATELOrPIA.XA. 321 

in countless myriads, the coloration being preserved in a very striking 
manner. A few examples are pure white, without any trace of 
markings, whilst in others the ground colour is almost obscured by 
the markings, and every gradation between these is met with. The 
average size is 9 mm. in height by 10 mm. in breadth, but exceptional 
specimens were 10 mm. by 13 mm. About 80 per cent, of the 
examples possess crcnulations on the edge of the columella lip, but 
the size of the crcnulations is by no means constant. It is remarkable 
that not a single example of the operculum has been found, though 
a careful search was made. 

"We have here an extremely interesting example of the imperfection 
of the palaeontological record. Unknown in any deposit on the 
continent of later age than the Upper Miocene, it suddenly appears 
in the Pleistocene of the Thames Valley in countless profusion, and 
it is unknown in any later deposits, whilst the living English species, 
N.flmiatilis, though known from the llioccne of Germany, is quite 
unknown in these Islands in any deposit ohler than the Holocene. 
It is only witliin the last few years that these recent deposits and 
their contained fauna have received any adequate attention, and we 
venture to think that the problems they present are as interesting as 
any in the domains of malacological science. 



VOL. v.--jrNE, 1903. 22 



3-22 



ADDITIONS TO THE GENUS STREPTAXIS. 

By G. K. GuDE, F.Z.S., etc. 

Read 2,rd April, 1903. 

PLATE XII. 

Since my synopsis of the genus Sfreptaxis appeared ' additional 
material has reached me from various sources. Amongst it are some 
apparently new species, descriptions of which are now given. I am 
enabled also to illustrate two hitherto unfigured species and to 
supply a few bibliographical items which were omitted from the 
foimer paper. 

1. Streptaxis Da-Cost^, n.sp. PI. XII, Figs. 5-7. 

Shell imperfoi'ate, solid, whitish corneous, subpellucid, conoid, 
strongly ribbed above, the interstices showing microscopic spiral 
sti'iation, smooth and polished below ; slightly excavated round the 
umbilicus. Spire convex, suture impressed, apex obtuse. Whorls GJ, 
rapidly increasing, somewhat flattened at the sides, tumid below, the 
last dilated towards tlie aperture, shortly and slowly descending in 
front. Aperture oblique, stsmi ovate, the margins subparalkd. Peri- 
stome thickened and shortly reflected ; outer margin slightly receding 
above, columellar margin ascending, dilated, completel}^ closing the 
umbilicus. A thin callus covering the parietal wall, wliich shows two 
or three vai ices. Alt. 14 mm. ; diara. maj 15, min. 135 mm. 

Hab. — Cauca, New Gi'cnada. Four specimens. 

Type in Mr. Da Costa's collection. 

The new species resembles jS. Funclci, Pfr., but is much smaller, 
the axis is more obli(|ue, the columellar margin more ascending, the 
aperture naiTower, and the spire more elevated. Two of the specimens 
are immature, showing the deep open umbilicus. 

2. Streptaxis Tuebawi, Godwin-Austen. PI. XII, Figs. 11-13. 
This species has hitherto not been illustrated. Mr. Ponsonby, who 
possesses the type, has kindly allowed me to give a figure of it. 

3. Strkptaxis porrectus, Pfeiffer. PI. XII, Figs. 20-22. 
This species also has remained unfigured. The shell drawn has 
been compared with the types in the liritish Museum, and it agrees 
with them in every respect, except that it is a trifle smaller. This 
specimen and one other were received from Mr. Hermann lloUe, with 
the habitat Laos. Alt. 7*75, diam. 6 mm. 

4. Streptaxis Prestoni, n.sp. PI. XII, Figs. 17-19. 
Shell narrowly deeply umbilicated, subcylindrical, whitish corneous, 
smooth and shining, finely costulate at the sides, the costulae becoming 

* Ante, p. 201. 



GUDE : ADDITIONS TO THE fiENUS STRKPTAXIS. 323 

veiy strong at the sutures, giving the latter a crenulated appearance, 
especially at the last whorl. Spire elevated, suture impressed, apex 
obtuse. Whorls 7, the earlier ones couve.x:, the last two somewhat 
compressed laterally, the last not descending in front, slightly con- 
stricted behind the peristome, keeled round the umbilicus. Aperture 
oblique, subelliptic. Peristome strongly thickened and reflexed ; 
margins subparallel, the outer receding a little above, bearing on 
the inner side a strong tubercle ; basal margin curved, columellar 
margin straight, a little dilated above, overhanging the umbilicus. 
The parietal wall bears a compressed entering fold close to the 
upper margin of the peristome, and is connected with it by a slightly 
raised ridge. Alt. 10-75, diam. 8-5 ram. 

Hah. — Lampun, Siam. Two specimens, 

Tj'pe in my collection. 

Compared with its nearest ally, S. porrertm, Pfr., the new species 
is larger and more solid, the costulas at the sutui'e are much more 
conspicuous, the umbilicus is wider and deeper, the aperture more 
elongated, and the peristome thicker. The right margin of the 
peristome, moreover, bears a strong tubercle, and the parietal fold 
is more prominent and elevated. The shells were received from 
Mr. Preston. 

5. Streptaxis obtusus, Stoliczka. PL XII, Figs. 8-10. 

The specimen now figured was received from Colonel Beddome with 
the manuscript name S. fiuttulinus, and at first I was inclined to regard 
it as a new species. Mr. Blanford, however, obligingly allowed me 
to inspect specimens of S. obtusus, received from Stoliczka himself, 
and compai'ison with these proved beyond doubt that the shell per- 
tained to Stoliczka's species. 

JTab. — Moulmain, Burma. 

6. Streptaxis latior, n.sp. PI. XII, Figs. 1-4. 

Shell umbilicate, depressed-conoid, whitish corneous, finely costulate 
above, smooth and shining below. Spire depressed, suture channelled, 
apex obtuse. Whorls 6, the earlier ones flattened, the penultimate 
angular, projecting above the last, which is inflated below, not 
descending in front, angular round the umbilicus. Aperture oblique, 
subrhomboid. Peristome thickened and shortly reflected; margins 
distant. Parietal wall with an entering elevated fold about the 
middle, and a second short oblique fold a little above it. Outer 
margin receding a little above, inflected about the middle. The 
inside of the peristome bears three equal equidistant tubercles, one 
each on the outer, basal, and columellar margins ; behind the peristome 
occurs a shallow scrobiculation corresponding with the basal tubercle. 
Umbilicus moderately deep, narrow at first, suddenly widening, 
strongly costulate within. Alt. 6 mm. ; diam. maj. 8, min. 6-25 mm. 

Uab. — Nilgiris, India. 

Type in my collection. 

Colonel Beddome kindly furnished a specimen from a suite of several 
in his collection, which were labelled S. Peroteti. The present shell 
differs from that species in the much wider umbilicus and the wider 



324 rUOCEKDINGS OF THE MALACOLOfilCAL SOCIETY. 

aperture. TIic peristome is more reflected, and the tubercle on tlie 
basal marf>in, which in S. Pcroteti is entering, here is parallel with 
the peristome ; the costulce are also coarser, and the shell is broader. 
Fig. 4 shows the aperture enlarged two diameters. 

7. SXREPTAXIS PLEUROSTOMOIDES, n.sp. PI. XII, FigS. 14-16. 

Shell narrowly nmhilicated, sub-ovate, whitish corneous, smooth, 
shining-. Spire depressed, suture channelled, apex obtuse. AVhorls o.\, 
rounded, the last scarcely descending in front, slightly constricted 
behind the peristome, angulated round the umbilicus. Aperture 
oblique, subtriangular. Peristome thickened and reflexed ; margins 
distant, connected by a ridge on the parietal wall, which bears about 
the middle an entering, elevated, gradually descending, curved fold. 
The latter is connected with the outer margin of the peristome bj- 
a slightly raised ridge on the parietal wall. Outer margin receding 
above, inflected about the middle, where it bears a short entering fold 
and immediately above it a slight tubercle ; the basal and columellar 
bear three small, equal, equidistant teeth. Alt. 4-5 mm. ; diam. 
maj. 60, rain. 5 mm. 

Hah. — Courtallum Hills, Tinncvelly, India. 

Type in my collection. 

This species is allied to 8. Watsoni and -S". Beddomei, but is larger 
than either. From the former it further differs in the more pre- 
ponderating last whorl, which is also more dilated at the mouth ; the 
aperture is different in shape, and lacks the upper parietal and upper 
marginal teeth, while the basal and columellar margins bear three 
equal, equidistant teeth in place of the two basal ones in S. IVatsoni ; 
these teeth, moreover, are quite different in character in the two 
species. In the shape, the aperture, and the number and disposition 
of the teeth, S. pleurostomoides closely resembles S. Beddomei, and 
I was at first inclined to regard it as pertaining to var. major of that 
species ; but the absence of the strong costulae in the umbilicus, so 
characteristic of S. Beddomei, and, what is perhaps of more importance, 
the total lack of the conspicuous scrobiculation behind the peristome, 
appear to me on fuller consideration to be sufficient to give the 
present form undoubted specific rank. The shell was received from 
Colonel lieddome, who kindly placed it at my disposal for description. 
It was accompanied by the manuscript name which I have adopted, 

ADDITIONS TO THE SYXOFSIS. 

STREPTAXIS, Gray. 

{A7ite, p. 204,) 

Section I, UrsTiiEPrAxis, Pfeiffer. 

Subsection 1 . Edentula, Pfeiffer. 

10. Streptaxis Dtjnkert, Pfeiffer. 

Streptaxis Biinlceri, Pfr. : Hidalgo, Obras Malac, pt. iii (1893), p. 86, 

No. 46. 
Streptaxis {-Eusirej)ta.vis) Bunlrri, Hidalgo: ib., p. 128, 



GtrnE : additions to the genus STUErTAXis. 325 

11*. Stkeftaxis Da-Cost^, n.sp. 
Str&ptaxis Ba-CodcR, Gutle : ante, p. 322, PI. XII, Figs. 5-7. 
Hah. — New Grenada : Cauca. 

13. Stekptaxis contusus, Fer. 
Strcptaxiii contusus, Fer. : Hidalgo, Obras Malac, pt. iii (1893), p. 87, 

No. 47. 
Streptaxis (^^ustreptaxis) contusus, Hidalgo: ib., pp. 128 and 141, 

14. Streptaxis uberifohmis, Pfeiffer. 
Streptaxis uhen'formis, Fir.: Hidalgo, Obras Malac, pt. iii (1893), 

p. 87, Xo. 48. 
Streptaxis (Eustreptaxis) uheriformis, Hidalgo: ib., p. 128. 

16. Streptaxis Deshayesiantjs, Crosse. 
Streptaxis Deshai/esianus, Crosse : Hidalgo, Obras Malac , pt. iii (1893), 

p. 87, Xo. 51. 
Streptaxis {£ustreptaxis) Deshaijesianus, Hidalgo : ib., pp. 128 and 142. 

27. Streptaxis micans, Putzeys. 
Streptaxis micans, Putz. : Bull. Seances Soc. Pioy, Malac. Belg., 
vol. xxxvi (1901), p. xli, fig. 14. 

Subsection 2. Bente parietali munitcR. 
{Ante, p. 211.) 

44. Streptaxis Thebawi, Godwin-Austen. 
Streptaxis Thehawi, G.-A. : Gude, ante, p. 322, PI. XII, Figs. 11-13. 

71. Streptaxis porrectus, Pfeiffer. 
Streptaxis porrectus, Pfr. : var., AV. T. Elanford, Proc. Malac. Soc, 
vol. V (1903), p. 275. 
Hab. — Siam : Lampun. 
Streptaxis porrectus, Pfr. : Gude, ante, p. 322, PI. XII, Figs, 20-22. 
JIab. — Siam : Laos, 

71*. Streptaxis Prestoni, n.sp. 
Streptaxis Prestoni, Gude: ante, p. 322, PI, XII, Figs. 17-19. 
Mab. — Siam : Lampun. 

Subsection 3, Odontartenion, Pfeiffer. 
{Ante, p 218.) 

77. Streptaxis Burmanicus, W. T. Blanford. 
Streptaxis Burmanica, Hanley & Theob. : Conch. Ind., pl. clvi, fig. 10. 

83. Streptaxis obtusus, StoUczka. 
Strt'ptaxis ohtusus, Gude : ante, p. 323, PI. XII, Figs. 8-10. 
Mab. — Burma : Moulmain. 

88. Streptaxis Peroteti, Petit. 
Streptaxis Perroteti, Cooke : Camb. Xat. Hist., vol. iii, Mollusca 
(1895), p. 302, tig. 203 : ■.. ■ - 



326 PROCKEDINGS OF THE SIALACOLOBICAL SOCIKTT. 

88*. Strkptaxis latior, Gutle. 

Streptaxi.'i latior, Gude : ante, p. 323, PI. XII, Figs. 1-4. 
Mab. — I^ilgiris, India. 

94*. Strkptaxis plecrostomoides, n sp. 

Streptaxis pJeurosfomoides, Gude : ante, p. 324, PI. XII, Figs. 14-16. 
Mab. — Courtallum Hills, Tinnevelly, India. 

Section II. DiscAnrEMOx, PfeifPer. 
{Ante, p. 226.) 

131. Streptaxis Crossei, PfeifFer. 

Streptaxis Crossei, Pfr. : Hidalgo, Obras Malac, pt. iii (1893), p. 87, 

Xo. 50. 
Streptaxis {Discartemon) Crossei, Hidalgo: ib., pp. 128 and 139. 

Section III. Abtemox, Beck. 

{Ante, p. 227.) 

135. Streptaxis candibtjs, Spix. 

Streptaxis candidus, Spix : Hidalgo, Obras Malac, pt. iii (1893), p. 88, 

Xo. 52. 
Streptaxis {Artemon) candidus, Hidalgo : ib., pp. 128 and 134. 

149. Streptaxis Paivanijs, Pfeiffer. 

Streptaxis Paiva?ius, Pfr. : Hidalgo, Obras Malac, jjt. iii (1893), p. 87, 

Xo. 49. 
Streptaxis {Artemon) Paivamis, Hidalgo: ib., pp. 128 and 135. 

Section YIII. Micpabtemox, Mollendorff. 

{Ante, p. 232.) 

163. Streptaxis Boettgeri, MollendorfF. 

Streptaxis Boettgeri, MlldfP. : Hidalgo, Obras Malac, pt. i (1890), 
p. 98, No. 127. 

HAPPIA, Bourguignat. 
{Ante, p. 233.) 

1. Happia Flora, Pfeiffer. 

IleJix Flora, Pfr. : Hidalgo, Obras Malac, pt. iii (1893), p. 82, Xo. 24. 
Streptaxis {Ammonoceras) Flora, Hidalgo : ib., p. 128. 

2. Happia Andicola, Philippi. 

Helix Andium, Phil.: Hidalgo, Obras Malac, pt. iii (1893), p. 82, 

Xo 23. 
Selenites Andium, Hidalgo: ib., p. 128. 

5. Happia Cuzcana, Philippi. 

Helix Baezensis, Hidalgo: Obras Malac, pt. iii (1893), p. 86, Xo. 45. 
Streptaxis {Ammonoceras) Cuscam<s, Hidalgo: ib., pp. 128 and 136. 



Proc. A\alac. 5oc. 



Vol. V, PI. XII. 




1 






3 




I 





10 







14 



i < 




15 




16 






20 ai 22 

J. X. Fitch, F.L.S., (k-l. 

NEW AND UNFIGURED STREPTAXIS. 



GUDE : ADDITIONS TO THE GENUS STEEPTAXIS. 327 

6. Happia vitrina, "Wagner. 
Helix vitrina, Waga. : Hidalgo, Obras Malac, pt. iii (1893), p. 84, 

No. 34. 
Streptaxis [Ammonoceras) vitrma, Hidalgo: ib., p. 128. 

SCOLODONTA, Doring. 

{Ante, p. 236.) 

7. Scolodonta tkochilioneides, Orbigny. 

Helix trochiUoneides, Orb. : Hidalgo, Obras Malac, pt. iii (1893), 

p. 86, No. 42. 
Streptaxis (Ammonoceras) trochiUoneides, Hidalgo : ib., pp. 128 and 138. 
Hab. — Peru : Lima. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE XII. 



Figs. 1-3. 


St) 


eptaxis latior, n.sp. 


4. 




,, ,, aperture, x 2. 


„ 5-7. 




,, Ba-Costce, n.sp. 


,, 8-10. 




,, obtusKs, Stol. 


,, 11-13. 




,, Thcbawi, Godw.-Aust. 


,, 14-16. 




,, pleurostomoides, u.sp. 


,, 17-19. 




,, Prestoni, n.sp. 


,, 20-22. 




,, porrectm, Pir. 



328 



ON XYLOFUAGA PR^STANS, x.sr., FROM THE ENGLISH COAST. 

By Edgar A. Smith, F.Z.S., etc. 

Read 3rd April, 1903. 

Thk shells upon wliicli the following obsen'ations are based were 
kindly placed in my hands by Mr. J. R. Le Erockton Tomlin : he 
obtained them from a fisherman by whom they had been extracted 
" from an old mast at Blyth " on the coast of Northumberland. 

The specimens were sent to me as a donation to the Museum 
collection. They are of very great interest, being much larger than 
any other specimens of tlie genus hitherto obtained, and differing to 
such an extent from the type of tlie genus, the well-known Xylophaga 
(li)rsalis of Turton, that I feel justified in considering them as belonging 
to- a distinct species, which may be thus described : — 

1. Xylophaga PRiESTANs, n.sp. 

Testa X dorsal i similis sed major, area antica filiis fortioribus et 
magis distantibus instructa, linea arcuata impressa ab umbone ad 
unguium anticum sculpta, laminis duobus dorsalibus (protoplaxibus) 
formoB dissimilis et diverse positis ; cicatrix postica intra valvas 
rugose striata. Diam. 18 mm., longit. umbone ad marginem 
ventralem I7"5mm. 

After a preliniinaiy examination it seemed doubtful whether it 
might not bo equally advisable to regard this interesting form as 
a variation of X dorsalis rather than as a distinct species. It appeared 
to bo ono of those perplexing cases, with w^hich the zoologist is 
frcfiuently confronted, in which the evidence of so-called specific 
distinctness is not at all conclusive, and yet is sufiicient, if constant, 
to warrant a separation. 

In the first place the size greatly exceeds that of any recorded 
specimen of X dorsalis ; secondly, the sculpture of the anterior 
triangular area is different, the parallel raised lines being conspicuously 
further apart and crossed by a depression or impressed line, which curves 
from the umbones to the anterior angle, marking off a lunule-like space ; 
thirdly, the raised lines on the narrow surface between the anterior 
triangular area and the antei'ior subobsolete keel spread out more con- 
s])icuously behind ; and finally, the dorsal accessory plates (protoplaxcs 
of Fisclier) are not of the same form, and fit on to the valves in a different 
manner. They vary somewhat in different specimens, but in no case 
do they resemble those of typical examples of the species. In most 
instances the upper surface of each plate is acutely triangular, and 
stands almost erect from the portion of the plate which is doubled under 
and rests upon the surface of the valve. This part of the plate is 
grooved on the under side, the groove ending in a notch on the outer 
or lateral margin. Tliere is another difference which, although not 



SMIXn : ON XYLOPHAGA PR^1<:STANS, N.SP. 



329 



perhaps of special importance, may be worth noticing. In the 
present species, on the posterior margin of the valves, an elongate 
curved muscular impression is observable which is peculiarly and 
very distinctly striated. This appears to be constant in all the 
specimens examined. On the other hand, this scar in X. dorsalis 
is hardly noticeable, and quite smooth. It should also be observed 
that none of the specimens of the present species exhibit the greenish 
yellow colour on the anterior part of the valves which is often present 
in X. dorsalis. In every instance the shells are uniformly dirty 
whitish, but generally exhibit the remains of a thin, deciduous, 
dirty, olivaceous periostracum at the opposite extremity. 




^ 




III. 



II. 




:3 



lY 



Fig. I. Dorsal shields of Xijlophaga dorsalis, upper surface. 
,, II. ,, ,, ,, ,, under surface. 

,, III. ,, ,, ,, ^?Yf«^«H«, upper surface. 

,, IV. ,, ,, ,, ,, uuder surface. 

With regard to the size of the two species, it should be mentioned 
that the largest dimensions of X. dorsalis hitherto recorded are those 
given by Verkriizen. and these may be contrasted with those of the 
largest examples of X prcestans. 

X. dorsalis. X. prcBstans. 

Length ... ... 14 mm. ... 1 8 mm. 

Breadth 12 ,, ... 18 ,, 

Height ... ... 11 ,, ... 17'5mm. 

Circumference ... 44 ,, ... GO mm. 

In concluding the account of this interesting form it may be useful 
to give a list of and to offer some remarks npon, the other known 
recent species belonging to Xylophaga. 

2. Xylophaga doesalis, Turton. 

Xijlophaqa dorsalis : Forbes & Hanley, Brit. Moll., vol. i, p. 89, pi. F, 
fig. 2; vol iv, pi. ii, figs. 3, 4 ; Jeffreys, Brit. Couch., vol. iii, 
p. 120, pi. iv, fig. 3 ; vol. v, pi. liii, fig. 4 ; A^erkriizen, 
" Norwegen, seine Fjorde und jSTaturwunder," 1872, p. 35, 
and plate (frontispiece). Many other references might be 
quoted. 
JTab. — Many localities around the British Isles, Norway, Denmark, 

North of France, Bay of Biscay, several places in the Mediterranean, 

the Adriatic. It has also been quoted fossil at Karlsburg in the 

Yienua Basin. 



330 PROCEEDINGS OF THE MALACOLOGICAL SOCIETT. 

3. XTLOPHA.GA GLOBOSA, Sowei'by. 

Xylophaga glohosa, Sowerby : Proc. Zool. Soc, 1835, p. 110 ; Thosaurua 
Conch., vol. ii, p. 503, pi. cviii, figs. lUl, 102. 

Hah. — Valparaiso, in wood at a depth of sixty fathoms. 

A doubtful species concerning which Mr. Sowerby {loc. cit. supra) 
observes, "if there be any real ditference between this and the last 
species, it may consist in the posterior part of the valves in X. dormlis 
being shorter and more elevated at the dorsal margin. T[ie opening in 
the ventral margin seems also to be more acute in X. dorsalis." 

The species was described from specimens in the Cuming Collection, 
but the shells from that collection now labelled glohosa seem to be 
indistinguishable from X. dorsaliH, and even the figures in the 
*' Thesaurus" do not exhibit much difference from the common British 
species. 

4. Xylophaga caudissa, Gould. 

Xylophaga cardissa: Otia Conch., p. 241; Tryon, Proc. Acad. Nat. 
Sci. Philad., 1862, vol. xiv, p. 206. 

Hah. — Mergui Archipelago. 

I have not seen this species, and very much doubt if it really belongs 
to the genus Xylophaga. Gould compared it with X. teredinijonnis 
and X. aperta, two species which " were at first thought to belong to 
the genus Xylophaga, but on examination were found to possess the 
curved processes in the hinge which are characteristic of the genus 
Pholas, and are not found in Xylophaga " (Sowerby). Gould also 
describes the presence of these internal apophyses, thus demonstrating 
that the shells before him did not belong to the genus Xylophaga. On 
the other hand, Tryon,' in his monograph of the Plioladidte, observes : 
" I owe to Dr. Gould the pleasure of examining specimens of this new 
form of Xylophaga, which is very distinct from the other species of the 
genus." It is not unlikely that it will prove to be a form, perhapa 
young, of Martesia. 

5. Xylophaga abyssorum, Dall. 

Xylophaga abyssorum, Dall: Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard Coll., 
vol. xi'i (1886), p. 317, pi. ix, figs. 7, la. 

Hah. — In soft coral nodule off Santa Lucia, West Indies, in 226 fms. 

Another doubtful species, founded on a single specimen only 4 mm. 
in diameter. Xo accessory plates were observed, and the intenial rib 
which is characteristic of the valves of Xylophaga is not referred to. 
Dr. Dall says: " I am somewhat doubtful whether this shell properly 
belongs in the genus Xylophaga, but it may be immature, and the 
accessory laminae may be later in developing." 



» Tioc. Acad. Nat. Sd. Pliilad., vol. xiv (1862), p. 206. 



331 



NOTES OX SOME NEW OR LITTLE -KNOWN MEMBERS OF THE 
FAMILY DORIDIID^.' 

By Sir C. K E. Eliot, K.C.M.G., 
H.M. Commissioner for the East Africa Protectorate. 

Read Zrd April, 1903. 

PLATE XIII. 

In the following paper T propose to describe some new or little-known 
members of the familj^ Doridiidse, captured on the east coast of Africa 
and at Rotuma in the South Pacific. The specimens from the latter 
locality were kindlj' lent me by Mr. Stanley Gardiner. 

The Doridiidae are Tectibranchia of the subdivision Cephalaspidea, 
bearing two dorsal shields with a furrow between them. The anterior 
shield has free margins, but as a rule is not developed into tentacles ; 
the posterior has the margins less developed, but is produced behind 
into two processes. The foot is broad, truncate before and behind, 
and continued on each side into a fairly ample parapodium, from which 
it is not clearly divided. The parapodia are united behind, and the 
posterior part of the body hangs over or rests on them. Organs 
analogous to rhinophores are often present in the form of lamellae 
under the sides of the head- shield or lumps with bristles around the 
mouth. The branchia is a large bipinnate plume, i:)osterior and on the 
right side. Behind it is the vent, in front of it the genital orifice, 
which is connected by an open groove with the verge on the right 
anterior extremity of the body. The verge is grooved, the prostate 
double or single. The shell is wholly internal, posterior, and generally 
composed of a minute spire with a single solute whorl ; sometimes 
wholly membranous, sometimes partly calcified, rarely wholly calcified. 
There are no jaws, radula, or stomach plates, but there is, as a rule, 
a large, sometimes colossal, buccal bulb with thick muscular walls. 
This, however, is not the case in some of the species here described. 
Since, however, they are in other respects typical Doridia, and the 
difference in the digestive tract is one of development, not of structure, 
it is not necessary to create a new genus for them. 

Three genera are recognized — Doridkim'^ {^l^eckeY)^ which has no 
tentacular appendages to the anterior shield and short posterior 
processes ; Chelidonura (Adams), also without tentacular appendages, 

^ See R. Bergh, " Die Gruppe der Doridiiden," Mittheil. Zool. Station Neapel, 
xi (1893), pp. 107-135 : ib., " Reports on the ckedging . . . carried on by the 
. . . Albatross, xiii. Die Opisthobranchien," Bull Mus. Conip. Zool. Harvard 
Coll., XXV, No. 10 (1891), pp. 125-233 : ib. in Semper's " Reiseu ira Archipel 
der Philippinen, Wissensch. Result.," Bd. vii, abth. iv, absch. 2, lief. 1 (1900), 
p. 177, and absch. 3, lief. 2 (1901), p. 302 : ib., " Reise nach dem Pacific 
(Schauinsland). Die Opisthobranchier," Zool. Jahrb., xiii, Syst. (1900), p. 211. 

' Pilsbry prefers the older name Aglaja for Doridtum. 



332 PROCEKDINGS OK THE MALACOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

l)ut having long narrow posterior processes, and usually sense organs 
in the form of knobs studded with bristles and set round the raoutli ; 
Xavarchus ' (Cooper), in Avhicli the front margin of the anterior shield 
is developed into rhinophore-like projections. Bergh admits that 
JTdrarchits is a somewhat doubtful genus, and one of my specimens of 
Clielidonura varitins exliibited tentacular projections of tiie anterior 
shield wliich Avere absent in the other examples. It remains to be 
seen whether the distinction in shape between Don'dium and Clielido- 
nura is absolute, or Avhether intermediate forms will be discovered. 

DoKiDiuM. — About fourteen species seem to be known with more 
or less certaintj'', of which two are now desci'ibed for the first time. 

1. D. tricoloratiim (Renier). Mediterranean. 

2. D. depictum (llenier). Mediterranean. 

3. D. punctilucens, Bergh. W. Indies. 

4. D. purpiirefon, Bergh. California. 

5. J), ci/lindficnm (Cheeseman). New Zealand. 

6. D. ocelligerum, IBergh. N. Pacific. 

7. -0. diomedium, Bergh. N. Pacific. 

8. D. lineohdum (H. & A. Adams). Pacific. 

9. J), alboventrale, Bergh. Malay Archipelago. 

10. I), cyaneum, Martens. E. Africa. 

11. 7). ohscurum, Bergh. S. Pacific. 

12. D. Fihhryi, Eliot. S. Pacific. 

13. L. Gardineri, Eliot, n.sp. S. Pacific. 

14. D. reticulatum, Eliot, n.sp. E. Africa. 

DoRiDiuM Gardineei, nov. sp. 
Four specimens captured by Mr. Stanley Gardiner at Botuma. The 
length of the largest is 51 mm., the breadth 2o mm. The head-shield, 
Avhich is 23 mm., has ample margins and a free flap behind measuring 
6 mm. The edges of the posterior shield are also more distinct than 
usual. The parapodia are ample, the free part at the sides measuring 
1 1 and that behind 14 mm. The posterior shield is prolonged into two 
voluminous processes, which do not form a disc but lie like the tails 
of an evening coat. Each is folded on itself, and thus double. 
A fleshy prominence proceeds from the left process towards the 
right, and takes part in covering the gill. The exposed parts of the 
two larger specimens are of a uniform deep bluish black, and 
tlu' inside of the parapodia silveiy grey. The two smaller specimens 
(-which, however, have the specific characteristics) are brownish and 
ligliter at the sides. Mr. Gardiner's note as to the colour of the 
living animal is almost obliterated by the action of the alcohol, 
but appears to read "Black . . . yellow ... at sides." 
This may refer to the brownish specimens, or possibly to two distinct 
yellowish rhino])horial organs situated on the upper part of each 
side of the head below the edge of the shield. They are about 10 mm. 
long, and consist of a series of laminte arranged in almost pinnate form, 
but the central axis is not continuous. The gill is posterior, yellowish 

' rilsbiy {'allfi Xanircfius, Xavaiia.r. 



SIR C. ELIOT : ON DOIlIDIir).55. 333 

■green, bipinnate, free for nearly all its length, and bearing about 
fourteen primary pinuoe. At its anterior end is the large prominent 
bifid genital papilla. The verge is conical and grooved ; the prostate 
is granulose and T-shaped. The pharj-nx is a long and narrow tube 
(31 by 3 mm.), and though thicker than the rest of the digestive 
tract is not conspicuously muscular as in many other species. It is 
succeeded by a membranous tube which passes straight into the 
hepatic mass without any dilatation which can be called a stomach. 
The greater part of the pharyngeal tube lies under the hepatic mass, 
which is grooved to receive it, and which approaches within 6 mm. 
of the mouth. The free portion of the tube, however, contained 
Avithin this space is bent, and measures 12mm. I could find no 
salivary glands. The shell is white, and consists of a solute calcified 
■whorl much in the shape of a comma. To this is attached a plate, 
the outer part of which is membranous and the inner calcified. 

The important characters of this species appear to be the amplitude 
of the parapodia, shield margins, and posterior processes ; the narrow- 
ness of the pharynx, and the quasi-pinnate rhinophorial organs. 

Doric iTJM Pilsbryi,' Eliot. 
(Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad., 1899, p. 512, pi. xix, figs, la-h.) 
The external characters of this species were described by me from 
a single living specimen captured in Samoa, and deposited without 
being dissected in the Museum of the Academy of Natural Sciences at 
Philadelphia. The animal is of a light tint, varying from pale green 
to fawn colour, with a pattern on the two dorsal shields roughly 
resembling a figure 8. This light coloration is unusual, if not unique, 
in the genus. 

The specimen now examined was captured by Mr. Stanley Gardiner at 
Kotuma, and is small, 24 mm. long and 10 mm. broad. The parapodia 
are not at all ample, particularly in front ; their greatest width is 
3 mm. The head-shield is long and narrow (12 X 5 mm.) ; the edges 
are not very prominent, and the flap behind small. The hinder shield 
is 9 X V mm., and bears two short processes about 3 mm. long, which 
are quite simple and do not form a disc. The whole body as preserved 
is of a pale indistinct fawn colour. On the head-shield a black bar 
runs down to what may be described as a figure of 8, consisting of 
three, not two, circles placed one above the other. On the hinder 
shield is another figure, which may be described as a figure of 8 with 
the lower circle not closed. A border runs round the parapodia 
about 2 mm. from the edge, and at ffiirly regular intervals sends off 
lines to the edge. On the foot are about ten spots of irregular shape. 
All these markings are very distinct and of an intense black. In the 
living specimen which I saw, the gill was dark green ; as preserved it 
is dirty yellow. The digestive tract is much as in the species last 
described. First comes a long, narrow, non-muscular pharyngeal tube 

1 Since -writing the above I have read Professor Bergh's description of the species 
(Semper's Reisen, iv, iii, 2, pp. 305-6), which in all essential particulars agrees 
with mv observations. 



334 PROCEEDTXGR OF THK M ALACOI.OGICAI, SOCIKTY. 

(10 mm. long by 2 mm. wide) ; then a thinner and more membranous 
tube (3 mm. lone; by -5 mm. broad); and then, at the entry of the 
hepatic mass, a dilatation 5 mm. long and 3 mm. broad. I conld not 
see any fohls or plates in any part of this apparatus, but it was not 
AvcU preserved. The hepatic mass lies on the top of the digestive 
tract, as in the last species, and is grooved to receive it. The prostate 
is granulose and T- shaped ; the verge elongate and conical ; no groove, 
though doubtless present, could be distinguished on it. The shell is 
a mere convex plate, as in Jpli/sia, and entirely membranous, witliout 
a trace of calcification. But tlie individual is small and probably 
immature, so that calcification may perhaps set in later. 

DoRiDiUM (?) CYANEUM, You ^Nfarteus. 

I only know Von Martens' description of this species and of 
D. nigrum as they are reproduced in Pilsbry's "Manual of Con- 
chology," vol. xvi. The details given are so few that identification 
without reference to the original specimens is hardly safe, particularly 
as my specimens do not show any "numerous anastomosing net-like 
wrinkles." On the other hand, they come from much the same 
locality. East Africa, and they exhibit the same remarkable variety of 
hue, ranging from uniform bluish black to an elaborate coloration 
analogous to that of Yon Martens' var. vitfata. 

Of my specimens captured in Zanzibar (Chuaka and Jembiani), one 
was of a uniform transparent black with a laeautiful purple iridescence, 
with no markings at all. In another the ground colour was the same, 
but the various lobes were edged with bright blue blotches. In two 
others, in addition to these markings two sandy crescent-like spots were 
present, one on each of the dorsal shields. Of three specimens caught 
at Jembiani, one had in addition to the vivid blue blotches two long 
broken lines of orange yellow on the head and sides, besides a few dots 
of the same colour on the back ; a second had in addition numerous 
irregular greenish blotches. In a third the yellow was greyish and 
the green blotches smaller and fewer. 

In alcohol the largest specimen measures 24 mm. in length and 
15 mm. in breadth. The front shield is 14 mm. long, the hind shield 
8 mm. The margin of the front shield is fairly ample, but the hind 
shield is hardly distinguished from the surrounding area. The 
posterior processes form a disk much as in D. depiction. There are 
no distinct lamellse or other organs which can be called rhinophores. 
The gill is large and white. The seminal groove is not white as in 
many other dark species, but of the same colour as the surrounding 
parts. The pharynx is colossal compared to the size of the animal 
(length 12, breadth 15 mm.), but is not very muscular. The shell is 
of a fair size, a large membranous plate being attached to the calcified 
part, which latter is 9 mm. long. There appears to be no spire. 
The prostate is double, or at least deeply bifid ; the verge is long 
and grooved.^ 



1 Since writing the above I have read Professor Bergh's description of the species 
(Semper's Reisen, iv, iii, 2, pp. 303-5), which in essential points agrees with mine. 



SIR C. EMOT : ON DORIDIID.E, 335 

DoSIDITJM EETICXJLATUM, n.sp. (PI. XIII, Fig. 1.) 

One specimen from near Wasin Island, E. Africa. The form of 
the living animal is somewhat elongate. The foot and the sides are 
of a dull greenish drab, covered by a network of dark-brown round 
raeshes, which become black at the edges of the parapodia. The 
posterior processes and the front of the foot are edged with black. 
About the middle of the edge of the epipodia are three large dull 
blue spots. The network is found also on the two dorsal shields, 
wliere it is very fine and close. The general colour is lighter above 
than below, and the central parts of the anterior shield are of a light 
pale yellow. 

The alcoholic specimen is 12 mm. long and 5-5 mm. broad. The 
epipodia are narrow and little developed. The same is the case with 
the margins of the dorsal shields ; the head-shield has no flap behind, 
and the hind shield is merely an ai'ea with hardly raised edges. The 
posterior processes form a sort of disk. The left one is much the 
larger and broader. 

The head-shield is pointed anteriorly, with somewhat indistinct 
lamellations under the edge. There are no lumps bearing sensory 
organs about the mouth. The pharynx is of a moderate size, being 
about l'5mm. broad. The shell is strong and calcareous, but almost 
transparent. The spire is solute, and appai'ently no part of the 
structure is membranous. 

It is possible that this specimen may be identical with D. gutlaturn, 
V. Martens, or B. Gigliolii, Tapp.-Can., but the descriptions of those 
species are too brief to admit of a certain identification, and I have 
therefore thought it safer to create a new species. 

Cheltdonura.. — Only the following species have been sufficiently 
examined for their identity to be certain : — 

1. C hirundmina (Quoy & Gaimard), Pacific. 

2. C. varians, Eliot. East Africa. 

3. C. PhiUnopsu, Eliot. East Africa. 

4. C. plebeia, Bergh. Pacific. 

Chelidon.uea vakians, n.sp. 
Five specimens from Chuaka, east coast of Zanzibar. The colour of 
the living animal is jet black, with brilliant blue edges to the para- 
podia, dorsal shields, and posteiior processes. This blue line is, 
however, broken in places, and there are some sporadic blue spots, as 
well as a blue line down the centre of the head-shield. The parts 
hidden by the parapodia are somewhat lighter than the rest. The 
length of the alcoholic specimens is about 30 mm., and the breadth 
rather more than 10 mm. The front shield has a long tapering flap, 
and its total length is about 18 mm. Its shape varies somewhat. In 
three of the five specimens it forms a rough isosceles triangle. In one 
the corners of the anterior margin are produced into tentacle-like 
expansions, and in another the anterior third of the shield is sharply 
distinguished from the remaining portion by being 4 mm. broader, but 
at the same time this broad portion is too large to be described as 
forming tentacles or rhinophores. The posterior processes are between 



336 ritocKKDiNos of tiik MAi.\coi.oriTC.\r, soriicrv. 

4 and 5 ram. long; in one specimen the n<^ht is longer, in another the 
left, in throe they are equal. The gill and spermatic groove are wliite. 
At the sides of the raoiitli and under tlie projections of the anterior 
shield are numerous hluish-wliite prominences bearing bristles. They 
are more numerous tlian in C. hirundinina, and are not grouped 
symmetrically. The pharynx is not large, 3 mm. wide, and moderately 
muscular. It is succeeded by a narrow tube, which passes into the 
hepatic mass without giving rise to any diUitatiou or stomach. The 
prostate is granulose and deeply bifid. The verge is large (7 mm.), 
and the sack in which it is contained ends in a globular expansion. 
The shell is brown, entirely membranous, and apparently hatchet- 
shaped. 

Chelidonura (?) HiRUNDiNiNA, var. ruNCTATA., n.var. 
(PI. XIII, Fig. 2.) 

Three specimens from Zanzibar. The living animal, when in an 
extended condition with the parapodia folded, was about 35 mm. long. 
The colour is black, with a very thin white line round the parapodia ; 
while all over the body, and even on the under surface, there are 
large orange spots. The animal is fairly active in its movements, 
but adlieres only slightly. The crawling sui'face does not appear to 
be differentiated from the rest of the body in any way. 

The measurements of the largest alcoholic specimen are as follows : 
Length 18 mm., breadth with the parapodia folded 11mm., with 
the parapodia fidly extended 21 mm., anterior head-shiehl 9 mm. 
long, two-tliirds of which is formed by a free flap behind ; the 
posterior processes 5 mm. long. The orange spots have become 
pale blue. The gill is yellowish white and concealed more than 
usual, being placed in a (h'stinct gill-chamber under and behind the 
right posteiior process. The large parapodia are united in an amph- 
expansion imder the two posterior processes, strongly resembling 
the disposition of the same parts in Gastroptcron. There are no 
symmetrically placed prominences round the mouth as in the specimens 
of C. hirundinina examined by Bergh (Zool. Jahrb., I3d. xiii, Syst , 
p. 214), but merely a number of indistinct and irregulaily granidated 
liunps. The pharynx is not very large (2'5 mm. long by 2 mm. 
bioad), but is tliick and muscular, and yellow in colour. The shell is 
unusually thick though brittle, pink, and entirely calcified. 

These specimens have not the typical coloration of C. Iiirmtdinintr, 
but Professor Miibius (as quoted by Pilsbry, Man. Conch., vol. xvi, 
p. 35) found an individual Avhich was "bluish-black with yelloAv 
spots .... the reflexed foot margins on the back having 
a narrow clear green edge." This is clearly the same animal as my 
specimens, and in view of the tendency displayed by all the Doridiida"" 
to vary in shape and coloration it is safer to regard it provisionally 
as a variety. I am not sure, however, that the position of tlie gill 
and the arrangement of the sense organs round the mouth do not 
constitute specific characters. 

Chelidonuea Philinopsis, n.sp. 

One specimen from Chuaka, Zanzibar. The general colour of the 



Proc.Mal,ac.Soc, 



Vol. V.Pl. XIII 






i 



2. 



JGr-een-litVi. 



Min.teT'ivBros imp 



NEW DORIDIID/E. 



SIR C. ELIOT : ON DOEIDIIDiE. 337 

living animal appears as a rich red brown, which, is formed of 
a chocolate ground studded with minute yellow dots. On the upper 
surface are the following marks, all of which are edged with a distinct 
broad line of chocolate, caused by the absence of the yellow dots : — 
on the head-shield there is a slender blue T, with the vertical arm 
elongated and a sandy line on the posterior edge ; on the hind shield 
is a large sandy crescent, and a slender blue border edging the posterior 
processes ; the parapodia have a slender bluish-green margin, near 
which are a few sandy dots. The yellow dots are closer together near 
the chocolate lines, and thus form an indistinct yellow border. 

The alcoholic specimen is 10 mm. long and 7 mm. broad. The head- 
shield is distinct, with a posterior flap. The hinder shield is indistinct; 
the posterior appendages are not very long, but separate, and do not 
form a disc. Around the mouth are three prominences, one on each 
side and one above it. The two side prominences are blue, and bear 
bristles ; the middle one is chocolate-coloured, and bears none. The 
pharynx is large, very muscular, and pear-shaped. The intestines are 
bright yellow. The prostate is large and granulate, the verge long. 
The shell is very large, occupying the whole area covered by the 
posterior shield ; it is brown, entirely calcareous, with no membranous 
portion, .and shaped almost as in Philine aperta, only the lip and spire 
are less developed. 

As far as the shell is concerned, this animal seems an interesting 
link between Philine and Boridium. But its digestive organs are 
undoubtedly those of the latter group. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE XIII. 

Fig. 1. — Boridium reticulatmn, n.sp. 

,, 2. — Chelidoniira (?) hirundinvna, var. punctata, n.var. 



VOL. T. — JUNE, 1903. 23 



338 



DESCRIPTTON OF CERASTUS DINSHAWI, n.sp., FR01\r ADEN, 
WITH A NOTE ON OTOPOMA CLAUSUM, Shy., AND 
0. YEMEXICUM, Bkgt. 

By E. R. Sykes, B.A., F.L.S., etc. 

Bead 3rd April, 1903. 
Cerastus Dinshawi, n.sp. 

Shell acuminately pyramidal, with a well-excavated area in the 
nmbilical region, protoconch flattened above ; whorls 8 J, plano-convex ; 
the sculpture consists of longitudinal striation, fine on the earlier whorls, 
but suddenly becoming much stronger and coarser, both on the last 
two-thirds of the last whorl and in the umbilical area ; further, fine 
(almost microscopic) spiral lines, densely set together, encircle the 
shell. The colour is very pale yellow to white, and the majority 
of the specimens are stained with chestnut inside the mouth and 
on the last whorl ; the mouth is somewhat drawn to the side, with 
a large ' flaring ' lip, thickened internally and widely expanded, the 
edges becoming thin and generally being broken ; a light callus joins 
the inner and outer margins ; the columella is marked by a strong, 
spirally ascending fold. Dimensions : height of shell, 36 mm. ; 
width of last whorl at the back (without the lip) 15 mm. ; height 
of mouth (including the lip) 21mm.; width of mouth (including 
the lip) 18 mm. 








Cerastus Binshaiti, n.sp. 

Uab. — Seuna, about 100 miles from Aden. 

Type in the British Museum, presented by Comm. E. R. Shopland. 

This species belongs to the group of C. Dejlersi, Jouss., and 
C. Adanicus, Jouss. ,^ neither of which has been figured, so far as 
I can trace, and of which I find no mention in Dr. Kobelt's monograph.^ 
For other kindred species see the papers by Bourguignat ^ and Martens.* 



' Bull. Soc. Malac. France, vol. vi (1889), p. 345. 

2 Buliminidsc, in " Conch. -Cab.," 1899-1902. 

3 In llevoil : " Faune ot Flore des pays Comalis." 
^ iSaclubl. Duutsch. Malak. Ges., 1889, p. 14o. 



SYKES : ON CESASTUS DINSIIA WI. 339 

Both the above-named species are unknown to me, and tlierefore 
1 regret that I am unable to give accurate comparative notes. 

With the new species were found C. candidus. Lam., and a single 
specimen of a form belonging to the group of C. lahiosus, Mull., and 
6'. sah(eanus, Brgt. While mentioning the last-named it may be 
convenient to note that Dr. Kobelt {I.e., p. 419) appears to have 
been unaware of the figure given hj Bourguignat {I.e., p. 23, fig. 14), 
and, following Dr. Westerlund, has referred to C. sabcemius with doubt 
a shell from Syria and Cyprus, which he figures, and which appears 
to me to be quite distinct. 

Otopoma clausxjm, Shy., and 0. Yemenicum, Brgt. 

In 1843 Sowerby described and figured ' a shell under the name 
of Cyclostoma clausimi, stating that it came from Yemen, Arabia. He 
mentions that it is " spirally striated posteriorly," and points out that 
there is a callus covering the umbilicus. Six years later, Pteitt'er- 
described and figured under tlie name some specimens from the Cuming 
Collection, which are now in the British Museum : whether they be 
the same as those Sowerby described, it is hard to say, but if so, 
then Sowerby's figures are very bad indeed. Since then practically 
all authors have followed the identification of Bfeiifer, and probably 
that is the wisest course to adopt. 

At p. 330 of the same work, Pfeiffer recorded and figured from 
" Mus. Cuming," as a variety of clausum, a shell with a single colour- 
band and a more elevated form. Por this Bourguignat proposed ^ the 
name Georgia Yevienica, but unfortunately he went on to compare the 
species with clausum, and stated that Yemeiiica was smooth above 
and below. Pfeiffer made no mention of the sculpture. Thanks to 
Mr. Smith's kindness, 1 think I have succeeded in tracing the specimen 
in the Cuming Collection to which Pfeiffer referred ; it is, however, 
spirally sculptured in the same manner as 0. clausum, and probably 
Bourguignat was judging from the figure given by Pfeiffer — which does 
not show the scidpture — when he stated that the shell was smooth. 

There appear, therefore, to be two forms differing from one another 
chiefly in the amount of elevation of their respective spires. Of the 
more elevated form, I have recently seen specimens collected with 
the shell above described as Cerasius Dinshawi. The colour-banding 
appears not to be a reliable specific distinction, since in only one 
specimen is it present, and then there are several bands. The other 
specimens are all uniformly white, but this does not seem to be due 
to their being dead shells, since some of them show a dark line in 
the suture of the earlier whorls. 1 think, therefore, that there are 
two species, clausum and Yemcnicimi, belonging to Georgia, which 
1 regard for the present as a section of Otopoma. 

In conclusion, 1 have to thank Commander Shopland for the shells 
which have given me the opportunity of writing the above notes. 

I Thes. Conch., vol. i, p. 12S, pi. xxxi, figs. 266, 267. 
* Conch. -Cab., Cydostonmcea, p. 147, pi. xx, figs. 13-lo. 
^ In Revoil : " Faune et Flore des pays (^'omalis," p. 70. 



340 



DESCRIPTIONS OF TWO SUITOSED NEW SPECIES OF 
CYATMOPOMA. 

By H. B. Preston, F.Z.S., etc. 

Bead 3rd April, 1903. 

1, Cyathopoma Pkilei, n.sp. 
Shell dextral, trochiform, umbilicated. AVhorls 5, spirally grooved 
and cross-sculptured with distinct line. Periostracuin smooth, of 
a deep rich brown coh)ur. Suture channelled. Peristome (Uiuble 
and reflexed. Umbilicus deep. Aperture almost circular. Alt. '6, 
diam. max. 3 mm. 





Fig. I. Cyathopoma Feilei, n.sp. 
,, II. ,, serendibi'Hse, n.sp. 

Hah. — Yercand, Sherveroy Hills, India. 

The nearest ally to this species seems to be Cyathopoma Wynaadense, 
Blanford, from which it diifers in having coarser but fewer spiral 
lines of sculpture, cross plications, a slightly more narrow umbilicus, 
and a channelled suture ; moreover, it is more trochiform in shape and 
of a much darker colour. 

1 have much pleasure in associating with this species the name of 
Captain A. J. Peile, to whose kindness 1 am indebted for my specimens. 

2. CrATHOPOMA (Jerdonia) serendibense, n.sp. 

Shell dextral, conoidal, moderately perforate, light brown in colour. 
"Whorls 6, the last four spirally sculptured, the spirals being crossed 
at right angles by transverse plications bearing a stout bristly hair 
at each point of contact. The earlier whorls are quite smooth. 
Suture impressed. Peristome simple except where it approaches 
the columella, in which region it is reflexed. Aperture circular. 
Operculum calcareous, concave, raultispiral, the central nucleus being 
situated at the bottom of a deep hollow. Alt. 3, diam. max. 2'5 mm. 

Ilab. — Lower Uda Pussellawa, Ceylon. 

This species appears to be most closely allied to Cyathopoma Ceylanicuvi, 
Beddome, from which, however, it is easily distinguished by its very 
jiromincnt spiral sculi)ture, and by its whorls being much less swollen 
than is the case in that species. 



?Al 



ON SHELLS FLOATING ON THE SURFACE OF THE SEA. 

By August Keoqh, M.Sc, (Copenhageii). 
(Communicated by A. C. Johansen, M.Sc.) 

Head 3rd April, 1903. 

In a paper " On the hypotheses on the sinking of sea-beds, based 
on the occurrence of dead shallow-water shells at great depths in the 
sea," ^ Mr. A. C. Johansen discussed the agencies by wliich the sliells 
of Mollusca may be transpoi'ted from the places where the animals 
lived, and spread over the bottom of the ocean (p. 427). Among 
these are mentioned: — "Marine surface currents. These transport 
(«) floating ice, {b) seaweeds to which molluscs are fixed, {c) the 
molluscs themselves." 

The evidences for this last method of transportation (c) were the 
following (pp. 429-30) :— 

I. On the occasion of a determination of the specific gravity of 
some shells Mr. Johansen and I noticed that some specimens of 
Mi/tihcs edulis, taken alive, but kept dry for a couple of days, were 
able to float. One of them floated for more than 24 hours. 

II. In an experiment with another species of IJytilus Mr. Johansen 
found that some small dead specimens floated for several days. 

III. The Danish East Greenland Expedition of 1892 actually 
obtained one specimen of Mytilus edulis, 1 1 mm. in length and probably 
dead, floating in the open ocean (lat. 75° 37' N., long. 6° 40' W.). 

In another paper- Mr. Johansen recorded (pp. 15-16) similar 
occurrences in fresh waters. He found shells, filled with air, of 
Bithynia tentaculata, Vakata-cristata, and several species of Limncea 
and Planorhis floating about in great numbers in lakes, and he mentions 
that Dr. W. Sorensen has several times observed shells of Planorhis 
corneus, occupied by Aryyro7ieta, floating about in ponds in springtime. 

Possibly the instances above set forth — and they are all that 
Mr. Johansen has been able to find— will be thought to be somewhat 
meagre, though it should be borne in mind that the chance of obtaining 
specimens by tow-netting must be extremely small, even if their totul 
number a jaav is rather considerable ; the more so, as the shells will 
float on the veiy surface of the water, and most tow-netting is carried 
on at a depth of at least some inches. 

' Vid. Medd. Naturh. Foren. Kjobenhavn, 1902, pp. 393-435. 

"^ " Om Aflejrinjjen af Molluskernes Skaller i ludsoer og i Havet" ("On the 

Deposition of Shells in Lakes and in the Sea"): Vid. Medd. Natuih. Foieu. 

Kjobenhavn, 1901, pp. 5-46. 



342 PROCEEDINGS OF THE MALACOLOGIC.VL SOCIETY. 

The scarcity of evidence may also be partly due to the circumstance 
that facts bcarinpf ou this point have been, to a great extent, over- 
looked by Naturalists, and not recorded when casually observed ; but 
this, I trust, will no longer be the case now that the attention of 
observers has been drawn towards the subject. 

As a first contribution I venture to publish the following observation. 
On the 2Gth of September last I rowed about in a Greenland 'kajak ' 
(a very small boat, made of seal-skin, for a single person) near the 
harbour of Grenaa in the Kattegat (between the Baltic and the North 
Sea), and on this occasion I observed Mactra sultruncata, Da Costa, 
lloating on the surface of the water to the number of at least several 
liundreds. They were floating in a rather narrow band in a south- 
easterly direction. There was a slight wind from the south-east, and 
the waves were only one to two feet in heiglit. The shells were from 
2 to 7 or 8 mm. in length, tightly closed, and more or less (in most 
cases totally) filled with air. Some of them probably contained 
animals, but these must have been completely dried up. 

I followed the stream of shells from the point where I noticed it, 
a few hundred yards from the shore, towards the place where it 
originated, and I found this to be a bank of sand some 10 to 20 yards 
from the shore, and, at that time, only covered by about 6 inches of 
water. Here the shells were found in a I'egular layer, and this bank 
had been dry for abovit two successive days past, there being practically 
no tide in these waters. 

Since in the Kattegat this species only descends to a depth of about 
12 fathoms, it is highly probable that some of the shells would sink to 
the bottom beyond the range of distribution of the living animal. 
1 therefore think that this record may be of some interest as an instance 
of what may take place at a great mauj' points off sea-beaches. 



343 



ORDINARY MEETING. 
Friday, Sth May, 1903. 
E. A. Smith, F.Z.S., etc., President, in the Chair. 
The following communications were read : — 

1. "On the want of a knowledge of the Animals of the genus Oliva 
as a means to the determination of the species." By F. G. Bridgman. 

2. "Notes on some British Eulimidae." By E. R. Sykes, B.A., 
F.L.S. 

3. "Note on the occurrence of Planorhis marginatum, Drap., and 
Limnoia pereger (Miill.) in the Post-Pliocene of Bognor, Sussex." By 
Alexander Reynell. 

4. " Note on the supposed locality * Sulgranees,' whence Dr. J. E. 
Gray's type-specimens of Indian Jurassic Ammonites were said to have 
been obtained." By W. T. Blanford, LL.D., F.R.S. 

Exhibits were placed on the table by the following : — 

G. B. Sowerby : A skiagraph of the remarkable specimen, recently 
exhibited, of a Fistulana piercing a Mitra ; a Spondyhis, believed to be 
new, from the Moluccas ; a fine specimen of Ostrea megodon, Hanley. 

E. A. Smith : Specimens of Petrieola pholadiformis from Ostend — 
the shell is supposed to have been imported with American oysters. 

H. J. Van Stone : Embryonic shells of Planorhis corneus, showing 
sinistral characters, with drawings. 

Rev. R. Ashington Bullen : Agriolimax agrestis, L., from the dark 
sand of Harlyn Bay, late Celtic cemetery, — a new record. 

R. H. Burne : Examples of commensal, symbiotic, and parasitic 
relationships between molluscs and other invertebrates. 



ORDINARY MEETING. 

Feiday, 12th June, 1903. 

E> A. Smith, F.Z.S., etc.. President, in the Chair. 

The following communications were read : — 

1. "A list of species of MoUusca from South Africa, forming an 
Appendix to G. B. Sowerby's 'Marine Shells of South Africa.' " By 
E. A. Smith, F.Z.S. 

2. " Notes on some Jurassic shells from Borneo, including a new 
species of Trigonia.''^ By R. Bullen Newton, F.G.S. 

3. "Description of Marginella lateritia, n.sp., from the Andaman 
Islands." By J. C. Melvill, M.A., F.L.S., and E. R. Sykes, B.A., 
F.L.S. 

4. "New MoUusca from New Zealand." By the Rev. W. H. 
Webster. 

VOL. V. OCTOBER, 1903. 24 



344 PROCEEDINGS OF THE MALACOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

Exliibits were placed on the table bj- the following : — 

E. B. Woodward : Specimens of Opeas clacuhis, Fer. (?), Mauritius (?), 
and Zonifoides mmuHculua (Binney), fi'om a hothouse in Nottingham, 
the property of Mr. B. Sturges Dodd. 

A. Reynell : Achatina fulva, Brug., from Calcutta, a species 
introduced there by Dr. W. Baii'd. 

E. 11. Sykcs : Specimens of Pholadiden and Dofo from Plymouth. 

11. H. Burne : Tracks made by a snail feeding on lichen-covered wood. 



NOTES 



Note on the embryonic shell of PLAXonrjfi. {Read 8th May, 
1903.) — When some eight years ago I had the honour of contributing 
a short paper on the sinistral character of the shell of Planorhis, 
I was compelled from lack of material to illustrate my i-emarks by figures 
from Fischer's paper on the subject. Having recently obtained some more 



Embryonic Shells of PlanorUs. 

embryos, I now venture to give three camera lucida drawings which may 
convey a better idea of the sinistral form of the shell. It will be noticed 
that the surface is covered with fine rows of minute points. 

J. H. Van Stone. 

Note on the occurrence of Planorbis 3iahgixatus, Drap., and 

LniN.EA PEIiEGER (MtJLL.) IN THE PoST-PlIOCENE OF BoGNOR, SuSSEX. 

{Read 8th May, 1903.) — The deposit in question was laid bare during the 
construction of a sewer in a field between Bognor and Felphani, known as 
the "Sluice Patch," for which purpose a trench about 12 feet deep had to 
be cut. The alluvium here showed a thickness of about 6 feet, and 
contained many valves of Scrohicidaria plana (Da C). Below the alluvium 
was some two feet of a sandy clay, crowded in places with plant remain.s. 
Cardiuvi edtde (Linn.), Scrohicidaria plana (Da C), and Paludestrina 
stagnalis (Bast.) were plentiful ; the two former species had evidently 
lived and died there. This sandy clay in some parts was nearly black 
with carbonaceous matter, and it was here that L. pcrcger (]\Iiill.) and 
P. marginatus, Drap., occurred. They could not be said to be plentiful, and 
were probably carried to their present position by means of a stream from 
some more inland locality, as one would hardly have expected them to have 
lived in company with the before-mentioned marine or estuariue species. 



NOTES. 345 

There is at the present time a stream, the Aklingbourne Rife, which falls 
into the sea but a few hundred yards to the east of this locality. The 
stream at this spot runs between banks some 6 to 8 feet high. Below the 
sandy clay, sea sand of unknown depth was met with, which was dug into 
to a depth of about 4 feet. Through this, water constantly filtered, the 
trench having to be pumped out to keep it dry. 

The occurrence of sea sand would show that once before the sea had 
overrun this district, and now it is doing its best to return. This 
particular locality is protected by means of a wall, against which the 
shingle has become banked up to a height of about 8 feet above the land- 
level behind. During tlie excavation no actual ancient watercourse was 
cut through, so most likely this district formed part of an extensive salt 
marsh, subject to the action of the tides, before it became, as it is now, 
dry land. A. Reynell. 

Note on the supposed locality "Sulgranees," whence Dr. J. E. 
Gray's type-specimens op Indian Jurassic Ammonites were said to 
have been obtained. {Read 8th May, 1903.)— In Mr. Crick's paper on 
Himalayan Jurassic Ammonites {ante, pp. 285-289) the locality whence 
the specimens of Ammonites Nepaulensis, A. Wallic/di, and A. tenuistriata, 
the three species figured under those names by Dr. J. E. Gray in the 
" Illustrations of Indian Zoology," vol. i, pi. c, were obtained, is stated, on 
the authority of the plate, to be " Sulgranees, Nepaul." 

So far as I am aware, no such place as " Sulgranees " is known, and 
I may add that it is very doubtful whether the Ammonites represented 
in the " Illustrations " came origmally from Nepal at all ; it is more 
probable they were brought from further west, from the region whence 
Ammonites have been supplied to India in all probability for ages. It is 
certain that thei-e has long been an importation of small Ammonites into 
India from the Tibetan side of the Himalayas, chiefly from the Spiti 
district, N.N.E. of Simla, or from the neighbourhood of the Niti pass, 
north of Kumaun. These Ammonites, together with certain other stones, 
are known to Hindus by the name of " Saligram." I think it is probable 
that this name, slightly modified and written Sulgranees, has been mistaken 
for the locality of the fossils. 

An explanation of the term Saligram will be found in Yule & Burnell's 
"Hobson-Jobson." The stones thus named are regarded as representatives 
of a god, and are especially connected with the cult of Vishnu. 

W. T. Blanford. 

Note on a specimen of Fistvlaka clava, Lamk., perforating 
A SHELL of Mitba interlifiata, Reeve. {Read 8th May, 1903.) — ^On 
14th November last we exhibited before this Society a specimen of 
Fistidana clava, Lamk., the shelly walls of whose tube appeared to pass 
right through a shell of Mitra interlirata, Reeve (PI. XVI, Fig. 8). Some 
doubt having been expressed in the discussion that followed as to whether 
the Fistulana had actually perforated the Mitra or had merely made its 
way through some fracture in it, we had a Riintgen-ray photograph of 
the specimen made. This photograph (PI. XVI, Fig. 9) shows clearly 
that the Fistulana had bored its way through the Mitra, and also absorbed 
portions of the Nassa Gruneri, Dunker, which is attached to the base of 
the burrow. The walls of the burrow pass quite straight through the 
Mitra, the two valves of the Fistulana can be distinctly seen lying within 
the tube at its larger (anterior) end, and the diaphragm is indicated by the 
transverse line visible on the other side of, and close to, the Mitra. 

G. B. Sowerby & H. C. Fulton. 



34G 



ON THE WANT OF A KNOWLEDGE OF THE ANIMALS OF THE 
GENUS OLIVA AS A MEANS TO THE DETERMINATION OF 
THE SPECIES. 

By F. G. BuiDGMAN. 

Ecad 8th May, 1903. 
[Abstract. ] 

Thk object of this paper was to urge the importance of an investigation 
of the animals of the genus Oliva, with a view to determining 
what forms might rightly be considered distinct species and what 
varieties only. 

The absence of sculpture on their shells, all forms presenting 
a perfectly smooth surface, and the great variation of colour and 
markings in many of them, rendered it particularly difficult to 
determine some of the species. Even the columella plaits, which 
vaiy in number in members of the same species, and become more 
or less obliterated by the additional deposits of enamel during the 
growth of the shell, assisted very little in separating the ditferent 
forms ; whilst no material change in the form of the shell takes place 
with the growth of the animal, only a thickening of its substance 
by depositions of additional layers of enamel. Hence there would 
always be much doubt and ditfcrence of opinion as to species and 
varieties, until some knowledge of the animals assisted in their 
determination. While certain forms, such as 0. angulata, Lamk., 
0. porphyria, Lamk., 0. reruviana, Lamk., etc., appeared to leave little 
doubt as to their being distinct species, others, through their numerous 
varieties, in some cases so nearly approached each other as to render it 
almost impossible to determine to which species many specimens belong. 

The colour of the interior in some cases appeared a distinctive 
feature, and varied but little, as in 0. tspkhda, Liim., 0. cruenta, Sol., 
0. episcopalis, Lamk., etc. This, however, was not the case in 
the 0. erythrostoma, Lamk., group, many varieties of colour and 
shade being found, and the author was inclined to believe that 
0. erythrostoma, Lamk., 0. tremulina, Lamk., and 0. nohilis, Reeve, 
were but varieties of one species ; for, unless the deep orange interior 
of 0. erythrostoma were to be considered a distinctive character, he 
could not, after examining a great number of specimens, find any 
reason for separating them. He thought there was room for doubt as 
to 0. maura, Lamk., 0. tricolor, Lamk., 0. elegans, Lamk., 0. glandi- 
formis, Lamk., 0. leucostoma, Duel., and 0. tiiirina, Lamk., being all 
distinct species ; and the same might be said of 0. episcopalis, Lamk., 
0. ornata. Mar., and 0. cylindrica, Mar. Irregular patches of yellow 
are faiutly distributed on many specimens of the 0. episcopalis group, 



ERIDGMAN : ON THE GENUS OLIVA. 347 

whicli appeared to the author to connect them to some extent with 
0. cryptospira, Ford, and 0. irisans, Lamk. The interiors of these, 
however, differ in colour. 

Some species, which varied much in colour and markings, were 
easily distinguished by some distinctive character, as 0. injlata, Chem., 
and 0. ispidula, Linn. ; others, however, appeared to vary very 
little, and were determined without diificulty, such as 0. splendidula, 
Sowerby. Where well-marked distinctive characters were absent, as 
in the 0. reticularis^ Lamk., group, an investigation of the animals 
would be necessary ere the species could be settled. 

Some forms less variable than others appeared to present two 
marked varieties : a larger and lighter, and a smaller and darker 
(e.g., 0. episcopalis, Lamk., 0. cruenta, Sol., etc.). This had been 
noticed by both Lovell Reeve and Marrat, as seen by the illustrations 
in their monographs, but was not commented upon by them. These 
variations might indicate different sexes, or they might be only local 
varieties. 

There was a callus on the columella of 0. Peruviana^ Lamk., 
var. coniformis, which was not to be found, as far as the author had 
observed, in the type form, and which he thought clearly pointed to 
some difference in the animals. 

Localities might, of course, have an important bearing upon 
species, but the author was unwilling to admit that a difference of 
locality would alone be sufficient to separate them, nor were the 
localities given for the different varieties of forms always to be 
implicitly relied upon. 



318 



NOTES ON SOME BRITISH EULIMID^. 

By E. R. Sykes, B.A., F.L.S., etc. 

Read 8th May, 1903. 

PLATE XIV. 

For some time past I have found it exceedingly difficult satisfactorily to 
identify some of the smaller forms of Eidima found in the British 
seas, and I have therefore put together these notes and had the 
accompanj-ing figures drawn in the hope of rendering some little help 
to others who may be in a similar position. It is not proposed here 
to deal with the shells known to British workers as Eulima polita 
and E. intermedia, nor to discuss the forms with colour-bands, but 
rather to specially consider the small, glassy, and transparent shells 
which are so liable to be mistaken for one another. 

So far back as the days of Montagu, collectors were aware that 
small specimens of Eidima were found, but they regarded them as 
being probably the young of the larger species. Forbes and Hanley 
gave E. distorta, Desh., and described a variety (?) gracilis. Jeifreys 
described E. stenostoma, and, equally, recorded E. distorta with its 
var. gracilis, and in 1883, when describing E. perminima, he cited it 
fi'om the Shetlands. Further, in 1884, he added E. solida. In 1890 
Mr. Marshall recorded E. latipes, "Watson, and E. ephamilla, Watson, 
but for reasons given later I do not think either belongs to the British 
fauna ; the examples attributed to the former species belonging, as 
I pointed out in 1893, really to E. curva. In 1895 Mr. Jordan 
described E. Frielei and E. Martyn-Jordani, and in 1901 Mr. Marshall 
described E. anceps. 

Mr. Marshall, who had given most valuable notes on the British 
shells, suuimed up in 1901 the information he had accumulated, and 
gave the following list of species : Petitiana, anceps, curva, Philippii 
with vars. gracilis inKlMonterosatoi, perminima, stenostoma, and ephamilla. 
The later list of the Conchological Society includes Martyn-Jordani, 
ephamilla, solida, curva, anceps, incurva with var. tumidosa, stenostoma, 
gracilis, and Petitiana. It should be borne in mind, in comparing 
these two lists, that their authors' respective views of the limits of 
the British seas were very different. 1 have followed the wider view. 
The localities given in these notes are only those which I have myself 
verified ; fuller details may be found in Mr. Marshall's papers. 

1. Eulima ANCEPS, Marshall. PL XIV, Fig. 11. 

Eidima anceps, Marshall: Journ. Conch., vol. x, p. 124 (Oct., 1901); 
Additions to British Conchology, pt. vii (May, 1903), p. 58. 

Ifab. — Off Arran, in 31 fathoms. 

This species is figured from the ' Palermo ' specimen, referred to 
bj- Mr. Marshall when describing the species. It is now in my 



STKES : ON SOME BRITISH EULIMID^. 349 

possession, and is the only ' live ' one of the specimens from which the 
form was named. 

2. EuLiMA CoLLiKsi, n.sp. PI. XIV, Fig. 8. 

Shell conical, thin, ti'ansparent, very glossy, with the upper whorls 
usually a trifle distorted ; sculpture none ; colour white ; whorls 
10 or 11, rapidly increasing in breadth, flattened, the sutures being 
inconspicuous, and the last whorl measuring about two-fifths of the 
length of the shell ; protoconch moderately blunt ; mouth piriform, 
being pointed above, the columellar margin slightly reflexed. Alt. 4-1, 
diam. max. 1-2 mm. 

Hah. — Guernsey, in 10 fathoms, with E. inciirva. 

A very puzzling form, which has had various names from different 
students. It is the E. incurva, var. Monterosatoi, of Mr. Marshall's 
paper, but on a specimen being sent to the Marquis of Monterosato, 
that authority marked it as unknown to him. Very closely related to 
the varieties of E. incurva, and with a very similar animal ; but the 
present form is broader, the protoconch is a trifle wider, and the earlier 
whorls increase more rapidly in breadth. The proportional length of 
the last whorl is also different, but this may not be a really constant 
character. While this may eventually prove to be a form of the very 
variable E. incurva, I have felt that it was sufficiently distinct to 
prove worthy of a name, after carefully comparing my ' live ' specimens 
(about 15 to 20 in number) with about 150 'live' specimens of that 
species. The name given is after that of a painstaking dredger in the 
Channel Islands, by whom my specimens were obtained.^ 

3. EuLiMA. coMPACTiLis, Mouts. PI. XIV, Fig. 13. 

Eulima compactilis, Monterosato : Nuova Re vista, p. 35. 
Acicularia compactilis, Monterosato : Nomencl. gen. spec. Conch. Med., 
p. 103. 

Hah. — Ptoundstone (coll. Chaster) ; the Minch, 65 fathoms. 

The specimen figured is one from Eoundstone. Thanks to the 
kindness of Mr. Tomlin, I have been able to examine the Minch 
specimens recorded by Mr. Marshall as E. ephamilla. They are 
certainly not that species, and are, I think, only giant forms of 
E. compactilis.'^ 

This is not the Eulima ohtusa, Jeffreys, as has been suggested ; the 
latter is broader at the apex, larger, and has the mouth more drawn 
out to the side. 



' It is with the deepest regret that I record the death, on August 25th, 1903, of 
James Charles Collins, at the age of 33. He was well acquainted with the 
di'edging-grounds oil Guernsey, and had attained considerable skill in collecting 
on the sliore the larger molluscs, such as Lima and Galeomma. 

^ Of. Marshall : " Additions to British Conchology," pt. vii (May, 1903), p. 58. 



3oO PROCEEDINGS OF TUV. MAI,ACOLOniC.VL SOCIETY. 

4. EcLiMA cuuvA (Jcfireys MS.), Monts. PL XIV, Figs. 1, 6. 

Eulima curva (Jeffreys MS.), Monterosato : Joiirn. de Conchyl., vol. xxii 

(1874), p. 269. 
Eulima distorta, var. tumidosa, Marshall : Joum. Conch., vol. vi, p. 283 
(Oct., 1890). 

JIab. — Guernsey ; Scilly Is. ; Senncn Cove, Cornwall. 

I give two figui'es of this species, one 'Fig. 6, coll. Chaster) from 
Sennen, and another (Fig. 1, coll. Sykes) from the Scilly Islands. 
Dr. Dall has united' the form with E. arcuaia, C. B. Ad., stating tliat 
the types are identical. His figure, however, looks quite distinct from 
tlie shell generally known as E. curva, and I do not understand that 
the actual ' type ' would really be in Jeffreys' collection. This is not, 
as Mr. Marshall has suggested, identical with E. latipes, Watson. 
JE. distorta, var. tumidosa, Marshall, has been admitted by its author 
to be identical with this species (Journ. Conch., vol. vii, p. 381). 

5. Eulima Fkielei, Jordan. PL XIV, Figs. 5, 9. 

Eulima Frielei, Jordan : Proc. Malac. Soc, vol. i, p. 260 (July 30, 
1895), pi. xvi, fig. 6. 

Hab. — About 80 or 90 miles north of the Butt of Lewis (Jordan) ; 
Guernsey, 10 fathoms (E. R. Sykes); Scilly, 25 fathoms (E. \i. Sykes). 

I now refigure the type, and also a Guernsey example. It will, 
I think, prove to be a widely distributed shell. 

6. Eulima incurva (Rcnieri). PL XIV, Figs. 3, 4. 

Helix incurva, lien. : Tavol. Alfab., p. 4. 

Eulima incurva, Ren. : Bucquoy, Dautz., & DoUfus, Moll. Rouss., 

vol. i, p. 190. 
Etdima distorta, auctt., nee Deshayes. 
Eulima Philippii, Weinkauff, 7ieG Rayn. & Ponzi. 
E. distorta, var. exilis, Monterosato : Giorn. Sci. Nat. Palermo, 

voL xiii (1878), p. 95. 
Vitreolina antijlexa, Monterosato : Nomencl. gen. spec. Conch. Med., 

1884, p. 101. 
E. distorta, var. devians, Monterosato : Giorn. Sci. Nat. Palermo, 

vol. xiii (1878), p. 95. 
Vitreolina devians, Monterosato : Nomencl. gen. spec. Conch. Med., 

1884, p. 101. 
Hub. — Apparently widely distributed in the British Islands, 
cepc^cially in the south. 

This species has a most unfortunate history. For years it was 
known to British workers as E. distorta, Deshayes ; this name, how- 
ever, was really applitnl to a Tertiary fossil, and Weinkauff proposed 
the name of E. Fhilippii. This latter name, however, was pre- 
occupied, and the shell lias been identified by students of the Medi- 
terranean fauna with E. incurva, Ren., and I follow them. In my 



' lUill. Mils. (/'oiui). Zool. Jlaivanl, vol. xviii, p. 32S. 



STKES : ON SOME BRITISH EULIMrD^E. 351 

view, both Vitreolina antiflexa, Monts. {= E. distorta, var. exilis, 
Monts.), and V. devians, Monts., are simple varieties. Monterosato 
has also recorded varieties ore-rotmido and ore-angusto. 

7. EuLiMA Martyn- JoRDANi, Jordan. PI. XIV, Fig. 7. 

Eulima Martyn-Jordani, Jordan : Proc. Malac. Soc, vol. i, p. 2G6 
(July 30, 1895), pi. xvi, fig. 5. 
Hab. — About 80 or 90 miles north of the Butt of Lewis. 
The type, now in Mr. Tomlin's collection, is here figui'ed. 

8. Eulima Monterosatoi (De Boury MS.), Monterosato. 

Eulima distorta, var. gracilis, Forbes & Hanley : Brit. Moll., vol. iii, 

p. 233, pi. xcii, fig. 6 ; Jeffreys, Brit. Conch., vol. iv, p. 205. 
Acicularia gracilis (Jeffr.), Monterosato : iN^omencl. gen. spec. Conch. 

Med., 1884, p 102. 
Acicularia Monterosatoi (De Boury MS.), Monterosato: Nat. Sicil., 

vol. ix (1890), p. 160. 
Not Eulima gracilis, Jeffreys (1848) or C. B. Adams (1850). 

Mab. — Loch Fyne ; Birterbuy Bay, etc. 

Mr. Marshall records^ two varieties of Eulima Philippii [ = incurva), 
being unaware that Monterosatoi was, apparently, only a new name 
proposed iov gracilis, F. & H., when the latter was raised to specific 
rank, on the ground of the prior species of Adams. Further, when 
dealing with Forbes & Hanley' s gracilis, Mr. Marshall states that 
those authors have figured a different form from that which they 
have described, and he refers the figure to E. intermedia, var. 
ruhrotincta. I am unaware what authority there is for the 
statement that the figure represents a different species to that 
described. It may be convenient to point out that there need never 
be the confusion there usually is between Monterosatoi and intermedia 
if the animals be observed as well as the shells ; for, whilst intermedia 
when crawling shows a white animal with yellow pencilling on 
the head, Monterosatoi is always stained with dark red and crimson. 
E. Monterosatoi, again, can, so far as my own experience goes, be 
readily separated from E. incurva by the greater size and the absence 
of any strongly marked curvature of the shell ; the animals, however, 
are rather similar. I doubt whether E. comatulicola, Graff, of which 
E. beryllina, Monts., is a synonym, belongs here, but my material 
is hardly sufficient to enable me to decide with certainty. 

9. EtJLiMA perminima, Jeffreys. 

Eulima perminima, Jeffreys : Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. v, vol. xi, 
p. 398 (June, 1883), pi. xvi, fig. 6. 

Hah. — Shetlands (Jeffreys). 

This form is only known to me from the original description and 
figure. Through the kindness of Mr. Tomlin, 1 have examined the 
specimen referred, with some hesitation, by Mr. Marshall^ to this 

1 Jouru. Conch., vol. x, pp. 126, 127. 

2 Jouru. Conch., vol. x, p. 127. 



352 PKOCEEDINGS OF THE MALACOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

species. I do not think it really belongs here, and to my mind 
it rather recalls a very j-oung, slender specimen of E. Frielei. 
Mr. Marshall has recently ' published a note by the Marquis of 
Monterosato, who states that the above-mentioned shell does not 
belong to this species. 

10. EuLiMA PERNULA, Montcrosato. PI. XIV, Figs. 2, 10, 12. 
Acicidaria pernula, Monterosato: Nat. Sicil., vol. ix (1890), p. 159. 

Hah. — Guernsey, 10 fathoms; Cumbrae, Clyde. 

One of the specimens figured (Fig. 10) was identified by the author 
as being a variety of his species. The small specimen from the Clj'de 
(Fig. 2) is immature. I am therefore not quite sure of the identification. 
The species has a brilliant red animal, and apart from this character 
may be separated from E. intermedia by the more produced form, etc. 

11. EuLiMA Petitiana, Brusina. 

JSuUma Petitiana, Brusina: Journ. de Conchyl., vol. xvii (1869), 
p. 243. 

Hab.—OS. the Scilly Is., in 38 fathoms (J. T, Marshall); in 
25 fathoms (E. K. Sykes). 

It is not, I fancy, a synonym of E. hrenis, Req., as suggested by 
various authors. " Menavawr Dock" in Mr. Marshall's paper'" is, of 
course, a misprint for " Menavawr Rock." 

12. EuLiMA PLATYACME, nom. nov. 

Eulima solida, Jeffreys: Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1884, p. 368, 

pi. xxviii, fig. 4. 
Not Eulima solida, Sowerby: Reeve, Conch. Icon., 1865, Eulima, 

sp. 18. 
Eulima solidula and subangulata, Jeffreys: Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist., 

ser. V, vol. vi (1880), p. 317 {nom. sol.). 
'Not Eulima solidula, Adams & Reeve: Voy. Samarang, MoUusca, p. 53. 
Not Eulima subangulata, Sowerby: Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1834, p. 8. 
Hah. — West of Ireland ("Porcupine" Expedition, 1869, Station 23«). 
I give the names of solidula, Jeff., and snhangulata, Jeff., as 
synonyms on the authority of Locard (Exped. Scient. Travaillcur et 
Talisman, Moll., vol. i, p. 423). When Jeffreys actually described 
tlie species, he recorded it, in addition to the Irish locality, from 
various stations off the Portuguese, etc., coasts, and did not specify 
whence his ' type ' was. The only specimen I can trace in the 
" Porcupine " collection in the British Museum is labelled " Atlantic " 
only, without any more definite locality. All the other examples of 
this species collected by the " Porcupine " which I have seen are from 
" Portugal, 1,095 f.," " Cadiz, 322 1," and "Adventure Bank, 92 f." ; 
and the only authority for the occui'rence of this species in British 
seas is the note given by Jeffreys. 



• "Additions to British Conchology," pt. vii (May, 1903), p. 58. 

* Jouiu. Conch., vol. X, p. 124. 



Proc.Malac. Soc 



V0L..Y Pu XIV. 




J Qreen. del ot IjtK. 



BRITISH EULIMID/E 



Mintern-Bros imp . 



SYKES : ON SOME BKITISH EVJAMIhJE. 



353 



13. EuLiMA 8TEN08T0MA, Jeffreys. 

Eulima denoHtoma, Jeffreys : Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. iii, vol. ii 

(1868 , p. 128, pi. V, fig. 7. 
Eulima suhilata, var. ? : Forbes & Hunley, Brit. Moll., vol. iii, p. 230. 

Uah. — Widely but sparsely distributed, generally only in deep 
water. 

This must not be confused with the Eulima denostoma of A. Adams 
(1861), a Japanese species. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XIV. 



Fig. 1. 
2. 

,, 0. 
,. 7. 


Eulima curva (.Jeffreys MS.), Monts. 
,, pernula, Monis. 
,, incurva, Ren. 
,, Frielei, Jordan. 
,, curva (.Jeifreys MS.), Monts. 
,, Martyn-Jordani, Jordan. 


Fig. 8. 

,, 9. 
,, 10. 
,, 11. 
„ 12. 
,, V.',. 


Siiocimoiis represented in Fig.s. 2, G, 13 
Tonilia ; others in coll. Sykes. 


in coll. C 



Eulima Collinni, n.sp. 

,, Frielei, .Jordan. 

,, pernula, Monts. 

,, ancepH, Marshall. 

,, piernula, Monts. 

,, compactiliSj'^ontii. 

fjll. Chaster ; Figs. 7, 9 in coll. 



354 



A LIST OF SPECIES OF MOLLUSCA FROM SOUTH AFRICA, 
FOinriNG AN AITEXDIX TO G. B. SOWERBY'S "MARINE 
SHELLS OF SOUTH AFRICA." 

By Edgar A. Smith, F.Z.S., etc. 

Read \2th June, 1903. 

PLATE XV. 

Until tlie year 1848, wlieii Dr. Ferdinand Krauss published his work 
on the MoUusca of South Africa, the fauna of that region had not 
received very special attention. In that work he quoted only about 
365 marine forms, but subsequently, in a paper in Wiegniann's Archiv 
fur Naturgeschichte, 1852, he mentioned a few additional species. 
In 1874 Dr. E. von Martens' gave a list of a collection made by 
Dr. Gr. Fritsch, in which he enumerated a considerable number of 
species which were either overlooked by Krauss or were described 
after the publication of that author's work. In 1892 was published 
the "Marine Shells of South Africa," by G. B. Sowerby, which was 
issued as " a catalogue of all the known species." Unfortunately, the 
incompleteness of this list was very considerable, and therefore in 
1897 he deemed it advisable to publish an Appendix, in which he 
gave not onlj' descriptions of a considerable number of new species, 
but also references to many which had been omitted from his original 
list, and others which had been identified as coming from South Africa 
in the interval between the publication of the two parts of his book. 

Whilst admitting the usefulness of this work, it must be observed 
that its utility is in a considerable measure marred by its incom- 
pleteness. In the first place, it seems a pity that only the shell-bearing 
forms of Mollusca were treated of, so that anyone requiring information 
respecting the Cephalopoda, Nudibranchia, etc., has to seek it elsewhere. 
Then, again, there is a considerable number of species (about 80) 
which had been recorded from South Africa, that were entirely 
overlooked. 

To remedy this incompleteness, and as a further contribution to our 
knowledge of the fauna, the following list has been compiled. In it 
will be found over 300 species not in the "Marine Shells of South 
Africa," the majority of which are either new species or have been 
identified as South African since the publication of Mr. Sowerby's work. 

The collection upon which this list has to a great extent been based 
has been presented to the British Museum by Mr. J. H. Ponsonby, 
who has, for several years past, carried on an extensive correspondence 
with Mr, H. Burnup, Mr. F. Quekett, and various other collectors in 

1 Jiihrb. Dcutsch. Malak. Gesell, 1874, pp. 119-146. 



SMITH : LIST OF SOTTTH AFRICAN MARINE MOLLTTSCA. 355 

South Africa who have sent spccimons to him for identification. It is, 
therefore, entirely owin^ to his energy that the compilation of the 
present list has been possible. 

Besides the additional species which are catalogued, some ciiticisms 
are also offered respecting a few of the identifications in Mr. Sowerby's 
work, which may prove of some interest as clearing up points in 
nomenclature. 

Nine species are described as new. With regard to the range of the 
South African fauna, it should be stated that in the present list only 
those species are included which occur on the coasts of Cape Colony or 
Natal. The sequence of the genera, with the exception of Cavolmia, 
which is placed after Tornatina, is that adopted in Fischer's " Manuel 
de Conchyliologie." 

CEPHALOPODA. 

1. Aegonauta txjberculata, Shaw. 

Argonauta tuberculosa, Lamarck : Reeve, Conch. Icon., vol. xii, pi. i. 
Hab. — Cape of Good Hope (Humphrey, Mus. Calonn., p. 6). 

2. Polypus Capensis (Eydoux & Souleyet). 

Octopus Capensis, E. & S. : Voy. Bonite, p. 11, pi. i, figs. 6, 7. 
mib.—Ca^e of Good Hope (E. & S.). 

3. Polypus hokeidus (D'Orbigny). 

Odojms horridus, D'Orbigny : Ceph. acet., p. 51, Poulpcs, pi. vii, fig. 3. 
Octopus arcfus, Krauss : Siidafrik. Moll., p. 132, pi. vi, fig. 26. 
-2rt3.— Natal (Krauss). 

4. Polypus eugosus (Bosc). 

Octopus rugosus, Bosc. : D'Orbigny, Ceph. acet., p. 45, Poulpes, 
pis. vi, xxiii, fig. 2. 
Hab. — Simons Bay, Cape of Good Hope, 10-20 fathoms (Challenger 

Exped.). 

5. Loligo Reynaudii, D'Orbigny. 

Loligo Reynaudii, D'Orbigny:' Ceph. acet., p. 315, pi. xxiv. 
Hah. — Cape of Good Hope (D'Orbigny). 

6. Ommatosteephes Oualaniensis (Lesson). 

Loligo Oualaniensis, Lesson : Voy. Coquille, Zool., p. 240, pi. i, fig. 2. 
Hab. — Cape of Good Hope (Tryon) ; ? Cape of Good Hope (Gray). 

7. Sepioteuthis major, Gray. 

Sepioteuthis major, Gray: Spicil. Zool., p. 3, pi. iv, fig. 1. 

Hab. — Cape of Good Hope (Gray). 

Both Tryon and Hoyle have suggested that this species may be the 
same as Thysanoteuthis rhombus of Troschel. 

8. Megaloceanchia maxima, Pf offer. 

Megalocranchia maxima, Pfeffer : Abhandl. Ver. Hamburg, Bd. viii 
(1884), p. 24, fig. 32. 
Hah. — Cape of Good Hope (Pfeffer). 



356 PKOCREDINGS OF THE MALACOLOOICAL SOCIEXr. 

9. Sepia. Jousseaumei, Rochcbvunc. 

Sepia Jomfipaumi, Rochcbrune : Bull. Soc. Philoiii. Paris, ser. vir, 
Tol. viii (1884), p. 117. 
Hah. — Cape of Good Hope (llochebrune). 

10. Sepia Capensis, D'Orbigny. 

Sepia Capensis, D'Orbigny: Ceph. acet.. p. 278, pi. vii, figs. 1-3; 
pi. xii, figs. 7-11 ; pi. xvii, figs. 18, 19. 
Uab. — Cape of Good Hope. 

11. Sepia vermiculata, Quoy & Gaimard. 

Sepia vermiculata, Qiroy & Gaimard : Voy. Astrolabe, Moll., vol. ii, 
p. 64, pi. i, figs. 1-5 ; D'Orbigny, Coph. acet., p. 279, pi. iii bis. 
ITab.—Ca^e of Good Hope (Q. & G.). 

12. Sepia hiekredda, Rang. 

Sepia kierredda, Hang: Mag. ZooL, 1837, p. 75, pi. C; D'Orbigny, 
Coph. acet., p. 268, pis. xiii, xviii. 
Hab. — Cape of Good Hope (D'Orbigny). 

13. Sepia tuberculata, Lamarck. 

Sepia tuberculata, Lamarck : D'Orbigny, Ceph. acet., p. 277, pis. iii, 
iv, vi, xvii, figs. 13-15. 
Hab. — Cape of Good Hope (D'Orbigny). 

14. Hemisepius typicus, Steenstrup. 

Hemisepius typicus, Steenstrup : Dansk. Selsk. Skr. (5), vol. x (1875), 
p. 465, pi. i, figs. 1-10. 
Hab. — Table Bay, Cape of Good Hope (Steenstrup). 

GASTROPODA. 
15. Siphonaria nigerrima, n.sp. PI. XY, Figs. 4 and 5. 

Testa parva, nigra, irregulariter ovata, modiocriter conoidea, costis 
tenuibus circiter 44 subrugosis instructa ; vertex centralis, pileiformis, 
postice versus ; pagina interna omnino nigerrima, ad margincm sub- 
crenulata. Long. 10, diam. 8, alt. 4'5mm. 

i/rtJ.— TJmblali, Natal (Burnup). 

Remarkable for its coal-black colour within and withoiit. The 
costse are very small and somewhat rugose, being crossed by the lines 
of growth. Perliaps the young condition of S. carbo, Hanley, but tlie 
costae appear to be rather finer. 

16. Siphonaria tenuicostulata, n.sp. PI. XV, Figs. 14 and 15. 

Testa irregulariter ovata, dcpresse conoidea, cinerea, costis tenuibus 
inajqualibus circiter 60 instructa, lineis incrementi subrugosa ; vertex 
centralis, minutus, pileiformis, postice inclinatus, fuscus, l?Dvis ; pagina 
inteiTia nigro-fusca, ad marginem crenulatum albo multiradiata, in 
profundo aut fusca aut albida. Long. 18, diam. 14, alt. 6 5 mm. 

i/ftj.— Umhlali, Natal (Burmip). 

Characterized by the numerous and fine costella). The respiratory 
groove is indicated within by a broadish pale ray ; externally it is not 
very conspicuous, yet always traceable. 



SMITH : LIST OF SOUTH AFRICAN MARINE MOLLUSCA. 357 

17. Doris Natalensis, Krauss. 

Doris Natalensis, Krauss: Siidafrik. Moll., p. 35. 
Eah. — Natal (Krauss). 

18. Doris (Plattdoris) coriacea (Abraham). 

Doris coriacea, Abraham: Proc. Zool. Soc, 1877, p. 247, pi. xxvii, 
figs. 1-4. 
Hab. — South Africa; Seychelles; Sir C.Hardy's Islands (Abraham). 

19. Palio(?) Capensis (Quoy & Gaimard). 

Polycera Capensis, Quoy & Gaimard : Voy. Uranie & Physicienne, 
Zool., p. 417, pi. Ixvi, fig. 4. 
Hah.—Ga^e of Good Hope (Q. & G.). 

20. Triopa LT7CIDA, Stimpson. 

Triopa lucida, Stimpson : Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad., 1855, vol. vii, 
p. 388. 
Hah. — Simon's Bay, Cape of Good Hope (Stimpson). 

21. PLEtTROPHTLLTDIA NaTALENSIS, Bei'gh. 

Pleurophyllidia Natalensis, Bergh : Naturhist. Tidssk., ser. iii, vol. iv 

(1866), p. 34, pi. vii. 
Diphyllulea lineata, Otto : Krauss, Siidafrik. Moll., p. 35. 
Hab. — Natal (Krauss). 

22. Tritonia pallida, Stimpson. 

Tritonia pallida, Stimpson : Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad., vol. vii 
(1855), p. 388. 
Hab. — False Bay, Cape of Good Hope (Stimpson). 

23. SoLiDULA tessellata (Rcove). 

Tornatella tessellata, Reeve : Conch. Icon., vol. xv, figs. 6rt, h. 
Hab. — Durban (Bumup) ; Red Sea (Reeve). 

24. Hydatina ciRCULATA (Maityn). 

Btdla circulata, Martyn : Univ. Conch., 1784, pi. 95. 
Hydatina velum, Gmelin (1789) : Pilsbry, Man. Conch., vol. xv, 
p. 388, pi. xliv, figs. 7-10. 

Hab.—OQ Natal (Burnup). ' 

A single small specimen from this locality is rather less globular 
than usual, and the striping and transverse girdles are exceptionally 
dark-coloured. 

25. Atys cylindrica (Helbling). 

Atys cylindrica, Helbling : Pilsbry, Man. Conch., vol. xv, p. 265, 

pi. xxxiii, figs. 60-64. 
Atys elongata, A. Adams : Sowerby, Marine Shells S. Afr., Appendix, 

p. 21. 
Hah. — Durban (Burnup). 

26. Akera soluta (Gmelin). 

Ahera soluta (Gmelin) : Pilsbry, Man. Conch., vol. xv, p. 378, pi. xlii, 
fig. 18. 
Hab. — Durban (Bumup). Widely distributed in the Indian Ocean 
and Australian waters. 



358 rnocEEDiNos of the malacolooical societt. 

27. CrLicnNA nitens, Smith. 

Cijlichna nitens, Smith : Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist., vol. ix (1872), p. 351. 
Hah. — Durban (Burnup) ; Fiji (Smith). 
Only young, thin specimens. 

28. Ctlichna tubulosa, Gould. 

Cylichna tubulosa, Gould: Pilsbry, Man. Conch., vol. xv, p. 321. 
Hub. — Simons Bay, Cape of Good Hope (Gould). 

29. TORNATINA MERIDIONALIS, Smith. 

Tornatina meridionalis, Smith: Journ. Conch., vol. x (1902), p. 219, 
pi. iv, fig. 2. 
Hob. — Durban. 

30. Cavolinia quadeidentata (Lesucur). 

Cavolinia quadridentata (Lesueur) : Pelscneer, Pteropoda Challenger 

Exped., p. 78. 
Hyaleea quadridentata, Lesueur: Sowerby, Conch. Icon., vol. xx, 

figs. 14a, b. 
Hob. — Umkomaas, Natal (Burnup). 

31. Cavolinia tkispinosa (Lesueur). 

Cavolinia trispinosa (Lesueur) : Pelscneer, Pteropoda Challenger 
Exped., p. 76. 
Hab. — Durban (Burnup). 

32. Cavolinia uncinata (Rang). 

Cavolinia uncinata (Rang): Pelscneer, Pteropoda Challenger Exped., 
p. 84. 
Hab. — Durban (Burnup). 

33. Cavolinia longihostris (Lesueur). 

Cavolinia lotigirostris (Lesueur) : Pelscneer, Pteropoda Challenger 
Exped., p. 79. 
Hab. — Durban ; Umkomaas, Natal (Burnup). 

34. Aplysia depilans, Linne. 

Aplysia depilans, Linn. : Pilsbrj^, Man. Couch., vol. xvi, p. 69 (as 
Tethys). 
Hab. — Simons Bay, Cape of Good Hope (Watson). 
This locality is doubted by Mr. Pilsbry (loc. cit.). 

35. Parapltsia Lowii, Gilchrist. 

Paraplysia Lowii, Gilchrist : Trans. S. Afr. Soc, vol. xi (1900), p. 122, 
pi. xvi, figs. 1 and 2. 
Hab.— 8. Africa. 

36. Dolabrifera triangularis, Watson. 

Dolalrifera trianyularis, Watson : Gasteropoda Challenger Exped., 
p. 673, pi. L, fig. 7; Pilsbry, Man. Conch., vol. xvi, p. 119, 
pi. Ixv, figs. 7, 8. 
Hab. — Simons Bay, Cape of Good Hope (Challenger Exped.). 

37. PLEUEOBRANCHiEA Capensis, Vayssicrc. 

Pleurobranchaa Capensis, Vayssiere : Journ. de Conchyl., vol. xlviii 
(1900), p. 10. 
Hab. — Cape of Good Hope. 



SMITH : LIST OF SOUTH AFRICAN MARINE MOLLUSCA. 359 

38. OxYNOE Natalensis, n.sp. PI. XV, Fig. 18. 

^' Oxynoe pellucidus, A. Adams": Sowerby, Marine Shells S. Afr., 
p. 53, pi. V, fig-. 99— bad ! 

The shell figured by Mr. Sowerby is not the Loliger pelluciduH of 
A. Adams, which, as I have already pointed out,' cannot be separated 
from L. serradifalci (Calcara). It belongs, however, to the genus 
Oxynoe, and appears to be allied to 0. HaryraveH of H. Adams, from 
the New Hebrides. It is ovate, very thin, pellucid, corneous, and 
marked with faint lines of growth. The aperture is somewhat 
pyriform and large. The columella is very slightly thickened, 
ascends with a spiral twist within, and is connected with the outer 
lip above by a very thin callosity, which spreads over the whorl. 
Length 9'5, diam. 6-75 mm. 

Hah. — Durban ; Port Elizabeth (Sowerby). 

The figure in Mr. Sowerby's work is a very poor representation of 
the species. 0. ohvacea, Eafinesque, is of a more globose form than 
the present species. 

39. Terebra monilis, Quoy & Gaimard (?). 

Terebra monilis, Quoy & Gaimard : Reeve, Conch. Icon., vol. xii, 
figs. 42rt, b. 
Hab. — Durban (Burnup) ; jSTew Ireland, Tahiti, etc. 

40. Terebra Archimedes, Deshayes. 

Terebra archimedes, Deshayes: Proc. Zool. Soc, 1859, p. 314, 
Hah. — Durban (Burnup). 

41. Terebra raphanula, Lamarck. 

Terehra raphanula, Lamarck : Reeve, Conch. Icon., vol. xii, fig. 77. 
Hab. — Durban (Burnup) ; Amboyna (Reeve). 

42. Terebra evoluta, Deshayes. 

Terehra evoluta, Deshayes : Reeve, Conch. Icon., vol. xii, fig. 55. 
Hab. — Durban (Burnup) ; Japan (Deshayes). 

43. Terebra affinis, Gray. 

Terebra affinis, Gray : Reeve, Conch. Icon., vol. xii, fig. 39. 

Hab. — Durban (Burnup) ; also Philippines, Mauritius, Tahiti, etc. 

44. Terebra textilis, Hinds, var. 

Terehra textilis, var. : Smith, Journ. Conch., vol. x (1901), p. 115. 
Hah. — Durban (Burnup). 

45. Terebra livida, Reeve. 

Terebra livida. Reeve : Conch. Icon., vol. xii, fig. 116. 
Hab. — Durban (Burnup) ; Philippines (Reeve). 

46. Terebra Macandrewii, Smith. 

Terehra Macandrewii, Smith: Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist., 1877, vol. xix, 
p. 228 ; Melvill & Standen, Proc. Zool. Soc, vol. ii (1901), p. 428, 
pi. xxi, fig. 6. 

1 Aun. & Mag. Nat. Hist., vol. iii (1889), pp. 308-310. 

VOL. V. — OCTOliER, 1903. 25 



3G0 PROCEEDTXOS OF THE ]\rAT,ACOT.OnrCAL SOCIKTV. 

ITah. — Diirhan (Ponsonby Coll. in Brit. Mus.) ; also known from 
the Persian Uulf and the Mekran coast. 

47. Teuebba Lorsj;:, n.sp. PI. XV, Fig. 1. 

Testa subiilata, nitons, albo et pallide fusco stric^ata, infra snturara 
rufo-fusoo punctata, et circa periphei'iara anfractus ultinii zona angusta 
pallida cincta; anfractns circiter 16 plani, costis nnracrosis arcuatis 
instructi, supra sulco transverse impresso sciilpti, et seriehns qnatnor 
puncturariim inter costas ornati, ultimas ad medium rotundatus, circa 
basim sulcis 4-5 sculptus, ad caudam albus, fusco maculatus ; columella 
rcetiuscula, antice ad canalem obliqua. Long. 30, diam. 6 mm. 

Hah. — Umkomaas, Natal (Burnup). 

In colour very similar to T. amxcna, Deshayes, T. Andamanica, Melvill 
and Sykes, and T. Gotoensis, Smith, but differing from the first two in 
its flatter and shorter whorls and closer and more delicate riblcts, and 
from the last by different spiral sculpture. Named after Miss Lois 
Trotter, of Durban. 

48. Terebra. (Abretia) divfrsa, Smith. 

Terehra {Ahretia) dirersa, Smith : Journ. Conch., vol. x (1901), p. 115, 

pi. i, fig. 6. 
Terehra rufopunctata, Sowerby : Marine Shells S. Afr., Appendix, 
1897, "p. 12 {nee Smith). 
Hai. — Umzinto, Natal (Burnup). 

49. Terebra (Abretia) Lightfooti, Smith. 

Terehra (Ahretia) Lightfooti, Smith : Journ. Conch., vol. ix (1899), 
p. 247, pi. V, fig. 1. 
Hah.— TiiUe Bay, 10 fathoms (Lightfoot). 

50. Terebra (Hastula) apicitincta, Sowerby. 

Terehra apicitincta, Sowerby: Proc. Malac. Soc, vol. iv, p. 5 (1900), 
pi. i, fig. 14. 
Hah. — The Kowie ' (Sowerby). 

51. Terebra (Hastula) casta, nov., var. Natalensis. 

Terehra casta, Hinds: Sowerby, Mar. Shells S. Afr., Appendix, p. 13. 

Hai. — Umkomaas, Natal. 

The specimens from Natal differ from the typical form both in 
colour and sculpture. They are more copiously stained with reddish 
brown, and the riblets are more acute, not flattened. 7'. hipartita, 
Deshayes, from the Sandwich Islands, which I regard as a variety 
of this species, has similar sharpish costa), but is somewhat differently 
coloured. 

52. Terebra (Impages) cuspibata. Hinds. 

Terehra cmpidata. Hinds : Sowerby, Thes. Couch., vol. i, p. 181, 
pi. xlv, fig. 128 ; Reeve, Conch. Icon., vol. xii, pi. xxvi, fig. 141. 
Hai. — Cape Coast (Hinds). 

' Tlie river Kowie fiows into the sea at Port Alfred, Cape Colony. 



smith: list of south africak maeine mollusca. 361 

53. Terebea (Impages) apicina (?), Dcshayes. 

Terehra apicina, Deshayes : Reeve, Conch. Icon., vol. xii, figs. 136«, b. 
Hah. — Umkomaas, Natal (Burnup). 

54. Terebea (Mazatlania) thye^a, Melvill. 

Terehra {Euryta) thyrcea, Melvill : Mem. and Proc. Manchester Lit. 
and Phil. Soc, vol. xli, No. 7 (1897), p. 10, pi. vi, fig. 13. 
Hah. — Durban (Burnup) ; Mekran coast (Melvill). 

55. CoNus pipeeatus, Dillwyn. 

Conus piperatm, Dillwyn: Descriptive Cat., vol. i, p. 401. 
Conus punctatiis, Hwass. : Reeve, Conch. Icon., vol. i, figs. \2>Zar-c. 
Hah. — Umkomaas (Burnup) ; Karachi, etc. 

56. CoNUs Ceylonicus, Chemnitz. 

Conus Ceylonicus, Chemnitz : Reeve, Conch. Icon., vol. i, Emendations, 
fig. 17 (as C. obestis). 
Hah. — Isipingo, Natal (Burnup). 

57. CoNUS MiLiAEis, Hwass. 

Cottus miliaris, Hwass. : Reeve, Conch. Icon., vol. i, fig. 198. 

Hah. — Isipingo, Natal (Burnup) ; China, Annaa I., Lizard I., 
Tonga Is., Mozambique, etc. 

58. Coxus FLAviDus, Lamarck. 

Comis flavidus, Lamarck : Reeve, Conch. Icon., vol. i, fig. 207 ; 
Kiener, Coq. Viv., pi. xxvi, fig. 4. 

Hah. — Pondoland, Cape Colony ; " off Durban." 

With this species may be united C. Maltzanianus, Weinkauff, 
C. frigidus, Reeve, C. neglectus, Pease. The species is widely 
distributed in the Indian and Pacific Oceans. 

59. CoNus capitanetjs, Linn. (?). 

Conus capitaneus, Linn. : Reeve, Conch. Icon., vol. i, fig. 54. 
Hah. — Durban. 

60. Conus vexillum, Gmelin. 

Conus vexillmn, Martini : Reeve, Conch. Icon., vol. i, fig. 3. 
Hab. — Isipingo (Burnup). 

61. Conus consoes, Sowerby. 

Conus consors, Sowerby : Thes. Conch., vol. iii, fig. 492. 
var.= C. anceps, A. Adams : Sowerby, fig. 493. 
,, =C. innexus, A. Adams: Proc. Zool. Soc, 1853, p. 118. 
,, =C. Daullei, Crosse: Rev. Mag. Zool., 1858, pp. 81, 119, pi. ii, 
figs. 2, 2a. 
Hah. — Natal (A. Adams for innexus). 

62. Conus aplustee, Reeve. 

Conus aplustre, Reeve: Conch. Icon., vol. i, fig. 170; Sowerby, 
Thes. Conch., vol. iii, fig. 448. 
Hab. — Cape of Good Hope (Brit. Mus.). 



362 PROCEEDINGS OF THE MALACOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

63. CoNus LiNEATUs, Chcmnitz. 

Conns lincatuK, Chemnitz : Reeve, Conch. Icon., vol. i, fig. 181. 
Hah. — Durban. 

64. CoNUs PAUPERCULTJS, Sowcrby. 

- Conns panperculus, Sowerby : Thes. Conch., a'oI. iii, p. nO, pi. cxcvi, 
fig-. 217. 
Hab. — Cape of Good Hope (Sowerby). 

65. CoNUS SIMPLEX, Sowerby. 

Conus simplex, Sowerbv : Thes. Conch., vol. ill, p. 31, pi. cxcv, 
fig. 199 ; Weinkaiiff, Conch. Cab., 2ua cd., p. 248, pi. xli, fig. 10. 
mi— 8. Africa (Weinkauff). 

66. Conus scitulus, Reeve. 

Conus scittilns, Eeeve: Conch. Icon., vol. i, Conns, Supjil., pi. ix, 
fig. 283. 

ITab. — Cape Colony (^his. Cuming). 

Synonyms of this species arc C. jaspidnus, Xiencr 7icc Gmelin, 
C. pictus, Sowerby nee lleeve, and C. Danicli of Crosse. 

67. CoNtrs NiMBOsus, Hwass. 

Conns nimhosus, Hwass. : lleeve. Conch. Icon., vol. i, pi. xiii, fig. 66. 
Mah. — Umkomaas, Natal (Burnup). 

68. CoNus GLANS, Bruguicrc. 

Co7ius glans, Bruguiere : Sowerby, Proc. Malac. Soc, vol. iv, p. 5 
(1900). 
Hab. — Pondoland, Cape Colony (Sowerby). 

69. Clavatula partlis, Smith. 

Clacatula parilis, Smith: Journ. Conch., vol. x (1901), p. 115, pi. i, 
fig. 7. 
Hab.— OS Durban, 40 fathoms (Quekett). 

70. Pleukotoma marmorata, Lamarck. 

Fkurotoma marniorata, Lamarck: Reeve, Conch. Icon., vol. i, fig. 21rt; 
Sowerby, Marine Invest. S. Africa, 1892, p. 100, var. maculata. 
Hab. — Oil mouth of Tugela River, 55 fathoms (Sowerby). 

71. Pleurotoma Gilcuristi, Sowerby. 

Pleurotoma Gilchristi, Sowerby: Marine Invest. S. Africa, 1902, 
p. 99, pi. ii, fig. 9. 

Hab. — Off mouth of Tugela River, 55 fathoms (Sowerby). 

Very closely allied to P. monilifera of Pease from the Sandwich 
Islands, and ])robably recorded under that name in the Ajjpendix to 
the "Marine Shells of South Africa," p. 2. 

72. Pleurotoma bijubata, Reeve. 

Pleurotoma bijubata, Reeve: Conch. Icon., vol. i, pi. x, fig. 87. 
Hub. — Durban. 



SMITH : LIST OF SOUTH AFRICAN MAKINE MOLLUSCA. 363 

73. Pleurotoma vertebrata, Smith. 

Pleurotoma vertebrata, Smith : Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist., vol. xv (1875), 
p. 416. 
Rah. — Durban (Burnnp) ; Japan (Smith) ; Peman Gulf (Melvill). 

74. Pleurotoma (Surcula) antehidion, "Watson. 

Pleurotoma (Surcula) anteridion, "Watson : Gasteropoda Challenger 
Exped., p. 295, pi. xix, fig. 6. 
Jlab. — Off Cape of Good Hope, 150 fathoms. 

75. Drillia iifCLiNATA, Sowei'by. 

Pleurotoma inclinata, Sowerby : Proc. Zool. Soc., 1893, p. 488, 
pi. xxxviii, figs. 25, 26. 
Hab. — Isipingo, j^atal (Burnup) ; Mauritius (Sowcrby). 

76. Drillia plattstoma, Smith. 

Pleurotoma {Clionella) platystoma, Smith: Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist., 

vol. xix (1877), p. 501. 
Pleurotoma Wilkice, Sowerby : Journ. Conch., vol. vi (1889), p. 7, 

pi. i, fig. 21. 
I can see no reasons for separating these two species. (See 
Sowerby, Marine Shells S. Afr., pp. 4, 5.) 

77. Drillia eugisculpta, Sowerby. 

Drillia rugisculpta, Sowerby : Proc. Malac. Soc, vol. iv, p. 214 (1901), 
pi. xxii, fig. 20. 
Uab.— The Kowie. 

78. Drillia cantharis (Peeve). 

Pleurotoma cantharis, Reeve : Sowerby, Proc. Malac. Soc, vol. iv, p. 5 
(1900). 
Sab. — Pondoland, Cape Colony (Sowerby). 

79. Oliva elegans, Lamarck. 

Oliva elegans, Lamarck : Reeve, Conch. Icon., vol. vi, pi. xii, figs. 2Qa-c. 
Hab. — Durban. 

80. Oliva paxillus, Reeve. 

Oliva paxillus, Reeve: Conch. Icon., vol. vi, pi. xxi, figs. 56^?, b. 
Hab.— on Durban. 

81. Oliva picta. Reeve. 

Oliva picta, Reeve : Conch. Icon., vol. vi, pi. xxvi, fig. 79. 
Hah. — Dui'ban (Burnup) ; Philippines (Reeve). 

82. Oliva dactyliola, Duclos. 

Oliva dactyliola, Duclos : Sowerby, Proc. Malac. Soc, vol. iv, p. 3 
(1900). 
Hab. — Pondoland, Cape Colony (Sowerby). 

83. Oliva nana, Lamarck. 

Oliva nana, Lamarck : Tryon, Man. Conch., vol. v, p. 91, pi. xxxvi, 
figs. 96-100. 
Hai. — South Africa (Tryon). 



364 PROCEEDINGS OF THE MALACOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

84. Ancilla MoNTiiouziKiu, Souverbie. 

Ancillaria Montrouzieri, lleeve : Concli. Icon., vol. xv, fig. 9 ; Wutson, 
Gasteropoda Challenger Expod., p. 229. 
Hah. — Twenty-five miles oil Cape of Good Hope, 98 fathoms 
(Watson). 

85. Ancilla hasta (Martens). 

Ancillaria hasta, Martens: Sitzungsb. naturf. Freunde Berlin, 1902, 
p. 241. 
Hah. — Agulhas Bank, 250 fathoms (Martens). 

86. Ancilla osculata, Sowerby. 

Ancilla osculata, Sowerby: Proc. Malac. Soc., vol. iv, p. 3 (1900), 
pi. i, fig. 6. 
Hah. — Pondoland, Cape Colony. 

87. Harpa conoidalis, Lamarck. 

Harpa conoidalis, Lamarck : lleeve. Conch. Icon., vol. i, figs. la-e. 
Hah. — Durban (Burnup) ; Ceylon, Mauritius, Philippiues, etc. 

88. Maeginella Algoensis, Smith. 

Marciinella Algoensis, Smith: Journ. Conch., vol. x (1901), p. 114, 
pi. i, fig. 4. 
Hah. — Algoa Bay, Cape Colony (Crawford). 

89. Maeginella lineato-labeum, Gaskoin. 

Marginella lineato-lahrum, Gaskoin : Sowerby, Proc. Malac. Soc, 
vol. iv, p. 4 (1900). 
Hah. — Pondoland, Cape Colony (Sowerby). 

90. Maeginella punctilineata, Smith. 

Marginella punctilineata, Smith: Journ. Conch., vol. ix (1899), 
p. 249, pi. V, fig. 5. 
Huh. — Umkomaas, Natal (Burnup). 

91. Marginella diadochus, Adams & Reeve. 

Marginella diadochus, Adams & Reeve: Keeve, Conch. Icon., vol. xv, 

pi. ix, figs. 35a, h ; Weinkauff, Couch. Cab., 2ud cd., p. 31, pi. v, 

figs. 2, 3, 5. 

Hah.—Y'A^e Bay (Lightfoot) ; Straits of Sunda (Ad. & Rve.); 

W. Africa (Marrat, Quart. Journ. Conch., vol. i, p 242) ; Cape of Good 

Hope, 150 fathoms (Watson). 

1 am inclined with Watson to believe that this form and M. masica, 
Hinds, are only variations of one and the same species. Both are 
quoted by Marrat as West African. 

92. Maeginella fusifoemis, Hinds. 

Marginella fusiformis, Hinds: lleeve. Conch. Icon., vol. xv, fig. 79. 
Hab.—VoYt Elizabeth (Crawford) ; Straits of ^Malacca (Reeve). 

93. Maeginella N^ewcombi, Reeve. 

Marginella Newcomhi, Reeve: Conch. Icon., vol. xv, pi. v, figs. \ba, h. 
Hub. — "Lagulhas Bank, Capo of Good Hope " (Reeve). 



SMITH : LIST OF SOUTH AFBICAN MARINE M0LLT7SCA. 365 

94. Makginella puella (Gould). 

Volvarina puella,. GouXdi: Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., 1860, vol. vii, 

p. 385; Otia, p. 139. 
Marginella puella, Gould: Sowerby, Marine Shells S. Afr., Appendix, 

This species is probably the same as M. Capensis, Dunker. 

95. Makginella seminula, Gould. 

Marginella seminula, Gould: Otia Conch., 1860, p 139. 
Hah. — False Bay, Cape of Good Hope (Gould). 

96. Marginella cystiscus, Redfield. 

Marginella cystiscm, Redfield : Tryon, Man. Conch., vol. v, p. 46. 
Cystiscus Capensis, Stirapson : Auier. Journ. Conch., vol. i (1865), 
p. 55, pi. viii, fig. 2. 
jSab. — Cape of Good Hope (Redfield & Stimpson). 

97. Marginella fallax, n.sp. PL XV, Fig. 20. 

Testa alba, ovata, supra acuminata ; spira conica, ad apicem obtusa ; 
anfractus 4, primus convexus, sequentes duo leviter concavi, infra 
suturam pellucido-marginati, ultimas convexiusculus, antice angus- 
tatus ; labrum fere rectain, intlexum, intus tenuissime liratum, ad 
marginem acutum ; columella quinque-plicata, plica suprema minima, 
vix conspicua. Long. 8 mm., diam. 4. 

Mab.— Tort Alfred, Cape Colony (W. H. Turton). 

This species has been confounded with M. paxillus, Reeve, from 
"which it differs in its smaller size, more conical spire, concave whorls, 
quite different columellar folds, and the lirte within the outer lip, the 
labrum in paxillus being quite smooth within. 

98. YoLUTA (FusrvoLXJTA) PTRRHOSTOMA (Watson). 

Fusus {Sipho) pgrrhosto7na, Watson: Gasteropoda Challenger Exped., 

p. 208, pi. xii, fig. 2. 
Voluta [Fusivoluta) pyrrhostoma, Watson : Martens, Sitzungsb. naturf. 
Freunde Berlin, 1902, p. 238. 
Hub. — Twenty miles off Cape of Good Hope, in 98 fathoms. 
The radula of this species is similar to that of the Volutidoe 
(Martens). 

99. YoLUTA (Alcithoe) Ponsonbti, Smith. 

Voluta {Alcithoe) Ponsonbyi, Smith: Proc. Malac. Soc, vol. iv, p. 231 
(1901), fig. in text. 
Sab. — Off Durban, 40 fathoms (Quekett). 

100. YoLtJTA (Ltria) Queketti, Smith. 

Voluta {Lyria) Queketti, Smith : Proc. Malac. Soc, vol. iv, p. 234 
(1901), fig. in text. 
Hab.—OS. Durban, 40 fathoms (Quekett). 

101. YoLUTA (Lyria) mitr^formis, Lamarck. 

Lyria mitrceformis, Lamarck: Reeve, Conch. Icon., vol. \i (^Valuta), 
pi. iii, figs. la,b; Trj'on, Man. Conch., vol. iv, p. 103, pi. xxxi, 
fig. 143. 
Rab.—8. Africa (Tryon). 



366 rUOCEEDINGS OF THE MALACOLOOICAL SOCIETY. 

102. VoLUTiLiTHES ABYSsicoLA., Adaius & Rcove. 

Volidilithes ahi/ssicola, Ad. & Rve. : M. F. Woodward, Proc. Malac. 

8oc., vol. iv, p. 121 (1900), pi. X, anatoimj \ Sowerby, Marine 

Invest. S. Africa, 1902, p. 97. 
Tlab.—Lat. 34° 43' 15" S., long. 18° 30' E., iii 125 fathoms 
(Sowerby). 

103. VoLUTiLirnES Gilchristi, Sowerby. 

Volutilithes Gilchristi, Sowerby: Marine Invest. S. Africa, 1902, 
p. 99, pi. ii, fig. 5. 
Hah.—Q-d]}e Natal, 200 fathoms. 

104. Neptuneopsis Gilchristi, Sowerby. 

Neptimeopsis GUchridi, Sow(n-by : Marine Invest. S. Africa, vol. i 
(1898), p. 5, pi.; M. F, Woodward, True. Malac. Soc, vol. iv, 
p. 120 (1900). 
Hah. — Off Cape of Good Hope, 33 fathoms. 

105. MiTR\ EPiscoPALis (Linn.). 

Mitra episcopaliii, Linn. : Reeve, Conch. Icon., vol. ii, pi. i, fig. 5. 
Hah. — Durban (Burnup & Quekett); Ceylon, Philippines, Tahiti, etc. 

106. Mitra flammigera, Reeve. 

Mitra flammigera, Reeve: Conch. Icon., vol. ii, figs. 173rt, h. 
Hah. — Durban ; Kalk Bay (Burnup) ; ? (Reeve). 

107. Mitra limbifera, Lamarck. 

Mitra limhifera, Lamarck: Sowerby, Journ. Concli., vol. vii (1894), 
p. 369. 
Hah. — i^atal (Sowcrb}") ; Durban (Ponsonby Coll.). 

108. Mitra puiictostriata, A. Adams. 

Mitra punctostriata, A Adams: Proc. Zool. Soc, 1854, p. 134. 
Hah. — Umkomaas, Natal (Burnup) ; Ceylon (Adams). 

109. Mitra pica. Reeve. 

Mitra pica, Reeve : Conch. Icon., vol. ii, pi. xxxi, fig. 247 ; Sowerby, 
Thes. Conch., vol. iv, p. 25, pi. 374, fig. 522. 
Hab — Cape of Good Hope (Sowerby). 

110. MrTRA PATULA, Recve. 

Mitra pat ah, Reeve: Conch. Icon., vol. ii, pi. xxxix, fig. 333; 
S )werby, Thes. Conch., vol. iv, p. 25, pi. 374, fig. 526; Tryon, 
Man. Conch., vol. iv. p. 125, pi x.Kxvii, fig. 91. 
Hab. — Cape of Good Hope (Sowerby & Tiyon). 

111. Mitra (Cvlixdra) crenul.\ta, Lamarck. 

Mitra crenulata, Lamarck : Reeve, Conch. Icon., vol. ii, figs. VM)a, b. 
Hab. — Umkomaas, Natal. 

112. Mitra Kowieensis, Sowerby. 

Mitra Koivieensis, Sowerby: Proc. Malac. Soc, vol. iv, p. 213(1901), 
])1. xxii, fiu;. 1 7. 
Hab. — The Kowie. 



SMITH : LIST OF SOUTH AFKICAN MARINE MOLLITSCA. 367 

113. MiTRA EuzoxATA, Sowerby. 

Mitra eiizonata, Sowerby: Proc. Malac. Soc, vol. iv, p. 4 (1900), 
pi. i, fig. 11. 
Eah.—The Kowie. 

114. MiTRA OAJfALICULATA, SoWOrby. 

Mitra canal iculata, Sowerby: Proc. Malac. Soc, vol. iv, p. 4 (1900), 
pi. i, fig. 10. 
nab.—Uhe Kowie. 

115. MiTKA BATHYRArHE, Sowerby. 

Mitra hathjraphe, Sowerby: Proc. Malac. Soc, vol. iv, p. 4 (1900), 
pi. i, fig. 9. 
Hab. — The Kowie. 

116. MiTRA oBELiscus, Rcevo. 

Mitra oheliscus, Reeve : Conch. Icon., vol. ii, pi. xr, fig. 107. 
Uab. — Durban (Buruup) ; Philippines (lleeve). 

117. MiTRA ALAUDA, Sowcrby. 

Mitra alaudfi, Sowerby: Thes. Conch., vol. iv, pi. 361, figs. 134, 135 
{non Quoy). 
Hab. — Durban ; also Mauritius. 

118. Fustjs ocELLiFERus, Boiy tie St. Vincent. 

Fusus ocelliferus, Bory de St. V. : Eeeve, Conch. Icon., vol. iv, fig. 3 ; 

Sowerby, Thes. Conch., vol. iv, fig. 64. 
var. = F. robuntior, Sowerby : op. cit., fig. 63. 

Hab. — Cape of Good Hope (Sowerby, Challenger Exped., Brit. Mus.) ; 
Port Elizabeth, for var. robustior (Sowerby). 

This species is very variable in form, some specimens being much 
more elongate than others, and much less angulated at the shoulder 
of the body-whorl. In the series of specimens examined all the 
connecting links are present. F. verruoulatm, Lamarck, is the same 
as the typical form (Kiener, Coq. Viv., pi. xv, fig. 1). 

119. Fusus RADiALis, Watson. 

Fusus radialis, "Watson : Gasteropoda Challenger Exped., p. 195, 
pi. xiv, fig. 2. 
Jlab. — Off Cape of Good Hope, 150 fathoms. 

120. Fusus TOREUMA (Martyn). 

Buccinum toreuma, Mai-tyn : Univ. Conch., pi. Ivi. 

Fusus toreuma, Martyn : Eeeve, Conch. Icon., vol. iv, fig. 27. 

Uab. — Pulo Condore (Martyn) ; Ceylon (Eeeve) ; olf Natal 
(Quekett). 

The single example from Natal is exceptionally slender, with the 
whorls less acutely angled at the middle. This results from two of 
the spiral ridges at this part being of equal size. The nodules upon 
the body- whorl are also produced below into more distinct costtJO 
than usual. 



368 PKOCEEDINGS OF TUE MALACOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

121. Fcsus suBCONTRACTus, Sowcrbj. 

Fusus stih contractus, Sowerby : Murine Invest. S. Africa, 1902, p. 97, 
pi. ii, fig. 2. 
iTrti^.— Cape Natal, 200 fatboms (Sowerby). 

122. Fusus Afkicanus (Sowerby). PI. XV, Fig. 19. 
Fiilfficr Africanus, Sowerby: Marine Shells S. Afr., Appendix, p. 1, 
pi. vi, fig. 19. 

Testa clavata, rimata, pallida, vel dilute f uscescens, poriostraco f usco 
induta ; inter tubercula nigro liueata ; spira eonica, gradata ; aufractus 
normales 5, supra declives, leviter concavi, infra angulati, ad anguluin 
tuberculati, superiores tres spiraliter fortiter striati, striis in ultimo 
fere evanidis, ultimus cingulis latis transversis paulo elatis circiter 
12 instructus, antice longe rostratus. rostro sinistrorsuni verso, ad 
extremitatem subrecurvo ; apertura alba ; labrum tenue, ad marginem 
denticulatum ; columella supra valde arcuata, callo albo infra partim 
libero, superne incrassato, induta. Long. 70, diam, 'So mm. ; 
apertura sine canale 27 mm. longa, 14 lata. 

Hub.— OS Durban (Quekett) ; Port Elizabeth (Sowerby). 

The type of this species which is in the Museum collection is 
a young half-grown shell in poor condition, and the figure of it 
conveys but a slight idea of the adult shell. A curious feature is the 
columellar callus being detached from the whorl at the lower part, 
forming an umbilical rimation. A similar detaching of the callus also 
occurs in the following species, Fusus Adamsii of Kobelt. The position 
of the present species is uncertain, the animal being unknown, but the 
prolonged canal seems to recall the genus Fusus. 

Another specimen of F. Africanus received recently is 78 mm. in 
length, and has the protoconch preserved. This consists of two smooth 
globose whorls forming a papillose apex. 

123. Fusus Adamsii, Kobelt. 

Fusus vetitricosus, H. Adams: Proc. Zool. Soc, 1870, p. 110, woodcut. 
Fusus Adamsii, Kobelt: Conch. Cab., p 152, pi. xlvii, fig. 3. 

Hah. — The Agulhas Bank, Cape of Good Hope (Adams). 

Tlie name vetitricosus, having already been employed in the genus, 
was changed by Kobelt to Adamsii. 

124. Fasciolaeia Heynemanni, Dunker. 

Fasciolaria Heynemanni, Dunker : Sowerby, Marine Shells S. Afr., 
p. 17. 
Two very interesting specimens from deep water off Durban have 
been sent by Mr. Quekett. They are much smaller and more slender 
than the type figured by Dunker,' and exhibit only the faintest traces 
of the transverse ridges upon the body-whorl. Consequently thej- 
have a much smoother general appearance. Their protuconch also is 
smaller. The Fasciolaria purpurea of Jonas is not, as stated by 
Sowerby, the same as the present species. Its distinguishing features 
have already been pointed out by Kobelt. - 

' Xovit. Conch., pi. xxxii, figs. 1, 2. 
- Conch. Cab., Fasciolaria, p. 143. 



SMITH : LIST OF SOUTH AFRICAN MAKINE MOLLUSCA. 369 

125. Latirus abnoruis, Sowerby. 

Latirus abnormis, Sowerby : Marine Shells S. Afr., Appendix, pi. vi, 

Latirus imhricatus, Sowerby : Marine Invest. S. Africa, 1902, p. 96, 
pi. ii, fig. 1. 

iZrtJ.— Natal. 

In the figure of this species (Marine Shells S. Afr., pi. vi, fig. 7), the 
second row of nodules upon the body-whorl, mentioned by Mr. Suwerby 
in his description, is not indicated. Although not very conspicuous in 
some specimens they are generally more or less observable. The 
umbilicus is much more open in some examples than in others. 
The largest specimen examined, when perfect, probably measured as 
much as 75 mm. in lengtli. 

A comparison of a series of specimens in good condition with tlie 
type of L. imhricatus, now in the British Museum, shows that they all 
belong to one and the same species. L. imhricatus was described from 
a somewhat immature specimen in which the labrum was undeveloped. 

126. Latirus polygonus, var. 

Turhinella polygona (Gmelin) : Reeve, Conch. Icon., vol. iv, pi. i, 
figs, lor-c; Kobelt, Conch. Cab., pi. xvii, figs. 1-7; Kiener, 
Coq. Viv., pi. xiii, fig. 2. 
Hah. — Ofi^ Durban, in deep water (Quekett). 

The single example obtained differs from tlie typical form in having 
the body-whorl more prolonged anteriorly, and in the absence of the 
angulation at the middle of the body- whorl and in the less pronounced 
character of the longitudinal costation. The coloration is practically 
the same. 

127. Latirus alboapicatus. Smith. 

Latirus albowpicata, Smith: Journ. Conch., vol. x (1902), p. 250, 
pi. iv, fig. 5. 
Llah. — Durban. 

128. Peristernia leucothea, Melvill. 

Peristernia leucotJwa^ Melvill:- Mem. & Pmc. Manchester Lit. & Phil. 

Soc, ser. iv, vol. iv (1891), p. 399, pi, ii, fig. 15. 
Eidliria eburnea, Sowerby: Proc. Malac. Soc, vol. iv, p. 1 (1900), 

pi. i, fig. 2. 
Hab.—Vovt Natal (Melvill) ; Isipingo and TJmkomaas (Brit. Mus.) ; 
Poudoland (Sowerby). 

The Euthria eburnea (the type of which is in the British Museum) 
was founded upon very much worn and bleached specimens of this 
species. So worn are the shells that the columellar folds are almost 
obliterated. Mr. Melvill's figure does not well represent the species, 
which, moreover, is not always white, some specimens being stained 
with orange or rich brown below the suture and between the costae, 
with a colour-band round the middle of the body- whorl and another 
a little below it. The aperture and columella may be purplish or 
purplish brown, and the three columellar plicae are distinct in some 
examples, whilst in others only one or two are present. 



370 TROCEEDINOS OF THE MALACOLOGICAL SOCIETr. 

129. Vasum truncatum (Sowcrby). PI. XV, Fig. 3. 

Turhinella fnincafa, Sowcrby: Marine Shells S. Afr., p. 17, pi. iv, 

fip. 85. 
jun. = Turhinella triangularis, Smith : Jouru. Conch., vol. x 

(1902), p. 249, pi. iv, fig. 6. 

Ilab. — Off Durban, in deep water (Quekett). 

The type of this species figured in the above work, although in fairly 
fi;ood condition, does not show all the characters of this interesting 
form. A specimen recently submitted to me from Port Shepstone 
( Hurnup), and which Mr. Sowerby has identified as belonging to his 
species, may be thus described. It differs from the type in having 
ten or eleven nodosities at the angle of the body-whorl, and these 
protuberances upon the upper whorls produce a wavy sutural line. 
The body-whorl also exhibits four or five rather indistinct and 
somewhat nodose, transverse, raised, broad, rounded ridges. The 
aperture is white within, the outer lip being much thickened, slightly 
expanded anteriorly, blotched with brown within the margin, with 
a strong tubercular prominence within at the hinder end. The 
columella is covered with a thick brown-stained callus, which is 
broadly reflexed and appressed over the umbilical rimation, and 
thickened into a white prominence posteriorly a little distance above 
the plicae. The upper two of these are about equal in size, the next 
one is rather smaller, and the foremost one still less conspicuous. 
Beneath the thick deciduous periostracum, which exhibits distinct lines 
of growth and has a silky api)earance in certain lights, the shell is for 
the most part stained with brown, but where the surface is worn it 
is white. 

Since writing the above I have, through the kindness of Professor 
Poulton, had an opportunity of examining the type in the Oxford 
Museum. It is an immature shell, hence the undeveloped outer 
lip. Mr. Sowerby's figure is far fi-om accurate, the anterior ])art 
of the shell being represented much too broad, and the body-whorl 
above the columellar folds is too convex. The four or five rather 
indistinct and nodose transverse ridges on the body-whorl are just 
traceable in the type, and the suture of the spire is also wavy. The 
spire is a little flatter than in the present specimen, and the front fold 
on the columella is rather stronger than the second, thus showing that 
these are liable to variation. 

130. Vastjm turbinelltjs (Linn.). 

Voluta tnrbinellus, Linn. : Hanley, Ipsa Linn. Conch., p. 233. 
Turhinella cornigera, Lamarck : Ileeve, Conch. Icon., vol. iv, fig. 40. 
JIab. — Durban, Moluccas, lied Sea, Polynesia, etc. 

131. Melapium elatum (Schubert & Wagner). 

Melapium elatum, Schub. & Wag. : Smith, Journ. Conch., vul. x 
(1901), p. 110. 
Jj„i,^— Oil DuiIkui, 40 fathoms (Quekett). 



smith: list of south afuican marine mollcsca. 371 

132. TRiTOJsriDEA insculpta, Sowerby. 

Tritonidea insculpta, Sowerby: Proc. Malac. Soc, vol. iv, p. 2 (1900), 
pi. i, fig. 4. 
Hah. — The Kowie. 

133. Tritonidea carinifera (Kiister). 

Buccinum cariniferum, Kiister: Conch. Cab., 1858, p. 63, pi. xii, 

figs. 9, 10. 
Cantharus cariniferus, Kiister: Tryon, Man. Conch., vol. iii (1881), 

p. 155, pi. Ixxiii, fig. 256. 
Tritonidea JVataiens is, Umith: Joum. Conch., vol. x (1901), p. Ill, 

pl. i, fig. 23. 
JIab. — Natal (Kiister, Burnup). 

134. Euthria Capensis (Dunker). 

Fusus Capensis, Dunker: in Philippi's Abbild., vol. i (1844), p. 110, 

pl. i, fig. 7. 
Cantharus Capensis, Dunker: Tryon, Man. Conch., vol. iii (1881), 
p. 156, pl. Ixxiii, fig. 260. 
Hah. — Cape of Good Hope (Dunker). 

E. lacertina, Gould (1860), and ^. Magellani, Velain (1877), may 
prove synonymous with this species. 

135. Euthria lacertina, Gould. 

Euthrya lacertina, Gould: Otia, p. 123; Martens, Jahrb. Deutsch. 
Malak. GeselL, vol. i (1874), p. 133, pl. vi, fig. 2. 
Hah. — Simons Bay, Cape of Good Hope (Gould). 

136. Euthria Filmer.^, Sowerby. 

Euthria Fihnerm, Sowerby: Proc. Malac. Soc, vol. iv, p. 1 (1900), 
pl. i, fig. 3. 
Hah. — Pondoland. 

137. Euthria Queketti, Smith. 

Euthria Queketti, Smith: Journ. Conch., vol. x (1901), p. 110, pl. i, 
fig 1. 
Hah.— OS Durban, 40 fathoms (Quekett). 

138. Cominella Dunkeri (Kiister). 

Cominella Dunlceri, Kiister : Sowerby, Marine Shells S. Afr., p. 10. 
Euthria lincolata, Dunker: Sowerby, I.e., p. 4. 

Mr. Sowerby appears to have overlooked the fact that only a single 
species was described under the above names, the latter merely having 
been altered to Bunkeri because it had already been employed by 
Lamarck for a species of Fusus, in which genus Dunker also placed his 
species. It may be the young of C. papyracea, Brug. 

139. Cominella (?) prolongata, Smith. 

Cominella prolong ata. Smith: Journ. Conch., vol. ix (1899), p. 248, 
pl. V, fig. 3. 
Hah. — Cape Colony. 



372 PROCEEDTNGS OF THE MALACOLOGICAL SOCIETT. 

140. CoMiNELLA msEuiALis (Kiistev). 

Biiccinum biseriale, Iviister : Conch. Cab., p. 80, pi. xiv, fig. 12. 
JIab. — Cape Elim, S. Africa (Kiister). 

141. Enoina astkicta (Reeve). 

Ricinula astricta, Reeve : Conch. Icon., vol. iii, pi. iv, fig. 30, 
Hab. — Umkomaas (Burnup), 

142. Engina perlata (Kiister). 

Buccinum perlatum, Kiister : Conch. Cab., 2nd ed., 1858, p. 61, pi. xii, 

figs. 5, 6. 
Cantharus perlatus, Kiister: Tryon, Conch. Cab., vol. iii (1881), 

p. 158, pi. Ixxiv, fig. 273. 
Engina Natalensis, Melvill: Proc. Malac. Soc., vol. i, p. 226 (1895), 

pi. xiv, fig. 12. 
Hah. — Natal (Kiister). 

143. PisANiA CEENiLABEUM, A. Adams. 

Pisania crenilabrum, A. Adams : Proc. Zool. Soc, 1854, p. 138. 
Pisania Montrouzieri, Crosse: Journ. de Conchyl., 1862, p. 251, pi. x, 
fig. 7 ; Sowerby, Proc. Malac. Soc, vol. iv, p. 2 (1900). 

ITab. — Pondoland coast (Sovrerby) ; Umkomaas, Natal ; New 
Caledonia (Crosse) ; Moreton Bay (Mus. Cuming). 

The locality (West Indies) given by Adams is probably a mistake. 
In adopting the name given to this species by Crosse, I presume 
Mr. Sowerby was misled by Tryon's observation that it had priority 
(Man. Conch., vol. iii, p. 146). 

144. Phos LiEViGATUs, A. Adams. 

Phos Jteriffatus, A. Adams: Proc. Zool. Soc, 1850, p. 155; Sowerby, 
Thes. Conch., vol. iii (1859), p. 90, pi. ccxxi, fig. 6; Tryoia, 
Man. Conch., vol. iii (1881), p. 217, pi. 83, fig. 499. 
ITab. — Cape of Good Hope (Adams). 

145. Nassaria gracilis, Sowerby. 

Nassaria gracilis, Sowerby: Marine Invest. S. Africa, 1902, p. 94, 
pi. ii, fig. 10. 
Hub. — Mouth of Tugela River, 40 fathoms (Sowerby). 

146. Eburna papillaris, Sowerby. 

Eburna papillaris, Sowerby : Reeve, Conch. Icon., vol. v, fig. 1 ; 
Sowerby, Marine Invest. S. Africa, 1902, p. 93, pi. ii, fig. 3. 

Hab.—O^ Natal (Quekett) ; Algoa Bay, 24 fathoms (Sowerby). _ 

A single shell sent by Mr. Quekett dilfers from the type in liaving 
only a few scattered dots and some large oblique dark brown macu- 
lations below the suture. 

The umbilicus is open, the columellar callus being only partly 
developed, and the filled-up portion of the anterior canal is white, 
without the curved lines which are usually present. 

Mr. Sowerby gives some further remarks on the shell and perio- 
stracura, together with a figure of the animal. 



SMITH : LIST OF SOUTH AFRICAN MARINE MOLLUSCA. 373 

147. I^assa ErscLCATA, Sowerby. 

Nassa eusulcata, Sowerby : Marine Invest. S. Africa, 1902, p. 94, 
pi. ii, fig:. 8. 
Hub. — ilouth of the Tugela River, Natal, 46 fathoms (Sowerby). 

148. Xassa Filmek-e, Sowerby. 

Nassa FilmercB, Sowerby : Proc. Malac. Soc., vol. iv, p. 2 (1900), pi. i, 
tig. 5. 
Bab. — Pondoland. 

149. Xassa gemmulata, Lamarck. 

Nassa gemmulata, Lamarck : Reeve, Conch. Icon., vol. viii. fig. 29. 
Mab. — Durban ; Philippines (Reeve). 

150. Nassa filosa, Gray. 

Nassa filosa. Gray: Reeve, Conch. Icon., vol. viii, figs. 35rt, b. 
Hub. — Durban (Burnup) ; Philippines (Reeve). 

151. Nassa Nataxensis, n.sp. PI. XV, Fig. 6. 

Nassa Stiirmii, Reeve (not of Philippi) : Conch. Icon., vol. viii, figs. 
148rt, b. 

Mab.— Usatal. 

The shell described and figured by Reeve as N. Sturmii of Philip[)i 
is quite distinct from that well-known American species, which had 
previously been described by Say under the name of Nassa vibex. 
The present species is considerably larger, has a more turreted spire, 
is more coarsely nodose, differently coloured, has more lirae within 
the labrum and a conspicuous callosity above the posterior sinus. 
Reeve descnbes the columella as "but little callous." This is true 
of the young specimen he had before him. Mature shells eshildt 
a well-developed reflexed yellowish callus, which may be sometimes 
smooth or more or less tubercular. A small transverse tubercle is 
always seen at the upper part. The outer lip is thickened with 
a strong varix, is acute at the edge, and is furnished within with about 
nine short lirae. One of the two specimens from Xatal presented to 
the Museum by Mr. J. H. Ponsonby is of a rich brown colour, with 
a white line above the middle of the body- whorl and passing up the 
spire above the suture. 

152. Nassa gaudiosa. Hinds. 

Nassa gaudiosa, Hinds : Reeve, Conch. Icon., vol. viii, pi. viii, fig. 48, 
Mab. — Umkomaas, Natal (Bumup). 

153. Nassa maegakitifeea (Dunker). 

Buccinum margaritiferum, Dunker: Philippi, Abbild., vol. iii, p. 47, 

pi. i, fig. 12. 
Nassa costellifera, A. Adams : Reeve, Conch. Icon., vol. viii, figs. 58«, b. 
Hah. — Durban. 

154. Nassa lentiginosa, A. Adams. 

Nassa lentiginosa, A. Adams : Reeve, Conch. Icon., vol. viii, fig. 15. 
Hah. — Durban (Buraup) ; Philippines (Reeve). 



874 ntOCEEDINGS OF THE MALACOLOOICAL SOCIETY. 

155. Nassa incuassata, Miiller. 

Nassa uicrassata, Miiller : Sowcrbj^ Proc. Make. Sec, vol. iv, p. 3 
(1900). 
Uab. — Pondoland, Cape Colony (Sowcrby). 

156. Nassa spdkca, Gould. 
JVdssa fipurca, Gould: Otia, p. 129. 

Ilab. — Simons Bay (Gould). 

157. Nassa quantula, Gould. 
Nassa quanUda, Gould: Otia, p. 128. 

Hah. — Simons Bay (Gould). 

158. BuLLiA (BucciNANOPs) ANNULATA, Lamavclc. 

Bullia {Bmcinayiops) annulata, Lamarck: Sowcrby, Marine Invest. 
S. Africa, 1902, p. 95, pi. ii, fig-. 4. 
Hab. — Algoa Bay, 24 fathoms (Sowcrby). 
A figure of the animal is given at the above reference. 

159. Bullia LiEVissiMA (Gmelin), 

Bullia lavigata, Martini: Sowcrby, Marine Shells S. Afr., p. 11. 

The name lavissima should be substituted for that of l(Bvigata, since 
the latter was not given by a binomial writer. 

160. Bullia Mauritiana, Gray. 

Bullia Mauritiana, Gray : llceve, Conch. Icon., vol. iii, pi. ii, 
figs. 12a, b; Martens, Jahrb. Deutsch. Malak. GesclL, 1874, 
p. 137. 
Hab. — Algoa Bay (Martens). 

161. CoLUMBELLA VAEIANS, SowCrby. 

Columbella variatis, Sowcrby: Thcs. Conch., vol. i, p. 117, pi. xxxvii, 
figs. 47-50. 
Hab. — Durban (Burnup). 

162. Columbella Kraussii, Sowerbj- (1844). 

Columbella cerealis, Menke (1848): Sowcrby, Marine Shells S. Afr., 
p. 21. 
The name Kraussii should be used for this species, having four years 
priority. 

163. Columbella Beckeei, Sowcrby. 

Columbella Beckeri, Sowerby : Proc. Malac. Soc, vol. iv, p. 3 (1900), 
pi. i, fig. 7. 
Hab. — The Kowie (Sowerby). 

164. Columbella Filmer^, Sowcrby. 

Columbella Filmcrce, Sowerby: Proc. Malac. Soc, vol. iv, p. 3 (1900), 
pi. i, fig. 8. 
Hab. — Pondoland. 

165. Columbella atuata, Gould. 

Columbella {yinachis) atrata, Gould (1860): Tryon, jMan. Cunch., 
vol. v (1883), p. 169, pi. Ivii, fig. 12. 



SMITH : LIST OF SOUTH AFRICAN MARINE MOLLtJSCA. 375 

Columhella pumila, Souverbie : Journ.de Conchyl., vol. xi (1863), 

p. 281, pi. xii, fig. 4. 
Columbella regulus, Souverbie: op. cit., vol. xii (1864), p. 41. 

Hah. — Durban (Burnup) ; Hong Kong (Gould). 

A widely distributed species occurring both, in the Indian and 
Pacific Oceans. 

166. COLUMBELLA LEPTALEA, Smitb. 

Columhella [Anaclm) leptalea, Smith: Journ. Conch., vol. x (1902), 
p. 250, pi. iv, fig. 4. 
Hah. — TJmkomaas (Burnup). 

167. CoLUMBELLA BuRNUPI, Smith. 

Columhella {Anachis) Burnupi, Smith: Journ. Conch., vol. x (1901), 
p. 112, pi. i, fig. 2. 
Hab. — Natal (Burnup). 

168. CoLUMBELLA MiTRiFORMis (A. Adams). 

Zafra mitriformis, A. Adams: Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist., 1860, vol. vi, 

p. 332. 
Daphiella mitr(sformis, A. Ad. : Tryon, Man. Conch., vol. vi, p. 313. 
Hah. — Durban ; Japan (Adams). 

169. CoLUMBELLA LiGHTFOOTT, Smith. 

Columhella {Astyris) Lightfooti, Smith: Journ. Conch., vol. x (1901), 
p. 112, pi. i, fig. 3. 
Hah. — Kalk Bay, Cape Colony (Lightfoot). 

170. CoLUMBELLA APICATA, Smith. 

Columhella {Nitidella) apicata, Smith: Journ. Conch., vol. ix (1899), 
p. 247, pi. V, fig. 2. 
Hah. — Durban (Burnup). 

171. Meta Duponti^, Kiener (emend.). 

Conus Dupontii, Kiener : Coq. Viv., p. 273, pi. Ixi, fig. 2. 
Meta BuponticB, Kiener : Eeeve, Conch. Icon., vol. xi, sp. 6, figs. 3c, d. 
Hab. — Ichabo, South Africa (Reeve). 

172. Trophon Kowieensis, Sowerby. 

Trophon Kowieensis, Sowerby: Proc. Malac. Soc, vol. iv, p. 213 
(1901), pi. xxii, fig. 16. 
Hah.—T\xQ Kowie. 

173. Trophon (?) insignis, Sowerby. 

Trophon{'i) insignis, Sowerby: Proc. Malac. Soc, vol. iv, p. 2(1900), 
pi. i, fig. 1. 
Hah.—T\ie Kowie. 

174. Mueex fallax. Smith. 

Ifurex fallax, Smith : Journ. Conch., vol. x (1901), p. 113, pi. i, fig. 9. 
Hah.— OS Durban, 40 fathoms (Quekett). 

VOL. V. — OCTOBER, 1903. 26 



376 PKOCKEDINGS OF TUK MALACOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

175. MuKKX (CnicoREUs) Banksii, Sowcrby. 

Murex Banksii, Soworbj- : Conch. Illust., fig. 82 ; Reeve, Conch. Icon., 
vol. iii, pi. X, fig. 38 ; Kobelt, Conch. Cab., 2nd cd., p. 120, 
pi. xx.Kvi, fig. 6; Kicner, Coi\. Viv., pi. xxi, fig. 1. 
Ilab. — Durban (Burnup) ; Moluccas (Reeve, etc.). 
Tiie specimen from Durban is larger than any of the figured 
examples, having a length of 85 mm. 

176. UtiOSALPINX (?) CONTEACTA (RcCVe). 

Biiccinum contractum, Reeve : Conch. Icon., vol. iii, fig. 53. 
Ilah. — Durban (Burnup) ; Philippines, etc. 

177. Latiaxis eosaceus, n.sp, PI. XV, Fig. 16. 

Latiaxis nodosa, Sowerby : Marine Shells S. Africa, p. 16 {nee 
A. Adams). 

Testa fusiformis, rimata, rosacea, spiraliter confertira squamose 
lirata et longitudinaliter plicata ; anfractus 6-7, in medio angulati, 
supra declives, infra coutracti, ultiraus antice valde angustatus, in 
caudam brevem recurvam productus ; apertura angulatim piriformis, 
cum canali longit. totius ^ ada^quans, intus rosacea ; columella supra 
rectiuscula, antice obliqua, callo reflexo appresso roseo induta ; labrum 
tenue, extus crematum. Long. 21, diam. 13 mm. 

Rah. — Port Elizabeth, Cape Colony. 

This species is uniformly rose coloured within and witliout, whereas 
Z. nodosus, A. Adams, is dirty whitish. In tbe latter species the 
angulation of the whorls is rather more acute and rather lower down, 
or in other words less central. The body-whorl also is more suddenly 
contracted below the periphery than in the present species, and the 
umbilical fissure is rather broader. The longitudinal costse or plicie 
are more conspicuous in the upper whorls than in tlie last. The 
species, judging from the shell alone, might with equal propriety be 
placed in the genus Coralliophila. 

178. Rapana bulbosa (Solander). 

Pi/rula hulbosa, Solauder : Reeve, Conch. Icon., vol. iv, pi. iv, fig. 14. 
Mab. — Durban. 

179. PuRPUKA SQUAMOSA, Lamarck. 

The young of this species was described by Blainville (Nouv. Ann. 
Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, vol. i, p. 251, pi. xii, fig. 6) under the name 
of Purpura clathrata. 

180. Purpura puea, n.sp. PI. XV, Fig. 21. 
Testa parva, alba, in apertura rufescens, fusiforrai-ovata, spiraliter 
punctato-striata, et costis spiralibus ad angulum anfractuum nodosis 
instructa ; anfractus circiter 6, supra concave declives, in medio 
nodose angulati, ultimus costis quatuor ((j^uarum duo supcriores nodosi 
sunt) cingulatus; apertura liris novem albis gracilibus, baud ad 
marginem labri productis, armata ; labrum album, tenue ; columella 
parura arcuata, callo albo la}vi antice reflexo iniluta, superne tuberculo 
parvo inconspicuo instructa. Long. 19, diam. 11 mm. j apertura 
11mm. longa, 5'5 lata. 



SMITH : LIST OF SOUTH AFRICAN MARINE MOLtirsCA, 377 

Sah. — Umkoraaas. 

The contrast of the colour of the aportui'e with the exterior is very 
striking. In addition to the punctate striae which cover the entire 
shell, the surface exhibits irregular and somewhat broken up, but 
distinct lines of growth. One specimen exhibits five interrupted 
brown lines, one below the suture and one upon each of the four 
spirals of the body-whorl. 

181. SisTRUM ASPBRDM (Lamarck). 

Ricinula asperwn, Lamarck: Reeve, Conch. Icon., vol. iii, fig. 13, 
Hah. — Isipingo, Natal. 

182. SiSTRUM CANCELLATUM (Q,uoy & Gaimard). 

Ricinula cancellata, Q,uoy & Gaimard: Tryon, Man. Conch., vol. ii, 

p. 188, pi Iviii, tigs. 242, 250. 
Sah. — Umkomaas. 

183. SiSTRUM MARGiNATRUM (BlainviUc). 

Sistrum marginatrum, Blainville : Tryon, Man. Conch., vol. ii, p. 186, 

pi. Ivii, fig. 225. 
Sistrum affine, Pease : Sowerby, Marine Shells S. Afr., Appendix, p. 6. 
Hah. — Durban (Burnup). 

184. Sistrum morus (Lamarck). 

Ricinula morus, Lamarck: Reeve, Conch. Icon., vol. iii. fig. 10. 
Jlab. — Isipingo (Burnup). 

185. Sistrum ricinus (Linn.). 

Ricinula arachnoides, Lamarck : Reeve, Conch. Icon., vol. iii, pi. i, fig 5. 
Sistrum arachnoides, Lamk. : Sowerby, Marine Shells S. Afr., p. 15. 

J?«J.— Natal. 

The older name ricinus should be used for this species. 

186. Sistrum squamosum, Pease, var. 

Sistrum squamosum, Pease, var. : Smith, Journ. Conch., vol. x (1901), 
p. 113. 
Hah. — Umkomaas and Durban (Burnup). 

187. Sistrum squamiliratum, n.sp. PI. XV, Fig. 17. 

Testa ovato-fusiformis, turrita, albida ; anfractus 9, superiores tres 
laeves, convex!, cseteri in medio angulati, costis vel plicis circiter 8 ad 
angulum acute productis instructi, liris spiralibus squamatis 6-7 ornati, 
ultimus infra angulum liris circiter 14 (quarum 3-4 quam aliis majores) 
instructus ; apertura rosea, angusta, longit. totius \ adaequans ; 
labrum intus denticulis 6-7 munitum ; columella callo tenui roseo 
reflexo induta, prope medium subtuberculata. Long. 19, diam. 10 mm. ; 
apertura cum canali 10 mm. longa, 3'5 lata. 

Hab. — Isipingo (Burnup). 

188. CoRALLioPHiLA RUBROCocciNEA, Melvill & Statiden. 

C'oralliophila rubroroccinea, Mel v. & Stand.: Proc. Zool. Soc , 1901, 

vol. ii, p. 401, pi. xxi, fig. 2. 
Pseudomurex Meyendorffi, Sowerby : Marine Shells S. Afr., p. 10 

{nee Calcara). 



378 ntOCEKDINGS OF THE MALACOLOOICAL SOCirTV. 

JIab. — Capo Colony : Port Elizabeth, East London, Pondolaiid. 

The shells which I associate with this species, with some hesitation, 
certainly do not belong to Pseudomurex Meyetidorffi,. The pinkish red 
colour alone is sufficient to distinguish them. Care, however, must 
be taken not to confound them with Lntiaxis rosaeeus, which is 
somewhat similarly tinted but different in form. 

189. LOTOKIUM DURBANENSE, Smith. 

Lotoriiim Durbanmse, Smith: Journ. Conch., vol. ix (1899), p. 218, 
pi. V, fig. 4. 
JIab. — Durban (Bumup). 

190. LoTORiTTM ENCAUSTicuM (Recve). 

Triton encausticus, Reeve : Conch. Icon., vol, ii, fig. 43. 
ITab. — Durban ; Philippines (Reeve). 

191. LOTOEIUM NASSARIFORME, SowCrby. 

Lotoritim nassariforme, Sowerby : Marine Invest. S. Africa, 1902, 
p. 95, pi. ii, fig. 7. 
Mab. — jSTatal, 92 fathoms (Sowerby). 

192. LoTOETtTM RANELLOiDES (Reeve). 

Tfiton ranclloides, Recve : Conch. Icon., vol. ii, figs. Wa, b ; Sowerby, 
Marine Invest. S. Africa, 1902, p. 95, as Lotorium. 
ITab.— OS Natal, 92 fathoms (Sowerby). 

193. Lotorium obscurum (A. Adams), 

Triton ohscurus, A. Adams: Proc. Zool. Soc, 1854, p. 312, 
JIab. — Durban (Burn up) ; S. Africa (A. Adams). 

194. Lotorium tritonis (Linn.). 

Triton variegatus, Lamarck : Reeve, Conch. Icon., vol. ii, jds. i, ii, 
figs. 3«, b. 
Hab. — Durban (Burnup). 

195. Lotorium (Priene) Murrayi (Smith). 

Lampusia {Priene) Murrayi, Smith: Proc, Zool, Soc, 1891, p. 436, 
pi. xxxiv, fig. 1. 
Hab. — Off Cape of Good Hope, 150 fathoms (Challenger Expedition). 

196. Lotorium (Distortrix) CA>'CELLrNUM (Roissy), var. decipiens, 

Reeve. 
Triton decipiens, Reeve : Conch, Icon., vol. ii, fig. 102. 
Hab. — Durban (Burnup) ; Philippines (Reeve), 

197. COLUBRARIA BRACTEATA (Hinds), 

Epidromus bracteatus, Hinds : Sowerby, Proc, Malac. Soc, vol. iv, p. 3 
^1900), 
Hab. — Pondoland (Sowerby), 

198. Ranella anceps, Lamarck, 

Panella anceps, Lamarck : Reeve, Conch. Icon., vol. ii, fig. 43 ; 

Kiener, Coq. Viv., pi. iv, fig. 2. 
Ranella lamdlosa, Dunker : Sowerby, Marine Shells S. Afr., p, 9. 
Hab. — XJmkomaas ; Poit Elizabeth, 



SMITH : LIST OF SOUTH AFRICAN MARINE MOLLTJSCA. 379 

199. Cassis nodt7losa (Gmelin), var. torquata, Reeve. 

Cassis nodulosa {Gmelin) : Schroeter, Eiuleitung, vol. i, pi. ii, figs. 9a, b. 
Cassis torqiiata, Reeve: Conch.. Icon., vol. v, figs. 1-lc. 

Mab. — Durban; New Holland (Reeve). 

Reeve's figure Ic represents the typical form of C. nodidosa. 

200. DoLiiTM cosTATUM, Menke. 

Dolium costatum, Menke : Synopsis, 2ncl ed., 1830, p. 63. 
Doliuin costatum, Menke : Deshayes, Anim. sans Vert., 2nd ed., vol. x 
(1844), p. 144 ; Reeve, Conch. Icon., vol. v, fig. 8. 
Hab. — Durban (Burnup) ; Mauritius, Maldives, Andamans, Philip- 
pines. 

201. DoLiuM DuNEEKi, Hanley. 

Dolium Bunheri^ Hanley: Proc. Zool. Soc, 1859, p. 431. 
^«5.— Port Natal (Hanley). 

202. DoLiuM PERDix (Linn.). 

Dolium perdix, Linn. : Sowerby, Proc. Malac. Soc, vol. iv, p. 5 (1900). 
Hab. — Pondoland (Sowerby). 

203. DoLiuM VARiEGATCJM, Lamarck. 

Dolium variegatum, Lamarck : Reeve, Conch. Icon., vol. v, pi. v, 
figs, la, b ; Martens, Jahrb. Deutsch. Malak. Gesell., 1874, p. 134. 
Hab. — Algoa Bay (Martens). 

204. Amphiperas Beckeri, Sowerby. 

Amphiperas Beckeri^ Sowerby: Proc. Malac. Soc, vol. iv, p. 5 (1900), 
pi. i, fig. 13. 
Hab. — Pondoland (Sowerby). 

205. Radius gracillimus. Smith. 

Radius gracillimus, Smith : Journ. Conch., vol. x (1901), p. 107, pi. i, 
figs. 20, 21. 
Hah. — Off Durban, 40 fathoms (Quekett). 

206. CrPR^EA MiN-QRiDENS, Melvill. 

Cyprcea minor idms, Melvill: Journ. Conch., vol. x (1901), p. 119. 
Cyprcea fimbriata, partim, Sowerby : Thes. Conch., vol. iv, pi. 323, 
figs. 390, 391. 

Hab. — Durban; Seychelles, Fiji Islands, and Savage Island 
(Mus. Brit.). 

Less pyriform than Jtiiibriata, and without the dark dots at the sides 
of the base. 

207. Cyprjea stolida, Linn. 

Cyprcea stolida, Linn. : Reeve, Conch. Icon., vol. iii, figs. 67«, b. 
Hab. — Durban (Burnup). 

208. Erato guttula, Sowerby. 

Erato guttula, Sowerby: Conch. 111., p. 18, fig. 50. 
Erato guttata, Sowerby : Thes. Conch., vol. iii, p. 82, pi. ccxix, 
figs. 29, 30. 
Hab. — Durban (Burnup) ; Mauritius (Sowerby). 



380 PKOCKEniNGS OF THE MALACOLOGICAL SOCIETY, 

209. Steombus Lamarckii, Gray. 

Stromhus Lamarckii, Gray : Sowei'by, Thes. Conch., vol. i, p. 35, pi. ix, 
figs. 98, 99. 
Hub. — Durban (Burnup). 

210. Stromuds lentiginosus, Linn. 

Strombus lentiginosus, Linn. : Roeve, Conch. Icon., vol. vi, fig. 31 ; 
Kiener, Coq, Viv,, pi. xviii, fig. 1 ; Watson, Gasteropoda 
Challenger Exped., p. 415. 
Hub. — Simons Bay, Cape of Good Hope (Watson). 

211. CEKiTniUM CiERULEUM, Sowerby. 

Cerithium cceruleum, Sowerby : Thes. Conch., vol. ii, p. 860, pi. clxxix, 
figs. 61, 62. 
Sab. — Durban (Burnup). 

212. Cerithium citrinum, Sowerby. 

Cerithium citrinum, Sowerby : Thes. Conch., vol. ii, p. 855, pi. clxxix, 
fig. 66 ; Conch. Icon., vol. xv, fig. 1. 
Hab. — Durban (Burnup); Philippines (Sowerby). 

213. Cerithium dialeucum, Philippi. 

Cerithium dialeucum, Philippi : Sowerby, Conch. Icon., vol. xv> 
figs. 78«, b. 
Hab. — Durban (Burnup) ; Philippines (Reeve). 

214. Cerithium rugosum, Wood. 

Cerithium rugosum. Wood : Sowerby, Conch. Icon., vol. xv, figs. 45a, b. 
Hab. — Durban (Burnup), 

215. Cerithium albovaricosum, Smith. 

Cerithium alhotaricomm, Smith: Zool. Alert, p. 501, pi. xliv, fig. Q. 
Hah. — Durban (Burnup). 

216. Cerithium rufonodulosum, Smith. 

Cerithium rufonodulosum, Smith: Journ, Conch., vol. x (1901), p. 108, 
pi. i, fig, 8. 
Hab. — Algoa Bay (Burnup). 

217. Cerithium zebrtjm, Kiener. 

Cerithium zebrum, Kiener : Kobelt, Conch. Cab., 2nd ed., p. 220, 

pi. xxxi.x, figs. 7-10. 
Cerithium d'dectum, Sowerby : in Reeve's Conch. Icon., vol. xv, pi. xvi, 
figs, \\2a-c. 

Hab. — Mauritius (Kiener and Brit, Mus.); Gallapagos Is (Sowerby); 
Samoa Is, (Tryon) ; Savage I., Oceania (Bx'it, Mus.) ; Durban 
(Burnup). 

This species is very variable in colour. Sometimes it is entirely 
white or purplish pink. The typical form is white with a dark brown 
band below the suture and a second band round the middle of the 
body- whorl. Other specimens are white with an interrupted brown 
line a little below the suture and a second on the lower part of the 



smith: list of south afeican marine molldsca. 381 

body- whorl (Conch Icon., fig. 112b). The latter is sometimes absent, 
as in one of the two Natal specimens now examined. The second 
example is totally white. 

218. Cerithium egenom, Gould. 

Cerithtum egeniim, Gould: Otia Conch., p. 62; Wilkes, U.S. Explor. 
Exped., p. 151, atlas, figs. 171-1713; Tryon, Man. Conch., 
vol. ix, p. 137, pi. XXV, fig. 70. 
Hah. — Durban (Bumup) ; Wilson's I. (Gould) ; Solomon Is. (Smith). 

219. Cerithium lacteum, Kiener. 

Cerithium lacteum, Kiener: Sowerby in Reeve's Conch. Icon., vol. xv, 
pi. xiii, figs. 85«, b. 
Hab. — Durban (Buruup) ; Philippines (Sowerby). 

220. BiTTiuM QUADEiciNCTUM, n.sp. PL XV, Fig. 12. 

Testa minima, elongata, pupoidea, ad apicem acuminata, fusca, 
tuberculis flavidis ornata ; anfractus circiter 11, leviter convexiusculi. 
oblique plicati, et liris spiralibus (in anfractu penultimo 4, in ultimo 
7-8) supra pHcas granosis instructi, ultimus ad latus sinistrum varice 
pallido vix elato compositus ; apertura oblique ovalis, saturate fusca ; 
columella arcuata, callo tenui fusco induta ; canalis brevissimus, 
obliquus. Long. 5, diam. 1 "5 mm. ; apertura 1 mm. longa. 

Hab. — Durban (Burnup). 

The three or four lirae around the lower half of the body -whorl are 
simple, and not granular like those above. 

221. Ceeithidea in.s:quisculpta (Kobelt). 

Cerithium {Cerithidea) inrnquiHculptum, Kobelt : Conch. Cab., 2nd ed., 
p. 158, pi. xxix, figs. 10, 11. 
^«&.— Durban (Kobelt). 

222. Cerithidea Natalensis (Kobelt). 

Cerithium {Cerithidea) Natalense, Kobelt: Conch. Cab., 1893, p. 157, 
pi. xxix, figs. 8, 9. 
Hab. — Durban (Kobelt). 

223. Cerithiopsis neglecta (C. B. Adams). 

Cerithium neglectum, C. B. Adams : Panama Shells, p. 154. 
Cerithiopsis neglecta (C. B. Adams): Smith, Proc. Zool. Soc, 1890, 
p. 293. 
Hab. — Dui'ban (Burnup) ; St. Helena (Smith) ; Panama (Adams). 

224. Planaxis lineatus (Da Costa). 

Planaxis lineattis, Da Costa : Sowerby, Conch. Icon., vol. xx, pi. iii, 
fig. 20. 

Hab. — Diu'ban (Burnup) ; West Indies. 

No notice should be taken of the grotesque lumping of species given 
in Tryon's Man. Conch., vol. ix, p. 278. 

225. Thtlacodes Natalexsis, Morch. 

Thylacodes Natahnsis, Morch : Proc. Zool. Soc, 1862, p. 70. 
i/«i.— Natal (Murch). 



382 PKOCEEDINGS OF THE MALACOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

226. Sptkoglyphus spieorbis, Sowcrby. 

Spiroqlyphus spirorbis, Sowcrby : Conch. Manual, 1839, p. 100, fig. 8; 
tryon, Man. Conch , vol. viii (1886), p. 178, pi. li, fig. 58. 
Hab'—Cai^c of Good Hope? (Tryon). 

227. LiPPisTES coENU (Gmclin). 

Argonauta coniu, Gmclin : Syst Nat., vol. vi, p. 3368. 
Cornu carinafuin, Schumacher: Nouv. Syst., p. 255. 
Separatista Grayi, A.Adams: Proc. Zool. Soc, 1850, p. 45; Sowcrby, 
Marine Shells S. Afr., p. 16. 
Hah. — Cape of Good Hope (Gmclin and Adams) ; Port Elizabeth 
(Sowerby). 

228. TuEEiTELLA KowiENSis, Sowcrby. 

Turritella A'oiviensis, Sowerby: Proc. Malac. Soc, vol. iv, p. 6 (1900), 
pi. i, fig. 12. 
Hab. — The Kowie (Sowcrby). 

229. TuEEiTELLA PUNCTicuLATA, Sowcrby. 

2'urritcUa puncticulata, Sowcrby : Marine Invest. S. Afr., 1902, p. 100. 
Turritella pimctulata, Sowerby : Marine Shells S. Afr., p. 39, pi. v, 
fig. 102. 
Hab. — St. Francis Bay, 30-34 fathoms (Sowerby). 

230. LiTTOEINA PINTADO, Wood. 

Littorina pintado., Wood: lieeve. Conch. Icon., vol. x, figs. 54«, b. 
Littorina zigzae, Sowerby: Marine Shells S. Afr., p. 36 (jion 
Chemnit;^). 
The shells quoted by Mr. Sowcrby as L. zigzae (a West Indian 
species) prove to belong to the present form. 

231. LiTTOEINA LiEvis, Philippi. 

Littorina Idvis, Philippi: Abbild., vol. iii, p. 10, pi. vi, fig. 6; Eeeve, 
Conch. Icon., vol. x, fig. 95, 
Hab. — Umkomaas and Isipingo, Natal (Burnup). 

232. FossAEUs pusiLLUs, Gould. 

Fossarus pusillus, Gould : Tryon, Man. Conch., vol. ix, p. 272, pi. Iii, 
fig. 8. 

Hab — Umkomaas (Burnup) ; Liberia (Gould). 

233. FossAECs Capensis, Pilsbry. 

Fossarus Capensis, Pilsbry: Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Pliilad., vol. liii 
(1901), p. 190. 
Hab — In ballast from South Africa. 

234. Solarium ciELATUM, Hinds. 

Sularitim ccelatum, Hinds : Sowcrby, Proc. Malac. Soc, vol. iv, ]) 5 
(1900). 
Hub. — Pondoland (Sowerby). 



smith: list of south African marine mollusca. 383 

235. Solarium trochoides, Deshayes. 

Solarium trochoides^ Deshayes: Hanley in Sowerby's Thes. Conch., 
vol. iii, p. 243, pi. 254, figs. 89, 90. 
Hai. — Durban (Burnup) ; Philippine Is. (Hanley). 

236. RissoiA Crawpordi, Smith. 

Rissoia Craivfordi, Smith : Journ. Conch., vol. x(1901), p. 107, pi. i, 
fig. 13. 
Hab. — Algoa Bay, 20 fathoms (Crawford). 

237. Rissoina (Irivadia) annulata (Dunker). 

Rissoina annulata, Dunker: Moll. Japon., 1860, p. 12, pi. ii, tig. 12. 
Rissoina trocMearis, Gould: Otia, p. 144; Sowerby, Conch. Icon., 
vol. XX, pi xi, fig. 105. 
Hab. — Durban (Burnup) ; Japan (Dunker) ; China seas (Gould) ; 
Bombaj^ (Mus. Cuming) ; Hong Kong, Ceylon, Aden, Bombay, 
Andamans, Singapore, Arracan (Nevillj. 

238. Rissoina crassa, Angas. 

Rissoina crassa, Angas : Proc. Zool. Soc, 1871, p. 17, pi. i, fig. 16. 

Hai. — Durban (Burnup). 

Some of the South African specimens are more distinctly spirally 
striated than others and also than the types from Port Jackson. The 
groove or excavation around the base of the body-whorl is also deeper 
and more evident than in the Australian shell. The size is rather 
variable, ranging from 8 to 5^^ mm. in length. 

239. Rissoina ambigua (Gould). 

Pyramidella ambigua, Gould : Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., 1849, vol. iii, 

p. 118; Otia, p. 60. 
Rissoa ambigua, Gould: U.S. Explor. Exped., p. 217, atlas, figs. 

261-261e. 
Rissoina ambigua, Gould : Weinkauff, Conch. Cab., p. 25 (pi. ix, 

fig. 1 ?). 
Hab. — Durban (Burnup) ; Paumotu Is. (Gould) ; China seas 
(Mus. Cuming). 

I do not consider the shell figured by Schwartz von Mohrenstern 
(Rissoiden, pi. iii, fig. 27) under the name of Rissoina ambigua to 
belong to Gould's species, as it differs both in form and sculpture. 
The spiral striae are most conspicuous around the base of the body- 
whorl, as shown in Gould's figure. R. fortis, C. B. Adams (Schwartz, 
I.e., fig. 25), seems to be the same as the present species. 

240. AssiMiNEA Umlaasiana, Smith. 

Assiminea Umlaasiana, Smith: Journ. Conch., vol. x (1902), p. 248, 
pi. iv, fig. 3. 
Hai. — Mouth of Umlaas River, Natal (Burnup). 

241. Fenella cerithina (Philippi), 

Rissoa cerithina, Philippi: Zeitsch. Malak., 1849, p. 33; Ncvill, 
Hand List Moll., ii, p. 1 14 (as Fenella). 
Hab.— Niit'dl (Ncvill) ; Aden (Philippi). 



384 PnOCEEDINOS of the MALACO logical SOCIKTY. 

242. Fenella fulgida, A. Adams (?). 

'i Fenella fxdgida, A. Adams : MS. in Brit. Mus. 

"i Helix fulgida, J. Adams: Trans. Linn. Soc, 1800, p. 254. 

"i Rissoa fulgida, C. B.Adams: [ubi ?] ; Nevill, Hand List, ii, p. IIG. 

Eab.—Kaial (Nevill). 

It is quite uncertain at present which author's name is to be given 
to the nam.0 fulgida as representing the Natal shell. 

243. Fenella Natalensis, Smith. 

Fenella JVatalensis, Smith: Joum. Conch., vol. ix(1899),p. 249, pi. v, 
fig. 6. 
ffab. — Cato's Creek, near Durban (Bumup). 

244. Ceepidtjla Capensis, Quoy & Gaimard. 

Crepidula Capensis, Quoy & Gaimard: Voy. Astrolabe, vol. iii, p. 424, 
pi. Ixxii, figs. 13, 14; Tryon, Man. Conch., vol. viii, p. 12o, 
pi. xxxvi, figs. 15, 16 (copy of Q. & G.). 
Hub.— CaY>e of Good Hope (Q. & G.). 

245. CALYPTRiEA SOLIDA (EeOVC). 

Trochita solida, Reeve : Conch. Icon., vol. xi (1859), pi. ii, figs. lOrt!, h. 
Hob. — False Bay (Martens, Jahrb. Deutsch. Malak. GeselL, vol. i, 
1874, p. 127) ; Conchagua, Central America (Reeve). 

246. HiPPONYX BAEBATtJS, Sowerby. 

Hifponyx barbatus, Sowerby : Thes. Conch., vol. i, p. 369, pi. Ixxiii, 
figs. 26, 27 ; Tryon, Man. Conch., vol. viii, p. 135, pi. xl, tig. 2. 
Hab. — Durban and Umkomaas (Burnup) ; Cape of Good Hope 
(Tryon) ; Society Is. (Sowerby). 

247. Vanikoeo striata (D'Orbigny). 

Narica striata, D'Orbigny : Recluz, Mag. de Zool., 1845, p. 57, 
pi. cxxxii, figs. 1, 2 ; Tryon, Man. Conch., vol. viii, p. Ixix, 
fig. 80. 
iTfl^.— Cape Natal (Recluz) ; Cuba (D'Orb.). 

248. Vanikoeo ligata (Recluz). 

Vanikoro ligata, Recluz : Sowerby, Proc. Malac. Soc, vol. iv, p. 5 
(1900). 
Hob. — Pondoland (Sowerby). 

249. Vanikoeo Gueriniana (Recluz). 

Vanikoro Guertniana, Recluz : Sowerby, Proc. Malac. Soc, vol. iv, p. 5 
(1900). 
Hab. — Pondoland (Sowerby). 

250. Lamellahia Mauritiana, Bergh. 

LameVaria Mauritiana, Bergh: Smith, Journ. Conch., vol. x (1901), 
p. 108. 
Hab.— Vori Elizabeth (Crawford). 



SMITH : LIST OF SOUTH AFRICAN MARINE MOLLIJSCA. 385 

251. Natica Kraussi, Smith. 

Natica Kraussi, Smith: Journ. Conch., vol. x (1902), p. 248, pi. iv, 
fig. 1. 
Hah. — Durban (Bumup). 

252. Natica psila, "Watson. 

Natica psila, Watson : Gasteropoda Challenger Exped., p. 443, 
pi. xxviii, fig. 1. 
Hab. — Off Cape of Good Hope, 150 fathoms. 

253. Natica (Polinicks) Bcrnupi, n.sp. PI. XV, Fig. 11. 

Testa parva, ovata, obtecte perforata, crassiuscula, fusco-cinerea vel 
rufescens ; anfractus 5, convexi, superiores parvi, ultimus magnus, 
antice oblique descendens, oblique striatus ; apertura parva, semi- 
circularis, intus fuscescens ; columella obliqua, recta, callo crasso albo 
reflexo instructa. Long. 11, diam. 7 mm.; apertura 6 mm. longa, 
3 lata. 

Bah. — Durban Bay (Burnup). 

Larger specimens are 1 7 mm. in length. 

254. Ianthina nitens, Menke. 

lantMna nitens, Menke: Reeve, Conch. Icon., vol. xi, figs. \&a, h. 
Hah. — Kalk Bay ; Mediterranean, and Atlantic. 

255. Ianthina balteata, Reeve. 

lanthina balteata, Reeve : Conch. Icon., vol. xi, pi. iii, figs. 11«, h. 
Hab. — Durban ; Cape of Good Hope (Reeve). 

256. ScALA RoBiLLARDi (Sowcrbv). 

Scalaria Rohillardi, Sowerby : Proc. Malac. Soc, vol. i, p. 42 (1894), 
pi. iv, fig. 5. 
Hah. — Durban; Mauritius (Sowerby). 

257. ScALA ACULEATA (Sowerby). 

Scalaria aculeata, Sowerby : Thes. Conch., vol. i, p. 86, pi. xxxii, 
figs. 35-37. 
Hah. — Durban ; also Philippines, Hong Kong, Malacca, etc. 

258. ScALA MiLLECosTATA (Pease). 

Scalaria millecostata. Pease: Smith, Journ. Conch., vol. x (1901), 
p. 109, pi. i, fig. 5. 
Hab. — Isipingo, Natal (Burnup) ; Sandwich Is. (Pease). 

259. EULIMA TRANSLUCIDA, Smith. 

Eidima translucida. Smith: Journ. Conch., vol. x (1901), p. 109, 
pi. i, fig. 11. 
Hah. — East London, Cape Colony (Lavertine). 

260. EuLiMA Algoensis, Smith. 

Eulima Algoensis, Smith : Journ. Conch., vol. x (1901), p. 109, pi. i, 
fig. 10. 
Hab. — Algoa Bay, Cape Colony. 



386 PROCEEDINGS OF THE MAL.VCOLOGICAX SOCIETT. 

261. EuLiMA DiLECTA, Smith. 

JSiilima dilecta, Smith: Journ. Conch., vol. ix (1809), p. 250, pi. v, 

fig- 9- 
Hab. — Umkomaas, Natal. 

262. EuLiMA MUNDA, Smith. 

Eidima munda, Smith: Journ. Conch., vol. ix (1899), p. 249, pi. v, 

fig. 7. 
Huhma AfJantica, Sowerby : Marine Shells S. Afr., p. 26 (nee Smith). 

JIab. — Umkomaas (Burnup). 

The specimens referred by Mr. Sowerby to £!. Atlantica do not 
belong to that species. 

263. EuLiMA Natalensis, Smith. 

Eulima Natalenm, Smith : Journ. Conch., vol. ix (1899), p. 250, pi. v, 
fig. 8. 
Hab. — Durban. 

264. Niso BALTEATA, Sowerby. 

Niso balteata, Sowerby: Proc. Malac. Soc, vol. iv, p. 6 (1900), pi. i, 
fig. 16. 
Sab. — The Kowie (Sowerby). 

265. Odostomia chitonicola, Smith. 

Odostomia chitonicola, Smith: Journ. Conch., vol. ix (1899), p. 250, 
pi. V, fig. 10. 
Sah. — Umkomaas, on Chiton fossus (Burnup). 

266. Odostomia LAVERiiNiE, Smith. 

Odostomia LavertiniB, ^mith: Journ. Conch., vol. x (1901), p. 108, 

pi. i, fig. 15._ 
Odostomia An^asi, Sowerby: Marine Shells S. Afr., 1892, p. 26 

(nee Tiyon). 
JIub. — East London, Cape Colony (Lavertine). 

267. Odostomia (Pyrgulina) robijsta, Sowerby. 

Odostomia {Pt/rqulina) robusta, Sowerby : Proc. Malac. Soc, vol. iv, 
p. 214 (1901), pi. xxii, fig. 19. 
Eab.—Th-Q Kowie. 

268. TuRBOKiLLA CANDIDA (A. Adams). 

Chemnitzia Candida, A. Adams : Pi'oc. Zool. Soc, 1853, p. 181. 
Chemnitzia lavtca, Krauss : Siidafr. Moll., p. 88, pi. v, fig. 23. 
Tarbonilla Kraussi, Clcssin : Conch. Cab., Pyramidellida, p. 135, 

pi. xvi, fig. 6. 
Turbo7iilla ca7idida, A. Adams: Sowerby, Marine Shells S. Afr., p. 26. 
ITah. — Natal (Krauss); Port Elizabeth (Sowerby); Japan? (Adams), 

269. TuEBONiLLA siMiLANS, n.pp. PI. XV, Fig. 13. 

Testa T. lactece similis, sed gracillor, minor, anfractibus magis 
rotundutis, costis magis flexuosis. Anfractus noriuales 9, perconvoxi, 
costis gracilibus obli(][uis flexuosis (in anfractu pcnultinio circitcr 18) 



SMITH : LIST OF SOUTH AFRICAN MARINE MOLLUSCA. 387 

instruct!, sulcis intervenientibus infra hand ad suturam productis, 
ultimus infra medium Isevis ; apertura parva, ovata : columella leviter 
arcuata, reflexa. Long. 5"5, diam. 1 mm. 

Hah. — S. Africa. 

In T. lactea, Linn., the costae and sulci reach from suture to suture, 
whereas in the present species they terminate inferiorly just above the 
suture. The shells here described are identified in "The Marine 
Shells of South Africa" as belonging to T. lactea. 

270. TuRBONiLLA TiNCTA, Sowei'by. 

TurhoniUa tinda, Sowerby : Proc. Malac. Soc, vol. iv, p. 5 (1900), 
pi. i, fig. 15. 
Hab. — The Kowie (Sowerby). 

271. TURBONILLA BATHTRAPHE, SoWCrby. 

TurhoniUa hathyraphe, Sowerby: Proc. Malac. Soc, vol. iv, p. 213 
(1901), pi. xxii, fig. 18. 
Hah. — The Kowie (Sowerby). 

272. TuRBONiLLA DiscuLus, Velain (?). 

TurhoniUa disculus, Velain: Tryon, Man. Conch., vol. viii, p. 336, 
pi. Ixxv, fig. 97. 
Hah. — Durban ; St. Paul I., Indian Ocean (Velain). 

273. MoRMTJLA Macandre^, a. Adams. 

Mormula Macandr(Ba [sic], A. Adams : Sowerby, Proc. Malac. Soc, 
vol. iv, p. 5 (1900). 
Hah. — Pondoland (Sowerby). 

274. Nerita atereima (Grmelin). 

Nerita nigerrima, Chemnitz: Eeeve, Conch. Icon., vol. ix, figs. 11«, h. 
Hah. — TJmkomaas (Burnup). 

275. Neritina Natalensis, Reeve. 

Neritina NntaUnsis, Reeve : Conch. Icon., vol. ix, pi. xvi, figs. 75rt, b. 
Neritina zebra, Krauss : Siidafr. Moll., p. 88 {nee Lamarck). 
Hah. — Natal (Reeve) ; Durban (Burnup and others). 

276. Neritina ceepidularia, Lamarck. 

Neritina crepidularia, Lamarck : Martens, Conch. Cab., 2nd ed., p. 37, 
pi. vii, figs. 1-14. 
Hab. — jSTatal (Krauss) ; Ashanti (Brit. Mus.). 
For distribution and synonymy see Martens. 

277. Turbo chrtsostomus, Linn. 

Turbo chrysostomus, Linn. : Pilsbry, Man, Conch., vol. x, p. 200, pi. xl, 
fig. 19. 
Hah. — Durban (Burnup). 

278. Turbo splendidulus, Sowerby. 

Turbo splendidulus, Sowerby : Thes. Conch., vol. v, p. 229, pi. 506, 
figs. 180, 181. 
Hab. — TJmzinto ; Durban; ? (Sowerby). 



3P8 PROCEEDrNGS OF THE MALACOLOGICAL SOCIETT. 

279. AsTBALTUM Andersoni, Sinitli. 

Astralium [Bolma) Andrrsoni, Sinitli : Jouru. Coiicli., vol. x (1902), 
p. 248, pi. iv, fig. 7. 
ITab.—O^ Durban (Quokett). 
This species attains fully three times the size of the shell figured. 

280. Leptothtra bicarinata (Martens). 

Colhnia hicarinata, Martens : Sitzungsb. Gcsell. naturf. Freunde Berlin, 
1902, p. 241. 
Hab. — Agulhas Bank, 250 fathoms (Martens). 

281. LioTiA fulgens, Gould. 

Liotia fulgens, Gould: Otia Conch., p. 114. 
Hah. — SimoQs Bay, Cape of Good Hope (Gould). 

282. Ctclostrema cingulifera, A. Adams. 

CycJostrema cingulifera, A. Adams: Sowerby's Thcs. Conch., vol. iii, 
p. 250, pi. 255, figs. 13, 14. 
Hab. — Durban (Burnup) ; Japan, Philippines (A. Ad.). 

283. Trochus (Cardinalia) virgatus, Gray. 

Trochis {Cardinalia) virgatus, Gray: Pilsbiy, Man. Conch., vol. xi, 
p. 19, pi. V, figs. 43, 44. 
Hab. — Durban (Burnup). 

284. Solariella Beckeri, Sowerby. 

Solariella Beckeri, Sowerby : Proc. Malac. Soc, vol. iv, p. 214 (1901), 
pi. xxii, fig. 21. 
Hab. — The Kowic (Sowerby). 

285. Cynisca granulosa (Dunkor). 

Delplmmla granulosa (Dunker MS.), Krauss : Siidafr. Moll., p. 94, 

pi. V, fig. 28. 
Liotia granulosa, Dunker : Tryon, Man. Conch., vol. x, p. 109, 

J)!, xxxvi, fig. 96. 
Cyclostrema granulata, A. Adams: Proc. Zool. Soc, 1853, p. 183. 
Cynisca granulata, H. & A. Adams : Genera, vol. i, p. 406 ; A. Adams, 

Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist., 1861, vol. viii, p. 243 
Gibhula granulosa, Dunker: Sowerby, Marine Shells S. Afr., p. 43. 

286. Trochus (Infundibulum) textilis, Eeeve. 

Trochus textilis, Eeeve: Conch. Icon., vol. xiii (1861), pi. xiv, fig. 82 ; 
Pilsbry, Man. Conch., vol. xi, p. 38, pi. xlii, fig. 7. 
Hab. — Cape of Good Hope (Reeve). 

287. Clanculus miniatus (Anton). 

Trochus {Clanculus) miniatus, Anton: Pilsbry, Man. Conch., vol. xi, 
p. 58, pi. X, figs. 23, 24 ; pi. xiv, figs. 24, 25. 
This species appears in "The Marine Shells of South Africa," p. 44, 
under the genus Gibbula. It is identical with Clanculus cariiialus, 
A. Adams, quoted on the following page. 



SMITH : LIST OF SOUTH AFRICAN MARINE MOLLUSCA. 389 

288. Clanculus depressus (Gmelin). 

Trochus depressus, Gmelin : Philippi, Concli. Cab., 2n(I efl., p. 77, 
pi. xiv, fig. 6; Martens, Jahrb. Deutscli. Malak. GeselL, 1874, 
p. 129. 
Mab.—Yalse Bay (Martens), 

289. Clanculus mixtus, n.sp. PI. XV, Fig. 7. 

Testa turbinata, prof uncle nmbilicata, pallide fuscesccns, granulis 
albidis et fuscis ornata infra sutnrara maculis saturate fuscis picta ; 
anfractus 5-6, ad suturam canaliculati, leviter convexi, seriebus 
granulorum (in anfractu penultirao plerumque sex, in antepenultiiiio 
tres) plus minus insequalibus instructi, in interstitiis minute et obli(][ue 
striati, ultimus ad peripheriam rotundatus, antice leviter descendens, 
seriebus granulorum 16-17 ornatus ; umbilicus albus, la3vis, conicus, 
saepe intra niarginem tuberculis paucis albis instructus ; apertura 
obliqua, albida ; labrum ad marginem acutum, intus incrassatum et 
liratum ; columella obliqua, rectiuscula, leviter incrassata, supra et 
antice unidcntata. Diara. maj. 12"5, min. 11mm.; alt. 11 mm. 

Ifab. — Port Elizabeth. 

This species has been confounded with C. JFaltoncB of Sowerby. 
It differs in having finer and more closely set granules, in the last 
whorl descending in front, and in the thickened and lirate labrum. 
The latter in C. JFaltontB is scarcely thickened and smooth within. 
The apex of the spire in the present species is not so red as it is in 
^'altonce. None of the specimens of the latter which have been 
examined have any tubercles within the edge of the umbilicus. 

290. Calliostoma multiliratum (Sowerby). 

Ziziphinus multiliratus, Sowerby: Proc. Zool. Soc, 1875, p. 127, 
pi. xxiv, fig. 10; Marine Shells S. Afr., Ajipendix, p. 30; 
Pilsbry, Man. Conch., vol. xi, p. 342, pi. xv, figs. 45, 46. 

CaUiodoma liratum, Sowerby : Proc. Malac. Soc, vol. iv, p. 6 (1900). 
Ilab. — Cape of Good Hope and Ponduland (Sowerby). 

291. Calliostoma BtrRNun, Smith. 

CaUiodoma Burnupi, Smith: Journ. Conch., vol. ix (1899), p. 250, 
pi. V, fig. 2. 
Uab. — Durban (Burnup). 

292. Thalotia Troschelii (Philippi). 

Trochus Troschelii, Philippi: Conch. Cab., 2nd od., p. 131, pi. xxiii, 
fig. 2. 
mb.—S. Africa (Philippi). 

293. OxrsTELE impekvia (Menke). 

Mr. Pilsbry (Man. Conch., vol. xi, p. 115) places this name as 
a synonym of sagittifera, Lamarck. If the figure of the latter given 
by Delessert (Kecueil, pi. xxxvi, fig. 1) truly depicts Lamarck's type, 
it is evident that this decision is incorrect, for the character of the 
columella shows that the species belongs to Osilinus and not to 
Oxystele. 



390 rnocEEDiKGS of the malacological society. 

294. OXYSTELE MEIIULOIDES (KmUSs). 

Trochus meruloides, Krauss : Siidafr. Moll., p. 95 ; Martens, Jalirb. 
DcLitsch. Malak. Gesell., 1874, p. 128. 
Hub. — 2^atal (Krauss); Algoa Bay (Martens). 

295. OXYSTELE ZONATA (Woocl). 

Oxydele zonatus, Wood : Sowerby, Marine Shells S. Afi'., p. 42. 

This species is placed in Gihbula by Pilshry, Man. Conch., vol. xi, 
p. 238. Owing to its imperforate base Oxydele seems a better location 
for it. 

296. OsiLiNus Tamsi (Bunker). 

Oxystele Tamsi., Dunker : Sowerby, Marine Shells S. Afr., p. 42. 

Hah. — Cape of Good Hope (from Krauss in Brit. Mus.). 

The character of the columella places this species in Osilinus rather 
than Oxystele. 

297. GiBBULA Beckeri, Sowerby. 

Gihhula Becheri, Sowerby: Proc. Malac. Soc, vol. iv, p. 214 (1901), 
pi. xxii, fig. 22. 
Hah. — The Kowie (Sowerby). 

298. GiBBTJLA (Eniba) perspectiva, Sowerby. 

Gibhula {Enida) perspectiva, Sowerby : Proc. Malac. Soc, vol. iv, 
p. 6 (1900), pi. i, fig. 17. 

Hah. — Pondoland (Sowerby) ; Port Shepstone (Burnup). 

A single young specimen from the latter locality may be different. 
It has a more prominent and wavy keel at the periphery, in which 
respect it resembles Enida Townsendi, Sowerby. It is also dotted 
and spotted with pink and white, whereas the type, in the British 
Museum, is uniformly deep red, excepting the yellowish umbilicus 
and apex. 

299. GiBBTJLA (Enida) Townsendi, Sowerby. 

Gihhula (Enida) Toivnsendi, Sowerby : Proc. Malac. Soc, vol. i, p. 279 
(1895), pi. xviii, figs. 7-9. 
Hah. — Durban (Burnup) ; Mekran coast (Sowerby) ; Thursday 
Island, Torres Straits (Brit. Mus.). 

300. MiNOLiA LiEvissiMA (Martcus). 

Monilia {Minolia) Icevissima, Martens : Pilshry, Man. Conch., vol. xi, 
p. 268. 
Hah. — South Africa, 8 fathoms (Martens). 

301. MoNODONTA VEEMicuLATA (Fischer). 

Trochus rermiculatus, Fischer: Coq. Viv., p. 228, pi. Ixxiv, fig. 3; 
Pilsbry, Man. Conch., vol. xi, p. 89, pi. xxi, figs. 25, 26 ; pi. ixii, 
fig. 64. 
Hab. — Natal (Krauss). 

302. EucHELys (Hybocheltjs) cancellatus (Krauss). 

Stomatella cancellata, Krauss : Sowerby, Marine Shells S. Afr., p. 47. 
Euchelus seems a better location for this species than Stomatella. 



smith: list of souTn African marine mollusca, 391 

303. Haliotis PEiiTUSA, Reeve. 

Haliotis pertusay Reeve : Sowerby, Proc. Malac, Soc, vol. iv, p. 6 
(1900). 
Hah. — The Kowie (Sowerby). 

304. Megatabennus (Ambltchilepas) scutellum (Gmelin). 
Fissurellidea hiantula, Sowerby : Marine Shells S. Afr., p. 48 {nee 

Lamarck). 
Fissurella scutella. Gray : Sowerby, I.e., p. 47. 

This well-known South African shell has been clearly shown by 
Pilsbry ' not to be the F. hiantula of Lamarck. 

305. Megatabennus (Amblychilepas) sella (Sowerby). 
Fissurella sella, Sowerby: Thes. Conch., vol. iii, p. 203, pi. 243, fig. 197. 

Hab. — S. Afi'ica (Sowerby). 

This will probably prove eventually to be a form of If. scutellum. 

306. Glyphis spreta, Smith. 

Glyphis spreta, Smith: Journ. Conch., vol. x (1901), p. 104, pi. i, 

fig. 18. 
Fissurella fimhriata, Sowerby: Maiine Shells S. Afr., 1892, p. 48 

{nee Reeve). 
Hab. — Mossel Bay, Cape Colony (Crawford). 

307. Glyphis Elizabeths, Smith. 

Glyphis ElizabethcB, Smith: Journ. Conch., vol. x(1901), p. 104, pi. i, 

fig. 12. 
Fissurella Sieholdii, Sowerby: Marine Shells S. Afr., 1892, p. 47 

{nee Reeve). 
Hah.— ?ort Elizabeth (Crawford). 

308. Glyphis elevata (Dunker). 

Glyphis elevuta, Dunker: Smith, Journ. Conch., vol. x (1901), p. 105. 
Uah. — Cape of Good Hope (Dunker). 

309. Glyphis ceucifera, Pilsbry. 

Glyphis crucifera, Pilsbry :• Man. Conch., vol. xii (1890), p. 225, 
pi. xxxii, figs. 27-31 [= Fissurella cruciata, Krauss, nee Gould]. 
Mab. — Natal. 

310. Scutum unguis (Linn.). 

Scutus unguis (Linn.): Smith, Journ. Conch., vol. ii (1879), p. 261. 
Scutum imhricatum, Quoy & Gaimard : Sowerby, Marine Shells S. Afr., 
p. 49. 

ITab. — Durban (Bumup). 

For distribution and synonymy see the first-named reference above. 

311. ACMSA ROSEORADIATA, Smith. 

Aemcea roseoradiata, Smith: Journ. Conch., vol. x(1901), p. 106, pi. i, 
fig. 19. 
^fli.— Cape Town (Brit. Mus.). 

' Mau. Conch., vol. xii, p. 184. 

VOL. V. OCTOBER, 1903. 27 



392 rUOCEEDINGS OF THE MALACOLOGICAL SOCFETV. 

312. ACM^A ALBONOTATA, Smith, 

Acmtea albonotata, Smith: Journ. Conch., vol. x (1901), p. 107, pi. i, 
figs. 14, 16. 
Jlab. — TJmkomaas, Natal (Burniip). 

313. P.ATELLA (?) DECEMCOSTATA, Smith. 

Patella {"i) decemcostata, Smith: Jouru. Coiicli., vol. x (1901), p. 106, 
pi. i, fig. 22. 
Uab. — Algoa Bay. 

314. Patella sanguinans, Reeve. 

Patella sanquinans, Reeve: Conch. Icon., vol. viii, pi. vi, figs. lO^f, h; 
Pilsbry, Man. Conch., vol. xiii, p. 151, pi. xxx, figs. 53, 54. 
Hub. — Cape Natal (lleeve). 

315. Patella PAXRiARcnA, Pilsbry. 

Patella pair iarcha, Pilsbry: Man. Conch., vol. xiii (1891), p. 105, 

pi. Ixiv, figs. 84, 85 ; pi. Ixv, fig. 86. 
Sah. — Cape of Good Hope (Pilsbry). 

316. Patella testudinakia, Liun. 

Patella testudinaria, Linn.: Pilsbry, Man. Conch., vol. xiii, p. 128, 
pl. XXV, figs. 16-19. 
Hub. — Cape of Good Hope (Pilsbry), 

317. Patella Natalensis, Krauss. 

This species is not referred to by Mr. Sovverby. It is regarded as 
a good species by Pilsbry (Man. Conch., vol. xiii, p. 103). 

Patella nigroalba, Blainville, Cape of Good Hope, is considered 
a doubtful species by Professor Pilsbry. 

318. Patella morbida, Reeve. 

Patella morbida, Reeve: Conch. Icon., vol. viii, pl. xxv, figs. 61rt, b\ 
Pilsbry, Man. Conch., vol. xiii, p. 100, pl. xv, figs. 3, 4. 
Hab. — Cape of Good Hope (Reeve). 

319. Chiton Cr.awfordi, Sykcs. 

Chiton Crawfordi, Sykes: Proc. Malac. Soc, vol. iii, p. 279 (1899), 
fig. ii. 
Hab. — Algoa Bay (Crawford). 

320. IscHNOCHiTON oNiscus (Krauss). 

Isehnoehiton onisciis, Krauss: Sykes, Nautilus, vol. xii, p. 41. 

It is distinct from /. Elizahethensis of Pilsbry. 

Ilab. — Table Bay, Simons Bay, Port Elizabeth, etc. ; also Mauritius 
(Tryon). 

321. IscHNOCHiTON Elkabethensis, Pilsbry. 

Isehnoehiton Elizabeth nsis, Pilsbry: Nautilus, vol. viii (1894), p. 9; 
Sykes, Nautilus, vol. xii, p. 41. 
Uab.—VoYt Elizabeth (Pilsbry); Natal (Brit. Mus.). 



SMITH : LIST OF SOUTn AFRICAN MARINE MOLLUSCA. 393 

322. Ch.etopleura DESxixtrxA (?), Sykes. 

Chmtopleura destituta, Sykes: Proc. Malac. Soc, vol. v, p. 195 
(1902), fig. 
EJih. — Durban (Burnup). 

323. Onith:ochiton(?) Isipikgoensis, Sj'kes 

OnithocMton (?) Fsipingoemis, Sykes : Proc. Malac. Soc, vol. iv, p. 259 
(1901), fig. 
Hab. — Isipingo, S. Africa (Burnup). 

324. DiNOPLAX Fossus